ENGLISH FOR NEW-CANADIANS
GEORGE ELMORE REAMAN
GEORGE ELMORE REAMAN
Moderns Master, Woodstock College
CARLTON G. BEAL
THE SOCIAL SERVICE COUNCIL OF CANADA
NATIONAL COUNCIL Y.M.C.A.
STUDENT AND INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENTS
Copyrig-ht, 1919, by
THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS
Warwick Bros. & Rutter, Limited
Printers and Bookbinders, Toronto, Canada
FATHER AND MOTHER
This manual has been written with the intention of helping
the adult foreigners, especially those of the industrial class ;
though it can be used with equal success in teaching children.
Almost one-eighth of the total population of Canada at the
present time is foreign, a large percentage being adult, and
while the children are taught English in our Public Schools,
the parents do not have this opportunity with the result that
there is a tendency on the part of the children to despise
their parents on account of their ignorance of the English
language, thus bringing about a break in the home influence.
Besides, a large percentage of the adult foreigners are not
illiterate consequently are in a position to learn English pro-
vided they are given some assistance. Many derive their
first knowledge of the language from the illustrated sections
of our newspapers, while they are daily surrounded by printed
English in the way of signs, directions and instructions.
With this in mind the illustrations of upwards a thousand
common objects, along with their English names, have been
gathered together in this manual. The eye has been appealed
to as well as the ear and every effort has been made to make
the work concrete. For instance, no abstract nouns are used
and most of the verbs are action verbs, while the eye takes the
place of the dictionary. When the New-Canadian looks at the
picture of a 'table,' he knows the name of it in his own lan-
guage and his desire is to know its name in English. A com-
parison of numbers will give him this. Hence it will appeal to
the New-Canadian of any nationality. It is not essential that
he should pronounce every word since the word image will
stay with him and he will associate it with the object. Many
native-born Canadians have learned to read and understand
foreign languages who have never heard a syllable spoken.
Naturally the New-Canadians with a teacher will progress
much more rapidly. For a beginning the teacher should teach
his class the numbers up to perhaps fifty. Have them repeat
the numbers in concert since this overcomes any timidity they
may have. Then let the teacher point out the picture of 'door'
saying that 'one' is 'door' and pointing immediately to the
printed word 'door.' Do this with 'key' and so on until all the
objects have been pointed out and named. When all the
words in the first lesson have been repeated in concert several
times, each learner may be asked to repeat them by himself
until he has a fair pronunciation. The teacher should finally
write the words on the blackboard and have them copied.
Having learned the names of the objects, the teacher may
direct the class to the phrase work based on these words.
Here he should make the distinction between 'a' and 'the'
followed by the illustrating of the meaning of the prepositions.
It will be found that the same word is repeated frequently
as the learner is encouraged by constantly meeting a word
which he has already learned to pronounce. The sentences
have been made short for the sake of having them more easily
The teacher will find the following letters present peculiar
difficulties of pronunciation : r, 1, sh, ch, t, th, i. The letter V
will probably be trilled; T forward in mouth; 'sh' and 'ch'
will be confused ; for 't,' the tongue will be placed between the
teeth ; 'th' will invariably cause difficulty which may be over-
come by having the tongue protruded between the teeth, then
blowing and pronouncing 'thing;' 'i' will doubtless be pro-
nounced 'ee' and all vowels at the end of words may be pro-
nounced. Besides, the vowels will not be diphthongized as in
English but pronounced as single ones ; they may also be pro-
duced too far back in throat. The letter V will not be pro-
nounced unless emphasized since the average New Canadian
doesn't like the sound and so omits it frequently.
There has been no attempt to suggest the niceties of mean-
ing such as the distinction between 'shall' and 'will.' The
words and sentences used are not intended to be compre-
hensive, but merely suggestive. A few lessons based on
particular industrial occupations of the New Canadians have
been added, and it is the intention of the author to get out
supplements for firms employing large numbers of foreigners.
Grateful recognition of help and criticism is made to Dr. H.
T. J. Coleman of Queen's University and Dr. E. W. Sawyer,
of Woodstock College, and finally to my wife for her constant
encouragement and suggestion.
November 26, 1918.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Room 12
2. Street 14
3. Bedroom 16
4. Restaurant or Cafe. 18
5. Bill of Fare 20
6. Parts of the Body . . 22
7. Clothing 24
8. Time Office 26
9. Bank 28
10. Time of Day and
11. Street Railway Work 32
12. Picture Show 34
13. Night School 36
14. Barber Shop and
Shoe Shine 38
15. Railway Station ... 40
16. Post Office 42
17. Doctor and Druggist 44
18. Dentist 46
19. Church 48
20. Fruit Store 50
21. Grocery Store 52
22. Jewellery Store 54
23. Park 56
24. Farmyard 58
25. Poultry Yard 60
26. Weather 62
27. Birds 64
28. Flowers 66
29. Insects 68
30. Naturalization Papers 70
31. How to Vote 72
32. City Council 74
33. Provincial Parliament 76
34. Dominion Parliament 78
35. Machine Shop 80
36. Moulding Shop .... 82
37. Foundry Shop 84
38. Paint Shop 86
39. Packing House or
40. Packing House or
41. Packing House or
42. Letter Writing - 94
43. Tables of Weights
National Anthem . . 96
O Canada 96
Map of Canada
6 Window pane
7 Window blind
1 1 Drawer
1 3 Arm-chair
Circles filled in with black indicate the whole object, not
any one part. Thus (1) means "door," not "panel."
Number One ROOM
A door 1 . A key 2 in a door. A key in a key-hole 3 . A key-
hole in a door. A lock 4 on a door. A window 5 in a room.
A window-pane 6 in a window. A table-leg 10 . A drawer 11
in a table. A table-top 9 . A chair 12 by a table. A chair by
an arm-chair 13 . A picture 15 on a wall 14 . A picture in a
picture-frame 16 . A clock 18 on a shelf 17 .
The door by the window. The key-hole in the door. The
key in the key-hole. The lock on the door. The window-
pane in the window. The window-blind on the window. The
table by the chair. The arm-chair by the door. The door
in the wall. The table-top on the table. The table-leg of a
table. The drawer on the chair. The arm-chair by the wall.
The picture on the table. The picture in the picture-frame.
The clock on the table. The shelf on the wall. The clock
on the shelf.
Open the door. Shut the door. Open the window. Shut
the window. Wind the clock. Turn the key. Lock the
door. Pull the window-blind. Shut the drawer. Hang the
picture. Sit down. Stand up. Go to the door. Go to the
window. Learn English. Learn to read English. Learn to
1 Man, husband, father,
2 Woman, wife, mother,
3 Boy, son, John Canadian
4 Girl, daughter,
5 Baby, child,
2 1 Motorman
Number Two STREET
The man 1 and the woman 2 . The boy 3 and the girl 4 . The
baby 5 and the baby-carriage 6 . (One man, two men; one
woman, two women). The boy is a child 7 and the girl is a
child. The boy and the girl are children. The boy is a
son 3 of the man and the woman. The girl is a daughter 4 of
the man and the woman. The baby is a child of the man and
the woman. The man is the husband 1 of the woman and the
father 1 of the children. The woman is the wife 2 of the man
and the mother 2 of the children. The name 1 of the man is
Mr. Canadian 1 . The name 2 of the woman is Mrs. Canadian 2 .
The name 3 of the boy is John Canadian 3 and the name 4 of
the girl is Mary Canadian 4 . The name 5 of the baby is
George Canadian 5 . The baby's name is George.
The policeman 22 is on the side-walk 9 . The street car 11 is
on the road 8 . The conductor 20 is on the back of the street-
car. The motorman 21 is on the front of the street-car. The
conductor has a fare-box 17 . A man puts a ticket 14 in the
fare-box. The conductor gives the man a transfer 15 . The
trolley-pole 12 is on the wire 13 . The horse 23 pulls the wagon 24 .
