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Full text of "English etymology; a select glossary serving as an introduction to the history of the English language"

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Our primer of English Etymology is meant to serve as 
an introduction to the study of the historical grammar of 
English. However manifold the advantages which the student 
may derive from Professor Skeat's Etymological Dictionary, it 
cannot be denied that it does not commend itself as a 
book for beginners. Though it is a work of deep research, 
brilliant sagacity, and admirable completeness, the linguistic 
laws underlying the various changes of form and meaning 
are not brought out clearly enough to be easily grasped by 
the uninitiated. We, therefore, propose to furnish the student 
with a small and concise book enabling him to get an insight 
into the main linguistic phenomena. We are greatly indebted 
to Professor Skeat, of whose excellent work we have made 
ample use, drawing from it a great deal of material, which we 
hereby thankfully acknowledge. As our aim has, of course, not 
been to produce a book in any way comparable to our prede- 
cessor's work in fulness of detail and general completeness, 
we have confined ourselves merely to selecting all words, the 
history of which bears on the development of the language at 
large. We have therefore, in the first place, traced back to the 
older periods loanwords of Scandinavian, French and Latin 
origin, and such genuine English words as may afford matter 
for linguistic investigation. In this way we hope to have pro- 
vided a basis for every historical grammar of English, e.g. for 
Sweet's History of English Sounds. 

VI Preface. 

If we may be allowed to give a hint as to the use of 
our little book, we should advise the teacher to make it a 
point to deal always with a group of words at a time. Special 
interest attaches, for instance, to words of early Christian origin, 
to the names of festivals and the days of the week; besides 
these the names of the various parts of the house and of the 
materials used in building, the words for cattle and the various 
kinds of meat, for eating and drinking, etc. might be made the 
subject of a suggestive discussion. By treating etymology in 
this way, the teacher will have the advantage of converting a les- 
son in the growth of the English language into an inquiry into 
the history of the Anglo-Saxon race, thus lending to a naturally 
dry subject a fresh charm and a deeper meaning. 

In conclusion, our best thanks are due to Professor W. 
Franz of Tubingen University, who has placed many words 
and etymologies at our disposal and assisted us in various 
other ways. 

Freiburg i. B, 



ace. =r accusative case 

adj. =. adjective 

adv. = adverb 

BRET. Breton 

CELT. = Celtic 

conj. = conjunction 

CORN. =: Cornish 

cp. compare 

Cymr. = Cymric (Welsh) 

Dan. =r Danish 

dat. =: dative case 

der(iv). derived, derivative 

dim in. diminutive 

DU. = Dutch 

E. m modern English 

f. (fern.) feminine 

frequent. = frequentative 

FR. =. French 

FRIES. = Friesic 

G. = modern German 

GaeU =. Gaelic 

gen. = genitive case 

GOTH. = Gothic 

GR. = Greek 

Icel. =. Icelandic 

inf. = infinitive mood 

infl. inflected 

interj. interjection 

1R. = Irish 

ITAL. = Italian 

LAT. = Latin 

LG. = Low German 

lit. =i literally 

Lim = Lithuanian 

in. = masculine 

ME. = Middle English 

MHG. Middle High German 

n. (neutr.) = neuter 

nom. nominative 

obi. oblique case 

ODU. = Old Dutch 

OFR. = Old French 

OHG. = Old High German 

OIR. = Old Irish 

ON. = Old Norse 

ONFR. = Old North French 

orig. original, originally 

OSAX. Old Saxon 

OSLOV. =: Old Slovenian 

pi. = plural 

p. p. = past participle 

prob. = probably 

pron. =. pronoun 

prop. properly 

PROV. = Provencal 

prt. = preterite, past tense 

RUSS. = Russian 

sb. zz substantive 

SKR. = Sanskrit 

SPAN. = Spanish 

superl. = superlative 

SWED. = Swedish 

TEUT. = Teutonic 

vb. :- verb 

VIII List of Symbols in Teut. Words. 


(not umlauted) = European and Aryan e. 

f in OE. ME. long closed e. 

f. in OE. ME. long open e. 

f in OHG. MHG. OSAX. closed t (umlauted). 

9 a reduced Aryan und pre-Teut. vowel. 

p in Oe. Me. long closed o. 

Q in OE. ME. words long open o. 

c in OE. words palatalized k. 

g- in ME. words as in NE. age bridge. 

in Oe. Me. words a spirantic palatalized g, 

p in Teut. words = E. th. 

in On. Oe. Osax. words E. th* 

Jv in Goth, is h -f w. 

V~ root. 

* before a word conjectured or inferred. 

a 1 , an indef. article ME. a an, 
OE. an: ident. with one. 

a 2 ME. a: ident. with on (cp. 
back, abroad}. 

abase; cp. base. 

abash short for ME. abaisshe 
abdische (abdisse) : borrowed from 
OFR. esbahiss- stem of OFR. esbahir 
(FR. Mahir) 'astonish'. 

abate ME. abate', adapt, of OFR. 
abatre 'beat down'. 

abbess, abbey see abbot. 

abbot ME. abbot\ older by-form 
ME. OE. abbod. Source LAT. ab- 
bdtem (abbas), whence IT. abbdte, 
FR. abbl, OHG. abbdt G.DU. abt. 
Hence abbess ME. abbesse from 
FR. abbesse (but OE. abbudisse = 
LA.l.a&atissa) 'abbess' and abbey 
ME. abbeie from FR. abbaye (OFR. 

abide cp. bide and abode. 

able ME. able: adapt, of OFR. 
(h}able = SPAN, habil, IT. abile\ 
source LAT. habilis. 

abode ME. abgd prop, 'delay, 
abiding'; cp. bide. 

abound ME. abounde\ adapt, 
of FR. abonder LAT. abundare 


about ME. aboute OE. dbutan 
onbutan\ cp. but for OE. butan. 

above ME. above earlier abufen 
OE. dbufan\ akin to G. oben OHG. 
obana 'from above'; cp. over. 

abridge ME. abrigge abregge: 
adapt, of OFR. abrigier abregier 
(source LAT. abbreviare 'shorten ). 

abroad ME. a brod prop, 'broad- 
ly, widely'; cp. broad. 

abuse cp. use. 

accord vb. ME. acorde late OE. 
(c. 1 1 40) dcordian : borrowed from 
OFR. acorder FR. accorder (cp. 
IT. ace or dare). 

accuse ME. accuse from FR. ac 
cuser (LAT. accusare). 

accrue (accrewf) vb. from FR. 
accrue sb. 'growth, increase' (orig. 
part, of FR. accroitre: LAT. ad-\- 
cretum)\ cp. increase. 

ace ME. as ace: loanword from 
FR. as (== SPAN, as, G. ass, DU. 
aas). Source LAT. as (ace. assem) 
'a unit, pound, foot'. 

ache earlier spelling ake ME. 
dke\ derived from OE. ede ME. 
eche 'pain' under the influence 
of the vb. OE. acan ME. ake 'ache, 
feel pain'. 

achieve aghast 

achieve ME. acheve: adapt, of 
FR. achever 'accomplish'. Akin 
to chief. 

acorn ME. acorn OE. <zcern\ 
ident. with GOTH, akran 'crop, 
fruit', ON. akarn, DU. aker, G. ecker. 
The meaning 'acorn' being a later 
and special one as compared 
with GO'1'H..akran 'fruit', the group 
may be derived from TEUT. akra- 
= acre. 

acquaint vb. ME. aqueinte a- 
cointe'. borrowed fr. OFR. acointer 
'advise' cp. quaint. 

acquire ME. aquire aquere : bor- 
rowed from OFR. aquerre (FR. 
acquerir = LAT. acquirere). 

acre ME. aker OE. cecer 'a field, 
acre' = synon. GOTH, akrs, OSAX. 
akkar, OHG. acchar G. acker, DU. 
akker, ON. akr : a common Teut. 
and Aryan word : TEUT. *akra-z, 
pre-TEUT. agro-s = SKR. ajra-s, 
GR. dypog, LAT. ager (stem agro-) 
'acre' : Aryan y^ ag in LAT. ago, 
GR. ayco, SKR. a/, ON. aka. The 
orig. meaning of acre (INDO- 
TEUT. agro-s) was 'place where the 
cattle are driven'; cp. G. trift 
from treiben. 

adage from FR. adage LAT. 
adagium 'proverb'. 

add ME. adde from LAT. adder e 

adder ME. adder older nadder 
OE. na(d)dre = OSAX. nadra, DU. 
adder, OHG. nat(a}ra MHG. ndter G. 
natter (otter), ICEL. nadra f. nadr 
m., GOTH. nadrs\ cogn. with IR. na- 
thair, w. neidr. For the loss of 
initial n cp. auger and apron. 

adjourn vb. ME. ajurne ajorne'. 
adapted from T&.ajourner (deriv. 
of FR. jour jour ne'e 'day'). 

ado ME. ado prop, at do\ prop, 
infinit. 'to do' with at, orig. in 
Northern English. 

advance vb. for ME. avauncel 
loanword from FR. avancer go 
before' (deriv. of FR. avant = 
ITAL. avante, LAT. ab + ante). 

advice sb. for ME. avis', adopt, 
of FR. avis ( IT. avviso, LAT. ad- 
visum). The vb. advise ME. 
avise is FR. aviser ( IT. avvisar,* 
LAT. *advisare). 

afford ME. aforthe 'provide' OE. 
^efordian 'promote': deriv. of 

affray 'frighten 1 ME. afraie : from 
FR. effrayer 'frighten'. Hence 
the part, afraid 'frightened' ME. 

after ME. after OE. after adv. 
prep. = GOTH, aftra 'back, 
again', OHG. OSAX. of far 'back', 
DU. achter. 

again ME. agein OE. ongeyt 
ongedn\ ident. with G.gegen OHG. 
gegin gagan, OSAX. geginl, ON. 
gagit. against ME. ageinest 
earlier ageines == OE. toge^nes. 

age ME. dge\ adoption of FR. 
age (OFR. a-age e-age). Source 
a LAT. type *actaticum (= LAT. 
aetas) 'time'. 

aghast part, of ME. agaste vb. 
'terrify' OE. gcestan 'terrify'; akin 
to GOTH, usgaisjan 'make afraid' 
and perh. to ghost. 

aglet almond 

aglet 'spangle, pin' (Shakesp.) 
from FR. aiguillet dimin. of ai- 
guille 'needle'. 

ago ME. ago agpn\ orig. part, 
'gone by, past' from go. 

agog adapt, of OFR. en gogues 
'lusty, lively, in a pleasant humor' 
FR. gogue 'mirth, glee'. 

agree ME. agree : adapt, of FR. 
agreer (= IT. aggradare] source 
" atum 'pleasing, agreeable'). 

ague ME. ague : source OFR. agu 
'sharp, acute* (= FR. aigu). 
Source LAT. acutus. 

aid vb. from FR. aider 'help'. 

ail vb. ME. aile eile OE. e^lan 
'trouble, afflict' = GOTH, us- 
agljan 'trouble': deriv. of OE. 
e^le = GOTH, aglus 'loathsome, 
troublesome'. For \^ag cp. 

air 1 ME. aire older eir\ loan- 
word from FR. air (source LAT. 
aer). air 2 from FR. air 'ex- 
ternal appearance' is considered 
ident. with air*. 

aisel (Shakesp.); cp. eisel. 

ajar WE.acher oncher (OE. on 
err on cyrr) 'ajar' cp. char. 

akimbo ME. a kembowe a 
kenbmve (in the phrase his hand, 
his armes a kem.bgwe setten); 
for ME. bowe cp. bow and elbow. 
The first element represents an 
adapted ON. kengr 'crook the 
shape of a horse-shoe' (cp. ON. 
kengboginn 'crooked'). Another 
suggestion proceeds from an OE. 
*cyneboga formed as OE. cyne- 

alder ME. alder OE. dlor -=. OHG, 
elira erila G. erle, ON. elr elre(r) t 
DU. LG. eller (GOTH. *diliza is 
found in SPAN, alisa, FR. alize 
'wild sorb, wild service-berry'). 
Akin to OSLOV. jeltcha, LAT. alnus 
(for *alsnus) 'alder'. 

ale ME. die OE. ealu ealo (infl. 
ealod) =^= OSAX. alo, ON. sw, 
DAN. olj akin to OSLOV. olu 'cider*, 
LITH. a/us 'beer'. 

alight 'alight from a horse' cp, 
light vb. 

all ME. al(l) plur. alle OE. al(l] 
eal(l) plur. ealle = OSAX. OHG. 
DU. LG. al, G. all, ON. allr, GOTH. 
alls. A primary form ala- is found 
in compounds and derivatives; 
cp. OSAX. OHG. alung MHG. alenc 
'entire, complete', GOTH, alamans 
'all men', OHG. ala-wari 'all true', 
ala-niuwi 'all new'. Cogn. w. OIR. 
uile (base olio-). 

allay ME. alaie aleie alegge 'lay 
aside, give up'; from lay 1 . Perh. 
mixed with OFR. aleyer (FR. 
aloyer) ? 

allege ME. alegge 'give testi- 
mony': adapted from OFR. alegier 

alley ME. aley\ loanword from 
FR. allee 'a going, passage'. 

allow vb. ME. aloue\ adapt, of 
FR. allouer 'grant' (LAT. type ad- 

allure ME. alilre: from OFR. 
alurer, deriv. of lure 'bait'. 

almond ME. almaunde'. from 
OFR. almande (= FR. amande, 
whence DU. amandet). Source 
LAT. amygdala (GR. df.ivyduh?j) 'an 

alms angel 

almond', whence a vulgar LAT. 
amendla (IT. mandola = OHG. 
mandala G. mandef) . 

alms ME. almes OE. almesse 
(infl. celmessaiz) : borrowed from 
OIR. almsan. Akin to the synon. 
OSAX. alamdsna, ODU. aelmoese ael- 
moesene DU. aalmoes, OHG. alamuo- 
san alamosan G. almosen. Source 
LAT.-GR. eleem.osyna (cp. IT. limo- 
sina) with a vulgar pronunciation 
almosna PROVENZ. almosna, OFR. 
almosne FR. aumone. 

alone ME. tf/cfo* late OE. #z//- 
### prop, 'all singly' = synon. 
G. allein, DU. alleen. Cp. <?#. 

along ME. ar/0/^ OE. ondlong 
andlong\ cp. long. The prefix 
E. # for OE. ##</ is = to G. ent- 
in entlang 'along' (OFRIS. ond- 

aloof adapt, of DU. te loef 'to 
the windward'; ident. with luff. 

already orig. 'quite ready'; cp. 
ready. also prop, 'quite so' 
ME. also OE. ealswd 'quite so' = 
G. also. Ident. with as. al- 
though ME. although altheigh\ 
in OE. we find theah -\- eal (e. g. 
f>eah ic eal msege 'although 
I may') ; cp. though. 

alum ME. alum from OFR. alum 
= FR. alun\ source LAT. alumen, 
whence G. alaun, DU. aluin. 

alway ME. a/way alwey OE. eal- 
newe'i'. orig. ace. sing, (some- 
times contr. to ealnef) prop, 'all 
the way, all the time' ; the com- 
moner form is always ME. al- 
waies, being an adv. gen. sing, 
'all the time, always'. 

amaze vb. ME. amdse OE. d-md- 

amid, amidst; cp. middle. 
amiss ME. on misse\ cp. miss. 

among ME. among \ prop, on- 
mang on tymang 'in the crowd'; 
OE. tymang 'crowd' see under 
mingle. Ident. with LG. mang 

amount ME. amountei adapt, 
of FR. amonter 'amount to' (FR. 
amont 'uphill' = LAT. ad montem}\ 
cp. mount. 

ancestor ME. auncestre'. loan- 
word from FR.ancftre older ancestre 
(ME. auncessour from OFR. ances- 
sour)\ source LAT. antecessor(eni) . 

anchor ME. anker OE. ancor on- 
cor\ cp. ON. akkeri, DU. G. anker 
late OHG. anchar'. a loanword 
from LAT. ancor a (IT. ancor a, FR. 

ancient ME. auncient older 
aunci$n (for the secondary / cp. 
pageant, parchme?it)\ adapt. 
of ^^.ancien (== IT. anziano\ LAT. 
type antcanus)> 

and ME. OE. and= OSAX. cndi, 
DU. en, OHG. anti enti inti unto 
MHG. wide G. und* The cogn. 
SKR. dtha 'also, further , and' 
points to ARYAN mthd 'and, also'. 

andiron ME. aundire\ loanword 
from OFR. andier (FR. landier) 
'fire-dog'. Source unknown, perh. 
fr. a LAT. type amitarius (LAT. 
awes)? Cp. MED. -LAT. andenct 

angel ME. aungell borrowed 
from OFR. angele (FR. ange). The 
FR. word supplanted the orig. 

anger ape 

OE. ME. engel= G. DU. engel OHG. 
OSAX. engil, GOTH, aggilus: early 
church-loanwords from LAT. an- 
gelus = GR. ayytkog 'angel'. 

anger ME. anger 'affliction, sore, 
trouble': Scand. loanword from 
ON. angr 'grief, sorrow' (DAN. 
anger 'penitence', sw. anger 're- 
gret'); akin to "LKl.angor 'bodily 
or mental torture'. 

angle ! ME. angel OE. angol 
ongul = synon. OHG. angul G. 
angel, ON. ongulL Akin to LAT. 
uncus 'a hook', GR. o'/xoc 'a hook', 
ayxtaronv 'fish-hook', SKR. ankd 
'hook', OIR. lead 'hook'. 

angle 2 (corner) ME. angle from 
FR. angle = LAT. angulus 'corner'. 

anguish ME anguisse: from OFR. 
anguisse FR. angoisse. Source LAT. 
angustia 'straitness, poverty, per- 

ankle ME. ankel orig. ankle OE. 
ancleow 'ankle* = DU. anklaauw, 
OHG. anchlao, ON. gkkla (prop. 
*ankuldw?), akin to DU. enkel, 
OHG. anchal enchil G. enkel 'ankle'. 
Source and formation of the 
group are doubtful; perh. akin 
to SKR. anguli angustha 'thumb, 
toe', AVEST. angusta 'toe'? 

announce ME. anounce : adapt, 
of FR. annoncer (= LAT. annun- 
tiare) ; cp. pronounce. 

annoy ME. anoye anuy(e) 'weari- 
ness': from OFR. enoi anui FR. 
ennui (source LAT. in odio 'in 

anoint ME. anoint e\ adapt, of 
OFR. enoint 'anointed' part, of 
enoindre 'an o int' ; c p . oint m ent. 

anon 'immediately' ME. anon 
earlier andn OE. on an 'in one' 
(moment); cp. one. 

another; see other. 

answer sb. ME. answare OE. 
andswaru-, corresp. to the synon. 
OSAX. ant-swbr, OFRIS. ondser t 
ON. andsvart Thereto the 
deriv. vb. answer ME. answere 
OE. andswarian. Source theTEUT. 
\/^swar = swear; hence answer 
was orig. 'a solemn charge made 
to rebut a charge'; and- means 

ant ME. am(e)te OE. cemete 'em- 
Imet': TEUT. base dmaitjon; cp. 
OHG. amei^a MHG. amerce G. ameise, 
1 MDU. emte eempte. Perh. akin to 
G. emsig OHG. emi^i emizzi 'in- 
dustrious'. See emmet. 

antler ME. auntelere: loanword 
from OFR. antoillier (andoillier = 
FR. and0uiUer)\ LAT. type an- 
tocularis 'tine of a stag's horn 
in front of the eyes'. 

anvil short for ME. anvelt an- 
felt OE. anfilt = OHG. anafalz, 
DU. aanbeeld ODU. anbelt: TEUT. 
base anafalti- and ana-balti~\ cp. 
the synon. OHG. ana-bo^ cogn. 
w. beat. 

any ME. any (eny ony) OE. 
dni^ = OSAX. nig nag, DU. 
eenig t OHG. einag G. einig 'only, 
sole: deriv. of TEUT. aina = 
E. one. 

ape ME. ape OE. apa = DU. 
aap, ON. api, OHG. affo MHG. G. 
affe: a common TEUT. word, 
whence ORUSS. SLOV. opica s OBO- 

appal (1) arm 1 

HEM. opice 'ape' are borrowed. 
Source of TEUT. apan- unknown. 

appal(l) vb. ME. appalle : adapt- 
ed from OFR. apallir 'grow pale', 
akin to pale. 

apparel ME. aparaile appareile\ 
adapted from OFR. aparailler apa- 
reiller 'dress' = FR. appareiller 
(IT. apparrechiare). 

appeal ME. a(p)pfle : adapt, from 
FR. appeler (LAT. n.appellare). 

appear vb. ME. a(p)pere\ adapt, 
from OFR. aperer aparir apareir 
aparoir (= IT. apparire\ source 
LAT. apparere). 

appease vb. ME. ap$se earlier 
apaise: loanword from FR. apaiser 
'pacify'; akin to peace. 

apple ME. appel OE. appel = 
DU. LG. appel, MHG. G. apfel OHG. 
apful'. WESTTEUT. base applu-, 
allied to IR. uball, LITH. obulas, 
OSLOV. abluko 'apple', RUSS. ja- 

apply vb. ME. aplie'. adapted 
from OFR. aplier (FR. appliquer, IT. 
applicare, LAT. applicare 'apply'); 
cp. ply vb. 

apprentice ME. aprentice apren- 
tis\ loanword fr. OFR. aprentis and 
aprentif FR. apprenti (source LAT. 
apprendere 'learn'). 

approach vb. ME. aprodie\ 
adapt, from FR. appro cher\ LAT. 
type adpropiare 'draw near'. 

apricot borrowed from FR. 
abricot\ corresp. to DU. abrikoos, 
G. aprikose\ akin to SPAN, albari- 
coque> IT. albe.rcocco (mod. GR. 
from LAT. praecocium 

(malum praecoquuml} lit. 'pre- 

April ME. dpril(l)e\ adapt, ol 
LAT. aprilis; the earlier ME. by- 
form averil points to OFR. avrilL 
Cp. G. DU. April. 

apron orig. napron = ME. nd- 
pron ndproun : adapt, of FR. nap- 
peron 'a large cloth', dimin. 
of nappe = LAT. mappa 'table, 
napkin'; cp. napkin. For the 
loss of initial n see adder 
and auger. 

arch ME. arch(e-) OE. arce- 
(arce- biscop): borrowed from FR. 
arch-. Cp. the synon. DU. aarts, 
OHG. erzi- G. erz- t GOTH, ark 
(-aggihis). Source the LAT. = 
Gr. prefix archi- (dp/i-). Perh. 
OFR. arch (in archangel) influ- 
enced the E. word. 

archer ME. archer', adapt, of 
FR. archer 'bowman' (LAT. type 
arcarius, deriv. of arcus 'bow'). 

are (we, you, they are) ME. 
are OE. (Northumbr.) aron\ plur. 
to the second person sing, art 
ME. art OE. eart. An ARYAN, ar 
'be' is prob. in LITH. yra 'is'. 

ark ME. arke OE. earc (infl. 
earce) = OHG. arahha archa 'chest' 
MHG. arche 'chest, money-chest' 
G. arche 'Noah's ark', DU. ark 
'Noah's ark', ON. ork 'chest, co- 
venant, ark, box', GOTH, arka f. 
'money-box, Noah's ark': a Teut. 
loanword from LAT. (also ROM.") 

arm 1 ME. arm OE. earm = 
OSAX. DU. arm, ON. armr, GOTH. 
arms, OHG. ar(a)m G. arm. Akin 

arm 2 ass 

to LAT. armus 'the topmost part 
of the upper arm, fore-quarter', 
OSLOV. rame 'shoulder, arm', 
PRUSS. irmo 'arm', SKR. irmd-s 
Yore-quarter, arm', AVEST. arema 
'arm', ARMEN. armukn 'elbow'. 

arm 2 'a weapon' ME. armes 
plur. from OFR. armes = LAT. 
arma 'weapons'. 

armor ME. armour(e) armure \ 
borrowed from OFR. armure ar- 
me-ure (LAT. armaturd) 'armor'. 

army ME. armie arme\ adop- 
tion of FR. armte (= IT. armata ; 
base LAT. armare). 

arrange borrowed from FR. 
arranger (deriv. of FR. rang 'rank, 
file' from OHG. hrinc G. ring 'a 
ring or circle of people'; cp. 

arrant ident. with errant. 

arras ME. arras; orig. cloth 
of Arras : Arras is the name 
of a town in Artois (France) 
famous for its manufacture. See 
cambric and lawn**. 

array ME. araie : adapt, of OFR. 
arraier areier 'arrange' (= IT. 
arredare): of Teut. origin; cp. 
GOTH, gar aids under ready. 

arrest ME. a(r)reste: adapt, of 
OFR. arester FR. arreter (== IT. 
ar res tare, LAT. restare 'stay back'). 

arrival ME. arivaile prop, 'land- 
ing'; adapt, of OFR. arrivaille 
'landing'. arrive ME. arive 
prop, 'bring to shore, come to 
shore': adapt, of FR. arriver = 
IT. arrivare\ LAT. type adripare 
(ripa 'shore'). 

arrow ME. arwe late OE. arwe : 
adapt, of ON. or (plur. prvar). 
The native OE. word was earh 
ident. with ON. or (cp. GOTH. 
arhwazna 'dart' and LAT. arcus 

as ME. as(e) als(e) also alswp 
OE. ealswd = synon. OSAX. HG. 
also, DU. als, MHG. also als disc. 
The compound means prop, 'en- 
tirely so'; cp. all and so. 

ash 1 sb. 'the name of a tree* 
ME. asch OE. asc = OHG. asc 
G. esche, DU. esch, ON. askr 'ash'. 

ash 2 sb. ME. asche OE. cesce (inn. 
ascan axan)\ mod. E. is com- 
monly used in the plur. ashes 
(ME. asches). Cogn. w. ON. aska y 
DU. asch, OHG. aska G. asche, GOTH. 
azgo 'ashes'. 

ask vb. older by-form ax ME. 
aske axe (KENT, oxi) OE. dscian 
dcsian\ Teut. base aiskojan = 
OSAX. hcon, OHG. eiskon (G. hei- 
scheii). Akin to LITH. jeskoti, 
OSLOV. iskati, SKR. icch 'seek'. 

asp 1 'a venomous serpent' from 
LAT. aspis. 

asp 2 'a tree' ME. aspe OE. cespe 
= synon. ON. psp, OHG. aspa 
MHG. aspe G. espe, DU. esp\ perh. 
connected with LAT. arbor (if 
from *azbos by rhotacism) 'tree'. 

ass ME. asse OE. assa (infl. sing. 
assaii) : loanword from OIR. assan 
'ass'; cp. ON. asne from OFR. asne 
= FR. dne. Source LAT. asinus, 
whence also GOTH, asilus, OE. 
esol, OHG. fsil G. esel 'ass', DU. ezel 
and further OSLOV, ostlii, RUSS. 
oseM 'ass'. 


assail avenge 

assail vb. ME. asaile'. adapt, of 
FR. assaillii", see assault. 

assault vb. ME.a(s)saut: adapt- 
ed from FR. assaut (=IT. assalto, 
MED. LAT. assaltus). 

assay ME. assay assai borrowed 
from OFR. assai assay = FR. essai 
(IT. assagio from LAT. exagium 

assemble ME. a(s)semble a(s)- 
semle\ adapt, of FR. assembler (IT. 
assemblare deriv. of LAT. simul 

assuage ME. aswdge a(s)sildge: 
loanword fr. o^'&.asoager asuager, 
LAT. type ad-suaviare deriv. of 
suavis 'sweet. 

assure vb. ME. a(s)sure borrowed 
from FR. assurer (== IT. assecurare) . 

astonish transformed after vbs. 
in -ish from an earlier astony 
astone ME. astonie astune astoune'. 
borrowed from OFR. estoner = 
FR. ttonner ; LAT. type ex -\-tonare 
'thunder'. But cp. stuit. 

at ME. at OE. ce,t = OSAX. at, 
OHG. a%, ON. GOTH, at : akin w. 
LAT. ad 'to', OIR. ad-. 

atone vb. from atone adv. 'at 
one, agreed' = ME. at on 'into 
one'; cp. one. 

attach vb. ME. attacche (law term) 
'take prisoner, arrest': adapt, of 
FR. attacker ( SPAN, afacar, IT. 
ait ace are). 

attain vb. ME. attaine atteine'. 
borrowed from FR. atteindre 
(= LAT. ailing ere 'touch upon'). 

attire vb. ME. afire', adapted fr. 
OFR. atirer 'adorn'. Source a 
Teut. sb. fir 'ornament, honor' 

= OSAX. OE. fir 'glory, honor' 
(G. zierde). 

attorney ME. atourney older 
aturne atourne' 'agent, deputy, 
commissioner'?: adapt, of FR. 
atorne~ part, of atorner 'direct, 

auburn orig. 'whitish or flaxen- 
colored , reddish - brown' ME. 
auburne awburne 'citron-colored : 
from OFR. auborne alborne (= IT. 
atburno) = MED. LAT. alburnus 
'whitish' (albus 'white'). 

auger orig. nauger (like adder 
for nadder, apron for napron with 
loss of an initial n) ME. nauger 
older ndve-ggr OE. nafo-gdr 'an 
auger' prop, 'borer, piercer of 
naves' (see nave 1 and gore^)\ 
cp. the synon. OHG. nabuger 
MHG. nabeger G. (dial.) ndber> 
ICEL. nafarr. 

aught a whit, anything' ME. 
aught older awight OE. dwiht 
dnwiht 'aught'; OE. an is one 
and for wihf see whit and not. 

August from LAT. augustus] ME. 
ausf from OFR. aoust = FR. aouft 
or from late OE. august changed 
to *auwest ? 

aunt ME. aunf(e) : adapt, of OFR. 
ante (FR. tante). Source LAT. 
amita 'aunt'. 

avail ME. availe: source FR. 
vaille from valoir 'be worth'. 

avalanche: adoption of the 
synon. FR. avalanche (FR. aval 
'downward' = OFR. a val is LAT. 
ad vallem 'valley ward'). 

avenge ME. avenge', adapt, of 
OFR. avengier 'avenge' (source 

avoid aye 2 

LAT. vindicare Vindicate'); cp. 

avoid ME. avoide\ adapted from 
FR. avoider 'empty out'; cp. void. 

avouch 'declare, confess' from 
OFR. avoch(i)er\ cp. vouch. 

avow ME. avowe avoue from FR. 
avouer\ cp. vow. 

await ME. awaite from ONFR. 
await(i)er\ cp. wait. 

award ME. awarde from ONFR. 
eswarde(i)r 'examine'. For the 
Teut. source see under guard. 

aware ME. iware OE. ^ewara 
^ewcer = OHG. OSAX. giwar G. 
gewahr , DU. gewaar 'watchful, 
wary'; cp. wary. 

away ME. away awey OE. onwe^ 
'away' prop, 'on the way'; cp. 
way and alway. 

awe ME. awe older age\ adapt, 
of ON. agi 'awe, terror'. Akin 
to OE. e%e ME. tie 'fear, terror' 
= GOTH, agis and GR. a^ng 
'anguish'; cp. GOTH, aglus 'mo- 
lesting', OIR. agor 'I fear'. 

awkward ME. awkward aukward 
beside late ME. auke 'contrary, 
wrong'; auk- contr. of avek- = 
ON. ofugr 'turned the wrong 
way'. Cogn. w. OSAX. dbuh, OHG. 
abuh and SKR. apak 'turned away'. 

awl ME. aul awel OE. awel 
eawol 'awl': if traceable to a 
Teut. base awola (for agwola-*), 
akin to LAT. acus 'needle' 
aculeus 'sting'. 

awn ME. aune older awene 
agene : Scand. loanword from 
ON. pgn which is ident. with OE. 

agne, OHG. agana MHG. agene 
G. ahne, GOTH, ahana chaff'; 
prob. related, to GR. u%vij ayvgov 
'chaff', LITH. akutas, OPRUSS. 
ackons 'awn*. 

awry ME. awry(e) onwry ; cp. 

ax(e) ME. ax OE. eax = the 
synon. OE. eax cex, OHG. ahsa 
MHG. ahse G. achse, DU. as and 
with formative -/ the synon. ON. 
pxull, whence borrowed ME. axel 
E. axle-(tree}. For a pre-TEUT. 
aksa cp. SKR. dkfay GR. aov, 
LAT. axis, OSLOV. ost 9 LITH. aszts 

ax(e) ME. ax(e) OE. ## orig. 
rtfaj *acces = synon. OSAX. OHG. 
accus MHG. ackts G. ##(/), DU. 
aaks 9 ON. >#, GOTH, aqizi 'axe'. 
"?r&TEXn.agiags& (aksf) appears 
also in GR. aivq 'axe'. 

axle ME. axel in axel-tre: bor- 
rowed from ON. pxultre"; akin 
to <2;^:. 

aye 1 'yes' occurring in the 
1 6 th cent, as / and not found 
earlier; perh. ident. with / = 
OE. if^ in OE. we find nic (for 
ne -\- if) 'no' (in answering). 
The orthography of aye was 
influenced perhaps by aye- (cp. 

aye 2 ME. ay ey: borrowed from 
ON. 'ever; akin to GOTH, aiw 
'ever', OHG. OSAX. to G. je\ cp. 
ever. In the Aryan langs. a sb. 
aiwa- 'age, time' exists in GOTH. 
aiws 9 LAT. aevum, GR. ulwv. 


babe bait 


babe ME. babe fuller form bdbdn\ 
from w. GAEL. IR. CORN, baban 
'a babe, child'. 

baboon ME. bdbwin bdboin : 
loanword from the synon. FR. 
babouin. Akin to DU. baviaan, 
G. pavian. Source OFR. babou 

baby ME. bdbi\ dimin. of babe. 

bachelor ME. bacheler'. borrow- 
ed from OFR. bacheler = FR. 
bachelier. Source MED.-LAT. bac- 

back 1 cp. basin. 

back 2 'the hinder part of the 
body' ME. bak OE. bcec = OSAX. 
DU. (in comp.), ICEL. sw. bak 
'back'. - back adv. for aback 
ME. abak OE. on bcec 'backward' 
prop. 'on the back'. back- 
board OE. bcecbord = DU. LG. 
bakboord (whence G. backbord, 
FR. babord), ICEL. bakbord 'lar- 

backgammon prop, 'back- 
game*, because the men when 
taken are put back. See 

bacon ME. bacon bdcoun: bor- 
rowed from OFR. bacon 'flitch of 
bacon'. Source a TEUT. base 
bakon MDU. MLG. bake, OHG. 
bahho MHG. bache 'side of bacon, 
ham'; akin to back sb. 

bad ME. bad(de) 'worthless, 
wicked'; prob. ident. with OE. 
dbceded 'forced, compelled'; orig. 

part, of the vb. d-badan 'compel, 

badge late ME. baggei of FR. 
origin, cp. OFR. bage, MED.-LAT. 
bagla 'signum, a ring'. 

badger orig. ident. with an 
obsolete badger 'one who buys 
corn'; cp. FR. blaireau 'badger' 
orig. little corn-merchant'. The 
source is a MED.-LAT. bladarius, 
OFR. blayer 'corn-merchant' (FR. 
btt 'corn') : E. badger for bladger? 

bag ME. bagge'. loanword from 
ON. baggi 'bag, bundle'. bag- 
gage ME. baggage according to 
'S'&s baggage points to OFR. bague 
= ON. baggi. 

bail 'a hoop' ME. belli perh. 
traceable to an OE. *be%el *by^el 
= G. bilgel, ON. bygill'y \fbug 
in bow. 

bail vb. borrowed from OFR. 
bailer 'secure, keep in custody'. 
Akin to bailiff ME. bailif bailii 
from OFR. bailif (whence also 
DU. baljuw) later baili bailii = 
I ~MED.-^A.Ti.baillivusballivus. Source 
LAT. bajulus 'burdenbearer'. 

bairn 'child' (Sc.) ME. bjrn 
OE. tyarn 'child' = OHG. GOTH. 
| barn, ON. barn (whence also 
ME. barn) : deriv. of the TEUT. 
^fber 'produce', prop, partic. 
with the meaning 'that which is 

bait vb. ME. baite beite 'feed': 
borrowed from ON. beita 'cause 
to bite' = MHG. beizen. 'bait', OE. 

bake bark 1 


bcetan'. causative of TEUT. bitan 
'bite'; cp. bite. 

bake ME. bake OE. bacan str. vb. 
ON. baka, OHG. bahhan 'bake'. 
The G. forms partly show TEUT. 
kk for TEUT. k\ G. backen, DU. 
bakken (OSAX. bakkeri 'baker'); 
the kk is also shown in batch. 
The TEUT. \fbak from pre-TEUT. 
bhdg is perh. connected with 
GR. (jpwyftv roast'. 

bald ME. balled (OE. *bealledei) ; 
source and history unknown. 

baldrick ME. baudrik bauderik\ 
akin to ON. baldrekr, MHG. bal- 
derich, FR. baudroy (OFR. baldrei^ 
whence ME. baudry) , MED.-LAT. 
baldringus : related to LAT. balteus 
under belt. 

bale sb. 'a large bundle of mer- 
chandise ready for transporta- 
tion': loanword from OFR. ba(l)le 
(= SPAN, bala, IT. balla) ; of Teut. 
origin, ident. with ball. 

bale vb. 'empty water out of 
a ship', also spelled bail', bor- 
rowed from DU. batten 'bale out'; 
DU. balie (= MLG. balttge balge y 
LG. balje, IT. baglid) 'tub' fr. FR. 
bailie represents aLat. type bacula 
(cogn. w. basin). 

bale ME. bale OE. bealu\ cp. 
OSAX. balu, OHG. &?/#, ON. bol 
'evil, calamity'; GOTH. *balws 
'evil' in comp. and deriv. as 
balweins balwjan 'torment'. 

ball 1 'a spherical body' ME. 
ball(e): borrowed from OFR. balle 
= OHG. balla ballo 'a ball, sphere', 
ON, bollr 'ball'. 

ball 2 'a dance' (= DU. G. bet It) : 
borrowed from FR. bal 'a dance' 
(= SPAN, baile, IT. ballo) 'a 
dance'. FR. bailer (IT. ballare) 
is traced to GR. fta^Xi^siv 'dance'. 

ballast: loanword from sw. 
DAN. ballast orig. baglast for /for- 
/w prop, 'bare last' i. e. 'mere 
load' DU. LG. G. ballast. 

balm ME. baum (bourne bame 
basme)\ adapt, of FR. baume. 
Source LAT. balsamum, whence 
G. balsam, DU. balsem. 

bane 'harm' ME. bdne\ o&.bana 
means 'murderer'; cp. ON. bane, 
OHG. bano 'death'. Akin to GR. 
(p6vo 'murder'. 

bank ME. banke OE. banca = 
ON. bakki (orig. *bankt)\ akin 
to bench. bank (for money) 
adapt, of FR. banque = IT. banca : 
ult. source TEUT. bank(i) in 

bar ME. barrel adapt, of OFR. 

bare ME. bare OE. beer = OHG. 
G. bar 9 ON. berr\ TEUT.-GOTH. 
base baza- = pre-TEUT. bhaso- 
in OSLOV. bosu 'bare-foot', LITH. 

bargain sb. ME. bargain : adapt, 
of OFR. bargaine 'traffic'. 

barge ME. barge : adapt, of OFR. 
barge. Source a MED.LAT. barica> 
whence also bark**. 

bark l 'the rind of a tree* ME. 
barke'. possibly a loanword from 
the equiv. ON. bgrkr\ cp. G. LG. 
borke, NORTHFRIS. buarky GOTH. 
*barku$\ prob. akin to birch on 
account of SKR. bhurja m. 'birch' 


bark 2 basket 

n. 'birchbark'. Bark orig. 
'birchbark'? cp. birch. 

bark 2 adapt, of FR. barque\ 
ident. with barge. 

bark vb. ME. berke OE. beorcan\ 
cp. OE. borcian 'bark' and ON. 
berkja 'bark' : TEUT. y~ berk, not 
recorded elsewhere. 

barley ME. barli older barlich 
late OE. b&rlic\ how the word 
is connected with the synon. 
OE. bere (cp. barn), is uncertain. 
Source a TEUT. base baraz (bariz 

- ON. barr, cp. GOTH, barizeins 
'made of barley'), akin to LAT. 
far 'corn' (ARYAN base bharos-). 

barm 'yeast' ME. berme OE. beorma 
= DU. for#z, MLG. berme : Teut. 
base berman- from an Aryan base 
bhermen- in LAT. fermentum. 

barn ME. berne OE. hern short 
for orig. bere-ern 'barley-house'; 
cp. barley. OE. -ern (for am 
*rcenri) 'house' corresponds to 
GOTH, razn 'house', ON. rann. 

barnacle 1 'a fish' ME. bernake\ 
transformed by suffix-exchange 
from OE. byrnete 'lolligo'. 

barnacle 2 'a kind of goose' 
ME. bernake\ an ANGLO-LAT. ber- 
naca of the 1 2 th cent, is the first 
record of the obscure word. 

barnacles 3 'spectacles' orig. 
'irons put on the noses of horses 
to keep them quiet' dimin. to 
ME. bernac from OFR. bernac 
'camus, a barnacle'. 

baron ME. bdroun: loanword 
from FR. baron, whence also ODU. 
baroen t MHG. barun G. DU. baron. 
Source a military word LAT. baro 

'mercenary', which oftentimes is 
found in the Teut. Leges Bar- 
barorum for 'baron'. 

barrel ME. bar el prop, barili 
borrowed fr. FR. baril. 

barren ME. barrein : a FR. loan- 
word, cp. OFR. brahain barhain 
(FR. brehaigne 'sterile'). Source 

barrow 'a wheel -barrow' ME. 
bdrwe (OE. *bearwe): derived 
from the TEUT. \f~ber in bear\ 
as for the ov-suffix cp. also OE. 
meox-byrwe , WESTPHAL. bierwe 
'a bier, stretcher'. 

barter Engl. deriv. of OFR. 
barate deceit, fraud' (OFR. ba- 
rater 'beguile'), whence ME. bardt 
baret, ODU. baraet 'fraud', MHG. 

base * 'low' from FR. basse f. 
(bas m.). Source VULG. -LAT. 
bassus ? 

base 2 sb. 'foundation' ME. bdse 
(bas): loanword from FR. base 
(LAT. basis). 

bashful see abash. 

basin ME. basin: loanword from 
FR. bassin. Source LAT. baccmum 
(akin w. LAT. bacar and bicarium ?) 
whence DU. bekken, OHG. (OSAX.) 
bekkin G. becken 'basin'; cp. DU. 
LG. bak 'bowl, tub, trough', FR. 
bac 'trough, basin' = LAT. bacca). 

bask vb. ME. baske: a Scand. 
loanword, from ON. badask 'bathe 
oneself. Source see under bath. 

basket ME. bdsket\ commonly 
considered ident. with BRITANN.- 
LAT. bascauda 'dish-pan' (= OFR. 
bascJioe 'bucket'); an OE. *bascod 

bass bay 3 

*&axod was supplanted by *bascot, 
-ot being an E. dimin. suffix. 
A primit. LAT.-GALL. basca appears 
in FR. bache tilt, vat'. 

bass 'a fish' ME. base barse OE. 
beers = DU. baars, G. barsch\ cp. 
SWED. abborre, DAN. oborre (rr 
from rs). 

bastard ME. bastard (= G. 
bastard, DU. bastaard) : borrowed 
from OFR. bastard (FR. batard = 
SPAN. IT. ba star do). Source OFR. 
bast = SPAN. IT. basto 'pack- 
saddle'; cp. OFR. fils de bast 'a 
bastard', lit. 'a son of a pack- 
saddle' (not of a bed, cp. G. 
bankert prop, 'son of a bench). 

baste * vb. 'beat with a stick, 
strike': a Scand. loanword from 
ON. beysta 'beat' = sw. bosta 
'thump', DAN. b'dste 'strike'. 

baste 2 vb. 'pour fat over meat'; 
origin unknown. 

baste 3 vb. 'sew slightly' ME. 
baste', borrowed from OFR. bastir 
(FR. batir = SPAN, bastear, IT. 
imbastare) 'baste'. Source a 
TEUT. bastjan = OHG. bestan 'patch' 
MHG. besten 'bind'. 

bat ] 'a short cudgel' ME. late OE. 
bat(ti): loanword from IR. GAEL. 
bat 'staff, cudgel' or more prob. 
fr. FR. batte 'a rammer, wand'. 

bat 2 a winged mammal'; the 
Scotch by-form ba(c)k points to 
ME. bakke = DAN. bakke (only in 
comp. aftenbakke 'evening-bat'). 
Perri. connected with back and 
bacon, made prob. by G. (dial.) 
speckmaus 'bat'prop.'flitch-mouse'. 

batch ME. bacche OE. *bcecce\ 
deriv. from the TEUT. \fbakk 
(\ba)\ see bake. 

bath ME. bath OE. bced= OSAX. 
bath, DU. G. OHG. bad, ON. bad. 
The dental being suffix, the word 
rests on a TEUT. \T ba (be) in 
OHG. baen = G. bcihen. bathe 
vb. ME. bathe OE. badian = OHG. 
badon G. baden, ON. bada\ deriv. 
from the TEUT. sb. bafa- 'bath'. 

batten vb. 'grow fat' ME. *batne: 
a Scand. loanword from oix.batna 
'grow better' (= GOTH, gabatnan 
'profit'). Akin to better and 

batter vb. *beat*HE.ari: from 
FR. battre. Source LAT. battuere. 
Hence batter 'a compound of 
eggs, flour and milk' ME. batilre'. 
from OFR. bate-ure 'a beating'. 

battle ME. bdtaile'. loanword 
from FR. bataille, whence ODU. 
bataelghe, MHG. bateile 'battle'. 
Source LAT. battuere 'beat'. 

bay adj. 'reddish' ME. bay. from 
FR. bat. Source LAT. badius 'bay- 

bay 1 'inlet of the sea' ME. bale : 
borrowed from FR. bale (= SPAN. 
bahia, IT. bajd). 

bay 2 sb. 'a kind of laurel-tree, 
sweet-bay' ME. bay bate 'a berry': 
borrowed from OFR. bale baye 
FR. bate 'a berry'. Source LAT. 
bacca bdca 'berry'. 

bay vb. 'bark as a dog' ME. 
baye shortened from abaye: loan- 
word from OFR. abater FR. aboyer. 

bay 3 'berry' (in bay-runi) ME. 
boi he.i OE. bce% rr. NORTHFRIS. bei^ 


beaver l 

DITMARSCH beif, DU. bei 'berry': 
Teut. base baijiz bajjiz', not ident. 
Ivith OFR. bate = LAT. bacca. 

be 'exist' ME. be OE. beon fr. a 
Teut. base *bijan\ cp. OHG. trim = 
OSAX. biu-m 'I am', which an- 
swers to LAT. fo\ Aryan base 
bhib (bhijo) traceable to bhwio 
bhuib\ cp. \^bhu in LAT./?// 'I was'. 
Cp. booth and build. 

be- prefix ME. OE. be-\ ident. 
with by. 

beacon ME. b{ken OE. beacen 
= OHG. bouhhan, OSAX. bokan (DU. 
taak, G. bake fr. OFRIS. baken): 
TEUT. base baukna-. See ^/. 

bead ME. ^</<? 'a bead, a prayer' 
OE. %ebed 'prayer'. Deriv. from 
the TEUT. \Tbed\ cp. bid. 

beadle ME. bedel bfjdel: loan- 
word from OFR. bedel = FR. 
hedeau (IT. bide Ho). Source a 
Teut. bidil = OHG. bitil. 

beaker ME. biker \ cp. the sy- 
non. DU. beker, OSAX. bikeri, OHG. 
behhari G. becher. Perh. the E. 
word is borrowed from the sy- 
non. ON. bikarr. Source LAT. 
biccarium (IT. bicchiere) with the 
by-formfacarium (see pitcher}. 
Further connections under basin. 

beam 'a piece of timber'. ME. 
bcm OE. beam 'a tree' OHG. 
MHG. bourn G. baum, LG. DU. 
boom, OSAX. bom 'a tree'. The 
corresp. synon. GOTH, bagms (ON. 
badmrT) 'tree' seems to point to 
a TEUT. bagwma- with a by-form 
bawma- bauma-. 

bean ME. ^/;/<? ^<v/ OE. bfan = 
synon, QHG. bona G. bohne, DU. 

, ON. baun : TEUT. base baunb- 
'bean'. The early existence of 
the word (GOTH. *bauna) is at- 
tested by the name of the 
Fris. island Baunonia (island of 

bear vb. 'carry' ME. b$'re OE. 
beran = OSAX. OHG. beran, ON. 
bera, DU. bar en, GOTH, b air an. 
Akin to LAT. ferre, GR. cfa'otii', 
SKR. \l^bhar 'bear, carry': ARYAN 
\fbher. Cp. bier and birth. 

bear sb. 'UFSUS'ME. bere o^.bera 
= OHG. bero MHG. ber G. bar, DU. 
^r. The TEUT. beron- (oTS.bjprn) 
is based on an Aryan adj. bhcro- 
'brown' preserved in LITH. ber as 

beard ME. berd OE. b$ard = 
DU. baard t OFRIS. berd y OHG. G. 
bart\ TEUT. base bar da- = ARYAN 
bhardha- in LAT. barba, OSLOV. 
brada t LITH. barzda, PRUSS. bor- 
dus 'beard'. 

beast ME. b(st\ loanword from 
OFR. beste (FR. /*?//), whence also 
LG. DU. beest 'beast'. Source LAT. 
bhtia (in a vulgar form bestd). 

beat vb. ME. bete OE. bcatan 
= OHG. bdT^an MHG. fifteen t ICEL. 
bauta 'beat'. Cp. beetle. 

beaver 1 'an animal' ME. bever 
OE. beofor = OHG. bibar G. biber, 
DU. to'^r, QTX.bjorri TEUT. bebruz 
(whence are borrowed IT. bevero, 
FR. bievre) points to PRE-TEUT. 
bhebhrus = "LAX. fiber, co-RN.&efer, 
OSLOV. bebru, LITH. bebrus, LETT. 
bebris, RUSS. bobru 'beaver'. In 
SKR. there is an adj. babhrtis 
'brown', which is perh a redupl. 

beaver 2 begin 

form pointing to LITH. beras 
'brown' under bear. 

beaver 2 'the lower part of a 
helmet' borrowed from the synon. 
FR. baviere, whence also the sy- 
non. DU. bever. 

because ME. because bicause by- 
cause (also separately written be-, 
bi-, by- cause) : by the prep. -{- 

beck 1 'a stream' ME. bek\ loan- 
word from ON. bekkr (= sw. 
bdcK)\ cp. os AX. beki, DU. beek, 
OHG. bah(hh) G. bach from a TEUT. 

beck 2 a nod or sign' ME. bek 
short for ME. b(ke OE. b{acen\ 
see beacon. 

bed ME. OE. bed (dd) = GOTH. 
badi (stem badja-), OHG. beti betti 
MHG. bette bete G. bett, DU. bed. 
The cogn. CYMR. bedd 'grave' 
(CELT, base bedo-) points to the 
ARYAN \^bhedh bhodh (in LAT. 
fodio 'I dig', LITH. bedu I dig'), 
as is evident in G. beet (blumen- 
beet) = E. bed (flowerbed). 

bedrid ME. bedred OE. bedrida: 
lit. 'a bed-rider' = MLG. bed- 
deride 'bedridden'. Cp. ride 
(and the phrase ride on an- 
chor). Akin to OHG. bettiriso, 
MLG. bedderese 'bedridden' ban- 
krese 'a lazy fellow'. 

bee ME. be OE. beo contr. of 
bie (infl. bian) = OHG. Ma, DU. 
bij\ with /z-suffix G. biene from 
OHG. bini. Akin to PRUSS. bitte, 
LITH. bills, LETT, bitte, IR. fo^ 
'bee'; also LAT. f ileus 'drone' 
(Aryan base bhoiko-T). 

beech ME. bfche OE. bfde (orig. 
bcefte = LG. bake 'beech'): for- 
med with vowel mutation from 
*bdc in OE. boc-treow\ cp. OHG. 
buohha MHG. buoche G. buche, 
ON. M. The name of this tree 
(whence book) is a PRE-TEUT. 
bhagos = LAT. /4f*J 'beech', GR. 
(f>&yo$ tpiffog. The GR. word 
signifies perh. originally 'tree 
with edible fruit, food-tree' (ffa- 
yslv 'eat'). 

beef ME. bef older ^/ (^/) : 
borrowed from OFR. boef FR. 
boeuf. Source LAT. bovem (bos). 

beer ME. ber OE. beor = OHG. 
OSAX. ^V?r G. DU. bier. A common 
WESTTEUT. word (base beura-), 
perh. derived fr. OE. OSAX. bio, 
ON. bygg 'barley"; hence beer 
prop, 'barley-juice'? 

beet ME. OE. bete. Source LAT. 
btta (= FR. bette, IT. #<?/), 
whence also G. beete. 

beetle 1 ME. betel OE. bjtel betel 
= the synon. LG. batel, ON. bey- 
till 'hammer'. The TEUT. base 
bautila- belongs to the TEUT. 
\f~baut in beat. 

beetle 2 an insect ME. Intel OE. 
bitola\ derived from an adj. OE. 
bitol 'inclined to bite'. 

beg vb. ME. begge shortened 
from OE. bedecian, formed from 
bid with intensive k (as in hat k, 
lurk, walk). 

begin ME. beginne OE. beginnan 
str. vb. = OSAX. OHG. biginnan, 
DU. G. beginnen, GOTH, duginnen 
'begin'. The TEUT. \fgen (the 
initial g of which may be an 


begin bellows 

Aryan k in the compound) is 
traceable to the Aryan \^ken 
in OSLOV. po-cmq (infinit. po-ceti 
'begin', koni 'beginning'). 

beguile vb. ME. begile (= MDU. 
beghijleti) : loanword from OFR. 
gutter. Cp. wile* 

behalf 'interest, benefit' ME. 
on behalve for on halve or be 
halve OE. on (be) healfe\ OE. 
healf sb. (= OHG. halbd) means 

behave vb. late ME. behave 
OE. behabban'. ident. with have. 
behavior shows a FR. ending 
in imitation of havior, var. of 
haver for aver 'possession'. 

behead vb. ME. beh$de bihefden 
OE. beheafdian\ cp. MHG. behoubeten 
'behead'. Cp. head. 

behest ME. behest(e) bihest earlier 
beh{se OE. behds 'command, vow.' 
OE. has (base hdsi- haisi-) points 
to TEUT. GOTH, haitan = OE. 
hdtan\ cp. hight and hest. 

behind ME. behinde(n) OE. be- 
hindan 'afterwards, after'. Cp. 
hinder and hindmost. 

behold vb. ME. beholde OE. 
behdldan (behcaldan) 'hold, see'. 
Cp. hold. 

behoof ME. behof OE. behof = 
synon. DU. behoef, MLG. behof > 
MHG. behuof G. behuf, ICEL. hof 
'moderation'. behoove vb.ME. 
behove OE. behofian 'be necessary 5 
= DU. behoeveti) MLG. behoven. 

belch vb. akin to ME. belke OE. 
bcelcian bealclan and with suffix 
bealcettan 'belch'. 

belfry ME. berfray berfrey ber- 
freid berfreit adapt, of OFR. ber- 
frei berefreii-= FR. beffroi. Source 
MHG. bercvrit from berc 'pro- 
tection' and frid 'a place of 

belief ME. belfve from the vb. ME. 
beleve = believe. Phonetically 
not ident. with ME. belfoe ileve 
OE. tyleafa = OSAX. gilobo, DU. 
geloof ', OHG. gttoubo G. glaube. 

- believe vb. ME. bileve orig. 
ileve OE. ^elefan %elyfan 'believe* 
= OSAX. gilobian, DU. gelooven, 
OHG. gilouban G. glauben, GOTH. 

bell ME. OE. belle = DU. bel 9 
LG. belle'. WEST -TEUT. base bellon. 
Akin to bellow? 

bellow vb. ME. bel(o)we belwe 
OE. belgian byjgian 'bellow': TEUT. 
base *balligon ? Prob. an extended 
form with vowel mutation and 
intensive formative of OE. b'ellan 
= OHG. b'ellan 'bellow'. If bell- is 
traceable to belz bels, the TEUT. 
y* corresponds to SKR. bhas (for 
bhals) 'bellow' = bhas 'speak' and 
LITH. balsas 'voice'. 

bellows ME. belwes (also belies) 
'a bellows': prop. plur. of belowe 
belu beli 'a bellows, a bag, belly' 
OE. ball byll (blczstbyli) 'a bag' 
= ON. belgr % G. DU. balg 'skin'. 
Ident. with belly. A TEUT. \fbelg 
'swell' appears in OHG. belgan 
'be angry', OE. lebolgen 'angry', 
ON. bolgen 'swollen'; cogn. w. 
OIR. bolgaim 'I swell' bolg bole 
'bag, bellows' - - OGALL. bulga 
'leather-bag'. Cp. bolster. 

belly between 

belly ME. belie belt 'belly, womb, 
also a bellows' OE. bel^ byfy 'a 
bag, pouch, purse, bag- of any 
kind'. Ident. with bellows. 

below ME. bilowe cp. low. 

belt ME. OE. belt = OHG. balz, 
ON. belti 'a belt, border'. Source 
LAT. (GALL. ?) balteus 'belt'. 

bench ME. bench OE. bent\ with 
umlaut and palatalization from 
a TEUT. base banki(z) = OSAX. 
DU. G. OHG. bank, ON. bekkr\ FR. 
bane and IT. SPAN, banco are 
TEUT. loanwords. Cp. bank. 

bend sb. 'a band, bond' ME. 
OE. bend (== OSAX. bendi, ODU. 
bende, GOTH, bandi 'a band, bond') 
from the \f~bendm. bind , whence 
also bend vb. 'bow, curve' ME. 
bende OE. bendan 'bind, curve, 

beneath ME.benethe OE. beneodan 
= DU. beneden ; from OE. neodan, 
OSAX. nithana, OHG. nidana MHG. 
niden(e) 'below*. Cp. nether. 

benisonME.&eneisvun: borrowed 
from OFR. beneicon. Source LAT. 
benedictionem (vp. ME. maleisoun = 
OFR. maleic,on t LAT. maledictionem) . 

bent-grass OE. beonot = OSAX. 
binut, OHG. binu^ MHG. bin(e)^ G. 
binse, DU. bentgras. 

bequeath vb. ME. bequethe OE. 
becwedan 'declare, affirm'. be- 
quest ME. biqueste usually biquide 
byquide bequide. For the OE. vb. 
ewe dan 'speak' cp. quoth. 

bereave vb. ME. birfve (r$ve) 
OE. bergafian (rfafiari) = OSAX. 
birobdn, DU. berooven, OHG. (bi)rou- 


bon G. berauben, GOTH, biraub&n 
'rob', ON. raufa 'rob'. 

berry ME. OE. berie ; cp. synon. 
OHG. beri G. becre. The r was 
orig. z = s; cp. GOTH, basi in 
weinabasi 'wineberry, grape', DU. 
bes 'berry'. 

beseech vb. ME. biseche bis eke 
OE. bisecan'. ident. with seek. 

besom 'a broom' ME. besom 
besme 'a broom, rod* OE. besma 
'a rod* = DU. bezem, OHG. b'esamo 
G. besen 'a broom', GOTH. *bisma. 
LAT. ferula may accord with 
the Teut. word in an Aryan 

best ME. beste OE. betsta = GOTH. 
batista, OHG. beigisto MHG. G. ^/^, 
OSAX. betsto. Cp. better and 

bestow vb. ME. bestowe\ cp. 

betide vb. ME. &//*& ; cp. //V/^. 

betray vb. ME. betrcue (by-form 
betraisse)'. adapt, of FR. trahir 
(source LAT. trader e 'deliver'). 
Cp. traitor and treason. 

betroth vb. ME. bitreuthie 'be- 
troth'; deriv. from truth. 

better ME. better OE. betera 
GOTH, batiza , OHG. G. 
besser y OSAX. betoro , DU. beter, 
ON. ^<?/r^. Cp. the corresp. 
superl. best. No primitive adj. 
exists in the Teut. and Aryan 
langs.J for the root cp. boot' 1 
and best. 

between ME. bitwene OE. 
betweonum 'between'; in OE. the 
orig. construction was be seem 
twfonum = 'between the seas', 


beverage bind 

OE. *tweon earlier twihn 'two' 
answers to GOTH, tweihns = LAT. 
bmus (Aryan base dweikno-s). 
betwixt ME. betwix (by-form 
betwixe) OE. betweox bitwihs (by- 
form betweoxn = OSAX. undartwisk 
'between', OHG. undar zwiskem 
'between G. zwischen. The Teut. 
base twiska- 'two' is a deriv. of 
TEUT. twa in tivo. 

beverage ME. beverage beverege'. 
loanword from OFR. bevrage 
beurage breuvaige = FR. breuvage. 
Source LAT. bibere (LAT. type 

bevy 'a company' ME. bevey 
bev$\ doubtful if ident. with OFR. 
bevey 'e FR. bevle 'drink, drinking'? 
then the E. word might prop, 
denote 'a drinking-party'. 

beyond ME. beyonde OE. be^eon- 
dan. Cp. yon. 

bible ME. bible', loanword from 
FR. bible, whence also DU. bijbel, 
G. sw. DAN. bibeL Source LAT. 

bid ME. bidde OE. biddan str. vb. 
= GOTH, bidjan, OSAX. biddian, 
DU. bidden, OHG. bittan G. bitten, 
ON. bid/a 'bid'. The TEUT. \T 
bed for bid goes back to an 
Aryan \T bhidh in GR. nsifrw 'move 
by praying' which with LAT. ftdo 
'trust' points to connection with 

bide ME. bide OE. bidan str. vb. 
GOTH, beidan, OSAX. Vtdan, OHG. 
bitan, ON. bida. The strong verb 
TEUT. bidan 'wait' agrees with 
LAT./zV/<? 'I trust' and GR. nelS^o^tai 
'I trust, obey' (nsi&a) 1 move by 

entreaty'): pre-TEUT. bhldh. Cp. 
bid 'pray' for the identity of bide 
with TEUT. bidjan. 

bier ME. bere bere OE. bar = 
OSAX. OHG. bar a G. bahre, DU. 
baar\ the modern spelling with 
ie (since 1600) is due to FR. 
/&. Source a TEUT. berd-, 
derived fr. bear (TEUT. y~ ber). 

bile ME. bile OE. j& = DU. 
bull, OHG. ////# *bullia 'blain* 
MHG. &'/(? G. beule'. TEUT. base 

bill 1 'a writing, account' to- 
gether with its dimin. billet 'a 
note' ME. bille 'a letter' (dimin. 
billette 'a note'): from MED. -LAT. 
billa bulla 'a bubble, boss, leaden 
seal, a bull'. Cp. bull. 

bill 2 'sword' ME. OE. bill 'sword' 
= OHG. OSAX. bil(ll) 'a sword*. If 
GOTH. *bilja- goes back to Aryan 
bhilyo- for bhidlyo-, connection 
with LAT. findere is possible. 
Hence bill 'the instrument for 
splitting' and 

bill 3 'bird's beak' ME. bUl(e) 
bil(e) OE. bile 'beak'; prob. con- 
nected with bill 2 . 

billow ME. *bilwe prop. * bilge: 
borrowed from ON. bylgja: TEUT. 
V" belg 'swell' treated under bag 
and bellows. 

bin ME. binne OE. binn 'manger': 
CELT, loanword from GALL, benna 
'kind of vehicle', whence also 
FR. benne 'a basket, hamper* 
(IT. benna 'sleigh, cart'). G. benne 
'basket-wagon' is of FR. origin. 

bind ME. bindt OE. bindan str. vb. 
OSAX. bindan, ON. binda, DU. 

birch blame 

G. binden, OHG. bintan'. TEUT. 
\l~bend. An Aryan \^bhendh 
appears in SKR. bandh 'bind'; 
SKR. bandhu 'relative' points to 
connection with GR. nsv&fpog 
'father-in-law', GR. TIHGIIO. for 
*77 }> dof.i , LAT. of-fend-imentum 
'band, rope'. Cp. band, bend. 

birch ME. birche OE. birce = 
OHG. bircha G. birke : TEUT. base 
birkjon-. The synon. OE. beorc, 
DU. berk, ON. bjgrk from an orig. 
base berko- are an Aryan bhergd 
= SKR. bhurja, OSLOV. brlza, 
LITH. btrzas 'birch'. Cp. bark^. 

bird ME. bird mostly brid'a. bird', 
orig. 'a young bird' OE. brid (plur. 
briddas) 'the young of any bird': 
TEUT. base bridja- for bredjo-\ 
akin to breed and brood! 

birth ME. /r/^ older i-birde 
OE. lebyrd = OS AX. giburd, DU. 
geboorte, OHG. giburt G. geburt, 
ON. burdr 'birth', GOTH, gabaurfis 
'birth': deriv. from a TEUT. vb. 
gaberan 'produce' with suffix /#-: 
^z (cp. IR. n># 'birth', SKR. 
bhrti 'bearing'). 

bishop ME. bishop bisshop OE. 
bisceop = OSAX. biskop, DU. w- 
schop, OHG. tovT/" G. bischof, ON. 
biskup. WEST-TEUT. biskop (taken 
as a compound bi -\-skop) is iden- 
tical with GOTH, aipiskaupus = 
GR. tnioxonog, LAT. episcopus. The 
initial is also wanting in IT. 
vescovo, OFR. PROV. vesque (but FR. 
tv&que from QTR.evesgue) = vulgar 
LAT. (e)biscopus. 

bitch ME. ^/V^ OE. ^V%; TEUT. 

base bikjon- also in ON. bikkja 
'bitch'; cp. OFR. biche 'bitch'. 

bite ME. bite OE. bltan str. vb. = 
OSAX. bitan,^an G.beissen, 
DU. bijten 'bite', ON. &/#. A TEUT. 
str. vb. bitan 'bite* is developed 
from an Aryan \(~bhid 'split' in 
LAT. findo, SKR. bhid 'split'. Cp. 
bitter and bill 2 . 

bitter adj. ME. bitter OE. bitter biter 
= OSAX. OHG. bittar MHG. G. 

DU. MLG. LG. DAN. SW. bitter, ON. 

&'/r 'bitter': TEUT. base bitra- 
(and baitra- in GOTH. &z//rj 
'bitter'), prop. 'biting': deriv. from 
the TEUT. \(~bit in ^z/^. 

bittern ME. bitor older to^r 
(= DU. butoor) : borrowed from 
FR. butor (= IT. bit tore). Source 
LAT. bos taurus a bird's name? 

black ME. blak OE. blcec (blac-) ; 
akin to LG. black 'ink'. 

bladder ME. bladdre OE. blcedre 
= DU. blaar, LG. bladere, OHG. 
bldttara G. blatter, ICEL. bladra', 
the TEUT. base *bledron- (with 
dr*?- as suffix) comes from the 
TEUT. \T<W? in blow^. 

blade ME. /<&/<? OE. /^/^ (plur. 
bladii) = synon. OHG. blat G. 
</#//, DU. OSAX. blad, ON. 3/^, 
GOTH. *blada-. Their dental 
seems to be formative; bla- 
from pre-TEUT. bhlo- is perh. 
akin to LAT. fol-ium, GR. (/)i;AAo^: 
Aryan \f~~bhol bhlo- in bloom! 

blain ME. / OE. ^^ = 
DU. blein: TEUT. base blajino- 
from TEUT. \f^bla in bladder! 

blame vb. ME. /#>z<? (= MDU. 
blamen) : loanword from FR. 


blank bless 

blamer (= OSPAN. blasmar, IT. bia- 
simare\ source LAT. blasphemare). 

blank ME. blank OE. blanc blgnc 
= synon. OHG. MHG. blanc G. 
blank', ON. blakkr 'gray or white 
horse': TEUT. \{"blenk in blink. 
The TEUT. adj. blanka- was in- 
troduced into the Roman, langs.; 
cp. IT. bianco, FR. blanc with the 
deriv. FR. blanchet = OFR. blanket ', 
whence ME. E. blanket 'a coarse 
woolen cover'. 

blare vb.' roar ME. blare vb. = 
DU. blaren, G. bldrren pldrren. 

blast ME. blast OE. blast = OHG. 
/<;/, ON. bldstr 'a gust of wind' : 
deriv. of the TEUT. \fbles = DU. 
blazen, OHG. blasan G. blasen, ON. 
bldsa, GOTH, blesan. A shorter 
\(~ble cp. under blow-. 

blaze sb. 'a flame' ME. /<ri 
'flame, torch' OE. /<?; (infl. 
blasan) 'torch' = LG. MHG. bias 
'a torch'. Akin to GOTH, blesan 
'== G. blasen 'blow' (cp. G. wind- 
licht 'torch'). 

blaze vb. 'proclaim' ME. blase 
'blow as a trumpet': perh. loan- 
word from ON. bldsa 'blow' = 
DU. blazen 'sound a trumpet', 
OHG. blasan G. blasen 'blow', GOTH. 
blesan (in uj 'blesan 'puff up'). - 
blazon 1 'proclamation' from FR. 
blasonner 'blazon', whence DU. 
blazoen. blazon 2 ME. bldson 
older bldsoun from FR. blason 
'coat of arms' (whence also 
DU. blazoen) ? 

bleach vb. ME. bleche OE. blacan 
= ON. bleikja 'whiten': TEUT. 
base, blaikjan from the adj. bleak 

ME. bleik late OE. bldec\ borrow- 
ed from ON. bleikr = orig. OE. 
bide ME. blpk, DU. bleeky G. bleich. 
A TEUT. \{~blik appears in OE. 
blican, ON. blika, OSAX. blikan, 
DU. blijken, OHG. blihhan 'shine'. 

blear-eyed 'having sore eyes' 
ME. bier-eyed bler-eighed fr. blere 
'blear' -}- eye eity 'eye'; cp. DAN. 
plir-pjet, LG. bler-oged 'blear-eyed' 
(akin to \.Q. flirr-oge 'a bleared- 
| eye', en flirr up't oge hebben 'have 
a bleared eye'). 

bleat vb. ME. bl{te OE. blatan 
= DU. blaten bleeten, LG. bleten t 
OHG. blfapn MHG. bidden. 

bleed vb. ME. ^/^ OE. /<H&Z# 
= OFRIS. ^/A/dr, DU. bloeden, LG. 
blceden, OHG. bluotan, ON. /<a?// 
'bleed 1 : deriv. from TEUT. ^//at- 
in blood. 

blemish vb. ME. blemiss(h)e 
'wound, injure, soil': loanword 
from OFR. blemiss-, stem of some 
forms of FR. blemir 'grow pale' 
(FR. bleme blesme 'pale, wan'). 

blench vb. ME. blenche (also 
blenke) 'shrink back, give way', 
OE. blencan 'deceive': causative 
of blink, TEUT. base * blank/an. 

blend 1 vb. ME. blende (pret. 
blende) OE. blandan = OSAX. 
GOTH, blandan, ON. blanda, OHG. 
blantan MHG. bla?iden. 

blend 2 vb. ME. blende OE. blen- 
dan = OHG. blentan blenten G. 
blenden'. causative of blind vb. 

bless vb. ME. blesse* older bletsie 
OE. bletsian older blcedsian 'bless' 
from a TEUT. base *blbdison, not 
found elsewhere in TEUT. The 

blind blow 2 


vb. orig. 'sprinkle with blood' 
is appar. a deriv. of TEUT. blbda- 
in blood. 

blind adj. ME. OE. blind = 
OSAX. DU. G. sw. DAN. blind (OHG. 
MHG. Mint), ON. blindr, GOTH. 
blinds. Akin to ON. blunda vb. 
'close one's eyes' and to LITH. 
blandyti 'cast down one's eyes' 
blesti blisti 'grow dark*. 
blind vb. 'make blind' deriv. 
of blind, supplanting. ME. blende 
(pret. blende) OE. blendan = 
synon. OHG. blentan G. blenden'. 
causative of the TEUT. base 
blinda in blind adj. blindfold 
adj. ME. bllndfelle OE. blindfellian 
'strike blind, put out the eyes'; 
the mod. phonology of the 
second element of the word is 
due to confusion with fold? But 
its origin is obscure; it may be 
akin to OE. /<?//, G. fell OHG. fel, 

GOTH, fill = LAT. pellis. 

blink vb. ME. blinke = G. DU. 
blinken, sw. blinka, DAN. blinke. 

bliss ME. blisse OE. bliss older 
blids bltds (= OSAX. bltdsea): 
j-deriv. of blithe. 

blister ME. blister OE. *blystre 
= ODU. bluyster. Root unknown. 

blithe ME. blithe OE. blide joy- 
ful, glad' (cp. bliss} = OSAX. 
blithi, LG. bftde, DU. blij(de) t 
OHG. bRdi, ON. blidr, sw. DAN. 
blid t GOTH, bleips. The dental 
is formative, but the TEUT.y~M 
unknown elsewhere. 

block ME. block 'a block' (of 
wood). Cp. the synon. DU. blok, 

MLG. block, OHG. /tf/Z MHG. 

G. block. Uncertain whether the 
E. word is a native E. word or 
adapt, fr. FR. bloc 'block, log'. 

blond from FR. blond, whence 
also G. DU. DAN. blond. Source 
a lost TEUT. blunda- (= IT. 
biondo, SPAN, blondd). 

blood ME. OE. blod = OSAX. 
bl6d, DU. bloedy LG. blood, OHG. 
MHG. bluot G. blut , ON. blod, 
sw. DAN. blod'. TEUT. base blbda- 
(and bldpa- in GOTH, blof) from 
a pre-TEUT. bhldto- bhldto-, not 
found elsewhere. Its relation 
to the \l"blo 'bloom' is doubtful. 
See bleed and bless. 

bloom ME. blom(e)\ borrowed 
from ON. blom blomi = GOTH. 
bloma, OSAX. blomo, DU. bloem, 
OHG. bluoma (bluomo) G. blume 
'flower'. For the \f^bld cp. LAT. 
fids and OIR. bldth 'blossom' and 

blossom ME. blosme OE. blostm(a) 
blosma = w. bloesem (bloeni), MLG. 
blo(s)sem\ deriv. of the TEUT. 
\^blo in blow. 1 

blow sb. 'a stroke' ME. blowe\ 
deriv. from ME. blewe OE. bleowan 
= OHG. bliuwan MHG. bliuwen 
G. blduen, DU. blouwen, GOTH. 
bliggwan 'strike': TEUT. ^ bleu 

blow 1 vb. 'bloom' ME. blowe 
OE. blowan 'blossom' = OSAX. 
blbjan, DU. bloeijen, OHG. bluojan 
G. blilhen 'blow, bloom', GOTH. 
Abidjan. The TEUT. \^blb appears 
also in bloom and blossom. 

blow 2 vb. 'puff' ME. blowe OE. 
bldwan str. vb. = OHG. blaian 'blow' 


blue bolster 

MHG. blcewen blcejen G. bldhen 
'blow, swell'. The TEUT. \^ble 
bla agrees partly with LAT. 
flare (Aryan bhld in blade and 

blue ME. blew, not deriv. from 
OE. blcewen (deriv. of OE. bldw), 
whence ME. *bl$we ought to be 
derived. ME. blew bleu is loan- 
word from the synon. FR. bleu 
(= IT. biavo)', ME- bid 'blue' is 
adapt, of ON. bldr. The source 
of the whole group is a TEUT. 
base blawa- blewa- 'blue' = OE. 
bldw, ON. bldr, DU. blaauw, OHG. 
bldo G. blau\ ident. w. ~LA.T.flavus 

boar ME. bar OE. &fr- = OHG. 
MHG. ber 'a young boar', OSAX. 
ber(swin), LG. ber, DU. &*r : TEUT. 
base baizu- or bairu-. 

board 'a plank' ME. OE. b6rd 
'board, plank, shield, table' = 
OSAX. DU. sw. DAN. bord, LG. boord, 
G. bort, ON. bord, GOTH, (fotu}- 
baurd 'foot-stool': TEUT. base 
borda- with the by-form breda- 
in OE. r&/ = G. brett (DU. &n/ 
ODU. bred). 

boast vb. ME. bpste; perh. 
traceable to an OE. *boscttian\ 
deriv. from TEUT. \f^baus bus in 
G. base OHG. bosil 

boat ME. &# OE. bat = ON. 
A?zV 'boat'. The E. word is the 
source of ON. faitr, DU. G. boot 
and FR. bateau. 

bodice 'stays for women' for- 
merly bodies, being plur. oibody. 
Cp. pence for pennies. 

bodkin ME. boidekin 'a small 
dagger'; of uncertain origin, 
related to w. bidog , IR. bideog 
'a dagger'? The diphthong oi 
in ME. shows foreign origin of 
TAp.boidektn] but the suffix seems 
to be Anglisized. 

body ME. body bodi OE. bodi^ 
'body'; akin to OHG. botah MHG. 
botech 'trunk, corpse'. Relation 
to OHG. botahha G. bottich 'a 
large vessel, tub' is uncertain. 

boil 'a small tumor' ME. bile 
OE. byl(e)\ ident. with bile. 

boil vb. 'bubble up' ME. boile 
boyle'. loanword from OFR. boillir 
FR. bouillir SPAN, bullir, IT. 
bollire 'boil'. Source LAT. bullire 

boisterous ME. boistrous 'rough, 
coarse': an extended form of 
ME. boistous 'rough, clumsy'. The 
^/-diphthong points to foreign 
origin; no source yet found. 

bold ME. bgld OE. bdld (bcald 
older bealp) = GOTH. *balpa- 
(in balpaba adv.), ON. ballr (orig. 
*balfr), OSAX. OHG. bald 'bold' 
(hence G. bald 'soon, quickly'). 

bole ME. bole = MHG. bole G. 
bohle 'a thick plank'; akin to 
ON. bolr 'trunk of a tree' and 
perh. related to GR. yoc'Ay^ 
'stem of a tree'. 

boll ME. bolle OE. bolla 'bowel, 
a round vessel' = DU. bol m. 
OHG. bolla 'a round vessel', ON. 
bolli. Perh. akin to ball and 
LAT. follis 'hose'. 

bolster ME. OE. bolster = DU. 
MHG. bolster OHG. bolstar G. 

bolt booty 

polster, ON. bolstr". deriv. with 
str- suffix from the TEUT. \^belg 
'swell'; hence its orig. meaning 
'swelling' (TEUT. base bolstra- 
from *bolhstra-}. 

bolt vb. 'sift meal' ME. bulte\ 
borrowed from OFR. butter (FR. 
bluter) 'sift'. 

bolt 'a stout pin of iron etc., 
an arrow' ME. OE. bolt = synon. 
OHG. boh, DU. bout, ON. bolte. 
Borrowed from LAT. catapultal 

bone ME. bon OE. ban = G. 
bein, OSAX. ben, DU. been, ON. bein, 
sw. DAN. ben, GOTH. *bain (DU. G. 
ON. sw. also leg'). Perh. cogn. 
with ON. beinn 'straight'. 

bonnetME. bonet'. loanword from 
OFR. bonet orig. FR. chapel de 
bonet', MED.-LAT. bonneta 'a stuff 
of which caps were made'. 

bonny ME. bony, an ENGL. 
derivative of FR. bon 'good'. 

booby not found in ME. OE., 
with ENGL. ending derived from 
SPAN, bobo 'fool'? 

book ME. bok OE. boc = G. 
buck OHG. buoh, OSAX. bdk, DU. 
boek, GOTH, bbka f. bok n. 'a 
letter of the alphabet' shows in 
the plur. the meaning 'writing, 
document, book', and the OHG. 
OSAX. OE. corresponding buoh 
bok occurs in pluralform with the 
meaning 'a single book'. There- 
fore it is evident, that the sing, 
meant orig. (as in GOTH.) 'a 
single letter of the alphabet'. 
The TEUT. base boka- (cp. 
beecfi) was orig. 'beech-bark, 

beech-tablet' used to scratch 
runes on. 

boom borrowed from DU. boom 
(== LG. boom) 'a tree , beam, 
pole'. Ident. with beam. 

boon ME. bpne 'petition, favor': 
loanword from ON. bon 'a prayer'. 
There was a native OE. ben ME. 
bene 'a prayer'. 

boor adapt, of DU. boer (== 
G. bauer) 'peasant'. Akin to 
OE. ^ebur, cp. neighbor. 

boot 1 ME. bate* loanword from 
OFR. bote (boute) = FR. botte 
(IT. bota) ; akin to G. bossen 
'shoes'. Source unknown. 

boot 2 'advantage' ME. bote OE. 
bot = OSAX. GOTH, bota, OHG. 
buo^a buoTy G. busse, ON. bot. For 
the TEUT. ^bat cp. batten, 
better and best. 

booth ME. bothe: loanword 
from ODAN. both (DAN. bod) = 
MHG. buode G. bude. The OICEL. 
bud differs from DAN. bdd in the 
root-vowels (TEUT. o :u). The 
dental is suffix. For the TEUT. 
\fbtt (INDO-TEUT. bha) 'dwell' 
cp. LITH. butas 'house', OIR. both 
(bothdn) 'hut' (base bhu-to). See 
build and be. 

booty in the 15 th cent, spelled 
botye and butin\ akin to the 
equiv. FR. butin, DU. butt, G. 
beute, ON. b$te 'booty'; the FR. 
word represents an OSAX. *btiftn 
*buti, which is cogn. w. OIR. 
buaid Victory' and CYMR. ^^/'ad- 
vantage, profit'. Aryan 
: bhaud. 

border bough 

border ME. border bord(e}ure\ 
adapt, of FR. bordure. Ultimate 
source OHG. borto 'edge'. 

bore vb. ME. bore OE. borian 
= OHG. boron G. bohren, DU. 
boren, ON. bora. The TEUT. base 
borbn agrees with LAT. for are 
'bore'; cp.GR.^a^o^'plough',SKR. 
bhurij 'scissors': Aryan y~ bher 

borough and -bury in place- 
names ME. borwe (and biry) 
OE. burh burg (dat. sing. byr~) 
'town'. OE. burg = synon. OSAX. 
bur(u)g, DU. burg, OHG. bur(u}g 
G. burg, ON. borgy GOTH, baurgs 

borrow vb. ME. borwe OE. bor- 
gian 'protect, borrow' = OHG. 
b or gen G. b or gen 'borrow, give 
a pledge'. Prob. akin to OHG. 
bergan, GOTH, bairgan 'protect, 
shelter' (OSLOV. bregq 1 take 
care of). 

bosom ME. bosum OE. bosm = 
OSAX. bosm, DU. boczem, OHG. 
buosam G. busen, GOTH. *bdsma-. 

botch vb. 'mend a garment' 
ME. bocche 'repair': deriv. from 
boot 'mending, repair of a thing'? 
perh. ident. with OE. botettian 
'repair' ? Cp. G. dial, biletzen 
'mend shoes' = OHG. buozzen 

botch 'a swelling on the skin, 
a boil' ME. bocche'. borrowed 
from OFR. boche 'a sore' (FR. bosse 
'swelling' = IT. boccia 'ball'). 

both ME. botfie = OSAX. bedte, 
OFRIS. bethe bede, OHG. G. beide, ON. 
bddir, s\v. bdda, DAN. baade. The 

stem of the numeral in its oldest 
forms had no dental: GOTH, bat 
= OE. be^en bd bu 'both'. The 
dental ending is short for the 
article : ME. bothe = OE. bd da, 
G. bfide instead of bei die. In 
the older periods the article 
was combined with the numeral; 
cp. GOTH, ba fid scipa 'both 
ships', OE. be^en dd gebrodru 
'both brothers'. 

bottle 1 'a hollow vessel' ME. 
botel = DU. bottel, LG. buttel bud- 
del', loanwords from FR. bouteille 
(== SPAN, botellciy IT. bottiglia) 
Source MED. -LAT. buticula f. di- 
min. of butts 'a butt'. 

bottle 2 'a bundle of hay' ME. 
botel: loanword from OFR. botel 
dimin. of FR. botte 'a bundle of 
hay'. Source a TEUT. bauta- in 
OHG. boy) 'a bundle of flax'. 

bottom ME. botum OE. botm = 
OSAX. bodom, DU. bodem, OHG. 
bodam G. boden. The TEUT. bases 
bufma- (= OHG. bodam) or butna 
(= ON. botri) or with assimi- 
lation butma- (== OE. botm) re- 
present Aryan bases bhutno- 
bhudno'y cp.ASCfAKbhudhno- 'bot- 
tom' in SKR. budhna; cp. GR. 
7rv^/<7/i', LAT. fundus (if trace- 
able to bhudhno-sT). The pho- 
netical relations of the group 
are obscure. 

bough ME. bough bow OE. boh 
bog = DU. boeg 'bow of the ship', 
OHG. buog 'upper joint of the 
arm or leg, shoulder, hip' G. 
bug 'shoulders, withers', ON. bogr 
'shoulder, bow of a ship'. GOTH. 

bounce boy 

* bogus from PRE-TEUT. bhdghu-s 
'arm, fore-arm' corresponds to 
SKR. bdhii 'arm', also GR. 7ra%vg 
nfjyvg 'fore-arm, elbow'. 

bounce vb. ME. bounse 'beat, 
knock' OE. *bunsian\ frequent, 
of a primit. *bunant Akin to LG. 
bunsen bumsen (bansenf) 'knock'? 

bound sb. ME. bounde older 
boune\ borrowed fr. OFR. bonde 
bonne 'boundary'. boundary 
points to FR. bonnier , whence 
also DU. bunder ODU. bunre. 
Source MED.-LAT. bodina. 

bound vb. 'leap, spring' bor- 
rowed from FR. bondir 'leap, 
spring' prop, 'resound'. Source 
LAT. bombitare 'hum' ? 

bound adj. 'ready, prepared' 
ME. boun 'ready, prepared to go': 
loanword from ON. buinn 'pre- 
pared', part, oibua 'till, prepare'; 
cp. busk. 

bounty ME. bounte\ loanword 
from FR. bonte\ source LAT. boni- 
tatem. bounteous ME. bounte- 
vous\ derived from OFR. bontive 
'benevolent' by influence of 

bourn 'boundary' adapt, of FR. 
borne\ ident. with bound. 

bow vb. 'bend* ME. bowe earlier 
biiwe OE. bugan str. vb. 'bend, 
flee' (only intr.) = DU. buigen, 
MLG. bugen, OHG. biogan G. biegen, 
GOTH, biugan 'bend'. The TEUT. 
\Tbtig is an ARYAN bhnk on ac- 
count of OHG. buhil 'hill'. A 
cogn. \{~bhtig appears in LAT. 
fugio, GR. fvw. bow 1 sb. 'a 

weapon, a bend' ME. bowe OE. 
boga = OHG. OSAX. bogo , DU. 
boog, G. bogen, ON. bogi. 

bow 2 'the forward part of a 
ship', var. of bough. 

bowel ME. boull bowel', loan- 
word from OFR. bouel (FR. boyau) ; 
source LAT. botellus 'sausage' (IT. 
budello), whence also ODU. bode- 
line DU. beuling 'sausage*. 

bower sb. ME. bour OE. btir 'a 
dwelling' (see neighbor = OE. 
nehiebur) = OSAX. MLG. bur 'a 
house, cage', OHG. MHG. bur 'a 
chamber' G. bauer 'a cage', ON. 
biir 'a chamber, larder'. For the 
TEUT. \{~bu 'dwell 1 cp. build. 

bowl ME. bolle OE. bolla = ON. 
bollf, DU. boly OHG. bolla. 

box 1 'a chest' ME. OE. box: bor- 
rowed from a VULG.-LAT. *buxem 
for buxidem (nom. buxis), whence 
also DU. bus, G. biichs e 'box' OHG. 
buhsa for *buhsja. VULG.-LAT. 
buxis (from GR. nvtg 'box made 
of the box-tree' cp. box^ ap- 
pears in FR. bossette, IT. bossolo 

box 2 'the name of a tree' ME. 
box-tre OE. box: borrowed from 

LAT.-ROM. buXUS (= IT. bosSO, 

SPAN, box, FR. buis), whence also 
OHG. MHG. buhs(-boum) = G. bucks- 
baum 'box-tree', DU. busboom. 

boy ME. boic OE. *baia\ perh. 
dimin. of a lost OE. *bo 'brother' 
= FLEM. boe 'brother: childish 
abbreviation of E. brother, as G. 
bube OHG. buobo is a reduplication 
of *bb 'brother'? 


boycott brave 

boycott first heard of in Dec. 
1880. Captain James Boycott was 
a farmer at Lough Mask, co. 
Mayo, Ireland; the Irish league 
pronounced their edict, in con- 
sequence of which no one wished 
to work or have anything to do 
with him; he was the victim of 
the system of procedure named 
after him. 

brace sb. ME. brace', adapt, of 
OFR. brace. Source LAT. brac- 

brach ME. bracche\ adapt, of 
OFR. brache. Source OHG. bracko 
'hunting dog' = DU. brctk ODU. 

brad ME. brad usually brod\ 
loanword from ON. broddr 'spike, 
shaft' (= OE. brord 'spike', OHG. 
brort 'edge'). The TEUT. base 
brozda- answers to OIR. brot 'sting'. 

brag vb. 'boast' ME. bra(g)ge\ 
akin to OFR. braguer 'flaunt, brave, 
brag'. Source doubtful. 

braid vb. 'weave' ME. breide 
OE. bre^dan 'move to and fro, 
weave' OSAX. bregdan, LG. 
breiden, OHG. brettan MHG. bretten y 
ON. bregda 'draw, pull, weave, 
braid'; orig. 'move quickly' ; but 
MLG. breiden 'knit'. Cp. bridle. 

brain ME. brain OE. brceien = 
DU. brein, LG. bregen 'brain'. The 
TEUT. base bragena- 'brain', if 
from an ARYAN mrogh-, is com- 
pared with GR. ^Qfjfttog 'fore- 
head' (for */|p-). 

brake 'a thicket' ME. brake; 
perh. cogn, w, LG. brake 'tree- 
trunk' ? 

bramble ME. brembel OE. bremel 
earlier *br&mil\ cogn. w. G. brom- 
beere 'brambleberry' OHG. brama y 
DU. braam, perh. ident. w. OE. 
brom under broom. 

bran ME. bran : adapt, from. IR. 
w. bran. ME. bren adapt, from 
OFR. bren points to the same 

branch 'a bough of a tree' 
ME. braunche: borrowed from FR. 
branche (== SPAN. IT. branca LAT. 
type bi-ramical deriv. of LAT. 
ramus 'branch'?). 

brand ME. OE. brand brond = 
ODU. MLG. brand, OHG. MHG. brant 
'a burning, a brand', DU. G. brand 
'a burning, fuel', ON. brandr 'a 
firebrand', sw. DAN. brand c a fire- 
brand, fire'. From TEUT. brinnan 
= burn. brandish vb. ME. 
braundisshe braundisse\ loanword 
from FR. brandiss- in brandir (= 
IT. brandir e) 'brandish'. Source 
a TEUT. brand 'sword' E. brand 
'sword' OE. brond, ON. brandr, 
MHG. brant 'blade of a sword'. 

- brandy short for brandywine 
= DU. brandewijn, G. brantewein 
'brandy', lit. 'burnt wine'. 

brass ME. bras OE. brces. LAT. 
ferrum, if iorferso- ARYAN bherso-, 
is considered akin to the TEUT. 
base brasa- in OE. bras. 

brat 'a child' perh. ident. with 
ME. OE. bratt 'a coarse cloak': 
orig. a Celt, word, cp. GAEL. IR. 
brat 'a cloak, mantle' w. brat 
'a rag, a pinafore'. 

brave borrowed from FR. brave, 
whence also DU. braaf, G. brav. 

brawn breeze 

brawn ME. braun brawn 'muscle, 
boar's flesh'; orig. *braoun bra- 
hun\ borrowed from OFR. braon 
'a piece of flesh, muscle'. Source 
a TEUT. brado ace. bra dun = 
OHG. brato MHG. brate 'a slice 
of bread' and also like G. braten 
'roast meat', OE. brcedan 'roast 
meat', G. braten, DU. braden 'roast'; 
in LG. dial, an OSAX. brado 
'muscle' is preserved (e.g. AVEST- 
PHAL. wadbrae) ; cp. MLG. brade. 

braze 1 vb. 'adorn with brass' 
ME. brdse OE. brasian 'cover with 
brass': deriv. of OE. brces\ cp. 

braze 2 vb. 'harden': loanword 
from ON. brasa 'harden by fire'. 

breach ME. br{che\ adapt, of 
FR. breche. Source the TEUT. vb. 
brekan = break. 

bread ME. bred late OE. br$ad 
= OHG. brot G. brod, OSAX. brbd, 
DU. brood, late ON. braud. The 
Teut. base brau-da~ is deriv. fr. 
the \T bru in E. broth and 
brew. The orig. TEUT. word for 
bread was loaf (= TEUT. hlaiba-). 
In OE. we find brgad 'piece of 
bread' and beobr /^/'honey-comb'. 

breadth formed after length 
strength with secondary th from 
ME. br{dt OE. brcedo 'breadth': 
abstract noun formed hombroad 
with umlaut (GOTH, braidei, OHG. 
breiti). Cp. WESTPHAL. bredde, 
OSAX. *bredtha from brtd 'broad'. 
break vb. ME. br$ke OE. brecan 
str. vb. = DU. breken, OSAX. 
brekan, OHG. brehhan G. brechen> 
GOTH, brikan. With the TEUT. 

\fbrek 'break' (ARYAN bhreg) 
vp.'Lh^.frango (pret.frtgi) 'break'. 

breakfast ME. br<>kefaste\ prop, 
'breaking one's fast, the first 
meal of the day by which the 
fast is broken'. 

bream ME. br$m\ loanword 
from FR. breme\ source a TEUT. 
braxma in OHG. brahsima MHG. 
braesem G. brass en = OSAX. 
bressemo, DU. brasem t osw. braxn, 
DAN. brasen. 

breast ME. brest short for ME. 
brest OE. breost = OSAX. briost, 
OFRIS. briast, ON. brjost', akin to 
GOTH, brusts plur., DU. borst, 
OFRIS. burst (and briast), G.brust'. 
TEUT. bases breust- : brust~. 

breath ME. br{th OE. brad 
'breath, odor'; akin to OHG. 
bradam MHG. bradem G. brodem 
broden 'steam, vapor, exhalation'. 

breech 'buttocks' ME. brich OE. 
bred. Orig. ident. with breeches 
(a pair of breeches) ME. 
brech breche', the corresp. OE. 
brec plur. points to a sing. *brdc 
= DU. broek, OFRIS. brbk (plur. 
breK), ON. brdk (plur. br&kr), OHG. 
MHG. bruoch. The TEUT. base 
brdk- plur. brokiz) is seemingly 
connected with GALL.-LAT. braca 
'clothing for the legs'. 

breed vb. ME. brfde OE. bredan 
= DU. broeden, OHG. bruoten 
MHG. brileten G. bruten 'brood, 
hatch', GOTH. *brbdjan\ deriv. of 
TEUT. brbda- see brood. 

breeze 1 'a strong wind' = 
synon. G. brise^ DAN. bris\ source 


breeze 2 brim 

FR. brise 'the north wind' = 
SPAN, brisa. 

breeze 2 'gadfly' ME. brese OE. 
brtosa. Connection with G. bremse 
and breme (OHG. brimisa bremd) 
is doubtful. 

brew vb. ME. brewe OE. breowan 
str. vb. = DU. brouwen, OHG. 
briuwan G. brauen. With the 
TEUT. ^brtt (Aryan Mr# bhreu) 
brew' are related PHRYG.-THRAC. 
PQVTOV 'beer, cider', which prob. 
stands for GR. *(ppvTnv, also LAT. 
defrutum 'must boiled down', OIR. 
bruthe 'broth' bruth 'live coals, 
heat' bruith 'cooking'. Cp. 
* bridal, see bride. 

bride ME. bride OE. br$d (from 
*brydi *briidi) = OSAX. ODU. 
LG. brud, DU. bruidy OHG. MHG. 
brut G. braut y ON. brudr\ GOTH. 
brups means 'daughter-in-law' 
(but brup-faps 'bridegroom') ; 
OSAX. brud is 'the newly married 
wife' as E. bride. bridal 

ME. brid-dle OE. bryd-ealo\ lit. 
'bride-ale (ME. bride OE. bryd 
and ME. ale OE. ealo). In GERM. 
dialects, we find ki?idelbier 'bap- 
tism'. bridegroom ME. bride- 
gome OE. brydguma = synon. 
OSAX. brudigumo, DU. bruide- 
gomOy OHG. brutigomo MHG. briute- 
gome G. brdutigam , ON. brud- 
gume (GOTH, brup-faps). The 
second element of these com- 
pounds (OE. GOTH, guma, OHG. 
gomo 'man' is related to LAT. 
liomo from INDO-TEUT. ghonwn). 
The phonetical development of 

ME. bridegome into E. bridegroom 
is due to the influence of groom. 

bridge ME. brigge OE. brycg = 
OFRIS. brigge, DU. ^r^, OHG O 
brucka G. brilcke (GOTH. *'brugja 
*brugjo) . The corresp. ON.bryggja 
(also LG. brugge > NORTHFRIS. 
bragti) and GERM, (dial.) brucke 
signify 'pavement, floor'; and OE. 
brycgian ME. brigge and NFRIS. 
braghirij MLG. brilggen signify 'to 

bridle ME. OE. bridel older OE. 
bri^del bri^dil = OHG. brittil for 
*brictil\ deriv. from the TEUT. 
vb. bregdan 'pull' under braid. 
Akin to OSLOV. bruzda 'bridle' 
(Aryan \{~bhreghdh also in LAT. 
frenum 'bridle'?). 

brief adj. 'short' ME. bref\ 
borrowed from FR. bref (SPAN. 
IT. breve = LAT. brevis 'short'). 

brief sb. 'a commission, do- 
cument' ME. brefy cp. DU. G. 
brief OHG. briaf and the cor- 
responding OFR. bref 'an official 
document'. Orig. ident. with 
brief adj. 

brier a prickly shrub' ME. brere 
OE. br&r brer 'a bramble'. 

bright ME. bright OE. beorht 
'bright, white, clear' = OSAX. 
berhty OHG. beraht, GOTH, bairhts 
'bright'. Akin to MLG. brehen 
'shine, glisten'; cp. SKR. bhargas 

brim ME. brim] perh. ident. 
with OE. brim 'ocean , surf = 
ON. brim 'surf; cp. the name of 
the city of Bremen. 

brimstone brook 

brimstone ME. brimston earlier 
brenston = ON. brennisteinn 'brim- 
stone': deriv. of ME. brenne = 

brine ME. brine 'salt liquor' = 
DU. brijn MDU. brine. 

bring vb. ME. bringe OE. bring an 
= OHG. OSAX. bringan G. bringen, 
GOTH. briggan\ cp. DU. brengen, 
OSAX. brengian, OE. brengan 'bring': 
TEUT. \l^breng brang. 

brink ME. brink 'edge'; cp. ON. 
brekka from *brinkb , LG. brink. 

brisk a CELT, loanword; cp. w. 
brysg, GAEL. bri(o)sg 'quick, lively'. 

bristle ME. bridle older birstle 
OE. *byrstcl\ dimin. of OE. byrst 
== OHG. burst G. borste, DU. borste 
'bristle'; akin to OHG. bursta G. 
burste 'brush'. The TEUT. \{~bors 
burs (whence bur in burdocti) 
is an Aryan \fbhrs in SKR. bhrsfi 
'point, prong'. Cp. brush. 

brittle ME. britel OE. *brytel\ 
formed with suffix ~il (OE. el cp. 
nimble) from OE. brcotan 'break' 
= ON. brjota 'break'. 

broach vb. ME. broche 'bore, 
spur, spit, tap' (setten on broche 
'set a-broach, tap' = FR. mettre 
en broche\2^ a barrel') ; FR. brocher 
'broach, pierce' and broche 'a 
broach, spit'. 

broad ME. brod OE. brdd = 
OSAX. MLG. bred, DU. breed, G. 
breit, ON. breidr, sw. DAN. bred, 
GOTH, braids 'broad': prob. from 
a PRE-TEUT. mraito-, akin to an 
Aryan \Cmrit in SKR. mrit 'fall 
to pieces' (therefore broad prop. 

brock 'a badger' ME. brok OE. 
brocc (= DAN. brok)\ a .CELT. 
loanword; cp. w. CORN. BRET. 
brock, GAEL. IR. MANX broc 'a 
badger (CELT, base brakko-, perh. 
ident. w. LAT. broccus adj. 'having 
prominent teeth' and OFR. broc 
'spit, point'). 

broil vb. ME. broile\ adapt, of 
OFR. bruiller 'broil, roast'. OFR. 
bruir 'roast' seems to be ident. 
with G. brilhen MHG. briiejen, DU. 
broeijen 'foment'; cp. brood. 

broker ME. brocour 'pedlar, 
pawnbroker'; loanword from 
OFR. brocour brokeor 'tapster 
who retails wine from the tap'; 
cp. FR. broche under broach. 

brooch 'broach' ME. brdche 'a 
pin, peg, brooch': borrowed 
from FR. broche 'a spit, point'. 

brood ME. OE. brod = DU. broed, 
OHG. MHG. bruot G. brut', appar. 
formed with dental suffix from 
the TEUT. \l^brb in G. briihen, 
DU. broeien. Cp. breed. 

brook ME. brok OE. broc = 
DU. broek, MLG. brdk LG. brook 
'marsh, pool', OHG. bruoh(h) MHG. 
bruoch G. bruch 'marsh, bog*; 
possibly connected with the 
TEUT. \fbrek 'break' in break. 

brook vb. 'put up with' ME. 
bro(p)ke brouke OE. brucan 'use, 
enjoy' = OSAX. brukan , DU. 
gebruiken, OHG. bruhhan MHG. 
bruchen G. brauchen 'use, need', 
GOTH, brukjan 'use'. The PRE- 
TEUT. form of the \^bhrug 
accords with LAT. fruor from 

broom buckram 

*fruvor for *frugvor and cp. LAT. 

broom ME. OE. brom 'the plant 
of the broom' = ODU. broem 
'broom'; perh. cogn. w. bramble. 

broth ME. broth OE. brod = 
ON. brod, OHG. brod: deriv. from 
the \fbrti under brew. 

brother ME. brother OE. brodor 
= DU. broeder , OSAX. brbthar, 
OHG. MHG. bruoder G. bruder, ON. 
brodir , GOTH, bropar 'brother'. 
The TEUT. base brdper- (Aryan 
bhrater^) corresponds to LAT. 
f rater , SKR. bhrdtar- , OSLOV. 
bratru; cp. GR. rpparpin. 

brow ME. browe bruwe OE. n*; 
cp. ON. ^rw>/ 'eyebrow' and SKR. 
/W, GR. ocpyi'c, OSLOV. bruvt 

brown ME. broun OE. ;7$/z = 

MLG. OHG. MHG. OFRIS. brun, DU. 

bruin, ON. brunn. The TEUT. 
name of the color passed into 
ROM. (FR. brim = SPAN. IT. 
bruno 'brown') and LITH. (brunas 
'brown'). The proper stem of 
Aryan bhr-uno- appears in LITH. 
beras 'brown' (see bear sb.) and 
reduplicated in SKR. babhru-s 
'reddish- brown' (see beaver). 

bruise vb. ME. brilse'. loanword 
from OFR. bruser (FR. briser) 
'break', whence OE. brysan 'break'. 

bruit 'a rumor' ME. brilt'. bor- 
rowed from FR. bruit 'noise*. 

brush sb. ME. brusshe 'a brush', 
orig. 'brush-wood': borrowed 
from OFR. broce FR. brosse 'brush- 
wood, brush'. 

brute borrowed from FR. brut 
adj. (fern, brute) \ source LAT. 

buck vb. 'wash linen , steep 
clothes in lye' ME. bouke (OE. 
*bucian) = DAN. byge t sw. byka, 
NORW. boukja, ICEL. bauka, MHG. 
buchen G. bauchen. The TEUT. 
vb. bukon (biikjati) is based on 
OE. buc (cp. bucket). The 
ROM. FR. buer, IT. bucare 'wash' 
are borrowed from Teut. 

buck sb. ME. bukke OE. bucca\ 
cp. the synon. OSAX. buck, FRIS. 
Tyc.bok, OHG. MHG. boc(ck) G. bock, 
ON. bukkr bokkr, sw. bock, DAN. 
buk 'a he-goat, ram, buck(deer)', 
GOTH. *bukks *bukka m . ident. w. 

