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The New York Botanical Garden 

The LuEsther T. Mertz Library 

Catalpa bignonioides 

Gift of 
William R. Buck 

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First Edition, November 1S83. 
Second ,, February 1889. 
Third ,, May 1893. 
Fourth „ June 1895. 
Fifth „ June 1896. 

Reprinted, February 1897. 
Sixth Edition, May 1898. 

Reprinted, November 1898. 

Seventh Edition, May 1899. 

Eighth ,, Ju7ie zqoo. 

Reprinted,' December 1900. 

,, May 1901. 

,, June 1902. 

,, June 1903. 

Ninth Edition, 


Tenth Edition, 1906. 

Reprinted, March 1907. 




Design and Arrangement shown by existing 

examples of Gardens in Great Britain and Ireland 

followed by a Description of the Plants 

Shrubs and Trees for the Open-air Garden 

and their Culture By W. ROBINSON 

Author of ' The Wild Garden ' 

Illustrated with many Engravings on Wood 

Tenth Edition 

"You see, sweet maid, we marry 
A gentler scion to the wildest stock, 
And make conceive a bark of baser kind 
By bud of nobler race : this is an art 
Which does mend nature, change it rather, but 
The art itself is nature." — Shakespeare. 

London John Murray Albemarle Street 


Richard Clay and Sons, Limited, 

bread street hill, e.c., and 

bungay, suffolk. 

" Laying out grounds, as it is called, may be considered as a liberal 
art, in some sort like poetry and painting; and its object, like that of all 
the liberal arts, is, or ought to be, to move the affections under the control 
of good sense. If this be so when zve are merely putting together words 
or colours, how much more ought the feeling to prevail when we are in 
the midst of the realities of things ; of the beauty and harmo?iy, of the 
ioy and happiness of living creatures ; of men and children, of birds 
and beasts, of hills and streams, and trees and flowers, with the changes 
of night and day, eveni?ig and morning, summer and winter, and all 
their icnwearied actions and enersriesT — WORDSWORTH. 


This book is the muster of various once forlorn hopes and 
skirmishing parties now united with better arms and larger aims, 
and its beginnings may have an interest for others. I came to 
London just when the Royal Horticultural Society's garden at 
Kensington was being laid out, a series of elaborate patterns set at 
different levels, and the Crystal Palace, in its glory, was described 
by the Press of the day to be the most wonderful instance of 
modern gardening — water-temples, water-paths, vast stone basins and 
all the theatrical gardening of Versailles reproduced in Surre}-. 

There was little or no reason admitted into garden design : 
the same poor imitation of the Italian garden being set down in 
all sorts of positions. If the place did not suit the style, the ground 
had to be bolstered up in some way so that the plan might be carried 
out — a costly way to get an often ridiculous result. The great 
writers of the past had laughed the carpenter's rule out of the 
parks of England, and pictures arose where they were once impos- 
sible ; but the ugliness of the garden about the house was assumed 
to be an essential part of the thing itself, removing that for ever 
from the sympathies of artistic people. 

The flower garden planting was made up of a few kinds of 
flowers which people were proud to put out in thousands and tens 
of thousands, and with these, patterns, more or less elaborate, were 
carried out in every garden save the very poorest cottage garden. 
It was not easy to get away from all this false and hideous " art," 
but I was then in the Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, where there 
was at that time a small garden of British plants, which had to be 
kept up, and this led me into the varied country round London, 
from the orchid-flecked meadows of Bucks to the tumbled down 
undercliffs on the Essex coast, untroubled by the plough ; and so I 


began to get an idea (which should be taught to every boy at 
school) that there was (for gardens even) much beauty in our native 
flowers and trees, and then came the thought that if there was so 
much in our own island flora, what might we not look for from the 
hills and valleys of the countries of the northern and temperate 
world ? 

From thoughts of this kind if I turned to actual things, I 
saw the flower-gardener meanly trying to rival the tile or wall- 
paper men, and throwing aside with contempt all the lovely 
things that through their height or form did not conform to this 
idea (so stupid as to life), and this too the rule, not only in the 
villa garden, but in our great public and private gardens. There was, 
happily, always the beauty of the woods and lanes and the lovely 
cottage gardens in the country round London, and here and there, 
though rare, a quiet garden with things as the great mother made 
them and grouped them. And so I began to see clearly that the 
common way was a great error and the greatest obstacle to true 
gardening or artistic effects of any kind in the flower-garden or 
home landscape, and then made up my mind to fight the thing out 
in any way open to me. 

TJie English Floiver Garden consists of two parts : the first 
dealing with the question of design — the aim being to make the 
garden a reflex of the beauty of the great garden of the world itself, 
and to prove that the true way to happiest design is not to have 
any stereotyped style for all flower gardens, but that the best kind of 
garden should arise out of its site and conditions as happily as a 
primrose out of a cool bank. 

The second part includes most of the trees and plants, hardy 
and half-hardy, for our flower gardens and pleasure grounds, and 
it is illustrated with a view to show the beauty of the things spoken 
of, as few know the many shrubs and trees worth a place in our 
open-air gardens, and it is of little use to discuss arrangement if 
the beauty of the flowers is hidden from us. No stereotyped garden 
of half-a-dozen kinds of plants will satisfy any one who knows that 
many beautiful aspects of vegetation are possible in a garden in 
spring, summer, and autumn. 

This is not a botanical book, as should be clear from its title ; 
but some may expect in the book technical terms which I wish 
to keep out of it. Although the debt of the gardener to Botany 
is great, the subordination of the garden to Botany has been 


fruitful of the greatest evil to artistic gardening. The way of 
arranging a garden like a book, and a very ugly book, as in 
the French botanic gardens (Caen, Angers, Rouen), in which one 
sees a sea of showy labels, where one might look for the life and 
peace of a garden, is a blinding obstacle to beautiful gardening, 
and the Garden of Plants, in Paris, may be cited as one having 
had for ages a disastrous effect in the gardening of France. 
It is the spirit of natural beauty we should seek to win into the 
garden, and so get away from the set patterns on the one hand, 
and labelled " dots " on the other. 

English names are given where possible — as it is best to speak 
of things growing about our doors in our own tongue, and the practice 
of using in conversation long Latin names, a growth of our own 
century, has done infinite harm to gardening in shutting out people 
who have a heart for a garden, but none for the Latin of the gardener. 
There is no more need to speak of the plants in our gardens by their 
Latin names than to speak of the dove or the rabbit by Latin names, 
and where we introduce plants that have no good English names we 
must make them as well as we may. Old English books like Gerard 
were rich in English names, and we should follow their ways and 
be ashamed to use for things in the garden a strange tongue — dog 
Latin, or as it may be. Every plant grown in gardens should have an 
English name, among the many reasons for this being the frequent 
changes that Latin names undergo in the breaking down of the 
characters which are supposed to separate genera. For instance. 
Azalea and Rhododendron are now one genus ; such changes are 
even more troublesome when they occur in less well-known plants ; 
and one of the most beautiful plants of our gardens, the Irish 
Heath (Daboecia, now Boretta), will not be found now by its hitherto 
recorded name in the London Catalogue of British Plants. But if 
we have a good English name, these ceaseless botanical changes are 
of less consequence. It is impossible for gardeners and nurserymen 
to keep up with such changes, not always indeed accepted even by 
botanists themselves. The fact that in speaking of plants we use 
English names does not in the least prevent us from using the Latin 
name in its right place, when we have need to do so. The systematic 
nomenclature followed is that of the Kew list, wherever use does not 
compel us to adhere to old names like Azalea. 

For the second part of this book the storehouse of information 
in The Garden has been taken advantage of, but articles have been 


Specially written where necessary, and the following are the names 
of the writers whose contributions are embodied in the second part of 
the book, and frequently marked by their initials : — 

J. Allen 
J. Atkins 
P. Barr 
W. J. Bean 
J. H. Bentley 
J. Birkenhead 
J. Britten 

F. W. Burbidge 

G. A. Champion 
Latimer Clarke 
E. T. Cook 

J. Cornhill 

Mens. H. Correvon 

Rev. Harpur Crewe 

A. Dean 

R. Dean 

D. Dewar 

Rev. C. Wolley Dod 

Rev. H. H. Dombrain 

J. Douglas 

J. Dundas 

Rev. Canon Ellacombe 

H. T. Elwes 

Rev. H. Ewbank 

W. Falconer 

D. T. Fish 

Dr. M. Foster 

P. Neill Eraser 

O. Froebel 

T. W. Girdlestone 

W. Goldring 

P. Grieve 

J. Groom 

W. E. Gumbleton 

T. Hatfield 

W. B. Hemsley 

I. Anderson-Henry 

A. Herrington 

T. H. Archer-Hind 

E. Hobday 

Rev. F. D. Horner 

Miss F. Hope 

C. M. Hovey 

E. Jackson 

Miss G. Jekyll 

Miss R. Kingsley 

A. Kingsmill 
Max Leichtlin 
H. Selfe-Leonard 

E. G. Loder 
R. I. Lynch 
J. M'Nab 

B. Latour-Marliac 
R. Marnock 

G. Maw 

F. W. Meyer 

A. B. Freeman-Mitford 
H. G. Moon 

F. Moore 

G. Nicholson 

T. C. Niven 

Miss C. AL Owen 

A. Perry 

J. T. Bennett- Poe 

R. Potter 

A. Rawson 

The Very Rev. The Dean ot 

A. Salter 

C. R. Scrase-Dickens 
C. W. Shaw 
J. Sheppard 
J. Simpson 
J. Smith 
T. Spanswick 
J. Stevens 
Rev. Canon Swayne 
W. Thompson 
W. P. Thomson 
G. Van Tubergen, Junr. 
Rev. F. Tymons 
Maurice L. de Vilmorin 
Dr. A. Wallace 
W. Watson 
J. Weathers 
W. Wildsmith 
Miss Willmott 
G. F. Wilson 
J. Wood 
E. H. Woodall 

W. R. 





I.— Art in Relation to Flower-gardening and Garden Design ... 3 

II.— Garden Design AND Recent Writings UPON IT n 

III. — Design and Position; Against Styles, Useless Stonework, and 
Stereotyped Plans ; Time's Effect on Garden Design ; Archi- 
tecture and Flower Gardens ; Design not formal only ; Use 
IN the Garden of Builders, and other Degraded Forms of 
the Plastic Art 21 

IV.— Various Flower Gardens : Mainly chosen for their Beauty ; 
Cottage Gardens in Kent and Somerset ; Mount Usher ; 
Greenlands ; Golder's Hill ; Pendell Court ; Rhianva ; 
Sheen Cottage ; Drummond Castle ; Penshurst ; Compton 
Winyates ; Ketton Cottage ; Powis ; Cotehele ; Edge Hall ; 
Shrubland ; Chillingham ; Bulwick ; Offington ; Wilton ; 
Stonelands, and Others 34 

v.— Borders of Hardy Flowers 76 

VI.— The Reserve and Cut-Flower Gardens 

VII.— Hardy Bulbous and Tuberous Flowers, and their Garden Use . 98 

VIII.— Annual and Biennial Plants, Half-Hardy Plants Annually 

Raised from Seed 11 1 

IX.— Flowering Shrubs and Trees, and their Artistic Use 119 

X.— Climbers and their Artistic Use 128 

XI. — Alpine Flower-, Rock- and Wall-Gardens 140 

XII.— The Wild Garden 156 

XIII. — Spring Gardens 167 


XIV.— The New Rose Garden 182 

XV.— Carnation, Lily, Iris, and the Nobler Summer Flowers .... 199 

XVI. — Summer-bedding 205 

XVII.— Plants in Vases and Tubs in the Open Air 214 



XVIII. — Beauty of Form in the Flower Garden, and herein also of 

THE Sub-tropical Garden 225 

XIX.— The Flower Garden in Autumn 238 

XX.— The Flower Garden in Winter 245 

XXI. — Water Gardens by Various Water Gardeners 253 

XXII.— The Bog Garden 267 

XXIII.— The Hardy Fern Garden 276 

XXIV. — Colour in the Flower Garden 283 

XXV.— Fragrance 290 

XXVI.— Simpler Flower Garden Plans and the Relation of the Flower 

Garden to the House 294 

XXVII.— Walks and Edgings 306 

XXVIII.— The Flower Garden in the House 317 

XXIX.— Evergreen Trees and Shrubs 325 

XXX.— Clipping Evergreen and other Trees 336 

XXXI.— Air and Shade 346 

XXXII.— Lawns and Playgrounds 355 

XXXIII.— Flower Garden and Pleasure Ground Houses, Bridges, Seats and 

Fences 363 

XXXIV.— The Orchard Beautiful 374 

XXXV.— Labours for Good or Evil; Soils; Water; Draining; Evapora- 
tion ; Rotation ; Weeds and Rubbish Heaps ; Monotony ; 
Staking ; Glass ; Wasted Labour in Moving Earth ; Wooden 

Trellising Best 3S6 

Flower Garden Pests 40S 

PART 11. 

Containing the Flowers, Flowering Shrubs and Trees, Evergreens, and 
Hardy Ferns for the Open-air Flower Garden in the British Isles, 
with their Cultivation and the Positions most suitable for them in 

Gardens 411 

Supplement 940 






" Aji unerring perception told the Greeks tliat the beautiful must also 
be the true, and recalled them back into the way. As in conduct they 
insisted on an energy which was rational^ so in art and in literature 
they required of beauty that it too shotild be before all things rational." 
— Some Aspects of the Greek Genius. 





There is no reason why we should not have true art in the garden, 
but much why we should have it, and no reason why a garden 
should be ugly, bare, or conventional. The word " art " being used 
in its highest sense here, it may perhaps be well to justify its use, 
and as good a definition of the word as any perhaps is "power to 
see and give form to beautiful things," which we see shown in 
some of its finest forms in Greek sculpture and in the works of the 
great masters of painting. 

But art is of many kinds, and owing to the loose, " critical " 
talk of the day, it is not easy to see that true art is based on clear- 
eyed study of and love for Nature, rather than invention and the 
bringing of the "personality" of the artist into the work, of which 
we hear so much. The work of the artist is always marked by its 
fidelity to Nature, and proof of this may be seen in the greatest 
art galleries now open to all, so that there is little to hide evidence as 
to what is said here about art in its highest expression. But as a 
number of people write much about art in the magazines and papers, 
while blind as bats to its simple law, there is infinite confusion in 
many minds about it, and we may read essay after essay about art 
without being brought a bit nearer to the simple truth, but on the 
other hand get the false idea that it is not by observing, but by 
inventing and supplementing, that good work is done. The strong 
man must be there, but his work is to see the whole beauty of 
the subject, and to help us to see it, not to distort it in any way 
for the sake of making it " original." This is often a way to popu- 
larity, but in the end it means bad work. It may be the fashion for 

B 2 


a season, owing to some one quality ; but it is soon found out, and 
we have to return to the great masters of all ages, who are always 
distinguished for truth to Nature, and who show their strength by 
getting nearer to her. 

The actual beauty of a thing in all its fulness and subtlety is 
almost the whole of the question, but the critics of the day will not 
take the trouble to see this, and write essays on art in which many 
long words occur, but in which we do not once meet with the word 
truth. " Realism " and " idealism " are words freely used, and bad 
pictures are shown us as examples of " realism," which leave out 
all the refinement, subtlety, truth of tone, and perhaps even the very 
light and shade in which all the real things we see are set. 

There are men so blind to the beauty of the things set before 
their eyes in sky, sea, or earth, that they would seek to idealise 
the eyes of a beautiful child or the clouds of heaven ; while all who 
see natural beauty in landscape know that no imagining can come 
near to the beauty of things seen, art being often powerless to 
seize their full beauty, and the artist has often to let the brush fall in 
despair. There are more pictures round the year in many a parish 
in England than all the landscape painters of Europe could paint in 
a century. Only a little, indeed, of the beauty that concerns us most — 
that of the landscape — can be seized for us except by the very greatest 
masters. Of things visible — flower, tree, landscape, sky, or sea — to 
see the full and every varied beauty is to be saved for ever from 
any will-o'-the-wisp of the imaginary. 

But many people do not judge pictures by Nature, but by pictures, 
and therefore they miss her subtleties and delicate realities on which 
all true work depends. Some sneer at those who "copy Nature," 
but the answer to such critics is for ever there in the work of the 
great men, be they Greeks, Dutchmen, Italians, French, or English. 

It is part of the work of the artist to select beautiful or memorable 
things, not the first that come in his way. The Venus of Milo 
is from a noble type of woman — not a mean Greek. The horses 
of the Parthenon show the best of Eastern breed, full of life and 
beauty. Great landscape painters like Crome, Corot, and Turner 
seek not things only because they are natural, but also beautiful ; 
selecting views and waiting for the light that suits the chosen subject 
best, they give us pictures, working always from faithful study of 
Nature and from stores of knowledge gathered from her, and that is 
the only true path for the gardener, all true art being based on her 
eternal laws. All deviation from the truth of Nature, whether it be 
at the hands of Greek, Italian, or other artist, though it may pass for 
a time, is in the end — it may be ages after the artist is dead — classed 
as debased art. 

A Devonshire Cottage Garden, Cockington, Torquay. Engraved from a photograph 
by S. W. Fitzherbert. 


Why say so much here about art ? Because when we see the 
meaning of true " art " we cannot endure what is ugly and false in art, 
and we cannot have the foregrounds of beautiful English scenery 
daubed with flower gardens like coloured advertisements. Many 
see the right way from their own sense being true, but others may 
wish for proof of what is urged here as to the true source of lasting 
work in art in the work of the great artists of all time. And we may 
be as true artists in the garden and home landscape as anywhere else. 

There is no good picture which does not image for us the beauty 
of natural things, and why not begin with these and be artists in 
their growth and grouping ? — for one reason among others that we 
are privileged to have the living things about us, and not merely 
representations of them. 

So far we have spoken of the work of the true artist, which is 
always marked by respect for Nature and by keen study of her. 
But apart from this we have a great many men who do what is 
called " decorative " work, useful, but still not art in the sense of 
delight in, and study of, things as they are — the whole class of 
decorators, who make our carpets, tiles, curtains, and who adapt 
conventional or geometric forms mostly to flat surfaces. Skill in this 
way may be considerable without any attention whatever being paid 
to the greater art that is concerned with life in all its fulness. 

This it is well to see clearly ; as for the flower gardener it matters 
much on which side he stands. Unhappily, our gardeners for ages 
have suffered at the hands of the decorative artist, when applying his 
" designs " to the garden, and designs which may be quite right on a 
surface like a carpet or panel have been applied a thousand times to 
the surface of the much enduring earth. It is this adapting of absurd 
" knots " and patterns from old books to any surface where a flower 
garden has to be made that leads to bad and frivolous design — 
wrong in plan and hopeless for the life of plants. It is so easy for 
any one asked for a plan to furnish one of this sort without the 
slightest knowledge of the life of a garden. 

For ages the flower-garden has been marred by absurdities of 
this kind of work as regards plan, though the flowers were in simple 
and natural ways. But in our own time the same " decorative " idea 
has come to be carried out in the planting of the flowers under the 
name of " bedding out," " carpet bedding," or " mosaic culture," In 
this the beautiful forms of flowers are degraded to the level of crude 
colour to make a design, and without reference to the natural form or 
beauty of the plants, clipping being freely done to get the carpets 
or patterns " true." When these tracery gardens were made, often by 
people without any knowledge of the plants of a garden, they were 
found to be difficult to plant ; hence attempts to do without the 

Town-Garden, The Broadway, Worcestershire. From a picture in possession of the author. 


gardener altogether, and get colour by the use of broken brick, white 
sand, and painted stone. All such work is wrong and degrading to 
the art of gardening, and in its extreme expressions is ridiculous. 

As I use the word " artistic," in a book on the flower-garden, 
it may be well to say that as it is used it means right and true 
in relation to all the conditions of the case, and the necessary limita- 
tions of our art and all other human arts. A lovely Greek coin, a bit 
of canvas painted by Corot with the morning light on it, a block 
of stone hewn into the shape of the dying gladiator, the w^hite moun- 
tain rocks built into a Parthenon — these are all examples of human 
art, every one of which can be only fairly judged in due regard to 
what is possible in the material of each — knowledge which it is part of 
the artist's essential task to possess. Often a garden may be wrong 
in various ways, as shown by the conifers spread in front of many a 
house — ugly in form, not in harmony with our native or best garden 
vegetation ; mountain trees set out on dry plains and not even hardy ; 
so that the word inartistic may help us to describe many errors. 
And again, if we are happy enough to find a garden so true and 
right in its results as to form a picture that an artist would be 
charmed to study, we may call it an artistic garden, as a short way 
of saying that it is about as good as it may be, taking everything into 

Landscape Painting and Gardens, — There are few pictures of 
gardens, because the garden beautiful is rare. Gardens around country 
houses, instead of forming, as they might, graceful foregrounds 
to the good landscape views, disfigure all, and drive the artist away 
in despair. Yet there may be real pictures in gardens ; it is not a 
mere question of patterns of a very poor sort, but one of light and 
shade, beauty of form, and colour. In times when gardens were 
made by men who did not know one tree from another, the matter 
was settled by the shears — it was a question of green walls only. 
Now we are beginning to see that there is a wholly different and 
higher order of beauty to be found in gardens, and we are at the 
beginning of a period when we may hope to get much more pleasure 
and instruction out of this art than ever before. 

We have seen in Bond-street a variety of picture exhibitions 
devoted to gardens, generally of the trifling stippled water-colour 
order. The painters of these pictures, for the most part ten-minute 
sketches, have one main idea — that the only garden worth picturing is 
the shorn one, and pictures of such places are repeated time after 
time ; a clipped line of Arbor-vitae, with a stuffed peacock stuck by 
the side of it, is considered good enough for a garden picture. Work 
of this kind, which is almost mechanical, is so much easier than the 
drawing of a garden with the elements of varied beauty in it. In 


the work of Alfred Parsons and a few others we see the beginning of 
things of beauty in the painting of gardens, but it is for us gardeners 
to commence by first being artists ourselves, and opening our eyes to 
see the ugly things about us. 

Artists of real power would paint gardens and home landscapes if 
there were real pictures to draw ; but generally they are so rare that 
the work does not come into the artist's view at all. Through all 
the rage of the " bedding-out " fever, it was impossible for an artist 
to paint in a garden like those which disfigured the land from Blair 
Athol to the Crystal Palace. It is difficult to imagine Corot sitting 
down to paint the Grande Trianon, or the terrace patterns at Versailles, 
though a poor hamlet in the North of France, with a few willows 
near, gave him a lovely picture. Once, when trying to persuade 
Mr. Mark Fisher, the landscape painter, to come into a district 
remarkable for its natural beauty, he replied : " There are too many 
gentlemen's places there to suit my work," referring to the hardness 
and ugliness of the effects around most country seats, owing to the 
iron-bound pudding-clumps of trees, railings, capricious clippings and 
shearings, bad colours, and absence of fine and true form, with, almost 
certainly, an ugly house in the midst of all. But we ought to be able 
to do better than be makers of garden scarecrows to the very men 
who would enjoy our work most, and delight in painting it, rich as 
we are in the sources of beauty of tree or flower. 



Of all the things made by man for his pleasure a flower-garden has 
the least business to be ugly, barren, or stereotyped, because in it we 
may have the fairest of the earth's children in a living, ever-changeful 
•state, and not, as in other arts, mere representations of them. And 
yet we find in nearly every country place, pattern plans, conventional 
design, and the garden robbed of all life and grace by setting out 
flowers in geometric ways. A recent writer on garden design tells us 
that the gardener's knowledge is of no account, and that gardens 

should never have been allowed to fall into the hands of the gardener or out of 
those of the architect ; that it is an architectural matter, and should have been 
■schemed at the same time and by the same hand as the house itself 

The chief error he makes is in saying that people, whom he 

calls " landscapists," destroyed all the formal gardens in England, 

and that they had their ruthless way until his 

Pormal gardens coming. An extravagant statement, as must be 

made in our clear to anyone who takes the trouble to look 
own day. into the thing itself, which many of these writers 

will not do or regard the elementary facts of 
what they write about. Many of the most formal gardens in 
England have been made within the past century, when this writer 
says all his ideal gardens were cleared away. The Crystal Palace, 
the Royal' Horticultural Society's garden at Kensington, Shrub- 
land, Witley Court, Castle Howard, Mentmore, Drayton, Crewe 
Hall, Alton Towers, and scores of pretentious places. During the 
whole of that period there was hardly a country seat laid out that 
was not marred by the idea of a garden as a conventional and 
patterned thing. So far from formal gardens being abolished, as the 
Irish peasant said of absentees, " the country is full of them ! " With 
Castle Howards, Trenthams, and Chatsworths staring at him, it is 
ludicrous to see a young architect weeping over their loss. Even 
when there is no money to waste in walls and gigantic water-squirts 
the idea of the terrace is still carried out often in plains and other 


wrong positions in the shape of green banks often one above the 
other, as if they were an artistic treat. There are hundreds of such 
gardens about the country, and the ugliest and most formally set out 
and planted gardens ever made in England have been made in Vic- 
torian days when, we are told by writers who do not look into the 
facts of the thing itself, all these things were lost. 

It cannot be too clearly remembered that " formal " gardens of the 
most deplorable type are things of our own time, and it is only in our 
own time the common idea that there is only one way of making a 
garden was spread. Hence, in all the newer houses we see the stereo- 
typed garden often made in spite of all the needs of the ground, 
whereas in really old times it was not so. Berkeley is not the same 
as Sutton, and Sutton is quite different from Haddon. 

Moreover, on top of all this formality of design of our own day 

were grafted the most formal and inartistic ways of arranging flowers 

that ever came into the head of man, ways that 

Patterns of ^^g^g happily unknown to the Italians or the 

4. 1. J makers of the earliest terraced gardens. The 

carpet-beds , ,. , r . ^ , . , 

things of our ^^"^ Italian gardens were often beautiful with 
own time. trees in their natural forms, as in the Giusti gar- 

dens at Verona ; but bedding out, or marshalling 
the flowers in stiff lines and geometrical patterns, is entirely a thing 
of our own precious time, and "carpet" gardening is simply a 
further remove in ugliness. The painted gravel gardens of Nesfield 
and Barry and other broken-brick gardeners were also an attempt to 
get rid of the flowers and get rigid formality instead, as in the Horti- 
cultural Society's garden at South Kensington. Part of the garden 
architect's scheme was to forbid the growth of plants on walls, as at 
Shrubland, where, for many years, there were strict orders that the 
walls vv^ere not to have a flower or a creeper of any kind upon them. 
As these pattern gardens were made by persons often ignorant of 
gardening, and if planted in any human way with flowers would all 
" go to pieces," hence the idea of setting them out as they appeared 
on the drawing-board, some of the beds not more than a foot in 
diameter, blue and yellow paints being used where the broken brick 
and stone did not give the desired colour ! 

Side by side with the adoption in most large and show places of 

the patterned garden, both in design and planting, disappeared 

almost everywhere the old English garden, that 

Loss of old is, one with a variety of form of shrub and flower 

garden ways. and even low trees ; so that now we only find 

this kind of garden here and there in Cornwall, 

Ireland, and Scotland, and on the outskirts of country towns. All 

true plant form was banished because it did not fit into the bad 


carpet pattern ! I am only speaking of what everyone must know 
who cares the least about the subject, and of what can be seen 
to-day in all the public gardens round London and Paris ; even 
Kew, with the vast improvement of late years, has not emancipated 
itself from this formal way of flower-planting, as we see there, in 
front of the palm-house, purple beet marshalled in patterns. But 
we shall never see beautiful flower gardens again until natural ways 
of grouping flowers and variety of true form come back to us in the 

After the central error above shown there comes a common one 

of these writers, of supposing that those who seek natural form and 

beauty in the garden and home-landscape are 

The Wild Garden opposed to the necessary level and even formal 

does not take spaces about a house. I wrote the " Wild Gar- 

the place of the den " to save, not to destroy, the flower-garden ; 

Flower-garden. ^^ g^ow that we could have all the joy of spring 
in orchard, meadow, or wood, lawn or grove, and 
so save the true flower-garde^i near the house from being torn up twice 
a year to effect what is called spring and summer " bedding." The 
idea could be made clear to a child, and it is carried out in many 
places easy to see. Yet there is hardly a cobbler who rushes from 
his last to write a book on garden design who does not think that I 
want to bring the wilderness in at the windows, I who have given all 
my days to save the flower-garden from the ridiculous. A young lady 
who has been reading one of these bad books, seeing the square beds 
in my little south garden, says : " Oh! \wh.y,you have a formal garden ! " 
It is a small square embraced by walls, and I could not have used 
any other form to get the best use of the space. They are just the 
kind of beds made in like spaces by the gardeners of Nebuchadnezzar, 
judging by what evidence remains to us. And he no more than I 
mistook stones for bushes or bad carpets for flowers, but enjoyed vine 
and fig and flower as Heaven sent them. All this wearisome mis- 
understanding comes from writers not taking the trouble to under- 
stand the simplest element of what they write about. 

The real flower-garden near the house is for the ceaseless care and 
culture of many and diverse things often tender and in need of pro- 
tection in varied and artificial soils, staking, cleaning, trials of novelties, 
study of colour effects lasting many weeks, sowing and movings at all 
seasons. The wild garden, on the other hand, is for things that take 
care of themselves in the soil of the place, things which will endure for 
generations if we suit the plants to the soil, like Narcissi on a rich 
orchard bottom, or blue Anemone in a grove on the limestone soil 
as in much of Ireland. This garden is a precious aid to the other, 
inasmuch as it allows of our letting the flower-garden do its best 


work because relieved of the intolerable and ugly needs of the bed- 
ding system in digging up the garden twice a year. 

Very often now terms of gardening are misapplied, confusing the 
mind of the student, and the air is full of a new term — the " formal "^ 

garden. For ages gardens of simple form have been 
Misuse of terms, common without anyone calling them " formal "" 

until our own time of too many words confusing 
thoughts. Seeing an announcement that there was a paper in the 
Studio on the " Formal Garden in Scotland," I looked in it, seeking 
light, and found only plans of the usual approaches necessary for 
a country house, for kitchen, hall door, or carriage-way. And we 
gardeners of another sort do not get in like the bats through the 
roof, but have also ways, usually level, to our doors, but we do not 
call them " formal gardens." There are gardens to which the term 
" formal " might with some reason be applied. Here are a few words- 
about such by one Percy Bysshe Shelley, whose clear eyes saw beauty 
if there was any to be seen in earth or sky : 

We saw the palace and gardens of Versailles full of statues, vases, fountains, and 
colonnades. In all that belongs essentially to a garden they are extraordinarily 

A few more by Victor Hugo : 

There fountains gush from the petrified gods, only to stagnate ; trees are 
forced to submit to the grotesque caprices of the shears and line. Natural beauty is 
everywhere contradicted, inverted, upset, destroyed. 

And Robert Southey tells us of one 

where the walks were sometimes of lighter or darker gravel, red or yellow sandi, 
and, when such materials were at hand, pulverised coal and shells. The garden 
itself was a scroll-work cut very narrow, and the interstices filled with sand of 
different colours to imitate embroidery. 

Such gardens may be called formal without too much disregard of 
language, and yet one might plant every one "of them beautifully 
without in the least altering their outline. // is only where the 
plants of a garden are rigidly set out in geometrical design, as itt 
carpet-gardening and bedding-out, that the term ''formal" is rightly 

We live in a time when men write about garden design unmeaning^ 
words or absolute nonsense ; these, as anyone may see, are men 
who have had no actual contact with the work. They think garden 
design is a question that can be settled on a drawing-board, and have 
not the least idea that in any true sense the art is not possible 
without knowledge of many beautiful living things, and that the right 
planting of a country place is of far greater importance than the 
ground-plan about the house. 


In many books on garden design the authors misuse words and 
confuse ideas. One, writing on the gardens of Hampton Court, is 
not satisfied with the terms " garden design," or " laying out gardens," 
but uses the word " gardenage." Another writes " lay-out " for " plan." 
Many, not satisfied with the good word, " landscape gardener," used 
by Loudon, Repton, and many other excellent men, call themselves. 
" landscape architects "—a stupid term of French origin implying the 
union of two absolutely distinct studies, one dealing with varied life 
in a thousand different kinds and the natural beauty of the earth, and 
the other with stones and bricks and their putting together. The 
training for either of these arts is wide apart from the training 
demanded for the other, and the earnest practice of one leaves no- 
time, even if there were the genius, for the other. 

The term landscape-planting is often scoffed at by these writers^ 

yet it is a good one with a clear meaning, which is the grouping and 

growth of trees in natural forms as opposed to- 

Landscape the universal aligning, clipping, and shearing of 

gardening. the Dutch ; the natural incidence of light and 

shade and breadth as the true guide in all artistic 

planting. The term landscape-gardening is a true and, in the fullest 

sense, good English one, with a clear and even beautiful meaning, 

namely, the study of the forms of the earth, and frank acceptance 

of them as the best of all for purposes of beauty or use of planter 

or gardener, save where the surface is so steep that one must alter 

it to work upon it. 

We accept the varied slopes of the river bank and the path of the 
river as not only better than those of a Dutch canal, but a hundred 
times better ; and not only for their beauty, but for the story they tell 
of the earth herself in ages past. We gratefully take the lessons of 
Nature in her most beautiful aspects of vegetation as to breadth,, 
airy spaces, massing and grouping of the woods that fringe the 
valleys or garland the mountain rocks as better beyond all that 
words can express than anything men can invent or ever have 

We love and prefer the divinely-settled form of the tree or shrub- 
or flower beyond any possible expression of man's misguided efforts 
with shears, such as we see illustrated in old Dutch books where 
every living thing is clipped to conform to an idea of "design" that 
arose in the minds of men to whom all trees were green things to be 
cut into ugly walls. We repudiate as false and ridiculous the common 
idea of the pattern-monger's book, that these aspirations of ours are 
in any way " styles," the inventions of certain men, because we know 
that they are based on eternal truths of Nature, free as the clouds to 
anyone who climbs the hills and has eyes to see. 


The fact that ignorant men, who have never had the chance of 

learning these lessons, make pudding-like clumps in a vain attempt 

to diversify the surface of the ground, and other 

The true test foolish things, does not in the least turn us aside 
of a from following the true and only ways to get the 

flower-garden. best expression possible of beauty from any given 
morsel of the earth's surface we have to plant. 
We sympathise with the landscape-painter's work as reflecting for 
us, though often in a faint degree, the wondrously varied beauty of 
the earth, and in the case of the great master-painters full of truth 
and beauty. We hold that the only true test of our efforts in 
planting or gardening is the picture. Do we frighten the artist 
away, or do we bring him to see a garden so free from ugly patterns 
and ugly colours that, seen in a beautiful light, it would be worth 
painting ? There is not, and there never can be, any other true test. 

Even if our aim be right, the direction, as in many other matters, 
may be vitiated by stupidity, as in gardens where false lines and curves 
abound, as in the Champs Elysee in Paris. It is quite right to see 
the faults of this and to laugh at them ; but how about those who ' 
plant in true and artistic ways? In the case we mention there is 
ceaseless and inartistic and vain throwing up of the ground, and sharp 
and ugly slopes, which are often against the cultivation of the things 

The rejection of clipped forms and book patterns of trees set out 
like lamp-posts, costly walls where none are wanted, and of all the 
too facile labours of the drawing-board " artist " in gardens, first 
affected in England in what we call pleasure-ground and park, is set 
down by these writers on garden design as the wicked invention of 
certain men. No account has been taken of the eternally beautiful 
lessons of Nature or even the simple facts which should be known to 
all who write about such things. Thus in " The Art and Craft of 
Garden Making " we read : 

So far as the roads were concerned Brown built up a theory that, as Nature 
abhorred a straight line, it was necessary to make roads curl about. Serpentine 
lines are said to be the hnes of Nature, and therefore beyond question the only 
proper lines. 

But nothing is said of the fact that in making paths or roads in 

diversified country it is absolutely necessary to follow the line of 

easiest gradation, and this cannot always be a 

Facts of natural straight line, and is, indeed, often a beautiful bent 

beauty the source ,. t ^ ^ ^ r 

*• ^A A^^-,„^ hne. In many cases we are not twenty paces from 

of good design. ,, ,, ^ ,, ^^ c x. 

the level space around a house before we have to 

think of the lie of the ground in making walks, roads, or paths. We 
are soon face to face with the fact that the worst thing we can attempt 


is a straight line. If anyone for any reason persists in the attempt the 
result is ugliness, and, in the case of drives, danger. Ages before 
Brown was born the roads of England often followed beautiful lines, 
and it would be just as true to attribute to " Brownites " the invention 
of the forms of trees, hills, or clouds themselves as to say that they 
invented the waved line for path or drive. The statement is of a piece 
with the other, that the natural and picturesque view of garden design 
and planting is the mischievous invention of certain men, and not the 
outcome of the most precious of all gifts, of Nature herself, and of the 
actual facts of tree and landscape beauty. All who have seen the 
pictures by the roadsides of many parts of Britain and the paths over 
the hills, and, still more so, those who have to form roads or walks in 
diversified country, will best know how absurd such statements are. 

The very statement that there is but one way of making a 

garden is its own refutation ; as with this formula before us what 

becomes of the wondrous variety of the earth and 

Variety the true ^^^ forms, and of the advantages and needs of 

source of beauty change that soil, site, climate, air, and view give 

in gardens. us — plains, river valleys, old beach levels, moun- 

tains and gentle hills, chalk downs and rich loamy 
fields, forest and open country? 

What is the use of Essex going into Dorset merely to see the 
same thing done in the home-landscape or the garden ? But if Essex 
were to study his own ground and do the best he could from his own 
knowledge of the spot, his neighbour might be glad to see his garden. 
We have too much of the stereotyped style already ; in nine cases out 
of ten we can tell beforehand what we are going to see in a country 
place in the way of conventional garden design and planting ; and 
clearly that is not art in any right sense of the word and never 
can be. 

As we go about our country the most depressing sign for all 
garden lovers (and this often in districts of great natural beauty) is 
the stereotyped gardens, probably made by the " young man in the 
office " from a book of plans. There is a harmful belief in the virtue 
of paper plans which is misleading and only suits the wants of 
professionalism in its worst form, and prevents the study of the 
ground itself, which is the only right way to get the best result. 

Some of the new writers have no heart for the many beautiful 
things in the shape of trees and shrubs which we have known during 
the past generation or two. 

A very few varieties of English trees are sufficient for all purposes, and we have 
yew for hedges, fine turf for a carpet, and quite enough flowers of briHiant hue 
that have always had a place in our gardens without importing curiosities from 


Now, if any fact is clear about gardening it is this, that the 

garden's charm often arises from variety, not necessarily botanical 

variety, but the difference between a Menabilly 

Variety and the conventional garden essentially lies in 

essential. a variety of trees, shrubs, and flowers. This 

writer, and others like him, need to be taught 

that it is absolutely impossible to make a beautiful garden without 

the variety which he says is useless. They have not, of course, 

any idea of the dignity and beauty of the trees of Japan, the Rocky 

Mountains, and Northern Asia, or America. 

One architectural writer says : 

It is no use spending money on gardeners and repairs, as it might be much 
better invested in architectural improvements or waterworks in the pleasure- 

Apart from its doubtful taste this is a stupid and harmful idea, as 
the two arts are in no way antagonistic, but helpful. Take away all 
true planting and good gardening from our Castle Ashbys, Longleats, 
or Wiltons, and what do we gain ? For remember that the ground 
about a house, even in slopes which must be terraced, is often but a 
very small area compared with the planting we may have to do in 
the home landscape. 

But the ugly buildings that strew the land everywhere — Georgian, 
carpenter's Gothic, Victorian — if we take away the good planting, the 
one saving grace about them, there will be nothing left but an ugly 
pile to laugh at. Good building and good planting go so well together 
— one helping the other in every way — that it is odd to see anyone 
writing on the subject without seeing that it is so. I cannot suppose 
for a moment that any good architect or other worker could fail to 
see the gain of good planting and good flower-gardening in relation 
to his work. We have only the greatest satisfaction with a country 
place when both building and planting are good — a rare thing, 

To the good gardener all kinds of design are good if not against 

the site, soil, climate, or labours of his garden — a very important 

point the last. We frequently see beds a foot in 

Any way good diameter and many other frivolities of paper-plans 

that best suits which prevent the labours of a garden being done 

the site. with economy or simplicity. In many places 

where these hard pattern gardens are carried out, 

they are soon seen to be so absurd that the owners quietly turf the 

spot over, and hence in many country places we see only grass where 

there ought to be a real flower-garden. The good gardener is happy 

adorning old walls or necessary terraces, as at Haddon, as he knows 

walls are good friends in everyway both as backgrounds and shelters; 


but he is as happy in a lawn garden, in a rich valley soil, or on the 
banks of a river, or on those gentle hill-slopes that ask for no terraces, 
or in the hundreds of gardens in and near towns and cities of Europe 
that are enclosed by walls and where there is no room for landscape 
effect (many of them distinctly beautiful too, as in Mr. Fox's garden 
at Falmouth) ; as much at home in a border-castle garden as in the 
lovely Penjerrick, like a glimpse of a valley in some Pacific isle, or 
Mount Usher, cooled by mountain streams. 

The same architect turns on the waterworks as his chief solace : 

But of all the fascinating sources of effect in garden-making the most 
fascinating are waterworks. An expensive luxury as a rule, but they well repay 
the expense. 

Well, there is some evidence of the sort of design these afford ; 

some instances terrible in their ugliness (one hideous at Bayreuth). 

And with all the care that a rich State may take 

Waterworks of them, can we say that the effect at Versailles is 

garden design, artistic or delightful ? Water tumbling into the 

blazing streets of Roman cities and nobly designed 

fountains supplying the people with water was right ; but in our cool 

land artificial fountains are very different in effect, and often hideous 

extravagance. Of their ugliness there is evidence in nearly every city 

in Europe, including our own Trafalgar Square, and that fine work at 

the head of the Serpentine. We have also our Crystal Palace and 

Chatsworth, designed as they might be by a theatrical super who had 

suddenly inherited a millionaire's fortune. What the effect of this is 

I need hardly say, but with all our British toleration of ugliness I have 

never heard anybody enthusiastic about their artistic merits. So far 

as our island countries go, nothing asks for more care and modest art 

than the introduction into the garden or home-landscape of artificial 

water. Happily our countries are rich in the charms of natural water 

— too often neglected in its planting. 

Among the great peoples of old, so far as known to our human 

story, was one supreme in art, from buildings chiselled as delicately 

as the petals of the wild rose, to the smallest 

Hollow talk of coins in their pockets, and bits of baked clay in 

the day about their graves, and this is clear to all men from 

art. what emains of their work gathered from the 

mud and dust of ages. And from that time of 

deathless beauty in art comes the voice of one who saw this lovely 

art in its fulness : The greatest and fairest things are done by 

Nature and the lesser by Art (Plato). There is not a garden in 

Britain, free from convention and carpet-gardening, from the 

cottage-gardens nestling beneath the Surrey hills to those fair and 

C 2 


varied gardens in Cornwall, which does not tell the same story to all 
who have eyes to see and hearts to care for the thing itself, and not 
merely for incoherent talk about it. The only sad thing is that such 
words must be said again and again ; but we live in a time of much 
printed fog about artistic things — the " New Art " and the " New 
/Esthetic " ; " Evolution," which explains how everything comes from 
nothing and goes back again to worse than nothing ; the sliding bog 
of " realism and idealism " in which the phrasemonger may dance 
around and say the same false thing ten times over ; and, last and 
least of all among these imbecilities, the teaching that to form a 
garden one had better know nothing of the things that should grow 
in it, from the cedar of Lebanon to the violets of the mountain rocks. 
This teaching is as false as any spoken or written thing can be ; 
there is an absolute difference between the living gardens and con- 
ventional designs dealing with dead matter, be it brick or stone, glass, 
iron, or carpets. There is a difference in kind, and while any pupil in 
an architect's office will get out a drawing for the kind of garden we 
may see everywhere, the garden beautiful does not arise in that way. 
It is the difference between life and death we have to think of, and 
never to the end of time shall we get the garden beautiful formed or 
planted save by men who know something of the earth and its flowers, 
shrubs, and trees. I would much rather trust the first simple person, 
who knew his ground and loved his work, to get a beautiful result 
than any of those artificers. We have proof in the gardens of English 
people abroad that were freed from the too facile plans of the " office " ; 
far more beautiful gardens arise, as in the Isle of Madeira, where every 
garden differs from its neighbour, and all are beautiful. So it is in 
a less degree in our own island, where the more we get out of the 
range of any one conventional idea for the garden the more beauty 
and freshness and happy incident we see. 



One aim of this book is to uproot the idea that a flower garden must 
ahvays be of set pattern placed on one side of the house. The wants 
of flowers can be best met, and their varied loveHness best shown, 
in a variety of positions, and the first thing to do is to consider the 
effect of arraying all our flowers in one spot under the same con- 
ditions, as such a plan can never give us a tithe of the beauty which 
our gardens might afford. The way has too often been to regard one 
spot with the same soil and aspect, and with every condition alike, 
as the only home for open-air flowers, though near at hand there may 
be positions, each favourable to different groups of flower. 

The first thing is to get a clear idea of the hollowness of much 
of the talk about " styles." In books about laying out gardens there 
are many dissertations on styles, the authors going even to China 
and to Mexico for illustrations. The first thing the writer does is 
to confuse his readers with words about " styles." What is the result 
to anybody who looks from words to things ? That there are two 
styles : the one strait-laced, mechanical, with much wall and stone, 
with fountains and sculpture ; the other the natural, which, once free 
of the house, accepts the ground lines of the earth herself as the 
best, and gets plant beauty from the flowers and trees arranged in 
picturesque ways. 

There are positions where stonework is necessary; but the beauti- 
ful terrace gardens are those that are built where the nature of the 
ground required them. There is nothing more melancholy than the 
walls, fountain basins, clipped trees, and long canals of places like the 
Crystal Palace, not only because they fail to satisfy the desire for 
beauty, but because they tell of wasted effort, and riches worse than 


lost. There are, from Versailles to Caserta, a great many ugly 
gardens in Europe, but at Sydenham we have the greatest modern 
example of the waste of enormous means in making hideous a 
fine piece of ground. This has been called a work of genius, but 
it is the fruit of a poor ambition to outdo another ugly extrava- 
gance — Versailles. Versailles was the expression of such know- 
ledge of the gardening art as men then possessed. As Versailles 
has numerous tall fountains, the best way of glorifying ourselves 
was to make some taller ones at Sydenham ! Instead of confining 
the terrace gardening to the upper terrace, by far the greater portion 
of the ground was devoted to a stony extravagance of design, and 
nearly in the centre w^ere placed the vast and ugly fountain basins. 
The contrivances to enable the water to go downstairs, the temples,, 
statues, dead walls, all that costly rubbish, were praised by the papers 
as the marvellous work of a genius. When a private individual 
indulges in such fancies, he may not injure any but himself ; but 
in this public garden — as an example of all that is admirable — we 
have, in addition to wasteful outlay, what is hurtful to the public taste. 

Many whose lawns were, or might readily have been made, the 
most beautiful of gardens have spoiled them for sham terraced 
gardens, and there is a modern castle in Scotland where the embank- 
ments are piled one above another, till the whole looks as if Uncle 
Toby with an army of Corporal Trims had been carrying out his 
grandest scheme in fortification. The rude stone wall of the hill 
husbandman, supporting a narrow slip of soil for olive-trees or vines^ 
became in the garden of the wealthy Roman a well-built one; but 
it must be remembered that, even where the wall is necessary, the 
beauty of the true Italian garden depends on the life of trees and 
flowers more than on the plan of the garden, as in the Giusti garden 
at Verona, whereas in our sham examples of the Italian garden all 
is flat and lifeless. 

Terraced Gardens, allowing of much building (apart from 
the house), have been in favour with architects who have designed 
gardens. The landscape gardener, too often led by custom, falls in 
with the notion that every house, no matter what its position, should 
be fortified by terraces, and he busies himself in forming them even 
on level ground, and large sums are spent on fountains, vases, statues, 
balustrades, useless walls, and stucco work out of place. By the 
use of such materials many a noble lawn is cut up ; and often the 
" architectural " gardening is pushed so far into the park as to curtail 
and injure the view. 

The best effect is to be got not by carrying architectural features 
into 'the usually level town garden, but by the contrast between 
the garden vegetation and its built surroundings — not the sham 


picturesque, with rocks, cascades, and undulations of the ground, but 
the simple dignity of trees and the charm of turf. 

Elaborate terraced gardens in the wrong place often prevent the 
formation of beautiful lawns, though a good lawn is the happiest thing 
in a garden. For many years past there has been so much cutting 
up, geometry and stonework, that it is rare to find a good lawn, and 
many a site so cut up would be vastly improved if changed into a 
large, nobly fringed lawn. A poorly built house with a fine open 
lawn has often a better effect than a fine one with a rectilineal 
garden and terraces in front of it, though there are cases where walls 
would be the way to a good result. 

A style of garden " design " that for a long time has had an 
injurious effect on many places is the " railway embankment " phase 
of landscape gardening, in which we see a series of sharply graded 
grass slopes like well-smoothed railway embankments. In this 
variety we often find several sharp banks, one below the other, 
without a protecting wall at the top, and obtruding their sharp 
green angles on various points of view, and this perhaps in the 
face of a beautiful landscape. 

A beautiful house in a fair landscape is the most delightful 
scene of the cultivated earth, all the more so if there be an artistic 
garden. The union between the house beautiful and the ground 
near it — a happy marriage it should be — is worthy of more thought 
than it has had in the past, and the best way of effecting that 
union artistically should interest men more and more as our cities 
grow larger and our lovely English landscape shrinks back from 
them. We have never yet got from the garden and the home 
landscape half the beauty which we might get by abolishing the 
patterns which disfigure so many gardens. Formality is often 
essential to the plan of a garden but never to the arrangement of 
its flowers or shrubs, and to array these in rigid lines, circles, or 
patterns can only be ugly wherever it may be. 

After we have settled the essential approaches and levels around 
a house, the natural form or lines of the earth itself are in nearly all 
cases the best to follow, and it is often well to face any labour to get the 
ground back into its natural grade where it is disfigured by ugly or 
needless banks, lines, or angles. In the true Italian garden on the 
hills we have to alter the natural line of the earth, or " terrace it," 
because we cannot otherwise cultivate the ground or stand at ease 
upon it, and in such ground the formal is right, as the lawn is in 
a garden in the Thames valley. But the lawn is the heart of the 
true English garden, and as essential to it as the terrace to the gardens 
on the steep hills, and English lawns have been too often destroyed 
for plans ruinous both to the garden and the home landscape. Some- 


times on level ground the terrace walls cut off the landscape from 
the house, and, on the other hand, the house from the landscape ! 

We may get every charm of a garden and every use of a country 
place without sacrificing the picturesque or beautiful ; there is no 
reason, either in the working or design of gardens, why there should 
be a false line in them ; every charm of the flower garden may be 
secured by avoiding the knots and scrolls which subordinate all the 
plants and flowers of a garden, all its joy and life, to a conventional 
design. The true way is the opposite. With only the simplest plans 
to ensure good working, we should see the flowers and feel the 
beauty of plant forms, and secure every scrap of turf wanted for 
play or lawn, and for every enjoyment of a garden. 

Time and Gardens. — Time's effect on gardens is one of the 
main considerations. Fortress-town and castle moat are now without 
further use, where in old days gardens were set within the walls. To- 
keep all that remains of such gardens should be our first care — never 
to imitate them now. Many are far more beautiful than the modern 
gardens, which by a wicked perversity have been kept bare of plants 
or flower life. At one time it was rash to make a garden away from 
protecting walls ; but when the danger from civil war was past, then 
arose the often beautiful Elizabethan house, free from all moat or 
trace of war. 

In those days the extension of the decorative work of the house 
into the garden had some novelty to carry it off, while the kinds of 
evergreens were very much fewer than now. Hence if the old 
gardeners wanted an evergreen hedge or bush of a certain height,, 
they clipped a Yew tree to the form and size they wanted. Not- 
withstanding this, we have no evidence that anything like the flat 
monotony often seen in our own time existed then. To-day the 
ever-growing city, pushing its hard face over our once beautiful land, 
should make us wish more and more to keep such beauty of the earth 
as may be still possible to us, and the railway embankments, where 
once were the beautiful suburbs of London, cry to us to save all we 
can save of the natural beauty of the earth. 

Architecture and Flower Gai'dening} — The architect is a good 
gardener when he makes a beautiful house. Whatever is to be done 
or considered afterwards, one is always helped and encouraged by its 
presence ; while, on the other hand, scarcely any amount of skill in 
gardening softens the presence of an ugly building. No one has 
more reason to rejoice at the presence of good architecture than the 
gardener and planter, and all stonework near the house, even in the 
garden, should be dealt with by the architect. 

But when architecture goes beyond this limit, and seeks to replace 
' Kciid before the Architectural Association on Friday, December i6, 1893. 



what should be a living garden by an elaborate tracery on the 
ground, then error and waste are at work, and the result is ugliness. 
The proof of this is at Versailles, at the Crystal Palace in great 
part, in the gardens in Vienna, and at Caserta, near Naples. One 
may not so freely mention private places as public ones, but many 
ugly and extravagant things have been done by trying to adapt 
a mode of garden design essential in a country like Italy, where 
people often lived for health's sake on tops of the hills, to gardens 
in the plains and valleys of England. I know a terrace in England 
built right against the house, so as to exclude the light from, and 
make useless, what were once the reception rooms. That deplorable 
result came about by endeavouring to adapt Italian modes to English 
conditions, and was the work of Sir Charles Barry. To anyone 
deeply interested in the question, one of the best places from which 
to consider it is the upper terrace at Versailles, looking from the fine 
buildings there to the country beyond and seeing how graceless and 
inert the whole vast design is, and how the clipped and often now 
dying, because mutilated. Yews thrust their ugly forms into the land- 
scape beyond and rob it of all grace. To those who tell me this 
sort of work is necessary to " harmonise " with the architecture I say 
there are better ways, and that to rob fine buildings of all repose 
by a complex geometrical " pattern " in the foreground is often the 
worst way. 

Cost and care of stonework in gardens. — Where stone or stucco 
gardening is done on a large scale, its cost and maintenance are 
monstrous. The repair of elaborate stonework in gardens is a 
hopeless task, as any one may see at Versailles or at the Crystal 
Palace. Is it in the interest of architecture that noble means should 
be so wasted ? As the cost and difficulties of the finest work in 
building increase, the more the need to keep it to its true and 
essential uses, especially in face of the fact that half the houses 
in England require to be rebuilt if our architecture generally is to 
prove worthy of its artistic aims. 

I delight in walls for my Roses, and build walls, provided they 
have any true use as dividing, protecting, or supporting lines. To 
take advantage of these and sunny sheltered corners in and about 
our old or new houses, and make delightful little gardens in and 
near them, as at Drayton or Powis, is quite a different thing from 
cutting off the landscape with vast flat " patterns " and scroll-work, 
as on the terrace at Windsor and many gardens made in our own 

" Design " not formal only. — I find it stated by writers on this 
subject that " design " can only concern formality — an error, as the 
artistic grouping and giving picturesque effect to groups and groves 


of Oak, Cedar, or Fir are far higher design than putting trees in 
lines. There is more true design in Richmond Park and other 
noble parks in England, where the trees are grouped in picturesque 
ways and allowed to take natural forms, than in a French wood with 
straight lines cut through it, which the first carpenter could design 
as well as anybody else. In our own day a wholly different order of 
things has arisen, because we have thousands of beautiful things 
coming to us from all parts of the temperate and northern world, 
and those who know them will not accept a book pattern design, 
instead of our infinitely varied garden flora. The trees of North 
America and Asia form a tree garden in themselves, and it is impos- 
sible to lay out gardens of any size or dignity without a knowledge of 
those and all other hardy trees, not only in a cultivated but in a wild 
state. If anything demands special study, it is that of garden design 
with our present materials. If that art is to be mastered, the work 
of a life must be given to it — more than that, a life's devotion — and 
no less is the sacrifice his own art requires of the architect. 

There is no such thing as a style fitted for every situation ; only 
one who knows and studies the ground well will ever make the best 
of a garden, and any " style " may be right where the site fits it. A 
garden on the slopes about Naples is impossible without much stone- 
work to support the earth, while about London or Paris there is 
usually no such need. But these considerations never enter into 
the minds of men who plant an Italian garden in one of our river 
valleys, where in nine cases out of ten an open lawn is often the 
best thing before the house, as at Bristol House, Roehampton ; 
Greenlands, Henley-on-Thames ; and in many gardens in the 
Thames valley. And there are right and wrong ways where we 
cannot have a lawn garden : — Haddon, simple and charming, on the 
one hand, and Chatsworth on the other ; Knole and Ightham and 
Rockingham without a yard of stonework not absolutely needed for 
the house and its approaches, and others with a fortune spent in 
display of costly stonework, only effective in robbing the foreground 
of all repose. 

The idea that the old style of building in England was always 
accompanied by elaborate terrace gardening is erroneous. The 
Elizabethan house had often an ample lawn in front or plenty of 
grass near, and such houses are quite as good in effect as the old 
houses and castles where terracing was necessary and right owing 
to the ground, such as Berkeley, Powis, and Rockingham. 

The idea that trees must be clipped to make them " harmonise " 
with architecture is a mere survival. In the old days of garden 
design, when in any northern country there were few trees in 
gardens, these trees were slashed into any shape that met the de- 


signer's view. But now that many beautiful trees and shrubs are 
coming to us from many countries, the aim of true gardening is, so far 
from mutilating them, to develop their natural forms. In by far the 
greater number of beautiful places in England, from Knole to Haddon, 
and from the fine west-country houses to the old border castles, there 
are many of the fairest gardens where the trees are never touched 
with shears. Sutton Place, near Guildford, built in 1 521, is one of the 
most beautiful old houses in the home counties, and its architecture 
is none the less delightful because the trees near show their true 
forms. It is also an example of a fine old house around which 
there is no terraced gardening. 

It would be as hopeless to design a building without knowing 
anything of its uses or inhabitants as to design a garden without full 
knowledge of its nobler ornaments — trees and the many things that 
go to make our garden flora vary so much in form, habits, and hardi- 
ness according to soils, situations, and districts. Errors of the most 
serious kind arise from dealing with such things without knowledge, 
and any attempt to keep the gardener out of the garden must fail, as 
it did in our own day in the case of the broken brick and stone flower 
beds at South Kensington. Except for what is mostly a very small 
area near the house, the architect and garden-designer deal with 
distinct subjects and wholly distinct materials. They should work 
in harmony, but not seek to do that for which their training and 
knowledge have not fitted them. 

Statues in Gardens. — By common consent the British statue 
is nothing to be proud of, and the spread of the statue mania to 
gardens — public or private — is to be deplored. The place for a good 
statue is within the protection of some public or other building ; a 
bad one is better out of sight altogether. A witty French writer, 
M. Harduin, has lately been protesting against this statuomanie as 
he calls it, and says, quite justly, that a statue that fixes the eye in a 
garden is no good substitute for the effect of tree, or grass, or flower. 
Further, that we have already too many statues in cities. Assuming, 
however, that people are satisfied with statues as they are, it is surely 
unnecessary to spot them over the parks and in gardens while 
there is such an immense choice of sites for these or similar monu- 
ments on embankments or in streets. 

In a northern country like ours a statue of any high merit as a work 
of art deserves to be protected by a building of some kind. The effect 
of frost and rain in our climate on statuary out-of-doors is very destruc- 
tive, and the face of a statue of some merit put up only a few years 
ago opposite the Royal Exchange is now rotted away. The scattering 
of numerous statues of a low order of merit, or of no merit at all, 
which we see in some Italian gardens, often gives a bad effect, and the 


dotting of statues about both the pubhc gardens of Paris and London 
is destructive of all repose. If a place be used for the exhibition of 
sculpture, well and good ; but let us not in that case call it a garden. 
In Britain statues are often of plaster material, and those who use a 
garden as a place to dot about such "works of art" do not think of 
the garden as the best of places to show the work of Nature, and as 
one in which we should see many fine natural forms. 

The earliest recollection I have of any large garden was one 
strewn with the remains of statues, but as my evidence as to effect 
and endurance might not be thought impartial, we may call as a 
witness Victor Cherbuliez, of the French Academy. 

" It was one of those classical gardens the planners of which prided themselves 
upon as being able to give Nature lessons in good behaviour, to teach her geometry 
and the fine art of irreproachable lines ; but Nature is for geometers a reluctant 
pupil, and if she submits to their tyranny she does it with an ill grace, and will 

take her revenge The large basin no longer held any water, and the 

dolphins which in days gone by spouted it from their throats looked as if they 
asked each other to what purpose they were in this world. But the statues had 
suffered most ; moss and a green damp had invaded them, as if some kind of 
plague or leprosy had covered them with sores, and pitiless Time had inflicted on 
them mutilations and insults. One had lost an arm, another a leg ; almost all had 
lost their noses. There was in the basin a Neptune whose face was sadly damaged 
and who had nothing left but his beard and half his trident, and further on a 
Jupiter without a head, the rain water standing in his hollowed neck."' 

As to the artistic value of much of our sculpture. Lord Rosebery, 
in his speech at Edinburgh in 1896, said — 

" If those restless spirits that possessed the Gadarene swine were to enter 
into the statues of Edinburgh, and if the whole stony and brazen troop were to 
hurry and hustle and huddle headlong down the steepest place near Edinburgh 
into the deepest part of the Firth of Forth, art would have sustained no serious 

The Pall Mall Gazette, commenting on this speech, wishes for a 
like rush to the Thames on the part of our " London monstrosities," 
and yet this is the sort of " art " that some wish us to expose in the 
garden, where there is rarely the means to be found to do even as 
good work as we see in cities. If the politician and the journalist ask 
to be delivered from the statues with which the squares and streets 
of our cities are adorned, our duty as lovers of Nature in the garden 
is clear. 

In its higher expression nothing is more precious in art than 
sculpture ; in its lower and debased forms it is less valuable than 
almost any form of art. The lovely Greek sculpture in the Vatican^ 
Louvre, or British Museum is the work of great artists, and those 
who study it will not be led astray by goddesses in lead or New 
Road nymphs in plaster. If we wish to see the results of sculpture 



in the architect's own work we have but to look at the pubHc build- 
ings in London where it is used, mostly to spoil any architectural 
grace such buildings should possess, as in the National Portrait 
Gallery, the Natural History Museum, and the Home Office build- 
ings, and then we may better judge how far we may go in our gardens 
with such art. 

Real artists in sculpture are not concerned with garden design, and 
sculpture is not the business of the builder or landscape gardener. A 
statue or two of any artistic value may be placed in a garden with 
good effect, never, however, forgetting that a garden is a place for 
beautiful life, not death. It is not that we despise other arts than 
our own, they may charm and even help us, as in the case of a 
landscape painting by a man of genius. Even a drawing of a tree 
or flower may be a lesson in form and beauty ; but all debased 
" art " is as harmful in the garden as it is anywhere else. 



These gardens should help us to get the most precious lesson as 
to design — that the best-laid-out garden is that which is best 
fitted for its situation, soil and climate, and without much considera- 
tion as to any " style." Once we make a rule and say, this is the best 
and only way, it is not only the good architect, and that still rarer 
being, the good landscape gardener, who will carry it out, but any- 
body who has any influence in building or gardening will do the same 
thing in all sorts of positions with any kind of material, including the 
" young man in the office " and other persons who have never even 
given the slightest thought to any kind of artistic planting, let alone 
any serious study of garden design. Of the expression of this 
inartistic ruling we see painful evidence everywhere in the terraces 
like railway banks out of place and rampant through the land. On 
these stereotyped ideas is based another leading to greater evil, 
which is that, once you have got your patterned plateau, you cannot 
have your flowers in artistic or picturesque ways on it, and so the poor 
gardener has to go on trying to adapt ugly patterns in flowers to the 
ugly plan that is given him. The second idea is false too, as flowers 
may be arranged in right and natural ways in any garden, but that 
fact has not killed the common error that we cannot throw formality 
overboard in arranging flowers. 

The really artistic way is to have no preconceived idea of any 
style, but in all cases to be led by the ground itself and by the many 
things upon it. Why should we in the plains or gentle meadows of 


England not give effect to the beautiful lines of the landscape, and 
make our gardens harmonise with them ? The right way is, to carry 
no style in one's head or pocket, and then, before saying much, go 
over the ground and see it from every point of view, with a view to 
getting the best that the site, soil, and surroundings' will give. If the 
idea of the bastard Italian garden were the truest that could be 
expressed by man, it must inevitably lead to monotony and to stereo- 
typing of the garden, and it is only by respecting the site itself and 
letting the plan grow out of it that we can get gardens free from 
monotony, and suggestive also, as they should often be, of the^ country 
in which they occur. If all our efforts only go to stereotyping the 
home landscape, it is hardly worth while going for a change from the 
Midlands into Devon. Why should we not in these islands of ours, 
where there are so many different kinds of landscape and character- 
istics of soil and climate, have gardens in harmony, as it were, with 
their surroundings? Also the taste of the owner ought to count. 
Why should he be bound to the conventional style ? As no one is so 
likely to know the conditions of soil and climate, and the capabilities 
of a district as one who has lived amidst them, if we come to 
the aid of such an owner with an open mind as to style, we shall be 
much better able to give effect to his views in the shape of artistic 
and distinct results. 

Everywhere the ugliest things are seen, especially in the larger 
places, but here and there one sees gardens that are beautiful, and 
nothing will help us so well to a clear view of what is best in the 
flower-garden as the consideration of such places, but we may first say 
something of the new and wrong way of having no flowers near the 

Those who notice the ground round country seats find now and 
then a house without any flower garden, and with the turf running 
hard into the walls — the site of a flower garden without flowers. This 
unhappy omission we may suppose to result from the ugliness in 
summer, and nakedness in winter, of the common way of planting a 
flower garden. 

But it is a mistake to suppose that the only alternatives to such 
nakedness are coarse perennials and annuals, that flower a short 
time and are weedy the rest of their days, or the ordinary summer- 
planting. Many delightful things may be grown near a house ; 
fragrant plants, too, plants beautiful not only in summer but in 
colour even in winter. The ceaseless digging about of the beds 
also may prejudice people against flowers in the garden, as the 
bedding plants set out in June were taken away in autumn and 
replaced by spring-flowering things. These had a short period of 
bloom in spring, and were, in their turn, pulled up leaving bare beds 


until the summer flowers were planted, sometimes very late ; so that 
in June, when we ought to have flowers or, at least, pleasant colour 
wholly over the ground, there was nothing but grave-like earth, but the 
spring flowers round a country house should be grown in a different 
way. They may be naturalised in multitudes, grown in borders, in 
special little gardens for bulbs, and in various other ways without in 
the least disturbing the beds near the house, which should for the 
most part be planted permanently, so that the greatest amount of 
beauty may be had throughout the fine months, without disfiguring 
the beds during those months. 

But the permanent flowers should be hardy, and of the highest order 
of beauty, and such as require more than a few weeks or months for 
development ; though here and there blanks might be filled with 
good, tender plants, like Heliotrope. Many of the hardy flowers, 
too, should be fragrant — Tea Roses, Carnations, and tufted Tansies ; 
all those, grown in large groups, give off a grateful odour round a 
house. What is the soil in these gardens for ? Why do people make 
them ? Surely it is not to have them laid down to grass in a 
country like ours where grass in park, meadow, lawn, and playground 
is seen on all sides ? The objection to the bare surface of beds 
in such gardens is a just one ; but it is easily got rid of by 
permanent planting ; and if the ground in the early state of the 
bed or from any other cause is bare below the flowers, it is quite 
easy to surface the beds with small rock and other plants of good 
colour nearly all the year. 

English Cottage Gardens are never bare and seldom ugly. 
Those who look at sea or sky or wood see beauty that no art can 
show ; but among the things made by man nothing is prettier than 
an English cottage garden, and they often teach lessons that " great " 
gardeners should learn, and are pretty from Snowdrop time till the 
Fuchsia bushes bloom nearly into winter. We do not see the same 
thing in other lands. The bare cottages of Belgium and North France 
are shocking in their ugliness ; even in Ireland and Scotland we do 
not see the same charming little gardens, nor are they so good in 
some parts of England ; as in Surrey, Kent, and the southern 
counties. I often pass a small cottage garden in the Weald of 
Sussex never without a flower for nine months in the year. It is 
only a square patch, but the beauty of it is far more delightful 
than that of the large gardens near, and it is often pretty when they 
are bare. 

What is the secret of the cottage garden's charms ? Cottage 
gardeners are good to their plots, and in the course of years they 
make them fertile, and the shelter of the little house and hedge 
favours the flowers. But there is something more and it is the 


absence of any pretentious "plan" which lets the flowers tell their 
story to the heart. The walks are only what are needed, and so we 
see only the earth and its blossoms. 

A Cottage Garden in Kent. — Driving on one of the sunny 
days of autumn through the Weald of Kent from Charing to 
Ashford — a country strewn with pretty houses and gardens — an old 
house set in flowers was seen to the left just after passing the pretty 

Old mill-house garden at Mount Usher, Wicklow. 

village of Charing and the big woods above it. We turned from the 
main road, and, looking over the low garden wall, were asked in to 
see the pretty old house, oak-panelled, and to stroll about the small 
garden, little more than a cottage garden in its simplicity of planting. 
No pretentious plan to consider, only the yellow Sunflowers of the 
season massed in their own way and running about inside the little 
wall, and by their profusion giving an unity as well as richness of 
colour. One lesson of these little gardens, that are so pretty, is 
that one can get good effects from simple materials, and the absence 
of complexity and pretence of " design " aids these pictures very much. 
Many things are not needed for good effect, and very often we see 


gardens rich in plants, but not artistic because too much cut up into 
dots. There is no reason why gardens should not be rich in plants 
and pictures too, but such are rare. A precious thing in a garden is 
a beautiful house, and this, with its pretty, brown-tiled roof and oak- 
timbered walls, is an example of many in the Weald of Kent which 
have braved several hundred winters and are so beautiful in colour. 
If these cottage gardens are beautiful from such simple materials, how 
much more might we get by good hardy flower gardening round 
old country houses with lovely backgrounds and old walks. The 
Somersetshire cottage garden is in a milder climate than this, and 
in Somerset things seem to do so well, and in all that delightful 
west-country. In Kent we must trust to the hardy things of which 
there are so many that no cottage garden can contain half of them ; 
but in Somersetshire we may have many things which seldom thrive 
on the eastern side — Myrtle, Bay, and Passion-flower, tall Fuchsias, 
and even things in the open air in winter which in many other 
districts we have to put in the greenhouse. 

Mount Usher, a Wicklow Garden. — A quaint creeper-laden 
mill-house at Ashford, with an acre or two of ground, partly 
wooded, through which the silvery Vartry River flows, gentle as it 
falls over its little rocky weirs in summer, but swollen and turbid 
after wintry storms. The place is really an island at the bottom 
of a valley ; the hilly country around is beautifully diversified, and 
is graced by the finest of native timber trees. The garden is quite 
unlike any other garden I have seen, and to see it in the time of 
Lilies, Roses, Paeonies, Poppies, and Delphiniums is to see much 
lovely colour amongst the rich greenery of the rising woodlands. In 
autumn the colour is less brilliant, but equally satisfying as the eye 
wanders from the Torch Lilies and Gladioli to the blue Agapanthus, 
and thence to the Pine and Fir-clad hills. 

An old Ivy-covered wall makes a good background for the 
brilliant Tropaeolum speciosum, which everywhere runs wild about 
the place, throwing its soft green wreaths over twig and branch, their 
tips scarlet with blossoms, or heavily laden with turquoise-blue berries. 
Here also the soft rosy Hydrangeas bloom, and may be seen 
the big scarlet hips on the great Apple Rose of Parkinson (Rosa 
pomifera), with its large glaucous leaves scented like those of the 
Sweet Brier. Mount Usher is a charming example of the gardens 
that might be made in river valleys, especially those among the 
mountains and hills. In such places there is often delightful shelter 
from violent winds, while the picturesque effect of the mountains and 
hills around offers a charming prospect from the gardens. There 
is a distinct charm about many Irish gardens, and the country 
also is excellent, at least in the shore districts, for the growth 


of many plants that soon perish out of doors in most parts of 

Greenlands is an example of a garden in which the river front 
of the house is a simple sloping lawn. Originally laid out by Mr. 
Marnock for Mr. Majoribanks, it has long been a garden showing 
good work. There are no terrace gardens, and one passes easily from 
the house to a pleasant lawn and the well-planted grounds around, 
studded with many fine trees, among which are beautiful groups of 
Cedars. A flower garden in front of the house is here avoided ; but 
at a little distance there are various flower gardens within easy 
reach, and this plan keeps the lawn immediately in front of the house 
unbroken, instead of, what it too often is, patched with brown earth or, 
not always happy, masses of flowers. It would not be the best plan 
to follow in every case ; the more variety the greater the charm, 
and there are ways of delightful flower-gardening in which no bare 
earth can be seen, while there are many cases where the sunny and 
secluded sides of the house afford the best of sites for the flower 

Pendell Court. — It will be seen here that even where it 
is desired to have the flower garden, in part, against the house, 
it is by no means always necessary that the ground should be 
made " architectural." It is a great pleasure to see a beautiful old 
house, with no impedimenta to keep one away from the door. 
There are three good views of it : first, that of the lawn in front 
of the house, which was a flowery meadow yet uncut, with no beds 
or other obstructions to the view of the house, and with a fine 
group of trees on either hand. It was a poem in building and in 
lawn. Quite on the other side a border of flowers and a wall of 
climbers ran from the house. Looking along this border to the 
house, a shower of white climbing Roses was seen falling from 
the wall, and a quaint gable and a few windows and glistening 
rich Ivy behind formed a lovely picture. Another view of the 
house from across the water, showing its west end, is also very 
beautiful. There is a Wild Rose bush on the right and a tuft 
of Flag leaves on the left ; before you, the water and its lilies ; then 
a smooth, gently rising lawn creeping up to the windows, which on 
this side are all wreathed with white climbing Roses. All these 
views of the same house, although distinct, show no frivolous patterns, 
fountains, statues, and such objects, which often destroy all repose. 
The view from the house to the left is also free and charming — a 
wide meadow climbing up the hill through groups of trees, and in 
the woody part reminding one a little of Alpine pastures. 

Rhianva, — We have not only to deal with ugly gardens, made 
in the wrong places, but with a false idea that all the flowers 


must be set out as smooth and as " hard " as tin plate, and 
that terraced gardens are not suited for our beautiful hardy flowers. 
But one may here and there see a better way, and at Rhianva, the 
free growth of evergreens and climbers, and the delightful inter- 
lacements of hardy flowers, ferns, and creepers, make the garden 
beautiful. Again, I remember, the garden at Ockham Park in 
Dr. Lushington's time was formal and yet beautiful, through the 
freedom of the vegetation. So again in Italy, the stiffness of 
the stone is soon softened by the graceful forms of trees, shrubs, 
and trailers as at Verona and in many Italian gardens. 

Fifty years ago the site of Rhianva, on the banks of the Menai 
Straits, was a steep field, with the large gray rocks so characteristic 
of Anglesey, and was crossed by a small stream which lost itself in 
marshy ground by the shore, where stood a couple of old Apple and 
Thorn trees and a little white-washed cottage. The extreme 
steepness of the rocky ground made the site difficult to deal 
with, and a number of supporting walls were built to form terraces ; 
and, by the help of a protecting sea-wall, the flowers were carried 
down to the very edge of the water. Facing a little to the 
south-east, the garden was protected from the violence of the 
westerly gales, while the more tender plants were sheltered from the 
east winds of spring by the larger shrubs and trees. The climate is 
mild in winter, and the garden being on a southern slope the trees 
and shrubs grew with great rapidity ; so that hedges of red Fuchsias 
and of blue and pink Hydrangeas soon hid the stone walls. Myrtles 
and Camellias, and some Acacias, were found to thrive out of 
doors ; and at the present time the only difficulty is to prevent the 
shrubs from injuring each other, through their rapid growth. In 
summer the luxuriant abundance of the Roses, climbing from bush 
to bush, the Cypresses, the Tamarisk and the Vines ; and the sea, 
and the purple mountains in the background, seem to belong rather 
to the Lake of Como than to Anglesey. All the borders are mossed 
over with small green plants ; large, hardy exotic Ferns are spread 
into groups ; and a lacework of Ivy, Vine, and creepers is seen in 
many parts. A mixed order of planting is pursued, but in many 
cases the shrubs and plants are allowed to spread as they will, and 
the climbers take picturesque shapes. Rhianva is an example of the 
error of the notion that a terraced garden should only be arranged 
as a " bedded-out " garden. We have here a terraced garden in a 
position that called for it, namely, a rocky slope, in which the only 
way of making a garden was by terracing the ground, but it is a 
garden that shelters every treasure of our garden flora, from the 
Cyclamen to the Tea Rose. 

It has been said that, however valuable the more beautiful hardy 



flowers, their place is not the parterre, but some out-of-the-way spot. 
Not only may any terrace garden be embellished with hardy flowers, 

but it is the best place for them. The odd notion that our fairest 
flowers must not show themselves in the flower g-arden might lead 


one to suppose that there never was anything in the flower garden 
before bedding-out was invented. Is it well to devote the flower beds 
to one type of vegetation only, whether it be hardy or tender ? We 
have been so long accustomed to forming flat surfaces of colour in 
flower beds that few think of better ways of filling them. In Nature 
vegetation in its most beautiful aspects is rarely a thing of one effect, 
but rather a union or mingling of different types of life often suc- 
ceeding each other in bloom. So it might often be in the garden. 
The most beautiful effects must be obtained by combining different 
forms so as to aid each other, and give us a succession of pictures. 
If any place asks for permanent planting it is the precious spot 
of ground near the house ; for no one can wish to see large, grave- 
like masses of soil frequently dug near the windows. It is easy to 
form beds that would look well in all seasons by the use of choice 
shrubs of many kinds — Rhododendron, Azalea, Dwarf Cypress, Heath, 
Clematis, Honeysuckle, Weigela, Hydrangea, Skimmia, Rock Rose, 
Tamarix, Daphne, Yucca, Tree Peony. Why should we not use 
beautiful Andromedas or Kalmias or fine evergreen Barberries in the 
flower garden in the same way as Camellias or Acacias or Tree 
Ferns in the winter garden to break and vary the surface ? 

The shrubs should be arranged in an open way, the opposite to the 
crowding of American shrubs common in our beds. In these all 
individual character and form are crushed away in the crowd ; yet 
there is scarcely a shrub that has not a charm of form it will 
show if allowed room. One good plan is to allow no crowding, and to 
place the Jitiest hardy flowers ifi groups bettveeti the free untortured 
shrubs. Thoroughly prepare the beds ; put in the choicest shrubs, 
which, without being high enough to obscure the view, adorn the 
earth all the winter as well as all the summer, and give us a broken 
surface as well as a beautiful one, and, far from leading to monotony, 
this would lead to an infinite and varied succession of beauty. 

We should not then have any set pattern to weary the eye, 
but quiet grace and verdure, and little pictures, month by month. 
The beds, filled with shrubs and garlanded with evergreens and 
creepers, would everywhere afford nooks and spaces among the 
shrubs where we could grow some of the many fine hardy Lilies 
with the Gladioli, Phlox, Iris, tall Anemone, Peony, and Delphinium. 
The choice shrubs suited for such beds are not gross feeders, like 
trees, but on the other hand encourage the finer hardy bulbs and 
flowers. They also relieve the plants by their bloom or foliage, and 
when a Lily or Cardinal Flower fades after blooming it is not noticed 
as it might be in a stiff border. In this way we should not need the 
wretched and costly plan of growing a number of low evergreens in 
pots, to "decorate " the flower garden in winter. 



To get artistic effects in such a flower garden we must not by any 
means adopt the usual close pattern beds, because no good effect 

can be got from beds crowded on each other like tarts on a tray. 
Repose and verdure are essential. Before making the change from 


the dwarf plants only, be they hardy or tender, it would be well to 
see that there is ample repose or room for the full expression of the 
beauty of each bed or group, and no complication or crowding, no 
complex or angular beds. The contents of the beds and not their out- 
lines are what we should see. By this way of planting with beautiful 
flowering summer or evergreen shrubs, with abundant space for 
flowers to grow between, we might see beauty in our terrace garden 
beds on the dullest day in winter. Between the low bushes we could 
have evergreen carpets of Alpine plants and tiny hill shrubs, and 
through these the autumn, winter, and spring flowering bulbs could 
bloom, untarnished by the soil splashing of the ordinary border. 
Shelter, as well as the best culture, could be thus secured for many a 
fair flower, which, once well planted, would there come up year after 
year. Among the flowering shrubs we have many lovely wild and 
garden Roses to help us with our plans. 

Sheen Cottage. — The late Sir Richard Owen's garden is one of 
the most charming and simple in the neighbourhood of London. 
Many a visitor to Richmond Park enjoys the view of his cottage, 
as it nestles on the margin of the sweep of ground near the Sheen 
gate, but it is from the other or the garden side that the picture 
is best. A lawn, quite unbroken, stretches from near the windows to 
the boundary, and is fringed with numerous hardy trees. Here and 
there are masses of flowering shrubs and an odd bed of Lilies, while 
numerous hardy flowers are seen among the Roses and Rhododen- 
drons. There is in the main part of the garden only one walk, which 
takes one round the whole, and does not show, as it glides behind 
the outside of the groups which fringe the little open lawn. 
Instead of coming quite close to the house it is cut off from it 
by a deep border of evergreen shrubs, intermingled with Lilies and 
hardy plants, and their flowers look into the windows. Instead of 
looking out of the window, as usual, on a bare gravel walk, the eye is 
caught by Rhododendrons or Spiraeas, with here and there a Lily, a 
Foxglove, or a tall Evening Primrose. From the other side of the 
garden the eftect of the border is quite charming, and the creeper- 
covered cottage seems to spring out of a bank of flowers. The 
placing of a wide border with Evergreens against the house is a 
pleasant change from the ordinary mode of laying out little gardens. 
Another agreeable feature of this garden is the grass walks, which 
ramble through a thick and shady plantation. Even in our coolest 
summers there is many a day on which such shady walks, carpeted 
with grass, are the most enjoyable retreats one can find. And their 
margins form capital situations for naturalising many beautiful hardy 
plants — Daffodils, hardy Ferns, Scillas, the tall Harebells, Snowdrops, 
and Snowflakes. 


Cawdor Castle. — The view of Cawdor shows the good of having 
some form and variety of shape in a garden, be the garden large or 
small. The trees, shrubs, and bushes give the light and shade and 
variety of form which is so often absent from our gardens. The hard 
effect which the ordinary garden shows results from the want of all 
mystery or variety of surface or form. In the case of Cawdor the 
beds are simple, so that we are less concerned with pattern or plan 
than with the flowers. This is as it should be. It is not a model to 
be followed everywhere, but such freedom and variety is greatly to be 
desired in gardens. After all considerations of plan have been settled, 
we ought to abolish the too common practice of excluding all things 
of a bushy, upright nature from our flower gardens. 

Drummond Castle. — A house on a rock, graced with many 
Ferns and Ivy, and wild flowers natural to the spot. It would not 
be easy to find a more'graceful example of " natural" rock gardening. 
It is only, however, on going to the south side of the house, where the 
ground falls rapidly and is supported by terrace walls, that all 
gloom is dispelled by the brightest array of blossoming climbers that 
ever clad gray stones with beauty. To fancy one's self in some 
fairyland of sun-bathed flowers a thousand miles south in a lap of 
the mountains would be easy. No Italian gardens could probably 
show the same high beauty at the end of summer, whatever they 
might do earlier, and the very coolness encourages and prolongs 
the bloom. The shelter of the terrace, with the house behind, 
helps many things ; but, beyond training, there is little artificial help. 
It is our privilege of growing so many plants from other countries 
that makes our open-air gardens so beautiful in the fall of the year : 
here, when the leaves begin to colour, and when even the Harebell 
is past its best on the banks, we have a very paradise of flowers. The 
fact that this fine plant beauty may be enjoyed by all who have a 
patch of ground and a wall makes it a precious gift, and the plants 
that here give most flowers are nearly all as easily grown as our 
common Honeysuckle. 

Loveliest of all the climbers here is the Flame Nasturtium 
(Tropaeolum speciosum), which drapes these stately walls, as it does 
those of many a cottage in Scotland. Admirable for walls as is this 
fragile and brilliant plant, it is seen to even greater advantage when a 
delicate shoot runs over a Yew-hedge, with its arrows of colour, 
and near it on the walls are many flowers of the older and once 
better-known Tropaeolums ; showy, climbing Nasturtiums of gardens 
grow high on the walls, and add to the rich glow of colours. 
Nothing could surpass the rich purple of the Clematis here — waves 
of colour, and flowers of great size, the cool hill air suiting them 
so well. 


In the warm or temperate south, in Madeira or the Riviera, the 
garden lover sometimes makes a pretty hedge of Oak-leaved 
Geraniums ; but, as one does not see them in the South of England, 
it is a surprise to see them happy on the walls here in Scotland, 
growing from four feet to seven feet high, with fresh foliage and 
many flowers. Their spicy fragrance and pretty foliage make them 
worth the trouble of storing in the winter, and placing in the open 
air in early summer. All the winter they are kept in the house on 
trellises, and, carefully trained in summer against the warm wall, soon 
make fresh growth and are in good bloom late in September. 

Large borders of the common river Forget-me-not remind us of 
its value as compared with the wood and Alpine Forget-me-nots 
usually grown in gardens. It is beautiful in moist borders, flowering 
long through summer and autumn. The charm of the place almost 
ceases with the terraces, for below them is one of those wonderful 
displays of " bedding out " in its cruder forms, which attains its 
greatest " glory " near large Scottish houses, — plants in squares, 
repeated by thousands, and walks from which all interest is taken by 
the planting on each side being of exactly the same pattern. 

Steps and Terrace in the Old Park, Axminster. — This 
engraving is instructive as regards the bare state of many gardens. For 
many years past the rule in some of the most pretentious geometrical 
gardens has been to allow no vegetation on the walls or balustrades, 
but the older and graceful way is to garland all wall surfaces with 
beautiful life, and not to wholly hide them in doing so. Dividing 
lines and walls may do their work without being as bare as if in a 
stonemason's yard. 

The idea of the terrace garden came from the steep slopes of Italy 
and Greece. The rough wall of the peasant, which prevented the 
earth from being washed away, and gave a little depth on the stony 
hillside, became, in the garden of the wealthy man, the built terrace, — 
structurally right, and necessary whether men gardened for pleasure 
or for profit. Having got their ground level through terracing, it was 
the rule to plant with beautiful things — Olive-trees for profit, and 
Cypress for shade. If anybody will compare such effects with the 
common debased English planting of the flower-garden, where 
everything is hard and flat and nothing is allowed on the walls, he will 
at once see a vital difference. 

Penshurst. — There is no more essential charm for a garden than 
that it should be itself in character and not be a copy of gardens near 
it or elsewhere. This merit belongs to Penshurst, and the network 
of orchard trees and tall summer flowers beneath them which make 
up much of the flower gardening there. Much of the ground between 
the kitchen garden and the house is thrown into squares and strips, 



which shelter and divide the space, and most of this space between 
the hedges is planted with fruit trees, and walks — very often Grass 
walks — running- between them. The remaining spaces are planted 

with flowers, from beds of Carnations to mixed borders of tall 
herbaceous plants and Lilies. Foxgloves are at home here, and in 
rather broad masses under the trees their effect is charming — the 



shade and mystery of the overhead growth give them something of the 
look they have in woods. The lines of border after border are broken 
by the trees, and the effect is very soft and different from what it so 
often is, while the colour tells splendidly in the case of masses of 
Orange Lily. The growth is free, and there is no such thing as prim- 
ness, which greatly helps the effect. Groups of Acanthus look well 
here, and Delphinium, Meadow Sweet, giant Scabious, and many a 
hardy flower are refreshing to see. 

But Penshurst is an example of the many gardens (new and old) 
where the reaction from the hardness of bedding out and the winter 
bareness of it have led people to do away with flower beds near the 
house. It is not the old way to clear everything away but shaven 
Grass near a beautiful old house, nor is it the true way, but it is now 
a common one, and it gets rid of much of the ugliness of beds. 

But there are ways of putting flowers in charming modesty about 
a house as well as that of digging up in early summer ugly grave-like 
beds for them. In the old days flowers clustered round the house, and 
were the better for its shelter, warmth, and colour. Long before the 
massing system, with all its garishness, was discovered, flowers were 
planted for many generations in quiet ways about old English houses. 
It is right that the main entrance and park side of a great house should 
be frank and open, but to make the house bare all round for the sake 
of bare Grass, and to lose all the advantage of shelter and seclusion, 
is not the best way by far. Bays and warm corners, and high walls 
and their shelter and variety of aspect, are delightful for flowers- 
flowers such as could not injure any building ; not even a suspicion of 
the injury that comes from Ivy betimes could attach to borders of 
Fern or Iris. If we lived in a country where close turf was not seen 
in the park, or hills, or fields, there would be a reason for having 
nothing but turf under the windows. In the park the short nibbled 
turf is often fringed by Bracken, Foxglove, and Wild Rose ; whereas, 
near the house, the way too often now is to let the turf run hard and 
straight into the walls, and the winds of heaven strike the house un- 
tempered by the breath of a Violet. 

The question of some degree of seclusion about country houses is 
bound up with this. Nothing is worse than planting that hides sun 
and air from a beautiful house, but dividing lines and little sheltered 
gardens are often needed. There are so many ways of screening off 
such precious spaces, too — Vine, Sweet Verbena, Winter Sweet, and 
Jasmine for low walls ; Rose, Sweet Brier, and Honeysuckle for 
fragrant or blossoming hedges ; Clematis, Wistaria, and climbing Rose 
for arch or pergola. The very lines for shelter or privacy might be 
gardens of the most fragrant and beautiful things we have, from the 
winter Jasmine to the climbing Tea Rose. No, the Grass alone is not 

E 2 


and never can be the artistic way on all sides of a house, and the 
common French way of a waste of gravel all round a house is still 
worse. The gray of the Carnation is welcome in winter seen from the 
windows, and there are many evergreen rock plants that take their 
deepest hues of green in winter, and they are a long way better, even 
for their green, than the winter-worn turf It is often well, too, to see 
a glimpse from the windows of the way the Crocus opens its heart to 
the sun — brilliant forerunner of crowds of fair blossoms. 

COMPTON WiNYATES. — Compton Winyates is one of the dearest 
of the old houses jewelled over the land of England, the most 
charming of countries for its houses. There are graceful old climbers 
and trees near, but not much showy gardening — almost none. There 
is also very little of what is called pleasure ground in the ordinary 
sense ; but that is too stereotyped a thing to make one regret it in the 
presence of such a beautiful home. None the less is it pleasant to 
wander over the high fields near and along the deep slopes of the 
coombe, especially in the autumn time with the tree leaves rich in 
colour, and the Barberry laden with a thousand coral boughs. Compton 
Winyates is one of the old houses not surrounded by terraces, but 
sits quietly on the turf, and tells us, as other of our finest old houses 
do, that each situation demands its own treatment as regards the 
surroundings of the house. 

Ketton Cottage. — This is one of the Elizabethan farmhouses 
common in the villages round Stamford, with some recent additions. 
It stands in the village, a short distance from the beautiful church of 
St. Mary, a few yards from the little river Chater, which, coming down 
from Leicestershire, falls into the Welland a mile or two below Ketton 
and as far above Stamford. As the position is sheltered from rough 
winds, the small space of ground between the road and the river has 
proved a home for such of the hardy shrubs and flowers planted in it 
during the last thirty years as find the lime in both soil and water 
congenial to them. 

The banks of the stream are in places fringed with Royal 
Fern and the large American Ferns, all of which bear patiently 
the floods which sometimes in summer and often in winter pass 
over their heads, lasting now and then for several weeks. All these 
Ferns thrive in a bed of rough leaf-mould, 6 inches or 8 inches 
above and below the usual water level, partly coated in the course 
of years with earth from the floods, and partly denuded by the 
action of the water, which is prevented in the exposed portions 
from washing away the roots by a covering of heavy stones, between 
which there is just room for the crowns to appear. These conditions 
prevent the growth of seedling Royal Ferns, but the old plants 
are, after more than twenty years, as vigorous as their kindred in 


the Norfolk marshes, the fronds of some in the shade being more 
than 6 feet in length. In a place rather more sheltered from the 
force of the stream the American Royal Ferns thrive equally well ; as 
also on a somewhat higher level a certain number of other strong 
Ferns which do not suffer by floods. 

On an open part of the bank a quantity of purple Loosestrife makes 
a good background for the Ferns, and a patch of Meadow Rue gives 
variety and a distinct autumn colour. For the rest the engraving 
shows the distinct and very happy effect of the garden, which is a 
home for many and beautiful hardy flowers. H. 

POWIS Castle. — Of the many gardens I have seen, very few gave 
me the pleasure of Powis : first, because of its noble drive through 
great Oaks with breaks of Fern between, so unlike the dark mono- 
tonous avenue which spreads gloom over so many country seats. 
The light and shade and the noble forms of the trees make the 
picture more beautiful than any primly set-out avenue. The flower 
garden is beautiful, partly owing to its position, which is that of a true 
terrace garden — i.e. the ground falls so steeply, that terracing is 
necessary. These terraces were wreathed with Clematis and beauti- 
ful with shrub, and flower, and life, a picture of what a flower garden 
should be. 

As the original name, " Castell Coch," signifies, the castle is built 
of red sandstone, and stands on the same rock, and the terraces are 
hewn out of this, which forms the walls, for the most part unaided 
by masonry. Glancing over a balustrading from the castle level 
on to the terraces beneath, the scene is charming, and we are 
struck at once with the harmonious blending of the flowers and 
their surroundings. A happy idea is carried out in regard to colours 
by the three terraces having each its predominating colour — viz. the 
lowest white, the middle yellow, and the highest purple ; not that 
other colours are excluded, but these prevailing tones are maintained. 
A charm of this terrace has been for years a number of trellises, 
8 feet to lo feet high, covered with Clematis. Here and there 
the Flame Nasturtium suspends graceful festoons of brightest colour. 
Pyramids, Sweet Peas, good perennials and choice annuals are used ; 
the stiffness of hard lines being quite broken by the Clematis, Roses, 
Sunflowers, Hollies, Japanese Maples, and Tree Paeonies. The walls 
of the terrace are covered with Roses, Clematises, Pears, Peaches, 
Nectarines, Pomegranate, which flowers freely every season, Magnolia, 
and Wistaria. 

COTEHELE, Cornwall. — This is one of the finest old houses in 
the west of England, and the quaint old terraces are laid out in old- 
fashioned beds and borders filled with hardy flowers. Very little 
masonry is seen in the formation of the terraces, and the old walls 


are mantled with various creepers, Vines, Myrtle, Clematis, Magnolia, 
Jasmines, and Ivy. 

The engraving gives a faithful representation of one side of the 
house, looking east. It is situated on the summit of a high hill on 
the Cornish side of the river Tamar, with views of its winding course, 
also of the distant ranges of hills in both Devon and Cornwall. The 
picturesque freedom of the planting is delightful, the house being 
prettily covered. 

Shrubland Park. — Shrubland Park, in Suffolk, illustrates the 

Powis Castle, Welshpool. 

recent history of English flower-gardening, as it was the great bedding- 
out garden, the " centre " of the system, and which provided many 
examples for other places in England. The great terrace garden in 
front of the house was laid out in scrolls and intricate beds, all filled 
with plants of a few decided colours, principally yellow, white, red, 
and blue, and edged with Box. In every spot in this garden the 
same rigid system of set beds was followed, and not a creeper was 
permitted to ramble over the masonry and stonework of the various 
terraces. Every bit of Ivy that tried to creep up the walls and 
cover the stonework had to be removed, to leave the stone in 


its first bareness. Where some particular colour was wanted in a 
certain spot, coloured stones were freely used — yellow, red, and blue — 
and in the summer, when the hedgerows and meadows are full of 
flowers, there were no flowers in this large garden to cut for the 
house ! A few years ago, when Shrubland passed into the hands of 
the Hon. James Saumarez, the elaborate designs were swept away, 
and the terrace-garden planted with the flowers that every one loves — 
Roses, Lavender, and among them many of what are called common 
things, and climbers of many kinds clothed the walls. The self 
Carnation and the Tea Rose are the glory of this garden — the flowers 
filling the air with fragrance, the silvery hue of the large groups of 
fragrant Lavender, the broad masses of Carnations, and the groups 
of monthly Roses, make a delightful picture. 

Of the Tea Rose, all the finest kinds for our climate are planted. 
There is an idea that it succumbs to the first frost, but all the varieties 
at Shrubland, and they include, we believe, every good kind in culti- 
vation, passed unharmed through 20 degrees of frost, and this without 
shelter. One of the most interesting spots of Shrubland is the Bamboo 
walk, a straight walk, planted at one time with smooth ribbon 
borders. These were swept away, and Bamboos and tall Lilies now 
fill their place, and we have never seen Bamboos make finer growth. 
There are fine hardy plants to relieve the foliage of the Bamboos, 
and the Plume Poppy with its feathery plumes : Lilies, Funkias, or 
Plantain Lilies, and Evening Primroses. 

Chillingham Castle. — Chillingham is on a ridge of land nearly 
1,000 feet above the sea in a rocky moorland district, intersected by 
deep and beautifully wooded glens. The illustration shows but a 
small part of the handsome terrace garden, with its beautiful retaining 
wall 1 20 yards in length, the wall a picture, with Clematises hanging in 
festoons, with Ivies, Vines, the climbing Hydrangea, and Pyracantha ; 
in front of the wall a long border was planted with some of the best 
hardy flowers. The flower beds, although somewhat too angular, are 
of sufficient size to permit of bold grouping, and this is so well done 
that the form of the beds is less seen, and the blending of the colours 
of the many flowers is well carried out. Many hardy plants are here 
well grown, wild Roses and hardy Fuchsias give height and boldness 
to the arrangement, and the terrace on summer and autumn days is 
gay with fine colour. The wall at the end of the terrace, which is 
partly overhung with trees, has its face in a great part hidden by a 
lovely veil of maiden hair spleenwort. From here, ascending a flight 
of rough Moss-covered steps, Grass slopes adorned with trees make 
pleasant shade, and we pass on to the south front of the castle, which 
has a broad gravel walk in the foreground and a lawn that merges 
into the park and the adjoining pastures. 


Wilton. — One of the glories of Wilton is its fine Lebanon Cedars, 
the tree having been extensively planted here at the time of its first 
introduction, and although later years have witnessed a great thinning 
of its ranks, enough remain to form the most prominent feature of the 
place. The Wilton Cedars are older than those at Goodwood or 
Warwick, and although mighty ones have fallen, some still remain, 
whilst numerous young ones are growing up to take the place of those 
that fall victims to the storms. Whilst the present wise policy of 
frequent planting is continued, there will be no break in the history of 
this tree at Wilton. The finest old specimen has a grand bole about 
15 ft. up to the point of branching and of fairly even diameter 
throughout its length of main stem, which girths fully 24 ft. A stem 
of greater girth entirely enshrouded in Ivy stands near by, the tree 
having perished in a storm some years ago. A noble evergreen Oak 
near the Cedars has a stem that girths 19 ft., and at one time it had a 
head of branches spreading quite lOO yards in circumference, but a giant 
Cedar in its fall broke away a large portion of this Oak on one side. 
It is a magnificent tree in perfect health, and bids fair to grow out of 
its present disfigured state. Near this tree, and on the west side or 
library front of the house, is an Italian garden, and beyond it a long 
vista terminated by a stone structure called Holbein's Porch. A fine 
Chamaerops Fortunei stands near, this also being a plant out of the 
first introduced batch. It has been outside for seventy years, is not 
so tall as some younger specimens we have seen, but its stem is 
unusually thick and denotes great age. 

The view shown is that of the south front of the house, show- 
ing a little garden of stone-edged beds set in gravel. Beyond, 
adorned only by the grand trees on it, the lawn spreads away to the 
river bank, the river itself being spanned by the " Palladian Bridge," 
built of stone and having a roof supported by rows of columns on 
either side. This leads to the deer park, in which the ground rises 
upwards to a considerable elevation, whilst along this slope another 
informal avenue of Lebanon Cedars is a fine feature amid the great 
beauty of native trees in abundance and of large size. An interesting 
fact gathered in regard to the Cedars is that on an average once in ten 
years they ripen a batch of good seed, which is sown for future 
planting about the place. 

Looking eastwards from the house, the ground stretches away 
almost as flat as a table, but this flatness has been delightfully 
broken up by a series of well-arranged groups, chiefly of coniferous 
or evergreen trees and shrubs margined in a pretty way with graceful 
masses of Savin. A broad gravel walk at right angles to the east front 
of the mansion, with lawn and fine trees on either side of it, extends 
for 300 yards, and is terminated by a seat hedged round with Yew. 


This bold walk and the shrub groups that break up the flatness of and 
give distance to the fine expanse of lawn that extends to the waterside 
are from the designs of Sir Richard Westmacott, who assisted the 
Countess of Pembroke in planning the grounds. 

The second engraving shows well that portion of the house com- 
manding the view of this broad walk, with its lawn and distant water, 
whilst between the trees in the distance is seen the spire of Salisbury 
Cathedral. Near the river a statue of Venus on the top of a column 
stands in the centre of a little square formed by trees of the Italian 
Cypress. The red Cedar was charming in some of the groups, its 
branches laden with glaucous fruits, that appeared as a silvery sheen 
cast over the tree. Yews, Hollies, and Evergreen Oaks, numerous and 
fine, give perennial verdure to the grounds. Coniferous trees in 
sheltered breaks and nooks are equally fine, a tree of Picea cephalonica 
especially so, being nearly lOO ft. high, whilst many are growing with 
great vigour, H. 

OffingtON. — Offington is a very instructive garden, richly stored 
and pretty too. Large collections are rarely in the hands of those 
who have any thought for general effect, and no garden is more likely 
to be inartistic than the one rich in plants, and it is rare to find a 
pretty garden which is so full of beautiful things as this is. It is one 
of those shore gardens in which there is much gain in point of 
warmth and other conditions which allow the growing of plants 
we have no chance of keeping in inland districts. The southern 
and seashore district in one gives us all the conditions we could 
desire for growing many more plants than are hardy in our country. 
In this garden Major Gaisford has gathered together a host of rare 
and beautiful trees, shrubs, and plants which, favoured by a genial 
climate, give to the garden a distinct aspect. There is here an entire 
absence of that conventional gardening which lays down hard, 
geometric patterns where we should see the free and graceful forms 
of shrubs and flowers. The house is nearly hidden by climbing plants, 
and a grand old Ivy-embowered Walnut standing on an airy lawn. 

BULWICK. — Rambling about Northamptonshire, and delighted 
with its beautiful old houses, many of them, unfortunately, as bare of 
flower-gardening as a deserted ship, it was pleasant to come to a real 
garden at Bulwick, full of Carnations and many open-air flowers 
arranged in various pretty ways, even the house being full of large 
basins of Carnations some of them of one self-coloured kind — a rare 
pleasure. The flower garden was not one of those places which 
astonish us by a showy display, but modest at first sight as regards 
flower-gardening in immediate relation to the house, and the chief 
charm of the place was rather in various little side gardens and long 
and pretty borders backed with Holly and other hedges, and giving 


an opportunity for growing a great number of hardy flowers which 
bloom in the autumn. These formed picture vistas, of which the effec^ 
is very often better than a flower garden of the usual type. But, more 
than this, the excellent plan was followed here by the late Lady 
Henry Grosvenor of having what I do not think any garden can be 
right without, namely, a " square " or reserve garden in which things 
are grown well without reference to effect. It was a large square 
of the kitchen garden thrown into 4-feet beds, with little beaten 
alleys between, in which many thousand Carnations were grown 
in simple masses. One sees at once how much more beauty and 
variety can be got in such ways than where all the effort goes to 
help one scheme for effect in front of one's windows. What is the 
secret of beauty in such a garden, and what the lesson to be learnt 
from it? It is that no one plan will give us a garden beautiful for any 
length of time even in the fine season, as any one way is so liable to 
failure from the weather or other causes ; that the main source of 
success is to have various ways with flowers, as there were at Bulwick, 
Hardy plants in beds and borders apart from the flower garden 
proper (that, too, being pretty) are the source of the charms of this 
garden — the variety of situation, the variety of plants, but of hand- 
some, well-chosen and well-grown plants, and even variety of level in 
the various gardens, such as occurs at Bulwick, are all good aids, and 
the nearness of an interesting kitchen garden with sheltering walls is a 
source of beauty and variety. 

