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Volume II. 



Contents of tU ^cconn Oolumc. 


T/ie mafiner of the triumph at Calais and Boulogne. LPrinted by 

Wynken de Worde. (Nov. 1532.)- 33 

The noble triwnpha7it Coronation of Qtieen Anne, Wife unto the 
tnost noble King Henry VIII. t(lvlay I533-) -^Iso printed by 
Wynken de Worde^ 41 

Nicholas Udall. English Verses and Ditties at the Corofiation 

Procession of Queen Anne Bolevn. ^Uay \SZ3-)_j S- 

^X)ean_j W. Turner, uM.D.j Notes on Wines tcsed in Efigland. 

J1568.), iif 

^DoctorJOHN Dee. The Petty A^avy Royal, (i Aug. 1576.) ... 61 

Captain R. HITCHCOCK. A politic Plat for the hoiiour of the 
Prince, ^he great profit of the public State, relief of the poor, 
preservatio7i of the rich, &^c. (i Jan. 1580.), I33 

Sir P. Sidney. Sonnets and Poetical Trajislations. [?] 169 

T. Sanders. The unfortunate Voyage of the Jesus to Tripoli, 

in 1584 II 

Lyrics, Elegies, &^c., from the first printed Collection of Madrigals; 

Edited, and set to Music by W. Byrd. (Nov. 1587.) 71 

N. H. The worthy and famous Voyage of Master Thomas 
Cavendish, 7nade round about the Globe of the Eaith. (1586- 
1588.) 117 

Thomas Lodge, M.D. Rosalynd's Madrigal. (1590.) 115 

Captain R. HiTCHCOCK. The English Army Rations iti the time of 

Queen Elizabeth. (1591.) 206 

H. C[onstable]. Diana or excellent conceited Sonnets. (1594.)... 225 

F. Meres, M.A. Sketch of Etiglish Literature, Painting, and 

Music up to September, i^O)Z 94- 

Ben Jonson. Hue and Cry after Cupid. (1608.) 107 

Sir Walter Raleigh. Opoting of his History of the World. 

(1614.) 19(3 

Contents of the Second Voluime. 

A fight at sea famously fought by the Dolphin of Loudon against 
Five of the lurks' Men of War and a Sat lee. (12 Jan. 161 7.) 

Captain John Smith. The present state of New England [i.e., 
1624]. (1626.) 

Andrew Marveix, M.P. A Dialogue between the Resolved Soicl 
aftd Created Pleasure 


Abraham Cowley. The Wish. (1647.) 

David's Serenade to Micual, the daughter 

of King Saul. (1660.) 

Sitting and Drinkins; in the chair made out 

of the relics of Sir Francis Drake's ship. (1663.) 

D. Defoe. The Edtecation of Women. (1692.) = 

[J. Wright.] The seco7id generation of English professional A dors. 
1625-1670 A.D. (Printed 1699.) ... 

Rev T. Prince, M.A. A Chronological History of New England 
in the form of Annals [down to 5 August 1633]. Printed at 
Boston N.E,, in 1736 and 1754-5 










A carver, having loved .. 252 

Adjudge it to me ! 58 

A field there is 184 

A fortress foiled 84 

A friend of mine 230 

Ah, hair ! how many ... 192 

"Ah Philida !" 82 

Ah, wanton eyes! 76 

Ah, yet, ere I descend... 131 

Alas, I lie 194 

Alas, she hath no other . 171 

All as a sea, the world 87 

All day their flocks 2 

All joy, wealth 59 

AH my sense 190 

All riches and kingdoms 57 

All this fair, and cost ... 32 

Although the heathen ... 83 

Ambitious love 81 

Amid the seas 83 

And for the great virtues 57 

And have I heard... 175, 239 

And I, Stable Honour... 57 

And if I grant to that ... 87 

And if I sleep 115 

And where by wrong ... 55 

And wise P.\Ris 60 

An humble pride 1S5 

A poisoned serpent 84 

A quenchless fire 84 

Are poets then 180 

A SatjT once did run ... 178 

As draws the golden ... 259 

As for my mirth 180 

As I beheld, I saw 82 

A soul that knows 31 

A stranger fish 183 

As they of all most 139 

Astronomers the heavens 252 

At his sight, the sun 109 

Awake, awake, my lyre 205 

Ay me, poor wretch ! ... 246 

Beauties ! Have you ... 108 

Behold and see 53 


Be still, my blessed 89 

Blame not my heart 229 

But always one myself .. 187 

But who, by hearsay ... 186 

But being care 249 

But eyes these beauties . 186 

But fine conceits dares So 

But now to take 55 

But shame will not 79 

But since my thoughts .. iSi 

But since I have not 88 

But Thou shalt live 90 

But who hath fancies ... 180 

By that bedside 83 

Care for thy corps 89 

Care for the world 89 

Care for thy soul 89 

Cheer up, my mates ! ... 269 

Come learners then to me 1S7 

Come to me grief 92, 93 

Constance Penelope ... 84 

Courage, my Soul 30 

Dead ! no, no 93 

Dear to my soul ! then . . 249 

Each day, new proofs ... 243 

Earth cannot show 31 

Else I with roses 116 

Eternal twins, that 228 

Everj'thing does seem ... 31 

Evil haps do fill 176 

Fair by inheritance 264 

Fair! seek not to be 177 

Fair Sun ! if you would 238 

Falsely doth Envy 232 

Fare Grace of Graces !... 256 

Farewell, false Love I ... 84 

Finding those beams ... 182 

Fire, burn me quite 170 

Fly low, dear love ! 230 


Fools be they 242 

Forgive me, Dear! 253 

Forlawyers 82 

For like as from this ... 52 

For me, alas, I am 187 

For where chaste love... 85 

For though my sense .,. 188 

Give period to my matter 261 

Gladly my senses iSS 

GOD, that of His 58 

Go from dread to die ... 92 

Had I but any time 31 

Had she not been so ... 258 

Hark, how INIusic 31 

Hark, how the strings... 205 

He doth bear a golden .. log 

Heralds at arms do 233 

Her loving looks 76 

He whom the Court 92 

H' hath of marks about . io3 

His bow and shafts 77 

His shadow to 248 

Honour and grace 53 

Hope, like the hyaena... 245 

How happy here 132 

I am no model figure ... 248 

I, Chastity, restrain all 85 

Idle minutes are his no 

I do not now complain... 246 

If by these, ye please ... no 

If either you would 181 

If ever sorrow spoke ... 247 

If Greeks themselves ... 179 

If I could think iSi 

If I had David's crown 88 

If oaths may serve 179 

If that a sinner's sighs... 83 

If things of Si.ght 32 

If thou be'st with 31 

If true love might 234 

8 First Lines of Poems and Stanzas. 


If women could be fair... 80 

1 joy not in no earthly... 75 

1 kiss not where I wish 7S 

I laugh not 78 

I meet not mine b6o 

I must therefore 80 

In chastity 55 

In fields abroad 83 

In hard estate 176 

In wonted walks 180, 239 

I press to bear 78 

I see that plenty 78 

I should break Jupiter's 58 

I sup above 3° 

It is no common cause... 107 

It may be, Love 234 

I wish but what I have 75 

Jupiter, a strange 57 

Jupiter, this apple 57 

Lady! in beauty 235 

Leave me, O love ! 195 

Let fl'^Vv^'? be sung 194 

Like as the dove 177 

Like to the silly Sylvan 188 

Lo ! lo ! my little Babe ! 90 

Look then and die 186 

Love have I followed ... 255 

Love in my bosom 115 

Love ye who list 76 

"Lully,lully,mybaby !" 172 

Make much of us 85 

Mine eye, with all 231 

Mine eyes the strait 184 

Most excellent Queen ... 52 

Much sorrow in itself ... 232 

My eyes presume 79 

My gentler rest is on ... 31 

My God, my God 255 

" My hand doth not'' ... 179 

My heart, mine Eye ... 254 

My Lady's presence 233 

My lake is Sense 183 

My mind to me 78 

My mistress lowers 179 

My muse therefore 179 

My reason absent 236 

My ship Desire ; 184 

My sheep are lost 76 

My tears are true : 262 

My wealth is health 79 

Near Wilton sweet 183 

Needs must I leave 241 


No more in thy 190 

No ! No ! Another 58 

No, no, no, no 189 

None hither mounts 32 

No princely port 78 

Nor think the match ... 193 

Now here to be 56 

Now thy sweetness 190 

Nulli se decit vinlier ... 176 

Observe not sins 86 

O fair ! O sweet ! ... 172. 173 

Of an Athenian young.. . 240 

Of body small 54 

O fountains ! when 131 

Of ships, by shipwreck .. 184 

Oft have I mused 182,245 

Of this grace, with bliss 193 

O happy who thus 82 

One sun unto my 251 

O no ! O no ! 187 

On sandy bank, of late .. 192 

On these downy pillows . 30 

O that I might declare 80 

O that most rare breast ! 93 

O this it is ! 179 

Our passions be 87 

Passing beauty 59 

Peak hath a cave 184 

Persever ever and have.. 261 

Pity refusing my poor ... 237 

Prefer me, and I shall ... 58 

Pride and Ambition 132 

Prometheus for stealing. 250 

Prometheus, when first.. 178 

Prostrate, O LORD !... 86 

Queen Anne, behold ... 56 

Queen Anne so gentle ... 59 

Queen Anne ! whom ... 56 

Qui sceptra sievits dm'o 177 

Ready to seek out death 243 

Resolved to love 229 

Right so, dear Lady ! ... 52 

Ring out your bells ....; 193 

Sidney, the hope 92 

She never dies 183 

She that will but now ... 108 

" Since, baby mine !" ... 172 

Since shunning pain 169, 239 

Since ye heard his no 

Sleep, baby mine 172 

Sleep, sleep again 206 


So far hath fond Desire 79 

Sometimes in verse 263 

Sound is the knot 85 

Spy! if you can 107 

Stay Nymphs ! We then 108 

Still the fairest are his... 109 

Susanna fair 87 

Sweet hand ! the sweet . 238 

Sweet Lady ! As for ... 180 

Sweetness? sweetly 191 

Sweet Sovereign 1 241 

Tell me, O hair of gold. 192 

That store of such 91 

The Bruertons have 1S3 

The cause is this 77 

The compass is a mind 87 

The Court and cart 75 

The earth, her Ears 184 

The First Created held.. 256 

The Fire to see 170 

The fowler hides 237 

The gods did storm 77 

The golden ball 60 

The golden mean 176 

Their dealings plain 81 

The match that's made ... 85 

The nightingale — 171 

Then, good Apollo! ... 180 
The pious wanderer's ... 270 
Therefore, Lady Venus 58 

There should these 88 

The richest relic Rome.. 244 
The scourge of life ...175, 239 
These ladies striving ... 77 

These wonders 185 

The sun his 235 

The sun unto my life's... 251 

The virtues all 54 

The winds most oft 176 

The wonders 86 

The world will do't 271 

They to the beamy suns 188 

Thine eye, the glass 231 

This White Falcon 54 

This gentle bird 54 

Thou blind man's mark.. 195 

Though Am.\rillis 76 

Though present times ... 176 
Though ye had a will ... no 

Thou shalt know 32 

Thou Pain ! the only 173, 239 
Thou wilt perse\er ever 259 
Three Kings, this King 90 
Thus do I fall to rise ... 188 

First Lines of Poems and Stanzas. 9 


Thus long imposed to ... 258 

Thus may I not be iSS 

Thus sang they in 284 

Thy mercy greater 88 

To live in hell 251 

To mark what choice ... 80 

To stranger weights 183 

Triumph! triumph! 32 

Trust him not 109 

Turned anew 188 

'Twill grieve me more ... 262 

Uncivil Sickness ! 239 

Unhappy day ! 254 

"Unto nobody" 177 

Weak IjTe ! Thy virtue 206 

Weary of love 253 

We have a fish 1S3 

Well then ! I now do ... 131 

Welcome the Creation's . 30 

Weep ! neighbours 194 


Wer't not a price 32 

What changes here 191 

What do I mean? 270 

What friends ! if to 32 

What if I beat 116 

What pleasure 81 

What should we 283 

What viewed I, Dear !... 257 

When Jupiter 59 

When Love, puft up 170, 239 

When tedious much 257 

When the Creator's skill 31 

When to my deadly 187 

When your perfections .. 242 

Where Chasteness fails 85 

Where Fancy fond 79 

Where the remote 283 

Whereon to rest 55 

Wheresoe'er thy foot ... 32 

Which time that we 53 

Whilst Echo cries 250 

Who hath such beauty .. 192 


Who hath his fancy 185 

Who hath ever felt 186 

Who likes to love 77 

Who makes his seat 83 

Wliose patience rare 91 

Who will express 54 

Why do I use my paper 91 

" Why thus unjustly "... 244 

Wilt thou all the glory... 32 

Wilt thou be still unkind 260 

Wings he hath, which ... 109 

With violence of 187 

Woe to me ! alas 191 

Woe to mine eyes 1 240 

Woe ! woe to me !... 174, 239 

Wonder it is, and pity ... 336 

Yet for our sport 81 

Yet, yet, a life to their .. iS3 

You better sure shall ... 176 

Your dignity 60 

You secret vales ! 247 



Rw OF us adequately realize the immense 
Leitrature which has descended to its from our 
ancestors. Generation after generation has 
passed away ; each of which has produced {in 
the order of its own thought, and with the 
tuition of its inherited or acquired experience) 
many a wise, bright, or beautiful thing : which 
having served its own brief day, has straitway passed away into 
utter forgctfulness, there to remain till Doomsday ; unless some 
effort like the present, shall restore it to the knowledge and enjoy- ' 
ment of English-reading peoples. 

This Collection is to gather, for the gratification of this and 
future ages, a vast amount of incomparable poesy and most stirring 
prose; which hardly any one would imagine to be in existence at all. 
Of many of the original impressions there survive but one or two 
copies, and these often are most difficidt of access ,• so that it is not 
too much to say of the following contents as a whole, that they 
have never hitherto come within the ken of any single English 

The reader must be prepared often to find most crude and 
imperfect theories or beliefs, which later experience has exploded, 
mixed up with most important facts or allusions as to the times, 
manners, or customs of the period then under illustration : leaving 
to us the obligation to reject the one, and to receive the other. 

Many of the following books and tracts are the original 
materials out of which modern historians have culled the most 
graphic touches of their most brilliant pages, hi fact, the Series 
is, in regard to much of its prose, a Study on a large scale of 
detached areas of English history; and stands in the same relation 
to the general national Story, as a selected Collection of Parish 
Maps would do to the Ordnance Survey of English land. 

Vol. II. 

Thomas Sanders. 

The unfortmtate Voyage of the Jesus 

to Tripoli^ in 1584. 

[This Narrative was entered at Stationers' Hall on 3:st of March 1587 (Traiiso-ifit, &^c., ii. 
467. Ed. 1875) as a distinct pubhcation under the title of A most lavietitahU Voyage ninde into 
Turkey, (s'c. ; but we have not been able to meet with a copy of the original edition, and have 
taken the text from the early reprint in Hakli;vt's Voyages, 15S9.] 

The voyage made to Tripoli in Barbary, in the year 1584, 
with a ship called the J&s,ms ; wherein the adventures and 
distresses of some Englishmen are truly reported, and 
other necessary circumstances observed. 

12 The first Master & Pilot are drowned. [March "S? 

His voyap^e was set forth I chartered] by the 
right worshipful Sir Edward Osborne, 
Knight, Chief Merchant of all the " Turkey 
Company," and one Master Richard 
Stapers; the ship being of the burden 
of 100 tons, called the 3^esus. She was 
built at Farmne [ ? Fareham], a river by 
Portsmouth. The owners were Master 
Thomas Thomson, Nicholas Carnabie, and John Oilman, 
The Master (under GOD) was one Zaccheus Hellier of 
Blackwall, and his Mate was one Richard Morris of that 
place. Their Pilot was one Anthony Jerado, a Frenchman 
of the province of Marseilles. The Purser was one William 
Thomson, our owner's son. The Merchants' Factors [super- 
cargoes] were Romaine Sonnings a Frenchman, and Richard 
Skegs servant unto the said Master Stapers. 

The owners were bound unto the merchants by charterparty 
thereupon, in looo marks [ = ;^333, or in present value about 
;^200o], that the said ship, by GOD's permission, should go 
for Tripoli in Barbary : that is to say, hrst from Portsmouth 
to Newhaven [Havre] in Normandy; from thence to San Lucar 
de Barrameda in Andalusia; and from thence to Tripoli, which 
is in the east part of [the northern shore ofj Africa ; and so to 
return unto London. 

But here ought every man to note and consider the works 
of our GOD ; that, many times, what man doth determine, 
GOD doth disappoint. The said Master having some occa- 
sion to goto Farmne, took with him the Pilot and the Purser; 
and returning again, by means of a perry [gust] of wind the 
boat, wherein they were, was drowned with the said Master, 
Purser, and all the company ; excepting the said Pilot, who 
by experience in swimming saved himself. These were the 
beginnings of our sorr(jws. 

After which, the said Master's Mate would not proceed in 
that voyage ; and the owner hearing of this misfortune, and 
the unwillingness of the Master's Mate, did send down one 
Richard Deimond, and shipped him for Master; who did 
choose for his Mate one Andrew Dier, and so the said ship 

T. Sanders 

'^/I^J The second Master dies at Havre. 13 

departed on her voyage accordingly. That is to say, about 
the i6th of October 1583, she made sail from Portsmouth, 
and the i8th day then next following, she arrived in Newhaven 
[Havre] ; where our said last Master, Deimond, by a surfeit, 

The Factors then appointed the said Andrew Dier, being 
then Master's Mate, to be their Master for that voyage ; who 
did choose to be his Mates, the two Quarter Masters of the 
same ship, to wit, Peter Austin and Shillabey, and for 
Purser was shipped one Richard Burges. 

Afterwards, about the 8th day of November, we made sail 
forv ard, and by force of weather we were driven back again 
into Portsmouth ; where we refreshed ourselves with victuals 
and other necessaries : and then the wind came fair. 

About the 29th day then next following, we departed thence ; 
and the ist day of December, by means of a contrary wind, 
we were driven into Plymouth. 

The i8th day then next following, we made southward 
again, and by force of weather we were driven into Falmouth ; 
where w-e remained until the ist day of January [1584]. At 
which time the wind coming fair, we departed thence ; and 
about the 20th day of the said month we arrived safely at 
San Lucar. 

About the 9th day of March next following, we made sail 
from thence ; and about the i8th day of the same month, we 
came to Tripoli in Barbary : where we were very well enter- 
tained by the King of that country, and also of the commons 
[people] . 

The commodity of that place is sweet oils. The King 
there is a merchant, and the rather (willing to prefer himself 
before his commons) requested our said Factors to traffic with 
him ; and promised them that if they should take his oils at his 
own price, they should pay no manner of custom [export duty] : 
and they took of him certain tuns of oils. Afterward per- 
ceiving that they might have far better cheap notwithstanding 
the free custom, they desired the King to licence them to 
take the oils at the pleasure of his commons, for that his 
price did exceed theirs: whereunto the King would not agree, 
but was rather contented to abate his price, insomuch that 
the Factors bought all their oils of the King, custom free, and 
so laded the same aboard. 

14 S O N N I N G S CHEATS D I C K E N S O N. [JaSh"S*. 

In the mean time there came to that place, one Miles 
Dickenson, in a ship of Bristol ; who, to^^ether with our said 
Factors, took a house to themselves there. Our French 
Factor, Romaine Sonnings desired to buy a commodity in 
the market; and wanting money, desired the said Miles 
Dickenson to lend him an hundred chikinos [shckins] until 
he came to his lodging : which he did. After^^ ards the same 
Sonnings met with Miles Dickenson in the street, and 
delivered him money bound up in a napkin, saying, " Master 
Dickenson, there is the money I borrowed of you!" and so 
thanked him for the same. He doubted nothing less than 
falsehood, which is seldom known among merchants, and 
specially being together in one house ; and is the more 
detestable between Christians, they being in Turkey among 
the heathen. 

The said Dickenson did not tell [count] the money 
presently [immediately], until he came to his lodging; and 
then finding nine chikinos lacking of his hundred, which 
was about ^3 ( = ^20 in present value), for that every chikino 
is worth seven shillings of English money; he came to the said 
Romaine Sonnings, and delivered him his handkerchief, and 
asked him, ** How many chikinos he had delivered him ? " 
Sonnings answered, "An hundred." Dickenson said, 
" No ! " And so they protested, and swore on both parts. 
But in the end, the said Romaine Sonnings did swear 
deeply, with detestable oaths and curses; and prayed GOD 
that He might show His works on him that others might 
take example thereby, and that he might be hanged 
like a dog, and never come into England again ; if he 
did not deliver into the said Dickenson a hundred 

And here, behold a notable example for all blasphemers, 
cursers, and swearers ! how GOD rewarded him accordingly. 
For many times it cometh to pass that GOD showeth His 
miracles upon such monstrous blasphemers, to the example 
of others ; as now hereafter you shall hear what befel to this 
Romaine Sonnings. 

There was a man in the said town, a pledge ; whose name 
was Patrone Norado; who, the year before, had done this 
Sonnings some pleasure there. The foresaid Patrone 


NoRADO was indebted unto a Turk of that town in the sum of 
450 crowns { = aboHt £1^0, or in present value about ;^i,ooo) for 
certain goods sent by him into Christendom in a ship of his 
own, and by his own brother ; and he himself remained in 
TripoH as a pledge until his said brother's return : and, as 
the report went there, after his brother's arrival in Chris- 
tendom, he came among lewd company, and lost his brother's 
said ship and goods at dice ; and never returned unto him 

The said Patrone Norado — being void of all hope, and 
finding now opportunity — consulted with the said Sonnings 
for to swim a seaboard the islands, and the ship being then 
out of danger, should take him in (as after was confessed) ; and 
so to go to Toulon, in the Province of Marseilles, with this 
Patrone Norado, and there to take in the rest of his lading. 

The ship being ready the ist day of May [T584], and 
having her sails all aboard ; our said Factors took their leave 
of the King, who very courteously bade them farewell : and 
when they came aboard, they commanded the Master and the 
company hastily to get out the ship. The Master answered 
that it was impossible, for that the wind was contrary and 
overblowed: and he required us upon forfeiture of our bonds, 
that we should do our endeavour to get her forth. Then 
went we to warp out the ship. Presently [immediately] the 
King sent a boat aboard of us, with three men in her, com- 
manding the said Sonnings to come ashore. At whose 
coming, the King demanded of him custom for the oils. 
Sonnings answered him, " that His Highness had promised 
to deliver them custom free ! " But notwithstanding, the King 
weighed not his said promise, and — as an infidel that had not 
the fear of GOD before his eyes ; nor regard for his word, 
albeit he was a King — he caused the said Sonnings to pay 
the custom to the uttermost penny : and afterwards- willed him 
to make haste away, saying, *' that the Janissaries would 
have the oil ashore again." 

These Janissaries are soldiers there, under the Great 
Turk ; and their power is above the King's. 

So the said Factor departed from the King, and came to the 
water side, and called for a boat to come aboard. He brought 
with him the foresaid Patrone Norado. The company 
inquisitive to know what man that was, Sonnings answered, 

1 6 T II E Turks fire at the y e su s. [JarcrS?: 

that he was his countryman, as passenger. ** I pray GOD," 
said the company, " that we come not into trouble by this 
man." Then said Sonnings angrily, " What have you to do 
with any matters of mine ? If anything chance otherwise 
than well, I must answer for all." 

Now the Turk unto whom the Patrone Norado was in- 
debted, missing him, supposed him to be aboard of our ship ; 
presently went unto the King, and told him "that bethought 
his pledge Patrone Norado was aboard the English ship : " 
whereupon the King presently sent a boat aboard of us, with 
three men in her, commanding the said Sonnings to come 
ashore, and not speaking anything as touching the man. He 
said, " He would come presently in his own boat." But as 
soon as they were gone, he willed us to warp forth the 
ship ; and said that " he would see the knaves hanged, before 
he would go ashore." 

And when the King saw that he came not ashore, but still 
continued warping away the ship, he straight commanded the 
gunner of the bulwark to fire three shoots \Younds\ without 

Then we came all to the said Sonnings, and asked of him, 
" What was the matter that we were shot at ? " He said that 
" it was the Janissaries, who would have the oil ashore again," 
and willed us to make haste away. 

After that the King had discharged three shots without ball, 
he commanded the gunners in the tovv^n to do their endeavour 
to sink us : but the Turkish gunners could not once strike us. 
Wherefore the King sent presently to the bagnio — this bagnio 
is the prison where all the captives lay at night — and pro- 
mised that if there were any that could either sink us or else 
cause us to come in again, he should have a hundred crowns 
{ = £30, or in present value over ;<'"20o) and his liberty. With that, 
came forth a Spaniard called Sebastian, who had been an 
old servitor in Flanders; and he said, that " upon the per- 
formance of that promise, he would undertake either to sink us 
or to cause us to come in again ; and thereto he would gage his 
life." At the first shot, he split our rudder's head in pieces; the 
second shot, he strake us under water ; and with the third 
shot, he shot us through the foremast with a culvering shot. 
Thus he having rent both our rudder and mast, and shot us 
under water, we were enforced to go in again. 

March'liS?.] ^'^ L L THE CrEW ARE MADE SlAVES. IJ 

This Sebastian, for all his diligence herein, had neither 
his liberty, nor a hundred crowns, so promised by the King; 
but after his service done, was committed again to prison. 
Whereby may appear the regard that a Turk or infidel hath 
of his word, although he be able to perform it : yea more, 
though he be a King. 

Then our Merchants [i.e., Factors] seeing no remedy ; they 
together with five of our company went ashore. Then they 
ceased shooting. They shot unto us in the whole, nine and 
thirty shots ; without the hurt of any man. 

And when our Merchants came ashore, the King com- 
manded presently that they, with the rest of our company 
that were with them, should be chained four and four to an 
hundredweight of iron. When we came in with the ship, there 
came presently above a hundred Turks aboard of us. They 
searched us, and stript our very clothes from our backs, 
brake open our chests, and made a spoil of all that we had. 

The Christian caitiffs [renegadoes] likewise that came aboard 
us made spoil of our goods, and used us as ill as the Turks 

And our Master's Mate having a " Geneva Bible " in his 
hand ; there came the King's Chief Gunner, and took it from 
him. The Master's Mate showed me of it, and I, having the 
language, went to the King's Treasurer; and told him of it, 
saying, ''that since it was the will of GOD that we should 
fall into their hands; yet that they should grant us to use our 
consciences to our own discretion, as they suffered the 
Spaniards and other nations to use theirs." He granted it 
us. Then I told him that " the Master Gunner had taken 
away a Bible from one of our men." The Treasurer went 
presently, and commanded him to deliver up the Bible again : 
which he did. 

But within a little while after, he took it from the man 
again ; and I showed the Treasurer of it, and he commanded 
him to deliver it again, saying, " Thou villain ! wilt thou turn 
to Christianity again ? " For he was renegado ; which is one 
that first was a Christian, and afterwards became a Turk. 
So he delivered me the Bible a second time. 

And then I having it in my hand, the Gunner came to me, 
and spake these words, saying, " Thou dog I I will have the 
book in despite of thee : " and took it from me, saying, " If 

£.VG. Gar. II. 2 




thou tell the King's Treasurer of it any more, by Mahomet ! I 
will be revenged of thee ! " Notwithstanding, I went the 
third time unto the King's Treasurer, and told him of it. He 
came with me, saying thus unto the Gunner, " By the head 
of the Great Turk, if thou take it from him again; thou shalt 
have an hundred bastinados ! " Forthwith he delivered me 
the book, saying, " He had not the value of a pin of the spoil 
of the ship ! " which was the better for him, as hereafter you 
shall hear. For there was none, whether Christian or Turk, 
that took the value of a pennyworth of our goods from us, 
but perished both body and goods within seventeen months 
following ; as hereafter shall plainly appear. 

Then came the Guardian Pasha, which is the Keeper of 
the King's captives, to fetch us all ashore. Then I, remem- 
bering the miserable estate of the poor distressed captives in 
the time of their bondage to those infidels, went to mine own 
chest, and took out thereof a jar of oil and filled a basket full 
of white rusk to carry ashore with me ; but before I came to 
the bagnio, the Turkish boys had taken away almost all my 
bread ; and the Keeper said, " Deliver me the jar of oil, and 
and when thou comest to the bagnio, thou shalt have it 
again ! " but I never had it of him any more. 

But when I came to the bagnio, and saw our Merchants 
and all the rest of our company in chains ; and we all ready 
to receive the same reward : whose heart in the world is 
there so hard, but would have pitied our course ? hearing or 
seeing the lamentable greeting there was betwixt us. 

All this happened the ist of May 1584. 

And the 2nd day of the same month, the King with his 
Council [Divan] sate in judgement upon us. The first that 
were had forth to be arraigned were the Factors and the 
Master. The King asked them, " Wherefore came they not 
ashore when he sent for them?" Romaine Sonnings 
answered, that "though he were King on shore, and might 
command there ; so was he as touching those that were 
under him," and therefore said, " if there he. any offence, the 
fault is wholly in myself, and in no other." Then forthwith 
the King gave judgement that the said Romaine Sonnings 
should be hanged over the north-east bulwark [raiiipart], from 
whence he conveyed the forenamed Patrone Norado. 


Then he called for our Master, Andrew Dier, and u-sed 
few words to him ; and so condemned him to be hanged over 
the walls of the westermost bulwark. Then fell our other 
Factor, named Richard Skegs, upon his knees before the 
King, and said, " I beseech 5'our Highness either to pardon 
our Master, or else suffer me to die for him. For he is igno- 
rant of this cause." Then the people of that country- 
favouring the said Richard Skegs, besought the King to 
pardon them both. Then the King spake these words, 
" Behold, for thy sake, I pardon the Master ! " Then pre- 
sently the Turks shouted, and cried, saying, " Away with the 
Master from the presence of the King 1 " Then he came into 
the bagnio where we were, and told us what had happened : 
and we all rejoiced at the good hap of Master Skegs ; that 
he was saved, and our Master for his sake. 

But afterwards our joy was turned to double sorrow, for 
in the mean time the King's mind was altered, for that 
one of his Council had advised him that unless the Master 
died also, by the law they could not confiscate the ship nor 
goods, nor captive [enslave] any of the men. Whereupon the 
King sent for our Master again, and gave him another judge- 
ment, after his pardon for one cause ; which was that he 
should be hanged. 

Here all true Christians may see what trust a Christian 
man may put in an infidel's promise ; who, being a King, 
pardoned a man now, as you have heard, and within an 
hour after hanged him for the same cause before a whole 
multitude : and also promised our Factors their oils custom 
free, and at their going away made them pay the uttermost 
penny for the custom thereof. 

When that Romaine Sonnings saw no remedy but that he 
should die ; he protested to turn Turk, hoping thereby to 
have saved his life. Then said the Turk, " If thou wilt turn 
Turk, speak the words that thereunto belong ! " And he did 
so. Then said they unto him, " Now thou shalt die in the 
faith of a Turk ! " And so he did, as the Turks reported that 
were at his execution. 

The forenamed Patrone Norado, whereas before he had 
liberty, and did nothing; he was then condemned to be a 
slave perpetually ; unless there were payment made of the 
foresaid money. 

20 Sanders's first ExrERiENCK as a Slave. [J^frfs^: 

Then the King condemned us all — who were in number 
six and twenty ; of the which two were han^^ed, as you have 
heard, and one died the lirst day we came on shore by the 
visitation of Almighty GOD— the other three and twenty 
he condemned to be slaves perpetually unto the Great Turk; 
and the ship and goods were confiscated to the use of the 
Great Turk. 

Then we all fell down upon our kneeS; giving GOD thanks 
for this sorrowful visitation, and giving ourselves wholly to 
the almighty power of GOD ; unto whom all secrets are 
known, that He of His goodness would vouchsafe to look 
upon us. 

Here, may all true Christian hearts see the wonderful 
works of GOD showed upon such infidels, blasphemers, and 
runnagate Christians! and so you shall read in the end of 
this book [narrative], of the like upon the unfaithful King and 
all his children, and upon as many as took any portion of the 
. said goods. 

But first to show our miserable bondage and slavery, and 
unto what small pittance we were tied. Every five men had 
allowance of but five Aspers of bread in a day, which are but 
two pence English : and our lodging was to lie on the bare 
boards, with a very simple cape to cover us. We were also 
forcibly and most violently shaven, head and beard. 

Within three days after [on ^th May 1584], I and six more 
of my fellows together with four score Italians and Spaniards, 
were sent forth in a galliot to take a Greek Carmosel, 
which came into Arabia [?] to steal negroes ; and went out of 
Tripoli unto that place, which was 240 leagues thence. We 
were chained three and three to an oar, and we rowed naked 
above the girdle. The Boatswain of the galley walked abaft 
the mast, and his Mate afore the mast ; and each of them 
with a thong in their hands. When their devilish choler 
rose, they would strike the Christians for no cause. They 
allowed us but half a pound of bread a man in a day, with- 
out any other kind of sustenance, water excepted. 

And when we came to the place where we saw the Carmosel, 
we were not suffered to have either needle, bodkin, knife, or 
any other instrument about us ; nor at any other time in the 
night, upon pain of one hundred bastinados. We were then 

IiaS'lss?-] Fit'HT WITH A Greek Carmosel. 21 

also cruelly manacled in such sort that we could not put our 
hands the lenj^th of one foot asunder the one from the other : 
and every night, they searched our chains three times, to see 
if they were fast rivetted. 

We continued fight with the Carmosel three hours, and 
then we took it. We lost but two men in that fight, but 
there were slain of the Greeks, five ; and fourteen were 
cruelly hurt. They that were sound were presently made 
slaves, and chained to the oars : and within fifteen days after 
we returned again to Tripoli ; and then we were put to all 
manner of slavery. 

I was put to hew stones, others to carry stones, some to 
draw the cart with earth, some to make mortar, and some to 
draw stones : for at that time the Turks builded a church 
[niosquc]. Thus we were put to all kind of slavery that was 
to be done. 

In the time of our being there, the Moors that are the 
husbandmen of the country, rebelled against the King, 
because he would have constrained them to pay greater 
tribute than heretofore they had done : so that the soldiers 
of Tripoli marched forth from the town to have joined battle 
against the Moors for their rebellion. The King sent with them 
four pieces of ordnance ; which were drawn by the captives 
twenty miles into the country after them. At the sight 
thereof, the Moors fled : and then the captives returned back 

Then I and certain Christians more were sent twelve 
miles into the country, with a cart to load timber; and we 
returned the same day. 

Now the King had eighteen captives which three times a 
week went to fetch wood thirty miles from the town ; and 
on a time he appointed me for one of the eighteen. We 
departed at eight o'clock in the night, and upon the way as 
we rode upon the camels, I demanded of one of our compan}', 
who did direct us the way? He said, there was a Moor in 
our company which was our guide. I demanded of them 
hovv^ Tripoli and the wood bare one off the other ? He said, 
*' East-north-east, and west-south-west." 

At midnight or thereabouts, as I was riding on my camel, 
I fell asleep ; and the guide and all the rest rode away from 

2 2 Sanders's peril in the Desert. [Jar'^u"^?: 

me, not thinkinj;' but that I had l)ecn amonj^ them. When I 
awoke, finding myself alone, I durst not call nor halloa, for 
fear lest the wild Moors should hear me ; because they hold 
this opinion that in killing a Christian they do GOD good 
service. Musing with myself what were best for me to do. if 
I should go forth and the wild Moors should hap to meet with 
me, they would kill me ; and on the other side, if I should 
return back to Tripoli without any wood or company, I should 
be most miserably used therefore : of the two evils, rather 
did I go forth to the losing of my life, than to turn back and 
trust to their mercy, fearing to be used as before I had seen 
others. Understanding before by some of my company how 
Tripoli and the said wood did lie one off another, by the north 
star I went forth at adventure ; and, as GOD would have it, I 
came right to the place where they were, even about an hour 
before day. There all together we rested, and gave our 
camels provender ; and as soon as the day appeared, we rode 
all into the wood. I seeing no wood here, but a stick here 
and a stick there, about the bigness of a man's arm, growing 
in the sand ; it caused me to marvel how so many camels 
should be laden in that place. The wood was Juniper. We 
needed no axe nor edge tool to cut it, but pluckt it up by 
strength of hands, roots and all ; which a man might easily 
do : and so gathered it together a little at one place, and so 
at another; and laded our camels, and came home about 
t>even o'clock that night following. And because I fell lame, 
and my camel was tired, I left my wood in the way. 

There was in Tripoli, at that time, a Venetian whose name 
was Benedetto Veiietiano, and seventeen captives more of 
his company ; who ran away from Tripoli in a boat, and 
came in sight of an island called Malta, which lieth forty 
leagues right north from Tripoli. Being within a mile of 
the shore, and with very fair weather, one of their company 
said, In dispctto dc DIO adesso venio a pilliar terra ; which is 
as much as to say, " In the despite of GOD, I shall now 
fetch the shore : " and presently there arose a mighty storm 
with thunder and rain, and the wind at north. Their boat 
being very small, there were enforced to bear up room, and 
to shear right afore the wind over against the coast of 
Barbary from whence they came ; and rowing up and down 

Mafch'lsSA] The recapture of Benedetto &c. 23 

the coast, their victuals being spent, the twenty-first day 
after their departure they were enforced through want of food 
to come ashore, thinking to have stolen some sheep. But 
the Moors of the country, perceiving their intent, very craftily 
gathered together a threescore horsemen, and hid themselves 
behind a sandy hill ; and when the Christians were come all 
ashore, and had passed up half a mile into the country ; the 
Moors rode betwixt them and their boat, and some of theni 
pursued the Christians. So they were all taken and brought 
to Tripoli, from whence they had before escaped. Presently 
the King commanded that the foresaid Benedetto with one 
more of his company should lose their ears, and the rest to 
be most cruelly beaten ; which was presently done. 

This King had a son, who was a ruler in an island called 
Jerbah, whereunto arrived an English ship called the Green 
Dragon, of the which was Master one Master Blonket : who 
had a very unhappy boy in that ship ; and understanding 
that whosoever would turn Turk should be well entertained 
of the King's son, this boy did run ashore, and voluntarily 
turned Turk. 

Shortly after [May 1584], the King's son came to Tripoli 
to visit his father; -and seeing our company, he greatly fancied 
Richard Bukges our Purser, and James Smith. They were 
both young men. Therefore he w-as very desirous to have 
them to turn Turks : but they would not yield to his desire, 
saying, " We are your father's slaves ; and as slaves, we will 
serve him." Then his father the King sent for them, and 
asked them if they would turn Turk? They said, "If it 
please your Highness, Christians we were born, and so we 
will remain ; " and beseeched the King that they might not 
be enforced thereunto. The King had there before, in his 
house, a son of a Yeoman of our Queen's Guard ; whom the 
King's son had enforced to turn Turk. His name was John 
Nelson. Him, the King caused to bt. brought to these 
young men, and then said unto them, " Will you not bear 
.this your countryman company, and be Turk as he is ? " 
And they said, " They would not yield thereunto during 

But it fell out, that within a month after, the King's son 
went home to Jerbah again, being six score miles from 

24 Sanuers writes home Sec, for help. [M^friSy: 

Tripoli ; and carried our two foresaid younp^ men v;Ith him, 
which were Richard Burges and James Smith. After 
their departure from us, they sent us a letter signifying that 
there was no violence showed to them as yet. But within 
three days after, they were violently used : for that the 
King's son demanded of them again, " If that they would 
turn Turk?" Then answered Richard Burges, "A 
Christian I am, and so will I remain." Then the King's son 
very angrily said unto him, " I-3y Mahomet ! thou shalt pre- 
sently [instantly] be made Turk ! " Then called he for his 
men, and commanded them to make him Turk ; and they did 
so, and circumcised him : and would have had him speak 
the words that thereunto belonged ; but he answered them 
stoutly that he would not, and although they had put on 
him the habit of a Turk; "Yet," said he, "a Christian I 
was born, and so I will remain ; though you force me to do 
otherwise." And then he called for the other, and com- 
manded him to be made Turk perforce also ; but he was 
very strong, for it was as much as eight of the King's son's 
men could do to hold him ; so in the end they circumcised 
him, and made him Turk. 

Now to pass over a little, and so to show the manner of our 
deliverance out of that miserable captivity. 

In May [1584] aforesaid, shortly after our apprehension, I 
wrote a letter into England unto my father dwelling at 
Eavistoke [Tavistock] in Devonshire, signifying unto him the 
whole state of our calamities ; and I wrote also to Constan- 
tinople to the English Ambassador : both of which letters were 
faithfully delivered. 

But when my father had received my letter, and understood 
the truth of our mishap and the occasion thereof, and 
what had happened to the offendors ; he certified the Right 
Honourable the Earl of Bedford thereof, who, in short space, 
acquainted Her Highness with the whole cause thereof : and 
Her INIajesty, like a merciful Princess tendering her subjects, 
presently took order for our deliverance. 

Whereupon the right worshipful Sir Edward Osborne, 
Knight, directed his letters [5//^ of September 1584I with all 
speed to the English Ambassador in Constantinople to procure 

T. Sanders, 

5;.] A Commission sent to free them. 25 

our delivery. He obtained the Great Turk's Commission 
[October 1584], and sent it forthwith [January 1585] to 
Tripoli by one Master Edward Barton [his Secretary], 
together with [Mahomet Beg] a Justice of the Great Turk's, 
one soldier, another Turk; and a Greek who was his Inter- 
preter, and could speak Greek, Turkish, Italian, Spanish, and 

When they came to Tripoli, they were well entertained; 
and the first night, they did lie in a captain's house in the 
town. All our company that were in Tripoli came that night 
for joy, to Master Barton and the other Commissioners 
to see them. Then Master Barton said unto us, "Welcome, 
my good countrymen ! " and lovingly entertained us; and at 
our departure from him, he gave us two shillings, and said, 
" Serve God ! for to-morrow I hope you shall be as free as 
ever you were." We all gave him thanks, and so departed. 

The next day in the morning, very early, the King having 
intelligence of their coming, sent word to the Keeper that 
"none of the Englishmen," meaning our company, "should 
go to work." 

Then he sent for Master Barton and the other Commis- 
sioners, and demanded of the said Master Barton his message. 
The Justice answered that " the Great Turk my Sovereign 
had sent them unto him, signifying that he was informed 
that a certain English ship called the Jesus was by him, the 
said King, confiscated about twelve months since ; and now 
my said Sovereign hath here sent his especial Commission by 
us unto you for the deliverance of the said ship and goods ; 
and also the free liberty and deliverance of the Englishmen 
of the said ship, w'hom you have taken and kept in captivity." 
And further the same Justice said, " I am authorised by my 
said Sovereign the Great Turk to see it done ; and therefore 
I command you by virtue of this Commission presently to 
make restitution of the premises or the value thereof." So 
did the Justice deliver unto the King, the Great Turk's 
Commission to the effect aforesaid ; which Commission the 
King with all obedience perused. 

After the perusing of the same, he forthwith commanded 
all the English captives to be brought before him ; and then 
willed the Keeper to strike off all our irons. Which done, the 
King said, " You Englishmen ! for that you did offend the 

26 Eleven Survivors are set free. [MaS"f58"; 

laws of this place : by the same laws therefore, some of your 
company were condemned to die, as you know; and you to 
be perpetual captives during your lives. Notwithstanding, 
seeing it hath pleased my Sovereign Lord the Great Turk to 
pardon your said offences, and to give you your freedom and 
liberty ; behold, here I make delivery of you to this English 
gentleman ! " So he delivered us all that were there, being 
thirteen [or rather eleven] in number, to Master Barton : who 
required also those two young men which the King's son had 
taken with him. Then the King answered that " it was against 
their law to deliver them, for that they had turned Turks." 
And touching the ship and goods, the King said that " he had 
sold her; but would make restitution of the value, and as 
much of the goods as came unto his hands." So the King 
arose, and v/ent to dinner; and commanded a Jew to go 
with Master Barton and the other Commissioners to show 
them their lodging, which was a house provided and appointed 
them by the said King. And because I had [knew] the Italian 
and Spanish tongues, by which most of their traffic in that 
country is; Master Barton made me his cater [caterer] to buy 
his victuals for him and his company, and delivered me money 
needful for the same. Thus were we set at liberty the 28th 
day of April 1585. 

Now to return to the King's plagues and punishments: 
which Almighty GOD at His will and pleasure, sendeth upon 
men, in the sight of the world ; and likewise of the plagues 
that befel his children and others aforesaid. 

First, when we were made bondmen, being the 2nd day 
of May 1584, the King had 300 captives ; and before the 
month was expii-ed, there died 150 of them of the plague. And 
whereas thei-e were twenty-six men of our company ; of whom 
two were hanged, a.nd one died the same day that we were 
made bondslaves : that present month there died of the 
plague, nine l? ten] more of our company; and other two were 
forced to turn Turks, as is before reheai'sed. 

On the 4th day of June next following, the King lost 150 
camels, which were taken from him by the wild Moors. 

On the 2Sth day of the said month of June, one Geoffrey 
Maltese, a renegado of Malta, ran away to his country ; 
and stole a biigantine which the King had buildedfor to take 

Lfchtss;.] The Janissaries kill the King. 27 

Christians witlial : and carried with liim twelve Christians 
more, which were the King's captives. 

Afterwards about the loth day of July next following, the 
King rode forth upon the greatest "and fairest mare that might 
be seen, as white as any swan. He had not ridden forty 
paces from his liouse, but on a sudden the same mare fell 
down under him stark dead : and I with six more were 
commanded to bury her, skin, shoes, and all; which we 

And about three months after our delivery [i.e., Jnly 1585], 
Master Barton with all the residue of his company, de- 
parted from Tripoli for Zanie, in a vessel called a Settee, 
of one Marcus Segoorus who dwelt in Zante. After our 
arrival at Zante, we remained fifteen days aboard our vessel 
before we could have platcgo, that is, leave to come ashore ; 
because the plague was in chat place from whence we came. 

About three days after we came ashore, thither came 
another Settee of Marseilles bound for Constantinople. Then 
did Master Barton and his company, with two more of our 
Company, ship themselves as passengers in the same Settee; 
and went to Constantinople. 

But the other nine of us that remained in Zante, about 
three months after, shipped ourselves in a ship of the said 
Marcus Segoorus, which came to Zante, and was bound 
for England. 

In which three months, the soldiers of Tripoli killed the 
said King. Then the King's son, according to the custom 
there, went to Constantinople to surrender up all his father's 
treasure, goods, captives, and concubines unto the Great 
Turk: and took with him our said Purser Richard Burges, 
and James Smith ; and also the other two Englishmen which 
he, the King's son, had enforced to become Turks, as is afore- 

And they, the said Englishmen, finding now some oppor- 
tunity, concluded with the Christian captives which were 
going with them unto Constantinople, being in number about 
150, to kill the King's son and all the Turks which were on 
board the galley : and privily the said Englishmen conveyed 
unto the said Christian captives weapons for that purpose. 

28 Surpassing courage of four Englishmen. [MkrciwS: 

And when they came into the main sea, toward Constanti- 
nople, upon the faithful promise of the said Christian captives, 
these four Englishmen leaped suddenly into the crossia, that is, 
into the midst of the galley where the cannon lieth, and with 
their swords drawn, did fight against all the foresaid Turks : 
but for want of help from the said Christian captives, who 
falsely brake their promises, the said Master Blonket's boy 
and [John Nelson] the other Englishman were killed ; and 
the said James Smith and our Purser Richard Burges 
were taken, and bound in chains, to be hanged at their 
arrival in Constantinople. 

And as the LORD'S will was, about two days after, 
passing through the Gulf of Venice, at an island called 
Cephalonia, they met with two of the Doge of Venice's 
galleys ; which took that galley, and killed the King's son, 
his mother, and all the Turks that were there, 150 in 
number. They saved the Christian captives ; and would 
have killed the two Englishmen, because they were circum- 
cised and become Turks ; had not the other Christian 
captives excused them, saying that "they were enforced to 
be Turks by the King's son," and showed the Venetians also 
how they did enterprise at sea to fight all the Turks, and that 
their two fellows were slain in that fight. Then the Vene- 
tians saved them ; and they, with all the residue of the said 
captives (which were in number 150 or thereabouts), had their 
liberty : and the said galley and all the Turks' treasure was 
confiscated to the use of the State of Venice. 

From thence, our two Englishmen travelled homeward by 

In this mean time, one more of our company died at Zante, 
and afterwards the other eight shipped themselves at Zante 
in a ship of the said Marcus Segoorus, which was bound 
for England. Before we departed thence, there arrived the 
Ascension and the George Bonaventure of London, in Cepha- 
lonia ; in a harbour there called Argostoli ; whose Merchants 
[supercargoes] agreed with the Merchant of our ship, and so 
laded all the merchandise of our ship into the said ships of 
London ; who took us eight also in as passengers. So we 
came home. 

And within two months after our arrival at London, our 

MardrS;.] T II A N K S C I V I N G S; 29 

said Purser Richard Burges and his fellow camq home 

For all which, we are bound to praise Almighty GOD during 
our lives ; and as duty bindeth us, to pray for the preservation 
of our most gracious Queen, for the great care Her Majesty 
had over us her poor subjects, in seeking and procuring our 
deliverance aforesaid; and also for her honourable Privy 
Council. And I especially for the prosperity and good estate 
of the house of the late deceased the Right Honourable 
[Francis Russell] the Earl of Bedford [d. 1585] ; whose 
Honour, I must confess, most diligentl}^ at the suit of my 
father now departed, travailed herein ; for the which I rest 
continually bounden to his ; whose soul, I doubt not, but is 
already in the heavens in joy, with the Almighty. Unto which 
place. He vouchsafe to bring us all, that for our sins suffered 
most vile and shameful death upon the cross : there to live 
perpetually, world without end. Amen. 

Andrew Marvell, M. P. 

A Dialogue between the Resolved So id 
and Created Pleasure, 

[Miscelltttth's. 1 68 1.] 

OURAGE, my Soul ! Now learn to wield 
The weight of thine immortal shield! 
Close on thy head thy helmet bright ! 
Balance thy sword against the fight ! 
See where an army, strong as fair, 
With silken banners spreads the air ! 
Now if Thou be'st that thing divine, 
In this day's combat, let it shine ! 
And show that Nature wants an art 
To conquer one resolved heart ! 

Welcome, the Creation's Guest ! 
Lord of Earth ! and Heaven's Heir ! 
Lay aside that warhke crest, 
And of Nature's banquet share ! 
Where the souls of fruits and flowers 
Stand prepared to heighten yours ! 

I sup above ; and cannot stay 
To bait so long upon the way. 

On these downy pillows lie ! 
Whose soft plumes will thither fly : 
On these roses ! strewed so plain, 
Lest one leaf thy side should strain. 




A. Marvc:i.-| Jjjj, SoUL AND PLEASURE. 31 

Soul. My gentler rest is on a Thought ; 
Conscious of doing what I ought. 

Pleasure. If thou be'st with perfumes pleased, 
Such as oft the gods appeased ; 
Thou, in fragrant clouds, shall show 
Like another god below ! 

Soul. A soul that knows not to presume. 
Is heaven's, and its own perfume. 

Pleasure. Everything does seem to vie 

Which should first attract thine eye ; 
But since none deserves that grace, 
In this crystal, view thy face ! 

Soul. When the Creator's skill is prized ; 
The rest is all but earth disguised. 

Pleasure. Hark, how Music then prepares 
For thy stay these charming airs J 
Which the posting winds recall, 
And suspend the river's fall. 

Soul. Had I but any time to lose ; 

On this, I would it all dispose. 

Cease Tempter! None can chain a mind, 

Whom this sweet chordage cannot bind. 

Chorus, Earth cannot show so brave a sight 
As when a single Soid does fence 
The batteries of alluring Sense; 
And heaven views it with delight. 

Then persevere ! for still new charges sound ; 
And if thou overconi'st, thou, shalt be crowned! 


The Soul and Pleasure. L^^>--"- 

Pleasure. All this fair, and cost, and sweet, 
Which scatteringly doth shine, 
Shall within one Beauty meet ; 
And she be only thine ! 

Soul. If things of Sight such heavens be ; 

What heavens are those, we cannot see ? 

Pleasure. Wheresoe'er thy foot shall go, 
The minted gold shall lie ; 
Till thou purchase all below. 
And want new worlds to buy ! 

Soul. Wer't not a price, who'ld value gold ? 

And that's worth nought, that can be sold. 

Pleasure. Wilt thou all the glory have 

That war or peace commend ? 
Half the world shall be thy slave ; 
The other half thy friend ! 

Soul. What friends ! if to myself untrue ? 
What slaves ! unless I captive you ? 

Pleasure. Thou shalt know each hidden cause 1 
And see the future time ! 
Try what depth, the centre draws ! 
And then to heaven climb ! 

Soul. None thither mounts by the degree 
Of Knowledge, but Humility. 

Chorus. Triumph! triumph! victorious Soul ! 
The world has not one pleasure more. 
The rest does lie beyond the pole. 
And is thine everlasting store ! 

cCfte manner of tfje 

triumpl) at 

CI)e seconti printing. aHJitl) 

more additions as it 

toas Done inDeeD. 

Cum priijilegio iaegali. 

EiVG. Gar. II. 


C Clje mmt^ of tlje J5oblcmcn of f rattce* 

C First, the French King. 

The King of Navarre. 

The Dauphin, Francis, Duke 

de Bretagne. 
Henry, Duke d'Orleans. 
Charles, Duke d'Angouleme. 
Charles, Duke de Vend6me. 
The Duke de Guise. 
The Duke de Longueville. 

The Cardinal de Bourbon. 

The Cardinal de Lorain e. 

The Legate, and Cardinal Chan- 
cellor of France, Antony de 

The Cardinal TournoN. 

The Cardinal Graimond. 

The Marquis de Loraine DE 


The Marquis de Rocheline. 

The two sons of the Duke DE 

The son of the Duke de Guise, 

Comte D'AuMALLE. 
The Comte de Saint Paul, 

Francois de Bourbon. 
The Comte de Nevers. 
The Comte Louis de Nevers, 

Comte Danseore. 
The Lord Marshal, Seigneur de 

The Lord Mirepois, Markhal 

de la Foy. 
The Comte de PorseaN. 
The Comte de Brene. 
The Comte de Tonnore. 

The Comte de Sensare. 
The Comte de Grand Pri^. 
The Comte d'Apremont. 
The Lord Great Master, Anne 


The Lord Admiral, Philippe 

The Lord Grand Esquire, 

The Prince of Molse. 
The Comte de Tande. 
The Comte de Villars. 
The Comte d'Estampes, Jean 

DE la berre. 
The Comte de Chambre. 
The Lord Canamples. 
The Lord Barbelviez. 
The Lord Hum meres. 
The Lord Rochepiot. 
The Lord of Saint Andrews. 
The Lord Montigue. 
The Lord Piennes. 
The Lord Pontremy. 
Monsieur de Lange. 
Monsieur de Bellay. 

The Archbishop of RoueN. 
The Archbishop of Vienne, 

The Bishop 
The Bishop 
The Bishop 
The Bishop 
The Bishop 
The Bishop 
The Bishop 
The Bishop 
The Bishop 
The Bishop 

of Lisieux. 
of Langres. 
of ChartreS. 
of Limoges. 
of BeaUvais. 
of Auvergne. 
of Macon. 
of Castres. 
of Paris. 
of Angouleme. 

C ^nn a0 concerning tl^e nobler ann roral 
^tate0 of tl)i0 realm ; it ncctictl) not to tie 
e;i:pregJ0 M name* 

;6 Henry VIII. arrives at Calais, [n 

ov. 1532. 

Will certify you of our news in the parts of 

First, the nth day of October [1532], which 
was Friday ; in the morning at five o'clock, the 
King's Grace took his ship called the Swallow : 
and so came to Calais by ten o'clock. 

And there he was received with procession, 
and with the Mayor and the Lord Deputy, and 
all the spears [knights] and the soldiers in array ; with a 
great peal of guns : and lay in Calais till the Sunday 
se'nnight after [the 20th of October]. 

And on the i6th day of October, my lord of Norfolk, 
accompanied with my lord of Derby and a great number 
of gentlemen besides, met with the Great Master of France 
six miles from Calais at the "English Pale:" the said 
Great Master having two great lords in his company of their 
order, and a hundred gentlemen attending upon them. 
And there my lord of Norfolk and the Great Master 
devised the place where the two kings should meet : which 
was at Sandingfield. And that so done ; they went both to 
Calais with their companies. 

And the said Great Master, with divers other strangers, 
dined that day with the King : and after dinner, my lord of 
Norfolk brought them forth of their way a mile or two ; 
and so departed for that time. 

And on the Monday, the 21st day of October, the King of 
England took his way to meet with the French King at the 
place before appointed, with seven score [gentlemen] all in 
velvet coats afore him, lords and knights ; and forty of his 
guard, and others to the number, as we think, of six hundred 
horse, and as well horsed as ever was seen. 

And the King, our Master, met with the French King at 
Sandingfield, within the English Pale three miles. There the 
French King tarried for our Master the space of an hour or 
two : the French King being accompained with the King 
of Navarre, the Cardinal de Lorraine, the Duke de 
Vendome ; with divers others noblemen well and richly 
appointed, being of like number as our King was of, that is 
to say, six hundred persons. 

Nov.'.532.] Goes with Francis I. to Boulogne. 2)1 

There was the lovingest meeting that ever was seen ; for 
the one embraced the other five or six times on horseback ; 
and so did the lords on either party each to other : and so did 
ride hand in hand with great love the space of a mile. 

At the meeting of these two noble Kings, there were {Eng- 
Itsh] sakers and sakretscast off: and at divers flights [of shot], 
two kites were beaten down, which were soaring in the air, 
with such like pastime, which greatly pleased all the nobles of 
both parties. And then they did light off their horses, and 
drank each to other. The French King drank first to our King : 
and when they had drunk they embraced each other again 
with great love ; and so rode towards Boulogne, our King on 
the right hand. 

And when they came within a mile of Boulogne, there met 
with the Kings, the Dauphin, being accompanied with his 
two brethren the Duke d'Orleans and the Duke d'Angou- 
LfiME ; very goodly children : and attending on them, four 
Cardinals ; with a thousand horse, very well beseen. 

And when they came near the town, the French King 
caused our Master to tarry, while the gunshot was shot; 
which was heard twenty English miles from Boulogne : and 
so entered the town. 

Where stood the Captain with the soldiers in good order. 
And above them stood a hundred Switzers of the French 
King's Guard, in their doublets and their hose of yellow 
velvet cut, goodly persons ; and above them, stood two 
hundred more of the French King's Guard, Scots and 
Frenchmen, in coats of yellow, blue, and crimson velvet, 
bearing halberts in their hands ; and above them stood two 
hundred gentlemen, being in their gowns well and richly 
beseen, every man having a battle axe in his hand, and 
their captains standing by them. 

And so they tarried in Boulogne ; Monday, T^iesday, 
Wednesday, and Thursday all day. 

The Tuesday, being the second day of this their being 
there, the French King gave our King rich apparel wrought 
with needle work purled [fringed] with gold ; in the which 
like apparel both the Kings went to our Lady's Church at 
Boulogne. At that time, our King obtained release and 
liberty from the French King, for all prisoners at that time 
prisoners in Boulogne. And in like wise, did the French 
King in Calais of our King and Master at his being there; 


The great cheer at Boulogne, [nov/.s 

and obtained grace for all banished men that would make 
suit for their pardon. And to esteem the rich traverses 
\low airtains] that were in our Lady's Church in Boulogne, and 
in our Lady's Church in Calais likewise, for both the Kings; 
the rich ordinances and provision for the same: it is too 
much to write ! 

And as for the great cheer that was there, no man can 
express it. For the King's Grace was there entertained all 
at the French King's cost and charges. And every day 
noblemen of France desired our nobles and gentlemen home 
to their lodgings: where they found their houses richly 
hanged [with tapestry], great cupboards of plate, sumptuous 
fare, with singing and playing of all kinds of music. And 
also there was sent unto our lodgings great fare with all 
manner of wines for our servants ; and our horses' meat was 
paid for : and all at their charges. 

And every day the French king had at dinner and supper 
with him certain noblemen of England \ and the King's 
Grace had in like wise certain of their nobles at dinner and 
supper ; during the time of their being at Boulogne, And 
this continued with as great cheer and familiarity as might be. 
And as concerning ladies and gentlewomen, there were none. 
And on the Friday following, the Kings came towards 
Calais. And the Dauphin, with the Cardinals and all their 
gentlemen, brought the Kings unto the place where they 
first met them ; and then departed. The French King had 
great carriage [baggage]] for there came more than three 
hundred mules laden with stuff. 

And so coming towards Calais, the Duke of Richmond, 
accompanied with Bishops, and many other noblemen that 
were not with the King at Boulogne ; and all the King's 
Guard, which were with all others marvellously well horsed 
and trigimed ; they stood in a place appointed, in array and 
good order in the way, two miles out of Calais where the 
French King should come : who saluted the French King 
with great honour, in like manner as the King our Master 
was saluted at Boulogne, with amicable and goodly salutations 
as ever were seen. They were saluted with great melody ; 
what with guns, and all other instruments [!]: and the order 
of the town, it was a heavenly sight for the time ! 

First at Newnam Bridge, 400 shot; at the Block House, 

N.v.'.532.] The two Kings return to Calais. 39 

30 shot ; at Risbank Tower [in Calais harbour] 300 shot ; 
within the town of Calais 2,000 shot, great and small ; 
besides the ships. It was all numbered at 3,000 shot. And 
at Boulogne, by estimation, it passed not 200 shot ; but they 
were great pieces [cannon]. 

Also for the order of the town there was set all serving men 
on the one side, in tawny coats ; and soldiers on the other 
side, all in coats of red and blue, with halberts in their hands. 

And so the Kings came riding in the midst : and so the 
French King went to Staple Hall; which is a princely house. 

And upon Saturday, both the Kings rode to our Lady's 
Church to mass ; and in the afternoon both their councils 
sat together. 

And upon Sunday, both the Kings heard mass in their 
lodgings. And at afternoon, the King of England rode to 
Staple Hall to the French King ; and there was both bear- 
baiting and bull-baiting till night. 

And at night, the French King supped with our King, and 
there was great banqueting. 

After supper, there came in a Masque, my Lady Marquess 
of Pembroke [i.e., Anne Boleyn], my Lady Mary [Boleyn], 
my lady Derby, my lady Fitz-Walter, my lady Rochford, 
my lady L'Isle, and my lady Wallop, gorgeously apparelled, 
with visors on their faces : and so came and took the French 
King, and other lords of France, by the hand ; and danced a 
dance or two. 

After that, the King took off their visors ; and then they 
danced with gentlemen of France an hour after : and then 
they departed to their lodgings. 

As for the apparel of the French lords, my tongue cannot 
express it, and especially the French King's apparel passeth my 
pen to write ; for he had a doublet set over all with stones and 
rich diamonds, which was valued by discreet men at a ^^100,000 
[ = ;^8oo,ooo in the present day]. They far passed our lords and 
knights in apparel and richesse. 

They had great cheer in Calais, and loving also ; and all 
at our King's costs and charges. 

Also the same day that the Kings came from Boulogne, 
the French King made the Duke of Norfolk, and the Duke of 
Suffolk, of the Order of Saint Michael. And upon Monday, 
which was the 2gth day of October, at Calais ; our King 

40 F rw\ N C I S I . RETURNS TO P A R I S. [nov.',532. 

made the Great Maister of France and the Admiral of France, 
Kni^'hts of the Garter. 

And that day, there was a great wrestHng between 
EngHshmen and Frenchmen, before both the Kings. The 
French King had none but priests that wrestled, which were 
big men and strong (they were brethren) ; but they had most 

As concerning the abundance and liberal multitude of gifts 
that were so lovingly and cordially given on both parties (to 
the great honour of both the Kings) my pen or capacity 
cannot express it : as well among the great lords as with the 
lowest yeoman that bare any office in either King's house; 
and specially the King's gifts, on both parties, always 
rewarded the one like unto the other. 

And all other gifts were nothing but rich plate, and gold 
coin — silver was of no estimation— besides raiments, horses, 
geldings, falcons, bears, dogs for the game : with many other, 
which were too much to write. 

And upon the 29th day of October, the French King 
departed from Calais to Paris ward : and our King brought 
him as far as Morgyson, which is from Calais, seven miles ; 
and so came to Calais again. 

And he purposeth, GOD willing, to be at Canterbury the 
8th day of November, and so home. Whom GOD, of His 
goodness, ever preserve ! and send good passage, and safe 
again into England. Amen. 

C gimprinteti bp aZHpnftpn De aJUorUe, 

untier tl)e grace anti prrtilege of our 

most roj>al anti reDouftteU prince, 

Mim ^tmv t\)t i)U)tl), for 3o))n 

dBougl) titoelling at i^aurs 

gate in Ct)eap 

[/.^. Cheapside\. 

Cum prit)ilegio. 

C Cl)e noble trimnpl)ant 
dSoronation of 

(JSueen Qinnt 

CKKife unto tt)e most 

noble Mins 
^tnxv ti)e \)iiit\). 

E^ R^ 






This Triumph was a much greater matter than a simple Coronation 
pageant. It was the official recognition of the Revolt from the 
Papacy ; and all who took a prominent part in it favoured the new 

iRst, the 2gth day of May [1533], being 
Thursday; all the worshipful Crafts and 
Occupations in their best array, goodly 
beseen, took their barges which were 
splayed [displayed] with goodly banners 
fresh and new, with the cognizance and 
arms of their faculty ; to the number of 
fifty great barges, comely beseen, and 
every barge had minstrels making great and sweet harmony. 
Also there was the Bachelors' Barge comely beseen, 
decked with innumerable banners and all about hanged with 
rich cloth of gold ; and foists [swift boats] waiting upon her, 
decked [adoriied] with a great shot of ordnance : which 
descended the river afore all the barges ; the Batchelors' 
Barge foremost. And so following in good order, every Craft 
[i.e., City Company] in their degree and order, till they came 
to Greenwich, and there tarried ; abiding the Queen's Grace : 
which was a wonderful and goodly sight to behold. 

Then at three o'clock, the Queen's Grace came to her 
barge : and incontinent [iinmediately] all the citizens with 
that goodly company set forth towards London in good 
array, as is before said. And to write what number of gun 
shots — what with chambers, and great pieces of ordnance — 
were shot off as she passed by, in divers places, and especially 
at Ratcliff and at Limehouse out of certain ships ; it passeth 
my memory to write or to tell the number of them ! And so 
the Queen's Grace, being in her rich barge among her nobles, 
the citizens accompanied her to London, unto the Tower 

44 The Procession up the River. [j„„J ,533 

Also ere she came near the Tower, there were shot off 
innumerable pieces of ordnance, as ever there was there by 
any men's remembrances : where the King received her 
Grace with a noble loving countenance ; and so gave thanks 
and praise to all the citizens for all their great kindness and 
loving labour and pains taken in that behalf, to the great joy 
and comfort of all the citizens. 

Also to behold the wonderful number of people that ever 
was seen, that stood on the shore on both sides of the river; 
it was never seen, in one sight, out of the City of London. 
What in goodly lodgings and houses that be on the river 
side between Greenwich and London ; it passeth all men's 
judgements to esteem the infinite number of them : wherein 
her Grace with all her ladies rejoiced much. 

C I&m'ffljt^ mane at (EceenVDitlj tlje »)untia^ 
before (I(llljit:0iinDap* 

C And the Sunday before this Triumph, being the 25th day 
of May [1533] ; the King made at his Manor of Greenwich 
all these knights. 

Sir Christopher Danby. Sir Thomas Butteller. 

Sir Christopher Hylard. Sir William Walgrave. 

Sir Brian Hastings. Sir William Fielding. 
Sir Thomas Methem. 

C %\iz ifcitiap, toece matie l^niffljt^ of tlje Batlj, 
nineteen -, toljo^e nanieqi foUoVoetlj. 

C Also on Friday the 30th day of May, the king created 
and made in the Tower of London, nineteen noblemen, 
Knights of the Bath : whose names follow. 

The Lord Marquis Dorset. 
The Earl of Derby. 

The Lord Clifford, son and heir to the Earl of Cumber- 
The Lord Fitz-Walter, son and heir to the Earl of Sussex, 
The Lord Hastings, son and heir to the Earl of Huntingdon. 
The Lord Berkeley. 

June 1533 

J The large number of Knights made. 45 

The Lord Monteagle. 
The Lord Vaux. 

r Henry Parker, son and heir to the Lord Morley. 

r William Windsor, son and heir to the Lord Windsor. 

r John Mordaunt, son and heir to the Lord Mordaunt. 

r Francis Weston. 

r Thomas Arundell. 

r John Hudleston. 

r Thomas Ponings. 

r Henry Saville. 

r George Fitzwilliam, of Lincohishire. 

r ohn Tyndall. 

r Thomas Jermey. 

C Also Saturday, the last day of May, the King made those 
Knights of the sword, in the Tower of London, whose names 
follow : 

Sir William Drury. Sir 

Sir John Gerningham. Sir 

Sir Thomas Rush. Sir 

Sir Randolph Buerton. Sir 

Sir George Calverley. Sir 

Sir Edward Fytton. Sir 

Sir George Conyers. Sir 

Sir Robert Nedham. Sir 

Sir John Chaworth. Sir 

Sir George Gresley. Sir 

Sir John Constable. Sir 

Sir Thomas Umpton. Sir 

Sir John Horsley. Sir 

Sir Richard Lygon. Sir 

Sir John Saint Clere. Sir 

Sir Edward Maidison. Sir 

Sir Henry Feryngton. Sir 
Sir Marmaduke Tun stall. Sir 

Sir Thomas Halsall. Sir 

Sir Robert Kirkham. Sir 

Sir Anthony Windsor. Sir 

Sir Walter Hubbert. Sir 

Sir John Willoughby. Sir 

Thomas Kitson. 
Thomas Mysseden. 
Thomas Foulehurst. 
Henry Delves. 
Peter Warburton. 
Richard Bulkeley. 
Thomas Laking. 
Walter Smith. 
Henry Everyngham. 
William Uvedall. 
Thomas Massingberd. 
William Sandon. 
James Baskervylle. 
Edmond Trafford. 
Arthur Eyre. 
Henry Sutton. 
John Nories. 
William Malory. 
John Harcourt. 
John Tyrell. 
William Browne. 
Nicholas Sturley. 
Randolph Manering. 

46 The Coronation Procession. [june'.533. 

C AlsotheSundayafterWhit-sunday,being Trinity Sunday, 
and the 8th day of June ; were made at Greenwich, these 
Knights following. 

Sir Christopher Corwen. Sir John Dawn. 

Sir Geofrey Mydleton. Sir Richard Haughton. 

Sir Hugh Trevyneon. Sir Thomas Langton. 

Sir George West. Sir Edward Bowton. 

Sir Clement Herleston. Sir Henry Capel. 
Sir Humphrey Feries. 

C Also all the pavements of the City, from Charing Cross 
to the Tower, were covered over and cast with gravel. 

And the same Saturday, being Whitsun Eve, the Mayor 
with all the Aldermen and the Crafts of the City prepared 
array in a good order to stand and receive her Grace ; and with 
rails for every Craft to stand and lean, from the press of people. 

The Mayor met the Queen's Grace at her coming forth of 
the Tower. All his brethren and aldermen standing in Cheap 

And upon the same Saturday, the Queen came forth from 
the Tower towards Westminster, in goodly array ; as 
hereafter followeth. 

She passed the streets first, with certain strangers, their 
horses trapped with blue silk ; and themselves in blue velvet 
with white feathers, accompanied two and two. Likewise 
Squires, Knights, Barons, and Baronets, Knights of the Bath 
clothed in violet garments, edged with ermine like judges. 
Then following: the Judges of the law, and Abbots. All 
these estates were to the number of two hundred couple and 
more : two and two accompanied. 

And then followed Bishops, two and two ; and the 
Archbishops of York and Canterbury ; the Ambassadors of 
France and Venice ; the Lord Mayor with a mace : Master 
Garter the King of Heralds, and the King's coat armour upon 
him, with the Officers of Arms, appointing every estate in 
their degree. 

Then followed two ancient Knights with old fashioned 
hats, powdered on their heads, disguised, who did represent 
the Dukes of Normandy and of Guienne, after an old 
custom : the Lord Constable of England for the time, being the 

june'isss] Udall's Pageant at Leadeniiall. 47 

Duke of Suffolk ; the Lord William Howard, the Deputy 
for the time to the Lord Marshal, the Duke of Norfolk. 

Then followed the Queen's Grace in her litter, costly and 
richly beseen, with a rich canopy over her : which was borne 
by the Lords of the Five Ports [i.e., Barons of the Cinque 
Ports]. After her, following the Master of her Horse with a 
spare white palfrey richly appointed, and led in his hand. 

Then followed her noble Ladies of Estate richly clothed in 
crimson powdered with ermines ; to the number of twelve. 

Then the Master of the Guard, with the guard on both 
sides of the streets in good array ; and all the Constables well 
beseen in velvet and damask coats with white staves in their 
hand ; setting every man in array and order in the streets 
until she came to Westminster. 

Then followed four rich chariots with Ladies of Honour. 
After them followed thirty Ladies and gentlewomen richly 
garnished : and so the serving men after them. 

And as she was departed from the Tower a marvellously 
great shot of guns [cannonade] was there fired, and shot off. 

So this most noble company passed, till her Grace came to 
Fenchurch ; where was a pageant fair and seemly, with 
certain children who saluted her Grace with great honour 
and praise, after a goodly fashion : and so passed forth to 
Gracechurch. Where was a rightly costly pageant of Apollo, 
with the Nine Muses among the mountains, sitting on the 
mount of Parnassus : and every of them having their instru- 
ments and apparel according to the description of poets, and 
namely [particularly] of Virgil ; with many goodly verses to 
her great praise and honour. 

And so she passed forth through Gracious [Gracechurch] 
Street unto Leaden Hall where was built a sumptuous and 
costly pageant in manner of a castle wherein was fashioned a 
heavenly roof and under it upon a ^reen was a root or a stock, 
whereout sprang a multitude of white and red roses curiously 
wrought. So from the heavenly roof descended a white 
falcon, and lighted upon the said stock and root : and 
incontinent [immediately] descended an angel with goodly 
harmony, having a close crown between his hands, and set it 
on the falcon's head. And on the said floor sat Saint Anne 
in the highest place. And on that one side, her progeny with 
Scripture, that is to wit, the three Maries with their issue, 

48 The Pageants in Ciieapside. [j 


une 1533. 

that is to understand, Mary, the mother of Christ, Mary 
Salome the mother [or rather the wife] of Zebedee with the 
two children of them. Also Mary Cleophas with her 
husband Alpheus, with their four children on the other side. 
With other poetical verses [sec p. 52] said and sung ; and with 
a ballad in English [see p. 54] to her great praise and honour, 
and to all her progeny also. 

And so she passed forth from thence, through Cornhill ; 
and at the Conduit was a sumptuous pageant of the Three 
Graces. At the coming of the Queen's Grace a poet declared 
the nature of all those three Ladies ; and gave high praises 
unto the Queen. And after this preamble finished, each 
Lady in particular spake great honour and high praise of the 
Queen's Grace [seep. 56]. 

And so she passed forth with all her nobles till she came in 
Cheap [Chcapside]. And at the Great Conduit was made a 
costly fountain, where out ran white wine, claret, and red 
wine, in great plenty, all that afternoon. And there was 
great melody, with speeches. 

And so passed forth through Cheap to the Standard, which 
was costly and sumptuously garnished with gold and azure, 
with [coats of] arms and stories [? galleries] : where was 
great harmony and melody. 

And so passed she forth by the Cross in Cheap, which was 
new garnished : and so through Cheap towards the lesser Con- 
duit. And in the midway between, the Recorder of London 
received her before the Aldermen ; with great reverence and 
honour saluting her Grace, with a loving and humble proposi- 
tion, presenting her Grace with a rich and costly purse of gold, 
and in it a thousand marks [= £666 or about £5,000 in present 
value] in gold coin; given unto her as a free gift of honour. 
To whom she gave great thanks both with heart and mind. 

And so her Grace passed a little further, and at the lesser 
Conduit was a costly and rich pageant ; whereat was goodly 
harmony of music and other minstrels, with singing. And 
within that pageant were five costly seats, wherein were 
set these five personages, that is to wit, Juno, Pallas, 
Mercury, Venus, and Paris; who having a ball of gold 
presented it to her Grace with certain verses of great honour 
[see p. 57] : and children singing a ballad [see p. 59] to her 
Grace, and praise to all her ladies. 

ju-Jisis] Those ix St. Paul's Churchyard. 49 

And so passed forth to Paul's Gate, where was a proper 
and sumptuous pageant, that is to wit, there sat three fair 
ladies, virgins, costly arrayed, with a fair round throne over 
their heads; where about was written, Rcf^ina AxNA prosperc ! 
precede ! et regna ! that is in English, " Queen Anne prosper ! 
proceed ! and reign!" The lady that sat in the midst having 
a table of gold in her hand, written with letters of azure, 
Veni arnica coronahcris, " Come my love ! thou shalt be 
crowned ! " And two angels having a close crown of gold 
between their hands. And the lady on the right hand had 
a table of silver, whereon was written, DOM IN E ! dirige grcssos 
mcos ! " LORD GOD ! direct my ways ! " The other on the 
left hand had in another table of silver written, this Confide 
in DOMINO ! " Trust in GOD ! " And under their feet was 
a long roll wherein was written this, Rcgifia Anna novum 
regis de sanguine natnin, ctim paries populis aurea scada tiiis. 
" Queen Anne when thou shalt bear a new son of the King's 
blood ; there shall be a golden world unto thy people! " And 
so the ladies cast over her head a multitude of wafers with 
rose leaves ; and about the wafers were written with letters 
of gold, this posy. [Not given by the Writer.] 

And so her Grace passed forth into Paul's Churchyard. And 
at the East end of the Church against the [i.e., Saint Paul's] 
School was a great scaffold, whereon stood the number of 
tv/o hundred children, well beseen : who received her with 
poet's verses to her noble honour. When they had finished, 
she said "Amen," with a joyful smiling countenance. 

And so passed forth through the long Church}"ard ; and so 
to Lud Gate, which was costly and sumptuously garnished 
with gold, colours, and azure; with sweet harmony of 
ballads to her great praise and honour ; with divers sweet 

And thus her Grace came through the City with great 
honour and royalty, and passed through Fleet Street till she 
came to the Standard and Conduit where was made a fair 
tower with four turrets with vanes. Therewithin was a great 
plenty of sweet instruments, with children singing. The 
Standard, which was of mason work, costly made with images 
and angels, costly gilt with gold and azure, with other colours, 
and divers sorts of [coats of] arms costly set out, shall there 
continue and remain : and within the Standard a vice with a 

£.\G. Gar. II. 4 

50 The Queen's Coronation in the Abbey, l]nJ,sn- 

chime. And there ran out of certain small pipes great plenty 
of wine all that afternoon. 

And so her Grace passed through the city to Temple Bar ; 
and so to Charing Cross : and so through Westminster into 
Westminster Hall, that was well and richly hanged with 
cloth of Arras [tapestry], with a marvellous rich cupboard of 
plate: and there was a void [collation] of spice-plates and wine. 

And that done, the Queen's Grace withdrew her into the 
White Hall for that night ; and so to York Place by water. 

C The Sunday, in the morning, at eight o'clock, the Queen's 
Grace with noble ladies in their robes of estate, assembled 
with all the nobles apparelled in Parliament robes, as Dukes, 
Earls, Archbishops and Bishops, with Barons and the Barons 
of the Five Ports ; with the Mayor of the City and the 
Aldermen in their robes, as mantles of scarlet. 

The Barons of the Five Ports bare a rich canopy of cloth of 
gold, with staves of gold, and four bells of silver and gilt. 
The Abbot of Westminster with his rygals [? regalia] came 
into the Hall in pontificalihiis, with his monks in their best 
copes ; the [members of] the King's chapel in their best 
copes : with the Bishops, richly adorned in pontifxalibus. 

And the blue 'ray cloth spread from the high dosses [? dais] 
of the King's Bench unto the high altar of Westminster. 

And so every man proceeding to the Minster in the best 
order, every man after his degree appointed to his order and 
office as appertaineth ; came unto the place appointed : 
where her Grace received her crown, with all the ceremonies 
thereof, as thereunto belongeth. And so all ceremonies done, 
with the solemn Mass: they departed home in their best orders; 
every man to the Hall of W^estminster: where the Queen's 
Grace withdrew for a time into her chamber appointed. 

And so after a certain space. Her Grace came into the 
Hall. Then ye should have seen every nobleman doing 
their service to them appointed, in the best manner that hath 
been seen in any such ceremony. 

The Queen's Grace washed. The Archbishop of Canter- 
bury [Cranmer] said grace. Then the nobles were set to 
the table. Therewith came the Queen's service with the 
service of the Archbishop. A certain space, three men with 
the Queen's Grace's service. 

ju„/,533] ^^^ Dinner in Westminster Hall, 51 

Before the said service, came the Duke of Suffolk (High 
Constable that day, and Steward of the feast) on horseback, 
and marvellously trapped in apparel with richesse. Then 
with him came the Lord William Howard, as Deputy to 
the Duke of Norfolk, in the room [office] of the Marshal of 
England, on horseback. 

The Earl of Essex, Carver. The Earl of Sussex, Sewer. 
The Earl of Derby, Cupbearer. The Earl of Arundel, 
Butler. The Viscount Lisle, Panterer. The Lord Braye, 

These noble men did their service in such humble sort and 
fashion, as it was a wonder to see the pain and diligence of 
them : being such noble personages. 

The service borne by Knights, which were to me too long 
to tell in order : the goodly service of kinds of meat ; with 
their devices from the highest unto the lowest : there have 
not been seen a more goodly nor more honourably done in no 
man's days. 

C There were four tables in the great Hall, along the said 

The noblewomen, one table : sitting all on that one side. 

The noblemen another table. 

The Mayor of London another table, with his brethren. 

The Barons of the [Cinque] Ports, with the Master of the 
Chancery, the fourth table. 

And thus all things nobly and triumphantly done at her 
Coronation ; her Grace returned to White Hall, with great 
joy and solemnity. 

And on the morrow, there were great justs at the tilt done 
by eighteen Lords and Knights, where were broken many 
spears valiantly ; and some of their horses would not come 
at their pleasure, near unto the tilt; which was displeasure 
to some that there did run. 

C Cl)u0 ennetl) tl)i0 triuinpl)* 

3;mpnntcti at lounon in fleet Street bj? 

^Urnli^n tie OTorDe, for %p\)\\ dD^ougl)- 

Cum priDUegio* 


Nicholas Udall. 

English Verses and Ditties at the Coronation 
Procession of ^^ueen Anne Boleyn. 

\Royal MS. i8. a. Lxiv.] 

At the Pageant representing the Progeny of Saint Anne, 

exhibited at Cornhill, besides Leadcnhall [see p. 48], 
Were pronounced unto the Queen's Grace, these words 

By a Child. 

OsT excellent Queen, and bounteous Lady ! 

Here now to see your gracious Goodness, 

With such honour entering this City ; 

What joy we take, what hearty gladness, 
No pen may write, nor any tongue express ! 
For of you, depend the sure felicity 
And hope, both of us and our posterity. 

For like as from this devout Saint Anne 

Issued this holy generation. 

First Christ, to redeem the soul of man ; 

Then James th'apostle, and th'evangelist John ; 

With these others, which in such fashion 

By teaching and good life, our faith confirmed. 

That from that time yet to, it hath not failed : 

Right so, dear Lady ! our Queen most excellent ! 
Highly endued with all gifts of grace. 
As by your living is well apparent ; 
We, the Citizens, by you, in short space, 




N iwaii.-j Verses at the Coronation Procession. 53 

Hope such issue and descent to purchase ; 
Whereby the same faith shall be defended, 
And this City from all dangers preserved. 

Which time that we may right shortly see, 
To our great comfort, joy and solace ; 
Grant the most high and blessed Trinity ! 
Most humbly beseeching your noble Grace, 
Our rude simpleness showed in this place 
To pardon ; and, the brief time considering, 
To esteem our good minds, and not the thing. 

This spoken, opened a cloud, and let down a White 
Falcon, in the descending of which was pronounced, as 
followeth : 
By another Child. 

Ehold and see the Falcon White ! 
How she beginneth her wings to spread, 
And for our comfort to take her flight. 
But where will she cease, as you do read ? 
A rare sight ! and yet to be joyed. 
On the Rose ; chief ^ower that ever was. 
This bird to 'light, that all birds doth pass 1 

Then out of the same cloud descended an Angel, and 
crowned the same Falcon with a Crown Imperial : at which 
doing, was pronounced as followeth : 


Onour and grace be to our Queen Anne ! 
For whose cause an Angel celestial 
Descendeth, the Falcon as white as swan, 
To crown with a Diadem Imperial ! 
In her honour rejoice we all. 
For it cometh from GOD, and not of man. 
Honour and grace be to our Queen Anne ! 

54 Verses at the Coronation Procession. [AUy^.'sj"; 

Then, at the departing of the Queen's said Grace, was sung 
this ballad following. 

His White Falcon, 
Rare and geason, 

This bird shineth so bright ; 
Of all that are, 
No bird compare 

May with this Falcon White. 

The virtues all, 
No man mortal, 

Of this bird can write. 
No man earthly 
Enough truly 

Can praise this Falcon White. 

Who will express 
Great gentleness 

To be in any wight ; 
He will not miss, 
But call him this 

The gentle Falcon White. 

This gentle bird 
As white as curd 

Shineth both day and night ; 
Nor far ne near 
Is any peer 

Unto this Falcon White, 

Of body small. 
Of power regal, 

She is, and sharp of sight ; 
Of courage hault 
No manner fault 

Is in this Falcon White, 

May'tsjj] Verses at the Coronation Procession. 55 

In chastity, 
Excelleth she, 

Most Hke a virgin bright : 
And worthy is 
To live in bhss 

Always this Falcon White. 

But now to take 
And use her make 

Is time, as troth is plight ; 
That she may bring 
Fruit according 

For such a Falcon White. 

And where by wrong, 
She hath fleen long, 

Uncertain where to liglit ; 
Herself repose 
Upon the Rose, 

Now may this Falcon White. 

WHiereon to rest, 
And build her nest ; 

GOD grant her, most of mii,ht ! 
That England may 
Rejoice alway 

In this same Falcon White. 

56 Vkrsks at the Coronation- Procession. [Kl'aySti 

At the Conduit in Cornhill was exhibited a Pageant 
of the Three Graces see p. 48.] 

In which a Child, apparelled like a Poet, pronounced 
unto the Queen's Grace these verses ; 

Ueen Anne, behold your servants, the Three 
Graces ! 

Giving unto your Grace faithful assistance. 

With their most goodly amiable faces. 
They attend with their continual presence, 
Where your Grace goeth. Absent in your absence. 
While your Grace is here, they also here dwell 
About the pleasant brinks of this Hve well. 

Now here to be, they thought it their duty, 

And presently to salu^t^e you, gracious Queen ! 

Entering this day into this noble City, 

In such triumphant wise as hath not been seen : 

Which thing, to your honour and joy may it been ! 

These Three Sisters thought it their rebuke and shame, 

This day to be slack in honouring their Dame. 

Then immediately followed the speeches of the Three 
Graces, in this wise : 


Hearty Gladness. 

Ueen Anne ! whom to see, this City doth rejoice ; 
We three Graces, ladies of all pleasance, 
Clasped hand in hand, as of one mind and voice. 
With our three gifts in all good assurance. 
Shall never fail your Grace, to t'endue and enhance ! 
For I, Hearty Gladness by my name called, 
Shall your heart replenish with joy unfeigned. 

N. Udall 

SJ Vkrses at the Coronation Procession. 57 

T H A L E I A . 

Stable Honour. 

Nd I, Stable Honour, gracious Queen Anne! 
Joying in your joy, with this noble City, 
In honour and dignity, all that I can, 
Shall you advance ! as your Grace is most worthy. 
You to assist, I am bound by my duty. 
For your virtues being incomparable, 
You cannot but live, aye, most honourable. 

EuPHROSYNE. Continual Success. 

Nd for the great virtues, which I perceive 
To be in your Grace, so high and excellent ! 
By me. Continual Success, ye receive 
Long fruition, with daily increasement 

Of joy and honour, without diminishment. 

Never to decay, but always to arise ! 

All men, women, and children pray the same wise. 

At the Little Conduit in Cheapside was exhibited the 
Judgement of Paris [see p. 48], 

In manner and form following : 


UpiTER,this apple unto thee hath sent. 
Commanding, in this cause, to give 
true judgement ! 

Paris. Jupiter, a strange office hath given me, 

To judge which is fairest of these ladies three. 

Juno. All riches and kingdoms be at my behest. 

Give me the apple! and thou shalt have the best ! 

58 VkRSKS at Till' CuUOXATION PROCF.SSION. [Mly^j'^"' 

P A L L A s. Adjuclj^e it to me ! and for a kingdom, 
I shall give thee ineomparable wisdom ! 

Venus. Prefer me! and I shall reward thee, Paris ! 
With the fairest lady that on the earth is. 

Paris. I should break Jupiter's high commandment, 
If I should for mede or reward give judgement. 

Therefore, lady Venus ! before both these twain, 
Your beauty much exceeding; by my sentence, 
Shall win, and have this apple. Yet, to be plain! 
Here is the fourth Lady, now in presence, 
Most worthy to have it of due congruence, 
As peerless in riches, wit, and beauty; 
Which are but sundry qualities in you three. 
But for her worthiness, this apple of gold 
Is too simple a reward a thousand fold I 

The conclusion of this Pageant pronounced by 
A Child. 

O ! No ! Another reward there is 
Ordained for the worthiness of Her Grace ; 

^And not to be disposed by you, Paris ! 
Nor to be given here in this place. 
Queen Anne ! most excellent that ever was, 
For you is ready a Crown Imperial I 
To your joy, honour, and glory immortal. 

GOD, that of His goodness all things doth us send, 
Hath sent us your Grace, our hearts to make glad. 
Wherefore with as much humbleness we intend 
Your noble Grace to serve, as ever Queen had. 
For nothing there is, that may now make us sad, 
Having your noble Grace, our refuge and rest, 
Provided by Him, that knoweth what is best. 

May^'i533.] Verses AT THE Coronation Procession. 59 

All joy, wealth, and honour, with long space of life, 

Be to your Grace ; with succession royal ! 

And He, that hath power of all prerogative, 

The most blessed Trinity, GOD eternal, 

Save our King Henry in his estate royal ! 

Thus pray all the citizens, wife, child, and man, 

GOD save King Henry, and his Spouse Queen Anne ! 

At the departing of the Queen's said Grace was sung 
this ballad following : 

Ueen Anne so gent. 
Of high descent. 
Anne excellent 

In nobleness ! 
Of ladies all, 
You principal 
Should win this ball 
Of worthiness ! 

Passing beauty 
And chastity. 
With high degree, 

And great riches ; 
So coupled be 
In unity, 
That chief are ye 

In worthiness. 

When Jupiter 
His messenger 
Sent down hither, 

He knew certes 
That you, victrice 
Of all ladies. 
Should have the prize 

Of worthiness. 

6o Verses at the Coronation Procession, [il^^'l 

And wise Paris 
Made judge in this ; 
Anon, I wis, 

Most high Princess ! 
"Well understood 
Your virtues good, 
Your noble blood 

And worthiness. 

Your dignity 
When he 'gan see. 
The Ladies Three, 

Queen Anne peerless! 
He bade give place 
Unto your Grace ; 
As meet it was 

In worthiness. 

The golden ball, 
Of price but small, 
Have Venus shall, 

The fair goddess ! 
Because it was 
Too low and base 
For your good Grace 

And worthiness ! 


Doctor John Dee. 
The Petty Navy Royal. 

[General and rare Memorials, &'c., 
better known from its headline as 
T/i£ British Monarchy. 1577.] 

Of this large Argument for a standing volunteer Home Fleet of War, at 
the time when the English nation were first (as here invited) taking 
to the sea, as to their native element, and before Drake had started 
for his Voyage round the World ; we have only space for the two 
following extracts. The English Royal Navy is at this hour more 
than fulfilling the dream of this eminent Philosopher: inasmuch as it 
is the world's Police; not simply guarding the British Isles, as he 
proposed, but the sea coasts all round the habitable globe. 

HOM also I have heard often and most heartily wish, 
That all manner of persons passing or frequent- 
ing our seas appropriate, and many ways next 
environing England, Ireland, and Scotland, might 
be in convenient and honourable sort, at all times 
at the commandment and order, by beck or check, of a 
Petty Naval Royal of three-score tall ships or more, but in 
no case fewer; and they to be very well appointed, 
thoroughly manned, and sufficiently victualled. 

The public commodities whereof ensuing are, or would be 
so great and many, as the whole commons, and all the 
subjects of this noble Kingdom would for ever bless the day 
and hour wherein such good and politic order was, in so good 
time and opportunity, taken and established : and esteem 
them not only most worthy and royal Councillors, but also 
heroical Magistrates, who have had so fatherly care for the 
commonalty; and most wisely procured so general British 

1. That, henceforth, neither France, Denmark, Scotland, 
Spain, nor any other country can have such liberty for 
invasion, or their mutual conspiracies or aids, any v>'ay 
transporting, to annoy the blessed state of our tranquillity ; 
as either they have in times past had, or else may have, 
whensoever they will forget or contemn the observing of 
their sworn or pretended amity. 

2. Besides that, I report me to all English merchants, 
said he, of how great value to them, and consequently to the 

62 Privy Sounders, and Corn Stealers. [,^auI:?sT(>. 

public weal of this Kinj^dom, such a security were ? (a) 
Whereby, both outward and homeward, continually their 
merchantlike ships, many or few, great or small, may in our 
seas and somewhat further, pass quietly unpilled, unspoiled, 
and untaken by pirates or others in time of peace, (b) What 
abundance of money now lost by assurance [marine insurance] 
given or taken, would by this means also, be greatly out of 

3. And thirdly, (a) how many men, before time of urgent 
need, would thus be made very skilful in all the foresaid 
seas and sea coasts; in their channels knowing, in soundings 
all over, in good marks taking for avoiding dangers, in good 
harbours trying out, in good landings essaying, in the order 
of ebbs and floods observing, and all other points advisedly 
learning, which to the perfect Art of Navigation are very 
necessary : whereby they may be the better able to be 
divided and distributed in a greater Navy, with charge of 
Mastership or Pilotage, in time of great need, (b) They of 
this Navy should oftentimes espy or meet the privy 
sounders and searchers of our channels, flats, banks, pits, 
&c. ; and so very diligently deciphering our sea coasts, yea, 
in the river of Thames also ; otherwhile up to the station of 
the Grand Navy Royal, (c) And likewise, very often meet 
with the abominable thieves that steal our corn and victuals 
from sundry our coasts, to the great hindrance of the public 
plenty of England. And these thieves are both subjects and 
foreigners ; and very often and to to [far to] evidently seen, 
and generally murmured at, but as yet not redressed; for all 
the good and wise order by the most honourable Senate of 
the Privy Council taken therein. 

4. Fourthly, how many thousands of soldiers of all 
degrees, and apt ages of men, would be, by this means, not 
only hardened well to brook all rage and disturbance of sea, 
and endure healthfully all hardness of lodging and diet 
there ; but also would be well practised and easily trained 
up to great perfection of understanding all manner of fight 
and service at sea? so that, in time of great need, that 
expert and hardy crew of some thousands of sea soldiers 
[Marines] would be to this realm a treasure incomparable. 
And who knoweth not, what danger it is, in time of great 
need, either to use all fresh water soldiers; or to be a fortnight 

FaJs.^s^J No small number of English Pirates. 63 

in providing a little company of omni-gatharums, taken up on 
the sudden to serve at sea ? For our ordinary Land Musters 
are generally intended, or now may be spared to be employed 
otherwise, if need be. 

5. How many hundreds of lusty and handsome men would 
be, this way, well occupied, and have needful maintenance, 
which now are either idle, or want sustenance, or both ; in 
too many places of this renowned Monarchy ? 

6. Moreover, what a comfort and safeguard will it, or may 
it be to the whole Realm, to have the great advantage of so 
many warlike ships, so well manned and appointed for all 
assays, at all hours, ready to affront straightway, set on and 
overthrow, any sudden or privy foreign treachery by sea, 
directly or indirectly, attempted against this Empire, in any 
coast or part thereof. For sudden foreign attempts (that is 
to say, unknown or unheard of to us, before their readiness) 
cannot be done with great power. For great navies most 
commonly are espied or heard somewhat of, and that very 
certainly, while they are in preparing ; though in the mean- 
while, politicly, in divers places, they distribute their ships 
and their preparations appertaining. 

7. And by reason of the foresaid Petty Navy Royal, it 
shall at all times, not only lie in our hands greatly to 
displease and pinch the petty foreign offender at sea ; but 
also, if just occasion be given, on land to do very valiant 
service, and that speedily: as well against any of the foresaid 
foreign possible offenders, as also against such of Ireland or 
England, who shall or will traitorously, rebelliously, or 
seditiously assemble in troops or bands within the territories 
of Ireland or England ; while greater armies, on our behalf, 
shall be in preparing against them, if further need be. For 
skilful sea soldiers are also on land far more trainable to all 
martial exploits executing ; and therein to be more quick- 
eyed and nimble at handstrokes or scaling; better to 
endure all hardness of lodging or diet ; and less to fear all 
danger near or far : than the land soldier can be brought to 
the perfection of a sea soldier. 