GAEL. boc t OIR. boCCy CYMR. boch 

'buck' from a CELT, base bukko- 
(whence FR. bouc OFR. boc) and 
w. ARMEN. buc 'lamb', AVEST. buza 
'buck' (ARYAN bhug ?). The INDO- 
TEUT. base bhugo- is perh. con- 
nected with the root of fugio, 
GR. (f'tv'yi 'flee'; hence buck may 
have signified orig. 'fugitive'. 

bucket 'a kind of pail' ME. 
boket: deriv. from OE. buc 'a 
pitcher' with the dirnin. suffix -et. 

buckle ME. bokel\ adapt, of FR. 
boucle, whence also G. bucket. 
Source MED. -LAT. buc(c)ula 'a 
beaver, shield'. 

buckler ME. bokeler: adapt, of 
OFR. bocler bucler = FR. bouclier 
(whence also DU. beukelaar, MHG. 
buckeler, ON. buklart). Cp. buckle. 

buckram ME. bokeram bukeram 
= OFR. bouqueran bouc ar an (FR. 

buckwheat burn 

bougran , MHG. buckerani) . S o urc e 
and history unknown. 

buckwheat = DU. boekweit, 
MLG. bokwete, G. buchweizen, DAN. 
boghvede\ lit. 'beech-wheat' from 
the resemblance of its seeds to 
the mast of the beech-tree. The 
E. word is of continental origin. 
Cp. beech. 

bud ME. budde\ perh. akin to 
FR. bouton, DU. bot 'bud'. History 
and source uncertain. 

bugle 'a buffalo, a horn' ME. 
bugle-, borrowed from OFR. bugle 
'a wild ox' (LAT. buculus, dimin. 
of bos 'an ox'). The meaning 
'horn' is short for 'bugle-horn'. 

build vb. short for ME. bilde (pret. 
bilde) OE. *byldan (pret. bylde)\ 
deriv. with vowel mutation from 
OE. bold 'house' which goes back, 
as shown by the older OE. botl 
bodl y by metathesis to a TEUT. 
bo-pla- (== ON. bol t DU. boedel, 
OSAX. bodlos plur., OFRIS. bodel 
bold. OE. byldan (bytlan) is a 
TEUT. bupljan. TEUT. bofila- = 
ARYAN bhu-tlo- belongs to the 
INDO-TEUT. \fbhfi 'dwell, reside' 
(cp. be, bower and booth). For 
the ARYAN //- suffix cp. needle. 

bull ME. bule\ OE. only in 
dimin. bulluc = ME. E. buUock\ 
cp. the synon. DU. bul y LG. Iwlle, 
ON. bolt, DAN. boll 'a castrated bull'; 
LITH. bullus is primit. related. 
Whether the E. bull is orig. a 
SCAND. loanword, is uncertain. 

burden 1 'a load' ME. birthen 
OE. byrden = OSAX. burthinnia 
'burden'; cp. the equival. OHG. 

burdb G. burde, ON. byrdr, GOTH. 
baurfiei'. all deriv. of the TEUT. 
\fber in dear; cp. SKR. bhrti 
= OIR. brith 'the carrying* and 
see birth. 

burden 2 'the refrain of a song' 
ME. burdoun: loanword from FR. 
bourdon, orig. 'a drone-bee' (= 
SPAN, bordon, IT. bordone 'a drone' 
from LAT. bur do 'a drone'); cp. 
MLG. bar dun 'tenor; a musical 

burgess ME. burgeis : loanword 
from OFR. burgeis FR. bourgeois 
(LAT. type burgensis from burgus 
'town'). burgher borrowed 
from DU. burger = MLG. borgere, 
OHG. burgari MHG. burg cere burger 
G. burger : deriv. of TEUT. burg- 
cp. borough. 

burial ME. buriel biriel prop. 
buriels biriels GE. byr^els 'tomb' 
(= OSAX. Inirgisli 'tomb') : deriv. 
from the OE. vb. byryin (OSAX. 
*burgian)\ cp. bury. 

burin 'an engraver's tool' : bor- 
rowed from FR. burin\ perh. of 
Teut. origin; cp. OHG. bora 'a 
borer' (see under bore). 

burly ME. burli borli OE. *bur- 
lice. Akin to OHG. buro- 'very' 
in burolang boralang Very long' 
and perh. to SKR. bhuri 'much'? 

burn vb. ME. berne OE. bcernan 
bernan tr. (byrnan intr.). Cp. 
synon. MHG. brinnen intr. and 
its causative brennen\ G. brennen 
intr. and tr., GOTH, brinnan intr. 
and brannjan tr. Only one n be- 
longs to the TEUT. \/*bren, as 
shown by bryne 'conflagration*. 

burnish butter 

burnish vb. ME. burnisshe bur- 
nisse\ loanword from OFR. bur- 
niss-, the stem of certain parts 
of burnir brunir = FR. brunir. 

burr ME. burre c a bur'; cp. sw. 
kardborre 'a burdock', DAN. borre y 
N.FRIS. bar, HELGOL. borren 'bur- 
dock*. OE. *burre, if for TEUT. 
burzon-, may be deriv. from the 
TEUT. \fbors in G. borste\ cp. 

burst vb.ME. berste OE. berstan\ 
cp. synon. OSAX. brestan, LG. DU. 
bersten, OHG. brestan MHG. bresten 
G. bersten, ON. bresta. Cp. an 
Aryan Y^ bhrest in OIR. brissim 
'break' ( for tf). 

bury vb. ME. burie birie OE. 
byriyin byr^an wk. vb.; akin to OE. 
byr^en 'tomb' byr^els under 
burial. TEUT. burgjan belongs 
perh. with OE. beorg 'mound, place 
of burial' to the TEUT.V&r^ in 
GOTH, bairgan, DU. G. bergen, OE. 
beorgan 'protect, shelter, secure'. 

bury in place-names see bo- 

bush ME. bush older busk\ ident. 
with OHG. busk G. . busch , DU. 
bosch bos and a ROM. bosco ( 
FR. botSj IT. bosco). Uncertain 
whether of Teut. or of Lat. origin. 

bush 'a thicket' ME. busch busk 
= OHG. busc G. busch, DU. bosch\ 
akin to FR. botSj IT. bosco. Orig. 
derived as LAT. *buxicum from 
LAT. buxus = box! 

busk vb. 'get one's self ready' 
ME. buske 'prepare one'self: of 
Scand. origin; cp. ON. budsk 'pre- 
pare'. Cp. bound adj. 

busk 'a support for a woman's 
stays' borrowed from FR. busc 
busque orig. 'the whole bodice', 
prob. a corruption of bust. 

buss 1 'a herring-boat' ME. busse 
OE. biltse (in btitsecarlas) = DU. 
buis, OHG. buzo, ON. biiza. The 
Rom. shows similar words: MED.- 
LAT. bussa buscia 'a kind of boat', 
OFR. busse buse buce. Source 

buss 2 'kiss' = G. dial, bussen 
'kiss'; cp. also SPAN, buz 'a kiss 
of reverence'; perh. orig. a chil- 
dish onomatopoeia. 

bust from FR. buste ( IT. SPAN. 
busto), whence also G. bilste. 

bustle vb. ME. bustele 'wander 
blindly or stupidly'; perh. akin 
to G. (dial.) pusseln 'bustle', ICEL. 
bustla 'bustle'? 

busy ME. bisy OE. bisi^ = DU. 
bezig, LG.besig: TEUT. base *bisiga-. 

but ME. bute shortened for buten 
OE. butan conj. 'except' prep, 
'besides, without' = DU. buitcn 
'except'. Contr. from be-utan\ 
cp. G. ausser and E. out. 

butcher ME. bocher earlier bou- 
cher: borrowed from FR. boucher 
'one who kills he-goats' (deriv. 
of FR. bouc = buck). 

butler ME. buteler bot(e)ler fr. 
OFR. bouteiller'. deriv. of bottle. 

butt borrowed from OFR. boute, 
FR. botte (= SPAN, bota, IT. botte) 
'a butt, cask'. Akin to OE. bytt 
'hose, a leather bottle', OHG. bufin 
G. butte. 

butter ME. butere OE. butere 
biitore = G. butter, DU. boter, 

buttock caitiff 


LG. hotter', source LAT. butyrum 
(cp. FR. beurre, IT. burro) = GR. 
jtnvTVQov. butterfly ME. butter- 
file OE. butor-fleoge = DU. boter- 
vlieg\ cp. G. dial, butter vogel 'a 
butterfly' and the G. dial, syno- 
nyms milchdieb and molkenstehler . 

buttock ME. buttok with dimin. 
suffix (cp. hillock) fr. OFR. bot 
(FR. bout) 'an end'; cp. butt-end. 

button ME. butoun: borrowed 
FR. bouton 'a bud, a button'. 

buttress 'a support' (in archi- 
tecture) ws.buterasbutres'. bor- 
rowed from OFR. bouteretSy prop, 
plur. of bouteret 'a buttress'; cp. 
FR. boter bouter 'thrust, prop'. 

buxom ME. buxom older ibuh- 

sum from OE. bug an = bow] 
the old meaning was 'obedient, 
obliging'. Akin to DU. buigzaam, 
G. biegsam 'submissive'. 

buy vb. ME. bte earlier bigge 
OE. bycgan 'purchase' = OSAX. 
buggian, GOTH, bug j an 'buy'. 

buzzard ME. busaru short for 
bttsard: loanword from FR. busard 
by-form of FR. buse 'buzzard' (= 
LAT. buteo 'buzzard'), whence also 
DU. buizerd, G. bushart. 

by ME. OE. bi (but be- as prefix) 

= OSAX. OHG. MHG. bi G. bei t 

DU. bij\ GOTH, bt means 'round, 
round about' and thus connec- 
tion with GR. ajuqpt, LAT. ambi- 
becomes possible. 

cabbage earlier cabbache from 
FR. dial, caboche = FR. cabus (DU. 
kabuis), IT. capuccio , G. kappes 
OHG. kabu^\ orig. deriv. of LAT. 
caput 'head'. 

cabin ME. caban: borrowed 
from FR. cabane IT. MED. -LAT. 
capanna 'a cabin'. Source and 
history unknown. 

cable ME. cdble (= G. DU. sw. 
DAN. kabei) : adapt, of FR. cdble. 
Source LAT. capulum 'a rope' 
(LAT. caper e 'take, hold'). 

caboose ident. with DU. kabuis, 
G. kabuse\ DAN. kabys. Earlier 
E. form comboose ident. with DU. 


kombutSj FR. cambuse. Prob. akin 
to E. cabin. 

cackle vb. ME. kdkle = DU. LG. 
kakelen, G. kakeln, sw. kackla, 
DAN. kagle 'cackle'. Onomato- 
poetic formations. 

cage ME. cdge\ adapt, of FR. 
cage = IT. gabbia gaggia dial. 
cabbia\ source LAT. cdvea, whence 
also OHG. chevia G. kafig 'cage'. 

cairn borrowed from GAEL. IR. 
w. earn 'a pile, rock'? 

caitiff ME. caitlf 'a captive': 

loanword from ONFR. caitif 'a 

wretch' (whence also DU. katijvig 

ODU. catijf caitijf) = FR. chttif 



cajole camphor 

'mean, vile' (IT. cattivo = LAT. 
captwus 'captive'). 

cajole vb. = FR. cajoler 'coax' 
(OFR. cageoler 'chatter like a bird 
in a cage, prate', deriv. of FR. 
cage = E. cage). 

cake ME. cdke OE. *caca (in- 
ferred from the dimin. formation 
OE. cetil cicel^ TEUT. base kakila-) 
= ON. sw. kaka, DAN. kage 'cake'. 
Akin to OSAX. koko, DU. koek, sc. 
cooky (also OE. ccecil ME. kechel 
from the dimin. GOTH. *kokila-), 
OHG. kuocho G. kuchen. The base 
kakan- kokan- is genuine TEUT. 

ca(u)ldron ME. caudroun: bor- 
rowed from AFR. *caudroun = 
FR. chaudron (== IT. calderone 'a 
large kettle'). Source LAT. cal- 
daria 'a kettle for hot water' 
(caldus calidus 'hot'). The / of 
modern spelling is inserted in 
imitation ofLAT. (Scotch still cau- 

calf ME. calf OE. cealf= OSAX. 
DU. LG. sw. calf, ON. fcdlfr, OHG. 
G. kalb\ GOTH, has only a fern. 
kalbb 'heifer' (OHG. chalba G. 
kalbe f. 'a calf). Outside of 
TEUT., there is a series of words 
with the base glbh- in SKR. 
garbha 'the womb, an embryo', 
GR. JcAgwg 'womb' and its deriv. 
adsfapog 'brother' - - <)gAg>a 'a 
young pig'. 

calf 2 ME. calf\ perh. adopt, of 
ON. kdlfi = NORW. kalve , sw. 
/fo^ (ben-kalf) 'calf of the leg'. 

ca(u)lk vb. ME. cauke 'tread 
as a cock': borrowed from OFR. 

cauquer 'tread' (source LAT. cal- 
care 'tread down'). 

call vb. ME. calle OE. (c. 950) 
callian (once misspelled cealliati)'. 
a SCAND. loanword cp. ON. kalla 
'say, call, name' (SAV. kalla, DAN. 
kalde 'call'): ident. with DU. 
kallen, OHG. kallon\ cp. SKR. 
\Tgir 'call, praise'. 

callous from LAT. callosus 'hard- 
skinned' (LAT. callus 'hard skin'). 

callow adj. ME. calowe calu OE. 
calu (calw-) == DU. kaal, OHG. 
kalo (inn. kalawer) G. kahl: an 
early LAT. loanword LAT. calvus 
(whence FR. chauve, IT. SPAN. 
calvo), which is of Aryan origin 
(cp. SKR. kulva, AVEST. kaourva 

calm ME. calme (== DU. kalm) 
from FR. calme (== SPAN. IT. 
calma 'calmness, still weather'). 
Source MED. -LAT. cauma*\\\e, heat 
of the sun' = GR. y.av/ua 'great 
heat', / being due to association 
w. LAT. calor. 

cambric borrowed from FR. 
cambray, so called from Cambrai 
(FLEM. DU. Kamerijk), a town of 
northern France where it was 
first made (hence G. kammer- 
tucti). See arras and lawn 2 . 

camp borrowed from FR. camp 
'field, army' = LAT. campus 'field'. 
campaign from FR. cam- 
pa(i)gne 'an open field, a mili- 
tary campaign'. 

camphor borrowed from FR. 
camphre = IT. canfora, G. kampfer, 
DU. kamfer. 

can card 


can vb. ME. OE. can = GOTH. 
kann, OSAX. OHG. kan G. kann. 
The TEUT. vb. km, nan is akin to 
keen', the ARYAN \J~gen see under 

can sb. ME. OE. canne = DU. kan 
'a pot, mug , OHG. kanna G. kanne, 
ON. kanna, GOTH. *kanno. The 
TEUT. word passed into FR. (OFR. 
canne FR. dimin. canette 'a jug'). 

canary = SPAN, canario 'bird' 
= FR. canari; cp. G. kanarien- 
vogel 'canary-bird', DAN. canarie- 
fugl t sw. canariefogely DU. kanarie- 
vogel 'canary-bird'; so named 
after the Canary islands. 

candle ME. candle candel OE. 
candel'. early loanword fr. LAT. 
candela, whence also IT. candela. 
Cp. chandelier. 

cane ME. cane', borrowed from 
FR. canne = IT. canna 'a reed, 
a cane', LAT. canna. 

canker ME. cancre late OE. 
cancer fr. ONFR. cancre (FR. 
chancre) : source LAT. cancer, 
whence also G. DU. kanker OHG. 

canon ME. canoun: adapt, of 
FR. canon. Source LAT. canon 
(GR. xavdv) 'a rule, standard of 

canvas ME. can(e)vas (== DU. 
kanefas, G. cannevas kanevas, sw. 
kanfass, DAN.kannevas): borrow- 
ed from ONFR. canevas (LAT. type 
canabacius , deriv. of cannabis 

cap ME. cappe OE. cceppe 'cloak 5 
(= OHG. kappa 'cloak* G. kappe t 

DU. kap 'cap'). Source LAT. capp.. ; 
ident. with cape 1 and cope. 

cape 1 ME. cape', borrowed from 
ONFR. cape (= IT. LAT. cappa 'a 
cloak, cape'): ident. with cap. 

cape 2 'a headland* borrowed 
from FR. cap 'cape, headland, 
head' = G. kap t IT. capo. Source 
LAT. caput 'head'. 

caper from FR. capre (= IT. 
capperOy DU. kapper, G. kaper): 
source LAT. capparis. 

capon ME. cdpoun late OE. (c. 
1000) captin fr. ONFR. capon (FR. 
chapon) : source LAT. cappo(nem) t 
whence also G. kapaun and OHG. 

captain ME. capitain from FR. 
capitaine (LAT. type capitaneus 
capitanus, deriv. of LAT. caput 
'head'). Ident. w. chieftain. 

car ME. carre (by-form charre) : 
borrowed from ONFR. carre (FR. 
char). Source LAT.-GALL. carrus 
(BRET. IR. w. carr) 'chariot', 
whence also IT. carro, DU. kar, 
OHG. charra cJiarro 'cart' G. karrc 

caraway borrowed from FR. 
carvi = IT. carvi, LAT. car cum 
'caraway'; cp. Tm.kaiivij, G.karbe. 
carbuncle ME. carbucle'. bor- 
rowed from ONFR. carbuncle car- 
boucle (FR. escarboucle\ ident. with 
IT. carbonchio, DU. karbonkel, G. 
karbunkel): LAT. carbunculus 'a 
! glowing coal, gem, boil', dimin. 
i of car bo. 

card 1 ME. card', borrowed from 
FR. carte 'a card, ticket, bill, 

card 5 * cashier. 

map, chart; ident. with DU. 
kaarty G. karte, IT. carta. Source 
LAT. c(h}arta *a card, paper'. 

card 2 ME. carde\ adapt, from 
FR. carde\ ident. .with the synon. 
DU. kaarde, OHG. charta G. karte, 
SPAN, car da t IT. car do 'a card'. 
Source LAT. carduus 'a thistle'. 

care ME. care OE. caru (cearu) 
'sorrow, suffering, grief = OSAX. 
OHG. kara 'lament' (G. kar- in 
karfreitag 'Good Friday'; MHG. G. 
karwoche 'Passion week') == GOTH. 
kara 'sorrow'. A cognate vb. 
(meaning 'sigh') is preserved in 
OHG. queran (GOTH. *qairati). 
Cp. chary. 

carol ME. carole 'dance, song' 
from OFR. carole 'a kind of dance, 
also a carol or Christmas song'. 
Of CELT, origin (BRET, koroll 'a 
dance', MANX carval 'a carol', 
w. carol 'a song', GAEL, carull 
'melody, harmony'). 

carp ME. carpe = DU. kirper, 
OHG. c harp ho karfo G. karpfen, 
ON. karfe, sw. karp, DAN. karpe. 
Ident. with late LAT. carpa = FR. 
carpe, IT. SPAN, carpa. 

carp vb. ME. carpe' carp at, talk, 
say' : adapt, of ON. karpa 'boast, 
brag'. The present meaning 
is prob. an outgrowth of the 
associated idea in LAT. carper e 

carpenter ME. carpenter', bor- 
rowed from ONFR. carpentier (FR. 
charpentier). Source LAT. car- 
pentum 'carriage'. 

carriage ME. cartage 'I urden, 
baggage': borrowed from ONFR. 

cariage (FR. char r lag e), d'eriv. of 
carter == E. carry. 

carrion ME. carton caroine = 
DU. karonje] cp. also ME. crone, 
ODU. kronie: adapt, of ONFR. 
caroigne (OFR. charoigne = FR. 
charogne)\ LAT. type caronia 'a 
carcass' fr. caro 'flesh'. 

carry vb. ME. carie\ adapt, from 
ONFR. carter (FR. charrter)\ LAT. 
type car r tear e 'carry' (LAT. car r us 
'a cart, car'; cp. car). 

cart ME. cart fr. os.karfr', ident. 
w. OE. crcet plur. cratu 'chariot' 
= DU. krat 'hindpart of a cart': 
of Celt, origin; cp. OIR. cret 
'a wain-body. 

cartridge with intensive r for 
cartidge, a corruption of cartouche 
FR. cartouche (IT. cartoccio 
'cartridge', deriv. of LAT. charta 

carve vb. ME. kerve OE. ceorfan 
= DU. kerven, G. kerben 'notch, 
indent' (GOTH. *kairfan, OHG. 
*kerban not found). The \f"kerf 
appears in GR. ypd(fO} 'scratch, 

case 1 ME. cds case', borrowed 
from FR. cas (SPAN. IT. caso 'cir- 
cumstance, chance'). Source 
LAT casus. 

case ! ME. cdce cdssei adapt, 
from OFR. casse FR. caisse\ source 
LAT. capsa 'box, cover'. 

cash from FR. casse. Hence 
cashier sb. 

cashier vb. 'dismiss from ser- 
vice' (= G. kassiren)'. from FR. 
casser 'discharge'. 

cask caution 


cask borrowed from FR. casque 
'a cask, helmet* (== IT. casco 'a 

casket corrupted from FR. cas- 
sette 'a small casket', dimin. of 
FR. casse 'a chest, box'. 

cassock: adapt.fromFR.casayue 
(IT. casacca 'an outer coat', SPAN. 
casaca 'a great-coat, surtout'). 

cast vb. ME. caste', a Scand. 
loanword ; cp. ON. sw. kasta, DAN. 
kaste 'throw'. 

caste 'a breed, race' = G. kaste, 
FR. caste', borrowed from SPAN. 
casta 'breed, race, caste'. 

castle ME. late OE. castel (also 
ME. castel = ODU. DU. kasteel) 
'a castle, village': borrowed (c. 
1000) fr. ONFR. castel (Q^^. chastel 
= FR. chateatt). Source LAT. ca~ 

cat ME. OE. cat (//): borrowed 
from OIR. CORN, cat or from 
ONFR. cat (FR. chat) and ident. 
with G. katze, ON. kottr, NORW. 
sw. katta. The word (base cattu-s) 
is in use in the Teut. Rom. Celt, 
languages; cp. late LAT. catta 
cattus 'cat'. 

catch vb. ME. cacche (with the 
earlier by-form cechen): borrowed 
from ONFR. cacher (= FR. cfiasser, 
SPAN, cazar, IT. cacciare), whence 
also ODU. caetsen 'to chase* DU. 
kaatsen 'play ball' and MLG. katzen 
'play ball'. Source a LAT. type 
*captiare = captare 'catch'. 
Hence catchpoll ME. cacchepol 
late OE. ccedepol prop, 'catcher 
of poultry' (cp. FR. poule under 
poult) = ONFR. *cachepol (OFR. 

chacepol) ; cp. G. kilmrvogt title 
of a tax-gatherer. 

cater sb. i$s..catour acatour acha- 
tour 'a buyer of provisions, a 
caterer' : source ONFR. #<:#/ = FR. 
achat 'a buying, purchase', whence 
FR. acheter. Orig. LAT. type 

caterpillar earlier form late ME. 
caterpd corrupted from OFR. 
chatepeleuse 'a weevil' lit. 'a hairy 
she-cat': OFR. chate 'a she-cat* 
+ peleuse (LAT. pilosus) 'hairy'. 
caterwaul ME. caterwawe shows 
the E. word cat in an extended 
form like caterpillar', ME. waive 
'make a noise' is imitative. 

catkin dimin. of cat\ cp. G. 
kdtzchen 'catkin'. 

cattle ME. cat el (chat el, whence 
E. chattel) : borrowed from ONFR. 
catel (OFR. chatel)\ source MED.- 
LAT. capitale 'capital, property'. 

caudle ME. caudeh borrowed 
from ONFR. caudel (chaudel = FR. 
chaudeau) 'a warm drink' ; deriv. 
of FR. chaud 'hot' (LAT. caldus 
calidus 'warm'). 

cause ME. causei adapt, from 
FR. cause (by-form chose) 'a cause, 
thing' = IT. LAT. causa. 

causeway causey corruption 
of causey (due to confusion with 
way) ME. cause from ONFR. cauce 
(whence also ODU. casseie) = 
FR. chaussee'. LAT. type (via) *cal- 
ciata 'a paved (way)' fr. calciare 

caution ME. caucioun: borrowed 
from "Em. caution (IT. cauzione) = 
LAT. cautio 'caution'. 

cave champion 

cave ME. cave: adapt, from FR. 
cave 'a. cave' (=rr. cavd)\ source 
LAT. cavus 'hollow'. 

cease ME. cesse cese: adapt, of 
FR. cesser = IT. LAT. cessare. 

ceil ciel ME. cele sele vb. lit. 
'emboss' from an earlier syle cyll 
'a canopy': source FR. ciel 'a ca- 
nopy' (FR. ciel, SPAN. IT. cielo 
'heaven, canopy, roof = LAT. 
ccelum 'heaven'). 

cerge ME. cerge\ adapt, from 
FR. cierge (IT. cero) ; source LAT. 
cereus 'a wax taper'. 

certain ME. certein certain : bor- 
rowed from FR. certain (=. IT. 
certano) from LAT. certanus, deriv. 
of cert us. 

chafe ME. ota/<?'warm': adapt, 
of FR. chauffer ; source a LAT. 
type caleficare (= LAT. cakfacere) 
'make warm'. 

chafer ME. * chafer OE. ceafor'. 
TEUT. base kafru-\ cp. the synon. 
DU. kever, OHG. chevaro G. kiifer 
(GOTH. *kifra *kafrus). Perh. 
chaff is cognate. 

chaff ME. chaf OE. deaf (= DU. 
LG. kaf)', akin to on.G.cheva 'pod, 
husk' and perh. to chafer. 

chaffer ME. chaff ere chaff are 
earlier chap-fare = OE. ceap 'a 
bargain' -j- faru 'a journey' also 
'business'; cp. ON. kaupfpr 'a 

chaffinch prop, 'the chaff- 

chain sb. ME. chaine\ borrowed 
from FR. chame OFR. cha'ine (= 
IT. LAT. catena)] ident. with DU. 
keten, OHG. chetinna G. kette. 

chair ME. chair e\ adapt, from 
FR. chair e (OFR. cha-ere)\ source 
LAT. cathedra (GR. xaS-sdQa) 'a 
chair, seat'. 

chalice ME. c(h)alice\ borrowed 
from OFR. chalice (calice = FR. 
calice , IT. calice)'. source LAT. 
cdlic-, stem of calix 'a cup'. From 
the same source also OE. cdlic" t 
OSAX. kelik, DU. kelk, OHG. kelih 
G. kelch. 

chalk ME. chalk OE. dealc 'chalk, 
lime' = DU. G. kdlk, ON. sw. 
DAN. kalki early loanword from 
LAT. calc- stem of calx 'lime- 
stone, chalk' (whence also FR. 
chauxy IT. calce, IR. GAEL, cailc, 
w. calch lime'). 

challenge sb. ME. chalenge 
'claim': adapt, from OFR. chalen- 
gier\ cp. IT. calogna 'accusation' 
= LA.T'Catumwa 'a slander, false 

chamber ME. chaumbre: bor- 
rowed from FR. chambre\ cp. IT. 
camera = LAT. camera camar a 
'a vault, a (vaulted) room'; 
ident. w. DU. kamer, OHG. chamara 
G. hammer 'chamber, office'. 
chamberlain ME. chaumberlein : 
borrowed from OFR. chambrelein 
chambrelenc (SPAN, camar Icngo, 
IT. camar lingo camerlengo] ; ident. 
w. MED. -LAT. camar- camerlingus, 
OHG. chan:jirlinc G. kammerling, 
formed with suffix line and LAT. 

champion ME. chaumpioun: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. champion (cp. DU. 
kampioen). LAT. type campio, IT. 
campione 'a combatant' (campus 

chance chapter 


'a battle, duel'). From the same 
source OE. cempa, OHG. chemph(i)o 
MHG. kempfe, OLG. kempio, ON. 
kappi 'warrior, hero'. 

chance ME. chaunce\ adapt, of 
FR. chance (whence also MHG. 
G.schanze] but DU. kans fr. ONFR. 
cance): OFR. che-ance, IT. cadenza 
point to a LAT. type cadentia 'a 
falling, chance' (esp. in dice- 

chancel ME. chauncel\ borrowed 
from OFR. chancel', MED. -LAT. can- 
celli plur. 'a grating, lattice-work', 
whence OHG. cancella chanzella G. 
kanzet 'pulpit' ', DU. kanseL chan- 
cellor ME. chaunceler chaunseljri 
borrowed from ~e^.chancelier (LAT. 
type cancellarius 'a chancellor', 
orig. 'an officer near the screen 
before the judge's bench', deriv. 
of LAT. cancellus 'grating ) . Ident. 
w. OHG. chancildri MHG. kanzelcere 
G. kanzler, DU. kanselier, DAN. sw. 
kansler, ICEL. kanzellari. chan- 
cery ME. chauncerie earlier chaun- 
cellerie: adapt, of ^^.chancellerie 
(ident. w. IT. cancelleria, DU. 
kanselarij, G. kanzlei, DAN. can- 
celli, sw. kanslt). 

chandelier from FR. chandelier 
= SPAN, candelero, Yt.candelliere', 
LAT. type candelarius also in 
DU. kandelaar\ cp. candle. - 
chandler ME. chaunceler \ loan- 
word fr. FR. chandelier 'a candle- 
maker, candle-stick' = IT. cande- 
lajo\ LAT. type candelarius. 

change vb. ME. chaungel adapt, 
from FR. changer (=SPAN. cambiar, 

IT. cambiare cangiare)\ source 
LAT. cambiare 'change, exchange'. 

channel ME. chanelle'. adapt, 
from OFR. chanel\ ident. w. E. 
canal (= FR. SPAN, canal, IT. 
canale, w.kanaal, G. sw. kanaf). 

chant vb. ME. chaunte: adapt, 
from FR. chanter ( SPAN, cantar, 
IT. LAT. cantare 'sing'). 

chap vb. ME. chappe 'cut, chop' 
= MDU. DU. happen, DAN. kappe, 
sw. kappa. 

chapel ME. chapele'. borrowed 
from FR. chapelle (= IT. LAT. 
capella, OHG. kapella G. kapelle, 
DU. DAN. kapel, sw. kapelt). LAT. 
capella (dimin. of capo) signified 
'a cape'; the chapel itself where 
the cloak of St. Martin and other 
relics were preserved first ob- 
tained the name capella', then 
from the 7 th cent, the use of 
the word became general. Cp. 

chaplain ME. chapelein : borrow- 
ed from FR. chapelain (== SPAN. 
capellan, IT. capellano, MED.-LAT. 
capellanus, orig. 'the priest guard- 
ing the cloak of St. Martin'). 
Cp. MHG. kapelldn G. kaplan, 
DU. kapelaan, DAN. sw. kapellan. 

chapman ME. chapman 'a mer- 
chant' shortened for OE. cfap- 
man = DU. koopman, OHG. chouf- 
man G. kaufmann. For OE. cejap 
'bargain, trade' cp. cheap. 

chapter ME. chapitre'. adapt, 
of FR. chapitre = LAT. capitu- 
lum 'a chapter of a book', 
whence also G. kapitel 'chapter 
of a book'. 

char cheek- 

Char vb. ME. cherre OE. cyrran 
wk. vb. 'turn': TEUT. base karrjan 
or karzjanl See ajar. 

charge vb. ME. charge] adapt, 
of FR. charger (IT. caricare, MED.- 
isKT.carricare load a car') ; deriv. 
of LAT. carrus = car. charge 
sb. ME. charge', adapt, from FR. 
charge (IT. carica) 'a load'. 

chariot ME. chariot: borrowed 
from FR. chariot, dimin. of char 
'a car'. 

charity ME. charite (cherite) : bor- 
rowed from FR. charitt (IT. carita 
LAT. caritatem). 

charm ME. charme'. borrowed 
from FR. charme 'an enchant- 
ment'; source LAT. carmen 'a 
song, enchantment'. 

chart ident. w. G. karte, DU. 
kaart\ borrowed from FR. charte\ 
source LAT. charta. - - charter 
ME. chartre charter: adapt, of 
FR. chartre 'a charter' (LAT. 
chartula 'a little paper'). 

chary ME. chdri OE. ceari^ 
'full of care , sad' = OSAX. 
OHG. karag (Heliand modkarag 
'sad') 'full of care' G. karg 'slow 
to give*. Cp. care. 

chase vb. ME. chdce chase: bor- 
rowed from FR. chasser (Picard. 
cachier see under catch)', LAT. 
type captiare. chase ME. 

chdce chase: adapt, from FR. 
chasse = IT. caccia 'chase'. 

chaste ME. chaste: borrowed 
from FR. chaste (IT. casto = LAT. 
castus 'chaste'). chaste vb. 
'chastise' ME. chastie also cJiasty: 
adapt, of OFR. c.hastier = FR. 

chatter (== SPAN, castigar , IT. 
LAT. castigare) ; ident. w. G. 
kasteien, ODU. castien. chastise 
vb. ME. chastise for the shorter 
chastie 'chasten'; see chaste vb. 

chattel ME. chatel chetel, ident. 
w. cattle: source OFR. chatel. 

chatter vb. ME. chat(e)re (chitere) 
'chatter', an imitative word. 

chaudron 'entrails' : borrowed 
from OFR. chaudun cauldun\ ident. 
w. G. kaldaunen. The synon. 
IT. calawm , Sicilian quadumi, 
Cat. escaldums point to vulgar 
LAT. *caldumen. 

cheap ME. ch$p 'trade, barter, 
price' OE. c$ap 'price' OSAX. 

kdp , DU. koOp , OHG. kouf G. 

>to/"trade, traffic'; source LAT. 
caupo 'huckstet'. 

cheat vb. ME. chfte short for 
eschgte 'escheat'. The meaning 
'defraud' was ushered in in the 
1 6 th cent, on account of the 
unscrupulousness of the eschea- 
ters. Cp. escheat. 

checker sb. ME. cheker chekker(e) 
'a chess-board' short for escheker 
'the exchequer : loanword from 
OFR. eschequier eschakier 'a chess- 
board, exchequer' = FR. Ichiquier 
(== IT. scacchiere , MED. -LAT. 

cheek ME. cheke OE. ceoce: TEUT. 
base keukbn also in OFRIS. tziake 
'jaw-bone' (modern sbke) ', akin to 
GOTH, kukjan = EASTFRIS. kilkkeii 
'kiss'. But ME. cheke ch$ke OE. cedce 
'jaw-bone' may also point to 
DU. kaak ODU. cake 'cheek': TEUT. 
base kakon- kekbn- ; cp. MLG. 

cheer chimney 

kdke (fr. *k&kd) and keke (fr. 
*keoka) 'gums, jaw-bone'. 

cheer sb. ME. there: adapt, of 
FR. chere (whence IT. cera). 

cheese ME. chese OE. cese (cyse] = 
DU. kaas, OSAX. OHG. kdsi G. kase : 
early loanword from LAT. caseus 
(whence also IT. cascio, SPAN. 
queso and OiR. caise). 

cherish vb. ME. cherisshe: adapt. 
ofFR.^/m.?-, stem of some parts 
of cMrir 'hold dear'; source FR. 
cher = LAT. car us 'dear'. 

cherry ME. chery in comp. 
chere- chiri- (plur. cherys cheries 
chiries), a new sing, developed 
from the supposed plur. *cheris 
*chiris OE. ciris cyrs OHG. 
kirsa G. kirsche. Source LAT. 
cerasus , whence the corresp. 
Rom. group IT. ciriega, FR. cerise 
from a vulgar LAT. type cer$sia. 

chess ME. ches(s)e\ borrowed 
from OFR. eschecs chess' prop, 
the plur. of eschec 'check' (IT. 
scacco, G. schach, DU. schaati). 
Source PERS. shah 'king*. 

chest ME. cheste (chiste) OE. 
test (ciste) = DU. kist, OHG. chista 
G. Iciste , ON. sw. kista , DAN. 
kiste. Source LAT. cista (GR. 
Y.i^irf) 'a box'. 

chestnut ME. chestein chastein 
'chestnut': loanword from OFR, 
chastaigne = FR. chdtaigne and 
ident. with OHG. kestinna G. 
kastanie , DU. kastanje. Source 
LAT. castanea. 

chew vb. ME. chewe OE. ceowan 
= DU. kauwen y MLG. keuwen, 
OHG. kiuwan G. kauen. A pre- 

TEUT. gtw cp. in osLoy. 
zivati 'chew'. 

chich 'a dwarf pea' ME. chiche\ 
borrowed from FR. chiche 'chick- 
pea* (= IT. cece, SPAN, chicharo, 
OHG. kichurra G. kicher). Source 
LAT. deer. 

chicken short for ME. chike OE. 
cycen plur. cycnu = DU. keuken 
kieken, G. dial, kiichen kuchlein. 
TEUT. base kiukma- is perh. 
traceable to OE. cocc = cock. 

chicory ident. w. DU. chikorei, 
G. cichorie, DAN. cikorie\ adapt, 
of FR. chic or e = IT. cicorea t 
LAT. cichorium ? 

chide vb. ME. chide OE. cidan 
'chide, brawl' : TEUT. base kidjan. 

chief ME. chef\ borrowed from 
FR. chef = SPAN, caboj IT. capo ; 
source LAT. caput 'head', 
chieftain ME. chevetdin cheve- 
tein\ borrowed from OFR. cheve- 
taine = MED.-LAT. capitdnus ; ident. 
w. captain. 

child ME. child (plur. childre) 
OS. clld (plur. cildru) : TEUT. 
base kilpiz- kelpaz-, not found 
elsewhere; but perh. akin to 
GOTH, inkilpb 'pregnant'. 

chill ME. chile OE. cyle cele fr. 
a TEUT. base /#//-; for the <f kal 
cp. cool and cold. 

chime ME. chimbe orig. 'cymbal', 
short for orig. iimble OE. cim- 
bal(a) : from LAT. cymbalum 'a 

chimney M&.chimnee earlier che- 
mene'\ loanword from FR. cheminee 
= IT. camttiinata, OHG. chemindta\ 

chin churl 

akin to G. kamin. Source LAT. 
caminus 'hearth'. 

chin ME. chin OE. cin = OSAX. 
OHG. kinni G. kinn, DU. kin. The 
older meaning- 'cheek' cp. in 
GOTH, kinnus 'cheek'. For a pre- 
TEUT. base genu- cp. GR. yswg 
'chin, jaw, jaw-bone', ytvsidc f. 
'chin, beard'; LAT. gena 'cheek' 
(denies genuini 'molar teeth') ; IR. 
gin 'mouth'; SKR. hanu-s jaw', 
hanavya 'jaw-bone'. 

chine ME. chine : adapted from 
OFR. esc hine = FR. tchine, which 
with IT. schiena 'the chine, back- 
bone' is traced to OHG. skina 
'the shin-bone' G. schiene 'shin, 
shin-bone, splint'; cp. shin. 

chip vb. ME. chippe 'cut into 
small pieces' = DU. G. kippen 
'hatch out'. 

chirp vb. ME. chirpe (chirke): 
an onomatopoetic word. 

chisel sb. ME. chisel: borrowed 
from OFR. cisel = FR. ciseau 
(IT. cesello MED.-LAT. sciselmn) 
'a chisel'; prob. ult. connected 
with scindere. 

chivalry ME. chivalrie: loanword 
from FR. chevalerie (deriv. of 
cheval from LAT. caballus 'a 

choice ME. chois(e) : borrowed 
fr. OFR. chois FR. choix 'a choice'. 
The FR. vb. choisir 'choose' points 
to a TEUT. kausjan; cp. choose. 

choir earlier quire ME. quer : 
borrowed from FR. choeur 'the 
choir of a church, a troup of 
singers': source LAT. chorus 'a 
band of singers'. 

choke ME. cJioke\ older by-form 
ME. a-cheke OE. a- ceo dan ? Phono- 
logy and etymology doubtful. 

choler ME. choler\ borrowed 
from FR. colere (= IT. coltera, 
LAT. cholera 'bile'). 

choose vb. older chilse with 
obscure phonology , but ME. 
chfse OE. ceosan 'choose' = 
OSAX. OHG. kiosan G. kiesen, DU. 
kiezen, ON. kjo'sa, GOTH, kiusan: 
TEUT. \^kus from pre-TEUT.y^itf 
in LAT. gus-tus gus-tare, GR. 
yf vco for ysvGM ', SKR. y~ ju$ 
'choose, like'. The TEUT. facti- 
tive tiausjan (cp. choice) appears 
in Slav, kusiti. 

chop vb. ME. choppe (chappe) 
'cut up, strike off; akin to DU. 
G. happen 'cut, lop'. 

chord cord fr. LAT. chorda. 

Christmas shortened for ME. 
Christesmasse OE. Cristesmcesse^rop. 
'the mass of Christ'. 

chronicle ME. cronicle with the 
by-form cronike (but late OE. 
cranic): from FR. chronlque ; ident. 
w. DU. kronijk, LAT. chronica. 

church ME. chirche OE. cyrcecirde 
older cirice = OSAX. kirika, DU. 
kerk, OHG. kirtcha G. kirchec\\urc\\. 
As shown by the E. palatalization 
and by the G. ch in kiricha, the 
word must have existed in the 
5 th cent.; but a GOTH. *kyreiko 
'church' is unrecorded. Source 
GR. Y.VQMY.QV (not found in LAT. 
nor in the Rom. languages). 

churl ME. chfrl OE. ceorl 'a 
churl' = DU. kerel, MLG. kerle LG. 
G. kerl: TEUT. base kerla-. With 

churn clean 


different vowel ON. karl 'old- 
man', OHG. karal MHG. karl 'man, 
husband, lover' ; hence the G. 
proper name Karl (LAT. Karolus, 
FR. E. Charles). 

churn sb. MR. chime OR. cyme-, 
the corresp. vb. churn is ME. 
chime OE. cyrnan from a TEUT. 
base kirnjan = ON. kirna, DU. 
LG. kernen karnen 'make butter* 
and the Vessel for making butter', 
is ON. kirna, DU. karn> LG. butter- 
kerne. Source a TEUT. base 
kerna- 'cream' in G. (prov.) kern, 
ICEL. kjarna 'cream'. 

cider ME. sider cider : from FR. 
cidre (== IT. cidro, SPAN, sidra] 
source LAT. sicera). 

cigar FR. cigare, SPAN. IT. 

cinder sb. ME. cinder sinder OE. 
sinder 'dross of iron' = ON. sindr 
'slag or dross from a forge', DU. 
sintels 'cinders, coke', OHG. sintar 
G. sinter 'dross of iron, scale'. 

cipher sb. ME. ciphre (== DU. 
cijfer, G. ziffer) \ loanword fr. 
OFR. cifre FR. ciffre t SPAN, cifra, 
IT. cif(e)ra. 

cite borrowed from FR. citer 
= LAT. citare (deriv. of LAT. 
citus 'quick'?). 

citizen ME. citesein formed after 
ME. denizein (cp. denizen) ] the 
earlier ME. riteyfo is an adapt, of 
OFR. citeien (FR. citoyeri). city 
ME. cite', loanword from FR. cite. 
Source LAT. civitatem. 

clack vb. ME. clacke = DU. 
klakken 'clack, crack'; akin to 
FR. claquer 'clap in applause'. 

claim vb. ME. claim e cleime'. 
borrowed fr. OFR. claimer cleimer 
(source LAT. clamare = IT. chia- 
mare 'call, name, send for'). 

clamp sb. after MDU. klawpe DU. 
klampj LG. klampe\ akin to MHG. 
klimpfen 'draw, press'. 

clan sb. borrowed from GAEL. 
clann = IR. clann OIR. eland 

clap vb. ME. clappe OE. cl&ppianl 
= DU. klappen, LG. klappen 
(whence G. klappen), OHG. klaphon 
G. klaffen. 

clasp ME. claspe, prob. akin to 
clap and OE. clyppan 'embrace*. 

clatter vb. ME. clatere OE. 
Delator ian (inferred from the 
verbal noun clatrung 'a clatter- 
ing') ; akin to DU. klateren 

claw sb. ME. clawe (by-form elf) 
OE. clawu (by-form elf a ctto) = 
OSAX. kldwa, DU. klaauw, OHG. 
klawa chlba MHG. klawe kid: a 
GOTH. *klewa f. is probable, 
though ON. *kld seems to point 
to *klowa. Pre-TEUT. \f * glu. 

clay ME. clai OE. cl&i = DU. 
LG. klei\ akin to OE. cldm 'clay' 
E. (dial.) cloam 'earthenware', 
OHG. kleimen y SCAND. kleima klina 
'besmear'. Outside of TEUT., 
GR. yXoi I y\i in yAo/o'g 'sticky 

clean ME. cl$ne (dene) OE. clcene 
= OSAX. kleniy DU. klten klein, 
OHG. kleini 'pretty* G. klein 'small' 
(GOT:n.*klai-ni- is wanting). The 
nasal belongs to the suffix. For 


clear cloister 

the root syll. cp. GR. yXoiog 'fat 
oil'. Hence cleanse for ME. 
dense OE. clcensian 'make clean': 
a causative vb. with formative -s. 

clear ME. der\ borrowed from 
OFR. der = FR. dair (SPAN, claro, 
IT. chiaro from LAT. darns). 

cleave l vb. 'adhere' ME. deve 
OE. dcofian = OSAX. klibdn, DU. 
kleven , OHG. kleben G. kleben 
'adhere'; GOTH. *klibbn not 
recorded. TEUT. \^klib. 

cleave 2 vb. 'split' ME. deve OE. 
deofan = OSAX. dioban *duban, 
DU. klovcn> OHG. klioban diliuban 
G. klieben'. TEUT. \{~klub : kleub 
cogn. w. GR. yhvytiv 'hollow out', 
perh. also w. LAT. glubere 'peel'. 

cleft ME. dift OE. *dyft OHG. 
G. kluft\ from the TEUT. \fkliib\ 
cp. cleave**. 

clergy ME. clergiel borrowed 
from OFR. dergie = FR. dergt 
(LAT. type dericatus). clerk 
ME. derk late OE. derc cleric (= 
DU. klcrk, FR. derc) \ source LAT. 

clever not yet found in Shakesp., 
a recent word, perh. developed 
from ME. deliver 'agile , nimble, 
lively' (from OFR. delivre 'prompt, 
alert'). Or cogn. w. LG. kluftig 
'wise, clever', DU. kluftigl 

clew sb. ME. clewe OE. deowen 

diiven 'clew' DU. kluwen : TEUT. 

base kliujina-'. dimin. of a shorter 

'base kliujo- = OHG. kliuwa (G. 

kniiuel) 'clew'. 

cliff ME. dif (deve) OE. dif 
(plur. clcofu) = ON. OSAX. DU. 
klif 'a cliff, rock'; cp. G. DAN. 

klippe, perh. akin to ON. klif a = 

climb vb- ME. dlmbe OE. climban 
= DU. klitnmen, OHG. klimban 
G. klimmen. The nasal was orig. 
a formative of the pres. tense 
as seen by ON. klif a, ME. dive 
'climb'. The TEUT. \fklib (cp. 
cliff) may be found in cleave 1 
and cling. 

clinch vb. ME. clenche OE. *den- 
cean = OHG. MHG. klenken 'knot 

cling vb. ME. clinge OE. dingan\ 
akin to sw. kldnga 'climb', DAN. 
klynge sig 'adhere to, climb'. 
\^kling -- \l"klimbl Cp. climb. 

clip 1 vb. 'embrace' (Shakesp.) 
ME. dippe OE. clyppan. Akin to 
OHG. klaftra G. klafter 'fathom'. 

clip' 2 vb. 'cut, shear' ME. dippe'. 
borrowed from ON. sw. klippa 
'clip, cut'. 

cloak by-form doke ME. cloke'. 
borrowed from OFR. doke cloque 
'a cloak'. 

clock ME. dokke'. prob. borrow- 
ed from ONFR. docke (FR. cloche) ; 
ident. w. o'&.clugge (clucceT)^ DU. 
klok, OHG. glocka G. glocke, ON. 
klukka. The ROM.- TEUT. docca 
is of CELT, origin; cp. CYMR. 

dock, OIR. doc (OCELT. kllikko) \ 

OE. ducge. 

clod ME. dodde\ a var. of clot. 

clog ME. dogge 'a lump, block'. 

cloister ME. doistre'. borrowed 
from OFR. doistre = FR. cloitre 
(SPAN, claustra, IT. chiostro). 
Source MED. - LAT. claustrum, 

close clutch 


whence also OHG. klostar G. 

close ME. close', borrowed from 
the OFR. part, clos =. LAT. clausus 
(OFR. clore ==. LAT. dander e). 
closet ME. closet from FR. closet 
(dimin. of OFR. clos 'a close'). 

clot ME. clotte (also clodde, see 

Clod) OE. *dott = MHG. klotZ 

(gen. klotzes) G. klotz. 

clotbur, clote ME. dote OE. elate : 
TEUT. base klaitbn-, cogn. w. the 
equiv. OE. dide, G. klette. 

cloth shortened for ME. dgth 
OE. clap (OE. cttdddp 'swaddling 
clothes') = - DU. kleed, G. kleid: 
TEUT. base klaipa. clothe 
vb. ME. clothe (clcde) OE. clddian 

cloud ME. cloude: scarcely ident. 
with OE. dud = ME. cloud 'a 
mass of rock, a hill'; source and 
history quite unknown. 

clout ME. * clout QT&.clut (whence 
ON. klutr) , ident. with w. dwt t 

IR. GAEL, dud, MANX dooidl 

clove 1 ME. dove clowe'. borrowed 
from OFR. do FR. clou 'a nail'; 
cp. SPAN, davo 'a nail' also 'a 
clove' fr. LAT. davus 'a nail'. 

clove 2 ME. clove OE. clufe 'clove' 
(esp. of garlic), in compounds 
dufpung 'crowfoot' dufwyrt 
'buttercup' (cp. OHG. chloblouh\ 
klofolouh klovolouh = G. knoblauch, 
DU. knofook 'garlic' with -n by 
dissimilation). The orig. meaning 
appears in OHG. klabo G. kloben 
c a split stick'. 

clover ME. dgver (cUver) OE. 

cldfre (cldfre) DU. klaver\ cp. 
LG. klever (and kldver). A shorter 
and more primit. form is OHG. 
kleo (gen. klewes) G. klee: base 
klaiw-. The formation 'of OSAX. 
*klebara =. OE. cldfre looks like 
a compound, the second ele- 
ment of which is unknown. 

clown borrowed from ICEL. 
klunni 'a clumsy, boorish fellow'; 
sw. dial, klunn 'a log' kluns 
'a clownish fellow', DAN. klunt 
'a log'? 

club ME. dubbe : borrowed from 
ON. klubba, by-form of ON. klumba 
'a club'. - - The meaning 'asso- 
ciation of persons' is a mod. 
application of a clump of people. 

cluck vb. ME. clucke clokke OE. 
cloccian (* 'due dan) = DU. klokken, 
MHG. klucken (glucken) G. glucken. 
The TEUT. group is onomato- 
poetic like LAT. glodre , GR. 
ylw^eiv 'cluck as a hen'. 

clumsy adj. earlier clumse ME. 
clumsed 'benumbed': orig. part, 
of ME. clumse 'benumb': of SCAND. 
origin; cp. sw. (dial.) klummsen 
'benumbed', akin to DU. kleumsch 
'numb with cold'. 

cluster ME. duster OE. duster 
(clyster} = LG. kluster'. akin to 
LG. (Hannover) klunder 'cluster 
of berries or fruit' and (Dit- 
marsch) klus 'cluster, grapes', 
DAN. klynge 'cluster'. 

clutch ME. clucche] connected 
with doche 'a claw*. The older 
ME. form is cUchenl 

4 6 

coach cole 

coach borrowed from FR. coche: 
a mod. common EUROP. word 
from HUNG, koszt 'wagon from 
the Hung, town Koszt \ cp. SPAN. 
coche, IT. cocchio, G. kutsche. 

coal ME. cole and col OE. col 

= DU. /<?>/, OHG. /fo/<? m. - 

&?/ n. G.kohle, ON. &?/ n. plur.J 
orig. 'a burning coal'; cp. SKR. 
ival 'burn bright, flame'. coal- 
mouse, also colemouse ME. 
col-mose OE. colmdse (= DU. kool- 
mees, G. kohlmeise)\ prop, 'coal- 
tit' on account of its black head; 
from col 'coal' -f- mdse ME. mose 
= G. meise, ON. metsingr, whence 
FR. mtsange 'tit-lark'. 

coast ME. cost(e): borrowed from 
OFR. coste (whence also DU. kuste 
=. G. kuste) =- FR. cote (IT. costa, 
MED.-LAT. costa 'coast'). 

coat ME. cote: borrowed from 
OFR. cote = FR. cotte (== SPAN. 
cota, IT. cotta 'a coat'). Source 
a TEUT. kotta- in OHG. chozzo 
MHG. kotze 'a coarse woolen 
mantle'. Cp. cot and #/<?. 

cock ME. cock OE. <r0 cocc (perh. 
cogn. w. chicken) = ON. kokkr t 
DAN. &?-; ident. w. FR. coq\ 
perh. of imitative origin. History 
unknown (earliest reference LAT. 
coccus in Lex Salica). 

cockle ME. cokel cokkel OE. cocel I 
coccel 'tares' borrowed from IR. 
cogal 'corn-cockle' (= GAEL. 
cogall 'tares, cockle') } 

cod 'husk, shell' ME. cod codde 
= ON. kodde 'pillow', 

sw. kudde 'cushion', DU. kodde 

coffee = DU. koffij, G. kaffee\ 
borrowed from TURK, qahweh = 
ARAB, qahweh 'coffee'. 

coffer ME. cofre : borrowed from 
FR. coffre (whence DU. G. koffer). 
Source LAT. cophinus, GR. xLrpivoc; 
'a basket'. From the same source 
also coffin ME. coffin: borrowed 
from OFR. cofin (== SPAN, cofin, 
IT. cofano). 

cog ME. cogge = sw. cugge\ 
prob. of CELT, origin, cp. GAEL. 
IR. cog, w. cocas 'a cog'? 

coif ME. coif', borrowed from 
FR. coiffe from MED.-LAT. cofia 
cof(e)a\ akin to MHG. kuffe OHG. 
chuppa from OHG. chuph G. kopf. 
Cp. cup. 

coil vb. borrowed from OFR. 
coillir = FR. cueillir 'collect' 
(LAT. colligere 'gather together). 

coin ME. coin', borrowed from 
FR. coin 'wedge' (OFR. coin 'wedge, 
stamp upon a coin, a coin'). 
Source LAT. cuneus 'wedge'. 

cold ME. cold OE. cctld (ceald) 
= GOTH, kalds, ON. kaldr, OSAX. 
kald, OHG. G.kalt, DU. koud'. an old 
partic. formation in LAT. -tits, 
SKR. -fa-s (GOTH, d from Aryan 
/, cp. old, loud, dead etc.). 
A TEUT. verbal ^kal cp. in OE. 
calan, ON. kala 'freeze'; a corresp. 
Aryan \fgel is seen in LAT. gelu 
'the cold' and gelidus 'cold'. Cp. 
chill and cool. 

cole 'cabbage' ME. col fr. ONFR. 
col = FR. chou\ the ME. by-form 

collier cornet 


caul = OE. cdwl from LAT. caulem 
(caulis). Cp. OHG. kol G. kohl. 

collier ME. colilr'. deriv. of coal 
with -ier as in lawyer. 

collop ME. colopes'. ident. with 
SWED. kalops, G. klops\ source LG. 
kloppen (G. klopferi) 'beat'? 

color ME. colour from OFR. colour 
= FR. couleur (LAT. color-em). 

colt ME. OE. #?// 'a young ass'; 
perh. akin to SKR. gardabha 'ass'? 

comb sb. ME. fop/ OE. itf#* 
'comb, crest' = G. kamm, DU. 
DAN. sw. taw: TEUT. base kamba- 
from an Aryan gombho- in GR. 
yopynq 'peg' (ya/ucMf 'jaw'), SKR. 
iambha 'jaw, teeth'. 

come vb. ME. ^w//<? OE. cuman 
= DU. komen, OSAX. human, OHG. 
koman G. kommen y ON. koma\ cp. 
GOTH, qiman'. a common TEUT. 
str. vb. human qeman fr. an Aryan 
\fgem in SKR. gam, GR. (jaivo)) 
LAT. ^?> (for *gvemu>). 

comely ME. f ##;// <rw//y OE. cymlic 
'fine, handsome'; cogn. w. OHG. 
kumig 'delicate, weak' and G.kaum 

cony sb. ME. ^/ earlier ^/^ 
'rabbit': adapt, from OFR. connin, 
whence also DU. konijn, G. kanin- 
chen. Source LAT. cuniculus (OFR. 
0#//) in a by-form cunlnus. 

cook sb. ME. ^ OE. coc\ loan- 
word fr. ^^.Ti.coquus, whence OHG. 
G. koch and IT. cuoco, OFR. queux. 
The vb. cook ME. coke is 
derived from the sb. by in- 
fluence of LAT. coquere (= G. 
kochen, DU. koken), whence also 
FR. cuire 'cook'. 

COOl ME. OE. col = LG. kdl, DU. 

koel, OHG. kuoli G. kit hi: TEUT. 
base kolu- from the TEUT. \fkal 
kol under cold. Deriv. keel. 
coot 'a bird' ME. cote OE. *cpt(a) 

= DU. ^/ 'C00t'. 

cope vb. Vie with, match' orig. 
'bargain or chaffer with': a loan- 
word fr. w.koopen 'buy', cogn. w. 
OE. ceapian 'cheapen' from OE. 
ceap 'bargain'. Cp. cheap. 

copper ME. coper OE. copor\ 
borrowed from vulgar LAT. cup- 
rum 'copper' (orig. cuprium aes 
'Cyprian brass'). From the same 
source OHG. kupfar G. kupfer, 
DU. koper and FR. cuivre. 
copperas ME. coperose from OFR. 
coper os e = IT. copparosa, LAT. 
cupri rosa lit. 'copper-rose'. 

copse earlier coppice contr. of 
OFR. copeiz derived from OFR. 
coper (FR. couper) 'cut'. 

cork =; G. DAN. sw. kork, 
DU. kurk: borrowed from SPAN. 
corcho 'cork' = LAT. corticem 
(cortex) 'bark'. 

corn 1 'grain' ME. OE. corn = 
DU. koren, G, ON. DAN. sw. korn t 
GOTH, kaurn: TEUT. korna- = 
pre-TEUT. base grno- cogn. w. 
LAT. grdnum, RUSS. zerno. 

corn 2 'a hard excrescence on 
toe or foot': borrowed from FR. 
corne (= LAT. cornu 'horn'). 

corner ME. corner', borrowed 
fr. MED. -LAT. corneria 'corner, 
angle' (LAT. cornu 'horn'). 

cornet ME. cornet cornette 'a horn' : 
borrowed fr. FR. cornet cornettc t 
dimiri. of FR. corne 'a horn'. 

4 8 

cornice country 

cornice a loanword from OFR. 
cornice fr. IT. cornice 'a cornice, 
border, ledge' (LAT. type comix 
'a border' contr. of MED. - LAT. 
coronix a square frame'). 

corps ME. corps', a loanword 
from FR. corps cors from LAT. 

corpse ME. corps', borrowed 
from OFR. corps cors = LAT. 

corset dimin. of ME. cors 'a 
body'; cp. corpse. corslet 
corselet', a loanword fr. FR. corse- 
let , dimin. of OFR. cors with 
suffix -et. 

cost vb. ME. coste\ borrowed 
fr. OFR. coster (= FR. coi~iter, 
LAT. constare), whence also DU. G. 

costume ME. custume (and 
custome): adapt, fr. OFR. costume 
FR. coutume = IT. costume (MED.- 
LAT. costuma = LAT. consuetti- 
dinem). Cp. custom, 

COt ME. OE. COt = LG. DU. ON. 

G. kot 'hut': TEUT. base kuta-. 

cote (in comp. dove-cote, sheep- 
cote) ME. cote OE. cot = G. kote. 
The TEUT. word passed into 
SLAV. (OSLOV. /&?/&/ 'cella'). Akin 
to cot. 

cottage ME. cotdge fr. OFR. co- 
iage\ deriv. of TEUT. kota- under 
cot and cote. 

cotton ME. cotoun\ a loanword 
fr. FR. coton =- IT. cotone '. source 
ARAB, qoton 'cotton'. 

couch vb. ME. couche'. adapt, 
fr. FR. coucher (earlier cole her 
IT. colcare) fr. LAT. collocare. 

couch-grass sb. ; see quitch' 

cough ME. coughe (OE. cohhettan) 
= DU. kugchen, MHG. kitchen. 

council adapt, fr. FR. concile 
'a council, an assembly, session' 
from LAT. concilium 'an assembly 
called together'. counsel 

ME. conseil counseil\ loanword fr. 
FR. conseil (LAT. consilium 'deli- 

j count sb. (ME. *counte is not 
recorded, but inferred fr. ME. 
countesse E. countess) loanword fr. 
FR. comte 'a count, an earl'. 
Source LAT. comite?n (comes) 'a 
companion, a count'. 

count vb. ME. counte'. borrowed 
fr. FR. conter (source LAT. com- 
putare 'compute, reckon'). 

countenance ME. countenaunce : 
loanword fr. OFR. contenance 'be- 
havior, carriage' (LAT. contmentia 

counter 'contrary' fr. FR. contre 
= LAT. contra 'against'. 

counterfeit ME. counterfeit : 
borrowed fr. OFR. contr ef ait, part, 
of contrefaire 'imitate'. 

counterpane 'a coverlet for a 
bed' earlier counterpoint: loan- 
word fr. OFR. contrepoinct 'the 
quilting stitch'; prop, connected 
with OFR. contr epoincter 'quilt'; con* 
trepoinct\s a corruption of coutre- 
poinct coutepoint 'a counterpane' 
(source LAT. culcita puncta 'a 
stitched quilt'). 

country ME. cuntre contre: 
loanword fr. FR. contree (= IT. 
contrada). Source MED. - LAT. 

county crab * 


contrata derived fr. LAT. contra 
(Cp. G. g eg end from gegen). 

county ME. counte; borrowed 
fr. OFR. contt 'county' (deriv. of 
FR. comte = count sb.). 

couple ME. couple', adapt, fr. 
FR. couple ( LAT. copula) 'a 
bond, band'. 

courage ME. cor age: adapt, fr. 
FR. courage (LAT. type coraticuni). 

court ME. curt', borrowed fr. 
OFR. curt cort (source LAT. cortis 
'a court-yard, palace'). Hence 
courteous transformed fr. ME. 
curteis = OFR. corteis FR. courtois. 

cousin ME. cosin cousin', adapt, 
fr. FR. cousin (MED. -LAT. co sinus 
for LAT. consobrinus 'a cousin'). 

cove ME. cove ov.cofa 'a chamber, 
cave' = ON. kofi 'hut'. GOTH. 
*kuban- is wanting. 

covenant ^ss..convenant covenant'. 
loanword fr. FR. convenant cove- 
nant : pres. part, of convenir 'agree'. 

cover vb. ME. cover e: borrowed 
fr. OFR. covrir cueuvrir FR. couvrir. 
Source LAT. cooperire 'cover. 

covet vb. ME. cuveite'. adapt 
fr. OFR. cuveiter covoiter = FR. 
convoiter (Lat. type *cupiditare 

covey borrowed fr. OFR.. covle 
= FR. couve~e 'a covey of par- 
tridges', prop. part, of FR. couver 
'hatch' (source LAT. cubare 'lie 

cow sb. ME. cu (plur. kie kfe) 
OE. cu (plur. cy) = ON. kyr, 

DU. koe, MLG. kd, OHG. MHG. kuo 

G. kuh\ -TEUT. base ko- 'cow' 

kilCit.lSH ETY'iOLOLY. 

from an Aryan stem gow- (go-) 
in SKR. gdus (ace. gain), GR. 
ftovg (stem /ft)/), LAT. bos. 

cow vb. (ME. *couwe earlier 
*cugen are unrecorded): loan- 
word fr. SCAND. kuga 'cow, tyran- 
nize over' = DAN. kue 'cow', sw. 
kufva 'check, curb'. 

coward ME. couard coward'. 
borrowed fr. OFR. couard coart 
coard = IT. codardo (formed 
with suffix -ard and OFR. coe FR. 
queue = LAT. cauda 'tail'). 

cower vb. ME. coure: borrowed 
fr. ON. kura (sw. kura, DAN. 
kure) 'lie quiet, rest'. 

cowl 1 'a monk's hood, a cap, 
hood' ME. couel earlier cuwel 
OE. cugle 'a cowl' (= MHG. kuget) . 
loanword fr. LAT. cucullus 'hood : 

cowl 2 'a vessel carried on a 
pole': borrowed fr. OFR. cuvel 
= FR. cuveau, prop, 'a little 
tub' (source LAT. cupa 'a vat, 

cowslip OE. cuslyppe, ciisloppe. 

coxcomb corrupted fr. cock's 
comb 'cock's crest'. Cp. cock 
and comb. 

coxswain, cockswain 'steersman 
of a boat' from cock 'a boat' 
and swain 'the person in com- 
mand of the boat'. 

coy: adapted fr. OFR. coi (coif). 
Source LAT. quietus 'quiet, still'. 

cozen vb. 'flatter, beguile': 
adapt. fr.FR. cousiner 'call cousin, 
sponge' fr. FR. cousin. Cp. co u sin. 

crab ! ME. crabbe OE. crabba 
= ON. krabbi, sw. krabba t DAN. 

crack cream 

krabbe, DU. krab, MLG. krabbe 
(whence G. krabbe)'. akin to 
OHG. kreba^ = G. krebs FR. crabe 
fr. TEUT. Ident. w. crab 2 'a 
kind of apple' ME. crabbe\ a 
Scand. loanword; cp. sw. krabb- 
dple. crabbed 'peevish, cramp- 
ed'; perh. fr. crab 1 . 

crack vb. ME. crake krake OE. 
cracian = DU. kraken, OHG. kra- 
chon chrahhbn G. krachen : TEUT. 
\fkrak fr. pre-TEUT. grg\ cp. 
SKR. grg 'rustle, crackle'. 

cracknel formerly crakenel cor- 
rupted fr. FR. craquelin 'a crack- 

cradle ME. crddel OE. cradol'. 
a Celt, loanword, cp. IR. craidhal, 
GAEL, creathair^. cradle, a grate'; 
cp. crate. 

craft ME. craft OE. craft = OSAX. 
craft, DU. kracht, G. kraft, ON. 
kraptr. crafty ME. crafti OE. 
crcefti^ = OHG. c href tig G. krdftig. 

crag ME. mz^-: borrowed fr. w. 
craig, GAEL, creag. 

crake 'a bird' so named fr. its 
cry; cp. ME. crake 'cry out' under 

cram vb. ME. cramme OE. cram- 
mian ON. kremja, sw. krama, 
DU. kramme 'squeeze'. 

cramp ME. crampe OE. *crgmp 
(inferred fr. crpmpeht 'full of 
wrinkles') = DU. LG. kramp, G. 
krampf'. a common WEST-TEUT. 
term for 'spasm, cramp'. 

crane ME. crane OE. cran = 
OLG. krano t DU. kraan, MHG. 
krane] with formative guttural OE. 

cornuc, OHG. chranuh chranih(h) G. 
kranich\ cp. the cogn. GR. vspafoc, 
CYMR. ^r ; OSLOV. zeravi, LITH. 
gerwe. LAT. ,fr^^ (gen. gru-is) 
agrees with OHG. chreia 'crane'. 

crank sb. ME. cranke. TEUT. 
base krank 'twist' allied to cramp. 

cranny ME. crany\ formed by 
adding E. -y to YR.cran 'a notch'. 

crape borrowed fr. FR. crepe 
(OFR. crespe = LAT. crispus). 

crash vb. a var. of craze and 
crack\ a Scand. loanword; cp. 
sw. krasa, DAN. krase 'crackle'. 
Cp. crack. 

cratch j&s,.cracche crecche: bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. creche (FR. creche) 
which is of Teut. origin; cp. 
OSAX. kribbia 'crib' under crib. 

crate borrowed fr. LAT. crates 
'a hurdle'. 

cravat (= G. kravatte) bor- 
rowed fr. FR. cravate (from Cra- 
vates 'a Creation'). 

crave vb. ME. crave OE. crafian 
= ON. krefja 'crave, demand', 
sw. krdfva 'demand', DAN. krave 
'crave, exact'. Perh. the E. word 
is borrowed from Scand. 

craven ME. cravant 'beaten, 
overcome' shortened fr. OFR. 
cravante 'oppressed', partic. of 
cravanter (source a LAT. type 
*crepantare 'crack, break'). 

craw (by-form crag 'neck, 
crop') ME. crawe OE. *craga' t 
GOTH. *kraga is wanting. 

cream ME. cr{me from FR. creme 
(OFR. cresme, LAT. cremor). 

creed crown 

creed sb. ME. crede OE. creda\ 
loanword fr. LAT. credo 'I believe' 
(credo in deum patrem etc.) ; 
cp. the origin of dirge. 

creek ME. creke crike (OE. *creoca 
*crica}\ perh. a Scand. loanword 
from ON. krike 'crack, nook'. 

creep vb. ME. crepe OE. crfopan 
str. vb. ; cp. DU. kruipen, LG. 
krupen, ON. krjiipa. Akin to G. 
kricchen OHG. kriohhan'. TEUT. 
y~ krup kruq. Cp. cripple. 

cress ME. cresse earlier kerse 
OE. cerse ccerse', ident. with G. 
kresse OHG. kressa, DU. kers and 
TtK..cresson> IT. crescione. Phono- 
logy, history and origin quite 
obscure ; common base a LAT. 
type *crexo(nem] ? 

crest ME. creste from OFR. creste 
FR. crfae (LAT. cristd). 

crib ME. cribbe OE. m'^ ry 
= OSAX. kribbia, DU. /rz$, G. 
krippe OHG. krippa'. TEUT. base 
kribjo (krubjo) akin to OHG. kreba. 
Cp. cratch. 

crimson ME. crimosin from OFR. 
cramoisin = FR. cramoisi. 

cringe vb. ME. crenge OE. <rr<?#- 
vz# : TEUT. base krangjan, deriv. 
from OE. cringan 'sink, fall in 
battle', cogn. w. G. krank 'sick'. 

cripple ME. cripel OE. crypel = 
DU. kreupel 'cripple'; prop, 'a man 
who creeps'; TEUT. base krupila-, 
deriv. fr. \f^krnp in creep. 

crisp ME. OE. crisp = OHG. 
/ra/: an early loanword fr. LAT. 
crispus 'curled'. 

croak vb. ME. croke OE. *crdcian 
(inferred from OE- cr&cetung 

'croaking'): TEUT. base krekon 
krdkon] akin to crackt 

crock ME. crocke OE. crocca\ 
borrowed fr. OIR. croccan-, perh. 
cogn. with G. krug OHG. kruog, 
LG. kruke, OE. croh crpg. 

croft ME. OE. croft 'small field' 
= ODU. krochte 'high and dry 
land' DU. kroft 'hillock'. 

crook sb. ME. crok OE. *crpc 
= ON. krdkr krdkr 'hook', ODU. 
croeCy DAN. krog 'hook'. Akin to 
OHG. krdko 'hook' (as E. hook 
is to G. haken). 

crop ME. cropp OE. cropp. 

crosier ME. croser croiser. 

cross ME. cross (whence SCAND. 
kross, SW.-DAN. kors): borrowed 
from OIR. cross (CYMR. croes). 
Source LAT. crftx whence also 
FR. croix (ME. crois from OFR. crois) ; 
OIR. crock and OHG. OSAX. krfai 
G. kreuz point to the infl. LAT. 

crow vb. ME. crowe OE. craw an 
= DU. kraaien, G. krdhen OHG. 
krden : TEUT. base a str. vb. 
krtyan, but orig. not restricted 
to the cock ; s crowing as shown 
by the sb. crow ME. cro'we OE. 
crdwe = G. krahe OHG. krdia. 

crowd vb. ME. croude OE. 
criidan str. vb. 'crowd, press' = 
ODU. criiden 'push, thrust' (DU. 
kr uteri), MLG. kruden kroden vb. 
'molest': TEm.^kr&d. 

crown ME. crune (whence ON. 
kruna, cp. ODU. crune DU. kruiri) 
earlier by-form coroune corune: 
borrowed during the reign of 

cruel curb 

William the Conqueror fr. OFR. 
corone = FR. couronne 'crown'. 
Source LAT. corona 'crown', 
whence also OE. corenbeag 'crown 
and OHG. korona G. krone. 

cruel ME. cruel (crew^T) fr. FR. 
cruel = LAT. crudlis 'severe' in 
a vulgar form crudalis. 

crumb = ME. crombe short for 
croume OE. criima (cp. thumb 
OE. fuma) = DU. kruim ODU. 
crume, LG. G. krume (OSAX. *kriimd) . 
The m is derivative; cp. the 
TEUT. y* kru in G. krauen OHG. 
krouwon vb. 'scratch'. 

cruse ME. crouse OE. ^T#.f (cp. 
E. raw* OE. rz/#z) ODU. kruiSj 
MHG. nfcr* G. krau9c\ akin to 
ODU. DU. kroes, ME. rr<fr. 

crust ME. cruste fr. OFR. cruste 
FR. *r0/ LAT. rrj/0 'crust 
of bread'. 

crutch ME. crucche OE. crycc = 
DU. /r&, OHG. cruccha G. krilcke 
'crutch': TEUT. base krukjd-\ 
ident. w. IT. croccia 'crutch', FR. 
crosse , which rest on a LAT. 
crucea , deriv. of crux crucis 
'cross'. Therefore crutch krukja 
crucea meant originally 'stick 
having a cross'. 

cry vb. ME. criel adapted fr. 
FR. crier 'cry'. 

cuckold ME. cukewold'. trans- 
formation of FR. coucou 'cuckoo', 
whence also E. cuckoo ME. 

cudgel OE. cycgel'. dimin. of 
a lost primitive OE. *cydg\ base 

kugja- ? 

cuff sb. ME. cuffe coffe 'sleeve'; 
perh. ident. w. late OE. cuffie 
'coif under coif. 

cull vb. ME. culle (cole coille} 
vb. 'gather, select' fr. OFR. coillir 
= FR. cueillir 'collect' (source 
LAT. colligere). 

culver ME. culver (colver) OE. 
culfre culufre 'dove'; not found 
in the other TEUT. languages, 
prob. of LAT. origin : LAT. columba 
'dove' in a vulgar form *colubra ? 

cumber vb. ME. cumbre vb. 
'annoy' fr. OFR. combrer, whence 
also G. kummer MHG. kumber ; the 
base MED.-LAT. combrus 'rubbish, 
bank of earth, ruins' rests on a 
GALL. -LAT. combero- 'that which 
is carried together'. 

cummin ME. comin late OE. 
cumin (= DU. komijri) fr. OFR. 
comin =. FR. cumin. Source 
LAT. cuminum, whence also a 
TEUT. kumm in OE. cymen, OHG. 
kumm kumil G. kummel. 

cunning ME. cunninge\ deriv. 
of OE. cunnan = know. 

CUp ME. OE. CUppe 'cup' = MHG. 

'opfy ODU. kop 'beaker, cup': 
loanword fr. LAT. cuppa (cupa), 
whence also OE. ME. cop (copp) 

summit, head', G. kopf 'head'. 

cur ME. curre corre = ODU. 
korre 'watch-dog', SWED. (dial.) 
kurra 'a dog'; cp. LG. G. (dial.) 
kurren vb. 'growl'. Therefore cur 
prop, 'a growler'? 

curate see cure. 

curb vb. ME. cur be 'to bend' 
fr. FR. courber 'bend'. 

curd dagger 


curd vb. w. metathesis fr. ME. 
crudde vb. : a CELT, loanword, 
deriv. fr. TR. gruth 'curds'? or 
cogn. with crowd! cp. LAT. coagu- 
lum fr. cogere! 

cure ME. dire fr. FR. cure = 
LAT. cura. - - curate ME. cilrdt 
= MED. -LAT. curdtus (in FR. 
pronunciation; cp. curious ME. 
curious fr. LAT. curiosusT). 

curfew ME. curfeu (curfew^ fr. 
OFR. covreftu (cp. poor fr. OFR. 
povre): prop, the sign for put- 
ting out fires. 

curious see cure. 

curl vb. deriv. fr. ME. crul (II) 
adj. 'curly' - DU. krul\ WEST- 
TEUT. krull- for kruzl- krusl- is 
cogn. with ODU. kruis , G. kraus 
MHG. krus 'curly* (aso ME. crous 

curlew ME. curlew (cor lew) 
fr. OFR. cor lieu = FR. cotirlieu 
'a bird's name' ('scolopax ar- 
quata'), composed of OFR. corre 
'to leap' and lieu 'lightly*. 

curry vb. ME. currle curraie 
vb. fr. OFR. conreier\ LAT. type 
con-redare ? 

curse vb. ME. curse OE. cursian 
'to curse'; cogn. with OIR. cursa- 
chaim 'I curse'. Source and 
history unknown. 

curtain sb. ME. cur tin cortin fr. 
OFR. cortine = LAT. (also IT. 
SPAN.) cortina 'curtain'. 

curve adj. fr. LAT. curvus 

cushion ME. cusshin (cusshen 
cuss htm) cussin quissin (guisshen) 
fr. OFR. coissin = FR. coussin 
'cushion'; cp. SPAN, coxin, IT. 
cuscino and ident. w. DU. kussen 
ODU. cussin i ,G. kussen kissen OHG. 
kussin 'cushion'. Source a MED.- 
LAT. coxinum prop, deriv. of LAT. 
coxa 'hip, haunch' = FR. cuisse 
'thigh', whence E. (Shakesp.) 
cuisse 'piece of armor for the 

custom ME. custome earlier form 
(c. noo) custibne fr. OFR. custume 
(vR.coutume) = IT. PROV. costumai 
source a LAT. type *consuetumen 
instead of LAT. consuetudo. 

cut vb. ME. cutte (by-form with 
umlaut kitte) : a ME. vb. of CELT. 
origin; cp. CYMR. cwtan vb. 
'shorten' cwta adj. 'short'. 

cutlas fr. FR. coutelas IT. 
coltellaccio prop, 'a large knife': 
ROM. deriv. of LAT. culter 'knife'. 
Cp. FR. couteau = OFR. coutel 
'knife' fr. LAT. cultellus. Hence 
FR. coutelier = ME. cuteler E. 
cutler 'maker of knives'. 


dace from ME. darce darse : I called from its swiftness). See 
from OFR. dars, nom. also spelled \dart. 
dart 'a dart', also 'a fish' (so | dagger ME. dagger = ON. dag- 

dainty dandelion 

gardr, DU. daggert: of Celt, origin, 
borrowed from w. dagr = IR. 
daigear\ BRET, dag = GAEL, dag a : 
all synon. 

dainty ME. deinte: borrowed 
from OFR. deinte "dignity, im- 
portance, value' (the ME. by- 
form dainteth is an ANGLO-NORMAN 
deinted 'pleasure'). Source LAT. 
dignitatem (dainty and dignity are 

dairy ME. deter le 'room for a 
milk-woman'; ME. deie 'milk-woman' 
(hence day-woman 'dairy-wo- 
man' Shakesp.) is borrowed from 
ON. deigja 'milk-woman' ( a), 
which is supposed to be a deriv. 
of TEUT. daiga- (under dough) 
and to mean prop, 'the bread- 
maker, kneader of dough'. Cp. 
dough and lady. 

dais ME. deis\ borrowed from 
OFR. dels later dais 'a high table 
in a hall' = FR. dais 'a canopy' 
(base MED. -LAT. discus 'a table' 
= LAT. discus 'plate, platter' see 
under dish). 

daisy ME. daies-ie daies-eie OE. 
dceges-eage\ prop, 'the eye of the 
day'; cp. day and eye. 

dale ME. dale OE. deel plur. dalu 
(ME. E. e in dale is derived from 
the OE. plur. dalu or from the sing. 
infl. dales jdcele). The TEUT. base 
dala- cp. also in the synon. GOTH 
dais, ON. dalr, os AX. dal, OHG. 
MHG. tal (mod. that). 

dally vb. ME. dalye points to 
GOTH. *dalon OE. *dalian ( G. 
dahlen). The ending y is a 

southern continuation of the OE. 
infinit. in -ian (== OHG. * talon!). 

dam ME. dam(me) OE. *dam(mm) 
= G. damm, DU. dam, ON. dammr 
(GOTH, faurdammjan = OE. for* 
demman 'dam up). 

damage ME. damage : borrowed 
from OFR. damage damage FR. 
dommage 'harm' (IT. dannajo), LAT. 
type damnaticum 'harm' (LAT. dam- 
num 'loss, injury' under damn). 

dame ME. dame: borrowed from 
FR. dame, whence also G. DU. 
dame. Source LAT. domina lady' 
(= IT. donna)', cp. damsel. 

damn vb. ME. dam(p)ne : borrow- 
ed from OFR. damner dampner 
FR. damner (= SPAN, danar, IT. 
dannare) = LAT. damnare 'con- 
demn, fine' (LAT. damnum 'injury, 

damp ME. *damp DU. LG. 
damp Vapor', G. dampf 'vapor, 

damsel ME. dam.esele damisde'. 
borrowed from OFR. damisele 
dameisele = FR. demoiselle. The 
source is MED. -LAT. domicella 'a 
young lady', LAT. type dom(i}ni- 
cella, dimin. of domina 'a lady'. 

dance vb. ME daunce daunse: 
borrowed from FR. danse,-, whence 
also DU. dansen, G. tanzen, DAN. 
dandse,sw.dansa. TheOFR.danser 
is traced to an OHG. danson 
'draw, trail'. 

dandelion : borrowed from FR. 
dent de lion (== SPAN, diente de leon t 
IT. dente di leone)'. prop, 'lion's 
tooth', so called from the jagged 

danger day 


leaves of the plant (G. lowen- 
zahti) . 

danger ME. daunger: borrowed 
from FR. danger 'danger'. Source 
a LAT. type *dominiarium 'power' 
from LAT. dominium 'sovereignty'. 

dank 'damp 5 ME. dank: borrow- 
ed, from the Scand.? cp. SAV. 
dial, dank 'a marshy piece of 
ground' = ICEL. dokk for *danku 
'pit, pool'. 

dapper ME. daper 'pretty, neat'; 
cp. ON. dapr 'sad, dreary', DTJ. 
dapper 'brave' , OHG. tapfar G. 
tapfer 'valiant, brave'. 

dapple 'a spot, dot' 'a dap- 
pled horse' ME. in dappel-grayi 
perh. Scand. loanword from 
ON. depill 'a spot, dot' (dapi 'a 

dare ME. dor OE. dear 'I dare* 
= GOTH. dars, OHG. tar. The 
TEUT. \f dars darz is akin to GR. 
dpatisTv 'be bold' dpaovq 
bold' and SKR. dhrs 'dare' I 
Aryan \fdhers. 

dark ME. derk OE. deorc\ perh. 
akin to OIR. derg 'red' : common 
base dhergo- (cp. also OIR. dorche 

darling ME. derling shortened 
from OE. dear ling 'a favorite': 
deriv. of dear = OE. deore. 

dart ME. dart from OFR. dart 
FR. dard (= SPAN. IT. dardo] ', 
of TEUT. origin: OE. darod, ON. 
darradr also shorter darr. 

dash vb. ME. dasshe\ corre- 
sponding to DAN. daske (~ sw. 
daska) 'slap, strike'. Scand. 
origin of the E. word (OE. *das- 

ci'an *daxiari) is improbable, 
E. sh pointing to a hereditary 

date 1 'an epoch, given point 
of time' ME. date from the synon. 
FR. date (MED. -LAT. datum, whence 
G. datum). 

date 2 'fruit of the palm' ME. 
date', borrowed from OFR. date 
= FR. dattei source LAT. -GR. 
dactylus, whence also G. dattei, 
DU. dadel. 

daub vb. ME. daube\ borrowed 
from OFR. dauber 'whiten' from 
*dalber = LAT. dealbare 'whiten, 
plaster' (LAT. albus 'white'). 

daughter ME. daughter OE. dotitor 
= DU. dochter, OSAX. dohtar, OHG. 
MHG. tohter G. tochter, ON. dottir, 
GOTH. dauhtar\ ident. with the 
synon. LITH. dukti, OSLOV. dusti: 
Aryanbase^//e/<?r; an Aryan base 
dhugater appears in GR. &vya- 
TI-JO, SKR. duhitdr, AVEST. duydar 
'daughter'. SKR. duhitar 'daughter' 
is traced to the SKR. \fduh 
'milk' and is interpreted as 'the 
milk maid'. 

daunt vb. ME. daunte: borrow- 
ed from OFR. donter FR. dompter 
= IT. dbftff&ri 'subdue, tame' : the 
source is l^l.domitare (frequent, 
of domare). 

day ME. day dai OE. dcp,^ = 

GOTH, dags, OHG. MHG. tac(g) G. 

tag, DU. OSAX. dag, ON. dagr\ 
by-forms OE. dogor, ON. dcegr (fr. 
dogaz dogiz] : all connected with 
the SKR. \fdah (for Aryan dhegh'. 
dhdgfi) 'burn'. This root appears 
also in LITH. degti 'burn' 

dawn dear 2 

dagas daga 'harvest', PRUSS. dagos 
'summer', SKR. nidagha- 'heat, 
summer* (also SKR. dhar 'day'?). 
The base dhogho-s common to 
our day and to LITH. ddgas signi- 
fied 'the time of the burning of 
the sun, the hot part of the 
day or year'. 

dawn vb. late ME. daune earlier 
dawe OE. dagian = ON. daga, 
OHG. tagen G. tag en 'become day'; 
cp. E. dawning ME. dawinge'. 
deriv. of TEUT. daga- under day. 

daze vb. ME. dase 'stupefy' 
from ON. *dasa, refl. das ask (sk 
represents the refl. 'oneself') 
'daze oneself = DAN. dase, sw. 
dasa 'lie idle'. From daze is 
deriv. the dimin. dazzle vb. 
'overpower with light'. 

deacon ME. dfken from OE. 
* deacon for diacon (== DU. deken, G. 
diakon, ON. djdkn, OFR. diacne 
FR. diacre, SPAN. IT. diacono) : 
source LAT. diaconus (GR. tWxo- 
votf) 'a servant, a deacon*. 

dead adj. ME. d$d OE. dead = 

GOTH, daups, OHG. MHG. tdt G. 

to(d)t, ON. daudr, OSAX. ddd, DU. 
dood. The common base dau-da is 
prop, panic, (dhau-to-) belonging 
to the TEUT. verbal \J~dau dis- 
cussed under die. Cp. death. 
deaf ME. def OE. d^V" = OSAX. 

ddfy DU. d&*2/) OHG. MHG. tOUp(b) 

'hearing or feeling nothing, dull, 
foolish' G. taub, GOTH. daufs(b) 
'deaf, os.daufr. The meanings 
of OHG. MHG. toup(b) bordering 
on those of OHG. MHG. tump G. 
dumm, connection of both groups 

is swre ; prob. akin to GR. 
'blind'. Cp. dumb. 

deal vb. 'divide, distribute, 
negotiate in' ME. d$le OE. dcelan 
= OSAX. delian, DU. deelen., LG. 
dtteny G.teilen, GOTH, dailjan'. de- 
nominatives of daili- (cp. deal) 
like OSLOV. deliti 'divide'. 

deal } sb. 'part, portion, indefinite 
quantity, degree or extent, bar- 
gain etc.' ME. d$l OE. ddl (ddl) 
= OSAX. del, DU. deel, LG. ded y 

OHG. MHG. G. teil, GOTH. dai/S 

m. daila f. TEUT. dai-li(la-) seems 
to point to an ARYAN \J~dhai, 
proved by OSLOV. delu part'. 

deal 2 sb. 'a board, plank* 
borrowed from DU. deel^ board, 
threshing floor' = MLG. de*le 
'board' LG. dele 'a board, floor, 
a room'. The corresponding 
OHG. dili G. diele 'boarded floor' 
corresponds to ON. pilja, OE. 
pel 'board'. LITH. till 'plank in 
the boat', OSLOV. tilo 'bottom', 
SKR. tala-m 'surface' are cog- 

dean ME. d$n (contr. of *dtien) 
borrowed from OFR. deien = 
FR. doyen', source LAT. decanus 
'the chief of ten soldiers or 
monks' (= IT. dccano , OHG. 
techdn G. de chant). 

dear 1 ME. djre OE. ^'<?r^'beloved, 
precious, of great value' = 
OSAX. diurif DU. dier, OHG. tiuri 
'dear, beloved, esteemed, costly' 
G. teuer. 

dear 2 (in Shakesp.) 'fierce, 
ferocious' ME. der OE. deor 'wild' : 

dearth deep 


different from dear 1 . Ident. with 
E. deer, G. tier', cp. deer. 

dearth ME. derthe 'scarcity, 
dearness' (= OSAX. diurida, OHG. 
tiurida, ON. dyrd, OLG. dturtha)'. 
deriv. of dear 1 -f- -th formative 
of abstract nouns. 

death ME. d$th OE. d$af = 
GOTH. daupus, OSAX. doth, OHG. 
tod MHG. tot(d) G. tod, DU. dood, 
ON. daudr : a verbal abstr. noun 
of a \l^dau (cp. die) with the 
abstract suffix TEUT. fu = LAT. 
SKR. tu- (Aryan base dhau-tu-s). 

debate vb ME. debate: borrow- 
ed from OFR. debatre 'fight, 
contend , debate' FR. debattre 
'contend, debate' ( SPAN. 
debatir, IT. dibattere). 

debt sb. earlier det ME. dette: 
from OFR. debte dette FR. dette 
(IT. dettd) = LAT. debita f. sing., 
orig. neut. plur, of LAT, debitum. 

debtor ME. dettur from OFR. 
detor deteur FR. detteur (IT, 
debitore) = LAT. debitorem ace. 
of debitor 'debtor' 

decay vb. from OFR. decaer 
(SPAN, decaer, IT. decadere) ==- 
LAT. type *decadere (instead of 
decider e] Tall away, perish' 

decease sb. ME. deck's borrowed 
from OFR. deces FR. dtds = LAT. 
decessus prop, 'departure'. 

deceit ME. deceit', borrowed 
from OFR. deceit = LAT. deceptus 
'deceit' (decipere 'deceive under 

deceive vb. earlier deceave ME. 
deceive', borrowed from OFR. de- 

cever deceveir FR. decevoir = LAT. 
decipere 'entrap". Cp. deceit. 

| deck vb= borrowed fr*TfU.dekken 

I 'cover'; cp. OE. fieccean under 

declension from OFR. decli- 
nation (FR. declination) beside 
FR. declination, E. declination from 
LAT . declinationem. 

decrease -vb ME. decree bor- 
rowed from OFR. decresser decrestre 
decreistre decroistre FR. decroitre 

| (LAT. dticrescere) = LAT. decres- 

j cere 'decrease' 

j decree sb. ME. decre borrowed 

| from OFR. decre decret FR. dcret 
(SPAN. IT. decretd) = LAT. decre- 
turn 'a decree'. 

deed ME deddedeoE. ded dad = 
OSAX. dad, DU daad, OHG. MHG. 
tat G. t(h}at, ON. dad, GOTH, in 
ga-d^Hs 'deed'. TEUT base d-di- 
from dhe-ti- from the TEUT.y"^ : 
do from ARYAN dhe : dho\ cp. do. 
deem vb. ME. deme OE dfman 

J (= OSAX. domian in a-, DU. 
doemen, MLG. ddmen, OHG, tuomen 
MHG. tuemen, ON. dcema, GOTH. 
ga-domjan 'judge, deem'): deriv. 
of TEUT. doma- see doom. 

deep adj. ME. ^ OE. dcop - 
OSAX. /^, DU. diep, OHG. 
//^/" MHG. G. tief , ON. 
GOTH, diups. The common TEUT. 
adj. deupa- belongs to a TEUT. 
y~ rt%) whose by-form //wi^ 
appears in OE. dyfan E. dive 
and in E. ^/7/. Cp. cymr. dwfn, 
OIR. domunfu- domain, LITH. ^/w/^^ 
'deep, hollow', OSLOV. duplt ( \\o\- 
low' from an 



deer ME. der OE. deor 'wild 
animal' = ON. dyr 'wild animal', 
OSAX. dior, OHG. tior MHG. G. 
tier 'animal' ('stag, roe' in the 
language of hunters). TEUT. 
deuza- is prob. an adj. used as 
sb. signifying 'wild animal'; op. 
OE. deor 'bold, wild' (cp. dear). 

defeat vb, ME. def{te from 
OFR. defeter 'annul' *(OFR. defait 
desfeit part, of defaire FR. de- 
fair e\ MED -LAT. defacere 'annul, 
undo'). See feat 

defile vb. 'make unclean, sully' 
a fusion of ME. file OE. dfylan 
'defile' and ME. defoule 'defile': 
ME. foule (OE fulian) wk. vb 
'make foul with parallel form 
file (OE. fylan) has taken the 
LAT.-FR. prefix de-. 

defy vb. ME. defie' from FR. 
dlfier (= MED -LAT. IT. disfidare 
diffidare 'renounce faith, repu- 
diate'). Cp. faith. 

delay v b. ME. delate delay ei 
from FR. delayer (= MED. -LAT 
IT. dilatare)- 

delight sb. (orig delite) ME. 
delite delif from OFR. ddit. With 

delve vb. ME. delve OE. del fan 
str. vb. = DU. delven, OSAX. bi- 
delban, OHG. bi-telban 'bury'. The 
(Aryan A/M dhelpT) 
is unknown elsewhere. 

demijohn from the synon. FR. 
dame-jeanne = Arab, damagan 
(orig. the town Damghan in 
northern Persia, once famous 
for its glass-works). 

den short for ME. d$ne OE. denu 
dene valley' ; akin to MDU. dan 
'woods, wilderness and G. tann 
'woods' r 1 

denizen ME. deneseyn denesein'. 
source ANGLO -FR. OFR. densein 
deinsein'. deriv, of OFR. deinz (= 
FR, dans) within' and suffix -ein 
(== LAT. -anus) , cp. citizen. 
The FR. word means 'a trader 
within the privilege of the city- 
franchise as opposed to foreign '. 

deny vb. ME. denu from FR. 
dlnier (SPAN denegar. IT. dene- 
gare = LAT. denegare "deny"). 

depaint vb. ME depeinie'. from 
FR. depeindre. Cp. paint. 

depict vb. ME< only in part. 
depict = LAT. depictus , whence 

the vb delight ME. delite from \ also OFR depicter depict' 
OFR. deliter (IT. ielettare dilettare) deploy vb from FR deploy er 
= LAT. delectare please \ (OFR. despleyer despleier, whence 

dell ME. delle OE, dell a dimin. E. display). Source LAT dis- 
derivative of TEUT dala- (under \plicare. 

dale), pointing to a GOTH. *italja\ depth ME. depthe\ an abstract 
f. and corresponding to OHG. sb. from the ME. adj. dep\ DU. 

tellia MHG. telle ravine' G. (dial.) 

deluge sb. ME. deluge', from 
FR. deluge (= SPAN. IT. diluvio, 
LAT. diluvium 'a flood'). 