The man drives the automobile 25 . The automobile has four
wheels 16 . The bicycle 26 has two wheels. The policeman
rides a bicycle.
The house 28 is by the store 27 . The newsboy 18 is at the
store. The store is on the street-corner 10 . The newsboy
sells a paper 19 . The man buys a paper.
2 1 Looking-glass
23 Hot-water tap
24 Cold-water tap
Number Three BEDROOM
The bed 1 is in the bedroom. I see the bedstead 2 . Do you
see the bedstead ? Yes, I see the bedstead. Do you see the
springs 3 ? No, I do not see the springs. The mattress 4 is
on the springs. The sheet 6 covers the mattress. The bed-
clothes 7 are on the bed. The blanket 5 covers the man.
Do you sleep in a bed? Yes, I sleep in a bed. Is the
pillow 8 on the bed? Yes, the pillow is on the bed. I hang
my clothes in a clothes-closet 9 . The soap 10 is in the soap-
dish 18 . The soap-dish is on the wash-stand 19 . Have you any
soap? Yes, I have some soap. Have you your comb 12 ?
Yes, I have my comb and my hair-brush 11 . I comb with my
comb. Brush with your hair-brush. Brush your clothes
with your clothes-brush 15 .
Turn the hot-water tap 23 . The water in the hot-water tap
is hot. The water in the cold-water tap 24 is cold. The hot-
water and cold-water run into the bath-tub 22 . Do you wish
to take a bath? Yes, thank you, I wish to take a bath. Do
you want a towel 13 ? No, thank you, I do not want a towel,
I have a towel. The pitcher 17 is in the wash-basin 16 . I look
at myself in the looking-glass 21 . You look at yourself in the
looking-glass. We look at ourselves in the looking-glass.
The tooth-brush 14 is on the washstand. The clothes-brush,
the hair-brush and comb are on the dresser 20 .
4 RESTAURANT OR CAFfi
1 Waiter 6 Saucer 11 Bill of fare 16 Bread 21 Glass
2 Waitress 7 Knife 12 Salt 17 Butter 22 Food
3 Table-cloth 8 Fork 13 Pepper 18 Tea 23 Tooth-picks
4 Plate 9 Spoon 14 Vinegar 19 Coffee 24 Phonograph
5 Cup 10 Napkin 15 Mustard 20 Milk 25 Cash-register
Number Four RESTAURANT OR CAFE
I have we have I am we are I go we go
he has you have he is you are he goes you go
she has they have she is they are she goes they go
it has it is it goes
Mr. Canadian goes into a restaurant. He- goes to the
cafe. He is hungry. He sees a chair by a table. He sits
down on the chair. The table has a table-cloth 3 on it. The
man looks at the bill of fare 11 . A waiter 1 comes and the
man gives his order. A waitress 2 brings the order. She
brings a cup 5 and saucer 6 and plate 4 . She brings a knife 7 ,
a fork 8 and a spoon 9 . She brings a napkin 10 , then she brings
some food 22 . On the table there are salt 12 , pepper 13 ,
vinegar 14 , mustard 15 , bread 16 and butter 17 . Mr. Canadian
drinks tea 18 and coffee 19 ; sometimes he drinks milk 20 .
At the table are three men. They come to eat and drink.
They give their orders to the waiters and to the waitresses.
They spread out their napkins. They eat meat and potatoes.
They drink coffee. Do they drink milk? Yes, sometimes
they drink milk. They drink milk out of a glass 21 . They eat
bread and butter. They put salt and pepper on their meat
and potatoes. They go to the man at the cash-register 25 and
pay for their meal. They take tooth-picks 23 and go out.
The phonograph 24 plays music.
5 BILL OF FARE
PPL E PIE. ROLY-POLV PUDDING
CHEESE 8. BISCUITS
1 Bill of fare
7 Lamb chop
8 Roast of beef
9 Leg of lamb
1 1 Asparagus
6 Stewed chicken 12 Pie
1 4 Ice cream
23 Mashed potato
Number Five BILL OF FARE
in the picture there is a bill of fare 1 . A bill of fare tells
us what we can get to eat. We get the bill of fare on the
table. We look at the bill of fare. At the top we see
radishes 2 and olives 3 . The radishes are in a saucer and the
olives are in a bottle 20 . The soup 4 is in a bowl 19 . The fish 5
is on a plate. Do you like stewed chicken 6 ? The stewed
chicken is on a plate. On the other side of the bill of fare
we see a lamb chop 7 . Below the stewed chicken we see a
roast of beef 8 . Below the lamb chop we see a leg of lamb 9 .
Do you like potatoes 10 ? The waiter serves potatoes boiled 10
or mashed 23 . We see a boiled potato. There is some aspar-
agus 11 in a small saucer. The waitress brings a piece of
pie 12 on a plate. We can have pie or pudding 13 . We also
have ice cream 14 . We eat ice cream with a spoon. At the
bottom of the picture we see a plate. On the plate are some
biscuits 22 and cheese 15 . There are three apples 16 beside the
glass of milk 18 . Near the biscuits and cheese is a cup of
tea 17 . Near the bottle is a cork 21 . There is some sugar 24 for
^-PARTS OF THE BODY
Number Six PARTS OF THE BODY
The head 1 of Mr. Canadian. Mr. Canadian's head. Do
you like his face 2 ? Do you see his chin 19 ? He has a beard 3
on his two cheeks 7 and on his chin. He has a moustache 4 .
It is on his upper-lip 14 . He combs his hair 5 back from his
forehead 6 . Over his eyes 11 are his eye-brows 10 . We can see
his two ears 8 . His nose 12 is above his moustache. He has
two nostrils 13 in his nose. His mouth 16 is open. We can see
his tongue 18 . It is between his teeth 17 (one tooth, two teeth).
It is between his upper and lower-lip 15 . Do you see his
throat 20 ? The head bends at the neck 9 .
Look at Mr. Canadian's body 21 . He is tall and big. See
his broad shoulders 22 . He has a full chest 23 .
I am a man with a moustache. I have two eyes and a nose.
In my mouth are my tongue and my teeth. My forehead is
at the top of my face. My chin is at the bottom of my face.
My hair is on top of my head. We hear with our ears, and
we see with our eyes.
Look at the man's arm 24 . See the muscle 25 . It is between
the elbow 26 and the shoulder. The hand 27 bends at the]
wrist 28 . A hand has one thumb 29 and four fingers 30 . The
finger bends at the knuckle 31 . The leg 32 bends at the knee 33 .
The leg bends at the hip 39 . The foot 35 bends at the ankle 34 ..
A foot has five toes 36 . Each toe has a toe-nail 40 . Each
finger has a finger-nail, each thumb has a thumb-nail. The
instep 38 is on the top of the foot. Look at your heel 37 .
Number Seven CLOTHING
Here is Mr. Canadian. There is Mrs. Canadian. Here are
John and Mary. There are Mrs. Canadian and baby George.
Mr. Canadian wears a hat 1 . John wears a cap 3 . Mary wears
a straw-hat 2 . Mr. Canadian is wearing a collar 19 and neck-
tie 18 . He has a collar on his shirt 4 . A vest 6 is over his shirt.
A coat 7 is over his vest and an overcoat 5 is over his coat. Do
you see his pants 8 ? I can see his socks 9 . His boots 10 are
on his feet. John and Mary wear shoes 11 . I put my collar
on the collar-buttons 12 on my shirt. Have you a cuff 20 on
your shirt? We put boot-laces 13 in boots and shoe-laces 13
in shoes. Mr. Canadian wears braces 14 . Sometimes he wears
a belt 15 . He carries an umbrella 16 and wears rubbers 17 when
When it is bright Mrs. Canadian carries a parasol 28 over
her hat 21 . Do you like her blouse 22 ? She wears a belt 24
around her waist 23 . Do you like her skirt 25 ? When it rains
she wears rubbers over her shoes. Mary has a handkerchief 27 .