8. By this Navy also, all pirates — our own countrymen, 
and they be no small number — would be called, or constrained 
to come home. And then (upon good assurance taken of 
the reformable and men of choice, for their good abearing 

64 Foreign gains in English seas. [,^(;,^: P576. 

from henceforth) all such to be bestowed here and there in 
the foresaid Navy. For j^ood account is to be made of their 
bodies, already hardened to the seas; and chiefly of their 
couraj^e and skill for good service to be done at the sea. 

9. Ninthly, Princes and potentates, our foreign friends or 
privy foes, the one for love and the other for fear, would not 
suffer any merchant or others, subjects of the Queen's 
Majesty, either to have speedy wrong in their Courts ; or by 
unreasonable delays or trifling shifts to be made weary and 
unable to follow their rights. And notwithstanding such our 
friends or privy foes, their subjects would be glad most 
reverently to become suitors and petitioners to the royal 
State of this Kingdom for just redress, if, any kind of way, 
they could truly prove themselves by any subject of this 
realm injuried ; and they would never be so stout, rude, and 
dishonourably injurious to the Crown and Dignity of this 
most sacred Monarchy as, in such cases, to be their own 
judges, or to use against this Kingdom and the royal chief 
Council thereof, such abominable terms of dishonour as our 
to to great lenity and their to to barbarous impudency might 
in a manner induce them to do. And all this would come to 
pass through the Royalty and Sovereignty of the seas adjacent 
or environing this Monarchy of England, Ireland, and (by 
right) Scotland and the Orkneys also, very princely, 
prudentl}^ and valiantly recovered (that is to say, by the 
said Petty Navy Royal) ; duly and justly limited ; discreetly 
possessed ; and triumphantly enjoyed. 

10. Should not Foreign Fishermen (overboldly now, and 
to to injuriously abusing our rich fishings about England, 
Wales, and Ireland) by the presence, oversight, power, and 
industry of this Petty Navy Royal be made content; and 
judge themselves well apaid to enjoy, by our leave, some 
great portion of revenue to enrich themselves and their 
countries by, with fishing within the seas appertaining to our 
ancient bounds and limits ? Where now, to our great shame 
and reproach, some of them do come in a manner home to 
our doors ; and among them all, deprive us yearly of many 
hundred thousand pounds, which by our fishermen using the 
said fishings as chief, we might enjoy; and at length, by little 
and little, bring them (if we would deal so rigorously with 
them) to have as little portion of our peculiar commodity (to 

Paus.^sTs.I Robert Hitchcock's Poz/r/c Pz^ 7-. 65 

our Islandish Monarchy, by GOD and Nature assigned) as 
now they force our fishermen to be contented with : and 
yearly notwithstanding, do at their fishing openly and 
ragingly use such words of reproach to our Prince and 
realm, as no true subject's heart can quietly digest. And 
besides that, offer such shameful wrongs to the good labour- 
some people of this land, as is not by any reason to be 
borne withal, or endured any longer; destroying their nets; 
cutting their cables to the loss of their anchors, yea, and often- 
times of barks, men and all. 

And this sort of people they be, which otherwhile by colour 
and pretence of coming about their feat of fishing, do subtilly 
and secretly use soundings and searchings of our channels, 
deeps, shoals, banks, or bars along the sea coasts, and in our 
haven mouths also, and up in our creeks, sometimes in our 
bays, and sometimes in our roads, &c. ; taking good marks, 
for avoiding of the dangers, and also trying good landings. 
And so, making perfect charts of all our coasts round about 
England and Ireland, are become almost perfecter in 
them, than the most part of our Masters, Leadsmen, or Pilots 
are. To the double danger of mischief in times of war; and 
also to no little hazard of the State Royal, if, maliciously 
bent, they should purpose to land any puissant army, in time 
to come. 

And as concerning those fishings of England, Wales, and 
Ireland, of their places, yearly seasons, the many hundreds 
of foreign fisherboats yearly resorting, the divers sorts of fish 
there taken, with the appurtenances: I know right well that 
long ago* all such matter concerning these fishings was 
declared unto some of the higher powers of this Kingdom, 
and made manifest by R^obertJ. H[itchcock]. another 
honest gentleman of the Middle Temple, who very discreetly 
and faithfully hath dealt therein ; and still travaileth, and by 
divers other ways also, to further the weal public of England 
so mxizh. as in him lieth. 

But note, I pray you, this point very advisedly. That as 
by this Plat* of our said fishing commodities, many a 
hundred thousand pounds of yearly revenue might grow to the 
Crown of England more than now doth, and much more to 

* This work was put into its final shape in 1577, and first printed in 
1580. It will be found at//. 133-16S. 
£a'g. Gar. II. 5 

66 T R F. A s u R F, , Enjoyment, Fame. [PaJ^; H^^l 

the commons of this Monarchy also : besides the inestimable 
benefit of plentiful victualling and relieving of both England 
and Ireland ; the increasing of many thousands of expert, 
hard, and hardy mariners; the abating of the sea forces of our 
foreign neighbours and unconstant friends ; and contrariwise, 
the increasing of our own power and force at sea ; so it is 
most evident and certain that principiiun in this case is, Plus 
qnam dimidium totius, as I have heard it veriiied proverbially 
in many other affairs. 

Wherefore the very entrance and beginning towards our 
Sea Right recovering, and the foresaid commodities enjoying 
at length ; yea, and the only means of our counlinuance 
therewith, can be no other ; but by the dreadful presence 
and power, with discreet oversight and due order, of the said 
Petty Navy Royal ; being — wholly sometimes, sometimes a 
part thereof — at all the chief places of our fishings ; as if 
they were Public Officers, Commissioners, and Justiciers, by 
the supreme authority royal of our most renowned Queen 
Elizabeth, rightfully and prudently thereto assigned. 

So that this Petty Navy Royal is thought to be the only 
Master Key wherewith to open all locks that keep out or 
hinder this incomparable British Empire from enjoying, by 
many means, such a yearly Revenue of Treasure, both to the 
Supreme Head and the subjects thereof — as no plat [tract] of 
ground or sea in the whole world else, being of no greater 
quantity — can with more right, greater honour, with so great 
ease and so little charges, so near at hand, in so short time, 
and in so little danger, any kind of way, yield the like to 
either King or other potentate and absolute Governor thereof 
whosoever. Besides, the Peaceable Enjoyment, to enjoy all 
the same, for ever ; yea, yearly and yearly, by our wisdom 
and valiantness duly used, all manner of our commodities to 
arise greater and greater; as well in wealth and strength as of 
foreign love and fear, where it is most requisite to be: and 
also of Triumphant Fame the whole world over, undoubtedly. 

Also, this Petty Navy Royal will be the perfect means of 
very many other and exceeding great commodities redounding 
to this Monarchy; which our fishermen and their fisher-boats 
only, can never be able to compass or bring to pass : and 

PAi/g.^sTJ ^^ ^- ^- ^- "^^ NATIONAL PROSrERITY. 67 

those bein<:^ such as are more necessary to be cared for 
presently [instantly] than wealth. 

Therefore, the premises well weighed, above and before all 
other, this Plat [plan] of a Petty Navy Royal will, by GOD's 
grace, be found the plain and perfect A. B. C, most necessary 
for the commons and every subject in his calling to be 
carefully and diligently musing upon, or exercising himself 
therein; till, shortly, they may be able in effect to read before 
their eyes, the most joyful and pleasant British histories (by 
that Alphabet only deciphered, and so brought to their 
understanding and knowledge) that ever to this or any 
kingdom in the whole world else, was known or perceived. 

11. Furthermore, how acceptable a thing may this be to 
the Ragusyes [yl ro-osiVs], Hulks, Caravels, and other foreign rich 
laden ships, passing within or by any of the sea limits of Her 
Majesty's royalty ; even there to be now in most security 
where only, heretofore, they have been in most jeopardy : as 
well by the ravin of the pirate, as the rage of the sea 
distressing them, for lack of succour, or good and ready 
pilotage ! What great friendship in heart of foreign Prince 
and subject ! And what liberal presents and foreign con- 
tributions in hand will duly follow thereof, who cannot 
imagine ? 

12. Moreover, such a Petty Navy Royal, said he, would be 
in such stead, as though (a) one [fleet] were appointed to 
consider and listen to the doings of Ireland; and (b) another 
to have as good an eye, and ready hand for Scottish dealings; 
(c) another to intercept or understand all privy conspiracies, 
by sea to be communicated; and privy aids of men, munition, 
or money by sea to be transported; to the endamaging of this 
kingdom, any way intended : (d) another against all sudden 
foreign attempts : (e) another to oversee the foreign fisher- 
men : (f) another against all pirates haunting our seas : and 
therewith as well to waft and guard our own merchant fleets 
as they shall pass and repass between this realm, and 
wheresoever else they may best be planted for their ordinary 
marts' keeping ; if England may not best serve that turn. 
And also to defend, help, and direct many of our foreign 
friends, who must needs pass by or frequent any of those seas, 
whose principal royalty, undoubtedly, is to the Imperial 
Crown of these British Islands appropriate. 

68 Four times stronger than Calais. [.'Iv'u^. JJ^^: 

One such Navy, said he, by royal direction, excellently well 
manned, and to all purposes aptly and plentifully furnished 
and appointed ; and now, in time of our pence and quiet 
everywhere, yet beforehand set forth to the foresaid seas with their 
charges and commissions (most secretly to be kept from all 
foes and foreigners) would stand this common wealth in as 
great stead as four times so many ships would or could do ; 
if, upon the sudden and all at once, we should be forced to 
deal for removing the foresaid sundry principal matters of 
annoyance : we being then utterly unready thereto, and the 
enemy's attempt requiring speedy, and admitting of no 
successive, defeating. 

13. To conclude herein. This Petty Navy Royal im- 
doubtedly will stand the realm in better stead than the 
enjoying of four such forts or towns as Calais and Boulogne 
only could do. For this will be as great strength, and to as 
good purpose in any coast of England, Ireland, or Scotland, 
between us and the foreign foe, as ever Calais was for that 
only one place that it is situated in; and will help to enjoy 
the Royalty and Sovereignty of the Narrow Seas throughout, 
and of other our seas also, more serviceable than Calais or 
Boulogne ever did or could do : if all the provisos hereto 
appertaining be duly observed. Forasmuch as we intend now 
peace only preserving, and no invasion of France or any enemy 
on that main inhabiting; toward whom by Calais or Boulogne 
we need to let in our land forces, &c. Much I know may be 
here said, Pro et Contra, in this case: but GOD hath suffered 
such matters to fall so out ; and all to us for the best, if it be 
so, thankfully construed and duly considered. 

For when all foreign Princes, our neighbours, doubtful 
friends, or undutiful people, subjects or vassals to our 
Sovereign, perceive such a Petty Navy Royal hovering 
purposely here and there, ever ready and able to overthrow 
any of their malicious and subtle secret attempts intended 
against the weal public of this noble Kingdom in any part or 
coast thereof: then, every one of them will or may think 
that, of purpose, that Navy was made out only to prevent 
them, and none other; and for their destruction, being 
bewrayed [betrayed] as they would deem. So that not one 
such foreign enemy would adventure, first, to break out into 
any notable disorder against us ; nor homish subject or 

wvJg.^sTJ 'T^^E Dutch came first about 1540 a.d. 69 

wavering vassal, for like respects, durst, then, privily muster 
to rebellion, or make harmful rodes [uiyoads] or dangerous 
riots in any English or Irish Marches. 

But such matter as this, I judge you have, or might have 
heard of, ere now, by worshipful Master Dyer; and that 
abundantly : seeing Synopsis ReipuhliccB Britanicce, was, at his 
request, six years past [i.e., in 1570] contrived ; as by the 
methodical author thereof, I understand. Whose policy for 
the partings, meetings, followings, circuits, &c., of the ships 
(to the foresaid Petty Navy Royal belonging) with the 
alterations both of times, places, and numbers, &c., is very 
strange to hear. 

So that, in total sum of all the foresaid considerations 
united in one, it seemeth to be almost a mathematical 
demonstration, next under the merciful and mighty protection 
of GOD, for a feasible policy to bring and preserve this 
victorious British Monarchy in a marvellous security. 
Whereupon, the revenue of the Crown of England and wealth 
public will wonderfully increase and flourish ; and then, 
thereupon, sea forces anew to be increased proportionally, &c. 
And so the Fame, Renown, Estimation, and Love or Fear of 
this British Microcosmiis, all the whole and great World over, 
will be speedily be spread, and surely be settled, &c. 

T IS most earnestly and carefully to be considered that 
our herring fishings, [over] against Yarmouth chiefly, 
have not (so notabl}^ to our great injury and loss and 
the great and incredible gain of the Low Countries) 
been traded, but from Thirty-six years ago hitherward. [Tliis 
fixes the cojuincticemcnt of the Dntcli herrin<^ fishery on the English 
coasts about 1540.] In which time, as they have in Though of late 
wealth, and numbers of boats and men, by little and and'tow'''""^' 
little increased, and are now become very rich, Cou»tT's 

'. . •' i. troublesome 

strong, proud, and violent; so, m the race [coiirsej 01 disorders, 

the selfsame time running, the coasts of Norfolk and suaUngTver ^ 

Suffolk next to those fishing-places adjacent, are o/'vimSf^ 

decayed in their navy to the number of 140 Sail, and ='"'1^''}.^'' 

they [of] from threescore to a hundred tons and up- thislomnwn- 

wards [each] ; besides Crayers and others. Where- madfthenr 

upon, besides man}' other damages thereby sustained ^.f^^^f p',,'™^'^'^ 

publicly,these coasts are not able to trade to Iceland, abietoscL' 

70 Foreign Fisheries on our coasts. [.^^/J^o: 
f.,nhtoice- j^j, jj^ times past they have done; to no little loss 

land a ship or t , , i i ■ r i • » • i 

two: who, yearly to the wealth public oi this kingdom. 
fa/unabYr^ But the Hcrring Busses hither yearly restoring 

Iheirown^ out of the Lovv Countries, under King Philip his 
Hwfukra"ae dominion, are above 500. 
of dcahiig. Besides 100 or such a thing, of Frenchmen. 

The North Seas fishing, within the English limits, are yearly 
possessed of 300 or 400 Sail of Flemings [Dutch ] ; so accounted. 
The Western fishings of Hake and Pilchards are yearly pos- 
sessed by a great navy of Frenchmen; who yearly do great in- 
juries to our poor countrymen, Her Majesty's faithful subjects. 
Strangers also enjoy at their pleasure the Herring fishing 
of Allonby, Workington, and Whitehaven on the coast of 

And in Wales, about Dyfi [the Dovcy] and Aberystwith, the 
plentiful Herring fishing is enjoyed by 300 Sail of strangers. 
But in Ireland, Baltimore [near Cape Clear] is possessed 
yearly, from July to Michaelmas most commonly, with 300 
Sail of Spaniards, entering there into the fishing at a Strait 
[passage] not so broad as half the breadth of the Thames [over] 
against Whitehall. Where, our late good King Edward VI. 's 
most honourable Privy Council was of the mind once to have 
planted a strong bulwark [fort] ; for other weighty reasons, 
as well as His Majesty to be Sovereign Lord of the fishing 
of Millwin and Cod there. 

Black Rock [? co. Cork] is yearly fished by 300 or sometimes 
400 Sail of Spaniards and Frenchmen. 

But to reckon all, I should be too tedious to you ; and 
make my heart to ache for sorrow, &c. 

Yet surely I think it necessary to leave to our posterity 
some remembrance of the places where our rich fishings else 
are, about Ireland. As at Kinsale, Cork, Carlingford, 
Saltesses, Dungarven, Youghal, Waterford, La Foy, The 
Band, Calibeg [Killibegs], &c. And all chiefly enjoyed, as 
securely and freely from us by strangers, as if they were 
within their own Kings' peculiar sea limits : nay, rather as 
if those coasts, seas, and bays, &c., were of their private and 
several purchases. To our unspeakable loss, discredit, and 
discomfort ; and to no small further danger in these 
perilous times, of most subtle treacheries and fickle fidelity. 
Dictum, Sapicnti sat csto. 


Lyrics^ Elegies^ &^c. /rem Madrigals^ 
CanzonetSy &^c. 

Our purpose is to give, under this general title, a large Selection from the 
printed Madrigal literature of what was pre-eminently the Age of Part 
Song Music in our history, viz., from 1588 to 1640 A.D. 

It first began when the English printers learnt to print Part Music on 
wood, with thePsa/ms, Sonnets, and Sotigs of Sadness a7id Piety, published 
in 1588, by William Byrd, one of the Gentlemen of the Queen's Chapel : 
from which collection the pieces immediately following are taken. 

The Dedications and Epistles will also be given, partly for their general 
elegance and self-respecting modesty, and partly for what they have to tell 
us about the Part Singing of the time. Poems which have already ap- 
peared in the English Garner will of course be omitted. 

The Madrigal Verse of that time is " a thing of beauty " and " a joy for 
ever." Being chiefly intended for daily use in the family assembled 
around the table after supper, it was wonderfully pure ; delightful words 
being wedded to delightful music ; and the iridescence of its lightsome 
fancy soon became a lost art among the subsequent poets, and is, probably, 
now almost beyond the reach of any one in this age. 

Many of the lighter songs are, if not direct translations from the Italian, 
close imitations of the more favourite Madrigals, Canzonets, &c., in that 

p^alm?, sonjmet^, and sonq^ of 

Sadjve^? AJ^d Piety. 

Edited by William Byrd. 

Entered at Stationers' Hall on 6 November, 1587, but printed with the 
date 1588. 

72 Lyrics, Elegies, & c . from [Nov.'^.'5g7. 

51 Reasons briefly set down by the author, to persuade 
every one to learn to sing. 

Irst it is a knowledge easily taught, and quickly 
learned ; where there is a good master, and an 
apt scholar. 

2. The exercise of singing is delightful to 
Nature, and good to preserve the health of man. 

3. It doth strengthen all the parts of the breast, and doth 
open the pipes. 

4. It is a singular good remedy for a stutt[er]ing and 
stammering in the speech. 

5. It is the best means to procure a perfect pronuncia- 
tion, and to make a good orator. 

6. It is the only way to know where Nature hath bestowed 
the benefit of a good voice ; which gift is so rare, as there is 
not one among a thousand that hath it : and in many, that 
excellent gift is lost, because they want Art to express 

7. There is not any music of instruments whatsoever com- 
parable to that which is made of the voices of men ; where 
the voices are good, and the same well sorted or ordered. 

8. The better the voice is, the meeter it is to honour and 
serve GOD therewith : and the voice of man is chiefly to be 
employed to that end. 

Omnis spiritus laiidet DOMINUM ! 

Since singing is so good a thing, 
I wish all men would learn to sing. 

N^i.'^ss?:] Madrigals, Canzonets, 8zc. ^t, 


Sir Christopher Hatton, Knight, 

Lord Chancellor of England ; 

William Byrd wisheth long life, and the same 

to be most healthy and happy. 

He often desires of many my good friends, Right 
Honourable! and the consideration of many untrue in- 
corrected copies of divers of my Songs spread abroad; 
have been the two causes chiefly moving my consent, at 
length, to put in print the fruits of my small skill and labours in 
Music. Then the duty, honour and service due from me unto your 
Lordship, together with the remembrance of your judgement and 
love of that art, did move and embolden me to present this first 
printed work of mine in English, to pass under your Lordship's 
favour and protection ; unworthy I confess, of the view or patronage 
of so worthy a personage. Yet remembering that small things some- 
times do great service, and that repose is best tasted by bodies fore- 
wearied : I hoped that, by this occasion, these poor So7igs of mine 
might happily yield some sweetness, repose, and recreation unto 
your Lordship^s mind, after your daily pains and cares taken in 
the high affairs of the common wealth. 

Most humbly beseeching your Lordship, that if my boldness 
herein be faulty, my dutiful good will and good meaning may 
excuse it : which, if I may so fortunately perceive, it shall en- 
courage me to suffer some other things of more depth and skill to 
follow these ; which being not yet finished, are of divers expected 
and desired. Incessantly beseeching our LORD to make your 
years happy and end blessed, I wish there were anything in me 
worthy of your Lordship to be commanded. 

Most humbly, your Lordship's ever to command, 

William Byrd. 

74 L Y R 1 C S , E L E G I E S , & C . F R (J M [nov^isS/. 


Enign Reader! Here is offered unto thy courteous 
acceptance! Music of sundry sorts, and to content divers 
hnmours. If thou be disposed to pray, here are Psalms! 
if to be merry, here are Sonnets! if to lament for thy 
sins, here are Songs of Sadness and Piety ! if thou delight in 
music of great compass, here are divers songs, which being 
originally made for instruments to express the harmony and one 
voice to pronounce the ditty, are now framed, in all parts for voices 
to sing the same! If thou desire songs of small compass and fit 
for the reach of most voices : here are most in number of that sort! 
Whatsoever pains I have taken herein, I shall think to be well em- 
ployed; if the same be well accepted, music thereby the better loved, 
and the more exercised. 

In the expressing of these Songs, cither by voices or instruments, 
if there happen to be any jar or disonance, blame not the printer! 
who, I do assure thee, through his great pains and diligence, doth 
here deliver to thee a perfect ajid true copy. If in the composition of 
these Songs, there be any fault by me committed, I desire the skil- 
fid, either with courtesy to let the same be concealed; or in friendly 
sort, to be thereof admonished ; and at the next impression he shall 
find the error reformed ; remembering always, that it is more easy 
to find a faidt than to amend it. 

If thou find anything here worthy of liking and commendation, 
give praise unto GOD! from Whom, as from a most pure and, 
plentiful fountain, all good gifts of science do flow. Whose 
Name be glorified for ever! 

The most assured friend to all that love or learn Music, 

William Byrd. 

nJvKxX] Madrigals, Canzonets, &c. 75 

LyricSy Elegies^ &'c, fro7n Madrigals^ 
Canzonets^ ^c, 

Soj^JMET^ ;^ N D Pa3TOF(AL3. 

Joy not in no earthly bliss. 
I force not Crcesus' wealth a straw. 
For care, I know not what it is. 
I fear not Fortune's fatal law. 
My mind is such as may not move, 
For beauty bright nor force of love. 

I wish but what I have at will. 
I wander not to seek for more. 
I like the plain, I climb no hill. 
In greatest storms, I sit on shore 
And laugh at them that toil in vain 
To get, what must be lost again. 

I kiss not where I wish to kill. 
I fain not love, where most I hate. 
I break no sleep to win my will. 
I wait not at the mighty's gate. 
I scorn no poor, nor fear no rich; 
I feel no want, nor have too much. 

The Court and cart I like nor loath. 
Extremes are counted worst of all; 
The golden mean, between them both, 
Doth surest sit and fears no fall. 
This is my choice, for why ? I find 
No wealth is like the quiet mind. 

76 Lyrics, Elegies, &c. from LNU'/mUt^ss?: 

s -. 

Hough Amarillis dance in green 
Like Fairy Queen, 
And sing full clear ; 
CoRiNNA can with smiling, cheer. 
Yet since their eyes make heart so sore. 
Chilli will. Hey ho 1 chil love no more. 

My sheep are lost for want of food 

And I so wood ! 

That all the day 
I sit and watch a herd-maid gay ; 
Who laughs to see me sigh so sore. 
Hey ho ! chil love no more. 

Her loving looks, her beauty bright, 

Is such delight ; 

That all in vain, 
I love to like, and lose my gain 
For her, that thanks me not therefore. 
Hey ho ! chil love no more. 

Ah, wanton eyes ! my friendly foes 

And cause of woes ; 

Your sweet desire 
Breeds flames of ice, and freeze in fire ! 
Ye scorn to see me weep so sore ! 
Hey ho ! chil love no more. 

Love ye who list, I force him not : 

Since God it wot, 

The more I wail, 
The less my sighs and tears prevail. 
What shall I do ? but say therefore, 
Hey ho ! chil love no more. 

Novembr; l%t'l Madrigals, Can'zonets, &c. yy 

Ho LIKES to love, let him take heed ! 

And wot you why ? 
lAmong the gods, it is decreed 

That Love shall die ; 
And every wight that takes his part, 
Shall forfeit each, a mourning heart. 

The cause is this, as I have heard, 

A sort of dames. 
Whose beauty he did not regard, 

Nor secret flames, 
Complained before the gods above, 
That gold corrupts the god of love. 

The gods did storm to hear this news, 

And there they swore ; 
That sith he did such dames abuse. 

He should no more 
Be god of love, but that he should 
Both die, and forfeit all his gold. 

His bow and shafts they took away, 

Before his eyes ; 
And gave these dames a longer day 

For to devise 
Who should them keep; and they be bound, 
That love for gold should not be found. 

These ladies striving long, at last 

They did agree 
To give them to a maiden chaste, 

Whom I did see ; 
Who with the same, did pierce my breast. 
Her beauty's rare ; and so I rest. 

78 Lyrics, Elegies, &c. from [NovcmbYrST^' 

Y MIND to me a kinp;clom is. 

Such perfect joy therein I find, 

That it excels all other bliss. 

That GOD or Nature hath assigned. 

Though much I want, that most would have ; 

Yet still my mind forbids to crave. 

No princely port, nor wealthy store, 
No force to win a victory, 
No wily wit to salve a sore. 
No shape to win a loving eye : 
To none of these, I yield as thrall. 
.For why ? My mind despise[s] them all. 

I see that plenty surfeits oft, 
And hasty climbers soonest fall ; 
I see that such as are aloft, 
Mishap doth threaten most of all : 
These get with toil, and keep with fcnr. 
Such cares my mind can never bear. 

I press to bear no haughty sway, 
I wish no more than may suffice. 
I do no more than well I may. 
Look what I want, my mind supplies ! 
Lo thus, I triumph ! like a king : 
My mind content with anything. 

I laugh ret at another's loss, 
Nor grudge not at another's gain, 
No worldly waves my mind can toss, 
I brook that is another's bane, 
I fear no foe, nor fawn on friend ; 
I loath not life, nor dread mine end. 

NovembT; S^ ] M A D R I G A L S , C A N Z O N E T S , & C . 79 

My wealth is health, and perfect ease ; 
And conscience clear, my cliief defence : 
I never seek, by bribes to please, 
Nor by desert, to give offence : 
Thus do I live ! thus will I die ! 
Would all did so, as well as I 1 

Here Fancy fond, for Pleasure pleads, 
And Reason keeps poor Hope in gaol : 
There time it is to take my beads, 
And pray that Beauty may prevail ; 
Or else Despair will win the field, 
Where Reason, Hope and Pleasure yield. 

My eyes presume to judge this case, 
Whose judgement, Reason doth disdain ; 
But Beauty with her wanton face. 
Stands to defend, the case is plain : 
And at the bar of sweet delight. 
She pleads " that Fancy must be right." 

But Shame will not have Reason yield, 
Though Grief do swear it shall be so ; 
As though it were a perfect shield, 
To blush, and fear to tell my woe : 
Where Silence force will, at the last. 
To wish for wit, when hope is past. 

So far hath fond Desire outrun 
The bond which Reason set out first ; 
That where Delight the fray begun 
I would now say, if that I durst. 
That in her stead, ten thousand Woes 
Have sprung in field where Pleasure grows. 

So Lyrics, Elegies, &c. from Kven^.^ fs^;'' 

that I might declare the rest, 
Of all the toys which Fancy turns ; 
Like towers of wind within my breast, 
Where fire is hid that never burns : 
Then should I try one of the twain, 
Either to love, or to disdain. 

But fine conceit dares not declare 
The strange conflict of hope and fear : 
I.est Reason should be left so bare, 
That love durst whisper in mine ear ; 
And tell me " how my Fancy shall 
Bring Reason to be Beauty's thrall." 

1 must therefore, with silence, build 
The labyrinth of my delight ; 

Till love have tried in open field. 
Which of the twain shall win the fight : 
I fear me Reason must give place ; 
If Fancy fond, win Beauty's grace. 

F WOMEN could be fair and never fond, 
Or that their beauty might continue still : 
I would not marvel though they made men bond. 
By service long, to purchase their goodwill : 
But when I see how frail these creatures are, 
I laugh that men forget themselves so far 1 

To mark what choice they make, and how they change; 
How leaving best, the worst they chose out still; 
And how like haggards wild, about they range. 
Scorning after reason to follow will : 

Who would not shake such bussards from the fist ; 

And let them fly, fair fools ! which way they list ? 

NoveLTr-Js^-] M A D R I G A L S , C A N Z O N E T S , & C . 8l 

Yet for our sport, we fawn and flatter both, 
To pass the time, when notliing else can please ; 
And train them on to yield, by subtle oath, 
The sweet content, that gives such humour ease; 
And then we say, when we their follies try, 
*' To play with fools; O what a fool was I!" 

Mbitious love hath forced me to aspire 
The beauties rare which do adorn thy face ! 
Thy modest life yet bridles my desire. 
Whose severe law doth promise me no grace ! 

But what! May Love live under any law ? 

No ! no ! His power exceedeth man's conceit : 

Of which the gods themselves do stand in awe ; 

For on his frown, a thousand torments wait. 

Proceed then in this desperate enterprise, with good advise ! 

And follow Love thy guide that leads thee to thy wished paradise! 

Thy climbing thoughts, this comfort take withal I 

That if it be thy foul disgrace to slide, 

Thy brave attempt shall yet excuse thy fall. 

'Hat pleasure have great princes, 
More dainty to their choice, 
Than herdsmen wild ? who careless, 
In quiet life rejoice; 
And fortune's fate not fearing. 
Sing sweet in summer morning. 

Their dealings plain and rightful, 
Are void of all deceit ; 
They never know how spiteful, 
It is to kneel and wait 
On favourite presumptuous, 
Whose pride is vain and sumptuous. 

Eng. Gar. II. 

82 Lyrics, Elegies, &c. erom LNWrnuTrSf 

All day their flocks each tendcth; 
At night, they take their rest ; 
More quiet than who sendeth 
His ship into the East, 
Where gold and pearl are plenty ; 
But getting, very dainty. 

For lawyers and their pleading, 
They 'steem it not a straw ; 
They think that honest meaning 
Is of itself a law : 
Whence conscience judgeth plainly, 
They spend no money vainly. 

O happy who thus liveth ! 
Not caring much for gold ; 
With clothing which sufhceth 
To keep him from the cold. 
Though poor and plain his diet ; 
Yet merry it is, and quiet. 

S I BEHELD, I saw a herdsman wild, 
With his sheephook, a picture fine deface ; 
Which he sometime, his fancy too beguiled. 
Had carved on bark of beech, in secret place : 
And with despite of most afflicted mind, 
Through deep despair of heart, for love dismayed ; 
He pulled even from the tree, the carved rind. 
And weeping sore, these woeful words he said. 

" Ah Philida! would God, thy picture fair, 
I could as lightly blot out of my breast ; 
Then should I not thus rage with great despite, 
And tear the thing, sometime I liked best. 
But all in vain. It booteth not, God wot 1 
What printed is in heart, on tree to blot." 

govKS;'] Madrigals, Canzonets, &c. 83 

LTHOUGHtheheathen poets did Apollo famous praise, 
As one who for his music sweet, no peer had in his 

N FIELDS abroad, where trumpets shrill do sound, 
Where glaves and shields do give and take the knocks; 
Where bodies dead do overspread the ground. 
And friends to foes, are common butcher's blocks ; 
A gallant shot, well managing his piece, 
In my conceit deserves a golden fleece. 

Amid the seas, a gallant ship set out, 
Wherein nor men nor yet munition lacks ; 
In greatest winds, that spareth not a clout. 
But cuts the waves, in spite of weather's wracks ; 
Would force a swain, that comes of coward's kind, 
To change himself, and be of noble mind. 

Who makes his seat a stately stamping steed, 
Whose neighs and plays are princely to behold ; 
Whose courage stout, whose eyes are fiery red, 
Whose joints well knit, whose harness all of gold ; 
Doth well deserve to be no meaner thing, 
Than Persian knight, whose horse made him a King. 

By that bedside where sits a gallant Dame, 
Who casteth off her brave and rich attire ; 
Whose petticoat sets forth as fair a frame 
As mortal men or gods can well desire. 
Who sits and sees her petticoat unlaced : 
I say no more. The rest are all disgraced. 

84 Lyrics, Elegies, &c. from EvI'LI: rj^:'- 

Onstant Penelope sends to thee, careless Ulysses ! 

Write not again, but come, sweet Mate ! thyself to 
revive me. [Greece. 

Troy we do much envy, we desolate lost ladies of 
Not Priamus, nor yet all Troy, can us recompense make. 
Oh, that he had, when he first took shipping to Lacedemon, 
That adulter I mean, had been o'erwhelmed with waters ! 
Then had I not lien now all alone, thus quivering for cold ; 
Nor used this complaint, nor have thought the day to be so long. 

Arewell, false Love ! the oracle of lies, 

A mortal foe, and enemy to rest ; 

An envious boy, from whom all cares arise ; 

A bastard vile, a beast with rage possest, 
A way of error, a temple full of treason : 
In all effects, contrary unto reason. 

A poisoned serpent covered all with flowers, 
Mother of sighs, and murderer of repose ; 
A sea of sorrows from whence are drawn such showers, 
As moisture lend, to every grief that grows ; 
A school of guile, a net of deep deceit, 
A gilded hook that holds a poisoned bait. 

A fortress foiled, which Reason did defend, 
A Siren song, a fever of the mind, 
A maze wherein affection finds no end, 
A raging cloud that runs before the wind, 
A substance like the shadow of the sun, 
A goal of grief for which the wisest run. 

A quenchless fire, a nurse of trembling fear, 
A path that leads to peril and mishap, 
A true retreat of sorrow and despair, 
An idle boy that sleeps in Pleasure's lap, 
A deep mistrust of that which certain seems, 
A hope of that which Reason doubtful deems. 

NoiT;X] Madrigals, Canzonets, &c. 85 

He match that's made for just and true respects, 
With evenness, both of years and parentage ; 
Of force must bring forth many good effects. 
Pari jugo diilcis tractus. 

For where chaste love and liking sets the plant, 
And concord waters with a lirm goodwill. 
Of no good thing there can be any want. 
Pari jugo dulcis tractus, 

Sound is the knot, that Chastity hath tied, 
Sweet is the music, Unity doth make, 
Sure is the store, that Plenty doth provide. 
Pari jugo dulcis tractus. 

Where Chasteness fails, there Concord will decay. 
Where Concord fleets, there Plenty will decrease, 
Where Plenty wants, there Love will wear away. 
Pari jugo dulcis tractus. 

I Chastity, restrain all strong desires ! 
I Concord, keep the course of sound consent! 
I Plenty, spare and spend, as cause requires! 
Pari jugo dulcis tractus. 

Make much of us, all ye that married be ! 
Speak well of us, all ye that mind to be ! 
The time may come, to want and wish all three. 
Parijiigo dulcis tractus. 

S6 Lyrics, E' l e g : e s , & c . i- k o m 

lul. l>y W. Ilyrd. 
L November 1507. 

$ONq^ OF Sy^DNE^^ yVN D PlETY, 












Rostrate, O LORD ! I He, 
Behold me, LORD ! with pity. 
Stop not Thine ears ! against my cry. 
My sad and mourning ditty. 
Breathed from an inward soul, 
From heart heart'ly contrite ; 
An offering sweet, a sacrifice 
In Thy heavenly sight. 

Observe not sins, O LORD ! 
For who may then abide it ; 
But let Thy mercy cancel them, 
Thou hast not man denied it. 
Man melting with remorse and thoughts 
Thought past repenting. 
O lighten, LORD ! O hear our songs 1 
Our sins full sore lamenting. 

The wonders of Thy works. 
Above all reason reacheth ; 
And yet Thy mercy above all 
This, us Thy Spirit teacheth ! 
Then let no sinner fall 
In depth of foul despair; 
Since never soul so foul there was, 
But mercy made it fair. 

nIvKS?'] Madrigals, Canzonets, &c. 87 

Ll as a sea, the world no other is, 
^Ourselves are Ships still tossed to and fro. 
And lo, each man, his love to that or this, 
Is like a Storm that drives the ship to go ; 
That thus our life in doubt of shipwreck stands : 
Our wills, the Rocks ; our w^ant of skill, the Sands. 

Our passions be the Pirates still that spoil, 
And overboard cast out our reason's Freight ; 
The Mariners that day and night do toil, 
Be our conceits that do on pleasure wait : 
Pleasure, Master, doth tyrannize the ship, 
And giveth virtue secretly the nip. 

The Compass is a mind to compass all, 
Both pleasure, proiit, place, and fame for nought 
The Winds that blow, men overweening call, 
The Merchandise is wit full dearly bought, 
Trial the Anchor cast upon experience. 
For labour, life, and all ado the Recompense. 

UsANNA fair, sometime assaulted was, 
By two old men, desiring their delight; 
Whose false intent they thought to bring to pass, 
If not by tender love, by force and might. 
To whom she said, " If I you suit deny, 
You will me falsely accuse, and make me die. 

And if I grant to that which you request, 
My chastity shall then deflowered be : 
Which is so dear to me that I detest 
My life ; if it berefted be from me. 
And rather would I die, of mine accord, 
Ten thousand times, than once offend the LORD !" 

88 Lyrics, Elegies, & c . r r o m [N'-.l-mw .'S'" 

F THAT a sinner's sighs be angels' food, 
Or that repentant tears be angels' wine ; 
Accept, O LORD ! in this most pensive mood 
These hearty sighs and tears of mine : 

That went with Peter forth most sinfully ; 

But not with Peter wept most bitterly. 

If I had David's crown to me betide, 
Or all his purple robes that he did wear ; 
I would lay then such honour all aside, 
And only seek a sackcloth weed to bear : 
His palace would I leave, that I might show 
And mourn in cell for such offence, my woe. 

There should these hands beat on my pensive breast ; 
And sad to death, for sorrow rend my hair : 
My voice to call on Thee, should never rest ; 
Whose grace I seek, Whose judgement I do fear. 
Upon the ground, all grovelling on my face, 
I would beseech Thy favour and good grace ! 

But since I have not means to make the shew 
Of my repentant mind, and yet I see 
My sin, to greater heap than Peter's grow, 
Whereby the danger more it is to me : 
I put my trust in His most precious blood, 
Whose life was paid to purchase all our good. 

Thy mercy greater is than any sin ! 
Thy greatness none can ever comprehend ! 
Wherefore, O LORD ! let me Thy mercy win, 
Whose glorious name, no time can ever end : 
Wherefore I say, " All praise belongs to Thee ! " 
Whom I beseech be merciful to me. 

November' I'T!'] M A D R I G A L S , C A N Z O N E T S , & C . 89 

Are for thy soul, as thing of greatest price ! 

Made to the end to taste of power divine ; 

Devoid of guilt, abhorring sin and vice, 

Apt by GOD's grace to virtue to incline : 
Care for it so, as by thy retchless train 
It be not brought to taste eternal pain ! 

Care for thy corps [body], but chiefly for soul's sake ! 

Cut off excess ! sustaining food is best. 

To vanquish pride, but comely clothing takb ! 

Seek after skill ! deep ignorance detest ! 

Care so, I say, the flesh to feed and clothe, 

That thou harm not thy soul and body both ! 

Care for the world, to do thy body right ! 
Rack not thy wit, to win by wicked ways ! 
Seek not t'oppress the weak by wrongful might ! 
To pay thy due, do banish all delays ! 
Care to dispend, according to thy store ! 
And in like sort, be mindful of the poor! 

Care for thy soul, as for thy chiefest stay! 

Care for thy body, for the soul's avail ! 

Care for the world, for body's help alway ! 

Care yet but so as virtue may prevail ! 

-Care in such sort ! that thou be sure of this, 

Care keep thee not from heaven and heavenly bliss. 

Ltilla, la lulla, lulla lullaby, 

My sweet little Baby ! what meanest thou to cry ? 

E STILL, my blessed Babel though cause thou hfist to 

Whose blood most innocent to shed, the cruel King 

hath sworn ; 

90 Lyrics, Elegies, & c . from [^'vlmb^; f^^f: 

And lo, alas, behold what slaughter he doth make, 
Shedding the blood of infants all, sweet Saviour! for Thy sake! 
A King is born, they say ; which King, this King would kill. 
Oh woe ! and woeful heavy day ! when wretches have their will. 

Lulla, la lulla, lulla hillaby, 

My sweet Utile Baby ! what meanest iJiou to cry ? 

Three Kings, this King of Kings to see, are come from far ; 
To each unknown, with offerings great, by guiding of a star: 
And shepherds heard the Song, which angels bright did sing, 
Giving all glory unto GOD, for [the] coming of this King : 
Which must be made away, King Herod would him kill. 
Oh woe ! and woeful heavy day! when wretches have their will. 

Lulla, la lulla, lulla lullaby. 

My sweet little Baby ! what meanest thou to cry ? 

Lo ! lo ! my little Babe I be still, lament no more ! 

From fury shalt thou step aside! Help have we still in store. 

We heavenly warning have, some other soil to seek. 

From death, must fly the Lord of Life, as lamb both mild and 

meek ; 
Thus must my Babe obey the King, that would him kill. 
Oh woe ! and woeful heavy day! when wretches have their will. 

Lulla, la lulla, lulla lullaby, 

My sweet little Baby ! what meanest thou to cry ? 

But Thou shalt live and reign ! as sybils have foresaid. 
As all the prophets prophesy ; whose mother yet a maid 
And perfect virgin pure, with her breasts shall upbreed 
Both GOD and man, that all hath made, the Son of heavenly 

seed : 
Whom caitifs none can 'tray, whom tyrants none can kill. 
Oh joy ! and joyful happy day! when wretches want their will. 

Nove^wx^'/s;'] Madrigals, Canzonets, &c. 91 

[Hy DO I use my paper, ink, and pen, 

And call my wits to counsel what to say ? 

Such memories were made for mortal men ; 

I speak of saints, whose names cannot decay ! 
An angel's trump were fitter for to sound 
Their glorious death ! if such on earth were found. 

That store of such were once on earth pursued, 
The histories of ancient times record ; 
Whose constancy, great tyrants' rage subdued ; 
Through patient death, professing Christ their LORD, 
As his Apostles perfect witness bear, 
With many more, that blessed martyrs were. 

Whose patience rare, and most courageous mind, 
With fame renowned, perpetual shall endure ; 
By whose examples we may rightly find 
Of holy life and death, a pattern pure. 
That we therefore their virtues may embrace ; 
Pray we to Christ, to guide us with His grace! 

92 Lyrics, Elegies, &c. from \S^;J:^Z^- 


The FujMEF(AL Sop^Q3 Of THAT 

PHII.IP Sidney, Kjmiqht. 

Ome to me grief, for ever ! 
Come to me tears, day and night ! 
Come to me plaint ! Ah, helpless ! 
Just grief ! heart's tears ! plaint worthy ! 

Go from dread to die now ! 
Go from me care to live now ! 
Go from me joys all on earth ! 
Sidney ! O Sidney is dead 1 

He whom the Court adorned, 
He whom the country courtes'd, 
He who made happy his friends, 
He that did good to all men. 

Sidney, the hope of land strange ! 
Sidney, the flower of England ! 
Sidney, the sprite heroic ! 
Sidney is deadj O dead ! dead ! 


NovKr-x^sr;'] Madrigals, Canzonets, &c. 93 

Dead ! no, no, but renowned ! 
With the anointed oned ! 
Honour on earth at his feet, 
Bliss everlasting his seat. 

Come to me grief, for ever ! 
Come to me tears, day and night ! 
Come to me plaint ! Ah, helpless ! 
Just grief! heart's tears ! plaint worthy! 

That most rare breast ! crystalline, sincere, 
Through which, like gold, thy princely heart did 

O sprite heroic ! O valiant worthy knight ! 

O Sidney ! Prince of fame and men's good will ; 

For thee ! both kings and princesses do mourn. 

Thy noble tomb, three cities strange desired ! 

Foes to the cause thy prowess did defend, 

Bewail the day that crost thy famous race ! 

The doleful debt due to thy hearse I pay. 

Tears from the soul, that aye thy want shall moan. 

And by my will, my life itself would yield ; 

If heathen blame ne might my faith distain. 

O heavy time ! that my days draw behind thee ! 
Thou dead, dost live ! thy friend here living, dieth ! 



Francis Meres, M. A. 

Sketch of English Literature^ Paintings 
and Music ^ up to September 1598. 

It is to be noted, that as many of the English works referred to in the 
superlatively important Sketch existed, at the time, only in manu- 
script ; and that a number of them did not come to the press for 
years, some for many years afterwards ; and some not at all, and 
are now lost: Merks must have had exceptionally good means of 
acquaintance with the literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic world of 
London and of the Universities at this date. 

The method in this literary Sketch, so Euphuistic in its style, is to compare with 
the ancients, (i) by a qualitative analysis of the Eight best Poets of the time, //. 
95-98; and (2) by a quantitative analysis of all the eminent Poets of the day, in 
Eight Classes, with no order of individual precedence, //. 99-100 ; (3) concluding 
with some miscellaneous comparisons, //. 101-103. 

In respect to Shakespeare's poetical career ; this piece of contemporary criti- 
cism is a perfect rock of certainty, amidst many futile surmisings. 

\_Paladis Ta»iia [Entered Stationers' 
Hall, 7 September], 1598.] 

A comparative Discourse of our English Poets [Painters 
and Musicians] with the Greek, Latiji, and Italian 
Poets [Painters and Musicians]. 

S Greece had three poets of great antiquity, 

Orpheus, Linus, and Mus^us; and Italy, other 

three ancient poets, Livius Andronicus, Ennius, 

and Plautus : so hath England three ancient 

poets, Chaucer. Gower, and Lydgate. 

As Homer is reputed the Prince of Greek poets; and 

Petrarch of Italian poets : so Chaucer is accounted the 

god of English poets. 

As Homer was the first that adorned the Greek tongue 
with true quantity : so [William Langland, the author ofj 
Piers Plowman was the first that observed the true 
quantity of our verse without the curiosity of rhyme. 

sejl!^i798.] English Writers of Latin Verse. 95 

Ovid writ a Chronicle from the beginning of the world 
to his own time; that is, to the reign of Augustus the 
Emperor: so hath Harding the Chronicler (after his manner 
of old harsh rhyming) from Adam to his time ; that is, to 
the reign of King Edward IV. 

As SoTADES Maronites, the Iambic poet, gave himself 
wholly to write impure and lascivious things : so Skelton 
(I know not for what great worthiness, surnamed the 
Poet Laureate) applied his wit to scurrilities and ridiculous 
matters ; such [as] among the Greeks were called Pantoniiuii, 
with us, buffoons. 

As CoNSALVO Perez, that excellent learned man, and 
secretary to King Philip [IL] of Spain, in translating the 
" Ulysses " [Odyssey] of Homer out of Greek into Spanish, 
hath, by good judgement, avoided the fault of rhyming, 
although [he hath] not fully hit perfect and true versifying : 
so hath Henry Howard, that true and noble Earl of Surrey, 
in translating the fourth book of Virgil's JEncas : whom 
Michael Drayton in his England's Heroical Epistles hath 
eternized for an Epistle to his j air Geraldine. 

As these Neoterics, Jovianus Pontanus, Politianus, 
MarullusTarchaniota, thetwo Stroz^ the father and the 
son, Palingenius, Mantuanus, Philelphus, Quintianus 
Stoa, and Germanus Brixius have obtained renown, and 
good place among the ancient Latin poets : so also these 
Englishmen, being Latin poets ; Walter Haddon, 
Nicholas Carr, Gabriel Harvey, Christopher Ockland, 
Thomas Newton, with his Leland, Thomas Watson, 
Thomas Campion, [John] Brunswerd, and Willey have 
attained [a] good report and honourable advancement in the 
Latin empire [of letters]. 

As the Greek tongue is made famous and eloquent by 
Homer, Hesiod, Euripides, iEscHYLUS, Sophocles, Pin- 
DARUS, Phocylides, and Aristophanes ; and the Latin 
tongue by Virgil, Ovid, Horace, Silius Italicus, Lucanus, 
Lucretius, Ausonius, and Claudianus : so the English 
tongue is mightily enriched, and gorgeously invested in rare 

96 Sidney, OUR rare 5 t Poet, [ijp^^^l 



ornaments and resplendent hal)iliments by Sir Philip 
Sydney, Spenser, Daniel, Drayton, Warner, Shake- 
speare, Marlow, and Chapman. 

As Xenophon, who did imitate so excellently as to give 
us effigiem justi imperii, "the portraiture of a just empire " 
under the name of Cyrus, (as Cicero saith of him) made 
therein an absolute heroical poem ; and as Heliodorus 
wrote in prose, his sugared invention of that picture of love in 
Theagines and Cariclea ; and yet both excellent admired 
poets : so Sir Philip Sidney writ his immortal poem, The 
Countess of Pembroke's ^'Arcadia" in prose; and yet our 
rarest poet. 

As Sextus Propertius said, Nescio quid magis nascituv 
Iliade : so I say of Spenser's Fairy Queen ; I know not what 
more excellent or exquisite poem may be written. 

As Achilles had the advantage of Hector, because it 
was his fortune to be extolled and renowned by the heavenly 
verse of Homer: so Spenser's Eliza, the Fairy Queen, hath 
the advantage of all the Queens in the world, to be eternized 
by so divine a poet. 

As Theocritus is famoused for his Idyllia in Greek, and 
Virgil for his Eclogues in Latin : so Spenser their imitator 
in his Shepherds Calendar is renowned for the like argument ; 
and honoured for fine poetical invention, and most exquisite wit. 

As Parthenius Nicgeus excellently sang the praises of 
Arete: so Daniel hath divinely sonjietted the matchless 
beauty of Delia. 

As every one mourneth, when he heareth of the lamentable 
plangors [plaints] of [the] Thracian Orpheus for his dearest 
Eurydice : so every one passionateth, when he readeth the 
afflicted death of Daniel's distressed Rosamond. 

As LucAN hath mournfully depainted the Civil Wars of 
Pompey and Cesar : so hath Daniel, the Civil Wars of 
York and Lancaster ; and Drayton, the Civil Wars of 
Edward H. and the Barons. 

As Virgil doth imitate Catullus in the like matter of 
Ariadne, for his story of Queen Dido: so Michael 
Drayton doth imitate Ovid in his England's Heroical 

As Sophocles . was called a Bee for the sweetness of his 
tongue : so in Charles Fitz-Geffry's Drake, Drayton is 

scpu^sgs.] William Warner, our English Homer! 97 

termed "golden-mouthed," for the purity and preciousness of 
his style and phrase. 

As Accius, Marcus Atilius, and Milithus were called 
Tragaediographi ; because they writ tragedies : so we may 
truly term Michael Drayton, Tragacdiographus : for his pas- 
sionate -penninglthe poemof]i\\Q downfalls of valiant Robert 
of Normandy, chaste Matilda, and great Gaveston. 

As Joannes Honterus, in Latin verse, wrote three books 
of Cosmography, \vith geographical tables; so Michael 
Drayton is now in penning in English verse, a poem called 
Poly-olbion [which is] geographical and hydrographical of all 
the forests, woods, mountains, fountains, rivers, lakes, floods, 
baths [s/)as],*and springs that be in England. 

As AuLus Persius Flaccus is reported, among all 
writers to [have] been of an honest life and upright con- 
versation : so Michael Drayton, qitem totics honoris et 
amoris causa nomino, among scholars, soldiers, poets, and all 
sorts of people, is held for a man of virtuous disposition, 
honest conversation, and well governed carriage : which is 
almost miraculous among good wits in these declining and 
corrupt times; when there is nothing but roguery in villainous 
man, and when cheating and craftiness are counted the 
cleanest wit and soundest wisdom. 

As Decius Ausonius Gallus, in lihris Fastorum, penned 
the occurrences of the world from the first creation of it to 
this time ; that is, to the reign of the Emperor Gratian : so 
Warner, in his absolute Albion's England, hath most admir- 
ably penned the history of his own country from Noah to his 
time, that is, to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. I have heard 
him termed of the best wits of both our Universities, our 
English Homer. 

As Euripides is the most sententious among the Greek 
poets : so is Warner among our English poets. 

As the soul of Euphorbus was thought to live in Pytha- 
goras : so the sweet witty soul of Ovid lives in mellifluous 
and honey-tongued Shakespeare. Witness his Venus and 
Adonis ; hx^LuCRECE ; his sugared Sonnets, among his private 
friends ; &c. 

As Plautus and Seneca are accounted the best for Comedy 
and Tragedy among the Latins: so Shakespeare among the 
English is the most excellent in both kinds for the stage. 
£.VG. Gar. II. 7 

cj^ Shakespeare, 5T11 Poet; ist Dramatist, [slpt^^^l 



For Comedy : witness his Gentlemen of Verona ; his [Comedy 
of] Errors; his Love's Labour's Lost; his Love's Labour's Won 
[ ? A It's Well that Ends Well] his Midsummer Night's Dream ; 
and his Merchant of Venice. 

For Tragedy : his Richard IL, Richard III., Henry 
IV., King John, Thus Andronicus, and his Romeo and 

As Epius Stolo said that the Muses would speak with 
Plautus's tongue, if they would speak Latin: so I say that 
the Muses would speak with Shakespeare's fine filed phrase ; 
if they would speak English. 

As Mus^us,who wrote the love of Hero and Leander, had 
two excellent scholars, Thamyras and Hercules; so hath 
he [MusJEUS] in England, two excellent poets, imitators 
of him in the same argument and subject, Christopher 
Marlow and George Chapman. 

As Ovid saith of his work, 

Jainque opus exegi, quod nee JoviS ira, ncc ignis, 
Nee poterit ferruni, nee edax abolere vetustas; 

And as Horace saith of his, 

Exegi monnmentiim cere per ennius 
Kegalique situ pyramidum altiiis, 
Quod non imbcr edax, non Aquilo impotcns 
Possit diruere, aut inmimerabilis 
Annoruni series, et fuga teinporum : 

So I say, severally, of Sir Philip Sidney's, Spenser's 
Daniel's, Drayton's, Shakespeare's, and Warner's works, 

Non JoviS ira : imbrcs : Mars : ferrum : flamnia : senecius : 
Hoc opus tmda: lues : turbo : venena ruejtt. 
Et quanquam ad pulcherrimuni hoc opus evertendum, ires illi Dii 
conspirabunt, Chronus, Vulcanus, et Pater ipsegentis. 
Non tamen annorum scries, nan flamma, nee ensis ; 
Sternum potuit hoc abolere Decus. 

As Italy had Dante, Boccace [Boccacio], Petrarch, 
Tasso, Celiano, and Ariosto : so England had Matthew 
Roydon, Thomas Atchelow, Thomas Watson, Thomas 
Kyd, Robert Greene, and George Peele. 

sepuTsgJ Our Heroic, Lyric, and Tragic Poets. 99 

As there are eight famous and chief languages ; Hebrew, 
Greek, Latin, Syriac, Arabic, Italian, Spanish, and French ; 
so there are eight notable several kinds of poets, [Ij Heroic, 
[2] Lyric, [3] Tragic, [4] Comic, [5] Satiric, [6] Iambic, 
[7j Elegiac, and [8] Pastoral. 

[1] As Homer and Virgil among the Greeks and Latins 
are the chief Heroic poets : so Spenser and Warner be our 
chief heroical " makers." 

[2] As Pindarus, ANACREON,and Callimachus, among the 
Greeks ; and Horace and Catallus among the Latins 
are the best Lyric poets : so in this faculty, the best among 
our poets are Spenser, who excelleth in all kinds ; Daniel, 
Drayton, Shakespeare, Breton. 

[3] As these Tragic poets flourished in Greece : ^schylus, 
Euripides, Sophocles, Alexander ^Etolus; Ach^us 
Erithriceus, Astydamas Atheniensis, Apollodorus Tar- 
sensis, Nicomachus Phrygius, Thespis Atticus, and Timon 
Apolloniates ; and these among the Latins, Accius, 
Marcus Atilius, Pomponus Secundus, and Seneca : so 
these are our best for Tragedy ; The Lord Buckhurst, 
Doctor Leg, of Cambridge, Doctor Edes, of Oxford, Master 
Edward Ferris, the author[s] of the Mirror for Magis- 
trates, Marlow, Peele, Watson, Kyd, Shakespeare, 
Drayton, Chapman, Decker, and Benjamin Johnson. 

AsMarcus Anneus Lucanus writ two excellent tragedies; 
one called Medea, the other De incendio Trojce cunt Priami 
calamitate : so Doctor Leg hath penned two famous tragedies ; 
the one of Richard III., the other of The Destruction of 

[4] The best poets for Comedy among the Greeks are these : 
Menander, Aristophanes, Eupolis Atheniensis, Alexis 
Terius, Nicostratus, Amipsias Atheniensis, Anaxandrides 
Rhodeus, Aristonymus, Archippus Atheniensis, and Callias 
Atheniensis ; and among the Latins, Plautus, Terence, 
N.EVius, Sextus Turpilius, Licinius Imbrex, and 
Virgilius Romanus : so the best for Comedy amongst us be 
Edward [Vere], Earl of Oxford ; Doctor Gager, of Oxford; 
Master Rowley, once a rare scholar of karned Pembroke 
Hall in Cambridge; Master Edwardes, one of Her Majesty's 
Chapel; eloquent and witty John Lilly, Lodge, Gascoigne, 
Greene, Shakespeare, Thomas Nash, Thomas Heywood, 

loo Our Comic, 1 \mbic, and Elegiac Poets, [sep^'.'s'^s: 

Anthony Munday, our jjest plotter; Chapman, Porter, 
Wilson, Hathway, and Henry Chettle. 

[5] As Horace, Lucilius, Juvenal, Persius, and Lucul- 
Lus are the best for Satire among the Latins : so with us, 
in the same faculty, these are chief [William Langland, the* 
author of] Piers Plowman, [T.] Lodge, [Joseph] Hall of 
Emmanuel College in Cambridge [afterwards Bishop of 
Norwich] ; [John Marston] the Author of Pygmalion's 
Image, and certain Satires ; the Author of Skialetheia. 

[6] Among the Greeks, I will name but two for Iambics, 
Archilochus Parius and Hipponax Ephesius : so amongst 
us, I name but two lambical poets ; Gabriel Harvey and 
Richard Stanyhurst, because I have seen no more in this 

[7] As these are famous among the Greeks for Elegies, 
Melanthus, Mymnerus Colophonius, Olympius Mysius, 
Parthenius Nicoeus, Philetas Cous, Theogenes Megaren- 
sis, and Pigres Halicarnassoeus; and these among the Latins, 
M^cENAs, Ovid, Tibullus, Propertius, C. Valgius, 
Cassius Severus, and Clodius Sabinus : so these are the 
most passionate among us to bewail and bemoan the per- 
plexities of love, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, Sir 
Thomas Wyatt the Elder, Sir Francis Bryan, Sir Philip 
Sidney, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Edward Dyer, Spenser, 
Daniel, Drayton, Shakespeare, Whetstone, Gascoigne, 
Samuel Page sometime Fellow of Corpus Christi College 
in Oxford, Churchyard, Breton. 

[8] As Theocritus in Greek; Virgil and Mantuan in 
Latin, Sannazar in Italian, and [Thomas Watson] the 
Author of Amintm Gaudia and Walsingham's Melibceus 
are the best for Pastoral : so amongst us the best in this 
kind are Sir Philip Sidney, IVIaster Challoner, Spenser, 
Stephen Gosson, Abraham Fraunce, and Barnfield. 

These and many other Epigrammatists, the Latin tongue 
hath ; Q. Catullus, Porcius Licinius, Quintus Corni- 
Ficius, Martial, Cnoeus Getulicus, and witty Sir Thomas 
More : so in English we have these, Heywood, Drant, 
Kendal, Bastard, Davies. 

s^J^S-] ^UR Pastoral, and Epigrammatic Poets, ioi 

As noble Maecenas, that sprang from the Etruscan Kings, 
not only graced poets by his bounty, but also by being a poet 
himself; and as James VI., now King of Scotland, is not only a 
favourer of poets, but a poet ; as my friend Master Richard 
Barnfeld hath in this distich passing well recorded, 

The King of Scots now living is a poet, 
As his Lcpanto and his Furies show it : 

so Elizabeth, our dread Sovereign and gracious Queen, is not 
only a liberal Patron unto poets, but an excellent poet her- 
self ; whose learned, delicate and noble Muse surmounteth, 
be it in Ode, Elegy, Epigram ; or in any other kind of poem. 
Heroic or Lyric. 

Octavia, sister unto Augustus the Emperor, was exceed- 
irig[ly] bountiful unto Virgil, who gave him for making 
twenty-six verses, £1^12,'], to wit, ten sestertice for every 
verse (which amounted to above ^^43 for every verse) : so 
learned Mary, the honourable Countess of Pembroke [and] 
the noble sister of the immortal Sir Philip Sidney, is very 
liberal unto poets. Besides, she is a most delicate poet, of 
whom I may say, as Antipater Sidonius writeth of Sappho : 

Didcia Mnemosyne demirans carmina SappJms, 
QucBsivit deciina Pieris unde foret. 

Among others, in times past, poets had these favourers; 
Augustus, M^cenas, Sophocles, Germanicus; an Emperor, 
a Nobleman, a Senator, and a Captain : so of later times, poets 
have [hadj these patrons ; Robert, King of Sicily, the great 
King Francis [I.] of France, King James of Scotland, and 
Queen Elizabeth of England. 

As in former times, two great Cardinals, Bemba and Biena 
did countenance poets : so of late years, two great Preachers, 
have given them their right hands in fellowship ; Beza and 

As the learned philosophers Fracastorius and Scaliger 
have highly prized them : so have the eloquent orators, 
PoNTANUS and Muretus very gloriously estimated them. 

As Georgius Buchananus' Jepthm, amongst all modern 

I02 Our EiMiiLEM and Translating Poets. [sept^',"y8." 

tragedies, is able to abide the touch of Aristotle's precepts 
and EuRiPiDEs's examples: so is Bishop Watson's Absalom. 

As Terence for his translations out of Apollodorus and 
Menander, and Aquilius for his translation out of 
Menander, and C. Germanicus Augustus for his out of 
Aratus, and Ausonius for his translated Epigrams out of 
[the] Greek, and Doctor Johnson for his Frog-fight out of 
IIomer, and Watson for his Antigone out of Sophocles, 
have got good commendations : so these versifiers for their 
learned translations, are of good note among us ; Phaer 
for Virgil's ALneid, Golding for Ovid's Metamorphosis, 
Harington for his Orlando Fiirioso, the Translators of 
Seneca's Tragedies, Barnabe Googe for Palingenius's 
[Zodiac of Life], Turberville for Ovid's Epistles and 
Mantuan, and Chapman for his inchoate Homer. 

As the Latins have these Emblematists, Andreas 
Alciatus, Reusnerus, and Sambucus : so we have these, 
Geffrey Whitney, Andrew Willet, and Thomas Combe. 

As Nonnus Panapolyta v^rote the Gospel of Saint John 
in Greek hexameters: so Gervase Markham hath written 
Solomon's Canticles in English verse. 

As Cornelius Plinius writ the life of Pomponus 
Secundus : so young Charles Fitz-Geffery, that high 
towering falcon, hath most gloriously penned The honourable 
Life and Death of worthy Sir FRANCIS Drake. 

As Hesiod wrote learnedly of husbandry in Greek : so 
TussER [hath] very wittily and experimentally written of it 
in English. 

As Antipater Sidonius was famous for extemporal verse in 
Greek, and Ovid for his 

Quicqnid conahar dicere versus erat : 

so was our Tarleton, of whom Doctor Case, that learned 
physician, thus speaketh in the Seventh Book and 17th 
chapter of his Politics. 

Aristotles suum TheodoreTUM laudavit quendam peritum 
Tragadiarwji actorem, CiCERO siium RosciUM : nos Angli 
Tarletonum, in ctijus voce et vultu omnes jocosi affectus, in 
cnjus cerehroso capite lepidce facetice habitant. 

And so is now our witty [Thom.^sJ Wilson, who, for 

seJilTsgJ Meres's Address to Tom Nash. 103 

learning and extemporal wit in this faculty, is without com- 
pare or compeer ; as to his great and eternal commendations, 
he manifested in his challenge at the Swan, on the Bank 

As Achilles tortured the dead body of Hector; and as 
Antonius and his wife Fulvia tormented the lifeless corpse 
of Cicero ; so Gabriel Harvey hath showed the same 
inhumanity to Greene, that lies full low in his grave. 

As Eupolis of Athens used great liberty in taxing the vices 
of men : so doth Thomas Nash. Witness the brood of the 
Harveys ! 

As Action was worried of his own hounds : so is Tom Nash 
of his Isle of Dogs. Dogs were the death of Euripides ; but 
be not disconsolate, gallant young Juvenal ! Linus, the son of 
Apollo, died the same death. Yet GOD forbid that so brave 
a wit should so basely perish ! Thine are but paper dogs, 
neither is thy banishment like Ovid's, eternally to converse 
with the barbarous Getce. Therefore comfort thyself, sweet 
Tom ! with Cicero's glorious return to Rome ; and with the 
counsel ^neas gives to his seabeaten soldiers, Lib 1, A^neid. 

Pluck up thine heart ! and drive from thence both fear 

and care away ! 
To think on this, may pleasure be perhaps another day. 
Durato, et temet rebus servato secundis. 

As Anacreon died by the pot : so George Peele, by the 

As Archesilaus Prytanceus perished by wine at a drunken 
feast, as Hermippus testifieth in Diogenes : so Robert 
Greene died by a surfeit taken of pickled herrings and 
Rhenish wine ; as witnesseth Thomas Nash, who was at the 
fatal banquet. 

As JoDELLE, a French tragical poet, being an epicure 
and an atheist, made a pitiful end : so our tragical poet 
Marlow, for his Epicurism and Atheism, had a tragical death; 
as you may read of this Marlow more at large, in the Theatre 
of GOD'S judgments, in the 25th chapter, entreating of Epicures 
and A tJieists. 

As the poet Lycophron was shot to death by a certain rival 
of his: so Christopher Marlow was stabbed to death by 
a baudy Servingman, a rival of his, in his lewd love. 

I04 English El izaisetiian Painters, [l^l^^l'l: 

Pa inters. 

Pelles painted a mare and a dog so lively [lifeUke], 
tliat horses and dogs passing by would neigh and 
bark at them. He grew so famous for his excellent 
art, that great Alexander came often to his shop to 
visit him, and commanded that none other should paint him. 
At his death, he left Venus unfinished; neither was any 
[one] ever found, that durst perfect what he had begun. 

Zeuxis was so excellent in painting, that it was easier for 
any man to view his pictures than to imitate them ; who, to 
make an excellent table [picture], had five Agrigentine virgins 
naked by him. He painted grapes so lively, that birds did fly 
to eat them. 

Parrhasius painted a sheet [ctirtain] so artificially, that 
Zeuxis took it for a sheet indeed ; and commanded it to be 
taken away, to see the picture that he thought it had veiled. 

As learned and skilful Greece had these excellently renowned 
for their limning ; so England hath these : Hiliard, Isaac 
Oliver, and John de Creetes, very famous for their painting. 

As Greece moreover had these painters, Timantes, 
Phidias, Polignotus, Paneus, Bularchus, Eumarus, 
CiMON Cleonceus, Pythis, Appollodorus Atheniensis, 
Aristides Thebanus, Nicophanes, Perseus, Antiphilus, 
and Nicearchus : so in England, we have also these ; 
William and Francis Segar, brethren ; Thomas and John 
Bettes; Lockey, Lyne, Peake, Peter Cole, Arnolds, 
Marcus, Jacques de Bray, Cornelius, Peter Golchis, 
HiERONiMO and Peter van de Velde. 

As Lysippus, Praxiteles, and PYRGOTELESwere excellent 
engravers : so we have these engravers ; Rogers, Chris- 
topher Switser, and Cure. 


He LOADSTONE draweth iron unto it, but the stone of 

Ethiopia called Theauiedcs driveth it away : so there 

is a kind of music that doth assuage and appease 

the affections, and a kind that doth kindle and 

provoke the passions. 

^p^^S Excellent Musicians in England. 105 

As there is no law that hath sovereignty over love ; so 
there is no heart that hath rule over music, but music 
subdues it. 

As one day takes from us the credit of another : so one 
strain of music extincts [extiii'^uishcs] the pleasure of another. 

As the heart ruleth over all the members : so music over- 
cometh the heart. 

As beauty is not beauty without virtue : so music is not 
music without art. 

As all things love their likes : so the more curious ear, the 
delicatest music. 

As too much speaking hurts, too much galling smarts ; so 
too much music gluts and distempereth. 

As Plato and Aristotle are accounted Princes in 
philosophy and logic ; Hippocrates and Galen, in physic ; 
Ptolomy in astromony ; Euclid in geometry ; and Cicero 
in eloquence : so BoisTius is esteemed a Prince and captain in 

As Priests were famous among the Egyptians; Magi among 
the Chaldeans, and G3''mnosophists among the Indians ; so 
Musicians flourished among the Grecians : and therefore 
Epaminondas was accounted more unlearned than Themis- 
tocles, because he had no skill in music. 

As Mercury, by his eloquence, reclaimed men from their 
barbarousness and cruelty : so Orpheus, by his music, subdued 
fierce beasts and wild birds. 

As Demosthenes, Isocrates, and Cicero, excelled in 
oratory : so Orpheus, Amphion, and Linus surpassed in 

As Greece had these excellent musicians, Arion, Dorceus, 
Timotheus Milesius, Chrysogonus, Terpander, Lesbius, 
Simon Magnesius, Philamon, Linus, Stratonicus, Aris- 
tonus, Chiron, Achilles, Clinias, Eumonius, Demo- 
DOCHUS, and Ruffinus : so England hath these, Master 
Cooper, Master Fairfax, Master Tallis, Master Taverner. 
Master Blithman, Master Byrd, Doctor Tie, Doctor 
Dallis, Doctor Bull, Master Thomas Mud, sometime 
Fellow of Pembroke Hall in Cambridge, Master Edwari 
Johnson, Master Blankes, Master Randall, Master PiiiLipr 
Master Dowland, and Master Morley. 

io6 Satirists are very rRoriTAiiLE. [.sept^\' 



A CJioice is to be had in Reading of Books. 

S THE Lord DE LA NoUE in the sixth Discourse of his 
Politic and Military Discourses, censureth the books 
of Amadis de Gaul; which, he saith, are no less 
hurtful to youth than the works of Machiavelli 

so these books are accordingly to be censured of, 

to age : 

whose names follow 

Bevis of Hampton. 

Guy of Warwick. 

Arthur of the Round Table. 

HuoN of Bordeaux. 

Oliver of Castile. 

The Four Sons of A ymon. 



The Honour of Chivalry. 
Primaleon of Greece. 
Palermin de Oliva. 
The Seven Champions [of 
Christendom] . 

The Mirror of Knighthood. 




The Stories of Palladin and 

The Black Knight. 
The Maiden Knight. 
The History of C.EtESTlNA. 
The Castle of Fame. 
Gallian of France. 
Ornatus and Artesia. 



S THAT ship Is endangered where all lean to one side ; 
but is in safety, one leaning one way and another 
another way : so the dissensions of Poets among 
themselves, doth make them, that they less infect 
their readers. And for this purpose, our Satirists [Joseph] 
Hall [afterwards Bishop of Norwich], [John Marston] the 
Author of Pygmalion's Image and Certain Satires, [John] 
Rankins, and such others, are very profitable. 


Ben Jonson, 
The Hue and Cry after C u f i d . 


[Masque at Lord HADDIXGTOM^s marriage 
on Shrove Tuesday LS Feb.] 1608.] 

T IS no common cause, ye will conceive, 
My lovely Graces ! makes your goddess 

Her state in heaven to night, to visit earth. 
Love late is fled away ! My eldest birth 
Cupid, whom I did joy to call my son : 
And, whom long absent, Venus is undone. 

Spy ! if you can, his footsteps on this green. 
For here, as I am told, he late hath been 
With divers of his brethren, lending light 
From their best flames, to gild a glorious night ; 
Which I not grudge at, being done for her, 
W^hose honours to mine own, I still prefer. 
But he, not yet returning, I'm in fear. 
Some gentle Grace or innocent Beauty here 
Be taken with him ! or he hath surprised 
A second Psyche, and lives here disguised ! 
Find ye no track of his strayed feet ? 

1ST Grace. 

2ND Grace. Nor I ! 

3RD Grace. Nor I ! 

Not I! 

io8 The Hue and Cry after CuriD. [^i.i?"oo8. 

Venus. Stay Nymphs ! We then will try 

A nearer way. Look all these ladies' eyes, 
And see if there he not concealed lies! 
Or in their bosoms, 'twixt their swelling breasts ! 
(The Wag affects to make himself such nests.) 
Perchance he hath got some simpleheart, to hide 
His subtle shape in. I will have himCryed, 
And all his virtues told ! That, when they know 
What spright he is, she soon may let him go, 
That guards him now ! and think herself right 
To be so timely rid of such a guest. [blest 

Begin, soft Graces ! and proclaim reward 
To her that brings him in ! Speak,to be heard ! 

r ST Grace. Beauties ! Have you seen this toy 
Called Love ? A little boy, 
Almost naked, wanton, blind, 
Cruel now, and then as kind ? 
If he be amongst ye, say 1 
He is Venus' runaway. 

2ND Grace. She that will but now discover 

Where the winged Wag doth hover ; 
Shall, to-night, receive a kiss, 
How, or where herself would wish ! 
But who brings him to his mother. 
Shall have that kiss, and another ! 

3RD Grace. H' hath of marks about him plenty. 
You shall know him among twenty 
All his body is a fire ; 
And his breath a flame entire. 
That being shot like lightning in. 
Wounds the heart, but not the skin 

FeJ-^S] The Hue and Cry after Cutid. 109 

1ST Grace. At his sight, the sun hath turned : 
Neptune in the waters burned ; 
Hell hath felt a greater heat : 
Jove himself forsook his seat. 
From the centre to the sky 
Are his trophies reared high. 

2ND Grace. Wings he hath, which though ye clip, 
He will leap from lip to lip, 
Over liver, lights, and heart ; 
But not stay in any part ; 
And, if chance his arrow misses, 
He will shoot himself, in kisses. 

3RD Grace. He doth bear a golden bow 
And a quiver, hanging low, 
Full of arrows, that outbrave 
Dian's shafts; where if he have 
Any head more sharp than other, 
With that first he strikes his mother. 

1ST Grace. Still the fairest are his fuel, 

W'hen his days are to be cruel. 
Lovers' hearts are all his food, 
And his baths, their warmest blood. 
Nought but wounds, his hand doth season; 
And he hates none like to Reason. 

2ND Grace. Trust him not ! His words though sweet, 
Seldom with his heart do meet ! 
All his practice is deceit ! 
Every gift it is a bait ! 
Not a kiss, but poison bears ! 
And most treason in his tears ! 

on son. 

iio The Hue and Cry after CuriD. [_fj!"l 

3RD Grace. Idle minutes are his reign ; 

Then, the Straggler makes his gain : 
By presenting maids with toys, 
And would have ye think 'hem joys ! 
'Tis the ambition of the Elf, 
T' have all childish, as himself. 

1ST Grace. If by these, ye please to know him, 

Beauties ! be not nice, but show him ! 

2ND Grace. Though ye had a will to hide him ; 
Now, we hope, ye'll not abide him ! 

3RD Grace. Since ye hear his falser play; 

And that he is Venus' runaway. 

At this, from behind the trophies, CuPiD discovered himself, and 
came forth armed ; attended by twelve boys most antiquely attired, 
that represented the sports and pretty lightnesses that accompany 
Love, under the titles of Joci and Risus; and are said to wait 
on Venus, as she is Prefect of Marriage. 


Dean William Turner, 
Doctor of Physic. 

Notes on Wines used in England, 

\_A New Book of the Natuj-c and 
properties of all Wines, &r'C. 

To the Right Honourable 
Sir WILLLIAM CECIL, Knight, Chief 
Secretary unto the Queen's Majesty ; and Master 
of Her Highness's Court of Wards and 
Liveries &c., and sometime his co- 
student in the University of 
Cambridge : 
William Turner wisheth all prosperity, both of 
body and soul, through Jesus Christ 

our Saviour. 

Fter that I perceived that my age, joined with 
continual sickness, would suffer me no more to 
be profitable to Christ's Church and common 
wealth by my voice, words, and going abroad : 
I thought it meet by such members and means as GOD 
hath left in me as yet unhurt and untouched, for that 
portion of living \life\ that I have, to profit the Church of 
GOD as much as I could. And therefore, within these 
twelve months, I have translated one book out of Latin into 

112 Working at the end of a good life. [^^' '^".'T'^^g: 

English ; and have written one Homily against Gluttony 
and Drunkenness and other vices annexed thereto ; and 
have set them abroad for the promoting and increasing the 
Kingdom of GOD. 

I thought also, seeing that GOD hath also endued me 
with the knowledge of bodily physic ; after that I had 
sought to promote the Kingdom of GOD, to communicate 
some part of my knowledge that GOD hath given unto me 
in natural knowledge unto my brethren that had need 

But when as I perceived that there was so much use of 
Wine in all countries [counties] of England ; and so many 
errors committed in the abusing of it, both of the most part 
of the laity, and also of some of the learned that profess 
natural knowledge, I thought I should do no small benefit 
unto the Church and common wealth of England, if that I 
should set out a book of the Nature of Wines; and confute 
the errors and ill opinions that all men have concerning the 
natures and properties of them. 

And this book have I now ended, and dedicate unto j^our 
Honour, for a token of the good will that I bear unto you ; 
desiring you also to be a Patron of it, against all such 
babbling and unlearned Sophisters as will speak against it ; 
not being armed with learning, authority, and reason, but 
only with their old sophistry, which they learned in the time 
of ignorance and darkness. If these will be too busy in 
defending their errors, and will go about to defend them and 
confute the truth that I have taught in this book : if that 
I can have, by the help of GOD, granted unto me any truce 
between me and my disease, I intend to put you to small 
pain in the defending of my book ; for I have been matched 
with as big men as these be, 1 thank GOD 1 and well have 
escaped without dishonour. But if my sickness will not 
suffer me to do it that I would otherwise do, then I must 
desire you and others of my friends to defend me, so far forth 
as I defend the truth. 

W. Turtle 

'™6s;] Different Wines drunk in England. 113 

The following few Notes are extracted from many quotations of the 
medical opinions of the Ancients, to show the kinds of Wine in use in 
England in 1568. 

Ines may be numbered and divided either by the 
country and places that they grow in ; or by their 
colours; or by their youth or age; or by their 
taste, smell, and property that they have ; and 
some of the manner of making. Every one of 

these kinds may be divided again into certain other special 

sorts or under-kinds. 

Some wine is called Creticum from Crda, which is named 

in English, Candy. Some is called Grecium from Grecia. 

Some Rhenish, because it groweth besides the Rhine. Some 

Galliciim, that is French Wine, because it groweth in 

France. And some Rhceticum because it groweth in Rhatia. 

And so a great sort of other wines have their names of the 

countries or places where as they grow. 

fOw SOME men that read this book, acknowledging 
themselves to be my scholars, would learn of me, 
because I teach Englishmen in this English book, 
what kinds of wines are of this sort ? 
I answer, that neither Sack, Malmsey, Muscadel, neither 
Glared [Claret], French nor Gascony wine — though they be 
most used here in England at this time — are such wines as 
Galen speaketh of here ; but Rhenish wine that is racket 
[racked] and clear, and Rochelle and Sebes and other small 
[thin] white wines that are clear from their grounds. There- 
fore to them that are disposed unto the headache, amongst 
all new wines, these above-named small wines are least 
hurtful, and may be taken with less jeopardy. 

If any contend that French, Glared and Gascony wines, 
and other wines as strong as Gascony is, do as little hurt to 
the head as these wines do; I answer that the French, 
Glared and Gascony wines are not thin and subtle, but 
strong, thick, and hot. 

0th French, Glared and Gascony Glared wines are 

of grosser and thicker substance, and hotter of 

complexion than white Rhenish wine and white 

French wines be of i therefore they breed the stone 

more than white Rhenish and white French wines do, 

Ei\G. Gar. II. 8 

114 Wines bad for the Stone. [ 

W. Turner. 


The Rhenish wine that is commonly drunken in gentle- 
men's houses and citizens' houses is commonly a year old at 
the least, before it be drunken : and therefore it is older than 
the common Glared wine, which dureth not commonly above 
one year ; and if Rhenish wine be drunken within the year, 
it is commonly racked before it is drunken : therefore for two 
causes it hath fewer dregs and less terresity or gross earthli- 
ness than the Glared wine hath, and therefore breedeth the 
stone less than the Glared wine that is commonly drunk in 
gentlemen's houses doth. 

Itherto Dioscorides, whose words when he 
speaketh of the wholesomeness of wines against 
poisons, and the bitings and stingings of vene- 
mous beasts, must be understanded of Muscadine, 
Sack, Malmsey, and Bastard, and such hot wines : which, 
by reason of their heat, enter further into the body, and 
more speedily ; and are better against cold poisons than 
colder wines be. 


Ow, GOOD READER ! seeing that Almighty GOD, 
our heavenly Father, hath given thee this noble 
creature of Wine, so many ways profitable for 
our bodies and minds, thank Him with all thy 
heart ! not only for it, but also for that He hath sent learned 
physicians to tell thee how, in what measure, and in what 
time thou shouldest use them, and not use them ; and for 
what complexions and ages they are good, and for what 
complexions and ages they are evil. 

If thou take any harm in misusing this noble creature of 
GOD ; blame not Him! but thine own self that hast abused 
it ; contrary to His will, and to the learning of His officers 
and servants that taught thee the right use of it. 
Honour be given to GOD for ever ! Amen. 


Thomas Lodge, M . D . 

Lodge served as a soldier with Captain Cavendish in his Voyage 
round the World, and wrote a romance called A May-garite of 
America, while in the Straits of Magellan. 

\,ROSALYND. 1590.] 

RosjLTND's Madrigal, 

OvE in my bosom like a bee, 

doth suck his sweet ; 
Now with his wings he plays with me, 
now with his feet. 
Within mine eyes he makes his nest, 
His bed amidst my tender breast, 
My kisses are his daily feast ; 
And yet he robs me of my rest ? 
Ah, wanton ! will ye ? 

And if I sleep, then percheth he, 

with pretty flight, 
And makes his pillow of my knee 

the livelong night. 
Strike I my lute, he tunes the string. 
He music plays, if so I sing. 
He lends me every lovely thing, 
Yet cruel ! he, my heart doth sting. 

" Whist, wanton ! still ye ! 

ii6 Rosalynd's madrigal. ['''-''"'J* 

Else I with roses, every clay 

will whip you hence ! 
And bind you, when you want to play; 

for your offence ! 
I'll shut my eyes to keep you in ! 
I'll make you fast it for your sin ! 
I'll count your power not worth a pin ! " 
Alas, what hereby shall I win, 

If he gainsay me ? 

W hat if I beat the wanton boy 

with many a rod ? 
He will repay me with annoy, 

because a god. 
" Then sit thou safely on my knee I 
And let thy bower my bosom be ! 
Lurk in mine eyes ! I like of thee. 
Cupid ! so thou pity me ! 

Spare not, but play thee 1" 


N. H. 

The worthy aiid famous Voyage of Master 

Thomas Cavendish^ made round about 

the Globe of the Earth; in the 

space of two years ^ and less 

tha?i two months, 

Begim in the year 1586. 

[Hakluyt's Voyages. 15S9.] 

He worshipful and worthy gentleman, Master 
Thomas Ca[ve]ndish of Suffolk, having in the 
year 1585 furnished out a ship, wherein he went, 
as Captain, with Sir Richard Grenville to 
Virginia : in which course he passed by the 
Canaries, and so to the isles of Dominica, Hispaniola, Saint 
John de Porto Rico, the Lucaios [Bahamas], and Florida, in 
the West Indies. Thus fleshed, and somewhat hardened unto 
the sea, immediately after his coming home, he began to take 
in hand a Voyage into the South Sea, and consequently 
round about the Globe of the Earth : which he also per- 
formed with invincible courage, great good government, and 
incredible celerity ; to the great admiration of all men of 

Having therefore, at his own proper cost, new built from 
the keel, and furnished with all things necessary for two 
years' provision, a brave ship called the Desire of 140 tons, 
and a lesser of 60 tons, whose name was the Content; joining 
thereunto a bark of 40 tons named the Hugh Gallant, in 

ii8 By the Canaries to Sierra Leone. [^;.": 

which small fleet were 125 men : the loth day of June 1586, 
he departed from London, and came to Harwich ; and sailed 
from thence the 2gth of the same month. He arrived at 
Plymouth the 8th day of July, from whence he set sail the 
2ist thereof. Thus he proceeded on his voyage until the 25th 
day; at which time, one Master Hope died, who had been 
wounded a little before he went to sea. 

The 26th day, we met with four great Biscayen ships, on 
which we bestowed eighteen great shot, and shrewdly tare 
that ship which we in the Admiral [fla^ ship] assailed j but we 
left her and the others, lest we should loose the rest of our 
consorts, it being nine o'clock at night. 

The 5th day of August, we fell in with the island of 
Fuerte Ventura [one of the Canaries], and sailed thence to 
Cape Blanco ; and so to the coast of Guinea unto a harbour 
called Sierra Leone : wherCj having conference w4th the 
negroes, we fell at variance ; so that three score of our men 
went on shore, and drave them from their town, sacked their 
houses and burnt their dwellings. On the 29th of the same 
month, we departed from them, where going five leagues from 
the place we cam^e to an island called Insitla Verde [? Sherboro 
Island], where we found plantains and other fruits, ^nd fresh 
water; it being aq island of the negroes' husbandry. 

The 6th of September, we burnt here some 150 houses, 
because of their bad dealing with us and all Christians. In 
this place, we redeemed a Portuguese; whom by treason they 
had caught, and held in very miserable captivity. The 13th 
day, we went from thence ; the 30th, vye passed the equinoctial 

Thus we sailed forthj i^nfil the 25th of October, at which 
time we came to the continent of Brazil ; and coasting along 
until the end of that month, the ist of November we anchored 
under an island called Saint Sebastian [about 25° 5. Lat.] ; 
where we rode twenty-three days between the main [sea] and 
it. There we stored ourselves with fresh water and fuel ; and 
built a new pinnace of io tons. On the gth day, died one 
Robert Smith of the disease called scorbuto ; which is an 
infection of the blood and the liver. The 23rd of November, 
we left this island. 

On the 5th December, died one Robert Tates of the 
disease aforesaid. So coasting along till the i6th of this 

J^ss"] "Town of Famine" in Magellan Straits. 119 

month, we discovered an harbour which we named the Port 
of Desire, according to our ship's name ; being almost as big 
as the harbour of Plymouth. In this place we had gulls, 
puets [lapwi)i^s], penguins, and seals in abundance, to all our 
comforts and great refreshing. This Port is somewhat on 
this side of Port St. Julian. 

Sailing from this harbour towards the Straits [of Magellan] , 
before we came to the entrance thereof, we espied certain 
poor starved Spaniards travelling overland towards the River 
of Plate, whereof we took one into our ship : of v/hom we 
understood that of both the two colonies planted in the 
Straits of Magellan by Pedro Sarmiento, there were but 
twenty-two men only left alive ; all the rest being utterly 
perished for hunger, to the number of some three hundred 

On the 6th day of January [1587], we put into the Straits 
of Magellan; and on the 8th, we came to two islands named 
by Sir Francis Drake, the one Bartholomew Island, because 
he came thither on that Saint's day; and the other. Penguin 
Island, upon which we powdered [salted] three tons of pen- 
guins for the victualling of our ship. 

On the 9th day, we came unto a town of the Spaniards, 
erected in March 1584, called by them the "City of King 
Philip," but by us the " Town of Famine ; " because we 
evidently saw the inhabitants, saving the aforesaid twenty- 
two, had all been most miserably starved. We took away 
with us six pieces of their ordnance, whereof three were 
brass and three were iron ; and were glad to hasten from this 
place, for the most noisome stench and vile savour wherewith 
it was infected, through the contagion of the Spaniards' pined 
and dead carcasses. 

Thus sailing through the Straits, the 20th day of January, 
in the midway, we espied savages of a reasonable stature, 
and w^ent unto them, and conferred with them; but such was 
their brutishness and their treacher}', that they would have 
betrayed us under the show of amity ; but we espying their 
treason, gave the first onset, and every shot of us chose his 
man ; and by that means slew some, and hurt more. The 
rest escaped. So having many flaws of southerly and south- 
westerly wind, we were kept within the Straits until the 23rd 
of Februarv. 

i 20 T \v r. J, V i<: Men lost at O u i n t e r a . [^,."; 

That same day, we passed out of the Straits into the sea 
called by Magi;llan, Diarc pacificuDi, "the Peaceable or the 
Calm Sea." Thus we plied up along the coast of Chili by 
the island of La Mocha, which standeth in 38" S. Lat., until 
the 14th of March, when we rode under an island called 
Santa Maria. On which island, we landed eighty men armed, 
in the morning betimes ; and there came unto us the country 
people, which intreated our General [T. Cavendish] very 
well, and presented him with many sorts of meats. For there 
we had at our commandment, Spanish wheat, potatoes, hogs, 
hens, dried dog fish, and divers other good things ; to our 

The 20th day, we departed thence, running along until the 
28th; which day, being at sea, we felt an earthquake in 33" 
S. Lat. We put into a bay called the Bay of Quintera on 
the 30th of this month ; where, the ist of April, we had ten 
of our men slain, and two taken captive by the Spaniards : 
which great misfortune lighted on our men through their 
great recklessness, and want of circumspection ; being sud- 
denly surprised by the enemy, when they little thought of 
him. But on the 3rd day of the same month, the Hugh went 
forth to seaward, and found an island having a great store of 
pelicans and penguins upon it ; whereof they brought good 
store unto us. And so furnishing ourselves here with fresh 
water, which we took in despite of them all : we left them, 
and their cruel harbour, and put out of the bay the 5th of 

Thus ranging along, we hauled in with a port call Mormo- 
rano, where we found a canoe and an Indian in it ; which 
was fishing and had caught a very large tuny, wherewith he 
presented us. In our conference with him, he showed us the 
town, which was base and rude. But their government and 
behaviour are very strange: for when any of them dieth, they 
bury all his goods and stuff with him, as hooks, nets, canoe, 
and other trifles. 

So sailing along that shore, one of our ships called the 
Content, entered into a bay where a great deal of wine of 
Castile was buried in botisios in the sand ; to the quantity of 
some 300 tuns, wherewith she laded herself; having lost our 
company. But they found us again at a town called Arica, 
where they gave us of their wine. In this harbour, we found 

^ss"] Spoiling along the Coast northward. 121 

a great ship and four barks, vvliich we took and kept until 
such time as we had taken out of them the best things for 
our own provision: then we burnt them all; saving one bark, 
which we kept, and named it the George, because we took 
her on St. George's Day [23 April], 

The 25th day of April, we went from Arica, sailing to 
seaward all night ; and in the morning, we espied a small 
bark. Manning our pinnace, we took her : wherein were 
three Spaniards, one Greek, and one Dutchman. Being 
examined, they confessed that they came from the Bay of 
Quintera (where we lost our foresaid twelve men), and that 
their intent was to go for Lima, to give advice to the Viceroy 
for to provide force to cut us off: but their pretence [device], 
through GOD's merciful providence, was prevented. One of 
these Spaniards was a reasonable pilot for those seas. 

Thus we continued our course along the coast of Peru 
until the 4th day of May, upon which day our Spanish pilot 
led us into a bay called Pisco, where we would have gone on 
shore, but the sea was so grown [rotigh] that we could not. 
Yet on the southernmost side of the bay, there was a village 
called Paraca, where seven of our men went on land, and 
found figs, pomegranates, and pomegranate wine. 

On the 6th of Ma}-, we went from Paraca; and in our 
course w^e descried to seaward two sails; and gave them 
chase, and took them. One was laden with meal and marma- 
lade, the other with merchants' goods as sayes [clotlis] of 
divers sorts and colours, Castile or white soap, a kind of 
pease called garvansas, Cordovan skins, inonicgo dcporco which 
is hog's grease clarified or refined, and molasses or syrup of 
sugar, beans, and one or two thousand hens alive. Hereupon 
we gat us into a bay called Cheripa, where we laded our 
ships with part of these commodities ; and burnt the rest, 
ships and all : having put the men that were in them on 
land ; and departed from thence the loth of May. 

Thus sailing forward, we hauled into a Bay called Payta, 
where we took a bark unrigged ; and landed three score 
men and took the town ; out of which we drave about three 
hundred persons which fled with bag and baggage ; whom 
we pursued so fast, that they were forced to leave their 
lodgings behind them. In the end, we set their town on 
fire; because they sought not to redeem the same. And 

122 Nine Men Lost AT Puna. [^',588. 

because we found small store of treasure here, we came away 
the same night. 

On the 2nd of June, we went to the island of Puna, where 
we trimmed our ships, and refreshed our men ; though 
somewhat to our costs. For on the 2nd of June, our men 
thinking themselves to be sure and safe enough, four score or 
a hundred Spaniards with two hundred Indians (for there 
was a town of Indians in the island bigger than Gravesend) 
set upon fifteen or sixteen of our men, being half asleep and 
half awake ; slew five or six, and took two or three of them, 
before any supply [supports] could come unto them : at the 
coming whereof, they all ran away like greyhounds. 

Our men for revenge burnt their town, and spoiled their 
fields and gardens : but first we took the fruits of the island 
as goats, hogs, hens, figs, oranges, lemons, besides other 
wholesome herbs in great quantity. 

So after we had trimmed our fleet, we came away. But 
for a farewell, we first set four of their ships on fire, whereof 
one was of 200 tons, the rest of a 100 a piece : being all 
upon the stocks a building. We also fired another of 400 
tons, called the Great Saint Luce, riding before the town, to be 
mended : because they have never another so good a place to 
bring their ships aground as that is, on all the coast of Peru. 
After that we had taken in fresh water, we went from 
thence the nth day of June ; and the 12th day we passed the 
equinoctial line, continuing our course northward all that 

About the beginning of July, as we ranged along the back 
side of New Spain, near unto Guatemala, where there is an 
hill that burneth continually : we escried a new ship of 200 
tons; wherein were two Spaniards, two Marseilleans, two 
Venetians, and one Fleming. In which ship was little or 
nothing, but her ballast. We took her sails, ropes, and fire- 
wood to serve our turns, set her on fire, and kept the men ; 
of which number, we brought one, called Michael Sancius, 
a pilot into England. 

On the next day, we took another ship, the men being 
escaped with their boat on land ; which, after we had taken 
certain victuals out of her, we also set on fire. This was the 
ship of adviso, to give warning of us, sent from Lima to the- 
coast of New Spain. 

N. H, 

] Spoiling along the Mexican Coast. 12, 

The 2Sth of July, we came to the port of Aguatulco 
[Acaptdco], in which we found a ship laden with cocoa, 
a fruit like almonds much esteemed in those parts : and 
taking the spoil thereof, we set the ship and town on lire for 
company. The people ran away at the sight of our little 
pinnace, our ships lying three leagues off at that time. There 
were some four score houses in this town, being a haven that 
belongeth to Mexico. In this place we had great store 
of pitch, which stood us in great stead for our ships ; and 
some quantity of Wine of Castile, as they call it. 

The 4th day of August, we departed from this place : and 
coming forth, we took a she tortoise which had about four 
hundred and odd eggs in her ; which eggs we eat, and found 
them to be good meat. 

The 13th of August, we fell in with a haven of New 
Spain called Puerto de Natividad, about 19° [N.] Lat. ; where 
we had conference with four Indians. There we took the 
post of adviso, that ran by land on horse ; whose horse we 
slew, and took him prisoner. 

We burnt two ships of 200 tons the piece, which were in 
building in the harbour. And six leagues from thence, there 
was a little island or rock replenished with abundance of 
birds ; whereof we got a good store, to our great refreshing : 
there were also innumerable sort of parrots as big as hens. 
In another haven hard by, called Puerto de Santo Jago, we 
dragged for pearls, and took sorne store. 

The 3rd of September, we came away; having trimmed 
our pinnace, which was wonderful leaky with worms. 

The 8th day of the same, we came into a bay called 
the Bay of Compostella, where our men went two leagues up 
into the country early in the morning ; and took a Spaniard 
and his wife, a Ragusean and his wife, with an Indian and 
his wife ; and brought them away iinto our General : who 
set the women at liberty, and they redeemed their husbands 
with fruits as plantains, mamejas, pineapples, oranges and 
lemons ; of all which there is great abundance ; as the 
Spaniard said iaiito couio ieyra, " as plenty as there is of 

On the 12th of September, we came to an island, two 
leagues from thence, called Saint Andrew ; where we had 
fowls and seals and guanos, of which we made very good 

124 Capture the Gaeleon St. Aa'A'a the Great. 

TN. H. 

L 1588. 

victuals : howbeit they would scarcely take the salt but for 
a nij:;ht and a day only. 