'tiepte, ON. d$pt, GOTH, diupipa 
point to an OE. *d$pf ; cp. 

derrick 'a kind of crane' from 
DU. JDierryk, short Dirk, also 

descry dike 


Diederik corresp. to G. Dietrich, 
OE. peodric 'chief of the people'. 
Orig. derrick signified 'gallows' 
named from a Dutch hangman. 

descry vb. ME. descrie discrye 
'discern' from OFR. deserter (des- 
crive descrivre FR= deer ire) 'de- 

desire vb. ME. desire from FR. 
desirer (IT. de sir are = LAT. 
desiderare 'long for'). 

desk from FR. disque (IT. desco 
'a table' = MED. -LAT. discus 'a 
table' see under dish). 

despair vb. ME. despeire from 
OFR. desperer FR. desesperer (== 
LAT. IT. desperare) 'lose hope'. 

despatch, dispatch vb. from 
OFR. despecher (FR. depecher)- 
'discharge, expedite'. 

despise vb. ME. despise from 
OFR, despiser despicer 'despise' 
(LAT. despicere 'look down upon, 

despite sb. by apheresis spite 
ME. despit from OFR. despit despeit 
FR. dtpit (IT. dispetto = LAT. 
despectus 'contempt' see despise). 
Despite prep, abbrev. for in 
despite of. 

despoil vb. ME. despoile from 
OFR. despoiller (FR. de~pouiller t IT. 
despogliare, SPAN, despojar 'de- 
spoil') : source LAT. despoliare 
'plunder, rob See spoil 

destiny destenye destinee : bor- 
rowed from FR. destinee (IT. LAT. 

deuce 'a two at cards or dice 
early mod. also dgwce d&us = 
FR. deux, 

devil ME. devel OE. deofol = 
OSAX. diuftal, DU. dwvel, OHG. 
tiuval tioval MHG. tiuvel (tievel) 
G. teufel\ GOTH, diabaulus points 
to LAT. (GR.) diabolus. 

dew ME. d$w OE. d$aw = 
OSAX. dau, OHG. MHG. tou (gen. 
touwes) G tau t DU. dauw, ON. 
dogg (GOTH. *daggwa- is wanting). 
Perh. cogn. with the SKSi.<fdhau 
'to flow'. 

die sb. (plur. dice)] the sing, is 
developed from the plur. dice. 
ME. dis usually des 'dice' which is 
borrowed from OFR. dez plur. of 
det 'die' FR. de (== SPAN. IT. 
dado 'a die') from LAT datum 
'that which is given and 'that 
which is cast See date. 

die vb. ME. dfye die dye . ge- 
nerally considered as a SCAND. 
loanword from ON deyja (== OSAX. 
doian, OHG. MHG. touwen 'die'). 
An OE d$ym de^an (from daujan) 
is not recorded before 1000 after 
Chr. , hence SCAND. origin is 
prob. For the TEUT.V"V0 cp. 
dead, death. In other Aryan 
languages, QSI&V.davtti 'strangle' 
and LITH. dovyti 'torment' are 
compared as related (INDO-EUR. 
\f dhew dhfhv). 

diet ME. dtete dilte\ from FR. 
diete (SPAN. IT dz>to = LAT diata). 

dig vb. ME. diggc earlier dikie 
OE. didtan 'dig': derivative of OE. 
did 'a ditch'. See, dike x&d. ditch. 

dike ME. dlk(e) OE. die c a ditch, 
channel , dike , wall' = MHG. 
tich G, teich 'fishpond, pond', 


dill dissever 

E. dike and ditch are doub- 

dill 'the two-seeded tare' ME. 
dille OE. dile DU. dille, OHG. 
tilli MHG. tille G. dill. Of obscure 

dim ME. OE. dim (?/wz) OFRIS. 
dim, GS.dimmr'. perh. by-form of 
the synon. OSAX. thim (mm). A 
TEUT. y~ pern (whence G. ddm- 
mern) corresponds to SKR. tamas 
'gloom', LAT. tenebrae (for temesra) 
'darkness'. For the initial gram, 
change from th */see doughty. 
A PRE-TEUT. \T dhem may be 
found in OIR. deme 'darkness', 

dime ME. dime 'tithe' from FR. 
dime (= LAT. decima 'tenth'). 

dimple ME. dimpel =. G. tilmpel 
OHG. tumfilo m. 'whirlpool': deriv. 
with nasalization from the TEUT. 
\fdup 'be depressed' in deep 
and dip\ cp. LITH. dumbu 'be- 
come hollow'. 

din sb. ME. dine OE. dyne (= ON. 
dynr) a din'. Cp. OE. dynnan 
= DU. deunen , OSAX. dunnian, 
ON. dynja and the SKR. y~ dhvan 
dhun 'rush'. 

dine vb. ME. dine\ from FR. 
diner (== IT. disinare) 'dine'. See 

dinner ME. diner'. fromFR. dmer\ 
ident. with dine', the infinitive 
is used as sb. See dine. 

dint ME. dint OE. dynt 'a blow' 
= ON. dyntr dyttr 'a dint, stroke'. 

dip vb. ME. dippe OE. dyppan\ 
cp. G. taufen OHG. touffan (from 
*toufjari) 'baptize' and deep. 

dirge ME. dirige OE. (i I th cent.) 
dirige 'watches' (cp. dirige for 
ford-farenum = vigilia pro de- 
functis). dirige, Dominus meus, 
in conspectu tuo vitam meam 
Psalm 5 8 was used in the office 
for the dead in medieval service. 

dirt ME. drit 'excrement' fr. OE. 
ffdrttan str. vb. = ON. drit a, 
DU. drijten 'to void excrement: 

dish ME. dish disch OE. disc 'a 
dish, plate' = OSAX. disk 'table', 
DU disch, OHG. tisc G. tisch 'table'. 
LAT. discus, the source of TEUT. 
dtskuz, has the meaning 'dish' 
only post-class, (prop, 'disk'); 
cp. also IT. desco, OFR. dois 'table' 
(FR. dais 'a canopy, dais' see 
under dais and desk). 

dismay vb. ME. dismaie desmaie 
(demaie esmaie dishearten, lose 
courage') : from OFR. desmayer 
esmayer (IT. smagare from dis- 
magare points to GOTH. magan\ 
see may). 

dispense vb. ME. dispense: fvom 
OFR. despenser FR. dispenser (=- IT. 
spensare = LAT. dispensare 'weigh 
out, distribute'). 

display vb. ME. displeie'. from 
AFR. despleier =. FR. deployer 
'deploy" (= IT. spiegare, MED. -LAT. 
displicare 'unfold', whence also 
FR. dtployer = E. deploy). 

dispute vb. ME. dispute', from 
FR. disputer (= LAT. IT. dispuiare). 

dissever vb. ME. dissever e dese- 
vere\ from OFR. dessevrer (IT. dis- 
ceverare fr. a LAT. type disseparare 

distaff dole 


distaff ME. distaf orig. dis-staf\ 
OE. *dis-staf 'staff bedizened with 
flax' points to a TEUT. diso- in 
MLG. d&se f. 'distaff, the bunch 
of flax on the distaff'. Cp. LAT. 
fusus 'spindle' for an Aryan 
\{~dMs dhois pointing to a PRE- 
LAT. dhoiso-. 

distinguish vb. ME. distingwe 
distinge'. borrowed from FR. 
distinguer (LAT. distinguere). 

distrain vb. ME.afo/raWcompel, 
constrain': borrowed from OFR. 
destraindre (LAT. distringere 'pull 

distress ME. distress?. destresse\ 
from OFR. destrece 'distress' = 
FR. dttresse. 

disturb vb. ME. disturbe desturbe: 
from OFR. destourber (SPAN. 
disturbar^ IT. disturbare ==. LAT. 
disturbare 'disturb'). 

ditch 'a dike' ME. diche-OE. die: 
equiv. to OSAX. dik 'dam', whence 
G. deich\ related to GR. rsT/o^ 
'wall' ? 

ditty ME. ditt\ borrowed from 
OFR. ditl 'a story , poem' (LAT. 
dictatum) . 

dive vb. ME. dive OE. dyfan = 
ON. dyfa, DU. beduiven, LG! beduven: 
TEUT. \Tdub (a by-form of the 
TEUT. <fd&) under deep. 

dizzy adj. ME. disy OE. dysfy 
'foolish, stupid' = OHG. tusig, 
MDU. duysigh\ \fdus (dhas). 
Another form of the \fdus 
appears in OE. divas (== MDU. 
dwaes DU. dwaas) 'foolish' and 
in G. tor OHG. tbro (TEUT. base 

do vb. ME". OE. don = DU. doen, 
OSAX. duan , OHG. MHG. tuon 
G. thun. For the TEUT. \^do : de 
cp. also deed and the suffix 
~dom. The PRE-TEUT.Y"^^:^^ 
has a wide ramification within the 
other Aryan languages ; cp.the GR. 
V"^?; : tf-g-in rifrrjiii 'place, put', 
SKR. \f~dhd (dadMmi and dhami)- 
'place, put, do' (dhatr 'creator'), 
OSLOV. dejq (and dezda) 'do, 
make', LAT. facto. The meaning 
'place, put' seems to be the ori- 
ginal one and the TEUT. meaning 

dock sb. origin uncertain; from 
the E. word are borrowed G. 
dock, DU. dok t sw. docka, DAN. 
dok(ke), FR. dock. 

doe ME. dp OE. dd\ cp. DAN. 
daa. The OE. word generally 
considered a loanword from LAT. 
ddma points to a weak stem 
ddn nom. sing, da from a TEUT. 
base dain, which is evidently 
connected with OFR. dain m. FR. 
daine f. Perh. a LAT. base *danus 
(assimilated for *ddmus) may be 
assumed. The phonology of 
the Engl. word may have been 
affected by roe OE. rd. 

doff vb. ME. doffe, orig. imper. 
dof contn of do of 'put off ; cp. 
don contr. of do on 'put on'. 

dog ME. dogge OE. dogga, whence 
DU. dog, sw. dogg, G. dogge, FR. 
dogue. OE. dogga (recorded about 
1050) is a WEST-TEUT. duggan-. 

dole portion, share, lot, fortune' 
ME. dol(e) OE. ddl\ equiv. w. dea 
(OE. daf). 


dollar dove 

dollar sb. a modern loanword 
from the continent: DU. daalder', 
the source is G. thaler which is 
short for Joachimsthaler 'gulden 
from Joachlmsthaf (Bohemia) 
where the coin was first struck 
in 1519. 

-dom ME. 'dom OE. -dam = 
OSAX. -dom, DU. -dom, OHG. MHG. 
tuom G. -tum\ an abstract noun 
suffix, orig. a sb. meaning 'juris- 
diction' preserved in doom (and 
its deriv. deeni). 

domain (poet, by-form demain) 
from FR. domaine (LAT. dominium), 
whence also DU. domein. 

don see doff. 

donkey not found in ME. OE., 
appar. a deriv. of dun. Suffix 
key of donkey is dimin. as in 
monkey. The orig. meaning of 
donkey is 'the little gray one' 
(Shakesp. uses dun 'a gray horse'). 

doom sb. 'judgment, sentence, 
decree, law' ME. OE. dom = 
OSAX. ddm, OHG. tuom, ON. domr, 
GOTH, doms 'judgment'; derived 
from the TEUT. \^do in do\ for 
the w-suffix cp. SKR. d/Mttian 
'sacred custom' and GR. &i[.uQ. 

door ME. dpre OE. dor = OSAX. 
dor 9 G. tor, GOTH, daur 'gate'; ident. 
with OE. duru = OSAX. dura, ON. 
dyrr plur. corresponds to OSAX. 
duri plur., OHG. turi plur. 'door' 
G.fiir. The TEUT. bases dor a- and 
dur- (cons, stem) cp. also in 
GOTH, daurbns 'door'. To the 
Aryan base dhur belong also LAT. 
fores, GR. dvpa, LTTH. ditrys and 
SKR. dur (for dhur) 'door, gate'. 

dot OE. dott 'speck' DU. FRIS. 
dot\ cp. LG. dott dotte 'the yellow 
of the egg' and OSAX. dodro, DU. 
dootcr, OE. dydring, OHG. totoro 
tutar-ei G. dotter: prim, term for 
'the yellow of the egg'; the 
orig. meaning of dydring is prob. 
'spot, point in the egg'. 

dote vb. ME. dote dotie = ODU, 
doten 'mope'; perh. akin to MHG. 
tuz(e) 'quiet' tuzen 'be quiet' 
from a TEUT. \^dut. 

double adj. ME. duble : borrowed 
from FR. double (IT. doppio = 
LAT. duplus)} from the FR. source 
also G. doppelt, DU. dubbel. 

doubt ME. doute\ borrowed from 
FR. doute (IT. dotta LAT. dubi- 

dough sb. ME. dough OE. ddh(g) 
= DU. LG. deegy OHG. MHG. teic(g) 
G. teig, ON. detg , GOTH, daigs 
'dough': deriv. from a TEUT. dig 
'knead' in GOTH, deigan 'mould, 
form'; an Aryan \^dhlgh cp. in 
SKR. dih 'stroke, smear', LAT. 
finger e 'shape, form* (figura 
'form') and GR. Tsfyog To7%o$ 
'wall'. Cp. lady. 

doughty adj. ME. dou(g)hty dohti 
OE. dohtii ; the by-form OE. dyhti% 
corresponds to MHG. G. tiichtig 
deriv. from OHG. MHG tuht an 
abstract noun of the verb re- 
presented by OHG. tugan = OE. 
dugan. The OE. by-form//////^ (cp. 
dim = OSAX. thimm) points to 
a primitive TEUT. *ffug. 

dove short for ME. douve OE. 

diife\ corresponding to GOTH 

i dubb t OSAX. diiba, OHG. tuba G. taube 

down dream 

The iwv.diibon- 'dove' is based 
on a pre-TEUT. adj. dhttbho- 'black' 
in OIR. dub 'black'. 

down sb. 'soft plumage': a 
Scand. loanword of the ME. period 
(ME. douri), borrowed from ON. 
dunn = sw. dun, DAN. dunn, 
whence also G. daune, DU. dons. 

down prep, and adv., orig. 
adown (cp. back for aback} : short- 
ened for ME. adoune adoun OE. 
ofdunc\ OE. dun is hill' and of- 
dune 'off the hill, downwards'. 
A TEUT. diina- 'hill' (in mod. LG. 
ddl is 'dale and 'down'), OE. dun 
survives in the Kentish downs-, 
cp. DU. duin. Perh. the word is 
a Celt, loanword, cp. IR. dun 'a 
fortified hill', GAEL, dun, w. din 
and the Celt, place-names such 
as Tarodununiy for which cp. also 

doze vb. prob. borrowed from 
ON. dusa 'doze'. 

dozen ME. dozeine dusain = FR. 
douzaine (OFR. dosaine), whence 
also G. dutzend, DU. dozijn. The 
Fr. word is deriv. from douze 
(OFR. doze = LAT. duodecini). 

draff ME. draf OE. drcef] cp. 
OHG. *trab in the plur. trebir G. 
trdber 'grains, husks' and DU. 
ON. sw. draf. Cogn. w. LAT.y c races : 
ARYAN y~d%rtf>; cp. also dregs. 

dragon ME. dragon drago(u)n\ 
from FR. dragon 'dragon, stand- 
ard' ir. dragone, LAT. draco(n-) 
'dragon'. See drake. 

drain vb. ME. dreme OE. drgag- 
nian\ a TEUT. \f *draug appears 
in NORTH -FRIS. druughe 'sieve, 

strainer' and druugin vb. 'strain, 
sieve' (NFRIS. u from TEUT. au) 
and in DITMARSH dorchdroven 
'drain', HESS, drauen 'drain'. 

drake 1 in drakefly OE. draca 
'dragon'; cp. synon. OHG. trahho 
G. drache = OE. draca borrowed 
fr. LAT. draco. Cp. dragon. 

drake- 'male of the duck' ME. 
drake OE. *draca = LG. (dial.) 
drake MLG. ant-drake, which points 
to identity with ICEL. andrikt, 
GERM, enter ich OHG. antrehho an- 
trahho (orig. *anut -(- trahho}. 
The TEUT. drakon- occurs only 
in this compound and in the sub- 
stituted simple form (the Teut. 
word for 'duck' was OE. cened, 
OHG. anut G. ente). 

draw vb. ME. drawe OE. dragan 
= ON. draga', perh. ident. with 
GOTH, dragan 'bear, carry', OSAX. 
dragan, DU. dragen, OHG. tragan 
G. tragen 'carry, bear'. The TEUT. 
\f drag 'bear' (ARYAN dhragK) has 
been compared with OSLOV. dru- 
zati 'hold'. 

dream Vision ME. drem', an 
equiv. OE. dr$am is not recorded 
(the synonym is swefri), but is 
to be inferred from OSAX. drom, 
DU droom, ON. draumr , OHG. 
MHG. troum G. traum 'dream'. 
The meaning 'dream , vision' 
attaching to these forms may 
be deduced from 'deception, 
vision' so that TEUT. drauma- (for 
*draugma- or *dhroughwmo-l!} 
would belong to the TEUT. 
\fdrug, seen in OSAX. bidriogan 
=^Q}iG.triogan G. trugen 'deceive'. 

6 4 

dreary drop 

dreary adj. ME. dreri OE. dreori^ 
'sad': corresponding to MHG. 
trurec G. traurig', OHG. truren 
G. trauern 'mourn' belongs perh. 
to OE. drusian E. drowse drowze 
'be sluggish'. 

dregs 'lees' a Scand. loanword 
of the ME. period (ME. dregges] 
borrowed with the plur. form fr. 
the equiv. G&.dregg, The TEUT. 
base dragjo- may be a pre-TEUT. 
dhraki- which is also possible 
of LAT. /races 'dregs' (LAT. f = 
ARYAN dh as under distaff)\ cp. 
also PRUSS. dragios 'dregs' (perh. 
Teut. loanword?). 

dress vb. ME. dresse borrowed 
from FR. dresser (OFR. drescer 
drecier'y LAT. type directiare). 

drift sb. 'driving, impulse' ME. 
drift 'act of driving, drove, im- 
pulse': deriv. from drive with /- 
suffix; cp. DU. drift 'drove, flock, 
course, current, ardor', G. trift 
'pasture', ON. drift dript 'snow- 
drift'. See drive, drove. 

drink vb. ME. drinke OE. drincan 
= OSAX. drinkan, DU. LG. drinken, 
OHG. trinchan MHG. G. trinken, 
ON. drekka, GOTH, drigkan'. a 
common TEUT. str. vb. From 
TEUT. comes the Roman group 
IT. trine are, FR. trinquer 'hobnob'. 
The TEUT. \^drenk (Aryan, dhreng) 
does not appear outside of 

drip vb. ME. drippe OE. dryppan'. 
associated with OE. *dreopan 
ME. dre'pe 'drop, fall' = OSAX. 
driopan, DU. druipen, OHG. triufan 

MHG. G. triefen, ON. drjupa 'drop, 

drive ME. drive OE. drifan str. vb. 
= OSAX. driban 'drive, banish, 
perform', DU, drijven 'drive, do, 
fly, swim, ON. drifa 'hasten', 
GOTH, dreiban 'drive', OHG. trlban 
MHG. trlben G. treiben. For the TEUT. 
\Tdrib (ARYAN dhribhl dhripf) 
cp. also drift. 

droll adj. perh. borrowed fr. 
FR. drole 'odd, queer, funny'. Cp. 
G. drollig from LG. drullig, DU. 
drollig\ not found in the older 

drone sb. ME.^T^OE. drdn (plur. 
dr&ri). The synon, OHG. treno 
MHG. trene G. drokne, OSAX. dran 
plur. dram (DAN. drone is a con- 
tinental loanword) are evidently 
related, but not phonetically 
identical; OE. drdn points to 
GOTH. *drainus, while OHG. treno 
points to GOTH. *drina. An 
Aryan \f dhren cp. in GR. rtv- 
'a species of wasp' 
'woodbee' Laco- 
nan QWVU 'drone'. 

drop vb. ME. droppe OE. droppian 
also dropian and droppetian (= 
DU. droppen, G. tropferi)'. a frequent, 
deriv. of the orig. str. vb. OE. 
dreopan ME. drepe = OSAX. drio- 
pan, DU. druipen, OHG. triufan 
MHG. G. triefen, ON. drjupa 'drop'. 
See drip and drop. 

drop sb. 'a globule' ME. drdpe 
OE. dropa = OSAX. dropo, DU. 
drop) ON. drope, OHG. troffo\ the 
OHG. by-form tropfo (G. tropfen) 
points to a TEUT. base druppon-. 

dropsy dung 

All derivatives of the TEUT. 
\(~drup. See drop^. 

dropsy ME. dropsy dropesie short 
for idropsie hydropsie'. borrowed 
from FR. hydropisie (LAT. hydro- 

drought ME. drought older 
drougth drught OE. drugod 'dry- 
ness': deriv. from OE. drugian 
'become dry' and TEUT. adj. 
drugi in dry. 

drouse (drowze) vb. ME. *drouse 
OE. drus(i)an 'become slow or 
sluggish' = MDU. droosen 'doze'; 
cp. 'LG.drtinse(l)n 'slumber' drunsen 
'low' (of cattle) ; akin to OE. 
dreosan = GOTH, driusan 'fall'. 
See dreary. 

drove sb. 'herd, road for 
sheep or cattle in droves' ME. 
drove earlier drof OE. dh// 'drove' : 
deriv. from they^dH^ in drive. 

drown vb. ME. droune\ short 
for ME. druncne (also dissimil. 
drunkle) OE. druncnian 'sink': a 
passive formation of the TEUT. 
verb drink. 

dry ME. drie drye OE. dry^e 
from TEUT. drugi-, as shown by 
OE. drugod = mod. E. drought. 
A TEUT. by -form draugi- (or 
draugu-) is seen in OE. drfye 
ME. dreie and in DU. droog, 
LG. dr&ge (by the side of LG. 
dryge, NORTH-FRIS. driiiigti). All 
with the same meaning, which 
appears also in the related G. 
trocken (OHG. truckan). Cp. ON. 
draugr 'a dry log'; OHG. proper 
nouns e. g. Druhi-klinga prove 
a TEUT. druhi 'dry'. An Aryan 


k is probable and OHG. 
truckan would point to a by- 
form Aryan dhrttg. 

duck sb. ME. douke OE. duce\ 
akin to OE. *ducan under duck 
vb.; hence duck prop, 'the diving 
one, diver'; cp. DAN. dukand 'sea- 
duck', G. tauchente. 

duck vb. ME. douke \ an OE. 
*ducan may be inferred fr. DU. 
duiken, OHG. tuhhan MHG. tuchen 
G. tauchen. 

due adj. ME. due from FR. du 
m. due f. OFR. deu m. deue f. (= 
IT. debutd) ,* cp. MED. -LAT. *debu- 
tum debuta for debitum. 

duke ME. duke from FR. duc\ 
with the deriv. duchess ME. 
duchesse short for dilchesse = FR. 
duchesse. duchy (cp. ME. 
ducherie instead of * due hie) from 
FR. duche. 

dumb adj. ME. domb dumb OE. 
dumb] GOTH, dumbs, ON. dumbr 
have essentially the same meaning 
while the corresponding G. dumm 
(OHG. MHG./^W^) signifies 'stupid, 
foolish'. Perh. deaf without 
nasal (= OE. d$af y GOTH, daufs) 
belongs to the same Aryan 
\fdhttbh, which may be found 
also in GR. rvylds 'blind'. 

dun adj. 'dark, swarthy' ME. 
don donne OE. dun (nn) : an early 
Celtic loanword (OIR. GAEL. 
donn t GALL. donnos]\ therefore 
not found in other TEUT. lan- 

dung ME. dung dong\ cp. OHG. 
tunga 'dung' G. dung. OHG. 
MHG. tune 'subterranean weaving 


dungeon ear 

room'. If 'cave, underground 
room' is the orig. meaning, GR. 
Tcx.(f)oc, from an Aryan dhnghwos 
may be allied. 

dungeon sb. ME. dongeon don- 
joun\ loanword from OFR. don- 
geon dongon donjon FR. donjon 
(MED.-LAT. domnionem c a com- 
manding tower' fr. a LAT. type 
dominionem\ cp. LAT. dominium 
under domain). 

dusk ME. desk OE. dose (of 
rare occurrence, but also seen 
in the deriv. vb. duscian). Akin to 
the sw. dial, duskug 'misty'. 
A TEUT. base dnska- admits of 
relation to LAT. fuscus 'blackish, 
dark' (base dhusko-T). 

Dutch orig. meant German 
including Dutch; for down to 
1600, Dutch was considered 

a dialect of Germany. Dutch 
corresponds to G. deutsch = MLG. 
diidesch, MHG. diutsch tiutsch tiusch 
OHG. diutisk (OSAX. thiiidisce liudi 

dwarf ME. dwergh dwerugh 
OE. dweorh(g) = DU. dwerg, 
OHG. MHG. twerc(g) getwerc G. 
zwerg, ON. dwergr m., sw. DAN. 
dverg. TEUT. base dwerga- 
belongs prob. to the TEUT. \f 'drug 
'deceive', hence dwarf prop, 
'deception, vision'. 

dwell vb. ME. dwelle late OE. 
dwelian : SCAND. loanword from 
ON. dvelja 'delay, stay' = OHG. 
twellan (and twdlen) 'linger'. 

dye vb. ME. die deie de^e OE. 
deagian : derived from OE. deah(g) ; 
a TEUT. dauga is not found 
I elsewhere. 

each ME. $ch earlier $lch OE. 
did orig. d-gilic OHG. iogilih 
MHG. iegelich G. jeglich; cp. OHG. 
manno-gilih 'every man' wibo- 
gilih 'every woman' etc. 

eager ME. egre\ adapted from 
OFR. eigre 'keen, sharp'. Source 
LAT. acre (acer). 

eagle ME. egle*. loanword from 
FR. aigle\ source LAT. aquila. 

eanling 'lamb' (Shakesp.) points 
to an OE. fan 'lamb'; cp. yean. 

ear 1 sb. ME. {re OE. ear e = TEUT. 

base auzbn- in GOTH, auso, OSAX. 
OHG. or a G. ohr, DU. oor. An 
Aryan base aus- cp. in LAT. 
auris, GR. ovg, RUSS. SLOV. ucho 
'ear'; perh. cogn. with hear. - 
Hence earwig ME. er-wigge OE. 

ear 2 sb. (of corn) ME. er OE. ear 
contr. from *eahor (Northumbr. 
eMer)=TEUT. base ahaz-', ident. 
w. OHG. ahir G. ahre, GOTH. ahs t 
ON. ax. Perh. akin to awns. 

ear vb. ME. jjre OE. erian = 

earl eight 

GOTH, arjan, OHG. erian 'plough'; 
cogn. with LAT. arare, GR. dgotir, 
OIR. araim 'I plough': Aryan 
\f~ar in LAT. arvum 'field' and 
in earth. 

earl ME. erl OE. eorl = ON. 
jar I, OSAX. erl. Perh. ident. 
with the TEUT. tribe-name Heruli. 

early ME. frit ov.cerlice; cp. ere. 

earn vb. ME. g'rne OE. earnian 
= OHG. arnon. Perh. traceable 
to the Aryan \far in GR.uQWf.iai. 

earnest ME. ernest OE. eornust 
= OHG. ernust G. DU. fr//^/ 'serious- 
ness'; perh. akin to GOTH. 
arniba adv. 'surely'? 

earth ME. /r//fc OE. eorde = 
OSAX. rM<z, OHG. erda G. //<?, 
GOTH, air pa, 'ON. y<?rdf; cognate 
with OHG. era 'earth' = ON. 
jorvi 'ground', LAT. arvum 'field', 
GR. gpa^E to the ground'. 

earwig cp. ear 1 . 

ease ME. fie earlier eise from 
FR. aise 'ease'. 

east ME. fit OE. ./ast; ident. 
with DU. cost, G. ^/^ ; the TEUT. 
base aust- is traced to the 
Aryan name of the aurora LAT. 
aurora, GR. ijcJg, SKR. ?/&u: Aryan 
base ausos. Cp. Easter. 

Easter ME. fiter OE. /<w/r0 = 
OHG. ostarun G. Ostern. Accord- 
ing to Beda Venerabilis, in 
heathen times the Anglo-Saxons 
called the feast in April after 
their goddess Eostre, which is 
elsewhere quite unrecorded. The 
WEST-TEUT. word (base austrdn-) 
is prob. of the same origin as 
east', cp. LITH. auszra 'aurora'. 

eat vb. ME. $te OE. etan = DU. 
etetij OSAX. 'etan, ON. eta, GOTH. 
itan, OHG. e^zan G. essen. Cp. 
the Aryan \(~ed in LAT. ^, GR. 
sdoftai, SKR. ^, LITH. edmi 'eat' 
(see also tooth). 

eaves ME. eves OE. 0fo 'eaves'; 
the E. dial, form oaves (Essex) 
points to an OE. *ofes = OHG. 
obasa 'porch, hall', GOTH, ubizwa 
'porch', ON. ups 'eaves'. 

ebb sb. ME. ebbew. ebba =OFRIS. 
ebba, DU. eb ebbe, G. DAN. ebbe, 
SWED. ebb. Source and history 

edge ME. egge OE. edg (infl. 
edge) = DU. egge, OSAX. eggia, 
ON. egg, OHG. ecka G. ecke. Cogn. 
with LAT. acies 'point', GR. x/'cj 
cp. SKR. afri 'corner', GR. uxpoq 
'pointed', LITH. aszru-s 'sharp': 
Aryan \^ak. 

eel ME. OE. el OE. M = OHG. 
dl, G. DU. DAN. aal, ON. all: TEUT. 
base Ma- elu-J 

egg sb. ME. egg from ON. <#-. 
OE. dl (plur. ^jrw) ME. ei (plur. 
r^) 'egg' were supplanted by the 
SCAND. loanword egg. OE. ^5 and 
ON. egg correspond to OSAX. 
OHG. ei, DU. G. ei\ TEUT. base 
aia- (ajjiz- ajjaz) perh. related 
to LAT. ovum, GR. MOV 'egg'. 

egg vb. 'instigate' ME. egge 
from ON. eggja 'egg on'; akin 
to edge. 

eight ME. ftA& OE. *ehte mostly 
eahta = GOTH, ahtau, OSAX. OHG. 
<7^/<? G. DU. acht\ Aryan base 
oktbu okto in GR. OXTW, LAT. octo, 

SKR. ^/^, OIR. ^^/. 



eisel emmet 

eisel ME. aisll late OE. aisil (= 
ODU. aisijl) fr. OFR. aisil. Source 
a LAT. type acetulum] cp. OE. 
eced 'vinegar' fr. LAT. acidum 

either ME. either OE. dyier 
shortened for a^hwader orig. 
a -\- tykw(zder\ cp. OHG. io-giwe- 
dar 'each of two' and whether. 

eke ME. ek OE. ec earlier {ac fr. a 

TEUT. auk = GOTH. rtZ/, OHG. 

ouh G. <7#^. Prop, imperative 
of the str. vb. GOTH, aukan 'add' 
( LAT. auger e). 

elbow ME. elbowe OE. elboga 
earlier eln-boga = OHG. elinbogo 
G. elbogen, DU. elleboog, ON. #/#- 
&5f/: a GOTH, compound *aleina- 
buga 'the bow of the cubit' is 
wanting. Cp. // and -0a>. 

ME. elde OE. ^/dfo jA& 'antiquity': 
abstract of old = OE. did. 
elder adj. ME. elder OE. eldra: 
compar. of old. 

elder sb. (a tree) ME. eldre eller 
OE. ellarn. 

eleven ME. enlevene OE. infl. 
endleofane anlifane\ OE. endlufon 
corresponds to ON. ellifu, OSAX. 
elleban-, cp. GOTH, ainlif, OHG. 
/jf G. DU. elf 'eleven'. The 
TEUT. numeral ain-lif- is a com- 
pound of ain one and lif 
= pre-TEUT. -lika in LITH. veno- 
lika 'eleven' (cp. twelve). The 
orig. meaning of the numeral 
was perh. 'ten -j- one'. 

elf (with the older by-form 

-oupJie Shakesp.) ME. elf OE. a If'. 

TEUT. base alba- also in ON. dlfr\ 

the word occurs in proper names 
as OE. ^Elf-rid = OHG. Alp-rat. 
An Aryan albhu- is found in 
SKR. rbhu 'the name of a certain 
kind of deity'. 

ell ME. elle earlier elne OE. eln 
= OHG. elina G. DU. elle, ON. 
//', GOTH, aleina 'ell, cubit'. A 
pre-TEUT. dlena- is found in LAT. 
ulna, GR. whtvq, OIR. ##!? 'cubit'. 
Cp. elbow. 

elm ME. OE. ^/w; akin to ON. 
dlmr and LAT. ulmus (G. w/w^ is 
a LAT. loanword, DU. olm is OFR. 

else ME. OE. ^// adv. 'other- 
wise': genet, of the pron. GOTH. 
aljis 'an other' (= LAT. alius 9 
GR. aAAoc, OIR. aile, ARMEN. ail) ; 
cp. OE. ele-lende 'a foreign land', 
OHG. eli-lenti 'being abroad' and 
OHG. dies 'elsewhere', LAT. alias 

ember-days ME. imbri-dawes OE. 
ymbren-dagas prop, 'days of pro- 

embers 'ashes' ME. emmeres 
emeres plur. OE. dmyrian plur. 
= OHG. eimuria 9 ON. eimyrja 
'embers'. Prob. a compound of 
a TEUT. type aim-uzjon ; cp. ON. 
eimr 'steam, vapor' and usli 'a 
conflagration' , MHG. usel usel 
'ashes, embers' fr. an Aryan \fus 
in LAT. urere vb. 'burn' (cp. ON. 
ysja 'fire'). 

emmet 'ant' ME. emet OE. cemete: 
TEUT. base amaitjon- = OHG. 
amei'za G. ameise: prob. cogn. 
with OHG. emi^i G. emsig 'in- 

emperor ewe 

emperor ME. emperour fr. APR. 
emperur = LAT. imperator-em (but 
OE. Cdsere 'emperor' = G. kaiser 
fr. LAT. Caesar)] cp. empire ME. 
empire fr. FR. empire =. LAT. 
imperium and empress ME. em- 
peresse earlier form emperice fr. 
OFR. emperice = LAT. imperatricem. 

empty ME. emptl emit short for 
OE. cemti"^ 'empty'. 

enchant vb. ME. enchaunte fr. 
FR. enchanter = LAT. incantare. 

end ME. OE. ende = GOTH, andeis, 
OHG. #' G. i#dfc, DU. einde, ON. 
w&": TEUT. base andja-, pre-TEUT. 
antyo-\ cp. SKR. dnta 'end, limit' 
and OIR. et. 

engage cogn. w. gage. 

enough ME. inough (inowe) OE. 
tynoh (&enpg earlier ynp'g) ' TEUT. 
base ga-noga- in DU. genoeg, 
OSAX. ginbg i OHG. ginuog G. 
genug 'enough'; cp. GOTH, ganohs 
and the GOTH. vb. ganauhan 'to 
suffice' ganaiiha 'sufficiency': 

enter vb. ME. entre vb. fr. FR. en- 
trer = LAT. intrare vb. 'enter'. 

entire adj. ME. entire fr. FR. 
'.ntier = LAT. integrum (integer). 

envy sb. ME.envfe fr. FR. envie 
.AT. invidia. 

ere 'before' ME. er(e) OE. <^r 
27*2 dri TEUT. tfz'r/) 'before'; 
lent. w. GOTH, air, OHG. OSAX. 

G. ehr. 

ermine sb. ME. ermine fr. OFR. 
'mine FR. hermine, which is of 
Teut. origin; cp. OHG. harmm 
IG. hermm 'fur'.* The primitive 

OHG. harmo (corresp. to LITH. 
czarmu) means 'weasel'. 

err vb. ME. .erre vb. fr. FR. 
errer = LAT. errare\ hence 
errant FR. errant. 

errand ME. ernde erende short 
for OE. czrende = OSAX. arundi, 
OHG. arunti 'message'; uncertain 
whether cogn. w. GOTH.airus, ON. 
drr, OE. dr, OSAX. er 'messenger'. 

escape vb. ME. escape vb. fr. 
ONFR. escaper = FR. echapper. LAT. 
type ex-cappare deriv. from cappa 

evening w&.eveninge o^cefnung: 
deriv. of eve ME. eve(n) OE. cefen 
efen\ cp. OHG. abund G. abend, 
OSAX. aband , DU. avond\ ON. 
aptann (SWED. ^/7i7, DAN. often) 
and OE. <^/7^ 'evening' belong 
to the same group : TEUT. base 
timd-l eftn-1 

ever ME. ever earlier fore OE. 
czfre (earlier &bre)\ the word is 
orig. compounded, but only 
the I st element is evident; cp. 
OE. d 'ever' = GOTH, aiw under 
aye 2 . every ME. evert earlier 
form everich late OE. a/rcelc. 

everywhere ME. ever iwhere OE. 

evil adj. ME. evel prop, ivel OE. 
yfel: TEUT. base ubila- in GOTH. 
ttbils, OSAX. ufiil, OHG. ubil G. 
ubel t DU. ^2v<?/; cogn. w. OHG. 
uppi G.uppig and perhaps w. TEUT. 
uber = over. 

ewe ME. (we OE. eowu (not 
lowu t which would be ME. *ewe) : 
TEUT. base awi- 'sheep' in DU. 
qoi t ON. d-r 'sheep' and cp. GOTH. 

ewer fair 

awefi 'flock of sheep' and awistr 
'a sheepfold'; cp. OHG. on (plur. 
ouwi) fr. a TEUT. base awwi-. 
A base owi- occurs in other 
Aryan languages: SKR. dvi, LAT. 
ovis, GR. oi'c (*o/ig), LITH. avis 
'sheep', OSLOV. ovtca, OIR. ^"sheep'. 

ewer ME. $wfr fr. AFR. *ewiere 
FR. aiguiere : source LAT. aquarium 
Vessel for water', whence also 
OHG. ahhari, DU. LG. aker 'pitcher, 

expound ME. expoune vb. fr. 
QVR.espondre: source LAT. exporter e, 
whence also OHG. spunon 'inter- 
pret, expound'. 

eye ME. eie earlier e%e OE. {age\ 
TEUT. base augon- in GOTH, augo, 

OHG. ouga G. auge , OSAX. oga, 
DU. oog, ON. auga (under win- 
dow). As shown by the TEUT. vb. 
*aujan pret. *awida (= OE. ywan 
eowde) for *agwjan *dgwida 'to 
show', TEUT. augon- is transformed 
(by the influence of TEUT. auzon- 
= ear) from an earlier agwon-l 
ARYAN base okon- fr. a primitive 
stem ok 'eye' ; cp. LAT. oc-ulus, 
OSLOV. oko, LITH. akis, GR. 
'the eyes' (for *okje) ; SKR. 

eyot sb. ME. eiet OE. /j^?/ com- 
monly iy>d\ deriv. of OE. /j /^ 
'island', which answers to ON. ey, 
OHG. <?ze'^ 'island' (TEUT. aujd- 
fr. agwjd" deriv. of GOTH, ahwa 
= LAT. jz^wa 'water'). 

fable ME. /^^ fr. FR. fable = 
LAT. fabula. 

face ME. /# ./^ fr. FR. /b^ = 
LAT. fades. 

fade (Shakesp. zW<?) vb. ME. 
fade vb. fr. the FR. adj. /*#*& 
(whence also G.fade, ODU. vadde). 
Source a LAT. type *fatidus in- 
stead of fatuus 'foolish'. 

fail vb. ME. faile vb. fr. FR. 
faillir (source LAT. f alter e), 
whence also DU. veilen, MHG. 
velen G. fehlen. 

fain adj. ME. fain OE. fce^en 
'glad' = OSAX. fagan, ON. feginn 
adj. 'glad'; cp GOTH, faginbn 'to 
enjoy' and fa heps "joy', which is 

ident. w. OHG. ^/^ joy or 
more accurately w. OE. yffa 
(contracted fr. *gifeaha = *gi- 
faho) : TEUT. \ffeh (Aryan peK) 
in OE. lefeon (pret. lefeati) = 
OHG. gifehan 'to enjoy'. 

faint adj. ME. feint fr. OFR. feint 
partic. of feindre\ cp. feign. 

fair adj. ME. fair OE. /^r = 

= GOTH./rtgr.y 'fit',OHG. OSAX./<ZY2r, 

ON. fagr According to GOTH. 
gafahrjan 'to prepare', there 
exists a TEUT. \ffeh also in G. 
fegen OHG. ^* vb. 'cleanse'; 
cp. ON. fdga and OHG. fuogan 
G. ///*, OE. lefeyin. 
fair sb. 'market, festival' ME. 

fairy fast 

feire fr. APR. feire = FR. foire\ 
source LAT. feria 'a holiday', 
whence also OHG. fira G. feier 
'ceremony' (feier tag 'holiday'). 

fairy ME. fairie fr. OFR. faerie 
'enchantment'; cp. fay. 

faith sb. ME. faith feith (with 
the by-form fat fei) fr. AFR. feid 
feid (with the by-form fei FR. 
fot). Source LAT. fides fidem. 

falcon sb. ME. faukoun fr. FR. 
faucon. Source late LAT. falco- 
nem, whence also OHG. falko G. 
falke , ON. falke, DU. valk 'falcon'. 

fall vb. ME. falle OE. fallan 
(feallan) = OHG. OSAX. fallan, 
ON. falla str. vb. 'fall': TEUT. 
^ffall Aryan y~/#/ in LITH - 
pUlti (pres. p c ulu) 'to fall'; cp. 
also GR. aq dXXoptai 'to fall'? 

fallow adj. ME. falwe OE. fealo 
gen. fea/wes =. TEUT. base falwa- 
in ON. fair, DU z/00/, OHG. /#/<? 
G. fahl 'pale, fallow'. Cogn. 
w. LAT. pallidus 'pale' pullus 
'dark', GR. Tinhidc 'gray', SKR. 
palita 'gray'; the TEUT. adj. has 
the same suffix as OSLOV. plavil, 
LITH. palvas 'fallow'. 

false adj. ME. late OE. fals fr. 
OFR. fals =. FR. faux', source 
LAT. falsus 'false'. 

fame ME. fame fr. FR. fame 
LAT. fama 'report'. 

famine ME. famin(e) fr. FR. 
famine', deriv, fr. LAT. fames 

fan ME. OE. fan (nn) : borrowed 
during ANGLO-SAX, times fr. LAT. 
vannus (in the vulgar pro- 
nunciation fannus\ cp. G. vers = 

LAT. versus) ; G. wanne is an 
earlier loanword fr. LAT. vannus. 

fancy short for ME. fantasie = 
OFR. fantasie (LAT. phantasia). 

far adv. ME. fer ferre OE. 
feor feorran\ cp. GOTH, falrra 
adv., OHG. ferro G. fern, DU. 
ver, ON. fjarn : 'far': cogn. w. GR. 
Tispuv 'beyond', SKR.fldra 'distant', 
ARMEN. heri 'far'. 

fardel ME. fardel fr. OFR. fardel 
= FR. fardeau 'burden, load'. 

fare vb. ME. fare OE. far an 
str. vb. = GOTH, far an, Qw.fara, 
OHG. OSAX. far an MHG. varn G. 
fahren, DU. varen\ TEUT. \^far 

== ARYAN \{~pOr in GR. TlOptVOjLtai 

I travel, I go'. 

farm UE.ferme 'repast, banquet, 
rent, farm' OE. feorm 'banquet, 
food, subsistence'; cp. Qfc.feormian 
vb. 'sustain, feed, support' bor- 
rowed fr. LAT. firmare 'to make 
strong' (firmare alqm. cibo atque 

farrow ME. farh 'young pig' 
OE. fearh 'pig' = OHG. far ah 
(G. ferkelj DU. varken) : TEUT. base 
far ha- = PRE-TEUT. porko- in GR. 
7ro'(>xog, LAT. porcus, LITH. pdrszas, 
OSLOV. pras$, OIR. ore 'pig'. 

farthing MK.ferthing short for 
fer thing OE. feor dung {feor ding 
feordling) 'the fourth part, farth- 
ing': deriv. of QK.feorda 'fourth', 
cp. four and OHG. fiordung. 

fashion ME. fafioun {fassouri) 
fr. FR. facon = LAT. factto(ncm). 

fast adj. ME. fast OE. fast = 
ON. fastr, DU. vast, OHG. festi adj. 
adv.) G. fest 'fast': TEUT. 

fast feeble 

fastu-, Aryan postu in ARMEN. hast 
'fast'. fastvb. M&.fasfeOE.fastan 
= GOTH, fast an, G. fasten, DU. 
vasten, ON. fasta: prop, derived 
from the adj. with the orig. mean- 
ing 'make firm, observe'. 

fat adj. ME. fat (tt) short for OE. 
fdtt prop, fated TEUT. base 
faitida- in OHG. feiijt G. /m/, 
OSAX. fetid LG. G. /<?// 'fat', DU. vet\ 
prop, partic. of a TEUT. vb. 
*/aitjan. The base is a TEUT. adj. 
faita- 'fat' in MHG. z/^, ON. /'/> : 
Aryan ^pid cogri. w. V*// in 
GR. 77/wi/ Tiiapdz 'fat* = SKR. 
/&<*# pwara 'fat' (SKR. 

fatal ME. /#/#/ fr. FR. 
cp. fate ME. fate = OFR. fate. 
Source LAT. fatum fatalis. 

father ME. fader OE. fader = 
GOTH, fadar (commonly atta), 
OHG. /#&r G. vater, OSAX. fadar, 
DU. vader, ON. fadir'. TEUT. base 
fader- = Aryan base pater- in 
LAT. pater, GR. narrjy, SKR. /##; 
and OIR. dr/for, ARMEN. Ar: all 

fathom ME. fdthem OE. fcedm 
'embrace, extended arms, fathom, 
cubit': ident. w. ON. fadmr, DU. 
vadem 'a fathom' = OHG. fadum 
G. faden 'a fathom, a thread': 
TEUT. base fapma- fr. an Aryan 
y~/<?/ in GOTH. /#/# 'hedge* = 
MHG. vade 'fence' and in GR. 
TiSTarvvjui 'I extend'. 

fault ME. faute fr. FR. faute. 

favor ME. favour = FR. faveur. 

fawn sb. ME. faun pro^.fa-oun 
fr. FR. faon 'a fawn': source a 
LAT. type fcetbnus, deriv. of faztus. 

fay fr. FR. fte\ cp. MHG. fete 
fr. OFR. feie: source a LAT. fata 
= fatum. 

fear ME. fire OE. far 'a sudden 
peril, fear' = OSAX. far, OHG. 

<$n* 'treason, danger' G. gefahr 
'danger ; GOTH. *ffra is the source 
Qiffoja 'a spy' : Aryan \Tptr also 
in LAT. periculum 'danger', GR. 
nBion 'trial'. 

feast ME. f{ste fr. OFR. feste = 
FR. fete\ source LAT. festa. 

feat ME. fet by-form feit fait 
fr. FR. fait = LAT. factum. 

feather short for ME. father 
OE. feder -=- DU. veder , OSAX. 
fethara, OHG. fedara G. feder, 
ON. ^Wr 'feather': TEUT. base 
f'epro-, Aryan petra-', cogn. w. 
GR. -nrujov 'feather, wing', SKR. 
pdtatram 'wing' /^/m 'feather' : 
Aryan \T/^ in SKR. y~/#/ 'to 
fly', also in LAT. penna (prop. 
*petsnd) 'feather. 

feature w&. future fr. OFR. failure 
= LAT. factura. 

fee sb. ME./<? QK.feoh (gen./eos 
dat. /<?b) prop, 'cattle, property 
in cattle'; ident. w. GOTH, faihu, 
ON. ft 'cattle, property', OHG. 
fihu G. vieh 'cattle': TEUT. f'ehu 
Aryan piku neut. in SKR. pdfu 
neut. 'cattle'; cp. SKR. pafu 
masc., LAT. pecus 'cattle' (hence 
pecunia 'money'). 

feed vb. ME. fede OE. fedan 
f&dan : TEUT. base fodjan under 

feeble adj. ME. feble fr. OFR. 
feible foible ==: FR. faible. 

feel fetlock 


feel vb. ME. file OE. felan fdlan 
wk. vb. fr. a TEUT. base foljan in 
os AX. gifoljan, DU voelcti, OFRIS. 
fela, MHG. vilelen G, fuhlen vb. 
'feel. Perh. cogn. w. LAT. palma, 
OSAX. OE. yW#z 'hand': \^paL 

feign vb. ME. feme fr. FR.femdre 
'to feign': source LAT. fingere. 

fell sb. ME. OE. fel(ll) : TEUT. 
base ///#- in GOTH. y//, ON. 
/<#, OHG. fel(ll) G. /*//, DU. vel. 
Cogn. w. Lf^.pcllis 'skin'; \^pel 
also in film. 

fellow sb. ME. felawe late OE. 
feolaga'. borrowed fr, ON. fllage\ 
cp. ON. f-lag 'companionship, 
association', lit. 'a laying to- 
gether of property' (ON. fl 'pro- 
perty' ==. E. fee). 

felly (felloe) ME. felie (felwe) 
OE. felie (felgan) = OHG. felga 
G. felge, DU. radvclge. SKR. parfu 
'rib' is compared. 

felon ME. feloun borrowed fr. 
FR. felon 'a traitor' fr. MED. -LAT. 
fello(nem) felo(nem). 

felt ME. OE. felt; cp. the synon. 

OHG. G. filz MHG. W/?, DU. vilt, 
SW. DAN. ///: TEUT. /^//^2 *////5: 

from a pre-TEUT. *peldos. Felt 
is prob. related to OSLOV. plusti 
felt*. The synon. Rom. words 
IT. feltro, FR. feutre (MED. - LAT. 
filtruni) 'felt* are ofTEUT. origin. 

fen ME. QK.fen(nn): TEUT. base 
fanja- 'morass' in the synon. 
GOTH, faniy DU. z/^, ON. fen, 
OHG. fenni. 

fence sb short for defence. 

fend vb, ME. fende\ also abbre- 
viation of defend. 

fennel ME. fenel OE. fnul\ 
borrowed fr. LAT. feniculumfenu- 
culum (whence ; also FR. fenouil, 
IT. finocchid)\ DU. venkel , OHG.. 
fenahhal fenihhal G. fenchel are 
earlier loanword's. 

fern shortened for ME. ffrn 
OE. f{arnftarn = G. farn, DU. 
varen. The TEUT. base farna- 
'fern' is ident. w. SKR. parna 
'wing, feather, leaf; cp. GR. 
nrtQov 'feather' TJTFQIS 'fern'. 

ferret borrowed fr. FR. furet 
(= IT. furetto), which is a deri- 
vative of LAT. fur 'thief. FR. 
furet is also the source of DU. 
fret, G. frett usually frettchen. 

ferry sb. ME. ferie'. it is un- 
certain whether it is a genuine 
E. word (OE. *ferie) or a Scand. 
loanword (ON. ferja), cp. G. 
fdhre, DU. veer. Source the 
verbal *ffar in fare. 

ferry vb. ME. ferie OE. ferian 
'carry' = ON. ferja 'carry', GOTH. 
far jan 'travel'; cp. fare. 

fetch vb. M^.fecche with the by- 
form f{tc (pret. fette) OE. feccan 
fetjan earlier fetian (pret./<?/W<?); 
E. -tch ME. cch is developed fr. 
OE. tj {fetjan earlier fetian, WEST-- 
TEUT. fetdjan). There exists a 
TEUT. \T/^/in OE. sidfat journey', 
ON. fet 'step, pace'; E. foot 
belongs to the same Aryan 

fetlock orig. 'the tuft of hair be- 
hind a horse's pastern-joint'. 
ME. fitlock fetlack'. a genuine E. 


fetter fight 

word ident. w. MHG. fi^lach fty- 
loch, deriv. of MHG. fei^el G. 
fessel 'pastern of a horse' which 
seems to be cogn. w. TEUT. 

fdt E. foOt\ Cp. LAT. pCS 

pedem 'foot 1 . 

fetter sb, ME. feter OE. fetor 
= os AX. fetur, ON. fjgturr, DU. 
veter, OHG. fSrz&ura MHG. ve^er] 
cogn. w. LAT. pedica, GR. 7is<5rj 
*a fetter' and perh. w. G. fassen 
'catch': Aryan \fped pod. 

fever ME. fever fefre OE. fefor 
(= OHG. fiebar G.fieber) : borrow- 
ed fr. LAT. febris febrem, whence 
also FR. fievre (= IT. febbre) 

few adj. ME. f$we OE. f$awe 
plur. represents a TEUT. *fauwai 
and is ident. with OHG. fdhe 
plur. of a TEUT. *fauh (w)a- : Aryan 
adj. pauqo- in LAT. paucus. Cp. 
also GOTH, fawai plur. with 
ON. fd-r (DAN. /# sw. /; ME. 
fo is Scand. loanword) ; OSAX. 
fake 'few'. INDO-EUR. \{~ pan in 
GR. navw 'cease'? 

fey (SC.) 'doomed to die' ME. 
fete OE. fay = ON. feigr, OSAX. 
/%/ 'doomed to die'; DU. veeg 
'about to die' (OHG. feigi 'daring, 
petulant' G. feige 'cowardly'): 
TEUT. base faigi-. 

fickle ME. fikel OE. ficol from 
OE. tyfic 'fraud'; cp. OE. fdcen 
'fraud, deception', OSAX../7&W = 
OHG. feihhan 'deception': TEUT. 
^f*fik faik, prop, faih in GOTH. 
bifaihon vb. 'defraud' and faih 
3b. 'deception, fraud'. There 

exists an Aryan \f^pik in SKR. 
pifuna 'treacherous'. 

fiddle ME. fithel OE. fidele = 
synon. OHG. fidula MHG. w^/<? G. 
fiedel t ON. fidla, DU. vedel'. the 
whole group is based on a 

WESTTEUT. fifula = FR. ^/<f, IT. 

SPAN. wW^. Source a vulgar 
LAT. vitula (in a late pronun- 
ciation fidula!!). 

field ME. OE. feld\ e stands for 
TEUT. /before ld\ cp. OHG. OSAX. 
feld G. feld y DU. veld. The TEUT. 
stem *Jktfu- is related to OE. 

<?'/^, OSAX. folda 'earth'. A pre- 
TEUT. adj. plthu- is found in 
SKR. prthu 'broad' and prthivi 
'earth'; cp. GR. nhaTvs> O1R - kthan 
'broad', LITH. plains. Perh./Y#/ 
is cognate. 

fiend ME. fend OE. feond = 
GOTH, fijands, ON. fjdndi, OSAX. 
ftund t OHG. MHG. viant G. feind. 
The sb. is prop, a pres. partic. 
of the vb. GOTH, fjan (OE. ffoytn, 
OHG. fi&n 'hate'). A correspond- 
ing verbal \/~ piy 'hate' occurs 
in SKR.; therefore fiend orig. 
meant 'the hater'. Cp. friend. 

fierce ME. fers\ borrowed fr. 
OFR. fers fiers, regular forms 
fer fier = FR. fier (LAT. ferus 

fifth OE. fifda cp. five. 

fig ME. fig borrowed fr. FR. 
figue = LAT. ficus, whence also 
OE. fic-treo 'fig-tree*. 

fight vb. ME. fighte OE. feohtan 
str. vb. = r>u. vechten, OHG. 
fehtan G. fechtcn'. TEUT. \ffehtt 

file* fire 


file 1 'a string, list, order; 
borrowed from FR. file 'a line, 
rank, row'; source LAT. filum 'a 

file 2 'a steel rasp ME. file OE. 
/// usually feol (contracted from 
*flhit)\ cp. OHG. fihala MHG. vile 
G feile, DU. vijL Connection 
with ON. pel pel 'file is uncer- 

fill vb. ME. fille OE. fyllan wk. 
vb. = OSAX. fullian, DU. vullen, 
OHG. fullen G. fallen, ON. fylla: 
GOTH. TEUT. fulljan 'fill' is deriv. 
fr. the TEUT. adj. ///- = E. 

filly loanword fr. ON. fylja *a 
filly', which is a dimin. of ON. 
/0/z = E. foal. 

film ME. fi 'Ime OE. filmen fylmen 
= OFRIS. filmen from a TEUT. 
dimin. base filmina- which points 
to a more primitive TEUT. felma-, 
cogn. w. E. fell. 

filter vb. borrowed fr. FR. 
filtrer 'strain through a felt' fr. 
UED.-LkT.fittrum feltrum 'felt'; cp. 

filth ME. y//>fo short for x OE. 
fyld\ abstract formation of OE. 
ful -- E. foul\ cp. OHG. fiilida 
= GOTH. */&lifa. 

fin sb. ME. OE. y;z () ; cp. DU. 
vin, sw. fena 'a fin'; cogn. w 
LAT. penna pinna 'feather'. 

finch ME. finch OE. fine fr. a 
TEUT. base finki-\ cp. DU. z>z/&, 
OHG. zwz<? G. fink. Observe the 
similarity of sound of the Rom. 
words for 'finch': IT. pinaone, 

FR. pinson and E. dialect, pink 

find ME.fmde OE. findan str. vb. 
= synon. GOTH, finpan , ON. 
finna, OSAX. findan fithan , DU. 
vin den, OHG. findan G. finden'. 
TEUT ^fenpfinpQr by Verner's 
law fend find is pre-TEUT. // 
in the synon. IR. vb ^/w 'I 

fine adj. ME. /"/^^ borrowed fr. 
FR. yfo (whence also MHG, vin 
G. /<?*, DU. fijn). Source LAT. 
finire vb. 'complete'. 

fine sb ME. fine from LAT. 
finis 'a fine', lit. 'a final pay- 

finger ME. OE finger = GOTH. 

ggrS) <3K. fingr, DU. vinger, OHG. 
fingar G. finger : TEUT. baseyf^r^-, 
perh. allied to /Vz/tf (Aryan 
penqe) . 

finish vb. ME. finisshe fr. OFR. 
finiss- base of some forms of FR. 

frw'r (LAT. finire) 'end, finish'. 

fir ME. firre', perh a Scand. 
loanword : ON. fyra rare by-form 
of fur a fir'. There is a TEUT. 
name of the tree furh-: OE. 
furh, OHG. for ha G. fohre\ cp. 
pre-TEUT. /^r/ ^<?r^ in LAT. ^^r- 
^w^ 'oak. 

fire ME. fir OE. /jtfr : contr. ot 


fuir commonly OSAX. OHG. fiur 
MHG. viur G. feuer , DU. z/r. 
The ir of OSAX. OHG. fiiir (cp. 
ON. ./rfrr f$rr) is suffix; / fr. 
pre-TEUT pu- is the root; ON. 
fur-r, GR. 77tT-p, Umbrian /-r, 
ARMEN. hu-r point to a common 

7 6 

first fleam 

base pii-r\ SKR. \^pu 'flame', 
whence pavakd 'fire'. 

first ME. first OE. fyrst fr. 
*fyrest = TEUT. furista- in OHG. 
furist (cp. G. f first, DU. rwtf 
'prince'), ON. fyrstr 'first'; the 
original word for 'first' is OSAX. 
formo = OE. forma with /war- 
suffix (GOTH, fru-ma) from INDO- 
EUR. /r; cp. GR. npoftoc, SKR. 
purva-s, osLQv.priivu, UTH.ftrmas 
'first'. Cp. former. 

fish ME. yfr^ OE. ysr (and ysr) 

= GOTH. yf/fo, ON. fiskr , OHG. 
OSAX. yfr/ G. y$T/#. TEUT. fiska-Z 

from pre-TEUT. pisko-s agrees 
with LAT./wm; the corresponding 
OIR. iasc points to pre-historic 
fist ME. fist short for fist OE. 

fr. TEUT. *fusti(z) OHG. 

G. faust, DU. ?;/>/ 'fist'. If 
connected with synon. LAT. pug- 
nus and GR. nvyf.iij t WESTTEUT. 
fusti- stands for fuhsti- = pre- 

TEUT. puk-Sti ptig-sti- ? 

five ME. five OE. fife\ without 
inflection OE. fif from TEUT. fimf 

- GOTH fimf y OSAX flf t DU. 00/, 
OHG. finf MHG. Z>//72/ G. funf, 

ON. /&/// (DAN sw fern) : pre- 
TEUT. p&mpe penqe (for the shifting 
of INDO-EUR q to / see fir, 
four, wolf); cp. SKR panea, 
GR. nivTB (TI^UTTC m'unToc), LAT. 
quinque (for *pingue) ) LITH. penki, 

OIR. <:<9/C, CYMR. /??/// 

flag sb. 'an ensign' = G. flagge, 
DU. z-'/fig", DAN y/^, sw. fiagg\ a 
modern word, not found in the 
OTEUT. periods. 

flail ME. /<7// /^7 OE. 
(once recorded as y?/ 
OHG. flegil G. flegel, DU. vlegel'. a 
WESTTEUT. loanword from LAT. 
fiagellum 'whip, flail', whence also 
FR. yftfo& (also OIR. sraigelf). 

flask OE. yfej^ = ON. flaska, 
DU. y^j-^, OHG. fiasco. G. fiasche ; 
corresponding to the synon. IT. 
fiasco, OFR. fiasche FR. flacon (MED.- 
LAT. fiasco fr. LAT. vasculumT). 

flat ME. yfe/: borrowed fr. ON. 
= sw. fiat, DAN. yftjv/; cp. 
f^ f 'flat'; cp. OE. fiet, OSAX. 
fietti 'floor' and OHG. fiai^a 'palm 
of the hand'. 

flatter vb. ME. fiatere : borrow- 
ed fr. OFR. fiater = FR. flatter. 

flax ME. flax OE. fleax = OHG. 
f^Af G. fiachs, DU. fr'/os; prob. 
cogn. w. the vb. OHG. fiehtan G. 
fiechten and GOTH, fiaihtan 'braid' ; 
the 5- in TEUT. *fiahsa- would be 
derivative ; cp. the Aryan 
'braid* in Lttf.jplectere, GR. 

flay vb. ME. fig OE. fl{an contr. 
fr. a TEUT. str. \\>.fiahan = ON. 

flea ME. y?/ OE. fieah = OHG. 
^A G. fiohj DU. zV^<?, ON. fid'. 
TEUT. base fiauh- for flauh- 
meant orig. 'a fugitive', so that 
the root under flee = GOTH. 
pliiihan is the source otv.flea, 

fleam l a kind of lancet' fr. FR. 
flamme. Source LAT. flebotomum, 
whence also OE. flytme, DU. vlijm, 

fleck flood 


OHG. flietuma MHG. vliete(n) G. 

fleck a Scand. loanword: ON. 
flekkry sw. flack = DU. vleky G. 
y7tr/^ 'spot'. Cp. ME.y 

fledged adj. ixs.. flegge 
MDU. vlugghty LG. fliigge, G. 
fliigge from a WEST-TEUT. base 
fluggj- (OHG. flucchi MHG. vliicke 
from WEST-TEUT, flukkj"). The 
source is the TEUT. \Tftug in E. 

flee vb. ME. fa' OE. y&wz contr. 
of *fleohan = OSAX. OHG. fliohan 
MHG. vltehen G. fliehen\ GOTH. 
pliuhan str. vb. 'flee' points to 
an ARYAN \ftluk-\ c^.flea and 

fleece (the ending ^ for 5-) 
ME. fa's OE.faos (and with vowel- 
mutation yfj^) from TEUT.fattsaz 
(fliusis) ; cp. DU. z;/*>j, MHG z;//>j 
(v/ius) G. vliess. 

fleet 1 'a number of ships' ME. 
/?#? OE. /?'<?/ 'a ship'. - - fleet 2 
'a creek, bay' ME. flet OE. flfot 
'a bay of the sea'. Both belong 
to the vb. fleet ME. flete 'float, 
swim' OE. fleotan 'float, swim' = 
QN.fljota, os.\x.fa0tan, vu.vKeten, 
OHG. fliohan G. fliessen. TEUT. 
\{~fleut flut fr. ARYAN pleud-plud. 
cp. flit and float. 

flesh ME. flesch QE.flcesc shows 
umlaut and palatalization of the 
base *fldski(z} *flaiski(z) = OHG. 
fieisk G. flcisch, DU. vleesch ; ON. 
flesk means only 'pork', more 
esp. 'ham and bacon'; perh. 
cogn. w. flitch. 

flicker vb. ME. flikere OE. fi- 
corian = DU. flikktren 'sparkle, 
glitter'; a frequent, of a base 
flik flak in WE..flakere> G.flackern ? 

flight ! 'the act of flying' ME. 
flight Q^.flyht from OE. fleogan = 
E. fly. 

flight 2 prop, 'the act of fleeing' 
ME. flight OE. flyht (== DU. vlugt, 
OHG. OSAX. fluhty G. flucht) from 
fleon 'flee'. ?.. flight G$ flyht, DU. 
have both meanings of 
. Cp. //**. 

flint 'a hard stone* ME. OE. 
flint 'a rock'; cp. DAN. flint, G. 
flinte 'musket, flint-lock', sw. 
flinta, DAN. ^// 'flint': perh. re- 
lated to GR. nhivdvc, 'a brick'. 

flit vb. ME. flitte- OE. *flyttan = 
ON. y^^Vz (sw. flytta, DAN. flytte) : 
cp. the root under fleet vb. 

flitch ME.fticche QE. flicce = ON. 
flikki'. TEUT. base flikkja-, perh. 
akin to fleck! or cogn. w. 

float vb. ME. yfjtffe OE. flotian\ 
cp. ME. y?<?/^ 'a boat, a fleet' OE. 
fo/Vz 'a boat, ship, a fleet': 
deriv. of the TEUT.\T/^/ under 

/<?<?/ vb. 

flock 1 'herd, flock* ME. flok 

OE. floCC = ON. flokkr, DAN. y?<?<, 

sw. /i?^. 

flock 2 'a lock of wool' fr. OFR. 
?^ = LAT. floccus, whence also 
OHG. floccho G. ftocke, DU. 

flood ME. OE. flod = osA 
DU. vhedj OHG. y?<?/ G. flut t ON. 
7^, GOTH, flodus'. a common 
Teut. word. GOTH, flodus from 
ARYAN plotu-s is based on the 

floor foe 

TEUT. \Tyft?- from pre-TEUT. plo- 
in flow. 

floor ME. OE. flor DU. vloer, 
MLG. vlor, MHG. vluor (G. flur) 
'field, surface, hall', ON. flor 'the 
floor of a cow-house': TEUT. 
floru-s from pre - TEUT. filorus 
plants closely related to OIR. 
Idr for *pldr 'floor, paved floor'. 

florin ME. florin : borrowed fr. 
FR. florin (IT. florino so named 
because it bore a lily, from IT. 
fiore 'a flower'). 

flounce changed fr. w&.frounce 
'a plait' : loanword fr. FR. froncer 
'plait , wrinkle' (prob. from a 
LAT. type *frontiare 'wrinkle the 

flounder sb. borrowed fr. SCAND. 
sw. flundra, DAN. flynder , ON. 

flour ident. w. floiver from 
FR. fleur 'flower'. 

flourish vb. ME. flourisshe'. 
adapt, fr. OFR. fleuriss- stem of 
fleurir 'flourish' (LAT. florescere 
inceptive of flor -ere 'bloom'). 

flow vb. ME. flowe OE. flowan 
str. vb. ON. floa, DU. vloeien'. 
TEUT.\T/ft7- in flood '= pre-TEUT. 
plb- in GR. TrAeJ-ccJ 'I swim, sail', 
nfaoioc. 'swimming, sailing'. 

flower ME. flour : borrowed fr. 
AFR. flour flor FR. fleur (LAT. 
flos). Ident. w. flour. 

fluke 'a flounder' w&. flpke OE. 
floe = ON. floki\ cogn. w. OHG. 
flah G.flach, DU. vlak adj. 'plain'. 
Cp. the ARYAN \(~plak in LAT. 
placenta 'cake' and planus (for 
placnusT) 'plain'. 

flute borrowed fr. FR. flitfe, 
whence also DU. fluit\ cp. MHG. 
vloite G. flote 'flute' and OFR. 
flaute, w.flauto. Chaucer uses 
the vb. floute 'play on the flute'. 

flutter vb. MK.flotereQK.flotorian 
%c.\^flut under float. Cp. G. 

fly vb. ME. file earlier flfyen 
OE. fleogan str. vb. = QnG.ftiogan 
G. fliegen, DU. vliegen, ON. fljiiga. 
GOTH. *fliugan is inferred from 
the factitive flaugjan 'carry away 
in flight' and shows that the 
common Teut. vb. was fleugan\ 
cp. LAT. pluma (for *pluhmal!) 
'feather'. fly sb. ME. flie 
earlier flety OE. fleoge = OHG. 
flioga G. fliege, DU. vlieg (ON. with 
ablaut fluga 'fly') : evidently fly 
means 'the flyer' from fly vb. 

foal ME. fole OE. fola = synon. 
ON. foliy OHG. folo G. fohlcn, 
GOTH, fula: a common Teut. 
term for 'the young of a horse 
or an ass' from pre-TEUT. pzlon- ; 
allied to GR. ruvkog 'colt, young 
animal', LAT. pullus 'a young ani- 
mal' esp. 'a chicken'. 

foam sb. ME. fome OE. fdm = 
OHG. feim : base faima- for an 
earlier *faina- = SKR. phena> 
OSLOV. pena 'foam'. 

fodder ME. fodder OE. foddor 
= DU. voeder, OHG. fuotar G. 
f utter > ON. fodr: cp. OE. fdda 
under food. 

foe ME. fp OE. lefd contr. fr. 
an earlier gtfdha = WEST-TEUT. 
gafaiho(n)-\ cp. the abstract OE. 
fahd (OHG. gifehida G. fchde): 

fog forbid 


OE. iefd sb. and fahd sb. are 
based on the adj. OE. tyfdh = 

OHG. gifch\ OE. fdh = TEUT. 

faiha- from a pre-TEUT. paiko- 

fog: a Dan. loanword, DAN. fog 
in sneefog 'a snow-storm' ; cp. 
ON. _/<? 'spray, snow-drift', ^// 
! snow-storm' from fjiika str. vb. 

fold vb. ME. fo'lde OE. fdldan 
(fealdan) str. vb. = G&m.falfan t 
ON. /tf/dfo, OHG. faltan G. fatten'. 
TEUT. \Tfalf = pre-TEUT. /// cp. 
in OSLOV. //<?/ //<wA' 'braid', GR. 
$tn\d<jto$ for *dtnXanog 'two- 
fold*, SKR.futa 'fold' (for *///&). 
-fold ME. -yW^/ OE, -fold 
(j-fealtf) = OSAX. -faldy DU. -voud, 
G. -/<?//, ON. -faldr, GOTH, -f alps'. 
a common Teut. suffix for 
the formation of multiplicatives 
corresponding to GR. jrhdaiog in 
tiinhdaiog (also oi'naXrog 'two- 

folk ME. /<?/ OE. /0/r = OSAX. 

/<?/, DU. VOlkj OHG. /0/<T G. VOlkj 

ON. /<?/. The primit. meaning 
is perh. 'a crowd of people', 
whence LITH. pulkas 'a crowd', 
OSLOV. plukU 'an army'. 

follo\v vb. ME. folwefolowe OE. 
folgian (by-form fytytti) = ON. 
fylgja, DU. volgen, OHG. folgen G. 
folgen'. the common WEST-TEUT. 
and Norse vb. for 'follow'; 
possibly a compound verbal 
stem, the first member of which 
is ///; cp. OE. full-code 'he 
followed', OE. OLG. fulgangan, 
OHG. fola-gdn 'follow'. ^^ fr. 

OE. gdn would be the second 

fond ME. fond prop, fonn-ed 
partic of fonne 'be foolish'; cp. 
ME. sb. f<?7t(nn)'a fool': borrowed 
fr. sw. fane 'a fool'; ICEL. fdni 
'a buoyant person'. 

food ME. fade OE. foda : TEUT. 
^Tfbd f a d ( C P- OHG ' fatunga 
'food') fr. ARYAN pat in nart-Tadai 
'eat'. Cp. also feed, fodder y 

fool ME. fol\ adopt, fr. OFR. fol 
(= FR. fou fol) 'a fool'. 

foot ME. OE. fot (plur. fet) = 

OSAX. /<?/, DU. &^/, OHG. fuOTy G. 
/JJ, ON. fdtr, SW. /(?/, DAN. y^^, 

GOTH.ffous: TEUT. base/^/- from 
ARYAN pod- changing with ARYAN 
pod- ped- in the declension; cp. 
GR. TToJ- in Tio'Jtt, nom. sing. Trowg 1 
(AEOL. TTW'C) ; LAT. ped-em (nom. 
sing. pes)\ GR. Tjsdilov 'sole' 
7is"C,6g (for *77fi|/'oc) 'pedestrian', 
SKR. /#</ 'foot' and /Wrf 'step, 

fop vb. borrowed fr. DU. foppcn 
'prate, cheat' (fopper 'a wag', 
fopperij 'cheating') : orig. a word 
of G. slang. 

for ME. OE. for prep. = GOTH. 
faiira 'before, for', OHG. fora G. 
vor 'before', DU. voor\ cogn. w. 
LAT. pro 'before', GR. n QO 'be- 

forbear MK. forbore QK. forberan 
str. vb.; cp. bear vb. 

forbid ME. forbede OE. forbeodan 
confounded with m.forbidde OE. 
forbiddan\ cp. bid. 


force foul 

force sb. ME. force fors\ bor- 
rowed fr. FR. force (LAT. type 
fortia 'strength' derived h.fortis 

ford ME. OE. ford (ME. also 
forth) DU. vocrt y OSAX. *ford 
in Hertford (prop, 'ford of an 
army), OHG. vurt G.'furt (Frank-, 
Er-j Schwein-) ; cp. OE. Oxenaford 
(lit. 'ford of the oxen') = Oxford. 
TEUT. *fordu- forpu- from the 
TEUT. \ffar in fare\ hence ford 
prop, 'passable, practicable pass- 
age'; cp. A VEST, peretu 'bridge', 
LAT. portus 'haven', ON. fjordr 
'bay'; also CELT. -LAT. -ritum (for 
*prtotri) in Augustoritum, CYMR. 
rhyd 'ford'. 

foreign ME. foreine'. adapted 
fr.oFR.f0ram: LAT. typefvraneus 
derived fr. for as adv. 'out of 

forfeit sb. ME. /<?;/<#<?: borrowed 
fr. OFR. forfait 'a fine' part, of 
forfaire for s fair e 'trespass' (MED.- 
LAT. forisfactum part, of foris- 
facere 'trespass', lit. 'do beyond'). 

forge ME. forge borrowed fr. 
FR. forge from LAT. fabrica 'a 

forget vb. ME. forgete OE. for- 
gitanstr. vb. OSAX..fargefan, DU. 
vergeten, MLG. vorgeten, OHG. fir- 
ge-^an G. verges sen. The com p. 
vb. is the remnant of a str. 
verbaly"^/, whence E. / 'ob- 
tain, reach'; cp. GOTH, bigitan 
'find', ON. /# 'obtain'. Cp. get 
and the ARYAN \^ghed: ghend in 
LAT. prae-hendere, GR. 

fork ME. forke OE. forca = DTJ. 
zw, OHG. fur c ha fur ka G.furke, 
ON. forka : borrowed fr. LAT. 
furca 'a fork', whence also FR. 
fourche, SPAN, horca, IT. forca. 

forlorn 'quite lost' ME. forlorn 
OE. forloren part, of OE. forleosan 
'lose utterly'; cp. /<?.$ and G. 
DU. verier en, DAN. forloren. 

former formed by adding the 
compar. suffix -*r to ME. forme 
OE. forma = OSAX. formo 'first'; 
cp. first. 

forsake vb. ME. forsake OE. 
forsacan str, vb. 'oppose'; cp. 

forth VOL. forth &. ford =. OSAX. 
for th t OHG. y^;v/ G. /l?r/, GOTH. 
compar. failrpis adv. 'earlier'. 
OTEUT. /<?r/ from older />-/<? prto 
is allied to before w\& further. 

night from ME. fourtene 'fourteen' 
and night (old plur.) 'nights'; 
cp. OE. feowertyne niht and also 
E. sennight seven night. It 
was usual to reckon by nights in 
pre-hist. periods. - - forty ME. 
fourty OE. feowerti^ = DU. veer tig, 
G . vierzig, GOTH . fidwortigjus ; c p . 
OE. feowet = four and OE. //j 
= /**. 

foster vb. ME. fostre short for 
OE. fostrian fromfdsfor 'nourish- 
ment'; akin to/0 0rtf: TSOT.y^/^/. 

foul ME. /<?#/ OE. // = DU. 
Z/0/7, OHG. //// G. /<?/, ON. //^//, 

GOTH. .//; /0- is suffix, and the 
TEUT. \l~fu is inferred fr. ON. 
fiUnn 'rotten* and from the fac- 
titive vb. ON. feyja 'cause to 

found freeze 


rot'. An Aryan verbal \T pu 
appears in SKR. piiy 'rot, stink'; 
cp. LAT. piiteo 'stink' pilfer 'de- 
cayed', GR. 71-L-&W 'cause to 
rot', GR. nvov LAT. pits 'puss'. 

found ! vb. 'lay the foundation 
of ME. founde : adapted fr. FR. 
fonder from LAT. fundare 'found'. 

found 2 vb. 'cast metals' bor- 
rowed fr. FR. fondre from LAT. 
f under e 'cast metals'. 

fount ME. fount fr. OFR. font = 
LAT. font-em. 

four ME. four fewer OE. feower 
(feowerl) = osAX.ftwar, DU. G. vier 
OKG.fior, ox.fjdrir. The OE. by- 
form fyder- (in comp. zsfyder- 
fete 'four-footed') and GOTH, fid- 
wdr (fidur-) point to a pre-TEUT. 
basefletwor petur for qetwor qetur\ 
ident. w. SKR. catur, LAT. quattuor, 

GR. T8OOUOSC (jliffV(J8c)t OSLOV. 

tetyri 'four'. 

fowl ME. foul earlier fuwel OE. 
fugol = OSAX. fugal, DU. vogel, 
onG.fogal MHG. G. vogel, ON. fugl, 
GOTH, fug Is: TEUT. base fug la-. 

fox ME. OE. fox = OHG. fuhs 

G. fuchs, DU. vos, ON. fox ; the 
s of the TEUT. base fuh-s- is 
suffix as is shown by GOin.fauho, 
ON. foa 'fox' = OHG. foha MHG. 
vohe 'she-fox' (and OE..focge 'she- 
fox'?). Cp. vixen. 

frail (ME. frele) borrowed fr. 
OFR. fraile (FR. frtte) 'brittle' = 
LAT. fragilis. 

frame vb. ME. fr erne OE. f rent- 
man 'promote, do' (= Gs.fremja, 
OHG. fremman , OSAX. fremmian 


'perform 1 ') : derived fr. OE, fram 
'strong, good', ident. w. from. 

franchise ME. fraunchise: bor- 
rowed from v^. franchise privi- 
leged liberty' from v&.franchiss- t 
stem of some forms of franc hir 
'free' from FR. franc 'free 1 . 

fraught part, of ME. fraughtc 
vb.= DU. bevrachten, G. befrachten\ 
cp. G.fracht QHG.freht 'earnings, 
gain'. Properly a compound ; 
cp. OE. &ht, OHG. $ht 'property' 
under own. 

freak 'a whim, caprice' ME. frek 
'quick, vigorous' OE. free 'bold, 
rash' : ON. frekr, OHG. freh 

greedy' G. frech 'pert', GOTH. 
faihu-friks 'avaricious' : TEUT. 
base freka-. 

freckle from ON. freknur plur. 
'freckles'; cp. sw. frdkne plur. 
fraknar, FRIS. (Amrun) friakan 
'freckles'. Perh. cogn. w. GR. 
TJSQY.VOC 'spotted'. 

free ME. fre OE. freo fri\ TEUT. 
base frija- = GOTH, fret's t OSAX. 
OHG. fri G. fret. The PRE-TEUT. 
priyo- is the base of CYMR. rhydd 
'free' and of SKR. priyd-s 'dear, 
beloved'; cp. the SKR. verbal 
\l"pri 'rejoice, render favorable' 
with GOTH, frijon 'love' under 
friend and Friday. 

freeze vb. ME. frfse OE. freosan 
str. vb.; cp. synon. ON. frjosa, 
DU. vriezen, QUG.friosan G.frieren\ 
cp. GOTH.frms 'frost, cold': TEUT. 
\{~freus fruz from a PRE-TEUT. 
preus prut, which seems to exist in 
LAT. prurio for *prusio 'itch', if 
'itch, frostburn' is the inter- 


freight frock 

mediate meaning, and in SKR: 
\l~prus 'spurt out'; prusvd 'drop, 
frozen drop, frost'. Cp. frost. 

freight ident. w. fraught. 

fresh adj. ME. fresh fresch OE. 
fersi = OHG. frisc G. frisch, DU. 
versch 'fresh'; cogn. w. OSLOV. 
presmu 'fresh' from Aryan prais- 
kino-\ cp. LITH. preskas 'sweet, 
unsoured' with FINN, rieska 'fresh, 
unsoured'. The Rom. family of 
IT. fresco, FR. /rat's comes from 
WESTrTEUT. freska-. 

fret ! vb. 'eat up, devour' short 
for ME. frtfe OE. fretan str. vb. 
= DU. LG. vreten, OHG. fretan 
G.fressen 'eat up, consume'. The 
corresp. GOTH, f rattan (pret./r<?/) 
'consume' shows that WEST-TEUT. 
fretan is a compound of etan = 
eat] fra is a common prefix in 
GOTH. (cp. fraught and. fret). 

fret 2 vb. 'ornament, variegate 
ME. fretie OE. frcetwan 'adorn': 
from QE../r&twe plur. 'ornament' 
OSAX. frataha 'ornament': source 
perh. a Teut. compound fra -j- 
GOTH. tewa 'arrangement'. 

friar ME. frere : adapted fr. FR. 
frere 'a brother'. 

Friday ME. friday OE. friiedcei 
= DU. vrijdag, OHG. friatag MHG. 
vritac G. freitag , ON. Frjddagr: 
really 'day of the Teut. goddess 
Fry a Frijjb in imitation of LAT. 
dies Veneris (Fria and Venus 
correspond). ON. Frigg like OHG. 
Frfa is prop, 'the goddess of 
love'; cp. SKR. priyd 'wife, loved 
one' (OSAX. frt, OE. /rjo 'wife). 
Cp. free. 

friend ME. */r&id OE. freond = 
OSAX. friund 'friend, relative', DU. 
vriend t OHG. friunt MHG. vriunt (d) 
G. freundy GOTH, frijonds 'friend' : 
TEUT. frijond- (formed like 
fiend) is pres. partic. of an old 
TEUT. vb. frijdn 'love' = GOTH. 
frijon, OE.fre'0an'love. 

frieze (of a column) fr. FR. 
/rise (= YY.f regie 'frieze'), whence 
also G. DU. fries. 

fright ME. fright OE. fyrhtu 
fyrhto\ cp. the synon. GOTH. 
faurhtei 'fright' and OSAX. OHG. 
for(a)hta MHG. vorht(e) G. furcht 
'fright'. frighten v\>.^SR.frighte 
OE. fyrhtan -= GOTH, faurhtjan, 
OSAX. forhton, OHG. furihten 
forahtan G. fiirchten. 

fringe ME. fringe: loanword 
from OFR. *fringe FR. f range 
(source LAT. fimbria 'fringe'), 
whence G. /ranse, DU. franje. 

frisk vb. formed from the adj. 
OFR. f risque = SCAND. friskr 
'frisky, brisk'. 

frith firth ME.firt/i: a Scand. 
loanword; cp. ON. fjordr (plur. 
firdir) 'bay'; DAN.fard, sw.fjard 
'a firth': TEUT. base/<?r/z/-, ARYAN 
pertu- cp. LAT. portus 'haven'. For 
the Aryan \^per cp. ford. 

fritter late ME. fritoure: bor- 
rowed fr. FR. friture 'dish of 
fried fish', also 'a fragment' from 
OFR. frit 'fried' (source LAT. 
frig ere) ; cp. fry. 

fro ME. fro earlier fra : adapted 
fr. ON. fra 'from', ident. vt.from. 

frock ME. frok\ borrowed fr. 
OFR. /roc ==- MED. -LAT. frocus 'a 

frog furze 

monk's frock'; source OSAX. hroc 

frog UE.frogge OE. frogga', the 
OE. parallel form frocca (mod. 
dial, frock) points to the synon. 
ON. fraukr. Prob. OE. forsc, 
OHG. frosk G. frosch, ON. froskr 
show the same root, if derived 
fr. TEUT. *fruhsqa-. 

frolic borrowed fr. DU. vrolijk 
'merry ; cp. TAHG.vrdloktn 'rejoice', 
prob. after MHG. vro-sanc 'merry 
song' supplanting an older 

from ME. OE. from fram = 
OSAX. ouG.fram MHG. vram prep, 
'forth, from' adv. 'forth', ON. 
fram adv. 'forward' frd prep, 
'from' - - adv. 'fro', GOTH, fram 
prep, 'from' adv. 'further, forward'. 

frost ME. frost OE. forst = ON. 
DAN. sw. G. frost, DU. vorst\ 
derived fr. y~ frits = freeze. 

froth sb. ME.fr0t/ieh. Q^.froda. 

froward adj. ME.. f reward earlier 
frdward: derived fr. fro. 

frown vb. ME.froune shortened 
fr. FR. refrogner. 

fruit ME. frut (fruit) fr. FR. 
fruit = LAT. fructus. 

fry vb. ME. frle fr. OFR. frire 
= i*m.frigere 'roast'; cp. fritter. 

fry sb. ME./r/ fr. ON. frjd (fro) 
'spawn, fry ; ident. w. GVrH./ratw 
seed': pre-TEUT. pro-eiwo-. 

fuel sb. late ME. fouaile fr. OFR. 
*fonatile\ LAT. type focalia 'fuel'. 

full ME. OE. ful(ll) = GVm. fulls, 
ON. fullr, DU. vol, G. Vffll OHG. 

fol(ll] : TEUT. base fulla- fr. an 

ARYAN base pzl-no in SKR. purna 
'full'; cp. LAT. plenus, OIR. Ian 
(orig. *plonos) 'full'. Prop, partic. 
with suffix -no- fr. an ARYAN 
\Tpti plo 'to fill' in SKR. \fpur 
pr, LAT. implere, GR. TTI'/LITJ^III. 

fuller sb. ME. fuller OE. fuller e 
'a cloth-bleacher': adaption of 
LAT. /&//<? 'a fuller, bleacher'. 

funnel late ME. funel fr. FR. 
fondefle\ source 'LW.infundibulum. 

fur ME.furrefvrre fr. OFR.fuerre 
forre 'a sheath, a case'; source 
TEUT. -GOTH. fodr 'a sheath'; cp. 
G. f utter ident. w. E. fodder. 

furbish vb. ME. furbisshe fr. 
OFR. fourbir (fourbiss-) 'polish', 
which rests on OHG. furb(j)an 
MHG. vurben 'purify, clean' (TEUT. 
y~ furb = ARYAN \Tprp in GR. 

furlong see furrow. 

furnace ME. furneis forneis fr. 
FR. fournaise = LAT. fornax (for- 
nacem) 'an oven'. 

furnish fr. FR. fournir (stem 
fourniss-). Source a TEUT. wk. vb. 
frumjan 'perform'; cp. perform 

furrow ME. furwe forwe OE. 
furh\ TEUT. base furh- also in 
OHG. furha G. furche 'furrow', 
DU. voor, ON. for 'drain'. A pre- 
iwjT. prk pork is evident in LAT. 
porca 'a ridge between two 
furrows', CYMR. rhych 'furrow', 
ARMEN. herk. furlong ME. OE. 
furlong lit. 'furrow-long'. 

further ME. furtfier QE.furdor; 
cogn. w. for and OHG. furdir. 

furze ME. firse OE. fyrs earlier 
fyres : Teut. base furisa- ? 

8 4 

gab gall J 

gab ME. gabbe 'talk idly, jest, 
lie': borrowed fr. ON. gabba, 
whence also YR.gaber, w.gabbare. 
Cp. gabble gibber. gabber 
'gabble', var. of gabble both of 
which are frequent, verbs of gab. 
2c&&gibber. gabble 
var. of gabber. 

gabel 'a tax, impost, esp. the 
tax on salt'' borrowed fr, FR. 
gabelle (= SPAN, gabela, IT. 
gabella, MED. -LAT. gabella gab(u)- 
lum). Source a TEUT. sb. gabula- 
in OE. gafol 'tribute'. 

gable ME. gable', borrowed fr. 
OFR. gable 'a gable', which is 
of LAT. origin; cp. LAT. gabalus, 
whence ON. gafl 'a gable' (but 
GOTH, gibla, G. giebel 'a gable' 

adopted from OFR. ganger later 
j auger 'measure the contents'. 
Source uncertain. 

gain sb. ME* gain', borrowed fr. 
ON. sw. gagn = DAN. gavn 'gain'. 

gain vb. late ME. gaine: bor- 
rowed fr. VR.gagner w&.gaagmer 
gaaigner 'cultivate, gain': source 
TEUT, vb. (OHG. *weidanjan 

akin to GR. 

head': Aryan 

base ghebhala- ghebhlo-). 

gad ME. gad', borrowed fr. ON. 
gaddr 'a goad, pike' ; TEUT. base 
gazda- ident. w. LAT. hasta from 
an Aryan base ghazdha-', but gad 
in gadfly stands for goad. 

gag ME. gagge 'suffocate'; prob. 
imitation of the sound of 

gage 1 ME. gage: borrowed fr. j cogn. w. GR /oktj 
FR. gage = SPAN, gage, IT. gaggio \fel fellis 'gall' (whence IT. 

weidenon 'pasture'). 

gain- pref. ME. gem OE. 
gen gedn (= G. gegen, 

- gainsay ME. geinseie 'contra- 
dict'. Cp. against OE. ongeanes. 

gait ident. \v. 

gaiter borrowed fr. FR. guetre 
(OFR. guestre, perh. loanword fr. 
MHG. wester 'a child's chrisom- 
cloth'; cp. GOTH, wasti, LAT. vestis 

gale sb. a Scand. loanword ; akin 
to DAN. gal, sw. galen 'furious, 
mad', NORW. galen 'furious, wild, 
mad' (of wind and storm). 

gall 1 ME. galle OE. gealla = 
OSAX. OHG galla G. galle, DU. gal, 
ON. gall. GOTH. *gallm- (hardly 
*galzin-) from PRE-TEUT. ghol- is 


(LAT. type wadiutn). Source a 
TEUT. sb. cp. GOTH. wadi\ cp, wed 
and wage. 
gage 2 also gauge ME. gauge'. 

SPAN. Mel, FR. fiet). Many think 
it allied with yellow so that 
gall was named from its yellowish 

gall 2 garden 

gall 2 'a sore on the skin' ME. 'play'; prob. ident. w. GOTH, ga- 

galle OE. gealla 'a gall' (on a 
horse) = DU. gal 'a windgall', 

man 'communion of men'. The 
pref. ga- is used collectively ; 

MHG. G. galle 'a foot - disease for man cp. man. 

in horses'; perh. borrowed fr. j gander ME. gander OE. gandra\ 

LAT-ROM. galla 'a gallnut, an oak- | akin to OE. go's from a TEUT. 

apple' =. IT. galla, SPAN, agalla j base gan-s in goose and cp. 

'windgalls'. But a confusion oi\gannet. 

galla with a TEUT. word of similar | gang ME. gang 'a going, course, 

phonology is possible, since in 
sw. dialects too there exists a 

grassgaller a 
horse's hoof. 

swelling on a 

gall 3 'a gall-nut': borrowed fr. 
FR gale from LAT. galla 'a gall- 
nut, an oak-apple : ? 

galley ME. galeie: adapted fr. 
FR. galie galee (IT. galea = MED.- 
LAT. galea 'a galley'). 

gallon ME. galouni a FR. loan- 
word: FR. gallon =. IT. gallone. 

galloon borrowed fr. f^.galon. 

gallop ME. galope: borrowed fr. 
FR. galoper\ cp. also wallop. 

gallows (the plur. used as 
sing.) ME. galwes plur. OE. galga 
gealga 'cross, gibbet' = OHG. OSAX. 
galgo, DU. galg 9 G. galgen, ON. 
galgi, GOTH, galga'. a common 
TEUT. word, TEUT. galgan- from 
Aryan ghalghan-\ cp. LITH. zalga 

gamble appar. a frequent, of 
an unrecorded ME. *gam(e)le t 
commonly ME. gamene OE. ga- 
menian 'play at games'. Deriv. 
of game. For the change of n 
to / cp. MHG. gamel gamen 'pleas- 
ure'. - game 'amusement' ME. 
game OE. gamen gomen = ON. 

>HG. gaman (MHG. gamen gamel) 

way, passage OE. gang a going, 
way, privy' = OSAX. DU. G. gang 
'a going, walk, way, passage', 
ON. gangr 'a going, a crew' 

gannet ME. *ganet OE. ganot 
'swan'; akin to DU. gent 'gander', 
OHG. gana^o 'gander'; cp. a 
primit. TEUT. base gan- also in 
TEUT. -LAT. ganta 'goose'; see 
gander and goose. 

gantlet prop, gantlope 'a mili- 
tary punishment' corrupted fr. 
sw. gatlopp 'running down a 
lane' (sw. gata 'a lane' and lopp 
'a running' fr. lopa 'run' = E. 

gaol see jail. 

gap .ME. 

: borrowed fr. ON. 

gap 'opening, breach, chasm'. 
gape vb. ME. gape adapted fr. 
SCAND. gapa 'yawn' = DU. gapen, 
G. gaff en 'gape, yawn'. 

gar see garlic and gore. 

garb borrowed fr. OFR. gar be 
good fashion' from OHG. garawi 
'dress' = OE, gearwe 'preparation, 
dress*. Cp. gear. 

garden ME. gardin fr. OFR. (Pi- 
card.) gardin=tt.jardm t which 
is. of Teut. origin : OHG. garto 
(gen. and dat. gartiii) G. garten y 


gargle gaunt 

OSAX. gardo, GOTH, garda m. 'a 
fold'; akin to yard. 

gargle borrowed fr. OFR. gar- 
gouiller 'gargle' fr. gargouille 

garland ME. gerlaund'. borrow- 
ed fr. OFR. gariande FR. guirlande, 
whence DU. G. DAN. guirlande. 

garlic ME. garlek garlick OE. 
gdr-l{ac\ for lie = OE. leac cp. 
leek. The first element of the 
compound is OE. gar 'a spear' 
(c^.gore). Hence garlic prop, 

garment short for ME. gar- 
nement'. borrowed fr. FR. gar- 
nement , deriv. of FR. garnir 
'garnish'. Cp. garnish. 

garner ME. gerner'. adapted fr. 
OFR. gernier FR. grenier (IT. 
granaro = LAT. type grana- 

garnet ME. gernet'. borrowed 
fr. FR. grenat (== SPAN, granate, 
IT. granato) : source LAT. grana- 
tus 'having many grains or 

garnish vb. ME. garnisshe: 
borrowed fr. FR. garniss-^ the stem 
of certain forms of garnir (= 
IT. guarnire) 'avert, warn, garnish', 
which is of Teut. origin: TEUT. 
base warnjan. - - garrison ME. 
garnison : borrowed fr. FR. gar- 
nison ; deriv. of FR. garnir 'pro- 
vide, fortify'. Cp. garnish. 

garret ME. garite'. borrowed fr. 
OFR. garite FR. guerite 'a watch- 
tower': derived fr. OFR. garir 
warir 'save, keep' FR. guerir 
(= IT. guarire). Source a TEUT. 

warjan = GOTH, warjan 'hold, 

garrison see garnish. 

garter ME. garter e\ borrowed 
fr. OFR. gartier jartier FR. jarre- 
tiere'. deriv. of FR. jarret 'the 
small of the leg behind the 

gash ME. garse gar(e\ borrow- 
ed fr. OFR. garser 'scarify'. 

gasp vb. ME. gaspe OE. *gd$pianl 
TEUT. base gaispon = ON. geispa 
'gasp'. The E. word is not 
borrowed fr. Scand. 

gate 1 (cp. gait) 'a way, road' 
ME. gdte : borrowed fr. ON. gata 
(ace. gotu) 'way, path, road' = 
sw. gata 'a street , lane', DAN. 
gade 'a street'; ident. w. OHG, 
gaT^a G. gasse 'a street', GOTH. 
gatwo 'a street'. 

gate- 'door, gate, opening' 
ME. gdte ydte OE. %eat (plur. 
gatu %eatu) OSAX. DU. gat 'a 
hole, opening, gap', ON. gat 'an 

gather ME. gadere OE. gaderian 
( DU. gaderen, G. dial, gattern) : 
deriv. of OE. geador (cp. to- 
gether). Prob. akin to OE. gcede- 
ling 'cousin', G. gatte 'husband' 
from the same root as good. 

gaud 'a show, ornament' ME. 
gaude\ borrowed fr. LAT. gau- 
dium. gaudy 'merry, bright, 
showy* fr. gaud and the suffix -y. 

gauge see under gage 2 . 

gaunt prob. from Scand. ; cp. 
NORW. gand'a. thin pointed stick; 
a tall and thin man'. 

gauntlet gibber 

gauntlet borrowed fr. OFR. 
gantelet) dimin. of gant = FR. 
gant (= IT. guanto] 'a glove'. 
Source a TEUT. (MED.-LAT.) wantus 
'the long sleeve of a tunic, a 
glove'; cp. DU. want, VMt.vante, 
ON. vottr 'a mitten'. 

gauze borrowed fr. FR. gaze 
'cushion-canvas, tiffany' = SPAN. 
gasa 'gauze'. 

gawk (cp. gowk) c a cuckoo, 
fool' ME. gouke\ loanword from 
cw.gaukr (whence sc. gowk) = 
OHG. gouh(hh) MHG. gouch G. gauch y 
OE. %$ac 'cuckoo'. 

gay ME. gay : borrowed fr. FR. 
gai (= IT. gajo]^ 'gay, merry'. 
Source OHG. gahi 'quick, sudden' 
G. gahe jdh. 

gaze vb. ME. gdse t prob. of 
Scand. origin: sw. dial, gasa 
'gaze, stare'. 

gear ME. gere points to an OE. 
*gcere or *gtzro t ce being vowel 
mutation of a TEUT. at. Perh. 
akin to OE.gdr 'spear (c^. gar lie t 

gem ME. gemme\ adapted fr. 
FR. gemme (=n. gemma). Source 
LAT. gemma 'a swelling bud, a 
jewel, a gem', whence also OE. 
%tmm, OHG. gimma 'gem'. 

gender ME. gender: borrowed 
fr. OFR. g entire genre FR. genre 
'kind, genus, style' (= SPAN. 
genero, IT. genere 'kind'). Source 
LAT. gener- in genus 'race, stock'. 

german germane adj. formerly 
germain: borrowed fr. FR. ger- 
main (source LAT. ger maims). 

gesture borrowed fr. MED.-LAT. 

gestura 'a mode of action' from 
gerere 'carry, behave'. 

get ME. gete borrowed fr. ON. 
geta\ OE. y,tan would be ME. yite 
ite\ cp. GOTH, gitan from a TEUT. 
^ get, pre-TEUT. ghed ghend; 
cogn. w. LAT. praehendere, GR. 
yavddvsiv. Cp. forget. 

gewgaw corrupted fr. ME. 
giuegoue prop, gouegoue (pron. 
gugut): adapted of FR. joujou. 

ghastly ME. gastly OE. gastlic 
fr. OE. gckstan 'frighten' and lie 
= E. -ly\ cp. aghast. 

gherkin = DU. agurkje , DAN. 
agurke, G. gurke'. borrowed as 
orig. *agurike fr. POL. ogurek, 
BOHEM. okurka fr. late GR. ayyov- 
(jiot> c a cucumber, gherkin'. 

ghost ME. gpst OE. gdst (gcest) 
= synon. OHG. G. DAN. geist, 
OSAX. ght\ a common Teut. 
word with the same meaning 
for which ahma is used in Goth. 
The orig. meaning of the word 
('excitement'?) is not establish- 
ed; yet ON. geisa 'rage' (of fire 
and passion) and GOTH, usgaisjan 
'terrify' seem -allied. For the 
dental formative of TEUT. gaist 
(pre-TEUT. ghaisdos) cp. the SKR. 
\fhid (from *ghiztf) 'be angry', 
hedas 'anger' with which agrees 
E. aghast 'angry, excited',* cp. 
also ghastly. 

giant ME. giaunt prop, geaunt 
fr. FR. geant = LAT. gigant-em y 
whence also OE. OHG.^^^/'giant'. 

gibber and with other var. 
gabber gabble, frequentatives of 
gab of which jabber and 


giddy gist 

jabble are the assibil. frequent- 

giddy ME. gidy OE. gydi^\ 
orig. perh. 'having a demon, 
possessed of a demon': deriv. 
ofgod\ cp. OE. ylfi^ 'deranged, 
crazy' prop, 'possessed of elves'. 

gift ME. gift yift OE. gift plur. 
gift a 'nuptials' DU. OHG. gift 
G. gift in mitgift 'a dowry' 
and in OHG. G. DU. gift 'poison', 
lit. 'that which is given', GOTH. 
gifts in fra- 'promise' with the 
abstract formative -/ from gifan 
= give. The initial g in E. ME. 
gift points as in give to Scand. 

gig ME. gigge 'a whirling thing'; 
prob. Scand.: ON. geiga 'rove 
at random'; cp. jig. 

gild vb. short for ME. gilde 
OE. gyldan'. derived with vowel- 
mutation (TEUT. gulpjan) fr. gold. 

gill 1 ME. gille: borrowed fr. 
DAN. gjoelle, sw. gdl\ ICEL. gjolnar 
plur. 'gills'. 

gill- 'one-fourth pint' ME. gille : 
borrowed fr. OFR. gelle 'a sort 
of wine-measure' (LAT. type <?//# 
gillo a wine-vessel). 

gillyflower corrupted fr. OFR. 
giro/lie fr. clou de girofle\ LAT. 
type caryophyllum 'a clove-tree'. 

gimlet borrowed fr. OFR. gim- 
belet FR. gibelet\ of Teut. origin, 
dimin. of the form represented 
by E. wimble 'a gimlet' cp. 

gimp adapted fr. FR. guimpe 
(OFR. guimple fr. OHG. wimpal 'a 
light robe' = E. wimple). 

gin 1 'a trap, snare' ME. (c. 1 200) 
gin and ginn shortened fr. ME. 
engin = FR. engin 'a contrivance'. 
Source LAT. ingenium. 

gin 2 'a kind of spirit' shortened 
fr. earlier FR. gerievre ( FR. 
genievre) 'juniper' (LAT. juniper us 
'an evergreen shrub'). 

ginger ME. ginger^ earlier gingi- 
vere from OFR. gengibre FR. gin- 
gembre (IT. zenzero, MHG. ginge- 
bere from the synon. late LAT. 
gingiber = GR. &yyi(iioig). 

gingerly a Scand. loanword; 
sw. dial, gingla gdngla 'go 
gently, totter': frequent, of ON. 
ganga 'go'. 

gird short for ME. girde OE. 
gyrdan = OSAX. gurdian , DU. 
g or den, OHG. gurten gurtan G. 
gilrten y ON. gyrda'. all weak verbs 
(TEUT. gtirdjan), ident. w. the str. 
vb. GOTE. bi-gairdan 'begird'. 

girdle ME. girdel OE. gyrdel 
= synon. OHG. gurtil G. giirtel, 
DU. gordel, ON. gyrdill'. deriv. 
of gird. girth ME. gerth\ 
adapted fr. ON. gjord 'a girdle' 
(gerd 'girth round the waist', 
GOTH, gairda 'girdle'). 

girl ME. girl gerl\ akin to LG. 
gcere 'boy, girl' which is of late 
occurrence (first record 1652). 
The / of the E. word (OE. 
*gyrel y TEUT. base gurila-^ is 

gist borrowed fr. OFR. gist = 
FR. git from OFR. gesir = FR. 
gesir 'lie'. Source LAT. jacere 

give glisten 

8 9 

give ME. give fr. ON. gefa ; ident. 
w. WE.. y eve OE. yfan ^efan = OSAX. 
geban, DU. geven, OHG. geban G. 
geben, GOTH, giban'. a common 
Teut. verb ; cp. also OIR. gabim 
'I take', LITH. gabenti 'bring, 
procure', ^v&ftfSr'fetch'? C^.giff. 

gizzard ME. giser\ adapted fr. 
FR. gesier\ source LAT. gizeria 

glad ME. glad OE. glad 'shining, 
bright, cheerful, glad'; ident. w. 
OHG. glatG.glatt 'smooth, shining , 
DU. g lad 'smooth', ON. gladr glad, 
bright'. TEUT. *glada- for ARYAN 
ghladho- agrees with OSLOV. gla- 
duku 'smooth', LAT. glabcr (for 
ghladhro-) 'smooth 1 . The meaning 
of the E. word is secondary 
when compared with the orig. 
meaning 'smooth'. 

glair ME. gleire: adapted fr. OFR. 
glair e 'the white of an egg' = 
IT. chiara d'un ovo, whence also 
G. eierklar (MED. -LAT. clara ovt). 

glance vb. a Scand. loanword; 
cp. SWED. glans , DAN. glands 
'brightness, splendor'. 

glare vb. ME. gldre\ OE. *gldrian 
is unauthorized. 

glass ME. glas OE. glees : a com- 
mon Teut. word, (not verified in 

GOTH.) = DU. MUG. G. OSW. 

sw. DAN. glas (OHG. glas glass , 
also 'amber); but ON. gler with 
change from s to r, thus proving 
the word to be primit. Teut. 
(*glaza-*glasa-). Perh.theOTeut. 
name of the 'amber (LAT. glesuni) 
is cognate. 

gleam ME. glcm OE. gldm 
'splendor, brightness, gleam'; 
akin to OSAX. gli-mo 'splendor 
and to G. glimmer] cp. OHG. 
gltmo gleimo 'glow-worm'. An 
ARYAn \/~ghli cp. in IR. git (fr. 
base 7m><?-) 'shining, clear' under 

glean vb. ME. gle'ne borrowed 
fr. OFR.gkner (FR. glaner) 'glean'. 

glede ME. glide glede OE. glida 
'a kite' = ON. gledi: deriv. of 
the TEUT. \{~ glid in glide (the 
name of 'the bird means prop, 
'the glider'). 

glee 'mirth, joy' ME. glf OE. gleo 
with the by- form gliw = ON. gly : 
TEUT. base gliwa-, perh. akin to 
IR. git (base gleiwo-) 'clear, 
shining'. Cp. gleam. 

gleed (E. dial.) ME. glede OE. 
gled (^glad fr. glodi-) = DU. gloed, 

OHG. gluot G. glut> ON. gldd, GOTH. 

