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Full text of "The English flora"

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THE 

ENGLISH FLORA, 



BY 

SIR JAMES EDWARD SMITH, M.D. F.R.S. 

MEMBER OF THE ACADEMIES OF 

STOCKHOLM, UPSAL, TURIN, LISBON, PHILADELPHIA, NEW YORK, ETC. ETC.; 

THE IMPERIAL ACAD. NATURE CURIOSORUM, 

AND 

THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AT PARIS; 

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; 

AND 

PRESIDENT OF THE LINN^AN SOCIETY. 



Mentharum valde ferax est Anglia nostra, nam praeter species de novo hlc 
additas, quatuor aliae peculiaribus nominibus recensentur a Merreto in Pin. et 
plures praeter has turn a D. Buddie turn a D. Rand o'bservatse sunt. Sed 
cum de iis nobis nondum satis constet, ulteriori eas observationi relinquere ne- 
cesse habuimus. Dill, apud Raii Syn, ed. 3. 232. 




PRINTED FOR 

LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, BROWN and GREEN, 

PATERNOSTER-ROW. 

1825. 



PRINTED BT RICHARH TATLOB, 
SHOE-LANE, LONDON. 



BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. III., 

IN ADDITION TO THOSE IN VOL. I. AND II. 



Bartholin, Act. Hafn. — Bartholin, Thomas, Acta Medica et Phi- 
losophica Hafniensia. Copenhagen. 1673 — 1680. vol, 1 — 5. 
quarto. 

Berg. Mat. Med. — Bergius, Peter Jonas, Materia Medica e Regno 
Vegetabili, Stockholm. 1778, octavo. 2 volumes. 

Bertolon. Am. Ital. — Bertoloni, Antony, Amcenitates Italicce. Bo- 
logna, 1819. quarto. 

Bigelow, Boston Flora. — Bigelow, Jacob, Florula Bostoniensis. 
Boston, N. England. 1814. octavo. 

Bivona-Bernardi, Cent. — Bivona-Bernardi, Antony, Sicularum 
Plantarum Centuria Prima, et Secunda. Palermo. 1806. 
quarto. 

Blackstone. — Blackstone, J., Fasciculus Plantarum circa Harefield 
sponte nascentium. London. 1737- octavo. 

Brugnon, Mem. de I'Acad. de Turin. — Brugnon, M., Observations 
et experiences sur la quality v^n^neuse et m^me meurtrilre de la 
Renoncule des champs. In M4m. de VAc. de Turin, v. 4. Tu- 
rin. 17S8, 1789. quarto. 

Burm. Ger. — Burmann, Nicholas Laurence, Specimen Botanicum 
de Geraniis. Leyden. 1759. quarto. 

Caii Opusc—Caii, Johannis, Britanni, De Canibus Britannicis, de 
Rariorum Animalium et Stirpium Historia, et de Libris Pro- 
priis. London. 1570. octavo. 

Cavan. Diss. — Cavanilles, Antony Joseph, MonadelphicB Classis 
Dissertationes Decern. Madrid. 1790. quarto. 

Comp. ed. 4. — Smith, James Edward, Compendium Floris Britan- 
nicae. ed. 4: London. 1825. duodecimo. 

Danti d'Isnard. — Danti d'Isnard, Beschreibung der Sterndistel. In 
Mem. de I'Acad. des Sc. See Vaillant, among books quoted 
in vol. 1. 

DeCand. ProcZr.— DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, Prodromus 
Systematic Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis. Paris. 1824. octavo, 
vol. \st. 

Dickenson, in Shaw's Staffordshire. — Dickenson, Rev. Samuel, m 
Shaw's History of Staffordshire. 

a2 



lY BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. III. 

Diosc. Ic. — Dioscoiidis, Icones. — Engravings of Plants, after the 
drawings of a celebrated antient manuscript in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna, executed under the inspection of Professor 
von Jacquin, vi?ho sent a set of the impressions to Linnaeus, 
and gave or lent another to the late Dr. J. Sibthorp. The 
copper plates having been subsequently destroyed by a fire, 
no other copies exist. 

Forst. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 8. — Forster, Thomas Furley, Account of 
a new British Species ofCaltha. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 8. Lon- 
don. 1807. 

FrcelichinVst. Annal. v. 1. 24. — Frcelich, J. A., Differentia speci- 
fica Sonchi alpini australis et S. canadensis. Ust. Annal. v. 1. 
See Ust. 

Gerard, Gallopr. — Gerard, Louis, FloraGallo-provincialis. Paris. 
1761. octavo. 

Gouan, Fl. Monsp. — Gouan, Antony, Flora Monspeliaca. Lyons. 
1765. octavo. 

Grev. Edin. — Greville, Robert Kaye, Flora Edinensis. Edinburgh. 
1824. octavo. 

Hall. Enum. Rar. — Haller, Albert von, Enumeratio Stirpium quce 
in Helvetia rariores proveniunt. octavo. Without title or date, 
unpublished, very rare. 

Herb. Cliff. — Clifford, George, his Herbarium, answering to the 
Hortus Cliffortianus. Now a part of the Banksian Collection. 

Hosack in Amer, et Phil. Register. — Hosack, David, Information 
concerning the Canada Thistle, in a communication from S. L. 
Mitchill, Memb. of the Legislative Assembly of New York. 
Amer. Med. et Philos. Register, v. \. 1814. New-York, oc- 
tavo. 

Host, Syn. — Host, Nicholas Thomas, Synopsis Plantarum in Au- 
stria, Provinciisque adjacentibus, sponte crescentium. Vienna. 
1797. octavo. 

Hull, ed. 1. — Hull, John, British Flora. Manchester.1799. octavo. 

Isnard. See Danti d'Isnard. 

Lam. Frang. — Lamarck, Chev. de, Flore Frangoise. Paris. 1778. 
octavo, 3 volumes. 

Le Monnier, Obs. — Monnier, M. le. Observations d'Histoire Na- 
turelle, faites dans les Provinces Meridionales de la France. 
1739. quarto. 

L'Herit. Geraniol. — L'Heritier, Charles Louis, Geraniologia. 
Plates only published. Paris. 1787. folio. 

Linn. Hort. Ups. — Linnaeus, or von Linnd, Charles, Hortus Upsa- 
liensis. Stockholm. 1748. octavo. 

•^— Hyper. Diss. Acad.de Hyperico. Ups. ]776. quarto. 

It. Scan. Skanska Resa. Stockholm. 1751. octavo. 

Lyons Fasc. — Lyons, Israel, Fasciculus Plantarum circa Ca^itabri- 
giam. London. 1 763. octavo. 

Mich. Hort. Florent. — Micheli, Peter Antony, Catalogus Planta- 
rum Horti Cwsarii Florentini. Florence. 1 7 ^8. folio. 



BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. III. V 

Petiv. Cent, — Petiver, James, Musei Petiveriani Centuria Prima. 

London. 1695. octavo. 
Pharmac. Lond. — Pharmacopceia Collegii Regalis Medicorum Lon- 

dinensis. London, duodecimo, various editions. 
Pluk. Mant. — Plukenet, Leonard, Almagesti Botanici Mantissa, 

London. 1700. quarto. 
Pulten. Dorset. — Pulteney, Richard, Catalogues of the Birds, 
Shells, and some of the more rare Plants, of Dorsetshire. Lon- 
don. 1799. folio. 
Rail Syllog. — Ray, John, Stirpium Europaarum extra Britannias 
nascentium Sylloge, London. 1694. octavo. 

— — Syn. ed. 1 . -^ • Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Britanni- 

carum. London. 1 690. octavo. 
Robert, Ic. — Robert, N., Diverses Fleurs dissinees et gravees d'apres 

le Naturel. Paris, quarto, tab. 31. 
Salisb, Ic. — Salisbury, Richard Antony, Icones Stirpium Rariorum. 
London. 1791. folio, 

— in Ann. of Bot. Description of the Natural Order 

of Nymphceece. Sims and Kon. Ann. v, 2. 69 — 76. 
Sav. Etrusc. — Savi, Cajetan, Botanicon Etruscum. Pisa. 1808. 

octavo. 2 volumes. 
Schkuhr Handb. — Schkuhr, Christian, Botanisches Handbuch. 

Wittenberg. 1791—1803. octavo. 3 volumes. 
Schreb. Unilab. — Schreber, John Christian Daniel von, Plantarum 
Verticillatarum Unilabiatarum Genera et Species, Leipsic. 
1774. quarto, 

Waidt, — Schreber, Daniel Godfrey, Beschreibung des 

Waidtes. Halle. 1752. quarto. 
Scop, Insubr, — Scopoli, John Antony, DeUcics Florce et Faunae In- 

subriccB, Pavia, 1786 — 1788.ybZto. 3 volumes. 
Seringue, Aeon. — Seringue, Nicholas Charles, Esquisse d'une Mo- 
nographic du Genre Aconitum. Geneva. 1825. quarto. 
Shiercliff, Bristol Gwide.— Shiercliff, E., The Bristol and Hot-well 

Guide. Bristol. 1793. octavo, 

Sincl.ed,2, London. 1824. octavo, with plates. See SiwcZ. in vol. 1 . 

Sm. Tour on the Continent. — Smith, James Edward, A Sketch of 

a Tour on the Continent, in the years 1 786 and 1 787. London. 

1793. octavo. 3 volumes. Ed. 2. London. 1807. 3 volumes. 

Sole, Menth. — Sole, William, Menthce Britannicce. Bath. 1798. 

folio. 
Sutton, Tr. of Linn. Soc. — Sutton, Charles, A Description of Five 
British Species of Orobanche. Tr.ofLimi. Soc.v.4. London. 
1798. 
Svensk Bot. — Palmstruch, J.W., Svensk Botanik. Stockholm. 1802, 

&c. octavo. 
Tabern. Ic. — Tabernsemontanus, Jacob Theodore, Eicones Plan- 
tarum. Frankfort. 1590. oblong quarto. 

- Kriiuterb. Krauterbuch. Dantzic, 1664. 

folio. 



VI BOOKS QUOTED IN VOL. III. 

Timm in Mag. fur Nat. Mecklenb. — Timm, Joachim Christopher, 

in MecklenbuTgh Magazine, octavo. 
Tourn. Par. — Tournefort, Joseph Pitton, Histoire des Plantes qui 

naissent aux environs de Paris. Paris. 1698. duodecimo. 
Turn. Herb. — Turner, William, Herball. Cologne. 1568. /oZio. 
Velley PL Marit. — Velley, Thomas, Coloured Figures of Marine 

Plants, 8fc. Bath, 1795. folio. 
Venten. in Sims and Kon. Ann. — Ventenat, Prof., A Monograph of 

the Genus Tilia. Sims and Kon. Ann. v. 1. 207— 219. 1805. 



ENGLISH FLORA. 



Class XIIL POLYANDRIA. Sfmn. 
numerous^ from the receptacle. 

Order I. MONOGYNIA. Pistil I. 

* Petals i. 
265. PAPAVER. C«///.r ofSleaves. C«/).«;. of 1 cell, open- 
ing by pores under the stigma. 

263. CHELIDONIUM. C«/. of 2 leaves. Porf of 1 cell. 

Seeds crested. 

264. GLAUCIUM. Cal. of 2 leaves. Pod of 2 or 3 cells. 

Seeds dotted. 
262. ACT^A. Cal. of 4 leaves. Berry of 1 cell. Seeds 
depressed, in 2 vertical rows. 

Cistus \, occaslonaVy . 
** Petals 5. 
269. CISTUS. CV«. of several valves. Seeds numexons. 
Cal. of 5 permanent leaves, 2 of them smaller. 

268. TILIA. Caps, of several close cells. Seeds few. 
Cal. in 5 deep, valvular, equal segments, deciduous. 
Delphht'mm 1 . 
VOL. JJI. H 



*** Petals numerous. 

266. NYMPHiEA. Berry coated, of many cells. Cal. 

larger than the petals. Pet. seated on the gei'men. 
Nect. in the centre of the stigma. 

267. NUPHAR. 5errj/ coated, of many cells. Pet. horn 

the receptacle, furrowed and honey-bearing at the 
back. 



Order II. PENT A G YNIA . Pistils 2—6. 

270. PiEONIA. Co/, of 5 leaves. Pet. 5. Stj/les none. 

Follicles with many seeds. 

271. DELPHINIUM. Cal. 0. Pet. 5, the upper one 

spurred. Nect. divided, tubular, sessile, in the spur. 

272. ACONITUM. Cal. 0. Pet. 5, the upper one hooded. 

Nect. 2, recurved, stalked, under the hood. 

273. AQUILEGIA. Cal.O. Pet. 5, equal. Nect. 5, spur- 

red below. 

274. STRATIOTES. Cal. superior, 3-cleft. Pet. 3. 

Berry coated, of 6, or more, cells. 
Reseda !. Helleborus 1,2. 

OrderlU. POLYGYSIA. Pi.lik numerous. 

277. THALICTRUM. Cal. 0. Pet. 4 or 5, imbricated. 

Seeds without any appendage. 

276. CLEMATIS. Cal.O. P^/. 4— 8, valvular, or folded 
. in at the edges. Seeds tailed. Recept. capitate. 

275. ANEMONE. Cal.O. Pt?^. 5—15, imbricated. Seeds 

numerous. 

28L HELLEBORUS. Cal.O. P^'^ 5, permanent. Nect. 
tubular, 2-lipped. Follicles 3 or 4. 

282. CALTHA. Cal. 0. Pet. 5, or more. Nect. 0. Fol- 
lie. 5 — 10. 

280. TROLLIUS. Cal.O. P^if. 5-15, deciduous. Nect. 
flattened. Follic. numerous. 

279. RANUNCULUS. Ca/. of 5 leaves. P^^. 5, or more, 
with nectaries in their claws. Seeds numerous, naked. 

278. ADONIS. CW. of 5 leaves. P^^ 5— 15. Nect.O. 

Seeds numerous, naked. 



POLYANDRIA MOhOGYNIA. 

202. ACTiEA. Bane-berries. 

Linn. Gen. 261. Juss.235. Fl. Br. 562. Lam.t.iiS. Gcertn. 

t.\l4. 
Christophoriana. Tourn, t. 154. 

Nat. Ord. Multisiliqucje. Linn. 26. Ranunculacece spurice. 
Juss. 61. DeCand. Syst v. 1. ord. 1. 

Cal. inferior, of 4 roundish-oblong, concave, obtuse, deci- 
duous leaves. Pet. 4-, alternate with the calyx, oblong or 
obovate, with claws, deciduous. Filavi. numerous, about 
30, cj'lindrical, swelling upwards. Anth. of two lobes, 
sessile on the inner side of the summit of each filament. 
Germ, superior, ovate. Style none. Stigma round, thick, 
obliquely depressed. Ben-y nearly globular, with a late- 
ral furrow, smooth, of one cell, not bursting. Seeds nu- 
merous, semiorbicular, depressed, ranged vertically over 
each other in two rows. 

Perennial herha, natives of cold countries, with compound 
or lobed, cut leaves, and clustered white Jlowers. Bei-~ 
ries black, red, or white. Qualities fetid, nauseous, and 
dangerous. The many styles, and capsular yj7/?V, of Ci~ 
micifuga may surely keep that genus distinct ; but De- 
Candolie thinks otherwise. 

] . A. s'/jicata. Black Bane-berries. Herb Christopher. 
Cluster dense, ovate. Petals the length of the stamens. 

A.spicata. Linn. Sp.PI.722. irilld.v.2. l\39. Fl. Br. 562. Engl. 

Boi.v. 13. t. 918 Hook. Scot. 167. DeCa7id. Syst.v. I. 384. Fl. 

Dan. f. 498, not 589, as in Willdenow and DeCandoUe. Bull. 

Fr. t. 83. WoMenb. Lapp. 150, a not /3. 
A. n. 1076. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 24. 
Christophoriana. RaiiSyn. 262. Ger.Em.979.f. Clus. Hist. 

V. 2. 86. /. Tillands Ic. 148. /. 
Napellus racemosu.s. Dalech. Hist. 1 747./. 
Aconitum racemosum, Actsea quibusdam. Baiih. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 

660./, 

In bushy mountainous lime-stone situations, rare. 

In the north-west corner of Yorkshire, as about Malham Cove, 
Clapham, Askrigg, and the base of In2:leborough hill ; found 
by several botanists in Ray's time, and by others in our days. 
The Rev. Mr. Wood of Leeds noticed it about Thorpe Arch. 

Perennial. Mat/, June. 

B 2 



4 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Chelidonium. 

Root creeping, somewhat fleshy. Sletn triangular, 12 or 18 inches 
high, leafy, but little branched. Whole plant nearly or quite 
smooth. Leaves twice or thrice ternate ; lea/lets ovate, of a 
deep shining green, an inch or two long, sharply serrated, cut, 
partly lobed. Flowers .several, white with a slight blu.sh-colour, 
in a rather close ovate cluster, resembling a spike ; each with a 
small solitary bractea, under its downy partial stalk. Berries 
purplish-black, juicy, the size of currants, not eatable. 

Toads are reported to enjoy the fetid odour of tliis plant. 

2(3. CHELIDONIUM. Celandine. 

Linn. Gen. 262. Juss. 236. FLBr.r>&>. Toitrn.t. 116. Lam. 
t.450. GcBrtn. /. 1 15. 

Nat, Ord. RhceadecV. Linn. 27. Papaveracece. Juss. 62. 
DeCand. Syst. v. 2. ord. 9. iV. 264-, 265 the same. 

Cal, inferior, of 2 roundish-ovate, concave, acute, decidu- 
ous leaves. Pet. 4, equal, roundish, flat, spreading, nar- 
rowest at the base. Filam. numerous, about 30, dilated 
upwards, shorter than the corolla. Anth, vertical, erect, 
compressed, obtuse, of 2 lobes. Germ, superior, cylin- 
drical, the length of the stamens. Style none. Stigma 
small, obtuse, cloven. Pod linear, somewhat cj'lindrical, 
of 1 cell, and 2 undulated, deciduous valves. Seeds nu- 
merous, nearly oval, dotted, polished, with a pale, com- 
pressed, notched crest along the upper edge ; disposed in 
2 rows, on short stalks, along a linear, permanent, mar- 
ginal receptacle, at each side, between the edges of the 
valves. 

Herbaceous, brittle, with orange-coloured juice. Root 
perennial. Leaves pinnate, or pinnatilid. Fl. umbellate, 
yellow. 

1. Ch. mqjiis. Common Celandine. 

Ch. majus. Linn. Sp. PL 723. IVilld. v. 2. I 141. Fl. Br Ci63. 

Engl. Bat. v.22.t.\58l. fVoodv. Suppl. t.263. Hook. Scot. 16/. 

DeCand. Si/st. v. 2. 98. Fl. Dan t. 542. Bull. Fr. t. 6\. Ger. 

Em. 1069./. Fuchs. Hist. 865. f. Trag. Hist. 107. f. Malth. 

Valgr. V. 1.576./. Camer. Epit. 402. /". 
Ch. u. 1059. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 13. 

Ch. majus vulgare. Bauh. Pin. 144, Mill. Ic. 61. t. 92. f 1. 
Chelidonia. Brunf. Herb. v. 1 . 236./. Bauh. Hist. v.3.p 2. 482./. 
Papaver corniculatum luteum, Chelidonia dictum, Raii Syn. 309. 
/3. Fl. Br. 563, 
Ch. majus, foliis quernis. Bauh. Pin. 144. Dill, in Raii Syn. 

309. Mill. Tc.ei.t. 92. f.2. Fl. Dan. t.676. 
Ch. majus, folio magis dissecto. G'er, Em. 1069./. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Glaucium. 3 

Ch. folio laciniato. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 483./. 

Ch, laciniatum. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 99. 

In waste ground and thickets, especially on a chalky soil. 

3. Found plentifully at Wimbleton, Surrey, by Mr. Martyn. Dillenius. 

I'erennial. May, June. 

Root spindle-shaped. Stem 2 feet high, branched, swelled at the 
joints, leafy, round, smooth. Leaves smooth, very deeply pin- 
natifid, as Prof. DeCandolle justly obsei-ves, rather than pin- 
nate ; their lobes 2 or 3 pair, with a larger terminal one, all 
rounded, bluntly lobed and notched ; the lateral ones sometimes 
dilated at their lower margin, near the base, almost as if auri- 
cled ; their colour a deep shining green. Fl. bright yellow, in 
umbels on long, often hairy, stalks. Calyx tawny, often hairy. 
Seeds black and shining, each with a whitish deciduous crest. 

Every part is brittle, and, when broken, discharges an orange- 
coloured, fetid juice, with which, as Dioscorides reports. Swal- 
lows were supposed to restore the sight of their young if blinded ; 
whence the name, formed from the greek appellation of a Swal- 
low. Dioscorides favours another meaning, which is that the 
plant appears and disappears with those birds. Its orange juice 
probably caused it to be given in the jaundice. 

Our variety /3, characterized by the jagged foliage and petals, first 
mentioned as an English plant, though merely as a variety, by 
Dillenius, not Ray, has recently been made a species by M. De- 
Candolle and some other botanists. Appearances are against it, 
though Miller found no alteration in plants raised from seed. 

264. GLAUCIUM. Horned-poppy. 

Tournef. t. 130. Juss. 236. Fl. Br. 563. Prodr. Fl. Grac. v. 1. 

357. Gcerln. t. 115. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 94. 
Under Chelidonium, in Linn. Gen. 262. 

Nat. Ord. see 7i. 263. 

Cal. inferior, of 2 oblong, concave, acute, deciduous leaves. 
Pet. 4, much larger than the calyx, roundish-obovate, 
undulated, crumpled, spreading, with short claws, deci- 
duous ; 2 opposite ones rather the smallest. Filam. nu- 
niei-ous, capillary, short. Anth. roundish, terminal, of 2 
lobes. Germ, superior, cylindrical, or somewhat com- 
pressed, longer than the stamens. Style none. Stigma 
large, abrupt, permanent, of 2 or 3 cloven, compressed, 
downy lobes. Pod linear, vei-y long, of 2 or 3 linear, 
concave valves, and as many cells. Seeds numerous, 
convex at the outer side, pitted in regular lines, without 
a crest, disposed irregularly in 2 rows in each cell, being 
sunk in the hollows of a spongy or membranous par- 
tition, connected with the linear marginal receptacles. 



6 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Glaucium. 

which are placed between the edges of the valves, and 
bear the seeds on short stalks. 

Jussieu doubted whether the spongy cellular body, in which 
the seeds are sunk, were really a partition ; but the mem- 
branous, likewise cellular, indubitable partitions of G. vio- 
laceum, prove the true nature of that body, and he was 
too judicious to separate this last-mentioned species ge- 
nericully from the rest. Prof. Hooker having examined 
only one species, G. luteum, was led by Jussieu into a mis- 
take, and found fault with Gaertner's figure of G. phoeni- 
ceum, which is peculiarly excellent and correct. 

Annual or biennial herbs, mostly glaucous, with yellow fetid 
juice. Leaves more or less pinnatifid and subdivided ; 
the upper ones sessile. Floxvers solitary, stalked, lateral 
or terminal, yellow, scarlet, or violet, very handsome. 

1. G. luteum. Yellow Horned-poppy. 

Stem smooth. Stem-leaves wavy. Pod roughish with 
minute tubercles. 

G. luteum. ^coj,. Cam. v. 1 . 369. Gmtn. v. 2. 1 66. Fl. Br. 563. 
Hook. Lond. t. .56. Scot. 1 67. IVilld. Enum. .562. 

G. flavum. DeCand. Sijst.v.2.9A. 

G. n. 1060. Hall. Hist. v. *2. 14. 

Chelidonium glaucium. Linn. Sp. PL 724. WiUd.v.2 1142. 
Engl. Bat. v. I. t.8. Fl. Dan. t. 58.5 

Papaver corniculatum. Fucks Hist 520./. Camer. Epit. 805./. 
Lob. Ic.270.f. 

P. corniculatum luteum. Bauh.Hist.r.:].p.2.39S f. Rati Syn.C'iOO. 

P. cornutum. Cord. Hist. 131 ./. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 40/./. 

P. cornutum, flora luteo. Ger. Em. 367./ 

On the sandy sea coast. 

Biennial. July, August. 

Root spindle-shaped. Plant very glaucous. Stems spreading, 2 
or 3 feet long, round, branched, leafy, smooth. Radical leaves 
numerous, stalked, a span long, pinnatifid, lyrate, lobed, cut, 
hairy, lasting through the winter j slem-leaves sessile, less rough, 
short, broad, lobed, and cut, clasping the stem with their heart- 
shaped base. F/ower-s^aZAs lateral and terminal, smooth, scarcely 
so long as the calyx, which is rough with short hairs, falling off 
as the flower opens. Petals 1 ! inch long, of a golden yellow, 
certainly answering rather to tlie latin vvord^or(/s than to lu- 
teus, but the latter appellation has been most generally adopted. 
Pod nearly a foot long, curved, roughish with minute tubercles, 
never haiiy, rarely quite smooth. The spongy substance of the 
partition is united with the lateral receptacles, by which indeed it 
is formed, and this union is permanent. The surface of the 
seeds, in every species, is curiously cellulitr. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Glaucium. 7 

2. G. phoeniceum. Scarlet Horned-poppy. 

Stem hairy. Stem-leaves pinnatifid, cut. Pod rough with 
upright bristles. 

G- phoeniceum . Gcertn. v. 2. 165. t. 115. Fl. Br. 564. Engl. 

Bot. V. 20. t.\4SS. Fl. Gr(ec.t.4S9. ffWd. Enum. 562. 
G. coinicixlatum. Curt. Land. fuse. 6. f. 32. DfCand. Syst. u.2.96. 
G. hirsutum, flore phoeniceo. Tourn. Inst. 254. 
Chelidoniiim corniculatatn. Linn. Sp. PI. 724. Willd. v. 2. 1 143. 
Papaver coiniculatum phoeniceum, folio hirsute. Bauh. Hist v. S. 

p. 2. 399./. 
P. corn icLilatum, flore phoeniceo. Lob. Adv. 109. Ohs. 141./. 
P. cornutum, phoeniceo flore. Clus. Ilist. v. 2. 91. f. Lob. Ic. 

271./ 
P. cornutum, flore rubro. Ger. Em. 367./ 

In sandy field.s, or on the sea coast, a very rare, or perhaps doubt- 
ful, native. 

In Portland island. Label. Sent from Norfolk by Mr. Stillingfleet, 
Hudson. No person has found it since. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering, //erfo rather less glaucous, and more upright, than 
the preceding. Stem clothed with spreading hairs. Leaves all 
oblong, hairy, deeply and unequally pinnatifid and cut ; the 
upper ones clasping the stem. Flower-stalks hairy, shorter than 
the calyx, which is very hairy. Petals smaller and narrower 
than in G. luteitm, of a rich scarlet, with an oblong black spotat 
the base. Pod clothed with numerous, rigid, silky, close-pressed, 
or upright, bristles. Its structure is perfectly well represented 
by Gaertner, with the spongy partition, closely united with the 
marginal receptacles. 

Cornlculatum, as a specific name, is applicable to the whole genus, 
serving originally to distinguish it from Papaver. 

3. G. vioiaceum. Violet Horned -poppy. 

Leaves doubly pinnatifid, linear, smooth. Stem smooth. 
Pod of three valves and three cells, with membranous 
partitions. 

G. vioiaceum. Juss. Gen. 236. Fl. Br. 565. Fl. Grcec. t. 490. 

Relh. 204 Willd. Enum. 562. 
G. flore violaceo. Tourn. Inst. 254. 
Chelidonium hybridum. Linn. Sp. PI. 724. Willd. v 2. 1 143. 

Engl. Bot. u. 3. ^ 201. 
Papaver cornlculatum vioiaceum. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 399./. Lob. 

Ic. 272. f. Dod. Pempt. 449./ Raii Sijn. 309. 
P. cornutum, flore violaceo. Ger. Em. 367./ Moris, v. 2. 274. 

sect. 3. t.\4.f.3. 
Roemeria hybrida. DeCand. Syst, v. 2. 92. 
in corn-fields rare. 



8 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Papavei\ 

Between Swafifham and Burwell, Cambridgeshire. Ray. In other 
parts of that county. Bev. Mr. Heimted. About 4 miles from 

■ Aylsham towards Cromer, Norfolk. Mr. Hugh Rose. 

Annual. May, June. 

Root slender. Stem erect, branched, leafy, a foot high, round, 
even, and generally quite smooth ; rarely somewhat hairy. 
Leaves dark green, nearly smooth, twice or thrice pinnatifid, witii 
linear, opposite or alternate, bluntish, bristle-pointed segments ; 
the lower ones stalked ; upper sessile. Fl. on long, lateral, ax- 
illary, or terminal simple stalks, of a brilliant violet blue, very 
splendid, but extremely fugacious, somewhat larger than the 
last. Pod 2 or 3 inches long, cylindrical, more or less cluthed 
with scattered, ascending, bristly prickles, separating when ripe 
into 3 flattish valves, sometimes 4, as in Morison's figure, with 
as many intermediate linear receptacles of the seeds, each united 
internally with a membranous, undulated or corrugated, pitted 
partition. These partitions meet in the centre, dividing the 
pod into complete cells, though there is no central column. 
Seeds like the other species, but smaller, attached by small stalks 
to the receptacles, and nestling, in a double row, in the hollows 
of the partitions. 

Medicus, a writer best known as the " iniquissimiis censor" of Lin- 
naeus and his disciples, has in Usteri's Annalen der Botanick, v. 
3. 9 — 19, (in the 2 1st page of which he is stigmatized with the 
above designation,) divided the Linnaean Chclidonium, establish- 
ing Glaucium of Tournefort, and proposing another genus, 
founded on G. violaceum, by the name of Rameria, after a late 
German botanist. This genus is admitted by the able Prof. De- 
Candolle, whence it becomes an object of attention ; for Medi- 
cus and his writings have in general not been found worthy of 
much regard. My learned friend chiefly depends on the fol- 
lowing characters to distinguish Rcemeria, "a capsule of 3 or 4 
valves, and a single cell, the receptacles, though cellular, or 
pitted, not being combined together." But he describes one 
species with only two valves, which abrogates the former cha- 
racter; and the cellular extension of the receptacles, though not 
spongy, is otherwise exactly analogous to the partitions of the 
bivalve species, constituting, in fact, real and complete parti- 
tions, meeting, though not combined, in the centre of the fruit; 
and they identify the partitions of the bivalve species, which Jus- 
sieu was led, by the analogy of this natural order, to doubt. 
Linnaeus has remarked that there are few genera in which some 
part or other of the fructification does not occasionally form an 
exception to the generic character ; and this is no less true of 
natural orders. 

265. PAPAVER. Poppy. 

Linn. Gen. 263. Jnss. 236. Fl Br. 565. Tourn. ^ 1 19, 120. 
Lam. t.4h\. Gcertn. t. 60. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Papaver. 9 

Nat. Ord. see n. 263. 

Cal. inferior, of 2 ovate, concave, obtuse, equal, deciduous 
leaves. Pet. 4, roundish, crumpled, spreading, large; 
narrowest at the base ; 2 opposite ones smallest. Filam. 
very numerous, capillary, much shorter than the corolla. 
Anth. terminal, erect, somewhat stalked, oblong, obtuse, 
compressed. Germ, roundish or oblong, large. Style 
none. Stigma peltate, radiated, downy, permanent. 
Caps, ovate, or obovate-oblong, coriaceous, large, of one 
cell, incompletely separated into a greater or less num- 
ber of marginal cells, answering to the number of rays 
in the stigma, between which the capsule bursts by as 
many valvular openings, under the stigma, which is more 
or less elevated by the incomplete partitions. Seeds kid- 
ney-shaped, numei'ous, minute, dotted, attached to the 
partitions. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with a fetid, milky, narcotic, 
juice. Stems round. Leaves pinnatifid and cut. Stalks 
lateral or terminal, long, single-flowered. FL large, va- 
rious in colour, mostly scarlet or yellow, rarely white or 
purplish; drooping in the bud, fugacious. Capsule bristly 
or smooth. 

* Capsules bristly. 

1. P. hyhrkium. Round- rough -headed Poppy. 

Capsule nearly globular, furrowed, bristly. Calyx hairy. 
Stem leafy, many-flowered. Leaves doubly pinnatifid. 

P. hybritlum. Linn. Sp. PI. 725. Willd. v. 2. 1 144. Fl. Br. 565. 

Engl. Bot. v.l.t. 43. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 73. 
P. laciniato folio, capitulo hispido rotundiore. Ra'd Syn. 308. 
Argemone capitulo torulo. Get. Em .373./. 
A. capitulo breviore hispido. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 396./. 
A. capitulo torulis canulato. Lob. Ic. 276. /. 
A. minor, capitulis brevioribus. Dalech. Hist. 440./. 

In sandy or chalky fields, but rare. 

At Wells, Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. Nearly half a mile out of St. Bene- 
dict's gates, Norwich. Mr. Pitchford. About Durham. Mr. 
Robson. At Daient, near Dartford. Mr. Lewin. 

Annual. July. 

Root small and tapering. Herb 12 or 18 inches high, rough with 
minute bristles. Leaves deep green, with numerous, decurrent, 
narrow, linear-lanceolate, obscurely revolute segments, each 
tipped with a bristle. Fl. rather small, deep scarlet or crimson, 
short-lived J often violet at the base. PoZZere bright blue. Stig- 
via with from 5 to 8 rays, a little raised above the capsule, even 



10 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Papaver. 

in its early state. Caps, the size of a filberd, furrowed length- 
wise, thickly beset with rigid, ascending, tawny bristles. 
A permanent species, no more hybrid than any other of its genus. 

2. P. Argemont. Long-rougli-headed Poppy. 

Capsule club-shaped, ribbed, bristly. Calyx slightly hairy. 
Stem leafy, many-flowered. Leaves doubly pinnatifid. 

P. Argemone. Linn. Sp PI. 725. Wllld.v. 2. 1 144. Fl. Br. 566. 

Engl. But. V. 9. t. 643. Curt. Land. fuse. 5. <. 38. Hook. Scot. 

1 68. DeCand. Sy.'^t. v. 2. 74. Fl. Dan. t. 867. 
P. n. 1061. Hall.Nomencl 95. Hist. v. 2. 15 ; n. 1063, by mistake. 
V. laciniato folio, capitulo hispido longiore. Rail Syn. 308. 
Argemone capitulo longiore. Bauh. Fin. 1/2. Lob. Ic.276.f. 

Ger. Em. 373./. Dulech. Hist. 440./. 
/3. Papaver maritimum. Mlth. 486. 

In cor.i-fields and their borders, on gravelly or sandy ground. 

/3. In sandy ground near the sea. fi^ifh. 

Near Beverley, Yorkshire. Mr. R. Teesdale. 

Annual June, July. 

Herbage resembling the preceding, but tlie bristles on the stem are 
less closely pressed, and the segments of the leaves somewhat 
broader. Pet. pale scarlet, black at the base, soon falling ; 
often jagged. Stamens dilated upwards. Rays of the stigma ge- 
nerally 0, rarely 6, sometimes but 4. Caps, narrow, bristly, swell- 
ing upwards, with angles, or ribs, in number answering to the 
rays, the intermediate spaces even, not furrowed ; bristles most 
numerous towards the top. The flowers are sometimes double. 

(S is a trivial variety, bearing one flower only, as often happens 
with starved maritime plants. 

** Capsules smooth. 

3. P. duhium. Long-smooth-headed Poppy. 

Capsule smooth, oblong, angular. Stem many-flowered, 
hairy. Bristles on the flower-stalks close-pressed. Leaves 
doubly pinnatifid. 

P. dubium. Linn. Sp. PL 726. WilUl v. 2. 1 146. Fl. Br. 567. 

Engl. Bat. v. 9. t. 644. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 37. Hook. Scot. 

168. DeCand. Syst V. 2.7 o. Fl. Dan. 1.902. 
P. Roeas. Dickenson in Shaw's Staffordshire, v.\. 110, from the 

author. 
P. n. 1063. Hall. Nomencl.95. Hist. v. 2. 15; n. 1065. 
P. laciniato folio, capitulo longiore glabro. Rail Syn. 309. 
Argemone capitulo longiore glabro. Moris, v. 2. 279. sect. 3. 

«. 14./. 11. 

In cultivated fields, e.specially on a light soil. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Papaver. 11 

Annual. June, July. 

Of a stouter more luxuriant habit than the foregoing, with broader 
leaves. Stem clothed with spreading hairs ; flower-stalks with 
close-pressed bristles. Petals broader than they are long, of a 
light scarlet, the margin mostly crenate. Stain, linear. Pollen 
yellow. Stigma of from 6 to 8 rays. Caps, oblong, swelling 
upwards, abrupt, with as many ribbed angles as there are rays, 
perfectly smooth, and somewhat glaucous. 

Jr'icquin, in Fl. Austr. t. 25, has published a white-flowered variety, 
bi^'aring a dark purple spot on the base of each petal. This has 
not been observed in Britain ; nor have I seen any variation in 
the hue of the flowers, which are always known from our other 
red Poppies by their ])aleness. 

4. P. JR/tceas. Common Red Poppy. Corn Rose. 

Capsule smooth, nearly globular. Stigma many-rayed. 
Stem many-flowered, rough, like the flower-stalks, with 
spreading brisdes. Leaves pinnatifid, cut. 

P. Rhceas. Linn. Sp. PL 726. fVilld. v. 2. 1 146. Fl. Br. 567. 

Engl. Bot. V. 9. t. 645. Curt. Land. fuse. 3. t. 32. Woodv. t. 

186. i/oo^-. ,Sco<. 168. Lob. Ic.275.f. Ger. Em.37l.f. De- 

Cand. Syst. v. 2 76. Fl. Dan. t. 1580. 
P. n. 1064. Hall. Nomencl. 95. Hist. v. 2. 1 6. 
P. laciniato folio, capitulobrevioreglabro, an nuura, Rhoeas dictum. 

Rail Syu. 308. 
P. erraticum. Mattti. Valgr. v. 2. 404 /. Camer. Epit. 802./. 
P erraticum primum. Fuchs. Hist, a 15. f, 
.Argemone. Trag. Hist.\20.f. 

in corn-fields, a troublesome weed. 

Annual. June, July. 

in habit like the last, but the segments of the leaves are broader, 
and less numerous. Stem, as well as flower-stalks, clothed all 
over with tawny hairs spreading horizontally. Calyx rough with 
similar, but more upright hairs. Pet. large, undulated, of a 
deep rich scarlet, sometimes black at the base. Stigma oi]0 
or 12 rays. Caps, ovate, abrupt, short, quite smooth and even. 

Beautiful varieties of this species, with semidouble flowers, varie- 
gated with rose-colour and white, are easily cultivated for orna- 
ment, but liable to degenerate in luxuriance. Its medical qua- 
lities arc mildly narcotic. 

5. P. somniferum. White Poppy. 

Capsule nearly globular, smooth as well as the calyx and 
stem. Leaves notched, clasping the stem, glaucous. 

P. somniferum. Linn. Sp. PI. 726. fVilld. v. 2. I 147. Fl. Br. 
568. Engl. Bot. i-.30. t. 2145. Woodv. f. 185. Hook. Scot. 
168. DeCand. v. 2, 81. Bull. Fr. t. 57. 



12 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Papaver. 

P. n. 1065. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 16. 

P. sylvestre. Raii Syn. 308. Ger. Em. 370. f. 

P. sativum. Matth. Valgr.v.2. 40b.f. Cam er. Epit. 803./. Da- 
lech. Hist. 1708./. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 390./. 

On sandy ground in the fens. 

On the banks of all the fen ditches, where the soil is sandy, in the 
parish of Hockwold cum Wilton, Norfolk, certainly wild. Bev. 
Mr. White. By the Roman road from Cambridge to Ely. Rev, 
.Archdeacon Pierson. In newly trenched ground, by road sides, 
&c, about Delvine house, near Coupar, Angusshire. .Miss Wat- 
son. The latter, however, can scarcely be supposed a wild station 
for a plant so universal in gardens, nor is it published as such 
on this authority, but on the former. 

Annual. July. 

The whole herb is glaucous, and generally smooth, though the 
Jlower -stalks now and then bear several rigid, spreading, bristly 
hairs. Stem 3 or 4 feet high, erect, branched, leafy. Leaves 
broad, wavy, lobed and bluntly notched, clasping the stem with 
their heart-shaped base. FL 3 inches broad, blueish white, with 
a broad violet spot at the base of each petal. Such are all the 
wild specimens I have seen. In gardens double varieties, of 
every shade of purple, scarlet, crimson, and even green, mixed 
with white, are common, though nothing can be more liable to 
change. Germen, as well as capsule, nearly globular, often fur- 
rowed. Stigma of 8, 10, or more rays, with a broad, thin, de- 
flexed margin. Seeds oily, sweet, and eatable. 

The milky juice, when dried, becomes Opium, which, as Haller 
well observes, is far more potent and dangerous in hot countries 
than in our cooler climates. The capsules boiled afford a gently 
narcotic infusion, and used to be kept in the shops j but the 
foreign Opium is more certain, and more manageable, in proper 
hands, such as alone ought to direct its use. 

6. P. cambricinn. Yellow Poppy. 

Capsule smooth, oblong, beaked. Stem many-flowered, 
nearly smooth. Leaves stalked, pinnate, cut. 

P. cambricum. Linn. Sp. PL 727. Willd v. 2. 1 147. FL Br. 

568. Engl. Bot. v. 1. t. 66. Hook. Scot. 168. 
P. luteum perenne, laciniato folio, cambrobritannicum. Raii Syn. 

309. 
P. cambricum perenne, flore sulphureo. Dill. Elth.v. 2. 300. t. 223. 
P. erraticum, pyrenaicum, flore flavo. Bauh. Pin. 1 71 . Prodr. 92. 

Robert. Ic. t. ]]. 
Argemone cambrobritannica lutea, capite longiore glabro, &c. 

Moris. V. 2. 279. sect. 3. t. 14./ 12. 
Meconopsis cambrica. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 87. 

In moist rocky shady situations, in Wales and Westmoreland. 
In various parts of North Wales. Ray. About Kendal, West- 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Nymphgea. 13 

moreland, plentifully. Hudson. In shady lanes near Kirkby 
Lonsdale. 

Perennial. June. 

Herbage tender, brittle, of a light, slightly glaucous, green ; its 
juice lemon- coloured. Stem a foot high, mostly besprinkled 
with nearly upright hairs, leafy, branched. Leaves stalked, pin- 
nate ; leaflets nearly ovate, acute, cut, lobed, or pinnatifid, 
smooth, somewhat decurrent; most glaucous underneath. Fl. of 
a most elegant full lemon-colour, deliciously fragrant like Cras- 
sula coccinea and odorafissima, or Mesembnjanthemum noctiflo- 
rum ; smaller than P. Rhceas ; each on a very long, minutely 
hairy stalk. Cal. hairy. Caps, elliptic-oblong, of 4 or 5 cells, 
with as many ribs, or receptacles, which elevate the convex, 4- 
or 5-rayed, stigma, and, before the capsule bursts by interme- 
diate valves at the top, have the appearance of a short style. By 
this character the present species has been separated from Pa- 
paver, by some able botanists, but I think on insufficient grounds, 
whatever may be the true nature of certain American plants as- 
sociated with it, which I have not sufficiently investigated. Ex- 
cept the elongation just described, this cap.mle has much of the 
structure of Argemone mexicana, see Gaertner, t. 60, which has 
but slight traces of the dilated receptacles, or imperfect par- 
titions, of Papaver. 

266. NYMPH.EA. White Water-lily. 

Linn. Gen. 264. Juss. 68. Fl. Br. 569. Prodr. Fl. Grac. v. 1. 
360. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 49. G(srtn. t. 19, alba. 

Castalia. Salisb. in Ann. of Bot. v. 2.71. 

Nat. Orel. R/iceadea. Linn. 27. Hydrocharides. Juss. 22. 
Nijmphaece. Salisb. Nymph(eace(je. DeCand. 35. See 
Grammar 138, 199, 208. 

Cal. inferior, of 4 large, coriaceous, oblong, permanent 
leaves, coloured on the upper side. Pet. numerous, ob- 
long, placed in several rows upon the base of the germ en. 
Nect. globose, in the centre of the stigma. Filam. very nu- 
merous, flat, placed on the germen above the petals ; the 
outermost gradually dilated. Anth. linear, of 2 parallel 
cells, closely attached, in their whole length, to the inner 
surface of the upper part of each filament. Germ, superior, 
sessile, globose. Style none. Stigma orbicular, sessile, 
of numerous rays, pointed and separate at the extremity, 
permanent. Berty coriaceous, scarred, of as many cells 
as there are rays; at length internally gelatinous and 
pulpy. Seeds numerous in each cell, roundish. 

Large, smooth, aquatic, perennial herbs. Stem none. 
Leaves floating, on long foot-stalks, heart-shaped or pel- 
tate, entire or toothed. Fl. on long simple stalks, large, 



14 POLYANDRIA— M(3NOGYNIA. Nuphar. 

white, red, or blue, closing, and sinking more or less 
below the surface of the water, at night. 

1. N. alba. Great White AVater-lily. 

Leaves heart-shaped, entire ; even beneath. Petals ellip- 
tic-oblong. Rays of the stigma sixteen, recurved. Root 
horizontal. 

N. alba. Linn. Sp. PL 729. Willd.v.2.\\52. Fl.Br.r,70. Comp. 
ed. 4. 94. Engl. hot. v. 3. t. 160. Hook. Lond. i. 140. Scot. 
169. DeCand. S?jst. v. 2. 56. Raii Stjn. 368. FL Dan. t. 602. 
Ger.Em. 8 19./. Maltli. J'algr. v. 2. 245./. Corner. Epit. 634./. 
Brunf. Herb. V. \. 37./. Lob. h: 595./. Ehrh. PI Off'.455. 

N. n. 1067. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 20. 

N. Candida. Fuchs. Hist. 535./. 

In clear pools and slow rivers. 

Perennial. Jttli/. 

Root tuberous, horizontal, sending down numerous long, stout ra- 
dicles, which are fibrous at the extremity. Letwes floating, a span 
widcj oval-heartshaped, with nearly parallel or close lobes at 
the base, entire, smooth, their radiating veins underiieaLh not 
prominent, in which it differs from the American N. odnratu. 
Footstalks and Jtower-stalks cylindrical. Flowers 4 or 5 inches 
wide, white, with yellow stamens and pistil, the upper surface of 
the calyx-leaves white, often tinged with pale red, altogether 
very beautiful, though destitute of scent. They expand in sun- 
shine, and the middle of the day only, closing towards evening, 
when they recline on the surface of the water, or sink beneath 
it. The bernj gradually decays at the bottom of the water, scat- 
tering its seeds in the mud. Every part of the herb is highly 
vascular, perspiring rapidly, and, though so succulent, drying 
very soon. It is perhaps the most magnificent of our native 
flowers. The sinking of the flowers under water at night having 
been doubted, or at least denied, 1 have been careful to verify 
it in this species. The same circumstance is recorded of the 
Egyptian N. Lotus, horn the most remote antiquitv. The stimulus 
of light, which indeed acts evidently on many other blossoms 
and leaves, expands and raises, with peculiar force, these splen- 
did white flowers, that the pollen may reach the stigma unin- 
jured ; and when that stimulus ceases to act, they close again, 
drooping by their own weight, to a certain depth. The still m.ore 
ponderous fruit finally sinks to the bottom. 

2G7. NUPHAR. Yellow Water-lily. 

Prodr. Fl Grcec. v 1 . 36 1 . Comp. ed. 4. 94. Dryand. in Ait. Hart. 

Kew. ed. 2. v. 3.295. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 59. 
Under Nymphsea, in Linn. Gen. 264. Jtm. 68. Fl. Br. 569. 

Gcertn. t. 19, lutea. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. N.iphar. 15 

Nat. Ord. see n. 266- 

Cal. inferior, of 5 or 6 large, coriaceous, concave, coloured, 
permanent leaves. Pet. numerous, oblong, much smaller 
than the calyx; furrowed and honey-bearing at the back; 
proceeding, like the stamens, from the receptacle. Filam. 
very numerous, unconnected with the germen, linear, re- 
curved. Ajith. linear, of 2 parallel cells, closely attached 
to the inner surface of the upper part of each filament. 
Germ, superior, nearly sessile, ovate, with an elongation 
at the summit. Style none. Stigma sessile, orbicular, 
convex, entire or notched, with many central radiating 
clefts. Berry coriaceous, smooth, ovate, pointed, of as 
many cells as there are rays, finally pulpy within. Seeds 
numerous, smooth, ovate, in several rows in each cell. 

Habit like Nymphcea, but the flowers are smaller, and al- 
ways yellow, essentially different in structure from that 
ffenus. 

o 

Our White Water-lily being clearly the original iVojoupa**, 
Nijmphcra, of Dioscorides, I have retained the name of 
Nov^oLp, Niiphar, given by him, for the Yellow Water- 
lily, which the modern Greeks, who make a cordial of 
its flowers, after the example of their forefathers, have . 
but little corrupted, and which the Turks have perverted 
into Pilfer. 

1. N. lutea. Common Yellow Water-lily. 

Calyx of five leaves. Border of the stigma entire. Foot- 
stalks two-edged. Lobes of the leaves meeting each 
other. 

N. lutea. Prodr. Fl Grcec. v. 1. 361. Comp. ed. 4. S4. Hook. 
Land. ^ 141. Scot. 169. DeCand Syst. v. 2. 60. 

Nvmphcea lutea. Linn. Sp. PI. 729. Willd. j>. 2. 1151. Fl. Br. 
'.569. Engl. Bot. v. .3. t. 1.59. Raii Syn. 368. Fl. Dan. I. 603. 
Ger. Em. 819./. Fuchs. Hist. .536. /'. Matth. Falgr. v. 2. 246./. 
Camer. Epit. 63.5. /'. Lob. Ic. 594./. Ehrh. PI. Of. 445. 

N. n. 1066. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 20. 

N. altera. Brunf. Herb. v. 1 . 40./. 36. 

In rivers and pools frequent. 

Perennial. July. 

Whole plant rather smaller than Nymphcea alba. Footstalks two- 
edged, flattened on the upper surface. Leaves entirely smooth 
and even, rounded at the end, and generally at the lobes, which 
meet and lap over each other. Flower-stalks nearly or quite 
cylindrical, i^.about 2 inches wide, cupped, all over of a golden 
yellow, with the scent of brandy or ratafia, whence they are 



16 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Tilia. 

called Brandy-bottles in Norfolk. They perhaps communicate 
this flavour by infusion to the cooling liquors, or Siierbets, so 
much used in the Levant. The seed-vessel, a coated berry, 
when ripe, bursts irregularly, as Prof. Hooker well observes, 
not dissolving away into a mass of pulp like the Nymphcea. 
Linnaeus once considered these plants as monocotyledonous, but he 
afterwards corrected that ill-founded opinion, and the question 
is set at rest by Prof. Hooker's complete figures. Yet they indu- 
bitably belong to M.Richard's class of EHrforr/i/'z^e, having an 
internal radicle ; and they afford in fact one, among many 
instances, of this ingenious physiologist's two great classes, En- 
dorrhizce and Exorrhizce, not corresponding uniformly with the 
Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones of other botanists, as it is 
much to be wished they could have done. All these difficulties 
however, in able hands, must gradually lead to truth. 

2. N.pumila. Least Yellow Water-lily. 

Calyx of five leaves. Border of the stigma toothed. Foot- 
stalks two-edged. Lobes of the leaves rather distant. 

^N^i pumila. Hofm. Germ. for 1800. 241. Wahlenb. Lapp. 151. 

^[^^DeCand. Syst. v.2.&\. Hook. Lond. t. 165. 

'N. minima Engl. Bot. v. 32. t. 2292. 
N. lutea /3,pumila. " Timm in Mag.fur Nat. Mecklenb. v 2. 256." 
N. lutea /3, minima. Mllld. Sp. PL v. 2. 1151; from the author. 
N. Kalmiana. Hook. Scot. 1 69, but not of other writers. 

In the highland lakes of Scotland. 

In the lake at the foot of Ben Cruachan. Mr. Borrer. In several 
other Scottish lakes. Hooker. 

Perennial. July. 

Much smaller than the preceding. Footstalks less convex beneath, 
and more concave above. Leaves about 3 inches long, shining 
at the back ; their lobes not close together. Fl. lemon-coloured, 
tinged with green, scarcely 1| inch wide, and essentially distin- 
guished by the green sharply notched border of the stigma. 

Timm is no authority for the above name, as he confounded this 
most distinct species with lutea ; but I gladly concur with the 
writers who have adopted that given by Hoffmann, which, 
though I overlooked it, is prior to mine. Priority in nomencla- 
ture is a just claim ; but neither that, nor any authority, should 
be allowed in favour of an unscientific, erroneous, or illiterate 
appellation, whether specific or generic. I have in general si- 
lently rejected such, avoiding controversy, and leaving the de- 
cision to those who may hereafter care about the matter. 

2G8. TILIA. Liine-tree. 

Linn. Gen. 267. Juss. 292. H. Br. 57]. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. 
V.35. Tourn.t.Z%\. Lam.t.4G7. Gcerhi. t. ]13. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Tilia. 17 

Nat. Ord. ColumnifercE. Linn. 37. TiUacece. Juss. 79. 

Cat. inferior, in 5 deep, valvular, concave, coloured, rather 
coriaceous, equal segments, about the size of the corolla, 
deciduous. Pet. 5, obovate, obtuse, alternate with the ca- 
lyx, somewhat notched at the summit ; in some species 
bearing a small scale, or nectm-y, on the inner side at the 
base. Filam. numerous, 30 or more, thread-shaped, the 
length of the petals. Anth. of 2 nearly orbicular lobes, 
bursting outwards. Germ, superior, roundish. Style 
columnar, erect, scarcely so long as the stamens, decidu- 
ous. Stigma with 5 obtuse angles. Caps, roundish, more 
or less angular, bursting tardily at the base, of 5 cells, sel- 
dom all perfect ; partitions opposite to the angles. Seeds 
1 or 2 in each cell of the germen, but many prove abor- 
tive, and the ripe capsule has often but 1 cell, with a so- 
litary seed, which is globular and smooth ; the embryo, 
according to Doody and Gaertner, large, heart-shaped 
and lobed. 

Handsome trees, with spreading, alternate, branches; alter- 
nate, stalked, heart-shaped, acute, serrated, deciduous 
leaves, hairy at the origin of their veins ; panicled, yel- 
lowish, fragrant Jlowers, with an oblong entire hractea 
united to the common stalk. Capsule with or without 
angles, mostly downy. Qualities mucilaginous. Bark 
internally fibrous and tough. 

1. T. eiiropaa. Common Smooth Lime-tree. Lin-' 
den-tree. 

Nectaries none. Leaves twice the length of the footstalks, 
quite smooth, except a woolly tuft at the origin of each 
vein beneath. Cymes many-flowered. Capsule coriaceous, 
downy. 

T. europaea. Linn. Sp.Pl. "33. Herb. Linn. n. 1 . Willd. v. 2. 1161. 

Fl.Br.57\,cc. Engl. Bot.v.9.ed.4. t.6l0. Conip. 94. Light/. 

280. "Svensk. Bot. t. 40." Hort. Kew. ed. 2. f.3. 299, a. 
T. intermedia. DeCand. Prodr. v. I. 513. 
T. foemina. Ger. Em. 1483./. 
T. foemina, folio majore. Bauh. Pin. 426. 
T. vulgaris platyphyllos. Raii Syn. 473; but not of J. Bauhin. 

In woods and hedges, or upon gras.sy declivities. 

Tree. Jubj. 

A tall and handsome, hardy tree, with smooth, round, brown, leafy, 
spreading branches, green while tender. Leaves 3 or 4 inches 
broad, and rather more in length, undivided ; unequal and 
somewhat heart-shaped, as well as entire, at the base ; the mar- 

VOL, MI. c 



18 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Tilia. 

gin acutely and rather unequally serrated ; the point elongated, 
acute, serrated at its base : upper surface quite smooth, of a 
bright pleasant green ; under paler, or slightly glaucous, like- 
wise smooth, except small depressed tufts of brown woolly hairs, 
where the lateral ribs branch off from the five principal ones. 
Stipulas oval, smooth, in pairs at the base of each footstalk, soon 
deciduous. Footstalks cylindrical, slender, smooth, not half so 
long as the leaves. Flower-stalks axillary, cymose, or imper- 
fectly umbellate, smooth, hardly so long as the leaves, drooping, 
with from 6 to 10 flowers j each bearing an oblong, smooth, 
pale, flat, entire, veiny, membranous bractea, originating above 
the base of the flower-stalk, and for about half its length firmly 
united therewith, its blunt point nearly on a level with the flow- 
ers, or longer. Fl. greenish, delightfully fragrant, especially in 
an evening. Pet. obovate, pale lemon-coloured, destitute, like 
all our European species, of the scales, or nectaries, attached to 
the petals of the American ones. Stam. spreading, shorter than 
the corolla. Anth. yeWow. Gennew densely hairy. Stigma 5- 
lobed. Capsule downy, leathery, not woody, uncertain in the 
number of perfect cells and seeds. 
This is certainly the Common Lime-tree of the north of Europe, 
which Linnaeus understood by T. europcea, in his Species Plan- 
tarum, and, I presume, in his Flora Suecica. The Swedish 
writers quoted by DeCandolle confirm this point, but the plate 
of Fl. Dan. t. 553 seems to be our parvifolia. T. europcea is 
cultivated all over England, and in many parts of Scotland, and 
though Ray could not meet with it indubitably wild, no one can 
doubt its being perfectly naturalized. The French " growing 
tired of the Horse Chesnut," as Du Hamel reports, adopted 

■ this tree, for ornamental plantations, in the time of Louis 
XIV. It generally composes the avenues about the residences 
of the French as well as English gentry of that date, and Fene- 

■ Ion, in conformity to this taste, decorates with "flowery Lime- 
trees" his enchanted isle of Calypso. The bark of this, and 
perhaps some other species, makes the Russia garden -mats called 
Bast. Bees collect much honey from the flowers. The smooth, 
light, delicately white, and uniform wood, useful for some do- 
mestic purposes, served Gibbons for his inimitable carvings of 
flowers, dead game, &c., so often seen in old English houses. 
An antient Lime of great magnitude, which grew where the an- 
cestors of Linnaeus had long resided, is said to have given them 
their family name, Linn being Swedish for a Lime-tree. 

2. T. grandifolia. Broad-leaved Downy Lime-tree. 

Nectaries none. Leaves downy, especially beneath ; ori- 
gin of their veins woolly. Branches hairy. Umbels 
three-flowered. Capsule woody, downy, turbinate, with 
five prominent angles. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Tilia. 19 

T. grandifolia. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 5. 158. Arb. 8. " Sut. Helvet. v. 1. 

317." 
T. platyphyllos. Scop. Cam. v. 1.373. Fenten. iri Sims &; Kon.Ann. 

V. 1. 210. "Diss. 6. t. \.f. 2." Synonyms greatly confused. 
T. platyphylla. DeCand. Prodr. r. 1 . 513. 
T. n. 1030, a. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 1. In Reyniers herbarium. 
T. vulgaris platyphyllos. Bauh. Hist. v. 1. p. 2. 133./; but not of 

Ray. 
T. maximo folio. Ibid. 137./. 
T. ulmifolia, semine hexagono. Merr. Pin. 118. Pluk, Almag. 

368. Bill, in Raii Syn. 473. 
T. europaea. Bull. Fr. t.\75. 
T. europseaJ. Fl.Br.b?]. 
T. sativa. Trag. Hist. ] 110./. 
T. Betulse nostratis folio, fructu hexagono. Pluk. Mant. 181 j a 

bad definition of our plant. 
T. sylvatica nostras, foliis amplis, hirsutie pubescentibus, fructu 

tetragono, pentagono, aut hexagono. Pluk. Almag. 368. 
T.hirsuta, Coryli foliorumsemula, fructu anguloso. Pluk. Mant. 181. 
/3. T. corallina. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. n. 2. Camp. ed.4. 94. 
T. europaea /3, corallina. Ait.H.Kew.ed.l.v. 2.229. ed. 2. v. 3.299. 
T. europaea /3, rubra. Sibth. Oxon. 166. 
T. europaea y. Fl. Br. 571. 
T. europaea. Mill. Diet. ed. 8. n.2. 
T. rubra. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 5 13 ? 
T. foliis molliter hirsutis, viminibus rubris, fructu tetragono. Raii 

Syn. ed. 2. 31 6. ed. 3. 473. Plukenet's synonyms rather belong 

to the 1st variety. 

In woods and hedges. 

At Whitstable, Surrey, and near Darking. Merrett. On the banks 
of the Mole, near Box-hill. Mr. E. Forster. Near Streatham 
wells, Surrey. Mr. Dubois in his herbarium at Oxford. In Stoken- 
church woods, apparently planted. Mr. Bicheno. About Nor- 
wich, but scarcely wild. 

jS. In Stoken-church woods, and at Malmsbury. Bobart. Not 
now to be found at Stoken-church. Dr. Williams. Only one 
tree observed there by Mr. Bicheno^ in the autumn of 1824. 

Tree. June, July; a fortnight earlier than T. europcea. 

As tall a tree as the foregoing, with spreading, round hrovinbranches, 
hairy during the first season ; of a shining red in /3, but whether 
that variety be permanent, or whether all our Tilice have not red 
twigs occasionally, as Mr. E. Forster thinks, appears doubtful. 
Leaves as large as in T. europcea, but less entire at the base, 
less pointed, and with rather longer foot stalks ; their upper 
surface bright green, minutely hairy about the ribs, and more 
or less so at the edges, between the serratures, as noticed by 
the too much neglected Bulliard ; under side rather paler, not 
glaucous, all over finely and softly downy, the ribs and veins 
curiously fringed, particularly just above the origin of each, 

c2 



go POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Tilia. 

where there are, besides, small woolly tufts. Flower-stalks and 
bracteas smooth, like the last, except that each mnbel consists, 
almost universally, of 3 flowers only. These are highly fragrant, 
with rather \ong^r stamens than the former. Germ, large, densely 
hairy. Caps, finely and closely downy, with 5 or 6 angles, and as 
many hard woody valves. 

T. grandifolia is the wild Lime-tree of Switzerland and the south 
of Europe, as europcea is of the north. They are unquestionably 
distinct species, though Ventenat was not aware of this, nor has 
he thrown much light upon the Europsean Tilia, whatever he 
may have done upon those of America. The specific names of 
Ehrhart are prior to his, and greatly preferable, as being Latin, 
like the generic one. Even .Ehrhart, usually so fond of hard 
Greek names, seems to have felt the propriety of this principle. 
I wish all writers would consider it. In Rees's Cyclopcedia the 
name of corallina is preferred to grandifolia, for reasons there 
given ; and in the 4th edition of the Compendium I was induced by 
Dillenius to make four British species of Tilia. But this writer 
has here, I believe, as in other instances, added to Ray's Synop- 
sis a plant which was already described there by another name. 
So Mr. E. Forster thinks. 1 therefore now unite the corallina 
to grandifolia, giving a preference to the latter name, because 
the red twigs seem not to be peculiar to any one species. The 
above description, except what regards this circumstance, is 
taken from the true grandifolia, nor have I been able to meet with 
iheflowers or fruit of the /3, though my-excellent friends Prof. 
Williams and Mr. Aiton have very obligingly made every possible 
inquiry, the former at Oxford, and in the neighbouring country ; 
and the latter at Kew, Osterly andSion, as well as in the Royal 
plantations about Hampton Court and Windsor ; without any 
success. The red twigs 1 suspect are most visible in the spring, 
and they certainly are sometimes observable in T. europrea. 

Mr. E. Forster remarks that T. grandifolia occurs in very old plan- 
tations as frequently as the europcea, but not in modern ones. 
There are very large trees of it at Penshurst, and some at Wal- 
tham Abbey, the plantation of which is of very antient date. 
Mrs. Beecroft brought a specimen from Blair of Athol, where 
are several old trees near the house. 

Some famous old Limes in the church-yard of Sedlitz in Bohemia, 
reported to have miraculously borne hooded leaves, ever since 
the monks of a neighbouring convent were all hanged upon them, 
are our grandifolia. I have an original specimen. See Jacq. 
Fragm. 19. t. U.f. 3. 

3. T. parvifolia. SmalMeaved Lime-tree. 

Nectaries none. Leaves smooth above ; glaucous beneath, 
with scattered, as well as axillary, hairy blotches. Um- 
bels compound, many-flowered. Capsule roundish, brit- 
tle, nearly smooth. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Tilia. 21 

T. parvifolia. Ehrh. Beitr.v. ^.\59. Arb. 36. PLOff'.\25. Engl. 

Bot. V. 24. t. 1 705. Comp. 83. ed. 4. 94. Reess Cyd. n. 3. Ait. 

H. Kew.ed.2.v.3.299. " Schkuhr Handb.v.2.72.t. 141." 
T. lilmifolia. Scop. Cam. v. 1.374. 
T. microphylla. Fenten. in Sims 5,- Kon. Ann. v. 1 . 209. " Diss. 

4. t. \.f. I." DeCand. Prodr. v. 1. 513. Sav. Etrusc. v. 1. 

152. 
T. cordata. Mill. Diet. ed. 8. n. 1. 
T. europsea /3. Fl.Br.57l. 
T. europsea. Fl. Dun. t. 553. 
T. folio minore. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 316. ed. 3. 473. Bauh. Hist. v. 1. 

p. 2. 137./. 
T. sylveslris. Trag. Hist. 1111. 
T. foemina. Fuchs. Hist. 862./. Ic. 498./. Dalech. Hist. 89./. 

Matth. Valgr.v. 1. 157./ 
T. n. 1030, /3. Hall. Hist. v. 2. I. 

In woods. 

Frequent in Essex and Sussex, as well as in Lincolnshire and else- 
where. Ray. In Stoken-church woods plentifully. Mr. Bi- 
cheno. Perhaps the only true native Lime-tree in Britain. Mr. 
E. Forster. 

Tree. August, a month later than T. europcea. 

Distinguished, at first sight, from both the foregoing species by its 
much smaller leaves, only 2 inches broad, sometimes scarcely 
longer than their slender footstalks, roundish heart-shaped, point- 
ed, sharply serrated, unequal at the base, often lobed towards 
the point } dark green and quite smooth above ; glaucous be- 
neath, with brown hairy tufts at the origin of each of their prin- 
cipal veins, as well as broad hairy blotches scattered over the 
surface j but these last are not invariably present. Fl. smaller 
than in either of the former, very fragrant like a Honeysuckle, 
placed many together, in double or aggregate umbels or co- 
rymbs. Bracteas seldom 2 inches long. Germen depressed, 
densely woolly. Stigma deeply five-lobed. Capsules sparingly 
perfected, turbinate, slightly angular, thin and brittle, almost 
smooth, rarely containing more than one seed. 

These three naturalized, if not all originally indigenous, species of 
Tilia being now, it is hoped, clearly distinguished, it may be 
worth the while of those who make use of their wood, to observe 
whether there be any difference between them as to its proper- 
ties. According to the analogy of our Elms, T. parvifolia should 
have the hardest wood, of the closest grain. This species being 
planted along with the first and second, in avenues or parks, 
will ensure a longer succession of flowers than any of them 
alone. The American kinds, with their white-backed leaves, 
make also an agreeable variety, and their/ou.'ers are very sweet- 
scented. 



22 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Cistus. 
269. CISTUS. Cistus. 

Linn. Gen. 271. Fl.Br.o72. Lam.t.477. Haller Hist.v.2.2. 
Helianthemum. Tourn. t. ]28. Juss. 294. Gartn. t.76. 

Nat. Ord. Rotacece. Linn. 20. Cisti. Juss. 80. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 unequal, concave, permanent, partly 
membranous, leaves ; the 2 outermost larger or smaller 
than the rest. Pei. 5, much larger than the calyx, equal, 
spreading, roundish, with short claws. Filam. numerous, 
capillary, shorter than the corolla. Anth. small, oval. 
Germen superior, nearly globular. Style undivided, va- 
rious in length and direction. Stigma capitate. Caps. 
angular, invested with the closed permanent calyx of 5, 
10, or 3 more or less complete, cells, and as many valves ; 
partitions from the centre of each valve, sometimes very 
narrow. Seeds numerous, small, angular, attached to the 
inner margin of each partition. 

Stem shrubb}', or herbaceous. Leaves simple, opposite or 
alternate, entire, with or without stipitlas, mostly stalked, 
more or less downy or hairy. Fl. stalked, generally 
aggregate, terminal, yellow, white, or red, inodorous. 
Stam. in some irritable. Caps, in the Cistus of Tourne- 
fort and his followers, woody, of 5 or 10 cells, but no 
central column ; in their Helianthemum more membra- 
nous, of 1 or 3 cells, the partitions in several species not 
broad enough to meet in the centre. 

Linnaeus remarks. Fund. Bot. sect. 1 70, that " there rarely 
occurs a genus in which some part of the fructification 
does not wander ; " (prove uncertain in character, or not 
strictly limited). Such is the case with the seed-vessel, 
and in some measure with the calyx, in Cistus. The latter 
part always indeed consists of 3 inner and 2 outer leaves, 
but this difference is most observable in the Helianthe- 
mum tribe, whose 2 outer calyx-leaves are much the small- 
est. The capsule moreover in this tribe has but 3 valves, 
each with a central partition, as in every Cistus ; but in 
some these partitions are not broad enough to make 3 
perfect cells, whence Jussieu proposes a shigle-celled cap- 
sule for the chief character of his Helianthemum ,• but in 
several species the separation is complete, and by this 
rule we might as well subdivide Helianthemum, as sepa- 
rate it from Cistus. Linnaeus had carefully considered 
the question, and I think him most in the right. Schre- 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Cistus. 23 

ber, Haller, Willdenow, and even Lamarck, follow him. 
If however the genus were allowed, which is a matter of 
opinion, the name is altogether inadmissible. It is the 
same as HeliantJms, in meaning and derivation, the ter- 
mination only being varied. 

* Dwaif shrubs, "mthout stipulas. 

1 . C. mar'ifolius. Hoary Dwarf Cistus. 

Stem shrubby, dwarf. Stipulas none. Leaves opposite, 
stalked, oblong, flat ; downy and hoary beneath. 

C. marifolius. Unn. Sp. PL 74 1 . fVilld. r. 2. 1 ] 93. Fl. Br. 572. 

Engl. Bot. V. 6. t. 396. Berk. Outl. v. 2. 150. Sym. Syn, 126. 

Davies Welsh Botanol. 53. Hook. Land. i. 171. 
C. hirsutus. Huds. 232. 

C. anglicus. Linn. Mani. 245. With.490. Berk. Syn. v. 2.163. 
C. canus. Jac({. Austr. t.277. 
Helianthemum alpinurrij folio Pilosellse minoris Fuchsii. Rail Syn. 

342. Bauh. Hist.v.2.\8.f.} 
H. serpilli folio incano, flora minore luteo inodoro. Dill. Elth. 

v.1.177. t. 145./. 173. 
Chamaecistus luteus, thymi durioris folio. Barrel. Ic. t. 441. 

On alpine rocks, but rare. 

On some rocks near Kendal, Westmoreland, and about Cartmel- 
wells, Lancashire, plentifully. Ray. At Gloddaeth, near Con- • 
way, Carnarvonshire. Mr. Light/oat's herbarium. On Diserth 
castle hill, Flintshire, plentifully. Bingley's Tour in North Wales, 
ed. 2.V. l.9\. On the steeper sides of Arthur's Round Table, 
Carnarvonshire. Rev. H. Davies. On Cronkley Fell, York- 
shire. Mr. Wm. Robertson. 

Shrub. May, June. 

Root strong and woody. Steins woody ; subdivided and decumbent 
at the base, with several hoary, round, leafy, ascending branches, 
3 or 4 inches high, each terminating in 3 or 4 small, corymbose, 
bright-yellow flowers, sometimes formed of 4 petals only. Leaves 
ovate, acute, entire, flat, varying from ^ to |^ of an inch in length, 
on broadish hoary footstalks ; clothed on both sides with close 
hairs ; the upper green ; lower hoary with dense entangled pu- 
bescence. Stipulas entirely wanting. Flower-stalks reddish, 
downy. Bracteas lanceolate, fringed. Cal. hairy, of 5 leaves. 
Pet. obovate, slightly waved. Germen ovate, smooth, with 3 
or 4 hairy lines. Style bent in the middle. I have never seen 
the capsule. 

The above synonyms are I believe correct j but C. canus of Liti- 
nseus is a difi'erent plant ; and marifolius of Cavanilles, Ic. v. 2. 
34. t. 143, does not well answer in its leaves to ours. 



24 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Cistus. 

** Herbaceous, mithout stipulas. 

2. C. guttatus. Spotted Annual Cistus. 

Stem herbaceous. Stipulas and bracteas none. Leaves 
opposite, lanceolate, three-ribbed. 

C. guttatus. Linn. Sp. PL 74 1 . Willd. z). 2. 1 1 98. Fl. Br. 573. 
Engl. Bot. V. 8. t. 544. Fl. Grcec. t. 498. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. 
t. 33. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 9. 7. Davies Welsh Bolanol. 53. 

C. serratus. Cavan. Ic. v. 2. 57. 1. 175./. 1. Willd.v. 2. 1 198. 

C. flore pallido, punicante macula insignito. Rati Syn. 342. 

C. annuus, flore maculato. Ger. Em. 1281./. 

C. annuus, flore guttato. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 14./. 

Helianthemum flore maculoso. Column. Ecphr. v. 2. 78. t. 77./. 1. 

In sandy pastures, very uncommon. 

In Jersey. Sherard. In Angksea, vvhere it was foun^. by Mr. 

Brewer, and not in the isle of Man*^ Rev. H. Davies. i i'^A^^^i^, /n/ 

Annual. June^Juhj. -i*'v«t*<t < /vC"*? / /Cvv-t, ^ii^ ^e~^0>t^ Mtt*. 

Root small, tapering. Herb deep green, hairy, glutinous, and ra- 
ther fragrant, in every part ; the hairs spreading. Stem solitary, 
not above a span high, except in a cultivated state, erect, slightly 
branched, leafy. Leaves opposite, sessile, 1 j or 2 inches long, 
elliptic-lanceolate, with 3 strong ribs. Clusters one or more, 
terminal, erect, simple, hairy, of several Jloicers, without brac- 
teas, though now and then leafy about the lower part. Fl. erect, 
yellow, with a blood-red spot near the base of each petal. Cat. 
very hairy. The petals are sometimes notched, as in Engl. Bot. 
when the plant becomes C. serratus, a most trifling variety. 
They expand very early in a morning and fall in 4 or 5 hours. 
Style elongated after the flowering, bent downwards. Caps. 
drooping, small, of 3 cells. 

*** Herbaceous, with stipulas. 

3. C. led'ifolius. Ledum-leaved Cistus. 
Herbaceous, downy, with stipulas. Leaves lanceolate. 

Flovi'er-stalks solitary, erect, opposite to the leaves, 
shorter than the calvx. 

C. ledifolius. Linn. Sp. PI. 742. M'illd. v. 2. 1 1 99. H. Br. 574. 

Engl. Bot. V. 34. t.24\4. 
C. salicifolius. Huds. 233. With. 49 1 . 
C. ledi folio. Bauh. Pin. 465. 

C. annuus, folio ledi. Z,o6. Jc.d. 2. 118./. 06s. 552./ 
C. annuus longifolius Lobelii. Ger. Em. 1280./. 
C. annuus, folio ledi, flore luteo. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 14./ 
C. annuus alter Lobelii. Dalech. Hist. 229. f. 

On sandy ground in the south, extremely rare. 

On Brent downs, Somersetshire. Huds. Found there likewise 

by the Rev. Mr. Lightfoot, and the late Mr. Dickson. 
Annual. June, July. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Cistus. 93 

Root simple at the crown, branching below. Stems one or morCj 
erect, simple, leafy, round, clothed, like the rest of the herbage, 
with fine, soft, spreading hairs. Leaves opposite, stalked, ellip- 
tic-lanceolate, flat, li inch long, single-ribbed, with many 
straight veins ; less sharply pointed than is represented in the 
old wooden cuts. Stipulas linear-lanceolate, acute, rather con- 
vex or revolute, not half so long as the leaves. Fl. solitary, on 
short thick hairy stalks, opposite to each leaf on tlie upper half 
of the stem. Bracteas none. Cal. rough, most hairy at the 
ribs and margin. Pet. small, obovate, entire, pale yellow, very 
fugacious, and occasionally wanting. Caps, large, triangular, 
- ■ polished, hairy at the upper part of the angles, single-celled, the 
receptacles being not at all prominent so as to form partitions. 
Seeds numerous, pale, roundish. 

The C. annuiis of Clusius, Hist. v. 1. 76, whose figure is repeated 
in Gerarde, Lobel,&c., and copied in J. Bauhin, v. 2. 13, is more 
like some states of the present plant than that for which it was 
apparently intended, C. salicifoUus. These figures perhaps mis- 
led Mr. Hudson. 

**** Dwarf shrubs, with stipulas. 
4. C. surrejanus. Dotted -leaved Cistus. 
Shrubby, procumbent, with stipulas. Leaves ovate-oblong, 
hairy and dotted beneath. Petals lanceolate. 

C. surrejanus. Li«n. Sp. P/. 743. Willd. v. 2.\202. H Br. 575. 
Engl. Bot.v. 31. t.2207. 

C. Helianthemum J. Huds. 233. 

C. sufl^'ruticosus procumbens stipulatud, foliis ovato-oblongis sub- 
pilosis, petalis lanceolatis. Hill Fl. Br. 274. t. 27. f. I; bad. 

Helianthemum vulgare, petalis florum perangustis. Dill, in Raii 
Syn.SAl. Hart. Elth. \77 . t. 145./. 174. 

On chalky hills, rare. 

Near Croydon, Surrey. Mr. Edward Du Bois. 

Shrub. July, August. 

Stems prostrate, simple, a foot long, leafy, round, clothed with 
fine, soft, depressed, entangled hairs. Leaves above an inch m 
length, stalked, spreading, ovate-oblong, or lanceolate, obtuse, 
flat, entire ; the upper side green and nearly naked ; under 
paler, with a few starry hairs, and several scattered little hol- 
lows or depressions, occasioning prominences on the upper sur- 
face, which sometimes bear 2 or 3 simple hairs. Stipulas lan- 
ceolate, fringed, full twice as long as the footstalks. Clusters 
terminal, simple, recurved, downy, many-flowered. Bracteas 
small, obtuse, fringed, not hoary. Cal. strongly ribbed, furrowed, 
hairy, twisted in the bud. Pet. longer or shorter than the ca- 
lyx, yellow, lanceolate, partly notched or serrated. Stam. some- 
times very short, as if imperfect. Germen densely hairy. Style 
bent. Caps, with 3 very slight partitions. 



26 POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Cistus. 

Mr. Lightfoot in his herbarium has noted the depressions on the 
backs of the leaves, which, with other marks, clearly determine 
this as a species^ though it has never been found but in Surrey. 

5. C. Heliaiithemum. Common Dwarf Cistus. 

Shrubby, procumbent, with fringed stipulas. Leaves el- 
liptic-oblong; white and downy beneath. Calyx-ribs 
bristly ; its outer leaves lanceolate, fringed. 

C. Helianthemum. Linn. Sp. PL 744. Willd.v.2. 1209. Fl. Br. 

575. Engl. Bot.v. 19. t.\32l. Curt. Lotid.fasc. 5. t.36. Hook. 

Scot. 170. H. Dan. t. 101. 
C. n. 1033. Hall. Hist. v. 2.3. 
Helianthemum vulgare. RaiiSi/n.34l. 
H. anglicum luteum vel album. Ger. Em. 1282./. 
Chamaecistus vulgaris, fiore luteo. Loes. Pruss. 43. t. 8. 
Flos solis, seu Panaces chironium. Matth. Valgr. v. 2.103. f. 
Panax chironium, sive Flos solis. Camer. Epit. 501. f. 
Hyssopus campestris. Trag. Hist. 22\.f. 

In hilly pastures, on a chalky or gravelly soil. 

Shrub. July, August. 

Of a more dwarf habit than the last. Root woody, bearing many 
procumbent, or slightly ascending, round, downy, simple, leafy 
stems, each terminating in a simple downy cluster, of bright 
yellow_^oj/;ers, expanding in sunshine only, when their stamens 
if touched spread slowly, and lie down upon the petals. Brac- 
teas lanceolate, smooth, fringed, one at the base of each flower- 
stalk. These partial stalks are slender, hoary, various in direc- 
tion, more reflexed as the fruit advances. CaZy.r smooth, or 
scarcely at all downy, between the strong bristly ribs of its 3 
larger reddish leaves ; the 2 outer leaves ten times smaller, 
spreading, lanceolate, mostly acute, green, smooth on both sides, 
their edges fringed with numerous bristly hairs. Germen glo- 
bose, downy. Capsule with very narrow receptacles, or imper- 
fect partitions. The leaves of this species vary in breadth, and 
are more or less revolute ; green above, besprinkled with a 
few hairs ; densely downy, white, and hairy beneath. Their 
usual form is linear-oblong, somewhat elliptical. Stipulas lan- 
ceolate, acute, fringed, green on both sides, longer than the 
footstalks. 

Ray says the flowers are very rarely white ; they are sometimes 
double in gardens. This is a variable species, but less so than 
authors make it. Few plants' are more difficult to define than 
the smaller kinds of Cistus. The roseus and mutabilis of Jacquin 
surely differ from this, and numerous species of the south of Eu- 
rope, and the Alps, require to be studied and compared by a skil- 
ful and patient observer. 



POLYANDRIA— MONOGYNIA. Cistus. 27 

6. C. totnejitosus . Downy-cupped Cistus. 

Shrubby, procumbent, with hoary stipulas. Leaves ellip- 
lic-oblong ; snow-white, with starry down, beneath. Ca- 
lyx all over hoary, with hairy ribs; its outer leaves obtuse. 

C. tomentosus. Scop. Cam. ed. 2. v. 1. 376. t. 24. Engl. Bot. 
«.31.^. 2208. Comp. ed. 4. 95. 

C. Helianthemum. Ehrh.Jrb.i26} 

On the mountains of Scotland. Mr. G.Don. 

Shrub. July. 

A larger plant than the foregoing, with broader leaves, and the 
Jiowers are conspicuous for their size as well as brilliancy. The 
more pure white, and starry down, of the backs of the leaves, 
the hoariness of the stipulas, and of every part of the calyx, in 
Mr. Don's original specimen, are remarkable ; and the obovate 
obtuse form of the 2 outer calyx-leaves, which are hoary 
all over, and less fringed than in C. Helianthemum, should seem 
a good specific character. Ehrhart's specimen is weak, and less 
downy, as if it had been drawn up by the neighbourhood of 
other plants. His stipulas moreover are green and fringed. 
The leaves on young lateral shoots are peculiarly rounded. 
When cultivated together, the difference between these two 
plants is striking. What such great practical observers as Sco- 
poli, G. Don, and our most acute, justly lamented, Dickson 
have asserted, I would not hastily reject ; nor can \, with my 
worthy friend Prof. Hooker, think C. tomentosus " not even a 
well-marked variety." It merits at least some examination in 
its native places of growth. In gardens it bears the name of 
C. canus ; but the real canus has no stipulas. 

7. C. polifolius. White Mountain Cistus. 

Shrubby, procumbent, with somewhat hairy stipulas. Pu- 
bescence starry. Leaves oblong, revolute, white and 
downy beneath. Calyx slightly hairy ; its outer leaves 
fringed. 

C. polifolius. Linn. Sp. PI. 745. Willd. v. 2. 1211. Fl. Br. 576. 
Engl. Bot.v. 19. t. 1322. 

C. humilis alpinus durior, polii nostratis folio candicante. Pluk. 
Almag.\Q7. Phyt. t. 23. f. 6. 

Helianthemum montanum, polii folio incano, flore candido. DHL 
EUh. 175. t. 145./. 172. 

Chamaecistus montanus, polii folio, Raii .Sj/w.342. Hill. Fl. Br. 
27 A. i. 27./. 2; very bad. 

On stony hills, near the sea, very rare. 

On Brent downs, Somersetshire. Plukenet. Plentifully on the 
top and about the middle of the hill, on lirent downs. Dill, in 
Linn. Corresp. v. 2. 132. At Babbicombe, near Newton Abbot, 
Devonshire. Rei'. Aaron Neck. 



28 POLYANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Paeonia. 

Shrub. June, July. 

In size and habit like C. Helianthemum, but essentially distinct, 
though not known in any other part of the world than the places 
above specified. The stems are hoary with fine, close-pressed 
hairs. Leaves always revolute ; convex and green on the up- 
per side, covered with starry hairs, not entangled with each 
other ; white and densely downy, with similar but entangled 
hairs, beneath ; the mid-rib very prominent. Siipulas linear- 
lanceolate, rather acute than blunt, most hairy at the margin, 
not at all downy. Cal. membranous, with red ribs bearing a 
very few hairs here and there, the intermediate spaces quite 
smooth and naked ; the 2 outer leaves linear, channelled, 
fringed. Pet. white, sometimes crenate ; their claws yellow. 
Caps, with 3 slight ])artitions. 

Linnaeus has very incautiously confounded this and C. marifoUus 
in his Mantissa 2. 145, under the name of C. angUcus. C. apen- 
nintis more nearly resembles our polifoHus ; but differs in its 
simple pubescence, and hoary calyx without hairs on the ribs. 



POLYANDRIA PENTAGYNIA. 
270. P.EONIA. Piony. 

Linn. Gen.273. Juss. 234. Tourn. t. 146. Lam.t.48\. Geertn. 
t. ()5. 

Nat. Ord. MultisiliqucB. Linn. 26. Ranunculacece. Juss. 61. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 roundish, concave, reflexed, unequal, per- 
manent leaves. Pet. 5, roundish, concave, spreading, 
contracted at the base, larger than the calyx. Filam. 
very numerous, capillary, much shorter than the corolla. 
Anth. terminal, erect, oblong, quadrangular, of 4 cells. 
Germ, from 2 to 4, 5, or more, sessile, ovate, downy. 
Styles none. Stigmas oblong, curved, compressed, ob- 
tuse, coloured. Capsules {follicles) as many as the ger- 
mens, ovate-oblong, spreading widely, coriaceous, burst- 
ing along the inner side. Seeds numerous, oval, polish- 
ed, ranged along the edges of the follicle. 

Mostly herbaceous, with fleshy perennial roots. Leaves 
alternate, once or twice ternate, entire or cut. Fl. soli- 
tary, large, stalked, crimson or white, often double. Ger- 
mens usually multiplied by culture. Abortive seeds co- 
loured. 



POLYANDRIA— PENTAGVNIA, Delphinium. 2.9 

1. P. corallina. Entire-leaved Piony. 

Leaves twice ternate ; leaflets ovate, undivided, smooth. 
Follicles downy, recurved. 

P.corallina. ReAz.Ohs.fasc.Z.^A. fVilld. Sp. PI. v. 2. ]22\. Engl. 

Bot.v.22.t.\5\3. Comp.ed.4.95. Jit. H. Kew. ed. 2. v.3.3\5. 

DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 388. 
P. officinalis /3. Linn. Sp. PL 747 . Mill. Illustr.t.47. 
P. mas. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 26.5./. Camer. Epit. 6r>7.f. Dod. 

Pempt. 194./. Ger. Em. 980 / Lob. Ic. 684./. 685./. 
Paeonia. Palmberg Sert.286.f. 

On islands in the river Severn. 

Abundantly in the rocky clefts of the Steep Holmes, in the Severn. 
Mr. F. B Upright. On a rabbit-warren about 2 miles from Graves- 
end, according to Gerarde ; but no other person has found it 
there. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root fleshy, knobbed. Herb smooth, about 2 feet high. Stems 
simple, round, leafy, polished, reddish. Leaves twice ternate ; 
leaflets elliptical, undivided, of a dark shining green. The up- 
permost leaf is sometimes ternate only, or simple ; rarely pin- 
nate, as in Engl. Bot. and Miller. Fl. about 4 inches broad, 
crimson, with yellow anthers. Germens 2, 3, or 4, white with 
purple stigmas. Seed-vessels internally reddish and polished. 
Seeds black and shining; the interspersed abortive ones angular, 
scarlet. 

A very handsome plant, far less common in gardens than P. offi' 
cinalis, the foemina of old authors, and scarcely ever seen dou- 
ble, as the latter usually is. 

271. DELPHINIUM. Larkspur. 

Linn. Gen. 274. Juss. 234. Fl. Br. 5/7. Tourn. t.24l. Lam. 
t.482. Gcertn i. 65. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 270. 

Cal. none. Pet. 5, inferior, unequal, ranged in a circle, 
spreading; the upper one extended behind into a long, 
tubular, straight, bluntish spur; the rest ovate-oblong, 
with claws, various in various species. Nectary divided, 
of 1 or 2 sessile leaves, placed in front within the row of 
petals, on the upper side, extended behind in the form 
of a tube, contained in the spur of the uppermost petal. 
Filam. numerous, awl-shaped, dilated at the base, much 
shorter than the corolla, directed upwards. Anth. round- 
ish, small, erect. Germ, superior, 3 or 1, or 5, ovate, 
each terminating in a style shorter than the stamens. 



so POLYANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Delphinium. 

Stigmas simple, reflexed. Caj)s, {follicles) as many as 
the germens, ovate-oblong, or somewhat cylindrical, of 
1 valve, bursting at the inner side. Seeds numerous, an- 
gular, rough, at the edges of the capsule. 
Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves much divided, for the 
most part stalked. Fl. in clusters, blue or violet, varying 
to red or white, with bracteated partial stalks. 

1. D. Consolida. Field Larkspur. 

Capsule solitary. Nectary of a single leaf. Stem subdi- 
vided, spreading. 

D. Consolida. Unn. Sp.Pl. 748. Willd. v. 2. 1 226. FL Br. 577. 

Engl. Bot. V. 26. t. 1839. DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 343. FL Dan. 

t. 683. 
D. n. 1203. HalL Hist. V. 2.95. 
D. segetum, flore cseruleo. Dill.in Rail Syn. 2/3. 
D. elatius, simplici flore. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 206./. 
Delphinium. Riv. Pentap. Irr. t. 124./. 1. 
Consolida regia. Trag. Hist. 569. f. Fuchs. Tc. 239. f. 
C. regalis. Brunf. Herb. v. 1 . 84. /. 83. Corner. Epit. 521. f. 
C. regalis sativa. Ger. Em. 1082./. 1, 2. 
Chamaemelum eranthemon. Fuchs. HiM 27 .f. 

In sandy or chalky corn-fields. 

Plentifully in Swaff"ham field, Cambridgeshire. Sherard. In se- 
veral parts of that county. Relhan. Between Blackheath and 
Eltham. Dillenius. About Feltwell, near Brandon. Wlr. Fran- 
cis Smith. Near Bury St. Edmund's. Bishop of Carlisle. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root simple, slender. He7b finely downy all over, particularly the 
stem and capsule, so that I am unable to separate the D.pu- 
bescens of DeCandoUe from our plant, though, being a native of 
Greece and other mild climates, it is more luxuriant, as will ap- 
pear by Fl. Gra'c. t. 504 when published. The stem in ours is 
1 8 inches or 2 feet high, erect, leafy, with alternate spreading 
branches. Leaves sessile, in many deep divisions, which are 
three-cleft and subdivided, with narrow, linear, acute segments. 
Stipulas none. Clusters terminal, lax, of but fewjlowcrs, whose 
petals are, in front, of a most vivid and lasting blue ; the back 
of each flower, as well as the nectary, being pale purplish, or 
flesh-coloured. These colours however vary much in gardens, 
where this species is called the Branching Larkspur, and attains 
the height of 3 or 4 feet. Bract eas at the base, and in the mid- 
dle, of each partial stalk, simple or divided. Germen and cap- 
sule solitary, with a short permanent style. Seeds angular, black, 
very rough. 



POLYANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Aconitum. 31 
272. ACONITUiM. Wolfsbane. 

Linn. Gen. 274. Juss. 234. Tourn. t. 239, 240. Lam. t. 482. 
Gcertn. t. 65. DeCand. Syst. v. 1. 364. 

Nat. Orel, see n. 270. ■ 

Cal. none. Pet. 5, inferior, unequal, 4 of them in pairs, 
opposite ; the upper one hooded, or tabular, inverted, 
the convex or hind part being uppermost, the deflexed 
point recurved ; 2 lateral ones roundish, opposite, con- 
verging ; 2 lowermost oblong, deflexed. Ncctm-ies 2, 
within the hollow of the uppermost petal, on long awl- 
shaped stalks, tubular, drooping, oblique at the orifice, 
recurved at the honey-bag behind. Filam. numerous, 
broad at the base, awl-shaped, short, directed towards the 
upper petal, some of the innermost often dilated and abor- 
tive. Anth. roundish, small, erect. Germens superior, 
3, 4, or 5, oblong. Styles terminal, awl-shaped, spread- 
ing. Stigmas simple, acute. Caps, {follicles), as many 
as the germens, straight, ovate-oblong, of 1 valve, burst- 
ing at the inner side. Seeds numerous, angular, rugged, 
at the edges of the capsule. 

Perennial herbs, of a very dangerous quality, highly nar- 
cotic and acrid. Roots fleshy. Stems erect, or twining. 
Leaves fingered and cut. Clusteis terminal, many-flow- 
ered, bracteated. Fl. dark blue, whitish, or pale yellow. 
The nectaries are full of honey. 

1. A. Napellus. Common Wolf's-bane, or Monk's- 
hood. 

Upper petal arched at the back ; lateral ones hairy at 
the inner side. Germens three, smooth. Leaves deeply 
five-cleft, cut, with linear segments, furrowed above. 

A. Napellus. Lmn. Sp. PL 751. Willd. v. 2. 1235. Woodv t.6. 

Purt. V 3 47, note. Seringue Aeon. 152. i. 15./ 41, 42, 50. 
A. vulgare. DeCand. %s^ p. 1.371. 
A.n 1197. Hall. Hist. V. 2.90. 
Napellus. Dod. Pempt. 442. f. 

N. verus csevuleus. Ger. Em.972.f. Lob.Tc.679.f. 
Eisen hiitlin. Trag. Hist. 248./. 
Lycoctonum sativum tricarpum. Cord. Hist. 145. same/. 

In watery places, a doubtful native. 

By the side of the river Teme, Herefordshire ; and still more abun- 
dantly on the banks of a brook, running into that river, to all 



32 POLYANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Aquilegia. 

appearance truly wild. Rev. Edward li'hitehead, Fellow of Corpus 
Christi college, Oxford. 1819. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root tapering. Stem erect, simple, leafy, clothed with minute 
close hairs, and terminating in a solitary, simple, upright cluster 
of large dark -blue flowers, without scent. Leaves alternate, on 
short stalks, divided to the base into 5 lobes, cut into numerous, 
linear, acute, somewhat revolute segments ; nearly smooth on 
both sides ; paler beneath ; marked on the upper side with a 
furrow along the course of the mid-rib. Our plant is certainly 
the original Napellus, from which Prof. DeCandoUe has sepa- 
rated several formerly-supposed varieties, having broader leaves, 
but of which lie very candidly expresses his doubts, whether they 
are good species. At any rate I would here retain the old well- 
known specific name, though Linnaeus, who made no distinc- 
tion between these plants, has in his herbarium for Napellus the 
A. neubergense of DeCandolle, which moreover is figured, under 
his inspection, in the Stockholm Transactions for 1/39, t. 2, 
as A. Napellus, and given as such by Ehrhart in his PL Off". 87. 
A. paniculatum of DeCandolle, which is what Storck happened 
to make use of, and to publish, for Napellus, and which is Hal- 
ler's Ti. 1 198, belongs to A. Cammarum of Linnaeus. 

273. AQUILEGIA. Columbine. 

Linn.Gen.275. Juss.234. Fl. Br. 578. Toum.t. 242. Lam 
t.483. Gcertn. ^ 118. 

Nat. Ord. see n, 270. 

Cal. none. Pet. 5, inferior, ovate, mostly pointed, nearly 
flat, equal, spreading. Ned 5, equal, alternate with the 
petals, each of them tubular, gradually dilated upwards, 
oblique at the mouth, the outer margin ascending, the 
inner attached to the receptacle ; their lower portion ex- 
tended into a long tapering spur, obtuse at the extremity. 
Filam. numerous, 30 to 40, awl-shaped, erect; the outer 
ones shortest; innermost abortive, dilated and corrugated, 
closely enfolding the germens. Anth. terminal, heart- 
shaped, erect. Germ. 5, superior, ovate-oblong, tapering 
into awl-shaped upright styles, with simple stigmas. Caps, 
{follicles) 5, cylindrical, pointed, parallel, straight, of 1 
valve, bursting at the inner side downwards. Seeds nume- 
rous, ovate, smooth, keeled, at die edges of the capsule. 

Perennial habs, with fibrous roots. Leaves once or twice 
ternate, bluntly lobed and cut ; the lower ones on lon<y 
stalks. FL terminal, drooping, blue, purplish, scarlet 
partly yellow, or green, the former colours varying to 



POLYANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Stratiotes. 33 

pink or white ; their structure in gardens variously trans- 
formed or multiplied. Qualities slightly acrid, astrin- 
gent, or bitter, scarcely dangerous, except perhaps in the 
seeds. 

1. A. vulgaris. Common Columbine. 

Nectaries about the length of the petals ; their spurs in- 
curved. Leaves and stem smooth. Capsules hairy. 

A. vulgaris. Linn. Sp. PI. 752. M'illd. v. 2. 124.5. Ft. Br. 578. 

Engl. Boi.v.5. t.297. Hook. Scot. 170. DeCand. Syst.v. 1.334. 

Ft. Dan. t. 695. 
A. n. 1195. Hall. Hist. V. 2.89. 

A. flora simplici. RaiiSyn.273. Bauh. Hist.v.3.4S4.f. 
A. caerulea. Ger. Em. 1093./. 

Aquilegia. Fuclis. Hist. 102. f. Dorst. Bot. 30, 2./. 
Aquilina. Matth. Valgr.v. 1 . 577./. Corner. Epit, 404./. 
Isopyrum Dioscoridis. Column. Pliytob. \.t.\. 
|6. Aquilegia alpina. Huds. 235 ; excluding the sijnonyms. 

In meadows, pastures and thickets. 

/3. In more mountainous situations. At Matlock bath, Derby- 
shire. 

Root tuberous. Herbage smooth and naked. Stem erect, 2 or 3 
feet high, somewhat leafy, round, generally branched, and bear- 
ing several flowers. Radical leaves on long stalks, twice ter- 
natej leaflets broadly wedge-shaped, bluntly lobed and cut, 
glaucous beneath ; those on the stem more simple, and nearly 
sessile. Fl. pendulous, bright purple, on purplish, somewhat 
downy, stalks. Pet. pointed. Nect. much incurved at the end 
of the spur. Germ, and caps, hairy. Dr. Hooker misquotes 
Engl. Bot., as the inner stamens are there represented as im- 
perfect. 

/3. Has scarcely more than one Jlower on each stem, and the necta- 
ries are rather less curved. The whole plant is less luxuriant 
and more elegant. A. alpina of Linnaeus bears hlaejlowers twice 
the size of the vulgaris. Double varieties of our Common Co- 
lumbine, with white, pink, or dark crimson flowers, are frequent 
in gardens, and there is one whose nectaries are obliterated, and 
the petals greatly multiplied, usually rose-coloured. 

274. STRATIOTES. Water-soldier. 

Linn.Gen.277. Juss. 67. R. Br. o79. Lam. t. 489. Gcerln.t.\4. 
Nat. Ord. Palvicc. Linn. 1. Hydrocharides. Juss. 22. De- 
Cand. 115. 

Cal. superior, of 1 leaf, tubular, erect, the border in 3 deep, 
deciduous segments. Pet. 3, alternate with the calyx, 

VOL. III. D 



34 POLYANDRIA— PENTAGYNIA. Stratiotes. 

and twice as long, obovate, concave, slightly spreading. 
Filam. about 20 or fewer, shorter than the segments of 
the calyx, and proceeding from its tube. Anth. vertical, 
awl-shaped. Germ, inferior, elliptical, obtusely triangu- 
lar. Styles 6, deeply cloven, full as long as the stamens. 
Stigmas simple. Berry coated, oval, with 6 or more 
cells, and as many angles, tapering at each end. Seeds 
numerous, obovate, in 2 rows. 
Aquatic herbs, with radical, ribbed, simple, serrated or en- 
tire leaves, and white j^owers, on radical stalks. Each 
Jlotsoer is accompanied by a permanent sheath, or hractea, 
of a single leaf, variously divided, which is not wanted to 
strengthen the generic character, and indeed does not be- 
long to the parts of fructification. There are some In- 
dian species with fewer stamens than ours, which is the 
type of the genus. 

1. S. aloides. Water Aloe, or Water-soldier. 

Leaves sword-shaped, channelled, with a prominent rib, 
and sharp marginal prickles. 

S. aloides. Linn. Sp. Pl.754. Willd. v. 4. 820. Fl. Br. 579. Engl. 

Bot.v. 6. <.379. Hook. Scot. 171. Mill. Illustr. t. 50. Fl. Dan. 

t.337. 
S. foliis aloes, semine longo. Rail Syn. 290. 
S. aquaticus. Dalech. Hist. 1061./. 
Militaris aizoides. Ger. Em. 825. f. Lob. Ic.375.f. 
Aloe sive Aizoon palustre. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 778./. 
Water Aloe. Pet. H. Brit t.7\.f.5. 

In deep fen ditches and pools. 

Plentiful in the isle of Ely, and in the marshy parts of Lincoln- 
.shire and Norfolk. Also, according to Withering, in Cheshire 
and Yorkshire. 

Perennial. July. 

A stoloniferous, smooth, floating herb, with numerous radical 
leaves, and a solitary central ^otrer-sm/Zc, no stem. The parent 
plant sinks to the bottom after flowering, and sends out long 
simple runners, each terminating in a leaf-bud, or young plant, 
which first takes root in the mud, by several long fibres, and in 
the following summer rises to the surface of the water, blossoms, 
and then again subsides to ripen its seeds, and throw out fresh 
runners, each tuft of leaves flowering but once. The leaves are 
a span long or more, acute, highly vascular, fringed with very 
sharp saw-like teeth. Flowers white, large and handsome, the 
stalk firm, stout, two-edged, much shorter than the leaves. The 
anthers are occasionally imperfect in one flower, the stigmas in 
another, whence some curious but superficial observers have 



POLYANDRIA-POLYGYNIA, Anemone. 3,3 

thought the Jlowers dioecious ; but such casual imperfection in 
those parts is frequent in plants that increase much by root. 
The Slratiotes fills our ditches in summer, with a close phalanx 
of sword-like leaves, wiience its name, from g-pocros, an army, 
in Dioscorides, whose description cannot be mistaken, though 
Dr. Sibthorp did not notice this plant in Greece, any more than 
the Sagittaria, which some commentators have mistaken for it. 
See Mattlu Valgr. v. 2. 482. 483. 



POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA. 
275. ANEMONE. Anemone. 

Linn. Gen. 279. Juss.232. FL Br. 580. Tourn.t.UJ. Lain. t. 496. 

Gcertn.t.T'i. DeCand. Syst.v. I. 188. 
Pulsatilla. Tourn. t. \48. Seeds with feathery tails. 
Anemonoides. Di7Z. Ge«. 107. ^. 4. Seeds simply pointed. Petals C. 
Anemone-ranunculus. Ibid. t. 4. Seeds simply pointed. Petals 5. 

Nat. Ord. Multisiliquce. Linn. 26. Ranunculacece. Juss. 61. 
See n. 270—273. 

Cal. none. Pet. from 5 to 15, inferior, regular, in one or ,*f : 

more rows, imbricated in the bud, elliptical or oblong, 
deciduous. Filam. numerous, capillary, much shorter 
than the corolla. Anth. terminal, of 2 round lobes, burst- 
ing laterally. Germ, superior, numerous, collected into 
a round or oblong head. Styles tapering, short. Stigmas 
simple, bluntish. Seeds numerous, pointed, tipped with 
the permanent styles, which in some species become fea- 
thery tails. 

Herbs with tuberous roots. Stem none. Leaves stalked, 
more or less divided or compound. Fl. solitary or ag- 
gregate, scentless, on radical stalks, with a leafy involu- 
crum., or bractea, more or less remote from the flower. 
Corolla blue, purplish, red, white, or yellow, very va- 
- riable. 

1. A. Pulsatilla. Pasque-flower Anemone. 

Flower solitary, nearly upright. Invohicrum in deep li- 

D 2 



36 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Anemone. 

near segments. Petals six, erect. Seeds with feathery 
tails. Leaves doubly pinnate, cut, with linear lobes. 

A. Pulsatilla. Linn. Sp. P/.759. Willd. v. 2. 1274. Fl. Br. 580. 
Engl. Bot. V. \. t.5\. Hook. Lond. t. 44, according to the letter- 
press. Relh.ed. 1. 208.t.3. DeCand. Syst.v.\. 19\. FL Dan. 
t.l53. Bull.Fr.t.49. Efirh.Pl.Of. \35. 

A. pratensis. Sibth. 169. With. 498. 

A. n. 1146. Hall. Hist. V. 2.61. 

Pulsatilla. Matth. Valgr. v. \. 568. f. Camer. Epit. 392. f. Dod. 
Pempt. 433./. I. 

P. tolio crassiore, et majore flore. Raii Syn. 260. Bauh. Pin, 1 77. 

P. vulgaris. Ger. Em. 385./. Lob.Ic.28\./. 

In high open chalky pastures. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Root rather woody, sweet according to Haller, though the herb 
itself is highly acrid, and blisters the skin. Leaves doubly pin- 
nate, the leaflets deeply pinnatifid, with very narrow, nearly 
linear, acute, channelled, hairy segments. Stalk solitary, 4 or 
5 inches high, round, hairy. Involucrum in many deep linear 
segments, all united at the base. Flower of a dull violet blue, 
externally silky. Pet. near Ij inch long, moderately spreading, 
but straight, not recurved as in the true A. pratensis, Herba venti 
of Tragus, 413, whose flower moreover is but half the size of 
this, and more drooping. The seeds, with their long, feathery, 
purplish tails, spreading in every direction, form a round head, 

. and are finally blown away by the wind. Gerarde expressly 
informs us that he himself was " moved to name" this the 
Pasque-flower, or Easter-flovs^r, because of the time of its ap- 
pearance. There is therefore no occasion to seek an explanation 
of this name in the reported use of the flowers, for colouring the 
Paschal eggs of the catholicks, or the Scotch ; especially as these 
flowers are said to yield a green, not a purple dye. See Hooker, 
as above. 

2. A. nemorosa. Wood Anemone. 

Flower solitary. Petals six, elliptical. Seeds pointed, with- 
out tails. Involucrum of three ternate or quinate, stalked, 
lobed and cut, leaves. 

A. nemorosa. Linn. Sp. PL 762. TVilld. t). 2. 1281. FL Br. 581. 

EngLBot. V. 5. t. 355. Curt.Lond./asc.2. t.38. Hook. Scot. 171. 

DeCand. SysL v. 1 . 203. FL Dan. L 549. BulL Fr. t. 3. Ehrh. 

PL Off. 145. 
A. n. 1154. HaU. Hist. V. 2. 64. 
A. nemorum alba. Raii Syn. 259. Ger. Em. 383./. 
A. quinta. Dod. Pempt.435./. 
Ranunculi quarta species, lactea. Fuchs. Hist. 161. f. 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Anemone. 37 

Ranuncuhis nemorosus. Lob. Ic. 673./. 

Herba sylvestris, ignoti nominis. Brunf. Herb, v. 2. 80./. 

In groves, thickets, and heathy ground, abundantly. 

Perennial. April. 

Root tuberous, horizontal, nearly cylindrical. Leaves on long foot- 
stalks, ternate or quinate, mostly three-cleft, always irregularly 
cut 5 the margin and ribs slightly hairy. Involucrum of 3 simi- 
lar leaves, vi^ith shorter stalks, above half way up the Jiower- 
stalk, which is simple and a little hairy. Flower rather droop- 
ing, always solitary. Pet. white, often purplish at the back, each 
above half an inch long. Germens downy. Seeds beaked with 
the style almost their own length. 

The numerous stamens, changing, as in several of the foreign kinds, 
into small lanceolate petals, make a pretty double^ower, more 
lasting than the single one, and sometimes preserved in coun- 
try gardens. It requires a very pure air. Goats only can feed 
with safety on this acrid plant ; to sheep it is dangerous, and 
horses and cows leave it untouched. 

3. A. apennina. Blue Mountain Anemone. 

Flower solitary. Petals numerous, lanceolate. Seeds point- 
ed, without tails. Involucrum of three ternate, stalked, 
deeply cut leaves. 

A. apennina. Linn. Sp. PI. 762. fVilld. v. 2. J 282. Fl. Br. 581 . 

Engl. Bot. v.l5.t.\ 062. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 35. DeCand. 

Syst.v. 1.202. 
A. secunda. Dod. Pempt. 434./. 
A. geranifolia. Ger. Eni.377.f. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 405./. RaiiHist. 

u. 1.625. 
A. tuberosa geranifolia. Lob. Ic. 280./. 

A. hortensis tenuifolia, simplici flore prima. Clus. Hist. 254./. 
Ranunculus nemorosus, flore purpuro-cseruleo. Dill, in Raii 

Syn. 259. 
R. nemorosus flore caeruleo, duplex, Apennini mentis. Mentz. Pu' 

gill. t. 8. 

In groves in the central part of England, but rare. 

In Wimbleton woods, (where it still grows) ; Mr. Rand. Near 
Harrow ; Mr. DuBois ; near Luton Hoe, Bedfordshire ; Mr. T. 
Knowlton. Dillenius. Near Berkhamstead, Herts ; Mr. Good- 
all. Withering. It supplies the place of the last species in every 
grove and thicket of Italy, though not found in Switzerland ; 
and may be truly wild in the situations above mentioned, which 
are analogous to those where it abounds. There is only a bare 
supposition of its having escaped from gardens, though Ray says 
the Dutch gardeners obtained the roots from Italy. 

Perennial. April. 

Root tuberous, roundish. Habit like the last, but with rather 



38 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Clematis. 

broader, richer, and more hairy foliage. Flower very elegant, 
bright blue. Pet. about 1 2 to 16, spreading, lanceolate, blunt- 
ish. Stalk above the leafy involucrum silky. The wooden cuts 
above indicated are truly excellent. 

4. A. ranunculoides . Yellow Wood Anemone. 

Flowers solitary, or in pairs. Petals five, elliptical. Seeds 
pointed, without tails. Involucrum of three, somewhat 
stalked, deeply cut, leaves. 

A. ranunculoides. Linn. Sp. PI. 762. fVilld.v.2.l282. Fl.Br. 532, 
Engl. Bot. v.2l.t. 1484. Huds. 237. DeCand. Syst.v.\.206. 
Fl.Dan.t.]40. 

A. n. 1153. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 64. 

A. nemorum lutea. Gar. Em. 383./. Rail Hist. v. I. 625. 

Ranunculus sylvestris luteus. Trag. Hist. 95./. with SJlowers. 

R. nemorosus luteus. Bauh. Pin. 1 78. Lob. Ic. 674./. 

Ranunculi tertia species. Cord. Hist. 120, with the cut of Tragus. 

R. quarta species lutea. Fuchs. Hist. 1 62./. 

In groves, very rare. 

Near King's Langley, Herts ; and Wrotham, Kent. Hudson. Near 
Abbot's Langley. Mr. G. /Anderson. 

Perennial. April. 

Root and herbage much like A. nemorosa, but the radical leaves are 
few, often quinate. Involucral leaves 3, nearly sessile, ternate, 
or quinate. Fl. 1 or 2, I have never seen more, on hairy par- 
tial stalks. Pet. elliptical, obtuse, always bright yellow, and na- 
turally 5, though the cut of Gerarde and Lobel has 6, which some- 
times happens to the wild plant, as A. nemorosa has occasion- 
ally 7. Seeds i^w, hairy, roundish, beaked. 

This having never, as far as can be learned from old writers, been 
a garden plant in England, cannot safely be asserted to have 
escaped from gardens. I have wild specimens from the excellent 
author of the Flora Anglica, and from the late Mr. G. Ander- 
son ; two men whose accuracy and judgment are as unimpeach- 
able as their honesty. 

276. CLEMATIS. Traveller's Joy. 

Linn.Gen.280. Juss.232. Fl. Br.583. Lam.t.497. Gcertn.t.74. 

DeCand. Syst.v. J. 131. 
Clematitis. Tourn- t. 150. 

Nat. Ord. see ii. 270—273, and 275 — 282. 

Cal. none. Pet. from 4 to 8, inferior, regular, oblong, in 
the bud either valvular, or folded in at the edges. Filam. 
numerous, swelling upward. Anth. terminal, of 2 oblong 
lobes, bursting laterally. Germ, superior, sessile, ovate, 
collected into a round head. Styles terminal, much longer 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Clematis. 39 

than the germens. Stigmas simple. Seeds numerous, 
ovate, compressed, placed on a capitate receptacle, and 
tipped with the permanent styles, becoming, generally 
feathery, tails. 

Roots fibrous. Stems shrubby and climbing ; rarely herba- 
ceous or erect. Leaves opposite, for the most part re- 
peatedly compound, with twiningybo^s/a^/(-5. Fl. panicled, 
terminal or axillary, rarely solitary, sometimes brac- 
teated ; cream-coloured, white, yellowish, or purple ; in 
some species fragrant. 

Notwithstanding the utmost dissimilarity of habit, the most 
attentive botanists have found great difficulty in esta- 
blishing a clear generic distinction between this genus 
and Anemone. I acknowledge myself obliged to the ex- 
cellent M. DeCandoUe for pointing out the difference of 
their sestivation ; see Grammar 22. 

1. C. Vitalha. Common Traveller's Joy. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets heart-shaped, partly cut. Foot- 
stalks twining, permanent. Panicles forked, not longer 
than the leaves. 

C. Vitalba. Linn. Sp. PI. 766. TVilld. v. 2. 1292. Fl. Br. 583. 

Engl.Bot.v.9.t.6\2. Curt.Lond.fasc. 4. t.37. Hook.Scot.l7l. 

DeCand. Sijst. v. 1. 139. Jacq. Austr. t. 308. Bull. Fr. t. 89. 

Ehrh. PL Off. 346. 
C. n. 1142. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 59. 
C. latifolia, seu Atragene quibusdam. Rail Syn. 258. Bauh. Hist. 

v.2.125. f,f. 
C. a\tera. Matth.Valgr.v. 2. 306./. 
C. tertia. Camer. Epit. 697./. 
Viorna. Ger. Em. 886. /. Lob. Ic. 626./. 
Vitis nigra. Fuchs. Hist.97./. Ic.53./. 
Vitalba. Dod. Pempt. 404./. 

In hedges, especially on a calcareous soil. 

Shrub. July. 

Stems woody, angular, climbing to a great extent, or pendulous 
from broken precipices or old walls, branched, entangled, sup- 
ported on other shrubs by their permanent, hardened, twining 
/ootstalks. Leaves deciduous ; their leaflets 5, stalked, heart- 
shaped, pointed, finely hairy, either quite entire, unequally cut, 
or coarsely serrated. Panicles axillary and terminal. Forked, 
many- flowered, downy. Fl. white, with a sweet almond-like 
scent. Pet. 4, most downy at the outside. Seeds with long, 
wavy, feathery and silky tails, forming beautiful tufts, conspicu- 
ous in wet weather. They retain their vegetative principle for 
many years, if kept dry. 



40 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Thalictrum, 
277. THALICTRUM. Meadow-rue. 

Linn. Gen. 280. Juss. 232. Fl. Br. 583. Tourn. t. 143. Lam. 
t. 497. Gartn. t. 74. DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 168. 

Nat. Ord. See 7i. 270—273, and 275—282. 

Cal. none. Pet. 4 or 5, inferior, roundish, obtuse, concave, 
imbricated in the bud, deciduous. Filam. numerous, ca- 
pillai-y, somewhat thickened at the upper part, various 
in length. Anth. terminal, oblong, drooping, bursting 
at the edges. Germ, several, superior, ovate, striated. 
Styles none. Stigmas oblique, ovate, tumid, downy. Seeds 
as many as the germens, ovate, furrowed, or winged, 
without any terminal appendage. 

Perennial herbs, somewhat fetid and acrid. Roots fibrous, 
or partly fleshy, often yellow. Leaves^ except in one In- 
dian species, repeatedly compound, generally very smooth; 
leaflets lobed, or notched, variable. Fl. panicled, droop- 
ing or erect, whitish, or pale yellow, not splendid. The 
stametis and pistils vary with respect to number in some 
species, and the former are singularly dilated in T.peta- 
loideum, of which stamineum proves, by the Linnaean her- 
barium, to be scarcely a variety. Some American ones 
are dioecious. A few have 5 petals. 

1. T. alpinum. Alpine Meadow-rue. 

Stem perfectly simple and almost naked, with a simple ter- 
minal cluster. 

T. alpinum. Linn..Sp. PL 767. Willd. v. 2. 1295. Fl. Br. 584. 

Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 262. Lightf. 286. /. 13./. 1 . Dicks. H. Sice. 

fasc. 18.6. Hook. Scot. 171. fVinch Guide, v. 1 . 52. R. Dan. 

t. 11. DeCand. Syst. v.\. 175. 
T. minimum montanum atro-rubens, foliis splendentibus. Rail 

Syn.204. Boerh. Ind. Alt.v. 1.44. ^ 1. 
T. montanum minimum prsecox, foliis splendentibus. Moris. 

v.A.325.sect9. t.20.f. 14. 

In elevated moist alpine pastures. 

On most of the highest mountains in Wales and Scotland. Sent 
from Durham by the Rev. Mr. Harriman. Mr. Winch mentions 
it as growing " near Caldron Snout, by the path leading from 
thence to Widdv Bank," in that county : as also upon Cronkley 
Fell. 

Perennial. June. 

Root of a few long cylindrical fibres. Herb quite smooth, from 3 
to 6 inches high. Leaves chiefly radical, on long, slender, up- 
right footstalks, twice ternatc, r.iid somewhat pinnate, their little 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Thalictruni, 41 

wedge-shaped veiny leaflets convex, dark green, and shining 
above ; glaucous and concave beneath, Stipulas oblong, mem- 
branous, united to tlie base of the footstalks at each side. Fl. 
drooping when fully expanded. Bracteas small, solitary under 
each partial stalk. Pet. 4, whitish, acute, Stam. 8 or 10, ca- 
pillary. Anth. oblong, tawny. Germ, seldom more than 4. 
Seeds smooth, and nearly even. 
Haller under his n. 11 40, T.fcetidum, mentions this as a probable 
variety of that species, found in Switzerland. But if he had seen 
our plant, he could never have confounded it with any variety of 
fcetidum; nor did the Swiss botanists, with whom 1 have com- 
municated, ever meet with the alpinum. 

2. T. minus. Lesser Meadow-rue. 

Leaves doubly pinnate; leaflets ternate, three-cleft, glau- 
cous on both sides. Flowers panicled, pendulous. Stem 
zigzag. Stipulas rounded. 

T. ramus. Linn. Sp. PI. 769. TVilld.v.2.\297. Fl.Br.584. Engl. 

Bot. v.l. t. II. Rail Syn. 203. Ger. Em. 1251./. Hook. 

Scot. 1 72. DcCand. Syst. v.).\78. Dad. Pempt. 58./, Fl. 

Dan. t. 732. Jacq. Austr. t.A\9. 
T. n. 1139. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 57. 
T. Cordi tenuifolium. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 56./. 

/3. T. montanum minus, foliis latioribus. RaiiSyn 204. 

In chalky pastures, especially such as are rather mountainous 3 or 
in shell sand on the sea coast. 

Perennial, June, July. 

Root creeping. Stem from 4 to 12 inches high, branched, leafy, 
glaucous, smooth, somewhat angular, more or less zigzag in the 
lower part, often remarkably so. Leaves doubly pinnate, then ter- 
nate ; leaflets various in figure and size ; broadly heart-shaped, as 
in variety /3, or wedge-shaped as in Engl. Bot.; glaucous on both 
sides, smooth, notched or lobed in the fore part. Footstalks an- 
gular, smooth ; the common one short, broad, channelled above, 
strongly furrowed beneath. Stipulas interior, simple, clasping 
the stem, short, broad, rounded, glaucous, purplish, jagged or 
fringed at the edge. Panicles compound, spreading, accompa- 
nied at the base by a few ternate, or slightly pinnate, leaves. 
Bracteas few, small, lanceolate, FL drooping, or pendulous, on 
slender stalks. Pet. 4, pale purple, with white edges. Seeds 
furrowed. 

Such is our British plant. The Swedish specimens of Linnaeus are 
much larger, like those of Villars fromDauphiny ; but both an* 
swer to the above characters, especially in the stipulas. I have 
not seen the ripe seeds, which, according to DeCandolle, are 
acute at both ends. 



42 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Thalictrum. 

3. T. majus. Greater Meadow-rue. 

Leaves triply pinnate ; leaflets ternate, lobed, glaucous be- 
neath. Branches of the panicle aggregate, somewhat um- 
bellate. Flowers drooping. Stipulas crescent-shaped, 
notched. 

T. majus. Crantz. Austr.fasc. 2. 80. Jacq. Austr. t. 420. Murr. 

Syst.Feg. Linn. ed.l4. 513. Willd. Sp. Pl.v.2.\297. Fl. Br. 585. 

Engl.BoLv.9.t.6\l. DeCand. Syst.v.l.VJQ. Ger. Em. 1251./. 
T. magnum. Dod. Pempt. 58. f. 
Ruta pratensis herbariorum. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 56./. 

On bushy hills in the north of England. 

At Baydales, near Darlington j also on the margin of Ulswater, 
Cumberland. Mr. Robson. 

Perennial. . June, July. 

Twice or thrice the size of the last. Leaflets of a dark shining 
green on the upper side ; glaucous beneath only ; the larger 
ones often an inch broad. Stem 3 feet high, or more, purplish, 
angular in the upper part. Lower branches of i\\& panicle 2 or 3 
together ; uppermost either umbellate or alternate. Fl. on long 
stalks, drooping. Pet. 4, purplish green. Aath. yellow, quite 
pendulous. Seeds obliquely elliptical, furrowed. The wooden 
cut of the old authors above quoted, the same in all, certainly 
belongs to this species, and not to the following. The character 
of the panicle, and its difference from T. minus, are there well 
expressed, nor can these species be confounded. 

4. T.Jiavum. Common Meadow-rue. 

Stem erect, furrowed, leafy. Leaves doubly pinnate : part- 
ly three-lobed. Panicle compound, close, corymbose. 
Flowers and stamens erect 

T. flavum. Li7in.Sp.Pl.770. Willd. v. 2. 1300. Fl. Br. 585. 

Engl. Bot. V. 6. t. 367. Hook. Scot. 172. DeCand. Syst. v. 1. 182. 

Fl. Dan. t. 939. Ehrh. PL Off. 3.56. 
T. nigricans. Jacq. Austr. ^ 421, DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 182. 
T. n. 11 38. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 57 ; excl. the syn.of Dodoneeus. 
T. seu Thalictrum majus. Raii Syn. 203 ; but not of Gerarde. 
T. nigrius, caule et semine striate Bauh.,Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 486. f. 
|3. T. majus, foliis rugosis trifidis. Moris, v. 3.324. sect. 9. t. 20. f. 3. 

In wet meadows, and about the banks of rivers and ditches, com- 
mon. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root fibrous, yellow. Stem 3 or 4 feet high, erect, straight, branch- 
ed, leafy, hollow, deeply furrowed and angular, smooth. Leaves 
doubly pinnate ; ultimately ternate, with general and partial 
membranous rounded siipuZas; lea/lets smooth,vemy; deep grassy 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Adonis. 43 

green, or slightly glaucous, above ; paler beneath ; their breadth 
various, as is common in this genus ; the upper ones sometimes 
linear, which characterizes T. nigricans of Jacquin ; sometimes 
narrow, but more universally three- cleft, which is the variety /3 ; 
the broader ones are rounded, or heart-shaped, at the base. 
Panicle dense, of innumerable upright^o?/;ers, the copious yel- 
low anthers being likewise erect. Pet. 4, cream-coloured. Seeds 
6 or 8, very deeply furrowed. 
An acrid herb, raising blisters on the skin ; but cattle frequently 
feed upon it, as on the Crowfoot tribe, mixed with grass. 

278. ADONIS. Pheasant's-eye. 

Linn. Gen. 281. Juss. 232. Fl. Br. ^86. Dill. Gen. 109. t. 4. 
Lam. t. 498. Gcertn. t. 74. DeCand. St/st. v. 1, 220, 

Nat. Ord. see n. 270—273, and 275—282. 

Cal, inferior, of 5, converging, obtuse, concave, somewhat 
coloured, deciduous leaves. Pet. 5 to 15, oblong, obtuse, 
shining, with simple claws, destitute of nectaries. Filam. 
numerous, awl-shaped, verjf short. A7ith. terminal, in- 
flexed, of 2 round lobes. Germ, superior, very nume- 
rous, in a round head, incurved. Styles none. Stigmas 
acute, spreading. Seeds numerous, gibbous, angular, 
acute, without any appendage. Recept. cylindrical. 

Herbs, annual or perennial. Leaves on the stem, in very 
numerous narrow segments. Fl. solitary, at the end of 
each branch, scarlet or yellow, very brilliant. 

1. A. autumnalis. Corn Pheasant's-eye, or Adonis- 
flower. 
Petals about eight, inversely heart-shaped. Fruit ovate. 

Stem branched. 
A. autumnalis. Linn. Sp. PI. 77 1. WiUd. v.2. \304. Fl.Br.586. 

Engl. Bot. V. 5. t. 308. IVilh. 503. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 37. 

Wade Dull. 147. Hook. Scot. 172. 
A. aestivalis. With. 503. 
A. n. 1 158 /3. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 66 ; bij Swiss specimens ; syn. much 

confused. 
Adonis. Camer. Epit. 647./. Pet. H. Brit. t. 39./. 8. 
Flos Adonis. -Rail Si/n. 251. Clus.Hist.v.\.2,36.f. Lob. Ic. 233. f. 
F. Adonis, flore rubro. Park Parad. 293. t. 29 1 ./. 5. Ger. Em. 

387./ 
In corn-fields, but not common. 
About London. Huds. and Curtis. Near Denver sluice, Norfolk. 

Mrs. Plestow. Gloucestershire. Miss Lysons. About Dublin. 

Dr. Wade. Occasionally about Glasgow. Mr. Hopkirk. 
Annual. May — Oct. 



44 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 

Hoot tapering. Stem erect, branched, often bushy, round, striated, 
leafy, rarely a little downy. Leaves dark green, alternate, ses- 
sile, triply and copiously pinnatifid, with linear, acute, smooth 
segments. Fl. of a deep shining crimson, with a black spot 
near the claw of each petal, and dark-violet anthers. Seeds 
corrugated, composing an oblong-ovate head, not an inch long. 
The petals vary in number from 6 to 10, but are inversely heart- 
shaped, scarcely longer than the calyx, which is usually smooth. 

A. (Estivalis of Linnseus, under which the miniata, and perhaps 
Jiammea, of Jacquin, Fl. Austr.t.Za4,3b5, maybe ranged, is a 
very distinct species, known by its mostly 5, narrow, scarlet 
petals; long and slender spike of seeds ,- and less bushy habit. 
This has never been found in England ; for specimens sent by 
my late worthy friend Dr. Withering show his cestivalis to be but 
a starved and paler autumnalis. 

279. RANUNCULUS. Crowfoot. 

Linn. Gen. 281 . Juss. 233. Fl. Br. 587. Sm. in Rees's Cycl.v. 29. 

rourn.*. 149, A- -C, G—L. Lam.t.4^S. Gcertn.t.74. De- 

Cdnd.Syst.v.l. 231. 
Ficaria. Dill. Gen. 108. t. 5 . Huds. 244. Juss. 233. DeCand. 
. Syst.v. \.3Q4. 

Nat. Orel, see ??. 270—273, and 275 — 282. 

Cal. inferior, of 5, rarely fewer, ovate, concave, somewhat 
coloured, deciduous leaves. Pet. 5, rarely 8 or 10, ob- 
tuse, polished, with short broad claws. Nect. a pore to- 
wards the base of each petal, in sevex-al instances covered 
by a scale. Filam. numerous, rarely but 5, not half the 
length of the petals. Anth. roundish, linear, or heart- 
shaped, terminal, erect, of 2 cells, bursting at the outer 
edges. Germ, superior, numerous, collected into a head. 
Styles none. Stigmas small, reflexed. Seeds numerous, 
ovate, compressed, either smooth, striated, tuberculated, 
or prickly, each tipped with a point, or hook. 

Herbs, mostly perennial, either hairy or smooth. Roots 
fibrous, tuberous, or granulated. Stems round. Leaves 
extremely various. Fl. yellow, or white, very rarely pur- 
plish, on terminal, axillary, or lateral stalks, almost en- 
tirely scentless. In R. auricomus the corolla is often 
wanting, the calyx becoming dilated and coloured. In 
Ficaria., reckoned a distinct genus by some authors, the 
calyx-leaves are usually but 3, though often 5, and the 
■petals about 8. The nectaries make it a Ranunculus, ac- 
cording to Linnaeus, who had well considered the matter, 
and would not divide so natural a genus, especially for 



POLYANDRIA-POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 45 

the sake of a solitary species. This whole natural order 
evinces the importance of its various and very curious 
nectaries, in characterizing the genera. Species of Ma- 
nunculus are found all over the w^orld. They amount to 
liO in DeCandoUe, whose account of them is the last 
and best. Their qualities are hot and acrid. 

* Leaves simple. 
1. R. Flaimnula. Lesser Spear- wort Crowfoot. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, bluntish, stalked. Stem reclining. 
Root fibrous. Seeds smooth. 

R. Flammula. Linn. Sp. PL 772. Willd. v. 2. 1307. Fl. Br. 587, 
Engl.Bot.v.Q.t.39,7. Curt.Lond.fasc.6. t.37. Hook.Scot.\74. 
DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 247. Fl. Dan. ^ 575. Dod. Pempt. 432./. 
Bull. Fr. t.l5. Ehrh. PI. Off. 366. 

R. n. 1182. Hall. Hist.v. 2.78. 

R. flammeus minor. Rati Syn. 250. Ger. Em. 961 ./. 

R. longifolius, aliis Flammula, Bauh.Hist. v. 3. 848. f. 

R. species duodecima. Cord. Hist. 121, 2./. 

/3. R. flammeus serratus. Ger. Em. 962. f. 

R. Flammula, folio serrato. Dod. Pempt. 432./. 

R, aquatilis angustifolius serratus. Lob. Ic. 670./. 

y. R. flammeus, latioii plantaginis folio, marginibus pilosis, ex Hi- 
bernia. Pluk. Almag. 312. Dill, in Rail Syn. 251. 

S. R. reptans. Linn. Sp. PI. 773. Willd. v. 2. 1307. DeCand. Syst. 
V. 1.248. Lightf.289.f. in title. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 6.10. FL 
Dan. t. 108. 

R. n. 1 183. HalL Hist. v. 2. 79. 

R. repens, gramineis foliis, e singulis geniculis radices agens. 
Amm. Ruth. 80. t.\3.f.\. 

In watery places, common. 

S. On the margins of alpine lakes. 

Perennial. June — September. 

Roots of many long simple fibres, partly from the lower joints of 
the stem. Herb generally smooth ; except the variety y, whose 
leaves are said to be hairy at the edges. This I have never met 
with. Stem more or less reclining, partly, or entirely, decum- 
bent, from 6 to 18 inches long, branched, leafy, hollow j De- 
CandoUe says "solid;" it is often hairy in the upper part. 
Leaves on channelled clasping footstalks, alternate, lanceolate, 
varying greatly in breadth, sometimes ovate, sometimes in S 
partly linear ; in /3 remarkably serrated, but the least observa- 
tion proves this a mere variety, and most authors have had doubts 
concerning S. I cannot esteem it a species. Fl. opposite to 
the leaves, as well as terminal, on round stalks, without bracteas. 
Pet. of a golden yellow. Nect. minute. Seeds small, smooth at 



46 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 

the sides. Calyx often slightly hairy. The whole plant is highly 
acrid, blistering the skin. Dr. Withering recommends the dis- 
tilled water as an instantaneous emetic, in cases of poison. He 
does not mention the dose. 

2. R. Lingua. Great Spear-wort Crowfoot. 

Leaves lanceolate, pointed, nearly sessile, somewhat ser- 
rated. Stem erect, many-flowered. Root fibrous. Seeds 
smooth. 

R. Lingua. Linn.Sp Pl.773. Willd. v. 2. 1308. Fl.Br. 588. Engl. 
Bot. V.2. t. 100. Hook. Scot. 173. Lond. t.l7\*. DeCand.Syst. 
V. 1.246. Fl.Dan.t.75!J. 

R. n. 1181. HalLHi'it.v.2.78. 

R. flammeus major. Rail Syn. 250. Ger. Em. 961./. 

R. longo folio maximus. Lingua Plinii. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 849./. 

R. longifolius, Lingua Plinii dictus, foliis serratis. Ambros. Phyt. 
459./. 

In marshes, reedy pools and ditches, but not common. 

In the isle of Ely, Norfolk, and several parts of the north of Eng- 
land; also in Duddingston loch, near Edinburgh. 

Perennial. July. 

Twice the size of R. Flammula, and more silky, with close-pressed 
hairs, in every part of the herbage. The leaves are more gene- 
rally, but not so evidently, serrated. Cat. haiiy. Pet. bright yel- 
low. Nect. covered by a small scale. Seeds minutely dotted, but 
not rough. 

3. R. gramineus. Grassy Crowfoot. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, many-ribbed, entire. Stem erect, 
very smooth, with few flowei's. Root tuberous. 

R. gramineus. Linn. Sp. PL 773. Willd.v. 2. 1309. Jnth. 505. 

Fl. Br. 588. Engl. Bot. t;.33. t. 2306. Curt. Mag. t. 164. De- 

Cand. Syst. v. 1 . 245. Bull. Fr. t. 1 23. 
R. pumilus,gramineis foliis. Lob.Ic.67\.f. Bauh. Hist. v. 3.850. f. 

In dry alpine pastures in Wales. 

Brought from North Wales by Mr. Pritchard. Withering. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root tuberous, with several thick fleshy fibres, and crowned with 
the thready remains of old leaves. Stem about a foot high, round, 
smooth, erect, bearing from 1 to 3 or 4 bright-yellow, rather 
large, flowers, and a few small sessile leaves. Most of the leaves 
are radical, on short sheathing stalks, grassy, linear, acute, 
glaucous, numerously ribbed. Cal. quite smooth, spreading, not 
deflexed. Nect. a tubular scale. Botanists have confounded 
with this several synonyms belonging to R. pyrenceus of Lmnxns ; 
avid those of Bauhin and Dalechamp in Fl. Brit, must be ex- 
punged. The error is corrected in Rees's Cycl. at n. 7 and 8. 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 47 

4. R. Ficaria. Pilewoit Crowfoot. Lesser Celandine. 

Leaves heart-shaped, angular, stalked, smooth. Petals nu- 
merous, elliptic-oblong. 

R. Ficaria. Linn. Sp. PI. 77 A. Willd.v.2.l3l2. H.Br. 589. 

Engl. Bot.v.d.t. 584. Curt.Lnnd.fasc. 2. t. 39. Mart. Rust. t.2]. 

Hook.Scot.l7 4. Fl.Dan.t.499. Bull.Fr.t. 43. Ehrh.Fl.Off.376. 
Ficana. Brunf. Herb. V. I. 2l5.f. 
F. n. 1 1 60. Hall. Hist. v. 2.67. 
F. verna. Huds. 244. 
F. ranunculoides. Roth Germ. v.\ .241. v.2.p. ]. 622. DeCand. 

Sijst.v. 1.304. 
Chelidonium minus. Raii Sijn.246. Ger. Em.8\6.f. Trag. Hist. 

1 13./. Fuchs. Hist. 867. f. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 578./. Corner. 

Epit. 403./. Dalech. Hist. 1048./. Cord. Hist. 121, 2. f. 

In meadows, bushy places, and about hedge banks, every where. 

Perennial. April. 

Root fibrous, accompanied with many fleshy, oblong, annual knobs. 
Herb smooth, of a bright shining green, rather succulent. Stems 
either erect or recumbent, from 3 to 1 inches long, branched, 
leafy. Leaves alternate, stalked, heart-shaped, angular or wavy 
at the margin, sometimes spotted with black. Footstalks longer 
than the leaves ; dilated, membranous and sheathing at the 
base. Fl. terminal, solitary, on long stalks. Cal. of 3, rarely 
more, roundish, concave leaves. Pet. elliptic-oblong, generally 
9, often 8 or 10, of a golden yellow, as if varnished ; turning 
white by the action of light. Nect. a small hollow in the base of 
each petal, closed with a scale. 

Those who retain Ficaria as a genus, should observe that Hud- 
son's name verna, published in 1 762, is prior to ranunculoides, 
and in every respect more eligible ; the latter being a barbarous 
jumble of Latin and Greek, such as too often disgraces our sci- 
ence. It ought to have been ranunculinus. 

** Leaves lobed, or cut. 

5. R. auricomus. Wood Crowfoot. Goldilocks. 

Radical leaves kidney-shaped, deeply three-cleft, notched ; 
stem-leaves divided to the base into linear segments. Stem 
many -flowered. Calyx coloured. 

R. auricomus. Linn.Sp.Pl.775. Willd.v.2. 1314. H.Br. 590. 

Engl.Bot.v.9.t.62i. Curt. Lond.fasc.2.t.4\ . Hook. Scot.\74. 

DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 266. Fl. Dan. t. 665. Ger. Em. 954./. 
R. n. 1177. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 76. 

R. nemorosus dulcis, secundus Tragi. Raii Syn. 248. 
R. dulcis, seu pratensis Trag. Hist. 97./. 
R. prima species sylvestris. Fuchs. Hist. 156./. Dalech. Hist. 1029./. 



48 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 

R. rotundifolius vernus sylvaticus. Bauh. Hist. v. 3.841. f. 

R. pratensis erectus dulcis. Bauh. Pm.\79. Moris, v. 2. 439 ■ t.28. 
/. 15. 

In dry groves, bushy and shady places, not uncommon. Mr, Cur- 
tis justly remarks that it rarely occurs in marshy ground. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Root fibrous. Stem about a foot high, erect, branched, leafy, round, 
the upper part often slightly downy. Leaves seldom quite 
smooth; often finely downy; radical ones on long stalks, round- 
ed or kidney-shaped, crenate, some of them 3-lobed, or ,5-lobed, 
cut ; those on the stem sessile, in deeper and narrower seg- 
ments ; uppermost in 3 or more linear, quite entire, lobes, 
Fl. terminal, stalked, solitaiy, of a bright golden yellow, of which 
the pale, hairy, never reflexed, cabjx often partakes. Some- 
times the part last mentioned is dilated and coloured, assuming 
the aspect of petals, which in that case are wanting. Nect. a 
naked pore. 

This species, having no acrimony, has been termed dulcis, or Sweet 
Wood Crowfoot. The great and constant diversity of form in 
the leaves, especially the narrow linear shape of the upper ones, 
distinguish it readily. 

6. R. sceleratus. Water Crowfoot. Celery-leaved 
Crowfoot. 

Stem erect, hollow, much branched. Leaves smooth ; lower 
ones palmate ; upper fingered. Fruit oblong. Seeds very 
numerous, minute. 

R. sceleratus. Linn. Sp. PI. 776. Willd. v. 2. 131.5. Fl. Br. 590, 
Engl.Bot.v.lO.t. 681. Curt.Lond. fasc. 2. t. 42. Hook. Scot. \7 4. 
DeCand.Syst.v.X. 268. Fl. Dan. t. 571. Bull.Fr.t.47. Ehrh. 
PI. Off. 386. 

R. n. 1175. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 74. 

R, palustris, Raii Syn. 249. Cord. Hist. 119, 2./, 

R. palustris rotundifolius, Ger. Em. 962. f. 

R. palustris, flore minimo. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 846./. 

R. secunda species. Fuchs. Hist. 159./. 

R. primus. Camer. Epit. 380. f. 

Apium aquaticum. Trag. Hist. 93. f. 

Common in watery places. 

Annual. June — August. 

Root fibrous. Herb very acrid, juicy, various in luxuriance, from 6 
inches to 2 feet high, of a pale shining green, very smooth, ex- 
cept occasionally the Jlower-stalks and upper part of the stem, 
which are now and then hairy. Stem thick, round, hollow, re- 
peatedly branched, leafy. Lower leaves stalked, rounded, bluntly 
lobed and cut ; upper sessile, with deeper and narrower seg- 
ments ; uppermost of all, accompanying the flowers, lanceolate. 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 49 

undivided. Fl. small, pale yellow, numerous, on solitary stalks, 
either terminal, axillary, or opposite to the leaves. Cal. hairy, 
reflexed. Pet. orbicular. Nect. somewhat tubular. Fruit cylin- 
drical, obtuse, various in length, composed of numerous small 
seeds. The bruised herb is said to raise a blister, leaving a sore 
which is not easily healed, and by which strolling beggars some^ 
times excite compassion. 

7. R. alpestris. Alpine White Crowfoot. 

Leaves very smooth ; radical ones somewhat heart-shaped, 
obtuse, in three deep lobeil segments ; those of the stem 
lanceolate, entire. Flower mostly solitary. Calyx 
smooth. 

R. alpestris. Linn. Sp. PI. 778. IVilld.v. 2. 1322. Engl. Bot. v. 34. 

<. 2390. Comp.ed.4.97. Tr. of Linn. .Soc. v. 10.343. Ait. Hort. 

Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. 356. Hook. Scot. 1 73. DeCand. Si/st. v. 1. 239. 

Jacq. Austr. t WO. 
R. n. 1167. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 71. 
R. montani prima species. Clus. Pann. 364, 365./,/, Hist. v. I. 

234.// 
R. montanus, flore minore, et flore majore. Ger. Em. 964.// 
R. minimus alpinus albus. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 845 ; 2 lower/. 
R. alpinus humilis albus, folio subrotundo. Segu.Veron.v. 1. 489. 

t.\2.f.\. 

By the sides of alpine rills in Scotland, rare. 

In moist places, about two or three rocks, on the Clova mountains 
of Angusshire, rarely flowering. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. Mat/. 

Root with many long fibres. Herb very smooth in every part. Stem 
from 2 to 5 inches high, erect, almost invariably simple and 
single-flowered, naked, except one or two linear, bluntish, up- 
right, entire leaves towards the middle. Radical leaves several, 
on channelled stalks, roundish-heart-shaped, or kidney-shaped, 
more or less deeply divided into 3 principal unequal lobes, 
which are again lobed and cut, elegantly veiny. Fl. erect, of a 
brilliant white. Cal. reflexed, smooth, pale, bordered with white. 

Haller says this is one of the most acrid of its tribe, blistering the 
skin ; and yet alpine hunters chew it by way of refreshment, as 
removing fatigue, and preventing giddiness. 

8. R. bulbosus. Bulbous Crowfoot. Butter-cups. 

Calyx reflexed. Flower-stalks furrowed. Stem upright, 
many-flowered. Leaves compound. Root bulbous. 
Seeds smooth. 

R. bulbosus. Linn. Sp. PI. 778. Willd. v. 2. 1324. Fl. Br. 591 . 
Engl. Bot.v.8. ^515. Curt. Lond.fasc.l. t.38. Hook. Scot. 175. 

VOL. III. E 



50 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 

Mart. Rust. t. 28. Mill. Illustr. t.a\. Rail Syn. 247. Ger. Em. 

953./. Lob. Ic. 667. f. DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 295. Bull. Fr. t. 27. 
R, tuberosus. Dod.Pempt.43l.f. 
R. tuberosus major. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 417./. 
R. tertia species. Fuchs. Hist. 160./ 
Crus galli. Brunf. Herb. 145./ 

In pastures, meadows, grass-plats, and waste ground every where. 

Perennial. May. 

Root a solid roundish bulb, fibrous underneath, proliferous at the 
top. Stems one or more, erect, a foot high, round, haiiy, leafy, 
hollow ; alternately branched in the upper part ; simple and 
without offsets or runners below. Lower leaves on dilated, 
channelled, hairy stalks, compound in a ternate manner, as well 
as deeply three-cleft and cut, varying much in degree of hairi- 
ness J upper ones alternate, sessile, more simple, with narrower 
segments. Fl. terminal, solitary, on simple, furrowed, hairy, 
upright stalks. Calyx-leaves ovate, concave, hairy, thin at the 
base, turned back close to the stalk soon after they expand. Pet. 
roundish with a terminal notch, concave, of a full golden yellow. 
Nect. covered by a heart-shaped scale. Seeds compressed, 
smooth at the sides. 

This species is acrid, though commonly eaten, along with other 
herbage, by domestic cattle. It increases plentifully by seed, and 
is of slow growth, though of long duration. A double variety, 
figured by the old herbalists, is sometimes seen in gardens. 

9. R. hirsutus. Pale Hairy Crowfoot. 

Calyx reflexed, pointed. Stem upright, many-flowered, 
hairy. Leaves ternate. Root fibrous. Seeds tubercu- 
lated. 