EVERSLEY. — In the late Charles Kingsley's rectory garden at 
Eversley, we get to see a modest, and simple as charming, type of 
garden. The walls and borders are full of flowers, while the Grass 
clothes the central space. When Canon Kingsley became rector of 
Eversley, in 1844, he found the garden at the rectory in as unsatis- 
factory a state as was, in other respects, the rest of his parish ; but 
its capabilities he used to the utmost. On the sloping lawn between 
the house and the road stood, and still stands, a noble group of three 
Scotch Firs, planted about the time that James I. — who was just then 
building the grand old house of Bramshill, hard by, as a hunting box 
for Prince Henry — planted the Scotch Firs in Bramshill Park, and 
the clumps on Hartford Bridge Flats and Elvetham Mount. Most of 
the garden consisted then of a line of ponds from the glebe fields, past 
the house, down to the large pond behind the garden and churchyard. 
The rector at once became his own landscape gardener, and the ponds 
were drained. Plane trees, which threatened in every high gale to 
fall on the south end of the house, were cut down, and masses of 
shrubs were planted to keep out the cold draughts, which even on 
summer evenings streamed down from the bogs on the edge of 
Hartford Bridge Flats. What had been a wretched chicken yard in 


front of the brick-floored room used as a study was laid down in 
(Jrass, with a wide border on each side, and the wall between the 
house and stable was soon a mass of creeping Roses, scarlet Honey- 

Sttps, and terrace, "The Old Park," Axminster. Terrace garden not stiffly planted. From 
a photograph by Miss Dryden, Canons Ashby. 

suckles, and Virginian Creeper. Against the south side of the house 
a Magnolia (M. grandiflora) was trained, filling the rooms with its 
fragrance. Lonicera and Clematis montana. Wistaria, Gloire de Dijon 
and Ayrshire Roses, and variegated Ivy hid the rest of the wall with a 


veil of sweetness. In front of the study window, on the lawn, an 
immense plant of Japanese Honeysuckle grows, and next to this the 
pride of the study garden lay in its double yellow Brier Roses. These 
grew very freely, and in June the wall of the house and garden was 
ablaze with the golden blooms, the rooms being decorated for two or 
three weeks with dishes of the yellow Roses. From the low, damp 
situation of the rectory, none but the hardiest plants could be grown 
out-of-doors ; but the borders were always gay with such plants as 
Phloxes, Delphiniums, Saxifrages, Pinks, Pansies, and, above all, 
Roses and Carnations. One bay in front of the house was well 
covered with Pyracantha, in which a pair of white-throats built un- 
disturbed for many years. Rhododendrons grew in the greatest 
luxuriance, and the neighbours always came to see the rector's garden 
when two beds, on either side of the front, were in blossom. An 
ancient Yew tree, and a slight hedge of Laburnum, Hollies, Lilac, 
and Syringa divide the rectory garden from the churchyard, and 
here, again, the rector turned his mind to making the best of what 
he had. The church, a plain red brick structure, was gradually 
covered with Roses, Ivy, Cotoneaster, Pyracantha, &c., and, in order 
that his parishioners should look on beautiful objects when they 
assembled in the churchyard for their Sunday gossip before service, 
the older part of the churchyard was planted with choice trees, flower- 
ing shrubs. Junipers, Cypress, Berberis, and Acer Negundo, and the 
Grass dotted with Crocuses where it was not carpeted with wild white 

Edge Hall garden is one of those in which the hardy flowers of 
the northern world are grown in numbers for the owner's delight and 
the good of his friends, and it is in such large collections that charming 
novelties for our gardens often make their appearance. Such gardens 
in our own day carry on the traditions, so to say, of very interesting 
English and Scottish gardens of the past, in which numbers of beauti- 
ful open air things were grown — among those I have had the happi- 
ness to see were the late Mr. Borrer's at Henfield in Sussex, a garden 
museum of beautiful hardy plants and of rare British forms of plants and 
trees ; the Ellacombes' garden at Bitton ; Mr. Leeds' garden at Man- 
chester ; Stirling's at Edinburgh ; Comely Bank, a home for the rarest 
and most beautiful plants ; the Rev. Harpur Crewe's ; Mr. Atkins's 
garden at Painswick ; Sir George McLeay's at Pendell Court; Major 
Gaisford's at Offington, and many other delightful gardens. The riches 
of the collection in such gardens are a source of danger as to effect, the 
very number of plants often leading to a neglect of breadth and 
simplicity of effect ; but there is no real reason why a garden, rich 
in many plants, may not also be beautiful in its masses, airiness and 
verdure. A mile to the east the well-wooded and well-heathered range 

Wilton, lookinij 

Wilton, another view. 


of the Broxton Hills gives shelter, whilst from the south-west to the 
north-west the horizon is formed by Welsh mountain ranges. A sunk 
fence of sandstone, easily jumped by a fox or a hare, and in other parts 
a line of movable hurdles, well wired against rabbits, separate three 
acres for house and garden from the surrounding grass fields and from 
a small park of eighty acres. About 200 yards from the house the 
sand rock comes through, forming a long terrace with an escarpment 
towards the west. The woods in spring are carpeted first with Prim- 
roses and wood Anemones, then with wild Hyacinths and Pink 
Campion, whilst later there is a tall growth of Campanula latifolia 
and large breadths of Japanese Knotwort, which have been planted to 
supersede Nettles, while overhead is abundance of Hawthorn, Crab, 
and wild Cherry. The hall stands on the side of a hollow watercourse 
worn in the stiff clay, which in Cheshire often lies over the sand 
rock. Down this watercourse runs a torrent in heavy rains, but it is 
quite dry in summer. On the sloping banks of this, close above the 
house, there formerly stood ranges of cow-houses and pig-sties, which 
drained into a stagnant pond in the bed of the watercourse within 
twenty yards of the bedroom windows. Twenty-five years ago it was 
drained, the watercourse confined within a covered culvert ; and the 
whole space is now covered all summer with a dense forest of herbaceous 
plants — every good kind which will thrive in the cold soil on which 
the house stands being cultivated there, 

Stonelands, Sussex. — It is pleasant to get out of the conven- 
tional and there are many ways of doing so but gardens are often out 
of all sympathy with the surrounding country, whereas the landscape 
and sylvan beauty of a pretty country might often be reflected, so to 
say, in the home landscape. It might indeed often tell us what to do 
as regards grouping, and kinds of trees and the natural character of 
the ground even give hints as to ground work in gardens. Stonelands 
is characteristic of the small manor house of the woodland district of 
Sussex, with its groups of Scotch Firs behind the house and in intimate 
connection with the farm buildings near. The house, too, is of a good 
Sussex kind with bright sunny windows, stone, pretty in colour, big 
chimneys, and there is a small terrace necessary from the lie of the 
ground, which also cuts off the house from the road to the farm 
buildings near. 

Golder's Hill. — Places where there are simple conditions for 
beauty in design and planting are rare, and it is all the more pleasing 
to meet with an example of artistic treatment of a garden almost in 
London, on the western border of Hampstead Heath. As regards design 
and views, it is the prettiest of town gardens, and the conditions of its 
beauty are so simple that there is little to be said about them ; an 
open lawn rolling up to the house, groups of fine trees, and wide and 



distant views over the country, the whole suggestive of good effect 
from simple hardy materials both in trees and flowers, but the elevation 
is such that no half hardy exotics are likely to succeed, and therefore 
hardy things give us our best chances of success. 

A sunken fence separates the lawn from some park-like meadow 
with fine Oaks and Firs ; and beyond, the country north of London 
opens up, without any building visible on either side or in the fore- 
ground. From almost every other point of view these trees seem to 
form a picturesque group, and afford a welcome shade in summer. 
In front of the house is an open lawn, which one can get on to at once 
from any point. Being on a gentle rise, some would no doubt have 
urged this as a reason for making some kind of fortification in the 
shape of walls, which would have destroyed the repose, verdure, and 
the freedom of the spot. Now the only drawback — if drawback it be 
to such perfect freedom and breadth of airy foreground — is the fact 
that it offers a temptation to unthinking people to dot it over with 
shrubs, or evergreen trees, and many places, well laid out, are spoiled 
by this thoughtless dotting about of objects of poor form. The 
question of flowers is the greatest difficulty, because people are so well 
accustomed to have all their flowers gathered in front of the house, that 
if abundant provision is not made for them elsewhere, the carpet is 
apt, some day or other, to be dissected into a number of ugly flower- 
beds. The best way to guard against this in lawn gardens is to pro- 
vide abundance of simple beds elsewhere which, half seen peeping 
through the trees, or met with in groups here and there at no great 
distance from the house, may afford better effects than if all the beds 
are under the windows. Thus where the foreground is a pleasant 
lawn it is often well to have another site for the flower garden ; and 
good large beds or groups of beds, in which fine things can be grown. 
To have in one spot a group of large beds, simple in outline 
with Roses and smaller plants surfacing the ground ; next in some 
isolated nook, large beds of Lilies, separated by a group of low shrubs 
and flowering Yuccas from a few beds of hardy flowers ; then a varied 
flower garden partially cut off and embowered by trees — these and the 
like are in certain situations likely to give that variety of treatment 
which it is the aim of this chapter to secure. 

ToTLEY Hall, near Sheffield, Yorks. — This fine old country 
house stands beside the old coach road from Sheffield to Chatsworth 
and Haddon Hall, on an elevation with good and extensive views. 
Over the front door is the date 1623, about the time when Gerard's 
Herbhal was published, and six years before Parkinson's Paradisus 
of 1629. Built in such a flower-loving epoch it seems fitting that 
it should be a flowery place to-day. Inside the entrance hall there 
is some fine old oak carving and staircase, and there was formerly 

F 2 


a quaint old gallery around the hall, but new additions necessi- 
tated its removal. The flower garden slopes rather suddenly from 
the fringe of the front lawn and is rich in well-grown Daffodils 
and other choice flowers, sheltered by winding hedges. There is a 
fine range of hills terminated by a bluff or headland in front 
of the house, and to the right are vast stretches of moorland. The 
elevated character and breezy freshness of the place are suggestive 
of the sea. 

Here, in spring, appear in great profusion the chaste flowers of the 
Daffodils, for Totley Hall is a home of the Daffodil. Standing at the 
lower end of the long flower borders — confined within hedges of 
Hollies, intersected by a winding path fringed with seedling Auriculas 
— there is seen a host of Daffodils. 

As one gazes upon them, with their delicate and fragile heads 
waving gently to and fro in the soft westerly breeze, there rush 
involuntarily to one's mind Wordsworth's words on his sudden view 
of the wild Daffodils at Ullswater — 

then my heart with pleasure fills 

And dances with the Daffodils. 
The deep golden yellows glow with a warmth that suggests the 
absorption of the sun's rays at their brightest moments. The chaste 
and beautiful whiteness of others appears as if they had quietly 
appropriated, in the stillness of the night, the silvery moonbeams 
that softly kissed their fragile petals, whilst the paler tints of cream, 
sulphur and primrose are suggestive of the soft-coloured mantle spread 
o'er the skies by the lingering rays of the setting sun. The Daffodil — 
fit emblem of spring — is here in all its forms and colours. — F. W. B. 

The Keep Garden at Farnham Castle. — In our own day, 
when it has been stated that the only garden worthy the name is one 
within four square walls, it interests me to come upon gardens 
of wholly different character, which show the folly of rules about 
a subject which admits of so much variety of position, form, and 
detail as a flower garden does. One of the most interesting I have 
lately seen is the little flower garden on the top of the old keep at 
Farnham Castle, which is as picturesque in situation and informal in 
outline as a garden can be, while it is extremely pretty with the 
broken walls on all sides clad with Ivy and Clematis, and in the centre 
many flowers. The variety of form from the walls surrounding it and 
the various climbers give it a singular charm. The hardiest flowers 
are grown, as is most fitting for such a garden — Irises in masses and 
evergreen perennials, which help to keep some grace in the garden 
towards the end of the year, and Tea and other Roses also help. 
Although I saw it on the verge of winter, it even then had much 
beautv of leaf and flower. 


It should be clear that in any such situation it is only possible 
through flower gardening of the free and picturesque kind to get a good 
result, and, happily, there are so many treasures in our gardens now, 
that while growing things for their beauty of form or flower of fragrance, 
we may have much variety as to contents, grouping, and succession of 
bloom in such a garden. 

Elderfield. — In Miss Yonge's garden we are again away from 
convention and free to enjoy the charm of trees and shrubs among the 
flowers, as in many beautiful British gardens somewhat larger than cot- 
tage gardens, but keeping the unstamped grace and variety of the cottage 
garden. One of the good points of such gardens is the freedom enjoyed 
to do or undo at any time of the year — there is always pleasant work to 
do and no violent effort at any one time — as is the case with gardens 
that depend on tender flowers only. The true flower-garden is one in 
which there is, as in nature and life, ceaseless change. " Elderfield 
has always looked an ideal home for an authoress. A little low white 
house — nothing but a cottage she calls it herself — covered with creepers, 
which keep up a succession of bloom to peep in at the windows 
There is a very old Myrtle to the right, shorn of much of its height 
since the very cold winter of 1895 ; and round Miss Yonge's drawing- 
room window (the upper one to the left) a Banksian and a summer 
Rose are ever looking in at her as she writes steadily every morning 
at the writing table drawn close up to the window, or tapping at the 
glass when the curtains are drawn and they are in danger of being 
forgotten. M. ACTON." 

English Gardens Abroad and their Lessons.— Some of the 
most beautiful flower gardens are to be seen in the homes of English 
people living in Madeira, the Riviera, Algeria, and countries generally 
permitting of beautiful flower gardening during the winter and with a 
season of many flowers throughout the spring ; real gardens varied 
and full of beautiful colour, yet without any trace of the barren 
monotony characteristic of most gardens at home. The generally 
picturesque nature of the ground, the presence of graceful fruit and 
other trees, and the absence of any pretentious attempt to conform 
the whole to one set idea, lead to the simple and artistic garden. 
The garden of Mr. Arkwright at Mustapha, near Algiers, is a good 
example of the English garden in other lands, a garden full of beauti- 
ful things, and these so placed that pictures are seen at every turn. 
Noble Tea Roses like Chromatella are fountains of bloom, sometimes 
running up a tapering Cypress, and sending out of it far overhead 
graceful shoots laden with flowers. Lamarque, the noblest of white 
Roses, grows and blooms about as freely as the Elder bush does at 
home. Many Tea Roses of all sizes are here ; sometimes kinds are 
superb that rarely open well with us at home, such as Cloth of Gold, 


But it is not only the climate makes the garden beautiful, as the way 
of planting is the main source of beauty here. 

Borders are thick set with the foliage of the Iris in many forms, 
and particularly the winter-flowering Iris, which has its home in 
Algeria. The Pelargoniums are in lovely bushes in light or shade, 
while Datura, Palm, Jasmine, Acacia, Fig, Lemon, and Magnolia are 
happy in the sun, with masses of Cineraria here and there in half- 
shade, with many Violets, and even wild flowers of the country. 
Bougainvilleas and handsome Bignonias grace the walls in free and 
pretty ways, while here and there the Algerian Ivy is seen, a noble 
climber, the fine qualities of which are not in the least affected by the 
hot sun in the summer here it ascends to high parts of the moun- 
tains there, which look arid enough and are terribly hot in summer. 
No one need despair of gracing a dry bank with a fine thing who takes 
the Algerian Ivy for that purpose, and it maybe its long sojourn in so 
dry a country has prepared it better for growth in the sun than the 
forms of the Ivy from the cooler northern woods of our Islands. 
Some of the most beautiful garden effects I have seen were here, 
all the finer from the background of high cliffs above clad with ever- 
green Oak, Pine, and wild Olive, but the best lesson is not from the 
varied life in the garden so much as from the happy and natural way 
the whole is disposed. 

In this way also we have variety as well as pictures — as much 
variety as may be wished, of which there is an example in Mr. 
Hanbury's well-stored garden at La Mortola, in the Italian Riviera. 

The variety is not in itself so much worth seeking as beauty, which 
is just what we lose when we commit ourselves to any one way of 
flower gardening. To be free to add or plant at almost any time of 
the year is a great advantage ; whereas in the pattern flower garden 
the whole is set out and taken up at fixed times. The result is a 
dreadfully fixed one too, and if any beautiful bush, or bulb, or flower 
happens to come in our way that does not fit into the wretched 
system, so much the worse for it. 

The fear of anything like a bush or low tree that governs the idea 
of many flower gardens at home at present does not exist here, so 
that we have light and shade, many bushes and even low trees that 
give chances for surprises and changes. This is partly owing to the 
warmth which allows of the growth of many pretty bushes that may 
well grace a flower garden, but, once free from the idea that a flower 
garden must be a flat surface seen at a glance, there would be no real 
difficulty in carrying out like ways of planting in our climate in which 
so many lovely bushes grow if we give them a chance. One minor 
charm of these English gardens abroad arises from the fact that any 
necessary stone-work is done in a simple way by the garden men. 


As the ground is often steep, steps and little walls or protecting 
corners are often wanted ; but whenever the native gardener wants 
anything of this kind, he does not go through a circumlocution bureau 
for inspiration and drawings to scale, but builds what he wants in a 
simple ready way with the stone nearest at hand, and the result is 
much better from a gardening point of view than more elaborate and 
costly work. The island of Madeira is very instructive too in the 
variety of its gardens ; every one I remember was distinct, and this 
was owing to the owners being free to do as the ground invited them, 
instead of following any fixed idea as to style, or leaving it to men 
who are ready with similar plans for all sorts of positions. In France, 
England, or Germany this could never happen, because owing to con- 
formity about style and the use of book plans, we can usually tell 
beforehand what sort of garden we are to see ! 



We now come to the flowers that are worthy of a place in gardens, 
and to consider ways of arranging them. Their number and variety 
being almost without limit, the question is, how the garden lover is to 
enjoy as many of these treasures as his conditions allow of. As during 
all time a simple border has been the first expression of flower garden- 
ing, and as there is no arrangement of flowers more graceful, varied, or 
capable of giving more delight, and none so easily adapted to almost 
every kind of garden, some ideas of the various kinds of borders of 
hardy flowers mainly deserve our first consideration. 

Cost and Endurance. — The difference in cost of growing 
hardy flowers or tender should be thought of The sacrifice of flower 
gardens to plants that perish every year has often left them poor of 
all the nobler plants. We must take into account the hothouses, the 
propagation of plants by thousands at certain seasons, the planting 
out at the busiest and fairest time of the year — in June, the digging 
up and storing in autumn, the care in the winter. 

Perhaps the most striking effects from individual plants ever seen 
in England were Japanese Lilies grown for years in the open air by 
Mr. M'Intosh among his Rhododendrons at Weybridge Heath. And 
not only Lilies ; but many noble flowers may be grown in the same 
simple way. A few years ago we saw only dense masses of Rhodo- 
dendrons ; now the idea of growing this shrub with the finer hardy 
plants has spread. It means more room to show the form of the 
shrubs, and more light and shade ; mutual relief of shrub and plant ; 
colonies and groups of lovely plants among the shrubs. Good 
preparation and some knowledge of plants are needed, but no neces- 
sity whatever for any system that may not be called permanent. 

There are a number of things which, given thorough preparation 
at first, it would be wise to leave alone for some years at a time — as, 
for example, groups or beds of the various Tritomas, Irises, Lilies, 
Paeonies, the free-flowering Yuccas, Narcissi — these and many more. 


either grouped with others or in families. When all these exhaust 
the ground or become too crowded, by all means move them and 
replant, but this is a very different thing from moving all the plants in 
the flower garden twice a year. 

It would be better every way if, so far as the flower garden is 
concerned, gardeners were to see what could be done unaided by 
the hothouse ; but meanwhile the wise man will reduce the expense 
of glass, labour, fire, repairs, paint, pipes, and boilers to something like 
reasonable proportions. In presence of the wealth of our hardy 
garden flora, the promise of which is now such as men never expected 

Flower-borders with grass path between. From a photograph by Mrs. Martin, Bournbrook Hall, Birmingham. 

a few years ago no one need doubt of making a fair flower garden 
from hardy plants alone. 

The True Way to make gardens yield a return of beauty for 
the labour and skill given them is the permanent one. Choose some 
beautiful class of plants and select a place that will suit them, even as 
to their effect in the garden landscape. Let the beds be planted as 
permanently and as well as possible, so that there will remain little to 
do for years. All plants may not lend themselves to this permanent 
plan, but such as do not may be grown apart — for instance, the Poppy, 


Anemones, Turban and Persian Ranunculuses, Carnations, Stocks, 
Asters, and the finer annuals. But a great many delightfijl plants can 
be planted permanently, and be either allowed to arrange themselves, 
to group with others, or to grow among peat-loving shrubs which, in 
many places, are jammed into pudding-shaped masses void of form or 
grace, or light and shade. 

One of the best reforms will be to avoid the conventional pattern 
plans, and adopt simple beds and borders, in positions suited to 
the plants they are to grow. These can best be filled permanently, 
because the planter is free to deal with them in a bolder and 
more artistic way than if he has to consider their relation to a number 
of small beds. In this way, also, the delight of flowers is much 
more keenly felt as one sees them relieved, sees them at different 
times, and to more advantage than the flowers stereotyped under 
the window. Roses — favourites with everybody — grouped well 
together, and not trained as standards, would lend themselves 
admirably to culture with other things — moss Roses growing out of a 
carpet of double Primroses, and Tea Roses with Carnations. Then 
there are many groups made by the aid of the finer perennials them- 
selves, such as the Delphiniums and Phloxes, by choosing things that 
would go well together. Other plants, such as Yuccas, of which there 
are now various beautiful kinds, are often best by themselves ; and 
noble groups they form, whether in flower or not. The kinds of 
Yucca that flower very freely, such as Y. recurva and Y. flaccida, lend 
themselves to grouping with Flame Flowers (Tritoma) and the bolder 
autumn plants. 

No plan which involves expensive yearly efforts on the same piece 
of ground can ever be satisfactory. All garden plants require atten- 
tion, but not annual attention. The true way is quite different — the 
devotion of the Skill and effort to fresh beds and effects each year. 
It does not exclude summer " bedding," but includes lovely and varied 
aspects of vegetation far beyond that attainable in summer "bedding," 
and attempts to make the garden artistically beautiful. It also helps to 
make the skill of the gardener effective for lasting good, and prevents 
its being thrown away in annual fireworks. There can be no garden- 
ing without care ; but is there not a vast difference between some of 
these beds and borders and those with flowers which disappear with 
the frosts of October, and leave us nothing but bare earth ? 

The main charm of bedding plants — that of lasting in bloom 
a long time — is really a drawback. It is the stereotyped kind of 
garden which we have to fight against ; we want beautiful and 
changeful gardens, and should therefore have the flowers of each 
season. Too short a bloom is a misfortune ; but so is too long a bloom, 
and numbers of hardy plants bloom quite as long as can be desired. 


There is nothing whatever used in bedding out to be compared 
in colour, form, or fragrance with many famihes of hardy plants. 
There is no beauty among bedding plants at all comparable with that 
of Irises, Lilies, Delphiniums, Evening Primroses, Paeonies, Carnations, 
Narcissi, and a host of others. Are we to put aside or into the back- 
ground all this glorious beauty for the sake of a few things that merely 
give us flat colour? No one who knows even to a slight extent what 
the plants of the northern and temperate world are can admit that 
this sort of gardening should have the first place. There is nothing 
among " carpet" plants equal to Windflowers in many kinds, flowering 
in spring, summer, and autumn ; Torch Lilies, superb in autumn : 
Columbines ; Harebells ; Delphiniums ; Day Lilies ; Everlasting Peas ; 
Evening Primroses ; Paeonies ; Phloxes ; Ranunculus, double and single, 
and the many fine species ; all the noble autumn-blooming. Daisy- 
like flowers ; Scabious ; plumy Spiraeas ; Globe Flowers ; Lilies, in 
noble variety ; Polyanthus ; Primroses ; Auriculas ; Wallflowers 
Meadow Saffrons ; Crocuses, of the spring and autumn ; Scillas 
Gladioli ; Snowflakes ; Grape Hyacinths ; Narcissi, in lovely variety 
Tulips, the old florists' kinds, and many wild species ; Yuccas ; Carna- 
tions and Pinks ; Dielytras ; Cornflowers ; Foxgloves ; Stocks ; Star- 
worts ; great Scarlet and other Poppies ; Christmas Roses, both of the 
winter and spring ; Forget-me-nots ; Pansies and many of the rock 
plants of the mountains of Europe — from the Alps to the hills of 
Greece, cushioned with Aubrietia, and skyblue Wind-flowers — all hardy 
as the Docks by the frozen brooks. 

Flower Borders Fringing Shrubberies. — A frequent way 
in which people attempt to cultivate hardy flowers is in what is 
called the " mixed border," often made on the edge of a shrubbery, 
the roots of which leave little food or even light for the flowers. 
The face of a shrubbery should be broken and varied ; the shrubs 
should not form a hard line, but here and there they should come 
full to the edge and finish it. The variety of positions and places 
afforded by the front of a shrubbery so arranged is tempting, but 
it is generally best to use plants which do not depend for their 
beauty on high culture — which, in fact, fight their way near shrubs 
— and there are a great many of them, such as the evergreen Candy- 
tufts, the large-leaved Rockfoils, Acanthus, Day Lilies, Solomon's 
Seal, Starworts, Leopard's Banes, Moon Daisies, and hardy native 

A scattered, dotty mixed border along the face of a shrubbery 
gives a poor effect, but a good one may be secured by grouping 
the plants in the open spaces between the shrubs, making a careful 
selection of plants, each occupying a bold space. Nothing can be 
more delightful than a border made thus ; but it requires knowledge 


of plants, and that desire to consider plants in relation to their sur- 
roundings which is never shown by those who make a " dotty " mixed 
border, which is the same all the way along and in no place pretty. 
The presence of tree and shrub life is a great advantage to those who 
know how to use it. Here is a group of shrubs over which we can 
throw a delicate veil of some pretty creeper that would look stiff and 
wretched against a wall ; there a shady recess beneath a flowering 
tree : instead of planting it up with shrubs in the common way, 
cover the ground with Woodruff, which will form a pretty carpet 
and flower very early in the year, and through the Woodruff a few 
British Ferns ; in front of this use only low plants, and we shall 

A flower-border at Fillingham Castle, Lincoln. 

thus get a pretty little vista, with shade and a pleasant relief. Next 
we come to a bare patch on the margin. Cover it with a strong 
evergreen Candytuft, and let this form the edge. Then allow a group 
of Japan Quince to come right into the grass edge and break the 
margin ; then a large group of broad-leaved Saxifrage, receding under 
the near bushes and trees ; and so proceed making groups and 
colonies, considering every aid from shrub or tree, and never using a 
plant of which we do not know and enjoy the effect. 

This plan is capable of much variety, whether we are dealing 
with an established and grown shrubbery, or a choice plantation of 
flowering Evergreens. In the last case, owing to the soil and the 
neat habit of the bushes, we have excellent conditions in which, 
good culture is possible. One can have the finest things among 


them — if the bushes are not jammed together. The ordinary way 
of planting shrubs is such that they grow together, and then it is 
not possible to have flowers between them, nor to see the true form 
of the bushes, which are lost in one solid leafy mass. In growing 
fine things — Lilies or Cardinal Flowers, or tall Evening Primroses 
— among open bushes we may form a delightful garden, we secure 
sufficient space for the bushes to show their forms, and we get light 
and shade among them. In such plantations one might have in the 
back parts " secret " colonies of lovely things which it might not be 
well to show in the front of the border, or which required shade and 
shelter that the front did not afford. 

Borders by Grass Walks in Shade or Sun. — It is not only 
in the flower garden where we may have much beauty of flower, but 
away from it there are many places better fitted for growing the more 
beautiful things which do not require continual attention. Unhappily, 
the common way of planting shrubberies has robbed many Grass 
walks of all charm. The great trees, which take care of themselves, 
are often fine, but the common mixed plantation of Evergreens 
means death to the variety and beauty of flower we may have by 
Grass walks in sun or shade. The shrubs are frequently planted in 
mixtures, in which the most free-growing are so thickly set as soon 
to cover the whole ground, Cherry Laurel, Portugal Laurel, Privet, 
and such common things frequently killing all the choicer shrubs 
and forming dark heavy walls of leaves. Some of these Evergreens, 
being very hungry things, overrun the ground, rob the trees, and 
frequently, as in the case of the Portugal Laurels, give a dark 
monotonous effect while keeping the walks wet, airless, and lifeless. 

Light and shade and the charm of colour are impossible in such 
cases with these heavy, dank Evergreens, often cut back, but once one 
is free of their slavery what delightful places there are for growing 
all hardy flowers in broad masses, from the handsome Oriental 
Hellebores of the early spring to the delicate lavenders of the 
Starworts in October. Not only hardy flowers, but graceful climbers 
like the wild Clematis, and lovely corners of light and shade may be 
made instead of the walls of sombre Evergreens. If we want the 
ground green with dwarf plants, we have no end of delightful plants 
at hand in the Ivies and Evergreens like Cotoneaster. There is no 
need for the labour and ugliness of clipping. I have seen places with 
acres of detestable clipped Laurels, weary and so ugly ! With all 
these grubbed and burnt, what places, too, for such beautiful things as 
the giant Fennels with their more than Fern-like grace, and all our 
strong, hardy Ferns which want no rocks, with Solomon's Seal and 
Foxgloves among them. Such walks may pass from open spaces 
into half-shady ones or through groves of old Fir or other trees, 



and so give us picturesque variety apart from their planting with 

Flower Borders against Walls and Houses. — In many 
situations near houses, and especially old houses, there are delightful 
opportunities for a very beautiful kind of flower border. The stone 
forms fine background, and there are no thieving tree roots. Here 
we have conditions exactly opposite to those in the shrubbery ; here 
we can have the best soil, and keep it for our favourites ; we can 
have Delphiniums, Lilies, Paeonies, Irises, and all choice plants well 
grown. Walls may be adorned with climbers of graceful growth, 
climbing Rose, Wistaria, Vine, or Clematis, which will help out our 
beautiful mixed border. Those must to some extent be trained, 
although they may be allowed a certain degree of abandoned grace 
even on a wall. In this kind of border we have, as a rule, no back- 

Flower border against wall at Sidbury Manor. 

ground of shrubs, and therefore we must get the choicest variety of plant 
life into the border itself and we must try to have a constant succes- 
sion of interest. In winter this kind of border may have a bare look 
when seen from the windows, but the variety of good hardy plants 
is so great, that we can make it almost evergreen by using evergreen 
rock-plants. Where walls are broken with pillars, a still better effect 
may be obtained by training Vines and Wistaria along the top and 
over the pillars or the buttresses. 

The Flower Border in the Fruit or Kitchen Garden. 
— We have here a frequent kind of mixed border often badly made, 
but which may be excellent. A gqod plan is to secure from about 
eight to ten feet of rich soil on each side of the walk, and cut the 
borders off from the main garden by a trellis of some kind from seven 
feet to nine feet high. This trellis may be of strong iron wire, or, better 


still, of simple rough wooden branches. Any kind of rough permanent 
trellis will do, on which we may grow Climbing Roses and Clematis 
and all the choicer but not rampant climbers. Moreover, we can 
grow them in their natural grace along the wires or rough branches, 
or up and across a rough wooden trellis — Rose and Jasmine showing 
their grace uncontrolled. We fix the main branches to the supports, 
and leave the rest to the winds, and form a fine type of flower 
border in this way, as we have the graceful climbing plants in contrast 
with the flowers in the border. 

General borders may be made in various ways ; but it may be well 
to bear in mind the following points : Select only good plants ; throw 
away weedy kinds, there is no scarcity of the best. See good col- 
lections. Put, at first, rare kinds in lines across four-feet nursery 
beds, so that a stock of plants may be at hand. Make the choicest 
borders where they cannot be robbed by the roots of trees ; see that 
the ground is good and rich, and that it is at least two and a half 
feet deep, so deep that, in a dry season, the roots can seek their 
supplies far below the surface. In planting, plant in naturally dis- 
posed groups, never repeating the same plant along the border at 
intervals, as is so often done with favourites. Do not graduate the 
plants in height from the front to the back, as is generally done, but 
sometimes let a bold plant come to the edge ; and, on the other hand, 
let a little carpet of a dwarf plant pass in here and there to the back, 
so as to give a varied instead of a monotonous surface. Have no 
patience with bare ground, and cover the border with dwarf plants ; do 
not put them along the front of the border only. Let Hepaticas and 
double and other Primroses, and Saxifrages, and Golden Moneywort 
and Stonecrops, and Forget-me-nots, and dwarf Phloxes, and many 
similar plants cover the ground among the tall plants betimes — at the 
back as well as the front. Let the little ground plants form broad 
patches and colonies by themselves occasionally, and let them pass into 
and under other plants. A white Lily will be all the better for having 
a colony of creeping Forget-me-nots over it in the winter, and the 
variety that may be thus obtained is infinite. 

Thoroughly prepared at first, the border might remain for years 
without any digging in the usual sense. When a plant is old and 
rather too thick, never hesitate to replant it on a wet day in the 
middle of August any more than in the middle of winter. Take it 
up and put a fresh bold group in fresh ground ; the young plants 
will have plenty of roots by the winter, and in the following spring 
will flower much stronger than if they had been transplanted in 
spring or in winter. Do not pay much attention to labelling ; if a 
plant is not worth knowing, it is not worth growing ; let each good 
thing be so bold and so well grown as to make its presence felt. 

G 2 



Mr. Frank Miles on the Flower Border. — Among the 
first to see the merits of effectively carpeting borders, and who made 
the border suggested in my Hardy Flowers, was the late Frank 

Flower border against house. 

Miles, the artist, and an excellent flower gardener. His own account 
of his work I give here. 

If we are to have mixed borders of herbaceous plants, one thing is quite 
certain — we can never go back to the borders of our ancestors in which every 


plant had a bare space of ground round it. In the spot where once a plant had 
bloomed, there was an end for the year of any flowers. Now a yard of ground 
should have bloom on it at least eight months in the year, and this applies to 
every yard of ground in a really good mixed border. I am certain that, once a 
border is well made, it need not be dug up at all. But the question is — what is 
a well-made border ? I think a border is not well made, or suitable for growing 
the most beautiful plants to perfection, unless it is as well made as a Vine border 
in a vinery. Why we should not take as much trouble with the garden border as 
the border of a conservatory I cannot imagine, seeing that Lilies will grow 1 1 feet 
high in the open air, not less than lOj inches across the flower, and Irises little 
less than that. The more I garden the deeper I get my drainage, and the fuller 
of sand and fibre my soil. I consider, first, that a border must have a bed of 
broken bricks or other drainage, with ashes over that, to prevent the drainage 
from filling up ; secondly, that that bed of drainage must have 2 feet of light 
soil over it ; thirdly, that that soil must have equal parts of sand, soil, and veget- 
able matter. A soil of these constituents and depth is never wet in winter and 
never dry in summer. During the dry weather I found soil like this, in which 
quantities of auratum Lilies were growing, to be quite moist an inch below the 
surface, and I know in winter it always appears dry compared with the natural 
garden soil. 

But, for all practical intents and purposes, every 6 inches of ground could 
contain its plant, so that no 6 inches of bare ground need obtrude on the eye. 
Almost any kind of bare rock has a certain beauty, but I cannot say bare ground 
is ever beautiful. Well, supposing the back of the border filled with Delphiniums, 
Phloxes, and Roses, pegged down, and other summer and autumn-blooming plants, 
and supposing the border to be made as I have described it, I should carpet the 
ground at the back with spring-blooming flowers, so that when the Roses are bare 
and the Delphiniums and Phloxes have not pushed above ground, the border should 
even then be a blaze of beauty. Crocuses, Snowdrops, Aconites, and Primroses 
are quite enough for that purpose. The whole space under the Roses I should 
cover with the Common Wood Anemone, and the golden Wood Anemone, and 
early Cyclamens, and the earliest Dwarf Daffodils. And among the Roses and 
Pasonies and other medium-sized shrubs I would put all the taller Lilies, such 
as require continual shade on their roots ; and such as pai'dalinum and the 
Californian Lilies generally, the Japanese, Chinese, and finer American Lilies. 
Now we come more to the front of the border, and here I would have com- 
binations, such as the great St. Bruno's Lily and the delicate hybrid Columbines, 
Primroses planted over hardy autumn Gladioli, so that when the Primroses are at 
rest the Gladioli should catch the eye : Carnations and Daffodils, planted so that 
the Carnations form a maze of blue-green for the delicate creams and oranges of 
the Daffodils. When the Daffodils are gone there are the Carnations in the 
autumn. A mass of Iberis correjefolia happens to have been the very best thing 
possible for some Lilium Browni to grow thri)ugh, for the Iberis flowered early 
and then made a protection for the young growth of the Browni, and then a 
lovely dark green setting for the infinite beauty of the Lily flowers. As for say- 
ing that this cannot be done, I say that it is nonsense, for the Iberis flowered 
beautifully under such circumstances, and the Lilies too. If once you get it into 
your head that no bit of ground ought ever to be seen without flowers or immediate 
prospect of flowers, heaps of combinations will immediately occur to those con- 
versant with plants and the deep-rooting habits of most bulbs and the surface 
rooting of many herbaceous plants — for instance, Colchicums and Daffodils, with 
a surface of Campanula pusilla alba. The big leaves of the Colchicum grow in 
spring, and there would be nothing but leaves were it not for the masses of 


Daffodils. By and by the leaves of the Colchicums and Daffodils are dry enough 
to pull away, and then the Campanula, be it pusilla, pusilla alba, or turbinata 
alba, comes into a sheet of bloom. Before the bloom has passed away the 
Colchicum blooms begin to push up, and as some of my Colchicums are 5 inches 
across, of the richest rose colour, I do not exactly feel that this is a colourless 
kind of gardening, and as I have a hundred different kinds of Daffodils, this 
little arrangement will not be without interest in spring. 

The Daffodils and Colchicums root deeply and grow mostly in winter, 
requiring water then, and not in summer, when the Campanula carpet is taking 
it all. There are some, however, which one must be careful about — the common 
white Lily, for instance, which wants exposing to the sun in the autumn. I do 
not mind the exquisite French Poppies among these candidum Lilies, because the 
Poppies die about August, and then the Lilies get their baking and refuse to show 
the bare earth, soon covering it all with their leaves. For the extreme front of 
the border hundreds of combinations will occur — Pansies over Daffodils, Portulacas 
over Central Asian bulbs, Christmas Roses and Hellebores over the taller 

Flower border in fruit garden at Dunrobin Castle, N.B. 

Daffodils, with Gladioli, Tritomas, and giant Daffodils, Hepaticas, and autumn- 
blooming and spring-blooming Cyclamens, with Scillas and Snowdrops. When 
Anemone japonica is low, up come the taller Tulips, sylvestris for instance, and 
higher still out of the dark green leaves come the bejewelled Crown Imperials. 

As for the cultural advantages, I can imagine this system in the hands of a 
skilful gardener to be the best of all In the first place, the plants suffer much less 
from drought, because there is so much less surface exposed to sun and wind. 
Examine, not right under the root, but under the spreading part of a Mignonette, 
and see if, on a broiling hot day, the ground is not much cooler and moister than 
on the bare ground. Irises are almost the only plants I know of that do require 
the soil bare about their rootstocks, but then Irises are a carpet of green always, 
and a few clumps of Tiger Lilies or Tiger Irises will not seriously injure their 
flowering prospects. And what cannot be done with an herbaceous border edge 
when that edge is the green Grass ? Crocuses and Crocuses all the autumn and 
winter and spring in the Grass. The tiniest Scillas and Hyacinths, and Daffodils, 


and Snowdrops are leading into the border without any break. So I believe, and 
I think many others will believe by and by, that every bulbous plant ought to be 
grown in combination with something else, as Amaryllis Belladonna, for instance, 
which I plant with Arum italicum pictum. In spring the Arum comes up 
extremely early and its leaves protect the far more delicate leaves of the Amaryllis 
till they are growing freely and the Arum dies down. The ground is surfaced 
with Violets, so that the Belladonnas are now coming into bloom, not with the 
bare ground but with a setting of Violet leaves in beautiful contrast with their 
pink blossoms. Christmas Roses of all kinds would probably be a more beautiful 
setting still, but the Belladonnas want a good deal of summer drying up, which 
the Hellebores could not stand so well. 

We can never go back to the mixed border of our ancestors ; we have 
been spoilt for such blank, flowerless spaces as they had by the gorgeousness of 
bedding out. But we have now a wealth of hardy plants, especially bulbs, which 
they never had, and this combination of bulbous plants and herbaceous plants 
will certainly lead to a preparation of the borders which has been hardly dreamt 
•of by people who do not care what they spend on tropical flowers ; for it seems to 
be forgotten that we have Irises as big as a plate and Lilies as tall as a tree, all 
hardy and requiring little attention when once they have been properly planted. 
The time that used to be spent year after year in digging acres of borders might 
now be spent in properly making or re-making a few yards of border, till the 
whole outdoor borders are as exactly suited for the growth of plants to the utter- 
most perfection — as many as possible being put in the given space — as the 
borders of a large conservatory. It is in such a border as this that we attain the 
utmost variety, unceasingly beautiful, every yard different, every week varying, 
holding on its surface at least three times the value of plant life and successional 
plant beauty of any ordinary garden. The chief enemy to the system is the slug ; 
but while the Belladonna Delphinium, which is usually half eaten by slugs in most 
gardens, grows 6 feet high with me, I am not going to give up my system. 

The way so well described by Mr. F. Miles, and which he carried 
out admirably in his father's garden at Bingham — one of the few really 
lovely mixed borders I have seen — is to some extent that carried 
out in many pretty cottage gardens, owing to the plots being stored 
with all sorts of hardy flowers ; those are the cottage gardens where 
one often sees a charming succession of flowers and no bare ground. 

One of the prettiest garden borders I know is against a small 
house. Instead of the walk coming near the windows, a bed of 
choice shrubs, varying from 9 feet to 15 feet in width, is against the 
house. Nothing in this border grows high enough to intercept the 
view out of the windows on the ground floor, from which were seen 
the flowers of the border and a green lawn beyond. Among the shrubs 
were tall Evening Primroses, and Lilies, and Meadow Sweets, and 
tall blue Larkspurs, which after the early shrubs have flowered bloom 
above them. The ground is always furnished, and the effect is good, 
even in winter. 

Evergreen Borders of Hardy Flowers. — The plants of the 
older kind of mixed border were — like the Grasses of the meadows of 
the northern world — stricken to the earth by winter, and the border 


was not nearly so pretty then as the withered Grass of the plain or 
copse. But since the revival of interest in hardy and Alpine flowers, 
and the many introductions of recent years, we have a great number 
of beautiful plants that are evergreen in winter and that enable us to 
make evergreen borders. The great white blanket that covers the 
north and many mountain ranges in winter protects also for months 
many Alpine plants which do not lose their leaves in winter, such as 
Rockfoils, Stonecrops, Primroses, Gentians, and Christmas Roses. The 
most delicate of Alpine plants suffer, when exposed to our winter, from 
excitement of growth, to which they are not subject in their own 
home, but many others do not mind our winters much, and it is easy 

ider of hardy flowers 


by good choice of plants to make excellent borders wholly or in 
greater part evergreen. 

These are not only good as evergreens, but they are delightful in 
colour, many being beautiful in flower in spring, and having also the 
charm of assuming their most refreshing green just when other plants 
are dying in autumn. Along with these rock and herbaceous plants 
we may group a great many shrublets that come almost between the 
true shrub and the Alpine flower — little woody evergreen creeping 
things like the dwarf Partridge Berry, Canadian Cornel, hardy Heaths, 
and Sand Myrtles, often good in colour when grouped. 

Among these various plants we have plenty for evergreen borders, 
and this is important, as, while many might object to the bare earth 
of the ordinary border of herbaceous plants near the house or in other 



favourite spots, it is different with borders of evergreen plants, which 
may be charming and natural in effect throughout the year. 

Of garden pictures, there are few prettier than Crocus, Snowdrops, 
or Scilla coming through the green, moss-like carpets in these ever- 
green borders, far prettier to those who love quiet and natural colour 
than more showy effects. Often narrow evergreen borders are the 
best things that can be placed at the foot of important walls, as 
the way of allowing Grass to go right up to the walls is a foolish 
one, and often leads to injury to the wall trees. A narrow border 
(i8 inches will do), cut off with a natural stone edging from the 
Grass or walk, is best : even a border of this size may have many 
lovely things, from early Cyclamen to the rarer Meadow Saffrons in 
the autumn. Besides the flowers already named, we have Violets, 
Periwinkles, Yuccas, Carnations, Pinks, white Rock Cress, Barren- 
worts, charming in foliage, purple Rock Cresses, Omphalodes, Iris, 
Acanthus, Indian and other Strawberries, Houseleeks, Thymes, 
Forget-me-nots, Sandworts, Gentianella, Lavender, Rosemary, hardy 
Rock Roses, and many native and other hardy evergreen Ferns in all 
their fine variety ; Bamboos, Ruscus and Dwarf Savin, these are an 
essential aid in the making of evergreen borders. 

Hardy Border Flowers for British Gardens. 

From this list all families not pretty hardy in Britain are ex- 
cluded : whatever we may do with flower beds, mixed borders should 
be mainly of hardy plants, and we ought to be able to plant or refresh 
them at any time through the autumn or winter months. Well 
planned mixed borders, covered as they mostly should be with rock 
plants forming green carpets, should have few gaps in early summer, 
but where these occur they may be filled up with half-hardy plants 
as the stock of plants may permit, or with good annuals. It is 
important in making borders to use the finest species in each genus. 



























Brodia;a in var. 



















Alstroemeria in v, 

ar. Calochortus 





Caltha in var. 











Dry as 


















































Border Flowers for British Gardeiis 











































rdens — con tin iied. 















Sweet Pea 


Sweet William 













Borders : The Gr 

English Ins. 



Nothing is worse in gardening than the way in which plants of 
all kinds are huddled together without regard to fitness for associa- 
tion in stature, in time of blooming, or in needs of culture. The 
common scene of confusion is the shrubbery border, into which 
Carnations, annuals, Alpine flowers, and rampant herbs are often thrown, 
to dwindle and perish. There is no shrubbery border that could not 
be made beautiful by carpeting it with wood and copse plants of 
the northern world in broad groups, but many of our favourite flowers 
are not wood plants, and many — for example, Carnations — cannot 
maintain the struggle against the bushes and trees. Hardy plants 
should be divided into two broad series at least — those which thrive in 
and near woody growth, and those which vinst perish there. Solomon's 
Seal and the blue Apennine Anemone are types of plants that one 
may grow in any shady place : Carnation, Pink, Auricula are among 
the flowers which must have good soil and be kept away from tree 
roots, and though good borders, away from shrubby growth, grow 
many plants well, a further division of the work will be found wise in 
many places. 

One good plan that all can follow is the growing of certain 
plants without heed to their place in any design, but not in any kind 
of " mixed border " or in other mixed arrangements. Many hardy 
flowers are worthy of special culture, and good results cannot often be 
got without it, whether we grow Carnations, Pinks, Pansies, Phloxes, 
Lilies, Stocks, double Wallflowers, Cloves, or scarlet Lobelias. Even a 
choice annual, such as Rhodanthe, or a beautiful Grass, it is not easy to 
succeed with unless it has a fair chance, away from the crowding of 


the ordinary mixed border. This special culture of favourite flowers 
may be best carried out in a plot of ground set aside for beds of the 
choicer flowers, in a piece of ground in or near the kitchen garden or 
any other open position, sheltered, but not shaded. Such ground 
should be treated as a market gardener would treat it — well enriched,, 
and open, and thrown into four-foot beds ; the little pathways need 
not be gravelled or edged, but simply marked out with the feet. With 
the aid of such a division of the garden, the cultivation of many fine 
hardy plants becomes a pleasure. When any plant gets tired of its 
bed, it is easy to make the Carnation bed of past years the bulb 
one for the next year, and so on. It would be easy to change one's 
favourites from bed to bed, so that deep-rooting plants should follow 
surface-rooting kinds, and thus the freshness of the garden would be 
kept up. If any edging is used, it should be of natural stone sunk in 
the earth, as such edgings are not ugly or costly ; but the abolition of 
all edgings, beyond one or two main lines, would tend to simplify the 
work. Such a plot is excellent for giving cut flowers in quantity, and 
is also a great aid as a nursery, while it would also be a help to 
exchanges with friends or neighbours, in the generous way of all true 
gardeners. The space occupied by it will depend upon the size 
and wants of the place ; but, wherever the room can be spared, an 
eighth of an acre might be devoted to the culture in simple beds 
of favourite flowers, and even the smallest garden should have a 
small plot of this kind. 

What to grow in the Reserve Garden. — Among the fair 
flowers which in this way may be cultivated, each separately and 
well, are the delightful old Clove Carnations — white, crimson, and 
scarlet, as well as many other kinds ; tall Phloxes, so fair in country 
gardens in the autumn ; scarlet Lobelias, splendid in colour ; Pinks of 
many kinds ; Persian and Turban Ranunculus ; bright old garden 
Anemones, and the finer species of Anemone ; Lilies, and as many as 
possible of the splendid kinds introduced into our gardens within the 
past dozen years from California and Japan ; tall perennial Delphiniums, 
with their spikes of blue ; double Rockets ; beautiful Irises, English, 
Spanish, Japanese, and German ; Pansies in great variety ; Tiger 
Flowers ; the Columbine, including the lovely blue Columbine of the 
Rocky Mountains ; Pyrethrums, Chinese Pinks, Scabious, Sweet 
Williams ; Stocks of many kinds ; Wall-flowers, double and single ; 
the annual Phloxes ; Zinnias, which, if grown as grown abroad — that 
is to say, well and singly grown — are fine in colour ; China Asters, 
quilled and others ; the Sweet Sultan, in two or three forms ; showy 
tricolour Chrysanthemums ; Grasses for cutting in winter ; Grape 
Hyacinths ; rare Narcissus ; Meadow Saffrons ; Lilies of the Valley ; 
Crocuses, the autumnal as well as the vernal kinds ; Dahlias, cactus 


and single ; Paeonies ; Primroses, double and single ; Pentstemons ; 
Polyanthus ; Oxlips ; Tulips, many early and late kinds ; Sweet 
Violets ; American Cowslips ; Gladioli ; Christmas Roses ; and, lastly. 
Everlasting Flowers, which may be grown with the pretty Grasses, 
and, like them, be gathered for the house in winter. All these fair 
flowers deserve care in the gardens, and should not be trusted to the 
too often ill-cultivated slips called " mixed borders," and many other 
plants which we wish to increase or take good care of 

In these special plots for hardy flowers are included the various 
hardy florists' flowers. The term " florists' flowers " was once applied 
to flowers supposed to be popular with amateurs and florists, but it had 
never any clear meaning. A Rose is a florist's flower; but it is more — 


garden. (Durie, Fife, N.B.). 

it is everybody's flower, and we call it a Rose, having no use for 
any other term. The reserve garden is a good place to grow flowers 
for cutting for the house. The enemy in the way of plenty of cut 
flowers has hitherto been the gardener ; but he was limited in his 
cutting operations to glass-houses, which he naturally wished to keep 
gay. A supply equal to that of a dozen plant houses can be got from 
an open square in the kitchen garden or any piece of good ground. 
For eight months there is a procession of open-air flowers, which can 
easily be grown in sufficient quantity to allow the cutting of plenty 
for every want. A bed or a few lines of each favourite in a plot of 
good soil would give a great number of flowers, and these, aided by 
the Roses and other bush and tree flowers about the garden, would 
yield all the flowers that a large house would require, and many 
besides for hospitals and for those who have not gardens. Flowers 


grown for cutting should be carefully selected as regards odour, form, 
and colour, and the gardener should do all he can to carry out an idea 
tending so much to give people pleasure at home, and the smallest 
country place can afford a plot of ground to grow flowers for cutting. 
Double Cropping of Beds. — We have had evidence of the good 
way in which inter-cropping suits plants in nursery beds, and there 
is reason to believe that the presence in rich ground of two plants wholly 
different in their nature is a good plan. A collection of Narcissi, with 
lines between of Delphiniums and hardy Fuchsias, that is to say, two 
lines of each in a 4ft. bed, will thrive. The same is true of other 
hardy spring bulbs, which may be alternated with the choicer peren- 
nials that bloom in autumn ; and this way is a good one for people 
who live in their gardens chiefly in spring and autumn, as it secures 
two distinct seasons of bloom in the same ground. This applies to 
store beds as distinct from the regular flower garden, though some 
kind of inter-cropping would give an excellent result in the flower 
garden also ; as, for instance, if we have beds of Roses, we might have 
them carpeted with early bulbs, and be none the worse for it, and so 
also with Paeonies and many other flowers. It wants some care to 
find out which go best together ; but, given that, all is easy enough. 

Gardens of One Flower. 

Apart from the reserve garden, with its flowers in close masses, we 
may have gardens of a favourite flower and its forms, for the purpose 
of studying a family or adding to it by collecting or cross-breeding. 
Such gardens now and then owe their existence to the difficulty of 
cultivating a flower, as was the case of a charming garden of the 
lovely forms of our native Primrose formed by a friend of mine, who 
thus describes it : — 

" A Primrose Garden. — No flower better deserves a garden to 
itself than the Primrose. It is so old a favourite, and has been culti- 
vated into so many forms, that any one determined to have a Primrose 
garden may choose the kind he likes best, and set to work accordingly. 
There are the single-stalked Primroses, the earliest of all, flowering 
from the middle of March onwards, while some may be had in bloom 
as soon as the end of February. They range in colour from pure 
white to deep primrose, and from palest pinky-lilac through strong 
red-purples to a colour nearly approaching blue, and there are also 
rich reds of many shades. There is not as yet any Primrose of a true 
pink colour, nor, though the type colour is yellow, are there as yet any 
strong yellows of the orange class. There are also double Primroses 
in nearly all the same colourings. The Polyanthus, with its neat 
trusses of small flowers, though beautiful in the hand and indis- 



pensable in the good garden of hardy flowers, is not a plant for 
the Primrose garden, as it makes no show in the mass. The grand 
Primroses for garden effect are the large bunch-flowered kinds, white, 
yellow, and orange-coloured, red, crimson, and rich brown ; of infinite 
variety in form, texture, habit, and colouring, easy to raise to any 
amount by seed, as also by division of the older plants. A Primrose 
garden (part of which is here illustrated), that for some years has- 
been an ever-increasing source of pleasure and interest to its owners, 
was formed a few years ago by making an opening about 70 yards 
long, and varying from 10 yards to 15 yards wide, through a wild 
copse of young Birch trees. The natural soil was very poor and 
sandy, so it was prepared by a thorough trenching and a liberal 
addition of loam and manure, which has to be renewed every year. 
No formal walks are made, but one main track is trodden down 
about 2 feet wide near the middle of the space, dividing into two here 
and there, where a broader clearing makes it desirable to have two 
paths in the width. The older divided plants are put into groups 
of a colour together, from twenty to fifty of a sort. The groups 
of seedlings are of necessity more various, though they are more or 
less true to the parent colour, so that a patch of a hundred- seedlings 
— from yellows, for instance — will give a general effect of yellow 
throughout the group. The whites and yellows are kept at one end 
of the garden, and the reds at the other ; the deepest yellows next to 
the reds. Seen from a little distance, the yellow and white part of the 
Primrose garden looks like a river of silver and gold flowing through 
the copse. The white stems of the Birches and the tender green of 
their young leaves help to form a pretty picture, which is at its best 
when the whole is illuminated by the evening sunlight." 

Some of the Plants for Rese)-ve Gardeti and for Cutting Flowers. 



Grasses, the more 





graceful kinds 



Scarlet Lobelias 

Chinese Pinks 


Meadow Saffrons 




Sweet Sultan 



Double Rockets 

Blue Cornflower 



American Cowslips 


Sweet Williams 










Wallflowers _ 





(jrape Hyacinths 



Christmas Roses 

China Asters 


Lenten Roses 




At no distant time lists of these things were mostly looked at for 
the sake of getting a few bulbs to force, but that day is past, at least, 
for all who now see the great part which hardy bulbous and tuberous 
plants must take in the outdoor gardens of the future. Since those 
days the hills of California and of Japan alone have given us a noble 
lily garden, and the plants of this order in cultivation now form a 
lovely host. We are not nearly so likely to want novelties as know- 
ledge of how to make effective use of the nobler plants, such as the 
Narcissus, the glory of the spring, as the Lily is of the summer 

We may indeed be often tempted with Zephyr flowers, and Ixias 
and other plants, beautiful in warmer countries than ours, but delicate 
here, and only living with us as the result of care which is quite 
needless, but there are so many lovely things from the mountains and 
plains of the northern world, and from the mountains in all parts, as 
hardy as the wild Hyacinths of British woods, that our search will 
be more for the nobler materials and how to make artistic use of them 
than in quest of novelty as such. 

Lilies. — It would be fair to begin with the Snowdrop, but we will 
take the plants in the order of their value ; and, having regard to past 
service and the present beauty of the Lilies, they should take the first 
place among hardy bulbs. Who of those who remember the Orange 
and White Lilies of all English and Irish gardens would have looked 
for the splendid Lilies that have come to us within less than a 
generation ? For size, and form, and lovely colour they surpass all 
we had ever dreamt of even among tropical flowers. The variety is 
so great that a volume would be required to describe them ; the 
catalogues give us many of their names. The main thing for all who 


care for them is how to possess their beauty with the least amount of 
care and disappointment ; and, happily, the question has been solved 
for many handsome kinds by planting them in the peat beds that 
were made at first wholly in the interest of the American shrubs. 
Some of the finest Lilies thrive admirably in these, and by adding 
here and there deep leaf-mould, rotten cow manure, and the like, 
other kinds may be grown, for some Lilies thrive best in such soil. Nor 
need we neglect the mixed borders because we have new ways for our 
Lilies, as several of the European Lilies thrive perfectly in ordinary 
borders. They may be naturalised too, or some of them, in deep 
moist peat bottoms ; for example, the American swamp Lily (L. 
superbum). The mania for draining everything might even lead to 
evil in the case of some Lilies which inhabit the cold northern woods, 
and which do with a very different degree of moisture from that 
required by the Lilies of California, where the _ soil in summer is 
as road dust on a dry hill. Lilies are so varied in their nature 
and stature that they may adorn almost any aspect in sun or 
shade. The new and rare among them will have special beds or 
borders, and we have Lily men and even Lily maniacs who will have 
Lily gardens. And as these lovely flowers tumble into our lap, as 
it were, from the woods and hills of Western China, Japan, and 
California, untouched by man until he found them made to his hand 
a few years ago, it is reasonable to suppose that some of them would 
take care of themselves, if trusted in likely spots, with us. I put 
some of the Panther Lily deep in a leafy hollow in a Sussex wood, 
just to see if it would survive in such conditions. Whether owing to 
a series of cold wet seasons and the want of the glorious sun of the 
hills in Nevada County, California, where I found it, we know not, 
but after the first season it did not come up. I thought no more of 
it, but a friend going into the same wood some years afterwards found 
a colony of it in bloom. So that we must not always cry out if 
Lilies do not come up, as they have a way of resting for a year now 
and then. 

Narcissus. — Next to the Lily in value as an outdoor flower is the 
Narcissus, though when we know the Iris better it may find a high 
place. But the wondrous development of the garden forms of Nar- 
cissus during recent years, and their fitness for our climate, give it 
great value. Mountain plants in origin, for the most part they are 
as hardy as riverside rushes, and those few southern forms that will 
only live in dry banks and at the foot of warm walls need not concern 
us who look for pictures of Narcissi in the open air. We have 
not to ask where the Narcissi will grow, as there are few places they 
will not grow in with the usual garden culture, and in some cool, 
loamy soils they take to the turf as ducks to water. Hence it is easy 

tr 2 

Group of Ginnt In<lir>n Lilies in half-shady place (Surrey). 


on many soils to have a spring garden of these flowers, naturally 
grouped and massed, set in turf, and giving us many flowers for the 
house as well as pictures in lawn and meadow. For this purpose what 
is chiefly wanted is that the bulb growers should offer the best hardy 
sorts for the wild garden by the thousand at low rates. These 
precious early flowers will also have their place in the garden for cut 
flowers or the nursery bed, where the many new forms of Narcissi 
raised in England must take their place until they become plentiful. 
The true hardiness of the flower allows of its being enjoyed in all 
parts of these scattered islands, from Scilly, where it is grown in 
quantities for the markets, to the north of Scotland. In Ireland the 
Narcissus is at home, and there are excellent collections in the 
College Botanic Gardens at Dublin and also at Glasnevin, while there 
is a very well-grown one at Cork, and Miss Currie, of Lismore, grows 
many of the most precious kinds. In old days the white Narcissi 
grown in the gardens spread here and there into orchards and fields, 
and so it happens that now we have to seek in Ireland some of the 
graceful white Narcissi. 

Iris. — The Iris is one of the oldest of our garden flowers, in many 
forms too, but, like the Lily, it has come to us in greater novelty and 
beauty of recent years, and as districts in Central Asia and Asia 
Minor are opened to collectors, we must have our Iris gardens too. 
And what so fair as an Iris garden ? They are the Orchids of the 
north, many of them as hardy as reeds, and with more richness of 
colour than Orchids. The old Irises of our gardens are usually of 
the Germanica class ; there is much variety among these groups, and 
they are very hardy and precious, and excellent for the adornment of 
gardens and even walls and thatched roofs, as we see in France, the 
Iris of this great group having a valuable power of thriving on such 
surfaces as well as on good soil. 

There is a group of waterside and water-loving Iris, much less seen 
in our gardens than the above, and some of them not yet come to us, 
but of great value. They are allied to the common yellow Iris of our 
watercourses, but are taller and richer in colour, the golden Iris 
(Aurea), Monnieri, and Ochroleuca being the best known so far, and 
very free, hardy, and beautiful plants they are, thriving, too, almost 
anywhere, but best in rich, moist soil. And we have the distinct gain 
of the splendid Japanese Iris, in its many strange forms, the Japanese 
surpassing all waterside Irises in its wide range of colour, though most 
beautiful perhaps in its simple forms, white and purple. This plant, 
though its beauty suggests that of the tropics, will grow side by side 
with our great water dock by any lake side or even in a clay ditch, 
where only the coarsest weeds live. The Siberian Iris and the forms 
near it are very graceful beside streams or ponds, either in open or 


copsy places, and far more graceful and charming in such positions 
than in set borders. All these water-loving Irises will do for the wild 
garden in bold groups when we can spare them. 

Then there are the brilliant purple and gold Iris reticulata and its 
allies, little bulbous Irises, for the spring garden, early and charming 
things, many beautiful ; Irises that flower in winter and early spring, 
like the Algerian Iris ; others happy in Britain on warm soils and 
warm corners, and some for the rock garden, like the crested Iris ; and 
the many pretty forms of Iris pumila, of some of which edgings were 
made in old gardens. The foliage of the evergreen Iris is so graceful 
and usually so nice in colour that artistic use may be made of it in 
that way. The most novel of all the groups of Iris, however, are the 
Cushion Irises, which promise much beauty, but are yet too little known 
to see how far that beauty may be preserved in our gardens. The old 
Iris Susiana has been known for many years, and some of its allies, 
like I. Lorteti and the Wolf Iris, seem more hardy and not less 

Tulips. — The old garden Tulip, a favourite for generations, grown 
in the so-called florist varieties, and the source once of severe mania, is 
but one of a large number of wild Tulipa, many of which have come 
to us of late years from Central Asia. The old Tulips are the forms 
of an Italian species (T. Gesneriana), and these varieties are worthy of 
all the attention they ever had ; but the wild form is as good as any of 
its varieties for splendid effect, and a selection should be made of its 
simpler colours, including a good white and yellow. The bedding 
Tulips, which are earlier in blooming, are forms of T. scabriscapa, 
though useful, are not nearly so valuable for their effect as the late 
tulips. The new species coming from Central Asia and other lands 
promise to be very valuable, too, for their effect, though our climate 
may not suit all of them, as it does the fine hardy Gesneriana. The 
colour of these tulips is too fine to be missed, and, as the bloom is too 
short-lived to give beds under the windows to it, the best way is to 
plant them in borders, and, when scarce, in the nursery ; when plenti- 
ful in the wild garden. I put some in new hedgerow banks a few 
years ago, and also the wood tulip in a meadow regularly mown, and 
now have a splendid bloom every spring. As wild tulips abound in 
the south of Europe travellers might often get many roots which 
could be tried in this and other ways. Some of the bedding tulips 
have very ugly slaty colours, and there is much waste in planting 
them. The Dutch bulb raisers care more for variety than beauty of 
colour, but the aim in our gardens should be to get more of the fine 
simple colours, and the wild kinds planted so far as we may in effective 
ways; a few trials in that way will show that it is a much more effective 
one than setting out the plants in tile or other patterns. The later 



these wild tulips come into bloom the better, as it brings their 
nobler colour in when the harsh changes of the spring are nearly 
over, and in the north they will come in with the early summer days. 
These ideas of the more picturesque planting of the hardier Tulips 
need not take from the lover of the old florist kinds his Tulip garden, 
which was very charming with its long beds of good soil, and at its 
best in some sheltered — hedged in or walled — garden. 

Crocus. — If the Crocus has any fault it is courage in coming so 
early that it has to face every trouble of the spring, and green winters 
induce it to open too early. Yet what promise it brings us of the 
many-blossomed spring in border and in lawn ; for, in addition to the 
old and good way in garden borders, the Crocus, at least all the forms 
and series and the hardy and vigorous European kinds, is easily 

Narcissus princeps at St. Nicholas House, Scarborough. 

naturalised in lawns or meadow turf, and others even under Beech trees 
as in Crowsley Park. As regards this question, it should be remem- 
bered that the Crocus is wild in rich meadow grass in various parts of 
England, at Nottingham and in Essex. The autumnal kinds may be 
naturalised too, but they ask perhaps for a warmer soil than the vernal 
kinds. Recent years have brought us many new Crocuses. The effect 
of the old kinds is not surpassed, but their beauty may be more fully 
shown than in lines and dots by scattering them in natural-looking 
groups in grassy places among trees or in the open turf. 

Snowdrop and Snowflake. — The old Snowdrop gives as good 
an effect as any other, but the many new varieties give the Snowdrop 
more value. Whether these new forms are species or varieties matters 
little ; their value as garden plants is the only question that concerns 


flower-gardeners. Who would have thought a few years ago that 
our Snowdrop was only one of a large number taking care of them- 
selves in the mountains of Asia Minor and other regions? Others 
are coming, and when these increase in our gardens we shall have 
fresh aids to make our spring gardens more beautiful. As these 
new kinds are mostly plants from cool regions, they will probably 
be easily naturalised in many soils. The snowflake must not be 
forgotten — {q\\ spring flowers are more free than the vernal and late 

SciLLAS, Hyacinths, and like Plants. — The lovely early 
group of plants allied to our Wood Hyacinth — Scilla, Chionodoxa, 
and H}'acinthus (the more tiny and dwarf wild species are referred to 
here under this last name) — ask for some thought as to their artistic 
use. The Scillas are well known, but the newer forms of Chionodoxa 
give an unlooked-for loveliness of blue very early in the spring, and 
show a pretty variety in their delicate colours ; and yet there is no 
more lovely thing among them than the Taurian Scilla, a large form of 
the long-neglected Scilla bifolia. It is so early and so deep a blue that 
one may get rich effects with it very early. The more tiny and select 
of all these plants are alpine, delightful for rock-gardens, and all the more 
so if we can use them in visible groups. The stouter kinds, such as 
the larger Chionodoxa, are coming in such numbers that we may try 
their effects in many ways ; it is impossible to omit them from what- 
ever kind of spring gardening we adopt. 

The common Hyacinth — in its double forms at least — is so stiff 
that we take little interest in it for the flower garden ; but the 
simpler colours of the single kinds deserve a place. Would it not 
be worth while growing the single Hyacinth provincialis from which 
these all come ? Hyacinths will come up year after year in flower 
beds, and throwing away the roots after once blooming is a mistake. 

Other Lilies. — Apart from the true Lilies there are certain 
plants to which the name is also given betimes, such as the Torch 
Lily (Kniphofia), the Day Lily (Hemerocallis), the Peruvian Lily 
(Alstroemeria), the African Lily (Agapanthus), the Belladonna Lily 
(Amaryllis), the Cape Lily (Crinum), the Plantain Lily (P'unkia), the 
Wood Lily (Trillium), the Mariposa Lily (Calochortus), besides other 
Lilies that do not come under our present heading, or which do not 
ask for thought as regards their effective use. 

The Torch Lilies are brilliant in colour, and have been added 
to of recent years, but severe winters have thinned them, and they 
will always be best in dry soils and in sunny positions, protected 
in winter. They are best kept apart from flowers more refined in 
colour, such as the Tea Rose. The Day Lilies are a really hardy 
race, and most of them will grow anywhere. With their fine leaves 

Tulip garden at the Castle, Dingwall. 


and showy, well-formed flowers, they may be used with good effect 
in various ways. The Peruvian Lily is valuable, but far more 
beautiful on warm soils. If on cool soils — and in cool districts it 
fails — we must prepare beds for it, but the best way in gardening 
is always to grow the flowers that thrive without great labour in the 
soil we have. The Belladonna Lily can, be grown in no more effective 
way than the old one of planting it under south walls. The Cape 
Lilies have increased of late years from hybrids and otherwise, 
and are worth attention in deep soil in warm corners near walls 
that protect them from the north. The African Lily is most important 
for its unrivalled blue, but, save in the warmest parts of the south, 
where it may live in the open air protected, it is essential to give 
it greenhouse or like protection in winter. It is one of the plants 
for which the expense of tubs or large pots is worth indulging in, and 
there are new and handsome kinds, which make the culture more 
interesting. The Wood Lilies are valuable because they give us 
effects both distinct and beautiful in peat borders or bog gardens. 
Shade is not essential, though we think the best effects are attained in 
half-shady spots. 

The Mariposa Lilies are beautiful indeed, some of them almost 
surpassing any flowers of the old world ; but they come from one 
of the best climates and warmest soils in the world, and one can 
hardly hope that they will thrive in our climate without special care. 
Yet such charming flowers will always have a place in curious gardens, 
where they will thrive in frames and warm corners. Such plants, 
however, cannot be depended on for much effect in the open garden, 
though new kinds are being brought from Western America which 
may thrive in our climate, and help to show us the beauty of these 
singularly lovely things. 

Anemones and Ranunculus. — The Poppy Anemone has been 
a welcome flower in our gardens for hundreds of years, and it should 
never be forgotten, save in cold soils where it dwindles. Many now 
grow it well from seed, but the old way of planting the tubers of 
favourite kinds and colours should be carried out in the flower garden 
in Rose beds or in any beds to spare. The Scarlet Anemone and its 
varieties is also precious ; the Star Anemone, so charming in Italy and 
Greece in spring, is rarely seen happy in our gardens which are too 
cold for it, no doubt, so it may well be left out in favour of the hardier 
sorts. Valuable as the brightest Anemones are, the old Turban and 
Persian Ranunculus, and other forms were once a great charm of the 
flower garden, and should not be forgotten in warm soils, where they 
thrive, but they perish in severe winters, and require some care. 

Various. — The old Dog's-Tooth Violet of the mountains of 
Europe has been joined in our gardens of recent years by a number of 


its American relations, graceful plants for peat borders, but as yet not 
so valuable as the European kind in its various forms, which are 
among the prettiest early spring flowers. They are, moreover, true 
wild garden plants, which thrive in turf, coming up every year even 
more faithfully than Crocus or Snowdrop. The Snake's-head, too 
(Fritillaria), is a charming wild garden plant, thriving in grass in rich 
or wet meadows ; where not native it may well be introduced. The 
new yellow Fritillaries give a greater interest to this group of plants, 
some of which are fitted for the wild garden, but we never could see 
the charms of the Crown Imperials, with their offensive odour. The 
Stars of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum) thrive in grass, and are pretty 
in it. Unfortunately the handsome Arabian kind is not hardy. The 
Montbretias are plants of somewhat recent appearance in our gardens, 
and they have a vigour and hardiness we do not look for in Cape 
plants, and a tenacious way of growing and increasing even in cold 
poor soil, and are, therefore, valuable where we wish to have close 
tufts of graceful leaves and gay blossoms below flowering shrubs not 
set too closely on the ground. Grape Hyacinths (Muscari) are often 
very pretty, and nearly always hardy. I use them freely in grass, 
where their blue is very pretty in spring. The choicer newer kinds 
will find a place in the nursery beds or rock-garden till more plentiful. 

Among the new plants we have one of fine distinction in the 
Giant Asphodels (Eremurus), plants of noble port and vigour, but 
which, though here and there grown and flowered well, are not as yet 
proved for our climate, with its often open, snowless winters. We 
must find out the kinds really hardy and that bloom handsomely 
with us before we can judge of their value in the flower garden. 

The old tiger flowers (Tigridia) should not be forgotten, 
especially on limestone or other warm soils, where they are most 
at home. There are several new kinds, which make the family of 
more value. Plants that give much pleasure from their good colours 
are the Triteleia and Brodioea. Some new and pretty effects will be 
given by the best of these as soon as plentiful. 

So noble a plant as the Gladiolus should not, perhaps, have been 
left to the end, but the fact that the finest class are only half hardy, 
and require care, makes them less important in our country than 
Lilies and Narcissi, that give so much beauty with little or no care. 
The years pass so swiftly, and are so full of cares, that things demand- 
ing two important attentions yearly — i.e., taking up and planting — 
must take a minor place, except in the case of growers who make 
a special care of them. The groups known as Lemoinei and 
Saundersi hybrids, being hardier, give better results, but generally our 
climate is against the older Gladioli, and disease very often comes 
with any large attempt to grow them. 


Hardy Bulbs for Cut Flowers. — The special or reserve gar- 
den includes beds for hardy bulbs — a very good way of growing them, 
and for supplying flowers for the house. A curious habit of the 
flowers of bulbs is that, cut from the plants when just opening and 
put into water, they get larger than they would if left on the plants 
out of doors, and this should lead us to encourage many lovely flowers 
among hardy bulbs that are among the best for our rooms. Hitherto 
the horror of the gardener has been cutting flowers for the house ; but 
if cutting prolongs his bloom, strengthens his plants, and gives all 
who care for his flowers a fuller enjoyment of them, we may secure 
his powerful aid. Consider what one may escape in storms, frosts, 
and other dangers if a flower, cut just on arriving at maturity, lasts 

longer indoors than out, and actually, as in the case of the Narcissus, 
gets larger ! Narcissi, through their hardiness and drooping heads, 
endure our climate better than any other flowers, and yet severe 
storms will beat them about and destroy flowers that might have lived 
for days in the house. Large showy flowers like Tulips, sufler with 
every heavy shower. Anything which makes it easier to have flowers 
in the house is a real gain ; their exquisite forms are best seen, and tell 
their story best when brought near to the eye. A flower of our yellow 
wood Tulip opening and closing, and showing its changing form in a 
room, gives ideas of beauty which cannot be gleaned by glancing at 
a bed of bulbs. A variety of hardy bulbs should therefore be grown 
for their value as cut flowers, apart from their use in the garden. 
Hardy Bulbs among Choice Shrubs. — One of the most 


marked improvements is the planting of handsome bulbs in masses of 
Rhododendrons and like bushes. These beds, as usually planted, are 
interesting only when in flower, and not always then, owing to the 
flat surface into which the shrubs are pressed ; Lilies, therefore, 
and the finer bulbs may with great advantage be placed among the 
shrubs. In many cases where this plan has been carried out, it 
has almost changed the entire aspects of gardens, and given various 
beautiful types of life instead of only one, and many fine rare bulbs 
find a home in such beds, which should be sacred from the spade. 
In placing choice, peat-loving shrubs, give the bushes room to fully 
attain their natural forms, and plant the interspaces with finer bulbs. 
Light and shade, relief and grace, are among the merits of this mode 
of planting. Beds of the smaller shrubs will do admirably for the 
smaller and more delicate bulbs, the shelter of low shrubs being an 
advantage to many little bulbs whose leaves are apt to suffer from 
cold winds. In this way we get relief, variety, and longer bloom, 
and the shrubs show their forms better when they have free play of 
light and air about them. 

Bulbs in Beds on Turf. — Bold beds of Lilies and the taller 
bulbs are admirable for the lawn, and for quiet corners of the pleasure- 
ground. The showy beds of bulbs which are to be seen in public and 
other gardens, and which come so largely into spring gardens, are 
familiar to all. The beds suggested here are of a higher and more 
permanent nature, and are intended to be placed where they will be 
let alone. At Moulton Grange some years ago I saw on the turf in a 
quiet corner a bed of Tiger Lilies which had no other flowers near to 
mar its beauty. It was a large oval bed, and the colour of the finely 
grown Lilies was brilliant and effective seen through the trees and 
glades. In point of colour alone, nothing could be better ; the mass of 
bloom was profuse, and the plants, about 6 feet high, told well in the 
garden landscape. The plants had a great advantage in habit, form, 
and colour over the usual dwarf type of showy " bedding " plant. 
Many hardy flowers of the highest beauty would have as effective 
colour if we took equal pains with them. Colour on a 6-foot plant is 
usually more effective than on a plant 6 inches or 12 inches high, and 
some hardy Lilies are well over 6 feet high. This Lily bed was 
on one of those little strips of turf which occur by most shrubberies, 
and within a few yards of a walk, so that it could be easily seen. 
Among the most lovely beds are those of the nobler Lilies, while Iris, 
and many beautiful Day Lily, Pseony, Gladiolus, and Cape Hyacinth 
may be grouped with them or near them. It may be as well to note 
that what is meant here is not wild gardening with bulbs, but very 
good cultivation of them, and surfacing and edging the beds with 
spring flowers. 


Some Hardy Bulbous and Tuberous Plants for British Flower Gardens. 














































III, bordt) (at Ilulwick) 



Whatever we may do with perennials, shrubs, or hardy bulbs, the 
plants in this class must ever be of great value to the flower-gardener ; 
and among the most pleasant memories of flower-garden things are 
often those of annual or biennial plants : tall and splendid Stocks in a 
farmhouse garden on a chalky soil, seen on a bright day in early spring ; 
Wallflowers in London market gardens and in cottage gardens, when 
not cut down by cruel winters ; Snapdragons on old garden walls, and 
bright Marigolds everywhere; Hollyhock lines, Sweet Pea hedges, and 
Mignonette carpets ; Evening Primrose, Poppies, Sweet Scabious, and 
Sweet-williams. However rich a garden may be in hardy flowers or 
bedding plants, it is wise in our climate to depend a good deal upon 
annuals. Although they do not last so long in bloom, and are not so 
fine in quality as Lilies or Roses, yet they can generally be depended 
upon for a very handsome show of flower in early autumn, particularly 
in northern and cool districts. In some cases it would not be wise to 
sacrifice the summer garden for autumnal flowering plants, but where 
people do not much enjoy their garden except in autumn, it is 
essential to make good use of those treated of herein. 


Where the choicest flowers are grown in beds near the house, or in 
what should be the flower garden, autumnal annuals are not so good 
as more enduring plants, although useful as an aid. In many cases 
the best way would be to grow the annuals in separate borders, even 
in borders in the kitchen garden, as they are very well grown at 
Campsey Ash. Like most other plants, they enjoy fresh ground, and 
where they are grown in borders by themselves it is easy to enrich 
the ground, and make it fitted for them, easier than when grown 
among perennials, Roses and the like. With this precaution the culture 
is very simple ; in the south some attention to watering is essential 
in dry years, in the north the moist cool climate gives the best results. 

In w'et seasons and in wet northern districts annuals surprise 
us by their vigour and beauty. In warmer counties the effect of the 
heat may in the case of the hardy kinds be met by autumn-sowing in 
good rich ground. The autumn sowings are the best. The plants 
not only flower much sooner, but, where the soil and climate suit 
them, they are stronger and more beautiful. The reason why they 
are so often seen in poor condition is that they are sown on hungry 
soil and are crowded. 

Concerning crowding, " Salmoniceps " writes : — "I have just 
measured a plant to-day (October 4) of Nemophila insignis, sown 
more than a year ago. It has been in flower since May, and measures 
now 4 feet by 3 feet 10 inches. It w^ould take a long time to count 
the blossoms, although they are not so large as the earlier ones. The 
plant grows in a new and rich border. According to the ordinary 
way of sowing annuals, this single plant occupies the space which is 
usually allotted to a whole packet of seed." 

In nature, annuals are usually autumn-sown and gather strength 
in the winter. In growing a number of annuals from various countries, 
we must remember that our winters can be faced by the hardy 
ones only, such as the Sweet Pea, Cornflower, Silene, Nemophila, 
Viscaria, Limnanthes, Larkspur, Poppy, and Scabious. Annuals are 
best in masses or groups, and they are never perhaps so full of 
colour and beauty as on an old rich vine border. 

In considering the best kinds we will look more at the important 
groups of plants, as there is a great number of curious kinds that 
might be named here, but they are not so important for effect. 

Among annual and biennial flowers we have the lovely Everlastings 
of Australia, which have an order of beauty quite distinct from those 
we see in gardens into which annuals do not enter. Carefully gathered, 
they have the additional charm that they may adorn our houses during 
the winter. The Pimpernels, which with their pretty blue flowers were 
once made charming use of in gardens, are much neglected. The 
Mexican Poppy is a pretty flower and quite distinct. Among annuals 


we find plants of fine foliage or habit, such as the Hemp, Castor Oil 
Tree and other Mallows, Maize and other grasses. Cotton and Blessed 
Thistles. The annual Chrysanthemums of Southern Europe and 
Northern Africa, and indeed of our own fields, are charmincr in 
effect. The annual Convolvuli are pretty, and in southern gardens 
may be used charmingly. The annual Larkspurs are so little used in 
gardens that it is only in seed farms that we have the pleasure of 
seeing them now and then in all their beauty. The annual Chinese 
Finks are very charming grown in sunny beds and good soil Our 
native Foxglove, which takes such good care of itself in many of our 
woodlands, breaks in the hands of the gardener into beautiful varieties 
well worth growing, if not in the garden, in shrubberies and in copses 
and woods. It is a good plan, when any ground is broken up for 
fence-making or rough planting, to scatter a few seeds of the white 
and other pretty kinds and leave them to take care of themselves 
1 here are many graceful grasses which may be treated as annuals, and 
their flowers, like the Everlasting flowers, be in bloom through the 
winter. The night-smelling Stocks will appeal to some, but are rather 
too strong m odour for others. The annual Hibiscus when well grown 
are effective plants, and the same may be said of the Hollyhock for 
which probably the best way is to raise it from seed, as in that way 
we can fight better against the fungus which destroys it. The Single 
Hollyhock IS worthy of much care and is often very effective The 
i^laxes are very pretty annuals, red and blue, and even the common 
cultivated Flax is a beautiful plant. The beauty of the Ice plants of 
which we see so little in our country, is fairly shown by the little 
annual one. In our day quite a series of beautiful forms of Mignon- 
ette have come to add to the charms of that always welcome plant 
, ^nnual and biennial Evening Primroses are often extremely 
valuable and showy. ^ 

The Sweet Scabious are pretty and varied in colour and so 
tragrant. Of Sweet Peas there is a delightful series in our own day 
when so many kinds have been raised that one could easily make a 
garden of them. No words can exaggerate their value, either in 
mixed or separate colours, and they should be both autumn and 
spring sown, so as to get a chance of those fine tall hedges of Sweet 
Feas which come where we sow in autumn and get the plants safely 
through the winter, and they are doubly valuable owing to the many 
beau iful new kinds. Zinnia is extremely fine in colour, but in ou^ 
country It wants warm soils and the best positions in order to do well 
In Italy, Austria, and South Germany they are much more beautiful 
and vigorous than with us. 

Some annual plants, like the Cornflower, Sweet Sultan, Sweet Pea 
Scabious, are precious for cutting for the house, and may be grown 


with the hardy flowers for this purpose where there is room for it ; 
others are good for trelHs-work, and others for surfaces we wish to 
adorn with pretty cHmbers, such as Canary Creeper, Maurandya, 
Adlumia, Gourds, Convolvulus. 

The various French and African Marigolds, and the prettier forms 
of the pot Marigold, are very showy plants, and, for those who love 
much colour, are almost essential, and the same may be said of the 
various annual Calliopsis. The China Aster used to be grown much 
better than it is generally now, and there is no doubt, where people 
do not get much colour from other plants, such as Roses and the 
finer perennials, the China Aster in its many forms is useful. But 
more important by far are the various kinds of Stock, which have the 
added charm of fragrance, and which do so well in many gardens 
with light and warm soils in the north and in Scotland. Cosmos are 
pretty plants worthy of a place, and the best of the annual kinds 
of Datura are picturesque and distinct. Chinese Pinks are ver)' 
beautiful and charming in variety. The Gaillardias, which are such 
poor perennials in many soils, are in some cases better raised as 
annuals, and there are annual kinds of value. The Gilias are very 
pretty, varied, and hardy, and some very dwarf, forming a carpet for 
taller plants. 

The Godetias, allied to the Evening Primroses, are handsome when 
well grown, especially the white and simple coloured kinds, and 
where they live over the winter, from autumn sowing, they are very 
strong and handsome the following year. The many varieties of the 
annual Ipomae are graceful, there being much charming variety 
among the blooms, and with these may be named the various kinds 
of Convolvulus minor, which does not climb. Lavatera and Malope 
are handsome plants in the autumn garden, as are the Lupins, well 
grown, and the new Nemesia from the Cape is charming. The white 
Tobacco and the true Tobacco are handsome in warm soils. We 
think the various Nigellas very interesting, while every one should 
have the annual Phloxes, now to be had in such good colours, and 
the Portulacas, which are so showy on warm borders. The Salpi- 
glossis is a beautiful plant, especially where we take the trouble to 
select the simpler colours, the amber coloured one being ver}^ fine. 
The Sweet Scabious has charming varieties, and is often very fine 
in colour, though not so good on heavy and cool soils. 

The Sweet Sultans are pretty, and useful for cutting for the house, 
and Love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus) and its allies are quaintly 
effective. The Snap-Dragons, which are often treated as annuals, are 
frequently excellent when grown in their simple colours, the striped 
kinds not being nearly so good in effect. The annual Poppies are 
essential where a good display is hoped for from annuals, also the 

photograph by H. Hyde ol 
at Gravetye Manor. 


Mexican and Californian Poppies. Such handsome plants as the 
varieties of Tropaeolum are also many of them beautiful annuals. 
Among plants of, perhaps, less importance than some of the pre- 
ceding, the following may be mentioned : Bartonia, Brachycome, 
Calandrinia, Cosmidium, Nolana, Didiscus, Kaulfussia, Linum, Lobelia, 
Martynia, Mesembryanthemum, Nycterinia, Platystemon, Saponaria, 
Senecio, Stenactis,and Xeranthemum,as affording some good plants for 
those interested in flower gardening with annual and biennial plants. 
Half-hardy Plants treated as Annuals. — It is not every 
one who has the means to winter a larc^e number of tender bedding 

Bed of " Chil 

showing effect of well-grown annual plants in garde 

plants, and the keeping of a large stock involves much work, and 
takes up space that might be better occupied. But a garden may 
be made very gay in summer with half-hardy plants raised from 
seed, and without keeping a single plant over the winter in the 
greenhouse. In seedlings there may be differences in habit and 
colour, but this should be no objection. There are a few plants 
which come from seed true to the type through many generations, 
like Verbena venosa. Seedling Verbenas make a handsome bed, 
and usually do much better so grown than from cuttings. Balsams, 
again, are not half so much used for open-air decoration as they 
deserve to be, and those who have only seen them starving in small 


pots cannot form an idea of their beauty when planted out in good 
open soil, away from trees and in warm soils. Take the border 
Pansies in various shades of purple, yellow, and white. Varieties may 
be raised in the early spring for planting out the same summer, 
and so of the Verbena, Pelargonium, Pyrethrum, Salvia patens, S. 
argentea, Heliotrope, and Snapdragons, which should be sown in 
heat in January ; to the Petunia, Phlox Drummondi, Dianthus, Indian 
Pink, Ageratum, and Lobelia, which in February should be sown 
in pans in heat, and, if kept growing, will be ready for planting out 
in May. Begonias for bedding may be grown from seed in the same 
year, but are more effective if raised during the preceding year, selected 
according to colour, and stored in winter ready for bedding out early 
in summer. Fuchsias sown in January flower well in August. Of 
fine-leaved plants which can be raised from seed for use in the 
open-air the same year, there are Amaranthus, Celosia, Centaurea, 
Cineraria, Humea, Canna, Chamaepeuce, Nicotiana, Ricinus, Solanum, 
and Wigandia. 

Old plants of Verbenas and like plants kept through the winter 
harbour the eggs of vermin always ready to eat up the collection 
if it is neglected for a week, but, starting with clean houses and 
frames, and with seeds in early spring, the gardener makes a better 
fight against his many insect enemies. As regards the plants one 
would like to raise in this way, seedsmen should select and fix distinct 
colours of different races of plants. It would not be difficult to select 
a bluish or purple Verbena which one might count on as coming 
pretty true from seed. We have so much relied upon cuttings and 
old plants that the raising of fine seedlings has seldom had fair 
attention. Many raise seeds, but few give the early thinning, the 
light, the sturdy growth, and the unchecked culture that seedlings 
require ; but now, when we may raise not only the annual pure and 
simple, but the half-hardy flower-garden plants, and the nobler hardy 
plants like Carnations and Hollyhocks, seed-raising for the flower- 
garden deserves much attention. 

Biennial Plants are usually such as make their growth in 
one year and flower the next, but the line between biennial 
and annual is not a strict one, because in their native countries 
annual plants often spring up in one year, and flower the next. 
In countries with open winters and hot summers, annuals do so 
naturally, and begin to grow in the first rains through the winter, 
and flower strongly the next year — these often being kinds sown in 
spring in gardens. Hollyhocks, Foxgloves, Chimney Campanula, 
and Sweet Williams come under this head, but in some cases early 
raising in spring gives us a chance of blooming some of them the 
same year as they are sown. In any case it is better for simplicity's 



sake to group all annual and biennial plants together, and with them 
the half-hardy plants raised from seed for use in the flower garden, as 
the work of raising all is, to a great extent, the same. 

Some of the more important 
Half-hardy Plants 

Families of Annual and Biennial Plants^ and of 
raised from Seed for the Flower Garden. 












China Aster 


































































Oxalis rosea 

Sweet Peas 



Leptc siphon 


Sweet William 






























Virginia Stock 











Cape Marigold 
























Zea : Knockdolian, Colmonell, N.B. 



Spring comes to us wreathed in Honeysuckle, and summer brings the 
Wild Rose and the May bloom, and these are but messengers of a host 
of lovely shrubs and low trees of the hills and plains of northern 
and temperate regions, and also of the high mountains of countries 
like India, where there are vast alpine regions with shrubs as hardy 
as our own, as we see in the case of the white Clematis that covers 
many an English cottage wall with its fair white bloom. If we 
think of the pictures formed in thousands of places in England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, by the May alone, we may get an idea of the 
precious beauty there is in the American, Asiatic, and European kinds, 
some of which flower later than our own and make the May bloom 
season longer. Nothing is lovelier among flowering trees than a group 
of the various Thorns, beautiful also in fruit, and the foliage of some 
kinds is finely coloured in autumn. The Thorns are but one branch 
of, perhaps, the most important order of flowering trees, embracing 


the Apples (a garden in their varied flowers alone) ; Pears, wild and 
cultivated ; Crabs, pretty in bloom and bright in fruit ; Quinces, 
Medlars, Snowy Mespilus, Almonds, Double Cherries, Japan Quinces, 
Plums (including Sloe and Bullace), not to speak of a number of less 
important families. Among these, the larger and more important 
branches of this great order of plants, there is some likeness in habit 
and size, which allows of similar use. 

The Double Peaches are among the most precious of trees of this 
order, but for some reason we rarely see them in any but a miserable 
state in England. In France they are sometimes lovely not only 
in the flower, but in the mass of colour from healthy growth. It 
may be that the failure of the shoots to ripen in our cool climate is 
owing to some weakness through grafting on a bad stock. There is 
such a great and noble variety among these trees that there is room 
for distinct effects. An excellent point in favour of trees like Thorns, 
Crabs, Almonds, and Bird Cherries is that, in their maturity, they, in 
groups or single specimens, stand free on the turf — free, too, from all 
care ; and it is easy to see how important this is for all who care for 
English tree-fringed lawns — a long way more beautiful than any 
other kind of tree garden. 

It is not only the flowers on the trees we have to think of, but also 
in the house — as cut flowers gathered when the buds are ready to open 
— gathering the branchlets and long twigs before the flowers are quite 
out and placing them in vases in rooms. In very bad weather this 
way will prolong the bloom for us, or even save it in the case of very 
hard frost, and in a cold spring it will advance the bloom a little, the 
warmth of the house giving a few days' gain in time of opening. As 
to the kinds of shrubs that may be cut for the house in this way, 
there are many of the same race, from the Sloe to the beautiful kinds 
of Apple. There is a good deal in putting them into the right sort 
of glass. The Japanese are very clever in fitting the flowers into vases 
so that each may show its form and beauty best. Mr. Alfred Parsons 
says he noticed that flowers seem to last longer in bronze, in which, 
it may be, the action of the light is less than in an ordinary vessel. 

While such trees as the Almond or Crab will usually be in the 
more distant parts of the garden picture, the variety of flowering 
shrubs is so great that we may choose from among them for the 
most precious of flower garden beds. Take an ordinary flower garden 
under the windows of the house, often with the beds in winter as 
bare as oilcloth. What beautiful groups of flowering evergreens we 
might plant in them ! Mountain Laurels (Kalmia), Japan and 
American Andromeda, Azaleas, choice Evergreen Barberries, alpine 
Cotoneaster, Evergreen Daphne, Desfontainea, in the south ; the taller 
hardy Heaths, Escallonia, Ledum, alpine and wild forms of Rhodo- 


dendron, Sweet Gale, Star bush, and various Laurustinus, leaving out 
not a few which thrive only in the warmer districts. Charming 
gardens might be made of such bushes, not lumped together, but 
in open groups, with the more beautiful American hardy flowers 
between them, such as the Wood Lily and Mocassin flower, many 
rare Lilies, and beautiful bulbous flowers of all seasons. The light and 
shade and variety in such beds of choice evergreens and flowers 
mingled are charming, and the plan would be a permanent one as it 
would tend to abolish the never-ending digging in the flower garden. 
Beds of flowering shrubs in the flower garden are not always so well 
suited for small gardens ; but in bold ones, now naked in winter, it 
would make them sightly even at that season, and much easier to deal 
with in early summer. 

The Rhododendrons of the hybrid sorts are too much used, and, as 
they are nearly always grafted, the common stock that bears them in 
the end kills the plant it should support, and so we too often see the 
common pontic kind. Yet there are many beautiful things among 
these hybrids. The good colours are well worth picking out from them, 
and the aim of the planter should be to show the habit and form of the 
plant. This does not mean that they may not be grouped or massed 
just as before, but openings of all sizes should be left among them for 
light and shade, and for handsome herbaceous plants that die down in 
the winter, thus allowing the full light for half the year to evergreens. 

In the south and west the various Arbutus are charming for lawns 
and ravines, and for sheltering the flower garden, as is also the sweet 
Bay Laurel, but the common Cherry Laurel and the Portugal should 
not be planted near anything precious. 

The hardy Azaleas are, considering their great number and variety, 
perhaps the most precious flowering shrubs we have ; they are fine in 
form of bush, even when they get little freedom, and superb in colour, 
the foliage in autumn, too, being rich in colour in sunny places. The 
Hydrangeas are noble plants in warm valleys, and on soils where they 
are not too often cut down by the winter ; not only the common one 
of the markets, which, in soils where it turns blue, is so effective in 
the garden, but a variety of good kinds, among which should always 
be the oak-leaved Hydrangea, as old plants of it are so handsome. 
As these are plants that cannot be grown everywhere, this is a 
good reason why they should be made much of where the climate 
suits them. There are few garden sights more interesting than groups 
of Hydrangeas well grown and placed, and it is one we rarely see. 

The Brooms have many effective plants and none more so than 
the common and the Spanish Brooms, which should be massed on 
banks, or where they will come into the picture, and some of the 
smaller Brooms are excellent for rock-gardens. The Furze in all its 


obtainable forms is just as precious, as it blooms so early, it will grow 
almost anywhere, and it brightens up a landscape as no other plant 
does. We have only to place it in any rough spots to enjoy it 
without care. Native shrubs should not be neglected ; the wild single 
Guelder Rose is as pretty a shrub as any from across the sea, while 
all the hardy kinds may give us good and bold effects grouped with 
or near such bushes as Deutzias, Weigelas, Mock Oranges — all plants 
of high value and much variety. 

From an artistic point of view nothing is better than groups of our 
hardy Heaths in any open place where room can be found for them, 
including white heather and all other strong varieties of heather, as 
well as all other kinds of hardy Heaths. After planting they give 
little trouble, and they are good in colour even in winter, being 
generally happiest out of the garden proper, where any other wild 
plants may be allowed to grow among them. No doubt, the choicest 
and smallest of these Heaths deserve careful garden culture, but for 
effect the forms of our common Heather, the Cornish and Irish 
Heaths, are the best, and in bold masses not primly kept, but, once 
well rooted, allowed to mingle with any pretty wild plants. We 
might even assist this idea by sowing or planting other things, such as 
Foxgloves, Harebells, or the small Furze, among the Heaths. When 
Heaths are grown in this way their bloom is charming from the first 
peep of spring, when the little rosy Heath of the mountains of central 
Europe begins to open, till the autumn days, and even the mild winter 
ones, when the delicately tinted Portuguese Heath (E. codonodes) 
blooms in the south and west of England. 

We take little notice of such minor things as the Fire-bush, so 
lovely in Cornwall, and pretty also in other seashore districts, as it 
may not be enjoyed in the country generally, and we also leave out 
some others, like the Witch and Japan Hazels, the Winter-sweet, and 
the x^llspice bushes, which, though pretty seen near at hand, do not 
give us those definite effects in the garden landscape which it is well to 
seek if we wish to get out of the fatal jumble of the common shrub- 
bery. The Escallonias, though very precious in seashore gardens and 
in the south on warm soils, are apt to go into mourning after hard 
winters elsewhere. So many of our island gardens are near the sea 
that we must not undervalue these shrubs, but a constant source 
of waste is the planting of things not really hardy in districts where 
they perish in hard winters, such as the Arbutus about London and in 
the midlands. And, even where things seem hardy, some of them, 
like Fuchsias, never give the charming effects we get from them in 
the west of Ireland, in Wales, and in warm coast gardens, whatever 
care we take. Such facts should not discourage, because they only 
emphasise the lesson that the true way in a garden is for each to do 


what soil and climate allow of, and in that way we arrive at the most 
important artistic gain of all, i.e. that each garden has its own distinct 

A very lovely group is the Lilacs, much enriched of recent years 
by the introduction of new species and many charming varieties of 
the common old Lilac — lovely plants, worthy of the finest days of our 
English spring. Few of the forms found in France seem to thrive 
in our gardens, owing to grafting on the Privet, which often, after 
a year or two's poor bloom, kills the plant and begins to take care 
of itself How much evil has been done to English ideas of flowering 
shrubs by thrusting this Privet everywhere ! Lilacs, being hardy in 
all parts of Britain, deserve our best care, and should always be 
grouped together in the open sun. They should always be bought 
from nurserymen who raise them from layers or suckers in the good 
old way, and should be, once grown up, always kept a little open 
and free by simple pruning, so that we may get handsome trusses. 
With these, too, must be grouped such lovely things as the Snow- 
drop tree, the Stuartias, and bush Magnolias. The Magnolias have 
recently become more numerous, and it will be easy soon to have 
a Magnolia garden, at least in favoured places. The tree Mag- 
nolias should come among the taller flowering trees in the distant 
parts of our flower grove — Horse Chestnuts, Buckeyes, Tulip Trees, 
Laburnums, Catalpa, and Yellow Wood. The Alpine Laburnum, 
so very beautiful in bloom, becomes a tall slender tree where not 
overcrowded, and the flowering Ash (Ornus) must not be forgotten 
among the taller flowering trees. For the Paulownia, so beautiful in 
France and Italy in spring, our climate is not warm enough to secure 
full size or health, save in the most favoured places in the south. 

Some shrubs of modest charm as to their flowers give very pretty 
effects in well-placed groups, such as the flowering Currant, Tamarix, 
and Ceanothus on walls. But none are more charming than the wild 
Roses in summer, the Sweet Briar being taken as representing our 
native wild Roses ; the Glossy Rose (R. lucida), the American wild 
Roses ; the many-flowered Rose (Polyantha), and the Japanese 
(R. rugosa). These and others I have planted in hedgerows and 
rough fences, and have never planted anything that has given a 
more beautiful return. 

The Judas Tree is neglected in England, and rarely planted in 
an effective way. In the Pare Monceau in Paris there is a beautiful 
grove of it in which trees of various ages form one family party, so to 
say, showing some differences in colour and earliness. Such slight 
but often valuable differences arise when we raise trees from seed 
and do not slavishly follow the habit of grafting one thing on another. 
This is one of the gains of following a more natural mode of 


increasing trees than is usual in nurseries, as those raised from seed 
have a chance of interesting variations, whereas grafting from the 
same identical form shuts out all chance of it. It is curious that a 
tree so effective in bloom, and so distinct in habit as the Judas Tree is, 
should be so little planted with us, and, when planted, so often left to 
the scant mercy of the shrubbery border. All such trees have their 
own ways and wants, and should not be jumbled up in the common 
crowded and ignorant way of planting. 

I have never seen anything with greater pleasure than a bush of 
Citrus Trifoliata which I saw in the School Garden at Versailles 
— a sheet of large and beautiful flowers — on April 19. I had previously 
no idea that any Citrus could have borne such a beautiful and distinct 
bloom in the open air, and yet this was borne by a hardy shrub 
standing for years among Crabs, Almonds, and trees of that degree of 

Of Indian Azaleas in the open air Mr. C. R. Scrase-Dickens 
writes : " The hardy Azaleas of the American races are very popular, 
but few know the value of the white Indian Azalea for the open 
garden in the south of England. Few plants give so little trouble 
when once established, even though the late frosts may now and 
again spoil the beauty of the flowers. When planted out and left 
alone, it is not much more than three or four feet in height, dense 
and spreading. The engraving shows a bush over ten feet across 
with a shadow thrown over the upper part by a tree of Magnolia 
which grows at the side. It gets shelter from cold winds and 
from too fierce a sun on the flowers. Any one who intends 
to plant this Azalea should remember that it flowers naturally 
at a time when there may still be late frosts and cold winds 
hovering about, and that it would be a mistaken kindness to 
choose any place, such as under a south wall, which would 
tend to make the blossoms open earlier in the season. We 
have some plants under a north wall which do admirably, but 
they seem to like association with other things. The variety 
which does best here is the old typical white. Overgrown plants of 
other colours from the greenhouse have been turned out sometimes, 
but they do not seem so happy or produce so good an effect." 