*glb~di-\ TEUT. \l^glo under glow. 

glen of Celt, origin; cp. GAEL. 

IR. gleann 'valley' (CYMR. Corn. 


glide vb. ME. glide OE. glldan 
= synon. oSAX..gfidan, T>\3.glij(d)en, 
OHG. gfttan G. gleiterij sw. glida 9 
DAN. glide 'glide, slide'. Cp. 

glimmer vb. ME. glimere = G. 
glimmern, DAN. glimre\ akin to 
sw. glimma and OSAX. gllmo 
'splendor under gleam. 

glimpse vb. ME. glimse vb.; 
akin to glimmer. 

glisten vb. ME. glistne OE. glis- 
nian 'gleam' ; akin to OE. glisian 
= OFRis.gltsa 'shine' : TEUT. 

gloat goal 

in glitter ME. g liter e (OE. *glito- 
rian) vb. 'shine' = ow.glitra, G. 
glitzern. A corresp. strong vb. 
is ON. gllta, OSAX. glitan = OHG. 
gltyyin 'shine' (cp. G. gleissen and 
GOTH, glitmunjan 'shine'). 

gloat vb. akin to G. glotzen, 
ICEL. glotta ; an OE. glotian is un- 
recorded; cogn. w. ME.gloute(oE. 
*glutiari) 'look sullen'. 

gloom OE.g/dm (glomung) 'gloom, 
twilight'; the m is formative (as 
in bloom, doom)', for the TEUT. 
\f~glo cp. glow. 

glory ME. glorie glorie from OFR. 
glorie = 'Lt^rr. gloria] cp. FR. gloire. 

gloss vb. akin to MHG. glosen 

glove ME. glove short for glove 
OE. glof = ON. glqfi glove'. 

glow vb. ME. glowe OE. glowan 
str. vb.; cp. DU. gloeijen, OHG. 
gluoen.G. gluhen, ON. glda 'glow, 
glitter, shine': TEUT. \Tglo gle 
under gloom and E. dial, gleed. 

glue ME. glue borrowed fr. OFR. 
glu 'birdlime'; source LAT. glus 

glum adj. from ME. glomme 
glombe vb. 'be gloomy 1 ; as 
gloomy shows, connected with 
gloom and sw. gldmig 'languid 
of look'. 

glut sb. ME. glut sb. borrowed 
fr. OFR. glut glout (IT. ghiotto) 'a 
glutton'. - - glut vb. ME. glote 
glute vb. borrowed fr. OFR. glotir 
gloutir (cp. FR. engloutir 'swallow 
up ) ; so urc e LAT. gluttire 's wallo w' . 
glutton ME. glutoun glotoun'. 
borrowed fr. FR. glouton OFR, 

gluton ; source LAT. glutto-gluttonem 

gnarl akin to OE. gnyrran. 

gnash vb. ME. gnaste 'gnash 
the teeth'; OE. *gndstian is akin 
to ON. gnista 'gnash the teeth'. 

gnat ME. gnat(tt) OE. gneett: 
TEUT. base gnatta-. 

gnaw vb. ME. gnawe OE. gnagan 
= OSAX. gnagan, OHG. (g)nagan 
G. nagen, ON. gnaga\ cp. a by- 
form with initial k: DU. knagen, 
OS. HG. knagan 'gnaw ; the G. 
form nagen arose from gnagen. 

go ME. go OE. gan = OSAX. gan 9 
pu. gaan, OHG. gan gen G. gehen. 
The TEUT. \T ghai- (= OE. gd- 9 
OHG. ge-) supplanted the ARYAN 
^i 'go' in LAT. ire t GR. Isvau 9 
SKR. y*/. Since TEUT. gai- has no 
old primit. noun-derivatives in 
Teut. and takes the place of 
the ARYAN V/ (the aorist GOTH. 
iddja = OE. eode still remains) 
and as it is inflected after the 
far-conjugation, the supposition 
arises that TEUT. *gaim *gais 
*gaif are contracted fr. the 
verbal particle ga and the 
inherited im iz ip = SKR. emi 
esi eti\ cp. GR. sl(.n. 

goad ME. god OE. gdd\ ident. 
with LANGOBARD. gaida 'spear': 
TEUT. base gaido- = pre-TEUT. 
*ghai-ta\ akin to OE. gar, OHG. 
ger 'spear' under gore. ARYAN 
\f~ghighaimGR. yaToc 'shepherd's 

goal borrowed fr. FR.gau/e OFR. 
waule. Source TEUT. walu = 
Ox\. volr, GOTH, walus 'a staff'. 

goat gossamer 

goat ME. ggte OE. gat = DU. ON. 
geit, OHG. gei^ G. geiss, sw. get, 
DAN. ged, GOTH, gaits 'a goat': 
cogn. w. LAT. hcedus fr. ARYAN 

gobble a frequent, with suff. 
-le fr. FR. gober 'devour'. 

gOd ME. OE. god = OSAX. DU. 
god, OHG. got G. gOtt , ON. gud 

god. GOTH.guda- gup a- 'god' is 
based on ARYAN ghu-to-, -to- being 
a part, formative as in old, cold, 

loud". INDO-TEQT. Y~ ghu = SKR. 

hu 'implore the gods' (SKR. hutd- 
part.). Therefore god is 'the 
being implored'; in the VEDA 
puruhilta 'much implored' is an 
ordinary epithet of the god 
Indra. god in godfather godson 
goddaughter = ME. god -j- com- 
pound: used in reference to 
the spiritual relation between 
them; cp. gossip. 

goggle-eyed ME. gogel-eied; the 
first element of the compound 
can scarcely be a native E. word 
and is traced to IR. GAEL, gog- 
shuileach 'goggle-eyed'. \ 

gold ME. OE. gpld= OSAX. OHG. 

G. gold, DU. goud, ON. goll gull 

(fOr *golfia), GOTH. gulf'. ARYAN 

ghlto- = OSLOV. zlato = RUSS. 
zoloto from *zolto. The orig. 
meaning of the \Cghel, from which 
gold is derived (cp. LITH. gel-tas 
'yellow' and SKR. hdrita and hari 
'yellow'), is 'yellow'; cp. SKR. hi- 
ranya 'gold'. Cp. yellow. 

gOOd ME. OE. god-= GOTR.gvds, 

OSAX. god, DU. goed, OHG. guot 
G. gut, ON. godr. The orig. 

meaning of the adj. was prob. 
'fit, suitable' from a root mean- 
ing 'fit, suit' seen in gather, 
together. goodbye short 
for orig. God be by you 
(Shakesp. God buy you). 
goose ME. OE. go's (plur. ges) : 
Teut. base gans- = DU. gans, 
OHG. G. gans, ON. gas; akin to 
gander 2j\<\gannet. An ARYAN 
ghan-s- is represented also by 
SKR. hansd-s m. hansi goose', 


gqsi , GR. /ijt't LAT. anser (for 
*hanser) , OIR. glis 'swan' (fr. 

gore ] ME. gore 'a gore of cloth, 
a garment' OE. gar a 'a projecting 
point of land' ; cp. DU. geer 'a 
gusset, gore', OHG. gro G. gehre 
'a wedge, gusset, gore', ow.geiri, 
NORW. geire, ODAN. gere 'a gore 
of cloth or land': deriv. of TEUT. 
gaiza- 'spear =OE.gar 'a spear', 
OHG. ger 'a spear. Cp. goad. 

gore 2 'mud, blood' ME. gore 
OE. gdr 'mud' = OHG. ON. gor 
'mud', sw. gorr 'mud'. 

gorge ME. gorge borrowed fr. 
FR. gorge 'throat': source LAT. 

gosling dimin. of goose. 

gospel ME. gospel OE. god-spell 
'the word of God', as shown by 
ON. gud~spjall, OHG. got-spel(ll). 
Cp. spell. 

gossamer ME. gossomer repre- 
senting an OE. type *gos-sumor 
summer of the geese'; cp. the 
G. names altweibersommer, mdd- 

gossip grave 

gossip ME. gossip earlier gossib 
OE. god-sibb prop, 'relationship 
in God'; see the end of the 
article on god. OE. sibb = OHG. 
sippa, GOTH, sibja means 'relation- 

gouge from FR. gouge. 

gourd ME. gourde', borrowed fr. 
FR. gourde (orig. OFR. gouhourde 
cougourde\ source LAT. cucitrbita 
'a gourd'. 

gout sb. ME. goute borrowed fr. 
FR. goutte 'dropsy': source LAT. 

gowk ident. w. gawk. 

gown ME. goune goun fr. OFR. 
gone 'a gown', which is of Celt, 
origin (GALL. - LAT. gunna 'fur- 

grab vb. cp. sw. grabba, MLG. 
grabben 'grasp'. An ARYAN \{~ghrbh 
'to grasp' is found in SKR. \TST^h 
'grasp, seize' - - grapsa 'bunch, 
tuft' and OHG. garba G. gar be 

grace ME. grdfe fr. FR. grace 
LAT. gratia 'favor'. 

grade borrowed fr. FR. grade'. 
souiiceLA.T.gradus a step, station'. 

graft (Shakesp. graff) vb. ME. 
graffe *graft' : deriv. of OFR. graffe 
'a style for writing 1 (FR. greffe 
'graft'?). Source LAT. graphium 
'a style for writing. 

grail ''fine sand' fr. OFR. graile 
'fine, small 1 = LAT. gracilis. 

grain ME. grain grein from FR. 
grain', source LAT. granum 'a 
grain, corn'. 

grammar ME. grammlre gram- 
maire from FR. grammaire. 

grange ME. graunge: adapt, of 
FR. grange (LAT. type granea 
granary' deriv. of granum 'corn'). 

grant ME. graunte vb. adapt, 
fr. OFR. granter 'caution, secure' 
(source a LAT. type *credentare 
vb. *credentia sb.). 

grape ME. grape : loanword fr. 
OFR. grape grappe 'cluster of 
grapes. The FR. word is con- 
sidered to be of Teut. origin 
(TEUT. *kr appal'). 

grasp ME. grapse perh. for 
*grapse OE. *grdpsia?i'. possibly 
an intensive deriv. of OE. grd- 
pian = grope. 

grass ME. gras OE. gras gcers = 

GOTH. ON. OS AX. DU. OHG. G. gras 

'herb, growth'. The final s is 
formative, the \fisgra meaning 
'sprout, grow'; cp. grow and 

grasshopper ME. grashopper 
orig. g rashoppe o&.g&rs-hoppa (= 
DU. gras hupp cr LG. grashupper) : 
'an insect which hops about in 
the grass'. Cp. hop. 

grate sb. ME. grate '. source 
LAT. crates 'a hurdle'. grate 
vb. ME. grate vb. from OFR. grater 
'scratch' (FR. gratter) % which is 
prob. of Teut. origin (OHG. krazzdn 
G. kratzeri). 

grave vb. ME. grave OE. grafan 
'dig' = GOTH. OHG. graban G. gra- 
ben, DU. graven 'dig, ON. grafa: 
TEUT. \l"grab ARYAN ghrabh, 
orig. related to OSLOV. grebq 
'dig' and grobu 'grave'. 

grave adj. from FR. grave 

gravel grizzly 


gravel ME. gravll borrowed fr. 
ovR.gravele, dimin. of OFR. grave 
'rough sand' FR. greve 'strand'. 

gravy earlier orthography grea- 
vy, akin to greavest 

gray grey ME. gray grey OE. 
grcei', akin to DU. grauw, OHG. 
grdo (infl. grdwer) G. grau, ON. 
grdr, which represent a Teut. 
base grdwa- grewa- (OE. gra^ 
pointing to a \)&segraga-grega- ?). 

graze vb. 'feed cattle' ME. grdse 
OE. grasian = G. grasen : deriv. 
of TEUT. grasa- = grass. 

grease ME. gr{se gr&e : adapted 
from OFR. gresse (FR. graisse) 'fat- 
ness'. Source LAT. crassus 'fat'. 

great ME. gret OE. grfat ; cp. 
OSAX. grbt t DU. groot, OHG. gro^ 
G. gross 'great': TEUT. grauta-. 

greaves cogn. w. G.griebeGBG. 
griubo 'greaves'? 

greedy ME. gredy OE. 

tag, ON. grddugr, GOTH, gredags 
'hungry' : derived from a TEUT. 
gredu- 'hunger' = GOTH, gredus, 
ON. grddr 'hunger'. Perh. akin to 
the SKR. \l^grdh 'to be greedy': 
ARYAN \f ghredh ghrdh. 

green ME. OE. grene : Teut. base 
grdni- = OSAX. grant , QR&.gruoni 
G. grun 'green', ON. grdnn, sw. 
DAN. gron : deriv. of the TEUT. 
\Cgrb in grow and grass. The 
adj. orig. means 'growing'. 

greet vb. ME. grfte OE. gretan 
OSAX. grotiatij DU. groeten, ON. 
grata, OHG. gruo^ ^an G. gnissenl 
TEUT. type grbtjan 'greet'. 

grey see gray. greyhound 

ME. greihound formed after ON. 
greyhundr 'greyhound'; cp. ON. 
grey 'dog'? 

griddle ME. grtdel 'griddle': a 
CELT, loanword; cp. IR. greideal 
'griddle' (fr. a LAT. *crdtella). 

grief ME. gref (= ODU. grief) : 
adapted fr. OFR. gref 'heavy' 
FR. grief 'injury' (source LAT. 
grevis for grams). grieve vb. 
ME. grfve vb. 'burden, injure' fr. 
OFR. grever. 

grill vb. adapted fr. FR. g tiller 
'broil on a gridiron'. 

grim ME. OE. grim (mni): TEUT. 
base grimma- = OSAX. OHG. grim 
G. grimm, ON. grimmri cogn. w. 
OE. OHG. gram 'angry' G. gram. 

grin vb. ME. grinne grenne OE. 
grennian show the teeth, snarl, 
grin'; cogn. w. grind. 

grind vb. ME. grinde OE. grindan 
str. vb. : TEUT. \/~grend = ARYAN 
ghrendh in LAT. f render e 'gnash'. 

gripe iss gripe QR.gripan str.vb. 
= oSAX.grtpan, DU. grijpen, OHG. 
grifan G. greifen , GOTH, greipan 
'gripe, seize'. Outside of Teut. 
cp. the related \f^ghrlb in LITH. 
greibiu greibti 'seize' and LETT. 
griba 'will' gribet 'to will'. 

grisly ME. grisly short for OE. 
grysltc (angrysltc) 'terrible, hor- 

grist ME. grist short for OE. 
grist lit. 'a grinding': deriv. of 

grit 'gravel' ME. grft OE. grfot 
= OHG. grio^ G. gries, ON. grjot. 

grizzly fr. ME. grisel 'a gray- 
haired man': deriv. fr. FR. gris 


groan gudgeon 

'gray'. Source a TEUT. grts- 'gray' 
in G. greis. 

groan vb. ME. grone OE. grdnian 
'moan': intensive deriv. of a 
str. vb. *gri-nan = OHG. grinan 
G. greinen 'weep', DU. grijnen. 

groat sb.ME.^T^'/V: a continental 
TEUT. word : MLG. ODU. grote, DU. 
groot, G. groschen. 

grocer borrowed fr. ossier 
(LAT. type grossarius 'a wholesale 
dealer', cp. FR. engros 'whole sale'). 

groin corrupted fr. OFR. grine 
FR. grain 'the fork of a tree or 
of a river, a groin'. 

groom w&.grom 'boy': borrowed 
fr. OFR. gramme gourme, whence 
OFR. gromet 'servant'. 

groove ME. grove 'a pit' = DU. 
groev.e groef OHG. gruoba G. grube, 
ON. grof, GOTH. groba\ from OE. 
grafan grave. 

grope vb. ope OE. grdpian\ 
intensive formation of gripe = 
OE. gripan. 

ground ME. ground OE. grund 
orig. grund = OSAX. G. grund, 
pu. grond, OHG. r*z/, ON. grund 
'meadow' grunnr (fr. *grunpus) 
'bottom of the sea', GoiH.grundus 
in grunduwaddjus 'foundation', lit. 
'a ground-wall'. 

group borrowed fr. FR. groupe 
(= IT. ^//<?). 

grove ME. r<w OE. ^rtf/ 'grove'; 
TEUT. base graiba- graifa-. The 
ME. by-form grfve greve 'grove, 
wood' corresponds to<2/e 
= TEUT. base graibjdn-t 

grovel vb. with the adv. groveling 
ME. groveling(es) grufling(es) ; akin 

to ME. agruf agrouve 'groveling* 
and ON. a grufu groveling' 
gnifa vb. 'bow down'. The E. word 
seems to be a Scand. loanword. 

grow vb. ME. growe OE. growan 
= DU. groeijen, OHG. gruoan MUG. 
gruejen, ON. "mz, sw. DAN. ^r^?: 
TEUT. \^gro, whence green and 
perh. also grass. 

growl ME. growle from DU. grollen 
= G. grollen. 

grub vb. ME. grubbe 'dig': TEUT. 
^grab under 'grave] cp. OHG. 
grubilon (G. grubeln 'brood, pour 

grudge vb. ME. grugge earlier 
grucche (short for *grouchen!:)\ 
borrowed fr. QY^.groucher groucer 

gruel ME. gruel', borrowed fr. 
OFR. gruel = FR. gruau (LAT. 
type grutellum, dimin. of MED.- 
LAT. grutum 'meal'). 

gruff borrowed fr. DU. grof 
= $w. grof, DAN. grov G. grob. 

grumble loanword fr. FR. groin- 
meler ; akin to MDU. grommelen, 
frequent. of MDU. grummen 
grommen 'murmur'. 

grunt vb. ME. grunt e gronte 
OE. grunnettan\ ident. w. G. 
grunzen, DAN. grynte, sw. grynta 
A more primit. stem appears in 
OE. grunian 'grunt'. The \fgrun 
is imitation of sound; cp. LAT 

guarantee see warrant. 

guard vb. borrowed fr. FR. 
guarder, see ward. 

gudgeon borrowed fr. Y^ 
(ME. *gugeo?i *go- g ounf). 

guess Gypsy 


guess vb. ME. gessei prob. not 
a native word, but borrowed fr. 
the continent (DU. LG. gissen) or 
fr. the Scand. (DAN. gisse, sw. 
gissa). A native ME. gesse would 
point to an OE. *getsian (cp. 
bless OE. lletsian) = TEUT. base 
*gdtison ? 

guest ME. gest borrowed fr. 
SCAND. gestr 'guest'; there was a 
native OE. %ist %iest, which was 
supplanted by the Scand. loan- 
word. SCAND. gestr OE. list = 
OHG. OSAX. G. DU. gast represent 
a TEUT. base gasti-z = LAT. hostis 
'enemy', osLOV.^w/ST'guest': ARYAN 
base ghostis. 
guide vb. ME. gtde borrowed 

fr. FR. guider (OFR. also guier = 

ME. gie vb.). 
guild ME. glide OE. gyld\ cp. 

DU. gild, G. glide. 
guile sb. ME. glle borrowed fr. 

OFR. guile 'treachery', which is 

of Teut. origin; cp. wile. 
guilt sb. ME. gilt OE. fry It 'a 

crime': TEUT. base gulti\ a 

is unknown elsewhere. 
guise ME. gise fr. OFR. guise 

'way, wise', which is of Teut. 

origin; cp. wise. 
gulf adapted fr. FR. golfe, 

whence also G. golf. The Rom. 

group Span. IT. golfo 'a gulf, bay' 

is based on CR. /.o'Atpoc xn'AT 

'bosom, lap, a deep hollow'. 

gullet sb. 'throat' ME. gullet gold 
borrowed fr. FR. goule 'throat' 
= LAT. g ula. 

gum 1 short for ME. gome OE. 
goma 'palate'; cp. ON. gdmr, OHG. 
guomo 'palate'; cogn. with the 
equival. LITH. gomurys: ARYAN 
\fghd (ghduf). 

gum 2 ME. gomme gumme\ bor- 
rowed fr. FR. gomme = IT. gommai 
source LAT. gumml (GR. xopfii)* 

gun ME. gunne gonne\ the ME. 
word was first applied to a cata- 
pult or machine for throwing 
stones; perh. shortened for OFR. 
mangonne, which is the base x>f 
OFR. ME. mangonel 'machine for 
throwing stones'. 

gush vb. MK.gusche ^ro^.gouschc\ 
akin to ON. gusa vb. 'gush', ODU. 
guisen 'gush': TEUT. \Tgut in GOTH. 
giutan, OE. -^eotan y OHG. gio^an 
G. giessen 'pour out'. 

gut ME. OE. gut (plur. ME. guttes 
OE. guttas) : Teut. base guttu-. 

gutter. ME. gutere goitre, fr. FR. 
gouttiere (OFR. goutier, LAT. type 
guttarium'. deriv. of LAT. gutta 

Gypsy short for ME. Egip(i('n 
Egyptian ; cp. SPAN. PORT, gitano 
'Gypsy' from Aegyptidnus ; MOD.- 
GREEK / w^/roc aus A'iyvnTnc. The 
Gypsies were popularly supposed 
to be Egyptians. 

9 6 

habergeon hale 


habergeon ME. habergeon haw- 
berjoun: borrowed fr. OFR. hauber- 
gon hauberjon, dimin. of OFR. 
hauberc; see hauberk. 

habit ME. adit: adapted fr. FR. 
habit garment, habit, a custom': 
source LAT. habitus 'condition, 
habit, dress'. 

hack vb. ME. hakke OE. haccian 
(hceccean) = vu.hakken, G. hacken, 
sw. hakka, DAN. hakke] possibly 
from the \f haww haw seen in 
OE. h{awan = E. hew. 

hack"; see hackney. 

hackle hatchel sb. ME. hekel 
hechel; cogn. w. DU hekel, G. 
hechel\ sw. hackla, DAN hegle 
(GOTH. * ha kilo). 

hackney ME. hakeney: borrow- 
ed fr. FR. haquenee 'an ambling 
horse' (= ODU. hackeneye, SPAN. 
ha(anea 'a hackney'). 

haft ME. haft OE. hceft\ cogn. 
w. DU. heft t ON. hepti, OHG. hefti 
G. heft: TEUT. V" haf (cp. heavy) 
= ARYAN yfkap in LAT. capio 'take'. 

hag ME. hagge short for OE. 
hceitesse = MDU. haghetisse, OHG. 
haga-zussa: the first part of the 
compound is perh. ident. w. 
haw, the second part still un- 

haggard * adj. adapted fr. FR. 
hagard 'wild', lit. 'of the woods'; 
formed fr. OHG. haga with the 
Fr. suffix -ard from G. -hart; cp. 

haggard 2 adj. 'lean, meager' 
(earlier spelling hogged) prop, 

hail sb. ME. hail (haul) OE. 
hayl (hagol) = DU. G. sw. DAN. 
hag el, OHG. hagal, ON. hagl: Teut. 
bases hagla- and hagala-. Perh. 
cogn. w. GR. xaxAr/ 'a round 
pebble'. A single pebble is 
called 'stone' : E. hailstone OE. 
hatylstdn, = ON. haglstetnn. 

hail adj. (ident. w. hale adj.) 
ME. ^//'healthy, sound': Scand. 
loanword (ON. heilt) superseding 
the native OE. hdl = E. whole. 

hail vb. 'greet, salute' ME. 
heile, formed fr. the ME. adj. heil, 
which was borrowed fr. ON. heill. 
hail (an exclamation of greeting) 
ME. heil from ON. heill 'hale, 
whole' (esp. used in greeting 
as far heill 'farewell'). 

hair (earlier spelling hear heare 
in the 16. cent.) ME. Mr OE. her 
hcer = ON. hdr t OSAX. OHG. MHG. 
Mr, DU. DAN. G. haar, sw. hdr\ 
Teut. base hera- (heza-T). Orig. 
allied are ON. haddr, OE. heord 
(GOTH. *hazda-) 'hair'. Outside of 
Teut. cp. OSLOV. kosmu kosa (Lith. 
kasa) 'hair' - - desati vb. 'comb'. 

hale adj. (ident. w. hail adj.) 
fr. ON. heill 'sound'; cp. whole. 

hale haul vb. 'drag' ME. hale 
OE. (jfholian and) *^ehalian = 
OSAX. /;<7/<?/2, OFRIS. halia,w. halen, 
OHG. holdn (halori) G. holen. The 

half hamper 


TEUT. \(~hal hoi answers to LAT. 
calare, GR. y.afalv 'summon'. 

half ME. half OE. healf= GOTH. 
halbs j ON. hdlfr, OHG. G. halb, 
OSAX. DU. sw. half, DAN. halv\ 
Teut. base halba- > perh. cogn. 
w. SKR. ^<?j 'arrange, divide'. 

halibut holibut ME. halibut '; 
from ME. holy 'holy' and butte 'a 
plaice'; cp. DU. heilbot 'halibut', 
sw. helgflundra, DAN. helleflyndcr', 
the fish is so called because it 
is excellent eating for holy days; 
cp. SCAND. heilagr fiskr, LG. heilige 
butt and heilbutt. 

hall ME. halle OE. /$<?// = ON. 
hall hpll, OSAX. &*//#, DU. hal. TEUT. 
\TM/ M/ in OE. kelan 'hide' = 
DU. helen, OHG. /fc'te G. hehlen\ 
cp. ARYAN V~^' concea l> cover' 
in LAT. celdre occulere, GR. Y~xaA 
in xaJtVrtred 'hide' xa/lr/^ 'hut', 
OIR. /?>** 'I hide'; SKR. //# 

hallow vb. ME. hdlwe short for 
OE. hdlgian: from OE. ^z7* = 
E. ^0/y. - - hallowmass 'feast' 
shortened from ^// Hallows 
Mass 'mass of all saints'; 
hallows' is the gen. of hallows, 
plur. of ME. hal(o}we 'a saint' = 
OE. /^7/YZ 'a saint' from OE. hdli^ 
'holy'. Cp. holy. 

halo borrowed fr. LAT.-GR. 
halos 'circle around the sun or 

halt adj. ME. halt OE. healt = 
GOTH, halts, ON. haltr, OSAX. ^//, 
OHG. halz: Teut. base ^//-7-, 
pre-TEUT. koldo klbdo in LAT. 
claudus halt', GR. 


'brittle'. halt vb. ME. halte OE. 
healtian (= OHG. *halztn MHG. 
halzen 'limp') from OE. ^oz// = 
halt adj. 'lame'. 

halter ME. halter OE. halftre = 
MDU. halftcr DU. halster , OHG. 
halftra G. halfter', closely allied 
to OE. y^)'// m. = E. helve 
'handle', OHG. ^z^>. From the 
same root are derived with 
///-formation ME. halme 'handle', 
OHG. halmo mjioh- 'rope fastened 
to the yoke to guide the oxen'. 

halyard halliard 'a rope for 
hoisting sails' shortened from 
hale-yard, because the ropes 
haul the yards into their places. 
Cp. hale vb. and yard. 

ham ME. hamme OE. hamm lit. 
'bend of the leg'; Teut. base 
hamma- from an Aryan kanma- 
knamd- in GR. xvr^t y ? OIR. cndim 
(base knami-) 'bone'. 

hame 'horse-collar' ME. hame 
(OE. *hamd) - - DU. haam, G. 
hamen: Teut. base haman- cogn. 
w. GR. y.r^ioc, LAT. cdmus 'muzzle'. 

hamlet ME. hamelet\ formed 
with dimin. suffix -et from OFR. 
hamel (== Fr. hameau) : source 
a Teut. word OFRIS. ham - - E. 
home (with dimin. suffix -el). 

hammer ME. hamer OE. hanwr 
= ON. hamarr , OSAX. hanmr, 
OHG. hamar G. hammer \ ON. 
hamarr denotes also 'rock, 
cliff', pointing to relationship 
with OSLOV. kamy stone . 

hamper vb. ME. hamper e 
hampre vb. 

hamper sb. borrowed fr. OFR. 

9 8 

hand hard 

hanapier, orig. 'a vessel to keep 
cups in' from OFR. hanap (Lat. 
type hanapus) 'goblet'. The Fr. 
hanap is of Teut. origin; cp. 
OE. hncrp, OHG. hnapf G. napf, 
MLG. DU. nap. 

hand ME. OE. hand hgnd = 
GOTH, handus , ON. hgnd, OHG. 
hant G. OSAX. DU. hand', prob. 
derived fr. TEUT. GOTH, hinfian 
'catch' (cp. hound and hunt). 

handle vb. ME. handle OE. 
Jiandlian = DU. handelen , ON. 
hgndla, OHG. hantalbn G. handeln : 
frequent, vb. derived fr. hand. 

handle sb. ME. handel OE. 
handle from handle vb. hand- 
cuff 'a cuff for the hand adopted 
fr. ME. handcops 'a handcuff' from 
OE. handcops 'a handcuff' from 
OE. hand 'hand' and cops 'a fetter'. 

handicraft with unorig. in- 
serted i (after handiwork) from 
OE. handcraft. handiwork ME. 
handiwerc OE. hand-lew core from 
OE. hond and ^eweorc ident. w. 
wcorc. The i is due to the prefix 
OE. y. 

handsome ME. handsom prop, 
'easy to handle'. handy ME. 
liendy OE. hendi^ in listhendiil 
Akin w. GOTH, handugs 'clever', 
DU. handig 'handy, expert'; perh. 
not derived fr. hand, but akin 
to GR. xenial 'prick, spur'; cp. 
OHG. ha n tag 'sharp. 

hang vb. ME. hange OE. hangian 
= OHG. hang en G. hangen'. deriv. 
of a str. vb. TEUT. *hanhan = 
GOTH. OHG. h&han = OE. hon 
(for *hohan)\ cp. hunger. 

hanker vb. akin to DU. hunker en 
(dial, hanker en) 'long after'; prob. 
akin to hang and hunger. 

hap sb. ME. hap borrowed fr. 
SCAND. happ 'chance, good luck'; 
cp. OE. lehcep 'fit'. - Hence 
happen vb. ME. happene ex- 
tended for ME. happen (cp. SWED. 
happd). Cp. perhaps. 

harass vb. loanword fr. FR. 
harasser Vex'. 

harbor sb.ME. herberwe, earlier 
(12. cent.) herberge 'inn, lodging, 
guest house': Scand. loanword, 
cp. ON. herberge 'inn, lodging' = 
OHG. her i- If erg a 'guest house' 
(prop, 'sheltering place for the 
army') G. herberge, DU. herberg. 
The first part of the compound 
is OE. here = OHG. OSAX. heri, 
GOTH, harjis 'army'. The second 
part is derived fr. a lost str. 
vb. TEUT. berg an 'shelter'. 
harbinger ME. herberge our 'one 
who provides lodgings': deriv. 
of OFR. herberger vb. 'lodge, 
quarter' which is a deriv. of 
OFR. herberge (= FR. auberge). 
This is ident. w. OHG. heriberga 
(see harbor). 

hard adj. ME. hard OE. h$ard\ 
perh. the ME. phonology points 
to its being borrowed from ON. 
hardr. Cp. OSAX. DU. hard, OHG. 
herti hart G. hart 'hard, solid, 
heavy, painful', ON. hardr, sw. 
hdrd, DAN. haard, GOTH, hardus 
'hard, severe': Teut. base hardu- 
= ARYAN karM- in GR. xparvg 
(y.apra). hardy adj. ME. hardy 
borrowed fr. FR. hardi which is 

hards hasp 


of Teut. origin; cp. OHG. harti 
herti under hard. 

hards sb. 'the refuse or coarse 
part of flax' ME. herdes OE. 
heordan plur. 'hards of flax'; 
akin to OE. heord, ON. haddr 
'hair' ? 

hare ME. hare OE. hara = 
OHG. haso G. hase\ for the 
rhotacism in E. cp. ON. here: 
Teut. base hasan- hazan-\ an 
ARYAN kaso- is represented in 
the synon. SKR. faca, OPRUSS. 
sasins 'hare'. The Aryan name 
of the animal points perh. to 
the OE. adj. haso hasu 'gray'. 

hark vb. ME. herke (OE. * her dan 
*hyrciari) from a Teut. base 
*hauziqon = OFRIS. herkia, MLG. 
horken G. horchen MHG. hdrchen 
late OHG. horechen from *horah- 
hon\ derived fr. the TEUT. *fham 
in GOTH, hausjan = E. hear. 
harken vb. ME. herkne short for 
OE. htrcnian hyrcnian', an E. 
derivative of the verb hear] cp. 
talk and tell, lurk arid lower. 

harlot ME. harlot 'a disorderly 
person' (of either sex) : loan- 
word fr. OFR. harlot Vagabond'. 

harm ME. harm, OE. hearm = 
OSAX. harm OHG. haram 'insult, 
mortification'; cogn. w. OSLOV. 
sramii (fr. *sormu) 'shame, dis- 

harness ME. harneis\ borrowed 
fr. OFR. harneis 'airnor', whence 
also G. harnisch. 

harp ME. harpe OE. hearpe', cp. 
synon. ON. harpa, DU. harp, OHG. 
harpfa harfa G. harfe. The Teut. 

word occurs first in the 5 th cent, 
as LAT. harpa ; FR. harpe is of 
Teut. origin. 

harpoon adopted fr. FR. harpon, 
whence also DU. harpoen (G. har- 
pune). Source LAT. harpago(nem). 

harrow sb. ME. harwe (point- 
ing to OE. *hearwc or *hearge) ; 
perh. akin to the synon. G. harke, 
DU. hark, ON. herfi, DAN. harv, 
SW. harf 'harrow'. 

harry vb. ME. herie herien OE. 
her^ian herigan 'overcome with 
an army' (= GOTH. *harjdn, ON. 
herja 'go on a plundering ex- 
pedition', OHG. heridn G. ver- 
heeren)'. derived fr. TEUT. harja- 
'army' under harbor. 

harsh adj. late ME. harsk: a 
Scand. loanword; cp. DAN. osw. 
harsk 'rancid'. 

hart sb. ME. her OE. heart 
(heorot) = DU. hert, OHG. hiru^ 
hirz G. Mrs now hirsch, ON. 
hjortr, sw. hjort , DAN. hiort\ 
Teut. base *herut- from ARYAN 
kerud-, cogn. with LAT. cervus 
'hart' and GR. xfpuos ('it. 'horned' 
from y.boag 'a horn'), KYMR. carw 
'hart', PRUSS. sirwis, OSLOV. surna 

harvest ME. hervest OE. h&rfest 
= DU. herfst, OHG. herbist G. 
herbsf. related to LAT. carpere 
'pluck', GR. y.apTJog 'fruit', x(W- 
77/07/ 'a pruning-knife', SKR. krpana 
'sword', LIT. ktrp-ti 'shear'. 

hash sb. from FR. hacher vb. 
'hack' (of Teut. origin, cp. 
hack vb.). 

hasp ME. haspe OE. h<zps (for 


haste hawk 

*/uesp) = DAN. SW. G. MHG. 

haspe, ox. hcspa 'hasp'. 

haste vb. ME. haste: loanword 
fr. OFR. hastcr (FR. hater), whence 
also DU. haasten, G. hasten 'make 
haste*. The FR. vb. is prob. a 
Tent, loanword. 

hat sb. ME. hat (plur. hattes) 
OE. hcet (plur. hcettas) = ON. 
hottr 'hood, cowl', sw. hatt, DAN. 
hat 'hat' : Teut. base hattu- cogn. 
w. hood sb. and perh. also 
with LAT. cassis (for *cat-tis) 

hatch vb. ME. hacche\ cp. 
MHG. hecken 'produce young 
from eggs by incubation' G. 
aushecken 'hatch', sw. hdcka 
'breed', DAN. hakkebuur 'breeding 

hatch sb. 'halfdoor' ME. haccfie 
OE. Jiact! cogn. w. DU. hekl 

hatchel see hackle sb. 

hatchet sb. ME. hacchet'. loan- 
word from FR. hachette, dimin. 
of FR. hache 'axe': source a 
TEUT. hakka cp. hack vb. 

hate vb. ME. hate older hatien 
OE. hatian = GOTH, hatan, DU. 
haten, OSAX. haton, OHG. ha-gfin 
G. hassen. - - hate sb. ME. 'hate 
influenced by the vb. hdte\ 
earlier ME. hcte OE. hete = 
OSAX. heti, DU. haat, OHG. ha 

G. Aw, ON. hatr, sw. /w/, DAN. 
GOTH, hatis. The TEUT. 
'hate' is perh. ident. w. 

the JTeut. 
wtr = OHG. 

in OE. heado- 
and G. 

noun from the vb. hate.\ cp. 
ki n dr ed. 

hauberk ME. hauberk borrowed 
fr. OFR. }iauberc\ source OHG. 
halsberc prop, 'neck- defence*. 

haughty adj. ME. hautein 'arro- 
gant' from OFR. hautain\ source 
OFR. haut = LAT. altus 'high'. 

haul see hale vb. 

haunch sb. ME. hautichc: loan- 
word from FR. hanche (OFR. hanke 
of Teut. origin ; cp. OHG. 
anka ?) . 

haunt vb. ME. haunte borrowed 
fr. FR. hantcr 'haunt, frequent'. 

have ME. have OE. habban = 
OSAX. hcbbian, DU. hebben, OHG. 
hab&n G. haben, ON. hafa y GOTH. 
haban\ Teut. base habai-^ ident. 
w. LAT. haberet Aryan base 
khabhey ? 

haven ME. haven late OE. hafene t 
prob. a Scand. loanword; cp. 
ON. hofn 'haven' ; perh. allied to 
OE. haf, ON. haf 'ocean'. 

haversack borrowed fr. FR. 
havresac 'a knapsack' from G. 
habersack haf er sack 'a sack for 

haw ME. hawe OE. haga 'an 
inclosure' = ON. hagi\ cp. OHG. 
hag 'an inclosure' G. hag 'a hedge', 
DU. h-aag 'a hedge, garden'. A 
corresponding Aryan \f^ kagh is 
evident in CYMR. cae, CORN, ke 
'hedge'. - Hence hawthorn 
OK. hagu-porn. Cp. hedge. 

hawk ME. hauk OE. heafoc\ cp. 
OSAX. *hatiuc in the proper name 
Habuc-horst, DU. havik , OHG. 

hatred ME. )mtrlde(n)\ abstr. habuh G. habicht with secondary 

hawser heart 


/, ON. haukr (for hpbukr) , sw. 
hb'k, DAN. hog] GOTH. *habuks 
with formative -ka- as in ahaks 
'dove'. The \^haf is seen in 
Q^.hebban E. heave orig. 'take, 
seize' as in LAT. caperc. 

hawser 'a tow-rope' borrowed 
fr. the OFR. vb. haulser 'raise, 
tow a boat' (Lat. type altiare 
'elevate, raise'). 

hay ME. hey OE. he'i hfy : Teut. 
base hauja- = GOTH, hawi 
(gen. haujis) 'hay, grass', OHG. 
hewi houwi G. heu, ON. hey, sw. 
DAN. ho, DU. &?0/; orig. verbal 
adj. of the Teut. verbal \fhau seen 
in hew. Hence hay 'grass to be 
hewn' (orig. hauja- sc. grasa-). 

hazel ME. hdsel OK. hasel = 
DU. hazel, OHG. hasala G. ^ori/, 
ON. ^z^/: from pre-TEUT. koslo-, 
hence in Lat. with rhotacism 
corulus for *cosulus 'hazel'; cp. 
also OIR. coll 'hazel' for *cosl~i 

he ME. OE. he = OSAX. h$. 

head short for ME. h(d fuller 
formhcvedoE.heafod=OT$. haufup 
(hdfuf), GOTH, haubip , OSAX. 
hdbid, DU. hoofd, OHG. houbit G. 
haupf. Teut. base haubida- hau~ 
buda- is closely allied to OE. hufe, 
OHG. huba G. haube 'cap, hood'. 
This #-root (ARYAN kap-T) may 
be connected with LAT. caput, 
if this is traceable to an hypo- 
thetical *cauput *coput. - head 
var. suffix of -hood. 

heal vb. ME. hfle OE. halan', 
cp. the synon. OSAX. helian, DU. 
heelen, OHG. heilan G. heilen, ON. 
heila, GOTH, hailjan 'heal': deriv. 

of the Teut. adj. haila- = E. 
whole (cp. also hail adj. ^#/ 
adj.). - - health ME. helthe OE. 
half 'healing, cure' = OHG. 
heilida: an abstract formation 
from the adj. hdl 'whole, hale' 
(see whole). 

heap ME. h{p OE. heap 'heap, 
troop, crowd' == OSAX. hop, DU. 
hoop, OHG. houf 'crowd, troop' 
G. haufe 'crowd, troop, pile' 
(GOTH.*/ta//). OSLOV. kupu and 
LITH. kaupas 'heap' are prob. 

hear vb. ME. here OE. hfran 
(WEST-SAX, hyran) = OSAX. 
horian, DU. hooren, OHG. horan 
G. horen, ON. heyra, sw. hora, 
DAN. ^r^: all with rhotacism 
versus GOTH, hausjan 'hear (cp. 
hark and hearken). The TEUT. 
\l^hauz ARYAN ^itf may 
be connected with GR. a-xovcu 
for a-xoi'(T'r; (with prefix a- = 
SKR. J^;A/ and with TEUT. auso 

ear = ear. 

hearken var. of hark en', cp. 

hearse sb. ME. he'rse herfe orig. 
'a triangular harrow', then 'a 
carriage for a dead body': 
adopted fr. OFR. herce 'a harrow' 
= FR. herse 'a harrow'. Source 
LAT. hirpex hirpicem 'a harrow'. 

heart ME. herte OE. heorte\ 
equivalent to OSAX. he'rta, ON. 
hjarta, GOTH, hairto (OHG. herza 
G. herz by the second sound- 
shifting): Teut. base hertdn- or 
her tan- = Aryan base ktrd krd 
in LAT. cor cordis, GR. xtoodfa 


hearth heel 

and Y.TIQ for ^xijpd, IR. cride, 
OSLOV. sridtce 'heart'. 

hearth ME. herth OE. heorf = 
DU. heerd, OSAX. forth, G. //m/ 
a TEUT. \/^her 'burn' (cp. LAT, 
cre-mare 'burn'?) may be as- 
sumed as the base of E. hearth 
and GOTH. tiaurt'coaV plur. haurja 
'fire', ON. hyrr 'fire'. 

heat sb. ME. h$te OE. hato, the 
abstract sb. from the adj. OE. 
hdt (= E. hot) formed by vowel 
mutation (GOTH. *haitei f. 'heat'). 
heat vb. ME. h$te OE. hcetan: 
a factitive vb. from the adj. OE. 
hdt = E. hot (GOTH. *haitjan 
from *kaits)\ cp. G. heizen. 

heath ME. h$th OE. hdp = 
OHG. ^ift/a G. heide 'heath', 
GOTH, haifi 'a waste', ON. heidr. 
Hence heathen ME. htfhm OE. 
hdden corresponding to ON. 
heidinn, DU. MHG. heiden .G. heide. 
In GOTH, we find only a femi- 
nine haifnd 'a heathen woman', 
whereby the existence of the 
common Teut. masculine haipina 
is secured for the fourth cen- 
tury. It seems to be a trans- 
lation of the synon. LAT. paganus 
occurring in the latter half of 
the fourth century of the Chris- 
tian era. 

heave vb. ME. tyve earlier 
htbbe OE. hebban str. vb. ON. 
hefja, OSAX. hebbian, DU. heffen, 
OHG. he/an ^ hevan G. heben, 
GOTH, hafjan 'lift, raise' : ARYAN. 
\fkap in LAT. capio 'seize'. See 

heaven ME. h$ven OE. heofon 
= OSAX. heban (LG. heeven) with 
a by-form htmil, OHG. himil, DU. 
kernel, G. sw. DAN. himmel: the 
/-suffix stands by dissimilation 
for the older -suffix after GOTH. 
himins, ON. himinn, whilst in the 
Saxon forms the orig. m is dis- 
similated to b. The common 
Teut. word is prob. a deriv. of 
a more primit. TEUT. haiman- 
'clearness , brightness' (OFRIS. 
hamlicht 'bright as the sky'): 
TEUT. \^ hai in G. foiter, OE. 
hd-dor 'serene*. Cp. hoar. 

heavy ME. hevy OE. hef% = 
OHG. hebig, ON. hofugr 'heavy': 
deriv. of the TEUT. ^f haf in 

hedge ME. hegge OE. hedg (OE. 
also he^e ME. heye haye)\ Teut. 
base hagja-\ cp. OHG. hecka G. 
focke, DU. hegge heg. Cp. haw. 

heed vb. ME. ^<?'^? OE. hedan 
= OSAX. hddian, OHG. hitoten G. 
hilt en, DU. hoeden. The TEUT. 
\Thod from ARYAN M// (M/// ?) 
or &?/ is regarded as orig. cogn. 
w. LAT. cassis (for *cat-tis) 'hel- 
met'; cp. ^<^<?^/ sb. 

heel sb. ME. hele OE. hfla hcela 
shortened from *hakMa = EAST- 
FRIS. hela (whence DU. hiel), 
dimin. of OE. hoh 'heel'; a Teut. 
base hanha- cp. in ON. hcell 'heel', 
DAN. heel, sw. hal t and in E. hough. 

heel vb. 'incline' shortened 
from ME. hflde OE. foldan hyldan 

- OHG. heldan w. vb. 'incline': 
Teut. base half j an derived fr. 
the Teut. adj. halpa- 'inclined' 

heifer hen 


in OE. niderhcald 'bent down- 

heifer ME. haifer (fieckfre) OE. 
heahfore heahfre (* hag fret) 'a 
young cow': apparently a com- 
pound, but of obscure elements, 
the first element seems to be 
heah- hcz%- = TEUT. haha- haga- 
cp. G. dial, hagen hegel 'bull, ox'; 
the second element is perh. OE. 
fearr 'bull, ox' (GR. no QIC, 'heifer'). 

height MEJieghte earlier heghthe 
OE. hehpo hyhpo = GOTH, hau- 
hipa 'height', ON. had', abstr. 
formation from the TEUT. adj. 
hauha- = high formed with suff. 
-if a (cf. lengthy strength.). 

heinous LIE. heinous from OFR. 
hdinos = FR. haineux 'hateful'. 

heir ME. heir eir from OFR. heir 
eir = LAT. heres 'an heir'. 

hell ME. helle OE. hell\ cp. 
GOTH, halja, OSAX. hell hellia, 
o~KG.hella G.holle'. common Teut. 
Christian name for 'Hades, in- 
fernum'; ON. he I shows that the 
older orig. word was also used 
in pre-Christian times for heathen 
'infernum'. Cp. also ON. Hel 
'goddess of death'. Usually con- 
nected with V* hel hal 'conceal' 
(cp. half), hence hell 'the hid- 
ing place, the unseen place'. 

helm sb. ME. helme OE. helma\ 
cp. ON. hjalm 'a rudder'. 

helmet dimin. of ME. OE. helm. 
In the form helma- 'helmet' com- 
mon to the Teut. langs.; cp. 
GOTH. hilmSy ON. hjalmr, sw. DAN. 
hjelm, OSAX. DU. G. helm with 
the same meaning that may be 

derived fr. the verbal \(~hel in 
OE. OHG. helan, GOTH, hilan 'hide, 
conceal' (ARYAN \^kel in LAT. 
celdre , occulere t SKR. farman 

help vb. ME. helpe OE. helpan 
= GOTH, hilpan, ON. hjalpa, sw. 
hjelpa, DAN. hjcelpe, OSAX. helpan^ 
DU. LG. -he/pen, OHG. helfan G. 
he/fen. TEUT. \f^help from PRE- 
TEUT. \^kelb- (LITH. szelpti vb. 
paszalpa 'help' pointing to an 
ARYAN \fkelp). 

helve sb. ME. helve OE. helf 
hylf: Teut. base halbi-\ cp. MLG. 
MDU. helve, OHG. halba helba MHG. 
help ha lp 'a handle'. See halter. 

hem sb. ME. hem (plur. hemmes) 
OE. hem (plur. hem?nas)\ Teut. 
base hamja-. 

hemlock ME. hemlok humlok 
OE. hemlic hymleci the second 
part of the compound seems to 
be explanatory (cp. leek), the 
first part points to a Teut. base 
*haumi- ? 

hemp ME. hemp OE. hanep\ cp. 
ON. hampr, DU. hennep, OHG. hanaf 
G. hanf\ ident. w. the synon. 
LAT. cannabis, GR. xdwctffif* The 
Teut. word cannot be borrowed 
from GR. or LAT. Perh. the 
Teutons adopted the word and 
the thing from the Scythians 
whence the word came also to 

hen ME. OE. hen (stem henn-)'. 
the fern, of OE. hana 'cock' = 
OHG. henna G. henne (GOTH. 
*hanjo-) derived fr. hana m. 
'cock'). ON. hdna (sw. hona 


hence hide 1 

'hen') points to GOTH. *honjo. 
The common TEUT. masc. hanan- 
(GOTH. OE. hana, OHG. hano) 
orig. meant 'singer', primit. re- 
lated to LAT. canere 'sing'. 

hence ME. hennes with secon- 
dary -s (as in thence, once) for 
an earlier henne, which by syn- 
cope stands for late OE. heonane 
mostly OE. heonan = OSAX. OHG. 
hinan (G. von hitmen). An origi- 
nal stem hi- 'this' is evident 
also in here and hither. 

herald ME. herald (heraud): 
borrowed fr. FR. htraut (LAT. 
type heraldus), which is of Teut. 
origin (heri-waldt). 

herb ME. herbe adopted fr. FR. 
her be\ source LAT. herba 'grass'. 

herd 1 'a flock' short for ME. 
lierde OE. heard = GOTH, hair da, 
ON. hjgrd, sw. DAN. hjord OHG. 
herta G. herde, TEUT. herdo- from 
ARYAN kerdha is cogn. w. SKR. 
fdrdhas fdrdha-s 'troop'; also 
OSLOV. creda 'herd, flock', LITH. 
kerdzus 'shepherd'. See herd*. 
herd 2 'shepherd' now usually 
compounded (shep-, cow-, swine-,) 
ME. herde OE. hyrde (htorde), 
GOTH, hairdeis, ON. hirdir, OHG. 
hirti G. hirte\ with formative ja- 
from TEUT. herdo- 'herd, flock'. 

here ME. here OE. her = GOTH. 
ON. OSAX. her OHG. hiar G. hier\ 
adv. of place (formed like GOTH. 
aljar 'elsewhere', par 'there' cp. 
there) from the pronom. stem 
hi- in GOTH, hi-mma daga 'to- 
day' und hi-na dag 'till to-day 
(cp. hence and hither). The 

stem hi- is cogn. w. LITH. szis, 
OSLOV. si 'this one', LAT. ci-s 
ci-tra 'on this side'. 

heron ME. heiroun from OFR. 
hair on = FR. hlron. 

herring ME. hering OE. hiring 
= OHG. hdring MHG. hcerinc G. 
hering, DU. haring. WESTTEUT. 
hdring is the source of FR. 

hest 'a command' ME. htste 
hist with inorganic / from OE. 
has 'a command' = TEUT. haisi- 
orig. hait-ti- : TEUT. \^ hait in 
OE. hdtan 'command'. See behest 
and hight. 

hew vb. ME. hewe OE. hfawan 
= OSAX. hauwan, OHG. houwan 
G. hauen, DU. houwen ; ON. hoggva 
points to GOTH. *haggwan in 
place of TEUT. hawwan. The 
verbal \fhaww haw (cp. /^^^) 
is allied to the ARYAN \fkow in 
OSLOV. ^<??/<z kovati 'forge', LITH. 
&?'&/& 'I strike' /#//.$ 'hammer'. 

heyday orig. hey day = E. 
high day. 

hiccough hiccup, also hick-et 
looks like a dimin. of hick or 
hik 'a catch in the voice', imi- 
tative of sound? 

hide 1 sb. ME. hide OE. hyd (by 
vowel mutation fr. a Teut. base hu- 
di-)', synon. in all Teut. languages 
except Goth.; cp. OHG. hut G. 
haut, ON. hud, DAN. sw. hud, 
DU. huid. ARYAN kttti-s answers 
to LAT. cutis 'skin'; cp. GR. y.rro^- 
skin, hide'. The \fku appears 
in LAT. scu-tum 'shield', GR. 

v-rog 'skin, hide' with a prefix s. 

hide 2 hip 1 


hide 2 sb. 'a measure of land' 
OE. /foV/contr. of OE. higid 'enough 
land for a household'; prop. 
*hlwida- 'family' allied to hind**. 

hide vb. ME. hide OE. hydan: 
Teut. base hudjan, perh. cogn. 
w. CYM&.cudd 'hidden, concealed' 
and GR. x*V#to 'hide': ARYAN 

hideous by change of suffix for 
ME. hidous adopted fr. OFR. hidous 
= FR. hideux'. source a LAT. type 
MspidosuSy extension of LAT. hispi- 
dus 'rough, shaggy, bristly'. 

hie vb. 'hasten ME. hie earlier 
hi\e higen OE. higian. Teut. base 
ht-gai- perh. a reduplication of 
an ARYAN \fkl in LAT. ci-to 
quickly', GR. y.itiv 'go'? Or cogn. 
w. SKR. fighra 'quick'? 

high adj. ME. heigh earlier heh 
OE. h^ah = GOTH, hduhsy ON. 
hdr, DU. hoogy OSAX. OHG. hbh, 
G. hoch\ TEUT. hauha- from an 
ARYAN kouko-. o TEUT. possessed 
a sb. formed from the adj. 
meaning 'hill' (base konko-s)\ 
cp. ON. haugr 'hill' (whence E. 
how in proper names) and with 
ablaut G. hugely cp. LITH. kau- 
kara 'hill'. 

hight vb. ME. highte heghte OE. 
heht (hehtt) 'was called : pret. 
to OE. hdtan = GOTH, haitan, 
G. heissen. 

hill ME. hit (plur. Miles) OE. 
hyll (plur. hyllas): Teut. base 
hulli- or hulja- cogn. w. GOTH. 
hallus 'rock' and ON. hallr 'hill'; 
an ARYAN \fkol cp. in LAT. collis 

a hill', culmen 'a top', LITH. katnas 
kalva 'hill', GR. y.oXwvoc. 

hilt ME. OE. A/// = ON. hjalty 
OHG. /$/# 'a sword-hilt'. 

hind l ME. hinde OE. >foW = 
ON. DAN. sw. /foW, DU. hinde t 
OHG. AzVz/tf G. hindin. GOTH. *hindi 
(gen. *hindjos) is perh. connected 
with GR. Kt/Lt-dc 'youngdeer'. 

hind- 'a peasant' ME. ^/* OE. 
hina 'a domestic'. Cp. hide 2 . 
There is a Teut. base Aiwa- in 
GOTH, heiwa-frauja 'husband', 
OE. hiwr&den 'family, household' 
= OHG. hirat 'marriage' G. heir at. 

hind in behind and hind-feet 
akin to the OE. adv. hindan 'at 
the back of /under 'backwards* 
= GOTH, hindar prep, 'behind', 
G. hinter prep, 'behind'. hin- 
der vb. ME. hindre OE. hinderian 
= ON. hindra OHG. hintircn hin- 
taron G. hindern. hindmost 
corrupted fr. hindmest (confused 
with most) = GOTH, hindumists 

hinge ME. henge\ OE. *hentge 
(for TEUT. *hangjon-) is not re- 
corded: deriv. of the TEUT. 
\l"hanh hang (see hang)-, cp. 
MLG. MDU. henge 'rack for hang- 
ing up things'. 

hint sb. shortened fr. ME. 
hinted part, of hinte (hente) - 
OE. hentan 'seize, hunt after' 
from \fhenp seen in huntl 

hip 1 sb. ME. hipe OE. hype\ cp. 
GOTH, haps (nom. plur. hupeis), 
DU. heup, G. hiifte MHG. huf (plur. 
hii/f) OHG. >^w/ (plur. huff)'. 
TEUT. Aw//- from ARYAN kubi-. 


hip 2 hog 

hip 2 sb. 'the fruit of the dog- 
rose' ME. hepe OE. heope = OSAX. 
hiopa, OHG. hiufo MHG. hiefe. 

hip vb. ME. hippe OE. *kyppon 
= MHG. hup fen hilpfen G. hupjen\ 
allied to OE. hoppian = E. hop 
vb.; OE. hoppettan, G. hop fen, ON. 

hire vb. ME. /fo>r OE. hyrian 
vb. = DU. ^wra/, OFRIS. y^r#, 
sw. ^jvrtf, DAN. hyre MLG. ^ra/, 
G.heuern 'hire, rent': West-Teut. 
base hurjon. 

hiss vb. ME. ^HI: prob. an 
onomatopoetic word as ODU. 
hisschen 'to hiss'. 

hit vb. ME. hittel adopted fr. 
ON. hitta, DAN. hitte\ perh. cog. 
w. GOTH, hinpan 'catch'. 

hitch vb. ME. hicche 'move'; 
OE. *hytlant 

hither ME. OE. hider: derived 
from a Teut. pronoun hi- 'this' 
in here and hence] cp. GOTH. 
hidre, ON. hedra c on this side'; 
cogn. with LAT. ci-tra 'on this 
side'. For the suffix cp. thither. 

hive ME. hive OE. hyf: Teut. 
base hubi- in MLG. huve 'hive', 
DU. huif\ cogn. w. LAT. cupa 

hoar adj. ME. hor OE. ^rfr = 

GOTH. *haira- y ON. 


OSAX. OHG. her G. hehr 'distingui- 
shed', also 'venerable'. The orig. 
meaning of the adj. was prob. 
Venerable', ON. and E. have the 
meaning 'gray with age'. A TEUT. 
\f"hai 'glitter, shine' is supported 
by heaven and ON. &? 'clearness 
of the sky'; TEUT. hai from ARYAN 

koi is cogn. with SKR. ke-tu-s 
'light, lustre, torch'. 

hoard ME. OE. hard = OSAX. 
herd (horth), GOTH, huzd, ON. 
hodd n. hoddr m., OHG. G. hort. 
TEUT. hozda- from ARYAN kuzdho- 
for kudhto- part, 'that which is 
hidden'; cp. GR. xet'tho under 
hide vb. 

hoarhound ME. hgrhoune OE. 
seo hare hune 'the hoar hound'; 
OE. hune is a plant-name. 

hoarse ME. horse prop. hos 9 OE. 
has pointing to GOTH. *haisa- = 
OHG. heis heist MHG. heis heise, 
the r of MHG. G. heiser seems to 
be the same r as in E. hoarse 
= MDU. heersch (mod. DU. heesch) ; 
perh. originating from the OE. 
dat. hdsre (mid hdsre stefne) 
transposed to hdrse = ME. horse'} 

hobble vb. ME. hoble for *ho$pte\ 
frequent, of hop vb. 

hobby sb. 'a toy like a horse, 
ambling nag, a favorite pursuit'; 
ME. hobln 'a nag': borrowed fr. 
OFR. hobin 'a little horse'? 

hock corruption of Hochheim\ 
the name of a German town on 
the river Main, famous for wine. 

hoe sb. from FR. houe 'a hoe' : 
source OHG. houwa = G. haue 

hog ME. hog (plur. hogges) OE. 
hocg (plur. hoggas)\ a Welsh 
loanword, cp. w. hivch 'a sow' 
(BRET. CORN, hoch 'pig'). hogs- 
head cp. the equiv. MLG. hukes- 
hovet huxhbvet DU. okshoofd (earlier 
also hokshoofd) G. oxhoft, sw. 
oxhufvud, DAN. oxehoved'. origin 

hoist hood 

I0 7 

and history of this compound 
are unauthorized. 

hoist vb. earlier hoise akin to 
the equivalent LG. hissen, DU. 
hijschen, DAN. heise, sw. hissa, 
G. hissen, FR. hisser, IT. issare. 

hold vb. ME. holde OE. hdldan 
(Jicaldan) = OHG. haltanityalthari) 
G. halten, OSAX. GOTH, haldan, 
DU. houden, ON. ^z/d&z : a common 
TEUT. vb. Cp. behold. 

hold sb. (the hold of a ship) 
prop, hole: ident. w. hollow and 
hollow ; cp. DU. hol'a. hole, cave'. 
hole sb. ME. hole hoi OE. hoi 
'a cave' = ON. holr t OHG. MHG. 
&>/ G. hohl, DU. &?/; the E. ME. 
OE. OHG. MHG. adjectives are 
used as substantives: TEUT. 
\fhel 'conceal* in OE. helan, G. 
hehlen. hollow ME. holwe OE. 
holh (gen. holwes)\ cogn. with 
equival. OHG. MHG. hol t ON. holr\ 
TEUT. \{**hiil connected with 
the TEUT. \fhel in OE. OHG. helan 
'hide, conceal' (c^.hell, helmet). 

holiday prop, holy day. 

holly ME. holin OE. holeyi ; akin 
to the equivalent DU. G. hulst 
MHG. huls, OHG. hulls, whence FR. 
houx\ pre-TEUT. ^fkel- in w. 
celyn, CORN, celin, BRET, kehn, 
IR. cuileann 'holly*. 

hollyhock for ME. holihoc prop. 
'holy hock': OE. hocc means 

holster borrowed fr. DU. holster 
'a case for a pistol' (G. pistolen- 
holfter)\ ident. w. ON. hulstr | 
case, a sheath', GOTH, hulistr 'a 

veil'; from TEUT. huljan and 
suff. -stra fr. -s-tra (OE. heolstor). 

holy ME. h$ly OE. hdli% earlier 

dlei = OSAX. helag, OHG. heilag 
G. DU. ^7^, ON. heilagr , DAN. 
hellig , sw. ^i/jg" (GOTH, hailag 
in a Goth, runic inscription). 
Common TEUT. hailag a- from 
common TEUT. haila- cp. whole 
and ^a/f. 

homage ME. homage', borrowed 
fr. OFR. homage = FR. hoff image', 
source a LAT. type homaticum 'the 
service of a vassal or man' (LAT. 
homo 'man'). 

home ME. hdm OE. ham = OSAX. 
hem, ON. heimr, OHG. G. DU. heim 
'home'; GOTH, haims 'a village'. 
Teut. base haimo- (haimi-) from 
a pre-TEUT. kaima- (kaimi-) = 

LITH. &Wdtf- PRUSS. ^JWI/C 'a 

village', GR. YM(.iri Village'. 

hone ME. hone OE. hdn\ Teut. 
base haind- = ON. hein t sw. hen 
'hone'. Cp. OE. hcenan 'to stone'. 

honey ME. huni OE. huni% hitne^i 
Teut. base hunang = ON. 
hunang, DU. honinc, OHG. honatig 
G. &?/ 'honey'. Origin un- 
certain; perh. cogn. w. GR. xor^ 

-hood a suff. used to form 
abstract nouns; orig. an in- 
dependent sb. dying out in ME. : 
OE. had 'state, quality' = GOTH. 
haidus, OHG. MHG. heit 'manner' 
(G. -heit only suffix). Cp. its var. 

hood sb. 'covering' ME. OE. 
hod = DU. hoed, OHG. huot G. 
hut. Closely allied to hat and 


hoof host 1 

to the TEUT. \fhadhodvb heed. 

hOOf ME. OE. hof = OS AX. Jlbf, 

DU. hoef, ON. hofr, OHG. huof G. 
Jmf: Teut. base hof a- from Aryan 
*kopo-, whence OSLOV. kopyto 
'hoof. Others derive TEUT. hSfa- 
from Aryan kffpho and compare 
it with SKR. $aphd, AVEST. sofa 

hook ME. OE. hoc = MDU. hoek 
'hook'. The kindred forms have 
a diff. vowel and answer to OE. 
haca, ON. haki, OHG. hd(c)ko G. 
hake. OHG. hag(g)o points to 
GOTH. *heg(g)a 'hook'. G. haken 
being 'a kind of plough', GOTH. 
hbha 'plough' may also be com- 
pared, so that the stem may be 
hbh heg hak. 

hoop sb. ME. OE. hop - - DU. 
hoep, OFRIS. hdp, NORTH-FRJS. hup 
'hoop', MLG. hop] TEUT. base 

hoop vb. ME. houpe adopted fr. 
FR. houper 'hoop unto'; of Teut. 
origin, cp. OE. hwopan = GOTH. 
hwopan vb. 'boast, glory'. 

hoot vb. ME. houte borrowed 
fr. osw. Mta 'hoot'. 

hop vb. ME. hoppe OE. hoppian 
= DU. happen, ON. sw. hoppa 
DAN. hoppe, G. MHG. hopfen. Cogn. 
w. hip vb. 

hop sb. ME. hoppe = DU. 
hop, G. hopfen late OHG. hopfo, 
MED.-LAT. hupa (for *huppd). 
Its origin is obscure. 

hope vb. ME. hppe OE. hopian 
= MDU. hopen, MHG. G. hoffen. 
The labial in OE. hopian (GOTH. 
*hupon) is a substitute for a 

guttural (base *huqon) as shown 
by the OE. abstract noun hyht 
hope' (base huh-ti-s) : TEUT. 
huq hup. hope sb. ME. hope 
for OE. td-hopa = OSAX. to-hopo 
sb. 'hope'. 

horn ME. OE. horn ON. 
OHG. G. ,DU. horn, GOTH, haurn : 
common Teut. (in a runic 
inscription) horna 'horn' cogn. 
w. LAT. cornu and IR. CYMR. 
corn, with other suffix GR. xsp-org 
'horn'; cp. also E. hart prop, 
'horned' and SKR. crn-ga 'horn'. 

hornet OE. hyrnet = OHG. 
horna^ humify G. hornisse. The 
synon. Slav, and Lat. words 
for 'hornet' point to GOTH. 
*haurznuts with an ARYAN, y" krs 
(IND. frs) : LAT. crabro 'hornet' 
for *crasro, OSLOV. srusem, LITH. 
szirszone 'hornet'. The Aryan 
stem is krs for 'hornet', cp. 
OSLOV. srusa, LITH. szirszu. Du. 
preserves a trace of this inner 
s in horzel 'hornet' (GOTH. *haur- 
suls) horzelen vb. 'hum'. 

horse ME. OE. hors = OSAX. 
hors hers, DU. ros, OHG. ros (gen. 
rosses) G. ross (whence IT. rozza, 
FR. rosse c a jade'), ON. hross, 
also hors, sw. DAN. dial, hors 
'a horse' : Teut. base hrossa-. 

hose ME. hose OE. A?j = 

DAN. G. hose, DU. y^<7^, OHG. 

ON. hosa (GOTH. *hiisd). The 
Teut. words found their way 
into Celt. (CORN, hos 'ocrea, 
cuisses') and into Rom. (OFR. 

host 1 sb. 'army' ME. h$st gst\ 

host 2 hull 


loanword fr. OFR. hoste 'army' 
(source LAT. hostis hosteni)* 

host 2 sb. 'entertainer ME. hoste: 
loanword fr. OFR. hoste (== LAT. 
hospiteni). Hence hostess- ME. 
hostesse from OFR. hostesse and 
hostler ME. hostler 'innkeeper' 
from OFR. hosteller 'innkeeper'. 

host 3 sb. (in the mass) ME. 
hoste oste\ source LAT. hostia, 
FR. hostie. 

hot adj. ME. hot OE. hat: Teut. 
base haita- = ON. fieitr, DU. 
heetj OSAX. het, OHG. hefy G. heiss 
'hot'; the TEUT. y~ hit cp. in 
GOTH, heitd 'fever' and in ON. 
hitiy OSAX. hittidy G. hitze 'heat'; 
cp. heat sb. 

hough sb. ME. hough (ho) OE. 
hoh 'the heel'; hence the dimin. 
heel. Teut. base hanha- in ON. 
hdll 'heel'. 

hound ME. hound OE. hund 
hund =. GOTH, hunds, ON. hundr, 

DAN. SWED. hund, DU. ^tf/Zf/, 

OSAX. G. hund OHG. /fo//z/: Teut. 
base hunda- prop, 'the hunter', 
derived fr. the TEUT.-GOTH. vb. 
hinfian 'seize, capture' (OE. hup 
'booty'); see hunt. 

hour ME. houre oure borrowed 
fr. OFR. (h)ure (h)ore (== FR. 
heur), whence also DU. uur, G. 
uhr (dial. auer). Source LAT. 

house ME. hous- OE. hus\ Teut. 
base hiisa- in GOTH, gud-hus 
'house of God', OSAX. OHG. 
hus G. hausy DU. huis, ON. Ms. 

housings earlier houss (of a 
horse), borrowed fr. FR. housscl 

hovel ME. hovel 'small hut': 
dimin. with suffix -el from OE. 
hof = ON. hof 'a temple, a 
hall'; cp. G. /$<?/ 'a yard'. - 
hover vb. intensive derivative 
of ME. hgve vb. 'tarry, wait'; cp. 
OFRIS. hovia 'receive in one's 
house: derived fr. TEUT. hofa- 
'hall, yard'. 

how ME. how OE. M (for 
*hwti *hwo) : Teut. form hiuo in 
OSAX. hwo 'how', OHG. wuo\ DU. 
hoe for hwo, OFRIS. hu\ formed 
from the Teut. stem hwa- in 
who] cp. GR. nag. 

how in local names cp. 

howl vb. ME. houle\ cp. DU* 
huilen, G. heulen. 

huckster ME. huckster e (OE. 
*huccestre)\ orig. 'a female re- 
tailer ; akin to MHG. hucke hocke 
'a retailer'; derived from MHG. 
hocken vb. 'squat', ON. hokkinn 
'bowed, bent 5 . Cp. DU. heuken 
vb. 'huckster, retail' heuker 
'huckster, retailer'. 

hue ! sb. ME. hfwe hew OE. 
hf'ow 'appearance': ident. w. 
GOTH, hiwi (G. hiujis) 'form, 
appearance', sw. hy 'skin, com- 

hue 2 sb. 'outcry' ME. hu derived 
fr. FR. huer 'hoot, hiss'. 

huge adj. ME. huge (houge)i 
loanword fr. OFR. ahuge 'huge'. 

hull 'husk' ME. hule OE. /////// 
'hull, husk'; cp. synon. G. hiilse 
OHG. hulsa for *hulisa (GOTH. 
*hulisi or *hulnzi) : formed from 
the \fhel hul (G. hulle) under 


humble hutch 

hell, hollow and holster. 
hull 'body of a ship' ident. w. 
hold sb. 

humble adj. ME. humble bor- 
rowed fr. FR. humble (== LAT. 
humilis) . 

bumblebee sb. ME. hombel-be', 
an equivalent OE. *humbol is to 
be assumed for OHG. humbal 
G. hummel, DU. hommel 'humble- 

humor ME. humour from OFR. 
humor = FR. humeur. 

hundred ME. OE. hundred 
(hundre^), ident. w. OSAX. hun- 
darod, G. hundert, ON. hundrad; 
the word is appar. a cornp., the 
second part of which belongs 
to GOTH, rapjan vb. 'count'; the 
first part GOTH. OE. hund is 
cogn. w. LAT. centum, GR. Ixaro v, 
SKR. catdm. 

hunger ME. hunger honger OE. 
hunger ; cp. synon. OSAX. OHG. 
hungar G. hunger, ON. hungr\ 
GOTH. ^huhrus (for *hunhrus) 
'hunger with the derived hug- 
grjan 'hunger' : common TEUT. 
hunhru- hungru- 'hunger' from 
ARYAN, tonkru- ? cp. LITH. kanka 
'torture' with ON. hd vb. 'torture' 
(from TEUT. *hanhon). 

hunt vb. ME. hunte OE. huntian: 
a secondary verb from a primit. 
vb. shown in GOTH, frahinpan 
'take prisoner'. From the same 
root E. hound and hand. 

hurdle ME. hirdel OE. hyrdel, 
dimin. of an OE. *hyrd = OHG. 

hurt (plur. hurtt) G. hiirde] cp. 
ON. hurd 'door', GOTH, haurds 
'door'. The meaning 'door' is 
developed from the common 
meaning 'wickerwork'. Teut. 
base hurdi- = ARYAN krti in 
LAT. crates, GR. XVOTIJ 'a fishing- 
basket' - - y.aora/.ng 'a (woven) 
basket'; cp. SKR. krt 'spin' - 
crt 'bind, connect'. 

hurl vb. ME. hurle earlier 
hurtle vb. 

hurricane sb. akin to the 
synon. DU. orkaan, DAN. sw. G. 
orkan, FR. ourctgan, IT. uracano, 
SPAN, huracan 'a hurricane' ; after 
the discovery of America adopted 
fr. Caribbean hurakan 'a hurri- 

hurry vb. ME. hurie horie vb. 

hurt vb. ME. hurte hirte vb. 
'offend' borrowed fr. OFR. hurtcr 
(FR. heurter). 

husband sb. ME. husbonde OE. 
(about 1 050) husbonda: a Scand. 
loanword, cp. ON. husbondi, sw. 
DAN. husbonde from hus 'house' 
and ON. bondi bundi 'husband'. 

husk ME. huske OE. *hiiscca 'a 
small house'(?) ; cp. G. gehduse* 

hussy short for housewife. 

hut ME. hutte from FR. hutte. 
Source OHG. hutta - - G. hutte. 

hutch sb. 'a box' ME. hucche 
prop. hucche (whence ME. 
whicche) : loanword fr. FR. huche 
'trough, bin'. 

I inquest 

1 1 I 

I ME. / earlier ich ic OE. id = 
DU. ik t OSAX. ic, OHG. ih G. ich, 
GOTH. ik\ common TEUT. ik ek 
from ARYAN. egom\ cp. LAT. ego, 
GR. &yKf SKR. ahdm, ASLOV. azu, 
LITH.0Z. The oblique cases were 
formed in all Aryan languages 
alike from a stem me-; cp. me 
and mine. 

ice ME. OE. is OHG. is G. 
eis, ON. &r, DU. ijs (GOTH. *eisa-) : 
a common Teut. word, not 
found elsewhere. icicle 
ME. isikeh prop, a compound, 
OE. is-iicel (lses%icel) ; ffcel is 
dimin. 'a small piece of ice' 
(cp. MLG. isjokel 'icicle', ON. 

idol ME. idple borrowed fr. FR. 
idole (LAT. Molum, GR. citiwtov 
'an image, likeness'). 

idle adj. ME. OE. idel 'empty, 
vain, useless' = OSAX. Mai 
'empty, useless', OHG. ital 'empty, 
vain, boastful' G. eitel Vain', DU. 
ijdel 'empty*. 

if ME. if OE. %if = OSAX. ef 
of, DU. of if 'whether, but', 
OHG. oba with the older by-form 
ibu 'if, .whether' G. ob 'if, as if, 
even if, whether', ON. if ef 'if, 
GOTH. iba(i) 'whether, perhaps'. 
Prop. dat. instr. of ON. ifi efi 
m. and if ef n. 'doubt', OHG. 
iba f. 'doubt, condition'. 

ill ME. ill ille: Scand. loan- 
word from ON. illr\ the native 
E. synon. is evil (OE 

imp sb. ME. OE. impe 'graft, 
scion' with the vb. ME. impe 
OE. impian 'graft'; cp. OHG. 
impfdn G. impfen, DAN. ympe, 
sw. ympa. Source a LAT. type 
imputare, whence also FR. enter % 
DU. enten vb. 'graft'. 

impair vb. ME. empeire bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. empeirer = FR. 
empirer (LAT. type impeiorare 
'make worse'). 

impeach vb. prop, 'hinder* 
for ME. apfche vb. 'hinder' bor- 
rowed fr. FR. empecher (LAT. 
type impedicare 'fetter 8 iiompedica 
sb. 'fetter'). 

imply cp. ply. 

in prep. ME. in OE. in = 

OSAX. G. DU. GOTH, in, ON. /, 

sw. DAN. /. Orig. related to 

LAT. in, GR. 6v(l) 9 LITH. I, 
LETT. e. 

inch sb. ME. inche OE. ynte\ 
early loanword from LAT. uncia 
'an inch', also an 'ounce'. 

ingot ME. ingot = FR. lingot 
ingott Source and history doubt- 

ink ME. fake from OFR. enque 
(FR. encre, DU. inkt, LG. inket): 
source LAT. encaustum 'the purple 
red ink'. 

inkling sb. from the vb. ME. 
inkle 'hint'. 

inn ME. OE. in inn sb. 'house, 
lodging - house' = ON. innt 

inquest ME. enqugste from OFR. 

I 12 

ire jail 

enqueste (= FR. enquete). Akin 
to inquire vb. ME. enquere from 
OFR. enquerrer (== FR. enquerir 
'inquire'); source LAT. inquirere. 

ire ME. ire 'anger' from OFR. 
ire (LAT. Ira). 

irk vb. ME. irke 'tire' with the 
adj. irksome extended fr. ME. 
irk 'distasteful'. 

iron ME. OE. iren oldest OE. form 
isern GOTH, eisarn, OSAX. OHG. 
isarn G. eisen, DU. ijzer, ON. isarn 
(jam): Teut. base isarna- perh. 
borrowed fr. a Celt, isarno- ( 
OIR. torn 'iron'); GALL. Isarno- 
dorum a placename. 

island ME. ttond OE. inland 
(eiland) 'island'; the first part 
of the compound represents 
the OE. / ei 'isle' (cp. ON. eyland, 
. OFRIS. DU. eiland 'island'), blended 
w. OFR. isle. The word starts 
from a (\&Scandin-avia \ 
Bat-avid), which is a derivative 
of TEUT.-GOTH. ahwa 'stream, 
flowing water' OHG. aha = OE. ea 
= LAT. aqua 'water'. 

isle ME. ile borrowed fr. FR. 

ile (source LAT. insula) 'an isle'. 
Cp. island. 

issue ME. issue from OFR. issue 
'end, event' (derived fr. issir = 
LAT. exire). 

it ME. it earlier ME. OE. //// 
neuter to E. he (OE. ME. he). 

itch vb. ME. icche for ^icche OE. 
lyccan'. Teut. base jukjan 
DU. jeuken, OSAX. jukkian, OHG. 
juckan G. jucken. TEUT. ^ juk. 

ivory ME. z'zwjy (ivoire) borrowed 
fr. OFR. ivorie FR. ivoire, whence 
also DU. ivoor. Source LAT. eboreus 
'made of ivory' ebur 'ivory'. 

ivy ME. ivy OE. ifil short for 
*ff-kfy if-hei = OHG. eba-hewi 
MHG. ep-hou (G. epheu) with the 
by-form OHG. ebah\ perh. akin 
to GOTH, ibuks 'backwards'? It 
is uncertain, whether the 2 nd ele- 
ment of OHG. eba-hewi = OE. iffy 
is ident. w. hay. 

iwis 'certainly' ME. iwis OE. 
"^ewis s = OHG. giwis G. gewiss> 
DU. gewis\ Teut. base ga-wissa- 
prop. part, of the Teut. vb. 
witan 'know' (cp. wot). 

jabber variant of E, gabber. \ jail wit h the by-form gaol 

larlrPt frr, ^ V ... v ..... ., V 

ME. gait j azote gaihol borrowed fr. 
OFR. gaiole gaole (FR. geole) 'a 
prison, 'bird-cage'. Source LAT. 

ME. jakke = 

from FR. jaquet\ 

OFR. jaque (G. 

jade ME. jade 'old horse'. Source 
and history unknown. 

caveola from 

cage % 

jamb journal 

jamb from FR. jambe 'a leg', 
also 'a jamb' (source LAT. 

jar sb. 'an earthen pot' from 
FR. jarre. 

jaundice is&.jaundis jaunts from 
FR. jaunisse prop, 'yellowness'; 
source FR. jaune 'yellow* = 
LAT. galbinus 'greenish yellow'. 

javelin sb. from FR. javelin'. 
of Celt, origin, cp. CYMR. ga- 
flach (whence OE. gafeloc) 'spear'. 

jaw ME. chaul (choul) earlier 
chavel OE. (plur.) cedflas\ akin to 
OS AX. kaflos plur. 'jaw' and with 
other formatives ON. kjaptr, G. 
kiefer 'jaw' : TEUT. y~ kef kef fr. 
an ARYAN gephj perh. cogn. w. 
AVEST. zafra 'mouth, jaw'. 

jay ME. jai from FR. geai (OFR. 
iai got). 

jealous ME. jelous gelous from 
OFR. gelous (FR. jaloux, whence 
DU. j aloes). 

jelly sb. late ME. geltt from 
FR. gelle. 

jeopardy sb. ME. juperdi orig. 
juparti 'hazard, hazardous feat' 
borrowed fr. FR. jeu parti 'risk, 
hazard' (orig. 'a game, in which 
the chances are equally divi- 

jest prop, 'a merry tale* ME. 
geste (also g{ste) 'a story' from 
OFR. geste 'romance'. 

jet sb. (a mineral) short for 
ME. get contracted fr. gey If. 
loanword from OFR. gaift (jaet 
jet)\ source LAT. gagdtes. 

jew ME. jew earlier glw bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. Giu Jui\ source 


LAT. Judaeus. In OE. we find 
Judeas plur. 'the Jews' from the 

jewel ME. jouel ju el from OFR. 
jouel (whence G. juwel, DU. 
juweef) = FR. joyau. Source 
a LAT. type gaudiale from gau- 

jig sb. ME. gigge 'a fiddle' from 
OFR. gige ( MHG. gige G. geige) 
'a fiddle'. 

jingle ME. gingle. 

job sb. cp. ME. gobet 'small 
piece' and OFR. gob 'a mouth- 

jockey ident. w. Jockey, dimin. 
of Jack. 

jog vb. ME. jogge vb. 'go 

join vb. ME. joine borrowed fr. 
FR. joindre (= LAT. jungere). 
Hence E. ME. joint sb. from 
FR. joint. 

joist sb. ME. giste 'joist' from 
OFR. giste (= FR. gite ? derivative 
of FR. glsir 'lie'). 

jolly ME. jolt earlier jottf: 
loanword from FR. joli (OFR. 

jostle justle vb. intensive for- 
mation from ME. jouste 'tilt' = 
OFR. jouster (ME. jouste 'tour- 
nament' fr. OFR. jouste = MHG. 

journal from FR. journal. 
journey ME. journe jour nee 'a 
day's travel, a day's work' from 
FR. journle 'a day, a day's work' 
(IT. giornata, LAT. type diur- 


joy kettle 

joy M&.joie from FR.jme (source 
LAT. gaudia = gaudium). 

judge sb. short ME. juge from 
FR. juge (source LAT. judex - 
judiceni) 'a judge'. judge 
vb. ME. jifge from FR. jugtr = 
LAT. judicare. 

juice ME. jiise jtife from FR. 
jus (source LAT. jus) 'juice'. 

July ME. juli from LAT. Julius. 

June ME. jilne earlier jilnie 
from OFR. gurnet (FR. Juiri) 
LAT. Junius. 

just ME. just (short for just?) 
from FR. juste (= LAT. Justus). 

justice ME. justice orig. justice 
= FR. justice: source i^p^.justitia. 

- justify vb. ME. justifie from 
FR. justifier* 


keel sb. ident. w. ON. kjolr 
(Teut. base kelu-) 'keel of the 
ship' : r synon. DAN. kjol, sw. 
kol, G. DU. kiel. Source and 
history -unknown. 

keel vb. 'cool' ME. kfle OE. 
cflan: Teut. base koljan derived 
fr. the adj. TEUT. kolu- = E. 

keen adj. ME. kene 'sharp, bold, 
brave' OE. cene orig. cceni 'bold, 
brave, wise': Teut. base kdni- 
1=- OHG. kuoni G. kiihn, DU. koen 
'bold , daring ; the original 
meaning is evident in ON. kcenr 
'wise', which points to the TEUT. 
\fkan 'know' in can, ken and 

^ keep ME. kepe OE. cepan ccepan 
'keep': from a Teut. base kop- 
jan\ no ^ kdp exists in the 
other Teut. languages. 

keg sb. Scand. loanword: ON. 
kaggi 'a keg'. 

ken vb. 'know' ME. kenne bor- 

rowed fr. ON. kenna vb. 'know* 
= G. kennen, GOTH, kannjan ; 
causative of TEUT. kunnan 'know'. 
Cp. can vb. 

kennel 'a house for dogs' 
ME. kenel\ adopted fr. ONFR. kenil 
(chenil)\ source ONFR. ken (FR. 
chien) 'dog' with sufF. -// (LAT. 
type *canile from cants 'dog'). 

kerchief sb. earlier spelling 
cur chief ME. cover chef \ borrowed 
fr. OFR. covrechef lit. 'a head- 
covering'. OFR. covrir (== FR. 
couvrir) 'cover' and chef 'head'. 

kernel ME. kirnel OE. cyrnel 
(Teut. base kurnila-) : dimin. of 
corn (with the Teut. dimin. suff. 

kettle ME. ketel borrowed fr. 
ON. ketill = GOTH, katilsy OHG. 
keyjl G. kessel, DU. ketel\ corre- 
sponding to OE. detel ME. chetel, 
which was superseded by ON. 
ketill. The Teut. word was 

key -<- kitchen 

early borrowed fr. LAT. catmus 
'kettle', whence also OHG. ke^m. 

key sb. ME. keie OE. cd% c&^e 
= OFRIS. kei 'a key': Tent, base 

kid sb. ME. kid borrowed fr. 
ON. kid\ cogn. w. OHG, kizzm 
chizzi G. kitze 'a young goat'; a 
native E. word cogn. w. SCAND. 
kid would begin with ch. 

kidney sb. ME. kid-nere (OE. 
*cydeneore *cydneora!i)\ the 
second part of the compound 
is ME. nere ( ON. nyra, DU. 
nier, OHG. nioro G. niere 'kid- 
ney'). The first part is ob- 

kill vb. ME. kille\ a corresp. 
OE. *cyllan is wanting: Teut. 
base kuljan akin to OE. cwellan 
= ME. quelle vb. 'kill', ON. 
kvelja, OSAX. qudlian. There 
was a primit. str. vb. OE. cwelan 
'die', OSAX. OHG. quelan 'smart'; 
cp. G. quaL 

kiln sb. ME. kilne OE. cyln = 
older cylene cyline 'furnace': early 
loanword fr. LAT. culina 'kitchen', 
whence also OIR. cuile 'kitchen'. 
ON. kylna 'kiln' is an OE. loan- 

kin sb. ME. kin OE. cynn orig. 
'a tribe': Teut. base kunja- = 
ON. kyn, OSAX. kunni, OHG. 
chunni MHG. kilnne race', GOTH. 
kuni\ deriv. fr. the TEUT. \f~ken 
'produce' in OHG. G. kind 'child', 
OE. cennan vb. 'produce', answe- 
ring to an ARYAN \T gen in LAT. 
genus t gens-gentis, GR. yi-vog ywr\ 
i, SKR. y"/0. Cp. kind, 

kindred and mankind. 
kind adj. 'natural, loving' ME. 
kinde OE. lecynde 'natural, in- 
born': derived fr. kind sb. 
kind sb. 'nature, sort' ME. 
kinde OE. ie-cynd 'nature'. 

kindle vb. ME. kindle', derived 
with intensive -/ from ON. kynda 
vb. 'kindle'? (ON. kyndill 'a 
torch' ?) 

kindred ME. kinrlde (OE. *cyn- 
rdderi): composed of kin = 
OE. cynn 'kin' and OE. raden (= 
GOin.garaideins) a suffix meaning 
'state, condition' (cp. hatred). 

king ME. late OE. king OE. cyng 
a late shortening for the common 
OE. cyning : Teut. base kuninga- = 
OSAX. OHG. kuning G. konig, DU. 
koning\ cp. ON. konungr (but 
GOTH, reiks 'king'). 

kirtle sb. ME. kirtel OE. cyrtel 
from a TEUT. base *kurtil (= ON. 
kyrtilt) : prop, 'a short under- 
garment' from LAT. curtus 'short' 
(cp. G. kurz and see short and 

kiss sb. ME. kiss with the 
vowel accommodated to the vb. 
kiss for OE, coss = OSAX. kits 

COS, DU. kttS, OHG- kus G. kllSS, 

ON. koss t DAN. kys, sw. kyss, GOTH. 
*kussus. kiss vb. ME. kisse 
OE. cyssan OSAX. kussian, 
DU. OHG. kussen G. kussen t ON. 
sw. kyssa, DAN. kysse. 

kitchen sb. ME. kicchen OE. 
cycene from a WEST-TEUT. base 
kukina = DU. keuken, OHG. 
kuchtna chuhhina G. kilche: an 
early West-Teut. loanword from 


kite knuckle 

late LAT. coquma (class, culma 
see under kiln) or rather from 
a common Rom. and vulg. LAT. 
cocina 'kitchen' (cp. FR. cuisine, 
IT. cucina, SPAN, cocina). Cp. 

kite sb. ME. kite OE. cyta 'a 
kite': Teut. base kiitjan-. 

kitten ME. kitoun answers to 
the synon. FR. chatton 'a young 
cat' (perh. the E. word points 
to ONFR. *ketonT) 

knave ME. knave OE. cnafa = 
OHG. knabo G. knabe 'boy'; iden- 
tical with OE. cnapa ME. kndpe 
'boy' OSAX. knapo, OFRIS. 
knapa, ON. knapi 'boy'. GERM. 
knappe points to a TEUT. knab- 
ban-. Perh. cogn. w. knightl 
or. w. GALL, gnabat 'son'? 

knead vb. ME. kn{de OE. cnedan 
= MLG. DU. kneden, OHG. krietan 
G. kneten'. TEUT. y~ /;z^/ = 
ARYAN \f gnet in RUSS. gnetate 

knee vb. ME. kneoE. cneo = OSAX. 

**/<?, DU. G. >/2/<? OHG. f^ft/ft //Z,?0, 

GOTH, kniu (gen. kniwis): Teut. 
base knewa-, cogn. w. the synon. 

LAT. ^tffc, GR. yo'j't', SKR. janu 

'knee'. kneel vb. ME. cnele OE. 
*cntowlian = DU. knielen MLG. 
#,?*, sw. <r/te<k 'kneel', DAN. 
^/z^/^ ? 

knell vb. ME. knille OE. cnyllan\ 
cogn. w. MHG. knellen in *r-, G. 

knife sb. ME. /^^ OE. (about 
1000) cnif. The occurrence in 
late OE. favors Scancl. origin: 
ON. knifr. On the continent, 

there is an equivalent DU. knijf, 
LG. kmfy G. dial, kneif. 

knight sb. ME. knight OE. cniht\ 
Teut. base kriehta- = DU. G. 
knecht OHG. krieht, OFRIS. kniuht\ 
cogn. w. knavet 

knit vb. ME. knitte OE. cnyttan\ 
deriv. of OE. cnotta (by vowel- 
mutation) (= ON. kmitr) = 
E. knot] OE. cnyttan is ident. 
w. LG. kmitten"? 

knob sb. ME. knobbe\ allied to 
MHG. knubel 'knuckle', DU. knobbel 
'knot, lump, callosity', G. knopf 
'button, bud', ON. knappr. 

knock vb. ME. knocke OE. 
*cnoccian\ ident. w. OE. cnucian, 
ON. knoka\ a sound imitation, 
closely allied to knack. 

knoll sb. ME. knol OE. cnoll = 
DU. knol 'a turnip', G. knollen. 

knot sb. ME. knotte OE. cnotta 
= MHG. knotze, DU. knot] cogn. 
w. OHG. knodo knoto G. knot en 
and ON. knutr 'a knot' kntita 
f. 'dice' knpltr (GOTH. 
*knattus) m. 'ball'. 

know vb. ME. knmve OE. cndwan 
str. vb. = OHG. chnaan 'know', 
ON. knd vb. 'know how to do': 
TEUT. Y~ kn knd (akin to can 
and* keen) = ARYAN y* ^/z 
^w in LAT. gignosco ignotus 
ignavus ignarus , GR. yiyvwoma, 
SKR. \{~jna. - - knowledge sb. 
ME. knfivUchl derived fr. the 
vb. ME. knowttche, intensive for- 
mation of ME. knowe = E. 
know (OE. *tycndwlcecan is 

knuckle sb. ME. knokel OE. 

labor lake 

*cnucel\ cogn. w. G. knochel, dimin. of a simple word, seen 
OFRIS. knokle, DU. knokkel, MLG. in G. knochen 'a bone', DU. knok 
knokel, DAN. knogle knokkeh 'a knuckle, a bone' 

labor sb. ME. labour adopted 
fr. FR. labour = LAT. labor (em) 

lace sb. ME. Ids : borrowed fr. 
FR. lace OFR. las (lags): spurce 
LAT. laqueus 'noose, snare' (= 
IT. lac do}. See latchet. 

lack sb. ME. lak OE. *lcec = 
ODU. lac DU. lak 'blemish, stain, 
lack'. lack vb. ME. lacke 

from the sb., but earlier ME. 
lake (OE. *lacian) = ODU. laken 
'be wanting', OFRIS. lakia. Teut. 
\f lek in leak. 

lacquer lacker sb. adopted 
fr. FR. laque 'varnish'? cp. G. 
lack, IT. lacca. 

lad ME. ladde borrowed fr. IR. 
lath 'a youth, champion'; cp. 

ladder ME. ladtlre short for OE. 
hlcedder'. Teut. base hlaidrjo- = 
DU. ladder leer, OHG. leitara G. 
letter \ GOTH. *hlai-dri (gen. 
*hlai-drjds): TEUT. \/~hlai hli in 

/<?/* Vb., ARYAN V" /&# in GR. 

xtf-ua ladder'. The Teut. 
suffix -dr- in ladder answers to 
a GR. -TQLU. 

lade sb. ME. lade OE. hladan 
os AX. hladan, DU. G. laden 
OHG. (fyladan, ON. ^^, GOTH. 

hlafian 'load, lade': TEUT. \fhlad 
hlaj) from an ARYAN \^klat\ perh. 
cogn. w. \fklad in OSLOV. kladq 
I lay'. The vb. OE. hladan 
ME. lade signifies also 'draw 
water', hence E. ladle ME. Iddel 
OE. hlcedel. 

lady ME. lady earlier lafdi 
Idfdi^ OE. hlcsfdi^e 'a lady, 
mistress'; cogn. w. lord OE. 
hldford. The first part of both 
words is OE. hldf = E. loaf, 
the second part in OE. hlaf- 
dity is connected with GOTH. 
deigan vb. 'knead' (see dough). 
Therefore OE. hldfdiie (TEUT. 
* hlaiba-dtgjd-) meant orig. 'the 
kneader of bread'. 

lair ME. leir OE. le^er 'lair, 
couch, bed' OSAX. legar 

k couch, sick-bed', DU. leger 'a 
couch, bed, lair', OHG. legar G. 
lager (for leger) 'a couch, bed, 
place of lying, storehouse', 
GOTH, ligrs 'a couch': Teut. 
base legra- from \f leg in lie 
and lay. 

laity sb. from the adj. lay. 

lake ME. lake 'lake' OE. lacu 
'lake' and 'stream': early loan- 
word fr. LAT. lacus 'a lake, 
pool*. OE. lagu 'sea, ocean' is 


lamb lap 

the genuine E. correspondence 
of the LAT. word and of IR. 
loch 'lake'; cp. loch. 

lamb sb. ME. OE. lamb Igmb 
= OSAX. lamb, DU. lam, OHG. 
lamb G. lamm, GOTH. ON. lamb'. 
Teut. base lamba- (lambaz- in 
the plur. OE. lombru ME. lombren, 
lambiz- in the plur. OHG. lembir 
G. lammer). 

lame adj. ME. lame OE. lama 
= OSAX. lamo, DU. lam, OHG. 
MHG. lam (gen. lames) G. lahm, 
ON. kimi, sw. DAN. /0w<?. The 
commoner meaning 'bruised, 
maimed' is prob. the orig. one, 
though the meaning 'lame' is 
very old (GOTH, us d halts cp. 
half). Cp. OSLOV. lomiti vb. 
'break, bruise', ON. lama 'bruise' ? 

lammasME. lammasse shortened 
fr. late OE. hldmmcEsse, commonly 
OE. hldf -masse.: lit. 'loaf-mass' 
from hldf 'loaf, bread' and 
mcesse 'mass'. See loaf. 

lamp short for ME. lawnpe 
adopted fr. FR. lampe, whence 
also DU. lamp, DAN. G. lampe, sw. 
lampa. Source LAT.-GR. lampas 
'a torch, lamp' (= IT. lampa). 

lamprey sb. ME. laumpreie bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. lampreie (= FR. 
lamproie), whence also DU. lam- 
prei. Source LAT. lampetra 
'lamprey' in a vulgar form lam- 
preda (= IT. lampredd), whence 
also OE. lempedu lampreta' and 
perh. the synon. pride (OE. 
* pride short for * lampride?) . 

lance ME. launce borrowed fr. 
FR. lance, whence also DU. lam, 

G. lanze. Source LAT. lancea 
(== IT. lancia)} cp. latmch. 
land sb. ME. OE. land (Ignd) 

= OSAX. DU. G. ON. SW. DAN. 

land from a Teut. base landa-\ 
cogn. w. IR. land lann, CYMR. 
llan, CORN. Ian (from *landha) 
'open space, surface', BRET. Ian 
'heath', OSLOV. ledina 'heath, 
untilled land' (RUSS. Ijada Ija- 
dind). land vb. ME. lande = 
DU. G. landen, DAN. lande, sw. 
landa from land sb. land- 
scape borrowed fr. DU. land- 
scliap 'a landscape'. 

lane sb. ME. OE. lane (lone) =. 
OFRIS. lona lana, DU. laan 'a 
lane, a narrow passage': Teut. 
base lanon-. * 

language ME. langdge adopted 
from FR. langage: deriv. of 
FR. langue LAT. lingua 'tongue, 

languish vb. ME. languisshe 
from FR. languiss- stem of languir 
'languish' (LAT. languere 'be 
weak 1 ). 

lank adj. ME. lank OE. hlanc\ 
perh. cogn. w. G. schlank, which 
points to a TEUT. slanka- : ARYAN 
klang- s(k)langt 

lantern ME. lanterne launterne 
borrowed from FR. lanterne I 
source LAT. laterna lanterna, 
whence also G. laterne. 

lap sb. ME. lappe 'lap, border' 
OE. IcBppa 'a loosely hanging 
portion'; cogn. w. DU. lap, OFRIS. 
OHG. lappa G. lappen 'rag, tatter' 
and LITH. lopas 'patch' (LAT. labor e 
'hang down, fall'). See limp adj. 

lapwing lath 


lapwing vb. accommodated to 
wing for ME. lapwinke, shortened 
fr. OE. hlfapwince lit. 'the bird 
which turns about in running'; 
cp. leap for OE. hlfapan 'run' 
and wink. 

larboard earlier lerboard and 
leerboard (cp. starboard)', perh. 
from ME. ler 'cheek'? In Scand. 
the planks in a ship's side have 
different names as aur-, skaut-, 

larch sb. ME. *lerch OE. *lerd 
*leric = MHG. ler c he G. liirche. 
Source LAT. larix (laricem). 

lard late ME. lard from the sy- 
non. FR. lard = LAT. larda 
(laridus adj. 'fat'). 

large ME. large 'large, wide, 
liberal, generous' from FR. large 
= LAT. largus. 

lark ME. larke contracted fr. 
OE. Idwerce earliest form Idwricce: 
Teut. base laiwrakon- OHG. 
lerahha (from *l8wrahha) G. lerche, 
DU. leeuwericky MLG. lewerke. 
Formation and origin quite ob- 

lash sb. ME. lasshe 'the string 
of a whip' OE. Icesce = DU. lasch, 
MLG. las c he 'a stripe'. 

lass ME. lasse: perh. for *ladst 
and cogn. w. lad ME. laddel 

last adj. ME. last(e) earlier 
latst(e) shortened for OE. latest 
'latest': superl. of OE. lat= late. 

last sb. 'the shoemaker's woo- 
den mould of the foot' ident. 
Wo OE. last sb. 'foot-track, foot- 
print'; the E. meaning agrees w. 
G. leisten, DU. leest, sw. last, DAN. 

last 'the shoemaker's last'. The 
orig. meaning is evident in ON. 
leistr 'foot below the ankle, a 
short sock'. Cp. the ARYAN 
\f~*lis lais 'go' in- LAT. delirare 
go mad'. 

last vb. ME. laste short for OE. 
lastan 'perform, stand by, carry 
out' = OSAX. lestian, OHG. G. 
leisten, GOTH, laistjan: derived 
fr. a TEUT. laista- 'foot-mark' 
under last sb. 

latch vb. ME. lacche OE. Iceccan 
ty-lceccan 'seize, catch hold of. 