R. hirsutus. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 40. Fl. Br. 592. Camp. ed.4. 

97. Engl. Bot. V.21. t. 1504. Hook. Scot. 175. 
R. Philonotis. Ehrh. Herb. 116. Beitr.v. 2. 145. Willd.v. 2. ]324. 

Retz. Obs.fasc. 6.31. DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 297. 
R. bulbosus /3. Huds. 241. 
R. rectus, foliis pallidioribus hirsutis. Bauh. Hist. v. 3.417. f. Rail 

Syn. 247. 
Pale Upright Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t.38.f. 5. 
/3. Ranunculus parvulus. Linn. Mant. 79. Fl. Br. 593. 
R. parviflorus. Gouan Fl. Monsp.270 ; from the author, but not 

of Linn. 
R.arvensisparvus, folio trifido. Bauh.Pin.l79. Magnol Monsp.2l7 . 

Moris. V. 2. 439. sect. 4. t. 28/. 20. 
R. minimus saxatilis hirsutus. Bauh. Prodr.96. Pin. 182. 
R. minimus apulus. Column. Ecphr. 314. ^ 316./ 1. 

In moist meadows, and waste or cultivated ground that is liable to 
. be overflowed, frequent 



POLYAXDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 51 

Annual. June — October. 

Root of many simple fibres. Herb very variable in luxuriance, of 
a paler hue than most of this genus, and clothed with fine, 
silky, spreading hairs. Lower leaves on long stalks, ternate, 
lobed and cut ; icpper sessile, with 3, or more, narrower seg- 
ments. Flower-stalks hairy, furrowed. Cal. pointed, finally 
reflexed close to the stalk, and clothed with hairs glandular at 
their base. Pet. of a golden yellow. Nect. covered with a scale. 
Seeds compressed, bordered, rough on both sides, especially 
towards the margin, with an irregular double or triple row of 
small sharp prominences, first observed by Mr. E. Forster. These 
clearly distinguish it from our other common Crowfoots, with 
which it has been confounded ; and likewise prove the R. par- 
vulus of Linnaeus and Fl. Br. to be but a starved variety of the 
same species. 

10. R. repens. Creeping Crowfoot. 

Calyx spreading. Flower-stalks furrowed. Scyons creep- 
ing. Leaves compound, cut ; the uppermost entire. 

R. repens, Linn. Sp. Pl.779. Willd. v. 2. 1325. H. Br. 592. Engl. 

Bot. V. 8. ^ 5 1 6. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 38. Mart. Rust. t. 29. 

Hook. Scot. 175. DeCand. Syst. v. 1. 285. Fl. Dan. t. 795. 

Bull. Fr. t. 77. 
R. n. 1173. Hall.Hist.v.2.73. 
R. pratensis repens. Raii Syn. 247. 
R. pratensis etiamque hortensis. Ger. Em, 95 1 ./. 
R. pratensis repens hirsutus. Bauh. Pin. 179. Moris, v. 2. 439. 

sect. 4..t.2S.f. 18. 
Creeping and Thames Crowfoot. Pet.H. Brit. t. 38. f.7, 8. 

In meadows, moist pastures, and shady waste places in towns, 
neglected gardens, &c., very common. 

Perennial. June — August. 

Root slightly tuberous, with stout fibres ; sending forth from its 
crown long prostrate runners, which take root at every joint. 
Stems erect or ascending, round, hairy, leafy, branching. Leaves 
dark green, hairy, twice ternate ; the upper ones with wedge- 
shaped, cut leafiets ; uppermost of all in 3 deep, lanceolate, 
acute, entire lobes. Radical leaves often marked with a black 
spot. Fl. bright yellow, like those of R. hulboaus, hirsutus, and 
others, but the hairy calyx is spreading, not reflexed. Pet. 
notched. Nect. covered with a notched scale. Seeds not gene- 
rally perfected. A double variety is sometimes seen in gardens. 

11. R. aci'is. Upright Meadow Crowfoot. 

Calyx spreading. Flower-stalks round and even. Leaves 
in three deep lobed and cut segments ; those of the up- 
permost linear and entire. Stem erect, covered with 
close hairs. 

b2 



52 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 

R.acris. Linn. Sp. Pl.779. Willd.v.2. 1326. Fl.Br. 593. Engl.' 
Bot. V. 10. t. 652. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1 . t. 39. Mart. Rust. t. 30. 
Woodv. suppl. t. 246. Hook. Scot. 1 74. DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 277 
Bull. Fr. t. 109. Curt. Mag. t. 215, double Jl. 

R. n.ll69. Hall. Hist.v. 2.72. 

R. piatensis erectus acris. Bauh. Pin. 178. Raii Stjn. 248. 

R. luteus. Trag. Hist. 94. f. 

R. octavus. Cord. Hist. 120, 2. f,f. 

R. hortensis secunda. Dod. Pempt. 426./. 

R. pratensis, surrectis cauliculis. Lob. Ic. 665./. 

Chrysanthemum, Fuchs. Hist. 879. f. 

Pes corvinus. Brunf. Herb. v. 1. 143, 144./,/. 

Upright Meadow Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t. 38./ 3. 

In meadows and pastures very common ; even on the loftiest 
mountains. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root somewhat tuberous, with many long simple fibres. Stem 
2 feet high, erect, round, hollow, leafy, clothed with close- 
pressed hairs, or bristles ; branched above, and many-flowered. 
Radical leaves on long upright hairy footstalks, in 3 or 5 deep 
lobes, which are variously subdivided and cut, more or less 
hairy ; stem-leaves nearly sessile, with fewer and narrower seg- 
ments ; uppermost much smaller, in 3 linear entire lobes ; or 
sometimes simple and linear. Fl. bright yellow, on round even 
stalks, covered with close hairs, and not furrowed. Cal. hairy, 
spreading, deciduous. Nect. covered by a scale. Seeds lenti- 
cular, smooth, with a small, slightly curved, point. 

The small variety, with scarcely more than a solitary /ower, found 
on the Highland mountains, and brought by Mr. D. Turner from 
wet rocks near the summit of Snowdon, is not the montanus of 
Willdenow, but becomes, with one year's culture in a gar- 
den, precisely our common acris. It has remained so with me 
above 20 years. The double-flowered variety is common in 
gardens, and not inelegant. The synonym of Gerarde, quoted 
in Fl. Br. belongs to R. polyanthemos, a foreign species, with 
furrowedjlower-stalks, and more finely divided leaves, of which 
the wooden cuts, in old books, are, as Prof. DeCandolle well 
observes, hard to distinguish from those of the acris. 

12. R. arvensis. Corn Crowfoot. 

Seeds very prickly at the sides. Leaves once or twice deeply 
three-cleft, with linear-lanceolate segments. Stem erect, 
much branched, many-flowered. 

R. arvensis. Linn. Sp. PI. 780. mild. v. 2. 1329. Fl. Br. 594. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t.]35. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 36. Mart. Rust. 

/.56. Hook. Scot. 175. DeCand. Syst. v. \. 297. Fl. Dan. 

t.2\9. Brugnon Mem. de VAcad. de Turin, v. 4. \ 08. t. 3. Cord. 

Hist. 120./ 
R. n. 1176. Hall. Hist.v. 2. 75. 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 53 

R. arvorum. Raii Sijn. 248. Ger. Em.9bl.f. .Lol).Ic.665.f. 
R. hortensis simplicis, prima species. Fuchs. Hist. 157. f. Dalech. 

Hist. 1030. /". 
Corn Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t. 38./. 1 0. 

In corn-fields, not uncommon. 

Annual. June. 

Root fibrous. Herb of a pale shining green, nearly, but not quite, 
smooth. Stem erect, in a favourable soil much branched, round, 
leafy. Leaves alternate, the upper ones partly opposite, all 
once or twice divided in a three-fold manner^ with linear-lanceo- 
late, bluntish, mostly entire, rather fleshy segments. Fl. small, 
lemon -coloured, solitary, on simple stalks opposite to the leaves. 
Cat. spreading, narrow, hairy. Pet. obovate. Seeds large, each 
with an upright awl-shaped point, their flat sides densely armed 
with numerous, sharp, prominent prickles. 

Very acrid and dangerous to cattle, though they are said to eat it 
greedily. M. Brugnon, who has given a particular account of 
its qualities, relates that 3 ounces of the juice killed a dog in 
4 minutes. Several sheep were killed by feeding on this herb 
near Turin, which first led to an investigation of the matter. 
Cholic, with inflammation of the stomach, were the symptoms, 
which were best removed by pouring vinegar down the animals' 
throats. Hence, like most vegetable poisons, this Crowfoot 
seems to act on the nerves, and yet black spots were found in 
the sheep's stomachs. 

13. ^. parvijlorus. Small-flowered Crowfoot. 

Seeds armed at the sides with hooked prickles. Leaves 
simple, hairy, sharply cut; upper ones three-Iobed. Stem 
prostrate. 

R. parviflorus. Linyi. Sp. Pl.780. mild.v. 2. ]329. Fl.Br.594. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 120. DeCand.Syst.v. 1. 300. Fl.Dan. 1. 1218. 
R. hirsutus annuus, flore minimo. Raii Syn. 248. t.\2.f. 1 . Pluk. 

Jlmag.SW. Phyt.t.bb.f.l. 
R. arvensis annuus hirsutus, flore omnium minimo luteo. Moris. 

V.2. 440. sect. 4. t.28.f.2\. 
Ray's Hairy Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t. 38./. 9. 

In gravelly fields, and under hedges. 

In several places about London. Ray. On Malvern hill, Worces- 
tershire ; Mr. Ballard ; and in the south-west part of England. 
With. Near Norwich. Mr. Pitchford. On hedge banks out of 
St. Stephen's and St. Giles's gates, Norwich. 

Annual. May, June. 

Root fibrous. Herb pale green, more or less hairy. Stems pros- 
trate, round, hollow, branched, leafy, about a span long. Leaves 
stalked, roundish-heart-shaped, acutely notched ; the upper 
ones three-lobed ; uppermost of all in deep lanceolate entire 



54 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 

segments. Fl. opposite to the leaves, solitary, stalked, small, 
yellow, with narrow obovate petals, one or more of which are 
often wanting, or imperfect. -Seeds lenticular, with a broad, 
compressed, curved point ; their sides densely covered with 
small, hooked, prominent prickles. 

14. R. hederaceus. Ivy Crowfoot. 

Seeds wrinkled. Leaves roundish-kidney-shaped, with 

three or five lobes, entire, smooth. Stem creephig. 
R. hederaceus. Linn. Sp. PI. 78 1 . Willd. r. 2. 133 1 . Fl. Br. 595. 

Engl. Bot. V. 28. t. 2003. Curt.Lond.fasc. 4. t. 39. Hook. Scot. 

] 73. DeCand. Sijst. v. 1 . 233. Fl. Dan. t.32l. Dalech. Hist. 

1031./. Bauh.Hist.v.3.774.f. 
R. aquatilis hederaceus albus. Ruii Syn. 249. 
Ivy Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t. 38./. 12. 

In shallow rivulets, ditches, and pools. 

Perennial. May — August. 

A little, smooth, branching, creeping or floating herb, sending down 
radicles from each joint of its hollow leafy stem, ieaues stalked, 
opposite or alternate, with 3 or 5 shallow lobes j their colour 
dark green, often with a black spot on the disk. Fl. small, with 
narro\y white petals, and from 5 to 10 or 12 stamens. Seeds 
tumid, with minute transverse wrinkles. 

15. R. aquatilis. White Floating Crowfoot, 

Seeds w^rinkled. Leaves in capillary segments under water ; 
above somewhat peltate, lobed, bluntly notched. 

R. aquatilis. Linn. Sp. PL 781 . Willd. v. 2. 1332. Fl. Br. 596. 
Engl. Bot. v.2.t.}0l. Hook. Scot. 173. Ger. Em. 829./. Rail 
Syn. 249. DeCand. Sijst.v. I. 234. Dad. Pempt. 587./. 

R. n.ll63. Hail. Hist. V. 2. 69. 

R. aquatilis albus. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 773. f. 

R. aquatilis albus, lato et foeniculi folio. Barrel. Ic. t.b65. 

R. aquaticus, hepaticse facie. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 35. f. 

R. heterophyllus. Wiggers Holsat. 42. Sibth. 175. Mbot \23. 
Purt. V. 1 . 263. 

Water Crowfoot with various leaves. Pet. H. Brit. t. 39. f. 1. 

/3, Ranunculus aquatilis omninb _tenuifolius. Raii Syn.249. 
Bauh. Hist. V. 3.773. f. 

R. aquatilis. Wigg. Holsat. 42. Sibth.\75. 

R. trichophyllon aquaticus medio luteus. Column. Ecphr. 315. 
^.316. 

R. aquaticus albus foeniculi folio. Barrel. Ic. t. 566. 

R. n. 1162. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 69. 

R. pantothrix. Brot. Lusit. v. 2. 375. DeCand. Syst. v. \. 235, a. 

Millefolium, sive Maratriphyllon, flore et semine Ranunculi aqua- 
tic), hepaticse facie, Ger. Em. 827./. 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Ranunculus. 55 

Fine Water Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t. 39./. 2. 

y. Ranunculus aquaticus albus, circinatis tenuissime divisis foliis, 

floribus ex alls longis pediculis innixis. Rail Syn. 249. Pluk. 

Almag.3ll. Phyt.t. 55. f.2. 
R. circinatus. Sibth. 175. 
R. pantothrix /3. DeCand. Syst.v. 1. 236. 
R. n. 11 62 /3. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 69. 
Fine trimmed Water Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t. 39./. 3. 
S. Ranunculo, sive Polyanthemo aquatili albo affine, Millefolium 

Maratriphyllon fluitans. Bauh. Hist. v. 3.774. f. Rail Syn. 250. 

Ft. Dan. t. 376. 
Ranunculus fluviatilis. Wigg. Holsat. 42. Sibth. 176. Abbot 123. 

Willd.v.2. 1333. 
R. pantothrix y. DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 236. 
R. n. 1161. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 68. 
Fennel Water Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t. 39./ 4. 
Foeniculus aquaticus. Dalech. Hist. 1023. f. 

In ditches and ponds every where. S in rivers. 

Perennial. May, June. 

The natural state of this species is when it mantles the surface of 
still pools or ditches with its lobed floating leaves, and abun- 
dance of white^owers, yellow in the middle, the branched stems 
throwing out long fibrous roots from their lower joints, and the 
leaves which are under water being repeatedly divided, in a 
threefold manner, into narrow, linear, acute segments. The 
flowers are solitary, on long stalks, opposite to the leaves. Cal. 
smooth, deciduous. Pet. obovate, twice as long as the calyx, 
with a tubular nectary in the middle of the yellow claw. Seeds 
numerous, in a round head, obovate, transversely wrinkled ; 
more or less hairy, or minutely bristly, especially in the varie- 
ties. /3 has all the leaves cut as above mentioned, and im- 
mersed in the water j but any person who throws it out into a 
shallow puddle, early in the summer, will soon, I believe, see 
broad leaves produced, y, from whatever cause, bears smaller, 
neater, rounded, very finely cut leaves. J, floating in a strong 
or rapid stream, has all its leaves dissected and lengthened out 
by the water, and can but rarely flower. I agree with Prof. 
Hooker that the hairiness of the seeds is no constant mark ; for 
after having long ago thought it such, I have been obliged to 
give up that point. See Rees's Cyclopcedia. 1 cannot but won- 
der at those otherwise able botanists, who seeing these varieties 
produced under their eyes, with the evident cause of each con- 
tinually acting, can consider them as species. 
R.fluviatilis of Dr. Bigelow in his Boston Flora, 139, is indeed a 
totally different species, of much larger dimensions, with all the 
leaves finely and copiously subdivided, bright yellow^owers, and 
minutely wrinkled seeds, terminating in compressed upright 
beaks, as long as themselves. 



56 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. TroUius, . 

280. TROLLIUS. Globe-flower. 

Lin7i.Gen.282. Juss.233. FLBr.507. Lam. t. 499. GeErtn. 
t.WQ. DeCand.Stjst.v.].3\l. 

Nat. Ord. see 7i. 279. 

Cat. none. Pet. several, inferior, uncertain in number, from; 
5 to 15, roundish, concave, converging, deciduous. Ned, 
from 5 to 10, or more, sliorter than the petals, linear,^ 
flattened, incurved, with a single lip ; their base some- 
what tubular. Filam. numerous, bristle-shaped, shorter 
than the corolla. Anth. terminal, linear, erect. Gn-m. 
superior, numerous, sessile, columnsir. Styles none. Stig- 
mas pointed, spreading, shorter than the stamens. Caps. 
{foUicles,) as many as the germens, cylindrical, pointed, 
recurved, collected into a round head. Seeds several, at 
the edges of the capsule, ovate, smooth, somewhat trian- 
gular. 

Smooth, perennial, upright hei-bs, natives of the colder parts, 
of Europe and America. Leaves deeply divided and cut, 
alternate. Fl. terminal, solitary, more or less globular, 
large and handsome, yellow or orange-coloured. 

1. T. europcBus. Mountain Globe-flower. 

Petals about fifteen, converging into a globe. Nectaries 
from five to ten, the length of the stamens. 

T. europaeus. Linn Sp. PI 782. Willd. v. 2. 1333. Fl Br. 597. 

Engl. Bot. v.\.t. 28. Hook. Scot. 1 75. DeCand. Syst. tj. 1 . 3 1 2. 

Fl. Dan.t. 133. 
T. ti. 1 189. Hall. Hist. v. 2.83. 

Ranunculus globosus. Rail Syn. 272. Ger. Em. 955. f. 
R. flore globoso. Dad. Pempt. 430./. Dale.ch. Hist.\033.f. Bauk. 

Hist. V. 3. 419 f. Robert let. 27. 
R. glomerate flore. Clus. Hist. v. 1 . 237. f. 
R. sextus. Camer. Epit. 385. f. 
Globe Crowfoot. Pet. H. Brit. t. 43./. 2. 

In shady, mountainous, rather moist situations. 

Not rare in Westmoreland, Cumberland, Durham, Wales, and 
the lowlands of Scotland. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Roof fibrous, tufted. Stem 1| or 2 feet high, round, hollow, leafy, 
branched at the top. Leaves in many deep, spreading, pinna- 
tifid, cut lobes ; the radical ones on long stalks. Fl. globose, 
bright yellow, the nectaries of the same hue as the petals, scarcely 
half so long. Capsules nearly cylindrical, with shining black 
seeds. 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Helleborus. 57 

The country people of Westmoreland, Scotland and Sweden con- 
sider this as a sort of festival flower, going in parties to gather 
it, for the decoration of their doors and apartments, as well as 
their persons. The qualities of this genus are slightly acrid, 
far less so than the foregoing or following, to both which it is 
botanically allied. 

281. HELLEBORUS. Hellebore. 

Linn. Gen. 282. Juss.233. Fl. Br. 59S. Tuitrn. t. 144. Lam. 
t. 499. Gcertn. t. 65. DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 315. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 279. 

Cal. none. Pet. 5, inferior, roundish, obtuse, concave, per- 
manent. Nect. more numerous, much shorter, in a circle 
within the petals, deciduous, eacli of one leaf, tubular ; 
narrower in the lower part; with 2 upright, oljtuse, un- 
equal lips at the orifice. Filam. very numerous, awl- 
shaped. Anth. terminal, erect, roundish, of 2 cells, burst- 
ing at the edges. Germ, superior, several, from 3 to 10, 
ovate, compressed, erect. Styles awl-shaped. Stigmas 
terminal, roundish. Caps, [follicles) ovate, compressed, 
coriaceous, keeled, beaked with the styles, opening at the 
rounded inner margin. Seeds several, oval, at the edges 
of the capsule, attached, in 2 rows, to a linear, double- 
notched, deciduous receptacle. 

Fetid, rigid, coriaceous, nearly smooth, perennial herbs, of a 
dangerously cathartic quality, especially the i-oots. Leaves 
palmate, or pedate, or ternate, serrated ; radical ones on 
long stalks. Stem leafy, branched ; in some wanting. Fl. 
greenish ; or whitish, turning green in decay. 

1. H. viridis. Green Hellebore. 

Stem many-flowered, leafy. Leaves digitate. Petals spread- 
ing. 

H. viridis. Linn. Sp. P1.7S4. Willd.v. 2.1336. FL Br. 59S. 

Engl.Bot v.3.t.200. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 34. Hook. Scot.\76. 

DeCand. Syst. «. 1 . 3 1 8. Jacq. Austr. t. 1 06. 
H. n. 1192. Hall. Hist. V. 2.84. 

H. niger hortensis, (lore viridi. Raii Syn. 2/ 1 . Robert Ic. t. 9. 
H. niger. Brunf. Herb. v. 1 . 30./. Cord. Hist. 1 02, 2./. 
Helleborastrum. Ger. Em.976.f. Lob. Ic 680. f. 
Elleborus niger adulterinus hortensis. Fuchs, Hist. 274). f. Ic. 

155./. 
EUeborum nigrum alterum. Matth. Falgr. 561. f. Camer.Epit 

941./ 
Consiligo. Tttni. Herb. part 1 . 164./ 



58 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Helleborus. 

Veratrum nigrum secundum. Dod.Pempt. 385./. 

In woods and thickets, on a chalky soil. 

In Oxfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Sussex, and other chalk countries, 
indubitably wild, though not common. Gathered by Miss Jane 
Baynes, near Harefield, Middlesex ; about Great Marlow and 
High M-'ickham, Bucks, by Mr. Jacob Rayer, and in the north- 
west part of Norfolk, by Mr. Wm. Humphrey. 

Perennial. Jpril, May. 

Root fleshy, black, with numerous long stout fibres, very acrid and 
purgative. Herbage altogether annual, of a deep but bright 
green, smooth. S^em erect, round, forked, li foot high. Outer 
lobes of the leaves often combined, assuming a pedate aspect, 
but they are truly digitate. Fl. few, terminal and axillary, stalk- 
ed, mostly solitary, drooping, green in every part. Pet. ex- 
panded. Caps 3 or 4, short, wrinkled. Haller reckons up all 
the reputed virtues of Hellebore under this species ; which in- 
deed seems to be what German practitioners have substituted 
for the true plant of the antients, H. officinalis, Sibth. in Fl. 
Grcec. t. 523, 

2. H./beiidus. Stinking Hellebore. Bear's-foot, or 
Setter-wort. 

Stem many-flowered, leafy. Leaves pedate. Petals con- 
verging. 

H. foetidus. Linn. Sp. PL 784. fVilld. v. 2. 1337. Fl. Br. 598. 
Engl. Bot. V.9. t.6\3. Woodv. t.\9. Hook. Scot. 176. DeCand. 
Syst.v. 1. 320. Bull. Fr. t.7\. Ehrh. PL Off. 275. 

H. n. II 93. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 87. 

H. niger fcetidus. Bauh. Pin. IS.*). Robert Ic. t.lO. 

Helleboraster maximus. RaiiSyn.27l. Ger. Em.976.f. Lob. 
Ic. 679./. 

Elleborus niger adulterinus sylvestris. Fuchs. Hist. 275./. Ic. 
156./. 

Veratrum nigrum tertium. Dod. Pernpt. 386./. 

In thickets and waste ground, on a chalky soil. 

More common than the last in chalk countries. On the castle hill, 
at Castle-Acre, Norfolk, abundantly. 

Perennial. March, April. 

Taller and more branched than the foregoing. Heibage perennial, 
smooth, of a more lurid green. Fl. numerous, panicled, droop- 
ing, smaller and more closed, tinged about the edges with pur- 
ple. Ned. notched. Leaves stalked, truly pedate, of 7 or 9 
lanceolate, serrated leaflets ; upper ones, or rather their /ooU 
stalks, gradually becoming pale, lanceolate, entire bracteas. 
Caps. 3 or 4. The whole herb is fetid, acrid, violently cathartic, 
though it has in England been more frequently used than the 
H. viridis, on the credit of the Greek Hellebore, 



POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Caltha. 59 
282. CALTHA. Marsh-marigold. 

Linn. Gen. 283. Juss. 234. H. Br. 599. Lam. t. 500. Gcertn. 
t.MS. DeCand. Syst. v. 1 , 306. 

Populago. Tourn. t. 145. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 279. 

Cal. none. Pet. 5 or more, inferior, ovate, or elliptical, 
nearly flat, spreading. Necf. none. Filam. numerous, 
rather swelling upwards, shorter than the corolla. Anth. 
terminal, erect, oblong, of 2 lobes, bursting at the outer 
edges. Germ, superior, 5 to 10, erect, oblong, com- 
pressed. Styles none. Stigmas obtuse. Caps, [follicles,) 
as many as the germens, cylindrical, pointed, two-edged, 
erect or spreading, bursting at the upper edge. Seeds 
numerous, from the margins of the capsule, oval, with a 
small rounded prominence at the extremity. 

Perennial smooth herbs, slightly acrid, natives of watery si- 
tuations, with simple leaves, and yellow^owers. Those 
of the southern hemisphere have, as M. DeCandolle re- 
marks, permanent petals, or, as he considers it, a per- 
manent calyx : in those of northern climates the same 
part is deciduous. Two species, C. asarifolia and lepto- 
petala, have numerous narrow petals, differing from the 
rest as Jlanunculus Ficaria does from other species of 
Ranunculus; but M. DeCandolle is too judicious to se- 
parate them, on that account, from the rest. 

1. C palustris. Common Marsh-marigold. 

Stem erect. Leaves heart-shaped, rounded. 

C. palustris. Linn. Sp. PL 784. fVilld. v. 2. 1338. Fl. Br. 599. 
Comp. ed. 4. 98. Engl. Bot. v.S.t. 506. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1 . 
t. 40. Forst. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 8. 323. Hook. Scot. 1 76. De- 
Cand. Svst. V. ] . 308. Fl. Dan. t. 668. Loh. Ic. 594./. Dod. 
Pempt. 598./. 

C. major. Mill. Diet. ed.8. n.l. 

C. n. 1188. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 82. 

C. palustris major. Ger. Em. 8\7.f. 

C. Vergilii. Trag. Hist. 142. f. 

Populago. Rait Syn. 272. 

Tussilago altera, siveFarfugium. Matth. Valgr. v. 2.200. f. Camer. 
Epit. 594./. 

^.DeCand. Syst. v.\.Z09. 
Caltha minor. Mill. Diet. ed. 8. n. 2. 

Populago minor. Tabern. Kreuterb. 11 28./ " Ic. 750. f." 
In marshy meadows, and about the margins of ponds, rivers, and 
brooks, every where. 



60 POLYANDRIA— POLYGYNIA. Caltha, 

/3. In similar situations, but much less frequent. Sent from Cum- 
berland to Mr, Forster, in whose garden it remains unaltered. 

Perennial. March, April. fi.May. 

Root thick, and somewhat tuberous, with many simple fibres. Stem 
12 or 18 inches high, erect, round, hollow, leafy, branched, fur- 
rowed. Leaves variously heart-shaped, crenate ; the lowermost 
on long, somewhat triangular, footstalks, largest, most rounded, 
and with blunter notches ; upper nearly sessile, alternate, more 
triangular, acutely crenate. Stipulns membranous, withering. 
Fl. several, from 3 to .5, large, bright yellow, on alternate soli- 
tary stalks. Pet. 5, an inch long, roundish-oval. The flower- 
buds pickled serve for Capers, which they resemble, except in 
having numerous germens. A double variety is frequent in 
gardens. 

/3 is in every part but half the size of the common sort ; the stems 
are more reclining, each bearing 1, 2, or SJlowers, whose petals 
are but half an inch long, yet 1 can find no decisive specific cha- 
racter. Possibly this variety may render the following species 
somewhat doubtful ; but they require careful examination in a 
wild state. The cut of Tabernsemontanus does not at all re- 
semble our /3 in the foliage. 

2. C. 7'adicans. Creeping Marsh-marigold. 

Stem reclining, creeping. Leaves triangular, somewhat 
heart-shaped, sharply crenate. 

C. radicans. Forst. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 8. 324. 1. 17. Comp. ed. 4. 
98. Engl. Bot.v. 31. t.2\7 5. Jit. Hort. Kew. ed.2.v. 3.361. 
DeCand. Syst. v. 1 . 309. 

By the sides of lakes and rivulets in Scotland. 

First observed in Scotland by the late Mr. Dickson. Near Forfar. 
Mr. G. Don. About the Pentland hills, and in Roslyn woods ; 
Dr. Greville : more common in some spots near Edinburgh, 
than C. palustris ; Mr. Arnott : marshes near CoUace, Perth- 
shire J Mr. Maughan. Hooker. 

Perennial. May, June. 

This is scarcely half the size of our common C. palustris. The re- 
cumbent stems send forth roots from several of the lower joints, 
creeping to a considerable extent. Leaves from ] to 2 inches 
broad, more triangular than heart-shaped, sharply crenate ; the 
radical ones on very long sXender footstalks. Petals the colour 
of the foregoing, about half as large, more obovate, or sometimes 
obliquely wedge-shaped. Germens 7 or 8. A double variety of 
this is cultivated about London. 



Class XIV. DIDYNAMIA. Stam. 4, 
2 outermost lousiest. 



^ 



Order I. GVMNOSPERMIA. Seeds naked, 

4 at most. 

* Calyx in 5 segments, nearly regular, 

296. LEONURUS. Antli. incumbent, besprinkled with 
hard granulations. Upper lip of the corolla shaggy. 

288. GLECHOMA. ^ri//?. converging cross-wise in pairs. 

Upper lip cloven. 

287. MENTHA. Filam. spreading widely, straight. Co- 
rolla nearly equal. 

284. TEUCRIUM. Upper lip of the corolla in 2 very 

deep, remote, lateral lobes. 

283. AJUGA. Upper lip minute, abrupt, notched. 

292. BETONICA. L^;jer/zp nearly flat, ascending; tube 

cylindrical, incurved. Stam. not longer than the 
throat. 

289. LAMIUM. Coro//a toothed at each side of the throat. 

290. GALEOPSIS. Lower lip of the corolla with a pair 

of hollow prominences at the base in front. 

291. GALEOBDOLON. iowj^?- //> in 3 acute, undivided 

segments. 

293. STACHYS, Lower lip with reflexed lateral lobes. 

Stam. finally spreading outwards at each side. 

285. NEPETA. Lower Z?/) numerously notched ; throat 

bordered and reflexed at each side. 

294.. BALLOTA. Calt/x with 10 furrows. Upper lip of 
the cor. vaulted, shaggy. 

295. MARRUBIUM. Ca/. with lO furrows. Upper lip 
of the coi'. straight, linear, cloven. 

286. VERBENA. Ca/. with 1 of the 5 teeth abrupt. Co?: 

nearly equal, curved. S/am. in the tube. 



62 

** Calyx 2-lipped. 

SOI. SCUTELLARIA. Cal. when in fruit closed by a 
dorsal lid. 

299. THYMUS. Cal. closed with dense converging hairs. 

300. MELITTIS. Cal. open, wider than the tube of the 

corolla. Upper lip of the cor. nearly flat. Anth. con- 
verging cross-wise in pairs. 

297. CLINOPODIUM. Cal. many-ribbed. Involucruvi 

of numerous taper leaves under the flowers. 

298. ORIGANUM. Ca/. without ribs. /??w/. of nume- 

rous dilated, flat leaves, 1 to each Jlower, collected 
into a spurious catkin. 

302. PRUNELLA. Filaments forked, 1 of the points 

bearing the anther. 

Order 11. ANGIOSPERMIA. Seeds in a 
capsule, generally numerous. 

* Calyx \-cleft. 

307. L ATHRiE A. Caps, of 1 cell. A gland under the 
germen. 

303. BARTSIA. Ca/js. of 2 cells. Se^c^s angular. 

304. RHINANTHUS. Caps, of 2 cells. S^^^s compress- 

ed, imbricated, 

306. MELAMPYRUM. Caps, of 2 cells. Seeds in pans, 
tumid, smooth. 

305. EUPHRASIA. Caps, of 2 cells. Seeds striated. 

Anth. spinous. 

** Calyx S-cleft. 

3U. LIMOSELLA. Caps, imperfectly 2-celled. Cor. 
bell- shaped, nearly equal. 

310. SCROPHULARIA. Co/^s. of 2 cells. Cor. reversed; 

tube inflated ; limb rounded, much shorter. 

313. SIBTHORPIA. Caps, of 2 cells, with transverse 
partitions. Cor. nearly wheel-shaped. Stam. con- 
verging laterally in pairs. 

311. DIGITALIS. Caps, of 2 cells. Cor. bell-shaped, 

tumid underneath. Stam. bent. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. 63 

309. ANTIRRHINUM. Caps, of 2 cells, bursting un- 
equally at the summit. Cor. closed with a palate ; 
prominent or spurred at the base behind. 

308. PEDICULARIS. Cc^5. of '2 cells. Seeds ^omied. 
Cor. ringent ; upper lip compressed. 

312. LINN^A. JJenj/ dry, of 3 cells in the gernien. Cor. 
bell-shaped. Cal. double ; innermost superior. 

*** Calyx of 2 leaves. 

315. OROBANCHE. Calyx-leavesX^teraX. Ag/awrf under 
the germen. Caps, of 1 cell, with 4- receptacles. 



DIDYNAMIA GYMNOSPERMIA. 

A natural order, consisting entirely of the Verticillatce of 
Ray, and of Linnaeus, 42; theiai/a^i^of Jussieu, 39. See 
Grammar 99. A few genera, comprised in Jussieu's first 
section, are excluded from the present class and order of 
the artificial system, as having only 2 stamens, and are 
referred therefore to the second class, Diandria. Of 
these the only British genera are Lycopus and Salvia. 
See vol. i. 33 — 35. 

The following are the characters of the Verticillatce, a de- 
nomination needlessly changed for Lahiatce. 

Flo'wers all complete, as well as perfect, having a calyx and 
corolla, with stamens and pistil, in every individual. 

Calyx inferior, simple, of one leaf, erect, tubular, often tu- 
mid at the base, on the upper or lower side, permanent ; 
orifice more or less deeply divided into 5 unequal, often 
pointed, spreading segments. 

Corolla of 1 petal, erect, tubular, and containing honey, at 
the base, without any particular apparatus ot a nectary ; 
limb almost invariably ringent, or lipped ; ujjper lip either 
upright, or vaulted, rarely very short, or deeply divided ; 
fower in 3 divisions, the middle one almost always broadest. 

Stamejis 4 ; Jilaments linear, from the tube of the coj-olla, at 



64 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Ajuga. 

the upper side, the 2 intermediate ones being shortest, 
and all of them parallel, rarely longer than the corolla, 
their upper half usually incurved. Anthers oblong, at- 
tached by the back, converging in pairs, generally shel- 
tered by the upper lip, but sometimes quite exposed. 

Germeti superior, 4-lobed; si^le solitary, central, thread- 
shaped, situated between the stamens, and curved in the 
same direction, being of an intermediate length between 
the longer and shorter ones ; stigma usually cloven and 
divaricated, sometimes undivided, or slightly notched. 

Seeds 4, lodged in the bottom of the calyx, which is their 
only covering, and serves instead of a seed-vessel. Each 
seed has a double integument, a testa and a mcmbrana, 
both of them very thin, generally smooth. See observa- 
tions on the Asperifolia;, vol. i. 248. 

All the plants of the Didynamia Gymnospermia are herba- 
ceous, or slightly shrubby, never arborescent. Their 
stems are quadrangular, branched, and leafy. Leaves op- 
posite, entire or serrated, in a few instances much di- 
vided. Flowers stalked, axillary, either solitary, or in 
dense tufts constituting 'whorls ; their colour reddish, pur- 
plish, blue, white, or yellow. Qualities aromatic, or bit- 
ter, in every instance harmless. The powers are rarely 
so fragrant as the herbage, though sometimes exhaling 
a slight odour, peculiar to themselves. Round pellucid 
spots, in the leaves or calyx more especially, are the seat 
of an aromatic essential oil. The pubescence of the herb- 
age, in many species, exudes a similar, or more viscid, 
or a bitter secretion. In growing parts, attacked by in- 
sects for the lodgment of their eggs, these secretions are 
changed to acid or astringent ones. 

283. AJUGA. Bugle. 

Linn. Gen. 287. Fl.Br.604. Lam.^501. 
Bugula. Tourn. t. i)8. Juss. I ] 2. 
Chamaepitys. Tourn. t. 98. ' 

Cal. divided about half way down into 5, nearly equal seg- 
ments, permanent. Cor. ringent; t7ihe sometimes inflated 
at the base, not quite straight ; uppei- lip vei'y short, erect, 
abrupt, notched ; loxvei- large, spreading, 3-lobed ; the 
central lobe either undivided or inversely heart-shaped ; 
lateral ones small. i^//fl??j. longer than the upper lip, short- 
er than the lower, incurved. Gei-men superior, of 4 round 
lobes. Style incurved. Stigma in 2 acute, spreading seg- 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Ajiiga. 6j 

ments. Seeds 4, rugged, oblong, rounded, in the bottom 
of the unaltered calyx. 
Herbaceous, mostly perennial; either with undivided leaves., 
aggregate h\ue Jlowers, and scarcely any aromatic qua- 
lity ; or with frequently divided leaves, solitary, yellow 
/lowers, a strong scent, and sometimes annual root. 

* Bugula. Fl. 'who7-led, blue. 

1. A. reptans. Common Bugle. 

Almost smooth, with a solitary stem, and creeping scyons. 
Lower lip of the corolla four-cleft. 

A. reptans. Linn. Sp. PI. 785. mild. v. 3.10. Fl. Br. 604. Engl. 
Bot.v.7.t.489. Curt. Land. fasc. 2. t. 43. Hook. Scot. 179. 
Fl. Dan. t. 925. Bull. Fr. t. 345. Ehrh. PL Off. 155. 

Bugula. Rail Syn. 245. Ger. Em. 631. f. Dod. Pempt. 135. f. 
Riv. Monop. Jrr. t. 76. f. I . 

B. n. 282. Hall. Hist. V.]. 123. 

Consolida media. Brunf. Herb. v. 1 . 95./. Fuchs. Hist. 391. f. 
Matth. Valgr. v. 2.311 ./. Camer. Epit. 702. f. 

In woods and moist pastures^ common. 

Perennial. May. 

Root rather woody, with long fibres. Stem solitary, simple, up- 
right, leafy, a span high, purplish, the angles sharp, often hairy. 
Scyons long and slender, leafy, wanting in the wooden cut of 
Gerarde and Dodonseus, which is copied after that of Matthio- 
lus. Leaves obovate, with shallow serratures, veiny ; the lower 
ones tapering into footstalks ; upper se.ssile, diminished, slightly 
coloured, bearing several whorls, of blue and white, sometimes 
entirely white, scentless^owers. Segments of the calyx hairy, 
as well as the outside of the corolla, the middle lobe of whose 
lower lip is cloven. 

The roots are slightly astringent, but the herb has little taste or 
smell, and still less of any healing or vulnerary property. The 
white variety abounds in the isle of Wight ; and a flesh-colour- 
ed one has sometimes been observed. In dry mountainous si- 
tuations the plant acquires a considerable degree of hairiness. 

2. A. alpina. Alpine Bugle. 

Leaves almost smooth, irregularly toothed ; uppermost 
entire. Scyons none. Whorls not crowded, of many 
flowers. 

A. alpina. Linn. Mant. 80. Willd. Sp. PL w. 3. 9. FL Br. 605, 
EngL Bot. V. 7. L477. Hook. Scot. 179. 

A. pyramidalis. Huds. 248. 



VOL. III. 



66 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Ajuga. 

A. genevensis. Willi. 5 J 6. Scholler Barb. 135. 

Bugula caerulea alpina. Pluh. Almag. 73. t. 1 8./. 3. Ytaii Syn. 245. 

On mountains, rare. 

In Carnarvonshire. Ray. On the summit of a mountain, near 
Castleton, Derbyshire. Mi: D. Turner, in the county of Dur- 
ham. Mr. Robson. On the mountains of Aberdeenshire, not 
uncommon. Mr. David Don. 

Perennial. July. 

This has no creeping scyons. The leaves are scarcely more hairy 
than in the last, very coarsely and unequally toothed ; many of 
the upper ones, and frequently a!I the floral leaves, ovate, and 
quite entire ; the uppermost of all only slightly tinged with a 
violet colour ; the radical leaves stalked and oblong, not much 
larger than the rest. Fl. 10 or 12, sometimes more, in each 
whorl. Cal. chiefly hairy about the teeth. Cor. pale blue, with 
darker streaks ; middle segment of the lower lip undivided, 
more or less acute, and various in breadth. I suspect that it is 
often notched, or inversely heart-shaped, in which case the 
plant becomes A. genevensis of Linnaeus and others ; and in this 
state it is A. pyramidalis of Ehrhart's Herb n. 156. and of Bul- 
liard, t 361. It is then also Bugula n. 283 of Haller, excluding 
his variety rubrifolia ,• and B. montana of Rivinus, t. 76. f. 2. 
Plukenet's figure in like manner has the middle lobe notched. 

3. A. pyramidalis. Pyramidal Bugle. 

Hairy. "Whorls crowded into a pyramidal form, many- 
flowered. Radical leaves very large, obovate, crenate, 
obtuse. Upper lip of the coi'olla deeply cloven. 

A. pyramidalis. Linn. Sp. PI. 785. fVilld. v. 3. 8. Lightf. 302. 

Engl. Bot.v.\8. t. 1270. Comp. ed. 4.100. Hook. Scot. 179. 

Fl. Dan.t. 185. 
Bugula n. 283 /3, rubrifolia. Hall. Hist. r. 1 . 1 24. 

In the Highlands of Scotland, in dry pastures. 

Found in Scotland by the Rev. Dr. Burgess. Lightfoot. On Ben 
Nevis, and in other places. Dr. Hope. On Tor Aichaltie, Ross- 
shire. Mr. W. Gibb. 

Perennial. June. 

Of a more dense and pyramidal habit, as well as much more uni- 
formly and copiously hairy than the last. Stem 4 or 5 inches 
high, without runners. Radical leaves numerous, stalked, obo- 
vate, 2 or 3^mches long, and half as broad, with numerous, 

■ shallow, rounded notches ; Jloral ones, or bracteas much smaller, 
pale purple. Teeth of the calyx very hairy, longer than its tube. 
Cor. light blueish purple, with dark streaks ; upper lip in 2 deep 
acute lobes, by which this most distinct species is clearly mark- 
ed. Seeds finely reticulated. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Teuciium. 67 

** Chamcepitys. Fl. solitary, yellow. 

4. A. Chamcepitys. Ground Pine. Yellow Bugle. 

Stem diffuse, branched. Leaves in thi-ee deep, linear, en- 
tire segments. Flowers axillary, solitary, shorter than 
the leaves. 

A. Chamsepitys. Fl. Br. 605. Engl. Bot. v. 2. t. 77. With. 5 1 7. 

Schreb. Unilab. 24. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 10. 
A. sive Chamsepitys. Mattli.Valgr. v. 2. 291./. Ca7ner.Epit.679.f. 

Lob. Ic. 382./. 
Bugula n. 284. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 124. 
Teucrium Chamaepitys. Linn. Sp. PL 737. Huds.247. Relh. 220. 

Dicks. Dr. PL 9. Fl. Dan. t. 733. Ehrh. PL Off. 1 65. 
Chamaspitys. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 14./. 1. 
Ch, vulgaris. Raii Syn. 244. 
Ch, mas. Ger. Em. 525./. 

In sandy or gravelly fields, not general. 

About the borders of Triplow heath, Cambridgeshire ; and in se- 
veral parts of Kent. Ray. At Puifleet, Essex. Mr. J. Rayer, 
and Mr. E. Forster. 

Annual, ^pril, May. 

Root small, tapering. Herb hairy, glutinous, aromatic and bitter. 
Stems several, spreading and recumbent, purplish, most hairy 
on two opposite sides. Leaves crowded, in 3 deep narrow lobes, 
somewhat revolute. FL on very short stalks, opposite, soli- 
tary in the bosoms of the leaves. Cal. nearly regular. Cor. 
yellow; the upper lip very short, slightly notched ; lower with 
2 acute lateral lobes, and a large central one, which is inversely 
heart-shaped, spotted with red. Seeds wrinkled and dotted. 
Tournefort and Haller speak of a variety with rose-coloured 
/lowers. 

The reasons and history of the transfer of this plant from Teucrium 
to Ajuga are given at length in Engl. Bot. 

284. TEUCRIUM. Germander. 

Linn.Gen.287. Juss.ll2. FLBr.6G6. Tourn. t. 98. Lam. t. 501. 
Chamaedrys. Tourn. t.97. 

Cal. somewhat bell-shaped, a little unequal, tumid on one 
side at the base, the limb in 5 deep, acute segments. 
Cor. ringent ; tube cylindrical, short, curved upwards ; 
upper Up apparently wanting, being divided to the very 
base into 2 distant, ovate-oblong, ascendmg, lateral lobes ; 
lower spreading, in 3 lobes, the lateral ones resembling 
those of the upper lip, central one larger, flat or concave, 
undivided or cloven. Filam. much longer than the up-i 

F 2 



68 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Teucrium. 

per lip, ascending, incurved. Germ, superior, 4-cleft. 
St7/le incurved. Stigma in 2 acute, spreading segments. 
Seed^ 4, oblong, rounded, vi'rinkled, in the bottom of the 
permanent calyx. 
Herbaceous or shrubby, bitter and aromatic, downy or 
hairy, with entire or serrated, rarely many-cleft, leaves. 
Fl. axillary, whorled, or capitate ; red or yellowish in 
our species ; sometimes blue, or white, in the numerous 
foreign ones. 

1. T. Scorodonia.W oodi Germander.! Wood Sage. 

Leaves heart-shaped, hairy, serrated, stalked. Clusters ag- 
gregate, unilateral. Stem erect. 

T. Scorodonia. Linn. Sp. PI. 789. Willd. v. 3. 24. Fl. Br. 606. 

Engl. Bot.v. 22. t. 1543. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 40. Hook. Scot. 

180. Fl.Dan.t.4S5. Bull. Fr.t. 301. Ehrh. PL Off". 406. 
Chamsdrys n. 287. Hall. Hist. v.\.\ 26. 
Scorodonia. Cord. Hist. 91,1./. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 12. 
S. seu Salvia agrestis. Raii Syn. 245. Ger. Em. 662./. 
Scordium alterum Plinii. Lob. Ic. 497./ 
Salvia sylvestris. Trag. Hist. 15. f. Flowers reversed. 

In woods, and heathy bushy places, on a sandy soil, abundantly. 

Perennial. July. 

Root creeping. Stem 18 inches or 2 feet high, leafy, hairy, acutely 
quadrangular. Leaves deep green, wrinkled, copiously serrated, 
hairy. Clusters numerous, terminal and axillary, erect. PL 
unilateral, with a small, ovate, acute bractea at the base of each 
partial stalk. Cor. pale yellow ; middle lobe concave, hairy. 
Stam. purple. The whole plant is glutinous, and bitter, with 
an agreeable aromatic scent, much resembling that of Hops, for 
which it is said to be no bad substitute in making beer. 

2. T. Scordium. Water Germander, 

Leaves oblong, sessile, downy, with tooth-like serratures. 
Flowers axillary, stalked, in pairs. Stem procumbent. 

T. Scordium. Linn. Sp. PL 790. M'illd. v. 3. 27. Fl. Br. 606. 

Engl BoLv. 12. L 828. Woodv.t.57. Schreb.Unilab.37. FL 
■ Dan. t. 593. BuU. Fr. t. 205. 
Chamaedrys n. 288. HalL Hist. v. 1. 126. 
Scordium. Raii Syn. 246. Ger. Em. 661. f. Riv. Monop. Irr. 

t.l\. Fuchs. Hist. 776./. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 196./ Camer. 

EpiL 588./. Lob. Ic. 497./. 

In low wet meadows, rare. 

Plentiful in the isle of Ely. Ray. In several places about Cam- 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Teucrium. 69 

bridge. Relhan. On the banks of the Isis near High-bridge, 
and on Enesham Commonj Oxfordshire. Sibthorp. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Herb downy, very bitter, with a strong gariick-like odour. Root 
creeping. Stems branched, recumbent, or prostrate. Leaves 
about an inch long, bluntish, hoary, coarsely serrated, all ses- 
sile. Fl. 2, sometimes more, from the bosom of each leaf, on 
short stalks. Cal. with short, broad, nearly equal teeth. Cor. 
of a pale dull purple ; its middle lobe rounded, flattish, with 2 
spots. Seeds light brown, wrinkled, filling the tube of the calyx. 

ITie Scordium has been considered as antipestilential and tonic ; 
at least such was its reputation amongst antient writers and 
physicians ; but modern practice rejects its use. 

3. T. ChamcBdrys . Wall Germander. 

Leaves somewhat ovate, stalked, deeply crenate or cut. 
Flowers axillary, three together, stalked. Stem round- 
ish, hairy. 

T. Chamaedrys. Linn. Sp. PI. 790. Willd. v. 3. 28. Fl. Br. 607. 

Engl. Bot.v. 10. /. 680. Woodv. suppl. t. 243. Hook. Scot. 180. 

Schreb. Unilab. 32. 
Chamsedrys. Tourn. Inst. t. 97. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 10./. 2. Cord^ 

Hist. 126./. 
Ch. n. 286. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 125. 
Ch. vulgaris. Clus. Hist. v. 1.351./. 
Ch. vulgaris seu sativa. Raii Syn. 23 1 . 
Ch. vera mas. Fuchs. Hist. 869./. 
Ch. major latifolia. Ger. Em. 656./. 
Trissago sive Chamaedrys. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 175. f. Camer. 

Epit.567.f. 

On old ruined buildings, and stony banks. 

About the borders of fields, far enough from any building, and 
yet a doubtful native. Ray. On the ruins of Winchelsea castle, 
plentifully. Sherard. Upon a bank at Friar Goose near Gates- 
head, Durham. Mr. Winch. On the city wall of Norwich, be- 
tween Magdalen and St. Austin's gates. 

Perennial. July. 

Root creeping. Stems nearly erect, branched, bushy, leafy, hairy, 
with rounded angles, ieaues even, dark green 5 tapering, fringed, 
and entire at the base ; variously and deeply notched in the rest 
of their circumference. Fl. crimson ; central lobe rounded, a 
little concave ; lateral ones and tube hairy. Whole herb very 
bitter, scarcely aromatic, formerly used to remove obstructed 
secretions, to promote expectoration, perspiration, &c. 



70 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Nepeta. 
255. NEPETA. Cat-mint. 

Linn. Gen. 289. Juss. 113. Fl.Br.608. Lam. t. 502. 
Cataria. Tourn. t. 95. 

Cat. tubular, cylindrical, with 5 acute, rather unequal, di- 
rect, marginal teeth. Cor: ringent; tube cylindrical, 
slender, incurved, dilated at the throat, which is border- 
ed, at each side, with a narrow, reflexed lobe ; upper lip 
erect, roundish, slightly cloven ; lower rounded, concave, 
large, undivided, numerously notched. Filam. awl- 
shaped, near together, covered by the upper lip. Anth. 
incumbent. Germ, superior, small, 4-cleft. S'^j/Z't? thread- 
shaped, of the length and situation of the stamens. Stig- 
ma cloven, acute. Seeds 4, nearly ovate, even, in the 
bottom of the dry permanent calyx. 

The lateral lobes of the lower lip are transferred to the 
margin of the tube. 

Perennial, upright, finely doviTiy, herbs ; rarely hairy, or 
nearly smooth ; with a strong aromatic scent. Leaves- 
undivided, serrated. Fl. very numerous, in copious, 
dense, crowded whorls. ,Cor. Avhite, reddish, or blue, 
often spotted. N. rnultifida but ill agrees with the cha- 
racter or habit of the rest. 

1. N. cataria. Common Cat-mint, or Nep. 

Whorls stalked, crowded into spikes. Leaves finely downy, 
heart-shaped, stalked, with tooth-like serratures. 

N. cataria. Linn. Sp. PL 796. JVilld. v. 3.49. Fl.Br.60d. Engl. 

Bot. V. 2. t. 137. Hook. Scot. 180. FL Dan. t. 580. BuU. Fr. 

t.287. 
Nepeta. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 52. 
N. major vulgaris. Rail Syn. 237 . 
Cataria n. 246 . HaU. HisL v. 1 . 1 08. 
C. herba. Dod. Pempt. 99. f. 
Mentha felina, seu Cattaria. Ger. Em. 682./. 
Herba Gattaria. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 79. f. Camer. Epit. 484./. 

On banks and by road sides^ principally in a chalky or gravelly 
soil. 

Perennial. July. 

Root tapering, with many fibres. Herbage hoary, very soft and 
downy, exhaling a strong, pungent, aromatic smell, approaching 
to that of Mentha Pulegium, and peculiarly grateful to Cats. 
Stems 2 or 3 feet high, upright, branched. Leaves coarsely ser- 
rated, paler beneath. Fl. very numeroiis, white ; lower lip 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Verbena. 71 

flesh-coloured, dotted with crimson. Whorls corr pound, stalked. 
Cal, furrowed. Seeds smooth. 

286. VERBENA. Vervain. 

Linn. Gen. 14. Juss. 109. Fl.Br.608. Tourn.f.94. Lam. t. 17. 
Gcertn. t. 66. 

Cal. tubular, angular, with 5 marginal teeth, one of them 
rather shorter than the rest. Cor. unequal ; tube cylin- 
drical, twice as long as the calyx, straight and slender in 
the lower half, dilated and curved in the upper part ; 
limb spreading, in .G deep, rounded, somewhat unequal 
segments. Filmn. 4, in some species but 2, slendei', very 
short, incurved, within the tube of the corolla. A?ith. 
incumbent, each of 2 round lobes. Germ, superior, qua- 
drangular. Sti/le slender, the length of the tube. Stigma 
obtuse. Seeds 2 or 4, oblong, angular and roughish, en- 
closed in one thin, membranous, evanescent pellicle. 

Most of the species having 4 stamens, 2 long and 2 short, 
this genus is more commodiously placed here than in 
Diandria, where Linnaeus introduces it. The covering 
of the seeds is a real pellicle, not a pericarp, which is 
evinced by the whole structure of the genus, and its evi- 
dent affinity to the rest of the Didynamia Gi/mnospermia, 
not at all to the Afigiospermia. This pellicle is similar 
to that of Chenopodium, see vol. ii. 9 ; and Grammar 26. 

Herbaceous, rarely shrubby. Leaves either undivided, cut, 
or laciniated ; sometimes 3 in a whorl. Fl. spiked, nu- 
merous, small, blue or purplish. 

1. V. officinalis. Common Vervain. 

Stamens four. Spikes slender, panicled. Leaves deeply 
cut. Stem mostly solitary. 

V. officinalis. Linn. Sp. PI. 29. mild. v.]. 1 20. Fl. Br. 609. 
Engl. Bot.v.W.t. 767. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. 1. 41. fVoodv. suppl. 
t.2l8. Hook. Scot. 1 90. Dreves Bilderb. t. 45 . Fl. Dan. t.628. 
Hoffm. Germ. for 1 79 1 . 9. <. 2. Bull. Fr. <. 2 15. 

V. n. 219. Hall. Hist.v. 1.96. 

Verbena. Dorsten.Bot.292.f. Riv. Monop. Irr.t. 56. 

V. vulgaris. Rail Sijn. 236. 

V. communis. Ger. Em. 718./. 

V. mascula. Brunf. Herb.v. 1 . 1 19./. 

Verbenaca. Matth. Falgr. v. 2.399./. Corner. Epit. 797. f. 

By road sides, and in dry waste ground, or pastures, about vil- 
lages. 

Perennial. Juhj. 



72 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 

Root woody, somewhat creeping. Stem ascending, 1-^ foot high, 
leafy, roughish with minute prickles or bristles. Leaves also 
roughish, not downy ; variously jagged, or pinnatifid, tapering 
at the base into short hroad footstalks. Spikes several, opposite 
and terminal, stalked, slender, acute, much lengthened out after 
flowering, and all together composing a sort of panicle. Fl. 
small, blueish, inodorous. Seeds obtuse, dotted with minute hol- 
lows, their peZZic/e obliterated before they ripen. 

This herb has scarcely any aromatic or other sensible quality. The 
root, worn about the neck with a string, is an old superstitious 

• remedy, or charm, for the King's Evil. 

'287. MENTHA. Mint. 

Linn. Gen.29l. Juss.WS. FL Br. 609. Tourn.t.89. Lam.t.503. 

Cal. tubular, erect, with 5 nearly equal marginal teeth, per- 
manent. Cot: straight, funnel-shaped, a little longer 
than the calyx ; limb in 4 deep, slightly spreading, nearly 
equal segments, the upper one rather the broadest, with 
a slight notch. Filam. from the throat of the corolla, 
awl-shaped, straight, distant, longer or shorter than the 
limb ; 2 uppermost rather the longest. Aiith. of 2 round 
lobes. Germ, superior, 4-lobed. Style thread-shaped, 
erect, generally longer than the corolla. Stigma promi- 
nent, in 2 sharp, spreading, equal segments. Seeds 4, 
small, in the bottom of the calyx, rarely perfected. 

Roots perennial, creeping widely. Stems ascending, or erect, 
branched, leafy, acutely quadrangular. Leaves stalked, 
mostly ovate, serrated, undivided, without stipulas. FL 
numerous, light purple, in stalked, very dense, whorls, 
often crowded into leafless heads or spikes. All the herb- 
age is more or less hairy, but variable in that respect ; 
rarely woolly, or finely downy ; full of pellucid dots, 
lodging a copious essential oil, which is pungently aro- 
matic, cordial and stimulant. The species are extremely 
variable in general habit, and have long been the oppro- 
brium of British botanists, our country being peculiarly 
rich in Mints, as Dillenius long ago observed. Rail Syn. 
ed. 3. 235. The situation and direction of the hairs of 
the calyx were first pointed out, by the writer of the pre- 
sent Flora, after a careful investigation of every known 
species and variety, living or dried, as affording, in dif- 
ficult cases, the only certain specific distinctions ; and 
these prove invariable, though even the inflorescence is, in 
some species, inconstant. See Observations on the British 
Species of Mentha, Trails, of Linn. Soc.v .5. 171—217. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 73 

1. M. sylvestris. Horse Mint. 

Spikes shaggy, scarcely interrupted. Leaves acute, with 
deep-toothed serratures ; chiefly downy beneath. Brac- 
teas awl-shaped. Calyx all over hairy. 

M. sylvestris. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 5. 179. Fl. Br. 609. Engl. 
Bot.v.\0.t.&QQ. Hull\7\. Purt.v.3.5:i. 

a. Leaves lanceolate, acute. 

M. sylvestris. Linn. Sp. PI. 804. Willd. v. 3. 74. Huds. 250, a. 

Hull ed. 1. 125. Roth. Germ. v. 2. p. 2. 5. 
M. sylvestris, longiore folio. Bauh. Pin. 227. 
M. spicata ^, longifolia. Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1 . 576. 
M. n. 1. Linn. Hort. Cliff'. 306. Herb. Clif. 
M. longifolia. Huds. ed. 1.221 ; from the author. 
M. villosa prima. Sole Menth. 3. /. 1 . 
M. n. 227. Hall. Hist. v.\. 99. 
Menthastrum. Dod. Pempt. 96. f Ger. Em. 684./. 
M. spicatum, folio longiore candicante. Raii Syn. 234. Bauh 

Hist. V. 3. p. 2.221./. 

/3. Leaves ovate, acute. 
Mentha sylvestris. Fl. Dan. t. 484. 
M. villosa. Huds. 250 ? 
M. villosa secunda. Sole Menth. 5. t. 2. 

Menthastrurn. Riv. Monop. Irr.t.5l.f.l. Matth.Falgr. v.2.74.f. 
Camer.Epit.479.f. Fuchs. Hist. 292. f. 

y. Leaves shorter. Spikes more obtuse. 

Mentha candicans, foliis spicis et odore vulgari sativse similis. 
Doody in Raii Syn. ed. 2.341. In Bobart's herbarium at Oxford. 

S. Leaves elliptical, broad and obtuse. 

M. rotundifolia. Sole Menth. 9. t. 4. 

M. nemorosa. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 75. 

M. alopecuroides. Hulled. 1. 126. 

M. sylvestris, rotundiore folio. Bauh. Pin. 227. Seen by Haller, 

in Bauhin's herbarium. 
M. hortensis secunda. Fuchs. Hist. 289. f. 
M. altera. Dod. Pempt. 95. f. 
Menthastrum sylvestre, foliis latis. Besl. Hort. Eyst. eest. ord. 7 . 

t.3.f.2. 

In waste ground, especially in watery places. 

a and /3 are not uncommon, y was found plentifully in Kent, by 
Rand and Buddie. J is frequent in Norfolk. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Whole herb of a hoary or greyish green, clothed with fine soft 
downy hairs, and exhaling a strong peculiar scent. Stems erect, 
2 or 3 feet high, rather bluntly quadrangular, branched, leafy, 
their pubescence pointing downwards. Leaves nearly or quite 
sessile, from I J to 2 J inches long, spreading, strongly and sharply 



74 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 

serrated, acute, veiny, varying from an ovate-lanceolate to an 
ovate, or almost orbicular, figure ; their upper surface hoary j 
under shaggy veith dense, soft, white hairs. Spikes several, ter- 
minal, erect, generally acute, forming a sort of panicle, each 
composed of numerous, dense, crowded, bracteated whorls, of 
small, pale purple^ower*. Bracteas linear-lanceolate, spread- 
ing, the outer pair largest. Flower-stalks covered with short 
reflexed hairs ; calyx with erect ones. 
All the varieties, especially a and S, sometimes acquire a sweet, 
very agreeable, scent ; but I have not met with any such in 
British specimens. Haller's n. 228 is one of these fragrant va- 
rieties, various in the breadth of its leaves. It is M. gratissima 
of Wiggers, Roth, Hoffmann, and Willdenow. The comparative 
length of the stamens, by which Linnaeus and others have at- 
tempted to distinguish Menthce, is but an uncertain criterion. 
If the plant increases much by root, the starnens are shorter and 
less perfect, and the seeds do not ripen. 

2. M. rotundifolia. Round-leaved Mint. 

Spikes interrupted, somewhat hairy. Leaves elliptical, ob- 
tuse, wrinkled, sharply crenate ; shaggy beneath. Brac- 
teas lanceolate. 

M. rotundifolia. Linn. Sp. PL 805. Willd.v.3.77. Sm.Tr. of Linn. 

Soc. V. 5. 183. Fl. Br. 611 . Eiigl. Bot. v. 7. t. 446, Hull 171. 
M. crispa. Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1.576, 
M. svlvestris. Sole Menth. 7. t. 3. 
M, n. 226, Hall. Hist. v.\. 99. 
Menthastrura anglicum. Biv. Monop. Trr. t. 51. f. 2. 
M. folio rugosorotundiore, spontaneum,flore spicato, odoregravi. 

Raii Syn. 234. Herb. Buddie. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 219./. 
Sisymbrium hortense. Matth. Valgr.v. 1.440./. 

/3. M. niveum anglicum. Ger. Em. 684. f. Lob.Ic.blO.f. Dalech. 

Hist. 674./. 
M. spicatum, folio crispo rotundiore, colore partim albo, partim 

cinereo vel virente. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 219./, 
M. cinereum vel niveum anglicum^ variegatis foliis, Besl. Hort. 

Eyst. cest. ord. 7. t.3.f. 2, 

In wet places amongst rubbish, or about the borders of ditches, 
moats and ponds, but rare. 

By the river side at Lydbrook, near Ross, Herefordshire ; also at 
Falkburn Hall, Essex, Ray. Near Hally in Kent, Doody. On 
the edge of an old moat at Shingham, Norfolk. Rev. R, Forby. 
Near Chepstow, Monmouthshire, 

Perennial, August, September. 

Essentially different from every state of the preceding, with some 
of the round-leaved varieties of which it has often been con- 
founded. The colour of the whole herb is a grass green, though 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 75 

the under sides of the leaves are shaggy, not hoary ; the veins 
fringed with close hairs. The leaves moreover are universally 
wrinkled or blistered, sessile, always roundish-heart-shaped, 
or elliptical, from 1 to 2 inches long, with shallow, unequal 
notches or serratures. The whole inflorescence is smaller in 
proportion. Bracteas broader, and more ovate. Calyx hairy, 
much shorter and wider, almost bell-shaped. Statn. always long 
and prominent. The whole plant is viscid, and its peculiar 
acrid smell, which Haller thought highly grateful, can never fail 
to distinguish this species, after having been dried for 30 years, 
or more. 
/S is a garden variety, strikingly variegated with white, retaining 
its original scent. 

3. M. viridis. Spear Mint. 

Spikes interrupted. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, acute, naked. 

Bracteas bristle-shaped, somewhat hairy as well as the 

teeth of the calyx. Flower-stalks very smooth. 
M. viridis. Linn. Sp. PL 804. Willd.v. 3.76. Sm. Tr. of Linn. 

Soc. V. 5. 185. Fl. Br. 612. Engl. Bot. v. 34. t. 2424. Woodv. 

^ 170. Sole Menth. II. t. 5. HulllTl. 
M. spicata a, viridis. Linn. Sp. Pl.ed. 1. 576. 
M. n. 229. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 100. 
Mentha. Camer. Epit. 477- /• good. 
M. romana. Ger. Em. 680./. 
M. romana officinarum, sive prsestantior angustifolia. Lob, Ic. 

507./. Herb. Buddie. Moris, v. 3. 367. sect. II. t. 6./. 1, 
M. hortensis tertia. Fuchs. Hist. 290./. 

j3. M. angustifolia spicata. How Plnjt. 74. Raii Stjn. ed. 1. 79. 
M. angustifolia spicata glabra, folio rugosiore, odore graviore. 

Raii Syn. ed. 2.123- ed. 3. 233. Herb. Sherard. 
M, spicata nostras, cardiacae sativse forma et odore aemula, folio 

rugosiore. Pluk. Mant. 129. 
M. spicata, folio longiore acuto glabro nigriori. Bauh. Hist, v 2. 

p. 2. 220./. 
y. M. spicata angustifolia glabra, spica latiore. Dill, in Raii 

Syn. 233. Herb. Sherard, /rom Mr. Dale. 
M. sylvestris, longioribus, nigrioribus, et minus incanis foliis. 

Bauh. Pin. 227. Sherard. 
Menthastrum campense. Dalech. Hist. 673./. 
S. Mentha spicata glabra, latiore folio. Dill, in Raii Syn. 234, 

Herb. Sherard, /rom Mr. Dale. 

In marshy places. 

a. Near Exmouth, Devonshire, and on the banks of the Thames. 
Hudson. On a common between Glastonbury and Wells j in 
a meadow 4 miles from Bath ; and in various places by the side 
of the Avon, between Bath and Kelston. Sole. 



76 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 

^. By the river at Bocking, Essex. Dale. By the Medway near 
Maidstone, Kent. Plukenet. At Babergh near Norwich. Mr. 
Pitchford. Near Acle church, Norfolk, towards the south. Mr. 
D. Turner. 

y. In a meadow at Bocking, Essex. Dale, Dillenius. 

S. In a meadow by Marwood bridge, between Mersey island and 
Colchester. Dill. 

Perennial. August. 

Stems 2 or 3 feet high, erect, branched, acutely angular, smooth, 
often purplish. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, acute, serrated, 
smooth ; sometimes a little hairy beneath, especially in the 3 
latter varieties, in all which also they are shorter and broader, 
with a less agreeable scent, than in a, the true garden Spear 
Mint, or Mackarel Mint. Spikes par.icled, elongated, acute } 
almost all the whorls a little distant from each other, with narrow 
or bristle-shaped bracteas, which are seldom quite smooth even 
in a, and in the varieties are more or less hairy, as well as 
broader. Flower-stalks always, in every variety, perfectly 
smooth, round and polished. Cal. narrow-bell-shaped, fur- 
rowed, with 1 ribs, besprinkled, like the foliage, with resinous 
dots, and always quite smooth, except the teeth, which though 
generally smooth or naked in the primary variety, in all the 
others are variously hairy. The separate flower in Engl. Bat. 
t. 2424 shows this in the variety /3, to which also the leaf be- 
longs. Cor. light purple, smooth, generally longer than the 
stamens. Style prominent. The whole inflorescence, bracteas 
and calyx often acquire a dark purplish hue. 

The whole herb is gratefully aromatic, warm and pungent ; the 
flavour of the varieties less agreeable. The perfectly smooth and 
xisikeA flower-stalks, in all the varieties, are essentially charac- 
teristic of this species. 

I suspect M. crispa of Linnaeus, Ehrh. PI. Of. 206^ known in gar- 
dens only, may be a variety of M. viridis. 

4. M. piperita. Pepper Mint. 

Spikes blunt, interrupted below. Leaves stalked, somewhat 
ovate, smoothish. Calyx very smooth at the base. 

M, piperita. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Sac. v. 5. 189. Fl. Br. 613, 
a. Leaves ovate- lanceolate. Spikes elongated. 
M. piperita. Engl. Bot.v.lO. t.687. Huds.25]. With. 523, mr. 2. 
Woodv. t.\m. Hull 1 72. Pharmac. Land. Ehrh. PI. Off. 2] 6. 
M. piperita officinalis. Sole Menth. 15. t. 7. 
M. officinalis. Hull ed.\. 127. 

M. aquatica nigricans, fervido sapore. Herb. Buddie. 
Eales' Pepper Mint. Pet. H. Brit. t.Sl.f.lO. 
/3. Leaves ovate. Spikes shorter and blunter, almost capitate. 
M. piperita. Hull ed. 1.127. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 79. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 77 

M. piperita vulgaris. Sole Menth. 19. t. 8. 

M. spicis brevioribus et habitioribus, foliis Menthae fuscae, sapore 
fervido piperis. Rail Syn. ed. 2. 124. ed. 3. 234. 1. 10./. 2. 
. M. fervida nigricans, breviore folio et spica. Herb. Sherard. 

M. aquatica sive Sisymbrium. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 223. f. 

y. Leaves ovate, slightly heart-shaped. Spikes more acute. 

M. piperita sylvestris. Sole Menth. 53. t. 24. 

M. hircina. Hull ed. 1. 127. 

In watery places. 

a. In Hertfordshire, Dr. Eales ; Ray. In a swampy place on 
Lansdown, near Bath, called the wells ; also by the side of the 
Avon, in Newton mead. Mr. Sole. At Hauxton, Cambridge- 
shire. Rei\ R. Relhan. In a mountain rivulet in Bonsall dale, 
near Matlock bath, Derbyshire, 1790. 

(3. In Essex, Dale. By Wandsworth river. Herb. Sherard. About 
Bath, and between Wells and Glastonbury ; also in Chiltern 
bottom, Wilts. Mr. Sole. 

y. At Lyncomb Spa, and various other wet places about Bath. 
Mr. Sole. At the south-west corner of Saham meer, near Wat- 
ton, Norfolk. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Stems nearly erect, branched, roughish with recurved hairs, ^nd 
generally 2 or 3 feet, in y 4 feet, high. Leaves all stalked, 
dark green, ovate, acute, varying in breadth, sharply serrated ; 
smoothish above ; paler and more hairy beneath ; never downy 
nor shaggy like M. sylvestrif. Spikes bluntish ; interrupted and 
leafy in their lower part ; in /3 short, dense and obtuse, com- 
monly with one very distant whorl; in y acute, with 2 or more 
.such. Brncteas lanceolate, fringed. Flower-stalks either per- 
fectly smooth, or in their upper part only a little hairy. Cal. 
slender, furrowed, covered with pellucid dots, quite smooth in 
its lower half, but the dark-purple teeth, and in y the upper 
part of the tube, are more or less densely hairy. Cor. purplish. 
Statn. in all my specimens short ; style long. 

The warm camphor-like scent and flavour of this species, suc- 
ceeded by a coolness, are familiar to every body, and the essen- 
tial oil, or distilled water, of Pepper Mint enters into various 
cordial or medical preparations. The variety y is less agreeable 
than the others. England has always been known as the coun- 
try of the true M. piperita. What supplies its place in the north 
of Europe, is merely a variety of M. hirsuta having a similar 
odour; and this is named piperita in the Linnaean herbarium. 
Mr. Sole justly criticises the figure in Ray's Synopsis, as having 
the leaves of the true piperita with the iri/lorescence of hirsuta ; 
or rather perhaps of piperita (3. But he was not aware of all the 
figures of that 3d edition having been drawn and engraved by 
the hand of Dillenius, long after the time of Ray. The styles in 



78 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 

both figures of this t. 1 0, look like stamens, if they can be thought 
like any thing. Mr. Sole copies both Hudson's erroneous re- 
ferences to Petiver, without correction. 

6. M. citrata. Bergamot Mint. 

Spikes capitate, very blunt. Leaves stalked, heart-shaped, 
naked on both sides. Calyx and flower-stalks perfectly 
smooth. 

M. citrata, Ehrh. Beitr. v. 7. 150. TVilld. Sp. PL v. 3. 79. 

M. odorata. Sole Menth. 2\.t.9. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v.5.\ 92. 

FL Br. 615. Engl. Bot. v. 15. t. 1025, Hull 172. ed. 1, 127. 

Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2. v. 2. 388. 
M. rubra. Mill. Diet. ed. 8. n. 9 ; with a wrong description. 
M. rotundifolia rubra, aurantii odore. Moris, v. 3. 369. sect. 11. 

t. 6.f. 3, the smooth one. 

In watery places, rare. 

Very common by the sides of rivers and brooks in Cheshire ; espe- 

' cially about Aston-house ; Mrs. Walmsley ; also in a small 
brook or ditch near Capel-Carey, between Llanrost and Llan- 
berris. North Wales. Mr. Sole. Near Bedford. Rev. Dr. Abbot. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Whole herb smooth in every part, often red or purple, with a 
powerful, very fragrant scent, like the Bergamot Orange, or 
the herbage of Monarda didyma, on which account it is often 
preserved in gardens. The stems, about 2 feet high, are bushy, 
copiously branched, and spreading. Leaves broadly heart- 
shaped, an inch, or inch and half long, serrated, with many 
parallel transverse veins. Fl. in round, blunt, terminal heads, 
with a stalked axillary whorl or two, at some distance beneath. 
Bracteas bristle-shaped, always quite smooth, as well as the 
roundjlower-stalks. Cal. cylindrical, ribbed, covered with resi- 
nous dots, but always destitute of all hairiness. Cor. reddish 
purple. Stam. short, within the tube. 

The name of Ehrhart, which I had not observed when writing the 
Fl. Brit., has not only a prior claim to what I have there 
adopted, but is so much more appropriate, that I cannot but 
prefer it, in justice to its author. 

6. M. Mrsuta. Hairy Mint. 

Flowers capitate or whorled. Leaves stalked, ovate. Calyx 
clothed with erect hairs. Flower-stalks with recurved 
ones. 

M. hirsuta. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 5. 193. Fl. Br. 616. Hull 172. 
Relh.227. Hook. Scot. 180. Lond.t.l66. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 79 

M. sativa. Tr. of Linn. Soc. «. 5. 1 99. 

a. M. hirsuta. Linn. Mant. 8 J. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 78. Engl. 

Bot.v.7.t.447. With. 522. Huds.ed. 1.223. Hull ed.l. 127. 

Abbot 127. 
M. n. 4. Linn. Hort. Cliff. 306. 
M, aquatica. Huds. 252 a and ^. Hull ed. 1 . 127 . Sibth. 182. 

Abbot 127. 
M. aquatica major. Sole Menfh. 25.t.]\. 
M. aquatica minor. Sole Menth. 23. t. 10. 
M. n. 22.5, a. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 99. 
M. aquatica, sive Sisymbrium. How Phyt. 74. Merr. Pin. 76. 

Raii Syn. 233. Ger. Em. 684./. 
M. aquatica, sive Sisymbrium hirsutius. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 

224./. 
M. rotundifolia palustris. Moris, sect. 1 1. t.7./. 6. 
M. palustris spicata. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 49. 
Common Water Mint. Pet. H. Brit. t.Sl.f. 6. 
Sisymbrium hirsutum. Raii Syn. 233. 
S. hirsutum, folio angustiore et acutiore, minimi ramosum j D. 

Rand. Herb. Buddie. 
8. sylvestre. Matth.Valgr.v.l.44\.f. Camer. Epit. 263. f. Da- 
lech. Hist. 677. f. 
Origanum vulgare. Fl. Dan. t. 638 ! 

/3. Mentha Sisymbrium dicta hirsuta, glomerulis ac foliis minori- 

bus ac rotundioribus. Dill, in Raii Syn. 233. f. 10./. 1. 
M. n. 225, ^. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 99. 

y. M. piperita. Linn. Sp. PL 805. Herb. Linn. Berg. Mat. 

Med. 5 1 6. 
8. M. palustris. Sole Menth. 13. L 6, 
M. aquatica. Mill. Diet. ed. 8. n. 5. 
M. aquatica, folio oblongoviridiglabro, saporis fervidissimi. Herb. 

Buddie and Herb. Bobart. 
Menthastri aquatici genus hirsutum, spica latiore. Bauh. Hist. 

V. 3. p. 2. 222./. Raii Syn. 234. 
Menthastrura minus spicatum Lobelii. Dalech. Hist, 674. f. How 

Phyt 74. 
M. minus. Ger. Em. 685./. 
Calamintha tertia Dioscoridis, menthastrifolia aquatica hirsuta. 

Lob. Ic. 510./. DHL in Herb. Sherard. 
£. Mentha paludosa. Sole Menth. 49. t. 22. 
^. Flowers all whorled. 
M. sativa. Linn. Sp. PI. 805, excl. the synonyms, Huds. 253. 

EngLBoUv.7.t. 448. 
M. verticillata. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. v. 2. 1099, A. Herb. Linn. 

Huds. ed. 1 . 222. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 48./ 1 ; hairiness wanting. 
M. rivalis /3, y and S, not a. Sole Menth. 45. 
M. verticillatse varietas, hirsuti^ foliorum discrepans. Raii Syn. 

ed. 2. 124, wider n. 6. ed. 3. 232. Herb. Bobart. 



80 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 

M. crispa verticillata. Bauh. Pin. 227. 

M. sisymbvise facie etodore, hirsutaetverticillata; D. Rand. Herb. 

Buddie. 
M. altera. Carrier. Epit. 478./. 
Menta. Fuchs. Hist. 288./. 
Calamenthse aivensi verticillatae sitnilis, sed mult6 elatior. Herb. 

Buddie. 
Cross Whirl Mint. Pet. H. Brit. <. 31 ./. 8 ? 
Y/. Mentha aquatica verticillata glabra, rotundiore folio. Dill, in 

Herb. Sherard. 
^. M. verticillata minima, odore fragrantissimo. Herb. Buddie. 

Confounded under M. aquatica exigua, by Dill, in Raii Syn. 

232, n. 2, with w^rong synonyms. See Tr. of L. Soc. v. 5, y. 

In watery places every where. 

a. The most common of all our Mints. 

/3. In the parish of East Borne, Sussex, in the road to Pevensey, 
observed by Mr. Manningham. Dillenius. A common variety. 

y. A native of England, according to the Banksian herbarium. 

S. Near Bocking. Dale. In Somersetshire. Mr. Sole. On the 
south-west shore of Saham meer, Norfolk. 

£. In Holt fen, at Streatham near Ely ; also in a rivulet by the side 
of Audry causeway, near Haddenham, isle of Ely. Mr. Sole. 

^. About rivulets on the side of Shotover hill near Oxford ; Mr. 
Tilleman Bobart. Herb. Bobart. On the banks of the Lea, near 
Hackney. Mr. E. Forster. At Saham and Ashill, Norfolk ; also 
1 1 miles from Norwich, on the Hingham road, and in many other 
places. 

ij. In a ditch on the left hand of Chalk's green, going from Brain- 
tree to Leez-house. Dillen. Ms. 

^. Found by Mr. Buddie and Mr. F. Dale, sen. by the side of the 
New river, near the upper end of Stoke Newington. Herb. She- 
rard. On Skoulton Common, near Hingham, Norfolk, but with 
only the usual smell of this species. 

Perennial. August, September. 

The roots creep to a great extent. Herb very variable, more or less 
hairy ; very seldom almost smooth, except the Jlower-stalks and 
calyx ; but a smooth plant removed to a garden became as hairy 
as any of the varieties, in the following year. The scent also 
varies from a fetid, marshy, though pungently aromatic, odour, 
which is usual in the whole species, to the camphorated flavour 
of true Pepper Mint, n. 4, for which our variety y serves in the 
north of Europe. Some varieties acquire a sweet scent, like 

. Basil, but that is transient. I have specimens gathered in 1 743, 
which still retain the fine odour of Frankincense Thyme. Stems 
generally erect, and mostly branched, clothed with rather short 
hairs, curved downwards. Leaves stalked, ovate, serrated, 
hairy, from an inch to 1^ inch long, rarely more or less, except 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 81 

in variety S. They vary but little in shape ; but often acquire 
a dark purplish hue. Fl. of a light blueish purple, numerous 
and crowded ; in a^ /S and y capitate, with one or more pair of 
stalked axillary whorls below the head ; in S the head becomes a 
spike, with several whorls , more or less remote ; in s the whole 
spike is whorled, and somewhat leafy ; in the rest all the Jlowers 
are whorled and axillary. Bracteas lanceolate, hairy. Flower- 
stalks densely covered, for the most part, but especially at the 
summit, with recurved, sometimes close-pressed, white hairs. 
Cal. tubular, furrowed, mostly purplish, besprinkled with resi- 
nous dots, and clothed with hairs, various in length, all con- 
stantly curved in a contrary direction from those of the stalks. 
Cor. hairy externally. Stam. various in length. The lower 
whorls are usually stalked. 
Botanists have been very unwilling to believe the curious change 
of a capitate Mint to a whorled one ; but this alteration may 
often be traced in the same ditch. Some copy me for this fact, 
without adverting to its author or seeming conscious of its hav- 
ing ever been disputed. I have received dried as well as living 
specimens, from the late Mr. Sole, of all his varieties, of this 
and other species, and have cultivated them in a dry garden, as 
well as in a very wet one. I have observed all the difficult 
ones, year after year, in their wild situations, and have no doubt 
that all these varieties of M. hirsuta especially, constitute but 
one species. Occasional examinations, during the course of 25 
years, have not only confirmed this opinion, but have also ascer- 
tained the truth of the essential characters derived from the pu- 
bescence of the calyx and Jlower-stalks, as being decisive with- 
out any exception. I regret that my friend Mr. Sole took great 
offence at my not following all his names and errors ; but I 
hope I have never corrected them unhandsomely, nor do I mean 
to undervalue his book, which is a valuable record of the several 
varieties of this difficult genus, though no guide at all as to the 
limits or names of the species. Professor Hooker, in the most 
flattering terms, confirms my account of this Mint ; but the 
hairs on the flower-stalks, in his otherwise excellent plate, are 
not enough deflexed. 

7. M. acutifolia. Fragrant Sharp-leaved Mint. 

Flowers whorled. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, tapering at 
each end. Calyx hairy all over. Hairs of the flower- 
stalks spreading. 

M. acutifolia. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 5. 203. Fl. Br. 619. Engl. 

Bot. V. 34. t. 24]^. Hull 173. 
M. verticillata. Mill. Diet. ed. 8. n. 17. From his own herbarium. 
M . verticillata aromatica, folio longiore et acutiore. Rand Ms. 
M. aquatica verticillata, odoris grati. Herb. Buddie. 
About the banks of rivers, rare. 

VOL. III. G • 



82 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 

On the banks of the Medway, Kent. Rand. Between Rochester 
and Chatham. Miller. 

Perennial. September? 

Herb hairy all over, exhaling, when rubbed, the sweet scent of 
Frankincense Thyme. Stem erect, 2 feet high, apparently un- 
branched, leafy, all its hairs closely reflexed, various in length. 
Leaves on rather short stalks, spreading, 1 to 2 inches long, 
ovate-lanceolate, narrower than in the foregoing, sharply and 
unequally serrated, acute, as well as entire, at each end. Whorls 
dense, sessile, many-flowered, axillary, accompanying every 
pair of leaves, and concealing the footstalks. Bracteas linear- 
lanceolate, or awl-shaped. Flower-stalks thickly covered with 
hairs of various lengths, spreading horizontally, or now and then 
slightly recurved. Cal. tubular, clothed in every part, but most 
densely at the base, with ascending hairs. Cor. hairy at the 
outside, as well as in the throat ; its colour, according to Buddie, 
nearly red. Stam. shorter than the corolla. Stijle much longer. 

Very closely related to the last species. How far it is distinct can 
be determined by the discovery, and sufficient examination, of 
fresh specimens only. 

8. M. rubra. Tall Red Mint. 

Flowers whorled. Leaves ovate. Stem upright, zigzag. 
Flower-stalks, and lower part of the calyx, very smooth ; 
teeth hairy. 

M. rubra. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. a. 205. Fl. Br. 620. Engl. Bot. 

V. 20. t. 1413. Hull 173. , Hook. Scot. ISO ? 
M. sativa. Sole Menth. 47- t. 21; calyx very erroneous. 
M. verticillata. Rail Stjn. 232 ; but not of Rivinus. 
M. crispa. Besl. Hort. Eyst. cest. ord. 7 . t. b.f. 1. 
M. rotundiore folio glabro, pulegii flore. Moris, v. 3. 369. sec<. 1 1 . 

t.7.f.2. Herb.Bobart. 
M. crispa verticillata, folio rotundiore. Rad Syn. ed. 2. 1 24. Herb. 

Buddie, and Herb. Sherard. Bauh, Hist. v. 3, p. 2. 215. f. 
M. prima. Dod.Pempt. 95. f. 
M. sativa rubra. Ger. Em. 6S0.f. 
M. cruciata. Lob. Ic. 507. f. 
Menta. Brimf. Herb. v. 2. 76. f. 

About wet hedges and thickets, and the reedy banks of rivers or 
ditches. 

By the river Lea near the ferry house. Herb. Sherard. Peckham 
fields. Dillenius. In North Wales, and Shropshire. Mr. Sole, 
By the road side between Edmonton and Enfield ; also near 
Walthamstow. Mr. E. Forster. Under a wet hedge in the road 
from Watton to Saham church, Norfolk. 

Perennial. September. 

The whole herb is usually almost smooth, though in dry situations 
liable to become minutely hairy, when the hairs on the stem are 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 83 

recurved. Its scent is that of most of this genus, especially M. 
viridis; but I have a Shropshire specimen from the Rev. E. 
Williams, smelling like M. arvensis hereafter described. The 
stem is from 4 to 6 feet high^ erect, though more or less wavy, 
supporting itself on bushes, and never quite straight; with few 
and short branches ; leafy, variously tinged with deep red, mostly 
smooth and shining. Leaves stalked, broadly ovate, strongly 
serrated, of a deep shining green ; paler beneath, copiously be- 
sprinkled with resinous dots ; the upper ones small and short, 
occasionally crisped ; all either quite smooth, or bearing a few 
minute hairs on the ribs and veins, some such being scattered 
over the upper surface. Whorls numerous, stalked, of many 
large reddish^^owers. Bracteas linear, fringed, at least towards 
the point; innermost bristle-sliaped. Flower-stalks round, of a 
shining red or purple, invariably smooth, as is also the lower 
part of the tubular calyx, though its teeth are always hairy, or 
fringed, and the upper part of the tube is occasionally hairy, its 
whole surface bearing resinous dots. Cor. large, quiie smooth, 
partly in like manner dotted. Stayn. various in length on the 
same specimen. 
Our earlier British botanists confounded this with the Linnaean M. 
sativa, or verticillata, see M. hirsuta g", p. 79, under the appel- 
lation of C. Bauhin's M. crispa verticillata,hut on attentive con- 
sideration of his synonyms, I think the latter writer had not our 
rubra in contemplation. This is however the plant of Ray, and 
probably of J. Bauhin. It is by far the tallest and handsomest of 
our Mints, and cannot be confounded with any other. 

9. M. gentilis. Bushy Red Mint. 

Flowers whorled. Leaves ovate. Stem much branched, 
.spreading. Flower-stalks, and base of the bell-shaped 
calyx, nearly smooth. 

M. gentilis. Linn. Sp. PI. 805. Willd. Sp. PL ?i. 3. 80 ? Sm. Tr. 

of Linn. Soc.v. 5. 208. Fl. Br. 621. Engl. Bot. v. 30. ^ 21 18. 

Hull] 73. Hook. Scot. 18\ } 
M. rubra. Sole Menth. 41 . M8. 
M. n.224. Hall. Hist. v.l.^S. 
/3. IM. rivalis a. Sole Menth. 45. t. 20. 
y. M. variegata. Sole Menth. 43. ^ 19. 
M. arvensis verticillata versicolor. Moris, sect. W.t. 7.f. 5. Herb. 

Buddie. 
M. crispa verticillata. Herb. Cliffort. 

In watery waste places, rare. " , 

a. In pools and brooks between Mole and Llanroost, North Wales. 

Mr. Sole. Shropshire. Rev. E. Williams. Near Holt, Norfolk. 

Prof. Hooker and Mr. Borrer. 

g2 



84 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 

/3. In Lock's brook, between Weston and Twiverton, Somerset- 
shire. Mr. Sole. 

y. About towns, but scarcely to be found truly wild. 

Perennial. August. 

The whole herb is of a lighter green than the last, all over more or 
less minutely hairy, and, when planted in a dry situation, 
pleasantly scented ; in wet ground it has the ordinary smell of 
Mint. Stem erect, bushy, with numerous spreading branches, 
leafy, 12 or 18 inches, in /3 near 3 feet, high; when not quite 
smooth, the hairs are recurved, as usual. Leaves stalked, uni- 
formly ovate, not much pointed, serrated, dotted, scarcely paler 
beneath ; the upper surface besprinkled with fine small hairs ; 
rib and veins of the under side beset with rather stronger ones ; 
in /3 the leaves are longer and more elliptical ; in y prettily va- 
riegated with yellow, and more fragrant. Whorls nearly sessile, 
except occasionally from cultivation in y. Bfacteas lanceolate, 
hairy, varying in size. Flower-stalks round, purplish, for the 
most part very smooth ; but in y, especially when cultivated in 
veiy dry ground, they sometimes bear a few deflexed hairs. Cat. 
shorter, and more spreading or bell-shaped, than in M. rubra, 
rough with ascending hairs about the teeth, and more or less of 
the tube, the base of which is naked and smooth. Cor. pale pur- 
ple. Stam. seldom so long as the limb. 

The figures of this species and of M. rubra in Engl. Bot. both very 
characteristic, sufficiently show how distinct they are; and if the 
calyx be attended to, nobody can confound them. I therefore 
quote Fl. Scotica with doubt, the worthy author appearing un- 
acquainted with my plants. 

10. M.. gracilis. Narrow-leaved Mint. 

Flowers whorled. Leaves lanceolate, nearly sessile. Stem 
upright, much branched. Flower-stalks, and base of the 
calyx, quite smooth. 

M. gracilis. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc.v. 5. 210. Fl. Br. 622. Hull 1 73. 

Sole Menth. 37. t.\6. 
M. gentilis. Engl. Bot. v. 7. t. 449. With. 524. 
M. rubra. Huds. 252. 
M fusca, sive vulgaris. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 123. ed.3. 232. Herb. 

Buddie. 
M. verticillata glabra, odore Menthae sativae, (that is viridis) . Herb. 

Sherard. 
M. verticillata, folio angustiore. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 48. f. 2. 
Balsamita officinarum. Besl. Hort. Eyst. cest. ord. 7 , t. 3./. 3. 

j3. M. pratensis. Sole Menth. 39. t. 17. Hull ed. 1 , 129. 

* y. M. gentilis. Sole Menth. 35. 1. 15. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 85 

M. hortensis verticillata, Ocymi odore, Moris, v. 3. 369. sect. 11. 

t.y.f.l. Herb. Buddie. 
M. verticillata minor, acuta, non crispa, odore Ocymi. Bauh. Hist. 

U.S./). 2.216./. 217. 
M. cardiaca. Ger. Em. 680./. 
Red Mint. Fet. H. Brit. t.3l.f.7. 

In watery places, or moist meadows. 

At Bocking and Stoke Newington. Sherard's herbarium. Near 
VValthamstow. Mr. B. M. Forster. Near Bradford, Wilts. Mr. 
Sole. At Saham and Oxborough, Norfolk. 

/3. In the New Forest, Hants. Mr. Sole. 

y. Frequent in ditches and waste places, near towns and villages, 
but scarcely wild. Mr. Sole. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Herbage of a grass green, clothed more or less with short scattered 
hairs. Stems erect, tufted, leafy, reddish, about 18 inches high, 
roiighish here and there, with minute, recurved, rigid hairs ; 
most branched about midway from the ground. Leaves nearly 
sessile, uniform, lanceolate, acute, serrated ; contracted at the 
base, full of small pellucid dots, slightly hairy, and nearly of the 
same hue, on both sides ; in /3 they are directed downwards. 
Whorls many-flowered, sessile, rarely stalked. Bracteas lanceo- 
late, hairy, or fringed. Flower-stalks all perfectly and inva- 
riably smooth, round, commonly purple. Cal. tubular, but 
short, and rather bell-shaped, covered with prominent resinous 
dots, purplish ; the base and lower half quite smooth ; teeth and 
upper part clothed with upright white hairs, various in quantity 
and length. Cor. light purple, bearded at the tip. Stam. short. 

This species, in its ordinary state, smells like M. viridis, n. 3 ; |S 
like M. piperita, but not so pungently or agreeably ; while y 
has the delightful fragrance of Ocymum, Sweet Basil. The 
leaves accompanying the whorls, in this last variety, are very 
much smaller than the rest. 

11. M. arvensis. Corn Mint. 

Flowers whorled. Leaves ovate. Stem much branched, dif- 
fuse. Calyx bell-shaped, covered all over with horizontal 
hairs. 

M. arvensis. Linn. Sp. PI. 806. Willd. v. 3. 80. Sm. Tr. of Linn. 

Soc.v.5.2]3. Fl. Br. 623. Engl. Bot. v. 30. t.2\\9. Hull 173. 

Sole Menth. 29. t. 12. Hook. Scot. 181 . Fl. Dan. i, 512. Ehrh. 

PI. Off. 4\ 6. 
M. n. 5. Linn. Hort. Cliff. 307. Herb. Cliff. 
M. verticillata hortensis, odore Ocymi ; C. B. Pin. Herb. Cliff, but 

not of Bauhin. 
M. n. 223. Hall. Hist. u. 1 . 98 } excluding the reference to Rivi- 

nus. 



86 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 

M. aquatica. Rail Syn. ed. 1. 78. 

M. seu Calamintha aquatica. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 123. ed. 3.232. 

M. arvensis humilior verticillata hirsuta. Moris, v. 3. 369. sect. 1 1. 
t.7.f.5. 

Calamintha aquatica. How Phyt. 18. Merr. Pin.]8. Ger. Em. 
684. /. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 78./. Camer. Epit. 483. /. 

Water Whirl Mint. Pet. H. Brit. t. 3 1 ./. 5. 

/3. Mentha arvensis major, verticillis et floribus amplis, foliis latio- 
ribus, staminibus corolla longioribus, odore grato. Sole Menth. 
29, y. 

y. M. prcecox. Sole Menth. 3\.t. 13. Hull ed. 1 . 128. 

^. M. gentilis. Mill, Diet. ed. 8. n. 15. From the author's herb. 
■ M. verticillata, rotundiore folio, odore Ocymi. S. Dale Ms. 

M. verticillata glabra, foliis ex rotunditate acuminatis ; Buddie. 
In his own, as well as Bobart's, herbarium. 

M. arvensis verticillata, folio rotundiore, odore aromatico; Vernon. 
Raii Syn. ed. 2. 1 23. ed. 3. 232. 

In sandy corn-fields frequent, especially where water has stagnated. 

/3. In moist meadows. Mr. Sole. 

y. On the banks of rivers. Mr. Sole. 

S. On the right hand of the road from Bocking to Gossfield, Essex. 
Dale. Found by Mr. Wigmores at Shelford, Cambridgeshire. 
Ray. In Prestwick Car, Northumberland. Mr. Winch. 

Perennial. June — September. 

Root creeping extensively. Herb of a pale hoary green, m.ore or 
less hairy, with a strong unpleasant odour, like cheese covered 
with blue mould. Haller calls it detestable. Stem generally 
weighed down with its numerous branches j in y more upright. 
Leaves stalked, ovate, or somewhat elliptical, bluntish, variously 
serrated, tolerably even, not wrinkled or rugged. Whorls of 
numerous, nearly sessile flowers. Flower-stalks simple, round, 
purplish at the upper part, often quite smooth, sometimes va- 
riously hairy, the hairs scattered, slightly reflexed, always most 
abundant near the top, or crowded under the calyx, as is 
common in this genus. Bracteas lanceolate, small ; hairy be- 
neath. Calyx short, bell-shaped, slightly furrowed, covered with 
resinous dots, and with longish, horizontally spreading, hairs. 
Cor. pale blueish purple, externally hairy. Stam. prominent in 
general, but not invariably; in y and 5 short. 

The peculiarly short bell-shaped calyx, with its horizontal hairs, 
clearly distinguish this species from all the foregoing. 

/3 is a larger more upright variety, with a sweetish smell, y, the 
prcEcox of Sole, is also erect, with elliptical Zeare5,'more shining 
and less evidently hairy ; ^ has the odour of Sweet Basil, which 
Mr. S. Dale's old original specimens still retain. In shape and 
characters it nearly agrees with the common kind. Jacquin's 
M. austriaca, Fl. Austr. t. 430, looks like a starved plant of Mr. 
Sole's prcecox, my y, but nothing certain can be made out from 



DIDYNAMIA-GYMNOSPERMIA. Mentha. 87 

the figure. M. lapponica, Wahlenb. Lapp. 161. /. 10, comes 
very near to prcecox. 

12. M. agt^estis. Rugged Field Mint. 

Flowers whorled. Leaves somewhat heart-shaped, strongly 
serrated, rugose. Stem erect. Calyx bell-shaped, covered 
all over with horizontal hairs. 

M. agrestis. Sole Menth. 33. t. 14. Comp. ed. 4. 101 . Engl But 

- r. 30. ^.2120. 

M. arvensis g. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 5. 213, 216. Fl. Br. 624. 

In corn-fields and neglected gardens. 

About the Mendip hills, Shepton-Mallet, and Frome, Somersetshire, 
abundantly. Mr. Sole. Very common in Sussex. Mr. Borrer. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Whether this be a distinct species or not, I will not dare to assert, 
nor do I know any person competent to decide the question. It 
has remained unchanged in my garden for 25 years, though 
almost naturalized, and frequently removed. It is a larger more 
hairy plant than M. arvensis, of a darker green, witli an upright 
copiously branched stem, whose hairs are deflexed. Leaves 
ovate-heart-shaped, rugged, or somewhat plaited, coarsely ser- 
rated. Iriflorescence,Jlower-stalks and calyx, as well as corolla, 
not materially different from the last, of which, if I were guided 
solely by my own principles, founded on the calyx and^ower- 
stalks, I should make it a variety. 

13. M. Pulegmm. Penny-royal. 

Flowers whor-led. Leaves ovate. Stem prostrate. Flower- 
stalks and calyx all over downy; teeth fringed. 

M. Pulegium. Linn. Sp. PI. 807. Willd. v. 3. 82. Svi. Tr. of Linn. 

Soc.v. 5.216. Fl. Br. 624. Engl. Bot. v. 15. t. 1026. Hook. 

Scot. 181. Woodv. t.\7\. Sole Menth. 5 1 . ^. 23 . 
M. n. 221. Hall. Hist. v.\. 97. 
Pulegium. Rail Syn. 235. How Phyt. 99. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 

236./. Fuchs. Hist. 198. f. Brunf. Herb . v . \ . 227 . f. Matth. 

Valgr. V. 2. 65./. Camer. Epit. 471./. Riv.Monop. Irr. t. 23, 

P. regium. Ger. £»n. 671./ Merr. Pin. 99. 

On wet commons, and about the margins of small brooks. 

Perennial. September. 

Much smaller than any of the foregoing species, with a strong, 
acrid, very peculiar smell, resembling Thymus Nepeta. The 
stems are somewhat procumbent, or quite prostrate, downy, 
bluntly quadrangular, throwing out radicles here and there. 
Leaves scarcely half an inch long, often much less, stalked, de- 
fle.xed, ovate, obtuse, with a few shallow unequal serratures. 



88 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Glechoma. 

full of pellucid dots, and a little hairy chiefly beneath. Whorls 
sessile, numerous, many-flowered, large in proportion to the 
foliage. Bracteas none. Flower-stalks purplish, clothed entirely 
with very short, dense, hoary pubescence. Cal. tubular, slender, 
nearly cylindrical, besprinkled with resinous dots, strongly rib- 
bed and furrowed, covered with very short, dense, prominent 
hairs ; the teeth unequal, sharp-pointed, fringed ; mouth closed 
with converging white hairs, as in Thymus. Cor. exernally hairy, 
light purple, occasionally white, exactly answering to the cha- 
racter of Mentha, as well as the stamens. 
Penny-royal is a popular remedy for many obstructions, as well as 
for debility of the internal organs, being powerfully stimulant 
and tonic, but less grateful than Pepper Mint. 

288. GLECHOMA. Ground-ivy. 

Linn. Gen. 291. Juss.WS. FLBr. 625. Lam.t. 505. 

Cal. tubular, cylindrical, striated, permanent, with 5 point- 
ed, unequal, marginal teeth. Cor. ringent ; tube slender, 
compressed ; upper lip erect, obtuse, cloven half way 
down ; lower larger, in 3 spreading obtuse segments, the 
middle one broadest, cloven. Filam. under the upper 
lip. Anth. of each pair converging in the form of a cross. 
Germ, superior, small, four-cleft. Style thread-shaped, 
curved under the upper lip. Stigma in 2 acute divisions. 
Seeds 4, ovate, in the bottom of the permanent calyx. 

A small genus, of perennial, downy, somewhat aromatic, 
herbs; with heart-shaped, crenate, or serrated, leaves, and 
a:idl\ary Jlowcrs. 

1. G. hederacea. Common Ground-ivy, Gill, or Ale- 
hoof. 

Leaves kidney-heart-shaped, crenate. 

G. hederacea. Linn.Sp. Pl.807. Willd. v. 3. 85. Fl. Br. 625. 

Engl. Bot. V. 12. t. 853. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 44. Mart. Rust. 

t.6l. Woodv.t.28. Hook. Scot. \ 81. Fl. Dan. t.789. Bull. Fr. 

t.24l. 
Chamaeclema n. 245. Hall. Hist, v.].] 07. 
Ch. vulgare. Faill. Par. 33.t.6.f. 4, 5, 6. 
Calamintha humilior, folio rotundiore. Rail Syn. 243. 
Hederaterrestris. BruK/.iferfe.u. 1.167./. Ger.Em.856.f. Matth. 

Valgr. V. 1 . 574./. Camer. Epit. 400, 401 ./ /. Riv. Monop. 

Irr.t.67.f.\,2. 
Chamsecissos. Trag.Hist.799.f. Fuchs.Hist.876.f. 

In dry shady places, by road sides and about hedge banks^ com- 
mon. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Lamium. 89 

Perennial. April, May. 

Herb downy, with an agreeable fragrance. Roots creeping, with 
long leafy runners. Stems leafy, more or less ascending, un- 
branched, their hairs bent downwards. Leaves stalked, about 
an inch wide, bluntly crenate, veiny ; paler beneath, with abun- 
dance of small resinous dots, yielding an aromatic oil. Fl. blue, 
with a white palate, about 6 in each whorl. 

Few perennial herbs vary so much in size ; and hence authors 
have formerly made several species. The extremes may be seen 
in the plates of Rivinus and Vaillant. 

289. LAMIUM. Dead-nettle. 

Linn. Gen. 292. Juss. 113. FL Br. 626. Sm. in Rees's Cycl.v. 20. 
Tourn.t. 85. Lam. t. 506. 

Cal. tubular, dilated upwards, with 5 nearly equal, awned 
teeth, permanent. Cor. ringent; tube cylindrical, short ; 
limb gaping ; throat inflated, compressed, gibbous, bor- 
dered at each side with one or more little reflexed teeth ; 
upper lip vaulted, roundish, obtuse, undivided or cloven ; 
lower shorter, inversely heart-shaped, notched, more or 
less reflexed. Filam. awl-shaped, covered by the upper 
lip. Anth. incumbent, oblong, bivalve, hairy. Gervi. 
superior, four-cleft. Style thread-shaped, of the length 
and situation of the stamens. Stigma in 2 acute spread- 
ing segments. Seeds 4, level-topped, short, triangular, 
convex at one side, abrupt at each end, in the bottom of 
the open-mouthed calyx. 

Perennial, or annual, European herbs, of which 20 species 
are described in the Cijclopcedia. Leaves heart-shaped, 
mostly serrated and downy. Fl. scentless, numerous, 
large, whorled, red, purplish, or white ; never yellow. 

1. L. album. White Dead-nettle, or Archangel. 

Leaves heart-shaped, pointed, strongly serrated, hairy. 
Flowers about twenty in a whorl. Tube of the calyx 
shorter than its teeth. Upper lip of the corolla notched; 
lateral teeth solitary, lanceolate. 

L. album. Linn. Sp. PL 809. Willd. v. 3. 88. FLBr.626. Engl 
Bot. V. II. t. 768. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 4.5. Mart. Rust. t. 26. 
Hook. Scot. 181 . Ehrh. PL Off. 1 95. FL Dan. t. 594. BulL Fr. 
«.213. RaiiSyn.240. Ger.Em.702.f. 

L. n. 271. HaU.Hist.v.\.\\8. 

L. Plinii. Matth. Falgr. v. 2. 473./ 

L. sive Archangelica, flore albo. Loh. Ic.520.f. 



90 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Lamium. 

Galeopsis. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 62. f. 1. 

In waste gronndj the borders of fields, and by road sides, common. 

Perennial. May, June ; also September. 

Root creeping. Stems erect, 12 or 18 inches high, roughish with 
short deflexed hairs. Leaves deep green, unspotted, strongly 
serrated, stalked, veiny, hairy. Fl. large, white, rarely tinged 
with a blush-colour, hairy J lip cream-coloured. Jnth. h\ac\i. 
The herbage is scarcely eaten by cattle, and has a slightly fetid 
scent. The flowers abound with honey. 

2. L. maculatum. Spotted Dead-nettle. 

Leaves heart-shaped, pointed, strongly serrated, hairy. 
Flowers about ten in a whorl. Tube of the calyx curved, 
as long as its teeth. Upper lip of the corolla notched; 
lateral teeth solitary, bristle-shaped. 

L. maculatum. Linn. Sp. PI. 809. mild. v.3. 87. Coinp. ed. 4. 

102. Engl. Bot.v.36.t. 2550. Cyclop.n.5. Hook. Scot.\Q\. Ait. 

Hart. Kew. ed. 2. v. 3.393. Ehrh. PL Off. 426. Bauh. Pin. 231. 
L. n. 270. Hall. Hist. V. 1.118. 
L. purpureum foetidum, folio.parvo, acuminate, flore majore. Pluh. 

Almag. 204. Pfujt. t. \9S.f. ]. 
Urtica mortua alia divaricata, et guttatim dispersa. Column. 

EcpLr. 191. 

On banks in warm situations, rare ; perhaps a naturalized plant. 

In a lane nearRedland Court, not far from Bristol. Mrs. Vaughan. 
Once found at Bayswater, near London. In woods in Scot- 
land, but rare. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. April. 

Habit like the preceding, from which however this species is truly 
distinct. The leaves are marked, either with a white central 
line, or with scattered white spots. Fl. crimson ; the lip beau- 
tifully speckled ; their lateral teeth slender. Cal. very unlike 
that of L. album ; the tube more slender and curved, as long as 
the teeth, which are also recurved and narrow, mostly purplish. 
Authors have greatly confounded the synonyms of this Lamium. 
Haller took it for the Icevigatum, and Pallas, more iinaccount- 
ably, for the purpureum, of Linnaeus. Rivinus did not distin- 
guish it, as a species, from album. At^ to blunders in compiling, 
quoting and copying, they are peculiarly numerous throughout 
its whole history. The editor of J. Bauhin's Hist., v. 3. 322, has 
actually given for this plant an old figure of the Almond, from 
Dorstenius, p. 24. Ours is the plant of Haller and Rivinus, the 
leaves being only slightly dotted. It scarcely seems specifically 
distinct from that with a white line. 



DIDYNAMIA-GYMNOSPERMIA. Lamium. 91 

3. L. purpureum. Red Dead-nettle, or Archangel. 

Leaves heart-shaped, bluntish, unequally crenate, stalked; 
the upper ones crowded. Stem leafless in the middle. 
Calyx-teeth lanceolate. Tube of the corolla closed, near 
the bottom, with hairs. 

L. purpureum. Linn. Sp. PL 809. Willd. v. 3. 88. Fl. Br. 627. 

Engl. Bot. v.W.t. 769. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1 . t.42. Mart. Rust. 

t.25. Hook. Scot. IS2. FLDan.t.523. Ehrh. PI. Off. 436. 
L.n.272. Hall. Hist. V. 1.118. 
L. rubrum. RaiiSyn. 240. Ger.Em.703.f. 
Urtica non mordax, vulgaris foetens purpurea. Lob. Ic. 520.y. 
Galeopsis purpurea. Dalech. Hist. 1 248./. 
G. minor. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 62. f. 2. 

/3. Lamium rubrum, foliis per ambitum nee serratis nee crenatis. 
Prof. Martyn Ms. 

In waste as well as cultivated ground every where. 

/3. Near Sudbury. Mr. Joseph Andrews. 

Annual. May. 

Root fibrous, slender, very tough. Whole plant but half the size 
of the first species. Stems weak, curved and reclining at the 
bottom, with a few short leafy branches ; then erect, rough- 
edged ; naked in the middle ; densely leafy at the top. Leaves 
stalked, deflexed, broadly heart-shaped, not pointed, unequally 
crenate, hairy, veiny, unpleasantly scented. Fl. many in each 
whorl, purplish-red, with 2 short teeth at each side, and a 
deeper-coloured spotted lip j the tube lined, just above its base, 
with a dense circle of hairs, first noticed by Mr. J. D. Sowerby, 
and delineated in Engl. Bot. t. 1933, at the bottom. Pollen the 
colour of red lead. 

|3 has the margins of the leaves quite entire ; but it seems a mere 
variety, and is certainly distinct from my L. ocymifolium, R. Cy- 
clop, n. 14, an American species, naturalized in Chelsea garden. 

4. L. incisum. Cut-leaved Dead-nettle, or Archangel. 

Leaves heart-shaped, dilated, stalked, irregularly cut; the 
upper ones crowded. Stem leafless in the middle. Tube 
of the corolla internally naked ; marginal teeth dilated, 
combined. 

L. incisum. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3 89. Engl. Bot. v. 27. t. 1933. 

Comp. ed. 4. 1 02. Hook. Scot. 182. 
L. dissectum. Wilh.527. Hull\32. 'Sym.\3t^. 
L. purpureum /3. Fl.Br.627. Huds. 255. Relh.23]. 
L. rubrum minus, foliis profundi incisis. Raii Syn. 240. Pluk. 

Jlmag.204. Phyt. t.4\.f.3. 
Ballote crispa major. Dalech, Hist. 1253. f. 



92 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Galeopsis. 

Red Cut-leaved Archangel, Pet. H. Brit. t. 33. /. 3. 

In cultivated or waste ground, with the preceding, but far less 
common. 

Frequent about Saxmundham, Suffolk. 

Annual. May. 

Like the last in habit, but rather smaller ; the leaves deeply and 
irregularly cut. Corolla of a brighter red ; the bottom of the 
tube pervious and naked ; the marginal teeth broad, prominent 
and confluent. I conceive it to be, by these characters, which 
I have often verified, a truly distinct species, related to the fore- 
going, as well as to the following, but not a mule variety, as it 
ripens plenty of seeds. 

5. L. amplex'icaule. Great Henbit. Henbit Dead- 
nettle. 

Floral leaves sessile, kidney-shaped, obtuse, deeply crenate, 
partly lobed, clasping the stem. Teeth of the calyx li- 
near-awl-shaped, as long as its tube. 

L. amplexicaule. Linn. Sp. PI. S09. Willd. v. 3. 90. Fl.Br.627. 

Engl Bot.v. 11. t.770. Curt. Land. fasc.2. t. 46. Hook. Scot.\82. 

Fl. Dan. t. 752. 
L. n 273. Hall. Hist. v.\.l\9. 

L. folio caulem ambiente, majus et minus. Rail Syn. 240. 
Galeopsis folio caulem ambiente, major et minor. Riv, Monop. 

Irr. t. 63. 
Alsine Hederula altera. Ger. Em. 616./. 
Morsus Gallinse, folio hederulse, alter. Lob. Ic. 463./. 
Ballote crlspa. Dalech. Hist. 1253./. 

In sandy fields. 

Annual. February — June. 

Habit similar to the two last. Stems reclining, nearly smooth. 
Lower leaves stalked, heart-shaped, strongly crenate ; upper 
sessile, surrounding the stem, broadly and deeply crenate, or 
lobed ; all somewhat hairy, Fl. numerous^, in sessile a.\illary 
whorls. Cal. very hairy, with long taper teeth. Cor. with a 
long slender tube ; upper lip downy, of a beautiful crimson ; 
lower paler, spotted ; lateral teeth simple and broad. Seeds 
dotted with white. The early ^oM^ers have an abortive corolla, 
which never expands j but their seeds are fertile, 

290. GALEOPSIS. Hemp-nettle. 

Linn. Gen. 292. Juss. 1 14. Fl. Br. 628, Lam. t. 506. 
Tetrahit. Dill. Gen. 103. t.3, 4 E. 

Cal. tubular, with 5 spreading, spinous-tipped teeth, as 
long as the tube, permanent. Co?: ringent ; tube slender 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Galeopsis. 93 

at the base, dilated upwards into a wide throat, longer 
than the calyx, marked in front, at the base of the lower 
lip, with 2 prominences, hollow underneath ; upper lip 
roundish, vaulted, serrated at the extremity; lower in 
3 deep lobes ; the lateral ones roundish ; the central 
one largest, cloven and notched. Filam. awl-shaped, 
covered by the upper lip. Aiith. roundish, bivalve. Germ. 
superior, 4-lobed, Style thread-shaped, of the length 
and situation of the stamens. Stigma in 2 acute, spread- 
ing segments. Seeds 4, triangular, convex at the sum- 
mit, in the bottom of the rigid, spinous, open-mouthed 
calyx. 
Annual, hairy or finely downy, not aromatic, herbs, with 
branched upright stems, serrated, ovate, or lanceolate, 
stalked leaves, and large, handsome, parti-coloured^owers, 
numerously whorled. 

1. G. Ladanum. Red Hemp-nettle. 

Stem not swelled below the joints. Leaves lanceolate, some- 
what serrated, hairy. Upper lip of the corolla slightly 
notched. 

G. Ladanum. Linn. Sp. PI. 8 1 0. Willd. u. 3 . 9 1 . Fl. Br. 628. 

Engl. Bot. v.\3.t. 884. Hook. Scot. 182. 
G. angustifolia. Ehrh. Herb. 137 j the narrow-leaved variety. 
G. n.266. Hall. Hist. v.\.U7. 
Sideritis arvensis rubra. Raii Syn. 242. 

Ladanum segetum. Dalech. Hist. 443./. Riv. Monop.Irr.t.24.f.l. 
L. segetum, flore rubro. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 839./. 
Narrow Iron Wort. Pet. H. Brit. t. 33. f. 1 1 . 
jS. Calyx very hairy. Stem thickened upwards. With. 52S; var.2. 

In dry gravelly or chalky corn-fields, or on limestone rubbish. 

Annual. August, September. 

Root twisted, or zigzag, with many fibres. Stem a foot high, erect, 
with several opposite branches crossing each other in pairs, leafy, 
red, roughish with deflexed hairs, the interstices of an even thick- 
ness throughout. Leaves spreading, lanceolate, or somewhat 
ovate, hairy, distantly serrated ; sometimes partly entire, and 
almost linear ; furrowed on the upper side along the veins, 
which are prominent beneath. Fl. in dense whorls, the termi- 
nal whorl largest. Cal. bell-shaped, variously hairy, often viscid. 
Cor. rose-coloured, variegated with crimson and white ; upper 
lip slightly crenate. 

The terminal ^OM'er has somethnes 4 regular segments, with 
equal stamens, according to the Rev. R. Forby. 

This species is remarkably variable in the foliage, and in the hairi- 



S-i DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Galeopsis. 

ness of the calyx. I can form no conclusive opinion of the sup- 
posed variety, 3, w^hich I have never seen., 

2. G. villosa. Downy Hemp-nettle. 

Stem not swelled belovi^ the joints. Leaves ovate-lanceo- 
late, serrated, very soft and downy. Upper lip of the 
corolla deeply notched. 

G. villosa. Huds. 236. Fl. Br. 629. Engl. Bot. v. 33. t. 2353. 

Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc.\0. 1.5. 
G. grandiflora. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 91. Wiih. 528. 
G. latifolia. Ehrh. Herb. \47. 
G. n. 267. Hall. Hist. v.l.Wl. 
Betonica hirta. Huds. ed. 1. 220 ; not of Linnaeus. 
Sideritis arvensis latifolia hirsuta lutea. Rail Syii. 242. 
Ladanum segetum, folio latiore. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 24. /. 2. 
Yellow Iron Wort. Pet. H. Brit. t.33.f. 10. 
/S. Cannabis spuria, flore albo magno, staminibus luteis. Merr. 

Pin.] 9. 

In sandy corn-fields, not common. 

Frequent in Yorkshire and Lancashire ; near Newark, Notting- 
hamshire ; and about Bangor in Wales. Hudson, from whom 
I have a wild specimen. 

Annual. Jubj, August. 

Larger and paler than the foregoing. Leaves ovate, all equally 
and regularly serrated, furrowed, clothed with a soft, velvet- 
like downiness, especially beneath, which distinguishes this 
species from every other. Cal. densely shaggy. Cor. large, 
of an elegant pale sulphur-colour, with a yellow palate, and 
Mueish upper lip, which is cloven, and sharply notched. /3 seems 
but a slight variety. 

3. G. Tetrahit. Common Hemp-nettle. 

Stem bristly ; swelled below the joints. Corolla twice the 
length of the calyx ; upper lip nearly straight. 

G. Tetrahit. Linn. Sp.Pl.SXO. Willd. v. 3. 92. H.Br. 629. 

Engl. Bot. V. 3. t. 207. Hook. Scot. 182. Fl. Dan. t.l27l. 
G. n. 268. Hall. Hist. v.\. 1 17. 
Lamium cannabino folio vulgare. Raii Syn. 240. 
Cannabis spuria. Ger.Em.709.f. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 31. 
Urtica iners quarta. Dod. Pempt. 153./. 

In cultivated ground frequent. 

Annual. July, August. 

Stem H or 2 feet high, leafy, rough with copious, deflexed, very 
sharp, prickly bristles ; branches opposite, spreading widely j 
spaces between the joints, particularly the lower ones, much 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Galeopsis. 95 

swelled upwards. Leaves ovate, large, dark green, acute, 
coarsely serrated, closely hairy on both sides, strongly scented 
when bruised, but not aromatic. Fl. numerous, in many dense 
whorls. Cal. with long sharp teeth, and a bristly tube. Cor. 
about twice the length of the calyx ; tube slender, white; upper 
lip nearly straight, but slightly convex, purple, crenate, not 
cloven ; lower about equally 3-lobed, variegated with white and 
purple, with dark lines in the middle. 
ThQ Jlowers vary somewhat in size and colour, being occasionally 
quite white. The terminal one of all is now and then regular, 
with 4 equal stamens, first observed in 1/88, at Matlock, as re- 
corded in Linn. Fl. Lapp. ed. 2. 201 . 

4. G. versicolor. Large-flowered Hemp-nettle. Bee 

Nettle. 
Stem bristly ; swelled below the joints. Corolla thrice the 

length of the calyx ; upper lip tumid ; middle lobe of the 

lower heart-shaped. 

G. versicolor. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 38. Fl. Br. 630. Engl. Bot. 

V. 10. t. 667. Hook. Scot. 182. Winch Guide v. 1. 56. Purton 

v.3.565. 
G. cannabina. Willd. Sp. Fl. v. 3. 93. Pollich v. 2. 148. Fl Dan 

t. 929. 
G. Tetrahit /3. Linn. Sp. PI. 810. Light/. 3 1 0. Huds. S. 257 
G. n. 269. Hall. Hist. V.]. 117. 
Lamium cannabino folio, flore amplo luteo, labio purpureo. Raii 

Sijn. 24\. 
L. cannabinum aculeatum, flore specioso luteo, labiis purpureis. 

Pluk.Almag.204. Phyt.t.4\.J.4 ; bad. 
Cannabis spuria, flore majore. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 32. 
C. spuria angustifolia, variegato flore. Barrel. Ic. t. 1 158. 

/3. Lamium cannabinum, floribus albis, verticillis purpurascentibus 
Raii Syn. 24\. 

y. Cannabis spuria, flore albo magno eleganti. Merr.Pin.\9. 
Dill, in Raii Syn. 240. 

In sandy corn-fields. 

Not rare in the north of England or in Norfolk. I have ob.served 
it also at Moffat and near Edinburgh ; as Sir T. G. Cullum did 
very abundantly at Gretna green. 

Annual. July, August. 

Like the last in general habit, but with paler and broader leaves. 
Fl. much larger, yellow, with red or orange marks on the pa- 
late, the 2 protuberances in front much more considerable; the 
middle segment of the lower lip inversely heart-shaped, purple, 
bordered with white ; upper lip broad, convex, very hairy, co- 
piously notched. 

This is doubtless a distinct species, propagating itself by seed un- 



96 DIDYNAMIA-GYMNOSPERMIA. Galeobdolon. 

altered, and very abundantly. Of the varieties I know nothing 
but from Ray's Synopsis. Doody's account of /3 rather indicates 
its belonging to this species than to the former. 

291. GALEOBDOLON. Weasel-snout. 

Huds. 257. Fl. Br. 631. Dill. Gen. 103. t.4. 
Galeopsis. Linn. Gen. 292. Juss.l\4. 

Cal. tubular, bell-shaped, permanent, with 5 spreading, un- 
equal, spinous-tipped teeth, shorter than the tube ; the 
upper one erect, at some distance from the rest. Cor. 
ringent ; tube cylindrical, the length of the calyx ; upper 
lip oval, vaulted, hairy, entire, fringed ; lovi^er shorter, in 
3 oblong, acute, rather unequal, undivided segments, the 
middle one longest. Filam. awl-shaped, covered by the 
upper lip. Anth. of 2 roundish lobes. Germ, superior, 
4-lobed. Style thread-shaped, the length and situation 
of the stamens. Stigma in 2 acute spreading segments. 
Seeds 4, short, triangular, abrupt, in the bottom of the 
open-mouthed calyx. 

Herbaceous, perennial, resembling a hamium, with yellow 
Jlowers. 

1. G. luteum. Yellow Weasel-snout. Yellow Arch- 
angel. 

G. luteum. Huds. 258. Fl. Br. 631. Engl. Bot. v.ll.t. 787. 

With. 530. Hook. Scot. 183. 
G. Galeopsis. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 40. 
Galeopsis Galeobdolon. Linn. Sp. PI. 8\0. Dreves Bilderb.t. 20. 

Fl.Dan.t. 1272. 
Leonurus Galeobdolon, Scop. Cam. v. 1 . 409. Willd. Sp. PL v, 3. 

115. 
Cardiaca n. 275. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 120. 
Lamium luteum. Raii Syn. 240. Ger.Em.702.f. Riv. Monop. 

Irr. t. 20. f. 2. 
Yellow Archangel. Pet. H. Brit. t. 33./. 6. 

In shady rather moist situations, in groves or hedge<-bottoms, not 
uncommon. 

Perennial. May. 

Root somewhat tuberous, moderately creeping. Habit very like 
Lamium album, and not at all resembling any Leonurus or Ga- 
leopsis. Stems 1 8 inches high, simple, leafy, covered v^^th close 
deflexed hairs. Leaves stalked, ovate, acute, serrated, slightly 
hairy, bright green, various in breadth. Whorls numerous, each 
composed of many large, handsome, inodorous, yeWowJlowers, 
whose lower lip is spotted with red, the middle segment stained 
with orange-colour. Bracteas linear, shorter than the calyx. 



DIDYNAMIA— CtYMNOSPERMIA. Stachys. 97 
292. BETONICA. Betony. 

Linn. Gen. 293. Juss. 1 14. FL Br. 632. Tourn. t. 96. Lam. t. 507. 

Cal. tubular, cylindrical, permanent, with 5 nearly equal, 
spinous-tipped teeth, shorter than the tube. Cor: rin- 
gent; tube cyhndrical, incurved; upper lip "roundish, 
undivided, almost flat, erect ; lower longer, in 3 deep 
segments, the middle one broadest, roundish, notched. 
Filam. awl-shaped, scarcely projecting beyond the throat, 
and turned towards the upper lip. Atith. almost orbi- 
cular. Germ, rounded, 4-lobed. Style thread-shaped, the 
length and situation of the stamens. Stigma cloven, acute. 
Seeds 4, ovate, in the bottom of the smooth, somewhat 
converging, calyx. 

Herbaceous, unbranched, hairy, with oblong, stalked, co- 
piously and uniformly serrated, or crenate, leaves. FL 
crimson, purplish, or yellovnsh, in solitary, tei'minal, 
dense, upright, whorled spikes. 

1. B. officinalis. Wood Betony. 

Spike interrupted. Middle segment of the lower lip notched. 

B. officinalis. Linn. Sp. PL 810. Willd. v. 3. 93. FL Br. 632. 

Engl. Bot. V. 16. t. 1 142. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 33. Woodv. 

suppl. t.24\. Hook. Scot. 1 83. FL Dan. t. 726. Bull Fr. f. 41. 
B. n. 264. HalLHisLv. I. 116. 
Betonica. Rail Syn. 238. Ger. Em. 7l4.f. DorsL BoL 38,2. f. 

Brunf. Herb. v. 1 . 88./. Fuchs. Hist. 350./. Camer. Epit. 681 ./. 

Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 28. 

In woods and thickets. 

Perennial. Julij, August. 

Root rather woody. Stem leafy, rough with reversed bristles. 
Leaves oblong, with numerous, strong, bluntish serratures ; the 
lowermost on long stalks. FL crimson, rarely white, forming 
a dense spike, various in length ; the lowest whorl a little re- 
mote, with a pair of small sessile leaves beneath. Bracteas pur- 
plish, lanceolate, entire. Lower lip of the corolla more or less 
notched, or slightly cloven. 

This herb is scarcely aromatic, but the fine rigid hairs, which cover 
the surface, cause it when powdered to produce sneezing. Hence 
Betony is generally made an ingredient in herb snuffs. The 

iroot is said to be emetic and purgative. 



293. STACHYS. Woundwort. 

Lmn.Gen.293. Juss. l\4. Fl Br. 632. Tourn. t.86. Lam. t. 509. 
Galeopsis. Tourn. t. 86. 



VOL. III. 



98 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Stachys. 

Cal. tubular, angular, with 5 spreading, more or less un- 
equal, spinous-pointed teeth, hardly so long as the tube, 
permanent. Cor. ringent ; tube very short ; throat ob- 
long, protuberant underneath at the base; upper lip 
erect, ovate, vaulted, often notched; lower larger, 3- 
lobed, the lateral lobes reflexed, the middle one largest, 
notched. Filam. awl-shaped, rather shorter than the 
upper lip, finally curved outwards, at each side of the 
mouth. Anth. roundish, of 2 valves. Germ, angular, 
4-lobed. Style the length and position of the stamens. 
Stigma cloven, acute. Seeds 4, angular, abrupt, in the 
bottom of the scarcely altered calyx. 

Hairy, shaggy, or woolly, rather fetid herbs, sometimes 
shrubby, rarely annual. Leaves heart-shaped, ovate, or 
oblong, serrated or crenate. IVIiorls numerous, gene- 
rally spiked ; leafy or bracteated. Fl. reddish, or blue- 
ish, variously speckled about the mouth. 

1. S. sylvatica. Hedge Woundwort. 

Six flowers in a whorl. Leaves heart-shaped, stalked. Stem 
soUd. 

S. sylvatica. Linn. Sp.Pl.SW. WUld.v.3.97. Fl. Br. 633. Engl. 

Bot. V. 6.t.4l 6. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 34. Hook. Scot. 183. 

Biv.Monop. Irr. t.26.f.2. 
Cardiaca n. 276. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 120. 
Galeopsis legitima Dioscoridis. Baii Syn. 237. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 

35. /.36. 
G. vera. Ger. Em. 704./. 
/3. Lamium sylvaticum spicatum foetidum, folio anguloso, minus. 

Pluk. Amalth. 128. Dill, in Bail Syn. 237. 

Under hedges, and in shady situations, common. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root moderately creeping. Herb dark green, hairy all over, with 
a strong disagreeable smell. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, erect, leafy, 
not much branched, filled with pith. Leaves stalked, broadly 
heart-shaped, acute, serrated, veiny, thin and pliant j the upper 
ones gradually diminishing to sessile, linear, entire bracteas. Fl. 
externally downy, dull red, or du.sky blood-coloured ; the pa- 
late prettily variegated with darker lines and spots,mixed with 
white. The tube has a small pouch underneath, marking the 
limits of the long and cylindrical throat. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Stachys. 99 

2. S. ambigua. Ambiguous Woundwort. 

Six flowers in a whoi'l. Leaves oblong, stalked; heart- 
shaped at the base. Stem hollow. 

S. ambigua. Engl. Bot. v. 30. t. 2089. Comp. ed. 4. 103. Hook. 
Scot. 183. 

In waste as well as cultivated ground, chiefly in Scotland, 

In potatoe fields in the Orkneys, also in Ross-shire. Prof. Hooker 
and Mr. Borrer. Near Edinburgh. Mr. G. Don. At the foot 
of the Pentland hills. Mr. Weatherhead. About Inverary. Mr. 
Maughan. By the London road about a furlong north of Quorn- 
don, also at Sheepshead, Leicestershire. Rev. W. Parkinson. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Root white, creeping. Herbage much less fetid, of a lighter green, 
and more silky than the preceding. Stem hollow. Leaves ob- 
long, acute, serrated, slightly heart-shaped, but not rounded, at 
the base. Fl. red, brighter and more crimson than those of 
S.syhatica; the palate more or less variegated with white, and 
dark purple ; upper lip very hairy. This seems an intermediate 
species with regard to the preceding and the following. 

3. S. palusiris. Marsh Woundwort. 

Six to ten flowers in a whorl. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 
half embracing the stem. Root tuberous. 

S. palustris. Linn. Sp. PL 81 1 . Willd. v. 3. 98. Fl. Br. 633. 

Etigl. Bot. V. 24. t.\67o. Curt. Lond.fasc.S.t.Sb. Hook. Scot. 

1 83. Ehrh. PI. Off. 446. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 26. f. 1 . 
S. n. 257. Hall. Hist. v.\. 113. 
Sideritis anglica, strumosa radice. Rail Syn. 242. 
Lysimachia liirsuta purpurea, fiore galericulato. Loes. Pruss. 156. 

^41. 
Panax coloni. Ger, Em. 1005./. 
Clymenum minus. Dalech. Hist. 1357./. 

In wet hedges and fields, and about the banks of ditches and ri- 
vers, very common. 

Perennial. August. 

Root creeping extensively, fleshy, throwing out in autumn a num- 
ber of tuberous shoots, which render it, in low wet ground, very 
difficult of extirpation. This therefore should be attempted 
in summer, before these knobs are produced, when the flowers 
are just appearing. The herbage is fetid, greyish and silky. 
Stems very erect, rough with defle.xed bristles, bearing many 
pairs of long, narrow, serrated, a'most sessile leaves, somewhat 
woolly beneath, whose rounded bases embrace the stem. Fl. 
light purple, variegated with violet and white, forming many 
whorls, disposed in a lax spike, each whorl accompanied by a 
pair of small deflexed leaves. 

H 2 



100 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Stachys. 

Gerarde celebrates this herb as a vulneraiy, and his whole account 
of its virtues is worth reading for amusement, if not instruction, 

4. S. germanica. Downy Woundwort. 

Many flowers in a whorl. Leaves crenate, densely silky ; 
woolly beneath. Stem woolly, erect. 

5. germanica. Linn. Sp.Pl.S\2. mild. v. 3. 99. Fl. Br. 634. 
Engl. Bot. V. 12. t. 829. Fl. Dan. t. 684. Jacq. Austr. f. 319. 

S. n. 255. Hall. Hist. v.\.\\2. 

Stachys. Fuchs. Hist. 7G6.f. 

S. Fuchsii. RaiiSyn.239. Ger. Em. 695. f. Bauh. Hist.v.3. 

p. 2. 319./. 320. 
S. montana. Riv.Monop. Irr. t. 27./. 1. 
S. alba latifolia major. Barrel. Ic. t. 297. 

In fields, hedges, and by road sides, on a limestone soil, but rare. 

Chiefly confined to Oxfordshire and Bedfordshire. Frequent about 
Woodstock and Witney. The present Bishop of Carlisle ob- 
served it, in great plenty, in the corn-fields at Brizenorton ; the 
Rev. Dr. Abbot on Luton downs, Bedfordshire ; and the Rev. 
J. Hemsted on a hill 2 miles from Bedford. 

Perennial. September. 

Roots tufted. Stems quite erect, 2 feet high, leafy, unbranched, 
densely clothed with soft, white, woolly hairs pointing down- 
ward. Leaves stalked, ovate, acute, copiously crenate, reti- 
culated with numerous veins ; the upper side very thickly co- 
vered with white silky hairs ; lower with close matted wool. 
Whorls numerous, many-flowered, axillary ; the upper ones 
crowded into a leafy spike. Bracteas and cabjx very woolly. 
Cor. light purple ; the upper lip cloven, shaggy ; palate striped 
with white. Seeds oval, blackish, smooth. 

.5. S. arvensis. Corn Woundwort. 

Six flowers in a whorl. Stem weak. Leaves heart-shaped, 
obtuse, crenate, slightly hairy. 

S. arvensis. Linn. Sp. PI. 814. Willd. v. 3. 106. Fl. Br. 634. 

Engl. Bot.v. 17. t. I 154. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4.t.4\. 'Hook. Scot. 

183. Fl.Dan.t.587. 
S. arvensis minima. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 27./. 2. 
Trixago n. 23 1 . Hall. Hist. v.\.\Q\. 
Sideritis humilis, lato obtuso folio. Raii Syn. 242. 
Round Iron Wort. Pet. H. Brit. t. 33. f. 12. 

In gravelly, sandy or chalky fields, very general. 

Annual. Jnly, August. 

Root small, fibrous. Herbage green, slightly hairy. Stem branch- 
ed, weak, recumbent, or ascending, either hairy or smooth. 
Leaves on short stalks, ovate, or slightly heart-shaped, bluntish, ' 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Ballota. 101 

crenate, hardly an inch long ; three-ribbed at the base. Whorls 
axillary, crowded towards the tops of the branches. Cal. hairv. 
Cor. smJl, light purple, with a white and spotted palate ; its 
structure perfectly that of a Stachys, though Haller thought 
otherwise. Seeds rounded externally ; triangular at the inner 
side. The plant is slightly fetid^ but has no remarkable qua- 
lity. 

294. BALLOTA. Black Horehound. 

Unn.Gen.29A. Juss.WA. Fl.Br.G3b. Lam.t..i08. 
Ballote. Tourn.t. 85. 

Cal. tubular, oblong, with 5 angles, 10 ribs, and 10 furrows, 
permanent; limb somewhat salver-shaped, dilated, spread- 
ing, plaited, regular, with 5 pointed teeth. Co?: ringent; 
tube cylindrical, the length of the calyx ; upper lip erect, 
ovate, concave, notched ; lower 3-lobed, obtuse, the cen- 
tral lobe largest, cloven. Filam. awl-shaped, directed 
lovk^ards the upper lip, which extends a httle beyond them. 
ylnth. oblong, of 2 spreading valves. Germ, small, 
4-lobed. Sti/le thread-shaped, of the length and situa- 
tion of the stamens. Stigma cloven, slender. Seeds 4, 
ovate, in the bottom of the somewhat hardened calyx. 

Herbaceous, downy, fetid. Leaves ovate or heart-shaped, 
serrated, or lobed. Fl. numerous, purplish, or white, 
in dense, stalked, bracteated whorls. Some of the foreign 
species are doubtful as to their generic character. 

L B. nigra. Stinking Black Horehound. 

Leaves ovate, undivided, serrated. Calyx funnel-shaped, 
abrupt, with short spreading teeth. 

B. nigra. Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1 . 582. Fl. Br. 635. Engl. Bot. v. 1 . 

^46. Huds.260. IVitli. 533. Relh.234. Sibth.\S7. Mbot 

131. Hook. Scot. 1 84. Bull. Fr. t. 397. 
Mentha aquatica. FL Dan. t. 673 ! 
Ballotte. Raii Si/n. 244. 
Ballote. Fuchs. Hist. 154./. Math. Valgr. v. 2. 180./. Tourn. 

Inst. 1 85 . <. 85 . raill. Par. 20. 
Marrubium nigrum. Ger. Em.JOl.f. 

M. vulgare. Clus. HisL v. 2. 34./. ' . 

Stinking Horehound. Pet. H. Brit. t. 32. f. 4. 
^. Ballota alba. Lbin. Sp. PLed.2.8\4. FL Suec. 206. 
B. nigra (3. Hnds.260. With. 533. Relh.235. 
B. flore albo. Toum. Inst. 1 85. VailL Par. 20. 
Ballote. Camer..Epit.572.f. 
About hedges and waste places common. 



102 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Marrubium. 

/3. Near Hammersmith. Mr. Woodward. At Stafford. Dr. Stokes. 
At Weston-supra-mare, Somersetshire. Mr. Lightfooi's herba- 
rium. Between Norwich and Hellesdon. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Whole herb finely hairy or downy, of a greyish green, with a pe- 
culiar pungent and disagreeable scent. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, 
erect, branched, leafy, clothed with recurved hairs. Leaves 
stalked, an inch or more in length, ovate, or slightly heart- 
shaped, strongly and nearly equally serrated. Whorls all axillary, 
many-flowered, stalked, compound, bracteated, often accom- 
panied by small leaves. Bracteas bristle-shaped, shorter than 
the calyx, fringed. Cal. cylindrical, hairy, with 1 furrows and 
as many ribs ; the upper part dilated and funnel-shaped, with 
5 very short, abrupt, veiny, marginal lobes or teeth, each tipped 
with a small spreading bristly point. Cor. dull purple, in /3 
white ; upper lip cloven, vaulted, externally clothed with white 
hairs, more or less converging into a pointed tuft ; lower 3- 
lobed, marked with white veins, the central lobe inversely heart- 
shaped . 

Our plant is the original B. nigra of Linnaeus, and of most authors; 
though this great botanist, in the 2d edition of his Sp. PL, as 
well as in the Flora Suecica, has confounded with it another 
.species, indigenous likewise to Sweden, but distinguished by the 
elongated, lanceolate, tapering shape of its calyx- teeth, and the 
more unequal serratures of its leaves. This latter is given as 

_,, B. nigra in Ehrhart's PI. Off. 456, and is certainly the Marru- 
biastrum of Rivinus, Monop. Irr. t. 6o.f. 1 . It appears moreover 
to be the Ballofcn. 259 of Haller, who, under his white variety, 
remarks that the calyx is not abrupt. I have met with no traces 
of this species in Britain, the error of Linnaeus having caused 
some inaccuracy in the account given in Engl. Bot. 

295. MARRUBIUM. White Horehound. 

Linn. Gen. 294. Juss. \ 14. Fl. Br. 636. Tourn.t.9\. Lam. 
t. 508. 

Cal. tubular, funnel-shaped, witli 10 furrows, permanent 
and finally hardened; limb spreading, regular, with 10, 
in some species but 5, narrow teeth. ^ Cor. ringent; tube 
cylindrical ; throat elongated, tubular ; limb spreading ; 
upper lip erect, linear, in 2 acute lobes ; lower broadest, 
reflexed, in 3 deep lobes, the lateral ones acute, the mid- 
dle one largest and cloven. Filam. much shorter than 
the corolla, sheltered under the upper lip. A7ith. small, 
oblong. Genu, rounded, 4-lobed. 5(i//^ thread-shaped, 
as long as the stamens. Stigma cloven, acute. Seeds 4, 
elliptic-oblong, in the bottom of the hardejied calyx, 
which is contracted at the orifice. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Leonurus. 103 

Herbaceous, branched ; downy, or somewhat woolly ; aro- 
matic or bitter. Leaves stalked, veiny, bluntly serrated, 
undivided. Fl. numerous, white or purplish, in dense 
axillary whorls. 

1. M. vulgare. Common White Horehound. 

Calyx-teeth ten, bristle-shaped, hooked backwards. Leaves 

roundish-ovate, unequally serrated. 
M. vulgare. Linn. Sp. PL 816. M^illd. w. 3. 1 1 I . Fl. Br. 636. 

Engl Bot.v. 6. t. 410. JVoodv.t.97. Hook. Scot. 184. Fl.Dan. 

f. 1036. Bull.Fr. t. 165. 
M.n.258. Hall. Hist. v.\.\\3. 

M. album. Rail Syn. 239. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 66. f. 1 . 
Marrubium. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 182. f. Corner. Epit. 573. f. Fuchs. 

Hist. 590./. Brunf. Herb. v. 1. 159./. 

In dry waste ground, by road sides, and on commons. 

Perennial. July. 

Stem bushy, branching from the bottom, bluntly quadrangular, 
leafy, clothed with fine woolly pubescence. Leaves on longish 
stalks, except the upper ones, which are nearly sessile ; their 
shape and size, as well as the degree of their wooUiness, va- 
rious '; their surfaces wrinkled and veiny. Fl. white, in dense 
convex whorls. Calyx-teeth rigid, recurved at the point, all 
spreading ; the 5 alternate ones smallest ; orifice of the tube 
haiiy. 

The whole herb has a white or hoary aspect, and a very bitter, not 
unpleasantly aromatic, flavour. Its extract is a popular remedy 
for coughs and asthmatic complaints. 

Clusius, Gerarde and Lobel give, for this plant, a figure with a 
vaulted corolla, which has been too incautiously copied and 
quoted. 

296. LEONURUS. Motherwort. 

Linn. Gen. 295. Juss. 114. Fl. Br. 637. Lam. t. 509. Tourn. 
t.87. 

Cardiaca. Tourn. t.87. 

Cat. funnel-shaped, with 5 prominent angles, and 5 sharp 
spreading teeth, permanent. Cor. ringent; not above 
twice the length of the calyx ; tube short, cylindrical, 
narrow ; throat longish, but litde dilated ; limb spread- 
ing; upper lip longest, concave, protuberant, rounded 
and undivided at the summit, shaggy; lower reflexed, 
in 3 deep, lanceolate, undivided, smooth, nearly equal 
lobes. Filam. much shorter than the corolla, sheltered 
under the upper lip. Anth. roundish-oblong, attached 
by the back, incumbent, clothed in an early state with 



lOlDIDYNAMIA-GYMNOSPERMIA.Clinopodium. 

minute, globular, solid, shining granulations, and soon 
bursting in front into 2 cells. Germ. 4-lobed, abrupt. 
St7/le thread-shaped, incurved. Stigvia of two acute 
spreading segments. Seeds 4, quadrangular, abrupt, 
hairy, in the tube of the slightly hardened, strongly vein- 
ed calyx. 
Herbaceous, erect, smooth or somewhat downy, rather 
bitter than aromatic, with numerous, stalked, lobed or 
cut leaves^ and very copious whorls of shaggy purplish 
Jlo^wers. 

1. L. Cardiaca. Common Motherwort. 

Upper leaves lanceolate, either thrce-lobed or undivided. 

L. Cardiaca. Linn. Sp PL 817. Willd. r. 3. 1 1 4. Fl. Br. 637. 

Engl. Bot.v. 4. t. 286. Hook. Scot. 184. Fl. Dan. t. 727. Bull. 

Fr.t.273. Ehrh.Pl.0ff.M7. 
Cardiaca. Raii Syn.239. Ger. Em.705.f. Dorsten. Bat. 65./. 

Fuchs. Hist. 395./. Matth. Valgr.v. 2. 472./. Camer. Epit. 

864 f. Riv. Monop Irr. t.20.f. 1. 
C. n. 274. Hall. Hist. u. 1 . 1 1 9. 
Galeopsis urticis similis. Brunf. Herb. v. 1. 155./. 158. 

About hedges, on a gravelly or calcareous soil. 

In Selsey island, Sussex ; and between Tickhill, Yorkshire, and 
Worksop. Hudson. Monmouthshire. Lightfoot in his herbarium. 
In a lane near Combe wood, Surrey. Mr.Sowerby. In several 
parts of Norfolk and Suffolk, as about Norwich, Bungay, and at 
Cove near Beccles. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Herb bitter, with a pungent disagreeable smell. Stems 2 or 3 feet 
high, wand-like, minutely downy, acutely quadrangular, with 
intermediate channels, purplish, beset with very numerous pairs 
of long-stalked, dark green, somewhat downy leaves ; the low- 
ermost broadest, and deeply jagged ; upper ones acutely three- 
lobed; those about the summitlanceolate and undivided. Whorls 
numerous, axillary, many-flowered. Calyx rigid and pungent. 
Cor. purplish ; the upper lip clothed with dense, white, shaggy, 
upright hairs ; lower deeper coloured, variegated, smooth, in 
3 nearly equal, entire lobes. 