She is taking it from her pocket 26 . Mrs. Canadian is wear-
ing gloves 29 . She has some mitts 30 in her hand.
1 5 Fountain-pen
Number Eight TIME-OFFICE
We go to work in the morning. We go into the office.
We look at the time-clock 1 . It is five minutes to seven. I
take my check 2 . I punch the time in it. To-day is Saturday.
The days of the week are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday,
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday. Saturday is pay
day. I go to the office. I go to the counter 6 . The clerk 3 is
at the wicket 5 . He has a book 19 . Then he looks at the
book-keeper 7 . The bo,ok-keeper gives him the time-sheet 4 .
Can you hear the typewriter 8 ? The clerk has some paper 9 .
He takes a lead-pencil 16 . The lead in the pencil breaks. He
sharpens his pencil with a knife 20 . He takes a pen-holder 13
puts a pen-nib 14 in it. He puts the pen-nib in the ink 11 and
writes my name 12 on his book. He has also a fountain-pen 15 .
He carries it in his pocket. It is now on his desk 17 .
I like to learn English. Can you speak English? I can
speak English a little. Can you write English? Yes, I can
write English a little. What do you write with? I am
writing with a pencil or a pen 10 . The pen and the pencil are
beside the blotter 22 near the inkstand 18 .
When a man works in a factory 21 he goes to work at
seven in the morning. He works until noon. Noon is twelve
o'clock. He has half an hour to eat his dinner. He starts
at half-past twelve and works until half-past five. Then he
quits work and goes home for his supper. He works ten
hours a day. Until noon is forenoon. From noon until six
o'clock is afternoon. After six is evening.
The months of the year are: January, February, March,
April, May, June, July, August, September, October, Novem-
1 Manager 4 Ledger 7 Money
2 Accountant 5 Savings 8 Bills
3 Teller 6 Bank-book 9 Silver
10 Copper 13 Cheque
11 Dollars 14 Deposit-slip
12 Cents 15 Express-order
Number Nine BANK
Let us go into the bank. What do we see? On the left
is the manager's 1 office. On the right is a desk. The man-
ager manages the bank. He lends us money 7 . The teller 3
takes in money and pays it out. He has silver 9 , coppers 10 ,
bills 8 . There, are one dollar 11 bills, two dollar bills, five
dollar bills, ten dollar bills, twenty dollar bills. A copper
is worth one cent 12 . There is a five cent piece, a ten cent
piece. A twenty-five cent piece is called a quarter of a
dollar; a fifty cent piece is called half a dollar. The account-
ant 2 looks after the books of the bank.
Do you see the savings 5 wicket ? When we deposit money
in the bank the man at the Savings wicket marks it in the
Have you your bank-book 6 ? Yes, here it is. Are you
going to deposit money? Yes, I have filled out my deposit-
slip 14 . I give the deposit-slip and my money and my bank-
book to the teller. He puts the money in a drawer and gives
my bank-book to the Savings man. The Savings man puts
down in his ledger 4 the amount of money that I have
deposited. He marks it down in my bank-book too. Have
you a cheque 13 ? Write your name across the back and the
teller will give you money for it. Have you an express-
order 15 ? Write your name on the back of it and the teller
will cash it for you.
10 TIME OF DAY AND NUMERALS
3 Hour hand
5 Seven o'clock, 7.00
6 Eight- fifteen, 8.15
7 Nine-ten, 9.10
8 Ten-thirty, 10.30
9 Eleven-forty-five, 11.45
10 Twelve o'clock, noon, 12 a.m.
11 One-forty, 1.40
12 Six o'clock, 6.00
13 Twelve o'clock, midnight, 12 p.m.
Number Ten TIME OF DAY AND
What time do you get up in the morning? I get up at
six (6.00) o'clock. I wash and dress myself and get my
breakfast. I start work at 7.00 o'clock. I work until 12.00
o'clock. Then I have my dinner. At 1.00 o'clock I start
work again. I work until 6.00 o'clock. Then I stop work
and have supper. Do you always have your breakfast
before 7.00 o'clock? No, when I go to work at 8.00 a.m.,
I have it after 7.00 a.m.
Can you count ? No, but I can learn. Say one, two, three,
four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten. Write 12345
6 7 8 9 10. Say eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen,
fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty. Write
II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20. Say twenty-one,
twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty-
six, twenty-seven, twenty-eight, twenty-nine, thirty. Write
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30. Say thirty-one up
to forty. Write 31 up to 40. Say ten, twenty, thirty, forty,
fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety, one hundred, one hundred
and one, one thousand and one. Write 10 20 30 40 50 60
70 80 90 100 101 1001.
At the bottom of the picture I see a watch 14 . I carry my
watch in my pocket. I see an alarm-clock 15 . The alarm is
set for 6.30 o'clock. That is when I get up in the morning.
1 1 STREET RAILWAY WORK
7 Bags of Cement
Number Eleven STREET RAILWAY WORK
Where do you work? I work on the street. I work on
the street-car 12 track 11 . Where did you work? I worked
in a shop. Did you work on a machine 6 ? Yes, I worked
on a machine. Now you work with a pick 1 . I work with a
shovel 2 . I pick the track with a pick. I shovel it with a
shovel. I shovel it into a wheel-barrow 3 . Sometimes I use
a spade 4 .
That machine is a cement-mixer 6 . There are bags of
cement 7 . There is also some crushed-stone 8 . They put some
stones in the cement-mixer, then some cement 7 and some
water 9 and the engine 10 makes the cement-mixer turn and
mixes the cement with the crushed-stone. At last this comes
out of the machine into wheel-barrows and men wheel it to
the railway tracks. They dump it between the rails 5 . This
hardens and does not let the rails move when the street-car
runs over them. They put bricks 13 on top of the cement and
fill in the cracks 16 with tar 14 . At last they sprinkle sand 15
on the tar.
I sprinkle the tar with sand to-day. Yesterday I sprinkled
the tar with sand and I wheeled the wheelbarrow. Did you
dump the cement between the rails? Yes, I dumped the
cement between the rails.
12 PICTURE SHOW
* ) 3 Picture-machine 7 Film
4 Curtain 8 Usher
1 Ticket-office 5 Seat 9 Exit
2 Ticket 6 Gallery 10 Orchestra
Number Twelve PICTURE SHOW
Did you go to the Picture Show last night? Yes, I went.
Do you often go ? Yes, I go often. Let us go to-night. We
walk down the street. We go up to the ticket-office 1 and
buy a ticket 2 . We go inside to see the pictures. The usher 8
shows us to a seat 5 . We each take a seat. Sometimes we sit
in the gallery 6 . It is a good film 7 . There is a good orchestra 10
to-night. Sometimes there is only a man or a woman play-
ing the piano 11 . Do you see the exit 9 ? Yes, we go out by
the exits. Let us go up this aisle 13 and out the exit. We
go out behind the curtains 4 .
There is a good picture to-night. It is a story about the
Great War. Let us go again to-night. There is a woman in
the ticket-office. She sells tickets to those who want to buy.
The man inside the door takes our tickets. The usher
takes us up the aisle. He shows us to our seats.
The picture-machine 3 shows the pictures on the curtain. The
pictures are very good. The woman who plays the piano
is the pianist 12 .
Do you see that man and woman? He is Mr. Canadian's
brother. He is the uncle of John Canadian. His wife is the
aunt of John Canadian. His father is John's- grandfather
and his mother is John's grandmother.