- Hence latch sb. ME. lacche 
'a catch, fastening'. 

latchet sb. ME. lacchet from 
ONFR. *lachet = FR. lacet a dimin. 
of FR. lacs 'a snare, noose'; see 

late adj. ME. lat (late adv.) 
OE. tat 'slow, late' OSAX. lat, 
(LG. late adv. 'late'), DU. laat, 
OHG. /#; (;;) G. lass, ON. latr, 
GOTH, lats 'slow, slothful': an 
OTEUT. adj. -stem lata-, belonging 
to the ARYAN \flad in LAT. 
lassus (trow*lad-tus, an old part.) 
'weary'. Cp. let vb. and last 

lath ME. lafipe OE. Icetta (lafifia) 
= OHG. latta G. latte, DU. lat. 
Though OE. tt corresponds here 
to OHG. # (regularly OE. // = 
OHG. //), the word is still ge- 
nuine Teut., since it is allied w. 
G. laden 'board, plank, lash, 
shutter', whence FR. latte (= 
SPAN, lata, IT. latta)] akin to w. 
Hath 'a rod, staff', IR. slat, BRET. 
laz 'rod, lath' (Celt, base slatta-). 


lather lay 

lather ME. lather short for OE. 
llador = ON. laudr (mod. ICEL. 
Igdr) 'froth, foam': Teut. base 
lau-pra- derived from the ARYAN 
<flaw in LAT. lavare', as for the 
Teut. suffix cp. GR. Aovroor 
'bath' and GALL, lautrum 'bal- 

Latin adj. ME. Latin adopt. 
fr. FR. latin ( SPAN. IT. latino, 
DU. latijn, G. lateiri)', source LAT. 
Latinus, whence also OE. laden 

latten sb. 'a kind of brass or 
bronze' ME. latoun borrowed fr. 
the synon. OFR. laton = FR. 
laiton, SPAN, laton. 

lattice sb. ME. latis adopted fr. 
FR. lattis 'lathwork, lattice-work' 
formed from FR. latte 'a lath'; 
see lath. 

laugh vb. ME. lag he laughe 
earlier lahhe OE. hlehhan hlyhhan = 
OSAX. hlehhian, DU. G. lachen OHG. 
lahhen (fylahhan, ON. hlceja (for 
*hlahja), GOTH, hlahjan 'laugh'. 
TEUT. \l"hlah = ARYAN klak, prob. 
onomatopoetic. laughter sb. 
ME. laughter OE. hleahtor = OHG. 
hlahtar G. gelachter, ON. hldtr 
from the TEUT. \^hlah with the 
suffix pra- tra-. 

launch vb. ME. launche com- 
monly launce'. adopted fr ONFR. 
(Picard.) lancher = FR. lancer 
'hurl, cast, dart, thrust'; deriv. 
of FR. lance = E. lance. 

laundress extended with suffix 
-ess fr. ME. launder lavendere from 
OFR. lavandiere 'washer woman' 
FR. lavandiere 'laundry - maid'. 

Source LAT. lavandus 'to be 
washed' (IT. lavanda 'a washing'). 

laurel ME. laurcr (with the by- 
forms lorer loref) from FR. laurieri 
source LAT. laurus 'a laurel tree'. 

lave vb. ME. lave OE. ^elafian 
= OHG. labbn G. laben 'refresh'. 
The WEST-TEUT. labon is perh. 
a loanword fr. LAT. lavare (== 
FR. laver). 

lavender ME. lavendre (with an 
inserted E. r) borrowed from 
FR. lavande = IT. lavanda lav en- 
tola , whence DU. G. lavendel. 
Source LAT. lavare 'wash* (la- 
vender was laid in freshly washed 

law ME. lawe OE. lagu 'law*, 
which about goo was borrowed 
fr. an early SCAND.*/^?/? = ON. 
log nom. plur. 'law' (sw. lag, DAN. 
lov 'law'). Cogn. w. LAT. lex 
legem fr. ARYAN <^legh 'lie'; cp. 
G. gesetz, satzung for the meaning. 
The genuine E. word for 'law* 
was OE. ce. = OHG. ewa. 

lawn 1 sb. 'a grass plot' ME. 
launde lande\ borrowed from FR. 
lande 'a grassy plain', which is 
of Celt, origin (cp. IR. lann 
under land). 

lawn- sb. 'fine linen' orig, 
"lawn linen": so called from FR. 
Laon a city N. W. of RheimsJ 
cp. Arras and Cambric. 

lay vb. ME. leie lein earlier 
legge OE. lecgan wk. vb. (3 sing. 
OE. le^p ME. lei-tJi)'. Teut. base 
lagjan = GOTH, lagjan, OSAX. 
leggian, OHG. leckan G. legen, DU. 
ON. lexziai causative for- 

lay learn 


mation of the \^leg 'lie' in lie] 
hence lay 'cause to lie down'. 

lay sb. 'a song' ME. lai from 
OFR. FR. lai. 

lay adj. ME. lai from OFR. FR. 
lai 'secular, belonging to the 
laity'. Source LAT. laicus, whence 
also OE. Icewed (G. laie 'a lay- 
man). See lewd. 

lazar sb. ME. Idzar fr. OFR. 
lazaret Source the biblical prop, 
n. Lazarus\ 'the lazar-house' is 
in G. lazaret = IT. lazzaretto, FR. 

lazy from FR. las = LAT. lassus. 

lead vb. ME. l{de (lede) OE. ladan: 
Teut. base laid/an = OSAX. 
ledian, DU. leiden, G. leiten, ON. 
leida 'lead': prop, factitive of the 
str. vb. TEUT. Rfan = OE. lidan 
'go, travel', OSAX. lithan, GOTH. 
leipan\ TEUT. \fltp under lode- 

lead sb. short for ME. l$d OE. 
lead = DU. lood 'lead a weight', 
G. lot 'a lead-weight': Teut. base 
*laitda- cogn. w. synon. OIR. 
ludide (base laudio-). 

leaf ME. lef OE. /^'tf/ 1 = OSAX. 
lof, DU. /<?0/" 'foliage', OHG. loub 
G. /czz^ 'leaves, foliage', ON. lauf 
'leaf, GOTH, laufs (plur. laubbs) 
'leaf: Teut. base lauba- orig. 
'the single leaf (used as a col- 
lective sb. 'the foliage'). 

league sb. 'an alliance' adopted 
from FR. ligue 'a league': source 
LAT. ligare 'bind'. 

league sb. 'about three miles' 
late ME. l$ge borrowed fr. OFR. 

legue = FR. lieu: source a LAT.- 
GALL, leuga leuca 'a Gallic mile', 
whence also late OE. leowe 'leuga'. 
GALL, leuga corresponds to BRET. 
leo, IR. leige 'a league'. 

leak vb. ME. l$ke OE. lecan (the 
factitive leccan 'wet' from a base 
lakjari) = ON. leka 'drip, leak 
as a ship', DU. lekken y OHG. 
lechan G. lecken vb. leek adj. 
'leaky'. - - TEUT. \flek lak see 
under lack vb. 

lean adj. ME. l$ne OE. hlcene 
from a Teut. base hlai-ni 'lean' 
(with suffix -ni as in clean, 

lean vb. ME. tync OE. hlcenan 
'cause to lean': Teut. base hlain- 
jan = OHG. Icinan'. factitive of 
OE. hlionian 'lean' = OSAX. hlinon, 
OHG. hlinen 'lean'; cp. G. lehncn, 
DU. leunen. The TEUT.\TM (cp. 
ladder) corresponds to an 
ARYAN Y~M; cp. LAT. inclmdre 
'incline', GR. xXi'vm 'I lean' xL- 
TVC, 'hill', LAT. cli-vus 'hill', GOTH. 
hlai-w (OE. hldw) 'mound'. 

leap vb. ME. type OE. hlapan 
str. vb. 'leap, run' == DU. loopen, 
OSAX. hlopan, OHG. louffan G. 
lauf en, ON. hlaupa, GOTH, hlaupan 
'leap, run': TEUT.y^^n^, perh. 
cogn. w. LITH. klupau vb. 'stag- 
ger, stumble*. 

learn vb. short for ME. /0r* 
OE. leornian'. from a base lernbn 
TEUT. liznvn = OHG. lirn&n lernen 
G. lernen 'learn'; cp. OSAX. /z^ 
from a base liznbn. Akin to 
the primit. str. vb. GOTH. / 
I know' and the deriv. OE. OHG. 


lease 1 leisure 

lis-t t GOTH, lis-ts 'art, cunning'. 
See lore for the TEUT.\Tte Hz. 

lease 1 vb. 'let tenements' bor- 
rowed from FR. laisser. 

lease 2 vb. 'gather, pick, glean' 
ME. l$se OE. lesan 'gather' = OSAX. 
lesan, DU. lezen 'gather, read', 
OHG. lesan G. lesen 'gather, 
read', ON. lesa 'gather, pick', 
GOTH, lisan 'gather'; cogn. w. 
LITH. lesti 'pick up'. 

least ME. lest OE. last shor- 
tened fr. lasest (by-form Icerest)'. 
Teut. base laisista- superl. to 
the compar. TEUT. laisiza- = 

leather ME. lether OE. leder = 
ON. ledr, DU. leder, OHG. ledar 
G. leder leather': Teut. base 
lepra- = pre-TEUT. letro- in IR. 
lethar, CYMR. lledr, BRET, lezr 

leave vb. ME. leve OE. Icefan 
tr. 'leave' intr. 'remain': Teut. 
base laibjan\ cp. OSAX. far- 
tibian 'remain', OHG. MHG. leibcn 
'leave', ON. leifa 'leave': causat. 
of a str. vb. liban in OE. belifan 
ME. belive y OSAX. biliban, DU. 
blijven, OHG. biliban G. bleiben, 
ON. Ufa (orig. str.), GOTH, bi- 
leiban 'remain'. For the root 
see live. 

leave sb. ME. l$ve (leve) 'per- 
mission' OE. l$af 'permission'; 
cp. OE. dlyfan dlefan 'permit', 
OHG. irlouben G. erlauben. 

leaven ME. levain from FR. 
levain 'ferment'. Source LAT. 
lev amen. 

lee ME. If from ON. hU (sigla 

a hle 'to stand to leeward')' 
prop, 'shelter, protection' (OE. 
hleo, OSAX. hleo 'shelter'). Cogn. 
w. ON. hly 'warmth' hlyr 'warm; 
and G. lau OHG. hlao\ CQ. -luke- 

leech 1 'physician' (Shakesp.) 
ME. leche OE. lece Icece 'physician' 
= GOTH, lekeis, OHG. lahhi 'phy- 
sician': Teut. base lekja- lakja-. 
Perh. allied to OIR. liaig (gen. 
lego) 'physician'. 

leech 2 'hirudo' ME. *llche (not 
recorded) OE. Icece 'hirudo': prop, 
'physician' and ident. w. leech } . 
Cp. ODU. lake 'leech'? 

leek ME. lek OE. l{ac = DU. 
look, OHG. louh G. lauch, ON. 
laukr 'leek': Teut. base lauka- 
pre-TEUT. lougo-. 

leer ME. ler OE. hleor 'cheek' 
= OSAX. hlior, ON. hlyr 'cheek': 
Teut. base hleuza-. If the orig. 
meaning was 'ear', listen might 
be allied. 

lees 'dregs of wine' from FR. lie 
'lees': base a late Gallo-Latin 
lia for *liga 'sediment' (ARYAN 
\/^legh in lie). 

left ME. left lift allied to the 
synon. ODU. lucht luft, LG. lucht, 
NFRIS. leeft\ the orig. meaning 
was perh. 'faint, weak' in OE. 
lyft 'inanis': Teut. base lufti-1 
lumfti-1 perh. allied to OHG. 
lenka 'the left hand' G. links 'left'? 

legend ME. legende from OFR. 

leisure ME. insure (commonly 
leiser) fr. OFR. leisir = FR. loisir. 
Source LAT. licre* 

lemman lie 1 


lemman 'sweetheart' ME. lemman 
shortened fr. an earlier lefman'. 
prop. y>lief man. 

lemon from FR. limon\ cp. 

lend vb. ME. tine OE. Icznan 
vb. 'lend* from OE. Icsn 'a loan'; 
cp. loan. 

length ME. lengthe OE. lengf 
from a Teut. base langifid- 
ON. lengd'. abstract, formation of 
TEUT. langa- ; cp. long. 

lent ME. lente lenten OE. len^ten 
'spring' = OHG. lenzin with the 
by-form lengnjn lengizo lenzo G. 
lenz 'spring', DU. lente. OHG. lenzin 
( OE. lenten) points to a TEUT. 
langa-tma- 'the long day'; for 
the second element cp. GOTH. 
sin-teins 'daily', SLOV. dint, skr. 
dina 'day'. 

lentil ME. lentil fr. FR. lentille\ 
source the synon. LAT. lenticula 
(lens lentis 'lentil'). 

leper ME. lepre 'leprosy' fr. FR. 
lepre 'leprosy' (LAT. lepra). 

less ME. lesse lasse OE. Icessa 
'smaller' fr. a Teut. base laisizan- 
= OFRIS. lessa; the adv. E. less 
ME. les OE. Ices answers to OSAX. 
tis (TEUT. laisiz). Fdr the superl. 
cp. least. A primitive adj. laisa- 
is LITH. lesas 'little, small'. 

-less suffix = ME. -t/s OE. -leas'. 
prop. adj. meaning loose. 

lesson ME. lessoun fr. FR. lefoni 
source LAT. lectio(nem}. 

lest 'that not' ME. leste shor- 
tened for the Ust the OE. p$ las 
pe 'for the reason less that'; 
for OE. Ids = ME, les cp. less. 

let 1 vb. ME. lete OE. Ittan Idtan 
str. vb. = GOTH, titan, ON. Idta, 
OSAX. latan, OHG. laTgan G. lassen, 
DU. laten\ TEUT.y"/^/ /^/ 'permit'. 

let 2 vb. 'hinder' ME. lette OE. 
let fan fr. a base latjan 'to make 
slow' (TEUT. lata- 'slow' see un- 
der late) = GOTH. /^df 'tarry' 
ON. let/a t OSAX. lettian, OHG. 
lezzan (G. verletzen), DU. letten. 

letter ME. /<?#r^ fr. FR. /<?//r^ 
(LAT. litter a). 

lettuce late ME. letilfe\ allied 
to FR. laitue = LAT. lactuca 
(whence OHG. lattuK). 

levy fr. FR. levle (FR. lever = 
LAT. lev are). 

lewd ME. //ze/^ OE. Idwed 'un- 
learned' fr. LAT. la'icus cp. /_y 3 . 

lick vb. ME. likke OE. lie dan = 
OSAX. likkdn, OHG. leckon G. 
lecken, GOTH. *likkon. TEUT. likkon 
belongs to the Aryan 
'lick' in GOTH, laigon, GR. 
'lick' bxvsvro 'taste secretly', 
SKR. Vf7# //^ 'lick', OSLOV. Kzq 
(lizati) and LITH. leziu lick', LAT. 
/w^ and perhaps LAT. lingua 
LITH. lezuvis 'tongue', OIR. ligim 

lid sb. (eye-lid) ME. lid OE. hlid 
'cover, lid' = DU. lid lid, cover', 
OHG. lit (older hlit) G. lid (in 
augenlid'eye\K$), ON. //rf 'cover, 
gate'. Cp. the TEUT. \f~~hlid in 
the str. vb. OE. OSAX. hftdan 

lie 1 vb. 'speak falsely' ME. lie 
earlier lie tity OE. Ifogan = 
OSAX. OHG. Hog an, DU. liegen, G. 


lie 2 like 

str. vb. 'tell a falsehood'. The 
TEUT. \^leug answers to an Aryan 
^leugh - high in OSLOV. luzq 
(lugatt) vb. 'lie' luza sb. 'lie . 

lie 2 vb. 'rest, repose' ME. lie 
lin OE. lidgan = OSAX. liggian, 
DU. liggen, OHG. lie ken G. liegen, 
ON. tiggja, GOTH, ligan str. vb. 
'He'. The str. vb. TEUT. Kgjan 
is derived fr. the Aryan \^legh 
in GR. /U'xrpoy At/og 'bed' 
aXo^oc 'wife' 4.G) 'bedridden 
woman' Ao/e'to 'bear' Ao/og 
'ambush, lair', LAT. /frf&r 'bed', 
OSLOV. /# (lezati) 'lie'. Cp. /#}> 
and /tf/V. 

lief adj. ME. lef OE. leof (cp. 
I e mm an) = OSAX. Kof, DU. /*<?/, 
OHG. //<? (Hub) G. /*> 'dear, lief, 
ON. ljufr, GOTH. ///r'deaf: Teut. 
base leuba- adj. 'lief from the 
TEUT. \l^ lub in love. 

liege ME. /<?<? (by-form ///*) fr. 
OFR. //> // FR. lige. 

life ME. OE. /// = OSAX. /if, 
ON. //", OHG. lib 'life' (G. /, 
DU. lijf 'body'); allied to the 
TEUT. y"Y$ in /;*; a lost str. 
vb. /z&7/2 cp. under leave vb. 
Outside of TEUT., GR. fanaytw 
'remain' points to an ARYAN \{~lip. 

lift vb. ME. lifte fr. SCAND. ' lypta\ 
cogn. w. loft. 

light sb. ME. light OE. Ifoht = 
OSAX. OHG. Koht, DU. G. licht 
'light'. The dental of the word 
is formative as seen in GOTH. 
liuh-af 'light; cp. the Aryan 
Y~/: leuk in LAT. ///^^? 'shine', 
GR. Xtvxoc 'white', SKR. rue 'shine'. 
Hence lighten vb. ME. 

light(e)ne (where the n is 
formative) 'become light' and 
lightning verbal sb. 'an il- 
luminating flash' (with the suffix 

light adj. ME. light OE. liht leoht 
= DU. ligty OHG. liht G. leicht, 
ON. Uttr , GOTH, leihts'i Teut. 
base tinhta- for lenkto-f Perhaps 
cogn. w. GR. sXa/vc 'small', LITH. 
lengwus lengwas 'light'. See lung. 

- Hence also lights 'animal's 
lungs'. light vb. 'alight, 
descend' ME. lihte OE. lihtan lit. 
'make light, relieve a horse of 
his burden' fr. OE. liht = light. 

- lighten vb. ident. w. light 
vb. (w. formative -en). light 
in the phrase "to make light of 
somebody" represents ME. lite OE. 
lyt 'little, small', which is cogn. 
w. little. 

like vb. ME. like OE. llcian wk. 
vb. 'please' = GOTH, leikan (pret. 
leikaida) 'please', DU. Rjken 'suit', 
ON. Ilka 'please': deriv. of like 
adj. or cogn. w. OIR. ligach 
'beautiful' llg 'color, splendor'? 

like adj. ME. lik earlier illk OE. 
glic = GOTH, galeiks, ON. glikr, 
OSAX. giRk, DU. gelijk y OHG. 
giM (hh) G. gleich. The Teut. 
adj. ga-ltka- is a comp. of the 
particle GOTH, ga- and a sb. lika- 
'body', the comp. meaning 'having 
the same body'; cp. GOTH. leik t 
OSAX. ON. lik 'body', OE. lic-homa 
'body', G. leiche leichnam 
'corpse'. Cp. -ly, which and 
such. Hence liken vb. ME. 
llkne 'compare 1 . 

lily lion 


lily ME. lilie OE. lilie (plur. 
liliari) = OHG. lilia G. lilie , DU. 
lelie\ source LAT. plur. Rlia 'lily', 
whence also OSAX. ///// 'lily'. 

limb ME. Urn OE. Km (plur. 
leomu) = ON. limr 'limb': Teut. 
base li-ma- cogn. w. GOTH. li-pus t 
OHG. li-d, OSAX. li-thj OE. li-f 
'limb'; cp. also LITH. lemu 
'stature, growth': ARYAN y~/f. 

lime 1 sb. Viscous substance, 
bird-lime' ME. OE. lim 'cement, 
glue' = DU. lijm, G. leim OHG. 
Jm t ON. lim 'glue': TEUT. lima- 
is allied to TEUT. laima- (see 
loam). LAT. limus 'slime' cor- 
responds to lime in form, to 
loam in meaning, ^lai ll is 
attested by ON. leir (Teut. base 
lai-z-a-) 'clay, loam' and LAT.#-0 
'rub o\er, daub'. 

lime sb. 'the linden-tree', cor- 
rupted fr. earlier line-tree for 
lind-tree\ see linden. 

lime 5 sb. 'a kind of citron' 
borrowed fr. FR. lime 'a lime'; 
ident. w. lemon. 

linch-pin earlier lins-pin ME. 
lins OE. lynes = OSAX. lunisa, 
DU. /&72.S 1 lenSy G. lunse\ allied to 
OHG. tuning and OHG. MHG. lun 
'linch-pin'. The primit. base 
luni-j if fr. an ARYAN //-, is 
perhaps ident. w. SKR. ani 'linch- 
pin'; cp. OE. d-lynnan 'loosen'. 

lindentree ME. linde OE. lind 
'lime-tree' = OHG. linta G. DU. 
linde, ON. sw. DAN. #</: Teut. 
base Undo pre-TEUT. lenta-, if 
allied to GR. Aa'n; 'fir-tree' or 
LITH. /i#/ 'board'. 

line ME. OE. line = DU. lijn, 

OHG. /fofl MHG. MLG. Rne G. /*, 

ON. //# 'cord, rope': Teut. base 
Im-jon- prop, 'the thing made of 
flax' ; cp. linen. 

lineage ME. linage adopted fr. 
lignage'. source LAT. linea 'a line 1 . 

linen adj. and sb. (orig. only 
adj.) ME. OE. linen adj. = OSAX. 
OHG. limn G. leinen linnen, DU. 
linen 'made of flax': deriv. of 
OE. lin flax' = OSAX. OHG. fin, 
GOTH, lein sb. 'linnen'; cogn. w. 
LAT. linum, GR. Mvov 9 OSLOV. 
lii.u 'flax'. 

linger vb. extended fr. ME. 
hnge vb. 'tarry' w. the frequent 
suffix -er\ OE. lengan prolong' 
fr. long. 

link sb. 'ring in a chain' fr. an 
unrecorded ME. *lenk *link\ 
SCAND. loanword fr. an orig. 
hlenk- cp. ON. hlekkr (tor * hlenkr) , 
sw. lanky DAN. lanke link'. There 
was a genuine OE. hlence 'link' 
fr. a base hlankjon-\ but the 
guttural of link shows that the 
word may not be the develop- 
ment of OE. hlence. 

linnet sb. ME. linet adopted 
fr. FR. linot(te) 'a linnet' fr. FR. 
lin 'flax so called from feeding 
on the seed of flax or hemp; 
cp. G. hanfling 'linnet' fr. hanf 
'hemp'. Cp. OE. linece 'carduelis' 
and linetwige 'linnet'. 

linseed short for ME. lin-sed 
prop, 'flax-seed'; cp. linen. 

lion ME. lioun earlier leun : bor- 
rowed in the 12 th cent. fr. FR 
lion\ source LAT. leonem (leo). 


lip _ loath 

lip ME. lippe OE. lippa = OSAX. 
*lippia, DU. lip, MLG. lippe (whence 
G. lippe) \ cogn. w. the synon. 
OSAX. lepur = OHG. leffur and 
OHG. lefs 'lip'. LAT. labium 'lip* 
with the Tent, group points to 
an ARYAN *fkb lab. 

lisp vb. (Scotch wlisp) ME. 
lispe (lipse) formed fr. the adj. 
OE. wlisp wlips 'lisping' = OHG. 
lefs (for *wlefs) 'stammering'; 
akin to DU. lispen, G. lispeln 'lisp': 
TEUT. \{~wlifs pre-TEUT. wlips. 

list 1 sb. ME. list short for OE. 
tet = DU. lijsty G. kiste 'list, 
L/order' OHG. /&& 'border'. 
ident. w. list 2 'catalogue' fr. 
FR. liste, which is of Teut. origin 
(OHG. nsta 'border, strip'). 

list vb. ME. ttste OE. lystan 'desire' 
derived fr. lust. 

listen vb. ME. listene earlier 
form liste OE. hlystan 'hear'; allied 
to OE. hlos-nian, OHG. (h)losen 
'hear, ON. hlera (GOTH. *hluzan) 
'listen'. An ARYAN \^klus 'hear' 
is evident in SKR. frus-fi 'obe- 
dience', OSLOV. slysati vb. 'hear', 
LITH. klausyti 'hear', ON. hlus-t 
'ear'; CYMR. dust 'ear'. Cp. leer.' 

litter ME. liter e fr. OFR. Mere 
(FR. Mere) 'a horse-litter' (LAT. 
type lee t aria fr. lectus 'bed'). 

little short for ME. OE. litel 
:= GOTH, leitils 'small', ON. litill 
'little'. Relation to the synon. 
DU. luttel, OSAX. luttil, OHG. testf, 
OE. lyttel 'little' is obscure. 

live vb. ME. Jive earlier form 
Iwie libbe OE. /#&* (lifian) wk. 
vb. GOTH. Kfan, OHG. 

G. /<?&, DU. lev en, OSAX. libbian*, 
cogn. w. OE. belifan OHG. 
biliban G. bleiben'. TEUT. \^ lib see 
under leave vb. and life. 

liver ME. /r'zra OE. lifer DU. 
/^wr, OHG. libara lebara G. /<?^^r, 
ON. lifr. Connection of TEUT. 
hbro- w. the synon. GR. r\TifnQ t 
LAT. jecur j SKR. yakrt and the 
two assumed stems *///& and *$f 
is doubtful. 

livery ME. livere fr. FR. livrte. 

lizard ME. lesarde fr. FR. Uzard 
'lizard' (= LAT. lacertd). 

lo interj. ME. lo OE. ld\ a pre- 
historic OE. *l(2W for TEUT. /fl7W 

is warranted by OHG. lew-es 'lo'! 
Perhaps TEUT. lai-wa- is con- 
nected with lai-pa- in loath. 

loadstar see lode-star. 

loaf ME. Igf OE. M?/: Teut. 
base hlaiba- in GOTH, hlaifs 
'bread', ON. hkifr, OHG. /'^ G. 
laib\ akin to LITH. /^/<^^ 'bread'. 
See lady, lammas and lord. 

loam ME. lorn OE. lam = OHG. 
/'/ G. lehm, DU. /^w: Teut. 
base lai-ma- fr. the ARYAN y"/P 
under lime. 

loan ME. /^' fr. ON. Idn 'a loan'. 
There was a genuine OE. Idn 
fr. a TEUT. laihniz\ cp. OHG. 
/^r 'a thing granted' and ON. 
Idn fr. a TEUT. Iaihna-(z1) : TEUT. 
\flihw (GOTH, kikwan 'lend', 
OHG. Khan G. leiken t OE. /^? 
pret. Idh 'lend, give 1 ) = ARYAN 
in LAT, linquere 'leave', GR. 
, sw. r/V 'leave'. 

loath adj. ME. /<?7/z OE. lap 
'hateful' = ON. kidr 'loathed', 

lobster lore 


OHG. kid 'odious', OSAX. leth\ 
cogn. w. OHG. lidan G. leiden 
buffer'. Perhaps there was an 
ARYAN \T/f lai cp. lo. 

lobster ME. lopstre OE. loppestre 
earlier lopust 'lobster': adoption 
fr. LAT. locusta 'lobster, locust'. 

loch OE. loh 'lake' : a Gaelic 
word; cp. GAEL. IR. loch 'lake' 
(ident. w. LAT. lacus, OE. lagu 
'sea' under lake). 

lock 1 sb. fr. the vb. ME. loke 
louke. OE. lucan 'lock, enclose' = 
GOTH, galukan 'shut up', OHG. 
luhhan, DU. luiken. 

lock 2 (of hair) ME. lok (plur. 
locked) OE. locc (plur. loccas) = 

DU. lok, ON. lokkr, OHG. /<?/ G. 

locke\ Teut. base lokka- cogn. w. 
GR. \vyt*G) 'I bend. 

lode-star ME. Idde-sterre con- 
tains OE. $ lad 'way, course' (cf. 
ON. leidarstjarna = G. leitstern), 
which is cogn. w. lead vb. =. 
TEUT. laidjan 'guide, lead'. Cp. 
ME. lo desman 'pilot' and E. lode- 

lodge vb. ME. logge vb. adopted 
fr. FR. loger\ E. lodge ME. logge 
'lodge, tent' fr. FR. loge orig. 'a 
small house'? Source a LAT. 
type laubia fr. OHG. louba 'an 
arbor' (G. laube 'a covered hall'; 
allied to leaf). 

loft sb. ME. loft 'an Cupper 
room' borrowed fr. ON. lopt 'upper 
story, balcony', which has also 
the meaning 'air, sky' = GOTH. 
luftus, G. luft, OE. lyft 'air'. 
Hence lift vb. 

loin late ME. loine'. adopted fr. 

OFR. log fie now longe (LAT. type 
*lumbta fr. LAT. lumbus 'loin'). 

loiter vb. ME. loitre. 

loll vb. ME. lolle. 

lone short for alone. 

long adj. ME. OE. long (fang) 
= OSAX. langy DU. OHG. G. lang t 
ON. langr, GOTH. la-ggs\ cogn. w. 
synon. LAT. longus (whence IT. 
lungo, FR. long) ; cp. linger. 
long vb. ME. longe OE. langia?i 
'long after, long' = OSAX. 
langoian, G. verlangen 'wish for'. 

look vb. ME. loke earlier lokic 
OE. locian = OSAX. Idkdn (OHG. 
luogen G. lug en). The early 
history of the TEUT. \(~ldk (log) 
is obscure; cp. SKR. -lak$ 'notice, 
perceive' and CYMR. llygat CORN. 
lag at 'eye\ 

loom sb. ME. lome OE. y-loma 
(andlpma) 'a tool, implement'; 
perh. akin to OE. fflome = OHG. 
giluomo gilamo 'frequently', OHG. 
gastluomi 'hospital'. 

loose adj. ME. Ids (lous) bor- 
rowed fr. ON. louss .= GOTH. 
lauSj OE. //as (cp. /ess), DU. los, 
OSAX. OHG. Ids G. los. The 
common TEUT. adj. latisa- is a 
deriv. of the ^flus 'be loose' 
under lose. 

lord ME. Iprd short for Ifverd 
OE. hldford prop, hlaf-weard 
loaf-ward' 'keeper of bread' 
(cp. OE. hldf under loaf)', the 
masc. corresponding to the 
fern, formation lady = OE. 
hlaf-diie. Both compounds are 
peculiar to English. 

lore ME. lore OE. Idr inn. Idre 


lose lump 

= OHG. OSAX. /era, G. lehre, DU. 
leer: Teut. base laizo-, whence 
GOTH, laisjan, OE. laran, OHG. 
leran G. lehren, DU. leeren 'teach'. 
See also learn for the TEUT. 
\f* liz laiz. 

lose ME. lose mostly forlese OE. 
forlcosan str. vb. = GOTH, fra- 
liusan, OSAX. OHG. farliosan G. 
verlieren str. vb. 'lose'. An ARYAN 
V~ lus (cp. loose) may be an 
extended form of y" lu in GR. 
At/w 'I release', LAT. lucre. 
loss sb. ME. OE. los 'destruction'. 

lot ME. lot OE. hlot = DU. 

lot', ident. w. OE. hlyt = GOTH. 
hlauts, OHG. /<?5 G. /w: Teut. 
base hlauti- : TEUT. Y/ hlut hlaut 
in ON. ^tf/tf str. vb. 'get by 
lot', OE. hleotan, OHG. 
loud adj. ME. loud OE. 

= OSAX. hlud, DU. /2#V/, OHG. 

(h)lut G. /to: the Teut. base 
HUt-da- (cp. *<?/*/, old, couth) 
was orig. a part, with suffix -to 
(LAT. -tus, GR. -ro, SKR. -Aw); 
pre-TEUT. klu-td'S (SKR. crutds, 
GR. xAvro's, LAT. inclutus 'famous') 
fr. an ARYAN y~ / in SKR. fru 
'hear', GR. xA w yMog. 

lough 'lake' fr. IR. GALL, loch] 
see /0<r& 

louse ME. lous (plur. /w) OE. 
lus (plur. #/) = DU. Ms, OHG. 
/& G. laus, ON. /^ (plur. /v^): 
Teut. base /&-, derived perh. 
fr. the TEUT. y" /j 'destroy' 
under loose and /^j^; cp. GR. 
yfrfiQ 'louse' - - (pdu'pa} 'I de- 

lovage fr. FR. /&&vfe mixed 

w. ME. luvestiche OE. lufestice. 
Source of the whole group LAT. 
ligusticum 'lovage'. 

love ME. love OE. lufu = 
GOTH, lubb , OHG. luba 'love': 
Teut. base lubdn- allied to the 
TEUT. adj. leuba- = lief. An 
ARYAN \Tlubh 'desire' is evident 
in LAT. lubido, SKR. lobha 'desire' 
and SKR. y~ lubh 'to desire'. 

low adj. ME. low earlier lag 
late OE. lag\ borrowed fr. ON. 
Idgr 'low' (sw. lag, DAN. lav) 
= DU. laag, which are derived 
from the TEUT. y~ leg lag 'lie*. 
Hence low prop, 'lying flat'. 

low vb. ME. lowe OE. hlowan 
'low' ; cp. DU. loeien, OHG. luoien 
low': TEUT. \Thld, pre-TEUT. 
kid in LAT. eld-mare 'cry. 

lower vb. ME. loure = MHG. 
luren G. lauern 'lurk'; cp. lurk. 

luck found since the 15 th cent.; 
ident. w. DU. luk geluk 'good 
fortune', MHG. gelilcke G. gliick, 
OFRIS. luk. Akin to G. locken, 
DU. locken 'entice, allure'. 

lucre ME. lucre fr. FR. lucre = 
LAT. lucrum. 

lug vb. ME. lugge 'drag, lug'; 
cogn. w. sw. lugga. 

lukewarm fr. ME. leuke (Hike) 
earlier hleuk\ perh. contr. fr. 
an unrecorded OE. *hleowoc 
'lukewarm'; cogn. w. ME. lewe 
OE. hleowe 'lukewarm' = ON, 
hlyr 'warm' (OHG. hldo G. lau 

lull ME. lulle = DU. Mien, 
DAN. lulle, sw. lulla. 

lump sb. ME. lumpe 

lung magpie 


ident. w. DU. lonip 'a lump', G. 
lumpen 'rags'. 

lung ME. lunge longe OE. lungen 
= ON. lunga, DU. long, OHG. 
lunga G. lunge 'lung': Teut. base 
lungon-j~) allied to an ARYAN 
adj. bnghu- 'light' = GR. tAa%vc, 
SKR. laghu 'light 5 . Cp. lights 
as synon. with lungs. See 
light for the ARYAN \T lengh. 

lure sb. ME. litre fr. FR. /^r;^ 
'bait*; source a TEUT. /<?/nz- 
= MHG. luoder 'bait' (G. fader). 

lurk vb. ME. lurke'. derived fr. 
ME. lour en (== lower) as hark 
fr. ^<zr, talk fr. /*//. 

lust sb. ME. OE. lust 'desire' 

= OSAX. DU. G. ON. lust, GOTH. 

lustus 'desire': a common Teut. 
formation, prob. allied to the 
ARYAN ~ las 'desire' in GR. 

SKR. y~ /dtf for /0/J 
'desire', LAT. las-civus. 

lute sb. ME. lute\ borrowed fr. 
OFR. lut leut = FR. luth\ ident. 
w. DU. luit, G. laute, IT. liuto 
/i2/fr, SPAN. laud. Source ARAB. 
al ud 'lute'. 

-ly adj. -suffix ME. ~fy -// earlier 
-lich(e} OE. -lie = OSAX. -lik y 

DU. /^, OHG. -lich G. -//V//, ON. 

-likr, GOTH, -leiks. Orig. the 
same as Rka- 'body' -discussed 
under like (GOTH, waira-leiks 
'manly', prop, 'having the body 
of a man 1 ). 

lye sb. ME. leie OE. l$ah (infl. 

l$age)\ cp. synon. DU. loog, OHG. 

louga G. lauge, ON. /^w^ 'warm 

i bath': prob. connected with the 

I ARYAN \^lou lu 'bathe' (cp. 

| lather). 


mace f a big club* borrowed 
fr. OFR. mace FR. masse: source 
a LAT. type *matea 'a beetle'. 

mackerel ME. maker II adopted 
fr. OFR. maquerel (FR. maquereau) 
= DU. makreel, whence G. mak- 
rele : source MED. -LAT. macarellus 
maquerellus 'a mackerel'. 

machine (= G. maschine, DU. 
machine) fr. FR. machine', source 
LAT. machina GR. ' 


mad adj. ME. mad OE. 
prop, tymceded'. part, of OE. 


%em<zdan 'drive mad', deriv. from 
the OE. adj. %emdd 'mad' = 
OSAX. gimed 'foolish', OHG. gimeit 
'foolish', GOTH, ga-maids 'frail, 

madder sb. ME. *maddre OE. 
meedre (madre?) = ON. madra, 
OHG. ma tar a \ cogn. DU. LG. 
mede 'madder'? 

maggot late ME. maggot maggat\ 
prob. fr. CYMR. maceiad macai 
c a maggot'? 

magpie sb. 'a bird'; mag 
short for Magot = FR. Mar got 


maid malt 

'Marguerite', also 'magpie'; pie 
FR. pie fr. LAT. pica 'a 
magpie'; see pie. 

maid ME. maide OE. madden 
= OHG. magatm'. Teut. base 
magadma- is diminutive of a 
LEUT.-GOTH. magap- 'a girl, 
virgin' = OE. mce^ep , OSAX. 
magath, DU. meid, OHG. magad 
G. *tt4gv/ mddchen. Allied to. 
the Teut.-Goth. base magu- 'boy' 
= ON. w#T 'boy, son', OE. 

mail 1 sb. adapted fr. FR. 
maille 'mail' (also 'a mesh of a 
net'): source LAT. macula 'a 
spot, hole, mesh of a net'. 

mail 2 sb. ME. male 'a bag, 
wallet' borrowed fr. the synon. 
OFR. male = FR. matte (OHG. 
malha 'a leather bag'). 

maim vb. ME. maime prop. 
maine borrowed fr. OFR. mehaigner 

main sb. ME. main OE. mce^en 
'strength' = OHG. magan megin, 
OSAX. ON. megin 'strength' : TEUT. 
if*mag in might and may. 

main adj. borrowed fr. OFR. 
maine magne 'chief (LAT. magnus 

maintain vb. ME. maintene 
adopted fr. FR. maintenir (LAT. 
type manutenere 'hold by the 

maize sb. = FR. mats, G. 
mats; adopted fr. SPAN. maiz. 
Columbus is said to have im- 
ported the Haytian name mahis 
and the cereal to Spain whence 

it was adopted by the other 
mod. languages. 

make vb. ME. make OE. macian 
= OSAX. makon , DU. maken, 
OHG. mahhon 'make, also fit or 
fasten together' G. machen\ 
Teut. base makon 'join, belong 
together'. Cp. with GOTH. *makon 
the ON. comparat. makara 'more 
suitable, fitting', OE. Bernese 'fit, 
suitable', OHG. gimah 'con- 
venient, comfortable' G. gemach ; 
OE. ^emceccea 'husband, wife' (E. 
make 'companion, spouse', E. 
match 'spouse'). 

malady sb. ME. maladie bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. maladie fr. FR. 
malade (source male 'ill, bad' 
and aptus 'disposed'). 

male adj. ME. mdle adopted 
fr. FR. mdle (source LAT. dimin. 

malice sb. ME. malice borrowed 
fr. FR. malice (source LAT. ma- 
litia 'ill will'). - - malign adj. 
adopted fr. FR. matin (f. maligne) 
'malignant' (source malignum i. e. 
male genus 'ill-born). 

mall sb. ME. matte melle mail 
borrowed fr. FR. mail 'a mall : 
source LAT. malleus 'a hammer'. 

- Hence mallet sb. ME. maillet 
borrowed fr. FR. maillet 'a mallet'. 

mallow ME. malwe OE. mealwe 
= DU. maluwe'. borrowed fr. 
LAT. malva, whence also FR. 
mauve, SPAN. IT. malva, G. malve. 
Cp. mauve. 

malt sb. ME. malt OE. mealt 
= OSAX. ON. malt, DU. mout, 
G. malz. The Teut. base malta- 

man many 

fr. a TEUT.y^wr// in OE. meltan 
'dissolve, melt' with which is 
allied the ON. adj. maltr 'rotten' 
= OHG. malz 'melting away, 
soft' so that *malt is perh. the 
adjectival neut. sb. meaning 'that 
which is soft'. Cp. melt. 

man sb. ME. OE. man mon(nn) 
= OSAX. OHG. DU. MLG. man 
G. mann, ON. madr, GOTH, manna 
'mankind, man'. In OE., man mgn 
(n nn) denotes 'man' and 
'woman' (cp. OE. wifmon = E. 
woman). GOTH.-TEUT. mann- is 
based on older manw- manu- (as 
chin is based on an ARYAN 
kenw- genu-). INDO-EUR. manu 
'mankind' appears in SKR. as 
Manu, but it signified also the 
'father of mankind'; cp. also 
SKR. manus and manusa 'homo' 
and OSLOV. mqzi 'man'. 

mane sb. ME. mane OE. manu = 
OHG. mana G. mdhne, DU. maan, 
ON. mgn, sw. DAN. man. The 
Teut. base mano- 'mane* shows 
a later development of meaning; 
the older meaning was 'neck'; cp. 
ON. men, OE. mene, OHG. m$nni 
'necklace', cogn. with LAT. monile 
'necklace', OCELT. {tavtuxrjg = 
OIR. muince 'necklace'. In lieu 
of ARYAN mana 'neck' occurs SKR. 
many a 'nape', closely allied to 
OIR. mmn muinll 'nape'. 

mange sb. shortened fr. the 
adj. ME. *maungf which is bor- 
rowed from the FR. part, mange 
lit. 'eaten'; cp. FR. mangaison 
'mange'. manger sb. ME. 
maunglr borrowed fr. FR. man- 

geoire 'manger, stable' (FR. man" 
ger 'eat = LAT. manducare). 

mangle vb. ME. mangele frequent, 
and weakened for *mankele fr. 
ME. manke OE. tymancian, which 
was prob. formed from an adj. 
OE. *manc = v\3.mank: loanword 
fr. LAT. mancus adj. 'maimed'. 

mangle sb. borrowed fr. DU. 
mangel (= sw. G. mangel*}', dimin. 
of a simple word represented 
by G. mange 'a mangle' = IT. 
mangano 'a machine for smoothing 
linen, a war-engine* fr. LAT. man- 
ganum = GR. {.tdyyai'ov 'a war- 

manikin manakin borrowed fr. 
FR. mannequin = DU. manneken, 
cp. G. mdnnchen, DU. mannetje\ 
all diminutives of man. 

mankind sb. ME. manktnde 
earlier man-kin OE. mon-cynn. 
See man and kin, also kind. 

manner ME. manure borrowed 
fr. OFR. manere = FR. maniere. 

mantle ME. mantel (a form 
mauntel'v$> unrecorded) = DU. sw. 
DAN. mantel', ON. mottull and OE. 
mentel rest on a lost LAT. mantu- 
him mantilum (fr. LAT. mantum = 
FR. mante t IT. manto 'a cloak'), 
whence also G.manteloRG.mantal; 
cogn. w. FR. manteau, IT. mantello 
(LAT. type *mantellutn). 

many ME. mani many OE. mani^ 
mone^'. Teut. base managa- = 
OSAX. OHG. manag G. manch, DU. 
menig, ON. margr. Cogn. w. OIR. 
menicc IR. minic 'frequently' (base 
menecci- ?) and CYMR. maint, BRET. 
ment (CELT, base manti-}. 


map marsh 

map sb. borrowed fr. FR. mappe 
= IT. LAT. mappa prop, 'a nap- 
kin, table-cloth'. 

maple sb. ME. mdpel OE. *mcepel 
*mapul in mapoltreo mapulder 'a 
maple tree': perh. ident. w. OHG. 
ma^altra (G. massholder), which 
points to TEUT. matlu-, whilst 
the E. word points to a base 

mar vb. ME. merre OE. dmerran 
dmyrran wk. vb. 'to hinder, ob- 
struct' = GOTH, marzjan 'offend', 
OHG. marr en, DU. marren 'tarry': 
TEUT.-ARYAN \fmarz mars. 

marble ME. marble mdrbre fr. 
tt.marbre', source LAT. marmor. 

march sb. ME. mar c he 'march, 
boundary' fr. FR. marc fa 'bound- 
ary. The Fr. word is of Teut. 
origin; cp. GOTH, marka, OE. 
mearc y OSAX. OHG. marka 'bound- 
ary' which are primitively related 
to LAT. margo 'border, edge', 
AVEST. merezu 'border', IR. mruig 
'shire' (Celt, base mrogi-). Cp. 

march vb. fr. FR. marcher. 

March (the month) ME. (since 
the 12 th cent.) March fr. FR. 
mar si Source LAT. Martins mensis 
(whence OHG. merzo G. marz, LG. 

mare ME. mire OE. mire myre: 
Teut. base marhjbn- (= OHG. 
merihJia G. mdhre, DU. merie, ON. 
merr)^ deriv. fr. TEUT. mar ha- 
'horse' in OE. mearh y OHG. mar ah, 
ON. marr 'horse' (see marshal). 
There is a pre-TEUT. marka- in 
*he Celt, languages; cp. GALL. 

marca , IR. GAEL, marc, CYMR. 
CORN, march 'horse'. 

margin ME. mdrgin(e) fr. LAT. 
marginem (nom. sing. LAT. margo 
= FR. marge). 

mark 1 sb. 'line, dot, cut' ME. 
marke OE. mearc =. DU. ON. mark, 
MHG. marc (gen. markes) G. 
marke (GOTH, marka 'boundary'). 
Hence mark vb. ME. marke 
OE~ mearcian = ON. marka, OSAX. 
markon', cp DU. G. merken = 
GOTH. * markj an. 

mark 2 sb. 'a unit of weight, 
a coin' ME. mark late OE. marc\ 
borrowed fro ON. mork, whence 
also DU. G. mark (MED. -LAT. 

market sb. ME. market late OE. 
(i I th cent.) mar ktt mar cat', bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. * market FR. marcM 
(IT. mercato) = LAT. mercdtus 
'market', whence also OHG. markdt 
merchdt G. DU. markt. See mart. 

maroon adj. 'chestnut-colored' 
borrowed fr. FR. marr on = IT. 
marrone 'a chestnut'. 

marrow ME. marow mary OE, 
mearh mearg =: OSAX. marg y 
OHG. mar(a)g G. mark, DU. merg y 
ON. mergr: Teut. base mazga- 
= ARYAN *mazgho- in OSLOV. 
mozgii, ZEND mazga y SKR. majjan 
'marrow'. The root is SKR. majj 
'immerge' = LAT. mergere. 

marry vb. ME. marie vb. adopt- 
ed fr. FR. marieri source LAT. 
maritare 'marry'. Hence mar- 
riage ME. maridge = FR. mariage* 

marsh ME. mersh OE. merst 
earliest form merisc = MDU. 

marshal mastiff 


maersche, LG. G. marsch, DAN, 
marsk: Teut. base mariska- = 
MED. - LAT, mariscus 'swamp', 
whence OFR. maresc FR. marais. 
Source TEUT. mart" 'ocean' (= 
LAT. mare) in OE. mere, OHG. meri 
G. meer, ON. marr, GOTH, marei. 

marshal ME. mar(e)schal adopt- 
ed fr. OFR. mareschal = FR. 
mart chat, SPAN, mar is cat, IT. ma- 
riscalo 'a marshal, farrier'. Source 
a TEUT. marha-skalkaz 'horse- 
thane' = OHG. marah-scalc (OHG. 
mar ah 'a horse' = E. mare, and 
OHG. scale h = OE. scealc ME. 
schalk, ON. skdlkr , OSAX. skalk, 
GOTH, skalks 'servant'. 

mart sb. short for market. 

marten short for martern orig. 
martre ME. mar ire adopted fr. 
FR. martre (= IT. mar tor a, SPAN. 
mar to). The Fr. word, which 
supplanted a genuine OE. mearp, 
is of Teut. origin: ON. mgrdr, 
OHG. mardar G. marder, DU. 
marter\ OSAX. *marthar inferred 
fr. the adj. marthrin. 

martin sb. borrowed fr. FR. 
martin, orig. the proper name 
Martin, which was applied to 
various birds and animals; cp. 
robin red-breast. 

martyr sb. ME. martir OE. mar- 
tyr = OSAX. martir, OHG. martyr, 
GOTH, martyr (with suffix DU. 
martelaar, OHG. martirdri G. mar- 
tyr er) : fr. LAT.-GR. martyr 'a wit- 

marvel vb. ME. merveile bor- 
rowed fr. FR. merveiller', source 
LAT. mirabilia 'wonderful things'. 

mash vb. masche vb. 'mix' (OE. 
(^mdscianT) = G. meischen'. prob. 
cogn. w. OSLOV. mezga 'sap of 
trees' (OSLOV. zg = TEUT. skF). 
Cp. mix. 

mask sb. borrowed fr. FR. 
masque, whence also G. DU. 
DAN. maske sw. mask. 

mason ME. mdsoun adopted 
fr. FR. mafon\ source a type 
matio 'a maison' = OHG. mezzo 
G. steinmetz 'a stone-mason'. 

mass 1 sb. 'a lump of matter' 
late ME. masse borrowed fr. FR. 
masse (== IT. massa) : source 
LAT. massa 'a lump, a mass', 
whence also OHG. massa G. 

mass 2 sb. 'the eucharist' ME. 
masse OE. masse', evidently 
identical w. OSAX. missa, DU. 
mis, OHG. messa missa G. messe: 
a Christian word from MED.- 
LAT. missa 'mass' = FR. messe 
(whence ME. messe). 

mast ME. mast OE. mast = 

DU. LG. G. SW. DAN. mast, ON. 

mastr. In accordance with 
Grimm's law, the Teut. base 
masta- is based on pre-TEUT. 
mazdo" = LAT. malus (for *madus) 
c a mast'. 

master sb. ME. maister late 
OE. mce^ester borrowed fr. OFR. 
maistre FR. maitre (== IT. maestro) : 
source LAT. magister , whence 
also OSAX. mestar, DU. meester, 
OHG. meistar G. meister. See 

mastiff ME. mestifmastff adopted 
fr. OFR. mestif prop, an adj. fr. 


mat mayor 

the sb. OFR. mastin (FR. matin) 
'a, mastiff'. 

mat ME. matte OE. meatta = 
DU. mat, OHG. matta G. matte, 
IT. matta borrowed fr. LAT. 
matta 'a rug', whence FR. natte. 

match 1 sb. ME. macche OE. 
tymcecca 'a companion' ident. w. 
OE. tymaca sb. = E. make. 

match 2 sb. 'the wick of a 
candle, a match' ME. macche 
borrowed fr. FR. meche 'match 
of a lamp': source LAT. myxa 
'the nozzle of a lamp'. 

mate sb. 'a companion' ME. 
mate = DU. maat, OSAX. *.gimato, 
OHG. gimccgp MHG. gemaTjf, OE. 
*iemdta (wanting) would be 
derived from OE. mete = meat] 
hence mate prop, 'mess-mate'. 

mate adj. ME. mate mat 'con- 
founded, dejected' borrowed fr. 
OFR. FR. mat (=-. SPAN, mate, 
IT. matto). Source the Arab.- 
Pers. expression in the chess- 
play schdh mat 'the king is dead'. 

matins, mattins 'morning 
prayers' ME. matin(e)s\ borrowed 
fr. FR. matins plur. of matin 
^morning': source LAT. matutmus 
'belonging to the morning'; cp. 
LAT. hora matutina in OHG. mettma 
G. mette 'matutinal service'. 

matter sb. ME. matere adopted 
fr. FR. ^ matiere; source LAT. 
materia 'materials'. 

mattock ME. mattok OE. mattoc 
prob. fr. CYMR. matog 'a hoe'; 
but OSLOV. motyka and LITH. 
ma&kas 'mattock' point to a Teut. 

mattress ME. materas ( DU. 
matras} borrowed fr. OFR. mate- 
ras FR. matelas = MED. -LAT. 
matratmm: source ARAB, matrah 
prop, 'a place where something 
is thrown'. 

maudlin adj. corrupted fr. 

ME. Maudelein = Mag delaine -==. 
OFR. Magdeleine, LAT.-GR. Mag- 
dalena. Maria Magdalena was 
considered a type of sorrowing 

maul vb. ME. matte 'strike with 
a mall' formed fr. the ME. sb. 
matte 'a mall' borrowed fr. IR. 
mail 'a mall', whence also mall. 

Maundy Thursday ME. maunde 
thursdai fr. OFR. mande ( OHG. 
MHG. mandat) 'the ceremony of 
Christ's washing his disciples' 
feet': source LAT. mandatum ac- 
cording to John XIII 34. 

mauve 'mallow color' borrowed 
fr. FR. mauve 'a mallow' =: LAT. 
malva\ ident. w. mallow. 

maw ME. mawe OE. maga 
'stomach' = OHG. mago 'sto- 
mach' G. magen, DU. maag, ON. 
magi 'stomach'. 

may vb. ME. mai OE. mce% = 
OSAX. OHG. G. DU. mag, ON. md, 
GOTH. mag. TEUT. \ r mag (mug) 
fr. ARYAN magh is closely allied 
to OSLOV. mogq mosti 'be able'. 

May ME. may mai fr. FR. Mai 
(LAT. Maius mensis). 

mayor sb. ME. moire adopted 
fr. FR. maire\ .source LAT. major 

me mean 


me pers. pron. dat. and ace. 
ME. OE. me fr. a Teut. and ARYAN 
stem me- in GOTH, mi-s mi-k, 
G. mi-r mi-ch, LAT. mi hi me] GR. 
/Liol I (.loi tits', SKR. mahyam 
me 'dat., mam md acc.J base 
ma- . 

mead 1 sb. ME. m$de OE. meodo 
= DU. MLG. mede OHG. meto 
mitu G. #*/, ON. mjodr: base 

TEUT. JKA/K = ARYAN *medktl\ Cp. 

SKR. mddhu 'honey, sweet drink', 
GR. 'wine' (allied (.te&vto 
'I am drunk', ^^//drunkenness'), 
OSLOV. meda 'honey, wine', LITH. 
midus 'mead' medUs 'honey', IR. 

mead 2 sb. 'meadow' (now in 
poetry) ME. m$de OE. mad (gen. 
mddwe) = DU. mat MLG. made 
OLG. mdtha mada, OFRIS. m&th, 
G. matte, GOTH. *medwa: based 
on a TEUT. \f* maj) m$d, con- 
nected w. LAT. mtto 'I mow, 
reap' and showing a shorter, 
form me in E. mow. But the 
GOTH. *m might represent 
the root and two- the suffix. - 
meadow ME. medwe OE. meed 
gen . madwe. Me ad and. meadow 
are related as shade and sha- 
dow. Cp. mead. 

meagre adj. ME. mfere bor- 
rowed fr. FR. maigre (= SPAN. 
IT. magrd)\ source LAT. macer 
'lean, thin, meagre'. OE. mayr 
(= DU. MLG. G. mager OHG. magar, 
ON. wdgr is common Teut.). 
The Teut. forms with LAT. 
macer, GR. /.taxtfoog 'tall', /mx- 
(jog 'Jong' have prob. come fr. 

an ARYAN \T mdk 'thin, long'. 
LITH. mdzas 'small' and OHG. 
magar might point to a common 
V~ magh. Perh. the Teut. group 
comes fr. yulg. LAT.-IT. magro. 

meal 1 sb. 'flour' ME. mgle OE. 
melo (gen. melwes) = OSAX. 
m'elo, DU. DAN. meel, OHG. melo 
(gen. melawes) G. mehl, ON. wz/W: 
Teut. base *melwa- 'flour meal' 
lit. 'that which is ground' from 
a Teut. and ARYAN \T met 'grind' 
seen in OSAX. OHG. GOTH, malan 
DU. malen G. mahlen, ON. 
'grind'; cp. LAT. molo, GR. juv' 
OSLOV. melja (mleti), LITH. malu 
(nidltt), OIR. w^/zw 'grind'; cp. 

meal 2 sb. 'a repast* ME. m$l 

= OSAX. mdl, DU. ^MTdT/, G. W^/, 

ON. mdl, OHG. *w^/ wanting with 
this meaning; ident. w. GOTH. 
mtl 'time', OE. nuel 'time'. 

mean adj. ME. m$ne OE. tymcene 
fr. a Teut. base ga-maini- = 
GOTH, gamains , OSAX. gimeni, 
OHG. gimeini G. gemein, DU. 
gemeen\ cogn. w. LAT. ^w- 
mitnis for com-moini-s\ cp. LAT. 

WJ with GOTH. <W> = ARYAN 


mean vb. ME. w/^ OE. mcenan 
= OSAX. mtnian, DU. meenen, 
OHG. meinen meinan G. meinen, 
ox.meina, GQin.*mdinjan\ OSLOV. 
w^/<2 wtv/zV/ is closely allied. 
Connected with V~ w^ 'think' in 

mean adj. ME. w/w adj. 'middle' 
contracted fr. */$# OFR. 


measles mercy 

meyen FR. moyen 'intermediate': 
source LAT. medidnus. 

measles sb. ME. mesel sb. 
leper' adj. leprous': loan- 
word fr. OEl.#yf/=LA.T. misellus. 

measure sb. ME. measure bor- 
rowed fr. FR. mesure (==. SPAN. 
mesura, IT. misura) from LAT. 

meat ME. mete OE. mete fr. a 
Teut. base mati- = OSAX. meti, 
DU. met (in -wursf), OHG. #205, 
ON. 0fcz/r, GOTH. 0Mtf? 'food'. 

medal borrowed fr. FR. me- 
daille (== SPAN, medalla , IT. 
medaglid)\ source a LAT. type 
metallea fr. LAT. metallum. 

meddle ME. medle (mgle) 'mix' 
borrowed fr. OFR. medler mesler 
= FR.mekr: source a LAT. type 
misculare 'mix' fr. LAT. miscere 
'mix''. -- medley sb. ME. medle 
adopted fr. OFR. medle mesle 
(fern, medlee - = FR. melee) part. 
of OFR. medler 'mix'. 

medlar sb. ME. medle-tre fr. 
OFR. meslier mesh 'medlar-tree': 
source LAT. mespilum c a med- 

meed sb. ME. OE. med (OE. 
once meord) = OSAX. rntda, 
DU. miede, OHG. wfo wzV/to G. 
miete 'hire' ; GOTH, wzW<? 'reward' 
(the z of which was lost in 
Teut. with lengthening of i to 
e) fr.^ an ARYAN mizdho- in GR. 
fitti&og 'wages, pay, hire', OSLOV. 
mizda, AVEST. mizda 'wages', 
OIND. midhd (for mizdha) 'contest, 
match, booty' (perh. orig. 'a 
prize' by inference fr. the SKR. 

adj. midhvds 'spending lavishly'). 
meek adj. ME. mek (late OE. 
*meoc) borrowed fr. the equiv. 
ON. mjukr = sw. mjttkj DAN. 
myg 'soft', cp. DU. muik 'soft', 
GOTH, muks (inferred fr. muka- 
modci 'meekness'). 

meet vb. ME. mete OE. me tan 
vb. = OSAX. motian, DU. moeten, 
ON. mceta, GOTH, gambtjan 'meet': 
TEUT. \Tmbt. 

meet adj. ME. mite OE. tymcete 
| = OFRIS. meie, MLG. mate, OHG. 
imd'y'y cp. mete. 
melt vb. ME. melte OE. meltan\ 
: for the \{" melt see malt. An 
I Aryan y" meld is evident in SKR. 
| mrdu 'soft, tender', GR. u&dtiv 
\ 'cook'. 

menace sb..ME. menace mandce 
borrowed fr. FR. menace (LAT. 
minacid) 'threat'. 

mend vb. mende short for 

amende borrowed fr. FR. amender 

!.(LAT. emendare). See amend. 

\ menial (prop, adj., but also 

i used as sb.) ME, meineal formed 

j with the suffix -al fr. ME. meinc 

\mame~ 'a household'. This is 

borrowed fr. OFR. mesne meisnee 

answering to a LAT. type *man- 

! sionata. 

merchant ME. marchaunt mar- 

chaund borrowed fr. OFR. mar* 

chant = FR. marchand'. source 

LAT, mercari 'buy' (cp. market). 

mercy ME, merci borrowed 

from FR. merci (source MED.- 

j LAT. merces 'mercy, pity' extended 

| fr. LAT. merx 'traffic'). See 

\rnar ket t merchant. 

merge mid 


merge vb. adopted fr. LAT. 
merger e 'plunge under water'. 
merit ME. merit fr. FR. merite. 
mermaid ME. mer-maide', OE. 

an extension of LAT. missus. 
Hence messenger (with the 
insertion of n as in passenger] 
ME. messaglr formed fr. message 

mere 'ocean' ME. m$re agree \ with the suffix -er denoting 'the 

agent . 

metal ME. metal borrowed fr. 
FR. metal. 

mete vb. 'measure' ME. m$te 
OE. metan sw. vb. 'measure' = 
GOTH, mitan, G. messen OHG. 
DU. meten. 

mettle ident. w. metal but 
meaning now 'spirit, ardor'. 

mew vb. onomatopoetic like 
DU. maauwen, G. mauen ; imitative 
of a cat's cry. 

mew ME. mfw OE. mcew\ cp. 
DU. meeuw, ON. md-r 9 G. m'owe'. 
TEUT. base maiw~. 

mickle ME. mikel michel mukel 

with OHG. OSAX. meri, GOTH. 
marei 'ocean'; cp. marsh. 

merry adj. ME. mirie. OE. myr^e 
from a Teut. base murgi- 'short' 
in OHG. murgfdri "of short life', 
Swiss murg 'mannikin'; cp. GOTH. 
maurgjan 'shorten'. The adj. 
TEUT. murgu- 'short' = IE. 
mrghu- corresponds to GR. {$Qa- 

;'c 'short' (for *f.ipa%vc). 

mesh sb. ME. mesche OE. m&sce 
= ON. moskve, OHG. masca G. 
masche; the Teut. base *msgen 
belongs to the IE. mezg in LITH. 
mdzgas 'knot' from the vb. mezgit 
(megsti) 'knot, weave nets'; hence 
mesh may be traced to a TEUT. 
V- mesq (ARYAN mlzg 'braid'). M> OE. ***J*&^ GOTH> 

mete vb. ME. m(te OE. meton =\Ws , ON. mikill mykill, OSAX. 
OSAX. metan, DU. meten, OHG. | mikil, OHG. mihhil', cp. much. 
meTfran G. 0i*w*, ON. meta, GOTH. ! mid- adj. ME. mid OE. m*rf midd 
miian with which is allied GOTH. \ OSAX. middi, OHG. Vtf G. *//-, 
mitbn 'think over 5 , OHG. w^;^ | ON. midr, GOTH. *<#&. In mod. 
'moderate'. The TEUT. ^mtt is ! E. and in mod. G., the adjectives 
based on the ARYAN \(~med in E. mid- = G. mit- are only used in 
GR. iisdopm 'I devise' -- .wt'cW compounds as E. midday, midlcnt, 

'counselof* ^IJLIVOQ 'a corn-' midsummer, midwinter, G. mittag, 

measure', LAT. modus 'manner' : mitternacht, mittwoch (orig. dat 
-modius^ corn-measure', GOTH. ! sing.). The TEUT. stem midja- 
mitdfs measure'. j answers to ARYAN medhyo; cp. 

mess sb. ME. messe borrowed | GR. usaoc (for V$fc) , SKR. 
fr. OFR. w FR. w^ (source i mddhyas, LAT. ;m//V^. ~ middle 
LAT. ;;m^ fr. mittere) 'send' and j adj. and sb. ME. OE. middtl - 
in MED.-LAT. 'put, place'). | DU. middel, OHG. mittil G. mtttel', 

message ME. message borrowed j with formative -/ from the adj. 
fr. FR. message : LAT. type missatica \ mid. 

midge milt 

midge ME. migge OE. mycg fr. 
a Teut. base mugjo- = OSAX. 
muggiay DU. mug, OHG. mucka G. 
miicke. From ON. my it may be 
inferred that the West-feut. 
guttural is secondary. 

midst formed with excrescent / 
from ME. in middes equivalent to 

mien borrowed fr. FR. mine fr. 
IT. mina = OIT. mena 'fashion, 
carriage of man': source MED.-LAT. 
minare, 'conduct, lead'. 

might ME. might OE. miht meaht 
OSAX. OHG. mahty DU. magt, 
G. machty ON. mdttr, GOTH, mahts. 
The common TEUT. *mahti is an 
old verbal abstract from GOTH. 
magan (like OSLOV. mosti from 
*mokti from mogq 'clean'). See 
milch adj. ME. milche OE. * my Ice: 

deriv. of milk] cp. the equiv. 

adj's. ON. milkr mjolkr , OHG. 

melch G. melky OE. melc. 
mild adj. ME. OE. mllde = 

OSAX. mildiy DU. G. mild OHG. 

miltiy ON. mildr, GOTH, mildeis. 

Cogn. w. OIR. meldach 'agreeable' 

G\ Jilaith 'soft, smooth' (base 

mlnti-)? or OSLOV. */*// young, 

tender*, LITH. mildus 'pious'? 
mildew ME. mildew OE. miled^aw 
- DU. tnteldauwy OHG. mili-tou 

G. mehltati\ the first part is prob. 

fr. OE. ,?& GOTH, milip 'honey'; 

cp. ON. milska 'a honeyed drink'; 

the ^ second part see under dew. 
mile ME. mile OE. mil DU. 

/{//, OHG. /w/70 #Y/a (for *jwl#w) 

G. ;//#/<?: borrowed fr. LAT. milia 

(passuum) lit. 'thousand paces', 
(whence also FR. mille y IT. miglui). 
The more frequent plur. milia 
was adopted in Rom. and G. as 
a fern. sing, (omitting passuum)* 

milfoil ME. milfoil fr. FR. milk- 
feuille = LAT. millefolium. 

milk ME. milk OE. meoloc mile 

= OSAX. #/*////', DU. Wf//', OHG. 

miluh G. milchy ON. mjdlkr y GOTH. 
miluks. It is remarkable that a 
common Aryan or at least a 
West -Aryan term for 'milk' is 
wanting, although the V" w^ = 
TEUT. melk 'to milk' occurs in all 
the West-Aryan languages. From 
a common Indo-Eur. vb. : OE. 
melcan t DU. melken, OHG. mclchan 
G. melken, GOTH. *milkan. Cp. LAT. 
mulgere , GR. aiteXyfiv, OSLOV. 
mltsti (pres. tnluzq), LITH. w//^ 
(pres. mclzil) OIR. mbligim (mlicht 
and w^ 'milk'). milk vb. 
ME. #z///<? OE. meolcian (== OFRIS. 
melka, ON. mjolkd) fr. OE. meolc. 

mill ME. ;;////<? earlier w///7<? OE. 
W7/^ (whence ON. mylna) -- DU. 
molen meulen y OHG. muli(n} G. 
muhle'y borrowed fr. late LAT. 
common ROM. molina 'mill' (for 
class. LAT. mold), whence also 
IT. mulinOy FR. moulin. 

millet fr. FR. millet \ source LAT. 
milium 'millet'. 

milt ME. OE. milte = DU. 
OHG. milzi G. milzy ON. 7^': from 
the TEUT. \fmelt seen in malt. 
E. and DU. #'// 'soft roe of fishes' 
is a corruption of milk (sw. 
mjolke 'milt' fr. w/'c?/-^ 'milk', DAN. 

mince mire 2 


fiskemelk 'soft roe of fishes', lit. 

mince vb. ME. mince OE. min- 
sian wk. vb. 'make small' deriv. fr. 
OE. min(nn) = DU. min 'smaller'; 
cp. FR. mincer 'mince' from mince 
'small 5 of Teut. origin. 

mind sb. ME. minde OE. ^e-mynd 
'memory, mind': Teut. base 
ga-mundi- =. GOTH, ga-munds 
'memory' from GOTH, ga-munan 
= OSAX. (far}munan 'despise', 
ON. muna, OE. fymunan, cp. GOTH. 
mum 'purpose, desire, mind', 
ON. munr 'mind, desire, love', 
OE. myne 'memory, love'. Allied 
to ON. minni 'remembrance, mind', 
OSAX. minnciy OHG. minnia and 
OHG. minni G. minne 'love', orig. 
'remembrance'. All belong to 
the common Aryan and TEUT. 
\f^men man 'think'; cp. GR. (.ttvoq 
'courage, mind', 'I 
remember', LAT. memini reminiscor 
metis moneo y SKR. \f^man 'think, 

mine possessive pron. ME. OE. 
min = OSAX. OHG. mm, DU. mijn, 
G. mein (also OHG. mm G. meiner), 
ON. mintiy GOTH, meins'. derived 
fr. the stem me- of the pers. 
pron. cp. me and for the suffix 
cp. SKR. makina 'mine' and thine. 

mine sb. ME. mine = DU. mijn, G. 
DAN. mine\ borrowed from FR. 
mine (= SPAN. IT. mind) : of Celt, 
origin; cp. IR. GAEL, mein 'metal', 
BRET, men 'stone , metal', CYMR. 
mwyn 'metal': CELT, base mena 
mcina ? 

mingle a frequent, vb. from ME. 
minge menge OE. mengan = OSAX. 
mengian, DU. mengen, OHG. mengan 
G. mengen, GOTH. * mag g Jan. Cp. 

minnow 'a fish' ME. minowe OE. 
*mymve (and wjw'capito') = OHG. 
muniwa 'capedo'; cp. WESTPHAL. 
m&ne, HESS, mahnt Etymology 

minster ME. minster OE. mynster 
fr. a base munistirja- = DU. 
munster , OHG. munistri prop, 
'monastery' then 'convent-church' 
G. munster : after LAT.-GR. mona- 
sterium, whence also FR. moutier 
'monastery, convent'. 

minstrel ME. ministral menestral 
borrowed fr. FR. menestrel'. source 
LAT. ministerialis 'an artisan, jester, 

mint * sb. ME. mint OE. mynet 
= DU. munty OHG. muni"^ muniwa 
G. munze\ TEUT. munita- munito- 
borrowed fr. LAT. moneta 'place 
of coinage, money', whence also 
FR. monnaie under money. 

mint 2 sb. 'a plant' ME. OE. minte 
= DU. munt, OHG. minza G. minze \ 
adapted fr. LAT. mentha mcnta 
(GR. /ii'5-a) , whence also FR. 
menthe, IT. SPAN, menta. 

mire 1 'deep mud' ME. mire OE. 
myre from WEST-TEUT. wiurjon = 
ON. myrr 'slime' ; the r of these 
words is orig. z = s', cp. OE. meos 
'moss' by the side of OE. mos 
*moss, swamp'; G. moos also signi- 
fies 'marsh'; cp. moss. Hence 
E. mire prop, 'mossy soil'. 

mire 2 cp. pismire. 


mirth mole 

mirth ME, mirthe earlier murhde 
OE. myrgd deriv. fr. OE. myrfy = 
merry with formative -th (as in 
lengthy strength), 

mis J prefix ME. OE. mis- = DU. 
mis-, OHG. missa- mis si- G. miss-, 
ON. mis-] GOTH, missa- for *mif>ta- 
(prop, 'lost') is an old part, in 
to- from a \fmip seen in OE. 
midan ME. mithe 'shun, avoid' 
(= OSAX. midan, OHG. midan G. 
meidfri). Akin to OIR. // in //- 

mis 2 prefix older mes- borrowed 
fr, OFR. mes- (FR. m-)\ source 
LAT. minus . less'. mischief 
ME. mes-chef borrowed fr. OFR. 
mes-chief 'a bad result, damage' 
fr. mis 2 and chief (cp. ME. bon- 
chef 'happiness'). miscreant 
borrowed fr. OFR. mescreant 
(source LAT. credent-em). 

miss vb. ME. misse OE. missan 
= DU. G. missen, ON. missa, GOTH. 
missjan. Evidently connected 
with WEST-TEUT. ml fan 'avoid' in 
OE. midan, OHG. midan G. meiden 
'avoid'. Cp. mis. 

miss contr. of mistress. 

mist ME. OE. mist = DU. mist, 
LG. mist 'darkness, fog, mist', 
ON. mistr 'darkness, mist'. 

mister ME. maister = master. 

mistle ME. mistel OE. mistel 
OHG. mistil G. mistel, ON. mistel 
'mistletoe'. mistletoe OE. 
misteltan (= ON. mistilsteinn) fr. 
mistil' bird-lime' and tan 'branch'. 

mite ! sb. 'a small insect' ME. 
OE. mite == LG. mite, OHG. *% ' 
a midge, fly: TEUT. Y~M/ 'cut 

small', whence GOTH, maitan =: 
ON. meita 'cut'. 

mite 2 sb. 'a very small portion' 
ME. mite borrowed fr. ODU. mijt 
'a small coin'. 

mitten ME. mitaine borrowed 
fr. FR. mitaine 'a mitten'. 

mix vb. ME. mixe OE. miscian 
OHG. miskan from *miskjan 
MHG. MLG. G. all prob. 
borrowed fr. LAT. miscere 'mix'. 

mizzen sb. borrowed fr. FR. 
misaine = IT. mezzana: source 
LAT. medius. Ident. w. G. bezaan- 

moan vb. ME. ^^ (OE. *rnanian) 
with the by-form ME. mene OE. 
mcenan 'moan'. 

moat sb. ME. mote borrowed 
fr. OFR. mote 'dike'. 

mock fr. FR. se moquer. 

mode fr. FR. mode. 

moiety borrowed fr. FR. moitM 
(LAT. type medif totem). 

moist adj. ME. moiste 'moist, 
fresh': borrowed fr. OFR. moiste 
(= FR. moite). Source LAT. 
musteus 'belonging to new must 
or wine', also 'new, fresh (tnustus 
'new wine'). 

mole 1 sb. 'a mark on the body' 
ME. mp'le OE. mdl = OHG. meil 
also meila, GOTH, mail 'a spot'. 

mole 2 sb. 'breakwater' bor- 
rowed fr. FR. mole 'a bank' 
(= IT. mole molo) : source 
LAT. moles 'a great heap, a vast 

mole 3 sb. 'an insectivorous 
animal' ME. mo lie = DU. molt 
Prob. short for ME. moldewerp 

monday more 


=r OHG. moltwerf G. maulwurf. 
From ME. mglde OE. mglde 'earth' 
= ON. moldy OHG. moltcty GOTH. 
mulda 1 earth' and from the-y^ werp 
seen in GOTH. wairpan\ see 

monday ME. mgnenday OE. 
monanda^ = DU. maandag, OHG. 
mdnatac G. montagy ON. mdnadagr'. 
the common Teut. name for 
LAT. /// Lunae (FR. /*M&', IT. 
lunedt) ; the first syllable of 
monday is ident. w. moon. 

money ME. moneie borrowed ! 
fr. OFR. moneie = FR. monnaie 
(== SPAN, moneda, IT. monetd) : 
source LAT. moneta. See mint^. 

monger sb. ME. OE. mongere OE. 
mangere (== OHG. mangdri, ON. 
mangari) formed from OE. /##- 
7<z 'trade' with suffix -ere. 
Source LAT. mango ( a defrauding 

monk ME. monk OE. munuc = 
os AX. muniky DU. monnik, OHG. 
munih(h) G. monch\ source LAT. 
monachus (GR. uora%6g), whence 
also FR. wwwz* and OIR. manach. 

monkey formed like donkey. 
source IT. monna mona ape , 
whence also G. (16. cent.) mun- 
aff 'simia prasiana'. 

month ME. moneth OE. monap 
=rr DU. maandj OHG. manod G. 
monaty ON. vtdnudr,G<yTB.. mendps. 
The common Teut. stem menop- 
'month* (pre-TEUT. menot-) is 
ident. w. TEUT. menan- = 

mood sb. ME. OE. mod = 
OSAX. mdd t DU. moedj OHG. muot 

G. muty GOTH, modsy ON. modr* 
The orig. meaning of the TEUT. 
stem mdda- was perhaps 'strong 
emotion, violent excitement' and 
was prob. derived fr. \\\&\^ma- 
in GR. if<g/f<rfat 'desire'. 

moon ME. mone OE. mona = 
OSAX. OHG. manOy DU. maan t G. 
mond ' y ON. mdni, GOTH, mena 
'the moon'. The Teut. base 
menan- (and menop- = month) 
is cogn. with the greater part 
of the terms for 'moon, month' 
in the other ARYAN languages; 
cp. SKR. mas (for mans mens) 
'moon, month' mdsa month', 
GR. (.iij v (for *W) 'month', 
LAT. mensis 'month', OSAX. meseci 
'moon, month', LITH. menu 'moon' 

memsJs'montti, OIR. mi 'month'. 

Moor 1 sb. 'an inhabitant of 
Barbery' borrowed fr. FR. More\ 
source LAT. Maurus, whence 
also SPAN. IT. MorOy OHG. Mor 
G. Mohr. 

moor 2 sb. 'a tract of untilled 
land' ME. OE. mor 'a moor, morass, 
bog' = OSAX. mbi'j DU. moer, 
OHG. muor, LG. G. moor\ related 
to OE. mere.y OHG. meri 'sea' = 
LAT. mare 'sea'. See massh. 

morass sb. ME. mareis bor- 
rowed fr. FR. marais (= IT. 
I marese)y whence also DU. mor as 
^ moeras y LG. mor as (whence G. 
! morast) : source MED.-LAT. mara- 
gium 'swamp, marsh'. 

more adj. ME. more OE. mdra 
= OSAX. OHG. mero G. mc/ir, DU. 
mcer t ON. meiri\ GOTH, maiza 


morning mother 2 

(whose iza is the OTeut. com- 
parat. suffix) became OE. mar a 
(r from z by rhotacism). The 
stem ma- belongs to the TEUT. 
adj. me-ra- 'illustrious'. 

morning ME. morninge mor- 
weninge deriv. of OE. morgen = 
OSAX. OHG. morgan, DU. G. morgen, 
ON. morgunn and myrgenn, GOTH. 
maurginsi a common TEUT. word 
for the -first half of the day 
from day break. Cp. evening. 

morrow; see morn and to- 
morrow. ' 

morsel ME. morsfl adapted fr. 
OFR. morsel (= FR. morfeau, 
IT. morsello) '. dimin. of LAT. 
morsum 'a bit'. 

mortar 1 'a vessel in which 
substances are beaten to powder' 
ME. morter OE. mortlre ( DU. 
mortier]: borrowed fr. FR. mortier 
(= SPAN, morter o t IT. mortajo) 
'mortar' : source LAT. mortarium 
'a vessel in which substances 
are pounded'. 

* mortar 2 'a mixture of lime 
and of sand' so called from the 
vessel in which it was made 
mortar^- ME. morter mortier 
adopted fr. FR. mortier '( 
SPAN, morter o, IT. mortajo), 
whence also DU. mortel, MHG. 
morter mortel G. mortel): source 
LAT. mortarium. 

mortgage borrowed fr. FR. 
mortgage lit. 'a dead pledge'. 

moss ME. OE. mos 'a swamp, 

a plant': Teut. base mosa- ==. 
DU. mos 'moss, plant', OHG. mos 

'a swamp, plant' G. moos 'plant* 
bog', ON. mo si 'moss, mire'. 
Ident. w. OE. meos, OHG. mios 
from a Teut. base meusa-, whence 
mire. Outside of TEUT., LAT. 
muscus and OSLOV. muchu are 

most adj. and adv. 'greatest 
in size' ME. most OE. mast com- 
monly OE. mast = OSAX. mest, 
DU. meest, OHG. G. meist, ON. mestr, 
GOTH, moists. Superl. belonging 
to the compar. more. GOTH. 
maists has the old superl. suffix 
like GOTH. bat-ists, OHG. bei-jst, 
OE. betst (for bet-est). The adj. 
stem GOTH, rn&rs, OHG. ma-ri, 
OE. mare etc. seems to be the 
base of more and most. 

mote ME. mote OE. mot (plur. 
motu) 'atom'; the ME. form are 
based on the OE. nom. plur. 
Cp. DU. moil 

moth ME. moththe OE. mopfie 
DU. mot(t), MHG. G. motte t ON. motti t 
sw. mott a moth' with the by- 
forms MHG. matte, OE. mohpe ME. 

mother 1 ME. moder OE. modor 
-= OSAX. modar , DU. moeder 9 
OHG. muoter G. mutter, ON. modir. 
The common TEUT. word for 
'mother' (GOTH, said aifet). TEUT. 
modr- 'mother' from ARYAN matr- 
in SKR. matr, GR. /LtiJTtjg /nan-jo, 
LAT. mater, OSLOV. mati , OIR. 
mdthir 'mother'. 

mother 2 'dregs, lees' from 
*mudder = ODU. madder 'mud, 
dregs', DU. moer 'dregs, lees', 

motley muff 

LG. G. moder, DAN. sw. mudder 
'mud, mould'. Cogn. w. mud. 

motley adj. ME. motle bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. mattett 'clotted, 

mould 1 sb. 'fine soft earth' 
ME. OE. mglde ground, land, 
earth, country' = OHG. molta, 
ON. mold 'mould', GOTH, mulda 
'dust': y~ mal (cp. meal) with 
formative d as in old, cold. 

mould 2 sb. ME. mdlde adopted 
fr. OFR. molle (FR. moule) 'a 
mould': source LAT. modulus 
dimin. of modus 'measure'. 

moult vb. ME. moute OE. bi- 
mutian'. borrowed fr. LAT. mutare 
'change', whence also DU. muiten, 
OHG. muffin G. mausern change 
the feathers or skin, moult'. 

mount vb. adapted fr. FR. 
monter 'mount'. 

mount sb. ME. mount', loanword 
from FR. mont. Ident. with OE. 
munt from LAT. montem (mons). 
The ME. ou =u is not the OE. 
u, but substitution for the FR. 
nasal vowel. - - mountain ME. 
mountaine fr. OFR. montaine = 
FR. montagne (LAT. type mon- 

mourn vb. ME. mourne OE. 
murnan str. vb. == OS AX. mornian, 
OHG. mornfa, ON. morna, GOTH. 
maurnan : ARYAN \f mer in GR. 
fitoiitr a sorrow' and LAT. memor. 

mouse ME. mous (plur. mis) 
OE. mus (plur. mys) DU. muis, 
OHG. mus G. maus, ON. mus. The 
base mus- occurs in almost all 
ARYAN languages. Cp. SKR. muS 

'mouse' with the Y~ mus mus 
musdy 'take away, rob'; also 
GR. f.iv q, LAT. mus, OSLOV. mysu 

mouth ME. mouth OE. mud = 
OSAX. mfi-d, DU. mondj OHG. mund 
G. mund, ON. munnr miidr, GOTH. 
munps 'mouth'. The TEUT. 
munfia-z 'mouth' is based on 
pre-TEUT. manto-s and connected 
with LAT. mentum 'chin'. 

move vb. ME. move with the 
by-form moeve fr. OFR. movoir 
mevoir FR. mouvoir = LAT. 

mow sb. ME. mowe mouwe OE. 
mug a muwa = ON. mugi 'heap'; 
cp. OHG. mu-werf 'mole' orig. 
'maker of mole-heaps'. 

mow vb. ME. mowe OE. mdwan 
str. vb. = DU. maaijen, OHG. 
mden MHG. majcn G. mdhen. A 
common WEST-TEUT. ^mt 'mow' 
appears in OE. mcep (E. math in 
after-, latter-), OHG. m&d G. mahd 
'mowing, swath', and in GR. 
a-iirjioc, 'harvest' I 
mow' and in LAT. meter e 'reap'. 

much ME. mocne muche for 
earlier muchel OE. my del fr. a 
Teut. base mukila- (inikila-}\ 
cogn. w. GR. u^'dlr) and iieyac, 
SKR. mdhan 'great'. Cp. mickle. 

muck ME. muck borrowed fr. 
a SCAND. *muk- = ON. myk* 
mykr 'dung'. 

mud ME. mud -- OLG. mudde 

muff vb. DU. mof LG. G. sw. 
muff: DAN. muffe a new TEUT. 
word derived fr. FR. moufle 


mulberry muzzle 

'mitten'. MED.-LAT. muffula (g th 
cent.). Cogn. w. muffle vb. 
'cover up warmly' fr. OFR. moufle 

mulberry ME. OE. murberie OE. 
mor-berie = DU. moerbes moer- 
besie , OHG. miirberi morberi G 
maulbcere\ the / of the first part 
of the compound for r is the 
effect of dissimilation; mor is 
LAT. morum c a mulberry'. The 
second part is an explanatory 

mule ME. mule borrowed fr. 
FR. mule] source LAT. mulus 'a 
mule', whence also IT. muloy G. 
maulesel (OHG. muly OIR, OE. 

murder sb. ME. morther OE. 
mor dor = GOTH. maurfr\ from 
\T*nr mar 'die' and suffix -pra\ 
cp. OE. mord = ON. morii, OSAX. 
morth t DU. moord, OHG. G. mord 
'premeditated murder'. TEUT. 
mor fa- 'murder' is based on 
pre-TEUT. mfto-m 'death': \{~mor 
widely diffused through all the 
Aryan languages signified 'die'. 
Cp. the SKR. <fmr 'die' (mrtd-m 
jdeath' mrtas 'dead' mdrta-s 
'mortal'^ mrtyus 'death'; LAT. 
mori 'die' m0rfaus'dead' mors 
death'; osixyv.mre'ti 'die' moru- 
su-mrM 'death' - - mrutvu (LAT. 
mortuus) 'dead'; LITH. mtrti 'die' 

-w/r&r ( 'death'; GR. ppordg (for 
* ports') 'mortal' dufipoTog 'im- 
mortal'; OIR. marb 'dead'. 
murder vb. ME. murthre mirthre 
OE. myrdrian = OHG. murdiren, 
GOTH, maurfirjan 'murder, kill'. 

I murky ME. mirke mirk bor- 

! rowed fr. ON. myrkr and ident. 

| w. OE. mirde myrce. OE. myrce t 

OSAX. mirki and ON. myrkr 

'dark' represent a Teut. base 


murmur vb. ME. murmur e 
adopted fr. FR. murmur er (= 
SPAN, murmur ar, IT. mormorare 9 
OHG. murmuron G. murmeln) \ 
source LAT. murmur are, 

muscle adopted fr FR. muscle: 
source LAT. musculus 'a muscle, 
a little mouse', dimin. of mus 
'a mouse' (GR. f.ivg) 'a mouse, 
a muscle'. From the same source 
also DU. G. muskel 'a muscle'. 

must sb, ME. OE. must 'new 
wine' (== DU. G. most, ON. must) 
adopted fr. LAT. mustum 'new 
wine', whence also OFR. moust, 
FR. mouty IT. mosto. See musty, 
moist etc, 

must vb. ME. OE. moste pret. 
of OE. motan - - - OSAX. mofan, 
DU. moeten , OHG. muoTian G. 
miisseny GOTH, motan, 

mustard ME. mustard mostard 
(= DU. mosterd mostaard, G. 
mostert (mostricH)'. borrowed fr. 
OFR. moustard = FR. moutard. 
Source OFR. moust= LAT. mustus 
'new wine'. 

mute ME. miiet fr. FR. muet. 
Source LAT. mutus 'dumb'. 

m u tton ME . motoun m utoun a d o p t- 
ed fr. OFR. moton (FR. mouton). 

muzzle ME. mosel borrowed fr. 
OFR. musel = FR. museau 'muzzle'; 
perh. orig. identical w. mor eel 
= E. morsel. 

mushroom nap 


mushroom late ME. musheroun 
fr. the equiv. OFR. mousseron. 

muster sb. 'a show; review, 
array; pattern' etc. short for 
ME. moustre from OFR. monstre 
(FR. montre=^Y. mostrd): source 
LAT. monstrare, whence also DU. 
monster, MLG. munster, G. muster, 

sw. DAN. monster. Hence the vb. 
muster vb. 'exhibit, review' etc. 
ME. must(e)re <t OFR. monstrer 
(FR. montrer = SPAN, mostrar, 
IT. mo sir are) from LAT. monstrare', 
cp. DU. monster en, MLG. munsteren, 
G. muster n t sw. monstra, DAN. 


nag ME. nagge 'horse'; cp. ODU. 
negge 'a small horse'. 

nail ME. nail OE. na%el= OSAX. 
OHG. nagal DU. G, nagel, ON. 
^/ 'finger-nail' nagli' woo den, 
iron nail'; GOTH. *nagls inferred 
from the vb. nagljan 'nail'. TEUT. 
nag la- arose from ARYAN noghlo- 
or nokhlo-; cp. SKR. #&* 'nail 
of a finger or toe, claw of a 
bird', GR. oi'vy- (nom. ovv) 'nail 
of a finger or toe, claw, hoof, 
hook', LAT. unguis 'claw, talon', 
OIR. ing en (CYMR. ewin) from 
mghwina, OSLOV. noguti 'nail, 
claw' (fr. OSLOV. noga 'foot'); 
LITH. ndgas 'finger-nail' - - naga 
'horse's hoof. ARYAN \T nokh 

naked adj. ME. naked OE. ndcod 
= DU. naakt, OHG. nackut nahhut 
G. nackt, ON. nekkvidr t GOTH.' 
naqafs: Teut. base naqo-da- 
naqa-da- from a pre-TEUT. nogoto- 
nogeto-', cp. OIR. w^/'naked' from 
a base nokto- and SKR. wo^rf 
naked' with suffix na for ta\ 


without consonantal suffix are 
formed OSLOV. nagu, LITH. nugas 
naked'. Allied also LAT. nudus 

for *novdus *nogviaus. - - ARYAN 

name sb. ME. name OE. ndma 
noma = OSAX. OHG. ^w^, DU. 
naam, G. ^//z^, ON. nafn (for 
*nam?t), GOTH. namb\ synon. with 
SKR. ndma, GR. o-ro//, LAT. 
nomen and perh. also ident. with 
OSLOV. /> fr. *tn-men *2n-men 9 
PRUSS. emmans, OIR. ainm. The 
ARYAN base was nd-men-, which 
perh. was orig. *gn(J~men- fr. the 
ARYAN \{^ gno in know. Then 
/^ prop, meant 'name by 
which a thing is known'. 

nap 1 sb. from the vb. ME. 
nappe OE. hn&ppian hnappian dozej 
cp. OHG. hnaffczen MHG. nafzen 
vb. 'slumber'. Perh. cogn. w. 
ozJmipian, ax.hnipna vb. 'droop'. 

nap'- sb. earlier nop ME. noppt 
'nap', OE. hnoppa (Villas') 'nap 

of Cloth' = DU. nop, MLG. DAN, 

noppe, osw. nop 'nap of cloth or 


nape neck 

Wool'; COgn. W. NORWEG. nitppa, 

GOTH, dishniupan \o break'. 

nape ME. nape 'knob'; perh. 
with inner labial for guttural and 
cogn. w. neck. 

napkin ME. napekin adopted fr. 
FR. nappe 'table-cloth' with dimin. 
suffix -kin. Source a vulg. LAT. 
*nappa = LAT. mappa 'a cloth'. 
See map. 

nard ME. nard borrowed fr. 
FR. nard ( SPAN. IT. nardo) 
= LAT. nardus, whence also G. 

narrow adj. ME. narowe narwe 
OE. nearu = OSAX. naru y DU. 
naar) from a TEUT. adj. narwa- 
(used as fern. sb. in OHG. narwa 
G. narbe 'scar'). Cp. LTTH. ner-ti 
vb. 'thread' (a needle) narva 
'cell of the queen-bee'. 

narwhal (= G. narwal) adopt- 
ed fr. DAN. sw. narhval ON. 
nd-hvalr 'sea-unicorn'. The se- 
cond element see under whale', 
the first part is obscure. 

nasty adj. corruption of an 
earlier nasty* perh. borrowed 
fr. sw. dial, naskug 'nasty, dirty'. 

naught ME. naught OE. ndht 
earlier ndwiht = OSAX. niowiht 
OHG. niowiht G. nicht, DU. niet, 
GOTH, ni waihts 'no thing'; cp. 

nave 1 sb. 'the body of the 
church* borrowed fr. OFR. nave 
FR. nef (= SPAN. IT. nave) 'a 
ship' -- 'the body of the church': 
MED. -LAT. navis 'the nave of I 
a church' = LAT. navis 'ship', j 

nave 2 sb. 'the hub of a wheel' 
ME. nave OE. ndfu = DU. naaj 
aaf nave, OHG. naba G. nabe, 
ON. ngf, GOTH. *naba\ an old 
ARYAN word (base nobhd}', cp. 
SKR. ndbhi f. and nabhya n. 'the 
nave' (of a wheel); cogn. w. 
navel. See auger. 

navel sb. ME. ndvel(e] OE. nd- 
fela = DU. navel, OHG. nabulo 
G. #&?/, ON. <j#'; GOTH. *nabala : 
a common ARYANword with a base 
nobhalo-'. onbhalo-', cp. the synon. 
GR. oiuf.a'kog, LAT. umbilicus (tor 
*unbiluus *nobiftcus), SKR. ndbhila, 
OIR. imbliu 'navel'. These words 
are very old /-derivatives ot 
ARYAN nobhd onbhd 'nave, navel'; 
cp. LETT, naba 'navel', LAT. umbo 
'boss of a shield'. Cp. nave. 

navy ME. ndvie nave'', borrowed 
fr. OFR. navee ofig. 'a single 
ship' (fr. LAT. navis ship'). 

nay ME. nai\ loanword fr. ON. 
DAN. net 'no, not', which answers 
to genuine no (cp. aye). 

neap-tide sb. ME. n{p-sfsoun 
OE. nep-flpd 'ebb'; a TEUT. adj. 
nepa- is not found elsewhere. 

near adj. 'nigh' now used as 
a positive, but prop, a compa- 
rative adverb ME. // (ner) OE. 
n{ar (nyr] contr. of *n$ahor (*nga- 
hir) = OSAX. OHG. nahdr adv., 
DU. naar adv. Cp. nigh. 

neat adj. borrowed fr. FR. net 
(source LAT. nitidus 'shining, 

neck ME. nekke OE. hnecca 
DU. nek\ cp. OHG. nac hnac (ck) 

need nest 


G. nacken, ON. hnakki'. Teut. base 
*hnakkan- for ON. hnakki and 
*hriekkan- for OE. hriecca. OIR. 
cnocc, OBRET. #0^ 'hill' (stem 
cnocco-) may be cognate, perhaps 
also nape. 

need sb. ME. ned (iic'd) OE. /?<?V/ 
TZJY/ (n{ad) fr. a Teut. base ###/ 
= OSAX. ^, DU. nood t OHG. 
#<?/ G. 0/, ON. naudr, GOTH. 
naups: pre-TEUT. nauti- has been 
connected with PRUSS. nauti- 
'distress'; pre-TEUT. \fnau. 

needle ME. nedle OE. nedl ncedl 
(oldest form ntedl) = OSAX. nadla, 
DU. naald, OHG. nddala G. nadel, 
ON. ndly GOTH, nepla'. a common 
Teut. word for 'needle' formed 
with the suffix -//<?-, ARYAN -tla- fr. 
\l^ne seen in OHG. no/an G. a^ 
'sew'. TEUT. \^ne is usually con- 
nected with the ARYAN\ r .f in 
LAT. nere, GR. vtoj 1 spin' vijf.ta 
'thread' vfjrQov 'spindle'; OIR. 
snim 'spinning' and snathe 'thread' 
sndthat 'needle'. 

neeze vb. cp. ME. nesinge 'snee- 
zing' and ON. hnjdsa, OHG. hnio- 
san G. niesen, DU. niezen vb. 
'sneeze': TEUT.^hneus, cogn. w. 
the TEOT.^jfneus in OE. fneosan 
ME. //w and DU. fniezen 'to 
sneeze' and \j~sneus in sneeze. 

neif neaf ME. ^ 'fist' bor- 
rowed from ON. hnefi 'fist' (sw. 
ndfve, DAN. nave). 

neigh vb. ME. #* OE. hnczyin 
'neigh' == DU. neien vb. and 
MLG. neiinge sb. 'neighing*, MHG. 
neigen vb. 'neigh': of imitative 

origin like ON. gneggja and OHG. 
hweibn vb. 'neigh'. 

neighbor ME. neighebour OE. 
nthhebiir prop. n^ah-^ebur = o?,A^. 
nabiir (for nah-gibur}, W.nabuur, 
OHG. nah-gibur G. nachbar: a com- 
mon West-Teut. compound of 
TZ/^ and bower, pointing to 
GOTH. *nehwa-gabiir. 

neither see either] ME. nouther 
OE. ndwder earlier form nd- 

nephew ME. nevew borrowed 
from FR. neveu\ supplanting 1 the 
genuine ME. neve OE. nefa 'grand- 
! son, nephew' = ON. nefi 'relative', 
DQ. neef 'grandson, nephew, cou- 
sin', OHG. rievo G. neffe 'sister's (or 
brother's) son': Teut. base nefan- 
from a pre-Teut. base nfpot- ap- 
pearing in SKR. ndpat (stem 
ndptr) 'descendant, son, grand- 
son', GR. avei}Ji6q 'a first cousin, 
kinsman' - vino$e<; 'offspring', 
LAT. nepos (the source of FR. 
neveu, whence E. nephew) 'a 
grandson, also a nephew', OIR. 
nia 'a sister's son'. 

nest ME. OE. nest = OHG. G. 