The i6th of the same month, we came into a bay called 
Mazatlan, where we had fruit and fish : but were in great 
danger of our enemies. 

We traversed from thence unto the southernmost Cape of 
California {Cape Saint Lucas]; where beating up and down, we 
discovered a port called by the Spaniards Agiia Secura, and 
found good store of fresh water. 

We lay off and on this Cape until the 4th of November, on 
which day in the morning we espied the goodly ship coming 
from the Philippines called Saint Anna the Great, being of 700 
tons. We chased her until noon ; so fetching her up, we 
gave them fight to the loss of twelve or fourteen of their 
men, and the spoil and hurt of many more of them : where- 
upon at last they yielded unto us. In this conflict, we lost 
only two of our men. 

So on the 6th of the said November, we went into the 
Port of Agua Secura ; where we anchored, and put nine 
score prisoners on land : and ransacking the great ship, we 
laded our own two ships with forty tons of the chiefest 
merchandise, and burnt all the rest, as well ship as goods 
to the quantity of 600 tons of rich merchandise : because we 
were not able to bring it away. This was one of the richest 
vessels that ever sailed on the seas ; and was able to have 
made many hundreds wealth}^, if we had had means to have 
brought it home. 

At length, having furnished ourselves with water and 
wood, and made us ready for the sea, we set sail the 20th of 
November; and came away. From Cape California, we 
shaped our course to the islands of the Ladrones; and by 
the providence of GOD we came unto them in two and forty 
days, the distance being 2,300 leagues. 

The first island of the Ladrones, where we touched [ist or 
2nd of January 1588] was Guam. The inhabitants are 
thievish and treacherous. They met us at sea three leagues 
off, in small canoes admirable to behold for their swiftness 
in sailing; with which people we had some traffic until the 
evening. So we left them, directing our course unto the 
islands of the Philippines until the 14th January, on which 
day we fell in with an island called Tadaia; and from thence, 

^ss"] From California to Cape of Good Hope. 125 

we passed by the island of Luzon or Manilla, until we came 
to an island called Capul ; where we had hens, hogs, 
potatoes, cocoas, and other fruits, by traffic with the 
Indians ; making our abode there until the 24th of the 
aforesaid January. 

Then proceeding on our voyage through the infinite 
number of islands towards those rich islands of the 
Moluccas ; we passed by Mindanao, which is the last 
island that the Spaniards inhabit that way. So we ran 
between Celebes or Batachina, and Borneo until the 12th 
day of February. 

And on the 28th and last of the same, we put through 
between the Straits of Java major and Java minor [Smnatra 
i.e., the Straits of Suiida] and anchored under the south-west 
part of Java major: where the inhabitants, being Gentiles 
[heathen], brought unto us hens, geese, hens' eggs, ducks' 
eggs, beeves [o.xens], buffes [buffalos], melons, plantains, 
and a hundred sorts of fruit most strange and wonderful for 
greatness and goodness; even whole junks' full, being a kind 
of barks made like unto our barges. These people did 
intreat us wonderfully well, and came as duly to traffic with 
us in our ship as we do in our markets and shops ; and 
brought from their King divers presents to our General, and 
carried divers rich gifts from our General to their King. 

The King sent many of his kinsmen and chief courtiers a 
shipboard to entertain him [i.e., Master Cavendish], being 
men of very good behaviour. They sit cross legged. They 
would fain have had our General come to the King's chief 
town ; because he was not well able to come down to our 
ship, being a man of great age, and as they reported very 
near 150 years old : but our General excused himself, and 
that with reason. He would have sent his son in his own 
stead ; but that he was at war against another King in the 
island, their enemy. This old King's name was Rajah 


The 1 6th of March, we set sail from Java major toward 
the Cape of Good Hope; and on the nth day of May, we 
fell [in] with the land of Ethiopia near unto a place called 
False Cape, being thirty and odd leagues from the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

On the igth of May, we had sight of the Cape of Good 

126 English Discovery OF Saint Helena. [^, 

N. II, 


Hope, which is the promontory that all travellers desire to 

The 7th of June, we fell [in] with the island of Saint 
Helena, and on the 8th day, we anchored under it : where 
we continued twelve days, finding it a place to our great 
contentment ; for there we had goats^ hogs, figs, oranges, 
lemons, pomegranates, and many wholesome herbs for the 
gathering. But he that will have of the cattle [i.e., the goats 
md hogii] must travel a mile ahd a half into the steepy 
mountain to kill them. We found a church, and thirty or forty 
houses built to lodge the Portuguese^ in their coming from 
the East Indies. There was only one banished man there, 
which lived as a hermit : but he was dead before our arrival.^ 

•'' y^iV HuvGHEN VAN LiNSCHOTEN ivho i'eaclied Saint Helena, on his 
return Jionie from Goa in a Portuguese C arrack, the Santa Cruz of 1,600 
tons, on the i2ih May 1589 {eleven viojiths after Cavendis'.{ had, by 
adopting the return Portuguese track from the Cape, discovered it to the 
English Nation), gives the followi?ig account of the Circumnavigator's 

About three months before our arrival at Saint Helena, there had been a 
ship, which the year before set out of Ormuz, with the goods and men 
that temained in the San Salvador ; that had been saved by the Portuguese 
army, on the coast of Abex, a;id brought into Ormuz. That ship had 
wintered in the Mozambique, and had passed very soon by the Cape ; and 
so sailed witliout any company into Portugal : having left some of her 
sick men in the island, as the manner is, which the' next ships that came 
thither must take into them. 

These gave us intelligence, that about four \or rather eleveii\ months 
before our arrival, there had been an English ship at the island of Saint 
Helena; which had sailed through the Straits of Magellan, and through 
the South Seas, and from thence to the isles of Philippines ; and had passed 
through the Straits of Sunda that lieth beyond Malacca, betwen the islands 
of Sumatra and Java. In the which way, she had taken a ship of China, 
such as they call Junks, laden with silver and gold and all kinds of silks ; 
and that she sent a letter with a small present to the Bishop of Malacca, 
telling him, " That she sent him that of friendship, meaning to come 
herself and visit him," 

Out of that ship of China, they took a Portuguese pilot : and so passed 
the Cape of Good Hope, and came to the island of Saint Helena. Where 
they took in fresh water and other necessaries, and beat down the altar 
and the cross that stood in the church; and left behind them a kettle and 
a sword, which the Portuguese at our arrival found there. Yet could they 
not conceive, or think, what that might mean 1 Some thought it was left 
there for a sign to some other ships of his company : but every man maj' 
think what he will thereof. 

\The kettle and sivord probably meant nothing at all ; being simply Icfi 

N. H, 

] Just miss the Armada Fight. 127 

The 20th of June, we departed from the island of Saint 
Helena ; shaping our course from thence for England. 

The 4th of July, we passed the equinoctial line : which 
was the fourth time that we had traversed the same in this 
our journey. 

The 24th of August, we had sight of two islands of the 
Azores, the one called Flores, the other Corvo ; and directed 
our way from them for the Lizard until the 3rd of September : 
[where] at which time we espied a Flemish Hulk that came 
from Portugal, which told us the joyful news of our Fleet's 
good success against the huge army of the Spaniards [the 
Spanish Armada]. 

And on the 5th day, we met with a ship of Southampton, 
which had taken a Brazilian prize : whose Captain informed 
us at large of the truth of that which had passed. We took 
some refreshing of them : which was recompensed with treble 

And so entered into the Narrow Seas, where we had as 
terrible a night as ever men endured. For all our sails were 
blown quite away, but making as good shift as we could with 
certain old sails we had within board : on the next morning, 
being the loth of September 1588, like wearied men, through 
the favour of the Almighty, we got into Plymouth ; where 
the townsmen received us with all humanity. 

In this voyage, we burnt twenty sails of Spanish ships, 
besides divers of their towns and villages. 

A letter of Master Thomas CaTveIndish, to the Right 
Honourable [Lord Hunsdon] the Lord Chamberlain, 
one of Her Majesty's most honourable Privy Council; 
touching the success of his Voyage about the World. 

[Hakluyt's Voyages. 15S9.] 

Right Honourable. 

pS YOUR favour heretofore hath been most greatly 
extended towards me ; so I humbly desire a con- 
tinuance thereof : and though there be no means 
in me to deserve the same ; yet the uttermost of 
my services shall not be wanting, whensoever it 
shall please your Honour to dispose thereof. 

128 Letter informing Queen Elizabetii. ['^"seprSa: 

I am humbly to desire your Hon our to make known unto 
Her Majesty the desire I have had to do Her Majesty service 
in the performance. And as it hath pleased GOD to give 
her the victory over part of her enemies : so I trust, ere long, 
to see her overthrow them all. 

For the places of their wealth, whereby they have main- 
tained and made their wars, are now perfectly discovered : 
and if it please Her Majesty, with a very small power, she 
may take the spoil of them all. 

It hath pleased the Almighty to suffer me to circumpass 
the whole Globe of the World ; entering in at the Straits of 
Magellan, and returning by the Cape of Good Hope. In 
which voyage, I have either discovered or brought certain 
intelligence of all the rich places of the world that ever were 
known or discovered by any Christian. 

I navigated along the coasts of Chili, Peru, and New Spain, 
where I made great spoils. I burnt and sunk nineteen ships, 
great and small. All the villages and towms that ever I landed 
at, I burnt and spoiled. And had I not been discovered 
upon the coast, I had taken great quantity of treasure. 

The matter of most profit unto me was a great ship of the 
King's, which I took at California ; which ship came from the 
Philippines, being one of the richest of merchandise that ever 
passed those seas, as the King's Register and the Merchants' 
Accounts did show : for it did amount in value to Isiiin 
omitted] in Mexico to be sold. Which goods, for that my 
ships were not able to contain the least part of them, I was 
enforced to set on fire. 

From the Cape of California, being the uttermost part of 
all New Spain, I navigated to the islands of the Philippines, 
hard upon the coast of China : of which country I have 
brought such intelligence as hath not been heard of in these 
parts. The stateliness and riches of which country I fear to 
make report of; least I should not be credited. For if I had 
not known sufficiently the incomparable wealth of that 
country, I should have been as incredulous thereof as others 
will be, that have not had the like experience. 

I sailed along the islands of the Moluccas; where among 
some of the heathen people, I was well intreated. Where 
our countrymen may have trade as freely as the Portuguese, 
if they will themselves. 

JocriTss'!''''] Enormous Value of the Cargo. 129 

From thence, I passed by the Cape of Good Hope : and 
found out, by the way homeward, the island of Saint Helena, 
where the Portuguese use to relieve [refresli] themselves. 
And from that island, GOD hath suffered me to return into 

AH which services, with myself, I humbly prostrate at Her 
Majest3''s feet ; desiring the Almighty long to continue her 
reign amongst us. For at this day, she is the most famous 
and victorious Prince that liveth in the world. 

Thus humbly desiring pardon of your Honour, for my 
tediousness ; I leave your Lordship to the tuition of the 

Plymouth, this 9th of September 1588. 

Your Honour's most humble to command, 

Thomas Candish. 

To the Right Honourable Sir Francis Walsingham, 
Principal Secretary to Her Majesty. 

[Harl. MS. 286, fol. if i ] 

He special regard which it pleaseth your Honour 
to respect me with, can by no means of mine be 
desired ; neither can I express what comfort I 
receive by these 3'our favours done unto me. My 
desire is to be thankful, but I have no meansto mani- 
fest the same, but only in honouring and serving you above 
all others; which opinion I most humbly desire your Honour 
to hold of me. 

Of late, I have not been very well ; but at this present I 
thank GOD I am much better than I was: yet not in such 
pei-fect health, but that I mean to use the help of the phy- 
sician ; for whose coming unto me, I am most heartily bound 
unto your Honour. 

I have had courtesy showed me by your officers for the 
custom [import duty] of my goods; which amounteth to ;^goo 
[ = almost ^£"5,000 in present value]. There be some things which 
I have kept from their sight, for special causes ; which I 
mean to make known to your Honour at my coming to Lon- 
don. For I protest, before GOD, that I will not hide any 

£ao. Gar. II. o 

I30 Lost Ballads of the Voyage. [, 


one thinj^ from you ; neither concerninpj the quantity of my 
floods, nor the secrets of the voyage : which, in many thinjijs, 
shall not he known but unto your Honour ; for they be 
matteis of great importance. 

And thus giving you most humble thanks for your great 
favours done unto me, I humbly take my leave. 
Plymouth, this 8th of October 1588. 

Your Honour's most humbly to command, 

Thomas CauiNdyssii. 

Three rsallnds, now lost, relating to this Voyage were entered for 
publication at Stationers' Hall at the following dates. 

3 N V EMB ER 1588. 

A ballad of Master CAVENDISH' s Voyage, who by travel 
compassed the Globe of the World, arriving in England wiiJi 
abundance of treasure. 

14 November 1588. 

A new Ballad of the famous and honourable coining of Master 
Cavendish's ship, called the Desire, before the Queen's Majesty 
at her Court at Greenwich, the i2t/i of November 1588, &c. 

3 December 1588. 

Captain Roberts's Welcome of good ivill to Captain 

It is not expressly stated that this IVelcoini; was a Ballad : but it would 
seem so from the title. 

Transcript of the Ra^^isicrs of the Company of Stationers 
of London 1554-1640 a.d. II. 505-509, ii^/. 1875. 



Abraham Cowley. 

l^he Wish. 

[The Mistress. i6^?.] 


Ell then ! I now do plainly see 
This busy world and I shall ne'er agree* 
The very honey of all earthly joy 

t)oes of all meats, the soonest cloy I 
And they, methinks, deserve my pity ; 
Who for it, can endure the stings, 
The crowd, and buz, and murmurings 
Of this great hive^ the Cityt 


Ah, yet, ere I descend to th*grave, 
May I a small house, and large garden have ! 
And a few friends, and many books; both true. 

Both wise, and both delightful too ! 

And since love ne'er will from me flecj 
A mistress, moderately fair. 
As good as guardian angels are. 

Only beloved, and loving me ! 


O fountains ! when, in you, shall 1 
Myself, eased of unpeaceful thoughts, espy ? 
O fields ! O woods ! when ? when shall I be made 

The happy tenant of your shade ? 

Here's the spring-head of pleasure's flood ! 
Here's wealthy Nature's treasury, 
Where all the riches lie ! that She 

Has coined and stampt for good. 


The Wish 

r A. Cowley 
Lljtfore 1C47. 


Pride and Ambition here, 
Only in far fetch'd metaphors appear; 
Here, nought but winds can hurtful murmurs scatter ; 

And nought but echo flatter 1 

The gods, when they descended, hither 
From heaven did always choose their way ; 
And therefore we may boldly say, 

That 'tis the way to thither. 


How happy here, should I 
And one dear She live ; and embracing, die ! 
She who is all the world, and can exclude 

In deserts, solitude! 

I should have then this only fear ; 
Lest meo, when they my pleasure see, 
Should hither throng to live like me ; 

And so make a City here. 


:a |0olitit i0lat for 

the honour of the Prince, the 
great profit of the public StatCj 
relief of tlje poor, pre^ei'bation of 
tlje ri'clj, cefofntfltlon of rogticis 
ann I'Dle pec0on0, anti tlje \xiealtlj 
of tliou?ianti5 tljat knoto not Ijoto 

to ll'tie* (lilU'ltteil for a Neiv Tears 

Gift to dEntjlanti, anti tlje inljabi- 

tant3 tljereofi lij? Robert 

Hitchcock^ late of Cat3er0= 

fielD in tlje Count? 

of Buclungljam, 


fmprinted at Lo72don, by 

lohn Kyngston. 

I January, 


' ^^^^^^^ra?^^^!ra?^^^^^^^ 


^m}^ mm^ :?f c^c^a ^^^:^ mm^ ^^^*m m^^m ^m}^ ^^^^^m ^mm 

To the friendly Reader. 

Orasmuch as the A hnighty OOD hath blessed and 
enriched this noble Kingdom with the siucet dew of His 
heavenly goodness; and staged therein many hidden rich 
andpleasant treasures for our benefits, to reveal tmto us 
when His good pleasure is : I think therefore, every man is rather 
born to profit his native soil and common weal in revealing the same 
secrets and hidden treasure to his country y if they be showed [to] 
him; than to seek after his own private gain and glory thereby. 
So I have taken npon me, good gentle Reader, to unfold some oj 
the same hidden treasures to my country ; which I suppose is mani- 
fested unto me. Albeit there be a great number that can more 
sweetly, and withpleasanter words and sugared style, than I, set out 
the matter to thee, if they knew it, in far' better method and order; 
yet the zeal and duty I bear to my country, being partly fed with 
hope of thy good patience, gentle Reader, and partly emboldened with 
the forewarning that Ecclesiastes c. ii. givcth, which is, That no 
man shall be condemned before his tale be told, and inquisition 
thereof made : ivhcrcby righteous judgement may thereof follow 
lest he, as Solomon sayeth, Procure to himself folly and 
shame, in giving sentence of a matter before he hear it : 

These things, I say, have moved me to put forth my simple mind 
in writing to my country ; and praying thee, of thy good courtesy, 
to peruse it, and to thoroughly weigh the depths thereof in the 


6 The Preface. K'Sr'^' 

balance of thy grave judgement : and if tlioU find the pith and 
camel [kernel] of my labour fruitful to thee and thy country, as I 
doubt nothing thereof but thou shall; then may it be, that it hath 
pleased GOD to pour out His knowledge as well upon a soldier as 
upon a great clerk, for now and then wisdom may be shrouded tmder 
an unclean cloak. And I doubt not also, but the same reasons and 
duty that bound me these many years to travail in this action, to my 
great cost and charge, to find out the ivay and perfection thereof, 
shall also bind thee and move thee effectually to favour it; to further 
it in the Parliament House; and to defend my intperfection against 
a sort of MoMUSsect and ZoiLUS' band, that can rather find fault 
icith the man than with the matter, be it never so well, or any way 
put to thfir helping hands to amend the same {if it be not orderly). 
My care hath been to please my country, and the honest and grave 
sort thereof ; which if this my travail shall do and content, I have 
cause to thank Almighty GOD for it, and think my time well 

For in this little book, gentle Reader, thou shall find (if the 
same be executed according to law) it importeth much matter, 
bringing great plenty and much wealth and benefit to all the inhabi- 
tants of this realm; it provideth for the poor in honest and decent 
manner, bringing them to a good and a godly vocation of life : with 
many other special benefits to this kingdom and commonwealth ; 
which for tcdiousness' sake, lest I weary thee, I refer thee to the 
hook itself, where they mayest at large see them with the eye, judge 
them by thy good discretion, wisdom and favour, and further 
them by thy good help and assistance at convenient time. 

So fare thee heartily well, 

Robert H i tch co cke. 


The Epistle to E?iglaJ2d, 

|0r me, noble and renowned England! to write 
to Thee, that hath bred and brought forth so many 
famous, honourable, wise, and learned men ; who 
be not only most expert in all politic government, 
but also most happily furnished each way with all manner of 
knowledge, cunning, and wisdom, thoroughly seen in all the 
noble sciences and arts liberal : both Thou and they may 
think, and think truly, overmuch boldness and mere arrogancy 
in me, that neither am furnished of good letters, knowledge, 
histories, or other means to make a plausible way of that, or 
for that I wish should have good success at Thy hands, or of 
good opinion at theirs. Much more I am afraid lest Thou 
hold it outrage and presumption for me to dedicate unto Thee, 
and trouble Thee with the patronage and defence of this my 
device ; a fruitless thing, as some may deem it, before it be 
thoroughly considered of them. 

But since I am void of presumption, all manner of ways 
(GOD be my record), and am one of Thine own brood, 
fostered up with the fat of Thy loins ; and take not upon me 
to discourse of vanities, but of the setting out of part of Thy 
flowing goodness that hath so embalmed this thy region with 
secret riches : though a world of eyes be poring in my face, I 
trust in Thy own cause and for Thine own sake, and [the] 
goodness of the matter itself, and for such reasons and 
arguments as I have set down, to find a great number of 
willing hearts, and well disposed minds — that with open 
mouth will confess the invention sound and good ; and the 
means to bringing it to pass, both easy and profitable — to 

T38 The ErisTLE to England. [^^- ";;;;'.";78o. 

further their native soil and the benefit thereof, with this 
m}' simple action I take in hand of displaying part of Thy 

And, therefore, the grave and wise men of this land, of 
their good grace and favour, I trust undoubtedly will accept, 
and take in good part, this my good will and long travail, and 
shroud and defend me and my book, under the wings of their 
wisdom, as under a sure anchor-hold, against the rash opinions 
of those that rather wilfully than wisely will imagine no 
politic provision can come from the sconse [hulwark] of a 
soldier that hath trailed the pike. 

But as GOD raiseth instruments to set out His glory in 
divers ways, and by divers degrees; so let it not be grievous 
to Thee, O England ! nor to the better sort of men, that one 
of Thine own, though not so finely as others, do set abroad 
part of Thy riches, wealth, and glory to enrich Thy own 
peculiar people withal ; and hath opened the golden stream 
of Thy secret storehouse to the inhabitants of the same. But 
likewise, open Thou ! by Thy divine providence the hearts of 
the wise, grave, and rich of this land that they will affect it, 
embrace it, put their helping hands to it, and willingly 
further it by all possible means they can, for the common 
profit of the inhabitants. Inasmuch as, by GOD's means, 
so great a benefit is offered with small care, little toil, and no 
cost ; to make all this land blessed, the people thereof happy, 
strong, and invincible. 

If I should particularly discourse the several commodities 
that flow from it, in particularity, and the number of all sorts 
of people within this land, that shall be maintained thereby; 
I should but weary you with a long tale, and keep you from 
the matter I desire you should know. 

Therefore commending the goodness thereof to your wisdom, 
and me [myself] to your favourable exposition, I end. 
Yours humbly, in all that I may, at commandment 
during life, for the honour of Prince and country, 
Robert Hitchcock e. 

F. Hitchcock 

,cock.-| R E C O ^I ^I E N D A T q R Y P O E M . 

CLFrancis Hitchcock. 
Ta the readers of this, his brother s hook, 

S THEY of all most praise deserve, 

That first with pen did show ; 
To us the sacred Word of God, 

Whereby His will we know : 
So many thanks are due to those, 

That beat their restless brain, 
To profit all both old and young. 

That in this land remain. 
Amongst the rest that well deserve, 

Account the Author one: 
Who by his toil hath here offered 

To all, excepting none, 
A banquet great, that savoureth sweet. 

To such as hungry be ; 
Withouten cost, for aye to last. 

To people of each degree. 
Shake now the tree ! and taste the fruit ! 

Of this his New Year's Gift : 
Till purse be full, and strings do brake 

With gold and groats of thrift. 
Prepare thee then a grateful heart. 

And sound the trump of fame : 
In recompense of his good will 

That Hitchcock hath to name. 
Thus loth to keep thee from thy meatj 

Wherewith I wish thee fed : 
I stay my pen, and so farewell ! 

The table now is spread. 



Hitchcock's New Years Gift to 'England, 

He great care that the Queen's Majesty 
and her noble progenitors have taken to 
banish and root out of their dominions 
that loathsome monster Idleness (the 
mother and breeder of vagabonds) is most 
apparent by their wholesome laws and pro- 
visions, made from time to time; beginning 
at the worthy reign of King Edward III., 
King Richard IL, and so descending to Her Majesty's most 
prudent and virtuous government : wherein as well public 
provisions hath been to help the common weal, as some sharp 
and severe punishment provided, if common policy would not 
serve. Yet, nevertheless, all these laws, so circumspectly 
made, could not, nor cannot banish that pestilent canker 
out of this common weal by any degree ; but that the same 
increaseth daily more and more : to the great hurt and 
impoverishing of this realm. 

For remedy whereof, Almighty GOD, by the most 
commodious situation of this Island, and His blessings, both 
of the land thereof, and of the sea wherewith it is environed, 
hath provided a most convenient mean[s] ; both for labour for 
the idle, and for food, benefit, and riches for the inhabitants. 
Whereby, the lusty vagabonds and idle persons (the roots, 
buds, and seeds of idleness) shall at all hands and in all 
places be set on work, and labour willingly, and thereby prove 
good subjects, and profitable members of this common weal. 
This realm and the inhabitants bordering as well upon the sea 
as upon the land throughout the same, in short time to be marvel- 
lously enriched. Nine thousand mariners more than now pre- 

142 Results PRorosED IN THIS Design. [^- 

? 1579. 

sently there is, to serve in Her Majesty's ships at all times, 
if need be. The coins of gold and silver that issue Read the 
plentifully out of this realm, to stay and abide within orthe'''* 
this land: for restraint whereof both Her Highness ^%.^^33 
and her noble progenitors have made divers laws viilci. 
and statutes, but yet never could do the same. A ready 
means to cause foreign wares to be brought hither. Her 
Majesty's custom and subsidies greatly augmented. Her navi- 
gation [shipping] greatly increased^ The towns bordering on 
the sea coasts, now in ruins and void of English inhabitants, to 
be peopled and inhabited by Her Majesty's own peculiar sub- 
jects ; to the great strength of this realm, and terror of the enemy. 

Besides the help that shall be ministered to two hundred 
[and] twenty and five decayed towns [ ? villages] in England 
and Wales; with a stock [ca^^Yn/j of two hundred poundstoevery 
decayed town to set the poor on work. And to eight principal 
Port towns within this land> appointed for sundry causes 
appertaining to this Plat eight thousand pounds; which is to 
every principal Port town one thousand pounds, to be a stock 
for ever. Besides four hundred fishing ships to continue for 
ever. And two good Ships of War, furnished warlike, to defend 
the fishing ships. All which things, GOD willing, may be 
performed within three years, without cost or charge to any 
man, as by this Plat shall appear* And also an infinite 
number of people, as well rich and poor, set to work by divers 
means and degrees ; which things will relieve many a 
poor man, and save many a tall fellow from the gallows. 

For performance whereof. First, there must be made four 
hundred fishing ships, after the manner of Flemish Busses, of 
the burden of three score and ten tons the ship, or more, but 
none under: which will cost two hundred pounds the ship, 
with the furniture ; if it be ready furnished to the sea in all 
things necessary. Every ship requireth one skilful Master to 
govern it, twelve mariners or fishermen, and twelve of the 
strong lusty beggars or poor men taken up through this land. 

Which in the whole, amounteth to the number of ten 
thousand persons, at the first manning of the ships. So that 
with a little experience, this realm hath clearly increased 
nine thousand mariners more than were in this land before. 

These ships so made, furnished, and manned must be ap- 
pointed to such roads and haven towns as border upon the sea 

R. Hitchcock.-| Proposed ]\I e t h o d of Fishing. 143 

coasts compassingthisrealm round about; beginning at London, 
and so orderly proceeding, according to the Table hereunto 
annexed. And being thus placed, having with them to the 
seas for their victuals, sufficient bread, beer, butter, and cheese ; 
with barrels (empty), caske, and salt: with order also not to 
return until they be fully ladened : shall go yearly a fishing and 
kill herrings upon the coasts of England and Ireland, presently 
and always as they kill them, to gill them, salt, pickle, and 
barrel them, after the Flemish manner, with " salt upon salt,"-'^ 
which is the best kind of salt. And shall fish for herrings yearly 
during the time of herring fishery, which is fourteen or fifteen 
weeks. In which time, by GOD's grace, every ship will 
kill, at the least, fifty last of the best sort of herrings ; 
amounting in the whole to twenty thousand last. Every 
last, being sold but for ^^lO, which is i6s. 8d. the barrel, 
draweth to ;;^2oo,ooo yearly for the best herrings only. Per- 
haps they may laden their ships twice yearly with herrings ; 
and then this sum is doubled in that time of herring fishing. 
And to the end that the herrings shall be wholesome for 
the subject, stranger, or for whomsoever shall buy them, and 
that the good usage thereof may gain credit where they shall 
happen to be uttered, they shall account in making of their 
herrings upon the sea, so as sixteen barrels made there, make 
but twelve barrels at their home coming to their several 
ports ; when they shall be new sorted, severed, couched, and 
truly and justly packed by such honest and substantial men 
as shall be sworn and purposely chosen for that intent, and 
they to have two pence of every barrel, according to the 
statute for that purpose provided : dividing the full herrings 
into two several sorts, marking the biggest and best herrings 
with this several mark B : the second, with the second mark 
M : also the shotten herrings [empty herrings, tJiat have cast 

^ John Collins in Salt and Fishery &^c., 1682,/. 13, thug describes 
Salt upon Salt, or Salt made by refining of foreign Salt. 

The Dutch, above fifty years since (finding the ill quantities and effects 
of French salt, both as to fishery uses and for curing of flesh for long 
voyages ; besides the discolouring of butter and cheese) prohibited thg 
use thereof by law : and being at war with Spain, traded to Portugal, St. 
Tubas, and the Isle of May for salt, granulated or kernelled merely by 
the heat and vigour of the sun ; and fell to the refining thereof at home 
by boiling it up with sea water, and thereby cleansing it of three ill quahtiesj 
to wit, dirt, sand, and bitterness. 

144 120,000 Barrels will serve England. [^"-^ 


their spawn] with this proper mark, S. To the end, no man 
may be abused. Every barrel containinj::^ two and thirty 
gallons, according to the statute made 23 Edward IV. c. 2, 
which twelve barrels make a last. 

Out of which said number of 20,000 last of herrings, nine or 
ten thousand last, will be a sufficient rate or portion to satisfy 
this whole realm. The residue, being 10,000 or 11,000 last, 
drawing to /^ioo,ooo, being ordered as aforesaid, will be of as 
great estimation in France, as the Flemish herrings be : and 
will be sold and uttered in divers parts of that region ; as in 
Normandy, in Nantes, in Bordeaux, and in Rochelle. And the 
further south that the countries do lie, the better utterance for 
fish. For these herrings, return will be made of all such 
necessaries as we want in this realm, viz., wine and woods 
(for which is always paid ready gold), Salt, Canvas, Viicrc [glass], 
Dowlais, and divers other things. The custom also for the 
Queen's Majesty, being paid upon every last of that [which] 
shall be transported and sold beyond the sea, cometh to £5,000, 
after the rate of poundage, for this number of herrings only. 
The other part of this great blessing of GOD may aptly be 
taken and applied, viz., these 400 Busses or fishing ships, 
may take cod and ling and New[foundjland fish : the ad- 
vantage and profit whereof, this realm and subjects, of late 
years, for the most part, have lost, and suffered strangers 
(the Flemings and other nations) to take. Who, seeing our 
careless dealing, have not only taken this beneficial fishing 
from us, but very warily doth sell the same commodity 
unto us ; and thereby carrieth out of this land both gold and 
silver and a marvellous quantity of double double beer, and 
other things : satisfying us with these fishes, which through 
our own sloth, we lose ; which being taken by ourselves, as a 
special blessing of GOD appointed unto us, and so sold to 
them and others, it must needs follow that we should save a 
a great mass of gold within this land. And for that fish they 
now utter unto us, we should receive of them the commodities 
of the Low Countries, viz., Holland cloth, rape oil, hops, 
madder, all sorts of wire, and divers other merchandise ; or 
else their ready gold and money, whereby this realm and 
subjects should be mightily enriched. 

This great benefit is no less to be valued for the profit of 
this realm and subjects, than the benefit [only] of the herrings, • 

R. Hitchcock.-| Pishing Voyages to Newfoundland. 145 

For every ship, being but of the burden of 70 tons, if GOD bless 
it with safe return from Newfoundland, will bring home to his 
port in August, 20,000 of the best and middle sort of wet [fresh] 
fish (at the least) called blank fish, and 10,000 dry fish ; which 
being sold on the ship's return, as it may be, at Newhaven 
[Havre] in France but for forty shillings the hundred of wet 
fish (which is not four pence the fish), and twenty shillings 
the hundred of dry fish (which is not two pence the fish), 
amounteth to ^^500 at the least. 

Likewise any other of the ships, but of the like burden, 
going a fishing to the Ward House [near North Cape], to Ice- 
land, to the North seas of England and Scotland, or to Ireland, 
cometh home, at the same time, laden with 15,000 cod, and 
10,000 ling : which being sold but for forty shillings the 
hundred, one with another, amounteth to ;^500. 

And besides that, every ship will bring home to his port, 
four or five tun of oil made of the fish livers, worth to be sold 
for ;^I2 the tun. 

The way how this Plat shall be brought to pass and per- 
formed, without cost or charges to any man, is by borrowing 
of ;£"8o,ooo for three years ; which forty men in a shire will 
and may easily accomplish, if every man lend but ^^50, upon 
good assurance, after the rate of ten pounds yearly upon 
every ;£"ioo lent : which sums shall be repaid again within 
three years, at two payments. 

In what sort this money shall be levied is set down in the 
first Table following. 

The secondTabledothdeclare towhom,and towhat principal 
Port towns the money shall be delivered, how it shall be used, 
wdio shall give assurance for the same, and therewith provide 
the foresaid ships. 

The third Table doth show to what haven towns these fishing 
ships shall be placed ; and how the money shall be levied to make 
payment of the money borrowed, and to answer all charges. 

And in the fourth Table is set down, how many decayed 
towns, in every shire, shall have a continual stock [capital] 
of ;^200 a piece, to set the poor on work for ever. Also how 
every man shall be pleased and liberally considered, that shall 
be appointed to the execution of this Plat. And-how the pay- 
ments of the money borrowed, with the interest money for the 
time of forbearance, shall be made and paid at two payment^. 

£.VG. Gar. II. 10 




The order of borrowing / for 
three years, not charging aliove 40 
persons in any one shire to lend /"50 a 
man, of the Lords, Bishops, Knights, 
Gentlemen, Merchants, and other rich 
men spiritual and temporal, in these 
shires following : accounting London 
for a shire ; all South Wales for a 
shire ; and all North Wales for a shire. 
And for that it is for the common weal, 
the two Parliament Knights and two 
Justices of the Peace of every shire to 
name the parties in every their shires 
that shall lend the money ; and appoint 
one sufficient man of good credit in 
every shire to collect the same money, 
and then to deliver it to the Chief 
Officers of every the eight principal 
Fort towns in the next Table. 

TheChiefOfficers of every of these eight 
princi)ial Port towns hereunder written, 
shall give the seal of every Port town, 
for the assurance of every several sum 
borrowed ; to be repaid within three 
years, at two payments. And with the 
said money to them delivered, shall pro- 
vide fifty ships ready furnished to the 
sea, according to the true meaning 
hereof: and deliver them to the haven 
towns in the next Table, as they be there 
appointed, taking bonds of every the 
same haven towns or fishing towns 
within their charge, for the payment of 
;,^I50 for every ship yearly, during three 
years ; with which payment this Plat 
shall be performed, and every man well 
pleased, that shall take pains in the 
execution of the same Plat. 

The Money to be Levied. 

The Principal Ports. 



- ^10,000 

1 Essex 

! Yorkshire 


■ /Cio,ooo 

which said 
sum, under 
must be 
unto the 
Chief Of- 
Vficers ) 

J which said 
sum, under 
must be 
unto th« 
Chief Of 

/which said 

I sum, under 

) must be 
"I delivered 
unto the 
Chief Offi- 


(Northumberland \ 
[The] Bishopric [of 
k Northamptonshire 

(which said\ 
sum, under ] 
must be I 
I - - delivered 

unto the | 
Chief Offi- 

/London, whose 
I seal, as above writ- 
I ten, must be given 
(. J by the said Chief Of 
' ficers for the repay- 
ment of the said sum 
them delivered, 
.which sum is 

/Yarmouth, whose 

I seal, as above writ- 

1 ten, must be given 

, J by the Chief Officers, 

\ for the repayment of 

the money to them 

delivered, which 

.sum is 

HuLT,, whose seal 
as above writien 
must be given in by 
the Chief Officers, for 
the refwyment of the j 
money to them deli- 1 
vered, which sum is/ 

/Newcastle, whose"i 
I seal, as above writ- 
ten, must be given 
in by the Chief Of- 
, ficers, for the repay- 
I ment of the money 
to them delivered, 
*v\shich sum is 


wherewith \ 

the said 
Chief Offi- 
cers must 
provide 50 
ships of 70 
tons the 
ship, and 
place them' 

I wherewith \ 
the said 
Chief Offi- 
cers must 
provide 50 \ 
f i s h i n g I 
ships of 70 
tons the I 
ship, and I 
Vplace them ' 
wherewith > 
the said 
Chief Offi- 
cers must 
r provide 50 

ships of 70 
j tons the 
I ship, and 
\place them 
the said 
Chief Of- 
ficers must 
provide 50 
ships of 70 
tons the 
ship, and 
place them 

{^Concluded on- 


^10,000 4 


These ships must be placed within the 
roads and fishing towns, all along the 
sea coasts, beginning at London, and 
compassing this land by sea, according 
to this Table. The Governors of every 
fishing town must provide one skilful 
Master, twelve fishermen or mariners, 
and twelve poor men to serve in every 
ship, with all needful things ; and then 
set them to the sea to take fish, for the 
profit of their town and the common 
weal. At whose returns, the Governors 
aforesaid shall see that the fish of every 
ship be used, as is declared in the Orders 
of this Plat. Out of which, they shall pay 
fur every ship yearly, during three years, 
;i^i50 to the Chief Officers of that prin- 
cipal Port town, that placed the said 
ships to these roads following. 


Ships. Payments. 

London- 5 

Stepney parish 5 

Greenwich 5 

Woolwich y.. 5 

IArithe [Enth] 5 
Gravesend 5 
Quinborough 5 
Rochester 5 
Lee 5 
Maiden y...,. 5 

^Colchester 5 

Harwich 5 

Ipswich ;; 5 

Dunwich 5 

Yarmouth 5 

Orford 5 

Alborough :.... 5 

Blakeney 5 

I Uasyngham[Z?tr«j';(n/;a«/]5 
>Burnham 5 

f Wells s 
Lynn 5 
Saltfleet 5 

I Wainfleet 5 

J Boston 5 

I Grimsby 5 

I Barton u 5 

I Hull 5 

I Beverley 5 

^York 5 

fBridlington i ;.. 5 

Whitby 5 

Scarborough 5 

I Flamborough 5 

J Hartlepool 5 

j Durham t«;« Shields... 5 

I Newcastle 5 
Tynemouth 5 
Holy Island 5 

LBerwick 5 

(^ Every town toi 
pay for every 
ship yearly, 
during three 
-; years, .{[iso to }-/7 
■ the Chief (Jffi 
cers of LoN 



I Every town to' 
pay for every 
ship yearly 
during three 
years, ^^150 to }-£7, 

j the Chief Offi- 

I cers of Yar- 


f^Every town to^ 
pay for every 
ship yearly, 
during three ; /- 
years, ;^i5o to f^'^' 
the Chief Offi- 
cers of Hjll. I 
Sum j 

The Chief Officers of the said eight 
principal Port towns, at May Day next 
after their First Year's receipt, shall 
yearly pay and discharge all fees and 
wages, with other payments in the 
Orders moreat large mentioned, both 
of the money borrowed with the 
interest money 5 and for making of 
two Ships of War, with their wages, as 
also to the said Port towns ^^8,000, to 
be a stock for ever. And to the end 
the poor people in all places may hd 
speedily relieved ; they shall, out of 
the First Year's receipt, pay to the 
Governors of five decayed towns in 
every shire following ;,^ 1,000, to be a 
stock of ;^20o to every town for ever) 
to set the poor on work. Su.m, 
;^45,ooo for 225 decayed towns, 
according to this Table. 
Payments by the Chief Officers. 

London, for fees .£500 ; and^ 
to the decayed towns in 
Middlesex ^1,000 ; in Essex 

=, r J ^1,000 ; in Suffolk, .£1,000 ; 

5°°°'] in Hertfordshire, ;£i,ooo ; 
in Cambridgeshire, .^1,000 ; 
in Huntingdonshire, ;^i,ooo; 
.in Norfolk, £i,ooa. 

- ;^7.5oo 

Yakmouth, for fees ;fsoo>'\ 

and for wages to two Ships I 

of War for the First Year 

500 of-' ;£4,ooo, and for the making V 

and furnishing of two Ships 

I of War to the sea, warlike, I 

V.^3,000. / 


Hull, for fees £s°o ; to'' 
the decayed towns in York- 
shire, ;£i, 000 ; in Richmond- 
shire, .£1,000 ; in Lincoln- 
500 of-' shire, ^1,000 ; in Rutland- 
shire ;£i,ooo ; in Leicester- 
shire, ;£i,ooo; in North- 
amptonshire .£1,000 ; and in 
VWarwickshire £1,000. 


' Every town to\ 
pay for every 
ship yearly, 
during these 
three years, 
;£i5o to the 
Chief Officers 
of Newcastle 

Newcastle, for fees .£500 ; 
to the decayed towns in 
Northumberland, ;£i,ooo; 
in Cumberland, .£1,000; in 
,'•.£7,500 of- Westmoreland, ;£i,ooo; in 
[the] Bishopric, .£1,000; in 
Nottinghamshire, ;£i,ooo : 
in Derbyshire, ;£i,ooo; and 
lin Lancashire, .£1,000. 


nexf two ^ages.) 


The Money to be Levied. 


I Cheshire 
1 StafToidshire 
In ■'. Shropshire 

I The six shiies in 
V North Wales 

'which snid 

sum, under 


/•,„ ^ J must be 

- X 10,000 ■< J I- J 
I dehvered 

unto the 

I Chief Offi- 



( CoiitinucJ from 

The Principal Ports. 

I West Chesterv 
\Chester\ whose seal, 
as aliove written, 
must be given by 
the Chief Officeis, '•;^io,ooo 
for the repayment of 
the money to tliem 
delivered, wliich 

sum is 

/ Somersetshire 
I Gloucestershire 
1 Monmouthshire 
I The six shires 
» South Wales 



which said 
sum, under 
must be 
unto tlie 
Chief Ofii- 
Vcers ) 

PiRISTOW \B7-htol\ 
whose seal, as above 
written, nuist be 
given in by the 
Chief Officers, for 
the repayment of 
the money to them 
delivered, which 
sum is 



I the said 
Chief Offi- 

I cers must 
J provide 50 
f i s h i n g 
ships of 70 
tons the 
ship, and 

. place them^ 

/ Cornwall 

In ■< Dorsetshire 
I Wiltshire 
\ Oxfordshire 

■ ^10,000 

Exeter whose seal, 
as above written, 
must be given in by 
the Chief Officers, 
for the repayment 
of the money to 
tliem delivered, 

which sum is 


the said 
Chief OfTi- 
cers must 
provide 50 
fish i n g 
ships of 70 
tons th ■ 
ship, and 
.place them J 


I Kerkshire 
In - Surrey 
I Sussex 
I Kent 

• ;tlO,0O0 

/which said 
I sum, under 
must be 
unto the 
Chief Offi- 

Shires... 44. Sum Collected... ;i8o,ooo. 

whose seal, as above 
written, must be 
given in by the 
Chief Officers, for 
the repayment of j 
the money to them I 
delivered, which I 
sum is •' 

'wherewith "^ 
the said 
Chief Offi- 
cers must 

' fishing 

ships, of 70 
tons the 
ship, and 
.place them. 

Ports .8, 

Ships to be m.-^de...4oo. 

With the Second Year's receipt the Chief Officers of the said eight principal Port 

for the Second Year, whieh is 

And also shall make payment of the one half of the money borrowed, which is 

And for the Interest money of the whole sum borrowed for two years 

Sum of the payments the Second Year 

And the said Chief Officers, with the Third Year's receipt in like manner aforesaid, 

which is 

And the wages of the two Ships of War for the same year, which is also ... 

And likewise they shall pay the other half of the money borrowed, which is 

And for the Interest of that Third Year 

And also ;i^i,ooo to every one of the eight principal Port towns, to be a Stock 
Sum of the Tlwrd Year's payments 


t2i<o previous foges.) 

Roads. Ships. Payments. Payments by the Chief Officers. 

/Carlisle s 

Workington 5 

Isle of Man 5 

Lyrpoole \Liverpool\ . s 

West Chester s 

aumaris 5 

I Kangor 5 

I Holyhead 5 

I Carnarvon 5 

VPuntlielle[/'jf///;^//]... 5 (. 

'Every town to^ 
pay for every 
ship yearly, 
during these 
three years, 
£1^0 to the 
Chief Officers 
of Westches- 

I West Chester, for fees'^ 
;^5oo ; to tlie decayed towns 
in Cheshire, ;£i,ooo; in 
North Wales, 2^2, 000 ; in 
■ A7. 500 O" \ South Wales, ;C2,ooo ; in 
I Monmouthshire, ,{;i,ooo; 
I and in Herefordshire, 

- £l,1flo 

'Gloucester s 

Hristow 5 

Newport 5 

Bridijevvater 5 

Chepstow 5 

^'■^ Cardiff 5 

Pembroke 5 

Hartforde [ ? ] s 

Carmarthen s 

.Padstow S 

Every town tO\ 
pay for every 
ship, during 
these three 
years, £,i'=p to 
the Chief Offi- 
cers of Bris- 

/Bristowe, for fees /500 ;\ 

I and to the decayed towns | 

I in Somersetshire ,£1,000: I 

y- ,™ ,,ri >" Shropshire, £i,ooo; in I /-, ,„ 

-£7.Soo of^ Staffordshire ,£1,000. And f ^^^.Soo 

for the wages of two Ships I 

of War for the .Second Year's I 

Vservice, ;£4,ooo. / 

'"^nyYFcnvey^ s 

Truro 5 

Melbroke[nr Plymouth] 5 

Saltash 5 

Penryn 5. 

Sawkom \Salcombe\ ... 5 

Exeter 5 

Plymouth s 

Dartmouth 5 

.Poole 5 

/Every town to 
pay for every 
ship, during 
these three 
years, ;Ci5o to 
the Chief Offi- 
cers of Exe- 
• Sum 

/Exeter, for fees /500 ; 
and to the decayed towns 
in Cornwall, ;£i, 000 ; in De- 
vonshire, ,£1,000; in Wilt- 
;£7,50o of-( shire, ;£i,ooo ; in Oxford- V £,T,^oo 
shire, ;£i,ooo ; in Glouces- 
tershire, ;£i,ooo; in Wor- 
cestershire, ;£i,ooo; and in 
k Dorsetshire, ;£ 1,000. 

w'"" ■••■;;■ \ /Every town tos 

Weymouth .. J / \ \ 

Newport [I. of W.] ... 5 ^hip during 

Southampton 5 these three 

Portsmouth 5 . 5, £_^^^ to U7.500 of 

Chichester 5 1 •'■ ^'. ■*'--' ~"-' 

Rye 5 

Dover 5 

Faversham 5 

^Sandwich 5 

the Chief Offi 
cers of South- 

Roads. ..80. 

Sum Yearly...;£6o,ooo. 

Southampton, fof fee3\ 
^£500 ; [and] to the decayed 
towns in Hampshire 
;£i,ooo ; in Sussex, ;£i,ooo ; 
in Kent, ;£i,ooo; in Surrey, V .£7,500 
;£i,ooo ; in Berkshire, I 
,£1,000; in Buckingham- 1 
shire, .£1,000; and in Bed- 1 
^fordshire, .£1,000. SUM ' 

Sum paid by the Chief 
Officers, the First Year, ;^6o,ooo 

towns shall discharge and pay all fees and wages, as beforesaid, 

;^ 1 6, 000 


shall discharge and pay all fees and wages of the Third Year, 


(All which in the Orders more at large doth appear.) ;,f40,ooo 


for ever ;^8,ooo 


150 Two Chief Officers in each Tort. [" """^ 


N PRiMis. Eveiy one of these t'x^hi principal Port 
towns, London, Yarmouth, Hull, Newcastle, 
Chester, Bristol, Exeter, and Southampton, must 
have two honest and suhstantial men of credit, to 
be Chief and Principal Officers of every [ofj these 
said ports; who shall, as Treasurers and Purveyors, jointly 
deal together in all causes to this Plat appertaining. 

First, in receiving all sums of money that be appointed to 
every the said ports, la}ing it up safely with their town's 
treasure. And therewith to provide fifty fishing ships with 
all things needful for them, ready to the seas, with such 
careful consideration as [if] the money were their own. And 
that every ship be both strong and good, and not under the 
burden of three score and ten tons. And then for to appoint 
them to the roads and haven towns in the third Table of this 
Plat specified ; that is to say, five ships to every fishing town. 
Taking order also that every of these ships may have one 
skilful Master to govern it, twelve mariners coast men or 
fishermen, and twelve poor men taken up to serve in every 
of them. And to take bonds of every tow-n, whereunto the 
said fiveships shall be deli\ ered,for the payment of ;^i59 out of 
every ship yearly, during three years. This being done, the 
said five ships shall be given to the fishing town for ever. 
With proviso, that if any ship or ships of the whole number 
miscarry or be lost by any kind of chance or degree : then 
all the rest [of the 400 Busses], viz., every ship of the number 
remaining, shall pay Ten Shillings towards the new making of 
every ship so wanting, to the Chief Officers where the ship 
is lacking : with ^vhich money they shall provide again one 
other new ship, furnished with all things, as aforesaid. Which 
law shall be kept inviolate amongst them for ever, upon pain 
[of] every ship that shall be found in fault at any time, to 
forfeit for every offence Five Pounds : and the same to be 
levied and received by the order of statute law; but the whole 
benefit to the same town or towns where the ship or ships 
be wanting. 

And the same sixteen Chief Officers shall have allo\\'ed 
them for their fees 3'early, during the said three years, ^^i j6oo, 

R. Hitchcock.-j Governors of each Fishing Viliage. 151 

that is to every Officer ;^ioo yearly. Also in the end of the 
third year, there shall be given in recompense to every ol the 
said eight principal Port towns ;;ri,ooo to be a stock, to 
remain in the same towns for ever, as hereafter shall he 

These Busses or fishing ships, thus placed in four score 
fi.shing towns, as five ships to every fishing town, shall be 
set forth to the seas by the Governors of every several fishing 
town to take fish, as the times and seasons of the year do serve. 

First, in March, having victuals for five months with hooks, 
lines, and salt (provided by the said Governors and their assis- 
tants) they shall be set out to fish for cod and ling, where 
the said Governors by the consent of the town, liketh best ; 
or else to Newfoundland for Newland fish [Ncicfoundland 
cod] : and, b}' the grace of GOD, in August at the furthest, 
they shall come home to their several ports ; ladened with fish 
and train oil made of fish livers. Which fish shall forthwith 
be divided into three equal parts. The first part to the IMaster 
and fishermen for their pains. The second part to them 
that were at the charges of victuals, salt, lines, and hooks. 
The third part to be laid up under safe keeping, until time 
serve best to sell the same, or to be vented where most profit 
may be made. 

Then again, with all speed, presently after the fish is 
divided, every ship being victualled for six weeks with nets, 
caske, and salt, they must be set out to fish for herrings, 
tarrying upon the seas, until they be fully ladened. Then 
they return again to their several ports, if GOD bless them 
with good luck and a safe return, ladened with fifty last 
of the best herrings. Every ship, if wind and weather serve, 
may return twice ladened with herrings, in that time of 
herring fishing. And always, as the ships with herrings do 
come to their several ports, the said Governors shall cause 
the said herrings to be divided into four equal parts. The 
first part, to the Master and the mariners for their pains. 
The second part, to them that provide the salt and victuals. 
The third part, to them that find the caske and nets. And 
the fourth part, to be laid up under safe keeping until it may 
be vented. Out of the which portion of herrings and of the 
other fish aforesaid shall be paid on the first day of April 
yearly (next after the First Year, that the ships of this Plat 

152 The Auditor for the Accounts. \f- 

. Hi'clicocVu 

begin to fish) £1^^ for every ship yearly duiing three years, 
by the Governors of every fishing town that so shall have 
regard of their returns and use of the goods, where the ships 
be placed. Which payment shall be paid to the Chief 
Officers of that principal Port that did place the said five 
ships to the same town. 

And then after the three years be expired, the third part of 
great fish and the fourth part of herrings shall be and remain 
for ever to every fishing town where the fishing ships be at 
the day of the last payment. Out of which, the five ships 
shall yearly be repaired and maintained by every fishing town, 
for the profit of the same town and the benefit of the 
common weal. 

When the herring fishing is past, then, with all convenient 
speed, the Governors aforesaid shall appoint some of their 
ships to take fish upon the coasts of England, Scotland, or 
Ireland : and send other some into France or elsewhere with 
cod, ling, herrings, and Newland fish, there to utter them, 
making return with such commodities as will be best uttered 
here, or else with salt and money. By which return it will 
be time to make ready for the fishing in March, as before. 
Thus the whole year is spent in fishing. 

There must be an Auditor for receiving all accounts that 
shall appertain and depend upon the execution of this Plat : 
such as it shall please the Parliament House to nominate 
and appoint. Who shall receive of the sixteen Chief Officers 
aforesaid ^800 yearly, during three years, vi^;., of the Chief 
Officers of every principal Port upon his quittance [of the 
accounts], ;£"ioo for his fee. Which said Auditor must ride 
from every principal Port to other, to see and to provide that 
all and every of the five decayed towns, within every shire in 
England and also twenty decayed towns in Wales have the 
stock of ;;^200 truly paid to every one of them, according to 
this Plat, and that it be used accordingly, viz., that the 
Governor of every the decayed towns with the said stock of 
;^200 shall diligently and carefully provide yearly such com- 
modities to set the poor on work, as the nature of the country 
doth yield for most profit. And that the poor people that 
laboureth be paid weekly their wages : converting the benefit 
of their travail into the increase of the same stock. And that ■ 
the said Auditor take knowledge how many there be at work 

R. Hitchcock.-j Yjje Controller, and Preachers. 153 

in every place by that means : and with what commodities 
the said poor people are set to work in every shire. And for 
that there shall be no partiality in naming of the decayed 
town^, the two Parliament Knights, with two Justices of [the] 
Peace in every their shire, to name and appoint the ancient 
decayed towns in every shire, for to have the said stock of 
£zoo, according to the fourth Table of this Plat. And being 
subscribed under their hands, to deliver it to the said Auditor 
in the First Year that the fishing ships aforesaid be set to the 
sea to fish. 

There must also be a Comptroller joined in commission 
with the Chief Officers of every principal Port town, for the 
providing of all things needful at the best hand. Who must 
ride to every Port and fishing town, and to all other places 
where these ships be either made, bought, or placed ; to see 
that all things maybe justly performed, according to the true 
meaning of this Plat, and to be done with all expedition. 
Who may by this order, and without grief to this Plat, 
receive for his fee £800 yearly during three years, viz. : of 
the Chief Officers of every principal Port town, ;^ioo upon 
his quittance, for his pains and charges, and for the charges 
of his servants and ministers that must be and remain in 
many several ports and places, to see to the due execution 
of the Plat in all points. Which said Comptroller, the 
author wisheth should be such a man as would bend his wits 
for the common weal, and could so well execute the same as 
for himself. For then he should be able to declare in all 
places what is to be done, and what should be done at every 
extremity to avoid any danger. 

The Officers of every the said eight principal Port towns 
shall appoint one honest, virtuous, discreet, and learned 
man to preach GOD's Word; which Preachers shall travel 
continually, as the Apostles did, from place to place, preach- 
ing in all the fishing towns and decayed towns appointed to 
every several port : and every Preacher shall receive for his 
maintenance £"100 yearly, during three years, of the Chief 
Officers of that same principal Port town, whereunto he is 

And also that order may be had from the Queen's Majesty, 
that two of Her Grace's Ships of War, such as yearly be 
appointed to waft [convoy] the merchants, may continue upon 

154 A coMrLETii Annual Report to be made. [^- "' 


Her Majesty's seas from the first of March until the last of 
November yearly, for two years, for the defence of these 
fishing ships. And towards the charges of the same two 
Ships of War, the Chief Officers appointed for Yarmouth and 
Bristol, shall pay yearly, during two years, 5^4,000. Which 
ships if they cannot be had, then the said Auditor and 
Comptroller shall with that money provide two other Ships of 
War for the same cause. Also the said Auditor and Comp- 
troller who ride all the whole circuit of this land for the 
performance of this Plat, shall make a declaration once a 
year to the Right Honourable Lords, the Lord Chancellor, the 
Lord Treasurer, the Lord Admiral of England, and Lord Privy 
Seal of the whole state cause, and proceedings of this Plat. 
To be the end, that their Lordships may use their honourable 
considerations for, and in redress of things needful. 

Provided always, that if the Chief Officers of any of the 
said eight principal Port towns do find just cause that there 
is some insufficiency either in any of the fishing towns where 
the five ships are placed ; or else in the Governors of the 
same town such negligence that this fishing cannot prove 
profitable ; or that it is not used according to the effect or 
true meaning of this Plat ; then, upon just proof or infor- 
mation made to the Lords aforesaid, the same Officers of that 
principal Port, by consent of the Comptroller and Auditor, 
with others from the said Lords, may remove the same ships 
from any such fishing town and appoint them elsewhere 
within their several charge, where they may be both better 
placed, and for the common weal more profitable. 

The same sixteen Chief Officers of the said eight principal 
Port towns for the time being, after their first year's receipt, 
which amounteth to ;^6o,ooo, shall at May Day next following, 
deduct of the same receipt 3/^4,000 for fees and wages due, 
and to be paid to themselves, to the Auditor, to the Comp- 
troller, and to the eight Preachers, as before is appointed for 
that First Year. Likewise out of the same receipt, they shall 
pay ;^45,ooo to the Governors of 225 decayed towns, viz., to 
every decayed town ;£'200 to be a stock for ever to set the 
poor people on work, as it is appointeth in the fourth Table of 
this Plat. Also the Officers of Yarmouth, out of the said 
receipt, shall pay to two Ships of War ^4,000 for their wages 
at the First Year. All payments paid for the First Year. 

R. Hitchcock 

";3',y The Method of tii? Disbursements. 155 

There remaineth of the said receipt -£y,ooo, whereof the 
Officers of Bristol hath in their hands ^^4, 000, ashy their pay- 
ments appeareth, which is for to pay the Second Year's wages 
to the two Ships of War for defending the fishermen the Second 
Year: the other ^3,000 is in the hands of the Officers of 
Yarmouth aforesaid, as by their payments hkewise appeareth, 
which shall be by them bestowed upon making of two Ships of 
\\'ar of the burden of 160 tons the ship, after the best and 
strongest manner, in warlike sort ; and to furnish them with 
store of all needful things to the sea, as appertaineth to Ships 
of War; and also with ordnance, powder^ shot, armour, 
weapons, and all other provision necessary. These several 
sums of money amounteth to £60,000 : which is the First 
Year's receipt. 

The Second Year's receipt of -£"60,000 being received by the 
said sixteen Chief Officers, of the aforesaid eight principal 
Ports : they shall deduct out of the same, ^^4,000 for fees 
and wages to content and pay themselves, the Auditor, the 
Comptroller, and the eight Preachers for the Second Year, in 
like manner as aforesaid. Also they shall pay to the lenders 
of the money, the one half of the money borrowed, which is 
£40,000, and the interest money of the whole sum borrowed 
for two years, \vhich is £16,000. Which payments amount 
to £60,000. And that is the just receipt and payment of and 
for the Second Year. 

The Third Year's receipt of £60,000 being received in like 
manner by the aforesaid Chief Officers of the said eight 
principal Ports : they shall deduct out of the same, £4,000 
for fees and wages to be paid as aforesaid unto themselves, 
the Auditor, the Comptroller, and the eight Preachers for 
the same Third Year. And likewise £4,000 for wages to two 
Ships of War for the same Third Year, as by the Officers of 
every principal port town £500. Then they shall pay to the 
lenders of the money, the other half of the money borrowed, 
which is £40,000, and the interest money for that third and 
last year, which is £4,000. All which payments amount to 

This fishing Plat thus being performed, all payments paid, 
and eveiy man that hath taken pains in the execution of the 
same very well pleased and contented, there doth remain £8,000 
in the hands of the Chief Officers of the said principal Ports, 

156 Wages on board Ships of War. ['^■"' 


viz. : ;^i,ooo with the Chief Officers of every principal Port, 
as appeareth by their receipts and payments, which shall be 
allowed unto the same eight principal Port towns amongst 
them, viz.: to every principal Port town ,^1,000, to be a 
stock for ever for the profit and benefit of the same town : 
and yearly to be used for profit to such fisher towns and 
fishermen, as upon good assurance will use any part thereof 
in the trade or craft of fishing. 

And when this is done and brought to pass I will declare a 
device appertaining to this Plat, that shall, if it please GOD, 
be worth -£"10,000 yearly for ever, without cost or charges to 
any man, neither offending nor encroaching upon any person 
with the same device : which is to maintain the aforesaid Ships 
of War, warlike, yearly for ever, with wages, victuals, soldiers, 
and mariners, and all other kind of charges ; and also to 
maintain all the aforesaid Officers and Preachers their yearly 
fees for ever. 

Unto either of the same two Ships of War, there 
must be appointed one skilful and valiant Master, the 
Master's Mate, four Quarter-masters, a Purser, a Master 
Gunner, and 120 soldiers and mariners. The Master to 
have for wages, Four Shillings a day ; every other Officer Two 
Shillings a day ; and every soldier or mariner Twelve Pence 
the day for wages. The order for their diet of victuals all 
the whole year ; and what money is to be allowed for the yearly 
reparations of the said two Ships of War; and how all this 
shall be maintained for ever : I have set down in writing. 
And after this Plat, with the great benefits growing univer- 
sally to this realm, shall be thoroughly considered, drawn 
into perfect form, and put in execution by authority of 
Parliament (which is the power of the whole Commonalty of 
England), I will deliver the same where it shall be thought meet. 

The times and places of the yearly fishing for 
Cod and Ling. 

Irst for cod : upon the coast of Lancashire ; 
beginning at Easter, and continueth until Mid- 

For Hake : in the deeps betv/ixt Wales and 
Ireland; from Whitsuntide until Saint James'tide. 

^' "'"''i57y'] ^^'^"^^ PLACES FOR COD, HaKE, AND LiNG. 1 57 

For cod and ling : about Padstow, within the Land's End 
and the Severn, is good fishing from Christmas until Mid- 
Lent [March]. 

There is an excellent good fishing for cod about Ireland, 
where doth come j^early come to fish 300 or 400 sail of ships 
and barks out of Biscay, Galicia, and Portugal, about the 
south-west parts, near to Mackertymors country [ ? Balti- 
more, sec p. 70] ; and do continue April, May, June, and July. 

Also for cod and ling : on the west and north-west of 
Ireland; beginning at Christmas, and continueth until March. 

And there is one other excellent good fishing upon the 
north of Ireland. 

Also for Newland fish, upon the banks of Newfoundland. 
The ships go forth from England and Ireland in March, and 
come home laden in August. 

There is an excellent good fishing for them that will go 
further for cod and ling in the rivers of Backlasse [ ? ] : 
continuing April, May, June, and July. 

Also for cod and ling : upon the north coasts of England 
and upon the coasts of Scotland and the northern Isles of 
Scotland ; continuing from Easter until Midsummer. 

The like for cod : upon the east coast of Friesland, 
Norway, and Shetland ; from Easter until Midsummer. 

To fish for cod and ling in Iceland ; the ships commonly 
must go forth in March, and return ladened in August. 

The like manner and time is used for cod and ling from 
England to the Ward House [near North Cape] ; where is 
excellent good fishing, April, May, and June. 

T/ie times and places for the yearly JisJdng for 

He herrings shoot out of the deeps on both sides 
of Scotland and England, and beginneth upon the 
Scots coast at Midsummer, and be not merchant- 
able (but yet vendible) because they be so fat, by 
reason whereof they will grow reasty [rancid] if they be kept : 
and therefore they be presently [immediately] sold. 

The second and best fishing beginneth at Bartholomewtide 
[24 August] at Scarborough, and so proceedeth along the 
coast, until they come to the Thames' mouth, continuing very 

158 Places for Fishing for Herring. [^- "'"^',^5: 

good until Hollentide [i November]. All which time they be 
very good and merchantable, and will abide the salting very 

The third fishing is from the Thames' mouth through the 
Narrow Seas : yet not certain, for after that time, they shoot 
suddenly through the same seas, upon any extreme weather, 
on both sides of Ireland. Which fishing doth continue until 
the feast of Saint Andrew [30 November]. 

Also upon the coast of Ireland is very good fishing from 
Michaelmas until Christmas. For there, is great plenty of 

Also upon the north-west seas of England, over against 
Carlisle in Cumberland, about Workington, is good fishing for 
herrings, from Bartholomewtide until fourteen days after 

Also from Hollentide [i Novemhtf] till Christmas, upon the 
coast of Norway (that serves all the East [Baltic] Countries) 
called the Mull sand [ ? ] where all strangers do fish, 
paying their custom, a youghendale [ ? a thaler] upon every 
last, to the King of Denmark. But sometimes the frosts be 
so great there, that the herrings will not take salt. 

[The Htinting of the PVha/e.] 

Here is another exercise to breed profit, called the 
hunting of the whale, which continueth all the 
summer. The whale is [found] upon the coasts of 
Russia, towards Moscovy and Saint Nicholas [Arch- 
angel]. The killing of the whale is both pleasant and profit- 
able, and without great charges, yielding great plenty of 
[train] oil, the tun whereof is worth ^^lo. One of the ships 
may bring home to his port 50 tuns, the which is worth 

R. Hitchcock 


',°^y The Poor can indicate the Ri^;!!,' 159 


and the 
ANSWERS of the Author. 

^ First, What moves you to think tJiat there laill be found forty 
men in every Shire of England, that will lend £^0 a man, for 
three years, in this covetous time, ivhen every man is for himself? 

His realm of England and Wales is very popu- 
lous, and the most part be the poorer sort of 
people, who daily do harken [look] when the world 
should amend with them. They are indifferent in 
what sort, so that their state were relieved ; and so 
perhaps apt to assist rebellion, or to join with whomsoever 
dare invade this noble Island, if any such attempt should be 
made. Then are they meet guides to bring the soldiers or 
men of war to the rich men's wealth. For they can point 
with their finger, "There it is!" "Yonder it is!" "Here 
it is!" "And he hath it!" and, "She hath it that will do 
us much good ! " and so procure martyrdom with murder to 
many wealthy persons, for their wealth. Therefore the wise 
and wealthy men of this land had need, by great discretion, to 
devise some speedy help therein ; that this poorer sort of people 
may be set to some good arts, science, occupations, crafts, 
and labours, by which means they might be able to relieve 
themselves of their great need and want. And being brought 
to such vocation of life, having some good trade to live upon, 
there is no doubt but that they will prove good and profit- 
able subjects ; and be careful to see this common wealth 
flourish : and will spend their lives and blood to defend the 
same, and their little wealth, their liberties, their wives, and 
children. For having nothing, they are desperate; but having 
some little goods, they will die before they lose it. Where' 
fore if this matter be looked into with eyes of judgement, there 
is no doubt of borrowing the money upon the assurance and 
interest. For 1 do know in some Shires four men that will 
gladly lend so much money as the whole shire is appointed 
to lend. In Holland and Zealand the rich men. make so sure 
account of their fishing, that they appoint their children's 
portions to be increased by that use. 

1 60 6 Seamen can rule i 2 Landsmen afloat. ['^' '.J'"^'^^' 



11 / pray you, show me by what occasion or means this hicge 
niunber of beggars and vagabonds do breed here in England ; 
and why you appoint tivelve of thcui to every ship ? I think 
they may carry the ship away and become pirates. 

^F YOU consider the poverty that is, and doth remain 
in the shire towns and market towns, within this 
realm of Enj^land and Wales ; which towns being 
inhabited with great store of poor householders, 
who by their poverty are driven to bring up their 
youth idly, and if they live until they come to man's |^e]state, 
then are they past all remedy to be brought to work. There- 
fore at such time as their parents fail them, they begin to shift, 
and acquaint themselves with some one like brought up, that 
hath made his shift with dicing, cosening, picking or cutting of 
purses: or else, if he be of courage, plain robbing by the way- 
side, which they count an honest shift for the time, and so 
come they daily to the gallows. 

Hereby grows the great and huge number of beggars and 
vagabonds which, by no reasonable means or laws, could yet 
be brought to work, being thus idly brought up. Which 
perilous state and imminent danger that they now stand in, 
I thought it good to avoid by placing twelve of these poor 
people into every fishing ship ; according to this Plat. 

Who when they shall find and perceive that their diet for 
all the whole year is provided, and that two voyages every 
year will yield to every man for his pains ^^20 clear, and for 
ever to continue ; by which honest trade they shall be able to 
live in estimation amongst men ; whereas before they were 
hated, whipped, almost starved, poor and naked, imprisoned, 
and in danger daily to be marked with a burning iron for a 
rogue, and to be hanged for a vagabond. When they shall 
find these dangers to be avoided by their travail, and thereby 
an increase of wealth to ensue : they will be glad to continue 
this good and profitable vocation, and shun the other. Be- 
sides that it is well known that six mariners or seafaring 
men are able to rule and govern twelve land men that be not 
acquainted with the sea : and therefore [it is] to be doubted 
that this kind of people will prove pirates ; they be so base- 
minded. For the heart, mind, and value of a man is such, 
and his spirit is so great, that he will travel all the kingdoms 

R. Hitchcock.j -pj^E Dutch must buy everything. i6i 

of Princes to seek entertainment ; rather than he will show his 
face to beg or crave relief of thousands of people, that be 
unworthy to unbuckle his shoes : and in his great want, will 
take with force and courage from them that hath, to serve his 
necessity ; thinking it more happy to die speedily, than to 
live defamed and miserably. Of which sort of people, at the 
breaking up of wars, there are a great number of worthy and 
valiant soldiers, that have served in the wars with invincible 
minds: who, through want of living, either depart as aforesaid ; 
or else, if they tarry in England, hanging is the end of the 
most part of them. 

1[ How may so many ships be provided, for want of timber, masts^ 
cables, pitch, and iron ? A nd where shall Masters and mariners 
be had ; with other needful things, as salt, nets, and caske? 

O THAT, I must put 5^ou in mind of Holland, Zealand, 
and Friesland, that of late years, have flourished 
with ships, mariners, and fishermen; and thereby 
proved of marvellous wealth. No country more [soj. 
And all the timber they used for their ships came 
from the dominions of other Princes. Their cables, masts, 
pitch and tar came from the countries under the King of 
Denmark ; the sails for their ships, the thread for their nets 
came from Normandy and Brittany ; their salt came from 
France, Portugal, and Spain ; and their iron came from the 
countries of other Princes. 

We need not doubt of these things. For there are ships 
presently to be bought (for the sums of money appointed for 
ever}^ ship) both here in this realm, and in Holland, France, 
and in other places. And if there were not, I could name the 
places in this realm where there is plenty of timber. If 3'ou do 
remember the great and wonderful woods of timber trees that 
are in Ireland, you will shake off that doubt. And for iron ; 
that there is great plenty made within this land, I may call to 
witness the inhabitants of the Forest of Dean, the county of 
Sussex, with other places. And for all other needful things ; 
the havens, ports, and realm of England lieth nearer to those 
countries where plenty is, than those of the Flemings do. 

And for Masters; there are plenty of coast men, which will 
gladly serve that place, that be sufficient men. And for 

£\G. GJK. II. II 





1 62 Many Fishermen Are out of work. T'^- 'J''"''^"^^ 


mariners; there is j^reat store of poor fishermen all along the 
coast of England and Wales, that will willingly serve in these 
fishing ships, and use the craft of fishing : their gain will be 
so great. And for salt ; there is great plenty made at the 
Witchs [Droiiwich, Nantwich, Northwich] in Cheshire, and in 
divers other places ; besides many salt houses standing upon 
the coast of England, that make salt by seething of salt sea 
water. And besides there is the great store of salt that will be 
brought yearly into England by the merchants and others, to 
make " salt upon salt." Also for caske ; there is a great store of 
oak, ash, and beech growing in many places of England ; so 
that there can be no want of caske if there be use to use it ; nor 
yet of any other thing aforesaid, if good consideration be had. 
This Plat, being put into execution, will breed such store 
of mariners that whensoever the noble Navy of England shall 
be set to the seas for the safeguard of this land ; there shall 
be no want of mariners to serve in the same : whereas now 
they be both scant and hard to be found. Look back into 
Holland! where practice is used; and see what store is there! 

H You appoint ten thousand last of herrings to be sold in France. 
How can that be, so long as the Flemings, the Frenchmen, 
and other nations do fish ; who have already won the credit 
of their fish ? They shall sell, when we cannot ; then where 
shall the fish taken by tis be tittered ? 

Here is no doubt but there will be ten thousand 
last of herrings to spare, this realm being served, 
if these four hundred fishing ships with these 
fishermen be appointed to the seas : for they will 
take their place to fish within the Queen's Majesty's 
seas ; and so shall serve both England and France plenti- 
fully, and also better cheap than the Flemings are able to do. 
And the herrings, cod, and Newland fish, being used in such 
sort as the Flemings do, will be of as great estimation as 
theirs be, and may yearly be sold and uttered in France ; as at 
Dieppe that serves and victuals all Picardy ; at Newhaven 
[Havre] that serves all base [lower] Normandy; and at the 
town of Rouen, that serves all the high countries of France ; 
for thither cometh yearly three hundred lighters, called 
Gabcrs, with wines, of ten or twelve hundred tuns a Gaber ; 


;] We, growing all things, can sell lower. 163 

and their best return is fish and salt. And for the other 
parts of France, as Rochelle and Bourdeaux ; also the 
merchants that travel into Spain, Portugal, Italy, Barbary, 
and Africa, carrying fish : the further south and south-west 
that the fish, well used, is carried ; the dearer it is, and greatly 
desired. Wherefore let all men fish that will, of what country 
soever, for there is fish in plenty in these northern seas for 
them all, if there were a thousand sail of fishing ships more 
than there is ; and the English nation shall and may weary 
them out for their travail and labour : where they fish is not 
far ; their ports, harbours, and roads be at hand ; their ships 
cost the fishermen nothing. Therefore the Englishmen 
shall better be able to sell good cheap [cheaper] than an^ 
other nation ; by means whereof they shall sell when others 
cannot. And so the Flemings being put from uttering their 
herrings in France, shall be driven to leave their great ships; 
and to fish in smaller vessels near the shore to serve their own 
turns: as heretofore they have caused us to dO) for fear of then! 
and every tempest ; triumphing at our folly, for not taking 
this great benefit and blessing of GOD poured into our laps; 

% How do you know that nine or ten thousand last of herrings will 
serve all England? And when wars shall happen between 
England and France, where shall we sell the rest of ouv 
herrings and other fish ; the Flemings being provided for by 
their own people ? 

Y ESTIMATION, five thousand last of herrings do 
serve London; out of which portion, all the shires 
about London are served. And by the like esti- 
mation, five thousand last more will serve all 

And if wars should happen between France and England ; 
then the Italians, Spaniards, Flemings, and other nations dd 
bring into England all sorts of French commodities, as v\ines, 
woad, lockromes [lockrams, a kind of linen], and canvas of all 
sorts. These merchants will daily look for profit : and in time 
of wars nothing doth pass with less danger, sooner is vented 
and made ready money, than these herrings, cod, ling, and 
Newland fish. So there is no doubt of utterance for fish, 
either in wars or in peace, 

.164 Prices OF Herrings in France. [ 

R. Hitchcock. 

Let experience of other countries serve for this wholly. 
And I think it good to let you understand how herrings were 
sold in France, anno 1577. 

The best Flemish herrings were sold for £"24 los. the 
last. Yarmouth herrings (who, of late, do use and order 
their herrings as the Flemings do) were sold for ;^20 12s. 
the last. Irish herrings, for ^18 the last. Coast herrings 
and Scotch herrings, for -£"11 the last. 

These differences be in herrings, which being used as is 
set down in this Plat, will be in all places (within a little 
time) equal in goodness with the Flemish herrings. 

IT In what order do the Flemings, the Frenchmen, and others fish 
for herrings, cod, and Newl and fish ? 

Irst behold this sea Plat or proportiture here set 
down showing how the same strangers do fish in 
their great ships upon the English coast : and how 
our English men, for fear of them and of every 
tempest, as aforesaid, do fish in small vessels near 
the shore. 

[Here follows in the original work a large half geographical, and half 
eniljlematic map of the German Ocean, in which main sea are great ships 
marked " Flemish Busses," and by the English coast, smaller vessels 
marked "The English Fishermen." 

On this map, is the following inscription. 

Anno Domini. 1553. Serving the Emperor Charles V. in 
his wars [also at Berwick, see p. 215.] ; looking into the state 
of Holland and Zealand, I saw that their wealth and great 
increase of mariners grew by fishing. For at that time, there 
went yearly out of these twelve towns, Dunkirk, Nieuport, 
Ostend, Sluys, Flushing, Middleburg, Camfere, Setikseas, 
[? Zieriksee] Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Delf Haven, and Brill, 
above 400 Busses or great ships to fish for herrings upon the 
East Coast of England. A similitude thereof, is here set down 
in this proportiture.] 

The Flemings set out of Flanders, Holland, and Zealand 
yearly at Bartholowmewtide [24 A ugust] four or five hundred 
Busses, to fish for herrings upon the East Coast of England; 

? 1579 

g] How Money is advanced in the West. 165 

where before they fish, they ask leave at Scarborough, as 
evermore they have done : with which honour (and no profit) 
this realm and subjects hath hitherto been vainly fed. And 
amongst them, this is the order. One man provides the ship, 
another the victuals and salt, the third the caske, the fourth 
the nets: and when the ships come home they divide the fish. 

There goeth out of France commonly five hundred sail of 
ships yearly in March to Newfoundland, to fish for Newland 
fish, and come home again in August. Amongst many of 
them, this is the order. Ten or twelve mariners do confer 
with a money [monied] man, who furnisheth them with money 
to buy ships, victuals, salt, lines, and hooks, to be paid his 
money [back] at the ship's return, either in fish or money, 
with ;^35 upon the ;£"ioo in money lent. 

Likewise here in England, in the West Country, the like 
order is used. The fishermen confer with the money [monied] 
man, who furnisheth them with money to provide victuals, 
salt, and all other needful things; to be paid ^^25 at the ship's 
return, upon the p^^ioo in money lent. And for some of the 
same money, men do borrow money upon ^10 in the ;^ioo, 
and put it forth in this order to the fishermen. And for to be 
assured of the money ventured, they will have it assured 
[insured] ; giving ^^6 for the assuring of every ;£'ioo to him that 
abides the venture of the ship's return : as thus. A ship of 
Exeter is gone to the Ward House, to fish for cod and ling. 
The venture of the ship, salt, and victuals is £z<^o. For £1^ 
all is assured. So that if the ship never return, yet the money 
[monied] man gaineth declare [clear] ;^48 [? £57], and his 
principal again. 

So by these reasons there seemeth great good to be done 
by fishing when other men being at such charges do prove 
rich by using this trade. Shall not the English nation that 
thus shall fish (the greatest charges cut off) be more able to 
sell good cheap than any others may: and so weary them 
out, as aforesaid. 

H You say that much gold goeth forth of this land for wines and 
other French commodities : I pray you, to ivhat value in the 
year doth the wines of France brought into England amount 
unto? And what several sorts of English wares be sold in 
France to buy the same ? 

i66 England's Continental Traffic. [^- ^'''■^"["sjI'. 

Do ESTEEM to come into England, every year, ten 
thousand tuns of Gascony and Rochelle wines, 
which at twenty crowns the tun, amounteth in 
English payment, to £60,000. The fleet that goeth 
from London to Bourdeaux, carrieth commonly 
victuals, ballast, and some cloth. For the money is always 
made over by exchange out of London, out of Flanders, and out 
of Spain. And the ships that go from other places of this 
realm, as from Bristol, Wales, Westchester, Newcastle, 
Hull, and elsewhere to the Vintage, carrieth (contrary to the 
law) leather, calves' skins, butter and tallow, with ready gold, 
as they may provide it all the whole year before. 

At Rouen in France, which is the chiefest vent [mart], be 
sold our English wares, as Welsh and Manchester cottons. 
Northern Kerseys, Whites, lead, and tin : which money is 
commonly employed in Normandy and Brittany in all sorts 
of canvas with other small wares, and in lockromes, vitcric, 
and dowlass [coarse linen], Pouldavis, Olyraunce [ ? ], and 
Myndernex [ ? ] ; part[ly] for ready money, partly for com- 
moditie[s]. And woad is commonly ladened at Bourdeaux 
and uttered there to our nation a^d othei;'s for money or 
cloth, or else not [sold at all]. These sorts of wares 
bought in France, besides the wine, amounts by estimation 
to six times as much as all the English wares that be sold 
for in France every year. And for a truth this trade of 
fishing is the best, and of lightest that can be found, 
to counteract the values of the French commodities. Ex- 
perience doth show the same by the Flemings, who with 
their green [undried] fish, barrelled cod, and herrings, carry 
out of England for the same, yearly^ both gold and silver and 
other commodities, and at the least terii thousand tuns of 
Double Double Beer, and hath also all kinds of French 
commodities continually, both in time of wars and peace, by 
their trade only of fishing. Thus the great sums of gold 
that are carried yearly out of this land to the Vintage, as 
appeareth by this * Plat following, will stay : and wines, 
nevertheless, and other French wares of all sorts will be had 
and obtained for herrings and fish. 

* Another curious emblematical design occurs here : with No wines 
from Bordeaux, but for gold, and 1 bring gold from England for Wines. . 

R. Hitchcock.-] Hitchcock's Parliamentary Dinner. 167 

^ When you put your fishing Plat into the Parliament house, 
what did you conceive by the speech of such burgesses as you 
conferred with of the same ? 

N THE eighteenth year of the Queen's Majesty's 
reign, five or six days before the ParHament house 
brake up [i.e., March 1576], I had the Burgesses of 
almost all the stately Port towns of England and 
Wales at dinner with me at Westminster: amongst 
whom the substance of my Plat was read, and of every man 
well liked ; so that some were desirous to have a copy of 
the same, and said that " they would, of their own cost and 
charges, set so many ships to the sea as was to their towns 
appointed, without the assistance of any other." Of the like 
mind, were the Burgesses of Rye ; and some said it were good 
to levy a subsidy of two shillings [in the pound] on land, and 
sixteen pence [in the pound on] goods, for the making of these 
fishing ships. Of which mind the Speaker, ISIaster Bell, 
was; saying, "A Parliament hath been called for a less cause." 
Other some said, '*It were good to give a subsidy for this 
purpose to ship these kind of people in this sort ; for if they 
should never return, and so avoided [got rid of], the land 
were happy : for it is but the riddance of a number of idle 
and evil disposed people." But these men that so do think, 
will be of another mind within tw^o years next after this Plat 
takes effect, as when they shall see, by this occasion only; such 
a number of carpenters and shipwrights set on work ; such a 
number of coopers employed; such numbers of people making 
lines, ropes, and cables; dressers of hemp, spinners of thread, 
and makers of nets ; so many salt houses set up to make 
salt, and "salt upon salt." And what a number of mariners 
are made of poor men ; and what a number of poor men are 
set on work in those shires all along upon the sea coast in 
England and Wales in splitting of fish, washing of fish, packing 
of fish, salting of fish, carrying and recarrying of fish, and 
serving all the countries [counties] in England with fish. And 
to serve all those occupations aforesaid, there must depend 
an infinite number of servants, boys, and day labourers, for 
the use of things needful. And withal to remember how that 
about England and Wales, there is established in four score 
haven towns, fi vefishing ships to every town to continue for 

i68 The Pz^/r GROWING SINCE 1573. [^- ''l''''^7^^^: 

ever, which will hreed plenty of fish in every market; and that 
will make flesh [butcJicr's meat] good cheap. And that by the 
only help of GOD and these fishermen, there shall be 
established within England and Wales, to 225 decayed towns; 
a stock of ;;^200 to every decayed town, which shall continue 
for ever to set the poor people on work. And to conclude, I 
do carry that mind, that within few years there will be of 
these fishing towns of such wealth, that they will cast ditches 
about their towns, and wall the same defensively against the 
enemy to guard them and their wealth in more safety. What 
Englishman is he, think you ! that will not rejoice to see 
these things come to pass. And, for my part, I perceive 
nothing but good success is likely to come of this Plat. 

To further the same, I gave a copy hereof to my Lord of 
Leicester six years past [1573], another copy to the Queen's 
Majesty four years past [1575]. Also to sundry of her Majesty's 
Privy Council, certain copies. And in the end [March 1576J of 
the last Parliament, holden in the said eighteenth year of her 
Majesty's reign, I gave twelve copies to Councillors of the 
law, and other men of great credit [See Dr. Dee's notice on 
I Atigmt 1576, at p. 65]; hoping that GOD would stir 
up some good man to set out this work, which the Author 
(being a soldier, trained up in the wars and not in the schools, 
with great charges and travail of mind, for his country's sake) 
hath devised and laid as a foundation for them that hath 
judgement to build upon. 

Amongst whom. Master Leonard Digges, a proper 
gentleman and a wise, had one copy, who, being a Burgess 
of the house, took occasion thereupon to desire licence to 
speak his mind concerning this Plat, saying that he spake 
for the common wealth of all England and for no private 
cause. He (by report) did so worthily frame his speech for 
the common weal of his country ; thaf he hath gained 
thereby both fame and great good liking of all the hearers ; 
and so concluded, desiring that this device might be read : 
which, for want of time, was deferred until their next 
assembly in Parliament. 



Sir Philip Sidney. 
Sonnets and Poetical "Translations. 

[Arcaifia 3rd Ed. 1598: where they are 
stated to be, Nerier before printed, 
but several of them had appeared in 
the Second Edition of H. Con- 
stable's Diana in 1594: see //. 

\\\ the story of Sidney's life and love, these poems should be considered 
with those in the first Volume of the English Garner. 
The Sonnets are mixed up with other verse. 

Ince shunning pain, I ease can never find; 
Since bashful dread seeks where he knows 

me harmed ; 
Since will is won, and stopped ears are 

charmed ; 
Since force doth faint, and sight doth make 
me blind ; 
Since loosing long, the faster still I bind ; 
Since naked sense can conquer reason armed ; 

Since heart in chilling fear, with ice is warmed ; 
In fine, since strife of thought but mars the mind : 

I yield, O Love ! unto thy loathed yoke. 
Yet craving law of arms, whose rule doth teach ; 
That hardly used, whoever prison broke — 
In justice quit — of honour makes no breach : 
Whereas if I a grateful Guardian have ; 
Thou art my lord ! and I, thy vowed slave. 

170 Sonnets and Translations. [^'" ''■ f'^""^' 

Hen Love, puft up with rage of high disdain, 
Resolved to make me pattern of his might ; 
U Like foe, whose wits incHned to deadly spite, 
Would often kill, to breed more feeling pain ; 

He would not, armed with beauty, only reign 
On those affects, which easily yield to sight ; 
But virtue sets so high, that reason's light, 
For all his strife, can only bondage gain. 

So that I live to pay a mortal fee. 
Dead palsy sick of all my chiefest parts : 
Like those, whom dreams make ugly monsters see, 
And can cry, " Help ! " with nought but groans and starts. 
Longing to have, having no wit to wish : 
To starving minds, such is god Cupid's dish ! 

To the tune of Non credo gia die piu infelice amante. 

He Fire to see my wrongs, for anger burnetii ; 
The Air in rain, for my affliction weepeth ; 
The Sea to ebb, for grief, his flowing turneth ; 
The Earth with pity dull, the centre keepeth ;. 
Fame is with wonder blazed j 
Time runs away for sorrow ; 
Peace standeth still, amazed. 
To see my night of evils, which hath no morrow. 
Alas, a lovely She no pity taketh, 
To know my miseries ; but, chaste and cruel, 
My fall her glory maketh : 
Yet still her eyes give to my flames, their fuel. 

Fire, burn me quite, till sense of burning leave me 1 
Air, let me draw no more thy breath in anguish ! 


Sea, drowned in thee, of tedious life bereave me ! 
Earth, take this earth, wherein my spirits languish ! 
Fame, say I was not born I 
Time, haste my dying hour ! 
Place, see my grave uptorn ! 
Fire, air, sea, earth, fame, time, place showyour power ! 

Alas, from all their help, I am exiled : 

For hers am I, and death fears her displeasure. 

Fie, death ! thou art beguiled ! 

Though I be hers, she makes of me no treasure. 

To the same ttme, 

I He Nightingale — as soon as April bringeth 
Unto her rested sense, a perfect waking; 
While late bare earth, proud of new clothing, 
springeth — 

Sings out her woes, a thorn her song book makings 
And mournfully bewailing, 
Her throat in tunes expresseth 
What grief her breast oppresseth 
For Thereus' force, on her chaste will prevailing. 
O Philomela fair ! O take some gladness ! 
That here is juster cause of plaintful sadness. 
Thine earth now springs ! mine fadeth ; 
Thy thorn without ! my thorn my heart invadeth. 

Alas, she hath no other cause of anguish 
But Thereus' love ; on her, by strong hand wroken j 
Wherein she suffering, all her spirits languish, 
Full woman-like, complains her will was broken. 

But I — who, daily craving, 

Cannot have to content me — 

Have more cause to lament me : 

Since wanting is more woe than too much having. 

172 Sonnets AND Translations. [■ 

Sir P. Sidney. 

O Philomela fair ! O take some gladness ! 
That here is juster cause of plaintful sadness. 
Thine earth now springs ! mine fadeth : 
Thy thorn without ! my thorn my heart invadeth. 

To the tune of Basclami vita mia. 

Leep, baby mine, Desire!" Nurse Beauty 
"Thy cries, O baby! set mine head on aching." 
The babe cries " Way ! thy love doth keep me 

" Lully, lully, my babe ! Hope cradle bringeth ; 

Unto my children always good rest taking." 

The babe cries " Way ! thy love doth me keep waking." 

*' Since, baby mine ! from me, thy watching springeth, 
Sleep then a little ! pap, Content is making : " 
The babe cries " Nay ! for that abide I waking," 

To the tune of the Spanish song Se tu sefiora 
no dueles de mi. 

Fair I sweet ! when I do look on theCj 
In whom all joys so well agree ; 
Heart and soul do sing in me. 

This you hear is not my tongue, 
Which once said what I conceived ; 
For it was of use bereaved. 
With a cruel answer stung. 

No ! though tongue to roof be cleaved, 
Fearing lest he chastised be ; 
Heart and soul do sing in me. 

Sir p. Sidney.-] SoNNETS AND TRANSLATIONS. 1/3 

O fair ! sweet ! when I do look on thee, 
In whom all joys so well agree ; 
Heart and soul do sing in me. 

Just accord all music makes : 

In thee just accord excelleth ; 

Where each part in such peace dwelleth, 

One of other, beauty takes. 

Since then truth to all minds telleth 
That in thee, lives harmony : 
Heart and soul do sing in me. 

O fair ! O sweet! when I do look on thee, 
In whom all joys so well agree ; 
Heart and soid do sing in me. 

They that heaven have known, do say 
That whoso that grace obtaineth 
To see what fair sight there reigneth, 
Forced are to sing alway. 

So then, since that heaven remaineth 
In thy face, I plainly see : 
Heart and soul do sing in me. 

fair ! sweet ! when I do took on theef 
In ivhom all joys so well agree ; 
Heart and soul do sing in me. 

Sweet ! think not I am at ease, 
For because my chief part singeth : 
This song, from death's sorrow springeth ; 
As to swan in last disease. 

For no dumbness, nor death bringeth 
Stay to true love's melody : 
Heart and soul do sing in me. 


174 Sonnets and Translations, p^-fdney. 

These four following Sonnets were made, 
when his Lady had pain in her face. 

He scourge of life, and death's extreme disgrace, 
The smoke of hell, the monster called Pain ; 
Long shamed to be accurst in every place> 
By them who of his rude resort complain ; 

Like crafty wretch, by time and travail taught) 
His ugly evil in others' good to hide ; 
Late harbours in her face, whom Nature wrought 
As Treasure House where her best gifts do bidci 

And so, by privilege of sacred seat — 
A seat where beauty shines, and virtue reigns—- 
He hopes for some small praise, since she hath great; 
VVithin her beams, wrapping his cruel stainSi 
Ah, saucy Pain ! Let not thy error last. 
More loving eyes she draws, more hate thou hast ! 

IOe ! Woe to tne ! On me, return the smart ! 
My burning tongue hath bred my mistress pain. 
For oft, in pain, to Pain, my painful heart, 
With her due praise, did of my state complain. 
I praised her eyes, whom never chance doth move ; 
Her breath, which makes a sour answer sweet ; 
Her milken breastSj the hurse of childlike love ; 
Her legs, O legs ! Her aye well stepping feet : 

Pain heard her praise, and full of inward fire 
(First sealing up my heart, as prey of his) 
He flies to her ; and boldened with desire. 
Her face, this Age's praise, the thief doth kiss ! 
O Pain ! I now recant the praise I gave, 
And swear she is not worthy thee to have. 


Hou Pain ! the only guest of loathed Constraint 
The child of Curse, Man's Weakness' foster-child, 
Brother to Woe, and father of Complaint : 
Thou Pain ! thou hated Pain ! from heaven exiled. 
How hold'st thou her, whose eyes constraint doth fear? 
Whom curst, do bless ; whose weakness, virtues arm ; 
Who other's woes and plaints can chastely bear ; 
In whose sweet heaven, angels of high thoughts, swarm. 

What courage strange, hath caught thy caitiff heart ? 
Fear'st not a face that oft whole hearts devours ? 
Or art thou from above bid play this part, 
And so no help 'gainst envy of those powers ? 

If thus, alas, yet while those parts have woe ^^ 

So stay her tongue, that she no more say, " No ! 

Nd have I heard her say, " O cruel pam ! " 
And doth she know what mould her beauty bears? 
Mourns she, in truth ; and thinks that others feign ? 
Fears she to feel, and feels not other's fears ? 
Or doth she think all pain the mind forbears; 
That heavy earth, not fiery spirits may plain ? 
That eyes weep worse than heart m bloody tears ? 
That sense feels more that what doth sense contain ? 

No ' no ' She is too wise ! She knows her face 
Hath not such pain, as it makes others have. 
She knows the sickness of that perfect place 
Hath yet such health, as it my life can save. 

But this she thinks, - Our pain, high cause excuseth : 
Where her who should rule pain; false pam abuseth. 

176 Sonnets and Translations, p-r-f-y- 
Translated from Horace, zvhicli begins Rectius vivcs. 

Ou better sure shall live, not evermore 
Trying high seas ; nor while seas rage, you flee, 
Pressing too much upon ill harboured shore. 

The golden mean who loves, lives safely free 
From filth of foresworn house ; and quiet lives, 
Released from Court, where envy needs must be. 

The winds most oft the hugest pine tree grieves ; 
The stately towers come down with greater fall ; 
The highest hills, the bolt of thunder cleaves. 

Evil haps do fill with hope ; good haps appal 
With fear of change, the courage well prepared : 
Foul winters, as they come ; away, they shall ! 

Though present times and past with evils be snared, 
They shall not last : with cithern, silent Muse, 
Apollo wakes ; and bow, hath sometimes spared. 

In hard estate ; with stout show, valour use ! 
The same man still, in whom wise doom prevails. 
In too full wind, draw in thy swelling sails ! 

Old of Catullus. 

Ulli se dicit mulier mea nuhcvc malle, 

Quam mihi non si se Ju PITER ipse petat, 
Dicit sed mulier CUPIDO quce dicit amanti, 
In vento ant rapida scribcve optct aqua. 

sh-r.sidney.-j SoNNETS AND Translations. 177 

Nto nobody," my woman saith, " she had rather a 
wife be 
M Than to myself; not though Jove grew a suitor 
of hers." 
These be her words, but a woman's words to a love that is 

In wind or water's stream do require to be writ. 

Ul sceptra scevus dtiro imperio regit, 
Timet timentcs, metus in authorcm redit. 

Air ! seek not to be feared. Most lovely! beloved by 
thy servants ! 
For true it is, " that they fear many ; whom many 


Ike as the dove, which, sealed up, doth fly; 
Is neither free, nor yet to service bound : 
But hopes to gain some help by mounting high, 
Till want of force do force her fall to ground. 
Right so my mind, caught by his guiding eye, 
And thence cast off, where his sweet hurt he found, 
Hath never leave to live, nor doom to die ; 
Nor held in evil, nor suffered to be sound. 

But with his wings of fancies, up he goes 
To high conceits, whose fruits are oft but small ; 
Till wounded, blind and wearied spirit lose 
Both force to fly, and knowledge where to fall. 
O happy dove, if she no bondage tried ! 
More happy I, might I in bondage 'bide 1 


ENG. Gar. U. 

178 Sonnets and Translations 

rSir p. Siiliicy. 
L ? 

Sonnet by \Sir\ E[dward]. D[yer]. 

RoMETHEUS, when first from heaven high, 
He brought down fire, ere then on earth not seen ; 
Fond of dehght, a Satyr, standing by. 
Gave it a kiss, as it Hke sweet had been. 
Feeling forthwith the other burning power, 
Wood with the smart, with shouts and shrieking shrill, 
He sought his ease in river, field, and bower; 
But, for the time, his grief went with him still. 

So, silly I, with that unwonted sight, 
In human shape an Angel from above 
Feeding mine eyes, the impression there did light ; 
That since, I run and rest as pleaseth love. 

The difference is, the Satyr's lips, my heart ; 
He, for a while; I evermore have smart. 