13 NIGHT SCHOOL
7 Blackboard 13 Magazine 19 Cue
8 Chart 14 Newspaper 20 Ball
9 Pencil 15 Swimming-tank 21 Pocket
10 Note-book 16 Gymnasium 22 Desk
11 Pen 17 Shower-bath
12 Pointer 18 Billiard-table
Number Thirteen NIGHT SCHOOL
To-night is Monday night. We go to the night school to-
night. Where do you go ? We go sometimes to the Y.M.C.A. 2 .
What is the Y.M.C.A.? It is a place where men read
magazines 13 and newspapers 14 . Sometimes they go into the
gymnasium 16 where they exercise themselves. Then they
take a shower-bath 17 and have a swim in the swimming-
tank 15 . Sometimes they have a game of billiards 18 . The
man hits the ball 20 with the end of his cue 19 and it hits
another ball and sends it into a pocket 21 .
In this Y.M.C.A. there is a class-room. The teacher 1
teaches us in this room. Who is your teacher? He is a
Y.M.C.A. man or a student 3 from the university 4 . In this
picture a man sits at a desk 22 . How does he learn? We
have our books 6 and our note-books 10 . We have pencils 9
and pens 11 . He puts up the chart 8 on the wall. It is the 1
same picture that we have in our books. He takes a
pointer 12 and he points to an object in the picture. He asks
us the name of it. We tell him the name of it. We tell him
what it is called. Sometimes the teacher has a blackboard 7
and he writes the lesson 5 on it. He writes the word that we
say, then we write the word in our note-books. We learn to
spell it. He points to the word on the blackboard with his
pointer. We say the word ; we write the word ; we remember
14 BARBER SHOP AND SHOE SHINE
1 7 Hair Tonic
3 Barber's chair
Number Fourteen BARBER SHOP AND
Come, John, let us go into the barber-shop 1 . I want a
hair-cut 9 and you want a shave 10 . I sit down in the barber's
chair 3 . I take off my collar and neck-tie. The barber 2 puts
a cloth 4 over my clothes. He asks me how I want my hair
cut. I tell him that I want my hair cut short. He takes the
clippers 8 and cuts my hair short around the back of my head
and around my ears. Then he takes the scissors 5 and comb 6
and cuts off the rest. He gives me a shampoo 12 and shaves
my neck. He puts some hair tonic 17 on my hair to kill the
dandruff 18 . The barber combs my hair and uses a brush 7
John wants a shave. He sits down in a chair and the
barber tilts the chair. The barber takes his shaving-mug 14
and soap and warm water. He makes a lather 11 with his
shaving-brush 13 and soap and warm water. He puts the lather
on my face and rubs it with his hand. Then he takes his
razor 15 in one hand and his razor-strop 16 in the other. He
sharpens his razor. He shaves my face and then puts a hot
cloth on it. He puts witch-hazel 19 on my face and then
talcum powder 20 .
I want a shoe shine. I sit on the seat 21 . The boy puts
some shoe-polish 23 on my boots 22 . He takes a shoe-brush 24
and brushes them. Then he takes a cloth and rubs them
John wants some tobacco 25 for his pipe 28 . I buy some
cigars 26 and cigarettes 27 . We also buy some matches 29 .
15 RAILWAY STATION
1 1 Engine
21 Tourist 2nd class ticket 33 Lantern
22 Colonist 3rd class ticket 34 Freight-sheds
Number Fifteen RAILWAY STATION
Mr. and Mrs. Canadian and Mary are going on the train 10 .
We see them on the station platform 1 . Mr. Canadian has a
valise 4 and Mrs. Canadian has a suitcase 5 . The baggage man
puts their trunk 3 on a truck 2 . They are going to buy their
tickets 7 . They go to the ticket-office 6 . The agent 8 sells
them a first-class ticket. This permits them to ride in a
first-class coach or day-coach 19 . There are three classes of
tickets. To travel Pullman 18 one must buy a first-class ticket
and take a Pullman berth 20 ticket. To travel tourist 21 or
second class one must buy a second class ticket 21 and a
second class berth ticket. To travel Colonist or third class
one must buy a third class ticket 22 .
Their train is in the station. See the engine 11 . The
engineer 14 drives the engine. The fireman 15 puts coal from
the tender 12 into the engine. On this train there is a dining-
car 23 and an observation-car 24 . The conductor 13 takes the
tickets. The porter 17 keeps the car 9 clean. The brakeman 16
on a passenger-train 26 calls out the names of the stations.
The trunk goes in the baggage-car 25 .
There is a freight-train 27 . See the caboose 28 . It is at the
freight-sheds 34 . The brakeman signals 31 with his arms
or with a lantern 33 . The engineer watches the semaphores 30
and switches 32 . The brakeman puts on the brakes 29 .
16 POST OFFICE
1 General-delivery 8 Registered-
2 Postmaster letter
7 Money -order 13 Postman
Number Sixteen POST OFFICE
Come with me to the Post-office. We enter the post-office.
We see the general delivery 1 wicket where we get our mail.
We ask the clerk if there is any mail for us. The clerk gives
us a letter 5 and a post-card 6 . I want to register my letter. I
pay five cents to register my letter. It is then a registered-
letter 8 . I want a postal-note 10 also. A postal-note costs a few
cents and we use it for small amounts of money. We use a
money-order 7 for large amounts of money. We do not put
money in an envelope 12 . We send it by money order or by
postal-note. I give my registered-letter to the clerk. I
put a stamp 4 on my letter and I put it in the post-box 3 . We
can send a parcel 9 by post too.
I have a money-order. I take it to the man at the Money-
Order wicket. I sign my name and he gives me money for
it. I have a postal-note and I do the same with it. A note
from the postmaster 2 tells me that there is a registered-
letter for me. I sign my name in a book and he gives me my
letter. Do you see the postman 13 with the mail-bag 11 ? He
collects the letters and papers from the post-box. He takes
them into the Post-Office where they are sorted and sent
where thev are addressed.
17 DOCTOR AND DRUGGIST
1 Doctor's office
6 Drug-store 10 Patent-medicine
7 Druggist 1 1 Box of pills
8 Bottle 12 Telephone
9 Medicine 13 Card "Measles"
Number Seventeen DOCTOR AND .DRUG-
I do not feel well to-day. I want to see the doctor 2 . We go
to the doctor's office 1 . We wait in the waiting-room because
the doctor is busy. He comes into the room in a few minutes.
He looks at me, for I am the patient 3 . He feels my pulse 4
and looks at my tongue. I tell him I have a head-ache. He
writes out a prescription 5 and I go to the drug-store 6 . Some-
times the doctor keeps his own medicine 9 .
The druggist 7 sells drugs. I give him my prescription.
He gives me a bottle 8 of medicine and a box of pills 11 . The
medicine makes me well again. The druggist also sells
patent-medicine 10 .
John Canadian is not well. He is not able to go to the
doctor's office. I telephone 12 to the doctor. He comes at
once and looks at John. John has little red spots on his
face. The doctor says John has measles. He must stay in
bed. We must not give him much to eat. He may have
water to drink. Measles make his eyes sore so we must keep
the room dark. Pull down the blinds. Mary must not go
near John. She must not go in his room or she may get
measles too. The doctor tells the Medical Health Officer and
he puts a card "Measles" 13 on the door. The card must stay
there until the doctor takes it down.
1 Dentist's office
5 Dentist's chair
Number Eighteen DENTIST
My tooth 3 hurts me. My tooth aches. I have tooth-ache.
I go to the dentist's office 1 . The dentist 2 puts me in a dentist's
chair 5 . I open my mouth. He looks at my teeth. He finds
a hole in my tooth. It is a small hole. He does not pull my
tooth. He fills the hole with silver 4 . Sometimes he fills it
with gold 6 .