If one-tenth the trouble wasted on "carpet-bedding" plants and 
other fleeting and costly rubbish had been spent on flowering shrubs, 
our gardens would be all the better for it. There are no plants so 
much neglected as flowering shrubs, and even when planted they are 
rarely well grown, owing to the " traditions " of what is called the 
shrubbery. The common way is to dig the shrubbery every winter, 
and this is often carried out as a matter of form without giving the 
soil any manure, while much harm is done by mutilating the roots of 


the shrubs. The labour and time wasted in this way, if devoted to the 
proper culture of a portion of the ground each year, would make our 
gardens delightful indeed. Many shrubs, as fair as any flower requir- 
ing the shelter of glass, have been introduced into this country ; but for 
the most part they have been destroyed by the muddle " shrubbery." 

The idea of the murderous common shrubbery is so rooted in the 
popular mind that it is almost hopeless to expect much change for the 
better. The true way is to depart wholly from it as a mass of mixed 
shrubs, for beautiful families should be grouped apart. Each family 
or plant should have a separate place, free from the all-devouring 

Privet and Laurel, and each part of the shrubbery should have its 
own character, which may easily be given to it by grouping instead 
of mixing, which ends in the starvation of the choice kinds. We do 
not allow stove and green-house plants to be choked in this way, yet 
no plants are more worthy of a distinct place and of care than hardy 
shrubs. Low flowering trees, like Hawthorns, group admirably on the 
turf, but the finer kinds of flowering shrubs should be planted in beds. 
The shrubbery itself need no longer be a dark dreary mass, but light 
and shade may play in it, its varied life be well shown, and the habits 


and forms of each thing may be seen. Shrubs of high quaHty or 
rare deserve to be well grown. Any one who thinks how much less 
trouble is given by hardy plants than by pot plants will not begrudge 
attention to outdoor things, and some may even consider a garden of 
beautiful shrubs as a conservatory in the open air, no kind of flower 
gardening being more delightful or enduring. We have often to re- 
arrange vigorous herbaceous plants, and constantly to work with the 
lovable Carnation, but shrubs give us little trouble. 

It is not only flowers that suffer from being stuck in lines and 
patterns ; our beautiful flowering shrubs are injured in the same 
way. The Rhododendron and the Azalea, and what are commonly 
called American plants, are often put in such close masses that their 
forms cannot be seen. We may get the flowers to some extent, but 
they are not so enjoyable as when the plants are allowed to show 
their individual forms. 

There is not the slightest reason why we should not have all the 
force of colour, too, because it is quite possible to have a number of 
'beautiful Rhododendrons and other flowering shrubs together without 
putting them in the serried mass in which they are usually seen. 

So, without going into varieties or touching upon all the treasures 
within our reach, it is clear how much those who care to adorn their 
gardens in the most enduring way have to gain by planting flowering 
shrubs after their own tastes. Those who have given a fair chance to one 
half the groups of plants referred to in this chapter need not care 
much about garden coal bills, hot-houses, " contrasts of colour," and 
the many other considerations, as the beauty of the flowering trees and 
shrubs will come year after year as certainly as the wind through the 

So;ne Flowering Trees and SJiriibs Hardy iti British Garde?ts. 











































































































Sty rax 



Ulex _ 







^*^, Sojne of tJie evergreens, though tJiriving long in the southern and shore 
lajids, may perish in severe winters in cold inland districts. 



The splendid squadrons of the Pine, with 
crests proud in alpine storm and massed in 
serried armies along the northern moun- 
tains : — the Oak kings of a thousand winters 
in the forest plain are lovely gifts of the earth 
mother, but more precious still to the gar- 
dener are the most fragile of all woody things 
that garland bush and tree with beautiful 
forms and blossoms, like Clematis, Jasmine 
and Honeysuckle, and the many lace- workers 
of the woods and brakes. It is delightful to 
be able to turn our often ugly inheritance 
from the builder almost into gardens by the 
aid of these, from great yellow Roses to Ivy 
in many lovely forms ; but it is well to take a 
wider view of these climbing and rambling 
bushes and their places in the garden and in 
the pleasure-ground. It is for our own con- 
venience we go through the labour of nailing 
them to walls, and though it is a charming 
and necessary way of growing them it is well 
to remember that many climbers may be 
grown in beautiful ways without such labor- 
ious training. The tendency to over-pruning 
of the climbers on walls ends often, in a kind 
of crucifixion, and the more freely things are trained the better. Proof 
of this is in the handsome masses of climbers on the high walls of the 
Trinity College Gardens at Dublin and in many private places where 
climbers have been liberally and well planted on walls. 

But it should never be forgotten that many of these plants will 
grow by themselves, like the Honeysuckles, which, while pleasant to 


see on walls, are not less so on banks, or even on the level ground. 
Pretty fences and dividing screens may also be easily formed by hardy 
climbers. The wild kinds of Clematis are charming, and, apart from 
their use in the garden, they should be encouraged for trees and 

The Ivy of our northern woods has broken into a number of 
beautiful varieties often distinct in form and even in colour ; they 
deserve far more attention for evergreen bowers, evergreen fences, and 
dividing lines, apart from their growth on walls and trees. The bush 
forms of these may make broken hedge-like garlands 2 feet to 3 feet 
high round little isolated flower gardens. Almost equally beautiful 
plants in form of leaf are the Green Briers (Smilax), some of which 
are hardy in England, but seen in few gardens, and rarely treated in an 
artistic way, though excellent for walls and rocks. In the eastern 
counties they may be seen doing well in the open ground, as in 

Of the beauty of the Jasmine of all climbers there is least need 
to speak, yet how rarely one sees the old white Jasmine made good 
use of in large gardens. It should be in bold wreaths or masses 
where it thrives, and so also the winter Jasmine, which is a precious 
thing for our country, should not be put in as a plant or two in bad 
conditions, but treated as a fine distinct thing in masses round cottages 
and outhouses. The finest of hardy climbers, the Wistaria, is much 
more frequently and rightly planted in France than in our gardens, 
though it thrives in the Thames valley as well as in the Seine valley. 
It should be, in addition to its use on walls and houses, made into 
bold covered ways and bowers and trained up trees, and even along 
Oak fences. 

Vigorous Climbers on Trees. — It is not only that stout climbers 
are more beautiful and natural, and show their form better growing 
amongst trees, but it is the best way that many of them can be grown 
with safety owing to their vigour. The way the common Ivy wreaths 
the trees in rich woods, and the wild Clematis throws ropes up trees on 
the chalk hills, shows what the larger hardy climbers do over trees or 
rough or open copses, or even now and then in hedgerows. Some 
vigorous climbers would in time ascend the tallest trees, and there 
is nothing more beautiful than a veil of Clematis montana running 
over a tall tree. Besides the well-known climbers, there are species 
of Clematis which have never come into general cultivation, but 
which are beautiful for such uses, though not all showy. The same 
may be said of the Honeysuckles, wild Vines, and various other 
families with which much of the northern tree and shrub world is 
garlanded. Occasionally one sees a climbing Rose rambling over a 
tree, and perhaps among our garden pictures nothing is more lovely 




than such a Rose when in flower. By a selection of the hardiest of 
cHmbing Roses very beautiful pictures might be formed in our 
pleasure grounds and plantations, and we might often see as the result 


Climbers on the Vicarage, Odiham. 

of design what is now mainly an accident, as a number of wild Roses 
grow " freely " among trees and large shrubs. 

Climbers of Classic Beauty or Rarity are often found a 


home for on walls, and in our country some variety of wall surface is 
a great gain to botanic gardens and private gardens like Offington, in 
which a great variety of shrubs from all countries is grown. In the 
milder districts of the country and in favoured spots round the coast 
some of the finest exotics, such as Lapageria, and some greenhouse 
plants of great beauty, like Clianthus, which about London can only 
be enjoyed in a greenhouse, may be grown on walls in the open air. 
Some of the fine plants of Chili also may be grown on walls of 
various aspects. Abelia, Lardizabala, Berberidopsis and Rhyncho- 
spermum are among the plants sometimes so grown, but there is 
no limit as to selection. Many who have visited our best gardens 
will probably have stored away in their memories some of the 
pictures they have seen given by noble wall plants well grown in this 
way — as, for example, the New Zealand Edwardsia at Linton, so fine 
in form and colour and the handsome Fremontia. Hard winters 
settle the fate of many beautiful things among these, but, happily, 
some of the loveliest things are hardy, like the Winter Sweet, Bignonia, 
Magnolia, and sometimes the splendid colour of the Pomegranate 
buds is seen among them. 

It may be noted here that among the unfortunate attempts of 
certain architects who designed gardens to get rid of the gardener and 
his troublesome plants were instructions that no climbers were to be , 
allowed on walls. There was not a single spray of any climber 
allowed to grow on the house or extensive terrace walls at Shrub- 
land, some years ago, as if in a garden death were better than 

Fragile Climbers on Shrubs. — Apart from the vigorous 
climbers that we may trust in shrubberies, woods, and on rough 
banks, and which, when fairly started, take care of themselves, there 
are fragile things which deserve to be used in rather a new way as far 
as most gardens are concerned, namely, for throwing a delicate lace- 
work of flowers over the evergreen and other choice shrubs grown in 
our gardens — Rhododendron, Kalmia, Andromeda, Azalea, and even 
taller shrubs. A group of Hollies will not look any the worse for 
wreaths of fragrant Clematis in autumn. Often stiff, unbroken 
masses of Rhododendrons and Evergreen flowering shrubs will be 
more varied if delicate flakes of Clematis (white, lavender, or claret- 
red) or the bright arrows of the Flame Nasturtium come among them 
here and there in autumn. The great showy hybrid Clematises of 
our gardens are not so good for this use as the more elegant wild 
Clematises of N. America, Europe, and N. Africa, such as the Hairbell 
and others of the less vigorous Clematis. These are so fragile in 
growth that many of them may be trusted among groups of choice 
shrubs like Azaleas, training themselves and throwing veils over the 

K 2 



bushes here and there. Among these nothing is better than the 
various forms of Clematis Viticella, and there is also a number of not 
ver}' showy plants which might be used in this way, such as Apios 
and even the climbing Fern of N. America, and some Bomareas and 
the wild Nasturtiums. Two lovely twining shrubs must never be 
left out in any scheme of this kind, the Atragene or Alpine Clematis 
of the mountains of Europe, hardy as the Oak and tender in colour 
as the dove, and in all the warmer districts the winter-flowering 
Clematis of the islands of the Mediterranean and the North African 
coasts, where it garlands with the Smilax millions of acres of hyena- 
and jackal-haunted scrub. 

et tlowxT O'lgiioiiia grandiflora). Engraved from a photograph by Miss Will 

Roses as Climbers.— It would be difficult to overpraise the 
value of the Rose in all arrangements of climbing plants. Many of 
the more vigorous Wild Roses of the northern world are naturally 
almost climbing plants, and some of them are seen 20 ft. high or so 
among trees. In gardens many varieties might be mentioned which 
in past years were a great source of beauty and gave a very showy 
effect when well used, but, in our own time, and within the past 
generation or two, since the raising of Gloire de Dijon, a noble series 
of climbing Roses, wholly distinct from the old climbing kinds, has 
been raised in France, the most precious flowers that have ever 
adorned the Rose-garden. 


The old Climbers and Garland Roses were almost too vigorous for 
the garden, and their bloom did not last long enough to justify their 
getting a place there ; but now, with the great climbing Tea Roses 
we have for the southern parts of these islands, we may count on a 
bloom for months. Hence we have in these Roses, where they thrive 
the best, the most precious of all ornaments for walls of houses, trellis 
work, pergolas. In southern parts of the country we even get fine 
results from these Roses on the north side of walls, where some 
Roses flower better than on the south side. Also, we can grow them 
in the open on trellises or away from walls, but in the northern parts of 
the country, where these great climbing Tea Roses may not thrive so 
well, walls come in to help us more and more by their shelter and 
warmth, and the encouragement they give to early bloom. 

Apart from these great Roses of garden origin, which will long be 
among the most precious, some Wild Roses are of the highest impor- 
tance in warm districts and good soils, particularly the Indian R. 
Brunonis and the many-flowered Roses (R. polyantha) of Japan ; but 
in the presence of the need of so much wall space for the garden 
Roses thfese Wild Roses will usually be best in the shrubbery or some 
place apart, where they may be let alone, and no good can arise 
from choice, garden ground being given to Roses like R. polyantha 
which are even more vigorous than our own wild Dog Rose. 

In Europe perhaps the country that pleases one most by its 
fitness for Rose culture is that along the shores of the Mediterranean, 
where the Banksian and other more delicate Roses may be seen 
up trees, forming hedges, and arranging themselves in other delight- 
ful ways. I remember being very much struck with the beauty of the 
single Banksian Rose in such positions, and often wondered why it 
was not secured for our own gardens, even though it might not grow 
so freely as there. 

Vines for their Beauty of F'orm.— Going back some thousands 
of years to the earliest sculptured remains of some of the oldest 
peoples, we see evidence that the Grape Vine was in common use, 
and it is no doubt much older than the monuments of Assyria. 
Among the Kabyle villages of North Africa I passed many Vines 
of great age trailing over very old Olive trees in the little orchard 
fields. In such countries there was the value of the fruit, but even 
in ours, where the Grape ripens rarely out of doors, the charm of 
the plant is so great that we see many cottages in Surrey and 
Norfolk set deep in Vine leaves. The Grape Vine, however, is but 
one of a large family, and, though we may not see in our country its 
garlands from tree to tree purple with fruit, we may see much of its 
fine forms of leaf The wild Vines are too vigorous for use on walls, 
though excellent for banks and trees and for any place outside the 



flower garden. I have seen them clambering up forest trees, spreading 
into masses of fine foliage on the ground, and sending out long arms 
in search of the nearest trees — strong and handsome climbers, hardy, 
vigorous, and soon covering dry banks, rocks, and trees. 

To the Vines (Vitis) have now been joined by the botanists 
Virginian Creepers (Ampelopsis), and between the two groups it need 
not be said what noble things they offer for garlanding trees, walls, 
bowers, rocks, and banks. It cannot be said that we neglect these 
Virginian and Japanese creepers, but the Vines are so far seldom well 
used with us, although easy of cultivation. 

Wooden Pergola, with Clematis and other hardy Climbers. 

Pergolas. — Though our summer is often not sunny, there are 
seasons when shaded walks may be enjoyed, and numbers of free- 
growing climbing plants give an abundant and lovely choice of living 
drapery for them, Aristolochia, Wistaria, Virginian Creeper, rambling 
Roses, Honeysuckles, Jasmines and the free Clematises doing well 
over such. In Italy and warm countries one often sees in gardens 
the pergola — as the creeper-shaded, walk is called — serving the two- 
fold purpose of supporting Grape Vines and giving pleasant coolness 
during the summer heat. As a rule, these pergolas are rude trellis- 
work structures of wood, sometimes supported by stone posts where 


these are at hand. In the gardens in the neighbourhood of Rome, 
Naples, and Florence there are beautiful examples of the pergola — 
stately structures, the supports of which are massive columns of 
stone covered and festooned with Banksian Roses, Wistaria, Periploca, 
Clematises, Honeysuckles, Passion Flowers, scarlet Trumpet Flowers, 
and other climbers which form cool retreats in the hot days. But 
such pergolas seldom occurred outside the gardens of the great villas, 
and near humbler dwellings the pergola was usually a simple struc- 
ture made for the purpose of supporting the Grape Vine, and nearly 
always pretty. 

These creeper-clad covered ways should usually lead to somewhere 
and be over a frequented walk, and should not cut off any line of view 
nor be placed near big trees, especially such trees as the Elm, whose 
hungry roots would travel a long way to feed upon the good soil that 
the climbers should be planted in. A simple structure is the best. 
The supports, failing the Italian way of making posts of stone — also 
seen, by the way, in gate-posts in Northern England — should be Oak 
tree stems, about 9 inches in diameter, let into the ground about 2 
feet ; the better if on a bed of concrete. The posts must be connected 
and firmly secured to each other by long pieces along the sides, 
while the top may be formed of smaller pieces to make a firm structure. 
On no account let the " rustic " carpenter begin to adorn it with the 
fantastic branchings he is so fond of 

Trees Supporting Climbers. — Instead of trusting to wire and 
ugly posts or the many artificial ways for supporting climbers, why 
should we not do as the Italians and people of south Europe do, use 
living trees to carry the vine or climber. Weeping trees of graceful 
leaf and form might be used in this way with fine effect. Abroad 
they take for this purpose any kind of tree which happens to be near 
and keep it within bounds, and those who know our garden flora 
may select trees which, while beautiful themselves, will not be much 
trouble to keep in bounds, like the weeping Cherry, weeping Aspen, 
some Willows even, and any light leaved weeping tree would be 
charming for its own sake as well as for what it might carry. Some 
of them might even be beautiful in flower, and there would be no 
trouble in getting creepers to run over them. 

Light Arches over Walks. — When a quiet walk leads 
from one part of the garden to another, and that walk is spanned 
at intervals with slender iron or other light arches clothed with 
Honeysuckle, Clematis, or Jasmine, it gives an added grace to the 
walk. This also is a delightful way of framing, so to say, a flower 
border, the light arches springing up from the line of the trellis, which 
should be used to cut off the borders from the kitchen garden. 

Annual and Herbaceous Climbers. — However rich we may 



be in perennial and shrubby climbers, we must not forget the climbing 
things among annual and like plants to help us, especially in the 
smaller class of gardens and those on which we depend more on 
annual flowers. Hedges of Sweet Peas there are few things to equal ; 
the fragile annual Convolvuli in many colours are pretty for low 
trellises, the vigorous herbaceous Bindweeds for rough places outside 
the flower garden. Most showy of all annual climbers are the many 
Gourds, which, treated in a bold way, give fine effects when trained 
over outhouses, sheds, or on strong stakes as columns. The showy 
annual climbing Trop^eolums, as well as the brilliant herbaceous and 
tuberous rooted kinds, are most precious, and Apios, Adlumia, Eccremo- 
carpus, Maurandya and Cobaea in mild districts are among the 
plants that help us to make walls into gardens. Nor must we forget 
the Hop, a vigorous, graceful, herbaceous climber, of much value where 
well placed. Among these climbers we may place the Passion Flower, 
because so often short-lived in the cold and more inland parts of our 
islands. It is best for sheltered and sea-coast places and is not quite 
hardy there in our coldest seasons ; still, if its base be sheltered with 
some dry Fern, it will spring up again. 

Covered Ways of Fruit Trees. — This way of growing fruit 
trees and shading walks is not often seen, though few things would be 
prettieror more useful in gardens if fruit trees of highquality were chosen. 
Although in our gardens the shaded walk is not so necessary as it is 
in Italy and Southern France, in hot seasons shade is welcome in 
Britain ; and, as in many gardens we have four times as many walks as 
are needed, there is plenty of room for covering some of them with fruit 
trees which would give us flowers in spring, fruit in autumn, and light 
shade. The very substance of which walks are made is often good for 
fruit, and those who know the Apricot district of Oxfordshire and the 
neighbouring counties may see how well fruit trees do in hard walks. 
It is not only in kitchen and fruit gardens that their shade might be 
welcome, but in flower gardens, if we ever get out of the common 
notion of a flower garden which insists on everything being seen at one 
glance and the whole as flat and hard as oilcloth. 

Plashed Alleys. — In some old gardens there was a way of 
" plashing " trees over walks — trees like the Lime, which grew so 
vigorously that they had to be cut back with an equal vigour, this 
leading in the end to ugliness in the excessive mutilation of the trees. 
One result of the frequent cutting was a vigorous summer growth of 
shoots, which cast a dense shade and dripped in wet weather. The 
purpose of such walks would be well fulfilled by training fruit trees 
over them, as they are trees which much more readily submit to 
training and give the light and airy shade which is best in our 
country. The fruit trellis, whatever it is formed of, need not be 



confined to fruit trees only, but here and there wreaths of Clematis 
or other elegant climbers might vary the lines. 

Evergreens as Climbers. — Those who live in sheltered valleys 
on warm soils, or among pleasant hills above the line of hard frosts, 
may be so rich in evergreens that they will keep their walls for the 
fairest of true climbers. But in cold, exposed, and inland parts people 
are often glad to have good evergreens on walls, even bushes not 
naturally climbers in habit, such as Garrya elliptica, the choicer ever- 
green Barberries, Camellias on the north sides of walls, Azara,Escallonia, 

Cotoneaster, and evergreen Euo- 
nymus. The Laurustinus, too, is 
charming on many cottage walls 
in winter and may escape there 
when it would suffer in the open ; 
the Myrtle is happy on walls in 
southern districts, and even the 
Poet's Laurel may be glad of 
the shelter of a wall in the north. 
The evergreen Magnolia, which 
in warmer Europe is a standard 
tree, in our country must usually 
be grown on walls, even in the 
south, and there is no finer pic- 
ture than a good tree of Mag- 
nolia on a house. The beautiful 
Ceanothus of the Californian hills 
often keep company with these 
evergreens on walls ; but even in 
the warmer soils of the home 
countries they are tender, and 
their delicate sprays of flowers 
are much less frequently seen 
with us than in France, although we cannot resist trying them on 
sunny walls, and on chalky and sandy soils they have better chances. 
Apart from true shrubs used as evergreens, so frequently seen in 
Britain, we have some natural evergreen climbing plants for walls, 
first of all being our native Ivy, in all its beautiful forms, and of varied 
use for walls, houses, borders, screens, and even summer-houses and 
shelters. How much better to make bowers in the garden of Ivy, 
as a living roof, than of rotten timber, straw, or heath ! If we make a 
strong and enduring fram-ework, and then plant the Ivy well, we soon 
get a living roof, which, with little care, will last for many years and 
always look well. 

Wistaria on covered way. 



Some Climbing, Twining, and Wall Plants for British 
Gardens. — There is scarcely any limit to the different uses that 
plants of a climbing or rambling habit may be put to, for many of 
them are extremely beautiful when employed for the draping of 
arbours, pergolas, or even living trees, while for hiding unsightly 
fences or clothing sloping banks, the more vigorous kinds are well 
adapted. For draping buildings or furnishing walls there is a great 
variety of plants, either quite hardy or sufficiently tender to need the 
protection of a wall in order to pass through an ordinary winter 
without much injury. The majority of those enumerated below are 
hardy enough to succeed as wall plants in any part of England, while 
a few are adapted only for particularly mild districts. 

Those plajits marked with an asterisk are either half-hardy or require some 
slight protection in cold districts or special care in some cases. 
















































































Vitis (now including 


Akebia quinata. 

*■■ ^y^y^'i^^ 



It was a common idea that the exquisite flowers of alpine plants 
could not be grown in gardens in lowland regions, and it was not con- 
fined to the public, but propagated by writers whenever they have had 
to figure or describe alpine flowers. So far from its being true, how- 
ever, there are but few alpine flowers that ever cheered the traveller's 
eye that cannot be grown in these islands. 

Alpine plants grow naturally on high mountains, whether they 
spring from sub-tropical plains or green northern pastures. Above 
the cultivated land these flowers begin to occur on moorland and in 
the fringes of the hill woods ; they are seen in multitudes in the 
broad pastures with which many mountains are robed, enamelling 
their green, and where neither grass nor tall herbs exist ; where 
mountains are crumbled into slopes of shattered rock by the contend- 
ing forces of heat and cold ; even there, amidst the glaciers, they 
spring from the ruined ground, as if the earth-mother had sent up her 
loveliest children to plead with the spirits of destruction. 

Alpine plants fringe the fields of snow and ice of the mountains, 
and at such elevations often have scarcely time to flower before they 
are again buried deep in snow. Enormous areas of the earth, in- 
habited by alpine plants, are every year covered by a deep bed of 
snow and where tree or shrub cannot live from the intense cold, a 


deep mass of down-like snow falls upon alpine plants, like a great 
cloud-borne quilt, under which they rest safe from alternations of 
frost and biting winds with moist and spring-like days as in our green 

But these conditions are not always essential for their growth in 
a cool northern country like ours. The reason that alpine plants 
abound in high regions is because no taller vegetation can exist 
there ; were these places inhabited by trees and shrubs, we should 
find fewer alpine plants among them ; on the other hand, were no 
stronger vegetation found at a lower elevation, these plants would 
often there appear. Also, as there are few hard and fast lines in 
nature, many plants found on the high Alps are also met with in 
rocky or barish ground at much lower elevations. Gentiana erna, 
for example, often flowers very late in summer when the snow 
thaws on a very high mountain ; yet it is also found on much 
lower mountains, and occurs in England and Ireland. In the close 
struggle upon the plains and low tree-clad hills, the smaller species 
are often overrun by trees, trailers, bushes, and vigorous herbs, but, 
where in far northern and high mountain regions these fail from the 
earth, the lovely alpine flowers prevail. 

Alpine plants possess the charm of endless variety, and include things 
widely different : — tiny orchids, tree-like moss, and ferns that peep from 
crevices of alpine cliffs, often so small that they seem to cling to the 
rocks for shelter, not daring to throw forth their fronds with airy grace ; 
bulbous plants, from Lilies to Bluebells ; evergreen shrubs, perfect in 
leaf and blossom and fruit, yet so small that a finger glass would 
make a house for them ; dwarfest creeping plants, spreading over the 
brows of rocks, draping them with lovely colour ; Rockfoils and 
Stonecrops no bigger than mosses, and, like them, mantling the earth 
with green carpets in winter, and embracing nearly every type of the 
plant-life of northern lands. 

In the culture of these plants, the first thing to be remembered is 
that much difference exists among them as regards size and vigour. 
We have, on the one hand, a number of plants that merely require 
to be sown or planted in the roughest way to flourish — Arabis and 
Aubrietia, for example ; and, on the other, there are some kinds, 
like Gentians and the Primulas of the high Alps, which are 
rarely seen in good health in gardens and it is as to these that 
advice is chiefly required. And nearly all the misfortunes which 
these little plants have met with in our gardens are due to a false 
conception of what a rock-garden ought to be, and of what the 
alpine plant requires. It is too often thought that they will do 
best if merely raised on tiny heaps of stones and brick rubbish, such 
as we frequently see dignified with the name of " rockwork." Moun- 


tains are often " bare," and cliffs devoid of soil "; but we must not 
suppose that the choice jewellery of plant-life scattered over the ribs 
of the mountain lives upon little more than the air and the melting 
snow. Where else can we find such a depth of stony soil as on the 
ridges of shattered stone and grit flanking some great glacier, stained 
with tufts of crimson Rockfoil? Can we gauge the depth of that 
chink from which peep tufts of the beautiful little Androsace helvetica, 
which for ages has gathered the crumbling grit, into which the roots 
enter so far that we cannot dig them out ? And if we find plants grow- 
ing from mere cracks without soil, even then the roots simply search 
farther into the heart of the flaky rock, so that they are safer from 
drought than on the level ground. 

We meet on the Alps plants not more than an inch high firmly 
rooted in crevices of slaty rock, and by knocking away the sides from 
bits of projecting rock, and laying the roots quite bare, we may find 
them radiating in all directions against a flat rock, some of the 
largest perhaps more than a yard long. Even smaller plants descend 
quite as deep, though it is rare to find the texture and position of the 
rock such as will admit of tracing them. It is true we occasionally 
find in fields of flat hard rock hollows in which moss and leaves have 
gathered, and where, in a depression of the surface, without an outlet 
of any kind, alpine plants grow freely ; but in droughts they are 
just as liable to suffer from want of water as they would be in 
our plains. On level or sloping spots of ground in the Alps the 
earth is of great depth, and, if it is not all earth in the common 
sense of the word, it is more suitable to the plants than what we 
commonly understand by that term. Stones of all sizes broken 
up with the soil, sand, and grit prevent evaporation ; the roots lap 
round them, follow them down, and in such positions they never 
suffer from want of moisture. It must be remembered that the 
continual degradation of the rocks effected by frost, snow, and 
heavy rains in summer serves to " earth up," so to speak, many 
alpine plants. 

In numbers of gardens an attempt at " rockwork " has been made ; 
but the result is often ridiculous, not because it is puny when com- 
pared with Nature's work, but because it is generally so arranged 
that rock-plants cannot exist upon it. The idea of rockwork first 
arose from a desire to imitate those natural croppings-out of rocks 
which are often half covered with dwarf mountain plants. The con- 
ditions which surround these are rarely taken into account by those 
who make rock-gardens. In moist districts, where rains keep porous 
stone in a humid state, this straight-sided rockwork may support a 
few plants, but in the larger portion of the British Isles it is useless 
and ugly. It is not alone because they love the mountain air 


that the Gentians and such plants prefer it, but also because the 
great elevation is unsuitable to coarser vegetation, and the alpine 
plants have it all to themselves. Take a patch of Silene acaulis, 
by which the summits of some of our highest mountains are sheeted 
over, and plant it 2,000 feet lower down in suitable soil, keeping 
it moist and free from weeds, and it will grow well ; but leave it to 
Nature, and the strong herbs will soon cover it, excluding the light 
and killing it. 

Although hundreds of kinds of alpine flowers may be grown with- 
out a particle of rock near them, yet the slight elevation given by 
rocky banks is congenial to some of the rarest kinds. The effect of a 
well-made rock-garden is pretty in garden scenery. It furnishes a 
home for many native and other plants which may not safely be put 
in among tall flowers in borders ; and it is important that the most 
essential principles to be borne in mind when making it should be 
stated. The usual mistake is that of not providing a feeding-place 
for the roots of the plants. On ordinary rockwork even the coarsest 
British weeds cannot find a resting-place, because there is no body of 
soil for the roots to find nourishment sufficient to keep the plant fresh 
in all weathers. 

Position for the Rock-garden. — The rock-garden should 
never be near walls ; never very near a house ; never, if possible, 
within view of formal surroundings of any kind, and it should be in an 
open situation. No efforts should be spared to make all the surround- 
ings, and every point visible from the rock-garden, graceful and 
natural as they can be made. The part of the gardens around the 
rock-garden should be picturesque, if possible, and, in any case, be 
a quiet airy spot with as few jarring points as may be. No tree 
should be in the rock-garden ; hence a site should not be selected 
where it would be necessary to remove favourite trees. The roots of 
trees would find their way into the masses of good soil for the 
alpine flowers, and soon exhaust them. Besides, as these flowers 
are usually found on treeless wastes, it is best not to place them 
in shaded places. 

As regards the stone to be used, sandstone or millstone grit 
would perhaps be the best ; but it is seldom that a choice can be 
made, and almost any kind of stone will do, from Kentish rag to 
limestone: soft and slaty kinds and others liable to crumble away 
should be avoided, as also should magnesian limestone. The stone of 
the neighbourhood should be adopted, for economy's sake, if for no 
other reason. Wherever the natural rock crops out, it is sheer 
waste to create artificial rockwork instead of embellishing that which 
naturally occurs. In many cases nothing would be necessary but to 
clear the ground, and add here and there a few loads of good soil, 


with broken stones to prevent evaporation, the natural crevices and 
crests being planted where possible. Cliffs or banks of chalk, as well 
as all kinds of rock, should be taken advantage of in this way : 
many plants, like the dwarf Harebells and Rock Roses, thrive in such 

places. No burrs, 
■ ie clinkers, vitrified 

matter, portions of old 
arches and pillars, 
broken-nosed statues, 
etc., should ever be 
seen in a garden of 
alpine flowers. Never 
let any part of the 
rock-garden appear 
as if it had been shot 
out of a cart. The 
rocks should all have 
their bases buried in 
the ground, and the 
seams should not be 
visible ; wherever a 
vertical or oblique 
seam occurs, it 
should be crammed with earth, and the plants put in with the 
earth will quickly hide the seam. Horizontal fissures should be 
avoided as much as possible. No vacuum should exist beneath the 
surface of the soil or surface-stones, and the broken stone and grit 
should be so disposed that there are no hollows. Myriads of alpine 
plants have been destroyed from the want of observing this pre- 
caution, the open crevices and loose soil allowing the dry air to destroy 
the alpine plants in a very short time, and so one often sees what 
was meant for a " rock-garden " covered with weeds and brambles, 
and forgotten ! 

In all cases where elevations of any kind are desired, the true way 
is to obtain them by a mass of soil suitable to the plants, putting a 
" rock " in here and there as the work proceeds; frequently it would be 
desirable to make these mounds of earth without any strata. The 
wrong and usual way is to get the elevation by piling up ugly masses 
of stones, vitrified bricks, and other rubbish. 

No very formal walk — that is to say, no walk with regularly 
trimmed edges — should come near the rock-garden. This need not 
prevent the presence of good walks through or near it, as by allowing 
the edges of the walk to be broken and stony, and by encourag- 
ing Stonecrops, Rockfoils, and other little plants to crawl into the 

Passage in rock-garden. 

Wrong way of forming rock-garden. 


Steps from deep leces' of Rock-garden, mossed o\ei with 
Alpnie Flowers. 

Ledge of Alpine Flowers (a Garden Sketch). 


walk at will, a pretty margin will result. There is no surface of 
this kind that may not be thus adorned. Violets, Ferns, Forget-me- 
nots, will do in the shadier parts, and the Stonecrops and many others 
will thrive in the full sun. The whole of the surface of the alpine 
garden should be covered with plants as far as possible, except a few 
projecting points. In moist districts, Erinus and the Balearic Sand- 
wort will grow on the face of the rocks ; and even upright faces of rock 
will grow a variety of plants. Regular steps should never be in or near 
the rock-garden. Steps may be made quite picturesque, and even 
beautiful, with Violets and other small plants jutting from every 
crevice ; and no cement should be used. 

In cases where the simplest type of rock-garden only is attempted, 
and where there are no steps or rude walks in the rock-garden, the 
very fringes of the gravel walks may be graced by such plants as the 
dwarfer Stonecrops. The alpine Toadflax is never more beautiful than 
when self-sown in a gravel walk. A rock-garden so made that its 
miniature cliffs overhang is useless for alpine vegetation, and all but 
such wall-loving plants as Corydalis lutea soon die on it. The 
tendency to make it with overhanging " peaks " is often seen in the 
cement rock-gardens now common. 

Soil. — The great majority of alpine plants thrive best in deep 
soil. In it they can root deeply, and when once rooted they will 
not suffer from drought, from which they would quickly perish if 
planted in the usual way. Three feet deep is not too much for most 
kinds, and in nearly all cases it is a good plan to have plenty of 
broken sandstone or grit mixed with the soil. Any free loam, with 
plenty of sand and broken grit, will suit most alpine plants. But peat 
is required by some, as, for example, various small and brilliant rock- 
plants like the Menziesia, Trillium, Cypripedium, Spigelia, and a 
number of other mountain and bog-plants. Hence, though the body 
of the soil may be of loam, it is well to have a few masses of peat here 
and there. This is better than forming all the ground of good loam, 
and then digging holes for the reception of small masses of peat. 
The soil of some portions might also be chalky or calcareous, for the 
sake of plants that are known to thrive best on such formations, like the 
Milkworts, the Bee Orchis, and Rhododendron Chamaecistus. Any 
other varieties of soil required by particular kinds can be given as 
they are planted. 

It is not well to associate a small lakelet or pond with the rock- 
garden, as is frequently done. If a picturesque piece of water can 
be seen from the rock-garden, well and good ; but water should not, 
as a rule, be closely associated with it. Hence, in places of limited 
extent, water should not be thought of. 

In the planting of every kind of rock-garden, it should be 


remembered that all the surface should be planted. Not alone on 
slopes, or favourable ledges, or chinks, should we see this exquisite 
plant-life, as many rare mountain species will thrive on the less 
trodden parts of footways ; others, like the two-flowered Violet, seem 
to thrive best in the fissures between steps ; many dwarf succulents 
delight in gravel and the hardest soil. 

In cultivating the very rarest and smallest alpine plants, the 
stony, or partially stony, surface is to be preferred. Full exposure is 
necessary for very minute plants, and stones are useful in preventing 
evaporation and protecting them in other ways. 

Few have much idea of the number of alpine plants that may 
be grown on fully exposed ordinary ground. But some kinds 
require care, and there are usually new kinds coming in, which, even 

Steps in a rock garden at Coneyhurst. 

if vigorous, should be kept apart for a time. Therefore, where the 
culture of alpine plants is entered into with zest, there ought to be 
a sort of nursery spot on which to grow the most delicate and rare 
kinds. It should be fully exposed, and sufficiently elevated to secure 
perfect drainage. 

Ill-formed Rock Gardens. — The increased interest in rock 
gardening of recent years has led to much work of this kind being 
done throughout the country, and without good results from an artis- 
tic point of view. The rock gardens are not right in structure nor 
good for growing plants. If they were good for the life of plants one 
might pass over their other defects, but when made, as they often 
are, of cement, and even of natural stone so that the plants grow 
with great difficulty, owing chiefly to the stones overhanging so 
as to leave dry and dusty recesses, the result is bad. No doubt 
rocks do in nature often have such recesses, but they very often 

L 2 


come out of the ground in ways that the flowers and moss grow well 
on them. 

In the present state of the art of garden design, rock gardens are 
formed mainly by nurserymen ; these are not men who, as a rule, by 
the very nature of their business, can give much attention to the study 
of rocks in natural situations, or learn how the different strata crop 
out in the ways most happy for vegetation, without which study we 
think no good work in this way is possible. The work we see now is 
often done better than the ugly masses of scoria and various rubbish 
of the earlier " rock works," but it is still a very long way from what 
is artistic. Simplicity is rarely thought of, or of the rock coming out 
of the ground in any pretty way, of which we may see numerous 
examples in upland moors in England, even without going to the 
mountains or the Alps. On the contrary, we see pretentious rickety 
piles of stone on stone, with pebbles between to keep the big ones up, 
and forty stones where seven would be enough. 

A characteristic of these elaborate failures is a rocky depression, 
often an ugly one, in the ground. This is by no means the most 
likely thing in Nature to give the prettiest effects. If alpine and rock 
plants wanted shelter, we could see some meaning in these depres- 
sions, but the conditions that suit such plants are quite the opposite, 
and a rock garden should be for the most part made on a fully 
exposed rocky knoll. 

The fact that such bad work is usual is, however, no proof that we 
cannot get nearer to the truth, and there is a good opening for one 
who would devote himself to going on the hills and seeing the ways 
in which rocks and flowers meet. He would not have to study only 
the more imposing aspects of that charming subject, but also the 
simpler ones, because in gardens in all that concerns the rocks we can 
get only simple effects, and on a small scale. One of the commonest 
mistakes is piling stone upon stone in such a way that there is no 
room for grouping anything. If one were to take five or six of the 
stones one sees in a rock garden, and simply lay them with ithe 
prettiest and most mossy sides showing out of the bank in the right 
kind of earth, one would get a better place for plants than a rock 
garden made, it may be, of hundreds of tons of stone could give, 
because then we should have room to group and mass them, without 
which no good effect is possible. 

The common " rockery," like the common mixed border, is an 
incoherent muddle, and can scarcely be anything else so long as the 
present plan is followed. The plants hate it, and in effect it is very 
like the rows of false teeth in the dentists' shops in St. Martin's-lane. 
We should seek gardens of alpine flowers, with here and there a mossy 
stone showing modestly among them — not limiting one's efforts to 




any one idea, but beginning at least with simplicity of effect. Then 
groups and carpets of rock plants would be easy to form, and their 
culture would be easier in every way. 

Refuse Brick " Rockeries." — Whoever started the idea of the 
use of the refuse of the brickyard to form the rock-garden was no friend 
of the garden, as alpine flowers do not thrive on masses of vitrified 
brick rubbish. And these brick rubbish horrors are put up with 
overhanging brows so that a drop of moisture cannot get to the 
plants, and a dry wind can sweep through them as easily as through 
a grill. If the practice were confined to cottages near brickfields it 
would not much astonish us ; but in Dulwich Park several thousand 
tons of it have been put about under the pretence of making rock- 
gardens, and also at Waterlow Park, Highgate, which was once a 
pretty and varied piece of ground. If the County Council waste 
money in this way, we cannot perhaps wonder so much at the owners 
of villas doing it, but in any case it is ugly and disgraceful in a 
garden, though we see it freely used in many large country gardens. No 
other ignoble materials should be seen in any rock garden, in which 
even stumps of trees are out of place. With some people any 
broken-nosed statue or other stony or vitrified rubbish is used in what 
should be the most beautiful and natural of all gardens — the alpine 
garden. If we have not rock in its natural position, or cannot secure 
some pieces of natural rock to use even on a small scale, it is far 
better to grow the rock plants in simple ways, even on the level earth 
on which many of them thrive. 

It would be well to ask the cost of such a disfigurement in public 
and large gardens where it is done on as large a scale as this ; the 
mere price of cartage would have made a model rock garden of 
natural stone. When these villainous banks of brick-yard refuse 
were first erected, anything more hideous in a public garden was not 
to be seen, but by piling on them common shrubs, evergreens, 
Tobacco, Stonecrops, China Asters, Begonias, Chrysanthemums, Beet- 
root, Heath, Elder, and higgledy-piggledy verdure of this nature, a 
sort of brick-rubbish salad was the result, and the effect of the brick is 
less seen. It is not only the ugliness of this in itself that is bad ; it 
is such an injustice to the gardener, who has to adorn at all seasons 
such structures, to expect him to get any good results from the kind 
of thing a Brentford cobbler who happens to live near a brickyard 
makes a little " rockwork " of in his garden. 

Misplaced Artificial Rock. — Artificial rock is formed now 
and then in districts where the natural rock is beautiful, as in the 
country round Tunbridge Wells. Though why anybody should bring 
the artificial rockmaker into a garden or park where there is already 
fine natural beautiful rock it is not easy to see. Also, in certain 


districts, it is a mistake to place this artificial rock under conditions 
where rock of any kind does not occur in nature. It would be much 
better, as far as alpine and rock plants are concerned, to dispense with 
much of this ugly artificial rockwork, and take advantage of the fact 
that many of these plants grow perfectly well on raised borders and 
on fully exposed low banks. 

Alpine Plants in Groups. — Many vigorous alpine flowers 
will do perfectly well on level ground in our cool climate, if they 
are not overrun by coarser plants. Where there are natural rocks 
or good artificial ones it is best to plant them properly ; but people 
who arc particular would often be better without artificial " rockwork " 
if they wished to grow these plants in simpler ways. There is not 
the slightest occasion to have what is called " rockwork " for these 
flowers. I do not speak only of things like the beautiful Gentianella, 
which for many years has been grown in our gardens, but of the 
Rockfoils, the Stonecrops, and the true alpine plants in great numbers. 
Then, for the sake of securing the benefits of the refreshing rains, 
it would often be best, in the south of England at least, to avoid 
the dusty pockets hitherto built for rock flowers. In proof of what 
may be done in this way there is a little alpine garden, made in quite a 
level place in the worst possible soil for growing the plant, the hot 
Bagshot sand, where the soil is always fit for working after heavy rain, 
but in hot summer is almost like ashes. By making the soil rather 
deep, and by burying a few stones among the plants to prevent 
dryness, this flower, which naturally thrives in loamy soil, grew well, 
and the plan suits many alpine plants. 

The next point is the great superiority of natural grouping over 
the botanical or labelled style of little single specimens of a great 
number of plants. In a few yards of border, in the ordinary way, 
there would be fifty or more kinds, but nothing pretty for those who 
have ever seen the beautiful mountain gardens. Many rightly con- 
tend that, in a sense, Nature includes all, and that therefore the 
term " natural " may be misapplied, but is a perfectly just one 
when used in the sense of Nature's way of arranging flowers as 
opposed to the lines, circles, and other set patterns so commonly 
followed by man. Through bold and natural grouping we may get 
fine colour without a trace of formality. But most gardeners find it 
difficult to group in this natural way, because so used to setting 
things out in formal lines. But a little attention to natural objects 
will help us to get away from set patterns, and let things intermingle 
here and there and run into each other to form groups such as we 
may see among the rocks by alpine paths. After a little time the 
plants themselves begin to help us, and an excellent way is, if a num- 
ber of plants are set out too formall}- — as in most cases they are — to 


pull up a number here and there replanting them on the outer fringes 
of the groups or elsewhere. 

Wall Gardens. — Those who have observed alpine plants must 
have noticed in what arid places many flourish, and what fine plants 
may spring from a chink in a boulder. They are often stunted and 
small in such crevices, but longer-lived than when growing upon the 
ground. Now, numbers of alpine plants perish if planted in the 
ordinary soil of our gardens from over-moisture and want of rest 
in winter. But if placed where their roots are dry in winter, they 
may be kept in health. Many plants from countries a little farther 
south than our own, and from alpine regions, will find on v/alls, 
rocks, and ruins that dwarf, sturdy growth which makes them 
at home in our climate. There are many alpine plants now 
cultivated with difficulty in frames that ma)^ be grown on walls with 

The Cheddar Pink, for example, grows on walls at Oxford much 
better than I have ever known it do on rockwork or on level ground. 
A few seeds of this plant, sown in an earthy chink' and covered 
with a dust of fine soil, soon grow, living for years on the wall and 

In garden formation, especially in sloping or diversified ground, 
what is called a dry wall is often useful, and 
may answer the purpose of supporting a bank 
or dividing off a garden quite as well as ma- 
sonry. Where the stones can be got easily, 
men used to the work will often make gently 
" battered " walls which, while fulfilling their 
object in supporting banks, will make homes for 
many plants which would not live one winter 
on a level surface in the same place. In my 
own garden I built one such wall with large Pansy on dry brick 
blocks of sandstone laid on their natural " bed," 

the front of the stones almost as rough as they come out, and 
chopped nearly level between, so that they lie firm and well. No 
mortar was used, and as each stone was laid slender rooted alpine 
and rock plants were placed along in lines between with a sprinkling 
of sand or fine earth enough to slightly cover the roots and aid 
them in getting through the stones to the back, where, as the wall was 
raised, the space behind it was packed with gritty earth. This the 
plants soon found out and rooted firmly in. Even on old walls made 
with mortar rock plants and small native ferns very often establish 
themselves, but the "dry " walls are more congenial to rock plants, 
and one may have any number of beautiful alpine plants in-'perfect 
health on them. 



One charm of this kind of wall garden is that little attention is 
required afterwards. Even on the best rock gardens things get over- 
run by others, and weeds come in ; but in a well-planted wall we may 
leave plants for years untouched beyond pulling out any interloping 
plant or weed that may happen to get in. So little soil, however, is 
put with the plants that there is little chance of weeds. If the stones 
were stuffed with much earth weeds would get in, and it is best to 
have the merest dusting of soil with the roots, so as not to separate 
the stones, but let each one rest firmly on the one beneath it. 

Androsace. Chaddlewood, Plympton. 

Among the things which do well in this way almost the whole of 
the beautiful rock and alpine flowers may be trusted, such things as 
Arabis, Aubrietia, and Iberis being among the easiest to grow ; but 
as these can be grown without walls it is hardly worth while to put 
them there, pretty as some of the newer forms of the Aubrietia are. 
Between these stones is the very place for mountain Pinks, which 
thrive better there than on level ground ; the dwarf alpine Harebells, 
while the alpine Wallflowers and creeping rock plants, like the Toad 
Flax (Linaria), and the Spanish Erinus, are quite at home there. 



The gentianella does very well on the cool sides of such walls, and 
we get a different result according to the aspect. All our little pretty 
wall ferns, now becoming so rare where hawkers abound, do perfectly 
on such rough walls, and the alpine Phloxes may be used, though 
they are not so much in need of the comfort of a wall as the European 
alpine plants, the Rocky Mountain dwarf Phloxes being very hardy 
and enduring in our gardens on level ground. The advantage of the 
wall is that we can grow things that would perish on level ground, 
owing to excitement of growth in winter, or other causes. The Rock- 
foils are charming on a wall, particularly the silvery kinds, and the 
little stone covering sandwort (A. balearica) will run everywhere over 
such a wall. Stonecrops and Houseleeks would do too, but are easily 
grown in any open spot of ground. In many cases the rare and 
somewhat delicate Alpines, if care be taken in planting, would do far 
better on such a wall than as they are usually cultivated. Plants like 
Thymes are quite free in such conditions, though it may be too free 
for the rare kinds ; also the Alpine Violas, and any such pretty 
rock creepers as the blue Bindweed of North Africa. 

There is in fact no limit to the beauty of rock and alpine flowers 
we may enjoy on the rough wall so often and most easily made 
about gardens in rocky and hilly districts, dressed or expensive 
stone not being needed. In my own garden there are three wholly 
different kinds of walls thick set with plants ; and the easiest way to 
the enjoyment of the most interesting and charming of the mountain 
flowers of the north is by the aid of walls. 

Alpine and Rock-Plants for British Gardens. 
Where the name of a large and varied family is given, as itt Phlox, Iris, 
Rhododendron, Pentstemon, Sali.x, Antirrhinum, it is the alpine, or dwarf mountain 
kinds, that are meant. 











































































































Silene _ 


















Poet's Narcissus in the grass at Belmont, Ireland, p'rom a photograph sent by Mr. J. H. Thomas. 



O universal Mother, who dost keep 
From everlasting thy foundations deep, 
Eldest of things, Great Earth, I sing of thee. 

In a rational system of flower-gardening one of the first things to 
do is to get a clear idea of the aim of the " Wild Garden." When 
I began to plead the cause of the innumerable hardy flowers against 
the few tender ones put out in a formal way, the answer sometimes 
was, " We cannot go back to the mixed border " — that is to say, 
to the old way of arranging flowers in borders. Thinking, then, 
much of the vast world of plant beauty shut out of our gardens 
by the " s)-stem " then in vogue, I was led to consider the ways in 
which it might be brought into them, and of the " Wild Garden " as a 
home for numbers of beautiful hardy plants from other countries which 
might be naturalised, with very little trouble, in our gardens, fields, and 
woods — a world of delightful plant beauty that we might make happy 
around us, in places bare or useless. I saw that we could grow thus 
not only flowers more lovely than those commonly seen in what is 
called the flower garden, but also many \\hich, by any other plan, we 
should have little chance of seeing. 

The term " Wild Garden " is applied to the placing of perfectly 


hardy exotic plants in places where they will take care of themselves. 
It has nothing to do with the " wilderness," though it may be carried 
out in it. It does not necessarily mean the picturesque garden, for 
a garden may be picturesque and yet in every part the result of 
ceaseless care. What it does mean is best explained by the winter 
Aconite flowering under a grove of naked trees in February ; by 
the Snowflake abundant in meadows by the Thames ; and by the 
Apennine Anemone staining an English grove blue. Multiply these 
instances by adding many different plants and hardy climbers from 
countries as cold as our own, or colder, and one may get some idea of 
the wild garden. Some have thought of it as a garden allowed to run 
wild, or with annuals sown promiscuously, whereas it does not meddle 
with the flower garden proper at all. 

I wish the idea to be kept distinct from the various important 
phases of hardy plant growth in groups, beds, and borders, in which 
good culture may produce many happy effects ; from the rock-garden 
or borders reserved for choice hardy flowers ; from growing hardy 
plants of fine form ; from the ordinary type of spring garden. In the 
smaller class of gardens there may be little room for the wild garden, 
but in the larger gardens, where there is often ample room on the 
outer fringes of the lawn, in grove, park, copse, or by woodland walks 
or drives, new and beautiful effects may be created by its means. 

Among reasons for advocating this system are the following : — 
I. Because many hardy flowers will thrive better in rough places than 
ever they did in the old border. Even small ones, like the Ivy-leaved 
Cyclamen, are naturalised and spread all over the mossy surface of 
woods. 2. Because, in consequence of plant, fern and flower and 
climber, grass, and trailing shrub, relieving each other, they will look 
infinitely better than in stiff gardens. 3. Because no ugly effects will 
result from decay and the swift passage of the seasons. In a semi- 
wild state the beauty of a species will show in flowering time ; and 
when out of bloom they will be succeeded by other kinds, or lost 
among the numerous objects around. 4. Because it will enable us 
to grow many plants that have never yet obtained a place in our " trim 
gardens" — multitudes that are not showy enough to be considered 
worthy of a place in a garden. Among the plants often thought 
unfit for garden cultivation are a number like the coarser American 
Asters and Golden Rods, which overrun the choicer border-flowers 
when planted among them. Such plants would be quite at home in 
neglected places, where their blossoms might be seen in due season. 
To these might be added plants like the winter Heliotrope, and 
many others, which, while interesting in the garden, are apt to spread 
so rapidly as to become a nuisance. 5. Because in this way we may 
settle the question of spring flowers, and the spring garden, as well 



as that of hardy flowers generally ; and many parts of the grounds 
may be made alive with spring flowers, without in the least interfering 
with the flower garden itself. The blue stars of the Apennine 
Anemone will be seen to greater advantage when in half-shady places, 
under trees, or in the meadow grass, than in any flower garden, and 
this is but one of many of sweet spring flowers that will succeed in 
like ways. 

Group of Mullein, near Scotch Firs, in Surrey Heath. 

Narcissi in the Wild Garden. — Perhaps an example or two of 
what has already been done with Daffodils and Snowdrops may serve 
to show the way, and explain the gains of the wild garden, and there 
is no more charming flower to begin with than the Narcissus, which, 
while fair in form as any Orchid or Lily of the tropics, is as much at 
home in our climate as the Kingcups in the marsh and the Primroses 
in the wood. And when the wild Narcissus comes with these, in the 
woods and orchards of Northern France and Southern England it 


has also for companions the Violet and the Cowslip, hardiest children 
of the north, blooming in and near the still leafless woods. And this 
fact should lead us to see that it is not only a garden flower we have 
here, but one which may give glorious beauty to our woods and fields 
and meadows as well as to the pleasure grounds. 

In our country in a great many places there is plenty of room to 
grow them in other ways than in the garden proper, and this is not 
merely in country seats, but in orchards and cool meadows. To 
chance growth in such places we owe it already that many Narcissi 
or Daffodils which were lost to gardens, in the period when hardy 
plants were wholly set aside for bedding plants, have been preserved 
to us, at first probably in many cases thrown out with the garden 
refuse. In many places in Ireland and the west of England Narcissi 
lost to gardens have been found in old orchards and meadows. 

There is scarcely a garden in the kingdom that is not disfigured 
by vain attempts to grow trees, shrubs, and flowers that are not 
really hardy, and it would often be much wiser to devote attention to 
things that are absolutely hardy in our country, like most Narcissi 
to which the hardest winters make no difference, and, besides, we 
know from their distribution in Nature how fearless they are in this 
respect. Three months after our native kind has flowered in the 
weald of Sussex and in the woods or orchards of Normandy, many 
of its allies are beneath the snow in the mountain valleys of Europe, 
waiting till the summer sun melts the deep snow. On a high plateau 
in Auvergne I saw many acres in full bloom on July 16, 1894, and 
these high plateaux are much colder than our own country generally. 
Soils that are cool and stiff and not favourable to a great variety 
of plants suit Narcissi perfectly. On the cool mountain marshes and 
pastures, where the snow lies deep, the plant has abundance of 
moisture — one reason why it succeeds better in our cool soils. In 
any case it does so, and it is mostly on dry light soils that Narcissi 
fail to succeed. Light, sandy or chalky soils in the south of England 
are useless, and Narcissus culture on a large scale should not be 
attempted on such soils. We must not court failure, and however 
freely in some soils Narcissi grow in turf, there is no law clearer than 
that all plants will not grow in any one soil, and it is a mercy, too, 
for if all soils were alike, we should find gardens far more monotonous 
than they are now. Gardening is an art dealing with living things, 
and we cannot place these with as little thought as those who arrange 
shells, or coins, or plates. At the same time we may be mistaken as 
to failures which now and then arise from other causes than the soil. 
I planted years ago some Bayonne Daffodils on the northern slope of 
a poor field, and thought the plants had perished, as so little was seen 
of them after the first year. Despairing of the slope, it was planted 

Narcissus in lurf at Warley Place. 


with Alder, a tree that grows in any cool soil. Years afterwards, 
walking one day through the Alder, I found the Bayonne Daffodil in 
perfect bloom. The roots had doubtless been weak and taken time 
to recover. 

Ten years ago I planted many thousands of Narcissi in the grass, 
never doubting that I should succeed with them, but not expecting 
I should succeed nearly so well. They have thriven admirably, 
bloomed well and regularly ; the flowers are large and handsome, and 
in most cases have not diminished in size. In open rich, heavy 
bottoms, along hedgerows, banks, in quiet open loamy fields, in every 
position they have been tried. They are delightful seen near at hand, 
and also effective in the picture. The leaves ripen, disappear before 
mowing time, and do not in any way interfere with the farming. The 
harrowing and rolling of the fields in the spring hurt the leaves a 
little, but the plants are free from this near wood walks, by grass 
walks and open copses and lawns which abound in so many English 
country places. 

As to the kinds we may naturalise with advantage, they are 
almost without limit, but generally it is better to take the great 
groups of Star Narcissi, the Poet's, and the wild Daffodil, of which 
there are so many handsome varieties. We can be sure that these 
are hardy in our soils ; and, moreover, as we have to do this kind of 
work in a bold and rather unsparing way, we must deal with kinds 
that are easiest to purchase. There is hardly any limit except the 
one of rarity, and we must for the most part put our rare kinds in 
good garden ground till they increase, though we have to count with 
the fact that in some cases Narcissi that will not thrive in a garden 
will do so in the grass of a meadow or orchard. 

The fine distant effect of Narcissi in groups in the grass should 
not be forgotten. It is distinct from their effect in gardens, and it is 
most charming to see them reflect, as it were, the glory of the spring 
sun. It is not only their effect near at hand that charms us, but as 
we walk about we may see them in the distance in varying lights, 
sometimes through and beyond the leafless woods or copses. And 
there is nothing we have to fear in this charming work save the 
common sin — overdoing. To scatter Narcissi equally over the grass 
everywhere is to destroy all chance of repose, of relief, and of seeing 
them in the ways in which they often arrange themselves. It is 
almost as easy to plant in pretty ways as in ugly ways if we take the 
trouble to think of it. There are hints to be gathered in the way 
wild plants • arrange themselves, and even in the sky. Often a small 
cloud passing in the sky will give a very good form for a group, and 
be instructive even in being closer and more solid towards its centre, 
as groups of Narcissi in the grass should often be. The regular 



garden way of setting things out is very necessary in the garden, but 
it will not do at all if we are to get the pictures we can get from 
Narcissi in the turf, and it is always well to keep open turf here and 
there among the groups, and in a lawn or a meadow we should leave 
a large breadth quite free of flowers. 

Snowdrops naturalised. — The illustration is from a photo- 
graph taken by Mr, John McLeish at Straffan, Co. Kildare, and from 
it one may gain a glimpse of the pretty and natural way in which 
these flowers have grouped themselves on the greensward beneath the 
red-twigged Limes and on the soft and mossy lawns. Originally no 
doubt the Snowdrops were planted, but they have seeded themselves 
so long that they are now thoroughly naturalised, and one of the 
sights to see at Straffan Gardens is the Snowdrops at their best under 
the leafless trees. The common single and double forms are still the 
best for grouping in quantity and for naturalisation everywhere. 
There are finer varieties, but none grow and increase so well in our 
gardens as do these northern kinds. The best of the eastern Snow- 
drops are very bold and beautiful, they are unsurpassed for vigour of 
leafage and size of bloom if carefully cultivated, but they do not grow 
and increase on the grass as do G. nivalis and all its forms. 

For solid green leafage and size and substance of flower, G. Ikariae 
when well grown is, as I believe, the finest of all Snowdrops, but it is 
from Asia Minor, and does not really love our soil and climate, nor is 
it likely to naturalise itself with us as G. nivalis has done. The best 
of all the really hardy and truly northern Snowdrops is a fine form of 
G. nivalis, leaning to the broad-leaved or G. caucasicus group, which 
was found in the Crimea in 1856 and introduced from the Tchernaya 
valley to Straffan. It is called G. nivalis grandis, or the Straffan 
Snowdrop, or G. caucasicus var. grandis, and to see it at its best is a 
great pleasure. It is really a tall, vigorous-habited, and free-flowering 
form of the wild Snowdrop (G. nivalis) as found in the Crimea. The 
flowers are very large and pure in colour, and being borne on stalks a 
foot or more in length they bunch better than do those of the common 
type. G. plicatus is also from the Crimea, but is, as I have said, quite 
different, having much broader plicate leaves and smaller flowers. 

Snowdrops generally like deep, moist soils and half shade, as their 
flowers wither and brown quickly on dry, light soils in full sunshine. 
In damp woods, copses, and hedgerows they seem most at home, and, 
like Narcissi and many other early-flowering bulbs, they rather enjoy 
flooding or occasional irrigation after root and top growth have begun. 
xA.t Straffan the lawn lies low down near the river Liffey, and it is 
sometimes submerged for a day or two after the snow melts in early 
spring or after heavy rains From May until September, however, 
the bulbs are dry among the tree roots with the dense canopy of Lime 

.M 2 


leafage overhead, as are also the roots of the sky-blue Apennine 
Anemone that bear them company. We are beginning to perceive 
that, as a broad rule, some bulbous plants enjoy growing amongst the 
roots of other plants, or of trees and shrubs, or in the grass of lawn or 
meadow. The wild Daffodil and Bluebells do this as well as the 
Snowdrop, and those who have tried to dig up bulbs of any kind 
abroad with a knife or even with a botanical trowel, will remember 
how tightly wedged they frequently are in roots of various kinds, or 
jammed tightly in both roots and stones. F. W. B. 

How TO Plant. — I usually plant Narcissi in grass by turning 
back the sod, making two cuts with the spade at right angles, and 
then pressing up and back the sod, laying it back on a hinge, as it 
were, putting in a few bulbs, mostly round the sides of the hole, turn- 
ing the sod back and treading firmly upon it. The question is largely 
one of convenience and the ground one has to plant. If one could 
improve the subsoil it would be better for some soils, no doubt, but if 
the work is done in a bold way and there is much other planting 
going on, it is not easy to get time to plant things in the grass with 
care. Sometimes in breaking new ground or carrying out changes 
one gets a chance of throwing in some bulbs before the surface is 
levelled up. Once in planting Grape Hyacinths in an uneven grassy 
slope they were placed on the turf in the hollows and then levelled 
up with earth, and both grass and bulbs soon came through. Once 
some bullocks passed an evening where they " didn't ought to " in a 
grassy enclosure near the house, and their footmarks suggested a group 
of the Apennine Windflower, and a few of its roots were put in and 
the holes filled up. A wily man will see odd ways now and then of 
getting bulbs or seeds in. When the men are making sod banks^ for 
the only true field fence — a live one — is a very good time to put in 
Sweet Briars in the bank. In certain soils seeds may be sown be- 
times — seeds of Foxglov^e, Evening Primrose, and stout biennials. 
Fragile bulbs will want more care and less depth than the bolder 
Narcissi. Many ways are good, though far more important than any 
way of planting is thought as to the wants of the thing we plant, not 
only as to soil, but association with the things that will grow about it 
in grass, in hedgerows and rough places, for plants are not all garot- 
ters like the great Japanese Knotworts and the big Moon Daisies ; 
and little ducks must not be left among barn rats or we may not see 
them again. 

All planting in the grass should be in natural groups or prettily 
fringed colonies, growing to and fro as they like after planting. 
Lessons in this grouping are to be had in the woods, copses, heaths, 
and meadows, by those who look about them as they go. At first 
many w^ill find it difficult to get out of formal masses, but they may 


be got over by studying natural groupings of wild flowers. Once 
established, the plants soon begin to group themselves in pretty 

The Secret of the Soil. — In the cultivation of hardy plants and 
especially in wild gardening the important thing is to find out what 
things really do in the soil, without which much good way cannot be 
made. Many people make errors in planting things that are notoriously 
tender in our country and very often fail in consequence ; but apart 
from such risky planting perfectly hardy plants may disappear 
owing to some dislike of the soil. They flower feebly at first and 
afterwards gradually wane in spite of all our efforts. I have made 
attempts to establish spring Snowflakes in grass, none of which suc- 
ceeded, owing to the cool soil, yet one of the Snowflakes in the Thames 
Valley grows with the vigour of a wild plant. I have put thousands 
of Snowdrops in places where I could hardly see a flower a few \-ears 
later, yet in some places it establishes itself in friable soil by streamlets 
and in many other situations. So it is with the Crocus. I find it 
difficult to naturalise, taking but slowly and gradually diminishing, 
and yet I have seen it in places cover the ground. The Narcissus, 
which is so free and enduring in cool damp soil does little good on 
warm, light or chalky soil. What will do or will not do is often a 
question of experience, but the point is when we see a thing 
doing well to take the hint. People often complain of the texture 
of the grass as a cause of failure, yet I have thousands of the 
Tenby Daffodil for ten years in rich and rank masses of Cocksfoot and 
other coarse grasses in coverts — never mown or the old grass taken 
away at any time, and the Narcissus gets better year by year. So it is 
a question of finding out the thing the soil will grow, and we shall 
perhaps only arrive at that knowledge after various discouragements. 
Some things are so omnivorous in their appetites that they will 
grow anywhere, but some, the more beautiful races of bulbous and other 
early flowers, will only thrive and stay with us where they like the soil. 
It should be clearly seen therefore that what may be done with any 
good result in the wild garden cannot be determined beforehand, but 
must depend on the nature of the soil and other circumstances which 
can be known only to those who study the ground. ^ 

Flowers beneath Trees. — Where the branches of trees, both ever- 
green and summer-leafing, sweep the turf in pleasure-grounds many 
pretty spring-flowering bulbs may be naturalised beneath the branches, 
and will thrive without attention. It is chiefly in the case of deciduous 
trees that this can be done ; but even in the case of Conifers and 
Evergreens some graceful objects may be dotted beneath the outer- 
most points of their lower branches. We know that a great number 
of our spring flowers and hardy bulbs mature their foliage and gc 



to rest early in the year. In spring they require Hght and sun, which 
they obtain abundantly under the summer-leafing tree ; they have 
time to flower and grow under it before the foliage of the tree appears ; 
then, as the summer heats approach, they are overshadowed, and go 
to rest ; but the leaves of the tree once fallen, they soon begin to 
reappear and cover the ground with beauty. 

Some Plants for the Wild Garden. 
The following are the chief families of plants that may be used in 
the wild garden. Where families are named which are British as well 
as natives of the Continent of Europe, as in the case of, say, Scilla, 
the foreign kinds are meant. In considering what may be done in 
naturalising plants in a given position, it may be well to cast the eye 
over the families available. Success will depend on how the plants 
are chosen to go in any one position, but about country seats 
soils are so much varied that it is not easy to generalise. 






Aconite, Winter 








Ox-eye Daisy 






Solomon's Seal 


Day Lily 


Pea, Everlasting 

Star of Bethlehem 

Bee Balm 

Dog's tooth Violet 





Ferns, Hardy 







Plantain Lily 

Sun Rose 

Blood Root 


Lily-of- the- valley 


Sun flower (Peren- 


French Willow 





Giant Fennel 


Primrose, Evening 


Christmas Rose 

Giant Scabious 


Rest H.irrow 



Globe Flower 





Globe Thistle 

Meadow Rue 

Rose, wild kinds 

Virginian Creeper 


Golden Rod 

Meadow Saffron 

St. Bruno's Lily 

Virginian Poke 

Compass Plant 

Grape Hyacinth 

Meadow Sweet 

St. John's Wort 






Water Lily 


Heliotrope, Winter 

Monk's hood 



Cotton Thistle 


Mountain Avens 



Cow Parsnip 

Holly, Sea 


Snake's head 

Wood Lily 






Wreith of old Wistam Lfford Min i 



I have seen foreign flowers in hothouses of the most beautiful nature, but I 
do not care a straw for them. The simple flowers of our spring are what 
I want to see again." — John Keats (Letter to James Rice). 

In our islands, swept by the winds of iceless seas, spring wakes early 
in the year, when the plains of the north and the mountains of the 
south and centre are cold in snow. In our green springs the flowers 
of northern and alpine countries open long before they do in their 
native homes ; hence the artistic error of any system of flower- 
gardening which leaves out the myriad flowers of spring. It is no 
longer a question of gardens being bare of the right plants ; nurseries 
and gardens where there are many good plants are not rare, but 
to make effective use of these much thought is seldom given. 
Gardens are often rich in plants but poor in beauty, many being 
stuffed with things, but in ugly effect. 

If we are to make good use of our spring garden flora we should 
avoid much annual culture, though it is not well to get rid of it 
altogether, as many plants depend for their beauty on rich ground 
and frequent cultivation. But many grow well without these, and 
the most delightful spring gardens can only be where we grow 
many spring blooming things that demand no annual care, from 
Globe-flowers to Hawthorns. 

A common kind of "spring gardening" consists of "bedding 
out " Forget-me-nots, Pansies, Daisies, Catchflies, and Hyacinths ; 
but this way is only one of many, and the meanest, most costly, and 
inartistic. It began when we had few good spring flowers, now we 


have many ; and hence this chapter must deal with other and better 

The fashion of leaving beds of Roses and choice shrubs bare of 
all but one subject should be given up. The half-bare Rose and 
choice shrub beds should be a home for the prettiest spring flowers — 
Pansies, Violets, early Irises, Daffodils, Scillas, and many other dwarf 
plants in colonies between the Roses or shrubs. Double Primroses 
are happy and flower well in such beds. The slight shade such plants 
receive in summer from the other tenants of the bed assists them. 
Where Rhododendrons are planted in an " open way (and these 
precious bushes never ought to be jammed together), a spring garden 
of another kind may be made, as the peat-loving plants (and there 
are many fair ones among them) wil] be quite at home there. The 
White Wood Lily of the American woods (Trillium), the Virginian 
Lungwort, the Canadian Bloodroot (Sanguinaria), the various Dog's- 
tooth Violets, double Primroses, and many early-flowering bulbous 
plants enjoy the partial shade and shelter and the soil of the beds for 
" American " shrubs. 

In the kitchen garden, in its usual free and rich soil, simple beds of 
favourite spring flowers, such as Polyanthuses, Bunch Primroses in 
their coloured forms, self-coloured Auriculas, and Pansies of various 
kinds, are a good way of enjoying such plants, and more easily managed 
than the " bedding out " of spring flowers. That may follow the 
fashion of the hour, and with such plants as Forget-me-nots, Daisies, 
Silene, Pansy, Violet, Hyacinth, Anemone, and Tulip showy effects 
may be formed ; but without any of these pattern beds under the 
windows, fair gardens of spring flowers may be made in every place, 
and the problem of the design for the few set beds of the " spring 
parterre " will not be so serious a matter as in the past, there being so 
many aids in other ways, as we shall see. 

Rock and Alpine Plants. — There are so many hardy plants 
among these that flower in spring (many alpine plants blooming as 
soon as the snow goes), that there is not room to name them all in an 
essay devoted to the more effective groups and their best garden use. 
We must omit any detailed notice of plants like Adonis, Cyclamen, 
Draba, Erodium, and the smaller Rockfoils and Stonecrops, Dicentra, 
Fumaria, Orobus, Ramondia, Silene, and many other flowers of the 
rocks and hills, which though beautiful individually do not tell so 
well in the picture as many here named. 

Rock Cresses and Wallflowers. — Among rock plants the 
first place belongs to certain mountain plants of the northern world, 
which, in our country, come into bloom before the early shrubs and 
trees, and among the first bold plants to cheer us in spring are those 
of the Wallflower order — the yellow Alyssum, effective and easy to 


grow, the white Arabis, even more grown in northern France than in 
England (it well deserves to be spread about in sheets and effective 
groups), and the beautiful purple Rock Cresses (Aubrietia), lovely 
plants of the mountains of Greece and the countries near, which have 
developed a number of varieties even more beautiful in colour than 
the wild kinds. Nothing for gardens can be more precious than 
these plants, the long spring bloom being effective in almost every 
kind of flower gardening — banks, walls, edgings, borders of evergreen, 
rock plants, or carpets beneath sparsely set shrubs. The white ever- 
green Candytufts are also effective plants in clear sheets for borders, 
edgings to beds, tops of walls, and the rougher flanks of the rock 
garden. These are among the plants that have been set out in hard 
lines in flower gardens, but it is easy to have better effects from them 
in groups, and even in broken lines and masses, or as carpets beneath 
bushes, thus giving softer and more beautiful, if less definite, effects. 
Happy always on castle wall and rocks, the Wallflower is most wel- 
come in the garden, where, on warm soils and in genial climates, it 
does well, but hard winters injure it often in cold and inland districts, 
and it is almost like a tender plant in such conditions. Yet it must 
ever be one of the flowers best worth growing in sheltered and warm 
gardens ; and even in cold places one may have a few under the eaves 
of cottages and on dry south borders. It is where large masses of it 
are grouped in the open and are stricken— as the greens of the garden 
are stricken — in cold winters, that we have to regret having given it 
labour and a place which might have been better devoted to things 
hardy everywhere. The various old double Wallflowers are somewhat 
tender too and rarely seen in good character, save in favoured soils, 
which is all the more reason for making the most of them where the 
soil and air favour them. Certain allies of the Wallflower, moun- 
tain plants for the most part, such as the alpine Wallflower, also give 
good effects where well done and grouped on dry banks or warm 

The Windflowers are a noble group among the most beautiful 
of the northern and eastern flowers, some being easily naturalised 
(like the blue Italian and Greek Anemones), while the showy Poppy 
Anemones are easily grown where the soils are light and warm, and 
in genial warm districts ; but they require some care on certain 
soils, and are among the plants we must cultivate and even protect 
on cold soils in hard winters. The same is true of the brilliant 
Asiatic Ranunculus and all its varied forms — Persian, Turkish, and 
French, as they may be called, all forms of one wild North African 
buttercup, unhappily too tender to endure our winters in the 
open air, but they should be abundantly grown on the warm 
limestone and other soils which suit them, as about our coasts 


and in Ireland. There is no more effective way of growing these 
than in simple 4-foot beds in the kitchen or reserve garden. The 
Wood Anemone is so often seen in the woods that there is rarely 
need to grow it ; but some of its varieties are essential, most beautiful 
being A. Robinsoniana, a flower of lovely blue colour, and a distinct 
gain in the spring garden grown in almost any way. The Hepatica 
is a lovely little Anemone where the soil is free, though slow in some 
soils, and where it grows well all its varieties should be encouraged, 
in borders and margins of beds of American bushes as well as in the 
rock garden. The Snowdrop Windflower (A. sylvestris) is most 
graceful in bud and bloom, but a little capricious, and not blooming 
well on all soils, unlike in this way our Wood Windflowers, which are 
as constant as the Kingcups. The Pasque-flower is lovely on the 
chalk downs and fields of Normandy and parts of England in spring, 
but never quite so pretty in a garden. It would be worth naturalising 
in chalky fields and woods or banks. 

Columbine, Marsh Marigold, Clematis, Lenten Rose, and 
Globe-flower. — Columbines are very beautiful in the early part of 
the year, and if we had nothing but the common kind (Aquilegia 
vulgaris) and its forms, they would be precious ; but there are many 
others which thrive in free soils, some of which are very graceful in form 
and charming in colour. The Kingcup or Marsh Marigold, so fine in 
wet meadows and by the riverside, should be brought into gardens 
wherever there is water, as it is a most effective plant when well 
grown, and there are several forms, double and single. The Clematis, 
the larger kinds, are mostly for the summer, but some (C. montana, 
C. alpina, C. cirrhosa) are at their best in the spring ; they should be 
made abundant use of on house walls and over banks, trees and 
shrubs. The Winter Aconite (earliest of spring flowers) naturalises 
itself in some soils, but on others dwindles and dies out, and it should 
not be grown in the garden, but in shrubberies, copses, or woods 
where the soil suits it. Some kinds of hardy Ranunculus, the 
herbaceous double kinds, are good in colour, and in bold groups 
pretty ; but taller and bolder and finer in effect are the Globe- 
flowers, easily naturalised in moist, grassy places or by water, 
and also free and telling among stout herbaceous plants. The 
most distinct addition to the spring garden of recent years 
is the Oriental Hellebore in its many beautiful varieties, of 
which some have been raised in gardens. They are handsome and 
stately plants, with large flowers, often delicately marked. With the 
usual amount of garden shelter and fairly good soil they grow bold 
and free, and have a stately habit and fine foliage, as well as beautiful 
flowers excellent for cutting. They are most effective, sturdy, impres- 
sive plants for opening the flower year with, often blooming abun- 


dantly at the dawn of spring, and have the essential merit of not 
requiring annual culture, tufts remaining in vigour in the same spot 
for many years. 

Dog's-tooth Violets, Snowdrop, Snowflake, Crocus, 
SciLLA, Fritillary, AND HYACINTH. — The European Dog's-tooth 
Violet is pretty in the budding grass, where it is free in growth and 
bloom. The Fritillary is one of the most welcome flowers for 
grass, and is best in moist meadows ; the rarer kinds do well in 
good garden soil, those with pale yellow bells being beautiful. Every 
plant such as these, which we can so easily grow at home in grassy 
places, makes our cares about the spring garden so much the less, and 
allows of keeping all the precious beds of the flower garden itself for 
the plants that require some care and rich soil always. 

The Hyacinth, which is often set in such stiff masses in our public 
gardens, gives prettier effects more naturally grouped, but it is not 
nearly so important for the open air as many flowers more easy to 
grow and better in effect, though some of the more slender wild 
species, like H. amethystinus, are beautiful and deserve a good place. 
The Snowdrop is of even greater value of late years, owing to new 
forms of it, some of which have been brought from Asia Minor and 
others raised in gardens. In some soils it is quite free and becomes 
easily naturalised, in others it dwindles away, and the same is true of 
the -vernal Snowflake (Leucojum vernum), a beautiful plant. The 
larger Snowflakes are more free in ordinary soils, and easily 
naturalised in river bank soil. The Crocus, the most brilliant of 
spring flowers, does not always lend itself to growing naturally in 
every soil, but on some it is quite at home, especially those of a 
chalky nature, and will naturalise itself under trees, while in many 
garden soils it is delightful for edgings and in many ways. 

To the Scilla we owe much, from the wild plant of our woods to 
the vivid Siberian kind ; some kinds are essential in the garden, and 
some, like the Spanish Scilla (S. campanulata), may be naturalised in 
free soils. Allies of these lovely early flowers have come of recent 
years to our gardens — the beautiful Chionodoxa from Asia Minor, of 
about the same stature and effect as the prettiest of the Scillas, and 
some of them even more precious for colour. These are among the 
plants which may be planted with best results in bold groups on the 
surface of beds planted with permanent flowers, such as Roses — where 
Rose beds are not surfaced with manure, as all Rose-growers unwisely 

Iris, Grape Hyacinth, Narcissus, and Tulip. — In warm 
soils some of the more beautiful of the flowers of spring are the early 
Irises, but in gardens generally the most beautiful of Irises come in 
late spring with the German Iris, which is so free and hardy 


throughout our country. Orchid-houses themselves cannot give any 
such array as these when in bloom, and they are often deserving of a 
little garden to themselves, where there is room for it, while they are 
useful in many ways in borders and as groups. About the same time 
come the precious Spanish Iris in many colours, lovely as Orchids, 
and very easily grown, and the English Iris. The Grape Hyacinths 
are pretty and early plants of Southern Europe, beautiful in colour. 
They increase rapidly, and some kinds do very well in the grass 
in free and peaty soils ; but the rarer ones are best on warm borders 
and groups in the rock garden. The Narcissus is worth growing in 
every way — the rarer kinds in prepared borders or beds and the 
many that are plentiful in almost any cool soil in the grass. In our 
country, where there are so many cool and rich soils allowing of the 
Narcissus being naturalised and grown admirably in many ways, 
it is, perhaps, on the whole, the most precious of all our spring 
flowers. But the Tulip is the most gorgeous in colour of all the 
flowers of spring, and for its effectiveness is better worthy of special 
culture than most — indeed, the florists' kinds and the various rare 
garden Tulips must be well grown to show their full size and beauty. 
Replanting now and then is almost essential with a Tulip garden 
if we are to keep the bulbs free from disease ; the wood Tulip and 
certain wild species may be naturalised, and in that state are as 
beautiful, if not so large, as the cultivated bulbs. The Tulip deserves 
a far better place among spring flowers than it has ever had, as, 
apart from the two great groups of early and late Tulips hitherto 
cultivated in European gardens, a number of handsome wild kinds 
are being introduced from Central Asia and other countries, many of 
them having early flowers of great beauty and fine colour, and if they 
will only take kindly to our climate the Tulip garden will soon leave 
all hot-house brilliancy a long way in the rear. 

P^ONY, Poppy and Lupin. — Paeonies are nobly effective in 
many ways. Where single or other kinds are plentiful they may 
be well used as broad groups in new plantations, among shrubs and 
low trees, and as to the choice double kinds, no plants better deserve 
a little garden or border to themselves, while the tree kinds make 
superb groups on the lawn and are safer from frost on high ground. 
The great scarlet Poppies are showy in spring, and best grown among 
trees and in the wild garden, and with them may be named the Welsh 
Poppy, a very effective plant in spring as well as summer, and often 
sowing itself in all sorts of places. The various garden forms of the 
opium Poppy and of the field Poppy, both double and single, are 
very showy where any space is given to annual flowers. 

The common perennial Lupin is a very showy, pretty plant 
grown in a free way in groups and masses, and may sometimes be 



naturalised, and, associated with Poppies and free-growing Columbines 
in the wild garden, it is very effective. 

Primrose, Tulip, Cowslip, Polyanthus and Auricula.— 

The Yulan (Magnolia conspicua) at Gunnersbury House. 

Primroses are a lovely host for the garden, especially the garden 
varieties of the common Primrose, Cowslip, and Oxlip. Few things 


deserve a better place, or are more worthy of good culture in visible 
groups and colonies or rich garden borders. Apart from the lovely 
races of garden forms raised from the Primrose, the Cowslip, and the 
Oxlip, and also the Alpine Auriculas, double Primroses should not 
be forgotten, as in all moist districts and in peaty and free soil they 
give such tender and beautiful colour in groups, borders, or slightly 
shaded among dwarf shrubs. Primroses and Polyanthus of native 
origin, are well backed up by the beautiful Indian Primrose (Primula 
rosea), which thrives apace in cool soils in the north of England and 
in Scotland, and which, when grown in bold groups, is very good in 
effect, as are the purplish Indian Primroses under like conditions. 

RocKFOiL, Gentian, and Alpine Phlox. — The large- 
leaved Indian Rockfoils (Saxifraga) are in many soils very easily 
grown, and they are showy spring flowers in bold groups, especially 
some of the improved varieties. Although it is only in places where 
there is rocky ground or large rock gardens that one can get the 
beauty of the smaller Mountain Rockfoils (Saxifraga), we cannot 
omit to notice their beauty — both the white, yellow, and crimson- 
flowered kind — when seen in masses. The same may be said of 
Gentians ; beautiful as they are in the mountains, few gardens have 
positions where we can get their fine effect, always excepting the old 
Gentianella (G. acaulis), which in old Scotch and English gardens used 
to make such handsome broad edgings, and which is easily grown in 
a cool soil, and gives, perhaps, the noblest effect of blue flowers that 
one can enjoy in our latitudes in spring. The tall Phloxes are plants 
of the summer, but there is a group of American dwarf alpine 
Phloxes of the mountains which are among the hardiest and most 
cheery flowers of spring, thriving on any dry banks and in the drier 
parts of rock gardens, forming mossy edgings in the flower garden, 
and breaking into a foam of flowers early in spring. 

Pansies. — The Viola family is most precious, not only in the 
many forms of the sweet Violet, which will always deserve garden 
cultivation, but in the numerous varieties of the Pansy, which flower so 
effectively in the spring. The best of all, perhaps, for artistic use are 
the Tufted Pansies, which are delightfully simple in colour — white, 
pale blue, or lavender, and various other delicate shades. Almost 
perermial in character, they can be increased and kept true, and they 
give us distinct and delicate colour in masses as wide as we wish, 
instead of the old " variegated " effect of Pansies. Though the 
separate flowers of these were often handsome, the effect of the 
Tufted Pansies with their pure and delicate colours is more valuable, 
and these also, while pretty in groups and patches, will, where there 
is space, often be worth growing in little nursery beds. 

Forget-me-nots are among the most welcome flowers of spring. 



Before the common and most beautiful of all — the marsh Forget-me- 
not — comes, there are the wood Forget-me-not (M. sylvatica) and M. 
dissitiflora and M. alpestris, all precious early flowers. Allied to the 
ever-welcome Forget-me-not is the common Omphalodes, or creeping 
Forget-me-not, valuable for its freedom in growth in half shady or 

Rhododendron garden, Bidston, Cheshire. 

rough places in almost any soil — one of the most precious of the 
early flowers which take care of themselves if we take a little trouble 
to put them in likely places. Among 

Annual flowers that bloom in spring where the soil is favour- 
able, excellent results are often obtained by sowing Sweet Peas in 
Autumn. Where this is done, and they escape the winter, they give 


welcome hedges of flowers in the early year. So, too, the Cornflower, 
a lovely spring flower, and perhaps the finest blue we have among 
annual plants ; but to have it good and early it should be always 
sown in Autumn, and for effect it should be in broad masses, some- 
times among shrubs or in recently broken ground which we desire to 
cover. Some of the Californian annuals are handsome and vigorous 
when sown in autumn, always provided they escape the winter. The 
White Godetia is very fine in this way. In all chalky, sandy, and 
warm soils the Stocks for spring bloom are handsome and fragrant, 
but it is a waste of time to attempt to grow them on cold soils. It 
would be taking too narrow a view to omit from our thoughts of 
spring gardens the many beautiful flowering. 

Shrubs and trees that bloom in spring, as some of the 
finest effects come from the early trees and shrubs. Among the 
most stately are the Chestnuts, particularly the red kinds, fine in all 
stages, but especially when old. The snowy Mespilus is a hardy, 
low-sized tree, blooming regularly, and well deserves a place in the 
pleasure garden or the fringes of shrubberies. The Almonds, more 
than any shrubs, perhaps, in our country and in France, light up the 
earliest days of Spring, and, like most southern trees, are best in 
warm valley soils, growing more slowly in cool heavy soils. They 
should be in groups to tell in the home landscape. The double 
Peaches are lovely in France, but as yet rarely so with us, owing, 
perhaps, to some defect of the stock used. Perhaps of all the hardy 
shrubs ever brought to our country the Azaleas are the most precious 
for effect. They are mostly wild on the mountains of America, and 
many forms have been raised in gardens which are of the highest 
value. Many places do not as yet show the great beauty of the 
different groups of hardy Azalea, particularly the late kinds raised of 
recent years. A neglected tree with us is the Judas-tree, which is 
very handsome in groups, as it ought always to be grown, and not as 
a starved single tree. The various double Cherries are noble flower- 
ing trees, being showy as well as delicate in bloom, and the Japanese 
kinds do quite as well as the old French and English double Cherries, 
though the trees are apt to perish from grafting. The American 
Fringe-tree (Chionanthus) is pretty, but some American flowering 
trees do not ripen their wood well enough in England generally to 
give us the handsome effects seen in their own country. Hawthorns 
are a host in themselves ; those of our own country make natural 
spring gardens of hills and rocky places, and should teach us to give 
a place to the many other species to be found in the mountains of 
Europe and America, which vary the bloom and prolong the season 
of early-flowering trees. There are many varieties of our native 
hawthorn — red, pink, double, and weeping. The old Laburnum has 



for many years been a joy with its golden rain, and of late we are 
doubly well off with improved forms, with long chains of golden 
flowers. These will become noble flowering trees as they get old ; 
hence the importance of grouping Laburnum trees to get the varieties 

Among the early charms in the spring garden are the slender 
wands of the Forsythia, hardy Chinese bushes, pale yellow, delightful 
in effect when grown in picturesque ways ; effective also on walls or 
grouped in the open air on banks. Another plant of refined beauty, 
but too little planted, is the Snowdrop-tree (Halesia). Unlike other 
American trees, it ripens its wood in our country, and often flowers 
well. The Mountain Laurel of America (Kalmia) is one of the most 
beautiful things ever brought to our country, and as a late spring 
flower is precious, thriving both in the open and in half shady 

Broom and Furze. — There is no more showy plant or one more 
beautiful in effect in masses than the common Broom and all its allies 
that are hardy enough, even the little Spanish Furze giving fine 
colour. The common Broom should be encouraged on bluffs and 
sandy or gravelly places, so as to save us the trouble of growing it in 
gardens, for in effect there is nothing better. The same may be said 
of the Furze, which is such a beautiful plant in England and the 
coast regions of France, and the double Furze deserves to be massed 
in the garden in picturesque groups. In country seats, especially 
those commanding views, its value in the foreground is very great, 
and it is so easily raised from seed that fine effects are very easily 
secured, though it may be cut down now and then in hard winters. 

Rhododendron and Magnolia. — The glory of spring in our 
pleasure grounds is the Rhododendrons ; but they are so over- 
mastering in their effect on people's minds that very often they lead 
to neglect of other things. It would be difficult to overrate their 
charms ; but even amongst them we require to discriminate, and avoid 
the too early and tender kinds. Many of the kinds raised from R. 
ponticum and the Indian Rhododendron, while they thrive in mild 
districts in the south of England and West of France, near the sea, 
are not hardy in the country generally. Some of these tender 
hybrids certainly flower early, but we get little good from that. The 
essential thing, when we give space to a hardy shrub, is that we should 
get its bloom in perfection, and therefore we should choose the broad - 
leaved hardy kinds, which are mostly raised from the very hardy 
North American R. catawbiense, and be a little particular in grouping 
the prettiest colours, never using a grafted plant. For many years the 
Yulan Magnolia has, when well grown, been one of the finest trees in 
English southern gardens, and nothing is more effective than the Lily- 


tree in gardens like Syon and others in the Thames valley ; while of 
late years we have seen precious additions to this, the noblest family 
of flowering trees. Some of these, like M. stellata, have proved to be 
valuable ; all are worth a trial, and, as to the kinds we are sure of, the 
great thing is to group them. Even in the case of the common Lily- 
tree (M. Yulan) it makes a great difference whether there are four or 
five trees or one. 

Amongst the most beautiful of the smaller alpine bushes ever 
brought to our country is the alpine forest Heath, which is cheery and 
bright for weeks in spring. It is one of the plants that never fails us, 
and only requires to be grown in bold ways to be effective — in groups 
and masses fully exposed to the sun. Other Heaths, like the Medi- 
terranean Heath, are also beautiful in some favoured parts of the 
country, but not so hardy generally as the little alpine forest Heath 
which has the greatest endurance and most perfect hardiness, as 
becomes a native of the Alps of Europe. 

Pyrus japonica, a handsome old shrub often planted on cottage 
garden walls, may in many soils be used with good effect in groups and 
hedges. The evergreen Barberries in various forms are beautiful early 
shrubs, with soft yellow flowers, and excellent when grouped in some 
quantity. Two very important families are the Deutzias and Syringas 
which are varied and beautiful, mostly in white masses. They should 
never be buried in the common shrubbery, but grouped in good masses 
of each family. The flowering Currant (Ribes) of the mountains of 
N.W. America is in all its forms a very cheery and early bush, which 
tells well in the home landscape if rightly placed ; but perhaps the 
most welcome and important of all early trees and shrubs is the Lilac 
which in Britain is often grown in a few kinds only, when there are 
many in France. Beautiful in almost any position. Lilacs are most 
effective when planted together, so as to enjoy the full sun to ripen 
their wood ; the danger of thick planting can be avoided by putting 
Irises or other hardy flowers over the ground between the shrubs, 
which should never be crowded. 

Crab Bloom. — Apart from the many orchard trees grown for 
their fruit, we have in our own day to welcome some of their allies — 
lovely in flower, if often poor in fruit. Our country has never been 
without some of this kind of beauty, as the Crab itself is as handsome 
a flowering tree as are many of the Apples which are descended from 
it in all the countries in Europe, from Russia to Spain, and in our 
gardens there were for many years the old Chinese double Pyrus, a 
handsome tree which became popular, and the American Crab, which 
never became so. But of late years we have been enriched by the 
Japan Crab, a lovely tree for some weeks in spring and other 
handsome kinds including Parkman's Crab, which comes to us under 

N 2 


more than one name, and a red form of the Japanese flowering 
Crab before mentioned. All these trees are as hardy as our native 
Crab, and differ much in colour and sometimes also in form. It is 
difficult to describe how much beauty they give where well grown and 
well placed ; they are not the kind of things we lose owing to change 
of fashion, and in planting them it is well to put them in groups where 
they will tell. Apart from these more or less wild species there are 
numbers of hybrid Crabs — raised between the Siberian and some com- 
mon Apples in America and in our country — that are beautiful also 
in flower, and remarkable too for beauty of fruit, so that a beautiful 
grove of flowering trees might be formed of Crabs alone. With these 
many fine things, and the various Honeysuckles, we are carried bravely 
down to the time of Rose and Lily — summer flowers, though Roses 
often come on warm walls in spring. 

Spring Flowers in Sun and Shade and North and South 
Aspects. — It is worth while thinking of the difference in the bloom- 
ing of spring flowers in various aspects, as differences in that way 
will often give us a longer season of bloom of some of our most 
precious things. Daffodils do better in half shade than in full 
sunshine, and Scillas and other bulbs are like the Daffodils in liking 
half shady spots ; so also Crown Imperials, which, like the Scillas, 
bleach badly if fully exposed to the sun. We may see the Wood 
Hyacinth pass out of bloom on the southern slopes of a hill, and in 
fresh and fair bloom on its northern slopes. Flowering shrubs, 
creepers on walls, and all early plants are influenced in the same way. 
Such facts may be taken advantage of in many ways, especially with 
the nobler flowers that we make much use of If different aspects are 
worth securing for hardy flowers generally, they are doubly so for 
those of the spring, when we often have storms of snow and sleet 
that may destroy an early bloom. If fortunate enough to have the 
same plant on the north side of the hill or wall, we have still a 
chance of a second bloom, and a difference of two or three weeks in 
the blooming of a plant. 

Let all who love the early flowers look at this list, not of the 
kinds of spring flowers (which are innumerable), but of the families ; 
some of these, such as Narcissus and Rockfoil, comprise many 
species of lovely flowers, and the story of these, too, is the story of 
the spring : — 


Some Spring attd Early Summer Floivers Hardy in English Gardens. 















































Myosotis ! 




























Sp7-ifig-flo%vering Trees and Shrubs. 

































Sty rax 







Climbing Rose on cottage porch, Surrey. 




Whatever may be thought of the reasoning in this chapter, of one 
fact there can be no doubt, namely, that the nobler flowers have 
been rejected as unfit for the flower garden in our own day, and first 
among them the Rose. Since the time when people went in for 
patterned colour many flowers were set aside, like the Rose, the 
Carnation, and the Lily, that did not lend themselves to flat colour ; 
and thus we see ugly, bare, and at the same time costly gardens 
round country houses ; and therefore I begin the summer garden 
with the Rose, too long left out of her right place, and put in the 

There is great loss to the flower-garden from the usual way of 
growing the Rose as a thing apart, and its absence at present from the 
majority of flower gardens. It is surprising to see how poor and 
hard many places are to which the beauty of the Rose might add 
delight, and the only compensation for all this blank is what is called 
the rosery, which in large places is often an ugly thing with plants 
that usually only blossom for a few weeks in summer. This idea 
of the Rose garden arose when we had a much smaller number of, and a greater number of these were kinds that flowered in 
summer mainly. The old standard Rose had something to do with 
this separate growth of Roses, it being laid down in the books that 


the standards did not " associate " with other shrubs, and so it came 
about that all the standards grafted were placed in the rosery and 
there held up their buds to the frost ! The nomenclature, too, in 
use among Rose-growers — by which Roses that flower the shortest 
time were given the name of Hybrid Perpetuals — has had some- 
thing to do with the absence of the Rose from the flower garden. 
Shows, too, have had a bad effect on the Rose in the garden, where 
it is many times more important than as a show flower. The whole 
aim of the man who shows Roses, and who is too often followed as 
a leader, was to get a certain number of large flowers grown on the 
Dog Rose, Manetti, or any stock which enabled him to get this at 
the least cost ; so, if we go to any Rose-showing friend, we shall 
probably find his plants for show grown in the kitchen garden 
with a deep bed of manure on the surface of the beds, and as 
pretty as so many broomsticks . This idea of the Rose as a 
show flower leads to the cultivation of Roses that have not a 
high value as garden flowers, and Roses that do not open their 
flowers well in our country in the open air, and are not really worth 
growing, are grown because they happen to produce flowers now and 
then that look well on a show bench. So altogether the influence 
of the shows has been against the Rose as a garden flower, and a 
cause why large gardens are, in the flower garden, quite bare of the 
grace of the queen of flowers. 

The Rose not a "Decorative" Plant! — It is instructive 
to study the influence of rose books upon the Rose as well as 
that of the Rose exhibitions, as they brought about an idea that 
the Rose was not a " decorative " plant in the language of recent 
days. In these books it was laid down that the Rose did not 
associate properly with other flowers, and it was therefore better to 
put it in a place by itself, and, though this false idea had less 
influence in the cottage garden, it did harm in all large gardens. 
In a recent book on the Rose, by Mr. Foster-Melliar, we read : 

I look upon the plant in most cases only as a means whereby I may obtain 
glorious Roses. I do not consider the Rose pre-eminent as a decorative plant ; 
several simpler flowers, much less beautiful in themselves, have, to my mind, 
greater value for general effect in the garden, and even the blooms are. I imagine, 
more difficult to arrange in water for artistic decoration than lighter, simpler, and 
less noble flowers. 

It must be remembered that the Rose is not like a bedding plant, which will 
keep up continual masses of colour throughout the summer, but that the flush of 
flowers is not for more than a month at most, after which many sorts, even of the 
Teas will be off bloom for a while, and the general effect will be spoiled. 

This is not a statement peculiar to the author as he is only em- 
bodying here the practice and views of the Rose exhibitors which most 


nfortunately ruled the practice of gardeners, and it is very natural 
many should take the prize-takers as a guide. 

There was some reason in the older practice, because until 
recent years the roses most grown were summer flowering, that is 
to say, like our wild roses, they had a fixed and short time of 
bloom, which usually did not last more than a few weeks ; but in 
our days, and within the last fifty }'ears, there have been raised 
mainly by crossing with the Bengal Rose and some others 
a number of beautiful Roses, which flower for much longer 
periods. There are, for example, the monthly Roses and the lovely 
Tea Roses, which also come in some way from the Indian Rose, 
and which, when well grown, will flower throughout the whole 
summer and autumn ; not every kind, perhaps, but in a collection 
of the best there is scarcely a week in which we have not a variety 
of beautiful flowers. So that, while our forefathers might have been 
excused for taking the view that Roses are only fit to plant in a 
place apart, there is no need for the modern grower to do so, who is not 
tied to the show bench as his one ideal and aim, and nothing could 
be more untrue and harmful than this ideal from a garden point of 

The Rose to Come Back to the Flower Garden.— The 
Rose is not only " decorative " but is the queen of all decorative 
plants, not in one sort of position or garden, but in many^ — not in 
one race or sort, but in many, from Anna Olivier, Edith Gifford, 
and Tea Roses of that noble type in the heart of the choicest flower- 
garden, to the wild Rose that tosses its long arms from the hedgerows 
in the rich soils of midland England, and the climbing Roses in their 
many forms, from the somewhat tender Banksian Rose to climbing 
Roses of British origin. And fine as the old climbing Roses were, 
we have now a far nobler race — finer indeed than one ever expected to 
see — of climbing teas which, in addition to the highest beauty, have 
the great quality of flowering, like Bouquet d'Or, throughout the fine 
summer and late into the autumn. Of these there are various climb- 
ing Roses that open well on walls, and give meadows of beauty, the 
like of which no other plant whatever gives in our country. See, too, 
the monthly Roses in cottage gardens in the west and cool coast 
country, beautiful through the summer and far into the cool autumn, 
and consider the fine China Roses, such as Laurette Messimy, raised 
in our own day, all decorative in the highest sense of that poor word. 

The outcome of it all is that the Rose must go back to the flower 
garden — its true place, not only for its own sake, but to save the 
garden from ugliness and hardness, and give it fragrance and dignit)' 
of leaf and flower. The idea that we cannot have prolonged bloom 
from Roses is not true, because the finer monthly and Tea Roses 


flower longer than any bedding plants, even without the advantage 
of fresh soil every year which bedding plants enjoy. I have Roses 
growing in the same places for seven years, which have the fine 
quality of blooming in autumn, and even into winter. And they 
must come back not only in beds, but in the old ways — over bower 
and trellis and as bushes where they are hardy enough to stand 
our winters, so as to break up flat surfaces, and give us light and 
shade where all is usually so level and hard. But the Rose must 
not come back in ugly ways, in Roses stuck — and mostly starving 
— on the tops of sticks or standards, or set in raw beds of manure, 
and pruned hard and set thin so as to develop large blooms ; but, 
as the bloom is beautiful in all stages and sizes, Roses should be 
seen closely massed, feathering to the ground, the queen of the 
flower garden in all ways. 

The Rose is not only a " decorative " plant of the highest order, 
but no other plant grown in European gardens in any way ap- 
proaches it in this quality. The practice of exhibitors of any kind 
is of slight value from the point of view of beauty of the garden, and 
not always of the very flower itself, as we see in the case of the Dahlia. 
Thirty years ago the florists, like the late Mr. Glenny, who had the 
law in their own hands as regards the Dahlia, would have knocked 
a man on the head who had the audacity to dissent from their lumpy 
standard of beauty. It was really a standard of ugliness as so many 
of these " florists' " rules are. Then came the Cactus Dahlias, of free 
and distinct form, and the single Dahlias, and now we see proof 
in cottage gardens even that the Dahlia is a nobler thing by a long 
way than the old florist's idea of it. And so we shall find with 
the Rose, that, brought back to its true place in the flower garden, 
it will be a lovelier thing than ever it has been on the show bench, 
seen set in the finely coloured and graceful foliage of the " Teas," 
and with their many buds and charming variations as to flower and 
bud, from week to week, until the first days of winter. 

The Standard Rose. — A taking novelty at first, few things 
have had a worse influence on gardening than the Standard Rose 
in all forms. Grown throughout Europe and Britain by millions, 
it is seen usually in a wretched state, and yet there is something 
about it which prevents us seeing its bad effect in the garden, and 
its evil influence on the cultivation of the Rose, for we now and then 
see a fine and even a picturesque Standard, when the Rose suits the 
stock it is grafted on, and the soil suits each ; but this does not 
happen often. The term grafting is used here to describe any modes 
of growing a Rose on any stock or kind, as the English use of the 
term budding, as distinct from grafting, is needless, budding being 
only one of the many forms of grafting. There is no reason why 

1 86 


those who like the form of the Standard should not have them if 
they can but get them healthy and long-lived ; but in that case 
they should train hardy and vigorous Roses to form their own stems. 
While of the evil effect of the Standard Rose any one may judge 
in the suburbs of every town, its other defects are not so clear to 
all, such as the exposure high in the air to winter's cold of varieties 

Climbing cluster Rose at Belmont 

more or less delicate. On the tops of their ugly stick supports 
they perish by thousands even in nurseries in the south of England 
(as in Kent). If these same varieties were on their own roots, even 
if the severest winter killed the shoots, the root would be quite safe, 
and the shoots come up again as fresh as ever ; so that the frost 
would only prune our Rose bushes instead of killing them and leaving 


US a few dead sticks from the Dog Rose. Even if " worked " low 
on the " collar " of the stock, grafted Roses have a chance of rooting 
and keeping out of the way of frost, which they never have when 
stuck high in the air. Then there is the fact of certain Roses dis- 
liking stocks, or certainly some stocks, as all buyers of Roses may 
see certain varieties always " growing backwards " so to say, and soon 
dying. This happens even where the first year's growth and flower 
are all we could desire. The question for the seller is how his stocks 
look the year of sale no doubt, but the buyer should see whether his 
Roses improve or not after the first year, and it is certain that many 
varieties do go back when " worked " as the term is. 