The reputed tonic powers of this herb, or its use in palpitations 
of the heart, or in that disease of the stomach called heart- 
burn, are now little regarded. Yet hence originated its old ap- 
pellation of Cardiaca. 

1S)7, CLINOPODIUM. Wild Basil. 

Linn. Gen. 296. Juss. 115. Fl. Br. 638. Tourn. t. 92. Lam. 
t.bW. 



DIDYNAMIA-GYMNOSPERMIA.Clinopodium.lOS 

Invohicrum of numerous taper leaves, under the flowers, 
nearly equal to the calyx in length, permanent. Cal. tu- 
bular, many-ribbed, slightly curved, two-lipped ; upper 
lip broadest, ascending, in 3 deep acute equal segments; 
lower longest, incurved, in 2 deep slender segments ; 
throat closed with converging hairs. Cor, ringent ; tube 
cylindrical, rather short ; throat longer and wider ; up- 
per lip erect, concave, obtuse, slightly cloven ; lower in 
3 deep segments, the middle one very broad, notched. 
Filam. all directed to the upper lip, cylindrical, converg- 
ing, shorter than the corolla. Anth. two-lobed, each 
pair meeting so as to form a cross. Germ, four-lobed, 
small. Style thread-shaped, equal to the stamens. Stig- 
ma in 2 pointed lobes. Seeds 4, ovate, in the bottom of 
the closed tumid calyx. 

Slightly aromatic herbs, with undivided leaves, and com- 
pound, stalked, hairy, axillary and terminal whorls of 
light-purplish j^ow^r^. 

This genus is distinguished from Thymus merely by the 
concavity of the upper lip of the corolla, which is* very 
slight, and by the presence of an involucrum, which is 
not really a part of the fructification. As the species are 
few, they might perhaps be referred to Thymus. 

1. Q.vidgare. Common Wild Basil. 

Whorls bristly. Involucral leaves awl-shaped. Flower- 
stalks branched. Leaves obscurely serrated. 

C.viilgare. Linn. Sp. PL 821. W'i/Zrf.u. 3. 131. Fl. Br. 638. Engl. 
Bol. V. 20. ^. 1 40 1 . Hook. Scot. 1 84. Fl. Dan. t. 930. Matth. 
Valgr.v.2. 169./. 

C. n.239. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 104. 

('. origano simile. Bauh. Pin. 224. Rail Syn. 239. 

Clinopodium. Camer. Epit. 563. f. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 43./. I . 

Acynos. Ger. Etn. 67b. f. 

Acinos. Loh. Ic. 504./. 

In bushy places, about hedges, and by road sides, on a gravelly or 
chalky soil. 

Perennial. August. 

Herb hairy, weakly aromatic, of a rather light green, with ascend- 
ing wavy stems, a foot high, more or less. Leaves ovate, about 
an inch long, with shallow serratures, and rather short stalks ; 
their ribs fringed beneath with cop'ous bristly hairs. Whorls few, 
axillary and terminal, of numerous, light purple, not unhand- 
some Jlowers, on forked or branched, hairy stalks, subtended by 
narrow, awl-shaped, hairy involucral leaves, or rather hracteas. 
All the hairs are course and spreading, like those on the calyx, 



106 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Origanum. 

Cor. twice the length of the calyx, with a yellow hairy protube- 
rance at each side of its mouth. 

298. ORIGANUM. Marjoram. 

Linn.Gen.297. Juss.\\5. Fl. Br. 638. Tourn.t.94. Lam. L5\l. 

Invohicrum of numerous, imbricated, dilated, flat, coloured, 
permanent leaves, one under each flower, longer than the 
calyx, forming a quadrangular spurious catkin. Calyx 
with an even, bluntly angular, tube, more or less per- 
fectly one- or two-lipped, but various in the different 
species. Cor. ringent ; tube rather longer than the ca- 
lyx, a little compressed ; thi'oat slightly funnel-shaped, 
rather longer than the tube, protuberant in front at the 
base ; upper lip erect, nearly flat, obtuse, notched ; lower 
• in 3 deep, dependent, mostly equal, simple lobes. Filam. 
thread-shaped, the 2 longest, at least, longer than the 
corolla. Anth. distant, ovate, two-lobed. Germ, four- 
lobed. Style thread-shaped, ascending. Stigma very 
slightly notched. Seeds 4, ovate, in the bottom of the 
closed, permanent calyx. 

Pungent and gratefully aromatic herbs, in some instances 
rather shrubby ; with upright, leafy, branched or pani- 
cled stems ; ovate, stalked leaves ; and copious, purple, 
or whitish, erect or drooping, often very elegant, Jlo'uo- 
ers. No genus can be more evidently natural ; but the 
principal character, founded on the invohicrum, is not 
strictly classical. There are several beautiful Greek 
species. 

1. O. vulgare. Common Marjoram. 

Heads of flowers roundish, panicled, crowded, erect. In- 
volucral leaves ovate, smooth. Calyx with five acute 
unequal teeth ; throat hairy. 

O. vulgare. Linn. Sp.Pl.824. Wilid. v. 3. \35. Fl. Br. 639. Engl. 

Bot. V. 16. t. 1143. Curt. Land. fasc. .5. t. 39. Woodv. t. 1 64. 

Hook. Scoe.\8A. Fl. Dan. t. 1.581. Bull. Fr. t. 193. Matth. 

Valgr.v. 2. 62./. Camer. Epit. 469. f. Dalech.Hist.887 ./. Ehrh. 

PI. Off. 88. 
O. n. 233. Hall. Hist. v.\.\ 02. 
O. vulgare spontaneum. Raii Syn. 236. 
O. anglicum. Ger. Em. 666./. 

O. sylvestre, seu vulgare. Fuchs.Hist. 552./. 7c. 315./. 
Origanum. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 60./. 1. 

In bushy places^ on a lime-stone or gravelly soil. 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Thymus. 107 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root creeping. Herb a foot high, with a warm aromatic flavour, 
somewhat like that of Wild Thyme. Stems purplish, leafy, 
clothed unequally with short recurved hairs ; branched and pa- 
nicled at the summit. Leaver deflexed, bright green, entire or 
slightly serrated, minutely fringed, besprinkled with resinous 
dots. Fl. light purple, in dense, convex tufts, with involucral 
leaves of a darker purple, rather longer than the calyx, which 
last is tubular, smooth, covered with resinous dots, and closed 
at the mouth with dense, prominent, very conspicuous, white 
hairs ; the margin in 5 erect, broadish, nearly equal, coloured 
teeth. 

The ca/(/i' differs remarkably in different species of this genus, con- 
sisting in some of an undivided unilateral leaf, without teeth j 
while in others it is, more or less equally, five-toothed, or two- 
lipped. The iiwolucrum is uniform and constant in all. 

0. Onites of Dillenius in Ray's Synopsis, not that of Linnaeus, ap- 
pears to have been some variety of the vulgare, which no person 
has been able to ascertain since the time of Mr. Dale. 

299. THYMUS. Thyme, or CalatTiint. 

Linn. Gen. 297. Juss. 1 1.5. Fl. Br. 639. Tourn. t. 93. Lam. t.5\2. 
Acinos. Dill. Gen. 1 04. t. A. 

Cal. tubular, many-ribbed, rather tumid underneath at the 
base, two-hpped, closed at the thi'oat with convero-ino- 
hairs ; upper lip broadest, flat, erect, witli 3 sharp teeth ; 
lower of 2 longer, equal, narrower, awl-shaped teeth. 
Cor. ringent ; tube as long as the calyx ,• throat short, 
but little dilated ; upper lip shortest, flat, erect, obtuse, 
with a small notch; lower longer and broader, spreadino-, 
in 3 deep obtuse lobes, the middle one broadest. Filam. 
shorter than the corolla, slender, incurved. Anth. di- 
stinctly two-lobed. Germ, four-cleft. Style thread-shaped. 
Stigma in 2 acute segments. Seeds 4, small, roundish, in 
the bottom of the closed calyx. 

Aromatic, pungent, branched, somewhat shrubby, but 
often diffuse and of humble growth ; in some instances 
annual. Leaves small, stalked, ovate, rarely heart- 
shaped, marked with resinous dots, more or less frino-ed, 
hairy, or woolly. Fl. axillary ; or crowded into terminal 
heads, red, purplish, or white. 

\. T. Serpijlbim. Wild Thyme. 

Flowers in small heads. Stems recumbent. Leaves flat 
ovate, obtuse, entire ; fringed at their base. 



108 DIDYNAMIA-GYMNOSPERMIA. Thymus. 

T. Serpyllum. Linn. Sp. PI. 825. Willd. v. 3. \33. Fl. Br. 639. 

Engl. Bot.v. 22. t 1514. Curt. Lond. fasc. 2. t. 47. Hook. 

Scot. 185. 
T. n. 235. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 102. 
Serpillum. Brunf. Herb. v. 2. 22. f. 
Serpyllum. Fuchs. Hist. 251. f. 
S. vulgare. Rnii Syn. 230. Gcr. Em.570.f. Bauh. Hist. v.Z. 

p. 2. 269./. (aill. Par. 183. t. 32. f. 7, 9. 
/3. Huds. 262. 

S. vulgare flore albo. Tourn. Inst. 197. Dill, in RaiiSyn. 230. 
y. S. vulgare, flore amplo. Raii Syn. 230. Faill. Par. t. 32. f. 8. 
Large-flovi^ered Mother of Thyme. Pet. H. Brit. t. 31./. 2. 

5'. Serpyllum vulgare majus. Dill, in Raii Syn. 23\. 

S. majus flore purpureo. Ger. Em. 570. f. 

s. S. citratum. Raii Syn. 23 1 . Ger. Em. 571. f. 

Lemon Thyme. Pet. H. Brit. t.3l.f.4. 

?. Serpyllum angustifolium glabrum. Dill, in Raii S7jn. 23 1 . 

Thymus Serpyllum. Woodv. t. 110? 

ij. Serpyllum vulgare hirsutum. Raii Syn. 23 1 . 

S. latifolium hirsutum. Bauh. Pin. 220. Prodr. 108. Vaill. Par. 

t.32.f.6. 
^. S. hirsutum minus repens inodorum. Pluk. Ahnag. 344. Dill. 

in Raii Syn. 231. 
I. S. villosum fruticosius, floribus dilute rubentibus. Raii Syn 23 1 j 

excluding Bauhin's synonyms. 

On heaths and dry mountainous ground every where. 

J. In Okey hole, Somersetshire. Pctiver. s. In Kent, but rarely. 
Ray. In a wood of Mr. Knight's at Downton castle, Shrop- 
shire, on the north bank of the river. S-. In Ireland. Plukenet. 
I. On the Welsh mountains. Lhwyd, and Sherard. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Roots creeping. Stems recumbent, entangled, somewhat shrubby, 
downy, with numerous, wavy, ascending, leafy branches, scarcely 
a finger's length, each terminating in a dense head of short- 
stalked purple flowers, the middle segment of whose under lip 
is variegated and entire. The stamens vary in length, and the 
corolla in size, as in y ; but this is a trifling variety. In /3 it is 
white. The leaves are entire, strongly fringed at the base and 
footstalks; in rj, and apparently the two following varieties, 
which I have not seen, they are more or less hairy, f is a 
larger vai iety, for which Petiver has given a figure, copied from 
Ger. Em. 573. f. 2 ; but 1 cannot refer this figure to any known 
appearance of our Serpyllum. The odour of the whole plant is 
warm and gratefully aromatic ; in £ it partakes of a fine lemon 
scent. Bees are fond of the flowers. Whether the quality of 
mutton is improved by the sheep feeding on this plant, or on fine 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Thymus. 109 

short grasses which usually accompany it, is still a matter of 
great doubt. 

2. T. Acinos, Basil Thyme. 

Flowers about six in a whorl, on simple stalks. Stem 
branched, ascending. Leaves acute, serrated. Calyx 
protuberant at the base. 

T. Acinos. Linn. Sp. PI. 826. Willd.v. 3. 142. Fl. Br. 64]. Engl. 

Bot. V. 6. <.41 1. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. t. 43. Hook. Scot. 185. 

Bull. Fr.t. 31S. 
Clinopodium n. 237. Hall. Hist. ?;. 1 . 1 04. 
C. vulgare. Loh. Ic. ^^06./. 
Acinos. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 43. f. 2. 

A. multis. Rati Syn. 238. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p.2. 259. f. ' 
Ocymum sylvestre. Ger. Em. 675./. 
Ocimastrum. Fuchs. Hist. 896./. 
Small Wild Basil. Pet. H. Brit. t. 32./. 10. 

In cultivated fields, especially on a sandy, gravelly, or chalky soil. 

Annual. Juli/, August. 

Root fibrous, small, bearing several branched, spreading, wavy, 
leafy stems, near a span high ; their angles blunt ; the opposite 
sides most downy. Leaves rather larger than the preceding, 
stalked, ovate, acute, slightly revolute, and bluntly serrated ; 
rough at the edges and veins ; scarcely dotted, and but slightly 
aromatic. Fl. in several axillary whorls, usually 6 in each, of a 
blueish purple, prettily variegated about the lip, with white and 
a darker purple, the central lobe being dilated and slightly 
notched. Cal. much swelled in front after flowering. The 
leaves are occasionally entire. 

3. T. Calamintha. Common Calamint. 

Whorls on forked, many-flowered stalks. Leaves with shal- 
low serratures. Hairs in the mouth of the calyx not 
prominent. 

T. Calamintha. ficop. Cam. ed. 2. v. \. 425. Fl.Br. 641. Engl. Bot. 

r. 24. M676. Relh. 238. 
Melissa Calamintha. Linn.Sp.Pl.827. Willd.v. 3.] 47. Huds.263. 

Purt.v.l. 284. Bull. Fr.t. 25\. Ehrh. PI. Off. \36. 
M. n. 241. Hall. Hist. i;. 1 . 105. 
Calamintha. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 76./. Camer. Epit. 481 ./. Riv. 

Monop. Irr. t. 46./. 2. 
C. vulgaris. Raii Sijn. 243. 
C. vulgaris officinarum. Ger. Em. 687./. 
C. montana. Dod. Pempt. 98./. 
C. montana vulgaris. Lob. Ic. 513./. 



no DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Melittis. 

By way sides, and about the borders of fields, chiefly on a gra- 
velly soil, but seldom in any quantity. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Stem erect, bushy, downy like the whole of the herbage. Leaves 
stalked, ovate, about an inch long, marked with pellucid dots j 
paler and most hoary underneath. Flower-stalks axillary, soli- 
tary, opposite, forked and many-flowered, making a spurious 
kind of whorl, with awl-shaped bracteas at their principal sub- 
divisions. Cal. exactly that of a Thymus, swelling a little at 
the base in front ; the 2 lower teeth long and fringed, as in T. 
Serpyllum; the tube closed with white, converging hairs, which 
however do not project so far as to be conspicuous. Cor. twice 
the length of the calyx, light purple dotted with violet, downy ; 
its upper lip somewhat concave, but the margin is erect, with a 
shallow notch ; lower in 3 lobes, the middlemost largest, in- 
versely heart-shaped. 

The whole plant has a peculiarly sweet aromatic flavour, and makes 
a pleasant tea, especially mixed with smaller portions of Pep- 
per-mint, Balm, or some others of the same natural family. 

4. T. Nepeta. Lesser Calamint. 

Whorls on forked many-flowered stalks, longer than the 
adjoining leaf. Leaves serrated. Hairs m the mouth of 
the calyx prominent. 

T. Nepeta. Fl Br. 642. Engl. Bot. v. 20. t. 1414. Relh. 239. 

Melissa Nepeta. Linn.Sp. Pl.823. fVilld.v.3A47. Curt.Lond. 
fuse. 6. t. 40. 

M. n. 240. Hall. Hist. v.\.\Q5. 

Calamintha odore pulegii. Rail Syn. 243. Ger. Em. 687./. 

C. montana. Matth. Valgr.v. 2. 77 -f. Camer. Epit. 482./. 

C. folio incano. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 47. 

On dry banks, and by way sides, on a chalky soil, plentifully. 

Perennial. August. 

Rather smaller in every part than the last, especially the leaves, 
which nevertheless are more strongly serrated. The ^ower- 
stalks are more compound, much longer than the adjoining 
leaves. The odour of the herbage is very strong, resembling 
Mentha Pulegium. The very prominent and conspicuous white 
hairs, in the mouth of the calyx, afford an obvious distinction 
between this and T. Calamintha. 

300. MELITTIS. Bastard-Balm. 

Liiin. Gen. 299. Juss. 116. Fl. Br. 643. Lam. ^ 5 13. 

Cal. bell-shaped, slightly angular, direct, somewhat two- 
lipped, variously lobed ; upper lip rather longest, acute ; 
lower rather shorter, acute, deeply cloven. Cor. rin- 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Melittis. -Ill 

gent ; tube much narrower than the calyx ; throat a httle 
dilated ; upper lip erect, rounded, entire, slightly con- 
cave ; lower spreading, in 3 deep obtuse lobes, the mid- 
dle one largest, inversely heart-shaped. Filam. awl- 
shaped, straight, shorter than the upper lip, the 2 inter- 
mediate ones shortest. AntJi. two-lobed, converging in 
pairs forming a double cross. Germ, in 4 obtuse downy 
lobes. Style thread-shaped, reaching to the anthers. 
Stigma cloven, acute. Seeds 4, oval, small, in the bottom 
of the open unaltered calyx. 
Herbs which acquire in drying the scent of hay. Stems 
mostly simple, leafy, erect, 18 inches high, square, rough 
with spreading or deflexed hairs. Leaves stalked, ovate, 
serrated. Fl. large, handsomely variegated with purple 
and white, solitary or aggregate, on short, simple, axil- 
lary stalks. 

1. M. Melissophyllum. Reddish Bastard-Balm. 
Calyx with three unequal, partly notched, lobes. 

M. Melissophyllum. Linn. Sp. PL 832. Willd. v. 3. 1 57, with con- 
fused synonyms. Huds. 264. Fl. Br. 643. Engl. Bot.v.9.t.577. 
Jacq. Austr. t. 26. 

Melissophyllum. Riv. Monop. Irr. t.2l.f.2. 

M. n. 244. Hall. Hist. V. I. 107. 

Melissa Fuchsii. Raii Sijn. 242. Lob. Ic. 515./. Camer. Hort. 99. 
t. 30, separate calyx very correct. 

M. Fuchsii, flore purpureo. Ger. Em. 690./. 

Lamium Pannonicum primum, versicolore flore. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 
37./. 

In woods and hedges of the south and west of England. 

About Totnes, Devonshire, and Haverford-west^ Pembrokeshire. 
Ray. In the New Forest, Hampshire. Huds. Roots brought 
from Devonshire, by Mr. Hudson, have long been cultivated in 
Chelsea garden. Mr. Fairbairn. In St. Leonard's forest, Sus- 
sex, and near Netley Abbey, Hampshire. Mr. Lightfoot's her- 
barium. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root fibrous, slightly creeping. Herbage deep green, finely hairy, 
especially the stem, which is almost entirely without branches. 
Leaves 1|- or 2 inches long, copiously and equally serrated, 
veiny ; paler beneath. Fl. 1, 2 or 3 in the bosom of each leaf, 
on round, simple stalks about equal to the footstalks, all turned 
one way. Cal. reticulated with hairy veins, coloured, fringed, 
the margin gaping, unequally three-lobed ; upper lobe longest, 
acute, often with a single notch at each side ; two lower ones 
equal, lateral, either undivided or notched. Cor. twice or thrice 



112 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Scutellaria. 

the length of the calyx, downy ; externally pale red, or flesh- 
coloured ; internally whitish, with a central crimson spot on 
each lateral lobe of the lower lip, and a double one, with paler 
stains, on the middle lobe. 
The whole plant, when it begins to dry, becomes highly fragrant, 
like Woodruff, or Vernal Grass. 

2. M.. grandijlora. Purple-and- white Bastard-Balm. 

Calyx with four nearly equal lobes. 

M. grandiflora. Fl.Br.&AA. Engl. Bot.v.9. t.636. Dicks. H. Sice. 

/osc. 18. 17. 
M. Melissophyllum. Mill. Illustr. t. 52. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 39. 
Melissophyllum. Fuchs. Hist. 498. f. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 21. f. I. 
M. Fuchsii et Dodonaei. Dalech. Hist. 958. f. 
Melissa Fuchsii flora albo. Ger. Em. 690./. 
Lamium Pannonicum primum, albo flore. Cbis. Hist. v. 2. 37./. 

In woods and hedges, in the south-west extremity of England. 

By the road side at Hall, near Barnstaple, Devonshire. Curtis. 
A mile from Ashburton, in the road towards Plymouth ; also at 
Liskard, Cornwall. Mr. D. Turner and Mr. Sowerby. 1799. 

Perennial. May. 

Like the foregoing in general aspect, but the leaves are rather 
broader, and more acutely serrated. The /lowers are obviously 
and essentially different. Cal. in 4 almost perfectly equal, un- 
divided or notched, lobes, which are all lateral. Cor. larger than 
the former, and very handsome, rather cream-coloured than pure 
white, the middle lobe only, of the lower lip, almost entirely 
occupied by an uninterrupted violet spot, a lighter stain of this 
same colour running along the tube \inderneath. The scent in 
drying agrees with the former. The calyx varies a little with 
respect to occasional notches, but is always sufficiently unlike 
the other more general species. Both however are natives of 
Switzerland, as well as of England, and were probably con- 
founded by Haller. 

301. SCUTELLARIA. Skull-cap. 

Linn. Gen.301. Jiiss.\\7. Fl.Br. 645. Lam.t.5l5. 
Cassida. Tourn. t. 84. 

Cal. tubular, very short; orifice slightly 2-lipped, in 4 
shallow, obtuse, entire lobes ; closed after flowering by a 
dorsal incumbent scale. Cor. ringent, closed ; tube very 
short ; throat much longer, ascending, compressed, di- 
lated upward ; upper lip concave, in 3 segments, the 
middle one cloven, concave, side ones flat, acute, covered 
by the others ; lower lip broader, in 3 shallow lobes. 
Filam. 4, concealed by the upper lip. An-th. small, 



DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Scutellaria. 113 

roundish, incumbent, 2-lobed. Germ. 4-lobed. Style 
thread-shaped, on a level with the stamens. Stigma 
simple, acute, incurved. Seeds 4, roundish, in the bot- 
tom of the permanent calyx, covered by the enlarged 
dorsal scale, vi^hich is bent down in front over the already 
closed mouth of the tube. 
Perennial herbs, with axillary, or spiked and bracteated, 
handsome, blue, purple, red, or yellow jlonsoers. Leaves 
simple; either entii*e, or more or less deeply serrated, 
scarcely aromatic. Cal. when in fruit very peculiar, like 
a box with a fixed lid. 

1. ^. galer'icidata. Common Skull-cap. 

Leaves lanceolate, crenate, rugged ; heart-shaped at the 
base. Flowers axillary. 

S. galericulata. Linn. Sp. PL 835. Willd.v. 3. 1 73. Fl. Br. 645. 

Engl. Bot.v.S.t. ^23. Curt.Lnnd.fasc.3. t.36. Hook. Scot.\85. 

Fl. Dan. t. 637. Bull. Fr. t. 275. Ehrh. PI. Off. 146. 
Scutellaria. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 77./. 1 . 
Cassida n. 280. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 122. 
C. palustris vulgatior, flora caeruleo. Raii Syn. 244. 
Lysimachia galericulata. Lob. Ic. 344./. Dalech. Hist. 1060./. 

Ger. Em. 477. f. 
Hood-Mint. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 34. f. 10. 

About the reedy margins of rivers, as well as in ditches, and other 
watery situations, frequent. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root creeping. Herb deep green, often tinged with a violet hiie, 
more or less downy. Stem 12 or 18 inches high, erect, leafy, 
.simple, or branched in the middle. Leaves on very short stalks, 
above an inch long, tapering from a heart-shaped base into a 
broadish-lanceolate, obtuse figure, with shallow notches or ser- 
ratures, veiny, scarcely wrinkled. Fl. axillary, solitary, an inch 
long, drooping, nearly sessile, scentless, variegated with shades 
of blue ; the lip streaked with white ; the mouth closed. After 
the fall of the corolla, the closed calyx and its lid become re- 
markable, and characterize the genus beyond all uncertainty, 

2. S. 7nmor. Lesser Skull-cap. 

Leaves ovate, nearly entire ; hear t-sli aped, and occasionally 
lobed, at the base. Flowers axillary. 

S. minor. Lin7i. Sp. PI. 835. Willd.v.3.\73. Fl.Br.64o. Engl. 

Bot. V. 8. t. 524. Curt. Lond. fasc. 4. t. 43. Hook. Scot. 185. 

Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 5. 6. 
Cassida palustris minima, flore purpurascente. Tourn. Inst, 182. 

Raii Syn. 244. Lind. Alsat. 2 1 6. L 9. 
voi^. HI. I 



114 DIDYNAMIA— GYMNOSPERMIA. Prunella. 

Gratiola latifolia. Ger. Em. 581./. 

Small Hood-Mint. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 34. /. 11 . 

On moist heaths, in a gravelly soil, less common than the last. 

Perennial. July, August. 

More branched than the preceding, and scarcely one third its size. 
Leaves broader, not at all wrinkled ; either quite entire, or di- 
lated and notched at the base, so as to approach a hastate form. 
Fl. not half so large as in S. galericulaia, of a delicate pink co- 
lour, rarely inclining to blue 5 thelovver lip white, dotted with red. 

302. PRUNELLA. Self-heal. 

Linn: Gen. 301. Fl.Br.646. 

Brunella. Juss.]\6. Tourn.t. 84. Lam.t.b\6. 

Cal. bell-shaped, two-lipped ; upper lip flat, dilated, very 
abrupt, with 3 very short acute teeth ; lower much nar- 
rower, but about as long, straight, separated half way 
down into 2 spinous-pointed segments. Cor. ringent ; 
tube short, cylindrical ; throat longer and wider ; upper 
lip concave, entire, inflexed ; lower reflexed, in 3 round- 
ed, obtuse, crenate lobes, the middle one broadest. 
Filam. awl-shaped, the 2 uppermost shortest, all forked, 
more or less perfectly, at the summit. Anth. on the 
lower branch of each filament, opening transversely by 2 
valves. Germ, four-lobed. Sfi/le thread-shaped, directed, 
like the stamens, towards the upper lip, and on a level 
with them. Stigma in two sharp recurved points. Seeds 
4, oval, in the bottom of the closed, dry, reticulated 
calyx. 

Perennial, downy or roughish, Europaean herbs, with un- 
divided or pinnatifid leaves, and solitary, terminal,whorl- 
ed, dense, bracteated spikes of dark blue, or purplish, 
inodorous Jlowers. Herbage not aromatic. Species few. 

1. V. vulgaris. Common Self-heal, or Slough-heal. 

All the leaves ovate-oblong, stalked. Teeth of the upper 
lip of the calyx scarcely discernible. 

P. vulgaris. Linn. Sp. PL 837. mild.v.3. \76. Fl. Br. 646. Engl. 

Bot.v.]4.t.96\. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 42. Mart. Rust. t.\37 . 

Hook. Scot. \85. Fl. Dan. t. 910. 
Prunella. Rail Syn. 238. Ger. Em. 632. f. Fuchs. Hist. 621. f. 
Brunella. Riv. Monop. Irr. i.29. Dod. Pempt. 136./. 
B. n. 277. Hall. Hist. V. 1.120. 
Consolida minor. Matth. falgr.v. 2. 312./. Camer. Epit.7 03. f. 

(5. Brunella minor. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 120. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 29. 
/. 1,' wanting in some copies. 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. 115 

In meadows and pastures common. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Hoot somewhat creeping. Stems a span high, erect or ascending, 
leafy, square, downy at the opposite sides with upright hairs ; 
branched chiefly in the lower part. Leaves stalked, ovate or 
oblong, acute or bluntish, crenate, or wavy, or, in variety /3, 
quite entire ; paler beneath, with downy ribs. Fl. numerous, 
deep purplish blue, in dense, solitary, erect, cylindrical, whorled 
spikes ; each whorl of 6 flowers, subtended by a pair of broad, 
obtuse, ribbed, partly coloured, bracteas, shorter than the calyx. 
The barren branch of the 2 upper stamens is sometimes shorten- 
ed and blunted. 

This herb is, in Germany, reckoned salutary for ulcerations of the 
throat and mouth, called in the language of that country die 
Breune, whence, says Ray, came the name of Brunella. Linnseus 
softened that barbarous appellation into Prunella, without ren- 
dering it more classical. 



DIDYNAMIA ANGIOSPERMIA. 

This order of the artificial system of Linnaeus consists, except 
Digitalis, of his own natural order o^ Personatce, 40, and 
comprehends two of Jussieu's, Pediculares, 35, and Sc7'0- 
phularice, 40. To the former belong, more or less exactly, 
all the British genera of our first section, characterized 
by a four-cleft calyx ; as well as Pedicularis, whose calyx 
is five-cleft, and Orohanche, which has a two-lipped, or 
two-leaved, calyx. To the Scrophularice belong all our 
genera with a five"-cleft calyx, except Pediadaris and Liii- 
ncea, the latter being properly referred to Jussieu's Ca- 
■prifolia, 58, the first section of. which only really consti- 
tutes the order so named. The Pediculares and true Scro- 
phularice have been united by Mr. Brown, Prodr. N. 
Holl. V. 1. 433, under the appellation of Scrophularina:. 
Two new orders have nevertheless been recently founded, 
out of these, by M. Richard, the Melampyracecc and 
Orohancliece. I presume to think them superfluous, and 
shall offer my reasons under the genera whose names 
they bear. 

Mr. Brown thus defines his Scrophularinee. 

Calyx divided, permanent. 



116 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Bartsia. 

Corolla of 1 petal, inferior, mostly irregular, segments im- 
bricated in the bud, deciduous. 

Stamens generally 4, 2 longer and 2 shorter, rarely equal : 
sometimes but 2. 

Germen with many seeds, in 2 cells ; style 1 ; stigma 2- 
lobed ; rarely undivided. 

Capsule, (very rarely a Berry,) of 2 cells, with 2 or 4 valves, 
which are either undivided or cloven ; the partition either 
double, originating from the inflexed margins of the 
valves ; or simple, either parallel to the valves and undi- 
vided, or contrary to them and separable into 2 parts. 
Receptacles central, attached to the partition, sometimes 
separating finally from it. 

iSeer/5 numerous, albuminous; the £?«irj/o internal, straight; 
Radicle directed towards the scar. 

Herbs, sometimes sJinibs, with for the most part opposite 
leaves. Iiiflorescence various. Stipulas none. 

Mr. Brown justly reprehends Jussieu for making the di- 
stinction of a parallel or transverse partition in the fruit 
absolute, thus splitting one natural order into two. It is 
like making a character "give a genus, not a genus a 
character," one of the great causes of so many unnatural 
genei-a in Zoology as well as Botany. An American 
writer has remarked also that " the recent custom among 
Geologists, of cutting up and subdividing, seems to be 
upon the point of ruining the simplicity of the Wernerian 
arrangement, as the same custom among Botanists has 
already nearly ruined the Linnaean system of vegetables." 
Van Rensselaer'' s Suri>ey of the Erie Canal, ]}. 17. I hope 
this last remark is not correctly true, and that such in- 
judicious attempts will be resisted by those who possess 
the talent of scientific combination ; which, in Natural 
History, is full as necessary as that of observation and 
discrimination, and much less common. 

303. BARTSIA. Bartsia. 

Linn. Gen. 303. Juss. 100. Fl.Br.647. 

Nat. Ord. Personates. Linn. 40. Pedicnlares. Juss. 35. Scro- 
phulaj-ina;. Br. Prodr. 433. 

Cal. tubular, more or less coloured ; the border in 4 acute, 
nearly equal, segments. Cor. ringent, rather compressed ; 
tube short ; throat funnel-shaped ; upper lip longest, 
concave, undivided; lower reflexed, small, in 3 deep, 
nearly equal lobes. Filam. thread-shaped, about the 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Bartsia. 117 

length of the upper lip, incurved. A7ith. incumbent, a 
little hairy, of two cells opening longitudinally in front, 
and all collected together under the upper lip. Germ. 
simple, ovate, acute. Style thread-shaped, curved. Stig- 
ma obtuse, undivided. Caps, ovate, pointed, compressed, 
of 2 cells and 2 valves ; the partition contrary to the 
valves, finally splitting lengthwise, and each portion 
bearing a longitudinal receptacle. Seeds numerous, small, 
angular, attached by their inner edge to each receptacle. 
Downy herbs, mostly perennial, turning black in drying. 
Stems erect, leafy, square or round ; simple or branched. 
Leaves simple, nearly or quite sessile, mostly opposite, 
serrated. Fl. purple, red, or yellow, in leafy, or brac- 
teated, terminal, upright spikes. 

1 . B. alpina. Alpine Bartsia. 

Leaves opposite, ovate, somewhat heart-shaped, bluntly 
serrated. Stem square. Root creeping. 

B. alpina. Linn. Sp. PI. 839. fVUld.v.3.\87. Fl.Br.647. Engl. 
Bot.v. 6. t. 361. Hook. Scot. 186. Lond. t. 87 , eyicelient. Dicks. 
H. Sicc.fasc. 10. 1 4. Fl. Dan. t. 43. 

Staehelinia n. 312. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 136. 

Euphrasia rubra Westmorlandica, foliis brevibus obtusis. Rait 

Syn.*285. 
Clinopodio alpino. Pon. Bald. 207./. 
Clinopodium alpinum. Pon. in Clus. Hist. v. 2. 343./. Ger. Em. 

676./. 

C. alpinum hirsutum. Pluk. Almag. WO. Pfiyt. t.] 63./ 5. 
Chamaedri vulgari falsae aliquatenus affinis alpina. Bauh. Hist.v.3. 

p. 2. 289./ 
Orton Red Eye-bright. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 36./. 8. 

In boggy alpine meadows, or about the borders of mountain rivu- 
lets, in the north of England and Highlands of Scotland. 

Near Orton, Westmoreland, by a rivulet which accompanies the 
road to Crosby. Ray, Hudson. Near Middleton in Teesdale. 
Rev. Mr. Harriman and Mr. Oliver. On the Yorkshire as well as 
Durham side of the river. Dr. Hooker. Among rocks to the 
east of Malghyrdy, in the Highlands of Scotland. Mr. Dickson. 
On Ben Lawers. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. July. 

Root moderately creeping. Sterns from 4 to 8 inches high, quite 
simple, quadrangular, most hairy on the opposite sides. Leaves 
sessile, in pairs crossing each other, ovate, or somewhat heart- 
shaped, veiny, deep green, strongly serrated, not an inch long. 
Fl. inodorous, on short, solitary stalks, from the bosoms of se- 
veral of the uppermost, diminished, purplish, crowded leaves, 



118 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Bartsia. 

forming a dense leafy spike. Cal. also purplish, viscid. Cor. of 
a vivid purplish blue. Seeds deeply furrowed along their outer 
edge. 

The whole plant turns quite black in drying, especially if gathered 
young ; and, as Dr. Hooker observes, cannot be seen to ad- 
vantage except in its native places of growth, where it makes a 
beautiful appearance. It occupies the loftiest alps of Switzerland 
and Savoy. 

Linnaeus having, very early, dedicated this genus to his highly de- 
serving but unfortunate friend Bartsch ; who died at Surinam, 
in consequence of the neglect, if not persecution, of his slave- 
trading countrymen the Dutch ; could not adopt the name given 
by Halier, but established another very handsome Stcehelina on 
the recommendation of the latter. See Limcsan Correspondence, 
V. 2. 294, &c. 

2. B. viscosa. Yellow Viscid Bartsia. 

Leaves serrated; upper ones alternate. Flowers lateral 
and distant. Stem round. Root fibrous. 

B. viscosa. Linn. Sp. PL S39. fVilld. v. 3. 186. Fl.Br.648. Engl. 

Bot.v.\5.t.]045. Lightf.32].t. 14. Hook. Scot. 186. Lond. 

t.l67. Dicks. Dr. Pl.72. 
Euphrasia major lutea latifolia palustris. Raii Sijn. *285. Pluk. 

Phyt. t. 27/. 5, very bad ; coj3ied by Petiver, H. Brit. t. 36. f. 6. 
Alectorolophos Italica luteo-pallida. Barrel. Ic. t. 665, good. 

In marshy ground, in the western parts of Britain and Ireland, but 
rare. 

In several parts of Cornwall and Devonshire. Huds. F. Borone, and 
Mr. E. Forster. Plentiful near Ormskirk, Lancashire. Huds. 
At AUerton, near Liverpool. Mr. Robert Roscoe. In Argylshire. 
Light/, and Mr. J. Mackay. Dr. Hooker mentions several sta- 
tions of this plant, on the south-west side of Scotland. It is said 
by Dr. Wade, PI. Rar. Hib. 49, to grow in a bog, 6 miles from 
Cork, on the road to Killarney. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root fibrous. Stem solitary, erect, round, downy, from 3 to 15 
inches high, leafy, simple, except occasionally when very luxu- 
riant. Leaves sessile, ovate-lanceolate, strongly serrated, veiny, 
dov/ny, about an inch long ; the lower ones generally opposite ; 
upper, or floral, ones alternate. Fl. on short solitarj- stalks, from 
the bosoms of half, or two-thirds, of the leaves, crowded about 
the summit of the stem. Cal. with a whitish tube and green 
border, all over hairy and viscid. Cor. twice as long, yellow, 
with some stains or streaks of red or purple ; the segments of 
its lower lip rounded. Seeds minute, angular, not bordered, 

Mr. Hopkirk observed the flowers to have an agreeable, faint, 
musky smell. Hooker. 

Linnaeus confounded this plant with his Rhinanthus Trixago, which 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Rhinanthus. 119 

is indeed a Bartsia, but, a distinct species 5 seeProdr. Fi.Grcec. 
r. 1.427. 

3. B. Odontites. Red Bartsia. 

Leaves lanceolate, serrated ; the upper ones alternate. 
Flowers forming unilateral clusters. Stem square, branch- 
ed. Root fibrous. 

B. Odontites, Huds. 268. Fl. Br. 648. Engl. Bot. v. 20. t. 1415. 
Relh. 240. Hook. Scot. \86. 

Euphrasia Odontites. Linn. Sp. PI. 841 . Willd. v. 3. 194. Curt. 
Lond.fasc. 1 . t. 44. Mart. Rust. t. 42. Fl. Dan. t. 625. 

E. pratensis rubra. Bauh. Pin. 234. Raii Syn. *284. 

E. altera. Dod. Pempt. 55. f. Lob. Ic. 496. f. Dalech. Hist. 
1167./. 

Odontites, Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 90./. 2. 

O.n. 304. Hall. Hist. v.\.\M. 

Crataeogonon Euphrosine, Ger. Em. 91. f. 

Red Eye-bright, Petiv. H. Brit. t. 36. f. 7. 

In meadows and pastures, especially on a cold and wet clay soil. 

Annual. July, August. 

About a foot high, more or less ; copiously branched, each branch 
terminating in a leafy unilateral cluster, or rather spike, of nu- 
merous, rose-coloured, scentless powers, whose calyx is tinged 
with a dull violet hue. Every part, even the calyx and corolla, 
is finely downy ; the stem rough with deflexed hairs. Anthers 
hairy at the back and lower part, as in the other species, though 
otherwise smooth ; their lobes are acute, but hardly bristly. 
Seeds angular, striated. 

304. RHINANTHUS. Yellow Rattle. 

Linn.Gen.304. Juss.iOl. Fl.Br.649. Lam.t.b\7. Gcertn.t.6A. 
Pedicularis species. Tourn. t. 77 , B, F, M. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 303. 

Cal. compressed, somewhat inflated, rounded, bladdery, 
vemy, permanent ; the margin in 4 nearly equal, acute, 
deep teeth, broad at their base. Cor. ringent, nearly 
closed ; tube almost cyhndrical, the length of the calyx ; 
upper lip narrowest, hooded, compressed, slightly cloven; 
lower broadest, expanded, divided half way into 3 ob- 
tuse segments, the middle one rather the largest. Filam. 
thread-shaped, shorter than the upper lip, and concealed 
within it. Anth. incumbent, 2-lobed, hairy, not promi- 
nent. Germ, ovate, compressed, with a channel at each 
side. Style thread-shaped, curved, somewhat longer 
than the stamens. Stigma deflexed, obtuse. Caps, round- 
ish-ovate, compressed, obtuse with a small point, of 2 



120 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Rhinanthus. 

cells, and 2 valves separating at the margin ; partitions 
transverse, combined, narrow. Seeds several, obovate, 
compressed, imbricated, curved downwards, more or 
less bordered. 

Annual herbs, with square, leafy, upright stems ; oblong, 
sessile, sharply and copiously serrated leaves; and nu- 
merous yellow flowers, in leafy spikes, without scent. 

JElephas of Tournefort, t. 482, might perhaps form a distinct 
genus, though there is no propriety in calling it an Ele- 
phant ; any more than there would be in giving the name 
of Asinus to a genus with long hairy ears to the coroUa. 

1. R. Crista gain. Common Yellow Rattle. 

Stem slightly branched. Leaves lanceolate, serrated. Ca- 
lyx smooth. Style concealed by the upper lip. Seeds 
with a dilated membranous border. 

R. Crista galli. Linn. Sp. PI. 840, a. Willd. u. 3. 1 88, a. Fl. Br. 

649. Engl. Bot. v. 10. t. 657. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 43. Mart. 

Rust. 1. 138. Hook. Scot. 186. FL Dan. t. 981 ? 
R. minor. Ehrh. Herb. 46. Beitr. v. 6. 144. 
Alectorolophus n. 313. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 137. 
Pedicularis sen Crista galli lutea. Rail Syn. *284. 
Crista galli. Ger. Em. 1071./. ? Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 92./. 3. 
C. galli foemina. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 436./. 

In rather barren meadows and pastures very common. 

Annual. June. 

Root fibrous. Stem about a foot high, with few and generally short 
branches, leafy, square, often spotted with red or purple, smooth. 
Leaves lanceolate, spreading, acute, sharply serrated, rough and 
minutely wrinkled on both sides, from an inch to an inch and 
half long ; dilated and heart-shaped at the base. Fl. crowded 
into a terminal, leafy, or rather bracteated, spike, each pair 
cro.?sing the next. Bracteas heart-shaped, acute, serrated, 
green. Cal. bladdery, strongly ribbed, smooth. Cor. yellow ; 
the segments of its upper lip short, blueish. Neat, an ovate, 
purple, concave scale, at the base of one edge of the broad 
flattish germen. Anth. red, awnless, of 2 distinct very hairy 
lobes, quite concealed by the arched upper lip of the corolla, as 
are likewise the style and stigma, though the latter sometimes 
becomes prominent as the flower fades. Caps, dry and mem- 
branous, making a rattling noise when touched. Seeds brown, 
smooth, each bordered with a broadish, thin, flat, membranous 
wing. 

This plant is reckoned unprofitable to the farmer, encumbering 
rather than enriching his crop of hay, as cattle are not fond of 
jt; an4 whether they ever eat it by choice is doubtful. 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Euphrasia. 121 

2. R. major. Large Bushy Yellow Rattle. 

Stem much branched. Leaves linear-lanceolate, serrated. 
Bracteas taper-pointed. Calyx smooth. Style prominent. 
Seeds slightly bordered. 

R. major. Ehrh. Herb. 56. Beitr.v. 6. 144. 

R. Crista gain /3. Linn. Sp. PL S40. Willd.v.3. 189. Fl.Br.649. 

Alectorolophus n. 313 /3. Hall. Hist.v. 1 . 137. 

Pedicularis major angustifolia ramosissima, flore minore luteo, la- 

bello purpureo. Dill, in Raii Syn. *284. 
Crista galli angustifolia men tana. Bauh. Pi7i. 163. Prodr.86. 

In corn-fields in the north of England. 

A mile from Borough-bridge, in the road to Knaresborough, also 
between Wetherby and Catall, Yorkshire ; and near West New- 
ton, Northumberland ; always among corn. Dr. Richardson. 
Plentifully on Stockton Common, and in many other parts of 
the county of Durham, in corn-fields " approaching to peat j" 
sometimes nearly obliterating crops of corn. Mr. James Back- 
house. 

Annual. July, 2 or 3 weeks later than the former. 

Dr. Richardson distinguished this species, from our common R. 
Crista galli, by its greater size, copious branches, narrower 
leaves, and smaller^owers with a pui-ple (upper) lip. Ehrhart 
has characterized it by the incurved tube of the corolla, which in 
the former is straight. Mr. Backhouse, to whom I am obliged 
for numerous wild specimens, says it may be known at first 
sight by its greater size, being 2 feet high, much branched, and 
bushy ; its much denser spikes ; and its yellowish bracteas, each 
of which terminates in an elongated green point. The seg- 
ments of the upper lip of the corolla are wedge-shaped, and 
purple. Germen narrower, and more tumid, than in R. Crista 
galli. Style prominent. Nectary heart-shaped, more spread- 
ing, and greenish. The seeds are thick at the edge, and not 
quite destitute of a membranous margin, but this is much nar- 
rower than in the former. Prof. Afzelius long ago assured 
me that R. major of Ehrhart differed in its seeds from our com- 
mon Crista galli. The Alectorolophus n. 314, of Haller, which 
is less branched, with broader leaves, and a hairy calyx, appears 
very distinct from our R. major, and more allied to R. Crista 
gain. I have R. major gathered by Mr. Davall, on some of the 
loftiest of the mountains of Switzerland. 

305. EUPHRASIA. Eye-bright. 

Linn. Gen. 304. Juss. 100. FZ. fir. 650. Tourn.t.78. Lam. 
t.5]8. Gcertn.t.54. ■ 

Nat. Ord. see ??. 303. 

Cal. tubular, cylindrical, ribbed, permanent ; the margin 



122 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Euphrasia. 

in 4 deep, equal, pointed teeth. Cor. ringent, open ; tube 
the length of the calyx, cylindrical ; throat short, some- 
what wider ; limb variable in size ; its upper lip slightly 
concave, with several notches ; lower spreading, in 3 deep, 
more or less unequal, obtuse, cloven, or inversely heart- 
shaped, lobes. Filam. thread-shaped, directed towards 
the upper lip. Anth. incumbent, large, of 2 roundish 
lobes pointed at their base, the points of the lower an- 
thers elongated into straight bristly spines, of unequal 
lengths. Germ, ovate. Style thread-shaped, as long as 
the stamens. Stigma obtuse, undivided. Caps, oblong, 
obtuse, compressed, of 2 cells and 2 membranous valves. 
Seeds several, minute, elliptic-oblong, compressed, nu- 
merously furrowed longitudinally at each side. 
Branched herbs of humble growth, smooth or downy, not 
aromatic. Leaves opposite, sessile, either ovate and ser- 
rated, or linear and entire. Fl. in leafy spikes, nume- 
rous, either variegated or yellow. 

1. ^.officinalis. Common Eye-bright. 
Leaves ovate, furrowed, sharply toothed. 

E. officinalis. Linn. Sp. PL 84 1 . Willd. v. 3.1 93. Fl. Br. 650. 

Engl Bot. V. 20. t. 1416. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 42. fVoodv. 

suppl. t. 220. Hook. Scot. 1 86. Bull. Fr. t. 233. 
E. n. 303. Hall. Hist. ?;. 1 . 1 33. 
Euphrasia. Raii Syn. *29>A. Riv. Monop. In: t. 90. f. I. Fuchs. 

Hist.246.f. Ic.\37.f. Trag. Hist. 328. f. Ger. Etn.663.f. Lob. 

Ic. 496./. 
Euphragia. Matth. Valgr. v. 2.369. f. Corner. Epit.767.f. 

On heaths, and in mountainous pastures, abundantly. 

Annual. July — September. 

An elegant little plant, varying in height from one inch to 4 or 5, 
with a square, downy, leafy stem, either simple or branched. 
Leaves ^ or i an inch long, almost entirely opposite, ovate or 
heart-shaped, downy, strongly ribbed and furrowed, with sharp 
tooth-like serratures. Fl. axillary, solitary, very abundant, in- 
odorous, but remarkable for their brilliant variegated aspect, on 
which account, it seems, the plant became celebrated as good 
for weak eyes. The corolla varies much in size as well as co- 
lour, being commonly white, with deep purple streaks, and a 
yellowish palate ; the anthers violet. On the mountains of 
Scotland there is a more slender variety, with smaller but more 
richly tinted blossoms ; on the Alps a dwarf, large-flowered, 
more purple variety is common. The seeds are few, somewhat 
angular, thin at the edges, strongly striated, or furrowed, at the 
sides. 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Melampyrum. 123 
30(3. MELAMPYRUM. Cow-wheat. 

Linn. Gen. 305. Juss.lOl. Fl.Br.6o\. Tourn.t.78. Lam. 
t.5lS. Gesrtn.t. 53. 

Nat. Ord. see the 3 preceding genera. 

Cal. tubular, permanent ; the border in 4? deep, straight, 
unequal, rather long and narrow segments. Cor. rin- 
gent, moderately gaping ; tube oblong, curved ; throat 
a little dilated, compressed; upper lip vaulted, com- 
pressed, notched, with a narrow, reflexed border at 
each side ; lower flattish, slightly plaited, with 2 protu- 
berances on the palate, direct, as long as the upper, di- 
vided half way into 3 nearly equal, obtuse segments. Fi- 
lam. from the throat, awl-shaped, shortish, incurved, 
meeting under the upper lip. Anth, converging, oblong, 
each of 2 oblong pointed lobes. Germ, ovate, pointed. 
Style thread-shaped, inclosed in the corolla. Stigma de- 
flexed, obtuse. Caps, oblong, obliquely pointed, rather 
compressed, but tumid ; its upper edge convex ; lower 
straight; of 2 cells and 2 valves, bursting at the upper 
margin ; the partitions transverse, narrow. Seeds 2 in 
each cell, smooth, ovate-oblong, tumid, obtuse, attached, 
by a short, thick, spongy stalk, to the base of the parti- 
tions. 

Branched, spreading, annual, nearly smooth herbs, 12 or 18 
inches high, with bluntly quadrangular stems ; opposite, 
entire leaves ; and handsome bracteated spikes of yellow 
and purpley?0TOe?*5 ; the bracteas pointed, elegantly tooth- 
ed, and variously coloured. The seeds are, without doubt, 
naturally 2 in each cell, and resemble grains of wheat. 
All the species turn black in drying. 

This genus and its nearest allies are admirably distinguish- 
ed by their seeds, and to make a naturalorder of ilf^/a?w- 
pyracece on account of any peculiarity in ihe fruit or seed, 
which is only indicative of a generic distinction, appears 
to me not judicious. 

1. M. cristatum. Crested Cow-wheat. 

Spikes quadrangular. Bracteas heart-shaped, closely im- 
bricated, finely toothed. 

M. cristatum. Linn. Sp. PI. 842. fViUd. v. 3. 1 97. Fl. Br. 65 J . 
Engl. Bot. V. l.t.4\. Riv. Monop. Irr. t.8l.f.2. 

M. 11.311. Hall. Hist. v.].]36. 

M. cristatum, flore albo et purpuveo. Raii Syn. *28G. Bauh. 
Hist. V. 3. p. 2. 440./. Moris, v. 3. 429. sect. W.t. 23. f. 2. 



124 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Melampyrum. 

M. angustifolium cristatum, spica quadrata, floribus ex luteo pal- 

lescentibus, nostras. Pluk. Alinag. 245. Phyt.t 99. f. 2. 
Crested Cow-wheat. Petiv. H. Brit. t.36.f. 10. 

In woods and thickets ; sometimes in corn-fields. 

Plentiful in Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire. Huds. In Maple- 
bush lane, Gressenhall, Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. Abundantly in 
Ripton wood Huntingdonshire. Mr. Woodward. 

Annual. July. 

Stem leafy, with wide-spreading branches, roughish to the touch, 
ieaues long and narrow, almost linear, rough-edged, Ij or 2 
inches in length. Spikes solitary, terminal, with close, pecti- 
nated, purplish bracteas, each tipped with a green leafy point. 
Fl. rather small, not quite closed, variegated with cream-colour 
and light purple ; the palate yellow. Cal. with lanceolate teeth, 
none of them longer than the tube, all minutely fringed, as are 
likewise the teeth of the bracteas. Anth. of a dark dull purple. 
Caps, crescent-shaped, thin, compressed, with 2 large seeds in 
each cell. 

2. M. arvense. Purple Cow-wheat. 

Spikes conical. Bracteas lax, lanceolate, pinnatifid. Calyx- 
teeth longer than the tube. Corolla closed. 

M. arvense. Linn. Sp. PL 842. Willd.v.3.l98. Fl. Br. 652. 

Engl. Bot. v.l. t. 53. Hook. Land. t. 63. Bicks. Dr. Pi. 74. 

Fl. Dan. t.9\\. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 80- 
M. n. 310. Hall. Hist. v.\.\36. 
M. purpurascente coma. Bauh. Pin. 234. Dill, in Raii Syn. *286. 

Moris. V. 3. 428. sect. W.t. 23. f. 1 . 
M. multis, sive Triticura vaccinum. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 439./. 
M. cseruleum. Ger. Em. 90. f. 

Triticum vaccinum. Trag. Hist. 663./. Dalech. Hist. 419./. 
Braun Fleyschbliim. Brun/. Herb. v. 2. 54./. 
Parietaria sylvestris tertia. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 45./. 

In corn-fields on a light soil. 

Near Lycham, Norfolk. Sherard. In the common field at Sporle 
in the same county, especially among wheat. Rev. Mr. Edwards, 
and Rev. J. S. Watts. At Swardeston and Keswick. Mr. Crowe; 
also at Costesy and Bixley ; all near Norwich. 

Annual. July. 

Stem 1^ or 2 feet high, purplish, acutely quadrangular j the branches 
more upright than in the foregoing. Leaves lanceolate, rough- 
edged, a little downy on both sides ; one or two of the upper 
pairs sometimes pinnatifid at the base. Spikes long, many- 
flowered. Bracteas loosely spreading, deeply pectinated or pin- 
natifid } the upper ones entirely, and the lower partially, co- 
loured of a delicate purplish rose-colour. Fl. large, about as 
long as the bracteas, without scent. Segments of the traZyx pe- 



i 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Melampyruni. 125 

culiarly long and linear, coloured like the bracteas. Cor. closed, 
yellow ; the lips variegated with rose-colour and purple. Seeds 
2 in each cell, though often by abortion solitary ; hence the ac- 
curate John Bauhin describes 2 or 3 in each capsule. They re- 
semble grains of wheat in shape and colour. 
This is one of our most beautiful wild plants. It will grow from 
fresh seed in a dry garden, and is well worthy of cultivation. 
The late Mr. Watts ob'<erved, that whenever the field at Sporle 
was cropped with wheat, but not otherwise, this Melampyrum 
might be found in abundance. At Costesy it is more constant, 
not only in the fields, but, as Dr. Hooker remarks, "on the 
dry banks which border them." M. barbatum of Willdenow 
.seems well distinguished by its gaping yellow^o«)ers, indepen- 
dent of the green bracteas. 

3. yi. pratense. Common Yellow Cow-wheat. 

Flowers axillary, in partly distant pairs, turned to one 
side. Corolla closed ; lip direct. Upper floral leaves 
toothed at the base. 

M. pratense. Linn. Sp. PI 843. Willd. v.3.\ 99. Fl. Br. 6.'32. 

Engl.Bot.v.2.t.l\3. With. 545. Light/. 324. Hook. Scot. 187. 
M. sylvaticum. Huds.270. TVade Dubl. \68. Riv. Monop. Irr. 

t.Sl.f. 1. 
M. n.308. Hall. Hist. v.\.\35. 
M. sylvaticum flore luteo, sive Satureia lutea sylvestris. Raii Syn. 

*286. Bauh. Hist. V. 3. p. 2. 441. 
M. luteum latifoHum. Bauh. Pin. 234 ; not 243, as in Willdenow, 

copied from Linnceus. 
Parietaria sylvestris secunda. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 44./. 
Crataeogonon. Lob. Ic. 36. f. 
C. album. Ger. Em. 91. 

Common Cow-wheat. Petiv.H. Brit. t. 36. f. 9. 
p. Melampyrum latifolium, flore albo, labio inferiore duabus ma- 

culis luteis distincto. Tourn. Par. 492. Dill, in Raii Syn. *286. 
M. pratense. Huds. 270. 

Frequent in woods and bu.shy places, especially on a clay or loamy 
soil. 

/S. In the wood by Dr. Richardson's house at North Bierley, York- 
shire. Dillenius. 

Annual July, August. 

Stem smooth, with several wide-spreading brandies, so as to be 
frequently almost decumbent. Leaves bright green, lanceolate, 
taper-pointed, smooth, or roughish at the edges only, entire, 
except those that accompany the flowers, which are more or 
less toothed at the base, and sometimes deeply pinnatifid, with 
very narrow segments, partaking much of the bracteas of the 
last species, and like them occasionally coloured ; but they are 



126 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Lathiaea. 

not so much crowded into a spike. Fl. axillary, solitary, oppo- 
site, turned in pairs to one side. Cal. bell-shaped, with teeth 
of its own length. Cor. pale at the base ; deep yellow towards 
the summit, with a purple spot at each side of the mouth, which 
is closed, not gaping, the lower lip prominent and straight, not 
deflexed; palate elevated, orange-coloured. Caps, with a curved 
point. Seeds 2 in each cell. 
Cows are reported to be fond of this plant, and Linnaeus says the 
best and yellowest butter is made where it abounds. /3 is given 
but as a variety by Dillenius himself, and Vaillant was of the 
same opinion. It seems to differ only in having paler flowers. 

4. M. sylvaticum. Wood Cow-wheat. 

Flowers axillary, in distant pairs, turned to one side. Co- 
rolla gaping ; lip deflexed. Leaves nearly all entire. 

M. sylvaticum. Linn. Sp. PL 843. M'illd. v. 3. 1 99 FL Br. 653. 

EngLBot.v. 12. t. 804. Light/. 325. Hook. Scot. 187. FLDan. 

t.l45. 
M. n.307. Ha/Z. His/. r. 1. 135. 

In alpine woods, especially in forests of fir. 

By the road side going from Taymouth to the hermitage, July, 1 775. 
Mr. Lightfoot, in his herbarium. At Wick Clifts ; Mr. Swayne. 
U^ith. Near Middleton in Teesdale, Durham. Rev. Mr. Harri- 
vianand Mr. E. Robson. Not uncommon in Scotland. Hooker. 

Annual, July, August. 

This agrees with the last in general habit, but is rather smaller, 
especially the Jlowers. The stem is roughish. Leaves broader, 
less apt to turn black in drying, all of them generally quite en- 
tire, as well as equidistant, each pair from the bottom of the 
branch u])wards, being accompanied by a pair of Jlowers, less 
decidedly turned to one side, and by no means crowded into 
spikes. Segments of the cali/x lanceolate, longer than the tube. 
Cor. half the size of the preceding, deep yellow, with some 
orange or red spots about the mouth, which is open, not closed ; 
the lower lip pointing downwards ; upper elevated. Capsule 
less pointed ; the valves reticulated with prominent veins. Seeds 
sometimes solitary in each cell, but mostly in pairs. 

307. LATHR^A. Tooth-wort. 

Linn. Gen. 305. Juss.l02. FLBr. G54. Lam.t. 551. Gctrtn.t. 52. 
Clandestina. Tourn. t. 424. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 303 — 306. Orohanchec^ of Richard. Hook. 
Scot. 222. 

Cal. bell-shaped ; border in 4 deep, upright, nearly equal, 
permanent segments. Cor. ringent ; tube as long as the 
calyx, or longer ; limb tumid ; upper Hp vaulted, acute, 



DIDYNAMIA—ANGIOSPERMIA. Lathisea. 127 

cloven or entire ; lower smaller, spreading, obtuse. Nect. 
a notched, depressed, fleshy gland, proceeding from the 
receptacle, at the lower side of the germen. Filam. awl- 
shaped, shorter than the corolla, concealed by its upper 
lip. Anth. converging, obtuse, their lobes pointed be- 
neath. Germ, roundish, compressed. Style cylindrical, 
scarcely the length of the corolla. Stigvia abrupt, notched, 
deflexed. C<z/J5. roundish, obtuse, with a point, of one 
cell and two membranous elastic valves, invested with 
the enlarged inflated calyx. Seeds numerous, roundish, 
rough, attached to a spongy, longitudinal, double recep- 
tacle, in the centre of each valve. 
Pei'ennial, succulent, parasitical, pallid ho'bs, partly subter- 
raneous, growing either immersed in crumbling vegetable 
mould, or among decayed leaves, at the roots of trees. 
Leaves thick, loosely imbricated, whitish, entire. Fl. ax- 
illary, either corymbose, or forming a leafy cluster, always 
above ground, purplish, or white, erect or drooping. 

1. \j. Squa?narid. Greater Tooth- wort. 

Flowering branches erect, simple. Flowers axillary, uni- 
lateral, pendulous ; lower lip in three lobes; upper cloven. 

L. Squamaria. Linn. Sp. PI. 844. Willd. v. 3. 201. FL Br. 654. 

Engl. Bot. v.l.t. 50. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 1 0. 13. Hook. Scot. 

187. Fl. Dan. t. 136. 
Squamaria. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 89./. 2. 
S. n.297. Hall. Hist. v.l.UO. 
Anblatum. Cord. Hist. 89. 2./. 

A. Cordi, sive Aphyllon. Raii Sy7i. * 288. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 783. f. 
Dentaria. Matth. Falgr.v.2.3]3.f. 
D. major. Camer. Epit.7 05. f. 

D. major MatthioJi. Ger. Em. 1585./. Blackstone 23. 
Orobanche radice dentata major et minor. Rudb. Elijs. i\ 2. 230. 

/7,8. 
O. radice squammata, foliis rotundis, flore pendente et suaveru- 

bente Funbaensis. Ibid. 234./. 17. 
O. radice dentata, altius radicata, foliis et flovibus albo-purpureis. 

Mentz. Pugill. t. 3. Moris, v. 3. 503. sect. 1 2. «. 1 6./. 14 j see 

alsof. 11. 

In dry shady places, mostly at the roots of hazels or elms. 

In several parts of Kent. Ray, Dickson. In a shady lane near 
Harefield, Middlesex, plentifully. Blackstone. We.stmoveland. 
Huds. At Exton, near Stamford. Earl of Gainsborough. In 
Newburgh woods, Yorkshire. Rev. Archdeacon Peirson. Under 
high rocks behind Saxton's bath house, Matlock. Rev. W. F. 
Drake. In St. Catharine's wood, Dublin. JVade PL Rar. Hib. 48. 



128 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Pedicularis. 

Perennial. April. 

Lower part of the stem immersed in loose earth, or dead leaves, 
branched, spreading, densely leafy,round,smooth, whitish ; flow- 
ering branches terminal, solitary, erect, 4 or 5 inches high, 
round, a little hairy, purplish, unbranched, leafy, many-flowered, 
ieai'esovate, thick,juicy, entire, smooth, cream-coloured; closely 
imbricated on the lower part of the stem ; more loosely on the 
flowering branches. Fl. axillary, solitary, stalked, drooping, 
rather longer than the leaves. Cal. of the hue and texture of 
the leaves ; hairy at the base ; segments smooth, incurved, 
the 2 uppermost largest. Cor. of a pale dull purple, with a 
white tube, about as long as the limb ; upper lip deeply cloven. 
Anth. large, hairy. Caps, large, thin, crowned by the withered 
style, and invested with the permanent calyx. 

The analogy of the preceding genus helps us to understand the 
herbage of this singular plant, and proves what is usually taken 
for roots to be a partly subterraneous stem. The real root is, I 
believe, fibrous and parasitical. The^oraZ /cores agree with the 
rest, as in Melampyrum sylvaticum. L. Clandestina has also ax- 
illary^owers, from a subterraneous herbage. 

308. PEDICULARIS. Louse-wort, or Red 

Rattle. 

Linn. Gen. 307. Juss. 101. Fl. Br. 655. Tourn. t. 77. f. A, D, 
Ej H— L. Lam. t.b\7. Gcertn. <. 53. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 303 — 306. 

Cal. with a roundish-ovate, tumid, but somewhat compressed, 
tube; the border in 5, sometimes only 2, unequal, leafy, 
more or less defined, jagged segments. Coi'. ringent ; tube 
oblong, unequal; upper lip narrowest, erect, vaulted, 
compressed, notched ; lower dilated, flat, in 3 deep obtuse 
lobes, the central one narrowest. Nect. a gland under 
the germen. Filam. thi-ead-shaped, concealed by the 
upper lip. Anth. incumbent, 2-lobed, acute at the lower 
part, compressed. Germ, ovate. Style thread-shaped, 
longer than the stamens. Stigma simple, deflexed. Caps. 
oblong, or ovate, pointed, oblique, of 2 cells and 2 valves, 
bursting at the summit, the partitions from the centre of 
each valve. Seeds few, angular, pointed, attached to a 
roundish receptacle, at the base between the partitions. 

A numerous and handsome, chiefly alpine, genus, of which 
we have only two species in Britfiin. The whole are in 
general perennial, herbaceous, erect, or ascending, with 
variously pinnatifid or pinnate, rather bluntly toothed, 
leaves, and red, purple, or partly yellow, Q[eg?a\tJlo'wers. 
They are mostly of an acrid quality, not acceptable to 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Pedicularis. 129 

domestic cattle, and turn black in drying. Sheep are 
said to become scabby after feeding for a short time on 
P. sylvatica, whence the name seems to have originated. 
Goats eat the various species, as they do, generally the 
most acrid plants. 

1. V. palustr'is. Marsh Louse »wort. Tall Red Rattle. 

Stem solitary, branched. Calyx ovate, hairy, ribbed, in 
two unequally notched lobes. 

P. palustris. Lmn. Sp. PL 845. Willd. v. .3. 202. Fl. Br. 655. 

Engl. Bot. V. C. t. 399. Hook. Scot. 187. Bull. Fr. 1. 129. 
P. n. 320. Hall. Hist. v. I. 139. 
P. palustri.-; rubra elation Rail Syn. *284. 
Pedicularis. Riv. Monop. Irr.t. 92. f. I.. 
Tall Red Rattle. Peliv. H. Brit. t. 36./. 3. 

In marshes and boggy meadows. 

Perennial ? June, July. 

Root small, by some said to be annual. Stem solitary, erect, 12 
or 15 inches high, leafy, angular, a little downy, with many la- 
teral, spreading, opposite branches. Leaves partly opposite, 
partly scattered, stalked, smooth, bright green, doubly pinna- 
tifid ; the segments obtuse, bluntly notched, various in breadth. 
Fl. axillary, opposite, solitary, nearly sessile, of an elegant crim- 
son, darker in the upper lip, without scent ; lower lip minutely 
fringed. Cal. with 2 principal lobes, variously notched. 

2. P. sylvatica. Pasture Louse-wort. Dwarf Red 

Rattle. ._____- -^ ' 

Stems several, spreading, simple. Calyx oblong, angular, 
smooth, in five unequal notched segments. 

P. sylvatica. Linn. Sp. PI. 845. M'illd. v. 3. 203. Fl. Br. 656. 
Engl. Bot. V. 6. t. 400. Hook. Scot. 188. FL Dan. t. 225. 

P. n.321. Hall. HisLv. I. 139. 

P. pratensis rubra vulgaris. Rail Syn. *284. 

P. pratensis purpurea. Bauh. Pin. 163. 

P. minor. Riv. Monop. Trr. t. 92. f.'2. 

Pedicularis. Ger.Em. \07\.f. Lob. Ic. 748./. 

Fistularia. Bod.Pempt.bbQ.f. 

Common Red Rattle. Petiv. H Brit t. 36./. 4. 

In moist, heathy, rather mountainous, pastures, frequent. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Of a more humble stature than the preceding, with several, spread- 
ing or recumbent, unbranched stems, from a large, fleshy, ta- 
pering, subdivided root, which Mr. Purton marks annual, as 
Ray does that of both our species. The present has no appear- 
ance of being so Leaves alternate, doubly pinnatifid and notch- 

VOL. III. '^ 



130 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Antirrhinum. 

ed ; radical ones ovate, undivided, crenate, recurved. Fl. of a 
more uniform rose-colour than the last ; the lobes of their lower 
lip not fringed. Cal. more oblong and tubular, with 4 larger 
angles, and as many intermediate smaller ones ; the margin un- 
equally cut into 5 notched segments. Unquestionably a most 
distinct species, though Willdenow expresses some doubts on 
the subject. 
The Marquis of Stafford found one regular salver-shaped Jlower, 
with 6 segments, and as many stamens, 4 of them long, and 2 
short, on a wild specimen, near his castle of Dunrobin in Su- 
therland, North Britain, in 1808. See Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 10. 
227. Dr. Hooker and Mr. Borrer met with a similar flower, in 
the same neighbourhood, the following season. 

309. ANTIRRHINUM. Toadflax, or Snap- 
dragon. 

Linn. Gen. .'JOD. Juss. 120. H. Br. 656. Tourn. t. 75. Lam. t. 531. 

Gmrtn. t. 53. Hall. Hist. v. I. 144. 
Linaria. Tourn. t. 76. Juss. 120. Desfont.Jtlant.v.2.37. Br. 

in Ait. H. Kew. ed. 2. v. 4. 10. 

Nat. Ord. Personatce. Linn. 40. Scrophularice. Juss. 40. 

Cal. in 5 deep, oblong, permanent segments ; the two lower 
ones rather the most distant from each other. Coi'. rin- 
gent; tube oblong; either tumid, or elongated into a 
spur of various lengths, at the base, which is the nectary ; 
upper lip cloven, reflexed at the sides; lower obtuse, 
three-lobed, with an elevated palate, closing the mouth, 
and hollow underneath. Filam. concealed under the 
upper lip ; sometimes accompanied by a fifth abortive 
stamen. Anth. converging. Germ, roundish, or ovate. 
Style thread-shaped, equal to the stamens. Stigma ob- 
tuse. Caps, roundish, or oval, obtuse, of 2 cells, bursting 
variously and irregularly at the summit. Seeds numerous, 
roundish, or angular, or winged, attached to an oblong 
cylindrical receptacle, in the middle of the partition. 

A numerous genus of annual or perennial herbs ; with round 
stems; simple, mostly entire, narrow and smooth, leaves,- 
axillary or clustered, particoloured, chiefly blue or yellow, 
powers, rarely whitish or reddish, the nectary of which 
is in some a shallow pouch, in others a spur, differing 
greatly in length in different species. The capsule of 
those whose nectary is a pouch only, opens with 3 pores 
instead of 2, on which Mr. Brown founds a generic dis- 
tinction for the original Antirrhinum of Tournefort. 
But the opening of the capsule in the Linaria of these 



I 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Antirrhinum. 131 

authors is so variously valvular, or so irregularly jagged, 
as to show that part to be indeterminate, or unfit to give 
a character, in this genus ; the length of the spurs, be- • 
ing, moreover, but comparative. I therefore concur with 
those who do not separate Linaria, there being no dis- 
tinction of habit to depend upon, and the name, formed 
out of Linum^ being inadmissible. 

* Leaves dilated. Sterns Jlaccid. 

*1. A. Cymhalaria. Ivy-leaved Snapdragon. 

Leaves heart-shaped, five-lobed, alternate, smooth. Stems 
procumbent. 

A. Cymbalaria. Linn. Sp. PL 85 1 . fVilld. v. 3. 232. H. Br. 656. 
Engl. Bot. V. 7. t. 502. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1 . f. 45. Hook. Scot. 
188. BulLFr.t.305. Fl. Dan. t. ]220. 

A. n. 339. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 146. 

Linaria hederaceo folio glabro, seu Cymbalaria vulgaris. Tourn. 
Inst. 169. Dill, in Rail SyH.*282. 

L. Cymbalaria. ^it. H. Keio. ed. 2. u. 4. 10. 

Cymbalaria. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 468. f. Camer. Epit.860./. Riv. 
Monop. Irr. t. 86./. 2. Bauh. Pin. 306. 

C. italica. Ger. Em. 529. f. Lob.Ic.6\b f. 

Umbilicus Veneris Officinarum. Lonic. Kreuterb. 95./. I. 

On old walls, having been introduced from Italy. 

On walls bordering the Thames, having escaped, as Dillenius 
thought, from Chelsea garden. It is become no less common 
about Oxford and Cambridge, and within a few years at Nor- 
wich. 

Perennial. May — November. 

Root fibrous. Stems trailing or pendulous, very much branched, 
round, smooth, leafy, hanging from old walls in rich, dense, 
flowery festoons. Leaves alternate, stalked, ivy-like, of a deep 
shining green, often tinged with violet, and, like every other part 
of the plant, quite smooth. Fl. solitary, on long axillary stalks, 
not large, but very elegant, variegated with violet and blue ; their 
palate yellow ; spur short, though pointed. Caps, roundish, much 
and irregularly torn at the top, to let out the black wrinkled seeds. 

2. h..spurium. Round-leaved Fluellin, or Snapdragon. 

Leaves ovate, downy, chiefly alternate. Stems procum- 
bent, hairy. 

A. spurium. Linn. Sp. PI. 85 1 . WiUd. v. 3. 235. Fl. Br. 657. 

Engl. Bot. V. 10. /. 691. Curt. Lond. fasc. 3. ^37. Fl.Dan. 

<.913. 
A. Elatine. Bull. Fr.t. 245. 
A. n. 341. Hall. Hist. V. 1.147. 

k2 



132 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Antinhinutn. 

Linaria Elatine dicta, folio subrotundo. Rail Syn. *282. 
L. spuria. Ait. H. Kew. ed,2.v. 4. II. 
Elatine. Riv. Monop. Irr. t.SQ.fA. Dill. Gen. U&.t. 6. 
Veronica fcemina. Fuchs. Hist. 167. f. Ger.Em.625.f. Matth. 
f^algr.v.2.55.f. Gamer. Epit. 462. f. 

In corn-fields, but rare. 

About London rave. Curtis. Frequent in Suffolk. Mr. Woodward. 
Hampshire. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. At Seething, Norfolk. 
Mrs. Kett. At Binham. Mr. Crowe. In Shepey island. Mr. 
Sowerby. In Warwickshire and Worcestershire. Mr. Purton. 

Annual. July — September. 

The whole herb is downy, or finely hairy. Root fibrous, small. 
Stems spreading and procumbent, branched, leafy. Leaves on 
short stalks, ovate, either blunt or acute, entire, except an oc- 
casional notch or two, mostly alternate, a few of the lowermost 
only being opposite. Fl. on slender, simple, axillary stalks. Cat. 
with ovate segments, enlarged after flowering, downy. Cor. 
with a recurved spur, the length of its tube, and of the same 
pale greenish hue ; upper lip short, violet ; lower yellow, with 
an orange palate. Abortive stamen minute, shapeless, in the 
arch of the upper lip. Dillenius, after Rivinus, very rightly ob- 
serves that the capsule opens by an oblique deciduous segment 
over each cell, by which they characterize their genus Elatine; 
but which is only one of those slight differences, that confirm a 
too much neglected maxim of Linnseus, " there are few genera 
in which some part or other of the fructification is not subject to 
aberration."' 

I have specimens, found by the late Sir John CuUum, having some 
regu\cir flowers with 5 spurs, and others partly so, with only 2. 
Sometimes, Hudson says, there are 3 or 4. See A. Linariabere- 
after. 

3. A. Elatine. Sharp-pointed Fluellin, or Snapdragon. 

Leaves chiefly halberd -shaped, alternate ; lowermost ovate, 
opposite. Stems procumbent, hairy. 

A. Elatine. Linn. Sp. PI. 8.5 1 . Willd. v. 3. 234. Fl. Br. 658. 

Engl. Bot. V. 10. t. 692. Curt. Lond. fasc. 1 . t.46. Fl. Dan. 

t.426. Ehrh.IIerb. 128. 
A. n. 340. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 146. 

Linaria Elatine dicta, folio acuminate. Raii Syn. *282. 
L. Elatine. Ait. H. Ken-, ed. 2.v.4.]\. 
Elatine. Matth. Valgr. v. 2.360. f. Gamer. Epit. 754. f. 
E. altera. Ger. Em. 625. f. 
E. fcemina, folio anguloso. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 372./. 

In corn-fields after harvest, on a gravelly or chalky soil. 

Annual. July — September. 

Like the last in general habit and characters, except being more J 



DIDYNAMIA-ANGIOSPERMIA. Antirrhinum. 133 

slender, with halberd-shaped, usually smaller, leaves. The 
flowers also are smaller and less conspicuous, with similar but 
paler colours. They have moreover an abortive s<ame«, and are 
occasionally regularly five-cleft. The capsule is like the last. 
Seeds much wrinkled. 

** Leaves narrower. Stems upright. 
4. A. repens. Creeping Pale-blue Toadflax. 

Leaves linear, glaucous, scattered ; partly whorled. Stem 
panicled. Calyx smooth, the length of the spur. 

A. repens. Linn. Sp. PL 854. ffWd. v. 3. 240. FLBr.658. Engl. 

Bot. V. 18. t. 1253. Hook: Scot. 188. Dicks. Dr. PL 75. H. Sice. 

fasc. 17. 18. 
A. monspessulanum. Linn. Sp. PL 854. Willd.v. 3. 240. Wilh.550. 
Linaria odorata Monspessulana. Rail Syn.* 282. Bauh. Hist. 

v.3.p.2.459.f. 
L. caerulea, foliis brevioribus et angustioribus. Raii Syn. *282. 
L. angustifolia, flore cinereo striato. DHL Elth. 198. 1. 163./. 197. 
L. minor repens et inodora. Faill. Par. 1 1 8. 
L. repens. Ait. H.Kew.ed. 2.i). 4. 13. 
Blueish Sweet Toadflax. Pet. H. Brit. t. 35. f. 6. 

On chalky banks, or on rocks near the sea, but rare. 

Near Penryn, Cornwall. Ray. F. Borone. Abundantly by the road- 
side between Llandovery and Trecastle, South Wales. Rev. T. 
Butt. In an old slate quarry, near Bandon, County of Cork. 
Mr. J. T. Mackay. On the chalk hill going down to Henley- 
upon-Thames, where it was observed in the time of Dillenius, 
plentifully. 

Perennial. July — September. 

Root whitish, creeping extensively. Herb smooth and glaucous. 
Stems numerous, erect, round, branched and panicled, leafy. 
Leaves linear, or somewhat lanceolate, entire, an inch long, or 
more, erect, often 4 or 5 in a whorl, but as frequently opposite, 
or scattered ; the upper ones mostly alternate. Fl. numerous, 
in panicled upright clusters, with a small leafy bractea under 
each partial stalk. They are certainly sweet-scented, as Vaillant 
asserts, though he uses the definition of Tournefort, which says 
otherwise. Cal. with smooth lanceolate segments. Spur coni- 
cal, very pale grey, as well as the lower lip ; palate yellow ; 
upper lip and tube striped with blue. Caps, globose, opening by 
several lanceolate equal valves. Seeds angular, rugged, black. 

A. monspessulanum and A. repens of Linnaeus being the very same 
plant, the latter name is retained as by far the most eligible ; 
nor can I perceive how any doubt could arise respecting John 
Bauhin's synonym, nor how Ray came to describe so distinct a 
species twice over. Linnaeus was led into the same error by 
him and Dillenius ; and the latter, by saying he had gathered 



134 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Antirrhinum. 

A. arvense, a very different plant, " wild," though he does not 
say in Britain, caused Mr. Hudson to introduce that also into 
his Flora. 
According to Dr. Hooker, Mr. Hopkirk has observed some regular 
Jlowers in A. repens. The whole genus is more or less subject 
to this metamorphosis ; see the next species. A fasciculated 
stem is also frequent in the upright perennial kinds. 

5. A. Linaria. Common Yellow Toadflax. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, crowded. Stem erect. Spikes 
terminal. Flowers imbricated. Calyx smooth, shorter 
than the spur. 

A. Linaria. Linn. Sp.Pl.SbS. JVilld. v. 3, 253. Fl. Br. 660. Engl. 
Bot. V. 1 0. t. 658. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1 . t. 47. Mart. Rust. t. 93. 
Woodv. suppl. t.22l. Hook. Scot. 188. Fl. Dan. t. 982. Bull. 
Fr.t.26l. 

A. n. 336. Hall. Hist. r. 1. 145. 

Linaria. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 82. f. 1 . 

L. lutea vulgaris. Raii Syn. *28 1 . Ger. Em. 550, /. 

L. vulgaris. Ait. H. Kew. ed. 2. v. 3. 17. 

Osyris. Fuchs. Hist. 545. f. Ic. 310. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 550. 
Camer. Epit. d'SO.f. 

/3. Peloria. Linn. Am. Acad. v.\.55.t.3. Engl. Bot. v. 4. t. 260- 
Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t.4\. 

In hedges and the borders of fields, on a gravelly soil, frequent. 

/3 occurs occasionally, increasing for a time by roots, but is not 
perpetuated by seed. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root creeping, somewhat woody. Herh smooth, bright green, 
scarcely at all glaucous. Stems 2 feet high, densely clothed, 
vi^ith irregularly set, narrow, acute leaves, and terminating in a 
close upright spike of rich yellow, inodorous, bracteated^oujers; 
the palate downy and orange-coloured ; the spur of each as long 
as the tube, pointing perpendicularly downwards, and 5 times 
• the length of the calyx. Each cell of the ovate capsule opens 
■with 4 or 5 lanceolate valves. 

T curious variety /3, vvith a five-cleft, regular, five-spurred co- 
rolla, and five equal stamens, made a great noise in Sweden, 
when first discovered, and narrowly escaped being exalted, by 
Linnaeus, into a new genus. It has however been found on the 
same plant with^owers that are naturally formed, see Engl. Bot. 
t. 658, and proves in a garden a very changeable and transient 
variety. The same alteration has been observed in several other 
species. 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Antirrhinum. 135 

6. A. minus. Least Snapdragon. 

Leaves lanceolate, obtuse, downy, mostly alternate. Stem 
much branched, spreading. Calyx longer than the spur. 

A. minus. Linn. Sp. PL 852. Willd. v. 3. 25 1 . Fl. Br. 660. Engl. 

Bot. V. 28. t. 201 4. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t.4l. Hook. Scot. 188. 

Fl. Dan. t. 502. 
A. n. 335. Hall. Hist. u. 1. 145. 
A. minimum repens. Ger. Em. 549./. 
A. tertium. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 539. /. Catner. Epit. 922./. 
A. alterum minimum. Lob. Ic.406.f. 
Linaria Antirrhinum dictum. Rail Syn. *283. 
L. arvensis minima. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 85. J. 2. 
L. minor. Ait. H. Kew. ed. 2. v. 4. 16. 

In sandy fields. 

Annual. June — August. 

Root fibrous. Herb erect, much branched, all over downy and 
viscid, from 4 to 10 or 12 inches high. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 
obtuse, tapering at the base into a footstalk, alternate, except 
occasionally a few of the lowermost. Fl. on long, solitary, axillary 
stalks, small and inconspicuous ; the tube, upper lip, and very 
short spur purplish ; lower lip white, with a yellow palate. Caps. 
ovate, oblique, each cell opening by 3 or 4 short blunt teeth. 
-Seeds ovate, strongly furrowed, with compressed, prominent, in- 
termediate ribs. 

The wooden cuts of this species, in the old authors, greatly excel 
the engraving of Rivinus, which is not accurate in the flowers. 

*** Corolla without a prominent spur^ 

* 7. A. majus. Great Snapdragon, 

Corolla with a rounded prominence at the base. Flowers 
in a dense cluster. Leaves lanceolate. Segments of the 
calyx ovate, obtuse. 

A.Vajus. Linn. Sp. PI.-859. Willd. v. 3. 256. Fl. Br. 661. Engl. 

Bot. V. 2. t. 129. Hook. Scot. 1 89. Bull. Fr. t. 277. 
A. n. 333. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 144. 
Antirrhinum. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 82./. I. Dod.Pempt.\82.f. Lob. 

Ic. 404./. 
A. purpureum sive album. Ger. Em. 549./. 
A. primum et secundum. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 537, 538./,/. Ca- 

mer. Epit. 920, 921. f,f. 

On old walls, and chalk cliffs, but supposed not to be indigenous. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Stem branched, leafy, more or less downy and viscid, of a shrubby 
habit, but generally destroyed by the winter's cold, as is often 
the root itself. Leaves opposite or alternate on the same plant. 



136 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Antirrhinum. 

somewhat stalked, lanceolate, acute, recurved, entire, smooth ; 
dark green on the upper side ; paler beneath. Fl. large and 
showy, rose-coloured or white, with a large, yellow, downy pa- 
late white in front. They form dense clusters, beset with ovate 
bracteas. Cat. downy and viscid, in 5 ovate, concave, unequal 
segments. Cor. near 1+ inch long, with a short round pouch 
at the base on the lower side. Caps, ovate, of 2 oblique cells ; 
the lowermost, or larger, protuberant at the base, opening at the 
top by 2 large pores, each bordered with 3 broad, short, spread- 
ing valves J the upper cell with a single orifice, crowned with a 
three-cleft valve. Seeds black, much wrinkled. The whole cap- 
sule has been compared to the skull of a calf; but the old name, 
Calf's-snout, rather applies to the mouth of the corolla. A 
fine deep crimson variety is common in gardens, and another 
with a white tube and crimson lips, but these run into each other 
on the same root. 
A rude figure of this Antirrhinum, but which cannot be mistaken, 
exists in the famous Vienna manuscript of Dioscorides, under the 
name of Kvvo)iS(pdXiov, or Dog's-head, and is engraved in Diosc. 
let. 103. 

8. A. Orojitium. Lesser Snapdragon. 

Corolla scarcely tumid at the base. Flowers loosely spiked. 
Calyx finger-shaped, longer than the corolla. 

A. Orontium. Linn. Sp. PL 860. M'illd. v. 3. 258. Fl. Br. 662. 

Engl. Bot. V. 17. 1. 1155. Curt. Lond.fasc.4. t. 45. 
A. n . 334. Hall. Hist. tJ. 1 . 1 44. 
A. angustifolium sylvestre, Raii Syn. *283. Bauh.Hist.v.3.p.2. 

464./. 
A. minus. Ger. Em. 549./. 
A. minimum. Lob. Ic. 405./ 
A. arvense. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 82./ 2. 
A. quartum. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 540./ Camer. Epit. 923./ 

In dry sandy, gravelly, or chalky, fields. 

Annual. July, August. 

Whole herb slightly hairy, more or less branched, about a foot 
high, with a wavy leafy stem. Leaves lanceolate, somewhat 
stalked, alternate, except a few of the lowermost. J^. axillary, 
nearly sessile, composing loose leafy spikes. Cal. in 5 deep li- 
near segments, just equal in length to the opening corolla, but 
soon extended much beyond it. Cor. of a purplish rose-colour, 
with a yellow palate ; the tube occasionally varying to white. 
Caps, ovate, with 3 pores, each opening by a lid. When nearly 
ripe it resembles the face of a Monkey, or Bat. Seeds bordered 
and furrowed. 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Scrophularia. 137 
310. SCROPHULARIA. Figwort. 

Linn. Gen.3\2. Juss. 1 19. Fl.Br.662. Tourn.t.74. Lam. 
t.533. Gcertn.t.^3. 

Nat. Ord. see ?i. 309. 

Cal. with 5 rounded, rather unequal, marginal segments, 
much shorter than the corolla. Cor. tubular, unequal, 
reversed ; tube ovate, or globular, large, inflated ; limb 
very small, in 5 deep segments ; the upper one, (turned 
downward,) short, slightly notched, reflexed, 2 lateral 
ones spreading, 2 lower ones, (turned upward,) largest, 
half combined, erect, often accompanied by a small inte- 
rior lobe. Filam. declined towards the reversed upper 
lip, linear, shorter than the corolla. Aiith. terminal, 
abrupt, of 2 valves. Germ, ovate. Style the length of 
the stamens. Stigma simple. Caps, ovate or globular, 
pointed, of 2 cells and 2 valves, the partitions double, 
from the inflexed margins of the valves. Seeds numerous, 
small, angular, attached to a globose central receptacle. 

Fetid herbs, smooth or downy, sometimes shrubby, some- 
times only biennial, or annual. Stem tall, erect, more or 
less acutely quadrangular, leafy, panicled. Leaves oppo- 
site, serrated, simple, or variously pinnatifid, or pinnate. 
Fl. numerous, usually with dark-coloured lips; sometimes 
altogether yellow. 

1. S. nodosa. Knotty-rooted Figwort. 

Leaves heart-shaped, acute ; three-ribbed at the base. Stem 
sharp-edged. Root tuberous. 

S. nodosa. Linn. Sp. PL 863. Willd. v. 3. 270. Fl. Br. 663. JSno-Z. 

Bot. V. 22. t. 1544. Hook. Scot. 1 89. Gunn. Norveg. v. 2. 87. 

n. 732. t. 4.f. ] — 3 ; not correct. 
S. n. 326. Hall. Hist. v.\.]i\. 
S. major. Raii Syn. *283. Ger. Em. 7l6.f. Brunf. Herb. v. 1, 

215./. 213. 
Scrophularia. Matth. Falgr.v.2.474.f. Camer.Epit.866.f. 

Riv. Monop. Irr. t.\07.f.\. 
S. minor. Riv. Monop. Irr. append./. 
Galeopsis . Fuchs. Hist. 1 93 . /. 1 94 . 
Brown Figwort. Petiv. H. Brit. t.3b.f. 9. 
/3. Scrophularia major, caulibus foliis et floribus viridibus. Bobart 

in Raii Syti. *283. 

In hedges, woods and thickets. 

Perennial. Jul;/. 

Herbage nearly or ijuite smooth, fetid like Elder, when bruised. 



]38 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Sciophularia. 

Root whitish, tuberous, beset with fleshy knobs. Stem 2 or 3 
feet high, nearly simple, leafy, acutely quadrangular, smooth. 
Leaves stalked, ovate-oblong, acute, sharply and unequally ser- 
rated ; heart-shaped at the base, where they are cut away, as it 
were, to the 2 small lateral ribs. Flower-stalks axillary and ter- 
minal, forked, angular, glandular, forming a panicled, leafy 
cluster. Br acteas lanceolate. F/. a little drooping. CaZ. smooth. 
Cor. of a dull green, with a livid purple lip. Caps, ovate-oblong. 

j3, found by Bobart at Cumner, near Oxford, should seem to be a 
paler-flowered variety, in consequence perhaps of a more shady 
situation. 

S. nodosa, having been taken for the Galeopsis of Dioscorides, 
which is really S. peregrina, and though celebrated for its use in 
scrofulous disorders, has no tuberous root, it may not be correct 
to suppose this sort of root first recommended our plant to me- 
dical use, or was the origin of the generic name. If however 
such were the case, it would not be without example in the his- 
tory of medicine. 

2. S. aquatica. Water Figwort. Water Betony. 

Leaves heart-shaped, bluntish, on decurrent footstalks. 
Stem winged. Root fibrous. 

S. aquatica. Linn. Sp. PL864. Willd.v.3.270. H.Br. 663. Engl. 

Bot. v.\2. t. 854. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 44. Hook. Scot. 189. 

Fl. Dan. t. 507. Ehrk. PL Off. 156. 
S. n. 325. Hall. Hist. V. I. 141. 
S. aquatica major. Raii Syn.*283. 
S. caule alato. Riv. Monop. Irr. append./. 
S. foemina. Camer. Epit. 867./. 
Betonica aquatica. Ger. Em.7l5./. 

In watery places, the margins of pools and rivers, and wet mea- 
dows. Very rare in Scotland. 

Perennial. July. 

Root entirely fibrous. Herb quite smooth, fetid, of a deep shining 
green. Stem taller than the last, straight, leafy, nearly simple, 
winged in some degree at the 4 angles. Leaves copiously and 
finely serrated, veiny, ovate-oblong ; heart-shaped at the base, 
and running down the edges of the footstalks ; their lateral ribs 
not reaching to the margin of the leaf. Cluster of many forked 
branches, bearing numerous /lowers, whose tube is gi*een, the 
limb of a dark blood-red, more conspicuous than in S, nodosa 
Capsule globular. 

3. S. Scorodoma. Baltn-leaved Figwort. 

Leaves heart-shaped, doubly serrated; downy beneath. 
Cluster leafy. 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Scrophularia. 139 

S. Scorodonia. Linn. Sp. PL 864. IVilld. v. 3. 271 . Fl. Br. 664. 

Engl. Bot. v.^\.t. 2209. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 15.9. 
S. Scordii folio. Grisl. Lusit. 75. 
S. Scorodoniae foliis. Moris, v. 2. 482. sect. 5. t. 35. Pluk. Al- 

mag.33S. Phyt.t.59.f.5. Rail Syn.*2S3. 
Sage Figwort. Pctiv. H. Brit. t. 35./. 1 1 . 

On the banks of rivulets in the south, very rare. 

Between the port and St. Hilary, Jersey. Sherard. About St. Ives, 
Cornwall, plentifully, near the seashore. Mr. E. Lhwyd; and 
Huds. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Stems about a yard high, leafy, branched, bluntly quadrangular, 
clothed with minute, soft, spreading hairs. Leaves downy in 
like manner underneath, stalked, heart-shaped and 3-ribbed at 
the base, veiny, doubly serrated ; the serratures and points of 
those which accompany the flowers most acute. Fl. on axillary, 
forked, downy stalks, composing a long leafy cluster. Tube of 
the corolla pale ; lower lip (turned uppermost) dull purple, the 
interior lobe greenish. Caps, ovate, smooth. Calyx downy. 

Grisley speaks of this plant as " an efficacious remedy for ulcers j" 
probably such as are scrofulous. 

4. S. vernalis. Yellow Figwort. 

Leaves heart-shaped, doubly serrated, downy. Flower- 
stalks axillary, solitary, forked, leafy. Corolla without 
an interior lobe. 

5. vernalis. Linn.Sp.Pl.SQA. mild.v.3.274. n.Br.664. Engl. 
Bot. V. 8. t. 567. Hook. Scot. ]89. Lond.t.70. H. Dan. t. 411. 

S. n. 327. Hall. Hist. V. I. 141. 

S.floreluteo. Bauh.Prodr.\\2.f. Ger.Em.7l7.f. Riv.Monop. 

Irr.t.l07.f.2. 
S. montana maxima latifolia, flore luteo. Barrel. Ic. t. 273. 
Lamium Pannonicum aliud. Clus. Pann. 594. f. 595. Hist. v. 2. 

38./. 

In thickets, and under hedges, but rare. 

Near Bury St. Edmund's. Sir T. G. Cullum, Bart. In Surrey. 
Huds. About Newburgh, Yorkshire. Rev. Archdeacon Peirson. 
In a lane about two miles south of Stifkey, Norfolk, on the 
right hand side. Dr. Hooker. It is also said to grow in Berk- 
shire, Essex, and several parts of Wales ; yet neither Dillenius 
nor Ray takes notice of this species. 

Biennial. April, May. 

Root tuberous, scaly. Herb downy, of a light pleasant green. 
Stem hollow, about 2 feet high, with 4 or 5 slightly winged an- 
gles. Leaves in the latter case 3 together ; otherwise opposite j 
the uppermost uUernate ; all stalked, broadly heart-shaped, 
acute, sharply and doubly serrated, veiny. F/. light yellow, on 



140 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Digitalis. 

axillary, repeatedly forked, stalks, accompanied at each fork by 
small serrated leaves, or bracteas. Cal hairy. Cor. ovate, tu- 
mid ; contracted at the mouth, with a very small 5-lobed limb, 
wanting the interior lobe. The stamens all spring from the 
base of the corolla, as Dr. Hooker observes. Caps, ovate, acute, 
with numerous minute seeds. 
This plant is less allied to other Scrophularice , in general resem- 
blance, than to the Peruvian genus Calceolaria, to several spe- 
cies of which, see Sm. PI. Ic. t. 2, 3, 4, it bears, in various points, 
a great affinity. 

311. DIGITALIS. Foxglove. 

Lmra.Gen.313. Juss. ]20. Fl.Br.66o. Tourn.t.73. Lam. 1.^)25. 
Gcertn.t. 53. 

Nat. Ord. Luridce. Linn. 28. Scrophularice. Juss. 40. 

Cal. in 5 deep, acute or rounded, segments, permanent, 
much shorter than the corolla; the upper one narrower 
than the rest. Cor. bell-shaped ; tube large, cylindrical 
and contracted at the base, dilated and tumid upwards ; 
limb small, in 4 unequal segments, the upper one re- 
curved, slightly cloven, lower one largest. Filam. awl- 
shaped, from the tube of the corolla towards the base, 
bent, declining. Anth. deeply cloven, acute. Germ. 
ovate, pointed. Style thread-shaped, as long as the sta- 
mens. Stigma cloven, acute. Caps, ovate, pointed, the 
length of the calyx, of 2 cells, and 2 cloven valves, whose 
inflexed margins form a double partition at each side. 
Seeds very numerous, small, oblong, angular, attached to 
a central oblong partition, in each cell. 

Some foreign species have an elongated lower lip. 

A very handsome genus, of large, herbaceous, rarely shrub- 
by, plants, biennial or pereimial, with simple, undivided, 
downy or smooth, serrated or entire, alternate leaves. Fl. 
numerous, very ornamental, purplish, yellow, or tawny, 
in long, simple, bracteated clusters or spikes. Qualities 
powerfully emetic and sedative ; under proper manage- 
ment useful. 

1. Y>. purpurea. Purple Foxglove. 

Segments of the calyx ovate, acute. Corolla obtuse ; its 
upper lobe scarcely cloven. Leaves downy. 

X). purpurea. Linn. .Sp. PI. 866. fVilld. v. 3. 283. Fl. Br. 665. 
Engl. Bot.v. \9.t.]297. Curt. Lnnd.fasc. ].t.48. IVoodv. t. 24. 
Rail Syn.-^ 283. Ger. Em. 790. f. Fuchs. Hist. 893. /■. Fl. 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Linnsea. 141 

Da7i.t.74. BulLFr.t.2\. Dreves Bilderb. t. 46. Dalech. Hist. 
83 1 . /, /. Dod. Pempt. 1 C9. /. 

D. n. 330. Hall. Hist. r. 1 . 1 43. 

Digitalis. Riv. Monop. Irr. t. 104. 

Campanula sylvestris, seu Digitalis. Trag. Hist. 889./. 

In pastures, and about hedges or banks, on a gravelly or sandy 
soil ; but not in Norfolk or Suffolk, though so abundant in most 
counties. 

Biennial. June, July. 

Root of numerous long and slender fibres. Stem upright, wand- 
like, leafy, mostly simple, roundish, with several sliglit angles, 
downy, 3' or 4 feet high. Leaves alternate, ovate- or elliptic-ob- 
long, crenate, downy, rugged and veiny, of a dull green ; taper- 
ing at the base into winged /oo/»/aZA:s,- radical ones largest. 
Cluster terminal, erect, simple, of numerous, sometimes 60, 
large, pendulous, scentless, crmson Jlowers ; elegantly marked 
with eye-like spots, as well as hairy, within. 

A variety with pure white^oz/;ers, dotted in like manner, but with 
shades of cream-colour or pearl, is kept in gardens, and remains 
tolerably constant from seed, the only means of propagation in 
this instance. 

The English name appears to have been derived from Digitalis 
Fuchsii; for that writer is the acknowledged author of the Latin 
one, alluding to the fingers of a glove, which the flowers re- 
semble. Yet Fo^ PJ'-S'<>F''j as I am told, occurs in Lye's Saxon 
Dictionary, as the appellation of our plant ; which indeed is so 
conspicuous and handsome, that we can hardly suppose our an- 
cestors left it nameless. The Rev. Hugh Davies records several 
Welch names for the Foxglove, and mentions having seen it 
perfectly white by the road side at Penmynydd, and elsewhere. 
Welch Botanologij 6 1 . 

The virtues of this herb, as a remedy for dropsy, are recorded by 
Dr. Withering and others, and it is now still more celebrated 
for lowering the pulse in pulmonary inflammation. 

312. LINN^A. Linnsea. 

Linn. Gen. 319. Juss. 211. Fl. Br. 66C. Lam. t. .536. M'ahlenb. 

Lapp. t.9. 
Nat. Ord. Aggregatce. Linn. 48. Caprifolia. Juss. .08. 

Cah double, both permanent : that of the fruit inferior, of 

14 leaves; 2 interior opposite, minute, acute, smooth; 
2 exterior opposite, contrary to the interior and much 
larger, elliptical, concave, glandular, finally enlarged, and 
closed over the interior leaves and fruit : that of thejfoa'er 
superior, of 1 leaf, in 5 deep, erect, lanceolaj^, acute, 
equal segments. Cor. of 1 petal, bell-shaped ; tube cy- 
lindrical, gradually dilated upwards, abont twice the 



142 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Linnaea. 

length of the superior calyx ; limb in 5 deep, nearly equal, 
slightly spi'eading segments. Filam. awl-shaped, from 
the base of the corolla, shorter than its limb ; the 2 up- 
permost shortest. Anth. incumbent, versatile, oblong, 
compressed. Germ, globular, below the calyx of the 
flower, of 3 cells. Style cylindrical, slightly swelling up- 
ward, declining, the length of the corolla. Stigma ob- 
tuse. Berry dry, ovate-oblong, of 1 cell, membranous, 
closely invested with the inferior calyx, and crowned with 
the superior one. Seed solitary, filling the cavity, ovate- 
oblong, with a thin simple skin ; embryo inverted, in the 
centre of the fleshy albumen, with a pair of oblong coty- 
ledons turned downward. 
A trailing, somewhat shrubby plant, the only known spe- 
cies, of an elegant aspect, and rendered most interesting 
to a botanist on account of the name, given with the con- 
currence of Linnaeus, by his friend Dr. J. F. Gronovius, 
whose letters to Dr. Richardson, with many particulars 
concerning him and his works, may be found in the Lin- 
ncean Correspondence, v. 2. Dr. Wahlenberg has im- 
proved the description of the fruit, and I have profited 
by his labours. They sanction the Linnsean opinion of 
a two-fold calyx, the inferior one serving as a protecting 
covering to \!i\e fruit. 

1. L. borealis. Two-flowered Linnaea. 

L. borealis. Linn. Sp. PI. 880. H. Suec. 2 1 9. M . FL Lapp. ed. 
■ 2. 2\4. t. \2. f. 4. lVilld.v. 3.340. Fl.Br.666. Engl. Bot.v.7. 

t.433. Tr. of Linn. Sac. V. 3. 333. With.bb6. Hook. Scot. ]90. 
• Wahlenb. Lapp. 1 70. t. 9./. 3. Ft. Dan. t. 3. Ehrh. Phyt.5. 
L. n. 299. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 131. 
Campanula seipyllifolia. Bauh. Prodr. 35. f. Rndb. Act. Suec. 

for 1720. 96. t. 1. 
Nummularia Norwegica repens, folio dentato, floribus geminis. 

Petiv. Cent. 8. 76. n. 787. 

In dry stony shady fir woods among the mountains of Scotland, 

First found in an old fir wood at Inglismaldie on the borders of 
MearnsshirCj in 1795. Prof. James Beattie, jun. Dr. Hooker 
mentions several similar stations in the Highlands or their 
borders. 

Perennial, May, June. 

Root fibrous. Stems trailing and creeping, forming broad leafy 
patches, branched, woody, nearly round ; the young shoots hairy 
and leafy. Leaves opposite, on footstalks about half their own 
length, roundish, or ovate, mostly bluntish, veiny, firm ; crenate 
in the forepart ; slightly hairy, and of a full green, above ; paler 



1 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Sibthorpia. 143 

beneath. Stipulas none. Flowering' branches axillary, erect, 
about a finger's length, simple, except at the summit, where 
they are cloven, bearing two elegant, pendulous, flesh-coloured 
flowers, said to be very fragrant at night, with the scent of Mea- 
dow-sweet. A pair of very small leaves stand at the origin of 
the T^a.xt\a\ flower-stalks, and there is often a larger pair or two 
at the lower part of each common stalk, or branch. Corolla va- 
riegated internally with rose-colour and yellow. 

Linnaeus describes 2, or rarely all 3, of the cells of i\\% fruit, as per- 
fecting their seed. Wahlenberg asserts that one only comes to 
maturity. 

Such is the " little northern plant, long overlooked, depressed, 
abject, flowering early," which Linnaeus selected to transmit his 
own name to posterity. Few could have been better chosen ; 
and the progress of practical botany in Britain seems to be 
marked by the more frequent discovery of the Linncea. 

313. SIBTHORPIA. Sibthorpia. 

Linn. Gen. 320. Juss. 99. Lam. t. 535. Gcertn.t. 55. 

Nat. Ord. Perso7iatcB. Linn. 40. Scrophulari^. Juss. 40. 
See Grammar 101. 

Cat. turbinate, in 5 deep, ovate, spreading, nearly equal 
segments. Cor. irregularly wheel-shaped, equal to the 
calyx ; tube very short ; limb in 5 deep, ovate, spreading 
segments, alternate with the calyx, the 2 lowermost 
smallest. Filam. from between the 4 superior segments 
of the corolla, shorter than the limb, almost equal, awl- 
shaped, spreading laterally, and converging in pairs. 
Anth. of 2 round lobes. Gervi. rounded, compressed. 
Style cylindrical, as long as the filaments, but thicker. 
Stigma obtuse, peltate. Caj^s. inversely heart-shaped, 
compressed, of 2 cells and 2 valves, each with a narrow 
transverse partition. Seeds few, ovate, attached to a glo- 
bular central receptacle. 

Herbaceous, prostrate, beset with minute, scattered, jointed 
hairs. Leaves alternate, rounded. Fl. axillary, solitary, 
minute. Next akin to Veronica, v. I. 16. Only 1 species. 

1. ^.europaa. Creeping Sibthorpia. Cornish Money- 
wort. 

S. europaea. Linn. Sp.Pl.SSO. Willd. v. 3. 340. Fl.Br.()67. Engl. 

Bot.v.]0.t.649. Dicks. Dr. PI. 7 f}. Lcefl. It. \ 50. 
S. prostrata. Salisb. Ic. l\. f. 6. 
Alsine spuria pusilla repens, foliis Saxifragae aurese. RaiiSyn, 252. 

Pluk. Almag. 23. Phyt. t. 7./. C 



144 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Limosella. 

Cornwall Pennywort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 6./. 11. 

In moist shady places, about springs and rivulets, in the south. 

Plentiful in Cornwall and Devonshire. Ray, and Prof. J. Sib- 
thorp, M.D. Near the bottom of Conner hill, on the road from 
Tralee to Dingle, Ireland. Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

Perennial. Jtdy, August. 

Roots fibrous, certainly perennial, propagating themselves widely, 
for many years, among short wet grass, in the garden of the late 
Mr. Vere at Kensington Gore. Stems prostrate, creeping ex- 
tensively, branched, entangled, leafy, slender and delicate, mi- 
nutely hairy like the rest of the herbage. Leaves stalked, hori- 
zontal, orbicular-kidney-shaped, bluntly crenate, rather succu- 
lent, veiny, light green j paler beneath. Fl. on short, axillary, 
simple stalks, whitish ; their 3 upper segments more or less 
tinged with pale red. 

This genus, named by Linnaus in honour of Dr. Humphrey Sib- 
thorp, the successor of Dillenius in the Botanical chair at Ox- 
ford, was most richly deserved by his son, the late Professor, au- 
thor of the Flora Oxoniensis, and the collector of abundant ma- 
terials for the Flora Grceca, which he never lived to describe. 
Of the latter splendid work 4 volumes in folio, each containing 
100 coloured plates, have already appeared, and the rest fire in 
progress. 

314. LIMOSELLA. Mudwort. 

Linn. Gen. ^20. J«ss.96. F/. J5;-.6G8. Br. Prodr.v.\.AA3. Lam. 

t. .535. Gartn. t. .50. 
Plantaginella. Dill. Nov. Gen. WS.t.G. 

Nat. Ord. Personatce. Linn. 40. ScropJmlarue. Juss. 40. 
See Grammar 101. 

Cal. turbinate ; border in 5 deep, lanceolate, acute, upright, 
nearly equal segments. Cor. somewhat bell-shaped ; tube 
cylindrical, the length of the calyx ; limb in 5 deep, ovate, 
spreading, slightly unequal segments, the 2 uppermost 
concave, lower one smallest. Filam. from the mouth of 
the tube, awl-shaped, almost equal, shorter than the limb, 
sheltered by its 2 upper segments, but spreading slightly 
laterall}', and converging in pairs. A^ith. roundish, of 
2 lobes. Germ, ovate. Style tapering, short. Stigma 
capitate, globose, cloven. Caps, ovate, of 2 cells, and 2 
valves, the partitions narrow, from the inflexed margins 
of the valves. Seeds numerous, oblong, furrowed, trans- 
versely wrinkled, covering a large, ovate, central recep- 
tacle. 

The partitions, at first connected with the receptacle, sepa- 
rate from it as the cajisiile advances to maturity, so that 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Limosella. 145 

the latter finally consists of but one cell ; which is the 
case in Verbascum, and more or less with many other 
seed-vessels similarly constructed. No doubt can remain 
as to the natural order of Limosella ; nor do I perceive 
the propriety of considering it as belonging to the Precipe 
of Linnaeus, the Lysimachice of Jussieu, though those 
great authorities are against me, and some later ones have 
traced an affinity to that tribe in the seed-vessel, which 
is surely altogether that of the Scrophularin<^ of my learn- 
ed friend Mr. Brown, who appears to have taken the most 
correct view of the subject. 
This genus consists of a very few herbaceous, creeping, 
marsh plants, with simple, entire, stalked, linear or spa- 
tulate, aggregate leaves, and small, solitary, axillary, pale 
Jlowers, on simple naked stalks. 

1. L. aquatica. Common Mudwoit. 

Leaves lanceolate, somewhat spatulate. Footstalks twice 
as long as the flower-stalks. 

L. aquatica. Linn. Sp. PL 881. fVilld. v. 3. 341. Fl. Br. 668, 
Engl. Bot. u. 5. <. 357. Hook. Lond. t. 62. Scot. 1 90. Fl. Dan. 
t. 69. 

L. n. 300. Hall. Hist. v.\.\:i2. 

L. annua, flore albo monopetalo, &c. Lind. Alsat. 266. 

Plantaginella. Rupp. Jen. ed. Hall. 23. t. 6./. 3. 

P. palustris. Rail Syn. 278. Moris, v. 3. 605. sect. 15. t. 2. 

Spergula perpusilla, lanceatis foliis, Loes. Pruss. 26 1 . <. 8 1 . 

Alsine palustris repens, foliis lanceolatis, floribus albis perexiguis. 
Pluk. JJmag. 20. Phyt. t. 74. f. 4. 

A. palustris exigua, foliis lanceolatis, &c. Mentz. Pugill- 2. t. 7. 

In muddy spots, where water has stagnated during winter, not 
very uncommon. 

First noticed in Suffolk, on the Denes at Lowestoft, in 1808, by 
Mr. R. Brown. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root fibrous, throwing out naked runners, which fix themselves at 
the ends by fresh fibres, and form new plants. Herb diminutive, 
quite smooth. Leaves lanceolate, bluntish, erect or spreading, 
an inch long ; on footstalks twice that length, sheathing at the 
base. Fl. on shortish, crowded, axillary stalks, about half an 
inch long, or more, recurved after the blossoms are past. Cor. 
white or flesh-coloured. Caps, hardly bigger than mustard-seed. 



tVOL. III. 



146 DIDYNAMIA—ANGIOSPERMIA. Orobanche. 
315. OROBANCHE. Broom-rape. 

Linn. Gen. 321. Juss.lOl . FLBr.668. Tourn.t. 81. Lam.t.55]. 

Nat. Ord. Personated. Linn. 40. Pediculai-es. Juss. 35. Sa-o- 
pkularincE. Br. Prodr. 433. Orohanchece of Richard. 
Hook. Scot. 222. 

Cal. of 2 lateral, opposite, acute, coloured, undivided or 
cloven, permanent leaves. Cw. ringent, withering ; tube 
ovate, curved, finally membranous ; upper lip concave, 
notched, more or less dilated and spreading at the mar- 
gin ; lower reflexed, in 3, somewhat unequal, wavy lobes. 
inject, a gland under the germen. Filam. from the base 
of the corolla, almost as long as the tube, awl-shaped, 
flattened and somewhat dilated downward, variously and 
partially downy and glandular. Anth. incumbent, of 2 
lobes, rounded at the top and pointed at the lower ends, 
each opening by a longitudinal cleft in front. Germ. 
ovate-oblong. Style terminal, cylindrical, incurved, as 
long as the stamens. Stigma large, deflexed, of 2 or 3 
distinct globular lobes. Caps, ovate, pointed, of 1 cell 
and 2 valves, with 2 longitudinal receptacles proceeding 
from the middle part of each valve. Seeds very nume- 
rous, minute, wrinkled, covering the receptacles. 

Leafless scaly herbs, simple or branched, for the most part, 
if not always, parasitical ; their whole surface minutely 
downy, or mealy, brownish, dull purple, or red. Fl. 
more coloured, but withering, and turning brown, before 
the corolla falls. The roots are small, fibrous, generally 
attached to those of Broom, Furze, Clover, or other pa- 
pilionaceous plants ; some of them to Hemp. 

* Bracteas solitary. 
1. O. major. Greater Broom-rape. 

Stem simple. Corolla inflated ; upper lip slightly notched ; 
lower with acute, nearly equal segments. Stamens quite 
smooth below. Style downy. 

O. major. Linn. Sp.Vl. 881. JVilld.v.3.347. Fl. Br. 669. Engl. 

mt. V. 6. t. 42) , Sution Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 4. 175. Curt. Land. 

fasc. 4. t. 44. Hook. Scot. 1 90. 
O. major, Garyophyllum olens. Raii Syn. *288 ; but not that of 

Bauhin. 
O. altera Matthioli. Dalech. Hist.485.f. 
Rapum genistse, sive Orobanche, Ger. Em. 1311? 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Orobanche. 147 

In bushy places on a barren gravelly soil, growing on the roots of 
Broom or Furze. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root of a few fibres. Stem about a foot high, erect, dusky, un- 
branched, angular, hollow, fleshy, clothed, like every other part, 
with short, rough, glandular pubescence, and beset with scattered, 
lanceolate, upright scales, in the place of leaves ; the base tu- 
mid, ovate, clothed with smaller, more abundant scales. Spike 
terminal, simple, rather dense, of from 15 to about 20 flowers, 
of a dull purplish brown, without any scent, and after awhile 
turning entirely brown, dry and membranous. Bracteas soli- 
tary under each flower, lanceolate, acute, rusty and downy. 
Calyx-leaves deeply cloven. Upper lip of the corolla large, 
sometimes slightly cloven, often entire and rather pointed j lower 
in 3 acute, nearly equal, wavy, sometimes crenate lobes. Filam. 
dilated and channelled, as well as perfectly smooth, in their 
lower half ; glandular and downy at the summit. Anth. smooth, 
brown. Germ, downy all over, as well as the $hjle. Stigma of 
2 large, distant, globular, yellow lobes. 

Haller's n. 295 appears, by his description of the smell, and by 
Swiss specimens, to be the real 0. major, garyophyllum olens of 

• Bauhin's Pinax S7 ; . caryophyllacea, Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. 
V.4. 169 ; though part of Haller's account applies rather to our 
minor, especially with regard to its being a troublesome weed. 
This O. caryophyllacea has been confounded by most former bo- 
tanists with our major, as likewise with elatior. Its stamens are 
hairy internally at the base. Style somewhat downy. 

2. O. elatior. Tall Broom-rape. 

Stem simple. Corolla funnel-shaped; lower lip with acute, 
nearly equal segments. Stamens downy. Style smooth. 

O. elatior. Sutton Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 4. 178. t. 17. Willd.v.3. 
349. Fl. Br. 669. Engl.Bot.v. 8. t. 568. Fl. Dan. t. 1338, good. 
O. major. Sibth.\9\. Prof. Williams. 
Orobanche. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 489./. 

In clover fields, thickets, and bushy hilly places, on a gravelly soil, 
not uncommon ; but never on the roots of Broom or Furze. 
Rev. Dr. Sutton. 

Perennial. July, August, 

Taller, and of a more yellowish hue than the former, with^o!<;er5 
of a lighter purple, more wavy in their margins ; their upper lip 
lobed. They are commonly three times more numerous in the 
spike than in that species, and of a smaller size. But their clear- 
est and most essential dift'erence, first remarked by Dr. Sutton, 
consists in the stamens being downy in their lower half, within- 
side, and smooth at the top ; while the germen and style are all 
over perfectly smooth. The stamens proceed from a higher part 
of the tube than in 0. major. 

h2 



148 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Orobanche. 

3. O. minor. Lesser Broom-rape. 

Stem simple. Corolla nearly cylindrical ; lower lip with 
curled segments, the middle one largest and lobed. Sta- 
mens fringed. Style smooth. 

O. minor. Fl. Br. 670. Engl. Bot.v. 6. t. 422. Sutton Tr. of Linn. 
Soc.v.4.\79. fVmd.v.3.350. Fl. Dan. t. \2\9. 

O. major. Loefl. It.] 51. Herb. Linn. Bull. Fr. t. 3.59 ? 

O. flora minore. Dill, in Rati Sijn.* 288. Bauh. Hist.v.2.78\.f. 

In clover fields abundantly. 

Very frequent in Norfolk. Mr. Rayer observed it in Kent, and the 
Bishop of Carlisle near Crickhowel, Brecknockshire. 

Annual ? July, August. 

Of much more humble growth than the last, and smaller in every 
part, with fewer powers than O. major. The whole plant is ge- 
nerally of a light, but dingy, purplish hue, though occasionally 
of a uniform pale yellow j always turning brown and dry, like 
the others, in decay. Sto?! often wavy. Ca/2/:c-Zeaj;es unequally 
lobed, sometimes undivided. Cor. not at all tumid j upper lip 
unequally notched, not cloven, except from age or accident. 
Stam. thickly fringed in their lower part. Germ, and style 
smooth. Stigm. purple. 

4. O. rubra. Red Fragrant Broom-rape. 

Stem simple. Corolla somewhat tumid ; upper lip cloven ; 
lower in three nearly equal segments. Stamens fringed 
at the base. Style partially hairy. Calyx-leaves lanceo- 
late, undivided. 

O. rubra. Engl. Bot.v. 25. t. 1786. Comp. ed.4. 107. Hook. Lond. 
109. M()5. t-ScoLlQl. 

On basaltic rocks in Ireland and Scotland. 

Plentifully at Cave hill, near Belfast. Mr. Templeton. At StafFa, 
and near Kirkakly ; also on the Giants' Causeway, where Mr. 
Templeton had previously found it. Dr. Hooker. 

Perennial. July. 

Root of numerous rather woody fibres, creeping along the unequal 
surface of the basaltic rocks, under a superincumbent soil of 
about five inches of decayed rock and zeolite. Mr. Templeton 
could never perceive the roots to be parasitical. Dr. Hooker 
observes that this species is entirely confined to basaltic rocks, 
covered with a very thin coat of earth. The whole plant is of a 
rusty purplish red, the bracteas rather browner. Stem a foot 
high, tumid and densely scaly at the base, clothed above with 
glandular viscid hairs. Fl. about 20, not very densely spiked, 

t Monotropa Hypopitys, v. 2. 249, is also ^ 105 j its letter- 
press 110 ; that of the present 109. 



i 



DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Orobanche. 149 

their scent powerful, resembling a honey-suckle, or pink. Cal. 
of 2 narrow, lanceolate, undivided leaves. Cor. but little in- 
flated; upper lip cloven, lower in 3 rounded segments, all the 
margins crenate, and fringed with short glandular hairs. FUam. 
fringed and glandular at the base ; Dr. Hooker says at the 
. summit also. Anth. and stigma red ; the latter sometimes with 
3 lobes. Style partially glandular and hairy. Germen smooth. 

** Bracteas three to each Jloisoer. 

5. O. ccprulea. Purple Broom-rape. 

Stem simple. Bracteas three. Upper lip of the corolla 
cloven and notched ; lower in thi'ee equal entire seg- 
ments. Style downy. 

O. cserulea. Villars Dauph. v. 2. 406. Fl. Br. 67 1 . Engl. Bot. v. 6. 

t. 423. Sutton Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 4. 1 82. JVilld. v. 3. 352. 
O. purpurea. Jacg. Austr. t. 276, 
O. ramosa /3. With. 558. 
O. n. 294. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 129. 
O, n, 28, var. 1. Gmel. Sib. v. 3. 21 5. t. 46./. 1. 
O. quarta. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 269./. 
O, flore obsoleto majore. Moris, sect. 12. t. 16./. 2 ; the figure at 

least. 
O, flore majore. Ger. Em. \3\2.f. 
Nidus avis flore et caxile violaceo-purpureo colore, Goodyer in 

Ger. Em. 228, nof. 

In grassy pastures near the sea. 

In the borders of fields in Hampshire. Goodyer. Near Northreps, 
Norfolk. Mr. Scarles, 1779. At Sheringham, Beeston and 
Northreps. Rev. Dr. Sutton and Mr. W. Skrimshire. 

Perennial. July. 

Root fibrous, parasitical on those of various herbaceous plants. 
Stem a foot high, more or less, unbranched, dark grey, minutely 
downy like the rest of the plant, angular, scarcely swelling at 
the base ; scales brown, all rather distantly scattered. There 
are 2 smaller, interior, linear-lanceolate bracteas, besides the 
usual solitary one, to each flower. Calyx-leaves combined, ra- 
ther unequally cloven. Cor. funnel-shaped, angular, curved, 
downy, of a greyish or blueish violet ; upper lip ascending, 
cloven, with some intermediate notches ; lower in 3 equal, lan- 
ceolate, entire lobes, with a white, elevated, divided palate, 
Filam. quite smooth. Style minutely downy. 

The botanical history of this species is embroiled with that of the 
Linnaean Orchis abortiva, Limodorum austriacum of Clusius, 
whence the latter has wrongly been admitted into the list of 
British plants. See Tr. of Linn. Soc.v.4. 164, 



150 DIDYNAMIA— ANGIOSPERMIA. Orobanche. 

6. O. ramosa. Branched Broom-rape. 

Stem branched. Bracteas three. Upper hp of the corolla 
deeply cloven ; lower equally three-lobed ; segments all 
rounded and entire. Style smoothish. 

O. ramosa. Linn. Sp.Pl.882. Willd. v. 3. 353. Fl.Br.67l. Engl. 
Bot.v.3. 1. 184. Sutton Tr. of Linn. Sac. v. 4. 185. DiU.inRaii 
S2jn.*288. Ger. Em. 1312. f. Bauh. Pin. 88. BuU. Fr.L399. 

O. n. 296. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 130. 

Orobanche. Corner. Epit. 311./. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 270. f. 

In low moist rich fields, attached to the roots of Hemp. 

Near Beccles, Suffolk. J. Sherard. In hemp fields at Brome, 
Norfolk, and Mettingham, Suffolk. Mr. Woodward. AtOutwell, 
Norfolk. Rev. Dr. Sutton. Near Wisbeach. Rev. Mr. Relhan. 

Annual. August, September. 

Root fibrous ; sometimes diseased and tumid, probably from the 
attacks of an insect, as represented in Engl. Bot. Stem more 
or less branched, rather wavy, a little downy ; the scales few 
and scattered. Fl. loosely spiked, light purple j the 5 segments 
of the corolla nearly equal ; palate downy, yellowish. Bracteas 
each accompanied by a pair of interior, very narrow ones. 
Filam. shortish, somewhat fringed at the base. Germ, roundish, 
smooth. Style nearly or quite smooth. Stigma white. 

In the south of Europe the Jlowers are more highly coloured than 
with us, as well as larger. 

The withering, not deciduous, corolla in this genus and Lathrcea, 
p. 1 26, seems scarcely sufficient, as a technical character, to 
establish a separate natural order, nor will analogy permit us 
to take into account, for this purpose, their parasitical mode 
of growth. 



Class XV. TETRADYNAMIA. 

Stamens 6, 2 opposite ones shortest. 

Order L SILICULOSA. Fruit a short 
roundish pod, or pouch. 

* Cotyledo7is accumbent. 

318. DRABA. Powc/% entu'e, laterally compressed ; valves 

nearly flat. Seeds numerous. 

316. VELLA. Pouch entire, with a prominent, dilated, 
flat style, twice as long as the concave valves. 

330. CRAMBE. Pouch globose, stalked, coriaceous, of 
1 cell, without valves, deciduous. Seed solitary. 

329. CAKILE. Pouch angular, of 2 joints, each of 1 
cell, without valves ; the uppermost deciduous. Seeds 
solitary. 

322. HUTCHINSIA. ■ Pouch nearly entire ; valves keel- 

ed, not bordered. Seeds 2, at least, in each cell. 
Filaments simple. 

319. ALYSSUM. Pouch nearly entire, bordered, late- 

rally compressed ; valves concave. Seeds 1 or 2 in 
each cell. Filam. often toothed. 

325. COCHLEARIA. Poiich nearly entire, turgid, rug- 
ged, of 2 valves. Seeds numerous. 

324'. THLASPI. Pouch cloven, inversely heart-shaped ; 
valves with a bordered keel. Seeds numerous. 

327. IBERIS. Pouch cloven, inversely heart-shaped. 
Seeds solitary. 2 outer petals largest. 

323. TEESDALIA. Po?<c/« cloven, inversely heart-shaped; 
|t valves keeled. Seeds 2 in each cell. Filam. each 
WL bearing a scale at the base. 

^K ** Cotyledons ificwnbent. 

Hsn. SUBULARIA. Poiich entire, transversely com- 

I 



152 

pressed; valves tumid. Seeds numerous. Cotyle- 
dons linear. 
328. I SATIS. Poiich entire, deciduous, bordered, trans- 
versely compressed, of 2 valves, and 1 cell. Seed 
solitary. 

320. CAMELINA. Pouch entire ; valves tumid. Seeds 

numerous, not bordered. Filam. all simple. 

326. SENEBIEllA. Pouch nearly entire, transversely 
compressed, wrinkled, of 2 cells, without valves. 
Seeds solitary in each cell. 

321. LEPIDIUM. Pouch cloven, elliptical, of 2 cells, 

and 2 keeled valves. Seeds solitary in each cell. 

Order II. SILIQUOSA. Fruit a long many- 
seeded pod. 

* Cotyledons jiat. accumbent. 

337. CHEIRANTHUS. Po^ rather compressed, straight. 

Stigma either of 2 spreading lobes, or capitate. Cal. 
closed ; 2 of the leaves prominent at the base. 

338. MATTHIOLA. Pod nearly cylindrical, straight. 

Stigma of 2 converging lobes, either thickened or 
protuberant at the back. Cal. closed ; 2 of the 
leaves prominent at the base. 

333. NASTURTIUM. Pod nearly cylindrical, oblique ; 
valves concave, without keels. Stigma obtuse, notch- 
ed. Cal. spreading, equal at the base. 

335. BARB AREA. Pod quadrangular, two-edged. Seeds 
in a single row. Cal. erect. Glands at the inside 
of the shorter filaments. 

34'0. ARABIS. Porf linear ; valves flat. &^<^s in a single 
row. 

341. TURRITIS. Porf linear ; valves flat, keeled. Seeds 
in a double row. 

332. CARDAMINE. Pod linear ; valves flat, without 
ribs, bursting elastically from the base. Seeds on 
capillary stalks. 

331. DENTARIA. Porf lanceolate; valves flat, without 
ribs, narrower than the partition, bursting elasti- 
cally from the base. Seeds on flat dilated stalks. 



#* 



153 



Cotyledons Jlat, incumbent. 



334.. SISYMBRIUM. Pod nearly cylindrical. Stigma 
capitate, notched. 

339. HESPERIS. Pod/ inaccurately quadrangular. Stig- 
ma nearly sessile, of 2 converging lobes. Col. closed; 
with 2 protuberances at the base. Seeds not bor- 
dered. 

336. ERYSIMUM. Pod quadrangular. Stigma capi- 
tate, notched. 

*** Cotyledons foldedy incumbent. 

342. BRASSICA. Pod nearly cylindrical, beaked, with 

2 valves. Seeds neai'ly globular. Cal. closed. 

343. SINAPIS. Pod nearly cylindrical, somewhat beak- 

ed, with 2 valves. Seeds nearly globular. Cal. 
spreading. 

344. RAPHANUS. Pod tumid, imperfectly jointed, 

without valves. Seeds globular. 



This whole class, except the exotic genus Cleome, which 
has been forced into it, constitutes an entirely natural 
order, the Cniciferce of recent authors ; which is indeed 
so natural and distinct, that we can hardly trace the least 
affinity between it and any other tribe. The artificial sy- 
stem leaves it undisturbed ; not requiring the separation of 
any genus from the rest, nor properly introducing any that 
tloes not belong to them ; for whatever may become of 
Cleome, it ought not to encumber this class, to which it 
has no natural affinity, nor has it even the artificial cha- 
racter, except in a very few species. 

Cruciferce. Juss. 63. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 139. SiliquoscB. 
Linn. 39. 

Flowers all complete and pei-fect, having a calyx and corolla, 
with stamens and pistil, in every individual. 

Calyx inferior, of 4 ovate-oblong, concave, obtuse, usually 
converging leaves, opposite in pairs; prominent at the 
base ; very sleek within ; deciduous. 

Corolla what is termed cruciform, Introd.f. 156, 157, con- 
sisting of 4 petals, alternate with the calyx, almost inva- 
riably regular and equal; their claims erect, tapering 



154 

downwards, rather longer than the calyx ; border of each 
spreading almost hoi'izontally, dilated outward, obtuse, 
often oblique. 

'Nectary of 2 or 4, opposite, mostly dark-green, glands, at 
the base of the stamens, especially within the 2 shortest, 
which therefore are curved outwards. 

Stameyis 6 ; JilamenU awl-shaped, erect, shorter than the 
corolla, in some few instances furnished with a lateral 
tooth, or an interior scale ; 2 shortest opposite, solitary ; 
4 longest in opposite pairs. Anthers mostly erect, oblong. 

Germen superior. Style short, or wanting. Stigma obtuse, 
various in structure, often much changed after impreg- 
nation, permanent. 

Pod roundish or oblong, of 2 valves, (rarely jointed and not 
bursting,) mostly of 2 cells, with a parallel partition, pro- 
jecting more or less at the summit, the valves separating 
at their base. 

Seeds roundish, or flattened, on slender stalks, from both 
sides of the receptacle, which borders the partition. Al- 
bumen none. Cotyledons 2, either flat or folded, or spi- 
ral ; either incumbent, lying upon the embryo laterally, 
or accumbent, their edges at one side meeting the embryo 
longitudinally. 

These last characters, first noticed by Gsertner, and very 
easy of detection as soon as the skin of the seed is re- 
moved, there being no separate albumen, have been found 
by Mr. Brown to afford the most natural, and indeed 
absolute, primary characters of these plants. They serve 
to divide the whole into great natural sections, liable, as 
far as I can find, to no exception, the genera under each 
section being easily characterized, and proving much more 
natural, in habit and fructification, than those formed by 
Liimaeus, on the nectariferous glands, or other circum- 
stances. 

The crucifercE are for the most part europasan, generally 
herbaceous, or, if shrubby, of humble growth. Pid)escence 
either simple, woolly, starry, or wanting. Stem round. 
Leaves almost always alternate, simple; undivided, or 
deeply divided, jagged and toothed ; in some few cases 
compound. Fl. in clusters, or corymbs, almost invariably 
destitute of bracteas, mostly white or yellow, sometimes 
red, seldom blue, or brownish ; often fragrant, especially 
at night. About 900 species are enumerated by DeCan- 
doUe, but their number might perhaps be greatly re- 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Vella. 155 

duced. Their qualities are rather acrid, most wholesome 
in a boiled state ; the seeds warm and pungent. 
Prof. DeCandoUe follows Mr. Brown's principles, but re- 
fines still more in the generic distinctions, and abolishes 
the Linnaean orders, though he acknowledges them to be 
commodious. I retain these orders, thinking them liable 
to as few difficulties or ambiguities as almost any syste- 
matical contrivance whatevei*. They are but two. 

1. SILICULOSA. Those whose seed-vessel is a short, 
roundish pod, denominated a pouch. In these the seeds 
are sometimes very few,. or even solitary; the plants are 
of more humble stature, though most inclined to be 
shrubby. 

2. SILIQUOSA. Pod much elongated, linear or cylin- 
drical, with numerous seeds; rarely jointed. Plants larger 
and more upright, generally herbaceous. 



TETRADYNAMIA SILICULOSA. 
316. VELLA. Cress-rocket. 

Linn. Gen. 33 1 . Juss. 24 1 . Fl. Br. 675. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. ed. 2. 
V. 4. 79. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 639. Lam. t. 555. Gcertn. t.\4,\. 
Carrichtera. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. &A\. 

Cal. erect, equal at the base, deciduous; leaves oblong, 
acute. Pet. obovate, undivided ; their claws as long as 
the calyx. Filam. awl-shaped, 4< of them longer than 
the calyx, in one instance combined in pairs. Anth. 
somewhat heart-shaped, bluntish. Germ, ovate. Style 
vertical, dilated, elliptical, leafy, longer than the germen, 
permanent. Stigma obtuse. Pouch ovate, terminated by 
the hardened style ; valves concave ; partition membra- 
nous, continued into the style. Seeds few in each cell, 
globose, pendulous ; cotyledons folded together, accum- 
bent. 

Species few, one herbaceous, two shrubby. Leaves various. 
Fl. yellowish, erect. 



156 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Subularia. 

1 . V. annua. Annual Cress-rocket. 
Leaves doubly pinnatifid. Pouches deflexed. 

V. annua. Linn. Sp. PL 895. fVilld. v. 3. 422. Fl.Br.675. Engl. 

Bot.v. 21. t. 1442. 
Nasturtium sylvestre, Erucse affine. Bauh. Pin. 105. Rnii Syn. 

304. Mom. J). 2.301. secf. 3. t. 19./. 8. 
N. sylvestre valentinum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 130./. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 

920./. 
N. sylvestre Clusii. Dalech. Hist. 657. f. 
Eruca nasturtio cognata tenuifolia. Ger. Em. 247 .f. Lob. Ic. 

205. f. 
Valencia Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50./. 5. 

In sandy fields, but very rarely. 

Found by Mr. Lawson, on Salisbury plain, not far from Stonehenge. 
Ray. I have never heard of its being met with since. 

Annual. June. 

Root small, tapering. Stem erect, bushy, rough with deflexed 
bristles, leafy, about a span high. Leaves scattered, doubly pin- 
natifid, with linear, bluntish, decurrent segments. Fl. rather 
small, pale yellow, with purplish veins. Pouch ribbed, bristly, 
surmounted by the oval, curved, smooth, ribbed, rigid Style. 
Seeds 4 in each cell ; M. DeCandolle remarks that they become 
covered with a glutinous exudation, on being immersed in warm 
water. The expanded cotyledons, remaining for some time on 
the stem, are inversely heart-shaped, flat, quite smooth and 
even. 

317. SUBULARIA. Awl- wort. 

Linn. Gen. 332. Juss. 240. H. Br. 676. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 

91. DeCand.Syst.v.2.697. 
Draba/. 3. Lain, t.556. 

Cal. erect, equal at the base, deciduous ; leaves oval, con- 
cave, uniform. Pei. obovate, entire, spreading ; their 
claws shorter than the calyx. Filam. simple. Anth. of 
2 round lobes. Germ, ovate, compressed. Style none. 
Stigma flat, quite sessile. Pouch elliptic-oblong, com- 
pressed transversely, entire, tipped with the stigma, of 2 
cells ; valves deeply concave, boat-like, but not keeled ; 
partition membranous, elliptical, parallel to the valves, 
but crossing the narrowest diameter of the pouch. Seeds 
ovate, 4) or more in each cell ; cotyledons linear, incum- 
bent. 

Only one species, a small aquatic herb. 



TETRADYNAMIA-SILICULOSA: Diaba. 157 

1. S. aquatica. Water Awl-wort. 

S. aquatica. Linn.Sp. PI.S9&. fVilld.v. 3.423. R.Br. 676. Engl. 
. Bot.v.l\.t.732. Hook. Scot. 196. Land. t. 135. Dicks. H. Sice. 

fasc.5.9. Fl. Dan. t. 35. 
S. erecta, junci foliis acutis mollibus. Raii Syn. 307. 
Graminifolia aquatica, thlaspeos capitulis rotundis, septo medio si- 

liculam dirimente. Pluk. Almag. 180. Phyt. t.\88.f.5. 
Gramen junceum hibernicum minus, thlaspios capitulis Sherardi. 

Moris. V.3. 229. sect. 8. 1. 10./. 29. 
Irish Rush Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 48. f. 8. 

On the sandy or gravelly bottoms of alpine lakes, under water. 

In Lough Neagh, Ireland. Sherard. Lough Carran, Scotland. 
Dr. Hope. In several other Scottish lakes. Hooker. Also in 
many of the Welsh lakes. Huds. Mr. Griffith, and Rev W. 
Bingley. 

Annual. July. 

Root of numerous, long, white, simple fibres. Stem none. Herb 
quite smooth. Leaves several, awl-shaped, spreading, an inch 
or two in length. Fl. few, white, minute, in a simple, stalked, 
radical, zigzag cluster. Pouches erect. Their partition is er- 

' roneously described in Fl. Br. and Engl. Bot. as " contrary to 
the valves" ; whereas it is contrary to the greatest diameter of 
the seed-vessel. 

Dr. Hooker confirms our account of the flowers being always se- 
veral feet under water, where he observed them to be constantly 
expanded, so that the impregnation actually takes place in that 
element. The pollen has not been examined. By the excellent 
plate of this author, so great in botanical dissections, it appears 
that the radicle is not closely applied to the cotyledons, but they 
together form a curve, whose two extremities are distant from 
each other. This I presume is expressed by cotyledones bicrures 
in Mr. Brown's generic definition. 

ol8. DRABA. Whitlow-grass. 

Linn. Gen. 333. Juss. 240. Fl. Br. 677. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v.4.9\. 

DeCand.Syst.v. 2. 331. Lam. t.5o6.f. 1,2. Gcertn. t.\4\. 
Erophila. DeCund. Syst. v. 2. 356. 

Cal. equal at the base, somewhat spreading, deciduous ; 
leaves ovate, concave. Pet. either cloven, notched or en- 
tire, spreading, with short claws. Filavi. simple. Anth. 
of 2 roundish lobes. Germ, ovate. Style very short, or 
none. Stigma capitate, flat. Pouch oblong-oval, laterally 
compressed, entire, tipped with the style or stigma, of 
2 cells ; valves nearly flat, separating from the bottom ; 
partition membranous, of the same shape and breadth. 



158 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Draba. 

Seeds many in each cell, small, roundish, without a border; 
cotyledons accumbent. 
A numerous herbaceous genus ; its pubescence forked or 
starry. Leaves undivided. Fl. white or yellow, without 
bracteas. DeCandoUe has 59 species, (I think them too 
many,) besides 6 of his Erophila, separated from Draba 
merely because of the cloven fetals, an ambiguous cha- 
racter, some acknowledged Drabce having those parts oc- 
casionally notched or entire. 

• 1 . D. verna. Common Whitlow-grass. 

Stalks radical, naked. Petals deeply cloven. Leaves lan- 
ceolate, somewhat notched, hairy. 

D. vevna. Linn. Sp. PI. 896. Willd. v. 3. 426, Fl. Br. 677. Engl. 
Bot.v. 9. t.586. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. 1. 49. Hook. Scot. 196. 
Fl. Dan. t. 983. 

D. n. 496. Hall. Hist. V. 1.215. 

Erophila vulgaris. DeCand. Syst.v. 2. 356. 

Paronychia vulgaris. Rail Syn. 292. Ger. Em.624.f. Dod.Pempt. 
112./. 

P. alsinefolia. Lob. Ic. 469./. Dalech.Hist. 1214./. 

Whitlow Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 48./. 6. 

/3. Notched Whitlow Cress. /. 7. 

On walls, banks, and dry waste ground, abundantly. 

Annual. March, April. 

Root fibrous, of considerable length. Stem none. Leaves several, 
forming a star close to the ground, oblong-lanceolate, entire, or 
in /3 notched, clothed with simple as well as forked hairs. Flower- 
stalks one or more, radical, round, wavy, smooth, leafless, each 
bearing a corymbose cluster of several inodorous white^oi/)ers. 
Pet. cloven half way down. Pouch smooth, veiny. 

2. D. ahoides. Yellow Alpine Whitlow-grass. 

Stalks solitary, naked. Petals slightly notched, twice the 
length of the calyx. Leaves lanceolate, rigid, keeled, 
fringed. 

D. aizoides. Linn. Mant. 9\. PFilld.v. 3. 424. H.Br. 1400. Cotnp. 
ed. 4. 109. Engl. Bot. u. 1 8. M 27 1 . Jacq. Austr. t. 1 92. De- 
Cand. Syst. V. 2. 333. Don H. Brit.fasc. 8. 186 ; cultiv. sped- 

TtlCTlSm *■ 

iD. n. 498. Hall.Hist.v.U2\5. 
Sedum petrseum. Ger. £m. 5 14./. 
S. petrseum montanum. Lob. Ic.38\.f. 
S. alpinum sextum. Clus.Pann. 49\.f. Hist. v. 2. 62. f. 
Bursa pastoris alpina rosea lutea, &c. Moris, v. 2. 306. sect. 3. t. 20. 
/9. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Draba. 159 

On walls and rocks in South Wales. 

Near Wormshead, 1 6 miles west of Swansea, where it was disco- 
vered, in 1795, by John Lucas, Esq. Engl. Bot. About Pen- 
nard castle, near Swansea, abundantly, in inaccessible spots. 
fV. Turton, M.D. 

Perennial. March, April. 

Stems tufted, repeatedly branched in a determinate manner, the 
leafy branches of the present year bearing each a solitary, ter- 
minal, naked stalk, with a i&-w bright yellow corymbose_/owers. 
Leaves very numerous, closely imbricated, linear-lanceolate, 
rigid, of a shining green, keeled, fringed with white bristly hairs. 

Prof. DeCandolle esteems the plant figured in Curt. Mag. t. 170, 
to be a distinct species, of a more lax growth, with shorter sta- 
mens. This is doubtless D. ciliaris of the Linnaean herbarium, 
and MantissaOl, but I should think its differences owing to cul- 
tivation. See a figure and description in Gerard Galloprov. 344. 
t. 13./. ] . The keel of the leaves is but seldom, if ever, fringed. 

3. D. hirta. Simple-haired Whitlow-grass. 

Stalk nearly leafless. Petals undivided. Pouch elliptic-ob- 
long. Leaves lanceolate, slightly toothed, fringed with 
simple hairs. 

D. hirta. Linn. Sp. PI. 897. fVilld. v. 3. 430. Fl. Br. 677. Engl 

Bot. V. 19. 1. 1338. DonH. Brit.fasc. 8. 185. 
D. stellata. Dicks. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 2. 288. Crypt.fasc. 2. 29. 

With. 565. Hull 143 ; but not of Jacquin, 
D. pyrenaica. Fl. Dan. t. 143; not of Linnseus. 
D. rupestris. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. t;. 4. 9 1 . DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 344. 

Hook. Scot. 196. 

On rocks in the Highlands of Scotland. 

Upon Ben Lawers. Mr. Dickson. On rocks near the summit. 
Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root slender, somewhat creeping, subdivided at the crown, bearing 
several tufts of copious, spreading, lanceolate, bluntish, flat, 
deep-green leaves ; tapering at the base ; a little wavy, or slightly 
notched, at the margin, fringed with constantly simple bristly 
hairs, such as are scattered, more or less sparingly, over both 
surfaces, where a few forked, not stellated, ones are occasionally 
intermixed. Stalk solitary, slightly curved or wavy, 2 or 3 inches 
high, round, simply hairy, either quite leafless, or bearing, near 
the bottom, and sometimes under the lowermost flower, a soli- 
tary leaf, like the radical ones, though smaller, and by no means 
dilated, ovate, or strongly serrated. Fl. small, white, densely 
corymbose. Cal. somewhat hairy. Pet. obovate, with a shallow 
notch, erect, twice as long as the calyx. Pouches in a long, un- 
equal, or inteiTupted, upright cluster, with hairy partial stalks, 
about half their own length; their form elliptic-oblong rather than 



160 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Diaba. 

lanceolate, compressed but not flat, tipped with the very short 
thick style and capitate stigma ; their valves usually rough with 
minute, forked, spreading, rigid, white hairs ; but they are some- 
times quite smooth and naked, as in one of the Linnsean, and 
some of our Scottish specimens. 
After a careful re-examination, I cannot but confirm the descrip- 
tions and synonyms of FL Br. and Engl. Bot. The figure in the 
latter work is correct, if not luxuriant. No wonder Dr. Wahlen- 
berg could not find in it the characters of his D. hirta, that be- 
ing, as I presume, a different species, characterized by one, two, 
or three ovate, strongly toothed or serrated leaves on its stalk, 
or stem. I have such from Lapland, gathered by Dr. Swartz. 
The pouches and stalks are, as in the real D. hirta, either mi- 
nutely hairy or smooth. I must leave Dr. Hooker's hirta for 
future examination, as he refers to Jacquin's hirta, FL Austr. 
t. 432, a totally different species, which is Haller's n. 497, well 
known in Switzerland, but not in Britain. Bauhin's Bursa pas- 
toris alpina hirsuia, Prodr. 51./, agrees in the stem-leaves with 
Swartz's and Wahlenberg's plant, but the description of its soft 
and hoary radical foliage answers better to Jacquin's. 