\Answering Sonnet by Sir Philip S 

I D N E Y , 

Satyr once did run away for dread. 
With sound of horn, which he himself did blow 
Fearing and feared, thus from himself he fled ; 
Deeming strange evil in that he did not know. 
Such causeless fears, when coward minds do take ; 
It makes them fly that which they fain would have : 
As this poor beast who did his rest forsake 
Thinking not " Why ! " but how himself to save. 

Even thus might I, for doubts which I conceive 
Of mine own words, my owm good hap betray : 
And thus might I, for fear of " May be," leave 
The sweet pursuit of my desired prey. 

Better like I thy Satyr, dearest Dyer ! 
W^ho burnt his lips to kiss fair shining fire. 



Y MISTRESS lowers, and saith, " I do not love." 
I do protest, and seek with service due, 
In humble mind, a constant faith to prove ; 
But for all this ; I cannot her remove 
From deep vain thought that I may not be true. 

If oaths might serve, even by the Stygian lake, 
Which poets say, the gods themselves do fear, 
I never did my vowed word forsake. 
For why should I ; whom free choice, slave doth pake ? 
Else what in face, than in my fancy bear. 

My Muse therefore — for only thou canst tell — 
Tell me the cause of this my causeless woe ? 
Tell how ill thought disgraced my doing well ? 
Tell how my joys and hopes, thus foully fell 
To so low ebb, that wonted were to flow ? 

O this it is ! The knotted straw is found ! 
In tender hearts, small things engender hate. 
A horse's worth laid waste the Trojan ground. 
A three-foot stool, in Greece, made trumpets sound. 
An ass's shade, ere now, hath bred debate* 

If Greeks themselves were moved with so small cause 
To twist those broils, which hardly would untwine : 
Should ladies fair be tied to such hard laws. 
As in their moods to take a lingering pause ? 
I would it not. Their metal is too fine. 

" My hand doth not bear witness with my heart," 
She saith, " because I make no woful lays, 
To paint my living death, and endless smart," 
And so, for one that felt god Cupid's dart, 
She thinks I lead and live too merry days. 

I So Sonnets and Translations, p' ^- J'''"'^' 

Are poets then, the only lovers true ? 
Whose hearts are set on measuring a verse ; 
Who think themselves well blest, if they renew 
Some good old dump, that Chaucer's mistress knew ; 
And use you but for matters to rehearse. 

Then, good Apollo ! do away thy bow ! 
Take harp ! and sing in this our versing time ! 
And in my brain some sacred humour flow, 
That all the earth my woes, sighs, tears may knov/. 
And see you not, that I fall now to rhyme ! 

As for my mirth — how could I but be glad 
Whilst that, me thought, I justly made my boast 
That only I, the only mistress had. 
But now, if e'er my face with joy be clad ; 
Think Hannibal did laugh, when Carthage lost! 

Sweet Lady ! As for those whose sullen cheer, 
Compared to me, made me in lightness found ; 
Who Stoic-like in cloudy hue appear ; 
Who silence force, to make their words more dear ; 
Whose eyes seem chaste, because they look on ground ; 

Believe them not ! For physic true doth find, 

Choler adust is joyed in womankind. 

N WONTED walks, since wonted fancies change. 
Some cause there is, which of strange cause doth 

rise ; 
For in each thing whereto my eye doth range. 
Part of my pain, me seems, engraved lies. 

The rocks, which were of constant mind the mark. 
In climbing' steep, now hard refusal show ; 

s;r p. Sidney.-j SoNNETS AND TRANSLATIONS. l8l 

And shading woods seem now my sun to dark ; 
And stately hills disdain to look so low. 

The restful caves, now restless visions give ; 
In dales, I see each way a hard ascent ; 
Like late mown meads, late cut from joy I live ; 
Alas, sweet brooks do in my tears augment. 

Rocks, woods, hills, caves, dales, meads, brooks answer 

me : 
Infected minds infect each thing they see. 

F I COULD think how these my thoughts to leave ; 
Or thinking still my thoughts might have good end 
If rebel sense would reason's law receive ; 
Or reason foiled would not in vain contend : 

Then might I think what thoughts were best to think ; 

Then might I wisely swim, or gladly sink. 

If either you would change your cruel heart ; 
Or cruel still, time did your beauty stain ; 
If from my soul, this love would once depart ; 
Or for my love, some love I might obtain : 

Then might I hope a change or ease of mind ; 

By 3'our good help, or in myself to find. 

But since my thoughts in thinking still are spent, 

With reason's strife, by sense's overthrow ; 

You fairer still, and still more cruel bent ; 

I loving still a love, that loveth none : 

I yield and strive ; I kiss and curse the pain. 
Thought, reason, sense, time, you and I maintain. 

iS2 Sonnets and Translations. [s^Pf"i-y- 

A Farewell. 

Ft have I mused, but now at length I find 
Why those that die, men say, " they do depart." 
" Depart ! " A word so gentle, to my mind, 
Weakly did seem to paint death's ugly dart. 
But now the stars, with their strange course do bind 
Me one to leave, with whom I leave my heart : 
I hear a cry of spirits, faint and blind, 
That parting thus, my chiefest part, I part. 

Part of my life, the loathed part to me, 
Lives to impart my weary clay some breath ; 
But that good part, wherein all comforts be, 
Now dead, doth show departure is a death. 

Yea, worse than death ! Death parts both woe and joy, 
From joy I part, still living in annoy. 

Inding those beams, which I must ever love, 
To mar my mind ; and with my hurt, to please 
I deemed it best some absence for to prove, 
If further place might further me to ease. 
My eyes thence drawn, where lived all their light, 
Blinded, forthwith in dark despair did lie : 
Like to the mole, with want of guiding sight, 
Deep plunged in earth, deprived of the sky. 

In absence blind, and wearied with that woe ; 
To greater woes, by presence, I return : 
Even as the fly, which to the flame doth go ; 
Pleased with the light, that his small corse doth burn, 
Fair choice I have, either to live or die ; 
A blinded mole, or else a burned fly 1 


Sir p. Sldncy.-j S ON NETS AND TRANSLATIONS. I 83 

The Seven Wo7iders of England. 
|Ear Wilton sweet, huge heaps of stones are found, 
But so confused, that neither any eye 
Can count them just ; nor reason, reason try, 
What force brought them to so unhkely ground ? 

To stranger weights, my mind's waste soil is bound. 
Of Passion, hills ; reaching to reason's sky ; 
From Fancy's earth, passing all numbers bound. 
Passing all guess, whence into me should fly 

So* mazed a mass ? or if in me it grows ? 

A simple soul should breed so mixed woes. 

The Bruertons have a lake, w^hich when the sun 
Approaching, warms— not else ; dead logs up sends 
From hideous depth : which tribute, when its ends; 
Sore sign it is, the lord's last thread is spun. 

My lake is Sense, whose still streams never run, 
But when my sun her shining twins there bends ; 
Then from his depth with force, in her begun. 
Long drowned Hopes to watery eyes it lends : 

But when that fails, my dead hopes up to take ; 

Their master is fair warned, his will to make. 

We have a fish, by strangers much admired, 
Which caught, to cruel search yields his chief part : 
(With gall cut out) closed up again by art, 
Yet lives until his life be new required. 

A stranger fish ! myself, not yet expired. 

Though rapt with Beauty's hook, I did impart 

Myself unto th'anatomy desired : 

Instead of gall, leaving to her, my heart. 

Yet lived with Thoughts closed up ; till that she will 
By conquest's right, instead of searching, kill. 

1 84 Sonnets and Translations. [^'' ^- f '^"'^• 

Peak hath a cave, whose narrow entries find 
Large rooms within : where drops distil amain, 
Till knit with cold, though there unknown remain, 
Deck that poor place with alabaster lined. 

Mine Eyes the strait, the roomy cave, my Mind ; 
Whose cloudy Thoughts let fall an inward rain 
Of Sorrow's drops, till colder Reason bind 
Their running fall into a constant vein 

Of Truth, far more than alabaster pure ! 

"Which, though despised, yet still doth Truth endure. 

A field there is ; where, if a stake be prest 

Deep in the earth, what hath in earth receipt 

Is changed to stone ; in hardness, cold, and weight : 

The wood above, doth soon consuming rest. 

The earth, her Ears ; the stake is my Request : 
Of which how much may pierce to that sweet seat 
To Honour turned, doth dwell in Honour's nest ; 
Keeping that form, though void of wonted heat: 

But all the rest, which Fear durst not apply ; 

Failing themselves, with withered conscience, die. 

Of ships, by shipwreck cast on Albion's coast. 
Which rotting on the rocks, their death do die ; 
From wooden bones and blood of pitch doth fly 
A bird, which gets more life than ship had lost. 

My ship, Desire ; with wind of Lust long tost, 

Brake on fair cliffs of Constant Chastity : 

Where plagued for rash attempt, gives up his ghost ; 

So deep in seas of Virtue's beauties lie. 

But of this death, flies up a purest Love, 
Which seeming less, yet nobler life doth move. 

Sir P. sijney.j SoNNETS AND Translations. 185 

These wonders, England breeds. The last remains. 
A lady, in despite of nature, chaste ; 
On whom all love, in whom no love is placed ; 
Where fairness yields to wisdom's shortest reins. 

An humble pride, a scorn that favour stains ; 
A woman's mould, but like an angel graced ; 
An angel's mind, but in a woman cast ; 
A heaven on earth, or earth that heaven contains. 

Now thus this wonder to myself I frame ; 

She is the cause, that all the rest I am. 

To the tune of Wilhemus van Nassau, &c. 

Ho hath his fancy pleased, 
With fruits of happy sight ; 
Let here his eyes be raised. 
On Nature's sweetest light. 
A light, which doth dissever 
And yet unite the eyes ; 
A light, which dying never> 
Is cause the looker dies. 

She never dies, but lasteth 
In life of lover's heart : 
He ever dies that wasteth 
In love his chiefest part. 

Thus is her life still guarded 
In never dying faith, 
Thus is his death rewarded, 
Since she lives in his death. 

i86 Sonnets and Translations. [^■'■- 1'- f 'J-y- 

Look then and die ! The pleasure 

Doth answer well the pain. 

Small loss of mortal treasure, 

Who may immortal gain. 
Immortal be her graces, 

Immortal is her mind : 

They fit for heavenly places, 

This heaven in it doth bind. 

But eyes these beauties see not, 
Nor sense that grace descries : 
Yet eyes ; deprived be not, 
From sight of her fair eyes. 
Which as of inward glory 
They are the outward seal ; 
So may they live still sorry. 
Which die not in that weal. 

But who hath fancies pleased 
With fruits of happy sight ; 
Let here his eyes be raised 
On Nature's sweetest light ! 

The smokes of MelancJioly. 

Ho HATH ever felt the change of love. 
And known those pangs that the loosers prove. 
May paint my face, without seeing me; 
And write the state how my fancies be : 
The loathsome buds grown on Sorrow's Tree. 

But who, by hearsay speaks, and hath not fully felt 
What kind of fires they be in which those spirits melt, 
Shall guess, and fail, what doth displease : 
Feehng my pulse ; miss my disease. 


O no ! O no ! trial only shows 

The bitter juice of forsaken woes ; 

Where former bliss, present evils do stain : 

Nay, former bliss adds to present pain; 

While remembrance doth both states contain. 

Come learners then to me ! the model of mishap ! 
Engulfed in despair ! slid down from fortune's lap ! 

And as you like my double lot, 

Tread in my steps, or follow not ! 

For me, alas, I am full resolved 

These bands, alas, shall not be dissolved ; 

Nor break my word, though reward come late; 

Nor fail my faith in my failing fate ; 

Nor change in change, though change change my state. 

But always one myself, with eagle-eyed truth to fly 
Up to the sun ; although the sun my wings do fry t 

For if those flames burn my desire, 

Yet shall I die in Phoenix's fire. 

Hen, to my deadly pleasure ; 
When, to my lively torment, 
Lady 1 mine eyes remained 

Joined, alas, to your beams. 

With violence of heav'nly 
Beauty tied to virtue. 
Reason abash'd retired ; 
Gladly my senses yielded. 

^^ . •..- r. rSir r. Sidney. 

188 Sonnets AND Translations. L , 

Gladly my senses yielding, 
Thus to betray my heart's fort ; 
Left me devoid of all life. 

They to the beamy suns went ; 
Where by the death of all deaths : 
Find to what harm they hastened. 

Like to the silly Sylvan ; 
Burned by the light he best liked, 
When with a fire he first met. 

Yet, yet, a life to their death, 
Lady ! you have reserved 1 
Lady, the life of all love ! 

For though my sense be from me 
And I be dead, who want sense ; 
Yet do we both live in you 1 

Turned anew, by your means, 
Unto the flower that aye turns, 
As you, alas, my sun bends. 

Thus do I fall to rise thus, 
Thus do I die to live thus, 
Changed to a change, I change not. 

Thus may I not be from you ! 
Thus be my senses on you 1 
Thus what I think is of you 1 
Thus what I seek is in you ! 
All what I am, it is you 1 

sirp.siciney.j SoNNETS AND Translations. 189 

To the tune of a Neapolitan Song, luhich 
beginneth No, no, no, no. 

0, NO, no, no, I cannot hate my foe, 

Although with cruel fire, 
]^ First thrown on my desire, 

She sacks my rendered sprite. 
For so fair a flame embraces 

All the places 
Where that heat of all heats springeth, 

That it bringeth 
To my dying heart some pleasure : 

Since his treasure 
Burneth bright in fairest light. No, no, no, no. 

No, no, no, no, I cannot hate my foe, 

A Ithough with cruel fire, 
First blown on my desire, 

She sacks my rendered sprite. 
Since our lives be not immortal, 

But to mortal 
Fetters tied, do wait the hour 

Of death's power, 
They have no cause to be sorry 

Who with glory 
End the way, where all men stay. No, no, no, no. 

No, no, no, no, I cannot hate my foe, 

Although ivitli cruel fire, 
First thrown on my desire, 

She sacks my rendered sprite. 
No man doubts ; whom beauty Idlleth, 

Fair death feeleth ; 
And in whom fair death proceedeth, 

Glory breedeth. 

1 90 Sonnets and Translations, p' ^- J''^'^'- 

So that I, in her beams dying, 

Glory trying ; 
Though in pain, cannot complain. No, no, no, no. 

To the tune of a Neapolita7i Villanelte, 

Ll my sense thy sweetness gained; 

Thy fair hair my heart enchained; 

My poor reason thy words moved. 
So that thee, like heaven, I loved. 

Fa la la leridan, dan dan dan deridan ; 
Dan dan dan deridan deridan dei. 
While to my mind, the outside stood 
For messengers of inward good. 

Now thy sweetness sour is deemed, 
Thy hair, not worth a hair esteemed, 
Reason hath thy words removed, 
Finding that but words they proved. 

Fa la la leridan, dan dan dan deridan ; 
Dan dan dan deridan deridan dei. 
For no fair sign can credit \\\n, 
If that the substance fail within. 

No more in thy sweetness, glory ! 
For thy knitting hair, be sorry ! 
Use thy words, but to bewail thee ! 
That no more thy beams avail thee. 

Dan, dan, [i.e., Fa la la leridan, &c.'\ 

Dan, dan. 
Lay not thy colours more to view ! 
Without the picture be found true. 

sirr.siancy.-j SoNNETS AND Translations. 191 

Woe to me ! alas, she weepeth ! 
Fool in me ! What folly creepeth ! 
Was I to blaspheme em-aged, 
Where my soul I have engaged ? 

Dan, dan, 

Dan, dan. 
And wretched ! I must yield to this ; 
The fault 1 blame, her chasteness is. 

Sweetness ! sweetly pardon folly ! 
Tie me, hair ! your captive wholly ! 
Words ' O words of heavenly knowledge ! 
Know my words, their faults acknowledge. 

Dan, dan, 

Dan, dan. 
And all my life, I will confess 
The less I love, I live the less. 

Translated out of Diana of Momtema yor mSfamsh, 
tchere Sireno, a shepherd, pulling out a little of hi. 
.nistress Dianas hair, zvrapt about with green silk ; ivho 
had now utterly forsaken him : to the hair, he thus 
bewailed himself. 

Hat changes here, O hair 1 
I see? since I saw you. 
How ill fits you, this green to wear. 
For hope the colour due. 
Indeed I well did hope, 
Though hope were mixed with fear, 
No other shepherd should have scope 
Once to approach this hair. 

192 Sonnets and Translations. [Si^ p- -Ji-J'^y- 

Ah, hair! how many days 
My Diana made me show, 
With thousand pretty childish plays, 
If I wore you or no ? 
Alas, how oft with tears, 

tears of guileful breast ! 

She seemed full of jealous fears j 
Whereat I did but jest. 

Tell me, O hair of gold ! 
If I then faulty be, 

That trust those killing eyes, I would. 
Since they did warrant me. 
Have you not seen her mood ? 
What streams of tears she spent ! 
Till that I swear my faith so stood, 
As her words had it bent. 

Who hath such beauty seen 
In one that changeth so ? 
Or where one's love so constant been, 
Who ever saw such woe ? • 
Ah hair ! are you not grieved ? 
To come from whence you be : 
Seeing how once you saw I lived ; 
To see me, as you see ? 

On sandy bank, of late, 

1 saw this woman sit, 

Where " Sooner die, than change my state," 

She, with her finger, writ. 

Thus my belief was stayed. 

*' Behold love's mighty hand 

On things," were by a woman said. 

And written in the sand. 


The same in Montemayor holding his 
mistress s glass before her ; looking tip on her, luhile she 
viewed herself ; this sang : 

F THIS high grace, with bliss conjoined, 
No further debt on me is laid; 
Since that in selfsame metal coined 
Sweet lady ! you remain well paid. 
For if my place give me great pleasure, 
Having before me Nature's treasure ; 
In face and eyes unmatched being : 
You have the same in my hands, seeing 
What in your face, mine eyes do measure. 

Nor think the match unev'nly made, 

That of those beams in you do tarry ! 

The glass to you, but give^ a shade ; 

To me, mine eyes the true shape carry. 

For such a thought most highly prized, 
Which ever hath love's yoke despised, 
Better than one captived perceiveth. 
Though he the lively form receiveth ; 
The other sees it but disguised. 

Tng out your bells ! let mourning shows be spread. 
For Love is dead. 

All love is dead, infected 
With the plague of deep disdain ; 
Worth as nought worth rejected, 
And faith, fair scorn doth gain. 

From so tingratefiil fancy , 

From such a female frenzy, 

From them that use men thus, 

Good Lord deliver Jts ! 

ExG. Gar. II. 


194 Sonnets and Translations. pP--'^""'-y 

Weep ! neighbours, weep ! Do you not hear it said 
That Love is dead. 

His deathbed, peacock's Folly ; 
His winding sheet is Shame ; 
His will, False Seeming wholly ; 
His sole executor, Blame. 

From so imgvatefnl fancy, 

From such a female frenzy ^ 

From them that use men tlins, 

Good Lord deliver us ! 

Let dirige be sung, and trentals rightly read, 
For Love is dead. 

Sir Wrong his tomb ordaineth, 
My mistress* marble heart ; 
Which epitaph containeth 
*' Her eyes were once his dart." 

From so ungrateful fancy, 

From such a female frenzy. 

From them that use men thus^ 

Good Lord deliver us ! 

Alas, I lie. Rage hath this error bred. 
Love is not dead. 

Love is not dead, but sleepeth 
In her unmatched mind : 
Where she his counsel keepeth, 
Till due deserts she find. 

Therefore from so vile fancy, 

To call such wit a frenzy : 

Who love can temper thus, 

Good Lord deliver us ! 

Sir p. S!dney.-| SoNNETS AND TRANSLATIONS. I 95 

Hou blind man's mark! thou fool's self-chosen snare! 
Fond fancy's scum ! and dregs of scattered thought! 
Band of all evils ! cradle of causeless care ! 
Thou web of will ! whose end is never wrought* 
Desire ! Desire ! I have too dearly bought, 
With price of mangled mind, thy worthless ware 1 
Too long ! too long asleep thou hast me brought 1 
Who should my mind to higher things prepare ; 

But yet in vain, thou hast my ruin sought ! 
In vain, thou mad'st me to vain things aspire ! 
In vain, thou kindlest all thy smoky fire I 
For virtue hath this better lesson taught. 
Within myself, to seek my only hire : 
Desiring nought, but how to kill Desire* 

Eave me,-0 love ! which feachest but to dust \ 
And thou, my mind ! aspire to higher things ! 
Grow rich in that, which never taketh rust ! 
Whatever fades, but fading pleasure brings. 
Draw in thy beams, and humble all thy might 
To that sweet yoke, where lasting freedoms be ! 
Which breaks the clouds, and opens forth the light 
That doth both shine, and give us sight to see. 

O take fast hold ! Let that light be thy guide ! 
In this small course which birth draws out to death : 
And think how evil becometh him to slide, 
Who seeketh heaven, and comes of heavenly breath ! 
Then farewell, world ! Thy uttermost I see ! 
Eternal Love, maintain Thy love in me I 

Splendidis longtim vakdico migis. 


Sir Walter Raleigh. 
Opening of bis History of the World, 

iUistory of the World. 1614.I 

OD, Whom the wisest acknowledge to be a Power 
ineffable, and Virtue infinite ; a Light, by abun- 
dant clarity invisible ; an Understanding, which 

itself can only comprehend ; an Essence eternal 

and spiritual, of absolute pureness and simplicity; was and 
is pleased to make Himself known by the Work of the 
World. In the wonderful magnitude whereof (all which 
He embraceth, filleth, and sustaineth) we behold the Image 
of that Glory which cannot be measured ; and withal, that 
one and yet universal Nature, which cannot be defined. In 
the glorious lights of heaven, we perceive a shadow of His 
Divine Countenance. In His merciful provision for all that 
live, His manifold goodness. And lastly, in creating and 
making existent the World Universal by the absolute art of 
His own word, His Power and Almightiness. 

Which Power, Light, Virtue, Wisdom, and Goodness 
being all but attributes of one simple Essence, and one 
GOD; we, in all, admire, and in part discern, /'t^r speculum 
creaturarum : that is, in the disposition, order, and variety of 
Celestial and Terrestrial bodies. Terrestrial, in their strange 
and manifold diversities ; Celestial, in their beauty and 
magnitude ; which, in their continual and contrary motions, 
are neither repugnant, intermixed, nor confounded. By these 
potent effects, we approach to the knowledge of the omni- 
potent Cause; and by these motions, their Almighty Maker. 

A Fight at Sea, 

Famously fought by the Dolphin of Lon- 
don against Five of the Turks' Men 
of War and a Sattee, the i 2 of 
January last i6i6[-i7]; being 
all vessels of great burden, 
and strongly manned. 

JVliere'ut is showed the 7iobIe wo'rth 

and brave resolution of our 

English Nation. 

Written and set forth by one of the same Voyage 

that was then present, and an Eye 

Witness to all the proceedings. 

Printed at London for Henry Gosson, dwelling 
upon London Bridge. 1617. 



famously fought by the Dolphin of 

London, against Five of the 

Turks' Men of War. 

He magnanimity and worthy resolution 
of this our English Nation, from time to 
time, endureth the true touch and trials 
of the sea, in deep extremity ; whereby 
other countries not only admire thereat, 
but tie to the same a deserved commen- 
dation. Amongst many other such like 
adventures, I am emboldened to commit 
to your censure the accidents of this our late voyage and 
return from Zante into England : which happened as here 

Having at Zante, at the end of this last year, finished our 
business, and ladened our ship for England, being named 
the Dolphin of London, of the burden of 280 tons or there- 
abouts; having in the same, some nineteen pieces of ordnance 
and nine murderers [carronades firing bullets or innrdering-shot, 
io siceep the decks when men enter] ; manned with thirty-six men 
and two boys ; the Master thereof, one Master Nichols, a 
man of much skill and proved experience : who, making for 
England ; we came from Zante the ist of January, 1617, the 
wind being north and ])y east. 

200 TvIkkt with the Pirates and Turks. [2^, 

When with a prosperous f^alc, by the 8th clay we had 
sight of the island of Sardinia ; the wind being then come 
westerly. The gth, in the morning, we stood in for Gallery 
[}Caf!;Hari^: and at noon, the wind being southerly, we came close 
by the Towers; where, some two leagues off, we made the fight. 

Which day, at night, the wind growing calm, we sailed 
towards the Cape. The loth day, we had a very little wind 
or none at all, till it was two o'clock in the afternoon ; which 
drave us some three leagues eastward from Cape Pola [? Pula]. 

Where we espied a fleet of ships upon the main of 
Sardinia, near unto a road called Gallery, belonging to the 
King of Spain ; being the 12th of January [1617]. On which 
day, in the morning's watch, we had sight of a sail making 
from the shore towards us ; which drave into our minds 
some doubt and fear: and coming near unto us, we espied it 
to be a Sattee, which is a ship much like unto an Argosy, of 
a very great burden and bigness. 

Which perceiving, we imagined some more ships not to be 
far off. Whereupon our Master sent one of our company up 
into the maintop : where he discovered five sail of ships, one 
after another, coming up before the wind, being then at 
west- south-west. Who, in a prospect glass [telescope], per- 
ceived them to be the Turks' Men of War. The first of 
them booming [in full sail] by himself before the wind ; with 
his flag in the maintop, and all his sails gallantly spread 
abroad. After him, came the Admiral and Vice-Admiral ; 
and after them, two more, the Rear- Admiral and his fellow. 
Being five in number, all well prepared for any desperate 

Whereupon, we immediately made ready our ordnance and 
small shot [micsketry] ; and with no little resolution prepared 
ourselves to withstand them. Which being done, we went 
to prayer ; and so to dinner : where our Master gave us such 
noble encouragement, that our hearts ever thirsted to prove 
the success. 

And being in readiness for the fight, our Master went upon 
the poop, and waved his sword three times ; shaking it with 
such dauntless courage, as if he had alread}' won the victory. 
This being done, we seconded him with like forwardness. 
Whereupon he caused his trumpets to sound; which gave us 
more encouragement than before. 

J,j] First Action, with two S ii i r s . 201 

Being within shot of them, our Master cortimanded his 
Gunner to make his level and to shoot : which he did, but 
missed them all. At which, the foremost of them bore up 
apace, for he had the wind of us ; and returned as good as 
we sent. So betwixt us, for a great time, was a most fierce 
encounter ; and having the advantage of us by reason of the 
wind, about eleven or twelve o'clock they laid us aboard with 
one of their ships, which was of 300 tons or theieabouts. 
She had in her thirty-five pieces of ordnance, and about 250 
men : the Captain whereof was one Walsingham, who 
seemed, by his name, to be an Englishman ; and was Admiral 
of the fleet, for so it signified by the flag in his maintop. 

Having, as I said, boarded our ship, he entered on the 
larboard quarter : where his men, some with sabels, which we 
call falchions, some with hatchets, and some with half-pikes, 
stayed some half hour or thereabouts, tearing up our nail 
boards [deck planks\ upon the poop, and the trap hatch : but 
we having a murtherer in the round house [Captain's cabin] 
kept the larboard side clear : whilst our other men with the 
ordnance and muskets played upon their ships. Yet for all 
this, they paid our gallery with small shot, in such sort that 
we stood in danger to yield. 

But, at last, we shot them quite through and through, and 
they us likewise : but they being afraid they should have been 
sunk by us, bore ahead of our ship ; and as he passed along 
we gave them a broadside, that they were forced to lay by 
the lee, and to mend their leaks. 

This fight continued two hours by our [hour] glass, and 
better ; and so near the shore, that the dwellers thereupon 
saw all the beginning and ending, and what danger we stood 
in. For upon the shore, stood a little house, wherein was 
likewise turned a glass all the time during the fight ; which 
measured the hours as they passed. 

And this was Walsingham's part. 

Now for Captain Kelley's ship, which came likewise up 
with his flag in the maintop, and another ship with his flag 
in the foretop : which ships were at least 300 tons a piece ; 
and had in each of them twenty-five pieces of ordnance, and 
about 250 men. 

So they laid us aboard, one on the starboard quarter, and 
the other on the larboard : where entering our ship thick 


and threefold, with their scimitars, hatchets, lialf-pikes, and 
other weapons, put us in great dan,i;er l)oth of the loss of our 
ship and our lives : for they performed much manhood, and 
many dangerous hazards. 

Amongst which, there was one of their company that 
desperately went up into our maintop to fetch down our 
flag; which being spied by the Steward of our ship, he 
presently shot him with his musket that he fell headlong 
into the sea, leaving the flag behind him. 

So these two ships fought us with great resolution, playing 
upon us with their ordnance and small shot for the space of 
an hour and a half; of whom we received some hurt, and 
likewise they of us. But when they saw they could not 
prevail, nor any way make us to yield ; they bore up and 
passed from us, to lay their ships by the lee to stop their 
leaks : for we had grievously torn and battered them with 
our great ordnance. 

This was the second attempt they made upon us. Now 
for the third. 

There came two more of Captain Kelley's ships, of 250 
tons a piece, that in each of them had twenty-two pieces of 
ordnance ; and at the least 200 men, as well provided as 
might be. Which was, as we thought, too great a number 
for us, being so few in our ship ; but GOD, that was our 
friend, gave us such strength and success that they little 
prevailed against us. 

For at their first coming up, notwithstanding all their 
multitude of men, v.^e shot one of them quite through and 
through ; and laid him likewise by the lee, as we had done 
the others before. But the other ship remaining, laid us 
aboard on the starboard side, and in that quarter they 
entered our ship with scimitars, falchions, half-pikes, and 
other weapons, running to and fro upon the deck, crying 
still, in the Turkish tongue, "Yield yourselves!" "Yield 
yourselves!" promising that we should be well used, and 
have part of our goods delivered back ; with such like fair 

But we, giving no ear unto them, stood stiffly in our 
defence, choosing rather to die than to yield, as it is still 
the nature and condition of all Englishmen; and being thus 
resolved, some of our men plied our ordnance against them, 

,6- ^.] The D l r II I X catches Fire. 203 

some played with the small shot, some with other weapons, 
as swords and half pikes and the like. In the midst of 
which skirmish, it so happened, b}- ill chance, that our ship 
was hred, and in great danger to be lost and cast awa}' : had 
not the LORD, in His mercy, preserved us ; and sent us 
means happily to quench it. 

But now mark the accident ! The fire being perceived by 
our enemies to burn outrageously, and thinking that our 
ship would have therewith been suddenly burned to the 
water : they left us to our fortunes, falling astern from us. 

So we put to the shore under the little house, for some 
succour ; where we let an anchor fall, thinking to ride there 
all night : but we saw another ship bear upon us ; whereupon 
we were sore frighted, and so forced to let our anchor slip, 
and so set sail to get better succour, putting into the road 
between the two little houses ; where we lay five days, 
mending the bruises and leaks of our ship. 

The losses we received in the aforesaid fight were six men 
and one bo}' ; and there were hurt eight men and one boy 
more : but the LORD doth know what damage we put them 
to ; and what number we slew in their ships, 

The Master of our ship being at the helm was shot twice 
betwixt the legs. The Surgeon dressing the wounds of one 
of our men, a ball of wdld-fire fell into his basin; which he 
suddenly cast into the sea, otherwise it had greatly 
endangered us. 

The Turks were aboard, and sound their trumpets ; yet, 
notwithstanding, our men assaulted them so fiercely that 
they forced them off: and the Boatswain, seeing them fly, 
most undauntedly with a w'histle blowed them to the skirmish, 
if so they durst. 

The Captains of three of their ships were Englishmen ; 
who took part with the Turks thus to rob and spoil upon the 
ocean. Their names were Walsingham, Kelley, and 

Upon the I3lh of January, there came aboard certain 
Spaniards, in the morning betimes ; who, seeing our dead 
men, went ashore with us, and showed us where we might 
bury them. But as we were busy in making their graves, 
and covering the bodies with earth ; there came sailing by 
a Flemish ship of 240 tons, which had in it some £'^,oqq or 

204 Out of 39 English, i i die of the Fight. [,J^_ 

5rC,ooo [ = £25,000 in present value], which had been chased by 
those Men of War that had fought with us before. All 
which money they brought in a long boat to the shore, and 
left in the ship only the men, which were sixteen sailors and 
two boys ; that afterwards, within two days, brought the said 
ship into the road, not anything at all endangered, GOD be 
praised ! 

Upon the 15th of the same month, when we came from 
the burying of our men, and had rested ourselves in our 
ship some two or three hours ; as GOD would have it, the 
wind began to blow a strong gale, and by little and little 
grew to a terrible tempest : through which, from Sunday 
night [? 19th] till Friday [? 24th] in the evening, we lay in such 
extremity of weather, as rain, wind, lightning and thunder, 
as we thought we should never have got clear from the road 
where we lay. During which storm, there died one of our 
men that had been hurt in the fight : whose body we cast 
overboard into the sea, without any other burial. 

So when the wind and sea a little calmed, we set up sail 
and came forward : but with three days, after we buried 
three men more in the sea. 

And the same afternoon [? 27th] we arrived in the road of 
Gallery [Cagliari], and lay at anchor : where again searching 
our ship, we found it rent and torn in four several places ; 
one in the gun room, another between the decks, the third 
in the skereridge [? steerage'], and the fourth in the Master's 

So in Gallery, we mended our ship ; and hired certain men 
there to help us to stop her leaks : and having all things 
most fitting for our voyage homewards ; upon the 30th of 
January, we committed our fortunes again unto the sea. 
And so leaving Gallery, we came forward, with a Frenchman 
who was bound to a place called Oristano, some thirty 
leagues from Gallery ; where, after two days, we left his 
company; being the ist of February. 

And after that, putting forward still towards England, we 
are now, by the will of GOD, most safely arrived ; and our 
ship, after so many overpassed dangers, received into the 
Thames, near London : to the great joy and comfort of 
the owners thereof. 

GOD be praised ! 


Abraham Cowley. 

David's sere?mde to Mjchal, the 
daughter of Kin or Saul. 

YDavideis. A sncreil pnem of 
tlie Troubles of i>.\vn>, Cook 
III.? i66o.] 


Wake, awake, my lyre ! 
And tell thy silent master's humble tale, 

In sounds that may prevail ; 
Sounds that gentle thoughts inspire. 
Though so exalted she, 
And I so lowly be, 
Tell her, such different notes make all thy harmony! 


Hark, how the strings awake ! 
And though the moving hand approach not near; 
Themselves with awful fear, 
A kind of numerous trembling make. 
Now all thy forces try ! 
Now all thy charms apply ! 
Revenge upon her ear, the conquests of her ej'e! 

2o6 David's serenade to Miciial. {^-"{"tt 


Weak lyre ! Thy virtue sure 
Is useless here. Since thou art only found 
To cure, but not to wound ; 
And she to wound, but not to cure. 
Too weak too, wilt thou prove, 
My passion to remove ; 
Physic to other ills, thou'rt nourishment to love ! 


Sleep, sleep again, my lyre ! 
For thou can'st never tell my humble tale 
In sounds that will prevail ; 
Nor gentle thoughts in her inspire. 
All thy vain mirth lay by ! , 

Bid thy strings silent lie ! 
Sleep, sleep again, my lyre ! and let thy master die ! 



Captain Robert Hitchcock 
of Caversfield. 

The English Ar77iy Ratio7is in the 
time of ^l^ieeii Elizabeth, 

[An Appendix to W. Garrard s 
I'he Art oj War. 1591.] 

As we have seen, at/. 164, that Captain Hitchcock served under the 
Emperor Charles V. in 1553; he must have been an old and 
experienced Officer, when drawing up this Proportion. Berwick- 
upon-Tweed was the principal Fortress, the Portsmouth of England, 
down to the accession of James I. Hitchcock tells us at p. 215, 
that he was also there in 1551, in command of 200 Pioneers. 

Or that there hath somewhat been said touching Towns 
of War and fortifications, soldiers of judgement do 
know that a place besieged by the power of a mighty 
Prince^ cannot long endure, without titer e be within the 
same, a sufficient number of men, munition^ and victuals. When any 
of these three things lack, the enemy will soon have the place besieged. 
Therefore the said Captain HITCHCOCK, who hath been the cause 
of printing this book. Of War, doth think it good, to join to the 
same work, this short Discourse, which declareth what Proportion 
of victuals will serve 1,000 soldiers in a garrison, where the victuals 
must be provided by Her Majesty's Victualler. As for example, 
we will make our Proportion for Berwick ; wherein J will show 

2o8 Pricface to the General Proportiox. [''•"' 


hoio the Chief Vicliialler'sand the Petty Victuallers' gains and profits 
shall rise; that men may look therein, whereby all doubts and 
questions that may grow for that service shall be avoided : and the 
garrison, at all times, well furnished with things necessary and 
needful for victualling of one thousand soldiers; and after that 
proportion, as the number shall fall out, more or less. 

Within this General Proportion hereafter, I do declare first for 
bread and beer, the bakehouse and brewhonse ; the grayners [gran- 
aries] for store ; the windmills, the horse mills, with their impU- 
ments ; the caske, and other necessary things ; the charges of men, 
horses, and carriages to the same belonging ; with their wages and 
allowance for their travail and service. How this Proportion is to 
be provided, used, delivered, and spent ? in reading over this little 
work following, you shall find very short and plain. 

Robert Hitchcock, 

[All the prices in the following General Proportion should Le multiplied by 5 or 
6, to give present value.] 


A General Proportion and order of provision for a year of 
three hundred, three score and five days, to victual a 
Garrison of one thousand soldiers. 

The Oi'dcr for the Bakehouse. 

He soldiers having one pound and a half 
of good wheaten bread for one penny, or 
one pound and a half of good white bread 
for one penny halfpenny ; the Bakers to 
answer for every Quarter of wheat (being 
sweet, good, and merchantable, delivered 
at Berwick) at 20s. a quarter. Clear of all 
charges and waste, which happeneth after- 
wards by keeping the grayners {granarics'\ ; or any other 
(except casualty of the enemy) after the delivery thereof. 

Necessaries and implements, wood, wages of clerks, bakers, 
millers, carters, labourers, or any other, for the bakehouses; 
windmills, grayners, or carriage of provision, and for horse 
and carts for the same are to be found by this rate and 
[asjsize of bread, without any other allowance to be demanded: 
saving for waste, and charges of as much wheat as the use of 
baking shall be otherwise employed, than to be delivered in 
bread by them, who-Jkvere charged with the receipt from the 
ships and keeping the gra3'ners of the same. 

The bakehouses, windmills, and grayners being furnished 
with implements and necessaries at the entrance into service; 
and in good order of reparation, are so to be maintained and 
kept, in and by all things, except casualty of the enemy. And 
are to be delivered at the departure from service, in as good 
order and furniture of all things as they were first received. 

And considering the charge to maintain the bakehouse, 
with the appurtenances and allowance to the Petty Victuallers 
of the Garrison, after 21 loaves of bread for 20. A Quarter of 
good wheat will make in good bread (by order of this book), 
25s. ; so have ye of every Quarter for charges 5s., and after 
four quarters the day, for the whole year £l^^S 

E.\G. Gar. II. 14 

2 10 Wheat, i;y Contract, r3s. 41J tiii- Or. ['^•"'" 


That is to say, for wood to bake a Quarter of meal in loaf 

bread i6d., and after four Quarters the day for a }ear. 

Sum £()7 6s. 8d. 

And for this reparation of the Imkehouse and the appurten- 
ances yearly ... ;;^50 

Wages and victuals of two clerks, two millers, four bakers, 

and four labourers yearly £^50 

Maintenance of horse for carriage in this charge yearly, 

[is] _ ^72 ijs. 4d. 

All these allowances are found in the [assize of bread, 
besides the bran. 

The whole Garrison, being as before 1,000 soldiers, will 
spend four Quarters of wheat a day ; and for the whole year 
1,460 Quarters. Although, by order, this number will serve, 
yet Provision to be at the least in wheat for bread 2,000 
Quarters for the provision. 

I account that good wheat may be bought, with ready 
money, by former bargains [contracts] for seven 3'ears to- 
gether, for 13s. 4d. the Quarter in Yorkshire, Nottingham- 
shire, and Lincolnshire. To account the charges of a 
Quarter, from the place where it was bought to Berwick, at 
3s. 4d. : that is to say, where they send it down in keels [barges] 
to give for keeling [barging] of a Quarter 4d. ; for freight of a 
Quarter to Berwick, i6d. ; and for the Purveyor's charges for 
mats, or any other outlay of a Quarter 2od. 

And in other meetplaces, where the freight is greater ; the 
other charges are the less ; so as [that] it may be done for the 

I have made no mention of waste, which is to be borne by 
the over measure : being bought for ready money, by former 
bargains ; except shipwreck and casualty of the enemy. 

So I account wheat to be delivered at Berwick, clear of all 
charges and freight, at i6s. 8d. the Quarter, one time with 
another, as before. 

And where the baker alloweth to deliver in bread for every 
quarter of good wheat, 20s. clear of air charges and waste, 
after the delivery thereof at Berwick : by this order of pro- 
vision, the waste, freight, and all other charges allowed, 
except casualty of the enemy and shipwreck; there re- 
maineth profit in every Quarter, 3s. 4d. 

Sum £243 6s. 8d. 

R Hitchcock.-j -, Lj^s. OF Wheat Meal = 9 i.rss. of Bread. 2 1 1 

These may suffice for the order of the bakehouse for bread, 
and provision of corn for the same : saving there is to be 
considered to have in store, at all times, in wood 200 load, 
every three months to be renewed ; to every mill, a pair of 
spare stones ; and timber for reparation. All implements and 
necessaries to be double furnished for the said charge ; and 
for the horses and carts of the same. 

Certain notes for Wheat Meal and Bread, 

Bushel of good Wheat Meal, as it cometh from the 
mill, and weighing 56 lbs., will make in Household 
Bread 72 lbs. ; so that it will take in liquor (beside 
that which is dried in [the] baking), being weighed 
within twenty-four hours after the baking, 16 lbs* : that is, 
for 7 lbs. of Meal, 9 lbs. of Bread. 

Take 7 lbs. of bran out of a bushel of good Meal, Weighing 
56 lbs., and the 49 lbs. remaining will make in good Wheaten 
Bread 63 lbs. ; and that paste will make in Ordinary Biscuit, 
being converted to that use, 42 lbs. And taking 3^ lbs. 
more of bran from the said Meal ; the 45^ lbs. remaining will 
make in White Bread 42 Ibs.^ or in White Biscuits 28 lbs. 

A bushel of wheat, weighing but 52 lbs. to the mill ; if you 
will make it equal with good Meal, take out of the same 
10 lbs. of bran ; and the 42 lbs. remaining will make in 
^^lleaten Bread 54 lbs., or in Ordinary Biscuit 36 lbs.; that is, 
of a Quarter of such wheat 202 lbs.[!] (8 lbs. taken out of the 
same for grinding), and it will make but 200 j lbs. [!] Ordinary 
Biscuit ; except you take out less bran, and make coarser 
bread than the ordinary use of the same. 

The lighter wheat, the coarser, and more bran ; and 
there is worse wheat than here is mentioned : the heavier 
wheat, the finer meal and less bran : and there is better also 
than is here declared. 

Some wheat will weigh more than the above weight in a 
Quarter, 14 lbs., and some 28 lbs. So of light wheat the 
baker maketh coarse bread, and to small profit ; and of good 
weighty wheat, fair bread, to the baker's honesty and profit. 

Because diversity of measures should be avoided, there 
is considered for waste in provision^ing], the over measure: 
and for waste in the graynars, the mills to be a parcel of 


2 12 Pricks of Duuiii.r., .wu Strong Bei.r. | "•""^''?.^':- 

the bakehouse, so that the baker to answer that waste as 

Thus much is declared for wheat, and the bakers in their 

The ordei' for the Brezuhouse. 

He Brewer delivering Double Deer at thirty 
shillings the tun, the soldier to have a Wine Quart 
for a halfpenny : and delivering Strong Beer at 
forty-eight shillings the tun, the soldier to have a 
Wine Quart for three farthings. And the brewers to 
allow the Officers for every Quarter of malt 13s. 4d., and for 
every Quarter of wheat 20s. Clear of all charges and waste 
in the garners [Lrranarics] after the delivery of the same at 
Berwick from aboard the ships, except casualty of the enemy. 

Necessaries and implements, wood and coal, wages of 
clerks, brewers, millers, coopers, carters, and labourers for 
the brewhouse, the appurtenances and carriage of provision 
with horses and carts for the same, hops and beercorn, 
caske and hoops, or any other necessaries, are to be found 
by this rate and price of beer, without any other allowance : 
saving waste and charges of as much malt, wheat, beercorn, 
or caske, as shall be otherwise employed than with beer ; to 
be delivered by those which were charged with the receipt 
and carriage from the ships, and keeping the garners of the 

The brewhouses, horse mills, garners, and storehouses for 
this charge, being furnished with implements and necessaries, 
and in good order of reparation at the entrance into service ; 
are so to be maintained and kept in and by all things, 
except casualty of the enemy : and to be delivered at the 
departure from service in as good order and furniture of all 
things, as they were received, without any other allowance 
than [i6ii. the tun, see p, 214.] for carriage of beer to the Petty 
Victuallers, as hath been, and is at Berwick accustomed. 

If there should be demanded any greater price for malt, 
then must the beer be smaller [n'cahcr], and the water, the 
brewer's friend for gain, to maintain his charge. 

And for that I have considered the great charges of the 
appurtenances before declared, I have rated both kinds of- 

R. Hitchcock-.j Detailed Cost of the same. 213 

beer by tbe tun in proportion ; and how allowance is found 
for the maintenance of the same. 

Double Beer, in prop or ti en by the Tun. 

EVERY tun in malt, 10 bushels ; and 
half a bushel allowance for waste in the 

garners ; at 13s. 4d. the Quarter 

In wheat, i bushel 

In oats, half a bushel 

In hops, 7 lbs., at 20s. a hundred Lweight] 

Wood and coals, to every tun 

Reparation of the houses ; implements, neces- 
saries, and waste of caske 

Maintenance of men for the said charge, allowed 

of [o«] every tun 

Maintenance of horses to the mills, and carts 
for carriage of provision 




















So have ye the Tun of Double Beer at £\ 10 o 

Strong Beer, in proportion by the Tini. 

EVERY tun in malt, two quarters; and 
three pecks allowance for waste in the 


In w^heat, two bushels 

In oats, one bushel 

In hops, 7I lbs 

Wood and coal, to every ton 

Reparations of the houses, implements, neces- 
saries, and waste of casks 

Maintenance of men for the said charge, allowed 

of every tun 

Maintenance of horses to the mills, and carts 
for carriage of provision 

So ye have the Tun of Strong Beer, as 
appeareth at ... 

The proportion for 600 common soldiers a year in Double 
Beer, after the order of this book, 45G tuns, in hog^.heads. 




















214 Sui'pliesofMalt, WiiKAT, Oats, & Hops. [^-"''^'7;^' 

The proportion for 400 of greater allowance a year in 
Strong Beer, after the order of this book, 304 tuns, in 
barrels. Summa, 760 tuns, in hogsheads and barrels. 

By these proportions of Beer, there is considered £ s. d. 

for wood and coal 7O o lu 

Reparation of the appurtenances, and the waste 

of the caske 100 2 4^ 

For maintenance of two clerks, four brewers, one 

miller, two coopers, and four labourers 152 i 8 

Maintenance of horses to the mills, and carts 

for carriage of provision ; besides the Yeast and 

Grains 54 9 7^ 

So have ye for maintenance of the said charge 

found in the Rate and Price of Beer 382 14 6 

And more by the Petty Victuallers, for carriage 

of beer, i6d. the tun; used of custom 50 13 10 

Summa for maintenance of the brewhouses and 

the appurtenances, as appeareth .., £433 8 4 

And there appeareth also by the said Proportions, wheat, 
store of corn and hops, will serve the samiC, as followeth. 

In Malt for Double Beer, at ten bushels to the tun, 570 
Quarters 2\ bushels. Allowance for waste, 28^ Quarters. 

In Malt for Strong Beer, at two Quarters to the tun, 60S 
qrs. z\ bushels. Allowance for waste, 30 qrs. 3 bushels. 
Summa in malt, i,237|- quarters. 

In Wheat to both proportions, as appeareth, 133 Quarters and 
half a bushel. 

In Oats, 66 Quarters 4 bushels. 

In Hops, 5,472 lbs. ; besides the weight of the hop sacks. 

And notwithstanding this Proportion of malt, wheat, and 
hops will serve the like garrison : yet, considering the place, 
the Provision to be yearly in malt 2,000 Quarters, in wheat 
for beer, 250 Quarters, in oats, 150. Quarters; and in good 
hops 8,000 lbs. in weight. 

In Coal sT, as a continual store, every three months to be 
renewed 200 chaldron. 

R. Hitchcock 

i\] Malt, Ux\der Contract, 6s. 8d. a Or. 21 

Spare stones to the horse mills. 

Double furniture of necessaries for the brewhouses, horse 

mills, and garners. 
Double furniture of necessaries for the horses and carts. 
To have in store of good caske, serviceable for beer, besides 

that which is daily occupied 100 tun. 

In good clapboard two great hundred [? 240] 

In wainscots 200 

In spruce deals 200 

In seasoned tun-staves 200 

In hoops, as a continual store to be renewed, 30,000 or 

In good iron four tons. 

Although some of these are of small value, yet are they 
not to be spared, nor easily to be had in time of service ; and 
therefore to be considered. 

All such provision, with Brewhouse, Bakehouse, and 
Graneries, I have seen in the palace at Berwick, the fifth 
year of King Edward VI. [1551]. I then having the charge 
of 200 Pioneers, in the fortifications there. 

1^07" Provision. 

Count good malt may be bought in Cambridge- 
shire, and such parts of Norfolk where the malt 
is very good, and in Lincolnshire ; for seven years 
together, by former bargains, for ready money, at 
6s. 8d. the Quarter. 

As for wheat for this charge, [itl is to be had in all places ; 
and oats also. Coarse wheat will serve for beer, so that the 
best be reserved for bread. And wheat that hath taken heat 
in the carriage, not being wet with salt water, will serve for 
this charge to be occupied [employed] with other that is good. 
I rate the charges of provision, freight, waste, and all others, 
except casualty of the enemy, at 3s. 4d. the Quarter, as 
before in the charge of the Bakehouse : so that malt may be 
delivered at Berwick, clear of all charges, one time with 
another, at los- the Quarter. 

There appeareth to be allowed by the brewer for every 
Quarter of malt, 13s. 4d. ; and for every Quarter of wheat 20s., 
clear of all charges and waste, after the delivery thereof from 

1 6 0\i:\ HAD AT Berwick, for ^"3 each ; ['" 



aboard the ships at Berwick, except casualty of the enemy, 
being employed for beer, delivered in service. 

And by the order of provision, the freight, waste, and all 
other charges cleared, to be profit in every Quarter of malt 
and wheat employed as before, except casualty of the enemy 
and shipwreck, 3s. ^d Sum ... ^^228 8s. 4d. 

As I have declared great difference in the goodness of 
wheat, so is there in malt much more. For the common malt 
of Norfolk is not to be compared to good malt, by four 
Quarters in every twenty Quarters. And malt that is full of 
weevils, and wood-dried malt will make unsavoury drink to 
those that are used to drink beer or ale made with straw 
dried malt. Yet in time of great service [exigency] both 
Norfolk malt and wood-dried malt will serve with other good 
malt ; and make good drink also to serve the time. 

Thus for causes of service of Bread and Beer, I have 
sufficiently proved, in these few lines declared, and the 
charges of the same in all points considered. Adding 
thereunto, a Proportion for the rest of the victualling of such 
a Garrison. 

Provision of Beef, by proportion. 

Hat is to say, the whole Garrison, by this order, 
will spend in beef 12 cwt. a day for 100 days = 
300 oxen containing 4 cwt. every ox. 

And for the said service there, they may be 

bought in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire, the 

Bishopric of Durham, and delivered at Berwick alive, clear of 

all charges, for £^ every ox, those that are good, fat, and so 

large that the carcases do weigh every quarter round, 15 

stone, at 8 lbs. to the stone [120 /is.], the one with the other. 

Whereof to be allowed for the hide, offal, and tallow, 15s ; 

and so of all other oxen, after the rate the fourth part the 

same did cost alive, either of small or great ; having license 

to transport the hides over sea, to be sold to most advantage. 

And rating allowance for looking to the pastures, for 

killing, dressing, and cutting out of every such ox, 23d. 

yet remaineth profit in the ox by this order, 6s. Sd. a piece. 

Sum for the whole proportion ;^ioO'. 

R. lindicock, 

y Sheep for 6s. Sd. ; & Hogs for Ss. 40. 217 

Provision of JMittton, by proportiort. 

N Mutton also, for fifty days, 12 cwt. a day, rating 
the carcase of a sheep about 45 lbs., the one with 
the other ; that is 30 sheep a day, in all 1,500 

Such sheep, being fat and good, are to be bought 
in Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire ; and delivered at 
Berwick alive for 6s. 8d. a sheep ; clear of all charges. 

Whereof to be allowed 2od. for the skin, offal, and tallow : 
having licence to transport the fells [s/c?;?s], to be sold, as 
before, to most advantage. And rating allowance for looking 
to the pastures, killing and dressing of every such sheep, 4d. ; 
and yet remaineth profit in every of the like sheep i6d. 

Sum for the whole proportion ;^ioo 

Provision of Pork, by proportion. 

N Pork also, for thirty-two days, 15 cwt. a day, the 
which I rate at 15 hogs, and in all 480 hogs : 
whereof the two sides of every hog to weigh, 
besides the offal, i cwt. 

Such hogs are to be bought in Nottinghamshire, 
Derbyshire, and Yorkshire, and delivered at Berwick alive, 
being good, clean, and fat, for 8s. 4d. a hog; clear of all 

Whereof to be allowed for the offal of every such hog, 
I2d. And rating allowance for looking to them, killing, 
scalding, and dressing of every hog, 8d., and yet remaineth 
profit in every such hog, 2S. 

Sum for the whole proportion £48 

Notwithstanding this Proportion, yet the store of oxen to 
be 400 ; with 2,000 sheep ; and 800 hogs, whereof 300 to be 
made into bacon, as parcel of a good store. And always to 
have at Berwick 100 oxen and 500 sheep ; and the rest in 
good pasture within thirty or forty miles, ready to serve at 
all times : and the hogs also in convenient place for the 



2iS Prices oi- Stock Fish, Ling, & Coj). ['■• "i'^i'^o.k. 

P7''Ovision of Fish, by proportion. 

N Stock Fish for 52 Wednesdays, two meals, and 
half service ; for 52 Fridays, one meal, and whole 
service : 300 stockfishes a day. In all the whole, 
26 lasts, 1,200, after five score the hundred to 
every last. 

The same are to be delivered at Berwick, clear of all charges, 
for ;£'i3 6s. 8d. the last. And rating allowance for beating, 
and keeping the store of every last, 30s. ; and yet remaineth 
profit in every last (by order of this book), as in a Proportion 
for the Twentieth part of the Garrison hereafter following may 
appear \secp, 223], £<s 3s. 4d. 

Sum for the whole Proportion ;^I33 S^- 4d. 

In Shetland Ling, every ling to berated at two stockfishes; 
for 26 Saturdays, thirteen days in Lent, and one day in 
Rogation week, half service, forty days; 150 a day, which 
maketh, after six score to the hundred, and 4 lings to the 
pay, 5,000 ling: which are to be delivered at Berwick, clear 
of all charges, for 50s. the 100 ; and rating allowance to the 
keepers of the store, of every 100, three shillings and four 
pence ; and yet remains profit of every 100 (by order of this 
book), as in the Soldiers' Proportion at large appeareth, 
i6s. 8d. 

Sum for the whole Proportion ^41 13s. ^d. 

In Shetland Cod, rated at a stockfish and a half, for 26 
Saturdays, 12 days in Lent, and one day in Rogation week, 
half service, 39 days, 225 fishes a day; which maketh, after 
six score to the hundred: and 4 pay fishes, 7,315 fishes: 
which are to be delivered at Berwick, clear of all charges, for 
30s. the hundred. And rating allowance to the keepers of the 
store, of every hundred, two shillings ; and yet remaineth 
profit in every hundred, by this order, 8s. 

Sum for the whole Proportion ^"29 4s. lid. 

And where these Porportions of fish (by the order of this 
book), allowed to the soldiers, will serve : yet the yearly 
provision, with the remainder to be, in Stock Fish, 40 last ; 
7,500 Ling, and 10,000 Cod. 

R: Hitchcock. J p IBICES OF Butter and Cheese. 219 

Provision of Biitiei' and Cheese. 
N Butter, for 52 Wednesdays, half service, 300 
lbs. a day ; 52 Saturdays, 25 days in Lent, and two 
days in Rogation week, quarter service, 79 days, 
150 lbs. a day, in all 27,350 lbs.; which maketh in 
barrels, after 52^^ lbs. to every firkin, 130 barrels. 
The same may be bought in Holderness, in Yorkshire and 
in Suffolk, once a year, for 40s. the barrel i — about 2jd. a/6.] : 
and rating the charges of provision and carriage to the 
water at 2od. the barrel ; for freight to Berwick, every barrel 
2od.; and rating allowance to the keepers of the store of every 
barrel 2od. : and yet remaineth profit of every barrel, 25s. 

Sum for the whole proportion ;£"i62 i6s. 3d. 

In Cheese, for 52 Saturdays, 25 days in Lent, and two days 
in Rogation week, quarter service, 300 lbs. a day ; in all 
23,700 lbs. and maketh in weys, considering the allowance of 
16 lbs. \in the Suffolk Wey of 256 lbs.] to the Petty Victuallers 
for the soldiers, 98^ weys : and rating allowance for waste, 
one wey in every load, that is for waste, 15 wey and two odd 
quarters and to go in allowance of waste with the rest, which 
I am sure is sufficient : so that the provision to be by this 
order 113 weys of cheese, with the waste. 

The same may be bought in Suffolk, once a year, for 20s. 
the wey [ = about 2d. a lb.'\, and rating the provision and 
carriage to the waterside of a wey 2od., for freight to Berwick 
of a wey 2od., and yet remains profit of this order of a wey 
(allowing other 2od. to the keepers of the store) gs. 7:^d. 

And in the whole £54 5s. 

Notwithstanding that the said Proportion of Butter and 
Cheese will serve, according to the order of this book : yet the 
yearly provision to be wdth the remains, in butter 200 barrels, 
and in cheese 200 weys. And to have in store of bay salt, 
upon consideration of service, if it should so happen to occupy 
the same, 100 weys. 

By this General Proportion of provision, appeareth to be 
maintained sufficient number of men, and also the reparation 
of the houses, necessaries, and all other charges for the said 
service at Berwick, without the Queen's Highness's charge, 
and also for the provision and charges of freight and other 
[matters] before it come to Berwick. 

220 Provision made for all Charges. [''" 


And to stop the mouths of those who dehght to find fault 
in that they understand not ; here followeth how the allow- 
ance is found to maintain the same. That is to say : — 

For reparation of the bakehouses, brewhouses, 
windmills, horse mills, garners ; with the 
appurtenances, and waste of caske in the said £ s. d. 
charge, by this proportion 150 2 4 

Wood and coal to bake and brew the said propor- 
tion 174 7 ^ 

For horses and carts for the mills and carrying 
of provision, with the allowance by the Petty 
Victuallers, for carrying of their beer, as is 
accustomed 172 16 9 

For maintenance of twenty-five men for the bake- 
houses, brewhouses, windmills, horse mills, 
garners, and carrying of provisions in the said 
charge Z'^2 i 8 

For maintenance of men in charge of the beef, 

mutton, and pork 69 16 o 

[Do.] in the charge of stockfish, ling, and cod ... 54 12 11 

[Do.] in charge of butter and cheese, as appeareth 20 5 o 

Sum ;^943 9 o 

All these are found, beside the provision and freight before 
it come to Berwick, as by the same may appear. 

And the better to maintain the Chief Officer of trust, the 
charges before rehearsed and other unknown charges, which 
happeneth oftentimes in service : as also that all his said 
ministers and servants be not any of the number allowed for 
soldiers : there is considered for profit : — 

In wheat for bread, as in the charge of the bake- £ s. d. 

house appeareth 243 6 8 

In malt and wheat for beer, as in the charge of 

the brewhouse appeareth 228 8 4 

In beef, mutton, and pork 248 o o 

In stockfish, ling, and cod 204 4 i 

In butter and cheese 217 i 3 

Sum I'^M'^ o 4 

R. Ilitchcork 

i2'.] Soldiers' Allowances of Bread & Beer. 221 

All these allowances are found, besides maintenance of the 
Petty Victuallers and their charge, as appeareth by Propor- 
tion hereafter following. And for the sum of ^^8,342 los. the 
Officer's fee and the Soldiers' scores paid every six months, 
this service is to be done in every point of the same. 


■ fjK^^pilB 



He garrison, being one thousand soldiers, 
as aforesaid, whereof account six hundred 
common soldiers and four hundred more of 
greater pay, or such as make more account 
of themselves : and for [in order] that the 
soldiers shall not be troubled with dressing 
of their victuals; neither the Captain in 
delivering the Proportion appointed within 

the town of garrison: I do appoint twenty Petty Victuallers ; 

and to every Petty Victualler, thirty common soldiers and 

twenty more of bigger pay, whose Proportion of victuals for 

a 3-ear shall hereafter appear. 

The common soldier shall pay 2s. Sd. by the week, for his 
diet, lodging and washing ; the soldier of bigger pay, at 4s. 
the week for his diet, lodging and washing, as hereafter 
followeth : wherein it doth also appear how the Petty 
Victuallers are considered for their charges and travail in 
the same, for a year of 365 days. 

[Of 2s. 8d., each Common Soldier paid about 3)4d. a day or 2S. a week 
for food ; with 8d. a week for lodging and washing. 

Similarly, of 4s., each Superior Soldier paid about 5,^4 d. a day, or 3s. 4d. 
a week for food ; with 8d. a week for lodging and washing.] 

The 30 common soldiers, to have every man a day, in 
wheaten bread, one pound and a half, rated at a penny : and 
the 20 of greater allowance, in white bread, every man a 
day one pound and a half, rated at three half-pence. And in 
in allowance to the Petty Victuallers, twentj'-one loaves for 
twenty. These 50 soldiers' charge Summa.-.^^'qi 5s. 

The Petty Victuallers' Allowance found in the same, in 
vantage bread Sum...;^4 iis. 3d. 

The thirty common soldiers, to every man a Wine Pottle 
[half a gallon —Three ordinary modern wine bottles] of Double 

222 AlJ.OWANCESOF BeEF, MuTTDX, & PoRK. [''^ 



Beer a day, rated at a penny. Their Proportion for a year, 
22 tuns, 3 hogsh., 15 galls., delivered to the Petty Victuallers 
at 30s. the tun. 

The twenty of greater allowance, every man a Wine 
Pottle of Strong Beer a day, rated at ikl. Their Proportion 
for a year, 15 tuns, i barrel, 10 gallons ; delivered to the 
Petty Victuallers at 48s. the tun. 

These 50 soldiers' charge ... ^Tgi 5s. 

The Petty Victuallers' sum ;^20 los. i^d. 

The thirty common soldiers, in Beef, every man one pound 
a day, rated at lid. For 100 days, 3,000 lbs.; and the Petty 
Victuallers' allowance of every 100, twelve pounds. So is 
the proportion 3,000 lbs. in weight, at 12s. 6d. the hundred, 

in charge Summa.-.^^iS 15s. 

The twenty [of] greater allowance, every man i^ lbs. a 
day, rated as before, with like allowance. To the Petty 
Victuallers the proportion is 30 cwt., at 12s. 6d. the hundred. 

SuMMA ... £iS 15s. 

The Petty Victuallers' Allowance in both... £4 os. 4d. 

The thirty common soldiers, in Mutton, every man one 
pound a day, rated at two pence the lb. For 50 days, 1500 
lbs. in weight ; and the Petty Victuallers' allowance, of every 
hundredweight, twelve pounds. So is the Proportion 15 
cwt., at i6s. 8d. the hundred in charge. Summa ...;£"i2 ios. 
The twenty of greater allowance, every man i| lbs. a day, 
rated as before, with like allowance to the Petty Victuallers. 
The Proportion is 1500 at i6s. 8d. the hundred in charge. 

Sum ;^i2 IOS. 

The Petty Victuallers' Allowance in both ... £2 13s. 8d. 

The thirty common soldiers in Pork, every man i;^ lbs. a day, 
rated at i|d. For 32 days, 1200; and the Petty Victuallers, 
of every hundred, 12 lbs. The Proportion is 1200 weight, at 
IOS. the hundred Su'mua...£6 

The twenty [of] greater allowance, every man if lbs. a day, 
rated as before after the rate, with the like Allowance to the 
Petty Victuallers. The proportion is 12 hundredweight, at 
IDS. the hundred in charge Sum.../^6 

The Petty Victuallers' Allowance £'^5^' 9^. 

R. Hitchcockj Allowances of Stock Fish, Ll\g, Cod. 223 

The thirty common soldiers in Stock Fish, to every four men 
one stockfish a day for 52 \\^ednesdays, two meals a day, half 
service; and the like allowance to every four men of one 
stockfish for a meal for 52 Fridays, whole service : in all y^ 
fishes a day, 104 days = 7S0 fishes, rated at 4d. the fish in 
charge Sum,../^i3 

The twenty of greater allo\vance to have, for the like 
days, to every four men one stockfish and a half a day; as well 
for the half as the whole service, every day 7I fishes = 780 
fishes at 4d. the fish in charge Summa...;£'i3 

The thirty common soldiers to have in Shetland Ling for 
26 Saturdays, 13 days in Lent, and i day in Rogation week ; 
in all forty days : to every eight men, one ling a day, half 
service; rated at 7d. the ling. Sum. 150: and the Allowance 
for pay fish to the Petty Victuallers of 5 ling. 

Sum ;^4 7s. 6d. 

The twenty of greater allowance for the like days, to every 

eight men, one ling and a half, rated as before, at 7d. the ling 

= 150, and to the Petty Victuallers, 5 ling. [Sum] £4 7s. 6d. 

The Petty Victuallers' Allowance 5s. lod. 

The 30 common soldiers to have in Shetland Cod for 26 
Saturdays, 12 days in Lent, and one day in Rogation week, to 
every eight men, i|^ fish a day, half service, at 4d. the fish : 
and the Petty Victuallers in Allowance, as before in ling. 
The proportion 2Tgf fishes. The Petty Victuallers' Allowance 
7j fishes in charge for the same. ... Summa...;£'3 13s. i|d. 

The twenty of greater allowance for the like days, to 
every eight men 2^ fishes a day, for half service, with like 
allowance to the Petty Victuallers, as before at 4d. the fish. 
The proportion is 2igf fishes. The Petty Victuallers' 
allowance 7^ fishes, in charge for the same. 

Sum ... £s 13s. lid. 

The Petty Victuallers' allowance 4s. lud. 

The thirty common soldiers to have in Butter, to every four 
men one pound a day, half service, for 52 Wednesdays, two 
meals a day ; and to every eight rrien one pound a day, 
quarter service for 52 Saturdays, 25 days in Lent, and two 
days in Rogation week at 4d. the lb. = 685j lbs., and is in 
charge Summa...;^ii 8s. gd. 

224 Aij.owAXCES OF BuTTER Axu Ci . [ 

k. Hilclicrii,k. 


The twenty of greater allowance, for the like 52 Wed- 
nesdays, half service, to every four men 1^ lbs. a day; and 
to every eight men i^ lbs. a day for 52 Saturdays, 25 days in 
Lent, and two days in Rogation week, quarter service: at 
4d. the lb. = 686:} lbs., and is in charge. 

SuMMA ;^ii 8s. gd. 

The thirty common soldiers, in Clieese, for 52 Saturdays, 
25 days in Lent, and 2 days in Rogation week, to every four 
men one pound a day, quarter service ; and allowance to the 
Petty Victuallers, 16 lbs. of a Wey, at 2d. the lb. Sum 592^ lbs. 
in charge Summa...;^4 i8s. gd. 

The Petty Victuallers' allowance, ^gh lbs. 

The twenty of greater allowance, for the like Saturdays, 
the like days in Lent and Rogation week ; to every four men 
ih lbs. a day, quarter service : Sum 5g2|^lbs. at 2d. the lb., in 
charge SuM...;£"4 i8s. gd. 

The Petty Victuallers' allowance ^g^ lbs. 

In money for both the parcels 13s. 2d. 

Sum ;^4i7 2s. 6d. 

Every Petty Victuallers' allowance, that men may be well 
ordered ,. Sum. ..£'119 lis. 3d. 

The whole Garrison, at twenty Petty Victuallers a j^ear in 
charge :£"8)342 los. 

The twenty Petty Victuallers' Allowance, besides that in the 
General Proportion found out of the same. Sum, ;^2,39i 6s. 8d. 

Some soldiers there are who are married and keep house ; 
whose Proportion of victuals must be to them delivered 
accordingly ; with the like Allowance as to the Petty 
Victuallers, in every thing. 

To Captains and Gentlemen, with their ordinary servants, 
keeping house of themselves, no Proportion is delivered but 
with like Allowance, 


D 1 A N A ^ 


The excellent conceitful Sonnets 

of H, C. Augmented with divers 

Ouatorzains of honourable 

and learned personages. 

Divided into viii. Decades. 

Vincitur a facibus, qui jacet ipse faces. 


Printed by lames Roberts for 
Richard Smith. 

I 5 84. [misprinted foy 1S94I 

[This IS the Second and enlarged Edition of this Collection of Sonnets by vari.Mis Authors. 
The original work, containing only Twenty-three Sonnets, was entered at Stationers Hall on the 
22nd September, 1592, and published in that year. Of this First Edition, only one copy is now 
known to be in existence.] 

£XG. Gar. II. ^^5 



li.e. James Roberts] 

to the Reader. 

BscuRED wonders, Gentlemen ! visited me in 
TuRNUs's armour; and I, in regard of 
/Eneas's honour, have unclouded them unto 
the world. You are that universe ! You, 
that ^NEAs! If you find Pallas's girdle, murder 
them! if not, environed with barbarism, save them! 

and eternity will praise you. 









Unto Her Majesty's sacred 
honourable Maids. 

Ternal Twins ! that conquer Death and Time^ 
Perpetual advocates in heaven and earth ! 
Fair, chaste, immaculate, and all divine ; 
Glorious alone, before the first man''s birth : 

Your twofold Charites ! celestial lights ! 
Bow your sun-rising eyes, planets of joy. 
Upon these Orphan Poems ! in whose rights 
Conceit first claimed his birthright to enjoy. 

If pitiful, you shun the Song of Death ; 
Or fear the stain of love's life-dropping blood ; 
O know then, you are pure ; and purer faith 
Shall still keep white the flower, the fruit, and bud. 
Love moveth all things. You that love, shall move 
All things in him, and he in you shall love. 

Richard Smith. 

H. Consta" le and others."] 
?, but before 1594.J 

D I A X A . 




"'EsoLVED to love, unworthy to obtain, 
I do no favour crave; but, humble wise, 
To thee my sighs in verse I sacrifice, 
Only some pity, and no help to gain. 
Hear then ! and as my heart shall aye 
remain [eyes ; 

A patient object to thy lightning 
A patient ear bring thou to thund'ring cries ! 
Fear not the crack ! when I the blow sustain. 
So as thine eye bred mine ambitious thought ; 
So shall thine ear make proud my voice for joy. 
Lo, Dear ! what wonders great by thee are wrought, 
When I but little favours do enjoy. 
The voice is made the ear for to rejoice : 
And your ear giveth pleasure to my voice. 


Lame not my heart for flying up too high ! 
Sith thou art cause that it this flight begun : 
For earthly vapours drawn up by the sun, 
Comets begin, and night suns in the sky. 
Mine humble heart, so with thy heavenly E3'e 
Drawn up aloft, all low desires doth shun : 
Raise then me up ! as thou my heart hast done. 
So during night, in heaven remain may I. 
I say again, Blame not my high desire ! 
Sith of us both the cause thereof depends : 
In thee doth shine, in me doth burn a fire; 
Fire draws up other, and itself ascends. 
Thine eye a fire, 'and so draws up my love ; 
My love a fire, and so ascends above. 



11. Constable anil others. 
?, but befyrc 15^4. 


Ly low, dear love ! thy sun dost thou not see ? 
Take heed ! do not so near his rays aspu'c ! 
Lest (for thy pride, inflamed with wreakful ire) 
It burn thy wings, as it hath burned me. 
Thou, haply, sayst, " Thy wings immortal be, 
And so cannot consumed be with fire: 
The one is Hope, the other is Desire ; 
And that the heavens bestowed them both on thee." 
A Muse's words made thee with Hope to lly ; 
An Angel's face Desire hath begot ; 
Thyself engendered by a goddess' eye : 
Yet for all this, immortal thou art not ! 
Of heavenly eye though thou begotten art ; 
Yet art thou born but of a mortal heart ! 


Friend of mine, pitying my hopeless love, 
Hoping, by killing hope, my love to stay : 
" Let not," quoth he, "thy hope, thy heart betray 
Impossible it is her heart to move," 
But sith resolved love cannot remove, 
As long as thy divine perfections stay : 
Thy godhead then, he sought to take away. 
Dear ! seek revenge, and him a liar prove ! 
Gods only do impossibilities. 

*' Impossible," saith he, " thy grace to gain." 
Show then the power of thy divinities 
By granting me thy favour to obtain ! 
So shall thy foe give to himself the lie ; 
A goddess thou shalt prove ; and happy I ! 

H. ConstaWe and others."! 
?, but before I594. J 

D I A N A . 



HiNE eye, the glass where I behold my heart. 
Mine eye, the window through the which thine eye 
May see my heart ; and there thyself espy 
In bloody colours, how thou painted art ! 
Thine eye, the pyle is of a murdering dart : 
Mine eye, the sight thou tak'st thy level by 
To hit my heart, and never shoots awry. 
Mine eye thus helps thine eye to work my smart. 
Thine eye, a fire is both in heat and light ; 
Mine eye, of tears a river doth become. 
O that the water of mine eye had might 
To quench the tlames that from thine eye doth come ! 
Or that the fires kindled by thine eye. 
The flowing streams of mine eyes could make dry ! 


Ine Eye with all the deadly sins is fraught. 

1. First /toz/J, sith it presumed to look so high. 
A watchman being made, stood gazing by ; 

2. And idle, took no heed till I was caught. 
And envious, bears envy that by thought, 

Should in his absence, be to her so nigh. 
To kill my heart, mine eye let in her eye ; 
4. And so consent gave to a murder wrought. 
And covetous, it never would remove 

From her fair hair. Gold so doth please his sight! 

6. Unchaste, a baud between my heart and love. 

7. A glutton eye, with tears drunk every night. 
These sins procured have a goddess' ire : 
Wherefore my heart is damned in love's sweet fire. 

n 'J n 71 r 4 ,\r 1 ri I. ConsUblc ami others 

23^ J-J 1 A l\ A , |_ y_ ,,m Ij^fjjrc 1504 


Alsely doth Envy of your praises blame 
My tongue, my pen, my heart of flattery: 
Because I said, *' There was no sun but thee ! " 
It called my tongue " the partial trump of Fame." 
And saith my pen hath flattered thy name, 
Because my pen did to my tongue agree ; 
And that my heart must needs a flatterer be, 
Which taught both tongue and pen to say the same. 
No, no, I flatter not when thee I call 

The sun, sith that the sun was never such : 
But when the sun, thee I compared withal ; 
Doubtless the sun I flattered too much. 
Witness mine eyes, I say the truth in this ! 
They have seen thee, and know that so it is. 


|UcH Sorrow in itself my love doth move, 
More my Despair to love a hopeless bliss ; 
My Folly most, to love whom sure to miss ; 
O help me, but this last grief to remove ! 
All pains, if you command, it joy shall prove ; 
And wisdom to seek joy. Then say but this, 
" Because my pleasure in thy torment is ; 
I do command thee, without hope to love ! " 
So when this thought my sorrow shall augment, 
That my own folly did procure my pain. 
Then shall I say, to give myself content, 
'* Obedience only made me love in vain. 
It was your will, and not my want of wit ; 
I have the pain, bear you the blame of it ! " 

II. Constal)Ie anti others."] 
?, but before 1594. J 

D I A NA, 


Y Lady's presence makes the Roses red, 
Because to see her lips they blush for shame. 
The Lily's leaves, for envy, pale became ; 
And her white hands in them this envy bred. 
The Marigold the leaves abroad doth spread ; 
Because the sun's and her power is the same. 
The Violet of purple colour came, 
Dyed in the blood she made my heart to shed. 
In brief. All flowers from her their virtue take ; 

From her sweet breath, their sweet smells do proceed 
The living heat which her eyebeams doth make 
Warmeth the ground, and quickeneth the seed. 
The rain, wherewith she watereth the flowers, 
Falls from mine eyes, which she dissolves in showers. 


[See/. 264, and Vol. i./. 467.] 

Eralds at arms do three perfections quote, 
To wit, most fair, most rich, most glittering ; 
So, when those three concur within one thing. 
Needs must that thing, of honour, be a note. 
Lately, I did behold a rich fair coat. 

Which wished Fortune to mine eyes did bring. 
A Lordly coat, yet worthy of a King, 
In which one might all these perfections note. 
A field of lilies, roses " proper " bare ; 

Two stars "in chief " ; the " crest " was waves of gold. 
How glittering 'twas, might by the stars appear; 
The lilies made it fair for to behold. 
And Rich it was, as by the gold appeareth : 
But happy he that in his arms it weareth ! 





'W. Constaljlc and others. 
?, bul before 1594. 



F TRUE love might true love's reward obtain, 
Dumb wonder only might speak of my joy ; 
But too much worth hath made thee too much 
And told me, long ago, I sighed in vain. [coy, 

Not then vain hope of undeserved gain 
Hath made me paint in verses mine annoy ; 
But for thy pleasure, that thou might'st enjoy 
Thy beauty's praise, in glasses of my pain. 
See then, thyself! (though me thou wilt not hear) 
By looking on my verse. For pain in verse, 
Love doth in pain, beauty in love appear. 
So, if thou wouldst my verses' meaning see, 
Expound them thus, when I my love rehearse, 
"None loves like he ! " that is, "None fair like me!" 


T MAY be. Love my death doth not pretend, 
Although he shoots at me : but thinks it fit 
Thus to bewitch thee for thy benefit ! 
Causing thy will to my wish to condescend. 
For witches, which some murder do intend, 
Do make a picture, and do shoot at it ; 
And in that part where they the picture hit, 
The party's self doth languish to his end. 
So Love, too weak by force thy heart to taint, 
Within my heart thy heavenly shape doth paint ; 
Sufl'ering therein his arrows to abide. 
Only to th'end he might, by witches' art. 
Within my heart, pierce through thy picture's side ; 
And through thy picture's side, might wound my heart. 

H. Con 

istaMc nnj others."] 
?, bul before I594-J 



( 5 


He Sun, his journey ending in the west, 
Taketh his lodging up in Thetis' bed ; 
Though from our eyes liis beams be banished, 
Yet with his hght the Antipodes be blest. 

Now when the sun-time brings my sun to rest, 
(Which me too oft of rest hath hindered) 
And whiter skin with white sheet covered, 
And softer cheek doth on soft pillow rest. 

Then I (O sun of suns ! and light of lights !) 
Wish me with those Antipodes to be, 
Which see and feel thy beams and heat by nights. 
Well, though the night both cold and darksome is, 

Yet half the day's delight the night grants me. 

I feel my sun's heat, though his light I miss. 


Ady ! in beauty and in favour rare, 
Of favour, not of due, I favour crave. 
Nature to thee beauty and favour gave ; 
Fair then thou art, and favour thou may'st spare ! 

Nor when on me bestowed your favours are, 
Less favour in your face you shall not have : 
If favour then a wounded soul may save ; 
Of murder's guilt, dear Lady, then beware ! 

My loss of life a million fold were less. 
Than the least loss should unto you befall : 
Yet grant this gift ! which gift when I possess, 
Both I have life, and you no loss at all. 

For by your favour only I do live ; 

And favour you may well both keep and give. 



CM. Const:i))le and others. 
1, but before ^^S')^• 


Y Reason absent, did mine Eyes require 
To watch and ward, and such foes to descry 
As they should ne'er my heart approaching spy : 
But traitor Eyes, my heart's death did conspire 
(Corrupted with Hope's gifts) ; let in Desire 
To burn my heart : and sought no remedy, 
Though store of water were in either Eye, 
Which well employed, might well have quenched the fire. 
Reason returned ; Love and Fortune made 
Judges, to judge mine Eyes to punishment. 
Fortune, sith they, by sight my heart betrayed ; 
From wished sight, adjudged them banishment ! 
Love, sith by fire murdered my heart was found; 
Adjudged them in tears for to be drowned ! 


Onder it is, and pity is't, that she 
In whom all beauty's treasure we may find, 
That may enrich the body and the mind ; 
Towards the poor, should use no charity. 
]\Iy love has gone a begging unto thee ! 

And if that Beauty had not been more kmd 
That Pity, long ere this, he had been pined : 
But Beauty is content his food to be. 
O pity have ! when such poor orphans beg. 
Love (naked boy !) hath nothing on his back ; 
And though he wanteth neither arm nor leg, 
Yet maimed he is, sith he his sight doth lack. 
And yet (though blind) he beauty can behold. 
And yet (though naked) he feels more heat than cold. 

H. Constable and others."] 
?, but before i594.J 

D I A N A . 


SO^ ^ ET VII. 

Ity refusing my poor Love to feed, 
A beggar starved for want of help, he Hes ; 
And at your mouth (the door of Beauty) cries, 
That thence some alms of sweet grants might 
But as he waiteth for some almes deed, [proceed ! 

A cherry tree before the door he spies. 
" O Dear ! " quoth he, " two cherries may suffice, 
Two only may save life, in this my need ! " 
But beggars, Can they nought but cherries eat ? 
Pardon m}' Love ! He is a goddess' son, 
And never feedeth but on dainty meat ; 
Else need he not to pine, as he hath done. 
For only the sweet fruit of this sweet tree. 
Can give food to my Love, and life to me. 


He fowler hides, as closely as he may, 
The net, where caught the silly bird should be ; 
Lest he the threatening poison should but see. 
And so for fear be forced to fly away. 
My Lady so, the while she doth assay 
In curled knots fast to entangle me ; 
Put on her veil, to th'end I should not flee 
The golden net, wherein I am a prey. 
Alas, most Sweet ! what need is of a net 
To catch a bird, that is already ta'en ? 
Sith with your hand alone, you may it get ; 
For it desires to fly into the same. 
What needs such art, my thoughts then to entrap ; 
When, of themselves, they fly into your lap ? 


D I A N A . 

L V, Ijut btforc i5Cj 



Weet hand ! the sweet but cruel bow thou art ! 
I'rom whence at me five ivory arrows fly ; 
So with five wounds at once I wounded lie, 
Bearing my breast the print of every dart. 
Saint Francis had the like ; yet felt no smart, 
Where I in living torments never die. 
His wounds were in his hands and feet ; where I 
All these five helpless wounds feel in my heart. 
Now, as Saint Francis, if a Saint am I, 
The bow that shot these shafts a relic is. 
I mean the hand, which is the reason why 
So marty for devotion thee would kiss : 
And some thy glove kiss, as a thing divine ; 
This arrows' quiver, and this relic's shrine. 


Air Sun ! if you would have me praise your light, 
When night approacheth, wherefore do you fly? 
Time is so short, beauties so many be. 
As I have need to see them day and night ; 
That by continual view, my verses might 
Tell all the beams of your divinity : 
Which praise to you, and joy should be to me ; 
You living by my verse, I by your sight ! 
I by your sight, and not you by my verse. 
Need mortal skill immortal praise rehearse ? 
No, no, though eyes were blind, and verse were dumb. 
Your beauty should be seen, and your fame known. 
For by the wind which from my sighs do come, 
Your praises round about the world are blown. 

II . Constalile and others."] 
?, but l)cfoie 1 394- J 

D I A N A . 



S O N N E T I . 

NciviL Sickness ! hast thou no reg^ard ! 
But dost presume my Dearest to molest ! 
And without leave, dar'st enter in that breast, 
_^,,___ Whereto sweet Love approach yet never dared ? 
Spare thou her health ! which my life hath not spared. 
Too bitter such revenge of my unrest. 
Although with wrongs, my thought she hath opprest ; 
My wrongs seek not revenge, they crave reward. 
Cease Sickness ! Cease in her then to remain ! 
And come, and welcome ! Harbour thou in me ! 
Whom love long since hath taught to suffer pain. 
So she which hath so oft my pain increased 
(0 God, that I might so revenged be), 
By my poor pain, might have her pain released. 

[T/ie 7iext Seven Sonnets, II. to VIII., are by Sir Philip Sidney, and 
will be found at pp. 174-5, 169-170, and 180.] 

|He scourge of life, and death's extreme disgrace, 
|0e ! WOE to me ! On me, return the smart ! 

Hou PAIN ! the only guest of loathed Constraint, 
^^siNd have I heard her say, "O cruel pain ! " 

Ince shunning pain, I ease can never find ; 

Hen Love, puft up with rage of his disdain, 

N wonted walks, since wonted fancies change ; 




D I A N A . 

"TI. Cc.n<;l:il.l'' and otheri. 
?, but before 1594. 


Oe to mine eyes ! the organs of mine ill ; 
Hate to my heart ! for not concealing joy ; 
A double curse upon my tongue be still ! 
Whose babbling lost what else I might enjoy. 
When first mine eyes did with thy beauty toy, 
They to my heart thy wondrous virtues told ; 
Who, fearing lest thy beams should him destroy, 
Whate'er he knew, did to my tongue unfold. 
My tell-tale tongue, in talking over bold. 
What they in private council did declare, 
To thee ! in plain and public terms unrolled : 
And so by that, made thee more coyer far. 
What in thy praise he spoke, that didst thou trust ! 
And yet my sorrows, thou dost hold unjust ! 


F AN Athenian young man have I read, 
Who on blind Fortune's picture doated soj 
That when he could not buy it to his bed, 
On it he gazing, died for very woe. 
My Fortune's picture art thou, flinty Dame ! 
That settest golden apples to my sight ; 
But wilt, by no means, let me taste the same ! 
To drown in sight of land, is double spite. 
Of Fortune, as thou learn'dst to be unkind ; 
So learn to be unconstant to disdain ! 
The wittiest women are to sport inclined. 
Honour is Pride, and Pride is nought but Pam. 
Let others boast of choosing for the best ; 
'Tis substances, not names must make us blest. 

H. Constable and others."! 
t, but before 1594. J 

D /A N A . 

24 T 


Eeds must I leave, and yet needs must I love 1 
In vain my wit doth tell in verse my woe : 
Despair in me, disdain in thee, doth show 

How by my wit I do my folly prove. 

All this ; my heart from love can never move. 
Love is not in my heart. No, Lady ! No, 
My heart is love itself. Till I forego 
My heart, 1 never can my love remove. 
How can I then leave love ? I do intend 
Not to crave grace, but yet to wish it still ; 
Not to praise thee, but Beauty to commend : 
And so, by Beauty's praise, praise thee I will ! 
For as my heart is Love, love not in me : 
So Beauty thou, beauty is not in thee ! 


Weet Sovereign ! since so many minds remain 
Obedient subjects at thy beauty's call ! 
So many hearts bound in thy hairs as thrall ! 
So many eyes die with one look's disdain ! 
Go, seek the honour that doth thee pertain ! 
That the Fifth Monarchy may thee befall. 
Thou hast such means to conquer men withal, 
As all the world must yield, or else be slain. 
To fight, thou needst no weapons but thine eyes ! 
Thine hair hath gold enough to pay thy men ! 
And for their food, thy beauty will suffice ! 
For men and armour, Lady, care have none ! 
For one will sooner yield unto thee then 
When he shall meet thee naked all alone. 



r-) , . .. . rif. Constaljle and others. 

242 U I A N A . \_ ?, but before 1594- 


Hen your perfections to my thoughts appear, 
They say among themselves, ** O happy we, 
Which ever shall so rare an object see !" 
But happy heart, if thoughts less happy were ! 
For their delights have cost my heart full dear, 
In whom of love a thousand causes be ; 
And each cause breeds a thousand loves in me ; 
And each love more than thousand hearts can bear, 
How can my heart so many loves then hold ; 
Which yet, by heaps, increase from day to day ? 
But like a ship that's o'ercharged with gold, 
Must either sink, or hurl the gold away. 
But hurl not love ! Thou canst not, feeble heart 1 
In thine own blood, thou therefore drowned art ! 


OoLS BE they, that inveigh 'gainst Mahomet ; 
Who's but a moral of love's monarchy. 
By a dull adamant, as straw by jet. 
He in an iron chest was drawn on high. 
In midst of Mecca's temple roof, some say. 
He now hangs, without touch or stay at all. 
That Mahomet is She, to whom I pray ; 
May ne'er man pray so ineffectual ! 
Mine eyes, love's strange exhaling adamants, 

Un'wares, to my heart's temple's height have wrought 
The iron Idol that compassion wants ; 
Who my oft tears and travails sets at nought. 
Iron hath been transformed to gold by art 
Her face, limbs, flesh and all, gold ; save her heart. 

H. Constable and othcrs.1 
t, but before 1594- J 




Eady to seek out death in my disgrace, 
My Mistress 'gan to smooth her gathered brows ; 
Whereby I am reprieved for a space. 
O Hope"'and Fear 1 who half your torments knows ? 
It is some mercy in a black-mouthed Judge 
To haste his prisoner's end, if he must die. 
Dear ! if all other favour you shall grudge, 
Do speedy execution with your eye ! 
With one sole look, you leave in me no soul. 
Count it a loss to lose a faithful slave ! 
Would God, that I might hear my last bell toll, 
So in your bosom I might dig my grave. 
Doubtful delay is worse than any fever. 
Or help me soon ! or cast me off for ever ! 


ACH DAY, new proofs of new despair I find, 
That is new deaths. No mai-vel then, though I 
Make exile my last help ; to th'end mine eye 
Should not behold the death to me assigned. 
Not that from death, absence might save my mind ; 
But that it might take death more patiently : 
Like him, the which by Judge condemned to die. 
To suffer with more ease, his eyes doth blmd. 
Your lips, in scarlet clad, my Judges be, 
Pronouncing sentence of eternal No 1 
Despair, the hangman that tormenteth me ; 
The death I suffer is the life I have. 
For only life doth make me die in woe. 
And only death I, for my pardon crave. 


Dl A N A . 

II Constnlile ami rithcrs. 
but before I5'j4- 


He richest relic Rome did ever view 
Was CiCSAR's tomb ; on which, with cunning hand, 
Jove's triple honours, the three fair Graces, stand ; 
Telling his virtues, in their virtues true. 
This Rome admired : but, dearest Dear ! in you 
Dwelleth the wonder of the happiest land 
And all the world to Neptune's furthest strand. 
For what Rome shap'd hath living life in you 1 
Thy naked beauty, bounteously displayed, 
Enricheth monarchies of hearts with love ! 
Thine eyes to hear complaints are open laid ! 
Thine eyes' kind looks requite all pains I prove ! 
That of my death, I dare not thee accuse ; 
But pride in me, that baser chance refuse. 


Hy thus unjustly," say, my cruel fate ! 
" Dost thou adjudge my luckless eyes and heart ; 
The one to live exiled from that sweet smart, 
Where th'other pines, imprisoned without date ? " 
My luckless eyes must never more debate 

Of those bright beams, that eased my love apart : 
And yet my heart, bound to them with love's dart, 
Must there dwell ever, to bemoan my state. 
O had mine eyes been suffered there to rest ! 
Often they had my heart's unquiet eased : 
Or had my heart with banishment been blest ! 
Mine eye with beauty never had been pleased. 
But since these cross effects hath fortune wrought ; 
Dwell, heart, with her ! Eyes, view her in my tiiought ! 

H. Constable niid others. 

stable niid others. T 
', but before 1594. J 

D I A N A . 


\Sonnet IX. is by Sir Philip Sidney, and will be found at p. 182.] 
^^^Ft have I mused, but now at length I find 


|Ope, like the hysena, coming to be old, 
Alters his shape ; is turned into Despair. 
Pity my hoary hopes ! Maid of Clear Mould ! 
Think not that frowns can ever make thee fair ! 
What harm to kiss, to laugh, to play ? 
Beauty's no blossom, if it be not used. 
Sweet dalliance keeps the wrinkles long away : 
Repentance follows them that have refused. 
To bring you to the knowledge of your good 
I seek, I sue. O try, and then believe ! 
Each image can be chaste that's carved of wood. 
You show you live, when men you do relieve. 
Iron with wearing shines. Rust wasteth treasure. 
On earth, but love there is no other pleasure. 



[H. Constable and others. 
V, but before 15^4. 



Y ME, poor wretch ! my prayer is turned to sin. 
I say, "I love!" My Mistress says, '"Tis lust! 
Thus most we lose, where most we seek to win. 
Wit will make wicked what is ne'er so just. 
And yet I can supplant her false surmise. 
Lust is a fire that, for an hour or twain, 
Giveth a scorching blaze, and then he dies : 
Love, a continual furnace doth maintain. 
A furnace ! Well, this a furnace may be called ; 
For it burns inward, yields a smothering flame. 
Sighs which, like boiled lead's smoking vapour, scald. 
I sigh apace, at echo of Sighs' name. 
Long have I served. No short blaze is rriy love. 
Hid joys there are, that maids scorn till they prove. 


Do NOT now complain of my disgrace, 
O Cruel Fair One ! Fair with cruel crost : 
Nor of the hour, season, time, nor place ; 
Nor of my foil, for any freedom lost ; 
Nor of my courage, by misfortune daunted; 
Nor of my wit, by overweening struck ; 
Nor of my sense, by any sound enchanted; 
Nor of the force of fiery pointed hook ; 
Nor of the steel that sticks within my wound; 
Nor of my thoughts, by worser thoughts defaced ; 
Nor of the life, I labour to confound : 
But I complain, that being thus disgraced, 
Fired, feared, frantic, fettered, shot through, slain ; 
My death is such, as I may not complain. 

H. Constable and others. "I 
?, but before i5y4.J 

D I A N A. 



F EVER Sorrow spoke from soul that loves, 
As speaks a spirit in a man possest ; 
In me, her spirit speaks. My soul it moves, 
Whose sigh-swoll'n v^ords breed whirlwinds in my 
breast : 
Or like the echo of a passing bell, 

Which sounding on the water, seems to howl ; 
So rings my heart a fearful heavy knell, 
And keeps all night in consort with the owl. 
My cheeks with a thin ice of tears are clad, 

Mine e3'es like morning stars are bleared and red : 
What resteth then, but I be raging mad, 
To see that She, my cares' chief conduit-head. 
When all streams else help quench my burning heart, 
Shuts up her springs; and will no grace impart. 


Ou SECRET vales ! you solitary fields ! 
You shores forsaken ! and you sounding rocks ! 
If ever groaning heart hath made you yield. 
Or words half spoke that sense in prison locks ; 
Then, 'mongst night shadows, whisper out my death ! 
That when myself hath sealed my lips from speaking, 
Each tell-tale echo with a weeping breath. 
May both record my truth and true love's breaking. 
You pretty flowers ! that smile for summer's sake, 
Pull in your heads ! before my wat'ry eyes 
Do turn the meadows to a standing lake. 
By whose untimely floods, your glory dies ! 
For lo, mine heart, resolved to moistening air, 
Feedeth mine eyes, which double tear for tear. 

2 48 


W. Constable and others. 
?, but before I5i>4. 


Is SHADOW to Narcissus well presented ; 
How fair he was, by such attractive love ! 
So if thou would'st thyself thy beauty prove, 
Vulgar breath-mirrors might have well contented, 
And to their prayers eternally consented, 

Oaths, vows and sighs, if they belief might move : 
But more thou forc'st, making my pen approve 
Thy praise to all, least any had dissented. 
When this hath wrought, thou which before wert known 
But unto some, of all art now required ; 
And thine eyes' wonders wronged ; because not shown 
The world, with daily orisons desired. 
Thy chaste fair gifts, with learning's breath is blown. 
And thus my pen hath made thy sweets admired. 


Am no model figure, or sign of Care ; 
But his eternal heart's-consuming essence : 
In whom grief's commentaries written are, 
Drawing gross passion into pure quintessence. 
Not thine eye's fire ; but fire of thine eye's disdain, 
Fed by neglect of my continual grieving, 
Attracts the true life's spirit of my pain ; 
And gives it thee ; v/hich gives me no relieving. 
Within thine arms, sad elegies I sing. 

Unto thine eyes, a true heart love-torn lay I. 
Thou smell'st from me, the savours sorrows bring. 
My tears to taste my truth, to touch display I. 
Lo thus, each sense, dear Fair One ! I importune : 
But being Care, thou flyest me as III Fortune ! 

II. Constable ami others."] 
?, but before 1594.J 

D I A N A . 



Ut being Care, thou flyest me as III Fortune ! 
Care the consuming canker of the mind ! 
The discord that disorders sweet hearts' tune ! 
Th'abortive bastard of a coward mind ! 
The lightfoot lackey that runs post by death, 
Bearing the letters which contain our end ! 
The busy advocate that sells his breath, 
Denouncing worst to him, is most his friend ! 
O Dear ! this care no interest holds in me : 
But holy Care, the Guardiant of thy fair, 
Thine honour's Champion, and thy virtue's Fee ; 
The zeal which thee from barbarous times shall bear 
This Care am I. This care my life hath taken. 
Dear to my soul ! then, leave me not forsaken ! 