Another element of uncertainty is the kind of stock used. Even 
if the propagator knows the right stock for the sort he may not for 
some reason use it, as many have found to their cost who have bought 
Tea Roses grafted on the Manetti stock — a stock that in any case has 
no merit beyond giving a few large blooms for a show the first year. 
And in many cases it paralyses all growth in the kind grafted 
on it. 

There is a way to solve the question as to any kinds we are really 
interested in — say Gloire Lyonnaise, Princess Marie d'Orleans and 
Bouquet d'Or, or any other hardy and good Roses we fancy, old or 
new. It is easy to try a few of each kind in the same soil in the 
natural way on own roots, and also grafted on the wild Dog Rose or 
any other stock that may be recommended for a given variety, using 
the " worked " kinds both as Standards and half Standards or dwarfs 
as may be preferred. The first care should be to get plants on own 
roots about as strong as those worked, and it is not difficult to do 
this with a little patience, as some gardeners and even cottagers strike 
Roses from cuttings very successfully. But no trial would be of any 
use v/hich did not go over the first year or two, because of the 
dread phase of the grafting humbug above alluded to, that the things 
are grown to sell, and although they look well when they come to us, 
after a year or two they perish, and we are as much in want of 
Roses as ever. This may look very " good for trade," but any 
practice which leads to the vexation and disappointment of the 
grower is not good for trade, as many people give the Rose up 
as hopeless on their soil when they get a poor result. 

If we go into the Rose garden of the Luxembourg at Paris or any 
of the regular roseries in England, we shall find more than half the 
plants in a sickly, flowerless state. So sickly are the bushes, or what 
remains of them, that it is common to see a rosery without any 
Roses worth picking after the first flush of bloom is past, and this 
is a great waste of time and temper. When we think of the number 
of beautiful things which this has to do with to their harm : — the 

1 88 


flowers fairest of all in form, colour, and odour, from the more beau- 
tiful tea-scented Roses raised in our own days to the oldest Roses — 
the Moss and Provence Roses — these, too, bein^ often seen in a 

Rose La Marque on south wall, July, 1399. 

miserable state in the rosery, though by nature vigorous and quite 
hardy, there is surely some reason for looking into ways of Rose 
growing that have led to this end. 

Even where the Rose thrives as a Standard, on deep, good loamy 


soils, there would be other things of interest to determine — length of 
bloom and endurance of the grafted plant, as compared with plants 
on their own roots — my own view being that own root plants 
generally would give the most continuous and finest bloom in the end, 
good cultivation and soil being understood in each case, and that in 
hot seasons, of which we have had severe examples of late years, the 
own root plants are far the best. 

The Manetti Stock. — Often I have reason to wish that Signor 
Manetti of Naples had never been born or given his narhe to the 
wretched Rose stock that bears it, as among my blighted hopes is a 
wall of Marechal Niel Rose, the plants on which have remained 
" as they were " at first for the last five years ; but this year beside 
one of them is in bloom the poor Manetti Rose, on which the Marechal 
was grafted, and, as the Tea Rose will not grow, the Manetti begins 
to take its place. In some soils and conditions, the Manetti may give 
some apparent advantages for the first year in making the plant 
grow rapidly, and perhaps giving one or two flowers to be cut off for 
a show, but afterwards it is all the other way ; the Rose fails on it 
and Tea Roses do not grow on it at all. It is quite distinct in 
nature from them, and nurserymen who use the Manetti for Tea 
Roses do no good to their own art or to gardens. People ordering 
Tea Roses should be careful to order them never to be sent on Manetti 
stock. But even if they do so they may be disappointed, as the large 
growers have often to buy from others and so send out Tea Roses 
on the Manetti stock, an absolutely sure way to prevent the Roses 
growing or ever showing their extraordinary' beauty. 

Why do trade-growers do this sort of thing to the injury of their 
own art and the loss to the buyer who supports them ? Unfortunately 
routine takes hold of every business and has taken deep hold of this 
to its real injury. Roses are not only propagated by the trade for 
the garden, but also for forcing, for sale, and for showing ; and it is 
the quickest way to make a presentable growth that is taken. In 
various cases the plant is only wanted for one year, as when florists 
want to get strong blooms and throw the plants away afterwards. 
In this case the life of the plant does not matter, but to the private 
grower the result could not be worse. 

Roses and Manure. — In most gardens where people pay any 
attention to Roses the ground in which they grow is in winter densely 
coated with manure, often raw and ugly to see in a flower-garden — 
perhaps under the windows of the best rooms of the house. This is 
the regulation way of catalogues and books, but it is needless and 
impossible in a beautiful Rose garden. Most of our garden Roses 
being grafted on the Dog Rose of our hedgerows, which does 
best in the heavy, cool loams of the midlands, if we want the 


ordinary grafted garden Rose to do well we must give it not less than 
30 inches in depth of like soil. This is often of a rich nature, and 
it is very easy to add, in putting the soil in, all the manure which the 
Rose may want for some years, so that the surface of the bed might 
be planted with light-rooting rock and like plants, one of the prettiest 
ways being to surface it with Pansies and Violets. I have beds of Tea 
Roses over which the Irish mossy Rockfoil has been growing for years 
without the roses suffering. Beautiful groups of mossy plants of all 
sorts, or pretty little evergreen alpine plants associated with the earliest 
flowers, show that the surface of the Rose garden itself might be 
a charming garden of another kind, and not a manure heap. In the 
old way of having what is called a " rosery " it did not matter so much 
about covering the surface with manure, but where we put our Rose 
beds in the centre of the very choicest flower garden or under the 
windows of the house it is a very ugly practice. The Rose can be 
nourished for six or eight years without adding any manure to the 
surface, and after six, eight, or ten years most beds will probably 
require some change, or we may change our view as regards them. 

If we free our minds from the incubus of these usual teachings 
and practices, many beautiful things may be done with Roses 
for garden adornment. What is wanted mainly is that the very 
finest Roses, and above all long-blooming ones like Monthly Roses 
and such Tea Roses as George Nabonnand, Marie Van Houtte, 
and Anna Olivier, should be brought into the flower garden in bold 
masses and groups to give variety and prolonged bloom, using the 
choicest Tea Roses in the flower beds, with wreaths of yellow 
climbing Roses swinging in the air, and on walls, especially the 
climbing Tea Roses. Perhaps it may be worth while, to encourage 
others, to tell the story of 

My Rose Garden, as a record of a trial that succeeded may be of 
more use to the beginner. My idea was to get the best of the Roses into 
the flower garden instead of bedding plants or coarse perennials, to 
show at the same time the error of the common ways of growing 
Roses, and also the stupidity of the current idea that you cannot 
near the house (and in what in the needless verbiage of the day 
is called the " formal " garden) set flowers out in picturesque and 
beautiful ways. Another point was to help to get the flower garden 
more permanently planted instead of the eternal ups and downs of 
the beds in spring and autumn and the ugly bareness of the earth 
at these seasons, and to see if one could not make a step towards the 
beautiful permanent planting of beds near the house and always in 
view. Tea Roses only were used for the sake of their great freedom 
of bloom, and these were all planted in large groups, so that one might 
judge of their effect and character much better than by the usual way 


of mixed ineffective planting of one kind in a place. The success of 
the plan was remarkable both for length of bloom and beauty of 
flower and foliage, variety of kind and charming range of colour, and 
also curious and unlooked for variety in each kind. That is to say, 
each Tea Rose varied as the weather varied, and the days passed 
on : the buds of Anna Olivier in June were not the same as the buds 
of the same rose in September, and all kinds showing ceaseless 
changes in the beauty of bud or bloom from week to week. 

No Standards. — It was easy to abolish the standard as hopeless 
and diseased in many cases and ugly in effect, but not so easy to get 
out of the way of grafting on something else, which is the routine in 
nurseries, and here I had to follow the usual way of getting all the 
Tea Roses grafted on the common Dog Rose, but always getting the 
plants " worked " low either on the base of the stock or on the root, so 
that it is easy in planting to cover the union of the stock with the 
more precious thing which is grafted on to it, and so protect the often 
somewhat delicate kind from intense cold. There is also a chance in 
this way of letting the plant so grafted free itself by rooting above the 
union. If we plant firmly in the earth, slightly inclining it to one 
side, and scrape a little off the lower part of the stems of the Rose, we 
may encourage the rose to root itself above the stock, and in any 
case we escape the ravages of frost. Certainly it is so in my 
garden in a cool and upland district. For ten years or so, of the 
many kinds we have planted we have had no losses from cold. The 
Tea Roses were often cut down by the frost, but they came up again, 
often vigorously ; some kinds undoubtedly go back or fail, but not, I 
think, because of cold, but rather through not liking the stock. 
Making all our beautiful and often tender roses grow on one wild 
stock only may have bad effects, just as grafting all the precious 
Rhododendrons on the wretched R. ponticum has bad effects. Some 
kinds flower, do well for a year or two, and then rapidly diminish in 
size and beauty ; some are very vigorous the first year but die off 
wholly in the second. The Wild Rose stock has the power to push 
the Rose into great growth the first year, and then, owing to the 
stock and graft being of a wholly different origin and nature, there is 
a conflict in the flows of the sap, and death quickly ensues. There 
has been such a number of beautiful Tea Roses raised and lost that 
it is worth while inquiring if we have not lost many of them from 
this cause. Some Roses that grew freely did not open their buds 
in our country, and others broke away into small heads and buds 
which made them useless. However, out of the thousands planted 
some kinds did admirably, and quite enough of them to make a 
true garden of Roses, lasting in beauty throughout the summer and 



Preparation of the Rose Beds.— Knowing that we had to 
face the fact of all the Roses being grafted on the Dog Rose it was 
important to give them a deep, cool loam, and the beds in most 
cases were dug out to a depth of thirty inches below the surface. 
Although a somewhat rocky and impervious bottom no drainage 
was used, no liquid manure was ever given, and no water even in 
the hot summers. The beds were filled with the cool heavy loam of 
our best fields, mixed with the old dark soil of the beds and raised 
gently above the surface, say, to an average height of not less than 
6 inches, so that there was about 3 feet of good rich soil. And this 

Summer Roses on cottage wall (Surrey). 

preparation was sufficient for years, the beds being in some cases 
quite vigorous after six and seven years' growth. 

Rose Beds and Alpine Flowers.— Instead of mulching the 
beds in the usual way, and always vexing the surface with attentions 
I thought dirty and needless, we covered them with Pansies, Violets, 
Stonecrops, Rockfoils, Thymes, and any little rock-plants to spare. 
Carpeting these rose beds with life and beauty was half the 
battle. Every one asks us how we mulch. Well, we do not mulch 
except with these living plants, many of which are so fragile in their 
roots that they cannot have much effect in a bed of 3 feet of moist, 



good soil. So that instead of the bare earth in hot days, the flower 
shadows are thrown on to soft carpets of green Rockfoil and Thyme, 
or any other fragile rock or mountain plant that we think worth 
growing for its own sake also. It may even be that these " mossy " 
plants prevent the great drying out of the soil in hot summers and 
autumns, such as we have had of recent years. 

Shelter. — The position was not at all protected in the direction 
of the prevailing winds, or by walls in any way, so that little was 
owing to the natural advantages of site The first thing that occurred 
to people on seeing the Roses was that they were due to some 
peculiar merit of the climate or the soil ; but the same things were 
carried out in several gardens formed by me in quite different soils 
and districts — Shrubland Park, and Hawley, in Hants, for instance — 
and the results were equally good in every case, in some cases better 
than in my own garden. It is very likely that working in the same 
way all should be able to grow Tea Roses — that is, the best of all 
Roses — on many warm soils which are supposed to be useless to 
grow Roses now. There is a limit no doubt as to how far north one 
would get these Roses to open, but over a large area of the country 
now roseless for half the summer, and in some dry soils with few 
or no roses at all, we could make a change towards a real Rose- 
garden. All who have hot and warm soils should enrich them as 
much as possible, but in view of the failure of the Rose in the brier 
they should never try any Standard Tea Roses, but grow these on 
their own roots or grafted low, and the point of the graft buried in 
the soil so as to allow of the plant rooting itself in a soil which it 
may be able to enjoy perfectly well without the aid of a horrid and 
corrupting " middle man " in the shape of a Dog Rose, longing all 
the time for its home in the clay. 

Climbing Roses. — In the sketch of Rose pillars taken by Miss 
Willmott in her garden at Warley Place, we see some of the grace 
of the Rose treated as a climber, in the flower garden. There are a 
great number of Roses that lend themselves to this, the old climbing 
Roses being now backed up by a splendid series of long-blooming 
climbing Tea Roses which are more valuable still, and much in want 
of planting in simple ways to break up the level of gardens and 
the chessboard appearance they usually have. Wreaths and gar- 
lands of this sort were very much more frequent before everything 
was cleared away for the flatness and hardness of bedding out, and 
this way of treating Roses ought to be practised more than ever. 
They should be trained abundantly over well-formed pergolas, covered 
ways, trellises, and fences. In countries a little warmer than ours we 
see what can be done with Roses as noble climbers ; in Algeria, and in 
Madeira, the climbing Tea Roses running up trees in the loveliest 


bloom, all of the finest sorts, seeming as free as the Monthly Rose 
is in the West of England. In our country we have to face hard 
winters, but we have many Roses which will stand the test of our 
hardest, and there is little difficulty in getting good effects from the 
Rose as a bold climber, and better than anything else able to break 
up the hardness and monotony too visible in flower-gardens. 

"Over Pruning Climbing Roses. — The way the unpruned Rose 
behaves is this : the plant, as soon as fairly established in a good soil, 
throws up plenty of strong shoots, and the following year these shoots 
break their buds freely along the stem, and each branch produces a 
mass of bloom, which, after a shower, weighs the branch almost down to 
the ground. They are often best let alone when among shrubs or in 
groups on the lawn, and it is the climbing Roses that show what the 
Rose is capable of when cultivated in this free and natural manner. 
One of my best rose bushes is an old double white Ayrshire Rose 
growing in a shrubbery for more than thirty years — sending out 
a shoot of white flowers sometimes on this side, and sometimes 
on that side of the clump of bushes, and sometimes scrambling 
up to the tops of the tallest branches, and draping them with blossoms 
throughout June and July. Some time ago I measured the ground 
covered by the plant and found it rather over 70 feet in circumference. 
It is growing in a deep dry loam, and this, together with head room, 
seems to be all it requires. There are far too few examples of this 
kind, for our efforts have not been in the direction of showing what 
could be done with the Rose as a tree or bush. The common Dog 
Rose teaches us a lesson in pruning and climbing. It forms a mighty 
mound of branches, the older stems dying down as the young ones 
grow till a large bush is formed, covered with flowers, and they are 
never the less for the absence of all pruning ! 

" Climbing and strong-growing Roses make handsome bushes in a 
few years on pleasure-ground lawns. I have seen bushes of this kind 
twenty years old in which the wood had accumulated about 2 feet 
or more deep, and yet nowhere was any dead wood to be seen, owing 
to the plants throwing out annually fresh shoots which covered the 
old ones. The plants, in fact, grow exactly in the same manner 
as the wild Brier, which keeps sending up from its centre long 
shoots, increasing its size every year. Except agairist walls and in 
similar situations, there is no occasion to prune climbing Roses. 
They make the finest display when left to themselves and it is only 
necessary to provide them with a deep, strong soil, and to let them 
have light on all sides. Whether planting be carried out with the 
object above described, or for the purpose of covering naked tree- 
stumps or branches, or for draping any unsightly object whatever, 
good soil in the first instance is the main thing." — J. S. 

O 2 


Wild and Single Roses.— Another way of attacking the 
monotony and barrenness of the " rosery " of the books, is to plant 
many of the wild roses, from which all the garden roses come. They 
do not, however, appear to advantage in shows ; but on cool grass 
in the hot summer days there is nothing more delightful, whether 
they be those of our own country like the Sweet Brier, Dog and 
Field Roses, or those of other countries, such as the beautiful 
Altai Rose, the Rosa gallica and many others. As to growing 
wild Roses, the best way is not to put them in the flower-garden, but 
rather by grass walks or rough banks, or in newly made hedgerows. 
If their beautiful bloom does not last long, the fruit is pretty, and 
though they are not of the things that repay us well for garden 
cultivation, as the best garden Roses do, the wild Roses may often 
be used with good effect. 

Among the wild Roses, not natives of Britain, that give us most 
pleasure there may be named the Needle Rose of Japan (R. acicularis) ; 
the Carolina Rose, charming for its distinct clusters and late 
bloom, the alpine Rose and its Pyrenean variety, excellent for rocky 
banks ; the glossy Rose (R. Lucida), one of the most excellent in 
marshy or almost any ground, pretty in colour too in winter ; the 
Austrian Brier, a native of Central Europe, and thriving even 
among wild Roses, R. macrantha, R. brunonis and the Musk 
Rose and all its forms, the many-flowered Rose R. multiflora, 
and the Japanese Roses (R. rugosa). The creeping Rose of 
China and Japan (R. Wichuriana) is quite distinct from any, and 
excellent for running about rocky banks and as a climber. These 
are but a small number of the Roses with which the northern and 
mountain world is clothed, and of which many hav^e yet to come to 
our gardens. 

Apart from the wild Roses of which there are so many, there are 
also the single and other roses of garden origin which were thrown 
away by raisers so long as the show standard was the only one 
thought of, but a few of which are now coming into use, such as 
the Paul's Carmine, Bardou Job, the hybrid sweet Briers and 
Japanese and other hybrids, and to such roses we may hope for 
many additions. 

An Essex Rose Garden. 

What causes the difference between the burnt up gardens of Sussex 
and Surrey and this Essex garden land ? It can surely only be the 
open, dark, friable soil, that gives the trees their deep verdure, the 
hardy plants their handsome growth, the turf its fine texture and 



good~^olour^rrth^fashionable flight to the country south of 
London garden lovers do not always know that they are turning 

their backs on the good soil ; chalky hills and sandy heaths and poor 
clays can never give anything like the same results, no matter how 


we labour. The difference in soil values is very great, and a vital 
question for those who expect to get good results in flowers or fruit, 
and the worst of it is that on many poor soils no money or no 
manurial or any other additions can ever make them as good as a 
naturally good soil. 

So here, on a good soil, we have a beautiful garden showing how 
Roses love the soil and air, especially the Tea and Monthly Roses, 
which have the precious quality of coming out again with ever so little 
encouragement — an hour or two of sun, or even without this in gentle 
rains. It may be noticed in the engraving that the border below the 
house at the bottom of a terraced-lawn is planted with Tea Roses of 
the best sorts, so that it comes into the garden-picture, and is con- 
venient for cutting or seeing the flowers, and not thrust away into 
a separate corner out of the flower garden as Roses so often are. 
And well the Tea Roses repay for the good place, from the ever- 
constant Princess de Sagan to the rain-and-storm proof G. Nabonnand. 
To these ever-welcome Roses, as good for the house as the open 
garden, the best of the wild Roses are a great aid, all the more so 
when we come to the adornment of walls, pergola, or the house-walls, 
and here in August the Macartney, Prairie, and Japanese creeping 
Rose (Wichuriana) come in so well after the early wild Roses are 
past. Drooping from a pergola the Japanese creeping Rose is 
graceful in the toss of its branches and the purity of its flowers. And 
these late wild Roses go so well with the Clematis, Vine, Passion- 
flower, Jasmine, and the best climbers we have for house-walls, the 
good use of which does so much to grace the house. 

And as we have seen that in this garden near the house the garden 
Rose occupies its true place (although a modest one compared with 
what it deserves), here, round the water-lilies the wild Roses are 
grouped. Now that the taste for these beautiful wild Roses from 
various countries is reviving, it is well to know what should be done 
with them. Their season is too short to entitle them to a place in 
the flower garden and a very good one is the margin of pools and 
small lakes which are now very rightly given up to precious water- 
lilies. The Roses for the flower garden are the long blooming Tea 
and Monthly Roses, which reward us by months of changeful flower. 

The wild Rose is much better placed in the more picturesque parts 
of grounds where we neither expect nor look for continuous bloom, 
and all the more so because these wild Roses are hardy shrubs that 
want no attention for years at a time. 




The flowers of our own latitudes, when they are beautiful, are 
entitled to the first place in our gardens, and among these flowers, 
after the Rose, should come the Carnation, in all its brilliancy of 
colour, where the soil and climate are fitted for it, as is the case over 
a large area of our sea-girt land. 

Our flower-gardens have to a great extent been void of beautiful 
flowers and plants ; but instead, acres of mean little sub- tropical weeds 
that happen to possess a coloured leaf — Coleus, Alternanthera, Perilla, 
&c. — occupy much of the ground which ought to be true flower- 
gardens, but which is too often set out with plants without fragrance, 
beauty of form, or good colour. 

It is not enough that the laced, flaked, and other varieties of 
D. Caryophyllus should be grown in frames or otherwise ; we should 
show the flower in all its force of colour in our flower-gardens, and 
this is an entirely distinct question from the growth of kinds hitherto 
known as florists' flowers." Many who have not the skill, or the 
time, for the growth of the " florists' " flowers, would yet find the 
brilliant "self" Carnations delightful in their gardens in summer and 
autumn, and even in winter, for the Carnation, where it does well, has 
a fine colour-value of foliage in winter, which makes it most useful 
to all who care for colour in their gardens, adorning the garden 
throughout the v/inter and spring, and full of promise for the summer 
and autumn. 

What Carnations are the best for the open air? The kinds of 
Carnations popular up to the present day are well known by what is 
seen at the Carnation shows, and in the florists' periodicals, like the 
Floral Magazine, Han^ison's Cabinet, and, indeed, all similar period- 


icals up to our own day, when I began to insist that all flowers 
should be drawn as they are. The artist should never be influenced 
by any *' rules " or " ideals " whatever, but be allowed to draw what 
he sees. This all conscientious artists expect, and it is the barest 
justice. If we raise new forms, or what we consider "perfect" 
flowers, let the artist see them as they are, and draw them as he sees 
them, without the confusion of drawing impossible hybrids between 
what he sees and what he is told is perfection in a flower. It was 
the want of this artistic honesty which has left us so worthless 
a record in illustrated journals of the century, where the artist was 
always told to keep to the florist's " ideal " as to what the flower 
should be, and hence the number of plates of flowers of many kinds, 
all " drawn " with the compass. Behind the florists' plates of this 
century we have the pictures of the Dutch flower-painters contain- 
ing fine Carnations, well grown and admirably drawn after nature. 
These artists were not confused by any false ideal to which they 
were to make the flower approach, and so we have a true record of 
what the Carnation was 200 years ago. In these pictures we 
generally see the finer striped and flaked kinds given the first place, 
which is natural, as such varieties are apt to strike people the most ; 
and in those days little consideration had yet been given to the 
question of effect in open gardens, but in our own day this question 
has been forced upon us in very unpleasant ways by masses of crudely 
arranged, and not always pretty flowers. One of the aids in effect is 
the Carnation in its pure and lovely colours — colours which no other 
flowers possess. It would be a pity to use these lovely colours only 
for " button-holes " and for the house, when they may afford us such 
welcome colour in our summer and autumn gardens, in the days when 
people see and enjoy their gardens most. 

Hitherto the effect of the Carnation in masses has been mostly 
judged of from the Clove Carnation, but fine as this is, it is not so 
good as other varieties which are better, stronger, flower longer, and 
are finer in form, such as " Murillo," " Carolus Duran," ' Comte de 
Melbourne," " Frangois Lacharme," " Madame Roland," " Paix 
d'Amiens," " Marquis de Dampierre," " Mdlle. Rouselle," " Alice, Aline 
Newmann," "Countess of Paris," and "George Maquay." These represent 
the Carnation of our own day in its finest form, perfectly hardy, if 
layered in the summer, and planted early. Rooting well before winter 
in easy and bold groups, they afford pretty effects of colour from 
foliage alone, and even in winter time adorn the garden. Some 
varieties are very continuous in bloom, like the " Countess of Paris," 
and these should be added to as time goes on. 

Over a very large area of the United Kingdom Carnation culture 
may be carried out well, and perhaps most successfully near the sea. 


The gentler warmth of the shore in some way influences this, and in 
any case the best results I have seen from out-door culture have been 
in places like Scarborough, Edinburgh, Anglesea, the shores of 
Dublin Bay, and in sea-shore gardens generally where the soil is warm 
and good. It is wonderful what one may do in such places as 
compared with what is possible, say, in the Weald of Kent. At 
Scarborough we may see Carnations almost forming a bush ; near 
Edinburgh I have seen tufts of the Clove Carnation 5 feet in 
diameter, whereas in Sussex and Kent we have to plant annually. 
In our island the area for shore gardens being very large, we may see 
how important the flower in gardens in sea-shore districts may be,, 
valuable as it is in any place where it happens to do well ; but some 
sandy and warm soils, like that of the Bagshot sands for example, 
are singularly adverse to the Carnation, 

In advocating an extension of ways of growing this noble flower, 
I may perhaps be permitted to state the results obtained in my own 
garden in Sussex, and in a garden in Suffolk, two districts widely 
different as regards soil and climate. In my own garden I collected 
all the kinds of Carnations of the self, or one colour, that could be 
got in France or England, and grew them in lines in a very exposed 
and quite unprotected situation, about five hundred feet above the sea ; 
and also in groups and masses in the flower-garden, generally with 
very happy and distinct results both as to colour and beauty of 
bloom, the failures being mostly from late planting. 

So far as hardiness is concerned, we had no trouble in proving 
the absolute hardiness of the plants — the harder the winter, the 
happier the flowers. An " open,", changeable winter is more against 
them, by exciting growth, than a hard winter. They were planted in 
large and simple flower-beds near the house, between groups of Tea 
Roses, occasionally running into the more open groups. In mixed 
beds where there are many Tufted Tansies and other hardy and half- 
hardy flowers, it is easy to get places for groups of Carnations in early 
autumn, and it is best to get enough of each kind to give a fair expres- 
sion of its colour. 

On the margins of mixed borders the same Carnations may be 
used with excellent effect, especially for those who frequent their 
gardens late in the summer and autumn. Beautiful effects of colour 
may occasionally be had in such borders by associating with the Car- 
nations other grey-hued plants, such as Lavender and Rosemary, alsa 
planted in bold informal groups. The soil of my own garden was a 
deep unctuous loam, the rainfall of the district being rather higher 
than that of the surrounding country, and though successful, the ex- 
periment could not be said to have been made under the best condi- 


The next made was at Shrubland Park, in Suffolk, under condi- 
tions totally different, where Lord de Saumarez entrusted me with 
the remodelling of this garden, which was for long perhaps the most 
famous " bedding-out " garden in England. I had to consider the 
question of its embellishment with beautiful hardy flowers, the carpet 
and bedding systems, white gravel and broken coloured brick, having 
been given up. The soil here is a light warm friable loam, delightful 
for gardening ; and so I determined to plant to a great extent with 
the Carnation, Tea Rose, Tufted Pansy, Lavender, Rosemary, and all 

Carnations and Roses in front of Tudor House. 

the beautiful and hardy plants obtainable. Many of the self Car- 
nations were used, and with excellent effect. The beds were simple 
and bold, and we had large masses, in groups, of the finest self 
Carnations known. 

The climate, like that of the eastern counties generally, is colder 
than that of Sussex in winter, but brighter in summer, and a better 
result was obtained than in my own garden ; so that between these 
two very different districts we have evidence that the Carnation can 


be used (not merely the Cloves, but many other handsome forms 
ranging through the best colours) with in every way satisfactory 
effects in the flower garden. 

The hardiness of the flower is proved by the natural habitats of 
the plant, which is found in rocky upland places in many countries of 
Europe, and finds a substitute for its native rocks on Rochester Castle, 
and at Chateau Gaillard, in Normandy. It never suffers from cold, 
though alternations of mild and hard weather will often affect it on 
cold soils by starting the plants into growth at a time when on the 
mountains they are at rest under snow. 

Lily and Iris and the Nobler Summer Flowers.— The Lily 
had to go too from the flower-garden of our own day ; it was too tall, 
and no doubt had other faults, but like the Rose it must come back, 
and one of the gains of a free way of flower-gardening is that we are 
able to put Lilies or any other flowers in it at any season that suits 
their planting, and that their bloom is welcome whenever it comes, 
and leaves us content with brown stems when it goes. If in the large 
flower-garden we get some diversity of surface through groups of the 
rarer flowering evergreen shrubs, we have for these the very soil that 
our Lilies thrive in, and we break up in pretty ways these groups by 
planting Lilies among them, gaining thereby two seasons of bloom, 
light and shade in the masses, and diversity of form. 

The Iris too, with its Orchid-like beauty and flower, and with a 
higher value of leaf than either Lily or Orchid, is in summer flowering 
kinds fit to grace the flower-garden with some permanent beds. Some 
will tell us that we may not do these things in the set flower- 
garden under the windows, but from an artistic point of view this is 
not true and very harmful. There is no flower-garden, however arid 
or formal in its plan, which may not be planted in picturesque 
ways and without robbing it of fine colour either. But to do that 
in the face of ugly plans we must be free to choose among all beauti- 
ful things of the open air, not forgetting the best of the half-hardy 
plants that enjoy our summer — Heliotrope, great Blue Salvia, not 
forgetting Scarlet Geranium — no more than Cardinal Flower ; annual 
summer flowers, too, from Sweet Pea to Stocks, Mignonette, and Pansy. 
A true flower-garden is one which has a place for every flower its 
owner cares for. 

There is no reason for excluding the best of the summer flowers 
from Hollyhocks to Sea Hollies, choosing always the best and those 
that give the most pleasure, and never coarse or weedy plants. For 
these the true place is the shrubbery and wild garden. It was the 
use of these coarse and weedy plants that did much harm in old 
mixed borders when they were allowed to eat up everything. In 
those days they had not the choice of fine plants we now have, many 



of the finest we have coming in our day, Hke the Lilies of Japan and 
of Western America, and also the new Water Lilies. These last 
are above all flowers of the summer, and whenever there is any- 
garden water, they add a distinct and enduring charm to the summer 
garden. We should not only represent them, but also the other 
water plants of the summer ; and as shown in the chapter on the 
water garden, many handsome plants can be grown in rich soil that 
often occurs near water, massed in picturesque groups, like Loose- 
strife, Meadow Sweets, and Japanese Iris. 

Basket of fine leaved plants in the Gardens, Regent's Park. 



" A notJier tiling also much too commonly seen, is an aberration of the 
human mind, tvhich otherwise I should have been ashamed to warn you of. 
It is technically called carpet-gardening. Need I explain it further ? 1 
had rather not, for when I think of it, even when I am quite alone, 1 
blush with shame at the thought." — W. MORRIS, HOPES AND Fears 
FOR Art. 



When the bedding system first came into vogue, it was no doubt 
its extreme brightness, or what we should now call its " gaudiness," that 
caused it to hold the position it did ; but it was soon done to death. 
Only scarlet Geraniums, yellow Calceolarias, blue Lobelias, or purple 
Verbenas were used ; and the following year, by way of a change, 
there were Verbenas, Calceolarias, and Geraniums, — the constant 
repetition of this scarlet, yellow, and blue nauseating even those with 
little taste in gardening matters, whilst those with finer perceptions 
began to inquire for the Parsley bed, by way of relief Such a state 
of things could not continue ; but yet the system could not be given 
up for several reasons — a very good one being that the great bulk of 
hardy flowers had been ruthlessly swept out of the garden to make 
room for bedding plants, and so — gardeners being, as it were, in 
desperate straits — the development of the bedding system began, 
and foliage plants of various colours were mixed with the flowers. 
Then followed standard graceful foliage plants and hardy carpeting 
plants ; and now dwarf-growing shrubs are freely associated with the 

^ As the aim of this book is to how in how many ways we can make a garden beautiful 
apart from the bedding system, that system is described by one who carries it out with 
great success. 


commoner types of bedding plants. Indeed, the system improved 
so rapidly that its most relentless opponents admitted that it 
had some redeeming qualities. I think, however, that the strongest 
reason of all for its retention is its suitability to formal or geometrical 

Most people have their own notions as to what constitutes per- 
fection of colour in bedding arrangements. This perfection I have 
not attained to, nor have I, perhaps, any decided preference for one 
colour over another ; but I have very decided notions that the various 
colours should be so completely commingled that one would be 
puzzled to determine what tint predominates in the entire arrange- 
ment. This rule I have followed for years, and have had a fair 
amount of success in working it out. I am even still learning, my 
latest lesson being that, if any colour at all may predominate, it is 
"glaucous," that is, a light gray or whitish green. Of this colour the 
eye never tires, perhaps because it is in harmony with the tints of the 
landscape, and particularly of the lawn. To carry out my rule as ta 
colour successfully, there are other rules which must be studied. 
The first is that high colours, such as scarlet and yellow, must be 
used in much less proportion than colours of a softer tint, for high 
colours overweigh all others ; the second is that there must be no 
violent transition from one colour to another — the contrast of colours 
must as far as possible be avoided in favour of their gradual inter- 
mingling or harmonising ; the third, that the most decided or high 
colours, being the heaviest, ought to occupy the most central part of 
the beds, or be distributed in due proportion over the entire garden, 
so as to ensure an even balance throughout. Further, when dealing 
with such colours, use them in necessary proportion, and no more, 
and, if you err at all, err on the side of niggardliness. By close 
adherence to these rules, I have for years had no difficulty in pro- 
ducing a harmony of colour that has worn so well as to be as welcome 
at the end of the season as at the beginning ; for the quieter the 
colouring the more lasting is the enjoyment of it. And it is pleasant 
to observe the great advance yearly made in favour of the quieter 
tints — gaudiness, in bedding-out, having become the exception rather 
than the rule. To fully carry out the ideal of colour here advocated, 
a great variety of plants is needed, though not more than is generally 
grown where bedding-out is practised to any extent. But there is 
colour 2iX\d colour ; and those who cannot have elaborate designs and 
variety in colour, may have an equivalent in graceful foliage and 
beautiful tinted shrubs of hues varying from deep green to bright 
yellow, and in habit tapering, weeping, or feathery. Cypresses, 
Yews, Yuccas, and many others, not only associate well with all kinds 
of bedding plants, but with the various kinds of hardy Sedums 


Saxifrages, and Veronicas. These are all within the means of most 
owners of small gardens, and may be arranged in bedding-out form, the 
shrubs for centres and panels, and the dwarf hardy plants for massing 
and carpeting. 

Soil and Cultivation. — Next to position, soil is the most 
important element in the formation of a garden. In selecting a 
soil, two things should be kept in view — first, that an open or well- 
drained soil assists climate (that is, the more porous a soil is the 
warmer is the ground, and the better able to withstand extreme cold 
are the plants) ; and secondly, that the soil should be deep. Unless 
there is depth, permanent things will not flourish satisfactorily. And 
for less permanent things, depth of soil is just as important, as it 
renders unnecessary frequent dressings of fresh soil to maintain 
fertility. Wherever these conditions of soil exist, flower-gardening 
is easy ; but in many cases opposite conditions have to be dealt with, 
and though it is hopeless to attempt to rival a naturally suitable 
soil, a very near approach can be made to doing so. The best soil 
is good loam, that is, soil of a clayey nature, but sufficiently sandy 
not to be sticky. Of the two states, light and heavy, the light is 
the better, because it is the warmer, and the more easily cultivated. 
In dealing with heavy soil, we must have drainage, deep tilth, and 
the working-in of material rendering it more porous, such as half- 
decayed leaves, mortar or brick rubble, charcoal, and ashes. If 
manure be needed, it should be used in the long straw state as it 
comes from the stables. One mistake frequently made with regard 
to soil is, that sufficient attention is not paid to the kind of plants 
that the soil of a given district is best suited for. Were this always 
remembered, we should see fewer garden failures, and the gardening 
in different districts would possess an interest from variety. If each 
possessor of a garden were to strike out a line for himself, the 
question of suitability of soil would soon be settled, for a man would 
be too observant to plant a Rhododendron in chalky soil because he 
had admired a friend's Rhododendrons in peaty or vegetable soil. 
A healthy Yew or Box is infinitely preferable to a sickly Rhodo- 
dendron. The annual dressing of flower-beds is needed to get the 
best effects ; and by all means continue it, but not to the entire 
neglect of hardy flowers and shrubs. These though they will do a 
long time without fresh food, enjoy rich top-dressings of good soil or 
manure ; it is only by so treating them that their best effects are 

Flower-beds occasionally require to be deeply dug. Trenching 
is perhaps the proper term, but it scarcely expresses what I mean. 
The time to do it is when the beds are empty. I trench up my 
flower-beds once in two years — in autumn, after the summer bedders 


are removed, and before the spring-flowering plants are put in. 
Stirring flower-beds creates a wider field of action for the roots, and 
gives them an opportunity of getting out of the reach of drought in 
a dry season. 

Coloured Foliage. — The use of coloured and fine-leaved 
plants in the flower garden has increased, the causes being, the 
introduction of a number of suitable plants ; and the weather, which 
has often been so wet that, no sooner have ordinary bedding plants 
got into full flower, than they have been dashed to pieces by the rain. 
Hence the desire for plants that would withstand such washings, and 
yet give bright effects. As regards coloured-foliaged bedding plants 
in particular, I do not think that if half of the bedding plants used 
were what are termed foliage plants, it would be out of proportion ; 
in such coloured foliage I would include the variegated Pelargoniums, 
together with hardy variegated plants, such as Japanese Honey- 
suckles, variegated Periwinkles, Ivies, and the hardy Sedums and 
Saxifrages. The effects to be had from this class of plants combined 
with variegated and coloured-leaved plants of the tender section, and 
with graceful-leaved plants, are better than any to be had from 
flowering plants alone, as they stand all weathers without injury. 
One of the brightest coloured beds I have ever seen planted in 
geometrical form for summer effect was composed of the following 
plants — viz. Sedum acre elegans, creamy white ; Sedum glaucum, gray ; 
Herniaria glabra, green ; Mesembryanthemum cordifolium variega- 
tum, light yellow ; and the bright orange and scarlet Alternantheras, 
all dwarf plants ; the standard or central plants being Grevillea 
robusta and variegated Abutilons. 

Bedding and Fine-leaved Plants. — There can be no doubt 
that the use of the freer-growing green and graceful fine-leaved 
plants has done a great deal of good. In the South of England 
one may grow a great variety of plants of this kind. A number of 
greenhouse and even of stove plants may be placed in the open air 
without injury, and even with benefit to themselves. But some 
plants put out look sickly all the summer and make no good growth. 
Others always look well, even in the face of damaging storms. 
Where the climate is against the tenderer plants, a very good selec- 
tion may be made from hardy things — from shrubs, plants like the 
Yucca, or young trees cut down and kept in a single-stemmed state. 
But there are errors in the system from which these things cannot 
save us. A geometrical bed is little the less geometrical because we 
place green-leaved or graceful plants in the middle of it. A more 
radical alteration is required, and that is the abolition of geometry 
itself, of formalism and straight lines and of all the hateful gyrations 


which place the art of gardening on a level so much lower than it 
deserves to occupy. We can have all the variety, all the grace, all 
the beauty of form, all the glory of colour of the world of flowers 
and plants, without any of the pattern business which is now the 
rule. But we cannot make much progress in this direction except 
by suppressing the elaborate pattern beds as much as convenient, 
and by letting the vegetation tell its own story. The plants 
we must feed and the soil we must enrich ; but finicking beds 
reminding one of the art on fire-shovels and such productions, are 
not necessary. Let us then begin by adopting a bold, large, and 
simple type of bed, from which the flowers will spring and make us 
think more of them than of the pattern. By way of variety, succu- 

Stone basket of flowers and fine-leaved pLints (Heckfield Place). 

lents are desirable plants for dry positions and under the shade 
of trees, where other bedding plants do not flourish satisfactorily. 
From their power of withstanding storms of wind and rain, and even 
drought and cold, they are always in good form ; and they should 
have a place in summer flower-garden arrangements of any extent. 
They harmonise well with many hardy plants that may serve as 
cushions for them to display their quaintness on. The term " succulent " 
includes all plants of a fleshy character, the more common types 
being the Echeverias, Cotyledons, and Kleinias. Agaves and Aloes 
are more rare, but are none the less valuable for bedding. 


Vases. — In their proper place, and in due proportion, vases and 
baskets are useful in flower gardens, but they are frequently to a 
great extent out of all harmony with the style of the garden and its 
surroundings. Perhaps the tendency to over-decorate in this way 
is due to the geometrical plan of many gardens, when vases are 
placed on every pedestal and at every corner to square with many 
meaningless angles. Happily, this style of gardening is giving place 
to one in which vases and baskets can be used or not, according 
to the taste of the owner. When vases are used in large numbers, 
much may be done by planting plants of a drooping character 
in them ; indeed, vases look most natural when trailers or climbers 
droop over the sides. Basket-formed beds are well suited to 
almost any position in pleasure-grounds ; but the best of all spots 
is in an isolated recess on the turf, and next, in the central bed of 
a flower garden, where the surrounding beds are circles or ovals. I 
have one, the extreme length of which is i6 feet ; it is 8 feet wide 
in the middle, stands 2 feet 6 inches above the turf, and is made of 
Portland cement. The principal plants in it are Marguerites, Pelar- 
goniums, Heliotropes, Fuchsias, Marvel of Peru, Abutilons, Castor- 
oils, Cannas, Japanese Honeysuckles, and Tropseolums. More rustic- 
looking baskets would be better suited for isolation on the turf and for 
distant parts of the pleasure-grounds ; and very good ones can be 
formed of wirework, lined inside with zinc, or made of barked Oak 
boughs instead of wirework. In baskets and vases of this kind 
permanent plants should be used, such as the variegated Ivies, 
Periwinkles, Japanese Honeysuckles, Clematises, and climbing Roses 
— space being reserved for flowering plants in summer and for small 
shrubs in winter. 

Sub-Tropical Bedding. — There are four types of summer 
flower-gardening : i, the massing (the oldest) ; 2, the carpet ; 3, 
the neutral — quiet and low in colour, mainly through use of 
succulents ; and 4, the sub-tropical, in which plants of noble 
growth and graceful foliage play the chief part. To my mind, 
a mixture of the four classes is the very ideal of flower-gardening. 
It is possible to plant a formal garden in such a manner that the 
severest critic could not complain of excessive formality ; for, after 
all, it is the abuse of carpet bedding that has brought it into dis- 
repute. And justly so, for when one sees bed after bed and arrange- 
ment after arrangement repeated without end, with no plants to 
relieve the monotony of flat surfaces, one has good reason to protest. 
I have charge of a terrace garden which has to be planted with a 
view to obtaining the best display from June to November, and I 
am therefore compelled to adopt the carpet-bedding system ; but 


I supplement it by dotting over the surface, of necessarily formal 
arrangements, plants of noble or graceful aspect, such as Acacia, 

Dracaena, and Yucca. In such arrangements a judicious blending 
of beds of flowering plants, principally Pelargoniums, adds brightness 

I P 2 


to the whole ; but, save under exceptional circumstances, flowers^ 
and even fine-foliaged and flowering plants, should never be put in 
the same bed as succulents. The colour-massing or grouping style 
of summer-gardening is best adapted to a terrace or parterre that 
is well backed up or surrounded by evergreens, as these aflbrd relief 
from the glare of brilliant colours, and at the same time set them 
off to advantage. A few plants of fine form distributed apart over 
the garden, and especially in beds of glaring colours, will be found 
to enhance the beauty of the whole. My view of sub-tropical 
gardening is, that it is only suitable for positions where it can be 
associated with water, or for sheltered nooks and dells, where the 
force of the wind is broken before it comes in contact with the 
plants. Where such positions are not at command, it is best to 
choose the hardier class of noble or handsome foliaged plants, many 
of which may be permanently planted, such as Ailantus, Rhus, 
Arundo, Salisburia, Yuccas, and the hardy Palm (Chamaerops humilis). 
Of half-hardy plants that will withstand wind there are numbers, 
such as Araucaria, Acacia, Ficus, Cycas, Dracaena, Aralia. In planting 
sub-tropical plants, care should be taken that the beds when fully 
furnished do not have a " bunchy " appearance. To avoid this, plant 
thinly, and use as undergrowth dwarfer plants, of which there are many 
suitable kinds. 

Summer and Winter Bedding. — Now that there is such a 
wealth of plants suited for furnishing the flower-beds in winter, there 
can be no excuse for their remaining empty after the summer-bedding 
plants are cleared away. Much labour is required to carry out both 
summer and winter bedding ; but I strongly recommend this kind of 
decoration. There are reasons why winter bedding should be en- 
couraged. First, winter is the season when all around us is bleak, dull, 
and bare — leaden skies, leafless trees, flowerless meadows, and silent 
woods, all of which have a depressing effect on most temperaments. It 
therefore behoves us to endeavour to neutralise this prevailing dulness 
by making our gardens as cheerful as possible. Another reason — 
which to those fond of summer bedding should be the great reason for 
adopting winter bedding — is the short period during which summer 
bedding continues in perfection. The thought is continually haunting 
one that it will fade all too soon. The adoption of winter bedding, 
however, in my own case obliterates such thoughts, and one looks 
forward to real pleasure from both systems. Nor has this been the 
only result. It being necessary that summer and winter bedding 
should meet, ingenuity had to devise means to this end. This led to 
my using as summer bedders many hardy plants which otherwise I 
should not have thought of using, but which are just as effective as 



tender exotics ; nay, in some cases, more so 
in the spring, serve till the following spring, 
divided, and replanted for another year. 

and which, when planted 
when they are taken up, 

Principal Plants used for Bedding-out. 











Blue Marguerite 































Plantain Lily 
































Garden near Loch Kishorn, Ross. From a water-colour drawing by K 

Orange-trees in tubs, Tuileries. 




In old days and for ages it was not easy — not always possible 
to many — to have a garden in the open air. The need of mutual 
aid against the enemy threw people into closely-packed cities, and 
even small towns in what might seem to us now the open country. 
In our own country, free for many years from external enemies, we 
have spread our gardens over the land more than others ; but in France 
farmers still go home to a town at night from the open, and often 
homeless and barnless plain, where they work. And so it came 
that the land of Europe was strewn with towns and cities, often 
fortified, and many of those most able to enjoy gardens had to do- 
the best they could with little terraces, walls, tubs by the door, and 
even windows. And often in Italy and other countries of the south 
of Europe and north Africa we see beautiful plants in tubs, on 
balconies, on flat roofs, and every imaginable spot where plants can 
be grown in a house in a street. Happily, in our country, there 
is less need nowadays for the garden in tubs ; but the custom is 
bound up with ways of growing plants which are still essential 
to us in some cases. 

In many gardens plants in tubs are often used without good reason,, 
for example, when hardy evergreen trees are grown in tubs, and in 
front of the Royal Exchange in London there are hardy Poplars 
in tubs ! But some may pursue this sort of gardening with advantage 



— first, those who have no gardens, and, secondly, those who have and 
who may desire to put half-hardy bushes in the open air, for example 
Myrtle or Oleander or Orange, which may not be grown out-of-doors 
throughout the year, and which yet may have fragrance or other 
charms for us. Many plants can be grown in the open air in summer 
which will not endure our winters, but which placed in a cellar, dry 
room, or cool greenhouse would be quite safe, and might then be put 
out-of-doors in summer. This way is commonly the case abroad 
with large Datura, Pomegranate, and Myrtles, and a great variety 

Vase plants at Turvey Abbey. 

of plants such as we see put out in tubs in certain old palace 
gardens, like those of Versailles. What was called the orangery, 
which has almost disappeared from English gardens, was for keeping 
such plants alive and well through the winter, and in old times, 
if not now, had a very good reason to be. 

There are many charming plants too tender for the open altogether 
that are happy in tubs, and may be sheltered in an outhouse 
or greenhouse through the winter — such as the Pomegranate, the 
Myrtle, and Romneya (the White Bush Poppy). The blue African 
Lily is often happy in tubs, its blue flowers when seen on a terrace 


walk having a distinct charm, but in England, generally, it must be 
kept indoors in winter. 

Excellent use may be made of the great handsome oil-jars, which 
are used to bring olive oil from Italy to London, and the best things 
to put in them are half-hardy plants, which can be taken intact into 
the cool greenhouse or conservatory at the approach of frost. Even 
Seakale-pots can be filled with half-hardy plants, as scarlet Pelar- 
goniums, which have a good effect in them. In some rich and moist 
soils the Pelargonium all grows to leaves and does not flower, and in 
such cases we can humour it into good bloom by growing it in pots 
or vases in the light soil that suits the plants. 

Orange Trees in Tubs. — One of the most curious examples 
of routine and waste I saw in the Tuileries gardens on the last day 
of September, 1896, when the Paris people were preparing for the Czar, 
and among their labours was the refurbishing of the old Orange 
trees in these gardens. There were a regiment of them set all along 
the gardens at regular intervals in immense and costly tubs, involving 
herculean labour to move in and out of the orangery. One might 
suppose this labour to be given for some beautiful end in perfecting 
the flower or fruit of the plant, but nothing of the kind ; the trees 
being trained into mop heads, and when the plants make any 
attempt to take a natural growth they are cut sharply back, and often 
have an ugfier shape than any mop. The ground was strewn with 
shoots of the orange trees which had been cut back hard. When 
the tree was in poor health, as it was often, the dark stems were the 
most visible things seen against the blue sky. This costly and ugly 
work is a survival of the time when the " golden apples " were a 
novelty, and it was not so easy to go and see them growing in the 
open air as it now is, and so what was worth doing as a curiosity 
hundreds of years ago is carried out still. Since the idea of growing 
these trees in such an ugly fashion arose we have had a noble 
garden flora brought to us from all parts of the earth, and it would 
be easy to take our choice of different ways of adorning this garden 
in more artistic ways with things in the open ground, and of far 
greater beauty. If this thing at its best and done with great cost 
has such a result, what are we to think of the English imitations of 
it, such as those at Panshanger, in which hardy shrubs are used, like 
Portugal laurels, and sham tubs placed around them ? 

I saw the vast orangerie terrace at Sans Souci in July 1897, and 
was deeply struck by its " ornaments " in tubs ; the branches of the 
poor distorted trees like black skeletons against the summer sky 
showing that even with all the aids of artifice, no good result with 
tubbed oranges is got in northern Germany no more than in 
northern France. In the warmer south a little better result may be 


had from trees in tubs, but a few days' journey brings us to orange 
trees growing as freely and gracefully as willows in Tunis and Algeria 
and the countries round the Mediterranean. 

The Poet's Laurel in Tubs. — The Laurel is a winter-garden 

The Blue African Lily {Agapatithus umbellattis) in its summer quarters. 

plant over a large area of northern and central Europe, where the true 
Laurel (our gardeners and nurserymen erroneously give the name to 
the vigorous evergreen Cherry, of which we have too much in 
England) is a tender evergreen, requiring the protection of a house 


in winter, it is grown to a vast extent in tubs to place in the open 
garden, on terrace, or in courtyard during the summer. The culti- 
vation of the Laurel for this purpose is carried on to such an extent 
that miles of handsome trees in various forms may be seen in one 
nursery. There is no plant more worthy of it than the true Laurel, 
which we usually call the Sweet Bay, and those who cannot enjoy 
the plant out of doors, as we may in many of the warmer districts of 
the British Isles, would do well to grow it in tubs, in which state 
they may enjoy it both in winter and summer. It would be worth 
while growing it in the same way in cold and northern districts, 
where it is killed or much hurt in winter, and this sometimes occurs 
in parts of southern England. Near the sea it may flourish, and 
twenty miles inland be cut down to the ground, or so badly hurt 
that it gives no pleasure to see. In gardens where one may have fine 
groups of the tree on sunny slopes, we should never think of it in any 
other way, and no evergreen tree gives us more beauty when old and 
untrained and undipped. Growing in tubs, the need of storing away 
in winter, often in a small space, and keeping the plant in health in 
boxes not too heavy make some training necessary, and the shapes 
common in Continental gardens are as good as could be obtained 
under the circumstances, while the health of the bush in these 
artificial conditions is singularly good. It is often surprising to see 
what fine heads arise in good health from small tubs, the soil being 
helped now and then by a little weak liquid manure water not 
oftener than once a week. Once the plants are stored for the winter, 
sometimes in sheds with little light, it is best to give no water during 
the winter months. In the same way we may also enjoy the Laurus- 
tinus in districts where it is killed by frost out of doors which in hard 
winters happens, even in the southern countries which is all the more 
unfortunate as this shrub and its varieties flower so prettily. If grown 
well in tubs, we may flower them in the cool house and place them 
out of doors in summer. 

Cultivation of Plants in Orangeries. — The old way of 
growing plants in the orangery is still much more practised in 
France than with us, and a few words as to the mode of culture 
in use may be useful. Though the orange from which the structure 
gets its name is not often happy in it, other plants like the Myrtle, 
Pomegranate, African Lily, and Hydrangea may often be kept with 
safety through the winter in such a house. 

Among shrubs we have the Pomegranate, Oleander, Orange, 
Fuchsia, Myrtle, Camellia — in fact, all those that are commonly 
placed for shelter in greenhouses during winter. For shrubs like 
these the year has two seasons: (i) that during which they are 
placed for shelter in the orangery or the cool house, or, in the absence 


of these, some place where the conditions of temperature, air, hght, 
and construction are similar ; and (2) the summer season, when they 
are taken out into the open air and set in variously exposed situations 
in order that they may mature, grow, and bloom. 

Winter Cultivation. — In October the shrubs are removed to 
warm corners. The shedding of the leaf in some plants gets rid of 
one difficulty in their cultivation, that of their preservation during 
the winter, as the summer-leafing kinds are so easy to store away 
if the frost be kept out. Half-hardy evergreen shrubs require to be 
kept in a well-lighted house, but shrubs, which, like Fuchsias and 
Pomegranates, shed their leaves in autumn, can during winter be 
conveniently kept in any dark place, such as a cellar or warm shed. 

Orangery, Holm Lacey, Hereford. 

and in their case watering will scarcely be required. As a general 
rule, for orangery shrubs, the temperature may be such as will exclude 
frost ; some kinds, however, will be found to withstand a hard frost 
like the Oleander. Although the summer-leafing shrubs scarcely 
need water at all during the winter, it is needed for evergreen shrubs. 
Yet even here we shall have to make a distinction. For instance, the 
Orange-tree requires more water than the Myrtle, and the Myrtle 
more than the Proteads. In the majority of orangeries the plants are 
watered every two or three weeks during winter, and daily after the 
month of April, and those who cultivate Orange-trees are able to tell 
us that want of water, which is always prejudicial to this tree, may 
even result in a complete loss of leaf. There are two plans for 


avoiding the ill effects of too-abundant watering, the former of which 
is to plant in soils which allow the water to run away freely ; the 
second is to use boxes with sides that can be opened from time to 
time to enable the roots to be seen. 

Summer Cultivation. — In May, and, if possible, during cloudy 
weather, all plants in the orangery are transferred to sunny and 
sheltered places outside. The pots, if small, will have to be plunged, 
as this keeps the roots in good condition. In this, as in other cases, 
where the plants are in pots or boxes, we shall have occasionally to 
give some manure, and weak liquid-manure gives good results. This 
is the Belgian method, and one of its effects is that it enables us to 
postpone the repotting of the plants and permits of the employment 
of smaller boxes and vases as compared with the size of the trees. 
So in the nurseries of Ghent and France, too, we often see Sweet Bays 
with heads more than a yard in width, whilst the tubs they are in 
scarcely measure twenty inches in diameter, and under such conditions 
the plants thrive for years without enlargement of the tubs or change 
of soil, thanks to feeding with liquid-manure. 

The same things may be said of the plants in the cool house, 
or any house in which we store almost half-hardy Palms, Cycads, 
Tree-Ferns, or other plants which may with advantage pass a few 
months in the open air in summer. All of these, in fact, may be 
treated much as the Blue African Lily is treated, allowing always for 
the differences between evergreen shrubs, like the Orange, Eugenia, 
and Myrtle ; herbaceous plants, like the sweet-scented Plantain Lily, 
grown in pots and in courtyards in France, and summer-leaving 
shrubs like Fuchsia, Justicia, and Pomegranate. 

An Amateur on Plants in Tubs for the Flower Garden. 
— The need of the orangery strictly so-called, is now lessened by 
two causes; (i) our rich, hardy garden-flora with many things as 
lovely as any that grow in the tropics ; (2) the nearly universal 
adoption of the greenhouse, in which many plants find shelter in 
winter that in old times would have been housed in the orangery. 
But notwithstanding these changes there are still some plants worth 
while to keep over the winter in any convenient way, and the following 
extract from The Garden shows how a good amateur gardener 
manages them as an aid to her flower-gardening. 

" A great deal of real gardening pleasure is to be had from growing 
plants in pots and tubs or in vases and vessels of various kinds both in 
small and big gardens. I use large Seakale pots, when they are no 
longer wanted for the Seakale, by turning them over, putting two bits 
of slate in the bottom of the pot, some drainage, and a few lumps of 
turf, and then filling up with good garden mould. Another useful 
pot is one called a Rhubarb pot. If you live near a pottery they 


will turn you out almost any shaped pot you fancy. Flat ones like 
those used by house painters, make a pleasant change, especially for 
small bulbs. Petroleum casks cut in two, burnt inside, then tarred 
and painted, are invaluable tubs, I use butter-casks treated in the 
same way, and have some little Oak tubs in which bullion came from 
America. These are very strong, and some water-loving plants do 
much better in wood, since the evaporation in summer is not 
nearly so rapid as from the earthenware. That is an important thing 
to remember both as regards sun and wind. If the plants are at all 

Plants in Italian oil-jars, Woodlands, Surrey. 

delicate and brought out of a greenhouse, the pots, when standing out, 
ought to be either quite sunk into the earth or shaded. This cannot 
be done in the case of pots placed on a wall or terrace or on a stand, 
and so they must not be put out in the open till the end of May. 
Constant care about watering is also essential. Even in wet weather 
they often want more water if the sun comes out, as the rain wets the 
leaves, but hardly affects the soil at all. On the Continent, where all 
kinds of pot cultivation have been longer practised than in England, 
flower-pots are often glazed outside, which keeps the plants much 
moister because of less evaporation, and makes less necessity for 


frequent watering. The large red jars in which oil is still conveyed 
from Italy, covered with their delightful coarse wicker-work, are use- 
ful ornaments in some gardens. They are glazed inside, and boring 
a hole in the bottom of them is not very easy work. They have to 
be more than half filled with drainage, and plants do not do well in 
them for more than one season, as the surface of the earth exposed 
at the top is so small. In old days the oil merchants in the suburbs 
of London used to cut them in two vertically, and stick them against 
their houses, above their shops, as an advertisement or ornament. The 
enthusiastic amateurs will find that they get two very nice pots by 
sawing them in half horizontally just below the sham handles. The 
top part when reversed requires the same treatment as was recom- 
mended for the Seakale pots." 

What to Grow. — The first rule, I think, is to grow in them those 
plants which do not grow well in your own local soil. To put into a 
pot what is flourishing much better in a bed a few yards off is, to my 
mind, a mistake. I grow large old plants of Geraniums in the open 
ground, and they are kept on in the greenhouse from year to year, 
their roots tied up in Moss, and crowded into a pot or box with no 
earth and very little water through the winter ; they can be kept in a 
cellar or spare room. Early in April they are potted up and pro- 
tected by mats in a pit, as I have no room for them in the greenhouse. 
This causes them to be somewhat pot-bound, and they flower 
splendidly during the latter part of the summer. Marguerites, the 
yellow and the white with large leaves, are good pot plants early in 
the year, far prettier than the narrow-leaved kinds. A double Pome- 
granate I have had for many years in a pot, and if thinned out in the 
summer it flowers well ; also two small Orange trees. The large old- 
fashioned Oak leaved, sticky Cape Sweet Geranium, which has a 
handsomer flower than the other kinds, makes a very good outdoor pot 
plant. Fuchsias, especially the old-fashioned fulgens, are satisfactory. 
Carnations Raby Castle, Countess of Paris, and Mrs. Reynolds Hole 
I grow in pots, and they do well ; they must be layered early in 
July, and answer best if potted up in September and just protected 
from severe frosts. In fine summers, Myrtles and Oleanders flower 
well with me in tubs, not in the open ground. I treat Oleanders as 
they do in Germany — cut them back moderately in October and dry 
them off, keep them in a coach-house, warm shed, or wherever severe 
frosts will not reach them. When quite dry they stand a moderate 
amount of frost. Then in March they are brought out, the surface is 
stirred and mulched, they are taken into a greenhouse and brought on 
a bit. In May they are thickly covered with good, strong horse 
manure and copiously watered. At the end of the month they are 
stood out in the open on a low wall. During May, June and July 


they cannot have too much water ; after that they want much less, or 
the leaves turn yellow and drop off. Some years I grow Solanum 
jasminoides over bent wires in pots ; grown thus it is pretty. The 

American Aloe. Example of greenhouse plants set in open air in summer. Engraved from a pho 
taken in Knightwick Rectory Garden, Worcestershire. 

variety of plants which can be tried for growing in pots out of doors 
in summer is almost endless. Love-lies-bleeding ( Amaranthus caudatus) 
is an- annual, but if sown in January and very well grown on as a fine 


single specimen plant, it looks handsome and uncommon in a green 
glazed pot or small tub. Nothing I grow in pots is more satisfactory 
than the old-fashioned Calceolaria amplexicaulis ; it does not grow to 
any perfection with me in the beds, the soil being too dr^^, but potted, 
it makes a splendid show through the late summer and autumn 
months. The shrubby Veronica speciosa rubra, and V. imperialis, I grow 
in pots because they flower beautifully in the autumn, and the drowsy 
bumble-bees love to lie on them in the sunshine when Sedum specta- 
bile is passing away. They are not quite hardy with me, as they can- 
not withstand the long, dry, cold springs. This in itself justifies the 
growing them in pots ; in mild, damp districts they are large shrubs. 
The blue Agapanthus everybody grows in tubs. The plants have to 
be rather pot-bound and kept dry in the winter to flower well, and as 
the flower-buds form they want well watering and a weekly dose of 
liquid manure. Hydrangeas I find difficult to grow when planted out ; 
the common kinds do exceedingly well in tubs in half shady places if 
they get a good deal of water. Large standard Myrtles I have had 
covered with bloom in August in tubs. My large old plant, which I 
had had many years, was killed last spring by being turned out of 
the room it had wintered in too early, because I came from London 
sooner than usual. The great difficulty in small places is housing 
these large plants in winter. They do not want much protection, but 
they must have some, and the death of large old plants is grievous. 

Woodlands^ Surrey. M. T. E. 

Spray of Myrtle. 

Sheltered dell, with tree ferns and stove plants placed out for the summer (Batlersea). 



The use in gardens of plants of fine form has taught us the value 
of grace and verdure amid masses of flowers, and how far we have 
diverged from artistic ways. In a wild state brilliant blossoms are often 
usually relieved by a setting of abundant green, and where mountain 
or meadow plants of one kind produce a sea of colour at one season, 
there is intermingled a spray of pointed grass and leaves which tone 
down the colour masses. 

We may be pleased by the wide spread of colour on a heath or 
mountain, but when we go near we find that it is best where the 
long moss cushions itself beside the ling, and the fronds of the Poly- 
pody come up around masses of heather. If this be so on the hills, 
a like state of things is more evident still in the marsh or wood. We 
cannot attempt to reproduce such conditions, but the more we keep 
them before our eyes the nearer shall we be to success, and we 
may have in our gardens (without making wildernesses of them 
either) all the light and shade, the relief, the grace, and the beauty of 
natural colour and form too. 

A recent demand for ;^2,ooo for the building of a glass house 
for Palms for the subtropical garden of Battersea Park here throws 
light on the costly system of flower gardening in this and other 


m> J. L / 

Hardy Palm in the open, Cornwall. 


public gardens. It may be noted that this is only a small part 
of the cost of keeping the tender and half-hardy plants in a glass 
nurser}- and not a demand of money for a Palm-house which the 
public might enjoy ; but was to be part of the expenditure on 
some glass-sheds which they never see, and which were mereh^ 
to grow the plants to be put out for a few months in summer. 

In our flower gardens Palms can only be seen in a small state ; nor 
can they, as shown in pots and tubs in Battersea, give one any idea of 
the true beauty of the Palm on the banks of the Nile or the Ganges. 
But, worse than this, the system leads to the neglect of the many 
shrubs and trees of the northern world, which are quite as beautiful as 
any Palm. The sum mentioned as the cost of the house for young 
Palms would go far to plant Battersea Park with the finest hardy 
shrubs and trees. The number of these public gardens that are being 
opened in all directions makes it all the more important that the false 
ideal they so often set out should be made clear. I do not say we 
should have none but hardy plants in public gardens, but the con- 
centration of so much attention, and of the greater part of the cost, 
on such feeble examples of tropical plants as can be grown in this 
country set out for a few months in the summer has a very bad effect. 
The lesson all connected with gardening in any way want most to 
learn is that the things which may be grown to perfection in the open 
air in any country are always the most beautiful, and should always 
have the first place in their thoughts. 

It would be much better in all ways to place a like artistic value 
on everything that stands in the open air in a garden, and regard all 
parts of the garden as of equal importance without wholly doing 
away vvitl^ tl^opical plants, at least with those that can be grown 
with advantage in our country. 

Looking round the London parks we see much waste in trying to 
get effects of form from Palms and various tender plants, strewn in all 
directions in Hyde Park, often dotted about without good judgment, 
and marring the foreground of scenes that might be pretty. Where 
this is done there is rarely any attempt to get effects of fine form 
from hardy trees, shrubs, and plants, which is a much simpler and 
easier process than building costly glasshouses to get them. 

For our gardens, the first thing is to look for plants that are 
happy in our climate, and to accustom ourselves to the idea that 
form may be as beautiful from hardy as from tender things. Many 
tropical plants, which we see in houses cut down close and kept 
small, would, if freely grown in the open air in their own country, be 
no more striking in leaf than the hardy Plane or Aliantus. Many 
plants that are quite hardy give fine effects, such as the Aralias, 
herbaceous and shrubby. Aristolochia among climbers ; Arundo, 

Q 2 

Pampas Grass in a Sussex garden (Chichester). 


hardy and very pretty beside water ; Astilbes, rough herbaceous 
plants which can be put anywhere almost ; the hardy Bamboos of 
Japan and India, which are increasing in number, and are very 
distinct and charming, and often rapid growers in genial parts of 
the country, especially near the sea. A considerable number will 
probably be found hardy everywhere. The large leaved evergreen 
Barberries are beautiful in peat soils, and, grouped in picturesque 
waySj effective for their noble leaves as well as flowers. 

The Plume Poppy (Bocconia) is handsome for its foliage and 
flowers, even in ordinary soil. A great number of the larger hardy 
Compositae (Helianthus Silphium, Senecio, Telekia, Rudbeckia) are 
fine in leaf, as are some of the Cotton Thistles and plants of that family. 
The common Artichoke of our gardens and its allies are fine in form 
of leaf and flower, but apt to be cut off in hard winters in some soils. 
The Giant Fennels are most graceful early leafing things, thriving 
admirably in sandy and free soils. Plantain Lilies (Funkia) are 
important, and in groups their foliage is excellent. The Pampas 
Grass is precious where it grows well, but in many districts is 
gradually killed by hard winters. Where it has the least chance, it 
should be planted in bold masses. 

The great leaved Gunneras are superb near water and in rich soil. 
The giant cow parsnips are effective, but apt to take possession of 
the country side, and are not easily exterminated, and, therefore, 
should be put in with a sparing hand in islands and rough places 
only. The large Indian evergreen Rockfoils are fine in form, and in 
their glossy foliage are easily grown and grouped in picturesque 
ways, and they are very hardy. In sandy and free soils a handsome 
group of beautiful leaved things may be formed of Acanthus. The 
new water lilies will help us much to fine foliage, especially in 
association with the many graceful plants that grow in and near 
water, as are also certain hardy ferns which may be grown near 
water, like the Royal Fern, which in rich soil and shade makes leaves 
as fine as any tropical Fern. In southern districts the New Zealand 
Flax is effective in gardens, and the great Japan Knotworts (Poly- 
gonum) are handsome in rough places in the wild garden, and 
better kept out of the flower garden. Some of the Rhubarbs, too, 
are distinct and handsome, and very vigorous by the waterside, 
where the great water dock often comes of itself. It is a stately 
genus, and though we may not find room for many in the garden, it 
may be easy to do so by the water side or in rich ground anywhere. 

With our many fine-leaved plants from temperate and cool climes 
it is possible to have beautiful groups of hardy fine-leaved plants, for 
trees like the Ailantus and Paulownia make almost tropical growth if 
cut down close to the ground every year. We have also the hardy 
Palm (Chamaerops), the Yuccas, and graceful Bamboos, and Siebold's 


Plantain Lily (Funkia), and plants of a similar character. Amongst 
those annually raised from seeds, and requiring only the protection 
of glass to start them, we have much variety from the stately Castor- 
oil-plant to the silver Centaurea. Although tender plants in pots are 
effective in summer in special positions, plants that cannot stand 
out-of-doors from the beginning of June until the end of September 
can hardly be called fit for summer gardening. Among the most 
suitable are several kinds of Palm, such as Seaforthia elegans, 
Chamaerops excelsa, and C. humilis ; Aralias, various ; Dracaenas, do. ; 

Group of house plants placed out for summer. Harrow Lodge, Dorking. 

Phormium tenax and its variegated form ; Yucca aloifolia variegata, 
Ficus elastica, and some Eucalyptus. Erythrinas make fine autumn 
groups and are brilliant in colour, and useful for lighting up masses 
of foliage. 

The hardiest Tree Fern, Dicksonia antarctica, looks well when 
plunged in shady dells with , overhanging foliage for shelter ; and 
several varieties of dwarf F'erns, such as the Bird's-nest Fern, are 
admirable for undergrowth to this Fern. Plants raised from seed 
will, however, usually form the majority, owing to the lack of 


room under glass for many large plants. Of j^lants raised from 
seed the most useful are Cannas, which may be taken up and 
wintered under glass, or securely protected in the soil. Most of the 
tall light green-foliaged varieties flower freely and make excellent 
centres for groups, while the dwarf bronze-foliaged sorts are good for 
vases. Solanums have also been effective in the south. The spiny- 
leaved S. robustum, the elegant cut-leaved S. laciniatum, and S. 
Warscewiczi make good single specimens, or edgings to groups of 
taller plants. Wigandias, Ferdinanda eminens, and Melianthus 
major are all useful ; and Acacia lophantha, Amaranthus, Cineraria 
maritima. Bocconias, with their tall spikes of graceful flowers and 
noble foliage, are very effective and permanent plants and several 
varieties of Rhus or Sumach have good foliage, Rhus glabra laciniata 
among them. 

As to arrangement, the best beds or sets of beds are those of the 
simplest design. Shelter is a great aid, and recesses in shrubberies 
or in banks clothed with foliage form the most fitting background 
for beds or groups to nestle in. Avoid Musas or Caladiums, the 
leaves of which tear to shreds if winds cannot be shut out, and 
also plants that look unhappy after a cold night or two. Make the 
most of plants that grow under nearly all conditions, and use any 
dell overhung by trees for half hardy fine-leaved plants. A garden 
where each plant spreads forth its delicate foliage will form a pleasant 
change from brilliant bedding plants, or severely geometric carpet 
beds.— J. G. 

Better effects may be obtained from hardy plants only than from 
tender ones. There are the Yuccas, hardy, and unsurpassed by 
anything of like habit grown in a hothouse ; the Arundos, con- 
spicua and donax ; fine hardy plants like Crambe cordifolia, Rheum 
in variety, Ferula and umbelliferous plants, as graceful as tenderest 
exotics. Then we have a hardy Palm that through all our recent 
hard winters has preserved its health and greenness wherever its 
leaves could not be torn to shreds by storms. 

As an example of fine form from hardy plants, I cannot do 
better than give the New Zealand Reed (Arundo conspicua). This 
handsome Grass produces its blossom-spikes earlier than the Pampas, 
and is more elegant in habit, the silky white tufts bending like 
ostrich plumes at the end of slender stalks. It is best adapted to 
a sheltered corner, where it is protected from rough winds, and does 
admirably in the cold and warmer districts, but, like the Pampas 
Grass, not very hardy in cool and inland districts. 

As to tender plants in the open air, it would be difficult to give 
a better illustration than the stately Musa Ensete in Berkshire, 
In sheltered nooks in the southern counties this plant makes a 
very fair growth in the summer. In 1877 I was struck with its 



health and vigour at Park Place, Henley-on-Thames. Mr. Stanton, 
the gardener, raised a batch from seed, and it was surprising 
what fine plants they became in fifteen months. The plant is 
quite as effective in a conservatory in winter as out-of-doors in 

In the illustration of a bold mass of fine leaved plants near Hyde 
Park Corner, we see some of the best features of recent fine-leaved 
gardening. It had a great Abyssinian Plantain in the middle, and 
was fringed by a few sub-tropical plants, and edged by an extra- 

Fine-leaved herbaceous plant (Plantain Lily). 

ordinary fringe of the fine hardy Siebold's Plantain Lily, long- 
enduring in beauty. The reason of the success of this bed is clear ; 
it was not a finicking angle or a wormy scrawl, but a bold circle, and 
presented no confusion to the observer, who simply saw the plants 
rising in a well-defined group from the turf It was by itself, could 
be seen unopposed, and was not hedged in by a lot of other beds. 
Lastly, the plant forms were strong and well selected, and contrasted 
well with the ordinary tree vegetation near. The way in which the 
Jiantain Lilies began early in the }'ear to adorn the spot, and continued 


to do SO throughout the whole summer and autumn, was a pleasure 
to see. The drawing was made about the end of September, shortly 
after some heavy storms which tore the Musa a little, but the effect 
remained excellent till October. 

Yuccas in Groups. — Wherever space can be afforded, hardy 
Yuccas should be grown, for few hardy plants are so distinct in 
foliage and manner of growth ; but they appear to best advantage 
arranged in bold groups, near trees and shrubs, and forming a har- 
monious contrast to them. Perhaps the best situation is a sloping 
ground fully exposed to the mid-day sun, and backed by evergreens. 
If allowed space for development, they will every year add beauty 
to the place. The handsome spikes of their large cream-coloured 
flowers are extremely effective, especially when relieved by a back- 
ground of verdure. Yuccas like a well-drained soil, and thrive on a 
subsoil of pure chalk, and they delight in full exposure to the sun, 
and enjoy shelter from rough winds. Hence the advisability of plant- 
ing them near trees or shrubs. 

In grouping Yuccas, a better effect is obtained if some of the 
specimens have the head of their foliage from 3 feet to 6 feet 
above the soil. These tall plants should not, however, be placed in 
a back line, but some should be allowed here and there to advance 
into the foreground, some of the smaller specimens nestling at 
their feet. The effect of a group thus arranged charms by its 
irregularity and quaint beauty. 

Among the more tender plants, we must choose such as grow 
healthily in sheltered places in the warmer parts of England. The 
kinds with stout evergreen foliage, such as the New Zealand Flax 
and the hardier Dracaenas, will be as effective here as they are 
around London and Paris, and to them the northern gardener should 
direct his attention. Even if it were possible in all parts to cultivate 
the softer-growing kinds to the same perfection as in the south of 
England, it would not be always desirable, as they cannot be used 
indoors in winter. The best are the many evergreen plants that stand 
out in summer without injury, and may be transferred to the con- 
servatory in autumn, to produce through the cold months as fine an 
effect as in the flower garden in summer. One kind of arrangement 
in particular must be guarded against. I mean the geometro-pictur- 
esque one, which is seen in some parts of the London parks devoted 
to sub-tropical gardening. The plants are often of the finest kinds 
and in the most robust health, and all the materials for the best 
results are abundant ; yet the result is not artistic, owing to the 
needless formality of the beds and the heaping together of many 
specimens of one kind in long masses straight or twisting, with 
high raised edges of hard-beaten soil. 

The first and the last word to say about form is, that we should 


try and see beauty of form everywhere among plants that suit our 
climate. The willows of Britain are as beautiful as the olives of 
Italy, or the gum trees as seen in Algeria and the South of France, 
so that, although the sub-tropical as a system of flower gardening has 
failed throughout our country generally, and can only be carried out 
well in the south of England and the warmer countries of Europe, never- 
theless we need not deprive ourselves of the enjoyment of the finest 
forms near and in our gardens. The new Water Lilies take us to the 
waterside, and there are many good forms even among our native 
flowers and weeds. The new hardy Bamboos are also very graceful 
and most distinct, of which several of the highest value promise to be 

Gunnera and Bamboo (Fota, co. Cork). 

hardy in our country. What can be done with them, and a few 
other things, we can now see in the Bamboo garden at Kew, at 
Batsford Park, and other places. The common hardy Japan Bamboo 
has thriven even in London, and it is not only waterside or herbaceous 
plants of all kinds we have to think of but the foliage of trees, 
which in many cases is quite as beautiful as that of the dwarfer 
plants. The hardy trees of North America are many of them beauti- 
ful in foliage, from the Silver Maple to the Scarlet Oak, and Acacias 
from the same country have broken into a number of beautiful 
forms ; some are as graceful as ferns. These trees, if obtained on 
their own roots, will afford us fine aid as backgrounds. The Aralias 
of Japan and China are quite hardy and almost tropical in foliage, 



while the beauty that may be got from ferns is very remarkable 
indeed, our native Royal Fern being of noble proportions when well- 
grown in half-shady and sheltered places in deep soils, as at Newick 
Park, and the same is true of all the bold American ferns, plants 
too often hidden away in obscure corners, whereas the boldest of 
them should be brought out in our cool British climate to form 
groups on the lawn and turf This applies also to our larger native 
ferns, which, massed and grouped away from the old-fashioned fernery, 
often tell better. In this way they are used in some German 
gardens. We do not illustrate them in this chapter, because the 
reader has simply to turn to the chapter on the Fern garden to see 
some of their fine forms. 

If any one objects that some of the plants mentioned in this 
chapter are coarse, such as the great leaved composite, the answer is 
that, on the other hand, many of them are refined and delicate, such 
as the Acacias, Acanthus, Asparagus, Bamboos, and Ferns. Great 
Reed, Pampas and Bulrush evergreen. Barberry, and graceful C>-press, 
Cedar and Fir. Plaintain-Lily and Adams needle — not forgetting 
the fine foliage of the Tea Rose. 

During recent years the most graceful things and of permanent 
value in our gardens are Bamboos, 

The Bamboo Garden at Kew.— " The Bamboo garden formed a 
few years ago at Kew has proved so well adapted for the plants, that 
a few notes as to its position and soil may be of value to the 
numerous readers who intend to grow the Bamboos. A position was 
selected in the middle of a wood near the Rhododendron dell, and 
taking advantage of a hollow already existing there, the ground was 
lowered some 5 feet or 6 feet below the surrounding level. A belt of 
shrubs on the north and east sides, between the trees and the Bamboos 
together with the low level, affords them a shelter almost as perfect as 
can be furnished out of doors. Even the bitterest north-easter loses 
a good deal of its sting before it reaches these Bamboos. What the 
cultivator of Bamboos has most to fear is not a low temperature 
merely — most of the Bamboos will stand 20° or 25° of frost in a still 
atmosphere — but the dry winds of spring. 

Bamboos like best a free, open, sandy loam, and the greater part 
of the soil at Kew is poor and sandy ; but there is, in one part, a belt 
of good stiff loam extending for a i^w hundred yards, and it is on 
the border of this that the Bamboo garden is situated. At the com- 
mencement the ground was trenched to a depth of 3 feet, and 
enriched with leaf-soil, and where necessary lightened with sandier 
soil. These plants can scarcely be over-fed, and in well-drained soil 
can scarcely be over-watered, and an annual mulching with rich 
manure is of the greatest advantage. 

In regard to transplanting, the best time to plant is in spring, when 



growth begins. The renewal of growth is indicated by the unrolHng of 
the young leaves, which may be in April or May.accordingto the winter. 
Bamboos are very difficult to kill outright, but treated improperly they 
are apt to get into a stunted condition, which it takes them along time 
to recover from. I would advise those who wish to try these plants to 
obtain them from the nurserymen in autumn or winter, if they have 
been grown in pots, and to give them greenhouse treatment till the 
end of May, when they can be planted out in a growing state ; but, 
on the other hand, if they have been planted out in the nursery 
ground, not to have them sent off till the end of April or later, when 
they can be set out at once. A yearly clearing out of the older, worn- 
out stems, dead leaves, &c., prevents that choked-up appearance one 

In Bamboo garden, Kew. 

trees so often in ill-tended Bamboos, and whilst giving a lighter and 
more graceful aspect to the plants allows freer play to the young 

Such, briefly, has been the system of cultivation pursued at Kew, 
and that it is the right one is shown by the luxuriant growth of almost 
all the kinds — so luxuriant, indeed, as to be rather embarrassing in the 
somewhat restricted space occupied by the collection. The Bamboo 
garden was made in 1892, and the following are the lengths of a few of 
this year's growths, exceeded, of course, by specimens in older collec- 
tions and in warmer parts of the country, but of some interest, 
perhaps, as showing the rate of growth of Bamboos in a district which 
has not proved particularly favourable to the growth of tender shrubs 



as a rule : Arundinaria Simoni, 17 feet ; Phyllostacliys viridi-glauces- 
cens, 17 feet; P. Henonis 15 feet; Arundinaria nitida, 13 feet; A. 
japonica, 12 feet; Phyllostachys aurea, 12 feet; P. nigra, 12 feet; 
P. fastuosa, 1 1 feet 6 inches ; Arundinaria Hindsi, 1 1 feet 6 inches ; 
Phyllostachys Boryana, 9 feet ; P Castillonis, 8 feet 6 inches ; 
Arundinaria anceps, 7 feet 3 inches A. tessellata 4 feet 6 inches ; 
A. Fortunei (variegated), 4 feet. 

Bamboos are not all of equal merit, but some of them are the 
most beautiful of evergreens. Just now when Christmas is at hand, 
and the days are at their shortest and darkest, there is nothing out of 
doors that equals the best Bamboos in the fresh greenness and beauty 
of their foliage.— W. J. B." 

Plants hardy or half-hardy ^ ivithfine Foliage or Form, for use in 
British Gardens. 










































































































Bed of fine-leaved plants in Hyde Park. From a sketch by H. G. Moon. 

Torch lilies (Longleat). 



Now who hath entered my loved woods, 

And touched their green with sudden change ? 
Who blanched my Thistle's rosy face, 

And gave the winds her silver hair ? 
Set Golden-rod within her place, 

And scattered Asters everywhere ? 
Lo ! the change reaches high and wide, 

Hath toned the sky to softer blue ; 
Hath crept along the river side. 

And trod the valleys through and through ! 

Recent additions to our garden flora have made such a difference 
that the flower garden in the autumn may be even more beautiful 
than that of the spring, rich as that is in flowering trees and shrubs. 

The use of half hardy, or bedding plants, which are often showy 
in autumn, gives a certain amount of colour which is very precious ; 
and the introduction of many beautiful hardy flowers gives us the 
means of making the autumnal garden very fine in colour effects. 
It would be easy to give the names of many things that are to be 
found in flower in gardens in autumn, but that is not nearly so im- 
portant as getting an idea of many of the nobler class of plants which 
may be effectively used at that time, no matter almost what the 
season may be. Half hardy plants for the garden depend very much 
on the weather of the summer, and certain seasons are so much 


against them that they make no show ; but this cai\not be said of 
the hardy flowers of nobler stature and beauty, which are so well 
fitted for our climate, like the many Sunflowers. Certain plants may 
depend for success on soil and situation, or even climate, even when 
they are hardy as the Fuchsia, which is so much better in the coast 
and west country gardens ; but, when everything is left out that wants 
any extra culture or advantages of climate and soil, there remain 
for every garden many beautiful things for the garden in the fall. 

Of those that can generally be trusted for our country, I should 
say that, of all the gains of the past generation, the brilliant groups 
of plants of the Sunflower order were the finest, handsomest, and 
most generally useful for their disregard of any weather likely to 
occur. The masses of fine form and colour one may have with these 
when grouped in picturesque ways are remarkable. With the Sun- 
flowers are included not only the Helianthus strictly, of which there 
are so many good kinds now, but also other showy prairie flowers of 
the same natural order, which approach them in character, such as 
Rudbeckia, Silphium, Helenium, and other vigorous families of this 
numerous tribe of plants. The best character of many of these is 
that they thrive in any soil, and make their way in rough places and 
among shrubs, or in parts of gardens less precious than those we keep 
for our best flowers. 

For delicate and fine colour, however, the first place belongs to 
Tea and monthly Roses, of which the best kinds should always be 
grown in the open air. Of the kinds which open best in England, a 
delightful garden may be made in autumn, in fine seasons enduring 
right to the end. Until quite recently no one trusted the Tea Rose 
out in bold masses in the flower garden, and hence the ordinary red 
Rose, not generally flowering late, was kept by itself A greater 
mistake could not be, because these most precious of all Roses (the 
Teas) go on blooming throughout the summer and autumn, and very 
often they vary in bloom ; that is to say, the flowers of September 
will not be the same as the flowers of June, the buds also varying. 
So we have not only lovely Roses throughout the fine season, but also 
variety every week, every shower seeming to influence the bloom. 
There is such great variety among them that every week seems to 
give us a new aspect of beauty. In my own garden were planted 
several thousands of Tea Roses in this way, not only for their beauty, 
but also with a view of testing the kinds best for our country. 
Some kinds which are fine abroad do not open well with us, but a 
number of beautiful kinds do, and we have never seen any picture of 
garden beauty equal to theirs in such a fine autumn as that of 1895. 
We had thousands of blooms open until the end of September, almost 
as showy as bedding plants, but far more refined in colour, fragrance, 


and everything that makes a plant precious. Almost the same thing 
may be said of the neglected monthly Roses, which have this charm 
of late flowering, in many cases even in cold northern districts. 

But the most precious, perhaps, of all flowers of autumn for all 
parts of the country, grouped in an artistic way, are the hardy Asters 
of the American woods, which lived for ages in our gardens in mean 
bundles tied up in mixed borders like besoms. The best of these 
massed and grouped among shrubs or young plantations of trees, 
covering the ground, give an effect new and delightful, the colour 
refined and charming, and the mass of bloom impressive in autumn. 
Some kinds come in flower in summer, but nearly all the loveliest 
Asters in colour flower in September and October, and no such good 
colours of the same shades have ever been seen in the flower garden. 

It is not only the Asters of America we have to consider, but the 
still more precious Asters of Europe, which, by their extraordinary 
beauty, make up for their rarity. Professor Green, of California, who 
knows the American Aster well, on seeing here a plant of Aster 
acris, said, " We have none so beautiful as that." This is the Aster 
with the beautiful blue purple flower which is so effective when 
massed. Under different names this plant is grown in nearly allied 
forms, some having specific names, enabling us to enjoy plants of 
different stature but the same high beauty, flowering at slightly 
different times, but always at their best in autumn. With these 
should be grouped the handsome large Italian Aster, which also has 
its half-a-dozen forms, not differing much, but precious for their 
variety, and among the prettiest plants ever seen in our gardens. It 
is none the less valuable because as easily cultivated as the common 
Balm of the kitchen garden. For the last two years I have had 
several thousand plants of these European Asters beneath a group of 
half-grown Fir, just as they might be in their wild state, but rather 
thicker, as the spot is a cultivated one, and have never had the 
same return of beauty from anything else. Be the weather what it 
may, the lovely blue and purple was a picture, and landscape 
painters came to paint the scene. 

The Sunflowers and Starworts we give the first place to because 
they are almost independent of soil or cool climates. Hardy as the 
Chrysanthemum is, the same cannot be said for it, because, as an 
outdoor flower, it must have a sandy soil and warm positions, and 
cool soils, even in southern England, are against it ; whereas in warm 
and free soils, like that at Hazlemere, one may see delightful results 
from the cottage Chrysanthemums, which are very pretty where they 
can be grown against low walls or palings. Other plants which are of 
the highest value in endurance and freedom of bloom are the Heaths 
of our own islands. Their effect is good, summer and winter ; but in 


autumn some of them flower in a pretty way, particularly the Cornish 
and the little Dorset Heath, and the Irish Heath in its purple and 
white forms. 

Among the half hardy plants of the garden perhaps the first place 
belongs to fhe Dahlia, which was always a showy autumn flower, but 
of late has become more precious through the beauty of what are called 

Border of Michaelmas Daisies (Munstead), Surrey. 

Cactus Dahlias, which are so much better in form and colour than the 
roundheaded Dahlias. 

The hardy Fuchsia is in the warmer and milder districts often 
very pretty in autumn, especially where it is free enough to make 
hedges and form large bushes ; but in cold and midland places the 
growth is often hindered by hard winters. Gladiolus is a splendid 
flower of the south, but coming more into a class of flowers requiring 
care, and if they do not get it soon disappearing, liable also to disease, 
and, on the whole, not so precious as showy. Nurserymen are raising 



kinds of a hardier nature, but we have more precious flowers. The 
last {q\v years have brought us magnificent varieties of the Cannas 
through the crossing of some wild species with the old hybrid kinds. 
Unfortunately, although in warm valleys and under special care here 
and there they do well, our country is not generally warm enough 
to show their fine form and colour as in France and Italy. Their 
use in pots is another matter. 

The addition of Lilies to our garden flora within the past generation 
has had a good effect on the autumn garden. Where the finer kinds 
are well grown, the varieties of the Japanese Lilies, with their delicate 
and varied colours, are splendid autumn flowers for the open air. The 
Anemones, usually flowers of the spring, come in some forms for the 
autumn garden, particularly the white and pink kinds. The handsome 
Bignonia, or trumpet creeper, is precious on all warm soils, but 
generally it has not done so well with us as in France. Several kinds 
of Clematis come in well in autumn, particularly the yellow and the 
fragrant kinds. The Pentstemons are handsome and very valuable in 
warm soils and districts where they may live out of doors in winter, 
but in London districts they are not so good. A splendid autumn 
flower is the Cardinal Flower, and happy should be those who can 
grow it well. It fails in many gardens in loamy soil, and where there 
is insufficiency of water, being a native of the bogs, and thriving best 
in moist and peaty soil. A number of fine varieties have been raised, 
and are brilliant in suitable soils ; but without these they are best 
left alone. 

The Torch Lilies are extremely effective in autumn, and in warm 
soils they are often among the handsomest things, but, not being 
northern plants, are unable to face a northern winter. Happily this 
is not so with the beautiful new Water Lilies raised by M Latour 
Marliac, which are hardy in the open air, even with such weather as 
that of the early part of 1895. Though perhaps the best bloom comes 
in summer, they flower through the autumn, varying, like the Tea Rose, 
according to the weather, but interesting always up to the end of 
Septf^mber. We should also name the Hollyhock which is, however, 
so liable to accident from disease, and those who care for it will do 
well to use seedling plants. Seedsmen are now saving seed of 
different colours which come fairly true. 

A handsome group of vigorous perennials for the autumn are the 
Polygonums. Some of the large kinds, such as the Japanese and 
Indian, are not showy, but massed picturesquely on margins of a 
wide lawn, and on pieces of stiff soil which are useless in any garden 
sense, are effective for many weeks in autumn, as the flower is pretty, 
and the foliage of one kind is often fine in colour. I have three kinds 
of them massed together, growing like great weeds, namely, P. 


cuspidatum, sachalinense, and complexum, and a very soft and good 
effect they gave together in a rough hollow where no garden plants 
less vigorous than these would have grown. 

Thus we have a noble array before coming to some old flowers 
of autumn, the Meadow Saffrons or " autumn Crocuses," many of 
the common kind of which fleck the meadows in autumn. There 
are other kinds, too, which of recent years have been added in 
greater numbers to our gardens, some of them pretty, and the 
double kinds prettier than most double flowers. As they grow 
naturally in meadows, in turf is a delightful way to have them 
in gardens, though new and rare kinds should be grown in nursery 
beds until they are plentiful. They are not difficult to grow, and 
should often be placed in moist grassy places. 

Then there are the true autumn Crocuses, which are very little 
seen in gardens, but are most delicate and lovely in colour. Coming 
for the most part from sunny lands, they do best in light soils ; but 
some, like C. speciosus, grow in any soil, and all are worth grow- 
ing. Among the best is C. nudiflorus, naturalised in Britain, in 
colour one of the most lovely flowers. To get little pictures from 
such plants we must have them happy in grass or among dwarf 
plants, and on sunny banks and grassy corners of the lawn or pleasure 

In mid-October they have often taken away large areas of bedding 
plants in the London parks ; while, at the same time, there are many 
lovely hardy flowers in perfect bloom. No doubt severe frosts may 
destroy any kind of flower soon, but for those who live in the country in 
the autumn it is something to have bright colours and beautiful plants 
about them late, and these are afforded as well by the Starworts and 
other hardy plants in October, as the fairest flowers that come in 
June. When we have a severe September about London, many 
gardens of tender plants are shorn of their beauty, whereas, the hardy 
flowers go on quite untouched for a month or six weeks later, and 
not merely bloom as do heliotrope and geranium, in a fine autumn, 
but as the meadow flowers in summer, with vigour and perfect health. 
Therefore, it is clear that, whatever the charms of tender plants may 
be for the summer, those who live in the country in autumn are 
unwise to trust to anything but the finer hardy plants. 

Thus, without touching on rarities or things difficult to grow, we 
have a handsome array of beauty for the autumn garden, even leaving 
out of the question the many shrubs and trees which are beautiful in 
foliage or fruit in autumn, and there are many of these in any well- 
stored fjarden. 

R 2 


Some Hardy and Half-hardy Plants blooming in British gardens. 
September — October. 









































































Pampas Grass 









Sweet Peas 


Sweet William 

































Belladonna Lily and Zephyranthes, Kew. Engraved from photograph by G. Champion. 

Winter J 

W.y ^-- 



The idea that winter is a doleful time for gardens must not be 
taken seriously even by those who only grow hardy things out of 
doors ; because between the colour of the stems and leaves of trees, 
or shrubs, there is much beauty left, even in winter, and in mild 
winters good things venture to flower. Mr. Moore, of Dublin, wrote 
to me in midwinter : 

After a very open winter we have had a sharp snap of cold, and to-day (Jan. 20) 
it is blowing a bitterly cold storm from the east. To-day has opened Winter 
Sweet and Winter Honeysuckle ; Iris Stylosa, blue and white, Christmas Roses 
and Winter Heliotrope are beautiful ; in fact, I never saw them so good. 

But even where, owing to hard winters, we cannot enjoy our 
flowers in this way, there is much beauty to be had from trees and 
shrubs, evergreen and summer-leafing. Hitherto we have been all so 
busy in planting evergreens in heavy masses, that the beauty one 
may realise by using a far greater number of summer-leafing shrubs 
and fine herbaceous plants among the evergreens is not often seen. 

But gardens are too often bare of interest in winter, and some 
of the evil arises from the common error that plants are not worth 
seeing in winter. The old poet's wail about the dismal winter is 
a false one to those who have eyes for beauty. Woods are no less 
beautiful in winter than in summer — to some, more beautiful from 


the refined colour, tree form and the fine contrast of evergreen and 
summer-leafing trees. In any real garden in winter there is much 
beauty of form and colour, and there are many shrubs and trees 
which are beautiful in the depth of winter, like the Red and 
Yellow Willow and Dogwoods, and even the stems of hardy flowers 
(Polj^gonum) ; the foliage of many alpine plants (Epimedium) are not 
only good in colour, but some of these plants have their freshest hues 
in winter, as the mossy Rockfoils of many kinds. In the country 
garden, where there are healthy evergreens as well as flowering 
shrubs and hardy plants, how much beauty we see in winter, from 
the foliage of the Christmas Roses (Helleborus) to the evergreen 
Barberries ! The flower gardener should be the first to take notice 
of this beauty, and show that his domain as well as the wild wood, 
might be interesting at this season. 

For the dismal state of flower-gardens in winter the extravagant 
practice of our public gardens is partly to blame. A walk by the 
flower beds in Hyde Park on Christmas Day, 1895, was not a very 
enlivening thing. One by the bent-bound dunes of the foam-dashed 
northern shore, on the same stormy day, might be more instructive — 
for here is a large garden carried out with the very extravagance of 
opulence, and not one leaf, or shoot or plant, or bush in it from end 
to end ; giants' graves and earth puddings — these and iron rails and 
the line of planes behind. The bare beds follow each other with 
irritating monotony — only five feet of grass between those in line. 
The southern division of this garden is nearly 500 paces long, and 
so even that those not in the habit of seeing this costly garden 
may imagine its ill effect in winter. Nearly 500 yards of a garden 
sacrificed for its kaleidoscopic effects in summer, and barer and uglier 
in winter than words can tell of A more inartistic arrangement 
would be impossible and there is no chance of variety, breadth, or 
repose even in summer. 

How are we to break up such an arid space as this in winter ? One 
of the best ways would be to group families of the choicest flowering 
shrubs, which would be worth having for their own sakes, and at 
the same time would give relief to the wintry waste of desolation. 
At present any relief is only to be obtained by carrying out, in early 
summer. Palms and Bamboos from the hot-house, which is a very 
expensive and poor way in a country like ours. In forming groups 
of the more beautiful flowering shrubs, I do not mean anything like 
the present brutal treatment of shrubs in the London squares, where 
the surface is dug, and the shrubs are trimmed like besoms, ending 
in frightful ugliness ; but each group of plants grown well by itself 
and let almost alone when once established. They would give relief 
in the summer ; they often flower beautifully ; and here and there 


they might form dividing masses, so as to throw the unwieldy space 
into parts, which would help to secure variety and contrast. 

The result of planting and placing rightly well chosen hardy 
shrubs would be a good background here and there ; a smaller area 
to plant with summer things ; less dependence on such feeble 
examples of tropical plants as one can grow in Britain ; light and 
shade, and a variety of surface as well as more variety of plants and 
bushes ; in short, all the life of the garden, instead of a dead waste. 
And not only would the winter effect be improved, but the summer 
also. The objection that some shrubs do not flower long enough is 
not serious, as we have their beauty of form and leaf, and delicate 
green and other fine colour of foliage. Moreover, the tropical plants 
put out to relieve the flowering plants do not, many of them, flower 
at all, and do not give such good relief as hardy shrubs and choice 

This is not a question of town or public gardens only, as it arises 
in many private places, and especially in large gardens, where much 
of the surface is given to half-hardy summer flowers. As to the 
common plan for getting rid of the winter bareness of such beds by 
evergreens and conifers in pots, it is impossible on a large scale, and 
sticking potted conifers in a flower-garden to drag them away in spring, 
is at best a very inartistic and very costly business. Some permanent 
way of breaking up the flatness is the best way ; and this way would 
enable us to limit the excessive area of ground to be planted with 
tender things, the real root of evil. 

Keep the Stems of Hardy Plants.— The stems of all her- 
baceous plants, reeds, and tall grasses in winter, are very good in 
colour, and should always be allowed to stand through the winter 
and not be cut down in the fidgety tidy way that is so common, 
sweeping away the stems in autumn and leaving the surface as bare 
and ugly as that round a besieged city. The same applies to the 
stems of all waterside and herbaceous plants, stems of plants in 
groups often giving beautiful brown colours in many fine shades. 
Those who know the plants can in this way identify them in winter 
as well as in summer — a great gain in changing one's plantings and 
in increasing or giving away plants. Moreover, the change to all 
these lovely browns and greys is a distinct gain as a lesson in colour 
to all who care for refined colour, and also in enabling us to get 
light and shade, contrasts and harmonies in colour. If these plants 
are grouped in a bold and at the same time picturesque way, the good 
of letting the stems remain will be far more evident than in the 
weak " dotty " way generally practised, the seed pods and dead 
flowers of many plants helping the picture. There is no need to 
remove any stem of an herbaceous plant until the spring comes and 


the growing shoots are ready to take the place of the brown and dead 
ones, which then may be cleared away. 

Evergreen Plants. — Apart from our evergreen shrubs, so happy 
as these are in many parts of the British Isles, there are the oft- 
neglected evergreen rock and herbaceous plants, such as Christmas 
Roses, Barrenworts, Heuchera, Alexandrian Laurel, the bolder 
evergreen ferns, and the large Indian Rockfoils, Saxifraga or 
Megasea. In early winter these fine evergreen plants become a 
deeper green, some forms getting red. They have been in our 
gardens for years, but are seldom made a right use of; thrown 
into borders without thought as to their habits, and soon forgotten 
or overshadowed by other things ; so that we never get any expression 
of their beauty or effect in masses or groups. Yet, if grouped in 
effective ways, they would go on for years, giving us fine evergreen 
foliage in winter. In addition to the wild kinds, a number of fine 
forms have been raised in gardens of late years. Some thought 
should be given to the placing of the large Rockfoils, their mountain 
character telling us that they ought to be on open banks, borders, or 
banky places exposed to the sun, and not buried among heaps of tall 
herbaceous and miscellaneous vegetation. They are so easily grown 
and increased that a little thought in placing them in visible masses is 
the only thing they call for ; and the fact that they will endure and 
thrive under almost any conditions should not prevent us from show- 
ing how fine they are in effect when held together in any bold way, 
either as carpets, bold edgings, or large picturesque groups on banks 
or rocks. 

The Alexandrian Laurel (Ruscus racemosus) is a most graceful 
plant, somewhat shrubby in character, with glossy dark green leaves 
and Willow-like shoots. It is most free and happy on peaty and 
friable soils, growing 3 feet or 4 feet high ; in winter the effect 
is very good, and it is valuable for the house, to give a graceful and 
distinct foliage to accompany various flowers at this season. It 
grows very well in Ireland on the limestone. In clay soils it may 
want a little encouragement, and it thrives well in partial shade. 

The Christmas Rose is a noble winter flower where well grown, and 
is lovely in its wild state in the foot-hills of the Alps, in Italy and 
countries near ; and, happily, it flowers in our gardens very well also, 
varying a little in its ways. The stout kind (H. maximus) flowers in 
the early winter in front of walls and in sheltered spots, and is hardy 
and free in ordinary .soil. The true Christmas Rose (H. niger) is a 
little more particular ; it thrives much better on chalk)- and warm 
soils, and grows best on a northern aspect or shaded place ; and even 
in its own country the finest plants are found in places where it 
escapes the sun. These are true winter flowers ; but hardl)- less so are 


the Lenten Roses, or forms of the Oriental Hellebores. In the southern 
counties, five seasons out of six, no weather stops them from being 
fine in flower before the winter is past ; they often bloom in January 
and make a handsome show in February, and they are the finest of 
all flowers to end the winter. The Winter Heliotrope (Tussilago 
fragrans) is not to be despised, although it is a bad weed, and hard 
to get rid of The way to deal with it is to put it on some rubbish 
heap, or gravel bank, right away from the garden, where a handful 
of it may be gathered when wanted. 

The Algerian Iris flowers in warm sandy borders in the country 
around London, and in mild winters is a great treasure, not merely 
for its beauty in warm sheltered corners, but also its precious qualities 
for the house, in which the flowers, if cut in the bud state, open grace- 
fully if placed in basins in moss. In warm and sheltered gardens, 
on warm soils, others of the winter blooming Iris of the East may 
be grown, while in such gardens, in the south at least, the good 
culture of the sweet Violet will often be rewarded with many flowers 
in winter. 

A beautiful Italian Crocus (Imperati) often flowers in winter in 
the southern counties at least, as, where people take the trouble to 
get them, do C. Sieberi, Dalmaticus Etruscus, Suaveoleus and others. 
This habit of some of the winter flowers of the south of Italy and 
Mediterranean region to open in our green and open winters should 
be taken advantage of. The fate of these Crocuses is interfered with 
by the common field vole, and the common rat is also a great destroyer 
of the Crocus. Where these enemies do not prevail, and the soil 
favours these charming winter and early flowers, we can grow them, 
not only in the garden, but on the turf of sunny meadows and lawns 
in which these beautiful Crocuses will come up year after year in 
winter and early dawn of spring. 