4. D. incana. Twisted-podded Whitlow-grass. 
Stem-leaves numerous, hoary, like the stem, with close starry 

pubescence. Pouch elliptic-oblong, oblique or twisted, 

longer than the hairj' partial stalks. 
D. incana. Linn. Sp. PL 897. FL Suec. ed. 2. 224. 

mild. V. 3. 430. FL Br. 430. EngL Bot. v. 6. t. 388. Hook. 

Scot 197. Don H. Brit.fasc. 8. 187. Wahlenh. Lapp. I7fi. FL 

Dan. L 130. Ehrh.Phyt.7b. 
D. contorta. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 7. 155. DeCand. Srjst. v. 2. 348. 
Lunaria contorta major. Raii Syn. 29 1 . 
Leucojum, sive Lunaria, vasculo sublorgo intorto. Pluk. Almag. 

215. PhyLL 42./. I. 
Wreathed Cress. Petiv. H. BriU t. 48./. 3. 
/3. Paronychise similis sed major, perennis alpina repens. Raii Syn. 

ed.2. 165. erf. 3. 292. 
Small Wreath Cress. Petiv. H. BriL L 48./ 4. 

On alpine limestone rocks. 

On the summits of the mountains of Wales, Westmoreland, and 
Scotland. Upon the top of Ingleborough, Yorkshire. Mr. Wood- 
ward. Upon Ben Lawers, Loch-na-gair, and Cairn-gorm. Mr. 
G. Don. On heaths, on the east coast of Sutherland, near 
Wilk-house inn. Dr. Hooker and Mr. Borrer. 

Biennial. May, June. 

Root long, tapering, with numerous capillary radicles. Herb all 
over hoary, with minute, starry, crowded and close-pressed hairs, 
very variable in stature and luxuriance, like most biennial or an- 
nual plants, according to the moisture or nourishment it re- 
ceives. Stern from 2 to 12 inches high in a wild state, 2 feet 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Draba. 161 

when cultivated, simple or somewhat branched, copiously leafy, 
its starry pubescence accompanied by, or sometimes in the lower 
part changed for, fine long simple hairs. Radical leaves elliptic- 
lanceolate, forming in the first season a dense rose-like tuft ; 
those of the stem, the following year, very numerous, scattered, 
sessile, ovate, ribbed, variously toothed or cut, seldom, except 
in starved plants, quite entire. Fl. numerous, white. Cal. hairy. 
Pet. inversely heart-shaped, twice the length of the calyx, with 
taper claws. Partial ^o?/;er-sto/A:s very hairy, scarcely half the 
length of the pouch, which is about half an inch long, elliptic- 
lanceolate, or oblong, more or less oblique, uneven, or twisted 
half round, flat not tumid, the edges thick, the summit crowned 
with the extremely short thick style, and depressed capitate 
stigma. The surface of the pouch in British specimens 1 find 
to be always smooth. Ehrhart's specimens of his D. incana, or 
Holarges, Phytoph. 75, are not in fruit, but one of the germens 
carefully examined, proved only slightly and partially hairy, and 
could not possibly have produced a hoary pouch. Yet this sy- 
nonym is applied by Ehrhart to his own D. confusa, whose pouch 
should be downy, while DeCandoUe refers it, by my specimens, 
to his D. contorta, my incana. From all that I have seen, as 
well as from the analogy of the preceding species, I am satisfied 
that the smoothness or roughness of the fruit affords but a trivial 
distinction, and DeCandoUe seems of the same opinion. The 
figure in Engl. Bot. taken from a wild seedling, made to blossom 
in a garden, is therefore over luxuriant ; but being very faith- 
ful in every particular does not deserve to be stigmatized as 
" bad." 

5. D. muralis. Speedwell-leaved Whitlow-grass. 

Stem branched. Leaves heart-shaped, toothed, hairy. Pouch 
elliptical, obtuse, flat, shorter than the partial stalks. 

D. muralis. Linn. Sp. PL 897. IVilld. v. 3. 429. Fl.Br.679. Engl. 

Bot. V. \3.t.9] 2. Hook. Scot. 197. Lond. t. 64. Scop. Insubr. 

fasc. 2.t.lD. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 352. Don. H. Brit.fasc. 8. 188. 
D. n. 499. Hall. Hist. i\ 1. 215. 

D. minima muralis discoides. Column. Ecphr. v. 1. 274. t. 272. 
Bursa pastoris major, loculo oblongo. Bauh.Pin. 108. Prodr. 50. f. 

Rail Syn. 292. Morh. v. 2. 305. sect. 3. t. 20. f. 5. 
Speedwell Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t.48.f.5. 
Myagroides subrotundis serratisque foliis, flora albo. Barrel. Ic. 

t.8l6. 

On the shady sides of limestone mountains, or on walls, but rare. 

In several parts of ('raven. Yorkshire. Ray. About Malham Cove. 
Dr. Richardson and others. At Old Malton, on walls. Rev. Arch- 
deacon Peirson. On the Wardon Hills, Bedfordshire. Rev. Dr. 
Abbot. On dry banks at Emborough, Somersetshire. Mr. Sole. 

VOL. in. M 



162 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Alyssum. 

Naturalized on the walls of Chelsea garden, as likewise about 
the botanic garden Edinburgh. 

Annual. April, May. 

Very unlike all our other species. Root tapering. Stem erect, al- 
nately branched, unless very weak, from the base, from 6 to 1 8 
inches high, leafy, rough with minute starry hairs. Radical 
leaves several, depressed, obovate, tapering at the base ; those 
of the stem scattered, sessile, heart-shaped ; all strongly ser- 
rated or toothed, and clothed with short, either simple, forked 
or stellated, hairs. Fl. very numerous, small, white, in a little 
dense corymbose tuft, soon lengthened out into an extremely 
long cluster of spreading powcftes, whose stalks are either smooth 
or hairy. Cal, as Dr. Hooker observes, generally smooth ; but 
occasionally hairy as in Engl. Bot. Pet. obovate, entire. Style 
scarcely any. Stigma blunt, very small. Pouch about half the 
length of its stalk, elliptical, obtuse, flat, even and smooth, with 
6 or 8 seeds in each cell, which, as DeCandolle remarks, are 
twice as numerous in D. nemoralis, the pouches of which are 
finely downy, on longer and smooth stalks, and the leaves ovate- 
oblong. 

319. ALYSSUM. Alyssum. 

Linn. Gen. 335. Juss. 240. H. Br. 659. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 
93. DeCand. Syst. i;.2.301. Lam. t.559. Gcertn. t.\A\. 

Cal. equal at the base, cup-shaped, deciduous ; leaves ovate, 
concave, uniform. Pet. obovate, entire, or slightly notch- 
ed, flat, spreading, with short claws. Filam. about the 
length of the calyx, often furnished with a lateral tooth, 
or notch. Anth. of 2 roundish lobes. Germ, orbicular, 
or elliptical, compressed. Style short. Stigma simple, 
small. Pouch orbicular, oval, or obovate, laterally com- 
pressed, tipped with the style, of 2 cells ; valves flattish, 
or tumid chiefly in the middle ; partition membranous, 
of the same shape and breadth. Seeds 1 or 2 in each cell, 
oval, compressed, rarely bordered ; cotyledons accum- 
bent. 

Small herbaceous or shrubby plants, downy, or hoary, with 
simple or starry pubescence, usually much branched and 
leafy. Leaves undivided, mostly narrow and entire. Fl. 
white or yellow. 

1. \.jnaritimum. Sweet Alyssum. 

Stem somewhat woody, much branched, spreading. Leaves 
lanceolate, acute, entire, hoary with close hairs. Stamens 
simple. Seeds solitary. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Camelina. 163 

A. maritimum. fVilld. v. 3. 459. Engl. Bot. v. 25. <. 1 729. Br. in 
H. Kew. V. 4. 95. DeCand. Syst. u. 2. 31 8. 

A, minimum. Linn. Sp. PL 908. Herb. Linn. 

A. halimifolium. Curt. Mag. L 101. 

Clypeola maritima. Linn. Sp. PI. 910. Mant. 2. 426. 

Thlaspi Alyssum dictum maritimum. Bauh. Pin. 1 07. Moris, v. 2. 
291. sect. 3. t. 16./. 1. 

T. maritimum. Dalech. Hist. 1393./. 

T. linifolium minus cineritium, flore albo. Barrel. Ic. t. 908./. 1. 
good. 

T. narbonense Lobelii. Ger. Em. 267 .f. 

On banks and cliffs near the sea. 

Near Aberdeen. Prof. W. Duncan. At Budleigh-Salterton, De- 
vonshire. Dr. Hooker. Not wild in the latter place. Bev. J. 
Jervis. 

Perennial. August, September, , 

Stem much branched from the base, recumbent, leafy, tliough 
woody not very durable ; and in gardens, where this plant i.s 
cultivated for the sake of its honey-scented^oujers, it is gene- 
rally treated as an annual. The herbage is hoary, or rather 
glaucous, with close-pressed silvery hairs. Leaves linear-lan- 
ceolate, tapering at the base. FL very abundant, in dense, tufted, 
or corymbose, clusters, much elongated when in fruit. Pet. 
roundish, of a brilliant white ; but in fading their claws, like 
the stamens, assume a violet hue. Pouch orbicular, smooth and 
polished, a little tumid, with one seed in each cell. 

320. CAMELINA. Gold of Pleasure. 

Crantz Austr.fasc. 1.17. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 93. Comp. ed. 4. 
108. DeCand. Syst. V. 2. 5\4. 

Cal. equal at the base, oblong, deciduous ; leaves elliptic- 
oblong, uniform, moderately spreading. Pet. obovate- 
oblong, undivided, their claws rather shorter than the 
spreading border. Filam. thread-shaped, simple. Anth. 
oblong-heart-shaped. Germ, roundish. Style cylindri- 
cal, erect. Stigma simple, obtuse. Pouch obovate, ob- 
tuse, rarely globular, tumid, of 2 cells ; valves concave, 
confluent with the permanent style ; partition membra^ 
nous. Seeds numerous in each cell, oblong, compres.sed, 
not bordered ; cotyledons incumbent. 

Upright, mostly branched, herbs, with oblong leaves, clasp- 
ing the stem. Fl. yellow, in corymbose clusters. Pouches 
erect, on long partial stalks. The incumbent cotyledons 
oblige us to separate the present genus from Alyssum. 

The name of Myagrum, as Prof. DeCandoUe remarks, pro- 
perly belongs to this genus ; but that is now appropriated 
to M. perfoliatnm, and Camelina though barbarous, and 

M 2 



164 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Lepidium. 

apparently corrupted from Chamcelinum, (which in itself 
would be totally inadmissible,) is not ill-sounding, and 
has long been applied to our plant. 

* 1. C. sat'iva. Common Gold of Pleasure. 

Pouches obovate, bordered, twice as long as the style. 
Leaves lanceolate-arrow-shaped. 

C, sativa. Crantz Austr.fasc. 1.17. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 93. 

DeCand. Stjst. v. 2. 515. Comp. ed. 4. 109. Hook. Scot. 198. 

Lond. t. 70. 
C. sive Myagrion. Dod. Pempt. 532./. 
Myagrum. Raii Syn. 302. Ger. Em. 273./. 
M. sativum. Linn. Sp. PL 894. Willd. v. 3. 408. FL Dan. t. 1038. 

Cavan. Ic. v. 1 . 47. t. 66. Ehrh. PL Off. 407. 
Pseudo-myagrum. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 515./. Dalech. Hist. 1 137./. 

Camer. Epit. 901. f. also tertium 902./. 
Sesama. Trag. Hist. 655. f. 

Moenchia sativa. Roth Germ.v.\. 274. With. 562. Hull \42. 
Alyssum sativum. Fl. Br. 679. Engl. Bot.v. 18. t. 1254. 
A. n. 489. Hall. Hist. t). 1 . 212. 
Gold of Pleasure. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 48./. 11, 

In cultivated fields, chiefly among Flax, with whose seeds it is 
often introduced from abroad, but does not long propagate itself 
with us spontaneously. 

Annual. June. 

Root fibrous. Herb smooth, or variously downy, erect, IJ- or 2 feet 
high, more or less panicled. Leaves alternate, acute, bright 
green, 2 or 3 inches long, entire or toothed, clasping the stem 
with their arrow-shaped base. Fl. small, pale yellow, their co- 
rymbs soon becoming very long clusters of pear-shaped, bor- 
dered, smooth, inflated pouches, tipped with the styles, which 
latter are commonly longer than the figure in Engl. Bot. repre- 
sents them ; the stigma withering, they become acute as the 
fruit ripens, and are united at both sides with the valves, as 
Crantz observes. Seeds 6 or 8 in each cell. 

The ridiculously pompous English name seems a satire on the arti- 
cles of which it is composed, as yielding nothing but disappoint- 
ment. 

321. LEPIDIUM. Pepperwort. 

Linn. Gen. 333. ^ Juss. 241 . Fl. Br. 68 1 . Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 
85. DeCand. Syst.v. 2. 527. Tourn.t. 103. Lam. t. 556. Gdrtn. 
f. 141. 

Cal. equal at the base, with elliptical, concaA^e, nearly equal 
leaves. Pet. obovate, undivided, equal. Filam. simple, 
shorter than the petals, sometimes deficient in number. 



\ 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Lepidium. 165 

. ^«^^. of 2 roundish lobes. Gf/vw. roundish. Sifj/i^f slender, 
or wanting. Stigma obtuse. Pouch orbicular, or oblong, 
transversely compressed, either entire or notched at the 
summit, crowned with the style or stigma, of 2 cells; valves 
keel-shaped, sometimes bordered ; partition very narrow, 
crossing the greater diameter of the pouch. Seeds 1 in 
each cell, pendulous, ovate, somewhat angular, or flat- 
tened ; cotyledons oblong, incumbent. 

Glaucous or hoary herbs, of a hot pungent flavour. S(em 
branched. Leaves very various. Fl. copious, white, mi- 
nute. 

1 . L. lat'ifolium. Broad-leaved Pepperwort. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, undivided, serrated. 

L. latifolium. Linn. Sp. PL 899. Willd. v. 3. 436. FL Br. 682. 

EngL Bot. V. 3. t. 182. Hook. Scot. 194. DeCand. SysL v. 2. 

548. FLDan.t.557. RaiiSyn.304. 
Lepidium. Trag. HisL 88./. Fuchs. Hist. 484. f. Matth.Valgr. 

V. 1 . 557./. Camer. Epit. 378, 379./,/. 
L. majus. Cord. Hist. 1 24, 2./. 
L. Plinianum. Dad. Pempt. 7 15. f.7 16. Moris.v. 2. 312. sect. 3. 

L2\.f. 1. 
Nasturtium n. 505. HaU. Hist. u. 1 . 2 1 9. 
Raphanus sylvestris officinarum. Ger. Em. 241. f. Lob. Ic. 318./. 

In salt marshes, and wet sandy shady situations under cliffs, near 
the sea. 

In several parts of Essex. Ray. Yorkshire. Dr. Richardson. Be- 
low Sheringham cliffs, Norfolk. Mr. Humphrey. 

Perennial. July. 

Roots acrid, very long, creeping and branched, running deep into 
the earth, and remaining for many years, if planted in sandy 
ground far from the sea. Whole herb smooth, of a dull glau- 
cous green, its flavour disagreeably pungent and bitter. Stems 
a yard high, tough, branched, leafy, pale. Lower leaves a span 
in length, ovate, serrated about the middle, on long stalks ; up- 
per much smaller, and lanceolate, or linear, acute, nearly sessile, 
entire. Fl. numerous, very small, white, in compound, leafy, 
panicled, corymbose clusters. Stamens 6. Pouch elliptical, 
crowned with the sessile stigma. 

A common Greek plant, the Lepidion of Dioscorides, who attri- 
butes an acrid ulcerating quality to its leaves, and it still bears 
the name of Lepidi in Attica. 

2. L. ruderale. Narrow-leaved Pepperwort. 

Stamens two. Petals none. Leaves smooth ; lower ones 
pinnatifid, toothed ; upper linear, entire. Pouch notched. 



166 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Lepidium. 

L. ruderale. Linn. Sp. PL 900. M'illd. v. 3. 440. FL Br. 682. Engl. 

Bot. V. 23. 1. 1595. Hook. Scot. 194. FL Dan. t. 184. DeCand. 

SysL V. 2. 540. 
Nasturtium n. 508. HalL HisL v. 1 . 220. 
N. sylvestre, Osyridis folio. Rail Syn. 303. 
Thlaspi minus. Ger. Em. 262. f. 

T. angustifolium. Fuchs.HlsLSOJ.f. Ic.\75.f. Dalech.Hist.662.f. 
Thlaspidii genus. Trag. Hist. 83./. 
Narrow Wild Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. L 50./. 1 . 

In waste ground, especially near the sea^ in a muddy or calcareous 
soil. 

At Yal-mouth, Cley, and Lynn, Norfolk, plentifully. At Truro, 
Cornwall, and Maiden, Essex. Ray. Below Bristol. Withering. 
By the side of the Severn above Worcester. Dr. Stokes. 

Annual. June. 

Root tapering. Herb glaucous, smooth, fetid and pungent when 
bruised. Stem from 6 to 12 inches high, solitary, erect, leafy, 
with many wide-spreading branches. Lower leaves pinnatifid, 
which the figures of the old authors, except Petiver, do not ex- 
hibit ; their segments are linear, partly toothed, especially at 
the fore side ; upper leaves undivided, entire. FL minute, in 
dense corymbs, which when in seed become very long, rather 
crowded, clusters. I have never met with any petals, nor more 
than 2 stamens ^ but Dr. Withering, like Scopoli and Gouan, 
has often seen complete^oj^ers, and sometimes 4 stamens. Pouch 
roundish, with a notch containing the verj' short, thick, perma- 
nent style. 

3. h. campesire. Common Mithridate Pepperwort. 

Pouch scaly, notched ; bordei'ed at the summit. Style very 
short. Stem-leaves arrow-shaped, toothed. 

L. campestre. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 88. Comp. ed. 4. 110. De- 
Cand. Syst. V. 2. 535. Hook. Scot. 1 95. 

Thlaspi campestre. Linn. Sp. PL 902. Willd. v. 3. 444. FLBr.6^4. 
EngL Bot. V. 20. t. 1385. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5.t.45. 

T. vulgatius. Rail Syn. 305. Baiih. Hist. v. 2. 921. upper/. 

T. latifolium. Fuchs. HisL 306. f. 7c. 174./. 

Nasturtium n. 509. HalL Hist. v. 1.220. 

Common Cow Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50. /. 7. 

/3. Thlaspi Vaccarise folio glabrum. Rail Syn. 305. 

T. vulgatissimum. Ger. Em. 262./. 

T. primum. Matth. Valgr. tj. 1. 518./ Camer. Epit. 336./. Da- 
lech. Hist. 662. f. 

Smooth Cow Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50./ 8. 

y. Thlaspi hirtum. Huds. 281. 

In cultivated fields. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Lepidium. 167 

/S. Near Warrington. Mr. D. Turner. 

y. Near Bath. Mr. Haviland. 

Annual. July. 

Root tapering. Herb more or less downy, and of a hoary or glau- 
cous green; the pubescence short, simple, and prominent. Stem 
erect, leafy, about a foot high ; branched in the upper part, ex- 
cept in weak specimens. Lowest leaves obovate, soon wither- 
ing; the rest sessile, arrow-shaped, acute at both ends, wavy 
and toothed in the most common and downy variety ; in /3 nearly 
smooth, and more entire. Fl. numerous, small, white, their co- 
rymbs soon lengthened out into long clusters of upright, round- " 
ish-oblongpoMc/ies, whose flat border, very narrow at the sides, 
is much dilated, and cloven, at the upper edge, the style being 
about equal in length to the lobes. The surface at both sides 
of the pouch is covered with minute depressed scales, which 
mark this species well, and are sometimes, in y, accompanied 
by a few hairs, when it becomes Thlaspi hirtum of Hudson, but 
not of Linnaeus. I have always found the seeds solitary in each 
cell. For the cotyledons being incumbent, not accumbent as in 
Thlaspi, 1 rely on Mr. Brown. 

4. L. hirtum. Hairy Mithridate Pepperwort. 

Pouch often hairy, not scaly, bordered at the summit. Style 
prominent. Stem-leaves arrow-shaped, slightly toothed. 

L. hirtum. Comp. ed. 4. 1 1 0. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 536. 

Thlaspi hirtum. Lin7i.Sp. PI. 90\. Willd. v.3.444. Fl Br 684. 
Engl. Bot. V. 26. 1. 1 803. Hook. Scot i 95. 

T. Vaccarise incano folio perenne. Rail Syn. ed. 2. 175. ed. 3.305. 

T. villosum, capsulis hirsutis. Bauh. Pin. 106. Prodr. 47 .f. Mo- 
ris. V.2. 297. sect.3. t. )8./. 27, copied from Bauliin. 

T. villosum. Matth. ed. Bauh. 430./. 

T. capsulis hirsutis. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 922./. Chabr.Sciagr. 291,/ 
copied from J. Bauhin. 

Hoary Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50./. ] 0. 

In fields on hilly ground. 

In mountainous situations in Wales, and elsewhere. Ray. In 
Perthshire, near the seat of the Earl of Kinnoul. Mr. Miller, and 
Mr. J. Mackay. By the river Earn, Perthshire, and the Esk, 
between Brichen and Montrose, Angusshire. Mr. G. Don. At 
Browston, Suffolk. Rev. G. R. Leathes. 

Perennial. June. 

Root woody and perennial, as Ray indicates. Stems several, simple 
or branched, leafy, always finely hairy, as well as the leaves, which 
resemble those of the last, but the obovate radical ones are more 
numerous and permanent, on long slender footstalks. Inflores- 
cence like the preceding, but the petals are larger. Pouch often 
hairy at the sides, but the dilated terminal cloven border seems 
to be always smooth, as are^ very frequently, the sides also, being 



168 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Hutchinsia. 

moreover entirely destitute of the minute concave scales, so cha- 
racteristic of L. campestre. The style is full twice as long as 
the lobes of the border. Seeds solitary. Co^i/^er/ons incumbent, 
as I have found them on examination, and as there is no room 
to doubt their being in L. campestre, so that the more obvious 
character of the solitary seeds is thus confirmed, and the true 
genus of these plants perfectly estabUshed. Ray well knew this 
species, and the old figures, of which those of the two Bauhins 
only are original, answer perfectly to our plant, though Hudson's 
Thlaspi hirtum is but a variety of campestre. 

322. HUTCHINSIA. Hutchinsia. 

Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 82. Comp. ed.4.\ 07. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 
384. 

Cal. equal at the base, with spreading, elliptical, concave, 
equal leaves, deciduous. Pet. obovate, undivided. Filam. 
simple. Anth. roundish. Germ, oval, compressed. Style 
various. Stigma obtuse. Pouch elliptic-oblong, trans- 
versely compressed, nearly entire, of 2 cells ; valves keel- 
shaped, not bordered; partition narrow, crossing the 
greater diameter of the pouch. Seeds 2, or more, in each 
cell, pendulous, ovate ; cotyledons accumbent. 

Herbs various in habit, perennial, or annual. Leaves undi- 
vided, pinnatifid, or pinnate, smooth, a little succulent. 
Fl. white or reddish, never yellow. 

1, H. peir<£a. Rock Hutchinsia. 

Leaves pinnate, entire. Petals scarcely equal to the calyx. 
Stigma sessile. Seeds two in each cell. 

H. petrsea. Br. in Jit. H. Kew. v. 4. 82. Comp. ed. 4. 1 10. De- 
Cand. Syst. V. 2. 389. Hook. Land. t.3]. 

Lepidium petrseum. Linn. Sp. PL 899. M'illd. v. 3. 434. Fl. Br. 
68 1 . Engl. Bot. d. 2. 1 1 1 . Jacq. Justr. t.\3\. 

L. Linnsi. Crantz Austr.fasc. ].7. t. 2./. 4, 5. 

Nasturtium n. 515. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 222. 

N. petrseum annuum nostras. Pluk. Almag. 262. Phyt. t. 206. f. 4. 

N. pumilum vernum. Bauh. Pin. 105. Moris, v. 2. 301. sect. 3. 
t.l9.f.6. 

Nasturtiolum montanum annuum tenuissimfe divisum. Rail Syn. 
304. 

Cardamine pusilla saxatilis montana discoides. Column. Ecphr. v. 1 . 
274. t. 273. 

Fine Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50./. 4. 

On limestone rocks, and walls, in the south of Britain. 

On the rocks about Goram's chair, near Bristol. Richard Kayle, and 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Teesdalia. 169 

J. Sherard. On St. Vincent's rocks, Bristol. Huds., and Dr. 
John Ford, where it still grows. Also at Uphill, Somersetshire. 
Huds. On a limestone wall 2 miles from Pembroke. Mr. Adams. 
In various other parts of Wales, and of the mountainous lime- 
stone district of Yorkshire. Dr. Hooker. 

Annual. March, April. 

Root fibrous, annual rather than biennial. Steins one or more, 2 
or 3 inches high, erect, leafy, branched, spreading, smooth, or 
finely downy. Leaves elegantly pinnate, of numerous pairs of 
elliptic-oblong, entire, smooth leaflets, with a terminal one of 
the same size, their common stalk channelled and bordered, so 
that the whole may be denominated a deeply pinnatifid leaf. Fl. 
white, very minute, corymbose. Pet. narrow. Pouches in longish 
clusters, spreading, oval, compressed, at first entire, tipped with 
the sessile stigma, but as they advance to maturity the point of 
each valve becomes slightly elongated or dilated, making a small 
notch to contain the somewhat elevated stigma. Seeds 2 in 
each cell, one above the other. 

I beg leave to repeat that this plant has the pouch of a Lepidium, 
according to the original idea of that genus, being " emarginate 
and many-seeded"; but the cotyledons being accumbent, not 
incumbent, oblige us to take advantage of the seeds not being 
solitary, as in Lepidium better defined, to separate it, along 
with others whose seeds are still more numerous, as a distinct, 
though not very natural, genus. See Hooker and DeCandolle. 

The name commemorates the late Miss Hutchins, a very distin- 

. guished botanist, whose discoveries in the neighbourhood of 
Belfast have often been celebrated, and whose premature death 
is deplored by all who knew her. 

323. TEESDALIA. Teesdalia. 

Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 83. Cump. ed.4.l 08. Tr. of Linn. Soc. 
«. 11.283. DeCand.Syst.v. 2. 39]. 

Cal. equal at tlie base, with spreading, ovate, concave, 
nearly equal, deciduous leaves. Pet. obovate, undivided, 
spreading, either equal, or unequal, the 2 outermost in 
the latter case much the largest. Filam. cylindrical, 
sometimes but 4, shorter than the corolla, incurved, each 
bearing an ovate, petal-like scale, at the inner side, just 
above the base. Anth. of 2 round, distinct, converging 
lobes. Germ, roundish, 2-lobed, rather compressed. 
Stigma globular, sessile. Pouch transversely compressed, 
roundish, concave on one side ; bordered at the summit 
and cloven ; of 2 cells, and 2 boat- like valves, with dilated 
keels ; partition lanceolate, narrow, contrary to the 
greater diameter of the pouch. Seeds 2 in each cell, 



170 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Thlaspi. 

roundish, compressed ; cotyledons, according to DeCan- 
doUe, accumbent, nearly orbicular. 
Annual herbs, of humble growth, with numerous, pinnati- 
fid, radical leaves, and several simple stalks, of which the 
central one only is quite leafless. FL small, white, in 
simple corymbose tufts, becoming long clusters oi pouches. 

1. T. ?mdicaulis. Naked-stalked, or Irregular, Tees- 

dalia. 

Petals unequal. 

T. nudicaulis. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 83. Comp.ed. 4. 1 10. Tr. 

of Linn. Soc. ?j. 1 1 . 286. Hook. Scot. 1 94. 
T. Iberis. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 392. 

Iberis nudicaulis. Linn. Sp. PI. 907 . Pf'ilkl. v. 3. 458. Fl. Br. 692. 
, Engl. Bat. v. 5. i. 327. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 42. Dicks. H. Sice. 
/asc. 1.10. Fl. Dan. t. 323. 
I. n.52I. Hall. Hist. v.\. 224. 
Nasturtium petraeum. Uaii Syn. 303. 
Bursa pastoria minima. Ger. Em.276.f. Lob. Ic.22l.f. 
Shepherd's Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50./. 2, 

In dry barren gravelly fields. 

About London, Norwich and Bury. Ray, and Engl. Bot. InWcr- 
cestershire and Cumberland. Withering. Near Sheffield. Mr. 
J. Salt. In cornfields near Easingwold, Yorkshire. Rev. Arch- 
deacon Peirson. In several parts of the lowlands of Scotland. 
Hooker. Abundant in Anglesea. Rev. H. Davies. 

Annual. May. 

Root slender, tapering. Leaves numerous, spreading on the 
ground, partly undivided, but mostly pinnatifid in a lyrate man- 
ner, often downy at the edges, otherwise smooth. Stems se- 
veral, slightly leafy, erect or spreading, the central one quite 
straight and always naked. Fl. in little white corymbs. Two 
outer petals thrice the size of the others. Stam. always 6, re- 
markable for their large white scales, first observed in this spe- 
cies by the late Mr. Sowerby. 

TeesdaUa is named after the late Mr. Robert Teesdale, F.L.S., 
formerly gardener to the Earl of Carlisle at Castle Howard, an 
excellent British botanist, who died atTurnham Green, Dec. 25, 
1804. T. regularis, the only species known besides, is Lepi- 
dium nudicaule of Linnaeus, exactly like our plant in habit, but 
distinguished by having equal petals, and often only 4 stamens. 

324. THLASPI. Shepherd's Purse. MIthridate 
Mustard. 

Linn. Gen. 334. Juss. 24 1 . Fl. Br. 683. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 373. 
Tonrn.t.]Ol,F—L. DiU.Gen.t.6. Lam. t. 557. Gartn.t.l4]. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Thlaspi. 171 

Bursa Pastoris. Toiirn. t. 103. 
Capsella. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 383. 

Cal. equal at the base, with ovate, concave, moderately 
spreading, deciduous leaves. Pet. obovate, equal, undi- 
vided, sometimes slightly notched ; their claws short and 
broad. Filam. simple, slender. Anth. heart-shaped, acute. 
Germ, roundish, compi-essed, notched. Style short. Stig- 
ma obtuse. Pouch transversely compressed, roundish or 
inversely heart-shaped, crowned between its lobes with 
the style, of 2 cells ; valves strongly keeled, mostly bor- 
dered ; partition elliptic-lanceolate, crossing the greater 
diameter of the pouch. Seeds several in each cell, ovate; 
cotyledons accumbent. 

Perennial or annual herbs, for the most part smooth, with 
undivided, rarely pinnatifid, leaves. Fl. white. Pouches 
variously shaped and bordered. 

1. T. arvense. Mithridate Mustard, or Penny Cress. 

Pouch orbicular, nearly flat, shorter than its stalk. Leaves 
smooth, oblong, toothed. Stem erect. 

T. arvense. Linn. Sp. PL 901. mild. v. 3. 442. H. Br. 683. 

Engl. Bot. V. 24. t. 1659. Curt. Lond. fasc. 6. t. 43. Hook. 

Scot. 1 93. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 375'. Fl. Dan. t. 793. 
T. Dioscoridis. Rail Sijn. 305. Ger. Em. 262. f. 
T. secundum. 3Iatth. Falgr. v. 1.519. /. Camcr. Epit. 337. /. 

Dalech. Hist. 662./. 
T. cum siliquis latis. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 923./". 
Nasturtium n. 5 1 1 . Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 220. 
Penny Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. f. 50./. 9. 

In cultivated or waste ground, but not common. 

In Essex, Suffolk, and Staffordshire. Ray. Oxfordshire. Bishop 
of Carlisle. In waste ground on the north-east side of Norwich. 
Mr. Rose. Near the sea at the south end of Lowestoft, Suffolk. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root small and tapering. Herb deep shining green, quite smooth, 
erect, 8 to 12 inches high, branched, leafy. Radical leaves obo- 
vate, obtuse ; those of the stem oblong, acute, arrow-shaped and 
clasping at the base ; all toothed, or wavy. Fl. small, white, 
densely corymbose. Pouches very large, erect, in long clusters, 
orbicular, with a deep notch at the top, the broad borders of 
their valves rising high above the style. Seeds striated, black, 
acrid, with a strong garlic flavour, which occasioned them to be 
used formerly as an ingredient in the Mithridate Confection, an 
elaborate hodge-podge, now laid aside. The name of Penny 
Cress alludes to the form and size of the seed-vessels, resembling 
a silver penny. 



172 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Thlaspi. 

2. T. perfoliatum. Perfoliate Shepherd's Purse. 

Pouch inversely heart-shaped. Stem-leaves heart-shaped, 
rather sharp at the base, clasping the branched stem. 
Style very short. 

T. perfoliatum. Linn. Sp. PL 902. Willd. v. 3. 446. FL Br. 685. 

Engl. Bot. V. 33. t. 2354. Hook. Lond. t. 46. DeCand. Syst. 

V. 2. 378. Jacq. Austr. t. 337. 
T. alpestre. Huds. 282. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 6. 5. 
T. arvense perfoliatum minus. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 176. 
T. arvense perfoliatum majus. Bauh. Pin. \06. Moris, v. 2.294. 

sect. 3. t. 17. f. 15," also minus./. 16. 
T. perfoliatum minus. Bauh. Pin. 106. Raii Syn.ed. 3. 305. 
T. alterum mitius rotundifolium, Bursse pastoris fructu. Column. 

Ecphr.v. 1.278. t. 276./. 2. 
T. cordatum minus, flore albo, insipidum. Barrel. Ic. t. 815. 
T. tertium pumilum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 131 ./. 
T. minus Clusii. Ger. Em. 268./. 
T. rotundifolium. Ger. Em. 266./ good. 
Nasturtium n. 5 1 0. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 220. 
Small Thorow Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50./ 12. 

In limestone pastures, rare. 

Abundant among the stone-pits about Burford, Oxfordshire. Bo- 
bart and Sibth. I believe it has not been found in any other 
part of Britain. The north-country stations introduced into 
Ray's Synopsis by Dillenius, certainly belong to T. alpestre. 

Annual. April, May. 

Root fibrous. Herb glaucous, smooth. Stem branched from the 
very bottom, spreading, leafy. Lfiaues slightly toothed j radical 
ones stalked, ovate, obtuse ; the rest sessile, arrow-shaped, 
clasping the stem, either rounded or acute at the base. Fl. 
densely corymbose, small, white. Cal. often purplish, with white 
membranous edges. Pouches on horizontal stalks, in not very 
long clusters, the keels of their valves much dilated and rounded 
at the upper part, rising high above the very short style. Seeds 
numerous in each cell, oval, yellowish. 

Morison's/ 16, and T. tertium pumilum of Clusius, copied in Ger. 
Em. clearly belong to this, as they faithfully express the short- 
ness of the style. I have starved specimens very nearly answer- 
ing to those figures. The great Ray was aware that authors had 
here made two species out of one. 

3. T. alpestre. Alpine Shepherd's Purse. 

Stem-leaves arrow-shaped. Stems simple. Style promi- 
nent beyond the margin of the obovate abrupt pouch. 

T. alpestre. Linn. Sp. PL 903. Willd.v.3.447. FLBr.685. EngL 
Bot. V. 2. t. 81 . DeCand. SysL v. 2. 380. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Thlaspi. 173 

T. montanum. Huds. 282. fVith. 674. Curt. Cat. in Fl. Lond. v. I . 

W.85. 
T. foliis Globulariae. Bauli. Hist.v. 2. 926./. Eaii Syn. ed. 2, 1 75 

ed. .3.305. 
T. montanum secundum. Clus. Hist.v. 2. 131./. 
T. albi supini varietas. Ger. Em. 268./. 2. 
Lepidium n. 519. Hall. Hist.v. 1.223. 
Woad Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50. f. 11. 

In mountainous pastures in the north of England, among limestone 
rocks and lead mines. 

About Settle and Malham, Yorkshire. Ra?j. At Matlock bath, 
Derbyshire. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root much branched at the crown, running deep into the ground, 
but not creeping. Herb smooth and glaucous. Stems several, a 
span high, leafy, all simple, unless eaten down early by cattle, 
in which case they branch from the base, any small lateral shoot, 
as in Engl. Bot., being extremely rare. Leaves scarcely, if at 
all, toothed ; the radical ones in dense tufts, stalked, ovate or 
obovate, obtuse, a little wavy ; those of the stem numerous, 
sessile, arrow-shaped, mostly acute at each end. Fl. white, small, 
but the petals vary in size, and are slightly notched. Anth. pur- 
plish, as is likewise the calyx. Pouch obovate and obtuse, seldom 
so much heart-shaped as in Engl. Bot., nor do its bordered lobes 
ever reach half the length of the slender prominent style. Seeds 
tawny, 3 or 4 in each cell. 

Tlie attentive reader will find my synonyms of this and the last, as 
well as of Lepidium. campestre and hirtum, a little at variance 
with those of the learned and accurate Prof. DeCandolIe ; and 
in deference to such authority I have revised them j but this ex- 
amination has confirmed their original application. The descrip- 
tion and figure in Engl. Bot. will not, I think, be found to dis- 
agree with each other j see Hooker under T. perfvUatum. 

4. T. Bursa pastoris. Common Shepherd's Purse. 

Hairy. Pouch inversely heart-shaped, somewhat triangu- 
lar. Radical leaves pinnatifid. 

T. Bursa pastoris. Linn. Sp. PL 903. H'illd.v.3.447. H.Br.637. 

Engl. Bot. v.2\.t. 1485. Curt. Lond. fasc. 1. t. 50. Hook. 

Scot. 194. Bull. Fr. t.223. Fl. Dan. t. 729. 
©Aao-TTf, (Thlaspi). Diosc. Ic.77. 
Nasturtium n. 514. Hall. Hist. ?;. 1. 221. 
Capsella Bursa pastoris. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 383. 
Bursa pastoris. Dorsten. Botan.b4.2. f. Matth. Valgr.v.l.52i.f. 

Camer. Epit. 340. f. Raii Syn. 306. Ger. Em. 276./. 
Pastoria Bursa. Fuchs. Hist. 611./. 
Sheaperd's Purse. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 49. f. 4— 7. 



174 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Cochlearia. 

In waste, as well as cultivated ground, and by way sides, every 
where. 

Annual. March — November. 

Root tapering, whitish, with a peculiar smoke-like scent. Herb 
very variable in luxuriance, rough with prominent hairs. Stem 
branched, leafy, erect or spreading, from 6 to 12 inches high. 
Radical leaves several, more or less deeply pinnatifid, toothed 
or notched, their terminal lobe usually triangular and acute ; 
stem-leaves oblong, acute, toothed, clasping the stem with their 
arrow-shaped base. Fl. small, corymbose, often tinged with 
purplish brown. Pet. entire. Pouches smooth, on long spread- 
ing stalks, forming a long cluster, each nearly triangular, a 
little tumid, abrupt with a broad shallow sinus at the extremity, 
in which the very short style is situated, but the lobes are 
scarcely, if at all, dilated or winged, though in some measure 
compressed at the margin ; partition narrow. Seeds about 5, 
or more, in each cell. 

Prof. DeCandolie remarks that this herb is much less acrid than 
the rest of its order, and rather glutinous to the taste. Small 
birds eat the seeds and flowers. The want of a dilated border 
to the pouch has induced that eminent botanist, and a few 
others, to separate the present species from Thlaspi. But 
surely the difference, which 1 have long ago noted, is very slight 
and dubious. 1 rather concur with Mr. Brown in not making it 
of generic importance ; and at any rate the name of Thlaspi 
belongs irrefragably to this identical plant, having been given 
byDioscorides, Pliny, and every succeeding writer, though Caes- 
alpinus, book 8, chapter 74 and 76, (not book 2,) mentions 
Capsella as one of the synonyms in Dioscorides, of which I find 
no traces. The word indeed is bad Latin, synonymous with 
capsula. 
The Common Shepherd's Purse occurs in almost every part of the 
globe. To the various and distant countries mentioned by De- 
Candolie, I can add Nepaul, from whence Dr. Wallich has sent 
specimens. Their pouches however are much broader and shorter 
than those from the Isle de Bourbon, but there are, in both in- 
stances, 8 or 10 seeds in each cell. 

325. COCHLEARIA. Scurvy-grass. 

Linn. Gen. 334. Juss. 240. J^. Br. C87. DeCand. Syst. v. 2.3.58. 
Tourn.t. 101. Lam.t. 558. 

Cal. equal at the base, with ovate, concave, spreading, de- 
ciduous leaves. Pet, obovate, undivided, spreading, 
twice the length of the calyx, with short claws. Filam. 
awl-shaped, simple, incurved, the length of the calyx. 
Anth. roundish. Germ, roundish. Style very short, per- 
manent. Stigma obtuse. Pouch globose, ovate, or ellip- 



TETRADYNAMIA-SILICULOSA. Cochlearia. 175 

tical, turgid, rugged, veiny, tipped with the style, of 2 
cells ; valves concave, rather thick, not bordered, scarcely 
keeled; partition orbicular or elliptical, membranous, 
generally as wide as the valves. Seeds several in each 
cell, roundish ; cotyledons flat, accumbent. 
Annual or perennial herbs, celebrated as antiscorbutic, 
mostly smooth, and rather succulent, with branched 
spreading stems; and simple leaves, the radical ones 
stalked «nd most entire. Fl. white, or pale purplish, 
never yellow. 

1. C. officinalis. Common Scurvy-grass. 

Radical leaves roundish ; those on the stem oblong and 
^ somewhat sinuated. Pouch globose. 

C. officinalis^ "^Linn. Sp. PL 903. Willd. v. 3. 448. Fl. Br. 688. 

En^,BQL.v^.Jj5 1 . Woodv.t. 29. Hook. Scot. 195. Land. 

t. 1 48. DeCan&rSyst. v. 2. 364. R. Dan. t. 135. 
Cfthlearia. Rail Syn. 302. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 942. /. Camer. 

Epit. 271 ./. Dod. Pempt. 594. f. 
C. rotundifolia. Ger. Ein. 401. f. 
GflBn Scurvy-grass. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 49. f. 1. 
Njturtiur* ft..503. Hall. Hisi.v.\.2\S. 

chlearia minor rotundifolia nostras. Raii Syn. 303. 
groenlandica With. 573 ; hut not of LinncEUS. 
C. rotundifolia. Dill, in Raii Syn. 302. 

On the sea coast, in stony or muddy situations, abundantly ; some- 
times, especially the varieties, in watery spots on the Welsh or 
Scottish mountains. 

Annual. May. 

A smooth, sleek and shining herb, varying much in luxuriance, 
and somewhat in the shape of its foliage. Stem angular, much 
branched, usually a foot high ; in mountain specimens only 2 or 
3 inches. Lower leaves on long stalks, roundish-heart-shaped, 
wavy ; vpper sessile, smaller and more oblong, sinuated, or 
deeply toothed, clasping the stem. Fl. pure white, in nume- 
rous corymbose tufts. Pouches nearly globular, obscurely veiny, 
tipped with the short style; partition broadly ovate. 

/S, sent by the late Rev. H. Davies from Beaumaris, has long 
stalks to many of the stem-leaves, which are also more heart- 
shaped than in the common kind. The flowers are small and 
white. Pouches but slightly veiny. 

2. C. groenlajidica. Greenland Scurvy-grass. 

Leaves kidney-shaped, fleshy, entire ; uppermost oblong. 
Pouch globose. 



176 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Cochlearla. 

C. groenlandica Linn. Sp. PI. 904. Willd. v. 3. 449. Comp.ed.4. 
1 10. Engl. Bot. V. 34. t. 2403. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 10.344. De- 
Cand.Syst.v.2.366. 

C. minima, erecta et repens, insulae Aalholmianae. Willius in Bar- 
tholin's Act. Hafnice, v. 3. 143,/. 144. 

On the Highland mountains of Scotland. 

On the mountains of Clova, Angusshire, and at Loch-ne-gare. Mr. 
G. Don. 

Annual. August. 

Root with numerous fibres. Herh much smaller than any variety 
of the last that I have seen. Radical leaves on long stalks, very 
fleshy, convex at the back, roundish-kidney-shaped, quite en- 
tire ; those of the stems few, more oblong, partly stalked, either 
ovate, with a tooth at each side, or ovate-oblong, entire, seldom 
quite sessile. Fl. numerous, one cluster sessile at the root, the 
rest terminating the very short siems. CaZ. purplish. Pet. t\\x\ce 
the size of the foregoing, white, tinged with purple. 1 have 
seen but a half-ripe pouch, which resembles C. officinalis. 

Linnaeus and DeCandoUe have made this a distinct species. I do 
not venture to assert that it is so, but the late accurate Mr. Don 
was of that opinion, and rightly determined it to be theLinnaean 
plant. The great size and beauty of ihejiowers are remarkable. 
Dr. Richardson and Dillenius found our supposed variety y of C. 
officinalis, which some have taken for the groenlandica, to remain 
unaltered from seed in their gardens ; and this report l^in- 
duced me to suspect their plant to have been really the^ron- 
landica, though they would hardly have omitted to notice the 
large flowers. Culture, under accurate observation, may settle 
the whole difficulty; for opinion here is not sufficient. 

3. C. anglica. English Scurvy-grass. 

Radical leaves ovate, entire ; those on the stem sessile, lan- 
ceolate and toothed. Pouch elliptical, strongly reticu- 
lated with veins. 

C. anglica. Linn. Sp. PI. 903. H'illd. v. 3. 449. Fl. Br. 688. Engl. 

Bot. V. 8. t. 552. Hook. Scot. 195. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 364. Fl. 

Dan. t. 329. 
C. folio sinuato. Bauh. Pin. 1 10. Raii Syn. 303. 
C. britannica. Dod. Pempt. 594. /. Ger. Em. 401. f. Dalech. 

Hist. 1320./. Lob. Obs. 157. f. 
C. britannica seu anglica. Lob. Ic. 294. f. 
Sea Scurvy-grass. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 49. f. 2. 

On the muddy sea shore, and about the mouths of large rivers, in 

many places. 
Annual. May. 
Root tapering. Herb variable in stature, and in the number, as 

well as division, of its usually numerous stems, which are partly 



.1 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Cochlearia. 177 

prostrate ; but its general size is scarcely half that of the Com- 
mon Scurvy-grass. The stem-leaves are narrower, often almost 
entire ; radical ones much smaller in proportion to the rest, 
ovate, entire, rarely wavy, or slightly toothed. Fl. white or 
faintly tinged with purple, often very little different from the 
first species, though frequently larger. The pouches afford a 
striking and essential distinction, being twice as large, ellipti- 
cal, not globose, strongly marked with abundance of prominent 
reticulated veins, and tipped with a much more elongated style. 
Seeds large, oval, 4 or .5 in each cell. 

4. C. danica. Danish Scurvy-grass. 

Leaves all triangular and stalked. Pouch elliptical, reti- 
culated with veins. 

C. danica. Linn. Sp. PL 903. Willd. v. 3. 449. Fl. Br. 689. Engl. 

Bot. V. 10. t. 696. Hook. Scot. 196. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 366. 

Fl. Dan.t. 100. 
C. marina, folio anguloso parvo. Rail S;/n. 303. 
C. Aremorica. Barrel. Ic. t. 1305./. 1. 
Thlaspi hederaceum. Loh.Ic.&\b.f. Ger. Em.27\.f. Bauh. Hist. 

V. 2. 933./. Dalech. Hist. 1420./. 
Ivy Scurvy-grass. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 49./ 3. 

On the sea coast, in a muddy soil, but rare. 

IniWalney island, Lancashire; Mr. Lawson. Ray. Anglesea. 
Mr. Lhwyd and the Rev. H. Davies. At Wells, Norfolk. Mr. 
Crowe. On several parts of the south coast, from Portland 
island to the Land's end. Mr. D. Turner and Mr. Sowerbij, 

Annual. May, June. 

Smaller than the last. Stems several, 3 or 4 inches long, spread- 
ing, or prostrate, seldom divided, leafy throughout. Leaves all 
on longer or shorter footstalks, uniform, thvee-lobed, entire j 
heart-shaped at the base ; resembling Ivy, or Anemone Hepaiica, 
in miniature. Fl. small, pure white. Pouches in rather lax, but 
shortish, clusters, elliptical, most like those of C. anglica, though 
smaller, and less strongly veined, with a shorter style. Seeds 
6 in each cell. 

Certainly quite distinct from the last, and unchanged by cultiva- 
tion, except becoming somewhat branched from luxuriance, but 
the foliage never alters. I have not seen DeCandoUe's variety 
/3, found by Dr. Hooker on the Giant's Causeway, whose radi- 
cal Zeaties are described as kidney-shaped, those on the stem very 
few, and all undivided. By the description it should seem rather 
to belong to C. anglica, in a starved state. 

5. C. Armoracia. Horse-radish. 

Radical leaves oblong, crenate ; those of the stem lanceor. 
late, either cut or entire. • 

VOL. III. N 



178 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Senebiera. 

C. Armoracia. Linn. Sp. PL 904. Willd. v.3.45\. f/.JSr. 690. 
Engl. Bot. V. 33. t. 2323. Woodv. t. 150. Hook. Scot. 196. 
DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 360. 

Nasturtium n. 504. Hall. Hist. v. 1.218. 

Raphanus rusticanus. RaiiSyn. 301. Ger. Em. 241 . f. Matth. 
Valgr. V. 1. 401./. Corner. Epit. 225./. Moris, v. 2. 237. sect. 3. 
t. 7./. 2. 

R. sylvestris. Fuchs. Hist. 660./. Ic. 379. f. 

Broad Horse-radish. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 49. f. 11. 

/3. Jagged Horse-radish. Ibid.f. 12. 

In watery mountainous places. 

About Alnwick, and elsewhere in Northumberland, Ray. In se- 
veral parts of Craven, Yorkshire. Dr. Lister. Common in waste 
ground, about orchards and farm yards, from the refuse of gar- 
dens. 

Perennial. May. 

The long, cylindrical, white, highly pungent roots, well known for 
their use, on many occasions, at table, run deep into the ground, 
and are e.xtremely difficult of extirpation. The stems are 2 feet 
high, erect, branched, spreading, bearing scattered, sessile, lan- 
ceolate leaves, which are serrated, jagged, or deeply and nar- 
rowly pinnatifid. Radical leaves very large, on long stalks, up- 
right, oblong, obtuse, crenate, veiny, occasionally pinnatifid, a 
foot or more in length. Fl. numerous, white, in numerous co- 
rymbs, which soon become clusters of long-stalked, roundish-el- 
liptical, compressed, notched pouches, most of which prove abor- 
tive. The partition is very narrow. Style short. Stigma large, 
capitate. All the herbage is smooth, of a dark green. 

326. SENEBIERA. Wart-cress. 

DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 521 , Comp. ed. 4. 1 08, 

Coronopus. Gcertn. t. 142. Fl. Br. 690. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. 
V. 4. 76. Lam. t. 558. 

Cal. equal at the base, with ovate, concave, spreading, deci- 
duous leaves. Pet. obovate, or ovate, undivided, sometimes 
wanting. Filam. awl-shaped, simple, about the length of 
the calyx, 2 or 4< of them occasionally deficient. Anth. 
roundish, 2-lobed. Germ. roundislB, or 2-lobed, com- 
pressed. iS/j/^e very short. Stigma ihiuse. Poz/c^ roundish, 
transversely compressed, more or less distinctly 2-lobed, 
2-celled, not bursting, tipped with the style ; valves glo- 
bose, or rounded and somewhat crested, rugged, each 
lodging a solitary, pendulous, roundish seed; cotyledons 
incumbent, oblong, folded or channelled. 

Annual or biennial, nearly smooth, diffuse or prostrate 
herbs. Leaves either undivided, or variously and deeply 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Senebieva. 179 

pinnatifid and cut. Fl. small, white, in clusters opposite 
to the leaves. 
There has been much controversy respecting the Coronopus 
of antient authors, some taking it for Cochlearia Corono- 
pus of Linnaeus, others for his Plantago Coronopus^ others 
for Myosunis, or for Achillea Ptarmica, while that of 
Pliny seems by his description very different from all 
these, as well as from what Dioscorides intended. Dr. 
Sibthorp, the professed object of whose journey was to 
determine the old Greek names, fixed upon Lotus ornitho- 
podioides as the true xopuvoTrous ; though in his journal, 
printed by the Rev. R. Walpole, Travels in the East, 
1 02, he speaks of Cochlearia Coronopus as the plant of 
Dioscorides, still called xoupowoTroBi in the isle of Fanno, 
and eaten as a pot herb. It seems to me that the name 
in question was applied by the antients to various plants, 
whose roots were crowned with radiating depressed 
leaves. In this obscurity, where nothing can really be 
ascertained, though I had originally followed Gaertner, 
I now cannot but agree with my friend DeCandolle, in 
preferring the name by which he has commemorated a 
most eminent physiological botanist, the Rev. M. Sene- 
bier of Geneva. Of his merits there can be no doubt, 
nor can the characters of this genus, as distinct from every 
other of its tribe, ever come in question. 

1. S. Coronopus. Common Wart-cress. Swine's-cress. 

Pouch undivided, crested with little sharp points. Style 
prominent. Leaves pinnatifid, subdivided. 

S. Coronopus. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 525. Comp. ed. 4. 1 11 , 
Coronopus Ruellii. Gartn. v. 2. 293. t. 142. f. 5. FL Br. 690. 

Engl. Bot.v. 24. f.\660. Hook. Scot. 193. Ger. Em. 427 .f. 

Dalech. Hist. 670. f. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 919./. 
C. repens Ruellii. Lob. Ic. 438./. 
C. n. 502. Hall. Hist.v.l. 217. 
Cochlearia Coronopus. Linn. % PZ. 904. Willd. v. 3. 450. Mart. 

Rust. t. 92. Fl. Dan. t. 202. 
Nasturtium supinum, capsulis verrucosis. Rait Syn. 304. 
Ambrosia. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 204. f. 
A. campestris repens. Bauh. Pin. 138. 
Pseudambrosia. Corner. Epit. 596./, good. 
Wart- or Swine's-cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 50./. 6. 

Common in waste ground, and by way sides. 

Annual. June — September. 

Root tapering. Stems spreading quite flat on the ground, branched, 

n2 



180 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Iberis. 

leafy, smooth like every other part. Leaves somewhat glaucous, 
deeply pinnatifid ; their fore sides mostly subdivided in a similar 
manner. Fl. opposite to the leaves, white, small, densely co- 
rymbose. Pouches in dense clusters, much shorter than the 
leaves, kidney-shaped, elegantly notched and furrowed, but with 
no terminal cleft. Style prominent, though short, thick and 
pyramidal. Each ceZZ is thick and leathery, never splitting into 
valves, and contains one ovate seed, whose co<y/ec/o?is are rather 
oblong and channelled than linear. 
The whole plant is nauseously acrid and fetid, and must require 
much boiling to render it eatable. 

2. S. didyma. Lesser Wart-cress. 

Pouch cloven, of two round wrinkled lobes. Style scarcely 
discei'nible. Leaves pinnatifid, partly notched. 

S. didyma. Com-p. ed. 4. 111. Savl Etrusc. v. 2. \83. Willd. 

Enum. 668. 
S. pinnatifida. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 523. 
Coronopus didyma. Fl. Br. 09 1 . Br. in Jit. H. Kew. v. 4. 76. 
Lepidium didymum. Linn.Mant.92. Dicks. Dr. Pill. PFith.567. 

Engl. Bot.v. 4.t.248. 
L. anglicum. Huds. 280. 

In waste ground, near the sea, at the south-west extremity of 
Britain. 

About Exeter. Mr. Newbery. At Truro and Penryn, Cornwall. 
Huds. At Dale, near Milford Haven; Mr. Adams. 

Annual. July. 

Root fibrous, small. Stems procumbent, afoot or more in length, 
branched, leafy, finely hairy. Leaves smooth, flat, deeply pin- 
natifid, their lobes cut in a similar manner, especially at the 
fore side. Clusters generally opposite to the leaves, and often 
exceeding them in length, slender, of numerous, small, white 
Jlowers, having only 2 or 4 stamens, scarcely ever more. Pouch 
of 2 very distinct, round, turgid, wrinkled lobes, with the stigma 
almost sessile, in the deep cleft between them. 

The original specific name, given by Linnaeus, and so very appro- 
priate, appears preferable to pinnatifida, which does not distin- 
guish the present species from the foregoing. 

327. IBERIS. Candy-tuft. 

Lijm.Gew. 335. Jmss. 240. F/. Br. 692, DeCand. Syst.v.2.o9Z. 
Lam. t. 557. Geertn.t. 141. 

Cal. equal at the base, with ovate, concave, equal, spread- 
ing, deciduous leaves. Pet. obovate, undivided, spread- 
ing, with shoi't claws, unequal ; the 2 outermost largest, 
equal to each other. Filam. about the length of the calyx, 



\ 



TETRADYNAMIA-SILICULOSA. Isatis. 181 

awl-shaped, distinct, simple. ^wM. roundish. Germ, almost 
orbicular, notched at the summit, compressed. Style very 
short. Stigma obtuse. Pouch ovate, transversely. com- 
pressed, bordered, of 2 cells, cloven at the top into 2 
acute lobes, between which stands the permanent, some- 
what elongated, style ; valves 2, distinct, boat-shaped, 
each with a dilated pointed keel; partition elliptical, mem- 
branous, as wide as the valves. Seeds solitary in each 
cell, pendulous, ovate ; cotyledons ovate, flat, accumbent. 
Herbaceous, or in some degree shrubby. Leaves rather 
fleshy, undivided or pinnatifid, entire or toothed. Fl. 
white, or purplish, never yellow ; the outer ones in each 
corymbose head or cluster most irregular, somewhat ra- 
diant. Pouches erect, or inflexed, racemose. DeCandoUe 
has 25 species. 

1. I. amara. Bitter Candy-tuft. 

Stem herbaceous. Leaves lanceolate, acute, partly notched. 
Flowers in oblong clusters. 

I. amara. Linn. Sp. Pl.906. Willd.v. 3. 4b6. Fl.Br. 692. Engl. 

Bot. v.l.t. 52. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 398. 
I. n. .520. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 223. 
Thlaspi amarum. Ger. Em. 263. f; bad. 
T. umbellatum arvense amarum. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 925./. 
T. umbellatum arvense, iberidis folio. Moris, v. 2. 295. sect. 3. 1. 17. 

y. 18; copied from Gerarde. 
Thiaspidium foliis nasturtii. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 112. 

In chalky fields, but rare. 

About Henley and other places in Oxfordshire. Huds. About 
Wallingford, Berkshire^ plentifully^ and undoubtedly wild. 

Annual. July. 

Whole plant smooth, of a nauseous bitter flavour. Root small, 
tapering. Stems diffuse, branched, leafy. Leaves lanceolate 
and entire, or dilated and wedge-shaped, with several tooth-like 
notches. Corymbs soon lengthened out into clusters of hand- 
some brilliant-white flowers, which have procured it a place, 
among hardy annuals, in some gardens. 

328. ISATIS. Woad. 

Linn. Gen. 3AA. Juss.242. Fl.Br. 693. DeCand. Syst. v. 2.564. 
Tourn.t.lOO. Lam. t. 554. Gcertn.t.\42. 

Cal. equal at the base, coloured ; leaves ovate, concave, 
spreading, deciduous. Pet. obovate, entire, equal, taper- 
ing at the base into short claws. Filam. thread-shaped, 
spreading, simple, as long as the calyx. Anth. roundish. 



182 TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA. Isatis. 

Germ, roundish, compressed. Style none. Stigma capi- 
tate, sessile. Pouch oblong, obtuse, compressed, of 1 cell 
and 2 valves, their keels flat and bordered. Seed solitary, 
ovate-oblong, pendulous at the top of the cell ; cotyledons 
flattish, incumbent. 

Annual or biennial, tall, upright, rather glaucous herbs, 
with a branched corymbose stem. Lower leaves stalked ; 
upper sessile, clasping and arrow-shaped ; all generally, 
but not always, very smooth. Clusters many-flowered, 
compound; sometimes accompanied, on their main stalks, 
with diminished leaves, but destitute of true bracteas. Fl. 
yellow. 

DeCandoUe enumerates 17 species, all yielding, by mace- 
ration, more or less of a blue sediment, similar to indigo, 
and like that substance useful for dyeing. 

1. I. tinctoria. Dyer's Woad. 

Radical leaves copiously crenate ; those of the stem entire. 
Pouch abrupt, smooth, thrice as long as broad. 

I. tinctoria. Linn. Sp. PL 936. Willd. v. 3.420. Fl. Br. 693. Engl. 
Bot. V. 2. t. 97. Mart. Rust. t.4\. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 569. 

I. n. 523. Hall. Hist. v.\. 224. 

I. sylvestris. Fuchs. Hist. 332./. Matth. Valgr.v. 1.582./. Camer. 
Epit.4\0.f. Dalech. Lugd. 499./. Schreh. Waidt, 9. 1. 1—3. 

Glastum sativum. Rail Syn. 307. 

G. sylvestre. Ger. Em.49\.f. 

In cultivated fields, and about their borders, but rare. 

At New Barnes near Ely. Relhan. Near Durham. Mr.E.Rohson. 

Biennial. July. 

Root tapering. Stem about 2 feet high, wand-like, slightly glau. 
cous, leafy, panicled at the top. Radical leaves numerous, obo- 
vate, crenate and wavy, smooth, except an occasional marginal 
fringe ; the rest sessile, arrow-shaped, entire, smooth, clasping 
the stem. Panicle of many compound racemose branches, beset 
with diminished lanceolate leaves, like bracteas, all of a yellow 
hue as well as the stalks. Fl. numerous, small, bright yellow. 
Pouches on capillary stalks, pendulous, wedge-shaped, obtuse, 
tipped with the stigma, quite smooth, blackish, a little shining, 
finally bursting in the middle, where the seed is lodged. 

As the antient Britons are reported to have painted their bodies 
with the blue colour obtained from this plant, and still used in 
dyeing, the Woad is most probably an original production of 
our island j though what occurs now and then, about cultivated 
fields, is supposed to have escaped from the crops occasionally 
raised, chiefly in the middle part of England. The naturalized 
plants are less perfectly smooth, and far less luxuriant, than the 
cultivated ones. 



\ 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILICULOSA Cakile. 183 
329. CAKILE. Sea Rocket. 

Toum.t.483. Gcertn. t.l4l. BT.inAit.H.Kew.vA.7\. De- 
Cand. Syst v. 2. 427. Lam. t. 554. 

Cal. nearly close and erect ; leaves obovate-oblong, decidu- 
ous, two opposite ones protuberant at the base. Pet. 
obovate, obtuse, spreading ; claws as long as the border, 
equal to the calyx. Filam. awl-shaped, simple. Anth. 
oblong, cloven at the base. Germ, oblong. Style none. 
Stigma obtuse, sessile. Pouch of 2 joints, angular, com- 
pressed ; the lower somewhat turbinate, abrupt, often 
abortive; upper oblong, with a tapering point, tipped 
with the stigma, deciduous ; each of 1 cell, not bursting. 
Seeds solitary in each cell, elliptical ; in the lower one, if 
present, pendulous ; in the upper, erect ; cotyledons li- 
near, accumbent. 

Smooth, juicy, branching, annual herbs, natives of the sandy 
sea coast in Europe and America. Leaves pinnatifid or 
toothed. Fl. corymbose, purplish, white, or yellow, for 
I cannot but concur with Mr. Brown in uniting the B,a- 
pistrum of DeCandoUe with this genus. 

1 . C. markiffia. Purple Sea Rocket. 

Joints of the pouch two-edged; the upper one arrow-shaped. 
Leaves fleshy, pinnatifid, obtuse. 

C. maritima. Willd. u. 3. 41 6. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4.71. De- 

Cand. Syst. v. 2. 428. Comp. ed. 4. 111. Scop. Cam. ed. 2. 

V. 2. 35. Hook. Lond. t. 1 60. 
C. Serapionis. Gcertn. v. 2, 287. t. 141. /. 12. Loh. Ic. 223./. 

Dalech. Hist.] 395. f. 
C. quibusdam, aliis Eruca marina, et Raphanus marinus. Bauh. 

Hist. V. 2. 867./. 868. Raii Syn. 307. 
Bunias Cakile. Linn. Sp. PI. 936. Fl. Br. 694. Engl. Bot. v. 4. 

<.231. Dicks. Dr. PL 77. Fl. Dan.t.l\68. 
Eruca marina. Ger. Em. 248./. 
E. maritima anglica, siliqua fungosa torosa rotund^,, foliis crassis 

latioribus. Moris, v. 2. 231 . sect. 3. t. 7./. 20. 
Sea Rocket. Pet. H. Brit. t. 46./. 6. 

On the sandy sea coast frequent. 

Annual. June — September. 

Root small. Herb smooth, fleshy, bushy, a foot high, or more, 
much branched, and spreading in every direction, the stem and 
branches remarkably twisted and zigzag, never straight. Leaves 
scattered, thick, fleshy, with a saltish bitter taste, a little glau- 
cous, variously pinnatifid, scarcely stalked ; each of their seg- 



181 TETRAD YNAMI A— SILICULOSA. Crambe. 

ments obtuse, with a minute glandular point. R. rather large 
and handsome, of a bright lilac-colour, densely corymbose. 
Pouches an inch long, in clusters, their lower joint generally 
abortive ; they are erect, with 4 sharp edges, but so compressed 
as to be sword-shaped at the upper part, and when ripe the 
upper joint falls off, without bursting. The contrary direction 
of their seeds, when both perfect, affords a striking generic cha- 
racter. 

f 

330. CRAMBE. Kale. 

Linn. Gen. 344. Juss. 242. Fl. Br. G95. DeCand. Syst.v. 2. 650. 
Tourn. t. 100. Lam. t. 553. G(srtn. t. 142. 

Cat- spreading, nearly equal at the base; leaves elliptic- 
oblong, concave, deciduous. Pet. equal, each with a 
spreading, rounded, obtuse border, rather longer than its 
claw. Filam. awl-shaped, 4 longest generally each with 
a sharp lateral tooth. Anth. elliptic-oblong, erect. Germ. 
ovate-oblong. Style scarcely any. Stigma obtuse. Pouch 
succulent, finally leathery, of 2 joints, each of 1 cell, not 
bursting ; the lowermost abortive, assuming the form of 
a stalk ; the upper globular, deciduous. Seed solitary, 
globose, pendulous from the extremity of a long, curved, 
capillary stalk, springing from the bottom of the cell ; co- 
tyledons roundish, convex, fleshy, folded, accumbent; 
not, as in DeCandolle's general table, incumbent. 

Herbaceous, or somewhat shrubby. Leaves rather succu- 
lent, toothed, or pinnatifid, in some lyrate, either smooth 
or hairy. Fl. white, in clustered panicles. 

1. C. maritima. Sea Kale. 

Longer filaments toothed. Leaves roundish, sinuated, 
wavy, toothed, glaucous, very smooth as well as the stem. 

C. maritima. Linn. Sp. PL 937. fVilld. v. 3. 418. FL Br. G95. 

EngL Bot. V. 13. t. 924. Hook. Scot. 193. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 

651. FLDan.t.3]Q. 
C. maritima, Brassicee folio. Raii Syn. 307. 
Brassica marina anglica. Ger. Em. 315./. 
B. monospermos anglica. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 830. 
Sea Cole. Turn. Herb, part 1. 89. 
Sea Grape Colewort. Petiv. H. Brit. L 48./. 12. 

On the sandy sea coast. 
Perennial. May, June. 

Moot large and fleshy, much divided at the crown. Herb very 
glaucous, smooth, rather succulent. Stems several, from 1 to 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Dentaria. 185 

2 feet high, branched, spreading, leafy. Leaves stalked, spread- 
ing ordeflexed, large, undulated and toothed, of a leathery tex- 
ture ; the lowermost somewhat lyrate ; the rest roundish, acute. 
Clusters terminal, collected into dense panicles. Fl. large, 

. white. Pouches smooth, the size of Black Currants. 

This is. now become a frequent culinary herb. Its young shoots, 
which are very hardy, are earlier than Asparagus, and nearly as 

, good. They are best raised under tall earthen pots perforated 
at the top, but sucqeed tolerably if covered up with clean sand. 



TETRADYNAMIA SILIQUOSA. 
331. DENTARIA. Coralwort. 

Lmn. Gen.337. Juss. 239. Fl. Br. 696. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 271 . 
Tourn. t. 110. Lam. t. 562. 

Cal. equal at the base, erect ; leaves ovate-oblong, con- 
verging lengthwise, obtuse, deciduous. Pet. obovate, 
obtuse, horizontal, with erect claws shorter than the ca- 
lyx. Filam. awl-shaped, simple, distinct. Anth. arrow- 
shaped, erect. Germ, oblong. Style short and thick. 
Stigma obtuse, scarcely notched. Pod sessile, lanceo- 
late, compressed laterally, tapering upwards ; valves flat, 
without ribs, narrower than the partition, bursting elas- 
tically from the base, and mostly revolute. Seeds ovate, 
not bordered, inserted alternately in a single row ; their 
stalks dilated and winged ; cotyledons accumbent, rather 
thick. 

Smooth, upright, unbranched herbs, with fleshy, horizontal, 
scaly or toothed roots. Leaves mostly alternate, palmate 
or pinnate. Fl. large and handsome, purplish, or whitish. 

We are much obliged to Prof. DeCandolle, for finding a 
character in the lanceolate j-wrf, and dilated stalks of the 
seeds, by which this genus may be kept separate from 
Cardamine, -the habit, magnitude, beauty, and peculiar 
kind of root, marking it so distinctly. Some of the spe- 
cies are among the finest alpine plants, at least of this 
natural order. 



186 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Cardamine. 

1. D. bulbifera. Bulbiferous Coralwort. 

Lower leaves pinnated ; upper simple, with axillary bulbs. 

Dentaria bulbifera. Linn. Sp. PL 912. Willd. v. 3. 479. Fl. 

Br. 696. Engl.Bot.v.5.t.309. Blacks. Hare/ield,23. Forst. 

Tonhr. 77. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 278. Fl. Dan. t. 361. Ger. 

Em. 984./. Loh. Ic. 687. f. 
D. n.470. Hall. Hist. V.]. 204. 
D. quaita baccifera. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 121./. 
D. seu Coralloides Cordi. Gesn. Ic. Pict.fasc. \.3.t. 2./ 3. 
Cardamine bulbifera. Br. in^it. H. Kew. v. 4.101. Hook. Scot.] 98. 
Coralloidis alia species. Cord. Hist. 151^ 2./. 

In moist umbrageous places, rare. 

Near Mayfield, Sussex. Parkinson. In the Old Park Wood, near 
Harefield, Middlesex, abundantly. Blackstone. In woods be- 
tween Beconsfield and Wickham, plentifully. Huds. On the 
north sides of the High Rocks, Tonbridge Wells, and elsewhere 
in that neighbourhood. Forster. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Root whitish, toothed, creeping horizontally, branched and sub- 
divided. Stems from the terminal buds of the preceding year, 
solitary, erect, leafy, from 1|- to 2 feet high. Leaves alternate, 
bright green ; several of the lowermost pinnate, of 5 leaflets ; 
others ternate ; upper ones simple ; all lanceolate, acute, va- 
riously serrated, accompanied for the most part with ovate, dark 
purple, scaly, axillary bulbs, by which the plant is propagated. 
Fl. purple, corymbose, large and handsome, inodorous, hardly 
ever perfecting pods or seed, the hulhs furnishing an ample in- 
crease. 

332. CARDAMINE. Ladies'-smock. 

Linn. Gen. 338. Juss. 239. Fl. Br. 696. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 245. 
Tourn. 1. 109. Lam. t. 562. Gcerin. t. 143. 

Cat. a little unequal at the base ; leaves ovate-oblong, ob- 
tuse, slightly spreading, deciduous, 2 of them protube- 
rant, in some degree, below their insertion. Pet. obo- 
vate, rather upright, undivided, tapering at the base into 
short claws. Filam. awl-shaped, simple, the 2 shortest 
with a gland at the base, next the calyx. Anth. small, 
oblong-heart-shaped, acute, recurved. Germ, hnear, 
slender. Style scarcely any. Stigma obtuse, entire. 
Pod sessile, erect, linear, compressed laterally ; valves 
flat, without ribs, scarcely narrower than the bordered 
partition, bursting elastically from the base, and mostly 
revolute. Seeds ovate, not bordered, inserted alternately 
in a single row ; their stalks simple, short and slender ; 
cotyledons accumbent. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Cardamine. 187 

Herbs of more humble stature than the last genus, of va- 
rious duration and magnitude, generally smooth. Leaves 
either undivided, cut, lobed, or pinnated. Roots fibrous, 
or somewhat toothed. Fl. either small and white, some- 
times wanting the petals and shorter stamens ,- or pale 
rose-coloured and larger. Species numerous, natives of 
various countries, generally preferring watery situations. 

* Leaves simple. 

1. C bellidifolia. Daisy-leaved Ladies'-smock. 

Leaves simple, ovate, slightly wavy, entire ; the radical ones 
much shorter than their footstalks. Style short, conical, 

C. bellidifolia. Linn. Sp. PL 913. Fl. Lapp. ed. 2. 222. t. 9./. 2. 

fVilld. V. 3. 481. fVith. 577. Fl. Br. 697. Engl. Bot. v. 33. 

t. 2355. Hook. Scot. 199. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 249. Fl. Dan. 

t.20. Jacq. Misc. v.\. 148. t.\7.f.2. Jllion. Pedem.v. 1.26Q. 

if. 18./. 3. 
C. n. 476 a. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 207. 

In moist, grassy, lofty, alpine pastures. 

Gathered wild in Scotland by Mr. Milne. Withering. No person 
besides seems to have met with it. 

Perennial. August. 

Root rather woody, divided at the crown. Herb 2 or 3 inches 
high, unbranched, erect, bright green, smooth. Leaves some- 
times a little wavy or angular, the uppermost nearly sessile. Fl. 
few, corymbose. Cal. purplish. Pet. white, erect. Pods hardly 
an inch long, crowned with the capitate stigma, on a short thick 
style. 

** Leaves pinnate. 

2. C. impatiens. Impatient Ladies'-smock. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets lanceolate, mostly cut. Stipulas 
fringed. 

C. impatiens. Linn. Sp. Pl.9\A. mild. v. 3. 485. Fl.Br.697. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 80. Hook. Scot. 198. DeCand. Syst.v. 2.261. 

Ehrh. Herb. 87. Fl. Dan. t. 1 339. 
C. n. 471. Hall. Hist. v.l. 20b. 

C. impatiens, vulgo Sium minus impatiens. Rail Syn.299. 
Sium minus impatiens. Ger. Em. 260. f. 
S. minimum. Jlpin. Exot. 332. t.33l. 
Sisymbrii Cardamines species quaedam insipida. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 

886./. 
Nasturtium minimum annuum, flore albo. Moris, r. 2. 221 . sect. 3. 

t.4.f.\. 
Impatient Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 47. f. 7. 



188 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Cardamine. 

In shady, rather moist, rocky situations, in the north of England j 
rare in Scotland. 

Under the rocks by the river side at Matlock bath, Derbyshire ; 
and in various parts of Westmoreland and Cumberland. 

Annual. May, June. 

Root small, tapering. Herb erect, slender, pale green, smooth in 
every part, except the stipidas. Stem 1 ^ or 2 feet high, gene- 
rally a little branched, leafy, angular, hollow, often zigzag. 
Leaves of numerous opposite lanceolate leiiflets, with an odd 
one ; all equal, more or less notched, rarely entire ; paler be- 
neath, Stipulas lanceolate, acute, deflexed, clasping the stem, 
all finely fringed, and surely, (notwithstanding the theory of my 
learned friend DeCandolle, who thinks them merely segments 
of a pinnatifid leaf,) as evidently stipulas as in any plant what- 
ever. Fl. numerous, extremely small, while, occasionally desti- 
tute of peiaZs. Pods erect, very slender, composing long clus- 
ters, and discharging their seeds with a crackling noise, and 
great force, on the slightest touch or concussion, by means of 
the revolute valves. Tlie whole plant is disagreeably bitterish 
and pungent, by no means, as John Bauhin terms it, insipid. 

3. C. hirsuta. Hairy Ladies'-sniock, 

Leaves pinnate, without stipulas; leaflets stalked, roundish- 
oblong, notched. 

C. hirsuta. LiwH. 5p. PZ. 915. Willd.v.?,. Am. Fl. Br. 698. 

Engl. Bat. v. 7.t.492. Curt. Lond.fuscA. t. 48. Hook. Scot. 199. 

DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 259. Scop. Cum. r. 2. 2 1 . t. 38. 
C. flexuosa. With. 578. 
C. parviflora. Light/. 1 1 04. mth. ed. 2. 686. 
C. impatiens. Fl. Dan. t. 735. 
C. impatiens altera hirsutior. Raii Syn. 300. 
C. n. 472. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 205. 
C. quarta. Dalech. Hist. 659./. 
Sisymbrium aquaticum alterum. Camer. Epit.270.f. 
Hairy Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. ^ 47./. 4. 

In waste or cultivated ground, especially in moist shady places, 
very frequent. 

Annual. March — June. 

Root of many white fibres. Herb variable in size and luxuriance, 
deep green, more or less hairy, rarely quite smooth. Stem from 
3 to 12 inches, or more, in height, erect, usually furnished with 
lateral branches of various lengths, leafy, angular, often zigzag, 
hollow in the centre, clothed with fine, prominent, scattered 
hairs. Leaves alternafe, all pinnate, on short stalks, without 
stipulas ; leaflets stalked, sometimes alternate, all for the most 
part somewhat hairy ; those of the radical leaves roundish, or 
heart-shaped, coarsely notched ; those of the lower or middle 
part of the stem more oblong j the upper ones linear-obovate. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Cardamine. 189 

or quite linear, obtuse, generally entire, but in this respect, as 
well as in length, they vary. Fl. small, white, corymbose. Two 
shorter stamens often wanting. Pods in long clusters, erect, 
slender, smooth, or occasionally hairy, their valves undulated by 
the projection of the seeds j stigma almost sessile. 

Whatever the C. sijlvatica, umbrosa and parvi/lora of other authors 
may be, the Linnaean parviflora is clearly a distinct species, with 
all its leaflets oblong and nearly entire, the stem bushy ; the 
pods shorter, with a more evident style. This plant is well re- 
presented in Gmelins Fl. Sibirica, v. 3. t. 64. I know nothing 
like it in Britain. We have most assuredly only one species as 
above described, nor have I any other from Switzerland, Haller's 
n. 472 /3, confused in his Nomcnclator with n. 4/3, being truly 
a variety, and by no means the genuine parviflora. I have his 
4/2 in various states from the Rev. Mr. DuCros, who remarks 
that flowers with 4, 5, or 6 stamens grow on the same plant. 

To account for the strange error in Fl. Dan., where this species is 
named C. impatiens, we must recollect that after Oeder gave up 
the publication of that work, the editors merely named the plants 
from a view of the drawings, in too hasty and superficial a man- 
ner, calling Mentha hirsuta Origanum vulgare; Cardamine ama- 
ra, 1. 148, (which Haller quotes t. 48,) C. hirsuta; the true hir- 
suta, not adverting to its obvious wantof stipulas, C. impatiens-, 
nor are these all the errors of a similar kind that might be 
pointed out ; see Raphanus Raphanistrum. It is now in much 
better hands. 

4. C. pratensis. Meadow Ladles'-smock. Cuckoo- 
flower. 

Leaves pinnate, without stipulas ; leaflets of the radical ones 
roundish and toothed; those of" the stem-leaves lanceo- 
late, entire. Petals with a tooth upon the claw. 

C. pratensis. Linn. Sp. PL 9] 5. Willd.v. 3. 4S7. Fl. Br. 699. 
Engl. Bat. v.\l.t.776. Curt. Land. fuse. 3. t. 40. Mart. Rust. 
t. 95. Woudv. t. 30. Hook. Scot. 198. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 256. 
Fl. Dan. t. 1039. Ehrh. PL Off.4\7. 

C. n. 473. HalLHisLv.\.20&. 

Cardamine. Raii Syn. 299. Ger. Em. 259. f. 

Gauchblum. Brunf. Herb. v.\.2\S.f. 

Nasturtium pratense. Trag. Hist.83.f. 

N. pratense, magno flore. Bauh. Pin. 104. Moris.v. 2. 223. sect 3. 
t.4.f. 7, bad. 

N. agreste. Fucks. Hist. 325. f. 

N. aquaticum simplici flore, et flore pleno. Best. Hjrt. Eyst. vern. 
ord. 1. t.3: 

Hiberis. Fuchs. Ic. 185. f. 

Sisymbrium aquaticum alterum. Matth. Valgr.v. 1.443./; flow- 
ers altogether erroneous j copied in Dalech. Hist. 658./. 2. 



190 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Cardamine. 

S. cardamine tertia Dodonsei. Dalech. Hist. 659. /; copied in 

Bauh. Hist. V. 2. 889. f. 1. 
Flos Cuculi. Dod. Pempt. 592./; not good; copied in Dalech. 

Hist. 639./. 3 J and reprinted in Ger. Em. 259. f. 2. 

Common in meadows and moist pastures. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Root tuberous, somewhat toothed in the manner of the genus Den- 
taria, to which the affinity of this species is remarkable, see Fl. 
Br. and Engl. Bot., and with which therefore the accurate Mr. 
Brown has united the whole genus ; see Dentaria. Herb variable 
in luxuriance ; generally smooth, of a shining green ; now and 
then a little hairy. Stem about a foot high, or more, round, leafy, 
simple. Radical leaves several, on long stalks, each of one or 
more pairs of roundish, or heart-shaped, wavy, angular, or 
toothed leaflets, sometimes viviparous, the terminal one largest ; 
stem-leaves of more numerous, and much narrower, /e«^e<s, which 
are in general linear, entire, and smooth. Fl. corymbose, nu- 
merous, large and handsome, either light purple, flesh-coloured, 
or white ; sometimes more or less double. The petals are re- 
markable for a tooth, or notch, on the claw, noticed in Haller, 
but not from his own observation. Pods not often perfected. 
Style more prominent than in some other species. 

The Jlowers, recent or dried, have been reported to cure Epilepsy, 
but unhappily do not deserve such credit. They are agreeably 
pungent, and may be eaten with other herbs in a salad. They 
come with the Cuckoo, whence one of their English, as well as 
Latin, names ; and they cover the meadows as with linen bleach- 
ing, which is supposed to be the origin of the other, now ex- 
tended to the whole genus. They are associated with pleasant 
ideas of spring, and join with the White Saxifrage, the Cowslip, 
Primrose, and Hare-bell, to compose many a rustic nosegay. 

5. C. amara. Bitter Ladies'-srnock. 

Leaves pinnate, without stipulas ; leaflets of the low^ermost 
roundish ; of the rest toothed or angular. Stem creeping 
at the base. Style obliquely elongated. 

C. amara. Linn.Sp.Pl.9\5. Willd.v. ?,.A88. H.Br.699. Engl. 

Bot. V. 14, t. 1000. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 39. Hook. Scot. 1 98. 

DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 255. Villars Dauph. v. 3. 362. t. 39. 
C. n. 474. Hall. Hist. v. 1.206. 
C. flore majore elatior. Raii Syn. 299. 
Sisymbrium Cardamine, sive Nasturtium aquaticum, flore majore, 

elatius. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 885./. 
Nasturtium aquaticum majus etamarum. Bauh. Pin. lOi. Prodr. 

45./. Moris. V. 2.224. 
Bitter Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t.A7.f.\. 
In waterv places, by the sides of rivers and brooks, but not common. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Nasturtium. 191 

About London in several places. Huds. and Curtis. Between Kew 
and Mortlake. Bishop of Carlisle. Near Rippon. Mr.W.Brun- 
ton. In King-street meadows, Norwich. 

Perennial. April, May. 

Root toothed, somewhat creeping. Stems 1 to 2 feet high, leafy, 
a little zigzag, more or less hairy, their lower part creeping, 
with several radicles, and sometimes a few slender scions. Leaf- 
lets all dilated ; those of the upper leaves oblong or elliptical, 
deeply and unequally wavy or notched ; those of the radical 
ones more rounded, obtuse and entire. Fl. the size of the last, 
but always white or cream-coloured, with violet anthers. Mr. 
Curtis first pointed out the essential mark of this species, in the 
slender, obliquely elongated, style, and minute stigma, which 
seem to be deciduous, still leaving the pod with a sharp straight 
point. 

C. hirsuta of Fl. Dan. t. 148, which Is any thing rather than real 
hirsuta, is suspected by DeCandolIe to be a variety of amara, 
and so it seems to me. 

C. amara, before it flowers, greatly resembles Water Cresses, but 
the taste is bitter and nauseous. Nasturtium aquaticum of the 
Hortus Eystettensis, with its double variety, evidently belongs not 
to this, but to C. pratensis. 

333. NASTURTIUM. . Cress. 

Br. inAit.H.Kew.v. 4. 109. DeCand. Syst.v.2.]87. Comp.ed.4. 

108. 
Radicula. Dill. Gen. 121. f. 6. 

Cal. equal at the base ; leaves ovate-oblong, obtuse, spread- 
ing, somewhat coloured, deciduous. Pet. obovate, spread- 
ing, undivided, tapering into short claws ; occasionally 
wanting. Filam. awl-shaped, simple ; the 2 shortest each 
with a gland at the base withinside. Anth. incumbent, 
somewhat heart-shaped. Germ, cylindrical. Style erect, 
short, cylindrical. Stigma obtuse, notched. Pod nearly 
cylindrical, rather turgid, shortish ; valves concave, with- 
out ribs or keel. Seeds roundish, flattened, without a 
border, irregularly disposed, on slender stalks ; cotyle- 
' dons accumbent. 

Branching herbs, almost invariably smooth, throwing out 
numerous radicles, and either altogether aquatic, or at 
least growing in wet ground. Stem roundish, with slight 
irregular angles. Leaves pinnate, or pinnatifid. Fl. co- 
rymbose, numerous, white or yellow. Pods ascending, 
on the long, horizontal, partial stalks of numerous long 
clusters. 

Mr. Brown has happily separated this genus from Sisym- 



192 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Nasturtium. 

brium, with which its various species have long been 
thought, by the most experienced botanists, to disagree, 
as much as they agree among themselves. The accum- 
bent cotyledons decide the question ; and the short, thick, 
turgid pods afford a ready and obvious character. 
The name is Latin, and, according to PUny, belonged to 
some stimulating plant, pungent to the nostrils. The 
only objection to its present adaptation is, that it has been 
applied so variously by botanists to many other herbs ; 
but it well suits our first, or best-known, species. 

1. N. officinale. Common Water Cress. 
Leaves pinnate; leaflets roundish-heart-shaped, wavy. 

N. officinale. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v.4.]\ 0. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 
188. Comp. ed. 4. l]2. Hook. Scot. 20\. 

Nasturtium. Dorsten. Botan. 197, 2,/. 

N. aquaticum. Trag. Hist. 82./. Dod. Pempt. .592,/. 

N. aquaticum supinum. Bauh. Pin. 104. Moris, v. 2. 223. sect. 3. 
t.4.f.8. 

N. aquaticum, sive Cratevae Sium. jGer. Em. 257./. 

Sisymbrium Nasturtium. Linn. Sp. PI. 9 1 6. Willd. v. 3. 489. Fl. 
Br. 700. Engl. Bot.v. 12. t.8b5. Curt. Lotid.jasc. C. t. 44. 
Woodv. t. 48. Fl. Dan. t. 690. Bull. Fr. t. 302. 

S. n. 482. Hall. Hist. v.\.20'd. 

S. Cardamine. Fuchs. Hist. 723./ Ic. 419./. 

S. Cardamine, seu Nasturtium aquaticum. Rail Syn. ZOO. Bauh. 
Hist. V. 2. 884."/ 

S. aquaticum. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 442./ Camer. Epit. 269. f. 

Water Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t.47.f.2. 

/3. Nasturtium aquaticum, foliis minoribus, prsecocius. Rait Syn. 
30l.ed.2.\72. 

Early Water Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 47. f. 3. 

y. Nasturtium aquaticum, pinnulis paucioribus. Dill, in Rail Syn. 
301. 

In clear springs, rivulets and ponds, very common and abundant. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Roots of many crowded, long, simple, white fibres. Stems spread- 
ing, for the most part floating, leafy, branched, round with se- 
veral angles, mostly smooth, but occasionally, when out of the 
water, a little downy or hairy ; they vary considerably in length. 
Leaves smooth, deep shining green, pinnate, or somewhat ly- 
rate, the terminal leaflet being largest; all wavy rather than 
toothed. Stipulas none. Fl. white, or slighdy purple, with a 
purplish calyx. Pods barely an inch long, tumid and undulated 
at the sides, smooth, curved upwards, each on a horizontal stailk, 
variable in length. The two varieties are of no moment. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Nasturtluni. 193 

Water Cresses are well known for their agreeable warmth and fla- 
vour, in the form of a salad, and are esteemed a wholesome 
stomachic. I should have preferred the old established Latin 
name N. aquaticum ; but would not, without necessity, dissent 
from the two great authorities who have established the present 
genus. 

2. N. sylvestre. Creeping Vellow Cress. 

Leaves pinnate ; leaflets lanceolate, deeply serrated or cut. 
Root creeping. 

N. sylvestre. Br. in AH. H. Kew. v. 4. 1 1 0. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 
1 90. Comp. ed.4.\l2. Hook. Scot. 201. 

Sisymbrium sylvestre. Limi. Sp. PI. 9 1 6. mild. v. 3. 489. Fl. 
Br. 701. Engl. Bot. v. 33. t. 2324. Curt. Land, fast: 3.^41. 

S. n. 48.5. Hall. Hist. V. 1.210. 

Brachiolobos sylvestris. AlUon. Pedem. v. 1. 278. t. .56./. 2. 

Eruca sylvestris. Fuchs. Hist. 263./. 

E. aquatica. Raii Syn.297. Ger. Em. 248. f. 

E. quibusdam sylvestris repens, flosculo purpureo (rather parvo) 
luteo. Bauh Hist. v. 2. 866./. 

E. sylvestris sen palustris minor procumbens et repens luteo par- 
voque flore. Moris, v. 2. 231 . sect. 3. t. 6.f. 17. 

Raphanus minimus repens luteus, foliis tenuiter divisis. Moris, v. 2. 
236. sect. 3. t.7.f. 1. 

Water Rocket. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 46./. 5. 

In gravelly wet meadows, about the margins of rivers and ditches. 

In Tothill fields, and other low watery situations in the vicinity of 
the Thames. Hudson and Curtis. On Bungay Common, Suf- 
folk. Mr. Woodward. Below Leeds. Rev. Mr. Wood. Near 
Worcester. Dr. Stokes. Frequent in Bedfordshire. Rev. .Dr. 
Abbot. 

Perennial. June — September. . 

Root creeping extensively. Stems erect, though wavy or zigzag, 
a foot or more in height, leafy, angular and furrowed, roughish 
with minute points. Leaves pinnate ; the upper ones pinnati- 
fid ; the lower stalked ; leaflets or segments of all elliptic-lan- 
ceolate, or oblong, smooth, unequally serrated, or variously jag- 
ged, often decurrent. Clusters terminal, panicled, much length- 
ened out after flowering, and becoming zigzag. Fl. numerous, 
small, of a golden yellow, the calyx partaking of the same co- 
lout'. Pods very sparingly perfected. 

3. N. terrcstre. Annual Yellow Cress. ^ 

Leaves pinnatifid, unequally toothed. Root tapering. Pe- 
tals scarcely so long as the calyx. Pod curved. 

VOL. III. o 



194 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Nasturtium. 

N. terrestre. Br.in Jit. H.Kew. v. 4. WO. Comp.ed.4. \12. Hook. 

Scot. 201. 
N. palustre. DeCand. Syst. u. 2. 1 9 1 . 
Sisymbrium terrestre. Ft. Br. 70]. Engl. Bat. v. 25. t. 1747. Curt. 

Land. fuse. 5. t. 49. Wahlenb. Lapp. 179. 
S palustre. PoUich v. 2. 230. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 490. 
S. islandicum. Fl. Dan. t.409. 
S. amphibium a. Huds. 296. Light/. 352. 
S. amphibium (3 . Linn. Suec. ed. 2. 232. Fl. Dan. t.93l. 
Radicula n. 487. Hall. Hist, ^j, 1 . 21 1 . 
R. sylvestris sive palustris. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 866./. 867 ; but not 

of Ray. 
Raphanus aquaticus, foliis in profundas lacinias divisis. Bauh. Pirt. 

97. Prodr.38.f. Dill, in RaiiSyn. 30 1. Moris.v.2.237.s€ct.3. 

t. 7.f. 3. 
Small Jagged Water Radish. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 49. f. 9. 

About the banks of ditches^ and in damp but not very watery mea- 
dows. 

Plentiful about London. Curtis. On Bungay Common, Suffolk. 
Mr. Woodward. Bedfordshire, but rare. Abbot. Oxfordshire. 
Sibth. Isle of Ely. Bishop of Carlisle. In the meadows belo w 
Norwich, and in various other places. 

Annual. June — September. 

Root simple, spindle-shaped, small. Herb erect or recumbent, 
about a foot high, sometimes not more than 3 or 4 inches, smooth, 
bright green. Stem leafy, smooth, furrowed, generally branch- 
ed. Leaves lyrate, deeply pinnatifid, partially and unequally 
toothed or serrated. Fl. very small, of a paler hue than the last. 
Cal. but slightly coloured. Pet. shorter than the calyx, often 
' notched. Pods ascending, of a short, thick, somewhat curved, 
obtuse figure, each on a horizontal stalk, about its own length, 
and all together composing long aggregate clusters. Style per- 
manent, thick and short, with a peltate stigma. 

Mr. Curtis, from his own observations, well determined this spe- 
cies, though he ' did not attempt to settle its synonyms, which 
were, in his time, singularly confused, and that confusion has 
since been augmented. Neither Linnaeus nor Hudson under- 
stood the present plant, however distinct it appears to us. Cur- 
tis's name is at least as good as palustre, and indeed more cor- 
rect ; SO that though the latter may be of a prior date, I have 
not thought it wortli adopting. Haller was one of the few bo- 
tanists, who knew this species well, and his synonyms are justly 
applied. The annual, not creeping, root, and the copious, short, 
thick pods, at once distinguish it from the foregoing, as well as 
from the following. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Sisymbrium. 195 

4. N. amp/iibium. Amphibious Yellow Cress. Great 

Water Radish. 

Leaves oblong, pinnatifid, or serrated. Roots fibrous. Pe- 
tals longer than the calyx. Pod elliptical. 

N. amphibium. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 1 10. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 
196. Comp.ed.4.\\2. Hook. Scot. 201. 

Sisymbrium amphibium. Linn. Sp. PL 9 17' TVilld. v. 3. 491. Fl. 
Br.702. Engl.Bot.v.26.t.l840. Fl. Dan. t. 984. 

5. (not Nasturtium) palustre repens latifolium majus. Mich. Hort. 
Flnrent. 89. 

Radicula n. 486. Hall. Hist. v.\.2\\. 

R. sylvestris seu palustris. RaiiSyn. 301 ; but not of J. Bauhin. 
Raphanus aquaticus. Ger. Em. 240. f. 
R. aquaticus alter. Bauh. Prodr. 38. f, good. 
R. sylvestris officinarum aquaticus Lob. /c. 319./. 
Broad Water Radish. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 49. f. 8, 
/3. Raphanus aquaticus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 867./. 
Great Jagged Water Radish. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 49./. 10; copied 
/rom Bauhin. 

In rivers, ditches, and places about their banks, not constantly 
overflowed, frequent. 

Perennial. June — August. 

Roots long and stringy, perpendicular, not creeping, but throwing 
out numerous fibres, such as proceed from the lower parts of 
the trailing or floating, wide-spreading, leafy, striated, not much 
branching, stem. Leaves generally smooth, but occasionally 
downy when growing in dry situations ; the lowermost on long 
stalks, deeply pectinated under water, otherwise elliptic-lanceo- 
late, cut, or serrated ; upper ones sessile, or clasping, oblong, 
pectinated, serrated, or nearly entire, all varying greatly accord- 
ing to the depth of the water, or strength of the current ; on 
such plants as grow entirely out of the water, the leaves are 
smaller, broader, and merely serrated. Fl. small, bright yellow, 
plentiful, in aggregate clusters. Pet. always longer than the 
calyx. Pods usually small and abortive, roundish, tipped with 
the style often as long as themselves. 

This plant is noticed by the celebrated M. Chateaubriand, in his 
account of England, for its wonderful powers of increase by root. 
He observed it in the river near Beccles, where he long resided as 
an emigrant, and his rather florid description has excited wonder 
and curiosity in many, who daily, perhaps, pass over, without 
regard, several no less interesting works of their Creator. Some 
of M. DeCandolle's references belong to the foregoing. 

334. SISYMBRIUM. Hedge^mustard. 

Linn. Gen.338. Juss. 239. Fl. Br. 700. Comp. ed. 4. 108. Br. 
in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 1 11 . DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 458. 

o2 



196 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Sisymbrium., 

Erysimum. Tourn.t.] II. 

Cal. nearly equal at the base, somewhat spreading ; leaves 
oblong, concave, slightly coloured, deciduous. Pet. obo- 
vate-oblong, obtuse, undivided, flat ; claws nearly the 
length of the calyx. Filam. thread-shaped, simple, dis- 
tinct, erect. Anth. oblong-heart-shaped, a little spread- 
ing. Germ, linear, slender, sessile. Sfi/le very short. 
Stigma capitate, notched, permanent. Pod linear, round- 
ish, or slightly angular ; valves linear, concave, wavy ; 
partition narrow, membranous. Seeds ranged alternately, 
forming a single row, numerous, small, ovate, or oblong, 
not bordered ; cotyledons flat, incumbent, sometimes 
(according to Mr. Brown) obliquely. 

Annual or perennial herbs, very various in foliage. Fl. yel- 
low or whitish, mostly small. Pods erect, in very long 
clusters. Flavour pungent, not fetid. 

1. S. officinale. -^ ommon rHedge^mustard. 

Pods pressed close to the main stalk, awl-shaped, downy. 
Leaves runcinate, hairy. Stem rough with reflexed 
bristles. 

S. officinale. Scop. Cam. ed. 2. i;. 2. 26. Br.in Alt.H.Kew.v.A. 

111. BeCand.Syst.v.2.Ah^. Comjo. erf. 4. 112. Hook. Scot. 

202. 
Erysimum officinale. Linn. Sp. PL 922. Willd. v. 3. 509. Fl. Br. 

706. Engl. Bot. v.W.t. 735. Curt. Lond. fasc. 5. t. 50. Woodv. 

suppl. t.244. FL Ban. t. 560. BulL Fr. t. 259. 
E. n. 478. HaU. Hist v. 1 . 208. 
E. Dioscoridis Lobelii. Ger. Em. 254./. 

E. vulgave. Bauh. Pin. 100. Moris, v. 2. 218. sect. 3. t. 3./. 1 . 
Eruca hirsuta, siliqua cauli adpressa^ Eiysimum dicta. Raii Syn. 

298. 
Verbena foemina. Trag. Hist. \ 02. f ; but not of Biunfelsius. 
V. recta sive mas. Fucfis. Hist. 592. f. 
Irio sive Erysimum Dioscoridis. Lob. Ic. 206./. Dod. Pempt 

714./. 
Hedge Mustard. Petiv. H. Brit. L 46./ 3. 

In waste groundj by road sides, and on banks, common. It 
springs up wherever houses have been burnt, as Haller records. 

Annual. June, July. 

Herb of a dull green, minutely hairy, or downy. Stem solitary, 
2 feet high, erect, with numerous horizontal branches, leafy, 
round, clothed with fine deflexed bristles. Leaves lyrate, their 
lobes runcinate, unequally toothed ; the upper ones narrowest. 
Fl. pale yellow, small, in little corymbose heads, soon becoming 
very long straight dose clusters, of erect, tapering pods, finely 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Sisymbrium. 197 

downy, rather more than half an inch long, on very short stalks. 
Seeds not numerous, about 6 in each cell. 
An infusion oT this herb, or of its seeds, is reputed to be good for 
the asthma, hoarseness, or any debility of the throat or vocal 
organs ; as also to promote expectoration. But it is out of use, 
and probably Common White Mustard may, for any purpose, be 
preferable. 

2. S. Irio. Broad Hedge-mustard. London Rocket. 

Leaves runcinate, toothed, smooth as well as the stem. Pods 
erect. 

S. Irio. Linn. Sp. PL 92 1 . miM. v. 3. 503. Fl. Br. 705. Engl. 

Bot. V. 23. t. 1631. Curt.Lond.fasc.5. t. 48. DeCand. Syst. 

V. 2. 467. Jacq. Austr. t. 322. 
Erysimum latifoiium neapolitanum. Rail Syn. 298. 
E. latifoiium majus glabrum. Bauh. Pin. 101. Moris, v. 2. 218. 

sect. 3 L3.f.3. 
Irio laevis Apulus, Erucse folio. Column. Ecphr. v. 1. 264. t. 265. 
Broad Hedge Mustard. Peliv. H. Brit. «. 46. /. 4. 

In waste ground, or on banks and heaps of rubbish, chiefly about 
London. 

About Chelsea, Battersea, and the whole neighbourhood of Lon- 
don. Ray, Curtis. At Faulkbourn, Essex, and on the walls of 
Berwick-upon-Tweed. Ray. It covered the ground in the 
spring after the great fire of London. Haller records the same 
tendency in the preceding species. 

Annual. July, August. 

Herb about 2 feet high, light green, with a hot flavour of Mustard, 
and generally, as Curtis observes, entirely smooth. The upper 
part of the stem however is occasionally downy, and the calyx 
hairy. Stem erect, branched, round and quite even, leafy. 
Leaves pinnatifid, runcinate, acute, toothed chiefly at the fore- 
most, or upper, edges ; the upper ones lanceolate, with an 
arrow-shaped base. Fl. yellow, small for the size of the plant. 
Pods 2 inches long, slender, nearly erect, rugged when ripe. 
Seeds very abundant. 

3. S. Sophia. Fine-leaved Hedge-mustard, or Flix- 

weed. 

Leaves doubly pinnatifid, a little hairy. Petals smaller than 
the calyx, 

S. Sophia. Linn. Sp. PL 920. Willd. v. 3. 500. FL Br. 704. EngL 
BoL V. 14. L 963. Mart Rust. t. 57- Hook. Scot. 202. De- 
Cand. Syst. v. 2. 474. FLDan.f.o28. BulL Fr. t.27\. 

S. n. 484. HalLHisLv.\.2\0. 

Erysimum Sophia dictum. Rnii Syn. 298. 

Sophia Chirurgorum. Ger. Em. 1068./. Lob. Ic.7SS.f. 



198 TETRADYNAMIA-SILIQUOSA. Barbarea. 

Seriphium gernianiciim. Trag. Hist. 338./. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 886./. 
S. Absinthium. Fuchs. Hist. 2./. 
Descurea. Guett. Obs. v. 2. 1 64. 

About rubbish, dry banks, waste ground, and dunghills, very fre- 
quent. 

Annual. July — September. 

Root small and tapering. Whole plant of a slender delicate struc- 
ture, about 2 feet high. Stem branched, bushy, erect, a little 
downy. Leaves doubly and very deeply pinnatifid, with fine, 
downy or hairy, linear-lanceolate, entire segments. Fl. small, 
greenish yellow, their petals concealed by the cahjx. Pods very 
numerous, erect, somewhat curved, slender, about an inch long, 
rugged, or beaded, from the projection of the numerous minute 
seeds, and composing long erect clusters, with spreading partial 
stalks. 

Sophia Chirurgorum, " the Wisdom of Surgeons," would not be 
evinced by any reliance on this herb for the cure of fractured 
limbs ; nor are its antidysenteric virtues, to which its old En- 
glish name alludes, better ascertained. 

335. BARBAREA. Winter-cress. 

Br. in Ait, H. Kew. v. 4. 109. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 205. Comp. erf. 4. 
108. 

Cal. nearly equal at the base, erect ; leaves oblong, con- 
cave, somewhat coloured, deciduous. Pet. obovate, ob- 
tuse, undivided, flat; claws nearly the length of the calyx. 
Filam. awl-shaped, simple, distinct, erect, with a gland. 
at each side between the 2 shorter ones and the pistil. 
Germ, oblong, quadrangular. Style short, cylindrical. 
Stigma obtuse, simple. Pod linear, with 4- angles, slightly 
compressed ; valves concave, keeled, even and straight ; 
partition membranous, thick-edged. Seeds ranged alter- 
nately, in a single row, ovate, flattish, not bordered ; co- 
tyledons flat, accumbent. 

Upright, smooth, dark green, perennial or biennial herbs. 
Stems rather angular. Lonxier leaves lyrate ; upper pin- 
natifid or toothed. Fl. yellow. Pods erect, rather stout, 
in long clusters. 

1. B. vulgaris. Bitter Winter^cress. Yellow Rocket. 

Lower leaves lyrate, the terminal lobe roimdish ; upper 
obovate, toothed. 

B. vulgaris. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 109. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 
206. Comp. ed. 4.112. Hook. Scot. 200. 



fl 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Barbarea. 199 

Barbarea. Dod. Pempt. 712./. Ger. Em. 243./. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 

868./. 869. 
SanctK Barbarae herba. Trag. Hist. 101 ./. Fuchs. Hist. 746./. 
Erysimum Barbarea. Linn. Sp. PL 922. IVilld. v. 3. 509. Fl. 

Br. 706. Engl. Bot. v. 7. t. 443. Fl. Dan. t. 985. Ehrh. PI. Off. 

427. 
E. n. 479. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 208. 
Winter Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t.46.f.l. 

Common in rather moist waste ground, about hedges, or in marshy 
meadows. 

Perennial. May — August. 

Root tapering, somewhat woody. Stem about 2 feet high, simple 
or branched, leafy, stout, angular and furrowed. Radical and 
lower stem-leaves lyratej upper ones becoming gradually less 
divided, clasping the stem ; the uppermost of all obovate, and 
much diminished ; all are variously toothed, strongly ribbed, of 
a firm texture, quite smooth. Fl. bright yellow, in round-head- 
ed, corymbose clusters. Pod not very acutely quadrangular, 
about an inch long, crowned by the thick, rather elongated, 
style. 

The whole herb is nauseously bitter, and in some degree mucila- 
ginous. Haller reports, after Kalm, that it is eaten in England 
as a salad. The latter probably confounded it with the follow- 
ing. A double-flowered variety, with innumerable petals, pro- 
duced in long succession, and turning white as they fade, is fre- 
quent in gardens. 

2. B. prcECoa^. Early Winter-cress. 

Lower leaves lyrate ; upper deeply pinnatifid, with linear- 
oblong entire segments. 

B. praecox. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 109. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 207. 

Comp. ed. 4. 113. Hook. Scot. 201 . 
B. foliis minoribus et frequentius sinuatis. Dill, in Raii Syn. 297. 
Erysimum praecox. Fl. Br. 707. Engl. Bot. v. 16. t. 1 129. fVilld. 

Sp. PI. V. 3. 510. 
E. barbarea /3. Linn. Sp. PI. 922. 
Sisymbrium Erucae folio glabro, minus et praecocius. Tourn. Inst. 

226. 
Early Winter Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. <. 46. /. 2. 

In watery grassy places, or on the banks of ditches. 

On a hill half a mile north of Teignmouth, as well as near Daw- 
lish, Kingsteington and Honiton, Devonshire, the soil a red 
brick clay. Rev. Dr. Beeke, Dean of Bristol. The plant occurs 
here and there about towns, having perhaps escaped from gar- 
dens. 

Biennial. April — October. 

Stems one or more, erect. If or 2 feet high, leafy, angular, smooth. 



200 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Erysimum. 

a little branched, tinged at the bottom with a violet hue. Ra- 
dical leaves the first year numerous, spreading on the ground, 
lyrate, with a rounded toothed terminal lobe, being much like 
the first species, but of a more neat and regular figure ; the 
stem-leaves are often partly lyrate also, but the upper ones are 
deeply and regularly pinnatifid, with parallel, linear-oblong, 
bluntish, entire segments. Fl. fewer, smaller and paler than 
those of B. vulgaris. Pods thrice as long as in that species, ex- 
actly square, smooth. Shjle short, with a blunt, but not large, 
stigma. 
This species, undoubtedly very distinct from the foregoing, pro- 
pagates itself abundantly by seed, but the root is not perennial. 
It may be eaten like Water Cresses, with which it agrees in fla- 
vour, except being rather more pungent. 

336. ERYSIMUM. Treacle-mustaid. 

Linn. Gen. 339. Juss.239. Fl. Br. 7 06. Cowp. erf. 4. 108. Br. 

in Jit. H. Kew. v. 4. 115. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 490. Gartn. 

t. 143. 
Alliaria. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 488. 

Cal. very nearly equal at the base ; leaves oblong, concave, 
erect, slightly coloured, deciduous. Pet. obovate-oblong, 
obtuse, flat, their claws erect, die length of the calyx. 
Filam. thread-shaped, simple, distinct, upright, with a 
gland between the shorter one at each side, sometimes 
also between the 2 longer ones, and the pistil. Anth. 
roundish-obldng, Vather spreading. Germ, oblong, qua- 
drangular. Style very short. Stigma small, capitate, 
notched, permanent. Pod sessile, linear, equally qua- 
drangular ; valves concave, keeled, rectangular ; parti- 
tion membranous, crowned with the style, and the mqre 
or less deeply 2-lobed stigma. Seeds ovate, without a 
border, disposed in a single row ; cotyledons flat, incum- 
bent. 

Herbs various in duration, erect, branched, either smooth, 
downy, or finely bristly. Leaves simple, often lanceolate 
and nearly entire. Fl. corymbose, yellow, sulphur-co- 
loured, or white. Pods in very long upright clusters. 
Qualities warm and pungent. 

1 . E. cheiranthoides . Worm-seed Tieacle-mu&tard. 

Leaves lanceolate, obscurely toothed, roughish with close 
forked bristles. Pods erect, on horizontal stalks. Stig- 
ma almost sessile. 

E. cheiranthoides, Linn. Sp. PI. 923. fVilld. f. 3. 5 1 1 . Fl. Br. 



J 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Erysimum. 201 

708. En^l. Bot. V. 14, t. 942. Huds. 287. Hook. Scot. 202. 

DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 498. Jacq. Austr. t. 23. Fl. Dan. t. 731, 

bad, and t. 923, better. Ehrh. Herb. 97. 
En. 477. Hall. Hist. v.\. 207. 
Cheiranthus erysimoides. Huds. 287. 
Myagro affinis planta, siliquis longis. Rail Sijn. 298. Bauh. Hist. 

V. 2.894./. 
Camelina. Ger. Em.273.f. 

C. Myagrum alteram, thlaspi effigie. Loh. Ic. 225. f. 
Treacle Worm-seed. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 45./. 2. 

In turnip fields, gardens, osier-holts, and hedges, not uncommon. 

Annual. July. 

Root small, tapering. Stem erect, branched, angular, leafy, from 
1 to 24- feet high, rough with small, closely deflexed,'mostly 
simple bristles. Leaves of a dull green, sessile, except a few of 
the lower ones, lanceolate, variable in breadth, as well as in the 
number of their distant and shallow teeth, all clothed with very 
minute, crowded, close, forked bristles, such as are found also, 
still more minute, on the pods and their stalks. Fl. numerous, 
small, yellow, with a whitish calyx. Pet. terminated by a shal- 
low notch. Pods full an inch long ; their valves internally downy, 
which is remarkable. Their seeds are bitter, and have been used 
for destroying intestinal worms in children ; being also one of 
the ingredients of the nauseous Venice Treacle. 

2. E. Alliaria. Garlick Treacle-mustard. Jack by 

the hedge ; or Sauce alone. 
Leaves heart-shaped, broadly toothed, stalked. 

E. Alliaria. Linn. Sp. PL 922. JVdld. v. 3. 510. Fl. Br. 708. 

Engl. Bot. V. 12. t. 796. Curt. Lond. fasc. 2. t. 48. TVoodv. 

suppl.t.2Ab. Hook. Scot, 202. Fl.Dan. t.935. Bull. Fr.t. 338. 
E. n. 480. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 208. 
Hesperis allium redolens. - Rail Syn. 293. Moris, v. 2. 252. sect. 3. 

1. 10./ 6. 

t Alliaria. Trag. Hist.SG.f. Fuchs. Hist, \04.f. Dad. Pempt.686./. 
Matth.Valgr.v.2.\97.f. Camer. Epit. 589. f. Ger. Em.79i.f. 
Dalech. Hist. 911./,/ Lob. Ic. 5 30. / 
A. officinalis. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 489. 
Jack by the hedge. Petiv. H. Brit. t.45.f.l. 

Common under hedges and in shady lanes. 

Annual. May. 

Whole herb smooth, of a deep shininggreen, exhaling when bruised 
a strong and nauseous scent of garlick, which seems the natural 
flavour of its tribe, condensed or augmented, we will not say 
improved. Yet the country people eat the young leaves with 
bread and butter. The seeds are said to be stronger^han anv 
other part. The stem is about a foot high, somewhat branched'. 



202 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Cheiranthus. 

■ Leaves stalked, broadly heart-shaped, acute, veiny, with many 
prominent broad teeth. Fl. plentiful, white, not unornamental 
to hedge banks in tiie spring. Cal. whitish, not quite closed. 
Pods erect, smooth, on spreading stalks. 

3. E. orientale. Hare's-ear Treacle mustard. 

Leaves elliptic-heart-shaped, obtuse, clasping the stem ; ra- 
dical ones obovate ; all smooth, glaucous, undivided, en- 
tire. 

E. orientale. Br. in Ait. H. Kcw.v.4. \\7. Comp.ed. 4. l\3. 

E. perfoliatum. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 508. 

Brassica orientalis. Linn. Sp. PL 931. Willd. v. 3. 545. Fl. Br. 

717. Engl. Bot. v. 26. t. 1804. Pollich v. 2. 247. Jacg. Austr. 

t.282. 
B. campestris perfoliata, flore albo. Bauh. Pin. 112. Dill, in Rail 

Syn. 293. Moris, v. 2. 210. sect. 3. t. 2./ 19. 
B. campestris prima. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 127./. Dalech. Hist. 525./. 
Eruca n. 457. Hall. Hist. «. 1. 199. 

Perfoliata siliquosa. Ger. Em. 536./. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 835./. 
White Thorow Colewort. Petiv. H. Brit. t.45.f.5. 

In fields and on cliffs near the sea. 

In Essex, but rare. Petiver. Near Harwich, on the cliffs, as also 
at Bawdsey, near Orford, Suffolk. Dale. In fields near God- 
stone and Marshfield, Sussex. Huds. 

Annual. June. 

Root small, tapering. Herb glaucous, very smooth in every part, 
even the radical leaves. Stem from 1 to 2 feet high, seldom 
branched, bearing several clasping, not perfoliate, leaves; the 
radical ones obovate, recurved ; all quite entire and a little 
fleshy. JF7. rather few, in a lax corymbose cluster, cream-co- 
loured. Pet. but little spreading. Pods 2\ or 3 inches long, 
exactly square, upright, though not quite straight. 

Reichard quotes under this Erysimum perfoliatum, Crantz Austr. 
(fasc. 1 .) 27, and he is copied by Willdenow and DeCandoUe ; 
but I find no such name any where in Crantz ; and as the leaves 
are not perfoliate, orientale, adopted by Linnaeus from Tourne- 
fort, though not a good name, does not require to be changed. 

Brassica austriaca of Jacq. Austr. t. 283, which I had ."Juspected 
might be the same species, is judged by Prof. DeCandolle to be 
different, having smaller more yellow^ow^ers, and elevated ribs 
or veins on the valves of the pod. We have it not in England. 

337. CHEIRANTHUS. Wall-flower. 

Linn. Gen. 339. Juss. 238. Fl. Br. 709. Comp. ed. 4. ] 08. Br. in 
Ait. H. Kew. «. 4. 1 1 8. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 1 78. Lam. t. 564./. 1 . 
Leucojum. Tourn.t.l07. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Cheiranthus. 203 

Cal. converging, compressed ; leaves oblong, concave, erect, 
deciduous, 2 opposite ones protuberant at the base. Pet. 
obovate, spreading, entire or slightly notched ; claws 
ei'ect, the length of the calyx. Filam, awl-shaped, pa- 
rallel, simple, distinct, each of the 2 outermost, or short- 
est, embraced at the bottom by a nectariferous gland. 
Antli. erect, oblong-ari'ovv-shaped, acute, of 2 linear lobes. 
Germ, linear, compressed, a little tumid at each side, the 
length of the stamens. Stijle short, nearly cylindrical. 
Stigma either of 2 thick spreading lobes, or capitate and 
slightly notched, permanent. Pod linear, compressed, 
two-edged, rather convex at the sides, mostly with an 
elevated, longitudinal, central line ; valves straight ; par- 
tition membranous. Seeds ranged alternately, in a single 
row, ovate, compressed, slightly bordered at the summit, 
and often at one side also ; cotyledons accumbent. 

Biennial or perennial, herbaceous or somewhat shrubby. 
Stem branched, leafy, round, or slightly angular. Leaves 
lanceolate, entire or toothed. Pubescence close, simple, 
or divaricated, or somewhat starry. Fl. handsome, fra- 
grant, yellow, purplish, or white, often particoloured, or 
changeable. Ch. tenuifolius of DeCandoUe has a slight 
border at the top of the seed only. 

1. Qh.fruticulosus. Wild Wall-flower. 

Leaves lanceolate, acute ; most hoary beneath, with simple 
close hairs. Stem shrubby. Branches angular. Style 
prominent. 

Ch. fruticulosus. Linn. Mant. 94, Willd. Sp. PL v. 3.516. FL 

Br. 709. EngL Bot. v. 2/. t. 1934. Comp. ed. 4. 1 13. Hook. 

Scot. 202. Galp. Comp. 56. Davies Welsh BotanoL 64. 
Ch. Cheiri. Huds. 287. With. 586. Relh. 260. Sihth. 202. Abbot 

144. Hook. Lond. ^. 147 ? DeCand. SysL v. 2. 180, var. /x,. 
Leucojum n. 443. HalL Hist. v. 1. 193; from Mr. Davall and 

others. 
L. luteum, vulgo Cheiri, flore simplici. Raii Syn. 291. Bauh. Hist. 

V. 2. 572./. reprinted in Chabr. Ic. 278. f. 4. 
L. luteum minus fruticans. BarreL Ic. t. 1228. 
Viola petrsea lutea. Tabern. Krauterb. 688./. 

On old walls. 

Shrub. April, May. 

Stem shrubby, erect, bushy, branched in a determinate manner ; 
branches angular, leafy, hoary with close, bristly, silvery hairs, 
chiefly directed downward, hke those'on both sides of the leaves; 
though some point the contrary way, on the leaves as well as 



204 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Matthiola. 

• pods, being perfectly distinct, as it seems to me, from the others, 
nor is there any forked or starry pubescence to be found. -Leaves 
crowded, stalked, lanceolate, acute, almost invariably entire ; 
the lowermost, if any, slightly serrated ; all deep green, with 
more or less of a minute silvery hoariness, especially at the back. 
Fl. corymbose, sweet-scented ; their petah always of a uniform 
bright golden yellow, not stained with brown or blood-red as in 
the garden Cli. Cheiri, though the calyx is purplish. Pods race- 
mose, erect, 14- or 2 inches long, covered with close hairs chiefly, 
if not altogether, pointing upwards ; each valve marked with an 
elevated central line, often vanishing about half way up, and 
hardlyTdiscemible at all in Mr. Davali's Swiss specimens ; though 
very strong in some French ones, with shorter broader pods, 
which most accord with Dr. Hooker's, the style excepted. Style, 
in all the specimens I have seen, about a line in length in the 
flower, rather more on the ripe pod, stout, angular, a little 
bristly, crowned with the cloven stigma, whose lobes are finally 
brought close together. The seeds are flat, with a narrow, mem- 
branous, deciduous border at one side, as well as at the summit, 
of each. 
The late Mr. Crowe, whose remarks were always worthy of atten- 
tion, and to whom we owe so much for his unrivalled discrimi- 
nation of Willows, observed that the petals of our wild C//eJran- 
thus merely become recurved as they advance towards decay, 
and do not hang loosely flaccid, like those of the true Ch. Cheiri, 
or Blood Wall-flower of the gardens. There is indeed a culti- 
vated double variety of Ch.fruticulosus, always with plain yellow 
flowers, and though more luxuriant than the wild plant, still 
unlike the Ch. Cheiri. Dr. Hooker appears to me quite cor- 
rect in his Fl. Scot., except a slip of the pen, leaves for petals ; 
but I quote his Fl. Lond. and its luminous dissections, with he- 
sitation, on account of the strongly-ribbed valves of the short 
pods, and the almost total want of a style, such as I have never 
seen in any Wall-flower. Ch. Cheiri and its supposed varieties 
enumerated by DeCandoUe, require more correct examination 
than they have, as yet, received. I do not presume to give a 
decisive opinion concerning them, but merely describe what I 
have seen, depending with implicit confidence on my friend 
Hooker for the accuracy of his representations. Viola lutea, 
Fuchs. Hist. 458,/, comes nearest to his plate and description. 

338. MATTHIOLA. Stock. 

Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 1 19. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 162. Comp. ed.4. 
108. 

Cal. converging, a little compressed ; leaves linear-oblong, 
concave, erect, deciduous, 2 opposite ones protuberant at 
the base. Pet. obovate, spreading, entire, or with a broad 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Matthiola. 205 

shallow notch ; claws erect, the length of the calj'x. Fi- 
lam. awl-shaped, simple, distmct; 2 outermost much the 
shortest, embraced at the bottom by a nefctariferous gland. 
^«^/?. oblong-arrow-shaped, nearly erect, of 2 linear lobes. 
Germ, oblong, rather compressed, shorter than the sta- 
mens. Style short and thick, or more frequently want- 
ing. Stigma of 2 converging lobes, either thickened or 
protuberant at the back, permanent. Pod linear, com- 
pressed, or nearly cylindrical, convex or keeled at one 
or both sides ; valves straight ; partition membranous. 
Seeds ranged alternately in a single row, orbicular, com- 
pressed, generally encompassed by a membranous bor- 
der ; cotyledons flat, accumbent. 
Herbaceous or shrubby, almost always hoary, with starry 
pubescence, occasionally intermixed with stalked glands. 
Leaves oblong, undivided, toothed, or sinuated. Fl. 
fragrant, especially in an evening, their colours purple, 
white, greenish, or brownish. Mr. Brown remarks that 
when the lobes of the stigma are thickened at the back, 
the cotyledons are incumbent. Prof. DeCandolle on the 
contrary declares that he never met with incumbent co- 
tyledons in any species examined by him. In our native 
ones they are certainly accumbent. — I beg leave to ob- 
serve that the name of the botanist here commemorated 
is Matthiolus, not Mathiolus. 

1. M. incana. Hoary Shrubby Stock. 

Stem shrubby, upright, branched. Leaves lanceolate, ob- 
tuse, entire, hoary. Pods without glands. 

M. incana. Br. in Jit. H. Kew. v. 4. 1 19. DeCand. Stjst. v. 2. 163. 

Comp.ed.4. 113. 
Cheiranthus incanus. Linn. Sp. PL 924. TFilld. v. 3. 520. Engl 

Bot. V. 27. t. 1935. Mill. Illustr. t. 55. 
Leucojum incanum majus. Moris, v. 2. 240. sect.o. t. S.f. 1. 
L. purpureum. Matth. t'algr. v. 2. 228./. Camer. Epit. 619./. 

Ger. Em. 458./. Dalech. Hist. 802./. 
Viola matronalis purpurea. Fuchs. Hist. 315./. 

On maritime cliffs in the south of England. 

Upon rocky cliffs to the east of Hastings, Sussex. Mr. D. Turner 
and Mr. W. Borrer. 

Shrub. May, June. 

Rout much branched downwards j simple at the crown. Stem 
erect, bushy, round, leafy, hoary, about 2 feet high. Leaves scat- 
tered, 2 inches or more in length, covered on both sides with 
dense, starry, hoary pubescence, single-ribbed, entire, thick and 



206 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Matthiola. 

leathery ; rounded at the extremity ; each tapering at the base 
into a short footstalk. Fl. corymbose, large, light purple, fra- 
grant, often double ; their claws pale and greenish. Pod 2 or 
2-^ inches long, crowned with the sessile stigma subtended at 
each side by a small point ; the valves frequently dissimilar, one 
being more keeled than the other. Seeds most convex at one 
side, light brown, surrounded entirely by a white filmy border ; 
cotyledons accumbent, as may be seen without taking off the 
skin. 
1 believe this species is naturally perennial ; though in gardens, 
remote from the sea, it is seldom more than biennial, and in- 
deed often perishes the first winter, without flowering. 

2. M. sinuata. Great Sea Stock. 

Stem herbaceous, spreading. Leaves downy, glandular, 
obtuse, sinuated ; those of the branches undivided. Pods 
rough with prominent glands. 

M. sinuata. Br. in Alt. H. Kew. v. 4. 1 20. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 1 67. 

Comp.ed.4. 113. 
Cheiranthus sinuatus. Linn. Sp. PL 926. Willd. v. 3. 524. Fl. 

Br. 710. Engl. Bat. v. 7- 1. 462. Huds. 288. Davies Welsh Bo- 

tanol. 64. 
Ch. tricuspidatus. Huds. cd. 1. 250. 
Leucojum marinum majus. Rail Syn. 291 . 
L. marinum purpureum Lobelii. Ger. Em. 460. f. 
L. maritimum magnum latifolium. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 875./. 876. 

Chabr. Tc.279.f.4, 

On the sandy sea coasts of Wales and Cornwall. 

In many parts of Wales ; also on the coast of Cornwall. Ray. 
Near Pembroke. Mr. Adams. Near Abermeney ; Llwyd ; with- 
in a mile of Llanddwyn ; Brewer's Ms.; Rev. H. Duvies. 

Biennial. August. 

Root long and tapering. Whole herb clothed with densely intri- 
cate starry down, intermixed with short glandular rigid prickles, 
which abound most on the pods. Stem branched, widely spread- 
ing, 2 feet high, round, leafy. Lower leaves most sinuated ; 
upper undivided and entire. FL the size of the foregoing, but 
of a more dingy hue ; not fragrant by day, but in the evening 
very highly scented, with a kind of aromatic pungency, render- 
ing this species well worthy of a place in gardens. Stigma ses- 
sile, bluntly protuberant at each side. Pods 3 or 4 inches long, 
convex at each side, all over hoary and glandular. Seeds with 
a membranous border. The taste of the whole herb is alkaline 
and bitterish. Petiver has by mistake copied, for this, the ex- 
cellent wooden cut of Matthiola tricufjjidata, Cheiranthus tricus- 
pidatus of Linnaeus, published in the Hortiis Medicus of Came- 
rarius,/. 24. His error might perhaps mislead Mr. Hudson in 
the first edition of Fl. Anglica. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Hesperis. 207 
339. HESPERIS. Dame's-violet. 

Linn. Gen. 340. Juss. 238. Fl. Br.7\\. Comp. ed. 4. 108. Br. 
inAit.H.Kew. v. 4. 122. DeCand. Syst.v. 2. 446. Tour7i. t. 108. 
Lam. t. 564./. 1. 

Cal. closely converging ; leaves lanceolate-oblong, obtuse, 
overlaying each other at the upper part, separating first 
at the bottom, deciduous ; 2 opposite ones protuberant 
at the base. Pet. obovate, obtuse, or slightly notched, 
obliquely spreading; claws linear, channelled, erect, the 
length of the calyx. Filam. thread-shaped, erect, simple, 
unconnected ; the 2 shorter with a gland at their base in- 
ternally. A7ith. linear, recurved. Germ, quadrangular, 
linear, the length of the calyx. Style scarcely any. Stig- 
ma nearly sessile, of 2 closely converging, erect, simple, 
obtuse, downy lobes, permanent, unchanged. Pod li- 
near, more or less accurately quadrangular, striated, pro- 
tuberant from the seeds ; valves linear, undulated, acute, 
the length of the membranous partition. Seeds in a sin- 
gle row, pendulous, oblong, obscurely triangular, not bor- 
dered ; cotyledons flat, incumbent. 

Herbaceous, with fibrous roots. Stem round, erect or spread- 
ing, downy or smooth. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, tooth- 
ed, finely hairy, rarely entire ; in some sinuated, or run- 
cinate. Pubescence generally scattered and simple ; partly 
forked and glandular. Fl. corymbose, purplish, white, 
or brownish ; powerftiUy scented, for the most part, in an 
evening. Pods long and slender. 

1. H. matronalis. Common Dame's-violet. 

Partial flower-stalks the length of the calyx. Leaves ovate- 
lanceolate, toothed. Stem upright, slightly branched. 
Pods smooth, irregularly tumid, equilateral, nearly ei'ect. 

H. matronalis. Linn. Sp. PL 927. Willd. v. 3. 531. Br. in Ait. H. 

Kew.v.A.\22. DeCand. Syst.v.2.AbQ. Ilook. Scot. 202. 
H. inodora. Linn. Sp. PI. 927. Willd.v.3.b3\. Huds.288. With. 

586. Fl.Br.yii. Comp. ed. 4. 113. Engl. Bot.v.ll. t.73l. FL 

Dan. t. 924. Jacq. Austr. t. 347. 
H. n. 448. HaU.-HisL v.\. 195. 
H. sylvestris inodora. DHL in Raii Syn. 293. Rupp. Jen. ed. HaU. 

78.L\. 
H. pannonica inodora. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 878./. 
H. tertia. Clus.Hist.v. \.297.f. 
H, altera pannonica^ inodora sylvestris. Clus. Pann. 335./. 336. 



^08 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Hesperis. 

Viola matronalis. Dod. Pempt.lGl.f. Ger.Em.462.f. Lab. Ic. 

323./. 
V. purpurea. Fudis. Hist. 459. f. 

In hilly pastures, especially near rivulets, but rare. 

On the banks of the rivulets about Dale-head, Cumberland, and 
Grassmere, Westmoreland ; Mr. Nicolson. Dillenius. About 
Falmouth. Withering. Near Cheltenham, on Cotswould ridge. 
General Hardwicke. From which neighbourhood it was sent by 
the late Earl of Dartmouth, to Mr. Sowerby. See Engl. Bot. 
Near the old castle of Airly, Angus-shire. Mr. .J. Mackay and 
Mr. 0. Don. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root tufted, of many long fibres. Stems erect, 2 or 3 feet high, 

. slightly branched, le£ify, round, solid, clothed, more or less co- 
piously, with very short, deflexed, simple or forked, minute 
hairs. Leaves scattered, ovate-lanceolate, or slightly heart- 
shaped, taper-pointed, veiny, single-ribbed, bordered with nu- 
merous, unequal, prominent, obtuse, somewhat glandular teeth ; 
all nearly or quite sessile, except some of the lowermost. Fl. 
terminal, corymbose, numerous, rather large and handsome, 
pale purple, or white, perpetually varying from seed in this re- 
spect ; by day they have little or no smell, except in rainy wea- 
ther, but in an evening they are highly and delightfully fragrant. 

■ Cal. tinged with purple, rough with coarse spreading hairs, es- 

■ pecially in the upper part ; seldom quite naked. Pet. abrupt, 
• wavy, notched, sometimes having a small terminal tooth. Pod 

2 inches long, ascending, or erect, a little curved, acute, of a 
slender cylindrical form, usually quite smooth, with 4 simple, 
not bordered, angles, whose somewhat striated interstices are 
equal, except the very irregular swellings and undulations 
c.iused by the numerous seeds, which are elliptical, concave at 
one side, destitute of a border. 
Few British plants have been enveloped in more uncertainty than 
this, owing to the epithet inodora, which, as botanists generally 
hunt by daylight, was found applicable to our wild Hesperi'i ; 
while the well-known rich nocturnal fragrance of the garden 
plant, dedicated in its name, for that very reason, to the even- 
ing star, was supposed to render the latter specifically distinct. 
This opinion was confirmed in the mind of Linnaeus by a speci- 
men from Jacquin, marked Hesperis tertia Clusii, in which the 
lower teeth of the rather softer leaves are peculiarly dilated, as in 
Jacquin's plate above indicated. Hence Linnaeus, giving credit 
to the want of scent, plumed himself on establishing a specific 
difference. But the characters he gives have all long been found 
illusive, and Mr. Brown has justly, in my opinion, united these 
two Linnaean species, without marking either as even a variety. 
We therefore retain the original, and least exceptionable, spe- 
cific name. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Arabis. 209 

It is said that U. matronalis, originally brought by Europsean set- 
tlers to the United States of America, loses its scent the second 
season, and is obliged to be renewed by fresh seeds from Eu- 
rope. See the remark under Mthusa, v. 2. 65. 

340. ARABIS. Wall-cress, or Rock-cress. 

Linn. Gen. 3A\. Jmss. 238. K. Br. 711. Comp. ed. 4. 108. Br. 
in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 104. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 213. Lam. t.563. 
f. 1—3. 

Cal. erect ; leaves ovate-oblong, convei'ging, deciduous ; 
2 opposite ones rather the largest, somewhat protuberant 
at the base. PeL obovate-oblong, undivided, a little 
spreading, tapering at the base into broadish claws, hardly 
so long as the calyx. Filam. thread-shaped, erect, sim- 
ple, unconnected, usually with 4 glands at their base ex- 
ternally. Antk. roundish-heart-shaped, incumbent. Germ. 
linear, about the length of the stamens. Style very short, 
or none. Stigma obtuse, simple. Pod linear, compress- 
ed, crowned with the permanent stigma ; valves almost 
flat, ribbed, or veiny, slightly undulated from the protu- 
berance of the seeds, quite as long as the linear mem- 
branous partition. Seeds in a single row, pendulous, oval 
or orbicular, compressed, with or without a border ; co- 
tyledons flat, accumbent. 

Annual or perennial, leafy, upright herbs. Leaves simple ; 
entire or toothed ; the radical ones numerous, in a rose- 
like tuft, mostly stalked ; those of the stem alternate, ses- 
sile, or clasping, and smaller. Pubesce?ice simple or forked. 
Fl. in corymbose clusters, white, seldom reddish. Pods 
in very long clusters. Species numerous, chiefly natives 
of the northern hemisphere. 

1. A. thaliana. Common Wall-cress. 

Leaves hairy, more or less toothed ; radical ones stalked, 
oblong. Stamens not much shorter than the petals. Stem 
branched. Pods pointing upwards. 

A. thaliana. Linn. Sp. PI. 929. Wdld.v.o.bZb. Fl. Br.7\2. Engl. 
Bot. V. 13. ^ 901 . Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 49. Hook. Scot. 199. 

I DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 226. PolUcli v. 2. 243. t. 4. Fl. Dan. 1. 1 106. 
A.n. 452, a. Hall. Hist.v.\.\97. 
Pilosella siliquata. Tlml. Hercyn. 84. t. 7.f. D. 
Turritis vulgaris ramosa. Tourn. List, 224. Raii Syn. 294. Lind. 
Alsat.SG.t.l. 
Bursa pastoris, sive Pilosella siliquosa. Bauh. Hist.v, 2. 870./. 
VOL. III. P 



210 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Arabis. 

Draba siliquosa similis planta prsecox annua. Moris, v. 2. 235. 

sect. 3. t. 7./. 5. 
Aizoon Telephium. Dalech. Hist. 1131./. 
Thale Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 48./. 1. 
/3. Turritis minor foliosa. Rail Syn. 294. 
Brassica spuria minima, caule magis folioso hirsutior. Raii Syn. 

ed. 1.241.ed. 2. 166. 
B. spuria exilis, non laciniata, caule magis folioso hirsutior, foliis 

subrotundis. Pluk. Phyt. t. 80./ 2. 
Broad Tliale Cress. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 48./ 2. 

On walls, dry banks, cottage roofs, and dry sandy ground, every 
where. 

Annual. April. 

Root tapering, fibrous. Herb varying greatly in luxuriance, up- 
right, simple or branched, hairy, light green, from 3 to 12 inches 
high. Leaves various in shape and size, lanceolate, ovate, or 
obovate, entire or unequally notched, their pubescence short, 
mostly forked J radical ones close to the ground, numerous, 
stalked ; the rest smaller, few, and scattered, sometimes linear- 
lanceolate. Fl. small, white, corymbose, on slender stalks. 
Cal. generally a little bristly in the upper part. Pet. twice as 
long, nearly upright. Glands minute, and inconstant, curved, 
but scarcely protruding between the calyx-leaves. Pods ascend- 
ing, on spreading stalks, slender, somewhat curved, smooth, 
hardly an inch long. 

Plukenet's and Petiver's figures of the variety jS are very dissimilar, 
but specimens may be found answering to either, nor are any of 
the varieties at all constant. The whole plant has a warm pun- 
gent flavour, like the rest of its class. 

2. A. siricta. Bristol Rock-cress. 

Leaves toothed, obtuse, bristly ; radical ones somewhat ly- 
rate. Stems hairy. Petals nearly erect. Calyx smooth. 

A.stricta. Huds.292. Fl.Br.7l2. Engl. Bot. v. 9. t. 614. Velley 
Pl.Marit.t.b. Shiercliff, Bristol Guide, S3, f. Hook. Lo7id.t.4. 
DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 224. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 539. 

A. hispida. Ait. H. Kew. ed. ].v. 2.400 ; not of Linnaus. 

A. n. 453. Hall. Hist. ?;. 1 . 1 97. Noviencl. 42. 

Turritis Raii. Villars Dauph. v. 3. 326. t.38. 

Hesperis alpina minor, flore albo, siliquis longis. Raii Syllog. 296. 
I have it from Mount Saleve. 

Cardaminepumila,bellidis folio, alpina. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 172. ed.3. 
300 ? but not of Gerarde, whose wooden cut, copied by Pe- 
tiver, H. Brit. t. 47. f. 9, really belongs to Arabis purnila of Jac- 
quin, A. nutans, Willd. v. 3. 537. 

On limestone rocks in the south-west part of England. 

On St. Vincent's rocks near Bristol. Huds. Velley. On the south 



TETR ADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Arabis. 211 

side of the Avon, about a mile below the hot-wells, but sparingly. 
Mr. W. Clayfield and Mr. Dyer. I have also seen it on the fine 
turf just below the hot-wells. 

Perennial. May. 

Root simply tufted, very long, tapering and fibrous, not creeping, 
certainly perennial. Stems for the most part several, erect, or 
ascending, from 3 to 6 inches high, round, leafy ; the central 
one usually branched ; all rough in the lower part with mostly 
simple, spreading or deflexed, bristly hairs. Radical leaves nu- 
merous, obtuse, dark green, purplish underneath, deeply toothed 
or sinuated in a lyrate manner, rough with simple, rarely forked, 
rigid hairs ; stem-leaves scattered, smaller, and more entire, 
coarsely and sparingly fringed. Ft. few, corymbose, erect, 
cream-coloured, rather large, their petals upright. Cal. smooth, 
reddish, scarcely if at all spreading. Pods slender, erect, straight, 
smooth, slightly corrugated, on short smooth stalks, of which 
some of the lowermost are accompanied by small Vmear leaves, 
looking like hracteas, but not properly such. 

3. A. hispida. Alpine Rock-cress. 

Radical leaves lyrate or hastate, smooth or bristly, tufted ; 
stem-leaves lanceolate, entire, scattered, mostly smooth. 
Petals spreading. Root branched at the crown. 

A. hispida. Linn. Suppl. 298. WiUd. Sp. PL v. 3. 538. FL Br. 7 1 3. 
Comp. ed. 4.113. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 1 06. Hook. Scot. 1 99. 

A. petrsea, a, /3, y. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 229, 230. • 

A. thaliana. Crantz Austr.fasc. 1.41. t.3.f.2. 

A. crantziana. Ehrh. Herb. 78. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 535. 

Sisymbrium arenosum. Linn. FL Suec. ed. 2. 233; not of Sp. PL 

Cardamine petraa. Huds. 293. With. 577. Light/. 347. t. 15. 
/. 2. Jacq. Ejium. 120 ; from the author. Host Syn. 367. 

C. petreea cambrica, nasturtii facie. DHL Elth. 70. <. 61./. 71. 

C. hastulata. EngL Bot. v. 7. f. 469. FL Dan. L 1462. 

Nasturtium petrasum Johnsoni. Raii Syn,^ ed. 2. 174. ed. 3. 300. 
Pluk. Jlmag. 26 1 . PhyL t.\0l.f.3; very bad. 

Welsh Rock Cress. Peliv. H. Brit. t. 50. f. 3. 

On lofty alpine rocks of Wales and Scotland, in moist places. 

First observed in various parts of North Wales, by Mr. Lhwyd, 
before 1696. Ray. Gathered in Scotland, by Mr. Lindesay, in 
1728. 

Perennial. Jidy. 

^Root tapering, running deep into the ground, subdivided and 
tufted at the crown, not at all creeping. Stem one, or more, 3 
or 4 inches high, erect or ascending, simple or slightly branched, 
round, leafy, frequently quite smooth, sometimes rough towards 
the base, with simple spreading hairs. Radical leaves numerous, 
about half an inch long, composing several lax tufts, slightly suc- 
culentj deep green, sometimes nearly or quite smooth, but most 

p2 



212 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Arabis. 

frequently rough, especially on the upper side, with short, spread- 
ing, cloven or 3-forked bristly hairs ; their outline more or less 
perfectly lyrate, sometimes merely hastate, rarely only obovate 
and slightly pinnatifid, always tapering at the base into a slender 
footstalk, longer than the leaf. Stem-leaves scattered, lanceo- 
late, or elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, mostly quite entire and 
smooth, sometimes hairy; the lower ones having now and then 
a lateral notch, and more or less of a footstalk. Fl. in terminal, 
solitary, erect, lax, corymbose, veiy smooth clusters, much elon- 
, gated, and somewhat wavy, after flowering. Cal. smooth, 
slightly spreading, membranous at the margin. Pet. twice as 
long, pale purple, or white, with a horizontal, obovate, entire 
border. Pods spreading, smooth, linear, tipped with the capi- 
-tate, somewhat elevated, stigma-, their valves separating at the 
top and bottom, slightly recurved at each end, but not revolute ; 
in Ehrhart's specimen they have a slender, not very prominent 
keel, which may also be perceived in some of my British ones, 
though not so far advanced. Seeds disposed in a simple row. 
The suggestions of my learned friend DeCandolle have induced me 
to be very particular in my description, and to examine carefully 
how far the real Linnaean Cardamine petrcea differs from our plant. 
In theflowers and pods I can find no discriminating character, but 
the leaves of that Cardamine, to which Linnaeus has misapplied 
synonyms of our Arabis, are truly, as he defines them, " oblong 
and toothed," at least the radical ones ; being rather linear-lan- 
ceolate, or partly obovate, with numerous, regular, equal, blunt, 
prominent teeth, and by no means approaching to a lyrate, much 
less a hastate, form; the stem-leaves are linear and entire; 
every part of the plant is perfectly smooth, and seems of a lighter 
green. Such is the original Swedish specimen, above 6 inches 
high, with which f.386 of F/. Dan., though not particularly good, 
appears to agree tolerably well. I have another wild Swedish 
specimen of a smaller size, about 3 inches high, of which all the 
leaves are obovate and nearly entire. 
The plate of Dillenius in Hort. Elth. is excellent. That of Loesel, 
Fl. Pruss. t. 13, represents the true Sisymbrium arenosum. The 
leaves in Crantz's figure, as well as in Ehrhart's specimen, are 
not so deeply sinuated as in my numerous British ones, but their 
notches are not like the teeth of Cardamine petrcea. 

4. A. ciliata. Fringed Rock-cress. 

Leaves somewhat toothed, smooth on both sides, distantly 
fringed and bearded ; radical ones obovate. Stem simple. 

A. ciliata. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 1 07. Comp. ed. 4. 1 13. Hook. 

Scot 200. DeCand. Sy St. V 2.225. 
Turritis ciliata. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 544. Schleich. Cat. 59. 
T. alpina. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 13. 502. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3.545. 

Sm. in Rees'sCycl.v.36. n.9. Engl. Bot. v. 25. 1. 1746. 
T. hirsutBe varietas. Linn. Fl. Suec. ed. 2.236. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Arabis. 213 

Tourrete ciliee. Reynier Mem. de la Suisse, u. 1. 171. 

On cliffs near the sea, but rare. 

By the sea side at Rinvillej Cunnamara, in the west of Ireland. 
Mr. J. T. Mackay. 

Biennial. July, August. 

Root simple, tapering. Stem generally solitary, from 2 to 4 inches, 
and when cultivated near a foot in height, erect, quite simple, 
leafy, round, smooth. Radical leaves several, in one simple 
tuft, various in size, obovate, often reddish j tapering at the 
base ; those of the stem alternate, sessile, or half-clasping, ellip- 
tic-oblong ; all somewhat glaucous, quite smooth on both sides, 
more or less evidently toothed, fringed with simple or forked, 
scattered, spreading, bristly hairs ; some of which are often 
crowded into a small tuft or beard at the tips of the leaves, whilst 
others form a more regular fringe upon the taper bases, or foot- 
stalks, of the radical ones. Fl. in a simple, terminal, upright, 
smooth, corymbose cluster. Cal. tawny, with a white edge. 
Pet. twice its length, pure white, almost erect. Pods upright, 
slender, each tipped with the simple, obtuse stigma, supported 
by a very short, conical style ,• their valves undulated, striated, 
and slightly keeled. 