DU. nest: TEUT. nesta- - pre-Teut. 

form nizdo- confirmed by SKR. 

mda-s 'lair of animals' also 

'dwelling', ARMEN. nisi 'seat', 

OIR. net 'nest', LAT. nidus 'nest' 

for *nizdos. The ARYAN ni-zdo- is 

prop, a compound of the ARYAN 

^fsed 'sit, seat oneself', and 

the verbal particle ni preserved 

! in SKR. (see nether); ^ nizdo- 

\ from ni-sedo- means lit. 'settle- 

| ment';cp. SKR. ni-sad 'sit down, 



net night 

settle'. nestle vb. ME. nest(e)le 
OE. nistlian (= DU. nestelen, G. 
nisteln) : a frequent, form, lit. 
'frequent a nest'. 

net ME. OE. net (tt) fr. a Teut. 
natja- = OSAX. net (iietti), DU. 
ON. net, OHG. nezzi G. netz, GOTH. 
##//; allied to ON. not 'a large 
net' and LAT. nassa 'net'. 

nether adj. ME. nether e OE. 
neodera', cogn. w. OSAX. nithiri, 
DU. neder, OHG. nidiri G. nieder 
and OE. flfer = OSAX. nithar, 
DU. neder, OHG. #/d&zr G. nieder, 
ON. /V/r, GOTH. *nifiar\ deriv. 
from the Aryan verbal particle 
i 'downward' mentioned under 
nest and the comparat. suffix 
LAT. -ter, GR. -TSQOS, SKR. -tertf. 

nettle ME. #*///<? OE. netele = 
DU. MLG. netel, OHG. npgjla G. 
nessel', with dimin. suffix -z/<?/z- 
from a more original form seen 
in OHG. naigp 'nettle', GOTH. *nata 
and *natilo; possibly connected 
with net and with the redupli- 
cated OIR. nenaid (base nenat-J 
nettle'; cp. LTTH. notere 'nettle'. 

never adv. ME. never OE. nafre 
from ne 'not' and of re = ever. 

new adj. ME. newe OE. neowe 
(nlwe) = OSAX. OHG. niuwi, DU. 
nieuw, G. neu, ON. nyr t GOTH. ;^j. 
The common TEUT. niuja- from 
pre-TEUT. neuyo- answers to SKR. 
navy as naviyas (and ndvas), LITH. 
naujas navas (OSLSV. novii, LAT. 
iwviis, GR. j'f'oc); prob. connected 
with the ARYAN particle nu 'now', 
so that 'that which is new' means 
'now, recent'. Cp. now. 

newt with secondary n from 
ME. eute evete OE. efete\ not found 
in the other Teut. languages. 
Teut. base abitdn-1 

next adj. ME. next OE. niehst 
nehst = OSAX. OHG. nahist G. 
nachst: superl. of OE. neah = E. 
nigh. See also near. 

nice ME. ntfe 'foolish' fr. OFR. 
nife 'slothful, idle, dull'; source 
LAT. nescius 'ignorant'. 

niche borrowed fr. FR. niche 
= IT. nicchia 'a recess in the 

nickname short for earlier 
nekendme ME. e'ke-ndme prop, 'ad- 
ditional name'; cp. ON. auknafn, 
DAN. ognavn 'nickname'. For OE. 
tcanycean 'to add' cp. eke. The 
initial n of nickname is secon- 
dary as in newt. 

niece ME. ne$e fr. FR. niece: 
source MED. -LAT. neptia 'a niece' 

= LAT. neptis a' grand-daughter, 

niggard sb. ME. nigard with 
the by-form ME. nigoun 'niggard'; 
the formation of the Me. words 
points to Fr. influence. 

nigh adj. adv. and prep. ME. 
neigh OE. neh earlier n(ah = 
OSAX. ndh, OHG. nah G. nahe, ON. 
nd-r, GOTH. ne*hws 'nigh, n,ear': 
Teut. base nehwa- = pre-TEUT. 
neko- neqe-. Cp. near, next 
and neighbour. 

night ME. night (naught) OE. 
niht (neahf) = OSAX. OHG. naht, 
DU. G. nacht, ON. ndtt nott, GOTH. 
nahts: TEUT. naht- from pre- 
TEUT. nokt-\ cp. LAT. nox (stem 

nightingale nose 


nocti-), GR. vv'S, (VVY.T-), SKR. 
ndkta naktan - - ndkti, LITH. 
naktis, OSLOV. nosti. See fort- 
night, sennight. 

nightingale ME. nightengdle OE. 
nihte-gale = OSAX. OHG. nahti-gala, 
DU. nachtegaal, G. nachtigall 'a 
nightingale' : from OE. niht (gen. 
nihte) = night and TEUT. galan 
str. vb. 'sing'. Cp. stanyeL 

nightmare ME. nightemdre\ OE. 
OHG. ON. mar a 'a night -mare' 
(DU. nacht-merrie 'nightmare'). 

nightshade OE. niht-sceadu from 
OE. niht = E. *>^/ and OE. 
sceadu = E. shade. 

nimble adj. ME. #z>0i/ lit. 'ready 
to catch' from OE. niman vb. 
'take, seize'; for the suffix cp. 

nine ME. nine OE. nigone without 
inflexion nigon neogon = OSAX. 
nigun, DU. negen\ cp. GOTH.^ OHG. 
niun G. *#, ON. ntu 'nine': the 
forms with g are based on TEUT. 
*negun for *newun, whilst GOTH. 
and OHG. niun are based on*newn. 
The numeral is common to all 
Aryan languages in the form 
newm newn\ cp. SKR. ndvan, LAT. 
novem, GR. iWtt, OIR. <& 

nit ME. /& OE. ^// = = DU. 

<?<?/, MLG. */<? */, OHG. /; G. 

niss. GR. xowg (plur. xoru)fc) 
'egg of lice, bee-bugs and fleas' 
may be allied, if x(o>iJ" is 
common to both languages. Cp. 
also SLAV, gnida and ALBAN. dcm 
from *kenMd. 
no adv^.ME. n$ OE. nd (= ON. 

nei cp. ay) from ne 'not' and 
rf 'aye, ever'. 

noble ME. noble fr. FR. ^^/<? = 
LAT. nobilis. 

nod vb. ME. nodde\ cogn. w. 
OHG. hmitten Vibrate' MHG. notten 
'stake' and ON. hnjoda vb. 'ham- 
mer': TEUT.Y"^Mdfc 
noddle 'head' ME. ^/^. 
noise sb. . ME. noise borrowed 
fr. FR. noise 'quarrel'; source LAT. 
nausea 'nausea'. 

noisome adj. of ME. noy nuy 
'annoyance, hurt' earlier ME. anui 
fr. FR. ennui (OFR. anui)] cp. 

none ME. npn OE. nan from ne 
'not' and an = one. 
nook ME. nok 'corner . 
noon ME. OE. non - OSAX. OHG. 
ndna y DU. noen t G. none, ON. non. 
Source LAT. ndna (sc. kora) lit. 
'the ninth' (hour) with an ex- 
tension of meaning 'midday, 
twelve o'clock'. 

nor ME. nor short for nother 
'neither', OE. ndwder contr. of 
ndhwader 'neither' from OE. nd = 
no and OE. hwceder = whether* 
north ME. north(e) OE. norp = 
DU. mwv/, OHG. G. ^r^/, ON. nordr, 
sw. DAN. ^r^/; IT. SPAN, nortc, 
FR. ^r^/ are of Teut. origin. 

northern ME. northerne OE. nor- 
derne prehistoric *norpr(Kni fr. a 
TEUT. type norprbni = OHG. #0r- 
druoni, ON. norr&nn 'northern. 
nose ME. ^ OE. ^ (ww) 
'the nose'; cp. DU. neus, OHG. 
nasa G. ^r^ f ON. ^: TEUT. */iaso- 
noso- 'nose' = ARYAN nas-\ cp. 


not nut 

SKR. ndsa nas, OSLOV. nosu, LITH. 
no sis, LAT. ndsus ndres. nostril 
ME. nosethirl OE. nos-pyrel (nas- 
pyrl) lit. 'a nose-orifice' from 
OE. nosu nasu = nose and OE. fiyrel 
'a perforation, orifice'. 

not ME. not short for nought 
OE. nauht ndwiht = OSAX. OHG. 
niowiht, DU. niet, G. nicht. From 
OE. ne 'not' and OE. dwiht = 

notch also nock ME. nokke = 
ODU. nock c a notch in the head 
of an arrow', osw. nocka 'a notch': 
source OFR. hoche 'notch' ? 

note ME. note adopted fr: FR. 
note', source LAT. nota 'a mark, 
sign, note'. notice borrowed 
fr. FR. notice 'notice' = LAT. notitia 
'knowledge, acquaintance'. 

noun sb. borrowed fr. OFR. non 
= FR. nom 'a name': source 
LAT. nomen 'a name'. 

nourish vb. ME. nurisshe vb. 
adopted fr. OFR. noriss- the stem 
of certain forms of OFR. norrir 
= FR. nourrir 'nourish': source 
LAT. nutrire 'feed'. Cp. nurse. 

now ME. now OE. nu = OSAX. 
ntt, DU. nu, OHG. nu G. nu(n), ON. 
nu, GOTH, nu: a common ARYAN 
adv.; cp. SKR. nu nun-am 'now', 
GR. vv vv)', LAT. nunc (with the c 
oihi-c), OSLV. nyne'now, LITH. nu. 
Cp. new. 

nude adj. fr. FR. nude = LAT. 
nudus 'naked'. 

nuisance sb. ME. noisaunc.e bor- 
rowed fr. FR. nuisance 'a hurt': 

a verbal noun formed fr. the 
pres. part, of FR. nuire = LAT. 
no cere 'hurt, injure'. 

numb adj. ME. nome nomen prop, 
part, of ME. nime = OE. niman 
'take, overpower, deprive of sen- 
sation'; cp. ON. numinn 'bereft' 
(of life, of speech). 

number adopted fr. Y^.nombre\ 
source LAT. numerus 'a number'. 
: numerous adj. adopted fr. 
FR. numereux (for the usual nom- 
breux) fr. LAT. numerosus adj. 

nun ME. nonne OE. nunne = DU. 
non, OHG. nunna G. nonne. In the 
8 th cent, adopted fr. LAT. nonna 
(orig. meaning 'mother') ; cp. FR. 
nonne, IT. nonna 'a nun'. 

nurse sb. contr. of ME. nor ice 
nurifei loanword fr. OFR. nurrice 
= FR. nourrice. Source LAT. 
nutric-em 1 ^. nurse'. nurture sb. 
ME. nortilre adopted fr. OFR. no- 
riture (== f^.nourriture] : source 
LAT. nutritura 'nourishment . See 

nut ME. note nute OE. hnutu = 
DU. noot, OHG. 5 G. nuss, ON. 
hnot'rm.^. The Teut. base limit- 
points to y~ knud (seen in OIR. 
cnii 'nut'?). nutmeg ME. note- 
mug e nutmegge from ME. nut = 
nut and ME. miige borrowed fr. 
OFR. muge 'musk' = LAT. muscus 
'musk? Cp. OFR. muguette FR. 
mug iief 'a nutmeg' = ITAL. noce 

oaf on 

oaf ident. with elf\ perh. OE. 
celf or rather borrowed fr. ON. 
dlfr 'elf. 

oak ME. 6k OE. dc fr. a Teut. 
base aik- = ON. eik, DU. eik, 
OHG. /^ G. eiche\ all with the 
same meaning 'oak'; perh. cogn. 
w. GR. uiyavbij 'spear' Aiyiq. 

oakum ME. okumb OE. d-cumba 
'tow'; cp. OHG. d-kambi 'tow': 
prop, 'that which is combed 
out'. For OE. comb cp. comb. 

oar ME. ore OE. dr (inn. #W) 
fr. a Teut. base #*><?- ON. dr 
(DAN. tf#r<?, sw. dra). If TEUT. 
#*><?- is an ARYAN fry a-, \fer in 
GR. suerfjs 'oarsman' epeTjiwe 
'oar' might be cognate, cp. row. 

oast ME. g'st OE. dst 'kiln, dry- 
inghouse' = DU. eesf. TEUT. <ztt/#- 
cogn. w. istw.aestus 'glowing heat'; 
ARYAN \faidh 'burn' in GR. al^oc, 

oath ME. 6th OE. df = GOTH. 
fl/^j, ON. eidr, DU. m/, OHC. G. 
eid 'oath': TEUT. aifa- fr. a pre- 
TEUT. tfz'/V?- in OIR. oeth 'oath'; perh. 
\{~ai in OHG. ewa 'law'. 

oats ME. gtes plur. of jflfe OE. 
at a. 

oblige vb. ME. oblige = FR. 
obliger, LAT. obligor e. 

obtain fr. FR. obtenir. 

odd ME. ^/^ 'distinguished, 
special': loanword fr. ON. 0d&# 'a 
triangle', which also means 'an 

odd number* (standask i odda 
'be at odds, quarrel'). 

Of ME. OE. of = GOTH. ON. DU. 

of, OHG. aba G. ab\ ARYAN apo in 
GR. 770, SKR. ^tf 'away'. off 
orig. ident. w. of. 

offend vb. ME. offende fr. FR. 
offendre = LAT. offendere. 

offer vb. ME. 0^4 OE. offrian 
wk. vb. 'offer': loanword fr. LAT. 
offerre 'offer'; cp. DU. offer sb. 
'offering' and OSAX. offron vb. 

office ME. offife fr. FR. office = 
LAT. officium 'duty'. 

often earlier 0/7 ME. ofte OE. #// 

= ON. Opt, GOTH. &//#, OHG. ^/fe 

G. oft 'frequently'. The adv. 
points to a Teut. adj. of-ta- t 
which is perh. part, of an ARYAN 
\/~uq = SKR. uc 'to be wont'. 

oil ME. oile (olie) fr. OFR. oile 
= FR. huile 'oil' (LAT. oleum). 

ointment ME. oinement fr. OFR. 
oignement'. deriv. of FR. oindre = 
LAT. ungere vb. 'anoint'. 

old ME. old OE. did (jjald) : Teut. 
base alda- = OSAX. aid, OHG. G. 
alt, on. aldr t DU. ^Wold'; cogn. 
w. GOTH, alfieis 'old' and usalpan 
'grow' old'. A primitive TEUT. 
and ARYAN Y~tf/grow' cp. in GOTH. 
tfto = LAT. ^r<? 'nourish'. 

on ME. OE. on - - GOTH, ana 
'on', G. # OHG. ana, DU. </<?, 
ON. d (for *ar): cogn. w. GR. 

!, SKR. 


once otter 

once ME. ones late OE. dnes (com- 
monly (enes)\ orig. genitive of 
OE. an = one] cp. G. einst OHG. 
ernes. one ME. on OE. an fr. 
a Teut. base aina-z = GOTH, ains, 
ON. einn, DU. een, G. w. ARYAN 
0zVztf-.y may be inferred fr. LAT. imus 
(for oinos), IR. #<?#, CYMR. aw, GR. 
oiWc; cogn. w. SKR. <?-># 'one'. 

onion ME. onioun fr. FR. oignon 
whence also FLAM, anjoen DU. 
ajuin fr. ODU. on/mm: source LAT. 
unio(nem) , whence also OE. ynne 
'onion' fr. WEST-TEUT. *unnjon- = 
TEUT. unjon-. 

only ME. $n(i earlier onlic OE. 
dnlic 'unique'. From one. 

ooze ME. wose OE. wos (infl. 
o/<fo) 'juice'; perh. fr. a Teut. 
base wansa- in ON. &rfj 'wetness'; 
cp. MLG. wose 'juice'. 

or conj. ME. or shortened fr. 
an earlier odr, which supplants 
OE. odde 'or' under the influence 
of OE. dwder dhwceder ME. 
anther outher 'either' ('one of two') 

or adv. 'ere'ME. or late OE. (rare) 
dr\ commonly OE. cer ME. Ir 'ere'. 
See ere. 

orange ME. orenge fr. OFR. orenge 
= FR. orange. 

open ME. open OE. open fr. a 
Teut. base opana- = OHG. off an 
G. offen, OSAX. opan y DU. ^?z, 
ON. opinn. The adj. has the form 
of a participle and. points to a 
lost verbal root (eupt wepT). 

orchard ME. orchard OE. orcerd 
older ort-^eard (= GOTH, aiirti- 
gards 'garden') : adoption of LAT. 
hortus (for the mute h cp. IT. 

orto)} GOTH, aiirtja 'gardener' and 
OHG. orzdn 'cultivate' point also to 
LAT. hortus. The ch of the E. word 
is owing to a fusion of / -f- 
(OE. ort -f- ^eard). OE. %eard 
'garden' (cp. yard and garden) 
is added in explanation of LAT. 
hortus (= TEUT. ort). 

ordain vb. ME. or dame fr. OFR. 
ordener = LAT. or dinar e. ordre 
ME. ordre fr. FR. ordre = LAT. 
ordinem (nom. or do). 

ordure (Shakesp.) 'excrement' 
ME. ordure fr. FR. ordure. 

ore ME. or OE. dr 'brass' = GOTH. 
ais 'brass' (aiza-smipa 'copper- 
smith'), ON. eir, OHG. er 'brass'; 
cogn. w. LAT. aes 'ore, bronze', 
SKR. ay as 'iron'. 

origin ME. origine fr. FR. origine. 

orison 'prayer' ME. oreisoun fr. 
FR. oraison 'prayer': source LAT. 

orts ME. ortes plur. of a sing. 
*ort OE. *oret for *or-<zt\ cp. LG. 
ort 'what is left by the cattle 
in eating' and GOTH, uzeta 'crib';, 
prefix or 'out' and \f*et in eat. 

ostrich ME. ostriche fr. OFR. 
ostruche = FR. autruche] source 
LAT. avis struthio 'ostrich', whence 
OE. stryta, OHG. stru^ (G. vogcl 
strauss) and also IT. struzzo. 

other ME. ptJier OE. pder fr. a 
Teut. base aft/era- =GOTH.anfar, 
OHG. G. DU. ander, ON. annarr\ 
cogn. w. LITH. antras, SKR. antara 
and dr/^a 'other'. 

otter ME. oter OE. ^<?r = DU. 
G. otter OHG. ^/Azr, ON. otr : base 
TEUT. \(~otra- = ARYAN w//r^- cogn. 

ouch pack 


w. water', otter prop, 'the water 
animal'. Cp. GR. vdga 'a water- 
snake' and closely allied to the 
Teut. group OSLOV. vydra, LITH. 
udra 'otter'. 

ouch ME. ouche commonly nouche 
'necklace, collar' fr. OFR. nouche 
prop, nosche (= OHG. nusca). 

ought = aught. 

ounce ME. oun^e fr. FR. once', 
source LAT. uncia, whence also 

our ME. oure OE. ure for *iisre 
= GOTH, unsara: from the Teut. 
pron. uns] cp. us. 

ousel ME. osel OE. p'sle for *omsle 
TEUT. amsla = OHG. amsala G. 
amsel 'ousel'. 

out ME. oute OE. iite earlier ut 

= GOTH. Ut, ON. Ut, OHG. U$ G. 

aus, DU. uit. Cp. SKR. ud 'up, out'. 

outlaw ME. outlawe late OE. 
z#%# fr. ON. utlagi; cp. LAT. 
exlex and see /#w. 

outrage ME. outrage fr. FR. 0&- 
trage (== source a LAT. type 

oven ME. <w<?# OE. of en = OHG. 
mzTz G. of en, DU. 0zwz, ON. ofn 
and GOTH, atihns 'oven'; an ori- 
ginal meaning of the Teut. word 
is preserved in OE. of net Vessel'. 

An ARYAN type uqno- is found in 
GR. tTii'o'c, 'oven'. 

over ME. over OE. ofer GOTH. 
ufar, OHG. ubar, ON. ofr, DU. 
over', cp. G. uber OHG. &>*'. 
Outside of the Teut. languages, 
GR. vnt(j and SKR. z^zr/ 'above' 
are cognate. 

owe vb. ME. give OE. dgan 
'possess' == Goi*H. aigan, OHG. 
eigan 'possess' : ARYAN \T aik in 
SKR. if 'possess'. ought ME. 
oughte OE. dhte is the pret. tense of 
OE. dgan and own ME. jwcn OE. 
dgen is part. = OHG. eigan G. 
#*, OSAX. <?^. The vb. own 
ME. mine OE. dgnian 'possess' is 
a deriv. of the adj. own. 

owl ME. oule OE. tile fr. a Teut. 
base uwwalon- ; cp. OHG. ##'//# G. 
#&; ON. sw. ugla points to a 
GOTH. *uggwalbn~. The word is 


auhsa, OHG. ohso G. 0^^, ON. oxi 
uxi, DU. <?.$ 'ox' : Teut. base o/isan-, 
ARYAN ukson- in SKR. uksan 'ox', 
CYMR. ych. 

oyster ME. oistre fr. OFR. oistre 
= FR. huitre 'oyster': source 
LAT. ostrea, whence also OE. ostre, 
G. auster, DU. oester. 

pace ME. pdfe pas borrowed fr. 
FR. pas = LAT. passus 'a step 
pack sb. ME. packe = D 

ON. /^^/, G. pack, IT. /tftttf, FR. 

paquet; BRET. pak\ source and 
history of the group unknown. 
package formed by adding 
the FR. suffix -age = LAT. -aticum 


pact pall 

to the sb. pack. packet 
formed fr. the FR. dim in. paquet. 

pact adopted fr. FR. pacte - 
\Jrt.pactum, whence also if.patto, 
DU. G. pacht 'rent-contract'. 

paddock w&.paddok\ the ending 
ock is a dimin. suffix as in bul- 
lock, h illo ck. Primit. ME. padde 

'frog' = SCAND./tf^7, DU. LG. FRIES. 

padde (G. schildpatt). There exists 
also LG. pad-hucke 'paddock', the 
second element of which is LG. 
hucke 'paddock'. 

page sb. ME. page fr. FR. page 
(whence G. page). Source GR. 
Tiaiotov 'a little boy'. 

page 2 sb. (of a book) fr. OFR. 
page. Source LXf.pdgirta, whence 
also Qv&.pagene (MS., pdgine pdgent 
'page') and OHG. peine (rare) 
'page'. - pageant orig. 'the 
movable scaffold on which the old 
mysteries were acted' ME. pdgent 

earlier form pdgine 'pageant'. 
Source MED.-LAT. pagina 'scaffold' 

LAT. pagina 'a page', also 'a 
plank of wood'. For the excres- 
cent / m pageant cp. parchment. 

pail ME. -pail OE. pce^el 'bucket' 
= DU. pegel peil, LG. pegel, whence 
G./<f/* water-gauge' is borrowed. 

pain ME. peine fr. FR. peine'. 
source LAT. poena, whence also 
OE. pin E. pine. 

painim WL.painim 'heathendom' 
fr. OFR. paenime = LAT. paga- 
nismus 'heathendom'. 

paint vb. ME. painte peinte vb. 
borrowed fr. FR. peint, part, of 
peindre = LAT.firtfere 'paint'. See 

1 pair ME. peir fr. FR. poire (= 
SPAN, par, IT. paro pa jo) : source 
LAT. par 'alike', whence MHO. par 
G. paar 'pair'. See peer. 

palace ME. paleis palais fr. FR. 
\palais, whence also MUG. palas 
\ (rare paleis) G. palast: source 
MED . -LAT . palatium . 

palate fr. the synon. LAT. pa- 
latum (ME. paUt paldt from OFR. 

pale adj. ^ss.. pale borrowed fr. 
FR. pdle\ source LAT. pallidus 

pale sb. ME. pdl(e) 'stake' fr. 
FR. pale 'stake or pole*. Source 
LAT. palus 'a stake*. For the 
rare OE. pal 'stake' see pole. 

palfrey ME. pal(e)frei palefrai 
fr. ONFR. palefrei FR. palefroi. 
Source 'L&TL.paraveredus 'an extra 
post-horse' which is also the 
source of OHG. pf erf rid G. pferd 
and IT. palafreno, SVAK.palafren. 
The Lat. word is a compound of 
GR. TTttpd and GALLO-LAT. veredus 
'horse' (rheda is Gallo-Lat. for 
'travelling carriage' and ve is a 
Celt, prefix) ; hence na.Qa.-v credits 
was orig. the 'horse in reserve'. 

palisade Shakesp. palisado = 
FR. palissade, SPAN, patizada, IT. 
palizzata. All equiv. and deriv. 
fr. LAT. palus 'a stake'. Cp. 
pale, and pole. 

pall ME. pal OE. pcell: source 
LAT. pallium. The adoption 
cannot have occurred before 
the literary period of Anglo- 
Saxon, as we should expect an 
OE. form *pelle *pylle 'wrapper'. 

palm parchment 


LAT. pallet cannot be the source, 
as it never was the ecclesiastical 
terminus technicus, but rather 

palm 'inner part of the hand' 
ME. paume palme'. borrowed fr. 
OFR. palme = paume. Source 
LAT ./<?/;## 'the palm of the hand* 
(cogn. w. OE./o/m under feel). 

palm 2 sb. 'a tree' ME. palm OE. 
palm', a bible word, LAT. palma 
'a palm-tree'. 

palsy ME. pal(e)sie oldest form 
parlesie fr. FR. paralysie: source 
LAT. paralysis 'palsy', which was 
used in OE. as paralysis. 

pan ME. OE. panne = OHG. 
pfanna G. pfamie, ON. sw. panna, 
DU. /<?;/: TEUT.flanna is regarded 
as a transformation oftAi.flatma 
(or rather *patnd) 'a basin'. 

pane ME. pane 'patch, piece, 
pane' fr. Y^. pan a pane, piece, 
or pannel': source LAT. pannus 
'a cloth, rag, patch'. panel 
pannel ME. panel 'a piece of 
cloth' (= DU. fianeel) fr. OFR. 
panel YR.:panneau. Source a LAT. 
type panellus fr. pannus. 

pannier ME. panier 'bread- 
basket' fr. FR. panier (== LAT. 
pdndrium 'bread-basket', whence 
also DU. paander, OSAX. paneri, 
OHG. pfandri). 

pansy borrowed fr. FR. pensee\ 
derived from FR. penser 'think' 
(cp. G. vergissmeinnicht as the 
name of a flower). 

pant vb. 15 th cent, pante paunte 
fr. OFR. pantoyer (cp. FR. pan- 

teler) 'gasp, pant'; cp. OFR. 
pantais = E. pantas (in falconry) 
'a disease of hawks'. 

pantaloons fr. FR. pantalon. 

The FR. word prop, meant 

trowsers worn by the Venetians 

! who were called Pantalone after 

I the patron Saint of Venice, St. 

i Pantaleone. 

I pantry ME. pan(e)trie fr. FR. 
paneterie (derived fr. LAT. panis 

paper ME. paper earlier paper 
fr. FR. papier = LAT. papyrus 
(cp. also taper), whence also 
G. DU. papier. In late OE. (ii th 
cent.), a rare paper (cp. OHG. 
paffur} 'papyrus' is found. 

paradise ME. paradis (parais) 
fr. OFR. paradis (pardis pare'is) 
FR. paradis, IT. paradiso. 
Source LAT. pnradisus, whence 
also OHG. OSAX. paradis G. para~ 
dies, DU. paradijs , ON. sw. DAN. 
paradis. The corresp. OE. term 
was neorxnawgng. 

paramour ME. paramour 'lover, 
concubine'. Source the FR. 
phrase par amour 'by love' (cp. ME. 
par de 'by God' par fay 'by 
my faith' and perhaps). 

parcel ME. parcel prop, parcel 
fr. FR. parcelle (LAT. type *par- 
ticella derived fr. particula). 

parch vb. prop, the same as 
pierce fr. ME. perche per$e. 

parchment ME. parchemin fr. 
FR. parchemin (DU. perkament fr. 
OFR. parcamin) : source LAT. 
pergamena (char to) 'parchment'. 
The city of Pergampn in Asia 


pardon pastry 

Minor was famous for the in- 
vention of parchment. The ex- 
crescent t in NE. parchment is the 
same as in tyrant', cp. pageant. 

pardon sb. ME. pardoun from 
FR. pardon', source LAT. per- 
donare 'remit a debt', whence 
FR. pardoizner. 

pare vb. ME. pare fr. FR. parer 
s= LAT. parare. 

parish ME. parisshe earlier 
parosche fr. OFR. paroche = FR. 
paroisse'. source LAT. parcetia (GR. 
Tjaooixia), an ecclesiastical ter- 
minus technicus. 

paritory see pellitory. 

park ME. park short for OE. 
pearroc', ident. w. DU. MLG. perk 
'a park', OHG. pferrih G. pferch 
'an inclosure, sheepfold' : source 
a Celt, base parraka- (parrika-) 
in FR. pare, IT. *parco. Cogn. w. 
SPAN, parra 'fruitwall, espalier 
for vine' and PROVENC. parran 
'small garden'. 

parlour ME. parlour fr. FR. 
parloir 'conversation room' (FR. 
parler 'speak'). 

parrot for earlier (i5 th cent.) 
perrot = FR. Perrot Pierrot 
'little Peter' (in FR. also used 
as a name for a sparrow). 

parsley ME. persli earlier form 
per silt*, f^.persil = LAT. petroseli- 
num 'parsley' (cf. G. OE. peter silie). 

parsnip late ME. parsnepe pas- 
nepe fr. OFR. pastenaque = LAT. 
paslinaca 'parsnip'. 

parson ME. persoun ident. w. 
person. MED. -LAT. persona also 
meant 'curate, parson'. 

part sb. ME. part fr. FR. part 
( SPAN. IT. parte) : source 
LAT. pars-partem. - part vb. 
ME. parte vb. fr. FR. partir = 
LAT. partiri partire 'divide, part'. 

- partake vb. ME. part tdkc\ 
cp. G. teil nehmen. - - party sb. 
ME. parti(e) fr. FR. partie, whence 
also MHG. partie G. partei, DU. 
partij\ IT. partita = LAT. type 

partridge ME. pertriche fr. OFR. 
pertris, whence also DU. patrijs 
(ODU. pertrise) : source *LKV.perdix- 

parvis ME. parvis fr. FR. parvis 
'porch of a church'; ident. w. 
paradise. The church-porch 
is called in several languages 
paradise (esp. the portico of 
St. Peter's church, Rome, was 
call e d paradisus) . 

pass vb. ME. passe (fid(e) vb. 
fr. FR. passer (IT. MED. -LAT. 
passare 'step, walk' fr. LAT. passns 
'step'. - - passage ME. passage 
fr. FR. passage. passenger 

earlier pas sag er ME. passagr\ 
cp. messenger for the secon- 
dary n. 

paste sb. ME. paste fr. OFR. 
paste = FR. pate\ source late 
LAT. pasta 'paste'. 

pastern earlier pastron repre- 
sents an unrecorded ME.*flast(ii)- 
roun fr. the synon. OFR. pasturon 
= FR. pdturon. 

pastime for pass-time, an imi- 
tation of the synon. FR. passe-temps. 

pastry sb. ME. pdstt 'pie' fr. 
(earlier pasteth, whence 

patch peat 

ODU. pasteide = DU. pastei) : 
derived fr. LAT. pasta = paste. 

patch ME. pacche\ perh. ident. 
w. LG. plakke 'a piece'. 

path ME. path OE. pap = DU. 
LG. pad, OHG. pfath pfad G. pfad 
'a way': Teut. base papa-, not 
cogn. w. GR> ndrog 'a way', 
SKR. /0M 'a way', AVEST. pap 
'way'. But cp. OE. pcepfian 'tread', 
UG.pedden vb. 'tread', iKS&.pfetten. 

pattern ME. patroun borrowed 
fr. FR. patron 'pattern'. 

pause adopted fr. FR. pause 
= LAT. pausa. 

pave vb. ME. /bfctt borrowed 
fr. FR. paver 'pave' (LAT. pavire 

paw sb. ME. /#// poue bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. poue (== PROV. 
pauta 'a paw'); ident. w. DU. 
poot, G. pfote: it is uncertain 
whether the base pauta is orig. 
Celt, or Teut. 

pawn 1 sb. borrowed fr. FR. 
pan 'a pawn, gage, pledge'; 
perh. ident. w. OFRIS. DU. pand, 
OHG. pfant G. pfand. 

pawn 2 sb. (at chess) ME. paun 
poun borrowed fr. OFR. poon 
paon peon = FR. pion: source 
IT. pddone prop, 'a footman (LAT. 
pedo-netn). Cp. ON. ped-madr 
'pawn at chess. 

paxwax late ME. pax-wax 
'tendon of the neck'; cp. OHG. 
waltowahso, OFRIS. waldewaxe 'ner- 
vus' and wax for the second ele- 
ment of the compound. The first 
part of E. paxwax (dial. E. fax- 
wax is obscure. 

pay vb. ME. paie vb. fr. FR. 
payer (prop, 'satisfy, content' = 
LAT. pacare 'pacify'), whence also 
DU. paaien 'pay'. 

pea (plur. peas] fr. ME. p$'s(e) 9 
the s of which was considered 
to be the plural ending. ME. 
p$s points to ONFR. peis - - FR. 
pots. Source LAT. pisum 'a pea', 
whence also OE. pisu. 

peace ME. pgs earlier pais (== 
DU. MLG. pets, MLG. pats) fr. 
OFR. pais = FR. paix (LAT. pax- 

peach late ME. p$ehe fr. FR. 
pec he for pesche = IT. pesca, LAT. 
persicum 'a peach'. Fr. the LAT. 
word, G. pfirsich) vu.perztk, OE. 
persoc 'a peach' are borrowed. 

peacock ME. p$-cock and pea- 
hen ME. pc-henne point ,to OE. 

$a with the by-form pdwa 'pea- 
cock : source LAT. pavb-ncni, 
whence also OHG. pfawo G. 
pfau, DU. pauw, ow.pdfugl; cp. 
FR. paon 'peacock'. 

pear ME. p$re OE. p'eru 'a pear' 
= ODU. pere, DU. LG. peer : loan- 
word fr. the equival. LAT.//V//W 
(whence also G. birne) - - FR. 
poire 'a pear'. Cp. perry. 

pearl ME. perle fr. FR. perle - 
OHG. perala G. perle, IT. per/a: 
source LAT. pirula (for pilula 'a 
little ball'?). 

peasant fr. FR. paysan; cp. 
pheasant fr. FR. faisan and see 

peat for beat (see purse for 
the change of b to /). 


pebble penny 

pebble sb. ME. pibbel-stgn and 
pub le- sign OE. papol-stdn popol-stdn 
'a pebble-stone', 

peck vb. a var. of pick* 

peck sb. ME. pekke 'a measure'; 
perh. akin to FR. picotin 'a mea- 

pedant sb. (= DU. G. DAN. 
sw. pedant) borrowed fr. FR. 
pedant, IT. pedante, the ultimate 
source of which is GR. Ticudtistv 

pedigree late ME. petegrew 
petigru'. perh. adopted fr. FR. 
pied de grue 'a crane's foot'? 

peel vb. adopted fr. FR. peler. 
Source LAT. pellis 'skin'. 

peep 1 vb. 'chirp' ME. *pepe pipe 
borrowed fr. FR. piper. Source 
LAT. pipare = GR. -numi&n. 
'chirp 1 : sound - imitation; for 
variant in form see pipe. 

peep 2 vb. 'look pryingly'; cp. 
GEK.piper 'peep' la pipe du jour 
'the peep of day'. 

peer sb. ME. pfre per borrowed 
fr. OFR. per peer FR. pair. Source 
LAT. par 'equal'; see pair. 

peer 1 vb. 'appear' ME. pere 
short for ME. appcre = appear. 

peer 2 vb. 'pry' ME. pire LG. 
piren 'look closely'. 

peevish adj. ME. pevisch peviche 
pevdge. The ending (cp. par- 
tridge and parish) points to 
FR. origin. 

peg sb. ME. OE. pegge\ akin to 
DAN. //^sw. pigg 'spike', LG. 
pigge 'peg'. 


pellitory sb. late ME. paritorie 
fr. FR. paritoire, which goes back 
to a LAT. type *parietaria 'the 
plant of the walls'? 
pelt sb. ME. pelt 'a sheep-skin' 
E. peltry = DU. pelterij, MLG. 
peltrie fr. FR. pelletrie) ', ident. w. 
G. peh OHG. pellfy. Source a 
Rom. type pellicia = FR. pelisse, 
IT. pelliccia. Cp. pilch. 

pelt vb. ME. pelte also pilte pulte, 
the latter forms corresponding 
to OE. piltan pyltan. Source 
LAT. pultare 'beat, strike'? 

pen sb. borrowed fr. FR. 
penne. Source LAT. penna 'a 

pen vb. ME. penne OE. onpennan 
'impound, enclose': prob. con- 
nected with pound 2 and LG. 
topennen 'bar, bolt' uppcnnen 

penance ME. penaunce fr. OFR. 
penance older periea?ice = I.AT. 
poenitentia 'penitence'. 

pencil orig. 'a hair-brush' ME. 
pencil fr. OFR. pine el FR. pinceau 
'a brush'. Source LAT. penicillus 
'a painter's brush', whence also 
G. pinsel. 

pennon pennant ME. penoun 
borrowed fr. OFR. pennon 'a flag, 
streamer' (for the secondary t of 
pennant see pageant, parch- 
ment) . Source LAT. penna 'wing, 

penny ME. pent plur. penles 
(contr. pens, whence E. pence) 
OE. penfy penni"^ penning pending 
OSAX. pending penning, DU. 

people pester 


penning, OHG. phantinc pfenting 
pfenning G. pfennig, ON. penningr. 
The word may be derived . fr. 
pan, so that the form of the 
pennies may have suggested the 
word or it may have been asso- 
ciated with the base *pand 
under pawnl For the suffix 
-ing cp. shilling , farthing. 

people ME. peple pceple bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. ///// FR. peuple, 
whence also G.pobel. Source LAT. 
populus 'people' (cp. also DU. 

pepper ME. peper piper OE. 
pipor = DU. peper, OHG. pfeffar 
G. pfeffer, ON. piparr\ borrowed 
fr. LAT. piper (whence also IT. 
pepe, FR. poivre). Cp. OSLOV. 
pipru 'pepper'. 

perceive vb. ME. perceive fr. 
OFR. perceverv^. apercevoir. Source 
LAT. percipere 'apprehend'. 

perch 1 'a rod' ME. ptrche fr. 
the synon. FR. pcrche. Source 
LAT. pertica 'a pole, bar'? 

perch 2 'a fish' ME. perche bor- 
rowed fr. FR. perche. Source LAT. 
perca = GR. nEp'/.rj 'a perch*. 

perchance cp. perhaps. 

perdy (Shakesp.) r by God' 
ME. parde = FR. par dieu 'by 

perform vb. ME. perfonrme ear- 
lier parfourne borrowed fr. OFR. 
parfournir 'perform'. 

perhaps (late ME. perhappous 
15 th cent.) and perchance have 
the FR. preposition par (per) in 
imitation of ME. peraventure- 

parauntre and per cas\ haps is 
the plur. of hap under happy 
(cp. paramour*). 

peril ME. peril fr. FR. pe~ril. 
Source LAT. periculum 'danger'. 

perish vb. ME. perisshe bor- 
rowed fr. the stem of some 
forms of the FR. verb pirir 

deriwig formerly periwigge per- 
wicke borrowed fr. TR.perruque (wi 
being substituted for FR. ); 
cp. also G. perrucke, DU. pruik. 

periwinkle; cp. the synon. 
ME. pervenke OE. pervince. Source 
LAT. pervinca 'a twining plant'. 

perry adopted fr. FR. poirl 
'perry', formed fr. a vulgar LAT. 
type *piratus 'perry, drink made 
of pears' (LAT.//TWW underwear). 

person ME. ptrsoun borrowed 
fr. FR. personne. Source LAT. 
persona; ident. w. parson. 

pert adj. ME. pfrt 'pert, plain, 
clever, bold'; cp. ODU. gepertich 
FLAM, pertig 'alert'. The group 
goes back to FR. apert. 

pertain vb. ME. partlne bor- 
rowed fr. OFR. partenir. Source 
LAT. pertinere 'belong'. 

peruke ident. w. periwig. 

pervious adj. borrowed fr. 
LAT. pervius 'passable'. 

pest borrowed fr. FR. peste. 
Source LAT. pest-is 'plague'. 

pester vb. short for impester 
borrowed fr. OFR. empestrer 
'pester, entangle' FR. empetrer. 

pet sb. 'a tame animal, a 


pet pile 

favored child' short for earlier 
peat (ME. *p$t). 

petty adj. ME. petit adopted fr. 
FR. petit 'small'. 

pew sb. ME. pile (pilwe) fr. 
OFR. puie 'an elevated space', 
an open gallery with rails', 
whence also DU. pui , OFRIS. 
poie. Source LAT. podium 'a 

pewet peewit so called from 
its plaintive cry; the earlier 
by-form puet points to a FR. 

pewter late ME. pouter adopted 
fr. OFR. peutre (peautre) 'a kind 
of metal'. It stands for *peltre 
= SPAN, peltre, IT. peltro 'pewter'; 
cp. DU. planter. 

pheasant ME. fesaunt earlier 
fesaun fr. FR. faisan = IT. 
fagiano. Source LAT. phasianus, 
GR. (paGiKvog 'bird of Pkasis in 
Colchis', whence also OHG. fasdn 
G. fasan. 

phial vial borrowed fr. OFR. 
phiole (FR. fiole). Source LAT. 
phiala, GR. (fidty 'a broad, flat, 
shallow cup'. 

philtre borrowed from FR. 
philtre. Source LAT. ptiiltrum, 
GR. y>i\TQOV 'a love potion'. 

phlegm adopted fr. ^^.phlegme. 
Source LAT. GR. phlegma 'a flame, 
inflammation, phlegm'. 

pick vb. ME. pikke OE. pician = 
LG. DU. pikken, G. picken. 

picket borrowed fr. FR. piquet 
picquet 'a little pick axe', dimin. 
of OE. pic 'a pike' under pike. 

pickle sb. ME. pikel = DU. pekel, 
ekel G.pokely prob. h. pickle, 
frequentative of pick pickout, 

picnic a modern word arising 
about 1700 and soon received 
into FR. {piquenique about 1740) 
and GERM, (picknick about 1770). 

pie ME. pie fr. FR. 'pie 'a broiled 
remnant of a shoulder of mutton'. 

pie (in magpie] IKE. pie fr. OFR. 
pie = LAT. pica. 

piebald composed of pie 'a 
magpie' and bald 'streaked'. 

piece ME.flefe borrowed fr. FR. 

pier ME. pere borrowed fr. OFR. 
piere, FR. pierre LAT. /<?//-<? 'stone'. 

pierce vb. ME. perfe borrowed 
fr. FR. percer 'pierce*. ME. by- 
form perche. 

piety adopted fr. FR. pUtl 
'piety' = LAT. pietdtem\ ident. w. 

pig ME. pigge. 

pigeon late ME. pigoun fr. FR. 

pigeon. Source LAT. pipio(ncm} 

a chirp er'. See peep and pipe. 

pike ME. pike OE. pic = DU. 

iekj G. piek\ cp. pick. 

pilch ME. pilche OE. pilde pylce 
'fur. Source MED. -LAT. =. IT. 
pelliccia 'felt', whence also FR. 
pelisse and OHG. pelli^ G. pelz, DU. 
pels 'fur (primitive source" LAT. 
pellis). Cp. pelt. 

pile 1 sb. 'an arrow' ME. OE. /// 

(= DU. pijl, OHG. pfU G. pfdl, 

ON. pila) '. borrowed fr. LAT. pilum 
a javelin', whence OFR.///^, SPAN. 
IT. pilo 'a javelin, pestle'. The 

pile pipe 


corresponding Goth, word was 
arhwazna\ cp. ON. gr, OE. earh 
= LAT. arcus. 

pile 2 sb. 'a heap' ME.///? 'tower, 
castle' borrowed fr. OFR. ///<? 'a 
pier, pyramid' FR. pile 'a mole' 
= SPAN, pila 'a pillar, trough', 
IT. pila 'trough'. Source LAT./// 
a pier of stone'. See pillar. 

pile 3 sb. 'a tumor' (now used 
in plur.) fr. LAT. pila 'a ball'. 

pile 4 sb. 'hair' borrowed fr. OFR. 
peil FR. poil = SPAN. IT. pelo. 
Source LAT. pilus 'a hair'. 

pilfer borrowed fr. OFR. pelfrer 

pilgrim ME. pilgrim borrowed 
fr. MUG. pilgrim. Source MED. -LAT. 
peregrinus (late LAT. pelegrmus), 
whence FR./#<T/, IT. pdlegrino, 
SPAN, peregrino, DU. pelgnm. 

pill =r G. DAN. pille prob. bor- 
rowed fr. the dimin. FR. pilule. 
Source LAT. pilula 'a pill'. 

pillar ME. pilfr borrowed fr. 
FR. pilier (= SPAN, pilar t IT. 
piliere). Source MED. -LAT. pildre 
pildrius (LAT./Z/) 'pillar', whence 
also OHG. pfilari G. pfeiler\ DU. 
pilaar is FR. pilier > but DU. /*/fer 
is LAT. pildre. 

pillory sb. ME. pilot j borrowed 
fr. FR. pilori 'a pillory'. 

pillow sb. ME. pilwe OE. pyle 
*pylwe = DU. peuluw, OHG. 
pfuliwi(ri) also pfulwo G. pfilhl'. 
borrowed fr. LAT. pulvinus 'cu- 
shion'. Cp. cushion. 

pilot sb. borrowed fr. ?&.. pilote 
= SPAN. IT. ///0/tf pilota, DU. 


piloot, G. pilote. Origin unknown. 
The word occurs in Germ, and 
Engl. since the 15 th cent.; in 
Germ, it appears first in the 
It. form piloto. Perh. the It. 
word became European through 
the commerce with Genoa and 

pimpernel sb. fr. FR. pimprenelle 

pin sb. ME. OE. pinn = DU. LG. 
pin. Source LAT. penna 'a pin, 

pinch vb. ME. pine he borrowed 
fr. FR. pinccr. 

pine sb. ME. pine OE. *pin(treo] 
'pine-tree': borrowed fr.LAT./?i 
'a pine', whence FR.^/ (DU. pijn) t 
SPAN. IT. pino 'a pine-tree'. 

pine vb. ME. pine OE. pinian 
'torment' = ON. ptna, DU. pijnen, 
OHG. pfinon plnon (G. peinigen) : 
deriv. fr. OE. pin = OHG. pina G. 
pein. Source LAT. pana (pronounc- 
ed pend). 

pinfold; see pound 2 . 

pint sb. late ME. plnte fr. FR. 
pint'- (whence DU. pint, LG. pinte 
"can ) : source LAT. pincta. 

pip sb. ME. pippe = DU. LG.///, 
G. pips OHG. pfifffy ' borrowed fr. 
a vulgar LAT. pippita ( LAT. 
pituitd) 'phlegm', whence also 
FR. ptpie, SPAN, pepita, IT. pipita. 

pipe sb. ME. OE. pipe DU. pijp, 

G.^tye, OKG.pfifa G.pfeife, ON. 
plpa : borrowed fr. MED.-LAT. pipa, 
whence also the synon. FR. pipe, 
SPAN. pipa t IT. piua. Source LAT. 
pipdre 'chirp'. 



pit plant 

pit sb. ME. pit OE, pyt (tt) = 
DU. put, LG. ///// OKG. puzzi ffuzzi 
G. pfiltze : TEUT. putjus : borrowed 
fr. -Ltw.puteus 'a well, pit', whence 
also Yf.pozzo, 5PAN./^0, ^^.puits 
and OIR. cuithe, CYMR. /^ 'well, 

pitch sb. ME. pick OE. pic = 

OSAX. ODU. /// DU. pek, OHG. /^ 

beh(hh) G.pech, ON. &'<: borrowed 
fr. LAT. pix (pic-} 'pitch', whence 
also FR. poix, SPAN. pez y IT. pece 

pitcher sb. WS-picchtr borrowed 
fr. OFR. picker. Source MED. -LAT. 
picdrium, a by-form of late LAT. 
bicdrium under beaker. 

pith sb. ME. pithe OE. pida cog- 
nate w. DU. pit ODU. pitte 'pith' 
and MLG. pedik 'pith'. A West- 
Teut. baseman- is to be assum- 
ed, pern, a TEUT. pip won- in- 
stead of qifiwon-'. \Tgltt 

pittance sb. MR.pitaunce (=MLG. 
pitancie) borrowed fr. FR. pitance 
'meat, food, daily subsistance'. 

pity sb. ME. pite fr. FR. pitie. 
Source LAT. pietdtem. 

place ME. place fr. FR. place 
(= SPAN, plaza, IT. piazza). 
Source LAT. platea = GR. -n\o.T^ia 
'a street'. G. platz and DU. plaats 
are also of Fr. origin. 

plague ME. (i4' h cent.) plage 
adopted fr. LAT. pldga 'an injury' 
whence DU. plaag , OHG. pldga 
G. plage and IT. piaga, FR. plaie. 

plaice ME. plaice borrowed fr. 
FR. plaise OFR. pla'ise. Source 
MED. -LAT. platisa prop, platessa c a 

flat-fish', whence also DU. pladijs, 
G. platteise. 

plain adj. ME. plain borrowed 
fr. FR. plain (whence also DU. 
plein) = SPAN, piano, IT. piano. 
Source LAT. pldnus 'flat, even'. 

plain sb. ME. pleine adopted 
fr. FR. plaine = SPAN, plana, IT. 
piano. Source LAT. pldnum 'a 

plaint sb. ME. pleinte plainte fr. 
FR. plainte (== LAT. planctus 

plait vb. ME. plaite 'fold' derived 
fr. OFR. pleit (ploit) sb. 'fold'. 
Source LAT. plicare 'fold, braid'. 

plan adopted fr. FR. plan, 
whence DU. G. plan. Source 
LAT. pldnus 'flat, plane', whence 
SPAN, plan, IT. piano. See //#/, 

plane adj. borrowed fr. FR. 
plane (== SPAN, piano, IT. piano). 
Source LAT. pldmis 'flat, level'. 

plane sb. 'a carpenter's tool' 
late ME. plane borrowed fr. FR. 
plane. Source MED. -LAT. pldna 
'a carpenter's tool'. 

plane-tree ME. pldne(~tre) = DU. 
plaan-boom fr. FR. plane. Source 
LAT. platanus 'plane-tree'. 

plank ME. planke borrowed fr. 
ONFR. planke FR. planche (== SPAN. 
plancha, IT. pianca). Source 
MED.-LAT. planca, whence DU. 
plank, G. planke. 

plant ME. plante OE. plant = DU. 
plant, OHG. pflanza G. pftanze 
(ON. planta) : fr. LAT. planta, 
whence also FR. plante, SPAN. 

plash pluck 

1 63 

planta, IT. pianta. In ME. we find 
also plaunte sb. vb. as adap- 
tion of FR. plante planter. 
plantain ME. plantain (plauntain f) 
borrowed fr. FR. plantain. Source 
LAT. plantago (plantaginem) 'a 

plash ME. plasche borrowed fr. 
ODU. plasch DU. plas 'water- 

plaster ME. piastre plaister fr. 
OFR. piastre {plaistre , whence 
jyu.jpleister) cp. FR. pldtre. Source 

GR.-LAT. \linkaO T t)f))' = IT. 

empiastro, FR. emplatre 'plaster'. 
LAT. emplastrum = MED.-LAT. 
plastntm 'gypsum', whence OHG. 
pflastar G. pflaster. 

plat plot ME. OE. plot (tt). See 

plate ME. plate borrowed fr. 
OFR. plate plaite 'plate -armor, 
ingot, silver' FR. plat, whence 
DU. plat, G. platte. Source a 
MED.-LAT. plata 'plate of metal' 
(GR. -nXarvc). 

platoon fr. FR. peloton 'a ball, 

platter ME. plater fr. OFR. platel 
'a plate' = FR. plateau also 

play vb. ME. plaie pleie OE. 
plcgian 'play" and play sb. ME. 
plaie pleie OE. plega. The other 
TEUT. languages have no such 
root as pleg 'play'. 

plea sb. ME. pl$ plai 'debate' 
fr. OFR. pie plai with the by- 
forms plait plaid. Source MED.- 
LAT. placitum 'a decree, sen- 
tence'. plead vb. ME. pl$de 

plaide fr. FR. plaider 'plead, 
argue', whence also DU. pleiten 

please vb. ME. plcse borrowed 
fr. OFR. plesir plaisir (FR. plaire 
'please'). Source LAT. placere 
'please'. - - pleasure (late ME. 
pi (sure 15 th cent.) fr. the FR. 
infinit. plaisir, but influenced by 
abstract nouns such as nature 

pledge sb. ME. pkgge fr. OFR. 
plege (v^.pleige) 'a surety', which 
is related to OSAX. plegan OHG. 
pflegan 'be responsible for, 
answer for' (cp. plight). 

plenty ME. plenty fr. OFR. plentt, 
source LAT. plenitdtem. 

plier see ply. 

plight sb. ME. plight OE. pliht 
formed by means of the abstract 
formative -/ from a vb. seen in 
OE. pleon 'risk' (OHG. pflegan G. 
pflegen whence G. pflicht 'friendly 
care, interest'). 

plot 1 short for complot = FR. 
complot 'a conspiracy'. 

plot 2 sb. ME. OE. plot (tt). 

plough ME. plough plow OE. 
ploh DU. ploeg, OHG. pfluoh 
pfluog G. pflug, ON. plogr. This 
Teut. group plohu- plogu- was 
borrowed by the Slav. (SERB.- 
RUSS. plugu, LITH. pliugas). 

plover ME. plover borrowed fr. 
OFR. plovier FR. pluvier. Source 
a LAT. type *pluviarius rainy'. 

pluck vb. ME. plukke plokke 
(plicche) QK.pluccian (OE. *plyttari) 

- DU. plukken, OHG. *pflucchen 
*pflockon G. pfliicken t ON. plokka. 


plug poll 

Source a LAT. type *piluccare 
IT. piluccare, FR. eplucher. Vulgar 
LAT. ^piluccare (whence ME. pilken 
'pluck') prop, 'pluck hairs one 
by one' is an extension of LAT. 

plug sb. ident. w. DU. plug, 
LG. plugge (pluck) late MHG. pfloc 
G. pflock 'plug'. 

plum ME. ploume OE. plume 
(ply me) = DU. pruim, LG. prume 
(LAT. r changed to TEUT. /) G. 
pflaume'. early loanword fr. LAT. 
prunum, whence also FR. prune, 
IT. pruna. Cp. prune. 

plumb fr. FR. plomb = LAT. 

plume fr. FR. plume = LAT. 

plummet ME. plommet borrowed 
fr. FR. plombet 'a plummet' dimin. 
of FR. plomb 'lead'. 

plump adj. borrowed fr. LG. 
plump, DU. plomp. 

plunder vb. adopted fr. MDU. 
plunder en = G. plilndern 'rob, 

plunge vb. short for ME. p lounge : 
borrowed fr. FR. plonger 'duck, 
dive', whence also DU. plonzen. 

plush sb. = DU. pluis , G. 

plusch\ borrowed fr. FR. peluche 

= IT. peluzzo. Source a LAT. type 

pilutia, an extension of LAT. 

pilus 'hair'. 

ply vb. ME. pile 'bend' adopted 
fr. FR. plier 'fold, bend, bow'. 
Source LAT. plicdre 'fold'. 

poach 1 vb. 'dress eggs' fr. FR. 
pocher. - - poach 2 vb. 'intrude 
into preserves' borrowed fr. FR. 
pocher from poche. 'a pouch'. 

pock ixs..pokke OE.pocc = MDU. 
pocke, DU. pock, G. LG. pocke 'small 
pox'. pocket ME. poket fr. OFR. 
poquette, dimin. of OFR. pocke poche. 
See poke. 

poignant adj. i&s.. poinani poin* 

ymnt fr. FR. poignant. (Source 
LAT. pungere). -- point ME. point 
fr. FR. point (source LAT. punc- 
turn) 'point'. 

poise vb. ME. poise earlier peise 
fr. OFR. poiser peiser FR. pescr 
'to weigh'. Source LAT. pensare 
'to weigh*. 

poison w&.puisoun fr. FR. poison 
'poison' = LAT. potio(neni) 'a 

poke sb. ME. pdke 'a bag' = 
ODU. poke, ON. poki. FR. poche is 
perh. an Engl. loanword. Cp. 

poke vb. ME. poke {pouke pucke) 
'thrust, throw' = DU. poken, MLG. 

pole ] sb. 'a stake' w&.pple Q^.pdl 
'a pale, pole': source LAT. palus 
'a stake', whence G. pfahl OHG. 
MHG. pfal. See pale. 

pole 2 sb. 'a pivot' the synon. 

FR. pol = LAT. polus (GR. TTOAOt,') 

'a hinge*. 

polish vb. ME. polisshe fr. FR. 
potir (poliss-) 'polish'. 

poll ME. pol (II) 'head' = LG. 
ODU. polle 'head'; perh. ident. w. 

pommel port 


pommel ME. pomel borrowed 
fr. OFR. pomel FR. pommeait 'the 
pommel of a sword': prop, dimin. 
LAT. pomum 'apple'. 

pomp ME. pompe fr. LAT. pompa, 
whence also FR. pompe. 

pond ME. pond pondt. 

ponder vb. borrowed fr. LAT. 
ponderare 'weigh'. 

pontiff fr. FR. pontif pontife, 
LAT. pontif ex. 

pontoon fr. FR. ponton, IT. 
pontone 'a great broad bridge'. 

pOOl Sb. ME. OE. pol = DU. 

poel, uG.po'l, OHG. pfuol G.pfuhl] 
perh. akin to OE. pull pyll 'pool' 
= ON. pollr 'pool, pond'. 

poop borrowed fr. FR. poupe = 
LAT. puppis 'the hinder part of 
a ship'. 

poor adj. ME. povre fr. OFR. 
povre = pauvre (source LAT. 
pauper) 'poor'. 

pope ME. pope OE. pdpa = LAT. 
pdpa. The continental dialects 
differ from the LAT.-OE. forms; 
cp. os AX. pdfios, DU. paus, MHG. 
babes G. papst. 

popinjay late IKE,. popinjay earlier 
papegai (= DU. papegaai, MLG. 
papegoie, G. papagat) fr. FR. pape- 
gai OFR. papegay and papegau = 
IT. papagallo. Prob. derived fr. 
Low GR. Twnayag = ARAB, ba- 
bagha (PERS. bapga). The Lat. 
name psittacus agrees with GR. 

poplar sb. ME. popllr(e) = DU. 
populier, ODV.popeKer: borrowed 
fr. OFR. poplier = FR. peupli'er. 
Source FR. peuple 'poplar' = 

LAT. populus 'poplar', whence also 
I DU. pope I and G. pappel. 

poppy sb. ME. popy OE. popi% 
papal (about 800). The suffix / 
(not producing umlaut) points to 
an older form -ang as in body, 
holly. There are no Tent, 
equivalents. Usually considered 
to be borrowed fr. LAT. papaver. 

porcelain sb. = FR. porcelains^ 
DU. porselein, G. porzellan (since 
the 1 6th. cent.); the base is 
IT. porcella?ia, orig. 'the Venus- 
shell', 'concha Veneris'; this hav- 
ing much resemblance to porce- 
lain, the name of the shell was 
transferred to that of the cera- 
mic ware. 

porch sb. ME. porche borrowed 
fr. FR. porche\ source LAT. porti- 
cus, from which OE. portid and 
OHG. pforzih are earlier loan- 

porcudine occuring in the 
i5 th 1 6 th cent's in the forms 
porpentine porpoint and porkepin 
which go back to OFR. pore 
espin (now pore-epic) = IT. porco 
spino (porco spinoso) 'thornbush 
hog'. - - pork 'flesh of swine' 
ME. pork 'pork, swine' fr. the 
synon. FR. pore (== LAT./fcrrw). 

port 1 sb. 'harbor ME: OE. port 

'harbor' fr. the equival. LAT. 

portus (= FR. port, IT. porto) 

harbor', whence also ODU. port 


port 2 sb. 'a gate' fr. FR. porte 
= LAT. porta 'a gate', whence 
also OK. port or port-yiat 'a gate', 
DU. poort) G. pforte. 


port power 

port 3 sb. 'behavior ME. port 
fr. FR. port 'behavior: deriv. of 
LAT. port are 'carry'. 

port 4 = Port-wine orig. \vine 
of Oporto in Portugal. 

portray vb. ME. pourtraie fr. 
FR. portraire. portrait = FR. 

post 1 sb. 'a pillar* ME. OE. post 
= DU. LG. post', early loanword 
fr. LAT. postern (nom. sing, postis), 
whence also G. pfosten OHG. pfost 
and FR. poteau. 

post 2 sb. 'mail service' = DU. 
G. post, FR. paste, IT. pasta. The 
word is a native of Italy and was 
borrowed from there by the 
modern languages in the i6 th 

post 3 sb. c a military post' = 
G. posten, DU. post fr. IT. pasta 
'guard, post'. 

pOt ME. OE. pat (tt), = DU. LG. 

pot(tt), ON. pattr (SWED. potta, 
DAN. potte) ; akin to FR. pot = 
CYMR. pot, IR. pota. 

potato imported in the second 
half of the i6 th cent, together 
with SPAN, patata from America 
(in Hayti the name was batata 
about 1530). 

pouch ME. pouche 'bag' fr. OFR. 
pouche (poche) 'pocket'; akin to 

poult sb. 'chicken' (= pullet) 
late ME./Z//& fr.FR. /#/<?/ 'chicken' 
(foule 'hen). - - poulterer ex- 
tended for ME. pultfr fr. FR. 
fioulletier. poultry ME. pultrie 
is derived fr. ME. pulter. 

pounce vb. see punch. 

pound ! ME. pound OE. pund 'a 
pound' (weight and money) = 
OSAX. pund, DU. pond, OHG. pfunt 
G. pfund, ON. sw. DAN. pund 
GOTH. pund'. borrowed in the 
second cent. fr. LAT. pondo 
(indecl.) 'pound', not fr. LAT. 
pondus 'weight'. 

pound 2 sb. 'enclosure' ME. 
pound (shortened in pan-, pun- 
folde 'pound'). OE. pund 'en- 
closure' with the verb OE. pyndan 
ME. pinde 'impound, dam up the 
water' = ON. pynda 'shut in' 
(E. pinfold ME. pin folde 'pound' 
points to OE. pyndan ME. pinde). 
Prob.flen OE. pennan is cognate, 
if the base *panjan goes back 
to an earlier form *pandjanl Tarr. 
\^pand pund. 

pound vb. 'beat* ME. poune OE, 
punian 'pound'; perh. cognate w. 
DU. puin 'ruin, rubbish'. 

pout vb. ME. poute 'sulk' (OE. 
*ptttusnT). - - pout sb. (a kind 
of fish) OE. puta or pute (in the 
compound dlepiitan 'eelpouts'); 
cp. DU.///// a kind offish. The 
word is derived from the vbo 
pout (TEUT. V////) ' the fish has 
its name from its pouting lips. 

powder sb. ME. paudre 'hair- 
powder' fr. FR. paudre, whence 
also w.poeder, G.puder. Source 
LAT. pulverem (jpulvis), whence 
G.pulver, Yi.polve 'dust, powder'. 

power ME. poulr earlier polr 
fr. OFR. poer = FR. pouvoir\ 
ident. w. IT. potere and deriv. 
fr. LAT. potest potui etc. 

praise proud 

I6 7 

praise sb. TAK. prats prds fr. OFR 
preis, ident. with price. 

pram sb. 'a flat - bottomed 
lighter' = LG. prahm, DU. praam 
LG. pram, ON. prdmr, sw. pram 
DAN. pram are* of Slav, origin 
cp. OSLOV. pramu belonging to 
the ARYAN \(~per 'cross, ferry 
seen in fare vb. . 

prance vb. ME. praunfe vb. 
ident. w. E. prank vb. ME. pranke\ 
the sound points to Fr. origin. 

prate vb. late ME. prate = DU. 
LG. praten 'prate', DAN. prate 

pray vb. ME. preie fr. OFR. 
preier = FR. prier 'pray' (source 
LAT. precari 'pray'). 

preach vb. ME. pr$che fr. FR. 
precher. Source church-LAT./r^<?- 
dicare 'preach', whence also OE. 
predician, ON. predika, DU. pre- 
diken, OSAX. predikdn, OHG. pre- 
digon MHG. G. predigen 'preach'. 

press vb. ME. presse fr. OFR. 
presser LAT. prcssare. 

pretty adj. ME. *prlti for prati 
'pretty' and 'clever, cunning'; 
QE.prcetii 'tricky, deceitful'. The 
OE. sb. prcett plur. prattas means 

prey sb. ME., preie prate fr. OFR. 
preie prate = FR. proie (hence DU. 
proof) 'prey'. Source LAT. praeda. 

price sb. iss..pris fr. OFR. pris 
= FR. prix. Source LAT. pretium 
'price'. See prize. 

prick sb. ME. pricke (prike) OE. 
pricca (jprica) 'prick, spike'. - 
prick vb. ME- pricke (prike OE. 

prician) prick, spur'. Cp. MHG. 
pfrecken, Qjx.prikka: TEUT. y~/r/,. 
prickle relation ME. prikel 
OE. priceL 

pride ME. pride OE. pryda\ um- 
laut-relation to proud. 

priest sb. ME. prfst OE. preost\ 
ident. w. OHG. prest priestar MHG. 
G. priester, OSAX. prestar, FR. prtore 
for OFR. prestre'. descendants 
of LAT. presbyter 'priest'. But 
there are discrepancies in the 
phonetical development of the 
Rom. and Teut. forms. 

prime fr. FR. prime = LAT. 
primus. primrose fr. FR. 
prime rose = LAT. prima rosa 
'first rose'. prince ME. prinfe 
fr. FR. prince (source LAT. prin- 
ceps principem = IT. principe) t 
whence also G. prinz DU. prins. 

print vb. ME. printe short for 
prente imprente fr. FR. empreinte 
sb. 'a stamp, print'; cp. FR. 
empreindre = LAT. imprimere. 

prison ME.prisoun fr. FR.#rts0n' 9 
source LAT. prehensio(netri) = IT. 

privy ME. privt fr. FR. privt 
(= LAT. privatus). 

prize vb. TX&. prise fr. FR./rwr; 
cf. E. prise fr. FR./rz'jc. prize 
sb. 'taking or capture e. g. of 
a ship' fr. FR. prise 'seizure' (DU. 
i>rijs t G. prise). 

proud ME. proud late OE. prud 
^by-form ME. prout late QE. prut 
brete)', cp. ON. prudr 'proud', 
DAN. prud 'stately'. Cp. the urn- 
ant-relation /riVf. Source OFR. 


prove push 

proud Valiant' (under prowess) 
= FR. preux. 

prove vb. ME. prove late OE. (c. 
io>QQ)profan\ loanword fr. LAT. 
probare, whence also ?K. prouver> 
MHG. prueven G. prufen, ON. prof a 
and also ME. preve prceve 'prove'. 
The sb. proof is derived fr. 
the vb. (cp. ME. preve prceve = 
FR. preuve). 

prow ME. *proue fr. FR. proue 
(w.pruaproda, LAT. prora) 'prow'. 

prowess ME. prouesse fr. OFR. 
prouesse 'prowess', abstr. sb. of 
OFR. prou proud = late OE. prud 
s. under proud. 

proxy sb. earlier prockesy for 
procuracy\ cp. proctor late ME. 
proketour = LAT. pro curator (em). 

prune sb. ME. prune fr. FR. 
prune = LAT. prunum\ cp. plum. 

pry vb. ME. prie OE. *priwan 
*preowian, the root of which is 
evident in OE. bepriwan vb. 'wink 
with the eye' preowothwil 
'twinkling of the eye'. 

psalm sb. ME. psalm LAT. 
psalmus\ already OE. salm. 

puck sb. short for ME. pouke 
OE. puca 'demon, hobgoblin' = 
ON. puki 'imp' ; cp. OE. pucel 
'demon', NORTH-FRIES, puk 'mis- 
chievous sprite with large eyes'. 

pudding ME. pudding prob. 
borrowed fr. FR. boudin 'black- 
pudding 1 (cp. ME. cuning fr. OFR. 
conin under cony). 

puff vb. ME. puffe OE'. *puffian 
aside of OE. pyffan 'blow': TEUT. 
base puff on puff Jan. 

pull vb. ME. pulle OE. pullian 

pullet ME. polete fr. ^^. poulette 
'a young hen', cp. poult. 

pulp sb. fr. FR. pulpe = LAT, 
pulpa 'pulp'. 

pumpion (dimm. pumpkin) ear- 
lier pompoun fr. FR. pompon (== 
DU. pompoeti) 'a kind of gourde'. 
Source LAT. pepo (= FR. pepon, 
IT. pep one popone). 

punish vb. ME. punisshe fr. FR. 
punir (puniss-) 'punish'. 

purblind ME. purblind orig. 
'blind as bfur? OE. pur means 
the bird 'onocrotalus';' cp. SWED. 

purchase vb. ME. purchase fr. 
FR. pourchasser. 

purge vb. ME. purge fr. FR. 

purple ME. purpre fr. FR. 
pourpre = LAT. purpura. 

purpose vb. ME. purpose fr. 
OFR. pourposer = FR. proposer 

purse ME.flurs late OE. (c. 1050) 
purs', loanword fr. OFR. dorse = 
FR. bourse ', cp. LAT. bursa. 

pursue vb. ME. pursue fr. OFR. 
porsuir = FR. poursuivre (source 
LAT. prosequi) 'prosecute'. 

purvey vb. ME. porveie fr. OFR. 
porvoir = FR. pourvoir (LAT. 
providere) 'provide'. 

push vb. !>,<{. posse pusse (posshe) 
'push* fr. FR. pousser (==. LAT. 
pitlsarc) 'strike, thrust'. 

put quench 


put vb. ME. pute putte vb. fr. OFR. bouter 'thrust' (cp. OE. 
'throw, push, thrust' OE. (c. 1000) purs 'purse' fr. OFR. borse under 
potian 'thrust'; perh. borrowed \pursc). 

quail sb. ME. quaile fr. OFR. 
quaille = FR. caile 'a quail'; 
cp. IT. quaglia. Source a vulgar 
LAT. quaccola, whence also DU. 
kwakkel = ODU. quackele 'quail'. 

quaint adj. ME. queint, earlier 
form coint (quoint) 'famous, well- 
known, clever, neat, elegant': 
loanword fr. OFR. coint 'neat, 
fine' = LAT. cognitus 'known'. 

quake vb. ME. qudke OE. cwdcian 
vb. 'quake'; cp. OE. cweccean 
'move' ODU. quecken 'shake 
one's head': TEUT. \fqak. 

qualm ME. qualm 'death, pesti- 
lence, torture' OE. cwealm 'death, 
pestilence': derived fr. the TEUT. 
Y~ qel in OE. cwelan ME. qu$le 
vb. 'die'; cp. quell. 

quarrel ME. querele fr. FR. 
querelle = LAT. querela 'a com- 

quash vb. ME. quassJie vb. fr. 
OFR. quasser = FR. casser 'break'; 
source LAT. quassare 'to shake'. 

quaver vb. derived fr. ME. 
qudve (OE. *cwdfian) vb. 'tremble'; 
cogn. w. ME. quappe vb. 'tremble'. 

quay earlier spelling keie late 
ME. keie fr. FR. quai. 

quean ME. qugne OE. cwene 
'woman': perhaps a SCAND. loan- 
word cp. ON. kona G. plur. 

kvenna (= OHG. quena kona, 
GOTH. qin8)\ cp. late OE. cwene- 
fugd\ hen-bird' fr. the equiv. ON. 
kvenfugL There was a genuine 
OE. corresponding cwine 'bad wo- 
man'. The group rests on a TEUT. 
q'endn- 'wife' = ARYAN genet \ cp. 
GR. yvvift SKR. gnd , OIR. ben, 


gena 'wife'. See the following 

queen sb. ME. qufn OE. cwen 
'queen, distinguished lady'; base 
qdni for qdni = GOTH, qens, ON. 
kvdn kucen, OSAX. qudn 'wife': 
TEUT. qeni- = ARYAN, g&ni- (= 
SKR. jdni 'wife') is of the same 
root as TEUT. qenon- (see quean) 
= ARYAN gend. 

quell vb. ME. quelle OE. cwcllan 
'kill': derived fr. the str. vb. OE. 
cwelan ME. qu$le 'die' (cp. qualm). 
They belong to the TEUT. \T$l 
in G. qual - OHG. OSAX. quala 
torment, torture': ARYAN *f gll 
in LITH. gelb 'grief OSLOV. fall 

quench vb. ME. quenche OE. 
cwencean wk. vb. 'extinguish': 
derived fr. OE. d-cwincan 'be 
exstinguished' = OFRIS. kunnka 
Vanish'. It is doubtful whether 
OE. cwlnan 'to be exstinguished' is 

question quoth 

connected with E. quench (DU. 
kuifnen 'wither'). 

question ME. questioun fr. FR. 

quick adj. ME. quick OE. cwicu 
'living, alive' = = OSAX. DU. quik, 
OHG. MHG. quec (G. quecksilber 
'quicksilver' and er quicken .vb. 
'quicken, refresh') G. keck (for 
queck) 'pert', ON. kvikr kykrl 

TEUT. \Tqiq fr- ARYAN V~/ m LAT. 

vivo (vixi-victum-vivere). There 
exists an ARYAN doublet giw in 
GOTH, qius (stem qiwa-) adj. 
'alive* = SKR. flua y LITH. gywas, 
LAT. vivus 'living, alive' (cp. 
GR. jtf/o 'life'). See quitch- 

quill sb. ME. quille = WESTPHAL. 
quiele 'quill': TEUT. base qili-, perh. 
ident. w. MHG. Ml G. Mel 'quill'. 

quilt sb. ME. quilte fr. OFR. 
cuilte = LAT. culcita 'cushion, 

quince ME. coine quine fr. OFR. 
coin FR. coing 'a quince' (the ce 
of modern E. quince belongs prop, 
to the plural). Source LAT. 
cydonia = IT. cotogna, OHG. 
kutina G. quitte, OE. godceppel\ 
DU. /ze>^ ODU. ^2/^r/i corresponds 
to MHG. quiten =- G. quitte. 

quire (of paper) sb. ME. quaer 
quaier 'book' fr. OFK. quaier (DU. 

koMer) IR. cahier 'copy book'. 
Source a late Latin quatcrnum 
'collection of four leaves' (= IT. 
quaderno 'a quire of paper', OE. 

quitch-grass (also quick-grass 
couch-grass) ME. *quicche\ OE. 
cwice 'quitch-grass' answers to 
DU. kweek, LG. queke, G. qiiecke 
'quitch-grass'. The name derives 
fr. TEUT. quiku- 'alive' (under 
quick) , because the weed seems 
not clearable. 

quite adv. ME. quite fr. FR. 

quiver vb. derived fr. the adj. 
ME. quiver, late OE. cwifor 'lively, 
brisk, eagerly'; cp. OFR. quivrer 
vb. 'awaken, encourage'. 

quiver sb. ME. quiver fr. FR. 
cuivre\ ident. w. FR. coivrc cuivre \ 
late Latin base citeurum, whence 
also OE. cocor, OHG. kohhar G. 
kocher 'quiver', DU. koker. 

quoth (yuoth he 'he said') 
3 d sing. pret. = ME. quoth earlier 
quath OE. cwced pret. of ME. 
qu$the OE. cw'idan str. vb. 'say, 
speak' = GOTH, qifian, ON. kveda, 
OSAX.guedax, OHG. quedan 'say': 
ARYAN ^fget (by-form ged in SKR. 
gad 'speak'?). Cp. bequeath 
and bequest* 

rabbit rat 



rabbit cogn. w. ODU. robbe 
robbeken 'rabbit'; perh. identical 
w. DU. rob, G. robbe 'phoca'? 

race 1 ME. rg's OE.r&s? or bor- 
rowed from ON. rds 'a running': 
TEUT. base rha-. 

race 2 'family' fr. FR. race = 
SPAN. PORT, raza] source ARAB. 
rds 'origin'. 

race 3 'root' fr. OFR. ra'is = LAT. 
radix. From the same source 
also radish = DU. radijs (FR. 
radii) . 

rafter ME. rafter OE. rtzfter\ 
formed by suffix -tra- from the 
same root as ON. rdf 'roof and 
OHG. ravo 'rafter'. Cp. the ARYAN 
\f*reph in GR. Igityw opoipog. 

rag ME. ragge (late OE. *ragg 
inferred from the adj. raggi^ 
'shaggy'): borrowed fr. ON. rogg 

rage ME. rage fr. FR. rage = 
LAT. rabies. 

rail 1 ME. rail reil fr. OFR. reille] 
source LAT. regula, whence also 
G. riegel OHG. rigil, ODU. rijchel 
'bar, rail'. 

rail 2 ME. rail OE. hr^l 'a gar- 
ment'; ident. w. OHG. hregil 'a 
garment': TEUT. base hrag(i)la-. 

rain ME. rain rein OE. r'eyi = OHG. 
OLG. regan G. DU. regen, ON. regn, 
GOTH, rigns: TEUT. base regna-. 
Cp. Lith. roke 'drizzling rain'. 

raise vb. ME. reisc borrowed fr. 
ON. reisa 'raise': causal of ON. 
risa GOTH. reisan\ cp. rise. 

raisin ME. reisin fr. OFR. raisin 
'a grape , whence also DU. rozijn, 
G. rosine. Source LAT. racemus 
'a bunch of grapes'. 

rake ME. rdk*, OE. rdca = DU. 
raak\ ident. w. OHG. rehho G. 
rechen, ON. reka: TEUT. base rakon- 
rekon-, derived fr. the str. vb. 
GOTH, rikan 'gather. 

ram sb. ME. OE. ram (mm) OE. 
rom (mm) = OHG. MHG. DU. ram: 
TEUT. base ramma-\ perh. cogn. 
w. ON. ramr 'strong'. 

ramsons ME. ramsen OE. hram- 
san plur. : TEUT. base hramusan- 
also in G. (dial.) ramsen, SWED. 
ramslok 'bear-garlick'; further 
allied to GR. x0c'i <v0 ' 'onion', 
IR. crem CYMR. craf 'garlick', 
LITH. kermusze 'wild garlick'. 

range vb. fr. FR. ranger. 

ransack vb. ME. ransake fr. ON. 
rannsaka prop, 'search the house': 
ON. rann 'house' (= GOTH, razn, 
OE. rcBsn ran cern 'house'); for 
ON. saka see seek. 

ransom ME. raunfoun (DU. rant~ 
soen) fr. FR. ranfon (= LAT. 
redemptio-nem) . 

rap vb. ME. rape 'rush, hasten' 
= ON. hrapa vb. 'hasten'; cp. 
DU. rapen, MHG. raff en 'seize': 
TEUT. base hrapdn. 

rape sb. ME. rape (= DU. raaf) 
fr. LAT. rapa 'turnip'. 

rat ME. rat OE. 'rat (ft) 
G. ratte OHG. ratta t DU. rat rot\ 


rate reave 

ident. w. FR. rat, IT. ratto. History 
of the group unknown. 

rate fr. FR. rate = LAT. ratum. 

rather ME. rather OE. hrador 
prop, 'quicker, sooner': compa- 
rative form of OE. tirade 'quickly'; 
cp. the adj. OE. hreed, ON. 
hradr 'swift', OHG. hrad, DU. rad 
'quick' fr. a TEUT. base hrapa-. 
Akin to OIR. crothim 'I shake'. 

rattle vb. ME. ratele vb.; cp. 
OE. hratele sb. 'rattle wort' and 
"LG.ratelen vb. 'rattle', MHG. ra-Qeln 
G. rasseln vb. 'rattle': TEUT. 

= ARYANy^^r^ in GR. 

(\fkrot in GR. xporaM&iv vb. 

raven sb. ME. raven OE. hrcefn 
= ON. krafn\ cp. OHG. hraban 
G. rafo, DU. raz/: TEUT. base 
hrabna- hrabn-\ perh. fr. an 
ARYAN \fkro : kor in LAT. cor v us, 
GR. xo'(> 'raven*. 

ravish vb. ME. ravisshe vb. fr. 
FR. raviss- in raztfir 'to ravish'. 

raw ME. raw OE. hreaw = OHG. 
hro G. r0/!, DU. rauw, ON. 
: TEUT. base hrdwa-\ perh. 
cogn. w. SKR. krura 'sore' and 
LAT. <rr#<?r 'blood'. 

ray see roach. 

reach * vb. ME. rgche OE. rtztean 
fr. a TEUT. type raikjan in OHG. 
reihhan G. reichen vb. 'reach', DU. 

reach 2 , r*/* vb. ME. 
OE. hracean\ TEUT. \fhrdk in 
OE. hrdca = ON. M*&' 'spittle' 
and OHG. rahhison 'to try to vomit'. 

read vb. ME. r$de OE. rddan 
vb. = ON. rdda 'read'; prop. 

ident. w. GOTH, redan, OHG. rdtan 
G. raten vb. 'advise', ON. rdda 
'counsel, consult*, read meant 
orig. 'to read a riddle' (cp. 
riddle), then 'to interprete the 
runes' (ON. rdda gdtu 'read a 
riddle' rdda drawn 'read a 
dream* rdda rtinar 'read 
runes'). SKR. has a correspon- 
ding \^radh 'perform'; cp. also 
OSLOV. raditi. 

ready adj. ME. r$di (OE. *rddt^ 
extended fr.) OE. r&de 'ready' 
OHG. reiti 'ready'; cp. GOTH. 
gar aids = ON. greidr 'ready'. As 
G. fertig prop, meant 'ready for 
a journey' (G. fahrt), perh. a 
TEUT. base raida- journey' may 
be the source of the group; cp. 
IR. rlid 'passable' and see ride 
and road. 

realm sb. ME. rtalme (rialme) 
fr. OFR. realme (FR. royaume}. 

ream late ME. r$me fr. OFR. 
raime FR. rame\ cp. SPAN, resma, 
ITAL. risma (G. ries) 'ream of 
paper'. Source ARAB, rizma 'a 

reap vb. ME. ripe OE. r top an 
vb. fr. a TEUT.y^r> 'cut' in ripe\ 
cp. OE. r^/^r 'sickle' and see ripe. 

rear vb. ME. rtre OE. rc&ran 
vb. = OHG. reran vb. 'raise' fr. 
a TEUT. base raizjan\ cp. 
and raise for \{~ris. 

rear adj. ME. f/r^ OE. 

reason ME. r$soun earlier reisoun 
fr. FR. raison = LAT. ratio-nem. 

reave (bereave) vb. ME. rf'^<? 
OE. rfafian vb. = OHG. raubon 
G. rauben, GOTH, (bi)raubdn 'de- 

receive -nc 


spoil', OK.raufa (see also robe): 
derived fr. a primitive str. vb. 
OE. bcreofan, ON. rjufa c to break'. 

Cp. SKR.\T/Z//. 

receive vb. ME. receive fr. OFR. 
recever = FR. recevoir. 

reck vb. ME. recke (recche) short 
for OE. recean earlier rdcean\ 
TEUT. base rbkjan in ON. r&kja, 
OSAX. rokian, OHG. ruohhan 'Jiave 
a care for'. 

reckon vb. ME. r<?/^ OE. - 
recenian vb. = OHG. rehhanon 
G. rechnen 'reckon', DU. rekenen\ 
cp. the TEUT. \Tr?/ in OHG. rM 
'subject,, thing*. 

-red suffix in hatred\ cp. OE. 
feondr&den freondraden 'friend- 
ship' (hiwrdden under hind)\ 
orig. -raidin in GOTH, ga-raideins. 

red adj. short for ME. r$d OE. 
r/av/ = TEUT. rauda- in GOTH. 
rrtz^, OHG. rot G. ntf, DU. rood, 
ON. nz^/- 'red'; cp. OE. reodan 
: ON. rjoda vb. 'redden' and 
ruddock (rust). There is a 
corresponding ARYAN y~ r#d^ 
ra*d& in GR. tyvdooc, SKR.rua/iira, 
OSLOV. rudru, LAT. ruber 'red', 
LAT. rufus, IR. r#<?v/. 

reed sb. ME. red OE. &y<w/ 
OHG. hriot G. DU. r/<?/: TEUT. base 

reek sb. ME. rek sb. fr. the vb. OE. 
rfocan 'reek, smoke' = ON. rjiika, 
OHG. riohhan G. riechen\ cp. OE. 
r^T r^, ON. r^r, OHG. rt?^ G. 
rauch, DU. ra?/fc 'smoke' fr. a TEUT. 
base rauki-. 

reel ME. r#* OE. >ir^/; prop. 
*hrcehil fr. a TEUT. base *hranhil 

in ON. /^r^// 'a weaver's rod', 


rehearse vb. ME. rehtrce fr. 
OFR. reherfer. 

rein sb. ME. reine fr. OFR. m^ 
= FR. rfae (cp. ITAL. redina; 
source LAT. refiner e 'restrain'). 

relieve vb. ME. releve fr. FR. 
relever = LAT. relevare. 

rely vb. from LAT. re (as in 
recall, remind, renew) and 
E. lie 'to rest'. 

remnant sb. ME. remenaunt fr. 
OFR. remenant 'remnant'. 

rend vb. ME. rende OE. rendan 
vb. 'tear, lacerate' = OFRIS. renda 
vb. 'tear, break'. 

rennet ' sb. fr. the vb. ME. renne 
'run, make to run'; cp. under 

rennet 2 sb. fr. FR. reinette. 

renounce vb. ME. renounce fr. 
FR. renoncer. renown ME. 
renoun fr. FR. renom. 

rest sb. ME. reste OE. rest'. TEUT. 
base rasti-, cp. OHG. rasta 'rest, 
a measure of distance', GOTH. 
rasta 'a mile', ON. rgst 'a mile*. 
There is a TEUI. \fras in GOTH. 
razn 'house', ON. rann (cp. 

retch vb. see reach*. 

ribb ME. r/'&^ OE. ribb == TEUT. 
r/4/rt- in ON. r//, OHG. r*>//: 
ARYAN \frebh in OSLOV. RUSS. 
rebro 'rib'. 

rhythm see r /#/<?. 

-ric in bishopric ME. bisshop- 
riche OE. bisceoprite\ cp. OE. r/<fc 
'reign' = GOTH. reiki y OHG. r//M/ 


rice rime 

G. reich: fr. TEUT. rik- = GOTH. 
reiks 'king'. 

rice sb. fr. FR. riz (DU. rijst) 
= ITAL. riso, G. rm: source 
GR. o^t'ta 'rice'. 

rich adj. ME. riche fr. FR. riche\ 
ident. w. OE. ride 'powerful', OHG. 
rihhi G. reich, DU. rijk, ON. r/r, 
GOTH, reiks. Originally a deriva- 
tive of GOTH, reiks 'king' under 
ric. riches sb. ME. richesse 
fr. FR. richesse'. derived fr. FR. 
riche TEUT. rlki 'powerful'. 

rick sb. short for ME. rek OE. 
hrjac 'a heap' = DU. rook, ON. 
hraukr (hrokt) c a heap': TEUT. 
base hrauka-, akin to ON. hruga 
'a heap' and IR. cruach 'heap'. 

rid vb. ME. ridde prop, redde 
OE. hreddan = OHG. hrettan G. 
retten'. TEUT. base hradjan from 
an ARYAN \fkrath in SKR. (rathay. 

riddle sb. ME. r idles OE. r#/y 
rcedelse = DU. raadsel, OSAX. 
radisli G. rato/ 'riddle'; cp. OHG. 
ratisca ratussa 'riddle': TEUT. 
\{~rad red under read. 

riddle 2 sb. 'sieve' ME. riddel 
for OE. hridder = OHG. hritara 
G. rVfcr 'sieve': ARYAN \^kri in 
LAT. cribrum 'sieve*, GR. 
and in GOTH, hrai-ns, OHG. 
G. rein 'clean' (prop, 'sifted'?). 

ride ME. ride OE. ridan str. vb 
= OHG. ritan G. reiten, DU. rijden, 
ON. r/^fo: TEUT.\Trf^= pre-TEUT. 
;Y///// in GALLO-LAT. reda 'carriage' 
Vfr&us'hoTse (under/ alfrey) 
and IR. rladaim 1 go'; see ready. 

ridge ME. r$$* OE. ^ry^- (genit. 
hrycges) = TEUT. hrugja- in OSAX. 
hruggi, DU. r^,' OHG. hrucki G. 
rilcken 'back', ON. hryggr'. pre- 
TEUT. krukjo-f cogn. w. IR. crocenn 
sb. 'back'. 

rife adj. ME. OE. rif 'abundant, 
frequent' = ON. rifr 'munificent, 
abundant', ODU. rijf 'copious', 
LG. rive 'abundant'. 

right adj. ME. right OE. riht 
earlier *reht = OHG. OSAX. refit 
G. DU. rechty ON. rlttr t GOTH. 
raihts 'right, straight': TEUT. rchta- 
fr. an ARYAN rekto- (= LAT. rectus 
'right, straight'), prop, participle 
fr. a verbal VV^ 1 in LAT. r eg ere 
'to rule'; cp. SKR. rju 'right, 

righteous transformed fr. ME. 
rightwis OE. rihtwis = OHG. r'eht- 
wis 'knowing the right'; see 

rim sb. ME. rime OE. rima rioma 
'border, margin'; probably cogn. 
w. OE. rand, ON. rond, OHG. rant 
G. DU. rand 'border, margin': 
TEUT. ran-do- for ram-do- (as 
sand for ARYAN samd/w-). Perh. 
rind belongs to the same ARYAN 

rime 1 sb. ME. rim Verse, song' 
borrowed about 1200 fr. OFR. 
rime, whence also MHG. rim G, 
reim, DU. rijm (properly Verse'). 
Source LAT. rhythmus. 

rime- sb. ME. rime OE. hrim =. 
DU. rijm, ON. hrim 'hoarfrost'; 
doubtful, whether OHG. hrlfo G. 
reif, OSAX.' hrlpo, DU. rijp 'hoar- 
frost' are cognate. 

rind roe 


rind sb. ME. rindc OE. rind 
'bark of a tree' fr. a TEUT. base 
rindo- (rendo-) = OHG. rinta G. 
rinde "rind'; perh. cogn. w. OHG. 
rant G. rand and OE. /-#*&/ "border, 
margin' under rim. 

ring sb. ME. ring OE. bring = 
ON. hringr, OHG. Arwsjf r/fl^ G. 
DU. ring: TEUT. base hringa- 
(hrenga-) fr. apre-TEUT.V~ra^ 
in OSLOV. krqgu 'circle' and 
kraglu 'round'. 

ring vb. ME. ringe OE. hringan 
= ON. hringja "ring the bells'. 

rip vb. ME. r#^<r (f u PP f ) OE - 
ryppan = HG. rupfen 'to tear': 
TEUT. base ruppjan\ cogn. w. 
GOTH, raupjan, OHG. rouffen G. 
raufen, OE. rypan repan and perh. 
allied to SKR.V~r*#> 'break'. 

ripe adj. ME. OE. r#te 'mature, 
ripe' = WEST-TEUT. r#>/- in OSAX. 
r^/, DU. rjflfr, OHG. ryjtf G. r<r#~ 
'mature, ripe'; derived fr. the 
TEUT. verbal ^frip 'cut* inE. reap 
and OE. rifter sb. 'sickle'. There- 
fore ripe orig. meant 'cuttable, 
fit for reaping'. 

rise vb. ME. rise OE. rtaw* str. 
vb. = ox. r&tf, OHG. risan str. 
vb. 'to move up, rise': TEUT. 
verbalV"y&, whence also rear 
and raise. 

risk sb. fr. FR. risque = ITAL. 
GERM, risico. 

rive vb. ME. r&<f fr. ON. rlfa 
*tear' = OHG. r^<7 G. rciben, DU. 
gr ate > rub : TEUT - verbal 
in ODU. MLG. wrtven 'rub'. 

river ME. rive'r fr. FR. riviere 
river, stream'; ident. w. ITAL. 

riviera sea-shore: deriv. from 
LAT. ripa 'bank*. 

roach late ME. roche points to 
a FR. source (cp. SWED. rokka, 
DAN. rocke 'roach'); the S)Tion. 
ray goes back to FR. raie = 
LAT. rata "roach 1 . 

road ME. rode "journey, road 
OE. rod 'journey, road* = TEUT. 
base raido- (ON. reid 'riding*) 
fr. the verbal \frid in ride. 

roar vb. ME. rare OE. rdrian 
vb. = OHG. rerfa MHG. reren vb. 
'low, bellow': TEUT. base ratran? 
or raizant 

roast vb. ME. roste fr. OFR. 
rostir = FR. rotir 'roast'. Source 
a TEUT. vb. raustjan = OHG. 
rbsten G. rostcn 'roast'; cp. OHG. 
MHG. rost G. rw/ 'gpridiron, grate'. 

rob vb. ME. robbc fr. FR. robcr. 

robe sb. ME. r$bc fr. FR. wM 
Source a TEUT. sb. rauba- = 
OE. r^T/" 'spoil, clothing', OHG. 
MHG. roup(b) 'booty, spoil*. Cogn. 
w. reave. 

robin = FR. Robin the name 

rock sb. ME. rock late OE. race 
(stdnrocc): borrowed about 1000 
fr. ONFR. roc (FR. roche) = ITAL. 
rocca. Source CELT, rokka-1 

rock 2 vb. ME. rocke late OE. 
roccian 'shake, swing, rock'; cogn. 
w. OHG. ruckan G. rucken> ON. 
rykkja 'to pull roughly and hastily': 

rod ident. w. rood. 

roe l sb. 'a female deer* ME. r? 
OE. rd earliest form rdha = 
OHG. reho: TEUT. base taihan-', 

1 7 6 

roe row 

ident. w. OHG. reh G. reh, DU. 
ree t ON. rd fr. a TEUT. base 

roe 2 sb. 'the spawn of fishes' 
short for late ME. rgune\ properly 
OE. *hrogen = ON. hrogn, OHG. 
rogan G. rogen with the by-form 
OHG. rogo\ TEUT. base hrogna- 

rogue sb. fr. FR. rogue. 

roll vb. ME. rolle fr. OFR. rbkr 
= FR. r outer', source LAT. rotu- 

rood ME. rode OE. n?Y/ (obi. 
r#V&) 'cross', original meaning 
'a rod or pole'. Ident. w. OSAX. 
rdddj DU. roede y OHG. ruota G. 
rute and w. E. rod. TEUT. base 
rddd-y pre-TEUT. rddha- or raid-. 

roof ME. rof OE. ^/: TEUT. 
base hrofa- in ON. ^r0/" 'shed', 
OFRIES. hrdf 'roof, DU. ;w/ 
'cabin'. Perh. allied to roost. 
IR. cro 'roof points to a pre- 
TEUT. form krapo-. 

rook sb. ME. rok OE. hroc = 
ON. hrdkr, OHG. hruoh\ TEUT. 
base hrdka-y pre-TEUT. krdgo-. 

room sb. ME. roum OE. rum = 
OHG. rz/#z G. raum, DU. r//, 
ON. rum 9 GOTH, rums 'room': 
TEUT. ru-ma- fr. an ARYANyVz/ 
in LAT. rus (ruris) 'open country'. 

roost sb. ME. rost OE. Jirost 
= DU. roest l hen-roost', OSAX. 
hrbst 'roof; prop, hrofsta- and 
cogn. w. roofl 

root sb. ME. rote late OE. rot 
borrowed fr. the equival. ON. 
roti TEUT. base wrotd-, cogn. w. 
E. root vb. OE. wrotan 'grub up' 

= ON. rdta 'grub up'; cp. MHG. 
rile'T^el G. russel. 

rope sb. ME. rop OE. rap = 
TEUT. base raipa- in ON. reip, 
DU. reepy OHG. G. r^y'hoop, ring, 
rope'; perh. cogn. w. GR. Qai(j6<; 

rose sb. ME. r$se OE. rose (by- 
form rose) borrowed fr. LAT. 
rosa, ' whence also FR. G. rose 
OHG. rosa. 

rosemary sb. ME. rosmarine fr. 
OFR. rosmarin (FR. romarin) = 
LAT. ros marinus (prop, 'marin 
dew'); cp. G. rosmarin. 

rotten adj. ME. roten = ON. 
rotinn'. partic. of a verbal \/~rut 
reut in OE. rotian, OSAX. rotdn, 
MHG. ro^en vb. 'putrify'. 

rough adj. ME. rough (roiu) 
OE. nih = OHG. ruh G. rctuh 
'rough' (DU. ruig 'rough ): TEUT. 
base ruha- , pre-TEUT. ruko- 9 
cogn. w. LITH. raukas 'wrinkle'? 

round vb. 'whisper' ME. roune 
OE. runian = OSAX. runian, 
OHG. runen G. raunen 'whisper': 
derivative of TEUT. riind- 'secret, 
mystery' under rune. 

round adj. ME. round fr. FR. 
ron4(ovBi roond=^L.A. r Y. rotundus), 
whence also G. rund, DU. rond 

row sb. ME. rowe OE. raw 'row' 
fr. a TEUT. base raiwo- orig. 
raigwo- ; cogn. w. MHG. rilie G. reihe 
'row' and the str. vb. OHG. rihan 
'rank, string': pre-TEUT. \{^rikh 
reikh in SKR. rekhd 'line'. 

row vb. ME. rowe OE. rowan 
= ON. roa, DU. roeijen, MHG, 

rowlock rye 177 

ritejen 'to row' : common base OHG. rinnan G. rinnen str. vb. 
a strong verbal \fro in rudder j 'run'. 

ME. rather OE. radar = OHG. j rune the TEUT. word for the 
ruodar G. ruder, DU. roer 'rudder': j old characters in writing : OE. 
TEUT. base rb-pra-. LAT. r-mus \ ON. nin with the orig. meaning 
'rudder' and GR. t-pt-T/uog belong 'mystery, secret' (GOTH. OHG. 
to the same ARYANV"><? : re. \rund)\ ident, w. OIR. run 'secret'. 

rowlock rollock sb. prop. Cp round vb. for the root, 
'hole for rowing'; cp. G. loch\ rung ME, runge OE. hrung (obi. 
and OE. drloc ME. o'rlock 'hole of hrunge) GOTH, hrugga 'staff', HG. 
oars'. ! LG. runge, DU. rang 'spar, bolt: 

ruddock sb. ME. ruddok OE. j TEUT. base hrungo-. 
rudduc 'red-breast'; cogn. w. | rust ME. rust roust OE. rust fr. 
ruddy ME. r odi rudy (OE. *rudi) 'a TEUT. base rusta~\ ident. w. 
reddish* and OE. rudu 'red ! HG. LG. rost fr. a TEUT. base 
color'; cp. the adj. red. \ rusta- : derived with st formative 

rude adj. ME. rilde fr. FR. rude \ from the ARYAN \frudh (in E. 
= LAT. rudis 'rude'. jred and ruddy), whence also 

rue vb. ME. rewe OE. hreowan \ LAT. robigo Vust' and OSLOV. 
str. vb. = OSAX. hreuwan, OHG. ruzda (for *rudja) 'rust'. 
riuwan G. reuen, ON. hryggva vb. rush sb. ME. russhe OE. r$ste\ 
'distress, grieve': base a strong \ ident. w. LG. DU. rusch 'rush, 
verbal \^/ireuw. Cp. ruth. j reed'. 

rue sb. (a plant) ME. rue fr. j rush vb. ME. rouschc = G. 
FR. rue = LAT. ruta 'rue'. rauschenTMA.G.ruschen y W.ruischen 

rule ME. riule earlier riule fr. ODU. ruuschen, OSWED. ruska 
OFR. reule riule'. source LAT. | 'rush': TEUT. base hruskdnl There 
regula, whence also OE. regal, j occurs also OE. hryscan. 
OHG. regala G. regel, FR. r^/<?. ruth sb. ME. rfuthe: extended 

rump late ME. rumpe\ ident. w. fr. a more primitive sb. OE. 
MHG. G. rumpf, DU. romp 'trunk, j hre'ow; cp. OE. hreowan str. vb. 
body'. i'rud' under rue. 

rumple parallel form to ME. j rye sb. ME. rie OE. ryyi^ TEUT. 
rimple OE. hrympelc and ident. j base #/- in ON. rugr 'rye'; OHG. 
w. ODU. rompel 'ripple': derived rocko G. roggen and OSAX. r^^ 
fr. the TEUT. verbal V" hremp in 'rye' point to a TEUT. parallel 
OE. gefoumpen'wrv&ied and OHG. j base ruggan-. ^ Outside of TEUT., 
rimpfan str. vb. 'wrinkle'. \ OSLOV. ruzt 'rye' (base, rugi-) 

run vb. ME. rinne (part. /w0 and LITH. rugial 'rye' show the 

same base as OE. ry%e and ON. 

OE. (rare) rinnan (mostly yrnan) 


= ON. rinna, GOTH, rinnan run , 


= TEUT. base rugi~. 

i 7 8 

sable sand 

sable sb. ME. sable borrowed 
fr. OFR. sable \ ident. w. MHG. 
G. zobel: source a SLAV, word, 
RUSS. soboli 'sable'. 

sabre saber fr. FR. sabre = 
G. sdbel, SERB. RUSS. sablja, 
HUNGAR. szablya. Source and 
history unknown. 

sack sb. 'bag' ME. sakk OE. 
$<zcc = GOTH, sakkus, DU. zak, 

G. sack OHG. MHG. saC\ TEUT. 

base sakku- borrowed fr. LAX. 
saccus y whence also ITAL. sacco, 
FR. sac. Source HEBR.-Phenic. 

sad ME. .wv/'sad, quiet, serious'; 
the ident. OE. seed 'satiated' corre- 
sponds with OHG. sat G. satty 
OSAX. sad, ON. sadr t GOTH, safs 
'satiated'. There is an ARYAN 
V"V 'satiate' in LAT. satur-satis 
and OIR. sathach 'satiated'; cp. 
GR. a-jLievou 'satiate'. 

saddle ME. sddel OE. sadol = 
ON. sgdully OHG. satul G. sattel, 
DU. zadeli TEUT. base sadula-, 
perh. borrowed from a non- 
TEUT. language which might have 
formed a sb. sadulo- from 'the 
ARYAN \/^sed in sit -- set. 

safe ME. sdf earlier sauf: loan- 
word fr. FR. sauf = LAT. salvus\ 
cp. .ytfz;^. 

sail sb. ME. sail seil OE. se^el 
= OHG. .s^tf/ G. segel, DU. 2^7, 
ON. j^-/: TEUT. base segla-. 

saint sb. ME. seint saint fr. FR. 
saint = LAT. sanctus. 

sake sb. ME. jrf&? OE. 
TEUT. base &zd- in OHG. sahha 
G. sache t DU. oa/$ 'matter, affair'; 
perh. based on the TEUT. verbal 
sakan 'content, rebuke'. 

sale ME. sdle OE. ' sdlu; hence 

sallow sb. ME. salwe earlier 
*salge OE. sealh (*sealg-) = OHG. 
salaha\ TEUT. base salhd-; cp. 
ON. selja 'willow* (base salhjon-). 
Prob. cognate w. LAT. salix (base 
salic-) 'willow' and GR. lA/x^. 

sallow adj. ME. salwe OE. seah 
salo DU. ~,aluwy ON splr Velio we 
ish', OHG. salo 'sallow': TEUT. 
base saliva-. 

salt sb. ME. salt OE. seaU\ TEUT. 
base salta- in GOTH. ON. OSAX. 
salt, OHG. G. salz 'salt'. Cogn. 
w. LAT. sal, GR. A, OSLOV. soli, 
OIR. salann 'salt'. 

salve sb. ME. .$#/?'<? OE. sealf 
(inn. sealfe) = OHG. .wr/fo G. 
M/^, DU. s^^"; cp. GOTH, salbon 
vb. = OE. sealfian E. salve vb. 
Cognate w. the ARYAN y~ s'elp 
solp in SKR. sarpis 'butter' - 
srpra 'fat', GR. shnoc 'oil'. 

same sb. ME. same OE. sam = 
GOTH, sama, ON. samr, OHG. j 1 ^^ 
'the same': pre-TEUT. somo- in 
GR. OJLIOC, SKR. jdfwa 'the same'. 

sample sb. ME. saumple earlier 
asaumple fr. OFR. essemple FR. 
example = LAT. exemplum. 

sand sb. ME. OE. .KZ^/ = OSAX. 
sand, OHG. MZ*/ G. sand, DU 

sap scoff 


ON. sandr : TEUT. base sanda- for j 
samda-, cp. pre-TEUT. samadho-s 
in GR. ci/na&oq 'sand', 
sap sb. ME. sap OE, sap = 

MLG. ODU. Sap, MHG. OHG. saf 

G. .yd// 'sap' : TEUT. base sdpa- \ 
borrowed fr LAT. sdpa 'must'. 

satin sb. ME. satin fr. FR. satin: 
source the vulgar LAT. seta 'silk' 
(in G. seide OHG. sida = OE. 
sid 'silk'). 