Mary Canadian has a tooth with a large hole in it. The
dentist pulls her tooth with his forceps 4 .
The dentist tells me to keep my teeth clean. Clean teeth
do not get holes in them. We must clean our teeth after we
eat. We use a tooth-brush 8 and warm water. We put tooth-
powder 9 or tooth-paste 10 on the tooth-brush and we brush our
teeth. We keep our teeth white when we brush our teeth.
We chew our food with our teeth. We must chew our food
well. Good teeth keep us well.
Sometimes we have poor teeth. The dentist pulls them all
and makes us false teeth.
Mr. Canadian broke off a tooth. The dentist put in a
gold tooth. Sometimes the dentist puts in a white tooth.
Mrs. Canadian has a set of false teeth.
Number Nineteen CHURCH
To-day is Sunday. Yesterday was Saturday. To-morrow
will be Monday. We go to church 1 on Sunday. The
church-bell 3 rings. The church-bell is ringing. The
church-bell hangs in the church-tower 2 . The church-tower
has a cross 20 on it.
We are at the church-door 4 . The usher shows us to a
seat. We call a seat in a church a pew 6 . A hymn-book 11
is on the seat. Do you see the preacher 8 ? He stands at the
pulpit 16 . He holds a Bible 10 in his hand. He gives the
number of the hymn. Do you see the organist 19 '? He is
sitting (sits) at the organ 14 . Do you see the organ-pipes 18 ?
The choir 15 sit in front of the organ. We stand up to
sing the hymn which the organist plays on the organ. People
sit (are sitting) in the gallery 17 .
In my church we have a priest 9 . He stands at the altar 7 .
He carries a crucifix 21 and we read from a prayer-book 12 .
The ushers walk up the aisles 5 and pass the collection-
plates 13 . We put our collection on the collection-plate.
To-day is Monday. Were you at church yesterday? No,
I was sick. I will go next Sunday.
I will be
we will be
he will be
you will be
she will be
they will be
it will be
20 FRUIT STORE
9 Bunch of
1 1 Strawberry
Number Twenty FRUIT STORE
Here is a fruit-store. Let us go in to buy some fruit.
We saw on the outside a peanut-roaster 2 . We ask the fruitier 1
for some peanuts 4 . He puts them in a paper-bag 3 . We go
into the store. We enter the store. What fruit do you see?
I see oranges 5 . Oranges are orange in color. He has some
apples 6 . In the window hangs a bunch of bananas 9 . They
are yellow. Six pine-apples 10 are also in the window. Have
you a cherry 14 ? He has two baskets of cherries. He has four
baskets of peaches 13 , one basket of pears 7 and three of
plums 8 . There are some small baskets 15 of strawberries 11
and raspberries 12 . There are some lemons 16 beside the
oranges. Do you like fruit? Yes, I like fruit. It keeps one
well. Do oranges grow in Canada? No, they grow in the
United States. Bananas do not grow in Canada. Apples,
pears, plums, strawberries, raspberries, peaches, cherries grow
in Canada. Peaches grow in Florida, California, Ontario and
British Columbia. Pine-apples do not grow in Canada. The
fruitier is an Italian. A man from Italy is an Italian.
21 GROCERY STORE
26 Deli very- wagon
Number Twenty-one GROCERY STORE
Mr. Canadian and I were walking down the street. Mrs.
Canadian sent us to the grocery store. Here is a grocery
store. Let us go in. The grocer 1 stands behind the counter 2 .
On the counter is a glass-case 3 . This glass-case has candy 4
in it. A smaller glass-case has cheese 5 in it. There is a bag
of potatoes 6 near the door. There is also a basket of
turnips 7 . . See the head of cabbage 8 . Here are two heads of
cabbage. There are some carrots 21 and some beets 20 . We
call potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, and cabbage, vege-
tables 9 . What else do you see? I see some lettuce 11 . The
lettuce is green. We will have some, and also some celery 16 .
Do you like tomatoes 15 ? Yes, I do, and peas 12 and corn 10
as well. The peas are in their pods 13 and the corn is in the
cob 14 . In winter we can buy all these vegetables in cans 17 .
We call them canned corn, canned peas, canned tomatoes,
Mrs. Canadian said she wanted some flour 18 and sugar 19 .
The grocer puts the sugar on the weigh scales 25 and weighs
it. It weighs ten pounds and eight ounces, or ten pounds and
a half. There are sixteen ounces in a pound. Will you have
some bologna 24 and pork sausage 23 and garlic 22 ? The
delivery-wagon 26 outside will take them home.
22 JEWELLERY SHOP
\ The Jeweller
3 Watch - chain
5 Tie pin
Number Twenty-two JEWELLERY SHOP
Here is a jewellery shop. Let us look at the things in the
window. What a pretty gold watch 2 ! There is a gold watch-
chain 3 beside it. Do you like a ring 4 on your finger? Yes,
and I like a tie-pin 5 in my tie. Mary wants a bracelet 14 for
her wrist. I must go in and buy her one. I will buy my
wife a necklace 13 . It will have diamonds 7 and other gems 8
in it. Some day I will buy her a silver brooch 6 . John wants
some cuff-links 12 . I think I will buy him a pair to-day.
Mrs. Canadian wears ear-rings 15 on her ears.
The jeweller 1 stands behind the glass-case 9 . There are
many clocks 11 in the room. Some of them are on the
shelf 10 . The jeweller cleans a watch. The watch is cleaned
by the jeweller. Mr. Canadian buys a brooch. The brooch
is bought by Mr. Canadian. John uses cuff-links. Cuff-links
are used by John. Mary wears a necklace to-day. The neck-
lace is worn by Mary to-day. Mary wore a necklace yes-
terday. The necklace was worn by Mary yesterday. Mary
will wear a necklace to-morrow. The necklace will be worn
by Mary to-morrow.
Number Twenty-three PARK
Yesterday was Saturday and we went for a walk in the
park. It was spring-time. In spring-time the leaf 2 comes
on the tree 1 . Many leaves come on the trees. Soon the trees
are covered with leaves. Do you know the maple-leaf 3 ?
The chestnut-leaf 4 is a broad leaf. The oak-leaf 5 is long and
narrow. Look at the picture of the elm-leaf 6 and basswood-
leaf 7 . The pine-tree has not a leaf. It has a pine-needle 8 .
Under the maple-tree is a seat 9 . We sit down on the seat and
we look across the park. We see the green grass 10 . We see
a path 11 to walk on and a road 12 to drive on. In the open-
space 13 there is a band-stand 14 . In the evening the band
gives the concert there. Do you see the steps 15 up to the
band-stand? What is that with the fence around it? It is
some bushes 19 and shrubs 18 . On the other side there is a
hedge 1 /. There is a railing 16 around the band-stand, and a
seat is near the band-stand.
There will be a band-concert in the park to-morrow night.
It will be given by the band. I hope that it- will be a fine
night, then we will go.
12 Pig, Hog
Number Twenty-four FARMYARD
To-day is the 24th of May. It is a holiday because it was
Queen Victoria's birthday. Let us take a walk in the country.
We are coming to the home of a farmer 1 . There is his
house 2 and his barn 3 . The farmer is standing at the pump 5 .
Around the barn is a barnyard 4 . In the barnyard is a horse 6 .
A young horse is a colt 7 . There is also a cow 8 . A young cow
is a calf 9 . In the field is a herd of cows, also a flock of
sheep 10 . There are some lambs 11 with the sheep. A lamb is
a young sheep. There are some pigs 12 in a pen. Hog 12 is
another name for pig.