5. K. hirsuta. Hairy Wall-cress. 

Leaves toothed and bristly. Stem rough, with simple 
spreading hairs. Pods quite erect, with slightly keeled 
valves. 

A. hirsuta. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. v. 4. 107. Camp. ed. 4.114. Hook. 

Scot. 200. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 223. Scop. Carn. v. 2. 30. 
Turritis hirsuta. Linn. Sp. PI. 930. Willd. v. 3. 543. Fl.Br.7l6. 

Engl. Bot. V. 9. t. 587. Jacq. Coll. v. 1. 70. 7c. Rar. t. 126. 

Ft. Dan. t. 1040. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 9. 8. 
T. n. 456. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 198. 
T. muralis minor. Raii Sijn. 294. 
Erysimum minimum annuum hirsutum. Moris.v. 2. 219. sect. 3. /. 3. 

Erysirao similis hirsuta non laciniata alba. Bauh. Pin. \0l. Prodr. 

42. f 
Barbarsea muralis. Bauh. Hist. v. 2.869. 
Daisy Tower Mustard. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 47. f 12. 

On old walls, stony banks, or rocks. 

In the north and west of England. Ray. Sussex. Doody. In Swi- 
tham bottom, near Croydon. Huds. On the walls of Lakenham 
church-yard, near Norwich. Mr. Crowe. Near Bury. Mr. Mat- 
thew. Upon rocks in Scotland. Dickson. Frequent on dry 
rocks in Scotland. Hooker. 

Perennial. May. 

Root strong and woody. Stems several, about a foot high, up- 



214 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Arabis. 

right, leafy, clothed with thick-set, spreading, or partly deflexed 
hairs ; branched, and less hairy, at the top. Leaves bluntish, 
. variously toothed, more or less rough with short, bristly, simple 
or forked, prominent hairs ; the radical ones largest, obovate, 
tapering at the base ; stem-leaves numerous, sessile, ovate-ob- 
long. Fl. small, white. Cal. smooth, purplish. Pet. mode- 
rately spreading. Stigma sessile. PocZsforming very long, close, 
smooth clusters, erect, slender, smooth ; valves with a slight 
keel half way up, undulated from the alternate projection of the 
seeds, which are in a single row, not a double one like Turriiis. 
This last character, confirmed by a similitude of habit, is admi- 
rably chosen by Mr. Brown to define the genus Jrabis, in con- 
tradistinction to Turritis, whose much more numerous seeds are 
disposed in double rows. 

C. A. Turrita. Tower Wall-cress. 

Leaves toothed, clasping the stem. Flower-stalks the length 
of the calyx, each with a leafy bractea. Pods linear, flat, 
thick-edged, recurved in one direction. 

A. Turrita. Lmw. Sp. PZ. 930. Willd.v.Z.b^X. Fl.Br.7l4. Engl. 

Bot.v.3.t.l78. Sibth.205. Hook.Lond.t.l76. Scot.200. Jacq. 

Enum. 118. Austr. t.U. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 235. 
A. umbrosa. Crantz Au str. fa sc. 1.43; not41, as in Jacq., nor 39, 

as in DeCand. after Willdenow, nor t. 3.f. 2, as in the latter. 
Leucojum n.444. Hall. Hist. v. I. 193; but not Fl. Dan. t. 62. 
Turrita major Plateau. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 126. f. 
Turritis major. Ger.Em.272.f. 
Hesperidi alpinae muriariseve similis surrecta et magna. Bauh. 

Hist. V. 2. 881. f. 
Brassica sylvestris, albido flore, nutante siliqua. Bocc. Mus. 81. 

t.72. Barrel, let. 353. 
Great Tower Mustard. Petiv. H. Brit. t. \7.f. 1 1 . 

On old walls, very rare. 

On the walls of Trinity and St. John's colleges, Cambridge. Prof. 
Martyn. On Magdalen college walls, Oxford. Sibth. On the 
castle of Cliesh, Kinross-shire ; Mr. Arnott. Hook. 

Biennial. May. 

Root tapering, simple. Herb light green, more or less densely 
downy all over with fine, short, soft, starry hairs. Stem a foot 
or more in height, simple, erect, leafy. Leaves obovate, broad, 
toothed, rather acute, but not pointed ; the radical ones taper- 
ing downward into footstalks ; the rest heart-shaped at the base, 
clasping the stem ; the uppermost gradually diminished into ob- 
long bracteas, each accompanying one of the short Jlower-stalks. 
Cluster corymbose, nearly or quite simple. VI. pale sulphur- 
coloured. Pet. with a spreading border. Glands 2 at the inside 
of the shorter stamen!?, and 2 at the outside of the longer. Style 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Tunitis. 215 

veiy short, with a small, not dilated, stigma. Pods very long, 
flat, striated, thickened at the edges, curved downwards as they 
ripen, chiefly towards one side ; their valves slightly undulated, 
not at all keeled. 
All the difficulty about the genus of this plant, mentioned in E7igl. 
hot. is now happily removed on Mr. Brown's principles. Its 
glands indeed " are those of a Brassica," but the flat accumbent 
cotyledons, and simple row of seeds, settle the point. The habit 
confirms the generic characters, which are altogether those of an 
Arabis. A. pendula, confounded by Haller with this species, is 
perfectly distinct. 

341. TURRITIS. Tower-inustard. 

Linn. Gen. 341. Juss. 238. Ft. Br. 7 la. Comp. ed. 4. 108. Br. in 
Ait. H. Kew. v.4. 108. DeCand. Syst. w. 2. 21 1. Gcertn. t. 143. 
Arabis. Lam. t. 563. /. 4. 

Cal. erect; leaves oblong, converging, deciduous; 2 opposite 
ones very slightly protuberant at the base. Pet. obovate- 
oblong, undivided, erect, not twice the length of the ca- 
lyx. Filani. thread-shaped, simple, erect, unconnected. 
Anth. oblong, incumbent. Germ, linear, the length of 
the petals. Style very short. Stigma obtuse, simple. Pod 
linear, compressed, very long and slender, crowned with 
the permanent stigma; valves straight, flat, each with a 
prominent keel, and quite as long as the linear membra- 
nous partition. Seeds very numerous, disposed in a 
double row in each cell, crowded, obliquely pendulous, 
ovate, compressed, slightly bordered; cotyledons flat, 
accumbent. 

Upright herbs, partly rough, nearly agreeing in habit with 
the last genus ; nor could any satisfactory mark of dis- 
tinction between Arabis and Turritis be discovered, till 
Mr. Brown adverted to the double rows of seeds in the 
latter, which afford a very peculiar character. Some of 
his species are thrown out by M. DeCandolIe, but they 
do not concern the Flora of Britain. 

1. ^.glabra. Smooth Tower-mustard. 

Radical leaves toothed, rough ; the rest entire, clasping the 
stem, smooth, 

T. glabra. Linn.Sp.Pl.^^iO. mild. v. 3.542. Fl.Br.7\5. Engl. 

bat. v.W.i. 777. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 47. Hook. Scot. 200. 

DeCand. Syst. u. 2. 2 1 1 . Fl. Dan. t. 809. Ehrh. Herb. 1 49. 
T. n.4.55. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 198. 
Turritis. Baii Stjn. 293. Ger. Em. 272. f. Lob. Tc. 220. f. 



216 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Brassica. 

Tunita vulgatior. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 126./. 

Sinapi album. Dalech. Hist. 1168./. 

Brassica silvestris foliis circa radicem cichoraceis asperis, caulibus 

autem adhaerentibus planis sen glabris. Moris, v. 2. 210. sect. 3. 

t. 2. f. 22. 
Tower Mustard. Petic. H. Brit. t. 47./. 10. 

On banks and by road sides, in a dry gravelly soil. 

In many parts of Norfolk, as well as other counties. Rare in 
Scotland. 

Annual. May, Juyie. 

Root tapering. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, erect, wand-like, simple, 
smooth, except at the bottom, round, leafy. Radical leaves nu- 
merous, spreading, toothed, or sinuated, so as to be almost ly- 
rate, rough on both sides with rigid, forked or simple, hairs ; 
stem-leaves numerous, upright, oblong-arrow-shaped, entire, 
glaucous, quite smooth, clasping the stem, but not perfoliate as 
some writers have denominated them. JF7. numerous, closely 
corymbose, pale sulphur-coloured. Pods very long and slender, 
smooth and even, erect, close to the stem, on short stalks. 
Seeds about 60 in each cell, very small. 

342. BRASSICA. Cabbage, Turnip, &c. 

Linn. Gen. 342. Juss. 238. Fl.Br.7\7. Cotnp. ed. 4. 108. Br. in 
^it.H.Ketv.v. 4. 123. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 582. Tourn.t. \06. 
Lam. t. 565. Gcertn. t. 143. 

Rapa. Tourn. t. 1 13. 

Cal. equally protuberant at the base ; leaves oblong, con- 
cave, converging in their lower part, spreading in the 
upper, deciduous. Pet. obovate, spreading, undivided; 
their claws erect, channelled. Filam. awl-shaped, simple, 
erect. Anth. oblong, nearly erect, a little recurved. 
Glands 4 ; 2 at the inside of the shorter filaments, 2 at 
the outside of the longer. Germ, cylindrical, the length 
of the longest stamens. Sti/lc tapering, making a beak to 
the pod. &z^OTa capitate, entire. Porf nearly cylindrical, 
beaked, of 2. concave valves, and 2 longitudinal cells, 
besides 1 in the beak, whicli is often barren. Seeds in a 
single row, nearly globular, with one or more occasion- 
ally in the beak ; cotyledons folded, incumbent, their dou- 
bled edges meeting; the radicle. 

A numerous genus, for the most part biennial ; the stem, or 
body of the root, occasionally very fleshy. Leaves some- 
what succulent, smooth or rough ; the radical ones 
mostly stalked, lyrate, or pinnalifid; upper more simple 
or entire, clasping at the base. Fl. in long clusters, 
vellow, rarely white. 

* ■^ » 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Brassica. 217 

1. B. N^apus. Rape, or Cole-seed. 

Root spindle-shaped. Leaves smooth ; upper ones lanceo- 
late, heart-shaped at then* base, clasping the stem ; lower 
ones lyrate, toothed. 

B. NapuR. Z,in«.Sp.P/. 931. Willd.v.3. 547. Fl.Br.7\9. Engl. 

Bot. V. 30. ^.2146. Mart. Rust. t. 103. Hook. Scot. 203. De- 

Cand. Syst. i'. 2. 592. 
B. sylvestris. Dod. Pempt. 626. f. ? Ger. Em. 316./. ? 
Napus sylvestris. Bauh. Pin. 95. Bauh. Hist. v. 2, 843./. Moris. 

V. 2. 214. sect. 3. t. 2./. 2 ; but not of Ray. 
N. Bunias sylvestris. Fuchs. Hist, \77.f. 
Bunias sylvestris. Lob. Ic. 200. f. Ger. Em. 235. f. 
Rapum sylvestre non bulbosum. Lob. Adv. 66 ? Raii Syn. 295, 

obs. ? 
/3. Napus. Trag. Hist. 730./. Matth. Vcdgr. v. 1.398. f. Camer. 

Epit. 222./ Dod. Pempt. 674./ 
N. salivus. Dalech. Hist. 644. f. Moris.v.2.2l4. sect.3.t.2.f.\. 
N. Bunias sativus. Fuchs. Hist. 176./ 
Bunias. Ger. £m. 235./ Lob. Ic. 200. f. 

In corn fields, waste ground, and on ditch banl<s. 

Biennial. May. 

Root spindle-shaped, more or less tumid under the crown, and in 
the variety |3 considerably large and fleshy, either white or yel- 
lowish, more used in French cookery than with us. Stem erect, 
branched, spreading, leafy, striated, 1^ or 2 feet high. Leaves 
all smooth, most glaucous beneath ; radical ones lyrate, usually 
disappearing before the plant blossoms ; those of the stem nu- 
merous, the uppermost lanceolate and entire, lower ones gra- 
dually broader, blunter, and more toothed, as they approach the 
root, but all clasping, dilated and rounded at their insertion. 
Fl. bright yellow, smaller than in the following species. Cal. 
somewhat coloured ; the upper half spreading. Pods on slender 
spreading stalks, at length often deflexed, round, with a beaded 
appearance from the projection of the seeds; the beak angular, 
barren. 

Cultivated in England chiefly for the sake of the abundant ex- 
pressed oil of the seeds, the cake which remains serving for ma- 
nure. 

2. B. Rapa. Common Turnip. 

Root stem-like, fleshy, orbicular, depressed. Radical leaves 

lyrate, rough ; those of the stem smooth ; the uppermost 

entire. 
B. Rapa. Linn.Sp.Pl.93\. Willd. v. 3. 548. Fl.Br.720. Engl. 

Bot.v.3\.t.2\76. Mart. Rust. t. 49,50. Hook. Scot. 203. De- 

Cand. Syst. v. 2. 590. 



218 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Brassica. 

Rapa sativa rotunda. Bauh. Pin. 8^. Rail Syn. 294. Moris, v. 2. 

213. sect. 3. t.2.f. 1. 
Rapum. Trag. Hist. 728./. Dod. Pempt. 673./. Camer. Epit. 

218./ 
R. sativum. Fuchs. Hist. 212. f. 
R. rotundum. Matth. Falgr. v. \. 394. f. 
R. majus. Ger. Em. 232./ 
Round Turnep. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 45. f. 7. 
/3. Rapa sativa oblonga,seu fixmina. Bauh. Pin. 90. Rail Syn. 294. 

Moris. V. 2. 213. sect. 3. t. 2./ 2. 
Rapum longum. Matth. Valgr.v. 1. 395./ Camer. Epit.2\9.f. 
R. radice oblonga. Ger. Em. 232. f. 
Long Turnep. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 45./ 8. 

In cultivated fields and their borders, more or less completely na- 
turalized. 

Biennial. April. 

Root orbicular, mostly depressed, in /3 oblong ; always succulent, 
white, or tinged with purple, varying greatly in size according 
to the soil ; tapering and fibrous at the base. Stem erect, 2 feet 
high, branched, leafy, round, very smooth. Radical leaves abun- 
dant the first season, withering as the stem arises, lyrate, jagged, 
large, dark green, veiny, rough with small sharp bristly hairs ; 
those on the lower part of the stem more simple, smoother, 
clasping at the base ; upper ones small, glaucous, quite smooth 
and entire. Fl. yellow, larger than the preceding, in numerous 
corymbose tufts. Cal. spreading considerably in the upper part, 
though not at the base. Pet. rounded. Pod cylindrical, veiny, 
smooth, with a tapering barren beak. 

The Swedish Turnip, not wild in Britain, is surely a distinct spe- 
cies from this and the following, as Mr. Knight has proved it to 
be from B. oleracea. Both these turnips are well known for their 
agricultural uses, and are acceptable at table, if not grown in a 
rank or manured soil. 

3. B. campestris. Common Wild Navew. 

Root tapering. Radical leaves lyrate, rough; stem- leaves 
smooth, clasping, oblong, partly pinnatifid ; all somewhat 
glaucous. 

B. campestris. Linn. Sp. PL 931. mild. v. 3. 546. Fl. Br. 718. 

Engl. Bot. v. 32. t. 2234. Hook. Scot. 203. DeCand. Syst. r. 2, 

588. A. Scholl. Barb. 153. 
Napus sylvestris. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 167. ed. 3. 295 ; but not of 

Bauhin or Morison. 
Wild Navew. Petiv. H. Brit. L45.f.9; copied from Lobel's cut of 

B. Napus. 

In corn fields and about the banks of ditches. Ray. 

Abundant by the sides of rivers, marsh ditches, &c. Mr. E. Forsfer. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Brassica. 219 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering. Stem erects 2 feet high, leafy, branched, glaucous ; 
rough in the lower part with small, bulbous, spreading bristles ; 
smooth upwards. Radical leaves lyrate, toothed and jagged, 
rather glaucous, rough all over with minute bristly hairs ; those 
of the stern dhlong, clasping at the base, the uppermost heart- 
shaped, pointed, glaucous and entire. Fl. yellow, corymbose, al- 
most as large as those of the Turnip. Cal. spreading, except at the 
bottom. Pods on longish stalks, ascending, light brown, smooth, 
li inch long, nearly cylindrical ; valves keeled, ribbed, veiny; 
beak one-third of an inch in length, barren, tapering, furrowed, 
tipped with the blunt permanent stigma. Seeds brown, globose. 

Most botanists, both British and foreign, have found a difficulty in 
distinguishing this plant from B. Napus, and the confusion of 
their synonyms is inextricable. B. campestris is perhaps the most 
certainly wild of all our three species now described, nor can 
there be a doubt concerning it, if the plate in Engl. Bot. and the 
above description be attended to. Hudson mistook for this a 
yellow variety of our Erysimum orientate, which is figured for it 
in Fl. Dan. t. 550. The synonyms of Fuchsius and J. Bauhin, 
cited with doubt in Fl. Br., possibly belong to B. Napus. 

4. B. oleracea. Sea Cabbage. 

Root stem -like, cylindrical, fleshy. Leaves glaucous, waved, 
lobed, partly lyrate, all perfectly smooth. Pod without a 
beak. 

B. oleracea. Linn. Sp. PI. 932 a. fVilld.v.3.548. Fl.Br.720. 

Engl. Bot. V. 9. t. 637. Hook. Scot. 203. Freeman Ic. t.4,5. 

Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 17. 14. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 583 A. 
B. maritima arborea, seu procerior, ramosa. Raii Syn. 293. Mo- 

ris.v. 2. 208. n.\5. 
Sea Colewort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 45./. 6 ; but with a wrong figure^ 

probably belonging to B. Napus; originating with Fuchsius, 

Hist. 415, and copied by Dodonseus, Gerarde, Morison and 

others, under the name of Brassica sylvestris. 

On cliffs near the sea. 

On Dover cliffs, and in similar places. Ray. On the Welsh and 
Cornish coasts. Hudson. At Staiths, Yorkshire, abundantly. 
Mr. E. Robson. At King's Cove, Devonshire. Mr. Sowerby. 

Biennial. May, June. 

Root raised above the ground in the form of astern, a foot or more 
in height, cylindrical, leafy about the top, scarred below. Leaves 
glaucous, rather fleshy, very smooth ; the lower ones large, ly- 
rate, waved and sinuated ; upper oblong, obtuse, undivided, 
toothed, or nearly entire. Fl. in longish corymbose clusters, 
bright lemon-coloured, larger than any of the preceding species. 
Calyx-leaves a little spreading, but straight,, close at the bottom. 



220 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Sinapis. 

very smooth. Pods cylindrical, smooth, veiny, without a beak, 
crowned with the almost sessile stigma. Seeds large, globose. 
From this plant our field and garden Cabbages, with their nume- 
rous varieties, have originated. 

5. B. monensis. Isle of Man Cabbage. 

Leaves glaucous, deeply pinnatifid, nearly smooth ; lobes 
oblong, unequally toothed. Stem simple, smooth. Pods 
quadrangular ; beak lodging two or three seeds. 

B. monensis. Huds.2^\. rVith.593. Comp. ed. 4. 114. Br.inAit. 
_ H. Kew. V. 4. 124. Hook. Scot. 203. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 599. 

Sisymbrium monense. Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1 . 658. Fl. Br. 704. Engl. 
Bot. V. 14. t. 962, Lightf. 353. t.\5.f.\. Davies Botanol. 64. 
Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 1 7. 13. Lam. t.565.f. 2. 

Eruca monensis laciniata lutea. Raii Syn. 297. 

E. monensis laciniata, flore luteo majore. Dill. Elth. 135. <. 1 1 1 . 
/. 135. 

Man Rocket. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 46./. 7. 

On the sandy sea coast, but not frequent. 

In the Isle of Man, between the landing place at Ramsey and the 
town, plentifully J also on the coast of Cumberland, and in Wal- 
ney island. Ray. In Anglesea. Dill. Near Abermeney ferry, 
Anglesea, but now very scarce. Rev. H. Davies. On the shore 
of the Mersey, near Liverpool. Mr. Robert Roscoe. In the isles 
of Bute and Arran, and several parts of the western coast of 
Scotland. Lightf. Between Dundee and Forfar. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root tapering, very long, woody, divided at the crown. Stems so- 
litary from each division of the root, ascending, leafy, round, 
smooth, generally quite simple, 6 or 8 inches high, but when very 
luxuriant much taller, and sometimes branched. Leaves glau- 
cous, somewhat lyrate, mostly radical, very deeply pinnatifid and 
jagged, their lobes extremely various in width, mostly acute, 
sometimes blunt j they are rather fleshy, rarely a little hairy. Fl. 
corymbose, bright lemon-coloured, veined with purple, as large 
as the last. Cal. converging, hairy at the summit. Pods nearly 
upright, large, smooth, veiny, quadrangular ; beak almost half 
their length, tapering, ribbed, tipped with the small stigma, and 

■ containing the rudiments of 3 seeds, all which frequently come 
to perfection. The seeds are numerous in each proper cell of the 
pod. The herb when bruised has a pungent fetid scent. 

Sisymbrium monense of the 2d edition of Linn. Sp. PL is Diplotaxis 
saxatilis of DeCand. Sysf. v. 2. 636, and is said by the latter to 
be intermediate between that new genus and Brassica. 

343. SINAPIS. Mustard. 

Linn. Gen.342. Juss. 233. Fl.Br.72l. Comp. ed. 4.109. Br. in 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Sinapis. 221 

Ait. H. Kew. V. 4. 125. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 607. Lam. t. 566. 
Gi;Ertn. t. 143. 
Sinapi. Tourn. t.l\2. 

Cal. equal, and nearly flat, at the base; leaves oblong, 
straight, spreading almost horizontally from the very 
bottom, deciduous. Pet. obovate, rounded, entire, or 
slightly notched, spreading; claws linear, erect. Filam. 
awl-shaped, simple, erect. AntJi. oblong, slightly spread- 
ing. Glands 4 ; 2 at the inside of the shorter filaments, 
2 at the outside of the longer. Germ, cylindrical, taper- 
ing into a very short stijle. Stigma capitate, rather small. 
Pod nearly cylindrical, variously beaked, of 2 concave 
undulated valves, and 2 longitudinal cells, besides 1 for 
the most part in the beak, generally barren. Seeds in a 
single row, nearly globular, with 1 occasionally in the 
beak ; cotyledons folded, incumbent, their doubled edges 
meeting the radicle. 

Upright, branching, annual or biennial herbs^ often hairy or 
bristly. Leaves lyrate, or deeply cut, or toothed. Fl. 
yellow, in corymbose clusters. Seeds acrid. The beak 
of the pod, in some, is little else than a permanent unal- 
tered style. The seeds in those species which constitute 
DeCandolle's Diplotaxis are partially and very imper- 
fectly two-ranked, and their calyx spreads much less than 
it ought to do, this being the chief mai'k of difference 
between Sinapis and Brassica. 

1. S. arvensis. Wild Mustard. Charlock. 

Pods with many angles, rugged, longer than their own awl- 
shaped beak. Leaves toothed ; partly lyrate, or hastate. 

S. arvensis. Linn. Sp. PI. 933. fVilld. v. 3. 554. FL Br. /21. 

Engl. Bot. V. 25. t. 1748. Curt. Loud. fasc. 5. t. 47. Hook. 

Scot. 204. DeCand. Syst. r. 2. 615. 
Sinapi n. 467. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 203. 
Rapistrum arvorum. Rail Syn. 295. Ger. Em. 233./. Lob. Ic. 

198. f. 
R. flora luteo. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 844./. 
Irion. Fuchs. Hist. 257 . f. Ic. 143. f. 
Lampsana vera. Dalech. Hist. 542. f. 

In corn fields, a very troublesome weed ; abundant in waste ground 
newly disturbed. 

Annual. May. 

Root small, tapering, rigid, sometimes a little tuberous, but not 
caulescent. Stem leafy, striated, often purplish, rough with 
sharp reflexed bristles. Leaves stalked, rough, variously toothed j 



222 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Sinapis. 

partly ovate, partly lyrate or hastate ; the uppermost sessile. 
Calyx-leaves linear-oblong, quite horizontal, pale, or yellowish. 
Pel. obovate, or inversely heart-shaped, bright yellow, turning 
white in decay. Pods angular, rough with reflexed bristles, and 
each terminating in a smoother, awl-shaped, furrowed beak, not 
half so long as the pod itself, compressed at the base. Seeds 
brown, serving as an inferior sort of Mustard, or rather to adul- 
terate that made of <S. nigra. 

2. S. cMa. White Mustard. 

Pods bristly, rugged, spreading, shorter tlian their own flat 
two-edged beak. Leaves lyrate. 

S. alba. Limi. Sp. PL 933. M'illd. v. 3. 555. Fl. Br. 72 1 . Engl. 

Bot. V. 24. t. 1 fi77. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 46. Mart. Rust. t. 70. 

Hook. Scot. 204. DeCand. Sijsl. v. 2. 620. Fl. Dan. t. 1 393. 
Sinapi n. 466. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 203. 
S. album, siliqiia hirsuta, semine albo vel ruffo. Raii Syn. 295. 

Bauh. Hist. V. 2. 853./. 
S. album. Ger. Em. 244./. 
S. primum genus. Fuchs. Hisf.53S.f. 
S. hovtense. Fuchs. Ic. 307. f. 

S. secundum. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 515. f. Camer. Epit. 333. f. 
White Mustard. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 45./. 10. 

In cultivated as well as waste ground, by road sides, &c. 

Annual. June. 

Root tapering, small. Stem rough like the last, but with more 
slender reflexed hairs. Leaves bright green, almost all lyrate, 
toothed, roughish. Fl. numerous, yellow. Calyx- leavcslmear, 
green, horizontal. Pods spreading, on nearly horizontal stalks, 
short, two-edged, very tumid from the prominent seeds, rough 

. with numerous, minute, reflexed bristles, interspersed with se- 
veral larger, more spreading, or upright ones ; beak longer than 
the pod, bristly, but more sparingly, curved upwards, sword- 
shaped, striated, terminated by the short, compressed style and 

■ cloven stigma. Seeds rather few, large, pale yellowish brown, 
well known as a delicate kind of Mustard. The late Mr. G. Don 
observed them occasionally to assume a blackish hue. 

The young herb is used in salads, for which purpose chiefly it is 
cultivated. 

3. S. nigra. Common Mu.stard. 

Pods quadrangular, smooth, slightly beaked, close-pressed 
to the stalk. Lower leaves lyrate ; upper linear-lanceo- 
late, entire, smooth. 

S. nigra. Linn. Sp. PL 933. Willd. v. 3. 555. H. Br. 722. EngL 
BoL V. 14. L 969. Woodv. t. 151. MarL RusL /. 51. Hook. 
: Scot. 204. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 608. FL Dnn. t. 1 582. 



I 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Sinapis. 223 

Sinapi n. 465. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 202. 

S. sativum secundum. Rati Syn. 295. Ger. Em. 244; description 

only. 
S. sativum primum. Ger. Em. 244,/. Dod. Pempt. 706. f. 
S. siliqua latiuscula glabra semine ruffo, sive vulgare. Bauh. Hist. 

V.2. 855./; good. 
S. primum. Matth. Valgr. v.\.b\ 4. /. Camer. Epit. 332. /. 
S. rapse folio. Moris, v. 2. 215. sect. 3. t. 3./. 1. 
Common Mustard. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 45. f. 11. 

In fields, waste ground, and on banks by road sides. 

Annual. June, July. 

A taller plant, vvith round smooth branches, more spreading than 
either of the foregoing. Lower leaves large, lyrate, rough, va- 
riously lobed and toothed ; upper' ones stalked, smooth, narrow, 
entire, spreading or dependent. Fl. smaller than in the two 
former. Cal. yellowish, widely spreading, but not quite hori- 
zontal. Pet. obovate. Pods snlall, obtusely quadrangular, 
nearly even, and smooth, tipped with the permanent, quadran- 
gular, somewhat elongated, style, a.nA capitate stigma; but want- 
ing the proper, often seed-bearing, beak of this genus, though 
the style finally becomes tumid at the base. Seeds several, 
brown, sufficiently known for their domestic use,-and stimulating 
medical properties. 

All the figures of the old authors, J. Bauhin's excepted, are copies 
of Matthiolus, and are all defective, as wanting the narrow, en- 
tire, more or less pendulous, upper leaves, so characteristic of 
the present species. 

4. S. tenuvfol'ia. Narrow-leaved Wall Mustard. 

Pods erect, on sjn'eading stalks, linear, compressed, slightly 
beaked. Seeds two-ranked. Leaves once or twice pin- 
natifid; the uppermost undivided. Stem smooth. 

5. tenuifolia. Br. in Jit. H. Kew. v. 4. 128. Comp. ed. 4. 114. 
Hook. Scot. 204. ' 

Diplotaxis tenuifolia. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 632. Grev. Edin. \47. 
Sisymbrium tenuifolium. Linn. Sp. PL 917. Willd. v. 3. 493. Fl. 

Br. 703. Engl. Bot.v.S.t. 525. Bull. Fr. t. 335. 
Brassica muralis. Huds. 290. With. 592. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 38. 
B. Erucastrum. Huds. ed. 1 . 253. 
Eruca n. 46 1 . Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 200. 
E. sylvestris. RaiiSyn.296. Dod. Pempt.708.f. Ger. Em.246.f. 

Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 484./. Camer. Epit. 307. f. 
E. sativa. Fachs. Hist. 262. f. 

E. tenuifolia perennis, flore luteo. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 861./. 
Wall Rocket. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 46. f. 8. 

On old walls, and heaps of rubbish. 



§24 TETRADYNAMIA—SILIQUOSA. Sinapis. 

About London, Westminster, Windsor, Chester, Bristol,Yarmouth, 
and other old towns. 

Perennial. June — October. 

Root tapering, rather woody. Herb for the most part entirely- 
smooth, and more or less glaucous all over, fetid when bruised. 
Stem bushy, erect, li or 2 feet high, with numerous round leafy 
branches, occasionally besprinkled with a few hairs. Leaves 
scattered, a little fleshy, of a glaucous green, very smooth, irre- 
gularly lobed and cut ; the lower ones stalked, once or twice 
pinnatifid ; uppermost lanceolate, undivided, and sessile ; the 
margins of all entire, or sparingly notched. Fl. large and hand- 
some, but unpleasantly scented, light lemon-coloured. Cal. 
spreading considerably from the very base, but not horizontally, 
the tips mostly hairy. Fods an inch or more in length, linear, 
smooth, compressed, erect, on spreading stalks almost as long j 
valves undulated, slightly keeled, veiny ; beak none, except the 
rather short, tapering, angular, furrowed style, not so tumid at 
the base as even the last, and destitute of any cell, or rudiment 
of a seed. Seeds in the proper cells of the pod numerous, round, 
disposed so as to form two, more or less complete, rows in each 
cell. On this last character Prof DeCandolle principally founds 
his genus Diplotaxis and its name. The want of a distinct 
seed-bearing beak to the pod, in some instances, is likewise 
noted. But the foregoing species, a genuine Sinapis, has scarcely 
more of a beak than any of them. The learned author candidly 
allows also that the double row of seeds is by no means constant, 
or without exception ; and indeed their arrangement is at all 
times far less decided than in Turritis, where there can be no 
question about the matter. 

5. S. muralis. Sand Mustard. 

Pods ascending, on spreading stalks, linear, compressed, 
slightly beaked. Seeds two-ranked. Leaves sinuated. 
Stem roughish with reflexed bristles. 

S. muralis. Br. in Ait. H. Keio. v. 4. 128. Comp. ed. 4. 1 15. 

Diplotaxis muralis. DeCand. Syst.v.2. 634. 

Sisymbrium murale. Linn. Sp. Fl. 918. Willd. v. 3. 496. Engl. 

Bot.v. 16. t.\090. Fl.Br. 1401. Dicks. Dr. FL \2. 
S. Erucastrum.. Gouan lUustr. 42. t. 20. 
Eruca viminea, iberidis folio, luteo flore. Barrel. let. 131. 
E. minimo flore monspeliensis. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 862./, notdescr. 
E. minima monspessulana, flore luteo, siliqua unciam longa. 

Chabr. Sciagr. 276. f. 
E. monspeliensis, flore minimo luteo. Moris, v. 2. 229. n. 8. sect. 3. 

<.5./.9. 
In sandy barren ground near the sea. 



i 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Raphanus. 225 

Common throughout the isle of Thanet, particularly about Rams- 
gate. Mr. Dillivyn. Below Bristol. Mr. E. Forster. 
Annual. August, September. 

Root tapering, small. Stem branching from the bottom, about a 
span high, spreading, leafy in the lower part, clothed all over 
with reflexed bristly hairs. Leaves usually quite smooth, of a 
lightish green, not glaucous, varying much in form, either 
broadly lanceolate inclining to obovate, or imperfectly lyrate j 
deeply serrated, or unequally sinuated ; always acute, not 
rounded, at the extremity, and tapering at the base into afoot- 
stalk. Fl. lemon-coloured, smaller and paler than the last, in 
dense abrupt coiymbose clusters, greatly elongated after flower- 
ing. Cal. moderately spreading from the bottom, a little hairy. 
Pet. obovate, somewhat spreading. Pods on distant spi'eading . 
stalks of various lengths, much like those of S. teniiifoUa, but 
less decidedly erect, and the seerfs less accurately double-ranked. 
Style and stigma as in that species. The calyx in both spreads 
less than the character of a Sinapis requires. I have Gouan's 
plant from himself. It is not constant enough in the deeper di- 
visions of its leaves to be mai'ked as a variety. 

344. RAPHANUS. Radish. 

Linn. Gen. 343. Juss. 238. Fl. Br. 723. Comp. ed. 4. \09. Br. 
in Jit. H.Kew.v. 4. 129. DeCand. Syst.v. 2. 662. Lam.t.566. 
Raphanistrum. Tourn. t. 1 15. Gcertn. 1. 143. 

Cal. erect ; leaves oblong, parallel, converging, deciduous ; 
2 of them slightly prominent at the base. Pet. obovate, 
or inversely heart-shaped, spreading ; claws linear, erect. 
Filam. awl-shaped, simple, erect. Anth. oblong, a little 
spreading. Glands 4 ; 2 at the inside of the shorter fila- 
ments ; 2 at the outside of the longer. Germ, cylindrical, 
tapering. Style awl-shaped. Stigma capitate, small, en- 
tire. Pod oblong, imperfectly cylindrical, tapering up- 
ward, irregularly tumid, as if more or less jointed, coria- 
ceous, not bursting, of 2 incomplete cells, the membra- 
nous partition often obliterated. Seeds pendulous, glo- 
bose, forming a single row ; cotyledons folded, incum- 
bent, their doubled edges meeting the radicle. 

Upright, branched, spreading, smooth or bristly herbs,' 
their lower leaves lyrate. Fl. large, yellow, white, or 
purplish, often veiny. Pods internally spongy, very va- 
riable as to their jointed appearance, in the same species ; 
so that even Prof. DeCandoIIe preserves the Linnaean 
genus entire, in, opposition to the opinion of Tournefort 
and Gaertner, who founded their genus Raphanistrum on 
the more decidedly jointed pods, breaking transversely, 

VOL. III. o 



226 TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Raphanus. 

in some instances, when ripe. To this both our species 
belong. 

1. ^. Raphanistrum. Wild Radish. Jointed Char- 

lock. 
Pods jointed, striated, of one cell. Leaves lyrate. 

R. Raphanistrum. Linn. Sp. PL 935. Amcen. Acad. v. 6. 448. 

/.451. Willd.v.3.b&0. H. Br. 723. Engl. Bot. v. 12. t.S56. 

Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 46. Mart. Rust. t.7\. Hook. Scot. 204. 

DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 666. 
R. n. 468. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 203. 
R. sylvestris. Ger. Em. 240./. 
Raphanistrum siliqu^ articulate glabrS, majore et minore. Raii 

Syn.296. Moris. v. 2.265. sect. 3. t. 13./. 1, 2. 
Rapistrum flora albo striate. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 651. f. 
R. flore luteo, siliquS glabra articulata. Raii Syn. 296. 
White Charlock. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 46. f. 10. 
Sinapis arvensis. Ft. Dan. t. 678 ! 

In corn fields, a troublesome weed. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering, slender. Herb rough with minute bristles. Stem 
1| or 2 feet high, glaucous, branched, leafy ; its bristles pro- 
minent and pungent. Leaves simply lyrate, bluntly toothed, 
their terminal lobe rounded ; upper ones oblong, or lanceolate, 
acule, undivided, coarsely serrated. Fl. corymbose, numerous, 
larger than in most of our common cruciform plants, either 
stniw-coloured, fading to white, or white from the beginning, 
strongly veined with purple. Cal. a little spreading at the tips 
only, generally bristly. Pads in long clusters, upright, knobbed 
or apparently jointed, smooth, striated lengthwise when ripe, 
terminating in the long, permanent, awl-shaped style, tipped 
with the small stigma. The germen is divided into 2 cells, but 
the partition is obliterated, and confounded in one spongy mass 
as the pod ripens. Seeds large, globular, solitary in each joint. 

The plate in Fl. Dan. could here have been named from a most 
slight inspection only j see Cardamine hirsuta. 

2. R. maritimus. Sea Radish. 

Pods jointed, deeply furrowed, of one cell. Radical leaves 
interruptedly lyrate, serrated. 

R. maritimus. Engl. Bot. v. 23. 1. 1643. Co?np.ed.4, 115. Br.inAit. 

H.Kew.v. 4.129. n.3. Hook. Scot. 204. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 668. 
R. Raphanistrum y. Fl. Br. 723. 
R. maritimus, flore luteo, siliquis articulatis, secundum longitudi- 

nem eminent^r striatis. Raii Syn, 296. 

By the sea-side. Mr. Stonestreet. 



TETRADYNAMIA— SILIQUOSA. Raphanus. 227 

In the isle of Bute and other places. Rev. Dr. Walker, in the year 
1753. On the beach 3 miles from the Mull of Galloway. Mr. 
J. Mackay. In various parts of the coast of Ayrshire, Galloway, 
&c ; Mr. G. Don. Hooker. On rocks near Beachy Head, Sus- 
sex, Mr. D. Turner and Mr. Borrer. 

Biennial. May, June. 

Root large and succulent, sometimes, according to Dr. Walker, 
lasting three years, and preferable to Horse Radish for the table. 
Herb larger than the foregoing. Stems 3 or 4 feet high, rough 
chiefly at the base. Radical, and lower stem-leaves, large, in- 
terruptedly pinnate, more abundantly serrated than in R. Ra- 
phanistrum; upper ones stalked, simple and undivided, serrated 
like the rest. Fl. more yellow, and less veiny, than in that 
species. Pods more strongly and broadly furrowed, as well as 
jointed, destitute of roughness. The synonyms of Morison and 
Petiver, in Fl. Br., are very inapplicable to this species, with 
respect to the root as well as leaves, and I have therefore omitted 
them here. 

Cattle were observed by Dr. Walker to be very fond of the herbage. 



Class XVI. MONADELPHIA. 

Filaments combined; in one set. 

Order I. PENTANDRIA. Stamens 5. 

34.5. ERODIUM. Sti/lel. Fruit heaked, oi 5 aggregate 
capsules, each tipped with a spiral awn, bearded on 
the inside. 

Lysimachia 1. Linum. Gerauium 8. 

Order II. DEC A ND RIA . Stamens \0. 

34-6. GERANIUM. Style 1. Fruit beaked, of 5 aggre- 
gate capsules, each tipped with a recurved naked 

awn. 

Oxalis. Spartium. Genista. Anthyllis. Ulex. Ononis. 

Order III. POLYANDRIA. Stamens nu- 
merous. 

349. LAVATERA. Styles numerous. Outer Calyx 3- 
lobed. Capsules whorled, single-seeded. 

348. MALVA. Styles numerous. Outer Cal. of 3 leaves. 
Caps, whorled, single-seeded. 

347. ALTH^A. Styles numerous. Outer Cal. in 9 seg- 
ments. Caps, whorled, single-seeded. 



229 



MONADELPHIA PENTANDRIA. 
345. ERODIUM. Stork's-bill. 

L'Herit. Geraniol. unpubl. Ait, H. Kew. ed. ] u. 2. 414. ed. 2. 

V. 4. 154. H. Br. 727. Comp. ed. 4. 115. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. 

u. 1 3. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 644. 
Geranium. Linn. Gen. 350. Juss.268. Lam.t.573.f.2. Gcertn. 

t. 79 ; moschatum. 

Nat. Ord. Gruinales. Linn. 14. Gerania. Juss. 73. Gera- 
niacece. DeCand. 46. N. 346 the same. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 ovate, glandular-pointed, concave, perma- 
nent leaves, equal and uniform at the base. PeL 5, obo- 
vate, spreading, rather longer than the calyx, generally 
somewhat irregular. NecL 5 glands, alternate with the 
petals. Filam. 10, awl-shaped, united by their base into 
a cup ; 5 of them perfect, nearly as long as the petals ; 
the alternate 5 shorter and abortive. Anth. 5, on the 
longer filaments only, oblong, versatile. Germ, superior, 
roundish, with 5 furrows. Stjjle awl-shaped, erect, longer 
than the stamens, permanent. Stigmas 5, oblong, re- 
flexed. Caps. 5, aggregate, membranous, obovate, ver- 
tical, separating at their inner margin, sharp-pointed at 
the base, each tipped at the summit with a long, linear, 
flat, upright, pointed, converging, rigid aww, hairy at the 
inside, and at length spirally twisted, adhering by its 
point to the top of the style ; the hairs spreading. Seeds 
1 or 2, vertical, ovate-oblong. 

Herbaceous, or somewhat shrubby, odorous, recumbent. 
Leaves generally opposite, stalked, simple or pinnate, cut. 
Stipulas membranous. Fl. mostly umbellate, reddish. 
Cal. and stalks more or less glutinous. 

1. E. cicutarium. Hemlock Stork's-bill. 

Stems procumbent, hairy. Stalks many-flowered. Leaves 
pinnate ; leaflets sessile, pinnatifid, cut. Stamens simple. 

E. cicutarium, Fl. Br. 727. Engl. Bot. v. 25. M 768. Willd. v. 3. 

629. Sibth.2\\. Hook. Scot. 205. DeCand, Prodr. v.]. 646. 
Geranium cicutarium. Linn. Sp. PI. 95 1 . Huds. 300. Curt. Land. 

fasc. \.t.5\. Fl. Dan. t. 986. Ehrh. PL Off. 447. 
G. n. 944. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 406. 

G. cicutae folio inodorum. Rad Srjn. 357. Ger. Em. 945. f, 
G. foetens. Riv. Pentap. Irr. f. 115. 



230 MONADELPHIA— PENTANDRIA. Erodiura. 

G. primum. Fuchs. Hist. 204. f. 

G. tertium. Matth. Valgr.v.2. 209. f. 

Herba Roperti. Brunf. Herb. v. 2. 37. f. 

Myrrhida Plinii, &c. Lob. Ic. 659./. 

/3. Geranium inodorum album. RaiiSyn,357. 

y. G. pimpinellse folio. Dill, in Raii Syn. 358. Giss. 173. 

G. robertianum. Riv. Pentap. Irr. f. 1 14. 

Erodium pimpinellae folium. Sibth. 211. 

In waste ground frequent. 

/S. In barren sandy places^ chiefly near the sea. 

y. Near Hackney. Dillenius. About Oxford. Sibth. On sandy 
ground near the sea ; or on a chalky soil. 

Annual. June — September. 

Root tap-shaped, whitish. Herb somewhat hairy and viscid, dis- 
agreeably scented, more or less. Stems procumbent, round, 
or a little angular, hairy, mostly branched, leafy, various in 
number and length. Leaves alternate towards the root ; upper 
ones often opposite ; leaflets deeply pinnatifid, acutely and va- 
riously cut. Stipulas opposite, ovate, acute, thin and pellucid. 
Fl. in stalked umbels, opposite to the alternate leaves, otherwise 
axillary. Bracteas under the partial stalks, membranous, jagged. 
Pet. rose-coloured, with 3 dark lines at the base ; in a nearly 
regular ; in /3 white ; in y 2 or 3 of them marked each with a 
green depression, towards the claw, but this circumstance is 
extremely variable. Filam. all simple. Caps, single-seeded, 
bristly with reflexed hairs. 

2. E. moschatum. Musky Stork's-bill. 

Stems depressed, hairy. Stalks many-flowered. Leaves 
pinnate ; leaflets nearly sessile, elliptical, unequally cut. 
Perfect stamens toothed at the base. 

E. moschatum. Fl. Br. 728. Engl. Bot. v. 13. t. 902. fVilld. Sp. PI. 

D. 3. 63 1 . DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 647- 
Geranium moschatum. Linn. Sp. PI. 951. Huds. 300. Jacq.Hort. 

Find, v.l.t. 55, Cavan. Diss. 227. t. 94. f. 1 . Riv. Pentap. Irr. 

t.ll2. Ger.Em.94\.f. RaiiSyn. 358. Bauh.Hist.v.3.479.f. 
G. n. 945. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 407. 
G. tertium Plinii, Acus muscata. Dalech. Hist. 1277. f. 

In mountainous pastures. 

Between Bristol and St. Vincent's rocks. Ray. Very common in 
Craven, Yorkshire. Dr. Lister. On Shotover hill, near Oxford. 
Bishop of Carlisle. On Ampthill warren, Bedfordshire. Rev. Dr. 
Abbot. In the mountainous pastures of Yorkshire and West- 
moreland, more certainly wild perhaps than elsewhere, having 
long been cultivated in gardens for its scent. 



MONADELPHIA— PENTANDRIA. Erodium. 231 

Annual. June, July. 

Nearly akin to the foregoing, but differing in its larger paler leaf- 
lets, much less deeply cut ; and in the powerful musky fragrance, 
as well as greater viscidity, of the whole herb. The stipulas are 
large, rounded and wavy, very thin and membranous. Bracteas 
similar, but smaller. Pet. rose-coloured, unspotted, smaller 
than the last, all nearly equal. Mr. Sowerby observed the abor- 
tive filaments to be peculiarly broad ; and the perfect ones to 
have a tooth at each side near the base. This last mark would 
greatly strengthen the specific character, if it should prove con- 
stant, which in these organs, so various, if not mutable, in this 
natural order, cannot absolutely be relied on, unless confirmed 
by experience. 

3. E. 7na7'itimum. Sea Stork's-bill. 

Stems depressed, hairy. Stalks barely three-flowered. 
Leaves simple, heart-shaped, cut, crenate, rough. 

E. maritimum. Fl. Br. 728. Engl. Bot.v. 9. t. 646. IVilld. Sp. PI. 
15.3.639. DeCand.Prodr.v. I. 648. 

Geranium maritimum. Linn. Sp. PI. 95 1 . Huds. 30 1 . Dicks. H. 
Sicc.fasc.W.U. Cavan. Diss.2\8.t.88.f. I. 

G. pusillum snpinum maritimum, Althseae aut Betonicae folio no- 
stras. RaiiSyn.3D6. Pluk. Almag. \ 69. Phyt. t. 31. f. 4. 

G. minimum procumbens, foliis betonicae. Moris, r. 2. 5 1 2. sect. 5. 
t.35.n.S. 

On the sandy or gi-avelly sea coasts of Cornwall, Wales, Sussex, 
&c. 

Perennial. May — September. 

Stems spreading close to the ground, from 3 to 9 inches in length, 
branched, leafy, hairy. Leaves half an inch long, on stalks of va- 
rious proportions, roundish, heart-shaped, slightly lobed, and 
variously notched, rough on both sides with minute close hairs. 
Stipulas purplish. Fl. 1 or 2, rarely 3, on each stalk. Pet. pale 
red, very minute, and often partly wanting. Caps, bristly ; their 
awns but partially hairy at the lower part. The herb has a strong 
scent. 



232 



MONADELPHIA DECANDRIA. 
346. GERANIUM. Crane's-bill. 

Linw.Gen.350. Juss. 268. Fl.Br.729. DeCand.Prodr.v.1.639. 
Tourn. t. M2./. A— O. Lam. t. 573. f. 1 . Gcertn. t. 79 ; pre- 
tense. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 345. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 ovate, glandular-pointed, concave, per- 
manent leaves, equal and uniform at the base. Pel. 5, 
inversely heart-shaped, spreading, much larger than the 
calyx, all equal and regular. Nect. 5 glands, alternate 
with the petals. Filam. 10, awl-shaped, united at their 
base, spreading at the summit ; 5 alternate ones longer 
than the rest, shorter than the corolla. Anth. oblong, 
versatile, very rarely wanting on the 5 shorter filaments. 
Germ, superior, roundish, with 5 furrows. Style awl- 
shaped, erect, longer than the stamens, permanent. Stig- 
mas 5, oblong, reflexed. Caps. 5, aggregate, membra- 
nous, nearly globular, separating at their inner margin, 
each tipped at the summit with a long, linear, flat, up- 
right, pointed, converging, rigid awn, almost perfectly 
smooth and naked, at length recurved or revolute, adhe- 
ring by its point to the top of the style. Seeds solitary, 
roundish-kidney-shaped. 

Herbaceous, scarcely at all shrubby. Branches and sialics 
tumid at the base. Leaves mostly opposite, stalked, lobed 
in a palmate manner, and cut. Stipulas membranous. 
Fl. 1 or 2 on a stalk, either axillary, or opposite to the 
upper alternate leaves, red, purplish, or blue, generally 
handsome, without scent. 

1. G. phcpum. Dusky Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered, panicled, erect. Calyx slightly point- 
ed. Capsules keeled ; hairy below ; wrinkled at the sum- 
mit. Stamens hairy. 

G. phseum. Linn. Sp. PL 953. Willd. v. 3. 699. Fl. Br. 729. 
Engl. Bot. v.5.t. 322. Hook. Scot. 206. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1, 
641 a. Fl. Dan. t. 987. Cavan. Diss. 210. t. 89./. 2. 

G. n. 934. Hall Hist. u. 1 . 4 14. 

G. montanum fuscum. Dill, in Raii Syn. 36 1 . 

G. batrachioides puHo flore. Ger. Em. 942./. 



MONADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Geranium. 2S3 

G. primum, pullo flore. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 99./. Pann. 415. f.4l6. 
G. phaeo, sive pullo, flore Clusii. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 477./. 
G. phaeum, seu fuscum, petalis reflexis. Mom. r. 2. 515. sec/. 5. 
t. 16./. 18. 

In mountainous thickets, rare. 

Found by Mr. Drayton, apothecary, of Maidstone, at Tovell, in the 
valley by the old fulling-mill. Dill. About Clapham and Ingle- 
ton, Yorkshire. Hiids. In Lancashire, Cambridgeshire, and 
Bedfordshire. Engl. Bot. On a bank at Ash Bocking, Suffolk. 
Mrs. Cobbold. About Newburgh, Yorkshire. Rev. Archdeacon 
Peirson. Most truly wild perhaps in the mountainous parts 
of Yorkshire, and Lancashire. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root thick, somewhat woody. Stem erect, round, hairy, leafy, 
14- or 2 feet high, panicled at the top, many-flowered. Leaves 
palmate, many-lobed, sharply and unequally cut, strongly vein- 
ed, rather downy than hairy ; their principal lobes often stained 
with brown at each side near the base ; lower ones stalked ; up- 
permost nearly sessile, opposite to the inferior flower-stalks. 
Stipiilas lanceolate, brown, hairy. Stalks hairy, cloven, bear- 
ing two nearly upright^owers, with small, brown, opposite brae- 
teas, in pairs under each partial stalk. Cal. hairy, fringed, but 
slightly pointed. Pet. wavy, with more or less of a terminal 
point, dark chocolate-coloured ; greenish white at the base. 
Lower part of each stamen fringed with long hairs. Capsules ra- 
ther obovate, keeled at the outside, hairy in their lower half, 
transversely wrinkled in the upper. 

G./uscum of Linnaeus, Mantissa 97, differs in having simple sin- 
gle-flowered stalks, in pairs, distinct from the very base. Other- 
wise I find no difference. We have it not in Britain. Linnaeus 
who cultivated it observed the leaves to be more rigid. 

2. G. nodosum. Knotty Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered. Leaves opposite, five- or three-lobed, 
pointed, serrated. Capsules even, downy all over. 

G. nodosum. Linn. Sp. PL 953. mild. v. 3.701. Fl. Br. 730. 

Engl. Bot. v. 16. t. 1091. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1. 640. Cavan. 

Diss. 208. t. 80./. 1. Bauh. Pin. 318. Moris, v. 2. 516. sect. 5. 

«. 16./. 22. 
G. quintum nodosum Plateau. Raii Syn. 361, Clus. Hist. v. 2. 

101./. Ger.Em.947./. 
G. magnum, folio trifido. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 478./. 
Knotty Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 65./. 4. 

In mountainous thickets, very rare. 

Wild in the mountainous parts of Cumberland, according to Mr. 
Archergen, who brought it to Bobart. Ray. Confirmed by 



234 MONADELPHIA—DECANDRIA. Geranium. 

Mr. Woodward. Withering. Between Hatfield and Welwyn, 
Herts. Rev. Dr. Abbot. 

Perennial. May — August. 

Root slightly tuberous, rather creeping. Stems angular, aboxit 18 
inches high, erect, but weak, red, shining and swelled, both 
above and below each joint. Leaves all opposite, dark green, 
shining, minutely and sparingly hairy, mostly in 3 deep, point- 
ed, cut and serrated lobes, the lower ones in 5 lobes, and with 
longer stalks. Fl. purple, rather large, not numerous, on downy 
partial stalks in pairs. Cal. with a long slender red point, and 
3 downy ribs, to each leaf. Caps, elliptic-oblong, quite even, 
without keels, finely downy, or minutely hairy, all over ; their 
awns somewhat downy, but not beset with long prominent hairs 
as in Er odium. 



^- ^ 



t- ^. 



3. G. sylvaticum. Wood Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered, somewhat corymbose. Leaves about 

seven-lobed, cut and serrated. Capsules hairy all over. 

Stamens awl-shaped, fringed. 

G. sylvaticum. Linn. Sp. PL 954. Willd.v.3.703. Fl.Br.73]. 

Engl. Bot. v.2.t. 121. Hook. Scot. 206. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 

641. 
G. palustre ? Rose's Elcm. append. 441. t. 1 . 
G. n. 932. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 403. 
G. batrachoides montanum nostras. Raii Syn. 361 . 
G. batrachioides alterum. Ger. Em. 942. f. 
Mountain Crow Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 65./. 8. 

In woods, thickets^ and pastures, chiefly in the north of England 
and south of Scotland. 

At Spixworth, Norfolk. Mr. Humphrey. Near Lynn. Mr. Crowe. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root rather woody. Stems 2 or 3 feet high, erect, roundish, rough 
with small deflexed hairs, much branched, leafy. Leaves slightly 
palmate, with 5 or 7 deep lobes, coarsely cut and serrated, veiny, 
finely hairy on both sides ; the lowermost on long footstalks. 
Fl. larger than either of the preceding, an inch or more in 
breadth, of a fine light purple, with crimson veins. Cal. like 
the last, but more hairy. Pet. entire, or slightly notched, hairy 
at the claw. Stam. all nearly equal, awl-shaped, membranous 
at the edges, fringed more than half way up. Caps, ovate, 
keeled, even, not wrinkled, most hairy about the keel, marked 
at each side, towards the top, with a brown rib. Seeds dotted. 

I have been sparing of synonyms, because of several foreign spe- 
cies, nearly related to this, and occasionally confounded with it, 
Cavanilles professes never to have seen G. sylvaticum. His 
G. batrachioides, Diss. 211. t. 85./. 2, is more like pratense in 
the form of its leaves, and in having large blue^owers. Nothing 



MONADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Geranium. 235 

is better known or defined than our sylvaticum, nor could Mr. 
Rose, my first botanical preceptor, have suspected it, even at 
the time he wrote, to have been the palustre, had he ever seen a 
specimen of the latter, or its figure in the Hortus Elthamensis, 
which I know he had not. 

4. G. pratense. Blue Meadow Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered. Leaves in about seven deep segments, 
sharply pinnatifid and serrated. Capsules hairy all over. 
Stamens smooth, much dilated at the base. 

G. pratense. Linn. Sp. PL 954. fVilkl. v. 3. 705. M. Br. 732. 

Engl. Bot. V. 6. t. 404. Curt. Lond. fasc.4. t. 49. Dicks. H. Sice, 
fasc. 16.18. Hook. Scot. 206. DeCand. Prodr.v. 1.641. Cavan. 

Diss. 210. t. 87./. 1. Ehrh.Pl. Of. 457. 
G. n. 93 1 . Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 403. 
G. batrachoides. Raii Si/n.360. Ger. Em. 942./. Bauh. Hist. 

v.3.p.2.475.f. Dalech. Hist. 1279./. 
G. quintum. Fuchs. Hist. 208./. /c. 118./. 
G. quartum. Matth. Valgr. i;. 2. 2 1 0. /. Camer. Epit. 602./. 
Crow Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 65./. 7. 

In rich, rather moist, pastures and thickets, especially in the hilly 
parts of England ; also at Battersea, Harrow, and other places 
not far from London. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Larger in every part than the last, especially the /lowers, which 
are of a fine blue, not purple, and are often irregularly striped 
or blotched with white, sometimes entirely white ; and they 
have been found double, near Athol house, Scotland, by the 
late Lady Charlotte Murray. The leaves are much more deeply 
divided than those of G. sylvaticum, their lobes more regularly 
and acutely pinnatifid. The stamens differ materially, being 
longer and more slender, as well as quite smooth, but espe- 
cially in being greatly dilated into a triangular figure at the 
base. Caps, even, hairy all over. Seeds dotted. 

5. G. rohertianum. Stinking Crane's-bill. Herb 

Robert. 

Stalks two-flowered. Leaves somewhat pedate, pinnatifid, 
five-angled. Calyx with ten angles. Capsules wrinkled, 
simply keeled. 

G. robertianum. Linn. Sp. PI. 955. Willd. v. 3. 714. Fl. Br. 732. 

Engl. Bot. v.2l.t. 1486. Curt. Lond./asc.l. t.52. Hook. Scot. 

207. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1. 644. Cavan. Diss. 215. t. 86./. 1. 

H. Dan. t. 694. Bull. Fr.t. 20\. RaiiSyn.358. Ger. Em,. 939./. 

Dod. Pempt. 62./. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 480./. 
G. n. 943. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 406. 



236 MONADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Geranium. 

G. tertium. Fuchs. Hist. 206. /. Ic. 1 1 6./. 

G. quintum. Matth. Valgr. r, 2, 21 1 ./. Camer. Epit. 603./. 

Herba Roberti. Dalech. Hist. 1278. f. 

Herb Robert. Petin. H. Brit. t. 6b. f. 5. 

/3. Geranium lucidum saxatile, foliis Geranii robertiani. RaiiSyn. 

358. 
Shining Herb Robert. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 65. f. 6. 

In waste ground, on walls, banks, and under hedges, common. 

/3. Near the sea. In Dorsetshire. Sherard. Selsey island, Sus- 
sex. Dillenius. A weed in Chelsea garden. 

Annual. May — October. 

Root tapering. Stems several, spreading in every direction, and 
partly recumbent, round, leafy, branched, red, brittle and suc- 
culent, a little hairy, chiefly at one side. Leaves opposite, on 
long stalks, ternate, cut in a pedate manner, their outline un- 
equally five-angled, their surface shining, more or less hairy ; 
in /3 they are still more shining, as well as more fleshy. Stalks 
lateral and terminal, each bearing two bright crimson^owers, 
occasionally white, smaller than any of the preceding. Cal. 
brownish, hairy, with 10 angles when closed. Pet. obovate, 
entire. Stam. awl-shaped, smooth. Caps, obovate, downy, 
simply keeled, curiously marked, at the outer edge, with ele- 
vated interbranching wrinkles. Seeds perfectly smooth and 
even. 

This herb has a strong disagreeably pungent smell. Bugs are said 
to avoid it. In autumn it assumes a deep red hue. 

6. G. lucidum. Shining Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered. Leaves five-lobed, rounded. Calyx 
pyramidal, transversely wrinkled. Capsules wrinkled, 
triply keeled. 

G. lucidum. Linn. Sp. PL 955. WilM.v.3.709. H.Br.733. Engl. 

Bot. V. 2. t. 75. Hook. Scot. 207. Land. t. 32. DeCand. Prodr. 

15.1.644. Fl.Dan.t.2\8. Cavan. Diss. 2\ A. t. SO. f. 2. Bauh. 

Hist.v.3.p.2.48].f. 
G. n. 942. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 406. 
G. saxatile. Raii Syn. 361. Thai. Harcyn. 44. t.5; excellent. 

Ger. Em. 938. descr. n. 3. 
G. alteram montanum saxatile rotundifolium. Column. Ecphr. 

138. f. 137. 
Shining Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 64. f. 12. 

On walls, cottage roofs, and moist rocks, chiefly in the moun. 
tainous parts of Great Britain. 

About Bury, Suffolk. Mr. Woodward. Between Mortlake and 
Kew. Hudson. Perfectly naturalized at Lakenham, near Nor- 
wich, by the late Mr. Crowe. 

Annual. May — August. 



MONADELPHIA— DE€ANDRIA. Geranium. 237 

Root very small and slender. Herb shining, succulent, turning 
bright red when exposed to the light, quite smooth except a few 
variable scattered hairs on the foliage. Stems spreading in 
every direction, much branched, leafy, brittle. Leaves much 
smaller, and less divided, than in the last, roundish-kidney- 
shaped, on long stalks, 5-lobed, rather bluntly notched. Fl. 
small, bright rose-coloured. Cal. pyramidal when closed, with 
5 angles, smooth, some of its leaves strongly wrinkled trans- 
versely, and all strongly keeled. Pet. narrow, entire. Caps. 
oblong, somewhat compressed, reticulated at the sides, hairy at 
the summit, triply keeled at the back, the lateral keels formed 
by the union of the reticulations, which also make 3, sometimes 
4 or 5, intermediate furrows. Seeds oval, very smooth. 

Haller says of this species tota planta amat rubescere. 

7. G. mol/e. Common Dove's-foot Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered, alternate, opposite to the leaves, which 
are rounded, many-lobed, notched, and downy. Cap- 
sules numerously wrinkled, smooth. Seeds without dots. 

G. molle. Linn. Sp. PL 955. Willd. v. 3. 710. Fl. Br. 734. Engl. 

Bat. v.]].t. 778. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 50. Hook. Scot. 207. 

DeCand.Prodr.v.].643. H. Dati. t.679. Cavan. Diss. 203. 

t.83.f.3. Ehrh. Herb. 129. 
G. n. 939. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 405. 
G. columbinum. Rail Sijn. 359. Ger. Em. 938. 
G. columbinum villosum, petalis bifidis. Faill. Par. 79, t. 15./. 3. 
G. secundum. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 208. f. Corner. Epit. 600./. 
Dove Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 64'/. 1—3. 

In cultivated and waste ground, meadows, pastures, and by way 
sides, every where. 

Annual. April — August. 

Root tapering. Herb of a light hoary green, downy all over with 
fine soft hairs, its size and luxuriance extremely variable. Stems 
several, spreading, or decumbent, leafy, slightly branched, red- 
dish, hairy, usually about a foot long, sometimes hardly 3 inches. 
Leaves rounded rather than kidney-shaped, in many not very 
deep lobes, all their segments rather broad and wedge-shaped 
than linear J radical ones numerous, on long footstalks ; the 
rest alternate, more deeply cut, on shorter stalks. Flower-stalks 
solitary, alternate, opposite to the leaves, widely spreading. Fl. 
rather small, light reddish purple, with cloven petals. Stam. all 
perfect. Cal. hairy. Caps, roundish, curiously puckered or 
wrinkled, in many transverse curved lines, but not hairy. Seeds 
oval, perfectly smooth and even, not dotted. 

The wrinkled capsules, to which Linnaeus has incorrectly applied 
the expression " arillis Icevibus," and which Cavanilles over- 
looked, are well described by Curtis. They constitute the most 
essential difference between this species, in all its wide varia- 



238^ MONADELPHIA— DECANDRFA. Geranium. 

tions of magnitude, and several of the following, with which it 
has long been habitually confounded. Linnaeus in writing his 
Species Planturum certainly did not distinguish G. molle from 
what he afterwards named, not happily, pyrenaicum, whose cap- 
sules are even, though hairy. 

8. G. pusillum. Small-flowered Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered. Leaves kidney-shaped, palmate, cut, 
downy. Capsules keeled, even, clothed with erect hairs. 
Seeds without dots. Anthers only five. 

G. pusillum. Linn. Sp. PL 957. Willd.v. 3.7\3. Fl.Br.734. 

Engl. Bot. V. 6. t. 385. Huds. ed. 1. 266. Dicks. Dr. PI. 78. 

Hook. Scot. 207. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 643. Cavan. Diss. 202. 

t.SS.f.l. Ehrh. Herb. 130. 
G. molle fi. Huds. ed. 2. 303. 

G. parviflorum. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t.36. Sibth. 2\3. Abbot 151. 
G. malvaefolium. Scop. Cam. v. 2. 37. With. 603. 
G. n. 940. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 405. 
G. columbinum majus, fiore minore caeruleo. Rati Syn. 358. Hist. 

U.2. 1059. Faill.Par.79.t.\5.f.l. 
G. alteram. Fuchs. Hist. 205. f. Jc. 115; same Jig. diminished. 
Small-flowered Dove Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. 64. /. 4. 
^. Fl. Br. 735. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 643. 
G. humile. Cavan. Diss. 202. t. 83./. 2. 
G. pusillum. Burm. Ger. 27. 
G. columbinum humile, flore caeruleo minimo. Dill, in Raii Syn. 

359. t. 16./. 2. 

In gravelly fields and waste ground, very common. 

Annual. June — Sejytember. 

Root tapering. Habit and pubescence much like the last species, 
but the whole plant in general is smaller, especially the Jlowers, 
which have but 5 perfect s<rt?nens, and their blueish petals scarcely 
extend beyond the calyx. The leaves are mostly opposite, more 
deeply lobed, each lobe oblong-wedge-shaped, and pretty re- 
gularly 3 -cleft. But the clear and certain specific difference 
rests on the capsules, which are keeled, and quite even, not 
wrinkled as in G. molle, neither are they smooth as in that, but 
covered with close-pressed, or upright, short hairs. The seeds 
are, like those of the molle, quite smooth ; not dotted as in G. 
rotundifolium. 

For the accurate discrimination of these 3 species and the pyre- 
naicum, about which all botanists had been uncertain, I am, like 
Mr. Curtis, indebted to my late friend Mr. Davall. They can 
never more be mistaken. 

The variety j3, examined in the Sherardian herbarium at Oxford, 
differs merely in being much smaller than usual. Indeed few 
plants vary more in size than the present. 



f 



MONADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Geranium. 239 

9. (j.pyrenaicum. Perennial Dove's-foot Crane's-bill. 
Stalks two-flowered." Petals twice the length of the calyx;. 

Leaves kidney-shaped, lobed. Capsules keeled, even,* 

somewhat downy. Seeds without dots. 
G. pyrenaicum. Linn. Mant. 97 and 257. Willd. Sp.Pl. v. 3. 708 

Fl.Br.735. Engl. Bot. v. 6. t. 405. Huds. 302. Curt. Lond.fasc. 

3.t.A2. Light/. 367. Hook. Scot. 206. DeCand. Prodr. v.l. 

643. Burnt. Ger. 27. Cavan. Diss. 203. t. 79./. 2. 
G. perenne. Huds. ed. 1 . 265. 
G. n. 12. Ger. Gallopr. 434. t. 1 6./. 2. 
G. columbinum perenne pyrenaicum maximum. Tourn. Inst. 268. 

Herb. Tourn. 

In meadows and pastures. 

By the river between Bingley and Keighley, Yorkshire ; also near 
Enfield, and about Brompton, Chelsea, and elsewhere near 
London. Huds. About Edinburgh. Dr. Parsons and others. 
At East Winch and West Bilney, Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. Near 
Oxford, at the back of St. John's college. Mr. Woodward. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root tuberous, perennial. Stems 2 or 3 feet high, upright, leafy, 
branched, clothed with spreading, or somewhat deflexed, fine, 
soft hairs. Leaves deep green, finely hairy, rather soft to the 
touch ; the lower ones on very long stalks, kidney-shaped, 2 or 
3 inches wide, lobed more or less deeply, the segments notched, 
rounded and bluntish ; upper ones opposite, on shorter stalks, 
with fewer, deeper, more spreading lobes. Stipulas broad, hairy, 
jagged at the points. Fl. light purple, much larger than those 
of G. moUe. Cal. pointed, downy and somewhat fringed, scarcely 
half the length of the petals, which are inversely heart-shaped, 
with short very hairy claws. Stam. all perfect, but the 5 outer 
ones, as Mr. Curtis remarks, soon drop their anthers, whence 
they have been supposed originally imperfect. Caps, keeled, 
even, minutely downy all over when young, but subsequently 
becoming smoother. Seeds with a perfectly even surface. 

The flowers are sometimes white. Linnaeus confounded this with 
his moile originally, and it is also the large-flowered molle of 
Mr. Curtis, found about Chelsea hospital. His figures of both 
are excellent, and he has conectly described their capsules, 
though he did not contrast them in the specific characters, for 
which these parts alone are all-sufficient. 

In one of the Linnsean specimens I find a wrinkle or two at each 
side of the keel, of some of the capsules, not of all, nor do these 
by any means resemble the copiously wrinkled capsules of G. 
molle. 



240 MONADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Geranium. 

10. G.rotundifolium. Soft Round-leaved Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered. Petals entire. Leaves kidney-shaped, 
cut, downy. Capsules even, hairy. Seeds reticulated. 

G.rotundifolium. Linn. Sp. PI. 9ii7. Willd.v.3.7\2. Fl.Br.736. 
Engl. Bot. V. 3. t.\b7. Light/. 1 1 06. Hook. Scot. 207 ? De- 
Cand. Prodr. v. 1. 643. Cavan. Diss. 214. t. 93./. 2. Ehrh. 
Herb. 139. 

G. malvaceum a. Burm. Ger. 24. 

G. n. 941. Hall. Hist. v.\.A05. 

Large-flowered Dove Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 64./. 5. 

In waste ground and barren pastures, as also on walls and banks, 
but not very common. 

About Bath, Bristol and London. Huds. At Hackney and Isling- 
ton, and at Church Bramton, Northamptonshire. Mr. E. Forster. 
Common in Suffolk. Mr. Woodward. Near North Marchiston, 
the seat of Principal Robertson. Dr. Hope. 

Annual. June, July. 

Whole herb peculiarly soft, like velvet, with a considerable de- 
gree of viscidity, noticed by Haller. In general appearance it 
most resembles the usual state of G. molle ; but all the leaves, 
even the uppermost, are opposite. This character has led me to 
transfer to the molle some synonyms of old authors, applied in 
Fl.Br., on the authority of C. Bauhin and others, to the present 
species ; for the alternate leaves in their figures, not to men- 
tion other characters, when carefully examined, agree better 
with that far more common plant than with this. The flowers 
of G. rotundifolium have a viscid calyx, and narrow, undivided, 
light crimson petals. Caps, turgid, thin, slightly keeled, clothed 
with prominent hairs ; the surface quite even, never wrinkled ; 
the awns are, in like manner, hairy externally. Seeds oval, not 
so properly dotted, as entirely covered with a curious net-work 
of fine, regular, prominent wrinkles ; which obviously and de- 
cidedly distinguish this from every species with which it could 
be confounded ; especially from molle and pusillum, under all 
their different aspects. No ambiguity attends this character. 
DeCandoUe has understood and adopted it ; Willdenow omits 
it, and Cavanilles says the /rwi^ and seeds oi G. rotundifolium 
are the same as those of the lucidum; for indeed he paid no 
proper attention to those important parts. Lightfoot does not 
advert to the seeds of the rotundifolium ; but I have specimens 
from himself correctly named. We now readily discriminate 
these plants, which Haller found so difficult, and Linnaeus so 
little understood. No part of o\ir whole Flora is more free 
from obscurity ; nor are the foreign species of Geranium and its 
allies less capable of clear illustration on the same principles. 



MONADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Geranium. 24i 

11. G. dissectum. Jagged-leaved Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two- flowered. Petals cloven. Leaves in five deep 
laciniated segments. Capsules hairy. Seeds reticulated. 

G. dissectum. Linn. Sp. PL 956. Willd.v.3.7\2. Fl.Br.737. 

Engl. Bot. v.W.t. 753. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 45. Hook. Scot. 

208. DeCand.Prodr.v. I. 643. FL.Dan. t.936. Cavan. Diss. 

199. if. 78./. 2. 
G. n. 937. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 405. 
G. columbinum majus, dissectis foliis. Ger. Em. 938. Rail Stjn. 

ed. 2. 218. ed. 3. 359} omitting the synonyms, introduced by Dil- 

lenius. 
G. columbinum majus, foliis imis longis, usque ad pediculum di- 

visis. Moris, i;. 2. 51 1. sect. 5.t.\5.f.3; very bad. Vaill. Par. 

79. 1. 15./. 2; excellent. 
Jagged Dove Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 64. f. 6. 
j3. G. columbinum maximum, foliis dissectis. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 219. 

erf. 3. 360. 
Plot's Jagged Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 64. f. 7. 

In barren gravelly waste ground, hedges, and fallow fields, fre- 
quent. 

Annual. May, June. 

Stems weak and straggling, 12 or 18 inches long, branched, leafy, 
somewhat angular, covered with short deflexed hairs. Leaves 
firmer in substance than those of the 4 preceding, and divided 
very nearly to the bottom into 5 or 7 principal segments, each 
of which is also cut into 3 or more, jagged or entire, narrow 
lobes ; all clothed with short, scattered, rather close hairs, most 
abundant on the ribs beneath. Footstalks of the lower leaves 
very long ; of the upper shorter than the leaves ; all rough 
with reflt?xed hairs. Fl. pale crimson, rather small, on short, 
axillary, cloven stalks. Cal. strongly pointed. Pet. inversely 
heart-shaped, hairy at the claw. Anth. blue. Caps, wrinkled 
transversely in some degree, but less remarkably than those of 
G. molle, and clothed with prominent hairs. Seeds oval, rather 
larger than the last, and in like manner covered with beautiful 
more prominent reticulations. The whole habit, leaves and pe- 
tals of the two species are abundantly different. 

/S is hardly a variety, 

12. G. columbinum. Long-stalked Crane's-bill. 

Stalks two-flowered, thrice as long as the leaves, which are 
in five, very deep, laciniated segments. Capsules quite 
even and smooth. Seeds reticulated. 

G. columbinum. Linn. Sp. PI. 956. Willd. v.3.7\\. tl. Br. 737. 
Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 259. Hook. Scot. 208. DeCand. Prodr. v. I . 
643. Cavan. Diss. 200. t. 82./. 1 . Ft. Dan. t. 1 222. 

VOL. III. R 



242 MONADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Gevanium. 

G. n. 938. Hall. Hist. v.\. 40a. 

G. columbinum, dissectis foliis, pediculis florum longissimis. Raii 

Syn.ed.2.2l8.ed.o.359. Vaill. Par. 79. t. 15. f. 4. 
G. columbinum annuum minus, folio tenuius laciniato, flore pedi- 

culo longissimo insistente. Moris.v. 2. 512. sect. 5. t. 15./. 5; 

very bad. 
G. qiiartum. Fuchs. Hist. 207. f. Ic. 117./. 
G. gruinale, folio tenuit^r diviso. Bauli. Hist.v.3. p.2.474.f; 

copied from Fuchsius. 
Gruinalis. Dalech. Hist. 1278./,- from the same. 
Bobart's long cut Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 64. f. 8. 

In fields, or on dry banks, on a gravelly or limestone soil, spa- 
ringly, in various parts of Britain. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering. Whole herb slender, mostly procumbent, bright 
green, clothed with small, rigid, close, bristly hairs ; those of 
the stem and stalks pointing downwards, the rest upwards. 
Leaves divided to the very base into 5 pinnatifid or cut,' lobes, 
with linear, acute, rough segments, not at all soft or downy. 
F/ower-sto/Ars axillary, slender, cloven about the middle, spread- 
ing, thrice as long as the adjoining leaves and their footstalks. 
Bracteas aggregate at the bases and forks of the flower-stalks, 
awl-shaped, red. Fl. of a blueish rose-colour, larger than the 
last. Cal. pyramidal, rough, strongly awned. Pet. sometimes 
slightly notched, sometimes pointed. Anth. blue. Caps, keeled, 
peculiarly smooth and even. Awns scarcely rough. Seeds finely 
reticulated. 

Dillenius, in his edition of Ray's Sijnopsis, has applied the above 
synonyms of Fuchsius and J. Bauhin to G. dissectum, commend- 
ing that of Fuchsius ; but the slightest inspection will detect 
his error. Ray's own synonyms, always the most correct, must 
be sought in his 2d edition. 

13. G. sangidneum. Bloody Crane's-bill. 

Stalks single-flow^ered. Leaves roundish, in five or seven, 
deeply separated, three-cleft lobes. Capsules even ; brisdy 
at the summit. Seeds minutely wrinkled. 

G. sanguineum. Linn. Sp. PI. 958. Willd. v. 3. 697. Fl Br. 73^. 

Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 272. Hook. Scot. 206. Lond. 1. 155, excellent. 

Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 1 6. 19. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1. 639. " Fl. 

Dan. t. 1 107." Bull. Fr. t. 12. Cavan. Diss. 195. t. 76. f. 1. 

Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 478./. 
G. n. 930. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 402. 
G. hsematodes. Raii Syn. 360. Clus. Pan. 419./. 421 . Hist. v. 2. 

102. f. Dalech. Hist. 1279./. 
G. columbinum erectum, tenuius laciniatum, flore magno. Loes. 

Pruss. 103. t. 18. 



I 



MONADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Geranium. 243 

G. sanguinarium. Ger. Em. 945. f. 

G. sextum. Fuchs. Hist. 209. f. 

Sanguinaria radix. Trag. Hist. 348./. 

Bloody Crane's-bill. Petiv. H.Brit. t.Gi.f. 9. 

/3. Geranium haematodes, foliis majoribus, pallidioribus, et altius 

incisis. Raii Sijn. erf.2.219. ed.3. 360. 
Jagged Bloody Crane's-bill. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 64. f. 10. 
y. Geranium hsematodes Lancastrense, floreelegant^rstriato. Raii 

Syn.ed.2. 219. ed. 3.360. Dill.Elth. \G3.t. 136. 
G. lancastriense. With. 600. Hull ed.\.\a2. 
G. prostratum. Cavan. Diss. 196. t. 76. f. 3. 
Striped Bloody Crane's-bill. ' Petiv. H. Brit. t. 64./. 1 1 . 

In bushy^ stony, rather hilly situations, or upon limestone rocks. 

y. On the sandy coast of the isle of Walney, Lancashire. 

Perennial. July — September. 

Root stout and woody, knotty, of a dark reddish brown, and an as- 
tringent quality, creeping, as Dr. Hooker observes, considera- 
bly. Stems several, lax and spreading, 1|^ or 2 feet long, often 
prostrate, as in /3, or pendulous in craggy situations j round, 
branched, leafy j the hairy pubescence horizontally prominent, 
ieai'es opposite, stalked, dark green, roughish, deeply lobed 
and cut ; their outline somewhat orbicular. Stijmlas short and 
broad, hairy. Flou:er-stalks very long, solitary and single-flow- 

. ered, though with a joint, and pair of small bracteas, above the 
middle. Fl. large, above an inch broad, of a fine crimson or 
blood-colour ; in /3 flesh-coloured, with purple veins. Cal. 
awned, generally 5 -ribbed. Pet. inversely heart-shaped. Caps. 
keeled, even, a little downy, and crowned with several white 
bristles. Seeds rather kidney-shaped, dark brown, not smooth, 
but all over very curiously and minutely wrinkled and dotted, 
as described in Fl. Br. ; sometimes 2 in each capsule. 

The late Mr. Davall sent from Switzerland a variety with 2 flow- 
ers on each stalk, which Haller says is not rare. We have no 
tidings of any such in Britain. 

The maritime varieties with white flowers, so frequent in some of 
this genus, as well as in Erodium, seem to account for the pale 
hue of our variety /3. This is not always prostrate, and though 
constant in colour when cultivated, presents no good specific 
distinction. 



244 



MONADELPHIA POLYANDRIJ. 

347. ALTHiEA. Marsh-mallow. 

Linn. Gen. 353. Juss.272. Fl.Br.739. DeCand. Prodr. v. \. 
436. Lam. <. 581. Gcertn.t. ]36. 

Nat. Ord. Columniferce. Linn. 37. Malvacece. Juss. 74. 
Two following genera the same. 

Cal. double, permanent ; outer smallest, of 1 leaf, in about 
9 narrow deep segments ; inner of 1 leaf; divided half 
way down into 5 broader segments. Pet. 5, inversely 
heart-shaped, abrupt, rather oblique, flat, attached by 
their broad claws to the bottom of the tube of the sta- 
mens. Filam. numerous, capillary, united below into a 
tube ; separate in the upper part, both at the summit 
and sides. Anth. somewhat kidney-shaped. Germ, or- 
bicular, depressed. Style cylindrical, as long as the tube 
of the filaments. Stigmas about 20, bristle-shaped, nearly 
the length of the style. Capsules as many as the stigmas, 
compressed, ranged in a circle round the columnar re- 
ceptacle, each of 2 valves and 1 cell, finally deciduous. 
Seeds solitary, kidney-shaped, compressed. 

Upright herbs, either finely downy, or hairy, with lobed, 
usually palmate, toothed, stalked, alternate leaves. Sti- 
pulas in pairs. Fl. stalked, aggregate, axillary and ter- 
minal, reddish. 

Alcea, the Hollyhock, is united to this genus, perhaps just- 
ly, by Schreber, Jussieu, DeCandolle and others, as dif- 
fering chiefly in the fewer segments of its exterior calyx. 

1. A. officinalis. Common Marsh-mallow. 

Leaves simple, very soft and downy, slightly five-lobed. 

A. officinalis. Limi. Sp. PL 966. fViUd.v.3.770. Fl.Br.739. 

Engl. Bot. V. 3. t. 147. Woodv. t. 53. Hook. Scot. 208. DeCand. 

Prodr. V. 1 . 436. Fl. Dan. t. 530. Cavan. Diss. 93. t. 30. f. 2. 

Bull. Fr. t. 373. 
A. n. 1074. Hall. Hist. V. 2.23. 
A. vulgaris. Raii Syn. 252. 
A, Ibiscus. Ger. Em. 933. f. 
Althaea. Fuchs. Hist. \5.f. Ic.7.f. Matth. Valgr. v.2.276.f. 

Camer.Epit.667.f. Dalcch. Hist. 590./. 
j3. A. vulgari similis, folio retuso brevi, Raii Syn. 252. 



MONADELPHIA— POLYANDRIA. Malva. 245 

In marshes, especially towards the sea, abundantly. 

Perennial. July — September. 

Root tap-shaped, rather woody. Herb of a hoary green, peculiarly 
soft and downy, with fine starry pubescence. Stems several, 
about a yard high, simple, round, leafy, tough and pliant. 
Leaves ovate or heart-shaped at the base, various in breadth, 
plaited, 5 -ribbed, unequally serrated, soft and pliable, more or 
less deeply divided into 5 acute lobes. Fl. in very short, dense, 
axillary panieles, rarely solitary, of a delicate uniform blush- 
colour, not inelegant. Outer calyx, with 8, 9, 10 or 12 divi- 
sions. 

The whole plant, especially the root, yields in decoction a plen- 
tiful tasteless colourless mucilage, very salutary in cases of in- 
ternal irritation. 

348. MALVA. Mallow. 

Linn. Gen. ZM. Juss.272. H.Br. 740. DeCand. Prodr. v. I. 430. 
Tourn.t. 24. Lam. t. 582. Gcertn.t. 136. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 347. 

Cal. double, permanent; outer smallest, of 3 ovate acute 
leaves ; i?iner of 1 leaf, divided half way down into 5 
broader segments. Pet. 5, inversely heart-shaped, abrupt, 
rather oblique, flat, their claws attached to the tube of 
the stamens. Filam. numerous, capillary, united below 
into a tube ; separate at the summit. Anth. kidney- 
shaped. Germ, orbicular, depressed. Style cylindrical. 
Stigmas numerous, about the same length, bristle-shaped. 
Caps, as many as the stigmas, compressed, ranged in a 
circle round the columnar receptacle, each of 2 valves 
and 1 cell, finally deciduous. Seeds kidney-shaped, so- 
litary ; rarely 2 or 3. 

Herbaceous or shrubby, downy or hairy. Leaves simple, 
mostly plaited and lobed. Fl. purplish, or white; in 
several exotic species yellow ; all axillary or terminal, 
generally stalked and aggregate. Qualities mucilaginous. 
Fibres of the bark tough. 

1. M.. sylvestris. Common Mallow. 

Stem upright, herbaceous. Leaves with seven acute lobes. 
Footstalks and flower-stalks hairy. 

M. sylvestris. Linn. Sp. PL 969. Willd. v. 3. 787. Fl. Br. 740. 
Engl. Bat. t;. 10. t. 671. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. ^ 51. Woodv. t. 54. 
Hook. Scot. 208. Ger. Em. 930. f. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 432. 
Cavan. Diss. 78. t. 26./. 2. Fl. Dan. 1. 1223. Bull. Fr. t. 225. 
Ehrh. PL Off. 348. 



246 MONADELPHIA-POLYANDRIA. Malva. 

M. n. 1069. Hall. Hist. V. 2.22. 

M. vulgaris. Rail Sijn. 251. 

M. equina. Brunf.Herb.v.2.7\.f. 

M. sylvestvis elatior. Fiichs. Hist. 509./. Ic. 291 ./. 

Malva. Malth. Valgr. v.\.AU.f. Carner. Epit. 238./. 

About hedges, road sides, and in cultivated as well as waste ground, 
common. 

Perennial. May — .-August. 

Root tapering, branching, whitish. Stetn much branched and 
widely spreading, 1| to 3 feet high ; in a barren soil recumbent. 
Leaves deep green, soft and downy, serrated, plaited j the up- 
permost with fewer, but deeper, more acute, lobes, than the 
lower ones. Fl. numerous, of a shining purple, veiny, on sim- 
ple, aggregate, hairy, axillary stalks. Pollen whitish, large. 
External part of the capsules reticulated. 

Mucilaginous and emollient like the Marsh-mallow. 

2. M. rotundifolia. Dwarf Mallow. 

Stems prostrate. Leaves roundish-heart-shaped, bluntly 
five-lobed. Stalks when in fruit bent downwards. 

M. rotundifolia. Linn. Sp. Pl.969. Willd.v. 3.786. F/. Br. 741. 

Engl. Bot. V. \Q.t.\ 092. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 43. Hook. Scot. 

208. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1. 432. Fl. Dan. t. 721 . Cavan. Diss. 

79.t.26.f.3. Bull.Fr.t.\6l. 
M. n. 1070. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 22. 
M. sylvestris minor. Rail Syn. 251. 
M. sylvestris pumila. Ger. Em. 930. f. Fuchs. Hist. 508./. Ic 

290./. Dad. Pempt. 653./. 
Malva. Bru7if. Herb. v. 2. 70./. 
/3. M. pusilla. Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 241. With. 6\2. 
M. parviflora. Huds. 307 ; not of Linn. 
M. minor, flore parvo cseruleo. Dill, in Rail Syn. 25 1 . 

In waste ground, and by way sides in towns or villages, frequent. 

/3. Near Hithe in Kent. Sherard, and Hudson. 

Annual. .June — September. 

Root tapering. Whole plant smaller than the last, and quite pros- 
trate, with numerous stems, scarcely branched. Leaves on long 
stalks, with 5, often 7, shallow lobes. FZ. pale lilac-coloured, se- 
veral together, on axillary hairy stalks. Pet. usually above twice 
the length of the calyx, but in /S they are only as long as that 
part, pale, and very inconspicuous. Caps, reticulated at the 
back, in both varieties, as in M. sylvestris. 

M. microcarpa, DeCand. n. 37, sent by M. Thouin from the Paris 
garden, has prostrate stems, and appears to me but a slight va- 
riety of rotundifolia, with rather avaaWerJlowers than usual. 



I 



MONADELPHIA— POLYANDRIA. Malva. 247 

3. M. moschata. Musk Mallow. 

Radical leaves kidney-shaped, cut ; the rest in five deep, 
pinnatifid, jagged segments. Calyx hairy ; its outer leaves 
linear-lanceolate. 

M. moschata. Linn. Sp. PI. 97 1, mild. v. 3. 790. Fl. Br. 742. 
Engl. Bot.v. II. t. 754. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t.50. Sims in Curt. 
. Mag. V. 49. t. 2298. Hook. Scot. 209. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1. 432. 
Fl. Dan. t. 905. Cavan. Diss. 76. i. 18./. 1. 

M. n. 1072. Hall. Hist. v. 2. 23. 

M. montana, sive Alcea rotundifolia laciniata. Column. Ecphr. 
148. t. 147. 

Alcea tenuifolia crispa. Bauh. Hist. v. 2.1067./. Dill, in Raii 
Syn.253. 

A. vulgaris. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 139. ed.3. 252. All the synonyms, 
in both places, wrong. 

A. folio rotundo laciniato. Bauh. Pin. 316. Moris, v. 2. 527. sec^.5. 
t.l8.f.4. 

In the grassy borders of fields, and by way sides, on a gravelly 
soil. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root tough and woody. Herb bright green, more or less rough 
with spreading, simple, not starry, hairs, unaccompanied by 
any short, dense, woolly pubescence, and exhaling a musky 
odour, especially in hot weather, or when drawn lightly through 
the hand. Stems about 2 feet high, leafy, round, but little 
branched. Radical leaves on long stalks, smaller, rounder, and 
less deeply lobed than the upper ones, soon withering away ; 
stem-leaves divided to the very base into 5 pinnatifid lobes, all 
whose segments are linear, acute, channelled, and frequently 
undulated, usually in some degree hairy, seldom quite smooth. 
Fl. on . long, axillary, simple stalks, rose-coloured, large and 
handsome. Cal. paler than the foliage, coarsely hairy or bristly ; 
its 3 outer leaves linear-lanceolate. Pet. wedge-shaped, slightly 
cloven, jagged. Caps, clothed with dense silky hairs. 

The white-flowered variety, figured by Dr. Sims, is kept for cu- 
riosity in gardens. It differs in no other respect from the, more 
beautiful, wild plant. The musky scent undoubtedly proceeds 
from the herbage, as described in Fl. Br. and Engl. Bat., not 
from the flowers. 

We scarcely ever find our great countryman, Ray, in an error, 
but in this instance he mistook the plant of the Bauhins, whose 
Alcea vulgaris \s Malva Alcea of Linnaeus, Ehrh. PI. Off. 118, 
figured in Miller's Icones, t.\7, and in Petiv. H. Brit. t.39.f. 12. 
Miller indeed, like Hudson, has erred in making both these 
plants natives of England, and many authors have either taken 
them for the same, or confounded their synonyms. M. Alcea may 
be clearly known by the broader and more flat segments of its 



248 MONADELPHIA— POLYANDRIA. Lavateva. 

leaves; somewhat starry, depressed pubescence, which is very 
dense and matted upon the calyx ; but most essentially by the 
outer leaves of this part being ovate. The stems too are taller, 
and the plant has no smell of musk. 

349. LAVATERA. Tree-mallow. 

Linn. Gen. 354. Juss. 272. Fl. Br. 742. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1. 438. 
Dill. Gen. 155. t. 10. Lam. i. 582. Gcertn. 1. 136. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 3 4 7. 

Cal. double, permanent ; outer largest, of 1 leaf, in 3 broad, 
deep, spreading segments ; huier of 1 leaf, divided half 
way down into 5 more upright and acute lobes. Pet. 5, 
inversely heart-shaped, abrupt, flat, spreading, attached 
by their contracted claws to the tube of the stamens. 
Filam. numerous, capillary, united below into a cylin- 
drical tube ; sepai-ate in the upper part, both at the sum- 
mit and sides. Anth. kidney-shaped. Germ, orbicular, 
depressed. Style cylindrical, with a conical permanent 
base. Stigmas rather numerous, 7 — 14, bristle-shaped, 
as long as the style. Caps, as many as the stigmas, com- 
pressed, either tumid, or concave and wrinkled, at the 
back, ranged in a circle round the columnar receptacle, 
which in some species is greatly dilated ; each of 2 valves 
and 1 cell, finally deciduous. Seeds solitary, kidney- 
shaped. 

Mostly arborescent, soft and densely downy ; the pubes- 
cence in some instances stai-ry. Leaves lobed, serrated, 
stalked. Fl. axillary, stalked, red or whftish. 



1 . L. arborea. Sea Tree-mallow. 

Stem arboreous. Leaves downy, plaited, with seven an- 
gles. Stalks axillary, aggregate, single-flowered. 

L. arborea. Linn. Sp. Fl. 972, Willd. v. 3. 793. Fl. Br. 742. 

Engl. Bot.v. 26. 1. 1841. Hook. Scot. 209. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1. 

439. Cavan. Diss.86 and 282. t. 139./. 2. 
Malva arborea marina nostras. Merr. Pin. 75. 
M. maritima arborea nostras. Moris, v. 2. 523. Sibb. Scot, part 2. 

37. ^ 

On maritime rocks, but rare. 

At Hurst castle, over against the isle of Wight j in Portland island ; 
on Caldy island, in Carmarthen bay ; and on the Basse island, 
Scotland. Ray. On Inch-Garvy, and Mykrie-Inch, in the Frith 
of P'orth. Sibbald. In Cornwall and Devonshire, Hudson. Pem- 
brokeshire. Mr. Adams. 



MONADELPHIA— POLYANDRIA. Lavatera. 249 

Biennial. July — October. 

Root much branched, running deep into the ground. Stem from 
6 to 10 feet high, upright, strait, thick, scarred; simple be- 
low ; branching into a leafy head ; the branches besprinkled 
with fine, deflexed, compound, bristly hairs. Leaves of a grey- 
ish green, pliant, soft and downy, alternate, on long footstalks; 
their margin in 7 shallow crenate lobes. Fl. much like those 
of the common Malva sylvestris, in general appearance, but 
darker towards the middle, and the woolly calyx very different 
in structure, as described in the generic character. Caps. 7 or 8, 
reticulated, smooth. 

This Lavatera, if allowed to scatter its .seeds in a garden, will • 
spring up for many successive years, and the young'plants will 
now and then survive one or more mild winters ; but having 
once blossomed it perishes. 



\ 



Class XVII. DIADELPHIA. 

Filaments combined; in two sets. 
Order I. HEXANDRIA. Stamens 6. 

350. FUMARIA. Ca^. of 2 leaves. Cor. ringent, promi- 

nent, and bearing honey, at the base. 'Eachjilament 
with three anthers. 

Order II. OCTANDRIA. Stamens S. 

35 1 . POLYGAL A. Two segments of the calyx Hke wings. 

Standard of the corolla cylindrical. Caps, of 2 cells 
and 2 valves. Seeds solitary, crested. 

Order III. DECANDRIA. Stamens 10. 

* Stam. all connected at the base, the tube mostly split along 

its upper side. 

352. SPARTIUM. Filam. all forming a simple tube. 

Stigma lateral, linear, hairy. Legtime flat. 

353. GENISTA. Filam. upwards in 2 sets. Stigm. ter- 

minal, somewhat capitate. Legume turgid. Pistil 
depressing the keel. Standard reflexed. 

354. ULEX. Cal. of 2 leaves, nearly as long as the le- 



gtime. 



356. ANTHYLLIS. Cal. inflated, including the legume. 

355. ONONIS. Cal. in 5 deep segments. Legume rhom- 
boid, sessile. Standard striated. 

** Stigtna, or style, dcmjiy ; 'withotit the character of the 

former section. 

358. OROBUS. Style linear, nearly cylindrical. Stigma 
along the upper side, downy. 



251 

357. PISUM. St_i/le trianguhn: (S'i'/g/«« along the promi- 
nent upper angle, downy. 

359. LATHYRUS. St^le flattened vertically. Stigma 

along the dilated upper halt" of the style, downy. 

360. VI CIA. Si7/le bearded in front, below the stigma. 

361. ERVUM. Stigma capitate, all over downy. 

*** Legume more or less perfectly 2-celled ; ^without the 
former characters. 

365. ASTRAGALUS. Legume tumid, of 2 longitudinal 

cells. 

**** Legume xmth scarcely more than 1 seed; 'without the 
former characters. 

366. TRIPOLI UM. Legume hardly longer than the 

calyx, with 1 seed^ rarely more, deciduous, not 
bursting. 

***** Legume either jointed, or spiral; 'without the former 

characters. 

364. HEDYSARUM. Legume of 1 or more, compressed, 
close, single-seeded joints. Keel very obtuse. 

362. ORNITHOPUS. Legume somewhat cylindrical, 

curved, of many close, single-seeded joints. Keel 
rounded. 

363. HIPPOCREPIS. Z/d'o^mHe compressed, partly mem- 

branous, incurved, with many curved joints ; one 
suture with several notches. 

368. MEDICAGO. 2yeo^M?rte spiral, compressed, somewhat 
membranous. Pistil pressing the keel downwards. 

****** Legume of \ cell, 'with numerous seeds ; 'without the 
former characters. 

367. LOTUS. Legume cylindrical, spongy within. Wings 

converging at their upper edges. Filam. partly di- 
lated. 



5?52 



DIADELPHIA HEXANDRIA, 

s 

350. FUMARIA. Fumitory. 

Linn. Gen. 362. Juss. 237. Fl. Br. 748. DeCand. Syst. u. 2. 13 1 . 

Tourn.t.237. Lam. t. 597. Gcsrtn.t. Wo. 
Corydalis. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 113. 
Capnoides. Gcertn. t. 1 15. 

Nat. Ord. Corydales. Linn. 24. Papaveracece. Juss. 62. 
FiimariacecE. DeCand. Syst. 10. 

CaZ. inferior, of 2 opposite, erect, acute, small, membra- 
nous, deciduous leaves. Cor. oblong, tubular, ringent, 
with a prominent palate, closing the mouth : -pet. 4, more 
or less combined ; upper lip flat, obtuse, notched, re- 
flexed ; its base prominent, obtuse, constituting the nec- 
tary ; lower lip like the upper, sometimes with a similar 
prominent nectary, sometimes only keeled, at the base ; 
2 interior petals alternate with the 2 lips, linear- oblong, 
slightly connected by their callous tips. Filam. 2, awl- 
shaped, flat, shorter than the corolla, 1 within each lip. 
Aiith. roundish, 3 terminating each.filament. Ger7u. su- 
perior, roundish or oblong, compressed, pointed. Style 
terminal, short. Stigma compressed, of 2 flat lobes. 
Pod roundish or oblong, of 1 cell, with 1 or many po- 
lished, crested seeds. 

M. DeCandoUe remarks that each prominence, at the base 
of the corolla, contains a nectariferous gland ; and that 
each of the lateral anthers has but one cell, there being 
therefore only 8 cells, or, properly speaking, 4 anthers in 
all. But it is easier to understand them as 2 double- 
celled, and 4 single-celled, anthers. 

The plants are herbaceous, smooth, brittle, with annual or 
perennial roots, in the latter case sometimes tuberous. 
Stems simple or branched, mostly angular. Leaves stalk- 
ed, variously compound. Fl. clustered, with partial 
bracteas. Cor. purple, red, yellow, or white, often partly 
green. Seed-vessels very various, insomuch that many- 
botanists, in former times as well as in our days, have 
subdivided the genus by its fruit, and the Linnaean Fu- 
maria makes a whole natural order of M. DeCandolle. 
Linnaeus considered this as a genus in which one part of 
the fructification wanders, or is irregidar, of which there 
doubtless are many instances ; but the present is an ex- 



DIADELPHIA— HEXANDRIA. Fumaria. 233 

treme case of that kind, the Jruit being so impoi-tant a 
part, and so very diffei'ent in some of the species. 

* Pod 'with many seeds. Sectary single. Corydahs. DeCand. 

1. F. solida. Solid Bulbous Fumitory. 

Stem mostly simple, erect. Leaves twice ternate. Bracteas 
palmate, longer than each flower-stalk. 

F. solida. Linn. Ms. in Sp. PL 983. Fl. Br. 748. Engl. Bot. v.2\. 

t. 1471. Curt. Mag. <.231. Ehrh. Beitr. v. 6. 146. 
F. bulbosa /3 and y. Linn. Sp. PL 983. 
F. intermedia. With. 620. L 29. 

F. Halleri. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 863. FL Dan. t. 1 224. 
F. n. 349. HaU.Hist.v.l.lbX. 
F. bulbosa, radice non cava, major. Bauh. Pin. 144. 
F. tuberosa minor, radice non cava. Moris, v. 2. 261. sect. 3. 1. 12. 

F. bulbosa, radice solida, calcari et folio cristato. Bauh. Hist v. 3. 

p. 1.205./. 
Corydalis bulbosa. DeCand. Syst. v. 2, 119. 
Radix cava minor. Ger. Em. 1091 ./. Dod. Pempt. 327./. 
Capnos fabacea radice. Dalech. Hist. 1294./. Park. Parad. 279. 

/•2. 
Fabacea radice Capnos altera. Lob. Obs. 439./. 

In groves and thickets, but sparingly ; perhaps a doubtful native. 

About Kendal, and in other parts of Westmoreland; also at Perry 
Hall, near Birmingham. M'itheriiig. At Wickham, Hampshire. 
Rev. T. Gamier. 

Perennial. Jpril, May. 

Root orbicular, depressed, of several fleshy coats, but not hollow. 
Stem solitary, erect, a little zigzag, angular, leafy, almost always 
simple, a span high, with a lanceolate sheath or two near the 
bottom. Leaves 2 or 3, scattered, on channelled footstalks, 
twice ternate, notched, glaucous. Cluster terminal, solitary, 
erect, of from 10 to 15 variegated, purplish, inodorous^owers, 
each with a long, ascending, blunt spur, and a slight pale pro- 
minence at the opposite side. Bracteas wedge-shaped, palmate, 
five-cleft, glaucous, solitary at the base of each partial stalk, 
which they exceed a little in length. Cal. very minute, rounded. 
Pod short, bursting at the base. Seeds several. 

2. F. lufea. Yellow Fumitory. 

Pods nearly cylindrical, shorter than their stalks. Stem an- 
gular, erect. Bracteas minute. Spur short, rounded. 

F. lutea.- Linn. Mant. 2. 258. fVilld. Sp. PL v. 3. 865. Fl Br. 749-. 
EngL Bot.v.9.t.58S. Bauh. Pin. \43. MiU. Ic.9\.t.\36.f.\ . 



^54 DIADELPHIA— HEXANDRIA. Fumaria. 

Mill. Illustr. t. 60. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. ed. 2. v. A. 240. Ger. 

Em. \ 088./. 
F. n. 347. Hall. Hist. i;. 1. 150. 
F. capnoides. With. 620. 

F. corydalis. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 503./. Camer. Epit. 892./. 
F. lutea montana. Lob. Obs. 438./. Ic. 758./. Dalech. Hist. 

1293. / Moris, v. 2.260. sect. 3. t.\2.f.4; bad. 
F. tingitana, radice fibrosa, perennis, &c. Pluk. Almag. 162. Phyt. 

t. 90./. 2. 
Pseudo-Fumaiia, flore luteo. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 74. f. 
Capnoides lutea. Gtrrtn. v. 2. 163. t. 1 1.5. 
Corydalis capnoides /3. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 126. 

On old walls ; perhaps naturalized. 

Near Castleton, Derbyshire, far from any garden j Mr. Howard, 
on the authority of Mr. Robson. With. Near Fountain's Hall, 
by Fountain's Abbey, Yorkshire. Mr. W. Brunton, jmi. 

Perennial. May. 

Root of numerous fibres. Stem erect, a foot high, and, like the 
footstalks, triangular, brittle, juicy, reddish and shining. Leaves 
thrice ternate, of a bright, rather glaucous, green ; leaflets wedge- 
shaped, with rounded lobes. Fl. in a solitary, terminal, upright 
cluster, scentless, lemon-coloured, with deep-yellow lips. Brac- 
teas very small, ovate or awl-shaped, serrated, acute, much 
shorter than the Jlower-stalks. Calyx-leaves ovate, or lanceolate, 
with blunt points, membranous, soon deciduous. Spur of the 
corolla rounded, incurved, very much shorter than the stalk, as 
is likewise the rather compressed and quadrangular pod. 

Linneeus at first confounded this with his F. capnoides, but subse- 
quently took great pains to distinguish the lutea and its .syno- 
nyms. The true capnoides, preserved in his herbarium from the 
Upsal garden, and apparently not known to the learned Prof. 
DeCandolle, is certainly distinct, having large, leafy, deeply cut, 
stalked bracteas, paler powers, an awl-shaped spur as long as 
the rest of the corolla, pods twice or thrice as long as the flower- 
stalks, and according to Linnaeus, who cultivated it, an annual 
root, which Willdenow confirms j but the latter misapplies Hal- 
ler's synonym. 

3. F. claviculata. White Climbing Fumitory. 

Pods lanceolate, undulated. Stem climbing. Footstalks 
ending in branched tendrils. 

F. claviculata. Linw. Sp. PZ. 985. Willd.v.2,.8&^. Fl.Br.752. 

Engl. Bot.v. 2. 1. 103. Hook. Scot. 2\ I. Fl. Dan. t. 340. 
F, alba latifolia. Raii Syn. 335. 
F. alba latifolia claviculata. Ger. £m. 1088./. 
F. claviculis donata. Bauh, Pin. 143. Moris, v. 2. 260. sect. 3. 

M2./.3. 



DIADELPHIA— HEXANDRIA. Fumaria. 255 

Capnos alba latifolia. Lob. Obs. 438./. Ic. 738. f. Dulech. Hist 

1295./. 
Corydalis claviculata. DeCand. S?jst. v. 2. 1 28. Grev. Edin. 1 53. 

In bushy, shady, rather hilly situations, on a gravelly, stony, or 
sandy soil. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root slender. Stems one or more, delicate and tender, flattened 
on one side, branched, leafy, from 1 to 3 or 4 feet high, climbing 
upon other plants, by means of branched tendrils terminating 
their footstalks. LeOTes pinnate ; then pedate orternatej leaf- 
lets elliptical, entire, glaucous ; paler beneath. Clusters oppo- 
site to each leaf, stalked, rather dense, of several elegant white 
flowers, variegated with blue or grey, each on a short partial 
stalk, scarcely so long as its accompanying small bracfea. Cal. 
toothed. Spur rounded, very short. Pod lanceolate, acute, 
undulated at each side, containing 3 or 4 seeds. 

** Pod single-seeded. Nectary siiigle. Fumaria. DeCand. 
4. F. officinalis. Common Fumitory. 

Cluster rather lax. Pods single-seeded, globose, abrupt, 
on upright stalks, twice as long as the bracteas. Stem 
spreading. Segments of the leaflets lanceolate. 

F. oflicinalis. Linn. Sp. PI. 984. Willd. v. 3. 867. Fl. Br. 750. 

Engl. Bot. V. 9. t. 589. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 52. Mart. Rust. 

t. 68. Woodv. t. 88. Mill. 7c. 91. t. 136. f. 2; bad. Hook. 

Scot. 2\0. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 134. Fl. Dan. t. 940. Dreves 

Bilderb. t. 16. Bull. Fr. t. 189. 
F. n. 346. Hall. Hist. v.l.lA^i. 

F. vulgaris. Raii Syn. 204. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. ] . 201./. 
F. purpurea. Ger. Em. 1088./. 
Fumaria. Trag. Hist. UQ.f. Fuchs. Hist. 338. f. Matth.Valgr. 

501./. Camer.Epit. 890. f. Dalech.Hist.\292.f. Riv.Tetrap. 

Irr. t. 1 . 
Fumus terrse. Brunf. Herb. v. 1. 99./. 
Capnos. Lob. Obs. 437. f. Ic.7o7.f. 

In cultivated ground, and about hedges, common. 

Annual, May — August. 

Root tapering. Herb glaucous. Stem much branched, spreading, 
often recumbent, leafy, angular, various in luxuriance. Leaves 
mostly alternate, twice or thrice pinnate ; leaflets wedge-shaped, 
with flat Ifxnceolate segments. Clusters opposite to the leaves, 
stalked, erect, many-flowered, rather lax. Bracteas lanceolate, 
acute, not half the length of the flower-stalks, especially when 
in fruit. Fl. rose-coloured, or pale red, deep red at the summit, 
with a green keel to the upper and under petals. Spur very 
short, rounded. Cal. coloured, toothed, deciduous. Pod glo- 
bose, a little compressed, abrupt or notched at tlie extrernity. 



256 DIADELPHIA— HEXANDRIA. Fumaria. 

so as to be inversely heart-shaped, as Curtis first, I believe, re- 
marked ; its surface smooth j valves united, not splitting asunder. 
Seed solitary, globose. 
Dr. Cullen recommends the expressed juice of this herb, in a dose 
of 2 ounces twice a day, to cleanse the skin from leprous disor- 
ders. The same great physician thought it useful as a tonic, 
wherever bitter medicines are advisable j but of these we have 
many doubtless more powerful. 

o. Y.parviflora. Small-flowered Fumitory. 

Cluster lax. Pods single-seeded, globose, pointed. Stem 
spreading. Segments of the leaflets linear, channelled. 

F. parviflora. Lam. Diet. v. 2. 567. Willd.Sp.Pl.v.3.86S. H. 

Br. 750. Engl. Bot. v. 9. t. 590. DtCand. Stjst. v. 2. 136. 
F. spicata /3. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. 637. 
F. tenuifolia. Sym. Syn. 200 j with the syn. of F, spicata. 
F. foliis tenuissimis, floribus albis, circa Monspelium nascens. 

Vaill.Par.56.t.\0.f.5. 
F. tenuifolia, flore niveo. Besl. Hort. Eyst. vern. ord. 1. /. 1 1./. 3. 
F. exilis romana. Bocc. Mus. 107. ^ 81 . 

Tn fields in the south of England. 

About Woldham, near Rochester. Mr. Jacob Bayer. Near Ep- 
som. Mr. T. F. Forste)-. Probably Gerarde gathered it between 
Charlton and Greenwich, though his figure represents F. spicata. 

Annual. August, September. 

Herb like the last, but rather smaller in every part. Segments of 
the leaves very narrow, linear and channelled, not at all dilated, 
all uniform. Bracteas longer in proportion to thejlotver-stalks, 
rather awl-shaped. Fl. not more than half the size of F. offici- 
nalis, pale red, occasionally white ; tips of the inner petals pur- 
ple. Pod globose with a point, not abrupt, or notched. This is 
doubtless a very distinct species from the foregoing, and, as 
Prof. DeCandolle remarks, has no relationship to jF. spicata, 
whose terminal spikes, and oval, flat, thick-edged, dotted pod, 
are abundantly characteristic. 

6. F. capreolata. Ramping Fumitory. 

Cluster rather lax. Pods single-seeded, globose. Stem 
climbing by means of the twisting footstalks. Leaflets 
wedge-shaped, lobed. 

F. capreolata. Linn. Sp.Fl.ed.\.70\.ed.2.^Bb. TVilld. v. 3. 868. 

Fl. Br. 751. Ejigl. Bot. v. 14. t. 943. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 47. 

Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 9.9. With. 62]. t. 30. Hook. Scot. 210. 

DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 133 ? Ehrh. Herb. 78. 
F. officinalis /3. Huds. 309. 
F. media. DeCand. Syst. v. 2. 134 ? 



DIADELPHIA— OCTANDRIA. Polygala. 257 

F. major scandens, flore pallidiore. Rail Syn. 204. 

F. major, floribus dilute pui-pureis. Magnol. Monsp. \Q0. Vaill. 
Par.r)6.t. 10./. 4. 

F. viticulis etcapreolis plantis vicinis adhserens. Bauh. Pin. 143. 

F. Phragmites. Dalech. Hist. 1292./. 

In cultivated fields, not common. 

Sparingly at Edmonton, and a few other places near London ; 
more plentifully about Barnstaple, Devonshire, and elsewhere. 
Curtis. About Battersea, in fields and garden grounds. Mr. 
Sowerby. In Sussex. Mr.Borrer. Veryabundant about Liverpool. 

Annual. June — September. 

Most like F. officinalis, but larger in every part ; the leaves less 
glaucous J their tendrils twisting round other plants, by which 
the branching stem climbs to the height of 3 or 4 feet ; and the 
Jlowers are on the whole paler, though the tip of each petal is 
deep red • the pods are not abrupt, or inversely heart-shaped, 
but more globose, with a slight depression at each side of the 
place of the style, which is deciduous, like that of all the single- 
seeded Fumarice. Dr. Withering's figure erroneously represents 
tendrils distinct from the footstalks. 

Prof. DeCandoUe distinguishes our plant from what he esteems the 
real F. capreolata of Linnaeus, of which, as he understands it, a 
plate is given in his excellent Icones, t. 34, But in this plate all 
the fruit-stalks are peculiarly straight and upright, which is the 
character of his F. media. In our capreolata they become more 
or less recurved as the pods ripen, which DeCandoUe gives as a 
mark of his capreolata. The Linnaean herbarium here lends us 
no assistance, Linnaeus having adopted his F. capreolata from 
other authors, without possessing a specimen, if he ever saw one. 
Our plant however is that of his pupil Ehrhart, and of Jacquin, 
from each of whom I have specimens. The calyx-leaves in all 
my specimens are nearly as entire as in DeCandolle's figure j 
being much less toothed than in Curtis's. 
The synonyms of the various Fumarice in old authors might afford 
materials for an ample dissertation. 



DIADELPHIA OCTANDRIA. 

.351. POLYGALA. Milkwort. 

Linn. Gen. 364. Juss.90. H.Br. 752. DeCand. Prodr. v. \. 32] . 
Tourn.t. 79. Lam. t. 598. Gtsrtiut.62. 

VOL. III. S 



258 DIADELPHIA— OCTANDRIA. Polygala. 

Nat. Ord. Lomentacece. Linn. 33. Pediculares. Juss. 35. 
Polygalece. Juss. Ann. du Mus. v. 14. 386. DeCand. 
Prodr. 18. 

Cal. inferior, of 5 leaves, imbricated in the bud ; 3 outer 
ones smallest, nearly equal, ovate, acute, 1 of them up- 
permost; 2 inner ones much larger, like a pair of wings, 
coloured, veiny, ovate, finally converging and fading ; all 
permanent. Pet. various in number, combined with the 
filaments by their claws ; limb of the uppermost deeply 
divided; lowermost 1 or 2, keel-shaped, generally crowned 
with more or less of a many-cleft, crested appendage. 
Filam. all united at the bottom and attached to the co- 
rolla; divided above into 2 sets, of 4 each. Anth. 8, as- 
cending, tubular, each of 1 cell, opening at the summit. 
Germ, superior, roundish. Style club-shaped, straight. 
Stigma of 2 unequal lips, concave. Caps, orbicular, or 
inversely heart-shaped, compressed, of 2 valves and 2 
cells, the partition from the centre of each valve. Seeds 
solitary, pendulous, oval, downy, crested at the scar. 

A very large genus, herbaceous or shrubby, with simple, 
entire, alternate, or opposite, or whorled, generally 
smooth leaves. Fl. racemose, sometimes very beautiful, 
blue, crimson or yellowish. DeCandoUe enumerates 
above 160 species, from all parts of the world. One only 
is British. 

1. P. vulgaris. Common Milkwort. 

Flowers crested. Bracteas three, at the base of each flower- 
stalk, deciduous. Wings about equal to the corolla. 
Stems ascending, simple, herbaceous. Leaves linear- 
lanceolate. 

P. vulgaris. Linn. Sp. PL 986. fVilld. v. 3. 873. H. Br. 752. 

EngLBot.v.2.t.76. Hook.Scot.2ll. DeCand. Prodr.v.l. 324. 

Fl.Dan.l.5l6. Bull.Fr.l77. Bauh. Pin.2\5. Vaill.Par.l60, 

lG\.t.32.f.l. Ehrh. PI. Of. 358. 
P. n. 344. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 148. 

Polygala. Raii Syn.*287. Ger. Em. 563./. 3, 4 ; and 564./. 5. 
Polygalon. Trag. Hist.57\.f. 
Onobrychis secunda. Dalech. Hist. 49 1 ./. 

In gravelly and heathy pastures, very common. 

Perennial. .June, July. 

Root tough and woody. Herb smooth, of a dark shining gi-een, 
with several procumbent, or partly ascending, simple, angular, 
leafy stems, from 3 to 6 inches high. Leaves scattered, nearly 
sessile j the lower ones shortest, broadest, and most crowded. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. 259 

Fl. in a simple terminal cluster usually blue, but frequently pink, 
white, or purple ; always marked with green lines ; the perma- 
nent calyx turning green, and remaining long, with its closed 
wings, sheltering the ripening pod. 

It is hard to say why this plant obtained the name of Polygala, or 
Milkwort ; and indeed that name has been given by some authors 
to several truly papilionaceous herbs or shrubs, more deserving 
the reputation of yielding good food for cows. Our Polygala, like 
some other European species of the same genus, is bitter, and 
when given in infusion, promotes expectoration, and is good for 
a catarrhous cough. 

Reports have arisen of P. amara being found in England ; but the 
specimens I have seen were no other than the vulgaris. 



DIADELPHIA DECAlSiDRIA. 

Tliis order is entirely natural, comprehending the Papilio- 
naceous tribe, except such as have perfectly distinct, firm, 
awl-shaped stamens, which are therefore placed in the 
10th class; but of these we have none in Britain. 

Papilionace(E. Linn. 32. Lpguminosce. Juss. 93 ; sect. 5 — 8. 

Flowey^s all complete and perfect, except in the petals of a 
very few exotic species. 

Calyx inferior, of 1 leaf, tubular, rarely of 2 leaves, wither- 
ing ; obtuse and rather tumid on the upper side at the 
base, where the honey is lodged ; its margin in 5 unequal, 
moi'e or less deep, teeth or segments ; the lower tooth 
longest ; 2 upper shortest and most distant. 

Corolla papilionaceous, unequal ; petals characterized as 
follows. 

Standard single, largest, overshadowing the rest ; its claw 
flattish, inserted into the upper margin of the receptacle ; 
the part beyond the calyx roundish, or obovate, scarcely 
ever divided, marked with a longitudinal central fold or 
keel, and depressed at each side, closely embracing the 
petals beneath, by means of two prominences towards its 
claw, which are hollow at the upper side. Wings 2, equal, 
lateral, oblong, attached by their claws to the receptacle ; 
their upper margins parallel and converging, each termi- 
nating beliiiid in a tooth or spur. 

s 2 



2G0 

Keel of 1 petal, or more frequently of 2 combined, with 
a double claw, boat-shaped, compressed, with a tooth or 
prominence, on each side, at the base ; either rounded or 
rectangular in front. 

All the petals expand in bright wai'm weather, and close 
in darkness, cold, or damp. 

Stamens diadelphous. Filaments 2, lodged in the keel, both 
membranous and flattened, but usually differing in width, 
rarely equal ; 1 embracing the pistil beneath ; the other 
lying upon its upper edge ; the former keeled, divided at 
the summit into 9 slender awl-shaped parts ; the latter 
awl-shaped, simple, slender. Anthers small, equal, ob- 
long or roundish ; 9 on the broader filament ; 1 on the 
narrower. In some instances there is but a single com- 
pressed ioldied Jilament, terminating in 10 equally-divided 
anther-bearing segments, various in length ; m others the 
2 xmec^adX Jilainents are either united or distinct at the 
base. " The latter only are strictly diadelphous ; but the 
difference is of little moment, and not easily discernible. 

Pistil solitary, superior. Germen sessile or stalked, oblong 
or roundish, compressed, the length of the undivided part 
of the Xovfer Jilameiit, by which it is embraced. Style ter- 
minal, awl-shaped, ascending, the length of the separate 
part of the filaments, or longer. Stigma downy, tei'mi- 
nal or longitudinal, capitate, or linear, or dilated. 

Legume oblong or roundish, compressed or inflated ; either 
of 2 continued valves, and 1, rarely imperfectly divided, 
cell, with a longitudinal suture above and below, the 
former bearing a linear double receptacle ; or consisting 
of 1 or more closed, single-seeded joints. 

Seeds sevei-al, rarely solitary, roundish, tumid, pendulous, 
on slender alternate stalks, from the upper suture of the 
legume only, where it splits asunder, having one receptacle 
to each valve. Separate albumen none. Cotyledons either 
raised above ground in germination, becoming leafy, or 
subterraneous and decaying. 

The habit is either herbaceous or shrubby, annual or per- 
ennial. Wood hard. Leaves pinnate ; either abruptly, 
with more or less of a tendril ; or with an odd leaflet ; or 
ternate ; or binate ; rarely simple. Stiptdas in pairs, va- 
rious and remarkable. Injiorescence various. Fl. hand- 
some, often fragrant. Herbage wholesome for cattle ; 
seeds, when dressed, for mankind. There is no noxious 
British plant, nor scarcely an exotic one, in the whole 
order. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Spartium. 261 
352. SPARTIUM. Broom. 

Linn. Gen. 368. FL Br. 753. Gcertn. t. 153. 
Genista. J?«s. 353. Lam.t.Q\9.f.\. Tourn.t. 411. 

Cal. cup-shaped, two-lipped ; lips coloured, abrupt ; the 
upper with 2, lower with 3, very slight teeth. Co7\ of 5 
petals ; standard inversely heart-shaped, very large, en- 
tirely reflexed ; wings ovate-oblong, shorter than the 
standard, connected below with the filaments ; keel of 2 
petals, lanceolate, oblong, abrupt, longer than the wings, 
attached to the filaments, and connected together at the 
lower edges by entangled hairs. Filam. 10, all united 
into one undivided tube, sometimes slit along the upper 
side, unequal, thread-shaped, the lowermost gradually 
longest. Anth. versatile, oblong. Germ, oblong, com- 
pressed, hairy. Style awl-shaped, curved, or contorted, 
upwards. Stigma oblong, hairy, running along the upper 
edge of the blunt style. Legume much compressed, ob- 
long, obtuse, of 2 elastic valves and 1 cell, subtended by 
the permanent calyx, and tipped with the twisted style, 
which is at length deciduous. Seeds several, roundish- 
kidney-shaped, crested. 

Branched, often thorny, shrubs, with ternate, sometimes 
partly simple, smallish leaves, and large, handsome, yel- 
low Jlotvers, on lateral simple stalks. Legumes pendulous. 
Seeds from 4 to about 15. 

Lamarck has suggested that Spartium of Linnaeus is not 
generically distinct from Genista, and he united them in 
his Flore Fraiifoise 614, only referring a few species of 
each tt) Cytisus. Jussieu avowedly follows him, not with- 
out some doubts, and a suggestion that the single-seeded 
species might properly form a genus by themselves, after 
the opinion of Tournefort, who restricted the name of 
Spartium to these only. I would rather take as the type 
of this genus our S. scoparium, and some other species 
which, along with it, make a very natural genus, in cha- 
racter and habit, and from which Linnaeus drew up his 
generic description. These are clearly distinct from Ge- 
7iista, whatever may be thought of the rest. Those who 
have studied this natural order well know the importance 
of the stigma and the legume in their generic distinctions. 

1. S. scoparium. Common Broom. 

Leaves ternate, or solitary. Branches angular, without 



262 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Genista. 

thorns. Filaments all in one set at the base. Legume 
fringed. 

S. scoparium. Linn. Sp. PL 996. Willd. v. 3. 933. Fl. Br. 753. 

Engl. Bot. V. 19. 1. 1339. Curt.Lond.fasc. 5. t. 52. Woodv. L89. 

Fl. Dan. t.3l3. Dreves Bilderb. t. 48. Ehrh. Arh. 56. 
S. n. 354. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 154. 
Genista. Ger.Em.lSW.f. Fuchs. Hist. 2\8.f. Camer. Epit. 

950./. Trag. Hist. 961. f. Dod. Pempt.7 61. f. Riv. Tetrap. 

Irr. t.65.f.\. 
G. angulosa trifolia. Raii Syn. 474. 
G. scoparia. Lam. Frawf. 619. Hook. Scot. 2\\. Lob. lev. 2. 

89./. 

In dry gravelly thickets and fields^ abundantly. 

Shrub. May, June. 

A large bushy shrub, with copious, long, straight, angular, dark 
green, smooth, tough branches. Leaves deciduous, scattered, 
stalked, ternate ; the upper ones generally simple ; leaflets uni- 
form, obovate, obtuse, entire ; silky when young. Fl. axillary, 
solitary or in pairs, on simple stalks, longer than the leaves, 
large and handsome, of a deep golden yellow; sometimes tinged 
with orange; more rarely of a uniform pale lemon-colour. The 
swelling germen soon splits the tube of the filaments. Legume 
brown, flat, above an inch long, nearly smooth at the sides, but 
fringed with harsh hairs at each margin. Seeds about 15 or 16. 

A decoction of the young tops of this shrub, powerfully purgative 
and diuretic, is a rustic remedy for dropsies, which regular pijac- 
titioners have not altogether despised. 

353. GENISTA. Green-weed. 

Linn. Gen. 368. Juss. 353. Fl. Br. 754. Lam. t. 619. 

Cal. tubular, two-lipped ; upper lip in 2 deep segments ; 
lower in 3 more slight ones, nearly equal. Cor. of 5 
petals ; standard oblong, undivided, ascending, very dis- 
tant from the rest ; wings elliptic-oblong, spreading, keel 
of 2 petals, lanceolate-oblong, bluntish, slightly cohering 
by their lower edges. Filam. 10, in 2 sets, though more 
or less united at the bottom ; the odd one awl-shaped, 
separated more than halfway down. Anth. small, roundish. 
Ger7n. oblong, compressed. Style awl-shaped, ascend- 
ing, deciduous. Stigma terminal, simple, or slightly ca- 
pitate. Legume turgid, somewhat compressed, oblong, or 
roundish, obliquely pointed, of 1 cell and 2 concave valves, 
subtended by the permanent calyx, and tipped with the 
permanent curved base of the style. Seeds several, 
roundish, or somewhat quadrangular. 



DIADELPHIA-DECANDRIA. Genista. 263 

Shrubs of humble growth ; sometimes armed with strong, 
simple or compound, thorns ; branches in some winged. 
Leaves alternate, simple, entire. JFl. small, yellow, axil- 
lary, solitary. The supposed species with ternate leaves 
appear to me doubtful as to their genus. We have none 
of them in Britain. 

1. G. tinctoria. Dyer's Green- weed. Wood-waxen. 

Leaves lanceolate, smooth. Branches round, striated, erect, 
without thorns. 

G. tinctoria. Linn. Sp. PL 998. fVilld. v. 3. 939. Fl. Br. 754. 

Engl. Bot. V. 1. t. 44. Hook. Scot.2\ 1 . Fl. Dan. t. 526. Dad. 

Pempt. 763./. Ehrh. Arh. 27. 
G. n. 350. Hall. Hist. v.\.\52. 
Genistella. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. G7 f. 1. 
G. tinctoria. Raii Syn. 474. Ger. Evi. 1316./. 
G. infectoria vulgi. Lob. Ic. v.2.89.f. 
Tinctorius flos. Fuchs. Hist. 808. f. /c. 467./ Dalech. Hist. 

\7o.f. Bauh. Hist. V. I. p. 2.391. f. 

In pastures, thickets, and the dry borders of fields. 

Shrub. July, August. 

Root woody, creeping widely. Stems depressed, with numerous 
ascending, rarely recumbent, straight, fiirrowed, leafy, smooth 
branches. Leaves scattered, nearly sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, 
. convex, of a deep shining green, a little hairy at the edges and 
midrib, at least while young. FL on short axillary stalks, 
crowded about the summits of the branches, with a pair of small 
awl-shaped bracteas a little below the base of the deeply cut, 
smooth, angular calyx. Pet. of a uniform bright yellow. Odd 
stamen very deeply separated. Legume nearly cylindrical, with 
numerous seeds. 

The whole plant affords the dyer a good yellow colour, and with 
Woad a good green. Ray says the milk of cows feeding upon 
it is rendered bitter, which flavour is communicated to butter 
and cheese. 

2. G. pilosa. Hairy Green- weed. 

Leaves obovate -lanceolate, obtuse ; hairy beneath. Stem 
tuberculated, prostrate, without thorns. Calyx and 
flower-stalks silky. 

G. pilosa. Linn. Sp. PL 999. Willd. v. 3. 941 . H. Br. 755. EngL 
BoL V. 3. L 208. Rose Elem. append. 452. t. 3. Dicks. H. Sice, 
fasc. 16.16. Jacq. Austr. t. 208. FL Dan. L 1 225 j too upright. 
Ehrh. Arb. 66. 

G. n. 351. HalLHisLv. I. 153. 

G, minima. Dalech. Hist, \73.f. 



264 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Genista. 

Genistella pilosa. Bauh. Hist. v. \.p. 2^ 393./. 

Chamsegenista prima. Clus. Pann. 49./. 50. Hist. v. 1. 103./. 

Ch. pannonica. Ger. Em. 1313./. 

On dry elevated sandy downs or heaths. 

On high sandy ground about Bury^ Suffolk. Mr. Dickson. About 
Fornham, on the north side of Bury ; also on soap rocks, near 
the Lizard Point, Cornwall. Sir T. G. Cullum, Bart. At the foot 
of Cader Idris, North Wales ; Mr. Griffith. With. 

Shrub. May, and again in September. 

Root long and woody. Stems numerous, much branched, scarred, 
prostrate, round, with abundance of leafy, angular, or striated, 
somewhat silky, young branches, so buried among grass and 
other plants, that, when out of flower, the plant is difficult to 
find. Leaves small, simple, scattered, with axillary tufts of 
smaller ones, all recurved, obovate-lanceolate, rigid; dark -green 
and smooth above ; finely silky underneath. Fl. small, bright 
yellow, axillary and solitary, crowded about the tops of the 
branches, each on a silky stalk. Cal. rather short, silky, as well 
as the back of the standard. Legume oblong, rather compressed, 
hairy. Seeds 3 or 4, seldom all perfected. 

3. G. anglica. Needle Green-weed. Petty Whin. 

Thorns nearly simple. Flowering branches unarmed. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate. 

G. anglica. Linn. Sp. Pl.999. fVilld. v. 3.943. Fl.Br.7o6. Engl. 

Bot.v.2.t.i32. Hook. Scot. 212. Fl. Dan.t.6l9. Ehrh.Arb.37. 
G. minor aspalathoides, sive Genista spinosa anglica. Bauh. 

Pm.395. Prodr. 157. Raii Sijn.475. 
G. aculeata. Ger. Em. 1320./ 

Genistella. nod.Pempt.760.f. Fuchs. Hist. 220. f. 7c. 125./. 
G. minor aspalathoides. Bauh. Hist^ v. 1 . p. 2. 401./. 402. 

On moist boggy heaths, frequent. 

Shrub. May, June. 

Roots woody, long and creeping. Stems about a foot high, as- 
cending, woody, round, alternately branched, the leafy branches 
of the present year becoming next season permanent, woody, 
sharp, prominent, awl-shaped thorns, almost always perfectly 
simple, rarely bearing a small thorn or two near the base. 
Leaves numerous, small, scattered, ovate, acute, entire, smooth, 
rather glaucous, on short stalks, deciduous. Fl. solitary, in the 
bosoms of several of the uppermost leaves, small, bright lemon- 
coloured ; the standard of a deeper yellow, turning green in 
drying, as well as the wJHg-s. JiTeei remarkably long. C«Z. smooth, 
sharply toothed. Legume smooth, somewhat oval, turgid, beaked 
with the awl-shaped recurved base of the style. Seeds 10 or 1 2. 

I have restored the synonym of Fuchsius, first quoted by Dr. 
Stokes, and which I had considered as belonging to G. germa- 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Ulex. 265 

nica; but the thorns of the latter are repeatedly and plentifully 
compound. 

354. ULEX. Furze. 

Linn. Gen. 379. Juss. 352. Fl.Br.756. Lam. t. 621. Gcertn. 

t. 151. 
Genista-Spartium. Tourn. t. 412. 

Cal. of 2 ovate-oblong, concave, equal, coloured, permanent 
leaves, rather shorter than the keel ; the upper with 2 
small teeth ; lower with 3. Cor. of 5 petals ; standard 
ovate, cloven, ascending ; wings oblong, obtuse, rather 
shorter than the standard ; keel of 2 petals, straight, ob- 
tuse, cohering by their lower edges. Filam. in 2 sets, 
both united at the base ; one in 9 awl-shaped segments ; 
the other simple, awl-shaped, separate for more than half 
its length. Anth. roundish, of 2 lobes. Germ, oblong, 
nearly cylindrical, hairy. Style awl-shaped, curved up- 
wards. Stigma small, obtuse. Legume oblong, turgid, 
straight, scarcely longer than the calyx, of 1 cell, and 2 
rigid, elastic, concave valves. Seeds from 6 to 8, polished, 
somewhat angular, slightly compressed, with a tumid 
cloven crest. 

Stem woody, bushy, with abundance of large, compound, 
very sharp, alternate thorns. Leaves few, small, simple. 
Fl. axillary, bright yellow. 

1. U. europaus. Common Furze, Whin or Gorse. 

Teeth of the calyx obsolete, converging. Bracteas ovate, 
lax. Branches erect. 

Ulex europseus. Linw. Sp. Pi. 1045. Wiim.v.3.969. Fl.Br.756. 

Engl. Bot. V. 11. t. 742. Forst. in Sym. Syn. 160. Hook, 

Scot. 212. Fl. Dan. t. 608. Ehrh. Arb. 86. 
U. grandiflorus, Pourret in Act. Tolos. v. 3. 333. 
Genista spinosa vulgaris. Rail Syn. 475. Ger. Em. 1319./. 
G, spinosa major, longioribus aculeis. Bauh. Pin. 394. 
G. spinosa. Dod. Pempt. 759 /. 
Genistellse spinosse affinis, Nepa quibusdam. Bauh. Hist, v. I. p. 2. 

400./. 
Scorpius primus. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 106./ 
S. alter, sive Genista spinosa. Dalech. Hist. 164./. 

On sandy or gravelly heaths and commons abundantly. 

Shrub. May; and occasionally at all seasons. 

Stem from 2 to 5 feet high, with innumerable, den.se, upright, 
green, roughish, furrowed, branches, spinous at the ends, and 
beset with large, compound, spreading, striated, green, smoother. 



266 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Ononis. 

permanent thorns. Leaves few, scattered, small, awl-shaped, 
entire, spinous-pointed, deciduous. Fl. large, solitary or in 
pairs, of a bright golden yellow, with a very peculiar oppressive 
scent. Bracteas 2 at the base of the calyx, small, ovate, lax or 
spreading, densely downy, as well as the simple Jlower-stalks, 
and outside of the calyx, the teeth of which cohere so closely as 
to escape a casual view. Legumes downy, bursting elastically 
in dry hot weather^ with a crackling noise, and scattering their 
seeds extensively. 
The wood is very hard. The chief use of this shrub is to afford 
firing for the poor. Its full growth is attained in 4 years, and it 
ought not to be cut more frequently. 

2. U. nanus. Dwarf Furze. 

Teeth of the calyx lanceolate, spreading. Bracteas minute, 
close-pressed. Branches reclining. 

U. nanus. Forst. in Sym. Syn. 160. Tonbr. 83. Fl. Br. 757. 

Engl. Bot.v. II. t.743. fVilld.v.3. 969. 
U. minor. Roth Catal. v. 1 . 83, not 33. 
U. europseus /3. Linn. Sp. PL 1045. Huds. 312. 
Genista spinosa minor. Rail Syn. 475. 
G. spinosa major brevibus aculeis. Bauh. Pin. 394. 
G, aculeata minor, sive Nepa Theophrasti. Ger. Em. 1321 ./. 
Nepa apud Theophrasti. Lob. Ic. 788./. 

On dry elevated heaths, less common than the preceding. 

Shrub. August — October. 

This, as Dr. Roth justly observes, is in every part but half the size 
of the last. The branches are more recumbent ; the flowering 
ones more cylindrical and elongated. Leaves awl-shaped, hairy. 
Fl. scarcely half the size of U. europceus, paler, with a more 
yellow calyx, and narrower standard. The most essential cha- 
racters however consist in the more distinct and spreading calyx- 
teeth, and the minute, rounded, close-pressed, often hardly dis- 
cernible bracteas. These marks are conclusive and constant j 
and this species, which blossoms chiefly in autumn, may readily 
be known at a distance from the more common one, however 
starved, or injured by too frequent cutting, the latter may happen 
to be. 

355. ONONIS. Rest-harrow. 

Linn. Gen. 370. Juss. 354. Fl.Br.758. Lam. t. 616. Gcertn, 

t. 154. 
Anonis. Tourn. t. 229. 

Cal. tubular, in 5 rather deep, linear, pointed segments, 
slightly curved upwards; the lower one longest, subtending 
the keel. Cor. of 5 petals ; standard larger than the rest. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Ononis. 267 

slightly heart-shaped, striated with numerous ribs, keeled 
and compressed at the back, depressed at the sides ; 
wings obovate, but half the length of the standard ; keel 
of 2 converging petals, rather abrupt, pointed, a little 
longer than the wings. Filavi. 10, united into one cy- 
linder, splitting along the upper edge. AntJi. roundish. 
Germ, oblong. Style cylindrical, ascending. Stigma 
small, obtuse. Legume oblong-rhomboid, turgid, sessile, 
scarcely longer than the calyx, of 1 cell, and 2 rigid, 
elastic valves. Seeds few, kidney-shaped, roughish. 
A numerous Europaean or African genus, herbaceous or 
shrubby, occasionally spinous ; with sharply toothed, 
mostly ternate, leaves; large stipulas j and handsome, red 
or yellowish, stalked powers. Herbage mostly glutinous, 
and often fetid. 

1. O.arvensis. Common Rest-harrow, or Cammock. 
Stem hairy. Branches at length spinous. Flowers mostly 

solitary. Leaves generally simple ; entire towards their 

base. 

O. arvensis. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 1 2. v. 2. 478. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. 

651. Lightf.3SQ. FLBr.758. Engl.Bot. v. 10. t. 682. Hook. 

Scot. 2]2. 
Anonisn. 356. Hall. Hist. v. I. 155. 
a. Ononis inermis a. Huds. 312. 
O.arvensis. With.627. Sibth.22Q. Abbot 155. 
Anonis non spinosa purpurea. Raii Syn. 332 ; excluding the re- 
ference to J. Bauhin, which belongs to O. hircina of Jacquin. 
/3. Ononis spinosa /3. Limi. Sp. PI. 1006. 
O. spinosa. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. 65 1 . Willd. v.3. 989. Huds. 

312. fVith.627. Sibth. 220. Jbbot [55. Mart. Rust. t. \29. 

Fl. Dan. t. 783. Bull. Fr. t.l05. 
Ononis. Dalech. Hist. 448./. Matth. Falgr. v.2.37.f. Camer. 

Epit. 443./. 
Ononis. Fuchs. Hist. 60./. Ic. 35./. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 68. 
A. spinosa, flore purpureo. Raii Syn. 332. 
A. sive Resta bovis. Ger. Em. 1322./. 
A. sive Resta bovis vulgaris, purpurea et alba spinosa. ■ Bauh. 

Hist. V. 2.391./ transposed with that o/ Epimedium. 
y. Ononis repens. Linn. Sp. PL 1006. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. 651. 

Willd. v.3. 990. Light/ 387. , 
' O. inermis /3. Huds. 313. 
O. arvensis var. 2. With. 628. 
Anonis procumbens maritima nostras, foliis hirsutie pubescentibus. 

Raii Syn. 332. Pluk. Almag. 33. 
A. mavitima procumbens, foliis hirsutie pubescentibus. Dill. 

EM. 29. f. 25. 



268 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Anthyllis. 

In barren pastures, the borders of fields, and sandy road-sides. 
y on the sandy sea coast. 

Perennial. June — August. 

Root woody, tough and strong, whence the English name. Stems 
annual, thougli often considerably woody or shrubby, various 
in length, erect, reclining, or in y quite prostrate ; all round, 
branched, leafy and hairy, each of their principal, as well as 
short lateral, branches often terminating in a straight sharp 
spine, particularly where the soil is poor, or the roots of long 
standing, and this happens frequently even in the maritime va- 
riety y. Leaves alternate, stalked, elliptical inclining to wedge- 
shaped, dark green, roughish, strongly marked with straight, 
parallel, oblique, lateral ribs ; entire in their lower part ; ser- 
rated with minute teeth towards the extremity j many of the 
lower ones ternate. Stipulas variable in size, on luxuriant 
plants rather large, ovate, toothed, combined, clasping the stem. 
Fl. axillary, mostly solitary, on short stalks, large and hand- 
some, of a brilliant rose-colour. Cal. hairy ; its teeth perma- 
nent, enlarging as the fruit ripens. Standard twice the size 
of the wings and keel. Legume obliquely rhomboid, partly hairy, 
not so long as the calyx. Seeds rough with minute points. The 
foliage and calyx are glutinous, and, in the first or more lux- 
uriant variety, have a strong goat-like smell. 

O. antiquorum, by the Linnsean specimen at least, which is an au- 
thentic one, differs in nothing, not even in hairiness, from the 
spinous state of our common plant. O, hircina, Jacq. Hort, 
Vind. v.\. t. 93, sent by the author himself, may be a distinct 
species. It is much larger than any thing we have in Britain, 
erect, with perfectly elliptical leaves, copiously serrated through- 
out, mostly ternate ; very large stipulas; and Jlowers usually 
in pairs. Its synonyms have generally been confounded with 
the unarmed state of our O. arvensis ; see Ger.Em. 1322./. 3. 
Clus. Hist. V. 1. 99./. 1 ; and Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 393./. 2. It is 
moreover the real 0. spinosa mitis, Linn. Sp. PL 1006. 

356. ANTHYLLIS. Kidney-vetch. 

• 

Linn. Gen.37i. Juss. 355. Fl. Br. 759. Lam. t. 615. Gcertn. 

t. 145. 
Vulneraria, Tourn. ^ 2 11 . 

Cal. tubular, ovate-oblong, inflated, shaggy, with 5 small, 
unequal, marginal teeth, permanent. Co7: of 5 petals, 
with linear claws the length of the calyx ; standard long- 
est, reflexed at the sides; wings half- ovate, shorter than 
the standard; keel of 2 narrower petals, compressed, 
slightly cohering at the tips. Filam. 10, united into one 
cylinder, finally splitting along the upper edge, their 
separate extremities curved upwards. Anth. small, round- 



DIADELPHIA-DECANDRIA. Anihyllis. 269 

ish. Germ, oblong or half-ovate. Style awl-shaped, as- 
cending. Stigma obtuse. Legume small, roundish, or 
oblong, a little turgid, concealed within the enlarged in- 
flated calyx, of 1 cell and 2 valves. Seeds 1 or 2, round- 
ish-kidney-shaped, smooth- 
Elegant herbaceous or shrubby, Europaean ox A.{v'icax\. plants, 
with variously pinnate leaves, soft or silky pubescence, and 
mostly capitate and terminal, yellow or whitish, rarely 
red, powers. 

1. A. vulneraria. Common Kidney-vetch, or La- 
dies' finger. 

Herbaceous. Leaves pinnate, unequal. Heads of flowers 
in pairs. 

A. vulneraria. Linn. Sp. PI. 1012. fVilld. v. 3. 1013. Fl. Br. 759. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 104. Dicks. H. Sicc./asc. 3. 10. Hook. Scot. 

213. H. Dan. t. 988. 
A. leguminosa. Ger. Em. 1 240./. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 87./. 
A. lenti simllis. Dod. Pempt. 552. f. 
A. prior Dodonaei. Dalech. Hist. 1380./ 
Anthyllis. Riv. Tetrap. Irr.t. 18. f. I. 
Vulneraria n. 398. Hall. Hist. v. I. 173. 
V. rustica. Raii Syn. 325. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 362./ 
Loto affinis, Vulneraria pratensis. Bauh. Pin. 332. Morisi v. 2.- 

181.sec^2. t.\7.f. 1,2. 
/3. A. vulneraria, flore rubro. Dicks. H. Sice. fuse. 18. 18. 
Vulneraria supina, flore coccineo. Dill, in Raii Syn. 325. Hort. 

Elth. 431. t.320. 
Loto affinis hirsuta, flore subrubente. Bauh. Pin. 333. 

In chalky or limestone countries, where the soil is dry and rather 
barren. 

(3. In Pembrokeshire. Mr.Lhwyd, and Mr. Dickson. 

Perennial. June — August. 

Root woody. Stems annual, round, hairy, leafy, mostly simple, 
ascending, about a foot high. Radical leaves simple, elliptical, 
on long stalks, soon disappearing ; the rest alternate, pinnate, 
with a terminal elliptical leaflet, and several pairs of opposite, 
smaller, more lanceolate ones ; all entire ; smooth, and a little 
glaucous above ; hairy, or rather silky, underneath and at the 
margin. Fl. numerous, in a pair of crowded terminal head.g, 
accompanied by fingered 6rac<eas. Ca/. membranous, pale and 
hairy. Cor. usually yellow, rarely of a fine red ; in Germany, 
according to Haller, most frequently white. Legume semi- 
orbicular, compressed, veiny, smooth, with a solitary seed. 