Saturday ME. safer day earlier 
Saterndai OE. Sceterndce^ = DU. 
zaterdag, OFRIS. saf ernes dag ,WEST- 
PHAL. Saterdach: adaptation of 
LAT. Saturni dies. Cp. the names 
of the other days of the week. 

sauce sb. ME. saufe fr. FR. 
sauce: source LAT. salsa. Hence 
sausage fr. FR. saudsse. 

savage adj. ME. sauvdge fr. FR. 
sauvage = LAT. silvaticus. 

save vb. ME. save earlier sauve 
fr. FR. sauver = LAT. salvare 
'secure'. Cp. safe. 

savor sb. ME. savour fr. OFR. 
savour = LAT. sapor-em 'taste'. 

saw 1 sb. ME. sawe OE. sage = 
OHG. saga, LG. sage, DU. zaag, 
ON. spg; cp. the ablaut-varia- 
tion OHG. s'e'ga 'saw': derived fr. 
an ARYAN \T sek sok (in LAT. 
secare 'cut'), whence also OE. secg 
'sword' and E. scythe. 

saw 2 sb. ME. sawe OE. sagu 
'saying' = G. sage OHG. saga: 
derived fr. the TEUT. verb sagain 
= OE. secgan ME. sein sain E. 
say and OHG. sagen G. sagen; 
cp. ON. seggja 'say': perh. cog- 
nate w. LITH. satyti vb. 'say'. 

scale 1 sb. 'shell' ME. scdle\ 
loanword fr. OFR. escale FR. e~cale. 
Source OHG. scala under shell. 

scale^ (of a balance) ME. late 
OE. skdle: loanword fr. ON. skdl 
'scale of a balance'; ident. w. 
OHG. os AX. skdla 'bowl'. 

scarce ME. scars fr. OFR. escars 
(FR. Ichors) = ITAL. scar so 
'scarce': source LAT. excarsus = 
excarpsus 'selected'. 

scarlet ME. scarldt fr. OFR. 
escarlate (FR. fear late) ; ident. w. 
G. scharlach, DU. scharlaken (MHG. 
scharldt, ODU. schaerlaet). Source 
PERS. sakirlat. 

scathe vb. ME. scdthe fr. ON. 
skdda'j ident. w. OE. scej>f>an = 
GOTH, skapjan vb. 'harm'. The 
TEUT. y~ 'skap corresponds to an 
ARYAN \fskdth in GR. daxij&tjs 

scatter vb. ME. scatere: loan- 
word of the 12 th century fr. 
ODU. scateren 'scatter'? 

scent vb. properly sent (late 
ME. sent sb. 'scent') fr. OFR. sentir 
'smell' = LAT. sentire. 

school ME. scple OE. seal (infl. 
scole) = OHG. scuola G. schule, 
DU. school: loanword fr. LAT. 
scdla (in a medieval pronun- 
ciation scdla), whence also FR. 
Icole and -ITAL. scuola. 

scissors ME. sisoures fisoures 
fr. OFR. dsoires 'scissors' (FR. 
ciseaux) . 

scoff ME. scof', cogn. w. the 

equiv. OHG. scopf sb. and OFRIES. 

schof\ cp. ON. skopa vb. 'scoff, 

mock'. Source and history un- 



scold see 

known; the E. word probably 
not genuine An^losaxon. 

scold vb. ME. scolde\ cognate 
w. OHG. sceltan G. 9 schelten vb. 
'scold'. Probably the E. word 
is not genuine English, but bor- 
rowed fr. abroad. 

score ME. score late OE. scor 
'twenty': loanword fr. ON. skor 
'notch': source the TEUT. \fskcr 
in shear. 

scorn ME. scorn earliest form 
(about 1200) scdrn: borrowed 
fr. OFR. escarn 'scorn'. Source 
OHG. scern 'mockery'. 

scour vb. ME. scour e. 

scourge sb. 'whip' ME. scourge 
fr. OFR. escurge (whence also 
FR. escourgle icourgie) 'a scourge'. 

scrape vb. ME. scrape fr. ON. 
scrdpa\ cp. MLG. DU. schrapen 
G. schrappen. 

scream vb. ME. scr$me vb. fr. 
ON. skrckma 'to scare, terrify'. 

screw sb. fr. OFR. escroue, mo- 
dern FR. Icrou. 

scribe sb. ME. scribe fr. LAT. 
s crib a. 

scrip sb. ME. scrippe fr. ON. 

scurf ME. late OE. scurf bor- 
rowed fr. ON. skurf (= SWED. 
skorf, DAN. skurv) ; cp. OHG. 
scorf G. schorf, DU. schurft 'scurf. 
TEUT. \^skerf skorf in OE. sceor- 
fan 'to scrape'. 

scuttle sb. ME. OE. scutel 'a 
dish, bowl'; identical w. OHG. 
,cu%ijla G. schiissel, DU. schotel, 
ON. skutell 'dish'. Source LAT. 
scutula scutella. 

scythe ME. 'sithe OE. sife sj%pe 
'sickle' = ON. sigdr 'sickle': 
Teut. base sigipja-, derived fr. 
a TEUT. \fseg in OHG. segatisa G. 
sense 'scythe'; cp. saw. 

sea ME. j/ OE. see] ident. w. 
GOT. saiwsj ON. seer, OHG. OLG. 
seo G. see DU. zee', base saiwi-. 

seal 1 sb. ME. s$l fr. OFR. seel FR. 
sceau. Source LAT. sigiUum. 

seal 2 (the animal) sb. ME. s$le 
OE. seolh (pi. seolas) = OHG. 
selah, MLG. sel 9 ON. selr\ Teut. 
base selha-. 

seam sb. 'suture' ME. sem OE. 
scam = ON. saumr, OHG. MHG. 
soum G. saum DU. zoom : Teut. 
base sau-ma- t derived from the 
same root as the vb. sew. 
seampstress ME. semster OE. s/a- 
mestre'a woman who sews seams'. 

sear 'withered' ME. s$r OE. s$ar 
= DU. zoor 'dry', OHG. sor. 

search vb. ME. serche (erche 
vb. fr. OFR. cere her ( FR. 
chercher). Source LAT. circare. 

season sb. ME. sfaoun (seisoun) 
fr. OFR. seson FR. saison'. source 
LAT. satio-nem '(time of) sowing'. 

seat sb. ME. sfie borrowed fr. 
ON. sati 'a seat': derivative of 
the TEUT. \^set in sit and set. 

sedge sb. ME. segge OE. secgi 
j Teut. base sagja- also in ODU. 
MLG. segge. ^fsah sag in OHG. 
sahar 'sedge'. Perh. cognate 
with a reduplicated GALLO.-LAT. 
si-sc-a 'sedge' = IR. seisg. 

see vb. ME. se OE. seon con- 
tracted for *sehan = OHG. OLG. 
s'ehan G. sehen DU. zien\ WEST- 

see sew 


TEUT. sehan = GOTH sai/van. 

TEUT. \fsehw = ARYAN \fseq 

in LAT. sequi, GR. snsodca, SKR. 
sac 'follow'. The original mean- 
ing of the TEUT. verb probably 
was 'to follow with the eyes'. 

see sb. 'seat of a bishop' ME. 
se fr. OFR. se 'seat' = LAT. sede-m 

seed ME. sed (s$d) OE. sed sdd 
OHG. sat G. saat, DU. zaad 
(GOTH, seps in manaseps 'man- 
kind') : Teut. base se-di-: for 
\^se cp. sow. 

seek vb. ME. seke OE. secan 
(secean) = GOT. sokjan, ON. ja^/tf, 
OHG. suohhan G. suchen, DU. zooken. 

TEUT. \T J<? = ARYAN \T Jd^ 

in OIR. sdigim 'I seek' (LAT. 

seethe vb. 'boil' ME. sethe OE. 
seodan str. vb. ON. .f/tfdtf, 
OHG. siodan G. sieden, DU. zieden. 
In GOTH., we find only the deri- 
vative .ra#/.y sb. 'sacrifice' (prop. 
'a burnt-offering'). TEUT. \fseup 

= ARYAN \^SCUt. 

seldom adv. ME. seldom prop. 
selde(ri) OE. seldan adv. = ON. 
sjaldan, OHG. ^7/^ G. selten, DU. 
zelden adv. Cogn. w. GOTH. #///<&- 
/^j 'wonderful'. 

self pron. ME. OE. set/= OHG. 
selb G. j^j/, DU. ^^, ON. sjalfr, 
GOTH. silba\ Teut. base selba-. 

sell vb. ME. selle (pret. sflde) 
OE. j<?//ar (pret. sdlde) 'to give' 
== GOTH, saljan 'to bring an 
offering 1 , ON. sdja 'to hand over', 
MHG. sellen. 

selvage, selvedge cp.thesynon. 

DU zelfkant, G. (dial.) self-end 
and LG. egge\ therefore selvedge 
compound of self and edge, per- 
haps in imitation of early DU. 

send vb . ME. sende (prt. sente) 
OE. sendan (prt. sende) wk. vb. 
= GOTH, samljan, ON. senda, 
DU zenden, OSAX sendian, OHG. 
sentan G. senden. Derived fr. 

GOTH. '/, OHG. '//, OE. ^// 

'journey' == OIR. j# 'way' (ARYAN 
base w/^- sb. sontejo vb.). 

sennight prop, 'seven night' 
OE. seofon niht\ cp. fourtnight. 

sermon ME. sermoun fr. FR. 

serve vb. ME. serve borrowed in 
the 12 th cent. fr. FR. servir (== 
LA.T.servire). Derivative servant 
ME. servaunt fr. FR. servant and 
service ME. servise fr. FR. service 
(LAT. servitium). 

set vb. ME. sette OE. ^//a wk. 
vb. = GOTH, satjan, ON. setja, 
DU. s<?//^, OSAX. settian, OHG. 
sezzan G. setzen'. TEUT. satjan 
causal vb. to .ri^Vw = ^^. 
settle vb. ME. setle OE. W//MT* 
'to fix': derived fr. OR. setl 'a 
seat'; cp. GOTH, sitls, OHG. se-gal 

G. 5^W^/. 

seven num. ME. seven OE. seofone 
prop. ^^/<? = GOTH. OHG. sibun 
G. ^ DU. zeven. Oldest Teut. 
form septun in Lex SaHca.^ Ident. 
w. LAT. septem, GR. Inrof, SKR. 

sever vb. ME. 5<??^r^ fr. OFR. 
sevrer = LAT. separare. 

sew vb. ME. jffctf OE. seowian 


shackle shaw 

siwian] cp. GOTH, siujan, ON. 
syja, OHG. siuwan 'to sew': TEUT.- 
ARYAN \^slw in LAT. suere, SKR. 
sto 'to sew'; cp. seam. 

shackle sb. ME. sc hackle OE. 
scedcol 'a bond'; ident. w. ON. 
skgkull 'pole of a carriage'. TEUT. 
\{~* skak in shake. 

shad sb. ME. schaddeov. sceadda. 
Perhaps an orig. TEUT. skadan- 
'herring' is found in Scadin-avia, 
if it originally meant 'herring's 
isle'. Cp. yet IR. GAEL, sgadan 
'herring' . 

shade, shadow ME. schdde shad- 
we OE. sceadu obi. sceadwe'. Teut. 
base skadwa- in DU. schaduw, 
OHG. skato gen. skatwes, G. schatten, 
GOTH, skadus] cogn. w. OIR. scdth 
'shadow': pre-TEUT. \f* skat. 

shaft sb. ME. schaft OE. steaft 
= os AX. shaft, OHG. scaft G. 
schaft, ON. skapt\ TEUT. skafta- 
prop. a 'shaven' pole; cp. shave 
and GR. axJjnTpov 'staff, sceptre' 
oy.dnrov 'staff'. 

shag 'rough hair' OE. sdeacga 
'hair'; cogn. w. ON. skegg 'beard'. 

shake vb. ME. schdke OE. s cede an 
str. vb. = ON. skaka\ cp. OSAX. 
skakan 'to go away'. 

shall vb. ME. schal (prt. scholde] 
OE. steal (prt. steolde) = GOTH. 
skal (skulda], OHG. seal (scolda} 
G. soil (solte), DU. aw/, ON. skal. 
Cogn. w. LITH. skele-ti 'to be 

shallop see sloop. 

shallow ME. schalwe 'not deep' 
with the byform ME. sch$ld\ not 
found in OE. -nor in the other 

TEUT. languages. Base skal-wa- 

shambles ME. schdmel 'bench' 
OE. steamol 'stool': borrowed fr. 
LAT. scamellum , whence also 
OHG. OSAX. scamal G. schemel. 

shame vb. ME. schdme OE. scedmu 
= OSAX. skama, OHG. scama G. 
scham\ cp. GOTH, sik skaman 'to 
shame' = OE. stedmian. 

shank vb. ME. schankeos. scean- 
ca\ cp. G. schenkel 'shank' fr. a 
lost OHG. *scenkil. Cogn. w. G. 
schinken 'ham' OHG. scinko 'shank', 
which is perh. a doublet by the 
side of OE. steanca. 

shape vb. ME. schdpe str. vb.; 
ident. w. OE. scieppan = GOTH. 
(ga)skapjan 'to create', OHG. seep- 
fan 'to create' (G. schaffen) : TEUT. 

share sb. 'part'oE..svrV#>&; cogn. 
w. shear. 

share sb. 'plough-share' ME. 
schdre OE. scedru = OHG. scara 
G. pflugschaar'. TEUT. \^sker 'cut' 
in shear. 

sharp adj. ME. scharp OE. scearp 
= ON. skarpr, DU. scherp, OSAX. 
sharp, OHG. scarf G. scharf adj. 
'sharp'. TEUT. verbal \f skerp in 
OE. sceorpan str. vb. 'to scrape'. 

shave vb. ME. schdve OE. scedfan 
str. vb. = GOTH, skaban, ON. 
skqfa, OHG. scaban G. schaben, DU. 
sc haven 'to shave' : TEUT. \f skab 
cogn. w. LAT. scabere 'to shave' 
and prob. w. GR. o/.dmco to dig'. 
Cp., jAtf/V. 

shaw ME. schawe OE. steaga 
'thicket, small wood'; ident. w. 

shawm shield 


ON. skagi 'promontory' and cogn. 
w. ON. skogr 'wood' and MHG. 
schache 'piece of wood'. 

shawm ME. schalmy borrowed 
fr. FR. (dial.) chalemie, whence 
also G. schalmei\ standard FR. 
chalumeau fr. a LAT. type cala- 

she ME. sche\ functionally cor- 
responding to OE. heo (fern, of 
he), but phonetically to OF. seo 
(fern, of the article se = the]. 

sheaf sb. ME. schtf OE. steaf: 
TEUT. base skauba- in ON. skauf, 
OHG. scoub, DU. schoof. Cogn. w. 
OHG. scobar G. schober 'rick' (of 
corn). All derivatives of the 
Teut. \^skub in shove with the 
orig. meaning 'things shoved 

shear vb. ME. schfre OE. steran 
str. vb. = OHG. sceran DU. G. 
scheren, ON. skera : ARYAN \f~sklr 
in LITH. sklr-ti 'separate', cogn. 
w. \(~*ker in GR. xeiptiv 'shear'. 

sheath vb. ME. sch$tJie OE. sdedf 
obi. scedpe'. fr. a TEUT. skaipjo- 
in OSAX. skedia, OHG. sceida G. 
scheide, DU. scheede'. orig. meaning 
'that which separates'. Cogn. 
w. shed vb. ME. sch(de OE. sded- 
dan GOTH, skaidan with the 
by form OSAX. skedan = OHG. 
sceidan G. scheiden 'to separate': 
TEUT. \f skaifi skaid, which is 
compared to GR. tf///j', SKR. 
?/foV/, LAT. scindere 'to cleave, cut' 
(ARYAN ^skhidt). See j^/W^. 

sheen sb. (prop, adj.) ^ ME. 
schene OE. j^'^ (scyne) adj. 'fair' 

= OSAX. OHG. J>&frw DU. 

G. ^^/?, GOTH, skauns: TEUT. 
base skau-ni-, verbal adj. 'to be 
looked at' fr. ^skau in show. 

sheep sb. ME. schep OE. .w^ 
(scedp) = OSAX. j^, DU. schaap, 
OHG. ^4/ G. j^^: Teut. base 
skepa- (skdpa-). 

sheet sb. ME. schete OE. scete 
(scyte), umlaut-deriv. of OE. sf/at 
Yold of a garment' = GOTH, skauts 
'hem of a garment', OHG. SCOT, G. 
schoss 'bosom, lap'; OE. scyte re- 
presents a TEUT. type skautjon-* 
TEUT. \(^skeut in shoot. 

shelf ME. schelve OE. ^^ = 

MLG. ODU. W^f, OHG. ^r^; cp. 

ON. Hlid-skjalf. 

shell sb. ME. schelle OE. ^^// 
obi. ^W/<?: TEUT. type skaljb- in 
DU. schel, ON. ^/ 'shell' and in 
GOTH, skalja 'a tile'; cogn. w. 
OHG. scala G. schale 'shell'. 

shepherd sb. ME. schepherdtt. 
scfy-hyrde prop, compound of OE. 
seep 'sheep' and OE. hyrde E. herd 
'one who tends a herd'; cp. 
GOTH, hairdeis, OHG. hirti G. ///>'/<? 
and see herd. 

sheriff sb. ME. schertfe earlier 
schir-rfve OE. stir-ier{fa\ \^ part 
of the OE. compound see under 
shire\ OE. ^ere.fa E. reeve is 
derived fr. TEUT. rbba rdfa = 
OHG. ruoba ruofa 'number'? 

shide sb. ME. schide OE. sttd = 
ON. j>6/V/, OHG. scit G. j^'/ 'thin 
board'; ident. w. OIR. sciath 
'shield' (ARYAN base skeito-). 
Cogn. w. sheath. 

shield sb. ME. schfld OE. stcld 
(byform siild) : TEUT. base skeldu* 

1 84 

shift shop 

in GOTH, skildus = ON. skjgldr, 
OHG. stilt, DU. G. schild. Perh. 
cogn. w. LITH. skeliu I split'. 

shift vb. ME. schifte OE. self tan 
'to divide' = ON. skipta, DU. 
schiften 'to divide'. 

shilling sb. ME. schilling OE. 
stilling = GOTH, skilliggs, ON. 
shilling, OHG. OSAX. stilling G. 
schilling'. TEUT. base skUlinga- 
more orig. skellingo-, perh. akin 
to OHG. .?<?//# G. schelle 'bell'. 
The common Teut. name of 
the coin properly meant 'the 
tinkling money' (for the suffix 
-ing in names of coins set penny 
and farthing). 

shimmer vb. ME. schimere OE. 
scimorian\ deriv. of OE. scima 
'light' = GOTH, skeima 'light'; 
cp. G. schimmern aside of OHG. 
scimo 'light'. Cp. shine for the 

TEUT. \fskl. 

shin (shin bone) sb. ME. schine 
(schinebon) OE. scina (scinebdn) 
= OHG. scina (MHG. schinebein) 
G. schiene (schienbein), DU. scheen 
(scheenbeen). OE. j^ 'shin' shows 
evidently the more primitive 
root-form ski: separate OE. OHG. 

shine vb.ME. schine OE. scinans\x. 
vb. = GOTH, skeinan, ON. JV&/720, 
OHG. OSAX. skman G. scheinen, DU. 
schijnen'. all equivalent. TEUT. 
ski-na-n rests on a y~ j as 
shown by OE. sci-ma OHG. sci-mo 
GOTH, skei-ma light'. 

shingle sb. ME. schingel\ ap- 
parently identical w. G. schinde* 
OHG. stintulq (loanword fr. LAT. 

scindula, by form tfscandula 'shing- 
le'); but the phonetic anomaly 
is not yet explained. 
ship sb. ME. schip OE. scip = 

GOTH. ON. OSAX. skip, OHG. stif 

. schiff: common Teut. base 
skip a-. 

shire sb. ME. schlre OE. sclr 
(obi. scire) = OHG. skira 'pro- 

shirt sb. ME. schirte pointing 
to an OE. *scyrte\ deriv. fr. the 
adj. OE. sceort = short, as 
shown by G. schurz 'shirt' aside 
of MHG. schurz 'short'. ON. skyrta 
= OE. *scyrte represents a TEUT. 
type skurtjon-, but OE. sceort a 
base skorta-. See short. 

shoal 'crowd' ME. schole OE. 
sceolu = OSAX. skdla 'troop'. 

shock vb. ME. schocke fr. FR. 
chequer 'give a shock'. 

shock sb. ME. schocke 'heap 
of corn'. OE. *sceocc is lost, 
but inferred from MHG. schoc 
'heap' schocke 'shock'. Cogn. 
also w. MLG. hocke 'shock of corn'. 

shoe sb. ME. scho OE. sceoh 
(pi. sceo-s for *scohas) : Teut. 
base skoha- in GOTH, skohs, ON. 
sko-r, OHG. scuoh G. schuh, DU. 
schoen. Perhaps derived fr. a 
TEUT. V" skeJv ske(g)w in GOTH. 
skewjan ON. skdva 'to go'. 

shoot vb. cp. ME. schote vb. 
OE. sceotian 'to dart', derived fr. 
the primitive ME. schete OE. sceo- 
tan = ON. skjota, OSAX. skeotan 
OHG. scioi^an G. sc hies sen, DU. 
schieten'. TEUT. \/~skeut : skut. 

shop sb. ME. schoppe OE. sceoppa 

shore shut 


'booth', hut'; cognate w. OE. 
scypen 'shed for cattle', G. schopf 
schuppen 'shelter'. 

shore sb. ME. schore: fr. the 
TEUT. Y~ ' sker 'shear, cut'. 

short adj. ME. schort OE. sceorf. 
base skorta-\ cp. OHG. scurz fr. 
a base skurtu-\ loanword fr. LAT. 
*ex-curtus, as LAT. curtus is pre- 
served in G. OHG. kurz 'short', DU. 
kort, ON. kortr (see kirtle for 
OE. cyrtel and shirt for G. 

shot sb. ME. schot OE. lesdeot 'a 
missile': deriv. from the TEUT. 
^skeut skut in shoot. 

shoulder sb. ME. schulder OE. 
stuldor\ cp. DU. schouder , G. 
schulter (OHG. scultirrd). 

shout vb. ME. schoute. 

shove vb. ME. schouve OE. 
sdiifan = ON. sktifa, DU. schuiven: 
ident. w. GOTH, skiuban, OHG. 
scioban G. schieben'. TEUT. \fsMb 

ARYAN \fskllbh\ SKR. \{~ k&lbll 

'to be agitated' seems to be 
cognate. shovel^o. ME. schovel 
OE. ftfe^f; cp. DUJ schoffel and 
OHG. scufala G. schaufel. 

show vb. ME. sch$we late OE. 
lescfawian 'to show'; the corre- 
sponding OE. scfawian means 
'to look, behold' and is iden- 
tical with the equival. OHG. 
skouwon G. schauen DU. schouwen'. 
TEUT. \fskau sku (see sheen] in 
GOTH, skuggwa 'looking glass'. 
Cogn. w. the ARYAN \T^ W ^^ 
in LAT. <m>m? 'to take care', 
GR. xofTi/ 'to beget'. 

shower sb. ME. schour OE. stur 

= GOTH, skura 'storm', OHG. 
sciir G. schauer, ON. skur. 

shred sb. short for ME. schreih 
OE. scrfad (obi. sdrfade) 'shred, 
piece'; cp. OE. scr$adung 'shred' 
and strfadian 'to pare' : TEUT. 
\l^skraud in OHG. scrotan 'to cut, 
pare'; perh. cogn. w. shroud. 

shrew sb., shrewd adj. fr. 
ME. schrgwe sb. 'bad person' 
schr$wed adj. 'wicked, bad'; 
the corresp. OE. strfawa means 
'shrew-mouse'. Origin and history 
of the group unknown. 

shriek vb. ME. schrike (OE. 
sfrictan) \ cogn. w. shrike sb. 
OE. sdrii 'a bird's name'. Cp. 
ON. skrikja 'to titter'. 

shrine sb. ME. schrin OE. sdrin\ 
ident. w. OHG. scrmi G. schrein, 
DU. schrijn'. loanword fr. LAT. 
scrmium, whence also ITAL. scrig- 
no y FR. tcrin. 

shrink vb. ME. schrinke OE. 
(for}strincan str. vb. = ODU. 
schrinken\ cogn. w. SWED. skrynka 
'a wrinkle': TEUT. \fskrcnk. 

shroud sb. ME. schroud OE. 
sdr&d 'garment' = ON. sknid 'or- 
nament, dress'. See shred. 

shudder vb. ME. schudere (OE. 
*studorian) = LG. schuddern 
(whence G. sckaudcrn) , DU. 
schudden 'to tremble'; cp. OHG. 
scutison 'to shudder'. 

shun vb. ME. schune OE. stunian 
wk. vb. 'to avoid, abhor' ; perh. 
deriv. fr. a TEUT. \fsken 'to flee 
away' in ON. skynda 'to hasten , 
OHG. scuntan 'to urge on'. 

shut vb. ME. schutte OE. sdyttan 


shy sin 

DU. schutten 'to shut in, to 
block up': Teut. base skutjan 
cogn. w. shuttle sb. ME. schitel 
OE. stytels 'bar, bolt' : Teut. base 
skutisla-y \f^skeut skut in shoot. 

shy adj. ME. schey OE. sdeoh 
(*sceog-) 'timid' = MHG. schiech 
(G. scheu), DU. schuw: Teut. base 
skeoha- skeuha- , whence OHG. 
sciuhan 'to frighten (G. scheuen). 

sick adj. short for ME. sek OE. 
seoc = GOTH, sinks, ON. jyV^r, 
os AX. siok, OHG. jwA G. siech, 
DU. /<?>: TEUT. seuka- adj. 'ill, 
sick' by the side of the str. vb. 
GOTH, siukan 'to be ill', whence 
the verbal noun GOTH, satihts, 
OHG. suht 'illness'. 

sicker (Scotch) adj. ME. siker 
OE. sicor = OHG. sihhur G. sicker, 
OSAX. ,nw, DU. zeker'. loanword 
(Teut. base stkura-) fr. LAT. 
securus, borrowed during the first 
centuries of the Christian era. 

sickle sb. ME. sikel OE. sicoli 
borrowed fr. LAT. secula, whence 
also OHG. sihhila G. sicheliyo. sikkeL 

side sb. ME. side OE. side (obi. 
sldan) ON. wVfo, OHG. M/0 G. 
seite, DU. szyVzfc: Teut. base sid- 
jbn- y perh. connected w. OE. sid 
adj. 'long, wide' = ON. sidr 
'hanging down'? , 

siege sb. ME. sege fr. FR. siege. 

sieve sb. ME. sive OE. sife (oldest 
form sibt) = OHG. sib G. siefy, 
DU. zeef 'a sieve': Teut. base 
sibi-, connected w. the vb. sift. 

sift ME. sifte OE. siftan = DU. 
ziften, LG. (G.) sichten 'to sift'. 
There exists a TEUT. \Ts$fo in 

OE. seon OHG. J^A^ G. seihen 'to 
filter, strain', the guttural of 
which may have changed to a 
labial (sif for sitt). 

sigh vb. ME. j/^-^ points to 
an OE. *sthhlan\ cogn. w. the 
equivalent ME. sike OE. sican. 
The root sik sihh looks like 

sight sb. ME. sight earlier ME. 
sighthe OE. lesihf: deriv. of the 
TEUT. \{*sehr in see. 

sign sb. ME. signe fr. FR. signe. 

silk ME. silk OE. stole fr. an 
earlier *siluc\ cogn. w. ON. silkii 
source LAT. sericum (whence 
also OIR. siric and OSLOV. selkU 

sill sb. ME. sille OE. syll obi. 
sylle : Teut. base suljo- borrowed 
fr. LAT. solea 'sole of the foot', 
whence also GOTH, sulja 'sole 
of a shoe'. ON. syll is an OE. 
loanword. Cp. sole. 

silly adj. ME. sely OE. seli^ 
(sczli^) 'happy, fortunate' = OHG. 
saltg G. selig, DU. zalig 'blessed': 
secondary extension to GOTH. 
sels 'good' = ON. sail 'happy' 
(cp. OE. sal sb. 'happiness'). 
TEUT. \^sel. 

silver ME. silver OE. siolfor = 
GOTH, silubr, OSAX. silubar, OHG. 
silabar G. silber, DU. zilver , ON. 
silfr\ ident. w. OSLOV. strebro 
RUSS. serebro, LITH. sidabras. 
Source and history uncertain. 

sin sb. ME. sinne OE. synn obi. 
synne'. base sunjb- for an earlier 
sundjb- in OHG. suntea G. siinde, 
OSAX. sundia, DU. zonde', cp. yet 

since skew 

i8 7 

ON. synd fr. a base sunidjo- (the 
dentals are suffixal). Cogn. 
w. LAT. sons (sont-is) 'guilty'. 

since with the more original 
byform (Shakesp.) sithmce ME. 
sithcns prop, sithen OE. sifipan\ 
the additional s of the ME. form 
is of adverbial origin (cp. once, 
twice). The orig. OE. form was 
sifi-fian (cp. the identical GOTH. 
fiana-seifis 'later') , resting on 
the OE. adverb sip 'later', which 
is a comparative to GOTH, seipiis 
'late'. ON. sidan corresponds to 
OE. sifij>an\ cp. OHG. sid G. sett 
= OE. sif 'later'. 

sinew sb. ME. sinewe OE. (sionu 
pi.) sioneowe, which results fr. a 
Teut. base sinewd- or senewo-', 
cp. ON. sin, OHG. senawa G. | 
sehne, DU. zenuw. cogn. w. SKR. 
sndva 'sinew' or w. GR. Jvtg 

sing vb. ME. singe OE. singan 
str. vb. = OHG. OS AX. singan 
G. singen DU. zingen ; oldest Teut. 
form GOTH, siggwan (= ON. 
syngva): all synonymous. TEUT. 
+f sengw sangw is related to 
GR. f)f.i(pii 'speech, oracle': 
ARYAN V~ senghw. The cor- 
resp. causal is represented by 
singe ME. senge OE. sentgean fr. 
a Teut. ground-form sang(w)jan 
= OHG. sengan G. sengen 'to 
singe' prop, 'to make to sing'. 

sink vb. sinke OE. sincan str. 
vb. = OHG. sinkan G. sinken DU. 
*/>&<?; oldest form GOTH, sigqan 
(= ON. sokkva) : TEUT. \fscnkw 
'to sink'. 

sip vb. ME. sippe\ deriv. fr. OE. 
sype 'absorbing', which is verbal 
noun to OE. siepan\ see sup. 

sir, sire ME. sire fr. FR. sire, 
whence also ON. sira. sirrah, 
spelt in 1 6 th cent, sirrha serrha, 
points to orig. sir, ah or sir, 

sister sb. ME. sister is regarded 
as a distinctively Scand. loan- 
word fr. ON. systir. The OE. 
equivalent sweostor swustor ME. 
suster is not responsible for the 
modern phonology. The Teut. 
base is swestr- swistr-\ cp. GOTH. 
swisfar, OHG. swester G. schwester, 
DU. zuster. The t of the com- 
mon Teut. word is excrescent. 
Aryan base swesr- (nom. swcs&r) 
in SKR. svasr, LAT. soror (for 
*svesdr), LITH. ^J/2 'sister'. 

sit vb. ME. sitte OE. sittan str. 
vb. = DU. zitten, OSAX. sittian, 
OHG. .tf&ftZ* G. ^'/2:^: WESTTEUT. 

^V^ fr. TEUT. sitjan (= ON. 
sttja); cp. GOTH. jiAi: strong 
verbal \fsetsat (whence a causal 
vb. satjan under set), ARYAN 
^fsed in LAT. sedeo, GR. to.i 
(tdog 'seat'), SKR. \T^^/ 'to sit', 
OSLOV. j/f//, LITH. sesti. Cp. 
settle and J^?/. 

six ME. OE. ^ fr. a TEUT. 
^ GOTH, saihs, OHG. OSAX. 
^j G. seeks, DU. 0tt, ON. ^^: 
ARYAN seks in LAT. J^, GR. ; 
cp. SKR. Ajr/. 

sketch sb. : : DU. schets, G. 
^m^ borrowed fr. ITAL. schizzo. 

skew vb. late ME. skfwe 'to 


skill sleight 

slip away'; cp. ODU. schouwen vb. 
'to shun'? 

skill sb ME. skil 'reason' bor- 
rowed fr. ON. skil 'discernment' 
(skilja vb 'to separate'). 

skin sb. ME. skin late OE. skinn 
borrowed fr. ON. skinn, which 
arises fr. a Teut. base skinfa-, 
whence derived OHG. scintan G. 
schinden wk. vb. 'to skin'. BRET. 
scant 'scale' rests on an ARYAN 
s fonto-. 

skirmish sb. ME. scarmisshe fr. 
FR. escarmouche', cp TTAL. scara- 
muccia, G. scharmutzel. The group 
rests on OHG. scirman (G. schir- 

skirt sb. ME. skirt fr. ON. skyrta 
'a shirt'; further relations see 
under kirtle and shirt. 

skull sb. ME. sculle (scolle). 

sky sb. ME. skle borrowed fr. 
ON. sky 'cloud'; not found in 
OE. (but OSAX. skion). 

slack adj. ME. slak OE. slac 
'languid, slothful' : = ON. slakr, 
OLG. slak, OHG. slah 'slack': Teut. 
base slaka-. Hence slake 
vb. ME. slake OE. sldcian 'slacken'. 

slaughter sb. ME. slaughter', bor- 
rowed in i I th cent. fr. ON. sldtr. 
or its oldest form *slahtr. Der. 
fr. the TEUT. y~ 'slah in slay. 

slave sb. = DU. slaaf\ loan- 
word fr. FR. esc lave, whence also ( 
G. sklave. Source ITAL. schiavo 
'slave' = GR. ' Ertxhaptjvoi 'the 
Slavonians, Slaves'. 

slay vb. ME. sl$ (part, slain) 
OE. si (an (part, sleeken) str. vb. 
= GOTH. OHG. OSAX. slahan (G. 

schlagen) , DU. slaan , ON. sld: 
TEUT. \T$lah sldh = ARYAN sldk\ 
cp. slaughter and sledge. 

slay sb. (a weaver's reed) OE. 
sle^e 'percussorium' cogn. with 
the TEUT. \(* slah = slay vb.; 
ON. sld 'bar, bolt'. 

sled short for ME. sfy'de', bor- 
rowed fr. ON. sledi 'a sledge'; 
corresponding to OHG. slito G. 
schlitten, DU. slede 'sledge'. The 
group rests on the TEUT. \f~ slid 
in slide. 

sledge-harnmer ME. slegge OE. 
slecg (obi. sledge) sb. 'sledge- 
hammer': Teut. base slagjo- 
deriv. fr. ^ slah in slay, cp. 
ON. sleggja, DU. slegge slei 'mallet'. 

sleek adj. ME. silk borrowed 
fr. ON. slik-r 'sleek, smooth' (= 
DU. slijk): TEUT. \f slik in OHG. 
slihhan G. schleichen. 

sleep vb. ME. slepe (slcpe] OE. 
slepan (sl&pan) str. vb. = GOTH. 
slcpan (pret. saizlty), OSAX. slafan, 
DU. slap en, OHG. sla/an G. schlafen. 
Cogn. w. G. schlaff OHG. sldf 
lax, loose, remiss'. TEUT. \/~slap 
= ARYAN \f^ slab perh. in LAT. 
labi 'to slide'. 

sleet sb. ME. slet\ OE. *slct (*slyt) 
not found; umlaut-relation to 
MHG. slb^ (G. schlosse 'hail): 
Teut. base slauti-, whence also 

DU. sloot, FRIES, slat. 

sleeve sb. ME. sieve OE. slefe 
(slyfe)'. Teut. base slaubjo(n-) in 
ODU. sloove 'veil'. 

sleight sb. ME. sleighte earlier 
ME. slehpe\ borrowed fr. ON. slcegd 
'slyness', which is abstract for- 

slice slow-worm 


mation to the adj. sly = ME. 
sleh ON. slcegr. 

slice sb. ME. sllfe fr. OFR. esc lice 
a shiver, splinter' ; source the 
TEUT. \l~sllt in slit. 

slide vb. ME. slide OE. slidan 
str. vb. = MHG. sliten 'to slide'; 
TEUT. \^slid under sled\ ARYAN 
\(~ slidh in LITH. ^//V///^ 'slipper' 
(cp. OE. slidor 'slippery'). 

slight adj. ME. slight; OE. *sliht 
not found, but may be inferred fr. 
the corresp. GOTH, sfaffas'smootti, 
OHG. f/l&'smooihj flat' (G.schkcht 
'bad' schlicht 'simple') , DU. slecht y 
ON. j////r 'flat, smooth': Teut. 
base sleh-ta- prop, slih-ta- fr. the 
verbal \f"sltk in j /<?/ (ON. *///r 
'sleek, smooth'). 

slime sb. ME. OE. slim = OHG. 
MHG. J/&B G. schleim, DU. J/^VH, 
ON. J///0 : Teut. type sli-ma- fr. 
an ARYAN \f sli, whence also 
LAT. li-mus 'mud'. 

sling vb. ME. slhige str. vb. 
(OE. *slingan not recorded) 'to 
fling' = ON. slyngva str. vb. 'to 
cast, fling'; cp. MHG. sttnge sb. 
'sling', DU. slingeren vb. 'to toss' 
and OHG. slingan 'to swing'. 
TEUT. \f slengw (slenhwl). 

slip vb. ME. sltppe OE. *slyppan 
belongs to the str. vb. OE. slupan 
'to glide' = DU. shiipen 'to 
sneak'; cp. GOTH, sliupan str. 
vb. 'to slip' and OHG. slupfan G. 
tchlupfen 'to slip': Teut. verbal 
^sl&pj perh. related to LAT. 
lubricus 'slippery'. 

slit vb. ME. stttte deriv. fr. ME. 
slite OE. slitan str. vb. 'to slit'; 

I cp. ON. slita, OSAX. slitan str. vb. 
'to slit', DU. slijten, OHG. sli-^an 
G. schleissen : TEUT. \fslti 'to tear'. 

sloe sb. ME. sty OE. sld (infl. 
sld-n) t prob. contracted fr. OE. 
*sldhe (infl. *sldhan) = OHG. 
sleha G. schlehe\ cp. DU. .$&<?, 
SWED. j/, DAN. slaaen 'sloe' and 
QK.sldh-forn 'black-thorn'. Doubt- 
ful whether LITH. slyvas 'plum' 
and OSLOV. RUSS. sliva 'plum' 
are cognate. 

sloop sb. fr. DU. sloep\ source 
FR. chaloupC) whence also E. 
shallop = G. schaluppe. 

slot sb. 'bar, bolt' late ME. slot 

= DU. LG. slot, OHG. slo^ G. 

schloss] derived fr. the TEUT. 
\f slut 'shut' in DU. sluiten, LG. 
sluten, OHG. slioT^an G. schliesscn 
(cp. G. schlilssel OHG. shvyjl = 
OSAX. slutil 'key'). TEUT. \fslut 
rests on an ARYAN \T ^/M, 
cogn. w. LAT. claudere 'shut'. 

sloth sb. ME. slouthe with abstr. 
suffix fr. the adj. slow, cp. the 
umlaut-relation OE. slawp ME. 

slough sb. 'mire* ME. slough OE. 
sigh 'mire'. 

slow adj. ME. slow OE. slaw 
= OSAX. OHG. sleo 'blunt', DU. 
sleeuw 'sour', ON. sljor 'blunt': 
Teut. base slaiwa-, perh. cogn. 
w. LAT. laevus 'left', GR. leau*$. 

slow-worm sb. prop. ME. slo^ 
worm slo-wurm OE. sld-wyrm 
'blindworm'; ident. w. SWED. 
sld (ormsla), NORWEG. slo (ormslo) 
'blindworm'. Not compounded 
with slow OE. slaw, but resting 

sluice smelt 

on a TEUT. slatha- 'blindworm'; j 
cp. LITH. slekas, PRUSS. slayx\ 

sluice sb. = DU. sluts, G. ! 
schleuse'. source OFR. escluse (FR. I 
Icluse) fr. a low Lat. type ex- \ 
cltisa 'a floodgate'. 

slumber vb. ME. slomere fre- 
quentative of ME. sloume vb. 
'slumber', derived fr. the sb. 
OE. slu-ma 'slumber'; cp. DU. 
sluimen simmer en ^ LG sliimeren 
(G. schlummerri) vb. 'slumber 1 . 
OE. slu-ma sb. 'slumber' rests on 
an ARYAN \fsltt in GOTH, slawan 
'to cease, be silent*. 

sly adj. ME. sli (sly)' prop. sUi 
slei (Orrm sleh under sleight) : 
borrowed fr. ON, slagr adj. 'sly, 
cunning'; ident w. the non-um- 
lauted DU. sluw LG. slu (G. schlau), 
SWED. DAN. slug. As seen by 
G. verschlagen 'sly', the adj. 
rests on the TEUT. \T slah in | 

smack 1 sb. 'taste' ME. smak \ 
OE. smczc sb. = DU. smaak\ OHG. 
(gi)smah\ cp. the vb. OE. sm&ccan 
'to taste' = ODU. smaken OFRIES. 
smakia'y cp. OHG. s mac ken smecken 
G. schmecken 'to taste'. WEST- 
TEUT. \/~smak smakk. 

smack 2 (Shakesp.) sb. 'a loud 
kiss' cp. G. schmatzen fr. MHG. 
smatzen prop, smacketzen , LG. 
smacken 'to smack the lips'. 

smack 3 sb. (a fishing-boat) 
fr. ODU. MLG. smacke (DU. smack}, 
whence also the equivalent G. 
schmacke, FR. semaque, ITAL. semac- 
ca, SPAN, zumaca. Source and 

history of the group unknown. 
It is doubtful whether late OE. 
snacc ON. mekkja (kind of ship) 
is cognate. 

small adj. ME. smal (infl. smale), 
OE. smcel (infl. smala): Teut. adj. 
smala- in GOTH, smals, OHG. OSAX. 
smal G schmal. ON. small = 
OHG. smala-no^ smala^ vihu 
'sheep points to GR. /urjXov 
'sheep' and OIR. mil 'beast' ,* cp. 
also OSLOV. malu. 

smallage sb. prop, small 
ache\ ME. ache is FR. ache 'pars- 
ley'. Source LAT. apium 'pars- 

smalt sb. fr. DU. smalt =. G. 
schmalte, FR. smalt', source ITAL 
smaltOy which is of Teut. origin 
(cp. MHG. smelzen G. schmelzen). 

smart vb. ME. smerte OE. smeor- 
tan : a Teut. strong vb. = OHG. 
smerzan 'to smart'; cp. DU. smart 
sb. = OHG. smerzo G. schmerz 
sb. 'pain' : TEUT. y~ smert pre- 
TEUT. sm'erd cogn. w. LAT. mordere 
'to bite', GR. ffjLiBptiateog. 

smear vb. ME. sm/re vb. fr. 
the sb. OE. smeoro = ON. smjpr 
'butter', OHG. OSAX. smero: ARYAN 
^fsmer also in GOTH, smair-fr 
'fatness' and in LITH. smarsas 
'fat' and OIR. smir 'marrow'. 

smell sb. ME. smel cogn. w. 
smoulder vb. ME. smolder e vb. 
'to burn with a stifling smoke'; 
cp. the sb. ME. smolder 'a stifling 
smoke' and the vb. DU. smeulen 
'to smoulder' = LG. smcelen. 

smelt vb. not found in OE. 
ME. (see meli)\ borrowed fr. 

smelt sneeze 


SWED. smdlta = DAN. smelte, DU. 
LG. smelten , OHG. smelzdn G. 
schmelzen 'melt'; cp. ITAL. smalto 
= FR. Imail 'enamel'. The TEUT. 
\l"smelt is probably connected 
w. \fmelt under melt. 

smelt sb. (a kind of fish) ME. 
OE. smelt \ ident. w. DAN. DU. 
smelt', cp. NORW. smelta (name 
of various kinds of small fish). 

smile vb, ME. smile (OE. *smy- 
Jan?); cogn. w. the non-umlauted 
MHG. smielen smieren 'to smile' 
and the frequentative E. smirk 
OE. smearcian 'smile'. 

smirch vb. 'to besmear' deri- 
vative of smear. 

smirk see under smile. 

smite vb. ME. smite OE. smttan 
str. vb. = GOTH, smeitan, DU. 
smijten, LG. smtten, OHG. smii^an 
G. schmeissen 'to cast':. TEUT. 
\(~smit 'strike, beat, smear'. 

smith vb. ME. smith OE. smifi 
= ON. smidr, DU. smid, OHG. 
smid G. schmied\ cp. GOTH, aiza- 
smipa 'coppersmith'; cogn. w. 
OHG. str&dagismidiTSBG. geschmeide, 
DU. gesmijde. The dental is for- 
mative. There is an ARYAN 
\{~ smi in GR. a/ni-hi] Of.iivvrj. - 
Smithy sb. seems to be the 
SCAND. smidja (= OE. smifipe, 
OHG. smitthd). 

smock sb. ME. smok OE. smocc 
'smock, frock, shirt' = ON. smokkr\ 
cp. OHG. smocko 'shirt': deriv. 
fr. the TEUT. \^ smug in OE. 
smugan, ON. stnjuga 'to creep 
through a hole', MHG. smiegen 
G. schmiegen. ARYAN \fsmuk in 

OSLOV. smykati s$ 'to creep', LITH. 
smukti 'to glide'. 

smoke sb. ME. smoke OE. smoca 
sb. 'smoke'; cogn. w. OE. smlt 
'smoke' .(base smauki-) and the 
str. vb. OE. smeocan 'to smoke'; 
cp. DU. smoken (base *smuk$n) 
and smook sb. (base *smauki-) : 
TEUT. \T sm&kj perh. cogn. w. 
LITH. smaukti 'to choke'. 

smooth adj. ME. smpthe late 
OE. smod with the umlauted by- 
form OE. smede\ MLG. smode re- 
presents an OSAX. *smothi fr. a 
Teut. base smanpi-. 

smother sb. ME. smorther (fra- 
being an abstract suffix); OE. 
smorian 'to choke, suffocate' = 
DU. LG. smoren G. schmoren 'to 
stew'. smoulder vb. ME. 

smolder e vb. rest on ME. smolder, 
which is ident. w. ME. smorther. 

siml sb. ME. snail OE. snce^li 
Teut. base snagla-\ cp. MHG. 
snegelj ON. snigill 'snail'; cogn. 
w. OHG. sriecko G. schnecke (LG. 
snigge), ME. snegge. 

snake sb. ME. snake OE. sndca; 
cp. the equiv. ON. sndkr sndkr, 
LG. snake. Teut. ^fsnak in OHG. 
snahhan 'to creep'. 

snare sb. ME. snare borrowed 
fr. ON. snara 'a snare , halter J 
ident. w. OHG. snar(a}ha OE. 
snearh 'noose, snare' fr. a Teut. 
base snarhbn-\ cp. the str. vb. 
OHG. sner(a)han MHG. snerhen 'to 
bind tightly'. Probably cogn. 
w. OHG. snuor G. schnur 'a lace, 
cord' (GOTH, snorjo). 

sneeze vb. ME. j#* (OE. snfo- 

I Q2 

snipe sole 1 

san)\ ident. w. neese ME. nese 
= ON. hnjosa and w. OE. fneosan. 

snipe sb. ME. snipe', ident. w. 
ON. myri-snipa 'a moor-snipe' and 
cogn. w. the equiv. OHG. sn'epfa 
G. schnepfe DU. ^/?^> j#7)* (ITAL. 
sgneppa is of Teut origin). 

snite see under snot. 

snore vb. ME. snore vb. with 
the frequentative snort ME. snorte\ 
cogn. w. G. schnarchen, DU. snorken 
snurken 'to snore, snort'. 

snot vb. ME. snot OE. lesnot 
'mucus of the nose' = DU. snot] 
cogn. w. snout sb. ME. snoute 
= ODU. sniite DU. snuit and w. 
snite vb. ME. snite OE. snytan = 
ON. sn'yta 'to wipe the nose'. Cp. 
G. schnautze, schndutzen. 

snow sb. ME. sngw OE. sndw 
= GOTH, snaiws, ON. .ra^r j#/0r, 
DU. sneeuw, OHG. .$72<?<? G. schnee: 
Teut. base snaiwa-, derived fr. 
the ARYAN \/~snigh in OHG. sniwan 
G. schneien, OE. sniwan 'to snow' 
LAT. ningere, LITH. /?', 
AVEST. js 'to snow'; cp. GR. 
vi ff -a 'snow' and LAT. nix niv-em, 
IR. snechta CYMR. nyf 'snow'. 
LITH. sricgas and OSLOV. sntgu 
'snow' correspond completely to 
TEUT. snaiwa- fr. snaigwa-. 

so adv. ME. so' prop, sivo OE. 
swd = GOTH, swa, ON. svd (OHG. 
so DU. zoo). Cp. the derivative 
such and MHG. j&tf (G. sonst), 

DU. 2J. 

soap sb. ME. sfpe OE. j^^ 
OHG. seiffa G. j^: Teut. base, 
saipon-. Whether LAT. sapo(nem)\ 
= FR. savon, ITAL. sapone are in 1 

any way related with the Teut. 
word-group, is uncertain. 

sob vb. ME. sobbe (OE. *sobbtari) : 
frequentative of a TEUT. y~ siib in 
OHG. siift 'a sigh, a sob' siifhbn 
(G. seufzen) 'to sigh'. 

sock sb. ME. sock OE. .ftw: loan- 
word fr. LAT. soccus (= FR. sorqiUj 
ITAL. socco) , whence also OHG. 
MHG. .sw, ON. sokkr. 

sod sb. ME. j^: probably 
borrowed fr. MLG. ^^f, which 
corresponds to OFRIES. ^MiZ 
'sod, turf: Teut. base saupon-\ 
perhaps related to seethe. 

soft adj. adv. ME. softe short for 
OE. softe adv. by the side of the 
umlauted adj. OE. sefte\ ident. w. 
OSAX. safti adj. safto adv. = 
OHG. senfti adj. samfto adv. 
(G. sanft sacht, DU. zachi). 

soil 1 sb. 'ground' ME. soile fr. 
OFR. soel = FR. sueil'. source 
LAT. solea. 

soil 2 vb. 'to defile* ME. soile fr. 
FR. souiller. 

solace sb. ME. solds fr. OFR. 
solaz =. LAT. solatium. 

soldier sb. ME. soudiour properly 
souldicr fr. OFR. soldier (vR.solddf). 
Source OFR. soulde 'pay for soul- 
diers', whence DU. G. sold. Source 

LAT. SOMUS (= ITAL. Soldo 9 FR. 

sou) 'piece of money'. 

sole 1 (of a shoe) sb. ME. s$le 
OE. sole = OHG. sola G. sohle, DU. 
zool\ Teut. base sola, borrowed 
fr. a LAT. type *sola, represented 
by FR. sole, ITAL. suolo, SPAN. 
sue la 'sole of a shoe'. The vul- 

sole 2 sound- 


gar -L AT. sola has supplanted 
LAT. solea, whence GOTH, sulja 
'sole' is borrowed. 

sole 2 (a flat fish) ME. sole fr. FR. 
sole', ident. w. sole 1 ', cp. LAT. 
solea 'sole-fish'. 

some pron. ME. sum som OE. sum 

= GOTH. J&W.y, ON. JZ/wr, OHG. 

sum'. ARYAN base w/00- in GR. 
afiodet', SKR. .$#///#. 

son sb. ME. sone sum OE. sunu 
= GOTH, sunus, ON. j&Tzr, OSAX. 
.y#/z#, OHG. sun G. J0^# DU. 00#: 
Teut. base sunu-. An ARYAN base 
sunu- is evident in SKR. sunu-, 
OSLOV. synu, LITH. sunus 'son'. 
Cogn. w. GR. viog 'son' fr. an 
ARYAN base suyu- and w. OIR. 
suth 'foetus'. There occurs also 
a SKR. y~ * 'to beget, bear, 
bring forth'. 

song vb. ME. OE. song: Teut. 
base sang(w)a- also in GOTH. 
saggws, ON. spngr, DU. zang, G. 
w^. Cp. . 

soon adv. ME. sdne OE. sona\ as 
shown by GOTH, suns-am 'soon, 
OE. son-a is a compound of OE. J0 
( OHG. OSAX. sdn) and d (= 

GOTH. 02/ OHG. 20); Cp. OHG. J^r 

sdr-io and GOTH, j/w 'soon'. 

SOOt Sb. ME. OE. SOt = ODU. 

sort, ON. J0/J derived fr. the 
TEUT. \fstt 'sit, set' ; cogn. w. 
OIR. suide (base *sodid), LITH. 
.ftta&j, OSLOV. sazda 'soot'. 

sooth adj. 'true' ME. soth OE. sop 
fr. a Teut. base ^/- - ON. 
sannr , OHG. sand, OSAX. soth] 
cogn. w. GOTH, sun/is ({oi*sundja-). 
TEUT. ja/- answers to SKR. sat, 


which is participle of the ARYAN 
^es 'to be' (SKR. dsti, GR. sffn, 
LAT. est, G. isf) with the suffix 
-ont- in GR.' fpf oovr- (cp. tooth). 
GOTH. jMtt/ft' 'true' corresponds to 
SKR. satyd 'true'. 

sore adj. ME. sor OE. ^r fr. a 
TEUT. adj. sai-ra- in ON. sdrr, 
OHG. j^ir, DU. aw 'sore, wounded'; 
cp. GOTH, jdr/r- sb. 'pain', OHG. 
j^r (G. versehren vb. 'to hurt'). 
Cogn. w. LAT. sae-vus 'wild' and 
OIR. sai-th 'pain'. Cp. sorry. 

sorrel (plantname) fr. OFR. 
sor el (FR. surelle), which is de- 
rived fr. FR. sur 'sour' = OHG. 
sur (see under sour). 

sorrow sb. ME. sorwe OE. sorg 
infl. j^r^: Teut. base ^r^- in 
GOTH, saurga, OHG. .w G. ^r^r, 
DU. zorg, ON. wr^: ARYAN \fscrgh 
in LITH. $##!*' 'to heed' 
slrgti 'to suffer'. 

sorry adj. ME. sgrj OE. jrfrij 
earlier sdrei : Teut. base sair-ag-, 
deriv. fr. TEUT. j<w>fl- = = sore. 

sot sb. ME. sot late OE. (c. 1000) 
sott', borrowed fr. FR. sot, whence 
also DU. zot and MHG. sot', cogn. 
w. IR. suthan 'a dunce'. 

soul sb. ME. soule prop, smile 
OE. sdwol infl. *fce//<? : TEUT. saiw- 
alo- in GOTH., saiwala, OHG. j# 
(for *stwld) G. J^/<P, OSAX. w/tf, 
DU. ^/V/. Cp. GR. ioAo 'movable . 

sound 1 adj. 'healthy' ME. w// 

prop, isound OE. ysund = OSAX. 

gisund, OHG. ^w/_ G. gesund, 

DU. gezond', probably cognate w. 






sound speak 

sound (of the sea) 2 sb. ME. 
sound OE. sund\ the original 
meaning of the OE. word is 'a 
swimming* which affirms connec- 
tion w. swim: Teut. base sunda- 
(ON. sund) for *swumda~. 

sound 3 sb. 'a noise' ME. soun 
fr. FR. son: source LAT. sonus. 

sound 4 vb. fr. FR. sender. 

sour adj. ME. sour OE. sur = 
ON. surr, DU. zuur, OHG. sur G. 
sauer\ ARYAN base suro- in LITH. 
suras, OSLOV. syru 'raw, rough'. 

source sb. ME. sours fr. FR. 
source (deriv. fr. LAT. sur g ere). 

south sb. ME. south OE. sup = 
ON. sudr, DU. zuidi Teut. base 
sunp- in OHG. sundan 'from the 
south' (= OE. sudan, ON. sunnan). 
Probably allied to GR. rorog 
(for *<fyoiOff) 'south-wind'. 
southern ME. sothern OE. suderne 
corresponds to OHG. sundrbni 
= ON. sudrcenn. 

sow 1 vb. ME. j{7o/ OE. sdwan 
str. vb. = GOTH, saian, ON. ^, 
DU. zaaijen, OSAX. sdjan, OHG. .?#<?# 
G. sden = ARYAN verbal y^ .$<? 
in LAT. .rm? (ground-form *siso) 
-sevi-satum, OSLOV. st-ti, LITH. 
seti 'sow' and in LAT. se-men = 
OHG. sd-mo G. .ftzatti. Cp. j^*/. 

sow 2 sb. ME. sowe earlier suwe 
suge OE. sugu. Cogn. w. TEUT. 
su 'sow' (under swine) and w. IR. 
j4r 'a pig. 

space sb. ME. spdfe fr. OFR. 
espace\ source LAT. spatium. 

spade sb. ME. spdde OE. spddu 
infl. spddan\ ident. w. ON. spadi y 
DU. ^^, OSAX. spado, G. spaten\ 

cogn. w. GR. tfTraSri 'a blade of 
wood or metal'. 

span vb. ME. spanne OE. spannan 
str. vb. OHG. spannan G. DU. 
spannen 'to extend'. 

span-new adj. ME. span-newe 
fr. ON. spdn-nyr\ ON. spdnn (cp. 
spoon) means 'a chip, shaving'. 

spar ' sb. ME. sparre (cp. the vb. 
OE. tyspearrian 'to shut, bar') = 
OHG. sparro (whence G. spar r en) 9 
DU. spar, ON. sparri: Teut. base 

spar 2 sb. OE. spcer-stdn\ cp. G. 

spar 3 vb. ME. sparre fr. OFR. 
esparer = FR. Sparer. 

spare adj. ME. spar infl. ^rf;v 
OE. spcer (infl. *spdrd) in the 
compound spcer-hende (original 
meaning 'having spare, thrifty 
hands') and in the vb. spcrutn 
'to spare'. Teut. base spara- in 
ON. sparr, OHG. spar (G. j/ar- 
sam) ; cp. ON. spara, OHG. spar on 
G. sparen 'to spare'. Outside 
of TEUT., OSLOV. jr/^zrz/ 'thrifty' 
and GR. (lnaQVQ$ rare, lacking' 
are cognate. 

spark sb. ME. sparke OE. spear ca: 
Teut. base sparkon- in DU. spark, 
LG. sparke', cogn. w. LAT. jr/r- 

sparrow sb. ME. sparwe OE. 
spearwa = GOTH, sparwa : Teut. 
base sparwan-\ cp. OHG. sparo 
(G. Sperling). 

speak vb. ME. sp(ke OE. specan 
str. vb. = OHG. spehhan with 
the byforms OE. sprecan = OHG. 
sprehhan G. sprechen, DU. spreken t 

spear spit 1 


OSAX. sprekan\ WEST-TEUT. strong 
verbal V sprlk'. splk, perhaps 
connected w. ON. spraka 'to 
crackle' and LITH. sprageti 'to 
crackle'. See speech. 

spear sb. ME. spfre OE. spere\ 
ident. w. ON. spjgr, OHG. sper 
G. DU. speer and cogn. w. LAT. 
sparus c a dart'. 

speck vb. ME. specke OE. specca 
'a spot, mark'; cp. DU. spikkel. 

speech sb. ME. speche OE. (rare) 
spec (spcec) with the common 
byform OE. sprdc\ Westteut. base 
spdki- spraki-\ derived fr. \^spek 
sprek in speak. 

speed sb. ME. OE. sped pro- 
perly OE. speed fr. a Teut. base 
spo-di- in OSAX. spod 'success', 
DU. speed 'speed', OHG. spuot 
'success' (whence G. sputen 'to 
make haste') : verbal abstract to 
the str. vb. OE. spowan 'to suc- 
ceed' OHG. spuon 'to succeed', 
which are cognate w. OSLOV. i 
spejati 'to succeed', SKR. sphay 
'to increase': ARYAN \{~sph spho. 

spell sb. ME. OE. spel (infl. 
spell-) 'story, saying' (see also 
gospel) GOTH, spill 'tale, 
myth', ON. spjall 'a saying', OHG. 
spel 'a narrative' (DU. spellen vb.) : 
Teut. base spella-, assimilated 
for sqedlo-y pre-TEUT. sq-etlo- = 
OIR. sell, CYMR. chwedl 'a story'. 
Derived from the ARYAN \^seq 
'to say, tell' (cp. say)', ARYAN 
suffix -etlo- as in GR. ^/rAoi>. 

spell vb. ME. spelle 'syllabi- 
care' (Orrm spelldrenn 'syllabi- 
care'); not found in this mean- 

ing in OE. Cognate w. OFR. 
espeler = FR. epeler 'to spell'. 

spelt sb. OE. spelt = DU. spelt, 
OHG. spelta spelza: loanword fr. 
late LAT. spelta (= IT. spelta, 
FR. epeautre). 

spend vb. ME. spende OE. *spendan 
(in the sb. spending and in the 
compounds d-,for-spendari) : loan- 
word fr. LAT. dispenderevb. 'spend', 
whence also G. spenden OHG. 

spew vb. ME. spewe OE. spiwan 
= OHG. OSAX. spiwan G. speien, 
GOTH, speiwan str. vb. (ON. spyja, 
DU. spuweri) : strongverbal \{~spiw 
as in LAT. spuere, LITH. spiauti 'to 
spew'; cp. the cognate \/~pju 
in GR. nrvziv, OSLOV. pjutil 

spice sb. ME. spice fr. OFR. 
espice (FR.) = LAT. species. 

spider sb. ME. splther in Kent, 
for spinder OE. ^ spinner e\ derived 
fr. spin. 

spike sb. ME. spik 'an ear of 
corn' fr. LAT. spfoa. 

spill vb. ME. spille late OE. spillan 
fr. ON. spilla ; ident. w. OE. spildan, 
OHG. spildan 'to spill': Teut. base 

spin vb. ME. spinne OE. spinnan 
str. vb. = GOTH. OHG. spinnan, 
G. DU. spinnen, ON. spinnai all 
equivalent. The str. vb. TEUT. 
spinnan rests on a y~ #> in 
spindle ME. OE. spinel = OHG. 

spirit see sprite. 

spit 1 sb. ME. J//& OE. spttu 
'roasting spit' = = OHG. spi^, DU. 
spit (ITAL. ^//!?, FR. ^/> repre- 


spit 2 spur 

sent a TEUT. spitus) ; derived fr. | 
the TEUT. adj. spitu- in OHG. 
spitzi G. spitz. 

spit 2 vb. ME. spate G&. iespyttan\ 
ident. w. ON. spytta with the by- 
form sp$ta, LG. spy ten, G. speutzen', 
see spout. 

spite sb. ME. ^// for */<?##; 
see despite. 

spleen sb. fr. LAT. (GR.) splen. 

split vb. Scandin. loanword; 
cp. DAN. splitte\ cogn. w. DU. j 
splijten = MHG. splt^en G. spleissen 
(whence G. splitter). 

spoil vb. ME. spoile fr. FR. .^0- 
//<?r (LAT. spaliare). 

spoke sb. ME. sp$ke OE. spdca 

= OSAX. .$^0 DU. .J^/fc, OHG. 

speihha G. speiche. All equivalent; 
Teut. base spaikon-. 

sponge sb. ME. sponge fr. OFR. 
esponge (FR. tponge) ; source LAT. 
spongia, whence also OSAX. spunsia 
DU. spans. 

spool sb. (not found in ME. 
OE.) loanword fr. DU. spoel\ ident. 

W. OHG. SpUOlo G. Spule (iTAL. 

spuola is of TEUT. origin) : Teut. 
base spolon-\ doubtful whether 
cogn. w. spin. 

spoon sb. ME. OE. span fr. a 
TEUT. spanu- (spenu-} in OHG. 
span 'a chip, splint', DU. DAN. 
spaan 'a chip', ON. spdnn sponn 
'a chip' (cp. span-new). Cogn. 
w. MHG. spd-t 'a chip': \f"spe. 

sport sb.' for disport as spend 
for dispend\ ME. disporte vb. fr. 
OFR. se desporter 'to amuse one- 
spot sb. ME. spot pi. spottes\ 

not found in OE. (where splat 
pi. splottas 'a spot 1 ); cp. ODU. 
spotte DU. j/0/ 'a blot'. 

spouse sb. ME. spouse fr. OFR. 
espouse (FR. tpouse) ; source LAT. 

spout vb. ME. spoute\ cogn. w. 

sprat sb. ME. ^r<?/ (pi. sprottes) 
OE. j^r^/ (pi. sprottas)\ cp. MLG. 
5^r^?/ G. sprotte, DU. ^/r<?/. 

sprawl vb. ME. sp^aule OE. 
spreawlian fr. a TEUT. sprauwalon. 

spread vb. ME. ^r/<& OE. (j<?)- 
spreedan 'to extend' = OHG. G. 
spreiten, DU. spreidcn\ deriv. fr. 
the str. vb. OHG. spritan 'to be- 
come extended'. 

spring str. vb. ME. springe OE. 
spring an = OSAX. OHG. springan, 
ON. springa (ITAL. springare is a 
TEUT. loanword) : TEUT. ^spreng 
sprang, perhaps related to GR. 
ffntpxtofrat 'to make haste'. 

sprite sb. ME. sprite fr. FR. 
esprit', ident. w. spirit. Source 
LAT. spirit us. 

sprout vb. ME. sproute (OE. 
*$prutari) = DU. spruiten, LG. 
spruten, OFRIES. spruta 'to sprout'; 
cp. G. spriessen'. TEUT. \fsprut 

spur sb. ME. spure OE. spur a 
(spora}\ ident. w. OHG. spar a (G. 
sporn), DU. spoor, ON. spori (ITAL. 
sprone FR. tperon are of TEUT. 
origin) : Teut. base spur on- sporon-. 
\^sp9r in OHG. OSAX. OE. spur- 
nan 'to kick against' under spurn 
and in G. spur DU. spoor OE. spor 
'a foot- track'. 

spurge stammer 

spurge sb. short for ME. spourge : 
loanword fr. OFR. espurge (source 
LAT. expurgare). 

spurn vb. ME. spume OE. spur- 
nan str. vb. c to kick against' = 
OHG. OSAX. spurnan 'to kick 
against': ARYAN \^sp9r in LAT. 
sper-nere 'to despise', LITH. spfrti 
'to kick against', GR. orraioeiv, 
SKR. sphur. Cp. spur. 

spy vb. ME. sple fr. OFR. e spier, 
which is of Teut. origin: OHG. 
spMn G. spiihen, ODU. spien 
(ARYAN <fspek in LAT. conspicio, 
speculum, SKR. \fspaf). 

square sb. ME. square fr. OFR. 
esquarre 'a square'. 

squire sb. ME. squire = es- 

squirrel sb. ME. squirel forscure'l 
fr. OFR. escurel (== FR. faureuit) ; 
source a LAT. type scurellus 
(scuriolus) for LAT. sdurus 'a 

stable 1 sb. ME. stable fr. OFR. 
estable (= FR. ttable)', source 
LAT. stabtilum 'abode, stable'. 

stable 2 adj. ME. stable fr. OFR. 
estable = LAT. sta bills 'stable'. 

staff sb. ME. staf (pi. staves) 
OE. staf (pi. stdfas) = ON. stafr, 
DU. staf, OHG. G. stab; cp. OHG. 
staben 'to be stiff' and the adj. 

EASTFRIES. Staf 'stiff', also LITH. 

stebas 'staff' stdbas stobras ', SKR. 
\{~stabh 'be stiff'. 

stag sb. ME. stagge late OE 
j/dg 'a stag'. 

stage sb. ME. stage fr. OFR 
/dv? FR. Itage LAT. type 

stain sb. ME. j/^ fr. OFR. 
desteindre = LAT. dis-tingere. 

stair ab. ME. j/> properly 
sttier OE. steeper = ODU. OLG. 
steger DU. stdger 'stair': WEST- 
TEUT. ground-form staigir, deriv- 
ed fr. the Teut. verbal \T ^ in 
OE. stigan, OHG. stigan G. steigen, 
DU. stijgen 'to climb'; cogn. w. 
GR. nnl/tir 'to march' , SKR. 
'ascend' (cp. LAT. ve-stigium 
a foot-track'). 

stake sb. ME. j/tfi OE. ^c^z 
= ODU. stake DU. ^^7^, SWED. 
stake', cp. OFRIES. j/!0 'stiff, G. 
stachel 'a prick, goad'. 

stalk 1 sb. ME. stalke, a dimin. 
form with suffixed k of ME. stale', 
cp. OE. stela, ON. j///-r 'a stalk', 
OHG. G. stil, also GR. OTffaov 'a 

stalk 2 vb. ME. stalke', k is a 
frequentative suffix; cp. OE. sty I" 
Ian 'to leap' (OE. *stealciari). 

stall sb. ME. j/0/ OE. steall fr. 
a Teut. base stalla- in ON. jAz//;-, 
OHG. stal G. j/f///, DU 1 . stal 'stall, 
stable' (ITAL. j/tf//<? 'place' stalla 
'stable' are of Teut. origin). 
ARYAN base stadhlo- in LAT. 
stabulum 'stable'. 

stallion sb. ME. stalloun fr. 
OFR. estalon (FR. Italoti) = ITAL. 
Stallone', of Teut. origin (TEUT. 
stalla- 'stable' under stall). 

stammer vb. ME. stamere deriv. 
fr. OE. stdmor adj. 'stammering'; 
cp. DU. stamercn-stamclen, OHG. 
stamalon; \T stam in ON. j/t/wr 
'stammering' stama vb. 'to 

stammer', OHG. stamtn 'stammer'; 

stamp state 

cp. also GOTH, stamms 'stam- 
mering'. Cogn. w. os AX. OHG. 
stum G. stumm 'dumb'. 

stamp vb. ME. stampe (E. *stam- 
pian) = DU. stampen, QUG.stampfon 
G. stamp fen (ITAL. stamp are FR. 
Hamper are of TEUT. origin) : 

TEUT. \/~Stamp COgll. W. GR. (JTfU- 

fistv 'to stamp'. 

stanch, staunch^, wz.staunche 
vb. fr. OFR. estancher. 

stand vb. ME. stande OE. standan 

(prt. OE. ME. Stotf) = GOTH. OSAX. 

standan, ON. standa, OHG. stantan 
'to stand': a strong vb., common 
to the Teut. languages; TEUT. 
\^stap stad\ the nasal of the 
verb is orig. characteristic of 
the present tense). 

standard sb. ME. standard (= 
DU. standaard) fr. OFR. estandart 
FR. Standard (ITAL. stendardo 
fr. LAT. extender e 'spread out'). 

sang sb. ME. stange loanword 
fr.tON. stong gen. stangar ; ident. 
w. OHG. stanga G. stange, DU. stang 
an d the umlauted OE. steng 'pole, 
stake'; source the vb. OE. stingan 
'to stab, pierce'; see sting. 

stanyell sb. (Shakesp.) OE. stdn- 
lella properly 'rock-yeller'; cp. 

staple sb. ME. stdpel OE. stdpol 
'a prop' DU. LG. stapel, OFRIES. 
stapul 'block'. 

star sb. ME. sterre OE. steorra 
= OHG. OSAX. sterro, ODU. MLG. 
sterre'. Teut. base sterron-\ ident. 
w. GOTH, stairno, ON. stjarna 
(hence ME. sterne), OHG. sterna 
(G. stern OHG. stern). Cogn. w. 

SKR. star, GR. doTiJQ, LAT. stella 
(for *sterulaH). All equivalent. 

starboard sb. ME. sterbord short 
for OE. steor bord\ cp. ON. stjorbordi 
'starboard' and OE. steor under 

starch sb. ME. *sterche OE. stereo 
( G. stdrke) : umlaut-derivative 
with palatalisation of stark. 

stare vb. ME. stare OE. stdrian 
= ON. star a, OHG. star en 'to stare'; 
derived fr. an adj. star a- in SKR. 
d&ra'fast, hard', GR. arfpfoc'hard': 
ARYAN \T sta 'to stand* in OHG. 
stem sten G. stehen, DU. staan, LAT. 
stare, GR. toraVra, SKR. ^Mtz. 

stark adj. ME. j/ar/fc OE. ^/^r^r 
= OSAX. MHG. G. stark; cp. ON. 
(with umlaut) sterkr and GOTH. 
gastaurknan 'to become dry': 
ARYAN \^strg in LITH. j/ir^A' 'to 
become stiff". 

starling sb. ME. sterling short 
for OE. starling : dimin. formation 
of OE. steer 'a starling' = OHG. 
stara G. staar 'a starling'; cogn. 
w. OE. st$arn = LAT. sturnus. 

start vb. ME. sterte (OE. * steor tan 
str. vb.) ; cp. ODU. DU. storten, 
OHG. sturzen G. stiirzen'. TEUT. y" 

starve vb. ME. sterve OE. steor fan 
str. vb. 'die(ofhunger') = DU. 
sterven, OSAX. sterban, OHG. sterban 
G. sterben str. vb. 'to die'; cp. 
ON. starfi 'stiffness', EAST-FRIES. 
bestarfen 'be stiff'. The original 
meaning of the TEUT. \{~ sterb was 
probably 'be stiff'. 

state sb. ME. estdt fr. OFR. estat 
FR. <##/ = LAT. status. 

stay 1 step 

stay 1 vb. ME. stale fr. OFR. estayer 
FR. etayer. 

stay 2 sb. OE. st&i\ Teut. base 
stag a-, whence FR. May, cp. DU. 
LG. stag. 

stead sb. ME. st$de OE. .tf^fc fr. 
a Teut. base ,r/to#- = GOTH, stops 
'a stead, place', OHG. stat (G. 5/^/// 
'town), ON. j/tfdSr 'a place': ab- 
stract formation of the ARYAN V 
sta 'to stand' (see stare]\ cp. 
LAT. statioy SKR. j/foft 'a standing'. 

steak sb. ME. steike (late OE. 
staecan vb. 'to roast') : borrowed 
fr. QN. j/ 'a steak' steikja 
'to roast'. 

steal vb. ME. st(le OE. rfifoxz str. 
vb. = GOTH, stilan, ON. stela, 
OSAX. OHG. tff/aa G. stehlen DU. 
stelen: TEUT. \{* stel> perhaps ident. 

W. GR. fITtptofrat OTS()t0)ftV 


steam sb. ME. st&n OE. rf/a*/ fr. 
a Teut. base stau-ma- (DU. stoom, 
EASTFRIES. rf<$/tt) i \f stau, not 
found elsewhere. 

steed sb. ME. stede OE. steda 'a 
stallion': umlaut-derivative of OE. 
stpd = E. .$/#</. 

steel sb. ME. stele OE. j#/<? (style) : 
umlaut -formation by the side of 
the equival. OHG. stahal G. stahl, 
DU. staal, ON. stdl\ Teut. base 
stahla- and (for OE. j/jM?) stahlja-; 
ident. w. OPRUSS. stakla- 'steel*. 

steep adj. ME. st{p OE. st$ap adj.; 
ident. w. OE. st(ap = ON. staup 
'beaker' under stoup. Umlaut- 
deriv. steeple ME. stepel OE. stepel 
stypel (fr. a Teut. base staupila-\ 
cp. ON. stopull 'a steeple'). 

steer 1 sb. ME. ster OE. steor = 
GOTH. j-//wr, ON. stjorr, OHG. OSAX. 
jAV?r G.-DU. jAVr 'a bull'; ident. 
w. ON. pjorr (DAN. /yr): ARYAN 
base (s)teuro (OSLOV. turu 'steer'). 
But GR. TUVQQC, corresponds to 
OIR. tarb (ARYAN base tarwo-, 
not cogn. w. steer). 

steer 2 vb. ME. stere OE. steor an 
w. the umlauted by form styran 
= OHG. stiuran G. steuern, DU. 
sturen; cp. ON. styri 'a rudder'; 
for a non-umlauted root-form see 
under starboard. TEUT. \fsteur 
also in GOTH, stiurjan 'to confirm'. 

stem sb. ME. stem OE. rfm# j/^/ 
'a stem of a tree': ablaut-relation 
to ON. stafn, OSAX. stamn = 
OHG. stam G. stamm DU. ^/^w: TEUT. 
ground- forms stemna- stamna-, 
cogn. w. IR. tamon 'stem'. \^ sta 
'to stand' under stare. 

stench sb. ME. stench OE. st$nd 
fr. a TUET. base stank(w)i-; see 

step vb. OE. stceppan steppan str. 
vb. ; cp. DU. stappen, OHG. stapfon 
'to step' and OE. .tf^te ^/^ 'a 
step, pace'; probably related to 
OSLOV. stopa 'foot -track'? The 
root seems to be nasalized in 

step in stepfather stepmother 
etc. ME. step-fader, -moder short 
for OE. steop-fader , -mpdor; ident. 
w. ON. stjiipfadir, -modir OHG. 
stiof-fater, -muoter G. stiefvater, 
stief mutter'. Teut. base steupa-, 
whence OHG. bistiufen OE. dstypan 
vb. 'bereave, deprive (of pa- 


stern stool 

stern 1 adj. ME. sterne OE. styrne'. 
Teut. base stirni- prop, sternu-, 
cogn. w. LAT. strenuus. 

stern 2 sb. ME. sterne fr. ON. 
stjorn 'a steering'; see starboard 
and steer vb 

stew vb. ME. stuwe vb. fr. the 
sb. OFR. estuve = G. stube', see 

steward sb. ME. stiward (since 
the 1 2 th cent.) ; cogn. w. OE. stl($- 
wita 'house -holder'. The first 
element is ident. w. sty. 

stick sb. ME. sticke OE. sticca = 
OHG. stecko G. stecken : Teut. base 
stikkon-, derived fr. the verbal y~ 
stik in OHG. stehhan G. stechen. 

stiff adj. short for ME. OE. stif 
'stiff' = ON. stlfr, DU. stijf, G. 
stcif\ cogn. w. LITH. stipti 'to be- 
come stiff and LAT. stipes 'a pole'. 

stile sb. ME. stile contracted 
from OE. stigolmft. sti^ele = OHG. 
stigila 'a stile'; derived fr. the 
TEUT. \(~stig under stair. 

still adj. ME. OE. stille = OHG. 

OSAX. Stilli G. Still, DU. stil, OFR1ES. 

stille: deriv. fr. the TEUT. \T .?/<?// 
'to stand firmly' in the factitive 
vb. OHG. G. stellen 'to place' and 
in OHG. stollo 'post'. 

stilt sb. ME. stilte', ident. w. OHG. 
stelza G. stelze, DU. steti\ all equi- 

sting vb. ME. s tinge OE. stingan 
str. vb. = GOTH. (us)stiggan, ON. 
sting a \ cp. OHG. stung on stung en 
'to sting: TEUT. ^fsteng under 

stink vb. ME. stinke OE. stincan 
str. vb. = GOTH, stigqan, OHG. 

OSAX. stinkan G. DU. stinken: 
TEUT. <f stenq pre-TEUT. stengw 
(tengw in GR. ray yog 'rancid'). 

stir vb. ME. stire OE. styrian vb.; 
ident. w. the ablauted OHG. stbren 
G. storen, DU. storen, OFRIES. stera: 
WEST-TEUT. bases sturjan staurjan ; 
Y~ 'stur also in storm? 

stirrup sb. ME. stir op properly 
sti-rgp OE. sti%-rdp; ident. w. OHG. 
stega-reif G. stegreif(pu. steegreep), 
ON. stig-reip. Second element of 
the compound is TEUT. raipa- 
roapi for the I st element (Teut. 
stiga- ^stfg) see stair. 

stitch sb. ME. sticche OE. stiie 
early stidi: Teut. base stiki- 'a 
pricking' by the side of OE. stician 
'to prick'; cf. QHG. stehhan G. stechen 
(OHG. stih G. stick sb. 'pricking'), 
OSAX. stekan y DU. steken. ARYAN 
\/~stig in GR. 6Tiy[.i<i ffr/Cw; cf. 
SKR. \^tij 'be sharp'. 

stith sb. ME. stith borrowed fr. 
ON. stedi 'an anvil'. 

stock sb. ME. stock OE. stocc 
'trunk, log, pillory' = DU. stok, 
OHG. G. stock, ON. stokkr: Teut. 
base stokka- for stukka-; TEUT. \f* 
stuk in DU. LG. stoken, ME. sttike 
'to stab'; cogn. w. SKR. ta/'push'. 

stone sb. ME. ston OE. stdn 
GOTH, stains, ON. steinn t OHG. G. 
stein, OSAX. sten DU. steen : Cogn. 
w. OSLOV. st&na 'a wall' stlninu 
'rocky', GR. titfov oria 'pebble- 
stone'. Cp. stanyel. 

StOOl Sb. ME. OE. Stol = GOTH. 

stbls, ON. stdll, DU. stoel, OSAX. stbl, 
OHG. stuol G. stuhl: Teut. base 
sib-la- deriv. fr. the ARYAN \fstha 

stoop straw-berry 


'to stand' under stead. Cp. also 
OSLOV. stolu 'table', GR. orfj^y 

stoop vb. ident. w. ME. stoupe 
OE. stupian 'to curve downwards' 
= ODU. stuipcn 'to bow', ON. stiipa 
SWED. stupa 'to fall'. 

stop vb. ME. stoppe (OE. for- 
stoppian 'to stop up, close') , ident. 
w. DU. stoppen, OHG. stopfbn G. 
stopfen and w. ITAL. stoppare 'to 
stop up with tow'. Source low 
LAT. stuppare (LAT. stuppa 'oakum'). 

stork vb. ME. stork OE. store = 
DU. stork) OHG. stork G. storch, ON. 
storkr ; cogn. w. GR. rdpyog 'a 
large bird'. 

storm sb. ME. OE. storm = ON. 
stortnr, DU. storm (OHG. G. sturm) ; 
derived fr. \f~stur in j/*> or 
cogn. w. LAT. sterner e 'to strew'. 

story sb. ME. stgrie fr. OFR. estoire 
= LAT. historia. 

stoup j/00/ ME. */#:. borrowed 
fr. ON. ,$7V?z^ 'beaker, cup' = -$/<?#/ 
'a gallon': the sb. (TEUT. staupa- 
'beaker') rests on the adj. staupa 
= steep. 

stout adj. ME. stout fr. OFR. estaut; 
ident. w. DU. stout, OHG. G. 
stolz 'proud': source LAT. stultus 

stove sb. OE. stofa 'a bath' = 
OHG. stuba 'a bathing-room' (G. 
stube 'a room'), DU. stoof\ ident. 
w. FR. Ituve and OSLOV. ist&ba 
c a room'. Source and history 
uncertain. Cp. stew. 

stow vb. ME. stowe OE. stowian 
'to restrain'; derived fr. OE. stow 
'a place' - = LITH. stova 'place', 

straight adj. ME. str eight OE. 
f d)streht\ part, of OE. streccean = 

strain vb. ME. streine fr. OFR. 
estraindre = LAT. sir ing ere and 
strait MS., streitir. OFR. estreit (FR. 
Itroif) = LAT. strictus. 

strand sb. ME. OE. strand 
'shore' = ON. strand (gen. 
strandar) 'margin, edge', DU. LG. 
G. strand 'shore' (FR. itrain of 
Teut. origin). 

strange adj. ME. straunge fr. 
OFR. estrange (FR. ttrange) : source 
LAT. extraneus. 

strangle vb. ME. strangle vb. fr. fr -angler = LPrt.strangulare. 

strap sb. ME. OE. strop (pp}\ 
loanword fr. LAT. struppus 'thong, 
fillet', whence also DU. LG. strop 
and FR. ttrope. 

straw sb. ME. straw OE. streaw 
(with the byforms ME. str$ OE. 
str$a) : Teut. base strawa- = ON. 
strd, DU. stroo, OHG. strb G. stroh; 
cp. the vb. strew OE. strfwan, 
streyin = GOTH, straujan, OHG. 
strouwen G. streuen, DU. strooien 
'to strew'. TEUT. \fstrau derived 
fr. the ARYAN ^ster in GR. aroot j - 
vit oTpwvvv/Ltt and LAT. j/*r0 
(j^-^/ stratum), OSLOV. j/r<?// 
'to spread out'; cp. esp. LAT. 
stramen 'straw'. 

straw-berry sb. ME. straw-berie 
OE. streaw -berie; not cogn. w. 
straw. Probably connected w. 
Lki.fragum 'straw-berry : ARYAN 
base sraghwo- Teut. base 
strawa--, the 2 nd elementin straw- 
berry might be explanatory. 


stray study 

stray vb. ME. straie fr. OFR. 
estraier ; derived fr. LAT. strata 
(= street). 

streak sb. ME. strike OE. sir tea 
'a line'; cp. GOTH, striks 'a stroke 
with the pen' and strike. 

stream sb. ME. sir em OE. stream 
= OHG. stroum (G. strom), DU. 
stroom, ON. straumr: Teut. base 
strau-ma-, derived fr. the ARYAN 
*fsru 'to flow' = SKR. \l~sru 'to 
flow'; cp. GR. Q^IV, OIR. sruth 
'river' sruaim 'stream' (LAT. 
flumen instead of *f rumen: ARYAN 

street ME. strete OE. strct strat 
infl. sir die (whence ON. strati is 
borrowed) = OSAX. strata, DU. 
straat, OHG. strazza G. strasse'. 
WEST-TEUT. strata fr. LAT. strata 
(sc. via) prop, 'a paved way', 
whence ITAL. strada = FR. etree 
(OIR. srdth) 'a street'. 

strength sb. ME. strengthe OE. 
strengdu (GOTH. *sfraggifa) derived 
fr. strong. 

stress sb. 'force' short for ME. 
distresse fr. OFR. destresse. 

stretch vb. ME. strecchcov. strec- 
dean (p art. streht un d e r straight); 
ident. w. OHG. strecchen G. strecken, 
DU. strekken: TEUT. type strakkjan\ 
cp. OHG. stracken 'be straight' and 
the adj. DU. LG. strak 'straight' 
(G. stracks 'immediately'). 

strew see under straw. 

stride vb. ME. stride OE. stridan 
vb. = MLG. striden 'to stride' : 

strife sb. ME. strif fr. OFR. 

estrif, which rests on a Teut. sb. 
= OSAX. strid, OHG. strtt G. streit. 

strike vb. ME. strike OE. strlcan 
str. vb. 'to rub, wipe' = OFRIES. 
strika, DU. strijken, OHG. strihhan 
G. streichen', TEUT. \fstrik, ARYAN 
\l^strtg in LAT. stngilis, OSLOV. 
striga - - stristi 'to shear'. Cp. 

string sb. ME. OE. streng fr. a 
TEUT. base strangi- in ON. strengr, 
DU. streng, OHG. G. strangi cogn. 
w. the adj. strong. 

strive vb. ME. strive fr. OFR. 
estriver vb. (OFR. estrif under 

stroke sb. ME. strok and stroke 
vb. OE. strdcian fr. \{"strik under 

strong adj. ME. OE. strong fr. 
TEUT. base strangu- in OHG. strang 
strengi G. DU. streng (G. sich 
anstrengen vb.) ; cogn. w. LAT. 
stringer e 'to draw tight, compress'. 

stub sb. ME. stubbe with the 
umlauted byform OE. stybb 'a 
stub'; cp. LG. stubbe, DU. stobbe, 
ON. stubbi and GR. orvnog 'a stub, 
stump'. ARYAN \(~stup, nasalized 
in stump. 

stubble sb. ME. stable stuble fr. 
OFR. estouble; ident. w. OHG. 
stupfala DU. G. stoppel'. source 
vulgar LAT. stup(i)la instead of 
LAT. stipula 'stubble'. 

stud sb. short for ME. OE. stpd 
'a stud' (cp. the umlaut-deriva- 
tion steed) = ON. stod, OHG. 
stuot. Cp. OSLOV. RUSS. stadoj 
; LITH. stodas 'a herd of horses'. 
i study vb. ME. studie prop, stildie 

stuff summon 


vb. fr. OFR. estudier (FR. ttudier) 
= LAT. studere. 

stuff sb. fr. OFR. estoffe = FR. 
Moffe (whence also G. stoff % DU. 

stump sb. ME. stump stomp\ 
ident. w. DU. stomp, OHG. G. stumpf; 
probably connected w. stub'. 
ARYAN \{~ stumb: stu(m)p, also in 
ON. stiifr stiifi 'a stump'. 

stun vb. ME. stune stone OE. 
stunian 'to resound'; cp. the 
umlauted ON. stynja 'to groan', 
G. stonen, DU. stenen'. ARYAN \(^stm 
sten in GR. OT&SIV, OSLOV. stenjq, 
SKR. stan 'to groan, resound'. 

sturgeon ME. stourgeoun fr. FR. 
esturgeon; source a TEUT. base 
sturjon- in OHG. sturio (G. stohr, 
DU. steur) = OE. j/yr/Vz 'a stur- 
geon'. Doubtful whether cogn. 
w. .?/*>. 

stutter vb. fr. ME. state stute vb.' ; 
cp. G. stottern 'to stammer'. All 
derivations of \f staut in GOTH. 
stautan, ON. stauta 'to beat, strike' 
= OHG. std-Qan G. stossen. ARYAN 
\l^(s)tud in LAT. tundere 'to beat', 
SKR. \^tud 'to strike'. 

sty 1 sb. ('sty for swine') ME. 
stle OE. stfy infl. ^//^ 'a pig-sty'; 
ident. w. OHG. stia 'a pig-sty', 
ON. sti (svin-stl) t SWED. (win)stia 
'a sty*. 

sty 2 sb. ('sty in the eye') cp. 
OE. stipend; equivalent w. LG. 
stige, NORW. stig. 

subdue vb. ME. subdue properly 
sudite fr. OFR. souduir = LAT. 

subtle adj. ME. sotel sutel sutil 

fr. OFR. sotil (FR. subtil) = LAT. 

succeed vb. ME. sucfede fr. FR. 
succeder = LAT. succedere. 

succour vb. ME. sucoure socoure 
fr. OFR. soccorre LAT. succurrere* 

such pron. ME. such earlier 
swuch swich OE. swylc swilc: Teut. 
base swulik in OSAX^ sidik, OHG. 
sulih (c 1 . solcti)\ as shown by 
GOTH, swaleiks, the I st element 
of the compound rests on so = 
OE. swd. 

suck vb. short for ME. souke 
OE. .ra&rtf/z str. vb. with the by form 
OE. OHG. siigan G. saugen; cogn. 
w. LAT. s&gere : ARYAN \Tsug sak. 

sudden adj. ME. soddn prop. 
sodain fr. FR. soudain (LAT. type 
*subitanus for subitaneus 'sudden'). 

suffer vb. ME. suffre soffre fr. 
FR. souffrir (LAT. sufferre). 

sugar sb. ME. sugre sucre fr. 
FR. sucre y whence also ODU..su6er 
DU. sui&er; cp. G. zucker fr. ITAL. 

sum sb. ME. summe somme fr. 
FR. somme. 

summer sb. ME. sumer somcr 
OE. sumor fr. a Teut. base swnaru- 
in OSAX. OHG. sumar G. sommcr, 
DU. somer, ON. sumar. Cogn. w. 