Shrubs and Trees in the Winter Garden. — The Winter- 
sweet (Chimonanthus fragrans) is in bloom often before Christmas in 
the country around London, and every shoot full of fragrant buds 
opening on the trees against south and west walls. It is invaluble 
both for the open garden and the house. The many bright berries 
which adorn our country, both in the wild land and in well-stored 
gardens, are rather things of the autumn ; and by mid-winter the birds 
are apt to clear them off Wild Roses, Briers, Barberry, and Thorns, 
American as well as British. The Pyracantha, however, stays with us 
late ; and Hollies, Aucuba, Cotoneaster, Snowberry, and the pretty little 
hardy Pernettya, from the Straits of Magellan, which has broken into 
such variety of colour in our country, are among those that stay late. 
But, however the cheery berries may fail us in hard winters, the colour 
of the trees and bushes that bear them never does ; and the red and 



Winter Sweet, drawn by H. G. Moon from shoots 
gathered at Gravetye, New Year's Day, 1895. 

yellow Willow, Dogwood, Thorns, 
Alders, Birch, and many Aspens 
and Maples, give fine colour when 
massed or grouped in any visible 
way. Still more constant are the 
flowering shrubs of winter, where in 
sheltered gardens and warm valleys 
any attention is given to them — 
Winter Jasmine, Winter Sweet, 
Winter Honeysuckles, Wych- 
Hazel, Japan Quince in manyforms, 
Laurustinus, several Heaths, Ar- 
butus, at least one variety of 
Daphne Mezereon, the pale South- 
ern Clematis (Calycina) happy in 
our warmer gardens, Eleagnus, the 
Nepal Barberry, a Chinese Plum 
(P. Davidiana), and the catkin 
bearing Garrya and Hazel. The 
Winter Honeysuckles are a bit 
slow in some districts, and a better 
result is got from them on free 
soils, and from walls in sheltered 
corners, an immense difference re- 
sulting if we can. have them near 
the sea, with its always genial in- 
fluence in favour of things from 
climates a little warmer than our 
own. In heavy soils in the inland 
country and around London the 
Laurustinus often comes to grief 
or fails to flower well, but has 
great beauty in seashore districts, 
and often on sandy and gravel soils 
is charming, even in inland places. 
The hardy and beautiful Winter 
Jasmine, which is so free on cottage 
walls and wherever it gets a chance, 
is most precious, owing to the way 
it opens in the house especially 
if gathered in the bud state. If 
we have it in various aspects, such 
a contingency as the sun scorching 
the shoots after a frost and killing 


the flowers may be avoided, and the flowers will come later. The 
plant is so free that, if the shoots are allowed to hang down, they 
root in the ground like twitch, and therefore it can be increased very 
easil}', and should be seen in visible groups and lines, and not only on 
the house or on walls, as in the milder districts it forms pretty garlaads 
and bushes in the open. I have a little oak fence covered with it, 
which is usually very pretty about Christmas. In mild winters its 
beauty is extraordinary out of doors, and in the hardest winters the 
buds will open in the house. 

And when the Dogwood has lost all its leaves and is a deep red by 
the lake, and the Cardinal Willow has nearly taken its winter colour, 
the dwarf autumn blooming Furze flowers far into winter, and is in 
perfect bloom on the drier ground, telling us of its high value where 
dwarf vegetation not over a yard high is desired. It is seen in 
abundance on many hills and moors, but is hardly ever planted by 
design. A good plant for all who care for low foreground vegetation, 
it may be planted like common furze, but by far the best way is to 
sow it in spring in any bare or recently broken ground. The Common 
Furze, too, of which the season of bloom is spring and mild winters, 
often flowers at Christmas ; odd plants here and there in the colonies 
of the plant bearing quite fresh flowers ; and if from the nature of 
these native shrubs they do not find a place in the flower garden, 
there are {q\n country places where they may not be worth growing 
not far from the house, in covert, or by drives or rough walks, as 
no plants do more to adorn the late autumn and winter. 

The hardy Heaths are excellent for the winter garden in their 
brown and grey tuftiness. The forms of the common Heather and 
the Cornish Heath are best for rough places outside the flower-garden, 
but some kinds of Heath are among the best plants for the choicest 
winter garden of the open air, particularly the Portuguese Heath 
(E. Codonodes), which in mild winters is of great beauty ; also a 
hybrid between the Alpine forest Heath (E. carnea) and the Mediter- 
ranean Heath, with the port and dense flowering habit of the Alpine 
Heath and the earlier bloom of the Mediterranean Heath. The Alpine 
forest Heath, the most precious of all hardy Heaths, often flowers 
in mild winters, and in all winters is full of its buds ready to open. 

So far we are speaking of districts where there are few advantages 
of climate; if we include others there might be more flowers in the 
winter-garden, and many varied flowers are seen in gardens in the 
Isle of Wight, Isle of Man and many other favoured gardens — not 
always confined to the southern parts of England and Ireland : the 
Cornish, Devon, South Wales or Cork Coasts being far more favour- 
able. From these places Roses, Indian Daphne, and many other 
flowers, have often been sent to me in perfect bloom in Januar)\ 



And if the snow shrouds the land, all's well, as the leaves of ever- 
green plants, like Carnations, are at rest in it, and some plants are all 
the better for the peace of the snow for a time. And even if our 
eyes are not open to the beauty of the winter let us make the 
flower-garden a real one for spring, summer and fall, as if it were 

true that in winter 

The year 

On the earth her deathbed, in a shroud of leaves dead, 

Is lying. 

But it is not true : there is in winter no death, every root works 
and every bud is active with life ; the wooded land is tender with 
colour : — Alders by the busy wintry stream and Birch on the airy hill, 
Reeds fine in colour round the lake or marsh, and if even our wild 
marsh or rough woodland be beautiful in winter, our gardens, with the 
flora of three continents to gather from, should not then be poor in 
beauty. No ! Winter is not a time of death, but of happy strife 

for plants and men. 

Until her 
Azure sister of the spring shall blow 
Her clarion o'er the dreaming earth, and fill 
(Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air) 
With living hues and odours plain and hill : 

From a drawing by H. G. Moon. 



It is not only from the mountain's breast, dyed with Violet and 
Gentian, the Sunflower-strewn prairie of the north, or the sunny fields 
where Proserpine gathered flowers, that our garden flora comes. 
River and stream are often fringed with handsome plants, and little 
fleets of Water Lily — silvery fleets they look as one sees them from 
the bank — sail on the lakelets far away in North America and Asia, 
even where the water is solid ice in winter. One need not go so far 
to see beautiful plants, as our own country rivers and back-waters of 
rivers possess many. Our gardens are often made about towns 
where there are few chances of seeing our native water plants, but by 
the back-waters of rivers and by streams in many situations, and by 
lakes like the Norfolk Broads one may often see as handsome 
plants in these places, and also in the open marsh land, as in any 
garden, and some that we do not often see happy in gardens, such 
as the Frogbit, the Bladderwort, and Water Soldier. 

Where, as often is the case in artificially made ponds, the margin 
of the water is not the rich deep soil that we have by the Broads and 
by the sides of rivers, which themselves carry down deep beds of 
rich soil, a good way is to put the mud which we take out of the 
pond around its sides a little above and below the water line. This 
will encourage a rich growth of such Reeds as are found beside 
natural waters. Water with a hard, naked, beaten edge and little or 
no vegetation is not good to look at, and a margin of rich living 
plants is better for fish and game as well as for effect. The waterside 
plants one may establish in that way are worth having and give good 
cover for duck. 

Perhaps the most beautiful of all water gardens are the river and 
stream gardens, as their form is so much better than anything we 
can make and the vegetation is often good even without care. With 
a little thought we can make it much more so, and in our river- 
seamed land there are so many charming opportunities for water- 
garden pictures. 


Waterside Plants. — The water-margin ofifers to lovers of 
hardy flowers a site easily made into a fair garden. Hitherto we 
have used in such places aquatic plants only, and of these usually a 
very meagre selection ; while the improvement of the waterside may 
be most readily effected by planting the banks near with vigorous 
hardy flowers, as many of the finest plants, from Irises to Globe 
Flowers, thrive in moist soil. Bank plants have this advantage over 
water plants that we can fix their position, whereas water plants 
spread so much that some kinds over-run others. The repeating of a 
favourite plant at intervals would mar all ; groups of free hardy 
things would be best : Day Lilies, Meadow Sweets, tall Irises, which 
love wet places ; Gunnera, American swamp Lilies in peaty soil, 
the rosy Loosestrife Golden Rods, Starworts, the Compass plants, 
Monkshoods, giant Knotworts, Moon Daisies, the Cardinal Flower, 
the common Lupine — these are some of many types of hardy flowers 
which would grow freely near the waterside. With these hardy 
plants, too, a variety of the nobler hardy Ferns, such as the Royal 
Ferns and Feather Ferns, would associate well. 

Water Plants of northern and temperate regions associated 
with our native water plants, add much beauty to a garden. If the 
soil be rich, we usually see the same monotonous vegetation all 
round the margin of the water, and where the bottom is of gravel 
there is often little vegetation, only an unbroken, ugly line of washed 
earth. A group of Water Lily is beautiful, but Water Lilies lose 
their charm when they spread over the whole of a piece of water, and 
even waterfowl cannot make their way through them. The Yellow 
Water Lily (Nuphar lutea), though less beautiful, is well worthy of 
a place, and so is the large N. advena (a native of America), which 
pushes its leaves above the water. The American White Water 
Lilies (Nymphaea odorata and N. tuberosa) are hardy and beautiful, 
and of recent years much beauty has been given our water plants in 
the hybrid hardy Water Lilies raised by M. Latour-Marliac, who 
has added the large and noble forms and the lovely colour of the 
Eastern Water Lilies to the garden waters of northern countries. 
The splendid beauty of these plants should lead people to think of 
artistic ways of planting garden waters. Our native Water Lily was 
always neglected and rarely effective, except in a wild state ; but 
when people see that they may have in Britain the soft yellow and 
rose and red flowers of the tropical Water Lilies throughout summer 
and autumn, they may take interest in water gardens, and even 
the wretched duck ponds which disfigure so many country seats will 
begin at last to have a reason to be. The change should be the 
means of leading us to think more of the many noble flowers and 
fine leaved plants of the water-side, apart from Water Lilies. The 



new hybrid kinds continue blooming long after our native kind has 
ceased, and from the middle of May to nearly the end of October 
flowers are abundant. 

For many }-ears, pond, streamlet, and lake to a very considerable 
extent were left very much to themselves, with scarce a thought 
bestowed upon them or the plants for beautifying their surface or 
margin. In a large London nursery nearly twenty-five years ago, 
where a very large and, perhaps, complete collection of water plants 
existed, I was surprised to find that so very few aquatic plants should 
be required year after year ; so few, indeed, that the cost of maintain- 
ing the whole was barely met. This was most discouraging, because 
even water plants, where a representative collection is grown, cannot 

Pond at Enys, Cornwall. From a photograph sent by Mr. F. W. Meyer, Exeter. 

receive the necessary space for their free growth in a nursery. This 
was even so in the case of that lovely and fragrant Cape Pond 
Flower (Aponogeton), that, seeding in such abundance, was floated 
hither and thither in thousands, and in consequence had to be kept 
in check. The rapid increase of this plant, however, is by no means 
common ; indeed, many instances are known where it cannot be 
induced to flourish in the open. But in the nursery referred to, by 
reason of the quantity and size of the plants, flowers of this Apono- 
geton were gathered the greater part of the year, in the wintry season 
even its flowers floating on the surface by hundreds. The water in 
this instance, supplied from an artesian spring, contributed to the 
success of the plant, as also its freedom of flowering. Gradually 


however, the aquatics are coming to the front, and an altogether fresh 
impetus, as well as a great one, has resulted from the introduction of 
the many charming new hybrid Nymphaas which are fast making 
their appearance in some of the best-known gardens. As yet many 
of these hybrids are scarce, and care will be needed, and possibly 
protection required, on the larger pieces of ornamental water where 
water-fowl are encouraged. 

In planting these choicer kinds, some precaution is necessary when 
sinking them into their places. Very deep water is not essential, but 
if the pond be an artificial one, it will be found a good plan to 
take a few bags of heavy loamy soil to the spot by means of a punt 
and empty the soil over the side. Then the plant itself, well fixed 
by wire to the side of a basket already filled with similar soil, should 
be gradually lowered on to the mound of soil already deposited. In 
the natural lake no soil will be needed before sinking the plant in 
position, though similar means may be used to lower the plant, which 
will quickly take to the accumulation of earth and leaves that years 
have deposited. Many of the most lovely of aquatics may be grown 
with considerable success even where neither pond, lake, rivulet, nor 
ornamental water is found, some very good results having been derived 
by growing them in tanks 2 feet or 3 feet deep into which a depth 
of some 12 inches of clay earth has been placed. The recent hybrids 
are well worthy of attention in this way, and if a fair-sized tank be 
made and so placed that it will catch the rain water, so much the 
better for the plants. In this way also fountain basins on the terrace 
garden may be made to do some service. Besides the hybrid 
Nymphaeas, such places are well suited if the water be fairly deep for 
such things as Orontium aquaticum, the Pontederias, and Arrowheads, 
all of which are perfectly hardy with their crowns 8 inches or 10 
inches below the surface of the water, while Thalia dealbata, a rarely 
seen plant from Carolina, is quite safe with similar treatment. 
Indeed, it is to be regretted that this handsome plant is not more 
frequently seen in the water where its handsome leaves and heads 
of purple blossoms are very showy, but our country is too cool to 
show its fine form and stature. 

Forming the Water Garden. — Fortunate indeed are those 
through whose grounds runs a brook or streamlet. As a great many 
of our most effective and most graceful hardy plants can be grown 
either in the water itself or in the moisture-laden margin of a pond 
or brook, it is surprising that more advantage is not taken of this fact 
when the opportunity occurs. Even where natural ponds exist it 
frequently happens that the banks of the pond, as well as the water 
itself, are either perfectly bare, or are covered only by the rankest 
weeds. The ponds chiefly considered here are those mostly formed 



without cement, by natural flooding from a brook, streamlet or river. 
If the water supply is abundant and continuous, it matters little 
whether a portion of the water is wasted by percolating the sides of 
the pond, but when only a small supply can be had, the bottom and 
sides of the pond must be either concreted or puddled with clay. It 
often happens that when the excavations for a pond are completed, 
the bottom is found to consist of impervious clay, but the sides 
consist of ordinary soil, which would allow a large portion of the 
water to waste. In such cases the best way out of the difficulty is 
the cutting of a narrow trench, say i8 inches wide, to a depth a little 
beyond the surface of the natural clay subsoil. This trench, which 
should skirt the whole pond at some little distance from the actual 

Riverside plants in front of an old manor — Levens. 

edge of the water, is then filled with clay "puddle" till just above 
the water-line and forms an effective remedy against waste, while 
the water-soaked soil between the trench and the actual outline of 
the pond forms an excellent home for all kinds of marsh plants of 
the bolder type. The outline of a pond is of the utmost importance. 
Regular curves of circles or ovals are utterly out of place and look 
ridiculous in a landscape with irregular and naturally undulating 
ground. In order to be effective, the outline of the pond must not 
only be irregular, but it must be also in accordance with the laws of 
Nature, and as in most cases the natural pond or lake is merely an 
expanded stream or river, we must look to the shore-lines of the 
latter for guidance in the forming of artificial ponds. In a natural 
stream the curves are mostly due to the water meeting with some 


obstacle which caused a deviation in its course. We find invariably 
that where a promontory, a projecting rock, or some other obstacle 
caused an alteration in the course of the water, the latter is thrown 
against the opposite bank with greater force, and unless the ground 
be very hard a good portion of it is washed away by the force, and 
an extended recess is the natural result. In the same way an 
irregular pond to look natural should have the largest and boldest 
recesses opposite or nearly opposite the largest promontory on the 
other side. The shore-line should not terminate abruptly, but should 
form a slope continued below the water level. 

In planting the shore of a pond or lake it is the ground which 
projects into the water which should be furnished with the largest 
and boldest plants. This is not only perfectly natural, but has also 
the effect of partially concealing some of the recesses of the water. 
A pond thus treated will appear larger than it really is, and a walk 
around the shore-line will reveal fresh surprises with every step. 

Aquatics. — Of all plants suitable for the water garden, none 
can surpass the Nymphaeas now that we have a variety of shades of 
colour undreamt of a few years ago. The delicate pink Nymphaea 
Marliacea carnea and the yellow N. M. Chromatella seem to make 
the most rapid progress in English water gardens, while the white 
Nymphaea pygmsea alba and the yellow N. p. Helvola are the 
Liliputians of the race. Perhaps the most exquisite of the newer 
kinds are N. M. Seignoretti (which is red, shaded with orange). 
N, M. Robinsoni and the deep carmine N. M. ignea. A little less 
expensive is the large deep red N. Laydekeri lilacea, while the 
following are now to be got : N. Laydekeri rosea, deep rose, changing 
to carmine ; N. odorata exquisita, rosy carmine ; N. o. rosacea, tender 
rose shade ; N. o. rubra, deep rose, and N. odorata sulphurea, deep 
yellow. Nuphar advena should not be used except in places where 
there is plenty of room, when, as shown in the picture, even the 
leaves alone produce a bold effect. The same might be said of our 
native Water Lilies, Nymphaea alba and Nuphar lutea. Stratiotes 
aloides (popularly known as the Water Soldier) is attractive, not so 
much for its flowers as for its long leaves, which form a striking 
contrast to other aquatics. Villarsia Humboldtiana and the native 
Villarsia nymhpaeoides, with its small round leaves and yellow 
flowers, form a good contrast to plants of a bolder type. Another 
interesting aquatic is Vallisneria spiralis, with very long, narrow 
leaves and small white flowers floating on the surface of the water. 

Aquatics for Shallow Water. — The common Sweet Flag 
( Acorus Calamus), the Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus), and the 
Bulrush or Reed Mace (Typha latifolia) are bold as well as graceful 
objects in shallow water, especially in a large lake, but in ponds 

S 2 



of only moderate size they should be used with caution, or they 
would soon shut out Nymphaeas and other aquatics whose leaves and 
flowers float on the water. Much less robust in their growth are 
Typha angustifolia and T. minima. Very striking, too, are the 
arrow-shaped leaves and white spikes of blossom of Sagittaria 
sagittaefolia and the Buckbean (Menyanthes trifoliata). The flowers 
of the latter are very sweet-scented and arranged in racemes ; they 
are beautifully fringed, pure white, slightly tinged with pink outside. 
This also must be kept in check to prevent injury to other aquatics. 
A handsome American aquatic, quite hardy in shallow water, is 
Pontederia cordata, with handsome spikes of blue flowers and almost 
erect leaves on long stalks about i8 inches or more in height. The 


Natural grouping of waterside pla 

From a photograph sent by AI. Louis Kropatsch, Imperial 
Gardens, Vienna. 

Bog Arum (Calla palustris), though only about 9 inches high, when 
planted in groups is most effective. The well-known Arum Lily 
(Calla aethiopica) may — in the west and south of England at all 
events — also be used as an aquatic for shallow water. Though a 
severe winter will cut it down, the roots below the surface of the 
water will push forth new leaves and flowers in great profusion. At 
Trelissick, near Truro, the pond was skated on for several weeks, 
and 16° and 18° of frost were registered during the severe winter two 
years ago, but in the following spring many thousands of Arum 
Lilies were cut from the very same pond. 

Margins of Water. — The water-soaked margins of our ponds 
and brooks would furnish a home for many graceful fine-foliaged and 


flowering plants. One of the noblest of our plants with large leaves 
delighting in such a position is Gunnera manicata. Gunnera scabra 
also likes a similar position, but its leaves seldom attain a diameter of 
more than 5 feet, while Gunnera magellanica is quite a pigmy. 
Rheum Emodi from the Himalayas, Rheum palmatum from Northern 
Asia, and the Siberian Rheum undulatum are also effective plants for 
the waterside. Of an entirely different type are the noble Arundo 
donax and its variegated variety. In the south-west of England 
they are, as a rule, hardy without protection, and their elegant grace 
is most striking. The Pampas Grass (Gynerium argenteum) and its 
early-flowering companion, Arundo conspicua, from New Zealand, 
may also be mentioned as graceful plants for the waterside. Much 
dwarfer, but also effective, is the deciduous grass, Elymus glauco- 
phyllus, with broad glaucous foliage contrasting well with the fine 
deep green foliage of Carex pendula or the still finer Carex riparia 
and its variegated form. Cyperus longus is another suitable com- 
panion from the same family. Juncus efifusus spiralis, with its stems 
twisted like corkscrews, is perhaps more curious than pretty, but 
Acorus gramineus variegatus and Juncus zebrinus have an un- 
common as well as a pretty effect in consequence of their variegated 

The plants just mentioned as suitable for the waterside are valued 
mostly on account of their foliage. But among flowering plants also 
handsome varieties may be found that might with great advantage be 
used for decoration at the waterside much oftener than is at present 
the case. Few things are brighter than the brilliant purple flowers of 
Lythrum salicaria var. roseum superbum, or the large yellow flowers 
of Inula Helenium and Telekia speciosissima. Groups of Iris 
Kaempferi and the well-known Iris germanica, also look exceed- 
ingly well on the margin of a pond, and the " flowering " Fern 
(Osmunda regalis) delights in that position. Senecio japonica grows 
really well only when its roots can find abundance of moisture ; its 
large deeply-cut leaves are as handsome as its deep yellow flowers, 
4 inches across, and borne on a stem 3 feet to 4 feet high. A similar 
position is required by Spiraea gigantea, which bears its flowers on 
stems 5 feet to 6 feet above the ground. Spiraea Aruncus, though 
not so tall, is, nevertheless, most suitable, as are also its smaller, but 
still more handsome companions. Spiraea palmata, S. alba, S. astil- 
boides, and Astilbe rivularis. Very bright and effective, too, in such 
a position are Chelone barbata and Lyoni, and the Globe Flowers 
(Trollius) show by the waterside a vigour they do not develop else- 
where. This might also be said of the double Marsh Marigold 
(Caltha palustris fl.-pl.) and of several varieties of Hemerocallis. 

For a Shady Nook by the waterside we are by no means 


limited to Ferns. It is in such a position Primula japonica and sik- 
kimensis delight. Here also the blue Himalayan Poppy (Meconopsis 
Wallichi), the tall yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), and the bright 
blue Mertensia virginica will flourish as well as Saxifraga peltata, 
Sanguinaria canadensis, Podophyllum Emodi, the handsome P. pel- 
tatum, and Rodgersia podophylla, while Trillium grandiflorum and 
Solomon's Seal will be at their best. There is, no doubt, a number 
of other suitable plants for the water garden, especially if we include 
the plants generally known as bog plants, which, however, are per- 
haps more suitable for the bog bed of a rock garden than the bolder 
margins of ponds or lakes, but enough plants have been enumerated 
to show that we have a great variety to pick from, and that certainly 
there is a great future for the water garden. — F. W. MEYER, Elmside, 

It is now some fifteen or sixteen years since I planted the common 
white Water Lily in the pond here. Noting how well it grew, I was 
induced to try the pink or rose-coloured form of it which had been 
introduced from Norway — i.e., Nymphaea alba var. rosea. Finding, 
too, that this was thriving, I further extended the Lily culture by the 
addition of a dozen more varieties and species. Of these I have only 
lost N. flava, and that occurred during the severe frost of 1894-95. 
All that I gave in the way of protection then was laying a few mats 
upon the ice when it was sufficiently strong to bear one's weight, and 
that small amount of protection was more in the form of a prevent- 
ive against any skaters running over them where the ice was none 
too strong, and possibly cause injury should it have given way. Dur- 
ing that winter the ice was unusually thick ; so much so here must it 
have been as to almost, if not quite, reach the Lily roots, the depth of 
water over them then being only about 12 inches. No better test of 
their hardiness is, I think, needed than this, save in the case of N. 
flava. Last spring I added N. Robinsoni, the present winter being of 
course its first test, but of its hardiness I have not the slightest doubt. 
In addition to the foregoing I have three of the pigmy varieties, 
which, with a distinct form of the common white fro.n Norway, make 
in all eighteen kinds or varieties. 

In the spring, when I added the twelve varieties (chiefly those 
of M. Latour-Marliac's raising), these being small tubers, I com- 
menced by putting them carefully into soil in large-sized punnets, 
the entire dozen coming to hand in one parcel by post. I mention 
this so that some idea may be formed of the then size of the tubers 
compared with the present time. During the summer of 1894 they 
grew well, making steady progress, and towards the autumn a few 
flowers appeared on the strongest plants. The following summer 
{i.e., 1895) a most marked progress was made the stronger-growing 


kinds beginning to give some indications of their true character, 
whilst the flowering period was well prolonged and a considerable 
number of flowers produced. Seeing that more room was essential 
for their perfect development, I decided to provide for this by care- 
fully lifting the plants last spring when the first indications of growth 
were visible. This operation was performed about two years from 
the time of first planting them, but so well had they rooted in the case 
of the strong growing kinds, that it took three men to lift them with 
digging forks, several of the roots being as large as one's fingers and 
of considerable length. These came up with good balls, and were 
immediately transferred to large circular baskets which had been half- 
filled with good loam and leaf-soil, a few handfuls of bone-meal being 
allotted to each basket according to its size. When the roots were 
carefully spread out more soil was added to fill each basket, which 
was at once sunk again into the water, but at a greater distance apart 
than in the first instance. This time the strongest were placed at 
■some 10 feet or so from each other, but I can see already, after only 
■one more year's growth that they will require more room even than 
this. These plants were sunk in about 18 inches of water this time in 
order to be more in accord with their growth. The more moderate 
growers were arranged in front of these and in about 12 inches of 
water. No apparent check ensued even at the first, for they grew 
away most vigorously, and in most cases have flowered as profusely. 
By the autumn the strongest clumps were fully 6 feet across, and 
this season I shall not be surprised if they touch each other. The 
lake has a fair quantity of mud in it, about 6 inches perhaps where 
the plants are at present, the bottom being puddled with clay. The 
•supply of water is from a spring which continuously discharges into 
the lake. 

These fine water plants as grown and bloomed here are singularly 
beautiful and effective ; either one or another is always producing 
the distinct and pleasing flowers. The flowers remain open, too, for 
a prolonged period each day, either one or another being in good 
■condition from 9 a.m. to nearly dusk when the weather is bright. 
On more than one occasion I have also noted how beautiful they 
have been during showery weather ; the water then being clear added 
to their beauty, the flowers glistening and sparkling like diamonds 
when under a brilliant light. When seen in this state, scarcely any- 
thing in the way of flowers could be more beautiful. — J AS. HUDSON, 
Gunnersbiiry House, Acton. 

Arum Lilies as Aquatics in Britain. — Whether or not the 
■common Arum(Richardiaaethiopica) is naturally an aquatic it may be 
taken as proved that it is at least amphibious, as a friend of mine has 
for years past grown Arum Lilies in a fresh water lake by the banks 


of the river Fal within 20 feet of salt water, and his success has been 
great, as may be imagined when I say that the plants now form a broad 
margin to a portion of the lake about 300 yards in length and vary- 
ing in width from i yard to 3 yards. The flowers on this belt open,, 
at one time in June last, were estimated at 10,000, and the annual 
number is not less than 50,000. After a mild winter, such as that of 
1895-96, cutting commences in February; by Easter the number of 
flowers is immense, and their production is continued to the end of 
September. The hardiness of the plants was well tested in the 
winter of 1894-95, when ice sufficiently thick to be skated on was 
formed on the lake, but this only served to check and not to destroy 
any of the plants, the check on those plants with crowns near the 
surface being sufficiently severe to prove that a good depth of water 
over the crowns is safest. 

The method adopted for planting is simple enough and involves 
but little labour. Plants which have been forced are taken direct to 
the water, carried in a boat to the position selected, and then simply 
dropped overboard, after which they soon commence to root freely in 
the pond mud. A large waggon-load was treated in this way last 
year, and this represents about the usual rate of annual increase by 
new plantings. The position chosen for the Arums by the lake-side 
is a sunny, but well-sheltered one, and here the plants revel to such 
a degree as to have induced owners of other estates in Cornwall to- 
plant largely on the same lines, with, of course, greater climatic 
advantages than can be found in the country at large. But does not 
the proved well-doing of the plants in water 2 feet deep open up 
possibilities for their cultivation in colder climes ? — J. C. Tallack, 

Enemies. — Many water plants will grow almost anywhere and 
bid defiance to game or rats, but the newer and rarer Water Lilies 
are worth looking after, as they will not show half their beauty if 
they are subjected to the attacks of certain water animals. They 
may, indeed, when young be easily exterminated by them, and even 
when old and established the common water rat destroys the flowers,, 
and, taking them to the bank, eats them at its leisure, and I have often 
found the remains of half a dozen fine flowers in one spot. When the 
plants are small, the attacks of the common moorhen and other water- 
fowl may mean all the difference between life and death to a Water 
Lily. Perhaps, therefore, the first thing to be done in establishing 
these plants is to put them in some small pond apart from the rougher 
water-side plants, and especially where they will be safe from the 
attacks of the water rat and other creatures which cannot be kept out 
of ponds fed by streamlets. By these and river banks or back-waters 
water rats are hard to destroy, and guns, traps, ferrets, or any other 


means must be used. The common brown rat is not so fond of 
these flowers as the true water rat, but it is so destructive to every- 
thing else, that it is essential to destroy it at the same time, as it 
often abounds near water. The water or moorhen is continuously 
destructive to all the Water Lilies, pecking at the flowers until mere 
shreds are left, and no one can fairly judge of the rare beauty of 
these plants where these birds are not kept down. 

Planting the Waterside. — People are so much led by showy 
descriptions in catalogues, and also by their own love for ugly things, 
that we often see misuse by the waterside of variegated shrubs — a 
bold lake margin almost covered with variegated bushes, like the 
yellow elder, the purple beech, and even down to the very margin of 
the water with variegated shrubs, absolutely the worst kind of vegeta- 
tion which could be chosen for such a place. 

Of all places that one has to deal with in gardening or planting, 
islands and the margins of water — lake or river — we have the clearest 
guidance as to the trees and shrubs that inhabit and belong to such 
places, and that always thrive and look best in them. The vegetation 
best fitted for those places is mostly of an elegant and spiry character ; 
willows in many forms often beautiful in colour, in summer or winter, 
dogwoods and aspen poplars. There is no scarcity of such trees and 
shrubs at all ; even the willows of Europe and Britain furnish a fine 
series of trees, and some form tall timber trees like the white willow, 
and low feathery willows like the rosemary-leaved one. There is also 
a superb group of weeping trees among these willows, some of them 
more precious and hardy even than the Babylonian willow. As 
regards reeds and herbaceous plants, our country and the northern 
world are very rich indeed, so that we need never use any grossly 
unsuitable plant for the waterside. 

These facts are worth bearing in mind in seeking true and artistic 
effects, as the side water properly or improperly planted is strangely 
different from an artistic point of view. Take for example a piece of 
water, good in form of margin, and right in every way as to its rela- 
tion to the landscape ; it is quite easy to spoil the effect of it all by 
the use of shrubs which have not the form or colour characteristic of 
the trees and shrubs of the water side. By the right use of the trees 
or shrubs — true to the soil, so to say — we may, on the other hand, 
make the scene beautiful in delicate colour and fine form, at all 
seasons, right, in a word, either as a picture, as a covert, and even for 
timber, for some of the willows have a high value as timber. 

The best materials for waterside planting are distinctly those of 
our own country, or of Europe and the northern world generally ; but 
we need not despise things that are very suitable and which come to 
us from other countries, and among them some of the bamboos 



promise very well, having, to some extent, the same character of 
graceful, pointed leaf of the willow and the reed. 

Willows and Their Colour. — Some say that to enjoy the colour 
of willows we should cut them down once a year and that the young 
shoots so grown are more showy. In that case they are thicker 
together and more level in colour ; but it is a very stupid practice to 
carry out, because some of the finest willows are trees, and by cutting 
them down we lose the form, which is very beautiful throughout the 
year. Colour also is bound up with form and light and shade, and 
we cannot see the most beautiful effects of colour without these ; so 
that it is wrong in every way to cut down our willows for the sake of 
enjoying their colour. A small patch may be treated in that way, 
especially if we follow the good old plan of using the twigs. If we 
cut these every year we have a useful aid in packing, tying the 
branches of trees, and for other purposes. Even in the wild willows 
of our own country we can notice the great error of this practice of 
cutting down — in such places, for instance, as Brandon in Norfolk, 
and other eastern county places, where we see the far greater beauty 
of the naturally grown tree, even from the point of view of colour. 

Pool with Calla Lilies, Trelissick, Truro. 



The bog garden is a home for the numerous children of the wild 
that will not thrive on our harsh, bare, and dry garden borders, but 
thrive cushioned on moss or in moist peat soil. Many beautiful 
plants, like the Wind Gentian and Creeping Harebell, grow on our 
own bogs and marshes, much as these are now encroached upon. 
But even those who know our own bogs have, as a rule, little notion 
of the multitude of charming plants, natives of northern and 
temperate countries, whose home is the open marsh or bog. In 
our own country we have been so long encroaching upon the 
bogs and wastes that some of us come to regard bogs and wastes 
as exceptional tracts all over the world, but when we travel in 
new countries in northern climes we soon learn what a vast extent 
of the world's surface was once covered with bogs. In North 
America, even by the margins of the railways, one sees, day after 
day, the vivid blooms of the Cardinal-flower springing erect from the 
wet peaty hollows ; and far under the shady woods stretch the black 
bog pools, the ground between being so shaky that you move a few 
steps with difficulty. And where the woody vegetation disappears 
the Pitcher-plant (Sarracenia), Golden Club (Orontium), Water Arum 
(Calla palustris), and a host of other handsome bog plants cover 
the ground for hundreds of acres, with perhaps an occasional slender 
bush of Laurel Magnolia (Magnolia glauca) among them. In some 
parts of Canada, where the painfully long and straight roads are often 
made through woody swamps, and where the few scattered and poor 
habitations offer little to cheer the traveller, a lover of plants will find 
beside the road conservatories of beauty in the ditches and pools 
of black water fringed with a profusion of stately ferns, and bog and 
water bushes. 

Southwards and seawards, the bog flowers, like the splendid 
kinds of herbaceous Hibiscus, become tropical in size and brilliancy, 
while far north and west and south along the mountains grows the 


queen of the peat bog — the beautiful and showy Mocassin-flower 
(Cypripedium spectabile). Then in California, all along the Sierras, 
a number of delicate little annual plants continue to grow in small 
mountain bogs long after the plains are quite parched, and annual 
vegetation has quite disappeared from them. But who shall record 
the beauty and interest of the flowers of the wide-spreading marsh- 
lands of this globe of ours, from those in the vast wet woods of 
America, dark and brown, hidden from the sunbeams, to the little 
bogs of the high Alps, far above the woods, where the ground 
often teems with Nature's most brilliant flowers ? No one worthily ; 
for many mountain-swamp regions are as yet little known to us. 
One thing, however, we may gather from our small experience — 
that many plants commonly termed " alpine," and found on high 

Mocassin-flower in rocky bog. 

mountains, are true bog plants. This must be clear to any one who 
has seen our pretty Bird's-eye Primrose in the wet mountain-side 
bogs of Westmoreland, or the Bavarian Gentian in the spongy soil 
by alpine rivulets. 

In many country seats there are spots that with a little care can 
be made into pretty bog gardens. Where there are no natural sites 
a bog garden may be made by forming a basin of brickwork and 
Portland cement, about one foot in depth ; the bottom may be either 
concreted or paved with tiles laid in cement, and the whole must be 
made water-tight ; an orifice should be made in the side, at the 
height of 6 inches, to carry off" the surplus water, and another in the 
bottom at the lowest point, with a cork, or, better still, with a brass 
plug valve to close it. Five or six inches of stones and bricks [are 


to be first laid in, and the whole must be filled with good peat soil, 
the surface being raised into uneven banks and hillocks, with large 
pieces of sandstone imbedded in it, so as to afford drier and 
wetter spots. The size and form of this garden may be varied at 
discretion ; it should be in an exposed situation ; the back may be 
raised with a rocky bank of stones imbedded in peat, and the moisture, 
ascending by capillary action, will make the position a charming one 
for Ferns and numberless other peat-loving plants. It is in every 
way desirable that a small trickle of water should constantly flow 
through the bog ; ten or twelve gallons daily will be sufficient, but 
if this cannot be arranged it may be kept filled by hand. Such a 
bog may be bordered by a very low wall of flints or stones, built 
with mortar, diluted with half its bulk of road-sand and leaf-mould, 
and having a little earth on the top ; the moisture will soon cause this 
to be covered with moss, and Ferns and all kinds of wall-plants will 
thrive on it. 

Where space will permit, a much larger area may be converted 
into bog and rockwork intermingled, the surface being raised or 
depressed at various parts, so as to afford stations for more or less 
moisture-loving plants. Large stones should be freely used on the 
surface, so as to form mossy stepping-stones ; and many plants will 
thrive better in the chinks between the stones than on the surface of 
the peat. It is not necessary to render water-tight the whole of such 
a large area. A channel of water about 6 inches deep, with drain- 
pipes and bricks at the bottom, may be led to and fro or branched 
over the surface, the bends or branches being about 3 feet apart. The 
whole, when covered with peat, will form an admirable bog, the spaces 
between the channels forming drier portions, in which various plants 
will thrive vigorously. 

Perhaps the best place for an artificial bog is on sloping ground. 
The water flows in at the top, and the surface must be rendered 
water-tight with Portland cement or concrete. Contour or level lines 
should then be traced on the whole surface at distances of about 
3 feet apart, and a ridge, two bricks in height, should be cemented 
along each of the horizontal lines. These ridges, which must be 
perfectly level, serve to hold the water, and the surplus escapes over 
the top to the next lower level. Two-inch drain tiles, covered with 
coarse stones, should be laid along each ridge to keep the channel 
open, and a foot of peat should be thrown over the whole. Before 
adding the peat, ridges may be built on the surface, the stones 
being built together with peat in the interstices. These ridges 
need not follow the horizontal lines. The positions thus formed are 
adapted both to grow and to display Ferns and alpine bog plants to 


Perhaps the most charming plants to commence with are our own 
native bog plants — Pinguicula, Drosera, Parnassia, Menyanthes, Viola 
palustris, Anagallis tenella, Narthecium, Osmunda, Lastrea Oreopteris, 
Thelypteris spinulosa, and other Ferns ; Sibthorpia europaea, Linnaea 
borealis, Primula farinosa, Campanula hederacea, Chrysosplenium 
alternifolium and oppositifolium ; Saxifraga Hirculus, aizoides, stel- 
laris, Caltha, and Marsh Orchises. These, and a host of plants from 
our marshes and the summits of our higher mountains, will flourish 
as freely as in their native habitats, and may all be grown in a few 


Trillinin. Sarracenia. 

A bog garden. 


square feet of bog ; while Rhododendrons, Kalmias, dwarf Ferns, and 
Sedges will serve for the bolder features. 

One of the great charms of the bog garden is that everything 
thrives and multiplies in it, and nothing droops or dies, but the real 
difficulty is to prevent the stronger plants from overgrowing, and 
eventually destroying, the weaker. A small pool of water filled 
with water plants is a charming addition to the bog garden. The 
only precaution needed is to destroy the weeds before they 
gain strength — a single plant of Sheep Rot (Hydrocotyle), for 
example, would smother and ruin the entire bog in a season. — 
Latimer Clark. 


In the bog garden many of our most beautiful plants, which in a summer like 
that of 1895 have been languishing for moisture in the borders, may be grown to 
perfection surpassing in beauty all our former impressions of them. Of primary 
importance, of course, is the position, and where this is naturally of a moist, 
boggy or swampy character, matters will be much simplified. We will assume there 
is such a spot at disposal, a swampy, treacherous, and, as we are wont to regard 
it, useless piece of land, under water the greater part of the year. Such a spot 
will be sure of its crop of naturally water-loving plants, such as Rushes, Sedges, 
or the like, and the first care must be to root them out one and all. In doing 
so, be careful that 12 inches or so of the margin be overhauled, as in all probabihty 
there will be here roots and seeds of all these wildlings. According to the 
nature of the boggy piece and also the depth of the water, it may be necessary for 
cleansing the ground to cut a deep trench and allow the water to pass away, as, 
without the moisture, the whole is much more convenient for preparation, and 
roots are more readily eradicated. The ground thoroughly cleansed at the outset, 
attention should next be directed to the soil. This may be variable, according to 
the variety of plants it is intended to introduce. For instance, strong growing 
subjects like the Astilbes and Meadow Sweets are all at home in a fairly stiff and 
moist soil. On the other hand. Iris Ktempferi, Trilliums, Cypripediums, Lilium 
pardalinum, L. superbum, and other such things have a decided preference for 
soil of a vegetable character, such as peat, leaves, and the like. These latter, 
again, have a preference for the drier parts of the bed, while such as the Calthas 
and Menyanthes trifoliata revel in wet mud. To meet the varied degrees of 
moisture which the plants prefer will be quite an easy matter in an artificially 
constructed bog by the adoption of an undulating surface throughout. Slightly 
raised mounds are by far the most convenient, and certainly the most economical, 
way of providing for the greatest number of plants. 

Formation. — The shape, of course, should be irregular, and, unless a depression 
of the whole exists, let this receive the next attention, and in such a way that the 
highest part will be 9 inches below the average surrounding soil. The paths should 
next be dealt with, excavating these nearly a foot deep in the central parts and 
gradually rising at the entrances. The soil taken from the paths may, if good, 
be used to form the raised beds for the planting of moisture-loving plants, such 
as are content if their roots only reach water. The sides of these beds may 
need rough support, such as rude sandstone blocks, to keep the soil in its place. 
These, or similar things, may also form stepping-stones in the wetter parts, as by 
this means the plants may be viewed without inconvenience. Beds of various 
sizes will be needed in proportion to the kind of plants that shall hereafter occupy 
them. For instance, the sloping banks at the edge, which may also take the 
form of a slightly projecting mound, would constitute excellent positions for some 
of the hardy Bamboos. Similar opportunities may occur at intervals throughout 
the margin for planting with such things as Acanthus, Yuccas, Eulalias, Astilbe 
rivularis, Spirosa Aruncus, Bocconia cordata, and others of similar proportions, 
while the lower slopes and depressions between these would make excellent 
places for Osmunda regalis, Lilium giganteum, L. pardalinum, L. canadense, and 
L. superbum in peaty beds. The latter three of these are really swamp-loving 
by nature, and it is scarcely possible to see them in anything approaching 
perfection elsewhere. In the moisture so close at hand such things simply 
revel, and the owner of them may for years see them towering far above his 
head in their day of flowering — a picture of health and beauty. With such things 
it should always be borne in mind that constant saturation is not absolutely 
essential, though, indeed, they receive it more or less in their native habitats. 


Where space for bog gardens is limited, a very charming carpet to the Lilies just 
named would be the Wood Lily of North America (Trillium grandiflorum). The 
two things may be planted or replanted at the same season when necessity arises. 
The Trillium, moreover, would come in spring-time and would protect the growth 
of the Lilium against our late spring frosts. For the Liliums a foot deep of peat, 
leaf-soil, and turf, with sharp river grit, would form a good bed, and with a mulch 
each year of leaf-soil and a little very rotten manure would serve them for many 
years. It may surprise many to know that under such conditions these TriUiums 
would in a few years, if left alone, attain to nearly 2 feet and be lovely in the size 
and purity of their flowers. In another of these depressions Cypripedium 
spectabile could easily be established, or a bed may be devoted to the more showy 
hardy species, giving 6 inches of peat or more, with leaf-soil added. The species 
named is rather late in sending up its growth, and affords plenty of time for a 
carpet of Trillium to flower before much headway is made. Other beautiful 
carpeting plants for these would be found in the American Mayflower (Epigaea 
repens or Pratia angulata), and if the position be shaded, as it should be for the 
Cypripediums, a charming, yet delicate, fringe may be found in Adiantum pedatum. 
Besides C. spectabile, C. pubescens and C. parviflorum are well deserving attention, 
together with Orchis foliosa, the beautiful " Madeira Orchis," and the Habenarias, 
especially H. ciliaris and fimbriata ; all delight in moisture and require but little 
root room. Then if a glow of rich colour was needed in such places it could be 
supplied in Spiraea venusta or S. palmata, both delighting in moist soil. Another 
fine effect may be had by grouping Lobelia fulgens, or indeed any of the scarlet 
Lobelias. In wet parts may be planted Osmunda regalis, Onoclea sensibihs, 
Struthiopteris germanica, and Astilbe rivularis, allowing room for each. Groups 
of the herbaceous Phloxes in their best and most distinct shades, particularly 
of salmon scarlet and the purest white, would find their natural wants completely 
satisfied in the bog garden and give fine colour. In English gardens it is only in 
a moist season that we see the Phlox in even fair condition, for the reason that 
the original species is a native of wet meadows. This condition we can best 
imitate by deep digging and heavy manuring, and so much the better if the beds 
of these be saturated with water. Only in the constant cooling moisture of the 
bog can Primula japonica be seen in perfection, for here will it produce rosettes of 
leaves z\ feet across, and giant whorls of its crimson flowers, attaining to nearly 
the same height. Another charming Primrose is that from the swampy mountain 
meadows of the Himalayas, P. sikkimensis, essentially moisture-loving ; but to 
get the best results this must be treated as a biennial, grown on quickly, and 
planted in the bog as soon as large enough to handle. Other species of Primula 
suited to the higher and drier parts of the bog would be found in P. cashmeriana, 
capitata, denticulata, rosea, farinosa, involucrata, viscosa, and others, all alike 
beautiful in their way, and attaining greater vigour with the abundant moisture. 
Some of the smaller kinds of the viscosa type are better for slight shade, such 
as may be provided by Dielytra spectabilis (a really delightful plant in boggy 
ground) and various Spiraeas. It should be noted that many shade-loving plants 
delight in full sun when given abundant moisture at the root. Particularly 
noticeable is this with the Liliums I have noted previously. In the early part 
of the year the bog garden should be aglow with such things as Marsh Marigolds, 
in single and double forms. In the wet mud in the lower parts and about the 
stepping stones these would appear quite natural, and in like places Ficaria 
grandiflora, a plant too rarely seen, with its blossoms of shining gold ; then 
Senecio Doronicum, with golden orange flowers, Dielytra eximia, TroUius : any 
of the Dentarias and Dodecatheons likewise are all well suited for the raised 


parts where the roots will touch the moisture. The Dodecatheons in peat, loam, 
and leaf soil in equal parts, particularly D. JefFreyanum, grow to a large size : 
Hepaticas, too, are greatly improved in company with these last, while the 
charming effects that may be produced are almost without end. Corydalis nobilis 
in peat and loam, C. lutea, together with the Water Mimulus (M. luteus), all pro- 
vide rich masses of yellow. Gentiana asclepiadea, G. Andrewsi, as well as G. verna, 
grow charmingly in the bog. Nor is the list of plants exhausted ; indeed, they 
are far too numerous to give in detail, but yet to be mentioned as among the 
grandest are many Irises, I. Kiempferi in particular. Meconopsis Wallichiana 
(the blue Poppy of the Himalayas) produces quite a unique effect in the moister 
parts. Saxifraga peltata, S. Fortunei, S. Hirculus, S. granulata plena, Soldanellas, 
Senecio pulcher, Sisyrinchium grandiflorum and many more are all benefited by 
the varying degrees of moisture to be found in the bog garden. 

In gardens where no moist piece of ground exists, such as those with 
gravel or sandy subsoils, it will be necessary to select a low part and mark out 
an irregular outline. Next dig out the soil 18 inches or 2 feet in depth, so as to 
allow of at least 6 inches of clay being puddled in the bottom to retain the 
moisture. For bog plants clay is far better than concrete, because it suppHes 
food for many moisture-loving plants. To keep the clay in position, sloping sides 
will be best, and for the soils named it will scarcely be necessary to have more 
than a small outlet for excessive moisture, and this at about 12 inches high from 
the deepest part. For this a narrow clinker or rough brick drain will suffice, 
so placed that the outlet may be blocked, if necessary, for affording greater 
moisture. By digging a shallow trench around the upper margin of the bog- 
bed, and using Bamboos, such as Metake or glaucescens, or Bocconia cordata — 
the last two valuable for their rapid annual growth — such things would give the 
needful shade in summer. 

In large gardens and cool, hilly districts the bog garden should always be 
found. Some years ago I had charge of just such a garden : in the flower garden 
was a fountain basin wherein water plants were grown ; the overflow from this 
went tumbling in many ways over a series of rocks into the rock garden pond 
containing Orontium aquaticum, Nymphteas, and Sagittarias. In turn the over- 
flow from the rock garden was conducted to the bog garden proper, where many 
masses of Cypripedium spectabile, with fully a score of spikes of its beautiful flowers 
to each tuft, grew in luxuriance in peat and leaves under a welcome shade. In 
the swampy watercourse, before the bog was entered, the Marsh Marigold in 
variety abounded, being very conspicuous. Here, too, Osmundas were rampant, 
together with Primula japonica and a variety of plants already mentioned, and 
Ourisia coccinea, tightly pressing the surface of a stone, flowered splendidly.— E. J, 



The marriage of the fern and flower garden is worth effecting, our 
many hardy evergreen Ferns being so good for association with hardy 
flowers. There are many varieties of our native Ferns which would 
be excellent companions to evergreen herbaceous plants suited for 
sheltered, half-shady nooks, and there are hardy and vigorous exotic 
kinds. Graceful effects may be had in fore-grounds, in drives through 
glades, through the bold use of the larger hardy Ferns, whether ever- 
green or not. The Bracken is everywhere ; but there are Ferns of 
graceful form which delight in the partial shade of open woods and 
drives, and succeed even in the sun. Ferns have, as a rule, been 
stowed away in obscure corners, and have rarely come into the 
garden landscape, though they may give us beautiful aspects of 
vegetation not only in the garden, but by grassy glades, paths, and 
drives. In countries where hardy Ferns abound, they are often seen 
near water and in hollow and wet places, and it will often be best 
to group them in such localities, but without any of the ugly aspects 
of " rockwork " too often supposed to be the right thing in a hardy 

In the home counties there is probably not a better fernery 
than that at Danesbury. It is on a sloping bank in a rather 
deep dell, overhung with trees and Ivy, in the shade of which the 
Ferns delight. As regards the planting, the various families are 
arranged in distinct groups, and each group has a position and 
a soil favourable to its requirements. The best way to grow Ferns, 
however, is with flowers, as in Nature, and a hardy fernery may 
be very beautiful. As a rule, Ferns have in their natural state 
both soil and locality exactly suited to their requirements ; and the 
soil is yearly enriched by the decaying foliage of surrounding trees, 
which protects them in winter. In arranging a fernery, study the 
habits and requirements of each species, and allot to it the position 
most likely to give the best results. At Danesbury the most 

T 2 


sheltered, moist spot is given to the evergreen Blechnums, which 
delight in a damp atmosphere, and to the delicate forms of Asplenium. 
Osmunda, which thrives amazingly, is in a low swamp. The soil used 
for these Royal Ferns is a mixture of good loam and fibrous peat. The 
better deciduous kinds of Polypodium, such as P. Phegopteris and 
P. Dryopteris, have sheltered positions ; and in quiet nooks may be 
found charming groups of the Parsley Fern, and Cystopteris fragilis, 
a most delicate and graceful Fern. Lastrea Filix-mas and its varieties 
occupy the more exposed positions in company with fine colonies 
of the evergreen kinds, comprising some unique varieties of the 
Polystichums, Scolopendriums, Polypodiums, etc. A plentiful supply 
of water is available. 

The Fern-lover will remember that not only have we our 
own beautiful native Ferns for adorning our gardens, but also the 
hardy Ferns of America, Asia, and the continent of Europe. As 
to the hardiness of exotic Ferns, Mr. Milne-Redhead writes from 
Clitheroe : — 

Is it not strange that we so seldom see, even in good gardens, any well-grown 
plants of exotic Osmundas, Struthiopteris, &c. ? Here, after a long speU of hot, 
dry weather, we had on May 20, 1896, a sharp snap of frost which completely cut 
off the more than usually beautiful flowers of Azalea mollis, and seriously injured 
the young growths of some Japanese Pines, such as Abies firma, A. sachaHnensis, 
and others. This frost turned the young fronds of our English Filix-mas and 
Filix-foemina quite black. Close by these plants, and under similar conditions of 
soil and exposure, the American Adiantum pedatum, i foot high, and the tender- 
looking Onoclea sensibilis were quite unhurt, and Osmunda interrupta and O. 
cinnamomea entirely escaped and are now very fine. Our English O. regalis was 
slightly touched, but the Brazilian O. spectabilis brought by myself from dry 
banks in the Organ Mountains was not even browned in its early and delicate 
fronds. All the Ferns I have named are great ornaments to any moist and rather 
shady place in the shrubbery. In a sheltered nook in the rock garden I find, to 
my surprise, that Gymnogramma triangularis has survived the perils not only of 
a frosty spring, but the still greater ones of a wet autumn and winter, and is now 
throwing up healthily its pretty triangular fronds, whose under surface is quite 
white with the powder peculiar to the genus — in fact a hardy silver Fern. 

A visit to Mr. Sclater's Fern garden at Newick shows us the good 
effects that may be had by using the nobler hardy Ferns — both native 
and foreign — in a bolder way, and often in the open sun. The idea 
that a fernery is best in a dark corner has had unfortunate results in 
keeping the grace of such plants out of the garden picture. Hardy 
Ferns are being used in bold and simple ways at Kew, where at one 
time they were in an obscure fernery, and even if some Ferns require 
shade, many do not in our cool climate. Shade is, moreover, an 
elastic term ; the bold hardy Ferns one sees in the American wood- 


lands would not have too much sun in the open in Britain, provided 
they were in the right soil. 

Many hardy Ferns are excellent for association with hardy flowers, 
and many may be grouped with evergreen rock and hill plants in 

t-e Ferns massed by shady walk (Devonj. From a photograph by S. W. Fitzherben. 

forming borders and groups of evergreen plants. Though we have 
enough native Ferns in these islands to give us very fine effects, as we 
see at Penrhyn, or wherever Ferns are boldly grouped, some of the 
finest Ferns we see at Newick, and also at Rhianva and other gardens 


are natives of North America. Foremost among the strong-growing 
hardy exotic kinds, there are the handsome North American Osmunda 
cinnamomea, and O. Claytoniana, O. graciHs, a very pretty species of 
particularly slender habit ; the Sensitive Fern (Onoclea), Dicksonia 
punctiloba, the beautiful Canadian Maiden-hair, the American Ostrich 
Feather Fern, Lastrea Goldiana, Woodwardia virginica, all of North 
American origin and attaining between 2 feet and 3 feet in height. 
Among the smaller ferns are Aspidium nevadense, novaboracense 
and thelypteroides, Asplenium angustifolium, Athyrium Michauxi 
and Woodwardia angustifolia, all of which grow from 18 inches to 24 
inches. Allosorus acrostichoides, the handsome Polypodium hexa- 
gonopterum, Woodsia obtusa, oregana and scopulina, and also two 
pretty Selaginellas, viz., oregana and Douglasi. All these are of 
small dimensions, varying as they do from 6 in. to 12 in. in height. 
The pretty Hypolepis anthriscifolia of South Africa ; the robust 
Lastrea atrata, from India ; the Japanese Lastrea decurrens, the 
massive Struthiopteris orientalis, also a native of Japan, and the 
pretty Davallia Mariesi are all equal in hardiness to any of our British 
deciduous Ferns. 

Evergreen Hardy Ferns. — Some of the evergreen Ferns, 
whether British or exotic, which stand the severity of our climate, are 
as hardy as those which lose their leaves in winter, and no Fern could 
be hardier than the various small-growing Aspleniums, which grow in 
old walls exposed to severe frosts, such as the black-stemmed Spleen- 
wort (several), and its pretty crested and notched forms, the little 
Wall Rue or Rue Fern, the forked and other native Spleenworts. All 
these are small, seldom exceeding 8 in. in height, while the 
black Maiden-hair Spleenwort Blechnum and its several beautiful 
forms usually average from 9 in. to 12 in. in height. Polypodium 
also contains some handsome evergreen plants ; even the common 
Polypody is a fine plant in its way, and is seen at its best when 
growing on a wall, on the branches of a tree, or on the roof of a low 
house. But by far the handsomest of its numerous forms are the 
Welsh Polypody, the Irish and the Cornish, and its handsome, finely- 
cut varieties in which the fronds are of a light and feathery nature. 
Then there are the more or less heavily crested forms, all of larger 
dimensions than the species from which they are issue. The common 
Hart's-tongue, also perfectly hardy, supplies us with many forms 
giving fine effect and free growth. 

As regards strong-growing evergreen hardy Ferns, however, none 
can compare with the Prickly Shield Fern and the soft Prickly Shield 
Fern and its beautiful varieties which produce massive fronds 18 ins. 
to 24 ins. long. Then there is an extensive section of varieties in 


which the fronds in many instances are as finely cut as those of the Lace 
Fern, and infinitely finer in effect. The soft Prickly Shield Fern has 
also produced some remarkably crested forms, all of which are equal 
in vigour and in dimensions to the typical species. The Holly Fern 
is also perfectly hardy, and is one of those plants which are usually 
killed with kindness, through being grown in a temperature higher 
than is required. As regards 

Exotic Evergreen Kinds, North America supplies the greatest 
part of those hardy in England. The larger-growing kinds from that 
country are AspidiumcristatumClintonianum, A. floridanum,Asplenium 
angustifolium, Lastrea marginalis, Polystichum munitum and P. 
acrostichoides, all of which sorts attain from 18 ins. to 24 ins. in 

Not less effective and quite as interesting as the above, though of 
smaller dimensions, are the North American Asplenium ebenum, 
Phegopteris alpestris, Pellaea atropurpurea, Woodsia alpina and W. 
glabella varying in height from 6 ins. to 12 ins. There are also some 
remarkably handsome strong-growing sorts, native of Japan, the 
most decorative as also the most distinct among these being Lastrea 
Standishi, with fronds 24 ins. to 30 ins. long, and of a lovely and 
cheerful green colour; Lastrea erythrosora, with fronds 18 ins. to 
24 ins. long, of a beautiful bronzy red colour when young, and of 
a deep dark green hue when mature. Lastrea opaca is another hand- 
some Japanese form, broad and massive, of a fine metallic colour when 
young, and of a deep velvety green when mature. In Lastrea 
Sieboldi we have a totally distinct plant, having the general aspect of 
a somewhat dwarf Polypodium aureum and of the same bluish colour. 
This and Dictyogramma japonica, which have somewhat bold and 
broad fronds, are also quite hardy, and so are the Japanese Lastrea 
prolifica, a species with finely-cut fronds, bearing numerous small 
plants ; the handsome Polystichum setosum, with beautiful dark green, 
shining foliage ; Polystichum Tsus-simense, Lastrea corusca and L. 
aristata. Lomaria chilensis is a large-growing Fern with fronds 
24 ins. to 30 ins. long and of a particularly deep green colour. Nipho- 
bolus lingua is a very distinct Fern with entire fronds of a very 
leathery nature, dark green above and silvery beneath, having some- 
what the general appearance of our common Hart's-tongue, but in 
this case the fronds, instead of starting from a single crown, are pro- 
duced along a slender rhizome of a wiry nature. Perhaps one of the 
prettiest of the hardy evergreen Ferns is the violet-scented Lastrea 
fragrans. This charming little plant, seldom more than 4 ins. in height, 
succeeds well when planted outside, as it is on the outside rockery in 


Kew Gardens, where its crown is simply protected by a handful of dry 
leaves during the winter. 

Rock and sun-loving Ferns. — It is a mistake to consider all 
Ferns as plants requiring shade and moisture. There are, on the con- 
trary, ferns which like full sunshine and bright light. Without count- 
ing Cystopteris alpina and fragilis, which grow in our walls as well in 
sun as in shade, there is one class of Ferns which actually requires 
sunshine. Cheilanthes from the Old World, as well as those from the 
New, only do well in a sunny aspect. I could not succeed at Geneva 
in cultivating Cheilanthes odora, lanuginosa and vestita. In spite of 
every care given to them, they suffered from general weakness, ending 
in decay. At last I one day saw Woodsia hyperborea, that delicate 
and fragile plant, in full sun along an alpine road in Italy, and on re- 
turning I planted all my Cheilanthes in sunshine on a south wall. 
The result was good, and I recommend the plan to Fern growers. 
But it was necessary also to change the soil in which these plants 
were cultivated, and I set them in soft porous mould composed of 
Sphagnum Moss, peat and sand ; good drainage and frequent water- 
ing ensured an immediate and excellent result. That which proved 
satisfactory for Cheilanthes I then tried for Woodsia hyperborea and 
ilvensis (the treatment did not do for W. obtusa) ; then for Scolopen- 
drium Hemionitis, that pretty and curious Fern from the south so rarely 
met with in gardens, where it is considered difficult to grow. Then I 
gave the same treatment to Nothochlena Marantae ; and this lovely 
Fern, which formerly did not do with me, turned out marvellously 
well. It is, then, certain that many species of Ferns require sun and 
plenty of air. — H. CORREVON, in Gardeners' Chronicle. 

The following exotic Ferns may be grown in the open air if the 
more tender are covered with old fronds or soft hay over the crowns 
in winter. These would be better in sheltered nooks in the rock 
garden in good peaty earth. Those kinds marked with an asterisk 
should receive protection in this form. Unless otherwise mentioned, 
the Ferns are natives of North America. 

Exotic hardy Ferns. 

Adiantum pedatum *Cyrtomium caryoti- 'La.itr^^— continued. Phegopteris alpestris Struthiopteris ger- 

Allosorous acrosti- deum (E. Indies) prolifica (Jamaica) Dryopteris manica (Europe) 

choides *falcatum (Japan) Sieboldi (japan) hexagonoptera *orientalis (Japan) 

Aspidium cristatum *Fortunei (Japan) *varia (China) polypodioides pennsylvanica 

Clintonianum Dennstaedtia puncti- Lomaria alpina f New Polystichum acros- p. recurva 

fragrans lobula Zealand) tichoides Woodsia 

nevadense Hypolepis mille- chilensis (Chili) a. grandiceps glabella 

novaboracense folium (N. Zea- crenulata (Chili) a. incisum obtusa 

rigidum argutum land) Onoclea sensibilis Brauni oregana 

spinulosum anthriscifolia (S. Osmunda cinna- concavum fjapan) scopulina 

thelypteroides Africa) momea munitum (Califor- Woodwardia angusti- 

Asplenium angustifo- Lastrea Osmunda Claytoni- nia) folia 

Hum *atrata India) ana m. imbricans *japonica (Japan) 

ebenum *decurrens (Japan) gracilis polyblepharum(Ja- orientalis (Japan) 

*fontanum (Europe) fragrans japonica pan) radicans (S. 

thelypteroides Goldiana *Pellsa atro- *proliferum fAustra- Europe) 

Michauxi intermedia purpurea lia) r._ aniericana 

Botrychium virgini- marginalis *gracilis *setosum (Japan) virginica 
cum *opaca (China) 

Tall Aruiido : ( >oIden I leld I iphook, Surrej 



One of the first things which all who care for gardens should 
learn, is the difference between true and delicate and ugly colour — 
between the showy dyes and much glaring colour seen in gardens 
and the beauties and harmonies of natural colour. There are, apart 
from beautiful flowers, many lessons and no fees : — Oak woods in 
winter, even the roads and paths and rocks and hedgerows ; leaves in 
many hues of life and death, the stems of trees : many birds are 
lovely studies in harmony and delicate gradation of colour ; the 
clouds (eternal mine of divinest colour) in many aspects of light, and 
the varied and infinite beauty of colour of the air itself as it comes 
between us and the distant view. 

Nature is a good colourist, and if we trust to her guidance we 
never find wrong colour in wood, meadow, or on mountain. " Laws " 
have been laid down by chemists and decorators about colours which 
artists laugh at, and to consider them is a waste of time. If we 
have to make coloured cottons, or to " garden " in coloured gravels, 
then it is well to think what ugly things will shock us least ; but 
dealing with living plants in their infinitely varied hues, and with 
their beautiful flowers, is a different thing ! If we grow well plants 
of good colour, all will be right in the end, but often raisers 
of flowers work against us by the raising of flowers of bad 
colour. The complicated pattern beds so often seen in flower gardens 
should be given up in favour of simpler beds, of the shapes best 
suiting the ground, and among various reasons for this is to get true 
colour. When we have little pincushion-beds where the whole 
" pattern " is seen at once through the use of dwarf plants, the desire 
comes to bring in colour in patterns and in ugly ways. For this 
purpose the wretched Alternanthera and other pinched plant rubbish 
are grown — plants not worth growing at all. 

When dwarf flowers are associated with bushes like Roses, and 
with plants like Carnations and tall Irises, having pointed and grace- 
ful foliage, the colours are relieved against the delicate foliage of 


the plants and by having the beds large enough we relieve the 
dwarfer flowers with taller plants behind. In a shrubbery, too. 
groups of flowers are nearly always right, and we can follow our desire 
in flowers without much thought of arranging for colour. But as 
the roots of the shrubs rob the flowers ; the best way is to put 
near and around shrubberies free-running plants that do not want 
much cultivation, like Solomon's Seal and Woodruff, and other plants 
that grow naturally in woods and copses, while with flowers like 
Pansies, Carnations, Roses, that depend for their beauty on good soil, 
the best way is to keep them in the open garden, away from hungry 

By having large simple beds we relieve the flowers, and enjoy their 
beauty of colour and the forms of the plants without " pattern " of 
any kind. Instead of" dotting" the plants, it is better to group them 
naturally, letting the groups run into each other, and varying them here 
and there with taller plants. A flower garden of any size could be 
planted in this way, without the geometry of the ordinary flower garden, 
and the poor effect of the " botanical " " dotty " mixed border. As, 
however, all may not be ready to follow this plan, the following notes 
on colour, by a flower gardener who has given much thought to the 
subject, will be useful : — 

" One of the most important points in the arrangement of a 
garden is the placing of the flowers with regard to their colour-effect. 
Too often a garden is an assemblage of plants placed together hap- 
hazard, or if any intention be perceptible, as is commonly the case in 
the bedding system, it is to obtain as great a number as possible of 
the most violent contrasts ; and the result is a hard, garish vulgarity. 
Then, in mixed borders, one usually sees lines or evenly distributed 
spots of colour, wearying and annoying to the eye, and proving how 
poor an effect can be got by the misuse of the best materials. Should 
it not be remembered that in setting a garden we are painting a 
picture, — a picture of hundreds of feet or yards instead of so many 
inches, painted with living flowers and seen by open daylight — so that 
to paint it rightly is a debt we owe to the beauty of the flowers and 
to the light of the sun ; that the colours should be placed with 
careful forethought and deliberation, as a painter employs them on 
his picture, and not dropped down in lifeless dabs. 

" Harmony rather than Contrast. — Splendid harmonies 
of rich and brilliant colour, and proper sequences of such har- 
monies, should be the rule ; there should be large effects, each well 
studied and well placed, varying in different portions of the garden 
scheme. One very common fault is a want of simplicity of in- 
tention ; another, an absence of any definite plan of colouring. Many 
people have not given any attention to colour-harmony, or have 


not by nature the gift of perceiving it. Let them learn it by observing 
some natural examples of happily related colouring, taking separate 
families of plants whose members are variously coloured. Some 
of the best to study would be American Azaleas, Wallflowers, German 
and Spanish Iris, Alpine Auriculas, Polyanthus, and Alstroemerias. 

" Breadth of Mass and Intergrouping. — It is important to 
notice that the mass of each colour should be large enough to have 
a certain dignity, but never so large as to be wearisome ; a certain 
breadth in the masses is also wanted to counteract the effect of fore- 
shortening when the border is seen from end to end. When a definite 
plan of colouring is decided on, it will save trouble if the plants 
whose flowers are approximately the same in colour are grouped 
together to follow each other in season of blooming. Thus, in a part 
of the border assigned to red, Oriental Poppies might be planted 
among or next to Tritomas, with scarlet Gladioli between both, so 
that there should be a succession of scarlet flowers, the places occupied 
by the Gladioli being filled previously with red Wallflowers. 

" Warm Colours are not difficult to place : scarlet, crimson, 
pink, orange, yellow, and warm white are easily arranged so as to 
pass agreeably from one to the other. 

" Purple and Lilac group well together, but are best kept well 
away from red and pink ; they do well with the colder whites, and are 
seen at their best when surrounded and carpeted with gray-white 
foliage, like that of Cerastium tomentosum or Cineraria maritima ; but 
if it be desired to pass from a group of warm colour to purple and 
lilac, a good breadth of pale yellow or warm white may be interposed. 

"White Flowers. — Care must be taken in placing very cold 
white flowers such as Iberis correaefolia, which are best used as quite 
a high light, led up to by whites of a softer character. Frequent 
repetitions of white patches catch the eye unpleasantly ; it will 
generally be found that one mass or group of white will be enough 
in any piece of border or garden arrangement that can be seen from 
any one point of view. 

" Blue requires rather special treatment, and is best approached 
by delicate contrasts of warm whites and pale yellows, such as the 
colours of double Meadow Sweet, and CEnothera Lamarckiana, but 
rather avoiding the direct opposition of strong blue and full yellow. 
Blue flowers are also very beautiful when completely isolated and seen 
alone among rich dark foliage. 

" A Progression of Colour in a mixed border might begin 
with strong blues, light and dark, grouped with white and pale yellow, 
passing on to pink ; then to rose colour, crimson, and the strongest 
scarlet, leading to orange and bright yellow. A paler yellow followed 
by white would distantly connect the warm colours with the lilacs and 


purples, and a colder white would combine them pleasantly with low- 
growing plants with cool-coloured leaves. 

" SiLVERV-LEAVED PLANTS are valuable as edgings and carpets 
to purple flowers, and bear the same kind of relation to them as the 
warm-coloured foliage of some plants does to their strong red flowers, 
as in the case of the Cardinal Flower and double crimson Sweet 
William. The bright clear blue of Forget-me-not goes best with fresh 
pale green, and pink flowers are beautiful with pale foliage striped 
with creamy white, such as the variegated forms of Jacob's-ladder or 
Iris pseudacorus. A useful carpeting plant, Acaena pulchella, assumes 
in spring a rich bronze between brown and green which is valuable 
with Wallflowers of the brown and orange colours. These few 
examples, out of many that will come under the notice of any careful 
observer, are enough to indicate what should be looked for in the way 
of accompanying foliage — such foliage, if well chosen and well placed, 
may have the same value to the flowering plant that a worthy and 
appropriate setting has to a jewel. 

" In Sunny Places warm colours should preponderate ; the yellow 
colour of sunlight brings them together and adds to their glowing effect. 

" A Shady Border, on the other hand, seems best suited for 
the cooler and more delicate colours. A beautiful scheme of cool 
colouring might be arranged for a retired spot, out of sight of other 
brightly coloured flowers, such as a border near the shady side of any 
shrubbery or wood that would afford a good background of dark 
foliage. Here would be the best opportunity for using blue, cool 
white, palest yellow, and fresh green. A few typical plants are the 
great Larkspurs, Monkshoods, and Columbines, Anemones (such as 
japonica, sylvestris, apennina, Hepatica, and the single and double 
forms of nemorosa), white Lilies, Trilliums, Pyrolas, Habenarias, 
Primroses, white and yellow, double and single. Daffodils, white 
Cyclamen, Ferns and mossy Saxifrages, Lily-of-the- Valley, and 
Woodruff. The most appropriate background to such flowers would 
be shrubs and trees, giving an effect of rich sombre masses of dusky 
shadow rather than a positive green colour, such as Bay Phillyrea, 
Box, Yew, and Evergreen Oak. Such a harmony of cool colouring, 
in a quiet shady place, would present a delightful piece of gardening. 

" Bedded-OUT Plants, in such parts of a garden as may require 
them, may be arranged on the same general principle of related, rather 
than of violently opposed, masses of colour. As an example, a fine 
effect was obtained with half-hardy annuals, mostly kinds of Marigold, 
Chrysanthemum, and Nasturtium, of all shades of yellow, orange, and 
brown. This was in a finely designed formal garden before the prin- 
cipal front of one of the stateliest of the great houses of England. It 
was a fine lesson in temperance, this employment of a simple scheme 




of restricted colouring, yet it left nothing to be desired in the way of 
richness and brilliancy, and well served its purpose as a dignified 
ornament, and worthy accompaniment to the fine old house. 

" Contrasts — How to be Used. — The greater effects being 
secured, some carefully arranged contrasts may be used to strike the 
eye when passing ; for opposite colours in close companionship are not 
telling at a distance, and are still less so if interspersed, their tendency 
then being to neutralize each other. Here and there a charming 
effect may be produced by a bold contrast, such as a mass of orange 
Lilies against Delphiniums or Gentians against alpine Wallflowers ; 
but these violent contrasts should be used sparingly and as brilliant 
accessories rather than trustworthy principals. 

" Climbers on Walls. — There is often a question about the 
suitability of variously coloured creepers on house or garden walls. 
The same principle of harmonious colouring is the best guide. A 
warm-coloured wall, one of Bath stone or buff bricks, for instance, is 
easily dealt with. On this all the red-flowered, leaved, or berried 
plants look well — Japan Quince, red and pink Roses, Virginian 
Creeper, Crataegus Pyracantha, and the more delicate harmonies of 
Honeysuckle, Banksian Roses, and Clematis montana, and Flammula^ 
while C. Jackmanni and other purple and lilac kinds are suitable as 
occasional contrasts. The large purple and white Clematises harmonise 
perfectly with the cool gray of Portland stone ; and so do dark-leaved 
climbers, such as White Jasmine, Passion Flower, and green Ivy. Red 
brickwork, especially when new, is not a happy ground colour ; per- 
haps it is best treated with large-leaved climbers — Magnolias, Vines, 
Aristolochia — to counteract the fidgety look of the bricks and white 
joints. When brickwork is old and overgrown with gray Lichens, 
there can be no more beautiful ground for all colours of flowers from 
the brightest to the tenderest — none seems to come amiss. 

" Colour in Bedding-out. — We must here put out of mind 
nearly all the higher sense of the enjoyment of flowers ; the delight in 
their beauty individually or in natural masses ; the pleasure derived 
from a personal knowledge of their varied characters, appearances, and 
ways, which gives them so much of human interest and lovableness ; 
and must regard them merely as so much colouring matter, to fill such 
and such spaces for a few months. We are restricted to a kind of 
gardening not far removed from that in which the spaces of the design 
are filled in with pounded brick, slate, or shells. The best rule in the 
arrangement of a bedded garden is to keep the scheme of colouring as 
simple as possible. The truth of this is easily perceived by an ordinary 
observer when shown a good example, and is obvious without any 
showing to one who has studied colour effects ; and yet the very op- 
posite intention is most commonly seen, to wit, a garish display of the 


greatest number of crudely contrasting colours. How often do we see 
combinations of scarlet Geranium, Calceolaria, and blue Lobelia — 
three subjects that have excellent qualities as bedding plants if used 
in separate colour schemes, but which in combination can hardly fail 
to look bad? In this kind of gardening, as in any other, let us by all 
means have our colours in a brilliant blaze, but never in a discordant 
glare. One or two colours, used temperately and with careful judg- 
ment, will produce nobler and richer results than many colours 
purposely contrasted, or wantonly jumbled. The formal garden that 
is an architectural adjunct to an imposing building demands a dignified 
unity of colouring instead of the petty and frivolous effects so com- 
monly obtained by the misuse of many colours. As practical examples 
of simple harmonies, let us take a scheme of red for summer bedding. 
It may range from palest pink to nearly black, the flowers being 
Pelargoniums in many shades of pink, rose, salmon, and scarlet ; Ver- 
benas, red and pink ; and judicious mixtures of Iresine, Alternanthera, 
Amaranthus, the dark Ajuga, and red-foliaged Oxalis. Still finer is a 
colour scheme of yellow and orange, worked out with some eight 
varieties of Marigold, Zinnias, Calceolarias, and Nasturtiums — a long 
range of bright rich colour, from the palest buff and primrose to the 
deepest mahogany. Such examples of strong warm colouring are ad- 
mirably suited for large spaces of bedded garden. Where a small 
space has to be dealt with it is better to have arrangements of blue, 
with white and the palest yellow, or of purple and lilac, with gray 
foliage. A satisfactory example of the latter could be worked out with 
beds of purple and lilac Clematis, trained over a carpet of Cineraria 
maritima, or one of the white-foliaged Centaureas, and Heliotropes and 
purple Verbenas, with silvery foliage of Cerastium, Antennaria, or 
Stachys lanata. These are some simple examples easily carried out. 
The principle once seen and understood (and the operator having a 
perception of colour), modifications will suggest themselves, and a 
correct working with two or more colours will be practicable ; but the 
simpler ways are the best, and will always give the noblest results. 
There is a peculiar form of harmony to be got even in varied colours 
by putting together those of nearly the same strength or depth. As 
an example in spring bedding, Myosotis dissitiflora, Silene pendula 
(not the dee^^est shade), and double yellow Primrose or yellow Poly- 
anthus, though distinctly red, blue, and yellow, yet are of such tender 
and equal depth of colouring, that they work together charmingly, 
especially if they are further connected with the gray-white foliage of 
Cerastium. — G. J." 



The Poet's Laurel 



A MAN who makes a garden should have a heart for plants that have 
the gift of sweetness as well as beauty of form or colour. And what a 
mystery as well as charm — wild Roses sweet as the breath of heaven, 
and wild Roses of repulsive odour all born of the earth-mother, and it 
may be springing from the same spot. Flowers sweet at night and 
scentless in the day ; flowers of evil odour at one hour and fragrant 
at another ; plants sweet in breath of blossom, but deadly in leaf and 
sap ; Lilies sweet as they are fair, and Lilies that must not be let 
into the house ; with bushes in which all that is delightful in odour 
permeates to every March-daring bud. The Grant Aliens of the day, 
who tell us how the Dandelion sprang from the Primrose some 
millions of years ago, would no doubt explain all these things to us, 
or put long names to them — what Sir Richard Owen used to call 
" conjectural biology," — but we need not care where they leave the 
question, for to us is given this precious fragrance, happily almost 
without effort, and as free as the clouds from man's power to spoil. 

Every fertile country has its fragrant flowers and trees ; alpine 
meadows with Orchids and mountain Violets ; the Primrose-scented 
woods. Honeysuckle-wreathed and May-frosted hedgerows of Britain ; 
the Cedars of India and of the mountains of Asia Minor, with Lebanon ; 
trees of the same stately order, perhaps still more fragrant in the 
warmer Pacific breezes of the Rocky Mountains and Oregon, where 
the many great Pines often spring from a carpet of fragrant Ever- 
greens, and a thousand flowers which fade away after their early 
bloom, and stand withered in the heat, while the tall Pines overhead 
distil for ever their grateful odour in the sunny air. Myrtle, Rosemary, 
and Lavender, and all the aromatic bushes and herbs clothing the little 
capes that jut into the great sea which washes the shores of Greece, 
Italy, Sicily, and Corsica ; garden islands scattered through vast 


Pacific seas, as stars are scattered in the heavens ; enormous tropical 
forests, little entered by man, but from which he gathers on the out- 
skirts treasures for stove and greenhouse ; great island gardens like 
Java and Ceylon and Borneo, rich in spices and lovely plant life ; 
Australian bush, with plants strange as if from another world, but 
often most delicate in odour even in the distorted fragments of them 
we see in our gardens. 

It is not only from the fragile flower-vases these sweet odours 
flow ; they breathe through leaf and stem, and the whole being of 
many trees and bushes, from the stately Gum trees of Australia to 
the sweet Verbena of Chili. Many must have felt the charm of the 
strange scent of the Box bush before Oliver Wendell Holmes told us 
of its " breathing the fragrance of eternity." The scent of flowers is 
often cloying, as of the Tuberose, while that of leaves is often delicate 
and refreshing, as in the budding Larch, and in the leaves of Balm and 
Rosemary, while fragrance is often stored in the wood, as in the Cedar 
of Lebanon and many other trees, and even down through the roots. 

It is given to few to see many of these sweet plants in their 
native lands, but we who love our gardens may enjoy many of them 
about us, not merely in drawings or descriptions, but the living, 
breathing things themselves. The Geraniums in the cottage window 
bring us the spicy fragrance of the South African hills ; the Lavender 
bush of the sunny hills of Provence, where it is at home ; the Roses 
in the garden bring near us the breath of the wild Roses on a thou- 
sand hills ; the sweet or pot herbs of our gardens are a gift of the 
shore-lands of France and Italy and Greece. The Sweet Bay bush 
in the farmer's or cottage garden comes with its story from the 
streams of Greece, where it seeks moisture in a thirsty land along 
with the wild Olive and the Arbutus. And this Sweet Bay is the 
Laurel of the poets, of the first and greatest of all poet and artist 
nations of the earth — the Laurel sacred to Apollo, and used in many 
ways in his worship, as we may see on coins, and in many other 
things that remain to us of the great peoples of the past. The 
Myrtle, of less fame, but also a sacred plant beloved for its leaves 
and blossoms, was, like the Laurel, seen near the temples of the race 
who built their temples as the Lily is built, whose song is deathless, and 
the fragments of whose art is Despair to the artist of our time. And 
thus the fragrant bushes of our gardens may entwine for us, apart 
from their gift of beauty, living associations and beautiful thoughts 
for ever famous in human story. 

It is not only odours of trees and flowers known to all we have 
to think of, but also many delicate ones, less known, perhaps, by 
reason of the blossoms that give them being without showy colour, as 
the wild Vine, the Sweet Vernal, Lemon, and other Grasses. And 
among these modest flowers there are none more delicate in odour 

U 2 


than the blossoms of the common white Willow, the yellow-twigged 
and the other Willows of Britain and Northern Europe, which are all 
the more grateful in air coming to us 

O'er the northern moorland, o'er the northern loam. 

What is the lesson these sweet flowers have for us ? They tell us 
— if there were no other flowers to tell us — that a garden should be a 
living thing ; its life not only fair in form and lovely in colour, but in 
its breath and essence coming from the Divine. They tell us that the 
very common attempt to conform their fair lives into tile or other 
patterns, to clip or set them out as so much mere colour of the paper- 
stainer or carpet-maker, is to degrade them and make our gardens ugly 
and ridiculous, from the point of view of Nature and of true art. Yet 
many of these treasures for the open garden have been shut out of our 
thoughts owing to the exclusion of almost everything that did not 
make showy colour and lend itself to crude ways of setting out flowers. 

Of the many things that should be thought of in the making of a 
garden to live in, this of fragrance is one of the first. And, happily, 
among every class of flowers which may adorn our open-air gardens 
there are fragrant things to be found. Apart from the groups of plants 
in which all, or nearly all, are fragrant, as in Roses, the annual and 
biennial flowers of our gardens are rich in fragrance — Stocks, Mignon- 
ette, Sweet Peas, Sweet Sultan, Wallflowers, double Rockets, Sweet 
Scabious, and many others. These, among the most easily raised of 
plants, maybe enjoyed by the poorest cottage gardeners. The garden 
borders of hardy flowers bear for us odours as precious as any breath of 
tropical Orchid, from the Lily-of-the-Valley to the Carnation, this last 
yielding, perhaps, the most grateful fragrance of all the flowering host in 
our garden land. In these borders are things sweeter than words may 
tell of — Woodruff, Balm, Pinks, Violets, garden Primroses, Poly- 
anthuses, Day and other Lilies, early Iris, Narcissus, Evening Prim- 
roses, Mezereon, and Pansies delicate in their sweetness. 

No one may be richer in fragrance than the wise man who plants 
hardy shrubs and flowering trees — Magnolia, May, Daphne, Lilac, 
Wild Rose, Azalea, Honeysuckle — names each telling of whole 
families of fragrant things. From the same regions whence come the 
Laurel and the Myrtle we have the Laurustinus, beautiful in our sea- 
coast and warmer districts, and many other lovely bushes happy 
in our climate ; one, the Wintersweet, pouring out delicious frag- 
rance in mid-winter ; Sweet Gale, Allspice, and the delightful little 
Mayflower that creeps about in the woodland shade in North America. 
So, though we cannot boast of Lemon or Orange groves, our climate 
is kind to many lovely and fragrant shrubs. 

Even our ugly walls may be sweet gardens with Magnolia, Honey- 
suckle Clematis, Sweet Verbena, and the delightful old Jasmine, still 
clothing many a house in London. Most precious of all, however. 



are the noble climbing Tea Roses raised in our own time. Among 
the abortions of this century these are a real gain — the loveliest flowers 
ever raised by man. Noble in form and colour, and scented as 
delicately as a June morn in alpine pastures, with these most precious 
of garden Roses we could cover all the ugly walls in England and 
Ireland, and Heaven knows many of them are in want of a veil. 
Some Fragratii Plants for British Gardens. 





Sweet Scabious 




Plantain Lily 

Sweet Sultan 



Marvel of Peru 


Sweet Verbena 


Day Lily 



Sweet William 



Meadow Sweet 

Rock Rose 



Evening Primrose 

Mexican Orange Rockets 






Tulip Tree 


Grape Hyacinth 









Balm of Gilead 


Mock Orange 



Bee Balm 



St. Bruno's Lily 


Belladonna Lily 





Blue Bells 

Horse Chestnut 



Water Lilies 



Night-scented Stock 



Burning Bush 


Paiony (some) 

Sweet Bay 

Winter Green 




Sweet Cicely 

Winter Heliotrope 




Sweet Fern Bush 

Winter Sweet 




Sweet Flag 





Sweet Gale 





Sweet Pea 


Honeysuckle (Baeres, Henley-on-Thames). From a phc 
by Miss Maud Grenfell. 



A GREAT waste is owing to 
frivolous and thoughtless " de- 
sign " as to plan and shapes of 
the beds in the flower-garden. 
What a vision opens out to any 
one who considers the design of 
the flower garden when he 
thinks of the curiosities and 
vexations in the forms of beds 
in almost every land where a 
flower garden exists ! The 
gardener is the heir — to his 
great misfortune — of much use- 
less complexity and frivolous 
design, born of applying con- 
ventional designs to the ground. 
These designs come to us from 
a remote epoch, and the design- 
ing of gardens being from very 
early times in the hands of the 
decorative " artist," the garden 
was subjected to their will, 
and in our own days we even 
see gardens laid without the 
slightest relation to garden use, 
difficult to plant, and costly to 
form and to keep in order. At South Kensington the elaborate 
tracery of sand and gravel was attractive to some when first set out, 

Type of comple 

parterre, copied out of books for all 
sorts of situations. 


but it soon turned to dust and ashes. It was, indeed, to a great 
extent formed of broken brickdust, in a vain attempt to get rid of 
the gardener and his flowers. The colours were supphed from the 
building sheds, where boys were seen pounding up bricks and slates, 
and beds were made of silver sand, so that no gardener could dis- 
figure them. The Box edgings of beds a foot wide or smaller soon 
got out of order, and after a few years the whole thing was painful to 
see, while good gardeners were wasting precious time trying to plant 
paltry beds in almost every frivolous device known to the art of con- 
ventional design. 

Even where such extravagances were never attempted we see the 
evil of the same order of ideas, and in many gardens the idea of 
adapting the beds to the ground never occurs to the designer, but a 
design has been taken out of some old book. If the ground does not 
suit the plan, so much the worse for the ground and all who have to 
work on it. The results of this style of forming beds the cottage 
gardens escaped from, the space being small and the cottage gardener 
content with the paths about his door. To some people this objection 
on my part to intricate design is mistaken for an objection to formality 
altogether. Now there are bold spirits who do not mind setting 
their houses among rocks and heather, but we must cultivate a flower 
garden, and simplicity as to form of the beds should be the rule in it. 
There are many ways of growing flowers and all sorts of situations fit 
for them, but the flower garden itself near the house must be laid 
out with formal beds, or else we cannot cultivate the flowers or get 
about the ground with ease. It is a question of right and wrong 
formality. The beds in my own work are, as will be seen by the 
plans here given, as formal as any, but simpler, and are made on 
the ground and to the ground. Our object should be to see the 
flowers and not the beds, so that while we have all the advantage 
of mass and depth of soil, and all the good a bed can give for con- 
venience of working or excellence of growth, we should take little 
pride in its form, and plant it so that we may see the picturesque 
effects of the plants and flowers, and forget the form of the bed in 
the picture. 

The relation ot the beds to each other is often much too complex 
and there is little freedom. Designs that were well enough for 
furniture or walls or panels when applied to the garden gave us a 
new set of difficulties. Carried out in wood or in the carpet they 
answer their purpose, if we like them ; but a flower bed is a thing 
for much work in cultivating, arranging and keeping it, and it is 
best to see that we are not hindered by needless complexities in deal- 
ing with the beds. In good plans there is no difficulty of access, 
no small points to be cut in Grass or other material, no vexatious 


obstruction to work, but beds as airy and simple as possible and 
giving us much more room for flowers" than beds of the ordinary- 
type. The plans given are those of wholly different kinds ot 

The next plan is that of the gardener's house at Uffington, near 
Stamford ; it is an example of the older-fashioned garden not un- 
common before nearly all old gardens were altered for the sake of 
the Perilla and its few companions. At one end of the little garden 
is the gardener's house, and high walls surround the rest of the garden, 
so that there is shelter and every comfort for the plants. The garden 
is simply laid out to suit the ground, the plants— Roses and hardy 
flowers in great variety, a plan which admits of delightful effect in 
such walled gardens. Picturesque masses of Wistaria covered one 
side of the wall and part of the house — the whole was a picture in 
the best sense ; and it would be difficult to find in garden enclosures 
anything more delightful during more than half the year. 

The main drawback in gardens of this sort in the old days was 
the absence of grouping or any attempt to hold " things together " 
—a fault which is easily got over. It is easy to avoid scattering 
things one likes all over the beds at equal distances, and, without 
" squaring " them in any stupid way, to keep them rather more 
together in natural groups, in which they are more effective, 
and in winter it is much easier to remember where they are. 
In this way, too, it is easy to give a somewhat distinct look 
to each part of the garden. Box edgings may be used in such a 
garden, and where they thrive and are well kept they are very pretty 
in effect, but always distinctly inferior to a stone edging because 
more troublesome, and also because dwarf plants cannot grow over 
them here and there as they can over a rough edging of natural 
stone, the best of all edgings. 

Flower Garden of Tudor House. — This shows two flower 
gardens close to a Tudor house, with a garden door from the house 
into each. One being small (that on the south), it was thought 
better • to devote it all to flowers and the necessary walks, all being 
done with a view to simplicity of culture and good effect of the 
plants. In the other garden, there being more space, the lawn is 
left open in the centre, while all round and convenient to the walk 
are simple, bold beds easy to deal with, and also spaced in a free 
and open way for people to get among them or about the lawn. 
The little south garden being much frequented in all weathers, and 
the paths among the beds rather small, it was thought best to pave 
them with old flagstones, and that has proved very satisfactory, because 
rolling and much weeding are thereby avoided and the walks are 
pleasant to walk or work on at all seasons. 


South of the house and of these gardens there is an open, airy 
meadow lawn, the Grass of which is studded with many bulbs that 
flower in the spring. The vigorous kinds of spring bulbs are grown in 

Sheltered little garden in front of gardener's house at Uffington, Stamford, with simple beds of Roses 
and hardy flowers. The space enclosed in walls. 

great quantities in this field, and only the choicer and rarer early bulbs 
are put among the Roses and other flowers in the flower garden proper, 
which is mainly devoted to the finest hardy flowers of summer and to 
Tea Roses. 


Hawley. — This garden shows two essential things in the art of 
garden-design : First, the general idea of this book that it is by well 
studying the ground itself, rather than bringing in any conven- 
tional plans, we arrive at the best results. Gardening is so pleasant 
in many ways that almost any plan may pass for pretty and yet 
be far from being the most artistic result that could be got among a 
given set of conditions, or difficulties it may be of ground. If in such 
a case we adopt such plans as are sent out from offices both in 
France and England, it is possible that (with considerable cost) we 
may adapt them to the situation, but assuredly that way cannot give 
us the most artistic result. 

The second point is, that where the vegetation of a place has 
distinct characters of its own, these should be made the most of. If 
this were the case generally we should see much less of the stereo- 
typed in garden-design. This garden is in the charming Pine district 
of Hampshire — the Pine, beautiful in groups and in distant effects, 
and this was taken advantage of, and the Pine look of the place 
preserved in all ways, and even heightened where it could be done with 
good effect. These Pine groups and masses were naturally more of 
the framework of the garden — the woods and trees surrounding it. 
The next thing done was to take advantage of the natural vegetation 
of the ground apart from the trees e.g., the heath}' vegetation of the 
country, and instead of destroying it for turf or any of the usual 
features of agarden,preservingall its prettiest effects, its groups of Heath, 
wild Fern, and some Birch and Broom. Enough mown grass being 
left to walk upon outside the garden, it was thought the prettiest 
thing instead of a shaven lawn would be to leave the wild Heaths and 
bushes and grass of the country, here and there scattering a few bulbs 
on the grass, but generally leaving things as nature had left them. 
The walks, instead of following the French sections of eggs pattern or 
the conventional serpentine walks of some landscape work were made 
in the line of easiest grade and where they were most wanted — and 
are not more in number or area than were necessary. There was no 
attempt made to make the walks conform to any preconceived idea. 
The grass walk under the Oaks was suggested by the Oaks them- 
selves, and it is very pretty in effect. Originally several terraces 
had been run up at all sorts of awkward angles, and the ground 
was consequently more difficult to deal with than can well be 
imagined ; these were thrown into one simple terrace round the 
house planned in due relation to its needs and the taste of the 
owner. The flower garden was laid out in simple beds as shown 
on the plan, and below these the necessary grass walks lead out 
towards the open country. Once free of the flower garden and the 
walk leading to it the ground took its natural disposition again. The 


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kitchen garden had been in its present place originally ; its position- 
could not be changed, and was therefore accepted and walled round 
with Oak. The whole garden is quite distinct from any other, which 
in itself is a great point. This garden was, as I think all gardens 
ought to be, marked out on the ground itself without the intervention 
of any plan. A plan is always a feeble substitute for the ground, and 
even if made with the greatest care and cost has still to be adapted 
to the ground. The plan shown in the engraving was made after 
my work was done. 

Shrubland Park. — The plan here given is that of the new 
flower garden at Shrubland Park, which is situated exactly in front 
of the house, and tells its own story. It shows the simple form 
of beds adopted, planned to suit their places, in lieu of the complex 
pattern beds for carpet bedding, sand, coloured brick, and also the 
change from such gardening to true flower-gardening. The names of 
the plants used are printed in position, but the actual way of grouping 
cannot well be shown in such a plan — the plants are not in little dots, 
but in easy, bold groups here and there running together. The flower 
gardening adopted is permanent, i.e., there is no moving of things 
in the usual wholesale way in spring and autumn. The beds are 
planted to stay, and that excludes spring gardening of the ordinary 
kind. But many early spring flowers are used in the garden, the 
mainstay of which is summer and autumn flowers, the period chosen 
for beauty being that when the house is occupied and all beautiful 
hardy flowers from Roses to Pansies that flower from May to 
November are those preferred. There is no formality or repetition 
in the flower planting but picturesque groups, here and there running 
together, and sometimes softened by dwarf plants running below 
the taller ones. The beds are set in a pleasant lawn, and there 
is easy access to them in all directions from the grass. The area of 
gravel was much greater in the old plan than in the present one, in 
which what is essential only for free access to the garden is given. 

Evergreen Flower Garden in Surrey Villa. — Bearing in 
mind the conventional bareness and hardness of the common garden 
of our own day, there is no improvement greater than results 
from breaking into this by permanent planting of things of a bushy 
kind. The plan of this garden shows a choice evergreen garden 
instead of the usual summer planting and autumnal death. The beds 
are simple and planted with choice shrubs, not crowded, but leaving 
room for different kinds of hardy flowers so as to get the relief of 
flower and shrub, and the charm of beds alive and filled at all times. 
Most of the evergreens (like Kalmia, Japanese Andromeda, and Rhodo- 
dendrons of beautiful colour) are choice flowering ones, so that we 
have bloom in spring and summer ; and after, or with the shrubs, the 

S. ih' ,.f Feet 

Hawley flower garden. 

Bitton : part of the plan of the garden 

iiise for flowers and shrubs. 


flowers between. Such a garden in pure air well begun might be al- 
most permanent, because in such soils as these light peaty Surrey soils, 
the shrubs would thrive for many years ; and the same may be said 
of the Lilies and choice bulbs between, only slight changes and ad- 
ditions being required from time to time. Many large gardens, which 
in similar soils are bare even in early summer, might thus be made 
charming and graceful gardens throughout the year, and, if this way 
is not so loud in colour as other ways of flower-gardening, it 
suits certain positions well. This way of planting need not exclude 
some summer planting of the usual character, in fact would give 
zest and relief to it: it is the one evanescent system carried out 
everywhere that steals the varied beauty from the garden. 

BiTTON Vicarage Garden. — This is one of the oldest and most 
richly stored with good hardy flowers of all English gardens, and, 
unlike many gardens where much variety is sought, it is pretty in 
effect and quite by itself as all gardens should be, and an example of a 
small garden of the highest interest, and withal of simple and sensible 

The garden is not a large one, being about an acre and a half in 
area, and in shape a parallelogram, or double square. As its owner, 
Mr. Ellacombe, tells us : 

" It lies on the west side of the Cotswolds, which rise, about half a 
mile away, to the height of 750 feet, and about 15 miles to the south 
are the Mendips. These two ranges of hills do much to shelter us 
from the winds, both from the cold north and easterly winds, and from 
the south-west winds which in this part of England are sometimes 
very violent. I attach great importance to this kindly shelter from 
the great strength of the winds, for plants are like ourselves in many 
respects, and certainly in this, that they can bear a very great amount 
of frost, if only the air is still, far better than they can bear a less 
cold if accompanied by a high wind." 

The garden then has the advantage of shelter ; it has also the 
advantage of a good aspect, for though the undulations are very slight 
the general slope faces south ; and it has the further advantage of a 
rich and deep alluvial soil, which, however, is so impregnated with 
lime and magnesia that it is hopeless to attempt Rhododendrons, 
Azaleas, Kalmias, and many other things, and it has the further dis- 
advantage of being only about 70 feet above the sea level, which makes 
an insuperable difficulty in the growth of the higher alpines. On the 
whole, the garden is favourable for the cultivation of flowers, and especi- 
ally for the cultivation of shrubs, except those which dislike the lime. 

The garden is in many ways an ideal one, lying deep down in a 
happy valley and forming with the fine old church the centre of an 
old world village. It is a quiet, peaceful garden of grass and trees 

: - 




and simple borders, and every nook and corner has its appropriate 
flower ; in a word, it is just such a garden as one would expect a 
scholar to possess who has sympathy for all that lives or breathes and 
who has given us such a book as " The Plant Lore and Garden Craft 
of Shakespeare." The garden at Bitton Vicarage is no new garden, 
for it was famous more than half a century ago, when Haworth and 
Herbert, Anderson, Falconer, Sweet, Baxter and others took such an 
interest in bulbs and hardy flowers. By the same token it is by no 
means a new-fangled garden ; there is all due and proper keeping, but 
it is patent to any plant-lover that its owner thinks more of seeing 
his plants happy and healthy than he does of any unnecessary 
trimness. — F. W. B. 

Reserve Garden. — We have an example in this plan of what 
is meant by a reserve garden. An oblong piece of ground having 
the walls of the kitchen garden for two of its boundaries, and a Yew 
hedge sheltering it from the east winds, while the other is screened 
by evergreen trees, with which are intermingled hardy plants of tall 
growth. The plants are set in beds without reference to the general 
effect, and all the borders, being edged with stone dug on the place, 
give no trouble after the stones are properly set ; when old and moss- 
grown the stones look better than anything else that could be used — 
the dwarfer plants being allowed to run over them and break the 
lines. Every year the plan of such a garden may be varied as our 
tastes vary and as the flowers want change. A similar garden ought 
to be in every place where there are borders to be stocked and 
maintained in good condition, and particularly where there is a 
demand for cut flowers. 

Such a garden may be made in any shape which is convenient for 
cultivation, for access and for cutting ; but some general throwing of 
the ground into easily worked beds is desirable. The more free and 
less hampered with gravel, permanent edgings, and the like, the better 
it will be for future work. The gardener is often hindered by need- 
less impedimenta in the flower garden, but in the reserve garden, 
where only the cultivation of flowers has to be thought of, he should 
be able to get to work at any time with the least possible difficulty, 
and in dry and good soils it would not be necessary to have much 
more than a beaten walk for the foot. It would be possible to do 
without edgings ; but where edgings are used they should be of a 
kind that might be removed at any time, the best for this end 
being of natural stone. The drainage should be good, and if possible 
the place should be not too far to the manure heap, while the soil 
should in all cases be good, as very often it has to give two crops a 
year ; in the case of bulbs that perish early it is easy to get after crops 
of annuals or ornamental grasses. 






Reserve garden for the choicer families of hardy plants, grown in beds without reference to general 
effect, and serving also as a garden for cut flowers and a nursery. 



Our gardens are often laid out in a complex way : with so many 
needless walks, edgings, and impediments of many kinds that work 
cannot be done in a simple way, and half the time is lost in taking 
care of or avoiding useless or frivolous things. Efforts thus wasted 
should be turned to account in the growth of flowers. In many 
large places there is no true flower-gardening ; wretched plants 
are stuck out in the parterre every year, and a few stunted things 
are scratched in round the choke-muddle shrubbery, but little labour 
or love is bestowed on the growth of flowers. In others there are 
miles of walks bordered by bare stretches of earth, as cheerful as 
Woking Cemetery in its early years. The gardener is impotent to 
turn such a waste into a paradise ; his time and his thoughts are 
often eaten up by keeping in order needless and often ugly walks. 
The gardeners, owing to the trouble of this wasteful system, have 
little time for true flower-gardening — forming a real garden of 
Roses, or groups of choice shrubs, or beds of Lilies, or of other 
noble hardy plants, so that the beds may fairly nourish their tenants 
for a dozen years. Instead of the never-ending and wearisome 
hen-scratchings of autumn and spring, we ought to prepare one 
portion of the flower garden or pleasure ground each year, so that 
it will yield beauty for many years. But this cannot be done while 
half the gardener's time is taken up with barber's work. 

Our own landscape gardeners are a little more sparing of these 
hideous walks than the French ; but we very often have twice too 
many walks, which torment the poor gardener by needless and stupid 
labour. The planning of these walks in various elaborate ways 
has been supposed to have some relation to landscape gardening ; 
but one needless walk often bars all good effect in its vicinity. Flower- 
beds are often best set in Grass, and those who care to see them will 
approach them quite as readily on Grass as on hard walks. For the 
three or four months of our winter season there is little need of 
frequent resort to flower-beds, and for much of the rest of the year the 


turf is better than any walk. I do not mean that there should be no 
walk to the flower-garden, but that every walk not necessary for use 
should be turfed over. Few have any idea how much they would gain, 
not merely in labour, but in the beauty and repose of their gardens, 
by doing away with needless walks. 