The dog 13 is with the farmer. He has a pup 14 with him
too. A cat 15 is sitting on the fence and two kittens 16 are
playing near the mother cat. Did you ever see a goat 18 ? This
farmer has a goat. A young goat is a kid 19 . A donkey 17 is
standing with his head over the gate. A donkey always has
The farmer uses his horse to pull his wagon. A donkey
can draw a wagon too. The cow gives milk. The sheep has
wool on its back. The farmer kills the pig and sells it as
pork. A dog can drive animals. The cat catches a mouse 20 .
Cats catch mice or rats 21 . (One mouse, two mice). A goat
gives milk. These are all useful animals around a farm.
25 POU LTRY-YARD
1 Farmer's wife 5 Chicken 8 Goose 1 1 Turkey >gobbler
2 Poultry-house ~ 6 Duck 9 Gosling 12 Egg
3 Rooster 7 Duckling 10 Turkey-hen 13 Grain
Number Twenty-five POULTRY- YARD
The farmer's wife 1 looks after the poultry. She is at the
poultry-house 2 now and is feeding the hens 4 and chickens 5 .
Her daughter has some hen's eggs 12 in her hand. Do you see
the rooster 3 stretching his neck? He is crowing. There are
some ducks 6 with their ducklings 7 , also a goose 8 and her
goslings 9 . Ducks and geese are very fond of water. Look at
the turkey gobbler 11 . See how he struts around. He has
several turkey hens 10 with him.
Poultry are very fond of grain 13 so the farmer's wife has
given them some grain. Hens and chickens are very fond of
scratching. They like to get in a sunny spot and dust them-
Hens set on their eggs and in three weeks the chickens
hatch out of the eggs. In a few months the chickens are
large enough to eat, so the farmer's wife kills them and sells
them to people to eat. We all like roast chicken, or roast
duck, or roast turkey, or roast goose. Sometimes they stew
the chicken instead of roasting it. Fowl is another name for
Number Twenty-six WEATHER
The sun 5 is shining bright to-day. Do you like sunshine 6 ?
Yes, very much ; because it warms the earth 8 and makes
things grow. Look at the sky 1 . It is blue, but there are
some black clouds 2 ifi it. It is beginning to rain. The rain 9
makes the grass grow. There are a few hail-stones 12 . Hear
them rattle on the window-pane ! Hail is rain frozen as it
In winter it snows and the weather is cold. There is plenty
of ice 11 in winter and we go skating on the ice in winter-time.
It is fine to skate on the ice when the moon 4 and the stars 3
are shining. Do you ever skate in the skating-rink 13 ?
The place where the earth and sky seem to meet is called
the horizon 7 .
Spring is the time of the year when the snow 10 melts and
the grass gets green. The time of year when the warm days
come and the sun is hot we call summer. The time of year
when the leaves of the trees fall and the weather gets cold
we call autumn. The time of the year when the snow falls
and the cold weather comes we call winter. Spring, summer,
autumn, winter, are the four seasons of the year. We like
the winter when the snow comes and we can go sleigh-
riding 14 . We like spring when the grass and flowers grow.
We love the beautiful colors of autumn and the warm bright
sunshine 6 of summer.
1 1 Scare-crow
umber Twenty-seven BIRDS
I like to go to the park in spring-time because there are
so many birds that sing so sweetly in the trees. The robin 1
is a pretty bird with a red breast. Watch him pull a worm 7
out of the earth. Then there is the English sparrow 2 , which
is gray in color.
What is that flock of birds? They are swallows 3 . They
circle around in the air. A pigeon 4 is larger than a robin and
has a very full breast. It is large enough for us to eat.
Do you see that crow 5 on the top of the tree? A crow is
black in color. A black-bird 6 is black also but it is smaller
than a crow. Crows and blackbirds are not good to eat.
Crows are very fond of the farmer's corn 10 when it is just
coming through the earth. In order to frighten the crow the
farmer puts a scare-crow 11 in his corn fietd.
When you go to the country you may see a hawk 8 . A
hawk likes very much to be near a poultry-house. He can
swoop down and take a young chicken and fly away with it.
The eagle 9 is a large, powerful bird. We call it a bird of
prey. There are a few eagles in Canada and there are a few
in United States.
1 1 Bloom, blossom
umber Twenty-eight FLOWERS
What a beautiful garden 1 ! See this rose 4 bush. There are
several fine blooms 11 and many buds 10 . The tulip 5 comes up
early in the spring, having been in the earth all winter. Do
you see that low bush with the large red blossoms 11 ? That
is a peony 7 . Peonies may be white or red or pink. Carna-
tions 6 are red and white and pink too. They are much smaller
than peonies. See them in the florist's 2 window. Many
people grow geraniums 8 . Geraniums may be white, pink, red
Gardeners 2 grow flowers in winter time in green-houses 3 .
A green-house is made of glass. It is well heated and the
sun shining through the glass makes the plants burst into
buds, and then into blossoms or blooms.
Lily-of-the-valley 9 has blooms bell-shaped, and pure white
in color. The perfume from them is delightful. The sweet-
pea 14 may be all colors and has also a delightful perfume.
Would you like a bouquet 12 of sweet peas or of lily-of-the-
Just look at those tall bushes ! They are covered with
white and purple blossoms. They are called lilacs 13 . They,
too, have a delightful perfume. Next to the geranium in the
picture we see the violet 15 . It is a very dainty little flower.
7 Black fly
1 1 Grasshopper
17 Garbage pail
Number Twenty-nine INSECTS
Do you see that bee 2 which is crawling into that flower?
It is a honey bee. Honey bees live in a hive 1 . Bees .make
honey 16 . Do you like to eat honey? Yes, I like to eat honey.
It is sweet.
There, is something buzzing around .my head. It is a
mosquito 3 , and if I do not kill it, it will sting me. Mosquito
bites itch very much. A wasp 5 and a hornet 6 sting too. Their
sting is worse than that of a mosquito.
Do you see that fly? It is a house fly 4 . There are many
kinds of flies, but this one likes to come into the house. See
that fly crawling over the garbage-pail 17 . Now it is on the
table. It is crawling on the bread. Its legs and wings are
dirty. It will make the bread not good to eat. We should
kill flies because they carry dirt to what we eat and when we
eat it we become sick.
Oh ! there is a tiny black-fly 7 . It is not a house-fly. Kill it
if you can. Its bite is very painful. What is that furry
thing? It is a caterpillar 12 . After a few weeks it will spin
a house and go to sleep in it. Later it will come out a
butterfly 8 . There is a butterfly among the flowers. Last
night I saw a butterfly near the light. No, that was not a
butterfly. They do not come out at night. That was a moth. 9
That black thing hopping in the grass is a cricket 10 . Do you
hear the noise it makes? We call it a "chirp." There is a
grasshopper 11 . Its home is in the grass too. That is a
spider's web 15 . A spider 13 spun the web to catch a fly. That
tiny black thing is an ant 14 . Ants live in ant-hills 18 .
30 NATURALIZATION PAPER
DOMINION OF CANADA
THE NATURALIZATION ACT, 1914
APPLICATION FOR A DECISION
S5.-3S: TOTHECOURT...9f A"> R?l5l8tratlon
[, .Qeorge John_Canadlan
2*;VJ u< 161 Yonge Street, Toronto.
Che undersigned, intend to apply to the above Court after the expiration of three months
from thwdate for a decision that 1 am qualified and fit to be naturalized as a British subject.
1 have resided for five years within the last eight years in His Majesty's Dominions at the
places and during the periods following
MMami C8 49 utt8 In41a . tw years.
j?!^T Manchester, England, one year and three months.
Toronto, Canada, the past two yeare.
I was born at....
.Bern* ...... jn thc country _________
! Switzerland .............. OT the fifteenth day of Op.t.ofcer .188.5 ._. ,
I <m ^j*" of ........ Switzerland
and 1 came to Canada from. Manchester . England ........ ..... ........................... ______
and urived at the Port of H l I*" .....
on the venel .n. JtOhan. OT or about , he
Te.nth ....... ....................... day of. August ................ ,,16
Dated .t ........ 'owntp .................... Mi ...... Kleventh ..................
day ol _ Ooto * er i Hlneteen hundred and eighteen. .