AVEST. //W, OIR. .MW, CYMR. ^7W 

hafy ARMEN. amarn : all equivalent. 
Cp. also SKR. samd year'. 

summit sb. fr. FR. sommet (rests 
on LAT. summus). 

summon vb. ME. somone fr. 
OFR. somoner (LAT. submonere c to 
remind privately'). 


sun sweat 

sun sb. ME. sunnt 'sonne OE. sunne 
infl. sunnan = GOTH, sunno, OHG. 
OSAX. sunna G. sonne, DU. .swz: 
TEUT. base sunnbn-. 

supper sb. ME. ^<?r super fr. 
FR. souper. Cp. dinner. 

sure adj. ME. ^//r properly ^//r 
fr. OFR. J^r seur FR. j#r (= LAT. 
securus, whence also sicker). 

surgeon sb. ME. surgen (surgein) 
fr. OFR. drurgien (LAT. type chi- 
rurgianus). Hence surgery ME. 
surgerie: LAT. chirurgia. 

swaddle vb. ME. swathele OE. 
sw&delian vb. : derived fr. OE. 
swcedel 'bandage'; ident. w. the 
umlauted OHG. swedil 'bandage'; 
see swathe. 

swain sb. ME. swainpiop. swem: 
borrowed in the I I th cent. fr. ON. 
sveinn; ident. w. OE. swan 'man, 
warrior", OHG. swem 'servant*. 

swallow sb. (the bird) ME. 
swalowe OE. swealwe = OHG. 
swalawa G. schwalbe; ident. w. 
OSAX. swala, ON. svala c a swallow': 
Teut. base swalwon-\ if for 
*swalgw$n- t cogn. w. GR. aAxvW? 

swallow vb. ME. swel(o)we ear- 
lier swelgen OE. swelgan str. vb. 
= OSAX. OHG. swelgan (swelhan) 
G. schwelgen, DU. zwelgen (ON. 
svelgjd) : Teut. verbal y~ jw^ 
jo/a^, ARYAN ^fswelk. 

swamp sb. cogn. w. OHG. G. 
sumpf, DAN. swED.sumfi c a swamp'. 

swan sb. ME. OE. swan fr. a 
TEUT. swana- = ON. svanr\ cp. 
OHG. swana G. schwan DU. zwaan. 
Cogn. w. LAT. sonar e (properly 
*svonare), SKR. \(~svan 'to sound'. 

sward sb. ME. swirde OE. swear d 
infl. swearde 'the skin of bacon' 
= ODU. zwaerde, MHG. swarfe G. 
schwarte 'skin of bacon', ON. 
svgrdr 'skin'. The modern E. 
meaning 'green turf is due 
to Northern influence; cp. ON. 
jardar-svgrdr 'earth-sward', gras- 
svprdr 'grass-sward' (and MLG. 
grcenswarde, DAN. grensvcer). 

swarm sb. ME. swarm OE. 
swear m = ON. svarmr , OHG. 
swarm G. schwarm (DU. zwertri)\ 
all equivalent. Cp. the SKR. 
\fsvar 'to sound'? 

swart adj. ME. .ra/tfr/ OE. swear t 
= GOTH, swarfs, ON. svarlr, DU. 
zwart, OHG. swarz G. schwarz\ 
Cogn. w. LAT. sordes (properly 
*svordes) 'dirt': ARYAN y~ sword. 

swath sb. ME. swath OE. jze/^/ 
'footprint, track' (with the by- 
form OE. swadu 'track'); cp. 
MLG. swat swade, G. schwaden, 
DU. zwaad 'a row of mown grass': 
Teut. base swap a. 

swathe vb. ME. swathe OE. swd- 
dian\ cp. swaddle. 

swats (Scotch) 'beer' OE. swata\ 
derived fr. \f 'swot under sweet. 

swear vb. ME. sw/re OE. swerian 
(prt. ME. OE. swor) str. vb. = 
OHG. OSAX. swerian G. schworen, 
DU. zweren, ON. sverja str. vb.; 
cp. GOTH, swaran. The original 
meaning of the TEUT. \{~ swar 
was probably 'to declare', as 
shown by the derivative answer. 

sweat vb. short for ME. sw{te 
OE. swcetan] derived fr. OE. swat 
ME. swfte (E. sweat sb. influenced 

sweep swoop 


by the vb. sweat) = DU. zweet, 
ON. sveiti, OHG. swell, G. schweiss'. 
TEUT. \fswait (swit in G. schwitzen 
OHG. swizzan) = ARYAN \f~swoid 
swid in SKR. \(~svid 'to sweat', 
GR. idpiog sweat' idlfiv to 
sweat', LAT. sudor (orig. *svoidos) 
'sweat', LETT, swidrs 'sweat*. 

sweep vb. ME. swepe OE. swdpan 
3 d p. sg. pres. t. swcepd'to sweep': 
TEUT. \{~ swaip under swoop. 

sweet adj. ME. OE. swete adj. 
with the non-umlauted adverb 
OE. swote (ME. sote adj. adv.) ; 
ident. w. ON. s&tr (orig. *svcetr), 
OSAX. mv?//, w.zoet, Q^G.s(w)uoi > -z ) i 
G. suss: Teut. base swoti-, orig. 
swotu- (cp. GOTH, stits 'sweet'), 
ARYAN base swadu in SKR. svadu, 
GR. advg vjdvc, LAT. sudvis (orig. 
*suddu-is). Cp. swats. 

swell vb. ME. swelle OE. swellan 
str. vb. OS AX. OHG. swellan 
G. schwellen, DU. zwellen, ON. svella 
str. vb. : TEUT. verbal \f ^ swell 
(also in GOTH, ufswalleins sb.). 

swerve vb. ME. swerve OE. 
sweorfan str. vb. 'to scrub, file'; 
ident. w. OSAX. swerfan, DU. 
zwerven y GOTH, swatrban, ON. 
sverfa'. TEUT. y" sweib , ARYAN 
\{~swerbh in RUSS. sverbeti, OSLOV. 
svrubeti 'to itch'. 

swift adj. ME. OE. swift (OE. 
swift!} ; p. participle of OE. swifan 
'to move quickly' = ON. svlfa, 
formed by suffix to (see old, 
cold, loud). Cogn. w. DU. 
zweven, OHG. sutibfa G. schweben. 

swill vb. ME. swile OE. swillan 
(3 d p. sg. pres. t. swiled). 

swim vb. ME. swimme OE. swim- 
man str. vb. = OSAX. OHG. 
swimman str. vb. G. schwimmen\ 
ident. w. ON. symja (for orig. 
*swumjan) 'to swim': TEUT. 
\^swem (sum under sund). 

swine sb. ME. OE. swin = 
OSAX. OHG. swin G. schwein DU. 
zwijn, ON. svin, GOTH. swein\ 
Teut. base swina-, properly su- 
-ma-, derived fr. ARYAN su 'a 
pig' in OE. OSAX. OHG. su 'a sow' 
= LAT. su-s, GR. *- ov-g. The 
suffix -ma- in TEUT. swina- is 
diminutive, as shown under 
chicken, maiden. See also sow. 

swing vb. ME. swinge OE. swin- 
gan str. vb. = OSAX. OHG. swin- 
gan G. schwingen. swinge ME. 
swenge OE. swencgean 'to beat, 
shake' causal of swing'. TEUT. 
V" sweng swang (swangw in GOTH. 
afswaggwjan ?) 

swink vb. ME. swinke OE. swin- 
can str. vb. Ident. w. swing? 

swoon vb. ME. swoune earlier 
swognien'y derived fr. the p. parti- 
ciple OE. tyswogen 'in a swoon' 
dswogen 'choked'; allied to 
GOTH, gaswogjan swogatjan 'to 
sigh', OE. swogan 'to sough, sigh': 
ARYAN \fswdgh swdgh in LITH. 
svagcti 'to sound'. 

swoop vb. ME. swope OE. swdpan 
(identical w. sweep). 

sword sb. ME. swerd ^OE. sweord 
(swurd) = OSAX. OFRIES. swerd, 
DU. zwaard, ON. sverd, OHG. swert 
G. schwerf. ARYAN base swerdho- 
(in LAT. j^r^wj 'service-tree'?) 


table tar ry 

table sb. ME. table fr. FR. table 
=. LAT. tabula (whence OE. tafel 
'chess-board' = OHG. zabal 
'board'); cp. also G. DU. tafel. 

tackle sb. ME. takel\ ident. w. 
MLG. takel 'equipment' (G. SAVED. 
takel, DAN. takkel). 

tadpole short for toad-poll. 

tail sb. ME. tail OE. t&^el = 
OHG. zagal 'a tail', ON. tagl 
'a tail', GOTH, tagl 'hair'. 

tailor sb. ME. taillour fr. OFR. 
tailleor = FR. tailleur. 

take vb. ME. tdke late OE. 
(il th cent.) tdcan borrowed fr. 
ON. taka str. vb. taking the place 
of OE. niman (under nimble}\ cp. 
cast = ON. kasta supplanting OE. 
weorpan (under warp). Ident. w. 
GOTH, tekan str. vb. 'to touch': TEUT. 
\(^ tek tak\ pre-TEUT. \Tdg dag? 

tale sb. ME. tale OE. tdlu = 
DU. taal 'language', OHG. zdla 
G. zahl\ cp. ON. tal 'a tale'. Cp. 
the TEUT. verb taljan in OE. 
tellan MEX. telle E. tell = OHG. 
zellan (cp. GOTH. to/*;W). Hence 
derived talk vb. ME. talke vb. 
(OE. *talcian *talecian)\ k is 
suffixed as in hark. 

tall adj. ME. tal\ probably OE. 
foetal 'swift, prompt' with the by- 
form geatol(lic) 'swift'. Ident. w. 
OHG. gizal: Teut. base ga-tala-. 

tallow ME. talugh earlier *talh 

- MLG. talch (G. talg, DU. talk), 
ON. tolgr. Cogn. w. GOTH, tul- 
gus 'fast'? 

tame adj. ME. tdme OE. tarn 
(infl. tamo) = ON. tamr, DU. 
tarn, OHG. zam G. zahm\ Teut. 
base tama- (hence derived GOTH. 
tamjan 'to tame' =- ON. temja, 
OHG. zemmeri). ARYAN \f^dom in 
LAT. domare 'to tame', GR. daLf.tdv 9 
SKR. damdy 'to tame'. 

tan vb. ME. tanne OE. tannian 
vb.; cogn. \v. FR. tan 'oak-bark' 
(LAT. tannare in the 8' h cent. 
= FR. tanner', cp. DU. /tftf'bark'). 
Hence E. tawny = FR. tannt. 

tang sb. (sea-weed) fr. DAN. 
tang = ON. fang (pongull). 

tap sb. ME. tappe OE. />//# 
'a tap' = OHG. zapfo G. zapfcn t 
DU. to/, ON. /d^/z (FR. tape tapon 
are Teut. loanwords). 

taper sb. ME. taper OE. tdpon 
properly *papur y loanword fr. LAT. 
papyrus, which appears in Rom. 
dialects as 'taper'. 

tar sb. ME. terre\ cp. OE. teoru 
(tyrwe) 'tar' and DU. (G.) teer, 
ON. tjara\ ident. w. LETT, darwa 
tar'. The group rests on Aryan 
deru = tree\ tar orig. 'tar- 

tare sb. ME. tare', Teut. base 
tar(w)dn also in ODU. taruwe 
DU. MLG. tarwe. Cogn. w. SKR. 
durva (a kind of grass) and 
LITH. dirva 'field'. 

tarn sb. ME. terne fr. ON. tjgrn 
(G. tjarnar) 'a tarn, pool". 

tarry vb. ME. terie OE. terian 
ter^an 'to vex = DU. LG. tergen. 

tart teen 


tart sb.. ME. tarte fr. OFR. tarte 
= FR. tourte (whence DU. taart, 
G. torte). 

task sb. ME. tdsk(e) fr. OFR. 
tasque = FR. tdche\ source LAT. 
taocare, whence also tax. 

tatter sb. a Scand. loanword 
fr. ON. tgtrar pi. 'tatters'; already 
ME. tatered 'ragged'. 

tattle vb. fr. ME. tatere vb. 

taw, tew vb. ME. tewe\ OE. 
tdwian teawian means prop, 'pre- 
pare' and corresponds with DU. 
touwen 'to curry leather', OHG. 
zouwen 'make, prepare', GOTH. 
taujan 'do': TEUT. y~ tau\ see 

tawny see tan. 

tax vb. fr. FR. taxer = LAT. 
taxare; ident. w. task. 

tea sb. FR. //, G. thee\ source 
CHINESE tt\ the word became 
European in the 2 nd half of the 
1 7 th cent. 

teach sb. ME. t$che (prt. taughte) 
OE. tcBcean (prt. t&hte) ; cogn. w. 
token OE. tdcen\ cp. OHG. zeigon 
G. zeigen. ARYAN \f~~dik. 

team 1 sb. 'family' ME. t$m OE. 
t$am 'family, offspring' = MLG. 
torn 'progeny' (with the um- 
lauted vb. teem ME. feme OE. 
teman tyman 'to teem') : Tent, 
base tau(h}ma- fr. \^tah in GOTH. 
tiuhan, OHG. zlohan G. ziehen. 
ARYAN \l"duk in LAT. d&co. See 
the following word. 

team 2 sb. (team of oxen) ME. 
teme iteme OE. ^etyme 'team of 
oxen'; derived fr. TEUT. tau(h)tna- 
'rein, bridle' (in ON. taumr OHG. 

zoum G. zautri). Root the same 
as in team '. 

tear vb. ME. t$re OE. teran str. 
vb. . GOTH, gatairan 'to break*. 
ARYAN \fder in SKR. dar c to burst, 
break asunder', GR. tieufiv 'to 
flay', LITH. dirti 'to flay\ 

tear sb. ME. tfr OE. tear: TEUT. 
tahr- in ON. tar, OHG. zahar (G. 
zahre)\ cp. ONORTHUMBR. ^//^/T 
and according to Verner's law 
GOTH. tagr. ARYAN base dakru 
in GR. Jx(jt;, WELSH daigr (per- 
haps SKR. afru and LAT. lacrima 
are cognate). All equivalent. 

tease vb. (ME. t/se) OE. tcesan 
'to pull to pieces , to tease 
(wool) with the non-umlauted 
byform ME. tose (OE. *tdsan or 
*tdsian). TEUT. strong verbal 
tais in OHG. zeisan 'to tease' 
= DU. teezen. Cogn. w. teasel 
(plantname) ME. tcsel OE. tasel 
= OHG. zeisila 'thistle'. 

teat sb. ME. fy'te fr. FR. tette\ 
ident. w. OE. //// MHG. G. 

ted vb. fr. ON. ted,a', ident. w 
OHG. G.(dial.) zetten 'to spread . As 
shown by the p. participle GOTH. 
un-gatass 'undisposed', there exi- 
sted also a str. vb. *tadjan. ARYAN 
\f*dat in GR. JazVo/m* 'I divide, 

teem 1 vb. *to bring forth' see 

teem 2 vb. 'to empty* see toom. 

teen sb. ME. tene OE. teona 
suffering, insult' = OSAX. tiono 
injury'; cp. OFRIES. tiuna 'to hurt.' 


tell that 

tell vb. ME. telle (prt. tolde) OE. 
tellan (prt. tdlde] under tale. 

tempest sb. ME. tempest fr. 
OFR. tempeste = FR. tempete. 
Source vulgar LAT. ttmpesta for 

temple sb. ME. temple OE. tempel 
fr. LAT. templum. 

temples ME. temples fr. OFR. 
temples (FR. tempe) plur. LAT. 
tempera 'the temples'. 

tempt vb. ME. tempte vb. fr. 
OFR. tempter (FR. tenter) ==. LAT. 
temp tare. 

ten num. ME. ten rests on an 
unrecorded OE. *teon, instead of 
which an umlauted tyn is found. 
Teut. base tehun tehan in GOTH. 
taihun, OSAX. tehan , DU. //>/z, 
OHG. zehan G. 2^72. Ident. w. 
SKR. da(a, GR. Jfc'x#, LAT. decent, 
OJR. <&/<:/z. The suffix -teen 
(in thirteen etc.) ME. -tene OE. 
-/<?>z<? -/y;z is the inflected form 
of the numeral ten. The suffix 
-ty (in twenty etc.) represents 
the sb. GOTH, tigus 'decade' (in 
saihs tig jus = ON. sextigir) ; cp. OE. 
frlti^ sixti^ = OHG. dri^ug sehzug 
G. dreissig sechzig. For the g 
in GOTH, tigus cp. GR. dtxdg 

tender adj. ME. tendre fr. FR. 
tendre\ source LAT. tener. 

tense sb. fr. OFR. tens (= FR. 
temps) = LAT. tempus. 

tent sb. ME. tente (= DU. tent) 
fr. OFR. /<?& = vulgar LAT. tenta] 
cp. LAT. tentorium. 

term sb. ME. terme fr. FR. terme\ 
source LAT. terminus. 

terror sb. fr. FR. terreur 
LAT. terror(em). 

test sb. meant properly in al- 
chemy 'a vessel for testing gold' 
and rests on ME. test(e) = LAT. 
testfy whence also FR. tete OFR. 
teste 'head' with the borrowed 
E. testy. 

tether sb. short for ME. teder\ 
doubtful, whether genuine Eng- 
lish or of Scand. origin. Cp. 
ON. tjodr = OHG. ziotar 'a tether' : 
Teut. base teudra-. 

tetter sb. ME. OE. teter fr. a 
Teut. base tetru- = ARYAN 
dedru-. Cp. OHG. zitaroh 'tetter' 
I and SKR. dadru 'a kind of lep- 
rosy', LITH. dedervine 'tetter'. 

than conj. ME. thanne OE. panne 

- OHG. MHG. danne'y derived fr. 
the article the. 

thane sb. ME. thein (the modern 
spelling a instead of ai - - as 
in rain is of Scotch origin) 
OE. fe%en\ Teut. base fiegna- in 
ON. fegn y OSAX. thegan, OHG. 
thegan 'a thane, warrior' (in the 
Bavarian dialect 'a male child'). 
Ident. w. GR. rwvov 'child'; 
ARYAN \l~tek in GR. T/XTCO (aorist 

thank vb. ME. thanke OE. pan- 
dan poncian wk. vb. = OHG. 
dankon G. DU. danken, ON. fiakka 
'to thank*. Root as in think. 
that pron. ME. that OE. fat - 
OSAX. that, OHG. daz G. das (dass) : 
ARYAN form to-d (fr. the stem 
to under the) - = SKR. tad, GR. 
TO (for *ro-()); cp. LAT. istud illud 

thatch ~ thine 


aliud show the d as neutral 

thatch sb. properly and dia- 
lectical thak ME. thak OE. p&c 
OHG. dah G. dach t ON. /<?/: 
Teut. base paka-. Cp. the wk. 
vb. TEUT. pakjan in OE. pecdean 
= OHG. deckan G. decken, DU. 
dekken. ARYAN \T^ in LAT - 
, cogn. w. \C steg in GR. 
, SKR. sthag, LITH. j/^ftf 
'to cover'; cp. GR. rg'j'og artyog 
'a roof, OIR. /<? 'a house'. 

thaw vb. ME. thdwe OE. pdwian\ 
cp. OHG. douwen G. tauen, DU. 
dooien, ON. peyja\ *f pau paw 
properly *fagw t ARYAN y~ AJT^ in 
GR. Tijkfiv 'to melt'? 

the article ME. /$<?' late OE. ^' 
(OE. j^' influenced by the inflected 
stem pa- in that). ARYAN base 
to- in SKR. ta-m = GR. rr,-r, 
SKR. ta-d GK. TO etc. Cp. M, 
M/, their, there, they. 

theft sb. ME. /&?/& short for 
pefte prop, pefthe'. abstract deri- 
vation fr. thief. Cp. the um- 
lauted OE. pyfp infl. pyfpe 'theft' 
= OFRIES. thiufthe. 

their pron. ME. their(e) borrowed 
fr. ON. peira. then ME. thenne 
OE. panne ident. w. than. 
thence adv. ME. thennes extended 
for thenne thanne = OE. panone 
prop, panon = OHG. dannan 
(G. von dannen). there adv. 
ME. there ther OE. per par = 
OHG. dar (G. da). they pron. 
ME. thei they', borrowed in the 

II th cent. fr. ON. feir. 

thick adj. ME. thick* probably 


borrowed fr. ON. pykkr (fy'pkkr) ; 
the corresponding OE. piece would 
have changed into ME. *thicche 
E. *thitch. Perhaps ME. thicke 
is blended w. OE. piece OHG. 
dicki G. dick DU. dik. Teut. base 
piqu- = ARYAN base tigu- in 
OIR. tiug 'thick'. 

thief sb. ME. thtf (pi. thfrcs) 
OE. peof (pi. peofas) - = GOTH. 
piubs, ON. pjofr, OHG. dtob G. 
dieb, DU. die/: Teut. base peuba- y 
by Verner's law changed fr. 
original *feufa- 9 as shown by 
OHG. diuva 'theft'. 

thigh sb. ME. theigh earlier 
theh OE. peoh = OHG. dioh, DU. 
dijy ON. pjo\ Teut. base peuha-, 
ARYAN base teuko-y cogn. w. 
LITH. taukas 'fat of animals, 
marrow', OSLOV. tuku 'fat'. 

thimble sb. ME. thimbel short 
for thimel OE. pymcl 'thumb-stall': 
diminutive of OE. puma = 

thin adj. ME. thinne OE. pynne 
- OHG. dunni G. dunn, DU. */#//, 
ON. punnr'. Teut. base punnu- 
properly punu- punw- , ARYAN 
base /P in SKR. Az, LAT. 
/^M;>, CYMR. teneu\ cp. GR. 
raraog (all equivalent). ARYAN 
y~ /^ in SKR. tan 'to stretch', 
OE.pennan, OHG. dennan G. dehnen, 
GOTH, pan/an 'to stretch out'. 

thine thy pron. ME. M/ OE. 
^5/ z= GOTH. /w, ON. ffntt, 
OHG. ^ G. /j5?i, DU. dijn\ TEUT. 
/?- formed by suffix -ma- (cp. 
SKR. tdvakwa 'thine') fr. TEUT. 
^ = thou. 



thing thousand 

thing sb. ME. thing OE. ping 
= ON. fing, OHG. G. DU. ding: 
Teut. base pinga- penga-\ pro- 
bably ident. w. GOTH, feihs 'time' 
= LAT. temp us (for *fenquuslt). 

think vb. ME. thenke (thencheri) 
OE. pencean (3 d sg. prs. t. pencf) 
= GOTH, fagkjan, ON. pekkja, 
OSAX. thenkian, OHG. denkan G. 
denkcn. Cp. GOTH, pugkjan = 
OSAX. thunkian, OHG. dunkan G. 
dunken, OE. pyncean 'to seem'. 
ARYAN \Ttong(tmg) in LAT. (Prae- 
nestine) tongSre 'to think'. 

third see three. 

thirst vb. ME. //fey-j/fc OE. pyrstan 
and thirst sb. from the vb. ; 
the sb. is ME. thurst OE. purst 

= TEUT. purs-tu- = OHG. G. 

durst, DU. dorst\ cp. ON. porsti, 
GOTH, patirstei sb. 'thirst'. TEUT. 
verbal \fpers in GOTH, gapalrsan 
to be dry' paursus 'dry' 
(OE. /yrr* = OHG. dforr* G. 
diirr). ARYAN \rters trs in SKR. 
/r/ 'to be thursty' /;/# 'gree- 
dy', GR. TepGaivco, LAT. torreo. 

thirteen, thirty .sw three. 

this pron. ME. /A/ly earlier M 
OE. /^ masc. / neutr. /^j 
fern. ; ident. w. OHG. dese G. 
dieser, DU. ^<?. The article 
the (TEUT. pa- under that) is 
extended by GOTH, sai 'lo', as 
shown by ON. (runic) sd-si 'this 
here' (sii-si fern.). 

thistle sb. ME. thistel OE. pistel 

= ON. plStill, DU. yjW, LG. 

dtstel, OHG. //w/// G. ^-j/^/. 

thither adv. ME. thider OE. 
pider (orig. pceder)\ derived fr. 

the stem pa- in M<7/. Cp. 
GOTH, papro 'thence', ON. padra 

thole sb. ME. thai OE. pol (ll)\ 
Teut. base folia- in ON. pollr, 
DU. dol t G. rudder do Ik. ARYAN 
base tzlno- (= SKR. tuna 'quiver' 
for *tulna) fr. ^/~tol == SKR. <ftul 
'to lift up', LAT. toller e. 

thong sb. ME. thong orig. thwong 
OE. pwong 'thong'; cp. ON. pvengi, 
TT^UT. \f~fwang. 

thorn sb. ME. thorn OE. porn 
sb. = ON. porn, OHG. G. dorn, 
DU. doorn\ cp. GOTH, paurnus. 
Ident. w. OSLOV. trinii 'thorn'; 
cp. SKR. trna 'grass'. 

thorough ME. thorow OE. porh\ 
orig. preposition = OE. purh, 
OHG. duruh G. durch, GOTH. 

thou pron. ME. /^ OE. /^ = 
GOTH. //?, OHG. du (G. //) : 
ARYAN ground -form tu in LAT. 
/, GR. TV, SKR. tu-am. Cp. 

though conj. ME, though earlier 
thoh\ Scand. loanword of the 
II th cent. (ON. pd orig. *poK). 
Corresponding to OE^. p$ah = 

GOTH. pduh\ Cp. OHG. doh G. 

DU. doch. 

thought sb. ME. thought OE. 
lepohf. Teut. base ga-fanhtu- t 
derived fr. \/~pank in fink. 

thousand num. ME. thousand 
thousend OE. pusend = OHG. 
dusunt G. tausend, DU. duizend, 
ON. pusund pushund, GOTH. /- 
^w^'; in the Lex Salica, we 
find thus-chunde 'thousand'. Teut. 

thrall throng 


base pus-hund- , compound of I 
hund = hundred 'with an ARYAN 
tus great, much' (cp. SKR. tuvi 
'much', tavas 'might'). LITH. 
tukstantis = OSLOV. tysqsta 'thou- 
sand' correspond to the Teut. 

thrall sb. ME. thral (pi. thralles] 
late OE. prcell (prcel) prop, prcsll 
fr. ON. prcell 'a thrall' (Teut. base 
firahila-) ; cogn. w. OHG. drigil 
'a slave' and w. GOTH, pragjan 
c to run' = GR. Tp-'/f-u' 'to run'. 

thrash, thresh vb. ME. thresshe 
OE. per scan str. vb. = GOTH. 
friskan, OHG. dreskan G. dreschen 
(DU. dorschen), ON. preskja. TEUT. 
\T presk (ITAL. tr esc are is of 
Teut. origin); cp. LITH. traszktti 
'to rattle, clap'? 

thrave sb. ME. thrdve thrive', a 
Scand. loanword; cp. ON. /r*/?, 
DAN. trove 'a number of sheaves'. 

thread sb. ME. thr$d OE. freed 
= ON. prddr, OHG. dira/ G. draht, 
DU. draad. The dental is suffix. 
Derivative of ^fprd (pre) in OE. 
prdwan throw. 

threat sb. short for ME. /r// 
OE. prcat\ cogn. w. OE. prutian 
prfatian wk; vb. 'to threaten'; 
cogn. w. OE. prcaian wk. vb. 
c to threaten' = OHG. drewen 
drouwen (G. drohen). 

three num. ME. /ifoy OE. 
(f. n. /r/ m.) ; ident. w. GOTH. 
frets, ON. prir, DU. </V, OHG. 
dri G. </r: ARYAN base tri- in 
SKR. /r/ (nom. tray as), GR. r^t^, 
LAT. /r, OIR. tri, OSLOV. RUSS. 
fr/, LITH. trys. The ordinal 

third ME. thridde OE. pridda 
corresponds to GOTH, fridja, 
ON. pridi, DU. derde, OHG. //r//A; 
G. dritte\ cp. SKR. trttya, LAT. 
tertius, OSLOV. /r^y. - - thir- 
teen ME. threttene short for OE. 
preotene (pryttyne). thirty ME. 
thritty OE. pritti^ priti^ =. OHG. 
drizuc G. dreissig (see under /^ 
about the OE. -//j = G. -zig in 
zwanzig vierzig etc.). thrice ME. 
Mnfcj 1 extended for an older form 
frie OE. friyi (priwa) = OSAX. 
Mr^t; (thrlwo), OFRIES. Mr^; see 

threshold sb. ME. threshwoldw. 
perscwald mostly perscold\ ident. 
w. OHG. drisciifili, ON. pr&skjpldr. 
Probably not cognate w. thrash. 

thrice see three. 

thrift sb. ME. thrift fr. ON. prift. 
The str. vb. thrive ME. thrive 
is borrowed fr. ON. prifa-sk 'to 

throat sb. ME. thrfle OE. profit 
= OHG. droT^a MHG. dro7%e\\\rotQ 
(G. erdrosseln 'to throttle') ident. 
w. OLG. strata, DU. strot\ ARYAN 
ground - form (s)truda-. ITAL. 
strozza 'gullet' is of TEUT (Lango- 
bard.) origin. 

throe sb. 'pain' ME. throwe fr. 
the wk. vb. OE. prowian = OHG. 
druoen 'to suffer' (Teut. \{~prdw). 

throne sb. for ME. trjne fr. 
OFR. trone. 

throng sb. ME. throng OE. leprong 
fr. the str. vb. OE. fringan = 
OHG. dringan G. DU. dringen', ident. 
w. GOTH, preihan, ON. pryngva 
'to throng': TEUT. \{~ pring prenh, 



throstle tight 

ARYAN y~ trenk trenq in LITH. 
trenkti 'to shake'. 

throstle sb. ME. throstd OE. 
frostle ; cogn. w. LG. drdssl (OSAX. 
*thrastala fr. *frams'tala) and w. 
ON. firgstr (GOTH. *fra$twi) 
'throstle'; cp. also LITH. strdzdas 

through adv. ident. w. thorough'. 
ME. thuruh OE. purh = OHG. duruh 
G. durch, DU. dorchy GOTH, pairh. 

throw vb. ME. throwe OE. 
prdwan str. vb. 'to twist, turn 
= OHG. drden G. drehen (DU. 
draaieri) : TEUT. y~ fire (also in 
thread] = ARYAN \^tre(tere) in 
GR. Tpij-f-tu 'a hole' rtpsTv 
'to pierce' TEQSTQOV 'auger'. 

thrush sb. (a bird's name) ME. 
thrush short for OE. prysce (TEUT. 
base pruskjon)\ cogn. w. OHG. 
drosca (base prauskbn-). 

thud sb. (Scotch) short for 
OE. poden 'whirlwind'. 

thumb sb. ME. thombe thumbe 
older fume OE. puma = OHG. 
dumo G. daumen, DU. duim y SWED. 
tumme (ON. pumall 'the thumb 
of a glove') : TEUT. base flu-man-. 
It rests on an ARYAN adj. tu-mo- 
'thick, strong' in AVEST. tuma 
(SKR. tutuma) 'strong'; cp. LAT. 
turner e 'to swell'. ARYAN y* tu. 

thunder sb. ME. thunder older 
form thoner thuner OE. punor = 
OHG. do?iar G. donner, DU. donder 
(cp. ON. /^rr for *fonr the god 
of thunder). ARYAN \J~tm ton in 
LAT. tonare tonitru, SKR. /## 

to sound , OE. fiuniati'tQ resound, 
creak' (byform \^sten in SKR. 

'to sound', see under stun). - 
thursday ME. thorsday thursday 
late OE. furesdcE^ OE. futtresda^ 
= OHG. donares-tag G. donnerstag, 
DU. donder dag , ON. fdrsdagr. 
Early translation of LAT. 7<5^> 
d^f. TEUT. punara- was the god 
of thunder, corresponding to 
ON. fdrr 'Thor*. 
thus adv. ME. thus OE. pus = 

OSAX. OFRIES. thus, DU. ^// J 

corresponding to OHG. sus. Forms 
of the article the. 

tick (of a bed) sb. not found 
in ME. nor OE., probably borrowed 
fr. DU. tijk = OHG. ziehha G. zieche\ 
source LAT. theca, whence also 
FR. taie 'a tick'. 

ticket sb. fr. FR. etiquette. 

tickle vb. ME. tikele. 

tide sb. ME. tide 'season' OE. 
tid (gen. tide) 'time, hour' = ON. 
tid t OSAX. tidy DU. tijd, OHG. zit 
G. zeit: Teut. base tl-di- t cogn. 
w. OE. ti-ma = time. Hence 
tidings ME. tidinges older form 
tithende fr. ON. tidindi 'tidings' (= 
DU. tij dingy G. zeitung). 

tie vb. ME. tie OE. tiym tlyin 
wk. vb. 'to tie, connect'; derived 
fr. OE. t$ag 'bond, chain, rope' 
= Teut. base taugo: \{~taug tauh 
teuh 'to pull, draw', cogn. w. 
LAT. diicere 'to lead'; cp. OHG. 
ziohan G. ziehen t OE. teon (prt. 

tight adj. ME. ti^fit borrowed 
fr. ON. pettr (therefore also ME. 
thiihi] MHG. tfihte (G. dichi) : 
Teut. base pihti- pinhti-. Cogn. 
w. thick 1 ? 

tike today 


tike sb. ME. tike fr. ON. ttk a 

tile sb. ME. tile contraction fr. 
OE. tfyele ttffe\ source LAT. 
tegula, whence also OHG. ziagal 
G. ziegel, DU. teg el tichel (cp. FR. 
tuile, ITAL. teg old). 

till vb. ME. tile older tilien OE. 
tilian 'to till land, to work'; cogn. 
w. OHG. zilon G. zielen 'to aim 
at', OSAX. tilbn tiloian, DU. telen 
'to till, cultivate' (cp. GOTH. ga~ 
tils adj. 'fitting'). 

till prepos. ME. OE. til (in 
Northumbr. dialect) == ON. til 
'till, to'. Cogn. w. GOTH, gatils 
and OHG. zildn under //// vb. 

tilt sb. late ME. telt 'a covering' 
for an earlier form tild (under 
the influence of tent) = OE. 
leteld'z, covering, tent'; ident. w. 
OHG. zelt gizelt G. zelt 'tent', ODU. 
telt ghetelt 'tent', ON. tjaldi Teut. 
base telda- ga-telda-. 

timber sb. ME. OE. timber 'ma- 
terial for building'; cp. GOTH. 
timrjan 'to build', OHG. zimbar 
'material for building, edifice' 
G. zimmer 'room', OSAX. timbar 
'edifice', DU. timmer, ON. timbr. 

Cognate w. GR. dsf.ietv 'to build' 

Jo,o 'edifice', LAT. domus 

'house', OSLOV. domii 'house', SKR. 

time sb. ME. time OE., tima = 

ON. tlmi time': Teut. base ti-mon- 

fr. the \Tti in tide. 
tin sb. ME. OE. tin = ON. DAN 

DU. tin, OHG. zin G. zinn: common 

Teut. base Una-. 
tinder sb. ME. tinder OE. tyndrei 

= base tundrjbn- in OHG. zuntira 
G. zunder\ cp. DU. tinder, ON. 
tundr. Teut. verbal \^tand tund 
in GOTH, tandjan, OHG. zuntan G. 
ziinden, OE. ontendan 'to kindle'. 

tine (of a fork) sb. ME. OE. //W 
'prong, spike' = ON. /*Wr 'a 
spike', MHG. //: Teut. base iinda- 
tenda-. Probably connected w. 
tooth (Teut. base //-). 

tire vb. ME. tire OE. tyran with 
the non-umlauted by form ME. tire 
OE. teorian. 

tit see titmouse. 

tithe sb. ME. ////^; prop, ordinal 
OE. //?# (teogoda teofia) 'tenth'; 
see ten. 

titlark see titmouse. 

title sb. ME. title fr. OFR. /rV/<? 
= FR. titre: source LAT. titulus. 

titmouse sb. (a bird's name) 
not connected w. mouse\ the 
second element of the compound 

is ME. mfoe OE. mdse = DU. 
OHG. meisa G. meise 'a titmouse' 
(FR. mtsange is of Teut. origin). 
The first element of titmouse 
(as of titlark) is ON. /# 'a small 

to prep. ME. OE. to prep. adv. 
= OSAX. to adv. ( ti prep.), OHG. 
zuo adv. ( zi prep.); cp. DU. 
toe, G. s. 

toad sb. ME. tgde OE. /^-/^ 
(see tadpole)', there are no 
further connections. 

toast vb. ME. to'ste fr. OFR. toste 
= LAT. Aw/0 (fr. the vb. torrerc). 

today ME. to day OE. td day = 
OSAX. /^ dage. For tonight 
tomorrow = ME. to night ty 


toe tower 

morwe OE. to morgne cp. OSAX. 
te naht 'tonight'. 

toe sb. ME. to (pi. ton) OE. td 
(pi. tan) oldest form tdha = 
OHG. zeha G. zehe\ Tent, base 
taihbni cp. DU. teen, ON. td. 

together adv. ME. togedere OE. 
togcedre\ cogn. w. gather. 

token sb. ME. token OR. tdcen: 
Teut. base taikna- in OHG. zeihhan 
G. zeichen, OSAX. tekan, DU. teeken; 
cp. GOTH, taikns (base taikni-). 
Pre-Teut. base doigno- doigni- 
cogn. w. GR. dtiy{.ta by the side 
of ARYAN \T ^ (#) in 
LAT. duo ( dtgnus prodigium). 
E. teach OE. tcecean belongs to 
the same root. 

toll Sb. ME. OE. tdl (II) = OHG. 
zol (II) G. ZOllj OSAX. DU. tol\ cp. 

OSAX. tolna = OE. tolne 'toll'. 
Source LAT. telonium in a vulgar 
form toloneum for teloneum. Cp. 
OE. iolnere OHG. zolandri = LAT. 
tolonarius (tclonarius). 

tomb sb. ME. /<?;A? toumbe fr. 
FR. /bwfo = LAT. tumba. 

tomorrow see today. 

tongs sb. ME. OE. tgnge (tange) 
= OHG. zanga G. zange, DU. /tf^, 
ON. #,: Teut. base tango-n- fr. 
the ARYAN y~ dak in SKR. daf 
GR. (Ta'xmv 'to bite'. 

tongue ME. &# * /^^^ OE. /^^^ 
= GOTH, tuggb, OHG. zunga G. 
zunge y DU. A?/2". Teut. base 
tungon- fr. pre-TEUT. dmghd- in 
OLAT. dingua (= LAT. lingua). 

tonight see today. 

too ident. w. /#. 

tool sb. ME. OE. /<?'/ = ON. #/; 

probably derived fr. the TEUT. 
\{"tau\o make' (see under taw). 

toom adj. ME. OE. torn loanword 
fr. ON. tomr 'empty'; cp. OSAX. 
tdmi tomigj OHG. zuomig 'empty'. 

tooth sb. ME. toth (pi. tetfi) OE. 
top (pi. tef) fr. a Teut. base tanf- 
in OSAX. DU. tand, OHG. zand (zan 
G. a:^), ON. tgnn\ ablaut-varia- 
tion GOTH, tunfus. ARYAN base 
dont- dint- in SKR. dat danta, 

GR. 6<5oVT- (odotg), LAT. ^2/- (dens) , 

LITH. dantis. ARYAN ^^/ 'to eat' 

see under ^^/; the form of the 
Aryan word (cp. sootfi) is present 

top 1 sb. ME. OE. top (pp) = ON. 
toppr, DU. top (OHG. G. zopf 'a 
tuft of hair) : Teut. base toppa- f 

top 2 sb. (a child's toy) ME. OE. 
top (pp); phonetically differing 
fr. the equiv. LG. dop, OHG. topfo 
G. topf. 

torch sb. ME. torche fr. FR. 
tor die, whence also DU. toorts. 

touch vb. ME. touche fr. FR. 
toucher, whence also DU. toetsen. 

tough adj. ME. tough OE. toh fr. 
TEUT. *tanhu-, whence also DU. 
taaij OHG. zahi G. zahe. Perhaps 
cogn. w. OE. letpng adj. 'in con- 
tact with' tytenge 'close to'. 

towel sb. ME. touail fr. OFR. 
toaille = FR. touaille. Source an 
old Teut. word ; cp. OHG. dwaJulla 
G. zwehle 'towel'. TEUT. \T *pwah 
in GOTH, pwahan = OE. pivfan 
str. vb. 'to wash'. 

tower sb. ME. tour late OE. 

town truncheon 



(n th cent.) tur fr. FR. tour. 
Source LAT. tur r is. 

town sb. ME. toun OE. tun; the 
original meaning 'fence' is seen 
in OE. tynan wk. vb. 'to fence, 
enclose'. Cp. ON. ttin, DU. tuin, 
OHG. ziin G. zaun 'fence, hedge'. 
Cogn. w. OIR. d&n 'fortress' (in 
CELT, place-names as in Augusto- 
dunum) . 

trace sb. ME. trdfe fr. FR. trace 
(source LAT. tractiare). 

trade sb. original meaning 'path' 
fr. the vb. tread. 

trail vb. ME. traile late OE. 
trcR^lian fr. OFR. trailler y whence 
also DU. LG. treilen. 

traitor sb. ME. traitour fr. OFR. 
traitor (FR. traitre) = LAT. tra- 

tramp, trample vb. ME. trampe 
= LG. tramp en trampeln; cp. 
GOTH. trimpan^ 'to tread'. 

trap sb. ME. trappe late OE. 
trceppe loanword fr. FR. trappe ; 
source OHG. trappa. 

travel vb. ME. travaille fr. FR. 

treachery sb. ME. tr{cherie 
triccherie fr. FR. tricherie (FR. 
tricher vb.). 

tread vb. ME. tr$de OE. tredan 
str. vb. = OSAX. tredan, DU. treden, 
OHG. tretan G. treten; cp. GOTH. 
trudan, ON. troda 'to tread'. 
TEUT. \^tred trod. 

treason sb. ME. traisoun fr. OFR. 
traison = FR. trahison'. source 
LAT. tradilio(nem). 

treasure sb. ME. tresor fr. FR. 
tresor = LAT. thesaurus. 

treat vb. fr. FR. tr alter = LAT. 

tree sb. ME. treov. treo = GOTH. 
triu, OSAX. trio, ON. tre: Teut. 
base trewa-t derived fr. an ARYAN 
dru doru in SKR. dru ddru 'wood', 
GR. d'pvg 'oak' dopv 'spear', 
OSLOV. druva dr&uo 'wood'; 
cogn. w. tar and trough. 

tripe sb. ME. tripe = DU. trijp 
fr. FR. tripe. 

trouble vb. short for ME. trouble: 
loanword fr. FR. troubler. 

trough sb. ME. trogh OE. troh 
trog = ON. OHG. G. DU. trogi 
Teut. base troga- truga-, pro- 
bably derived fr. ARYAN dru- 
'wood' under tree. 

trout sb. ME. troute (for troughtef) 
OE. truht: early loanword fr. 
LAT. triicta = FR. truite. 

truant sb. ME. truant prop. 
triiaund fr. FR. truand 'a vaga- 

truce sb. ME. trewes plural form 
of ME. trfwe 'truce' = OE. treowa 
'confidence, faith'. Derivative 
of the adj. true ME. trewe OE. 
^etreowe "^etrywe = OHG. triuwi 
gitriuwi G. (ge)treu, OSAX. triuwi '; 
cp. GOTH, triggws ON. tryggr 
'true'. Cogn. w. OPRUSS. druwis 
'belief druwit 'to believe'. 
ARYAN y" dru. See truth and 

trump sb. ME. trumpe trompe 
fr. FR. trompe, whence also ODU. 

truncheon sb. ME. trounchoun 
tronchoun fr. OFR. tronchon = 
FR. tron^on. 


trust twine 

trust sb. ME. trust fr. ON. troust 
'confidence' (= OHG. trost G. 
trost 'consolation'): Teut. base 
trausta- fr. an ARYAN base drouz- 
da-\ cogn. w. IR. druit (base 
druzdi-) 'firm, trustworthy'. 

truth ME. treuthe OE. treowj) 
'faith, fidelity': abstract forma- 
tion to true. 

try vb. ME. trie fr. FR. trier. 

tub sb. ME. tubbe = DU. tobbe, 
LG. //^fo 'a tub'; cogn. w. OHG. 
zubar G. zuber. Source LAT. tubus 
'a pipe, tube'? 

tuck vb. ME. tukke =. OHG. zockbn 
zucken : intensive formation of y~ 
tith in GOTH, tiuhan = OHG. ziohan 
(see under /zV). 

Tuesday sb. ME. Tiwesday OE. 
Tiwesd&i = ON. Tfsdagr, G. (Ale- 
mann.) Zistag'. translation of LAT. 
Martis dies. The Teut. god Tlw 
corresponds to Mars. OE. Tlw 
ON. 7)V rests on ARYAN deiwos 
'god' (in SKR. deva, LAT. /&&tf; 
cp. ON. tivar 'the gods'). 

tumble vb. ME. tumble tomble 
fr. OE. tumbian 'to dance, tumble'; 
cp. DU. tuimelen fr. ODU. turn en. 

tun sb. ME. tunne tonne OE. tunne 
= DU. /0/z; ident. w. OHG. ^72720 
G. tonne and FR. /0#/?<?. Source 
and history of the group not 
cleared up yet. 

turbot sb. ME. turbut fr. FR. 

turf sb. ME. turf torf OE. turf 
ON. torf, OHG. zurba, DU. /#r/" 
'peaf : Teut. base turb- torb- fr. 
an ARYAN base drbh- dwbh-; cp. 
SKR. darbha 'bunch of grass'. 

turn vb. short for ME. tourne 
late OE. turnian fr. FR. tourner. 

turtle sb. ME. OE. turtle (== 
OHG. turtulatuba G. turtcltaube) 
fr. LAT. turtur. 

tusk sb. ME. tusk tusch short 
for OE. tusc (tusc); probably Teut. 
base timska-, derived fr. TEUT. 
tun}" (tanp-) = tooth. 

twelve num. ME. OE. twelf (infl. 
ME. twelve OE. twelf e) = GOTH. 
twalif, OHG. zwelifQ. zwolf, os AX. 
twelify DU. twaalf. The word 
rests on the num. two; the 2 nd 
element (cp. LITH. dvylika twelve') 
occurs again in GOTH, ainlif = 
OHG. einlif (see eleven). 
twenty ME. twenty OE. twenti^ 
probably contracted for *twe- 
%enti% = OHG. zweinzug (G. zwanzig, 
DU. twintig). - - twice adv. ME. 
twies prop, twle OE. twfya (twiwa 

twig sb. ME. twig pi. twigges; 
cogn. w. OE. twi (pi. fari%v)j OHG. 
zwi and also w. OHG. swig G. 
zweig y DU. twijg. Probably con- 
nected w. the numeral two 
(ARYAN stem dwi-). 

twins pi. ME. twinnes OE. 
letwinnas; ident. w. ON. tvinnr 
'two and two'; cp. OHG. zwini- 
li?ig .G. zwilliitg, DU. tweeling 'a 
twin' and LITH. dvynu 'twins'. All 
derived fr. the ARYAN stem dwi-; 
see two. 

twine vb. ME. twine vb. fr. the 
sb. OE. twin 'linen, a twisted 
thread' DU. twijn, which is 
ident. w. MHG. G. zwirn , DU. 
tweern: Teut. base twizna- fr. 

twinckle up 

2I 7 

\{~twis (see under twist"), cogn. \ 
w. the num. two. 

twinckle vb. ME. twincle OE. j 

twist vb. ME. twiste vb. fr. OE. 
twist sb. 'rope' = ODU. twist 
'thread'; TEUT. \ftwis as in G. 
zwirn 'thread'; see twine. 

twit vb. short for ME. at- wife 
OE. cet-witan str. vb. 'to reproach'; 
cp. OE. ed-wlt sb. 'reproach' and 
GOTH, idweitjan >vb. 'to reproach', 
OHG. firwii^an G. verweisen, DU. 
verwijten 'to reproach' and OE. 

Wtte y OSAX. Wtti, OHG. wtyty *pu- 

nishment', GQTB..fraweitan str. vb. 

twitch vb. ME. twicche (without 

palatalisation twicke) OE. twiccian 

= G. zwicken (cp. OHG. zwecchon) : 
Teut. ground-form *twikkjdnt 

twitter vb. ME. twitere = OHG. 
zwizziron G. zititschern ; perh. a 
reduplicated WEST -TEUT. *twi 
twiron? (TEUT. ^twisf). 

two num. : orig. twain masc. 
two f. n. = ME. twein two OE. 
twe^en twd (tu n. for *twu orig. 
*two) ; cp. OHG. zwfae zwa 
zwei, OSAX. twene twd (two) 
twt, GOTH, twai twos twa. 
ARYAN stem duo- dwo- in LAT. 
duo, GR. Ji/o (but dtodexa for 
*J/wJfxa), SKR. ^^z dva. 

tyrant sb. ME. ttraunt (with 
excrescent / as in pageant] fr. 
OFR. /Rr = LAT. tyrannus. 


udder sb. ME. udder short for 
OE. uder = OHG. ^/^r (G. euter), 


base udhr- in SKR. udhttr, LAT. 
w^r; cp. GR. ovfrap. All equi- 

ugly adj. ME. ugly fr. ON. uggligr 
'dreadful' ; cp. ON. ugga 'to fear. 

umpire prop, numpire (as auger 
for orig. nauger) ME. noumpfre fr. 
OFR. nonper. 

un- 1 prefix (of adjectives) ME. 

OE. - = G. OHG. GOTH. Ufl- ; 

ident. w. LAT. in-, GR. ^- a-, 
SKR. - ar- : ARYAN ground-form 
9n- t cogn. w. SKR. na, LAT. ^, 
GOTH. OHG. ni y OE. ^ not. 
un 2 prefix (of verbs) ME. un- 

late OE. w- OE. on- = GOTH. 
//-, OHG. int- G. ^/-. 

uncle sb. ME. uncle oncle fr. FR. 
0& (= LAT. avunculus). Cp. 
also a/, nevew, niece. 

under prep. ME. OE. under = 
GOTH. OSAX. undar, ON. undir, 
DU. onder, OHG. z//z/^r G. unter. 
Two different prepositions are 
blended in this form: LAT. //!fr, 
SKR. ^/^r and LAT. infra SKR, 

up prep. adv. ME. up OE. upp\ 
ident. w. OHG. w/ G. auf, OSAX. 
/; cp. the ablaut-relation GOTH. 
iup. Cogn. w. OE. ufan 'from 
above' = OHG. obana OSAX. obana 
'from above'. See above and 


urchin very 

and over, upon ME. upon OE. 
upp-on; cp. ON. upp a. 

urchin sb. ME. irchoun fr. OFR. 
irefoti (FR. hcrisson) ; source a 
vulgar LAT. ericio(nem) = LAT. 
ericius 'hedge-hog' (the genuine 
E. word was OE. i^el = OHG. 
igil G. igcl, cogn. w. GR. ^Tvoc). 

us pron. ME. us (ous) OE. us for 
TEUT. uns- in G. OHG. GOTH, uns, 
OSAX. us, DU. ons. Cp. our 
and we. 

use sb. ME. use fr. FR. #$ = 


usquebaugh sb. fr. IR. uisge 
beatha 'water of life'; ident. w. 

utmost short for ME. outemeste 
OE. (w. umlaut) ytemest; ident. 
w. outmost. 

utter vb. ME. uttre outre derived 
fr. ME. oute vb. 'to put out' OE. 
utian 'to put out'. Source out. 

vain adj. ME. vain fr. FR. vain 
= LAT. vdnus. 

vale sb. ME. vdl fr. FR. vale 
and valley ME. valeie fr. FR. valtte. 
Source LAT. vallis. 

valiant adj. ME. valiaunt fr. 
FR. vaillant. 

valley see vale. 

van ident. w. fan. 

vane sb. (a wether-cock) ME. 
(Kent.) vdne (else) fane OE. 
fdna = OHG. fano (gund-fano) 
G. fahne, DU. vaan, GOTH, fana: 
Teut. base fanan- y cogn. w. 
LAT. pannus 'cloth'. 

vanish vb. ME. vanisshe fr. 
OFR. vanir (vaniss-), source LAT. 

vanquish vb. ME. venquisshe 
fr. OFR. veinquir (veinquiss-) 
= FR. vainer e\ source LAT. vin- 

vat sb. ME. (Kent.) vat (else) 
fat OE. feet = OSAX, ON. fat, 

OHG. fa^ G. /ass, DU. vat: Teut. 
base fata-. Cogn. w. L!TH. pftdas 
'a pot' and OHG. foTgfin G. fasten 
'to contain'. 

vaunt vb. short for ME. avaunte 
vb. fr. OFR. avanter (FR. vanter) 
= late LAT. vanitare. 

veal sb. ME. v$l fr. OFR. veel 
(FR. veaii)\ source LAT. vitellus 
'a little calf. 

veil sb. ME. veile fr. ONFR. veile 
= LAT. velum. 

vein sb. ME. veine fr. FR. veine 
= LAT. vena. 

venison sb. ME. veneisoun fr. 
OFR. veneison = LAT. venatio(nem). 

venom sb. ME. venim fr. OFR. 
venim = LAT. venenum. 

verse sb. ME. vers fr. FR. vers; 
OE. ME. fers is loanword fr. LAT. 
versus with the medieval pro- 
nunciation of LAT. v as f. 

very adj. ME. verrei verrai fr. 
OFR. verai (FR. vrai) ; source 

vessel wade 


a LAT. type verdcus for LAT. 

vessel sb. ME. vessel fr. OFR. 
veissel (FR. vaisseau) ==. LAT. 
vascellum (vasculus vas). 

vetch sb. ME. vecche fr. OFR. veche 
(FR. ew^) = LAT. zricia, whence 
also OHG. wicka G. wicke DU. wik. 

vex vb. ME. w#<? fr. FR. vexer 
= LAT. vexare. 

vial (phial) sb. ME. z>/<?& fr. FR. 
/<?/<? (OFR. viole). 

vice sb. ME. z^ fr. FR. vice 
= LAT. vithim. 

victory sb. ME. victor ie fr. OFR. 
vie tor ie = FR. victoire. 

victuals sb. (ME. vitaille) fr. 
OFR. vitaille in the spelling vie- 
tuaille. Source LAT. victualia. 

view sb. fr. FR. vue. 

vigil sb. ME. vigile fr. FR. vigile 
= LAT. vigilia. 

vigor sb. ME. vigour fr. OFR. 
vigour (FR. vigeur) = LAT. 
vigor -em. 

vile adj. ME. z>// fr. FR. z># = 
LAT. vilis. 

villain sb. ME. vilein fr. OFR. 
vilein = LAT. villanus. 

vine sb. ME. vine fr. FR. z^rc* 
= LAT. vinea. Cp. 7*'/*. 

vinegar sb. ME. vinfere fr. FR. 
vinaigre = LAT. vinum acre. For 
the 2 nd element cp. eager. 

vinewed adj. (the initial v 
instead of / is due to Kentish 
influence) fr. OE. fynegian 'to 
become mouldy' (fyni^ 'mouldy'). 

vintage sb. transformed fr. ME. 
vinddge, which rests on FR. ven- 
dange = LAT. vindemja (whence 
OHG. wintimma Vintage'). 

viol sb. fr. FR. viole = ITAL. 
SPAN, viola; source a late LAT. 
vitula, whence also fiddle. 

virgin sb. ME. virginc fr. OFR. 

virtue sb. ME. vertil fr. FR. vertu. 

visage sb. ME. visdge fr. FR. 
visage. vision sb. ME. visioun 
fr. FR. vision. 

vixen sb. (^instead off due to 
Kentish influence) OE. *fyxen: 
Teut. base fuhsinjb- (G.fiichsin), 
derived fr. TEUT. fuhs- fohs- 
under fox (^injb- being fern, 
suffix as in G. gottin, grafin etc.). 

voice sb. ME. vois fr. OFR. vois 
(FR. voix) = LAT. vox. 

voutch vb. ME. vouche fr. OFR. 
voucher (= LAT. vocare). 

vow sb. ME. vou fr. OFR. vou 
(FR. voeu) = LAT. votum. 

voyage sb. fr. FR. voyage', cp. 
vedge fr. OFR. veiage. 
3K LAT. viaticum. 


wade vb. ME. wdde OE. wddan 
(prt. wo ft) str. vb. = = ON. vada, 

DU. waden, OHG. watan str. vb. 
(G. waten wk. vb.) : TEUT. \fwad, 


wafer wand 

ARYAN y~ wddh in LAT. voder e 
'to go'. 

wafer sb. ME. wdfre fr. OFR. 
waufre = FR. gaufre\ ident. 
w. DU. wafel, G. waff el (OSAX. 
*wafla). The group prop, meant 
'honey comb' as in FR. and is 
derived fr. a Teut. word (OHG. 
wabo G. wabe', \^web in weave). 

wag vb. ME. wagge (OE. *wag- 
gian) derived fr. \^w'eg (in OE. 
wagian 'to move, wag'); see 

wage sb. ME. wage fr. OFR. 
wage (FR. gage}', source a vul- 
gar LAT. wadium for LAT. vadium 
(influenced by a TEUT. -GOTH. 
wadi 'a pledge' under wed). 

waggon sb. fr. DU. wagen\ 
ident. w. wain. 

wail vb. ME. waile weile] derived 
fr. ME. wet 'woe' (loanword fr. 
ON. vei\ see woe). 

wain sb. ME. wain OE. wceyi: 

Teut. base wagnu- in OHG. wagan 

G. DU. wagen (ON. vagn) ; ARYAN 

\^wegh as in LAT. vehiculum, 

GR. 00g, OIR. ./ 'wain'. See 

waist sb. ME. wast; doubtful 
whether allied to wax? 

wait vb. ME. watte fr. OFR. 
waiter] source a vulgar LAT. 
vb. wactare, der. fr. OHG. wahta 
= GOTH, wahtito 'a watching'. 
For the root see wake and 

wake vb. ME. wake OE. wdcian 
= OSAX. wakbjan, DU* waken, 
ON. zur&7, OHG. wahhen G. wachen 
wk. vb. (only GOTH, wakan str. 

vb.). Cp. also OE. weccean, OHG. 
weckan t OSAX. wekkian, DU. wekken, 
GOTH, wakjan 'to awake'. ARYAN 
\f^weg in LAT. vegere 'to excite, 
arouse' (z/^7 'awake') and SKR. 
>4/Vzjy 'to incite'. See watch 
(and wait). 

walk vb. ME. walke\ intensive 
formation (cp. lurk, stalk) of 
OE. weallian 'to wander* OHG. 
wallbn G. wallen. 

wall sb. ME. ze/0/ (pi. walks) 
OE. o/#7// (pi. wea-llas) = DU. 
7^/, OSAX. o/<z/ (pi. wallas)} not 
found in OHG. (but G. wall 
borrowed fr. LG.). Source LAT. 
vallum 'i rampart'. 

wall-eyed adj. fr. OE. wealden- 
fye = ON. vald-eygdr 'wall-eyed'? 

wallow vb. ME. walwe OE. weal- 
wian 'to wallow 1 ; cp. GOTH, wal- 
wisbn 'to wallow' and walwjan 
'to roll'. Cogn. w. LAT. volvere 
(GR. tlMtiv) 'to' roll'. ARYAN 
\^ivelw wolw. 

walnut sb. ME. walnote walnute 
OE. wealh-hnutu = ON. valhnot, 
DU. walnoot G. walnuss (not found 
in OHG.). The former element 
(TEUT. walha-) see under Welsh 
(walnut prop, meant 'French 
nut'; cp. LAT. nux Gallica = 
FR. gauge). 

walrus sb. = DU. walrus wal- 
rosy G. walross, DAN. hvalros] cp. 
ON. hrosshvalr (whence OE. hors- 
hwcel)'. lit. 'a horse-whale'. See 

wan adj. ME. wan(nn) OE. wann 
(wo fin). 

wand sb. ME. wand fr. ON. 

wander was 


vgnd (gen. vandar) = GOTH. 
wandus 'a rod'. Cogn. w. LITH. 
wantal or w. wind vb.? 

wander vb. ME. wandre OE. 
wandrian', cp. MHG. G. wandern 
wandeln (OHG. wantalon} 'to 
wander*. Cogn. w. wend vb. 

wane vb. ME. wane OE. wdnian 
= OHG. wanon, ON. vana 'to 
wane, diminish' : derived fr. TEUT. 
wana- 'lacking 5 in OE. wan, ON. 
vanr, OHG. wan, GOTH, wans 
'lacking' (cp. DU. wanhoop 'de- 
spair' and G. wahnwitz 'want of 
wits'). Cogn. w. SKR. una 'wan- 
ting'. want sb. ME. want fr. 
ON. vant neutr. of vanr 'lacking, 
deficient'. wanton ME. wan- 
toun prop, wantpwen for *wan- 
togen : OE. togen is participle of 
teon (see team) 'to educate'. 

war sb. ME. (since 12 th cent.) 
werre = DU. werre fr. OFR. werre 
(FR. guerre]', source OHG. werra 
Vexation' (OHG. OSAX. werran 
str. vb. 'to bring into confusion 
or disorder'). 

ward sb. ME. ward OE. weard 
'watchman, guardian' = OSAX. 
ward, OHG. G. wart (ON. vprdr 
for *wardus) : ARYAN \fwor see 
under wary. warden sb. 
ME. wardein fr. OFR. wardein 
(gardein) ident. w. guardian', 
see guard. wardrobe ME. 
warderobe fr. OFR. warderobe (FR. 

ware sb. ME. ware OE. wdru 
'merchandise' = DU. waar G. 
ware, ON. vara. 

warlock sb. for ME. warlgwe 

OE. wcerloga 'traitor' (= OSAX. 
war logo) : compound of OE. war 
'faith, agreement' ancl -loga 'a 
liar 5 (OE. leogan under lie ] ). 

warm adj. ME. warm OE. wearm 
= OSAX. OHG. G. DU. warm, ON. 
varmr (cp. GOTH, warmjan 'to 
make warm') : Teut. base warma- 
for ARYAN base ghwermo- in GR. 
d-tQpoq ((fQu6c) = LAT. formus 

warn vb. ME. warne OH. wear- 
nian war(e)nian = OHG. warnon 
G. warnen 'to warn'. 

warp sb. ME. warp OE. wearp 
derived fr. OE. weorpan ME. werpe 
str. vb. 'to throw* = GOTH. 
wairpan, OSAX. werpan, DU. 
werpen, OHG. werfan G. werfen 
str. vb. 'to throw*. ARYAN 
^fwergw in SKR. vrj\Q remove', 
OSLOV. vretti (vruga) 'to throw'. 

warrant sb. ME. war aunt fr. 
OFR. war ant (FR. garani). 

wart sb. ME. werte\ umlauted 
byform of OE. wearte - - ON. 
varta, ODU. warte, OHG. warza 
G. Wtfr0. Perhaps cogn. w. OE. 
wearr 'callosity, wart' and LAT. 
verruca 'wart'. 

wary adj. extension of ME. 
war OE. war 'cautious, aware' 
= GOTH, wars, OSAX. war 'cau- 
tious' (OHG. giwar G. gewahr): 
ARYAN \T wor also in GR. o(ty.v 
'to observe'. 

was (I, he) -- were (we) ME. 
was-were OE. was-wfron (watron): 
forms of the preterite of OE. 
wesan = DU. wezen, OHG. 

sb - ' a 


wash wean 

being'). ARYAN \f~wes in SKR. 
vas 'to stay in a place'. 

wash vb. ME. wasshe OE. wascan 
ON. vaska, OHG. wascan G. 
waschen. ARYAN \^wask in IR. 
faiscim, w. gwasgu 'I press'. 

wasp sb. ME. waspe OE. o/^j 
fr. a Teut. base wafsa- in OHG. 
wafsa', cogn. w. LAT. vespa, LITH. 
##/.?# 'breeze', OSLOV. ?w# 'wasp'. 
ARYAN \l^webh in weave\ wasp 
orig. 'weaver'. 

waste adj. ME. zew/ fr. OFR. 
wast (cp. FR. gdter 'to make 
waste'). Source LAT. vdstus, 
influenced by TEUT. wosti 'waste' 
(OE. weste, OHG. wuosti G. wust 
fr. an ARYAN wdstu- in OIR. /Jw, 
LAT. vdstus 'waste'). 

watch vb. ME. wacche OE. *wcec- 
can (in the pres. partic. wceccende) 
= OE. wdcian under wake. 

water sb. ME. water OE. water 
= OSAX. watar, DU. water, OHG. 
wa^ar G. wasser\ WEST-TEUT. 
base water a- \ ident. w. GOTH. 
watb, ON. vatn. Cogn. w. wet 
and outside of TEUT., w. GR. 
vdcoQ, SKR. udan, OSLOV. RUSS. 
voda 'water' ARYAN \f^wod\ ud. 

wattle sb. ME. watel OE. watol 
'hurdle, tile'. 

wave sb. derived fr. the wk. 
vb. wave ME. wave OE. wdfian 
'wave, fluctuate'; cp. ON. vdfa 
'to vibrate to and fro'. 

wax sb. ME. waxe OE. weaxan 
str. vb. = OHG. OSAX. wahsan 
G. wachsen, DU. wassen\ cp. GOTH. 
wahsjan. ARYAN \{~weks uks in 

SKR. uks 'grow up, get strong', 
GR. ae<*ii> 'wax'. Cp. ox. 

wax sb. ME. wax OE. weax =. 
ON. vax, OHG. 7/^j G. wachs, 
DU. ze/otf. Cogn. w. LITH. w&sz- 
kas y OSLOV. RUSS. voska. 

way sb. ME. way wey wet OE. 

W'fy = OSAX. OHG. W'eg G. DU. 

weg, ON. vegr, GOTH, wigs 'way': 
Teut. base wega- (allied to LAT. 
via 'way'), derived fr. the TEUT. 
\(*weg in OE. weg an 'to carry' 
= OHG. w'egan 'to move', GOTH. 
gawigan'j iderit. w. LAT. vehere 
'to carry', GR. 6#&iVj SKR. z^/z 
'to carry': ARYAN \^wegh also 
in wain. 

we pron. ME. OE. we = GOTH. 
o/j, OHG. G. wir , OSAX. wi\ 
ident. w. SKR. vay-a?n 'we' : ARYAN 
ground-form wei fr. a stem we- in 
ON. vdrr 'our'. 

weak adj. ME. weik fr. ON. 
veikr veykr\ ident. w. OE. wdc 
ME. wok = DU. week, OSA.X. wek, 
OHG. ze/^ G. weich. TEUT. \J~wik 
in OE. wican 'to give way' = 
OSAX. wikan, ON. vikja, OHG. 
wihhan G. weichen. Cogn. w. 
GR. fixed/ 'to give way', LAT. 
vices 'change'. ARYAN \^wig wik. 

weal sb. ME. w$le OE. wela 
(weold) 'prosperity , riches' = 
OSAX. welo 'happiness, riches' 
(OHG. wela wola G. wohl 'wel- 
fare'). Cogn. w. o///and will. 
wealth ME. welthe extension 
of weal = DU. weelde. 

wean sb. ME. w$ne OE. wenian 
'to wean a child' prop, 'to ac- 
custom'; ident. w. OSAX. wennian, 

weapon week 


(G. gewohnen), ON. venja 'to ac- 
custom'. Derived fr. the adj. 
wana- in ON. vanr 'accustomed' 
(cp. QKG.giwon OE. tywun 'usual'). 
weapon sb. ME. wepen OE. w&pen 

ON. vdpn, OSAX. wapan, DU. 
wapen , OHG. waff an G. o/<z^J? 
(GOTH, wepna plur.). 

wear vb. ME. //r^ OE. iierian 
wk. vb. 'to clothe' = GOTH. 
wasjan 'to clothe', OHG. werian, 
ON. zwyifl 'to cloth' : TEUT. \fwaz 
was (also in GOTH, was-ti 'gar- 
ment'), ARYAN \fwes in LAT. zw- 
/& 'garment', GR.f tf-^V clothing', 
evvc(.ii 'I clothe', SKR. zw 'to 

weary adj. ME. wery OE. oVr/j 
(w(zri) = OSAX. wbrig 'tired', 
OHG. wuorag 'intoxicated' : TEUT. 
\{~wor1 or wozl 

weasand sb. ME. wtsend OE. 
wcesend umlauted byform of OE. 
wdsend 'throat, gullet' = OFRIES. 
wdsende 'windpipe', OHG. weisunt 

weasel sb. ME. wtsel OE. wesule 
= OHG. wisula G. wiesely DU. wezd 
'weasel'. Perhaps cogn. w. LAT. 
visio 'bad smell', whence OFR. 
voison 'foumart'. 

weather sb. ME. weder OE. weder 
= OSAX. wedar, DU. weder , OHG. 
wetar G. wetter, ON. vedr: Teut. 
base wedra-, ARYAN base wedkro- 
in OSLOV. vedr ft 'clear' (weather) 

vedro 'clear weather', 
weave sb. ME. wfve OE. wefan 

str. vb. = ON. v'e'fa, DU. weven, 
OHG. weban G. weben. ARYAN V" 
webh ubh (see wasp, wafer and 

weevil) also in GR. vqrj-vqxx; 'a 
web* vq.ah'tiv 'weave'. web 
ME. OE. tf ("^ fr. TEUT. wabja- 

in OHG. weppi, DU. ze/^, ON. z/^/r 
' i > 
a web . 

wed vb. prop, 'to engage' ME. 
wedde OE. weddian = GOTH, ga- 
wadjon 'to pledge', ON. vedja. 
Derived fr. the sb. OE. wedd = 
GOTH. wadi t OHG. wetti 'a pledge' 
and cogn. w. LAT. vas vadis 'a 
pledge'. Further relations see 
under gage and wage. wed- 
lock ME. wedlok OE. wedldc (OE. 
lac 'gift, offering'). 

wedge sb. ME. wegge OE. wedg 
= OHG. wecki (G. weck) t DU. o/^-, 
ON. veggr: Teut. base wagja-; 
cogn. W.-LITH. wagis, LETT, wadsis 
'a wedge'. 

wedlock see a></. 

Wednesday ME. wednes-day um- 
lauted byform of OE. Wodnes-dcei 
= LG. wodmsdach, DU. woensdag'. 
prop, 'day of Woden': translation 
of LAT. Mercurii dies. The Teut. 
god Woden (OHG. Wuotan, ON. 
Odinn) is identified w. Mercurius. 

weed ! sb. (plantname) ME. zi-vi/ 
OE. a/^rf = OSAX. e//0// 'weed. 

weed 2 sb. 'garment' ME. /^S? 
OE. w<?V/ w^/ (infl. -0 = ON. vdd, 
OSAX. a/A/, OHG. wat 'clothing, 
garment': Teut. base w&-di- fr. 
an ARYAN v^ ^ <to weave' in 
SKR. va 'to weave*. 

week sb. ME. weke wike OE. 7f/V 
= OSAX. wika, ON. f/^, ^OHG. 
wehha wohha G. o/<?^ 'week'; cp. 
GOTH, wiko 'order, succession. 


ween were 

Derived fr. V wik in OE. wlcan 
'to give way' see under weak. 

ween vb. ME. wene OE. wenan 
(prop, wcenan) 'to hope, expect' 
= GOTH, wenjan, ON. vcena, OHG. 
wdn(ii)an G. wdhnen: derived fr. 
OE. wen (ween) sb. 'hope' OHG. 
wan G. wahn, ON. vdn, GOTH. 
wens: Teut. base weni-. 

weep vb. prop, a str. vb. ME. 
wepe (pit. wep) OE. wepan wcepan 
(prt. weop) = GOTH, wopjan wk. 
vb., OSAX. wopian, OHG. wuoffan 
MHG. wilefen 'lament', ON. #^0 
(orig. *v(Kpd) 'to cry'. TEUT. y^ 

weevil sb. ME. ^/^/ wivel OE. 

Z//W OSAX. wffitl, OHG. /#//, 

ON. jj;///: derived fr. the TEUT. 
\rweb in weave] cp. LITH. ow- 
lalas 'weevil'. From the same 
root also weft ME. OE. weft = 
ON. veptr. 

weight sb. ME. weight fr. ON. 
v&tt orig. *vaskt\ cp. OE. wiht 
'weight' fr. OE. wegan (see way). 

weird sb. 'fate' cp. ME. wirde 
OE. wyrd 'fate' ON. urd, OSAX. 
wurd 'fate*. Derived fr. TEUT. 
werfan = OE. wear dan, OSAX. 
w'erdan. OHG. werdan G. werden, 
ON. verda, GOTH, wairfan 'to be- 
come'. ARYAN \/~wert'm LAT. e^r- 
/^r^ 'to turn', SKR. zj/ 'to turn'. 

welkin sb. ME. welk'ie welken; 
umlauted byform of ME. wolkne 
OE. wolcen 'cloud' = OSAX. OHG. 
wolkan, OSAX. wulka, OHG. wolkd 
G, wolke 'cloud'. Perhaps cogn. 
w. OST.OV. vluguku 'humid' 

vlaga 'humidity', LITH. vilgyt 
'to moisten'. ARYAN \^w3lg. 

well adv. ME. OE. we I = DU. 
wel, OSAX. wet, ON. vel; cp. OHG. 
wela wola G. wohl (GOTH, walla). 
Origin doubtful, but connection 
w. weal and will certain. 

well sb. ME. welle OE. welle 
wella. (wylle wylla): Teut. base 
wall/on-: umlaut-relation of OE. 
weallan str. vb. 'boil, flow' 
OSAX. OHG. wallan str. vb. 'boil, 
flow'. ARYAN \l"wel wal in OE. 
wylm 'boiling, flowing' = SKR. 
ur?ni 'flood', OHG. wella G. welle 
'wave' = OSLOV. vluna, LITH. 
vilnis 'wave'. 

Welsh adj. ME. welsh OE. 
wylisc umlauted fr. a TEUT. 
walhiska-] derived fr. OE. Wealh 
'foreigner', prop, 'a Celt' (cp. 
walnut). The corresponding 
adj. OHG. walhisc sb. Walah 
means an inhabitant of a Ro- 
mance country. TEUT. Walha- 
rests on the Celtic tribe name 


wen sb. ME. wen OE. wenn 'tu- 
mor' =. DU. wen, LG. wene: Teut. 
base wanja- (perhaps cogn. w. 

wench sb. ME. wenche older 
wenchel prop, 'infant'; ablaut-re- 
lation of OE. w'mcel 'child'. 

wend vb. (only in the prt. went) 
fr. ME. wende prt. wente OE. wfndan 
prt. wende] orig. meaning 'to 
turn' = GOTH, wandjan, OSAX. 
wendian, OHG. wentan G. wenden. 
Causal of wind. 

were see was. 

west whey 


west sb. ME. OE. west = ON. 
vesfrj DU. G. west (FR. ouest of 
Teut. origin). 

wet adj. short for ME. w$t OE. 
wit wcet = ON. vdtr, OFRIES. wet\ 
Teut. base weta- fr. the same 
root as water. 

wether sb. ME. wether OE. weder ' 
= GOTH, wifrusy ON. vedr, OSAX. 
withar wethar, DU. weder weer, 
OHG. widar G. widder. Cogn. w. 
LAT. vitulus 'calf* and SKR. vatsa 

whale sb. ME. what (pi. whales) 
OE. /&/#/ (pi. hwdlas] = ON. kualr> 
OHG. '0/ (G. walfisch, DU. aw/- 
z//M# = ON. hvalfiskr}. Cogn. w. 
GR./rsAwo 'monster', ^.walrus. 

what pron. ME. K/&Z/ OE. hwat 

= OHG. /te*5 G. Was, DU. 0/tf/, 

OSAX. /fae/<?/; cp. the Teut. stem 
hwa- under who. 

wheat sb. ME. whgte OE. hwckte 
= GOTH, hwaiteis, ON. /%m//, DU. 
w/fc, OHG. weizzi G. weizen. Cogn. 
w. white = TEUT. ^'/te- (in ME. 
we find wvWfe wheat' by the side 
of wh{te\ 

wheel sb. ME. whfl OE. hwe'ol 
(w. the byform hweowol hwcogol) 
= ON. hjol(i^hvjol) hvel, DU. 
^V/ (OFRIES. fiat)'- TEUT - base 
te;^/fl- (for hwtgwl*-) and 
hwekwla-, ARYAN base ^- m 
SRK. ^/Jr 'wheel', GR< xwxXo$ 
wheel'. By the side of the re- 
duplicated word } qe-ql'O- cp. 
OSLOV. ^/<? 'wheel'. 

wheeze vb. ME. af^fw OE ; hw ^ san 
(for *hwctsan) 'to wheeze J cogn. 

W. OE. >faW/tf, ON. #** ' 

h(w)uosto G. husten, DU. 
'coughing'. TEUT. y^ ^ze/<5j =r 

ARYAN \/~k(is in SKR. ^^J, IR. 

casad, LITH. /^^// 'to cough'. 

whelk sb. cp. ME. wilk OE. ww/<f 
7'^/(f (older wiluc] 'whelk' = DU. 
wulk welk willok. Ident. w. OFR. 

whelp sb. ME. whelp OE. hw'elp 
'whelp, cub' = ON. kvelpr, DU. 
welp, OHG. hwelf welf. 

when conj. ME. when <ys..hwanne 
fr. stem hwa- in who* 

whence adv. ME. whenne-s prop. 
whanene OE. hwanone older 
hwanon = OHG. hwandn. 

where pron.-adv. ME. w/i^r(e)oE. 
hwczr (ME. whore late OE. hwdr) 
= OSAX. OHG. ^w^r MHG. ze/^r G. 
wo, DU. o/tftfr: TEUT. base hwcr 
(cp. GOTH. A^tfr); derived fr. 
stem hwa- under who. 

whet vb. ME. whette OE. kwettan 
'to sharpen' = ON. hvetja, DU. 
wetten, OHG. hwezzan G. weizen 
'to sharpen' : Teut. ground-form 
hwatjan. Cogn. w. ON.^ ^a/r, 
OSAX. /^w^/ 1 , OHG. ^0/03 'sharp*: 
TEUT. \/~hwat. 

whether pron. ME. whether OE. 
hwader 'which of two' == GOTH. 
hapar; corresponding by ab- 
laut to OHG. hwedar 'which of 
two'. GR. Trorfpoff (SKR. katora) 
'which of two' is more closely 
allied to GOTH. OE. The word 
is orig. comparative to stem 
hwa- (Awe-) in who. 

whey sb. ME. whey OE. 
= DU. LG. wei (byform MLG. 
huy hole DU. hut). 



which wide 

which pron. ME. which OE. hwytt 
(prehistoric form *hwi&] = 
GOTH, hileiks, os AX. hwilik\ 
cp. OHG. Jvelih G. welch: Teut. 
base hwilika- (hwelika-) and for 
OHG. hwelih a base hwalika-. 
Derived fr. stem hwa- hwe- under 

while sb. ME. while OE. hwll 
infl. hwile = GOTH, faeila, OHG. 
OSAX. hwila, G. weile, DU. wijl. 
ON. hvila 'bed' (cp. OHG. hiviltn 
'to rest') points to connection w. 
LAT. quietus 'quiet' and OSLOV. 
pociti 'to rest'. ARYAN \Tqi- 

whine vb. ME. whine OE. hwinan 
str. vb. 'to make a shrill sound' 
= ON hvina 'to whiz'. 

whisky ident. w. usque baugh. 

whisper vb. ME. whispere OE. 
hunsprian 'to murmur'; cp. OHG. 
hwispalon G. wispeln. Sound-imi- 
tation? or cogn. w. whistle? 

whistle vb. ME. whistle OE. 
hwistlian', perh. akin to whisper. 

whit ident. w. wight. 

white adj. (short in Whit- 
sunday lit. 'white Sunday') ME. 
whit OE. hwit = GOTH, beits, 
ON. hvitr, OHG. hwi^ G. weiss\ 
Teut. base hwita-, cogn. w. SKR. 
(.veto, 'white' \f (vit 'to shine'. 
ARYAN V~ kivid kwit. See also 
wheat and whittle. 

whither pron. ME. whider OE. 
hwider; cp. GOTH, hadre 'whither'; 
derived fr. the stem hwa- hwe- 
in who. 

whittle sb. short for ME. whltd 
OE. hwitel 'blanket'; derived fr. 

who pron. ME. who prop, who 
OE. hwd = GOTH. Jva-s\ cp. 
OHG. hwe-r G. wer: stem hwa- 
hwe-, also mwhat and ^<?w and 
in which, whither, whether. 
ARYAN base qo~ in LAT. quo-d, 
SKR. ka-s 'who', LITH. ka-s 'who'. 

whole adj. ME. hoi OE. hdl 
(hence the abstract formation 
health] = GOTH, hails, ON. heill 
(see hail), OHG. G. heil, OSAX. 
A?/, DU. As</: Teut. base haila- 
(whence derived hailaga- -= 
/^/y). Ident. w. OSLOV. ctlu 
'complete, whole' (ground-form 
kailo-)\ cp. OPRUSS. kailustikan 

whore sb. ME. OE. hore 'pro- 
stitute' = ON. hora, OHG. huora 
'adulteress'; cp. GOTH, hbrs 
'adulterer'. ARYAN \^ kdr 'to 
love' in OIR. car a 'friend' 
car aim 1 love' (Gallo-LAT. carisa 
'prostitute') and LAT. cdrus 'dear'. 

why pron. ME. whi OE. hwi - 
ON. kui\ instrum. of the stem hwa- 
in what. 

wick sb. short for ME. weke 
OE. we'oce == OHG. wiohha, LG. weke, 
DU. ?#/<?/&: Teut. base weukon, 
perhaps reduplicated for we- 
wk-bn, as made probable by the 
equiv. OE. wecca - - G. (dial.) 
wicke\ cogn. w. MHG. G. wicket? 

wicked adj. extended for ME. 

wicket sb. ME. wiklt fr. ONFR. 
wiket (FR. guichei), whence also 
ODU. wiket (DU. winkef). 

wide adj. ME. OE. wid = ON. 
vidr, OSAX. wM, DU. wijd, OHG. 

widow win 


wit G. welt: TEUT. wida-, perhaps 
participle of a lost verbal y~ wt. 

widow sb. ME. widwe OE. widewe 
(wuduwe) GOTH, widuwby OHG. 
witawa G. witwc, OSAX. widowa, 
DU. weduwe. Ident. w. the equiv. 
SKR. vidhav&y LAT. vidua, OSLOV. 
vidova, OIR. fedb\ ARYAN base 

wield vb. ME. welde OE. ^ewe/dan 
(^ewyldan) wk. vb. fr. a TEUT. 
*gawaldjan. Derived fr. the str. 
vb. OE. wdldan wealdan = GOTH. 
OSAX. waldan, OHG. wait an (G. 
walteti) 'to govern'. ARYAN \T 
wal in LAT. vaUre 'to be strong'; 
cp. also OSLOV. vlasti, LITH. 
valdyti 'to govern'. 

wife sb. MI. OE. wlf = ON. 

Vif, OSAX. WtJ , DU. W///, OHG. 

wib G. weib\ Teut. base wiba-. 
No equiv. connections outside 
of TEUT. (ari older word for 'wife' 
see under queen). woman 
ME. wumman prop, wimman (pi. 
wimmeti) OE. wif-mann (pi. wif- 
menri) lit. 'a wife-man'. 

wight sb. ME. wi%ht OE. w/^/ 
'thing, creature, being' = OHG. 
OSAX. wiht 'thing, being' (G. DU. 
wicht)\ cp. GOTH, waihts 'thing' 
and ON. vattr 'being, thing'. Teut. 
base wihti- for wehti- ident. w. 
OSLOV. vesti 'thing': ARYAN base 

wild adj. ME. OE. wllde fr. a 
TEUT. wilpja- (piop. welpja-) = 
GOTH, wilpeis, ON. villr, OSAX. 
OHG. wildi G. DU. a///^/. Probably 
connected w. wold OE. weald = 
= OHG. G. ze>#/^ 'wood', as FR. 

sauvage = LAT. silvaticus fr. LAT. 
silva 'wood'. wilderness (cp. 
DU. G. wildcrnis] extension of 
ME. wilder ne 'a desert'. 

wile sb. ME. (fr. 12 th cent.) wile 
fr. OFR. wile (guile); ident. w. 

will vb. ME. wille (prt. wdlde) 
OE. willan (prt. wolde) = GOTH. 
wiljan, ON. vilja, OSAX. willian, 
DU. willen- Teut. base wiljan 
(prop. weljari)\ ident. w. OSAX. 
wellian, OHG. wellan (G. wollen] 
fr. a TEUT. waljan. ARYAN V" 
welwolm LAT. w/-/<?, OSLOV. ?Y>//'//, 
LITH. zv/y//'. All equivalent. 
Perhaps cogn. w. well and weal\ 
also GOTH, waljan 'to choose' 
= OHG. wellan G. wahlen, OHG. 
wz/# G. wahl 'choosing', SKR. 
\fvar vr 'choose'. Cp. the 
following word. 

will sb. ME. wille OE. willa = 

OSAX. OHG. willio, DU. >/'/, G. 

&///&, GOTH, z'/^'tf, ON. w'//: Teut. 
base wiljan- for weljan-, derived 
fr. \{~wel in w/7/ vb. ; cp. OSLOV. 
volja sb. 'will'. 

willow sb. ME. wihve OE. wylig 
(infl. *wilge*); ident. w. DU. >// 
ODU. LG. '/7^ OSAX. wilgia, 
MHG. wilge. 

wimple sb. ME. OE. wimpel OE. 
winpel 'neck covering' = DU. G. 
wimpel OHG. wimpal. Source and 
history unknown (OFR. guimple 
FR. guimpe are of TEUT. origin ; 
see gimp). 

win vb. ME. winne OE. winnan 
str. vb. = GOTH, winnan 'to 
suffer', OHG. OSAX. winnan 'to 


wind wise 

struggle' (G. gewinnen, W.winnen), 
ON. vinnai Teut. verbal \^wenn, 
cogn. w. SKR. van 'obtain, ac- 

wind sb. ME. OE. wind = OSAX. 
DU. wind, OHG. wint G. wind, ON. 
vindr t GOTH, winds: Teut. base 
winda- prop, wendo- = ARYAN 
base wento- in LAT. ventus, SKR. 
vata 'wind'. Derived fr. the 
ARYAN \T we* in OE. wdwan = 
GOTH, waian, DU. waaien, OHG. 
wden G. wehen 'to blow'; cp. LITH. 
vejas 'wind', OSLOV. vctru 'wind' 
vtjati 'to blow', SKR. \fvd 'to 
blow', GR. aijrijg 'wind'. Cp. 

wind vb. ME. wlnde OE. wlndan 
str. vb. = GOTH. OSAX. windan, 
ON. vinda, OHG. wintan G. DU. 
wind en: TEUT. \fwend wand. - 
windlass sb. (machine for raising 
heavy weights) transformed fr. 
ME. windas : loanword fr. ON. 
vind-dss prop, 'a winding pole'. 

window sb. ME. windowe bor- 
rowed fr. ON. vind-auga 'window', 
lit. 'wind-eye'. See wind sb. and 
eye (ON. augd], 

wine sb. ME. OE. win = GOTH. 
wein, ON. vln 9 OSAX. OHG. win 
G. wein DU. wijn: Teut. base 
wina-, early loanword fr. LAT. 
vinum (cp. vine and vintage), 
whence also ITAL. vino FR. 
vin and OIR. fin, OSLOV. vino. 

wing sb. ME, winge short for 
older wenge: loanword fr. ON. 

wink vb. ME. winke OE. wincian 
\vk. vb. 'blink, wink'; OHG. winkan 

str. vb. (G. winken) 'to give a 
sign' = ME. winke str. vb. 'wink'. 

winnow vb. ME. windwe OE. 
windwian; ident. w. OHG. winton 
(for *wintwori) to winnow'; cp. 
GOTH, winfii-skaiird 'a winnowing 
fan', LAT. ventilare 'to winnow'. 
All cogn. w. wind sb. 

winsome adj. ME. win-som OE. 
wynn-sum = OHG. wunni-sam (G. 
wonne-sam) : derived fr. OE. wynn 
= OSAX. OHG. wunnia (cp. G. 
wonne) 'joy'. 

winter sb. ME. OE. winter = 
GOTH, wintrus, OSAX. OHG. wintar 
DU. G. winter , ON. vettr: Teut. 
base wintr-. Perhaps cogn. w. 
CELT, vindo- 'white' in OIR. find 
'white' ? 

wipe vb. ME. wipe OE. wlpian\ 
cp. LG. wip sb. 'wisp of straw' 
and GOTH, vipja 'garland' 
weipan 'wreathe'. TEUT. \f wip. 

wire sb. ME. OE. wir - - ON. 
virr^ LG. FRIES. wir\ cogn. w. 
GRG..wiara 'wire' and LAT. viriae 
'armlets of metal', which ac- 
cording to Plinius' Hist. Nat. 15 
is a Celtic word. 

wise adj. ME. OE. wls = ON. 
viss, GOTH, weis, OSAX. OHG. wts 
(OHG. wisi G. wcise), DU. wijs. 
Teut. base wtsa- (for wit-to-), 
derived fr. the ARYAN \^ wid in 
GR. o?i), SKR veda = GOTH, waiff 
OE. wdt y OHG. wei^ G. weiss. See 

wise sb. ME. OE. wise =. OSAX. 
OHG. wisa G. weise, DU. wijs: 
Teut. base wiso-n- (FR. guise ITAL. 
of Teut. origin). Probably 

wish wolf 


connected w. the ARYAN \fwid 
'to know' under wise wit. 
wish vb. ME. wisshe short for 
OE. wyscean fr. a Teut. base 
wunskjan = OHG. wunsc(i)an G. 
wilnschen, w.wenschen, ON. ceskja 
'to wish'; cp. SKR. vafich 'to wish': 

ARYAN \fW2nsk? 

wisp sb. ME. wisp (not found 
in OE.); perh. ident. w. ON. visk, 
OHG. wise G. wisch 'wisp of straw' ? 

wit vb. ME. wite OE. witan 'to 
know' = GOTH. OSAX. witan, ON. 
#//#, DU. weten, OHG. wi^an G. 
wissen. The I st and 3 d p. sing, were 

ME. W0/ OE. Z/tf/ = GOTH, wait, 

ON. ?/V, OSAX. w<?/, OHG. wei% G. 
a'w, corresponding to SKR. m/<z 
'I know, he knows', GR. oa) o?t)f. 
See also witness. 

wit sb. ME. wit (tt) OE. de)witt 
'intellect, understanding' = OSAX. 
giwit, OHG. wizzi (G. oute) 'under- 
standing', ON. vit 'intellect': de- 
rived fr. wit vb. 

witch sb. ME. wicche OE. wiccea 
'wizard' witfe 'witch' ; ident. 
w. FRIES. LG. wicke 'witch' LG. 
wicker Vizard' (LG. wicken vb. 'to 
predict' = OE. wiccian 'use witch- 
craft') and probably cogn. w. OE. 
wfylian 'practise divination' 
witftre 'diviner' = ODU. wijche- 
Idre, DU. MLG. wichelen 'practise 
divination'. TEUT. ^wikk wig. 

witch-elm sb. ME. wicche short 
for OE. wide 'elm' fr. a Teut. 
base wikjon-. 

with prep. ME. with OE. wid 
prep, 'against' short for wider 
(in compounds like OE. widersaca 

widerflita 'adversary') = ON. vid 
vidr, OSAX. with wider, OHG. widar 
G. wider, GOTH, wipra. 

wither vb. ME. widre vb. fr. 
weather (ME. we'der). 

withy sb. ME. withi OE. wtdi^ 
'willow'; cogn. w. OHG. wida G. 
weide, ON. vidja and GR. \riu, 
LITH. zil-vitis, POL. witwa, PRUSS. 
witwo 'a willow'. ARYAN *fwi in 
LAT. vi-tis vi-men and OSLOV. 
viti LITH. vyti 'to twine, plait'. 

witness sb. ME. witnesse OE. 
witness (inn. -e) 'testimony'; as 
GOTH, weitwbds and ON. vitni 'wit- 
ness', derived fr. the TEUT. y* wit 
'to know'; see wit vb. 

wizard sb. ME. wisard trans- 
formed (under the influence of 
ME. wis = wise) fr. *wischard: 
loanword fr. OFR. wischard (guts- 
chard) 'prudent, cunning'. 

woad sb. ME. wod OE. wad = 
DU. weede^ OHG. weit G. waidi 
Teut. base waida-, pre-Teut. 
waita-\ cp. LAT. vitrum 'woad'. 

woe iriterj. ME. wo OE. wd in- 
terj. = GOTH, wai, ON. vei, OHG. 
OSAX. / G. weh DU. w. Ident. 
w. LAT. vae interj. 'woe': ground- 
form ARYAN wai. 

WOld Sb. ME. Wold OE. 7t '</'/<! 

(o/^/rf in 'Weald of Kent') fr. 
a Teut. base wa/pu- ; cp. OSAX. 
OHG. G. ze/dr/// 'wood', DU. iwiid 
'wood', ON. vgllr 'plain, field': 
pre-TEUT. waltU'S, cogn. w. SKR. 
v.lfa (for *vdltat) 'garden'? See 
wolf sb. ME. wolf (pi. wolves] 

OE. WUlf (pi. Wulfas) = GOTH. 


woman worse 

wulfs, ON. iilfr (for *vulfr) , OSAX. 
wulf; cp. OHG. G. wolf: Teut. 
base wulfa- wo If a-, ARYAN base 
walqo- in SKR. vrka, GR. Auxoc, 

LAT. /2#>Z/.y, LITH. vilkdS, OSLOV. 

Z//0M All equivalent. 

woman see wife. 

womb sb. ME. wombe OE. wdmb 
(womb) 'stomach' = GOTH. OHG. 
wamba, ON. vgmb, DU. warn 'belly, 
stomach': Teut. base wambo-. 

wonder sb. ME. wonder OE. 
wundor = OSAX. wundar^ OHG. 
wimtar G. wunder > ON. undr\ 
Teut. base wundra-. 

wont adj. for ME. woned^. par- 
ticiple of ME. wane OE. wunian 
'to be used to'; cp. OE. ^ewuna 
'custom, use' and ON. vanr, OHG. 
giwon G. gewohnt 'accustomed'. 
See wean. 

woo vb. ME. wowe OE. wogian 
'to woo' ; no further relations 
known. TEUT. \fwog. 

wood sb. ME. wode OE. wndu 
orig.widu = ON. vidr 'tree, wood', 
OHG. witu 'wood' (also in OHG. 
witu-hopfa G. wide-hopf): Teut. 
base widu-, pre-Teut. base widhu- 
in CELT, vidu- (GALL. Vidu-Casses)\ 
cp. OIR. fid 'tree'. 

wool sb. ME. wolle OE. wull inn. 
wulle = GOTH, wulla, ON. ull 
(for *vulf) ; cp. OHG. wolla G. 
wolle: Teut. base wullo wollo, 
ARYAN base wzlna in SKR. urna, 
OSLOV. vluna, LITH. vilna 'wool'; 

cogn. w. LAT. villus vellus 'fleece' 

and SKR. y" vr (var) 'to cover'. 

word sb. ME. OE. word '= GOTH. 

waurd, ON. ord (for *vord), OSAX. 

word y DU. woord, OHG. G. wort: 
Teut. base worda-, pre-Teut. 
base W9rdho- in LAT. verbum, 
OPRUSS. wirds 'word', LITH. vardas 
name'. ARYAN \(~ wer (wre) in 
GR. ti'pFiv 'to say' Qi"]i.ia 'word'? 

work sb. ME. werk OE. weorc 
= OSAX. OHG. werk G. DU. werk, 
ON. verk; Teut. base werka-, 
ARYAN base wergo- in GR. eQyov. 
ARYAN y" werg in GR. QSIV 'to 
do' QQy&vov 'instrument', SKR. 
vrjana 'labor' J cp. QOTH.watb'&jiirt, 
OHG. wurkan = OE. wyrfaan vb. 
'to work'. See wright. 

world sb. ME. world we'rld OE. 
worold weorold = OSAX. wer old > 
DU. wereld, OHG. wer alt (worolt) 
G. welt, ON. verold. First element 
of the compound (wer-ald-) is 
TEUT. wer a- 'man' in GOTH, wair, 
OSAX. OHG. OE. wer, ON. verr 
(ARYAN base wiro- in LAT. vir, 
SKR. vira f LITH. vyras 'man'). 
2 nd part of the compound is 
TEUT. aldi- in GOTH, aids 'world', 
OE. yld (eld} 'period, age'. 

worm sb. ME. worm tor wurm 
prop, wirm OE. wyrm fr. a Teut. 
base wurmi" in OSAX. OHG. G. 
wurm, GOTH. waurms\ ident. w. 
LAT. vermis 'worm'; cp. ON. ormr 
(for *wormaz) and GR. QQftix; 
(for fpd{iQ). 

wormwood sb. transformed fr. 
OE. wer mod (wormod) = OHG. 
wermuota (wormuotd). Formation 
and origin unknown. 

worse compar. adj. ME. worse 

wu'-se older wirse OF. wyrsa = 

I OSAX. wirso fr. a Teut. base 

worship wrinkle 


wirsizan- in GOTH, wairsiza = 
OHG. wirsiro. worst superl. 
ME. worste wurste orig. wirste 
OE. wyrsta fr. a TEUT. superl. 
wirsistan- in GOTH, wairsista, 
OSAX. OHG. wirsisto. 

worship sb. ME. worschip older 
wurpschipe OE. weordscipe: derived 
fr. worth. 

wort 1 sb. (a plant) ME. wort 
wurt older wirt OE. wyrt fr. a 
Teut. base wurti- in GOTH, waurts, 

ON. urt, OSAX. WUrt, OHG. G. WW'Z 

'plant, herb': ARYAN \Tw9rd in 
LAT. radix (for *vrddtc-) see 
under root. 

wort 2 sb. (a kind of drink) 
ME. wort wurt for wirt OE. wyn 
for *wirt = ON. virtr, MHG. wirz 
'wort': TEUT. ground-form wirtiz 
.(pre-TEUT. base werdes- werdos). 

worth adj. ME. worth wurth 
OE. wyrde'. umlauted byform of 
OE. weorp = GOTH, wairps, 
OSAX. werth, ON. verdr, OHG. 
werd (G. weri) : ident. w. LITH. 
vertas, OPRUSS. werts 'worthy'. 

wound sb. ME. wounde OE. 
wtmd'mft., wunde = OSAX. wunda, 
OHG. wunta G. wunde, ON. und 
(for *vund) : Teut. base wundd-. 
Cogn. w. the adj. GOTH, wunds 
OE. wund, OSAX. wund, OHG. 
wunt G. wund. TEUT. \fwun, 
ARYAN \fw9n in GOTH, winnan 
'to suffer, feel pain' (see win)! 

wrath sb. ME. wraththe short 
for OE. wrappu (Teut. base 
wraipipo] : umlaut-abstract of OE. 
wrap adj. = wroth. 

wreak vb. ME. wr{ke OE. wrecan 

\ str. vb. = GOTH, wrikan ('to 

! persecute'), OSAX. wrekan, DU. 

| wreken, OHG. rehhan (for *wreh- 

| hari) G. rachen 'to revenge'. 

ARYAN \j~wreg urg in LAT. r^-^ 

'to urge', SKR. vrj 'to remove'. 

wreath sb. ME. writhe OE. 
wrcep\ cogn. w. writhe. , 

"wren sb. ME. wrenne OE. wrenna\ 
ident. w. OSAX. wrendio and pro- 
bably w. OHG. OSAX. (w}renno 'a 
stallion' (medieval LAT. warannio). 

wrench sb. ME. wrench 'deceit' 
OE. wrtnd 'deceit, trick' fr. a 
Teut. base wranki- (also in 
MHG. rank 'trick' G. rdnke plur.). 
| The modern E. meaning 'twist, 
sprain' seems to be older than 
the metaphorical sense in ME. 
OE. and G. See also wrong. 

wretch sb. ME. wrecche OE. 
wredcea 'outlaw, exile' = OHG. 
QSA.n.wrekkio (G. recke 'warrior'); 
derived ir.\^wrek in GOTH, ivrikan 
"persecute* (see wreak). 

wright sb. ME. wrighte OE. 
wyrhta = OSAX. wurhtio, OHG. 
wurhto (MHG. -wurhte) 'worker'; 
derived fr. TEUT. wurhtivjan-\ cp. 
GOTH, waurstwja 'worker' by the 
side of watirstw 'work'. For the 
root see work. 

wring vb. ME. wrfcge OE. wrin- 
gan str. vb. 'to press out* = 
DU. LG. wringen t OBG. litgan, (for 
*wringari) 'to press out' (G. ringen). 

wrinkle sb. ME. wrinkel OE. 
wrinkle ODU. wrinckel\ cogn. 
w. MHG. runke and OHG. runza 
(for *wrunka - - *wrunkzd}. 

wrist sb. ME. wrist OE. wyrst 


write ye 

:=MHG. G. rtst(foi*wrist), ON. rist\ 
SWED. vrist 'instep, wrist'; perhaps 
cogn. w, Gc reihen MHG. rVie 'wrist' ? 

write vb,. ME. writ( OE* wrttan 
sti. vb, . OSAX. writan, ON. ; 
rflte 'to write'. Orig. sense 'to 
engrave, scratch, tear, split' in 
OSAX. writan OHG. ri^an , 
(for *ftfrt%%*n) G. reissen. Cp. 
GOTH, writs 'a stroke of a pen'. 
TEUT. \fwHt. 

writhe vb. ME. writhe OE. wridan 
str. vb. 'to twist' = OHG. ridan, 
ON. rida str. vb. 'to wind, twist'. 
Cogn. w. wroth. 

wrong adj. ME. wrong (wrang) 
late OE. (n th cent.) wrang bor- 
rowed fr. ON. rangr (older 
*vrangr) 'wrong, unjust' prop, 
'awry, perverse'. Probably* fr. 
the same root as wrench (TEUT. 
\f*wrank wrang). 

wroth adj. short for ME. wrgth 
OE. wrap (see also wrath) = 
OSAX. wreth, ON. vreidr reidr, 
ODU. wreed 'wroth'; orig. sense 
in OHG. reid (for *wreut) 'curled'. 
\j~wrtp 'to twist' in wreath and 

wry fr. ME. wrie vb. 'to twist*. 

yacht sb. fr. DU. jacht prop. 
jachtschip\ DU. jacht corresponds 
to G. jagd 'hunting' (OHG. jag on 
G. jag en 'to chase). 

yard 1 sb. ME. %erd prop, ygrd OE. 
1$ard 'fence, enclosure' = ON. 
gardi". Teut.baseWv/tf-=: ARYAN 
b&seghorto- inLAT. hortus (GR./O^- 
TOy) 'garden'. Allied to garden. 

yard- sb. (a measure) ME. 
yerde OE. %erd (lyrd) 'rod, rood' 
= OHO. gerta G. gerte 'a rod, 
switch'; cp. GOTH, gazds 'a stick, 
goad' ON. gaddr 'goad' and 
LAT. hasta c a spear' (common 
base ghazdha^). 

yarn sb. ME. %ern prop, ^ern OE. 
It'arn = ON. OHG. G. garn (DU. 
gareri)\ perhaps cogn. w. GS.gprn 
'guts' and LITH. zarna 'entrail'? 

yarrow sb. ME. yxrwe OE 

= OHG. garwa G. garbe y DU. 
gerw 'millefolium'. 

yawl vb. ME. y>uk by the 
side of goule vb. (change of j 
and g unexplained) ; source ON 
gaula (ggula) 'to bellow'. 

yawn vb. ME. gdne gone OE. 

gdnian (the phonology of the 

ME. word is dark) == OHG. geinon 

(G. gdhnen)\ derived fr. OE. to- 

%inan str. vb. 'to yawn' ON. 

gina\ cogn. w. OHG. g'ien giwen 

'to yawn': ARYAN \fghi in LAT. 

| hiare y OSLOV. zijati, LITH. zioti 

I 'to yawn'. 

ye pron. ME. ^e OE. -tf fr. a 
prehistoric jiz = DU. gij, OSAX. 
gi t OHG. ir (for *Jir) G. ihr\ 
oldest TEUT. form juz in GOTH. 
jus 'ye'. Ident. w. SKR. yuy-am 
'ye': ARYAN stem iw yu. 

year yolk 


yea adv. ME. j/ OE. led (for 
*<z) OSAX. OHG. jd G.ja 'yes'; 
oldest form GOTH, ja 'yes'. 
yes ME. yes OE. %ese for *led- 
swd prop, 'yea so' (cp. ME. nese 
fur ne-swa). 

yean older # vb. ME. (ne 
OE. Banian (%e-/amari) 'to yean': 
derived fr. a TEUT. tfz^tf- (for 
agwna-] 'lamb' = LAT. agnus, 
OIR. tian\ ARYAN base aghno-. 

year ,vb. ME. #r OE. tfr (ydr 
for *jr) OHG. jar G. /tf/$r, 
DU. jaar, ON. #r, GOTH./<?r: Teut. 
base/nz-; cogn. w. theablauted 
GR. WQOC, 'year' w^a 'season* 
and w. AVEST. ydre 'year. 

yearn vb. 'desire' ME. yerne fr. 
ME. yern OE. l$orn 'desirous' 
(whence also the umlauted OE. 
lyrnan 'desire') = GOTH. gairns y 
OSAX. OHG. gern 'desirous': TEUT. 
\fger in OHG. geron G. begehren 
OHG. ger 'desirous' girt (G. 
gier) sb. 'desire'. ARYAN ^gher 
in SKR. hary vb. 'desire'. 

yell vb. ME. lelle OE. lellan 
(lillan) = OHG. gellan G. g ellen, 
DU. ^7/^, ON. gjalla 'to resound'. 
Cp. st any el I. 

yellow adj. ME. ylwe OE. leolo 
(infl. g^//-) fr. a Teut. base 
gelwa- in OSAX. OHG. ^/<!? G. ^/^, 
DU. geel\ ARYAN base ghelwo- in 
LAT. helvus 'light yellow'. ARYAN 
*fghel also in ON. gulr 'yellow', 
GR. /Afi^o'^ 'green', OSLOV. zelenii 
'yellow'; from the same root 
also gold (and glow?). 
yellow-hammer (a bird's name) 

rests on the equiv. OE. amore = 
OHG. amero G. ammer. 

yelp vb. ME. ~ylpe OE. ^elpan 
(y,lpan} str. vb. 'to boast' = ON. 
gjalpa, OHG. gelpfan. 

yes see yea. 

yesterday adv. ME. lesterday 
OE. tyostrandce^ (^ystrandce^) prop, 
only ge.ostra(ri) = OHG. gestaron 
G. gestern y DU. gisteren (gister- 
avond)\ cp. GOTH, gistra-dagis 
with the sense of 'tomorrow'. 
Teut. base gestra-, cogn. w. ON. 
/-^;- and LAT. >forz; GR. /^t'c 
and SKR. hyas 'yesterday' point 
to an ARYAN base gkyes 'yester- 

yet adv. ME. let short for OE. 
let (iyt y iit)\ ident. w. OFRIES. 
ieta eta 'yet'. 

yew vb. ME. ew OE. eow iw 

OHG. iwa G. eibe, ON. yr: Teut. 
base iwa-j ident. w. OE. eoh 'yew* 

OHG. iha 'yew'. FR. //"(whence 
borrowed DU. ijf) is of Teut' 
origin. Cp. also CYMR. yw 'yew*. 

yield vb. ME. iflde OE. leldan 
(lildan} str. vb. 'to pay* = GOTH. 
gildan, ON. gjalda t OHG. ^//dr 
str. vb. 'to pay': TEUT. \fgelit. 

yoke sb. ME. 10 k (pi. yjkes) OE. 
jfc (pi. J^w) ; : GOTH. juk 9 

ON. Ok (for *>), DU. >^, OHG. 

joh G. X-A: Teut. base joka-, 
ARYAN base jiigo- in LAT. jugum 

GR. Cf /oV, SKR.^^'yoke'. ARYAN 

\fjug in GR. &vyvvim> LAT* 
jungere, SKR. j/if/ 'to yoke', 
yolk sb. ME. lolke falke) OE. 
for TEUT. gel(w)ukan-\ 


yon yule 

derived fr. TEUT. gelwa- yel- 

yon pron. ME. ion ip'n OE. yon 
(see beyond}] cogn. w. GOTH. 
jains, OHG. jener G. jener. 

yore adv. ME. ipre OE. ledra 
(pron. jar a) prop, 'of years' gen. 
plur. of OE. ledr year. 

yow pron. ME. yyw ace. dat. 
of if (= ye), OE. eow act. dat. 
of if {= ye)\ ident. w. OHG. 
OSAX. eu OHG. iu\ ARYAN base 
iw under ye. 

young adj. ME. long lung OE. 
leong (prop. Jung) = GOTH. Juggs, 
OSAX. OHG. G. Jung, DU. jong, ON. 
ungr (for *jungr)\ TEUT. junga-, 
contracted fr. juwungo- = LAT. 
juvencus, SKR. yuvafa 'young': 
ARYAN base juwwko- (ablauted 
by form in CYMR. ieuanc 'young'). 
Cogn. w. LAT.JmtemSi SKR.yuvan, 
LITH. jdunas young*. 

youth sb. ME. louthe older 
luwede for ytgede OE. jugod (leo- 
god) = OSAX. jugud fr. a base 
jugunf- in onG.jugund G. jug end \ 
TEUT. jugunp- probably for Ju- 
wunj>- cp. LAT. juven-t-a (and 
GOTH, junda contracted for *Ju- 
wundd]\ derived fr. ARYANjuwen- 
in LAT. juvenis, SKR. yuvan etc. 
yule sb. ME. ip'l fr. ON. jol\ 
ident. w. OE. ifol (contracted 
fr. leohof) 'Christmas'. Cogn. vv. 
GOTH, jiuleis 'november' ON. 
ylir (OE. Giuli in Be da). Teut. 
base jeula- (in ON. jdl) and _///- 
ja- (in GOTH, jiuleis) : OE. leohhol 
'Christmas' points to TEUT. jehw- 
la- (by the side of jeula- for 
jegwla-)] probably related to 
ON. II 'snow-storm' (TEUT. base 
jehwla). Hence Yule 'the time 
of snow-storms' and GOTH, jiuleis 
'the month of snow-storms'. 




Kluge, Friedrich 
English etymology