Ear to my soul 1 then, leave me not forsaken ! 
Fly not ! My heart within thy bosom sleepeth 
Even from myself and sense I have betaken 
Me unto thee (for whom my spirit weepeth). 
And on the shore of that salt teary sea. 

Couched in a bed of unseen seeming pleasure, 
Where, in imaginary thoughts, thy fair self lay — 
But being wak'd, robbed of my life's best treasure, 
I call the heavens, air, earth, and seas to hear 
My love 1 my truth ! and black disdained estate ! 
Beating the rocks with bellowings of despair ; 
Which still with plaints, my words reverberate. 
Sighing, '• Alas, what shall become of me ? " 
Whilst Echo cries, " What shall become of me ? " 



rn. Const 
L ■^ 

instable and others, 
but before 1594. 


IIiLST Echo cries, " What shall become of me ? " 
And desolate, my desolations pity : 
Thou in thy beauty's carrack sitt'st, to see 
My tragic downfall, and my funeral ditty. 
No timbrel, but my heart thou play'st upon. 

Whose strings are stretched unto the highest key. 
The diapason, love. Love is the unison ; 
In love, my life and labours waste away. 
Only regardless, to the world thou leav'st me, 

Whilst slain Hopes, turning from the feast of sorrow. 
Unto Despair, their King, which ne'er deceives me, 
Captives my heart, (v/hose black night hates the morrow) 
And he, in truth of my distressed cry, 
Plants me a weeping star within mine eye. 


PROMETHEUS for Stealing living fire 
From heaven's king, was judged eternal death ; 
In self-same flame, with unrelenting ire. 
Bound fast to Caucasus' low foot beneath. 
So I, for stealing living beauty's fire 
Into my verse, that it may always live ; 
And change his forms to shapes of my desire : 
Thou beauty's Queen ! self sentence like dost give ! 
Bound to thy feet, in chains of love I lie ; 
For to thine eyes, I never dare aspire : 
And in thy beauty's brightness do I fry, 
As poor Prometheus in the scalding fire. 
Which tears maintain, as oil the lamp revives ; 
Only my succour in thy favour lies. 

H. ConstaUe ami others."] D I A N A . ^ 

?, but before 1594 J 


hNe sun unto my life's day gives true light. 

One moon dissolves my stormy night of woes. 
' One star my fate and happy fortune shows 

One saint I serve, one shrine with vows I dight. 

^ss^w^ une saiiu x st-iw-, -"- . 

TT^n transHx'd.hath burnt my heart outright. 
One moon opposed, my love in darkness throws 
One star hath bid my thoughts my wrongs disclose 
SaTnts scorn poor swains, shrines do my vows no right. 

Yet if my love be found a holy fire, 
Pure unstained, without idolatry ; 
And she, nathless, in hate of my desire, 
Lives to repose her in my misery. 
My sun! my moon ! my star ! my saint ! myshnne! 
Mine be the torment, but the guilt be thine ! 


LIVE in hell, and heaven to behold ; 
To welcome life, and die a living death ; 
To sweat with heat, and yet be freezing cold ; 
To grasp at stars, and lie the earth beneath ; 
To tread a maze that never shall have end ; 
To burn in sighs, and starve m daily tears; 
To climb a hill, and never to descend ; 
Giants to kill, and quake at childishfears ; 
To pine for food, and watch th' Hesperian tree : 
To thirst for, drink, and nectar still to draw ; 
To live accurs'd, whom men hold blest to be ; 
And weep those wrongs which never creature saw : 
If this be love, if love in these be founded, 
My heart is love, for these in it are grounded. 



'\\. Const.-ibic nnd others. 
'(, but before 1594. 


Carver, having loved too long in vain, 
Hewed out the portraiture of Venus' son 
In marble rock, upon the which did rain 
Small drizzling drops, that from a fount did run 
Imagining the drops would either wear 
His fury out, or quench his living flame ; 
But when he saw it bootless did appear. 
He swore the water did augment the same. 
So I, that seek in verse to carve thee out, 
Hoping thy beauty will my flame allay, 
Viewing my verse and poems all throughout, 
Find my will rather to my love obey. 
That, with the Carver, I my work do blame, 
Finding it still th'augmenter of my flame. 


Stronomers the heavens do divide 
Into eight Houses, where the god remains ; 
All which in thy perfections do abide 1 
For in thy feet, the Queen of Silence reigns ; 
About thy waist, Jove's Messenger doth dwell, 
Inchanting me, as I thereat admire ; 
And on thy dugs, the Queen of Love doth tell. 
Her godhead's power in scrolls of my desire ; 
Thy beauty is the world's eternal Sun ; 

Thy favours force a coward's heart to dare. 
And in thy hairs, Jove and his riches won ; 
Thy frowns hold Saturn ; thine eyes the Fixed Stars. 
Pardon me then. Divine ! to love thee well ; 
Since thou art heaven : and I, in heaven would dwell. 

H. Constable and others."] D T A A'" A 2 ^ 

?, but before 1594 J ±y I n i\ XI , J , 


|Eary of love, my Thoughts of Love complained, 
Till Reason told them, there was no such power ; 
And bade me view fair beauty's richest flower, 
To see if there a naked boy remained. 
Dear ! to thine eyes, eyes that my soul hath pained. 
Thoughts turned them back, in that unhappy hour, 
To see if Love kept there his royal bower : 
For if not there, then no place him contained. 
There was he not, nor boy, nor golden bow ; 
Yet as thou turned thy chaste fair eye aside, 
A flame of fire did from thine eyelids go. 
Which burnt my heart, through my sore wounded side : 
Then with a sigh. Reason made Thoughts to cry, 
" There is no god of love, save that thine eye ! " 


Orgive me, Dear ! for thundering on thy name ; 
Sure 'tis thyself that shows my love distrest. 
For fire exhaled, in freezing clouds possest. 
Warring for way, makes all the heavens exclaim. 
Thy beauty so, the brightest living flame, 
Wrapt in my cloudy heart, by winter prest, 
Scorning to dwell within so base a nest. 
Thunders in me thy everlasting flame. 
O that my heart might still contain that fire ! 
Or that the fire would always light my heart ! 
Then should'st thou not disdain my true desire. 
Or think I wronged thee, to reveal to my smart : 
For as the fire through freezing clouds doth break j 
So, not myself, but thou in me would'st speak. 


D I A N A 

"II. C'jusI.-iIjI'; and others. 
?, but before 1594. 


Y Heart, mine Eye accuseth of his death. 
Saying, " His wanton sight bred his unrest: " 
Mine Eye affirms, *' My Heart's unconstant faith 
Hath been his bane, and all his joys represt." 
My Heart avows, " Mine Eye let in the fire, 
Which burns him with an everliving light." 
Mine Eye replies, " My greedy Heart's desire 
Let in those floods, which drown him day and night." 
Thus wars my Heart, which Reason doth maintain, 
And calls my Eye to combat if he dare. 
The whilst, my Soul, impatient of disdain, 
Wrings from his bondage unto death more near ; 
Save that my love, still holdeth him in hand, 
" A kingdom thus divided, cannot stand ! " 


N HAPPY day ! unhappy month and season ! 
When first proud love, my joys away adjourning, 
Poured into mine eye (to her eye turning) 
A deadly juice, unto my green thoughts geason. 
Prisoner I am unto the eye I gaze on : 
Eternally my love's flam_e is in burning : 
A mortal shaft still wounds me in my mourning : 
Thus prisoned, burnt, and slain; the spirit, soul, and reason ; 
What tides me then, since these pains which annoy me. 
In my despair, are evermore increasing? 
The more I love, less is my pain's releasing ; 
That cursed be the fortune which destroys me, 
The hour, the month, the season, and the cause ; 
When love first made me thrall to lovers' laws. 

II. Constable and others."] 
?, but before 1594. J 

D I A N A 



OvE have I followed all too long, nought gaining ; 
And sighed I have in vain to sweet what smartcth, 
But from his bow a fiery arrow parteth ; 
Thinking that I should him resist, not plaining. 
But cowardly my heart submiss remaining, 

Yields to receive what shaft thy fair eye darteth ! 
Well do I see, thine eye my bale imparteth ; 
And that save death, no hope I am detaining. 
For what is he can alter fortune's sliding ? 
One in his bed consumes his life away, 
Other in wars, another in the sea : 
The like effects in me have their abiding; 
For heavens avowed my fortune should be such, 
That I should die by loving far too much. 

5 N N E T X. 

Y God, my God, how much I love my goddess ! 
Whose virtues rare, unto the heavens arise. 
My God, my God, how much I love her eyes I 
One shining bright, the other full of hardness. 
INIy God, my God, how much I love her wisdom ! 
Whose works may ravish heaven's richest " maker." 
Of whose eyes' joys, if I might be partaker; 
Then to my soul, a holy rest would come. 
My God, how much I love to hear her speak ! 
Whose hands I kiss, and ravished oft rekisseth ; 
When she stands wotless, whom so much she blesseth. 
Say then. What mind this honest love would break ; 
Since her perfections pure, withouten blot, 
Makes her beloved of them, she knoweth not? 





Constnlile and othci's. 
?, but befuic 1594. 



He First Created held a J030US bower, 
A flowering field, the world's sole wonderment, 
Ilight Paradise; from whence a woman's power 
Enticed him fall to endless banishment. 
This on the banks of Euphrates did stand, 
Till the first Mover, b}' His wondrous might. 
Planted it in thine eyes ! thy face ! thy hands ! 
From whence the world receives his fairest light. 
Thy cheeks contains choice flowers ; thy eyes, two suns ; 
Thy hands, the fruit that no life blood can stain ; 
And in thy breath, that heavenly music wons ; 
Which, when thou speak'st, angels their voices strain. 
As from the first, thy Sex exiled me ! 
So to this next, let me be called by thee! 


Air Grace of Graces ! Muse of Muses all ! 
Thou Paradise ! thou only heaven I know ! 
What influence hath bred my hateful woe, 
That I from thee and them, am forced to fall ? 
Thou fallen from me, from thee I never shall. 
Although my fortunes thou hast brought so low ; 
Yet shall my faith and service with thee go ! 
For live I do, on heaven and thee to call. 
Banish'd all grace, no Graces with me dwell ; 
Compelled to muse, my Muses from me fly ; 
Excluded heaven, what can remain but hell ? 
Exiled from Paradise, in hate" I lie. 
Cursing my stars : albeit I find it true, 
I lost all these, when I lost love and you. 

IT. Constable and others."] D I A NA . 257 

.', but before 1 594. J '-" 

SONNE Till. 

Hat viewed I, Dear! when I, thine eyes beheld ? 
Love in his glory ? No, him Thyrsis saw, 
And stood the boy ! whilst he, his darts did draw ; 
Whose painted pride to baser swains he telled. 
Saw I two suns ? That 'sight is seen but seld. 
Yet can their brood that teach the holy law 
Gaze on their beams, and dread them not a straw ; 
Where princely looks are by their eyes repelled. 
What saw I then ? Doubtless it was. Amen ! 

Armed with strong thunder and a lightning's flame ; 
Who, bridegroom like, with power was riding then, 
Meaning that none should see him when he came. 
Yet did I gaze ; and thereby caught the wound 
Which burns my heart, and keeps my body sound. 


Hen tedious much, and over weary long, 
Cruel disdain, reflecting from her brow, 
Hath been the cause that I endured such wrong; 
And rest thus discontent and weary now. 
Yet when posterity, in time to come. 

Shall find th'uncancelled tenour of her vow ; 
And her disdain be then confest of some, 
How much unkind and long, I find it now. 
O yet even then (though then, will be too late 
To comfort me ; dead, many a day, ere then), 
They shall confess— I did not force her heart : 
And time shall make it known to other men— 
That ne'er had her disdain made me despair, 
Had she not been so excellently fair. 

E\'G. Gar. II I? 




Constalile and others. 
'/, but bufurc 1^94' 


Ad she not been so excellently fair, 
My Muse had never mourned in lines of woe : 
But I did too too inestimable wei^h her, 
And that's the cause I now lament me so. 
Yet not for her contempt do I' complain me 

(Complaints may ease the mind, but that is all) ; 
Therefore though she too constantly disdain me, 
I can but sigh and grieve, and so I shall. 
Yet grieve I not, because I must grieve ever; 
And yet, alas, waste tears away in vain. 
I am resolved truly to persever. 
Though she persisteth in her old disdain. 
But that wliich grieves me most, is that I see 
Those which most fair, the most unkindest be. 


Hus LONG imposed to everlasting plaining 
(Divinely constant to the worthiest Fair), 
And moved by eternally disdaining. 
Aye to persever in unkind despair : 
Because now, Silence, wearily confined 
In tedious dying, and a dumb restraint. 
Breaks forth in tears from mine unable mind 
To ease her passion by a poor complaint : 
O do not therefore to thyself suggest ! 

That I can grieve, to have immured so long 
Upon the matter of mine own unrest : 
Such grief is not the tenour of my song, 
That 'bide so zealously so bad a wrong. 
My grief is this. Unless I speak and plain me, 
Thou will persever ever to disdain me. 

H Con-;table and others."] 
'I, but be.bre 1594 J 

Diana . 



Hou wilt persever ever to disdain me ; 
And I shall then die; when thou will repent it: 
O do not therefore from complaint restrain me ! 
And take my life from me, to me that lent it. 
For whilst these accents, weepingly exprest 
In humble lines, of reverentest zeal, 
Have issue to complaint from mine unrest ; 
They but thy beauty's wonder shall reveal. 
And though the grieved Muse of some other lover, 
(Whose less devotions knew but woes like mine) 
Would rather seek occasion to discover 
How little pitiful, and how much unkind; 
They other (not so worthy)' beauties find. 
O, I not so ; but seek, with humble prayer, 
Means how to move th'unmercifullest fair. 


S DRAWS the golden Meteor of the day 
Exhaled matter, from the ground to heaven ; 
And by his secret nature, there to stay 
The thing fast held, and yet of hold bereaven ; 
So by th'attractive excellence and might, 
Born to the power of thy transparent eyes. 
Drawn from myself, ravished with thy delight, 
Whose dumb conceits divinely Sirenise, 
Lo, in suspense of fear and hope upholden, 
Diversely poised with passions that pain me : 
No resolution dares my thoughts embolden. 
Since 'tis not I, but thou that dost sustain me. 
O if there's none but thou can work my woe ; 
Wilt thou be still unkind, and kill me so? 

26o Diana. [" 

Consl:il)le and otlicr'i 
'i, but before I5< 4. 


Ilt thou be still unkind, and kill me so? 
Whose humbled vows, with sorrowful appeal, 
Do still persist ; and did, so long ago, 
Intreat for pity, with so pure a zeal ? 
Suffice the world shall, for the world can say 

How much thy power hath power, and what it can 
Never was victor-hand yet moved to slay 
The rendered captive, or the yielding man. 
Then, O, why should thy woman-thought impose 
Death and disdain on him, that yields his breath; 
To free his soul from discontent and woes, 
And humble sacrifice to a certain death ? 
O since the world knows, what the power can do: 
What were't for thee, to save and love me too ? 


Meet not mine, by others' discontent. 
For none compares with me in true devotion ; 
Yet though my tears and sighs to her be spent. 
Her cruel heart disdains what they do motion. 
Yet though persisting in eternal hate, 

To aggravate the cause of my complaining. 
Her fury ne'er confineth with a date : 
I will not cease to love, for her disdaining. 
Such puny thoughts of unresolved ground. 
Whose inaudacity dares but base conceit, 
In me and my love never shall be found : 
Those coward thoughts, unworthy minds await. 
But those that love well, have not yet begun ; 
Persever ever, and have never done ! 


H. Coiistalile and others."! 
V, but bclore 1594- J 

Diana . 




ERSfiVER ever, and have never done ! 
You weeping accent of my weary song ! 
O do not you eternal passions shun ; 

But be you true, and everlasting long! 

Say that she doth requite you with disdain ; 
Yet fortified with hope, endure your fortune ! 
Though cruel now, she will be kind again ; 
Such haps as those, such love's as yours importune ! 
Though she protests the faithfuUest severity 
Inexecrable beauty is inflicting; 
Kindness, in time, will pity your sincerity ! 
Though now it be your fortune's interdicting. 
For some can say, whose loves have known Hke passion, 
*' Women are kind by kind, and coy for fashion." 


IvE period to my matter of complaining, 
Fair Wonder of our time's admiring eye ! 
And entertain no more thy long disdaining, 
Or give me leave, at last, that I may die ! 
For who can live, perpetually secluded 

From death to life, that loathes her discontent ? 
Less by some hope seducingly deluded. 
Such thoughts aspire to fortunate event ; 
But I, that now have drawn mal-pleasant breath, 
Under the burden of thy cruel hate ; 
O, I must long, and linger after death ; 
And yet I dare not give my life her date : 
For if I die, and thou repent t'have slain me ; 
'Twill grieve me more, than if thou didst disdain me. 


D 1 A N A . 

ril. Constable »ncl others. 
|_ t, but before 1394. 

•^ 5 


Will grieve me more than if thou didst disdain me, 
That I should die ; and thou, because I die so : 
And yet to die, it should not know to pain me, 
If cruel Beauty were content to bid so. 
Death, to my life ; life, to my long despair 

Prolonged by her ; given to my love and days ; 
Are means to tell how truly she is fair, 
And I can die to testify her praise. 
Yet not to die, though Fairness me despiseth, 
Is cause why in complaint I thus persever ; 
Though Death me and my love imparadiseth. 
By interdicting me from her for ever. 
I do not grieve that I am forced to die, 
But die, to think upon the reason, " Why ? " 


Y TEARS are true : though Others be divine, 
And sing of wars, and Troy's new rising frame ; 
Meeting heroic feet in every line, 
That tread high measures in the Scene of Fame, 
And I (though disaccustoming my Muse, 
And sing but low songs, in an humble vein) 
May one day raise my style, as others use ; 
And turn Elizon to a higher strain. 
When reintombing from oblivious ages, 
In better stanzas her surviving wonder: 
I may opposed against the monster-rages 
That part desert and excellence asunder : 
That she, though coy, may yet survive to see, 
Her beauty's wonder lives again in me. 

H. Constable and others"! 
?, but befoie i5iJ4.J 

D I A N A . 


SO N N E T V. 

Ometimes in verse I praised, sometimes in verse 
No more shall pen with love and beauty mell ; 
But to my heart alone, my heart shall tell 
How unseen flames do burn it day and night. 
Lest flames give light, light bring my love to sight, 
And my love prove my folly to excel. 
Wherefore my love burns like the fire of hell ; 
Wherein is fire, and yet there is no light. 
For if one never loved like me ; then why 

Skill-less blames he the thing he doth not know? 
And he that so hath loved, should favour show ; 
For he hath been a fool as well as I. 
Thus shall henceforth more pain, more folly have : 
And folly past, may justly pardon crave. 


TH. Constal.Ie. 
L 1 1588. 

yi calculation upon the birth of ait Honour- 
able Liadys Daughter ; born in the 
year 1588, and on a Friday. 

[This Honouralile Lady is believed to be Lady Penelope Rich, Sir P. Sidney's 
Stella. See /. 233, and Vol. I. /. 467.] 

Air by inheritance ! whom born we see 
Both in the Wondrous Year, and on the 

Wherein the fairest Planet beareth sway ; 
The heavens to thee, this fortune doth 
decree ! 
Thou of a world of hearts in time shall be 
A Monarch great ; and with one beauty's ray 
So many hosts of hearts, thy face shall slay ; 
As all the rest, for love, shall yield to thee ! 
But even as Alexander, when he knew 

His father's conquests, wept ; lest he should leave 
No kingdom unto him for to subdue : 
So shall thy mother, thee of praise bereave ! 
So many hearts already she hath slain; 
As few behind to conquer shall remain. 



Daniel Defoe. 
The Education of Women, 

[An Essay uf>OK Projects. 
Written about 1692, but 
first printed in 1697.] 

Have often thought of it as one of the most bar- 
barous customs in the world, considering us as a 
civiHzed and a Christian country, that we deny the 
advantages of learning to women. We reproach 
the sex every day with folly and impertinence; 
while I am confident, had they the advantages of education 
equal to us, they would be guilty of less than ourselves. 

One would wonder, indeed, how it should happen that 
women are conversible at all ; since they are only beholden 
to natural parts, for all their knowledge. Their youth is 
spent to teach them to stitch and sew, or make baubles. 
They are taught to read, indeed, and perhaps to write their 
names, or so ; and that is the height of a woman's education. 
And I would but ask any who slight the sex for their 
understanding, what is a man (a gentleman, I mean) good 
for, that is taught no more ? I need not give instances, or 
examine the character of a gentleman, with a good estate, ot 
a good family, and with tolerable parts; and examine what 
figure he makes for want of education. 

The soul is placed in the body like a rough diamond ; and. 
must be polished, or the lustre of it will never appear. And 
'tis manifest, that as the rational soul distinguishes us from 
brutes ; so education carries on the distinction, and makes 
some less brutish than others. This is too evident to need 
any demonstration. But why then should women be denied 
the benefit of instruction ? If knowledge and understanding 
had been useless additions to the sex, GOD Almighty would 
never have given them capacities; for he made nothing 

266 No Learning to be Denied to Women, p-^f^^; 

needless. Besides, I would ask such, What they can see in 
ignorance, that they should think it a necessary ornament to 
a woman ? or how much worse is a wise woman than a fool ? 
or what has the woman done to forfeit the privilege of being 
taught ? Does she plague us with her pride and imperti- 
nence ? Why did we not let her learn, that she might have 
had more wit ? Shall we upbraid women with folly, when 
'tis only the error of this inhuman custom, that hindered 
them from being made wiser ? 

The capacities of women are supposed to be greater, and 
their senses quicker than those of the men ; and what they 
might be capable of being bred to, is plain from some 
instances of female wit, which this age is not without. 
Which upbraids us with Injustice, and looks as if we denied 
women the advantages of education, for fear they should vie 
with the men in their improvements. 

Hey should be taught all sorts of breeding suitable 
both to their genius and quality. And in particular, 
Music and Dancing; which it would be cruelty to 
bar the sex of, because they are their darlings. But 
besides this, they should be taught languages, as particularly 
French and Italian : and I would venture the injury of giving 
a woman more tongues than one. They should, as a par- 
ticular study, be taught all the graces of speech, and all the 
necessary air of conversation ; which our common education 
is so defective in, that I need not expose it. They should be 
brought to read books, and especially history ; and so to 
read as to make them understand the world, and be able to 
know and judge of things when they hear of them. 

To such whose genius would lead them to it, I v/ould deny 
no sort of learning; but the chief thing, in general, is to 
cultivate the understandings of the sex, that they may be 
capable of all sorts of conversation ; that their parts and 
judgements being improved, they may be as profitable in their 
conversation as they are pleasant. 

Women, in my observation, have little or no difference in 
them, but as they are or are not distinguished by education. 
Tempers, indeed, may in some degree influence them, but 
the main distinguishing part is their Breeding. 

The whole sex are generally quick and sharp. I believe. 



1692. J 

I may be allowed to say, generally so : for you rarely see 
them lumpish and heavy, when they are children ; as boys 
will often be. If a woman be well bred, and taught the 
proper management of her natural wit ; she proves generally 
verv sensible and retentive. 

And, without partialitv, a woman of sense and manners is 
the finest and most delicate part of GOD's Creation, the 
glory of Her Maker, and the great instance of His singular 
re-ard to man. His darling creature : to whom He gave the 
be'st gift either GOD could bestow or man receive. And tis 
the sordidest piece of folly and ingratitude in the world, to 
withhold from the sex the due lustre which the advantages 
of educatioa gives to the natural beauty of their minds. 

A woman well bred and well taught, furnished with the 
additional accomplishments of knowledge and behaviour, is 
a creature without comparison. Her society is the emblem ot 
sublimer enjoyments, her person is angelic, and her conver- 
sation heavenly. She is all softness and sweetness, peace, 
love, wit, and delight. She is every way suitable to the 
sublimest wish : and the man that has such a one to his 
portion, has nothing to do but to rejoice m her, and be 

thankful. , , 

On the other hand, Suppose her to be the very same 
woman, and rob her of the benefit of education, and it 

follows — . , . 1 u r^ 

If her temper be good, want of education makes her sott 

and easy. , , . ^- ^ 

Her wit, for want of teaching, makes her impertinent 

and talkative. 

Her knowledge, for want of judgement and experience, 
makes her fanciful and whimsical. 

If her temper be bad, want of breeding makes her worse ; 
and she grows haughty, insolent, and loud. 

If she be passionate, want of manners makes her a 
termagant and a scold, which is much at one with 

If she be proud, want of discretion (which still is 
breeding) makes her conceited, fantastic, and ridi- 

And from these she degenerates to be turbulent, clamo- 
rous, noisy, nasty, the devil ! 

268 Women, GOD's GLORIOUS CREATURES, [^-^f^l 

He great distinguishing difference, which is seen in 

the world between men and women, is. in their 

education ; and this is manifested by comparing it 

with the difference between one man or woman, and 


And herein it is that I take upon me to make such a bold 
assertion, That all the world are mistaken in their practice 
about women. For I cannot think that GOD Almighty ever 
made them so delicate, so glorious creatures ; and furnished 
them with such charms, so agreeable and so delightful to 
mankind ; with souls capable of the same accomplishments 
with men : and all, to be only Stewards of our Houses, 
Cooks, and Slaves. 

Not that I am for exalting the female government in the 
least : but, in short, / would have men take women for 
companions, and educate them to be fit for it. A woman of 
sense and breeding will scorn as much to encroach upon the 
prerogative of man, as a man of sense will scorn to oppress 
the weakness of the woman. But if the women's souls were 
refined and improved by teaching, that word would be lost. 
To say, the weakness of the sex, as to judgement, would be 
nonsense ; for ignorance and folly would be no more to be 
found among women than men. 

I remember a passage, which I heard from a very fine 
woman. She had wit and capacity enough, extraordinary 
[beauty of] shape and face, and a great fortune : but had 
been cloistered up all her time ; and for fear of being stolen, 
had not had the liberty of being taught the common 
necessary knowledge of women's affairs. And when she 
came to converse in the world, her natural wit made her so 
sensible of the want of education, that she gave this short 
reflection on herself: "I am ashamed to talk with m}^ very 
maids," says she, " for I don't know when they do right or 
wrong. I had more need go to school, than be married." 

I need not enlarge on the loss the defect of education is to 
the sex ; nor argue the benefit of the contrary practice. 'Tis 
a thing will be more easily granted than remedied. This 
chapter is but an Essay at the thing : and I refer the 
Practice to those Happy Days (if ever they shall be) when 
men shall be wise enousfh to mend it. 


Abraham Cowley. 

Sitting and drifihing in the chair 

made out of the relics of Sir 

Francis Drake's ship. 

IVerscs lately isiritten vion several 
occasions is^c. 1C63 ] 



^Heer up, my mates ! The wind does fairly blow. 
Clap on more sail, and never spare 1 
Farewell all lands, for now we are 
In the wide sea of drink, and merrily we go. 
Bless me ! 'tis hot ! Another bowl of wine, 

And we shall cut the burning line. 
Hey, boys! she scuds away! and by my head I know 

We round the world are sailing now. 
What dull men are those that tarry at home ; 
When abroad they might wantonly roam. 
And gain experience ; and spy too. 
Such countries and such wonders as I do. 
But prithee, good pilot ! take heed what you do ; 
And fail not to touch at Peru ! 
With gold there, our vessel we'll store ; 
And never, and never be poor ; 
No, never be poor any more. 

2 70 An Ode, drinking in a chair ['^- ^"^^^y; 


What do I mean ? What thoughts do me misguide ? 
As well, upon a staff, may witches ride 

Their fancied journeys in the air; 
As I sail round the ocean in this chair ! 

'Tis true ! But yet this chair, which here you see, 
For all its quiet now, and gravity, 
Has wandered, and has travelled more 
Than ever beast, or fish, or bird, or tree before. 
In every air, and every sea 't has been ; 
'T has compassed all the earth, and all the heavens 't has 

Let not the Pope's itself, with this, compare ! 
This is the only Universal Chair 1 


The pious wanderer's fleet, saved from the flame 
(Which still the relics did of Troy pursue, 

And took them for its due), 
A squadron of immortal nymphs became: 
Still wath their arms they row about the seas, 
And still make new and greater voyages. 
Nor has the first poetic ship of Greece, 
(Though now, a star, she so triumphant show ; 
And guide her sailing successors below, 
Bright as her ancient freight, the shining fleece) 
Yet to this day, a quiet harbour found : 
The tide of heaven still carries her around. 
Only Drake's sacred vessel, which before 

Had done, and had seen more; 

Than those have done or seen, 
Ev'n since they goddesses, and this a star has be< 
As her rew^ard for all her labour past, 

^■^"Teeg'.J MADE OUT OF THE G OLDEN HiND. 271 

Is made the seat of rest at last. 
Let the case now quite altered be : 
And as thou went'st abroad the world to see ; 
Let the world now come to see thee ! 


The world will do 't. For Curiosity 
Does no less than Devotion, pilgrims make. 
And I myself, who now love quiet too, 
As much almost as any chair can do j 

Would yet a journey take, 
An old wheel of that chariot to see, 

Which Ph.eton so rashly brake ; 
Yet what could that say more, than these remains of Drake ? 
Great relic ! Thou too, in this port of ease, 
Hast still one way of making voyages ! 
The Breath of Fame, like an auspicious gale, 

(The great Trade Wind which ne'er does fail) 
Shall drive thee round the world ! and thou shalt run 

As long around it as the sun ! 
The Straits of Time too narrow are for thee ; 
Launch forth into an undiscovered sea ! 
And steer the endless course of vast Eternity! 
Take for thy Sail, this verse ! and for thy Pilot, me ! 



AMES Wright 

• ] 

The second generatioji of English profes- 
sional ActorSy 1625— 1670 AD. 

[Historia J/istrf, 


So far as it goes, this is one of the most authentic accounts in 
existence, of the En;.^lisli Stage in the later years of Ukn Jonson, 
and during the Commonwealth. 



Onest old Cavalier ! well met ! 'faith I 
am glad to see thee ! 

Truman. Have a care, what you call 
me ! Old is a word of disgrace among 
the ladies. To be honest is to be poor 
and foolish, as some think : and Cavalier is a word as much 
out of fashion as any of them. 

Lovewit. The more's the pity. But what said the Forttme 
Teller, in Ben Johnson's Masque of Gypsies, to the then Lord 
Privy Seal, 

Honest and old ! 

In those the good part of a fortune is told ! 

Truman. Ben Johnson ! How dare you name Ben 
Johnson in these times? when we have such a crowd of 
poets in a quite different genius : the least of which thinks 
himself as well able to correct Ben Johnson as he could a 
country schoolmistress that taught to spell. 

Lovewit. We have indeed poets of a different genius. 
So are the plays. But in my opinion there are all of them, 
some few excepted, as much inferior to those of former times ; 
as the actors now in being, generally speaking, are, compared 
to Hart, Mohun, Burt, Lacy, Clun, and Shatterel; for 
I can reach no further backward. 

■^'^^"£•1 '^^^^ Second Generation of our Actors. 273 

Trumail. I can. And I dare assure you — if my fancy 
and memory are not partial, for men of my age are apt to be 
over indulgent to the thoughts of their youthful days — I say, 
the actors that I have seen, before the [Civil] Wars, Lowin, 
Taylor, Pollard, and some others, were almost as far 
beyond Hart and his company; as those were, beyond these 
now in being. 

Lovewit. I am willing to believe it, but cannot readily ; 
because I have been told that those whom I mentioned, were 
bred up under the others [i.e., actors] of your acquaintance ; and 
followed their manner of action : which is now lost. So far, 
that when the question has been asked, *' Why these pla3'ers 
do not receive the Silent Woman and some other of Johnson's 
plays, once of highest esteem?" They have answered truly, 
" Because there are none now living, who can rightly humour 
those parts : for all who [were] related to the * Blackfriars ' 
(where they were acted in perfection) are now dead, and 
almost forgotten." 

Truman, 'Tis very true ! Hart and Clun were bred up 
boys at the "Blackfriars," and acted women's parts. Hart 
was Robinson's boy or apprentice. He acted the Duchess in 
the tragedy of the Cardinal ; which was the first part that gave 
him reputation. Cartwright and Wintershal belonged 
to the " Private House " in Salisbury Court. Burt was a 
boy, first under Shank at the " Blackfriars," then under 
Beeston at the " Cockpit" : and Mohun and Shatterel 
were in the same condition with him, at the last place. 
There Burt used to play the principal women's parts, in 
particular CL/li?/^N'^ in Love's cruelty: and, at the same time, 
Mohun acted Bellamente, which part he retained after 
the Restoration. 

Lovewit. That I have seen, and can well remember. I 
wish they had printed in the last Age (for so I rail the 
times before the Rebellion) the actors' names over against 
the parts they acted ; as they have done si'nce the Restora- 
tion : and thus one might have guessed at the Action of the 
men, by the parts which we now read in the old plays. 

Truman. It was not the custom and usage of those days, 

as it hath been since. Yet some few old plays there are, that 

have the names set against the parts : as The Duchess of 

Malfy ; the Picture; the Roman Actor; the Deserving 

EXG. Gar. II. 18 

2 74 '^^^^ London Theatres before the Wars. [■'•^^Ii!;,: 

Favourite; the Wild Goose C/m.sf, at the " Blackfriars " ; the 
Wedding; the Renegado; the Fair Maid of the West; Hannibal 
and SciPio ; King John and Matilda, at the "Cockpit"; 
and Holland's leaguer, at " Salisbury Court." 

Lovewit. These are but few indeed : but, pray, Sir, what 
master-parts can you remember the old " Blackfriars " men 
to act, in Johnson's, Shakespeare's, and Fletcher's 
plays ? 

Truman. What I can at present recollect I'll tell you. 
Shakespeare (who, as I have heard, was a much better 
Poet than Player), Burbage, Hemmings, and others of the 
older sort, were dead before I knew the Town. But, in my 
time, before the Wars; Lowin used to act, with mighty 
applause, Falstaff ; Morose ; Vulpone ; and Mammon 
in the Alchemist; Melancius in the Maid's tragedy. And at 
the same time, Amyntor was played by Stephen Hammer- 
ton : who was, at first, a most noted and beautiful Woman- 
Actor; but afterwards he acted, with equal grace and applause, 
a young lover's part. 

Taylor acted Hamlet incomparably well ; Jago [i.e., 
Iago in Othello]; Truewit, in the Silent Woman; and 
Face, in the Alchemist. 

SwANSTON used to play Othello. 

Pollard and Robinson were Comedians. So was Shank; 
who used to act Sir ROGER in the Scornful Lady. These were 
of the " Blackfriars." 

Those of principal note at the " Cockpit " were Perkins, 
Michael Bowyer, Sumner, William Allen, and Bird, 
eminent Actors : and Robins a Comedian. 

Of the other Companies, I took little notice. 

Lovewit. Were there so many companies ? 
Truman. Before the Wars, there were in being, all these 
Play Houses at the same time. 

The " Blackfriars," and '* Globe " on the Bankside. A 
winter, and [a] summer house belonging to the same 
Company; called "The King's Servants." 
The "Cockpit" or "Phoenix" in DruryLane; called 

"The Queen's Servants." 
The Private House in Salisbury Court; called "The 
Prince's Servants." 

■'■^^1S>] Our First Actors were the Best. 275 

The '* Fortune," near White Cross Street : and the 
" Red Bull " at the upper end of St. John's Street. 
The two last were mostly frequented by citizens, and 
the meaner sort of people. 

All these Companies got money, and lived in reputation : 
especially those of the " Blackfriars," who were men of grave 
and sober behaviour. 

Lovewit. Which I much admire [wonder] at. That the 
Town, [being] much less than at present, could then maintain 
Five Companies ; and yet now Two can hardly subsist. 

Truman. Do not wonder, but consider I That though 
the Town was then, perhaps, not much more than half so 
populous as now ; yet then the prices [of admission] were 
small (there being no scenes), and better order kept among 
the company that came: which made very good people think 
a play an innocent diversion for an idle hour or two ; the 
plays being then, for the most part, more instructive and 
moral. Whereas of late, the Playhouses are so extremely 
with vizard-masks [spectators wearing masks] and their trade, 
occasioning continual quarrels and abuses; that many of the 
more civilized [refined] part of the Town are uneasy in the com- 
pany, and shun the theatre as they would a house of scandal. 

It is an argument of the worth of the Plays and Actors of 
the last Age, and easily inferred that they were much beyond 
ours in this, to consider that they could support themselves 
merely from their own merit, the weight of the matter, and 
goodness of the action ; without scenes and machines. 
Whereas the present plays, with all their show, can hardly 
draw an audience, unless there be the additional invitation 
of a Signior Fideli, a Monsieur L'Abbe, or some such 
foreign regale expressed in the bottom of the Bill. 

Lovewit. To waive this digression, I have read of one 
Edward Alleyn, a man so famed for excellent action that, 
among Ben Johnson's Epigrams, I find one directed to him, 
full of encomium, and concluding thus — 

Wear this renown ! 'Tisjust, that who did give 
So many poets life, by one should live. 

Was he one of the ** Blackfriars " ? 

Truman. Never, as I have heard ; for he was dead before 

276 The Private Houses were very small, [-^ ^^""^g,'; 

my time. He was Master of a Company of his own ; for 
whom he built the " Fortune " playhouse from the ground : 
a large round brick building. This is he that grew so rich, 
that he purchased a great estate in Surrey, and elsewhere ; 
and, having no issue, he built and largely endowed Dulwich 
College in the year i6ig, for a Master, a Warden, four 
Fellows, twelve aged poor people, and twelve poor boys, &c. 
A noble charity ! 

Lovewit. What kind of Playhouses had they before the 
Wars ? 

Truman. The " Blackfriars," " Cockpit," and " Salisbury 
Court " were called Private Houses ; and were very small to 
what we see now. The " Cockpit " was standing since the Re- 
storation ; and Rhodes's Company acted there for some time. 

Lovewit. I have seen that. 

Truman. Then you have seen the other two, in effect ; 
for they were all three built almost exactly alike, for form 
and bigness. Here they had " Pits " for the gentry, and 
acted by candlelight. 

The " Globe," " Fortune," and " Bull " were large houses, 
and lay partly open to the weather : and there they always 
acted by daylight. 

Lovewit. But prithee, Truman ; what became of these 
players when the Stage was put down, and the Rebellion 
raised [i.e., in the time of the Commonwealth], 

Truman. Most of them (except Lowin, Taylor, and 
Pollard, who were superannuated) went into the King's 
army; and like good men and true, served their old master, 
though in a different, yet more honourable capacity. 

Robinson was killed at the taking of a place (I think 
Basing House) by Harrison, he that was after hanged at 
Charing Cross : who refused him quarter, and shot him in 
the head when he had laid down his arms ; abusing Scripture 
at the same time, in saying " Cursed is he that doeth the 
work of the LORD negligently ! " 

Mohun was a Captain ; and, after the Wars were ended 
here, served in Flanders, where he received pay as a Major. 

Hart was a Lieutenant of horse under Sir Thomas 
Dallison, in Prince Rupert's Regiment. Burt was Cornet 
in the same troop ; and Shatterel, Quarter Master. 

J. wright.-j Secret Representations, 1648-1660. 277 


Allen of the " Cockpit " was a Major, and Quarter Master 
General at Oxford. 

I have not heard of one of these players of any note that 
sided with the other party, hut only Swanston ; and he 
professed himself a Presbyterian, took up the trade of a 
jeweller, and lived in Aldermanbury, within the territory of 
Father Calamy. The rest either lost, or exposed their lives 
for their King. 

When the Wars were over, and the Royalists totally 
suhdued : most of them who were left alive gathered to 
London ; and for a subsistence, endeavoured to revive their 
old trade privately. They made up one Company out of all 
the scattered members of several ; and in the winter before 
the King's murder, [i.e.] 1648, they ventured to act some 
plays, with as much caution and privacy as could be, at the 
*' Cockpit." They continued undisturbed for three or four 
days : but at last, as they were presenting the tragedy of 
the Bloody Brother— in which Lowin acted A UBREY ; Taylor, 
ROLLO ; Pollard, the Cook ; Burt, La Torche ; and, I 
think, Hart, Otto — a party of foot-soldiers beset the house, 
surprised them about the middle of the play, and carried them 
away, in their habits [dresses] not admitting them to shift 
[themselves^ to Hatton House, then a prison: where having 
detained them some time, they plundered them of their 
clothes, and let them loose again. 

Afterwards, in Oliver's time, they used to act privately 
three or four miles or more out of town, now here, now 
there ; sometimes in noblemen's houses, in particular Holland 
House at Kensington: where the nobility and gentry who 
met, but in no great numbers, used to make a sum for them ; 
each giving a broad piece or the like. And Alexander 
GOFFE, the Woman Actor at " Blackfriars," who had made 
himself known to persons of Quality, used to be the jackal, 
and give notice of time and place. 

At Christmas and Bartholomew Fair, they used to bribe 
the Officer who commanded the guard at White Hall ; and 
were thereupon connived at to act for a few days, at the 
" Red Bull " : but were sometimes, notwithstanding, disturbed 
by soldiers. 

Some picked up a little money by publishing copies of 
plays never before printed, but kept in manuscript. For 

278 The Ends of some of these Actors. [-* ^'^^J,; 

instance, in the year 1652, Beaumont and Fletcher's 
Wild Goose Chase was printed in folio, /or the public use 0/ all 
the ingenious, as the title page says: and private benefit of John 
Low IN and Joseph Taylor, Servants to his late Majesty : and 
by them dedicated To the honoured Few Lovers of Dramatic 
Poesy^ ; wherein they modestly intimate their wants. And 
that with sufficient cause: for whatever they were before the 
Wars : they were after reduced to a necessitous condition. 

LowiN, in his latter days, kept an inn, The Three Pigeons 
at Brentford, where he died very old : for he was an Actor of 
eminent note in the reign of King James I., and his poverty 
was as great as his age. Taylor died at Richmond, and 
was there buried. Pollard, who lived single, and had a 
competent estate, retired to some relations he had in the 
country ; and there ended his life. Perkins and Sumner of 
the *' Cockpit," kept house together at Clerkenwell, and were 
there buried. 

These all died some years before the Restoration. What 
followed after, I need not tell you ! You can easily remem- 
ber ! 

Lovewit. Yes. Presently after the Restoration, the 
" King's Players " acted publicly at the *' Red Bull" for some 
time ; and then removed to a new built Playhouse in Vere 
Street, by Clare Market. There they continued for a year 
or two ; and then removed to the Theatre Royal in Drury 
Lane, where they first made use of scenes [scenery] : which 
had been a little before introduced upon the public stage by 
Sir William D'Avenant at the Duke's old Theatre in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields; but afterwards very much improved, with 
the addition of curious machines, by Mr. Betterton at the 

* The Wild Goose Chase. A Comedy, as it hath been acted with 
singular applause at the " Blackfriars " ; being the noble, last, and only 
remains of those incomparable Dramatists, Francis Beaumont and 
John Fletcher, gentlemen. Retrieved for the public delight of all the 
Ingenious ; and private benefit of JOHN LowiN and JOSEPH TAYLOR 
Servants to his late Majesty ; by a Person of Honour. 

^ In this Dedication is 7nentio7ied the followino; singular fact respecting 
Fletcher. The Play was of so general a received acceptance, that, he 
himself a spectator, we have known him unconcerned, and to have wished 
it to be none of his ; he, as well as the thronged theatre (in despite of 
his innate modesty), applauding this rare issue of his brain. 

^■^^'i699.] Women and Scenery on the Stage. 279 

new Theatre in Dorset Garden— ^to the great expense, and 
continual charge of the players. This much impaired their 
profit over what it was before. For I have been informed 
by one of them, that for several years after the Restoration, 
every whole Sharer in Mr. Hart's Company, got 3^1,000 per 

About the same time, that Scenes first entered upon the 
Stage at London, women were taught to act their own parts. 
Since when, we have seen, at both houses, several excellent 
actresses, justly famed as well for beauty as perfect good 
action. And some plays, in particular The Parson's Weddings 
have been presented all by women ; as formerly all by men. 

Thus it continued for about twenty years, when Mr. Hart 
and some of the old men began to grow weary ; and were 
minded to leave off. Then the two Companies thought fit 
to unite : but of late, you see, they have thought it not less 
fit to divide again ; though both Companies keep the same 
name of " His Majesty's Servants." 

All this while, the Playhouse music improved yearly, and is 
now arrived to greater perfection than ever I knew it. 

Yet for these advantages, the reputation of the Stage and 
people's affection to it are much decayed. 

Truman.[^^^^lNCE the Reformation, in Queen Eliza- 
beth's time, plays were frequently acted 
by Choristers and Singing Boys ; and 
several of our old Comedies have printed 
in the title-page. Acted by the Children ofPauVs (not the School, 
but the Church) ; others. By the Children of Her Majesty's 
Chapel. In particular, Cynthia's Revels, and the Poetaster 
were played by them ; who were, at that time, famous for 
good action. 

Among Ben Johnson's Epigrams, you may find An epitaph 
on S[AL] P[avy], one of the Children of Queen Elizabeth's 
Chapel ; part of which runs thus : 

Yeai's he counted scarce Thirteen 

When Fates turned cruel, 
Yet three filled zodiacs he had been 

The Stage's jewel, 

2So The Boy Actors of Elizabeth's time. [J ^'jg^; 

And did act (what now we moan) 

Old Man so didy, 
As, sooth, the Parcm thought him one, 

He played so truly ! 

Some of the Chapel Boys, when they grew men, became 
Actors at the " Blackfriars," Such were Nathaniel Field 
and John Underwood. 

Lovewit. ITS^Ut can you inform me, Truman ! when 
public theatres were first erected for this 
purpose in London. , 

Truman. Not certainly : but \ pre- 
sume about the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign. For 
Stow, in his Survey of London, which book was first printed 
in the year 1598, says : 

Of late years in place of these stage-plays {i.e., those of religious 
matters) have been used Comedies, Tragedies, Interludes, and 
Histories, both true and feigned: for the acting whereof, certain 
public places as the " Theatre,'' the ^^ Curtain " &c., have been 

And [J. Howes] the Continuator of Stow's Annals, p. 
1004, says : 

That in sixty years before the publication of that booh (which 
was Anno Domini 1629) no less than seventeen public Stages or 
common Playhouses had been built in and about London. In 
which number he reckons five Inns or com.mon Holsteries to 
have been, in his time, turned into Playhouses ; one Cock- 
pit ; St. Paul's Singing School ; one in the Blackfriars ; one 
in the Whitefriars ; and one, in former time, at Newington 
Butts ; and adds, before the space of sixty years past, I never 
knew, heard or read of any such Theatres, set Stages, or 
Playhouses, as have been purposely built within man's 

Lovewit. After all, I have been told that stage plays are 
inconsistent with the laws of this kingdom; and Players 
made Rogues by statute. 

Truman. He that told you so, strained a point of truth. 
I never met with any law wholly to suppress them. Some- 

^■^^'SJ Enactments regulating Players. 281 

times, indeed, they have been prohibited for a season : as in 
times of Lent, general mourning, or public calamities ; or upon 
other occasions when the Government saw fit. Thus by 
Proclamation, 7th of April [1559], i Eliz., plays and interludes 
were forbidden till Allhallowtide [i November] next following. 

HOLINSHED, p. I184. 

Some statutes have been made for their regulation or 
reformation, not general suppression. By the statute 39 
Eliz. c. 4, which was made for the suppression of Rogues, 
Vagabonds, and sturdy Beggars, it is enacted, s. 2 : 

That all persons that be, or utter themselves to be Proctors; 
Procurers ; Patent gatherers or Collectors for Coals, Prisons, or 
Hospitals; or Fencers; Bearwards ; common Players of Inter- 
ludes, and Minstrels wandering abroad {other than Players of 
Interludes belonging to any Baron of this realm or any other 
honourable Personage of greater degree, to be authorised to play 
under the hand and seal of arms of such Baron or Personage) ; 
all Jugglers, Tinkers, Pedlers, and Petty Chapmen wandering 
abroad ; &c., able in body, using loitering, and refusing to work 
for such reasonable wages as is commonly given, &c. These shall 
be adjudged and deemed Rogues, Vagabonds, and sturdy Beggars ; 
and punished as such. 

Lovewit. But this privilege of authorising or licensing is 
taken away by the statute i Jac. I. c. y s. 1 ; and therefore 
all of them (as Mr. [Jeremy] Collier says, p. 242) are 
expressly brought under the foresaid penalty, without distinc- 

Truman. If he means all Players without distinction, it 
is a great mistake. For the force of the Queen's statute 
extends only to " wandering Players," and not to such as are 
the " King's " or " Queen's Servants," established in settled 
Houses by Royal Authority. 

On such, the ill character of vagrant players or (as they 
are now called) Strollers, can cast no more aspersion than the 
" wandering Proctors," in the same statute mentioned, on 
those of Doctor's Commons. 

By a statute made 3 jfac. I. c. 21, it was enacted That if 
any person shall in any Stage play , Interlude, Show, Maygame, or 
Pageantry jestingly or profanely speak or use the holy name of 
GOD, Jesus Christ, the HOLY GHOST, or of the Trinity, 
he shall forfeit for every such offence ;^io. 

282 Plays put down by Long Parliament, [■'•^'it')*: 

The statute of i Car. I. c. 1 enacts That no meetings, assem- 
blies, or concourse of people shall be out of their own parishes on 
the Lord's Day, for any sports or pastimes whatsoever ; nor any 
bcarbaiting, bullbaiting, interludes, common plays, or other imlaw- 
ful exercises and pastimes tcsed by any person or persons within 
their own parishes. 

These are all the statutes that I can think of relating to 
the Stage and Players. But nothing to suppress them totally, 
till the two Ordinances of the Long Parliament ; one of the 
22nd of October 1647, the other of the nth of February 
i647[-8]. By which all Stage Plays and Interludes are abso- 
lutely forbidden; the stages, seats, galleries, &c., to be pulled 
down. All players, though calling themselves the " King's " 
or " Queen's Servants," if convicted of acting within two 
months before such conviction, to be punished as Rogues, 
according to law. The money received by them, to go to the 
poor of the parish ; and every spectator to pay five shillings 
to the use of the poor. 

Also Cockfighting was prohibited by one of Oliver's Acts, 
of 31st March 1654 : but I suppose nobody pretends these 
things to be laws [l], 

I could say more on this subject, but I must break off here, 
and leave you, Lovewit. My occasions require it. 

Lovewit, Farewell, old Cavalier ! 

Truman. 'Tis properly said ! We are almost all of us 
now, gone and forgotten. 



Andrew Marvell, M.P. 

\Miscellanies, i68i-J 

Here the remote Bermudas ride 
In th'ocean's bosom unespied ; 
From a small boat, that rowed along, 
The listening winds received this song. 

" What should we do, but sing His praise ! 
That led us through the watery maze 
Unto an isle so long unknown, 
And yet far kinder than our own. 

Where He, the huge sea monsters wracks. 
That lift the deep upon their backs ; 
He lands us on a grassy stage, 
Safe from the storms' and prelates' rage. 

He gave us this eternal spring. 
Which here enamels everything ; 
And sends the fowls to us in care. 
On daily visits through the air. 

He hangs in shades, the orange bright, 
Like golden lamps in a green night ; 
And does in the pomegranates 'close. 
Jewels more rich than Ormuz shows. 

He makes the figs, our mouths to meet. 
And throws the melons at our feet : 

rA MarvcH. 

284 Bermudas. [uJr^Vok 

But 'apples, plants of such a price ! 
No tree could ever bear them twice. 

With cedars chosen by His hand 
From Lebanon, He stores the land : 
And makes the hollow seas, that roar, 
Proclaim the ambergris on shore. 

He cast (of which we rather boast) 
The Gospel's Pearl upon our coast : 
And in these rocks, for us did frame 
A temple, where to sound His name. 

O let our voice His praise exalt, 
Till it arrive at heaven's vault ! 
Which thence (perhaps) rebounding, may 
Echo beyond the Mexic Bay." 

Thus sung they in the English boat, 
A holy and a cheerful note ; 
And all the way, to guide their chime, 
With falling oars they kept the time. 


Captain John Smith. 

The present state of New England, 

[i.e., in 1624] . 

{General History of Vir£:inta. 1626] 

It mav be useful to give in full, the Account of Smith, which is abridged 
bv Prince, at A 465 ; as it is the best description that has come down to 
us of that voluntary Asssociation of Puritan sympathisers m England, 
wllo, at first, backed up the Pilgrim Fathers, and then threw them over ; 
and who are referred to by Prince (at and from/. 437), as the Adven- 
turers, in contradistinction to the Planters of New Plymouth. 

ilT New Plymouth there are about one hundred and 
eight persons ; some cattle and goats, but many 
swine and poultry; thirty-two dwelling houses, 
whereof seven were burnt the last winter: and 
the value of ,^500 [= about ^^2,000 in present value] 
in other goods. The town is impaled about half a mile 
in compass. In the town, upon a high mount, they have a 
fort well built with wood, loam, and stone ; where is planted 
thei'r ordnance, also a fair watchtower, partly framed, for the 
sentinel. The place it seems is healthful: for in these 
last three years, notwithstanding their great want of most 
necessaries : there hath not one died of the First Planters. 
They have a Salt Work, and with that salt, preserve the fish 
they take ; and, this year, have freighted a ship of 180 tons. 
The governor is one Master William Bradford; thefr 
Captain, Miles Standish, a bred soldier in Holland; the 
chief men for " Assistance " are Isaac Allerton and divers 
others, as occasion serveth. Their Preachers are Master 
William Brewster, and Master John Lyford. 

The most of them live together as one family or household ; 
yet every man followeth his trade and profession, both by sea 
and land ; and all for a General Stock, out of which they have 
all their maintenance, until there be a Divident [a Sharing] 

286 The present state of New England, [^^'p'- ^- ^'^^'Ji: 

betwixt the Planters and the Adventurers. Those Planters 
are not servants to the Adventurers here, and have only 
counsels of directions from them, but no injunctions or 
commands : and all the Masters of families are Partners in 
land or whatsoever, setting their labours against the Stock 
till certain years be expired for the Division. They have 
young men and boys for their apprentices and servants ; and 
some of them special families, as ship's carpenters, salt 
makers, fish masters ; yet as servants, upon great wages. 

The Adventurers which raised the Stock to begin and 
supply this Plantation, were about seventy ; some gentlemen, 
some merchants, some handicraftsmen ; some adventuring 
great sums, some small ; as their estates and affection served. 

The General Stock already employed [i.e., by Planters and 
Adventurers tof!^ether] is about £7,000 [about jTaSjOOO now] ; by 
reason of which Charge and many crosses, many of them 
would adventure no more : but others that know so great a 
design cannot be effected without charge, loss, and crosses, 
are resolved to go forward with it to their powers ; who 
deserve no small commendations and encouragement. 

These [Adventurers] dwell mostly about London. They 
are not a Corporation ; but knit together by a voluntary 
combination in a Society without constraint or penalty ; 
aiming to do good, and to plant religion. They have a Pre- 
sident and Treasurer, every year newly chosen by the most 
voices ; who order the affairs of their Courts and Meetings : 
and, with the assent of the most of them, undertake all 
ordinary businesses ; but, in more weighty affairs, the assent 
of the whole company is required. 

There hath been a fishing, this year, upon the coast, about 
fifty English ships : and by Cape Ann, there is a Plantation 
a beginning by the Dorchester men ; which they hold of New 
Plymouth, who have also, by them, set up a Fishing Work. 
Some talk there is of some other Plantations. All whose 
good proceedings, the eternal GOD protect and preserve! 


Chronological History 



In the Form of 



A summary and exact Account of the most material 
Transactions and Occurrences relating to this 
Country, in the order of time wherein they hap- 
pened ; from the Discovery by Captain Gosnold 
in 1602, to the Arrival cf Governor Belcher 
in 1730. 



A brief Epitome of the most remarkable Transac- 
tions and Events abroad, from the Creation : in- 
cluding the connected Line of Time, the succession 
of Patriarchs, and Sovereigns of the most famous 
Kingdoms and Empires, the gradual discoveries 
of America, and the progress of the Reformation 
to the Discovery of New England^ ^ 

By T H Q M AS Prince, M.A. 
~ VOL. I. 

Deut. yi\.y.u. 7. —Remember the days 0/ old! Consider the years 
of viany f^eiierations ! . , r , j 

Job VIII. Z.—For enquire, I pray thee, of the former age ! and 
prepare thyself to the search of their fathers ! 

BOSTON, N . E . 

Printed byKNEELAND & Green for S. Gerrish. 



|S THERK, in all our printed Literature, a more omniscient work 
on its special subject, than I^RlNCE's Survey of the Separatist 
and Puritan Exodus under our first two S'lUART Kings? The 
supreme thought, and the principal gift of a long and intensely 
active life : these Annals {p. 553) are one of the chief literary 
monuments of Colonial New England. What a range of authors, from 
Herera's Historia General del Mundo, to Baylie's Dissuasive from the 
Errors of the Times, did he lay under contribution ! 

While for his General or English story, he is content to rest on the best 
secondary authorities within his reach, as Purchas, Howes, Fuller, 
Strpye, &c., including the popular inaccuracies to be found in them : for 
the Story of the New Plymouth and Massachusetts Colonies, he accepts 
little else but the original, often autographic Eye Witness accounts of 
Actors in, or Spectators of those Settlements. And thus it is, that for 
this external branch of our Stuart history, with m.uch of the social life 
of Puritanism, this Work is of paramount authority : and there is no other 
book in existence, that can at all supply its place. 

What freaks of fortune happen to books ; in that such a Work as this, a 
Record of the emigrational side of English life at that time, as exact as 
Euclid and as interesting as Robinson Crusoe, has not appeared in 
countless editions ! 

It was maimed at its birth. Though nearly twenty years elapsed 
between the First and the Second Volumes ; though several Numbers 
were fully prepared for the press,/. 592; and though, judging from the 
fragment of it, to 5 At/gust, 1633, that we possess, the Second Volume, 
designed to reach to June 1640, could have been published for some 6^. or 
7^-. : yet, in all colonial New England, there could not be found either a 
public or a publisher that could face the risk of such a small edition of a 
book, at that price ! And strangely enough, the now aged Author himself, 
apparently rather than venture on its cost, most unfortunately allowed a 
portion of his labours to perish. It has never, till now, been printed in 
the mother country : and but one edition has appeared, since the author's 
death, in his native country ; the verbatim and annotated one of 1826, at 
Boston, U.S.A. under the anonymous editorship of S. G. Drake, Esq., of 
that city. 

A re-issue of fifty copies only, at Five Dollars each, of this edition, was 
made at the same place, in 1852 ; Mr. Drake now acknowledging the 
editorship on the title-page. 

With the exception of the reprint of the Second Volume, in 1 826, in the 
Seventh Volume of the Second Series of the Massacliiisetts Historical 
Society's Collections ; this is apparently all that has hitherto been done to 
perpetuate the usefulness of a Work, which, for its precise truthfulness, 
is eminently fitted to be Z/^^" Primer, for the Anglo- Saxon race, of the Story of 
the Pilgrim Fathers, and their Puritan neighbours of the Massachusetts. 

E. A. 1879. 
Note. The few notes, in the following pages of this Volume, by the 
present Editor, are distinguished by, E. A. 1S79. 

To his Excellency 


Captain General and Governor in Chief in and 
over His Majesty's Province of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, in New England, &c. 

To the Honourable 


Lieutenant Governor, 


To the Honourable 
His Majesty's Council, and House of Re- 
presentatives of [the] said Province. 

He Province, under your united care, being the Prin- 
cipal of the New England Governments, containing 
especially the two First Colonies, of Plymouth and 
the Massachusetts, from whence the others chiefly de- 
rived ; and having the greatest share in the following Work : to 

£.\'G. Gar. II. I9 

2 90 Dedication of his A l s. [^l\-^'oy'l"ll'. 

whom, could a son of the Province more properly offer this fruit of 
his labours, than to Your Excellency and Honours ? Especially 
when he beholds yon as mostly, if not wholly , descendants from the 
worthy Fathers of these Plantations, whom Yourselves and posterity 
cannot but have in everlasting honour : not only for their eminent 
self-denial and piety, wherein they set examples for future ages to 
admire and imitate; but also for their great concern that the same 
Vital and Pure Christianity, and Liberty, both civil and eccle- 
siastical, might be continued to their sticcessors ; for which, they left 
their own and their fathers^ houses in the most pleasant places 
then on earth, with many of their dearest relatives, and came 
over the ocean into this then hideous wilderness. The peaceful 
fruits of whose extraordinary cares, labours, hardships, wisdom, 
courage, patience, blood, and death; we, under the Divine 
protection, and the justice of the best of kings, enjoy. 

It is to these, we firstly owe our pleasattt houses, our fruitful 
fields, our growing towns and Churches, our wholesome laws, ouf 
precious privileges, our Grammar Schools and Colleges, our pious 
and learned Ministers and Magistrates, our good Government and 
order, the public restraints of vices, the general knowledge of our 
common people, the strict observation of the Christian Sabbath : 
with those remains of public modesty, sobriety, social virtues, and 
religion ; for which, this country is distinguished among the British 
colonies, and in which we are as happy as any on earth. 

In the midst of our great advantages, You will doubtless take a 
noble and useful pleasure in reviewing the names and actions of 
your predecessors, that You may imitate their virtues ; as also in 
surveying the gradual steps that led to our present situation : to- 
gether with the Train of Providences appearing for us, sometimes 
indeed afflicting, and then delivering ; but preserving us through all 
our dangers, disappointing the designs of enemies, maintaining our 
invaluable liberties, and causing us to grow and prosper — that thi 

^^4'Nov.l736:] Dedication of his A nna l s. 291 

Sovereign Power who has formed, preserved^ and blessed this People, 
may receive His due and grateful adorations. 

It is the orderly succession of these transactions and events, as 
they precisely/^// out in time (too much neglected by our historians); 
that, for some years past, I have taken the greatest pains to search and 
find, even vastly more than in composing : and which, through a 
worldof difficulty and much expense, I here present You: not in the 
specious form of a proper History, which admits of artificial orna- 
ments and descriptions to raise the imagination and affections of 
the reader ; but of a closer and more naked Register, comprising 
only Facts, in a Chronological Epitome, to enlighten the under- 
standing, somewhat like the Form of Usher's Annals, which a 
competent historian may easily fill up and beautify. 

Nor is the design of this Dedication, as is usual with others, to 
implore Your patronage of the Work in general at all adventures, 
or to palliate or excuse the faults or mistakes therein ; but rather 
humbly to appeal to Your collective and superior knowledge, that it 
may more thoroughly be examined, every mistake of fact dis- 
covered, and the remainder only justified. 

It would be too high a presumption in me, as well as too 
intruding on your more importajit cares, to supplicate a public 
examination or correction of this composure [composition]* But 
if it were as worthy as the Reverend and learned Mr. Hubbard's 
Narrative of the Indian War, for the perusing and approving 
[of] which, three honourable Magistrates were deputed by the 
Governor and Council of the Massachusetts Colony, in 1677 {one 
of whom was a Major General, and the other two were afterwards 
Governors): upon rectifying every error , such a Public Approbation 
would consign it, as a True Report of Facts, to the regard and credit 
both of the present and of future generations. 

292 Dedication to his Annals. [^^^NoJ^'iyjc: 

7 sJioiild now conclude, were it not for an observation of 
too great and public moment to be here omitted, which is as 
follows : — 

That when the Founders of these Colonies came over, it was a 
time of general tyranny both in Church and State, through[out] 
their mother island, tinder which the British Kingdoms loudly 
groaned; as the united voice declared both of their Lords and 
Commons in several Parliaments, both of England and of Scotland, 
the only national representatives and the most proper witnesses of 
the national oppressions : a thousand times more credible than any 
particidar writers. From which, those Kingdoms could never ob- 
tain a legal and established deliverance till the glorious Revolution 
in 1688 ; nor could apprehend it to be sufficiently secured till the 
happy Accession of King George I. to the British throne in 17 14. 
A Prince, who was a grandson by the Princess Sophia, of that most 
excellent Kijtg and Queen of BOHEMIA, whom the Puritans admired 
and loved ; whom they grieved to see so much neglected in their 
hitter sufferings, by the Court of England ; and whom those who 
came over hither represented to their posterity in the most amiable 
cJiaracter. Of which I can myself, bear witness. For though born 
in a remoter corner of this land [New England] , j'e^ while in the 
arms of a knowing and careful mother, a granddaughter of the first 
race of settlers ; next to the Scripture History, she gave me such a 
view of the Reformation, and of the sufferings and virtues of those 
renowned Princes; as raised my joy with others, when the first 
hopeful prospect opened, of their Protestant descendants in the 
Illustrious House of HANOVER being advanced to the British 
Throne ; and carried us into unbounded transports, when our eyes 
beheld it. 

upon this occasion, His Excellency will forgive me if, for the 

^'"4 Nov^7736 J D E 1) I C A T I O x\ OF HIS A iV N A L S . 293 

honour of his Country as well as for his own, we boast of One 
among us; who, inspired with zeal for the succession of that 
Illustrious House, even in the joys of youth, twice brake away, viz., 
in 1704 and 1708, and passed a double Ocean, that he might with 
rapture see, and in his Country^ s name express the ardour of their 
vows to that most important Family ; in which, under heaven, all 
the welfare of three mighty Nations, and even of all the Protestant 
States and kingdoms in the world, as well as the liberty, religion, 
and felicity of these Colonies and Provinces were involved. A cele- 
brated instance, peculiar to himself alone, that I presume no other 
American can pretend to ; and, for the fatigue and pains, I suppose 
no other subject of the whole British Empire : which redounds to 
the glory of the land that bred him, that parted with him and 
received him with applause ; and the happy consequence whereof, 
at the head of his Country, he now enjoys. 

May that blessed Family remain on the throne ! and prosper as 
long as the sun endures ! May they spread their branches to every 
state and kingdom roundabout I and therewith extend the British 
happiness ! May these Plantations flourish, under their benign 
influence, to the end of time ! 

May your Excellency enjoy their smiles, till the last hour of life I 
and thereby, with the Divine grace and blessing, long lengthen 
our tranquility, and advance our welfare ! 

May your Honours, now taking your turn to rise and shine in 
the exalted places of your wise and pious Predecessors, follow 
their bright examples ! preserve the dear Deposita resigned to your 
faithful trust ! and transmit them safely to your successors ! In all 
your counsels, may you look to future as well as present generations! 
whom you may see depending on your care and wisdom, as 
we, unborn, depended on the care and wisdom of those before 
us ! and may you ever keep in view the principal and noble 

,^-^ /t.r.rArf r Rev- T. Prince. 

294 Dedication of his ^i njva l s. i ,^ n^^. .7^6. 

ends of these Religious Settlements ! So will you be, with our dear 
Forefathers, an eternal excellence, and the joy and praise of per- 
petual generations. 

Your Excellency's and Honours* 

Most obedient humble servant, 

Thomas Prince. 

Boston, Nov. 24///, 1736. 



relating the rise, design, and progress 
of this Composure. 

Ext to the Sacred History, and that of the Refor- 
mation, I was from my early youth instructed in 
the History of this Country [i.e.. New England]. 
And the first hook of this kind put into my hand 
was the New Ejigland Memorial composed by Mr. Secretary 
Morton, being the history of Plimouth Colony from the 
beginning to 1668.^ Governor Thomas Dudley's Letter to 
the Countess of Lincoln^ informed me of the beginning of the 
Massachusetts Colony. Mr. William Hubbard's and Mr. 
Increase Mather's narratives^ of the Indian Wars in 1637, 
1675, and 1676 ; with Mr. Cotton Mather's History of the 

* Nathaniel Morton. New Englanifs Memorial : or, A brief Relation of the 
most Alemorable and Retnarkable Passages of the Providence of God, manifested to the 
Planters of New England in America. With special Reference to the first Colony 
thereof, called New Plimouth. Cambridge, New England, 1669. 4to. E. A. 1879. 

= Thomas Dudley. Letter to the Countess of Lincoln, of March 2%, 1631 
[see/. 580]. Boston, 1696. 8vo. E. A. 1S79. 

3 William Hubbard. A Narrative of the troubles with the Indians in Nezij 
England froi?i the first planting thereof in the year 1607, to this present year 1677. 
To zvhirh is added a Discourse about the Warre with the Pequods in the year 1637. 
Boston, New England, 1677. 4to. E. A. 1879. 

Increase Mather. A Brief History of the War 7vith the Iftdians in Neio 
England. {From yune 24, 1675, when the first Englishman was murdered by the 
Indians, to August 12, 1676, tvhen Philip, alias Metacomet, the principal Author and 
Beginner of the War, was slain.) Wherein the Grouftds, Beginning, and Progress of 
the Warr is summarily expressed, etc, Boston, New England, 1676. 4I0. E. A, 1879. 

296 Preface to his Annals. [^'^'^•^'j^^S: 

Indian Wars from 1688 to 1698,' gave me a sufficient view of 
those calamitous times. Mr. Matthew Mayiiew's account 
of the Vineyard Indians;^ Mr. Increase Mather's Record 
of Remarkable Providences \^ Mr. Cotton Mather's Lives 
of Mr. Cotton, Norton, Wilson, Davenport, Hooker,'' 
Mitchel,5 Eliot,^ and Sir William Phipp's,7 increased my 
knowledge : and much more was it advanced upon the com- 
ing out of the last-mentioned author's Ecclesiastical History oj 
New England,^ in folio in 1702. 

Yet still I longed to see all these things disposed in the order 
of Time wherein they happened, together with the rise and 
progress of the several Towns, Churches, Counties, Colonies 
and Provinces through this country. 

' Cotton Mather. Decennium Luctuosum. An History of Remarkable 

Occurrences, In the Long War, which Neiv England hath had 7vith the Indian 

Salvages, From the year 1688, to the year 1698. Faithfully Composed and Improved. 

Boston, New England, 1699. 8vo. E. A. 1879. 

•.• In connection with this work may here be quoted a continuation of it not here 

referred to by Prince; Cotton Mather. Duodecennium Luctuosum. The 

History of a Long War with Indian Salvages, And their Directors and Abettors, 

From the Year, 1702, to the Year, I7I4) etc. Boston, New England, 17 14. 

8vo. E. A. 1879. 

^ Experience Mayhew. Discourse «/ Boston, A'i'Z'. 23, 1718. With a brief 

account of the State of the Indians at Martlms Vineyard, and the small islands 

adjacent , from 1694 to 1720. Boston, 1720. 8vo. E. A. 1879. 

3 Increase Mather. Att Essay for the recording of Illustrious Providences 

, . . especially in New Englattd. Boston, 16S4. 8vo. E. A. 1879. 

* Cotton Mather. Johannes in Eremo. Memoirs Relatitig to the Lives of 

the Ever- Memorable Mr. JOHN CoTTON, Mr. JOHNiVoRTON, Mr. John Wilsox, 

Mr. John Davenport, and Mr. Thomas Hooker. Boston, New England, 

1695. 8vo. E. A. 1879. 

s Cotton Mather. Ecclesiastes. The Life of the Rez'erend and Excellent 

Jonathan MiTCHEL ; A Pastor of the Church, and A Glojy of the College, in 

Cambridge. Boston, New England, 1697. 8vo. E. A. 1879. 

^ Cotton Mather. The Triumphsof the Reformed Rcligionin America. The 

Life of the Renoivned JOHN Eliot, a Person justly famous in the Church of GOD. 

Boston, New England, 1702. E. A. 1879. 

' [Cotton Mather]. Pietas in Patriam. The Life of his Excellency Sir 

William Phipps, late Captain General, and Goi'crnourin Chief of the Province of 

the Massachuset Bay, N'ezv England . . . Written by one intimately acquainted 

zvith him. London, 1697. 8vo. E. A. 1879. 

^ Cotton Mather. Magnalia Christi Americana ; or, the Ecclesiastical 

History of New England, from its First Planting in the Year 1620, unto the Year 

of our Lord, i(>oi%. In Scven Books. London, 1702. Folio. E. A. 1879. 

Rev. T. P.ince.-j P R £ F A C E TO HIS A A^ N A L S. 297 

Upon my entering into the College [i.e., Harvard College], 
I chanced, in my leisure hours, to read Mr. Chamberlain's 
Account of the Cottonian Library, which excited in me a 
zeal of laying hold on every book, pamphlet, and paper, both 
in print and manuscript, which are either written by persons 
who lived here [i.e., in New England], or that have any 
tendency to enlighten our history. 

When I went to England, I met with a great variety of 
books and pamphlets, too many here to name, relating to this 
country, wrote in ancient times, and which I could not meet 
with on this side of the Atlantic. 

Among others, in A History of New England, from 1628 to 
1651, printed, in quarto, London, 1654, I found many par- 
ticulars of the beginning of our several Churches, Towns and 
Colonies, which appear in no other writer. The running title 
of the book is Woiidcr-Working Providence S-c, and in the 
genuine Title-page no author is named. Some of the books 
w^ere faced with a false Title-page, wherein the work is 
wrongly assigned to Sir F[erdinando] Gorges : but the true 
author was Master Johnson of Woburn in New England, as 
the late Judge Sewall assured me, as of a thing familiarly 
known among the Fathers of the Massachusetts Colony.* 

In my foreign travels, I found the want of a regular History 
of this country everywhere complained of, and was often 
moved to undertake it ; though I could not think myself equal 
to a work so noble as the subject merits. The extraordinary 
talents which Le Moine and others require in an historian 
were enough to deter me : and yet I had a secret thought 
that, upon returning to my native country, in case I should 
fall into a state of leisure, and no other engaged [thereon]; I 
would attempt A Brief Account of Facts, at least, in the form of 

' [Edward Johnson.] A History of Neiv England. From the English plant- 
ing in the year i62'?>, mitill the ycere 16^2. London, 1654. 4to. 

•.• Also known by its headline of IVonder-lVorkifig Providence of Sion's 
Saviour, in Nciv England. E. A. 1879. 

'qS Preface to his Annals. ['^"''•'*" 

. Prince. 

But, returning home in 1717, Providence was pleased soon 
to settle me in such a public place and circumstance, as I 
could expect no leisure for such a work ; and gave it over. I 
could propose no other than to go on with my collections, and 
provide materials for some other hand. Which [materials] 
I have been at no small expense to gather: having amassed 
above a thousand books, pamphlets, and papers of this kind 
in print ; and a great number of papers in manuscript, so 
many indeed that I have never yet had leisure enough to 
read them. For I should want at least as long a time as 
Dio, who says he had been not only Ten years in collecting 
for his History, but also Twelve years more in compiling it : 
and yet by his book of Dreams and Prodigies presented to 
Severus, one would think he had sufficient leisure. 

In 1720, came out Mr. Neal's History of New England; 
which I was glad to see, and pleased both with his spirit, 
style, and method. I could wish nothing more than that he 
had all the helps this country affords. And though he has 
fallen into many mistakes of facts which are commonly 
known among us — some of which he seems to derive from 
Mr. Oldmixon's account of New England in his British 
Empire in America — which mistakes are no doubt the reason 
why Mr. Neal's History is not more generally read among 
us : yet considering the materials this worthy writer was 
confined to, and that he was never here ; it seems to me 
scarce possible that any under his disadvantages should form 
a better. In comparing him with the authors from whence 
he draws, I am surprised to see the pains he has taken to 
put the materials into such a regular order : and to me, it 
seems as if many parts of his work cannot be mended. 

Upon the account of those mistakes, as also many deficien- 
cies which our written records only are able to supply ; I have 
often been urged here to undertake our History ; but as often 
declined for the reasons aforesaid. 

However being still solicited, and no other attempting ; at 
length, in 1728, I determined to draw up A short Account of 

Rev. T. Prince 

'^^ Preface to his A a'jva ls. 299 

ike most remarkable Transactions an'd Events, in the form of a 
mere Chronology ; which I apprehended would give a summary 
and regular view of the rise and progress of our affairs, be a 
certain guide to future historians, make their performance 
easier to them, or assist Mr. Neal in correcting his Second 
Edition : which I supposed would not take above six or eight 
sheets [i.e., 96 to 128 pages] ; intending to write no more than 
a line or two upon every article. 

The design was this : 

A summary and exact Account of the most material occurrences 
relating to these Parts of the World from their first discovery, in 
the order of time in which they happened. Wherein, besides the most 
Remarkable Providences, such as appearances of comets and eclipses; 
earthquakes ; tempests ; inundations ; droughts ; scarcities ; fires ; 
epidemical sicknesses ; memorable accidents and deliverances ; 
deaths of men of figure, with their age ajid places where they lived 
and died ; as also of the most aged, with the number of their off- 
spring : there will be brief Hints of our Historical Transactions, 
as the rise and changes of Governments ; the elections of Chief 
Magistrates ; the grants and settlements of Towns and Precincts, 
their Indian and English names ; the formation of Churches and 
Counties; the ordinations and removals of Ministers ; building 
Houses for Public Worship, Forts, and Great Bridges ; erecting 
Grammar Schools and Colleges ; extraordinary public Fasts and 
Thanksgivings ; propagation of the Gospel ; remarkable laws and 
executions ; as also wars, assaidts, expeditions, battles, peace, &c. 

The different dates assigned to various occurrences will be care- 
fully compared and corrected ; and the very Years, Months, and 
Days, if possible, ascertained. 

Together with an Introduction containing a Brief Account of 
the most remarkable persons, transactions, and events abroad. 

I. From the Creation to the birth of Christ, according to 
the Computation of the best chronologers. 

300 Preface to his A .vna /.s. l^^'"- '^- ^% 

2. From thence, to the discovery of the New World by 
Christopher Columbus. 

3. From thence, to the discovery of New England by Captain 

The Ministers throughout this Country were desired to make 
their careftd inquiries, and send in their accurate accounts as soon 
as possible; that such Material Passages might be preserved from 
oblivion, and so desirable a Collection might b& hastened to the 
public view. 

Upon my publishing this Design, I first engaged on the 
Introduction : but quickly found, as Chambers in his Cy- 
clopcedia observes, " Chronology to be vastly more difficult 
than one can imagine, who has not applied himself to the 
study ;" and as Alsted in his Thesaurus says, " That his other 
labours were but as play to this." In my Prefaces to the 
several Periods, and the following Notes ; I observe the 
writers with whom I agree and differ, as also some of the 
greatest difficulties. And as I would not take the least iota 
upon trust, if possible ; I examined the Original Authors I 
could meet with : and some of the articles were so perplexed, 
as it cost me a fortnight's thought and labour, before I could 
be fully satisfied. The mere tables and calculations I was 
forced to make, would compose a folio. To find out not only 
the Year and Month, but even the Day of every article, I was 
obliged to search a great number of writers : and the knowing 
reader will see that so many precise points of time are no 
where to be found, but by such a Collection as I have, for this 
intent, perused. 

[Some particulars are here left out. They describe the method pursued 
in the earlier portion of the bitroduction {Periods I-V I . and VII. s. i.) 
coming down to Columbus's discovery of America {see pp. 309, 311): 
which is omitted as not being pertinent to the real scope of a work of 
Annals of New England. E.A. 1879.] 

Rev. T. P'''«-^-j Preface to his A n iy a l s . 301 

In the Introduction, I also observed this rule, " That the 
nearer I drew to the later ages, wherein we grow more 
concerned ; the larger I have made my Periods." And in the 
process of this work, was gradually led on : and persuaded to 
exceed my first design ; which was, to have made the Five, 
later Periods, near[ly] as short as the Two former. 

By that time I finished the Introduction, I found so great 
a number of historical manuscripts, both old and new, con- 
taining all sorts of records, both public and private ; religious, 
civil, and military; that our printed Histories are but a small 
part in comparison with them : and made me still more 
ready to yield to the solicitations of others, to enlarge my 
design, and give the public an abridgment of them. For I 
considered that as several ancient records of Towns and 
Churches have been unhappily burnt, and some lost otherwise ; 
if I did not now, in this way, preserve the Substance of these 
Historical Memoirs, it would be daily in danger of perishing 
beyond recovery. 

The Manuscripts, I have opportunity to search are these : 
In Folio : 

1. Governor Bradford's History of Plymouth People 
and Colony from 1602 to the end of 1646. In 270 
pages. With some Account, at the end, of the increase 
of those who came over with him, from 1620 to 1650. 
And all in his own handwriting. 

2. The ancient Church of Plymouth Records^ begun by 
Mr. Secretary Morton. 

3. A copy of the Grand Charter of New England, granted 
by King James, on November 3, 1620. In 86 pages. 

4. The ancient Records of the Massachusetts Colony [^.480]. 

5. The ancient Records of the County of Suffolk [in 
New England] : in the first Volume whereof are 
several letters from the Massachusetts Company, at 
London,toMr. Endicot; before they came over [p.^gi]. 

6. The ancient Records of the Town of Charlestown 

302 Preface to his A l s. l^""- ^- ^[^'^g' 

[in New England] : in the first Volume whereof is a 
particular history of the first coming and settling of the 
English there, and in the neighbouring places [p. 483]. 

7. The ancient Records of the Town of Boston [in New 
England] ; as also of the First, Second, Third, and 
several other later Churches there [p. 545]. 

8. The ancient Records of the First Church of Roxbury 
written by the famous and Reverend Master Eliot, and 
his successive colleagues, the Reverends Masters 
Danforth and Walter. In a separate part of the 
book are recorded hints of various ancient transactions 
and events in other towns and colonies [p. 617]. 

9. An ancient Record of the First New England Synod, 
viz. at Cambridge, in 1637, 

10. Plymouth Colony Laws, from 1626 to 1660 inclusively. 

11. The ancient Records of the Honourable Artillery Com- 

12. The Reverend Mr. William Hubbard's General 
History of New England, from the discovery to 1680. 
In 338 pages. And though not in his own hand- 
writing ; yet having several corrections made thereby 
[i.e., by him]. 

In Quarto : 

1. A Book of Patents of several parts of New England. 

2. An original Record of the Reverend Master Peter 
HoBART, of Hingham ; relating hints of matters, both 
in his own and some neighbouring Churches also. 

3. Major Mason's ancient Account of the Peqiiot War in 

4. Major General Gookin's History of the New England 
Indians, to 1674 inclusively. 

5. An original Journal, in Latin, composed by the late 
Reverend Mr. Brimsmead, of Marlborough [in New 
England], from 1665 to 1695 inclusively. 

6. An Account of Memorable Things in New England^ 
from 1674 to 1687 inclusively, written by the late 

Rev. T. P"-!^^^-] Preface to his Annals. 303 

Reverend Doctor Increase Mather. In his own 

7. An original Journal of the late Captain Lawrence 
Hammond, of Charlestown and Boston, from 1677 to 
1694 inclusively. 

8. An original Journal of a very intelligent person de- 
ceased, who desired not to be named ; relating remark- 
able matters from 1689 to 171 1 inclusively. 

In Octavo : 

1. A Register of Governor Bradford's, in his own hand 
[usually known as his Pocket book, now lost], recording 
some of the first deaths, marriages, and punish- 
ments at Plymouth [pp. 400, 405]. 

With three other miscellaneous Volumes of his. 

2. A little ancient Table Book of his son, Major William 
Bradford, afterwards Deputy Governor of Plymouth 
Colony; written wdth his own hand, from 1649 to 1670. 

3. Captain Roger Clap's Account of the ancient affairs 
of the Massachusetts Colony. 

4. An original Register wrote by the Reverend Master 
John Lathrop, recording the first affairs both of 
Scituate and Barnstable ; of which towns he was, 
successively, the first Minister. 

5. Two original books of Deputy Governor Willoughby, 
and Captain Hammond, giving historical hints from 
1651 to 1678 inclusively. 

6. Interleaved Almanacks of the late Honourable John 
Hull and Judge Sewall of Boston, Esquires, of the 
Reverend Mr. Shepard, last of Charlestown, of the 
late Reverend Mr. Joseph Gerrish of Wenham, and 
of several others; from 1646 to 1720: wherein the 
facts were wTote at the time they happened ; though 
the notes in several, being wrote in divers sorts of 
shorthand to which I was an utter stranger, put me to 
no small pains to find out their Alphabets and other 

304 Preface to his Anjvazs. P*^^- "^^ ^7/3^ 

In loose papers : 

1. Extracts from the Public Records of the Colonies of 
Plymouth, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. 

2. A great number of ancient Letters and other papers ; 
which I have collected from several libraries, and 
particular persons. 

3. Near 200 chronological Letters sent me, collected from 
the Records of several Towns and Churches, throughout 
this country; as sdso irom private Registers, gravestones, 
and the information of aged and intelligent persons. 

The reader will easily conceive how large and difficult a 
field now lay before me, when all these Manuscripts were to be 
perused, examined, and compared, both with themselves and 
with those Accounts already published : their varieties and 
contradictions solved; their mistakes discovered; the chro- 
nological order of all their passages found out ; one regular 
Abridgment taken from them ; what several wanted to be 
supplied from others; and the most material and proper 
passages, words, and phrases selected from them all, and 
placed together in a natural order, so as to enlighten each 

For in my tracing several Authors on this occasion, I soon 
saw cause to come into the same sentiment and resolution 
with the Reverend Mr. Strype in his Preface to the First 
Volume of his Annals of the Reformation, which I shall men- 
tion in his own words : " I have chosen commonly to set down 
things in the very words of the Records and Originals, and 
of the Authors themselves, rather than in my own ; without 
framing and dressing them into more modern language : 
whereby the sense is sure to remain entire as the writers 
meant it. Whereas by affecting too curiously to change and 
model words and sentences; I have observed the sense itself 
to be often marred and disguised." 

Yet more scrupulous than Mr. Strype, on this account. 

Rev. T. Prince.-] P R E F A C E TO HIS A .V .V A L S . 3O5 

For instead of commonly, I have so tuiiversally observed this 
rule, that where I have inserted sentences or words of my 
own for illustration, I have either enclosed them in crotchets 
[] (i.e., square brackets), or added them at the e/ii of paragraphs 
without any author cited after them. And I know not that I 
have ever changed any words or phrases, unless they were 
very uncouth or obsolete : and then I have taken special care 
to answer them with others of the same exact importance. 
Only in some very few instances, I have used a softer term for 
a severer. 

In the History of our own Times, we may freely use our 
own expressions : but in all Accounts of Events before ; every 
Writer must take from Others, whether he mentions his origi- 
nals or not. And though it be more laborious, yet it seems 
not only more ingenuous to cite them; but also carries more 
authority, and gives the inquisitive reader greater satisfaction. 
But those who have no regard to those authorities may in 
the reading omit them ; unless where they think the passage 
of too great moment. 

And here I must observe, that Mr. Morton's History, from 
the beginning of the Plymouth People to the end of 1646, 
being chiefly Governor Bradford's manuscript abbreviated : 
from thence it comes to pass, that in many articles and 
paragraphs which I cite from Governor Bradford, both Mr. 
Morton and I happen to use the same words and sentences. 
Not that I deduce them from Mr. Morton ; but because they 
are the original words and sentences in Governor Bradford. 

Some may think me rather too critical ; others, that I relate 
some circumstances too minute ; and others, that I need not 
have interrupted the reading, with so manynotes in the margin. 

As for the first, I think a Writer of Facts cannot be too 
critical. It is Exactness I aim at : and would not have the 
least mistake, if possible, pass to the world. If I have 
unhappily fallen into any, it is through inadvertency only: 

Kxc. G.-iR. 11. 20 

3o6 Preface TO ii i s Annals. ['"'''■ '^■^'llll: 

and I shall be obliged to those who will be so kind as to send 
me their corrections. 

As to the second, those things which are too minute with 
some, are not so with others. Those minute things are 
observed with pleasure by the people who live in the places 
where they were transacted ; which are inconsiderable to those 
who never saw them. And there is none who attentively 
reads a History, either ancient or modern; but, in a great 
many cases, wishes the writer had mentioned some minuter 
circumstances, that were then commonly known, and thought 
too needless or small to be noted. Besides, smaller matters 
are of greater moment among a smaller people, and more 
affect them; which are less important and affecting as the 
people grow more numerous. And I have therefore thought 
it a proper rule in History to mention smaller things in the 
Infancy of these Plantations; which I shall gradually omit, as 
they grow a greater people. 

But as to the third, I wish I had placed many of the notes 
in the body of the page ; and propose to do so in the rest of 
the work. 

As for impartiality, I know it is usual for the writers of 
History to assert it, some in their prefaces, others in the front 
of their works ; some in the strongest terms, who have been 
notoriously guilty of the contrary : and I am apt to think that 
many are partial who are insensible of it. 

For myself, I own I am on the side of pure Christianity, 
as also of Civil and Religious Liberty ; and this for the 
low as well as high, for the laity as well as the clergy. I 
am for leaving every one to the freedom of worshiping 
according to the light of his conscience ; and for extending 
charity to every one who receives the Gospel as the rule of 
his faith and life. I am on the side of meekness, patience, 
gentleness, and innocence. And I hope my inclination to 
these great principles will not bias me to a mis-recital of 

Rev.T.Pnnce.J PrefACE TO HIS A N ^ A L S. ^^7 

Facts ; but rather to state them, as I really find them, for the 
public benefit. 

Nor will the nature or design of this Work, which is rather 
a Register or Collection of Matters, as described by others, so 
much admit of partiality as a proper History; where the 
Writer allows himself the freedom of using his own 

In citing Fuller, for the births, ages, and characters of 
persons; I sometimes mean his ABEL redivivus, but otherwise 
his Church History of England. 

And whereas I observe some mistakes in Mr. Hubbard's 
History of New England, the Reader may consider ; that as we 
have only a copy of that valuable work, the substance 
whereof I propose to give the public : some of those mistakes 
may be owing to the transcriber only ; and some that learned 
and ingenious Author fell into, for want of Governor 
Bradford's History, and some other materials ; which I 
happened to be favoured with. 

In short, I cite my Vouchers to every Passage; and I have 
done my utmost, first to find out the Truth] and then to relate 
it, in the clearest order. I have laboured after accuracy, and 
yet I dare not say that I am without mistake ; nor do I 
desire the Reader to conceal any he may possibly find. But 
on the contrary, I offer this work to the public view ; that it 
may be perused with the most critical eye, that every 
error may be discovered, and the correction published in the 
following volume ; which I hope will not be long com- 
posing : having passed through the much greater difficulties 
in this First, and abstracted many of my materials towards 
the Second. 


A L I S T of the 

[Omitted in the present Text. E. A., 1879.] 
\_TJte following note is 0/ interest. E. A,, 1879.] 

Ur Subscription being begun in 1628, and several of 
the Subscribers being since deceased, who are 
marked with an * : this may notify the relatives of 
such deceased persons, that if they incline to take up the 
books subscribed for ; they may do it ; provided they come 
or send for them, in a short time. 

And seeing some gentlemen's names in the list happen to 
be printed without their proper additions; and fearing it may 
be so, with others ; we crave pardon for such omissions. 





The Introduction. 


I. The Scripture Patriarchs. ^ 

II. The Judges of Israel. 

III. The Kings of Judah. 

IV. The Babylonian, Persian, Grecian, 

and Egyptian Monarchs. 
V. The Roman Emperors. 
VI. The Monarchs of the Eastern 

VII. The Monarchs of England. 

1. From Egbert the First King of England, 
to the First Discovery of the New World 
by Christopher Columbus. J 

2. From thence, to the Discovery of New 
England, and death of Queen Eliza- 
beth [pp. 312-342.] 


[Xliis Sectional Title does not occur in the original Edition. E. A. iS7g1 

1 1 

















S AN Introduction to the New England 
Chronology, it may be grateful to many 
readers to see the Age of the World when 
this part of the Earth came to be known 
to the others ; and the Line of Time, with 
the succession of the principal persons, 
events, and transactions which had been running on from 
the Creation, to the settlement of this country by a Colony 
from England. And this I shall briefly show under the 
following articles, which seem to me the most clear and 
natural Heads or successive Periods of Chronology, espe- 
cially for an English reader. 

I. The Scripture Patriarchs. 

II. The Judges of Israel. 

III. The Kings of Judah. 

IV. The Babylonian, Persian, Grecian, andEgyptianMonarchs. 

V. The Roman Emperors. 

VI. The Monarchs of the Eastern Empire. 
VW.The Monarchs of England. 

1. From Egbert, the first king of England to the First 
discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus. 

2. From thence, to the Discovery of New England, and death 
of Queen Elizabeth. 

.'. All these Eight Divisions, but the last, occupying 75 pages in the 
original Work, are omitted in the present Text. E. A. 1879. 



To THE Discovery of New Engl.-^nd, 


He united Continents of Asia, Africa, and Europe 
have been the only Stage of History ; from the 
Creation, to the year of Christ 1492. We now 
turn our eyes to the West, and see a NEW 
WORLD appearing in the Atlantic Ocean, to the great 
surprise and entertainment of the other. 

Christopher Columbus or Colonus, a Genoese, is the 
first Discoverer. Being a skilful geographer and navigator, 
and of a very curious mind ; he becomes possessed with a 
strong persuasion, that in order to balance the terraqueous 
Globe, and proportion the seas and lands to each other ; 
there must needs be formed a mighty Continent on the other 
side, which boldness, art, and resolution would soon discover. 
He first proposes his undertaking to the Genoese ; and then 
to John, King of Portugal : but being denied, he applies to 
Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Spain ; who, 
after five years' urging, are, at last, prevailed to furnish him 
with three ships and ninety men^^ for his great enterprise ; 
' Herera says 90 men, but Galvanus says 120. 

Rev. T. Prince.J Ja^TRODUCTION VII. IT. 1492. O^ 3 

Icings. England, Henry VII;; Spain, Ferdinand. 

which, through the growing opposition of his fearful manners, 
he at length accomplishes ; to his own immortal fame, and the 
infinite advantage of innumerable others. 

And as we are now bound for the Western World, I shall 
chiefly fill our final Section with the principal and gradual 
Discoveries and Plantations there, till we first discover the 
North-Eastern part we now call New England : with the most 
material hints of the Rise and Progress of the Reformed 
Religion ; which, at length, produced its present settlement. 

N.B. We still begin with the famous Julian Year, viz., with 
January i ; which I think the whole Christian world observes, 
except the South part of Britain.* 


V.\Y)kX, Aiigmt 3.^ Columbus sails from 
Pales, in "Spain; calls at the Canaries.b.'^ 
Thursday, September 6, sails thence west- 
ward; September 14, first observes the Varia- 
tion of the Compass. At ten in the evening 
between October 11 and 12, he descries a 
light. At two, next morning, Roderick 
Triana first discovers land,'^''^ being Guana- 
hani,b.c one of the islands of the New World, called Lucayos"; 
where Columbus goes ashore, and calls it San Salvador,b.c 
being about 25° N. Lat.^ Saturday, October 27, discovers Cuba. 

* Harris, and the Aiias Geographus mistake, in saying August 2. 
b Galvanus. '" Herera. ^ Perier. 

<i Galvanus says, "They discover land on October 10" : and perhaps 
Herera might mistake from the seamen's method ; who set down at noon 
October 1 1 aU the events of the twenty-four hours preceding, and give them 
the date of October 11. r - c ^ 

* It was sixteen years after (but before the appearance of Princf, s heconci 
Volume), that the reckoning of the year from 25 .I/arc// , was changed,^ \\\ England, 
to from I January, [1752] ; under the same Act of Parliament (24 Geo. II. c. 23) 
which also adopted the Nno Style. E. A. 1S79. 

314 1 492- 1 496. / jV TR d u c ti o n VII. //. i'^'^^- J- ^7^^=; 
kings. England, Henry VII.; Spain, Ferdinand. 

December 6, arrives at Bohio, which he calls Hispaniola^ ; 
where he builds a fort, and leaves thirty-eight men,*^ or thirty- 


Wednesday, January 16, he sails from Hispaniola ; Satur- 
day, February 18, arrives at St. Mary's, one of the Azores ; 
Monday, March 4, at the river of Lisbon; and Friday, March 
15, at Palos.^ 

Bartholomew Diaz sails from Portugal, first passes the 
Cape of Good Hope, and sails to the ancient Ethiopia. '^ 

Wednesday, September 25.^ Columbus sails from Cadiz in 
Spain ; Lord's Day, November 2,, discovers one of the Caribbees, 
which he calls Dominica ; next day, sails northward to 
another, which he calls Mariagalante ; next day to another, 
which he calls Guadaloupe; November 10, discovers another, 
which he calls Montserrat ; then another which he calls 
Antigua,^ and fifty more to the north-westward^; with 
Boriquen, now called Porto Rico^'^; Friday, 22, arrives at 


Thursday, April 24, he sails for Cuba ; April 29, descries 
it ; sails along the southern shore ; and spies Jamaica ; Mon- 
day, May 24, arrives there ; returns to Cuba and Hispaniola.^ 


March 10. Columbus sails for Spain; and June 11, arrives 
at Cadiz.a 

This spring. John Cabota, a Venetian, sails with two ships 
from England, steers westward, discovers the shore of the 
New World in 45° N. Lat. ; sails along the coast northward 
to 60", and then southward to 38°, some say to Cape Florida 
in 25° ; and returns to England.^-^ 

^ Herera. ^ Galvanus. ' Perier. 