Gravel Walks. — For hard work and general use the gravel 
walk is the most important of all for garden and pleasure grounds. 
The colour of walks is important ; that of the yellow gravels being 
by far the best. Of this we have examples in the country around 
London, in the gravels of Croydon, Farnham, and also those of 
Middlesex. These walks are not only good in colour but also 
excellent in texture, consolidating thoroughly. It is a relief to 
see these brownish-yellow walks after the purple pebble walks of 
the neighbourhoods of Dublin and Edinburgh. After the sound 
formation of these walks the main point is to keep them to the essen- 
tial needs of the place, and when this is done their effect is usually 
right. Even this excellent gravel is sometimes improved about 
London by the addition of sea shells, cockle shells mostly gathered 
from the coasts of Kent ; and, after the walk is formed ^nd hardened, 
this is lightly scattered over the surface and rapidly breaks down 
and gives to the walk a clean smooth surface. 

In public gardens and parks large areas of gravel are sometimes 
necessary, and in some ways of" laying out," such as those round French 
chateaux, wide arid areas of gravel are supposed to have a raison 
d'etre ; but in English gardens they are better avoided. English 
roads, lanes, and pathways are often pictures, because consecrated by 
use and often beautiful in line, following as they often do the line of 
easiest grade or gentle curves round hills ; but in gardens, roads and 
paths are often ugly because overdone, and nothing can be worse 
than hot areas of gravel, not only without any relation to the needs 
of the place, but wasting precious ground that might be made 
grateful to the eye with turf, or of some human interest with plants. 

Stone Walks in Small Flower Gardens. — A walk which 
is much liked is the stone walk, suggested by the little stone paths to 
cottages. In large open gardens such walks would not be so good, but 
in small inclosed spaces and flower gardens, where we have to plant 
very closely in beds, stone walks are a gain. In some districts a 
pretty rough, flat stone is found, of which there is a good example at 
Sedgwick Park. In cities, when renewing the side-walks, it is some- 
times easy to get old flagstones, which are excellent for the purpose. 
I use such old stones and mostly set them at random, or in any way 
they come best. The advantages are that we get rid of the sticky 
surface of gravel in wet weather or after frost, avoid rolling and 
weeding for the most part, the stones are pleasant to walk on at all 

X 2 


times, and we can work at the beds or borders freely in all weathers 
without fear of soiling gravel. The colour of the stones is good and 
in sunny gardens in hot summers they help to keep the ground moist, 
while the broken and varied incidents of the surface get rid of 
the hard unyielding lines of the gravel walk and help the picture. 
They should never be set in mortar or cement of any kind, but 
carefully in sand or fine sandy soil, and the work can be done by a 
careful man with a little practice. If in newly-formed ground there 
is a little sinking of the stone, it can be corrected afterwards. Small 
rock plants, like Thyme, the fairy Mint, and little Harebells, may be 
grown between the divisions of the stone, and, indeed, they often 
come of themselves, and their effect is very pretty in a small garden. 
Another point in favour of the stone walk is that it forms its own 
edging, and we do not need any living edging ; and if for any purpose, 
in a wet country or otherwise, we wish to somewhat raise the flower 
beds, we can use the same kind of stone for edging the beds. 

Grass, Heath, and Moss Walks. — Once free of all necessary 
walks about the house of gravel or stone, which constant work and use 
make essential, it is often easy in country gardens to soon break into 
grass walks which are pleasantest of all ways of getting about the 
country garden or pleasure ground. Not only can we take them into 
the wild garden and rough places, but they lead us to flowering 
shrubs and beds of hardy plants and to the rock garden, or through 
the pleasure ground anywhere, as easily and more pleasantly than 
any regularly set out walks. There is much saving of labour in their 
formation because given sound drained ground which is to be found 
around most country houses, we have little to do except mark out 
and keep the walks regularly mown ; when this work is compared 
with the labour of carting, the knowledge and the annual care which 
are necessary to form and keep hard walks in order, the gain in favour 
of the grass walk is enormous. It is perhaps only in our country that 
the climate enables us to have the privilege of these verdant walks, 
which are impossible in warmer lands owing to the great heat 
destroying the herbage, and, therefore, in Britain we should make 
good use of what our climate aids us so much in doing. 

We have, of course, to think of the fall of the grass walk for the 
sake of ease in mowing and in walking too, as very much of their 
comfort will depend, at least in hilly ground, on the careful way 
these walks are studied as regards their gradation. There is really 
not much difference in the degree of moisture in such walks and 
gravel walks, and, besides, so little use is made of walks of any kind 
in wet weather, that generally, taking them all the year round, they 
serve as well as any other where there is but gentle wear. 

Apart from the grass walks which can be formed in so large an 


area of Britain we may have walks through heath and the short 
vegetation that grows in heathy districts, and these walks will be no 
less pleasant than the grass walks. The short turf of the heath, and 
often the mown heather itself forms an excellent springy walk, as 
in parts of Surrey. Such walks want little making, only some care 
in laying down their lines so as to take them into the prettiest 
spots and letting them edge themselves with heather, ferns and 
Whortleberry. But no more than any other should such walks be 
multiplied beyond what is necessary, and they ought to be broad 
enough and airy enough to take us in the pleasantest way to the 
most interesting parts of the garden or pleasure ground or woods. 
In woody or half shady places we may enjoy the mossy walk as in 
very sandy or light soils we may have a turf almost of Thyme. 

Tar Walks. — Among the curious mixture of good and bad, 
ugliness and beauty, we see often in country seats are tar walks, and 
they are a main " factor " in making many a garden ugly. They have 
almostevery fault that a walk could have, being hideous in colour, hot 
in summer, and sticky, hard and unpleasant to the feet, wearing into 
ugly holes and an uneven and unpleasant surface. The only excuse 
that could ever be made for them was that they offered an escape 
from continual hoeing, a great labour, but now needless, owing to the 
weed-killers. If walks are simply made, and not one yard more is 
made than is required for use, the labour of cleaning is immensely 
reduced, and one dressing a year of an effective weed-killer often 
keeps them right. If there were no other objection than the colour 
of the tar walk, it should be sufficient to condemn it, and gravel 
in the home counties and about London is so good in colour, that one 
is surprised that anybody can tolerate a tar walk. In small, close 
courtyard gardens, where gravel is objected to, we may have a well- 
made stone walk of good colour. 

Concrete and Asphalt Walks. — Apart from tar walks, which 
on hot days may give us the idea that we are stuck in a bog, there 
are also well-made walks to be had from concrete and true asphalt. 
These walks have distinct advantages for courtyards and small 
spaces, or even small gardens in certain places ; they are better in 
colour than the tar walk, and more enduring if well made. They are 
clean, but they have certain disadvantages as compared with stone 
walks. They require a much more expensive and careful setting, 
and they are certainly not more enduring. Also, they do not allow 
us the privilege of putting plants between the joints, one of the 
great charms of the stone walk, which can be easily set to allow 
Thyme and dwarf rock-plants to come up between them ; and there- 
fore in all districts in which a warm- coloured stone is procurable, 
or rough flagstone from quarries, it is ver)' much better to use it 



as we can always have gravel for any roads that have to be traversed 
by carriages or carts ; the space for concrete, asphalt, or stone walks 
is not considerable, and the natural material should be used wherever 
it be possible. 

Flower Garden Edgings, Live and Dead. 

Even small things may mar the effect of a flower garden, however 
rich in its plants, and among the things that do so are cast edgings of 
tiles or iron, often very ugly, and as costly as ugly, some of the earthen- 
ware edgings perishing rapidly in frost. But if they never perished, and 
were as cheap as pebbles by the shore, they would be none the less 

Stone edging. From a photograph by Mr. A. Emblin, Worksop, Notts. 

offensive from the point of view of effect, with their hard patterned 
shapes, often bad colour, and the necessity of setting them with pre- 
cision in cement or mortar ; whereas the enduring and beautiful 
edging wants none of these costly attentions. The seeming advan- 
tage of these patterned and beaded tile edgings is that they appear 
permanent, and get rid of the labour of clipping and keeping box 
edgings in good order ; but these ends are met quite as well by per- 
fectly inoffensive edgings. Edgings may, for convenience sake, be 
divided into dead and permanent ones and living ones formed of 
plants or dwarf bushes, which involve a certain amount of care to 
keep in order, and which will some day wear out and require a change 
or replanting 


The true way in all gardens of any good and simple design is to 
get edgings which, while quite unobtrusive in form or colour, may 
remain for many years without attention. In all good gardens there 
is so much to be done and thought of every day in the year, that 
it is important to get rid of all mere routine work with edgings of 
Box and other things that want frequent trimming or remaking, 
in which work much of the labour of gardeners has been wasted in 
the past. 

Natural Stone is the best of all materials for permanent edgings 
for the flower garden, or any garden where an edging is required, 
and no effort should be spared to get it. In many districts it is 
quite easy to do so, as in some of the home counties the refuse of 
quarries (in Surrey Bargate stone, and in Oxfordshire and Gloucester- 
shire the flaky stone used for the roofs of old time) is excellent for 
edgings. Much difference will 
occur in stone in various districts, 
and some will not be so good in 
colour and shape as the stone 
just mentioned, but the advan- 
tage of natural stone in various 
ways is so great that even in- 
ferior forms of it should be 
chosen before any other material. 
In undressed, or very roughly 
dressed natural stone, it does g^^i^g ^f p.^^^ pi^,,,,. 

not matter in the least if the 

stones vary in size, as we have not to set them rigidly like the 
cast tiles ; sunk half-way firmly in the earth, after a little time 
they soon assume a good colour ; green mosses stain them in the 
winter, and if we wish to grace them with rock flowers they are 
very friendly to them, and Rockfoil, or Stonecrop, or Thyme 
may creep over them, and make them prettier than any edging 
made wholly of plants, like Box or Thrift, or Ivy. Unlike the tile, 
stones are none the worse if they fall a little out of line, as they are 
easily reset, and also easily removed by handy garden men without 
expensive workmen, or any aid from mortar or trowel. In large and 
stately gardens dressed stone may be used to frame a grass plot or 
handsome straight border, but in most cases this expense would be 
thrown away, as we get so good a result with the undressed stone. 
But in a flower garden like that at Shrubland Park, the dressed stone 
of good and simple form, and properly set as it should be in such a 
position quite near the house, is quite rightly used. Near cities and 
towns the removal of old or half-worn stone pavements, like the York 
stone used in London, often gives us opportunities of securing it for 



forming edging ; and being often got in large pieces, it requires rough 
dressing to allow of its being firmly and evenly set in the ground. I 
have used this largely for edgings, which will last as long as they are 
allowed to remain. The beautiful green stone of Cumberland would 
make as good an edging as one could desire, and many kinds of stone 
may be used. 

In districts where there is no stone to be had, and we have to use 
any kind of artificial stone or terra cotta, these should never have any 
pattern or beading, but be cast in quite simple forms, never following 
the patterns usually adopted by the makers of garden tiles. Certain 
inferior forms of dead edgings should be avoided, such as boards, that 
soon rot, and are wholly unfit in all ways as edgings. Iron, too, 
as used in continental gardens or in any shape, should never be used 
as an edging, ordinary bricks half set in the ground being far better 
than any of these. 

Grass Edgings sometimes are used to flower borders, but are 
always full of labour and trouble. And they have various drawbacks, 
apart from the mowing and edge-cutting, chief among these being 
that the border flowers within cannot ramble over them as they do 
over the stone edgings in such pretty ways. These narrow grass 
margins are often used as edgings to flower borders in the kitchen 
garden in places where very little Uabour is to spare for the garden, 

but, little as it is, it has to be 

given throughout the season to 
these grass edgings, which are 
worse than useless as a finish to 
a flower border. By these I do 
not mean the grass margins to 
the garden lawns, or a carpet of 
turf, as these are easily attended 
to when the lawn is being mown, 
but the foot wide grass edgings 
which require attention when 
and are often so narrow that it 

r^reen editing 

time can be badly spared for them 
is not easy to use a machine for mowing them. 

* Box. — Of all the living things used as edgings in gardens, the first 
place belongs to Box, used for ages and deservedly liked from its neat 
habit and good colour. When there were many fewer plants to look 
after than we have now, to tend some miles of box edging was often 
the pride of the gardener, and even now we see it sometimes done, 
though the hand often fails with the ceaseless care the edging requires 
if it is to be kept in good order, and it gets spotty and in some soils 
worn out and diseased. Where cared for it must be clipped with 
much care and regularity every May after the danger of hard frosts 



is past, as these sometimes touch the young growth. By cutting 
May the young growth soon hides the hard mark of the shears. 
Prett}' as it is in certain gardens, the drawbacks to Box as a flower- 
garden edging are serious ; it requires much labour to keep it in order, 
and not every garden workman can chp Box well ; it is a harbour for 
slugs and weeds, drying and starving the soil near ; whereas the stone 
edging keeps the soil moist and comforts the rock flowers that crawl 
over it. We cannot allow dwarf and creeping plants to crawl over 
the Box, or they will scald and injure it, but with the stone, we are free 
in all ways, and get a pretty effect when Pinks and other dwarf plants, 
crossing the stone edging here and there, push out into the walk itself. 
I like Box best as a tall, stout edging or low hedge, used in a bold 
way as high Rosemary edgings are used in southern gardens, about 
1 8 in. high, or even a little higher, to enclose playgrounds or separate 

Ivj- edging. 

gardens or to mark an interesting site as that of the old house at 
Castlewellan. Sometimes old and neglected Box edgings grown into 
low hedges are pretty in a garden, as in George Washington's old 
home at Mount Vernon in Virginia. And low hedges of Box are 
now and then a good aid near the flower garden as at Panshanger. 

Yew, Ivy, Heath and Various Edgings. — Among other 
edgings made of woody or shrubby things, we have the Yew, which bears 
clipping into edgings a foot high, and which might be worth using in 
some positions, though much clipping of this sort causes much labour 
and to me sorrow. Ivy is more precious for its shoots, which garland 
the earth as well as wall or tree. It is more used abroad than in 
Britain, the freshness of its green being more valued where good turf 
is less common, and Ivy is of the highest value as an edging in 
various ways, but better as a garland round a plot or belt of 


shrubs than near flower beds, and it enables us to make graceful 
edgings near and under trees. Like the Box, it may also be used 
as a bold hedge-like garland to frame a little garden or other spot 
which we wish to separate from the surrounding ground. The. Tree 
Ivy is best for this, but the common Ivy, if planted as an edging in 
any open place, will in time assume the shrubby or tree form, and 
make a handsome and bold garland. Where, for any reason, we 
desire Ivy edgings, it is better not to slavishly follow the French way 
of always using the Irish Ivy for edgings. The dark masses of this in 
the public gardens of London, Paris, and also in the German cities 
are very wearisome, and help to obscure rather than demonstrate the 
value of the Ivy as the best of all climbers of the northern w^orld. 
The common Ivy, of which the Irish form is a variety, is a plant of 
wide distribution throughout Europe, North Africa, and Asia, and 
varies very much in form. There being in Britain over fifty cul- 
tivated forms of it, it is in England that it is best known. The Irish 
variety seems to have taken the fancy of continental European 
gardeners, and is much more cultivated than any other but many 
of the other varieties less known are more graceful and varied in 
form, and even colour, some of them having in winter a bronzy hue, 
instead of the dark look of the Irish Ivy. Some, too, are fine in 
form, from the great Amoor and Algerian Ivies to the little cut- 
leaved Ivy. Even the common Ivy of our woods is prettier than the 
one so much used. 

Among the bold edgings one sees enclosing the " careless " and 
broad borders of Spanish or Algerian or other southern gardens, over- 
shaded by orange or other fruit trees, is the Rosemary, clipped into 
square topped bushy edges, about 15 ins. high. Though tender in 
many parts with us, it may be used in the same way on warm soils 
and in mild districts, and the Lavender may be used in the same 
way, though in its case it is best not to clip it, and there is a dwarf 
form, which is best for edgings to bold borders. 

Dwarf Evergreen Edgings. — Among various dwarf evergreen 
shrubs which may be used as edgings are the dwarf Cotoneasters, 
Periwinkles, smaller Vacciniums, Partridge Berry, the alpine forest 
Heath and some of the smaller kinds of our native Heaths, varying 
them after the nature of the soil and the kind of plants or shrubs we 
are arranging ; heaths and shrubs of a like nature being best for 
association with peat-loving evergreen shrubs, though they need not 
all be confined to these or to such soils. Such evergreen edgings of 
low shrubs are often very useful where we plant masses of select ever- 
green flowering shrubs, and they may be used in free belts or groups 
as well as in hard set lines, the last being in many cases a sure way 
to mar the effect of otherwise good planting in pleasure grounds. 



Where we are dealing with nursery or cut flower beds, borders 
in the kitchen garden or elsewhere, no such objection to the con- 
tinuous edging holds. And in such cases those who use plants have 
a great variety to choose from : Strawberries, wild, Quatre-saison, and 
any favourite larger sort ; Rockfoils — of this rich and varied family 
the Mossy Rockfoils make soft and excellent green margins to beds 
of hardy flowers ; Houseleeks, Stonecrops, Gentianella, which forms 
such a fine evergreen edging in cool soils ; Tufted Pansies, Thrift, 
purple Rock-Cresses which are among the most precious of rock flowers 
for evergreen edgings, and bloom often throughout the spring ; dwarf 
Speedwells, Edelweiss in open country gardens where it thrives ; 
alpine Phloxes, Sun Roses, Arabis, evergreen Candytuft, excellent as 

White Pink edging. 

a permanent margin to bold mixed groups of spring flowers and 
shrubs ; Pinks, both white and coloured, pretty on warm and free soils, 
but useless where they are hurt in winter ; Daisies and Polyanthuses 
and garden Primroses : in Scotland and cool places, the rosy and 
some of the Indian Primroses make beautiful edgings. Dwarf Hare- 
bells, and some of the silvery or striped Grasses and Moneyworts may 
also be used. There is, in fact, scarcely a limit to the choice one may 
make from the more free and vigorous rock and alpine flowers, the 
choice being governed by the nature of the soil, rainfall, and elevation, 
or closeness to the sea, which is so often kind to plants slow or tender 
in inland situations, like some of the grey Rock Scabious which form 
such pretty marginal plants where they thrive. 


Plastered Margins to Flower Beds. — Here is an illustration 
showing a wretched mud edging. These miniature ramparts, though 
less common than formerly, are a blot in 
London gardens and parks. They are made 
of muddy compounds, and in addition to 
the offensive aspect of the little walls when 
first plastered up, there are the cracks which 
come after — well shown in the cut. In a hot 
year, or any year, it is madness to cock the 
beds upon a little wall like this. The proper way to make a flower 
bed is to let the earth slope gently down to the margin, as was 
the practice for ages before this ugly notion came about. 

Example of ugly cracked mud 
edging (London Park.) 

Rocky border with edging of dwarf plants in groups. 

Tufted Pansies. 



One of the real gains in any flower garden worthy of the name is 
that we have in it lovely forms and delicate colours for the house, from 
the dawn of spring, with its noble Lenten Roses on sheltered borders, 
until autumn goes into winter in a mantle of Starworts. Many 
English and all German and French flower gardens in parterres offer 
us only Lobelias, and various plant rubbish of purplish or variegated 
hues, very few of them worth cutting, whereas our real flower garden 
is a store of Narcissus, Azalea, Rose, Lily, Tulip, and Carnation, and 
all the fairest things of earth. All we have to care about is placing 
them in simple ways to show their form as well as colour. Apart 
from the good plan of having a plot for the culture of any flowers we 
wish to cut for the house, a true flower garden will yield many flowers 
worthy of a place on an artist's or any other table, and worthy of it 
for their forms, colour, or fragrance. Many of these, from the Narcissus 
to the Tea Rose, give flowers so freely that we need not be afraid to 
cut ; indeed, in many cases, careful cutting prolongs the bloom (as of 
Roses). Many shrubs we may improve as we cut their branches for 
the house, for example Winter Sweet, Forsythia, and Lilac. 

It is not merely the first impression of flowers, good as it may be, 
that we have to think of, but the charms which intimacy gives to many 
of the nobler flowers — some opening and closing before our eyes, and 
showing beauties of form in doing so that we never suspected when 


passing them in the open air. In the changing and varied Hghts of a 
house we have many opportunities of showing flowers in a more 
interesting way, particularly to those who do not see them much out 
of doors, and now we have in gardens many new flowers of great 
beauty of form — Californian, Central Asiatic, Japanese, even the 
mountains of China and India giving precious things, as well as the 
rich flora of North America, as yet not as much seen in our gardens 
as it deserves to be. So that it will be seen how good is the reason 
why care should be given to show the flowers in the house when we 
have them to spare out of doors. 

At first sight there may not seem much against our doing justice to 
flowers in the house, but our flower vases have shared the fate of most 

Rose in a Japanese bronze basin. 

manufactured things within the past generation, i.e., they suffer from 
the mania for overdoing with designs, called " decorative," which 
at the South Kensington schools is supposed to have some con- 
nection with " art." Every article in many houses, being overcharged 
with these wearisome patterns, it was not to be expected that the 
opportunity of " adorning " our flower pots would be lost, and so we 
may have ugly forms and glaring patterns, where all should be simple 
in form, and modest and good in colour. The coalscuttle, with its 
" decoration," does not stand in our way so much as the flower vase, 
as in this we have to put living things in their delicate natural colours 
and -shapes, and to look at these, stuck in vases with hard colours and 
designs, is impossible to the artistic mind. 


And when we have seen the ugliness of much of this work, what is 
to be done in the way of remedy as the shops are so much against 
us ? The first need is a great variety of pots, basins, and jars or 
vases ; so that no flower that garden, wood, or hedgerow can give us, 
need be without a fitting vessel the moment it is brought into the 
house. What are known as the Munstead glasses are a great help, 
because their shapes are carefully made to suit various flowers, and 
they are very useful and good in form — made, too, of plain glass. 
But, however good this series is, it is well to use a variety of other 
things in any simple ware that comes in our way, very often things on 
the way to the rubbish heap, such as Devonshire cream jars in brown 
ware, Nassau seltzer bottles, in the brown ware too, may well take a 
single flower or branch, while old ginger pots, quite simple shallow 
basins in yellow ware, 
and other articles 
made for use in trade, 
come in very well. 

There is no need 
to exclude finer or 
more costly things 
than these if good in 
shape and not out- 
rageous in colour, but 
various reasons lead 
us to prefer the simpler 
wares, in which the 
flowers look often 
quite as well as in 
any others, though a 
mass of Edith Gifford 
Rose looks very well 

in a good old silver bowl, and good china, silver, or bronze vases 
or basins may be used for choice positions or occasions, though 
it will generally be best not to submit fine or fragile vessels of 
this kind to the risks of constant use. Among the finest things ever 
made in the shape of vases for cut flowers is the old Japanese work, 
which is often as lovely in form and as beautiful with true ornament 
as anything made by the old Greeks ; but the Japanese, like others, 
have taken to " potboiling " in bronze, and many of the things now 
seen at sales in London are coarse in workmanship. It might be 
worth while to have good and avowed reproductions of some of the 
more useful old forms — the slender, uprising ones are so good for 
many tall flowers ; Italian bronze bowls are often useful too ; and the 


darkness within the bronze vessels tends to keep the flowers longer 
than when they are in glass vessels exposed to the light. 

Japanese ways of arranging flowers are extremely interesting, and 
may sometimes be practised with advantage ; but, with a great variety 
and good shape of vessels, the Japanese way is not so necessary as 
a system, for the reason that, given a variety of good shapes and 
different materials, we can place any single flower, branch, or bunch 
in a way that it will look well with very slight effort and in ver}' little 
time. Any way involving much labour over the arrangement of 
flowers is not the best for us or for the result — far from it. 

Lenten Roses, February. 

Havmg got a good and constant supply of flowers, and variety 
of vessels, the question of arrangement is the only serious one 
that remains to be thought of, and it is not nearly so difficult if 
we seek unity, harmony, and simplicity of effect, rather than the 
complexities which we have all seen at flower shows and in " table 
decorations," many of them involving much wearisome labour, 
while a shoot of a wild rose growing out of a hedge or a wreath 
of honeysuckle would put the whole thing to shame from the 
point of view of beauty. In all such matters laying down 
rules leads to monotony, and yet there is much to be said for 
ways distinctly apart from the old nosegay masses and the 


modern jumble, and generally it is best to show one flower 
at a time, especially if a noble one like the Carnation, which 
varies finely in colour. The baskets and basins of Carnations 
arranged by the late Lady Henry Grosvenor, at Bulwick, were 
lovely to see, and the best of them were of one Carnation of good 
colour. These were the flowers from her fine collection of outdoor 
Carnations, so useful for cutting in summer and autumn, when 
people are enjoying their gardens. But the improved culture of 
the Carnation as a plant for winter and spring bloom under glass 
gives us quantities of this precious flower for six months more, 

Mexican Orange-flowe 

when the outdoor supply is over. These are among the best 
flowers for the dinner table as well as the house generally, and on 
the dinner table the effect, by artificial or by natural light, of one or 
two flowers of the season, is often better than that given by a 
variety of flowers. What is just said of the Carnation applies to 
various noble groups of hardy flowers, such as the Tulip, Narcissus 
and Lily. 

It is not only in vases we see the good of showing one flower or 
group at a time ; a good result will often come through a single 
spray or branch of a shrub. The Japanese have taught us to see 




the beauty of form and line in a single twig or branch, with its 
natural habit shown, apart from any beauty and form or colour 
its flow^ers may have. This is important, in view of the many 
shrubs that flower in our climate in spring, and of which, if flower- 
ing shoots are cut when in bud, the flowers open slowly and 
well in the house. They are best placed in Japanese bronze or 
other opaque jars. The taller Japanese bronze jars with narrow 

Foliage of Evergreen hardy plant (Epimedium.) 

necks are very useful for these, and it is an excellent practice to 
cut the bud-laden shoots of Sloe, Plum, Apple, Crab, and like plants, 
and put them in jars to bloom in the house. By this means we ad- 
vance their blooming time ; and, in the case of severe weather 
the beauty of early shrubs may be lost to us unless we adopt this 
plan. We see how well the French practice of growing Lilac in 
the dwelling house prolongs the beauty of this shrub, and it is not 
difficult to do something of the kind for the hardy shrubs and early 


trees that come with the Daffodils, but are not so well able to brave 
the climate. These shoots of early shrubs are also usually best 
arranged each by itself, though some go well together, and graceful 
leaves of evergreens may be used with them. One advantage of 
dealing with one flower at a time is that we show and do not 
conceal the variety of beauty we have. For, all thrown together, 
that variety will be much less evident than if we make clear the 
colour and form of each kind. Some proof of this may be seen 
in the work of the best flower painters. In the work of M. Fantin- 
Latour, for example, his nosegays of many flowers, evidently bought 
at some country market stand, are painted as well as his simple 
subjects but these last are far the best pictures. However, there 
is such a wide range of plants, shrubs, and woodland and hedgerow 
flowers, that we niust not hesitate to depart from any general idea 
if it tends to keep us from making the best of things in simple and 
ready ways. 

Water Lilies and Water-side Plants for the House. — 
Often the water and the water-side will give us fine things for house 
decoration, and the new Water Lilies of rare distinction help very much, 
as cut in the freshly expanded state they keep very well for some 
days and give us quite a new order of beauty. For this purpose we 
want bold and simple basins, as if we can put some of their handsome 
leaves in with them the effect is all the better. Although very fine in 
the open water, where they do admirably, the effect of the flower 
near at hand in the house is quite different and very beautiful, and 
as these plants increase their value as cut flowers for the house will 
be found to be great. There are also plants of the water-side which 
may help with foliage or flower ; one of the best being the Forget-me- 
not, which flowers so well in the house, and the great Buttercup. 

Leaves. — Many as are the flowers of the open air excellent for 
house, the leaves of the open air tree or shrub or plant are hardly of 
less use for the same end : notably the foliage of evergreen shrubs 
in warm and sea coast districts, from evergreen Magnolia, Poet's 
Laurel, Cypress, Juniper and Thuja, Cherry Laurel, and Bamboo ; even 
in the coldest districts we have the evergreen Barberry, and more than 
fifty forms of the best of all evergreen climbers, the Ivy, and the Holly 
with its scarlet, yellow or orange berries. The trees in autumn give 
us leaves rich in colour — Maple, Medlar, Mespilus, Parrottia, Tulip-tree 
and many others. The shrubs and climbers, too, help — Bramble, Wild 
Roses, Water Elder (Viburnum), Common Barberry, with its graceful 
rain of red berries ; Vines in many forms ; hardy flowers, too, help with 
Acanthus, Alexandrian Laurel, Solomon's Seal, Iris, Plantain Lily, 
Rock plants are rich in good leaves : Cyclamen, Heuchera, Christmas 
and Lenten Roses, the large Indian Rockfoils and the Barrenworts; and 

Y 2 



then there are the hardy ferns of our own country and Europe, and 
also those of North America as hardy as our own. 

A great help in a house is ready access to a handy water supply 
in a little room, near the flower garden or usual entrance for flowers, 
where vessels may be stored and flowers quickly arranged, used 
water and flowers got rid of and so planned that the mistress of 
the house, or whoever arranges the flowers, may use it at all times 
without other aid. This greatly helps in every way, and makes 
the arrangement of flowers for the house more than ever a pleasure. 

The Chimney Campanula, Staunton Court. 



" Oh the oak and the ash and the bonny ivy tree, 
They flourish at home in my own country." — Old Ballad. 

The above lines might be worth thinking of by those bent on 
planting evergreens for any of these uses, as if it were borne in 
mind that the evergreens we plant have to face winters in an Oak 
and Ash land, we should have less of the frightful waste owing to 
the planting of rampant but not hardy evergreens which perish in 
numbers after hard winters. 

There are no background hues prettier than afforded by some 
evergreens like the Yew, Box, and Ilex ; but their use requires 
care ; we may have too many of them, and they should not take 
the place of flowering shrubs and flowers of many kinds. It 
is outside the flower garden that evergreens are most useful gene- 
rally, and in a cold country like ours, especially on the eastern 
coasts and in wind-swept districts. Holly banks and hedges of other 
hardy evergreens are often a necessity. In our country we have the 
privilege of growing more evergreen shrubs and trees than continental 
countries, species resisting winter here which have not the slightest 
chance of doing so in Central Europe. 

Noble Native Evergreens. — Into our brown and frozen 
northern woods come a few adventurers from southern lands that do 
not lose their green in winter, but take then a deeper verdure — Ivy, 
Holly, and Yew enduring all but the very hardest frosts that visit 
our isles, some bright with berries as well as verdure ; giving welcome 
shelter to northern and wind-swept gardens, and in our own time 
each varying into many noble varieties. These native evergreens 
and their varieties are, and for ever must be, the most precious of all 
for the British Isles. 

When after a very hard winter we see the evergreen trees of 
the garden in mourning, and many of them dead, as happens to 
Laurels, Laurustinuses, and often even the Bay, it is a good time to 



consider the hardiness and other good qualities of our British ever- 
greens and the many forms raised from them. If we are fortunate 

enough to have old Yew trees near us, we do not find that a hard 
winter makes much difference to them, even winters that brown the 


evergreen Oak. We have collected within the past 200 years ever- 
green trees from all parts of the northern world, but it is doubtful if 
any of them are better than the common Yew, which when old is 
often picturesque, and which lives for over a thousand years. Of this 
great tree we have many varieties, but none of them quite so good as 
the wild kind when old. In the garden little thought is given to it 
and it is crowded among shrubs, or in graveyards, where the roots are 
cut by digging, so that one seldom sees it in its true character when old, 
which is very beautiful. The Golden Yew is a variety of it, and there 
are other forms one of which, the Irish form, is well known, and too 
much used. 

After the Yew, the best of our evergreen shrubs is the Holly, 
which in no country attains the beauty it does in our own ; certainly 
no evergreen brought over the sea is so valuable not only in its 
native form, often attaining 40 ft. even on the hills, but in the 
varieties raised from it, many of them being the best of all 
variegated shrubs in their silver and gold variegation ; in fruit, too, 
it is the most beautiful of evergreens. Not merely as a garden tree is 
it precious, but as a most delightful shelter around fields for stock in 
paddocks and places which want shelter. A big wreath of old Holly 
undipped on the cold sides of fields is the best protection, and a 
grove of Holly north of any garden ground we want to shelter is the 
best evergreen we can plant ; the only thing we have to fear being 
rabbits, which when numerous make Holly difficult to establish by 
barking the newly-planted trees, and in hard winters even barking 
and killing many old trees. As to the garden, we may make 
beautiful evergreen gardens of the forms of Holly alone. 

Notwithstanding the many conifers brought from other countries 
within the past few generations, as regards beauty it is very doubtful 
if more than one or two equal our native Fir. In any case few things 
in our country are more picturesque than old groups and groves of the 
Scotch Fir ; few indeed of the conifers we treasure from other 
countries will ever give us anything so good as its ruddy stems and 
frost-proof crests. 

Again, the best of evergreen climbers is our native Ivy, and the 
many beautiful forms that have arisen from it. This in our woods 
arranges its own beautiful effects, but in gardens it might be made 
more use of, and no other evergreen climber comes near it in value. 
The form most commonly planted in gardens — the Irish Ivy — is 
not so graceful as some others, and there are many forms varying 
even in colour. These for edgings, banks, screens, covering old trees, 
and summer-houses, might be made far more use of. In many 
northern countries our Ivy will not live in the open air, and we rarely 
take enough advantage in such a possession in making both shelters, 



wreaths, and screens of it. It requires care to keep it close on our 
houses and on cottage roofs or it will damage them ; but there are 

Evergreen trees in natural forms (Cedars : Gunnersbury) 

many pretty things to make of it away from buildings, and among 
them Ivy clad and Ivy-covered wigwams, summer-houses, and covered 
ways, the Ivy supported on a strong open frame-work. 


Box, which is a true native in certain dry hills in the south of 
England, is so crowded in gardens, that one seldom sees its beauty as 
one may on the hills full in the sun, where the branches take a charm- 
ing plumy toss. To wander among natural groves of Box is 
pleasant, and we should plant it in colonies by itself full in the 
sun, so that it might show the same grace of form that it shows wild 
on the chalk hills. It is, I think, the best of our native evergreens 
for garden use, making pretty low hedges as at Panshanger, for 
that purpose for dividing lines near the flower-garden it is better 
than Yew or Holly. 

Also among our native evergreens is the common Juniper, a 
scrubby thing in some places, but on heaths in Surrey, and favoured 
heaths elsewhere, often growing over twenty feet high and very 
picturesque, especially where mingled with Holly. The upright form, 
called the Irish Juniper, in gardens is not nearly so good as the wild 
Juniper though more often grown. 

The Arbutus, which borders nearly all the streams in Greece, 
ventures into Ireland, and is abundant there in certain parts in the 
south. This beautiful shrub, though tender in midland counties, 
is very precious for the seashore and mild dis ricts not only as an 
evergreen, but for the beauty of its flowers and fruit. Still, it is the 
one British evergreen which must not be planted where the winters 
are severe in inland districts, and usually perishes on the London 

It is the best of our native evergreens that deserve the prefer- 
ence instead of the heavy Laurels, and various evergreens not even 
hardy, so that after a hard frost we often see the suburbs of country 
towns black with their dead. 

Ugly Evergreen Trees and Shrubs. — One of the most 
baneful things in our gardens has been the introduction of distorted 
and ugly conifers which often disfigure the fore-grounds of beautiful 
houses. These are often sports and variations raised in modern 
days, as is the case with the too common Irish Yew. It is not only 
that we have to deplore the tender trees of California, which in 
their own country are beautiful, though, unhappily, not so in ours, but 
it is the mass of distorted, unnatural, and ugly forms — the names 
of which disfigure even the best catalogues — that is most confusing 
and dangerous. In one foreign catalogue there are no less than 
twenty-eight varieties of the Norway Spruce, in all sorts of dwarf and 
monstrous shapes — some of them, indeed, dignified with the name 
monstrosa — not one of which should ever be seen in a garden. 
The true beauty of the pine comes from its form and dignity, as we 
see it in old Firs that clothe the hills of Scotland, California, or Swit- 
zerland. It is not in distortion or in little green pincushions we 


must look for the charm of the Pine, but rather in storm-tossed head 
and often naked stems ; and hence all these ridiculous forms should 
be excluded from gardens of any pretence to beauty. 

Another most unfortunate tree in this way, as helping to fill out 
gardens with graceless things, is the western Arbor vitje (Thuja 
occidentalis). This, which is a very hardy tree but never a dignified 
one, even where it grows in the north about Lake Superior and 
through the Canadas, is, unhappily, also hardy in our gardens, and 
we may see in one catalogue no less than twenty-three forms of 
this tree all dignified with Latin names. There are plenty of beautiful 
things, new and old, worthy of the name, without filling our gardens 
with such monstrosities, many of which are variegated. Of all ugly 
things, nothing is worse than the variegated Conifer, which usually 
perishes as soon as its variegated parts die, the half dead tree often 
seeming a bush full of wisps of hay. 

Evergreen Weeds. — In many once well-planted pleasure 
grounds the Pontic Rhododendron almost runs over and destroys 
every other shrub, and hides out the most beautiful tree effects, growing 
often a little above the line of sight. Even where people have taken 
the greatest trouble to plant a good collection of trees, the monotony 
of it is depressing ; always the same in colour, winter or summer, 
except when dashed by its ill-coloured flowers. The walk from the 
ruins at Cowdray to the new house is an example that might be 
mentioned amongst a thousand others of a noble bank of trees, varied 
and full of beauty, but, in consequence of this shrub spreading 
beneath them all along the walk, showing nothing but a dank wall of 
evergreen. How this ugliness and monotony come about is through 
the use of the Pontic kind as a covert plant, and also owing to its 
facility of growth, the beautiful sorts of Rhododendron are usually 
grafted on it. In a garden where there are men to look after plants 
so grafted and pull away the suckers, this plan may do, but when 
planting is done in a bold way about woods, or even pleasure grounds, 
this is not attended to, nor can it always be, so that the suckers come 
up and in time destroy the valuable sorts ! The final result is never 
half so pretty as in the most ill-kept natural wood, with Bracken and 
Brier in fine colour and some little variety of form below the trees ; 
therefore everybody who cares for the beauty of undergrowth 
should cease this covering of the ground with this poor shrub, not so 
hardy as the splendid kinds of American origin often grafted on it to 
die. With the Cherry Laurel and the Portugal Laurel it is the main 
cause of the monotony and cheerless air of so many pleasure 

The nurseryman who grows rare trees or shrubs very often finds 
them left on his hands, so that many nurseries only grow a few 


stereotyped things, mainly those that grow freely, and, owing 
to the over-use of weed-evergreens like Privet, which are without 
beauty, and offensive in odour when in flower. The presence 
of such things is one of the causes of the miserable aspect of the 
shrubberies in many gardens, which might be very beautiful and 
interesting with a varied life. Many shrubs of little or no beauty 
in themselves very often destroy by their vigour the rare and 
beautiful garden vegetation, so .that we have not only the ugliness 
of a brake of Laurel, or half-evergreen Privet, or Pontic Rhododen- 
dron to survey, but often the fact that these shrubs have overrun and 
killed far more precious things. And this nursery rubbish having 
killed every good thing begins to eat up itself, and hence we see so 
many shrubberies worn out. 

The Nobler Evergreen Flowering Shrubs. — It is not only 
the ill-effect of these all-devouring evergreens we have to consider, 
but what they shut out : — the evergreen flowering shrubs and 
trees of the highest beauty of colour as well as of foliage, and 
the many hardy Rhododendrons of finest colour. If we would only 
cease to graft them, and instead get them from layers on their own 
roots, we should not be overcrowded with the R. ponticum of the 
present system. They are not only hardy in the sense that many of 
our popular evergreens are hardy, i.e. in favoured districts or by the 
sea, so kind as it is to evergreens, but everywhere in England. I 
mean the many broad-leaved Rhododendrons which have mostly 
come to us from the wild American species, and are hardy in North 
and Eastern America. Apart from the use of such things, by care- 
fully selecting their colours we may have not merely an evergreen 
background of fine and varied green, but also the most precious 
flowering shrubs ever raised by man and in their natural forms, often 
varying in fine colour and form too, if we will only cease to compel 
them to live on one mean and too vigorous shrub. 

As to the kinds of Rhododendron that are raised from the Pontic 
kind or even from the Indian Rhododendrons, so far as tried they are 
not in any way so good as the varieties raised from the North 
American kinds, and which have the fine constitution of R. Catawbiense 
in them, and of which many are hardy not merely in Old England 
but in the much more severe winters of New England. Apart from 
plants of these kinds from layers we may also have them as seed- 
lings, though the named kinds from layers give us the means of group- 
ing a finely coloured kind which may often be desirable. It is also 
very probable that we shall, as various regions of the northern world 
are opened up, introduce to cultivation other fine wild species, and get 
precious races from them, so for many reasons the sooner we get out 
of the common routine of the nurseries in grafting every fine kind we 


already have on, R. ponticum, the better. And if this plan be wrong 
with the varieties, what are we to say to grafting any of the fine wild 
species tnat come to us on the same Pontic kind kept in every nursery 
for the purpose ? For however vigorous the growth at first, the stock 
is sure to get its head in the end, and then good-bye to the precious 
natural species it has borne — for no sound reason. 

The Nobler Evergreen Trees. — Apart from trees of poor forms, 
there are others which are stately in their own country but a doubtful 
gain to ours, like the Wellingtonia and other Californian trees, and the 
Chili Pine. Sometimes the foregrounds of even fine old houses are 
marred by such trees, and unfortunately people use them in the 
idea that they are by their use doing something old-fashioned and 
*' Elizabethan," whereas they are marring the beauty of the landscape 
and of our native trees, often so fine beyond the bounds of the garden. 
We ought not to spoil the beauty of our home landscapes by using such 
things, which are so abundant in many places that the Nobler Exotic 
Evergreen Trees like the evergreen Oak are forgotten. This European 
tree from Holkham in Norfolk to the west of England and in many 
gardens round the coasts of our islands, is a noble evergreen tree and 
a fine background and shelter. 

Then there is the Cedar of Lebanon, which is perhaps the finest 
evergreen tree ever brought to our country and as hardy 
as our own trees. If we use evergreen trees they ought to be the 
noblest and hardiest. The loss of this tree by storms could not 
happen to anything like the same extent if people went on 
planting young trees. The many catalogues issued, help towards 
the neglect of the really precious trees by " bringing out " novelties 
from all parts of the world — absolutely unproved trees ; whilst the 
planting of such grand trees as the Cedar of Lebanon and the Ilex 
of Europe are often forgotten. A mistake in Cedar planting is the 
fashion of only planting isolated trees with great branches on all 
sides on enormous surface exposed to strong wind. In their own 
country, where Cedars are naturally massed together, although the 
gales are severe, the trees are not destroyed by wind in anything 
like the same degree. The Cedar of Lebanon is beautiful in the 
" specimen " way, but it is at least equally beautiful massed in groups. 
In their own countries, in addition to being massed and grouped 
together, the soil is often stony and rocky, the growth is slower, 
and the trees take a firmer hold, whereas in our river valleys, where 
the Lebanon Cedar is often planted in an isolated way, the growth 
is softer and the resistance to wind less, and a more artistic and 
natural way of planting would lessen the accidents to which this 
noblest of evergreen trees is exposed. 


Shelter and Wind Screens in and near the Flower 
Garden. — Few countries are so rich in the means of shelter as our own, 
owing to the evergreens that grow freely with us and thrive in seashore 
and wind-swept districts. Shelter may be near flower beds and distant 
or wind-breaks, across the line of prevailing winds, and the north and 
east winds, and may be of Yew, Holly, Cedar of Lebanon (never 
Deodar) native Fir, and a few other hardy Firs, and the Ilex. 

In old times shelter was often obtained from clipped hedges of 
Yews and Limes, but the fine evergreen shrubs we now possess make 
it more easy and effective, as naturally grown shrubs soften the wind 
better than clipped lines, while often themselves beautiful in leaf and 
bloom. There is, indeed, in gardens the danger of planting too densely 
at first, so that after some years the place becomes dank and the very 
house itself is made cheerless. The pretty young conifers planted are 
not thought of as forest trees, and parts which should be in the sun are 
gradually overshadowed — a great mistake in a climate like ours. 

Among the kinds of shelter, walls, thickly clad with climbers, 
evergreens and others, are often the best for close garden work, 
because they do not rob the ground, as almost any evergreen tree 
will ; and in doing their work, they themselves may bear many of 
our most beautiful flowers. Half-hardy evergreens, like the common 
Cherry, Laurel and Portugal Laurel, should never be planted to shelter 
the garden, because they may get cut down in hard winters. But happily, 
even in the most exposed places, a good many hardy flowers may be 
grown with success, such as Carnations, Pinks, and many rock plants 
which lie close to the ground, and are therefore little exposed to wind, 
and thrive in exposed places where soil and cultivation are not against 
them. English gardens are often well sheltered by the house itself 
and by old walls and enclosures, so that in old gardens it is easy 
to secure shelter for plants. 

Planting Near the Sea. — Some are doubtful of planting near 
the sea, considering the bleak look of things and the cutting winds. 
Yet even in places where the few trees that are planted are cut sharp 
off by the sea wind above the walls, as in Anglesea, we may see how 
soon good planting will get over difficulties that seem insurmountable. 
By the use near the sea of small-leaved trees like the Tamarisks, 
Sea Buckthorn, and small Willows, we very soon get a bit of shelter, 
and by backing these with the close-growing conifers like our common 
Juniper and some of the sea-loving Pines like Pinaster, and in mild 
southern and western districts the Californian Cypress and the 
Monterey Pine, we soon get shelter and companionship, so to say, for 
our trees, and fifty yards away we may soon walk in woods as stately 
as in any part of the country. Having got our shelter in this way 


the growth of the hardy Pines of the northern world seems as easy by 
the sea as anywhere ; indeed, more so, because if there is any one 
place where the rather tender Pines are grown well it is near the sea 
in places around our coast, where if the soil is good, one has not to be 
so careful about the hardiness of trees we select as we have to be in 
inland places. 

The Ilex. — The evergreen Oak takes a lead among the trees near 
the sea, and it ought to be largely used ; but as it is not very easily 
transplanted from nursery-bought plants, it is just as well to raise it 
on the place and plant it young. Seed may be scattered with some 
advantage in places we wish it to grow in, as it grows freely from seed. 

This evergreen oak withstood the great gales of 1897 in the 
south and west of England better than any other. At Killerton and 
Knightshayes, and many other places where the destruction was 
greatest I was glad to see that the evergreen oak was not among the 
many victims. It is a precious tree for the south and west, and all 
sea shore districts, and should never be forgotten among the crowd of 
novelties among trees ; not one out of fifty is worth naming beside it. 
Like many other trees, it suffers from indiscriminate planting with 
other and sometimes coarser things, and is rarely grouped in any 
effective way, although here and there, as at Ham House, Killerton, 
and St. Anns we may see the effect of holding this tree together 
in groups or masses. 

In addition to the common evergreen trees of Europe, the Scotch, 
Spruce and Silver Firs, we have the noble Corsican Pine, which, from 
its habitat in Calabria and in Corsica, can have no objection to the 
sea. The Pines of the Pacific coast, too, are well used to its influences, 
and hence we see in our country good results from planting them near 
the sea, as, for example, Menzies' Spruce at Hunstanton, the Monterey 
Pine at Bicton, the Redwood in many places near the sea. One good 
result of planting in such places is that we may use so many evergreen 
trees, from the Holly to the Cedar, and so get a certain amount of 
warmth as well as shelter. 

Though our country generally is not perhaps fitted for the growth 
of the Cork Oak, a fine evergreen tree, it is here and there seen in 
southern and sheltered parts on warm soils, as in certain parts of 
Devonshire and on the warm side of the Sussex Downs, even in good 
condition. Of this fact we have an example in the Cork Oaks at 
Goodwood, all that could be desired in health and beauty. This Oak 
naturally inhabits the southern parts of Europe and the northern parts 
of Africa, and it is interesting to see that it can attain the size of a 
stately tree in our own country in some favoured places, but the 
evergreen oak for our islands is the Ilex and its various forms. 



Sonic Genera 

of Evcrgreetz 

Trees and Shrubs Hardy in 

/he British Isles} 







































































1 Some of those marked * are hardy only in seashore districts 

or warm soils, 


in some genera named 

Juniper showing 


" Vons travaillez pour ainsi di7'e a cote de Dieu, votis n'etes que les 
collaborateurs de la loi divine de la vegetation. Dieu, dans ses ceuvres 
imimiable, ne se prete pas a nos chimeres ; la nature n'a pas de com- 
plaisance pour nos faux systemes. Elle est souveraine, absolue coinme 
son Auteur. Elle resisted, nos tentatives folks ; elle dejoue, et quelquefois 
rudement, nos illusions. Elle nous seconde, elle nous aide, elle nous 
recompense, si nous toiichons juste et si nous travaillons dans son sens 
vrai ; inais si nous nous trompons, si nous voulons la violenter, la con- 
traindre, la fausser, elle nous donne a Vinstant mime des dementis 
eclatants en fails par la sterilite, par le deperissevient, par la mart de 
tout ce que nous avons voulu creer en depit d'elle et a finverse de ses 
lois!' — Lamartine, Discours aux Jardiniers. 


The Yew in its natural form is 
the most beautiful evergreen of our 
western world — finer than the Cedar 
in its feathery branching, and more 
beautiful than any Cedar in the colour 
of its stem. In our own day we see 
trees of the same great order as the Yew gathered 
from a thousand hills — from British Columbia, 
through North America and Europe to the Atlas 
Mountains, and not one of them has yet proved 
to be so beautiful as our native Yew when un- 
dipped root or branch. But in gardens the quest 
for the exotic is so active that few give a fair 
chance to the Yew as a tree, while in grave- 
yards, where it is so often seen in a very old state, the cutting 
of the roots hurts the growth, though there are Yews in our 
churchyards that have seen a thousand winters. It is not my own 


idea only that I urge here, but that of all who have ever thought 
of the beauty of trees, foremost among whom we must place 
artists who have the happiness of always drawing natural forms. 
Let any one stand near the Cedar-like Yews by the Pilgrim's Way 
on the North Downs, and, comparing them with trees cut into 
fantastic shapes, consider what the difference means to the artist who 
seeks beauty of tree form ! 

What right have we to deform things so lovely in form ? No 
cramming of Chinese feet into impossible shoes is half so foolish 
as the wilful and brutal distortion of the beautiful forms of trees. 
The cost of this mutilation alone is one reason against it, as we 
see where miles of trees cut into walls have to be clipped, as at 
Versailles and Schonbrunn, and this shearing is a mere " survival " 
of the day when we had very few trees, and they were clipped to fit 
the crude notion of " garden design " of the day. The fact that men 
when they had few trees made them into walls to make them serve 
their ways of " design " is no reason why we, rich in the trees of all 
the hills of the north, should go on mutilating them too. 

Thus, while it may be right to clip a tree to form a dividing-line or 
hedge, it is never so to clip trees grown for their own sakes, as by 
shaving such we only get ugly, unnatural forms. Men who trim with 
shears or knife so fine a tree as the Holly are dead to beauty of form 
and cannot surely have seen how fine in form old Holly trees are. To 
give us such ugly forms in gardens is to show one's self callous to 
beauty of tree form, and to prove that one cannot even see ugliness. 
For consider, too, the clipped Laurels by which many gardens are 
disfigured. Laurel in its natural shape in the woods is often fine in 
form ; but it is planted everywhere in gardens without thought of its 
fitness for each place, and as it grows apace, the shears are called in, 
and its fine leaves and shoots are cut into ugly banks and formless 
masses, spoiling many gardens. There is no place in which Laurel 
is clipped for which we could not get shrubs of the desired size that 
would not need the shears. 

In the old gardens, where from other motives trees were clipped 
when people had very few evergreens, or where they wanted an 
object of a certain height, they had to clip. It is well to preserve such 
gardens, but never to imitate them. If we want shelter, we can get it 
in various pleasant ways without clipping, and, while getting it, we can 
enjoy the natural forms of the evergreens. Hedges and wall-like lines 
of green living things are useful, and even may be artistically used. 
Occasionally we find clipped arches and bowers pretty, and these, 
when very old, are worth keeping. Besides, there is much difference 
between evergreen archways or bowers, hedges, and shelters, and the 
fantastic clipping of living trees into the shapes of bird or beast or 



coffee-pot, and while it may be well to keep any old specimens of the 
sort when we find them, clipping is better not carried out with our 
lovely evergreens on a large scale. 

Now and then we see attempts on the part of those having more 
knowledge of some half-mechanical grade of decorative " design " 
to galvanise the corpse of the topiary art. Such an idea would not 
occur to any one knowing the many beautiful things now within our 
reach, or by any one like a landscape painter who studies beautiful 
forms of earth or trees or flowers, or by any lover of Nature in tree 
or flower. Sometimes these puerilities are set into book form. For 
one author there is no art in gardening, but cutting a tree into the 
shape of a cocked hat is " art," and he says : — 

I have no more scruple in using the scissors upon tree or shrub, where trim- 
ness is desirable, than I have in mowing the turf of the lawn that once represented 
a virgin world . . . and in the formal part of the garden my Yews should take the 
shape of pyramids, or peacocks, or cocked hats, or ramping lions in Lincoln green, 
or any other conceit I had a mind to, which vegetable sculpture can take. 

After reading this I thought of some of the true " vegetable 
sculpture " that I had seen ; Reed and Lily, models in stem and leaf ; 
the Grey Willows of Britain as lovely against our British skies as Olives 
are in the south ; many-columned Oak groves set in seas of Primroses, 
Cuckoo flowers and Violets ; Silver Birch woods of Northern Europe 
beyond all grace possible in stone ; the eternal Garland of beauty that 
one kind of Palm waves for hundreds of miles throughout the land 
of Egypt — a vein of summer in a lifeless world ; the noble Pine 
woods of California and Oregon, like fleets of colossal masts on 
mountain waves — thought of these and many other lovely forms in 
garden and wood, and then wondered that any one could be so blind 
to the beauty of the natural forms of plants and trees as to write as 
this author does. 

From the days of the Greeks to our own time, the delight of all 
great artists has been to get as near this divine beauty as what they 
work in permits. But this deplorable vegetable sculptor's delight is in 
distorting beautiful forms ; and this in the one art in which we have 
the happiness of possessing the living things themselves, and not 
merely representations of them. The old people from whom he 
takes his ideas were not so foolish, as when the Yew was used as a 
hedge or was put at a garden gate it was necessary to clip it to keep 
it in bounds. Apart from the ugliness of the cocked-hat tree or other 
pantomimic trees, the want of life and change in a garden made up 
of such trees, one would think, should open the eyes of any one to 
its drawbacks, as in it there is none of the joy of spring's life, or 
summer's crown of flowers, or winter's rest. 

The plea that such work gives variety does not hold, because 


wherever labour and time are wasted upon such things the true work 
of the garden does not, and very often cannot, get the attention it 
needs. In {&\y of the places where such work is done, is seen much of 
beauty in the garden — that is, beauty of flower and form and fine 
colour such as an artist would put in a picture, and which is a picture 
in itself to begin with. 

The Abuse of Yew Hedges in Flower Gardens.— In old 
days, whether in a manor house or castle garden, the use of Yew 
hedges had some clear motive of shelter or division, or clothing 
against massive walls as at Berkeley ; or at a cottage door, as a living 
shelter. But when we use Yew hedges from the mere desire for them, 
and without much thought of the ground or other reasons, we may find 
ourselves in trouble. At a place where Roses were earnestly sought, the 
Rose borders were backed up close by Yew hedges ; the Yews were not 
very troublesome the first year or two, but, as they grew, they became 
merciless robbers. There are many ways of growing Roses, but it would 
be difficult to invent any worse way than this, which leaves the 
gardener always " between the devil and the deep sea," trying to keep 
back the hungry Yew roots all the while, it being quite easy to secure 
a background which, instead of eating up the Roses, would support and 
shelter them beautifully ; such as walls of solid or of open work. Oak 
palings. Bamboo and other trellises, or espaliers of bushy climbers, like 
Honeysuckle and Clematis. It is surely easy to enjoy the Yew without 
letting it eat up the very things we wish to cherish. 

Another bad way is to place lines of Yew hedges so close together 
that the sun can hardly sweeten the ground between them, this being 
generally the result of carrying out some book plan, without thought 
of the ground or its use. More stupid still is cutting up level lawns 
with Yew hedges across them, or sometimes projected into them a little 
way, with flower beds in between, within a couple of feet of the all- 
devouring Yew : — and all this very costly Yew planting working for 
ugliness, and against the health, and even life, of all the flowers near. 
For ugliness distinctly, as while such broad and impressive Yew hedges 
as we see at Holme Lacy and in the older gardens are good in effect, 
it is quite different with small, hard Yew hedges, set one against the 
other and repeated ad nauseam. 

It is not only the needs of our own greatly increased garden flora 
— new races of plants never known to the old people, such as our tea 
Roses and the rich collections of shrubs from Japan and other 
countries, that will not bear mutilation or robbing at the root — that 
should make us pause, as, even in such evidence that remains to us of 
old flower gardens on ancient tapestries and pictures, we may see 
some evidence that the lady had room in her flower garden to 
look around and work among her flowers, unencumbered by a maze 


of robbing hedges. Some, perhaps, of these close Hnes of yews, set 
with such Httle thought, owe their origin to the maze idea ; but the 
maze was for a wholly different end, and in it we have only to grow 
its trees and the paths are free for the roots ; while in the rose and 
flower garden our costs and cares to get an artistic and beautiful 
result are too heavy to have them eaten up before our eyes by the 
hungriest of tree roots. If there were no other way to enjoy these 
evergreen trees, clipped or otherwise, one would not, perhaps, have so 
much to say against them ; but we have only to step out of the flower 
garden to indulge in the love of many evergreens to our heart's 

Clipped Evergreen Shrubs in the beds of the Flower 
Garden. — A gardener with shears in his hand is generally doing fool's 
work, but there is much difference between his clipping old or sheltering 

Example of old topiary work. 

lines of Yews, or even the Peacock in box, and the clipping which goes 
on in some gardens where beds are filled with small evergreen bushes 
instead of flowers. We may see it practised in gardens laid out by 
Paxton and his followers, their object being no doubt to get rid 
of the trouble of real flower-gardening, and also to have evergreen 
beds in winter. This effect may be obtained in a way, but the bushes 
usually get far too thick, and then the shears are used to keep them in 
bounds, and what ought to be graceful groups of flowers or shrubs 
of good form becomes flat, hard, and ugly. The clipping may 
be designed at first, but oftener it is done to repress overgrowth. 
A more stupid way of filling the beds of a flower garden could 
hardly be imagined, because we lose all the grace and form of the 
shrubs, and also the chance of seeing flowers growing among them, 
which is one of the prettiest phases of flower gardening when Lilies, 
Gladioli, and other graceful plants spring from groups of choice 


evergreens. The end of all this laborious mutilation is to cause 
disease and overcrowding, and the best thing is to clear the deformed 
things away and plant in more natural ways. If we want flower 
beds, let us have them ; by doing so we can have varied life for more 
than half the year. If we want beds of choice evergreens we can 
have them without destroying their forms by the shears. There is a 
wide choice of beautiful things like Rhododendrons and Azaleas, 
and if we set these in open ways we can have flowers among them, 
thus doubling the variety of bloom obtainable from the surface, 
getting light and shade and the true forms of shrub or flower. 

The Disfigurement of Forest Trees by Clipping. — 
Recently magazines and illustrated journals, in the great chase 
after subjects have dealt with the clipped gardens of England, 
and some of the most ridiculous work ever perpetrated in this way 
has been chosen for illustration. Of English counties, Derbyshire is 
the most notorious for examples of disfigured trees. The Dutch, who 
painted like nature, and built like sane men, left their plantations to 
the shears, but they always cut to lines or had some kind of plan, 
judging from their old engraved books. British clipping, however, 
has one phase which has no relation to any plan, and so far it exceeds 
in extravagance the methods of the Dutch, Austrian, and French, and 
that is the clipping single, and often forest, trees into the shape of 
green bolsters. The late Mr. McNab, of the Edinburgh garden, 
excellent planter though he was, had an idea that he kept his conifers 
in shape by clipping. A false idea runs through all growers of trees 
of the pine tribe, the most frequent victims of the practice, that these 
trees should be kept in a conical shape, the truth being that all the 
pine trees in the world in their state of highest beauty lose their lower 
branches, and show the beauty of their stem and form when growing 
in their natural way. With a few exceptions, it is the way of these 
trees to shed their lower branches as other trees shed their leaves. 
Even in countries where pines often stand alone, as on the foothills 
of California, I have often seen them with too feet or more of clean 

Articles on this subject are usually of the see-saw sort, the writer 
praising and blaming alternately, and wabbling about like a blind 
man in a fair. We are told that Elvaston, in Derbyshire, is not 
remarkable for natural beauty, and that the grounds there are so flat 
that landscape gardeners, in despair of any other planting, are com- 
pelled to have recourse to topiary work ; that " even that man of 
fame, ' Capability ' Brown, seems to have shrunk from the work of 
laying out the grounds. Whereupon the earl demanded his reason, 
and Brown replied, ' Because the place is so flat,' &c." 

Instead of there being any truth in the assertion that we cannot 


make level ground beautiful by planting in natural ways, level ground 
has a great deal in it that is favourable to artistic ways of planting. 
That is to say, with such ground we may more easily secure breadth, 
simplicity, and dignity, get dividing lines in the easiest way, richer 
soil and finer and more stately growth and nobler shelter. Many of 
the most beautiful gardens of Europe are on perfectly level ground, 
as Laxenberg in Vienna, the English garden in Munich, not to speak 
of many in our own river valleys and in counties like Lincolnshire. 
What would be said of planting in all the flat countries of Northern 
Europe if this assertion were true, to say nothing of the absurdity of 
assuming that the only way out of the difficulty is in the stupid 
disfigurement of trees ? I shall not imitate the example of these 
writers in leaving the matter in doubt, but give some reasons against 
the wasting of precious labour in order to rob trees of their natural 
charm. The old poets and satirists, who laughed at it, did not go 
into the reasons against clipping big trees, which are serious never- 

Loss OF Form. — First of all is the loss of tree form — a wonderful 
and beautiful gift, so wonderful and beautiful, indeed, that the marvel 
is that we should have to allude to it at all, as in nearly every parish 
in England one has only to walk one hundred yards or so to come 
face to face with fine examples of good tree form. There is more 
strength and beauty of line in many an ash tree by a farmhouse yard 
than in all the clipped forest trees in Britain. Some protest against 
the cropping and docking of animals' ears and tails, but, when the 
worst is done in that way, the dog or the horse remains in full beauty 
of form in all essential parts, but if we clip a noble tree, which in 
natural conditions is a lesson in lovely form in all its parts, we reduce 
it at once to a shapeless absurdity. 

Light and Shade. — The second great loss is that of light and 
shade, which are very important elements of beauty. These are 
entirely neutralised by shaving trees to a level surface, whether the 
trees take the form of a line, or we clip them singly, as in the British 
phase of tree clipping. If we see old examples of the natural yom, 
a forest tree, and the commonest victim of the shears among evergreen 
forest trees, and if we look at them in almost any light, we may soon 
see how much we lose by destroying light and shade, as the play of 
these enhances the force and beauty of all the rest. 

Colour. — The third objection is the loss of refined colour. In 
gardens we are so much concerned with garish colour that we often 
fail to consider the more delicate colours of nature, and such fine tone 
as we see in a grove of old Yews, bronzed by the winter, or in Ilex 
with the beautiful silver of the leaf, or a grove of coral-bearing Hollies. 
Even the smallest things clipped, such as juniper, have in a natural 


way much beauty of colour if left alone. All the favourite trees for 
clipping are far more beautiful in colour in a natural state ; the loss 
of the stem colour alone is a great one, as we may see wherever 
old Yews show their finely-coloured stems. 

Motion. — In the movement of these trees stirred by the wind, and 
the gentle sighing of their branches, we have some most welcome 
aspects of tree life. In groves of Ilex, as at Ham House, and masses 
of the same tree, as at St. Ann's, the effect of the motion of the 
branches is to many a beautiful one. This movement is also of great 
beauty in groves of old Yew trees, and is seen in every cedar and 
Pine that pillars the hills. The voice of the wind in these trees is 
one of the most grateful sounds in nature, and has often inspired the 


" I see the branches downward bent, 
Like keys of some great instrument." 

And even when the storm is past we hear delicate music in the 
free pine tips. 

" What voice is this ? what low and solemn tone, 

Which, though all wings of all the winds seem furled, 

Nor even the zephyr's fairy flute is blown, 

Makes thus for ever its mysterious moan 
From out the whispering Pine-tops' shadowy world ? 

Ah, can it be the antique tales are true ? 

Doth some lone Dryad haunt the breezeless air, 
Fronting yon bright immitigable blue. 
And wildly breathing all her wild soul through 

That strange unearthly music of despair ? 

Or, can it be that ages since, storm-tossed, 

And driven far inland from the roaring lea. 
Some baffled ocean-spirit, worn and lost. 
Here, through dry summer's dearth and winter's frost. 

Yearns for the sharp sweet kisses of the sea ? " 

Death and Disease of the Trees. — The fifth objection is that 
the constant mutilation of trees leads to death and disease not unfre- 
quently, as may be seen constantly at Versailles. In the Derbyshire 
examples, recently so much illustrated, the stems of dead Pines are 
shown in the pictures ! It is simply an end one might expect from 
the annual mutilation of a forest tree, which the Yew certainly is, as 
we see it among the cedars on the mountains of North Africa, as well 
as in our own country and in Western Europe. Other trees of the 
same great Pine order are yet more impatient of the shears, and some 
of them, like the cedar, escape solely because of their dignity. How- 
ever, we distort the Yew, which is in nature sometimes as fine as a 

Annual Cost. — The sixth objection is that of cost. Few 



begrudge it if it gives a good result, but merely to use the labour of 
scores of men with shears is to miserably waste both time and money 
where there is so much of the country to be planted with beautiful 
trees. Where, as often in the French towns, there is much clipping, 
the waste of labour is as appalling as the result is hideous. 

The Maze is an inheritance from a past time, but not a precious 
one, being one of the notions about gardening which arose when 
people had very little idea of the dignity and infinite beauty of the 
garden flora as we now know it. Some people may be wealthy 
enough to show us all the beauty of a garden and at the same time 
such ugly frivolities as this, but they must be few. The maze is not 
pretty as part of a home landscape or garden, and should be left 
for the most part to places of the public tea-garden kind. One of its 
drawbacks is the death and distortion of the evergreens that go to 
form its close lines, owing to the frequent clipping ; if clipping be 
neglected the end is still worse, and the whole thing is soon ready 
for the fire. 



The glorious sun of heaven, giver of life and joy to the earth, 
gives, too, the green fountains of life we call trees to shade her, and 
this beautiful provision might often be borne in mind in thinking of 
our often hard and bare gardens ! Air and shade, as we cannot, 
near houses in hot weather, enjoy the shade without free air, and shade 
may be often misused to cultivate mouldiness and keep the breeze 
away from a house, though it is very easy to have air and shade in a 
healthy way. To overshade the house itself with trees is always a 
mistake, and sometimes a danger, though even against a house, by the 
use of climbers, like Vines, pretty creeper-clad pergola, and by the 
wise use of rooms open to the air, creeper-shaded, flat spots on roofs, 
so often seen in Italy and France, it is easy to have welcome shade 
even forming part, as it were, of the house. VVe have the gain, 
too, of the grace and bloom of the climbers, from climbing Tea 
Roses to Wistaria, and we get rid of the bald effect of such houses 
as Syon and the excruciating effect of the newer French chateaux, 
often on the warm side without gardens or shade of any kind, and 
hard as a new bandbox. 

A little away from the house, shade of a bolder kind is always 
worth planning for. In planting for shade it is well to select with 
some care and avoid things that have a bad odour when in flower, 
like the Ailantus and the Manna Ash and ill-smelling undergrowth 
like Privet. In many places there is a fine field for cutting groups 
of pleasant shade trees out of the crammed shrubbery, neglected as 
that so often is, with dark barriers of Laurel, Privet, and Portugal 
Laurel. Nothing is easier than sweeping off and burning much of 
this evergreen rubbish, and getting instead shade over cool walks, or 
over paths leading through Ferns and Foxgloves ; such woodland 
plants allow us to get light and shade and do not weaken the trees. 

Vain attempts are often made in our gardens, public and private, 
to get grass to grow under certain trees which it would be much 
better to frankly accept as they are and gravel the spaces beneath 



them for use as playground or for seats. In dealing with such trees we 
must be unsparing in cutting off the lower boughs, which are rarely 
of much use to the tree and often impede the air and movement 
underneath ; they should be cut carefully to an airy but not hard 

Wych Elm on Lav 

Oak Lodge, Kensington. 

Where the flower garden is small we may rightly object to much 
shade in it, and must get as much as we can outside it. In many 
cases in open lawn gardens, where we may pass easily from the flower 
beds into grassy, open ground near, we may have delightful groups of 
shade trees not far from the flowers, and this sort of garden, of which 


there are so many in the level country, is that which is perhaps the 
most easy of all to keep cool, airy and sunny too. 

But in large open flower gardens, which are often bare and hard, 
it is better to have some light shade. Great areas of gravel and flat 
beds everywhere are most tiresome to the eye, and in many large 
flower gardens, it would be an improvement to have covered ways 
of Rose and Jasmine or wreaths of Clematis and alleys of graceful 
trees such as the Mimosa-leaved Acacia, or other light and graceful 
trees. In that way we should get some of the light and shade 
which are so much wanted in these large chessboard gardens, and in 
getting the shade we might also get trees beautiful in themselves, or 
carrying wreaths of Wistaria or other climbers. 

Among the most beau|;iful shade-giving trees are the weeping 
ones, which in our own day are many and beautiful, among them, the 
Weeping Ash, of which we see many trees even in the London 
squares. We are all so busy with exotics from many parts of the 
world, that the native tree does not always get a fair chance, and 
yet no deciduous tree ever brought to our country is for form and 
dignity finer than the mountain or Wych Elm. Trees over twenty 
feet round are not rare, and, being a native of the mountains of 
Northern England, its hardiness need never be in doubt. This tree 
is the parent of the large-leaved Weeping Elm (of which there are so 
many good trees to be seen), and the wild tree itself in its old 
age has also a weeping habit. But the weeping garden form is quite 
distinct and a tree of remarkable character and value, and like other 
weeping trees, it increases in beauty with age, like the grand old 
Weeping Beeches at Knaphill. The various Weeping Willows afford 
a w^elcome shade, and the White Willow and any of its forms give a 
pleasant light shade. 

A fine kind of shade is that given by a group of Yews on a lawn 
near the house on a hot day — a living tent without cost, and this is 
almost true of any spreading tree giving noble shade, as the great Oak 
in the pleasure ground at Shrubland. There are many noble Horse 
Chestnuts which give great shade, as at Busbridge, and the Plane tree 
in Southern England gives noble shade. 

There is no more beautiful lawn tree than the Tulip tree, and 
nothing happier in our country on an English lawn, in which its 
delightful shade and dignity are very welcome in hot weather, 
as at Esher Place and Woolbeding. Petworth also has a fine tree, 
but rather closed in by others. Owing partly to the attractive 
catalogues of conifers and other trees not of half the value of this 
from any point of view, young trees of these fine deciduous things are 
not so often planted as they used to be ; and why should not a tree 
like this be grouped now and then, instead of being left in solitary state ? 


Trees with light shade might be welcome in certain districts, among 
the last being various Acacias, of which the common old American is 
good, while several beautiful varieties have been raised in France, 
light, elegant trees, especially the Mimosa-leaved one. In warm 
soils this would grow well and give very light shade. There are so 
many rapid-growing trees that in places devoid of shade trees it 
would not be difficult to establish some soon. 

Those who have small gardens, and cannot have them robbed 
by the roots of trees, may get shade from climbers and often great 
beauty of flower from the climbers that give the shade. It is curious 
how little use is made of the Vine, with its beauty of leaf and form, 
for covered ways, loggias, and garden houses, not only in the 
country, but in town also. It is one of the best of plants for covering 
the fronts of houses, and good Vines spring out of London areas far 
below the level of the street, where it would be difficult to imagine 
worse conditions for the aeration of the soil or its fertility. These 
remarks apply not only to the common Vine, valuable though it is 
with all its innumerable varieties, but to the wild Vines of America 
and Japan, some of which are fine in foliage and colour. 

The last few years we have seen so many hot seasons that one 
turns to the Continental idea of shade in the garden with more 
interest ; and why should we not have outdoor loggia and Vine- 
covered garden rooms ? We do not only neglect the outdoor shaded 
structures, but the even more essential loggia forming part of the 
house. A garden room entered from the house, and part of it, is a 
great comfort, and may be made in a variety of pretty ways, though 
never without provision for a few light graceful climbers. 

After all is said about shade, the most essential thing about it 
in British gardens is not to have too much of it. Most of us plant 
too thickly to begin with ; the trees get too close and we neglect to 
thin them, the result being mouldy, close avenues, dripping, sunless 
groves, and dismal shrubberies, more depressing than usual in a wet 
season. It is only when we get the change from sun to shade with 
plenty of movement for air that we enjoy shade. We cannot feel the 
air move in an over-planted place, and there are in such no broad 
breadths of sunlight to give the airy look that is so welcome. Over- 
planting is the rule ; the regular shrubbery is a mixture fatal to the 
play of light and shade and air, and not only the sun is shut out, but 
often many beautiful views also. 

^ Very harmful in its effect on the home landscape is the common 
objection to cutting down, or ill-placed trees crowded to the detriment 
of the landscape and often to the air and light about a house. The 
majority of the trees that are planted in and near gardens are planted 
in ignorance of their mature effects, the landscape beauty of half the 


country seats in England being marred by unmeaning trees and trees 
out of place. I have known people who wanted to remove a solid 
Georgian house rather than take down a tree of moderate dimensions 
which made the house dark and mouldy and obscured the view of far 
finer trees beyond it, and it is not long since a man wrote to the Times 
after a storm to say that one of his Elm trees had fallen through the 
dining-room ceiling when he was at luncheon, and that Elms were not 
good trees to put over the house ! 

Where without the limits of the garden there are drives through 
old mixed or evergreen woods, like the Long Cover at Shrubland 
or the drive at Eastnor, it is important not to let the undergrowth 
close in on each side, as trees are very apt to do. It is difficult to give 
an idea of the difference in the effect of such a drive when " light and 
shade " are let into it, and when, as is commonly the case, the Yew, 
Box, and other things are clipped back to hard walls, good views, 
fine trees, and groups being all shut out by this neglect. It is better 
never to clip in such cases, but always to work back to a good tree 
or group, cutting encroachers clean out of the way, and so getting 
room for the air to move, the shade of the trees above being sufficient 
in each case. The pleasure of driving or walking is much greater 
when the air is moving, and when one can see here and there into 
the wood on each side, with perhaps groups of wild flowers and 
beautiful views into the country beyond. 

The old fashion of having plashed alleys near the garden, of 
which there are good examples at Hatfield, Drayton, and other old 
gardens, was a pretty one, but as done with vigorous Lime trees it was 
troublesome and laborious work to keep down the vigour of such 
forest trees which, in point of looks, were not in any way the best to 
use for the purpose. However charming those old covered walks 
are it is well to remember that we have much nobler things for 
forming them now, that do not want cutting back, and that are 
beautiful in foliage and bloom. It is also well in planting such 
things to see that the shaded alley is sufficiently high and airy. 
There is no reason why it should not be made reasonably big, especi- 
ally as we have noble climbers to cover it that do not keep rushing 
up in the air like the Lime and other forest trees which were used for 
this purpose in old times, when there were few trees to select from, 
and when probably the quick growth of the Lime was the cause of 
its selection. Its shade in this cut-down form is not so pleasant as 
the nobler climbers, which will cause no trouble in springing above 
the surfaces we wish them to cover. 

Planting in Light and Shade. — This helps to get us out of 
the hard ways in which flowers are set in gardens. There is 
too sharp a line between the open parterre and the shady grove. 



There are no gardens surrounded by more pleasant groves than 
English gardens generally, even small gardens having their belt of 

Air and shade : Shaded walk, Belvoir 

trees, with opportunities for flower grouping in light and shade, but 
now for the most part occupied by heavy evergreens, massed together 


and preventing all chance of light and shade, and even shutting out 
air and beauty. 

We cannot do much good, in such cases, unless we first destroy 
the Privet and facile evergreens, like Laurels, which overrun every- 
thing, and then comes the question of the plants which will grow best 
in such places, as shade in gardens varies whether it comes from 
light-leaved or heavy-leaved trees, and there are so many different 
degrees of shade. We should think of the plants that grow in woody 
places naturally, as in our woods we may see handsome tall Grasses, 
Foxgloves, large Ferns, herbaceous plants like the French Willow 
and the Ragwort, tall Harebells, and many ground plants like 
Primroses and Bluebells. There is not any hard and fast line 
between plants that grow in shady places and other herbaceous plants, 
although some difference exists, and there are so many varieties of 
climate, elevation, and conditions of soil that the plants often vary in 
their ways. Foxgloves and Bracken, which are seen happy in the 
woods of the south, thrive on sunny rocky places in the north, so that 
there is an interplay among these things which helps us in making 
our gardens more varied. Not only we have to consider wood plants, 
but the fact that a great many plants of the northern world grow in 
partial shade, and we could arrange our borders, if we get out of stiff 
ways, so as to let the plants often run from the light into the shade. 

In making borders through groves or shrubberies, it would be easy 
to have no hard line at the back of the border, but simply let 
the plants run in and enjoy the shade here and there. Where there 
might be some doubt of choice herbaceous plants thriving in shade 
there need be no doubt as to the larger woodland ferns and such 
plants as Solomon's Seal. 

Among the interesting plants that thrive in shade are alpine and 
mountain plants. Many of these, being shrouded in clouds and 
enduring much rain in cool gorges, very often rejoice in shady places, 
as the varieties of the Irish Rockfoil (Saxifraga Geum), which carpet 
the ground in places that the sun never touches. Other Rockfoils 
have the same habit, including the large Indian kinds and their 
varieties. The Irises are often very beautiful in half-shady places, 
German Irises especially. By planting, too, in various aspects, shade 
and open, we get a succession of favourite flowers, that under a hot 
sun last but a short time. In the cooler light their colours have a 
greater charm — the blues more tender, the deeper colours still richer. 

Paeonies are never handsomer than in subdued light, their colours 
richer and longer lasting than when bleached by the sun. This is 
true especially of the frailer single forms, which open out quickly 
under a hot sun and are gone all too soon. Many beautiful plants are 
happiest in the shade — not too dense — but where the sun's rays filter 

A A 



through the tree-leaves. Gardens of great beauty may be made in 
the shade — gardens of greater charm than those who know not the 
store of plants for this purpose little dream of, and not confined to the 
hardy plant alone, but including also shrubs as well — as the hardy 
Azaleas. These are never so fine as when seen in shady or half shady 
places in a wood, as at Dropmore and Coolhurst, their colours more 
intense from the subdued light, and the flowers more lasting in the shade. 
Air, shade, and light are a trinity essential about a country house, and 
we cannot enjoy any one of them unless some thought is given to all. 

Sun and Shade. (The Hoo, Wclwyn) 



The lawn is the heart of the true British garden, and of all forms 
of garden the freest and, may be, the most varied and charming, adapted 
as it is to all sorts of areas from that around the smallest house. It is 
above all things the English form of garden made best in the rich level 
valley land, and, with the least amount of trouble and labour to make or 
keep it, certainly gives the best result in effect. The terrace garden 
we have seen, in its origin and best meaning, arises from wholly different 
sort of ground from that on which we make a lawn. If the Italians 
and others who built on hills to avoid malaria had had healthy and 
level ground they would have been very glad of it, and thought it 
beautiful. With the lawn there is little or no trouble in securing fine 
background effects, variety, pretty dividing lines, recesses for any 
favourites we may have in the way of flowers, freedom, relief, air and 
breadth. There is room on the lawn for every flower and tree, from 
the cedar, and the group of fruit trees planted for the beauty of their 
flowers and fruit, down to rich beds of lilies or smaller flowers. 

One of the most foolish dogmas ever laid down about a garden is 
that made in a recent book by an architect, in which we are told emphat- 
ically that there is no such thing as a garden to be made except 
within four walls.. Many of the most beautiful gardens in the British 
Isles are without any aid but a background of trees and evergreens, 
and no trace of walls, which are absolutely needless in many situa- 
tions to get the most artistic results in a garden. And lovely gardens 
may be made around lawns without marring the breadth and airiness 
which is the charm of a lawn, or in the least interfering with the use of 
its open parts as a playground. 

Climber-covered Alleys around Play Lawns. — Where 
there is space enough there are reasons in country places for 

A A 2 



cutting off by a hedge a playground from the garden or pleasure 
ground, as is done at Madresfield and Campsey Ash and many of the 
older gardens ; and what is used generally is the yew or holly, but 
clipped hedges give little shade and no flowers. Now, in the like 
position, if we adopt the pergola, we get shade, and many graceful 
flowers. Clematis, tall roses, wistaria, and almost every beautiful 
climber could be grown thereon, some better than on walls, because we 
can allow more abandon than on walls, and it is not at all so easy ta 
crucify vine or climber on a pergola. We can have evergreens too if 
we wish, with garlands of handsome ivies among them, and players 

rs Court, Tewkesbury. From a photograph 

by ;\Irs. Ward, Tewkesbury. 

might rest in the shade and lookers on sit there to see the play. 
Various bold openings should be made on the play lawn side, and the 
whole so arranged as to be a sort of living cloister. Well done, 
the structure might be, apart from its shade and coolness and use as 
a dividing line, a garden of a very graceful kind, while the recent 
hot seasons lead one to think that the Italian way of putting a roof of 
vine leaves between one's self and the sun is worth carrying out in our 
own country. 

Pergolas have various uses in covering paths which are too much 
exposed to the sun, and are a great aid in the garden, and there is no 
better way of growing beautiful climbing plants than a green covered 


way, whether supported by oak posts, or brick or stone pillars as in 

The ordinary covered ways made in England of plants are often 
too narrow and " pokey." In forming all such things a certain 
amount of freedom is essential ; and we cannot enjoy the air 
in the usual narrow covered way, which, apart from its own error 
as to size, is also soon narrowed by growth. It should always 
be made at least wide enough for two people to be able to walk 
abreast. Where oak is not distinctly preferred, 14 in. brick pillars 
are best, and the plants take to them very soon. Common brown or 
rough stock bricks are far better for this use than showy red bricks : 
the last being often too the most costly. In stone districts stone 
would do as well or better, and it needs no fine dressing or 
designing after any pattern. It is better in fact clone in the free way 
the Italians do it ; but then in Italy every man is a mason, or knows 
what to do with stone, and also the stone there comes out in long 
posts or flakes, which serve as posts. This is also the case in the 
north of England, where beautiful posts of the green stone may be 
seen in use on the farms. In Cornwall, too, it would be easy to have 
stone pillars. We are in the iron age and many resort to iron, ugliest 
of all materials ; but if simply done and not disfigured with galvanised 
wire, even iron may help our purpose if painted carnation green or 
some other quiet colour. If we use iron, we may take from its 
hardness by tying wooden trellis work over it, which is better for 
tying the climbers to than iron or wire, using the most enduring 
wood we have for this purpose. For this an excellent aid will be found 
in the bamboo stakes which now come in quantities to our ports as 
underpacking for sugar cargoes. These are sold in quantity at a 
reasonable rate, and are an excellent aid in making the iron pergola 
wired across and along the iron supports. Thus we get an enduring 
material, good in colour and excellent to tie the shoots of rose, clematis, 
or vine to. 

The beautiful climbing shrubs and other plants that would find a 
good congenial home on such a pergola are a good reason for its use. 
Among them various graceful forms of our grape vine, as well as 
the Japanese and American wild vines, a group which now includes 
the Virginian creepers of our gardens, which are also useful, but not 
so good as the true vines ; the lovely Wistaria, and not only the old 
Chinese kind, the best of all, but the beautiful Japanese long-racemed 
kind ( W. niultijugd) ; and various others too, though we think none 
come near to these in beauty ; the brilliant flame Nasturtium in cool 
districts, and where light shade is desired ; the green briar (Smilax) 
of America, and also the South of Europe, for warm soils ; handsome 


double and white-stemmed brambles ; wild and single roses ; box 
thorn, with its brilliant showers of berries ; European, American and 
Japanese honeysuckles ; jasmines ; over fifty kinds of ivy, the noblest 
of northern and evergreen climbers ; evergreen thorn, with its bright 
berries ; cotoneasters of graceful habit ; clematises, especially the 
graceful wild kinds of America, Europe, and North Africa. In mild 
districts particularly, the winter blooming clematis of North Africa 
and the Mediterranean Islands, which flowers in winter or early spring, 
would be very pretty and give light shade. The showy trumpet 
flowers {Bignonia), quite hardy in southern and midland counties ; and 
the Dutchman's pipe {Aristolochia), with its large leaves, would also 
be useful. The fine-leaved Lardizabala of Chili, the brilliant coral 
barberry of the same country {Berberidopsis) ; the graceful, if not 
showy silk vine {Periploca) of Southern Europe ; the Chinese Akebia, 
the use of the rarer climbers depending much on the climate, elevation, 
soil, and nearness to the sea. 

The plashed alley is an alternative to the yew hedge and the 
covered way, but in some Elizabethan gardens it was often planted 
with trees of too vigorous growth, such as the lime, which led to 
excessive mutilation and eventual distortion of the tree. Now, with 
our present great variety of trees — some of them very graceful and light 
in foliage — it is by no means necessary to resort to such ugly muti- 
lation ; and it would be easy, as an alternative to the pergola, the 
clipped hedge or the plashed alley, to have a shaded walk of medium- 
sized or low trees only. These might even be fruit trees ; but the 
best would be such elegant-leaved trees as the acacias, which 
preserve their leaves for a long time in summer. One drawback 
of the lime, in addition to its excessive vigour, is the fact that it 
sheds its leaves very early in the autumn, and, indeed, we have 
often seen the leaves tumble off in St. James's Park at the end 
of July, and in Paris also. It is most unpleasant to have in an alley 
a tree which is liable to such an early loss of its leaves. The common 
lime is a tree of the mountains and cool hills of Europe, and it cannot 
endure great heats and hot autumns ; whereas some of the trees of 
North America and other countries are quite fresh in the hottest days. 
Among these none is better than the acacia, of which, in France 
especially, a number of elegant varieties have been raised, as hardy 
as the parent species which charmed William Cobett, but more 
graceful in foliage. Among the best of these is the mimosa-leaved 
acacia, an elegant tree, which gives us a pleasantly shaded walk, 
and yet is not likely ever to become too coarse in habit. 

Fine Turf in and near the Flower Garden. — Fine turf is 
essential in and near the house and garden — turf wholly apart from 


the open park or playground. Flower beds are often set in turf, or 
there are small grassy spaces near the house or the garden, on the good 
effect of which depends very much the beauty of the home landscape, as 
coming so much into the foreground of what should be pictures. One 
reason why we should take care to get the best turf which the conditions 
of soil or climate allow is that no other country but ours can have such 
good turf. In many countries, even in Europe, they cannot have it at 
all, but grass seed has to be sown every year to get some semblance of 
turf. Where, however, our natural advantages are so great, our care 
should be to get the full benefit of them ; and though in many places 
the turf, through the goodness of the soil, is all that could be desired 
even in Britain, in others a very poor turf is often seen, and much effort 
is often given in vain attempts to get a turf worthy of a flower garden. 

Many people think that any rough preparation will secure them a 
good sward, and merely trench and turf the ground ; even experienced 
ground workmen fail to get a fine turf for the flower garden, though 
they may lay turf well enough for a cricket ground. Others think 
that turf will come of itself, but are often rudely disappointed ; 
and therefore some instructions as to the best way of laying down 
turf, where the work has to be done from the beginning, and also for 
repairing it when out of order, may be useful to some readers. The 
following is written by Mr. James Burnham, who has made for me 
some of the most beautiful garden lawns I have seen, some of them 
laid in hot spring weather. 

"Formation of Good Turf. — Should the spot chosen be on 
heavy soil, such as clay, take the levels and fix them 16 feet apart 
around the outside of the piece intended for a lawn Take some 
levels across the piece, then take 12 inches of earth out below the levels. 
Should any of these 12 inches contain good soil, wheel that on to the 
outside of the piece, removing all the clay to a place near and burning it 
into ballast, using slack coal. Find the natural fall of the ground, and 
place pegs 16 feet apart in lines from top to bottom the way it falls, 
then dig out the soil in line of pegs with a draining tool, 12 inches deep 
at top end, bottom end 1 8 inches deep. This will give a fall of 6 inches. 
Then lay in 2-inch drain pipes, with a 3-inch pipe at the bottom end for 
a main to take the water that drains from the sub-soil. See that this 
main is taken to some outlet. Cover the pipes with 3 inches of burnt 
ballast, and spread 3 inches of burnt ballast all over the piece of ground. 
Dig the ground over 12 inches deep, at the same time mixing the 3 
inches of burnt ballast with the clay, taking care not to disturb the 
pipes or dig below them. After treading all over firmly, place on the 
surface 2 inches of burnt ballast, filling to the level with loam mixed with 


tlie good soil you have laid on one side from the surface. If you have 
no good soil, fill up with loam mixed with coarse gravel, brick rubbish, 
and burnt ballast. Tread all over again as before, making it level with 
a spade, pressing in any lump or stone that appears level with the 
ground. No rake should be used. You have now 2 feet of trenched 
earth. Do not dig down deeper in one place than another, A stick 
cut 2 feet long by the worker's side is the best. He can, with the stick 
test his depth from time to time. 

In laying the turf keep the joints of each piece half-an-inch apart. 
When it is all laid down pat it gently all over with a turf-beater. It 
is better to take up the turf that is a little higher than the rest and 
take out a little of the soil than to beat it down to the level. Then 
spread some burnt ballast, ashes from the burnt refuse of the garden, 
and the top 2 inches of soil from the wood, sifted through a half- 
inch mesh sieve, mixed well together, all over the grass. Move it about 
until all the joints in the turf are level. Wait for rain, then go over 
the lawn and take out all weeds. Give another dressing of the soil as 
before, adding to this a little road grit and old mortar. If no old 
mortar is available, slaked lime will answer. Move this about until 
all is level again. In the month of March or the first week in April, 
if the weather is fine, sow all" over the lawn some of the best lawn 
grass seed. Get some fine Thorn bushes and lace them together in the 
shape of a fan heavy enough for two men to drag about the lawn in 
various ways. Roll with a light roller, and keep off the lawn until 
the grass has grown 3 inches, then cut it with a scythe. Roll 
with a light roller the first season, and when mowing with the machine 
is commenced, see that the knives are not set too close to the ground. 

Should the ground selected for turf not contain clay, so much the 
better. Dig holes here and there 2 feet deep in the winter months. 
If no water lies at the bottom of the holes, this shows it will not want 
artificial draining ; if there is water drain as on heavy soil. In 
trenching the ground, if the subsoil be bad, take 3 inches of this 
away, filling up to the level with good soil, to which have been added 
half-inch crushed bones in the proportion of four tons to the acre, 
fire brick rubbish and burnt ballast in the same proportions as for 
the heavy soil. Turf and treat as on heavy soil. If you have a good 
grass field, take the turf for your lawn, also top spit away, replace 
with rough soil, and place 3 inches of the loam that has been dug 
out upon the rough soil you have put in, then sow, bush harrow, and 
lightly roll. 

Treatment of Old Lawns. — Weeds, moss, and bare places on 
lawns show that they are worn out. To remedy this, take off the turf 
in rolls 3 feet long i foot wide and i inch thick. If the turf cannot 


be rolled, take 6 inches of the surface away, then trench 2 feet deep, 
keeping the good soil on the top as you proceed. Tread firmly all over 
and fill up to the level with good soil ; mix with the loam, burnt 
ballast, old brick rubbish, half-inch crushed bones, and road 
sidings or sweepings. Then turf and treat as in the case of new lawns. 
On old lawns there are very often handsome deciduous trees too 
close to which it would be dangerous to trench. To get grass to 
grow under these, take away 2 inches of the exhausted soil, replace 
with good, and sow thereon grass seed thickly. Rake the seed in 
gently, roll it lightly, and water when necessary. This may be re- 
peated in the same way as often as the soil under the trees becomes 

In some cases where turf is scarce, a roll of turf 3 feet long 
and I foot wide may be taken and cut in half lengthways. With 
this form the outlines of the beds, which have been staked out pre- 
viously, beat down to the level required, and bring up the interven- 
ing spaces to the level of the turf with good soil. Make this firm, rake 
it level, and on this sow some good grass seed. Bush harrow it over, 
roll lightly, and protect from birds where these are troublesome. Cut 
the grass when 6 inches high with a scythe, and keep it well watered 
during the summer if the weather is dry. In this way a beautiful lawn 
may be had at little expense as compared with turfing it completely 

Lawns on Peaty and Sandy Soils. — In some parts of Hamp- 
shire and Surrey, where peat and sand abound, seeds are by far the 
best to use to form a good turf Remove all peat from the site you 
wish for a lawn, pile it on the outside of the work and cast plenty of 
water upon it. Then take out 2 or 3 inches of the dark sand 
that lies under the peat, and cast this also over the pile of peat. 
Take out 12 inches of the sand, dig all over 12 inches deep and 
tread it firmly. Get all the road scrapings and road trimmings to 
be had with a little clay and stiff loam, and cast upon the peat pile. 
Having got together the quantity you think will fill up to your 
level, cut up small the peat you have in the pile and mix all well 
together with this, fill up to the level, tread firmly all over, then give 
everywhere a good coating of cow manure, turned 3 inches under 
the surface, and tread firmly all over. In the month of March sow 
thickly. Do not let the surface get dry the first summer, and cut the 
grass when 6 inches high with a scythe. 

Attention should be paid to keeping all lawns free from weeds. 
Dress lawns once a year with one bushel of salt mixed with fourteen 
bushels of wood ashes not too much burnt, using for this purpose 



refuse, underwood, waste faggots, old laurels or other condemned 
shrubs. When you see the wood is consumed spread the ashes 
abroad and cover them with good soil. Break the charred wood small, 
mix all well together, do not sift, spread upon the lawn, and roll 
it in." 

Lawn Garden, Herts. Engraved from a photograph by Mr. Newman, Berkhanipstead. 

Stone bench (Dropmore). 



The first thing to be thought of in all building, apart from the house 
itself, is the absolute need of the structure, as there has been much effort 
lost in useless garden buildings, and no way of garden over-doing is 
so full of waste and ugliness. Recently we have seen attempts to 
revive the old garden houses, but the result has not often been 
happy. In old houses like Hatfield and Montacute, the little 
houses near the gate often had a true use at the entrance side, 
but now we see such things revived for the mere sake of carrying 
out a drawing, and as soon as built we see the aimlessness of the 
work, and then comes the difficult question of " planting it out " from 
different points of view. Isolated building in a garden is difficult 
to do with any good result, though at one period the building 
of temples was very common in pleasure gardens, and many of 
them are still to be seen. It is best, when these are of good 
form and structure, to keep them with care and make some simple 
use of them, by removing at once all suggestion of the grotto and 
having simple oak benches or other good seats. The interior also 
should be made simple in colour and free from covert for woodlice 


or earwigs. It is in connection with the house, or part of its lower 
storeys, that garden shelters, loggias and the like may be most 
effectively made ; of this we see examples at North Mymms and 
Bramshill, and where they give shade or a " garden room " as part of 
the house they are a real gain. 

Bridges. — Few things about country houses and gardens are worse 
in effect and construction than the so-called "rustic work." It is 
complex and ugly as a rule, its only merit being that it rots away in 
a few years. It is probably at its worst in garden chairs, " summer " 
houses, and rustic bridges. An important rule for bridges is never to 
make them where they are not really needed, though the opposite course 
is followed almost in every place of any size where there is water. 
On rustic bridges over streams, natural or otherwise, there is much 
wasted labour. A really pretty bridge of a wholly different sort I 
saw once with the late James Backhouse near Cader Idris on a 
farm which had a swift stream running through it, to cross which 
some one had cut down a tree that grew near, and had chopped the 
upper side flat and put a handrail along it. Time had helped it 
with Fern, Lichen, and Moss, and the result was far more beautiful 
than is ever seen in more pretentiously " designed " rustic bridges. 
It is not, however, the far prettier effects we have to note, but the 
advantage which comes from strength and endurance. It looked very 
old and Moss-grown, and no doubt it is there now, as the heart-wood 
of stout trees does not perish like the sap-wood of the " rustic "- 
work maker. The sound oak tree bridge was the earliest footway 
across a stream, and it will always be one of the best if the sap 
wood is carefully adzed off. It would not please those, perhaps, 
for whom there is nothing good unless it has a pattern upon 
it, but it is a strong and beautiful way. Foot-bridges these 
should be called, as they are, of course, too narrow for any other 
purpose, but with a good oak rail at one side the tree bridge is 
distinctly better than a bridge of planks. Where stones are plenti- 
ful, stone put up in a strong, simple way is the best to make a 
lasting bridge, and a simple structure in brick or stone is better 
in effect than any rustic bridge. Where stream beds are rocky 
and shallow, stepping stones are often better than a bridge, though 
they cannot be used where the streams cut through alluvial soils 
and the banks are high. 

Some of the worst work ever done in gardens has been in the 
construction of needless bridges, often over wretched duck-ponds 
of small extent. Even people who have some knowledge of 
country life, and who ought to possess taste, come to grief over 
bridge building, and pretty sheets of water are disfigured by bridges 
ugly in form and material. For the most frivolous reasons these 



Ugly things are constructed, though often by going ten yards further 
one could have crept round the head of the pond by a pretty path, 
aided, perhaps, by a few stepping stones. 

Earth-bank Bridges. — But there are many cases where some 
kind of bridge is necessary in pleasure grounds or woodlands where 
there might be more excuse for the rustic worker's bridge. The difficulty 
of the light woodwork bridge is that it begins to rot as soon as it is put 
up, and we find that, even when done in the best way, with larch or oak,, 
and by old-fashioned workmen, who get as much simplicity of form 
and endurance out of it as they can, the years pass so rapidly and 

A garden room, by Harold Peto, Bridge House, Weybridge. 

British rain is so constant, that rot and decay are all we get out of it, 
and very often such bridges fall into such a dangerous state before we 
have time to repair them, that animals often get into danger from them. 
A much better way is the earth bank, with a drain pipe through, 
and this suffices where there is a slight, steady, or an occasional flow 
of water, and also to cross gorges or depressions. We can find the 
earth to make it on the spot, and by punning, and in the case of 
larger work of this kind, carting over it, we can get it to settle down 
in one winter to the level we want it, and soon have an excellent and 
permanent way across. Such banks will support any weight, and are 
as free from decay as the best stone bridge. One of their best points 


is that the sides and approaches and slope of the earth bank can be 
made pretty at once by planting with Honeysuckle, Broom, Svveetbrier, 
or any other hardy things. Another advantage of the bank is, that 
the simplest willing workman can form it. The materials being 
on the spot, it is foolish to cart things a long way. Even when we 
have stone or brick at hand the labour has to be considered. By making 
a culvert of bricks and cement, the earth-bank is equally good to cross 
constantly running streamlets. 

The Summer-house is generally a failure and often a heap of 
decay. To make such a structure of wood that soon decays is labour 
wasted. It may be possible, by using the best woods and good oak 

Oak-pale fencing, Surrey. 

slabs, to make a summer-house which will be picturesque and endur- 
ing, but it is better to build it of stone or some lasting material and 
cover it with vines and quick-growing climbers. 

One can make an enduring and charming summer-house out of liv- 
ing trees. An old Yew or a group of old Yews, or a low-spreading Oak 
(there is a fine example of this kind of living summer-house at Shrub- 
land), an old Beech or a group of evergreen Oaks will make a pleasant 
summer-house, and with a little care for effect, and by pruning away 
old and worn-out branches, so as to get air and room without injuring 
the beauty of the trees, it is easy to form cool tents for hot days. 

Fences and Dividing Lines. — The iron fence destroys the 
beauty of half the country seats in England, and the evil is growing 
every day. There are various serious objections to iron fencing, 
but we will only deal here with its effect on the landscape. Any 
picture is out of the question with an iron fence in the foreground. 
Where an open fence is wanted, nothing is so fine in form and colour 
as a split Oak fence and rails made of heart of Oak with stout posts. 


A sawn wood fence is not so good. As Oak is so plentiful on many 
estates, good examples of split Oak post and rail fences should be 
more often seen. Oak palings are often used, and sometimes where a 
good live fence of Holly, Quick and wild Rose on a good bank would 
be far better ; but Oak paling is often a precious aid in a garden as a 
dividing line where the colour of brick or other walls would be against 
their use, or where for various reasons walls would not be desirable or 
a live fence suitable. 

Sunk Fences and Retaining Walls. — Sunk fences of stone 
or brick are often of the highest value in the pleasure ground, and 
sometimes near the flower garden, as they help us to avoid the 
hideous mechanical fences of our day, and they are often the best 
way of keeping open views, especially if planted with a gar- 
land of creeping plants or wild roses above. They should be strongly 
if roughly built, without mortar, and they may be a home for beauti- 
ful plants. They should be made on a " batter " or slightly sloping 

Simple form of garden seat, Warley Place. 

back, the stones packed close together, i.e. without much earth and 
layers of alpine plants should be put between them. Retain- 
ing walls or sunk fences could be made admirably in this way, and 
where they permit of it may be made into beautiful alpine gardens. 
Apart from the sunk fence, there is often need for low retaining walls, 
especially in places of diversified surface. These walls also may 
be made the home of delightful plant beauty in the simplest way. 
Particulars of these things will be found in fuller detail in the chapter 
on Rock Gardens. 

Seats. — It is rare to see a garden seat that is not an eyesore. 
Few make them well and simply in wood, and there is always decay 
to be considered. Of our own woods. Oak is the best. Stout heart of 
Oak laths screwed into a simple iron frame without ornament make a 
good seat. They are best without paint and in the natural colour of the 
Oak wood. No seat is so good as one of good stone simply designed 



and strongly made, and in our country one objection to stone is met 
by the use of a mat or a light trellis of Bamboo or split laths of Oak 
held together by cross pieces and placed on top of the stone. In Italy 
and France one often sees good stone seats, and there they are not 
expensive. I have made good stone seats out of steps and other 
stones which had been displaced in buildings. Stone seats should 
always be set on stone supports bedded in concrete. A good oak seat 
is one with strong stone supports, the top being a slab of Oak 
laid with two bars across its lower side to keep it in place. The 
top in this form being so easily removed, may be stored away for the 
winter, as wooden seats should always be. Tree stems of some size 
and little value may also be cut into the form of seats, and make very 
good ones for a time, but they soon decay. The common iron seats 
with cast patterns on them are ugly, but iron seats need not be so,, 
and some old iron seats quite simply made of lath or rod iron were 

Marble slab seat with Oak lattice cover. 

fairly good, and it is not difficult to cover the seat with bamboo 
trellis-work or matting for the summer season. Some of the French 
wooden seats are simple and good in form, and, painted a nice carna- 
tion-leaf green, they look very well. Bamboos, which come in such 
quantities now in the sugar ships, might be more used for making- 
pretty garden seats. Sometimes old tree stumps help to make useful 
seats, and the bole of the tree, if cut, makes a very good rustic seat. 
Where stone is plentiful, as in many hill and other parts, it is often 
easy to make useful seats out of blocks of stone in rocky places. Of 
this sort I saw some pretty examples at Castlewellan and the rocky 
district around. 

The Covered Way may be a charming thing in a garden and 
make a home for climbers, as well as a shady way, and also form a 
valuable screen. Shade is more essential in other countries than in 
ours, and the Italian covered way is often a very picturesque object. 