C. Gesner, it seems, first raised the report of the vulnerary pro- 
perties of this plant, which perhaps, like other soft and downy 



270 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Pisum. 

applications, may, on an emergency, staunch the blood of a 
rustic wound, and give nature and a good constitution time to 
perfect a cure. Tiie herbage is said to afford good pasturage 
for sheep. 

357. PISUM. Pea. 

Linn. Gen. 374. Juss.360. Fl.Br.760. T ourn. t.2\b. Lam. 
f. 633. GtJErtn.t.\52. 

Cal. cup-shaped, unecjual ; the margin in 5 acute segments, 
permanent ; 2 uppermost widest, and most distant. Cor. 
of 5 petals ; standard broadest, inversely heart-shaped, 
reflexed, notched, with a pair of protuberances at the 
inner side near the bottom, its claw vaulted ; wings obo- 
vate, converging above, shorter than the standard, with 
wavy linear claws ; keel semilunar, compressed, of 2 ob- 
long, cohering, folded petals, smaller than the wings, and 
with narrower straight claWs. Filam. 1 ; 9 united, for 
more than half their length, into one compressed keeled 
tube, open along its upper edge, which is closed by the 
tenth, separate, flattish, awl-shaped filament. Anth. 
small, roundish. Geim. oblong, compressed. Sti/le as- 
cending, triangular, membranous at the edges. Stigma 
longitudinal, downy, united to the acute upper edge of 
the style. Legume large, oblong, compressed, somewhat 
tumid, pointed, of 1 cell and 2 concave valves. Seeds 
several, globular. 

Smooth herbs, with mostly annual, sometimes perennial and 
creeping, roots. Stems prostrate ; or climbing by the 
terminal tendrils of their pinnate leaves. Stipulas large, 
toothed. Fl. in axillary stalked clusters, purple or blue- 
ish, or yellow. Seeds generally eatable. 

1 . P. niarkimum. Sea Pea, 

Footstalks flattish on the upper side. Stem angular. Sti- 
pulas arrow-shaped. Stalks many-flowered. 

P. maritimum. Linn. Sp. PL 1027. H'illd. v. 3. 1071 . Fl. Br. 7 GO. 

Engl. Bot. V. 15. t. 1046. Spicil. 8. t. 9. Hook. Lond. t. 5. FL 

Dan. t. 338. 
P. marinum. Rati Syn. 319. 
P. spontaneum perenne repens humile. Moris, v. 2.47. sect. 2. <. 1. 

/.5. 
Pisa spont^ nascentia. Caii Opusc. lib. 2. 29. 2. 

On the stony sea shore, in several parts of the east and south of 
England, 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Oiobus. 271 

On the pebbly beach, between Aldburgh and Orford, Suffolk, 
abundantly ; also near Hastings, Sussex. Ray. On the west 
side of Denge-ness, near Lyd, in Kent. Cambden. Lincoln- 
shire. With. On the sharp ridge running from Portland island 
to Bridport. Mr. Stuckhouse. 

Perennial. July. 

Roots creeping widely, much branched, running to the depth of 
raanyfeet among the loose stones. Her6 perfectly smooth. Stems 
about a span long, procumbent, simple, quadrangular, slightly 
compressed, zigzag, leafy, many-flowered, glaucous, often red- 
dish. Leaves alternate, sessile, alternately and abruptly pin- 

. nate, the flattish common stalk of each ending in a branched 
tendril; leaflets 7 or 8, elliptical, with a small point, entire, 
veiny, of a dark rather glaucous green. Stipulas equal, triangu- 
lar arrow-shaped, reflexed, toothed towards the base, rather 
smaller than the leaflets. Clusters axillary, solitary, stalked, 
many-flowered, the length of the leaves. Fl. purple, hand- 
somely variegated and veined with crimson ; the prominences 
in front of the standard white ; wings and keel pale blue. Le- 
gume about half the size of the cultivated Pea, tipped with the 
permanent inflexed style. Seeds 6 or 8. 

The character and habit of this species approach the genus Lathy- 
rus, betwixt which and Pisum it is, in a manner, intermediate ; 
but the style is not flattened, and dilated upward, like a true 
Lathyrus. The young seeds formerly proved a resource in a 
time of great scarcity, as Caius and other writers report. At 
present, as Dr. Hooker observes, sheep devour the plant before 
it can well blossom. 



358. OROBUS. Bitter-vetch. 

Lin7i.Gen.374. Juss.360. Fl.Br.76\. Tourn.t.2l4. Lam. 
t.633. Gcertn.t. 15\. 

Cal. cup-shaped, unequal ; the margin in 5 acute segments ; 
2 uppermost shortest and most distant ; lower one long- 
est. Cm: of 5 petals ; standard inversely heart-shaped, 
reflexed at the sides, rather longer than the rest ; wings 
obovate, ascending, converging ; keel rounded, pointed, 
rather tumid, of 2 combined petals, with separate claws. 
Filam. 10 ; 9 united into a compressed tube, open at the 
upper edge ; the tenth capillary, quite distinct. Antli. 
small, roundish. Germ, oblong, compressed. Style as- 
cending, straight, cylindrical, channelled above. Stigma 
longitudinal, linear, downy, running along the inner, or 
upper, side of the upper half of the style. Legume ob- 
long, or linear, tumid, or somewhat cylindrical, with a 



272 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Orobus. 

sharp ascending point, of 1 cell, and 2 rigid, twisting 
valves. Seeds several, roundish. 
Perennial, generally upright herbs, not always smooth. 
Roots creeping, in some tuberous. Leaves pinnate, or 
conjugate, without tendrils. Stipulas oblong. Fl. nu- 
merous, handsome, racemose, variously coloured. Seeds 
not eatable. 

1. Q.tuberosus. Common Bitter-vetch. Heath Pea. 
Leaves pinnate, elliptic-lanceolate. Stipulas half-arrow- 
shaped ; toothed at the base. Stem simple, erect. 

O. tuberosus. Linn. Sp. PL 1028. fVilklv. 3. 1074. Fl. Br. 761 . 

Engl.Bot.v. 17. i. 1153. Curt.Lond.fasc. 1. t. 53. Hook. Scot. 

213. 
0.n.417. Hall. Hist. V.]. 181. 
O. sylvaticus, foliis oblongis glabris. Raii Syn. 324. 
O. radice tuberosa. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t.59. 
Lathyrus angustifolius, radice tuberosa. Loes. Pruss. 138. t. 37. 
Astragalus sylvaticus. Ger. Em. \237.f. Sibb. Scot.p. 2. \l. t. I. 

Thai. Harcyn. 7 .t.\. 
/3. Orobus tenuifolius. Roth Germ. v. \. 305. Hoffm. Germ, for 

1791. 253. D. Don in Tr. of Wern. Soc.v. 3. 301. 

In rather mountainous pastures, thickets^ and woods. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root creeping, externally blackish, swelling here and there into 
oblong knobs. Herb smooth, darkish green. Stems simple, 
erect, a foot high, compressed and winged, leafy. Leaves al- 
ternate, each of 2, 2{, or 3 pair of lanceolate, somewhat ellip- 
tical, ribbed, entire, bluntish or acute, leaflets, their common 
footstalk projecting a little beyond them, but not bearing a ten- 
dril. Stipulas strongly toothed and extended at the base, va- 
rious in width. Fl. in loose, long stalked, axillary clusters, ele- 
gantly variegated and veined, with purple, crimson, and shades 
of blue and flesh-colour. Legumes pendulous, long, cylindrical, 
black when ripe. 

The roots have a sweetish taste, and afford some luxuries and re- 
freshments to the hardy independent Highlander. There is con- 
siderable elegance in the flowers, and in the plant altogether. 
(3, an obvious variety, found in various parts of England as well 
as in Scotland, differs in having narrow linear leaflets. 

2. O. sylvaticus. Wood Bitter-vetch. 

Stems recumbent, hairy, branched. Leaflets numerous. 

O. sylvaticus. Linn. Sp. PI. 1029. TVilld. v. 3. 1076. Fl. Br. 762. 
Engl. Bot.v.S.t. 518. Lightf.390. t. IG. Hook.Scot.2l3. Lond. 
t.8: Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. I. 12. 



DIADELPHIA.— DECANDRIA. Lathyrus. 273 

O. sylvaticus nostras. Rail Syn. 324. 

Vicia cassubiea. Fl. Dan. t. 98 ; but not of Linnceus. 

/3, with simple leaves. Sm. Tour to Hafod. 1 6. 

In mountainous woods and thickets. 

At Gamblesby, Cumberland, about 6 miles from Penrith in the 
way to Newcastle, plentifully. Rcnj, In several parts of Wales, 
and the lowlands of Scotland. Also in Ireland, according to 
Dr. Wade. 

Perenijial. May, June. 

Root creeping, woody, tough, deeply fixed in the ground. Stems 
numerous, spreading or recumbent, 1 to 2 feet long, somewhat 
branched, leafy, angular, more or less hairy, but in this respect 
the whole plant varies greatly. Leaves of numerous pairs of 
ovate-lanceolate, acute leaflets, whose common footstalk is 
somewhat elongated, but not so as to form a tendril. Stipulas 
half-arrow-shaped, single-toothed. Clusters of numerous^owers, 
about as long as the leaves. Cal. more hairy than the stalks. 
Pet. cream-coloured, streaked and tipped witli purple. Legume 
ovate-oblong, smooth, compressed, much shorter than usual in 
this genus, and very differently shaped. Seeds few, from 1 to 3, 
dark brown, smooth, almost globular, with a long linear scar, 
but no crest. 

/3 is a truly wonderful variety, found by Mr. Todd, gardener to 
the late Mr. Johnes, on a hill near Hafod, Cardiganshire, bear- 
ing nothing but large, ovate, simple leaves, five times the size 
of the usual leaflets, but like them in texture, veins, &c. Sti- 
pulas rather smaller than usual. Rabbits are extremely fond 
of this variety, which, when transplanted into the garden, grew 
luxuriantly, increasing greatly by the roots, but could by no ma- 
nagement be made to blossom. The stems are much more slender 
than in the common state of the plant, 

359. LATHYRUS. Vetcbling, and Everlasting- 
pea. 

Linn. Gen. 370. J<m. 359. Fl. Br.:&3. Tourn. t.2\&,2\T . Lam. 

t. 632. Gcertn. t. 152. ^ 

Clymenum. ToHrn.t.2\S. 
Aphaca. Tourn.i. 223. 

Cal. cup-shaped, unequal; cut, about halfway down, into 
5 lanceolate, acute segments ; the 2 uppermost shortest ; 
lower one longest. Cor. of 5 petals ; standard largest, 
inversely lieart-shaped, reflexed at the sides; wings ob- 
long, obtuse, somewhat curved upwards, converging; 
keel rounded, rather tumid, of 2 combined petals, with 
separate claws. Filam. 10; 9 united into a compressed 
tube, open at the upper edge : the tenth capillary, quite 

VOL. III. T 



274 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Latbyrus. 

distinct. Anth. small, roundish. Germ, linear-oblong, 
compressed. Style ascending, flattened vertically, di- 
lated upwards, acute at tbe point. Stigma longitudinal, 
downy, running along tbe dilated upper balf of tbe style. 
Legume long, eitber cylindrical or compressed, pointed, 
of 1 cell, and 2 rather rigid valves. Seeds several, round- 
ish, or angular. 
A numerous herbaceous genus, annual or perennial. Stem 
climbing, by means of the tendrils terminating \he foot- 
stalks. Leaflets 2 or more, entire, rarely altogether want- 
ing ; leaves very rarely simple. Stipnlas mostly arrow- 
shaped, and rather large ; seldom very small. Fl. stalk- 
ed, axillary, either solitary, in pairs, or in clusters ; either 
crimson, purplish, blue, or yellow. The herbage com- 
monly afibrds good fmlder ; the seeds are scarcely used 
for any purpose. 

* Flovoers mostly solitary. 

1. L. Aphaca. Yellow Vetchling. 

Stalks single-flowered. Tendrils without leaves. Stipulas 
between heart- and arrow-shaped. 

L. Aphaca. Unn. Sp. PI. 1029. fVilld. v. 3. 10/7. Fl. Br. 7G3. 

Engl.Bot.v. 17. t. 1167. Curt. Lond.fasc.5. i.5I. Purt. v. 1. 

339. t. 3. 
L. n. 442. HaU.Hisf.v.\.\9\. 
Vicia lutea foliis convolvuli minoris. Bunli. Pin. 34.5. Moris.v.2. 

62.sect.2.t.4.f.7. 
V. quae Pitine Anguillarse, lata siliqua, flore luteo. Banh. Hist. 

t). 2. 416./. 417. 
Aphaca. Rail Syn. 320. Mill. Ic. 29. t. 43. Ger. Em. 1250. f. 

Lob. lev. 2. 70. f. Dod.Pempt.f)Aa.f. 
Orobanche legumen. Dalcch. Hist. 484. 

In the borders of sandy or gravelly fields, but rarely. 

In Calnbridgeshire. Relhan. Oxfordshire. Sibth. About Totten- 
ham and Enfield. Curt, hi a gravel pit between Norwich and 
Brooke. Mrs. Kett. Near Forncet, Norfolk. Mr. J. Fox. 

Annual. June — 4'ugust. 

A little, smooth, pale glaucous- green herb, branching- from the 
root into several weak stems, either procumbent, or climbing by 
means of numerous, alternate, simple tendrils, each of which 
springs from between a pair of large stipulas, of a broad arrow- 
shape, nearly entire. There are no true leaves or leaflets, ex- 
cept that now and then, on young plants, near the root, a pair 
of an elliptical shape, on one or two rudiments cf tendrils, very 
rarely on a real tendril, may be observed. But these soon 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Lathyrus. 275 

wither away. Fl. solitary, on long simple stalks, accompanying 
some of the tendrils, small, drooping, lemon-coloured. Brae 
teas in pairs, awl-shaped. Teeth of the cah/x long and lanceo- 
late, ribbed. Legume about an inch in length, somewhat cylin- 
drical, smooth, with about G round seeds. 

2. L. A^ssolia. Crimson Vetchling. Grass Vetch. 

Stalks mostly single-flowered. Leaves simple, without ten- 
drils. Stipulas awl-shaped. 

L. Nissolia. Linn. Sp. PL 1029. TVilld. v. 3. 1078. Fl. Br. 764. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2.t.\\2. Curt. Lond.fasc. "C. t.b\. 
L. n. 441. Hall. Hist. v.\. 190. 
L. sylvestris minor. Baith. Pin. 344. Moris, v. 2. 56. sect. 2. t. 3. 

L. angustifolius erectus, folio singulari sine capreolis. Magn. Hort. 
Monsp. 1 1 2. f. 1 6. 

Nissolia parva, flore purpureo. Buxb. Cent. 3. 24. t.45.f. 1 . 

N. vulgaris. Lind. Alsat. 73. t. 3. 

Catanance. Dalech. Lugd. \366.f. 

C. leguminosaquorundam. Raii Syn. 325. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 309./. 

Ervum svlvestre. Dod. Pempt. 529. f. Ger. Em. \249.f. Lob. 
lev. 2.71./. 

In bushy places, and the grassy borders of fields. 
■ Annual. Maij. 

Taller than the last, and more erect, being supported, though de- 
stitute oi tendrils, by surrounding plants. The herbage is smooth, 
of a grassy habit, as well as colour, by vvhich it often escapes 
notice, except when bearing its beautiful crimson blossoms, va- 
riegated with purple and white. Leaves sessile, linear-lanceo- 
late, taper-pointed, many- ribbed, entire, quite unlike the gene- 
rality of this order. Stipulas in pairs at the base of each, awl- 
shaped, minute. Fl. mostly solitary, sometimes two, on long 
axillary stalks, downy in the upper part, where they bear one 
or two little awl-shaped bracteas. Legume long, nearly cylin- 
drical, pendulous, with numerous seeds. 

** Floxvers in fairs, 

3. \j. hirmitns . Rough-podded Vetchling. 

Stalks two-flowered. Each tendril with a pair of linear- 
lanceolate leaflets. Legumes hairy. Seeds rough. 

L. hirsutus. Linn. Sp. PL 1032. mUd. v.3. 1086. Fl. Br. 764. 
Engl. Bof.v. 18. /. 1255. 

L. n.437. Hall. Hist. V. 1.189. 

L. siliqua hir.suta. Paii Si/n. 320. Bnnh. Hist. v. 2. 305. /. Riv. 
Telrap. Irr. t.A\. 

t2 



276 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Lathyrus. 

In cultivated fields, but rare. 

In various parts of Rochford Hundred, Essex. Ray. At Southend, 
Essex, Mr. D. Turner. Between Bath and Bristol ; Mr. Swayne. 
With. 

Annual. July. 

Root small. Stem winged, slightly hairy, leafy, climbing, by the 
help of its branched tendrils, to the height of about two feet, 
very little branched. Footstalks winged, each bearing, at the 
base of the tendril, a pair of linear -lanceolate, 3-ribbed, veiny 
leaflets, either slightly hairy or quite smooth, varying much in 
breadth. Stipulas half-arrow-shaped, very narrow, somewhat 
hairy. Fl,. usually 2 on each stalk, rarely 1 or 3, not large, but 
elegantly variegated ; standard bright crimson ; wings pale 
blue ; keel white. Cal. hairy, with deep, taper-pointed seg- 
ments. Legume broad, compressed, remarkably hairy. Seeds 
rough, blackish. 

*** Flowers numerous on each stalk. 

4. h. pratensis. Yellow Meadow Vetchling. 

Stalks many-fllovvered. Tendrils mostly simple, each bear- 
ing a pair of lanceolate leaflets. 

L. pratensis. Linn. Sp. PI. 1033. B'illd. v. 3. 1089. Fl. Br. 765. 

Engl. Bot. V. 1 0. t. 670. Curt. Lond. fasc. 3. t. 44. iMart. Rust. 

t. 52. Hook. Scot.2\3. Fl. Dan. t. 527. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t.43. 
L. n. 436. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 189. 
L. luteus svlvestris dumetorum. Raii Syn. 320. Bank. Hist. v. 2. 

304./. ■ 
L. sylvestris et dumetorum, flore luteo. Moris, v. 2. b\. sect. 2. 

t. 2./. 2. 

In meadows, pastures and thickets, very common. 

Perennial. July, Jitgust. 

Root creeping extensively, beset with fleshy tubercles, which ren- 
der it very tenacious of life. Herb mostly smooth, of a slightly 
glaucous green, turning blackish in drying; not unfrequently 
a little rough or hairy. Stems weak, climbing, branched, leafy, 
acutely angular, not winged, rising to the height of 2 or 3 feet. 
Tendrils for the most part simple, sometimes divided ; each ac- 
companied by a pair of lanceolate, acute, variously ribbed leaf- 
lets. Stipulas unequally arrow-shaped, taper-pointed. Flowers 
bright yellow, larger than the foregoing, 8 or 9 together, on 
long, upright, angular stalks. Cal. hairy, with slender, not very 
deep, teeth. Legumes nearly upright, black, smooth, compress- 
ed, sparingly produced. Seeds 8 or 10, smooth. 

Cattle are fond of this plant, which makes a great part of common 
meadow hay. It thrives on a wet clay soil, and has been re- 
commended by Dr. .Anderson for cultivation. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Lathyrus. 277 

5. L. sylvestris. Narrow-leaved Everlasting-pea. 

Stalks many-flowered. Tendrils branched, each bearing 
a pair of sword-shaped leaflets. Stem winged. 

L. sylvestris. Linn. Sp. PL 1 033. Willd. v. 3. 1 089. Fl. Br. 765. 

Engl. Bot.v. 12. t. 805. Curt. Lond./asc. 6. ^52. Hook. Scot. 

213. Clus. Hist. V. 2. 229./. Dod. Pempt. 523./. Dalech. Hist. 

471./. 
L. n.434. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 188. 
L. sylvaticus. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 39. 
L. angustifolius alter. Moris, u. 2. 5 1 . sect. 2. t. 2./ 4. 
Lathyri majoris species, flore lubente et albido minora, dumeto- 

rum. Rail Syn.3l9. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 302./. 
Pisum graecorum. Trag. Hist. 613./. 
Ervum sativum, rather sylvestre. Fucks. Hist. 572. f. 
E.sylvestre. Fuchs. Ic. 329./ 

In groves, thickets, and moist hedges. 

Between Castle Campes and Bartlow, Cambridgeshire. Dale. In 
a copse under Shotover hill, Oxfordshire. Sibth. Common in 
Bedfordshire. Abbot. In several parts of Kent. Curt. On the 
south side of Brundle church, Norfolk, near a spring. Mr. Hum- 
phrey. Between Bath and Bristol abundantly, and near Con- 
way. Huds. In all the hedges of the low country bordering the 
river Severn, between King's Weston and the New Passage. It 
is rare in Scotland. 

Perennial. July, August. 

itoo^s creeping. Herb smooth, climbing to the height of 5 or 6 feet. 
Stem branched, broadly winged. Tendrils in 3 or more divisions ; 
with a pair of lanceolate, or sword-shaped, lea/lets, 3 inches 
long, 3-ribbed, veiny, various in breadth ; and a narrow-wing- 
ed /ooii^aZA:. Stipulas very narrow. Fl. from 3 to 7 or 8 to- 
gether, on long axillary stalks, with an awl-shaped bractea to 
each flower. Cal. widely bell-shaped, with rather short teeth. 
Cor. variegated with pale crimson, violet, and tints of green, 
elegant though not splendid. Legumes long, compressed, tawny, 
reticulated with copious veins. 

Most of the German authors represent but 2 /lowers on each stalk. 
In England they are usually from 4 to 8. 

6. L. lat'ifolius. Broad-leaved Everlasting-pea. 

Stalks many-flowered. Tendrils branched, each bearing a 
pair of elliptical leaflets. Stem winged. 

L. latifolius. Linn. Sp. PI. 1033. mild. v. 3. 1089. Fl. Br. 766. 

Engl. Bot. V. 16. t. 1 108. Mart. Rust. t. 8. Mill. Illustr. t. 62. 

Hook. Scot. 214. Garid. Prov. 271. t. 108. Moris, v. 2. 51. 

sect. 2. ^ 2./. 3. 
L. n.433. //«».iiis<. u. 1. 188. 



278 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Lathyrus. 

L. Fl. Dan. t. 785 ; with synonyms of the foregoing. 

L. major latifolius. Raii Syn. 319. Ger. Em. 1229./. 

L. major latifolius, flore majore, purpureo, speciosior. Bauh. Hist. 

r. 2. 303./. 
L. sativus latifolius. Dalech. Hist. 470./. 
L. narbonensis. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 40. 
Clymenum. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 320./. ed. Bauh. 690./ Corner. 

Epit. 7 12. f. 

In woods, but rare ; by some supposed a doubtful native. 

In Madingley and other woods near Cambridge. Ray. Martyn, 
On the rocks by Red Neese, near Whitehaven, Cumberland ; 
Mr. Lawson. Ray. In Severn Stoke copse, Worcestershire ; 
Mr. Ballard. With. At Hawnes and Bromham, Bedfordshire. 
Abbot. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root much branched, but not spreading widely. Herb like the 
last, but larger in all its parts, quite smooth, of a rather glau- 
cous hue. Leajlets broadly elliptical, bluntish, with a small 
point, 3- or 5 -ribbed, copiously reticulated with veins. Tendrils 
generally in 5 branches. Stipulas ovate in their upper part, and 
broader than the winged stem. Fl. 5 — 10, large and handsome j 
all their petals of a fine rose-colour. Lower teeth of the calyx 
elongated. Legume long, compressed, rather narrow. 

Haller speaks of this common garden plant as having, in his time, 
just begun to attract the notice of agriculturists. Prof. Martyn 
recommends it for experiment, but I know not that he has been 
attended to. It thrives in any common soil, and the crop is very 
abundant. Bees obtain much honey from the flowers. 

Most of the old figures represent the leajlets as more narrow than 
we usually find them. 

7. L. palustris. Blue Marsh Vetchling. 

Stalks many-flowered. Tendrils branched, each bearing 
several elliptic-lanceolate leaflets. Stipulas lanceolate. 

L. palustris. Linn. Sp. PI. 1034. Willd. v. 3. 1090. Fl. Br. 767. 

Engl. Bot. v.3.t.\ 69. Fl. Dan. t. 399. 
L. n. 431. Hall. Hist. v.\.\%7. 

L. viciaeformis, seu Vicia lathyroides nostras. Raii Syn. 320. 
L. palustris, flore orobi nemorensis verni. Rupp. Jen. ed. 1 . 367./. 
Vicia lathyroides nostras, &c. Piuk. Almag.387. Phyt. t. 71./. 2. 
Clymenum parisiense, flore cseruleo. Tourn. Inst. 396. t. 218. 

In boggy meadows and thickets. 

In Peckham fields j T. Willisel. Ray. Near Abingdon, Berks. 
Blackstone. In Leicestershire. Dr. Pulteney. In some parts 
of Lancashire and Yorkshire. Huds. Near Ranaugh, Norfolk. 
Mr. Humphrey. At Burgh, near Yarmouth. Mr. D. Turner. 

Perennial. July, August. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Vicia. 279 

Herb very smooth, somewhat glaucous, 3 or 4 feet high. Stem 
winged, but little branched. Tendrils usually in 2 or 3 divi- 
sions, with 2 or 3 pair of elliptic-lanceolate leaflets, each having 
a midrib, and several parallel lateral nerves, Stipvlaslanceolate, 
pointed, varying in width as well as the leaflets. Fl. from 3 to 
6, in upright stalked clusters, not so large as either of the two 
last, but elegantly variegated with blue and purple tints. Le- 
gume smooth. 

360. VICIA. Vetch. 

Linn. Gen. 376. Juss. 360. Fl.Br.768. Tourn.t.22\. Lam. 
t.634. Gcertn.t. 15\. 

Cal. tubular, unequal, cut, about half way down, into 5 
acute segments, all of equal breadth ; the 2 uppermost 
shortest. Cor. of 5 petals ; standard largest, oval, as- 
cending, with a broad claw, the sides deflexed, the back 
somewhat keeled; wings elliptic-oblong, converging, 
shorter than the standard, with narrower claws ; keel 
rounded, compressed, of 2 combined petals, with sepa- 
rate claws. Filam. 10 ; 9 united into a compressed tube, 
open at the upper edge ; the tenth capillary, quite dis- 
tinct, closing the fissure. Anth. small, roundish. Germ. 
linear-oblong, compressed. Style short, ascending at a 
right angle, cylindrical. Stigma obtuse, with a transverse 
tuft of hairs in front, below the summit. Legume long, 
more or less compressed, pointed, of 1 cell, and 2 co- 
riaceous, rather rigid valves. Seeds several, roundish or 
angular. 

Herbaceous, annual or perennial. Stems climbing, by the 
tendrils which terminate \he footstalks. Leaflets for the 
most part very numerous, smaller than in Lathyrus, lan- 
ceolate, often abrupt. Stipidas half-arrow-shaped, tooth- 
. ed. Fl. axillary ; either in stalked clusters ; or almost 
sessile, solitary or in pairs ; crimson, purplish, yellow, or 
whitish. Herbage often useful for fodder. 

* Stalks elongated, many-floixered. 

1. V. sylvatica. Wood Vetch. 

Stalks many-flowered. Leaflets elliptical. Stipulas crescent- 
shaped, deeply toothed. 

V. sylvatica. Linn. Sp. PL 1035. WiUd. v. 3. 1095. FL Br. 768. 

EngL BuLv.2.t.79. Hook. ScoL2\4. FLDan.L277. 
V. 1). 426. HalL Hist. v. J . 185, /.12. f. 2. 



'280 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Vicia. 

V. sylvatica multiflora maxima. Rail Syn. 322. 

V. multiflora maxima perennis, tetro odore, floribus albentibus, 
lineis caeruleis striatis. Pluk. Jlmng.387. PhyLt.7l.fA. 

V. major species, quae altius conscendit. Moris.v.2. 61, between 
1 and 2. 

In woods and hedges, chiefly in the more mountainous parts of 
Britain. 

Not uncommon in Westmoreland, Cumberland, Worcestershire, 
Derbyshire, the north of Yorkshire, South Wales, and the south 
of Scotland. Found by the Rev. Mr. Hemsted in a wood near 
Newmarket. James Bobart the younger is said to have met 
with it in Oxfordshire, which Dr. Sibthorp's Flora confirms. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root creeping. Herb smooth ; not hairy as described in Morison. 
Stems numerous, much branched, climbing to the height of 6 or 
7 feet, and spreading widely, decorating the bushes which sup- 
port them with a profusion of delicate _/owers, elegantly varie- 
gated with blue and white, streaked with grey. Tendrils branch- 
ed. LeqfletsWghi green, numerous, opposite or scattered, oval 
with a small point. Stipulas fringed with numerous deep and 
slender teetli. Fl. numerous, in clusters longer than the leaves, 
supported by quadrangular stalks. Cal. rather bell-shaped, with 
unequal teeth. Standard notched. Legume scarcely more than 
an inch long, bright brown, minutely dotted, but not rough. 
Seeds about 4, roundish. 

One of our most elegant wild plants, well worthy to decorate shrub- 
beries, or to be trained over a treillis or bower. 

2. V. Cracca. Tufted Vetch. 

Stalks many-flowered. Flowers imbricated. Leaflets lan- 
ceolate, downy. Stipulas half-arrow-shaped, mostly en- 
tire. 

V. Cracca. Linn. Sp. PL 1035. mild. v. 3. 1098. FL Br. 769. 
Engl. Bot. V. \7.t. 1168. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 54. Mart. Rust. 
t.\\7. Hook. Scot 214. FL Dan. L 804. 

V. n. 424. HalLHisL v.\.]84. 

V. perennis multiflora spicata cserulea sepiaria. Moris, v. 2. 6i. 
sect. 2. L4.f. 1. 

Cracca. Raii Syn. 322. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. L 49. 

In hedges, thickets, osier-grounds and bushy low meadows, com- 
mon. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root creeping. Stems 2 or 3 feet high, furrowed, rather downy, 
climbing by means of their long many-branched tendrils, by 
which they choke and overtop other herbs. Leaflets numerous, 
elliptic-lanceolate, downy or rather silky on both sides. Stipulas 
each of 2 lanceolate spreading acute lobes, downy, occasionally 
toothed. Fl. numerous, in dense clusters, on angular hairy 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Vlcia. 281 

stalksj various in length. Cor. beautifully variegated with tints 
of bright blue and some purple. Cal. partly coloured, nearly 
smooth. Style, as Curtis'observes, hairy all round. Legume 
the size of the last, smooth, with 4 or 5 dark globular seeds. 
Said to be nutritious food for cattle, but it has not come into use, 
probably from the difficulty of gathering, or of cultivating, so 
pertinacious a climber. 

** Flowers axilla)^, nearly sessile. 

3. V. sat'iva. Common Vetch. 

Flowers nearly sessile, mostly in pairs. Leaflets elliptic- 
oblong ; lower ones abrupt. Stipulas with a blackish de- 
pression beneath. Seeds orbicular, smooth. 

V. sativa. Linn. Sp. PL 1037. fVilld. v. S.llOA. Fl.Br.769. Engl. 
Bot.v.o.t. 334. Mart. Rust.t. l\6. Hook. Scot. 2\5. Fl. Dan. 
t.522. 

a. Vicia. Rail Syn. 320. Riv.Tetrap. Irr. t. 54. Ger. Em. 1227./. 

Lob. Ic. V. 2. 75./. Camer. Epit. 320./. Trag. Hist. 624. f. 
V. vulgaris sativa. Bauh. Hist. jj. 2. 310./. 
V. vera, Aphaca Matthiolo. Dalech. Hist. 478./. 
Aphaca. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 500./ 
/3. Vicia sylvestris, sive Cracca major. Raii Syn. 321 . Ger. Em. 

1227./ 
V. n. 430. Hall. Hist. v. I. 186. 
V. lathyroides a. Huds. 318. 
V. angustifolia. TVilld. v. 3. 1 105. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 55. Ehrh. 

Herb. 57. Roth Germ. zj. 1 . 3 1 ? 
V. vulgaris sylvestris, semine parvo et nigro, frugum. Bauh. Hist. 

v.2.3\2.f. 
Vicia. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 501 ./. bad. 
Aphaca vera, Vicia Matthiolo. Dalech. Hist. 478./. 

In corn fields, and other cultivated ground. , 

/3 Among grass or bushes, on more barren or sandy ground. 

Annual. May, June. 

Root tapering, with many fibres. Herb more or less downy, with 
minute, silky, scattered, tawny hairs, very variable in luxuriance, 
as well as in the shape and number of its leaflets; its colour 
a bright grass green. Stems procumbent, or more usually climb- 
ing by the branched tendrils of the footstalks, angular, furrowed, 
leafy, not branched, except at the bottom, from li to 3 feet 
high. Leaflets from 6 to 10, opposite or alternate, elliptic-ob- 
long, bristle-pointed, abrupt j in /3 lanceolate and more acute ; 
those of the lower leaves, in a more especially, short and in- 
versely heart-shaped. Stipulas half-arrow-shaped, bristle-point- 
ed, more or less toothed, variable in breadth, each stamped, as 
if by a hot iron, with a blackish depression on the under side. 



282 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Vicia. 

palest in the variety /3. Fl. usually in pairs, on short, axillary, 
downy stalks, inclining, often solitary. Cal. angular, a little 
hairy, with taper teeth about the length of the tube. Pet. va- 
riegated with shades of purplish crimson, with some blue and 
white. Legumes erect, linear-lanceolate, H inch long, flattish, 
downy, with 9 or 10 orbicular, rather compressed, very smooth 
seeds, usually dark brown, or blackish, but theircolour is variable. 

The figure in Engl. Bot. t. 334, wanting the lower leaves, repre- 
sents the usual wild state of this plant, intermediate between the 
cultivated variety, a, and the starved narrow-leaved one, /3. 

As early fodder for cattle, the cultivated Vetch is in general use. Its 
seeds are food for pigeons. 

4. V. angustifolm. Narrow-leaved Crimson Vetch. 

Flowers solitary, nearly sessile. Leaflets linear ; lower ones 
inversely heart-shaped. Stipulas with a pale depression 
beneath. Seeds orbicular, smooth. 

V. angustifolia. Sihth. 224,- hut not of Roth, or Willdenow, or Ri- 

vinus. 
V. sativa y. Fl. Br. 770. 

V. sylvestris, flore ruberrimo, siliqua longa nigra. Rail Syn. 321. 
V. lathyroides. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 4. 12. Huds. 3\9, ^. Villars 

Dauph.v. 3. 452,/rom the author. 
V. folio angustiore, flore rubro. Dill. Giss. app. 47. 

In grassy pastures, on a chalky or gravelly soil. 

On Shotover hill, Oxfordshire. Bobart. In Stow wood. Sibth. At 
Weymouth. Sir T. G. Citllum, Bart. In Scotland. Mr. A. Bruce. 
In Hyde Park. Dickson. Among short grass in Richmond gar- 
dens. 

Annual ? Ju7ie. 

Root tapering, furnished with a few fleshy lateral tubercles ; 
branching at the crown. Herb smaller than any variety of the 
former, of a slender delicate habit, and distinguished by its very 
conspicuous, elegant, crimson powers, white at the keel and 
lower edge of the wings, and rather large in proportion to the 
other parts. The stems, mostly procumbent, are a span long, 
unbranched, slender, striated, smooth. Tendrils with 2 or 3 
capillary branches. Stipulas small, but not always narrow, 
smooth, sometimes toothed, their depressed mark rather pale 
than blackish. Leaflets 6 or 7; those of the lower leaves short, 
inversely heart-shaped ; of the upper ones oblong or linear, ab- 
rupt, or acute, with a small point ; all clothed on both sides with 
scattered silky hairs j the longest scarcely exceeding half an inch. 
Fl. I believe always solitary, those who describe them otherwise 
having confounded this species with variety /S of the last. Le- 
gumes nearly upright, narrow, downy, finally blackish. Seeds 
9 or 10, much like the preceding, but smaller. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Vicia. 283 

German as well as English botanists have so much confounded the 
synonyms of the present plant, with starved varieties of the F. 
sat'wa, and even with the more decidedly distinct V. latlnjr aides, 
that their characters have misled me. The observations of Mr. 
T. F. Forster induced me to re-examine the matter, and indeed 
to rely on my own original opinion. 

5. V. lathy roides . Spring Vetch. 

Flowei-s solitary, nearly sessile. Leaflets elliptic-oblong ; 
lower ones inversely heart-shaped. Tendrils simple, 
shorter than the leaflets. Seeds cubic, warty. 

V. lathy roides. Linn. Sp.P/. 1037. ?Fi/W. ».3. 1106. Fl.Br.77\. 

Engl. Bot. v.\.t. 30. Hook. Scot. 215. Jacq. Misc. v. 2. 299, 

t.l8. Fl.Dan.t.aS. Ehrh. Herb. 28. 
V. n. 10. Gerard Gallopr. 498 j from the author. 
V. n . 4. Guettard Obs. v. 1.235. 
V. minima prsecox Parisiensium. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 321. Tuurn. 

Inst. 397 ; according to his herbarium. 
V. minima. Riv. Tetrap.Irr. t.55. 
V. pratensis verna, seu prsecox Soloniensis, semine cubico, seu 

hexaedron referente. Moris, v. 2. G3. sect. 2.t.4.f.\4; very bad. 
Ervum soloniense. Li)in. Sp. PL 1040. Huds. ed. 1. 279. 

In fallow fields on a gravelly soil, in chalky pastures, or on dry 
banks. 

About Norwich, and in Hyde Park ; also in the King's park and 
various other places round Edinburgh. 

Annual. April, May. 

J?ooi fibrous, beset with minute fleshy tubercles. -S^ems several, 
procumbent in opposite directions, branched at the bottom only, 
3 or 4 inches long, angular, leafy, finely downy like the rest of 
the herbage. Footstalks channelled, each ending in a very short 
simple tendril, or none at all. Leajiets of the lower leaves 2 or 
A, short, broad, inversely heart-shaped ; of the upper ones 4 or 6, 
elliptical, obovate, or lanceolate, pointed ; all finely hairy on 
both sides. Stipulns half- halberd-shaped, for the most part en- 
tire, rarely with a lateral tooth, and quite destitute of any disco- 
loured impression. Fl. small, solitary, of a light blueish purple, 
occasionally white. Stigma bearded in front, like a true Vicia. 

' Legume not an inch long, rather tumid, dark brown, destitute of 
all pubescence, but very minutely dotted all over. Seeds about 
6, small, dark brown, cubical, covered with prominent warts or 
granulations, by which, and their shape, this species, so generally 
misunderstood, may be clearly distinguished from all to which 
it is allied. 

V, lathyroides of Allioni, Fl. Pedem. t.59.f. 2, mentioned by Will- 
dcnow, is totally difterent from this^ and perhaps belongs to our 
anguslifolia. 



281 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Vicia. 

(). V. lutea. Rough-podded Yellow Vetch. 

Flowers solitai'y, very nearly sessile. Standard smooth. 
Legumes reflexed, hairy. Stems diffuse. Stipulas ovate, 
pointed, coloured. 

V. lutea. I,i«w.Sjo.P/.1037. Willd.v.Z.W^l . m.Br.lTl. Engl. 

Bot.v. 7. t. 481. Hook. Scot. 21.'}. Lond. t. 74. 
V. luteo flore sylvestris. Bauh. Hist.v. 2.313. f; but not perhaps 

of Ray. 
V. sylvestris lutea, siliqua hirsuta, nondum descripta. Bauh. 

Pin. 345. 
V. flore luteo pallido, siliquis propendentibus hirsutis. Moris.v.2. 

62, undern. 4. sect. 2. t.2\.f. 

On stony ground, chiefly near the sea. 

At Orford, Suflolk, upon the pebbly beach. Mr. Humphrey. At 
Aldborough. Rev. Mr. Burroughes. Near Weymouth. Huds. 
Shoreham, Sussex. Mr. Borrer. Mearns-shire, North J3ritain. 
trof. Beaftie. In a chalk-pit on the side of Glastonbury Tor-hill. 
Mr. D. Turner. 

Perennial. August. 

Root creeping, divided at the crown into many branches. Stems 
several, spreading on the ground in every direction, scarcely 
branched, ( xcept at the bottom, from 1 to 2 feet in length, 
slender, angular, smooth, striated, leafy. Leaflets numerous, 
opposite or scattered, elliptic-lanceolate, sometimes abrupt ; 
hairy beneath. Tendrils long, branched. Stipulas small, ovate, 
or somewhat triangular, pointed, marked with a blood-red, or 
almost black, central spot, generally spreading over the whole ; 
often having a slight, direct, not reflexed, tooth at their base. 
Fl. very nearly sessile, erect, much larger than the leaflets, of a 
pale sulphur-colour striped with grey j rarely all over ash-co- 
loured, or white. Cal. tubular, pale green, smooth. Standard 
perfectly smooth. Legume bent downwards as it ripens, ovate- 
oblong, slightly tumid, IJ inch long and -i an inch broad, all 
over rough with short rigid hairs arising from small tubercles. 
Seeds 5 or 6, oval, smooth. 

That this Vetch grows on Glastonbury Tor-hill, as well as the fol- 
lowing, has been ascertained by Mr. Turner. 

Some of its branches are entirely subterraneous, producing co- 
lourless, apparently imperkct, flower-buds, which nevertheless 
form seeds. Of tliis curious fact there are several examples 
among various exotic species of Ficia and Lathyrus. 

7. V, hjhrida. Hairy-flowered Yellow Vetch. 

Flowers solitary, almost sessile. Standard hairy. Legumes 
reflexed, hairy. Stems ascending. Leaflets abrupt. Sti- 
pulas ovate, unstained. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Vicia. 285 

V. hybrida. Linn. Sp. PL 1037. fVUld. v. 3. 1 107. Fl. Br. 772. 

Engl. Bot. V. 7. t. 482. Jacq. Hort. Find. v. 2. 68. 1. 146. 
V. luteo flore sylvestiis. Raii Syn. 32 1 ; but not of Bauhin. 
V. sylvestris lutea, cum galea fusca. Bauh. Hint. v. 2.3\4.f. 

In thickets in the south of England, very rare. 

On Glastonbury Tor- hill. Ray. Gathered there by the late Mr. 
Sole, and Mr. Lambert, it is not to be found at Weymouth, 
nor perhaps in any otiier place in England besides the above- 
mentioned. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Much like the preceding, but ratlier taller and more upright, sus- 
taining itself, by the branched tendrils, upon neighbouring plants. 

. Leaflets oblong, hairy, variable in their termination, but always 
more abru])t or notched than in F. lutea, with a more conspi- 
cuous point. Stipulas ovate, acute, entirely green. Fl.on very 
short stalks, pendulous, somewhat larger than T. lutea, of nearly 
the same colour, but more tawny or reddish externally, with 
reddish stripes, and no grey or blueish tint. The essential spe- 
cific diff'^rence however consists in the standard being clothed 
externally with abundance of shining yellowish hairs, never ob- 
served to' vary. Legume like the last, in shape, hairiness and 
position. 

There cannot but be some uncertainty respecting the older syno- 
nyms of these two plants. J. Bauliin says he could not, in his 
dried specimens, discover the character of "galea fusca," under 
which they were sent to him. 

8. V. /cevigaia. Smooth-podded Sea Vetch. . 

Flowers solitary, nearly sessile. Legumes reflcxed, smooth. 
Stems ascending. Stipulas cloven, unstained. Leaflets 
bluntish, very smooth. 

V. laevigata. EngL Bot. v. 7. t. 483. Fl. Br. 773. mild. v. 3. 1 108. 

V. hybrida. Huds. 319. With. 639. 

V. maritima, flore albo longo. Moris, v. 2. 62. sect. 2. f. 21 ./? 

On the pebbly coast of the south of England. 

AtWeymoutli, Dorsetshire. Rev. Mr. Baker, Mr. Hudson, and 
others. 

Perennial. July, .August. 

Root furnished with many lateral, subterraneous, fleshy knobs ; 
branched at the crown. Herbage allied to the two last species, 
but in every part perfectly smooth. Stems either 3 or 4 inches 
high, and upright ; or above a foot long, and somewhat recli- 
ning, quadrangular, scarcely striated. Tendrils rather short, in 
2 or 3 divisions. Leaflets elliptic-oblong, bluntish, or rounded, 
with a minute point, but never notched, nor very abrupt ; their 
texture firm ; their colour a rather dark green. Stipulas short, 



280 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Vicia. 

with a lateral lobe^ green, or pale brown. Fl. almost erect. Cal. 
with more equal teeth than either of the foregoing. Pet. pale 
blue, or whitish, seldom yellowish, all quite smooth. Legume 
reflexed, rather short and broad, quite smooth, with about 5 
seeds, which when young are bitter and astringent as in the 
neighbouring species. 
Authentic specimens prove this to have been Mr. Hudson's F. Iiy- 
brida, found at Weymouth, though the plant before us wants the 
most essential characters of that species. 

9. V. sep'ium. Common Bush Vetch. 

Flowers about four together, in short axilhiry clusters. Le- 
gumes upright, smooth. Leaflets ovate, obtuse ; the 
upper ones gradually smaller. 

V. sepium. Linn. Sp. PI. 103S. fVilld. v. 3. 1 109. Fl. Br. 773. 

Engl. Bot. V. 22. t. 1515. Hook. Scot. 215. Fl. Dan. t. G99. 

Rh. Telrap. Irr. i. 56. 
V. n. 429. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 186. 

V. sepium perennis. Raii Syn. 320. Baiih. Hist. v. 2. 313./. 
V. maxima dumetorum. Ger. Em. \217.f. 
Aphace. Fuchs. Hist. llO.f. /c. 61./. 
/3. Vicia folio subrotundo brevi, obtuse mucronato, pediculo brevi 

insidente, flore Viciee sepium seu dumetorum vulgaris. Raii 

Syn. 321. 

In thickets and under hedges, common. 

Perennial. May, June. 

Root branched at the crown, or slightly creeping. Stems about 2 
feet high, angular, smooth, but little branched, weak, supported 
upon other plants by the branched tendrils of the leaves. Lenjlets 
opposite, or most frequently alternate, elliptic-ovate, obtuse, or 
abrupt, membranous, hairy, minutely pointed, dull green, gra- 
dually smaller towards the upper part of each footstalk. Stipulas 
various, undivided or two-lobcd, acute, each marked with a 
brown spot. Fl. dull blueish purple, variegated, sometimes 
white, from 4 to 5 or 6 together, in short, dense, axillary clus- 
ters, all leaning one way. Cal. with a longish tube, and short, 
narrow teeth, hairy about its upper part. Legumes ascending 
or upright, an inch long, smooth, blackish, pointed. Seeds glo- 
bular, smooth. 

/3 seems to be a variety with short rounded leaflets, or, if the defi- 
nition be correct, with simple leaves, perhaps analogous to that 
oiOrohus sylvaiicus above described ; but this can only be con- 
jectured. 

Schreber recommends this Ficia as excellent food for cattle. It hds 
not been attended to in England. 

A very extraordinary variety of the present species, gathered in 
Scotland by Mr. Arthur Bruce, lias only 3, 4 or 5 leaflets, to each 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Ervuni. 287 

leaf, larger than usual, tlie largest of all, above an inch long, 
being in the place of a tendril. 

10. V. bithynica. Rough-podded Purple Vetch. 

Flowers stalked, mostly solitary. Legumes upright, rough. 
Leaflets two pair, lanceolate. Stipulas with lateral teeth. 

V. bithynica. Linn. Sp. PI. 1038. jrUld. v. 3. 1 110. Fl. Br. 774. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2G. t. 1842. Jacq. Hort. Find. v. 2. G9. t. 147. 

AUion. Pedem. v. 1 . 325. t. 26./. 2. Marsch. Taur-Cauc.v. 2. 1 63. 
Cracca fioribus albis, foliis circa caulem denticulatis. Buxb.Cent.3. 

25. f.45./. 2. 
Ara'cus major, an Vicia Lathyroides, siHquis in eodem pediciilo 

binis. Rail Hist. v. 3. 448.' 
Clymenum Bithvnicimi, siliqua singular!, flore minore. Barh. hid. 

Alt. V. 2. 43. ' 

In bushy places, on a gravelly soil, often near the sea. 

Near Doncasier, Yorkshire. Mr. Tofield. In woods near Clifton 
upon Teme, Worcestershire. Dr. Stokes. Between Chocken- 
hall and Sandling, in the same county. Rev. Dr. Abbot. In a 
field half way between Weymouth and Portland ferry, near the 
sea. Mr. Lambert. On the coasts of Dorsetshire and Hampshire. 
Mr. Borrer. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root branching at the crown, furnished under ground with several 
small fleshy knobs. Stems weak, leafy, angular, slightly branch- 
ed, smooth, about 18 inches long, prostrate, unless supported 
by the branched or simple tendrils. Leaflets 4, on the lowermost 
footstalks but 2 ; elliptic-lanceolate, sometimes nearly linear ; 
about 1 i inch long, minutely pointed, entire, single-ribbed, with 
many lateral, straight, oblique veins ; the under side somewhat 
hairy. Stipulas variable in breadth, half-arrow-shaped, with 
several deep, taper-pointed, fringed teeth. Fl. on solitary, 
almost universally single-flowered, axillary stalks, shorter than 
the leaves. Cal. ribbed, tubular, hairy upwards, with very long, 
taper-pointed, (ringed, slightly unequal, teeth. Standard pur- 
plish. Keel and tcings white, the former tipped with light violet, 
the latter tinged with pale blue, both changing to a greenish 
brown in 12 hours after the flower is gathered. Legumes erect, 
broad, slightly tumid, reticulated with veins, rough at the sides, 
and more densely at the margin, with short, rigid, tawny hairs. 
Seeds 5 or 6, globose, smooth, speckled with black and grey. 
The stigma is truly that o! a licia, though the habit rather an- 
swers to Lathyrus, where Linnaeus first placed this species. 

361. ERVUM. Tare. 

Linn. Gen. 37 6. Juss. 3G0. Fl. P.r.77:u 1Villd.v.3.\\\2. Tavrn. 
/. 221. Lam. 1.634. 



§88 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Ervum. 

Cal. tubular, cut, about half way down, into 5 lanceolate, 
taper-pointed segments, shorter than the corolla ; the 
lowermost rather the longest. Cor. of 5 petals ; standard 
largest, obovate, slightly reflexed ; wings half as long, 
obtuse ; keel nearly equal to the wings, rounded, with an 
acute point, of 2 combined petals, with separate claws. 
Filam. 1 ; 9 united into a compressed tube, open at the 
upper edge ; the tenth capillary, distinct, closing the fis- 
sure. Anth. small, roundish. Germ, oblong, compressed. 
Stt/le cylindrical, half as long, ascending at a right angle. 
Stigma terminal, capitate, all over hair}'. Legume oblong, 
compressed, bhintish, tumid only from the projection of 
the seeds, which are from 2 to 4, roundish, a little flat- 
tened. » 

Annual slender herbs, climbing by means of the tendrils of 
their numerously-pinnate narrow leaves. Clusters stalked, 
axillary, each of a very few small, palej^oro^rs. Legumes 
small, pendulous. Our species, nearly all that really be- 
long to the genus, are useless, and but too prolific, weeds. 

The Linnsean generic description is taken from E. Le?is, 
which is truly a Ciccr. 

1. ^. tetraspermum. Smooth Tare. 

Flowers mostly in pairs. Legume smooth, with four seeds. 
Leaflets oblong, bluntish. 

E. tetraspermum. Linn. Sp. PL 1039. fVilld. v. 3. 11 12. Fl. 

Br. 775. Ensl. Bot. v. 17. t. 1223. Curt. Loral, fasc. 1. t. .5.5. 

Hook. Scot. 216. Fl. Dan. t. 95. 
Vicia n. 423. Hall. Hist.r. I. 184. 
V. minor segetum, cuin siliquis paucis glabri.i. Moris, v. 2. 64. 

sect. "2. t. 4. f. 16. 
V. segetum, singularibus siliquis glabris. Bauh. Pin. 345. 
Vicise, sive Craccas minimae, species cum siliquis glabris. Bauh. 

Hist. V. 2. 3] 5. f. 
Ciacca minor, siliquis singularibus, flosculis caerulescentibus. Paii 

Sijn. 322. 
C. minor, siliquis gemellis. Riv. Tetrap. trr. I. 53./. 1. 

In corn fields, liedges and thickets, particularly such as are rather 
moist. 

Annual. .June., July. 

Root small and tapering. Herb besprinkled with fine soft hairs, 
especially thejiower-stalks and calyx. Stem weak, quadrangu- 
lar, branched from the bottom, leafy, climbing to the height of 
2 or 3 feet. Leaflets 4 pair or more, linear-oblong, more or 
less blunt, with a minute point. Stipiilas half-arrow-shaped, 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Ornithopus. 289 

narrow, entire. Fl. usually 2 on each stalk, rarely 3 or 4, often 
solitary, small, drooping, pale grey; the standard streaked, and 
the keel tipped, with a deep blue. Legumes pendulous, oblong, 
bluatish, smooth. Seeds most generally 4; sometimes from 
abortion 3 only ; rarely 5, 6 or 7. 
Rather uncommon in Switzerland^ where the following species is 
very frequent. 

2. E. hirsutum. Hairy Tare. 

Clusters many-flowered. Legumes hairy, with two seeds. 
Leaflets abrupt. 

E. hirsutum. Unn. Sp. PI. 1039. mild. u. 3. 11 13. ft Br. 776. 

Engl. Bot. V. ] 4. t. 970. Curt. Lond. fasc. 1. 1. 54. Hook. Scot. 

216. FLDaii.t.t)39. 
Vicia n. 422. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 184. 
V. minor segetum, cum siliquis plurimis hlrsutis. Bauh. Pin. 345- 

Moris. V. 2. 63. sect. 2. t. 4./. 15. 
V. sylvestris, sive Cracca, minima. Ger. Em. l22S.f. 
V. parva, sive Cracca minor, cum multis siliquis hirsutis. Bauh, 

Hist.v.2.3\5.f. 
Cracca minor. Rail Syn. 322. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t, 53./. 2. 
Craccse alterum genus. Dod. Pempt.542.f. 
Aracus sive Cracca minima. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 76. f. 

In corn fields, and other cultivated ground, as well as in hedges, a 
very troublesome weed, especially in wet seasons. 

Annual. June — August. 

Habit much like the foregoing ; but the stem is nearly smooth, as 
well as the leaflets, which are rather broader, and more abrupt, 
or notched at the end. Stipulas often in many slender divisions. 
FL from 5 to 7 in each cluster, very small, pale blue, or almost 
white, with 2 dark spots on the keel. Legumes short, dark 
brown, besprinkled with hairs, to which the specific name alludes. 
Seeds 2 in each legume, large and prominent; often, from abor- 
tion, solitary. 

362. ORNITHOPUS. Bird's-foot. 

Linn. Gen. 38\. Jttss.36\. Fl.Br.776. Lam. t. 631. Gcerln. t. ]5:). 
Ornithopodium. Tourn. t. 224. 

Cal. tubular, permanent ; the margin in 5, nearly equal, 
teeth. Cor. of 5 petals ; standard obovate, ascending, en- 
tire ; wings rather smaller, obovate, curved upward ; keel 
still smaller, of 2 slightly tumid, converging, rounded 
petals, with slender distinct claws. Filam. 10; 9 in one 
compressed tube, slit along the upper edge ; the tenth ca- 
pillary, distinct; all curved upward at the extremity. 
Anth. minute, roundish. Germ, linear, compressed. Style 

VOL. III. u 



290 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Hippocrepis. 

slender, ascending. Stigma capitate, naked. Legume 
curved, compressed, jointed, separating finally at the 
joints, each of which remains closed, containing a solitary 
roundish seed. 
Small, mostly annual, herbs. Leaves pinnate, with an odd 
leaflet; rarely ternate only. <S'^?p?^/gs undivided. P/. either 
capitate or umbellate, reddish or yellow, minute. 

1. O.perpuxillus. Common Bird's-foot. 

Leaves pinnate. Flowers capitate, accompanied by a leaf. 
Legumes incurved, beaded. 

O.perpusillus. Linn. Sp.PlAM9. W^j/W.d. 3.1155. Fl.Br.777. 
Engl.Bot.v.6.t.369. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t 53. Hook.Scot.2l6. 
Ornithopodium n. 393. Hall. Hist. v. l.\7 . 
O. radice nodosa. Raii Syn. 326. 
O. minus. Ger. -Em. 1241./. 
O. tuberosum. Dalech. Hist.4S6.f. 

In sandy or gravelly pastures. 

Annual. May. 

Root fibrous, annual, though, as Dillenius in Ray's Sytiopsis re- 
cords, after Mr. Doody, it is sometimes propagated by subterra- 
neous lateral granulations, or knobs, in the manner of a potatoe, 
in which case the seeds are abortive. Similar knobs occur in 
ricia laihyroides, and other papilionaceous plants. The stems, 
often numerous, are procumbent, from 3 to 10 or 12 inches long, 
furrowed, downy, leafy. Leaves alternate, of from 5 to 1 or 12 
pair of small, uniform, elliptical leaflets, hairy, especially at the 
back, with a terminal one about the same size and figure. Sti- 
pulas very small, the upper ones lanceolate or awl-shaped, 
scarcely visible; lower linear, acute, united laterally to the foot- 
stalks. Fl. 3 or 4 in each little head, or tuft, closely accompa- 
nied by a pinnate leaf, of but few leaflets. Cal. downy, colour- 
ed. Standard and wings white, beautifully veined with crimson ; 
keel greenish. Legumes pointed, curved upwards, finely hairy, 
wrinkled lengthwise when dry, their bead-like joints elliptical, 
moderately compressed. 

O. majus, Bauh. Pin. 350. Ger. Em. 1241./. 3, is supposed to be 
a larger variety of perpusillus, different from O. intermedins of 
Roth and Hoffmann. Roth describes the latter as having stems 
2 or 3 feet long, flowers thrice the size of perpusillus, and a very 
hairy calyx. Nothing answering to this account has been ob- 
served in England. 

363. HIPPOCREPIS. Horse-shoe- vetch. 

Linn. Gen. 381. Jwsi. 361. Fl.Br.777. Lam.t.630. 
Ferrum equinum. Tourn. t. 225. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Hippocrepis. 291 

Cal. bell-shaped, permanent, divided, about half way down, 
into 5 acute, lanceolate segments; the 2 uppermost 
shortest, and less deeply separated. Cor. of 5 petals, 
their claws longer than the calyx ; standard heart-shaped, 
ascending, with a vaulted claw; wings obovate, obtuse, 
with flat broadish claws ; keel of 2 combined petals, 
rounded, pointed, with very narrow separate claws. Filam, 
10; 9 united into a tube, open at the upper edge; the 
tenth quite distinct ; all curved upwards at the extremity. 
Anth. roundish. Germ, slender, compressed, tapering 
into an awl-shaped ascending s/j//(?. Stigma linear, rather 
flattened, quite smooth. Legume compressed, partly mem- 
branous, incurved, jointed, notched, separating finally at 
the joints, each of which is nearly crescent-shaped, simple 
or bordered, closed, tumid, containing a solitary, curved, 
oblong seed. 

Annual or perennial herbs, larger than the last genus. Leaves 
pinnate, with an odd leaflet, uniform. Stipulas membra- 
nous, oblong, undivided. Fl. umbellate, yellow ; in one 
species solitary. Legumes curiously notched. 

I. H. comosa. Tufted Horse-shoe-vetch. 

Legumes umbellate, rough ; their joints neither dilated nor 
bordered. 

H. comosa. Linn. Sp. PL 1050. WiUd. v. 3. 1 159. Fl. Br. 777. 
Engl.Bot.v.\.t.3[. Dkks.H. Sice, fasc.8. 14. Hook.Scot.2l6. 

Ferrum equinum n.39l. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 170. 

F. equinum Germanioum, siliquis in summitate. Bauh. Pin. 349. 
Raii Syn. 325. 

F. equinum comosum. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 97. f. 2. 

F. equinum capitatum. Column. Ecphr. 302. t. 301. f. I. Moris. 
V.2. \ 18. sect. 2. 1. 10. f. 3. 

Sferra cavallo. Camer. Epif. 642. f. 1 . 

On dry chalky banks ; sometimes on limestone. 

Plentiful in Kent, Berkshire, Cambridgeshire, at Marhani in Nor- 
folk, and in most chalk countries. 

Perennial. May — August. 

Root woody, running deep into the ground. Stems branched at 
the bottom, furrowed, leafy, smooth, procumbent, from 6 to 12 
inches long. Leaflets from 7 to 11, obovate, obtuse or abrupt, 
very minutely pointed, somewhat fleshy ; smooth above ; more 
or less hairy 'beneath. Stipulas ovate, entire, a little spreading. 
Fl. about 6 or more together, in umbels, rising high above the 
rest of the plant, on long, stout, smooth, naked, axillary or ter- 
minal, stalks. Standard deep yellow, and striated, in front j 

v2 



292 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Hedysarum. 

other petals paler. Legumes above an inch long, curved down- 
ward, bright bay-coloured, rough with minute prominent points ; 
their joints crescent-shaped, nearly cylindrical, obscurely two- 
edged, but without any of the marginal dilatation remarkable in 
other species. 

304. HEDYSARUM. Saint-foin. 

Linn. Gen. '682. Juss. 362. Fl.Br.778. Tourn.t. 225. Lam. 

t.628. Gtertn.t. 155. 
Onobrychis. Tourn.t. 211. 

Cal. tubular, permanent, divided half way down into 5 awl- 
shaped, straight segments. Car. of 5 petals ; standard 
ovate-oblong, keeled at the back, slightly cloven, reflexed 
at the sides ; wings oblong, straight, narrower than the 
other petals ; keel of 2 united petals with separate claws, 
compressed almost flat, very abrupt and straight, almost 
rectangular, in front. Filam. 10; 9 in one flattish tube, 
open above ; the tenth awl-shaped, distinct, usually 
shorter; all capillary, and bent upwards, at the extremity. 
Anth. roundish. Germ, ovate, or oblong, compressed. 
Style awl-shaped, curved upwards. Stigma simple, acute, 
naked. Legume of one or more roundish, compressed, 
bivalve but close joints, each containing a solitary, kid- 
ney-shaped seed. 

A very numerous, hei'baceous or shrubby genus, with pin- 
nate, ternate, or simple leaves-, copious, handsome, clus- 
tered, crimson or purplish^Oci:w.S; ?iX\A seed-vessels so va- 
rious, that an over-curious fabricator of genera might 
here find ample employment, though not to any good 
purpose. Stylosanthes of Swartz, and Hallia of Thun- 
berg, liave indeetl been well removed from the original 
Hedysarum. 

1. Yi. Onobrychis. Common Saint-foin. Cock's-head. 

Leaves pinnate, nearly smooth. Legume single-seeded, 
toothed at the maigin and ribs. Wings of the corolla 
not longer than the calyx. Stem elongated. 

H. Onobrychis. Linn. Sp. PI. 1059. Willd.v. 3.\2\5. Fl.Br.778. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 96. Mart. Rust. t. 47. Jacq. Austr. t. 352. 
Onobrychis. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t.2. Dod. Pempt.548.f. 
O. n. 396. Hall. Hist. v. ]. 172. 

O. seu Caput gallinaceum. Rail Syn.327. Ger. Em. 1243./. 
O. major, siliculis echinatis cristatis in spica digestis. Moris, v. 2. 

\3\.sect.2.t.U.f.\0. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Astragalus. 293 

Caput gallinaceum Belgarum. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 81 ./. 
Polygala multorum. Dalech. Hist. 488,/. 
Polygalon Gesneri. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 335./. 

On dry chalky hills and open downs, in various parts of England. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root rather woody. Stems several, recumbent, 2 or 3 feet in 
length, round, furrowed, smooth, leafy, not much branched. 
Leaves of many pairs of elliptic-oblong, uniform, pointed, entire 
leaflets ; smooth above j often a little hairy beneath ; the termi- 
nal one like the rest. Stipulas ovate, pointed, entire. Flower- 
stalks axillary, ascending, longer than the leaves, each bearing 
a dense tapering spike, rather than a cluster, of handsome, va- 
riegated, crimson ^oj/;e7«, with numerous narrow membranous 
bracteas interspersed. Legumes erect, semiorbicular, hard, bor- 
dered with sharp flat teeth, hairy at the sides, and strongly reti- 
culated with prominent, partly spinous, ribs or veins. 

A well-known object of cultivation, as fodder for cattle, on dry, 
barren, especially chalky or marly, ground, in open situations. 
It fails where the soil is damp, or the field overshadowed with 
trees. Having been first introduced to the farmer from France, 
the plant brought its French name of Saint-foin along with it j 
and Cock's-head, by which it was before known, as a native of 
England, is become obsolete. 

365. ASTRAGALUS. Milk-vetch. 

Linn. Gen. 385. Juss. 358. Fl. Br. 779. Tourn. t. 233. Lam. 
t. 622. G(Brtn. t. 154. 

Cal. tubular, permanent, with 5 acute teeth ; the low^er ones 
gradually longest. Cor. of 5 petals ; standard ovate-ob- 
long, obtuse, erect, longer than the rest; wings oblong, 
somewhat half-ovate, obtuse, shorter than the standard ; 
keel of 2 combined petals, as long as the wings, rounded 
in front, their claws separate. Filam. 10; 9 in one com- 
pressed tube, open above; the tenth capillary, usually 
shorter, quite distinct. Anth. roundish. Germ, linear- 
oblong, compressed. Style awl-shaped, ascending. Stig- 
ma obtuse. Legume variously shaped, more or less tumid, 
of 2 longitudinal cells ; the partition double, more or less 
complete, from the inflexion of the margin of each valve, 
opposite to the receptacles. Seeds one or more, kidney- 
shaped. 

A vast genus of herbaceous or shrubby plants, seldom an- 
nual, natives of every quarter of the globe, but mostly of 
Europe, or the north of Asia. Leaves alternate, nume- 
rously pinnate, uniform, entire, with a terminal leaflet; 



294 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Astragalus. 

no tendrils. Stipulas simple. Fl. spiked, clustered, or 
tufted, purple, yellow, or whitish. Legumes of the greatest 
variety of forms, even in species otherwise nearly allied- 

1. K.glycyphyllos. Sweet Milk-vetch. Wild Liquorice. 

Stem prostrate. Legumes obscurely triangular, incurved. 
Leaves longer than the flower-stalks ; leaflets oval. 

A. glycyphyllos. Linn. Sp. P/. 1067. Willd.v. 3. 1 276. Fl. Br. 779.. 

Engl. Bot. v.3.t. 203. Hook. Scot. 217. 
A. n,413. Hall. Hist. v.\.\SO. 
A. luteus perennis procumbens vulgaris, sive sylvestris. Raii Syn. 

326. Moris, v. 2. 107. sect. 2. t. 9./. 8. 
Astragalus. Riv. Tefrap. Irr. t. 103. 
Hedysaium glycyirhizatum. Ger. Em. 1233./. 
Foenogrsecum sylvestre. Trag. Hist. 599. f. 
Glycyrrhiza sylvestris. Dalech. Hist. 25 1 . f. 

In woods, thickets, the borders of fields, or at the sides of hills, on 
a chalky or gravelly soil. 

Perennial. June. 

Root perpendicular, running deep into the earth, simple at the 
crown. Stems several, 2 or 3 feet long, prostrate among grass 
or other plants, leafy, angular, nearly smooth, scarcely branched. 
Leaves a span long, of 9 or 1 1 uniform, oval, bluntish, smooth, 
bright green leaflets, about an inch in length. Stipulas ovate- 
lanceolate, entire. Fl. pale sulphur-coloured, in ovate spikes, 
on stout axillary stalks, much shorter than the adjoining leaf. 
Bracteas solitary under each flower, awl-shaped. Legumes full 
an inch long, nearly cylindrical, with a slight longitudinal furrow, 
curved upwards, pointed, smooth and even. Seeds 7 or 8, yel- 
lowish. 

The leaves have at first a sweetish taste, soon changing on the pa- 
late to a nauseous bitter. Cattle are not fond of them, nor is 
this plant applied to any agricultural use. 

2. A. hypoglottis. Purple Mountain Milk-vetch. 

Stem prostrate. Flowers in round heads. Legumes ovate, 
deeply channelled along the back, compressed, hairy ; 
hooked at the point. Leaflets blunt. 

A. hypoglottis, Linn. Mant. 2. 274. fVilld. v. 3. 1285. Fl. Br. 780. 

Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 274. Hook. Scot.2\7. Sibth. 227. 
A. arenarius. Huds. 323. Fl. Ban. t.6U. 
A. DanicvLS. Retz. Obs.fasc.3.A\. 

A. epiglottis. Dicks. H, Sicc.fasc. \. \3; but not really so. 
A. incanus parvus purpureus nostras. Pluk. Mmag. 59; with 

wrong synonyms of the Bauhins. Raii Syn. 326. 1. 12. f. 3. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Astragalus. 293 

On open mountainous heaths, in a chalky or sandy soil j also on 
the sea coast. 

Upon Newmarket and Royston heaths, Gogmagog hills, &c. Ray. 
Plentiful near Doncaster. Richardson. On SwafFham heath, 
Norfolk. Mr. Crowe and Mr. Woodward. On several parts of 
the sea coast in Scotland. With. Beyond New-haven, near 
Edinburgh. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root creeping, woody, though slender. Stems several, prostrate, 
leafy, zigzag, but little branched, from 2 to 5 inches long, some- 
what hairy. Leaves of numerous little ovate blunt dark green 
leaflets, coarsely hairy on both sides. Stipulas ovate. Rower- 
stalks few, axillary or terminal, ascending, usually longer than 
the leaves, each bearing a round head, of several oblong, upright 
flowers, variegated with purplish blue and white. Legumes dark 
brown, clothed with white hairs. The hairs of the calyx, as well 
as of \ke flower-stalks, are black and white intermi.Ked ; a fre- 
quent circumstance in this genus. Sometimes the corolla is 
white. 

3. A. uralensis. Hairy Mountain Milk-vetch. 

Stem none. Stalk upright, taller than the leaves. Legumes 
oblong, tumid, pointed, shaggy, erect. Leaflets ovate, 
acute, all over silky like the calyx. 

A. uralensis. Linw. Sp. P/. 1071. WiUd.v.Z.\2,\1. Fl. Br.780. 
Engl. Bot. v.7.t.466. Light/. 40 1 . M 7. Hook. Scot. 2 1 6. Jacq. 
Misc.v.l.loO. Ic. Rar. t. loo. 

A. n. 410. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 179. t. 14./. 3. 

A. alpinus violaceus, acutosericeo folio. Hall. Opusc. 308. t. 2. 

On the Scottish mountains, in a sandy soil. 

Perennial. July. 

Root woody. Whole herb remarkable for its shining silky hairiness, 
which the delineator of Engl. Bot., generally so correct, has 
scarcely at all expressed. Leaves all radical, stalked, with a 
pair of large, ovate, pointed, membranous, veiny stipulas, united 
to the base of each footstalk ; leaflets numerous, opposite or 
alternate, ovate, acute, the upper ones gradually smaller. Foot- 
stalks often permanent in a naked state, but not hardened into 
spines. Flower-stalks solitary, or in pairs, erect, firm, hairy, 
taller than the leaves. Fl. of a rich blueish purple, rarely white, 
in round dense heads, with an oblong bractea to each flower. 
Cal. tubular, clothed with dense, close, black as well as white 
hairs ; its teeth short, bluntish. Legume ovate-oblong, pointed, 
brown, silky, with a membranous partition. Stigma permanent, 
somewhat capitate. 

A very handsome species, even in a dry state, the flowers often 
retaining much of their colour, and the herbage all its bril- 
liancy. 



296 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium, 

4. A. campestris. Yellowish Mountain Milk- vetch. 

Stem none. Stalk ascending. Legumes ovate, inflated, 
hairy, erect. Leaflets lanceolate, acute, somewhat hairy. 

A. campestris. Linn. Sp. PL 1072. fVilld.v.3A3]7. Comp. ed.4. 

123. Etigl. Bot. V. 36. t. 2522. Hook. Scot. 217. 
A. sordidus. Willd. i). 3. 1313 ; with erroneous remarks. 
A. uralensis. Fl. Dan. t. 1041. 
A. n. 406. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 177. <. 13. 
A. perennis supinus, foliis et siliquis hispidis, flore luteo. Biixb. 

Hallens. 32 ; according to Linnceus. 

On highland rocks in Scotland. 

Upon a high rock, on one of the mountains at the head of Clova, 

Angusshire, near the White Water, in great abundance. Mr. G. 

Don. 
Perennial. .July. 
In size and habit much like the last, but the leaflets are narrower, 

more numerous, much less silky, being only besprinkled with 

shining hairs, and often quite smooth, except the mid-rib. 

Flower-stalks rather less upright, sometimes recumbent. Fl. 

cream-coloured, or buff; the keel and zvings tinged with purple. 

Legume more ovate, with a straight point, less oblique than in 

./4. uralensis, covered like the calyx, with short, spreading, black 

as well as white, hairs. 

366. TRIFOLIUM. Trefoil, Clover, and Me- 
lilot. 

Linn. Gen. 387. Juss. 355. Fl. Br. 781. Sm. in Rees's Cyclop. 

V. 36. Tourn. t. 228. Lam. t. 6 13. G^rtn. t. 153. 
Melilotus. Jms«.356. Tourn. t. 229. Lam. 1.6)3. 

Cal. tubular, variously and unequally .5-toothed, permanent ; 
the tube, or the teeth, often greatly enlarged, or changed. 
Cor. of 4 petals, all more or less decidedly united by their 
long claws, mostly permanent, withering ; standard re- 
flexed ; wings oblong, direct, shorter than the standard ; 
keel of one petal, rather shorter than the wings. Filam. 
10; 9 in one split compressed tube; the tenth capillary, 
distinct. Anth. roundish. Germ, oblong-ovate. Style 
awl-shaped, curved upwards. Stigma simple, smooth. 
Legume short, membranous, rarely coriaceous, of 1 valve, 
and 1 cell, not bursting, scarcely exceeding the calyx in 
length, deciduous. Seeds 1 to 4, roundish, very smooth. 

An extensive genus of herbaceous plants, natives of cold or 
temperate climates, either perennial or annual. Stems 
branched. Leaves alternate, more or less stalked, uni- 
versally ternate, in one exotic instance only, T. Lnpinas- 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 297 

ta-f quinate ; leaflets equal, either toothed or entire, obo- 
vate, rarely linear. Stipulas membranous, ribbed, united 
in pairs to the bottom of each footstalk. Fl. terminal or 
lateral, either tufted, capitate, spiked, or clustered, gene- 
rally on a simple common stalk, rarely fragrant, their 
colour red, purplish, pale blue, white or yellow. Many 
of the species are highly important as food for cattle, 
either fresh, or in the state of hay, often acquiring a fra- 
grant scent in drying. 
Linnaeus found Tiifolium, though a most natural genus, 
exti-emely difficult to define, as every botanist must. He 
thought it necessary to admit the inflorescence, as " a little 
umbel, or head, with a common receptacle," into his generic 
character; but this is neither correct in principle, nor in 
fact, and I have ventured to discard it. 

* Flowers in clusters or spikes. Seeds 1 or more. Melilotus. 

1. T. officinale. Common Melilot. 

Clusters unilateral. Legume prominent, acute, transversely 
wrinkled, hairy, with two seeds. Stem erect. Stipulas 
awl-shaped. 

T. officinale. Fl. Br. 781. Engl. Bot. v. 19. t. 1340. WUld. v. 3. 

1355. Hook. Scot. 217. 
T. Melilotus-officinalis. Linn. Sp. PL 107 S. Hnds. 323. Mart. 

Rust. t. 72. Fl. Dan. t. 934. Sincl. erf. 2. 393. Bull. Fr. t. 255. 
T. odoratum, sen Melilotus fruticosa lutea vulgaris vel officinarum. 

Moris, t). 2. 1 6 1 . sect. 2.t.\6.f.2. 
T. odoratum, sive Melilotus. Dod. Pempt. 567 ./. 
Melilotus vulgaris RaiiSyn. 331. Trag. Hist. 59i ./. Dalech. 

Hist. 511. f. 
M. n. 362. Hall. Hist. v.\.] 58. 
Saxifraga lutea. Fuchs. Hist. 749./. 
Lotus sylvestris. Fuchs. Ic. 436. f. 
L. urbana. Matth. Valgr. 505. f. Camer. Epit. 893. f. 

In thickets, hedges^ and the borders of fields ; sometimes among 
corn. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, erect, branched, leafy, an- 
gular, furrowed, smooth. Lea/lets obovate, narrow, serrated, 
dark green, smooth ; the partial stalk of the middle one rather 
the longest. Clusters 2 inches or more in length, on long axil- 
lary stalks. Fl. numerous, all drooping towards one side, of a 
full yellow, veiny. Standard folded and keeled, notched, but 
little longer than the keel and wings, scarcely reflexed. Stigma 



298 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 

bluntish. Legumes pendulous, elliptical, tapering at each end, 
hairy, less strongly wrinkled than in most exotic species of this 
section, each b;\rely twice the length of the calyx. 
The whole plant in drying acquires a scent like new hay, but far 
stronger. It is sometimes cultivated for fodder, and if cut before 
flowering, will last several years. The seeds, when mixed with 
bread corn, give it a nauseous flavour. Melilot is out of use in 
medicine ; though it served too long to give a green colour, and 
an odious scent, to a sort of plaster called by its name, of no use 
whatever. 

** Fl. capitate. Seeds several. 

2. T. oi'nithopodioides . Bird's-foot Trefoil. 

Flowers about three together. Legume prominent, eight- 
seeded, twice as long as the calyx. Stems i-eclining. 

T. ornithopodioides. Linn. Sp. PL 1078. Willd.v. 3. 1356. Curt. 

Lond fasc. 2. t. 53. Hook. Scot. 218. Fl. Dan. t. 368. 
T. siliquosum, loto affine, siliquis ornithopodii. Pluk.Almag. 375. 

Phyt.t.68.f. 1, 
T. siliquis ornithopodii nostras. Rail Sijn. erf. 2. 195. 
Foenugraecum humile repens, ornithopodii siliquis brevibus erectis. 

Dill, in Rail Syn. 33 1 . 

In barren gravelly grassy pastures. 

On several heaths about London. Curtis. Near Tadcaster, and 
Oxford ; also on sandy banks, by the sea, at Tolesbury, Essex. 
Ray. On Mushold heath, near Norwich. Mr. Pitchford. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root fibrouSj with many small fleshy knobs, like those of Vicia la- 
thyroides. Stems several, spreading flat on the ground, smooth, 
leafy, mostly simple. Leajlets inversely heart-shaped, more or 
less serrated, smooth, their partial stalks all equally short. Sti- 
pulas ovate with long taper points. Stalks numerous, axillary, 
solitary, each bearing 2 or 3 long, pale reddish, powers, the 
claws of whose petals are slender, and all distinct. Calyx-teeth 
also very slender, shorter than the oblong, moderately com- 
pressed, obtuse, transversely furrowed, slightly hairy, legume, 
which usually contains 8, Ray says sometimes 10, oval seeds. 

This species has certainly as little the character of Melilotus as of 
Trigonella, to both which it has been referred. It can scarcely, 
without violence, be retained in Trifolium. The claws of the 
petals are all distinct ; the legume separates into 2 valves, without 
falling, and the seeds are more numerous than in any other of 
the present genus. Yet nobody has thought fit to make it a 
distinct one, however plausible might be the reasons for such a 
measure. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 299 

3. ^.repens. White Trefoil. Dutch Clover. 

Heads globose. Flowers somewhat stalked. Legume within 
the calyx, four-seeded. Stems creeping, solid. 

T. repens. Z-mn. 5/3. P/. 1080. Willd. v.d. \^5^. H. Br. 782. 

Engl. Bot. V. 25. i. 1 769. Curt. Land. fasc. 3. t. 46. Mart. Rust. 

t.34. Hook. Scot. 2)8. Sincl. ed. 2.223. FL Dan. t. 990. Riv. 

Tetrap. Irr. t. 13./. 2. Ehrh. PL Off. 398. 
T. n. 367. Hall. Hist. V. I. \ 60. 
T. pratense album. Raii Syn. 327. Bauh. Pin. 327; with some 

wrong references. 
T. pratense album vulgare odoratum. Moris, v. 2.137 . sect. 2. 1. 1 2. 

./■• 2. 
T. pratense. Ger. Em. 1 185./j not the description. Dod. Pempt. 

565./. 
Trifoliastrum pratense corymbiferum majus repens. Mich. Gen. 26, 

27.W.1— 9.^.25./. 1,3, 4. 

In meadows and pastures, very common. 

Perennial. May — September. 

Roots fibrous. Stems prostrate, creeping extensively with nume- 
rous radicles, branched chiefly near their origin, round, smooth, 
leafy, internally solid, by which character all the varieties are es- 
sentially distinguished from T. hyhridum of Linnaeus. Leaves on 
long upright/oofsto/Ars; lenjiets on short, equal partial-stalks, in- 
versely heart-shaped, or roundish, finely toothed, smooth, dark 
green, variegated, mostly with a pale, curved, transverse stripe, 
sometimes with dark purple, or blackish stains ; the under side 
often reddish. Floiver-stalks rising above the leaves, erect, or 
ascending, angular, smooth, each bearing a dense, umbellate, 
fldttish head of numerous white^ow;ers, turning brown as they 
fade, the corolla remaining long in a withered state, enclosing 
the little smooth oblong legume, containing 3 or 4 yellowish 
seeds, till they fall off together. 

In a rich moist soil the stems grow more upright, and the whole 
herb is more luxuriant. Such a shape it usually assumes in low 
ground, newly broken up, where this Trefoil is one of the first 
spontaneous productions. As a valuable fodder in dry autumnal 
months, it is well known, making an excellent bottom in pas- 
tures. The Melilotus Parisiensis, &c. of Vaillant, t. 22. /. 1 , is 
now judged to be a different species, and is named T. Faillantii 
by the writer of this, in Rees's Cyclopedia, n. 23. 

4. T. sriffocatuDi. Suffocated Trefoil. 

Heads sessile, lateral, roundish. Legume concealed, two- 
seeded. Calyx nearly smooth, with lanceolate, acute, re- 
curved teeth, longer than the corolla. 

T. suffocatum. Linn. Mant. 2. 276. Willd. v. 3. 1378. Ft. Br. 790. 



300 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRI'A. Trifolium. 

Cornp. ed. 4. 124. Engl. Bot. v. 15. t. 1049. Tr. of Linn. Soc. 
V. 2. 357. Jacq. Hort. Find. v. 1 . 24. t. 60.' 
T. minimum supinum, flosculorum et seminum globulis plurimis 
confertim ad radicem nascentibus. Rail Hist. v. 1 . 942. 

On the sandy sea coast. 

In the loose sand of the beach at Yarmouth. Mr. Wigg. At Lowes- 
toft. Miss Temple. At Landguard Fort plentifully. Sir T. G. 
Cullum Bart, and Mr. TV. R. Notcutt. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering. Whole herb, except a few leaves, generally bu- 
ried in the loose dry sand. Stems several, horizontal, short, zig- 
zag, leafy, round, smooth. Leaves on long footstalks, with a 
pair of large, ovate, combined, pale, spreading-pointed stipu- 
las; leaflets wedge-shaped,' smooth, finely toothed. FL nume- 
rous, in many round axillary heads. Tube of the calyx slightly 
hairy ; teeth lanceolate acute, reflexed, scarcely enlarged after 
flowering. Cor. pale pink, much shorter than the calyx-teeth, 
closed, sheltering the organs of impregnation beneath the sand. 
Legume linear-oblong, containing 2 roundish, rather distant, 
yellowish seeds. 

* * * Seeds smgle. Calyx generally hairy. 

5. T. subte7^raneum. Subterraneous Trefoil. 

Heads hairy, of about four flowers. Involucrum central, 
reflexed, rigid, starry, embracing the fruit. 

T. subterraneum. Linn. Sp. PI. 1080. H'dld. v. 3. 1361 . Fl. Br. 
783. Engl. Bot. v. 15. t. 1048. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 54. Riv. 
Tetrap.Irr.t.VS.f. 1. 

T. pumilum supinum, flosculis longis albis. Raii Syn. 327. t. \3, 
f.2. 

T. blesense. Dodart Mem. 4to ed. 623. t. 34./. 2. 

T. album tricoccon subterraneum Gastonium reticulatum. Moris, 
V.2. \38. sect. 2. 1. 14. f. 5. 

T. pratense supinum Ko.rujtXs^, seu capite humi merso. Barrel, 
let. 881. 

In dry gravelly pastures, and barren heathy situations. 

Annual. May. 

Root fibrous, with fleshy tubercles. Stems pressed close to the 
ground, spreading, round, hairy, leafy, from 3 to 6 inches long. 
Leaflets inversely heart-shaped, hairy on both sides, entire. 
Stipulas large, ovate, pointed, membranous, white or reddish, 
with green ribs. Fl. 3 or 4 on each stalk, at first erect, but be- 
fore the fruit is perfected each stalk is bent to the earth, throw- 
ing out from its extremity, between the flowers, several thick 
white fibres, starry at their tips, which partly fix themselves in 
the ground, turning upwards to embrace the fruit. Calyx-teeth 
slender and hairy. Pet. much longer, white, slender, all united 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDllIA. Trifollum. 301 

into a long tube. Legume in the permanent tube of the calyx, 
roundish, thin, containing a solitary seed. 

6. T. ochroleucum. Sulphur-coloured Trefoil. 

Flowers in a solitary, terminal, hairy head. Stem erect, 
downy. Lower leaflets inversely heart-shaped. Lowest 
calyx-tooth thrice as long as the rest. 

T. ochroleucum. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. tj. 3. 233. Syst. Veg. 

ed. 14. 689; syn. wrong. Willd. v. 3. 1372. Fl. Br. 784. Engl. 

Bot. V. I7.t.\ 224. Curt. Lond. fasc. 6. <. 49. Mart. Rust. t. 35. 

Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 3. 9. Afzel. in Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 1 . 229. 

Jacq. Austr. t. 40. Ehrh. PL Select. 19. 
T. squarrosum. Linn. Sp. PL 1082; excluding thesynonyms. Willd. 

V.3. 1370. 
T.n.378. HalLHisLv.\.i64. 

T. pratense hirsutum majus, flore albo-sulphureo. Raii Syn. 328. 
T. lagopoides annuum hirsutum, pallide luteum seu ochroleucum. 

Moris. V.2. 141. sec^ 2. ^. 12./. 12; separate calyx bad. 

In pastures, fields, and thickets, on a dry gravelly, or chalky, soil. 

Perennial ? June, July. 

Root somewhat branched at the crown. Stems usually several, 
erect, 12 or 18 inches high, scarcely branched, leafy, round, 
clothed with numerous, fine, upright, tawny hairs. Leaves re- 
mote, the two uppermost only opposite ; lower ones on very 
long stalks, their leaflets small, rounded, inversely heart-shaped ; 
upper on shorter stalks, with longer and narrower leaflets; all 
entire, striated, finely hairy, of a darkish green. Stipulas lan- 
ceolate, simply ribbed, hairy, long and narrow, combined some- 
times for more than half their length. FL pale sulphur-co- 
loured, in roundish, dense, solitary, terminal heads, each on a 
hairy stalk, between the two uppermost leaves. Keel strictly 
ofonepelal. CaZ. cylindrical, deeply furrowed, with slender, 
hairy, straight teeth, all unequal, but the lowermost is thrice 
the length of the rest, giving the whole head, when in seed, a 
bristly aspect. In this state it seems not to have been much 
noticed by English botanists j so that when found in a culti- 
vated field, in autumn, by the late Sir Thomas Gage, it was 
thought a new species, but proved on comparison the T. squar- 
rosum, as well as ochroleucum, of the Linnsean herbarium. Le- 
gume membranous. Seeds solitary, yellow. 

The synonym of Fuchsius, Hist. t. 818, and Ic. 472, cited in FL 
Br. belongs to the foreign T. montanum. 

T. ochroleucum has not been turned to any agricultural use, nor 
does it appear to possess any valuable properties. The herbage 
is very sparing, and not lasting. I suspect the plant to be an- 
nual, that being the true reason why Mr. Curtis could never 
preserve it in his garden. 



SOS DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 

7. T. pratense. Common Purple Clover. Honey- 
suckle Trefoil. 

Spikes dense. Stems ascending. Petals unequal. ' Calyx 
hairy ; four of its teeth equal. Stipulas ovate, bristle- 
pointed. 

T. pratense. Linn. Sp. PI. 1082. M'illd. v. 3. 1366. Fl. Br. 785. 
Engl. Bot. V. 25. t. 1770. Jfzel. in Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 1. 240. 
Mart. Rust. t. 3. Sincl. ed. 2.221 ./. Hook. Scot. 218. Matth. 
Valgr. V. 2. 189./. Trag. Hist. 586./. Ehrh. PI. Off. 408. 

T. n. 377. Hall. Hist. V. 1. 163; excluding the reference to Dodo- 
nceus. 

T. pratense purpnreum. Raii Syn. 328. Fuchs. Hist.S\7 . f. 

Trifolium. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 11./. 1. 

|S. T. pratense. Mart. Rust. t. 3. Fl. Dan. t. 989. 

T. purpureum majus sativum, pratensi simile. Rail Syn. 328. 

y. With a white flower. Jfzei. as above, 243. With. 652. 

S. Trifolium pratense purpureum minus, foliis cordatis. Dill, in 
Raii Syn. 328. t.\3.f.\. 

In meadows and pastures, especially on limestone or gravelly hills. 

Perennial. May — September. 

Root branching at the crown ; rather tap-shaped and woody be- 
low, its fibres often bearing minute fleshy granulations. Stems 
ascending, about a foot high, slightly branched, unequally leafy, 
roundish ; clothed, in the upper part, with close fine hairs. Leaf- 
lets elliptical, more or less acute, entire, nearly smooth, with a 
pale crescent-like spot ; they become by culture larger, more 
obtuse, and minutely toothed. The upper pair of leaves are 
mostly opposite, and their footstalks very much shorter than the 
lower ones. Stipulas ovate, broad, pale, with purple ribs inter- 
branching near the margin, each stipula suddenly terminating 
in a bristle-shaped point. Heads terminal, solitary, ovate, ob- 
tuse, dense, of very numerous, sweet-scented, light purple_^otf;- 
ers, rarely white. Cal. hairy, with 10 prominent ribs, and 4 
usually equal, narrow teeth, the fifth, or lowermost, being some- 
what longer than the rest. JPet. united to each other at the base, 
as well as to the stamens. Legume roundish, small and thin, 
with a yellowish seed. 

One of the most valuable artificial grasses, as they are called, for 
fodder or hay, being, according to the observations of Mr. Sin- 
clair, and other accurate inquirers, one of the most nutritious 
of its tribe. 



8. T. mediwn. Zigzag Trefoil. 
Spikes lax. Stems zigzag and branch 



ling. Petals nearly 



» 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 303 

equal. Stipulas tapering, converging. Two upper calyx- 
teeth rather the shortest. 

T. medium. Linn. Fatai. Suec.ed. 2. 558. Huds. ed.\. 284. JVilld. 

V. 3. 1 367. Fl. Br. 786. Engl. Bot. v. 3. 1 90. Mart. Rust. t. 2 

Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 4. 10. Sincl. ed. 2. 218./. Hook. Scot. 218. 

Fl. Dan. t. 1 273. 
T. flexuosum. Jacq. Justr. t.386. Retz. Prodr. 174. Ehrh.Herb.58. 
T. alpestre. Huds. 326. 
T. n.376. Hall. Hist. \ 63. 
T. purpureum majus, foliis longioribus et angustioribus, floribus 

saturatioribus. Raii Syn. 328. 
T. folio longiore, flore purpureo. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 12. f. 1. 

In elevated dry chalky pastures, or in gravelly ones with a clay 
bottom. ' • 

Perennial. July. 

In general appearance this is very like the last species, but its qua- 
lities are widely different, though for some purposes, according 
to Mr. Sinclair, not inferior. Mr. Afzelius, in his most elabo- 
rate paper in the Linnsean Transactions, has clearly distinguish- 
ed them. The root of the present plant is creeping and more 
uniformly perennial in cultivation. The stems are zigzag, and 
more branched. Stipulas longer, linear, tapering to a point, 
and stand parallel to each other. Heads of Jlowers rather larger 
and less dense. Cal. slightly hairy, except in the mouth ; its 
2 upper teeth shortest ; the rest gradually, but not very strik- 
ingly, longer. Leaflets elliptical, various in width, a little glau- 
cous underneath, chiefly hairy at the margin. 

The best properties of the present kind of Clover, or Trefoil, seem 
to be its power of resisting drought, and its thriving on cold te- 
nacious soils. Yet Mr. Sinclair reports it to be preferable to 
T. pratense for permanent pasture on light soils. Its produce 
of nutritious matter however is said to be but half as much as 
that of T. pratense. 

9. T. mariti?nmn. Teasel-headed Trefoil. 

Spikes ovate, somewhat hairy. Stipulas lanceolate, erect. 

Calyx-teeth after flowering dilated, leafy, and spreading. 

Leaflets obovate-oblong. 

T. maritimum. Huds. ed. 1 . 284. Willd. v. 3. 1370. Fl. Br. 786, 

Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 220. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 7. 8. Hook. Lond. 

t. 57. 
T. stellatum. Huds. ed. 2.326 ; not of Linnceus. 
T. stellatum glabrum. Raii Syn. 329. Ger. Em.l208.no f. Pluk. 

Almag. 376. Plujt. t. 113./. 4. 
•T. spicatum minus, flore minore dilute purpureo. Moris, v. 2. sect. 

2. 1. 14. f; no descr. 

In muddy salt-marshes. 



304 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 

On the east and south coasts of England, from Norfolk to Somer- 
setshire, in various places. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering. Herb clothed with fine, soft, more or less spread- 
ing, hairs. Stems spreading, often recumbent, a foot or more 
in length, branched, leafy, round, or bluntly angular, striated. 
Leaves alternate, except the uppermost pair ; the lower ones on 
long slender /oo^stoZ/cs ; leaflets dark green, of a narrow obovate 
figure J obtuse, or notched, obscurely toothed towards the ex- 
tremity, single-ribbed, hairy on both sides. Stipulas very long, 
narrow, straight, taper-pointed, hairy. Spikes terminal, stalk- 
ed, solitary, short, almost globular. Calyx with 10 strong ribs, 
and deep intermediate furrows, hairy chiefly at the summit of 
the tube ; its sharp teeth at first erect, awl-shaped, a little un- 
equal, shorter than the corolla, becoming after flowering much 
enlarged, leafy, three-ribbed, dark green, spreading, and still 
more unequal, the lower one largest. Pet. pale red ; standard 
a little the longest. Legume thin, roundish, in the tube of the 
calyx. Seed, as far as I have seen, always solitary, roundish, 
brown, protuberant at one edge where the radicle is lodged. 

This is one of that tribe of Trefoils distinguished by the teeth of 
the calyx becoming remarkably leafy, and much dilated, as the 
Jlower fades, and the seed ripens. In this it agrees with the fol- 
lowing, but difl'ers from pratense and its allies, as well as from 
arvense, whose teeth, though permanent and rigid, do not become ■ 
leafy or dilated. T. maritimum makes a part of the food of cattle 
in its native marshes, but has not been cultivated, or particu- 
larly noticed, by the farmer. 

10. T. stellatum. Starry-headed Trefoil. 

Spikes hairy, roundish. Stipulas elliptical. Calyx-teeth 
longer than the corolla ; after flowering dilated, leafy, 
reticulated and spreading ; tube closed. Leaflets in- 
versely heart-shaped. 

T. stellatum. Linn. Sp. PL 1083. Willd.v. 3. 1373. Engl. Bot. 

V. 22. t. 1545. Comp. erf. 4. 123. Hook. Lond. t. 95. Bauh. Pin. 

329. Prorfr. 143. Ger. Em. 1208. 
T. stellatum purpureum monspessulanum. Bauh. Hist. v. 2.376./. 

Moris.v.2. 143. sec<.2. <. 13./. 9. 
Lagopus minor erectus, capite globoso stellato, floribus purpureis. 

Barrel. Ic. t. 860. 

On the south coast of England, very rare. 

Between Shoreham harbour, Sussex, and the sea^ in great plenty. 
Mr. Borrer. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root small and slender. Herb variable in luxuriance, always con- 
siderably hairy, especially the spreading, mostly branching, 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 305 

stems. Leaflets wedge-shaped, or inversely heart-shaped, abrupt, 
toothed, shorter than the foregoing, and of a brighter green. 
Stipulas remarkably dift'erent, being short and broad, elliptical, 
pointed, white with green ribs, hairy. Fl. in stalked round heads, 
or somewhat ovate spikes, erect, crowded, light crimson. Cal. 
densely clothed all over externally with long, upright, silky, 
jointed hairs ; teeth nearly or quite equal, awl-shaped, erect, 
taller than the corolla and twice the length of the furrowed fun- 
nel-shaped tube ; after flowering enlarged, leafy, spreading ; 
smooth and reticulated with veins at the inside, and tinged at 
the base with red ; the mouth curiously closed up, with dense, 
entangled, woolly hairs. Legume concealed, filling the tube, 
oval, with a single ])ale seed. 
T. alopecurum majus, flore purpureo, stellato capite. Barrel. Ic. 
t. 755, which Linnaeus thought the same plant, with more ob- 
long heads or spikes, is rather T. incarnatum, Haller's n, 374. 

11. 1l. arvense. Hare's-foot Trefoil. 

Spikes cylindrical, very hairy. Stipulas lanceolate, bristle- 
pointed. Calyx-teeth longer than the corolla, perma- 
nently bristle-shaped. Leaflets linear-obovate. 

T. arvense. Linn. Sp. PL 1083. fVilld. v. 3. 1373. Fl. Br. 787. 
Engl. Bat. v. 14. t. 944. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 50. Hook. Scot. 
218. Fl. Dan. t. 724. Ehrh. PL Off: 418. 

T. n. 373. HalL Hist. v. 1 . 162. 

T. arvense humile spicatum, seu Lagopus. Rail Syn. 330. 

T. lagopoides purpureum arvense humile annuum, seu Lagopus 
minimus vulgaris. Moris, v. 2. 141 . sect. 2. t. 13./. 8. 

Lagopus. Fuchs.Hist. 494./. Ic. 281. f. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 15. 
Matth. Falgr. v. 2.332./. Camer. Epit. 724./. 

L. trifolius quorundam. Bauh. Hist. v. 2.377. f. 

L. vulgaris. Dalech. Hist. 441. f,f. 

L. angustifolia minor erectior. Barrel. Ic. <. 901 . 

Lagopodium, Pes leporis. Ger. Em. 1 193./. 

Lotus campestris. Trag. Hist. 595./. 

/3. Lagopus perpusillus supinus perelegans maritimus. DHL in 
Rati Syn. 330'. t. 14./. 2. 

In sandy barren fields^ very common, a useless, if not troublesome, 
weed. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root small, slender. Herb extremely variable in luxuriance, all 
over finely hairy, of a dull green. Stem erect, in the small ma- 
ritime variety (S procumbent, much branched, round, leafy, 
very hairy. Leajlets narrow, somewhat obovate, abrupt, ob- 
scurely se'rrated at the end, with a small bristly point. Foot- 
stalks shorter than the leaflets. Stipulas ovate, oblique, mem- 
branous, with red libs, and each ending in a long, green, tapt-r 

VOL. in. X 



306 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 

point. Spikes numerous, terminal, stalked, solitary, erect, an 
inch, more or less, in length, cylindrical, dense, obtuse, hoary, 
with a purple tinge. Cal. very hairy, especially its bristle-shaped 
teeth, which are twice the length of the tube, much exceeding 
the corolla, equal ; reddish in the flower ; spreading as the seed 
ripens, but though somewhat hardened, always continuing slen- 
der. Pet. white, or pale pink, their claws scarcely combined ; 
standard broad, ovate. Legume minute, membranous, with a 
single seed. 
Sometimes very dwarfish, and densely silky, on barren sands near 
the sea, when the root becomes elongated in search of nourish- 
ment, but never, I believe, perennial. See variety /3. 

12. T.scabrum. Rough Rigid Trefoil. 
Heads sessile, axillary, ovate. Calyx-teeth unequal, lan- 
ceolate, rigid ; finally recurved. Stems procumbent. 

T. scabrum. Linn. Sp. PL 1084. Willd. v.3. 1374. Fl. Br. 788. 

Engl. Bat V. 13. t. 903. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 48. Hook. Scot. 

219. 
T. n. 371. Hall. Hist. V. I. 16\. 
T. flosculis albis, in glomerulis oblongis asperis, cauliculis proxim^ 

adnatis. Rail Syn. 329. Vaill. Par. 196. t. 33./. 1. 
T. minus, capite subrotundo parvo albo et echinato. Barrel. Ic. 

i. 870. 
T. cujus caules ex geniculis glomerulos oblongos proferunt, Bauh. 

Hist. V. 2. 373. f. 

In chalky, or dry sandy, fields. 

On Newmarket heath. Ray. Between Northfleet and Gravesend. 
Dill. About Croydon. Curt. Near Bungay. Mr. Woodward. 
On Snettisham beach, and in an old chalk-pit near Wells, Nor- 
folk. Mr. Crowe. At Wick clifls; Mr. Swayne. With. On 
Cromer cliffs, Norfolk. 

Annual. May, June. 

Root tapering. Whole herb very rigid, and harsh to the touch, 
especially when in seed. Ster)is several, from 3 to 9 inches long, 
procumbent, rigid, round, sometimes zigzag, leafy, hairy, scarcely 
branched except from the bottom. Leaflets obovate, or some- 
what heart-shaped, with many prominent transverse ribs, hairy, 
minutely but sharply toothed, longer or shorter than their com- 
mon footstalk. Stipulas membranous, ribbed, ovate, pointed. 
Heads numerous, axillary and terminal, solitary, sessile, ovate, 
dense, hairy. Cal. furrowed ; its teeth green, lanceolate, spi- 
nous, a little unequal, always spreading, but when ripening seed 
strongly recurved, which gives the harshness iibove described. 
Legume membranous, whitish, enclosed in the calyx-tube. Seed 
solitary, yellowish. A useless weed. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 307 

13. T. glomeratum. Smooth Round-headed Trefoil. 

Heads sessile, axillary, hemispherical, sn:iooth. Calyx- 
teeth heart-shaped, I'eflexed, veiny. Stems prostrate. 

T. glomeratum. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 084. mild. v. 3. 1 375. Fl. Br. 789. 

Engl. Bot. V. 15. t. 1063. Curt. Lond.fasc. A.t.bl. 
T. cum glomerulis ad caulium nodos rotundis. Raii Sijn. 329. 
T. supinum cum glomerulis ad caulium nodos globosis, floribus 

purpurantibus. Raii Hist. v.\. 948. Pluk. Almag. 377- Phtji. 

t.]l3.f.5. 
T. parvum rectum, flore glomerate cum unguiculis. Bauh. Hist. 

v.2.378.f. 
T. arvense supinum verticillatum. Barrel. Ic. t. 882 . 

In gravelly fields and pastures, chiefly in the east and sOuth of 
England. 

About Saxmundham, Suffolk, and about London. Raij. In the 
isle of Shepey. Huds. On Kew Green, and Hanwell Heath, 
Middlesex. Bishop of Carlisle. On the bath hills near Bungay, 
Suffolk. Mr. M^oodivard. At Yarmouth. Mr. D. Turner. In a 
pasture adjoining to Mackerel's tower, Norwich. 

Annual. June. 

Whole herb very smooth, with a tapering, branching, tuberculated 
root. Stems quite prostrate, straight, slender, striated, but little 
branched, from 3 to 12 inches long. Leaves rather distant, on 
footstalks of various lengths ; leaflets obovate, abrupt, finely 
toothed, veiny, sometimes marked with a pale transverse spot. 
Stipulas ovate or oblong, membranous, ribbed, taper-pointed. 
Heads axillary and terminal, solitary, sessile, hemispherical, or 
nearly globular, many-flowered, quite smooth in every part. Cat. 
bell-shaped, strongly furrowed, with ten ribs, pale or reddish ; 
the teeth nearly equal, heart-shaped, pointed, reflexed, veiny, 
green and leafy. Cor. longer than the calyx : standard rose- 
coloured, striated; wings and keel shorter and paler. Legume 
round, very small, with a solitary seed. 

This is neither a Scottish nor a Swiss plant. The small reflexed 
calyx-teeth, leafy in colour and texture, always quite smooth, 
readily distinguish it from all our other species. 

14. T. Striatum. Soft Knotted Trefoil. 

Heads sessile, axillary and terminal, ovate. Calyx ellipti- 
cal, furrowed, hairy ; with straight bristle-shaped teeth. 
Stems procumbent. 

T. striatum. Linn. Sp. PL 1 085. Willd. v. 3. 1376. FL Br. 790. 

EngL Bot. V. 26. 1. 1 843. Hook. ScoL 2 1.9. Ehrh. Herb. 88. 
T. parvum hirsutum, floribus parvis dilute purpureis, in glomerulis 

mollioribus et oblongis, semine roagno. Raii Stjn. 329. t. 13. 

/. 3. VailLPar. 196. L 33. f. 2. 

x2 



308 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 

T. minus villosum, purpureo capite parvo echinato. Barrel. Ic. 
t. 865. 

In dry, barren, sandy fields and pastures. 

Annual. June. 

Root slender, tuberculated. Stems several, procumbent, various 
in length and luxuriance, round, branched, leafy, downy, often 
zigzag. Leaflets obovate, sometimes acute, or somewhat point- 
ed, finely toothed, downy. Stipulas ovate, broad, pointed, mem- 
branous, ribbed. JFfeac/s some axillary, more terminal, ovate. 
Cal. elliptical, tumid, with 10 deep furrows, and clothed with 
fine soft hairs ; the teeth unequal, not half the length of the 
tube, awl-shaped, green, spinous-pointed, fringed, somewhat 
lengthened out after flowering, but always continuing straight. 
Cor. pale rose-coloured, about as long as the calyx. Legume 
membranous, with the rudiments of 2 seeds in an early state, 
one of which only comes to perfection, and fills the tube of the 
calyx, being thrice as large as the last. 

These three procumbent species oi Trifolium are clearly distinguish- 
ed by their calyx-teeth, and the present is readily known by the 
touch from T. scabrum. Having rudiments of 2 seeds in the 
germen, it so far agrees with the suffocatum, hitherto arranged 
near it, and forms some exception to the proper character of 
this section ; but only one seed being perfected, it is best placed 
with othevs so circumstanced, to which it is most closely allied. 

**** Calyx of the fruit infated, bladdery. 

15. ^ . fragiferum. Strawberry-headed Trefoil. 

Heads roundish. Calyx finally inflated, deflexed, with two 
terminal teeth. Stems creeping. 

T. fragiferum. Linn. Sp. PL 1086. Willd. v. 3. 1380. Fl. Br. 791. 

Engl. Bot.v.\5.t. 1050. Curt. Lond.fasc.2.t.ao. Hook. Scot. 

219. RaiiSyn. 329. Fl. Dan. t. 1042. Clus. Cur. Post. 39. f. 

Moris.v. 2. 144. n. 13, \4. sect. 2. t.l3.f.l4. Ger. Em. 1208. f. 

Vaill.Par.\9D. t.22.f.2. 
T. n. 370. Hall. Hist. v.\.\6\. 
T. caule nudo, glomerulis glabris. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 379./. 

In moist meadows, pastures^ and osier holts, in a black boggy 
soil. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root tapering, its fibres beset with fleshy granulations. Herb 
smooth, much resembling T. repens. Stems quite prostrate, 
creeping extensively with several fibrous radicles, round, leafy, 
many-flowered. Leaves on long spreading footstalks; leaflets 
dark green, unspotted, obovate, or inversely heart-shaped, finely 
toothed, striated with numerous transverse ribs. Stipula.^ large, 
whitish, with green veins, ovate, tapering into a long slender 
point. Flower-stalks axillary, solitary, erect, stout, angular. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. S09 

taller than the leaves, Heads oi flowers small, solitary, erect. 
Pet. rose-coloured, small and slender. Cal. 2-lipped, downy j 
the upper side, after flowering, becoming greatly enlarged, mem- 
branous, reticulated, inflated, and bent downward, terminating 
in 2 teeth, and assuming a blood-red colour, so that the whole 
head, in that state, much resembles a Hautboy Strawberry, Le- 
gume roundish, small^ in the bottom of the calyx, containing 
2 seeds. 
Cattle eat the herbage, but its produce is late and inconsiderable. 

***** Standards deflexed, di-y and membranous. 

16. ^. procumhens. Hop Trefoil. 

Heads oval, many-flowered. Standard finally deflexed, fur- 
rowed. Stems spreading or procumbent. Common foot- 
stalk longest at the base. 

T.procumbens. Linn. Sp.Pl. 1088. Willd.v. 3. 1383. FL Br. 792 

and 1403. Comp. erf. 4.124. Engl. Bot. v. 14. t. 945. Hook. 

Scot. 219. Grev. Edin. 1 62. Fl. Dan. t. 796. Ehrh. Herb. 39. 
T. agrarium. Huds. 328. Curt. Lond.fasc.3. t. 45. Mart. Rust. 

t.]2\. 
T. n.363. Hall. Hist. V. I. \ 59. 
T. pratense luteum, capitulo lupuli, vel agrarium. Raii Syn. 330. 

Faill.Par.\96.t.22.f.3. 
T. pratense luteum foemina, flore pulchriore, sive lupulino. Bauh. 

Hist.v.2.38\.f. 
T. agrarium luteum, capitulo lupuli majus. Moris, v. 2. 142. sect. 2. 

t. 13./. 1. 
Lupulinum. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 10./. 1. 

In dry gravelly fields and pastures. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root short, but strong and woody. Stems spreading widely, part 
of them procumbent, the central one, if not cropped by cattle, 
according to the Rev. Dr. Beeke's observations, erect, but this 
I have seldom been able to verify ; they are leafy, hairy, but 
little branched, from 4 to 10 or 12 inches long; round below j 
angular above, where they turn more or less upwards. Leaf- 
lets obovate, notched, toothed, veiny, smooth, a little glaucous. 
Common footstalks smooth or a little hairy, various in length, 
but always longer than the partial stalk of the central leaflet. 
Stipulas half-ovate, acute, entire, ribbed, often fringed. Heads 
axillary, solitary, ovate, or roundish, erect, on partly hairy stalks, 
which are angular, not very stout, often reaching beyond the ad- 
joining leaf. Fl. about 50. Cal. a little hairy, bell-shaped, with 
very unequal, direct, awl-shaped teeth. Pet. bright yellow, 
turning tawny as the seed ripens, all permanent; standard finally 
deflexed, dilated, strongly furrowed, dry and membranous, shel- 



310 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 

teving the legume, which is small, elliptical, pointed at each end. " 
Seed solitary, kidney-shaped. 
For the real T. agrarium of Linnaeus, see Ehrh. Herb. 29, Dick- 
son's Dried Plants n. 80, and Barrel. Ic. t. 1024. This is al- 
ways upright, much larger than the procuinhens, withlonger 
jftower-stalks, and very large heads ; being T. aureum of Pollich ; 
spadiceum of Villars, not of Linna;us ; and T. n. 365 of Haller ; 
but this fine jspecies is not a native of Britain. 

17. T. mmiis. Lesser Yellow Trefoil. 

Heads hemispherical. Flower-stalks straight, rigid. Stand- 
ard nearly even. Stems prostrate. Connnon footstalk 
very short. 

T. minus. Relh. 290. Fl Br. 1403. Comp.ed. 4. 124. Engl. Bot. 

V. 18. t. 1256. Hook. Scot. 220. 
T.filiforme, Ehrh. Herb. 49. 
T. filiforme /3. Fl. Br. 793. 

T. procumbens. Huds.32S. Curt. Lond.fasc.b. t.b3. 
T. dubium. Sibth. 23\. Jbbot \63. 
T. n. 364. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 159. 
T. lupulinum alterura minus. Bail St/n. 330. /. 14./. 3. Hall. It. 

Helv. 1. sect. 13. 
T. luteum minimum. Ger. Em. 1 18^■./. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 29./. 

In dry gravelly fields and pastures, with the last. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root small^ its fibres often furnished with little knobs. Stems nu- 
merous, procumbent, scarcely branched, round, a little hairy, 
usually from 3 to 9 inches long ; but in the larger variety, Engl. 
Bot.f. 1 , extending to 2 feet, and stouter, more brittle and suc- 
culent. Common footstalks generally very short, except those 
near the root, while the partial-stalk of each central leaflet is 
much more considerable than in the preceding or following spe- 
cies. Leaflets inversely heart-shaped, striated, toothed, smooth j 
the lateral ones almost sessile. Stipulas half-ovate, veiny, acute. 
Flower-stalks axillary, straight, firm and rigid, longer than the 
leaves. Fl. from 12 to 15 in each little hemispherical head, al- 
most perfectly sessile, yellow ; at length becoming brown and 
deflexed. CaZ(/a:- ^ee^A very unequal, hairy towards the points. 
Standard obscurely, if at all, furrowed, narrower than in T. pro- 
cumbens. Legume obovate, as long as the faded corolla, which 
it fills. Seed 1, rarely 2. 

18. I.Jiliforme. Slender Yellow Trefoil. 

Clusters lax, of few flowers. Common-stalks capillaiy, 
wavy. Standard evei^. Stems prostrate. Leaflets all 
nearly sessile. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Trifolium. 311 

T. filiforme. Linn. Sp. PL 1088. fVilld. v. 3. 1384. Fl. Br. 1404 ; 

0/50 792, excluding the variety. Comp. ed. 4. 124. Engl. Bot. 

V. IS. t. 1257. Relh.290. Hook. Scot. 220. 
T. lupulinum minimum. Dill, in Rail Syn.3'6\. t. 14./. 4. 
T. luteum lupulinum minimum. Moris, v. 2. 142 ; nut the figure. 

In sandy or gravelly grassy pastures, whether dry or moist. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering, small, the fibres bearing several fleshy tubercles. 
Whole herb usually much smaller than the foregoing, quite 
smooth, except a slight hairiness on the Jlower-stalks, and some- 
times on the upper part of the stems, which latter are quite 
prostrate, very slender, 3 or 4 inches long, sometimes 10 
or 12, much branched at the bottom. Leaflets small, inversely 
heart-shaped, toothed. Common footstalks very short, scarcely 
a quarter so long as the leaflets ; partial ones still shorter, all 
nearly equal and uniform, that of the middle leaflet not being, 
as in the last species, an apparent continuation or elongation 
of the common stalk. Sfipulas small, ovate, membranous, some- 
what fringed. Fl. very small, yellow, in real clusters, each 
having a capillary partial stalk, full as long as the calyx-tube ; 
they are usually from 3 to 5 in each cluster ; sometimes only 2, 
or even solitary j sometimes 7 or 8 5 leaning all one way, 
finally pendulous. Teeth of the calyx rather less unequal than 
in T. minus, quite smooth, for I believe the hairs represented in 
Engl. Bot. are an error. Legume obovate, scarcely covered 
by the withered corolla, which turns pale in that state, and the 
standard is perfectly even. Seed large, almost always solitary, 
1 have very rarely seeji 2. 
This species is clearly and most scientifically distinguished from 
the last by its inflorescence,whichhmnieus,'mPhil. Bot. sect. 279, 
prefers to every other part for sound specific difl'erences. He 
has adverted to the " manifest and distinct" partial flower-stalks 
of T. filiforme in his Sp. PL, which in fact render the inflores- 
cence of this plant a racemus, not, as in the foregoing, a spica or 
capilulum. Haller in his Iter Helveticum, sect. 13, highly extols 
Dillenius for ascertaining these two species ; and yet in his 
Historia, under n. 364, he records thatDillenius found the seeds 
of T.^^j/brwie produced n. 363, our procumbens. This proves too 
much, and oversets all the authority of the relator. Yet the 
great Oxford Professor is the first who clearly discriminated the 
three species which form our 5th section, and his figures of the 
two latter preclude all doubt as to what he meant. Linnseus 
seems to have considered our ininus as a variety ol procumbens ; 
his pupil Ehrhart referred it to fifforme. I have, too heedlessly, 
been led into the latter error in the second volume of FL Br. ; 
but the accurate inquiries of the Rev. Dr. Beeke, now Dean of 
Bristol, enabled me to correct my mistake, in the third volume. 
This gentleman favoured me with specimens of the plants in 



312 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Lotus. 

question from the same "very dry flinty gravelly natural pas- 
ture," at Ufton, near Reading, where the larger variety of the 
minus, with its succulent brittle stem, retained all its diversity of 
habit, and remained constant when propagated by seed. Still 
there is no positive specific character. Cattle and sheep are so 
fond of this variety, that it can scarcely be gathered in any 
pastures to which they have access. I have not heard the result 
of the experiments made upon it for cultivation. 

367. LOTUS. Biid's-foot-trefoil. 

Linn, Gen. 388. Jmss. 356. Fl.Br.79Z. Tourn.t.227. Lam. 
f. 611. Gartn.t. 153. 

Cal. tubular, with 5 direct, acute, nearly equal teeth, per- 
manent, unchanged. Cor. of 5 petals, deciduous ; stand- 
ard obovate, ascending, with a broad vaulted claw ; wings 
oblong, obtuse, shorter than the standard, converging at 
their upper edges ; keel of 2 united petals, protuberant 
underneath, closed above, with an ascending point, and 
narrow, short, distinct claws. Filam. 10; 9 in one split 
compressed horizontal tube, the separate portion of each 
erect, a little dilated towards the top ; the tenth capillary, 
distinct. Anth. small, roundish. Ger7n. cylindrical, ra- 
ther compressed. Style ascending at a right angle, thread- 
shaped. Stigma simple. Legume cylindrical, straight, 
simple or winged, much longer than the calyx, of 2 valves, 
and 1 cell, separated, by more or less of a spongy sub- 
stance, into several, spurious or incomplete, cells, each 
lodging a globular, or somewhat cylindrical, seed. 

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubby. Leaves ter- 
nate, with a pair of large leafy stipiilas, and thence by 
some termed quinate. Fl. solitary or capitate, on long 
axillary stalks. Cor. yellow, often mixed with red, or 
crimson, or almost black ; rarely whitish. 

1. 1j. corniculatus. Common Bird's-foot-trefoil. 

Heads depressed, of few flowers. Stems recumbent, pithy. 
Legumes spreading, nearly cylindrical. Claw of the 
standard obovate. Filaments all dilated. 

L, corniculatus. Linn. Sp. PI. 1092. TVilld.v. 3. 1395. FLBr.793. 

Engl. Bot. V. 30. t. 2090. Curt.Lond.fasc.2.t.56. Mart. Rust. 

t. 53. Hook. Scot. 220 ; excluding the variety. Fl. Dan. t. 991. 

Ehrh. Herb. 428. 
L. n. 385 /3. Hall Hist. r. 1. 167. 



DIADELPHIA—DECANDRIA. Lotus. 313 

L. corniculata glabra minor. Rail Syn. 334. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 354. 

/. 355. 
L. sativa. Dalech. Hist. 507. 
Trifolium siliquosum minus. Ger. Em. 1190./. 
T. corniculatum primum. Dod. Pernpt. 573./. 
Melilotus germanica. Fuchs. Hist. 527./. 
M. nobilis. Trag. Hist. 594./. 
Meliloti tertium genus. Fuchs. Ic. 299./. 
/3. Lotus corniculata minor, foliis subtus incanis. DM. in Raii 

Si/u. 334. 
L. corniculatus s. Fl. Br. 794. 

In open grassy pastures, common. 

Perennial. June — September. 

Root branching, somewhat woody ; the fibres beset with small gra- 
nulations. Stems several, spreading on the ground in every di- 
rection, varying in length from 3 to 10 inches, simple or branched, 
solid, filled with pith, angular, leafy, sometimes quite smooth, 
but for the most part clothed, like the glaucous backs of the leaves, 
with close-pressed hairs. Leaflets obovate, acute, entire, on 
short partial stalks; the lateral ones oblique, or inequilateral. 
Common footstalk channelled, about the length of the leaflets, 
having at its base a pair of ovate stipulas, resembling them, but 
rather smaller. Flower -stalks axillary, solitary, erect or recum- 
bent, angular, 5 times as long as the leaves, each bearing from 
2 or 3 to 5 bright yellow Jiowers, dark green when dried, in a 
flat head or umbel, accompanied by a small ternate leaf. They 
change to orange in verging towards decay. The standard (not 
keel, as by a slip of the pen in Engl. Bot.) striped with red at the 
base in front ; its claw much dilated and vaulted. Keel pale 
yellow. Filaments in their separate part all dilated under the 
anthers. Interstices of the ca/?/a:-<ee</i rounded. Legume smooth, 
of a shining purplish brown, a little depressed and channelled 
along the upper side. 

Recommended for cultivation, though under the erroneous names 
of Milk-vetch and Astragalus glijcyphyllos, by the late worthy 
Dr. Anderson, in his Agricultural Essays, as being excellent for 
fodder, as well as for hay. 

2. L. major. Greater Bird's-foot-trefoil. 

Heads depressed, many-flowered. Stems erect, tubular. 
Legumes drooping, cylindrical. Claw of the standard 
linear. Shorter filaments not dilated. 

L. major. Scop. Cam. v. 2. 86. Comp. ed. 4. 124. Engl. Bot.v. 30. 

1. 2091 . Purt. V. 1. 342. Forst. Tonbr. 86. Grev. Edin. 1 63. 
L. corniculatus y. FL Br. 794. 
L. corniculatus 13. Hook. Scot. 220. 
L. n. 385 a. Hall. Hist. v.\.\ 67. 



314 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Lotus. 

Loti comiculatse major species. Rail Syn. 334. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 

355./. 356. 
Lotus. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. 1. 1&. f. 1. 

jS, L. pentaphyllos medius pilosus. T>ill. in Raii Syn. 334. 
L. corniculatus S. Fl. Br. 794. 

In wet bushy places, osierholtSj and hedges. 

Perennial.' July, August. 

Very different from the foregoing .s,pecies in general habit, and now 
technically distinguished by several clear and sufficient charac- 
ters, for most of which I am indebted to the worthy Dean of 
Bristol. Every botanist had been struck with the aspect of the 
plant, and Scopoli long ago proposed it as a species, but without 
a sufficient specific definition, except that of the shorter separate 
filaments not being, like the longer ones, dilated under their an- 
thers. The stems are from 1 to 2 or 3 feet high, upright, clothed, 
more or less, with long loosely-spreading hairs, rarely quite 
smooth ; internally hollow, or tubular, with little or no pith in 
any part, which I take to be an important character. Leaiies 
fringed or clothed with similar hairs. Fl. fi'om C to 1 2 in each 
head, of a duller orange than the former. Calyx-teeth stellated 
in an early state ; their mterstices, when fully expanded, acutan- 
gular, not rounded. Claw of the standard almost linear, though 
vaulted. Legumes not horizontal, but drooping, slender and 
exactly cylindrical. 

Whether there may be any difference in the agricultural qualities of 
these plants, and whether the present might be capable of culti- 
vation in very wet meadows, nobody has hitherto inquired. 

3. L. decmnbens. Spreading Bird's-foot-trefoil. 

Heads of few flowers. Stems recumbent, nearly solid. Le- 
gumes somewhat spreading, cylindrical, two-edged. Ca- 
lyx hairy ; its teeth shorter than the tube. 

L. decumbens. Forst. Tonbr. 86. 

In fields and meadows. 

At Hastings, Sussex, near Bulverhithe ; also in meadows near 
Tonbridge. Forster. In fields near Forfar, North Britain. Mr. 
G. Don. 

Perennial. July. 

Stems widely spreading, partly quite prostrate, a foot or more in 
length, branched, filled with light pith, angular, leafy, smooth, 
somewhat glaucous. Leaves glaucous, smooth above j occa- 
sionally clothed beneath with short, close, bristly hairs. Leaf- 
lets and stipulas similar, lanceolate, pointed, oblique, except the 
terminal one, which is obovate-lanceolate. Common footstalk 
but half the length of the leaflets, channelled, slightly bordered. 
Flower-stalks axillary, 4 or 5 times the length of the leaves. 



i 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Lotus. 315 

smooth, stout and firm, obscurely angular, each bearing an um- 
bel of from 3 to 6 bright yellow ^OM;ers, accompanied by a ter- 
nate leaf without stipulas. In starved plants the Jlowers are so- 
litary. Partial stalks and calyx all over silky, with more or less 
abundant, short, close hairs ; the calyx-teeth lanceolate, tapering, 
spreading, shorter than the tube, somewhat hairy, with wide 
rounded interstices. Separate portion of each filament of con- 
siderable length, the longest dilated upwards. Legumes nearly 
erect, or but slightly spreading, smooth, dotted, cylindrical, 
without any depression or channel, both sutures rather promi- 
nent, forming a ridge along each margin. 
I can find no account of any thing approaching this species except 
L. pedunculatus, Cavan. Ic. t. 164, the plate and description of 
which are not very discriminative, but its stem is said to be 
erect, 3 feet high, and every part of the plant is perfectly smooth. 
L. decumbens grows in Switzerland and the Levant, as well as 
on the sandy shores of Sicily. Most botanists have supposed it a 
variety of the corniculatus ; Linnseus and Solander confounded it 
with the following. 

4. L. angiistissimus . Slender Bird's-foot-trefoil. 

Flowers solitary, or in pairs. Stems much branched, pros- 
trate, tubular. Legumes two-edged, very slender, some- 
what compressed. Calyx loosely hairy ; teeth fringed, 
twice the length of the tube. 

L. angustissimus. Linn.Sp.PlAmO. Willd.v.3.\SS9. Marsch. 
Taur.-Cauc. v. 2. 220 ; from the author. 

L. difliisus. Fl.Br.794. Engl. Bot. v. 13. t. 925. Covip.ed. 4. 124. 
Willd.v.3. 1389. 

L. corniculata, siliquis singularibus, vel binis, tenuis. Bauh. Hist. 
v.2.356.f; good. 

L. annua oligoceratos, siliquis singularibus binis ternisve. Moris. 
v.2.\75.sect.2.t. 18./. I. 

L. pentaphyllos minor hirsutus, siliqua angustissima. Bauh. Pin. 
332. 

Trifolium corniculatum minus, pilosum. Bauh. Prodr. 144 ; with 
an excellent description. 

In meadows towards the sea, on the south and western coasts of 
England. 

On the rocky beach at Hastings, Sussex. Mr. Dickson. At Kings- 
teignton and Bishopsteignton, Devonshire. Dean of Bristol. In 
a meadow near St. Vincent's rocks, Bristol, plentifully. Mr. D. 
Turner and Mr. Sowerby. 

Annual. May, June. 

Smaller in general than any of the foregoing, its pubescence con- 
sisting of fine, long, loose and spreading hairs, like those of 
L. major, but far more constant and abundant. Root branched, 
fibrous, beset with small tubercles, certainly annual, not peren- 



316 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Medicago. 

nial. Stems procumbent, or partly ascending, roundish, branch- 
ed, densely leafy, very hairy, from 6 to 10 inches long, with a 
small internal cavity destitute of pith. Lea/lets and siipulas 
ovate, pointed, rather glaucous, hairy on both sides. Flower- 
stalks spreading, weak and slender, once or twice as long as the 
leaves, hairy, each bearing for the most part two, rather small, 
bright yellow,^owers, sometimes but one, very rarely three, with 
a ternate leaf at the base of their partial stalks. Cat. widely 
funnel-shaped ; its teeth linear, narrow, green, twice as long as 
the tube, copiously fringed with long spreading hairs, totally 
unlike the calyx of the last species. Filam. all rather dilated 
upward. Legumes spreading, cylindrical, or slightly compressed, 
with prominent sutures, smooth, of a shining brown, very slen- 
der, often transversely undulated, from the projection of their 
numerous orbicular seeds. 
A Montpellier specimen of this plant from Sauvages, bearing the 
synonym of C. Bauhin, is the original authority for L. angustis- 
simus. To this Linnseus had pinned a nearly smooth one of tlie 
last species, which Solander in the Banksian herbarium has taken 
for the true angustissimus, calling our present plant L. diffusus, 
and this great authority misled me. A scrutiny of the Linnaean 
specimens, and their marks, with the descriptions, synonyms, 
and history of L. angustissimus, have satisfied me that this is our 
diffusus; and it is never too late to correct a manifest error, 
especially as the original name is much the best. 

368. MEDICAGO. Medick. 

Linn. Gen. 389. Juss. 356. Fl. Br. 795. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. v. 23. 

Tourn.t.23l. Lam.t.6]2. Gcertn. t.l55. 
Medica. Tourn.t. 231. 

Cal. tubular, with 5 direct, acute, nearly equal teeth, per- 
manent, unchanged. Cor. of 5 petals, deciduous ; stand- 
ard ovate, ascending, undivided, with a short broad claw; 
wings obovate, cohering by their lower edges ; keel of 2 
combined petals with separate claws, oblong, obtuse, de- 
pressed by the swelling germen, and finally spreading 
widely from the standard. Filavi. 10 ; 9 united almost to 
their summits into one split compressed tube ; the tenth 
capillary, distinct. Anth. small, roundish. Germ, stalked, 
oblong, compressed, incurved or spiral, enfolded by the 
filaments, starting elastically from the keel, and forcing 
back the standard, terminating in a short, awl-sliaped, 
straight, ascending style. Stigma terminal, minute, sim- 
ple. Legume compressed, inflexed, falcate, or spiral with 
numerous convolutions, of 1 cell and 2 valves. Seeds se- 
veral, often numerous, kidney-shaped, smooth. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Medicago. 3lf 

A numei'ous genus of herbaceous, rarely a little shrubby, 
mostly procumbent, plants, with stalked, ternate leaves,- 
stipulas unlike the leaflets; and small, clustered, or spiked, 
axillary, yellow, rarely blueish, j^oto^r^. Legumes various, 
very peculiar, smooth or prickly, often remarkably con- 
voluted. 

* 1 . M. sativa. Purple Medick, or Lucerne. 
Clusters upright. Legumes spiral. Stem erect, smooth. 

M. sativa. Linn. Sp. PL 1096. TViUd. v. 3. 1404. H. Br. 795. 

Engl. Bot V. 25. t. 1 749. Mart. Rust. t.48. Hook. Scot. 220. 
Medica. Dad. Pempt. 576./. 
M. n. 382. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 166. 
M. sativa. Dalech. Hist. 502. f. 
M. sativa, sive Tiifolium sativum, siliqua cornuta, magis tortili. 

Moris. V. 2. 158. sect. 2. t. 16./. 2. 
M. legitima. Clus. Hist. v. 2.242. f. 
M. major erectior, ttoribus purpurascentibus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 

382./. 383. 
Trifolium Burgundiacum. Ger. Em. 1189./. 
Foenum Burgundiacum. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 36./. 

In hedges, pastures, and the borders of fields, in dry calcareous 
soils, but scarcely a native. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root woody, seldom lasting long. Stems erect, or somewhat re- 
clining, about 2 feet high, branched, leafy, roundish, smooth. 
Leaflets oblong, inclining to wedge-shaped, more or less acute, 
sharply serrated towards the end, clothed with close silky hairs 
on both sides, but especially beneath. Stipulas lanceolate, or 
half-arrow-shaped, pointed, sometimes toothed. Clusters erect, 
of many blueish-purple^ojijers, with a small bristle-like bractea 
under each partial stalk. Legume spiral, with rarely more than 
2 or 3 turns, silky while young. Seeds several, flattish. 

Lucerne has often been recommended for fodder, or for hay ; its 
qualities and mode of culture may be seen in the Flora Rustica. 
Gerarde mentions it as increasing much in his garden. I have 
often suspected it to be a variety of the following, originating 
from cultivation, but they do not appear ever to run into each 
other. 

2. M.falcata. Yellow Sickle Medick. 

Clusters upright. Legumes sickle-shaped. Stem procum- 
bent. 

M. falcata. Linn. Sp. PI. 1096. Willd. v. 3. 1405. Ft. Br. 796. 
Engl.Bot.v.\5.t.\Q\6. Mart. Rust. t. 86 and 87. Ft. Dan.t.233. 

Medica n . 3 8 1 . Hall. Hist. r. 1 . 1 65 . 



318 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Medicago. 

M. sylvestris. Rail Syn. 333. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 383./. 

M. sylv6sti-is frutescens, &c. Moris, v. 2. 157. sect. 2. t. 16.jf. 1 . 

M. flavo flore. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 243./. 

M. flore luteo. Clus. Pann. 759./. 

Falcata. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t.8-i. 

Trifolium luteum, siliqua cornuta. Ger. Em. 1191./. 

On dry gravelly banks and old walls. 

Between Watford and Bushy-hill, by the foot-way. Doody. In 
Cambridgeshire. Relhan. Common about Norwich, in dry gra- 
velly fields, and on many parts of the city walls ; also about 
Bury St. Edmund's. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root long and woody. Habit like the preceding, but the nume- 
rous stems are procumbent, spreading every way, hairy. Leaves 
and stipulas much like M. sativa. The clusters are usually 
shorter and more dense, but this varies according to exposure 
or luxuriance. Fl. generally pale yellow, but occasionally vio- 
let, and more frequently green, evidently from a combination of 
these two colours. Legumes black, downy, sickle-shaped, not 
twisted into a screw, as in the sativa. Seeds from 4 to 8, kid- 
ney-shaped, yellowish. The growing germen liberates itself 
with a spring from the keel, by which the pollen is dashed about 
the stigma by the time the rudiments of the seeds are perfected. 

This species is perhaps as good fodder as Lucerne, though less 
succulent, and from its position less accessible to the scythe. 

3. M. lupulina. Black Medick, or Nonesuch. 

Spikes ovate, erect. Legumes kidney-shaped, rugged and 
veiny, single-seeded. Stem procumbent. 

M. lupulina. Linn. Sp.Pl. 1097. Willd. v. 3. 1406. K. Br. 796. 

Engl. Bot.v. 14. t.97\. Curt.Lond.fasc.2.t.57. Mart. Rust. 

t.l9. Sincl.ed. 2. 323. Hook. Scot. 220. Fl. Dan. i.992. 
Medica n. 380. Hall. Hist. u. 1 . 1 65. 
Melilotus minima. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 8. 
M. lutea minima hirsuta procumbens, spica breviore densissimfe 

disposita, seminis pericarpio renali nigro, Moris, v. 2. 162. sect. 

2. t. 16./. 8. 
M. minor. Trag. Hist. 593./ 

Trifolium luteum lupulinum. Raii Syn. 331 . Ger. Em. 1 186./ 
T. pratense luteum. Fuchs. Hist. 819. f. Ic.473.f. Bauh. Hist. 

V. 2. 380./ Dalech. Hist. 1355./ 
T. agrarium. Dod. Pernpt. 576./ 
^. Fl.Br.797. 
Medica polycarpos, fructu minora compresso scabro. Raii Syn. 333. 

In meadows, pastures, and cultivated fields, very common. 
/3. Among corn in Peckham fields, plentifully. Doody. NearPad- 
dington, and behind Pindar's-end, near Enfield. Dillenius. 



I 



DIADELPHIA-DECANDRIA. Medicago. 319 

Annual. Matj — August. 

This has the habit of some of the procumbent yellow Trefoils. The 
root is tapering and fibrous. Stems angular, downy, leafy, va- 
rious in length, spreading widely on the ground, not branched, 
except at the bottom. Leaflets roundish-obovate, or rhomboid, 
veiny, smoothish, unspotted, serrated at the anterior margin. 
Sfipulas lanceolate, toothed. Spikes dense, ovate, erect, on long 
axillary stalks, each of numerous yellow^ower^. Legumes kid- 
ney-shaped, wiih many branching prominent veins, and traces 
of a spiral structure ; finally black, sometimes slightly downy. 
Seed kidney-shaped, solitary. 

One of the most valuable of artificial grasses, affording excellent 
fodder for sheep. 

^ has not been well ascertained. The references in Ray's Synop- 
sis are in several respects erroneous. By the description of 
" about 10 seed-vessels on each stalk" it appears to be akin to 
this species, and not to any of the distinctly spiral, many-seeded 
kinds, which never bear half that number of legumes. 

4. M. maculata. Spotted Medick. 

Stalks two- or three-flowered. Leaflets inversely heart- 
shaped, spotted. Stipulas dilated, sharply toothed. Le- 
gumes spiral, depressed, fringed with long spreading 
bristles. 

M. maculata. Sihth. 232. Willd. Sp. PL t). 3. 14 1 2. Sm. in Rees's 

Cycl. n. 22. Comp. ed. 4. 125. Hull 219. 
M. polymorpha. Linn. Sp. PL 1 098 ij. FL Br. 797 %. Engl. Bat. 

v. 23. <. 1616. Curt.Lond.fasc.3.t.47. Mart. Rust. t.''76. 
M. arabica, WWi. 660. Sym.l67. 
M. hispida. Gc^rtn. v. 2. 349. t. 155. f. 
Medica arabica. Corner. Hort. 97. t. 27. 
M. cochleata minor polycarpos annua, capsula majore alba, folio 

cordato macula fusca notato. Moris, v. 2. \54. sect. 2. 1. 15. f. 17. 
Trifolium cochleatum, folio cordato maculato. Raii Sijn. 333. 

Bauh. Pin. 329. 
T.cordatum. Ger. Em. 1 190./. 

Cochleata fructu longius echinato. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t. 88./. 12. 
j6. Medica marina supina nostras, foliis viridibus, ad summos ra- 

mulos viliosis. Pluk. Almag. 245. Dill, in Raii Syn. 334. 
M. foUiculo spinoso. Lob. Ic. v. 2. 37./ 

On a gravelly soil in the southern parts of England. 

Annual. May, June. 

Root fibrous, beset with little fleshy knobs. Stems prostrate, va- 
rious in length, leafy, angular, branched and spreading ; some- 
times downy towards the extremity. Leaves on ]ong footstalks; 
leaflets inversely heart-shaped, equal, sharply but not deeply 
toothed, either nearly smooth, or somewhat silky, each marked 



320 DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Medicago. 



to^ 



in the centre, especially the earlier ones, with an irregular 
blackish spot j the middle one on a rather longer partial stalk 
than the rest. Stipulas half-ovate, with several deep pointed 
teeth. Fl. yellow, rather small, 2 or 3 together, in cultivated 
specimens 4 or 5, on each axillary stalk, shorter than the leaves. 
Legumes orbicular, depressed, smaller than a pea, with several 
spiral turns, marked with concentric ribs, the margin fringed 
with two rows of long, spreading, slender, weak, partly hooked, 
bristles, the whole, when ripe, brown, not black. Seeds several, 
kidney-shaped. 

This has been mentioned, but not much recommended, as a fodder 
for cattle. 

I have specimens gathered by the Rev. Mr. Bryant at Cley, Nor- 
folk, which may possibly be the variety /3. They agree exactly 
with the figure of Lobel above cited, but Dillenius in his blind 
account of this plant, taken from Plukenet, does not advert to 
that figure. The spines of the legvmes are shorter and more 
rigid than in our common M. maculata, and the leaflets are with- 
out spots. I had suspected this might be M. denticulata, WUld. 
V. 3. 1414, Rees's Cycl. n. 26, but the legumes have sometimes 
3 or 4 convolutions, and the leaflets are not obovate. It seems 
a variety of the maculata, and may or may not be the plant of 
Plukenet or Dillenius. 

5. M. muricata. Flat-toothed Medick. 

Stalks barely three-flowered. Stipulas deeply toothed, 
hairy as well as the obovate, somewhat rhomboid, leaf- 
lets. Legumes even, with short, depressed, radiating 
teeth, in a single row. 

M. muricata. Willd, Sp. PI. v. 3. 1414. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. n. 27. 

Comp. ed. 4 . 1 25 . With. 661. Hull 2] 9. 
M. polymorpha muricata. Linn. Sp. PI. 1098 ^. Fl.Br.798y. 
M. minor, orbiculato compresso fructu, circum oras spinis mollius- 

culis echinato. Pluk. Almag. 243. 
Trifolium cochleatum, modiolis spinosis. Rait Syn. 333. Pluk. 

Phyt. t. l\3.f. 6. 

On the sea coast. 

At Orford, Suffolk, on the sea bank plentifully. Ray. 

Annual. June, July. 

Stems procumbent. Leaflets inversely heart-shaped, or somewhat 
rhomboid, clothed with silky hairs. Fl. often solitary. I have 
seen no native specimens, and have doubts concerning this .spe- 
cies, which I hope future inquiry may remove. The legumes of 
foreign specimens are more cylindrical, and less depressed, with 
shorter teeth, or spines, than in Plukenet's figure. 



DIADELPHIA— DECANDRIA. Medicago. 321 



&" 



6. M. minima. Little Bur Medick. 

Stalks many-flowered. Stipulas half-ovate, nearly entire. 
Leaflets obovate, hairy. Legumes oi'bicular, with a double 
row of hooked spines. 

M. minima. Willd. Sp. PZ. «. 3. 1418. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. n. 35. 

Comp. ed.AA 25. With. 660. Hull 2 1 9. 
M. polymorpha minima. Linn. Sp. PI. 1099 jw-. Fl. Br. 798 |3. 

Fl.Dan. i. 211. 
Medica n. 383 a. Hall. Hist. v.\.\ 66. 

M. echinata minima. Raii Syn. 333. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 386./. 
Cochleata fructu echinato minimo. Riv. Tetrap. Irr. t.88.f. 14. 

In sandy fields, but rare. 

At Navburgh, Norfolk. Mr. Woodward. Near Newmarket. Mr. 
D. Turner. 

Annual. June, July. 

A small prostrate species, clothed in every part with fine, soft, 
• rather silky hairs. Stipulas either quite entire, or with a few 
shallow teeth. Leaflets obovate, or roundish, with a few teeth 
at the extremity only. Fl. 4, 5, or more, in each cluster, yellow, 
with a very hairy calyx. Legumes either hairy or smooth, glo- 
bular, small, of 3 or 4 convolutions, bordered with a double row 
of hooked spines, spreading in opposite directions. 



vol.. III. 



Class XVIII. POLYADELPHIA. 

Filaments combined, in more than two 

sets. 

Order I. TOLYAlSlBRIA, Stamens nume- 
rous. 

369. HYPERICUM. Cal. inferior, in 5 deep divisions. 
Pet. 5. Filam. united at the base, into 3 or 5 par- 
eels. Caps, with many seeds. 



POLYADELPHIA POLYANDRIA. 
369. HYPERICUM. St. John's-wort. 

Linn. Gen. 392. Juss. 2bo. Fl. Br. 800. DeCand. Prodr.v.].54S. 

Tourn. t. 131. Lam. t. 643. Gcertn. t. 62. 
Androsaemum. Tourn. t. 128. Gcsrtn, t, 59. DeCand. Pro3r. 

?;. 1.543. Capsule pulpy. 
Ascyrum. Tourn. ^ 1 3 1 ; not of Linn^us. 

Nat. Ord. Rotaceae. Linn. 20. Ht/perica. Juss. 68. Hype" 
7-icinece. DeCand. .34. 

Cal. inferior, of 1 leaf, in 5 deep, nearly ovate, concave, 
somewhat unequal, permanent segments. Pet. 5, oblong- 
ovate, obtuse, spreading, obliquely imbricated. Filam. 
numerous, capillary, united at the base, more or less ac- 
curately, into 3 or 5 sets. Anth. small, roundish, tremu- 
lous. Germ, superior, roundish or ovate. Styles termi- 
nal, simple, usually 3 or 5, distant, the length of the sta- 
mens, sometimes only 1 or 2. Stigmas simple. Caps. 
roundish, with as many cells as there are styles. Seeds 



POLYADELPHIA-POLYANDRI A. Hypericum. 323 

very numerous, generally oblong, roughisli, without al- 
bumen. 
Perennial herbs or shrubs. Leaves simple, without stipulas^ 
opposite and entire, full of pellucid dots, lodging an es- 
sential oil. Pet. yellow, often glandular, deciduous. 

1. H. r.alycinum. Large-flowered St. John's-wort. 

Styles five. Flowers solitary. Stem shrubby, branched, 
quadrangular. Segments of the calyx obovate, obtuse, 
permanently spreading. Leaves oblong. 

H. calycinum. Linn.Mant.\Q&. JVilld. v. 3. 1442. Comp.ed.4. 
125. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. JO. 266. Engl. Bot. v. 29. t. 2017. 
Curt. Mag. 1. 146 ; excLBauhin'ssyn. Hook. Scot. 22\ . DeCand. 
Prodr. V. I. 546. Jacq. Fragm. 10. t. 6./. 4. 

Androsaemum constantinopolitanum flora maximo. M^ieler's Jour- 
ney 205. t. 9. 

A. flore et theca seminali quinquecapsulari omnium maximis, Mo- 
ris, v. 2. sect. 5. ^ 35./. 2; descr. erroneous. 

In bushy places in the west of Ireland and Scotland. 

Three miles from Cork, in the way to Bandon, very abundantly, 
and undoubtedly wild. Mr. Drummond. Woods above Largs, 
on the western coast of Scotland, perfectly indigenous ; Mr. 
Hopkirk. Hooker. 

Shrub. July — September. 

Root creeping. Stems shrubby, erect, 12 or 18 inches high, with 
simple leafy square branches, smooth like every other part. 
Leaves ovate-oblong, varying in bluntness, coriaceous, ever- 
green, about 2 inches long, on very short stalks. Fl. 2 or 3 
inches wide, of a bright golden yellow, with innumerable, red- 
dish, tremulous anthers. Pet. often lobed at one side. Styles 
sometimes but 4. 