•^ Galvanus misia'.es in saying October 2^. * Atlas Geographus. 

f Smith says, "that John carries his son Sebastian with him ; who 
afterwards proceeds in these discoveries ; " whence Stow, Purchas 
Harris, the Atlas ztA others erroneously ascribe them all to Sebastian 
only. Purchas says, " Sebastian, in Ramusio, places his first voyage in 
1496 ;" though the map under his picture in the Privy Gallery, with Camden, 
in 1497 ; and so, Smith. But Stow, in 1498 ; unless the voyage he 
mentions be another. 


'"■ ''''!7jo;] IyTJ?oDucrio.v. J^II. //. 149 7- -1500. 315 

Kings. England, HENRY VII.,; Spain, Ferdinand. 


Thursday, February 16. Melancthon born at Bretten, in 
the Palatinate.^ 

June 20. Vasco de Gama sails from Lisbon southward ; 
passes the Cape of Good Hope ; first sails to the East 
Indies: and returning by the same Cape, arrives at Lisbon 
in September 1499.'^ 


Wednesday, May 30. <= Columbus sails from San Lucar, 
in Spain ; July 31, discovers an island,^ which he calls 
Trinidado,t''d in g° N. Lat.^ ; Wednesday, August i, he first 
discovers the Continent; ^ sails along the main coast 
westward ^■^', discovers Margarita,"^ and many other Islands.t'-f^ 
for two hundred leagues to Cape Vela^ ; crosses over to His- 
paniola*^'*^ ; where being seized, and sent home in chains by a 
new Spanish Governor, he arrives at CdiAxz, November 25, 1500. ^ 


May 20. Alonso Ojeda sails from St. Mary's, in Spain, 
with John Cosa as Pilot, and Americus Vesputius, a 
Florentine, as Merchant [supercargo] ; steers westward ; in 
twenty-seven days discovers land two hundred leagues East 
of Trindidado, about 5° N. Lat. ; sails along the coast 
westward to Cape Vela; thence arrives at Hispaniola, 
September 5; thence sails to Porto Rico ; and thence to Spain.^ 

November 13.^' Vincent Yannez Pinson sails from Palos, 
in Spain ; for the southern part of the New World, and passes 
the equinoctial [equator]. ^■'^ 


February 26,"^ he discovers Cape Augustine'''^ in 8° S. Lat.^; 
thence sailing along north - westerly, discovers the river 
Amazon, and the coast and rivers of Brazil to Trinidad ^■'^ ; 
thence, at the end of September,'^ or September 28,'^ he arrives in 

Monday, March 9.^ Pedro Alvarez Cabral sails from 
Lisbon, for the East Indies ^'.d; steers so far westward that on 
April 24, d he happens to descry Brazil ; and enters a river 
there, which he calls Porto Seguro,^'^ in 17° S. Lat. ; whence, 

' Calvisius. *> Galvanus. ^ Herera. 

^ Galvanus seems to mistake, in placing this Third Voyage of 
Columbus in 1497. 

3i6 i^co-i^^oi.I NTROD UCTION. VII. 11. [^""•'^■'^'^''^f;. 

Kings. Ejig/and, H R N R Y VII.; Spain, FERDINAND. 

he crosses over to the Cape of Good Hope, and pursues his 

Gaspar Coterial, by license of the King of Portugal, sails 
from Tercera,^ discovers the north-eastern coast of the New 
World, in 50^^ N. Lat.,^'^ from him called Corterialis ; and 
returns home to Lisbon.^ 


January 6. Roderick Bastidas sails from Cadiz to Cape 
Vela; discovers one hundred^ or two hundred leagues^ west- 
ward, all along the coast at Santa Martha, Carthagena, 
the Gulf of Darien, and as far as the port afterwards called 
Nombre de Dios ; then sails to Hispaniola.'^'*^ 

Soon after, Alonso Ojeda sets out on his second voyage, 
and Americus Vesputius with him ; sail to the same place 
after Bastidas, and so to Hispaniola>^ 

Lord's Day, iVoz'em6cri4. PrinceARTHUR of England, ^;. 15'= 
or 16,* marries, at London, to Katharine, cbI. 18, daughter to 
Ferdinand, King of Spain.^-^ One great occasion of the 
Reformation in England ; as we shall see hereafter. 


March 12,^ beginning of /4/)n7,ey4j!)rz7 2,^ Prince Arthur dies. 

May g.'^'' Columbus sails from Cadiz to Hispaniola; thence, 
to the Continent ; discovers the Bay of Honduras. Lord's 
Day, August 14, lands^"; thence sails along the main shore 
easterly two hundred leagues ^ to Cape Gracias a Dios, 
Veragua, Porto Bello, and the Gulf of Darien. ^-"^ 

This year. Sebastian Cabot brings to King Henry VH., 
three men taken in the Newfoundland islands.^ 


January 6. Columbus enters the river Yebra in Veragua, 
where he first begins as settlement ; but soon breaks up, and 
sails to Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola.^ 

^ Galvanus. ^ Herera. ^ Stow. ^ Holinshed. 

*= Galvanus places Bastidas's Voyage after Ojeda's ; and both in 1 502. 

^ Neither Hakluyt, Purchas, Harris, nor Perier, mention any 
voyages of Americus. The Atlas Geographus gives us two from 
GRYNiEUS ; the first in 1497, and the second in 1500 : but Herera says, 
they were proved to be mere impositions of Americus ; and he only went 
twice with Ojeda. 

s Glover and Milles. '' Speed. ' Perier. 

Rev. T. rri.ce.J / ^^ T R D UC T 1 ^ VII. 11. I5O3-I5O9. 3I7 

Kings. England, HENRY VIII.; Spain, FERDINAND. 

August 8.^ Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII., 
marries, at Edinburgh, James IV., King of Scotland.-^-^ 

September 12. Columbus sails from Hispaniola, arrives 
at San Lucar ; and going to Seville, finds Queen Isabella 
dead.'^ She died November 26, this year.^ 

May 20.^-^'f Columbus dies'^'S at Valladolid in Spain; his 
body is carried over, and buried in the Cathedral of Saint Do- 
mingo in Hispaniola'^; and his son James succeeds as heir.'^-S''^ 
King Ferdinand orders two bishops for Hispaniola ; and 
establishes the tithes there, for the support of the clergy.^ 

Americus Vesputius goes from Lisbon to Seville, and 
King Ferdinand appoints him to draw sea charts, with the 
title of Chief Pilot : whence the New World afterwards 
unjustly takes the name of America.<= 

John Diaz Solis and Vincent Yannez Pinson sail 
from Seville to Cape Augustine ; discover the coast of Brazil 
southward '^ to 35'' S. Lat., where they find the great river 
Paranaguazu, which they call Rio de la Plata or " River of 
Silver " S; go on to 40° S. Lat. ; and return to Spain."='' 

April 2i,J or rather 22. King Henry VII. dies.^-^'^ Lived 
fifty-two years.^'J 

And his only surviving son, Henry VIII. cut. i8,^''^'J reigns 
thirty-seven years, nine months, and six days. 

June 3,^'^ he marries his brother Arthur's widow, by Pope 
Julius's dispensation.a-bJ 

July 10. Calvin born at Noyon in France.^ 

November 10. Alonso Ojeda sails from Hispaniola, and 
James Nicuessa follows him, to settle the Continent. They 

3i8 1 509-1 5 1 5. Intkoduction VI I. 11. ['^''- "^^ '1;^^: 

Kings. England, HENRY VIII.; Spain, FERDINAND. 

land, and meet at Carthagena, but are beaten off; and Ojeda 
begins a settlement at Saint Sebastian, on the east side of 
the Gulf of Darien.^ Nicuessa begins another at Nombre 
de Dios on the west side.^'^ But are both soon broken up, 
through the opposition of the natives.^'*^ 


John de Esquibel sails from Hispaniola, and begins a 
settlement at Jamaica.^ 

John Ponce begins to settle Porto Rico,^*^ 

Fernandez de Enciso and Basco Nunnez begin to 
settle St. Mary's at Darien.^ 


Tames Velasquez begins to settle Cuba.^ 
1512 {i.e., 1513]. 

Thursday, MarcA 3 {i.e., 1512-13). John Ponce sails from 
Porto Rico, northwards ; April 2, discovers the Continent, in 
30° 8' N.Lat. ; calls it Florida; goes ashore, takes possession; 
sails along the coast southerly ; Lord's Day, May 8, doubles 
the Cape ; thence, sailing southerly, discovers the Bahamas; 
and returns to Porto Rico.^ 


Basco,^ or Vasco,^' Nunnez hearing a rumour of the 
South Sea; September i, sets out from Darient-'^ ; September 
25,^'*^ from the top of a high mountain,^ first discovers that 
mighty Ocean.^-^ September 29, comes to it,"^ embarks upon 
it ; and returns.^-^ 


Gaspar Morales marches from Darien across the land to 
the South Sea; discovers the Pearl Islands in the Bay of St. 
Michael, in 5° N. Lat.^ 

John Arias begins to people Panama on the South Sea, 
and discovers two hundred and fifty leagues on the coast to 
8° 30' N. Lat.b 

GoNSALES Ferdinandus Oviedus discovcrs the islands 
of the Bermudas.^ 

The Complutensian [Polyglot] Bible publisheds at Antwerp'^ 

^ HERERA. '' GALVANUS. ^ PERIER. ^ PURCHAS. ^ Calvisius. 

" Galvanus places these Attempts under 1508 ; and it is likely this was 
the year when they set sail from Spain ; and so Herera seems to make 
it. "^ A//as Ccog7-aphus. ^ Ckowcei ElencJnis. 

Rev. T. Prince 

1^^^] Introduction VII. ii. 15 15-15 19. 319 

Kings. England, HENRY VIII.; Spain, CHARLES. 

[or rather at A Icala in Spain] ; which proves a principal instru- 
ment of the Reformation. 


January 23. Ferdinand King of Spain dies ; and his 
daughter's son, Charles of Austria, reigns.^'t> 

February 11,'= or iS.'^ King Henry's daughter Mary bcrn.^ 

Sir Sebastian Cabot and Sir Thomas Pert sail from 
England to the New World ; and coast the Continent, the 
second time, to Brazil/ 

February 8.^ Francis Fernandez Cordova sails from 
Cuba, and discovers the Province of Yucatan,^'e in 20° N. 
Lat.,s and the Bay of Campechey.^ 


T/ie beginnmg of the Refor?7tation, 

October 31.^ Luther, an Augustine friar,'i sets up Ninety- 
five Theses against the Pope's Indulgences, on the church door^ 
of Wittemberg, in Saxony'^- and begins the Reformation in 


April 8.^ John de Grisalva sails from Cuba to Yucatan, 
and discovers the southern coast of the Bay of Mexico,^'Swith 
the head of the bay to Saint John de Ulloa; and first calls the 
country. New Spain.* 

Francis Garay sails from Jamaica to Cape Florida, in 25° 
N. Lat.,i discovers five hundred leagues westward on the 
northern coast of the great Bay of Mexico to the river Panuco 
in 23° N. Lat.jg at the bottom of the bay. 


January 12. Maximilian, Emperor of Germany, dies ; and 
June 28, Charles, King of Spain, chosen Emperor.'^ 

Beginning of the year, Zwinglius comes to Zurich, soon 

= Herera. ^ Calvisius. <= Stow. «* Holinshed. ' Purchas. 

" Both Stow and Holinshed place it in the 7th year of Henry 
Vni. ; which must he February 1515-16 ; but 1518 in the margin of 
Holinshed is wrongly printed. ^ Galvanus. ^ Sleidan. 

' Herera says, he only sends James de Comargo. 

320 1519-1521- Introduction. VI I. 11. [^'"■' '''■ ^""jl; 

Kings. Etigland, HENRY VIII.; Spain, CHARLES. 

j-reiches against the Pope's indulgences; and begins the 
Reformation in Switzerland.^ 

In February^ Fernando Cortes sails from Cuba to Yucatan, 
and then to St. John de Ulloa; whence Francis de Mon- 
TEjo and Roderick Alvarez sail northward, and discover 
the coast to the river Panuco. April 22, Cortes lands, and 
begins a town, which he calls Vera Cruz^ ; at the end of 
August, sets out for Mexicot" ; November 8, enters that great 
city, then containing sixty thousand houses.^ 

August 10. Ferdinand de MAGELLANES, Portuguese, <='^ 
sails from Seville to find out a South West Passage to the 
East Indies, and go round the earthb'<=; December 13, de- 
scries Brazil, and enters the River Janeiro in 23° 45' S. 
Lat. ; sails along the coast southward, and October 21, 1520, 
discovers the Cape at the northern entrance of the famous 
Straits which bear his name ^ : November 7, enters them ; and 
November 27, opens the great Southern Ocean, ^ which he calls 
"the Pacific"'^; sails north-westerly three thousand leagues; 
March 31, 1521, discovers the Philippine Islands, in one of 
which, namely. Zebu, he is slain in a fight with the natives, 
April 27. Upon which, his ship sails to Borneo ; where the 
men choose John Sebastian del Cano as their Captain. 
November 8, he arrives at the Moluccas. In the beginning 
of 1522, sails thence, to the Cape of Good Hope; and Sep- 
tember 6, arrives at St. Lucar^ with but a dozen men'^ : being 
the First that ever encompassed the Earth.'^-'^ 


December 20. Luther burns the Canon Law, publicly, at 


The Augustine friars at Wittemberg leave off the Mass, 
and are the first to do so.^ 

Tuesday, August 13. Cortes takes the city of Mexico, and 
puts an end to that great Indian Empire.^'f 

King Henry VIII. writes against Luther, § for which 
February 2, 1521-22, the King receives a Bull from the Pope ; 

= Sleidan. ^ Galvanus. " Herera. ^ Purchas. 

^ He calls this Cape, " The Virgins," because " discovered on St. 
Ursula's Day" (Herera) ; and MOLL mistakes, in calling it the "Virgin 
Mary's." ' Gage. s Stow. 

Rev. T. Prince.-] J ^yTR OD U C TI N VII. II. 152I-I526. 321 

I736J ^ 

Kings. England, HENRY VIII.; Spaiti, CHARLES. 

wherein he and his successors, for ever, are declared Defenders 

of the Christian Faith.^ 


'January 29. The Senate of Zurich reject the traditions of 
men, and declare the Gospel shall be taught according to the 
Old and New Testament.^ . r • u . *. 

7u/v I ToHN and Henry, two Augustine friars, burnt at 
Brussels' for professing the Holy Scriptures to be the only 
rule of faith &c.^ 

N B The Reformation coming on,, and crowding us with more 

important matters; I shall only recite the Voyages to 

the North Eastern parts of the New World. 

1524. ^ ^^. 

John Verrazano, a Florentine, sent from France by King 
Francts I., coasts along the North Eastern part of the New 
World,' from 28^ to 50° N. Lat.^ He is the first that sails 
from France thither. 


Stephen Gomez sails from the Groyne [Corunna] to Cuba 
and Florida ; and thence northward to Cape Razo [Race] in 
46° N. Lat., in search of a North West Passage to the East 
Indies; and returns to the Groyne in ten months.^-e ihe 
first Spaniard who sailed on these coasts.^ 

April 13. The Magistrates at Zurich abolish the Mass and 
all the Popish ceremonies in their dominions.^ _ 

Albert, the Thirty-third Master of the Teutonic Order 
made Duke of Prussia, and embraces the Eeformed religion.i^ 

By King Henry's leave, and the Pope's Confirmation,^ 
Cardinal Wolsey suppresses forty Monasteries m England, 
for the building of his Colleges in Oxford and Ipswich.s 


About Ai^gust, Patrick Hamilton, Abbot of Ferne in 
Scotland, returns from Germany, where he had beep a scholar 
to Luther. He is burnt for the Reformed religion ^ at St. 


e gatvanus. ^ Stow. , , 1 j- 

f HERERA represents this Voyage as beginning northward, and ending 
at Florida ; and so to Cuba, &c. 
ExG. Gar. II, 21 

322 1526 -1529. Introduction VII. 11. \^''^-'^-^'\'^X 

Kings. England, Henry VIII.; Spain, Charles. 

Andrews on February 28 following. •''■^ He is the first 
Martyr for it in Scotland. 


March 8. Gustavus Ericson, King of Sweden, calls the 
States together, and begins the Reformation there.*^ 

Cardinal Wolsey infuses scruples into King Henry's mind 
about his marriage with his brother's widow.'^'^ 

Francis Colb and Berthold Holler having preached 
the Gospel at Berne; December 17, the City appoints a Public 
Assembly and Disputation there, and the Scriptures to be the 
only rule, and to have the sole authority in all the debates.^ 


January 7. The great Assembly and Disputation begins at 
Berne, and holds to January 26; wherein Zwinglius, 
O^colampadius, Capito, Bucer, &c., defend the Reformed 
religion ; and thereupon Popery is abolished in Berne and 
Constance, and in their dominions.^ 

In March. Pamfilo de Narvaez sails from Cuba, with 
four hundred men, for the conquest of Florida ; April 12, 
arrives there, s marches to Apelachen ; thence coming down 
to the sea, and coasting westward, is lost with many more, in 
a storm about imdi-Noveniber ; which defeats the enterprise.^'' 


February 9. Piles of images burnt before the Cathedral at 
Bale ; and February 12, Popery abolished there.' 

February 20. Mass abolished at Strasburg.^ 

The Diet of the Empire at Spires makes a Decree against 
the Reformation; April 19, the Elector of Saxony, George 
Marquis of Brandenburg, Earnest and Francis Duk;s of 
Launenburg, the Landgrave of Hesse, and Count of 
Anhalt, publicly read their Protest against it; several 
cities joining with them: whence they take the famous name 
of Protestants. f 

October ig. King Henry takes the Great Seal from Cardinal 


November 3. The Parliament of England meets, "^^'^ and 


^ Buchanan therefore places this in 1527. 2 Herera. ^ Purchas. 

' He seems to be lost about the mouth of the great river Mississippi 

(see Purchas). s Holinshed mistakes, in placing this on November 17. 

Rev. T. Prince. J J JSfTR DU CT 10 N VII. II. I529-I532. 323 

Ki)i(^s. Eiiglafid, Henry VIIL.; Spain, Charles. 

complains of the clergy's non-residence, pluralities, and exac- 
tions on the people : but the Bishops oppose, and hinder 
many of the regulations.^'^ 


At the beginning of the year.^ William Tyndale publishes 
his translation of the New Testament, in English ; beyond the 
sea: which King Henry prohibits) and orders the Bishops 
to make a new one.^-t" 

June 20. The famous Diet of the Empire at Augsburg 
begins: and June 25, the Protestant Confession of Faith, 
drawn up by Melancthon, since called the Augsburg Confes- 
sion, read in the Diet.*^ 

September ig. King Henry, by Proclamation, forbids his 
subjects to purchase anything from Rome.^-'^ 

Tuesday, November 29. Cardinal Wolsey dies. The 
Clergy of England being guilty of a. prcrmnnire for maintain- 
ing the Cardinal's Legatine power : they, in Convocation, 
agree to pay the King ^100,000 for pardon ; make their sub- 
mission to him, and own him Supreme Head of the Church 
of England,^'^ which they never confessed beforCi^ And 

Here Polydore Vergil ends his History."^ 

December 22. Divers Protestant Princes, and deputies of 
Cities in Germany, meet at Smalcald, and enter into a De- 
fensive League.'^ 


August 19. Thomas Bilney burnt at Norwich,'^ for preach- 
ing the Reformed religion.*^'^ 

October 11. Zwinglius slain, est. 44, in a battle between the 
Zurichers and their neighbouring enemies.'^-s 


January 15.^ The Parliament of England meets; complains 
of the cruelties of the Bishops ; and Enacts, They shall pay no 
more money to the Pope^'^ij they having paid, in the last forty- 
two years, ^^60,000^' or ;^i6o,ooo.^'i 

^ HoLiNSHED. ^ Stow, = Sleidan. "^ Polydore Vergil. 

^ N.B. There were many others burnt for the same religion in other 
parts of the Kingdom, both before and afterwards : for which we must 
refer to Fox's Martyrology. ^ Fox. e Calvisius. ^ Keeble. 

' The Act, printed in BuRNET, says, eight score thousand pounds : so 
that Stow is mistaken. 

324 1532-1534- IntrodiJction VII. 11. p^'- "^^ ^'■i"36: 

Kiiif^s. England, Henry VIII.; Spain, CHARLES. 

July. King Henry suppresses the Priory of Christ Church, 
London. •■^ 

August 23. William Warham, Archhishop of Canterbury, 
dies ; and Thomas Cranmer succeeds.^ 

September. Farel and Saunier, from preaching in Pied- 
mont, come to Geneva; and begin to preach the Reformed 
rehgion in private houses.'' 

November 14. King Henry privately marries Anne 
Boleyn^'"^; but Stow says January 25, 1532-3.^ 

November. Calvin obHged to fly from Paris to Bale, for the 
Reformed religion.*^ 


February 4/ The Parliament of England meets. Enacts 
That none shall appeal to Rome ; and that Katharine shalJ 
be no more called Queen, but Princess Dowager of Prince 
Arthur.^' '^ 

March 28. Liberty of Private Opinion ; and June 26, Liberty 
of Private Worship allowed at Geneva.^ 

Lord's Day, September 7. The Princess Elizabeth born 
to King Henry.^'"^ 


January 15. The Parliament of England meets. Enacts, 
That no Canons shall be made or put in execution by the 
Convocation of the Clergy which shall be repugnant to the 
customs, laws, or statutes of the Realm, or to the King's pre- 
rogative ; nor without his assent. That none be presented 
to the Pope or See of Rome for the office of any Archbishop 
or Bishop in the King's dominions ; or send thither for any- 
thing requisite for an Archbishop or Bishop. And that no 
Dispensations shall be sued for, nor impositions paid to the 

March i. Farel, the first Protestant who preaches pub- 
licly at Geneva.^ 

April. James Cartier sails from St. Malo in France ; in 
May, arrives at Newfoundlands; falls with 48° 30' N. Lat., 

* Stow. ^ Spon. " Holinshed. '• Glover and Milles. 


Rev.T. Prince.-| f j^TR D UC TT iV. VII. IT. I534-I536. 325 

Kings. England^ Henry VIII.; Spain, Charles. 

discovers the great Bay of St. Lawrence ; sails to 51° N. Lat. 
in hopes to pass to China; but is disappointed; and returns.^ 

July 22. John Frith, and Andrew HEWETa young man, 
burnt in Smithfield, London, for not owning the bodily pre- 
sence of Christ in the Sacrament.^-c 

August 15. Ignatius Loyola (born in Spain in 1491) now, 
with nine others, at Paris, begins the Society of Jesuits. "^■'^ 

November 3.^ The Parliament of England meets. Enacts 
the King's supremacy, and abolishes the Pope's authority 
through the Realm.'^''^ 

November. A persecution of Protestants rages in France, 
and many burnt. s 


James Cartier sails again from France : discovers the 
river Canada ; sails up three hundred leagues^ to the great 
and swift Fall ; builds a fort,'^ calls the land, New France ; 
winters there ; and, next year, goes home.^ 

August 27. The Roman Catholic religion abolished in 

October.^-'^ King Henry sends Thomas Cromwell,<^ Doctor 
Lee, and others, to visit the Priories, Abbeys, and Nunneries ; 
who set all at liberty under twenty-four years of age, with 
those who are willing to go out ; and shut up the rest.'^'*^ 

The Senate of Augsburg receives the Reformation. 


February 4. The Parliament of England meets ; and gives 
the King all Religious Houses of the value of £200 and under, 
with all their lands and goods.^'^'i 

May I. The Parliament of Ireland meets at Dublin, and 
passes laws for the King and his successors to be Supreme 
Head of the Church of Ireland ; abolishing the Pope's au- 
thority, suppressing abbeys, and making it prcemunire to 
pursue any process from the See of Rome.^'' 


^ DuPiN. '' Keeble says, February 3, 1534-5. s Sleidan. 

^ Holinshed's History of Ireland. '' PURCHAS. ' Spon. 

^ N.B. The number of Houses is 376. Value of their lands, yearly, 
above ^32,000 ; movable goods, above ^^100,000. Persons put out of 
them, above 10,000 (Holinshed and Stow). 

' Holinshed is right, in placing this in 28 Hen. VJJI. ; but wrong in 
setting 1539 in the margin. 

326 153 6- 153 S- Introduction VII. //. [^'^- "^^ ^'1^^^; 

Kings. England, HENRY VIII.; Spain, Charles. 

May 19. Queen Anne beheaded with a sword ; and the 
next day, King Henry marries Jane Seymour. 

June. King Henry abrogates a number of holy days, 
especially in harvest time.''^ 

July 10. Cromwell made a Lord ; and July 18, made 
Knight and Vicar-General, under the King, over the Spiritu- 
ality'^ ; and sits divers times as Head over the Bishops, in 

July II, "^ or rather 12.^ Erasmus dies at Bale. 

August 1. Calvin publishes his Inditiitions at Bale,^ then 
goes to Farel and Viret at Geneva, and carries on the 
Reformation there.s 

September. Cromwell orders the Parsons and Curates to 
teach the Lord's Prayer, Ave, Creed, and Ten Commandments 
in English.^-'^ 

October 7. William Tyndale burnt at Villevord, near 
Brussels, for the Reformation.''^'^ 


August 12. Christian, King of Denmark crowned; calls 
the States together ; deposes the Bishops ; and reforms the 

October 12. Prince Edward born to King Henry.^ '^ 


Lord's Day, February 24. The famous Rood or Image of 
Borley in Kent, made of divers wires to move the lips and 
eyes, showed at St. Paul's, London, by the Preacher; and 
broken to pieces.'^ 

May 23. A Rood in London, with its tabernacle, pulled 
down, and broken to pieces.'^ 

Divers Abbeys suppressed to the King's use.^ 

September. Cromwell takes away all the noted Images, to 
which pilgrimages and offerings had been made; with the 
shrines of counterfeit saints, as Thomas a Becket, &c.'; 

» HoLiNSHED. " Stow. ^ Calvisius, ^ Buxhornius. ^ Beza. 

^ i.e., over all Ecclesiastical and Religious affairs and persons. 

^ So the date of the Dedication. 

^ Bale and Fox call him, " The Apostle of the English." 

' Stow says, Those images were brought up from divers parts of 
England and Wales to London ; and burnt at Chelsea. That he sup- 
pressed the Abbey at Canterbury, with Becket's shrine, and commanded 
his bones to be burnt (Stow). 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-| INTRODUCTION VII. 11. I538-I54O. 327 

Kings. England, Henry V 1 .1 I . ; Spain, Charles. 

suppresses all the Orders of Friars and Nuns, with their 
cloisters and houses^^'t) ; and orders all the Bishops and 
Curates through the realm to see, that in every church, the 
Bible, of the largest volume \_dze\ printed in English, be so 
placed that all may read it.t» 

November. John Lambert burnt in Smithfield, for not 
owning the bodily presence of Christ in the Sacrament.^-'^ 


April 28. The Parliament of England meets.^-^ Grants all 
Religious Houses to the King for ever^" : and Enacts the Six 
Articles, which sets up an Inquisition in the kingdom, and 
brings many honest people to death.'i 

May 12,^= or iS.'i Ferdinand de Soto, with nine hundred 
men besides seamen, sails from Cuba, to conquer Florida. 

May 3o,d or 31,^ arrives at the Bay of Spiritu Santo; travels 
northwards four hundred and fifty leagues from the sea ; 
there meets with a great river, a quarter of a mile across, and 
nineteen fathoms deep,<= on whose bank he dies ; and is buried 
in it. May 21, 1542,^ cet. 42.^= Upon which, his successor 
Alverado builds seven brigantines^.d; June 29, 1543, embarks, 
and sails down the river in seventeen days, four hundred 
leagues^; and in two days more,<^ viz., July 18, goes out to 
sea^ ; sails westerly along the coast^-^ ; and September 10, arrives 
at Panuco.'i 


April iS.f The Parliament of England meets. Dissolves 
the Order of the Knights of Rhodes or St. John's in 
England^'^ and Ireland^; and gives their houses and estates 
to the King.t* 

July 19. Cromwell attainted in Parliament for heresy and 
treason, without being heard; and Ji/7y 28, beheaded.^^''^ 

July 30. Robert Barnes, D.D., Thomas Garrard, B.D., 
and William Jerome, B.D., burnt at Smithfield, for the 
Reformed religion. ^'t" 

= HoLiNSHED. ^ Stow. " Herera. "^ Purchas. 

^ Here " they guessed the river to be fifteen leagues wide, found it 
opening with two mouths into the sea, and judged it eight hundred leagues 
to the head" (Herera). By which I think it is plain that it is the great 
Missisippi River (see Joutel). 

^ Keeble says, the Parliament meets April 12. 

328 I540-I545- Introduction VIL it. {^""■''■^r^X 

Kings. England, HENRY VIII.; Spain, CHARLES. 

September 27. The Pope establishes the Order of Jesuits, 
and May 14, 1543, makes Ignatius Loyola, their General.^ 


June 13. The Parliament of Ireland meets at Dublin. 
Enacts that the King and his successors to be entituled, 
" Kings of Ireland " ^^ ; whereas they had been only called 
" Lords of Ireland," before.''''^ 


January 23. King Henry first proclaimed at London 
"Kingof Ireland.''^ 

February 15. The Parliament of Ireland meets at Limerick, 
and makes an Act for the suppression of Kilmainam and 
other Religious Houses.t" 

The French King sends Francis la Roche, Lord of 
RoBEWELL,his Lieutenant, with three ships and two hundred 
men, women, and children to Canada ; where he builds a fort ; 
winters ; and returns.^ 

December 7. Mary born to King James V. of Scotland. 
December 14, he dies, at. 31^; and she succeeds. But the 
Earl of Arran is made Regent, S''^ who professes the Reformed 
religion, causes Friar Guilliam to preach against images and 
other fruitless ceremonies, and gives liberty for the 13ible to 
be had in English, and published universally through 


Jime. The Litany set forth in English, and ordered to be 
read in every parish church in England.^ 


November 23,"^^ or 24.^ The Parliament of England meets. 
And commits to the King, all Colleges, Chantries, and 
Hospitals; to order as he thinks expedient. "J'' 
December 13. The Council of Trent begins.-'^'i'''^ 

» DUPIN. ^ HOLINSHED, History of Ireland. ^ HOLINSHED. 


" HOLINSHED, in his History of Ireland, mistakes in placing this 
session of Parliament in 1542 ; but right in saying 33 Henry VIII. 

f He was the son of King James IV. of Scotland, by Margaret, eldest 
daughter to King Henry VII. of England. Holinshed mistakes, in 
telling us that he dies, cct. 33, and yet tells us he was born April 11, 15 12. 

g Holinshed's History of Scotland, "^ Buchanan. ' Stow. 


T. Prince.-i Jytroduction VII. iL 1 546-1 547- 329 

I736J ^ 

" Kings. En-land, E D w A R D V I.; Spain, Charles. 


Beginning ol January. The Elector Palatine embraces the 
Reformation; and January lo, instead of Mass, has Divme 
Service said at Heidelberg in the vulgar tongue.^ 

February i8. Luther dies at Emsleben, est 63.^ 

March i.b George Wishart burnt at St. Andrews m 
Scotland, for preaching the Reformed religion,h.^ which he 
had learnt in the Schools of Germany .^-d 


January 28. King Henry dies.'^'f cct. 56 ; 

And his only son, Edward VI., ceU 10, reigns six years, 
five months, and eight days.'^ m^ptfopd 

Fchrmry i. Sir Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford 
chosen,<=.f and Proclaimed^ Lord Protector ; and F&hvnary 17, 
made Duke of Somerset.'-^*" . , 

Uarch.^ The Protector forbids processions ; orders tne 
Gosbd and EbMe to be read in English f ; and sends Commis- 
sioners through the Realm to remove images out cnurches ; 
and with them Preachers^^.^ to dissuade the people from their 
beads and such like ceremonies.^ r^ . r rj •;•,. 

Scbtemhcr. The King's Council causes the Bool of Houulus, 
and^' Paraphrase of Erasmus" to be set forth ; and had in 

November 4. The Parliament meets at Westminster; 
repeals the Statute of the Six Articles-^ ; ens^t^ the Sacrament 
to be given in both kindsf.i- and grants the King all Chantries, 
Free Chapels and Brotherhoods.^.f _ 

November 16,- or 17.* The Rood and other images pulled 
down hi Paul's, London ; and soon after, in all other churches 

'''The^e^n'd of November. Peter Martyr, a Florentine, (who 
had for five years, with great applause taught at Strasbui J 
goes into England, at the invitation of CRANMER, in the Kin^ s 
Same ; and is mad e Profess or^f^ivimt3Mn_Qxfbrd^^^_____ 
"V^^TrTi^In b Fox. " HOLIN shed's History of Scotland. 

^ BucS^NkN, turning the name into Greek, calls him SOPHOCARmUS. 


330 1548-1552. Introduction VII. 11. S^^^'-'^-^'T^^ 

Kings. England^ EDWARD VI.; Spain^ CHARLES. 


March. The King sends forth a Proclamation for adminis- 
tering the Sacraments in both kinds, to all who should be 
willing, from Easter forward : whereupon, at Easter, begins 
the Communion and Confession in English.^'^ 

November 4. The Parliament of England meets; wherein 
the mass is wholly abolished ; and a Book for uniformity of 
Divine Service is established.'^'^ 


April 6. A Proclamation to put down the mass, through 
the realm.^ 

April 10. The Cloister, Chapel and Charnel House at 
Paul's, London, begin to be pulled down.^ 


June II. The High Altar in Paul's Church, London, pulled 
down, and a table set in the room; and soon after, the like 
in all the churches in London.^ 


February 27. Bucer dies at Cambridge.^ 

September 1. The French King's Ambassador enters the 
Council of Trent, and delivers a Protestation, that his Master 
owns them not for a General or Public Council ; and that 
neither he nor his people would be obliged to submit thereto.^ 


January 22. The Duke of Somerset beheaded.^-^ 

January 23. The Parliament of England meets ; wherein 
the Book of Common Prayer, newly corrected and amended, is 

July 31. The famous Pacification at Passau concluded be- 
tween the Emperor and the Protestant Princes of Germany : 
wherein it is agreed that none shall be molested for religion ; 
and that Protestants be admitted into the Imperial Chamber.^ 

November i. The new Service Book begins to be used at 
Paul's, and through the whole city of London : and all copes, 
vestments, hoods, and crosses, therein forbidden, are laid aside ; 

= Stow. <= Holinshed. ^ Kefdle. ^ Sleidan. 

^ Easter this year is Lord's Day, Ap?-il i ; and Holinshed places 
this a year before : but from the Act of Parliament in November last, 
Stow seems to be ri.Lrht. 

Rev. T. Prince.-j J ^^ T R D U C T 1 N VII. 11. I 552-1 554. 33 I 

Queen of England^ M A R Y ; King of Spain, Charles. 

as by Act of Parliament ordered. After which, the Upper 
Choir of Paul's Church is broken down ; and the Communion 
Table set in the Lower Choir.^ 


April and Hay. Commissioners sent for all the parish 
copes and vestments, gold and silver candlesticks, censors, 
&c., in all the churches through the Kingdom.^ 

July 6. King Edward dieSj'^-t' at. i6; having, by will, 
appointed for his successor. 

Jane Grey, granddaughter to Mary, youngest daughter 
of Henry VII.-'^''^; who on July Qj^" or lo,^ is proclaimed Queen 
at London. But July 19, 

Mary L, eldest daughter of Henry VHL, is there pro- 
claimed Queen ; prevails. Axigmt '^, enters the city'^-i^; and 
reigns live years, four months, and eleven days.^^'<= 

August 27. The Latin Service begins to be sung at Paul's.^ 

October 5. The Parliament of England meets at West- 
minster; which enacts the CIntrch Service to be said in Latin, 
as in the last year of Henry VIIL^ 

December 20. The Church Service begins to be said in Latin 
throughout the Kingdom, according to the Act of Parliament. 


February 12. Queen Jane beheaded,^'^) within the Tower.^ 

July 20. Philip, son to the Emperor, lands at Southamp- 
ton to marry Mary the Queen ^•"^^■'^ ; July 25, he marries her 
at Winchester,^'ti,d ^j^g Emperor's Ambassador presenting him 
with a Resignation [to him] of the Kingdoms of Naples and 

Wednesday, November 21. Cardinal Pole, from Rome, 
lands at Dover; November 28,^ comes into Parliament, and 
exhorts them to return to the Church ; and re-submit to the 
Pope's authority. Next day, the whole Parliament draw up 
a Supplication to the King and Queen, to intercede with the 
Cardinal to restore them to the bosom of the Church ; and 
obedience to the See of Rome. Next day, present it-^'^; upon 

* Stow. t' Holinshed. ^ Sleidan. « Speed. ^ Fox. 
*^ i.e. accounting from the death of Edward VI. 

332 1554-1556. Introduction VII. 11. \^''^-'^-^''^^^i 
(Juccji of Etiglajid, Mary; Khi^ of Spam, Philip II. 

which the Parliament, being on their knees/"^ he, by a power 
from the Pope, absolves them : and they all go to Chapel ; and 
sing with great joy, for this reconciliation.^-'^ 


February 4. John Rogers burnt in Smithfield^-''; February 
8, Lawrence Saunders, at Coventry; February 9, Bishop 
Hooper, at Gloucester, and Dr. Taylor at Hadley'^; and 
July I, John Bradford, in Smithfield.^-'^ All for the 
Reformed religion. '^■'^ 

September 25. The Diet of Augsburg decree that both those 
of the Augustine Confession and the Roman Catholics shall 
enjoy their religion freely.'^ 

October 16. Bishop Ridley and Bishop Latimer burnt at 
Oxford, for the Reformation.^-'^ 

October 25. The Emperor resigns the Kingdom of Spain to 
his son Philip IL^ 

Cardinal Pole appoints Doctor Story and others to visit 
every church in London and Middlesex and repair the rood- 
lofts and images.'^ 

December 18. John Philpot burnt in Smithfield, for the 
Reformed religion,*^ cct. 44.-'^ 


Saturday, March 21. Archbishop Cranmer burnt at Oxford 
for the same^'t"; and the next day. Cardinal Pole is conse- 
crated Archbishop of Canterbury.^ 

Charles, Marquis of Baden, embraces the Augustine 
Confession, and begins to reform his churches.^ 

July 31. Ignatius Loyola, Founder of the Jesuits, dieso.h.i 
at Rome, cEt. 65 ; having spread his Order through the world, 
and set up an hundred colleges in divers parts of Christendom.'^ 

November 21. John Feckenham installed Abbot of West- 
minster, and fourteen monks receive the habits with him.'^ 

December 3. The Protestant nobility in Scotland begin to 
sign an Association to promote the Reformed religion.J 

^ HoLiNSHED. ^ Stow. ■= Fox. " Sleidan. 

^Bishop Hooper and Master ROGERS were the heads of the Noncon- 
formists in England. (Fuller.) 


^ Calderwood. 


Febrmn 24. Charles V. resigns the Imperial dignity ; 
MnrchiS.Us brother Ferdinand chosen Emperor; and 

Sf*tonfel-2I,CHARLES V. dies.'" ,^,0, Andrews 

Abril' 20 1 Walter Mille condemned at St. Andiews 
inicotland forthe Reformed religion; and burnt-' two days 

"■^nl'zUrL Queen of Scots married, in Paris, to Franx.s, 

*'CZ'^x;! Que"e"MARV of England dies in the morning, 
fl-(. 43 ; Cardinal Pole in the evening.".' 

And her younger sister. Queen Elizabeth, reigns forty- 
four years, four months, and seven days. 

December X. Sets forth a Proclamation in If"''"" ''^a'"^^^ 

Gof/rfnd histlc. for the day, shall ^egm to be^i^ad in s 

time in English in the churches, on Lord s Uay, ^famtary 

™i559]rwhich is accordingly observed m most parish 

churches in the city.".' 

■fanmn 2S. The Parliament ofEngland meets; Restores to 
thfcrrnvn th.; Supreme Government of the State Eccles.ast - 
c"; and orders the Book of Co;«"»« P"^- ^°^\^, "^^ '" 
'''&rl Col"n* ^ofT P^^latfs'and of J/of Scotland 
meetrit Edfnhurgh, when the TemporalUy^demand to h^ 
nivinP Service in the Scottish tongue, with otner reioi n a 
rions;.hTch the Bishops refuse : and occasion great troubles 

'"m:/2'"!ohn-Knox arrives at Leith ^0- Geneva -, 

. Riccorius. •> CALVisius ; BU^A^AN ;; F0|„„; f/™',^) ; 
' He is the last martyr for the ^"0 "'ant re 1 on 

and his death, the de.ath of Popevy '''"^'X <^,'^\'''5i;j4, J^-ig-->i'«' ''^i^ 

enemies (buCH.XNAN, rt-iKifc-j.^ . ^.^lderwood. 

h HOLlNSHED, blow. 

334 1559-1560- I ^TRODUCTION VII. 11. \^^"'- 

T. Prince. 


Queen of England, E L i z A u E T H ; King of Spain, Philip II. 

11,^ they pull down the images and altars there, and in the 
neighbouring places'-" ; June 4, Earl of Argyle and Lord 
James Stuart, the Queen's natural brother, do the like at 
St. Andrews; Jtine 26, at Stirling; and then at Edinburgh^; 
and other Lords at Glasgow. Upon which a Civil War 
arises, and Queen Elizabeth helps the Protestants.'^ 

Lord's Day, May 14. Divine Service begins in English in 
the churches of England, according to the Common Prayer 
Book in King Edward's time.^'S 

Jnne 28. The Protestant Ministers of France hold their 
First Synod, at St. Germains^ ; when they agree on their 
Confession of Faith, drawn up by Calvin. *^ 

July 10. Henry IL, King of France, dies; and his son 
Francis IL, cct. 17, who had married the Queen of Scots, 
succeeds. "'ti 

In Jnly. There are thirteen or fourteen Bishops, with 
many other clergy, deprived in England ; for refusing the oath 
of the Queen's supremacy. '^■S''^ 

Saturday, August 12. By order of Doctor Grindal newly- 
elect Bishop of London, the high altar of Paul's Church, 
wdth the Rood and images of Mary and John taken down*^' : 
and August 23-25, Roods and other images in churches, 
with copes, vestments, altar-cloths, books, rood-lofts, &c., 
burnt in London. ^-s 

December 17. Doctor Parker consecrated Archbishop of 
Canterbury, by three deprived Bishops : and they, consecrate 
the rest.i 

This year. Three learned Preachers and thirty more burnt 
in Spain for being Protestants ; and had not the Inquisition 
put a stop to these Reformers, the Protestant religion had 
run through Spain like wild-fire : people of all degrees being 
wonderfully disposed there, at this time, to embrace it.J 


April ig. Melancthon dies'^ at Wittemberg,^ a;t. 64.^ 

^ Petrie. ^ HOLINSHED History of Scotland. " Calderwood. 
^ HOLINSHED. ^ Bohun's Continuation of Sleidan. ^ Stow. 

^ Quick's Synodicon. ' Fuller. J Burnet. 

■^ Fuller says, There was but One of all the Bishops, viz., of Landaff ; 
who conformed to the Queen's commands. '' Calvisius. 

' Fuller mistakes, in saying cet. 63. 

Rev. T. Prince 1 J y TR DU C TI .V VII. H. I56O-I562. 335 

Queen of Englami, ELIZABETH; King of Spain;^ H I L I P I I . 

The English begin the trade of fishing at Newfoundland.^ 

July 7 ^^or 8 ^.d Peace concluded in Scotland, and 

AuJst i^. A Parliament meets at Edinburgh; Aitgust 17, 

agrees on a Protestant Confession of Faith-'- : and Aiigttst 24, 

makes two Acts for aboHshing the Mass, and the lopes 

authority in the Kingdom.c.e.f d?^/ t^. 

December 5. Francis II., Kmg of France, dies,d.g at. 17, 

and his brother Charles IX. succeeds,^ at 10. 

December 20. The first National Assembly of the Reformed 
Church of Scotland meets, at Edinburgh-^^-^ 

1561. ^ ^ ^ 

January 17. The first Book of Discipline allowed by the 
Council of Scotland^; subscribed by a great part ol the 

\iay^2i. The Parliament of Scotland meets, and makes an 
Act for demolishing all the monasteries.^ _ , t -.i 

August 20,^.i or 2i.'i The Queen of Scots arrives at Leith 

from France. '^•'^'^ 

1582. ^ ,. 

January 17. An Assembly of Delegates from all the Parlia- 
ments of France meets at St. Germain ; wherein is passed the 
famous Edict allowing Liberty of Conscience to Protestants, 
and of Worship without the cities; and of Synods m presence 

of a Magistrate.J , ^ ^r, . -,. ^^ 

ChatilloxN, Admiral of France, sends John Ribault to 
Florida; arrives at Cape Francis in 30° N. Lat.; May 1. 
enters a river, which he therefore calls the river May ; dis- 
covers eight others ; one of which he calls Port Roya ; sails 
up the same many leagues, builds a fort, calls it Char es; 
and leave there a colony ; which soon mutinies kills then- 
Captain, Albert, for his severity, and breaks up. 

There are, this year, accounted 2,150 assemblies icongrega- 
tions] of Protestants, in France.J ^^^^^ 

« Kinsir Tames 's [ Ll Fafenf of Newfoundland, in PURCH AS. 
bSTOw. ^ Calderwood. d Buchanan _ <= Petr e. 

f Holinshed, in his History of Scotland, mistakes, in first placuig 
these Acts in the Pariiament of December 15, 1567 ; when they were only 
renewed and further ratified. (See Calderwood and Petrie.) 

s CvLVisius. ^ DUPIN. ' Holinshed's History of biotiana. 
J Bohun's Continuation of Sleidan. '^ Purchas. 

33^ 1563-1565- -^^^TT^OnUCT/ON VII. 11. ['^^ 

V. T. Prince. 

(2iieen of Efiglajici, ELIZABETH; King of Spain, Philip II. 


January 12. The Convocation of the English Clergy 
meets: January 31, they finish the Thirty-nine Articles. Of 
the Lower House, Forty-three, present, are for throwing out 
the Ceremonies, and Thirty-five for keeping them. However, 
these, with the help of proxies, carried it by One Vote above 
the others.^^ [See pp. 520-524. J 

The Bishops now beginning to urge the Clergy to subscribe 
to the Liturgy and Ceremonies, as well as the Articles ; 
CovERDALE, Fox, HUMPHREY, Sampson, Whittingham, and 
others refuse to subscribe.^'^-'^ 

And this begins the era of No7tcon~ 
formity in England, 

December 4. The Council of Trent dissolves.'^ 


Chatillon sends Ren:6 Laudoniere to Florida. In April, 
sets sail with three ships; June 22, arrives ten leagues above 
Cape Francis ; and then in the river May; builds a fort there- 
on ; and in honour of his King, Charles IX., calls it, Carolina.^ 

May 27. Calvin dies at Geneva, aged 54 years, 10 months, 
and 17 days.f 


Jnly. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, made by the Queen 
of Scots, Duke of Albany S''^ ; July 29, she marries him ; and 
the next day, they are proclaimed King and Queen.''J 

End of August. Ribault arrives from France at Florida 
again, with seven sail : but September 4, Pedro Melendes, 
with six great Spanish ships, comes into the river ; massa- 

^ Stkyv¥.'s Annals. ^Fuller. '^Calvisius. ^ Purchas. 

•^ CovERDALE had been Bishop in the reign of Edward VI., and helped 
to consecrate Archbishop Parker ; Fox was the famous Martyrologist ; 
Doctor Humphrey was the Regius Professor of Divinity, and President 
of Magdalen College, Oxford ; Dr. Sampson was Dean of Christ Church, 
Oxford ; and Master WnrrTiNGHAM, Dean of Durham. 

'^ Beza. s Holinshed's History of Scotland. 

^ Buchanan and Camden say, Duke of Rothsay. ' Buchanan. 

J Holinshed, in his History of Scotland, says, she proclaimed him 
King on Saturday, July 28, at even ; and the next morning, marries him ; 
but this seems unlikely. 

Rev. T. Prince.-| J^TRODUCTION VII. IT. I565-I57I. ^'J 

(JufcH of England, Elizabeth; jKing of Spain, Philip II. 

cres RiBAULT and all his company ; possesses the country ; 
builds three forts, and puts 1,200 soldiers in thern ; 
Laudoniere escaping to France.^ 

Captain Savalet, of Gascony, in France, begins to fish at 
L'Acadie [Canada] ; and goes every year, making forty-two 
voyages, to 1607.^ 
Jime, 19. James born to the Queen of Scotland, ^.c.d 

February 10. His father killed by Earl BoTHWELL^'.d ; 
whom the Queen soon after marries-'^''^ 

jfiily 24,^ or 25.'-''^ The Queen of Scots resigns the crown to 
her son, and makes the Earl of Murray, Regent t" ; and July 
29, her said son, James VI., is crowned.^'^-'^-s 

Captain Dominique de Gourges, with three ships, sails 
from France to Florida. April 1568, arrives in the river 
May ; slays most of the Spaniards ; takes their forts, razes 
them ; and in Jime, arrives at Rochelle.^ 

.*. And thus the French attempts on Florida end.^ 
May ib,^ or ij.^ The Queen of Scots comes into England; 
and is soon secured.^-' 

T. Cartwright, [Lady] Margaret's Professor of Divinity 
at Cambridge, begins to oppose the Hierarchy j and is 
deprive d.-i'^ 

The Parliament of England begins ; and makes an Act to 
deprive all clergymen who subscribe not to the Thirty-nine 
Articles.'^ Upon which, many clergymen are deprived.J'"^ [See 
Note^ on p. 352. J 

^ PURCHAS. ^ UOhll^SHED's Nisfory of Scoi/aml ■= BUCHAXAN. 

" fu/y 24, the resignation signed ; fu/y 25, entered on record in the 
Council Book (Burnet). ''Stow. ^ Caldervvood. 'Camden. 

s Holinshed, in his History of Scotland, mistakes in placing the 
Coronation on July 19. J Strype's Annals. * Keeble. 

^ N.B. The Attempts of Soto and Narvaz were on the west side of 
Cape Florida, in the country since called the Missisippi ; but the French 
Attempts on the east side, in the country since called Carolina. 

'' The Hierarchy is the lordly government of the Church by Arch- 
bishops, Diocesan Bishops, Deans, Archdeacons, «S:c. ™ Fuller. 
ExG. G.4R. n. 22 

338 1572-15S1. Introducti on VI I. 11. P'^-'^-^r .^e: 

Queen ofEfiglaftd, Elizabeth; King 0/ Spain, Philip II. 


August 24, and few days after, 70,000 Protestants massa- 
cred in Paris, and other parts of France.^ 

November 20.^" The First Presbyterian Church in England 
set up at Wandsworth, near London ; when they choose 
eleven Elders.*^ 


May 30. Charles IX., of France, dies ; and his brother, 
Henry III., reigns."^-^ 


Mayiy. Archbishop Parker dies e.f; and F^inmry 15 [1576], 
Edmund Grindal elected Archbishop of Canterbury.*^ 


jftme 15. Captain Frobisher sails from Blackwall^ ; June 
18, from Harwich,§ to find a North West Passage to the 
East Indies ; July 20, discovers a Cape, which he calls 
Queen Elizabeth's Foreland, and then the Straits which bare 
his name*^; August g, enters a bay in 63° N. Lat. § ; sails 
sixty leagues; lands, takes a savage^: but the ice obliges 
him to return ; and arrives in England, September 24.2-^ 


December 13. Captain Francis Drake sails from Plymouth 
round the world, and returns to Plymouth, November 3, 


January 23. The Seven Dutch Provinces unite, at 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert obtains a Patent of Queen 
Elizabeth for places not possessed by a Christian Prince ; 
provided he takes possession within six years.^ 


January lb. The Parliament of England meets. And Enacts 
a fine of £2o[ = about £"150 in present value] a month on every 
one that comes not to Common Prayer^ ; and in July, 
sundry are fined.^ 

^ Calvisius. '^ Neal's History of the Puriians. ' Fuller. 
'^Petrie. •= Stow. ^ Holinshed. s Camden. 

•^ Stow seems to mistake in placing his arrival in England in August. 
' PuRCHAS. •> Petit. ^ Harris. ' Keeble. 

Rev.T.PrInce.-| INTRODUCTION VIL 11. I582-I584. 339 

Queen of England, Elizabeth; 'King of Spain, Philip II. 


October 5. The New Style begins ; which calls it the 

Robert Brown publishes a book on Reformation ^ ; wherein 
he writes against the Common Prayer,'^ and condemns the 
Church of England as no Church.^ 


June 4. Elias Thacker ; and June 6, John Coping put 
to death at Bury, in Suffolk; for spreading Brown's book 
against the Common Prayer A 

June II. Sir Humphrey Gilbert sails from Plymouth for 
Newfoundland ; August i, arrives at the Bay of Conception ; 
August 3, at the harbour of St. John's f; August 5, takes 
possession; August 20, sails for the southern parts; August 
29, loses a ship on the shoals of Sablonne ; August 31, turns 
homeward : at, after midnight, September 6, he sinks in a 
great storm ; and September 22, the other ship arrives at 

July 6. Archbishop Grindal dies ; and September 2^, John 
Whitgift made Archbishop of Canterbury ^r who zeal- 
ously presses Subscription to the Articles and Common 
Prayer ; which occasions incredible distractions in the 
Church.^ ^See Note ' on p. 352.] 


March 25. Sir Walter Raleigh obtains a Patent of Queen 
Elizabeth for foreign parts not possessed by any Christian 

April 27. He sends Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow, 
in two barks'^-' from the Thames; July 2, descry the coast 
of Florida ; sail forty leagues for a harbour ; enter one, 
seven leagues west of Roanoak * ; July 10, take possession 
for Queen Elizabeth ; and from her, call the country 
Virginia.h'j End of July, they come to Roanoak; and mid- 
September, arrive in England.* 

^ RicciOLius. ^ Strauchius. = Neal. ^ Stow. « Camden. 

'' He finds there Twenty Portuguese and Spanish fishing vessels, and 
Sixteen of other nations. (Harris.) ^ Harris. '' Purchas. 

J This country is since called North Carolina ; and the land North 
eastward succeeds in the name Virginia. ' Captain John Smith. 

340 1585-1587- Introduction VII. n. {^^"'^•^"^."X 

Queen of England, Elizabeth; Kina; of Spain^ Philip II. 


April 9, Sir Walter sends Sir Richard Grenville,^-^ 
from Plymouth ; June 20, falls in with Florida ; Juno 26, 
anchors at Wococon ^ ; leaves the First Colony, of above a 
hundred people, under Master Ralph Lane, at Roanoak^-^; 
July 25, Sir Richard sails, discovering the coast north-east- 
ward, to the Chesepians-'^ ; and Scptcmhcr 18, arrives at 

Captain John Davis sails from England to find a North 
West Passage to the East Indies; sails up 66° N. Lat. in the 
Straits that bare his name ; the next year, to 80° ; and after- 
wards to 83°.<^'d 


January i. Sir Francis Drake arrives at Hispaniola^-® ; 
takes St. Domingo ; sails to the Continent, and takes Cartha- 
gena; sails to Florida '^■'^'^; May 29, takes St. John's Fort at 
St. Augustine g; June 9, arrives within six leagues of the 
English at Roanoak ; and June 18, sails, with this First 
Colony, for England.^ 

A fortnight after, arrives Sir Richard Grenville, and not 
finding the First, he leaves there a Second Colony of fifteen^ 
or fifty ^ men ; and returns to England.^-^ 


February 8. The Queen of Scots beheaded in England.^'^ 

Sir Walter sends another Company to Virginia under 
Master John White, Governor, with a Charter and twelve 
Assistants; July 22, arrives at Hatarask, finds the Second 
Colony at Roanoak destroyed^; and lands 115 for a Third 

August 13, Manteo, the first savage baptized; 

August 18, the first English child born of Mistress Dare, 
and named Virginia^; and August 27, the Governor sails 
home for supplies.^- 

^ These Straits running up nearly due North, and so near the Pole, and 
having different coloured peoples on the several sides, seem to be the 
Dividing Sea between Greenland and America. ' Stow. 

* Cates's account of this voyage, printed in 1589. 

5 Both Camden and Purchas mistake St. Anthony's for St. John's ; 
and also in saying that he took St. Helena. See Cates's account, v.'ho 
was in the voyage. ^ PuRCHAS. ^ Captain John Smith. " Camden. 

Rcv.T.Prince.-| INTRODUCTION VI I. II. I588-I6OO. 34 1 

Qitceit of England, Elizabeth; l<ing of Spain, Philip III. 


July. The Spanish Armada destroyed in the Channel of 


July 22. King Henry III. of France stabbed '^ by a Jaco- 
bine friar ^; dies the next day '^ ; and Henry IV. succeeds. '^-'^ 


March 20. Governor White sails from Plymouth*^; Auij^ust 
15, arrives at Hatarask ; but finding not a man of the Third 
Colony, returns.'^'^ 

Thus the Third Colony of Old Virginia is broken up, and 

though Sir Walter sends Five times to seek them, ^ yet 

never one of them has been found to this day [1622].'^ 


Apyil 6. Henry Barrow, gentleman, and John Green- 
wood, Clerk, put to death at Tyburn, for publishing certain 
books against the Hierarchy.? 

May 29.S Master John Penry put to death at St. 
Thomas Watering [in London]'^ for a manuscript found in 
his stu£y against the Hierarchy and persecution. s 


The French King grants the Marquis de la Roche a Com- 
mission to conquer Canada and other countries not possessed 
by any Christian prince ' ; and in April, gives the famous 
Edict of Nantes to the ProtestantsJ 

September 3. Philip IL, King of Spain, dies,'^'' est. 72^^; 
and his son Philip III. succeeds.^'i 


April 25. Oliver Cromwell born at Huntingdon: after- 
wa ds Lord Protector.^ 


November ig. Born to King James VI. of Scotland; Prince 
Charles, afterwards King Charles I.^ 

» Camden. ^ Stow. <= Calvisius. ^ Petrie. *■ Purchas. 
<= Captain JOHN SMITH, s Neal. ^ Howes. ' Perier. 

J Quick's Synodkon. ^ His Life, by J. S. 

' Pointer, Salmon, Hubner, and Andefson. 

342 1 602-1603. Introduction VII. 11. \^''^-'^-^%^:^i. 

Kings. England, James I . Spain, Philip III. 


March 26. Captain Bartholomew Gosnold sails from 
Falmouth to the north part of Virginia, with thirty-two 
persons ; twelve of whom are to begin a Plantation. May 10, 
discovers land in 43° N. Lat. ; sails along the shore, to 
May 15, when he sees a headland in 42° ; and catching great 
store of codfish, names it Cape Cod ; and goes ashore. May 
16, sails round the Cape; discovers an island in 41° 15'; 
May 22, lands, and calls it Martha's Vineyard ; May 24, 
comes to another, next it, which he names Dover Cliff; and 
then to another, which he calls Elizabeth Island. May 31, 
lands on the main, and returns to Elizabeth Island. June 1, 
determines on a settlement here, and begins a fort. June 13, 
the men who were to stay, recant ; and resolve for England. 
June 17. They all set sail ; and Friday, July 23, arrive at 


March 24. Queen Elizabeth dies, cet, 70.^.^ And 

James VI. of Scotland, proclaimed King of England,^ 

begins the British Monarchy. 

The end of the Introduction. 

• PuRCHAS. *> Camden. = Howes. 






The beginning of the British Monarchy, in the accession 

of King James, the first Monarch of Great Britain, 

March 24, 1602-3. 

T O 
The beginning of the New English Colonies in the 

Settlement of the First at Plymouth, December 31, 


Being a brief Account of matters relating to those newly 
discovered Countries, while settkd only by the abori- 
ginal natives : reciting the several Voyages from 
England thither ; with the most material Affairs, es- 
pecially of Great Britain, that led the way to their 
settlement by English inhabitants. 



Hat an insight is afforded us in these Annals, of the way in 
which our all wise (iOD designs the affairs of th;s world to go 
on : and how the Christian Communism of the Pilgrim Fathers, 
imitated from the infant Christian Church at Jerusalem, could 
never be permanent. As long as they were individually poor, 
especially in face of the horrible tyranny from which they lied ; this Com- 
munism sufficed, though the individual output was necessarily stinted and 
scanty : but once freedom and property came to each, the inexorable laws 
of Political Economy working upon that reasonable Self-interest which the 
blessed Creator has implanted in us as the pivot of human action, came into 
irresistible effect ; and the explosive power of money in the dissolution of 
Communities founded upon false bases, became at once apparent. 

Among the interesting things of Prince's Second Volume, there is, 
perhaps, nothing more instructive than the account at p. 635, of the way in 
which the power of wealth burst asunder, in 1632, that close spiritual Com- 
munity and Organisation of the Pilgrim Church, which had lasted 
unshaken during thirty years of poverty and surpassing troubles. 

Other instances of the natural advantage in appealing to individual self- 
interest, will be found at pp. 452, 477, 478, 648. 

What a true manhood is there, in this Story ! and how it is, cheek by 
jowl, with the most consummate rascality ! What a demonstration is it of 
the power of a Divine faith ! How it verifies Lord Bacon's contemporary 
statement, in his Essay on Atheism ; Man, when lie resteth and assureth 
himself upon Divine protection and favour, gathereth a force and faith 
[confidence] ; which Human Nature, in itself, cotild not obtain. 

It is manifest, that the enormous difficulties of the Pilgrim Fathers never 
could\\-x\& been surmounted, but for their enjoyment of such an Assurance ; 
their strong ecclesiastical" Discipline"; their united, untiring Effort ; their 
wonderful physical endurance ; their justice and moderation : while their 
Divine piety, benevolence, unselfishness, and forgivingness makes us to 
love them with an entire heart. 

Now we must leave the Reader with the Ajinals themselves ; to watch 
the conflicts with the Indians ; the forming by Covenant into a " Church 
state ; " the fishing ; the trafificing for beaver, (S:c. ; the solemn Imposition of 
Hands ; the slow starvation, for months together, of an entire community 
(to each Colony, in succession,/;^. 453, 646) ; the daring voyages of Captain 
Standish and others in open boats in terrible weather to get corn for the 
famishing people ; the solemn Days of Thanksgiving and Fasting ; the 
making of Wampumpeag,/. 481 ; the captures by the Turks, and the fights 
with the Dunkirkers ; the wonderful destruction of the rogues of the story, 
and the gradual prosperity of those who do well ; &c., &c. And yet, 
through it all, the quiet rest and peace in the full enjoyment of that Form 
of Worship, which they thought to be the truest and most appropriate : 
with the knowledge that, over the sea, Buckingham, Laud, Strat- 
ford, and the Bishops were active instruments, in the King's hands, to 
the goading of the mother country to the verge of frenzy ; and were 
rapidly hurrying three kingdoms into a great Civil War, E. A. 1879. 






AviNG passed through the Seven great 

Periods of time, from the Creation to the 

beginning of the British Empire : with the 

discovery of that Indian shore which is soon 

to be the theatre of our Chronology : a new 

face of things appears, both to the Western 

'^ parts of Europe, and the Eastern of America. 

For though one hundred and ten years have elapsed since 

the New World became known to the Old ; yet neither the 

French, Dutch, nor English, nor any but the Spaniards, have 

made any effectual settlement in these new found regions : 

and as the gold and silver mines had drawn the Spaniards 

to the southern and western quarters ; I cannot find, at this 

point of time, so much as one European family in all the vast 

extent of coast from Florida to Greenland. 

The reason of which I take to be, 

That the next year after Columbus's discovery, the Pope 

34^ Preface to Part I. [ 

Rev. T. Prince. 

was pleased to give the Crown of Spain the sole title to all 
the lands l5ang above one hundred leagues west of' the 
meridian of the Azores. The Bull was signed at Rome, May 
4th, 1493 ^ : and such was then the ignorance that reigned in 
Europe, as scarcely any thought, but that he had a right to 
give them. 

Within thirty years indeed, the Reformation coming on, 
began to open the eyes of many : yet both England, Scotland, 
Ireland, France, and the Netherlands were so fully engaged, 
for nearly four score years, with their own internal broils 
about religion ; as well as mutual wars on this and other 
accounts: that they had neither power nor leisure to attend to 
foreign settlements. 

But in 1598, France was quieted with the Edict of Nantes, 
in April: and by a peace, in May, with Philip 11., King of 
Spain and Portugal. 

Just before Queen Elizabeth died, the disturbances in 
Ireland were quelled : and she expires in peace with all 
Princes and States in Europe ; except Philip, King of Spain, 
and Archduke Albert, Sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands. 

And King James, as King of Scotland, being then in amity 
with all the world ; upon his accession to the English Throne, 
the Two British Crowns become united on him : and, as 
King of England, he soon leaves the Dutch to defend them- 
selves ; and concludes a peace with King Philip and Arch- 
duke Albert. 

So that all the Western Powers of Europe are in tranquility; 
except the war continued between the Dutch on the one side, 
and the King of Spain with the Archduke on the other. 

The French and English being thus at liberty, begin to look 
more seriously now than ever, to the new found World. 
First, they send to fish and trade ; then to settle : the French 
to Canada and Acadia : the English to South and North 
Virginia, Newfoundland, and Bermudas. 

^ See the Bull, in Purchas, and Harris. 

Rev. T. rrince. J PrEFACE TO P A R T I . ^M 

For the English, at this time, extend Virginia from Florida 
to the Bay of Fundy ; and divide it into North and South : 
and the North is that, to which we are now to attend; 
though it seems not to take the name of New England, till 

Divers attempts are made to settle this rough and northern 
country. First, by the French, who would fain account it 
part of Canada ; and then by the English : and both from 
merely secular views. But such a Train of Crosses accompany 
these designs of both the nations, that they seem to give it 
over as not worth the planting: till a Pious People of England, 
(not there allowed to worship their Maker, according to His 
institutions only; without the rriixture of human cere- 
monies) are spirited to attempt the settlement; that here, they 
might enjoy a Worship purely Scriptural, and leave the same 
to their posterity. And they succeeding ; open the way for the 
following Colonies. 

In this First Part, I shall therefore recount, as well the 
most Material Events in Great Britain, wherewith they were 
chiefly affected before their leaving it ; as the several Voyages 
and Attempts to Settle these long neglected shores, till their 
Arrival in 1620: keeping a particular eye on those remarkable 
Steps of Providence that led to this happy enterprise ; 
and not omitting the Primary Settlements of the neighbouring 

In the English History (besides a number of ancient pam- 
phlets printed within this Period; and which I found in an old 
broken up library in England), I chiefly follow Howes,^ and 

In the Voyages and Attempts of Settlement, I chiefly make 
use of PuRCHAS, Smith, and Gorges, who lived in the times 
they wrote of; and the two last, personally interested in 
those affairs. Harris omitting many valuable accounts of 

^ i.e., both Howe's Continuation of Stow, in folio, printed 163 1 : as 
also Howe's Abrid_s;incnt, in octavo, printed 1618 ; wherein are several 
Remarkables not mentioned in the folio. 

348 P R E F A C E T O /^ ./ A' T I. L"""" "■■ ^"7- 6! 

these parts of the world preserved in Pukciias; and Pukchas 
being more of an original, I prefer the latter. 

In the passages relating to the Plymouth Planters, I 
chiefly use their Governor Bradford's manuscript History of 
that Church and Colony, in folio ; who was with them from 
their beginning to the end of his Narrative : which is now 
before me, and was never published. 

And in reciting from them ; for the greater satisfaction, I 
keep so closely to the words of my authors, as I have done in 
the last great Section [VII.] of the Introduction; that the 
reader may conceive them as speaking, in their several articles. 

As for the rise of these Plymouth Planters, Governor 
Bradford informs us in the following terms : 

That several religious people, near the joining borders of 
Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire, finding their pious 
Ministers urged with Subscription ^ or silenced ; and the people 
greatly vexed with the Commissary Courts, Apparitors, and Pur- 
suivants : which they bare, sundry years, with much patience ; till 
they were occasioned, by the continuance and increase of these 
troubles and other means, to see further into these things, by the 
light of the Word of GOD — How that not only the ceremonies 
were unlawful ; but also the worldly and tyrannous power of the 
Prelates : who would, contrary to the freedom of the gospel, load 
the consciences of men ; and, by their compulsive power, make a 
profane mixture of things and persons in Divine Worship. That 
their Offices, Courts, and Canons were unlawfid : being such as 
have 710 warrant in the Word of God ; but the same that were used 
in Popery, and still retained. 

Upon which, this People shake off this yoke of Antichristian 
bondage^ ; and, as the LORD's free People, join themselves by 

^ i.e. Subscription to the Book of Cojmnon P^-ayer, Ceremonies, and 
K.\A.\ki& Articles. (Fuller.) [See ^. 352.] 

'" These are Governor Bradford's words, as are all the rest m this cita- 
tion. And he seems to call this Antichristian bojidage; as he judged the 
inventions of men in Worship, i/nposed on the conscience, to be a bondage 
brought into the Church by the Papal policy and power ; against the su- 
perior law of Christ, the genius of His plain religion, and Christian liberty. 

Rev. T. Prlnce.-I PrEFACE TO P A R T L 349 


Covenant inio a Church state ; io walk in all His ways, made 
known or to be made known to them, according to their best 
endeavours : whatever it cost them. _ 

Governor Bradford's History takes no notice of the^m; of 
this Federal Incorporation ; but Mr. Secretary Morton, in his 
Memorial, places it in 1602. And I suppose, he had the account, 
eithlr from some other writings of Governor Bradford, or the 
Journals of Governor Winslow, or from or-^ ^o^^ie^^^ej;^^^ 
them, or others of the first Planters : with some of whom he was 
contemporary ; and from whence, he tells us, he received his 

'"^ An!f thes'; are the Christian People who were the Founders 
of Plymouth Church and Colony, who seem to be some ot the 
first in England that were brave enough to improve the 
liberty wherewith the Divine Author of our religion has made 
us frJe: and observe His Institutions as their only rule m 
Church Order, Discipline, and Worship: for which thy 
dearly suffered, and left their native country ; and who lad 
the first foundation of the New England Settlements Bu 
we shall hear no more of them till 1606; when, under all 
their sufferings, they grow into Two Congregations 

And that the Reader may have some ideas of the Puiitans, 

so often mentioned in the histories of those times ; and from 

whom this People derive: I shall only relate thej"^^ 

which Doctor FULKE, a famous Church of England writer, 

has given us of them. They are called Pimtans, says he, who 

u^ould have the Church thoroughly reformed, that is, purged from 

all those inventions which have been brought mto it, since the 

A-e of the Apostles ; and reduced entirely to the Scripture purity. 

But I begin with the Voyages of others. And though the 

first I mention, seems to commence a few days before Queen 

ELIZABETH died: yet the Reader will quickly see the ship 

leaves not the shore of Britain, till above a fortnight aftei. 

N B. I. I still keep to the Julian Year: and where foreign 
Authors use the New Style, I reduce it to the Old. 

350 1603. The New England Chronology. [^'"'■'^■^'["It 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, Henry IV.; Spain, Philip IH. 

2. E. stands for East, W. for West, N. for North, S. 
for South, N.E. for North-East, &c. 

3. b. and e. added to the Months, signify their begin- 
ning or ending. 

[All abbreviations are expanded in the present Text.] 

4. That the reader may more distinctly see the 
Chronological Articles of the Plymouth Planters, their 
lines begin with [inverted] commas. 

[In the present Text, these are put in Italic type; except 
jor the central period of these Annals, from July 1620 
{p. 398) to the end of 1628 {p. 485) ; which being almost 
exclusively occupied with the affairs of Plymouth Colony, 
need no such distinction in type.] 


March 20. luyiBsSSS^fimma fl i H e Bristol men, by leave of 

Sir Walter Raleigh, send 
Captain Martin Pring, with a 
small ship of 50 tons, 30 men 
and boys; and William Brown, 
with a bark of 26 tons, 13 men 
and a boy ; who then sail from 
King's Road^ for the further 
discovery of North Virginia. April 10. They sail from Mil- 
ford Haven. In June, they fall in with the main coast and a 
multitude of islands in 43° 30^ N. Lat. ; land upon them ; 
coast along the shore, bare into Cape Cod Bay, sail round 
the Cape; anchor on the south side, in 41° 25^ where they 
land in another bay and excellent harbour ; make a barricado, 
and stay seven weeks. Jtdy 8, the bark goes homeward, laden 
with sassafras ; and arrives safe. August 8 or 9, the ship set 
sails, and arrives at King's Road again, October 2.^ 

March 31. King James proclaimed at Edinburgh; King of 
Scotland, England, France, and Ireland.*^ 

April 3, Lord's Day. He declares in the Great Church, at 
Edinburgh ; that as GOD has promoted him to a greater 
power ; he must endeavour to establish religion, and take 

* I suppose King's Road is near Bristol, in England. 


Rev. T. Prince.-j ^^^^ New England Chronology. 1603. 35 ^ 

Kings. Gtrat Britain, ]\UY.S I.; France, W^^KY W.; Spai?t,Viuwpll\. 

away corruption in both the countries : and that he had so 
settled both the Church and Kingdom in the State, which he 
intended not to alter any ways.^-^ 

April 5. King James sets out from Edinburgh ^'^ ; Satur- 
day, May 7, enters London.'^''^ In his wa}^ to London,*^ 746 
Ministers of the Church of England, out of twenty-five of tne 
forty Counties in England and the twelve in Wales, present 
him a Petition, desiring reformation of certain ceremonies and 
abuses of the Church,^ called the Millenary Petition.^ 

May 10. Bartholomew Gilbert, in a bark of 50 tons, 
sails from Pl3'mouth, to seek for the Third Colony left in 
South Virginia. June 16, arrives at St. Lucia ; 17, at 
Dominica ; 19, at Nevis. Thence sails for South Virginia : 
but, Friday, July 29, landing near Chesepioc [Chesapeake] 
Bay, the captain and four more are slain by the Indians. 
The rest set sail, and arrive at Ratcliffe, near London, in the 
end of September.^ 

June 4. A Grace passes in the University of Cambridge, 
that whosoever shall publicly oppose (either in word, or 
writing, or any other way) in the said University, either the 
Doctrine or Discipline of the Church of England or any 
part thereof, shall, ipso facto, be excluded from having any 
degree ; and deprived of every one they have taken.^ 

June 1-8. Arrive Ambassadors from Holland, France, 
Spain, Archduke Albert, &c.'^'' 

July. Sir Walter Raleigh and others apprehended, and 
committed to the Tower.c-i 

July 25, Monday. King James, with his Queen, crowned 
at Vv^estminster.'^-'^ 

September 21. Sir Walter Raleigh and others indicted 
of High Treason.'^ 

November 10, Thursday. Sir Walter Raleigh and five 

=■ Calderwood. ^ Petrie. " Howes. ^ Speed. 

"" The Vice-Chancellor, &c., of Oxford, in their Atiswcr, printed there, 
in quarto, 1603 ; who say, the Petition was exhibited in April. 

^ Abridgment of the Book which the Ministers of the Lincoln diocese 
presented to the King, on December i, 1604, and printed, in quarto, 1605 : 
wherein there is a hst of the number of the said Petitioners in each of the 
said twenty-iive counties ; viz., 30 in London, 57 in Essex, 71 in Sullbll'Cj&c., 

^ Fuller. '' Purchas. ' Sir Richard Baker. 

352 i6o3-4- TiieNe\vEngi,andCiiroxot,ogy. [ 

Rev. T. Prince. 

Kings. Creai Bri/atUyjAUESl.; France, HEi^RY IV.; Spain, FlllLlP III. 

Others removed from the Tower towards Winchester ; 
November 12,''^ committed to Winchester Castle^; November 
17, arraigned, and declared guilty ^''=; and December 15, 
returned to the Tower of London.^ 

December 22. From December 23, last year, to this day, died 
of the Plague in London 30,578 ; and of all diseases 
38,244.'^'^ [Seep. 492I. But the 3-ear following, London is clear 
of the infection ; and all the Shires in England grievously 

December 27. The famous Master Cartwright dies, in 
England, at the age of sixty.t" And Fuller says, " He was 
most pious, an excellent scholar, pure Latinist, accurate 
Grecian, exact Hebrician." 

^ , , 1604. 

January 14, [g^^^^g Conference in the Privy 

Chamber at Hampton Court 
begins ; between King James and 
the Bishops' party only : wherein 


he tells them, that however he had lived among Puritans ; 
yet, since he was ten years old, he ever disliked their 
opinions: and as Christ said, "Though He hved among 
them, He was not of them."g'^ 

January 16, Monday. The Second Conference between the 
King, and both the Bishops and Puritan parties together; 
wherein the Agents for the " Millenary Plaintiffs " are Doctor 
Reynolds, Doctor Sparkes, Master Knewstubs, and Master 
Chaderton : and though they are willing to conform, and 
subscribe, according to law ; ^ the King declares, " I will have 

^ Sir Richard Baker inaccurately places this on JSiovetnber 4, when 
only the Lords Grey and Cobham were removed. '^ HowES. 

" Speed. ^ Calderwood. ''Sir Richard Baker. ^ Fuller. 

^ William Barlow, D.D., Dean of Chester, his Sum of the Con- 
ference, printed, in quarto, London, 1604. 

^ And yet he had twice sworn and subscribed their Confession of Faith, 
viz., in 1 58 1 and 1590 : and in their General Assembly of August 1590, 
"solemnly praised GOD that he was born to be King of such a Church, 
the purest in the world ; and that the Service of the English Church was 
an ill-said Mass in English." (Calderwood, Petrie.) 

' I should have obser\-ed, under 1570, That the Act of Parliament 
required Subscription to all the Articles of Religion, which Only concern 
the Confession of the true Christian Faith, and the Doctrine of the 
Sacraments (Keeble) : and under 1583, That Archbishop Whitgift 
extending the Subscription to All the Articles, WITHOUT EXCEPTION ; 
occasioned all the troubles the Puritans endured. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-| -pnE New England Ciironology. 1604. 353 

A'm^s. Great Britain, ]\WE.s I.; France, Henry IV.; Spain, Philip III 

One Doctrine, and OneDiscipline ; One religion in Substance, 
and in Ceremony." 

Tells the Lords and Bishops again, He had lived among 
such sort of men as the Puritans, ever since he was ten years 
old ; but might say of himself, as Christ, " Though I lived 
among them, I was never of them ; nor did anything make me 
more to detest their courses, than that they disallowed of all 
things which had been used in Popery."^ Swares, " By his 
soul ! he believed Ecclesiasticus was a Bishop." Says, 
" That a Scottish Presbytery as well agrees with Monarchy, as 
GOD and the Devil." At his going away, says to some, 
" If this be all they have to say, I shall make them conform ! 
or I will harry them out of the land, or do worse ! " And 
one of the Lords said, " He was fully persuaded His Majesty 
spake by the instinct of the Spirit of GOD." ^ 

January 18, Wednesday. The Third and last day's Con- 
ference, First, between the King and Bishop's party only. 

Wherein the King defends the High Commission ; with 
Subscription to all the Articles and Common Prayer Book ; as 
also the Oath ex Officio. And though one of the Lords •= 
pleaded. That the proceedings of the High Commission Court 
were like the Spanish Inquisition, wherein men are urged to 
subscribe more than the law required; and That by the Oath 
ex Officio, they were inforced to accuse themselves : That they 
were examined on twenty or twenty-four Articles upon the 
sudden, without deliberation ; and for the most part against 
themselves. Yet the King approves and vindicates them all, 
and says, "If any, after things are well ordered^ will not be 
quiet and show his obedience ; the Church were better with- 
out him, and he were worthy to be hanged ! " The Lords 
and the rest stood amazed at His Majesty's wise discourse. 
Archbishop Whitgift said, "Undoubtedly His Majesty 
spake by the special assistance of GOD's SPIRIT." Doctor 

* By this it appears, he mistook or misrepresented the Puritans : for 
their main dispute was only against Human Inventions ; and their being 
used in Popery, was an additional reason to put them away. 

^ William Barlow, D.D., Dean of Chester, his Sum of the Con- 
ference, printed, in quarto, London, 1604. 

" Most of the Lords of His Majesty's [Privy] Council were present in 
all these Conferences (Barlow). 

Eng. II. 23 

354 1604. The New England Chronology. ['"'"''■ "^^ ^7;"; 

Kings. Great Britai7i,]KViV.%\.\ y-ra/za', Henry IV.; Spaiii^ViuiAV IIL 

Bancroft, Bishop of London, upon his knee, protested "His 
heart melted with joy, and made haste to acknowledge to 
Almighty GOD His singular mercy received at His hands in 
giving such a King, as since Christ His time, the like, he 
thought, hath not been." Whereto the Lords, with one 
voice, did yield a very affectionate acclamation. 

Secondly. Then Doctor Reynolds and his associates were 
called in ; and though they intreated that the cross in 
baptism, and surplice, might not be urged upon some honest, 
godly, and painful Ministers : yet His Majesty willed that 
the Bishop should set a time ; and if they would not yield, 
whosoever they were, to remove them. " Either let them 
conform ! and that shortly ; or they shall hear of it ! "^•'^ 

January 31. King James issues a Writ for a Convocation of 
the Province of Canterbury to meet before Archbishop 
Whitgift, as President, at St. Paul's, London, on March 20.° 

February 29, Wednesday. Archbishop Whitgift dies, cet. 
73"^'^; and Dr. BARLOWsays, That not many days before he was 
stricken ; he most earnestly desired that he might not live to 
see the Parliament, which is to meet on March ig. 

March 5. King James issues a Proclamation, that the same 
Religion with Common Prayer and Episcopal Jurisdiction shall 
fully and Only be publicly exercised, in all respects, as in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth ; without hope of toleration of 
any other."^-*^ 

March 9. The Archbishop being dead, King James issues a 
second Writ for the Convocation to appear before Doctor 
Bancroft, Bishop of London, as President.^ 

March 19. King James's First Parliament meets at West- 
minster^'g : when he declares the Puritans to be a sect unable 
to be suffered in any well governed common wealth ; 
acknowledges the Roman Church to be our Mother Church, 
although defiled with some infirmities and corruptions ; pro- 

^ Barlow. <* Howes. ^ Keeble. 

'' I recite these passages to show the King's and Bishop's disposition 
towards the Puritans ; and what Httle favour these could now expect from 
the others. "= Bop/c of Canons, printed, in quarto, London, 1616. 

•^ HOLLAND! Heroologia Anglica. 

' Both Howe's Abridgment and Sir Richard Baker wrongly place 
this, in the following year. 

Rev. T. Prince.-| jjjg j^jg^^ England Ciironology. 1604. 355 

A'2/!£s. Cn-ai Br//ain,] AMES I.; /^'-<:^«r^, Henry IV.; 6)^«/;/, Philip III. 

fesses he would be content to meet her in the raid-way : and 
that since his coming, he has been so far from increasing the 
burdens of the Papists; that he had, as much as either time, 
occasion, or law could permit, lightened them, &c.''^ 

March 20. Convocation meets at St. Paul's, London, before 
Bishop Bancroft, President-t" 

April 12, and Jtine 25. King James issues his Letters 
Patent to empower the Convocation to agree on such Ecclesi- 
astical Canons as they should think fit. They accordingly 
draw up a Book of 141 Canons, and desire the King's assent to 
them: which he grants, confirming the said Canons, and com- 
manding the same to be observed, both in the Provinces of 
Canterbury and York.^ 

July 6. King James issues a Proclamation, wherein he 
orders the Puritan Ministers, either to conform'^ before the last 
of November'^', or dispose of themselves and families some 
other way ; as being men unfit, for their obstinacy and con- 
tempt, to occupy such places.'^ 

Ati.gust 18. Articles of Peace and Commerce concluded at 
London, with the King of Spain and Archduke Albert.^ 

August ig, Lord's Day. King James swares to the said 
Articles; and afternoon. Peace proclaimed.*^ 

September 10. Ostend surrendered by the Dutch to the 
Spaniards, having been besieged from June 25, iGoi. During 
the siege, there died in the city 72,900 persons : and many 
more [than that,] of the Spanish besiegers without it.§ 

October 24.. King James proclaimed King of Great Britain.^ 

December 10. Doctor Bancroft, Bishop of London, trans- 
lated into the Archbishopric of Canterbury^; who drives on 
Conformity very fiercely through all his Province.'^ 

December 18. Archbishop Bancroft writes a letter to the 
Bishops of his Province, wherein he calls the Puritan 
Ministers " disobedient," " obstinate," &c. ; requires that 

^ King James's SpcccJi, printed, in quarto, London, 1604. 
■^ Book of Canons, printed, in quarto, London, 16 16. 
"= Archbishop Bancroft irl his Letter to the Bishops of his Pi-ovince, 
December 18, 1604. 
^ A tract entituled, Certain demands S^c., printed, in quarto, 1605. 
^ Articles of Peace dr^c, printed, in quarto, London, 1605. 
f Howes. ^ Calvisius. ^ Fuller. 

356 i6o4-5- The NewEnglandCiironology. [^^''•'^•^'I^^^: 

Kings. Crcai Bn7a//i,] AMES I.; Franu, Henry W.; S/>a/;i, PniLlP llh 

none be admitted to Ecclesiastical functions without sub- 
scription to the Canons [of this year] : and to deprive those 
who are in the Church, unless they will both conform and 
also subscribe to the Canons.^ 


March 31, i ^g^^ iAPTAiN George Weymouth, with 
Lord's Day. |^^^ twenty-nine persons, sails from the 
Downs,'^ being employed by the 
Earl of Southampton and Lord 
Arundel (of Wardour) for the discovery of a North West 
Passage to the East Indies. But falling short of his course,"^ 
Tuesday, May 14, descries land in 41° 30' N., in the midst 
of dangerous rocks and shoals. Upon which, he puts to sea, 
the wind blowing south-south-west and west-south-west 
many days. Friday, May 17, descries land again ; the next 
day finds it an island ; anchors on the north side, lands and 
calls it " George's Island" ; whence he sees the main land, 
and many other islands. Lord's Day, May 19, weighs, and 
sails to another island three leagues nearer the main; goes 
into an excellent harbour, which he calls " Pentecost 
Harbour"; and the next day, goes ashore in the shallop. 
Thursday, May 30, sails in a shallop up a great river; and 
the next day returned.^ Tuesday, June 11, goes up the river 
in his ship, twenty- six miles ; says, it is half a mile wide for 
forty miles into the country. Thursday, June 13, sails his 
shallop or pinnace, twenty miles in the western branch of the 
river, and sets up a cross. Friday, J^lne 14, the ship goes 
down the river. Upon a rock, in the midst of the harbour, 
he finds the Latitude, 43° 20', and the variation 11° 15' W. 
Lord's Day, June 16, sets sail ; and Thursday, July 18, 
arrives at Dartmouth.t''^ 

* Archbishop Bancroft, in his Letter to the Bishops of his Province, 
dated December 18, 1604. ^ Purchas. 

■= Sir Ferdi NANDO Gorges, Governor of the Island and Fort of 
Plymouth in England, in his Narration &^c. 

^ This seems to be Sagadehock ; and Sir F. Gorges doubtless mis- 
takes, in calling it Pemaquid river. 

"" Sir. F. Gorges says, Captain Weymouth brought thence five natives ; 
and, happening to put into Plymouth, Sir Ferdinando, then Governor 
there, received three of them, viz., M.anida, Shetwarroes \_see p. 362], 
and TiSQUANTUM ; and kept them full three years. 

R=v.T. Prince. J ^^^^ NewEnglaxd Ciironology. 1605. 357 

A'l/i^i^s. Creal L'ri/cwi, Jx-MES I.; /raW,?, Henry IV.; S/>(U/i,Fhilip 111. 

April 8. Master John Stow, being eighty years old, a 
laborious writer of the English Annals for forty-seven years, 
is buried. Howes continues them.^ 

July 2, Tuesday. The General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland meeting at Aberdeen, the King's Commissioner 
presents them with a letter from the Lords of the [Privy] 
Council, requiring them to dissolve without appointing 
another Assembly. However, according to custom, they 
appoint another to meet on September 24 ; and then dissolve. 
For which, the [Privy] Council sends Master John Forbes, 
the Moderator, and thirteen other ministers, to several 

October 13, Lord's Day. Beza dies at Geneva,'^-^ ^/. eighty- 
six years, three months, and nine days.^-^ 

November 1. The names being taken of the Puritan 
Ministers deprived ; under Admonition ; and denied admit- 
a nee for not subscribing; amount to above 270: and yet of 
eight Bishoprics no account is given.s Some had preached in 
the Church ten, some twenty, some thirty years, some more. 
And till now, in some churches, the ceremonies had been 
disused for ten years, in others for twenty, and others thirty, 
in others more.'^ 

November 5, Tuesday. At three this morning, the Gun- 
powder Treason plot discovered ; to have been executed, this 
day, by the Papists, by blowing up the Parliament, who were 
to meet this day, with thirty-six barrels of gunpowder laid 
under the House ^'-J ; and when the Blast was made, it was 
to be charged to the Puritans.i^^ 

November 9, Saturday. King James comes to the Parlia- 

^ Howes. ^ Calderwood. '^ Petrie. '^ Conti7itiatio Calvish. 

^ Petavius mistakes in saying October 25, and Alsted in placing his 
death in 1600. ^ Melchior Adamus. ' Speed. 

s Dr. Lavton says, that from Ju7te 25, 1604, to November 5, 1605 ; 
there were four hundred Ministers ejected, silenced, or suspended, by 
virtue of these Canons. 

'' A quarto tract, intituled, Certain reasons why the Preachers who 
refuse to Subscribe, sliotcld not be removed or inhibited to preach, printed 
in those times. 

J Discourse of the Treason, quarto, printed by the King's Printer, at 
London, 1605. Calvisius wrongly places the Gunpowder Treason in 1606. 

'' Benjajmin H u beard's Senna Secular is printed, in 410, at London, 1 648. 

358 1605-6. The New England Chronology, ['^'^^•'^•^'■;"3t 

Kings. Great Br iiain,]\uiL'i L; France, Henry IV.; Spain, Philip IH. 

ment, and makes a speech/'^ wherein he cautions them 
against judging rashly of the Roman CathoHcs in general : 
says that many among them may remain good and faithful 
subjects ; but detesting and thinking the cruelty of Puritans 
worthy of fire, that will admit no salvation to any Papist.'^ 

___ 1606. 

January 10. [g ^ - jS nal Hough it was commonly thought 
the deliverance from the Popish 
Powder Plot, would have moved the 
King to desist from troubling 
Ministers in England for nonconforming to the ceremonies ; 
and Ministers in Scotland for standing to their confirmed 
liberty : yet this day, by the King's command, the Moderator 
and five other of the imprisoned Ministers in Scotland, are 
arraigned of treason, at Linlithgow, for declining the juris- 
diction of the [Privy] Council in Ecclesiastical Matters : and 
after a deal of tampering, flattering, threatening, &c., the 
major part of the Court brings them in. Guilty. Upon which, 
they are ordered into closer ward, and none allowed access 
to them."^*^ And February 5, a Proclamation, at Edinburgh, 
that none speak against the proceedings of the King, Council, 
or Court, in trying and punishing them : or against any other 
proceedings of the King, Council, or State, past, present, or 
to come, upon pain of Death."^ 

Sir John Popham, Lord Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench, prevails on many Lords and others, to petition King 
James for the settling of two Plantations on the main coasts 
of America. Upon which ^ 

April 10. King James, by Patent, divides Virginia into 
two Colonies. The Southern, called the First Colony, 
between 34° and 41° N., he grants to the London Company. 
The Northern, called the Second Colony, between 38" and 
45° N., he grants to the Plymouth Company. Forbidding 
both, to plant within a hundred miles of each other : and 
giving each Colony, a Council of Thirteen to rule, coin, &c/ 

^ Howes. •= Calderwood. "^ Petrie. ^ Purchas. 

'' King James's Speech, printed, in quarto, at London, 1605. 
*= Sir Ferdinando Gorges, Governor of the Inland and Fort of 
PI) mouth in England, in his Narration ar'c. 

Rev. r. Prince.-| -pnE New England Chronology. 1606. 359 

Ki/igs. Grail Bniain,]AU'E.Sl.; Fraficc,V\.'EnKW IV.; Spain, Viuhiv III. 

May 21. King James writes to Masters James and Andrew 
Melvin and six other principal Presbyterian Ministers 
in Scotland, to come to him before September 15, to treat with 
them for the peace of the Church there : this being the 
pretence ; but the event proves that the policy is to detain and 
confine them, that, during their absence, Episcopacy may be 
advanced in Scotland.^ 

Beginning of July. The Parliament of Scotland meets at 
Perth, which against the Protestation of the Commissioners 
of the Presbyteries through the Kingdom, restores the 
State of Bishops to their ancient dignities, prerogatives, 
tithes, rents, thirds, &c. : contrary to the Constitution and 
Doctrine of the Church of Scotland preached these forty 
years ; and contrary to the Confession of Faith sworn and 
subscribed in 1581 and 1590 by the King and his household, 

Jtdy. Sir Edward Coke made Lord Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, in England.^ 

August 12, Tuesday. Lord Chief Justice Popham, Sir F. 
Gorges, and some others of the Plymouth Company, send 
Captain Henry Challons,'^ a brave gentleman,^ from Ply- 
mouth, in a ship of 55 tons, twenty-nine Englishmen, with 
Mannido and Assecomoit, two of the five savages brought last 
year from a goodly river thrice discovered by him in North 
Virginia, in 43° 20' N., to make a further discovery on those 
coasts ; and, if occasion offers, to leave as many men as he 
could spare in the country. But sailing to Madeira, St. 
Lucia, Porto Rico, and thence towards North Virginia ; on 
November 10, he is taken ^ by the Spanish Fleet ^ of eight 
ships,<= coming from the Havanna^; who carry him into 
Spain. '^■^ 

Shortly after Captain Challons's departure from Plymouth, 
the Lord Chief Justice sends another ship from Bristol,*^ 
under Thomas Hanam Commander, and Martin Prinn 
Master, with more supplies, to second Captain Challons'. 

=* Calderwood. ^ Howes. 


^ President and CounciVs Rc/atwjt of ike Discovery ami Flantatioti of 
New England, printed, in quarto, London, 1622. 

360 i6o6. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T. Prince. 

Khigs. Great Brii(un,].\M]L'6\.; /vw/ct-, Henrv IV.; Spaiti,VH\L\V \\\. 

But not finding Captain Ciiallons there ; they return to 

End of August. The eight Scotch Ministers which 
the King had written to, being arrived in London, are 
there detained, without any reason but the King's pleasure : 
and September 30, are by His Majesty obHged to hear Dr. 
King preach a most virulent invective against Presbyteries, 
crying to the King, " Down ! down with them ! " ^ 

Beginning of October. The King orders the six condemned 
Ministers in Scotland to be banished his dominions all their 
days ; and the other eight imprisoned there, to be confined in 
several places remote from their former dwellings.^ 

The Purely Reformed Church in the north of England, by 
reason of the distance of their habitations, are obliged to assemble 
in two several places, and become two distinct Churches. In one, 
besides several of note, is Master John Smith, a man of able 
gifts and a good Preacher ; who is chosen their Pastor. But 
these, afterwards, going over into the Low Countries, and falling 
into errors; there, for the most part, bury themselves and their 
names : 

But the other Church (the subject of our Chronology), besides 
several worthy men, as Master Richard Clifton, a grave and 
reverend Preacher; and the famous Master John Robinson, 
who is afterwards their Pastor for many years, till GOD takes him 
away by death; as also Master William Brewster, a reverend 
man, who afterwards is chosen Elder, and lives with them till old 

December 20, Saturday. The London Company sends forth 
Captain Christopher Newport, with a ship of 100 tons, 
another of 40 tons, and a pinnace of 20 tons ; for South 
Virginia : who then sail from London, but first to the West 
India Islands.^ 

° President and Council's Relation ^^c. 1622. 

'^ Sir F. Gorges says, the said PRINN makes a perfect discovei-y of all 
those rivers arid harbours ; and brings the most exact account of that coast 
that ever came to my hand since. 


* Governor Bradford's History, in manuscript. 

'^"''•'^'■^^^'Js;] The Niiw England Chronology. 1607. 3^i 

A'vii^s. Greai Britain, ] AMES I.; France, Henry IV.; ^rt;///, Philip I IL 


March 3. [^^^^Ne of the Scotch Ministers in London is al- 
lowed to return, on account of his wife's 
dangerous illness : provided he would 
neither go to Synods nor Presbyteries. 

Afivil 26, Lord's Day. The King's Council send Master 
A. Melvin to the Tower, where they keep him above four 
years ; for writing a Latin Epigram upon the altar in the 
King's Chapel : and May 6, the other six Scotch Ministers at 
London ordered to be confined in several places in the two 
Kingdoms {p. 397], for no other pretence than that they had 
not given the King satisfaction in the questions he proposed 
to them, about his own arbitrary power in Church matters.^ 

April 26. Captain Newport descries South Virginia; 
enters Chesapeake Bay, and lands. April 29. He names the 
southern point, Cape Henry. May 13. They choose Master 
Edward WiNGFiELD, President for one year. May \\. Land 
all their men, and begin a Colony at a place they call, James 
Town. Monday, J;^;jg 22, Captain Newport sails for England, 
leaving the President and a hundred and four persons. 