The above application will be heard before Pour* Of Alien
on or about the twenty fifth, day of October, nineteen Hundred sod
Number Thirty NATURALIZATION OR
Before John Canadian can vote he must have lived five
years of the last eight years in His Majesty's Dominions,
and he must have lived the last year in Canada. He must
also speak English or French.
To become naturalized John must get two copies of Form
A from the Clerk of the Court and fill" them out. He must
post one copy up in the nearest Post Office and he is told that
he must appear before the Court in three months. One month
before he must appear in court, he must obtain Form B,
"Facts for Petition for Naturalization," in which he must
describe what he looks like.
When John appears before the Court he must present a
copy of Form A and a man must take his oath that a copy
of Form A remained posted in the nearest Post Office for
three months. He must also have a man take his oath that
a copy of Form A remained posted up in Clerk's office for
three months. If the Court finds that John should be nat-
uralized it sends word to the Secretary of State, who sends
back word that John is to become a citizen. In three months'
time John takes the Oath of Allegiance and becomes a citizen
and then he can have a vote.
31 HOW TO VOTE
Number Thirty-one HOW TO VOTE
When I have taken out my citizenship papers I can vote.
The city or country is divided into polling-divisions 1 . I
must find out where the polling-booth 2 is, because that is the
place where I vote. I go into the' polling-booth. The
scrutineer 3 sees that my name is on the voters' list 8 , and that
I have my citizenship papers. Then he lets me go inside. The
poll-clerk 4 gives me my ballot 5 . On the ballot are the names
of the candidates 7 who want to be elected. The poll-clerk
tells me how many men I can vote for. If six men's names
are on the ballot and four men are to be elected I put an X
beside the names of the four men that I want elected. I fold
up the ballot and give it back to the poll-clerk. He puts it in
the ballot-box 6 .
I should always be careful whom I vote for. The man
who is elected makes laws for me. Sometimes men who want
to be elected offer money to men to vote for them. I should
never take money for my vote. A good man does not offer
money for my vote. So if a man offers me money for my
vote I should not vote for him because he would not make
good laws to govern me.
32 CITY COUNCIL
Number Thirty-two CITY COUNCIL
Look at that splendid building. Do you know what it is?
Yes, I know what it is. It is the City Hall 1 . What is a City
Hall? It is a building where the Mayor 2 , and Aldermen 4 ,
Controllers 3 and Commissioners 6 meet to look after the affairs
of the City. Who is the Mayor? He is the head man in
the city and we elect him for a year. Who are the Con-
trollers ? They are men elected -for a year to help the Mayor
find out how much money is needed in taxes from the citizens.
They also say how that money will be spent. The Aldermen
are also elected for one year. Every part of the city has one
or two Aldermen who look after what the people want who
live in that part.
The School Trustees 5 are sometimes elected for more than
one year. These men look after what the schools in the city
The Mayor and Controllers are generally paid for their
work. The Aldermen and School Trustees are not paid. In
some cities instead of a Mayor or Controller they have Com-
missioners who are paid to look after the affairs of the city.
33 CANADIAN PROVINCIAL PARLIA
1 Parliament Buildings
4 Leader of Opposition
5 Members of Cabinet
6 Members of Government
7 Members of Opposition
Number Thirty-three CANADIAN PROVIN-
To-day is voting day. I have found out where I am to
vote. The election to-day is a Provincial election. In the
Provincial Parliament or Legislature 8 there are two parties.
They are called Liberal and Conservative. The Province is
divided up into equal parts and one man goes from each part
to the largest city, where he meets men from the other parts
of the Province. These men make the laws for the Province.
The party that has. the largest number of men who generally
vote the same way is called the party in power. The man
who is head of that party is called the Premier 3 , and he
chooses men from his own party to form a cabinet 5 . Each
man in this cabinet is head of some work. One looks after
Education, one after Mines, one after Agriculture, and
so on. The leader of the other party is called the Leader of
the Opposition 4 .
I must be careful whom I vote for. If I do not know the
candidates, I should find out what each man is like and what
he says he will vote for if he is elected.
When a law is passed by the Legislature 8 , which meets in
the Parliament Buildings 1 , the Lieutenant-Go vernor 2 must
sign it before it becomes law. The Dominion Government
appoints the Lieutenant-Governor.
34 CANADIAN DOMINION PARLIA-
1 King of England
4 Leader of Opposition
5 Members of Government
6 Members of Opppsition
7 Cabinet Ministers
9 House of Commons
Number thirty-four CANADIAN DOMIN-
Let us learn how Canada is governed. The King of Eng-
land 1 appoints a Governor-General 2 . The Governor-General
signs all bills and makes them laws. There are two parties
in the Dominion Parliament. We call them the Government
and the Opposition. The head of the Government is called
the Premier 3 of Canada, and the head of the Opposition is
called the Leader of the Opposition 4 . Members are sent up
from the different parts of Canada, and whichever party has
the more members is called the Government party. The
Premier has members to help him govern and we call them
Cabinet Ministers 7 . Each Cabinet Minister has charge of
some work. One has charge of the Post Office for the
Dominion of Canada. One has charge of Public Works.
Another has charge of Railways and Canals, and so on.
The Senate 8 is made up of men who are appointed for life.
Every bill that is passed by the House of Commons 9 must be
passed on by the Senate. After the Senate passes the bill
the Governor-General signs the bill and makes it a law.
35 MACHINE SHOP
1 1 Reamer
Number Thirty-five MACHINE SHOP
This is a machine shop. Look at the men working at the
machines. There is shafting 2 all about the shop. On the
shafting there are wheels 3 and pulleys 4 . On every wheel and
pulley there is a belt 5 . Do you see that large belt coming
from the shafting? It runs the drill-press 1 . Above the drill-
press we see a lathe 6 . The men use a lathe very much. Every
wheel and belt has a guard 7 . The guards keep the clothes
of the men away from the wheel. In the engine 10 room we
see a truck 8 . The truck has four wheels. It is beside the pile
of coal 14 . Beside the drill-press is a wood-planer 12 . This
machine planes wood and makes rough wood smooth. A
man stands beside the wood-planer and planes some wood.
Do you see the drill 9 beside the drill-press ? They use a drill
to drill holes. There is a man beside the reamer 11 . His right
hand is on a small wheel. Do you see what makes this
machine work? A belt comes down from the pulley on the
shafting and turns a wheel on the reamer. A man opens a
door of the engine and puts in coal. Beside the lathe we see
a machine. That machine is called a saw 13 . It has a wheel
with teeth cut in it and it cuts wood.
36 MOULDING SHOP
15 Casting-mould 22 Sand 29 Bolt
16 Moulding-machine 23 Crane 30 Furnace
17 Cupola 24 Bars of steel 31 Die
18 Ladle 25 Forge 32 Gangway
19 Shovel 26 Anvil 33 Elevator
20 Riddle 27 Hammer
21 Moulding 28 Drop-hammer
Number Thirty-six MOULDING SHOP
Let us go into the Moulding Shop. There are machines
here and men working at them. Two men are standing by a
casting-mould 15 . Men heat the steel in a cupola 17 and carry
it in a ladle 18 to the casting-mould. To make the casting-
mould, they take some sand 22 and sift the sand through a
riddle 20 . They shovel the sand with a shovel 19 into a
moulding-machine 16 . Then they pour the hot steel from the
ladle into the casting-mould. When the Steel has cooled they
take out the moulding 21 . Over hqad we see a large crane 23
which they use to lift heavy pieces of machines and to carry
them about the shop. Do you see the forge 25 ? A man puts
bars of steel 24 into the cupola. Sometimes he puts them in
the forge. Then he takes them out and puts them on the
anvil 26 . He hammers them with a hammer 27 . Sometimes he
puts them in a press or under the drop-hammer 28 . This man
takes bolts 29 from the furnace 30 and puts them in a die 31 . A
man is going up the elevator 33 and a man with a truck is
coming along the gangway 32 to the elevator.