A great ornament to shrubberies and parks, excellent as a shelter 
for game, and bearing any cold of our climate. 

2. H. Androsamum. Tutsan, or Park leaves. 
Styles three. Capsule pulpy. Stem shrubby, compressed. 

H. Androssemum. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 1 02. Willd. v. 3. 1 446. Fl. Br. 

800. Engl. Bot. v. 1 8. t. 1225. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 48. Hook. 

Scot. 22\. 
H. maximum, Androsaemum vulgare dictum. Raii Syn. 343. 
Androsaemum. Dod. Fempt. 78. f. Dalech. Hist. 1 156./. 2. 
A. maximum, quasi frutescens, bacciferum. Moris, v. 2. 472. sect. 5. 

t. 6./ 12. 
A. maximum frutescens. Bauh. Pin. 280. 
A. officinale. Allion. Fed. v. 2. 47. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 543. 
Civmenon Italorum. Ger. Em. 543./. Loh. Ic. 632./. 

Y 2 



324 POLYADELPHIA— POLYANDRIA. Hypericum. 

Tutsan, or Park leaves.- Petiv. H. Brit. t. 60. f. 9. 

In moist shady lanes, thickets and woods, not very general. 

About North Walsham, Norfolk. Rev. Mr. Hepworth. At Field 
DaHing, Norfolk, and very plentifully at Asheridge, Herts. Mr. 
Woodward. Not uncommon in woods in Ireland, Rev. Mr. 
Butt. In the western part of Scotland chiefly. Hooker. 

Shrub. July, August. 

Rather taller and more branched than the preceding, its branches 
quadrangular, more or less compressed. Leaves ovate, or some- 
what heart-shaped, sessile, widely spreading. Panicles terminal, 
erect, forked, many-flowered, with angular or winged smooth 
sialks. Fl. an inch wide, yellow, with 3 sets of stamens, and as 
many styles. Caps, finally pulpy, purplish-black, imperfectly 
3-celled, as are many of the dry capsules of other species. 

The leaves and other parts have an aromatic scent when rubbed. 
This species is said not to have been found out of Britain and 
Ireland, except in Italy and the South of France ; but Dr. Sib- 
thorp gathered it in Greece. 

3. H. quadrangulum. Square St. John's-wort. St. 
Peter's-wort. 

Styles three. Stem herbaceous, with four sharp angles. 
Leaves with copious pellucid dots. Segments of the ca- 
lyx lanceolate. 

Hypericum quadrangulum. hinn. Sp. PL 1 104. Willd. v. 3. 1459. 

Fl. Br. 801. Engl. Bot.v. 6. t. 370. Curt. Lond.fasc.4.t. 52. 

Hook. Scot. 22\ . DeCand.Prodr.v. I. 548. Fl. Dan. t. 640. 
H.n. 1038. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 5. 

H.Ascyron dictum, caulequadrangulo. Raii Syn. 344. 
H. in dumetis nascens. Trag. Hist. 73. f. 1. 
Androsaemum Ascyrum dictum, caule quadrangulo glabro. Moris. 
. v.2.47\.sect.5'.t.6.f.\0. 
St. Peter's-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 60. f. 1 Ij calyx bad. 

Common in moist meadows and thickets, and about the banks of 
rivers. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root somewhat woody, creeping. Herb smooth, light green. Stems 
several, from 1 to 2 feet high, erect, leafy, acutely quadrangular 
with convex interstices, beset from top to bottom with short, 
opposite, axillary, leafy branches. Leaves crossing each other 
in pairs, sessile, elliptical, or ovate, obtuse, many-ribbed, veiny, 
full of minute, colourless, pellucid dots, and bordered with a 
more or less perfect row of dark-coloured ones, yielding a blood- 
red liquor. The uppermost branches form a leafy dense pawic/e, 
of numerous lemon-coloured /lowers, about half the size of the 
last. Segments of the calyx lanceolate, narrow, acute, ribbed, 
entire, without marginal glands. Pet. oblique, sometimes dotted 



POLYADELPHI A-POLYANDRI A. Hypericum. 325 

and streaked with dark purple, but not so much as in the next. 
Anth. each tipped with a dark purple gland. Styles short, erect. 
Caps. oval. 

The whole plant, when bruised, has a light aromatic lemon-like 
odour. 

Petiver's figure is copied from the wooden cuts which really re- 
present H. hirsutum, though generally quoted for this. 

4. '^.perforatum. Common Perforated St. John's- 
vvort. 

Styles three. Stem two-edged. Leaves obtuse, with co- 
pious pellucid dots. Segments of the calyx lanceolate. 

H. perforatum. Linw. Sp. PZ. 1 1 05 . fFi/W.?j. 3. 1460. f7. Br.SOl. 

EwgZ. Boi.u. 5.<. 295. Curt.Lo7id.fasc.\.t.57. Ifoodv.i. 10. 

Hook. Scot. 221 . DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 549. Fl. Dan. 1. 1043. 
H. n. 1037. Hall. Hist. V. 2. A. 
Hypericum. Rail Syn. 342. Ger.Em.539.f. Lob. Ic. 398. f. 

Fuchs. Hist. 831. /. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 286./. Corner. Epit. 

675. f. Dod.Pempt.76.f. Dalech.Hist. I] 53. f. LonicKreu- 
• terb. 158./.]. 
H. vulgare. Bauh. Pin. 279. Moris, v. 2. 469. sect. 5. t. 6./. 1 . 

Trag.Hist. 73. f. 
Herba perforata. Trag. Hist. 72. f. 
Common St. John's-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 60./. 5. 

In groves, thickets, and hedges, abundantly. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root woody, tufted, somewhat creeping. Stem taller than the last, 
and much more bushy, in consequence of tlie much greater 
length of its axillary leafy branches ; its form round, with only 
2 opposite ribs or angles, not so acute as those of H. quadran- 
gulum. The whole herb is moreover of a darker green, with a 
more powerful scent when rubbed, staining the fingers with 
dark purple, from the greater abundance of coloured essential 
oil, lodged in the herbage and even in the petals. Leaves very 
numerous, smaller than the last, elliptical or ovate, obtuse, va- 
rious in width. Fl. bright yellow, dotted and streaked with 
black, or dark purple, numerous, in dense, forked, terminal pa. 
nicies. Cal. narrow. Styles short, erect. Caps, large, ovate. 

As this plant was found to bleed at the slightest touch, it was sup- 
posed to have a vulnerary quality, and became the "balm of the 
warriors wound," giving a blood-red colour to every composi- 
tion, whether of a spiritous or oily nature, into which it entered. 
The essential oil, the seat of this colour, is aromatic, and pos- 
sibly tonic or stimulating, without much acrimony. 



326 POLYADELPHI A— POLYANDRI A. Hypericum. 

5. H. duh'ium. Imperforate St. John's-wort. 

Styles three. Stem obscurely quadrangular. Leaves ob- 
tuse, nearly destitute of pellucid dots. Segments of the 
calyx elliptical. 

H. dubium. Z-eew 165. f^'i/M. 5p. P/ t;.3. 1460. H. Br. 802. 

Engl. Bot. v.5.t. 296. mth. 664. Mbot 1 67. Hook. Scot. 221. 

Ehrh. Herb, i 50. 
H. delphinense. Fillars Dauph. v. 3. 497. t.44 ; from the author. 
H. maculatum. Crantz Ausir.fusc. 2. 64. Allion. Pedem. v. 2. 45. 

^83./. 1. 
H. quadrangulum p. DeCand. Prodr. v. 1 . 548. 

In rather mountainous groves and thickets. 

About Sajjey, near Clifton, Worcestershire. Dr. John Seward. 
Luton, Bedfordshire. Mr. Vaux. North Mimms, Herts. Mr. Sa. 
bine. At Downton castle, near Ludlow, and Hafod, Cardigan- 
shire, very abundantly. 

Perennial. Julij, August. 

Habit like the last, with long, leafy, lateral branches, but the leaves 

. are larger, paler beneath, with few or no colourless pellucid dots, 
though there is commonly a broken row of dark-coloured ones 
close to the margin. Young radical shoots blight red. Stein 
quadrangular in the upper part, but not winged or bordered. Fl. 
bright yellow, in large, forked, leafy, terminal panicles. Seg- 
ments of the calyx elliptical and obtuse, broader than in either 
of the foregoing, by which this species is essentially distin- 
guished from them both. The petaU and calyx are dotted and 
blotched with dark purple. 

6. H. humifusum. Trailing St. John's-wort. 

Styles three. Flowex's somewhat cymose. Stem compressed, 
prostrate. Leaves elliptical, smooth. Segments of the 
calyx ovate, leafy. 

H. humifusum. Linn. Sj). PI. WOh. W'i«d. f.3. 1461. i7.J5r.802. 

Engl. Bot. V. 18. t. 1226. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 50. Hook. Scot. 

222. DeCaiid. Prodr. V.]. 549. Fl. Dan.t.141. Ehrli.Herb.ll7. 
H. n. 1039. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 5. 
H. minus supinum. Raii Syn. 343. 

H. minus. Dad. Pempt.7G.f. Moris, v. 2. 469. sect. 5. t. 6. f. 3. 
H. minimum supinum. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 386,/. Lob. Ic. 400. f. 
H. exiguum. Trag. Hist. 72. f. 
H. supinum glabrum. Ger. Em. 541. f. 
H. supinum tertium minimum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 181./. 
H. humistratum. Dalech. Hist. 1 154 ;/. bud. 
Ground St. John's-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 60./. 8. 

In sandy or gravelly, heathy, rather boggy, pastures, frequent. 
Perennial. July. 



POLYADELPHIA—POLYANDRI A. Hypericum. 327 

A pretty little procumbent smooth species, with the lemon-like 
scent of H. dubium and perforatum. Root fibrous. Stems va- 
riously branched, compressed, or two-edged, slender. Leaves 
elliptical, obtuse, pliant, various in breadth, their margin dotted 
with black. FL. few, bright yellow, somewhat corymbose. Cal. 
remarkably leafy and large, dotted at the edges, sometimes 
furnished, like the petals, with marginal glands. Caps, red in 
ripening, a colour which the leaves assume in decay. 

7. H. montanum. Mountain St, John's-wort. 

Styles three. Calyx with dense, prominent, glandular ser- 
ratures. Stem erect, round, smooth. Leaves ovate, naked, 
clasping the stem. 

H.montanum. Linn. Sp.Pl.WOb. Willd.v.5.\A63. FLBr.SOS. 

Engl. Bot. v.Q.t.37\. Hook. Scot. 222. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 

18. 19. DeCand. Prodr.v. 1. 552. Fl. Dan. 1. 173. 
H. n. 1042. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 6. 
H. elegantissimum non ramosum, folio lato. Rail Syn. 343. Bauh. 

Hist. V. 3. p. 2. 383./. 
Androssemum. Matth.Valgr.v.2. 288. f. Fuchs.Hist.76.f. Camer. 

Epit. 677 ? 
A. campoclarense. Column. Ecphr. 73. t. 74. 
Tway-blade St. John's-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 60./. 7. 

On wild bushy hills, on a gravelly or chalky soil. 

Perennial. July. 

Root fibrous, scarcely creeping. Stems very straight and upright, 
about 2 feet high, simple, round, smooth, most leafy in the 
lower part. Leaves IJ- or 2 inches long, sessile, clasping the 
stem, ovate, generally rather acute, smooth, besprinkled with 
small pellucid dots ; the under side paler, marked at the edge 
with black dots. Panicle dense, of a few elongated forked 
branches, not leafy. Bracteas opposite, lanceolate, pinnatifid, 
fringed, like the lanceolate calyx, with numerous, dark, stalked, 
viscid glands. Pet. pale lemon-coloured, elliptical, entire, 
without spots or glands. 

Though not an ostentatious plant; this species well deserves John 
Bauhin's epithet of " most elegant." The glutinous dark fringes 
of its calyx and bracteas resemble the glands of a Moss Rose. 

8. H. barhatum. Bearded St. John's-wort. 

Styles three. Calyx and petals fringed and dotted. Stem 

erect, somewhat angular. Leaves ovate, naked, dotted 

and glandular, clasping the stem. 
H. barbatum. Jacq. Austr. v. 3. 33. t. 259. Linn. Hyper. 6. Amccn. 

Acad. V. 8. 323. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 1462. Comp. ed. 4. 126. 

Engl. Bot. V. 28. t. i 986. Hook. Scot. 222. 



328POLYADELPHIA— POLYANDRlA.Hypericum. 

In bushy places in Scotland. 

By the side of a hedge, near the wood of Aberdalgy in Strath 
Earn, Perthshire. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. September, October. 

Steins herbaceous, a foot or more in height, erect, straight, leafy, 
simple, except at the top, smooth, round ; slightly quadrangular 
in the upper part ; purplish below. Leaves sessile, clasping the 
stem, ovate, entire, slightly revolute, smooth, veiny, besprinkled 
with pellucid dots, and less reg-ularly with dark glandular spots, 
a little prominent on both sides in the dried specimen ; the lower 
ones most obtuse ; upper somewhat pointed. Fl. bright yellow, 
in a terminal, upright, forked, somewhat leafy panicle. Brac- 
teas, as well as the segments of the calyx, ovate, acute, plenti- 
fully streaked and dotted with dark purple, the edges of both 
densely and elegantly fringed with long pale hairs, not tipped 
with black glands like the preceding species. Pet. obovate, mi- 
nutely fringed or toothed, especially at the extremity, and mark- 
ed with black glandular dots. Stam. in 3 sets. Cups, covered 
with resinous dots, but not wrinkled. 

Dr. Hooker well observes that the long hairs of the margin of the 
calyx render this species very distinct. No botanist has remark- 
ed its great affinity to H. perfoliatum of Linnaeus, or to Willde* 
now's ciliatum, to the latter of which belongs the hitherto neg- 
lected synonym of Columna, Androscemum alterum apulum, 
. Ecphr. 77. t. 78. f. 1. In both these the calyx is fringed with 
short glandular bristles, and in the former of them the capsule 
..is strongly wrinkled transversely. DeCandoUe seems to have 
' omitted this species. 

9. H. hirsuhim. Hairy St. John's-woit. 

Styles three. Calyx lanceolate, with glandular serratures. 
Stem erect, round. Leaves ovate, downy. 

H. hirsutum. Linn. Sp. PL 1105. mild. v. 3. 1465. H. Br. 804. 

Engl. Bot. V. 17. t. 1 156. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. 1 49. Hook. Scot. 
.'■ 222. DeCand. Prodr. u. 1. 55 1 . Fl. Dan. t. 802. Ehrh. Herb. 

160. 
H. n. 1043. Hall. Hist. V. 2.7. 
H. Androsaemum dictum. Rail Syn. 343. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 

382./. 
H. in duraetis nascens. Trag. Hist. 73. f. 2. 
Androsaemum Ascyron dictum, caule rotundo hirsuto. Moris, v. 2. 

47\. sect. 5. t. 6./. II. 
A. alterum hirsutum. Column. Ecphr. 75. t. 74. f. 2. 
Ascyrum. Fuchs. Hist. 74. f. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 287./. Camer. 

Epit.676.largerf. Dod. Pempt.78.f. Ger. Em. 542. f. Lob. 

Ic. 399./ Dalech. Hist. 1155./. 
Tutsan St. John's-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 60. f. 10. 

In thickets and hedges, chiefly on a dry chalky soil. 



POLYADELPHIA— POLYANDRIA.Hypericum.S29 

Perennial, June, July. 

Root branching at the crown, sending up several erect stems, which 
are about 2 feet high, straight, round, leafy, panicled at the top, 
with or without short axillary branches, and clothed, like the 
foliage and stalks, with short downy hairiness, very soft to the 
touch. Leaves sessile, ovate, bluntish, furnished with pellucid 
dots, intermixed with a few dark ones ; paler and most downy 
beneath, with many lateral ribs. Fl. very numerous, of a uni- 
form bright yellow, about the size of H. perforatum. Segments 
of the calyx lanceolate, ribbed, smooth, fringed, like the brac- 
teas, with numerous black viscid glands on shortish stalks, such 
as also terminate the petals. Caps, smooth and even. 

The Ascyrum of the old herbalists appears, by their representation 
of the calyx, to be this plant, and notH.quadrangulum, to which 
last some of their synonyms have been referred. If, instead of 
copying, from Dioscorides and each other, various futile accounts 
which afford no information, they had plainly told us whether 
their plant were smooth or downy, with a round or four-wing- 

' ed stem, all would have been clear and satisfactory. 

10. a. pulchrum. Small Upright St. John's-wort. 

Styles three. Calyx ovate, with glandular serratures. Stem 
erect, round. Leaves clasping the stem, heart-shaped, 
smooth. 

H. pulchrum. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 106. Willd. v. 3. 1468. H. Br. 804. 

Engl.Bot.v. 18. t. 1227. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. t.56. Hook. Scot. 

222. Trag. Hist. 74./. DeCand. Prodr. u. 1 . 55 1 . Fl. Dan. t. 75, 

not 73. Ehrh. Phytoph. 36. 
H. n. 1041. Hall. Hist. V. 2. 6. 

H. pulchrum Tragi. Raii Syn. 342. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 2. 383./. 
Androssemum. Lonic. Kreuterb. 158./. 3. 
Upright St. John's-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 60./. 6. 

In woods and bushy heathy places, on a clay soil, frequent. 

Perennial. July. 

Root branching, woody and tough. Herb very smooth. Stem 1 2 
or 18 inches high, erect, straight, slender, round, rigid, leafy, 
panicled at the top, and with many short leafy axillary branches 
all the way up. Leaves firm and rigid, sessile, often deflexed, 
heart-shaped, or ovate, short, convex ; dark green, with a glau- 
cous tinge, above ; paler beneath ; the lower ones soon be- 
coming yellow, or more frequently bright red, which combined 
with the'golden^oujers, tipped externally with scarlet, and the 
red anthers, gives the plant a peculiarly gay aspect, rendering 
it worthy of the appellation of pulchrum, adopted originally by 
the venerable Tragus. The segments of the calyx are ovate, 
and their black glandular fringes, like those of the petals, add 
also to the beauty of the Jlotvers. The capsule is ovate, smooth 
and even. 



330 POLYADELPHI A— POLYANDRI A.Hypericum. 

1 1 , H. elodes. Marsh St. John's-wort. 

Styles three. Calyx obtuse, glandular. Stem procumbent, 
creeping, round, shaggy, like the roundish obtuse leaves. 
Panicle of few flowers. 

H. elodes. Lin«. .Sp.PZ.1106. ^j«rf.r.3.1465. J7.Br.805. EngZ. 

Bot.v.2. t. 109. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc.2. 13. Hook, Scot. 223. 
H. tomentosum. Lob. Ic. 400. f. Ger. Em. 540. f. 
Ascyron supinum viUosum palustre. Rail Sy}7.344. 
A. supinum elodes. Clus. Exot. app. 2. auctuar. 7. Ger. Em. 542. 
Caryophyllus palustris, foliis subrotundis incanis, floiibus aureis. 

Meutz. Pugill. t. 7. 
Hoary St. Peter's- wort. Fetiv. H. Brit. t. 60. f. 12. 

In spongy, especially rather mountainous^, bogs. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root of many long fibres. Stems procumbent or prostrate, among 
wet mosses or grass, branched at the bottom only, where they 
throw out several radicles ; they are round, or obscurely an- 
gular, about a span long, regularly leafy, of a spongy texture, 
and shaggy with soft deflexed hairs. Leaves soft and shaggy also, 
roundish, or nearly orbicular, with several radiating ribs. Pa- 
nicle at first terminal, becoming subsequently lateral, imperfect- 
ly forkedj of few^owers, whose partial stalks are smooth. Brac' 
teas minute, ovate, fringed with stalked glands. Cal. divided 
scarcely more than half way, into 5 obtuse ovate segments, 
fringed with glands. Pet. expanding in sunshine only, pale yel- 
low, with green ribs. Filam. much less deeply subdivided than 
in our other species. Caps, ribbed. 

Some of the earlier writers confound this species, chiefly growing 
in England, Holland, and the north of France, with H. tomen- 
tosum of Linnaeus, a native of Spain and the south of France. 
This latter is H. supinum tomentosum hispanicum of Clusius, 
in his Hist. v. 2. 181./. 1, though the inflorescence is incorrect j 
while his alterum,/. 2, is our elodes, the cut being thatof Lobel 
and Gerarde above cited. The tomentosum has longer, more 
upright, stems ; oblong leaves ; a forked panicle of max\y Jlowers, 
with racemose branches; downy partial Jlower -stalks, bracteas 
and calyx, the segments of the latter being deep and acute^ the 
bracteas lanceolate, and taper-pointed. 



Class XIX. SYNGENESIA. 

Anthers united into a tube. Flowers 

compound. 

Order I. POLYGAMIA JEQUALIS. Flo- 
rets all perfect, each having 5 stamens and 
1 pistil, and producing 1 seed. 

* CoroUa of eachjloret ligulate. Semiflosculosi of Tournefort. 

379. HYPOCH^RIS. Receptacle chaffy. Seed-domi 
feathery. Calyx somewhat imbricated. 

381. CICHORIUM. i?ece/j^. slightly chaffy. Z)oton chaf- 
fy, shorter than the seed. Cat. double. 

378. CREPIS. Recept. roughish. Down simple, partly 
stalked. Cal. double; outermost lax, tumid, deci- 
duous. 

377. HIERACIUM. i2ec^^^. almost naked, dotted. Down 
simple, sessile. Cal. imbricated, ovate. 

376. APARGIA. Recept. naked, dotted. Dowi feathery, 
sessile, unequal and various. Cal. double ; inner- 
most imbricated. 

371. PICRIS. Recept. naked. Doxson feathery. Seeds 
furrowed transversely. Cal. double ; innermost 
equal ; outer lax. 

370. TRAGOPOGON. Recept. naked. Down stalked, 
feathery. Cal. simple, of several equal scales, in 
2 rows. 

375. LEONTODON. Recept. naked. Down stalked, 
simple. Cal. imbricated, double; scales of the outer- 
most lax. 

373. LACTUCA, Recept. naked. Down stalked, simple. 
Cal. imbricated, simple, cylindrical ; scales membra- 
nous at the margin. 



332 

374. PRENANTHES. Recept. naked. Dmion nearly ses- 
sile, simple. Cal. double. Florets in a single row. 

372. SONCHUS. Recept. naked. Down sessile, simple. 
Cal. simple, imbricated, swelling at the base. 

380. LA PS ANA. Recept. nakeA. Down none. Cal. dou- 
ble ; innermost of equal channelled scales. 

** Florets all tubular, lax and spreading in the limb. 
Capitati. 

387. CARLINA. Calyx swelling; outer scales spinous ; 

inner coloui'cd, polished, radiant. Recept. chaffy. 
Down feathery. 

382. ARCTIUM. Ca/. globose ; scales spinous, hooked, 

inflexed. 

384. CARDUUS. Cal. tumid, imbricated ; scales spi- 

nous. Recept. hairy. Down deciduous, capillary, 
roughish. 

385. CNICUS. Cal. tumid, imbricated; scales spinous. 

Recept. hairy. Down deciduous, feathery. 

386. ONOPORDUM. Ca/. tumid; scales spinous, spread- 

ing. Recept. cellular, somewhat chaffy. 

383. SERRATULA. CaZ. nearly cylindrical, imbricated ; 

scales unarmed. Down permanent. 

Centaur ea. 1 . 

*** Florets all tubular, parallel, crowded, nearly on 
a level at the top. Discoid. 

389. EUPATORIUM. Recept. naked. Down rough. 

Cal. imbricated, oblong. Style cloven halfway do^vn, 
prominent. 

390. CHRYSOCOMA. Recept. naked. Down rough. 

Cal. imbricated, hemispherical. Style scarcely longer 
than the florets. 

388. BIDENS. Recept. chaffy. Down rough with re- 

versed prickles. Cal. of many parallel, channelled 
scales. Cor. occasionally radiated. 

391. DIOTIS. Recept. chaffy, with hairy-tipped scales. 

Down none. CaJ. imbricated, hemispherical. Flo- 
rets with 2 spurs, which border the seed. 

Tanacetuln. Senecio 1, ylster]. Anthemis 2. 



( 



333 



Order 11. POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA. 

Florets all perfect and fertile, though those 
of the circumference have no stamens. 

* Corolla of the marginal forefs obsolete, or wanting. 
Discoid. 

392. TANACETUM. Recept. naked. Seed with a mem- 
branous crown. Cal. imbricated, hemispherical. 
Florets of the circumference S-cleft, obsolete, some- 
times wanting:. 

395. CONYZA. Recept. naked. Down rough. Cal. im- 

bricated, roundish, i^?. of the circumference 3 -cleft. 
394.. GNAPHALIUM. Recept. naked. Down rough, 
or feathery. Cal. imbricated ; scales filmy, coloured. 
Fl. of the circumference awl-shaped. 

3'93. ARTEMISIA. Recept. either naked or hairy. Down 
none. Cal. imbricated ; scales rounded, converging. 
Fl. of the circumference awl-shaped, entire. 

Tussilago 2. 

** Corolla of the margi?ialJlorets ligidate. Radiant. 

404'. BELLIS. Recept. naked, conical. Down none. Cal. 
hemispherical ; scales equal. Seed obovate. 

407. MATRICARIA. Recept. naked, nearly cylindrical. 
Down none. Cal. nearly flat, imbricated ; scales 
membranous at the edges. 

405. CHRYSANTHEMUM. i?^c^;p^. naked, rather con- 

vex. Down none. Cal. hemispherical, imbricated; 
scales with a dilated membranous border. 

406. PYRETHRUM. Recept. x\a\ied. S^et? crowned with 

a border. Cal. hemispherical, imbricated ; scales 
rather acute, membi'anous at the edges. 

403. DORONICUM. Recept. naked. Down simple; 
wantinor on the seeds of the radius. _ Cal. a double 
row of equal scales, longer than the disk. 

401. INULA. Recept. naked. Down simple. Cal. im- 
bricated. Florets of the radius very numerous, linear. 
Anthers with 2 bristles at the base. 

396. ERIGERON. Recept. naked. Down simple. .Cal. 



334 

imbricated. Flor. of tlie radius numerous, linear, 
very narrow. Anth. simple. 

400. SOLIDAGO. Recept. naked, pitted. Down sim- 
ple. Cal. imbricated, with close scales. Flor. of 
the radius about 5. 

399. ASTER. Recept. naked. Down simple. Cal. im- 
bricated ; lowermost scales spreading. Flor. of the 
radius more than 10. 

398. SENECIO. Recept. naked. Down simple. Cal. 
double ; the innermost cylindrical, of numerous 
equal scales ; outer of several minute ones ; scales 
all withered at the extremity. 

397. TUSSILAGO. Recept. naked. Down simple. Cal. 
simple, tumid at the base ; scales numerous, equal, 
somewhat membranous. Seed obovate, compressed. 

402. CINERARIA. Recept. naked. Down simple. Cal. 
simple, cylindrical ; scales numerous, equal. Seed 
quadrangular. 

408. ANTHEMIS. Recept. chaffy. Seed crowned with 

a slight border. Cal. hemispherical ; scales nearly 
equal. Flor. of the radius numerous, oblong. 

409. ACHILLEA. Recept. chaffy. Down none. CaL 

ovate ; scales imbricated, unequal. Flor. of the 
radius 5 — 10, roundish, somewhat heart-shaped. 

Bidens 2. 

Orderlll. POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA. 

Florets of the disk perfect and fertile; those 
of the circumference neuter. 

410. CENTAUREA. Recept. bristly. Down simple, or 

feathery, rarely wanting. Flor. of the radius funnel- 
shaped, dilated, irregular, without stamens or style. 



A natural tribe, consisting of the genuine Compound Flow- 
ers, having a common calyx, and combined anthers. 

Compositce. Linn. 49. Cinarocephalce, 54>; Cichoracece, 53 ; 
and Cojymbifera^, 5 5, of J ussieu. See Granuiiar 120 — 125. 



335 

Common Calyx inferior, containing nuiTierous^o;f/5, seated 
on a common receptacle. It contracts after flowering, but 
becomes reflexed, in general, when the seeds are ripe. It 
is either simple, consisting of a single row of scales en- 
compassing the florets ; or imbricated, when the nume- 
rous scales lie one over another, the outer ones being 
gradually smaller ; or double, when one row of equal 
scales, united at the base, surrounds the florets, and is 
accompanied bj' a much smaller external set of scales at 
the bottom, often of a very different texture, habit, or 
duration from the inner and larger ones. 

Compound Flower consisting of various descriptions oi Jlo- 
rets, each monopetalous, very rarely wanting the corolla 
entirely, but various as to stamens, pistil, or seed. 

1. Liigulate Florets, tubular at the base ; ligulate, or strap- 
shaped, and unilateral, in the limb ; furnisheil with both 
stamens and pistil, or only with the latter, in a more or 
less perfect state. 

2. Tubular Florets, cylindrical, with a regular equal limb, 
almost invariably S-cleft ; furnished generally with sta- 
mens and pistil, and usually producing perfect seed. 

3. Neuter Florets, funnel-shaped, spreading upwards, with- 
out stamens or style, mostly irregular, entirely inefficient. 

Nectary altogether wanting, the honey lodged in each flo- 
ret being, apparently, secreted by the tube of its corolla. 

Stamens 5, very rarely or accidentally 4 only ; filaments ca- 
pillary, from the mouth of the tube of each floret, equal, 
sometimes irritable. Anthers vertical, linear-oblong, 
united laterally into a cylinder, very rarely separate, per- 
manent. 

Germen, with respect to its floret, inferior, simple, often 
crowned with a partial calyx, which becomes the crown, 
border, or dow)i of the seed. iS^^/Ze solitary, thread-shaped, 
about the length of the corolla. Stigma simple, or cloven, 
sometimes thickened, and in that case less perfect, or to- 
tally ineflicient. 

Seed-vessel none, the commo7i calyx serving to shelter the 
seeds till ripe, and then spreading widely, especially in 
dry weather, to let them escape. 

Seed one to each floret, sometimes a mere rudiment; when 
perfect oblong, or obovate, angular or compressed ; ei- 
ther simple and naked at the summit ; or crowned witJi 
an elevated, entire or lobed, border ; or with seed.-dow?i, 
consisting of simple, usually rough, hairs ; or of feathery 



336 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QUALIS. 

tufts ; or of variously proportioned- bristly scales, all 
mostly permanent, sometimes deciduous. Albumen none. 
Cotyledons 2. Radicle inferior. 

The Cichoracece, Juss. 53, have ligulate^^or^^s only, all per- 
fect and fertile. The plants are herbaceous, milky, bit- 
ter ; with alternate leaves, and generally yeWo-w Jloxoers, 
open chiefly in a morning. Cinarocephalce, Juss. 54, have 
tubular^ojr/s only, regular when perfect, but sometimes 
neuter and irregular. Plants with generally prickly foliage, 
and red or purple j?otȣ';-.';. CorymhifercB, Juss. 65, have 
tubular j?or<?/s in the disk, which is usually yellow, some- 
times white ; and ligulate ones in the radius or circum- 
ference, various in colour. Leaves in some opposite. Flo- 
rets variable as to their degree of perfection. Qualities 
various, but generally not noxious. 

For irregularities and exceptions, which are very few, and 
chiefly concern exotic plants, see Grammar. 

Some recent botanists of the French school, rejecting the 
idea of a compound Jlower, have given the name of invo- 
lucrum to what has hitherto been denominated by Jus- 
sieu, as well as Linnaeus, a cominon calyx. I cannot sub- 
scribe to the theory, nor to the alteration founded upon 
it ; nor can I deny these plants a naked seed, any more 
than the umbelliferous tribe, the grasses, or the Didvna- 
mia Gymnospermia. The student may judge for himself; 
but if he enters prematurely into such speculations, he will 
soon find himself bewildered in a labyrinth of doubts and 
theories. It will be still worse if, by neglecting the prac- 
tical study of nature, and adopting innovations, which 
are generally long-exploded fancies in a new form, he 
throws away his clue, and follows blindfold, while he 
imagines he is taking the lead. 



SYNGENESIA—POLYG.-jEQUALIS. 

* Florets all ligulate ; an entirely natural order. 

C(mposit(E,^,semiJlosculosce. Linn. 49. Cichoracece. Jnss. 53. 
See Grammar 120. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-iEQU.Tragopogon.337 
370. TRAGOPOGON. Goat's-beaid. 

Linn. Gen. 398. Juss.\70. Ft. Br. 812. Tourn. t. 270. Lam. 
^.646. Gcertn.t.Va^. 

Common Cal. simple, of several lanceolate equal scales, 
ranged alternately in two rows, all connected at the base, 
permanent. Cor. compound, imbricated, uniform ; Jlo- 
rets numerous, all perfect, uniform, ligulate, abrupt, with 
5 teeth ; the outer ones rather the longest. Filam. 5, 
from the tube, capillary, very short. Ayith. in a cylin- 
drical tube. Germ, obovate. Style thread-shaped, as 
long as the anthers. Stigm. 2, revolute. Seed-vessel none, 
except the converging, pointed com7non calyx, about as 
long as the seeds, tumid at the base, finally reflexed. Seed 
1 to each floret, oblong, angular, striated, rough, taper- 
ing at each end, crowned by the orbicular flattish seed- 
down, consisting of about 30 spreading feathery rays, on 
a long awl-shaped stalk, Recept. flat, naked, minutely 
cellular. 

Biennial, nearly smooth, herbs, with long, undivided, ta- 
pering leaves, sheathing at the base. Fl. terminal, soli- 
tary, large, erect, yellow or purple, closing before noon. 

1. T.pratensis. Yellow Goat's-beard. 

Calyx about equal to the corolla. Leaves keeled, tapering; 
dilated and somewhat undulated at the base. Flowei- 
stalk cylintlrical. 

T. pratensis. Linn. Sp. PL 1 109. JVilld. v. 3. 1492. Fl. Br. 812. 

Engl. Bot. V. 7. t. 434. Hook. Scot. 226. Fl. Dan. t. 906. Bull. 

Fr. L 209. 
T. n. 8. Hall. Hist. r.\.h. 
T. luteum. Ruii Syn. 171 . Ger. Em. 735. f. 
Tragopogon. Fjichi. Hist. 82 1 . f. Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 490. f. 
T. flore luteo. Baub. Hist. v. 2." 1058./. 1. 1059. 
Barbula hirci. Trag. Hist. 280./. Camer. Epit. 3 12./. 
Hirci barba. Cord. Hist. 156./ 
Narrow and Common Goat's-beard. Petit. H. Brit. t. 15/6, 7. 

In gras.sy pastures and meadows. 

Biennial. June. 

Root tapering. Whole herb very smooth, abounding with milky juice, 
rather bitter, but not acrid. Stems several, branching, erect, round, 
leafy, IJ- or 2 feet high, often purplish. Leaves alternate, long 
and taper-pointed, often flaccid, or curling, at the extremity ; 
inflated at the base ; several of them radical. Fl. large, 2 inches 
wide, bright yellow, solitary, on terminal stalks, opening early 

VOL. III. z 



338 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Plcris 

in the morning, and closing before noon, except in very cloudy 
weather. Florets as long as the calyx, sometimes longer. Anth. 
brown or purplish. Germ, crowned with hairs. -Seeds large, 
curved, furrowed, light brown, their feathery crowns lightly co- 
hering in the form of a large cobweb-like ball. 

2. T. poiTifolms. Purple Goat's-beard. 

Calyx half as long again as the corolla. Leaves tapering, 
straight. Flower-stalk swelling upwards. 

T. porrifolius. Li««. % PZ. 1110. W^i/W. i).3. 1493. Fi.By.813. 

Engl. hot. V. 9. t. 638. Hook. Scot. 22G. HopJcirk Glott. 97. 

Jacq. Coll. V. 1. 99. Ic. Rar. t. 159. Fl. Dan. t. 797. 
T. n. 9. Hall. Hist. V. 1.5. 

T. purpureum. RaiiSyn.\7\- Ger. £/«. 735./. 
T. flore purpureo. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1058./. 2. 1059. 
T. alterum. Matth. Falgr.v. 1.491. f. 
Barbula hirci altera. Camer. Epit. 313./ 
Purple Goat's beard. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 15. f. 8. 

In moist meadows, near great rivers. 

On the banks of the Chalder, near Whalley, Lancashire. Gerarde. 
In many parts of Cornwall, according to Dr. Gunthorp. Merrett. 
About Carlisle and Rose Castle ; Mr. Nicholson. Dill. In the 
marshes below Woolwich, and near Edmonton. Blackstone. At 
North Benfleet, near Billericay, Essex. Rev. R. B. Francis. In 
the meadows below St. Vincent's rocks, Bristol. Mr. D. Turner 
and Mr. Sowerhy. 

Biennial. May, June. 

Root tapering, abounding with milky juice, on which account the 
plant was formerly much cultivated for boiling or stewing ; but 
its place is now generally supplied by the Scorzonera liispanica. 
Herb smooth, 3 or 4 feet high, glaucous. Leaves neither undu- 
lated at the base, nor curled at the point. Flower-stalks hcllow 
and swelling gradually upward. Fl. dull purple, with still darker 
anthers, the nearly equal caly.v extending much beyond the 
Jlorets.^ They close before noon. 

371. PICRIS. Ox-tongue. 

Linn. Gew.399. Juss. 170. Fl. Br. 814. Lam. t. 648. Gcertn. 

t. 159. 
Helminthotheca. Faill. Mem. de I'Jc. des Sc.73l. f 25,26, 5\. 
Helmintia. Juss. 170. Willd. v. 3. 1607. Lam. f. 648. GcBrln. 

t. 159. 

Common Cal. double ; the outer of several flat, lax, con- 
verging scales ; inner ovate, of many equal, parallel, 
close leaves, permanent. Cor. compound, imbricated, 
miiform; florets numerous, perfect, uniform, ligulate, 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Picris. 339 

abrupt, with 5 teeth. Filam. 5, capillary, very short, 
Ant/i. in a cylindrical tube. Germ, nearly ovate. Sfi/le 
thread-shaped, the length of the stamens. Stigm. 2, re- 
flexed. Seed-vessel none, except the permanent calyx, 
finally reflexed. Seed swelling, obtuse, transversely wrin- 
kled. Dowti feathery, either sessile or stalked, llecept. 
naked, dotted. 
Annual, biennial, or perennial, upright branching leafy 
herbs, rough with rigid or bristly hairs, and extremely 
bitter, as the generic name imports. Leaves oblong ; 
toothed or sinuated. FI. yellow. 

1. P. echioides. Bristly Ox-tongue. 

Outer calyx of five broad prickly scales. Down stalked. 
Leaves wavy. 

P. echioides. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 1 14. H. Br. 814. Engl. Bot. v. 14. 

t. 972. Curt. Lond.fasc. S.t.ol. 
Helmintia echioides. Willd. v. 3. 1 607. Gcertn. v. 2. 368. 
Hieracium echioides, capitulis cardui benedicti. Bauh. Pin. \ 28. 

Rail Syn. 166. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1 028./. 1029. 
Buglossum luteum. Ger. Em. 798./. 
B. echioides luteum, Hieraciocognatum. Lob. Ic. 577,/. 
Ox-tongue Hawkweed. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 12./. 12. 

About hedges, the borders of fields, and in ground newly cleared, 
on a clay soil. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering, and, like the whole plant, abounding with a some- 
what milky, extremely bitter, juice. Herb bright shining green, 
beset with rigid very pungent bristles, each springing from a 
white tubercle or wart. Stem round, furrowed, solid, branched, 
leafy, 2 or 3 feet high. Lower leaves lanceolate ; upper heart- 
shaped, clasping the stem. Fl. an inch broad, of a bright golden 
yellow. Outer calyx of 5 broad, heart shaped, loosely spreading 
leaves, or scales, as long as the inner one, and fringed with 
prickles. .Seeds curiously wrinkled or furrowed transversely, a 
more striking and important character of the genus than the in- 
sertion of their feathery down, which in this species is elevated 
on a stalk about its own length. 

M. Reynier gathered P. echioides in Switzerland, but it is not in 
Haller. 

A nearly smooth variety of the plant before us is represented in 
Hermann's Paradisus, p. 185. 

2. P. hieracioides. Hawkweed Ox-tongue. 

^Outer calyx of numerous scales, much shorter than the 



340 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Sonchus. 

inner. Leaves lanceolate, wavy ; radical ones toothed. 

Down sessile. Stem rough. 
P. hieracioides. Linn.Sp.PL\\\5. WUld.v.3. \556. f/. Br. 815. 

Engl. Bot. V. 3. t. 196. Hook. Scot. 226. Fl. Dan. t. 1522. 
P.n.24. Hall. Hist. v.\.\\. 
Hedypnois hieracioides. Huds. 342. 
Hieracium asperum majori flore, in agrorum limitibus. Rati >Syv. 

167. Bmh. Hist. V. 2. 1029./. 
H. asperum. Ger. Em. 298./. 
Curled Havvkweed. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 12. f. 1 1 . 

On dry banks, or in the borders of fields, on a gravelly or chalky 
soil. 

Biennial. July. August. 

Herb dark green, rough with short, coarse, not bristly or pungent 
hairs. Stem 3 feet high, with many spreading leafy branches, 
furrowed, solid, often purplish ; the ultimate subdivisions un- 
equally corymbose. Leaves acute, wavy, lanceolate ; the ra- 
dical ones unequally and broadly toothed, on hoxAextdi footstalks ; 
upper somewhat heart-shaped, and clasping, at the base. Fl. 
bright yellow, rather larger than the last, solitary, on bracteated 
stalks : the bracteas scattered, lanceolate. Cal. rough with, often 
forked, prominent bristles, among soft cobweb-like hoariness ; 
the outer one loosely spreading, of similar scales to the inner, 
but unequal, and all much shorter. Seeds furrowed and trans- 
versely wrinkled like the foregoing. Down sessile, spreading, 
unequal, slightly feathery. 

372. SONCHUS. Sow-thistle. 

Linn. Gen. AQ{). Jms.s. 169. F/. Br 815. Tourn.i. 2m. Lum. 
<. 649. Gcrrtn.t.Xft'i. 

Common Cal. swelling at the base, of numerous, linear, im- 
bricated, unequal, acute scales. Co7-. compound, imbri- 
cated,, unitorm; ^o;7?/5 numerous, peifect, equal, ligu- 
late, abrupt, with 4 or 5 teeth. Filam. 5, capillary. Anth. 
in a cylindrical tube. Germ, rather obovate. Style thread- 
shaped, full as long as the stamens. Stigm. 2, reflexed. 
Seed-vessel none, the permanent calyx converging into 
a depressed, orbicular, pointed form. Seed oblong, rough • 
ish. Down of many simple hairs, sessile. Recept. naked, 
dotted. 

A rather large and very natural genus, of annual or peren- 
nial, rarely shrubby, generally tall, milky, bitter plants, 
with hollow stems; and more or less pinnatifid or lyrate 
leaves, toothed or prickly at their edges. The surface of 
the herbage is usually smooth ; that of the inflorescence 
hairy, or glandular, often viscid. Fl. yellow, rarely blue. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-vEQU. Sonchus. 3U 

1 . S. cceruleus. Blue Sow-thistle. 

Flower-stalks and calyx bristly, racemose. Leaves some- 
what lyrate; their terminal lobe triangular and very 
large. 

S. Cffiiuleus. Camtr. Epit. 28 1 ./. Fl. Br. 815. Engl. Bot. v. 34. 

t.242b. Hull'2.27. Hook. Scut. 226. 
S. caeruleus latifolius. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1005. /". 1006. 
S. canadensis. Linn. Sp. PL 1115. Wilh. 6/4. Original specie 

men from Kalm in the Linucean Herbarium. 
S. alpin us. mild. n. 3. 1 5 1 9. Wahlenb. Lapp. 1 94. Huds. 336. 

Fl. Dan. t. 1 82. Frcelich in Ust. Annul, v. 1. 24. 
S. n.20. Hall. Hist. v. 1.9. 
S. flore caeruleo. Ger. Em. 294./. 

On the Highland mountains of Scotland, but rare. 

On Loch-na-gore, Aberdeenshire, and on the Clova mountains. 
Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root tuberous and woody, slightly creeping. Stems upright, a 
yard high, round, simple, leafy, furrowed ; smooth in the lower 
part ; besprinkled above with prominent, brown, glandular, viscid 
hairs. Leaves smooth, pliant, variou-sly lyrate ; arrow-shaped 
at the base, with a -winged footstalk ; their terminal lobe large, 
triangular, somewhat toothed j their under side a little glaucous. 
Fl. large, numerous, and handsome, of a fine blue, composing a 
simple, terminal cluster, whose stalks, as well as the linear brac- 
teas, and the calyx, are clothed with copious, brown, glutinous, 
bristly hairs. Anth. red. Seeds compressed, striated. Down 
rough. 

Wallis, by a strange mistake in his History of Northumberland, 
was the cause of this fine alpine plant being reckoned by Hud- 
son a native of Britain ; but what Wallis took for it is the Ci~ 
chorium Intybus. The Blue Sow-thistle however remains on our 
list, having been discovered in the Highlands by the late Mr. 
Don. It abounds on the principal mountains of Europe, from 
Lapland to Switzerland. Some botanists contend that this is 
the real S. alpinus of Linnaeus, and the accurate Dr. Wahlen- 
berg declares it to be the Lapland plant so denominated ; what 
is preserved under that name in the Linnaean herbarium, and 
figured in Sm. Plant. Ic. t.2\, not being known to him as a 
native of Lapland. This last species however alone answers to 
the character in the Sp. Plantarum, and cannot but remain as 
the real S. alpinus. All ambiguity is avoided by retaining the 
old appellation of ceeruleus for our plant. 

2. S. palustris. Tall Marsh Sow-thistle. 
Flower-stalks and calyx bristly, somewhat umbellate. Leaves 

runcinate, rough-edged ; arrow-shaped at the base. 



342 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Sonchus. 

S. palustris. Linn. Sp. PL 1116. JVilld. v. 3. 1512. Fl. Br. 816, 

Engl. Bot. j;. 13. t.935. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. ^ 59. 
S. arvensis. FL Dan. t. 606. 

S. tricubitalis, folio cuspidato. Merr. Pin. 1 15. Raii Syn. 163. 
S. arborescens alter. Ger. Em. 294. /. 
S. laevis lanceatus acutifolius. Loes. Priiss. 258. t. 79. 
S. laevior austriacus, vel altissimus. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 147- f. 
S. tertius. Clus. Pann. 654./. 653. 
S. paludosus altissimus, hastato folio. Moris, v. 3. 61. 
Tall Marsh Sow-thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. L 14./. 7. 

In marshes near the banks of large rivers. 

About Greenwich and Blackwall. Ray, Curtis. Near Streatham 
ferry, in the isle of Ely. Relhan. 

Perennial. July, August. 

One of our largest herbaceous plants, being from 6 to 8 feet high. 
Root fleshy, branching, not creeping, by which, as Mr. Curtis 
very correctly observes^ it differs essentially from the following 
more common species ; the whole herb being moreover twice 
or thrice as large, though ihe^owers are smaller, and usually a 
little paler. Stem cylindrical, though angular and furrowed, 
scarcely branched, leafy, hollow, with many transverse internal 
partitions. Leaves large, deeply pinnatifid, smooth, except at 
the edges, where they are fringed with copious, short, rigid, 
bristly hairs ; their lobes narrow, acute, for the most part di- 
rected downwards ; the uppermost leaves simply hastate, ses- 
sile, linear, serrated. Panicles terminal, umbellate or cymose, 
their stalks rough with black, bristly, glandular hairs, as is like- 
wise the calyx. Cor. lemon-coloured. -Seeds furrowed. Down 
simple, smooth. 

Haller only guessed this to be a variety of S. arvensis, without 
having compared them ; a rather rash mode of judging, calcu- 
lated to mislead all who practise it, 

3. S. arvensis. Corn Sow-thistle, 

Flower-stalks and calyx bristly, somewhat umbellate. Leaves 
runcinate, finely toothed, heart-shaped at the base. Root 
creeping. 

S, arvensis. Linn. Sp.PL\i\6. fVilld. v. 3. 1512. FLBr.8\7. 

Engl Bot. V. 10, L 674. Curt Lond.fasc. 4. t. 53, Hook. Scot 

226. 
S, n. 23. HalLHisLv.l.n. 
S. repens, multis Hieracium majus, Raii Syn. 163. Bauh. Hist. 

r. 2. 1017./. 1018. 
S, arborescens. Ger. Em. 294./, 
S. hieracites major repens, calyculo hirsute inter segetes. Moris. 

V. 3. 61. sect. 7. t.6.f.\2. 
Hieracium majus, Fuchs. HisL3\9.f. Ic. 182./. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Sonchus. 343 

Corn Sow-thistle. Petiv.H. Brit. 1. 14. f. 6. 

In corn fields and hedges, on a clay soil. 

Perennial. August. 

Root fleshy, milky, creeping widely, with oblong, tuberous, white 
branches, which often render it very difficult of extirpation. Stem 
3 or 4 feet high, not much branched, round, leafy, hollow, rough 
towards the top, with viscid, black hairs. Leaves runcinate, heart- 
shaped, rather than arrow-shaped, at the base, and bordered 
with little sharp unequal teeth, not with bristly hairs like the pre- 
ceding ; the upper ones undivided and entire. Panicle cymose, 
or imperfectly umbellate, rough with dark glandular hairs ; 
sometimes it is compound and many-flowered. Cat. in like man- 
ner hairy. Fl. deep yellow, often 2 inches wide, and very con- 
spicuous ; frequently reddish underneath. Tube of each^ore^ 
hairy. Seed furrowed. Down smooth. 

4. S. oleraceus. Common Sow-thistle. 

Flower-stalks cottony. Calyx sniootli. Leaves runcinate, 
toothed. 

5. oleraceus. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 11 6. mild. v. 3. 1 .5 1 4. Fl.Br.8\7. 
Engl. Bot. V. 12. t. 843. Curt. Lond.fasc. 2. t. 58. Hook. Scot. 
227. 

S. n. 21 y. Hall. Hist. V. I. 10. 

S. Isevis. Rail Syn. 162. Ger. Em. 292./. Matth. Valgr. v. 1. 

452./. Camer. Epit. 279./. Dad. Pempt. 643./. 
S. Isevis vulgaris, foliis laciniosis. Lob. Ic. 235. f. 
S. laevis, laciniatis foliis. Dalech. Hist. 572. f. 
S. laciniatus non spinosus. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1016./. 
Smooth Jagged Sow-thistle. Petiv.H. Brit. t. 14./ 9 j also/. JO. 
/3. Sonchus oleraceus, Fl. Dan. t. 682. 
S. n. 21 |3. Hall. Hist. v.l.lO. 
S. laevis minor, paucioribus laciniis. itaii Syn. 163. Bauh. Pin. 

124. 
S. laevis latifolius. Ger. Em. 292. f. Moris, sect. 7. t. 3./. 2. 
Smooth Broad Sow-thistle. Petiv. H.Brit. 1. 14. f. 8. 

y. Sonchus n. 22 /3. Hall. Hist. v.l.W. 

S. asper laciniatus. Raii Syn. 163. 

S.aspera. Matth. Valgr. v. \. 451. f. Dalech. Hist. 572./. 

S. asperior. Ger. Em. 29 1 ./. 

Prickly Jagged Sow-thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 1 4./. 5. 

J. Sonchus n. 22 a. Hall. Hist. v.\.\0. 

S. asper non laciniatus. Raii Syn. 1 63. 

S. asper dentatus. Dill, in Raii Syn. 1 63. n. 9. 

S. asper. Ger. Em. 291./ Dod. Pempt. 643./. 

S. asper laciniatus latifolius. Loes. Pruss. 257. t. 77. 

S.aspera. Lob. Ic 234./ Fuchs. Hist. 674./. 

S. tertius asperidr. Dod. Pempt. 643./ 3. ; 



344 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-.EQU. Lactuca. 

Andryala major. Dalech. Hist. 563./. 

Broad Sow-thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 1 4-/. 2. ■ 

Prickle-dented Sow-thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. <, 1 4. /. 4 j copied from 

Dod. Pempt. 643. /. 3. 
f. Sonchus subrotundo folio nostras, levissimis »pinulis circa to- 

liorum oras exasperatus. Pluk. ^lmag.3^4. Phyf. t. 6\.f. o. 

Dill, in Raii Syn. 163. 
Round-leaved Sow-thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. f. 14./. 1 . 

^. Sonchus a.(pv\\OKXvXos, angusto et oblongo folio nostras, per 
foliorum ambitum creberrimis spinulis asperatus. Pluk. Almag, 
354. Phyt. t. 62. f. 4. Dill, in 'Raii Syn. 1 63. 

Narrow Sow-thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 14. f. 3. 

In cultivated and waste ground every where. 

Annual. July — September. 

Root tapering, milky and bitter like the whole herb, which as- 
sumes a number of diflFerent but evanescent forms, insomuch 
that the several varieties, depending on richness or poverty of 
soil, can hardly be traced with any certainly. Ray doubted 
whether any of them were species or not. Hill persuaded Hal- 
ler that the prickly varieties constituted a distinct species from 
the smooth ones ; but this opinion is not confirmed by obser- 
vation or experience. The stem in all, except very poor spe- 
cimens, is branched, erect, round, smooth, hollow, leafy, very 
brittle. Leaves smooth on both sides, variously pinnatifid, or 
runcinate, toothed, sometimes very prickly at the edges, the 
terminal lobe generally large and triangular j in s and g", starved 
varieties, they are undivided. Flower-stalks cymose, axillary 
and terminal, clothed, more especially near the flowers, with a 
peculiarly soft, white, cottony web, which after a while falls off, 
leaving them smooth and naked. Bracteas few, lanceolate, partly 
toothed. Cal. smooth, glaucous. Cor. pale yellow, closing at 
night, and in bad weather ; reported to be sometimes white, 
but this I have never seen. Seeds angular, furrowed and finely 
notched. Down copious, smooth, very white and silky. 

Dr. Withering mentions a maritime variety without a stem, found 
on Portland island. 

Hares and rabbits are very fond of this herb. 

373. LACTUCA. Lettuce. 

Linn. Gen. 400. Jwss. 169. FLBr.8l9. Tourn.t.267. Lam. 
t. 649. Gcertn. t.\5%. 

Common Cal. cylindrical, of numerous, pointed, imbricated, 
unequal, flat scales, membranous at the margin. Cor. 
compound, imbricated, uniform ; Jlorets numerous, per- 
fect, equal, ligulate, abrupt, with ^ or .5 teeth. Filavi. 
capillary. A7ith. in a cylindrical tube. Germ, obovate- 
oblong. Style thread-shaped, longer than the stamens. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-iEQU. Lactuca. 345 

Stigm. 2, revolute. Seed-vessel none, except the uniiltered 
closed calyx. Seed obovate, furrowed, roughish, com- 
pressed. Down capillary, very slender, elevated on a stalk 
about its own length. Recept. narrow, naked, dotted. 
Milky, fetid, bitter, upright, biennial or annual herbs, with 
solid, leafy stems. Leaves undivided or pinnatifid, some- 
times toothed, or prickly. Fl. numerous, panicled, yel- 
low, pale, and rather small. L. perermis has blue and 
rather largejlowers, with deeply pinnatifid smooth leaves. 

1 . L. virosa. Strong-scented Lettuce. 
Leaves horizontal, finely toothed ; the keel prickly. 

L. virosa. Linn.Sp.Pl.\\\9. Willd. v. 3. Ib2(). H.Br. 819. 

Engl. Bot. V. 28. t. 1 957. Woodv. suppl. t, 250. Hook. Scot. 227. 

Ehrh. PL Off. 137. 
L. n. J 5. Hall. Hist. v. 1.7. 

L. sylvestris major, odore opii. Raii Syn. 161. Ger. Em. 309./. 
L. sylvestris, opii odore, vehementer soporifero et viroso. Moris. 

V. 3. 58. sect. 7. t. 2. f.\6. 
L. sylvestris, lato folio, succo viroso. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1002./. 
L. sylvestris vera. Dalech. Hist. 547- / 2. 
L. agrestis. Cord. Hist. \57.2.f. Lob. Ic. 24 1 . /. 
Endivia. Trag. Hist. 268. f. 
Thesion. Dalech. Hist. 564./. 

Broad, also Cut, Lettuce. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 15./. 1, 2. 
|S. Lactuca sylvestris, folio non laciniato. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 70. 

ed.3.\62. 
L. sylvestris n. 2. Ger. £m. 309; nof. 

About hedges, old walls, and the borders of fields, on a chalky 
soil, not uncommon. 

Biennial. August, September. 

Whole herb abounding with an acrid fetid milky juice, having the 
smell and narcotic properties of Opium. This juice springs out 
suddenly, in large drops, on the slightest touch, from the calyx 
and tender leaves, evincing a considerable degree of irritability 
in the plant. The root is tap-shaped. Stem solitary, 2 or 3 feet 
high, erect, round, smooth, sparingly leafy, scarcely branched ; 
panicled at the top ; a little prickly below. Leaves horizontal, 
nearly smooth, finely toothed ; radical ones numerous, obovate, 
undivided, depressed ; those of the stem smaller, often lobed ; 
arrow-shaped and clasping at their base ; the mid-rib of all more 
or less beset underneath with prominent prickles, such as often 
occur on the margin also. Fl. numerous, panicled, with abun- 
dance of small, heart-shaped, pointed bracteas. Calyx-scales 
downy at the tip, destitute of any keel or ribs. Cor. small, light 
yelioWi Seed- down rough. 



346 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-iEQU. Lactuca. 

Respect for Ray and Gerarde may lead us to suppose our /3 differs 
in some degree from the plant in its ordinary state, with which 
Ray says it is found, though rarely. Its scent is reported to be 
milder. Gerai'de cites the above synonyms of Tragus and Dale- 
champ for this variety ; but neither their figures, nor Petiver's 
f. 1, indicate any thing but the most common appearance of the 
leaves, which are liable, on the same plant, to be wavy or 
slightly lobed ; a difference which cannot be attended with any 
change of quality. Ray, and Dillenius who merely copies him, 
mention this variety as if it belonged to L. Scanola; but Gerarde 
certainly takes it for L. virosa. C. Bauhin confounds some of 
its synonyms with the following. 

2. L. Scariola. Prickly Lettuce. 

Leaves perpendicular, sinuated, finely toothed ; the keel 
prickly. 

L. Scariola. Linn. Sp. Pl.\l\ 9. Willd. v. 3. 1526. Fl. Br. 820. 

Engl. Bot.v. 4. t. 268. Fl. Dan. 1. 1227. 
L. n. 14. Hall. Hist. v.\. 7. 

L. sylvestris, costa spinosa. Bauh. Pin. 123. Rail Syn. 161. 
L. sylvestris laciniata. Moris, v. 3. 58.seo^ 7. t. 2.f. 1 7. 
L. sylvestris, foliis dissectis. Ger. Em. 309./. 
L. sylvestris. Trag. Hist. 259./. Fuchs. Hist. 301 ./. Ic. 1 72./. 

Matth. Valgr. v. 1 . 476./. Camer. Epit. 300./ Dalech. Hist. 

5^7-/ 1. 
L. sylvestris, sive Endivia multis dicta, folio laciniato, dorso spi- 

noso. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1003./ 
Endivia major lactucina spinosa. Barrel. Ic. 1. 135. 
Jagged Lettuce. Petiv.H.Brit.t.\5.f.3. 

In waste ground, and dry stony borders of fields. 

In several parts of the isle of Ely. Relhan. Sent by Rev. Mr. 
Hemsted from Denny abbey, between Cambridge and Ely. 
Engl. Bot. 

Biennial. August. 

Whole herb glaucous, milky, bitter, but less fetid than the pre- 
ceding. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, erect, leafy, panicled. Leaves nu- 
merovis, vertical, not horizontal, variously pinnatifid and toothed ; 
their mid-rib furnished underneath with a close row of prominent 
prickles ; their base clasping the stem. Floral-leaves, or brac- 
teas, heart-shaped, entire. Fl. small, pale lemon-coloured, all 
their parts much like the last. 

3. L. saligna. Least Lettuce. 

Leaves linear; hastate or pinnatifid, entire, sessile; the 

keel prickly. 
L. saligna. Unn, Sp. PL 1119. fViUd. v. 3. 1528. FL Br. 820. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Pienanthes. 3i7 

Engl. Bot. V. 10. t. 707. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 17.16. Jacg. Atistr. 

t. 250. 
L. n. 13. Hall. Hist. v. 1.7. 
L. sylvestris minima. Raii Syn. 162. Cant. 83. 
L. svlvestris altera, angusto saligno folio, costa albicante. Rupp. 

Jen. ed. Hall. 207. t. 4. 
L. sylvestris annua, cost^ spinosa, folio angustissimo glauco. Mo- 

ris.v. 3. 58. sect.7.t. 6./. 18. 
Chondrilla viscosa humilis. Bauh. Pin. 130. Prodr. 68. f. Ger. 

Em. 287. 
Endivia minor lactucina spinosa. Barrel. Ic. t. 136. 
Small Jagged Lettuce. Petiv. H. Brit. 1. 15. f. 4. 

In chalky waste ground, or about salt marshes. 

Near Cambridge. Raij. About Pancras church. T. Willisel. Be- 
hind the Small-pox hospital. .Sir J. Banks. In shady lanes in 
Dorsetshire, but rare. Dr. Pulteneij. At Southend, Essex, iteu. 
R. B. Francis. In marshes in Kent. Dickson. 

Biennial. August. 

Whole plant very slender. Stem 2 feet high, wavy, pale brown or 
whitish, somewhat branched, leafy throughout. Leaves glau- 
cous, smooth except the mid-rib beneath, entire at the edges, 
sessile, very narrow, acute, clasping at the base ; some linear ; 
others hastate ; a few of the largest deeply pinnatifid. Fl. in 
small alternate tufts composing long clusters. Cal. glaucous. 
Cor. very small, pale yellow, open in sunshine only, and soon 
fading. Down rough. 

The mid-rib is occasionally smooth on both sides. In qualities this 
species most resembles the last. 

374. PRENANTHES. Wall-lettuce. 

Linn. Gen. 40 1 . Juss. 1 68. Fl. Br. 82 1 . Faill. M^i. de I' Ac. des So. 
7\7.f.2. Gcertn.t. \58. 

Common Cal. cylindrical, smooth, double ; the innermost of 
as many linear, equal scales as there are florets ; outer of 
a few very short unequal ones at the base. Cor. com- 
pound, of a simple row of perfect, equal, ligulate, abrupt, 
4- or 5-toothed jlorets. Filam. capillary. AntJi. in a 
slender cylindrical tube. Germ, oblong. Style capillary, 
prominent. Stigm. 2, revolute. Seed-vessel none, except 
the converging calyx. Seed obovate-oblong, furrowed or 
angular. Doiurn capillary, roughish, nearly or quite ses- 
sile. Receipt, naked, veiy narrow. 

Annual or perennial, milky, smooth herbs, various mfoliagei 
with upright panicled sifms, and small yellow, purple, or 
whxie Jlffwers. 



348 SYxNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-iEQU. Leontodon, 

1. P. nmralis. Ivy-leaved Wall-lettuce. 
Florets five. Leaves runcinate. 

P. muralis. Linn. Sp. PL I \2l. mild. v. 3. 1543. Fl. Br. 82 1 . 

Engl. Bot. V. 7. t. 457. Curt. Lond.fasc. b.t 58. Hook. Scot. 227. 

Fl. Dan. t. 509. 
P. n.l8. Hall. Hist. V. I. 9. 
Lactuca sylvestris murorum flore luteo. Rail Syn. 1 62. Bauh. 

Hist.v.2.\004.f. 
Sonchus laevis muralis. Ger. Em. 293./. 
S. laevior vulgaris secundus. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 146./. 
S. laevis laciniatus muralis, parvis floribus. Moris, v. 3. 61. «ec^ 7. 

t.S.f.U. 
Ivy Lettuce. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 15./. 5. 

On old walls, or in woods on a chalky soil. 

Perennial. July. 

Root rather woody, with several long fibres. Herb slender and not 
inelegant, smooth in every part, tender and bridle, with a milky 
bitter juice. Stem a foot high, round, hollow, leafy, simple 
below. Leaves runcinate, toothed, clasping at the base ; sud- 
denly terminating in a large, ivy-like, toothed lobe ; their under 
side more or less purple, like the leaves of a Cyclamen; radical 
ones stalked. Panicle much branched, and singularly divari- 
cated in all directions. Bracteas small, ovate, acute. Fl. erect, 
bright yellow, with a slender purplish calyx. Seed obovate, 
striated, black. Down raised on a short stalk as the seed ripens. 
The upper leaves are sometimes undivided. 

375. LEONTODON. Dandelion. 

Linn. Gen. 402. Fl. Br. 822. Gcerin. t. 158. 

Taraxacum. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 23. Juss. 169. Lam. t. 653. 

Dens Leonis. Tourn. t. 266. 

Common Cal. oblong, double ; innermost of several linear, 
equal, parallel scales ; outer of fewer and shorter, lax or 
reflexed ones, at the base. Cor. compound, of very nu- 
merous, imbricated, equal, perfect, ligulate, abrupt, 5- 
toothed^ore^5. Filam. capillary, short. Anth. in a cy- 
lindrical tube. Germ, obovate, furrowed. Style cylin- 
drical, prominent. Stigm. 2, revolute. Seed-vessel none, 
the calyx converging, finally altogether reflexed. Seed 
obovate, fiirrowed, rough. Down capillary, radiating, on 
a long cylindrical stalk. Recept. naked, convex, dotted. 

Stemless milky herbs^ with radical runcinate leaves, and 
large yellow powers, on simple, naked, hollow stalks. 
Aggregate doxim of the seeds forming a light globe, as in 
Tragopogon^ soon dispersed by the wind. - 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-.^QU. Leontodon, 349 

1. L. Taraxacum. Common Dandelion. 

Outer scales of the calyx reflexed. Leaves runcinate, 
toothed, smooth. 

L. Taraxacum. Unn. Sp. PI. 1 1 22. Willd. v. 3. 1544. Fl. Br. 822. 

Engl. Bot. V. 8. <. 5 10. Curt. Loud. fasc. 1 . t. 58. Woodv. t. 3. 

Mill. Illustr. t. 6G. Hook. Scot. 227.' Fl. Dan. t. 574. Dreven 

Bilderb. t. 4. Bull. Fr. t.2\7. Ehrli. PI. Of. 438. 
L. officinalis. With. 679. Hull 173. 
'I'araxacum n. 56. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 23. 
T. officiTiale. Sibth. 239. 
Dens leonis. Raii Syn. 1 70. Ger. Em. 290./. Matth. Valgr. v. I . 

461./. Camer.Epit.286.f. 
D. leonis vulgi. Lob. Ic. 232. f. Moris, v. 3.74. sect. T.t.S.f.l. 
Hieracium majus. Trug. Hist. 262./. 
Hedypnois. Fuchs. Hist. 6S0.f. Jc. 391./. Dalech. Hist. 564. f. 

Bauh. Hist. V. 2. 1035./. 
H. Taraxacum. Scop. Cam. v. 2. 99. 
Common Dandelion. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 1 1./. 7. 
j6. Dens leonis angustioribus foliis. Raii Syn. 171. 
Narrow Dandelion. Petiv. H. Brit. t.l\.f.8. 

In meadows, pastures, waste and cultivated ground, every where. 

j6. On dry grassy hills, or the tops of walls. At Matlock bath, Der- 
byshire. 

Perennial. April — July. 

Root tap-shaped, very milky, externally black, difficult of extirpa- 
tion, ieares numerous, spreading, of a bright shining green, 
quite smooth, tapering downwards, sessile, pinnatifid, witii sharp, 
unequally toothed lobes, pointing downward, or, in botanical 
language, runcinate, of which these leaves are a perfect example. 
They may also be called lion-toothed. Flower-stalks one or 
more, rather longer than the leaves, erect, very smooth, brittle, 
quite naked. Fl. 1^ inch wide, of a uniform golden yellow, ex- 
panded in the morning and in fine weather only. Outer scales 
of the calyx several, lineiu-oblong, loosely recurved and wavy. 
As the seeds ripen, the inner calyx becomes reflexed close to the 
stalk, leaving the light globe, near 2 inches in diameter, formed 
by their radiating down, quite exposed, lill dispersed by the 
wind. 

By culture, and especially by blanching, this herb, though, like the 
garden Lettuce and Endive, originally fullof bitter milk, becomes 
sufficiently mild to be eaten in a salad, nor is its bitterness of a 
disagreeable kind. It is reported to be powerfully diuretic. 

/3 fs much smaller in every part than usual, the segments of the 
leaves being deep and very narrow, but the calyx scales retain 
their due proportion and posit'on. Some botanists appear to 
confound this variety with the following species, but the latter is 
naturally quite a bog plant; whereas the Common Dandelion 



350 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-i^QU. Apargia. 

becomes diminutive from drought and starvation only, retaining, 
in every state, the proper character of its calyx. 

2. L. palustre. Marsh Dandelion. 

Outer scales of the calyx shoi'ter, imbricated, ovate. Leaves 
sinuated and toothed, not quite smooth. 

L. palustre. Ujons Fasc. 48. Fl. Br. 823. Engl. Bot. v. 8. t. 553. 

Relh.307. Hook. Scot. 227. 
L. Taraxacon. With. 679. Hull 173. 
L. Taraxacum S. Huds. 339. 
Hedypnois paludosa. Scop. Cam. v. 2. 1 00. t. 48. 

In low boggy meadovi^s. 

On Hinton and Teversham moors, Cambridgeshire. Relhan. On 
the Lower Common at Heydon, Norfolk. Rev. H. Bryant. In 
several places about Edinburgh and Glasgow. Hooker. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Rather smaller than the general size of the foregoing, from which 
it is doubtless very distinct. The leaves are less runcinate than 
in any of its most starved varieties, and are frequently besprin- 
kled, or fringed, with longish hairs ; sometimes however they 
are quite smooth. Outer calyx constantly and essentially dif- 
ferent from every variety of the last, consisting of ovate, pointed 
scales, regularly imbricated and erect, or close-pressed, the inner 
ones gradually longest, and full half the length of the inner ca- 
lyx. In seed all the scales are reflexed, like the former. Cor. 
bright yellow ; the external_^ore/s striated or stained underneatli 
with red. Head of seeds about half as broad as that of L. Ta- 
raxacum. 

The Rev. Mr. Hemsted has found this species undergo no change 
when propagated by seed. 

Haller misquotes this plant under his Ficris n. 26, which is Apar- 
gia hastilis, Leontodon hastile of Linnaeus. 

376. APARGIA. Hawkbit. 

Schreh. Gen. 527. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. v. 35, after Thrincia. Prodr. 

Fl. GrcEc. Sibth. v. 2. 130. Comp. ed. 4. 1 27. 
Hedypnois. Huds. 340. Fl. Br. 823. 
Leontodon. Juss. 170. 
Thrincia. Roth Catal. v. 1.97. 

Taraxaconoides. Vaill. Mem. de I' Ac. des Sc. 700./. 2 1 . 
Virea. Gcertn. t. 159. 

Commo7i Cal. double ; the innermost oblong, imbricated, of 
several linear, parallel, unequal, inciunbent scales ; outer- 
most very small, irregularly scattered. Cor. compound, 
of numerous, imbricated, uniform, perfect, ligulate, ab- 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Apargia. 351 

rupt, 5-toothed Jiorets. Filam. capillary, very short. 
Anth. in a cylindrical tube. Germ, oblong. Style thread- 
shaped, prominent. Stigm. 2, recurved. Seed-vessel none, 
except the converging, finally spreading, calyx. Seed 
oblong, striated. Down sessile, feathery, rather chaffy at 
the base ; often scaly or unequal in the marginal seeds ; 
occasionally somewhat stalked in the central ones, fre- 
quently accompanied by shorter hairs or plumes. Recept. 
dotted, naked, or very slightly hairy. 
Milky herbs, generally stemless, with single-flowered ra- 
dical stalks. Root almost without exception perennial. 
Leaves variously toothed or sinuated, mosdy hairy. FL 
of a full yellow, with a hairy or downy cali/x. 

1. A. hispida. Rough Hawkbit. 

Stalks naked, single-flowered. Leaves runcinate, rough. 
Florets hairy at their orifice ; glandular at the tip. Seeds 
scarcely beaked, all with feathery down. 

A. hispida. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 1552. Comp.ed.4. 120. Cycl.nA]. 

Hook. Scot. 227. 
Hedypnois hispida. FL Br. 823. EngL Bot.v.S.t. 554. Relh.307. 
Leontodon hispidum. Linn. Sp. PL] 124. Curt. Land. fasc.5.f. 56. 

FL Dan. t. 8fi2. 
Picris n. 25. HalL Hist. v.l.W. 

Dens leonis hirsutus leptocaulos, Hieracium dictus. Raii Syn. 1 7 1 . 
Hieracium caule aphyllo hiisutum. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1037./. 1038. 
H. dentis leonis folio hirsutum. Ger. Em. 303./. 
H. foliis et floribus dentis leonis bulbosi. Lob. Ic. 238./. 
Common Rough Dandelion. Petiv. H. Brit. 1. 1 1 ./. 9. 

In pastures^ especially on chalk or limestone, plentifully. 

Perennial. July. 

Root tapering, long and slender, e.xternally blackish. Leaves lan- 
ceolate-oblong, with reversed, nearly equal and regular, teeth ; 
their base tapering and more entire. They are clothed on botli 
sides with prominent hairs, generally forked, rarely simple or 
three-cleft. Stalks erect, taller than the leaves, simple, round, 
hollow, rougli with similar hairs, without bracteas. Fl. drooping 
in the bud, erect when e.xpanded, bright yellow, smaller than 
the Common Dandelion. Cal. ovate, hairy. Florets clothed with 
long, yellow, upright hairs, at the top of the tube externally, and 
bearing, at the back of each of their 5 teeth, a small triangular 
tuft of brown glands, first noticed by the late Mr. Sowerby. 
Seeds uniform, slender, .slightly beaked. Doiivj sessile, of nu- 
merous, feathery rays unequal in Icngtii. A report of tlie seed- 
down being stalked, arising from a mistaken reference of Haller 
to Berkhey's Flores Compositi, and propagated bv Reichard and 



352 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-.^QU. Apargla. 

Willdenow, as explained in Rees's Cijclopcedia, has no founda- 
tion in truth. 
The exotic A. crispa, which likewise has hairy^ore^*-, is most akin 
to this species ; but the long tapering rough beak of its seeds 
affords a clear distinction. This beak is different from the proper 
stalk of a seed-down. 

2. A. hirta. Deficient Hawkbit. 

Stalks naked, single-flowered; Leaves toothed, rough. Ca- 
lyx neai-ly smooth. Outer row of seeds crowned with 
scales only. 

A. hirta. Hoffm. Germ, for 1791. 274. Sm. in Rees's Cycl. n. 12. 
Comp. ed. 4. 130. Hook. Scot. 228. 

Thrincia hirta. Roth Caial. v. 1 . 98. IViUd. Sp. PL v. 3. 1 554. 

Hedypnois hirta. Fl. Br. 824. Engl Bat. v. 8. t. 554. Relh. 307. 

H. hispidu.n ^. Huds. 340. 

Leontodon hirtum. Linn. Sp. PL 1 123. With. 682. Curt. Land, 
fasc. 6.t.T)9. 

Rhagadiolus n. 7. HalL Hist. r. 1. 5. 

Hieracium pumilum saxatile asperum, praemorsa radice. Rail 
Syn. 167. 

H. dentis leonis folio, hirsutie asperum, minus. Bauh. Prodr. 63./. 

Sandy Rough Dandelion. Petit. H. Brit. M 1 ./. 10. 

On gravelly heaths and commons frequent. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Smaller than the last. Root abrupt, not tapering. Leaves often 
but slightly toothed, and not runcinate. Pubescence often sim- 
ple, but on the whole not materially different from that of 
A. hispida. FL but half the size of that species, red underneatli. 
CaL almost entirely smooth. Florets destitute of hairs on the 
tube, as well as of glands under their tips ; the inner ones with 
a less perfect corolla than the outer row. The seeds of the latter 
are crowned with a row of short, flat, toothed scales only, while 
those of the former bear sessile feathery down. These charac- 
ters abundantly distinguish this long-doubtful species from the 
last, and the exotic A. crispa is known from both of them by the 
long beaks of its seeds, all bearing feathery down. 

3. A Taraxaci. Dandelion Hawkbit. 

Stalks mostly single-flowered ; tumid and hairy at the sum- 
mit. Leaves smooth, runcinate. Calyx shaggy. 

A. Taraxaci. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 1550. Sm. in Rees's CycL n. 8. 

Comp. ed. 4. 130. Hook. Scot. 228. FL Dan. t. 1523. 
Hedypnois Taraxaci. Villors Dauph. v. 3. 80. t. 26. Fl. Br. 825. 

excl. Gouans syn. Engl. Bot.v. 16. t. 1 109. 
H. autumnale s. Huds. 341. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Apargia. 353 

Hieracium Taraxaci. Linn. Sp, PL 1 125. mth. 683. Hull 175. 

Lightf. 435. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 17.15. Retz. Obs.fasc. 4. 30. 

t.2. " 
Picris n. 27. Ball. Hist. v. 1. 12. 
P. Taraxaci. AlUon. Pedem. c. 1 . 2 1 1 . ^ 3 1 . /. 1 . 
Dens leonis alpinus, foliis oblongis raro dentatis, calyce hispido 

nigrescente. Segu. Veron. suppl. 266. 

On the Highland mountains of Scotland and Wales, in moi.st si- 
tuations. 

In the isle of Skye. Lightf. In Wales as well as Scotland. Hiuls. 
On many of the Highland mountainis. Mr. J. Mackay. 

Perennial. August. 

Root abrupt, blackish, with many long, simple, lateral fibres. 
Leaves radical, smooth, erect, either lanceolate and almost li- 
ne-ar, or spatulate and obovate ; their teeth unequal, pointing 
backward ; the base tapering. Stalks one or more, erect or as- 
cending, from 3 to 6 inches high, swelling and very hairy at the 
top, mostly simple and single-flowered, but now and then di- 
vided. jBrac^eas few or none, scattered, linear, smooth. Cat. 
clothed with long, black or greyish, soft, shaggy hairs. Cor. 
bright yellow, twice the breadth of the calyx, the teeth (not feet, 
as is carelessly printed in the Cyclop.) of the florets brownish. 
Seeds oblong, angular, rough. Down uniform, sessile, conspi- 
cuously feathery, so that the plant ought never to have been 
taken for a Hieracium, nor is there any reason to suppose it a 
mule, as Dr. Solander, by the only specimen he gathered in 
Lapland, iu 1753, was induced to believe, and to persuade Lin- 
naeus. 

4. K. autumnalis . Autumnal Hawkbit. 

Common stalk branched ; partial ones scaly. Leaves lan- 
ceolate, toothed or pinnatifid, nearly smooth. 

A. autumnalis. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 1550. Sm. in Rees's Cyd. n. 9. 

Comp. ed. 4. 130. Hook. Scot. 228. 
Apargia. Dalech. Hist.5f)2.f. 
Hedypnois autumnalis. Huds. 341 . Fl. Br. 826. Engl. Bot. v. 12. 

i.830. ReZ/i.308. 
Leontodon autumnale. Linn. Sp. Pl.\\2!i. mth. 680. Hull 173. 

Sibth. 238. Abbot 1 70. 
Picris n. 28. Hall. Hist, r, 1 . 1 2. 
Hieracium minus, prsemorsa radice. Raii Syn. 164. Bauh. Hist. 

r. 2. 1031./: 
H. minus. Fuchs. Hist. 320. f. Ic. 183. f. 
H. minus, sive leporinum. Ger. Em. 296. f. 
H. chondrillae folio glabro, radice succisa, minus. Bauh. Pin. 128. 
Lagopus. Trag. Hist. 265. f. 
Common Hawkbit. Pctiv. H. Brit. t. 12./. 1 . 

VOL. Ml. 2 A 



354 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-.EQU. Hieracium 

/3. Hieracium prsemorsum laciniatum. Dill, in Raii Syn. 164. 

Jagged Hawkbit. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 1 2./. 2. 

y. Hieracium folio acuto minus. Dill, in Raii Syn. 164. 

Small Jagged Hawkbit. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 12. f.3. 

S. Hieracium folio obtuse minus. Dill, in Raii Syn. 1 64-. 

Dandelion Hawkbit. Petiv. H. Brit. t.l2.f.4. 

In meadows and pastures very common. 

Perennial. August. 

Root abrupt, with very long, simple, lateral fibres. Leaves several, 
almost entirely radical, lanceolate, deeply and unequally toothed, 
or pinnatifid ; tapering at the base ; often quite smooth ; some- 
times rough, with variously scattered hairs. Stalks several, as- 
cending or spreading, branched, from 6 to 18 inches high, round, 
curved or wavy ; naked in the lower part, but not quite smooth ; 
the \iltimate divisions, or partial stalks, scaly, with many scat- 
tered linear 6raf^e«s. Each stalk is hollow internally, containing 
a loose, white, cottony tuft, first noticed by the Rev. Mr. Holme, 
a most accurate and observing naturalist. Cal. slender, a little 
downy, as well as the top of the stalk. Ft. bright yellow, not 
large, often reddish underneath ; once found in a proliferous 
state at the margin, by the late Rev. H. Bryant. Seech .slender, 
all crowned with sessile feathery down. 

This plant has not been applied to any particular use, nor is it, 
though common, a very troublesome weed. It varies much in 
luxuriance, and is often found thriving in extremely poor land 
newly turned up. 

The figure in Fl. Dan. t. 501 appears rather doubtful. 

377. HIERACIUM. Hawkweed. 

Linn. Gen. 402. J««s. 169. Fl.Br.827. Tourn.t.267. Lam.t.652. 
Gcertn.t. 158. 

Common Cal. ovate, imbricated, with numerous, linear 
scales, very unequal in length, spreading moderately 
when in seed, sometimes finally reflexed. Cor. compound, 
of numerous, imbricated, uniform, perfect, ligulate, linear, 
abrupt, 5-toothed Jlorets. Filam. capillary, very short. 
A^ith. in a cylindrical tube, much shorter than the floret. 
Germ, ovate. Style thread-shaped, a little prominent. 
Stigm. 2, recurved. Seed-vessel none, except the mode- 
rately spreading, or converging, I'arely reflexed, perma- 
nent calyx. Seed ovate or oblong, angular, various in 
length, not beaked. Down sessile, copious, uniform, 
simple, often minutely rough. Receipt, convex, naked, 
or neai'ly so, dotted, sometimes a little scaly. 

A numerous perennial genus, generally inhabiting moun- 
tainous or woody situations. Siem erect, panicled, and 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Hieracium. 335 

leafy; in some species wanting, the Jlower-sfalks being 
. radical and naked, bearing one or more^oxaers. Leaves 
simple, various in breadth ; either undivided, entire, 
toothed, orpinnatifid; mostly rough or hairy; sometimes, 
smooth. Fl. yellow, very seldom reddish. The herbage 
in general is milky, and more or less bitter, but the^e 
qualities are in some instances hardly perceptible. 

* Stalk radical, naked, single-lowered. 

1. H. alpinum. Alpine Single-flowered Hawkweed. 

Leaves oblong, undivided, somewhat toothed. Stalk almost 
leafless, single-flowered. Calyx shaggy. 

H, alpinum. Linn. Sp. PL 1 124. Willd. v. 3. 1561 . FL Br. 827. 

EngL Bot. v.l&.t.W 10. Lightf. 434. t. 18. Hook. ScoL 228.- 

Allion. Pedem. i\ I. 212. t. 14. f. 2. 
H. n.49. HaU. HlsLv. 1.21. 
H. villosum alpinum, flore magno singulari, caule nudo. DHL in.- 

Rail Syn. 169. ^.6./. 2. 
H. villosum alpinum latifolium, magno flore. Bad Syn. ed. 2. 75, 

excL the reference to Clusius. 
H. altevum pumilum. Column. Eiphr. v. 2. 29. t. 30. f.2. Raii Hist. 

V. 1.241. 
Welsh Mouse-ear. Petiv.H. Brit. /. 11 ./. 2 j copied, with purposed 

variation, from Columna. 

On dry rocky mountains, in Wales and Scotland. 

First observed by Mr. Lhwyd, on some of the loftiest rocks about 
Snowdon. Ray. On many of the Highlund mountains. Lightf. 
Hooker. 

Perennial. July. 

Root blackish, rather woody. Herb clothed with prominent, hoary, 
■rigid hairs, tawny at their base. Leaves almost entirely radical, 
asoUtary one being only now an-d then elevated a little way up 
the stalk, all of them of a narrow obovate figure, tapering at the 
base, either quite entire, or sUghtly and distantly toothed, about 
2 inches long, dark green and equally hairy on both sides. Stalk 
solitary, erect, bearing a large, bright yellow^oii'er, whose calyx 
is black and very hairy. Tube of each^oref externally hairy. 
Seeds minutely dotted, angular, reddish- brown. Down rough; 

H. alpinum, Ehrh. Herb. 79, and especially his strongly and sharply 
toothed variety 89, with a divided stalk, have indeed the shaggy 
dark calyx, and hairy^07e^\ of our plant, but they are far more 
gigantic than any specimens of British growth that 1 have seen. 
This X. 89 may perhaps be H. Halleri, Hook. Scot. 229, but it is 
not H. villosum of Engl. Bot. t. 2379, nor H. pumilum of Will- 
denow, both of which are caulescent. 



356 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-.^QU. Hieracium. 

2. H. Pilosella. Common Mouse-ear Hawkweed. 

Leaves elliptical, entire ; cottony beneath. Scions creep- 
ing. Stalks single-flowered, naked. 

H. Pilosella, Lmn. Sp. PI. 11 25. Willd. ?;. 3. 1563. Fl. Br. 828. 
' Engl. Bot. v.l6.t.] 093. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 54. Hook. Scot. 

229. Dreves Bilderb. t. 17. Fl. Dan. i. 1 1 10. Bull. Fr. t. 279. 
H.n. 55. Hall. Hist. V. I. 23. 
Pilosella. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 316./. Camer. Epit. 708. /. Lob. 

Ic. 479. f. 
P. repens. Raii Syn. 170, Ger. Em. 638./. 
P. major. Fuchs. Hist. 605./. Dod.Pempt.67.f. Dalech. Hist. 

1098./. 
Auricula muris minor. Trag. Hist. 278. f. 
Common Mouse-ear. Petiv. H. Brit. ^ 1 1./. 1. 

In dry open pastures, and on banks, park walls, cottage roofs, &c., 
common. 

Perennial. May — July. 

Root rather woody, throwing out many long, creeping, leafy scions. 
Leaves spreading, elliptic-oblong, tapering at the base, entire ; 
numerous at the root ; smaller and alternate on the scions ; 
their upper surface green and smooth, besprinkled with long 
coarse hairs, such as are found on every part of the herbage ; 
their backs densely covered with white cottony pubescence. 
■ After drying these hairs become tawny. Stalks generally soli- 
tary, erect, a finger's length, round, downy and hairy, destitute 
of leaves and bracteas, each bearing a solitary^oioer, of a most 
elegant pale lemon-colour, with a red central stripe at the back 
of each ^ore^ Cal. rough with black hairs, intermixed with white 
' ones ; its inner scales membranous. Seed-down rough with very 
minute teeth. The receptacle is clothed with short bristles, a 
slight deviation from the proper generic character, of which there 
are other examples. 

Old authors esteem the Pilosella powerfully astringent, and assert 
it to be noxious, on that account, to sheep, while they recom- 
mend it for the cure of wounds, and of internal weaknesses. 
We might place some confidence in their prescriptions, if they 
did not at the same time declare that the juice of the herb, used 
for tempering steel, renders it capable of cutting stone and iron, 
such a property, as founded on the astringency of the herb, 
being purely hypothetical, if not evidently incredible. 

** Stalk radical, naked, many-jlo'wered. 

3. H. duhmm. Branching Mouse-ear Hawkweed. 

Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, nearly entire, besprinkled 
with coarse hairs ; rather glaucous beneath. Scions 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-iEQU. Hieracium. 357 

creeping, elongated. Stalk nearly smooth, loosely co- 
rymbose. Calyx bristly. 

H. dubium. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 125. fVilld. v. 3. 1563. Fl. Br. 828. 

Engl. Bnt.v. 33. t. 2332. Tr.ofLinn.Soc.v.9.226. Huds. 344. 

fVith.684. 
H. Auricula. Fl. Dan. /. 1 1 1 1 . 
H. n. 53. Hall. Hist. V. 1.22. 

Pilosella major prima. Tabern. Kreuterb. 507 . /■ /c. 196./. 
Pilosella. TiUands Ic. 14./. bad ; copied from Tabernaemontanus. 

On mountains, in rather moist situations, rare. 

On Fairfield mountain, near Rydall, Westmoreland. Huds. iirought 
from the north of England. Mr. Woodward. Sent from Scotland 
to the Cambridge garden. Mr. James Dorm. Gathered in Scot- 
land by Mr. G. Don. Hooker. 

Perennial. July, 

Larger than the last, but of a similar habit, though the herbage is 
far less hairy, and there is no cottony down about the plant, 
e.xcept a small quantity on the Jlower-stalks. The leaves are 
glaucous underneath, tapering, and fringed with coarse hairs, at 
the base. Stalks solitary, beset with scattered glandular hairs, 
and bearing 3 or 4 corymbose, or imperfectly umbellate,^oj«ers, 
whose partial stalks, like the calyx, are downy, with short black 
glandular bristles interspersed. Cor. smaller than the preceding, 
lemon-coloured on both sides. Seed down rough. There are 
several scattered, small, lanceolate bracteas, with membranous 
edges, about the pavtia] Jlower-stalks. 

"j-4. H. Aiiricula. Orange Mouse-ear Hawkweed. 

Leaves lanceolate, acute, nearly entire, coarsely hairy ; 
green on both sides. Scions scarcely so long as the 
leaves. Stalk downy and hairy, corymbose. Calyx 
shaggy. 

H. Auricula. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 126. Willd. v. 3. 1564. Huds. 344 ? 

Fl. Br. 829. Engl. Bot. v. 33. t. 2368. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 9. 230. 

Comp.ed.4. 131. 
H. dubium. J^. Dan. t. 1044. 
H. n. 52. Hall. Hist. v.\. 22? 

In mountainous situations. 

On Dalehead, not far from Grass-mere, Westmoreland, but spa- 
ringly. Hudson. 

Perennial. July. 

The most uncertain plant perhaps in our whole British catalogue, 
whose place in the English Flora depends on Mr. Hudson's au- 
thority alone, for no other person has met with any thing in 
Britain answering to his description, which is as follows. 

"Root abrupt, with numerous simple radicles. Scions creeping. 



358 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-iEQU. Hieracium. 

leafy. Stalk radical, erect, naked, somewhat hairy, with scat- 
tered hairs, its height scarcely six inches. Leaves lanceolate, 
nearly entire, acute, naked. Fl. panicled, from 3 to 6, yellow. 
Calyx-leaves linear, hairy." 

As Mr. Hudson knew, and lias clearly described, H. chtbium, we 
cannot but presume his H. Auricula to have been something 
different. He quotes Haller's n. 52, with synonyms of Columna 
and C. Bauhin copied from that author, but these do not agree 
so well with the Linnaean plant as the above description, which, 
except the " naked leaves," answers perfectly to the true H. Au- 
ricula, figured, from foreign dried specimens, in Engl. Bof. This 
cannot be mistaken if it should ever be met with in Britain. It 
is a native of very lofty mountains, near the glaciers of Switzer- 

■ land and Savoy, and is most assuredly no variety of H. dubium. 
The leaves are green on both sides, more or less hairy, truly lan- 
ceolate and acute ; the scio7is short ; flower-stalk clothed with 
white down, intermixed with black glandular hairs ; partiol 
stalks more densely downy, with a few scattered, hairy, awl- 
shaped bracteas. Cal. more or less clothed with long, black and 
tawny, shaggy hairs. Cor. full yellow, inclining to orange. 

5. H. aurantiacum. Orange Hawkweed. 

Leaves elliptical, acute, entire. Stalk almost leafless, hairj', 
densely corymbose, many-flowered. Calyx shaggy. 

H. aurantiacum. hinn. Sp. PL 1 126. H^illd. v. 3. 1569. Comp. 

ed. 4. 131. Engl. Bof. v.2\. t. 1469. Don Herb. fasc. 2. 41. 

Hook. Scot. 229. Jacq. Austr. t.4\0. 
H. n. 50. Hall. Hist. V. 1.21. 

H. germanicum primum F. Gregorii. Column. Ecphr. v. 2. 28. t. 30. 
H. hortense latifolium, sive Pilosella major. Ger. Em. 305./. 
Pilosella polyclonos repens major syriaca, flore amplo aurantiaco. 

Moris. V. 3. 78. sect. 7. t. 8./. 7. 
P. major. Park. Parad. 300. t. 297. f. 5. 

In rather mountainous woods. 

In several woods in Banffshire, and at Craigston, in the neighbour- 
hood of Turref. Mr. G. Don. Coalston woods. East Lothian j 
Mr. Walker ; and woods to the east of Kenraore; Mr. Maughan. 
Hooker. At Failsworth, four miles north-east of Manchester, in 
great abundance. Mr. John Bradbury. 
-Perennial. June, July. 

Root slightly creeping, with many long stout fibres, sending forth 
from its crown a few tufted leafy offsets, but no long trailing 
scions. Leaves 2 or 3 inches long, elliptical, acute at both ends, 
entire, except in very luxuriant specimens like the figure of 
Jacquin ; rough with short hairs on both sides, especially the 
mid-rib; bright green above; slightly glaucous underneath ; ta- 
i"^, ^perinig «t the base into a bordered /oo#s^a//i-. Flower-stalk cen- 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Hieracium. 359 

tral, erect, round, very hairy, solid, often bearing a leaf or two 
near the bottom, sometimes a leafy bractea higher up, and ter- 
minating in a dense corymbose tuft of many deep orange-co- 
loured^^oiters, not red enough in Engl. Bot., neither are the hairs 
of the calyx sufficiently long and shaggy. Partial stalks cot- 
tony, with short black glandular hairs, and long tapering tawny 
ones, interspersed. Rece.pt. slightly scaly. Seeds ovate, abrupt. 

Frequent in rustic gardens, thriving best in the shade, and called 
Grim the Collier, from the blackness of the calyx anAJlower- 

. stalks. 

*** Stem leafy. 

0. H. murorum. Broad-leaved Wall Hawkweed. 

Stem corymbose, with a solitary leaf. Leaves ovate-heart- 
shaped, wavy, with radiating teeth chiefly at the base. 

H. murorum. Linn. Sp. PL 1128. Willd. v. 3. 1577. Comp. ed.4. 

131. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 9. 236. Engl. Bot. v. 29. t. 2082, 

Hook. Scot. 230, a. Fl. Br. 830, /3. 
H. n.46, a. Hall. Hist.v. \.\9. 

H» macrocaulon hirsutum, folio rotundiore. Kaii Syn. 169. 
H. murorum folio pilosissimo. Bauh. Pin. 129. Moris, sect. 7. t. 54; 

letter-press confused. 
Auricula muris major. Trag. Hist. 276. f. 
Pulmonaria gallica, sive aurea. Taberncem. Ic. 194. f. good. 
P. gallica mas. Tabernceni. Kreuterb. 504. samef. 
P. gallica, sive aurea latifolia. Ger. Em. 304. f. 
P. gallorum, sive Auricula muris major Tragi. Dalech. Hist. 1328./. 
Corchorus. Dalech. Hist. 565. samef. 
Pilosella major quibusdam, &c. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1033, /, copied 

from Gerarde. 
Round Hawklung. Petiv. H. Brit. 1. 13./. 2. 
/3. H. murorum /3. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 128. 
H. n. 46, |S. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 20. 

H. murorum laciniatum, minus pilosum. Bauh. Pin. 129. 
Pulmonaria gallica foemina. Taberncem.Ic.\95.f. Kreuterb.504.f. 
Pilosellae majoris, sive Pulmonariae luteae, species magis laciniata, 

Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1034./. 
Broad dented Hawklung. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 13./. 3. 

On rocks and old walls. 

In Edinburgh park ; Mr. Newton ; near Buckbarrow well in Long 
"TSledale, Westmoreland j Mr. Lawson. Ray. On Chedder cMs, 

Somersetshire. Mr. E. Forster. On the walls of the castle at 

Castleton, Derbyshire. Mr. D. Turner. 
Perennial. June. 
Root somewhat woody, with long simple stout fibres, destitute of 

scions or runners. Stems one or more, erect, 12 or 18 inches 

high, round, slightly hairy, furrowed, internally spongy, but 



360 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Hieracium. 

hollow in the centre, eeldom quite leafless, branched in a 
corymbose manner, and bearing from 4 to 6 large yellow ^omj- 
ers, on glandular and hairy blackish stalks. Bracteas few, scat- 
tered, awl-shaped or linear, hairy. Leaves on long hairy /oo<- 
stallcs, broadly ovate, somewhat heart-shaped, variously hairy, 
wavy, more or less toothed about the base, their teeth radiant, 
or spreading eveiy way, the lowermost pointing backward, and 
in jS remarkably elongated or dilated ; the upper surface of an 
elegant, opaque, rather glaucous green ; under paler, often pur- 
plish, but the leaves are never stained with black ; they are nu- 
merous, and for the most part radical, one only, much toothed, 
being situated about the middle of the stern, sometimes lower 
down. Cal. rough with short, black, glandular hairs. Recept. 
convex, toothed. 
The stem in this species is not more copiously leafy than in some, 
native or exotic ones, of the former section, but with them it has 
no natural affinity, and is tiierefore placed with those to which it 
is most nearly allied. 

7. H. maculatum. Stained-leaved Hawkweed. 

Stem cymose, many leaved, tubular. Leaves ovate-lanceo- 
late, strongly toothed ; teeth pointing forward. 

H. maculatum. Comp.ed. A.\Z\. Engl. Bot. v. 30. t.2l2\. 

H. sylvaticum. Fl.Dan. t.\\\3. 

H. sylvaticum /3. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 9. 240, erasing the syn. of 
Ray, Dillenius and Villars. 

H. sylvaticum y and perhaps J. Hook. Scot. 231. 

H. murorum y. Fl. Br. 830. 

H. Pulmonaria dictum angustifolium. Richardson and Dill, in Rail 
Syn. 1 68 ; but not the original plant of Ray, Gerarde, and Lobel, 
which Dr. Lamb of Newbury proved to be Cineraria integrifo- 
lia; and this remarkable fact the old figure of the two last- 
mentioned authors, copied by Petiver, t. 13./. 5, confirms. Yet 
Lobel's figure, Ic. 587/ 1, is still quoted by some authors for 
H. sylvaticuni. 

On the mountains of Wales, Westmoreland, and Scotland. 

Near the lake Lhyn y cwm, not far from the church of Llanberis, 

/ , / I North Wales. i)r. Richardson, according to his herbarium. On 

4^(A,j*jL*^\Breidden hill, Montgomeryshire. Mr. Bowman. Brought from 

Westmoreland, in 1781, by Mr. Crowe, in the site of whose 

I garden at Norwich, and that neighbourhood, the plant is now 

naturalized, as well as on several old walls about the cathedral. 

' Perennial. June — September. 

The great difficulty of the subject, and the many errors of the most 
able botanists, will I hope plead my excuse for having at any 
time confounded this very distinct species with the preceding or 
the following. Though variable in height, from 1 foot, as in Mr. 
Bowman's specimen, to 2 or 3 on our walls, it has always a 



SYNGENESIA-POLYGAM.-^QU. Hieracium. 361 

taller, more erect and straight stem than the last, bearing several 
scattered, nearly sessile, leaves, and more amply and decidedly 
hollow. The hairy leaves are longer, ovate-lanceolate^ not at all 
heart-shaped, but rather tapering at the base ; their usually 
strong, deep, distinct teeth all pointing forward, not backward j 
their colour dark green above, more or less speckled with black, 
or dark purple ; the under side paler ; radical ones on long 
hairy footstalks. The Jlower-stalks are numerous, clothed, like 
the calyx, with short, dense, rather cottony, down, intermixed 
with short, black, glandular bristles, and they form an irregular, 
sometimes compound, cymose ]>anicle, bearing several scattered, 
linear, hairy bracteas. Ft. about an inch wide, of a full bright 
yellow. Seeds slender, angular. Recept. slightly scaly, or cel- 
lular. 

8. H. sylvaticum. Wood Hawkvveed. 

Stem simply racemose, many-leaved, solid. Leaves ovate- 
lanceolate, toothed chiefly about the base ; teeth pointing 
forward. 

H. sylvaticum. .Sm. Tr.o/L^zn. iSoc.t). 9. 239, a. Comp. erf. 4. 131. 

Engi.Bo^.t). 29.^.2031. J4'it/i.687. Hook. Scot. 23\, ex.. Gouan 

Illustr.56. Willd. Sp. PL r. 3. 1578. 
H. murorum. Ehrh. Herb. 147. Fl. Br. 830, a. 
H. n.46, S. Hall. Hist. V. 1.20. 

H. murorum, folio pilosissimo. Rail Syn. ed. 2. 74. ed. 3. 168. 
Pulmonaria gallica tenuifolia. Taberncem. Ic. \9^. f. Kreuterb. 

505./ 
Pilosellee majoris, sive Pulmonarise luteae species angustifolia, 

Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1034./. 
French Havvklung. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 13./ 4. 

In dry chalky woods, and on dry banks, or especially old park 
walls, frequent. 

Perennial. June, July. 

Root slender, slightly creeping, with long, rather stout, fibres. 
Herb hairy, of a pale, unspotted, grass green. Sletn erect, 12 
or 1 8 inches high, striated or slightly angular, very nearly, if not 
quite, solid throughout, leafy, panicled at the top in a regular, 
alternate, or racemose, manner. Radical and lower stem-leaves 
on long hairy stalks ; upper nearly sessile ; all ovate-lanceolate, 
or oblong, acute, most toothed about their lower half, the teeth 
various in size, all pointing forward or outward, not backward. 
Fl. smaller than the last, and much fewer, often but 2 or 3 in the 
panicle, always simply racemose, not cymose; their colour 
bright yellow. Flower-stalks and calyx rough with short black 
hairs, and sometimes a little cottony. Recept. roughish or mi- 
nutely scaly. 

The name off/. murnrUm so well agrees with this common species, 



I4i/^<m^^ 



3&2 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Hieracium, 

that it was taken for that plant, without much examination, in 
the FL Brit., and 1 am obhged to Mr. E. Fovster for leading me 
to study this and some of the neighbouring species, whence I 
trust they have been better explained in the Liuncean Transac- 
tions, though in the present work I have found further correc- 
tions requisite. 

9. Y{. pulmo7iarium. Lungwort Hawkweed. 

t^4^w ^*s Stem somewhat corymbose, solid, slightly leafy. Leaves 
lanceolate, deeply and unequally toothed throughout ; 
teeth pointing forward. 

H. pulmonarium. Comp. ed.A.\3\. Engl. Bot.v.SS. t.2307. 
H. ])ulmonarioides. Villars Daitph. v.3.\33.t.34; from the au- 
thor. 

On rocks about rivers in Scotland, as in Dauphinj'. 

On the banks of the river Nivis, near the bridge. Mr. Borrer. 

Perennial. July. 

Root woody. Stem not much above a foot high, round, striated, 
full of pith, bearing 2 or 3 leaves only, which are nearly sessile. 
Radical leaves several, on bordered footstalks, erect, elliptic- 
lanceolate, acute, bright green, rough with rather short hairs, 
and clouded with faint blotches of purplish brown ; their teeth 
numerous and unequal, largest and most abundant about the 
lower half of each leaf, and generally wanting toward the ex- 
tremity, all directed forward, each having a small incurved 
point. Panicle of from 2 to GJiowers, truly corymbose, the first 
partial stalk remaining always much lower than the rest, all of 
them rough with black glandular hairs, as is likewise the calyx. 
Cor. bright yellow, broader than the last. Seeds slender, an- 
gular. 

I have Highland specimens, from the late Mr. G. Don, and Mr. J. 
Mackay, of what seems to be a broader-leaved, and more 
strongly toothed, variety of the present species. 



{JL'%dA.CiM^- 



10. H. Lawsoni. Glaucous Hairy Hawkweed. 

T*'^''^^ Stem remotely and simply branched, solid, slightly leafy. 
Radical leaves stalked, elliptic-lanceolate, decurrent, 
glaucous, fringed, nearly entire. 

H, Lawsoni. Villars Bauph. v. 3. 1 18. t. 29. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 

1569. Comp.ed.4.]3]. Engl Bot. v. 29. t. 2083. Tr.ofLinn 

Socu. 9.241. 
H. leptocaulon hirsutum, folio longiore. Raii Syn. ed. 2. 74. ed. 3 

169. 
H. glaucum pilosum, foliis parum dentatis. Dill. Elth. 180. 1. 149. 
On the mountains of Westmoreland, Craven, and Scotland. 
Upon rocks by the rivulet between Shap and Anna well. West- 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Hieracium. 363 

moieland. Mr. Lawson. On the sloping side of a hill called 
Gordil, near Malham in Craven. Dr. Richardson. At the foot 
of the Highland mountain Ben Cruachan, and on a rock in 
Coriie Cruachan. Dr. Hooker and Mr. Borrer. 

Perennial. July. 

Root rather woody, black externally, with long simple fibres. Herb 
glaucous, abounding in every part with bitter milk. Stems one 
or more, filled with pith, erect or spreading, a foot high, in cul- 
tivated specimens twice as much, round, smooth, bearing one, 
two, or three sessile oblong leaves, and terminating in from one 
to four bristly and downy, slightly bracteated, alternate, elon- 
gated Jlower-stalks, each supporting a very large and handsome 
lemon-coloured j?o«;er-, whose calyx is clothed with short, tawny, 
as well as blackish, hairs. The leaves are chiefly radical, on long 
d\\AieA footstalks , elliptical, acute at each end, much extended 
at the base, where they are copiously hairy ; their margins ge- 
nerally quite entire, fringed with pale hairs. 

This is a most distinct species, propagating itself plentifully by 

seed in a garden, where it differs only in luxuriancy from a Py- 

renean specimen in my possession, the only wild one I have ever 

seen. The figure in Engl. Bat. was of necessity taken, like that 

, of Dillenius, from a cultivated plant, but it is very characteristic. 

11. Yi. paludosiim. Marsb Succory-leaved Hawkweed. 

Stem angular, tubular, leafy, smooth, corymbose. Leaves 
smooth, toothed, clasping the stem with their heart- 
shaped base. Calyx hairy. 

H. paludosum. Linn. Sp. PL 1129. Willd.v.3.\b79. Fl.Br.S3]. 

Engl. Bot. V. 16. t. 1094. Hook. Scot. 232. H. Dan. t. 928. 

Jllion.Pedem.v. 1. 2\6. t. 28. f.2. and t.3].f.2. Villars Dauph. 

r.3.129. 
H. n.45. Hall. Hist. v.\. 19. 

H. montanum, cichorei folio nostras. Rail Syn. 1 66. 
H. montanum latifolium minus. Ger. Em. 300./. 
H. Britannicum. Clus. Pann. 643. 
H. latifolium glabrum ex valle Griesbachiana. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 

1033./. 

In watery shady places in Wales, the north of England, and low- 
lands of Scotland. 
•Abundant in moist meadows, and about mountain rivulets, in 
Craven. Dr. Richardson. Plentiful in Westmoreland 5 as well as 
near Moffat and elsewhere in Scotland. 

Perennial. July. 

Root fibrous. Herbage quite smooth, of a full deep shining green, 
intensely bitter. Stem erect, angular, hollow, leafy, about 2 feet 
high, unbranched, but terminating in a corymbose panicle of 
several bright yellow j^owers, scarcely an inch in diameter 5 their 



364 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Hieracium. 

stalks smooth. Calyx rough with black pvominent hairs, parti- 
cularly at its base. Leaves elliptic-oblong, taper-pointed, co- 
piously toothed, the lower teeth often hooked backward ; the 
base elongated, dilated, and clasping the stem ; radical ones few, 
somewhat stalked. It is one of our best-defined species. 

12. H. molle. Soft-leaved Hawkweed. 

Stem angular, tubular, leafy, downy, corymbose. Leaves 
lanceolate, slightly toothed, hairy, clasping the stem ; 
lower ones stalked, elliptical and obtuse. 

H. molle. Jacq. Austr. v.2.\2. t.WQ ; from the author. Willd. 
Sp. PL V. 3. 1577. Dicks. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 2. 288. H. Sice. 
/asc. 11.13. FZ.Br.832. Engl. Bot. v. 3\. t.22l0. fVith.688. 
Hook. Scot. 232 ; excluding the synonym. 

In woods in the south of Scotland. Dickson. 

Among bushes in meadows, to the north of Forfar ; Mr. G. Don ; 
and by the lower fall of the Tummel, Glen Luss j Mr. Borrer. 
Hooker. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root abrupt, with many long fibres. Whole herh clothed with scat- 
tered, short, soft, simple hairs, which on the angular flower- 
stalks are glandular and viscid. Stem 12 or 18 inches high, 
erect, leafy, angular, perfectly tubular and hollow, unbranched 
except at the summit. Radical leaves elliptic-oblong, obtuse, 
very obscurely and minutely toothed, often quite entire ; paler 
beneath ; tapering at the base into long, narrow, bordered /oo<- 
stalks; upper ones several, sessile, clasping the stem, more lan- 
ceolate and less blunt. ParticZe corymbose. FZ. not numerous, 
about an inch broad, of a full golden yellow. Cal. clothed with 
short, brownish, spreading, scarcely glandular hairs, intermixed 
with a little cottony down. Seeds light brown, furrowed. Down 
rough. 

Mr. Davall found this species in Switzerland, but he did not, like 
Willdenow, confound it with Haller's ?i.47,Willdenow's integri- 
folium, under which this author also quotes Haller's 47. The 
latter is a most distinct species, perfectly smooth, glaucous, well 
compared by Haller to a Bupleurum, and resembling also some 
of the smooth species of Solidago. The leaves are lanceolate'; 
those of the stem numerous, narrow, taper-pointed, quite en- 
tire, sessile, hardly clasping. Stem round, strongly furrowed, 
perfectly solid, not tubular, a character too much overlooked by 
authors who have attempted to discriminate the species of Hie- 
racium. Thejlowers are nearly twice the size of H. molle. Calyx 
very slightly hairy, cottony at the base, like the summit of each 
flower stalk. The panicle is otherwise smooth, not bristly nor 
glandular, and bears several diminished leaves, resembling those 
of the stem, but much smaller. Willdenow's definition and 



SYNGENESIA---POLYGAM.-^QU. Hieracium. 365 

description of this plant but ill accord with my Swiss specimens. 

There seems no reason to suppose it a native of Britain, but I 

subjoin its character and synonyms. The name, taken from 

Vaillant, is not apposite. 
H. succisafolium. Stem solid, furrowed, leafy, corymbose, smooth, 

like the lanceolate, taper-pointed, entire leaves. Calyx, and top 

of the flower- stalks, somewhat downy. 
H. succisaefolium. Allion. Pedem. v. 1. 205, without character, 

figure, or description. DeCand. Fr. v. 4. 28. H. integrifolium. 

mild. V. 3. 1568. H. n. 47. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 20. H. glabrum, 

Succisae folio, prorsus integro. Vaill. M^m. de I' Ac. des Sc. 710. 

n. 40. Le MGnnier Obs. \57. .... 

13. H. cerinthoides. Honey wort-leaved Hawkweed. 

Stem solid, leafy, corymbose, somewhat angular. Leaves 
hairy, slightly toothed; the uppermost ovate, pointed, 
clasping; radical ones elliptic-oblojig, with shaggy fringed 
footstalks. 

H. cerinthoides. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 129. M'illd. v. 3. 1580. Sm. Tr. 

of Linn. Soc. v. 9. 242. Comp. ed.4. 131. Engl. Bot. v. 34. 

t. 2378. Hook. Scot. 232. GouanlUustr. 58. t. 22. f. 4. Villars 

Dauph.v.3.l\0.t.32'> 
H. pyrenaicum, folio cerinthes, latifolium, et angustifolium. Schola 

Bot. 189. Vaill. Mem. del' Ac. des Sc. 707. n.\&,\7. Tourn. 

Inst. 472. 

On rocks in the Highlands of Scotland, not uncommon. Mr. G. 
Don. 

Perennial. August. 

Root somewhat woody, blackish. Herb rather glaucous. Stem l^- 
or 2 feet high, erect, stout, cylindrical, with several slight an- 
gles, smooth, or nearly so, quite solid, corymbose, leafy. Ra- 
dical leaves on long, flat, \evy shaggy footstalks, elliptic-oblong, 
or obovate, from 3 to 5 inches in length, acute, sometimes ob- 
tuse, either nearly entire, or beset with small distant teeth, the 
surface besprinkled with dots, a little like those of Cerinthe, but 
these are often very slight, and the long hairs which accompany 
them are variable in quantity ; stem-leaves sessile, ovate, entire, 
taper-pointed, fringed, gradually diminished to copious leafy 
bracteas on the rough stalks of the panicle. Fl. rather large, 
pale yellow, on bristly glandular stalks. Cal. covered with 
shaggy, but short, hairs. Seeds furrowed, dark brown. Down 
minutely rough. 

Our plant is certainly that of Linnaeus, and apparently of DeCan- 
doile. It accords well with Gouan's plate, but not with that of 
Villars, nor with specimens from Dauphiny, which yet may pos- 
sibly be but varieties of the same species. 



366 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-.^QU. Hieracium. 

14. H. vUlosum. Shaggy Alpine Hawk weed. 

Stem tubular, leafy, shaggy, with very few flowers. Leaves 
oblong, wavy, unequally toothed, shaggy as well as the 
calyx. Seeds angular. 

H. villosum. Linn. Sp. PL 1 130. Willd. v. 3. 1585. Fl. Br. 833. 

Engl. Bot. V. 34. t. 2379 ; not good, Dicks, Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 2. 

288. Jacq.Austr.t.ST. ■ 
H. n. 44. Hall.Hist.v. I. 18. 
H. n. 971. Hall. Enum. Bar. 54. 
H. alpinum hirsuto folio quintum. Clus. Pann. 643./. 644. Hist. 

r. 2. 111./. 112. Bauh.Hist.v.2. 1027./. 
H. quintum Clusii. Ger. Em. 301./. 
H. alpinum, latiore folio, pilosura, flora majore. Pluk. Almag. 184. 

PIujt.t.\94.f.2. 
H. alpinum latifolium villosum, magno flore. Bauh. Pin. 128. 

Moris. V. 3. 70. n. 62. sect. 7. t. 5./. 58. 
Welch Hoary Havvklung. Petiv. H.Brit. t.l3.f.6; copied from the 

figure of Clusius, which, through the mistake of Ray, was applied 

to H. alpinum. 

On moist alpine rocks. 

On Ben Nevis. Mr. Dickson. Ben Lawers, and other Scottish 
oe."&o{,'V,'(\.'2" mountains. Mr. J. Mackay. Near Meer Gill, at the foot of In- 
gleborough, Yorkshire ; Mr. Caley. Withering. 

Perennial. August. 

Root woody, with several fibres. Stem upright, a foot or more in 
height, round, striated, hollow, leafy, unbranched, often quite 
simple and single-flowered, but not unfrequently divided at the 
summit, and bearing 2 or more Jloivers which are very large, 
near 2 inches wide when fully expanded, lemon-coloured. Leaves 
elliptic-oblong, acute, wavy, with shallow unequal teeth, a little 
glaucous, and, like the stem and calyx, remarkable for their 
clothing of long, shaggy, hoary haii's, which become tawny by 
keeping. These copious long hairs, and the large lemon-co- 
loured ^oti^ers, distinguish this species from every other of Bri- 
tish growth. The seeds are chesnut-coloured, more angular 
than striated, with a very smooth surface. Down rough, rather 
short. 

The figure in Engl. Bot. taken from an ill-chosen garden specimen, 
is so unlike the wild plant, that I cannot wonder if Dr. Hooker 
thought it a different species. Our H. villosum has, however, 
little affinity to H. Halleri of Villars, named hybridum in his 
t. 26 ; {DeCand. Fr. v. 4.] 9. Willd. v. 3. 1587,) and still less to 
H. alpinum. This plant of Villars is, raoredver, pumilum of 
Willd. V. 3. 1562, under which name Mr. Sieber sent specimens 
from Styria. It does not clearly appear from the Fl. Scot, whe- 
ther this or villosum was gathered on Ben-y-more. 



'K. dtcjlvvx. [aXJLVX>i.'iV,j^. ±ni 



1 



SYNGENESIA~POLYGAM.-7EQU. Hierachim. 307 

15. Yi. sabaudum. Shrubby Broad-leaved Hawkweed. 

Stem erect, copiously leafy, many-flowered- Leaves ovate- 
lanceolate, sharply toothed, rough-edged, somewhat 
clasping ; hairy beneath, 

H.sabaudum. Linn. -Sp. P/. 1131. Fl.Suec.27A. Willd. v. 3. 1589. 

Fl. Br. 834. Engl. Bot.v.a.t.3A9. Hook. Scot. 233. FLDan. 

t. 872. Allion. Peim.u. 1. 218. t. 27. f. 2. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1030. 

/•2. 
H. n. 35. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 15. 
H. n. 30. Gmel. Sib. v. 2. 35. ^. M. 

H. fruticosLim latifolium hirsutum. Bauh. Pin. 129. Raii Syn. 167. 
Broad Hairy Havvklungj also Narrow Hairy Hawklung. Petiv. H. 

Brit.t. 13./. 7, 8. 
/3. Hieraciiim fruticosum latifolium glabrum. Rail Syn. 168. 
Broad Smooth Hawklung. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 13./. 9. 
y. Hieracii seu Pilosellae majoris species humilis, foliis longioribu.s 

rariiis dentatis plurimis simul, flore singulari, nostras. Rail Syn. 

ed. 2. 75. ed. 3. 170. Pluk. Almag. 1 83. Phyt. t. 37. f. 3. 
Plukenet's Mouse-ear. Petiv. H. Brit. t.W.f.O. 

In coppices, groves and thickets, frequent. 

/3. Near Ulswater, Westmoreland. Ray. 

Perennial. August, September. 

This species, in its usual state, is very distinct, and readily known. 
The stents, though annual, have a shrubby aspect, and are far 
more abundantly leafy than any of the preceding. They are 2 or 
3 feet, or more, in height, erect, wand-like, stout, roundish, fur- 
rovved, obscurely angular, rough to the touch, nearly filled with 
pith, though somewhat tubular in the upper part, which is 
branched and panlcled ; the lower most hairy. Leaves alternate, 
almost or quite sessile, and partly clasping the stem, 1| or 2 
inches long, ovate or lanceolate, pointed, rough-edged, sharply 
and regularly toothed ; dark green and almost smooth above j 
paler, somewhat glaucous, and hairy or rough, beneath j the 
lower ones elliptical, lengthened out at their base. Fl. nume- 
rous, full yellow, open in the forenoon only, like most of this 
tribe, on corymbose, hairy or downy, stalks, forming a variously 
compound, often cymose, panicle, accompanied by many small, 
ovate, leafy bracleas. Cal. brownish, downy and hairy, the 
outer scales lax. Antli. greenish. Stigma, beset vvith blackish 
hairs. 5ee(Z angular and roughish, dark chesnut-coloured. Dou-n 
rough. Recepf. a little cellular, and hairy. Whole herb milky. 

With the varieties above indicated I am not well acquainted. A 
north-country plant from Mr. E. Forster, which remains unalter- 
ed by culture, seems to answer to the /3 ; but of this I have no 
certain evidence, nor can I clearly define it as a species. It is 
smoother, and of more humble stature, than our common 



v^, 



368 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-iEQU. Hieraciuim 

sabauduin, of which there is in Switzerland a smooth as well as 
a rough variety. 

16. H. deniiculatum. Small-toothed Hawkweed. 

Stem erect, leafy, solid, many-flowered, cymose, with downy 
glandular stalks. Leaves sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, finely 
toothed, sraoothish ; glaucous beneath. 

H. denticulatum. Engl. Bot v. 30. t. 2122. Comp.ed. 4.132. Hook. 

Scot. 23\. 
H. prenanthoides. Fl. Br. 835 ; excl. all the synonyms, except 
H. Kalmii. Sym. 173. 

In woods in the south of Scotland. 

About Loch Rannach, Perthshire. Mr.G. Don and Mr. J. Maclcay. 
In Harehead wood, near Selkirk. Mr. Dickson. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Stem a yard high, much more slender than the last, upright, round, 
striated, roughish to the touch, nearly or quite filled with pith, 
leafy from top to bottom. Leaves twice the size of the preceding, 
much thinner and more pliant, sessile, but scarcely at all clasp- 
ing ; minutely toothed at the edges, and somewhat wavy ; glau- 
cous beneath, with a hairy mid-rib, and often sparingly besprin- 
kled on both sides with short hairs ; the edges smooth, or not 
rougher than any other part. Fl. bright yellow, not an inch 
broad, in a cymose ■panicle, whose branches are downy, and 
partly glandular. Bracteas few and small. Cal. downy, and 
clothed with short taper hairs, a little viscid. Seeds angular, 
very smooth. Down rough. Recept. cellular. 

On comparison with Dauphiny specimens, this Hieracium proved 
different from the tiue prenanthoides of Villars, for which it had 
been taken, and it is still more unlike the American H. Kalmii. 

17. m. prenanthoides. Rough-bordered Hawkweed. 

Stem erect, leafy, solid, many-flowered, corymbose, with 
downy glandular stalks. Leaves somewhat toothed, 
clasping, rough near the edge ; glaucous beneath ; upper 
ones heart-shaped. 

H. prenanthoides. Villars Dauph.v.3.\0S. Willd. Sp. Pl.v.3. 

1.590. Engl. Bot. V. 32. t. 223b. Comp. erf. 4. 132. Hook. Scot. 

232. 
H. spicatum. Allion. Pedem. v.l.2lS.t. 27./. 1 , 3. Dicks. Tr. of 

Linn. Soc.v. 2. 288. Crypt, fasc. 2. 29. 

In woods and thickets in the south of Scotland. Dickson. 
On the banks of the Esk, near Forfar. Mr. G. Don. Near Pit- 
main. Mr. J. Mackay. 



SYNGENESIA-POLYGAM.-iEQU. Hieracium. S69 

Perennial. Aiigu.it. 

Like the last in size and general habit, but essentially distinct. 
The stem is entirely solid. Leaves clasping the stem with their 
dilated rounded base; rough towards the margin, and at the 
very edge, with rigid tawny hairs. Fl. not cymose, but corym- 
bosely panicled, their stalks, like the calyx, rough with very co- 
pious glandular hairs. 

I cannot refer this or the last to any of Haller's species, many of 
which have not yet been detected in Britain. 

18. H. umbellatum. Narrow-leaved Hawkweed. 

Stem erect, leafy, almost solid, imperfectly umbellate. Leaves 
scattered, linear, slightly toothed, nearly smooth as well 
as the calyx. 

H. umbellatum. Unn.Sp.Fl.WZX. W')7W. y. .'}. 1591. H.i?r.835. 

Engl. Bot. V. 25. <. 1 77 1 . Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 58. Hook. Scot. 

233. Fl. Dan. t. 680. 
H. n.34. HalLHist.v.lAa. 

H. fruticosum angustifolium majus. Bauh. Pin. 129. RaiiS'vn.168. 
H. intybaceum. Ger. Em. 298./. 
H. primum. Dod. Pempt. 638./. 
H. sabaudum. Lob. yldvers. 88. Dalech. Hist. 570. f. 
H. alterum grandius. Lob. Ic. 240./. 

H. rectum rigldum.quibusdam sabaudum. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1030./. 
Long Hairy Hawklung. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 13. / 8 ; and Narrow 

Hairy Hawklung. /. 10. 
/S. Pulmonaria angustifolia glabra. Dill, in Rati Syn. 168. 
Narrow Smooth Hawklung. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 13./. 11. 
y. Pulmonaria graminea. Dill, in Raii Stjn. 168. 
Grass Hawklung. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 13./. 12. . 

In groves, gravelly thickets, and shady rocky situations. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Root with many simple fibres. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, erect, but 
not very straight, leafy, round, unbranched, pithy, with a small 
cavity in the centre, either slightly hairy, or quite smooth, co- 
rymbose, or more generally inaccurately umbellate, at the sum- 
mit, in which part it is often attacked by insects, producing an 
oval tumour, as represented by John Eauhjn. Leaves nume- 
rous, sessile, linear, or linear-lanceolate, distantly toothed ; in y 
very narrow and quite entire ; they are often roughish, espe- 
cially at the margin, and slightly hairy ; sometimes quite smooth ; 
always bright green above ; paler beneath. Fl. bright yelW, 
not very numerous, about an inch in diameter ; their stalks mi- 
nutely downy. Bracteas linear, few and small. Cal. dark green, 
almost perfectly smooth, except at the very base ; the tips of its 
scales a little spreading or recurved. Seeds angular, brown, 
finely dotted. Down rough. Rerept. slightly cellular. 

vor.. III. '- D 



370 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^.QU. Crepis. 

Several doubtful or imperfect specimens of Hieracium, sent from 
Scotland by the late indefatigable and sagacious Mr. George 
Don, lead me to concur in the wishes of my friend Dr. Hooker, 
that an accurate examination of this difficult genus, on its native 
mountains, might be undertaken by competent practical bota- 
nists. One of these specimens leads me to doubt whether it 
may not have been mistaken for H. amplexicaule, a species which, 
without more information, I scruple here to admit. Whoever 
wishes to render himself master of this subject should have 
abundant leisure and patience, to investigate each wild species 
in different soils and situations, and to cultivate each under his 
own continual inspection. They might then, by a good botanist, 
be probably cleared up without much uncertainty. 

378. CREPIS. Hawk's-beard. 

Linn. Gen. 403. Juss.169. F/.Br.836. Lam.t.&b\. Gcertn.t. ]5S. 
Hieracioides. Vaill. Mem. de VAc. des Sc. 712./. 47, 52. 

Common Cal. double ; outermost very short, lax, tumid, de- 
ciduous; inner ovate, simple, furrowed, permanent, of 
several linear converging scales. Cor. compound, of nu- 
merous, imbricated, uniform, perfect, ligulate, abrupt, 5- 
toothed Jlorets. Filam. capillary, very short. Anth. in 
a cylindrical tube. Germ, obovate-oblong. Style thread- 
shaped, slightly prominent. Stigm. 2, spreading. Seed- 
vessel none, the inner calyx converging, hardened. Seed 
oblong, acute. Down capillary, radiating, either on a 
roughish stalk, or sessile. Recept. slightly cellular, or 
scaly, with a few bristly hairs interspersed. 

Annual, biennial, or perennial, upright, branching, bitter, 
more or less milky, herbs ; with pinnatifid, sinuated, or 
toothed, leaves; and yellow, rarely reddish, Jiovoers. The 
elevated seed-down, and lax external calyx, distinguish 
this genus from Hieracium. 

1. Cfoetida. Stinking Hawk's-beard. 

Leaves hairy, pinnatifid, with reversed teeth ; on toothed 
footstalks. Stem hairy. Calyx downy. 

C. foetida. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 133. WiUd. v. 3. 1598. Fl. Br. 837. 
Engl. Bot. v.6.t. 406. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc. 1 8. 20. 

C. n. 29. Hall. HisLv. I. 12. 

Hieracium castorei odore, monspeliensium. Raii Syn. 1 05. 

H. luteum, cichorii sylvestris folio, amygdalas amaras olens. Mo- 
ris, v. 3. 63. sect. 7. t. 4./. 4. 

H. foliis cichorii sylvestris villosis, odore castorei. Magnol Monsp. 
129. /". 



SYNGENESIA^POLYGAM.-^QU. Crepis. 371 

Erigeron tertium. Dod. Pempt. 641./. 
E. tomentosum alterum. Ger. Em. 279. f. 
Erygeron tomentosum. Lob. Ic. 226./. 
Senetionis species Dodonaei. Dalecli. Hist. 577./. 
Castor Hawkweed. Fetiv. H.Brit, t. 12./. S. 

On dry chalky ground, but rare. 

In Cambridgeshire. Ray, Relhan. In Charlton chalk-pits, Kent. 
Petiver. At Barton, Norfolk. Rev. Mi: Furby, and Mr. Pitch/ord. 

Biennial. June, July. 

Root tapering. Herb light green, moderately hairy all over, very 
milky, with a strong smell of bitter almonds. Stems several, 
spreading, a foot or more in height, the central one only being 
quite erect; all round, solid, leafy, more or less branched. 
Leaves deeply and unequally runcinate, running down into 
winged and toothed footstalks ; the terminal lobe large, acutely 
triangular. Fl. several, solitary, on long, terminal, furrowed, 
rough stalks, rather swelling upward. Outer Cal. of a few lan- 
ceolate scales, shrinking as the flower fades ; inner hairy and 
downy, hardened by age, and permanently erect. Cor. pale 
yellow ; of a delicate red underneath. Seeds tawny, furrowed. 
Down simple, roughish, on a long rough stalk. Recept. furnished 
with short hair, fringing its shallow cells. The /lowers droop in 
the bud, and after expansion close very early in the day; but I 
believe they open for several successive mornings, like the exotic 
C. rtibra. This last is Chondrilla purpurascens /cetida. Bauh. 
Prodr. 68./; quoted byWilldenow for Crepis /oetida. 

2. C. pulc/ira. Stnall-flowered Hawk's-beard. 

Leaves downy, toothed; radical ones obovate; the rest 
somewhat arrow-shaped and clasping. Panicle corym- 
bose, spreading. Calyx pyramidal, smooth. 

C. pulchra. Lin7i. Sp. PL ed. 1 . 806. ed. 2. 1 134. Sm. Tr. o/ Linn. 

5oc.t5. 10. 344. Conip.ed. 4. 132, Engl. Bot.v.:i3. t.2Z25. 

Hook. Scot. 233. 
Prenanthes hieracifolia. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 1541. 
P. pulchra. DeCand. Fr. r. 4. 7. 
Hieracium pulchrum. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1025./ 
H. montanum alterum, leptomacrocaulon. Column. Ecphr. 248. 

t. 249. 
H. annuum montanum fruticosius, caule canaliculato. Moris, v. 3. 

68. sect.7.t. 5./. 37. 
Lapsana chondrilloides. Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1.812. 

On rocky hills in Scotland, rare. 

Amongst crumbling rocks, on the hill of T\n-in, near Forfar. Mr. 

G. Don. 
Annual June — September. 

Root taperini'-. Herb finely dowiiy, milkv, varying much in luxuri- 

■ '2 B 2 



37!^ SYNGENESIA^POLYGAM.-iEQU. Crepis. 

ance. Stem from 1 to 2 feet high, erect, round, furrowed, hol- 
low, leafy ; unbranched below ; panicled above. Leaves with 
sharp, shallow, partly reversed, teeth ; radical ones obovate, 
tapering down into a winged /oo^s^oZ/c; upper ones sessile, acute, 
clasping the stem with their arrow-shaped, or heart-shaped, 
bases. Panicle corymbose, with many long, wide-spreading, 
striated branches. Bracteas small, acute, solitary at the base of 
each branch or flower-stalk. Fl. solitary at the extremities of 
the branches, erect, small, yellow, closing about noon. Cal. 
truly that of a Crepis, the scales composing the outer one small, 
membranous and lax, finally withering, if not deciduous ; those 
of the inner parallel, linear ; at first smooth, even, and flat, but 
acquiring, as the seed ripens, a strong, hard, rounded, prominent 
mid-rib, which last is a peculiar character. Florets downy ex- 
ternally. Seed slender, finely striated, beaked. Down rough, 
sessile on the summit of the beak, and wanting a real stalk; 
but it seems to me that, as the stalk varies in length in several 
species, this part is of less weight in the generic character than 
the calyx, which is so peculiar. The florets being rather nume- 
rous, in several rows, agree too ill with the essential and very - 
peculiar character of Prenanthes. The receptacle is small, 
slightly cellular. 

3. C. tectorum. Smooth Hawk's -beard. Smooth Suc- 
cory Hawkweed. 

Radical leaves runcinate ; the rest clasping, lanceolate and 
toothed. Stem smooth. Calyx rough. Seed-down sessile. 

C, tectorum. Linn.Sp.Pl.Wi^. H'illd. v. 3. \60]. FLBr.837. 

Engl. Bot. u. 1 6. M 1 II . Curt. Lond.fasc. b.t.bb. Hook. Scot. 

233. H. Daw. <. 501. 
C. n. 33. Hall. Hist. v.l.U. 
Hedypnois tectorum. Huds. 34 1 . 
Hieracium luteum glabrum, sive minus hirsutum. Rod Syn. 165. 

Bauh.Hist.v.2. 1024./. 1. 
H. lactucae folio. Dill, in Raii Syn. 1 64. 
H. aphacoides. Ger. Em. 297. f. 
H. foliis et facie Chondrillse. Loh. Ic. 239./. 
H. secundum. Tabem. Kreuterb. 491. f. 
H.Chondrillae folio glabrum. Bauh.Pin.\27 . Moris, v. 3. 67. sect. 7 . 

t.7.f.29. 
Cichorium pratense luteum leevius. Bauh. Pin. 126. 
Hawkbeard. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 12. f. 5, 6, 7, 

In dry pastures, meadows, and waste ground, as also on cottage 
roofs, old walls, and banks, every where. 

Annual. June — September. 

A very variable herb in shape and luxuriance, as well as smooth- 
ness, generally of a fine deep shining green, nearly smooth, ex- 



SYNGENESIA-POLYGAM.-iEQU. Crepis. 373 

cept the calyx, which is more or less downy, and glandular. Root 
tapering, milky like the rest of the plant. Stem from 1 to 2 feet 
high, leafy, upright, branched, furrowed, sometimes slightly 
hairy, always stained with purple near the ramifications. Leaves 
smooth, variously runcinate, or jagged, the upper ones dilated 
and clasping at the base, where also they are most toothed. 
Panicle slender, lax, corymbose, roughish, with awl-shaped 
bracfeas. Fl. bright yellow, much smaller than those of any 
other common plant of this tribe, except Lapsana. Outer, as 
well as inner, calyx glandular, and rough ; the former of several 
membranous, withering, but scarcely deciduous, scales ; the 
utter not much altered after flowering. Seeds furrowed. Down 
rough, sessile like the last. Recept. with shallow rough-edged 
cells. 

4. C. die/mis. Rough Hawk's-beard. 

Leaves pinnatifid, runcinate, rough ; their lobes toothed in 

front. Calyx somewhat bristly and downy. 
C. biennis. Linn. Sp. PL 1 136. mild. v. 3. 1603. Fl. Br.838. 

Eiigl.BoLv.S. t. 149. 
C. n. 30. Hall. Hist v.i.]3. Davall. 
Hedypnois biennis. Huds. 342. 
Hieracium maximum, Chondrillae folio, asperum. Raii Syn. 166. 

Bauh. Prodr. 64 ; according to his herbarium. Haller. 
H. erucaefolium hirsutum. Bauh. Hist. v. 2.102a. f. 
Tall Succory Hawkweed. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 12. f. 10. 
/3. Hieracium Cichorei folio minus. Dill, in Raii Syn. 1 65. 
Small Succory Hawkweed.- Petiv. H. Brit. t. 12./. 9. 

In chalky pastures. 

Plentiful in several parts of Kent. Ray, Huds. Near Bury St. Ed- 
mund's. Mr. Mathew. 

Biennial. June, July. 

Root spindle-shaped. Stem 3 or 4 feet high, erect, stout, hollow, 
leafy, corymbose, very strongly furrowed; roughish above; 
purplish below. Radical leaves stalked, obovate, unequally 
toothed ; those about the lower part of the stem pinnatifid, or 
runcinate, likewise on purplish stalks; uppermost sessile, clasp- 
ing, more deeply pinnatifid, their lobes strongly toothed m 
front, the terminal one large ; all rough with bristly hairs, espe- 
cially the mid-rib beneath. Fl. large, lemon-coloured, reddish 
underneath, on furrowed stalks, with linear bracteas. Outer 
calyx of lax, partly membranous, scales ; inner of longer and 
more downy ones, often glandular and bristly, at first flat, but 
subsequently acquiring a stout, or turgid, mid-rib, like every 
true Crepis. Seeds striated, crenate, beaked. Down roughish, 
sessile on the summit of the beak, so as to appear almost stalked 
Recept. with fringed cells. 

^ is a very trifling variety, of somewhat humbler growth. 



374SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-iEQU.Hypochoeris. 
379. HYPOCHffiRIS. Cat's ear. 

Linn. Gen. 405. Juss. 170. Fl. Br. 840. Vaill. Mem. de I' Ac. des 

Sc. 7 40. f. 21 J 28. Lam.t.656. Gcertn.tAGO. 
Achyropborus. Gcertn.i. ]^9. 

Common Cal. ovate, imbricated, with lanceolate acute scales, 
the outer ones gradually smaller, all permanent, un- 
changed. Cor. compound, of numerous, imbricated, 
uniform, perfect, ligulate, abrupt, S-toothed^o/r^s. Filam. 
capillary, very short. Anth. in a cylindrical tube. Germ, 
obovate. Style thread-shaped, prominent. Stigmas re- 
curved. Seed-vessel none, except the permanent, finally 
spreading, or reflexed calyx. Seed oblong, acute, fur- 
rowed, rough. Down feathery, stalked, or partly sessile. 
Recept. chaffy, with linear-lanceolate smooth scales, as 
long as the seeds, or longer. 

Milky herbs, with or without a simple or branched stem. 
Leaves undivided, toothed, rough or smooth. Fl. various 
in size, yellow. 

1. H 7naculata. Spotted Cat's-ear. 

Stem solitary, nearly naked, mostly simple. Leaves ovate- 
oblong, undivided, toothed. 

H. maculata. Linn. Sp. P/. 1J40. W^iWd, f.3. 1620. H. £r.840. 

Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 225. Hook. Scot. 234. Fl. Dan. t. 1 49. 
Hieracium primum latifolium. Rail Syn. 167. Ger. Em. 301. f. 

Clus. Hist. V. 2. 139./. Pann. 640./. 641. 
H. alpinum latifolium hirsutum incanunij magno flore. Moris, v. 3. 

69. sect. 7. <.5./.53. 
Broad Mouse-ear. Petiv. H. Brit. t. l\.f.4. 

In open high chalky pastures. 

On Newmarket heath and Gogmagog hills. Ray, Reltian. On 
Bernuk, or Bernack, heath, Northamptonshire. Ray. On Om- 
pherhead, by Cartmel wells, Lancashire, very plentifully ; Mr. 
Hall ; and near Settle, Yorkshire ; Mr. Caley. With. At Ick- 
lingham, near Bury, Suffolk. Sir T. G. Cullum, Bart. In dry 
woods to the east of Forfar. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. July. 

Root externally black, thick, running deep into the ground, very 
milky, like the herbage. Leaves all radical, except in luxuriant 
plants, oblong, very irregularly toothed, rough with short hairs, 
dark green, blotched with brown, or dark red. Stem usually 
simple and single-flowered, rarely divided, round, roughish, 
hollow, bearing one or two small lanceolate leaves, which might 
be termed bracteas, and the stem a radical stalk, were there not 
sometimes a considerable leaf or two on the latter. Fl. large, 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-iEQU. Hypochoeris. 375 

yellow, closing in the afternoon. Cal. rough with black as well 
as white bristles. Scales of the receptacle long, narrow, and mem- 
branous. Seeds, according to Linnaeus, wrinkled. 
Linnaeus, as well as Haller, confounded this species with H. helve- 
tica of Jacquin, Haller's n. 2 ; but the real maculata was also 
found in Switzerland by Mr. Davall. 

2. H. glabra. Smooth Cat's-ear. 

Nearly .smooth. Calyx oblong, regularly imbricated. Stems 
branched, somewhat leafy. Leaves toothed or sinuated. 
Down of the marginal seeds sessile. 

H. glabra. Linn. Sp. PL 1 140. fVilld. d. 3. 1 621 . Fl. Br. 841. 

Engl. Bot. V. 8. t. 575. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 53. Hook. Scot. 

234. Fl. Dan. t. 424. 
H.n.*3. Hall.Nomencl.l. 
Hieracium parvum in arenosis nascens, seminum pappis densiiis 

radiatis. RaiiSt/n.l66. 
H. alterum Jsevius minimum. Column. Ecphr. v. 2. 28. t. 27./. 2. 

On heaths, and gravelly ground ; also in arable land where the 
soil is sandy. 

On the gravelly grounds near Middleton, Warwickshire. Ray. In 
Bedfordshire. Abbot. On Cawston heath, Norfolk. Rev. H. 
Bryant. In turnip fields about Norwich. Mr. Crowe. Under 
Greenwich park wall, on Blackheath. Curtis. 

Annual. June — August. 

Herb milky and bitter, extremely variable in luxuriance, of a bright 
shining green, and almost perfectly smooth. Stems numerous, 
hollow, smooth ; the first or central one simple, straight, leaf- 
less, bearing a solitary flower ; the rest rather spreading, or 
partly recumbent, branched, wavy, slightly leafy, from 6 to 12 
or 1 8 inches high. Leaves numerous at the root, oblong, or 
tongue-shaped, deeply toothed, or slightly sinuated, occasion- 
ally fringed or partially hairy ; those on the stem smaller, alter- 
nate, sessile. Fl. on terminal stalks, solitary, small, bright yel- 
low, open in the morning only. Cal. slender, smooth, glaucous 
or purplish ; the scales flat, regularly imbricated, finally re- 
flexed. Seeds slender, dark brown, finely striated, rough like the 
down and its stalk, which latter part is wanting in those of the 
circumference. Scales of the receptacle very thin and membra- 
nous, with taper points on a level with the seed-down, deciduous. 

Haller long overlooked this species in Switzerland, nor was it at 
all well known to British botanists till Mr. Curtis's excellent 
figure and description appeared. In the early part of the day, 
turnip fields are visibly bespangled with its bright blossoms ; 
but after they close it is less readily observable. The synonym 
of Columna, though cited by Ray, has been generally neglected. 



S76 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-.EQU. Lapsana. 

3. H. radicata. Long-rooted Cat's-ear. 

Leaves runcinate, blimtisli, rough. Stems branched, naked, 
smooth. Flower-stalks scaly. Down of all the seeds 
stalked. 

H. radicata. Linn. Sp. PL 1 ) 40. IVilld v. 3. 1 622. Fl. Br. 842. 

Engl. Bot. V. 12. t.83\. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 52. Hook. Scot. 

234. FL Dan. t. 150. 
H. n. 3. Hall. Hist. v.\. 3. 
Hieracium longius radicatum. Rail Syn. \65. Ger. Em. 298. f. 

Lob. Ic. 238./. 
H. dentis leonis folio obtuse majus. Bauh. Pin. 127. Moris, v. 3. 

66. sect. 7. t.A.f. 27. 
H. teitium. Dod. Pempt. 639./. 
Rough Branched Dandelion. Petit. H. Brit. t.W.f. 11. 

In pastures and waste ground every where. 

Root brown externally, tapering, running deep into the ground j 
internally white and milky. Stems several, branched, spread- 
ing, round, smooth, rather glaucous, about a foot high, hollow, 
without leaves, except the small lanceolate scales, solitary un- 
der each branch, might so be called } but they rather resemble 
bracteas, and were it not for the close analogy of the last spe- 
cieSj whose stems are in part truly leafy, the present might be 
thought to have only radical flower-stalks. The proper leaves 
are numerous at the root, pressed close to the earth, choking 
all plants within their reach, oblong, bluntish, runcinate, rough 
with rigid hairs. Fl. large, bright yellow, solitary on terminal, 
hollow, swelling stalks, clothed with small, scattered, close, awl- 
shaped bracteas. Calyx-scales roughish at the keel, with pale, 
not glandular, bristles. Scales of the recept. thin, awl-shaped, 
channelled. Seeds angular and rough. Down of all of them 
Stalked, feathery. 

380. LAPSANA. Nipple-wort. 

Linn. Gen. 405. Fl.Br. 842. Lam. t. 655. Gcerln. t. 157. 
Lampsana. Juss. 168. Tourn, t. 2/2. 

Common Cal. double, ovate ; outermost of a few small, short, 
ovate or linear, scattered, close scales ; inner of rather 
more numerous, linear, channelled, keeled, acute, nearly- 
equal, permanent ones. Cor. compound, of several im- 
bricated, uniform, perfect, ligulate, broadish, abrupt, 5- 
toothedj^o^'^^s. Filam. capillary, extremely short. Anth. 
in a cylindrical tube. Germ, obovate, small. Style scarcely 
prominent. Stigmas spreading. Seed-vessel none, ex- 
cept the permanent, converging, inner calyx. Seed ob- 



t 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Lapsana. S77 

long, angular, furrowed, smooth. Doxnm none. Reccpt. 
naked, flat, narrow. 
Herbs various in habit, more or less milky, with or without 
a leafy stem. Leaves toothed, or pinnatifid. Fl. small, 
yellow. 

1. L. communis. Common Nipple-wort. 

Calyx of the fruit angular. Stem branched, panicled, leafy. 
Leaves ovate, stalked, toothed. Flower-stalks cylindri- 
cal, even. 

L. communis. Llnn.S-p.'Pl.WW. M'illd. v. 3. \624. m.Br.842. 

Eiigt. Bot.v.]2.f. 844. Curt. Lond.f(isc.l.t.59. Hook. Scot. 