August 22. Dies in this Southern Colony, Captain Bar- 
tholomew GosNOLD, the first Mover of this Colony, and 
one of the Council. September 11. President Wingfield dis- 
placed by his Council, and John Ratcliff chosen President.^ 

May 21, Thursday. Doctor John Reynolds, King's 
Professor of Divinity in Oxford, dies, there,'^'^ est. 58. He 
had been Dean of Lincoln ; but exchanged it for the 
Presidency of Corpus Christi College, Oxford."^ Fuller 
says, " He was acquainted with all arts and sciences ; most 
excellent in all useful tongues ; had read over all writers, 
profane [i.e., secular], ecclesiastical. Divine; Councils, Fathers, 
Histories of the Church; his memory miraculous; his 
judgement mature; his piety most eminent; modest, courteous, 
affable.'^ And the Chief of the Puritans at the Hampton 
Court Conference. "s 

May 31. The Plymouth Adventurers send forth Captain 
George Popham as President, and Captain Rawley Gilbert 


^ Doctor Barlow, Su/ji of the Conference &^c., 1604. 

;62 1607. The New Enceand Ciironoeogv. ['^'-■^•'J"- 


Kini^s. Great Britain, James L; France, HENRY IV.; Spaift, Philip III. 

Admiral,''^ with two ships,'^ two nati/es, viz., Sketwakroes 
and Dehamda,'^ and a hundred landsmen l>: who then sail 
from Plymouth, for North Virginia. 

August II. They fall in with Monahigan^^; and settle^ on 
a westerly peninsula ° at the mouth of Sagadehock, nine or 
ten leagues to the southward,^ [which, I suppose, is since 
called Small Point] ; and huild a fortification, which they 
name " St. George's Fort." '^ 

August 24. Master Thomas Brightman, Rector of Haunes 
in Bedfordshire, dies, about the 51st year of his age.*^ 
Fuller says, " He wrote a learned Comment, in most pure 
Latin, on the Canticles and Revelations. He always carried a 
Greek Testament with him ; and read it out [through] every 
fortnight. His life was most angelical. A great opposer of 
ceremonies, his daily discourse against Episcopal Govern- 
ment, and was never known to be moved with anger." ^ 

Thomas Lad, a Merchant of Yarmouth, having been long 
imprisoned by the High Commission, could not be bailed ; 
because, having formerly answered on oath twice, before the 
Bishop's Chancellor at Norwich to certain Articles about a 
conventicle : he refused to answer on a new oath, without 
sight of his former Answers. And Richard Mansel, a 
Preacher, being charged to have been partaker in a Petition 
exhibited to the House of Commons ; and refusing the oath 
ex officio to answer to certain Articles propounded to him ; was 
long imprisoned by the Commissioners at Lambeth, and 
could not be bailed. Both prisoners are now brought to the bar, 
upon the writ of the Habeas Corpus, where Master Nicholas 
Fuller, an honest man and an eminent lawyer, pleaded that 
they ought to be discharged, by an argument to prove that the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners have no legal power to put the 

For which. Archbishop Bancroft gets this learned Counsel 
into prison, and prosecutes him there to death.^'S [See jf). 367.] 

^ Captain JoHN Smith. "^ Sir F. Gorges. 

^ President and Council's T^^'/czZ/cw fir^r., 1622. 

'^ Sir F. Gorges says, three ships ; and that they arrive at their place 
of rendezvous on Ajigiest 8. "^ Purchas's Pilgrimage. 

s Though Dr. Fuller mentions not the year of this prosecution : yet 
by the Preface to the Lawyer's Afgui/ieni, printed in quarto, this year, in 
Holland ; it appears he was now in prison. ' Fuller. 

Rev. T. Prince.-I XnE NeW EnGLAND CHRONOLOGY. 1607-8. 363 
K/nj,rs. Great Britain, James I.; France, Henry IV.; Spain, Philip IIL 

n/s fall Mastcrls Clifton's and] Robinson's Church in the 
north of En-land, being extremely harrassed; some cast into prison, 
some beset vi their houses, some forced to leave their farms and 
families : they begin to fly over to Holland,- with their Reverend 
Pastor, Master Clifton,^' for Purity of Worship and Liberty oj 

Near winter. Captain Newport arrives at South Virginia, 
with fresh supplies, and stays fourteen weeks. And this winter, 
Tames Town catching fire, is burnt ; but soon repaired.'^ 

December 15. The two Enghsh ships sail from Sagadehock,- 
with all their company, except forty-hve, for England.^ 


His winter, extreme cold, both in Europe and North. 
America ^-'i: and in the midst thereof,^ the store 
house most of the provisions ^ and lodgings at 
I Sagad'ehock are burnt ; which exceedingly distresses 

che people. And this winter, old Captain Popham, their 
President, dies in this North Plantation, the only one of the 
Company that dies there; and Captain Rawley Gilbert 
succeeds as President.* _ , •, r o j 1 1 

Upon the ships' arrival in England from Sagadehock 
Lord Chief Popham orders the Council of Plymouth to send 
them back with supplies.^ 

The Spring approaching. Captain Newport sails from 
South Virginia for England; and Captain Nelson arrives at 
James Town. These two ships bring nearly a hundred men, 
and a hundred and twenty persons.^ _ r -.u • c . 

Fcbniary 2=5. Master Murray, Minister at Leith in Scot- 
land having been committed to the Castle of Edinburgh for 
oppo'sing the rise of Bishops; is, this day, brought before the 
King's Council there, and dismissed. For which the kmg 
sends them a sharp rebuke, and a warrant to the Captain ot 
the Guard to commit him again. So without any new cita- 
tion, not convicted of any offence, upon the King s private 
direction only; he is committed to the Castle again, and 
there detained a year. And then the King orders the Council 

« Governor Bradford's manuscript History. r-,^^,r-p= 

b Church of Plymouth Records. ^ Purchas. Sir F. Gorges 

- Captain JOHN SMITH. ' President and Council s Aetatwn u~r., 1O22. 

364 i6o8. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T. Prince. 
17 56, 

KiHffs. Great Britain,]\WESl.; France, H^iLnKY \Y.; Spain, Viu-Liv III. 

to send him to a remote part of the kingdom, and there 
confine, and forbid him to preach.^ 

This spring, more of Master Robinson's Church, through 
great difficulties from their pursuers, get over to Holland. And 
afterwards, the rest with Master Robinson and Master Bkew- 
STER; who are of the last, having tarried to help the weakest over 
before them. They settle at Amsterdam, and stay there a year : 
where Master Smith and his Church had gotten before thcm.^ 

This Spring, by the Lord Chief Justice PopiiAM'sorder,'=two 
ships are furnished with fresh supplies for North Virginia ^i; 
and as they are waiting for a wind, they hear of his death. <= 
However they sail, and arrive at Sagadehock,^ not long after 
the death of President Popham.^^ 

Soon after these ships sailed from England, Sir John 
Gilbert dies, and leaves his younger brother Rawley ^ 
Gilbert his heir.° Sir Francis Popham, son to the Lord 
Chief Justice, with some of the Adventurers, send a new 
supply g : and this ship also arrives at Sagadehock in some 
small time after the other.^ 

By these ships, the Plantation being informed first, of the 
death of Lord Chief Justice Popham, and then of that of Sir 
John Gilbert d; and Captain Gilbert, the President, being 
obliged to go home, and take care of the estate his brother 
left him : the whole Colony breaks up, and returns with him ^ 
this year to England. And thus this Plantation begins and 
ends in one year.*^ They brand the country as over cold and 
not habitable by our Nation ; and the Adventurers give over 
their design.'^ 

After this. Sir Francis Popham sends Captain Williams,'^ 
divers times, to this coast for trade and fishing only s ; and 
Sir F. Gorges also sends Vines with a ship to fish, trade, 
and discover, for some years together; and hires men to stay 
the winter, wherein the plague raged among the Indians ^ 
[lejhich I suppose is the winter of 1616-17.] 

^ Calderwood. '^ Governor Bradford's manuscript History. 

" Sir F. Gorges. '* Captain John Smith. 

" Sir F. Gorges says, that Lord Chief Justice's death suddenly followed 
the death of the President. 

f Sir F. GORGES's printer mistakes, in naming him Ralph Gilbert. 
s President and Council's Relation &^c., 1622. 

Rev. T. Princ^l TiiE New Encland Chronology. 1 608-9. 365 

A'ms^s. Crcai Bn'/ai//, ] AMES I.; France, Henry IV.; Spain, Philip III. 

But upon the Colony's breaking up; the French settle them- 
selves within our limits.^ 

July 25, Tuesday. A General Assembly meets at Linlithgow 
in Scotland ; and intreats the King, as several Presbyteries and 
Synods had before, to grant the banished and confined 
Ministers their liberty. But it could not be obtained.'^ 

This year. Captain John Smith sails up the rivers, and 
discovers the inland parts of South Virginia. Scpicvihcr 10. He 
receives from England Letters Patent to be President. And 
now^ it seems, that Captain Newport arrives, with seventy 
persons more ; and sailing for England, leaves two hundred 
in all in the Colony.*^ 

A STER Robinson's CJmrch having stayed at A msterdam, 
about a year ; seeing Master Smith and his Company 
were fallen into contention with the Church that was there 
before him, and that the flames were like[ly] to break 
out in the Ancient Chnrch itself {as afterwards lamentably came to 
pass) : which Master Robinson and Church prudently foreseeing ; 
they think it best to remove in time, before they were any way 
engaged with the same. Though they knew it would be very much 
to the prejudice of their outward interest, as it proved to be : yet 
valuing peace and spiritual comfort above other riches, they 
therefore, with Master Robinson, remove to Leyden, about the 
beginning of the " Twelve Years' Truce " between the Dutch and 
Spaniards. Choose Master Brewster, Assistant to him, in the 
place of an Elder: and there live in great love and harmony both 
among themselves, and their neighbour citizens, for above eleven 
years, till they remove to Neiv England ^'^ ; but the Reverend 
Master Clifton stays at Amsterdam, and there dies.^ 

April g. The Dutch agree to the " Twelve Years' Truce " 
with the King of Spain, and the Archduke Albert. s 

^ President and Council's Relation &^e., 1622. ^ Calperwood. 

*= PURCHAS. "^ Governor Bradford's manuscript History. 

^ By this, it appears that both Bavlie and HoRNius are mistaken, in 
representing that Master Smith set up his Church at Leyden ; when it 
was to avoid him and his Company, that Master Robinson and his 
Church removed from Amsterdam to Leyden. And by several passages 
in Governor Bradford's manuscript, it seems as it they began to remove 
to Leyden at the end of 1608. ^ Church of Plymouth Records. 

s Calvisius. 

366 i6o9. The New England C iironoi-ocy. \_^^''-'^- ^';!;^l 

Kings. Great Britain, James I.; France, Henry IV.; Spaiji, Philip III. 

May. King James establishes the East India Company for 

The Council for South Virginia having moved the King to 
call in their Commission; and received a new one: they make 
Sir Thomas West, Lord De la Warr, General of the Colony ; 
Sir Thomas Gates, his Lieutenant; Sir George Somers, 
Admiral; Sir Thomas Dale, High Marshal; Sir Ferdinand 
Wainman, General of the Horse; and Captain Newport, 

May 15. Sir Thomas Gates and Vice-Admiral Newport 
sail, with seven ships, from Woolwich for South Virginia ; 
May 20, arrive at Plymouth, when Sir George Somers joins 
them with a ketch and pinnace. Friday, June 2, they all 
sail, with five hundred people,^ men, women, and children,^ 
from Plymouth ; and June, 8, from Falmouth. = 

June. Sir John Bourcher brings the making of alum to 
perfection in England.^ 

July 10, or thereabouts. Captain Samuel Argal arrives 
at South Virginia, to fish for sturgeon "" : who now first 
discovers the direct passage from England thither; and not 
to go by the West Indies, as before.^ 

July 24. Monday. The South Virginia Fleet crossing the 
Gulf of Bahamas, a most vehement storm separates them. 

Jtily 28, Friday. Sir George Somers descries Bermudas, 
from him therefore called the " Somer Islands : " is forced 
to run the ship ashore ; and, in their boats, all get safe to 
land, being 150 men, women, and children. And there they 
live till May following ; Sir Thomas Gates, and Vice- Admiral 
Newport being in the same ship with them.'^-'^ 

Aiigust II. Four other ships of the Fleet arrive at South 
Virginia : a few days after, two more ; and after this, the 
pinnace. And Captain Smith, the President, being exceedingly 
burnt with powder, and the new comers setting up against 
himc . about September 29, he sails for England i^; and they 
chose Master Francis West, President; who soon follows him. 
And then, they chose Master G eorge Piercy, President.'^ 

^ Howes. ^ Captain John Smith. *= Purchas. 

<* This shipwreck, bringing the Bermudas to the special knowledge and 
esteem of the English, proves the occasion of their settling and possessing 

Rev. T. Prince 

7;^6]TiieNewEnglandCiironology. 1609-10. 367 

A'/fi^-s. Great Brihiin,]\u^s\.; ivvzwa-, Henry IV.; ^^j/;/, Philip III. 

This summer. Master Henry Hudson, an Englishman, 
but employed by the Dutch, searching for a North West 
Passage to the East Indies, sails to Newfoundland, and all 
along the coast to Cape Cod and Virginia as far as 33° •'i; and 
now, I suppose, it is, that he discovers Hudson's River. 

October 9. James Arminius, Professor of Divinity at Leyden, 
dies^ there, at.^g''; and Conradus Vorstius called to supply 
his place.^^ 

Beginning of November. At the King's direction, the Council 
of ScotlandconfineMasterpAiRFULL, Minister of Dunfermline, 
during the King's pleasure; only for praying for the distressed 
Ministers both within and without the country.^ 

Master Nicholas Fuller, who was cast into prison by 
Archbishop Bancroft, in 1607 [see p. 362], for pleading in 
defence of this clients against the power of the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, is still by the Archbishop kept in prison. Many 
were his petitions to the King for enlargement : but the 
Archbishop pre-acquainted the King ; and represented to him 
that this lawyer was the Champion of the Nonconformists; 
so that he lay in prison till he died this year.^ 

December 21. Master William Ames, Fellow of Christ's 
College, in Cambridge, preaches in St. Mary's Church, 
against playing cards and dice : at which many are so 
offended ; that, to avoid expulsion, he goes beyond sea ; and 
the States of Friesland, not long after, choose him Professor 
of Divinity,^ in their University of Franeker/ 

=^=. 1610. 

February 15. |S^|He King erects two High Com- 
mission Courts in Scotland, under 
the Archbishops of St. Andrews 
and Glasgow, and over their 
several Provinces; which Commission puts the King in 
possession of Absolute Power to use the bodies and goods 

^ Harris. b Prefatio ad Acta Synod. Dordrcc. 

" Continuatio Calvish. ^ Calderwood. ^ Fuller. 

f Doctor Thomas Fuller places this about i6io-ii,and his preaching 
on St. Thomas' Day, which is December 21 ; yet by pubhshing his 
Puritatiisiiius Aiiglicamis at Frankfort in 1610, I chose to place this 
Preaching on December 21, 1609; rather than 1610. 

368 i6io. Tun New England Ciironolocv. [ .'"e! 

/Czft^s. Great Britain, ]p^mks I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip III. 

of his subjects at pleasure, without Form or Process of 
Common Law. And now the Scotch llishops are become 
patrons of benefices, Lords of Parhament, of the Council, 
Exchequer, Session, High Commission, &c.^ 

February 28. The Lord Delaware [De LA Warr] has 
his Patent sealed by the South Virginia Company, to be 
Lord Governor and Captain General of all the Colonies 
there, during his life : and before 

March 24, he sails, with three ships and one hundred 
and fifty men, accompanied by Knights and Gentlemen of 
Quality; Captain Argal conducting him thither.^ 

April 27. King James grants to divers persons a Patent 
of Incorporation, &c., to settle a Colony in Newfoundland. '-" 
In June, they send Master John Guy, as Governor ; with 
thirty-nine persons : who arrive there, begin the colony in 
Conception Bay, and there winter.'i 

May 3, Thursday. The French Queen crowned at Paris. ^-^ 
The next day, King Henry IV. her Lord was stabbed to 
death,e.f by a Popish priest, & in his coach : and his son, 
Louis XIII. , reigns^; but the Queen made Regent, during 
her son's minority .^-^ 

May 10. Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and 
Vice- Admiral Newport sail from Bermudas, in their new 
built pinnaces, for South Virginia; leaving two men, who 
refused to come aboard them. Monday, May 21, they 
descry South Virginia, sail into Chesapeake Bay ; and find 
Master George Piercy, President. Wednesday, May 23, 
they anchor; and land at James Town, with about an 
hundred and fifty persons. 

But finding the colony, from five hundred, when Captain 
Smith went away, reduced to sixty ; and in a wretched 
state : they all resolve for England. And on June 7, the 
whole Company gets on board, leaves James Town, and 
sails down the river. 

» Calderwood. "^ Howes. ^ Purchas. ^ Petavius. 

" Howes sets the date of the Patent on May 2 this year; but I adhere 
to Purchas, who recites the Patent. 
*■ Contimiatio Calvish. ^ Pointer. 

Rev. T. P 

i';;;^:] The New England Chronology. i6io. 369 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip III. 

And thus the First Colony thfivc breaks up. 

[See//. 340-341, for the three Attempts at Settlement of Old Virginia.] 

But the next day, the Lord Delaware, from England, 
meets them. Upon which, they return, and land at the 
town again. ^ 

June 10, Lord's Day. The Lord Delaware arrives with 
his three ships, and one hundred and fifty men at James 
Town; lands, and takes upon him the Government. June 
19. Sir George Somers and Captain Argal sail from 
James Town for Bermudas, for provisions.^ 

June. Another ship, with twenty men, and a year's 
provisions, sent after the Lord Delaware from England, 
for South Virginia.^ 

July 15. Sir Thomas Gates sails for England. 
And July 16, Sir George Somers and Captain Argal 
meeting with violent storms and contrary winds, bare away 
for Cape Cod ; and July 26, for Sagadehock. The night 
after, being foggy, they lose sight of each other. 

July 29. Captain Argal comes to a rocky island, in 43° 
40^ N. Lat. ; lands upon it, finds a great store of seals, and 
calls it, *' Seal Rock " : August 14, shapes his course for Cape 
Cod; to the back side of which he came on August 19, in 
41° 50^ find the variation 13° W.*^ The next day, sails for 
South Virginia; August 27, anchors in nine fathoms, in a 
very great Bay ; the southern Cape of which is in 38° 20' N. 
Lat.'i August 31, arrives at Cape Charles, the northern 
Cape of Chesapeake Bay. 

Sir George Somers also sails, first to Sagadehock, then 
to Bermudas; where he dies: and his pinnace returns to 
England, leaving three men behind them.^ 

October 21. By the King's Commission, the Bishops of 
London, Ely, Worcester, and Rochester consecrate the 
Scottish Bishops in the Bishop of London's Chapel ; viz., 
Master John Spottiswood, Archbishop of Glasgow; Master 
Gavin Hamilton, Bishop of Galloway ; and Master 
Andrew Lamb, Bishop of Brechin.t> 

^ PURCHAS. ^ Howes. " In the margin of Purchas, 'tis 15° W. 
"• This seems to be the Bay, since called Delaware Bay. 
£.VG. Gar. II. 24 

3 70 1 6 1 o- 1 1 . The New England Ciironology.P'^''- '^- ^","^1 

Kings. Great Britain, James I.; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, I'mi.ip 1 J I. 

November 2. Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury dies.^ 

December 31. The King, by Proclamation, dissolves his 
First Parliament.''-'^ 

This year comes out A Justification of Separation from the 
Church of Enjjjland, by John Robinson, 476 pp., m quartoA 

And, about this time, and the following years, many come to his 
Church at Ley den, frojn divers parts of England ; so as they grow 
a great Congregation.^ 

And this year, Dr. Ames publishes his Ptiritanismus 
Angiicanus, in Latin, in octavo, at Frankfort in Germany .^ 


This winter. [f^^^WOuR of the English die at Newfound- 

March 15, or thereabouts. Sir 
Thomas Dale sails for South Virginia 
with three ships, three hundred people, twelve kine, twenty 
goats, and all thing needful for the colony.^" 

March. After eight months' illness there. Lord Delaware 
sails with Captain Argal for England : leaving upwards of 
two hundred men, and Captain George Piercy, his Deputy 
Governor, till Sir Thomas Dale arrives ; whose power is 
also to end, upon Sir Thomas Gates' arrival.^ 

This year. Masters Edward Harlie and Nicholas 
HoBSON sail to North Virginia.^ And of this Voyage, I 
suppose it is, that Captain Smith writes, " That the Earl of 
vSouTHAMPTON and those of the Isle of Wight, employ 
Captain Edward Harlow to discover an isle supposed to 
be about Cape Cod ; but falling in with Monahigan, 
they detained three savages, viz., Pechmo, Monopet, and 
Pekenimne; but Pechmo leapt overboard, and got away. 
Not far from thence, they had three men sorely wounded 
with arrows: and anchoring at the Isle of Nohono; the 
savages in their canoes assault the ship, until the English 
guns make them retire. Yet here they take Sakaweston ; 
and at Capawe, they take Coneconam and Epenow. But 
at Agawam, the natives use them more kindly. And so, 

= Fuller. ^ Howes. " Baker. 

'^ See the book itself, which is doubtless printed at Leyden. 

'^ Governor liRADFORU's History. \ Liber ipse. ^ PuRCHAS. 

^''''•'^•^'■;"36:] The New England Chronology. i6i 1-12. 371 

Kings. Creai Briiahi, James L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IIL 

with five savages, they return to England : but of Plantations, 
there are no more speeches.^ 

April 9, Tuesday. Doctor George Abbot, Bishop of 
London, transferred to the Archbishopric of Canterbury^ ; 
and Fuller says, " He was not much beloved by the inferior 
clergy; as being over austere and rigid. "'^ 

May 10. Sir T. Dale arrives at South Virginia, with the 
three ships and three hundred people, &c., in 8 weeks' passage, 'i 

Towards the end of May. Sir T. Gates sails from England 
thither, with 3 ships and 3 caravels, 280 men, 20 women, 
100 kine, and as many swine^' : and August i, or 2, arrives 
there ; with his 6 ships, 300 people, ^c.*^ 

South Virgijtia being thus settled^ I 
shall leave their history. 

May 22. King James begins the Order of Baronets ; and 
this day, creates eighteen.^ 

End of May. Master Stratoun, Minister of Forres in 
Scotland, warded in the Castle of Inverness, for preaching 
against the State of Bishops. 

November. VoRSTius ordered to retire from Leyden, to his 
house at Tergow. [Goes.] s 

This year. The new Version of the Bible into English, 
finished by the forty-seven Translators. "^ 


He Curators of the University of Leyden call 
Simon Episcopius to be the Professor of Divinity 
there, against the mind of Polyander, the other 
Professor ; and to the great grief of the Churches, s 

March 3. Bartholomew Legate condemned to the fire, 
by the Bishops in the Consistory of St. Paul's, London ; for 
Arianism. March 11, the King issues his writ to burn him'^; 
and Wednesday, March 18, he is burnt in Smithfield,'^''^ in a 
vast conflux of spectators, he being about 40 years of age.'^-h 

=" Smith. ^ Howes. "= Fuller. "^ Purchas. 

^ Salmon. '' Calderwood. s Prefatio ad Acta Synod. Dordrec. 

"'■' Fuller says, that King, Bishop of London, called so many bishops, 
divines, and lawyers to his trial, that the Consistory seemed not so much 
a large Court as a little Convocation. 

372 i6i2. The New England Chronology, [^""''^'^'"^''^t 

Kings. Great Britain^ Ja.mes L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip 1 1 \. 

April II. Edward Wightman having been convicted by 
the Bishop of Lichfield, of the like or worse heresies, is 
there, this day, burnt. 

Which executions raising the compassion of the people ; 
the King chooses that heretics should waste away their lives 
in prison.^ 

The Bermudas Islands being within the limits of Virginia, 
and the Company finding land enough on the Main ; sell 
these Islands to 120 of the same Company; who name them 
the " Sommer Islands," obtain a Charter, and so hold them 
of His Majesty t> : and 

April 28. They send the First Colony thither, of 60 
persons, under Master Richard Moore, Governor there for 
three years^'<=; who now embark in a ship at London, and go 
down to Gravesend ; May g, sail from the Downs; JiUy 11, 
descry, and land at Bermudas; August 1, subscribe to Six 
religious Articles of Government: and this year, 30 passengers 
more, arrive here."^ 

June J. Master Guy arrives at Newfoundland again. And 
this summer, Captain Peter Easton, the famous pirate, 
comes thither, with ten good ships^; takes a hundred men 
out of the fishing vessels in Conception Bay, besides what 
he takes in others ; mans ^ix ships, ^ and sails to the 
Straits, e.f.g 

And this year, the Newfoundland Colony increases to sixty 

August 4. Master Hugh Broughton dies at Tottenham 
High Cross, est. 63. ^ 

In these times, are great troubles raised by the Arminians in 
Holland. In Lcyden especially, there are daily and hot disputes 
in the Schools about the Arminian doctrines: the two Divinity 
Professors being divided, EPISCOPIUS teaching for them, PoLY- 
ANDER against them ; and the Contention grows to that pass, that 
few of the disciples of the one will hear the other. But Master 

^ Fuller. '' Howes. *= Perier. ^ Purchas. 

^ Whitbourn, in his Discourse of Newfoundlaiid, printed, in quarto, 
London, 1622. ^ />., of Gibraltar. E.A. 1879. 

^ WHrniouRN, by mistake, sets this in 1611 ; and it seems most likely 
that the six ships are part of the ten ; and that he came but with four. 

'' LiGHTFOOT, in his Preface to Master Broughton's Works. 

Rcv.T. Prince.j'pj^j, New England Ciironolocy. 1 6 1 2- 1 3. 373 

Kings. Great Britain, ]A^i^'?> I.; France, LouiS XIII.; Spain, Philip III. 

Robinson, tlwtigh he preaches thrice a week, and wrote sundry 
books, besides his other manifold labours ; yet goes constantly to 
hear them both : whereby he is grounded so well in the controversy, 
sees the force of all their arguments, knon's the shifts of the 
Arminians ; and being himself otherwise very able, none is fitter 
to engage them, as appears by sundry disputes. So as he begins to 
be terrible to the Arminiaji party. ^ 

October 16. Parliament of Scotland meets ; and still 
enlarges the King's and Bishops' powers.'^ 

The same day. Frederick, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, 
arrives at Gravesend '^•^^ ; and Lord's Day, 18, at White 
Hall : to marry the Princess Elizabeth, King James's only 

November 6, Friday. The most hopeful Henry, Prince of 
Wales, dies of a malignant fever, aged 18 years, 8 months, 
17 days'^-'^ : and Fuller says, " He was never known to have 
uttered a profane oath." ^ 

Fehniary 14, [0]^1^|He Princess Elizabeth married to 
Lord's Day. |o oi the Prince Palatine. ^.d On which day, 
^ ^^ ^^"^ tilting and other royal entertain- 
pr' '*^ | merits of the time '^j at night, a Masque 
of Lords and Ladies. Saturday, April 10, the Prince Palatine 
and Lady set out from White Hall for Heidelberg. ^.d And 
Howes says, That, during the Palatine's abode in England, 
he behaved himself so nobly ; that he won the hearts of the 
whole nation.'^ 

March 27. Nicholas Guy's wife delivered of a son at 
Newfoundland f; which seems to be the first English child 
born there. 

June. Arrives from England, at Bermudas, a vessel with 
60 passengers. Some time after, another with 40. Two 
months after, a third with 100 ; two days after, a fourth with 
180; and fourteen days after, two frigates with 160.S 

Bermudas being thus settled^ I shall 
leave their history, 

"" Governor Bradford's History. "^ Calderwood. ^ IIo.ves. 
^ Baker. ^ Fuller. f Purchas. - SMrrn. 

374 i6i3. The New England Chronology. [^""■'^■'^"[".H: 

Kings. Cfral B>i/,u'/i, James L; I'raJice,L0VlS XI IL; Spain, PlllLll' IH. 

The Government of South Virginia hcar'ng that the 
French had settled within ourhmits; send Captain ARGALto 
dishxlge them : who sails to Sagadehock ; seizes their forts 
at Mount Mansel, St. Croix, and Port Royal ; and carries 
their ship and pinnace, ordnance, cattle and provisions to 
James Town.''^-''-'^ [Sec p. 421]. 

October 25, Monday. Lord Chief Justice Coke removed to 
the King's Bench; and made Lord Chief Justice of England/^ 

This year, Master Randal Bates, a reverend Preacher 
dies in prison ; having lain in the Gate House about twenty 
months, only for opposing the Prelacy and Ceremonies used 
in the Church,^ and Master Cotton says, " He was an 
heavenly saint, suffered for the same cause, choked in prison ; 
nor could be released, though Doctor Hering, a learned and 
beloved physician, earnestly solicited Bishop Neal for his 
enlargement, as he tendered his life. But the physician's 
suit was repulsed with reproaches ; and the life of his patient 
spilt by that rigour." 

And about tins year, it seems, that EPISCOPIUS sets forth 
sundry Arviinian Theses at Ley den ; which he would defend in 
public against all opposers. Upon which, POLYANDER and the 
chief Preachers of the city desire Master ROBINSON to dispute 
against hint : but, being a stranger, he laas loath to engage. Yet 
the others telling him that such was the ability and expertness of the 
adversary, tJiat the truth is in danger to suffer, if he would not 
help them; are so importunate as at length he yields : and when 
the day comes, he so defends the truth and foils the Opposer, as he 
puts him to an apparent non plus in this great and public audi- 
ence. The same, he docs a second or third time, upon the like 
occasions: which as it causes many to give praise to GOD that 
the truth had so famous a victory ; so it procures Master RoBINSON 
much respect and honour from those learned men and others. And 
it is said by some of no mean note, " that were it not for giving 
offence to the State of England, they would prefer [promote] him 
otherwise, if he pleased ; and allow his people some public favour. " ^ 

"^ Though neither the month, nor year of this expedition are certified 
either by GORGES, SMrrn, or Purchas ; yet by comparing them together, 
it seems to be this year ; and sometime between iMay and the foUowmg 
winter. ^ Smith. ^ Purchas. "^ Howes. 

* Cotton's Bloody tenet tvashed. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

Rev. T. Prince 

;"^6;] The New England Chronology. 1614. 375 

Kings. Great Britain, James l.;Fraui-e, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IIL 


January 2 1.||^^^5°^ Aster James Melvin, having suffered [pp. 
359-361] seven years' exile at the King's 
pleasure, not convicted of any offence, dies 
at Berwick, the place of his confinement. 
He was one of the wisest directors of ecclesiastical affairs the 
Church of Scotland had in his time : and the King heing set 
upon advancing the State of Bishops, called him to Court : 
and never suffered him to return, lest he should hinder his 

March 3. Captain John Smith, with two ships and forty- 
five men and boys, sails from the Downs for North Virginia'' 
to make trial of a mine of gold and copper ; and if these fail, 
then to fish and trade, carrying Tantum an Indian with him.^ 
April 30, arrives at the isle Monahigan,^ in 43° 30' N.,^ where 
he is to stay with ten men to keep possession ; if the whaling 
answers expectation. 

But being disappointed ; he builds seven boats in which 
thirty-seven men "make" a great fishing voyage; while, with 
eight men in a small boat, he ranges the coasts, and trades 
with the natives^" from Penobscut to Sagadehock, Acocisco> 
Passataquack, Tragabigzanda, called Cape Ann ; the Massa- 
chusetts Isles on w^hich, they say, are 3,000 people ; fights 
with forty or fifty of them ; finds two French ships,^ which 
had been here six weeks,'^ and " made " a great voyage, by 
trade.'^ Thence, he sails to Accomack; where he also fights 
and kills some Indians. Thence to Cape Cod, where he sets 
Tantum ashore. On the main, against Monahigan, finds a 
ship of Sir Francis Popham's, which had many years used 
that port only.^ 

July 18. Captain Smith sails for England*^ in the bark ; 
and leaves the ship, under Thomas Hunt, Master, to fit for 
Spain.'^ Augii'ii 5, Captain Smith puts into Plymouth, ^ and 
in the end of the month, arrives at London ''; draws a plat 
[map] of the country, and first calls it New England.'^ 


'^ Smith's _^;-j-/ Account of New £ni;/and,]}v\ntGd, in 4to., London, 1616. 

^6 i6i4. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Briiain,]2\uv.S L; Fra?ice, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip ML 

After Smith left New England,^ Hunt gets twenty Indian; 
aboard him at Patuxit,^ [see p. 426] one of whom is called 
SQUANTo'^''^or Squantum or Tlsquantum,'^''^'*^ [see p. 427: and 
seven more at Nausit^^; and carries them to Malaga, and sells 
them-"^ for slaves at j/^20 a man^': which raises such an enmity 
in the savages against our nation, as makes further attempts 
of commerce with them very dangerous. ''■'^■^•'" 

From this time therefore, we shall distin^^ntish North Virginia 

by the name of New England; and confine the 

name Virginia to the southern Colony. 

March 4. A Proclamation, at Edinburgh, commanding 
Ministers and people to celebrate the Lord's Supper, on 
Easter following, viz., April 24 : the pretence being for trial 
of Popish Recusants ; but the wiser take it as a trial how the 
people will bare innovations, there being Acts of the General 
Assembly in force against them.& 

April ^. The King's Second Parliament of England begins.*^'' 
Complains of his admitting Papists into his Council ; his 
silencing many \vatchful and diligent Ministers ; and his 
several treaties to marry the late Prince Henry, and the 
present Prince Charles with the daughters of Popish 
Princes ; all which dishearten Protestants, and encourage 
Papists.^ And the House of Commons beginning to question 
Bishop Harsenet and Bishop Neal for offensive speeches: 
to save them from the storm, is supposed the reason of the 
King's abrupt dissolving them,J on June 7. 

Upon which, the King imprisons several Members without 
bail or mainprize, for the freedom they had taken ; and raises 
money on his subjects, by way of Benevolence.^'" 

June. Some of the Plymouth Company ,f viz., Sir F. Gorges, 
with the Earl of Southampton, Commander of the Isle of 

° Smith. '^ Governor Bradford's History. s Calderwood. 

*• Re tat ion of the Proceedings of the English Plantation at Plynumthin 
New England : ■pnbY\^\ieA[^anonyniously, but Preface signed^ by G. MoURT 
{/lence usually called, " Mour^T's Relation"], in quarto, London, 161 2. 

'• WiNSLOW's Good News f-oin New England, printed, in quarto, 
London, 1624. ^ President and Council's Relation &^c., 1622. 

" F. Gorges, Esquire, his America painted to the life : printed, in quarto, 
London. 1659. '' Eachard. * Salmon. J Fuller. 

Rev.T.Prince.-| Jjjp N EW EnGLAND ClIRONOLOGY. 1614-5. l"]-] 
Kings. Great Bf-itain, James I.; Fraiue, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip III. 

Wip:ht, sent Captain Henry Harley, and Captain Hobson-'^ 
Commander of some land soldiers, in a ship'^ from Plymouth,'-' 
forthe Isle of Capawick''or Capawack,*^' lyingsouthward of Cape 
Cod^^'^ ; carrying two Indians, viz., Epenow and ManaweTj^-^ 
in search of a gold mine, which Epenow told them of (with a 
design only to get home'^) : but arriving at the harbour where 
Epenow was to make good his undertaking (a little after 
Hunt had carried the Indians away) Manawet dies^; and 
Epenow jumps overboard, and gets ashore ; while the Indians, 
in twenty canoes, attack themj^" and wound the Master of the 
ship, and many of his company.^ Upon which, the English 
return ; without doing anything further.^* And at this, the 
Western men are so discouraged, as they regard not the 
country, till they see four ships sail from London, and Captain 
Smith at Plymouth, in January next.^ 

This summer. Sir Henry Manwayring is at Newfoundland, 
with five good ships.*^-'^ 


Jaimavy . | ^^ " ^^ j H e Virginia Company at London send four 
ships with Michael Cooper,'^ who had 
been Master of the bark under Captain 
Smith last year,'i to fish on the coast of New 

England : who arriving there in March, and " making" their 

voyages; one sails to Spain, one to Virginia, to relieve that 

colony, and two return to England.'^ 

January. Captain Smith goes from London to Plymouth. 

In March, sails in a ship of 200 tons, with another of 50 '^ ; 

furnished by Sir F. Gorges and others for New England : 

being to leave sixteen men there to begin a settlement. But 

^ Whether this be the Edward Harlie and Nicholas Hobson 
which PuRCHAS mentions in 1611 ; and whether Sir F, GORGES mistakes 
Henry for Edward is uncertain. 

** Sir F. Gorges. '^ Purchas. <* Captain John Smith. 

^ President and Council's Relation Qr'c., 1622. 

^ Sir F. Gorges says, three Indians, viz., Epenow, Assacomet, and 
Wanape; but seems to mistake in saying that Epenow was one of those 
whom Hunt carried away [/^. 376] : whereas Epenow seems to have been 
carried away by Captain Harlow in 1611 [p. 370]. And Captain Dermek, 
in Purchas, seems to mistake in saying that Epenow was carried home 
in 1615. '' Whitbourn. 

378 i6i5. TiiK NewEngiand Chronology. [^''' "^ ^^j^^^; 

Kings. Grcai Brt'ial>i,]\uv.^ I.; France, Louis XIIL; ^/rt/;;, PHILIP IIL 

ere he sails 120 leagues, a great storm parts him from his 
other ship, breaks all his masts ; and forces him to return 
to Pl3'mouth : where leaving his ship, he gets into a bark of 
60 tons; and June 24, sails again with 30 men, 16 of whom 
are to begin the settlement. At Fayal, meets with two 
French pirates, one of 200 tons, the other of 30 : engages, 
and beats them off: but near the isle of Flores, four I'rench 
Men of War take and carry him off to France.^ The other 
ship, parted from him in the storm at first, proceeded, arrived 
at New England in May, "made" her voyage, and comes 
home in Aitgtist}'' 

March 25. A Proclamation at Edinburgh, to celebrate the 
Lord's Supper at Easter, in all times coming. '^ 

April 23, Lord's Day. George Villiers Esquire, sworn 
Gentleman of the King's Bedchamber; the next day. 
Knighted; and becomes the King's Favourite.^ August 27, 
1616, made a Lord ; Janizary 5, 1616-7, made Earl ; January 
I, 1617-8, made Marquis^-^: and May 18, 1623, Duke of 

This year. Captain Richard Whitbourn goes to New- 
foundland, with a Commission from the Admiralty to empan- 
nel juries &c.'^'f And this year, at Newfoundland, are many 
thousands of English, French, Portuguese and others : the 
French and Biscayans resorting chiefly to the north and west 
parts, where the Indians also chiefly keep.'^ 

Newfoimdland bei?tg thus settled^ I 
shall leave their history. 

July. The Londoners send two more ships to fish at New 
England ; but, going by the West Indies, arrive not in New 
England till May 1616: one returning two months after.^ 

October. Sir Richard Hawkins sails from England, with 
Commission from the Council of Pl}'mouth, to try what ser- 
vice he could do them as President for this year at New 
England: but arriving, and finding the war ■?] at the height, 
and the principal natives almost destroyed; he passes along 

'^ Captain John SiMiTH. ^ Purchas. " Cai.derwood. ^ Howes. 
^ Segar Honores Aitglicani. ^ Captain Whitbourn's Discourse &^c. 

Rev. T. Prin 

j^j*":] The New England Chronology, i 615-16. 379 

A7//^'-s. Great Brifaw, ]amks L; France, Louis XI IL; Spain, Philip IIL 

the coast to Virginia, stays there some time, and sails for 
Spa in. '^ 

This year. The Archbishops, Bishops, and the rest of the 
clergy in Ireland, in the Convocation holden at Dublin, agree 
upon One hundred and four Articles of Religion, for avoiding 
diversities of opinions, and establishing Consent concerning 
true religion.*^ 


February f^^^^lAiL for New England, four ships from 
and March. ^!^^ Plymouth,^'"^ and two more from Lon- 
don,'^'*^ but only for voyages of profit,^ 
by fish and trade. *= One of the Plymouth 
ships gets in one month, to New England, and from thence 
goes to Spain. The other three return to Plymouth within 
six months. d 

One of the Londoners gets in six weeks, to New England, 
and within six months returns to England ; the other goes to 
the Canaries. And all six full laden.^ 

Ju7te 20. King James goes into the Star Chamber, and 
makes a speech to the Judges and others there,f'S wherein he 
says, " The Star Chamber Court hath been shaken of late ; 
and the last year, had received a sore blow, if it had not been 
assisted and carried by a few voices : and charges the Judges, 
Let fieither Paptists nor Puritans be countenanced /" In another 
place, he says, " As I have said in the Parliament House, I 
can love the person of a Paptist, being otherwise a good man, 
and honestly bred ; never having known any other religion : 
though the person of an apostate Papist [i.e., a pervert from 
Protestantism], I hate, &c."^ 

June 18. Comes out A Description of New England, Or 
the Observations and Discoveries of Captain JOHN Smith 
(Admiral of that Country) in 1614 ; with the success of six ships 
that went the next year 1615, and the Accidents that befell him the French Men of War. With the proof of the present 

* Sir F. Gorges. ^ Articles, printed, in quarto, London, 1629. 

<= PuRCHAS. ^ Captain John Smith. 

^ Smith's Fi7-sf Account and General History, say four from London : 
but it seems that these four inckide the two that sailed thence in J'dy 
last, and return, this year, from New England. 

' King James's Speech itself, printed at London, in quarto. »•' HowEs. 

;8o 1616-1 7.TiieNewEnglandCiironologv.[ 

Rev. T. Piince, 

Kiiii^s. Great Britain, James I.; Fraticc, LouiS XIII.; Spain, PHILIP III. 

benefit this country affords; whither, this year 1616, eif^ht volun- 
tary ships are gone, to make further trial. Printed, in quarto, 
London, 1616. 

August 13. A General Assembly meets by the King's 
Order at Aberdeen, in Scotland ; where the Archbishop of 
St. Andrews steps into the Moderator's place, without 
election ; against the Act of the Church yet unrepealed : a 
number of Lords and others sit without lawful commission ; 
who, under the King's Guard, receive a new Confession of 
Faith ; order the Communion to be celebrated every year at 
Easter ; and empower Committees to draw up a new 
Catechism, a Common Prayer Book, and a Book of Canons, for 
the King's Allowance.^ 

September 29, Lord's Day. Doctor Andrewes, Bishop of 
Ely, sworn a Privy Councillor.t" 

November 4. King James crowns his son Charles, Prince 
of Wales ; and Lord's Day, November 10, in honour of his 
creation, twenty-five Knights of the Bath, with all magni- 
ficence, ride to Whitehall ; and are there knighted b}' His 

November 16, Saturday. Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief 
Justice of the King's Bench, discharged of his office.'^ 

Sometime this fall. A French ship cast away at the north- 
east part of Cape Cod ; but the men getting safe ashore, the 
Lidians watch and dog them, till they kill them all but three 
or four ; whom they send from one Sachem to another, to 
make sport, and use them worse than slaves ; till two are re- 
deemed by Captain Dermer in 1619.'^''^ [See p. 393.] 


Beginning of Itsn^^allNG James notifies the Council of 
January. \ ^^ Scotland, of his design of coming 
thither ; and promises that what he 
does there shall be wdth the applause 
of all : 3-et in repairing his Chapel at Holyrood House, a 
place is prepared for organs ; and the images of the twelve 
Apostles and four Evangelists wrought in wood and gilt, are 

■ Calderwood. ^ Howes. * Purchas. 

^ Governor Bradford's History. 

Rev. T. Prince. 

I736:] The New England Chronology. 161 7. 381 

/wV/i^o-. Gr:at Britain, James L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spain, Philip III. 

ordered to be set up : but the people murmuring, the Scotch 
Bishops dissuade the King from setting them up ; though 
with a sharp rebuke and check of " ignorance," both from the 
King and Archbishop Abbot ; the King telHng the Scotch 
Bishops that his English Doctors would instruct them in 
these and other points.^ 

This winter, and the spring ensuing. A great plague befals 
the natives in New England ; which wasteth them exceed- 
ingly ; and so many thousands of them die, that the living 
are not able to bury them; and their skulls and bones remain 
above ground at the places of their habitation, for several 
years after.ti.c.d.e 

March 7. Sir Francis Bacon, King's Attorney, made 
Lord Keeper; and January 4 following, made Lord Chancel- 

March 14, Friday. King James sets out from Whitehall for 

May 16. Enters Edinburgh : and next day, has the English 
Service ; where playing on organs, choristers, and surplices 
are first heard and seen in the King's Chapel.''^ 

March 22. Master Thomas Parker, cet. 22, only son to the 
famous Master Robert Parker, made Master of Arts at 

This spring. Captain Smith is provided with three good 
ships at Plymouth ; and fifteen men to stay and settle in 
New England : but being wind-bound three months, the 
voyage is frustrate. For which, and his other losses and 
disappointments about this country ; the Commissioners of 
the Plymouth Company contract with him to be Admiral of 
New England for life.^ 

June 8, being Whit Sunday. By the King's command, 

'^ Calderwood. ^ Sir F. Gorges. " Governor Bradford's History. 

" By Captain Dermer's letter of December 27, 1619, in Purchas ; and 
of June 30, 1620, in Governor Bradford ; compared with Governor 
Bradford's own account ; it seems that the Narragansets in the west, 
and Penobscuts in the east, escaped this phigue ; and that it raged only 
in the countries lying between them, and prepared the way for another 
People. ^ Mourt's Relation. ^ Howes. 

" He afterwards goes to New England, and becomes a Minister of the 
Church at Newbury : and though his diploma is dated April i, I conclude 
it means the New Style ; which is JSIarcli 22, in ours. '' Purchas. 

382 1617. The New England Chronology. [^""•'^'■^'■,'736: 

Kings. Great Britain, ].\MKS L; France^ Louis XIIL; Spain, PhilipIII. 

the Lord's Supper is first observed after the En;^Hsh form, 
with kneeling, at Holyrood House ; contrary to the order of 
the Church of Scotland: and several Lords forbare to com- 
municate. Tuesday following, the King commands them to 
communicate after this new manner, the next Lord's Day : 
but though some Noblemen and Bishops communicate 
kneeling; yet not half the Noblemen required.^ 

July 17, Tuesday. The Parliament of Scotland meets. 
Wherein the Lords pass a Bill, that " the King with the 
Archbishops, Bishops, and such Ministers as he should 
choose, shall have, in all times coming, full power to conclude 
matters decent for the external policy of the Kirk, not 
repugnant to the Word of GOD; and such Conclusions shall 
have the power of Laws." But fifty-six Ministers protest 
against it, and the Bill falls ; to the King's great dis- 

July II. The King goes to St. Andrews to sit in the High 
Commission Court, upon the Protesting Ministers. The 
next day, sits therein ; and makes a speech, declaring, " We 
took this order with the Puritans in England ; who stood out 
as long as they were deprived only of their Benefices, 
preaching still, and living on the benevolence of the people 
that affected their cause : but when we deprived them of 
their Office ; many yielded to us, and are now become the best 
men we have. Let us take the like course with the Puritans 
here ! " So they went to work, and deprived three of the 
Protesting Ministers.^' 

August. King James, returning from Scotland through 
Lancashire, says : *' He rebuked some Puritans and Precise 
People, for prohibiting and punishing people there for using 
their lawful recreations and honest exercises (as he calls them) 
upon Sundays : and publishes his Pleasure, under his own 
hand, that they should not be prevented for the future."'^ 

And September 15, he arrives at London.^'"^ 

This year. Master Robinson and his Church begin to think 
of a remove to America, for several weighty reasons, as, 1, 
The difficulties in Holland discouraged many from coming to 

^ Caldervvood. 

^ Kirxg] kU'E.'&'s Declaration (called the Book of Sports) printed, in quarto, 
London, 161 8. '^ HowES. /"Baker. 

'•T-i''-^"_^i«-jXin.: New England Chronology. 1617. 383 

Kitigs. Great Britain, James L; France, Louis XI IL; Spain, Philip IIL 

ihem out of England; and obliged many to return.^- 2. By 
reason of these difficulties, with the licentiousness of the youth, and 
the temptations of the place, many of their children left their 
parents; some becoming soldiers, others taking to foreign voyages, 
and some to courses tending to dissoluteness and the danger of 
their soids : to the great grief of their parents, and fear lest their 
posterity (through temptations and examples) should degenerate, 
and Religion die among them. 3. From an inward zeal, and 
great hope of laying some foundation, or making way for propaga- 
ting the Kingdom of CHRIST to the remote ends of the earth; 
though they shoidd be but as stepping stones to others &c.^ 

Upon their talk of removing, sundry of note among the Dutch 
woiUd have them go under them ; and make them large offers : 
bid choosing to go under the English Government, where they might 
enjoy their religious privileges without molestation ; after humble 
prayers to GOD, they first debate, " Whether to go to Guiana, or 
Virginia ? " A nd though some, and none of the meanest, are earnest 
for the former ; they at length determine for the latter : so as to 
settle in a distinct body, but under the General Government of 

Upon which they send Master Robert Cushman and 
Master John Carver to treat with the Virginia Company; and 
see if the King would give them liberty of conscience there.'^ 

November 4. Commissioners for a General Assembly in 
Scotland having been chosen in presence of the Bishops 
there; and those nominated who misliked Episcopal Govern- 

^ Governor BRADFORD says, on this head, that Many w/io caine to them, 
and desired to be ivith them, could not endure the great labour a7id hard 
fare, with other inconvenie7ices which they endured : but though they loved 

borne with, thoiioh they could not all be Ca tos. For many, though they 
desired to enjoy the Ordinances of GOD in their purity, and the liberty oj 
the Gospel with them; yet, alas, they admitted of bondage with danger oj 
conscieiice, rather than to endure these hardships : yea, some preferred the 
■brisons in Etigland, rather than this liberty in Hollandivith these afflictions. 

^ Mr. Morton mentions another reason ; which he doubtless had ixowx^ 
the original Planters ; viz.. That the great neglect {i.e., in Holland] of 
observing the Lord's Day was very grievous to them. (Morton's i\ew 
England's Memorial!) 

'^Governor Bradford's History. 

384 i6i7. The New England Chronology. [ R<'v- t. Prin ce. 

Kinos. Great Britain, JAMES L; France, LOUIS XIIL; Spain, Philip III. 

mcnt being not allowed by tlie Bisbops ; a General Assembly 
is, tbis day, proclaimed at Edinburgh, to meet at St. 
Andrews on the 25th current. 

And November 25, the General Assembly meeting ac- 
cordingly, the Commissioners of seven dioceses are absent, 
for want of time. 

The Archbishop of St. Andrews, in his sermon, bitterly 
inveighs against many worthy men of the ministry, deceased; 
and said, "some of them deserved to be hanged." 

The King, in his letter, wills the Assembly to conform to 
his desires ; or otherwise threatens that he would use his 
own authority: and to gratify him, they agree 

1. To minister the Communion to the dangerously sick. 

2. That the Ministers shall deal the Elements to every 
one, with their own hands. 

But deferring the consideration of Holy Days ; the King is 
highly offended.-'^ 

November 12. Sir Edwin Sandys writes from London to 
Master Fobinson and Master Brewster ; wherein he says: 
"Your Agents have carried themselves with that discretion as is 
both to their own credit, and theirs, from whom they came : and 
the vSeven Articles subscribed with your names, have given the 
gentlemen of the Council of Virginia that satisfaction, which has 
carried tliem to a resolution to forward your desire in the best sort 
that may be for your own and the public good &c."^ 

December 15 (I suppose Old Style). Masters ROBINSON 
and Brewster date their letter of thanks, from Leyden, to Sir 
Edwin; wherein they write, " We have set down our Requests, 
subscribed with the hands of the greatest part of our Congregation, 
and sent them to the Council by our Agent, JOHN Carver ; to 
whom we have also requested a gentleman of our Company to 
adjoin himself. And for yonr encouragement, we will not forbare 
to mention these inducements. 

1. We verily believe and trust the LORD is with us, to Whom 
and Whose service we have given ourselves, in many trials ; 
and that He will graciously prosper our endeavours, according 
to the simplicity of our hearts. 

2. We arc well weaned from the delicate milk of our mother- 
country; and inured to the difficidties of a strange land. 

» Calderwood. *> Governor Bradford's Historv. 

Rev. T. Prince 

l';ili] The New England Chro nology. i6i 7-18. 385 

A'pi_i,rs. Great B}itai7i,]xyi^s L; France, LouiS XI IL; SJ>ain, Philip I IL 

3. The people are, for the body of them, industrious and frugal ; 
we think we may safely say, as any company of people in the 

4. We are knit together as a Body, in a most strict and sacred 
Bond and Covenant of the LORD : of the violation whereof, 
we make great conscience; and by virtue whereof, ive hold our- 
selves straitly tied to all care of each other's good, and of the 

5. And lastly. It is not with us, as with other men, whom 
small things can discourage; or small discontentments cause 
to wish ourselves at home again &c."-^ 

This year. The Reverend Master Paul Baine dies: 
who had succeeded the famous Mast-r Willl\m Perkins 
as Lecturer, at St. Andrews, Cambridge : but afterwards 
was silenced by Archbishop Bancroft's Visitor, Master 
Harsenet, for non-subscription and nonconformity.'^ 

From 1519, to this year 1617, have been entered in the 
Register Books of Seville, 1,536 millions of gold, brought to 
Spain from the West Indies.^ 


January 8. [^^^Ir _ Robert Naunton sworn the 
King's Secretary.d.e 

January 26. Archbishop Spottis- 
WOOD calls together the Bishops 
and Ministers, at this"time, in Edinburgh ; and reads them 
the King's letter : wherein he wills them to approve the Five 
Articles under their hands ; or the Bishops to suspend them 
from their Ministry and stipends. 
The Five A rticles are 

1. For kneeling at the Lord's Table. 

2. Giving the Communion privately to the sick. 

3. For Ba.ptizing in private. 

4. For Confirmation by the Bishops. 

5. Foi- observing the Holy Days of Christmas, Good 
Friday, Easter Sunday, Ascension Day, and Whit 

^ Governor Bradford's History. <= Perier. ^ HowES. 

^ Life, before his valuable Exposition of the Ephesians, 

' Lloyd's State IVorthies. 

ExG. Gar. II. ^^ 

386 i6i8. The New England Chronology. ['"=" "^^ ^7;36: 

Kiui^s. Great Britain,] kU^'-, L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spain, Philip IlL 

And January 28. A Proclamation at Edinburgh, for a 
universal cessation on these Holy Days ; and those who 
refuse, to be punished with rigour as disobedient and 
rebellious persons, and contemners of the King's Authority: 
though the General Assembly had not consented ; and the 
Acts of Parliament against them are yet unrepealed.-^ 

January 27. Masters Robinson and Brewster write from 
Leyden to Sir John Wolstenholme ; wherewith they send an 
account of their Principles, to be communicated to the Kind's 
Council : who had received some ill impressions ao;ainst them, viz. : 
Touching the Ecclesiastical Ministry, namely, of Pastors for 
teaching, Elders for riding, and Deacons for distributing 
the Church's contributions ; as also for the two Sacraments, 
Baptism and the Lord's Supper: we wholly agree with the 
French Reformed Churches, according to their Public Con- 
fession of Faith : though some small differences are to be 
found in our practice, in some accidental circumstances, as 

1. Their Ministers pray with their heads covered : ours, un- 

2. We choose none for Governing Elders, but such as arc 
able to teach: which ability they do not require. 

3. Their Elders and Deacons are annual; or, at most, fur 
two or three years : ours, perpetual. 

4. Our Elders administer their Office in Admonitions and 
Excommunications for public scandals, publicly before the 
Congregation; theirs more privately, and in their 

February 14. 5 B [or rather Sabin Staresmore, seep. 389I, 
who delivered this letter writes, that upon Sir John's reading 
it; I asked his Worship, " What good news he had for me to 
write, to-morrow ? " He told me, " Very good news ! for the 
King's Majesty and the Bishops have consented. But for your 
letters ; he would not show them at any hand, lest he should spoil 

March 30. The Provost and Bailiffs of Edinburgh are 
commanded by a letter from the King, to see that the people 
observe Good Friday. 

April I. The Charge for observing of Holy Days published 

^ Calderwood. ^ Governor Bradford's tlistory. 

Rev.T.Pnnce.JJjjj, ]^j,^^ ENGLAND CllRONOLOGY. 1618. 387 
Ki>ii^s. Great Britain, James I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spai?i, Philip III. 

again at Edinburgh : and April 5, being Easter Sunday, the 
Bishops in Scotland celebrated the Communion kneeling.^ 

Beginning of April. Lord Delaware sails in a ship of 250 
tons, with two hundred people for Virginia; but dies at sea.t» 
The ship baring for New England, there meets with a small 
Frenchman rich in beavers and other furs ; and there refresh- 
ing with fish, fowl, wood and water; after sixteen weeks, 
arrives at Virginia.*^"^^ 

This spring. Two ships sail from Plymouth to fish at 
New England ; one of 80 tons, which carries her fish to 
Bilboa ; the other of 100, which returns, laden with fish, to 

But in this larger ship, Sir F. Gorges^ sends Captain 
Edward Rocroft alias Stallings,*' with a company hired 
on purpose ; who, at his arrival on the coast, meets with a 
small French bark of Dieppe,^ in a creek a fishing and 
trading, and takes her'M sends the Master with his 
Company, in the greater ship for England : and, with this 
bark, Rocroft and his Company intend to keep the coast 
this winter. But some of his men conspiring to kill him, 
and run away with the prize : he is forced to put them ashore 
at Sawguatock ; whence, they soon get to the isle of 
Monahigon, fifteen leagues off, and three leagues in the sea ; 
where they stay the winter.' 

But in December, Rocroft, with ten or twelve men,'^ sail 
in the bark, with fish, to Virginia ; there to trade and stay 
the winter.^-' 

May 4. The King commands the Lords of the Privy 
Council in Scotland, to celebrate the Communion in the 
Chapel, on Whit Sunday, May 24 ; when the ceremonies are 
observed, before the General Assembly had allowed them.^ 

May ii,J or 21, N.S.^ The Popish Archbishop of Prague 


^ Sir Richard Baker mistakes, in representing as if Lord Delaware 
arrived, and died at Virginia. ■* Continnatio Calvish. ^ Alsted. 

^ The President and Council of New England say, " We send &c." [see 
p. 391]. By which it seems as if Sir F. Gorges acted in behalf of some, 
at least, of the Plymouth Company. ' So Smith and Purchas call him. 

^ Sir F. Gorges says, that in such cases, he had liberty granted him to 
seize her. And Smith says, the Frenchman offered some affront. 

' President and Council's Relation &^c., 1622. ^ Sir F. GORGES. 

388 i6i8. The New England Chronology. [^^"•'^•^^;^3t 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, LouiS XIII.; Spain, Phiup III. 

destroying and shutting up the churches of the Protestants 
in Bohemia; the States of the Kingdom meet this day, at 
Prague, to consult how to preserve their privileges.^ 

May 13,^ or 23, A^5.^ The Emperor Mathias's three 
Officers opposing and provoking them,^ the States throw 
them out of their Chamber window.^'^ Though they escape 
unhurtjt" and the States send their Apology to the Emperor,»'t> 
intreat for pardon ^ and the removal of Evil Counsellors: but 
in vain.*^ 

May 23,''^ or June 2, N.S. The States publish a Decree 
that all the Jesuits shall depart the kingdom in eight days ; 
and never return.-'^ 

May 24. Lord's Day, King James issues his Declaration, 
wherein he requires the Bishop of Lancashire " to present 
all the Puritans and Precisians within the same ; either con- 
straining the same to conform, or to leave the country. That 
those who attend Church, on Sundays, be not disturbed or 
discouraged from dancing, archery, leaping, vaulting, having 
May Games, Whitsun Ales, Morris Dances, setting up May 
Poles, and other Sports therewith ; or any other such harm- 
less recreation on Sundays, after Divine Service. That this 
Declaration be published, by order from the Bishop of the 
diocese, through all the parish churches. And Commands 
that the directions given last year in Lancashire, with a few 
words added, most applicable to these parts of our realm, to 
be published to all our subjects." ^ 

And as all Ministers were obliged to read it in their 
churches; those who refused, were summoned into the High 
Commission, imprisoned and suspended,^ 

Though the Agents of Master Robinson's People found the 
Virginia Company very desirous of their going to their West 
India territory ; and willing to grant them a Patent with as 
ample privileges as they coidd grant to any : and some of the chief 
of the Company doubted not to obtain their suit of the King for 
Liberty of Religion, and to have it under the Broad Seal, as was 
desired : yet they found it a harder piece of work than they 
expected. For though many means were used, and divers of 

^ Continuatio Calvish. "^ Alsted. " Rushworth. 

^ King James's Declaration, called the Book of Sports : printed, in 
quarto, London, 1618. <= KCHARD. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-| 'Ppj,^ New England Chronology. 1 6 1 8. 389 

Kings. Great Britain, James I.; Franee, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip III. 

worth, ivith Sir Robert Naunton, Chief Secretary of State, 
laboured with the King to obtain it ; and others wrought^ with the 
Archbishop [Abbot] to give way thereto : yet, all in vain. 

They indeed prevail so far, as that the King would connive at 
them, and not molest them ; provided they carry peaceably : but to 
tolerate them, by the Public Authority, under his Seal, would not be 

Upon which, the Agents return to Lcyden : to the great dis- 
couragemcnt of the People ivho sent thcm.^ 

July 10, or 20, N.S.^' The Emperor sends an army of 
10,000 men towards Bohemia, Which begins the famous 
Religious War between the Papists and Protestants in 
Bohemia and Germany; that rages Thirty Years, and destroys 
above 325,000 people.^ 

Beginning of August. Sundry pious citizens being at a 
private meeting in London ; many are seized, and committed 
to the Counter prison: but Master Staresmore [seep. 386] 
and some others, escaping, are betrayed by one of the 
company : for which the Archbishop gives the betrayer 
great applause and his solemn blessing, in open court. And 
September 4, Master Staresmore writes to Master Carver, 
" That upon representing his extraordinary piteous case to 
Lord Coke and the Sheriffs, he supposes he should gain his 
liberty, if they were not overruled by others : but he could get 
no answer till the Lords of the King's Council give consent." ^ 

August 3. A Proclamation at Edinburgh, for a General 
Assembly to meet at Perth the 25th instant ; where they 
meet accordingly. The Commissioners of four dioceses, and 
of some Presbyteries absent, for want of time. 

Archbishop Spottiswood assumes the Moderator's chair, 
without election ; allows noblemen upon the King's missives 
only : reads the King's letter of July 10 ; who says, " He was 
once fully resolved never to call any more Assemblies, 
because of the disgrace offered him by the Assembly at 
St. Andrews, in neglecting his godly desires. That he would 
not have them think the Five Articles he proposes might not, 
without their consent, be enjoined by his authority ; which 
would be a disclaiming his innate power from GOD to 

' Governor Bradford's History. ^ Alsted. 

390 i6i8. The New England Chronology. [^^"■^■^','"36: 

Kuii^s. Creai Britain, iKUK'S) L; France, Louis XI IL; Spain. Philip IIL 

dispose of things external in the Church, as he thinks fit : 
and that he will be content with nothing but the direct 
acceptation of the Articles in the form he sends them." 

After which, the Archbishop said, " The King would be 
more glad of their Consent to the Five Articles, than of all the 
gold of India : but in case of their refusal, he assures them 
that the whole State of the Church would be overthrown, 
some Ministers would be banished, others deprived of their 
stipend and office : and all brought under the wrath of 
authority." And though the majority of the Commissioned 
oppose; yet the Archbishop neglecting many who could get 
no vote, and admitting others who had no commission ; he 
carries it for the Five Articles. 

And October 26. A Proclamation by the King, at Edin- 
burgh, commanding all strictly to observe them, and certify- 
ing that those who do to the contrary, shall be holden as 
seditious factious disturbers of the peace of the Kirk, con- 
temners of his just command, and shall be punished, in their 
goods and persons, with all the rigour and extremity at the 
arbitrement of the Privy Council.^ 

October 28. Sir Walter RaleigHj^ by Gondomar, the 
Spanish Ambassador's instigation,^ is, this day, brought to 
the King's Bench ; and ordered to suffer death to-morrow, 
upon his sentence in 1603 : and at nine, next morning, is 
leheadedt'.d in Parliament Yard,'^ at. 66.^^ He was, next to 
Drake, the Scourge and Hate of the Spaniardj^'*:' and Lloyd 
says, "that Princes had interceded for him; the whole nation 
pitied him; and King James would not execute him, without 
an Apology.''^ But he fell a sacrifice to the King's earnestly 
desired match, of Prince Charles with the Popish Infanta of 

November 3, or 13, N.S., Tuesday. ^ The famous Synod of 
Dort [Dordrecht] begins S'^^; when there enter, and sit with 
them. Doctor Carleton, I3ishop of LANUAFE,g after, of 
Chichester;^ Doctor Hall, Dean of Worcester,s after, 
Bishop of Exeter, and then of Norwich 'i; Doctor 
D'Avenant, Public Professor of Divinity, and Master of 

" Calderwood. '' Howes. '^ Echard. <* Baker. 

^ Lloyd's State Worthies. ^ Howell's Letters. 

K Acta Syjwdi. '' FULLER. 

Rev. T. Prince.-jYHENEW England Chronology. i6 1 8-19- 391 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IIL 

Queen's College, Cambridge,^ after Bishop of Salisbury^ ; 
and Doctor Ward, Master of Sidney College, Cambridge, 
and Archdeacon of Taunton : being sent by King James : 
in behalf of the Church of England.^-'^ And the States allow 
them jTio sterling a day.^ 

Novemher 4, or 14, N.S. Wednesday. The Synod choose 
Master John Bogerman, Pastor of the Church of Leeuwar- 
den, in Friesland, their President.^ 

November 18, Wednesday. A comet appears over Europe, 
first in the morning, then in the evening; and continues 
visible to Wednesday, December 16.^ 

December 10, or 20, N.S. W. Balcanqual, B.D., Fellow of 
Pembroke Hall, in Cambridge, entersthe Synod of Dort; being 
sent by King James, on behalf of the Church of Scotland.^'"^ 

February. \f» ^fe^jlNG James publishes his Meditation on the 
Lord's Prayer, in a small octavo : at the 
beginningof which, he spends iifteen pages 
in reflecting on the Puritans, with those 
of the Separation ; and proving the former to be the fathers 
of the latter.'i 

Notwithstanding the great discouragement the English of Leyden 
met with, from the King and Bishops refusing to allow them 
Liberty of Conscience in America, under the Royal Seal; yet, casting 
themselves on the care of Providence, they resolve to venture : and 
send two other Agents ^ to agree with the Virginia Company. 
But the said Virginia Company falling into great disturbances 
and factions ; these affairs are long delayed.^ 

This spring. Sir F. Gorges^ sends Captain Thomas Dermer^ 
from Plymouth, in a ship of 200 tons' for the fishing business 
at New England ; assigning him a Company, to join with 
RocROFT and his people, and sending with him Squanto or 
Tasquantum, one of the natives which Hunt had brought 

^ Acta Synodi. ^ FULLER. " HowES. 

^ King James's book itself, printed in London, 1619. 

•= By Master Cushman's Letter from London, of A/ay 8, this year, they 
seem to be Master Cushman himself, and Master Bradford. 

'' Governor Bradford's Nisrory. ' ^ Sir F. Gorges. 

^ The President and Council of New England say, "We send &c," as 
before in Note " at p. 387 ; and Smith says, There goes but one ship to New 
England, this year, from Plymouth. ' Captain John Smith. 

392 1619. The New England Ciikonology.[^^'-"'''^'- ^'■;"36: 

Kings. Great Britain, James I.; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IH. 

away |^/'.376l. But arriving, and not finding RocROi'T; he is in 
doubt what to do. Yet hearing by the people at Monahigan, 
that he was gone to Virginia ; hopes for his return, till he 
hears of his disaster.^ 

March 2, Tuesday. Queen Anne, Consort to King Jamls, 
dies at Hampton Court, '^■'^ aged 45 years. ''•'^ 

March 10/ or 20, A\5.S''i Mattihas, Emperor of Germany 
dies, cci. 62,2 6j''''^ 

March 12. The High Commission Court, at Edinburgh, de- 
prive and confine Master Richard Dickson, forgivingtheCom- 
munion to the People sitting, and not with his own hands. 

And about this time, the King sends a command to the 
Officers of State, at Edinburgh, Lords of the Privy Council 
and Sessions, and Advocates, to communicate in the Great 
Kirk there, kneeling, on Easter Sunday, the 28th current ; 
on pain of losing their offices ; and enjoins the Magistrates 
of Edinburgh to communicate kneeling.' 

April 18. Sir George Yardly arriving as Governor at 
Virginia,J and finding Rocroft ready to sail for New Eng- 
land, commands him aboard: who, taking the boat, with half 
his men, goes aboard the Governor's ship ; is forced to stay 
all night ; and a storm rising, the bark, for want of hands, is 
driven ashore and sunk. 

However, the next day, the Governor and Captain labour 
so, that, at length, they free her. But while Rocroft is fit- 
ting for New England again, he happens to be killed in a 
quarrel with one of Virginia : and the bark is a second time 
sunk and lost.^ 

April 22. The High Commission Court, at Edinburgh, sus- 
pend Master Hog from his Ministry ; and order him to be 
confined during the King's pleasure ; for preaching against 
Bishops, and iht Five Articles; and declining their Judicatory. 
And afterwards, deprive him of his Ministry. They also depose 
and confine the Reverend Master Duncan, for declining their 

April 26, or May 6, N.S., Monday. The Synod of Dort, at 

=* President and Council's Relation &^c. ^ Howes. •" Baker. 

'^ EcHARD. ^ Continuatio Calvish. ^ Petavius. 

" RusHWORTH mistakes, in placinij her death on November 17, 161 8. 
'' RicciOLius. ' Calderwood. J Smith. 

^^^ ^'^l"":] The New England Chronology. 1619. 393 

Kui^rs, Great Britain, James L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip I IL 

their 153rd Session, proceed to the Great Church of that city ; 
and pubhsh their Sentence, on the Five Points in condemna- 
tion of the Arminian doctrines. 

hnA April 29, Thursday. At their 154th session; they 
break up, with mutual embraces and tears.^'^ 

A/aj'6. The States of Hungary meet and proscribe the Jesuits.'^ 

May 28, or June 2, N.S. The States of Moravia proscribe 
the Jesuits.^ June 14,^ or 24, N.S.'' The States of Silesia 
agree to banish the Jesuits.b'<= And July 13. The States of 
Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia confederate for their 

May 8. Master Cushman, one of the Ley den Agents, at 
London, writes, " That Sir THOMAS Smith having desired to be 
eased of his Office of Treasurer and Governor of the Virginia 
Company ; Sir Edwin Sandys was chosen^ : but Sir Thomas 
repenting, and opposing Sir Ed WIN; great disturbances and factions 
are raised in the said Company, that no business could well go 

May 26. Captain Dermer sails from Monahigan in an 
open pinnace, of five tons, along the coast south-westerly; 
finds some ancient Plantations, not long since populous, now 
utterly void; in other places, a remnant, but not free of 
sickness, viz., the Plague, perceiving the sores of some that 
had escaped. Arrives at [Squanto] his savage's country ; 
finds all dead : travels a day's journey west to Nummasta- 
quit ; sends a messenger a day's journey west, to Pocanaokit, 
bordering on the sea; whence two Kings come to see him. ^ 

At Nummastaquit, the Indians would have killed him, had 
not Squanto intreated hard for him <" : and here, he redeems 
a Frenchman, and afterwards at Mastachusit, another; cast 
away at the north-east of Cape Cod, three years before 
[see p. 380]. 

Returning, arrives at Monahigan, June 23 ; where he finds 
the ship ready to depart.^ She had stayed about six weeks, 
and being laden by thirty-eight men and boys with fish 
and furs, returns.s 

By Captain Ward from Virginia, Captain Dermer hears 

^ Ada Synoeii. ^ Contimiatio Calvish. 

" Alsted. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

^ Sir Edwin Sandys was chosen in April. (Purchas.) 
^ Captain Dermer's Letter, in Purchas. s Captain JOHN SMirH. 

394 i<5i9- The Nkw England Chronology. [^^""''^'^'I'^jIZ 

Kings. Great Brihia!,]AMM'S, L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spain, Philip III. 

of Rocroft's death ^-^^'^ ; whereupon, putting most of his pro- 
visions aboard the said Ward's ship, ready bound thither ; and 
leaving his Indian at Sawahquatook ; he sails in his pinnace 
for Virginia^ with five or six men and the two Frenchmen.''-'^ 

Having passed forty leagues along the coast, he is cast 
ashore in a broad bay ; but gets off again. At Manamock, 
the southern part of Cape Cod, he is unawares taken 
prisoner: but gets clear. Thence, sails to Capaock, and 
meets with Epenow [seep.^jj]. Thence, steers along the coast 
between Long Island and the main ; being the first who 
passes through: and finds it to be an Island thirty leagues in 
length; before accounted part of the main. Thence, sails 
along the coast : arrives at Cape Charles, September 7 ; and 
next day, at the mouth of James river. ^ 

June 15. The King renews the High Commission Court 
in Scotland in more ample form. And July 2, upon the 
King's order, the Archbishop of Glasgow cites before the 
High Commission, the Reverend Masters Blyth and 
Forrester, to depose them from the Ministry ; and confine 
them for giving the Communion without kneeling : who plead 
the Acts of Parliament for the manner of the celebration, and 
the practice of the Church these threescore years ; and no 
Act of Parliament nor of General Assembly, no, not of Perth, 
forbidding the former practice. Yet they are suspended 
during the King's pleasure, and confined.^ 

August i8,f'g or 28, N.S.^'^ Ferdinand, King of Hungary 
and Bohemia, elected Emperor of Germany. August 19, 
the States of Bohemia renounce King Ferdinand*-? ; and 
August 26, choose Frederick Elector Palatine, their King: 
the Legates of Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia being present, 
and concurring with them.^ 

October 20, or 30, N.S. He is magnificently received at 
Prague ; October 25, or November 4, N.S., is there crowned 

^ Captain Dermer's Letter in PURCHAS. '' Captain JOHN SMITH. 

•= President and Council's Relation. ^ Calderwood. 

^ Sir F. Gorges seems to mistake, in representing as if Dermer 
heard not of Rocroft's death, till he arrived in \'irginia. Captain 
Smith says, " He goes with five or six men, and the two Frenchmen :" 
but neither Dermer nor Gorges have any such passages. 

'■ Continnatio Calvish, e Cluverius. ^ Alsted. ' RicciOLius. 

Rev. T. Prince 

""JThe New England Chronology. 1619-20. 395 

A'u!j^s. Crea^ Bri7au!, J AMES L; France^ Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IIL 

King of Bohemia ; and October 28 or November 7, N .S. his 
ro}-al Consort, there crowned Queen. ^ 

September 17. The King, by letters to the Provost, Baihffs, 
and Council of Edinburgh, wills them to change their Magi- 
strates, the 29th current ; and allow of none, but those who 
will conform to the Five Articles. Upon which, the Provost, 
Bailiffs, and Treasurer are changed.^' 

November 23. In a Convention of Ministers called to St. 
Andrew's by the Archbishop ; he communicates to them a 
letter from the King, wherein he comm.ands the Bishops to 
depose all that refuse to conform, without respect of persons; 
and no ways regarding their multitude.'^ 

And beginning of December, a Charge proclaimed, at 
Edinburgh, for the observation of Christmas. t> 

After long attendance, the Leydcn Agents obtain a Patent 
granted and confirmed under the Virginia Company's Seal : but 
the Patent being taken out in the name of Master John Wincob, 
a religions gentleman {belonging to the Countess of Lincoln), 
who intended to go with them; and Providence so ordering thai 
he never went : they never made use of his Patent, which cost 
them so much charge and labour. 

However, the Patent being carried by one of their messengers 
to Leyden, for the People to consider ; with several proposals for 
their transmigration made by Master Thomas Weston of 
London, Merchant ; and other friends and merchants as should 
either go, or adventure with them : they are requested to prepare, 
with speed, for the voyage.'^ 

fe l^fiS ^^^ RECEIVING these, they first keep a Day of solemn 
Prayer; Master ROBINSON preaching a very suitable 
sermon from i Samuel xxiii. 3, 4; strengthening them 
against their fears, and encouraging them in their 
resolutions : and then conclude how many, and who shoidd prepare 
to go first. For all that were willing, could not get ready quickly. 

The greater number being to stay; require their Pastor to 
tarry with them: their Elder, Master Brewster, to go with 
the others. Those who go first, to be an absolute Church of them- 
selves ; as well as those who stay : with this Proviso, that as any 

^ Alsted. ^ Calderwood. " Governor Bradford's History. 

39^ i620. The New Enceaxu Chronology. ['^"'■'^- ^'j^^^; 

Kings. Great Britain, James I. ; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip 1 1 1. 

^0 over or return, they shall be reputed as Members, without 
further dismission or testimonial. And tliose who tarry, to follow 
the rest as soon as they can.^ 

Master Weston coming to Ley den, the People agree with him 
on "Articles'' both for shipping, and money to assist in their 
transportation. Then send Masters Carver and Cushman to 
England, to receive the money, and provide for the voyage : 
Master CuSHMAN at London, Master Carver at Southampton. 
Those wlio are to go first, prepare with speed ; sell their estates, 
put their money into the Common Stock, to be disposed by their 
Managers for making general provision. 

There was also one Master MARTIN, chosen in England, to join 
with Masters Carver and Cushman. He came from Billericay 
in Essex. From which county, came several others; as also from 
London and other places, to go with them. And a ship [the 
Speedwell] of 60 tons is bought, and fitted in Holland ^; both to 
help to transport them ; and to stay in the country.^ 

March i. The High Commission Court, at Edinburgh, 
suspend Master Porteous from his Ministry till the next 
Assembly ; for not observing Holy Days, and not giving the 
Communion according to the Five Articles. And for the 
same reason, deprive Master Scringer from the Ministry ; 
and confine him.^ 

March 28. The High Commission, at Glasgow, depose 
and confine Masters Livingstone and Ferguson, for not 
observing the said Articles', and for declining the Judicature 
of the High Commission. '^ 

April 21. The High Commission, at St. Andrew's, deprive 
Doctor Barclay from preaching ; and confine Masters 
Meenes and Areskin, for not regarding the Articles.'^ 

April 25. Five citizens of Edinburgh confined by the King's 
order, without citation, trial, or conviction, only to satisfy 
His Majesty for their accompanying the Ministers before the 
High Commission, and assisting them in their disobedience. '= 

And May 10, Master Duncan deprived, for not conforming 
to the Articles.'^ 

This year, there go six or seven sail from the ^^'est of 
England to New England, to fish only^ : but from England 
to Virginia, eight ships, with i,og6 passengers, to settle.^ 

" Governor Bradford's History. ^ StQpp. 399. 410- 

" Calderwood. ^' Smith. " Purchas. 

Rev. T. Prince.j 'j^pj^ NewEngland Ciironology. i620. 397 

Kings. Cn-a/ Bn'/avi,] AMES I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip III. 

This spring, Captain Dermer returns to New England.^ 
In this way, he meets with certain Hollanders, who had 
[had] a trade in Hudson's river, some years. Discovers 
many goodly rivers, and exceedingly pleasant coasts and 
islands, for eighty leagues east from Hudson's river to Cape 
Cod. But arriving at New England again,*^ whence he 
writes a letter on June 30'=: first, comes to Nautican ; then 
to Capawick. Where, "^ with Squanto, he goes ashore,'^ and 
is suddenly set upon by Epenow^ and other savages; who 
give him fourteen wounds^^'^'; and slay all his men, but one that 
kept the boat : with whose help, the Captain,'^ being a brave 
stout gentleman, drawing his sword, ^ by his valour and dexte- 
rity, '^ frees himself. But is forced to return to Virginia for cure : 
where he falls ill, and dies of the sickness of the country .^'-'^''^ 

May 25 {or June 4, N.S.y-^ Master Robinson writes to 
Master Carver, and complains of Master Weston's neglect in 
getting shipping in England, for want of which they are in 
a piteous case at Leyden. And May 31 {or Jnne 10, N.S.), 


B'RADFORD], and J[ohn] Allerton] write from Leyden to 
Masters Carver and Cushman, " That the coming of Master 
A^ASH, and their Pilot, is a great encouragement to them."'^ 

June 10. Master Cushman, in a letter from London to 
Master CARVER at Soutliampton, says, " That Master Crabe, a 
Minister, had promised to go ; but is much opposed, and likely] to 
fail:" and in a letter to the People at Leyden, " That he had hired 
another Pilot, one Master CLARK,Swho went last year to Virginia; 
that he is getting a ship ; hopes he shall make all ready in fourteen 
days; and would have Master Reynolds tarry in Holland, and 

=■ Smith. ^ President and Council's Relation &^c. 

^ Governor Bradford says, The Captain gets aboard very sore 
wounded, and the Indians would have cut off his head upon the cuddy of 
his boat ; had not the man rescued him with a sword : and so they got awa)', 
and made shift to get into Virginia, where he died (Bradford). And Cap- 
tain Smith writes as if he died of his wounds : but Governor Bradford 
says, whether of his wounds or disease of the country, or both ; is uncertain. 

^ The date in the manuscript is J^une 14, A\S. ; but the figure i being 
somewhat blurred, and y^^ne, 14 A^.S., being Lord's Day, and this letter 
being placed before the following of yin/e 10, N.S., I conclude it should 
be June 4, A'.^". •= Governor Bradford's Histo>-y. 

'' Sir F. Gorges. « Sec Note "^ on p. 404. 

398 i620. The Nkw England Chronology. ['^"^•'^•^'7/3^; 

Kj'ttos. Great Britain, James I.; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip III. 

bring the ship there to Southampton. " Upon this, a ship [May 
Flower] of 180 tons, is immediately hired at London. And the ship 
[Speedwell] in Holland being ready; they spend a day in solemn 
prayer : Master Robinson preaching from Ezra. viii. 21.^ 

June 19. A Proclamation, at Edinburgh, of the King's will, 
that all in Scotland observe the Holy Days, with kneeling at 
the Lord's Table, and others oi the Five Articles ; that the 
IMinisters who do not, be punished with deprivation, suspen- 
sion, and confinement, at the discretion of the High Com- 
mission ; that every one who observes not the Holy Days at 
church, shall for every omission, pay 13s. 4d. ; that those 
who do not communicate kneeling, shall pay, an Earl, ;^ioo; a 
Lord, 100 marks; a Laird, ;;^5o; others 3r20 or less at the dis- 
cretion of the Judges; and who ever impugns the Five Articles, 
shall be punished at the discretion of the Privy Council.t" 

Bnt removing to North America, we must now leave the History of 
Scotland as ivell as of other parts of Europe; and only 
hint at those events in England, which more im- 
mediately affect the British Colonies. 

[See//. 350, 485, as to the Italic type in the Text. E. A. 1879.] 

The Voyage of the English People 
at Ley den for Virginia, 

[Or, as we should now say, " of the Pilgrim Fathers, in the May Flower, to 
New England." E. A. 1879.] 

Bout Jidy 21. (I suppose N. S.) The English 
Voyagers at Leyden leave that city, where they had 
lived near[ly] twelve years ; being accompanied by 
most of their brethren to Delfshaven [on the Maas, 
close to Rotterdam], where their ship lay ready : and sundry 
come from Amsterdam, to see them shipped, and take their 
leave. They spend that night in friendly entertaining, and 
Christian converse [conversation.]^ 

And July 22. (I suppose N.S.y The wind being fair, they 
go aboard ; their friends attending them. At their parting, 
Master Robinson falling down on his knees, and they all 

" Both Mr. Morton, and Doctor Cotton Mather seem to mistake, 
ill saying ynij 2. ^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Calderwood. 

Rev. T. Prince. j -pjjj. ]\JewEnGLAND CiIRONOLOGY. 1620. .^QQ 
Ki'nj^s. Great Brihiiii,]AUE'6 1.; France, Lovis >i\.\.\..; ^pai?i,i' aiLW iii. 

with him; he, with watery cheeks commends them, with 
most fervent prayer, to GOD : and then, with mutual 
embraces and many tears, they take their leave. And with 
a prosperous gale, come to Southampton : where they find 
the bigger ship [the May Flower] from London, Master Jones 
Master, with the rest of the Company; who had been waiting 
there, with Master Cushman, seven days. 

^^700 sterling are laid out at Southampton ; and they carry 
about -£i,yoo Venture with them. And Master Weston 
comes thither from London, to see them despatched.^ 

July 23. King James gives a warrant to his Solicitor, Sir 
Thomas Coventry, to prepare a new Patent for the Incorpora- 
tion of the Adventurers of the Northern Colony of Virginia, between 
40° and 48° N. : which Patent the King signs on November 3 ; 
styling them The Council for the Affairs of New England, and 
iJieir successors.^ 

July 27. Master Robinson writes to Master Carver, and 
the People, letters ; which they receive at Southampton. 
And the Company being called together, theirs is read among 
them ; to the acceptance of all, and after fruit of many.'^ 
Then they distribute their Company into the ships; and with 
the approbation of the Masters, choose a Governor and two or 
three Assistants for each, to order the People and provisions.^ 

Atcgiist 5. They sail from Southampton; but reach not 
far, before Master Reynolds, Master of the lesser ship [the 
Speedwell], complained that she was so leaky, that he dare 
proceed no farther. Upon which, they both put into Dart- 
mouth, about Augiist 13 : where they search and mend her, 
to their great charge and loss of time, and a fair wind ; 
though had they stayed at sea, but three or four hours more, 
she had sunk right down. 

About August 21. They set sail again,^ with about 120 
persons.'^'e August 22'^, 23^, leave the coast of England, ^-^ 
but, having gone above a hundred leagues beyond the Land's 
End of England,=i the next day^.e; Master Reynolds 
complained of her leaking again ; that they must either 
return or sink; for they could scarce free her by pumping. 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Sir F. Gorges. 

" This Letter is published in Mourt's Relation, Morton's Memorial, 
and Neal's History of New England. '' SMrrn. " I'URCHAS. 

400 i620. TiiK New England Chronology. ['*'=" "^^ ^7;^^; 

Kings. Great Britain, James I.; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IIL 

Upon which they both put back to Plymouth ; where findinp^ 
no defect, they judge her leakiness owing to her general 
weakness.^ [See p. 410.] 

They therefore agree to dismiss her; and those who are 
willing, to return to London ; though this was very grievous and 
discouraging : Master Cushman and family returning with 
them.'^ The rest, taking what provisions they could well 
stow in the larger ship [the May Flower] , resolve to proceed 
on the voyage alone.^ 

September 6. They make another sad parting, and the 
greater ship sets sail again with a hundred persons, besides 
sailors-C'"^ But about half seas over, meets with cross winds 
and many fierce storms : which often force them to hull for 
divers days together, not being able to bear a knot of sail ; 
make her upper works very leaky; and bow and wrack a 
main beam in the midships, which puts them in such fear, 
as the Chief of the Company enters into a serious consul- 
tation with the Ship's Officers, about returning : but a 
passenger having bought a great iron screw from Holland, 
they, with it, raise the beam into its place ; and, then 
committing themselves to the Divine Will, proceed.^ 

November 6. Dies, at sea, William Butten, a youth, and 
servant to [Doctor] Samuel Fuller^; being the only 
passenger who dies on the voyage. 

November 9. At break of day,^ after long beating the sea, 
they make the land of Cape Cod. Whereupon, they tack, and 
stand to the southward ; the wind and weather being fair, to 
find some place about Hudson's river, for settlement. But 
sailing this course about half a day, they fall among roaring 
shoals and breakers; and are so entangled with them, as they 
find themselves in great hazard.^ And the wind shrinking 
upon them, at the same time ; -they bare up for the Cape, get 

" Governor Bradford's History. " Smith. ^ Purchas. 

^ Smith and Purchas say, There discharge twenty of their passengers. 

'^ Governor Bradford's Pocket Book [now lost] ; which contains a 
Register of deaths &'c., irom November 6, 1620, to the end of March, 1621. 

'^Relation of their proceedings, pubHshed by MouRT. 

s They are the same which Captain GosNOLD,in 1602, called Point Care 
and Tucker's Terror : but the French and Dutch call them Malabar, by 
reason of perilous shoals, and the losses there sustained. (Bradford) 

Rev.T.rnnco.-| J ^^^ ^^,^^. gj^^j^^^ p ClIRONOLOGY. 1 620. 4OI 

A'mtfs. Great Britain,] km^^ I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip III. 

out of those dangers before night ; and, the next day, into 
the Cape Harbour : where they ride in safety. 

November ii, Saturday. Being thus arrived, they first fall 
on their knees, and bless the God of heaven, &c. But their 
design and Patent being for Virginia, and not New England ; 
which belongs to another jurisdiction wherewith the Virginia 
Company have no concern : before they land, they, this day, 
combine into a Body Politic by a solemn Contract, to which 
they set their hands [see p. 411], as the Basis of their 
Government in this new found country; choose Master John 
Carver, a pious and well approved gentleman, their 
Governor, for the first year.^ And then set ashore fifteen or six- 
teen men, well armed, to fetch wood, and discover the land : 
who, at night, return, but found neither house nor person."^ 

November 13. Monday. The people go ashore to refresh 
themselves. And every day, the whales play round about 
them, and the greatest store of fowls they ever saw ; but the 
earth here, a company of sand hills, and the water so shallow 
near the shore, they are forced to wade a bow shot or two to 
get to land. Which, being freezing weather, affecteth them 
with grievous colds and coughs ; and which after proves the 
death of many, and renders the place unfit for settlement.^ 

November 15. While the shallop is fitting. Captain 
Standish, with sixteen men well armed, set out on the Cape 
to search for a convenient place to settle.^ William Brad- 
ford, Stephen Hopkins, and Edward Tilley are, of the 
number, adjoined to the Captain for Council.^' 
_ When they had marched a mile southward, they see five or 
six savages ^ ; whom they follow ten miles,^^ till night, but 
could not overtake them ; and lodge in the woods. 

The next day, they head a great creek,^ and travel on to a 
valley, wherein is a fine, clear pond of fresh water, a musket 
shot wide, and two long. Then they come to a place of 
graves. Then to the remainder of an old Fort or Pallizado ; 
which they conceive had been made by Christians.^' And 
then to a harbour opening into two creeks with an high 
cliff of sand at the entrance '^ : the western creek being twice 
as large as the eastern.^.c Near which, they meet with 

^ Governor Bradford's History. t> MouRts Relation. 

' This seems to be, what is since called Barnstable Harbour. 
ExG. Gar, n. 26 

402 1 620. The New England Chronology. ['■'"''• ''"-''','^'3,3; 

Kings. Great Britain, James I .; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IIL 

heaps of sand ; dis:^ into tliem, find several baskets full of 
Indian eorn; and take some, for which they purpose to {:jive 
the natives full satisfaction, as soon as they could meet with 
any. |See/). 433.] Return^ to the pond ; where they make 
a barricado ; and lodge this night, being very rainy. 

And the next day, wading in some places up to the knees, 
get back to the ship ^ to the great joy of their brethren.'"^ 

November 27. The Shallop being fitted, twenty-four of the 
men, with Master Jones and nine sailors, thirty-four in all, 
set forth on a more full discovery of the aforesaid harbour. 
But the weather growing rough, and the winds cross ; they 
are soon obliged to row for the nearest shore : and there 
wade above their knees to land. It blows, snows, and freezes 
all this day and night ; and here some receive the seeds of 
those fatal illnesses that quickly seized them. 

The next day, they sail to their designed port; but find 
it unfit for shipping ; land between the two creeks ; and 
marching four or five miles by the greater, are tired with 
travelling up and down the steep hills and valleys, covered 
half a foot with snow : and lodge under pine trees. 

The next morning, return to the other creek, and thence to 
the place of their former digging ; where they dig again, 
though the ground be frozen a foot deep, and find more corn 
and beans : make up their corn to ten bushels, which they 
send with Master Jones and fifteen of their sick and weaker 
peopletotheship; eighteenstaying,andlodgingtherethisnight. 

Next day, they dig in several such like places ; but find no 
corn, nor anything else but graves : discover two Indian wig- 
wams ; but see no natives. And the shallop returning, they 
get aboard at night. 

And the next day, December 1, return to the ship.^- 

The corn they found, happily serves for their planting in 
the spring ensuing, or they would have been in great danger 
of perishing ^-^ : for which, they gave the owners entire 
content, about six months after.^ [Seej!;. 433.] 

Before the end of Novemberjt' Susanna [see^. 430], wife of 
William White,^''^ [see^. 425] ; was delivered of a son who is 

=> Governor Bradford's History. ^ MouRT's Relation. 

"" Boston News Letter, 

Rev. T. Prh.ce.i j^jj, ^^^^y England Ciironology, 1620. 403 

Kings. Great Britain, James I.; France,, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip III. 

called Peregrine,^ bein^ the first born since their arrival,^ and 
I conclude the first of the European extract, in New England.*^ 

Deceuibcr 4. Dies Edward Thompson, servant to Master 
White, "^ the first that dies since their arrival. December 6, 
Dies Jasper, a boy of Master Carver's ; December 7, 
Dorothy, wife to Master William Bradford [see p. 457] ; 
December 8, James Chilton.^ 

December 6. They again send out their Shallop, with ten of 
their principal men,^ viz., Master Carver, Bradford, Win- 
slow, Captain Standish&c, with eight or ten seamen,-'^ to cir- 
culate the Bay, and find a better place : though the weather 
is very cold, and the spray of the sea freezes on them, that 
their clothes look as if they were glazed,^* and feel like coats 
of iron.^ This night, they get to the bottom of the Bay, see 
ten or twelve Indians ashore ^ busy a cutting up a grampus.'^ 
By reason of the flats, they land with great difficulty ; make 
a barricado, lodge therein, and see the smoke of the Indian 
fires that night ^ about four or five miles from them.^ 

December 7. This morning, they divide their company : 
some travelling on shore ^ ; eight ^ others coasting in the 
shallop, by great flats of sand.^ 

About ten o'clock, the shore people find a great burying 
place : part thereof encompassed with a large pallizado, full 
of graves; some paled about, others having small poles turned 
and twisted over them. Without the pallizado, were graves 
also, but not so costly. Then they come to four or five 
deserted wig^vams, but see no people.-'^ Towards night, they 
hasten out of the woods to meet the shallop ; and making a 
signal for her to bare into a creek, she comes in at high 
water ; to their mutual joy, having not seen each other since 
morning: but found no people; nor any place they liked. 
And at night, make another barricado, and lodge therein.*^ 

December 8. At five this morning, they rise ; and, after 
prayer, the day dawning, and the tide high enough to call 
them down to the shallop : they suddenly hear a great and 
strange cry. One of their company running towards them, 

^ MouR'r's Relation. ^ Boston News Letter. 

'^ He lives to yjitj 22, 1704, when he dies at Marshfield {Boston A^e-ws 
Letter). ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

'^ Governor Bradford's Res;ister in his Poclcet Book. {p. 400.) 

404 i620. Tiiic Nkw England Chronology, [^^"■^■'^'"^6; 

Kin^s. Great Britain,] hyiVJn \.; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IIL 

calling, " Indians ! " " Indians ! " ; and therewith arrows 
come tlying about thern.^ [See/». 426.] 

Upon discharj^ing their pieces, the Indians soon get away; 
the EngUsh following a quarter of a mile, shouting : return 
to their shallop, ^ having left six men to keep her, '^ and not 
one of the company wounded, though the arrows flew close 
on every side. Upon which, they give GOD solemn thanks. 

Then sail along the coast, ^ about fifteen leagues'^; find 
no convenient harbour ; and hasten on to a port which 
Master Coppin, their pilot, assures them is a good one, 
which he had been in ; and that they might reach before 
night. But after some hours sailing, it begins to snow and 
rain. At mid-afternoon, the wind rising, the sea grows very 
rough ; they brake their rudder. It is as much as two men 
can steer her with a couple of oars. And the storm increasing, 
the night approaching, and bearing what sail they can to get 
in ; they brake their mast in pieces, their sail falls over- 
board in a very grown sea, and they are like to founder 
suddenly. Yet, by the mercy of heaven, they recover them- 
selves ; and the flood [tide] being with them, strike into the 
imagined harbour. But the Pilot being deceived, cries out, 
" LORD be merciful I My eyes never saw this place 
before ! " And he and his mate would have run her ashore 
in a cove full of breakers, before the wind : ^ but a steersman 
calling to the rowers, " About with her 1 or we are cast 
away ! " they get her about immediately. And Providence 
showing a fair sound before them ; though it be very dark 
and rains hard, they get under the lee of a small rise of 
land : but are divided about going ashore, lest they fall into 
the midst of savages. Some therefore keep the boat, but 
others, being so wet, cold, and feeble, cannot bear it : but ven- 
ture ashore, with great difficulty kindle afire: and, after mid- 
night, the wind shifting to the north-west, and freezing hard; 
the rest are glad to get to them, and here stay the night. ^ 

December g. In the morning, they find the place to be a 
small island, secure from Indians.'^ And this beingthe last day 

•= Mr. Morton says. This is between the place called the Gurnet's Nose, 
and Sagaquab. ^ Governor Bradford's History. '^ Mourt's Relation. 