The best material to make the supports of is rough stone or brick. 
On an enduring support like this the woodwork is more easily con- 
structed afterwards. Simple rough stone posts may be had in certain 
quarries in the north of England, in the lake country, but in the 
absence of these it will be better to build columns of brick or stone 
than to trust to any wood. In all open-air work the enduring way is 
true economy, and though we cannot all readily get the hard green 
stone gate posts stained with yellow Lichen of the farms about 
Keswick, or the everlasting granite fence posts that one sees in Italy, 
we should make a stand against work which has to be done over 
and over again. Of woods, Oak free of sapwood makes the best 
supports ; Larch is good, but best of all, perhaps, is the common 
Locust tree, which, however, is seldom plentiful in a mature state. 

\ Bower with stone table at end of garden. From a photo sent by the Marquis de Fontreira. 

For all the other parts of covered ways nothing is better than old 
Oak branches or the stems of stunted Oaks, or of old stub Oaks 
that are often found about a country place, and are of very little value 
as timber. Larch lasts well in the absence of Oak, but is not nearly 
so good in effect. By using Oak with stone or brick supports, a 
covered way may be made which will last for years without falling 
into decay, as is the case with this kind of work when done with more 
perishable woods and without lasting supports. It would be far better 
to employ strong iron wire than wood of this sort. An advantage 
which woodwork has over iron lies in its good effect. Carefully done, a 
covered way made as above described may be picturesque even before 
there is a plant on it. 

Living Supports. — A pretty way of supporting plants and 
forming covered ways is to use certain trees of a light and graceful 

B B 



character for supporting climbers, just as the Itah'ans often support 
their Vines on living trees kept within bounds. Such trees as the 
weeping Aspen, weeping Birch, and fruit trees of graceful, drooping 
forms, like some Apples, would do well, and would be worth having 
for their own sakes, while through the trees hardy climbers could 
freely run. 

BOATHOUSES. — Among the things which are least beautiful in 
many gardens and pleasure grounds is the boathouse. Our builders 
are not simple in their ways, and are seldom satisfied with any one good 
colour or material to make a house with, or even a boathouse, but 

A thatched summer-house. 

every kind of ugly variegation is tried, so that harshness in effect is 
the usual result, where all should be simple and quiet in colour, as it is 
in boathouses on the Norfolk Broads made of reeds and rough posts. 
The simpler the better in all such work, using local material like Oak, 
which comes in so well for the posts, and reeds for the roof ; but the 
simplest brickwork and brown tiles would be far better than the con- 
trast of ugly colours which the modern builder both in France and 
England delights in. The place, too, should be carefully chosen and 
the building not conspicuous. It is well to avoid the cost of railway 
carriage in the making of simple structures like boat-houses, and also 
carting, which is such a costly matter in many districts. It is best to 


use materials of the estate or country. Ivy and living creepers may 
help to protect the sides of airy sheds. Larch comes in well where Oak 
is not to be spared, and Larch shingling for the roof might be used, 
as is commonly done in farm-houses in Northern Europe and America. 
Little shelters for mowing machines, tools and the like can be made 
with wood covered with Larch bark, as at Coolhurst, and a very 
pretty effect they have, besides being less troublesome to make 
than the heather or thatched roofs, especially in districts where 
the good thatcher is getting rare. The chip roof, also, of the wooded 
country around London is an excellent one, lasting for half a century 
or so if well made, but the men who 
made it so well are now less and 
less easy to meet with. And on 
the whole the best roof for any 
structure that has to last is of tiles 
of good colour : tiles made and 
tested in the locality being often 
the best. 

Fountains in Gardens. — In 
this moist climate of ours water 
needs to be used with great discre- 
tion. Above all things it must flow 
and not stagnate. Bacon, who said 
so many things about gardens well, 
summed up the case with his usual 
felicity: — "For fountains, they are a 
great beauty and refreshment ; but 
pools mar all." No doubt we can 
all of us recall some pool of great 
beauty, some moat with little broken 

reflections that made almost all the charm of the garden wherein it 
lay, but as a general rule Bacon is right. 

As nothing is drearier than a dry fountain except the exasperat- 
ing trickle of one that refuses to be drowned out by the continuous 
drip of the eaves, it is better to place your fountain in a part of the 
garden which you are only likely to visit on a fine day, and if possible 
it should be set where its tossing spray will catch the sunbeams while 
you repose in the cool shade ; then the supply of water may be as it 
should — unfailing. Fountains on such an extensive scale as those 
of Versailles or Chatsworth are only to be excused, when, as at Caserta, 
they run day and night from one year's end to the other. It is only 
in such great places too that large and monumental fountains, basin 
above basin, adorned with sculpture and connected by cascades, have 
any fitness, and even where they are fit they are apt, here in England, 

B B 2 

to Bishop s Garden (Chichester). 


to cease very soon to be fine. Lead is the best material for such foun- 
ts in sculpture in our damp-laden atmosphere, as it discolours more 
becomingly than stone or marble. This tendency to discolour in 
blotches and afford a foothold for mosses and lichens, though a 
blemish on statues, is an added charm to the necessary basins and 
copings which should confine the waters of our fountain. A fountain 
is a work of art and as such should always be placed in the more 
formal portions of the grounds. The feathery spray of a jet is always 
a beautiful thing but can be ill-placed — as for instance, in the centre 
of a large and informal " piece of ornamental water." 

Vine-shaded bower. 

The fountain in the Temple is one of the most charming examples 
of the single jet, rising from the centre of a circular basin and falling 
back with a melodious splash. It has lost some of its charm since 
it was surrounded by a clinker-built rockery in which nothing will 
grow. This sort of fountain should be set in a grass plot, and a few 
moisture-loving plants allowed to break the severity of its outline. I 
remember one such, only about 5 feet in diameter, in a lawn near 
London ; a simple brick and concrete basin with a jet in the centre, 
which threw its spray up to the overhanging boughs of a stately 
elm, and nourished one of the most splendid clumps of Osmunda 
regalis I ever saw ; Flowering Rush too throve in its friendly 



neighbourhood. There is a very attractive Httle fountain against the 
wall of the fruit garden at Penshurst. If the fountain be on a larger 
scale than these the basin may be made lovely in the summer with 
many varieties of aquatic plants, which being planted in boxes or 
pots can be removed to the greenhouse before the frosts set in. 

One of the great merits of a fountain in a garden to the true lover 
of nature is the attraction it forms for the birds ; they will haunt its 
neighbourhood with delightful persistency, bathing and drinking at all 
hours of the day. 

A fountain for the exclusive benefit of the birds was made in a 
garden in New England by sinking a saucer-shaped hollow, about 
6 inches deep, in the lawn, which was allowed to become grass-grown 
like the rest of the turf; in the centre stood up a jet which threw up 
a very fine spray. For an hour or two every morning and evening 
this was turned on, soon filling the hollow to the brim the effect was 
very pretty with the grass at the bottom of the water, and the birds 
soon learned to know the hours of the bath and came in flocks to 
enjoy it. — G. H. B. 

Loggia Dropmore. 
Engraved from a photograph by Mr. J. James. 



The spirit of beauty was at the birth of the trees that give 
us the hardy fruits of the northern world — Crab, wild Plum, 
Pear and Cherry — yielding back for us in their bloom the delicate 
colours of the clouds, and lovelier far in their flowers than Fig or 
Vine of the south. The old way of having an orchard near the house 
was a good one. Planted for use, it was precious for its beauty, and 
not only when the spring winds bore the breath of the blossoms of 
Cherry, Plum, Apple, and Pear, as there were the fruit odours, too, 
and the early Daffodils and Snowdrops, and overhead the lovely trees 
that bear our orchard fruits — Apples, Pears, Cherries, Plums, Medlars, 
Damsons, Bullaces, and Quinces. To make pictures to last round the 
year, I should ask for many of these orchard trees on a few acres 
of ground, none the worse if too hilly for the plough ; a belt of 
Hollies, Yew, and Fir on the cold sides to comfort trees and 
men ; with careless garlands of Honeysuckle, Rose, and fragrant 
Clematis among them here and there, and in the fence bank plenty 
of Sweet Brier and Hawthorn. If we see fine effects where orchards 
are poorly planted with one kind of tree, as the Apple (in many 
country places in our islands there are no orchards worthy the name), 
what might not be looked for of an orchard in which the beauty of all 
our hardy fruit trees would be visible? If we consider the number of 
distinct kinds of fruit trees and the many varieties of each, we may 
get some idea of the pictures one might have in an orchard, begin- 
ning with the bloom of the Bullaces in the fence. The various 
Plums and Damsons are beautiful in bloom, as in the Thames valley 
and about Evesham. The Apple varies much in bloom, as may be 
seen in Kentish and Normandy orchards, where the flowers of some 
are of extraordinary beauty. The Pear, less showy in colour, the 
Medlar, so beautiful in flower and in foliage, and the Quince, so pretty 
in bloom in Tulip time, must not be forgotten. The Cherry is often 
a beautiful tree in its cultivated as well as wild forms, and the Cherry 


orchards in parts of Kent, as near Sittingbourne, are pictures when in 
bloom. There is no better work in a country place than choosing a 
piece of good ground to form an orchard ; and a dozen acres are 
not too much in a country place where there is land to spare. 

Some may be deterred by the fear that their soil is too poor, 
and planting is more successful on the fruit tree soils of Devon, 

Hereford, and Kent than in some other districts ; 

Poor Soil should but the difference in soils is no reason why 

not hinder. some counties and districts should be bare of 

orchards, and in many the soil is as good as need 
be. Indeed, in the country south of London, where much of the 
land is taken up with orchards, we may see the trees suffering more 
from drought in dry years than they do on the sandstone soils of 
Cheshire or in Ireland and Scotland, where there is a heavier rainfall. 
Few of our orchard trees require a special soil, and where chalky or 
warm soil occurs, the best way is to keep to the kinds of fruit it 
favours most. But though the orchard beautiful must be of trees in 
all their natural vigour, and of forms lovely in winter as in spring and 
summer, the trees must not be neglected, allowed to perish from 
drought, or become decayed from bug, scale or other pests, and it 
should be the care of those who enjoy their beauty to protect them 
from all such dangers. The idea that certain counties only are suited 
for fruit growing is erroneous, and need not deter us from planting 
orchards of the hardier trees and of good local kinds. Much of 
Ireland is as bare of orchards as the back of a stranded whale, but 
who could say this was the fault of the country ? 

Where we plant for beauty we must have the natural form of the 
tree. Owing to the use of dwarfing stocks, fruit gardens and 

orchards are now beginning to show shapes of 

The Trees to take trees that are poor compared with the tall orchard 

their Natural tree. However much these dwarf and pinched 

Forms. shapes may appeal to the gardener in his own 

domain, in the orchard beautiful they have no 
place. For the natural form of all our fruit trees is good indeed, 
winter or summer. We know what the effect in flower-time is in 
the orchard pictures of such painters as Mark Fisher and Alfred 
Parsons, if we have not taken the trouble to see the finer pictures of 
the orchards themselves, seen best, perhaps, on dark and wet days in 
flower-time. Lastly, the effect of finely-coloured fruit on high trees is 
one of the best in our gardens. Therefore, in every case, whatever 
thinning of the branches we do, let the tree take its natural form, not 
only for its own sake or the greater beauty of natural form generally, 
but also for the interesting variety of form we get even among 
varieties sprung from the same species. 


Clearly if we prune to any one ideal type of tree we can never see 
the interesting variety of form shown by the varieties of one species, 
as the Apple and Pear. Keeping to the natural form of each tree, 
moreover does not in the least prevent thinning of the branches where 
overcrowded — the best way of pruning. 

We have not only to avoid ugly forms of training and pruning, 
but never in the orchard where the true way is to let the tree take its 
natural and mature form, should the practice of 
Root Pruning root pruning be allowed. Our orchard trees — 
in the Orchard. especially the trees native of Britain like the 
Apple and the Pear — are almost forest trees in 
nature and take some years first of all to make their growth and 
then mature it. In gardens for various reasons men try to get 
in artificial ways the fruit that nature gives best at the time of 
maturity, so root pruning was invented, and it may have some use 
in certain soils and in limited gardens, but one would hardly think it 
would enter into people's heads to practise root pruning in the orchard \ 
though the word is a catching one and leads people astray, I have 
several times had the question seriously put to me as to how to root 
prune forest trees — a case where all pruning is absurd in any proper 
sense save in the way effected by the forest itself The trees in the 
orchard should be allowed to come freely to maturity, and in the way 
the years fly this is not a long wait. By planting well chosen 
young trees every year the whole gradually comes into noble bearings 
and the difference between the naturally grown and laden tree and 
one of the pinched root-pruned ones is great. 

Cider orchards are picturesque in the west of England and in 
Normandy, and so long as men think any kind of fermented stuff 
good enough for their blood, cider has on northern 
Cider Orchards, men the first claim from the beauty of the trees 
in flower and fruit, and indeed throughout the 
year. The cider orchard also will allow us to grow naturally- 
grown trees and those raised from seed. Cider orchards are 
extremely beautiful, and the trees in them take fine natural forms. 
They have a charm, too, in the brightness of the fruit, and also 
one in the lateness of the blooms of some, many of the cider 
Apples flowering later than the orchard Apples, In some cider 
orchards near Rouen (Lyons-la-Foret) I saw the finest, tallest, 
and cleanest trees were raised from seed ; the owner, a far-famed 
cider grower, told me they were his best trees, and raised from seed 
of good cider Apples. If he found on their fruiting that they were 
what he wanted as cider Apples he was glad to keep them ; 
if not, he cut their heads off and regrafted them with good cider sorts. 
These were free and handsome trees with crood grrass below them. 


just like the Cherry orchards in the best parts of Kent, where the 
lambs pick the early grass. But however beautiful such an orchard, 
clearly it will not give us the variety of form and beauty found in the 
mixed orchard, in which Cherry, Apple, Plum, Pear, Medlar, Quince, 
Walnut, and Mulberry take a place ; there also the various interesting 
trees allied to our fruit trees might come in, such as the true and 
common Service tree, Almond, Cornelian Cherry, and Crab. 

Where we make use of grafted trees — and generally there is no 
choice in the matter — we should always in the orchard iise the most 

natural stock. It is much better to graft Pear 
Grafting. trees on the wild Pear than on the Quince, a 

union harmful to the Pear on many soils. If we 
could get the trees on their own roots without any grafting it would 
often be much better, but we are slaves to the routine of the trade 
The history of grafting is as old as the oldest civilisations — its best 
reason, the rapid increase of a given variety. In every country one 
or two fruit trees predominate, and are usually natives of the country, 
like the Apple in Northern Europe and the Olive in the South. 
When men found a good variety of a native fruit they sought to 
increase it in the quickest way, and so having learned the art of 
grafting, they put the best varieties on wild stems in hedgerows, or 
dug up young trees and grafted them in their gardens. The practice 
eventually became stereotyped into the production of the nursery 
practice of grafting many varieties of fruit trees on the same stock, 
often without the least regard to the lasting health and duration of the 
trees so grafted. In some cases when we use the wild form of the tree 
as a stock for the orchard tree we succeed ; but grafting is the 
cause of a great deal of the disease and barrenness of our orchards. 
Where we graft, it is well to graft low ; that is to say, in the 
case of Cider Apples, for example, it is much safer and better to 
take a tree grafted close to the ground than grafted standard high, as 
the high graft is more liable to accident and does not make so fine a 
tree. In the orchard the good old practice of sowing the stone or pip 
of a fine fruit now and then may also be followed with interest. 

Even in the good fruit counties like Kent one may see in dry 
years orchards starved from want of water, and the turf beneath 

almost brown as the desert. Where manure is 
Starved Orchards, plentiful it is well to use it as a mulch for such 

trees, but where it is not, we may employ various 
other materials for keeping the roots safe from the effects of 
drought. Not only the tree roots want the water, but the roots of 
the competing grass suck the moisture out of the soil. The 
competition of the grass could be put an end to at once, and the trees 
very much nourished, by the use of any easily found mulching from 


materials which are often abundant in a country place. Among the 
best of these, where plentiful, is the common Furze, if cut down in 
spring and placed over the ground round the base of young or poor 
orchard trees. It prevents the grass from robbing the trees and lets 
the water fall through to the ground, helping to keep it there, too, by pre- 
venting direct evaporation ; moreover, the small leaves falling off nourish 
the ground. So again the sweepings of drives and of farm or garden 
yards are useful, and also any small faggots — often allowed to rot in 
the woods after the underwood is cleared. Then also there are the 
weeds and refuse of gardens of all kinds which form detestable 
rubbish heaps that would be much better abolished, and all cleanings 
from the garden placed directly over the roots of young orchard trees. 

Even rank weeds, which swarm about yards and shrubberies, would 
help, and one of the best ways to weaken them and help towards 
their destruction is by mowing them down in the pride of their 
growth in the middle of summer — nettles and docks, as the case may 
be — and instead of burning them or taking them to the rubbish heap 
use them over the tree roots. Even the weeds and long grass grow- 
ing round the base of the trees, if mown and left on the ground, will 
make a difference in the growth and health of fruit trees. Such care 
is all the more needed if our orchard is upon poor or shaly soils in the 
dryer counties : in naturally rich and deep soil we need it less. 

All fences should be of living things, at once the most enduring, 

effective, and in the end the best. We see the hideous result of the 

ironmonger's fence in marring the foregrounds of 

Fencing the many landscape pictures. Holly, Quick, or Cock- 

Orchard Beautiful, spur Thorn, with a sprinkling of Sloe or Bullace 
here and there, give us the best orchard fence ; 
once well made, far easier to keep up than the iron fence. Yew 
is a danger, and a hedge of it should never be planted where 
animals come near, as they usually do, the orchard, and if the 
Yew comes by itself, as it often will, it should be cut clean out 
and burnt as soon as cut down. Holly is the best evergreen orchard 
fence for our country, and we should be careful about getting the 
plants direct from a good nursery — clean seedling plants not much 
over a yard high. The best time to plant Hollies is in May if growing 
in the place, but on light soil plant in autumn ; all the more need to 
do this if we bring the plants by rail. Unless the soil is very light I 
should make the fence on a bank, because a turf bank is itself such a 
good fence to begin with, and a free Holly hedge on a good bank, 
with, perhaps, a Sloe here and there through it, is one of the prettiest 
sights of the land, and forms the best of shelters for an orchard in our 
country. Where shelter is much sought the hedge should not be 
clipped, and is much handsomer if free grown. The orchard fence should 


not be cut in every year to a hard line, but Sloe, and May, and Sweet 
Brier, and wild Rose left to bloom and berry, the hedge to be a shelter 
as well as a fence, and not trimmed oftener than every ten years or so. 
Then it should be cut down and woven together in the strong way 
seen in parts of Kent on the hills. 

The English fruit garden is often a museum of varieties, many 
of them worthless and not even known to the owner. This is wrong 

in the garden, and doubly so in the orchard, where 
Kinds to Plant. the fruit trees should be trees in stature and none 

of poor quality. Too many varieties is partly the 
result of the seeking after new kinds in the nurseries. In orchard 
culture we should be chary of planting any new kind, and with the 
immense number of Apples grown in our own country already, we 
may choose kinds of enduring fame, and it is the more necessary to 
do this now when good Apples are coming from various countries^ 
where men do not plant a collection when they want a crop of a few 
first-rate kinds. So we should in our orchards never plant single 
trees, but always, if possible, having chosen a good kind, plant 
enough to make it worth gathering. Local kinds and local circum- 
stances often deserve the first attention, and some local kinds of fruit 
are among the best. When in doubt always end it by choosing 
kinds of proved quality rather than any novelties that may be 
offered. Any fruit requiring the protection of walls or in the least 
tender should never be put in the orchard. It is probable that some 
of the fruit trees of Northern and Central Europe, and Russia, would 
be well suited for our climate, but as yet little is known of these 
except that they are interesting and many of them distinct. The 
vigour of the tree should be considered and its fertility. Kinds 
rarely fertile are not worth having, always bearing in mind, how- 
ever, that a good kind is often spoiled by a bad stock or by conditions 
unsuited to it. 

The beauty of flower of certain varieties may well influence in 

their choice. Once when talking with Mr. Ruskin 

The Flowers of of the beauty of the fruit as compared with the 

fruit trees. flower of our northern fruit trees, he said in 

reply to some praise of the fruit beauty : " Give me 
the flower and spare me the stomach-ache ! " 

In view of the confusion brought about by fat catalogues, new 
varieties of doubtful value, the number of early kinds worthless for 
winter and spring use, and the planting of untried kinds, a good rule 
would be to put any kind we propose to plant under separate study 
as to its merits in all ways, and only plant one kind a year. The 
kind chosen for orchard culture should be of undoubted merit and 
distinction, and of high quality when cooked, without which apples to 


keep are worthless. In fixing but one kind a year, the first considera- 
tion should be its quality, and the second its constancy in bearing, 
as to which there is a great difference in apples. Hardiness and 
vigour are essential, and our judgment as regards orchard planting 
should never be influenced by the produce of trees grafted on the 
paradise or other stocks which limit the natural growth of the 

Apples known for many years, like the Blenheim, Kejittsh 
Filbasket, Wellington, French Crab, Sussex Forge, Warner's King, 
Yorkshire Greening, Tom Putt, Reinette Grise, Bramley's dixxd Alfriston 
should never be left out of our consideration in this respect, as, how- 
ever they may be affected by situation or soil, their value has been 
proved, and that is a great point, as in the case of new varieties 
chosen for some one minor quality, such as colour, it is only after they 
have been grown for years we begin to find out their bad qualities. 

Some of the most beautiful things in our garden or home land- 
scapes are the orchards of the west of England, more often planted 
with the Apple than with the Pear. The Pear 
Pear Orchards for tree in this country should be much more grown as 
beauty. an orchard tree, for its beauty even if not for its fruit, 

which yearly grows in value. Some Pears of our 
own time, hke Doyenne du Cornice and Beurre Duniout, are worth a 
score of the old kinds. The Pear tree is finer in form and stature 
than the Apple, and it is not rare to see trees in Worcestershire of the 
size of forest trees. Such trees, with their varied and picturesque 
form, are worth thinking of when planting for beauty. 

The use of the Quince as a dwarfing stock for many years past in 
England has been against the Pear as an orchard tree. No Pear 
grafted on this stock ever succeeds as a standard tree. In our fertile 
valleys and the rich soil of gardens the Quince is for some kinds often 
a good stock, but over a large area of poor sandy and chalky land it 
is worthless ; and its use has done much harm to Pear cultivation. 
In using the Pear, or natural stock, we may hope that it will do well 
on any land, be it heavy Wealden clay or on upland soils. It is true 
we must wait for results ; the standard Pear is a forest tree in its 
way, and must be allowed time to mature, but it is surely better to let 
the years run by than to plant trees which may never succeed as 
standards. For trees so planted to endure we should choose good 
kinds that ripen in our country, and see, in every case, that they are 
grafted on the wild Pear — their natural stock — since we cannot 
easily get them on their own roots, though it would interest me 
much to see them on their natural roots, and I have two Pears so 
grown which look far healthier than any others. The most impor- 
tant point is that of varieties. We should never plant any but 


good Pears, which, as standards, will ripen in our country under 
any fair conditions, such Pears as Beurre Giffard, Jargonelle, Beiirre 
Gotibault, Beurre Dumont, Beurre d'Amanlis, Beurre Hardy ^ 
Fondante des Bois, Louise Bonne, Rousselet de Reims, Doyenne du 
Cornice, Marie Louise, Urbaniste, Soldat Laboureur, TriompJie de 
Jodoigne, Comtesse de Paris, Nouvelle Fulvie, Bergamotte Saumiery 
Charles Cognee, Doyenne d'Alenqon, JosepJiine de M alines, Suzette 
de Bavay. 

Much has been said of late about the advantages and dis- 
advantages of planting in grass ; but most growers of Kent and 
other orchard counties have long known that in hop, arable, and 
any other land, the trees show quicker growth and greater vigour 
at first. It is not everyone, however, that cares to break up grass 
to plant an orchard, and we can do very well without grass by 
mulching the ground round each tree for a few years, until they 
have gained a good hold. 

These words were fresh penned when I came across the follow- 
ing notes by M. Charles Baltet of Troyes. " The habit, the foliage, 
and the fruit of the Pear tree will leave nothing to be desired, no 
matter in what soil or climate it may be grown. Prolific, large- 
fruited varieties such as Beu7'rc de V Assumption, William, Van 
Marum, and others, will always be a delight to the fruit lover, 
but the artist who looks for effect from the natural appearance of 
the trees, if he wishes for luxuriant growth will find it in the Pear 
known as the Cure, Conseillier de la Cour, and others. Beurre 
Hardy, Vanquelin, and Duke de Nemours have long upright 
branches ; those of the Beurre d'Amanlis, Bon Chretien, and 
Triomphe de Jodoigne spread out more or Jess horizontally, or even 
curve downwards ; Arbre courbe and Nouvelle Fulvie would not be out 
of place as drooping trees ; while we may admit a group of Pear trees 
which grow as natural pyramids, such as Fondante du Panisely 
Beurre de Nantes, Fondante de Noel, Beurre d'Angleterre, and a 
number of others, including Charles Ernest. 

" The beautiful foliage of the Siicree de Montluqon, Delpierre, and 

Triomphe de Jodoigne, is rivalled by that of the Mikado and DaimyOy 

two varieties of Japanese origin, with large, thick,. 

Pear foliage and somewhat cottony leaves. The German 

effects. Kopertscher, the Belgian Dclices de Jodoigne, the 

American Philadelphia, the French Gil-o-Gile, pre- 

.sent the same characteristic." 

Mr. Baltet omits to notice the fine colour of the leaves of many 
Pear trees in autumn, and I find that this seems to be intensified 
in the few trees I have on their natural roots. 

" The observer who notices the features of each variety knows that 


Marie Guisse, Monseigner des Hons, and Royal d'Hiver are the first 
to show their buds in the spring, while Martin sec, Madame Loriol de 
Barny, and Herbin, are slow to shed their leafy clothing in the 
autumn. Bonne d'Esee and Doyenne d'Alen^on are the earliest to 
flower, and Alexandrine Donillard, Sylvange, and Nouvelle Fnlvie pro- 
tect their clusters of flowers with sheltering rosettes of leaves as soon 
as they open. If we wish for Pear trees with double flowers we have 
Comte Lelieur and Beurre de Nag/iin, with their regular outline, or the 
double-flowered Bergamotte and Calebasse Oberdieck,w\\h. their droop- 
ing petals. Without being able to compete with the coloured barks 
of the Birch, the Scarlet Dogberry, or the veined Maple, we may be 
content with the ash-coloured bark of the Besi Dubost, the ochrey 
Passe Colmar, the violet Beurre Giffard, the purple Doyenne Flon 
aine, the dark brown Bon Chretien de Brnxelles, and the bright- 
barked Fondante Thirriot. We have beauty of stem in Van Mons, 
Deiix-ScBnrs, Angeliqite Leclerc, Beurre Lebrun, and others, the last 
having a stem which looks as if spotted with carmine. The study of 
local fruits has provided us with the Poirier de Fosse, which in the 
department of the Aube is as large and tall as an Oak. A group of 
some of these sorts in either park or garden would give us as much 
pleasure as any isolated tree or clump of trees." 

And here we may also say a word for some of the Wild Pears of 

Europe, particularly the little-known species of the region of the 

Danube and Southern Russia. Many of these 

Wild Pears. eastern kinds are distinct and beautiful in growth 

and appearance, and their leaves take on the 

richest autumn colouring, in shades of purple, crimson, orange, and 

gold, which would give fine effect in the wild garden even if valueless 

in other ways. The autumn colour of some of our orchard Pears \^ 

also beautiful, particularly in some soils ; an orchard of Pears is finer 

in this way than any of our other fruits. 

And apart from these are the Pears grown for Perry, an interest- 
ing group of which we have no knowledge in the home counties, 
though in some parts of the west they are grown. So that on the 
whole there is no lack of fine things to go to the forming of what would 
prove a charming addition to many a country seat — a Pear orchard 
with the trees all in their natural forms. 

Fruit trees grown in any way are fair to see in the time of 

flower and fruit, but our orchard must be in turf if we are to have 

the best expression of its beauty. In fruit 

Staking Orchard gardens where the whole surface is cultivated with 

Trees. small fruits below and taller trees overhead we 

may get as good, or, it may be, better fruit, 

but we miss the finer light and shade and verdure of the 


orchard in turf, the pretty incidents of the ground, and the 
animal life among the trees in spring, as sheep in Kent, and the 
interest of wild gardening in the grass. Also the orchard turf, 
by its shade or shelter, or in some way, becomes most welcome nib- 
bling for lambs and calves in the spring. A gain of the orchard in 
turf is that we can plant it on any ground, however broken or steep, 
and in many parts of the country there is much ground of this sort to 
be planted. Now, while we may in the garden or the fruit garden 
plant trees without stakes, we cannot do so in the grass orchard, 
because of the incursions of animals ; therefore staking is needed, not 
only to support the tall and strong young trees which we ought to 
plant, but also to guard against various injuries. The best way is to 
use very strong stakes and make them protect and support the trees, 
and also carry the wire netting which is essential wherever rabbits, 
hares, goats, or other browsing animals exist. The best way to do 
this is to have a very stout stake^Larch or old Oak. Sometimes 
in the repairing of old sheds a number of old oak rafters are 
rejected — excellent for staking young trees in orchards, first 
djcrging the hole and putting the stake firmly into a depth of 
3 feet below the surface. Cradles of Oak and iron are much 
in use ; the first is very well in an Oak country where labour is 
plentiful ; iron is costly and ugly, and not so good as the single stout 
stake, which is easy to get of Larch or stub Oak in many country 
places. The common way of tying a faggot of Quicks or any thorny 
shrub is often good when done by a good fencer. The trees should 
be tied with care with soft ropes of straw or jute, and when 
planted be loosely but carefully wired with netting well out of the 
reach of browsing animals. This wiring is supported well by the 
strong stake, and, well done, it keeps rabbits and hares, as well as 
cattle, at bay, and, worse than all for trees, young horses. A usual 
way in Kent is to drive in three stout stakes, 6 feet or more in height, 
round the tree, and fasten cross-bars to them. This can be done at a 
total cost of about \od. a tree, and should last twelve to fifteen years. 
One of the reasons for a good orchard, from the point of view of 
all who care for beauty, is its value for wild gardening. It is so well 
fitted for this, that many times Narcissi and 
The Orchard Wild other bulbs from the garden have even established 
Garden. themselves in its turf, so that long years after 

the culture of the flowers has been given up 
in the garden, owing to changes of fashion, people have been able 
in old orchards to find naturalised some of the most beautiful 
kinds of Narcissi. Where the soil is cool and deep, these flowers 
are easily grown, and in warm soils many of our hardiest and most 
beautiful spring flowers might easily be naturalised. On the cool 


side of the orchard bank, Primrose and Oxlip would bloom long 
and well, and on all sides of it Daffodils, Snowflakes, Snowdrops, 
wild Tulips, or any like bulbs to spare from the garden ; and from the 
garden trimmings, too, tufts of Balm and Myrrh to live for ever among 
the grass of the bank. The robin would build in the moss of the bank, 
the goldfinch in the silvery lichen of the trees, and the thrush, near the 
winter's end, herald the buds with noble song. 

Bold planters need not hesitate to adorn some of their orchard 
trees with graceful climbing plants. A few of these climbers would 

be too vigorous eventually for the fruit tree, but 

Climbers on a good many are never so on vigorous orchard 

Orchard Trees. trees. The most picturesque planting I ever did 

was to put a number of white Indian Clematises 
{C. Montana) with some orchard trees. They grew in a most 
picturesque way, and took a different habit on almost every tree. 
The autumn-flowering Clematis {flaniimila) is such a light grower that 
it would not make much difference to the tree, and there are a number 
of wild Clematis with the same light character that would not hurt 
an orchard tree. Some of the fine-leaved Vines, too, would give a 
dash of rich colour in the autumn, and do little harm, and some of 
the more fragile Honeysuckles might also be tried. In the south of 
France the common blue Passion-flower and various kinds of climbing 
Roses will often reach out from the garden hedge and take possession 
of the nearest trees, and Olive and Orchard trees may be seen beauti- 
fully robed in this way. Even the hardy winter Jasmine, when 
crowded by other things upon a bank, I have known to clamber up 
into the branches of a little Cherry tree, with very pretty effect. One 
of the prettiest effects I have every year is a cross, due to a plant of 
the white travellers joy {Clematis viticella alba) growing on a double 
Cherry tree. We first have the bloom of the cherry, and then weeks 
after comes the fair white Clematis, flowering for weeks all over the 
Cherry and doing no harm. 

C C 



The cost of the making and keeping of the gardens and pleasure 
grounds of the British Isles is too vast to realise ; no other people in 
the world spending so generously on their gardens and plantations — 
not a selfish end either, as all noble planting and gardening add to the 
beauty of the land. In every case it is therefore worth asking, does 
the labour so freely given work for good ends : — for ugliness or beauty ; 
waste in stereotyped monotony ; or days well spent in adding to the 
treasures of our gardens and plantings, both in enduring variety and in 
picturesque effects ; pictures, in fact, all round the year? In any case 
there is immense and hideous waste in misapplied labour and bad art, 
and therefore some of these enemies of good work deserve a little 

Soils Good and Bad. — Most garden lovers strive for an ideal soil, 
but this does not always lead to happy results, and, even if we could have 
it, would only lead to monotony in vegetation. No doubt many will seek 
at all costs for the soil called the best, but the wisest way is rather to 
rejoice in and improve the soil fate has planted us on. A good deep 
and free loam is best for many things, and from the view of high 
cultivation or market work, deep valley soils are almost essential, but 
we often see poor peats giving excellent results, from a flower 
gardening point of view, in enabling us to grow with ease many 
more kinds of plants than could be grown on heavy soil. How fertile 
sand may become with good cultivation is shown by the fact that 
some of the very best soils for hardy plants are those that have been 
poor sea sand, but improved by cultivation, and sometimes such soils 
are drought-resisting, as on reclaimed seashore lands. Yet now and 
then we sec certain sandy soils absolutely refuse to grow Roses and 
Carnations, and in such cases it is often better to give up the struggle. 
Chalky hills are wretched for trees and some shrubs, but there are few 
soils more congenial to garden vegetation than some chalky soils, and 
chalk tumbling into a valley soil is often excellent. In limestone 


soils people often take much trouble to get peat, in the vain hope 
of growing a few Rhododendrons, labour which would be better 
bestowed on improving the staple of the natural soil of the place. 

The most hopeless soils are the true clays, but the word " clay " is 
used in a loose way by many who have never seen a real clay. In 
the east of England and in Ireland, for example, the term is often 
used for dark free soil. The true clay which occurs in the northern 
suburbs of London and near Horsham, Sussex, is not a soil on which 
a man could get a living, or if he does so he will get one anywhere ! 
With such a soil our only hope is to cart good earth on to the ground. 
Whatever the nature of the soil in a given garden, it should to a large 
extent govern what we grow. If happy enough to have a sandy peat, 
how easy it is to grow all the lovely evergreens of the northern moun- 
tains, which rejoice in such soil — things which, if they live on loamy 
and heavy soils, are never really happy thereon. On such soil, too, 
all the most beautiful kinds of hardy shrubs may be grown without 
trouble, and planted among these shrubs the Lilies and hardy bulbous 
flowers of Japan and America. If a deep and at the same time poor 
sea sand comes in our way, we can make perfect bulb gardens on it, 
and also grow trees and flowering shrubs very well after a time. 

Local and Natural Soils. — Soil must not always be blamed 
for failure with certain plants, because rainfall, elevation, and, very 
often, nearness to the sea will aflect plants very much. Thus shrubs 
that do well near the sea will, on the same kind of soil, perish far 
inland. It is essential to study the secret of the soil and find out 
the plants that thrive best on it. Once free from the limits and needs 
of the flower garden proper, the best way will often be to use any 
local peculiarities of soil instead of doing away with them : A bog ? 
Instead of draining it keep it and adorn it with some of the often 
beautiful things that grow in bogs ; A sandy knoll ? Plant wath Rose- 
mary or Rock Roses ; A peaty, sheltered hollow ? Make it into a 
beautiful Rhododendron glade, and so get variety of plant life in 
various conditions. 

Then, as regards the soil and the natural habitats of plants, there 
is no doubt that it is useful to know where they come from, whether 
plains, valleys, or rocks, and what soil they grow on ; but it is a know- 
ledge that may sometimes mislead, because rainfall and elevation and 
other causes may lead us to suppose results due to soil which are 
really owing to accident of position. Many of the beautiful plants of 
the mountains of the East, such as Aubrietia, and a number of rock 
plants which grow in any soil, would do no better if we tried to imitate 
their actual conditions of life in their native habitats, which are often 
absolutely different from the soils of our lowland gardens in which 
many rock plants thrive and endure for years. 

C C 2 


Cultivation and Water. — Many think that heavy watering is 
necessary in seasons of drought, and it may be worth while showing 
how such heavy labour may be avoided. There are soils which are 
so thirsty, like the hot sandy soils of Surrey, that watering 
is essential, and some chalky soils, too, are almost hopeless with- 
out heavy watering, while water is often extremely difficult to get 
enough of on dry hills. But under general conditions there is not 
much trouble in getting rid of this labour and its attendant ugliness. 
The essential thing is to make the beds deep enough. Even with the 
best intentions, many people fail to do this, and workmen in forming 
gardens are sometimes misled as to the depth of soil in beds, made 
when gardens are being laid out, the soil when it settles being really 
much less than it seems in the making. The best way for those who 
care for their flowers is to dig the beds right out to a depth of 30 
inches below the surface before any of the good soil is put in. Then, 
if for general garden use such beds are filled in with good, rich, loamy 
soil and are gently raised, as all beds should be in wet countries, 4 
inches or 6 inches above the surface, they will rarely be found to 
fail in any drought. Much depends on the size of the bed ; the little, 
angular, frivolous beds which have too often been the rule in gardens 
cannot resist drought so long as broad simple beds. With these pre- 
cautions, and also autumn and winter planting, we ought, in the British 
Isles, to free ourselves from much of the heavy labour and cost of 
watering, and it would be better to have half the space we give to 
flowers well prepared, than always be at work with the water barrel. 

To be busy planting in autumn and early winter is a great gain 
too, because the plants get rooted before the hot time comes, and the 
kind of plants we grow is important as regards the water question. 
If it is merely the mass of bedding plants with which many places 
are adorned in summer, these being all put out in early June, in the 
event of a hot summer there is nothing else to do but water all the 
time, or we lose them, as of course the roots are all at the surface 
in June. But where we have deep beds of Roses, Lilies, Carnations, 
Irises, Delphiniums, and all the noble flowers that can be planted in 
autumn or winter, we may save ourselves the labour of watering often. 
Well prepared beds of choice evergreen or other flowering shrubs, with 
Lilies and the choicest hardy flowers among them, also resist drought 
well. Thus it will be seen how much we gain in this way alone by the 
use of right open-air gardening. 

What is here said, although true of the south of England and dry 
soils generally, is not so as to soil on cool hills, and in the west country 
where the rainfall is heavier. In such cases it is not nearly so import- 
ant to have the soil so deep, and a good fertile soil half the depth, 
with copious rain, may do. But, taking the country generally, there 


is no doubt that such deep culture well repays the doing. The 
farmer is often unable to alter the staple of his ground owing 
to its extent, but the flower gardener, dealing with a much smaller 
area, should never rest until he has got a deep as well as a good soil. 
This is given to many by Nature in rich valley lands, and on such 
happy soil the flower gardener's main work as regards the labours of 
the soil is changing the crop now and then, with some modification 
of the soil to suit certain plants. 

Soft Water Best. — Where, however, owing to the dryness of 
the soil or subsoil or to shortness of the rainfall, we have to resort to 
much artificial watering, it is a great point to save the rain water as 
the best of all water not only for household uses, but for plants. 
Next to it comes river water, but to the gardens that want most 
water, rivers, unfortunately, do not come, so that for garden use it 
would often be very wise to do what people do more in other countries 
than ours, and that is, save all the rain water we can instead of letting 
it run to waste, as it does so often. 

Drainage. — In our country too much thought and labour are 
given to drainage in the flower garden, to the neglect of change of 
plants and deep cultivation, and during our hot summers some way 
to keep water in the beds is more important than getting rid of it. 
Some soils, too, are in little need of artificial drainage, such as free 
sands, sandy loams, chalky and limestone soils, and much ground 
lying high, and much alluvial land. Houses are not usually built 
on bogs or marshy land, and in the course of years the ground 
round most houses has been made dry enough for use, and hence 
elaborate work in drains, bottoming with brick-rubbish or concrete, 
is often wasted labour. In some years even in the west country we 
may see plants lying half-dead on the ground for want of water, and 
the same plants in deep soil, and where no thought was given to 
drainage, in perfect health at the same time. There are places where, 
owing to excessive rainfall and the wet nature of the soil, we may 
have to drain, but it is often overdone. 

Apart from the over-draining for ordinary garden things, it may 
be well to remember that flower garden plants in our country are 
often half starved through drainage, like Phlox and scarlet Lobelia, 
which in their own country are marsh plants, or inhabit the edges of 
pools. In the southern country they simply refuse to show their true 
character where the ground is drained in the usual way. The men 
who began the crusade about draining land in this century found its 
effects so good on sour, peaty clay and saturated land, and talked so 
well and so much about it, that some harm has been done — draining 
where it does more harm than good not being uncommon. 

Gardeners' land and farmers' land are usually wholly different. 


Drainage is often the simplest and best way for the farmer to alter 
the tilth and texture of saturated and cold or sour land, whereas the 
flower gardener, dealing with a small space for his beds, has the power 
of altering the tilth and texture of his land in a thorough way, and so 
making it open to the influence of rain and air. The position of the 
flower garden also is usually wholly different from that of agricultural 
land. The flower garden itself is frequently raised, and in a terraced 
or at all events often dry position, where the main drainage is long 
settled, and gently raising the surfaces of flower beds, to a height 
say of 4 inches to 6 inches, enables us to get rid in our flower beds 
of the surface water, which very often troubles the farmer, and 
which he can best get rid of by drainage. By raising our beds 
slightly — not in the ugly way practised in the London parks — we free 
the surface of any water lying on it, and this is a good plan to follow, 
except in hot and shallow soils, where it would be better not to raise 
the surface above the level. 

Rotation in the Flower Garden. — Flower gardeners do not 
think enough of change of crop, or what in farming is called rotation. 
A farmer soon comes to grief if he does not change his crops, but in 
gardens one may see the same plants grown in the same beds for 
many years. A cause of the poor growth of hardy flowers is want of 
change of soil, and in addition the soils in which they grow are often 
robbed by a network of hungry tree roots. There are botanic gardens 
in Europe where the same wretched plants have been starving in the 
same soil for fifty years, and little ever done to help them. So, again, 
there are favourite borders in gardens which are almost as much in 
want of a change, but, owing to their position sometimes being a 
favourite one, people hesitate to give it to them. In such cases we 
should prepare a new border for the plants and remove them, and 
trench, renew and improve the soil of the old beds or borders, after- 
wards taking a crop as different as possible for a year or two. If we 
take a crop of annual flowers, the annuals rejoice in the fresh ground, 
and they might be followed by a year of Carnations, after which a re- 
turn might be made to a good mixed border. When, however, we 
do change a border or bed, the staple of the soil ought to be made 
deep enough — changed if need be. In dealing with a soil which is 
too rich in humus, an addition of lime will improve it, but generally 
the soils are too poor, and require renewing and deepening. Bedding 
plants have the advantage of fresh soil and often a total change every 
year, and hence the bright vigour they often show when the seasons 
are fair. A little of the same generous change would help Roses, 
Lilies, and all the finer things in an equal degree, though many of 
these will be quite happy in the same soil for years if it be well pre- 
pared at first. 


Weeds and Rubbish Heaps. — Upon suggesting once in a 
beautiful garden in Essex that an opening should be made from a 
pleasure ground into a picturesque grove of old Oak trees, we were 
met with the objection that the rubbish heap was there ; and, on 
making our way in, this was found to cover half an acre almost 
picturesque in its wild up and down heaps of rubbish, earth, leaves, 
branches and broken crockery, &c. A fire was kept alight for six 
months in the year to get rid of some of this rubbish, and this being 
very near the house, was a frequent nuisance in certain states of 
wind and air. This is a common state of things, but as wrong in 
practice as it is unnecessary. We gain nothing by destroying organic 
matter by fire, but lose a good deal and get only the ash. The garden 
weeds, the good soil scraped up with them, and the many other things 
that go to make up these rubbish heaps would be of far more use put 
directly over young trees to protect and nourish them. Refuse of 
hard materials, such as iron or delf, should be buried separately ; and 
if any roots of bad weeds occur, they may be burned at once where 
they are. Yet there is no practice more firmly established than the 
ancient one of the garden rubbish heap, often disfiguring spots which 
might be pretty with ferns or shrubs, encouraging vermin, filth, and 
vile odours, all things that we do not want in or near the flower garden 
or pleasure ground. We may see these heaps made even where labour 
is scarce and the gardener is over-weighted with work, he adding to 
his toil by harrowing or carting away weeds and earth. This means 
moving the costly product two or more times: (i) to the rubbish 
heap ; (2) turning over and burning ; and (3), finally, again removing 
the result in ash ; whereas we may easily, as in the above and many 
other cases in a garden or pleasure ground, get rid of it at once by 
one move, and find it acts in a more useful way, even as a fertiliser, 
than when we go through the ugly labours, pains, and penalties of 
forming the regulation rubbish heap. Nor does this plan in the least 
prevent us burning where burning is a prompt aid in getting rid of the 
roots and bad weeds or any worn-out branches or roots that incommode 
us ; but in such a case we burn on the spot and scatter the refuse there 
or thereabouts. Here are a few instances of other ways of getting rid 
of what usually is carried or carted to a rubbish heap, that were carried 
out during one summer in my own garden. 

Protecting Hollies.— A very fine group of Hollies was planted 
on a slope facing south. Seedling trees of the largest size 
that could be planted with safety were brought from a distance by 
rail. These were planted in May, and afterwards any grass mowings, 
prunings, weeds, clearings, reeds, dead roots of shrubs, &c., that 
happened to be near, were placed at the base of each Holly for about 
3 feet all round ; also, where any ground near was cleared of 


weeds, these were also put over the roots, even branchlets of evergreens 
being used, as preventing the direct action of the sun. Not one of 
these HolHes was lost in spite of the drought, though the turf near, on 
the same slope, was like dust, but the covering of waste material given 
kept the earth about the trees moist during the drought. 

A Bamboo Plantation. — A plantation of hardy bamboos was 
made in quite a different situation in mid June — a hollow slightly 
shaded with trees, and therefore not nearly so much exposed to danger 
as the southern slope above mentioned. It is known, however, that 
bamboos are the better for mulching in any situation, and as there 
was no manure at hand, and even if there had been it would have 
needed a good deal of carting, the waste and weeds near were placed 
over the surface of the ground. In this case, mowings, dead flower- 
stems, scum of a pond (which was very bad this year, coming off in 
masses of most indestructible stuff), were laid over the surface of the 
bamboo plantation, in which the plants did remarkably well, and never 
turned a leaf On taking up some plants of the Japan bamboo, which 
had been put in too thickly and were wanted for another place, we 
found the roots and suckers growing finely after only five months' 

Pj'otecting Yonng Orchards. — An orchard of fine young 
standard trees was planted in 1897 on a rather steep slope to the 
south, where the soil was not good. Faggots of little value, the 
sweepings of roads, and any vegetable refuse about the yards were 
put over these 4 feet all round. It would be impossible to see trees 
healthier or less affected by the starving drought of the hot year. 
Such aid would not be so precious in good valley land, but in many 
soils it is of the greatest help. 

Using Weeds Where They Groiv. — Very often weeds are 
removed from the surface of garden ground which would be much 
more useful if left where they grew — buried, if there be room, or 
allowed to dry up if cut oflf very small, as they always, if possible, 
should be. The upper surface of garden ground is the best of it, 
owing to mulching and manuring, and to take away the best of the 
ground is bad gardening. What would become of the farmer who 
systematically removed an inch of the surface of his best fields? It 
would be folly ; and it is no less so in the garden. The winter 
being a very mild one, encouraged the growth of weeds very much, 
and, where there was other work going on, they got too big. A planta- 
tion of barberries, evergreen and others, was in this state in early 
summer, the weeds nearly as high as the bushes. They were cut down 
y/ith much labour, and I just came upon the scene when the carter 
was beginning to take away the surface of rich weeds and soil, and I 
left the weeds and soil where they were, spreading them equally 


over the surface. As it happened, this was followed by many dry 
weeks, and the dead weeds formed a protection for the bed itself, 
which did not suffer in the least during the heats. To remove this 
mass of stuff would have been a costly labour, the surface would have 
been exposed to direct evaporation, and the plants starved by the 

Fallen Leaves. — Sometimes leaves are massed in these rubbish 
yards, and the leaf question is bound up with it. Many people fidget 
at the sight of beautiful leaves in autumn, instead of enjoying them, 
as Shelley did, and gardeners are often sweeping them up when they 
would be much better employed planting good plants or shrubs. 
What are we to do with the garden leaves ? We cannot, it is true, have 
them in drifts in the flower garden, but it is better to let them all fall 
before we take much trouble in removing them. In gathering them 
up, we may best add them to a place set apart for leaf mould. But 
in every case where they may be let alone, it is much better to let 
them stay on the surface of wood, grove, shrubbery, or group of 
shrubs, for protection and nourishment for the ground. If any one 
during the hot years that we have recently had — such as 1893 — 
stood on a height in a woody country, he would see that, while the 
fields were brown and bare, and cattle and crops distressed for want of 
water, the wood retained its verdure, and the growth of the year was as 
good as usual. Why is this ? It is explained by the beautiful func- 
tion of the leaf, which not only does the vital work of the tree, but 
also shields the ground from the direct action of the sun, and when the 
leaf has fallen its work is not half done, as it protects and nourishes 
the roots throughout the year, so that in the hottest years the fibres of 
the trees find nourishment in decaying leaves. This surely is a reason 
that leaves should not be scraped out from beneath every shrub or tree, 
and there is no reason whatever why they should form part of the 
rubbish heap. 

And let it be noted that it is not only the better use of the waste 
as a fertiliser that is a gain, it is the saving of very troublesome labour, 
often occurring in the warmest part of the year, when every hour is 
precious over the really important work of the garden — getting in crops 
of all kinds at the right time and in the best way. Also we save the 
disfigurement of the rubbish yard itself, and get rid of the smoke of the 
fires kept going to consume it — another nuisance about a country house 
or garden. The ash, the one result of all the waste of labour and filth 
of the rubbish heap, is certainly of some use, but not one-sixth the 
good of the stuff used in the direct way. And it is not only the sum- 
mer aid we gain, but all we put on in this way settles down in winter 
to a nice little coat of humus, which nourishes the roots and protects 
them from frost as well as heat. 


Weeds and Their Seeds.— The destruction of the seeds of 
weeds is the only shadow of reason for the rubbish heap, but it is 
bad gardening to let weeds go to seed. And though certain areas of 
town gardens have no neighbours from which seeds can be blown, this 
is not so in the country, where weed seeds from woods and fields and 
young plantations abound in the air. There is no good remedy for 
weeds except early and regular hoeing and cleaning. Moreover, there 
are many conditions in which even if we do allow weeds to go to seed, 
they can be used as a mulch ; as, for example, in young orchard and 
turf and other planting in or near turf where weed seeds can do no 
harm. Burning therefore should be kept to a few essential uses. 
The source of success in flower gardening is to be always busy 
sowing or planting ; there is scarcely a day or a week when some 
things have not to be planted or attended to if we want a succession 
of beauty ; but when the men are from morn to night busy hoeing 
and watering and with other routine work, it is difficult to get time 
for securing the successions of plants of various kinds on which the 
lasting beauty of a garden at all seasons, depends. 

The old labour of grubbing up walks, which was so constant and 
dreadful in the very heat of summer, is got rid of by weed-killers, of 
which one dressing a year will sometimes suffice to keep the walks 
clean, and, better still, prevent us from having to rip up the surfaces 
of the walks, which was common in every garden until quite recently, 
and is carried on still in many places. The great gain of abolishing 
ignoble routine work, in this and all ways we can, is that we have 
time for the real work of the garden, in adding to its beauty with new 
or beautiful things and improved ways of growing and arranging them. 

Fire as a Cleanser. — A fire on the spot is a great aid in the 
garden when active changes have to be made, and foul borders or 
shrubberies renovated or replanted. Where, in stiff soils. Twitch and 
other bad weeds take possession, with perhaps a number of worn-out 
shrubs, the simplest way is often to burn all, not trying to disentangle 
weeds from the soil in the usual way, but simply skinning the surface 
2 inches, or more if need be, and burning it and the vital parts of the 
weeds, first removing any plants that are worth saving. In light 
soils the labour of cleaning foul ground is less than in heavy, ad- 
hesive soils, but fire is a great aid in all such cases. If we are remov- 
ing ugly and heavy masses of Laurels or other evergreens, which have 
never given grace or flower to the scene, we should burn them root 
and branch at the same time, the result being that we get rid of our 
worst weeds, and turn enemies like Goutweed into ashes. This weedy 
surface of garden ground is often some of the best of the soil, and it is 
much better to keep it where it is, but purified. Regular cleaning 
will keep down all young weeds, but it is a struggle to get the old and 


bad weeds out of the soil, owing to the broken roots of Bindweed, 
Twitch, and Goutweed which escape the closest forking and sharpest 
eyes. Next there is harrowing or carting to take the weeds to some 
rotting heap, while, on the other hand, the friendly fire eats up and 
kills at once the whole of the weeds, and converts them and the burnt 
surface they infested into good earth, and all this is gained at once 
without barrow or horse labour. So that, whatever we may think of 
cremation for ourselves, it is a good friend in fighting weeds and in 
helping us to thoroughly cleanse foul garden ground. We have not 
even the trouble that they had with Don Quixote's books — to carry 
them into the yard to burn them — as we can so often burn the weeds 
on the spot, insects and grubs included. 

Evaporation. — Mulching or covering the surface with various 
kinds of light materials, such as leaf mould, cocoa fibre, manure, and 
sand, or anything, in fact, which gives an inch or two of loose surface 
to the earth and prevents evaporation, is a great aid on many soils, 
but not so important where the beds have been thoroughly prepared, 
at least not for Roses, Carnations, and many of the best flowers, be- 
cause, if the roots can go down and find good soil as far as they go, 
they really do not want mulching, save on very hot soils. Mulching of 
various kinds or loosening the surface of the ground is, moreover, much 
easier to carry out in the kitchen and fruit gardens or orchard than in 
the flower garden, all the surface of which should be covered with living 
things during the fine season. This is the prettiest way and is not diffi- 
cult to carry out, as we often see it in cottage gardens and in Nature 
itself, where the health of the forest and other fertile lands depends to a 
certain extent on the ground being covered with vegetation, which of 
itself prevents direct evaporation. Taking a hint from this, I am very 
fond of covering the surface with dwarf living plants of fragile nature, 
which do not much exhaust the soil, and which in very hot weather may 
help to keep it moist. This is done in the case of Roses and other plants 
which, being rather small and bare at first, want some help to cover 
the ground, and a number of very pretty plants may be used for this 
purpose, which will give us bloom in spring and good colour on the 
ground. This, of course, prevents the use of manure, hitherto common 
on the surface of flower beds, Roses especially. It is much better 
that the aid of manure should be given at the root instead of the surface, 
and if we have plenty of manure and rich soil, there is no need for surface 
mulching it. Covering the surface with living plants is worth doing, 
for the sake of the effect alone, even if we have to pay for it in other w^ays. 
One result of it is that we may have a beautiful spring garden in ad- 
dition to the summer garden — that is to say, if our garden is planted 
for summer and autumn with Roses and the like, by the use of Tufted 
Tansies and other dwarf plants in the beds we get pretty effects early in 


the }'ear, and through this living carpet may come up many pretty 
bulbs. Thus we may have in the same beds, with a little care and 
thought, two or three different types of flower life. 

The plants that may be used in this way kre numerous, and mostly 
rock and mountain plants of Europe and cold countries, evergreen, 
often bearing pretty flowers and good in colour at all seasons, spread- 
ing into pretty carpets easily, and quite hardy, taking often a deeper 
green in winter, so that used over permanent beds they help to adorn 
the flower beds in winter ; and through them in the dawn of spring 
the early Crocus, Scilla and Windflower come up to find themselves 
in green turf of Thyme ; Rockfoil ; Stonecrop ; or varying these 
according to soil, altitude or position ; the cooler north favouring 
many mountain plants, though some face the ardours of the warmer 

The Waste of Monotony.— A grievous source of wasted effort 
in gardens is monotony arising from everybody growing what his 
neighbour grows. Thus it comes that the poor nurseryman who 
attempts to grow new or rare trees or shrubs very often finds them 
left on his hands, so that many country nurseries only grow a few 
stereotyped things, and we see public gardens and squares in London 
given over to the common Privet, the common Lilac let to run as a 
weed, and the common Elder, as in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

Every lover of the garden could do something to check this fatal 
monotony by taking up some plant, or family of plants, for himself, 
which perhaps he is unable to find in the nursery gardens near at 
hand. There are not only many beautiful species of plant which 
are excluded from the ordinary nurseries, but even special nurseries, 
as for Roses, often exclude good kinds from their collections. It is 
not only the introduction of new plants or species we have to think of, 
but the raising of new forms (hybrids or varieties), the fine cultivation 
of neglected groups, as the beautiful forms of our native Primrose by 
Miss Jekyll ; the making more artistic use of old and well-known 
plants ; the skilful adaptation of plants and trees to the soil so as to get 
the highest beauty of which it is capable without excessive care, and 
without the deaths visible in many places after hard winters. Those 
who seek to vary the monotony of gardens must be prepared to face 
some trouble, and they must not take the least notice of what is 
thought right in the neighbourhood, or of what can be obtained from 
the nearest nursery garden. The further afield they look, probably 
the better in the end it will be for them if they would escape from the 
trammels of monotony. 

Attaching Climbers and Fruit Trees to Walls. — Per- 
haps the most miserable of all garden-work is that of nailing the 
shoots of trees to walls, on cold days, and the value of climbing 
plants now in our gardens is so great, that the best mode of 


attaching them to walls is a question which, though it may 
seem a small one from some points of view, is important, and by no 
means settled for the best. In our self-styled scientific age — the age 
also of the galvanised iron church and the ironmonger's fence, which 
is no fence — our gardens have been invaded by galvanised wire, which 
is put up at great expense on garden and house walls, and is thought 
to be an essential improvement in all new work. The question does not 
merely concern walls for climbers round the house, but also the fruit 
garden. In our cold country we cannot ripen the Peach or the 
choicer fruits without the aid of walls ; galvanised wire is used in 
many gardens, but many growers discover that its effect on the trees 
is not good. There is a foundation of fact in these complaints, and 
they are common to French and English gardeners. In France, 
where the cultivation of wall fruit to supply the market with Peaches 
and fine winter Pears is carried out well, the best growers are against 
the use of galvanised wire, and think it much better to have the 
wooden lattice only against the wall ; so they keep to the older and 
prettier way of trellising the wall. For those who care about effect 
this is well, for whatever harm the wire may do to the tree, of its ugli- 
ness there can be no doubt. The old French and English way of 
fixing branches to walls — having trellis-work made of Oak in about 
I inch strips — was a very good one. Chestnut, too, was used, and was 
thought to be the best, and is often used now in France. One 
advantage of such woodwork is that it looks well on the walls even 
before we get our plants up, and there is the great facility of being 
able to tie where we wish, thus avoiding the use of nails and the other 
miseries of training against walls. 

I use Bamboos in forming trellises, with very good results. Trellis- 
work made of Oak or Chestnut lasted for many years, and was 
efficient, and a well-made trellis of this sort saves us all the trouble 
and injury to the wall of pock-marking it with nail holes, forming 
nests for destructive vermin. 

There remains the question of fixing our lattice-work of Oak, 
Chestnut, Pine or Bamboo. In old walls, holdfasts must be driven ; in 
new ones, pieces of iron with strong eyes should be laid along here and 
there in the courses of brick or stone as the work goes on. 

It is a great thing to be relieved from the ugliness and injury of 
the galvanised wire. We would like to go a little further and keep 
to old ways of tying things on walls. Those who look through their 
bills may perhaps come upon items, and not small ones, for tarred 
twine and other bought means of tying. In old times people would 
have used the shoots of the yellow Willow, which did the work of 
tying fruit trees to walls better than any tarred twine as far as the 
main branches were concerned. To say that it is impracticable now 
is nonsense, as in some great nurseries where millions of plants are 


sent out every year, every lot is tied with Willow. Also, the French 
way of using a Rush for tying, instead of twine or matting, is an 
excellent one. It is a Rush which is harvested and dried carefully, 
and it is the simplest thing in the world to tie with so as to allow for 
the free growth of the branch, and yet keep the shoot quite secure. 

The Staking of Trees and Shrubs. — Whether staking trees 
and shrubs or wind-waving is the worst evil is doubtful, but much 
harm is done by staking, and it is costly and troublesome, especially 
so for those large trees that are seen in pleasure grounds, surrounded 
by a kind of crinoline of galvanised wire. The evil of staking arises 
largely from planting trees too big as " specimens." To plant these is 
tempting to many, but generally we get a much better result from 
small trees that want no staking ; but planting ornamental trees of 
considerable size is so common that staking is frequently done, and 
very often the trees are injured by the stakes, not only at the root, 
but also much in the stem, which sometimes leads to canker. It is 
known that canker (as in the Larch) enters the trees more readily 
where the wounds are ready to receive the spores, and we often see 
fruit-trees badly cankered through staking. 

The wire-roping business for trees is a nuisance, as the ropes 
cut in if neglected in the least, and the tree often snaps there, 
and when the ropes are finally removed the trees often go down in 
gales. The best cure for the waste and dangers of staking is to plant 
small trees, but often where this is not done for any reason (and some- 
times there may be good ones, as in planting vigorous-growing Poplars 
to shut out things we do not care to see) we may do good by cutting 
in the side shoots close to the stem. This leaves the tree with little 
for the wind to act upon, and we escape the need of staking without 
injury to the tree. Transplanting trees involves so much injury to 
the roots that somewhat reducing the tops does good in all ways. 

At Kew, when a large tree is transplanted, it is guyed up with 
three lengths of soft cord (commonly called " gaskin ") if it appears 
likely to become loose. This is better than a stake, cheaper, and less 
likely to injure the stem by abrasion. A tree with branches low 
enough can be stayed by driving into the ground three stout stakes 
at equal distances round the tree, nearly at the circumference of the 
branches, and tying a branch to each of the stakes. 

The picturesque grouping of trees and shrubs is a gain in the 
avoidance of the trouble and danger of staking. For example, the 
pinetum, as seen in many country seats, is a scheme in which trees are 
isolated and dotted so as to encourage them as " specimens," which 
is the wrong way and the ugly wa}'. In Nature these trees are 
almost always massed and grouped in close ways, so that they shelter 
each other and if in planting them we plant as a wood, closely, thin- 


ning them very carefully, we find them make trees and give better 
effects than in the common way they are generally placed, as the trees 
protect and comfort each other, and shade the ground. I have planted 
true pinetums in this way, the trees in which have stood violent gales 
without giving way, and which were never staked, any more than they 
are on their wild mountain homes. But in this case, as with sailors, 
we must begin young. 

Wasted Labour in Glass-Houses. — Among the evils of the 
" bedding " and " carpet system " is the need of costly glass-houses 
in which to keep the plants all the winter, not one in ten of these plants 
being as pretty as flowers that are as hardy as the Grass in the field, — 
like Roses, Carnations, and Delphiniums. It is absurd to grow Alternan- 
theras in costly hothouses, and not to give a place to flowers that 
endure cold as well as Lilies-of-the-Valley. Glass-houses are useful 
helps for many purposes, but we may have noble flower gardens with- 
out them. To bloom the Rose and Carnation in mid-winter, to ripen 
fruits that will not mature in our climate, to enable us to see many fair 
flowers of the tropics — for these purposes glass-houses are a precious 
gain ; but for a beautiful flower garden they are almost needless, and 
the numerous glass-houses in our gardens may be turned to better 
use. It would not be true to say that good hardy flower-gardening is 
cheaper than growing the half-hardy plants that often disgrace 
our gardens, as the splendid variety of beautiful hardy plants tempts 
one to buy, and it is therefore all the more necessary not to waste 
money in stupid ways, apart from the heavy initial cost and ceaseless 
costly labour of the glass-house system of flower garden decoration. 

For those who think of beauty in our gardens and home land- 
scapes, the placing of a glass-house in the flower garden or pleasure 
ground is a serious matter, and some of the most interesting places 
in the country are defaced in that way. In the various dividing 
lines about a country house there can be no difficulty in finding a site 
for glass-houses where they cannot injure the views. There is no 
reason for placing the glass-house in front of a beautiful old house, 
where its colour mars the prospect, though often, in looking across 
the land towards an old house, we see first the glare of an ugly glass 
shed. If this were the case only in the gardens of people lately 
emerged from the towns to the suburbs of our great cities, it would 
not be so notable ; but many large country places are disfigured in this 
way. And, apart from fine old houses and the landscape being defaced 
by the hard lines and colour of the glass-house, there is the result on 
the flower garden itself ; efforts to get plants into harmonious and 
beautiful relations are much increased if we have a horror in the 
way of glass sheds staring at us. Apart from the heavy cost of coal 
or coke, the smoke-defilement of many a pretty garden by the ugly 
vomit of these needless chimneys ; the effect on young gardeners in 


leading them to despise the far more healthy and profitable labours of 
the open garden ; all these have to be considered in relation to the 
cost, care and ugliness of the glass nursery as an annual preparation 
for plants for the flower garden, these plants being with {q.v^ exceptions 
far less precious in every way for flower garden or for room than those 
that are quite hardy. 

A few years ago, before the true flower garden began to get a place 
in men's minds, many of the young gardeners refused to work in 
places where there was no glass. A horrid race this pot and kettle 
idea of a garden would have led to : men to get chills if their gloves 
were not aired. I met the difficulty myself by abolishing glass 
altogether. Only where we do this we must show better things in 
the open-air garden, than ever flourished in a glass house. 

Wasted Labour in Moving Earth. — Next to moving heaven, 
the heaviest undertaking is that of moving earth, and there are no 
labours of gardening men that lead to more wasted effort, where care 
and experience are not brought to bear on the work. Labour in many 
parts of the country has become dearer, and the question of moving 
earth without needless waste of energy is a serious one for all who have 
much groundwork to do. We may often see instances of misuse of 
labour ; the soil from foundations carted far, and then put deep over 
the roots of old trees, to their death or injury. A man of resource in 
dealing with ground would place this soil in some well-chosen spot 
near, having first removed the surface soil, and, resurfacing with it,, 
planted it with a handsome group of beautiful shrubs or trees, so that 
the surface would in no ugly way differ from the general lie of the 
ground near. The presence of carts and horses seems very often to 
lead to waste of labour in carting earth when barrows and a few 
planks would do the work better. 

In necessary groundwork there is inevitably much moving of earth 
in getting levels, carrying roads and paths across hollows, and for 
various other reasons. We should make a rule of getting the soil in 
all such cases as near at hand as possible. Mistakes in levelling ground 
are frequent, and often lead to twice moving of soil. The best man 
for groundwork is often one with a good navvy's experience, and 
many such men know how to make heavy groundwork changes 
without putting a barrowful of soil in the wrong place. Very often 
spare soil has to be removed, and in this necessary work ugly mounds 
are made, when, by a little care in choosing the place well and never 
leaving any ugly angles, but making the ground take the natural 
gradation of the adjacent earth, it could be well planted. Hardy trees 
take well to such banks if the good soil is kept on the top, as it should 
always be. 

The same remarks may serve for the moving of turf, gravel, stones 


and soil, save that to get good soil for the formation of beds, we must 
go where the good soil is ; whereas for the bottoms of roads and paths, 
the support of banks, base of terraces or mounds, much saving may be 
effected by getting what we want in the nearest possible place, never 
fearing to make a hollow if need be, as that can be so easily planted 
with some free-growing tree or shrub ; the hardy Pines, like Scotch, 
Corsican, and Silver Firs, being excellent for this, as they thrive in 
almost any earth, and often on surfaces from which the whole bed of 
fertile soil has been removed. 

Apart from essential groundwork, there is the diversifying of ground 
artificially, as may be seen in our parks, owing to the false idea that 
you cannot make level ground picturesque with planting. Proof that 
this is not impossible may be seen in many a level country planted by 
Nature, as in the forest plain and in many a park and pleasure ground 
both in Germany, France, and Britain. Trees are given to us to get 
this very variety of broken surface, and the idea that to make a place 
picturesque we must imitate — and usually badly imitate — naturally 
diversified ground is most inartistic. No doubt broken ground has 
many charms, but so has the fertile plain, and the best way is to 
accept and enhance the beauty of each variety of surface. To do so is 
the planter's true work. In cities and suburbs there is often occasion 
to conceal ugly objects, and earth, if to spare, may be used well and 
wisely in raising at once the base of a plantation of young trees ; but 
an enormous amount of labour given to making artificial mounds 
might be saved without any loss, and with much gain to garden 

There are yet certain landscape gardeners who make mounds or 
earth-pimples everywhere, regardless of the growth of the plants. If 
people would only spend more on good planting and less on trying 
to " diversify," as they call it, the surface, it would be better for our 
gardens. In many cases when planting time comes, so much effort 
has been spent on needless groundwork, that there are no means to 
spare for the best work of all in garden making, namely, good planting. 
But any one can make earth dumplings of the sort we see too many 
of, while planting to give enduring and beautiful effects requires a 
knowledge of trees and shrubs. 

In our public parks the mania for foolish groundwork may be 
often seen, one of its results being the burial of the tree base, surrounded, 
perhaps, with a brick-lined pit-hole, as in St. James's Park. Shooting 
earth and rubbish to fill up the hollows on such a precious space as 
Hampstead Heath is common, and as the surrounding district is busy 
in building, these attempts are, we fear, often the result of findiijg a 
shoot for earth and rubbish. Therefore the bringing in of such rubbish 
should be absolutely forbidden, as the only effect of this filling up of 

D D 


hollow places is to destroy the incidents of the ground, usually far 
prettier in form than the results of smug levelling up, or, worse still, 
the formation of such artificial mounds as we see examples of in the 
parks. Even the squares in our level Thames valley are not exempt 
from outrage of this kind, of which, perhaps, the most hideous example 
is that of Euston Square, in which a high and ugly earth-bank has 
been put all around the Square, so steep that even the cheap nursery 
rubbish of the London squares— Privet and Elder — refuses to grow 
upon it, and so in the summer days, instead of the grass and tree-stems 
and cool shadows, a bank of dusty rubbish meets the eye ! 

Another serious source of waste of the inexperienced in ground- 
work is burying the top surface, the most precious, and in many cases 
the result of ages of decay of turf and plants. In alluvial land and light 
friable hill soils this mistake does not so much matter, but in heavy 
land where there is a clay subsoil it is fatal. The first thing in all 
groundwork is to save the top soil with the greatest care, for the sake 
of using it again in its proper place ; and how to save it, so that it 
may be available at the end of the work, is one of the most essential 
things the good ground-worker has to think of 

Trenches for the reception of pipes, drains, and foundations should 
not be opened until the materials are at hand, as in wet weather 
doing so often leads to the sides falling in and much needless labour. 
The direction of walks, roads, or designs for beds, borders, or 
gardens, should be carefully marked out and looked at from every 
point of view before carrying them out, having regard to their 
use and their relation to all things about them, and not merely to 
any plan on paper. Attention to this will often save much labour in 

A cause of much waste of labour in moving soil is the usual 
way of treating mud after the cleansing of artificial ponds — often 
a poor inheritance to leave to one's children. The silting up with 
mud goes on for ever, and while the mere expense of getting this 
out of the pond bed in any way is usually great, the cost is often 
increased through the idea that the stuff is of manurial value. This 
leads people frequently to heap it up on the banks to dry, then to 
liming it,and eventually to moving it on to the land, these various labours 
adding to the disfigurement of the foreground of beautiful ground often 
for a long time. Pond mud has very little manurial value generally, 
though it will differ to some extent according to the sort of soil the 
supply comes from. Usually, however, it has very slight value, and any 
labour bestowed upon it from that point of view is nearly always wasted. 
The best and simplest way is to put it direct on to some poor pasture 
near, or on to any ground where it may be got rid of with least labour to 
man or horse. Where the pond is ugly in outline and not essential 




Simplest label for trees. 

either for its beauty in the home landscape or for its uses for fish or 
water store, it may often be worth considering whether the best way 
would not be to let the water off and turn the mud bed into a handsome 
grove of Willows and Dogwoods, and an excellent covert at the same 
time. I know nothing among trees quite so good in effect in the 
landscape, winter and summer, as the white, red, and yellow Willows, 
with an undergrowth of the red Dogwoods. 

Labels. — Where possible it is best to do without labels, except 
where we grow many kinds of things that differ by slight shades, as 
Carnations and Roses. The contents of a garden are usually in a state 
of change ; we are continually adding to and taking from them ; new 
plants are introduced ; a severe winter kills a number of shrubs, which 
we determine not to replant. Fashion changes 
the garden vegetation too, and then the perma- 
nent labels, cast and burnt into hardware and 
cemented in cast iron, are thrown aside. I 
prefer a label which can be used again, such 
as a cast-iron label of " T shape " or, in other 
words, a slip of cast iron with an oblong head 
slightly thrown back. These are cast very 
cheaply in the iron districts. We have to paint 
them and write the names of the trees on them 
when they come to hand ; but that can be 
readily done by a handy painter in winter. In 
a large garden, where much naming is required, 
the best way is to train a youth who is likely to 
remain in the place, by placing a copy of the 
desired kind of letters before him. It is an 
advantage to give the label a coat of copal 
varnish when the letters are dry, and generally 
to use white letters on a black or dark ground, 

and give three coats of black over one of red lead. These are the 
best labels for the shrubs and choice young trees of a pleasure ground 
or flower garden. The painting will last for twenty years, and if we 
cease to cultivate the plants to which they belong, the labels may be 

With big trees it is always a mistake to use a ground label. The 
best labels for large trees are made of pieces of tin about 4^^ inches 
by sl inches. About half an inch of the upper edge should be bent 
at a right angle so as to form a little coping for the label, two holes 
should be made just beneath the little angle, through which a strong 
copper wire should be put and firmly nailed to the tree. Place it so 
as to be easily read, at about 5^ feet from the ground. Paint it dark 
brown or black with white letters and it will last for many years. All 

Position for tree label. 


labels inserted in the grass in pleasure grounds are liable to be pulled 
up by mowers or others, and in this way to get lost, while the labels 
on the stems are safe from such mishaps. 

For low trees and bushes to which copper wire may be fixed 
with ease, the simplest and most enduring labels are those that are 
made of cast metal galvanised, and as they are very enduring they 
are best for hardy trees and shrubs. The words on them should 
be as few as may be, and all needless ones omitted. Thus in fruit-tree 
labels it is needless to use the word Pear or Apple, but simply the 
variety, as " Ribstone. " This plan makes these labels more legible 
than when they are crowded with letters. For half-hardy plants, 

annuals, and plants of a season only, 
wooden labels are often the most 
convenient. In most gardens it is 
the practice to write the name at the 
part that goes in the ground, and 
to go on from thence to the top — 
a bad way, for the label always 

Cast-iron labels ; the simplest, neatest, and bcginS tO deCay at the baSe, and 
best form for shrubs, bold herbaceous plants, ^^^^ ^^^ beginning of the name is 

and for all cases where the label has to be o o 

fixed in the ground. lost, while the cud of it may be quite 

legible. After a little practice it 
becomes as easy to write from the top as from the other end, and, in 
writing the names, always begin as near the top as possible. 

The use of the wooden label should be given up in favour of 
labels with raised or incised letters. The main reason is that the 
endurance of the wooden label is too slight ; moreover, some kinds of 
good stamped-metal label are less conspicuous in the garden than the 
wooden label, and any kind of conspicuous label is bad. As regards 
labels for large gardens and trees, at Kew they now use a lead label 
of their own stamping, so that should many labels get out of use, as 
is the case in large collections, it is easy to melt them down and use 
the metal again for trees and enduring plants of all "kinds. 


By no means the least of the difficuUies 
that the cultivator of plants has to con- 
tend with is the number of different kinds 
of insects that feed on the objects of his 
care, at times rendering all his efforts of 
no avail. To keep a garden tolerably free 
from insect pests is never an easy task, 
and in some seasons an utterly impossible 
one, but a great deal may be done by a 
little well-directed care. Prevention is, 
of course, " much better than cure," and a 
great deal may be done in this way by 
never allowing any weeds to grow in a 
garden, as the insects that feed on them 
often prefer those in cultivation. A weedy, 
uncared-for corner in a garden is a regular 
nursery for all sorts of insects. Rubbish, 
stones, and the refuse of a crop should 
never be allowed to lie about, as they 
form a welcome shelter to many kinds of 
pests. Anything taken from a plant that 
has been attacked by an insect or fungus 
should at once be burnt. Some plants 
suffer most from the attacks of insects 
when they are quite young ; in such cases 
the plants should be pushed into vigorous 
growth as quickly as possible by suitable 
cultivation. Birds should be encouraged 
in gardens. Few persons realise the 
enormous number of insects killed by 
them, especially during the breeding 
season, when nearly all the young birds 
are fed on animal food. Toads also are 
most useful creatures in gardens, and 
should be encouraged far more than they 
are. All dead leaves should be collected 
and burnt, unless they are required for 
leaf-mould, when they should be made 
into a heap as soon as possible. Any 
leaves that do not fall with the others 
should be picked off and burnt, as they 
often contain chrysalides. When borders 
are being dug, a sharp look-out should be 
kept for chrysalides or cocoons which 
may be turned up. Any ground that is 
not in use should be kept well hoed and 
broken up. This will keep down weeds 
and expose any insects which may be in 
the soil to the birds. As soon as the 
attack of any insect is noticed, steps 
should at once be taken to check it, as in 

this case the old proverb, "A stitch in 

j time saves nine," is especially true. If 
ants are seen running over plants, it is 

j generally the case that the latter are in- 
fested by aphides or scale insects, and 
when ants make their nests at the roots 
of plants it will often be found that the 
roots are attacked by one of the root- 

i feeding aphides. 

Remedies will be applied in a more 
intelligent manner if those who use them 
are acquainted with a few elementary 
entomological facts ; so it may be men- 
tioned that a typical female insect when 
in a perfect state lays eggs ; from these 
are hatched grubs, maggots or caterpillars, 
according to the kind of insect ; these 
usually feed voraciously and increase 
rapidly ; they change their skins several 
times, and when full grown become 
chrysalides ; from these in due course the 
perfect insect emerges. Butterflies, moths, 
beetles, bees, wasps, ants and some other 
kinds of insects undergo these changes, 
which are very marked. Others, such as 
crickets, grasshoppers, cockroaches, bugs, 
earwigs, green flies and scale insects, 
really go through the same changes, but 
they are much less apparent ; the young 
just hatched from the egg very much 
resembles its parents. It is, of course, 
very much smaller and is never winged, 
but there is a general family resemblance 
between them. The young one as it 
grows at times changes its skin, and at a 
certain change the wings may be seen in 

j a very rudimentary condition. The insect 

j is then in the state that answers to the 
chrysalis state in the other insects, and on 

I the next change of skin the insect appears 
in its mature condition. After attaining 

I this period in its existence it never grows. 
A butterfly, bee, wasp, fly, or whate\er 
the insect is, when in its perfect state 
never becomes any larger. All insects in 
their mature condition have a general 
similarity in their structure, although it 
may not always be easy to trace the three 
divisions in which theyare formed, namely, 
head, thorax or forebody, and body, which 
in a wasp are particularly well marked. 



The head is furnished with the organs of 
the mouth, the feelers or antennas, and 
eyes. To the forebody are attached the 
legs and the wmgs. The body contains 
the breathing, digestive and other in- 
ternal organs. Every insect should have 
three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings, 
but in some kinds the latter are altogether 
wanting, or there is only one pair. Insects 
do not breathe through openings in their 
heads, as the higher animals do, but, as 
a rule, through pores arranged along their 
sides, which lead into tubes that convey 
the air to all parts of the body. 

Insecticides act upon insects in different 
ways ; some smother the insects by clog- 
ging their breathing apparatus, or by 
their action on their skins, others by 
poisoning their food. Those first men- 
tioned should be used in the case of 
msects which feed by suction, the others 
when the insects have biting mouths. 
Insecticides, as a rule, have no effect on 
the eggs, so that it is always best in the 
case of insects that breed very rapidly to 
use them again m the course of a i&w 
days, and perhaps even a third time, so 
as to make sure that the pest has been 
exterminated. There are now several 
kinds of spraying machines and spraying 
nozzles in the market. With them the 
insecticides can be used much more eco- 
nomically than with an ordinary syringe, 
and they can be applied with greater 
ease to the undersides of the leaves 
where the insects are as a rule. 


Carbolic acid (crude) i pint, soft soap 
I quart, water i gallon, or carbolic acid i 
part, water 50 to 100 parts. 

Paraffin i wineglassful, soft soap i pint, 
mixed very thoroughly together with a 
little hot water, and then add one gallon of 
water. This must be kept well stirred. 

Paraffin emulsion. — Soft soap i 
quart, well mixed in 2 quarts of boiling 
water, while hot add i pint of paraffin oil, 
churn or pump the mixture through a 
garden engine for 5 or 10 minutes, then 
dilute ten or twelve times with water, and 
add a quarter of a pint of turpentine. Or 
condensed milk i to i^ pints, water 3 
pints, mix together and "add i gallon of 
paraffm, churn until it forms a butter, 
dilute with ten or twelve times its bulk of 

.Abol, Antipest, and Paranaph are of 
much the same composition and of the 
same efficacy. 

Quassia extract. — Boil 6 ozs. of 
quassia chips in a little water for half an 

hour, strain off the liquor and add it to 

4 ozs. of soft soap and mix thoroughly in 

5 gallons of water ; if it is to be used to 
kill red spider, add half a pound of flowers 
of sulphur. 

Tobacco water.— Boil i oz. of strong 
tobacco in half a gallon of water and strain 
when cold. 

Soluble paraffin. — Haifa pint to 2 
gallons of water for mealy bug, quarter of 
a pint to 2 gallons of water for aphides or 
red spider. 

The water used with insecticides should 
always, if possible, be soft water; if this be 
impossible add a little soda. 



See snake millipedes and wire- 



,, common dart moth. 


„ common dart moth. 


,, common dart moth. 

,, aphides, bulb mite, Carnation 

fly, froghopper, earwig, red 

spider, thrips, and wire- 



,, aphides, froghopper, earwigs, 

Marguerite Daisy fly, plant 

,, aphides, black Vine weevil, 


slugs, wireworms. 


,, common dart moth, earwigs, 

,, black Vine weevil, froghopper, 


plant bugs, various cater- 



,, aphides, red spider. 


,, red spider, wireworms. 


,, bulb mites. Narcissus fly. 

,, aphides, bulb mites, wire- 

worms, snake millipedes. 


,, white Cabbage butterfly. 


,, bulb mite, Narcissus fly, snake 



,, Rose beetle. 


,, slugs, snails, snake millipedes. 


,, froghopper, thrips. 


,, aphides, bell moths. Rose bee- 

tle. Rose gall fly, red spider, 

scale insects, sawflies. 


,, snake millipedes. 


,, Mullein moth. 

Ants (Lasius niger). — Ants are not 
injurious directly to flowering plants in 
any way, but they are so at times by mak- 
ing their nests at the roots of plants. 
When this is the case it will generally be 
found that the plant is infested at the roots 
by one of the root-feeding aphides, and 
that the ants chose the locality on that 
account, so that they might benefit by the 
sweet substance secreted by the aphides. 
When a plant is overrun by ants it is an 
almost certain sign that it is infested by 
aphides or scale insects. Ants may be 
destroyed by pouring boiling water, para- 
ffin oil, carbolic or sulphuric acid, diluted 
with ten or twelve times their bulk of 
water, into their nests. If in a position in 
which it is undesirable to use any of these, 
a garden pot with the holes at the bottom 



closed and partially filled with leaves 
should be inverted over the entrance to 
the nest, and the ground round the nest 
kept well watered ; the ants will soon leave 
the damp earth and move their nest into 
the dry pot. In about a fortnight the pot 
may be removed and its contents thrown 
into a pail of boiling water. 

Aphides (the family to which the green- 
fly and other nearly allied insects belong) 
may be destroyed in various ways, but 
whatever means are used no time should 
be lost in applying them as soon as the 
insects are noticed, as the latter increase 
and multiply in the most rapid manner. 
Spraying or syringing the plants is one of 
the most effectual methods of killing 
these pests. For this purpose use the 
extract from 6 oz. of quassia chips, 4 oz. of 
soft soap, well mixed and added to 5 gallons 
of water ; paraffin emulsion, or a quarter of 
a pint of soluble paraffin in two gallons of 
water. They may also be destroyed when 
the plants are wet by dusting them with 
snuff", powdered tobacco,or Pyrethrum pow- 
der (commonly known as insect powder),or 
they may be killed by tobacco smoke. 
This can be effected out of doors by 
covering the plant with some tolerably air- 
tight cloth and applying the smoke with a 
fumigator. When pruning Roses in the 
spring or autumn, the shoots cut off should 
always be burnt, as they may have some 
eggs of these insects on them. 

Bell moths or Rose Tortrices 
(Tortricida;). — The caterpillars of several 
members of this family attack the leaves 
and flower-buds of Roses, rolling up and 
feeding on the leaves, and eating the young 
petals, or making holes in the buds. From 
the sheltered positions that they occupy,in- 
secticides are almost useless ; pinching the 
curled leaves is the easiest way of killing 
them, if you can be quite sure that the 
intended victim has not dropped out before 
your fingers closed on the leaf ; or a basket 
may be held under the leaf or bud, which 
should be cut off so that it falls into the 
basket. The leaves and buds should then 
be burnt or crushed. 

The bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus echin- 
opus). — This little mite feeds on the bulbs 
of Hyacinths, Daffodils, and probably on 
those of other bulbous plants. It also 
attacks the stems of Carnations. It is 
impossible to make any insecticide reach 
them while the bulbs are in the soil, and 
even when taken up, as the mites work 
between the scales of the bulbs, it is only 
after many hours soaking that they can be 
reached. For this purpose use the extract 
from 4 oz. of quassia chips mixed in 2 
gallons of water, or 3 lb. of sulphide of 

potassium dissolved in one gallon of water. 
The bulbs should be allowed to soak in one 
of these mixtures for twenty-four hours, 
and even then it may not be successful, as 
it is very difficult to make fluid pass freely 
between the scales of the bulbs, as there 
is often air imprisoned there. Immersing 
the bulbs in water at a temperature of 120"' 
Fahr. for a quarter of an hour would, I 
believe, kill them ; the mites when taken 
from the bulbs and placed in water at 115° 
Fahr. died in less than five minutes. The 
mites are only about one-twentieth of an 
inch in length, and are of a milk-white 
colour, and may be easily mistaken for 
grains of sand, but they may readily be 
detected with a good pocket lens. 

The Carnation FLY(Hylemyianigre- 
scens). — The grubs of this fly feed on the 
pith of the stems of Carnations, doing 
much injury to the plants. The grubs, 
each about three-eighths of an inch in 
length, are nearly white with dark heads. 
There is no remedy but burning the 
affected plants. 

The Cockchafer or May bug (Melo- 
lontha vulgaris). — This insect is injurious 
to plants both as a beetle and as a grub ; the 
cockchafers feed on the leaves of various 
trees, and the grubs on the roots of most 
plants. It appears to be useless to try 
and kill the grub with any insecticide, but 
strong salt and water, or gas liquor diluted 
with ten times its bulk of water, renders 
the soil distasteful to them. The only 
practical way of destroying them is to open 
the ground round a plant which is attacked 
and find the grub. When full grown the 
grubs are each about two inches long and 
half an inch in diameter. They usually 
lie in a curved position, are whitish in 
colour, but the tail, which is the thickest 
part of the body, is bluish. As they take 
three years to come to maturity, one grub 
will do an enormous amount of damage in 
the course of its life. The cockchafers 
may be shaken or beaten off the trees in 
the middle of the day, when they are 
generally sluggish, and crushed or col- 
lected as they lie on the ground. 

Daddy-longlegs or crane fly (Tip- 
ula oleracea). — The grubs of this insect are 
among the most mischievous of our gar- 
den pests, as they destroy the roots of 
turf and many other plants they will eat 
right through the tap-root, and then go on 
to another plant and do the same. Theyare 
greyish brown grubs ; when full grown they 
are each about one and a half mches long 
and about a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
thickest near the tail, and tapering towards 
the head. They are commonly known by 
the name of leather jackets. They are 



very difficult to kill, and when below the 
surface of the ground, as they usually are, 
no insecticide can be made to reach them 
with fatal effect. Watering very thor- 
oughly with strong liquid manure, such as 
a solution of guano, salt, or nitrate of 
soda, has been found beneficial, as it is 
distasteful to the grubs and stimulates the 
plants. They may be trapped by burying 
slices of Turnips, Mangold, Carrots, or 
Potatoes about an inch below the surface ; 
each slice should have a small skewer 
stuck into it, so that it may be more easily 
found ; or by laying pieces of board, slates, 
tiles or bricks about, the grubs often roam 
about at night, and shelter themselves 
under such things during the day. The 
traps should be examined every morning. 

The common dart moth (Agrotis 
segetum). — The caterpillars of this very 
common moth live on the roots of many 
different plants grown in gardens. Their 
favourites are Auriculas, Dahlias, China 
Asters, and Balsams. They usually feed on 
the crowns or just below them, and often 
bite right through the roots. They feed 
at night, lying hidden under stones, clods, 
or some similar shelter during the day. 
Warm soap and water applied to the roots 
of the attacked plants until the cracks and 
holes in the ground are filled will bring the 
caterpillars to the surface, but turning up 
the ground with a spud and picking out 
the pests is the most practical way of 
killing them. A full-grown caterpillar is 
from one and a half inches to two inches 
in length, and are of a smoky yellow col- 
our with various small black spots and 
paler longitudinal stripes. 

The earwig (Forficula auricularis) 
feeds on many kinds of flowers, but is par- 
ticularly fond of those of the Dahlia, 
Chrysanthemum and Carnation. The only 
way of destroying them is by trapping 
them, or, as they are night feeders, by 
catching them on the flowers after dark. 
The best traps are the hollow stems of 
Sunflowers or Broad Beans, from which 
they may be blown into a basin of boiling 
water, or water on which a little paraffin is 
floating, small garden pots filled with dry 
Moss or hay, or pieces of paper crumpled 
up. Or pieces of sacking or canvas, tied 
so that they hang in folds, or folded and 
laid upon the ground at the foot of the 
plants, are also very useful traps. In 
fact anything in which they can hide dur- 
ing the day is useful. 

The frog-hopper (Aphrophora spu- 
maria). — The well-known little masses of 
froth so often seen on plants, and com- 
monly called cuckoo spit or frog spittle, 
are formed by this insect when in its im- 

mature state, as a covering to itself, and 
the amount of sap withdrawn from the 
plant for the sustenance of the insect and 
the formation of the froth is very consider- 
able and the cause of much injury to the 
plant. Honeysuckles, Lavender, Lilies, 
Carnations, Phloxes and grasses are 
among the plants which suffer most from 
their attacks. The best way to destroy 
this insect is to remove it with a small, 
stifflsh brush, which should then be dipped 
in a pan of water; or the shoots and leaves 
may be drawn through the fingers, which 
should be dipped in water, to remove the 
froth and insects, before cleansing another 
leaf Syringing is not of much use, as 
probably only the froth would be washed 

The Marguerite Daisy fly (Phyto- 
myza afifinis). — The grubs of this insect 
burrow in the leaves of these Daisies, and 
also in those of Chrysanthemums, Ciner- 
arias, and other composite plants, and feed 
on their inner substance. When many 
leaves are attacked in this way, the plants 
are not only rendered unsightly by the 
discolouring and blistering of the 
leaves, but they suffer very considerably in 
health. The best way of destroying this 
insect is by cutting off the infested leaves 
and burning them, or, if the attack has 
only just commenced, by pinching the 
leaves at the part where the grubs are. 
Syringing with insecticides is not of much 
use, as they would not reach the grubs, 
but they would have the effect probably of 
preventing the flies from laying their eggs 
on the leaves, if they could be applied at 
the right time. 

The Mullein moth (Cucullia ver- 
basci). — The caterpillars of this moth feed 
on the leaves and flowers of the Mulleins, 
and when abundant quite ruin the appear- 
ance of the plants. When full-grown 
they are about two inches long and of a 
greenish-white colour, with a yellow band 
across each joint, on which are several 
large black spots, so that they are con- 
spicuous insects and may easily be picked 
off by hand. 

Plant bugs (Hemiptera). — These in- 
sects are often injurious to the foliage and 
buds of plants, the buds of 'Chrysanthe- 
mums being frequently injured by them. 
These insects, of which there are many 
species, are provided with a long beak, 
with which they suck the juices of the 
leaves and buds. They vary much in 
size ; the species that attacks Chrysan- 
themums is about one-eighth of an inch 
in length, the head and forebody are black, 
and the wings brownish yellow. The 
perfect insects run and fly readily, so that 



it is not easy to kill them, but in their 
immature condition they have no wings, 
and may be killed by syringing or spray- 
ing the plants with paraffin emulsion 
or quassia extract and soft soap. 

Red spider (Tetranychus telarius). — 
This most annoying pest is often very 
destructive to the foliage of plants, par- 
ticularly to those which are dry at the 
roots. The best way of destroying them 
is by spraying or syringing with one of the 
following mixtures : i lb. of flowers of 
sulphur and 2 lbs. of fresh lime, boiled in 
4 gallons of water, then add I5 lb. of soft 
soap, and, before using, 3 more gallons of 
water ; or the extract from 6 oz. of quassia 
chips, 4 oz. of soft soap, and half a pound 
of flowers of sulphur, well mixed, added 
to 5 gallons of water ; paraffin emulsion ; 
or 2 oz. or 3 oz. of Gishurst compound in 
I gallon of water. 

The Rose beetle or green Rose 
CHAFER (Cetonia aurata). — This hand- 
some metallic green beetle is unfortu- 
nately very injurious to the flowers of the 
Rose, Pteony, Candytuft, Lilac, Elder, 
and several other trees and plants. Their 
grubs also are destructive to the roots of 
many plants. They are very much like 
those of the cockchafer, and are frequently 
mistaken for them, and are each about 
i^ inches in length and scarcely half an 
inch in diameter, of a dirty white colour. 
The tail, which is the thickest part of the 
insect, is bluish. They lie in a curved 
position some 2 inches or 3 inches below 
the surface, so that no insecticide can 
reach them. Watering very freely with 
liquid manure or soapsuds is distasteful 
to them and may make them shift their 
quarters. The beetles are each about 
three-quarters of an inch in length, and 
are so conspicuous that they may easily be 
picked off" the flowers. 

The Rose gall-fly (Rhodites rosae). 
— These gall-flies lay their eggs in the 
young shoots, and in the midribs of the 
leaves of Briers, the young grubs from 
which form the curious mossy galls for- 
merly known as " bedeguars," sometimes 
2 inches or 3 inches in diameter, often 
seen on Briers, and at times on other 
Roses. The best way of destroying this 
insect is to cut off and burn the galls. 

The Rose sawflies (Hylotoma rosa- 
rum and others). — The grubs of these 
insects feed on and do much damage to 
the foliage of Roses. Some (the species 
just named among them) eat away the 
leaves, leaving only the thicker ribs ; 
others feed only on the upper surface of the 
leaves, and do not touch the lower skin or 
the veins ; another species rolls up the 

leaves into tubes about the size of a quill 
pen and feeds within this shelter ; another 
lives on the pith of the young shoots. 
The grubs mostly become chrysalides in 
the earth, so that after a bad attack it is 
best to remove the earth from under the 
bushes to the depth of about 3 inches and 
burn it, or bury it not less than i foot 
below the surface. The grubs should be 
picked off" by hand, or the bushes may be 
syringed or sprayed with paraffin emul- 
sion, or quassia extract and soft soap, or 
Paris green. In the autumn cut off and 
burn any shoots that appear to be withered, 
as they may contain chrysalides. 

Scale insects (Coccidae). — These in- 
sects infest Roses, Cotoneasters, &c. To 
destroy them spray or syringe with para- 
ffin emulsion, or quassia extract and soft 
soap ; then, if possible, any of the insects 
that are on the stems or shoots should be 
scraped offi In the course of a few days 
spray again to make sure of killing any 
of the young that escaped the first appli- 

The Garden Snail (Helix aspersa). — 
There is practically nothing to be done in 
the way of killing them but hand-picking. 
Thrushes are very fond of them. 

Slings. — There are several kinds of 
slugs that infest gardens ; the commonest 
is Limax agrestis, its ravages being only 
too well known. Small heaps of bran, 
each placed on a small piece of slate or 
board, make good traps. Dusting with 
fresh lime is very useful, and large num- 
bers may be killed of an evening if the 
plants that are attacked and the ground 
round them are searched with the aid of 
a lantern. If the slug be stabbed or cut 
through with a sharp-pointed knife at the 
shield (that part just behind the head) the 
creature dies immediately. 

Snake millipedes (belonging to the 
genera Julus, Blanjulus, and Polydesmus). 
— These creatures are among the most 
annoying pests in gardens, as they are so 
difficult to destroy. They feed on the 
roots of Lilies and other bulbs. Anemones, 
Pansies, Stocks and various plants in the 
flower garden. Few insecticides have any 
effect on them, as their skins are so horny 
and smooth ; but a strong solution of salt 
or nitrate of soda will kill them if it can 
be made to reach them. They may be 
trapped by laying bricks, slates, tiles, 
pieces of board, turf or Cabbage leaves 
about, as the millipedes are fond of creep- 
ing under such things. They may be 
distinguished from the centipedes — with 
which they are often confused, and which 
are of great use in gardens — by the slow- 
ness of their movements, while the centi- 



pedes are very active. There is, however, 
one exception, the luminous centipede, a 
long, thread-like creature, 2 inches to i\ 
inches in length, which, in spite of its 
extraordinary number of legs, moves with 
the greatest deliberation. The snake mil- 
lipedes, according to the species, when 
full-grown each measures from half to i 
inch in length, and are composed of a 
great number of joints. With the excep- 
tion of the "flattened snake millipede," 
they are nearly cylindrical in form. 

Thrips (Thrips adonidum). — This in- 
sect is more injurious to plants grown 
under glass than to those in the open air; 
but Phloxes, Carnations, Dahlias, and 
some other plants often suffer from their 
attacks. Syringing or spraying with para- 
ffin emulsion, quassia extract and soft soap, 
Gishurst compound, or tobacco water are 
the best remedies for outdoor use. 

Various caterpillars. — Besides the 
caterpillars already mentioned, most plants 
in the flower garden are liable to be at- 
tacked by the caterpillars of various moths, 
which it is hardly necessary to enumerate. 
Suffice it to say that they are best destroyed 
by hand-picking. 

The white Cabbage and Turnip 
BUTTERFLIES (Pieris brassicas and P. 
rapi). — In the flower garden the cater- 
pillars of these butterflies are very injuri- 
ous to the leaves of Tropaeolums of various 
kinds and Mignonette. The plants should 
be carefully looked over, and the cater- 
pillars picked off". If very numerous, 
syringe or spray with paraffin emulsion. 

WiREWORMS (the grubs of various spe- 
cies of "click beetles," Elateridas). — These 
well-known pests are by no means easy to 
get rid of, and as they are over two years 
in coming to maturity, if left alone they 
have plenty of time to do a great amount 
of harm. They attack various flowering 

plants, but they are particularly fond of 
Carnations and plants of that nature. 
Those belonging to the largest species 
when full-grown are three-quarters of an 
inch in length, and much resemble a piece 
of brass or copper wire of that length, and 

j they are almost as tough. No insecticide 
is of much use, and trapping them is the 
best way of destroying them. Slices of 
Carrots, Turnips, Potatoes, or Rape-cake 
buried about an inch below the surface 
make good traps. Each should have a 

j small skewer stuck into it to show where 

I it was buried. They should be examined 
every morning. Fortunately most birds 
are very fond of them. 

WOODLICE, if found to congregate at 
the base of a wall or in other positions, 

I may be killed by pouring boiling water 
over them. They may be trapped by lay- 

i ing bricks, tiles, or pieces of slate or 

I board near their haunts, which they vvill 
creep under. Toads kill great numbers 
of them. Or they inay be poisoned by 

j laying pieces of Potato about which have 
been boiled in water in which some arsenic 
has been placed. 

j Earth-worms. — These creatures, of 
which there are several species, do no 

j harm in gardens or lawns, and indeed are 
very beneficial, but there are some small 
worms belonging to a nearly related 
family, the Enchytrasid^ (they have no 
English name), which are very injurious 
to many plants, feeding on their roots and 
the lower parts of their stems ; they very 
much resemble very small earth-worms ; 
they are generally about half-an-inch in 
length, but some of the species are an 
inch long. They are white, about the 
thickness of a packthread. Soaking the 
soil in which they are with lime-water 
kills them. 

G. S. S. 






" A garden is a beautiful book, writ by the finger of God : every flower and every 
leaf is a letter. You have only to learn them — and he is a poor dunce that cannot, if 
he will, do that — to learn them and join them, and then to go on reading and reading. 
And you will find yourself carried away from the earth by the beautiful story you are 
going through. . . . And then there are some flowers that seem to me like overdutifiil 
children : tend them but ever so little, and they come up and flourish, and show, as I 
may say, their bright and happy faces to you."— Douglas Jerrold. 



ABELIA. — Beautiful shrubs, of the 
Honeysuckle order, little grown in our 
country, and best in warm districts. They 
form a small group, natives of the hills 
of China and Japan, the uplands of India, 
and Mexico. Few of them are hardy 
in all parts of our country. In mild dis- 
tricts, with light soil, in sheltered corners 
or on warm walls, they do best and are 
hardiest in light, warm soils. Their 
flowers in drooping clusters are charm- 
ing, and last long, and the good effect is 
continued after their fall by the coloured 
sepals, which retain their beauty far into 
the autumn. They may be increased by 
layers in spring, or by cuttings under a 
handlight during summer. 

Rock Abelia {A. chine nsis). — A pretty 
shrub, usually of dense growth, 3 to 5 feet 
high. The hardiest kind grown ; to do 
well it needs a warm light soil and a 
sheltered spot. The ilowers, about an 
inch long, are in clusters of a pale blush 
colour, fragrant, and lasting for several 
weeks in early autumn. Even after the 
flowers drop the reddish sepals are still 
ornamental amongst the few late border 
flowers. China. There is a variety having 
larger flowers, and greater vigour and 
hardiness. Syn. A. nipesiris. 

Mexican Abelia (A.floribunda).— T\(\'s, 
beautiful shrub is the finest we have, but 
save in warm southern and western parts 
must be grown under glass ; even in the 
south it is best as a wall shrub, when its 
evergreen leaves and drooping flowers are 
well seen. The flowers, coming in March 
and April as drooping clusters from every 
joint, are of a bright rose or rosy-purple, 
about 2 inches long, and hang for many 
weeks upon the plant. It does best in 
light soil, and when grown in pots should 
be kept rather close at the root. Mexico. 

Dwarf Abelia {A. scrrata). — A low 
evergreen bush upon dry and sunny hill- 
sides in China and Japan. It is smaller 
in all its parts than the other Chinese 
species, growing little more than 3 feet 
high, with solitary pale red flowers, which 
are large and sweet, appearing in March. 