234. Fl.Dati.t. 500. 
L. n.6. Hall. Hist. V. 1.4. 
Lampsana. Rail Syn. ]73. Ger. Em. 255. f. Dod. Pempt.675.f. 

Bank. Hist. V. 2. 1028./. Lob. Ic. 207./. Dalech. Hist. 54\ ./. 2. 
Nipple-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t.l4.f.l2. 

In waste as well as cultivated ground, freq. ent. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root branching, with many fibres ; simple at the crown. Herb 
deep green, a little hairy. Stem solitary, 2 or 3 feet high, erect, 
round, branched, leafy, almost solid, nearly or quite smooth. 
Leaves pliant and thin, somewhat hairy ; radical ones lyrate j 
vpper alternate, stalked, ovate, acute, toothed. Panicle re- 
peatedly divided, erect. Flower-stalks round, naked, smooth, 
of equal thickness throughout, with a linear-lanceolate, pointed 
- bractea at the base of each. Fl. very small, bright yellow. Cal. 
smooth, hardened when closed about the seeds, wiiich are few, 
angular, without any down, or crown of any kind. 

The English name alludes to an old idea of the herb curing sore 
breasts, for which Camerarius reports that it has been used in 
Prussia. 

2. \j, pusilla. Dwarf Nipple-wort. Swine's Succory. 

Stalks radical, leafless, subdivided ; swelling and tubular at 
the summit. Leaves obovate, rough-edged, toothed. 

L. pusilla. Willd.Sp.Pl.v.3.\&23. Comp. erf. 4. 133. Hook.Lond. 

t.65. 
L. minima. Hook. Scot. 234. 
L. n. 4. Hall. Hist. v.\. 4. 
Hyoseris minima. Linn. Sp. Pl.\\38. Huds. 346. Fl. Br. S39. 

Engl. Bot. V. 2. t. 95. H. Dan. t.20]. Ehrh. Herb. 30. 
H. mascula. Ger. Em. 288./. 
Arnoseris pusilla. Gccrtn. v. 2. 355. t. 157. f. 3. 
Hie;acium minimum Clusii, Hyoseris Tabernaemontani et Ge- 

rardi. Raii Syn. 1/3, 



378 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Cichorium. 

H. minimum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 143./. Pann. 647./. 649. 
Intybus, sive Endivia lutea minima, &c, Moris, v. 3. 53. sect. 7. 

M./.8. 
Small Swine's Succory. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 15./. 9. 

In gravelly fields. 

About Hampton Court. Doody. At Walthamstow. Sir W. Watson, 
and Mr. E. Forster. Dorsetshire. Dr. Pulteney. Bedfordshire. 
Rev. Dr. Abbot. Near Arminghall wood, 3 miles south of Nor- 
wich. 

Annual. June. 

Root small, tapering. Leaves all radical, depressed, obovate-ob- 
long, strongly toothed, scarcely hairy, but rough at the edges. 
Stalks several, more or less branched and swelling above ; slen- 
der and purplish below ; round, smooth, terminating in a few 
hollow, tumid partial-stalks, each bearing a small, bright, yet 
not full yellow,^0M;er. Cal. smooth ; its scales all linear, point- 
ed ; the inner ones finally channelled and hardened. Seeds an- 
gular, smooth, each crowned with an elevated border, as ex- 
pressed in Engl. Bot. and well magnified by Gsertner, though 
less obvious in Dr. Hooker's otherwise excellent plate. The re. 
ceptacle is smooth, slightly cellular. 

Dr. Hooker justly adverts to an erroneous passage in Engl. Bot., 
" seeds crowned with an elevated rim, more rarely with short 
simple down." The first part of this sentence is correct; the 
latter originated in the generic character given by LinnEeus, ap- 
plied by him to the present plant, in consequence of a mistaken 
specimen in his herbarium, whose origin I cannot trace, but 
which he marked minima, affixing it to an authentic one. The 
description in Fl. Brit, is nevertheless accurate. 

381. CICHORIUM. Succory. 

Linn.Gfn.406. Juss.171. Fl. Br. 843. Tourn.t.272. Lam. 
t.65S. G(srtn.t.l57. 

Common Cal. double, cylindrical ; outermost of a few ob- 
long, rather lax, shortish scales ; inner of 8 or more, 
longer, converging, linear, equal ones, permanent, at 
length recurved. Cor. compound, of about 20 spread- 
ing, somewhat imbricated, ligulate, abrupt, deeply .5- 
toothed, perfect Jlorets. Filam. capillary, very short. 
Anth. in a pentagonal tube. Gei'm. obovate. Style thread- 
shaped, equal with the stamens. Stigmas revolute. Seed- 
vessel none, except the converging calyx. Seed obscurely 
5-sided, abrupt. Down of several chaffy upright bristles, 
shorter than the seed. Recept. slightly chaffy, beset with 
a few upright slender scales, shorter than the seed. 

Milky, bitter, perennial or biennial, upright, leafy herbs, 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Arctium. 379 

rendered mild and eatable by culture. Leaves oblong 
pinnatifid and toothed. Fl. blue, large and handsome. 

1. C. Intyhiis. Wild Succory. 

Flowers in pairs, both nearly sessile. Leaves runcinate. 

C. Intybus. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 1 42. Wdld. v. 3. 1 628. Fl. Br. 843. 

Engl. Bot. V. 8. t. 539. Curt. Lond.fasc. 4. t. 56. Mart. Rust. 

f. 144. n'oodv. suppl. t. 248. Hook. ScQt.2ZA. Fl. Dan. t. 907. 
C. n. 1. Hall. Hist. v.\. \. 
C. sylvestre. Rail Si/n. 172. Ger. Em. 284. f. Matth.Valgr.v. I. 

458./. Bauh. Hist. r. 2."1007./. 1008. 
C. sylvestre, sive officinarum. Bauh. Pin. 125. 
Cichorea. Trag. Hist. 272. f. 
Intubus sylvestris. Canier. Epit. 285. f. 
Intubum sylvestre. Fuchs. Hist. 679. f. 7c. 390./. 
I. sylvestre angustifolium. Dalech. Hist. 557. f. 
Wild Succory. Petiv. H. Brit. 1. 14./. 1 1 . 

About the borders and ridges of fields, and by road sides, chiefly 
on a gravelly or chaliiy soil, frequent. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root spindle-shaped, fleshy, whitish, milky. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, 
either erect or oblique, solid, round, furrowed, rough with bristly 
hairs, leafy, alternately branched, very tough. Radical leaves 
numerous, spreading, above a span long, runcinate, toothed, 
roughish ; those on the stem much smaller, sessile, less lobed, 
the upper ones heart-shaped, taper-pointed, entire. Fl. large and 
handsome, of a beautiful bright blue, axillary, in pairs, all nearly 
or quite sessile. CaZ. roughish. Anth. and stigm.hh\e. 

The root roasted is a substitute for Coffee in some parts of Ger- 
many, and is said, when simply dried, to have served to make 
bread. The herb, in a luxuriant cultivated state, is an excellent 
early fodder for horses and cows. Prof. Martyn has detailed all 
its agricultural properties. 

Sometimes the^ou-ers are found of a brilliant white. 

* * Florets all tubular, with a Jive-cleft spreading limb ; an 
entirely natural order. 

Compositce, a, capitatce. Linn. 49. Cinarocephalce. Juss. 54. 
See Grammar 121. 

382. ARCTIUM. Burdock. 

Linn. Gen. 407. Fl. Br.844. 

Lappa. Juss. 173. Tourn.t. 256. Lam.t.665. Gcerin. t. 162. 

Common Cal. globular, imbricated, of numerous, lanceo- 
late, tapering scales, ending in awl-shaped, hooked, in- 



380 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Arctium. 

flexed, spinous points, permanent. Cor. compound, uni- 
form ; Jlorets numerous, all perfect, equal, tubular ; the 
tube very long and slender ; limb wider, ovate, in 5 li- 
near, regular, spreading segments. Filam. 5, from the 
tube, capillary, very short. Anth. in a cylindrical 5- 
toothed tube, as long as the corolla. Germ, oblong, 
downy at the summit. Style thread-shaped, longer than 
the stamens. Stigm. 2, reflexed. Seed-vessel none, ex- 
cept the permanent closed calyx, falling oif entire. Seed 
I to each floret, inversely pyramidal, with 4 unequal 
blunt angles, abrupt. Doison a tuft of simple rough bris- 
tles, shorter than the seed. Recept. flat, covered with 
narrow, linear, chaffy scales, nearly as long as the calyx. 
Large, branching, downy, biennial herbs; with alternate, 
undivided leaves; and numerous, terminal, purple^owers. 

1. A. Lappa. Common Burdock, or Clot-bur. 

Leaves stalked, heart-shaped, wavy, without prickles. Cal}-x 
when in seed nearly smooth. 

A. Lappa. Linn. Sp. PL 1143. mild.v.3. 1631. Fl. Br. 844. 

Comp. ed.4.\33. Engl. Bot. ?;. 1 8. <. 1 228. Curt. Lond. fasc. 4. 

<.55. M^oodv.t. 15. Hook. Scot. 235. 
Lappa n. ) 6 1 , (S. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 70. 

L. major, Arcium Dioscoridis. Bauh. Pin. 198. Raii Syn. 197. 
L. major. Trag. Hist. 837./. DeCand. Fr.v. 4. 77. 
Personata sive Lappa major. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 497./. Camer. 

Epit. 887./. Dalech. Hist. 1055./. 
P. Lappa major, Bardana. Lob. Ic. 588./. 
Bardana major. Ger. Em. 809./. 
Burdock. Petiv.H. Brit. t. 23./. I. 

/3. Lappa major, capitulo glabro maximo. Dill, in Raii Syn. 196. 
y. L. vulgaris major, capitulis foliosis. Pluk. Almag. 205. Dill. 

in Raii Syn. 1 97. 
L. rosea. Bauh. Prodr. 102, not 210. 
Rose Burdock. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 23./. 2. 
S. Lappa major, capitulis parvis glabris. Dill, in Raii Syn. 197. 

L. n. 161,7. -^"^'- '^"'- "■ ^ • ''^• 

Small-headed Burdock. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 23./. 3. 

In waste ground, by way sides, and on dunghills, common. 

The varieties I have not "met with. 

Biennial. July, August. 

Root tapering, fleshy. Stem erect, 3 feet or more in height, solid, 

leafy, round, furrowed, with many wide-spreading branches. 

Leaves scattered, stalked, broad, heart-shaped, undulated, veiny ; 

three-ribbed at the base ; somewhat hoary and downy beneath. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Arctium. 381 

FL axillary, either sessile or stalked, generally globose, with 
little or no wooUiness about the calux ; in y encompassed with 
a few small leaves ; in S said to be rather ovate, not larger than 
filberds. Florets, with their anthers and stigmas, purple. The 
calyx, when in seed, easily breaks from its stalk, and is well 
known by the name of a Bur, sticking to the coats of animals, 
and the hair or clothing of young rustics, which can hardly be 
cleared of such incumbrances without breaking the scales 
asunder and scattering the seeds. 
The surface of the herbage leaves a slightly viscid, very bitter, 
exudation on the fingers. The plant itself, a very cumbrous 
weed,- is removed, the first year of its growtii, by stubbing, like 
other things comprehended by fiirmers under the name of docks^ 
and paid for accordingly to the weeder. 

2. A. Bardana. Woolly-headed Burdock. 

Leaves stalked, heart- shaped, nearly entire and even, with- 
out prickles. Calyx when in seed cottony. 

A. Bardana. Willd. Sp. PI. v. 3. 1632. Comp. ed. 4. 133. Engl. 

Bot.v. 35. t.2478. 
A. Lappa. Linn. Sp. PI. 1143/3. FI. Dan. t. 642. 
Arction raontanum, et Lappa minor Galeni. Lob. Ic. 587 -f. 
Lappa n. 161, a. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 70. 
L. tomentosa. Allion. Pedem. v. 1. 144. DeCnnd. v. 4.77. 
L. major montana, capitulis tomentosis. Raii Syn. 197. 
Personata, sive Lappa major, altera. Matth. Falgr. v. 2. 498./. 

Dalech. Hist. 1055./. 
Personalia. Fuchs. Hist.72./. Ic. 41./. 
Great Woolly-headed Burdock. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 23./. 5. 
/S. Lappa major montana, capitulis minoribus, rotundioribus et 

magis tomentosis. Raii Syn. \d7. 
Personata altera, cum capitulis villosis. Bauh. Hist. r. 3. 571./. 
Small Woolly-headed Burdock. Petiv. H.Brit, t. 23./. 4. 
'/. Lappa major ex omni parte minor, capitulis parvis, elegant^r 

reticulatis. Pluk. Almag. 205. Raii Syn. \97. 
Cobweb-headed Burdock. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 23./. 6. 

In waste ground, by way sides, and among rubbish, common. 

/S. On mountains in the north of England. 

Biennial. July, August. 

Like the foregoing in size and habit, but the leaves are less undu- 
lated, more downy beneath. Stem of a dull red. Cal. globose ; 
in /3 smaller and more depressed ; in all the varieties the scales 
are interwoven with dense, white, cottony down. 

Professor Willdenow declares that he has often raised this second 
species from seed, and found it constant. In deference to his 
authority, I have distinguished these two species, enimierating 
the reputed varieties of each, that botanists, who wish to pur- 



382 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-iEQU. Serratula. 

sue the inquiry, may ascertain, by culture and observation, how 
far any of them are entitled to rank as species. I do not pro- 
fess to have investigated the subject. 

383. SERRATULA. Saw-wort. 

Linn. Gen. 408. Juss. 174. H. Br. 845. Dill. Gen. 138. t. 8. 
iam. ^666. Gcertn. 1. 162. 

Common Cat. oblong, nearly cylindrical, imbricated, of 
numerous, lanceolate, unarmed scales, permanent, un- 
changed. Cor. compound, uniform ; jlorets rather nu- 
merous, perfect, equal, tubular, funnel-shaped ; the limb 
in 5 deep equal segments. Filam. capillary, very short. 
Anth. in a cylindrical tube, the length of the corolla. 
Germ, obovate. St^le thread-shaped, scarcely promi- 
nent. Stigm. oblong, reflexed. Seed-vessel none but the 
unaltered calyx. Seed obovate, somewhat angular. Doxin 
sessile, rough, or feathery, permanent. Recept. chaffy, 
or hairy, flat. 

Perennial upright herbs; with serrated or pinnatifid, rarely 
entire leaves. Fl. corymbose, terminal, erect, crimson 
or purple, in some incompletely dioecious. Seed-dov:n in 
some merely rough ; in others finely feathery. 

1. S. tinctoria. Common Saw-wort. 

Leaves with copious bristly serratures, pinnatifid, some- 
what lyrate ; terminal lobe largest. Seed-down roughish. 

S. tinctoria. Linn. Sp. PL 1 144. Willd. v. 3. 1 638. FL Br. 845. 

Engl. Bot.v.l.t 38. Hook. Scot. 235. Fl.nan.L28l. Best. 

Hort. Eyst. cestiv. ord. \\. t. 4./. 2. 
Serratula. RaiiSyn.l^G. Bauh. Pin. 235. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 

295. /. Camer. EpiL 682. f. Ger. Em. 713./. Lob. Ic. 534. f. 

Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 23./. Dod. PempL 42. f. Dalech. Hist. 1357./. 
Carduus n. 1 63. HalL Hist. r. 1 . 7 J . 
Common Saw-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 22. f. 6. 
/3. Broad Saw-wort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 22. f. 5. 

In groves, thickets, and grassy pastures. 

Perennial. .July, August. 

Root rather woody. Herb rigid, smooth and shining. Stem erect, 
straight, 2 or 3 feet high, angular, striated, solid, often reddish, 
not branched, except at the summit. Leaves variously pinna- 
tifid, in more or less of a lyrate manner ; in /3 all undivided j 
always acute, with fine, copious, bristly serratures ; now and 
then downy beneath. Fl. corjTnbose, handsome, of a purplish 
crimson. Cn/. somewhat coloured ; the edges of its scales downy. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU. Serratula. 383 

Seed-down shorter than the Jiorets, bristly, unequal, yellowish, 
partly rough, not feathery. 

This plant gives a yellow colour to wool, for which purpose Lin- 
naeus says it is much used in Sweden. Haller records, on the 
authority of some foreign writers, that the above colour, fixed 
by means of alum, is both beautiful and permanent, and with 
the addition of blue, makes a better green than either Reseda 
Luteola, or Genista tinctoria, for dyeing wool or silk. 

The Rev. R. Bree, Mr. R. Brown and the late Mr. T. Smith have 
observed the flowers of this species to be in effect dioecious, 
those on one plant having imperfect anthers, those on another 
abortive stigmas. See Tr. of Linn. Sac. v. 12. 123. v. 13.593. 

2. S. alpina. Alpine Saw-wort, 

Leaves undivided, distantly toothed ; cottony beneath. 
Calyx rather ovate, finely downy. Seed-down feathery. 

S. alpina. Linn. Sj).Vl.\\\^. Willd.v.^. \&A\. Fl. Br. S46. 
EngLBot.v.9.t.599. Light/. 448. t. 19. Hook. Scot. 235. 

Cirsium n. 179. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 77. t. 6. 

C. humile montanum, Cynoglossi folio, polyanthemum. Raii Syn. ' 
193. Dill. Elth. 82. t. 70. 

C. alpinum, Boni Henrici folio. Tourn. List. 448. 

Carduo-cirsium minus, cambro-britannicum,floribusplurimis sum- 
mo caule congestis. Pluk. Alrnag. 83. Phyt.t. 154. f. 3. 

Carduus mollis, foliis lapathi. Ger. Em. 1 184. /'. 

C. mollis, lapathi folio. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. 46. f. 47. Clus. Pann. 
663./. 664. 

/3. Serratula alpina. Fl.Dan. t. 37. 

Cirsium montanum polyanthemum, salicis folio angusto denticu- 
lato. Raii Syn. 193. 

In the fissures of alpine rocks. 

On Snowdon, and other high mountains of North Wales. Ray. 
In several parts of the Highlands of Scotland. Light/. Hooker. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root rather woody, blackish. Stems simple, erect, round, downy, 
from 3 to 12 inches high. Leaves very various in length and 
breadth, usually ovate, inclining to heart-shaped; in /3 lanceo- 
late, or linear ; always acute, with unequal, sharp, spinous 
teeth, not sufficiently expressed, as Haller observes, in the 
wooden cuts of Clusius and others ; the upper side of a fine 
green, and nearly smooth ; under cottony, very white : the 
lower leaves on longish channelled /oo^s<a/A:A-. Fl. few, in a co- 
rymbose tuft, pink with blue anthers, very handsome, the partly 
downy calyx-scales tipped with purjjle or brown. Seed-down as 
long as the corolla, copiously feathery. 



384 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Carduus. 
384, CARDUUS. Thistle. 

Linn. Gen. 40S. Juss. J 73. Fl. Br. 847. sp. 2, 3, 4, 7. Lam. t. 663. 
Silybum. G«rte.<. 163. 

Common Cal. tumid, imbricated, of numerous, lanceolate, 
spinous-pointed scales, permanent. Cor. compound, near- 
ly or quite uniform ; Jlorets very numerous, perfect, equal, 
tubular, funnel-shaped ; tube slender, recurved ; limb 
ovate at the base, with 5 linear segments, one of which 
is a little distant from the rest. Filam, capillary, very 
short. Anth. in a 5-toothed cylindrical tube, about equal 
to the corolla. Gerin. obovate. Style thread-shaped, pro- 
minent. Stigma simple, or cloven, oblong, naked. Seed- 
vessel none but the converging unaltered calyx. Seed po- 
lished, obovate, with 4 slight unequal angles, and a slen- 
der, terminal, cylindrical point. Down sessile, capillary, 
rough, very long, annular at the base, embracing the 
point of the seed, and, when that shrinks, deciduous. 
Recept. flat, hairy. 

Herbage beset with innumerable straight spines, on the 
margins and teeth of the leaves, and wings of the stevi. 
Fl. crimson or purple, terminal, solitary or aggregate ; 
casually white ; often imperfectly dioecious. Root mostly 
annual or biennial. 

* Leaves decurrent. 

1. C nutans. Musk Thistle. 

Leaves interruptedly decurrent, spinous. Flowers solitary, 

drooping. Calyx-scales lanceolate; their upper part 

spreading. 

C. nutans. Linn. Sp. PL 1 150. Willd. v. 3. 1 648. Fl. Br. 848. 

Engl. Bot. u. 16. <. 1 1 12. Hook. Scot. 235. FL Dan. t. 675. 

Rail Syn. 1 93. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. I. 56./. 
C. n. 167. Hall. Hist V. 1.73. 
C. muscatus. Ger.Em. 1174} descr . only . 
Acanthium sylvestre. Besl. Hort. Eyst.cestiv. ord. 11./. 8./. 2. 
Onopyxos tertius. Dalech. Hist. 1472./. 
Musk Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. <. 2 1 . /. 1 . 

hi waste ground, fallow fields, and dry barren pastures, on a chalky 
or gravelly soil. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root spindle-shaped. Stem erect, 2 or 3 feet high, solid, more 
or less branched, many-angled, with narrow, leafy, sinuated, 
spinous wings, running down from the pinnatifid, slightly hairy 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-tEQU, Carduus. 385 

and cottony, likewise toothed and spinous, leaves. Fl. on downy, 
round, terminal stalks, solitary, drooping, crimson, large and 
handsome, witii a sweet musky scent at all times of the dav, 
in warm weather. Calyx-scales spreading, sharply spinous, 
somewhat leafy. Seeds compressed, polished, marked with dot- 
ted lines. Down minutely rough. 

2. C. acanthoides. Welted Thistle. 

Leaves decurrent, sinuated, very spinous. Flowers aggre- 
gate, somewhat stalked. Calyx globose ; scales linear, 
partly recurved. 

C. acanthoides. Linn. Sp. PL 1150. fVilld. «. 3. 1 650. Fl. Br. 848. 
Engl. Bot. V. 14. t. 973. With. 698. Hull 235. Hook. Scot.23Q. 
J acq. Austr. t, 249. 

C. crispus. Huds.350. Light/. 452. 

C. polyacanthos. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 54. Schreb. Lips. 15. 

C. caule crispo. Raii Syn. 1 94. Bauh. Hist. v. 3.p.\. 59. f. 

C. spinosissimus vulgaris, PolyacanthaTheophrasti. Loh. Ic. v. 2. 
21./. 

Polyacanthos. Ger. Em. 1 173./. Dalech. Hist. 1473./. 

Welted Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 21./. 2. 

About hedges and in dry waste ground, not very common. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root long and tapering. Stem about a yard high, much branched, 
with copious, wavy, continuous, spinous wings. Herbage green, 
.scarcely at all downy, icawesdeeply pinnatifidand sinuated, green 
on both sides, very spinous, decurrent ; radical ones stalked. 
Fl. crowded at the tops of the branches, purplish-crimson, not 
half the size of the last, being hardly an inch broad. Cal. very 
slightly downy ; its scales narrow, evidently spinous, some of 
the inner ones recurved at the tips, especially at an advanced 
period. Anth. imperfect in some flowers, stigma in others. Seed- 
down minutely rough. 

This species, before the herbarium of Linnasus came to England, 
wras generally taken for his crispus, but the leaves of the latter 
are white, and mostly cottony, underneath ; its calyx-scales 
more leafy and erect, the inner ones coloured. This latter, n. 165 
of Haller, who wrongly quotes J. Bauhin, is a stranger in Bri- 
tain, as our acanthoides appears to be in Switzerland. 

3. C, tenuiflorus. Slender-flowered Thistle. 

Leaves decurrent, sinuated, spinous. Flowers aggregate, 

sessile. Calyx nearly cylindrical; scales ovate at the 

base ; somewhat recurved at the point. 
C. tenuiflorus. Curt. Lond. fasc. 6. t. 55. Fl. Br. 849. Engl. Bot. 

V. 6. <. 412. Willd. Sp. PL V. 3. 1652. With. 698. Hook. Scot. 

236. Pulten. Dorset. 80. 

VOL. III. 2 c 



386 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Carduus. 

C. acanthoides, Huds. 351. Light/. 45\. Baiih. Hist.v. 3. p. \. 

56./. 
C. n. 166. Hall. Hist.v. I. 72. 
C. spinosissimus, capitulis minoribiis. RaiiSyn.\94. 
Gray Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t.2l.f.3. 

In dry sandy ground, chiefly near the sea. 

Not uncommon on hedge banks in the outskirts of London j but 
more frequent about maritime towns and villages, in England 
and Scotland. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tapering, small. Herbage all white with cottony down. Stem 
erect, straight, slightly branched, 3 or 4 feet high, angular, with 
broad, deeply lobed, strongly spinous, leafy wings. Leaves 
broadish, pinnatifid and sinuated, most cottony beneath, with 
strong yellowish spines, less numerous than in the last. Fl. 
sessile at the tops of the branches, several together, pale rose- 
coloured, with much fewer Jlorets, and consequently a narrower, 
moi-e oblong, calyx, than any of our other species of this or the 
following genus. Calyx-scales dilated and ovate, rather mem- 
branous, at the base ; the upper part finally spreading, and tip- 
ped with a yellowish spine. Seeds grey, compressed, shining. 
Dovm minutely rougli. 

Very distinct from C. acanthoides and crispus, and, I believe, from 
every other Linnaean species. It must surely be what Haller 
intended under his n. 1 66, though I have no positive evidence, 
and he marks it as a doubtful native of Switzerland. The true 
C. crispus may be seen in Loes. Pruss. t. 5. Its calyx is globose. 

** Leaves sessile. 

4. C. marianus. Milk Thistle. 

Leaves wavy, spinous, clasping the stem ; radical ones pin- 
natifid. Calyx-scales leafy, recurved, channelled ; spi- 
nous at the margin. 

C. marianus. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 153. fVilld. v. 3. 1 659. Fl. Br. 85 1 . 
Engl. Bot. V. 14. t. 976. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 54. Hook. Scot. 
236. Bauh. Hist. V. 3. p. I. 52./. 

C. Mariae. RaiiSyn. \95. Ger. Em. 1150./. Trag. Hist. 850./. 
Fuchs.Ic. 32./ 

C. lacteus. Matth. Falgr. v. 2. 38./. Camer. Epit. 445./. Da- 
lech. Hist. \464./. 

Leucographis Plinii. Dalech. Hist. 1475./. 

Silybum marianum. Gcertn. v. 2. 378. t. 1 62. 

S.n. 181. Hall. Hist.v. 1.78. 

Spina alba hortensis. Fuchs. Hist. 56./. 

Milk Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 21./. 9. 

^. Carduus Marise hirsutus non maoulatus. Raii Syn. 195. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Cnicus. 387 

In waste ground, and on the banks of ditches. 

/3. About London, in several places, but not common. 

Annual. June, July. 

Root tap-shaped. Herb very large and spreading, to the exclusion 
of all other plants, for the most part not hairy nor downy. Stem 
4 or 5 feet high, in a manured soil more lofty, branched, round, 
solid, leafy. Leaves of a dark shining green, all their veins beau- 
tifully bordered with white, except in the variety /3 ; their edges 
spinous. FL. puqjle, large, solitary at the ends of the branches, 
erect ; the stout spines of their calyx-scales very conspicuous. 
Seeds large, polished. Down rough. 

385. CNICUS. Plume-thistle. 

Linn. Gen. 409. Juss. 1/2. Comp. ed. 4. 127. 
Cirsium. Tourn. t. 255. Gcertn. t. 163. 

Common Cal. tumid, imbricated, of numerous, lanceolate^ 
spinous-pointed scales, pei'manent. Cor. compound, neai'- 
ly uniform \ fiords very numerous, equal, tubular, funnel- 
shaped ; tube slender, recurved ; limb ovate at the base, 
with 5 linear, nearly equidistant, segments. Filam. ca- 
pillary, very short. AntJi. in a cylindrical tube. Germ. 
obovate, short. Style thread-shaped, slightly prominent. 
Stigma oblong, more or less cloven, naked. Seed-vessel 
none but the converging unaltered calyx. Seed polished, 
obovate, with a slender, terminal, short, cylindrical point. 
Down sessile, feathery, very long, annular at the base, 
embracing the point of the seed, and, when that shrinks, 
deciduous. Recept. nearly flat, beset with bristly, or very 
narrow chaffy, scales or hairs, as long as the tubes of the 
florets. 

Prickly herbaceous plants, like those of the last genus, from 
which the present differs chiefly in the down of the seeds 
being evidently feathery, not merely rough. Some spe- 
cies are, as in Carduus, imperfectly dioecious, ^ther ac- 
cidentally or constantly. Perhaps these two genera ought 
to be united, the distinction above mentioned being of 
no more real importance than in Serratula, where it is 
not regarded. But the great number of species in Car- 
duus and Cnicus makes it commodious to separate them, 
even by an artificial character, which in itself is easy and 
obvious. 

* Leaves decurrent. Stem winged. 

1 . C. lanceolatus. Spear Plume-thistle. 

Leaves decurrent, pinnatifid, hispid, with variously-spread- 

2c 2 



388 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-iEQU. Cnicus. 

ing spinous lobes. Calyx ovate, shaggy. Stem furrow- 
ed, hairy. 

C. lanceolatus. Willd. Sp.Pl.v.3. 1666. Comp.ed.4.\34. Hook. 
Scot:236. 

Carduus lanceolatus. Linn. Sp. PL 1 149. Fl. Br. 847 Engl. Bot. 
v.2.t.\07. Mart.R7tst.t.\3\. Fl. Dan. t \\73. 

C. lanceolatus, sive sylvestris Dodonaei. Bauh. Hist. v. 3.p.\. 58./. 

C. lanceatus. Raii Syn. 195. Ger. Em. 1 1 74. f. 

C. lanceatus latifolius. Bauh. Pin. 385. Mori^. v. 3. 153. sect. 7. 
t.3\.f.7. 

Cirsiumn. 1G9. Hall. Hist. v. \. 74. 

Spear Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 21 ./. /. 

(3. Carduus lanceatus, flore et capite minoribus. Merr. Pin. 21. 
Dill, in Raii Sijn. 195. 

y. C. lanceatus major. Dill, in Raii Si/n. 195. 

In waste ground, and on banks by road sides, common. 

Biennial. June — September. 

Root branching. Herb very prickly, of a greyish green. Stem up- 
right, about 4 feet high, stout, solid, branched, angular, furrow- 
ed, leafy, hairy or downy, many-flowered, copiously winged 
with the decurrent lobed and spinous bases of the leaves, which 
are alternate, long, spreading, hairy above, whiter and cottony 
beneath, deeply pinnatifid ; their lobes spreading alternately, 
somewhat palmate, armed with stout yellowish spines. Fl. large, 
crimson, solitary, or not much crowded, at the tops of the 
branches. Cal. of innumerable spinous-tipped scales, entangled 
with fine cobweb-like threads. Florets uniform, regular. Anth. 
yellow. Seeds brown, polished, their large feathery down losing 
its hold by the shrinking of the point, or peg, at the top of the 
seed, as in all of this genus and the last. 

The incurious and negligent farmer would do well to observe that 
this cumbrous weed, being biennial, is readily destroyed, by 
mowing before its flowers form seed. 

2. C. palustris. Marsh Plume- thistle. 

Leaves decurrent, pinnatifid, toothed, spinous, rough. 
Flowers aggregate. Calyx ovate, minutely spinous, 
nearly smooth. 

C. palustris. Willd. Sp.Pl.v.3.\662. Cmip.ed. 4.\3\. Hook. 

Scot. 236. 
Carduus palustris. Linn. Sp. Pl.]\5\. Fl. Br. 850. Engl. Bot. 

V. 14. t. 974. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 56. Raii Syn. 194. Bauh. 

Pin. 377. Prodr. 156. 
C. spinosissimus erectus angustifolius palustris. Moris, v. 3. 153. 

sect. 7. t. 32. f. 13. 
Cirsium n. 170. Hall. Hist. v. \.74 ; excl. Loesel's syn. 
Marsh Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t.2\.f. 4. 



SYNGENESIA-POLYGAMIA-^QU. Cnicus. 389 

In moist meadows or pastures, and watery spots by road sides, 
common. 

Biennial. July, August. 

Root branching. Herb very prickly, of a deep green. Stem so- 
litary, erect, straight, somewhat branched, from 3 to 5 or 6 
feet high, angular, solid, clothed in every part with leafy, spi- 
nous, interrupted wings. Leaves deeply pinnatifid, running down 
into the wings, rough with short hairs, fringed with numerous 
prickles ; slightly cottony beneath. Fl. deep crimson, frequently 
white, sessile, crowded about the tops of the stem and branches, 
and not a-third the size of the last. Cal. almost globular ; its 
scales smooth, close, abrupt, keeled in the upper part, each 
bearing a small harmless spine ; the innermost with leafy un- 
armed points. Seeds very smooth and even. Down finely fea- 
thery. 

** Leaves sessile, or partially decurrent. Stem not winged. 

3. C. arvensis. Creeping Plume-thistle. 

Leaves sessile, pinnatifid, spinous, nearly smooth. Stem 
panicled, solid. Calyx ovate; outer scales spinous. Root 
creeping, tuberous. 

C. arvensis. C'o??!p. erf. 4. 134. Hook. Scot. 237. Hosack in the 

American and Philos. Register, i;. 1. 211./. 
Carduus arvensis. Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 57. Fl, Br. 850. Engl. 

Bot.v.\4.t.975. Sibth. 245. 
C. vulgatissimus viarum. Rail Stjn. 194. Ger. Em. 1 173./. 
Serratula arvensis. Linn. Sp. PL W 49. Willd. v. 3. 1646. Huds. 

349. With. 696. Mart. Rust. t. 132. Fl. Dan. t. 644. 
Cirsium n. 171. Hall. Hist. v.\.74. 
Ceanothos Theophrasti. Column. Ecphr. v. 1. 45. t. 46. 
Common Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. ^ 21./. 5. 

In cultivated fields and by way sides, a very troublesome weed. 

Perennial. July. 

Root fleshy, creeping deep in the earth to a great extent, and very 
tenacious of life. Stems erect, 3 or 4 feet high, round, furrow- 
ed, full of pith, branched and panicled, leafy, but not winged, 
occasionally more or less downy. Leaves numerous, alternate, 
sessile, rarely a little decurrent, pinnatifid or sinuated, smooth, 
or slightly downy, armed with numerous, strong, spreading 
spines. Fl. numerous, stalked, panicled, erect, pale purple, 
sometimes white, for the most part dioecious in effect, though 
incompletely so in structure, as the late Mr. T. Smith F.L.S. has 
well explained in TV. of Linn. Soc. v. 13. 592 — 603. Cal. ovate j 
its outer scales broadly lanceolate, decidedly spinous, woolly at 
the edges ; inner much longer, with leafy points, as in many 
other undoubted species of Cnirus or Carduus. Seed-down co- 
pious, delicately feathery. 



390 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Cnicus. 

4. C. Forsteri. Branching Bog Plume-thistle. 

Leaves slightly decurrent, pinnatifid, spinous ; downy be- 
neath. Stem panicled, hollow. Calyx ovate, rather cot- 
tony ; outer scales spinous. 

In boggy woods. 

Near Frant, Sussex, two miles from Tonbridge Wells. Mr. T. F. 
Forster. 

Perennial. July, August, '^&^'^' 

Root tapering, not creeping. Stem 3 or 4 feet high, eredt/leafy, 
angular, furrowed, not winged ; more or less branched and pa- 
nicled at the top. Leaves rather deeply pinnatifid, with partly 
palmate, spreading lobes, tipped and fringed with rather small 
spines ; the lowermost tapering at the base, and hairy or downy 
on both sides ; those about the middle of the stem decurrent to 
a small extent, cottony beneath ; uppermost gradually smaller 
and narrower, oblong, undivided, heart-shaped and clasping at 
the base. Fl. 2 or 3 together at the end of each branch, on 
downy stalks, erect, rather larger than the preceding, and of a 
fine deep crimson. Cal. ovate, beset with a small portion of 
loose deciduous web ; outer scales spinous, with downy edges, 
like the last ; inner tapering to a long, narrow, coloured point. 
Seed-down delicately feathery. 

The fructification of this plant most accords with that of the two 
last species ; while the herbage and habit approach some of the 
following, or rather the exotic Cnicus rivularis, Willd. n. 30, 
though very distinct from that, and, as far as I have been able to 
determine, from all other described species of Cnicus or Carduus. 
Mr. Forster observes that it increases in his garden by the root, 
veiy sparingly by seeds ; perhaps from some partial imperfec- 
tion in the flowers of the plants he happened to introduce. 

5. C. enophorus. Woolly-headed Plume-thistle. 

Leaves sessile, pinnatifid, with two-ranked spinous seg- 
ments ; bristly above. Calyx globular, densely woolly, 
leafy at the base. 

C. eriophorus. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 1669. Comp. ed. 4. 134. Hook. 

Scot. 237. 
Carduus eriophorus. Linn. Sp. PL l\53. FL Br. 852. Engl.Bot. 

V. 6. t. 386. Huds. 354. With. 700. MilL Ic. t. 293. Jacq. 

Austr.t.\7\. 
C. tomentosus. Corona fratrum dictus. Raii Syn. 195. Lob. Ic, 

V. 2, 9./. 
C. eriocephalus. Ger. £wi. 1152./. Clus. Pann. 666, f. Hist. v,2. 

154./. Dod.PempL723.f. 
C. capite tomentoso. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 1.57. f. 
Cirsium n. 1 68. HcdL Hist. v. 1 . 73. 
Onopordon. DuJech. Hist. 1472. f ; bad. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Cnicus. 391 

Acanthium montanum. Ibid. 1446. /j woi'se. 

Jacea lutea Clusii. Ibid.\474.f; good. Name erroneous. 

Fryar's Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 2 1 ./. 8. 

In waste mountainous ground, and by road sides, on a limestone or 
chalky soil. 

In the counties of Worcester, Huntingdon and Cornwall. With. 
In a gravel pit at North Pickenham, Norfolk. Rev. Mr. Watts. 
Oxfordshire. Sibth. Cambridgeshire. Relh. Common in Bed- 
fordshire. Abbot. In Hampshire. Mr. Rayer. Between Stam- 
ford and Grantham plentifully j also about the zigzag walk 
at Matlock bath. 

Biennial. August. 

A large and conspicuous plant, not easily overlooked. Root tap- 
shaped. Stem 3 feet high, with numerous wide-spreading 
branches, leafy, round, strongly furrowed, slightly hairy, full of 
pith. Leaves sessile, not decurrent ; covered with close bris- 
tles on the upper side, and with cottony down at the back ; their 
lobes each tipped with a strong spine, and spreading alternately 
in two directions, afford a singular and striking character. Fl. 
numerous, very large, purple, solitary at the end of each branch, 
with a smaller leaf or two close underneath. Cat. often about 
3 inches in diameter, globose, or rather depressed, the purplish 
tips of its scales projecting out of the mass of cottony wool, 
which envelopes the whole calyx like a dense cobweb. Seeds 
obovate, polished, with a feathery down. The radical leaves 
are frequently 2 feet in length, and their lobes are disposed in 
double ranks with singular exactness. Fl. occasionally white, 

6. C. tuberosus. Tuberous Plume-thistle. 

Leaves deeply pinnatifid, lobed, fringed with prickles ; 
lower ones on long stalks. Stem almost single-flowei'- 
ed, without wings or prickles. Calyx-scales minutely 
spinous, nearly smooth. Root creeping, tuberous. 

C. tuberosus. Willd. Sp. Fl. v. 3. 1680. Coinp. ed. 4. 134. Engl. 

Bot. v. 36. t. 2562 j omitting the reference to Gerarde. 
Carduus tuberosus. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 154. 
C. bulbosus monspelliensium. Lob. Advcrs. 371 ./. Ic. v. 2. 10./. 

Bauh.Hist.v.3. p. I. 43./. 
C. pratensis asphodeli radice, latifolius. Bauh. Pin. 377. 
Cirsium n. 1 77^ Hall. Hist. v. 1.76. 
C. latioribus foliis viridibus laciniatis, radicibus asphodeli. Moris. 

v.3,lbl.sect.7. t.29.f.27. 
Cirsio quinto congener. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 149./. 
Acanthus sylvestris alter. Dalech. Hist. 1444./. 

In thickets on the downs of Wiltshire. 

In a truly wild thicket of brush-wood, called Great Ridge, on the 



392 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Cnicus, 

Wiltshire downs, between Boyton house and Fonthill, abun- 
dantly. A. B. Lambert, Esq. There I gathered it in 1819. 

Perennial. August. 

Root woody, creeping, sending down perpendicularly many ellip- 
tical, tapering, fleshy knobs, externally blackish. Stem about 
2 feet high, erect, straight, nearly solid, round, furrowed, hairy, 
leafy, not at all winged j either quite simple and single-flowered, 
or dividing with a branch or two near the top. Leaves green 
and downy above ; pale and cottony beneath ; all deeply pin- 
natifid, with divided spinous-pointed lobes, fringed with fine 
prickles 5 the lower ones on long, sYighily v/inged footstalks ; 
upper nearly sessile ; none decurrent. Fl. solitary at the sum- 
mit of the stem or branch, erect, bright purple, twice the size 
of C. palustris or arvensis, and more resembling heterophyllus, 
but smaller. Cal. ovate, with spreading, leafy scales, a little 
cottony, several of the outermost tipped with small spines. Seeds 
short, obovate, with long, slender, feathery down. 

Gerarde's figure, p. 728./. 6, cannot be intended for this plant. 

7. C. heterophyllus. Melancholy Plume-thistle. 

Leaves clasping the stem, fringed ; undivided or pinnati- 
fid ; very smooth above ; densely cottony beneath. Stem 
downy, almost single-flowered. 

C. heterophyllus. Wmd. Sp. PL 1673. Comp. ed. 4. 134. Hook. 

Scot. 237. Lond. t. 27. 
Carduus heterophyllus. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 154. Fl. Br. 853. Engl. 

Bot.v.\0. t.675. Hull V. 1.235. Fl. Dan. t. 109. 
C. helenioides. Huds. 352. Light/. 457. JVith. 702. 
Cirsium n. 180. Hall. Hist. v. 1. 77- 1. 7. 
C. anglicum secundum. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 148./ Ger. Em. ] 183./ 

Pennei. 
C. brilannicum. Clus. Pann. 657./ 658. 
C. britannicum Clusii repens. Raii Syn. 193. Bauli. Hist. v. 3. 

p. 1.46./. Millie. 63. t.94. 
Northern thistle. Petiv.H. Brit. t. 22./. 2. 

In moist mountain pastures in the north. 

In the mountainous parts of Yorkshire, Westmoreland and Wales. 
Ray and Dillenius. In the inland Highlands of Scotland, not 
unfrequent. Light/ In some parts of the Lowlands. Hook. A 
little way up Ben Lomond. 

Perennial. July, August, 

Root creeping. Stem 3 feet high, erect, hollow in the centre, 
leafy, round, cottony, mostly simple and single-flowered, some- 
times divided and bearing a smaller lateral flower. Leaves lan- 
ceolate, pointed, fringed with copious, unequal, fine, bristly ra- 
ther than prickly, serratures ; bright green and very smooth 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Cnicus. 393 

above ; snow-*white and densely cottony beneath ; heart-shajjed 
and clasping at the base ; the lowermost tapering down into a 

footstalk; some of the leaves are deeply and regularly pinna- 
tifid occasionally, to which the specific name alludes, but which 
none of the figures, except Dr. Hooker's, express. FL stalked, 
terminal, erect when expanded, large and handsome, of a fine 
purple. Cat. ovate, green, slightly downy ; scales leafy, smooth 
except at the edges, most of them tipped with a very decided, 

. though small, prickle. Down of the marginal seeds rough only j 
that of the rest feathery, partly simple at the point, as in seve- 
ral other species, but this is not universal in any. 
The colouring of the whole plant, correctly expressed in Engl. Bot., 
is peculiarly elegant. Carduus helenioides of Linnaeus, likewise 
a Cnicus, to which Hudson and his followers referred this species, 
is very distinct, twice or thrice as tall, with numerous, always 
imdivided leaves, and several aggregate, sessile, much smaller 

flowers. It is not known, either wild or cultivated, in Britain. 

8. C prate?isis. Meadow Plume-thistle. 

Leaves lanceolate, wavy or lobed, fringed with prickles ; 
loosely cottony beneath. Stem downy, slightly leafy, 
single-flowered. Calyx cottony, with tapering sharp 
scales. 

C. pratensis. Willd. Sp. PL v. 3. 1 6/2. Comp. ed. 4. 134. Hook. 

Scot. 237. 
Carduus pratensis. Huds.SHS; excl. Jacq. syn. Fl. Br. 854. Engl. 

Bot. V. 3. t. 177. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 18. 21. 
C. dissectus. Huds. ed. 1 . 307. Villars Daupli. Z5. 3. 1 5 j not of Linn. 
C. heterophyljus. Liglitf.4bG. 
Cirsium anglicum. Raii Sijn.lQZ. Lob. Ic 583. f Obs. 314. f. 

Dalech. Hist. 584. f Ger. Em. \\83.f. Label. 
C. anglicum, radice Hellebori nigri niodo fibrosa, folio longo. Buuh. 

Hist. v.3.p. ].45.f 
C. montanum anglicum. Ger. Em. 1 183./. 5. 
C. pannonicum primum pratense. Clus. Pann. 655. f. 656. Hist. 

V.2. 148./. 
Peckham Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 22. f. 1 . 
^. Carduus palustris mitior, Bardanae capitulo, summo caule sin- 

gulari. Pluk. Almag. 82. Dill, in Ruii Sijn. 194. 

In low wet pastures and meadows, especially among trees. 

Perennial. June. 

Root of several simple, fleshy, black fibres, not creeping. Herb- 
age greyish green, more or less cottony. Stem 12 or 18 inches 
high, simple, round, furrowed, cottony, hollow in the centre, 
slightly leafy, very rarely bearing more than one flower. Leaves 
lanceolate, either wavy, or unequally toothed, or sometimes si- 
nuated, almost pinnatifid, copiously fringed with unequal bristly 



394 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-iEQU. Cnicus. 

prickles j minutely hairy or downy above ; loosely cottony, but 
not very white, beneath ; radical ones several, staked, erect ; 
those on the stem few, small, clasping at the base. Fl. smaller, 
and of a paler purple than the preceding. Cal. loosely clothed 
with cobweb-like down ; its outer scales obscurely ribbed, ovate, 
tapering to a spinous point ; inner long and narrow, coloured, 
taper-pointed, scarcely spinous. Seed-down feathery, with sim- 
ple tips. 
The variety (3, as far as can be judged from its short description, 
appears rather to belong to this species than to C. palustris, un- 
der which it is placed in Fl. Brit. Plukenet found this plant in 
the isle of Ely, and Dillenius appears not to have seen a spe- 
cimen. 

9. C. acaulis. Dwarf Plume-thistle. 

Stalks radical, single-flowered, shorter than the smooth 
calyx. 

C. acaulis. WiUd.Sp.Pl.v.3. \68l. Comp.ed.4.]34. Hook. Scot. 

237. 
Carduus acaulis, Linn. Sp. PL 1156. Fl. Br. 855. Engl. Bot.v.3. 

t.l6\. Jacq.Ic.Rar.t.579. H. Dan. 1. 1 114. 
Cirsium n. 178. Hall.Hist.v. 1. 77. 
Carlina acaulis, minore purpureo flore. Raii Syn. 195. 
C. acaulos minor, flore purpureo. Ger. Em. 1158./. 
C. minor purpureo flore. Clus. Hist. v. 2. 156. 
C. montana minor acaulos. Barrel. Ic. t.493. 
Chamaeleon exiguus. Trag. Hist. 852./. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 1. 

62./. 63. 
Dwarf Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t.2l.f.6. 

In pastures and meadows, on a gravelly or chalky soil. 

Too abundant in many fields and upland grounds in Dorsetshire. 
Dr. Pulteney. Very frequent on commons in Norfolk and se- 
veral other counties. In the time of Gerarde it grew on Black- 
heath. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root woody, stout, blackish, simple, running deep into the ground. 
Stem entirely wanting. Leaves several, spreading close to the 
ground, in a circle near a foot in diameter, choking all other 
herbage, stalked, pinnatifid, bright green, smooth ; their seg- 
ments somewhat palmate, abundantly prickly. Fl. one or more, 
either quite sessile, or on short, simple, downy stalks, of a fine 
crimson, as large as those of Cnicus lanceolatus. Cal. ovate, 
green, without any web or hairs, but the scales are a little downy 
at the edges. Seed-down feathery. 

When cultivated in the fertile soil of a garden, this plant, like 
Carlina acaulis, and several of the next genus, acquires a stem, 
3 or 4 inches in height, bearing 3 or AJioicers. 



SYNGENESIA— POL YGAM.-^QU.Onopordum. 395 
386. ONOPORDUM. Cotton thistle. 

Linn. Gen. 409. Juss. 1 73. Fl. Br. 85 6. Vaill. M6n. de VAc. des 
iSc. 152./. 39. Lam.t.664. Gcertn. t.l6\. 

Common Cal. orbicular, tumid, imbricated, of numerous, 
lanceolate, spinous-pointed scales, spreading, or erect, 
permanent. Cor. compound, uniform ; Jlorets very nu- 
merous, equal, tubular, funnel-shaped ; tube very slen- 
der ; limb in 5 deep, linear, equal segments. Filam. ca- 
pillary, very short. Anth. in a cylindrical tube, with 5 
teeth. Germ, obovate, short. Style thread-shaped, pro- 
minent. Stigma oblong, notched. Seed-vessel none, ex- 
cept the somewhat spreading calyx. Seed obovate, point- 
ed, smooth. Down sessile, capillary, rough, annular at 
the base, embracing the point of the seed, and finally 
deciduous. Recept. convex, fleshy, deeply cellular, the 
membranous edges of the cells uneven, jagged, or fringed. 

Very large, hoary, spinous, annual or biennial herbs ; ge- 
nerally with winged stems; in some species without any. 
Leaves pinnatifid, wavy, toothed and spinous. Fl. pur- 
ple, solitary and terminal, or aggregate and radical. 

The honey-comb receptacle characterizes the genus, and 
its habit also is appropriate. 

1 . O. Acanthium. Common Cotton-thistle. 

Calyx-scales awl-shaped, spreading in eveiy direction. 
Leaves ovate-oblong, sinuated, woolly on both sides. 

O. Acanthium. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 158. Willd. v. 3. 1686. Fl. Br. 856. 

Engl. Bot. V. 14. t. 977. Curt. Lond.fasc. 5. t. 57. Hook. Scot. 

238. Fl.Dan.t.909. 
O. n. 159. Hall. Hist. V. I. 68. 

Carduus tomentosus Acanthium dictus, vulgaris. Raii Syn. 196. 
C. alatus tomentosus latifolius vulgaris. Moris, v, 3. 152. sect. 7. 

t.SO.f. 1. 
Acanthium. Dod. Pempt.72l.f. Matth. Falgr. v. 2.34. f. Camer. 
•Epit. 441. f. Lob. lev. 2. I. f. 
A. album. Ger. Em. 1 149./. 
Spina alba sylvestris. Fuchs. Hist. 57. f. Ic. 33. f. Bauh. Hist. 

». 3, p. 1.54./. 
S. alba tomentosa latifolia sylvestris. Loes. Pruss. 261. t. 82. 
Silibum, sive Leucantha Loniceri. Dalech. Hist. 1466./. notdescr. 
Cotton Thistle. Petiv. H. Brit. t.2\.f.l0. 

In waste ground, on hedge banks, and by road sides, in a gravelly 

soil, frequent. 
Biennial. July, August. 



396 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Carlina. 

Root tap-shaped. Whole herb covered with white cottony pu- 
bescence, which is easily rubbed off, and according to Gerarde 
is used by the poor to stuff pillows or cushions ; as well as to 
mix with feathers, for the same purpose,by deceitful upholsterers. 
But it seems very inadequate in quantity, as well as quality, 
having no elasticity, and shrinking to nothing under the touch. 
The stem is 4 or 5 feet high, branched, and when in a growing 

. state, may be peeled and boiled for the table ; but it has little 
flavour except some bitterness, which it loses by being steeped 
in cold water. Leaves oblong, spreading, lobed, notched and 
spinous, running down into the numerous prickly wings of the 
stem ; radical ones very large. Fl. solitary at the ends of the 
branches, large, of a blueish rose-colour, the calyx cottony, very 
prickly. 

The large brown seeds are eaten by goldfinches ; and the bird- 
catchers about London provide themselves with heads of this 
Thistle and the Carduus viarianus, to entrap these and other 
birds, in bright autumnal mornings. 

387. CARLINA. Carline-thistle. 

Linn.GenAlQ. Juss.\72. Fl.Br.BoT. Tourn.t.28o. Lam. t. 662. 
GcBrtn. ^.163. 

Common Cal. cylindrical, somewhat tumid, radiated, imbri- 
cated, of numerous, lax, acute, permanent scales; the 
innermost much the longest, coloured, polished, linear, 
spreading horizontally in a circle, forming a set of rays 
to the flat disk of the flower. Cor. compound, uniform, 
flat ; Jlorets numerous, tubular, equal, all on a level, fun- 
nel-shaped, perfect ; limb in 5 deep, upright segments. 
Filam. capillary, very short. Atith. in a cylindrical tube, 
easily separating, each with 2 deflexed bristles at the 
base. Germ, obovate. Style thread-shaped, scarcely ex- 
tending beyond the anthers. Stigma oblong, either di- 
vided or entire. Seed-vessel none but the unaltered calyx. 
Seed conical, roughish, abrupt. Down partly chaffy and 
jagged, partly feathery, permanent. Recept. f^at, beset 
with linear chaffy scales, many- cleft at the top, and some 
bristles. 

Very prickly herbs, of a dry and rigid habit. Fl. handsome; 
the red, yellow, or white, radiating, everlasting, internal 
scales of their calyx, imitating the ligulate^o;r^5 of the 
discoid tribe of Composites, afford good specific charac- 
ters, even in their colours. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-tEQU. Bidens. 397 

1. C. vulgaris. Common Carline-thistle. 

Stem corymbose, many-flowered. Flowers terminal. Outer 
calyx-scales pinnatifid ; inner whitish. 

C. vulgaris Linn. Sp. Pl.X\6\. Willd. v. 3. 1 C96. Fl. Br. 857. • 

Engl. Bot. r. 1 6. <. 11 44. Hook. Scot. 238. 
C. n. 182. Hall. Hist. V. 1.79. 
C. sylvestris quibusdam, aliis Atractylis. Kaii Syn. 175. Bauh. 

Hi!,Lv.3.p. 1.81./. 
C. sylvestris major. Ger. Em. 1 159./. 
Carduus. Brunf. Herb. v. 2. 65./. 
C. vulgaris. Matth. Falgr. v. 2. 32./. 
C. sylvestris. Camer. Epit. 439./. 
C. vulgatissimus viarum. Lob. lev. 2. 20./. 
Atractylis mitior. Fuchs. Hist. 121./. 
A. vulgaris minor. Fuchs. Ic. 66./ 
Acarna. Dalech. Hist. 1484./. 
Common Carline. Peiiv.H. Brit. t. 15./. 10. 

In dry sandy heathy pastures and fields. 

Biennial. June. 

J?ooi tapering, small. Stem erect, firm, round, 10 or 12 inches 
high, leafy, downy, somewhat corymbose. Leaves lanceolate, 
sinuated and wavy, green, veiny, rigid, copiously bordered with 
prickles ; sometimes quite smooth, but more commonly downy 
or woolly beneath. Fl. terminal, solitary, of a singular aspect, 
and not inelegantly variegated ; the florets red, with yellow an- 
thers and stigmas; the radiating scales of the calyx cream-co- 
loured, polished, hygrometrical, changing their position accord- 
ing to the moisture of the atmosphere. 

This genus was named after the Emperor Charlemagne, because, 
according to report, one of its species, C. acaulis, was pointed 
out to him by an angel, to cure his army of the plague. Its root 
is pungent, bitter and tonic ; but the large white everlasting 
Jlowcr is perhaps most useful, when nailed upon cottage doors, 
in Germanj', France or Italy, by way of a hygrometer, as it 
closes before rain. 

*** Florets all tuhular, crovoded, erect and parallel, level- 
toyped, forming a discoid Jlo-doer., mthoiit a radius of 
any hind, except casually. 

388. BIDENS. Bur-marigold. 

Linn. Gen. 412. Juss. 188. Fl. Br. 858. Town. t. 262. Lam. 

t.668. Gartn.t.\67. 
Nat. Ord. Composifce, ?, oppositifolice. Linn. 49. Corymhi- 

fercr, sect. 6. Juss. .5.5. See Grammar 124. 



398 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-^QU. Biclens. 

Common Cal. erect, of several oblong, nearly equal, parallel 
scales, concave, or channelled, at the back. Cor. com- 
pound, of several, parallel, level-topped, perfect, tubu- 
lar, regular and ec^aX Jlorets; their limb ovate, with 5 
marginal, spreading segments. Filam. from the tube, 
capillary, very short. A^ith. in a cylindrical tube, 
slightly prominent. Germ, oblong, compressed, with 2 
or more bristly upright points, about equal to the tube 
of the floret, on its outside. Style thread-shaped, within 
the tube. Stigmas oblong, spreading beyond the an- 
thers. Seed-vessel none but the unaltered close calyx. 
Seed compressed, abrupt, angular, rough at the edges, 
and beaked with 2 or more bristles, rough with minute 
reflexed prickles. Recept. flat, beset with upright, chaffy, ' 
oblong, deciduous scales as tall as the florets. 

Most species are occasionally liable to acquire marginal ra- 
diant fextWe Jlorets, destitute of stamens, which consti- 
tutes the character of Coreopsis. Such a change is nearly 
analogous to becoming double in the generality ofjlowers, 
and is not, as some have thought, a more perfect state 
of the compound tribe, but rather the contrary. 

Herbaceous, mostly annual, upright plants, with opposite, 
simple or compound, lobed or serrated leaves. Fl. stalk- 
ed, somewhat corymbose, erect or drooping, terminal or 
axillary, the base of the calyx encompassed with a circu- 
lar row of spreading leafy hracteas; disk yellow; the ra- 
dlantjlorets, when they occur, are in some species white. 
Willdenow considers the hracteas as an outer calyx, in 
which he may perhaps be correct. 

1. B. tripartita. Three-lobed Bur-marigold. 

Leaves in three segments. Bracteas unequal. Bristles of 
the seeds two or three, erect. 

B. tripartita. Linn. Sp. PI. 1165. Willd. u. 3. 1715. Fl. Br. 858. 

Engl. hot. v.\&.t.\\ 13. Curt. Land. fasc. 4. t. 57. Hook. Scot. 

238 
B. n. 121. Hall. Hist. V. 1.51. 
Verbesina, seu Cannabina aquatica, flore minus pulchro, elatior 

et magis frequens. Raii Syn. 187. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 1073. 
Chrysanthemum cannabinum bldens, folio quinquepartito, sive 

vulgare. Moris, v. 3. 1 7- sect. 6. t. 5./. 20. 
Eupatorium cannabinum fcemina. Ger. Em. 711./. Lob. Ic. 529. f; 

bad. 
Hepatorium aquatile. Dod. Pempt. 595. f. 
Hydropipev altevum. Dalech. Hist. ] 039. f. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-JEQU. Bidens. 399 

/3. With radiant, three-toothed, marginal florets. 

Conyza palustris, foliis tripartitb divisis. Loes. Pruss. 53. 1. 10. 

Trifid Bur Marygold. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 20. f. 7. 

In watery places, and about the sides of ditches and ponds, fre- 
quent. 

Annual. Augustj September. 

Root tapering, with many fibres. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, erect, an- 
gular, solid, smooth, leafy, with opposite axillary branches. 
Leaves opposite, on winged footstalks, dark green, smooth, 
strongly serrated, acute, in 3 deep segments, sometimes 5 ; the 
uppermost or lowermost generally undivided. Fl. terminal, so- 
litary, of a brownish yellow, somewhat drooping, devoid of 
beauty and of fragrance, each surrounded by about 8 spreading, 
lanceolate, serrated or entire bracteas, unequal in size, but all 
extending much beyond the flower. Seeds with 2 or 3 prickly 
angles, and as many erect bristles, likewise prickly with reflexed 
hooks, by which the seeds stick like burs to any rough surface, 
and are said sometimes to injure fish, by getting into their gills. 

The herb gives a yellow colour to woollen or linen. 

2. B. cernua. Nodding Bur-marigold. 

Leaves lanceolate, serrated. Flowers drooping. Bracteas 
nearly equal, entire. Bristles of the seeds about four, 
erect. 

B. cernua. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 1 65. Willd. v. 3. 17 16. Fl. Br. 858. 
Engl Bot.v. 16. 1. 1114. Curt. Lond.fasc. 3. t. 55. Hook. Scot. 
238. FL Dan. t. 841. 

B. n. 120. Hall. Hist. V. 1.50. 

Verbesina pulchriore flore luteo. Raii Syn. 187. Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 
1074. f. 

Hydropiper aliud. Dalech. Hist. 1040./. 

/3. With radiant, three-toothed, marginal florets. 

Coreopsis Bidens. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 28 1 . 

Chrysanthemum cannabinum bidens, foliis integris oblongis. Mo- 
ris, v. 3. 17. sect. 6. t. 5./. 22. 

Conyza palustris, foliis serratis. Loes. Pruss. 54. t.ll. 

Eupatorium cannabinum chrysanthemum. Barrel. Ic. 1. 1209. 

y, Bidens minima. Linn. Sp. PI. \\65. Huds. ed.\.3\0. Abbot 
178. Fl.Dan.t.3\2. 

B. tripartita /3. Huds. ed. 2. 355. 

Verbesina minima. Dill, in Raii Syn. 1 88. t.7.f. 2. Giss. 167. ap- 
pend. 66. 

Eupatorium cannabinum palmare et angustifolium. Merr.Pin.37. 

In ditches and ponds. ^ 

/3. Frequent in Ireland, and not rare in England. Sherard. Che- 
shire. Huds. Norfolk, but not common. Mr. Woodward. In 
Thorpe meadows, Norwich. 



"\ 



400SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-^QU.Eupatorium. 

y. In dry places where water has been, or about the margins of 
ponds. 

Annual. September. 

Root with many stout fibres. Herb more erect, and taller, with less 
extended branches than the foregoing species. Leaves undivided, 
pointed, less deeply serrated ; the upper ones dilated at the 
base and often combined, embracing the stem. FL drooping, 
though their stalks are quite straight to the very summit, larger 
and handsomer than the last, especially when furnished with 
their spreading golden rays in the variety |3. The seeds are often 
smooth, and their bristles, always rough, are 4. 

y is certainly nothing more than a starved plant of this species, 
growing out of the water. The Jiuwe)- is drooping in my speci- 
men from Miller's herbarium, though drawn erect by Dillenius. 
I have an analogous small variety of B. tripartita from Switzer- 
land. 

389. EUPATORIUM. Hemp-agrimony. 

Linn. Gen. 413. Juss.l78. Fl.Br.859. Tourn.t. 259. Lam. 
<. 672. Gcertn.t.\66. 

Nat. Ord. Composite, s, oppositifolice. Linn. 49. Linn. MS. 
CorymhifercE, sect. 1. Jiiss. 55. 

Common Cal, oblong, imbricated ; scales lanceolate, erect, 
unequal, unarmed. Cor. compound, uniform, of a few, 
parallel, level-topped, perfect, funnel-shaped, regular 
Jlorets; their limb in 5 equal spreading segments. Filam. 5, 
capillary, very short. Anth. in a cylindrical tube, not 
prominent. Germ, oblong, angular, small. Style thread- 
shaped, prominent, cloven as far as the top of the anthers. 
Stigmas spreading, oblong, downy, bluntish. Seed-vessel 
none, except the slightly spreading calyx. Seed oblong, 
angular. Down sessile, rough or feathery, permanent. 
Recept. small, naked. 

Perennial roughish herbs, in some instances shrubby, chiefly 
American. Leaves opposite, mostly simple and strongly 
serrated ; in our solitary species deeply divided. Fl. tei- 
minal, small, numerous, densely corymbose, white, blueish 
or reddish. Qualities bitter, aromatic and tonic. . 

1. E. cannahinum. Common Hemp-agrimony. 

Leaves in three, or five, deep, lanceolate segments ; the mid- 
dle one longest. 

E. cannabinum. Li)in. Sp. Pl.1173. Wiftd.v.3.l756. Fl.Br.860. 
Engl. Bot. V, 6. t. 428. Hook. Scot. 238. Fl. Dan. t. 745. Rail 
Syn.\79. 



SYNGENESIA— POLVGAM.-.¥.QU.Chivsocoma.lUl 

E. n. I3fi. Hall. Hist. r.\.r)9. 

E. cannabimmi nuis. Grr. Em. 71 !./. 

E. cannabinum vulgare, tbliis trifidis et profundi dentatis. Moris. 

v.3.'J7. sect. 7. t. 13./. 1. 
E. aduUerinum. Fuchs. Hist. 265. f. Ic. 148. f. Buuh. Hist. v. 2. 

1065./. 
E. vulgare. Matlh. J'algr.v 2.363./. Camer. EpiL757.f. 
Herba sanctee Kuniginulis. Trag. Hist. 491 ./. 
Hemp Agrimony. Fetiv. H. Brit. t. 18. /. 2. 
^. Eupatorium cannabinum, folio integro, seu non digitate. Dill. 

in Raii Stjn. 180. 

In watery boggy places, about the banks of rivers especially. 

Perennial. Juhj, August. 

Hoot tufted, somewhat creeping, with many long fibres. !>iems 
several, 2 or ?> feet high, erect, branched, leafy, round, downy, 
often brown or purplish, filled with pith. Leaves on short stalks, 
deep green, downy, but rather rough to the touch, for the most 
part in 3 deep, lanceolate, strongly serrated lobes, sometimes 
ill 5, when they assume a pinnate, rather than digitate form ; 
the upper ones only, according to the confession of Dillenius 
himself under the variety /3, are in that variety simple. This 
often happens in the wild plant. The Jlowers form dense, pale 
purplish, convex, corymbose tufts, at the top of the stem and 
upper branches. Florets not more than 5 or C. Germen be- 
sprinkled with minute shining globules. Seed-doicn rough, ra- 
ther than feathery, prominent between the florets. Whole herb 
slightly aromatic. 

390. CHRYSOCOMA. Goklylocks. 

Linn. Gen. 4\ 5. Juss. ]80. Comp.ed.4. \27. Lam. t. 698. G,rrtn. 

t. 166. 
Chrysocome. Dill. Gen. suppl. 167. t. 14. 

Nat. Orel. Composure, y, discoidece. Linru 49. Corymhiferce, 
sect. 1. Juss. 55. 

Common Cal. hemispherical, imbricated ; scales linear-lan- 
ceolate, convex, pointed, unarmed. Cor. compound, 
uniform, of several tubular, level-topped, perfect, regular 
Jtorets, longer than the calyx ; their limb in 5 deep, equal, 
acute segments. Filam. 5, capillary, very short. Anth. 
in a cylindrical, 5-pointed tube, shorter than the corolla. 
Germ, oblong. Style thread-shaped, not longer than the 
corolla. Stigmas 2, oblong, spreading, rather tumid. 
Seed-vessel none, except the scarcely altered calyx. Seed 
obovate, compressed. Down sessile, copious, rough, 
permanent. Recept. flat, slightly cellular, or tubercnlated, 
without scales or hairs. 

VOL, III. 2 u . 



402 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-i^QU. Diotis. 

Shrubby or herbaceous, with copious, simple, generally nar- 
row, leaves; and terminal, erect, solitary or corymbose, 
yellow powers without raj/5. Most of the species are na- 
tives of southern Africa. 

1. C\\. Linosyris. Flax-leaved Goldylocks. 

Herbaceous. Leaves linear, smooth. Calyx-scales loosely 
spreading. 

Ch. Linosyris. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 1 78. ^7. Suec. 283. Willd. v.3A79\. 

Comp. ed. 4. 135. Engl. Bot. v. 35. t. 2505. Prodr. Fl. Grcec. 

V.2A65. 
Ch. n. 144. Hall. Hist.v.]. 63. 

Chrysocome Dioscoridis et Plinii. Column. Ecphr. t;. 1. 81. <. 82. 
Osyris Austriaca. Clus. Pann. 311./. Hist. v. 1 . 325./. 
Linarise tevtium genus. Trag. Hist. 358./. 
Linaria aurea Tragi. Ger. Em. 5.t4./. 
Virga aurea, linarise folio, floribus congestis et umbellatini dispo- 

sitis. Moris. V. 3. \2b.sect. 7. 1. 13./. 29. 

On rocky cliffs, on the southern sea coast, rare. 

Amongst coarse grasses, on the rocky cliff of Berryhead, Devon. 
Rev. Charles Holbech. 

Perennial. Jugust, September. 

Root creeping, with long stout fibres. Herb smooth. Stems erect, 
a foot high, leafy, slender, simple, rigid, unbranched. Leaves 
numerous, scattered, spreading, linear, entire, acute at each end, 
nearly U inch long, scarcely stalked, a little fleshy, f/. bright 
yellow, at the top of the stem, in a corymbose tuft, various in 
number. Florets about 30. Seeds hairy, with long, copious, 
rough doivn. 

391. DIOTIS. Cotton-weed. 

Desfont. Atlant. v. 2. 260. DeCand. Fr. r. 4. 201 . 
Gnaphalium. Tournt.26]. Gcurtn. t. \6b. 
Santolina. H. Br. 860. Comp.ed.4.\27 . 

Nat. Ord. see n. 390. 

Common Cal. hemispherical, imbricated, scales oblong, con- 
vex, obtuse, unarmed. Cor. compound, uniform, of nu- 
merous tubular, level-topped, perfect, regular Jlorets, 
about the length of the calyx ; their limb in 5 broadish, 
equal, spreading segments ; tube contracted at the sum- 
mit ; elongated at the base on each side, below its inser- 
tion, into 2 opposite, compressed, equal, nectariferous 
spiirs, which finally separate from the rest of the tube and 
remain attached to the germen. Filam. capillary, very 
short. Anth. in a cylindrical tube, equal to the corolla. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAMIA-7EQU. Diotis. 403 

Germ, oblong, slender, between the spurs. Style thread- 
shaped, the length of the corolla. Stigmas 2, spreading, 
obtuse. Sccd-vcssel none but the unchanged calyx. Seed 
oblong, compressed, tapering at the base, bordered at 
each side with the compressed, obtuse spurs of the co- 
rolla. Down none. Recept. convex, nearly globular, 
small, beset with oblong, concave, downy-tipped scales, 
nearly as tall as the flowers. 
Only one species, a densely cottony, perennial, corymbose 
herb, with simple crenate leaves, and tufted, yellow, dis- 
coidjlowers. It is generally taken for the original an- 
cient Gnaplialium of Dioscorides, being fre(|uent on all 
the shores of the Archipelago ; and Tournefort, who con- 
firms this opinion in his Voyage v. 1. 10, detected, with 
great sagacity, an essential generic character in the 2 
spurs of each Jloret, which form a sort of wings to the 
seed. Gaertner, Desfontaines, and other able botanists, 
have confirmed this, and I can no longer refuse to ad- 
mit the genus, though its original name is transferred to 
another well-known and very ample one, from which it 
could not, without great inconvenience, be removed. 
Diotis, invented by Desfontaines, well expresses the es- 
sential character, of a pair of ears to the seed. Still I 
cannot but wish that the habit were more distinct from 
Santoli^ia. 

1. T). ?narki?na. Sea Cotton-weed. 

D, maritima. Hook. Land. t. 1 37. 

D. candidissima. Desfont. Atlant.v.2.26\. DeCand. Fr. v. 4. 201. 

Santolina maritima. Linn. Ms. in Sp. PI. 1 182. Willd.v. 3. 1799. 
FlBr.860. Engl.Bot.v.2.t.\4\. Comp. ed. 4. \35. Huds.356. 
Dicks. H. Sice. fuse. 6. 1 1. Pulten. Dorset. 80. 

Athanasia maritima. Linn.Sp. PL 1182. 

Filago maritima. Linn. Sp. PL ed. 1 . 927. MilL Ic. 90. t. 13p. 

Gnaphalium. Matth. Falgr. v. 2.213. f. Corner. EpiL 605. f. Da- 
lech. Hist. 1115. f. 

G. maritimum. Bauh. Pin. 263. Raii Syn. 180. Bauh, Hist. v. 3. 
p. 1.157./. 

G. marinum. Ger. Em. 640. f. Lob. Ic. 480. f. 

G. marinum tomentosum. Dalech. Hist. 1387./. 

G. legitimum. Gcertn. v. 2. 39 1 . ^ 1 65. Clus. Hist. v. 1 . 329./. 

Chrysanthemum perenne gnaphaloides maritimum. Morh. r. 3. 2 1 . 
sect. 6. t.4.f.47. 

Polium gnaphaloides. Alpin. Exot.]47.t.l46. 

Sea Cotton-weed. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 20. f. 8. 

•> r, •> 



404 SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Tanacetum. 

On the sandy sea coast, rare. 

In Anglesea and Cornwall. Ray. Dorsetshire and the isle of bhe- 
pey. Huds. Pulteney. On the beach just above high-water 
mark, one mile north of Landguard fort, Suffolk, 1793 ; also 
between Lowestoft and Pakefield, and on other parts of the 
Suffolk coast. 

Perennial. August, Septimher. 

Root branched and tufted, running very deep into the sand. Whole 
herb densely cottony and singularly white. Stems scarcely a 
foot high, recumbent at the base, branched and corymbose above, 
round, copiously leafy. Leaves scattered, in four rows, sessile, 
oblong, obtuse, flat, crenate, withering, permanent, being held 
together by their cottony coating. Fl. yellow, in terminal co- 
rym-bose tiifts. Cal. densely woolly. Seeds brown. 

My friend Dr. Hooker has, like the learned M. Cassini, well re- 
sisted the gratuitous change of the excellent and original spe- 
cific name. 



SYNGENESIA— FOLYGAM.-SUPERF. 
392. TANACETUM. Tansy. 

IAnn.Gen.4]7. Juss.\84. F/. Br. 862. Tourn. t.26\. Lam. 
t.696. Gcertn.t. \65. 

Nat. Ord. CompositcP, y, discoidecE. Linn. 49. Cori/mbifei-ce, 
sect. 4. Juss. 55. 

Common Cal. hemispherical, imbricated ; scales elliptic-ob- 
long, compact, the innermost membranous at the margin. 
Cor. compound, of two kinds o^Jlorets; those o^xh^disk 
numerous, tubular, regular, level-topped, with a 5-cleft 
limb, perfect ; of the radius few, sometimes wanting, tu- 
bular at the base, their limb flat, spreading, slightly pro- 
minent, 3-cleft, without stamens. Filam. in the florets of 
the disk only, capillary, very short. Anth. in a cylindri- 
cal tube. Germ., in all the florets obovate, compressed. 
Style thread-shaped. Stigmas 2, a little prominent, re- 
curved, obtuse. Seed-vessel none but the permanent ca- 
lyx. Seed oblong, angular, crowned with a slight mem- 
branous border. Recej)t. convex, dotted, naked. 

Bitter, strongly aromatic herbs, with alternate, or scattered, 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. ArtemiMa. 405 

simple, pinnate, or bipinnate leaves, and corymbose, yel- 
low, scarcely radiated, j?ow^/-5. 

1. T. vulgare. Coimnon Tansy. 

Leaves doubly pinnatifid, deeply serrated, naked. 

T. vulgare. Linn. Sp. PL 1 1 84. Willd. r. 3. 1 8 1 4. FL Br. 862. 

Engl. Bot.v. 18. t.]229. Woodv.t.Wo. Hook. Scot. 239. Bull. 

Fr. t. 187. 
T. n. 132. Hall. Hist. V. 1.57. 
Tanacetum. Raii Syn. \88. Ger. Em. 650. f. Matth. Valgr.v.2. 

259./. Camer. Epit. 650./. Brunf. Herb. v. 1 . 250./. v. 2. 87./. 

Trag.Hist. 158./ 
T. millefolii foliis. Lob. Ic. 749. f. 
Artemisia monoclonos. Fuchs. Hist. 46./ 
A. tenuifolia. Fuchs. Ic. 27. f. 
Athanasia, seu Tanacetum. Da lech. Hist. 955. f. 
Tansy. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 20./ 9. 

/3. Tanacetum foliis crispis. Bavh. Pin. 132. Dill, in Raii Syn. 188. 
T. crispum anglicum. Ger. Em. 650./ 
T. cristatum anglicum speciosum. Lob. Ic. 749. f. Dalech. Hist. 

956./. 
Curled Tansy. Petiv. H. Brit. f. 20. f. 10. 

In hilly pastures, hedges, and by road sides. 

Perennial. July, August. 

Root moderately creeping. Stems 1 J- or 2 feet high, erect, rather 
angular, leafy, solid, unbranched, smooth. Leaves doubly and 
deeply pinnatifid, and sharply cut, dark green, smooth. Fl. nu- 
merous, of a golden yellow, terminal, densely coiymbose, the 
marginal Jiorets scarcely apparent, and often wanting. Seeds 
with a quadrangular entire crown. 

Every part is very bitter, with a strong, but not unpleasant, scent. 
The qualities are esteemed of a tonic and cordial nature, ex- 
pelling intestinal worms, and strengthening the digestive 
powers, 'i'he plant however does not agree with every stomach. 
The curled variety, /S, first noticed in England, is kept for use 
in gardens, as being more wholesome, or milder, than the wild 
sort J but Tansy pudding is now out of fashion. 

393. ARTEMISIA. Wormwood, Southernwood, 

and Mugwort. 

Linn. Gen. 4\8. J;m. 184. F/. Br. 863. Tourn.t.2i^0. Lam. 

t.&95. Gcerln.t. \(i4. 
Absinthium. Tourn.t.260. Lam. t. 695. Gcerln. f. \6i. 

Nid. Ord. Cuniposifcc, ?, nucamentacece. Linn. 49. Cori/m- 
bifeice, sect. i. Juss. 55. 



40G SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Artemisia. 

Common Cal, roundish, imbricated ; scales rounded, convex, 
compact, membranous at the edges. Cor. compound ; 
Jlorets of the disk numerous, perfect, tubular, their limb 
5-cleft ; those of the circumference few, with or without a 
small, tubular, tongue-shaped, undivided petal, but no 
stamens. Filam. in the florets of the disk only, very 
short. Anth. in a 5-toothed tube. Germ, in all the flo- 
rets small, obovate. Style prominent, deeply divided. 
Stigmas cloven or notched, recurved. Seed-vessel none, 
except the scarcely altered calyx. Seed obovate, naked. 
llecept. rather convex, either naked or hairy. 

A numerous genus, herbaceous or shrubby, bitter, or in 
some degree aromatic, almost without exception peren- 
nial. Leaxies alternate, more or less divided, or pinnati- 
fid. Fl. in panicled clusters or tufts, small, not showy. 
Herbage often hoary, or silky. 

No genus can be more natural, in spite of the differences 
of the receptacle, which in some species is smooth, in 
others hairy, affording an example of aberration in that 
part, which is not accompanied by any natural or charac- 
teristic distinction in any other. Linnagus, Jussieu, De- 
CandoUe, and most leading botanists besitles, have there- 
fore happily preserved this genus entire. 

1. K. campestns . Field Southernwood. 

Leaves in many linear segments. Stems procumbent before 
flowering, wand-like. 

A. campestris. Lmn. Sp PL 1 1 85. fi^ilkl. v. 3. 1827. FL Br.S63. 

Engl. Bot. V. 5. t. 338. 
A. n. 131. HaiLHist.v.\.57. 
A. tenuifolia, sive leptophyllos, aliis Abrotanum sylvestre. Bauh. 

Hist.v.3.p.\.]94.f. 
A. tenuifolia altera. Civs. Hist. v. 1 . 340./. 
Abrotanum campestre. Bauh. Pin. 136. Raii Sijn. 190. 
A. inodorum. Ger. Em. 1 106./. Lob. Ic. 7G9.f. Dalech. Hist. 

939./. 
Wild Southernwood. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 20. f. 4. 

On dry open sandy heaths, in Norfolk and Sufliblk, rare. 

About Barton mills and Elden, Suffolk, plentifully j T. Willisell. 
Ray. About a mile north of Thetford, Norfolk. Mr. Crowe. On 
Icklingham heath, near Bury, Suffolk. Sir T. G. Cullum. 

Perennial. August. 

Root tapering. Whole herb without any aromatic or bitter flavour. 
Stems at first prostrate, becoming more or less upright as the 
flowers appear, branched, leafy, straight and wand-likc, smooth. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Artemisia. 407 

often reddish^ near '2 feet high. Leaves irregularly and doubly 
pinnatifid, with narrow, linear, blunt segments ; clothed beneath 
with close silvery hairs : smooth above ; the radical ones nume- 
rous the first year, on long footstalks, spreading close to the 
ground. Fl. drooping, small, ovate, yellow, with a purplish 
calyx, forming numerous, slender, leafy clusters, at the ends of 
the stem and branches. Calyx-scales roundish, with a broad, 
membranous, shining, jagged margin. Recept. small, naked. 
Florets of the disk about 15, tipped with purple ; of the circum- 
ference 2 or 3, awl-shaped, entire, yellow. 

2. A. inaritima. Drooping Sea Wormwood. 

Leaves downy, pinnatifid ; uppermost undivided. Flowers 
drooping, oblong, downy, sessile. Receptacle naked. 

A. maritima. Linn. Sp. PI. 11 8fi. Willd. v. 3. 1833. Fl. Br. 864, 
a and (3. Comp. ed. 4. 135. Huds. 358. Hook. Scot. 239. 
fVoodv. t. 1 22. Ehrh. PI. Off. 90. 

Absinthium marinum album. Rail Syn. ed. 2. 94. ed. 3. 188. Ger. 
Em, 1099./. 

A. marinum. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 48./. ? Camer. Epit. 455. f. 

A. maritimum nostras. Dill, in Raii Syn. 1 89. Raii Hist. «. 3. 23 1 . 

/3. A. maritimum, Seriphio Belgico simile, latiore folio, odoris 
grati. Raii Stjn. ed. 2. 94, ed. 3. 188. 

French Sea Wormwood. Fetiv. H. Brit. t. 20./. 3. Dill. 

y. Absinthii maritimi species, latiore folio. Raii Syn. ed, 2. 94. 
ed. 3. 189. 

On the sea shove, or about the mouths of large rivers, in a muddy 
soil, frequent. 

Perennial. August. 

Root rather woody. Herb hoary with fine white cottony down, 
having a more agreeably aromatic resinous odour, and less bitter 
taste, than Common Wormwood. Stems erect or recumbent, 
woody, furrowed, solid, copiously and alternately branched, 
densely leafy. Leaves pinnatifid with 3.cleft segments, various 
in breadth and hoariness ; the upper ones linear, undivided. Fl. 
in unilateral leafy clusters, all nearly sessile, drooping or pen- 
dulous, externally cottony, ovate-oblong, not hemispherical. 
Inner scales of the calyx almost naked, with a broad membra- 
nous edge. Florets tawny; those of the circumference very, 
few. Recept. naked, small. 

Our variety y, found by Dale, was suspected by Ray himself to be 
either the same with j3, or with the following species j so that it 
appears to have been, at any rate, very little known, and hardly 
entitled to rank even as a variety. 



408 SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Artemisia. 

3. A. saliica. Uprijrht- flowered Sea Wormwood. 

Leaves downy, pimiatifid ; radical ones capillary ; upper- 
most undivided. Flowers erect, oblong, downy, partly 
stalked, of few florets. Receptacle naked. 

A. gallica. Willd. Sp. PI. v 3. 1834. Comp. w7.4. 135. Engl. Bot. 

V 24. p. \706, at the bottom. Hook. Scot. 239 ; in the quotation, 

for drooping read erect. 
A. maritima. Engl. Bot.v.\A.t\Q^\. Fl. Br. 86i, y. 
Absinthium seriphium tenuifolium marinum narbonense. Dill, in 

Raii Syn. ISO. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 1. \77.f. 

About the banks of large rivers near the sea, in a muddy soil. 

Perennial. August. 

This has much of the habit of the preceding, and like that varies in 
the degree of hoariness, and in the breadth of its foliage ; but the 
radical /fiaues are usually more narrovi', almost capillary ; and 
when in bloom the two species differ conspicuously, the^owers 
of the present being more abundant and crowded, partially 
stalked, and all of them upright. In their sensible qualities 
there seems little difference. 

4. A. .Absinthium. Common Wormuood. 

Leaves in many deep segments, clothed with close silky 
down. Flowers drooping, hemispherical. Receptacle 
hairy, 

A. Absinthium. Linn. Sp. Fl. 1 188. Willd. v. 3. 1844. Fl. Br. 864. 

Engl. Bot. V. 18. t. 1230. Woodv. t. 120, Hook. Scot. 239. 
Apsinthium n. 124. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 53. 
Absinthium. Malth.Valgr.v.2.A7.f. Cctnier. Epit. 432./. Trag. 

Hist. 335./. 
A, vulgare. Raii Syn. \S%. Dulech. Hist.D43.f. Fiiclis. Hist.l. f. 

Ic.2.f. 
A. latifolium sive ponticum. Ger. Em. 1096/. 
A^lvSiov. Diosc. Ic. t. 1 6. 
Common Wormwood. Peiiv. H. Brit. t. 20. f. I. 

In waste ground, and about villages frequent. 

Perennial. August. 

Root woody, branched at the crown, with numerous fibres below. 
Whole herb covered with close silky hoariness, intensely bitter, 
to a proverb, with a peculiar, strong, aromatic, not disagreeable 
odour. Stems numerous, bushy, about a foot high, furrowed, 
leafy. Leaves alternate, doubly pinnatifid, with broadish, blunt- 
ishj entire segments, rather greener on the upper side ; lower 
ones on long footstalks ; upper on shorter, broader, somewhat 
winged ones. Fl. in aggregate leafy clusters, stalked, droop- 
ing, hemispherical, of numerous, pnlc yellow, or hw^.fiorels. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-8UPEKF. Artemisia. 400 

Styles very deeply cloven. Recept. convex, clothed with fine 
upright hairs. 

Sometimes the leaves which accompany the flowers are much 
larger and broader than usual, and most of them undivided. 
Such a variety has been sent me for J. cccrulescens, from Gam- 
lingay, near Cambridge ; but it has no relationship to that spe- 
cies. 

Common Wormwood is a powerful bitter, much extolled by Haller, 
on various authorities, as a stomachic, and recommended by 
him for keeping off fits of the gout, for which it is said to have 
served the Emperor Charles the Fifth. The plant is thought to 
drive awav insects from clothes and furniture, for which purpose 
it is often laid into drawers and chests in the country. The ve- 
getable alkali of the shops has been usually procured from this 
herb, and called Salt of Wormwood, though retaining none of 
its peculiar qualities. 

5. A. vulgaris. Mugwort. 

Leaves pinnatifid, flat, cut; downy beneath. Clusters sim- 
ple. Flowers ovate. Receptacle naked. 

A. vulgaris. Linn. Sp. Pl.WSS. H'illd. v. 3. \8A5. Fl.Br.865. 

Engl. Bot. V. 14. t. 978. H'oodv. t.l2\. Hook. Scot. 240. Bull. 

Fr. t. 350. Rail Syn. 1 90. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. p. 1 . 1 84./. Dalcch. 

Flist. 950./. 
A. n. 130. Hall. Hist. v. 1.56. 
Artemisia. Tra^. Hist. 344. /. Brunf. Herb. v. 2. 83, by mistake 

4\,f. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 202. f. Camer. Epit. 595./. 
A. mater herbarum. Ger. Em. 1 103./. 
A. latifolia. Fuclis. Hist. 44./. 
Mugwort. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 20. f. 5. 

In waste ground, about hedges, and in the rough borders of fields, 
common. 

Perennial. August. 

Root woody. Stems 3 or 4 feet high, erect, branched, panicled, 
leafy, furrowed, smooth, often reddish. Leorues alternate, deeply 
pinnatifid and cut, somewhat lyrate ; dark green and smooth 
above ; downy and snow-white underneath ; the lower ones 
stalked j u])per sessile. Clusters upright, leafy, simple. Fl. 
more or less inclining, or drooping, partly sessile, variously dis- 
posed, ovate, woolly. Florets reddish or brown ; in the disk not 
numerous; in the margin 5, very slender. Recept. naked, 
small. 

This species, weakly aromatic and bitterish, has, from remote an- 
tiquity, been esteemed good in certain obstructions, for which 
Ray says it is much used. Whatever may be its supposed effi- 
cacy, the sensible qualities are but slight, and its virtues are 
rather traditionary than ccrtahi. The cottony covering of the 



410 SYNGENESI A- POLYG.-SUPERF.Gnaphalium. 

herbage, separated by rubbing, makes the Moxa of the Ja- 
panese, a famous material for performing actual cautery in that 
country. 

•^6. A. carulescens . Blueish, or Lavender-leaved 
Mugwort, 

Leaves hoary ; most of them lanceolate, ijndivided, tapering 
at the base ; lower ones variously divided. Flowers erect, 
cylindrical. Receptacle naked. 

A. caerulescens. iin«. Sp. PZ. 1189. Willd.v.?,.\%A1 . Fl. Br. 866. 

Engl. Bot.v. 34. t. 2426. Huds.359. 
A. marina. Ger. Em.\\Q4.f. Lob. Ic.765.f. Dalech. Hist. 951./. 
Absinthium marinum. Matth. Valgr.v.2.49f. Camer.Epit.4bb, 

456./,/. 
A. maritimum lavendulse folio. Bauh. Pin. 139. Moris, v. 3. 7. 

sect. 6. t. 1./. 5. Duham.Arb.v. 1.24. t. 7. 
A. latifolium rarius, Artemisise folio. Column. Ecphr. v. 2. 75, t. 76. 
A. angustifolium. Dad. Pempt. 26. f. 

On the sea coast ; a very doubtful native. 

Near Boston, Lincolnshire ; Mr. Tofield. Huds. No other person 
has ever met with it, and the late Sir Joseph Banks repeatedly 
searched the neighbourhood of Boston in vain. In the isle of 
Wight. Gerarde. But it has not been found by recent botanists. 

Perennial. August, September. 

Plant rather shrubby, with round, slender, smooth, leafy branches, 
downy when young. Leaves of a blueish hoary hue, finely silky 
in an early state, especially beneath, all tapering at the base, 
and somewhat stalked ; many of them obovate-oblong, obtuse, 
entire ; floral ones smaller, and more linear ; several about the 
lower part of the stem three-cleft, or pinnatifid. Fl. ovate-ob- 
long, small, mostly erect, in copious, aggregate, leafy clusters or 
spikes. Recept. naked, small. From garden and exotic speci- 
mens, 

394. GNAPHALIUM. Cudweed. 

Linn.Gen.4l9. Juss.l79. FLBr.867. 

Elichrysum. Tourn. t. 259. Lam. t. 693. Gcertn. 1. 166. 

Antennaria. Gcertn. t.\67 . 

Filago. Linn.Gen.4bO. Juss. \79. Tourn. t.2b9. Gcertn. t.\ 66. 

Nat. Ord. Compositee, ^, nucamentacecE. Linn. 49, Corym- 
bifer(S, sect. 1. Juss. 55. 

Common Cal. roundish, imbricated ; scales filmy, coloured, 
converging. Cor. compound ; florets of the disk perfect, 
tubular, their linib 5-cleft ; some destitute of stamens, 
often of corolla also, either marginal or interspersed in 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF.Giiaphalium. 41 1 

the circumference of the disk ; their corolla, if present, 
slender, or awl-shaped, mostly luidivided. Filam. 5, 

• capillary, short. Afit/i. in a cylindrical tube. Germ. 
obovate, angular. Style thread-shaped, the length of the 
floret. Stigmas 2, spi'eading, notched. Seed-vessel none, 
except the permanent shining calyx, variously coloured. 
Seed obovate, small, alike, and usually perfect, in all the 
florets. Doxson either simple, or variously feathery. Re- 
cept. naked. 

Some few Jlorets, in the very centre of the disk, are occa- 
sionally abortive. Antetinaria of Gsertner has dioecious 
Jloisoers, and a diversity of feathery seed-domm ,• yet it is not 
a natural genus. In Filago the Jlorets of the disk are 
described by Linnaeus as 4-cleft, with 4 stamens only ; 
but this is rarely, if ever, the case. There are many 
aberrations, as to \\\e Jlorets being more or less perfect, in 
different species, but nothing can be liable to more va- 
riations than this circumstance. 

A vast genus, overburthened with species, among which 
there is great diversity of habit, and the exotic ones, 
chiefly African, undoubtedly require skilful investigation. 
The roots are annual, or more generally perennial. 
Herbage cottony. Stem herbaceous or shrubby, round, 
leafy. Leaves simple, undivided, and entire. Fl. coryra-r 
bose, or capitate ; yellow in the disk. Calyx yellow, red, 
white, brown, or blackish, never blue. 

* Calyx yello'w. 

1. G. luteo -album. Jersey Cudweed. 

Herbaceous. Leaves half-clasping, linear-oblong, wavy, 
woolly on both sides ; lower ones blunt. FJowers densely 
tufted. 

G. luteo-album. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 196. mild. v. 3. 1871 . Fl. Br. 

867. Engl. Bot. v. 14. t. 1002. Dicks. H. Sicc.fasc. 5. 13. 

Ehrh. Herb. WS. 
G. majus, lato oblongo folio. Bauh. Pin. 363. Plulc. Almag. 17!, 

Phjt.t.^).f.<i. 
G. Plateau secundum. Clus. Hist. v. 1.329. f. 
G. oblongo folio. Ger. Em. 643./. 

G. ad Stoechadem citrinam accedens. Bauh. Hist. w. 3. p. 1 . 1 60. f. 
Filago n. 147. Hall. Hist. v. ]. 64. 
Elichrysum sylvestre latifolium, capitulis conglobatis. Raii Syn. 

182. 



4 1 2 SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Gnaphalium. 

Helichvysum sen Chrysocome annua sylvestriSj capitulis niinori- 

bus conglobatis. Moris, v. 3. 88. sect. 7. t.W ./. 
Clirysocome citrina supina latifolia italica. Barrel. Ic. t. 36/. • 
Jersey Live-long. Peliv. H. Brit. t. 18./. 5. 

In dry sandy ground, in the south. 

On dry banks and walls in Jersey, very common. Slierard. Be- 
tween Hanxtown and Little Shelford, Cambridgeshire, indubita- 
bly wild. Rev. R. Relhan. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root small and slender. Herb entirely covered wiih white cot- 
tony down. Stems generally several, from 3 to 12 inches high, 
unbranched, leafy; recumbent at the bottom; then upright. 
Leaves numerous, alternate, sessile, clasping the stem with 
their dilated base, oblong, undulated ; the lower ones obovate 
at the extremity ; upper acute. Fl. in crowded heads, on co- 
rymbose stalks. Cal. of a delicate, shining, pale yellow. Mar- 
ginaljlorets often reddish, as are sometimes the few which com- 
pose tlie disk. Recept. tuberculated. Seeds fertile in all the 
florets. Down rough. 

These^ojt'ers are of the k-nd termed Everlasting, but scarcely con- 
spicuous enough to make a figure in winter nosegays, or to find 
a place in the flower-garden. 

** Cali/.v while, or reddish. 

2. G. margaritaceum. American Cudweed. Pearly 
Everlasting. 

Herbaceous. Leaves linear-lanceolate, sharp-pointed, al- 
ternate ; loosely cottony on the upper side ; densely un- 
derneath. Stem branched in the upper part. Panicles 
corymbose, level-topped. 

G. margaritaceum. Linn. Sp. PL 1 198. Willd. v. 3. 1881. Fl. 

Br. 868. Engl. Bot. v. 29. t. 2018. Dicks. H. Sicc.Jasc. 8. 15. 
G. americanum. Rati Syn. 182. Bauh. Hist. v. 3. v. 1. 162 /". 

Clus.Hist.v.l.327.f. 
Filago n. 146. Hull. Hist. v. 1.64. 
American Live-long. Peliv. H. Brit. 1. 18. f. 3. 
In moist meadows, rare. 
Plentifully near Bocking, Essex, Mr Dale ; but perhaps not wild. 

Ray. On the banks of Rymny river. South Whales, for at least 

twelve miles ; Mr. Lhwyd. Dillenius. By a rivulet in the heart 

of Wire forest, Worcestershire. Rev. T. Butt. At Longdon, 

near Litchfield. Dr. Salt. 
Perennial. August. 
Root somewhat creeping. Slons erect, 2 feet high, copiously leafy, 

solid, densely cottony ; as is the under side of the leaves ,• while 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Gnaphalium. 413 

the upper is green, even, covered with a thin web of cotton ea- 
sily rubbed off. Fl. numerous, corym!)ose, on cottony stalks, 
terminating the stem and branches. Cal. of a most pure, ra- 
ther opaque, paper-like white, globose before it expands, giving 
an elegant pearly aspect to the ample panicles, and remaining 
unchanged after gathering. Hence these powers serve to de- 
corate chimney-pieces in winter, especially in the country. In 
South Wales, where the plant, though reckoned of American 
origin, is to all appearance wild, they afford " Amaranthine 
wreaths" for the graves of the departed. The perfect //ore/s of 
the disk are numerous ; the half-ligulate ones of the circumfe- 
rence very few. Seed-down obtuse, rough. Recept. tuberculated. 

3. G. dioiawi. Mountain Cudweed. 

Shoots procumbent. Stem unbranched. Corymb simple, 
terminal. Flowers dioecious. Seed-down leathery, va- 
rious. 

G. dioicum. Linn. Sp. PI. 11 99. frUld. v. 3. 1882. Fl. Br. S69. 

Engl. Bot. V. 4. t. 267. Lightf. 470. t. 20. f. 1 . flool,: Scot. 240. 

Fi. Da?!. ^ 1228. Bull. Fr. 1.32:}. 
G. montanum album. Raii Si/n. 181. 

G. longiore folio et flore. Diil.in Rati Syn. 182. Bauh. Pin. 263. 
G. montanum purpureum et album. Ger. Em. 640./. Lob. Ic. 

482,483./,/. 
Filago n. 157." Hall. Hist. v. 1. C7. 
Elichrysum montanum, longiore et folio, et flore puruureo. Garid. 

Proz;. 157. /. 30. 
Lag-opus. Tr a g. Hist. 332. f. 
rilosella minor. Dod. Pcmpf. 68./. Fuchs. Hist. 606./ 7c. 34/. f. 

Dalecfi.m^t. 1098./. 
Antennaria dlvica. Gcerin. v. 2. 410. /. 1 67. 
Cat's.foot. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 18./. 4. 

In dry mountainous or heathy pastures. 

On Newmarket heath ; and on Stratton Strawless heatli near Nor- 
wich. Frequent in the mountainous counties. 

Perennial. June^ July. 

Roots with many long simple fibres. Stems .solitary, simple, up- 
right, generally from 4 to 6 inches high, cottony, leafy, accom- 
panied at the base by several prostrate leafy runners, by which 
the plant is increased. Leaves scattered} obovate on the run- 
ners ; lanceolate on the stems ; green, smooth and naked above ; 
very white and cottony beneath. Fl. 4 or 5, terminal, erect, 
simply corymbose, white, with more or less of a rose-coloured 
tint, everlasting, and very elegant ; those on one root most per- 
fect in their anthers, on another in iheir pistils, so that the plant 
is incompletely dioecious ; but this varies, and the seeds of the 
latter kind are often abortive, as in most vegetables that increase 
much by root. The calyx-scales have a membranous termina- 
tion, either rounded or acute. Seed-down partly rough, partly 



414SYNGENESIA-POLYG.-SUPERF.Gnai)haliuni. 

feathery and somewhat tufted. The redder Jlorets in general have 
the most perfect pistil, without even the rudiments of stamens. 
A very fine variety, almost twice the size of the common sort, with 
the upper surface of the leaves downy, at least while young, was 
gathered on Breeze hill in the isle of Skye, by the late Mr. J. 
Mackay, which some have thought a new species. But it seems 
a mere variety, becoming still larger in a garden, and having, as 
far as I can make out, no specific mark of distinction. 

#»* (^aiyx browri, and less ornamental. 

iiywtjtfiwT. 4 Q sylvaticu7n. Highland Cudweed. 

Stem simple, erect. Spike leafy, somewhat compound. 
Leaves lanceolate, tapering at the base, cottony on both 
sides. 

G. sylvaticum. Linn. Sp. PI. 1200. Wil'd v.3. 1884. R. Br. 869. 

Engl. Bot. V. 13. ^ 913. Hook. Scot. 240. .Scop. Cam. v. 2. 151 . 

t.56. Wahlenb. Lapp. 203 ^. 
Gnaphalium. Fl. Dan. t.2D4. 
G. norvegicum. Retz. Prodr. 193. Hcenke in Jacq. Colt. v. 2. 21 . 

Gunn. Norveg. 105. 
Filago n. 148, variety from Mount Fouly. Hall. HLit. v. 1. 65. 
Chrj-socome lanuginosa. Dalech. Hist. 1 125./. 

In pastures and thickets, on the Highland mountains of Scotland. 

On mountains to the north of Blair in Athol, above Loch Erruch, 
and on Ben Wyvis, Ross- shire ; but not in woods. Mr. J. 
Mackay. 

Perennial. August. 

Root with many long, simple, blackish fibres. Stem solitary, sim- 
ple, from 3 to 12 inches high, leafy, cottony as well as both 
sides of the leaves, which are lanceolate, acute, tapering at the 
base into short footstalks. Fl. in a dense leafy spike, an inch 
or two long, at the top of the stem, slightly compound, or sub- 
divided in the lower part ; but its lower branches become mul- 
tiplied by culture, forming stalked axillary spikes, along the 
upper half, or more, of the leafy stem. Cal. cylindrical, with 
numerous, oblong, round-pointed, naked scales, of a dark shi- 
ning brown, nearly black, in the upper, or exposed, half; straw- 
coloured below. Florets yellowish : those of the circumference 
numerous, slender, tubular, with a short, undivided, ligulate 
border; of the disk few, regular, 5 -cleft. Seed-down uniform, 
rough. Recept. minutely cellular. Some very dwarf alpine spe- 
cimens bear solitary ^ouers. 

The differences between this plant and the following seem pretty 
constant, in their respective natural situations, and there no 
person can mistake them. Cultivation renders the present spe- 
cies more luxuriant, with far more numerous and dispersed^oit;- 
ers, than the humble wild specimens of the Highland mountains ; 
but the upper surface of tiie leaves continues equally covered 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF.Gnaphalium.4l5 

with cottony down ; the calyx remains blacker, and thcjlorets 
more dusky than in G. rectum. I concur therefore with the most 
eminent practical botanists, who have kept them distinct. In a 
wild state, though the stem of G. sijlvaticum is often drawn up, 
to above the height of a foot, among bushes, ihe spike remains as 
compact, and nearlyas short, as in the most exposed situations. 

5. G. recHim. Upright Wood Cudweed. ■;' <?^>a&««4»v 

Stem erect, panicled, many-flowered, leafy. Leaves li- 
near-lanceolate, naked on the upper side ; silky beneath. 

G. rectum. Fl. Br. 870. Engl. Bot. v. 2. t. 124. Willd. Sp. PL 

w.3.1885. Fl.Dan.t.\229. Bauh.Hist.v.3. p. \.\60.f. Ber- 

tolon. Am. Ital. 406. 
G. sylvaticum. Huds. 360. Hook. Scot. 3A0 jS. Relz. Prodr. \93. 

Ehrh. Herb. 50. Wahlenb. Lapp. 203 a. 
G. anglicum. Rait %«. 180. Ger. Ew. 639./. 
G. anglicum vel belgicum, folio longiore. Lob. Ic. 482./. 
Filago n. 148. Hall. Hist. v. I. 65. 
Pseudoleontopodium. Matth. Falgr. v. 2. 535./. Dalech. Hist. 

1344. f. 
Rhurkraut. Trag. Hist. 331 ; tallest/. 
English Live-long. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 18./ 6. 

In groves, thickets and pastures, where the soil is light and sandy, 
or gravelly ; rarely in corn fields. 

Perennial. Jugust. 

This may be known from the last by its many. flowered, panicled, 
generally much taller, stem, but more certainly by the naked 
and very smooth upper side of its leaves, and their silvery under 
surface. The calyx, though brown, has a blush-coloured rather 
than black hue, and the Jiorets are of a brighter yellow, though 
in structure like those of G. sylvaticum. In general G. rectum 
is li or 2 feet high, copiously branched, with abundance of not 
inelegantj^owers ; though I have dwarf specimens from the Ha- 
fod woods, Cardiganshire, not a foot in height, with the i)i/io- 
rescence as little branched as in G. sylvaticum. But the /lowers 
are dispersed among the foliage, having their proper reddisli 
hue, and the upper surface of the leaves is smooth and naked, 
while their backs, like the stem, are beautifully silvery. These 
specimens, accurately observed, cannot but remove all doubt. 

C. G. sup'inum. Dwarf Alpine Cudweed. 

Stem recumbent, quite simple, with a simple cluster of very 
few flowers. Leaves linear-lanceolate, somewhat cottony 
on both sides. 

G. supinum. Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12. v. 3.234. TVilld. Sp. PI. v. 3. 
1 888. Fl. Br. 87 1 . Engl. Bot. v \7.t.\l03. Hook. Scot. 240. 
Dicks. H. Sicc./asc. 2. 1 7. Wahlenb. Lapp. 202. 



416 SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Gnaphalium. 

G.alpinum. LighlfA70. t. 20. f. 2. Fl. Dan. t. 332. 

G. fuseiim. Scop. Cam. V. 2. ]52. 1. 1)7. 

G. alpinum nanum, seu pumilum. Bocc. Sic. 40. t. 20./. 1., Sttt. 
Tour on the Continent, ed. 2. v. 3. 101 . 

Filago n. 149. HalL Hist. v. 1. 65. 

Eiichrysum alpinum minimum, capillaceo folio. Tourn. Inst. 454 ; 
according to his herbarium. 

On the micaceous summits of the Highland mountains. 

Near the top of Ben Lomond plentifully, 1782. 

Perennial. July. 

Root slender, creeping, black. Stems from 2 to 4 inches long, 
very slender, quite simple, cottony, sparingly leafy, seldom 
quite erect, and often nearly prostrate ; sometimes bearing only 
one solitary terminal^ou-'er; but most usually ending in a sim- 
ple, lax cluster, of from 3 to 5 or 6 flowers, whose stalks are 
clothed with an abundant lax cottony web. Leaves very nar- 
row, almost linear, an inch or two long, finely cottony on both 
sides ; crowded about the root ; scattered on the stem. £"«/. 
rather ovate than cylindrical, generally spreading even w-hile in 
flower, smooth ; its scales brown, of a narrower and more acute 
form tlian either of the preceding, from which this species may, 
I think, by that mark be known, while the conspicuous partial 
stalks of the flowers, often considerably elongated, aftbrd a good 
scientific distinction. There are indeed dwarf alpine states of 
G. sylvaticum, which approach the supinum, one of which is G. 
supinum lavenduloe folio, Bocc. Mus. 107. t. 85 ; but the dense 
tufted sessile^ou.-ers indicate the true sylvaticum. The recepta- 
cle of all these species is alike, slightly cellular. Seed-down rough. 
Margi7ialflorets of the present less ligulate than in the others, 
and unequally notched. See Engl. Eat. 1. 1 193, and Fl. Br. 

7 . G. nliginositm. Marsh Cudweed. 

Stem much branched, spreading. Leaves linear-lance- 
olate, cottony on both sides. Flowers in dense terminal 
tufts. 

G. uliginosum. Linn. Sp. PI. 1200. M'illd. v. 3. 189 1 . Fl. Br. 
872. Engl. Bot. i'. 1 7. M 1 94. Hook. Scot. 24 1 . Fl. Dan. t. 859. 
Ehrh.Herb.99. 

G. longifolium humile ramosum, capitulis nigris. Raii Syn. 181. 

G. vulgare. Ger. Em. 639./. 

G. medium, Bauh. Pin. 263; according to his herbarium. Haller. 

G. annuum serotinum capitulis nigricantibus, in humidis gaudens. 
Moris.v. 3. 92. sect. 7.t. 11./. 14. 

Filago n. 151. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 65 . 

F. minor. Dod. Pempt. 66./. Lob. Ic. 48 1 . /. 

Long Cudweed. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 1 8./ 7- 

In sandy watery places, or where water has stood during winter. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF.Gnaphalium.4I7 

Annual. August. 

Root tapering, slender. Stems 4 or .5 inches long, generally nu- 
merous, branched, spreading or recumbent in every direction, 
many-flowered, densely cottony, leafy, sometimes single, with 
many small axillary branches. Leaves linear-lanceolate, on both 
sides much less cottony, alternate, spreading, tapering very gra- 
dually at the base. Fl. in dense, terminal, leafy tufts, small. Cal. 
ovate, of a shining yellowish brown, smooth. Florets yellow, 
all fertile. Seed-down rough. Recept. reticulated. The whole 
herb is remarkably tender, and when handled seems to hold to- 
gether chiefly by its cottony covering. 

8. G. gaUicum. Narrow-leaved Cudweed. 

Stem erect, branched. Leaves linear, revolute, acute. Flow- 
ers awl-shaped, axillary, tufted. 

G. gallicum. Huds. 361 . Fl. Br. 872. Engl. Bat. v. 33. t. 2369. 

rVilld.Sp.Pl.v.3.l89^. Hook. Scot. 24 1. Dicks. H. Sice fasc 

11.10. 
G. parvum ramosissimum, foliis angustissimis, polyspermon. Raii 

Syn. 181. Pluk. Phyt. t. 298./. 2. 
G. minimum alterum nostras, Stcechadis citrinse foliis tenuissimi.s. 

Pluk.Almag. 172. 
Filago gallica. Linn. Sp. PI. 131 2. 
F. n. 156. Hall. Hist. V. I. 67. 
Grass Cudweed. Petiv. H. Brit. 1. 18./. 1 2. 

In gravelly corn fields, but very rare. 

Among corn, in sandy grounds, about Castle Heveningham, Essex, 
plentifully ; Mr. Dale. Ray. On heaths in Derbyshire ; Mr. 
Woodward. Withering. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root small, tapering. Stems one or more, a span high, erect, 
leafy, cottony ; simple below ; forked and subdivided in the 
upper part. Leaves scattered, nearly upright, an inch long, very 
narrow, acute, covered on both sides with thin, close, cottony 
down. Fl. small, aggregate, sessile, forming round tufts at the 
forks of the stem, or in the bosoms of the leaves. Cal. ovate at 
the base, tapering upwards to a point ; scales lanceolate, acute, 
green and downy, with a white, filmy border. Florets of the 
disk about 3, tubular and 5-cleft; of the circumference more 
numerous, very slender, but much the same in shape ; all fer- 
tile. Seed-down rough. Recept. small, convex, granulated, re- 
maining exposed after the seeds are gone, the calyx spreading 
and permanent. 

9. G. minimum. Least Cudweed. 

Stem erect, branched. Leaves lanceolate, acute, flat. Flow- 
ers conical, in lateral and terminal tufts. 

VOL. HI. 2 E 



I 



418 SYNGENESIA—POLYG.-SUPERF. Gnaphalium. 

G. minimum. Fl. Br. 873. Eiigl. Bot. v. 17. t. 1157. Willd. Sp. 

Pl.v.3.]896. Hook. Scot. 241. Relh.324. RaiiSyn.181. 

Lob.lc.48l.f. Bauh.Hist.v.3.p.\. 159./. 
G. montanum. Huds.362. With. 715. Hull v. \. 239. 
G. minimum erectum, in arenosis nascens. Moris, v. 3. 92. sect. 7. 

Ml./. 3. 
Filago montana, Sibth.262. Abbot 189 ; but not of Linn. 
F. minor. Ger. Em. 64 1 ./. 

F. arvensis. Ehrh. Herb. 100 ; not of Linn. 
Least Cudweed. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 1 8./. 1 1 . 

In barren sandy and gi-avelly ground, common. 

Annual. July. 

Root small .and slender. Herb all over sparingly, not densely, cot- 
tony, of a greyish hue. Stems one or more, from 3 to 6 inches 
high, various in direction and luxuriance, slender, branched, leafy. 
Leaves scattered, numerous, small, sessile, lanceolate, flat, point- 
ed, equally downy on both sides, from one-fourth to one-third of 
an inch long. Fl. 3 or more together, sessile, in small heads 
or tufts, partly terminal, partly at the sides, or in the forks, of 
the branches. Cal. ovate at the base, conical upwards ; scales 
lanceolate, convex, acute, green, downy, with narrow membra- 
nous edges j inner ones entirely membranous. Florets yeWow; 
those of the disk from 4 to 8, tubular, 5-cleft ; of the circumfe- 
rence about as many, likewise tubular, extremely slender,^ mi- 
nutely notched, with prominent stigmas. Seed perfect in both. 
Downrough. Recept. extremely small, tuberculated, surround- 
ed by the permanent half-spreading calyx. 

Linnseus did not know this species. Hudson and others took it 
for his Filago montana, a much larger and more woolly plant, 
not found in Britain. Both are natives of Switzerland, and ap- 
pear to be confounded by Haller under his Filago n. 155 ; though 
the real F. montana, which is likewise a Gnaphalium, was what 
he principally intended. Hence he finds fault with Lobel's 
figure, as not well agreeing therewith, being in fact designed 
for a different plant, of which Haller had no suspicion. 

10. Gi. germankum. Common Cudweed. 

Stem erect, proliferous. Leaves lanceolate. Heads glo- 
bose, many-flowered, lateral as well as terminal. Calyx- 
scales bristle-pointed. 

G. germanicum. Huds.3&2. Fl. Br. 874. Engl. Bot. v. 14. t. 946. 
Willd. Sp. PI. »j. 3. 1 894. Hook. Scot. 24 1 . Lond. t 43 Relh 
324. Bauh. Hist. V. 3. p. I. \ 58. f. 

G. minus, seu Herba impia. Raii Syn. 180. 
Gnaphalium. Fuchs. Hist. 222. f. Ic. 126./. 
G. vulgare. Matth. Valgr.v. 2. 214. f Canier. Epit. 606. f. Lob. 
Ic.480.f. Dalech. Hist. 1115. f. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-SUPERF. Conyza. 419 

G. annuum vulgare, capitulis rotundis sessilibus ad angulos flori- 

dum. Moris, v. 3. 92. sect. 7.t.ll ./. 10. 
Filago germanica. Linn. Sp. PL 131 1. Sibth. 262. Mbot 189. 

Fl.Dan.t.997. 
F. n. 153. Hall.HisLvA.66. 

F. sive Herba impia, Ger. Em. 642./. Dod. PempL 66. f. 
Rhurkraut. Trag. Hist. 33\ ; lowest/. 
Childing Cudweed. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 18./. 9, 10. 

In pastures, fields, and waste ground, on a barren gravelly soil^ 
common. 

Annual. July, August. 

Root small, tapering, tough, mostly crooked. Stems one or more, 
from 6 to 18 inches high, upright, straight, copiously leafy, flow- 
ering at the top, and sending forth, from below the head of flow- 
ers, two or more ascending branches, in like manner generally re- 
peatedly proliferous ; so that as the children rise above their 
parents, the name of Herba impia was sagely bestowed on the 
innocent and unconscious plant. The whole herb is grey and 
cottony. Leaves very numerous, regularly scattered over the 
stem and branches, erect, lanceolate, acute, wavy, equally woolly 
on both sides ; clasping at the base. Fl. cylindrical, many to- 
gether, in solitary, globular, dense, sessile heads, terminating 
the stem, as well as each branch in its turn. Calyx-scales smooth, 
lanceolate, bristle-pointed, flat, the outer ones with each a strong 
mid-rib, and a membranous margin. Florets yellow ; those of 
the disk very few, regular, 5 -cleft ; of the circumference nume- 
rous, more or less ligulate ; both kinds producing perfect seed, 
whose down is rough. Recept. small, tuberculated, surrounded 
by the spreading caly.x, which, when old, turns of a reddish 
brown. 

395. CONYZA. Spikenard. 

Linn. Gen. 422. Juss.lSO. FLBr.87o. Tourn.L259. Lam. 
f. 697. Gisrtn.L 166. 

Nat. Ord. Compositce, y, discoidecjs. Linn. 49. Corymbijerce, 
sect. 1. Juss. 5B. 

Common CaL imbricated, ovate ; scales acute, rigid, with 
spreading prominent points, especially the outer ones. 
Cor. compound ; ^ore/5 tubular; those of the disk nu- 
merous, funnel-shaped, with 5 equal segments, perfect, 
all fertile ; of the circumference cylindrical, .slender, with 
an oblique, short, ligulate, 3-cleft limb, no stamens, only 
a pistil, which is fertile. Filam. 5, capillary, very short. 
Anth. in a cylindrical tube. Germ, in all the florets ob- 
long. Style thread-shaped, the length of the corolla. 
Stigmas 2, spreading, more slender in the marginal flo- 

2 e2 



420 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-SUPERF. Conyza. 

rets. Seed-vessel none, except the permanent, conver- 
ging, dry cnlvx, beset with the prominent tips of the 
scales. Seed oblong, uniform and perfect in all the florets. 
Down simple, sessile. Recept. sHghtly convex, tubercu- 
lated. 
A numerous, herbaceous or shrubby genus, of which our 
only British species is the type, many of the foreign spe- 
cies requiring examination. Gaertner remarks that if 
this genus had radiant maxg\na\.Jlorets, it would not differ 
from Aster. 

1. C. squarrosa. Plowman's Spikenard. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, downy, crenate. Stem herbaceous, 
corymbose. Calyx-scales leafy, recurved. 

C. squarrosa. Linn. Sp. PI. 1 205. Willd. v. 3.1918. Fl. Br. 875. 

Engl.Bot.v.\7.tl\95. Hook. Scot. 241. Fl.Dati. t. 622. 
C. vulgaris. Bull. Fr. t. 342. 
C. n. 135. HaU.Hist.v.\.59. 
C. major. Matth. Valgr. v. 2.222. f. Camer. Epif. 612. f. Bauh. 

Hist.v. 2. 1051./. Dalech.Hist. 1044./. 
C. major altera. Dod. Pempt. 5 1 ./. 
C. Helenitis. Cord. Hist. 160, 2./ 
Baccharis monspeliensium. RaiiSyn.l79. Ger. Em.792.f. Lob. 

Ic. 574. f. 
Montpelier Fleabane. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 18./. 1. 

In chalky or limestone countries frequent, or in woods on a marly 
soil. 

Biennial. July, August. 

Root tapering-, fleshy, much subdivided under ground, though sim- 
ple at the crown. Herb soft and downy, bitter, somewhat aro- 
matic, with a portion of mucilage. Stem upright, angular, leafy, 
2 or 3 feet high, terminating in a corymbose, leafy, many-flow- 
ered panicle. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, veiny, variously cre- 
nate ; radical ones large, tapering down into bordered foot- 
stalks ; the uppermost often entire. FL dull yellow. Tips of 
the calyx-scales green, leafy, recurved. 

The radical leaves bear some resemblance to those of Foxglove, 
but when rubbed, are readily distinguished by their aromatic 
scent. 

The name of Flea bane, more properly Fly-bane, has been applied 
to this plant ; but the still more correct synonym of its Latinized 
Greek appellation would be Gnat-bane. The genus Erigeron is 
however the real Fly-bane, some of its viscid species, dipped in 
milk, being used in the south of Europe to catch the various little 
winged insects, so troublesome in warm climates. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Erigeron. 421 

396. ERIGERON. Flea-bane. 

Linn. Gen. 422. Juss 1 80. Fl. Br. 876. Lam. t.68\. Gcertn. 1. 1 70. 
Conyzella. Dill. Gen. 142. t. 8. 
Conyzoides. Ibid. 

Nat. Ord. Composite, y, discoidece. Linn. 49. Corymhifei-cE., 
sect. 2. Juss. 55. 7 following genera the same. 

Common Cal. imbricated, ovate-oblong ; scales linear, erect ; 
the innermost longest, and all nearly equal. Cor. com- 
pound, radiated ; jlorets of the disk numerous, perfect, 
funnel-shaped, regular, their limb in 5, sometimes said 
to be but 4, equal segments ; those of the radius nume- 
rous, tubular at the base, the limb ligulate, tapering, 
nearly erect, either entire or slightly toothed. Filam. in 
the florets of the disk only, capillary, very short. Ajith. 
in a cylindrical tube, simple. Germ, in all the florets, 
fertile, small, obovate, angular. Style thread-shaped. 
Stigmas 2, oblong, a little prominent, slightly spreading. 
Seed-vessel none but the converging calyx. Seed small, 
obovate. Down sessile, simple, rough, as long as the 
florets. Recept. flat, naked, slightly cellular. 

Herbaceous, either annual or perennial, natives of Europe, 
North America, or Southern Africa. Stem erect. Leaves 
simple, either entire or toothed, roughish or downy. Fl. 
panicled or corymbose, rarely solitary, with very narrow, 
whitish or purplish, rays, and a yellow disk. The ge- 
neric name, retaining its Greek termination, ought to be 
of the masculine gender, as well as Tragopogon, and I 
therefore, at the suggestion of my friend the Rev. Mr. 
Holme, venture to correct this error in the specific names. 

*1. ^.canadensis. Canada Flea-bane. 

Stem hairy, panicled, many-flowered. Leaves lanceolate ; 
lower ones toothed. 

E. canadense. Linn.Sp.Pl.\2\0. Willd.v.S. \9hA. Fl.Br.876. 

Engl. Bot.v. 29. t. 2019. Dicks. H. Sice. fasc.\0.\6. Fl. Dan. 

t. 1274. 
E. n. 84. Hall. Hist. V.]. 35. 
Conyza canadensis annua acris alba, linariae foliis. Raii Syn. i7o. 

Bocc. Sic. 85. t.46. 
C. acris, flore albo. Merr. Pin. 29. 
C. annua acris alba elatior, linariae foliis. Moris, v. 3. 115. sect. 7. 

t. 20. f. 29. 
Virga aurea virginiana irsuta annua, di fiore pallido. Zan. 1st. 204. 

^78. 



422 SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Erigeron. 

White Golden Rod. Petiv. H. Brit. 1. 1 6./. 12. 

In cultivated, as well as waste ground, but in the opinion of Ray, 
not indigenous. 

About London frequent. Ray, Huds. On the ballast hills of the 
Northumberland coast. Mr. E. Robson. On sandy ground, be- 
low the bridge at Neath, Glamorganshire, to all appearance per- 
fectly wild. Mr. Middleton. On St. Vincent's rocks, Bristol. 
With. 

Annual. August, September. 

Root tapering, whitish. Stem wand-like, erect, angular, leafy, 
haiiy, from 1 to 2 or 3 feet high, panicled, beset with innume- 
rable, pale, yellowish^oji-ers on short, lateral, compound, leafy 
stalks. Leaves alternate, lanceolate, acute, pale green, rough- 
edged, entire ; the lower ones more or less toothed. Cal. finally 
spreading. Recept. convex, very obscurely reticulated. Seeds 
white, silky. Florets externally rough, or glandular. 

2. E. acris. Blue Flea-bane. 

Stem racemose. Stalks mostly single-flowered. Leaves lan- 
ceolate or tongue-shaped, sessile. Radius erect, scarcely 
taller than the seed-down. 

E. acre. Lvm. Sp. PL 1211. Willd. v. 3. 1 959. R. Br. 877. Engl. 

Bot. V. \7.t.\ 158. Curt. Lond.fasc. 1. 1. 60. Hook. Scot. 242. 

Dreves Bilderb. t.27. 
E.n.85. Hall. Hist. V. 1.35. 
E. quartum. Dod. Pempt. 64 1 ./. 
Aster arvensis cseruleus acris. Raii Syn. 175. 
Conyza caerulea acris. Ger. £«(. 484./. Bauh. Pin. 265. Moris. 

V.3. \\5.sect.7. <. 20./. 25. 
C. odorata. Dalech.Hist. 1045./. 

Amellus montanus aequicolorum. Column. Ecphr. v. 2. 25. t. 26. 
Blue Flea-bane. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 16./ 4. 

In dry gravelly or chalky pastures. 

Biennial. July, August ; sometimes early in the spring. 

Root with many stout fibres. Stem erect, straight, angular, leafy, 
1 to 2 feet high, hairy like the rest of the herbage, often purple ; 
aomewhat corymbose at the top ; racemose, with axillary, mostly 
simple, branches, all the way up. Leaves scattered, chiefly 
hairy at the edges ; most of them sessile, oblong-lanceolate, 
and entire ; radical ones largest, obovate, or tongue-shaped, 
somewhat toothed, tapering down into bordered /oofs^aZfc. FL 
yellow in the disk, hoary from the prominent tawny seed-down ; 
marginaljlorets tallest, narrow, blue, nearly erect. Seeds a little 
hairy. 

There is some degree of acrimony in the whole plant, on which 
account Haller says it is given in Germany for disorders in the 
chest, as promoting expectoration ; but surely there are many 
more efficacious medicines of that kind. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Erigeron. 423 

3. E. alpinus. Alpine Flea-bane. 

Stem mostly single-flowered. Calyx hairy. Radius spread- 
ing, twice the length of the seed-down. 

E. alpinum. Linn. Sp. Pl.\2\\. Willd.v. 3. \959. Dicks.Tr.of 
Linn. Soc. v. 2. 288. Ft.. Br. 877. Engl. Bot. v. 7. U 464. Hook. 
Scot. 242. Fl. Dan. t. 292. 

E.n. 86. Hall. Hist. v.\. 3b. 

Conyza caerulea alpina major 5 ako minor. Bauh.Pin.265. Prodr, 
124. Mom. r. 3. 115. 

Asteri montano purpureo similis, vel Globulariae, Bauh. Hist. v. 2. 
1047./. 

On moist rocks in the Highlands of Scotland. 

On Ben Lawers. Mr. Dickson and Mr. J. Mackay. 

Perennial. July. 

Root somewhat woody, with many fibres. Sterns from 4 to 6 inches 
high ; .sometimes, on the Alps of Switzerland, taller, with 3 or 
more flowers ; but on the Scottish mountains mostly simple 
and single-flowered, leafy, striated, most hairy in the upper 
part, frequently purplish. Leaves scattered, sessile, lanceolate, 
dilated at the base, entire, hairy on both sides ; the radical ones 
numerous, more obovate, and larger, tapering down into bor- 
dered footstalks, like the foregoing. Fl. twice the size of that 
species, generally solitary, erect, on a naked stalk. Cal. more 
or less hairy, sometimes as much so as in the following. Florets 
of the disk yellow ; those of the radius numerous, light purple ; 
the tube as long as the seed-down ; limb the length of the tube, 
ligulate, narrow, spreading, very slightly curved upward. Stig- 
vias of these florets more slender than those in the disk. Seeds 
of all the florets hairy, to all appearance perfect, but no experi- 
ments have been made to ascertain this point. 

4. E. unijlorus. Pale-rayed Mountain Flea-bane. 

Stem single-flowered. Calyx woolly. Radius erect, twice 

the length of the seed-down. 
E. uniflorum. Linn. Sp. PI. 121 1. Fl. Lapp. ed. 2.250. t. 9./. 3. 

Willd. V. 3. 1960. Sm. Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 10. 346. Comp. ed. 4. 

137. Engl. Bot. v.3i.t.24\6. Fl. Dan. t. 1397. Bertolon. Am. 

Ital. 44. 
E.n. 87. Hall. Hist. V. I. 36. 

On the mountains of Scotland. 

On Ben Lawers, and on rocks by the river Almond, near Lmdoch, 
7 miles from Perth. Mr. G. Don. 

Perennial. July. 

This agrees in size with the smaller specimens of the last, with 
which it closely accords likewise in every part of the herbage, 
but I believe the stem very seldom, if ever, produces more than 



424 SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Tussilago. 

onejloiver. The calyx is uniformly very densely and copiously 
woolly rather than hairy. Florets of the disk tipped with dark 
purple, or brown ; those of the radius twice the length of the 
calyx or seed-down, more lanceolate than in the former, and 
more upright, their colour white, except the inside of their tu- 
bular part, and the stigmas. Seeds hairy. Down rough. 
Linnaeus for a long time confounded these two last species, so that 
his accounts of them, his synonyms, and even his figure of the pre- 
sent in Fl. Lapp., made in Holland from a dried specimen, alto- 
gether require correction. Not having compared them in a living 
state, I trust to Haller, Bertoloni, and other able botanists who 
have, rather than to any theoretical opinion of my own. Nobody 
who has seen them can fail to distinguish them at first sight, 
whether their differences be permanently specific or not. Some 
have very unadvisedly confounded E.alpinus, in aluxuriant state, 
with our common E. acris. Thejlowers of the latter, always 
numerous, are not half so large, and the blue upright^o?e/s of 
the radius are but the length of the seed-clown. The near ap- 
proach of these two, and of many foreign species, to each other, 
though certainly distinct, may teach us caution with regard to 
E. uniflonis. 

397. TUSSILAGO. Colt's-foot and Butter-bur. 

Linn. Gen. 423. Juss. 181. FLBr.878. Tourn.t.276. Lam. 

1.674. Gcertn.t.l70. 
Petasites. Tourn.t. 258. Gcertn. t. \66. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 396. 

Common Cal. simple, cylindrical; scales from 15 to 20, li- 
near, erect, close, parallel, equal. Cor. compound, va- 
rious ; Jlorets in some all tubular, with 5, rarely but 4, 
equal segments, furnished with stamens and pistils which 
are more or less perfect, the latter chiefly fertile in the 
florets of the circumference, which in some species are 
ligulate and radiant, very narrow, without stamens. Fi- 
lam. in the perfectly formed, seldom fertile, florets, awl- 
shaped, very short. Anth. either imited, or converging, 
in the form of a tube. Germ, in all the florets obovate, 
short, often imperfect. Style thread-shaped. Stigmas 2, 
prominent ; linear when perfect and efiicient ; thick and 
short when abortive. Seed-vessel none, except the hardly 
altered, finally reflexed, calyx. Seed obovate-oblong, 
compressed, rarely perfected. Down sessile, (not, as 
Linneeus says, stalked,) copious, simple, silvery, scarcely 
roughish, permanent. Recept. naked. 

Herbaceous plants, with perennial, fleshy, widely creeping 
roots, no stem. Leaves simple, variously heart-shaped. 



SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Tussilago. 425 

on radical footstalks, toothed or entire, most downy be- 
neath. Fl. on simple or panicled, bracteated, radical 
stalks, yellow, white or purplish. Marginal ^ore^s either 
radiant, occasionally naked, or deprived of their corolla ; 
or tubular, with the same part only 4-cleft5 or otherwise 
imperfect. The plants always increase so much by root, 
that seeds are, in the Butter-bur tribe especially, very 
seldom ripened ; hence great difficulty exists in ascer- 
taining the true nature, or natural relative perfection, of 
the organs of the^otm^r. 

1. T. Farfara. Colt's-foot. 

Stalks single-flowered, clothed with scaly bracteas. Flowers 
radiant. Leaves heart-shaped, angular and toothed. 

T. Farfara. Linn. Sp. PL 1214. fVitld. v. 3. 196". Fl. Br. 878. 

Engl. Bot. V. 6. t. 429. Curt. Loncl.fasc. 2. t. 60. M'oodv. t. 13. 

Hook. Scot. 242. Bull. Fr. t. 329. Drei-es Bilderh. t. 49. Fl. 

Dan. t. 595. Ehrh. PL Off. 187. Lob. Ic. 589./. 
Tussilago. Rail Syn. 173. Ger. Em. 811./ Malth. Falgr. v. 2. 

198./. Camer. Epit. 590, 59\.f. Fuclis. Hist. 140./. Ic. 76. f. 

Bauh. Hist.v. 3. p. 2. 563./. Moris. t'.3. 130. sect. 7. t. 12. f. 1. 

Dalech.Hist. !05l./. 
Petasites n. 1 43. Hall. Hist. v. 1 . 62. 

Ungula caballina. Trag. Hist.4\S.f. Brunf. Herb. v. 1.42./.41. 
Bechium. Tillands /c.24./. Cord. Hist 93. 2./. 
Colt's-foot. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 17. f. 7, 8. 

In moist shady situations, on a chalky or marly soil, common. 

Perennial. March, April. 

Root mucilaginous, bitterish, creeping horizontally, with many 
fibres. Fl. coming before the leaves, drooping in the bud, bright 
yellow, about an inch broad ; their rays spreading, copious, 
very narrow ; each flower on a simple, round, woolly, radical 
stalk, scaly with numerous, reddish, smooth, scattered bracteas, 
crowded under the flower, like an exterior calyx. Leaves erect, 
on furrowed channelled footstalks, heart-shp.ped, slightly lobed, 
copiously and sharply toothed j very smooth, of a slightly glau- 
cous green, above ; pure white and densely cottony, with pro- 
minent veins, beneath ; when young they are revolute, and 
thickly enveloped in cottony down. 

The cotton, impregnated with salt-petre, makes excellent tinder. 
The leaves, either smoked like tobacco, or taken in infusion, are 
reputed good for coughs, whence the generic name. 

2. T. Petasites. Butter-bur. 

Panicle dense, ovate-oblong. Flowei's flosculous. Leaves 
heart-shaped, unequally toothed, three-ribbed at the base. 



426 SYNGENESIA— POLYG.-SUPERF. Tussilago. 

T. Petasites. Linn. Sp. PL 1215. Willd. v. 3. 1971 . Fl. Br. 880. 
Engl. Bot.v. 6. t. 431. Curt.Lond.fasc.2. t.59. Hook. Scot. 242. 
Fl.Dan.t.842. DeCand.Fr.v.4. ]5S. Bull.Fr. t. 39 \. Ehrh. 
PI. Off. 197. 

T. major. Matth. Valgr. v. 2. 199. f. Camer. Epit. 592./. 

Petasites. Rail Syn. 179. Ger. Em. 81 4./. Trag. Hist. 415. f. 
Fuchs. Hist. 644. f. Jc. 370./. Bod.Pempt.597 .f. Dalech. 
Hist.}053.f. Tillandslc.]50.f. 

P. n. 138. Hall. Hist. V.]. 61. 

Butter-bur. Petiv. H. Brit. t. 15./. 1 1, 12. 

/3. Tussilago liybrida. Linn.Sp. PI. 1214. Fl. Br. 879. Engl. Bot. 
V. 6. t. 430. 

T. Petasites foemina. Willd. Sp. Pl.v.3.\97\. Br. in Ait. H. Kew. 
v.b.36. Hook. Lond.t.] 29. 

Petasites n. 140. Hall. Hist. ?;. 1. 61. 

P. major, floribus pediculis longis insidentibus. Dill, in Raii Sijn. 
179. Hort.Elth. 309. t. 230. 

P. major et vulgaris prima. Rupp. Jen. ed. 1. 180. 

P. flore minore, elatior. Rupp. Jen. ed. Hall. 1 90. 

P. flosculis in medio majoribus^ reliquis minoribus. Buxb. Hallens. 
258. 

In moist boggy meadows, about rivulets, and the margins of rivers^ 
common. /3 occurs in the same places, but very rarely. 

Perennial. April. 

Root thick and fleshy, creeping extensively, with many long fibres ; 
its reputed virtues sudorific and antipestilential ; externally ap- 
plied it is recommended for malignant sores and ulcers, and the 
strong aromatic scent, as well as bitter flavour, indicate some 
powerful qualities, however what is so easily obtainable may be 
neglected in modern practice. The leaves are perhaps the largest 
of any British plant ; when full grown, long after the flower- 
^ ing, they are often a yard in diameter, standing on very thick 
upright footstalks, and of a rounded heart-shaped figure, cut 
away at the base close to the lateral ribs, doubly or unequally 
toothed along the margin ; dark green above ; downy, not very 
white, beneath. Flower-stalks stout, hollow, clothed with con- 
cave tumid footstalks, bearing rudiments of leaves in their lower 
half, which gradually become lanceolate bracteas above. Fl. 
veiy numerous, in a dense, ovate, or oblong, panicle, consti- 
tuting a true thyrsus, all flosculous or discoid, flesh-coloured, 
always destitute of any radiant or ligulate^oreis ,- their stalks a 
little downy ; bracteas and calyx smooth. All i\\e florets are 
tubular, regularly 5 -cleft, mostly perfect in structure, except a 
thickness in the stigma, indicative of a defect in that organ, and 
except a few found occasionally towards the centre, whose an- 
thers are imperfect or wanting, find which alone ever produce 
good seeds. 

/3 differs in no respect from the common Petasites in its foliage, 
but the panicles and their stalks are twice as tall when in seed. 



SYNGENESIA-POLYG.-SUPERF. Senecio. 427 

making a very elegant appearance. The Jiowers are essentially 
different J ^orefs all tubular, generally with 5 segments, occa- 
sionally with 4 only, most of them destitute ef stamens, but with 
Tperfect germen, style and stigmas,the latter being slender and awl- 
shaped. Their seeds, crowned with silvery, simple, sessile, rough, 
ish down, are all perfect, at least in appearance. In the centre 
of the disk are one or two, scarcely more, barren Jlorets, having 
a more conspicuous reddish coroZ/a, with 5 segments, and as many 
stamens, whose anthers are very slightly, if at all, combined, 
and whose stigmas are short and thick, totally inefficient, there 
being only the rudiments of a germen, and no seed. This plant, 
known by the name of J", hybrida, I ventured to hint in Engl. 
Bot. 430, published in 1797, mighc be the true fertile plant of 
T. Fetasites. It is more correct to term it a variety of the latter, 
in wiiich the fertile, or seed-bearing, organs predominate. As 
to the actual perfecting of the seed, we know nothing, the But- 
ter-bur being one of those herbs whose immoderately prolific 
roots, like those of Mints, hardly allow them to produce seeds. 
We therefore can judge of their apparent perfection only. I 
did not know that my supposition had been anticipated by the 
ingenious and acute Ehrhart, whose remarks on several species 
of Tussilago, to the same effect, 1 have recently found in his 
Beitrage, vol. iii. p. 64 — ^&. My ideas were thought so bold 
and unauthorised in England, that I have ever since, till now, 
confined them to a mere suggestion. Tliey have neverthe- 
less been adopted, in their original form, by the late Prof. 
Willdenow and by Dr. Hooker, but without reference to me. 
Willdenow mentions Ehrhart's name, and cites Hoppe's TaS' 
chenbuch, for the year 1803 ; not having access, as it seems, to 
my English Botany, though he generally, after the Didyna- 
mia class, refers to the Fl. Brit, where he might have found the 
same remark. The observations and opinions of these excellent 
botanists give the more support to my theory, as being inde- 
pendent of it, and I no longer scruple to reduce T. hybrida to 
Fetasites, not as its proper fertile, or seed-bearing, individual, 
but as a casual variety. Several foreign species are in the same 
predicament with regard to others. See Engl. Bot. 43 \, and 
Willd. Sp. Fl. V. 3. 1 973 ; also DeCandolle's H. Fran^aise, v. 4. 
158, where the same opinion is followed. 

398. SENECIO. Groundsel or Ragwort. 

Linn.Gen.A2A. .Juss.\S\. Fl.Br.SSl. Tourn.t.260. Lam.t.QJQ. 

Gcertn. t. 166. 
Jacobaea. Toiirn. t.276. Gcertn. 1. 170. 

Nat. Ord. see n. 396. 

Coinmon Cal. double; the inner rather conical, abrupt, 
of numerous, equal, parallel, linear, contiguous scales ; 



428 SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-SUPERF. Senecio. 

outer of a smaller number of minute imbricated scales, at 
the base of the former, and, like those, all withered, 
mostly black, at the tips. Cor. compound, taller than 
the calyx ; Jlorets of the disk numerous, all perfect, tu- 
bular, with 5 equal segments ; those of the radius ligu- 
late, slightly toothed, various in length, without stamens, 
sometimes wanting. Filam. slender, short. Anth. in a 
cylindrical tube. Germ, in all the florets, obovate, small. 
Style thread-shaped, the length of the stamens. Stigmas 
2, oblong, spreading. Seed-vessel none, but the unchanged, 
finally spreading, calyx. Seed obovate, rather angular. 
Dowii sessile, capillary, roughish. Recept. naked, tes- 
sellated, slightly convex. 
A very extensive genus, of caulescent, herbaceous or shrub- 
by plants, natives chiefly of Europe or Africa, though 
found also in America, and very sparingly in China and 
Japan. Stem erect, leafy. Leaves either variously pin- 
natifid, or undivided, serrated, smooth or downy. Fl. 
corymbose ; yellow in the disk, and mostly so in the 
radius ; rarely purj)le in one or the other. The black 
withered tips of the calyx-scales afford an obvious and 
constant generic character. 

* Flowers isoithout rays. 

1. S. vulgaris. Common Groundsel, or Simson. 

Flowers dispersed, without rays. Leaves pinnatifid, toothed, 
obtuse, smoothish ; clasping at the base. 

S. vulgaris. Linn. Sp.Pl.\2\Q. mild.v.3. ]973. Fl.Br.S8l. 

Engl. Bot. v.]\. t. 747. Curt. Land. fuse. ].t.6l. Hook. Scot. 

243. Fl.Dan.t.!)]3. Bull. Fr. t. 197. Dreves Bilderb. t. 26. 

Rail Syn. 178. 
S. n. 58. Hall. Hist. V. 1.25. 
Senecio. Fuchs. Hist. 286. f. Ic. 162. f. Matth. Falgr. v.2.476.f. 

Dalech. Hist. ^75. f. Lob. /c. 225./. Trag. Hist. 285./. 
Erigerum. Ger. Em.27S.f. 
E. minus. Dod. Pempt. 641./. 

Verbena foemina. Brunf. Herb. v. 1. 120./ excellent. 
Common Groundsel. Petiv. H. Brit. t. \7.f.^. 

In cultivated or waste ground, on dry banks, and the tops of walls, 
every where. 

Annual. At all seasons. 

Root simple, with many long fibres. Herb various in size, mostly 
smooth ; sometimes loosely woolly or downy, though very spa- 
ringly. Stem erect, more or less branched, leafy, round, striated, 
pale or purplish. Leaves bright green, slightly succulent, blunt- 



SYNGENESIA— POLYGAM.-SUPERF. Senecio. 429 

ish ; the lower ones mostly obovate, jagged, tapering \x\to foot- 
stalks ; upper sessile, clasping the stem, pinnatifid and toothed. 
Fl. on corymbose, terminal and axillary, leafy branches, consist, 
ing of a yellow disk only, without rays, of no attractive aspect or 
scent. Cal. smooth, striated. The seed-down forms small white 
balls, soon blown away. 
Birds kept in cages are fed with the young buds and leaves, which 
have a saltish herbaceous flavour. Haller suggests a degree of 
affinity between this genus and the Succory tribe ; but I do not 
perceive it either in their structure or qualities. 

** Fl. rmth speedily revolute rays. 

2. S. viscosus. Stinking Groundsel. 

Rays revolute. Leaves pinnatifid, viscid. Outer calyx lax, 
almost as long as the inner. Stem with many spreading 
branches. 

S. viscosus. Linn. Sp. PL 1217. fVilld. v. 3. 1984. FL Br. 882. 

EngL Bot. v.].L 32. Hook. Scot 243. Ehrh. Herb. 70. 
S. n. 60. HalL Hist. v.\. 26. 
S. hirsutus viscidus major odoratus. Raii Syn. ] 78. Batih Hist 

V.2. 1042./. 
S. hirsutus viscidus graveolens. DHL Elth. 347. t. 258./. 336. 
Erigerum tomentosum. Ger. Em. 278.f.notdescr. 
E. tomentosum alterum. Lob. Ic. 226./ 
E. majus. Dod. Pempt. 641 . f. 
Cotton Groundsel. Petiv. H. Brit. t. \7.f. 6. 

In waste ground, on a chalky or sandy soil. 

On the fen banks in the Isle of Ely. Ray. At Gamlingay, Me- 
pole, and Chatteris, Cambridgeshire. Relhan. Near Baldon, 
Oxfordshire. Sibthorp. By the sea side at New Haven, and in 
the King's park, Edinburgh ; also about the chalk-pits at Dart- 
ford, Kent. 

Annual. July —October. 

Whole herb larger in all its parts than the preceding, downy^ soft 
and glutinous to the touch, with a strong disagreeable smell. 
Stem generally more spreading. Leaves deeply, and in some 
measure doubly, pinnatifid, with bluntish irregular notches, or 
teeth. Fl. on terminal, solitary or aggregate, stalks. Cat. 
hairy, and very glutinous ; the outer scales few, lax, long and 
narrow. Cor. bright yellow j disk convex ; radius of several li- 
gulate, linear, 5 toothed/ore/s, soon revolute after their expan- 
sion. All ihejlorets are fertile. Seed down rough. 

3. S. lividus. Green-scaled Groundsel. 

Rays revolute. Leaves clasping the stein, lanceolate, pin- 



430 SYNGENESI A— POLYGAM.-SUPERF. Senecio. 

natifid and toothed. Outer calyx short, with sharp, not 
discoloured points. 

S, lividus. Linn.Sp.Pl.\2l6. Willd. v. 3.1983. Comp.ec/. 4.1 7. 

Engl. Bot. fj. 35. ^ 2515. Hook. Scot. 243. 
S. coioUis revolutis, foliis amplexicaulibus lanceolatis dentatis, 

squamis calycinis brevissimis intactis. Linn. Hort. Ups. 261. 
Senecio. Linn. It. Scan. 225. 
Jacobeea annua, senecionis folio, foeniculi odore. Till. Pis. 86. t.28. 

f.