37 FOUNDRY SHOP
Number Thirty-seven FOUNDRY SHOP
This shop has four men and seven machines. Let us learn
the names of these machines. Belts from the pulleys and
wheels on the shafting drive these machines. We see a press 34 ,
in the centre of the picture. There is a man standing by the
grinder 35 . A man is standing by the emery-wheel 36 grinding
a piece of steel. There is a man standing by the trip-ham-
mer 39 . Next to the trip-hammer is the shear 40 . This machine
cuts steel in two pieces. A man is standing by the bull-
dowser 37 . Watch how he works it. His left hand is on a
little wheel. Next to the bulldowser is an eyebender 41 . This
machine takes an iron rod and bends it as we see in the
picture. Sometimes the man who works the machines wants
his iron or steel hot. He uses a burner 38 which makes the
iron or steel hot.
Let us walk through the three shops. There is the Machine
Shop, Moulding Shop, and Foundry Shop.
38 PAINT SHOP
Number Thirty-eight PAINT SHOP
Let us watch how they paint machinery 1 in this paint shop.
We see the overhead trolley 3 . Look at those paint-vats 4 .
There is paint in those paint-vats. They do not paint
machinery with paint-brushes 5 . They dip the pieces of
machinery into these paint- vats and then they hang them up
to dry. Do you see that stirring-paddle 6 in the paint-vats?
They must stir the paint because it gets thick. This is a
barrel 7 and that is a bench 8 . You can sit on that bench.
There is a paint-can 9 on the barrel.
That man is a painter 2 . He has paint all over him. He
paints machinery but he does not use a paint-brush. He
takes it to the paint-vats. He takes the stirring-paddle and
stirs the paint in the vat. Then he takes the piece of
machinery and dips it in the vat. He takes it out of the vat
and hangs it up to dry.
This man has a paint-brush in his hand. He is sitting on a
bench beside a barrel. He has a paint-can near him and he
is going to paint something with his paint-brush.
39 ABATTOIR OR PACKING-HOUSE
2 Stock yards
5 Storage-pen 6 Pig, Hog
Number Thirty-nine ABATTOIR OR PACK-
John Canadian met a man when he was going to work this
morning. It was ten minutes to seven. He asked him where
he was going. He answered that he was going to work at
the abattoir or packing-house. He asked John to come with
him and he would show him how they killed pigs 6 and made
them ready to eat. First they go to the stock-yards 2 . In the
stock-yards they see freight-cars 1 . Near the freight-cars
they see some pens 3 . In these pens there are some pigs. Near
the pens there are some storage-pens 5 . A runway 4 goes from
the pens to the storage-pens.
What do we see in the first picture of abattoir or packing-
house? We see three freight-cars beside the stock-yards.
There are three men by the freight-cars. We see two runways
from the cars to the pens. We see eight pens. In the first
pen there are eight pigs. In the third pen there are two men.
They are driving the pigs up the runway into the storage-
pens. We see three storage-pens.
40 ABATTOIR OR PACKING HOUSE
Number Forty ABATTOIR OR PACKING
John and the man go into the abattoir or packing-house.
They see the men driving the pigs up the rmrv\$ay. They drive
them into the shackling-pen". In the shackling-pen a man
takes the hind leg of the pig. He fastens a chain 8 to it. He
fastens the chain to the shackling-wheel 9 . The shackling-
wheel turns around and pulls the pig up by the leg. The
chain fastens to a slide-rail 10 and the pig slides on the slide-
rail to the sticker 11 . The sticker is a man who sticks the pig.
He sticks the pig in the throat with a knife 12 . The blood 13
spurts out and the pig dies. A man takes the hose 14 and
sprays the pig. They put the pig in the scalding-tub 15 . They
leave it there from six to ten minutes. The water in the
scalding-tub is very hot. Then they put the pig through the
scraper 16 . This takes off some of the hair. The polisher 17
takes off some more hair. The pig is put on the rolling-
table 18 and a man scrapes off the rest of the hair with a knife.
In the picture there are six men. One puts the pig on the
shackling-wheel ; one sticks the pig with a knife ; one turns
the hose on the pig ; one puts the pig through the scraper and
polisher, and one scrapes it on the rolling-table with a knife.
41 ABATTOIR OR PACKING HOUSE
2 1 Government-inspector
Number Forty-one ABATTOIR OR PACKING
They see the pig hanging with its snout 27 down. They see
a man with a knife open the pig as it hangs on the dressing-
rail 20 . The government-inspector 21 inspects the pig to see
that it is good. When the government- inspector marks it bad
they put it away and make it into fertilizer. We do not eat
meat that is bad. When the government-inspector marks the
pig good it goes to the splitter 22 and he cuts the pig in two
big .pieces. They put it in cold-storage 23 for twenty-four
hours. Then they cut the pig into hams 24 and shoulders 25 .
They sell these hams and shoulders as fresh meat. Often they
cure the meat so that it will keep good to eat. We must eat
fresh meat at once or it will spoil. When meat is cured we
can keep it a long time before it will spoil.
The jaws 28 are cut in two pieces. They cut off the snout,
ears, feet and tail 32 . They cut up the head and make it into
sausage 30 and wieners 31 . Wieners are cooked meat but saus-
age is not cooked. Sausages are larger than wieners.
42 LETTER WRITING
e a *g"
Te >to, out.
' P-^t o r i0 '; d fl " P '* ^ '-
43 TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES
144 Square Inches . .
9 Square Feet
30| Square Yards . . .
4840 Square Yards . . .
160 Square Rods ...
1 728 Cubic Inches .... I Cubic Foot
27 Cubic Feet 1 Cubic Yard
1 28 Cubic Feet 1 Cord (of
2 Pints 1 Quart
4 Quarts 1 Gallon
2 Gallons \ Peck
4 Pecks . . . . 1 Bushel
1 6 Ounces 1 Pound
2000 Pounds.. ..1 Ton
60 Seconds . .
60 Minutes . .
24 Hours . . .
7 Days ....
52 Weeks . . .
365 Days ....
366 Days . . .
January 31 Days
February 28 Days
March 31 Days
April 30 Days
May 31 Days
June , ... 30 Days
July 31 Days
August 31 Days
September 30 Days
October 31 Days
November 30 Days
December 31 Days
In Leap Year February has 29 Days.
GOD SAVE THE KING.
God save our gracious King,
Long live our noble. King,
God save the King.
Send him victorious,
! Tappy and glorious,
Long to reign over us,
God save the King.
Thy choicest gifts in store
On him be pleased to pour
Long may he reign.
May he defend our laws,
And ever give us cause
To sing, with heart and voice,
God save the King.
O Canada! Our home our native land.
True patriot love thou dost in us command.
We see thee rising fair, dear land,
The true North strong and free ;
And stand on guard, O Canada,
We stand on guard for thee.
O Canada ! O Canada !
O Canada. We stand on guard for thee.
O Canada ! Where pines and maples grow,
Great prairies spread and lordly rivers flow.
Thou art the land, O Canada,
From East and Western sea,
The land of hope for all who toil,
The land of liberty.
O Canada! Beneath thy shining skies
May stalwart sons and gentle maidens rise ;
And so abide, O Canada,
From East to Western sea,
Where e'er thy pines and prairies are,
The True North strong and free.
vfCTO RIA UNIVERSITY