Twin-flowering Abelia {A. spathu- 
lata). — An elegant evergreen shrub 
flowering in April. White, marked with 
yellow in the tube, coming in pairs from 
every joint and about an inch long. The 
leaves are rather long, finely toothed, 
with a pale purplish edging. 

Indian Abelia {A. triflora). — A lovely 
shrub, needing the shelter of a wall ; 
being of robust growth, it soon makes 
a fine growth, of good habit, and branch- 
ing freely. The flowers, coming in threes 
at the end of summer, are cream or pale 
yellow flushed with pink, their beauty en- 
hanced by the rosy colour of the unopened 
buds. Grown in pots or tubs it forms a 
good plant for the greenhouse where it 
may not be grown in the open. Hills of 
Northern India. 

ABIES {Silver 7^/r).— Beautiful ever- 
green trees of northern and mountainous 
regions, many hardy in our country, and 
valuable timber trees in their own. Some 
of the Indian and Japanese Silver Firs 
sufifer in our country by starting too early 
in our open winters and harsh springs ; 
in their own frost-bound mountain lands 
the young shoots only start when all 
danger, is past. One remedy for this is 
the selection of exposed positions which 
will not encourage early growth, and also 
not making the soil so rich as is the rule. 
In our country, as with many of the coni- 
fers, the usual way is to put them apart 
as " specimens," but that, from an artistic 
point of view, and that of health, is not 
always the best. Where there is room 
these trees should be grouped together so 
as to shelter each other. Grafting of rare 
kinds is often resorted to, which should 
always be on their own roots. 
j There is much confusion of names 
[ owing to the American trees having origin- 
i ally been sent over under various names, 
and from different localities. The follow- 
ing selection includes the most distinct so 
far as the trees are known. In this, as in 
many other families, there are a variety of 
variegated and other sorts which are given 
'' fine names, these are generally useless 

)-, Castlewellan. 



to those who seek the natural dignity of 
the tree. We do not refer to geographical 
varieties which may be valuable as coming 
from diverse climates. 

A. AMABILIS (Cascade Mountains Fir). — A 
tall, massive tree with deep bluish-green foliage, 
and dark purple cones thriving in Britain. It 
is not easy to get it true to name and on own 
roots, and owing to propagating by grafting 
from side shoots the trees do not make a good 
leader. British Columbia. 

A. BALSAMEA (Balsam Fir). — A slender 
northern forest fir rarely attaining a height of 
more than 80 feet, and much smaller in 
high Arctic regions. Hardy in our country but 
somewhat uncertain as to soil. N. America. 

A. BRACHYPHYLLA (Jesso Silver Fir).— A 
handsome and hardy tree, over 100 feet high, 
with bright green foliage and short leaves. 
The densely crowded leaves are very silvery 
underneath, and the effect of a healthy tree 
good. Japan. 

A. BRACTEATA (Santa Lucia Fir). — A stately 
tree, often 1 50 feet high in its native country. 
The foliage is long and rather scattered, sharply 
pointed. It is injured in some districts by 
starting early in the spring. There are very 
few good specimens of it in Britain, the best 
being at Tortworth Court and Eastnor. N. W. 

A. CEPHALONICA (Cephalonian Fir).— A 
vigorous Fir of about 60 ft. high, hardy in this 
country in a variety of soils, but is best planted 
in an exposed position to prevent it starting 
into growth too early. In Britain, it is hand- 
some till it reaches a height of about 30 ft., 
when the leaders give way and the side 
branches grow vigorously. Even in old 
specimens with several heads it forms a 
picturesque tree. Greece. 

A. ciLiciCA (Mount Taurus Fir). — -A grace- 
ful tree, 40 ft. to 60 ft. high, with slender 
branches. It grows freely, but is apt to be 
injured by spring frosts ; the leaves are soft, 
and of a peculiar shade of green where it thrives. 

A. CONCOLOR (Hoary White Fir). — A 
whitish tree of medium height, with thick, grey 
bark. The flat leaves are about 2 ins. long, 
and it has small, pale yellow cones. It is hardy 
in Britain, and a rapid grower. Colorado. 

A. FiRMA (Japanese Silver Fir). — A tree of 
sometimes 150 feet in height, with light brown 
bark and foliage of a glossy green. Hardy in 
Britain, and grows freely when established, 
although it is late in starting. It is a handsome 
tree with short branches and stiff habit. 

A. Fraseri (Allegheny Fir). — A forest tree, 
reaching 90 feet high in its own country, with 
smooth bark having resinous blisters. It is 
allied to the Balsam Fir, but has shorter and 
more oval cones, and leaves with silvery under- 
sides. Mountains of Virginia, N. Carolina, 
and Tenessee. 

A. grandis (Puget Sound Fir). — A beauti- 
ful and stately tree of over 200 feet, with dark 

green cones 2 to 3 inches long, and dark shin- 
ing leaves, white below. Hardy and free in 
various parts of Britain ; best in moist soils, 
trees in Scotland at Ochertyre being over 60 
feet high in 1899. N. W. America. 

A. LASiocARPA (Alpine Fir). — A beautiful 
spire-like tree 150 feet high with white bark, 
and very small cones, purple, 2 to 3 inches 
long, and red male flowers, the foliage luxuriant 
and gracefully curved. Alaska, B. Columbia. 

A. LowiANA (California White Fir). — A 
lovely tree, often 150 feet high, long leaves 
and light green cones, turning yellow at 
maturity. Oregon to Southern California. 

A. MAGNIFICA (California Red Fir). — A 
stately mountain tree of 200 to 250 feet, with 
brown bark (red within), and very large light 
purple cones 6 to 8 inches long. The foliage 
is dense on the lower branches, but thinner 
towards the top, of olive-green. Grows rapidly 
in Britain. N. California. 

A. Mariesi (Maries' Silver Fir) is a tall, 
pyramidal tree with robust spreading branches 
and dark purple cones 4 to 5 inches long. 

A. NOBiLis (Columbia Fir). — A mountain 
tree, 200 to 300 feet high, with deep glaucous 
foliage and brown cones 5 to 7 inches long. 
Hardy and rapid grower in Britain. Oregon. 

A. NoRDMANNiANA (Crimean Fir). — A 
beautiful dark green tree, with rigid branches 
and dense dark green foliage and large cones. 
Hardy and good grower in Britain.' Caucasus 
and Crimea. 

A. NUMIDICA (Mount Babor Fir). — A tree 
of medium height with bright green foliage. 
Hardy in this country, but may fail from start- 
ing too early. Mountains of N. Africa, grow- 
ing with Cedars and our British Yew. 

A. PECTiNATA (Silver Fir).— A noble tree 
of the mountains of Central Europe, often 
planted in Britain, and growing well over 100 
feet high at Longleat, Burton Park, and many 
other places. It was the first of the Silver Firs 
planted in Britain, and one of the best. When 
young it grows well in the shade of other trees, 
and it is an excellent tree to plant for shelter, 
as it will grow in the most exposed situations, 
and in peaty as well as ordinary soils. 

A. PiNSAPO (Spanish Silver Fir). — A 
large Fir, with bright green prickly foliage, 
thriving in almost any soil and in chalky dis- 
tricts. Often suffers from too early a start in 
spring, and the usual method of isolation 
by which the grass exhausts the moisture. 

A. SACHALiNENSis(Saghalien Silver Fir).— 
A tall tree with greyish-brown bark, narrow 
leaves and small cones. It is hardy, and of 
distinct and graceful habit, a native of Japan 
and Saghalien. 

A. Veitchi (Veitch's Silver Fir).— A tall 
tree of over 100 feet. The bark is light grey and 
the leaves a bright glossy green with silvery 
streaks, the cones being a purplish-brown. 

A. Webbiana (Webb'sFir). — An Indian Fir, 
sometimes nearly 100 feet high, and one of the 



most distinct. The leaves are deep glossy 
green with silvery undersides, and the cones 
are large. A variety Pindrow is without the 
silver markings. Both suffer much from spring 
frosts. Himalayas. — F. M. 

ABRONIA {Simd Verbena.) — Small 
Californian annuals or perennials of a 
trailing habit, with showy blossoms in 
dense Verbena-like clusters. A. arenaria 
{A. latifo/ia), a honey-scented perennial, 
has traihng stems and dense clusters of 
lemon-yellow flowers ; A. innhcUata, also 
an annual with succulent trailing stems 
and clusters of rosy-purple, slightly fra- 
grant flowers ; ^./ra^ra^j-, forming large 
branching tufts from ij to 2 ft., and 
white flowers which expand late in the 
afternoon, and then emit a delicate 
vanilla-like perfume ; A. villosa is a fine 
species with violet flowers, and A. Crux 
Mastce a pretty species with white 
scented flowers. A. arenaria and A. 
umbellata should be planted in rather 
poor, light, and dry soil, on an open, 
well-drained border or rockwork. The 
seeds often remain dormant some time 
before vegetating ; those oi A. umbellata 
germinate more readily. A. fragrans., 
w^hich does not ripen seed in this country, 
is best in friable soil, and is larger than 
the others. Abronias flower in summer 
and autumn, and are pretty and efifective 
when well planted. Nyctaginece. 

ABUTILON.— Plants mostly requiring 
greenhouse temperature in winter, but 
growing freely out-of-doors in summer, 
and a graceful aid in the flower garden. 

Abutilon, Boule de Neige. 

at least in the southern counties. A. 
Darwini and its forms, as well as the 
varieties related to A. striatum., under 
favourable conditions, grow from 4 ft. to 
8 ft. in height. They can be made bushy 
by stopping, and they flower better than 
they do in pots. They are useful among 
the taller and more graceful plants for 
the flower garden, and are easily raised 
from seed and cuttings. A. vitifolium is a 

very handsome wall-plant in mild districts, 
and several sorts may be grown in the 
open air in gardens in warm sea-shore 
districts. A. Sellowianum marmoratum 
is a fine variety. Among the best in 
cultivation are the following, and new 
varieties are often raised : Admiration, 
Anna Crozy, Buisson d'Or, Darwini majus, 
Elegantissimum, Grandiflorum, Lemoinei, 
Lady of the Lake, Leo, Orange Perfection, 
Bouie de Neige Delicatum, Pactole, 
Darwini tesselatum, Thompsoni variega- 
tum, vexillarium variegatum. Brilliant, 
King of Roses, Canarybird, Golden 
Queen, and Scarlet Gem. 

ACACIA ( Tassel Tree). — Beautiful 
shrubs and trees, mostly thriving in 
warmer countries than ours, but a few 
are grown out of doors in the warmer 
parts of our country. A. Julibrissi?i. — By 
reducing this to a single stem and using 
young plants, or those cut down every 
year, one gets an erect stem covered with 
leaves as graceful as a Fern, and pretty 
amidst low-growing flowers. The leaves 
are slightly sensitive : on fine sunny days 
they spread out and afford a pleasant 
shade ; on dull ones the leaflets droop. 
It is better raised from seed. A. lophantha., 
though not hardy, grows freely in the open 
air in summer, and gives graceful verdure 
among flowers. It may easily be raised 
from seed sown early in the year to give 
plants fit for putting out in early summer. 
Plants a year old or so, strong and well 
hardened off for planting out at the end 
of May, are best. In Cornish and South 
Devon gardens various kinds thrive in 
the open air. A. affinis is the most com- 
mon. In many cases A. affinis is grow-n 
as A. dealbata. The leaves of the former 
are green, while those of the latter are 
bluish, and its flow^ers are less bright in 
colour. A group of A. affinis., about 35 
feet in height, was a wonderful sight at 
Tregothnan at the end of March, being 
simply covered with golden blossom, 
which was thrown into high relief by a 
background of Ilexes. A. verticillata is 
another fine kind, flowering later in the 
spring. It is a rapid growler, reaching a 
height of 15 feet in a few years, generally 
growing in the form of a broad based 
cone, with its lower branches but a foot 
or so from the ground. When in flower 
it is so covered with its pale yellow 
blossoms that no foliage is discernible. 
A. armata may be seen as a bush 7 feet 
high and as much in diameter. A. ovata. 
— This I have only seen as a bush some 
3 feet high, very pretty when bearing 
its yellow flower-balls. A. longifolia is 
another handsome tree with leaves some- 

THE ENGLISH FLOWER GARDEN, acanthropanax. 417 

thing like those of an Oleander, and bright 
yellow flowers. A. mehnroxylon at Tresco 
is about 50 feet in height, and there are 
good examples on the mainland. Other 
species I have met with are A. riceaita, 
A. lopliantlia, A. calamifolia^A. lifufolia, 
A. latifoUa, andA. pla/ypiera.—W . D. F. 
ACiENA.— Alpine and rock plants be- 
longing to the Rose family. Though not 
pretty in their flowers, if we except the 
crimson spines that give a charm to the 
little New Zealand A. viicrophylla, these 
plants have a neat habit of growth that 
fits them for very dwarf carpets in the 
rock garden, and now and then, to cover 
dry parts of borders and tufts on the 

flowers ; A. melananihum has short, 
dense spikes, the limb of the calyx being 
bordered with dark violet or black ; and 
other pretty species, not all in cultivation 
perhaps, are cep/ia/o/es, acerosiim^ laxi- 
Jiortan, libanoticiiin, and Pinardi, which, 
so far as we know them, thrive best on the 
sunny rock-garden, in light deep soil. 
Where large plants of the rare kinds 
exist, it is a good plan to work some 
cocoa-nut fibre and sand, in equal parts, 
into the tufts in early autumn, but before 
doing this some of the shoots should be 
gently torn so as to half sever them at a 

margms of boiders, among the most use- 
ful being aigentea, millefolia, pulchclla, 
o\alifolia, and saimento^a, all of fiee 
growth and increase. 

ACANTHOLIMON {Prickly Thrift). 
— Dwarf mountain herb plants of the Sea 
Lavender order, extending from the east 
of Greece to Thibet, and having their 
headquarters in Persia. The flowers re- 
semble those of Statice and Armeria, but 
the plants form branching, cushion-like 
tufts ; the leaves are rigid and spiny. 
They are dwarf evergreen rock-garden 
and choice border plants. We have had 
the following species for years, but have 
not been very successful in propagating 
any except A. crlumaceum, which is the 
freest in growth, the others being very 
slow. Cuttings taken off" in late summer 
and kept in a cold frame during winter 
make good plants in two years, but 
by layering one gets larger plants sooner. 
All are hardy, and prefer warm, sunny 
situations in sandy loam. There are only 
a few kinds in cultivation, such as A. 
gliD/taceitin, vejiiisiiiui., and androsaceum. 
A. Kotschyi\s handsome, with long spikes 
rising well above the leaves and white 

ALaiuholunon gluiiuiLeum 

heel ; water to settle the soil. Many of 
the growths thus treated will root by 
spring. Cuttings made in the ordinary 
way are uncertain, but August or Sept- 
ember is the best time to try them. — E. J. 
ACANTHOPANAX.— ^. ricini- 
foliuui is the most striking of the shrubby 
Araliads, hardy and grows freely at Kew. 
Professor Rein, of the University of Bonn, 
mentions trees 90 feet high, with stem 
9 feet to 12 feet in circumference in the 
forests of Yezo, the great northern island 
of Japan. A. sessilifloriuii is a new species, 
a native of China, Manchuria, and Japan. 
It has wrinkled, dark green leaves, formed 
of three to five leaflets, the midribs having 
a few scattered bristles. A. spinosum. 
— A small shrub with leaves divided into 
five segments (sometimes only three). 
The stem is armed with a few sharp 
prickles. This plant is more frequently 
grown in a greenhouse than out of doors, 
more especially the variegated form. 
They are both hardy in sheltered positions, 
E E 



although they do not grow so freely as in- 
doors. A . pall/tat tun atro-sajiguineum., p. 
sangui/ieuDi, which have very rich crimson 
foliage, and ptfuiatifiduiii, in which the 
leaves are much divided, are the finest of 
the Japanese kinds. The plants should 
not be u-rafted.— W. J. B. 

ACANTHUS (^^^r'.f-^r^'^r//).— Stately 
perennials with fine foliage, mostly 
coming from the countries round the 
Mediterranean, and hardy, though the 
foliage may sufter now and then. On 
rocky banks, borders of the bolder sort, 
and in almost any position among the 
more vigorous hardy plants they look 
well, and will live in shade, yet to flower 
well should have full sun. Acanthuses 
succeed best on warm, deep soil, though 
they will grow in almost any garden soil. 
They are easily increased by division of 
the roots in winter, and may be raised 
from seed. Acnitthacece. 

There are several hardy kinds : — A. 
hispajticus, A. longifolius, A. mollis., A. in. 
latifolius {A. lusi'tanicus), A.tiiger, and A. 

ACER (i^/^T//^). — Trees, mostly of 
northern regions, often of the highest value 
in pleasure-ground planting, some of the 
species breaking into a great number of 
varieties. Among the best are the Silver 

Maple {A. erio carp inn)., naturally a very 
beautiful tree, though we get from it 
variegated and other forms which are not 

Acer circinatum. 

of much value, except the cut-leaved one. 
The Norway Maple {^A. platanoides)., a 
beautiful tree, has many varieties, the 
purple ones being effective. The common 
Sycamore Maple {A. Pseudo-plataniis) 
has also a number of variegated and 
other varieties, though none of them 
better than the natural tree ; it is doubtful 
if there is any finer tree than this when 
old. The sycamore walk m the Bishop's 
Garden, at Chichester, and the trees near 
Knole House, remind us of its fine quali- 
ties for avenues or groups ; and it is the 
best of forest trees to face the sea, as it 
does in Anglesey and many other places. 
Our Native iVlaple {A. cmnpestre) is 
also a pretty tree, seldom planted in 
gardens, but of which fine trees may be 
seen at Mereworth in Kent and many 
other places. The variegated forms are 
usually tree rubbish. The Virginian or 
Red Maple {A. riibrum) is a beautiful 
tree, as also the Sugar Maple {A. sac- 
charimun) and the Colchic Maple {A. 
IcEtum). The Japanese Maples are inter- 
esting and beautiful, but not quite hardy 
and robust, except in the most favoured 
districts. Moreover, the fine varieties 
are often grafted, which makes them still 
less able to endure severe weather. A. 
Ncgiindo is the kind which has given us 
the much overplanted variegated Maple 
so common in gardens. A. Ghutala is 
worth mentioning as a low tree — almost a 
shrub — whose leaves die off a rich red in 
colour. The North American and Euro- 
pean species are hardy as forest trees and 
thrive in almost any soil, but the Southern 
American kinds and Japanese Maples 
want warmer soils and positions to thrive 
in our climate. The variegated varieties 
in this family are too many, and our 



nurserymen insist upon sending out many 
forms which, however attractive they may 
appear to them in the hand, planted out 
soon give a poor and even harmful effect. 

The known and cultivated species are the following : 
Acer caiitpcstre, Europe; caudniuiii, N. India; cir- 
cinatuni, California; cissi/oliiitn, Japan; carpini- 
foliitni, Japan; cratcegi/olium , Japan; creticuin, Asia 
Minor ; diabolicuin, Japan ; distylniii, Japan ; eno- 
carpuiit, N. America ; glabrtim, N. America ; grandi- 
dentatum, N. America ; Heldreichi, E. Europe ; 
heiero/>hyllii/n, E. Europe ; hyrcanum, Caucasus ; 
insigne, Versia.: japoiiicn?>i, Japan; Lobeli, S. Italy; 
macrophylhtin, California ; micranihiiiii, Japan ; 
inonspcssulamtm, S. Europe ; Negutido, N. America ; 
>iikoensc, Japan ; opuli/olhiin, Europe ; pabnaiuvi, 
Japan ; pcctinatuiii, N. India ; pennsylvanicnm, N. 
America; pictunt, Japan; platanoidcs, N. H^urope ; 
Pscudoplatanus, Europe, Asia ; rub>iim, N. America ; 
rufincn'e, Japan •,sacckarmuin, N. America ; Sieboldi- 
nnioit, Japan; sikkimense, N. India; spicatum, N. 
America ; tatariciDit, E. Europe ; VoLremi, Caucasus. 

ACHILLEA {Milfoil, Yarrow). — 
Hardy herbaceous and Alpine plants 
spread through Northern Asia, S. Europe, 
and Asia Minor, varying in height from 
2 in. to 4 ft., their flowers being pale 
lemon, yellow, and white, but rarely pink 
or rose. They grow freely in most garden 
soils, and, with the exception of the 
dwarfer mountain species, increase rapidly. 
Some of the large kinds are fine plants 
for groups, as A. Eupatoriitni. The alpine 
kinds, such as A. toineniosa., are for the 
rock-garden, or margins of choice borders. 

The best of the larger kinds are ex- 
cellent for large groups in mixed borders 
and also in shrubberies ; among the best 
being A. Eicpato7-iuin., A. Fili-penditla, 
A. ))iillefoliiiiii roseiini (a rose-coloured 
variety of a native plant), and A. Ptannica 
(the Sneezewort), the double variety 
being one of the best perennials. The 
variety known as the " Pearl " is a larger 
improved form. A. Ailgcratum (Sweet 
Maudlin) is a distinct old kind, alDout 2 
feet high. 

The dwarfer species come in for groups 
for the rock garden or the margins of rock 
borders, and, occasionally, as edging 
plants, most of them growing freely and 
being easy of increase ; but some of the 
higher Alpine kinds are not very enduring 
in our open winters. Among the best 
are A. aurea, A. rupestris., A. tomentosa, 
and A. Clavetince. 

ACIPHYLLA {Bayoftet Plaftf).—S\n- 
gular and distinct New Zealand plants. 
A, Colcfisoi. — Forming a spiny bush. A. 
Lyalli is similar in habit but is smoother 
in all its parts, the leaves being divided 
into sharp spines. A. sqiiarrosa is the 
best known species, thriving in free 
soil and sunny parts of the rock garden : 
they are more curious than attractive 
from a garden point of view. 

ACONITUM {Monkshood).— TzW and 

handsome herbaceous plants, of theButter- 
cup order, dangerous from their poison- 
ous roots. There are many names — not 
so many species, — of value for our gar- 
dens. They should not be planted where 
the roots could be by any chance dug up 
by mistake for edible roots, as they are so 
deadly : almost all the kinds may be easily 
naturalised in copses or shrubberies away 

Aconitum Napellus (Monkshood). 

from the garden proper, or beside stream- 
lets or in openings in rich bottoms. 

The best kinds are A. Napellus and its 
forms, versicolor and others ; A. chinense, 
A. aiiiumnale,A.japoniciim, and A. tauri- 
ciinij A. Lycoctoiiuni is a yellow-flowered 
and vigorous species. They are from 
3 ft. to 5 ft. high and flower from July to 
September. A. Fortiinei, the old A. 
£-/z/;?<:';/i'6' of gardens, is the best for late 

ACORUS {Sweet /7rt^).— Waterside or 
marsh plants of the arum order, easily 
cultivated, and of wide distribution. A. 
Calamus (Sweet Flag) is a marsh or water- 
side plant, now naturalised in most parts 
of Europe. A variety has gold-striped 
leaves. A. gramineus (Grass-leaved 
Acorus) has a slender creeping rhizome 
covered with numerous Grass-like leaves, 
from 4 in. to 6 in. in length, and 
there is a variety with white-streaked 
E E 2 



leaves. This plant is often seen in the 
little bronze trays of water-plants in 
Japanese gardens and houses. China. 

ACROCLINIUM.— ^.;w^^^w, the only 
species, is a pretty half-hardy annual 
from Western Australia, growing over 
I foot high with rosy-pink flowers, used 
as "everlasting" flowers. Seeds should 
be sown in frames in March, and the 
seedlings planted at the end of April or 
early in ]\Iay in a warm border ; or the 
seeds may be sown in the open ground 
in fine rich soil at the end of April. If the 
flowers are to be dried, it is best to gather 
them when fresh and young — some when 
in the bud state. This annual might 
be made graceful use of in mixed beds. 
There is a white variety. Co)nposita. 

AGTJEA {Bancherry). — Vigorous 
perennials of the Buttercup order, 3 ft. 
to 6 ft. high, thriving in free soil ; flower 
spikes, white and long-, with showy 
berries. The white Baneberry has white 
berries with red footstalks. The var. 
rubra of A. spicaia has showy fruit ; the 
plants are best suited for rich bottoms 
in the wild garden, as though the foliage 
and habit are good, the flowers are short- j 
lived in the ordinary border, and some- 
what coarse in habit. A. spicata (com- 
mon Baneberry or Herb Christopher), 
A. raceviosa (Black Snakeroot), A. alba 
(white Baneberry), having white berries 
with red stalks, and one or two American ! 
forms of the common Baneberry are in j 
cultivation. The flowers have often a | 
very unpleasant smell. 

ACTINELLA.— North American com- 
posites of which there are three kinds in 
gardens, dwarf-growing plants with yellow 
flowers. The finest is A. grandiflora 
(Pigmy Sunflower), a native of Colorado, j 
an alpine plant with flower-heads 3 in. 
in diameter, growing from 6 in. to 9 in. 
high. The other species, A. acaulis, A. 
Brandegei, and A. scaposa, are somewhat 
similar. They are all perennial, and - 
thrive in a light soil. ] 

ACTINIDIA.— Climbing summer-leaf- 
ing shrubs of the Camellia order from 
Japan and China,thriving in warm rich soil. \ 
They all have climbing or twining stems i 
and iDear waxy white flowers. A. Kolomik- \ 
ta should be grown against a wall or | 
against a buttress or tree trunk placed 
against the wall, on which the stems sup- 
port themselves. The leaves are brightly 
tinted in autumn, and the flowers of A. 
polyga))ia are fragrant. A. voliibilis is 
free-growing and has small white flowers. 
ADENOPHORA iGUmd Bcllflower).— 
Hardy perennials of the Bellflower family. 

mostly from Siberia and Dahuria, with 
flowers generally blue in colour. Some 
of the most distinct species are A. corono- 
pi folia, A. denliculala, A. Lamar ckii^ A. 
liliiflora, A. polynwrpha^ A. stylosa^ and 
A. pereskicrfolia. In these occur slight 
variations in colour and size of flower. 
Their thick fleshy roots revel in a rich 
loam, and like a damp subsoil ; they are 
impatient of removal, and should not be 
increased by division. Unlike the Platy- 
codons, they seed freely, and are easily 

ADIANTUM {Maidenhair Fern).— 
Elegant ferns, few of which are hardy, 
growing best in a rough fibry peat, 
mixed with sand and lumps of broken 
stone or brick. A. pedafiim, the hardy N. 
American kind, is charming among shade- 
loving plants in the wild garden with the 
more iDeautiful wood-flowers, such as 
Trillium, Hepatica, and blue Anemone, in 
moist soil. A. Capillus veneris, the 
British Maidenhair Fern, is best in a 
sheltered nook at the foot of a shady wall, 
and in the southern warmer countries 
might be found near fountain basins and 
moist corners of the rock garden and 
hardy fernery. There are several varie- 
ties or forms of this Maidenhair. 

ADLUMIA {Climbing Fumitory). - 
Climbing biennial plants. One species 
only {A.cirrhosa) is known, a rapid grower. 

Atilumia cirrhosa. 


to over 3 ft. high. They are 

Its Maidenhair-Fern-like leaves are borne 
on slender twining stems with abundant 
white blossoms, about \ in. long. There is 
a variety with purple flowers. It thrives in 
a warm soil, and its place is trailing over 


a shrub or twiggy branch, placed either 
against a wall or in the open. 

ADONIS (^Pheasants ^j/^-).— Beautiful 
perennial or biennial plants, belonging to 
the Buttercup order, chiefly natives of 
cornfields in Europe and Western Asia, 
dwarf, with finely divided leaves, and red, 
yellow, or straw-coloured flowers. A. 
vernalis {Ox-Eye) is a handsome Alpine 
herb, forming dense tufts 8 in. to 15 in. 

Adonis pyrenaica. 

high of finely divided leaves in whorls 
along the stems, blooming in spring, 
with large, yellow. Anemone-like flowers 
3 in. in diameter. Of A. vernalis there 
are several varieties, the chief being A. 
V. sibirica, which differs in having larger 
flowers. A. apennina is a later-blooming 
form, and is a good plant for moist spots 
on the rock-garden. A. pyrettaica is from 
the Eastern Pyrenees, but with broader 
petals. A. ainitreiisis is a new kind from 
Manchuria, with finely cut leaves, bloom- 
ing with the snowdrop, and seems to be 
of easy culture. A. Davtirica is a very 
early kind. A. autumnalis is a pretty 
bright-coloured annual. 

The rock-garden or borders of sandy 
loam suits the perennial kinds well. 
Division, or by seed sown as soon as 

^SCULUS {Horse Chestmct, Buckeye). 
— The Horse Chestnuts are mostly me- 
dium-sized trees, hardy in nearly every 
soil, and excellent for park and garden. 
The common variety is an exception as to 

size, and one of the most beautiful of 
flowering trees. There is at least one 
handsome variety of it with very long 
spikes. The red Buckeye (^. Pavid) 
is a handsome small tree, with dense and 
large foliage, together with bright red 
flowers in large loose clusters in early 
summer. Sometimes it rises from 15 to 
20 ft. high, but some of its varieties are 
only low-spreading or trailing shrubs. ^. 
humilis, pettdiila, arguta, and laciniata 
are forms of^^. Pavia, and the plants 
are useful for grouping with taller trees. 
^.fla7>a{\ht yellow Buckeye) is common, 
and sometimes 40 ft. high. It has some- 
thing of the habit of the red Horse Chest- 
nut {J^. riibicu)ida\ but smoother leaves. 
A variety called piirpiirascens (sometimes 
^. discolor) has much showier flowers, 
larger, and of a reddish tint. The .Esculi, 
named in gardens and nurseries as AL. 
neglecta, hybrida, pubescetjs, Lyoni, rosea, 
and pallida, may be included in one of 
the foregoing species, and some differ 
but slightly from them. They are all low 
trees or large shrubs, coming into leaf 
early and losing their foliage in early 
autumn, especially in light or dry soils. 
One of the best of all the forms is the 
brightly-coloured A£. Brioti. A distinct 
species is the Californian Buckeye (^. 
californica), which in this country does 
not usually rise above shrub height. It 
has slender-stalked leaves, broad leaf- 
lets, and in early summer dense erect 
clusters of white or pinkish fragrant 
flowers ; a valuable hardy tree. Quite 
different from the rest is the North 
American ^. parviflora (dwarf Horse 
Chestnut), a handsome shrub, 6 ft. to 
10 ft. high, flowering in late summer. Its 
foliage is much like that of other ^scuH, 
and its small white fragrant flowers are 
in long, erect, plume-flowers. A variety 
of the preceding, yE. macrostachya, is an 
August-blooming North American shrub 
of great beauty. The growth is spreading 
and bushy, with creamy white flowers in 
dense plumy spikes. A specimen on the 
outskirts of the lawn is effective. We have 
grouped the Pavias with the ^sculus. 

JETHIONEMA.— A beautiful group of 
Alpine and rock plants found on the 
sunny mountains near the INIediterra- 
nean. They grow freely in borders of 
well-drained sandy loam, but their true 
home is the rock-garden. The tall ^. 
grandiftoriim forms a spreading bush 
about I ft. high, from which spnng 
numerous racemes of pink and lilac 
flowers. It also grows well in borders 
in ordinary soil, and, when in flower 
in summer, is among the loveliest of 



alpine half-shrubby plants. As the stems 
are prostrate, a good efifect will come 
from planting them where the roots 
may descend into deep earth, and the 
shoots fall over the face of rocks at about 
the level of the eye. Easily raised from 
seed, and thrive in sandy loam. There 
are many species, but few are in gardens. 
All the cultivated kinds are dwarf, and 
may be grouped with alpine plants. The 
other best kinds are A. coridifoliwn, A. 
pidcheUiiiu, A. persiciim. 

AaAPANTHUS(4/rmz«Z//j/).— Beau- 
tiful bulbous plants from the Cape, with blue 
or white flowers in umbels on stems i8 in. 
to 4 ft. high. A. umbellattis., the old kind, 
is hardy in some mild seashore districts, 
and a fine plant in rich warm soil, but 
better for the protection of leaves or 
cocoa fibre round the root in winter. It 
is worth growing for the flower garden 
and vases in summer, but should be pro- 
tected in winter by storing under stages, 
in sheds or cellars. The fleshy roots may 
be so stored without potting. Enjoys plenty 
of water during out-of-door growth, and is 
easily increased by division. Various new 
kinds have been introduced, but their out- 
of-door value has not been so well tested 
as the favourite old African Lily. Of the 
best-known kind, A. wiibellaiiis., there 
are se\'eral varieties ; major and maximus 
are both larger than the type, and of 
jiiaximiis there is a white-flowered variety. 
There is a smaller one with white flowers, 
one w-ith double flowers, and variegated- 
leaved kinds. A. Saiindersoniattus is a 
distinct variety with deeper-coloured 
flowers than the type. 

The largest is A. tiinbcUatiis gii^aiiteits., 
the flower-spikes of which attain a height 
of from 3 ft. to 4 ft., with umbels bearing 
from 150 to 200 flowers. The colour is a 
gentian blue, while the buds are of a deeper 
hue. A. u. pallidiis is a pale porcelain 
blue, a short-leaved variety. A. u. minor 
is a dwarf variety. Of A. umbellaiiis 
there is a double-flowered variety, a dis- 
tinct plant. There is, moreover, A. ti. 
atroccertdeus, a dark violet \'ariety. A. u. 
maxitniis has flower-stalks 4 ft. long, and 
full heads of flowers, one set opening while 
a second is rising to fill up the truss as 
the first crop fades. A. u. Moorcatms., 
deciduous and hardy ; it grows from 12 in. 
to 18 in. high, has narrow leaves, and 
comes true from seed. A. 11. albijiorits, 
a pure white kind, also is deciduous, the 
leaves turning yellow in autumn and dying 
off. It forms a stout root-crown. 

AGATH^A (Blue Daisy).— A. calcstis 
is a tender spreading Daisy-like plant, with 
blue flowers, useful for the margins of beds. 

There is also a pretty golden variegated 
form. It is among the prettiest of the 
half-hardy bedding plants, but is not so 
effective or good on heavy soils. Cuttings 
or seed. 

AGAVE. — Tropical-looking succulent 
plants of the Amaryllis order, of which 
the common kind, A. americana., and its 
variegated varieties are useful for placing 
out-of-doors in summer in vases or pots 
plunged in the ground, and also for 
the conservatory in winter. When the 
plant flowers, which it does only once, 
and after several years' growth, it sends 
up a flowering stem from 26 ft. to nearly 
40 ft. high. The flowers are a yellowish- 
green, and are very numerous on the ends 
of the chandelier-like branches. It may 
be placed out-of-doors at the end of May, 
and should be brought in in October. 
Easily increased from suckers. A. Deserti, 
utahensis, ca'rulescens, and Shawi have 
lately come into cultivation, and are 
supposed to be hardy, in which case they 
will be interesting for the rock-garden. 
North America. A . applanata var. Parryi 
is said also to be hardy. 

AGERATUM {Floss Flower).— ^Ai- 
hardy herbaceous plants, varying in height 
from 6 in. to 24 in., with pale-blue, laven- 
der, or white blossoms. The dwarf Agera- 
tums are among the best, but all are great- 
ly overvalued, though they are among the 
most lasting of summer bedding plants, 
and as they will withstand a few degrees 
of frost they may be planted out earlier 
than most of the bedding plants. The 
flowers are not readily injured by rain, and 
do not fade in colour, but continue the same 
throughout the long flowering season. 
There are numerous varieties of varying 
merit, some in good soil attaining a height 
of 2 ft., and others not more than 6 in. 
The very dwarf kinds are disappointing ; 
they flower so freely, and the growth of 
the plants is so sparse, that they always 
appear stunted. For back lines in bor- 
ders, or for grouping in mixed flower 
borders, there is no variety better than 
the oldest k\nd,A. f/texieania/i. They strike 
best when placed on a gentle bottom-heat, 
and will winter in any position where there 
is plenty of light, and the temperature 
does not go below 40°. Cuttings. — \\". W. 

AGEOSTEMMA (J^ose Campioji).—A. 
corojiaria is a beautiful old flower, of the 
Pink family, hardy and free, most at home 
in chalky and dry soils. It is a woolly 
plant, 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, bearing many 
rosy-crimson flowers, in summer and 
autumn, easily raised from seed, excellent 
for borders, beds, and naturalisation on dry 
banks. It is biennial or often perishes on 




some soils. There is a white variety and 
a double red one ; the last is a good 
plant. The name is sometimes given to 
the annual Viscarias. A. Githago is a 
large annual, occasionally grown in 
botanic gardens. A. JfW/f-t'rz is a hybrid 
between A. coronaria and A. Flos-Jovis, 
very compact, free flowering, and rich in 

AGROSTIS (Cloud Grass).— A large 
family of Grasses, the best of which 

down annually, taking care to prevent it 
from breaking into an irregular head. 
Vigorous young plants and suckers in 
good soil will produce handsome arching 
leaves 5 ft. or more long, not surpassed 
by those of any stove plant. Cuttings of 
the roots. 

AIRA {Hair Grass). — Graceful grasses, 
of which one of the prettiest is A.pulchella, 
with many hair-like stems, growing in light 
tufts 6in.high. Itisuseful forforming grace- 
ful edgings, amongst plants in borders, or 
for pots for rooms. Its delicate panicles 
give a charm to the finest bouquets. Seed 
may be sown either in September or in 
April. This comes from South Europe, 
and the British A. ccespitosa is handsome. 
A. c. vivipara, with its innumerable 
panicles of graceful viviparous awns, re- 
sembles a miniature Pampas Grass. A. 
flextiosa (the Waved Hair grass) is a 
pretty and graceful perennial. Of easy 
culture in ordinary garden soil. 

AJUGrA (Bugle).— A small family of 
dwarf herbs of the sage order, flowering 
in spring and early summer, and having 
purplish flowers. They grow on mountain 
or lowland pastures, are easily cultivated 
and increased by division. A. geiievettsis 
is among the best, and is distinguished 
from the common native Bugle {A. 
reptans) by the aljsence of creeping shoots. 
The flower-stems are erect, from 6 in. to 
9 in. high ; the flowers deep blue, and 
in a close spike. It is suitable for the 

Young Ailantus tree with Cannas. 

in the garden are the annual kinds so 
useful when dried. There are some 
half-a-dozen annual kinds grown, the 
best A. nebiilosa., which forms delicate 
tufts about 15 in. high, and is useful for 
rooms. If cut shortly before the seed 
ripens and dried in the shade, it will keep 
for a long time. The seed may be sown I 
either in September or in April or May, 
and lightly covered. A. Steveni., viulti- 
flo?'a, and plumosa require the same 
treatment. A. Spicavcnti is very grace- 
ful, especially if grown from self-sown 
seeds. A. pulcheUa is also useful for the 
same purpose, dwarfer and stiffer than A. 

AILANTUS (Tree of Heaven).— A 
Chinese hardy tree, young plants of 
which cut down every year give a good 
effect. It should be kept when young 
with a single stem clothed with its 
fine leaves. This can be done by cutting 

Ajuga genevensis 


front of mixed borders or for the margin 
of shrubberies, and also for naturahsing. 
There is a white variety of ^. reptans, also 
a form with variegated leaves, and another 
with purplish ones, this being finer than 
the type. 

AKEBIA. — Of these climbing or twin- 
ing shrubs of the Barberry order, A. 
quinata is best known. It comes from 
China, hardy, is a good plant for a trellis, 
pergola, or wall, growing 12 ft. or more 
high. It is best to let it run over an 
Evergreen, being then better protected 
against cold winds, which may injure its 
flowers. It has long slender shoots, and 
fragrant claret purple flowers of two kinds 
— large and small, which are produced in 
drooping spikes. The Japanese^, lobata 
is a climber of elegant habit, the flowers 
small, dull, and fragrant. 

ALISMA {Water PIantai?i). —Water 
plants, of which two are fitted for growing 
with hardy aquatic plants. A. Platitago is 
rather stately in habit, having tall panicles 
of pretty pink flowers. When once planted 
it sows itself freely. The other kind is 
A. ratiuficuloides, a few inches high, in 
summer bearing many rosy blossoms. 
Both are adapted for wet ditches, margins 
of pools, and lakes. A. natatis is a small 
floating pretty British plant. There are one 
or two Chinese kinds, single and double. 

ALLIUM {Garlic, (9;//Vv/).— Liliaceous 
bulbs not often of value for the garden, and 
frequently with an unpleasant odour when 
crushed ; to growers of collections there 
are some interesting kinds, of which a few 
are worth growing. They thrive in ordi- 
nary soil, the bulbs increasing rapidly, 
some giving off little bulblets, which 
in some soils make them too numer- 
ous. The following are among the 
kinds worthy of culture : A. 7icapoli- 
taniini, pa?'adoxuin, ciUattiin, siibJiirsiitian, 
Clusiamim piilchellum, triqiieirum (all 
with white flowers), azurewii and ccerii- 
leinn (blue), pedenionianiini (mauve), 
Moly and flaviDn (yellow), fr-agrans 
(sweet scented), oreophylhan (crimson), 
descendens (deep crimson), narcissifloriim 
(purplish), Mtirrayanwn, acuinina/um, 
and Maaiabiaiimn (deep rose). These 
mostly grow from i ft. to 18 in. high, some 
2 ft. or 3 ft. 

ALLOSORUS {Parsley Fern).— A. 
crispus is a beautiful little British Fern 
found in mountainous districts. It re- 
quires abundance of air and light, but 
should be shaded from the hot sun. In 
the rock-garden it does well between large 
stones, with broken stones about its roots, 
and its fronds just peeping out of the 

ALNUS {Alder).~A neglected group 
of trees which have some value in moist 
places and to help to bind the banks of 
streams. Of the native kind A. gluti- 
^tfi-rt there are several varieties, and'.of the 
cut-leaved one there are fine specimens 
at Wynnstay and many other places. A. 
incana has also several varieties seldom 
of more value than the wild tree. Among 
other cultivated kinds japonica., cordi- 
folia, barbata, occidenfalis, oregona, and 

Ainu? g 

serrulata : all of easy culture. None are 
of greater value as to effect than our own 
native kind. 

An advantage the tree possesses is its 
tendency to retain its foliage. There is, 
however, a great deal of difference in this 
respect among the species and varieties. 
Although in a state of nature most of the 
Alders are found near water, they will 
grow well in Britain in all but the lightest 

ALONSOA {Mask-flower). — Mostly 
Peruvian annual plants, of the Snapdragon 
order, of which the best species are A. 
Warsceiviczi, having small loright orange- 
red flowers ; A. lijiifolia, and A. aciitifolia, 
— a slender-growing herb ; A. tficisifolm, 
also a pretty kind ; similar to this is A. 
myrtifolia of \igorous habit with flowers 
larger than any other kind, and of a more 
intense scarlet than those of A. linifolia ; 
A. «/^//7crrt has pure white flowers, yellow 
in the centre, and A. linearis has a pro- 
fusion of light scarlet flowers. All the 
species are easily grown, both in pots and 
the open ground : from seed in spring 
and also bv cuttings in the spring. 

ALOYS'IA {S7veel Verbe?ia).- A. citrio- 
dora is a fragrant-leaved bush with 
small and not showy flowers. Its pale 
green foliage goes well with any flower, 
and it may be grown against a sunny wall, 
where, if protected by a heap of ashes 
over its roots and a warm straw mat over 




its branches, it will pass through the 
winter safely. If uncovered too soon in 
spring, the young growths get nipped by 
late frosts. It is increased from cuttings 
and is a hardy wall plant in mild seashore 
districts, but not so common, owing to the 
cold, in inland districts. Verbena order. 
Chili. Syn. Lippia. 

ALSTROMERIA {^Peruvian Lily).— 
Handsome tuberous plants of the Ama- 
ryllis order, which require a richly 
manured and thoroughly warm and well- 
drained soil, the best place being a south 

The plants should be procured in pots, as 
they rarely succeed from divisions, and, 
once planted, should never be interfered 
with. Place them in rows about i8 in. 
apart, and with i ft. from plant to plant. If 
planted during the winter, they should be 
placed from 6 in. to 9 in. deep, so as to 
keep them from frost ; and a few inches 
of half-rotten leaves shaken over the soil. 
Should there be any difficulty in obtain- 
ing established plants in pots to start 
with, seed may be had ; and this sow in 
pots or beds where the plants are to re- 

Alstromeria (Peruvian Lily). 

border, or along the front of a wall hav- 
ing a warm aspect, where, if the soil is 
not light and dry, it should be made so. 
Dig out the ground to the depth of 3 ft., 
and spread 6 in. or so of brick rubbish 
over the bottom of the border. Shake 
over the drainage a coating of half-rotten 
leaves or short littery manure, to prevent 
the soil from running through the inter- 
stices of the bricks, and stopping up the 
drainage. If the natural soil be stiff, a 
portion should be exchanged for an ecjual 
quantity of leaf soil, or other light vege- 
table mould, and a barrow-load of sand. 

main. The seeds should be sown 2 or 3 
in. deep, with three or four in a patch. If 
well treated, they will begin to bloom at 
a year old, and if not disturbed will in- 
crease in strength and beauty every sea- 
son. If one takes the seed of Alstro- 
merias as soon as it is ripe and sows it, 
every seed will germinate the first season. 
It is also much better to sow three to 
five seeds in each pot and let the 
seedlings remain in the same pot the 
first year. The young plants of Alstro- 
merias are very difficult to handle, being 
as brittle as glass, and a very great 


percentage will die if replanted when 
still young. 

When grown in masses in this way 
they are very beautiful, as every stem 
furnishes a large number of flowers, 
varying much in their colour markings. 
While growing and blooming they should 
have occasional watering, otherwise they 
get too dry, and ripen off prematurely. 
A good mulching of old Mushroom dung 
or of leaf soil is a great assistance while 
in bloom. When going out of flower 
carefully remo\e the seed-heads, other- 
wise the plants are apt to become ex- 
hausted, as almost every flower sets. In 
removing the pods, do not shorten the 
stems or reduce the leaves in any way, 
as all are needed to ripen the tubers and 
form fresh crowns for the following year. 
Anyone having deep light sandy soil rest- 
ing on a dry bottom may grow these 
beautiful flowering plants without prepar- 
ation ; all that is necessary being to pick 
out a well-sheltered spot, and to give the 
surface a slight mulching on the approach 
of severe weather. No trouble is involved 
in staking and tying, for the stems are 
strong enough to support themselves, 
unless in very exposed situations. They 
last long when cut. 

The species in cultivation are 

A. aurantiaca {A. aurea). — A vigorous 
growing Chilian kind, 2 ft. to 4 ft. high, 
flowering in summer and autumn. The 
flowers are large, orange yellow, streaked 
with red, and umbels of from 10 to 15 
blooms terminating the stems. 

A. brasiliensis.— A distinct kind with 
red and green flowers, and dwarfer than 
the preceding. Known also as A. psit- 

A. chilensis.— A quite hardy kind from 
Chili, with many varieties that give a wide 
range of colours from almost white to 
deep orange and red. 

A. Pelegrina. — Not so tall or robust 
as the last ; but the flowers are larger, 
whitish, and beautifully streaked and 
veined with purple. There are several 
varieties, including a white one {A. p. 
nlbn) which requires protection. When 
well grown it is a fine pot plant, compact, 
and crowned with almost pure white 
flowers. It is called. the Lily of the Incas. 
A. pe7-egrina is synonymous. 

Other good kinds are the hardy 
variable-coloured A. versicolor {A. peru- 
via7ja) and St. Martin's flower {A. pul- 
chra) ; this, however, requiring protec- 

Little tropical weeds of the Amaranthus 
order, which, owing to their colour, have 

been used in our gardens far beyond 
their merits. These tender plants are 
natives of Brazil, and can be used 
only in the more fa\oured parts of the 
country. The varieties range in colour 
of foliage from dull purple to bad yellow, 
and why they are used in flower gardens 
is a question to which no good answer can 
be given. 

ALTH^A {Hollyhock).— lixtnmal or 
perennial plants of the Mallow family 
consisting chiefly of coarse-growing plants. 
Some, such as A. rosea., from which the 
Hollyhock has sprung, are showy garden 
flowers. The other wild species are 
generally characterised by great vigour, 
and hence are not very suitable for the 
choice flower garden. They thrive in 
almost any situation or soil. Among them 
A. anneniaca, officinalis, narbo7iensis, 
ca7inabi7ta, fici folia, Hildebra7tdti hirsuta, 
caribcsa, F7-olovia7ia syriacus,lavaterafolia 
are the best — mostly natives of S. Europe 
and the East, flowering in summer and 

A. rosea {Hollyhock).— One: of the 
noblest of hardy plants, and there are 
many positions in almost all gardens where 
it would add to the general effect. For 
breaking up ugly lines of shrubs or walls, 
and for forming back-grounds, its tall 
column-like growth is well fitted. So, too, 
it is valuable for bold and stately eflfects 
among or near flower beds. Cottage bee- 
keepers would do well to grow a few 
Hollyhocks, for bees are fond of their 

Culture. — Deep cultivation, much 
manure, frequent waterings in dry weather, 
with occasional soakings of liquid manure, 
will secure fine spikes and flowers. Holly- 
hocks require good garden soil, trenched 
to the depth of 2 ft. A wet soil is good 
in summer, but injurious in winter, and to 
pre\'ent surface wet from injuring old 
plants left in the open ground remove the 
mould round their necks, filling up with 
about 6 in. of white sand. This will pre- 
serve the crowns of the plants. It is best, 
howe\er, if fine flowers are desired, to 
plant young plants every year, as one 
would Dahlias, putting them 3 ft. apart 
in rows at least 4 ft. apart ; or if grouped 
in beds, not less than 3 ft. apart. In May 
or June, when the spikes have grown i ft. 
high, thin them out according to the 
strength of the plant ; if well established 
aud strong, leaving four spikes, and if 
weak two or three. When for exhibition, 
leave only one spike, and to get fine 
blooms cut off the side shoots, thin the 
flower buds if crowded together, and 
remove the top of the spike, according to 




the height desired, taking into considera- 
tion the usual height and habit of the 
plant. By topping you increase the size 
of the flower, but at the same time shorten 
its duration, and perhaps disfigure its 
appearance. Stake them before they get 
too high, tying them securely, so as to 
induce them to grow erect. The most 

Althaea rosea (Double-flowered Hollyhock). 

robust will not require a stake higher than 
4 ft. If the weather is dry, they may be 
watered with a solution of guano or any 
other liquid manure poured carefully 
round the roots, but not too near the stem. 
But it is in the garden, not the exhibition, 
one wants the Hollyhock. 

Propagation is effected from eyes, 
cuttings, seeds, or careful division. Holly- 

hocks may be propagated by single eyes, 
put in in July and August, and also by 
cuttings put in in spring, on a slight hot- 
bed. Plants raised in summer are best 
preserved by putting them in October 
into 4-in. or 5-in. pots in light, rich, sandy 
earth, and then placing them in a cold 
frame or greenhouse, giving them plenty 
of air on all favourable occasions. Thus 
treated they will grow a little in winter. 
In March or April turn them out into the 
open ground, and they will bloom as finely 
and as early as if planted in autumn. 
Plants put out even in May will flower the 
same year. If seeds are sown in autumn 
in a box or pan in heat, as soon as they 
are ripe, potted off and grown on in a pot 
through the winter, and planted out the fol- 
lowing April, they will flower in the same 
summer and autumn. If allowed to remain 
in the beds or borders where they have 
flowered, choice Hollyhocks often perish 
from damp, or from snow settling round 
their collars, or penetrating the cavity left 
by the too close removal of the flower- 
stems. At the approach of winter, say in 
October, carefully lift all it is desired to 
save, and lay them close together in a 
slanting direction, at an angle of about 
45*^, in a warm mellow soil at the foot of a 
wall or hedge, where, in hard weather, 
shelter can easily be given. The ground 
that is to receive them can then be 
thoroughly worked in winter, and if a 
little rotten turf is put in with them 
when replanted in March or April, good 
spikes and large flowers may be ex- 
pected. Choice and scarce varieties may 
l3e either potted up or planted out in 
a frame. Potting them is the better way, 
because they can be placed in a green- 
house or vinery, on shelves near the glass 
Some of the stools will have numerous 
growths starting from them, and unless 
the plants have a little heat early in the 
year, many of the cuttings cannot be pro- 
pagated soon enough to flower the same 
season. Growers in the south of England 
have an advantage with these spring- 
struck cuttings as there is quite three 
weeks' difference between the time of 
flowering in the south and in the northern 
districts of England and in Scotland. 
Root-grafting gives the propagator a 
little advantage, and early in the year 
the plants are propagated more readily 
in a light frame fixed in a heated propa- 
gating house. A hotbed is uncertain, 
as there is sometimes too much heat, 
and then not enough. Although the 
young side shoots of old stocks will root in 
a gentle bottom-heat in spring, they ma\' 
also be increased in July, just before the 



plants come into flower. The side shoots 
from the flower-spikes, or the smaller 
flower - spikes, if they can be spared, 
should be cut up into single joints, and 
dibbled in thickly in a prepared bed in a 
frame or pit, where they can be kept 
close and cared for by shading from bright 
sunshine, and sprinkling occasionally with 
water that has been warmed by standing 
in the sun. Nearly every cutting will 
then develop a bud from the axil of the 
leaf, rapidly strike root, and make a good 
strong plant by the following spring ; as 
a rule, young plants propagated at this 
season give the best spikes. When cut- 
ting down the flowering stems of Holly- 
hocks after blooming, they should be left 
a good length, as they are impatient of 
damp about their crowns ; in spring the 
old stems may be removed altogether. 
Owing to the Hollyhock disease it is often 
a better plan to abandon the named kinds 
increased from cuttings and resort to 
seedlings only for stock. This way is all 
the more sure, as seed growers of late 
years have fixed and separated the colours 
so that a fine variety of good ones may 
be secured in this way, while the plants 
are more vigorous, and in any case will 
often start free from the disease. 

Insect Pests and Diseases. — Red 
spider and thrips are both very trouble- 
some, but the first does most injury. It 
appears on the under sides of the leaves 
as soon as the hot weather sets in, and is 
difficult to dislodge. If there is any trace 
of red spider before planting out, the whole 
plant, except the roots, should be dipped 
in a pail of soft soapy water, to which a 
pint or so of tobacco liquid has been 
added. It will be well to syringe the 
under sides of the leaves with the mixture 
if the plants have been planted out before 
the pest is perceived. Thrips may be de- 
stroyed in the same way, and it is well to 
^ syringe the plants every day in hot 

The Hollyhock fungus {Puccinia 
malvaceariun) is very destructive to the 
Hollyhock. When once it seizes a col- 
lection, probably the best way is to destroy 
all the plants affected. Those that do not 
appear to be attacked should be washed 
with soapy water in which flowers of 
sulphur has been dissolved. The sulphur 
will settle at the bottom of the vessel, and 
must be frequently stirred up when the 
mixture is being used. Sulphur seems to 
destroy almost any fungus ; and may de- 
stroy this in its very earliest stages, but 
will not when established. 

ALYSSUM {Madwori). — Rock and 
alpine plants, the species much resemb- 

ling each other. A. saxatile (the Rock 
Madwort or Gold Dust) is one of the 
most valuable of yellow spring flowers, 
hardy in all parts of these islands. The 
colour of its masses of bloom and its 
vigour have made it one of the best- 
known plants. It is often grown in half- 
shady places ; but like most rock-plants 
it should be fully exposed. It is well 
fitted for the spring garden, and the 
mixed border, and for association with 
evergreen Candytufts and Aubrietias. In 
winter it perishes in heavy rich clays 
when on the level ground. A native of 
Southern Russia, it flowers with us in 
April or May. There is a dwarfer variety, 

Alyssura niontanum. 

distinguished by the name of A. saxatile 
co)npac/iim, but it differs very little from 
the old plant. A. Geiiionense has the habit 
of A. saxatile., but larger flowers. A. mon- 
ta?iuiii is a dwarf plant, spreading into 
compact tufts, 3 in. high. A. podolicuvi 
is a small hardy alpine from South Russia. 
It has in early summer a profusion of 
small white blossoms and is suited for the 
rock-garden or the margins of borders. 
A. pyre7iaicuin is a neat rock-plant with 
white flowers. A. spinosi/in is a silvery 
little bush with white flowers. A. ser- 
pyllifoliinn is a grey-green leaved form, 
with yellow flowers. Small plants quickly 
become Liliputian bushes, 3 in. to 6 in. 
high ; and when fully exposed, are almost 
as compact as Moss. 

Among other kinds sometimes grown 
are A. Wiersbecki and A. olyjiipiciifn, 
but they are not quite so good as the com- 
mon kind. The alpine and rock kinds are 
of easy culture in light or dry soil, as indeed 




are all the species. A. maritiiniiin is the 
Sweet Alyssum, a small annual with white 
flowers, useful as a carpet plant. It grows 
on the tops of walls in the west country, 
and in sandy places. In these situations 
it is perennial, but in gardens is grown as 
an annual, sowing itself freely. There is 
a variegated form. 

AMARANTHUS {Prince's Feather, 
Love-lies-bleeding). — Annual plants, some 

Amaranthus (Prince's Feather). 

of distinct habit and striking colour. The 
old Love-lies-bleeding {A. caudatiis) with 
its dark red pendent racemes, is a fine plant 
when well grown, but A.speciosiis and some 
other varieties are finer. The more vigor- 
ous species grow from 2 to 5 ft. high. It is 
best to give them room to spread, otherwise 
much of their picturesque effect will be 
lost ; and to use them in positions where 
their peculiar habit may be seen to ad- 
vantage, as, for example, in large vases 
and edges of bold beds. Easily raised 
as any annual, they deserve to be well 
thinned out and put in rich ground, so that 
they may attain full size. The foliage of 
some varieties is very rich in its hues, and 
planted with Canna, Wigandia, Ricinus, 

Solanum, their effect is good. The varie- 
ties of ^. /rzr(?/(?r require a light soil and 
a warmer place. They do well in gardens 
by the seaside. Sow the seed in April in 
a hot bed, pricking out the seedlings in a 
hot bed, and plant out about the end of 
May. The cultivated kinds embrace bi- 
color, tricolor, airo-purpuretis. A . vielan- 
cholicus ruber, a useful bedding plant 
with bright crimson leaves, A. Henderi, 
A. salicifolius, and A. s. Princess of Wales 
may be used in the summer garden with 
good effect. A inarattt/i us order. Old and 
new world. 

AMARYLLIS.— Showy bulbous tropi- 
cal plants few of the species of which are 
hardy, though the beautiful Belladonna 
Lily {A. belladonna) may be grown well 
in the open air, and is, in fact, almost too 
free in some soils in Cornwall. It is a 
noble bulbous plant from the Cape of 
Good Hope, from \\ ft. to 3 ft. high, 
blooming late in summer, the flowers, 
as large as the white Lily, and of 
delicate silvery rose in clusters on stout 
leafless stems, arising from the large pear- 
shaped bulbs. To gi'ow it in inland and 
less favoured districts choose a place on 
the south side of a house or wall, take out 
the whole of the soil to the depth of 3 ft. 
and place about 6 in. of broken brick 
m the bottom. Over this put some half- 
rotten manure to keep the drainage open, 
and feed the plant. If the natural soil is 
not good, add some sandy mellow loam, 
or if stiff, a few barrow-loads of leaf 
mould, and one or two of sharp sand mixed 
with it. Having trod this firm, plant 
the bulbs in small groups. Each clump 
should be about i foot apart, and if the 
border is of such a width as to take a 
double row, the plants in the second 
should be alternate with those in the first. 
In planting, place a handful or so of sharp 
sand round the bulbs to keep them from 
rotting. If planted in autumn, or at any 
time during the winter, it will be well to 
protect them from severe weather by half- 
rotten leaves, cocoa-nut fibre, or fern. 
The plants begin to push forth their new 
leaves early in spring, and upon the 
freedom with which they send forth 
these during summer the bloom in the 
autumn depends. During dry weather 
give an occasional soaking of water, and 
with liquid manure once or twice. As 
soon as the foliage ripens off remove it, 
and clean the border before the blooms 
begin to come through the soil. A. B. 
blanda is a variety with larger bulbs, 
bearing noble umbels of white flowers, 
turning to pale rose in summer, and there 
are other varieties. 




Amberboa. See Centaurea. 

AMELANCHIER {Stioiay MespUus, 
June Berry). — Pretty hardy shrubs and 
low trees, or medium sized, associa- 
ting well with the Almond, Laburnum, 
the Cherry, Plum, and such things. A. 
canadensis is one of the most precious 
of our flowering trees, nothing giving 
better general effect or more distinct, and 
long before it comes into flower it is pretty 
with its soft brown-grey masses. It has 
also the advantage of being perfectly 
hardy in our country, thriving as well on 
sands as on stiff soils ; and being a Canadian 
tree, no cold ever touches it. It is more 
slender in habit than many of our flower- 

country it would make the bush more 
valuable, but whether this prove so or not, 
there is no prettier thing than a group of 
this tree, which will grow anywhere we 
choose to put it, on a rocky bluff or bank, 
or even fight its way in a copse. It has 
also the advantage of being raised very 
easily from seed, and increases rapidly 
by suckers, so that the grafting nuisance 
is easily avoided in its case. Other Ameri- 
can kinds as yet little grown in our 
gardens are Botryaphan., alntfolia, oUgo- 
carpa., spicata, and utahensis. 

AMELLUS. — A. annuiis is a pretty 
dwarf hardy annual, with Daisy-like 
flowers, of a deep purple, but with white. 

A group of the Belladonna Lily. 

ing trees, and often weakened in the 
crowded masses of the shrubbery, where 
everything is so often sacrificed to hungry 
evergreens. In its own country it varies 
very much in size, some forms being mere 
shrubs, whilst others make trees 40ft. and 
even more in height. In botanic gardens 
and nursery catalogues we find the names 
of several other trees of this genus, but 
there seems to be little distinction among 
them, and none is quite so good as this, 
though the one which grows in the 
Maritime Alps {A. vulgaris) should be 
worth a place. The Americans have 
selected some forms of the shad bush, 
which bear better fruit than the common 
form ; if they would bear it in our own 

rose, scarlet, and violet varieties, which 
are named in catalogues alba., rosea., ker- 
viesina, and atro-violacea. It forms a 
compact tuft, suitable for groups or masses, 
if sown in the open in April, flowering in 
June. It makes a pretty ground or 
" carpet " plant with taller plants here 
and there through it. Cape of Good 
Hope. Compositas. Syn. Kaidfussia 

AMICIA. — A. zygo)iieris is a quaint 
plant from Mexico, occasionally used in 
the sheltered flower garden. Mr. E. H. 
Woodall praises it : " for those who like a 
bold and distinct plant in a warm situation 
in summer, and have means to protect or 
take it up and pot it in winter. With 





me it has stood the cold, rain, and 
gales far better than the variegated 
Maize and big Solanums. The ilower, 
though bright, is not large enough to be 

AMMOBIUM {Winged Everlasfi?t^). 
— A. alatimi is a handsome Composite 
from New Holland li to 3 ft. high, bearing 
white chaffy flowers with yellow discs 
from May till September. In sandy soil 
it is perennial, but on heavy and damp 
soils must be grown as annual or biennial. 

AMORPHA {Bastard Z^^/^--^).— Hardy 
shrubs of the Pea order, thriving in ordin- 
ary garden soil but requiring a sheltered 
situation in bleak localities. Increased by 
layers or cuttings in autumn, or from 
suckers. A. canesccjis (the Lead Plant) 
is a native of Missouri. It has clusters 
of blue flowers and hoary leaves. A. 


Bastard Indigo. 

ruticosa (The False Indigo) comes from 
California, and there are many forms of it, 
differing but slightly, all having bluish 
or dark purple flowers. 

Ampelopsis. See Vitis. 

ANAGALLIS {Pimpernel).— Usually 
rather pretty and half-hardy annuals of 
the Primrose family. The best-known is 
the Italian Pimpernel {A. Monelli), with 
large blossoms, deep blue shaded with 
rose. There are several varieties — ricbra 
grandiflora, Wilinoreana, bright blue 
purple, yellow eye ; Phillipsi, deep blue, 
rose-coloured centre ; Breweri, intense 
blue ; li7ti folia, fine blue, very dwarf ; 
Napoleon III., maroon ; and sanguinea, 
bright ruby — all flowering from July to 
September. The Indian Pimpernel 
{A. indica) has small bright blue flowers. 
It is a hardy annual, but the Italian 
Pimpernel should be grown as a half- 
hardy annual. The seed may be sown 
any time from March till July, the later 

sowings to be made in pots and put into 
a greenhouse or window in autumn. Pim- 
pernels grow well in ordinary garden soil, 
and are used with good effect in broad 
masses in borders, or edgings to beds, 
and make good pot plants. The pretty 
little bog Pimpernel {A. tenella) is a native 
creeping plant, with slender stems and 
myriads of tiny pink flowers. It is pretty 
in suspended pots or pans, and may be 
grown in the bog or a moist corner in the 

ANCHUSA {Alkanef).—'S,\o\xt herbace- 
ous and biennial plants of the Forget-me- 
Not family ; some worth growing, amongst 
the best being A. italica, which is vigorous, 
3 to 4 ft. high, with beautiful blue blossoms. 
A. hybrida is similar, about 2 ft. high with 
flowers of rich violet. A. capensis is a 
pretty plant with large bright blue flowers, 
rather tender ; it should be planted in a 
sheltered well-drained border. A. seniper- 
virens is a British perennial, \\ to 2 ft. 
high, with blue flowers, worth a place in 
the wild garden. Seeds or division. 

ANDROMEDA. — Handsome dwarf 
hardy shrubs of the Heath family, thriving 
in peaty soil. Various shrubs usually called 
Andromedas in gardens, belong in reality 
to several other genera, and there is only 
one true species of Andromeda known, 
viz. : — A. polifolia (Moorwort), a native 
of Britain and N. Europe, growing from 
about 6 to 18 inches high, and bearing 
purplish-red flowers from May to Septem- 
ber. It is best grouped in peat beds or in 
the bog garden. For allied plants usually 
known as Andromeda see Cassandra., 
Cassiope, Leucothoe, Lyoftia, Oxyden- 
druni, Pieris, and Zenobia. 

ANDROSACE.— Alpine plants, of very 
small stature and great beauty, belonging 
to the Primrose order. Other families, 
like Primroses and Harebells, come down 
to the hill-pastures, the sea-rocks, or 
the sunny heaths, but these do not. They 
are more alpine than even the Gen- 
tians, which are as handsome in a hill- 
meadow as on the highest slopes ; and 
as they are, among flowering plants, the 
most confined to the snowy region, so 
they are the dwarfest of this class. 
Growing at elevations where the snow 
falls very early in autumn, they flower 
as soon as it melts. Sometimes, like 
some other alpine flowers, they frequent 
high cliffs, vertical, or with portions of 
the face receding here and there into 
shallow recesses. Here they must en- 
dure intense cold — cold which would 
destroy all shrub or tree life exposed 
to it. And here in spring they flower. 
Their small, often downy, evergreen 





leaves retain much more dust and soot 
than smoother and larger-leaved ever- 
green alpine plants do, which makes 
them more difficult of culture near cities 
than most alpine plants. Androsaces in 
cultivation enjoy small fissures between 
rocks or stones, firmly packed with pure 
sandy peat, or very sandy or gritty loam, 
not less than 15 in. deep. They should 

Androsace sarmentosa. 

be so placed that no wet can gather or 
lie about them, and so planted in be- 
tween stones that, once well rooted into 
the deep earth — all the better if mingled 
with pieces of broken sand-stone — they 
never suffer from drought. It is easy 
to arrange rocks and soils so that, once 
the mass below is thoroughly moistened, 
ordinary drought has little effect. 

A few kinds such as A. lanuginosa and 

sarmentosa do well in ordinary conditions 

of soil ; but many of the 

Culture, dwarf " moss)^ " kinds rarely 
thri\ e except in northern or 
hilly districts under conditions more like 
those of their native haunts. The nature 
of the rock — whether sand or limestone — 
is of importance, as failure often results 
from neglecting this point. As with the 
mountain Primulas, it is waste of effort to 
try to grow these plants in any other soil 
than their native soil. Then again, when 
out of flower it is easy to forget such tiny 
plants, so that they may suffer neglect 

while making the summer growth. A 
constant watch is needed for aphis, slugs, 
and red-spider. Towards autumn syring- 
ing them with clear water does good, and 
a surface-dressing of soil and stone-chips 
helps before winter, and should be re- 
newed in spring, if need be, when all 
planting should also be done. When this 
top-dressing is well done fresh roots are 
often made from the underside of the pros- 
trate stems, and this is a great gain. The 
woolly-haired kinds, which often fail from 
damp in our winters, should be planted in 
the crevices of upright rocks, or under 
protecting ledges ; where this is not 
possible it is a great help to cover them 
from October to March with a tilted glass, 
to ward oft" rain and cold dews, while 
allowing a free play of air. The rocks 
among which they are planted should be 
well sunk in the ground with thin layers 
of good soil and broken stone between 
them ; the roots of the Androsace delight 
n the layer of moist earth just under 
stones. Most kinds thrive in full sun, the 
l^est aspects being south and west. While 
a few kinds may be raised from runners 
and cuttings, and some others from divi- 
sion, many sorts can only be grown from 
seed sown in sandy peat as soon as ripe. 
Over forty species of Androsace are known 
and others may be found when the moun- 
tains of India, Thibet, and China are fully 
explored. About twenty kinds are found 
in the Alps, some extending eastward by 
way of Austria, or southward to the Pyre- 
nees, where four others occur peculiar to 
that country. A large group belongs to 
the Himalayas and reaches thence to 
China ; of these about thirty kinds have 
been described, of which a few have 
reached our gardens, but the larger num- 
ber are not in cultivation. They may be 
divided into two groups ; one including 
such easily grown kinds as A. lanuginosa 
and sarmentosa ; and a second group 
forming stemless tufts and found only in 
rocky clefts. Those of the first group 
will often thrive in level borders of free 
soil, and root fi'om cuttings, or division ; 
the mossy kinds are best upon the rocks 
and are raised solely from seed. The 
following list gives the best kinds in culti- 
vation and of value for the choicer parts 
of the rock-garden : — 

Androsace Albana. — One of the mossy kinds, 
forming small rosettes of deeply-toothed oval 
leaves and dense heads of pale pink flowers 
from April to July. 

A. alpina. — A gem for the rock-garden but 
not easily grown. Its tiny tongued-shaped 
leaves are in crowded rosettes, forming cushions 
of 2 or 3 inches high covered in June with 





flowers — one from each rosette — rosy-purple 
with a j'ellow centre. It needs peat soil, mois- 
ture at the root, and a rather shady spot ; its 
leaves should be kept dry by planting in a wall 
or between upright stones. Syn. A. ciliata. 

A. brigantiaca. — A pretty plant thriving 
only in sandy or granite soils and upon slopes 
shaded from strong sun. It comes very near 
A. earned, but with leaves of deeper green, and 
pure white flowers. 

A. earnea. — One of the best kinds, early in 
flower, free, and easily grown in light soils 
without lime ; being less dense and woolly than 
many sorts it is not so apt to "damp off" in 
winter. It does not form rosettes but little 
spreading shoots covered with narrow pointed 
leaves of grey-green, and heads of rosy or pink 
flowers with a yellow eye. Water freely in dry 
weather, and shelter from the sun in summer. 

A. ciliata. — A scarce plant from the Pyre- 
nees, growing in small, dense columns of deep 
green leaves fringed along the edges, and 
crowned in April and May by large stemless 
flowers of bright rose. Granite soils. 

A. cylindriea^ — Though classed as a species 
this little plant is very like the last and comes 
from the same region. It forms mossy tufts of 
rounded cone-like columns less than an inch 
high, covered thickly with hairs, with while 
flowers nestling in the centre during April and 
May. Pyrenees. Syn. A. fruiescens. 

A. foliosa.' — One of the Himalayan kinds, 
beautiful in flower, and of free growth when well 
established, making tufts a foot across in one 
season. The leaves are not crowded into 
rosettes but are large upon erect or trailing 
stems, grey with pale hairs, and turning red- 
dish-purple in the autumn. The rosy-red 

Androsace Sarmentosa (engraved from a group on rock-garden at Friar Park). 

Alps and Pyrenees, 6,000 to 8, coo feet. Seeds, 
sown as soon as rijie. Syns. A. Lachenalii, 
and pitberula. 

A. earnea var. exiniia. — A form of the last, 
hardier, more robust, and with larger flowers. 
It grows quickly into tufts 3 inches high, and 
if encouraged by dressings of light and gritty 
soil the prostrate shoots send roots from the 
under side. 

A. eaiteasiea.—A pretty little plant, new as 
yet, and hardly known. Narrow leaves in dense 
rosettes, with heads of bright pink flowers upon 
very short stalks, during summer. Caucasus. 

A. Charpentiej'i.^One of the choicest of 
alpine plants, free in flower, and of strong 
growth in sandy soils. Rosettes of tiny, downy 
leaves in crowded masses, and rich rosy flowers 
hardly rising above the leaves in June and 
July, after other kinds have done flowering. 
Thrives best in crevices of sandstone or granite 
rock, facing south-west. Seed. Alps. Syn. 
Arctia b rev is. 

flowers come upon long stems from June to 
September, and are large and in clusters some- 
times of fifty flowers, lasting for a long time 
in beauty. In good years seed ripens, and the 
plant is easily grown from cuttings taken in 
autumn and rooted in a cold frame, or from 
offsets struck singly in small pots. It thrives 
in limestone soil, made light with leaf mould 
and grit, and mixed with plenty of broken 
fragments ; in full sun, with moisture to the 
root in summer. Himalaya. 

A. glaeialis. — In its wild state one of the 
most beautiful, growing in loose flat -tufts of 
branching stems clothed in downy leaves, and 
covered during early spring with flowers of 
pink paling to white. Thrives in clefts of 
sandstone rock, in full sun. Seeds. Alpine 
summits (always granite) at 6,000 to 9,000 feet. 

A. Hatismanni. — Related to A. Iielvetica, 
but of looser habit and flowers of soft pink. 
Summits of the Tyrol, at 6,000 to 8,000 





A. Heerii. — A very rare plant found only 
upon the Martinsloch in Switzerland, and a 
supposed cross between helvetica and glacialis. 
Tiny saucer-shaped flowers of bright red, and 
intermediate habit. Syn. A. bryoides. 

A. helvetica. — A charming plant of the mossy 
section, growing in neat rounded cushions of 
grey-green, hairy leaves set in rosettes, and 
lovely white flowers with a yellow eye. The 
flowers are so large as often to overlap. Thrives 
in gritty soil and partial shade, planted between 
limestone rocks closely set and deeply buried 
to secure moisture and drainage at the same 
time. Seeds. Alps and Carpathians. 

A. Hookeriana. — A little-known kind from 
the Himalayas of Sikkim, Lachen, and Don- 
kiala, at a height of 15,000 feet. Though hardy, 
it is apt to damp oft" in our winters and should 
be planted in a mixture of peat and sand among 
rocks sheltered from wet. It has rosettes of 
oval, shining green leaves, and in spring deep 
pink flowers in small clusters. 

A. imbricata. — Pretty in leaf and flower, 
coming very near A. helvetica but of denser 
growth, leaves narrower and silvery white with 
fine hairs, and white flowers set oft" by a bright 
rosy eye. Thrives in granite or sandstone grit 
in full sun. Seeds. Syn. A. argentea. 

A. lactea. — A free, strong-growing plant, 
making rosettes of shining green leaves, and in 
spring large white flowers with a yellow centre, 
in broad loose clusters of five or six. Easily 
grown in light limestone soil, in sun or partial 
shade. Seeds. Limestone rocks from 3,000 
to 4,500 feet, from the Cevennes, through the 
Alps into Austria. Syn. A. paitcijlora. 

A. lactiflora. — A biennial species from Si- 
beria ; raise from seed in autumn, winter in a 
cool frame, and plant out in spring. The white 
or pale blue flowers are borne in large loose 
clusters of pretty effect during summer. Syns. 
A. coronopifolia and alisnioides. 

A.Laggeri. — With clusters of narrow pointed 
leaves, and flowers of bright pink paling to- 
wards the centre, gathered into showy little 
heads of six or eight. Very hardy, it is one of 
the earliest alpine flowers to open, starring 
the green tufts like a miniature Thrift. Sandy 
soil in partial shade, and no lime. Seeds or 
cuttings. Pyrenees. 

A. lanuginosa. — A lovely and distinct plant 
with trailing silvery shoots, leaves covered 
■with silky hairs, and flower clusters of soft 
rose colour. It does best in warm places 
near the sea, planted in sunny corners of the 
rock-garden. Where the soil is free and open 
it thrives as a border plant ; where the soil is 
too heavy, it may be grown on "dry" walls 
against moist earth banks. It has a long season 
of flower, even lasting into October, growing 
best in south and west aspects, in sandy soils 
(or even chalk). Seed (which ripens only in 
good years), layers, and cuttings. A good form 
of this is Leichtlini (syn. ociilata) with larger 
flowers of deeper colour with a conspicuous 
eye. From 7,000 to 10,000 feet. Himalaya. 

A. macrantha. — A rare kind from Armenia, 
with rosettes of narrow, horny-tipped leaves. 

and clusters of large pure white flowers, borne 
upon stout stems. 

A. maxima. — Unlike others of the group 
this is a lowland plant, growing in mountain 
valleys of France, Switzerland, and the Pyre- 
nees. Flowers white, with a yellow throat. 

A. obtiisifolia. — Robust and easily grown, 
with large rosettes of spoon-shaped leaves 
fringed by fine hairs, and short downy stems 
carrying from one to six white or rosy flowers 
wath a yellow eye. It is nearly 6 inches high, 
and may be gathered by the handful upon the 
alpine slopes at midsummer. With us it flowers 
earlier, planted in peaty soil and in full sun. 
Alps and Carpathians. Syns. A. aretioides and 

A. piibescens. — A mossy kind with leaves 
turning red-brown in autumn. It may be 
known by a small swelling on the very short 
flower-stem, just below the flower. These are 
white, rather large, with a faint yellow eye, 
and come singly just above the little cushion 
of hoary leaves covered with star-like hairs. It 
is a lovely little plant, pretty at all seasons, of 
easy culture in crevices of sandy soil. Alps. 

A. pyreiiaica. — One of the same mossy 
group, with tiny grey rosettes in dense tufts, 
one flower from every centre, white like hel- 
vetica but less pure, not so well formed, and 
upon short stems. It is not easy to grow well 
but does best in deep fissures between upright 
rocks ; it may also be grown on the fiat, in 
peat and sandy loam between buried stones. 
Central Pyrenees. Syn. Aretia pyi-enaica. 

A. rotundifolia. — A Himalayan plant rarely 
well grown in gardens, very distinct, with 
rounded kidney-shaped leaves, deeply cut at 
the edges, and flowers of lilac or dull purple in 
crowded heads. Nepaul. Syns. A. cordi folia, 
and iiicisa. A form known as macrocalyx is 
more robust, softly hairy all over, with heads 
of pale rose flowers and a spreading calyx. 

A. sai-mentosa. — Leaves silvery with hairs, 
in dense rosettes, from which spring a few 
larger spoon-shaped leaves around the base of 
the flower-stem, and slender runners which 
spread and root in all directions. This kind 
spreads fast, when kept from damping by a 
layer of fine stones under the shoots and a glass 
shade in winter. It thrives in free limestone 
soil, firmly wedged between masses of rock in 
a sunny spot. The runners are easily layered 
and detached when rooted. There are several 
named forms, including ^;'a;/a'{/^//rt, JVatkiini, 
and primiiloides, but only the last, with pretty 
pale lilac flowers, appears to be in cultivation. 
The plant usually known as var. Chumbyi is 
now classed as a cross between sarmentosa and 
villosa. It is of stouter habit, rooting quite as 
freely from runners, less apt to damp, with 
flowers of deeper colour. Himalaya. 

A. sempervivoides. — A rare plant, pretty, 
easily grown, spreading by runners, and bear- 
ing clusters of pink or purplish flowers upon a 
stout stem in May and June. Its tiny leaves 
curl in dense cone-like rosettes, at times only 
half an inch across, but often larger in gardens ; 
the new shoots only take this curled form as 




they mature. This .is one of the best of the 
Indian kinds, quite hardy, and growing well 
upon mounds of granite soil packed with 
stones. Kashmir and Western Thibet, at 
ii,ooo feet. 

A. septentrionalis. — A biennial species and 
another of the few kinds found at lower levels 
among the eastern Alps. Small flowers of 
white or pink, with yellow throat. 

A. strigilosa. — Dense rosettes of rigid, spiny 
leaves, and heads of pretty pink flowers in 
May. It yields no runners and few offsets, 
but may be raised from seed and grown in rich 
peaty soil, well drained and in full sun. 

A. villosa. — A plant of wide range, from 
the Alps and Pyrenees eastward to Kashmir 
and the Himalayas, where it 
grows at elevations of 12,000 
to 1 7,000 feet. The western 
form is dwarf, with neat 
rosettes of shaggy leaves so 
thickly set with white or pale 
pink flowers that for the time 
the plant lies hidden. The 
Indian variety is of larger 
growth and blooms later, its 
leaves silvery with long white 
hairs, and loose heads of 
flowers with a raised ring of 
darker colour at the centre. 
Plant in good free soil, 
with lime rubble and sand- 
. stone fragments to keep it 
well drained. The downy 
leaves need shields of glass 
in winter. Syns. A. cap it at a 
and penicillata. Seed and 

A. villosa var. Chavuc- 
jasme. — A beautiful alpine 
plant known as the Rock 
Jasmine, inhabiting a vast 
range through Europe, Asia, 
North Africa, and the Arctic regions. Though 
like villosa in flower it differs from it in leaf 
and habit, with a branching rootstock, spread- 
ing clusters of fringed leaves, and stout flower 
stems several inches high bearing three to six 
flowers. These change from white to yellow, 
pink, and crimson, opening from May to June, 
and borne in long succession. It is one of the 
best and easiest of rock plants to grow in open 
soil, mixed and surfaced with broken lime 
rubbish or slate dust, thriving in full sun. It 
flowers well in pots in a cool house, and should 
be watered freely in dry weather to keep away 
red-spider. There are several distinct forms : 
— Unijlora, from the Himalaya, has only 
one or two flowers upon its short stems ; 
and coronata, from a height of 16,000 or 
17,000 feet in Western Thibet, differs in its 
dwarfed growth, and flowers with a dark eye. 

A. vitaliana. — This is now known as 
Douglasia ; but its changes from Aretia to 
Primula, Gregoria, and other groups have 
been so many that it is doubtful whether this 
newest name will last. It is a pretty rock- 

plant, like a tiny Furze bush hardly an inch 
high, with silvery leaves dusted over with white 
powder, and many flowers borne singly — large 
for so small a plant — in March or April, of a 
fine yellow. It is useful with plants of this 
group, thriving under the same conditions, and 
distinct in colour. Disliking dry or heavy soils, 
it does best in full sun, set in buried stones 
and free sandy loam mixed with pebbles and 
heath soil. Runners, and seeds. Alps, Pyre- 
nees, and sierras of Spain. 

A. wiilfeniana. — A scarce plant with densely 
hairy leaves and deep rosy flowers upon short 
stems just topping the leaves and completely 
covering the dense cushion-like mass. Soil, 
sand and leaf-mould in half-shade ; should be 

mm-^ " ' '*>" *«-■' ' ' ''-"■-^trnt 

^^.i'''-\ -^fl^ 

■HK^i^^&r' r^" "' "*4' *^i^* iHh 



„.»r-<<*'*w^iMak' -v-^^^P'p 

^^^^^;Lr.^^^^i: -/ 

^^^m ^.^-1 


Androsace Villosa. 

freely top-dressed at intervals. Granite rocks 
of the Tyrol. Seeds. 

ANDRYALA.— Small plants of the 
Dandelion order ; some with woolly leaves. 
The shrubby yi. niogadorensis forms snowy 
masses on a little islet on the Morocco 
coast, and has not been found elsewhere. 
It bears flowers as large as a half-crown, 
of a bright yellow, the disc being bright 
orange. Little is known of its culture 
and hardiness. A. lanata has woolly 
silvery leaves, and grows well in any soil 
not too damp. 

ANEMONE {Wi7tdflowe7-).—K noble 
family of tuberous alpine meadow and 
herbaceous plants, of the Buttercup 
family, to which is due much of the beauty 
of spring and early summer of northern 
and temperate countries. In early spring, 
or what is wanter to us in Northern Europe, 
when the valleys of Southern Europe and 
sunny sheltered spots all round the great 
rocky basin of the Mediterranean are 
F F 2 



beginning to glow with colour, we see 
the earliest \\'indflowers in all their 
loveliness. Those arid mountains that 
look so barren have on their sunny sides 
carpets of Anemones in countless variety. 
These belong to old favourites in our 
gardens — the Garland Windflower and 
the Peacock Anemone. Later on the Star 
Anemone begins, and troops in thousands 
over the terraces, meadows, and fields of 
the same regions. Climbing the moun- 
tains in April, the Hepatica nestles in 
nooks all over the bushy parts of the 
hills. Farther east, while the common 
Anemones are aflame along the Riviera 
valleys and terraces, the blue Greek 
Anemone is open on the hills of Greece ; 
a little later the blue Apennine Anemone 
blossoms. Meanwhile our Wood Ane- 
mone adorns the woods throughout the 
northern world, and here and there 
through the brown Grass on the chalk 
hills comes the purple of the Pasque- 
flower. The Grass has grown tall before 
the graceful Alpine Windflower flowers 
in all the natural meadows of the Alps ; 
while later on bloom the high alpine Wind- 
flowers, which soon flower and fruit, and 
are ready to sleep for nine months in 
the snow. These are but few examples 
of what is done for the northern and 
temperate world by these Windflowers, so 
precious for our gardens also. 

A. alpina {Alpine Windflower). — 
On nearly every great mountain range 
in northern climes this is one of the 
handsomest plants, growing 15 in. to 
2 ft. high. It grows more slowly in gar- 
dens than most of the other kinds, and 
should have deep soil. A. sulphiirea is a 
fine variety. Many fail with it through 
transplanting in autumn and winter. Seed 
is the best way to increase it. Sow this 
in November in a rather moist peaty bed 
out-of-doors and allow the seedlings to 
remain for two years. When growth 
commences in spring transplant to where 
they are to flower. Full exposure, good 
drainage, and moisture in summer are 

A. angulosa {Great Hepatica). — 
Larger than the Hepatica, with sky-blue 
flowers as large as a crown-piece, and 
five-lobed leaves. In rock-gardens, or 
near them, it will succeed in spaces be- 
tween choice dwarf shrubs in beds. Seed 
and division. Transylvania. 

A. apennina {Apenjtine Windflower). 
— A free blue and hardy kind scattered 
among the native Anemones in our 
woods, or making pictures with Daffodils, 
adds a new charm to our spring. It is 
readily increased by division, and grows 

about 4 in. to 9 in. in height. Besides a 
white form there are others, not so im- 
portant, however, as the wild one. Italy. 


The Blue Apennine Windflower. 

A. blanda {Blue Winter Wind- 
flower). — A lovely plant from the hills of 
Greece, of a fine blue, and blooming in 
winter and early spring. It should be 
grown in every rock-garden, planted on 
banks that catch the early sun, whilst it 
may be naturalised in Grassy places in 
warm soil. It is distinguished by round 
and bulb-like roots ; increased by division 
and seed, and varies in size and colour. 
There are white, rose and pink \ars. 
Greece, Asia Minor. 

A. coronaria {Poppy Anemone). — One 
of the most admired flowers of our 
gardens from earliest times. There are 
many varieties, single and double. The 
single sorts may be readily grown from 
seed sown in the open air in April, 
and, being varied in fine colour, they 
deserve to be cultivated, even more than 
many of the doubles. The planting of 
the double varieties may be made in 
autumn or in spring, or at intervals all 
through the winter, to secure a continuity 
of flowers ; but the best bloom is se- 
cured by October planting. The Poppy 
Anemone thrives in warm deep loam, 
and the roots of the more select kinds 
may be taken up when the leaves die 
down. They are, however, seldom worth 
this trouble, as many fine varieties 
may be grown from seed sown in June. 
Prick out the plants in autumn : they will 
flower well in the following spring, so 
that the plant is as easily raised as an 
annual. Apart from the old florists' or 
double Anemones and the single ones, 
there are certain races of French origin 
of much value — the Anemones de 
Caen, for example. These are raised 



from the same species, but are more 
vigorous and have larger flowers than 
the older Dutch kinds. Of the Caen 
Anemones there are both single and 
double kinds, and the Chrysanthemum- 
flowered is another fine double race, whilst 
one may also note the deep scarlet double 
form — Chapeau de Cardinal, and the 
double Nice Anemones. The fine variety 
of the Poppy Anemones leads to mixed 
collections being grown. While it is well 
to plant mixtures now and then, it is 
better to select and keep true some of the 
finer forms in any desired colour. A fine 
scarlet, purple, or violet should be grown 
by itself and for itself, as in that way the 
Poppy Anemone will be a greater aid 
to the garden artist. All kinds thrive in 
light garden soils of fair cjuality, and in 
many districts there is no trouble in their 
culture ; in others this plant never does 
well and is often killed in winter. By 
resorting to spring planting we avoid this 
last. The plan is not worth following out, 
especially as we have so many really hardy 
species introduced of recent years. The 
St. Bridgid Anemones, like those of Caen 
and Nice, are simply selections from the 
Poppy Anemone, depending for their 
value on care in selection, and also on 
good culture in the warm limestone soil 
the plants enjoy so well. 

The following method will enable any 
one to raise Anemones from seed in a moist 
loam. To save time, I sow as soon as the 
seed is ripe, selecting it from the brightest 
flowers only. Separate the seed thoroughly. 
Spread a newspaper on the table, pour 
over it a quart of sand, dry ashes, or fine 
earth, and sprinkle the seed over this, 
rubbing it together till its separation 
is complete. The seed bed need not be 
larger than 3 ft. by 9 ft., and choose the 
sunniest part of the garden. Make the 
surface fine, tread it down, and give it a 
good watering. Wait until it is dry 
enough to scratch with a fine rake ; then 
sow broadcast, covering the seed with a 
very thin coai of fine earth, about the 
thickness of a shilling ; beat flat with 
a spade, and give a light sprinkling of 
water. Never let a ray of sunshine reach 
the bed ; cover it with newspapers, spread- 
ing a few Pea sticks or something to 
retain the covering in its place. Keep 
the surface of the bed moist. In about 
twenty days the young plants will begin to 
appear, and when all seem up, remove the 
covering ; they will need no further care 
except watering. If the bed once gets 
thoroughly dry, the plants are apt, after 
forming small bulbs about the size of 
Peas, to stop growing, the foliage to die. 

and the bulbs to lie dormant for months. 
If kept, however, well watered through 
the summer, they will go on growing 
through the winter, and begin to blossom 
the following spring. The seedlings may 
be left to blossom where they are sown, 
or be transplanted in September or 
October. — J. 

What are termed F'rench Anemones 
are thought an improvement on the Dutch, 
•with large flowers of brilliant and varied 
colour; the plants vigorous, the climate 
of Normandy in some parts suiting the 
plant ; but in our country, away from the 
sea, the Poppy Anemone may perish in 
cold weather. 

Poppy Anemones, double and single, 
are useful for edgings and for borders 
either singly or in tufts. They are culti- 
vated alone in beds or in clumps in 
borders, and answer well for planting 
under standard Rose Trees or other light 
and thinly planted shrubs. Cut the 
flowers when just open. 

A. fulgens ( The Scarlet Windflower).— 
A native of the south of France, over a 
limited area, for the most part in vineyards. 
It withstands severe frosts in the open 
border, but stagnant moisture injures it. 
In good well-drained soils it will thrive, 
but is best in a rich manured loam in a 
northern aspect and in a shaded situation. 
Division is the surest way of increasing it, 
as it is liable to sport if raised from seeds. 
Roots may be transplanted almost all the 
year round, though the resting time Ex- 
tends only from June to August, and to 
insure early and good flowers plant the 
roots as early as possible in the autumn. 
A large bed of well-grown plants in bloom 
is a brilliant sight. The flowers last in- 
doors for a week or more if cut when 
just coming into bloom and kept in water 
in a moderately warm room. — H. V. 

The Greek form oi A. fulgens is larger, 
and very intense in colour. A fine strain 
was raised by the late Rev. J. G. Nelson, 
and called by him ^ . fulgens major. The 
Peacock Anemone {A. Pavonhia) is a 
double form of this. 

A. Hepatica {Common HepaUca). — A 
beautiful early hardy flower. In sheltered 
spots on porous soil the foliage will re- 
main through the winter. The Hepatica 
is a deep rooter — hence it thrives so well 
upon made banks, and it will do as well 
as Primroses or Violets in any good gar- 
den soil. Where let alone, and not often 
pulled to pieces, it makes strong tufts. 
Clumps of the rich-coloured blues and 
reds when a mass of bloom in March are 
very beautiful. The best-known kinds are 
I the double red and single blue, both 



amongst the hardiest of the section. 
Then there are the single white ; single 
red ; double blue, rich in colour ; Baj-loivi, 
a rich-coloured sport from the single 
blue ; sple/idetis, a single red ; Hlacifia, 
a pretty mauve kind ; and some others — 
every variety being worthy of culture. 

Anemone japonica alba. 

A. japonica {Japan A7iemone). — A tall 
autumn-blooming kind, 2 ft. to 4 ft. high, 
with fine foliage and large rose-coloured 
flowers. The variety named Honorine 
Jobert, with pure white flowers, is a 
beautiful plant ; and all good forms of 
the plant should be cultivated where cut 
flowers are required in autumn. By 
having some on a north border, and some 
on a warm one, the bloom may be pro- 
longed. The secret of success seems to 
be to prepare at first a deep bed of rich 
soil and to leave the plants alone. 

The various forms of the Japan Ane- 
mone are useful for borders, groups, 
fringes of shrubbery in rich soil, and here 
and there in half-shady places by wood 

A. nemorosa i^Wood Anemone). — In 
spring this native plant adorns our woods, 
and also those of nearly all Europe and 
N. Asia, but so abundant in the liritish 
Isles that there is no need to plead for 
its culture. There are double varieties, 

and the colour of the flower is occasionally 
lilac, or reddish, or purplish. 

A sky-blue variety, A. Rodinsoftiana, is 
of easy culture and much beauty, espe- 
cially if seen when the noon-day sun is 
on the flowers. It is useful for the rock- 
garden in wide-spreading tufts ; or for the 
margins of borders, or as a ground plant 
beneath shrubs, or for the wild garden or 
for dotting through the Grass in the 
pleasure-ground in spots not mown early. 
Other forms worth growing are Connu- 
bicnsis., the blue wild Welsh form, and a 
large white form. 

A. palmata {Cyclamen-leaved Ane- 
mone). — A distinct kind, with leathery 
leaves and large handsome flowers in 
May and June, glossy yellow, only open- 
ing to the sun. A native of N. Africa 
and other places on the shores of the 
Mediterranean. This charming flower 
should be planted in deep turfy peat, or 
light fibrous loam with leaf-mould, but 
not placed on the face of rocks, but 
rather on level spots, where it can root 
deeply and grow into strong tufts. There 
is a double variety. This Anemone may 
be increased by either division or seeds. 

A. Pulsatilla {Pasque-flower).— Thtrt 
are few sights more pleasant to the lover 
of spring flowers than the Pasque-flower 
just showing through the dry Grass of a 
bleak down on an early spring day. It is 
smaller in a wild than in a cultivated 
state, forming in the garden strong healthy 
tufts, but it is one of the plants more 
beautiful in a wild state than in a garden. 
In Normandy with Mr. Burbidge I came 
upon many plants of it on the grassy 

Pasque-flower (Anemone Pulsatilla). 

hill about Chateau Gaillard and also 
in the woods and by the roads near, and 
we thought we had never seen so fair a 



wild flower. There are several varieties, 
including red, lilac, and white kinds, 
but they are not common, and there 
is also a double variety. It prefers 
well-drained and light but deep soil, and 
is increased by division or seeds. 

A. ranunculoides ( Yellow Wood Ane- 
mone). — Not unlike theApennine and the 
Wood Anemone in habit, this is distinct 
in its yellow flowers in March and April. 
It is S. European, and less free on com- 
mon soils than the Apennine A., but is 
happier on chalky soil. 

A. stellata {Star Windjlorver). — The 
star-like flowers of this, ruby, rosy purple, 
rosy, or whitish, vary in a charming way, 
ancl usually have a large white eye at the 
base, contrasting with the delicate colour- 
ing of the rest of the petals, and the brown 
violet of the stamens ancl styles of the 
flower. It is not so vigorous as the Poppy 
A., and requires a sheltered warm position, 
a light, sandy, well-drained soil. Division 
and seeds. Syn. A. hortensis : S. Europe. 

A. sylvestris {Snowdrop Windflower). 
— A handsome plant, about 1 5 in. high, 
with large white flowers in spring and 
beautiful buds. Hardy and free on all 
soils, but fails to bloom on some cool soils. 
The aspect of the drooping unopened buds 
suggested its English name — the Snow- 
drop Anemone. Division. 

A. thalictroides {Thalictnun ane- 

The previously named Anemones are 
the most beautiful of the family, which, 
however, contains many other interesting 
plants, but many of the higher Alpine kinds 
are grown and increased with difficulty and 
only in carefully chosen situations. Some 
again, however distinct as species, are 
not strikingly so in gardens, and for the 
flower-gardener the best way is to make 
good use of the proved species. The 
lovers of alpine flowers will no doubt 
look with a longing eye over the following 
names of the species, while no doubt 
many unknown species adorn the vast 
solitudes of Asia and Arctic America and 
probably other countries too. 

Known species. — A. acanthifolia, Hab? acutiloha, 
N. America ; lequinoctialis, Peru ; albana, N. Asia ; 
alchejJiilliE/olia, S. Africa ; alpina, Europe, N.America; 
altaica, Siberia ; an^uiosa, E. Europe ; anoinala, N. 
America ; antvcensis, Chili ; apennina, S. Europe ; 
armena, Asia Minor ; baicalensis, Asia ; baldensis, 
Switzerland ; barbulata, China ; Bauhini, Europe ; 
biflora, Himalayas; blanda, E. Europe; Bogenhardi- 
ana, Europe ; Bonngeana., Siberia ; coslestina, China ; 
ccerulea, Siberia ; caffra, S. Africa ; capensis, S. Africa ; 
cernua, Japan \chincnsis, China ; coronaria , S.Europe ; 
crassifolia, Tasmania ; cylindrua, N. America ; 
dahurica. Temp. Asia ; debilis, Siberia ; decapetala, 
N. W. America ; deltoidea, N. \V. America ; demissa, 
Himalayas ; dichotoina, N. Asia and N. America ; 
Dfunriiicndii, Ca.V\(ornia.; f/(?«^«^«, Himalayas ; eran- 
thoides, Temp. Asia ; exigua. China ; Falconeri, 

Himalayas ; Fannini, Natal ; Fischcriana, Siberia ; 
Jlaccida, China ; forjiiosa, Asia Minor ; /?i!gens, S. 
Europe ; Glazioviana, Brazil ; Gnieliniana, Siberia ; 
gracilis, Japan ; Greiyi, California ; Griffithi, Hima- 
layas; Halleri, Switzerland; hclleborifolia, S. America ; 
Hepatica, Europe, N. America ; hepaticifolia. Chili ; 
heterophylla, N. America ; intcgrijblia, Cent. America ; 
isopyroides, Sibirica ; Jamesoni, Ecuador ; Jankce, 
Transylvania ; japonica, Japan ; lineari/oba, Kamts- 
chatka; mexicana, Mexico; minuta, Siberia; inontana, 
S. E. Europe ; multijida, N. and S. America ; narcissi- 
flora, Europe, N.Asia, N.America ; neiiiorosa, Europe, 
N. Asia, N. America; mkoensis, Japan; obtiisiloba, 
Himalayas ; ochrokuca, Switzerland ; octopetala, Hab ? 
palmata, S. Europe ; pannflora, N. America ; patens, 
Europe, N. America; Favoniana, Iberia; Pittoni, 
Europe \ polyanthes, Himalayas ; prateiisis, N.Europe; 
Pulsatilla, Europe ; Raddeana, Amur ; ranunculoides, 
S. Europe ; reflcxa, Siberia ; Ricliardsoni, Arctic 
America ; rigida, Chili ; rivularis, E. Indies ; Fossil, 
China ; rupestris, Himalayas ; rupicola, Himalayas ; 
Selloivi, Brazil ; sibirica, Siberia ; slavica, Europe ; 
speciosa, Caucasus ; sphenophylla. Chili ; stolonifcra, 
Japan ; suvtatrana, Sumatra ; sylvestris, S. Europe ; 
tenui/olia, S. Africa ; tetrascpala, Himalayas ; thalic- 
troides, N. America ; Thomsoni, Trop. Africa ; 
transylvanica, Europe ; tri/olia, Europe, N. America; 
triternata, S. America ; trullifolia, Himalayas ; 
Tsckernaeivi, Temp. Asia; jtdensis, Manchuria; 
umbrosa, Siberia ; vernalis, Europe ; viiginiana, N. 
America ; vitifolia, Himalayas; Wahlenbergii, Europe; 
Walteri,'^. America; \Viglitiana,'E. Indies; Wolf- 
gangiana, Europe. 

ANOMATHECA {Flozvering grass).— 
A. cruenta is a pretty little South African 
bulb of the Iris order, from 6 to 12 in. high, 
flowers h in. across, carmine crimson, 
three of the lower segments marked with 
a dark spot ; in loose clusters on slender 
stems and Grass-like leaves. Hardy on 
warm soils, but in others it should be 
planted on slopes, in very sandy dry soil 
or on warm borders ; the bulbs planted 
rather deep. In many soils it increases 
rapidly. Syn. Lapeyrousia. 

vigorous evergreen shrub with dark, shining 
green leaves, bearing long, erect, terminal 
racemes of white cup-shaped flowers, re- 
sembling the blossoms of Clethra arborea., 
but larger. Said by Mr. Fitzherbert to 
thrive in Cornwall. Tasmania. 

ANTENNARIA {Cafs-ea7-).—MoiWy 
hardy alpine or border flowers. A. 
viargaritacea is a North American 
plant, 2 ft. high, with flowers in clusters, 
white and chaffy, hence kept in a dry 
state and dyed in various colours. The 
pretty but rare A. triplinervis from Nepal 
is closely allied to this plant. The Moun- 
tain Cat's-ears, A. dioica and A. alpitia, 
and such forms as A. ini?itina, are neat 
little plants with whitish foliage, used 
as carpeting. All are of simple culture 
in ordinary soil in exposed positions. 
These are good rock garden plants and 
the pretty little rosy heads of one form 
of the Mountain Everlasting may often 
be seen in the cottage gardens of War- 
wickshire. A. foment osa has been much 
used as a dwarf silvery plant in the flower 



ANTHEMIS ( A'^^/& Camomile).— V\gox- 
ous perennials and rock plants, Of the 
kinds in cultivation A. Aizoon is a dwarf 
silvery rock-plant, 2 to 4 in. high, with 
Daisy-like flowers. A. Kitaibeli is pretty 
in the mixed border, with large, pale, 
lemon-coloured. Marguerite-like flowers. 
A. tinctoria is similar, and both are 
excellent for cutting, growing very freely 
in ordinary soil. The double-flowered 
form of the Corn Camomile [A. arz'ensis) 
is sometimes cultivated among annual 
plants. A. Bicberstei?ii forms dense 
carpets of silvery leaves with large and 
handsome yellow blossoms one on a stem. 
A. Macedo7iica is a neat species with 

Anthemis Macedonica. 

white flowers, excellent as a rock-garden 
plant. There is also a variety called 
A. iiobilis. 

ANTHERICUM {St. Brunds Lily).-