'^ Mr. Morton says, This is since called "Clark's Island;" because 
Master Clarke, Mate of the ship [see_^. 398], first stepped ashore thereon. 

Rev. T. Prince. J j^^ New England Chronology. 1620.405 

Kiftgs. Great Bri/aiii,] AMES I.; France, LOULS XIII.; ^/«/;/, Philip III. 

of the week, they here dry their stuff, fix their pieces, rest them- 
selves, and return GOD thanks for their many deliverances. 

And here, the next day, keep their Christian Sabbath.'"^ 

December 11, Monday. They sound the harbour, find it fit 
for shipping; march into the land, seedivers cornfields and run- 
ning brooks ; with a place they judge fit for habitation. And 
return to the ship, with the discovery ; to their great comfort.^ 

December 15. The ship sails for this new-found port, comes 
within two leagues of it; when a north-west t* wind springs 
up, and forces her back. But the next day, the wind comes 
fair; and she arrives in the desired harbour.^ Quickly after, 
the wind chops about; so that had they been hindered but half 
an hour, they would have been forced back to the Cape again. ^^ 

December 18, Monday. They land, with the Master of the 
ship and three or four sailors, march along the coast seven 
ov eight miles; but see neither wigwam, Indian, nor navigable 
river : but only four or five brooks of sweet fresh water 
running into the sea ; with choice ground formerly possessed 
and planted. And, at night, return to the ship. 

Next day, they go again to discover : some on land ; 
others, in the shallop, find a creek, into which they pass 
three miles, and return.t> 

December 20. This morning, after calling to heaven for 
guidance; they go ashore again, to pitch on some place for 
immediate settlement. After viewing the country, they 
conclude to settle on the main, on a high ground facing 
the Bay, where corn had been planted three or four years 
before ; a sweet brook running under the hill, with many 
delicate springs. On a great hill, they intend to fortify : 
which will command all round ; whence they may see across 
the Bay to the Cape. And here, being in number twenty, they 
rendezvous this evening: but a storm rising, it blows and rains 
hard all night ; continues so tempestuous for two days, that 
they cannot get aboard, and have nothing to shelter them. ^ 

December 21. Dies Richard Bitteridge,^ the first who 
dies in this harbour. 

December 23, Saturday. As many as can, go ashore, cut 
and carry timber for a common building.^ 

* Governor Bradford's History. ^ MouR'fs Relatmi. 

" Governor Bradford's Register in his rocket Book. (/. 4C0.) 

4o6 1620. The New England Chronology, n"-^' .""; 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IlL 

December 24, Lord's Day. Our people ashore are alarmed 
with the cry of "Savages!" expect an assault; but continue 
quiet. a And this day, dies Solomon Martin;^ the sixth 
and last who dies this month. 

December 25, Monday. They go ashore again, felling 
timber ; sawing, riving, carrying. ^ Begin to erect first 
house, ^ about twenty feet square, ^ for their common use, 
to receive them and their goods : ^ and, leaving twenty to 
keep a court of guard ; the rest return on board in the 
evening. But in the night, and next day, another sore storm 
of wind and rain. ^ 

December 28, Thursday. They go to work on the hill ; 
reduce themselves to nineteen families, measure out their 
lots, and draw for them. Many grow ill of grievous colds, 
from the great and many hardships they had endured. 

December 29 and 30. Very cold and stormy again. And 
they see great smokes of fires made by the Indians, about 
six or seven miles off.^ 

December 31, Lord's Day. Though the generality remain 
aboard the ship, almost a mile and a half off; yet this 
seems to be the first day that any kept the Sabbath in the 
place of their building. At this time we therefore fix the era 
of their Settlement here : to which they give the name of 
Plymouth, the first English town in all this country ; in a 
grateful memory of the Christian friends they found at 
Plymouth in England, as of the last town they left in that 
their native land.'^ 

Here Governor Bradford ends his First 

Book^containing lo Chaps, in 53 pages ^ folio: 

And here we end this First Part of our 

New England Chronology. 

^ MouRT^s Relation. i^ Governor Bradford's ///j'/£';7. 

•= My friend H. Stevens, Esq., F.S.A., of Vermont, now of London, 
however, points out that in the Map in Smith's Fiist Account of New 
England, 1616 ; the pLice known to the Indians as Patuxet, is there called 
Plymouth, four years before the arrival of the Pilgrim Fathers. E.A. 1879. 





Being a short Account of the Affairs of this country as 
settled by the several Colonies of the English nation, 


Their beginning, in the settlement of the First at Ply- 
mouth, by the name of Plymouth Colony, December 

31, 1620, 


The settlement of the Seventh and last, by the combina- 
tion of Forty-one Persons into a Form of Govern- 
ment on Piscataqua river, October 22, 1640; after- 
wards called the Province of New Hampshire. 

[Prince, however, only succeeded in publishing as far as August 5, 1633, 
viz.. In Two Sections, 

Section I., December 31, \620-June 12, 1630//. 409-510. 
Section II., /m?^^ 13. \(>lo-Ausust 5, 1633//. 511-656.] 






s E cr I o N I. 
Front the beginning of the Settlement of the 
First or Ply^nouth Colony at Ply?nouth^ 
under Governor Carver^ December 
31, 1620; to the begininng of the 
Settlement of the Massachusetts or 
Second Colony by the arrival of 
Governor Winthrop and Compa7ty at 
Salem, June 12, 1630. 

H ROUGH a great variety of obstacles and 
hardships, this small and pious People 
are at length arrived and seated on this 
strange and distant shore, but yet a 
shore they are, by an overruling Provi- 
dence, conducted to beside [conirary 
io\ their own design, though not without 

4IO Preface to Part IL, Section I. [^^"•^•'^r.f,: 

the secret plots of others. For as some unknown country 
further southward, about Hudson's river, was in their view, 
when they engaged in this adventurous voyage; Mr. Morton, 
who pubHshed his Memorial in 1670, tells us, " He had then 
lately sure intelligence that the Dutch, intending to settle a 
colony there of their own, privately hired [bribed] [Master 
Reynolds] the Master of the ship [the Speedwell] to contrive 
delays in England ; then to steer them to these northward 
coasts ; and there, under pleas of shoals and winter, to 
discourage chem from venturing further.^ 

However, by their being guided hither ; they then un- 
knowingly escaped the much greater danger of falling among 
the multitudes of savages, at that time, tilling the countries 
about Hudson's river : and are landed in a place of greater 
safety ; where a general pestilence had, two or three years 
before, exceedingly thinned the natives, and prepared the 
w^ay for this feeble company. 

Being thus, beside their intention, brought to the New 
England coast, where their Patent gave them no right or 
power : they were, in a sort, reduced to a state of nature ; 
and some of the strangers received at London, dropping 
some mutinous speeches as if there were now no authority 
over them : the People, therefore, before they landed, wisely 
formed themselves into a Body Politic, under the Crown of 

^ Agreeable to this, we observed in the month of yittic this year, while 
the English Leydeners were preparing for their voyage, that as Captain 
Dermer returned from Virginia to New England, he met certain 
Hollanders sailing for Hudson's river, where they had had a trade for 
several years. \^p. 397.] 

Morton's statement is untrustworthy. It can only refer to the Speed- 
well; as the i\Iay Flcnuerwa.?, hired in London, and was not in Holland 
at all, in this business. The Dutch, in selling such a rotten vessel as 
the Spcedicell \^pp. 396, 398, 399], did virtually provide for some of the 
Pilgrim Fathers an early grave in the Atlantic ; from which they were 
only saved by the company of the London ship. It is instructive to 
note, how that this Speedwell was, rnstrumentally, the cause of all the 
delays ; and thereby of the many deaths in the following spring : but, 
on the other hand, how that these delays led to the settlement at 
Patuxet ; one of the few places on the coast, where there were then no 
Indians. — E.A. 1879. 

Rev.T. Pnnce.-j p^^irpACE TO P ART II., SeCTION I. 411 

England; by the Solemn Contract hinted above []?». 401], and 
which Governor Bradford gives us in the following terms'^: 

In the name of GOD, Amen. We, whose names are 
under written, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign 
Lord, King J AMES; by the grace of GOD, of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, King ; Defender of the Faith, &c., 

Having undertaken, for the glory of GOD, and advance- 
vient of the Christian faith, and honour of our King and 
country, a Voyage to plant the First Colony in the Northern 
Parts of Virginia; Do, by these presents, solemnly and 
mntually, in the presence of GOD and one of another. 
Covenant and Combine ourselves together into a Civil Body 
Politic for our better ordering and preservation, and further- 
ance of the ends aforesaid ; and by Virtue hereof to Enact, 
Constitute, and Frame such just and, equal laws, ordinances, 
acts, contitutions, and offices,^ from time to time, as shall be 
thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the 
Colony. Unto which, we promise all due submission and 

In witness whereof, we have hereunder subscribed our 
names, at Cape Cod, the 11th of November, in the year of 
the reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James of England, 
France, and Ireland, the eighteenth ; and of Scotland, the 
fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620.^^ 

To this Instrument, Mr. Morton sets the Subscribers in 
the following order : but their names corrected with their titles 
and families, I take from the List at the end of Governor 
Bradford's folio Manuscript; only this I observe that, out of 

= The same is printed in AfouRT's Relation, Purchas, Morton, and 
Neal : though in the two latter, with some small variations from the 
other three. 

•^ So Bradford, il/o^/^^r, and Purchas : but Morton says officers. 

" Governor Bradford's History. 

412 Preface to Part II., Section I. ['^^ 

I. T. Princ; 

modesty, he omits the title of Master to his own name, which 
he ascribes to several others. 

N.D. — I. Those with this mark, ||, brought their wives 
with them. Those with this, *, for the present, 
left them either in Holland or England. 

2. Some left behind them some, and others all their 
children ; who afterwards came over. 

3. Those italicized, deceased before the end of March 

4. The column [NO.] contains the number of their 
several families. 


1 Master John Carver ... || 8 

2 William Bradford || 2 

3 Master Edward Winslow || 5 

4 Master William Brewster |1 6 

5 Master Isaac Allerton ... 1| 6 

6 Captain Miles Standish jj 2 

7 John Alden ».. i 

8 Master Samuel Fuller * 2^ 

9 l\Iastcr Christopher MartinW 4 
\o Master William MuLLixs || 5 
w Ma'itcr William White... \\ s^" 

12 Master Richard Warren * i 

13 John Howland*^ 

14 Master Stephen Hopkins |1 S^i 

15 Edward 'Tilly || 4 

16 John Tilly |1 3 

17 Francis Cook * 2 

18 Thomas ToGERS 2 

19 Tho.mas Tinker |1 3 

2.0 John RiDGDALE (| 2 

2\ Edward Fuller || 3 

22 John Turner 3 

name s. 

23 Francis Eaton 

24 J A MES Chi lton 

2 5 John Cra cks ton^ ... 

26 John BiLLiNGTONf ... 
2 7 Moses Fle tcher *>' ... 

28 John Goodman 

29 Degory Priest^ 

30 Thomas Williams ... 

31 Gilbert Winslow ... 

32 Edmund Margeson... 

33 Peter Brown 

34 Richard £r. ttridge ' 

35 George SouLEJ 

36 Richard Clarke 

37 Richard Gardiner... 

38 John Aller ton 

■^9 Thomas English ... 

40 Edward Dotey ^ ) , 

41 Edward Leister J 

^ One of these was the Servant who died before their arrival 
[p. 100]. (Bradford.) '' Mr. Morton calls him Digery. 

^ Besides the son born in Cape Cod Harbour, named Peregrine. 
(Bradford.) •= Mr. Morton calls him Craxton. 

" He was of Governor Carver's family. (Bradford.) 

^ One of these was a son born at sea, and therefore named Oceanus. 
(Bradford.) s Mr. Morton seems to mistake, in calling him JosES. 

* See/. 429. Executed, October 1630,/. 559. 

' Mr. Morton calls him Bitteridge. 

J He was of Governor WiNSLOW's family. (Bradford.) 

^ Mr. Morton seems to mistake in calling him Doten. 

' They were of Master Hopkins's family. (Bradford.) 

Rov.T.p.ince.-| pRjrpACE TO Part II., Section I. 413 

So there were just One hundred and One who sailed from 
Plymouth harbour; and just as many arrived in Cape Cod 
harbour. And this is the solitary number, who for an undefiled 
conscience and the love of pure Christianity first left their 
native and pleasant land; and encountered all the toils and 
hazards of the tumultuous ocean in search of some unculti- 
vated region in North Virginia, where they might quietly 
enjoy their religious liberties, and transmit them to posterity; 
in hopes that none would follow to disturb or vex them. 

Ome noted writers, not, with a sufficient accuracy, 
studied in the Religious History of those times, have, 
through great mistake, represented as if this People 
were a Congregation of Brownists. But even Baylie 
himself, 3- that bitter inveigher both against the Brownists 
and Independents, owns 

That Master Robinson their Pastor, was a man of 
excellent parts, and the most learned, polished, and 
modest spirit that ever separated from the Church of 
England ; That the Apologies he wrote were very hand- 
some ; That by Doctor Ames and Master Parker, he 
was brought to a greater moderation, than he at first 
expressed ; that he ruined the Rigid Separation, allow- 
ing the lawfulness of communicating with the Church of 
England in the Word and Prayer^; though not in the 
Sacraments and Discipline ; That he was the principal 
overthrower of the Brownists, and became the author of 
The like account of Master Robinson, Hornius also gives 
us.'^ And how inconsistent is it then, to call him or his 

^ Baylie's Dissuasive from the errors of the times, printed, in quarto, 
London, 1645. 

^ But Master COTTON, who was well acquainted with Elder Brewster 
and the first members of the Church of Plymouth, tells us, " That by 
Prayer must not be understood the Covimon Prayer Book ; but of the 
Prayers conceived by the Preacher before, and after Sermon." — Way of 
Congregational Churches Cleared, in answer to Baylie, &^c. Printed, in 
quarto, London, 1648, "= HORNll, Historia Ecclesiastica ct Politica. 

414 Treface to Part II., Section I. [^'"•^•^'■S 

People, Brownists! when he was known to be a principal 
overthrower of them. 

Agreeably, Hornius, from my Lord Brooke, seems to 
express himself in this, more accurately than other writers ; 
by dividing those who separated from the Church of England 
into two sorts, viz., i. The Rigid Separatists, or Brownists : 
2. The Semi-Separatists, or Robinsonians; who, after a while, 
were called Independents, and still retain the name. And so 
distant were the former in their principles and temper from 
the latter ; that as the chief seat of the Brownists was then in 
Amsterdam, Governor WiNSLOW, aprincipal Memberof Master 
Robinson's Church, acquaints us, " That the Brownists there, 
would hardly hold communion with the People at Leyden.''^ 

The same gentleman also tells us, That Master Robinson 
was always against Separation from any of the Churches of 
Christ, holding communion with the Reformed Churches, 
both in Scotland, France, and the Netherlands; that his 
study was for peace and union, so far as might agree with 
faith and a good conscience. But for the Government of the 
Church of England, as in the Episcopal way, the Liturgy and 
stinted prayers : yea, the Constitution of the Church as 
national ; and so the corrupt Communion of the Unworthy 
with the Worthy Receivers of the Lord's Supper: these 
things were never approved of him ; but witnessed against to 
his death, and by the Church under him. That the Church 
of Leyden made no schism or separation from the Reformed 
Churches; but, as occasion offered, held communion with 
them. " For we," says Governor Winslow, " ever placed a 
large difference between those who grounded their practice on 
the Word of GOD, though differing from us in the exposition 
or understanding of it ; and those who hated such Reformers 
and Reformation, and went on in Antichristian opposition to 
it, and persecution of it: as the late Lord Bishops did. 
Nevertheless Master Robinson allowed hearing the godly 

"^Governor Winslow's Ground af_ Planting New England, at the end 
of his Answer to Gorton ; printed, in quarto, London, 1646. 

Rev.T.Pnnce.-| Pr^FACE TO P A R T 1 1 ., SeCTION I. 4I5 

Ministers of the Church of England preach and pray in the 
public assemblies : yea, allowed Private Communion^ with 
them all, and with all the faithful in the Kingdom and 
elsewhere, upon all occasions. None of which, would the 
Brownists ever allow." 

"'Tis true," says Governor Winslow, "we profess, and 
desire to practice a separation from the world, and the works 
of the world, which are the works of the flesh, such as the 
Apostle speaks oi,Ephcsians v. ig-2i ; i Corinthians vi. 9-11 ; 
and Ephesians ii. 11, 12. And as the Churches of Christ 
are all Saints by calling, so we desire to see the grace of 
GOD shining forth, at least seemingly (leaving secret things 
to GOD) in all we admit into Church-fellowship ; and to keep 
off such as openly wallow in the mire of their sins, that neither 
the holy things of GOD, nor the Communion of the Saints 
maybe thereby leavened or polluted. And if any joining to us, 
when we lived at Leyden, or since we came to New England, 
have, with the Manifestation of their Faith, and Profession 
of Holiness, held forth therewith Separation from the Church 
of England ; I have, divers times, in the one place, heard 
Master Robinson our Pastor; and in the other. Master 
Brewster, our Elder, stop them, forthwith : showing them, 
that we required no such thing at their hands, but only to hold 
forth Faith in Jesus Christ, Holiness in the Fear of GOD, 
and Submission to every Divine Appointment ; leaving the 
Church of England to themselves, and to the LORD, to Whom 
we ought to pray to reform what was amiss among them." 

Perhaps Hornius was the only person who gave this 
People the title of " Robinsonians ; " but had he been duly 
acquainted with the generous principles, both of the People 
and their famous Pastor, he would then have known that 

^ By Private Communion, I suppose he means, in opposition to the 
Mixed Communion in the Pubhc Churches : i.e., lie allowed ail of the 
Church of England, who were known to be pious, to have cotnniunion in his 
private [separated or sifted] Church. For as Master Cotton, writing of 
Master RoBiNSON, says, " He separated not from any Church, but from 
the World." 

4r6 Preface to Part II., Section I. \^''''-'^-^'Tr^(;, 

nothing was more disagreeable to them, than to be called by 
the name of any mere man whatever: since they renounced ail 
attachment to any mere human S3'stems or expositions of the 
Scripture ; and reserved an entire and perpetual liberty of 
searching the Inspired Records, and of forming both their 
principles and practice from those discoveries they should 
make therein, without imposing them on others. 

This appears in their Original Covenant in 1G02, as we 
observed before [p. 348]. And agreeably to this, Governor 
WiNSLOW tells, that when the Plymouth People parted from 
their renowned Pastor; with whom they had always lived in 
the most entire affection, 

He charged us, before GOD and his blessed angels, to 
follow him no further than he followed CHRIST : and if GOD 
shotdd reveal anything to us, by any other Instrument of His, 
to be as ready to receive it, as ever we were to receive any truth 
by his ministry ; for he was very confident the LORD had 
more truth and light yet to brake out of His Holy Word. 

He took occasion also, miserably to bewail the state of the 
Reformed Churches ; who were come to a period [stop] in 
religion; and woidd go no further than the Instruments of 
their reformation. As, for example, the Lutherans could not 
be drawn to go beyond what Luther saw : for whatever 
part of GOD'S Word, He had further revealed to Calvin; 
they had rather die than embrace it. And so, said ht, you 
see the Calvinists ; they stick where he left them. A misery 
much to be lamented. For though they were precious shining 
lights in their times : yet GOD had not revealed His whole 
will to them ; and icere they noi0 alive, said he, they would 
be as ready to embrace further light, as that they had received. 
Here also he put us in mind oi our Church-Covenant, where- 
by we engage with GOD and one another, to receive whatever 
light or truth shotdd be made hiown to us from His Written 
Word; but withal, exhorted us to take heed what we 
received for truth ; and well to examine, compare, and weigh 
it with other Scriptures before we receive it. For, said he, 

Rev. T. Prince. 

i"/^i] Preface to Part II., Section- I. 417 

it is not possible the Christian world should come, so lately, out 
of such A ntichristian darkness, and that full perfection of 
knowledge should break forth at once, &c. 
Words almost astonishing in that age of low and universal 
bigotry, which then prevailed in the English nation : wherein 
this truly great and learned man seems to be almost the only 
Divine, who was capable of rising in a noble freedom of think- 
ing and practising in religious matters ; and even, in urging 
such an equal liberty on his own People, he labours to take 
them off from their attachment to him, that they might be 
more entirely free to search and follow the Scriptures. 

S FOR Master Robinson being the author of Indepen- 
dency, Master Cotton replies, '* That the New 
Testament was the author of it ; and it was received 
in the times of purest primitive antiquity, many 
hundreds of years before Master Robinson was born ; " and 
Governor Winslow, " That the Primitive Ghurches, in the 
Apostolic age, are the only pattern which the Churches of 
Christ in New England have in their eye ; not following 
Luther, Calvin, Knox, Ainsworth, Robinson, Ames, or 
any other, further than they follow Christ and his Apostles." 
But as Master Robinson and his Church were of the same 
mind, and always lived in the great harmony and unity ; I 
shall here give a Summary of their main Principles, from their 
published writings. 

I. They were in the sentiments, which since, the famous 
Master Chillingworth tells us that, after long study, 
he also came into, viz., That the Inspired Scriptures 
only contain the true Religion ; and especially nothing 
is to be accounted the Protestant Religion, respecting 
either Faith or Worship, but what is taught in them. 
As also, in the same sentiments, which the present cele- 
brated Bishop HoADLEYand many other great men, have 

Eng. Gar. II. 2 7 

41 8 Preface to Part II., Sectioa' I. \^^''-'^-'^%^^\ 

so nobly defended as the Rif^ht of Human Nature, as the 
the very basis of the Reformation, and indeed, of all 
sincere religion; m'^., That every man has a right of 
judging for himself, of trying doctrines by them, and of 
worshipping according to /«"s apprehension of the meaning 
of them. 

II. As to Faith and Holy Sacraments. They believed the 
Doctrinal Articles oi the Church of England, as also of the 
Reformed Churches of Scotland, Ireland, France, the 
Palatinate, Geneva, Switzerland, and the United 
Provinces, to be agreeable to the Holy Oracles : allow- 
ing all the pious members of these Churches, communion 
with them ; and differing from them only in matters 
purely ecclesiastical. 

III. As to Ecclesiastical Matters. They held the following 
Articles to be agreeable to Scripture and reason : 

a. That no particular Church ought to consist of more 
members than can conveniently watch over one another; 
and usually meet and worship in one Congregation. 

b. That every particular Church of Christ is only to con- 
sist of such as appear to Believe in and Obey Him. 

C. That any competent number of such, when their con- 
sciences oblige them, have a Right to Embody into a 
Church, for their mutual edification. 

d. That this Embodying is by some certain Contract or 
Covenant ; either expressed or implied, though it ought 
to be by the former. 

e. That being Embodied, they have a Right of choosing all 
their Officers. 

f. That the Officers appointed by Christ for His Embodied 
Church are, in- some respects of three sorts; in others, 
but two, viz.: 

I, Pastors or Teaching Elders. Who have the power 
both of overseeing, teaching, administering the Sacra- 
ments, and ruling too : and, being chiefly to give 
themselves to studying, teaching, and the spiritual 
care of the flock ; are therefore to be maintained. 

Rev.T. Prince.-| PREFACE TO P ART II., Section I. 419 

2. Mere Ruling Elders. Who are to help the Pastors 
in overseeing and ruhng. That their offices be not 
temporary, as among the Dutch and French Churches; 
but continual. And being also qualiiied in some de- 
gree to teach ; they are to teach only occasionally, 
through necessity, or in their Pastor's absence or 
illness : but being not to give themselves to study 
or teaching, they have no need of maintenance. 

That the Elders, of both sorts, form the Presbytery 
of Overseers and Rulers ; which should be in every 
particular Church: and are, in Scripture, called some- 
tirmes Presb5'ters or Elders, sometimes Bishops or 
Overseers, sometimes Guides, and sometimes Rulers. 

3. Deacons. Who are to take care of the poor, and of 
the Church's treasure ; to distribute for the support 
of the Pastor, the supply of the needy, the propaga- 
tion of religion ; and to minister at the Lord's Table, 

g. That these Officers being chosen and ordained, have 
not Lordly, arbitrary, or imposing power ; but can only 
rule and minister with the consent of the brethren : who 
ought not, in contempt, to be called Laity ; but to be 
treated as men, and lorethren in Christj not as Slaves 
and Minors. 

h. That no Churches or Church Officers whatever, have 
any power over any other Church or Officers, to con- 
trol or impose upon them : but are all equal in their 
rights and privileges ; and ought to be independent in 
the exercise and enjoyment of them. 

i. As to Church Administrations. They held, That BAPTISM 
is a seal of the Covenant of Grace : and should be 
dispensed only to visible believers, with their unadult 
children : and this, in primitive purity, as in the times 
of Christ and His apostles, without the sign of the 
Cross, or any other invented ceremony. That the Lord's 
Supper should be received, as it was at first ; even in 

420 Vkeyxcil TO Part II., SECTioy I. [^^•^'- ■^'- ^1^^^: 

Christ's immediate presence, in the tabic posture. That 
the Elders should not be restrained from Praying in 
PUBLIC as well as private ; according to the various 
occasions continually offering, from the Word or Provi- 
dence ; and no set form should be imposed on any. That 
Excommunication should be w^holly spiritual; a mere 
rejecting of the scandalous from the Communion of the 
Church in the Holy Sacraments, and those other spiri- 
tual privileges which are peculiar to the faithful : and 
that the Church or its Officers have no authority to in- 
flict any penalties of a temporal nature. 
j. And lastly, As for Holy days, they were very strict for the 
observation of the Lord's Day, in a pious memorial of 
the Incarnation, Birth, Death, Resurrection, Ascension, 
and Benefits of Christ ; as also solemn Fastings, and 
Thanksgivings, as the State of Providence requires : 
but all other times, not prescribed in Scripture, they 
utterly relinquished. 

And, as in general, they could not conceive anything 

a part of Christ's Religion which He haswo^ required : 

they therefore Renounced all human right of inventing; 

and much less, of imposing it on others. 

These were the main Principles of that Scriptural and 

Religious Liberty for which this People suffered in England, 

fled to Holland, traversed the ocean, and sought a dangerous 

retreat in these remote and savage deserts of North America: 

that here they might fully enjoy them, and leave them to 

their last prosterity. 

Ut removing the stage of our Chronology to the 
western side of the Atlantic ; we may take a brief 
survey, both of the state of Great Britain and the 
neighbouring countries they left behind them, and 
for which they were chiefly concerned ; as well as the state of 
North East America, at the time of their arrival. 

Rev. T. Prince.j pj^EFACE TO P ART II., Section I. 421 

In France and Navarre, the King begins to persecute the 
Protestants, and to turn them out of their churches. In 
Lusatia {Ahace\, Bohemia, and Germany the Imperial and 
Spanish forces are prevailing, and ruining the Reformed 
interest ; even the Protestant Elector of Saxony joining with 
them. And the King of England, extremely fond of match- 
ing his only son. Prince Charles, to the Popish Infanta ; 
refuses to support, and even allow of a Public Fast for his 
own daughter, the excellent Queen of Bohemia, the darling 
of the British Puritans ; indulges the Papists throughout the 
Kingdoms ; and, at the same time, allows no rest for any of 
the Reformed in them, who mislike the Ceremonies or 
Diocesan Episcopacy. 

In Scotland, the Presbyterian Church is wholly over- 
thrown ; her Ministers deprived, confined, banished. And 
in England, " most of the affairs in Church and State," as 
EcHARD tells us, " are transacted by the Countess of 
Buckingham," whom he calls, " a fiery Romanist." 

In so dark a season on the European shore, are this 
People brought to the North American ; where the prospect 
also looks almost as dismal and discouraging. 

For besides the natives, the nearest Plantation to them is 
a French one at Port Royal ^ [see p. 374]; who have another 
at Canada. And the only English ones are at Virginia, 
Bermudas, and Newfoundland; the nearest of these, about five 
hundred miles off; and every one incapable of helping them. 

Wherever they turn their eyes, nothing but distress sur- 
rounds them. Harrassed for their Scripture Worship in 
their native land ; grieved for the profanation of the holy 

"Governor Bradford, in a manuscript note in the margin of Sir 
William Alexander's Descritition of New England, &-'c., printed, in 
quarto, London, 1630; says, BlENCOURT lived nt Port Royal, when we 
eaine in/o the eountry in 1620. By wliich, it seems as ii, by connivance of 
the Court of England, a small Plantation of the French were suffered to 
continue at Port Royal, after the reduction by Captain Argal in 1613. 

422 Vk^^ac^ TO Part II., Section I. [''"^^■^•''T"^. 

Sabbath, and other Hcentiousness in Holland ; fatigued with 
their boisterous voyage ; disappointed of their expected 
country; forced on this northern shore, both utterly un- 
known and in advance of winter: none but prejudiced 
barbarians round about them, and without any prospect of 
human succour : without the help or favour of the Court of 
England ; without a Patent; without a public promise of their 
religious liberties; worn out with toil and sufferings; without 
convenient shelter from the rigorous weather; and their 
hardships bringing a general sickness on them, which re- 
duces them to great extremities, bereaves them of their 
dearest friends, and leaves many of the children, orphans. 
Within Five Months' time, above Half of their Company are 
carried off; whom they account as dying in this noble cause; 
whose memories they consecrate to the dear esteem of their 
successors ; and bear ALL, with a Christian fortitude and 
patience, as extraordinary as their trials. 

I have only now to remind the reader, that utterly un- 
sought, and then unknown to them, on November 3, about a 
week before their arrival at Cape Cod ; King James signs a 
Patent for the Incorporation of the Adventurers to the Northern 
Colony of Virginia, between 40° and 48° N. ; being the Duke 
of Lennox, the Marquises of Buckingham and Hamilton, 
the Earls of Arundel and Warvv^ick, Sir F. Gorges, and 
thirty-four others ; and their successors — styling them. The 
Council established at Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the 
planting, riding, ordering, and governing of New England, in 
America.^ Which Patent is the great and civil [legal] Basis 
of all the future Patents and Plantations, that divide this 

* From a manuscript Copy of the Charter itself, in the hands of the 
Honourable Elisha Cooke, Esquire. 

Rcv.T.prince.-j'piiE New England Chronology. 1 62 1. 423 

Kings. Great Britain^ James L; France, Louis XIII.; Spain^ Philip III. 


To the Settlement of the Massachusetts 

Colony by the arrival of Governor 

WiNTHORP and Deputy Governor 

Dudley with theChdiVttv^and Assist- 

antSy at Salem^ fuite 12, 1630. 

[Additions of my own.] 


January i, 

He People at Plymouth go 
betimes to work^; and the 
year begins with the death of 
Degory Priest.^ 
January 3, Some, abroad, 
see great tires of Indians ; 
and go to their corn fields, 
but discover none of the 
savages : nor have seen any, since we came to this harbour.^ 
January 4. Captain Standish, with four or five more, go 
to look for the natives, where their fires were made ; find 
some of their houses, though not lately inhabited ; but none 
of the natives.^ 

January 8. Francis Billington having, the week before, 
from the top of a tree on a high hill, discovered a great sea, 
as he thought; goes this day, with one of the Master's Mates 
to view it : travel three miles to a large water divided into 
two lakes ; the bigger five or six miles in compass, with an 
islet in it of a cable's length square ; the other, three miles 
in compass, and a brook issuing from it. Find seven or 
eight houses ; though not lately inhabited.-'^ And this day, 
dies Master Christopher Martin.^ 

January 9. We labour in building our town, in two rows 

^ Mourt's Relation. 

^ Governor Bradford's Register \n his Pocket Book. {p. 400.) 

424 i62i. T he New England Chronology. ['"""■^■'^T^ll: 

A'iu^^s. Great Britain, James L; France, Louis XIIL; 6>m«, Philip IIL 

of houses for greater safety ; divide, by lot, the ground we 
build on ; agreed that every man shall build his own house, 
that they may make more haste, than when they work in 

January 12. At noon, John Goodman and Peter Brown 
gathering thatch abroad, and not coming home after their 
two companions, put us in great sorrow. Master Leaver, 
with three or four more, go to seek them ; but can hear 
nothing of them. 

Next day [13], thinking the Indians had surprised them, 
we arm out ten or twelve men after them; who go searching 
seven or eight miles : but return without discovery, to our 
great discomfort.^ 

January 13. Having the major part of our people ashore, 
we purpose there to keep the Public Worship to-morrow.^^ 

Jamiary 14, Lord's Day, morning. At 6 o'clock, the wind 
being very high, we on ship board see our Rendezvous in 
flames ; and because of the loss of the two men, fear the 
savages had fired it : nor can we come to help them, for 
want of the tide, till 7 o'clock. At landing, hear good news 
of the return of our men ; and that the house was fired by a 
spark flying into the thatch, which instantly burnt up. The 
greatest sufferers are Governor Carver, and Master Brad- 

The two men were lost in the woods on Friday noon ; 
ranged all the afternoon in the wet and cold ; at night, it 
snowing, freezing, and being bitter weather, they walked under 
a tree till morning ; then travelled by many lakes and brooks. 
In the afternoon, from a high hill, they discover the two isles 
in our harbour: and at night get home, faint with travel, and 
want of food and sleep ; and almost famished with cold.^ 

Jamiary 21. We keep our Public Worship ashore.^ 

January 29. Dies Rose, the wife of Captain Standish.''^ 

January 31. This morning the people aboard the ship see 
two savages [the first we see at this harbour] ; but cannot 
speak with them. 

n.b. This month. Eight of our number die.^ 

' Mourt's Relation. ^ Governor Bradford's Register. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-| Yhe New England Chronology. 1 62 1. 425 

A'i/:_ifs. Great Britain, James I.; France, LouiS XIII.; Spain, Philip III. 

Fchrnary g. This afternoon, our house for our sick people 
is set a fire by a spark lighting on the roof/^ 

February 16. One of our people a fowling by a creek, about 
a mile and a half off, twelve Indians march by him towards the 
town ; in the woods, he hears the noise of many more: lies 
close, till they are passed by ; then hastens home and gives 
the alarm. So the people abroad return, but see none ; only 
Captain Standish and Francis Cook leaving their tools in 
the woods, and going for them ; find the savages had taken 
them away. And towards night, a great fire about the place, 
where the man saw them.^^ 

February 17. This morning, we first meet for appointing 
military Orders; choose MiLEsSTANDisnfor our Captain; give 
him power accordingly. And while we are consulting, two 
savages present themselves on the top of the hill over against 
us, about a quarter of a mile off, making signs for us to come to 
them. We send Captain Standish and Master Hopkins over 
the brook, towards them ; one only with a musket, which he 
lays down, in sign of peace and parley : but the Indians 
would not stay their coming. A noise of a great many more 
is heard behind the hill ; but no more come in sight.^ 

February 21. Die Master William White [see pp. 402, 
430], Master William Mullins ; with two more. And the 
25th, dies Mary, the wife of Master Isaac ALLERTON.t> 

N.B. This month. Seventeen of our number die.^ 

This spring, there go ten or tw^elve ships from the West of 
England to fish on the [North Eastern] coasts of New Eng- 
land ; who get well -freighted with fish and fur.'^''^ 

About this time, the Indians get all the Pawaws of_ the 
country, for three days together, in a horrid and devilish 
manner, to curse and execrate us with their conjurations; 
which assembly, they hold in a dark and dismal swamp ; as 
we are afterwards informed.*^ 

March 7. The Governor with five more, go to the Great 
Ponds ; and we begin to sow our garden seeds.'^ 

March 16. This morning, a savage boldly comes alone 

« MouRfs Relation. " Smith's History. 

^ Governor Bradford's Res^ister in his Pocket Book. (J>. 400.) 
<^ PUKCHAs's Pikrinis. ' " Governor Bradford's Hisio>y. 

426 i62i. The New England Chronology. [R^v. t. Pnnce. 

Kini^s. Great Briiain, James L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip III. 

along the houses, straight to the Rendezvous ; surprises us with 
calHng out " Welcome, Englishmen ! " " Welcome, English- 
men ! " having learned some broken English among the 
fishermen at Monhiggon. 

The first Indian we met with. His name is Samoset, says, 
he is a Sagamore or Lord of Moratiggon, lying hence a day's 
sail with a great wind, and five days iDy land ; and has been in 
these parts, eight months. We entertain him ; and he informs 
us of the country. That the place we are in, is called Patuxet 
[pp. 376, 393] ; that, about four years ago, all the inhabitants 
died of an extraordinary plague ; and there is neither man, 
woman, nor child remaining : as indeed, we find none to 
hinder our possession, or lay claim to it. 

At night, we lodge and watch him.^ 

March 17. This morning, we send Samoset to the Masas- 
soits, our next neighbours ; whence he came. The Nausites, 
near south-east of us, being those by whom we were first en- 
countered; as before related [/>. 404], are much incensed against 
the English. About eight months ago, they slew three 
Englishmen, and two more hardly escaped to Monhiggon. 
They were Sir F. Gorges's men, as our savage tells us.^ He 
also tells us of the fight we had with the Nausites ; and of our 
tools lately taken away, which we required him to bring. This 
Masassoits people are ill affected to us, because of Hunt: who 
carried off twenty from this place, we now inhabit, and seven 
from the Nausites ; as before observed [at p. 376]. 

He promises, within a night or two, to bring some of the 
Masassoits with beaver skins to trade. ^ . 

March 18. Samoset returns, wath five other men ; who 
bring our tools, with some skins ; and make show of friend- 
ship : but, being the Lord's Day, we would not trade ; but, 
entertaining them, bid them come again, and bring more ; 
which they promise, within a night or two. But Samoset 
tarries with us.^ 

March 21. This morning, the Indians not coming; we 
send Samoset to inquire the reason. In his absence, two or 
three savages present themselves on the top of the hill 

^ ? Whether these were not Captain Dermer's company, mentioned after 
7//;/^ 30, last year [/. 397]. '^ Mourt's Relation. 


'^•^';"36] The New England Chronology. 1621. 427 

Kings. Great Briiai>i,]AMKS L; Franc/;, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

against us; but Captain Standish and another, with their 
muskets, going over ; the Indians whet their arrows, and make 
show of defiance: but as our men advance, they run away.-'^ 

This day, Philip III., King of Spain dies, czt. 43,^''=''i and 
his son, Philip IV. succeeds, <zt. iG.'^ 

March 22. About noon, Samoset returns with Squanto, 
the only native of this place [Patuxet], one of the twenty Hunt 
carried to Spain [see p. 376], but got into England; lived in 
Cornhill, London, with Master John Slanie, Merchant ; and 
can speak a little English : with three others. Bring a few 
skins, and signify that their great Sagamore, Masassoit,^ 
the greatest King of the Indians bordering on us, is hard 
by; with his brother Quadequina, and their company. 

After an hour, the King comes to the top of an hill over 
against us ; with a train of sixty men. We send Squanto 
to him : who brings word that we should send one to parley 
with him. We send Master Edward Winslow to know 
his mind ; and signify that our Governor desires to see him, 
and truck and confirm a peace. 

Upon this, the King leaves Master Winslow in the custody 
of Quadequina ; and comes over the brook, with a train of 
twenty men, leaving their bows and arrows behind them. 
Captain Standish, and Master Williamson, with six mus- 
keteers met him at the brook; where they salute each other: 
conduct him to a house, wherein they place a green rug, and 
three or four cushions. 

Then instantly, comes our Governor, with drum, trumpet, 
and musketeers. After salutations, the Governor kissing his 
hand, and the King kissing him : they sit down. The Gover- 
nor entertains him with some refreshments. And then, they 
agree on a League of Friendship, as follows.^ 

1. That neither he nor his should injure any of ours. 

2. That if they did, he should send the Offender ; that 
we might punish him. 

^ Petavius and RicciOLius say March 31 : but I conclude they mean 
New Style. "" Mourt's Relation. '^ Petavius. <= Ricciolius. 

^ The printed accounts generally spell him, Massasoit. Governor 
Bradford writes him, Massasoyt and Massasoyet. But I find the 
ancient people, from their fathers, in Plymouth Colony, pronounce his 
nauie, Ma-sas-so-it. 

428 i62i. The New England Chronology, [^^"■'^'■^'l""^: 

/■Cinqs. Great Britain,] \^\VJi L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

3. That if our tools were taken away, he should restore 
them. And if ours did any harm to any of his, we 
would do the like to him. 

4. If any unjustly warred against him ; we would aid 
him. And if any warred against us; he should aid 

5. He would certify his neighbour[ing] confederates of 
this ; that they might not wrong us, but be com- 
prised in the Conditions of Peace. 

6. That when their men come to us, they should leave 
their bows and arrows behind them ; as we should 
leave our pieces, when we come to them. 

7. That doing thus, King James would esteem him as 
his friend and ally.^ 

After this, the Governor conducts him to the brook; where 
they embrace and part. We keep six or seven hostages for 
our messenger; but Quadequina coming, with his troop, 
we entertain, and convey him back ; receive our messenger, 
and return the hostages-t* 

March 23. This morning, divers Indians, coming over, tell 
us, the King would have scm2 of us come and see him. 
Captain Standish and Master Isaac Allerton go ven- 
turously to him : whom they welcome, after their manner. 
And, about noon, they return to their place, called Sowams,'^ 
about forty miles off,"^ to the westward. 

The King is a portly man, in his best years, grave of 
countenance, spare of speech. And we cannot but judge he 
is willing to be at peace with us ; especially because he has 
a potent adversary, the Narragansetts, who are at war with 
him. Against Vv^hom, he thinks we may be some strength ; 
our pieces being terrible to them. But Samoset and Squanto 

This day, we meet on common business, conclude our 
Military Orders ; with some laws convenient for our present 

^ Governor Bradford, in 1645, observes, " This League hath lasted 
these twenty-four years." To which I may add, " Yea, thirty years 
longer ! niz., to 1675." ^ Mourt's Relation. 

■^ Sometimes called Sowams, and sometimes Pacanokik ; which I sup- 
pose is afterwards called Mount Hope ; and since, named Bristol. 

^ Governor Bradford's History. 

Rev.T.Prince.-| J^^ ^^^^ Ex\GLAND ChRONOLO GY. 162 I. 429 
Kings. CrmlB/i/am,] AMES I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spam, Vhilip IV. 

state : and choose ^ or rather confirm ^ Master Carver, our 
Governor, for the following year.'^-'^ 

March 24. Dies Elizabeth, the wife of Master Edward 
WiNSLOW.^ [See next page.] 

The first offence, since our arrival, is of John Billington,'^'^ 
who came on board at London '^ ; and is, this month, con- 
vented before the whole Company, for his contempt to the 
Captain's [Standish] lawful command. For which, he is 
adjudged to have his neck and heels tied together: but upon 
humbling himself, and craving pardon ; and it being the first 
offence ; he is forgiven.*^ 

N.B. This month, Thirteen of our number die.'= 

And in three months past, die Half our Company. The 
greatest part in the depth of winter, wanting houses and 
other comforts; being infected with the scurvy and other 
dis_eases,_ which their long voyage and unaccommodate con- 
dition bring upon them. So as there die, sometimes, two or 
three a day. Of one hundred persons, scarce fifty remain. 
The living scarce able to bury the dead ; the well not suffi- 
cient to tend the sick : there being, in their time of greatest 
distress, but six or seven ; who spare no pains to help them. 
Two of the seven were Master Bre\vster, their reverend 
Elder, and Master Standish the Captain. 

The like disease fell also among the sailors ; so as almost 
Half their company also die, before they sail.*^ 

But the spring advancing, it pleases GOD, the mortality 
begins to cease ; and the sick and lame to recover : which 
puts new life into the people ; though they had borne their 
sad affliction with as much patience as any could do."^ 

April 5. We despatch the ship, with Captain Jones ; who, 
this day, sails from New Plymouth : and May 6, arrives in 

After this, we plant twenty acres of Indian corn ^ ; wherein 
SguANTois a great help ; showing us how to set, fish, dress, 
and tend it ^ : of which we have good increase. We likewise 
sow six acres of barley s and pease. Our barley indifferent 
good ; but our pease parched up with the sun.^ 

^ MouRT's Relation. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

" Governor Bradford's Register in his Fotket Book. {p. 400.) 
s Governor Bradford calls them Wheat and Pease ; and says, they 
came to no good. <^ See /A 412, 559. "= Smith. ^ Purchas. 

430 i62i. The New England Chronology, [^""-'^-^'l""^;. 

Kings. Great Britain,] ^ME.^ L; Fraticc, LOUIS XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

• While we are busy about our seed, our Governor, Master 
Carver, comes out of the field, very sick ; complains greatly 
of his head ; within a few hours, his senses fail, so as he 
speaks no more : and, in a few days after, dies ; to our great 
lamentation and heaviness. His care and pains were so 
great for the common good, as therewith, it is thought, he 
oppressed himself, and shortened his days : of whose loss, 
we cannot sufficiently complain. And his wife deceases, 
about five or six weeks after.'^ 

Soon after, we choose Master William Bradford our 
Governor, and Master Isaac Allerton his Assistant: who 
are, by renewed elections, continued together, sundry years.^ 

May 12. The first Marriage in this place,^ is of Master Ed- 
ward WiNSLOW [see previous page] to Mistress Susanna White 
[see p. 402], widow of Master William White t» [see p. 425]. 

June 18. The second offence, is the first duel fought in 
New England, upon a challenge at single combat, with 
sword and dagger; between Edward Doty and Edward 
Leister, servants to Master Hopkins : both being wounded ; 
the one in the hand, the other in the thigh. They are 
adjudged by the whole Company to have their head and feet 
tied together ; and so to lie for twenty-four hours, without 
meat or drink. Which is begun to be inflicted ; but, within 
an hour, because of their great pains, at their own and their 
master's humble request ; upon promise of better carriage, 
they are released by the Governor.^ 

July 2. We agree to send<= Master Edward Winslow, 
and Master Steven Hopkins, with Squanto, to see our new 
friend Masassoit^ at Pakanokit,^ to bestow some gratuities 
on him, bind him faster to us, view the country, see how and 
where he lives, his strength &c.^'^ 

[Tuesday]. At nine, this morning, we set out; travel 
fifteen miles westward to Namasket, by three in the after- 

^ Governor Bradford's History, ^ Governor Bradford's Register. 

■^ Mourt's Relatioji says : They set out Jitne 10 : but this being Lord's 
Day, is very unlikely ; and is also inconsistent with the rest of the 
Journal. Whereas July 2 is Monday ; when Governor Bradford says : 
" We sent &c." Though to comport with the rest of the Journal, I con- 
clude that on Monday, July 2, they " agreed to send," but " set not out " 
till the next morning, '^ Mourt's Relation. 

Rev.T. prince.-j 'YuE New England Chronology. 162 t. 431 

Kings. Great Bri/ain, James I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

noon. The people entertain us with joy, give us bread 
they call maizum, and the spawn of shads, which they 
now have in great plenty, and we eat with spoons. 
By sunset, we get eight miles further to a weir, where 
we find many of the Namascheuks, i.e., Namasket men, 
a fishing ; having caught abundance of bass : who wel- 
come us also. And there we lodge. 

The head of this river is said to be not far from the 
place of our abode. Upon it are, and have been, many 
towns. The ground very good on both sides ; for the 
most part cleared. Thousands of men have lived here ; 
who died of the Great Plague ^ which befel these parts, 
about three years before our arrival : the living not being 
able to bury them, and their skulls and bones appear in 
many places, where their dwellings had been.t" Upon 
this river, Masassoit lies. It goes into the sea at 
Narragansett Bay ; where the Frenchmen use so much. 

Next morning, we travel six miles, by the river, to a 
known shoal place : and, it being low water, put off 
our clothes, and wade over. Thus far the tide flows. 
We observe few places on the river, but what had been 
inhabited^ ; though now greatly wasted by the Plague 
aforesaid.^ And so we travel to Pacanokik, where 
Masassoit kindly welcomes us,^ and gratefully re- 
ceives our presents^ ; assures us that he will gladly 
continue the peace and friendships ; tells us the Narra- 
gansetts live on the other side of that great Bay, are a 
strong people and many in number, live compactly, and 
are not touched with that wasting sicknesst" ; desires us 
not to let the French trade with them. And there we 

Next day, being Thursday, many of their Sachems or 
Petty Governors, come to visit us. We see their games 
for skins and knives. And there lodge again. 

Friday morning, before sunrise, we take our leave ; 
Masassoit retaining Squanto to procure truck for us ; 
appoints Tockamahamon in his place : whom we had 
found faithful before ; and after, upon all occasions. 

* Mounts Relation. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

432 i62i. The New England Chronology, l^" 

Rev. T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Britain,] AUE'S L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spaitt, Philip IV. 

That night, we reach the weir ; and the next night, 
End of July. John Billington,^' a boy,^ being lost in the 
woods, the Governor causes him to be inquired for, among 
the natives. At length, Masassoit sends word, he is at 
Nauset. He had wandered five days, lived on berries ; then 
lighted on an Indian plantation, twenty miles south of us, 
called Manomet : and they convey him to the people who 
first assaulted us.^* 

But the Governor sends ten men,^ in a shallop,^-'^ with 
Squanto and Tockamahamon,^ to fetch him.^'t) 

The first day,^ the shallop sails for the harbour at 
Cummaquid ; but night coming on, we anchor in the 
midst of the Bay ; where we are dry at low water. 

Next morning, the Indians on the other side of the 
channel, invite us to come and eat with them. As soon 
as our boat floats, six of us go ashore ; leaving four of 
them pledges in the boat. The rest bring us to their 
Sachem, whom they call Iyanough'^ : a man not above 
twenty-six years of age, but personable and courteous ; 
who gives us plentiful and various cheer. 

After dinner, we take boat for Nauset ; Iyanough and 
two others of his men, with us. But the day and tide 
failing ; we cannot get in with our shallop. Iyanough 
and his men go ashore ; and we send Squanto to tell 
Aspinet, the Sachem of Nauset, our errand. 

After sunset, Aspinet comes, with a great train of a 
hundred with him; bringing the boy; one bearing him 
through the water, delivers him to us. The Sachem 
makes his peace with us. We give him a knife ; and 
another to him who first entertained the boy. 
At this place, we hear the Narragansetts had spoiled 

^ Mo urt's Relation. ^ Governor Bradford's //'/.r/f^rj/. 

" MoURT'sRelation,^ andPURCHAS from it, places this on June 17. But 
this date being inconsistent with several visits in the foregoing and fol- 
lowing stories ; I keep to Governor Bradford's original manuscript, 
and place it between the end of July and the 13th of August. 

^ Sometimes called Iyanough of Cummaquid ; and sometimes 
Iyanough of Matakiest, which seems to be the country between Barn- 
staple and Yarmouth harbours. 

Rev. T. Prince.-j Jjjp JSJ^^y EnGLAND CiIRONOLOGY. I 62 I. 433 

Kifii^s. Great Britavi, J amks I.; France, hovis XII I.; Spain, Philip IV. 

some of Masassoit's men, and taken him ; which 

strikes us with some fear. And setting sail, carry 

Iyanough to Cummaquid ; and get home, the next day 

[at] night.^ 

Those people also [i.e., of Nauset] come, and make their 

peace ; and we give them full satisfaction for the corn, we 

had formerly found in their country.^ [See />. 402.] 

HoBAMAK,^ a Pinese or chief captain of Masassoit,<= also 
comes to dwell among us ; and continues faithful, as long as 
he lives.'' 

At our return from Nauset, we find it true that Masassoit 
is put from his country by the Narragansetts,^ and word is 
brought us that Coubatant^ cr Corbitant,'''^ a petty 
Sachem under Masassoit, ever feared to be too conversant 
with the Narragansetts^, and no friend to the English,^* is at 
Namasket, seeking to draw the hearts of Masassoit's sub- 
jects from him ; speaks disdainfully of us ; storms at the 
peace between Nauset, Cummaquid, and us ; and at 
Squanto, the worker of it; as also at Tokamahamon and 


However, Squanto and Hobamak go privately to see 
what is become of their King, and lodge at Namasket ; but 
are discovered to Corbitant : who besets the house,^ 
threatens to kill Squanto and Hobamak, for being friend., 
to us.t» Seizes Squanto, and holds a knife to his breast^ ; 
offers to stab Hobamak, but he, being a stout man, clears 
himself^ ; concludes Squanto killed,^ and flies to orr 
Governor with the information.'^ 

August 13. At this, the Governor assembles our Con:;- 
pany,^-'' and taking counsel, it is conceived not fit to be 
borne : for if we should suffer our friends and messengers 
thus to be wronged, we shall have none to cleave to us, or give 

^ Mourt's Relation. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

" WiNSLOW's Relation. 

^ Governor BRADFORD says nothing of this ; nor of Masassoit's 
being either seized or invaded by the Narragansetts. 

'^ The Relation published by \or rather ivith the Preface of] MOURT ;. 
with Smith and Purchas from it, call him Coubatant ; but Governor 
Bradford plainly writes him Corbitant, and Morton follows him. 

EaVg. Gar. II. 28 

434 1 62 1. The New England Chronology. [^'''•^■^','"3^ 

Kings. Great Britai}i,]hU^'& L; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

US intelligence, or do us any service ; but would next fall 
upon us, &c.^ 

We therefore resolve to send ten men, to-morrow, with 
HoBAMAK,^ to sieze our foes in the night. If Squanto be 
killed, to cut off Corbitant's head ; but hurt only those who 
had *a hand in the murder.^- And retain Nepeof, another 
Sachem in the confederacy, till we hear of MASASSOiT-b 

Auf^ust 14. Captain Standish with fourteen men 
and HoBAMAK, set outj'^^ in a rainy day; lose their 
way in the night, wet, weary, and discouraged : but 
finding it again, beset Corbitant's house, at midnight^^; 
where three Indians are sorely wounded, in trying to 
brake away. But find him gone,^ and Tokamahamom 
and Squanto safe^ ; Corbitant having only threatened 
Squanto's life, and made an offer to stab him.^ 

Next morning, we march into the midst of the town.'' 
Hobamak telling the Indians what we only intended ; 
they bring the best food they have^ ; and we breakfast 
at Squanto's house. Whither all whose hearts are 
upright to us, come : but Corbitant's faction fled 

We declare, " that if Masassoit does not return in 
safety from Narragansett ; or if Corbitant should 
make any insurrection against him ; or offer violence 
to Squanto, Hobamak, or any of Masassoit's subjects : 
we would revenge it to the overthrow of him and his." 

With many friends attending us, we get home at 

nightt-; bringing with us, the three wounded savages; 

whom we cure and send home.^ 

After this, we have many congratulations from divers 

Sachems, and much firmer peace. Yea, those of the Isle of 

Capawak send to secure our friendship ; and Corbitant 

himself uses the mediation of Masassoit to be reconciled.^ 

Yea, Canonicus, Chief Sachem of the Narragansetts, sends 

a messenger to treat of peace. '^ 

Beginning of September. Sir William Alexander, <= of 
Scotland"^ ; afterwards Earl of Stirling, having prevailed on 

^ Governor Bradford's ///.f/tf;^. ^ MouR-fs Relation, 

"= Sir F. Gorges. "^ Purchas. 

Rev. T.Prince.j 'pjjg New England Ciironology. 162 1. 435 

Kings. Great Britain,] kMYJS, I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

King James to send to Sir F. Gorges, to assign to him part of 
tiie New England territory ^'^ : Sir Ferdinand, being entrusted 
with the affairs of this country, advising with some of the 
Compan}-, yields that Sir William should have a Patent of 
the North Eastern part of New England ; to be held of the 
Crown of Scotland, and called Nova Scotia.^* Whereupon, 

September 10. King James gives Sir William Alexander, 
a Patent for Nova Scotia : bounding the same, from Cape 
Sable to the Bay of St. Mary, thence north to the river 
St. Croix, thence north to Canada river, so down the river to 
Gachepe, thence south-east to Cape Breton islands and Cape 
Breton, thence round to Cape Sable again : with all the 
seas and islands within six leagues of the western, northern, 
and eastern parts ; and within forty leagues to the southward 
of Cape ♦Breton and Cape Sable. To be called Nova 
Scotia, Scc'^-" 

September 13. Nine Sachems subscribe an Instrument of 
Submission to King James, viz. : Ohquamehad, Cawna- 
coME, Obbatinnua, Nattawahunt, Caunbatant,"^ Chikka- 
TABAK, Quadaquina, Huttamoiden, and Appanow.^ Yea, 
Masassoit, in writing, under his hand, to Captain Standish, 
has owned the King of England to be his master; both he, 
and many other Kings under him, as of Pamet, Nawset, 
Cummaquid, Namasket, with divers others who dwell about 
the Bays of Patuxet and Massachusett : and all this, by 
friendly usage, love and peace, just and honest carriage, good 
counsel, &c.f 

Though we are told the Massachusetts often threaten us, 
3'et the Company think good to send among them,^ to 
discover the Bay,g see the country, make peace, ^ and trade 
with the natives, g The Governor chooses ten men, with 
Squanto and two other savages, to go in the shallop. ^ 

September 18 [being Tuesday]. At midnight, the tide 
serving, we set sail. 

Next day, get into the bottom of the Massachusetts 

« Gorges. ^ Purchas. ^ Taken from the Latin Patent, in Purchas. 
^ I suppose the same with Corbitant. ^ Morton's Memorial. 

^ MouR T's Relations. s Governor Bradford's Histofy. 

436 i62i. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T Prince. 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

Bay, about twenty leagues north from Plymouth ; and 

Next morning, we land under a cliff. The Sachem of 
this place is Obbatinewat-'^ ; and though he lives in the 
bottom of this Bay, yet is subject to Masassoit. Uses 
us kindly, and tells us he dare not now remain in any 
settled place, for fear of the Tarratines^" ; who live to 
the Eastward, are wont to come at harvest and take 
away their corn, and many times kill them'^ ; and that 
the Squaw Sachem or Massachusetts Queen is an 
enemy to him. He submits to the King of England ; 
upon our promising to be his safeguard against his 
enemies. We cross the Bay, which is very large, and 
seems to have fifty islands. 

Next morning, all, but two, go ashore, march three 
miles into the country, where corn had been newly 
gathered. A mile hence, their late King Nanepa- 
SHEMET had lived. His house was built on a large scaffold 
six feet high, and on the top of a hill. Not far hence, in 
a bottom, we come to a fort he had built ; the palHzadoes 
thirty or forty feet high ; but one way in, over a bridge. 
In the midst of the pallizado stands the frame of a house, 
where he lies buried. The natives, at first, fly from us ; 
but are, at length, induced to meet us here ; and 
entertain us in the best manner they can. Having 
traded with us, and the day nearly spent ; we return to 
the shallop. 

. Within this Bay, the savages say, are two rivers, one 
of which we saw, having a fair entrance. Better har- 
bour for shipping cannot be than here. Most of the 
islands have been inhabited, being cleared from end to 
end ; but their inhabitants all dead or removed. 

Having a light moon, we set sail at evening; and 

before next day, noon, get home,^ with a considerable 

quantity of beaver, and a good report of the place : 

wishing we had been seated there. ^ 

All the summer, no want : while some were trading ; 

^ I suppose the same as Obbatinnua, who subscribed his submission to 
King James, on September 13 last \5ee previotis page\ ^ Smith. 

" Governor Bradford's /i^/i'/(?;j. '^ MouRf's Relation. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-| -pnE New England Chronology. I 62 I. 437 

Kings. Great Britain,] AMY.S I.; France, luOUisXlll.; Spain, Philip IV. 

others were fishing for cod, bass, &c. We now gather in 
our harvest. And as cold weather advances, come in store 
of water fowl, wherewith this place abounds ; though after- 
wards, they, by degrees, decrease : as also abundance of wild 
turkeys, with venison, &c. Fit our houses against winter; 
are in health, and have all things in plenty.^ 

November 9. Arrives a ship at Cape Cod,''^-^ and the loth,^ 
the Indians bring us word of her being near ; but think her a 
Frenchman. Upon her making for our bay, the Governor 
orders a piece to be fired, to call home such as are abroad at 
work*^; and we get ready for defence. But, unexpectedly, 
we find her a friend,^ of 55 tons,'^''^ called the Fortune; in 
which comes Master Cushman,''^ with thirty-five persons ^'^ 
to live in the Plantation, which not a little rejoices us. But 
both ship and passengers poorly furnished with provisions ; 
so that we are forced to spare her some, to carry her home : 
which threatens a famine among us, unless we have a timely 

She sailed from London, the beginning of Jnly,^ could not 
clear the Channel till the end of August '^•'^ ; and brings a 
letter for Master Carver from Master Weston, dated 
Jiily 6, wherein he writes, " We [i.e., the Adventurers] have 
procured you a Charter, the best we could ; better than your 
former, and with less limitation. "^ [StQ pp. 442, 454.] 

She finds all our people, she [or rather, that were] left in 
April, in health, except six who died ; and stays a month ere 
she sails for England. ^^-^ 

December 11. W^e have built seven dwelling-houses; four 
for the use of the Plantation; and have made provision for divers 
others. Both Masassoit, the greatest King of the natives, and 
all the princes and people round us, have made peace with 
us. Seven of them, at once, sent messengers for this end. 
And as we cannot but account it an extraordinary blessing of 
GOD in directing our course for these parts ; we obtained 
the honour to receive Allowance of our possessing and enjoy- 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Mourt's Relation. 

" Smith places this on November 11 ; but November 11 being Lord's 
Day, we [thus] discover his mistake. 
^ Smith. « Purchas. ^ VVinslow's Relation. 

Ki/ijc^s. Great Britain,] awe?, I.; France, LouisXIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

ing thereof, under the authority of the President and Council 

for the affairs of New England.^- 

December 13. The ship sails'^-S viz., the Fortune'^-^, laden 

with two hogsheads of beaver and other skins, and good 

clapboards, as full as she can hold. The freight estimated at 

nearly ;^500. 

Master Cushman returning in her ; as the Adventurers had 

appointed, for their better information. 

But in her voyage,'^ as she draws near the English 
coast ; is seized by the French, carried to France,^ into 
the He Dieu,'3'° kept there, ^ fourteen "^'^ or fifteen days ; 
robbed of all she had worth taking ; then the people 
and ship released, get to London'^ February i4^-'= or 17.'^ 

Upon her departure, the Governor and his Assistant dispose 

the late comers into several families ; find their provisions 

will now scarcely hold out six months, at half allowance; 

3,nd therefore put them to it, which they bare patiently /^ 


OoN after the ship's departure, that great people of 
the Narragansetts,^'^ said to be many thousand 
strong, f can raise above 5,000 fighting menS; not- 
withstanding their desired and obtained peace with us, 
in the foregoing summer, begin to breathe forth many threats 
against us ; so that it is the common talk of all the Indians 
round us, of their preparations to come against us. At length, 
Canonicus, their chief Sachem/ in a braving manner, sends 
a bundle of arrows tied with a snake skin ; which Squanto 
tells us is a challenge and threatening. "Whereupon, our 
Governor, with advice of others, sends them an answer, 
" That if they would rather war than peace, they might 

' Mourt's Relation. ^ Smith. ■= Purchas. 

^ Governor Bradford's History. 

^ Governor Bradford says, we despatched her in fourteen days ; but 
Smith and Purchas say she stayed a month ; and Master E[dward] 
W[lNSL0w], dating his letter by this ship, on December 11 ; we may 
suppose Governor Bradford meant fourteen days from her bein,i=^ 
unladen. Smith and Purchas say, she was laden with three hogsheads 
of beaver skins, wainscot, walnut ; and PURCHAS says, some sassafras. 

f Wins low's Relation. - e GOOKIN Of the Indians. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-| jjjj. ^^^y ET^gland Chronology. 1 62 2. 439 

Kings. Great Britain, ].\Ml£.S I.; Fra7ice,'L0V\sX\\l.; Spain, PHILIP IV. 

begin when they would. We had done them no wrong, nor 
do we fear them ; nor should they find us unprovided." 
By another messenger, we send back the snake skin charged 
with powder and bullets ; but they refuse to receive it, and 
return it to us.^'^'^ 

Since the death of so many Indians, they thought to lord 
it over the rest ; conceive we are a bar in their way, and see 
Masassoit already take shelter under our wings.a 

This makes us more carefully to look to ourselves, and agree 
to enclose our dwellings with strong pales, flankers, gates.'^'t. 

February. We impale our town, taking in the top of the 
hill under which our town is seated ; make four bulwarks or 
jetties, whence we can defend the whole town ; in three 
whereof are gates,t> which are locked every night ; a watch 
and ward kept in the day.-'^ The Governor and Captain 
divide the Company into four squadrons'^b with commanders^; 
every one his quarter assigned, to repair to, in any alarm. 
And if there be a cry of " Fire ! " a Company is appointed 
for a guard, with muskets, while others quench it, to prevent 
treachery .'^■t' [See p. 459.] 

This spring. There go from the West of England to the 
[North Eastern] coasts of New England, thirty-five ships to 

Beginning of March. By this time our town is impaled ; 
enclosing a garden for every family.^ [See p. 285.] 

End of March.^ We prepare for a second voyage to the 
Massachusetts. But Hobamak tells us, that from some 
rumours, he fears they are joined with the N arragansetti ; and 
may betray us, if we are not careful : and has also a jealousy 
of Squanto, from some private whisperings between him and 
other Indians. However we resolve to proceed. -"^-J^ And 

Beginning of April. We send our shallop^'^ with Captain 
Standish,^' and ten of our chief men ; with Hobamak and 
SguANTO.a But they had no sooner turned the " Gurnet," 
or Point of the harbour,^ than a native of Squanto's family 
comes running with his face wounded, and blood fresh upon 
it, calling to the people abroad to make haste home : 

= Governor Bradford's History. ^ WlNSLOWs Relation. 

= PURCHAS. '• Smith. 

440 1 62 2. The New England Chronology. [^'^- ^- ^"j""; 

Kings. Great Britam, James L; France, Louis XI IL; Spain, Philip IV. 

declaring: that the Narragansetts with Corbitant, and he 
thought Masassoit, were coming^ to assault us in the Captain's 
absence ; that he had received the wound in the face, for 
speaking for us ; and that he had escaped by flight,'^ looking 
frequently back, as if they were just behind him." 

Upon this, the Governor orders all to arms, and a warning 
piece or two to be fir d, to call back the shallop. At which, 
she returns. And we watch all night, but nothing is seen. 
HoBAMAK is confidant for his master, and thinks all safe. 
Yet the Governor causes him to send his wife privately^ to 
Pacanokik,t> to see how things are ; pretending other occa- 
sions ; who finds all in quiet.^ 

Upon this, we discover it to be Squanto's policy to set us 
against Masassoit ; that he being removed out of the way, 
Squanto might succeed as principal King of all these parts 
of the country .t" 

After which, the shallop proceeds to the Massachusetts, 
has good trade, and returns in safety.^ 

2,lay. Our provisions being spent, a^ famine begins to pinch 
us ; and we look hard for supply, but none arrives.^ 

End of May. We spy a boat at sea, which we take to be a 
Frenchman ; but proves a shallop from a ship^'^i called the 
Sparrow'^; which Masters WESTON^-t' and Beachamp^ set 
out a fishing at Damarin's Cove, forty leagues to the East- 
ward^'t^; where, this year, are thirty sail of ships a fishing.^ 
She brings a letter to Master Carver from Master Weston, 
of January 17 ^ [1622] ; with seven passengers on his account ; 
but no victualSj^'t" nor hope of any. Nor have we ever any 
afterwards. And, by this letter, find he has quite deserted 
us ; and is going to settle a Plantation of his own.^ 

The boat brings us a kind letter from Master John 
HuDDLESTON^ or HuDSTON,^ a Captain of a ship fishing at the 
Eastward, \\hose name we never heard before, to inform us of 
a massacre of four hundred English by the Indians at Virginia, 
whence he came.'^ 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Winslow's Relatioji. 

^ This massacre was on March 22 [1622] last, (Smith, Purchas), 
being Friday. (Purchas.) And Smith and Purchas reckon up 347 
English people slain. '^ Morton's Memorial. 

Rev.T.Prince.-| ^UE NeW EnGLAND ChRONOLOGY. 1622. 441 
Kings. Great Britain,] XWEJS, I.; France, LouiS XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

By this boat, the Governor returns a grateful answer ; and 
with them sends Master Winslow in a boat of ours, to get 
provisions of the fishing ships ; whom Captain Huddleston 
receives kindly, and not only spares what he can, but writes 
to others to do the like. By which means, he gets as 
much bread as amounts to a quarter of a pound a person 
a day till harvest : and returns in safety. The Governor 
causes their portion to be daily given them ; or some had 
starved. And by this voyage we not only get a present 
supply ; but also learn the way to those parts for our future 

At Master Winslow's return, he finds the colony much 
weaker than he left it. The want of bread had abated the 
strength and flesh of some, had swelled others, and had they 
not been where are divers sorts of shell fish, they must have 
perished. These extremities befel us in May and June : and, 
in the time of these straits, and indeed before Master 
Winslow went to Monhiggon, the Indians began to cast 
forth many insulting speeches, glorying in our weakness, 
and giving out how easy it would be, ere long, to cut us 
off. Which occasions us to erect a fort, on the hill above 
us.b \See p. 285.] 

End of June, or beginning of July. Come into our harbour 
two ships of Master Weston, the Charity}' of 100 tons,'^-^ 
and Swan}' oi 30 '^■d; with his letter of April lo,^ and fifty 
or sixty men sent at his own charge, ^^ to settle a Plantation 
for him in the Massachusetts Bay ; for which he had 
procured a Patent.^ They sailed from London about the 
last of April."'^ 

The Charity, the bigger ship, leaves them, having many 
passengers to carry to Virginia.^' We allow this people 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ WiNSLOW's Relation. 

«= Smith. "^ Purchas. 

^ Smith and Purchas say, there were sixty passengers. Governor 
Bradford says, about 60 stout men. But Morton mistakes in calling 
the Swan, the Sparroiu. Smith and Purchas mistake, in saying they 
come to supply the Plantation ; whereas they come from Master Weston 
to begin another. And, as the Manuscript Letter tells us, "they came upon 
no religious design, as did the Planters at Plymouth," so they were far 
from being Puritans. 

442 i622. The New Engl\nd CiiRONOi.OGv. [^'=^-'^-^'';^^^. 

Kings. Great Brilain, ]amv.s I.; France, LOUIS XI II.; Spain, Philip IV. 

housing ; and many being sick, they have the best means our 
place affords.^'t" 

By Master Weston's ship, comes a letter from Master John 
Pierce, in whose name the Plymouth Patent is taken ; signi- 
fying that whom the Governor admits into the Association, 
he will approve.'^ [See pp. ^^y, 454. J 

J^uly 16. Our number is about a hundred persons, all in 
health ^ [i.e., free from sickness, though not from weakness] ; 
nearly sixty acres of ground well planted with corn, besides 
gardens replenished with useful fruits.'--'^ 

This summer, we build a timber fort, both strong and 
comely, with flat roof and battlements : on which ordnance 
are mounted, a watch kept, and it also serves as a place of 
public worship.3- [See p. 285.] 

Master Weston's people stay here the most part of the 
summer^: while some seek out a place for them. They 
exceedingly waste and steal our corn ; and yet secretly revile 
us. At length, their coasters return ; having found in the 
Massachusetts Bay, a place they judge fit for settlement, 
named Wichaguscusset,*^ or Wesagusquasset,'^ or Wessagus- 
set g ; since called Weymouth. [See pp. 451, 458.] . 

Whither, upon their ship [i.e., the Charity] returning from 
Virginia,^ the body of them go : leaving their sick and lame 
with us *^ till they had built some housing^; whom our 
Surgeon, by GOD's help recovers gratis, and they afterwards 
fetch home,^ nor have we any recompence for our courtes}', 
nor desired it. 

They prove an unruly company, have no good government 
over them ; by disorder will soon fall to want, if Master 

^ Governor Bradford's History. "= Purchas. ^ Smith. 

^ Master Weston, in a letter, owns that "many of them ^are rude and 
profane fellows." Master Cushman, in another, writes, " They are no 
men for us ; and I fear they will hardly deal so well with the savages, as 
they should. I pray you, therefore, signify to Squanto that they are a 
distinct body from us : and we have nothing to do with them, nor must 
be blamed for their faults ; much less can we warrant their fidelity." And 
Master John Pierce, in another, writes, " As for Master Weston's 
Company, they are so base in condition, for the most part ; as, in all 
appearance, not fit for an honest man's company. I wish they prove 
otherwise." (Bradford.) ^ Winslow's Relation, 

^ Morton's Memorial, s A Manuscript Letter. 

Rev.T.P.ince.J -pjjj. jv^ ^^^ EnGLAXD ChRONOLOGY. 1 62 2. 443 
Ki7:gs. Great Britain,] AMKS I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

Weston come not quickly among them.^ Nor had they 
been long from us, ere the Indians fill our ears with clamours 
against them, for stealing their corn, and other abuses.t" 

Our crop proving scanty, partly through weakness through 
want of food, to tend it ; partly through other business ; and 
partly by much being stolen : a famine must ensue next year, 
unless prevented.^ But 

End of August,^ by an unexpected Providence,-^ come into 
our harbour two ships, viz., the Sparroia, Master Weston's ; 
who having " made" her voyage of fish,'^ goes to Virginia'^''': 
where both she and her fish are sold. 

The other, called the Discovery,^ Captain Jones, Com- 
manderj^'b in her way from Virginia, homeward ; being set 
out by some merchants to discover the shoals about Cape Cod, 
and harbours between this and Virginia. Of her, we buy 
knives and beads (which are now good trade) though at cent, 
per cent, or more ; and yet pay away coat beaver at 3s. a lb. 
(which, a few years after, yield 20s.) By which means, we 
are fitted to trade ; both for corn and beaver.^ 

In this ship, comes Master John Porey, who had been 
Secretary in Virginia ; and is going home in her. Who, after 
his departure, sends the Governor a letter of thanks, dated 
August 28, wherein he highly commends Masters Ains- 
worth's and Robinson's Works : And, after his return to 
England, does this poor Plantation much credit among those 
of no mean rank.^^-'^ 

End of September, or beginning of October. Master 
Weston's biggest ship, the Charity, returns to England ; 
leaving his people sufficiently victualled. The lesser, viz., 
the Swan, remains with his Plantation; for their further help.^ 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ WiNSLOw's Relation. 

*^ Master Winslow and Mr. Hubbard seem to mistake, in thinking 
Captain JONES was now bound for Virginia ; and Master MORTON, in 
thinking Master Porey was going home in Master Weston's ship, 
wherein his men came [t'/s., the C/iarify, which Master WiNSLOW says, 
sailed for England at the end oi September, or beginning of October'] : unless 
Master PoREY went in the Charity, from Plymouth to Wessagusset, and 
there wrote his letter of August 28 ; and then both Master Winslow 
and Mr. Morton may be right. But Governor Bradford is mistaken, 
in thinking he was going home in Jones's ship. 

444 i622. The New England Chronology. [^^"^ ^" ^'["^g. 

Kings. Great Briiain,]kUKS L; France, LOUIS XIIL; SpainyVnihl^ IV. 

Shortly after harvest, Master Weston's people at the 
Massachusetts, having by disorder, much wasted their pro- 
visions ; begin to perceive a want approaching, and hearing 
we had bought commodities, and designed to trade for corn ; 
they write to the Governor to join with us, offer their small 
ship for the service, and pray to let them have some of our 
commodities : which the Governor condescends to ; designing 
to go round Cape Cod to the southward, where store of corn 
may be obtained/'^ But are often crossed in our purposes. 
As first, Master Richard Green, brother-in-law to Master 
Weston ; who, from him, had the charge of this colony, dies 
suddenly at Plymouth. t> Then Captain Standish,^'^ with 
Squanto for guide,* twice sets forth with them ; but is 
driven back by violent winds.^ The second time, the Captain 
falls ill of a fever.t* 

November. The Governor goes with them: but seeing 
no passage through the shoals of Cape Cod, puts into 
a harbour at Manamoyk. That evening, the Governor, 
with Squanto and others, go ashore to the Indian 
houses ; stay all night, trade with the. natives, get eight 
hogsheads of corn and beans.^ 

Here Squanto falls sick of a fever, bleeding much 
at the nose ; which the Indians reckon a fatal symptom: 
and here, in a few days, dies. Desiring the Governor 
"to pray that he might go to the Englishman's GOD 
in heaven ; " bequeathing his things to sundry of his 
English friends, as remembrances of his love. Of whom, 
we have a great loss.^ 

Thence, sail to the Massachusetts; find a great 
sickness among the natives, not unlike the plague, if 
not the same ; must give as much for a quart of 
corn, as we used for a beaver's skin. The savages 
renew their complaints to our Governor, against those 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Winslow's Relation. 

<= This seems to be about the latter end of October, for which, Governor 
Bradford seems to mistake, in writing the latter end of September ; 
where he says, "it was after harvest' [z>., Indian harvest'] that Master 
Weston's People began to perceive a want approaching ; and wrote to 
the Governor of Plymuuth, to join in trading for corn &.c." 

Rev. T. Prince.-| -pnE New England Chronology. 1622-3. ^45 

Kings. Great £ntaiH,]AUES I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

Then, sail to Nauset, buy eight or ten hogsheads 
of corn and beans ; as also at Mattachiest.a But 
our shallop being cast away, we cannot get our corn 
aboard [the Swaii]. Our Governor causes it to be 
stacked and covered ; and charges the Indians with 
it [puts it in their care]. 

He procures a guide, sets out a foot, being fifty 
miles ; receiving all respect from the natives, by the 
way : weary, and with galled feet, comes home. 

Three days after, the ship comes also : and the 
corn being divided ; Master Weston's People return 
to their Plantation.t> 

January. [^^^HAptain Standish being recovered, takes 

another shallop, sails to Nauset ; finds the 

corn left there, in safety ; mends the other 

shallop, gets the corn aboard the ship [the 

Swan] : but it being very wet and stormy, is obliged 

to cut the shallops from the stern of the ship, and 

and loose them ; but the storm being over, finds 


While we lodge ashore, an Indian steals some 
trifles out of the shallop, as she lay in a creek : which, 
w^hen the Captain missed, he takes some of the 
company, goes to the Sachem, requires the goods, 
or would revenge it on them before he left them. 

On the morrow, the Sachem comes to our rendez- 
vous, with many men ; salutes the Captain, licking 
his hand, and bowing down : says, " he had beaten 
the stealer," " was very sorry for the fact ; " orders 
the women, to make and bring us bread; and is 
glad to be reconciled. 

So we come home ; and divide the corn as 
After this, the Governor, with another company, goes 
to Namasket; buys corn there: where a great 

^ Governor Bradford says, they get 26 or 28 hogsheads of corn and 
beans, in all ; for both Plantations. ^ Winslow's Relation. 

446 1 62 2. The New England Chronology. [^^"^ "^ ■ ^"i^j*. 

Kinc^s. Great Britain, James L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

sickness rising among the natives, our People fetch 
it home.''^ 
The Governor also, with Hobamak and others, go to 
Manomet, a town nearly twenty miles south of 
Plymouth ; stands on a fresh river running into a 
bay'^ ; towards Narragansett, which cannot be less 
than sixty miles from thence. It will bear a boat of 
eight or ten tons, to this place. Hither, the Dutch or 
French, or both, used to come. It is from hence 
to the Bay of Cape Cod, about eight miles ; out of 
which Bay, the sea flows into a creek about six 
miles, almost directly towards the town. The heads 
of this creek and river are nor far distant.'^ The 
Sachem of this place is Caunacum, who, ^ Sep- 
tember 13 last,'^ with many others, owned themselves 
subjects of King James : and now uses the Governor 
very kindly. 

The Governor lodging here in a bitter night, buys 
com ; but leaves it in the Sachem's custody."^ 
February. Having not much corn left : Captain Stan- 
dish goes again, with six men, in the shallop to 
Mattachiest : meeting with the like extreme weather, 
being frozen in the harbour, the first night ; gets a good 
quantity of corn of the natives. 

Through extremity, is forced to lodge in their houses ; 
which they much press, with a design to kill him : as 
after appeared. For now begins a Conspiracy among 
the Indians to destroy the English, though to us un- 
known : but the Captain ordering his men to keep awake 
by turns, is saved. 

^ This is called Manomet Bay, though these new comers seem to 
mistake it for Narraganset Bay, which is nearly twenty leagues to the 
westward. ^ WiNSLOW's Relation. 

•= This creek runs out easterly into Ca e od Bay, at Scusset harbour ; 
and this river runs out westerly into Monomet bay. The distance over- 
land from bay to bay is but six miles. The creek and river nearly meet 
in a low ground; and this is the place through which, there has been a 
talk of making a canal, this forty years : which would be a vast advantage 
to all these countries, by saving a long and dangerous navigation round 
Ihe Cape, and through the shoals adjoining. '• Worton's Memorial. 

Rev. T. Pnn,^e.-| Jpj^ ^^^-^ EnGLAND ChRONOLOGY. I623. 447 

Kittgs. Great Britain,] A.U¥.^ I.; France, hovis XIII.; 6"/^/;/, Philip IV. 

Here, also, an Indian steals some trifles, which the 
Captain no sooner perceived ; but, though he had no 
more than six men with him, yet he draws them from 
the boat ; besets the Sachem's house, where most of the 
people were; and threatens to fall upon them, without 
delay, if they would not forthwith restore them : signify- 
ing, that as he would not offer the least injury, so he 
would not receive any, without due satisfaction. Here- 
upon, the Sachem finds out the party, and makes him 
return the goods. 

This act so daunts their courage, that they dare not 
attempt anything against the Captain ; but to appease 
his anger, bring corn afresh to trade: so as he lades his 
shallop, and comes home in safety.^ 
'En A. oi February. An Indian comes from John Sanders, 
the Overseer of Master Weston's men, at the Massachusetts,^ 
with a letter showing the great wants they were fallen into^ ; 
that having spent all their bread and corn,-"^ would have bor- 
rowed a hogshead of the natives; but they would lend him 
none. He desired advice, whether he might take it by force, 
to support his men till he returns'^ from Monhiggon, where is 
a Plantation of Sir F. Gorges; and whither he is going, to 
buy bread of the ships that come there a fishing.^ 

But the Governor with others, despatch the messengers 
with letters to dissuade him, by all means, from such a 
violence^'t>; exhorting them to make a shift as we, who have 
so little corn left, that we are forced to live on ground nuts, 
clams, mussels, &c. 

Upon receiving our letters. Master Sanders alters his 
purpose, comes first to Plymouth : where, notwithstanding 
our necessities, we spare him some corn to carry him to 
Monhiggon.^ And 

End oi February, he goes thither, with a shallop; without 

knowing anything of the Indian Conspiracy, before he sails.^ 

This spring, go from England to the [North East] coasts of 

New England, about forty ships to fish ; who " make " a far 

better voyage than ever.'= 

^ WiNSLOW's Relation. 
Governor Bradford's Memorial, «= SMiTif. 

448 1623. The New England Chronology. [^" 

ev. T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, LOUIS XI I L; Spain, PHILIP IV, 

Beginning of March. The Captain having refreshed himself, 
takes a shallop, and goes to Manomet for the corn 
the Governor had bought.^ 

Being, with two of his men, far from the boat, at Cauna- 
cum's house, two natives come in from the Massachu- 
setts ; the chief of whom is Wituwamet (a notable, 
insulting Indian, who had formerly embrued his 
hands in the blood, both of French and English) who 
derides our weakness, and boasts his valour. He came, 
as appears afterwards, to engage Caunacum in the 

The weather being cold, they would persuade the 
Captain to send to the boat, for the rest of his company : 
but he refusing, they help to carry the corn. There,^ a 
lusty savage of Paomet, had undertaken to kill him in 
the Rendezvous, before they part : but the night being 
exceedingly cold, the Captain could not rest without 
turning his sides to the fire continually; so hereby the 
Indian missed his opportunity. 

The next day, the Indian would fain persuade the 
Captain to go to Paomet ; where he had much corn : 
and the Captain put forth with him ; but the wind forc- 
ing them back, they come to Plymouth.'^ 
March. While the Captain was at Manomet ; news comes 
to Plymouth that Masassoit is likely to die ; and that 
a Dutch ship is driven ashore before his house so high, that 
she could not be got off, till the tides increase. Upon which, 
the Governor sends Master Edward Winslow and Master 
John Hambden, a gentleman of London, with Hobamak, 
to visit and help him ; and speak with the Dutch. 
The first night, we lodge at Namasket. 
Next day, at one o'clock, come to a ferry in Corbi- 
tant's country ; and three miles further to Mattapuyst 
his dwelling-place, though he is no friend to us : but find 
him gone to Pakanokik, about five or six miles off. 

* It seems as if the Captain went into Scussit harbour ; which goes up 
westward towards Manomet. "^ WiNSLOw's Relation. 

^ Smith says, Scar a lusty savage &c. But Smith taking his History 
fiom this of WiNSLOw's, I suspect the printer mistook " Scar" for "there," 
in Smith's written Abridgment. 

Rev. T. Prince.-] 'YuE NeW EnGLAND CiIRONOLOGY. 1623. 449 
i73°-J - 

Kt'ftgs. Great Britam, James I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

Late within night, we get thither ; whence the Dutch had 
departed, about two in the afternoon : find Masassoit 
extremely low, his sight gone, his teeth fixed, having 
swallowed nothing for two days : but using means, he 
surprisingly revives. 

We stay and help him two nights and two days. At 
the end of the latter, taking our leave, he expresses his 
great thankfulness. 

We come and lodge with Corbitant at Mattapuyst ; 
who wonders that we, being but two, should be so 

Next day, on our journey, Hobamak tells us, that, 
at his coming away, Masassoit privately charged him to 
tell Master Winslow, " There was a plot of the Massa- 
chusuks against Weston's people ; and, lest we should 
revenge it, against us also : that the Indians of Paomet, 
Nauset, Mattachiest, Succonet,^ the Isle of Capawak, 
Manomet, and Agawaywom are joined with them : and 
advises us, by all means, as we value our lives and the 
lives of our countrymen, to kill the conspirators at 
Massachusetts, and the plot would cease ; and without 
delay, or it would be too late." That night, we lodge at 

The next day, get home : where we find Captain Stan- 
dish had sailed this day for the Massachusetts, but 
contrary winds had driven him back ; and the Paomet 
Indian still soHciting the Captain to go with him. 
At the same time, Wissapinewat, another Sachem, 
brother to Obtakiest, Sachem of the Massachusetts, reveals 
the same thing.^* 

March 23. Being a Yearly Court Day, the Governor com- 
municates his intelligence to the whole Company, and asks 
their advice : who leave it to the Governor, with his Assistant 
and the Captain, to do as they think most meet. Upon this, 
they order the Captain to take as many men as he thinks 
sufficient, to go forthwith and fall on the conspirators ; but 

^ Whether this was Succonest, since named Falmouth ; or Seconet, 
since named Little Compton, seems uncertain. 
'' WiNSLOW's Relation. 
EXG. Gar. II. 2Q 

450 1623. The New England Chronology, ['^'' 

V. T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Britain, ]ames L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

to forbear till he makes sure of Wituwamet, the bloody 
savage before spoken of. 

The Captain takes but eight, lest he should raise a 

The next day, comes one of Weston's men,'"^ through the 
the woods to Plymouth ; though he knew not a step of the 
way, but indeed had lost the path : which was a happy mis- 
take. For being pursued,'^ the Indians'^ thereby missed 
him^; but by little, and went to Manomet.^ 

The man makes a pitiful narration of their weak and 
dangerous state ; with the insults of the Indians over them. 
And that to give the savages content, since Sanders went to 
Monhiggon, they had hanged one [of their number], who had 
stole their corn^; though he was bedridden =3- : and yet they 
were not satisfied. Some died with cold and hunger. One 
in gathering shell fish, was so weak that he stuck in the mud, 
and was found dead in the place. The rest were ready to 
starve ; and he dare stay no longer.^'*^ 

The next day [March 25], the Captain sails, and arrives 
there ; is suspected, insulted, and threatened by the 
savages. But, at length, watching an opportunity, hav- 
ing Wituwamet and Peksuot a notable Pinese {i.e., coun- 
sellor and warrior), with another man, and a brother of 
Wituwamet; with as many of his own men together: 
he falls upon them, and after a violent struggle slays the 
three former with their own knives; orders the last to be 
hanged. Goes to another place, kills another. Fights, 
and makes the rest to fly. And Master Weston's men kill 
two more. But the Captain releases the Indian women, 
would not take their beaver coats, nor suffer the least 
discourtesy to be offered them.^ 

Upon this, Master Weston's people resolve to leave 
their Plantation. The Captain tells them, " For his own 
part, he dare live here with fewer men than they : yet 
since they were otherwise minded, according to his 
orders,^ offers to bring them to Plymouth ; where they 

* WiNSLOw's Relation. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

^ His name was Phineas Prat (Morton) ; and is living in 1677 
(Hubbard.) '^ Hudibras. 

Rev.T. Prince.J Jpjg ^^^^ EnGLAND ChRONOLOGY. I623. 45 I 
A'm£s. Great Britain, James I.; Fratic^, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

should fare as well as we, till Master Weston or some 
supply comes to them. Or if they better liked any other 
course, he would help them as well as he could." 

Upon this, they desire him to let them have corn, and 
they would go with their small ship ^ to Monhiggon,^ 
where they may hear from Master Weston, or have 
some supply from him ; seeing the time of year is come 
for the fishing ships to be there : or, otherwise, would 
work with the fishermen for their living, and get their 
passage to England. 

So they ship what they have.^^ He lets them have 
all the corn he can spare, scarcely keeping enough to last 
him home; sees them, under sail, well out of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay^'b; not taking of them the worth of a 

With some few of their Company, who desire it ; he 
returns to Plymouth : bringing the head of Wituwamet, 
which he sets up on the fort.^" 

Thus this Plantation is broken up in a year. 

And this is the end of those, who, being all able men, had 
boasted of their strength, and what they would bring to pass 
in comparison with the People of Plymouth; who had many 
women, children, and weak ones with them.^ \_Scep. 458.] 

While Captain Standish was gone, the savage who went 
\aftcY Phineas Prat] to Manomet, returning through our 
town, was secured till the Captain came back : then confessed 
the plot ; and says, that Obtakiest was drawn to it, by the 
importunity of his people. Is now sent to inform him of the 
grounds of our proceedings ; and require him to send us the 
three Englishmen among them. 

After some time, Obtakiest persuades an Indian woman 
to come and tell the Governor, " he was sorry they were 
killed, before he heard from us ; or he would have sent them," 
and desires peace.^ 

But this action so amazes the natives, that they forsake 
their houses, run to and fro, live in swamps, &c. : which 
brings on them sundry diseases, whereof many die ; as Caun- 

^ Governor Bradford's History, ^ WiisSLOW's Relation. 

452 1623. The New England Chronology. [^""■'^■^''["It 

Kings. Great Britain,] KUVJ& L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

NACUM, Sachem of Manomet ; Aspinet, Sachem of Nawset ; 
Iyanough, Sachem of Mattachiest, and many others are 
still daily dying among them. 

From one of those places, a boat is sent to the Governor, 
with presents to work their peace : but, not far from Plymouth, 
is cast away, when three are drowned ; and one escaping, 
dares not come to us.^ 

Beginning of April. No supply being heard of, nor know- 
ing when to expect any : we consider how to raise a better 
crop ; and not to languish still in misery. We range all the 
youth under some family, agree that every family plant for 
their own particular private interest and consumption, and 
trust to themselves for food^; but, at harvest, bring in a 
competent portion for the maintenance of Public Officers, 
fishermen, &c.^ : and in all other things go on in the General 
Way \ix., Joint Fund or Stock], as before. For this end, assign 
every family a parcel of land, in proportion to their number 
though make no division for inheritance \pp. 462, 477, 635], 
which has very good success, makes all industrious, gives 
content : even the women and children now go into the field ; 
and much more corn is planted than even^ 

Captain John Mason,'^ who had been Governor of New- 
foundland,^ Sir F. Gorges, and other gentlemen of Shrews- 
bury, Bristol, Dorchester, Plymouth, Exeter, and other 
places in the West of England ; having obtained Patents of 
the New England Council, for several parts of this country^: 
they, this spring,^ send over Master David Thompson,<= or 
ToMPSON, a Scotchman,'^ with Master Edward Hilton, and 
his brother William Hilton, with others, to begin a settle- 
ment.2^ And Master Tompson now begins one, twenty-five 
leagues north-east from Plymouth, near Smith's Isles, at a 
place called Pascatoquack.^ The place first seized is called 
the Little Harbour, on the west side of Pascataqua river, 
and near the mouth : where the first house is built, called 
Mason Hall. But the Hiltons set up their stages higher 
up the river at [Cochecho], since named, Dover.^ 

This year [and I conclude, this spring] there are also some 

^ WiNSLOW's Relation. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

" Rev. W. Hubbard's Lislory. ^ Sir F. Gorges. 

Rev.T. Prince.-| jj^p. ^^^ England Chronology. 1623. 453 

Kings. Great Britain,] xu-E-S I.; Frattce^ Louis XIII.; Spaiii, Philip IV. 

scattering beginnings made at Monhiggon, and some other 
places, by sundry others.^ But about Pascataqua river, 
there seem not many other buildings erected, till after 1631.^ 

Shortly after Master Weston's people went to the East- 
ward, he comes there himself, with some of the fishermen, 
under another name, and in the disguise of a blacksmith ; 
where he hears the ruin of his Plantation. And getting a 
shallop, with a man or two, comes on to see how things are ; 
but in a storm is cast away in the bottom of the Bay, between 
Pascataquak and Merrimak river ^; and hardly escapes with 
with his life. Afterwards, he falls into the hands of the 
Indians, who pillage him of all he saved from the sea, 
and strip him of all his clothes to his shirt. At length, he 
gets to Pascataquak, borrows a suit of clothes, finds means to 
come to Plymouth, and desires to borrow some beaver of us. 

Notwithstanding our straits, we let him have 170 odd lbs. 
of beaver \if worth -^s. a lb. = ^26, or in present value ;f 100 ; if 
worth 20s. a lb = £iyo or £yoo now-a-days]. With which he 
goes to the Eastward, stays his small ship [the Swan] and 
some of his men, buys provisions and fits himself: which is 
the foundation of his future courses ; and yet never repaid us 
anything save reproaches, and becomes our enemy on all 

Middle of April. We begin to set our corn, the setting 
season being good till the latter end of May.*^ But by the 
time our corn is planted, our victuals are spent : not know- 
ing at night where to have a bit in the morning. And have 
neither bread nor corn, for three or four months together. Yet 
bear our wants with cheerfulness, and rest on Providence.^ 

Having but one boat left, we divide the men into several 
companies, six or seven in each ; who take their turns to go 
out with a net and fish, and return not till they get some, 
though they be five or six days out : knowing there is nothing 
at home, and to return empty would be a great discourage- 
ment. When they stay long, or get but little ; the rest go a 
digging for shell fish. And thus we live the summer, only 

a Governor Bradford's History. ^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 
" And so says Mr. Morton : Mr. Hubbard, therefore, seems to mis- 
take, in writing Ipswich Bay. '* WiNSLOW's Relation. 

454 1623. The New England Chronology. ['^''' "^^ ^'i^'e.' 

Khigs. Great L'ri/ain, James L; France, LouiS XI IL; Spain, Philip IV. 

sending one or two, to range the woods for deer. They now 
and then get one, which we divide among the Company. And 
in the winter, are helped with fowl and ground nuts. 

At length, we receive letters from the Adventurers in 
England, of December 22, and April 9 last : wherein they say, 
" It rejoiceth us much to hear these good reports, that divers 
have brought home of you," and give an account 

That last fall,^ October i6,t' a ship, the Paragon, sailed 
from London, with passengers,^ 37,^= or rather 6j,^ for 
New Plymouth : being fitted out by Master John Pierce, 
in whose name our first Patent was taken ; his name 
being only used in trust. [See pp. 437, 442.] 

But when he saw we were hopefully seated ; and by 
the success GOD gave us, had obtained favour with the 
Council for New England : he gets another Patent, of 
larger extent ; meaning to keep it to himself, allow us 
only what he pleased, hold us as his tenants, and sue to 
his courts as Chief Lord. 

But meeting with tempestuous storms,^ in the Downs,^ 
the ship is so bruised and leaky, that in fourteen days, 
she returned''^ to London"^; was forced to be put into the 
dock, £iOQ [ = ^^400 now] laid out to mend her, and lay 
six or seven weeks, to December 22, before she sailed a 
second time. 

But, being half way over, met with extreme tem- 
pestuous weather, about the middle of February, which 
held fourteen days ; beat off the round house [the Captain's 
cabin] with all her upper works ; obliged them to cut 
her mast, and return to Portsmouth ; having 109 souls 
aboard, with Master Pierce himself. 

Upon which great loss and disappointment ; he is 
prevailed upon for £$00 to resign his Patent to the 
Company ^ ; which cost him but £^0 : and the goods, 
with charge of passengers in this ship cost the Com- 
pany ;£'640. For which, they were forced to hire 
another ship, viz., the Ann, of 140 tons, to transport 

Governor Bradford's History. '' Purchas. " Smith, 

By this Company seems to be meant the Adventurers to Plymouth 
ony. {Sec p. 2S5.] '^ RlORTON's Memorial. 

Rev. T. Prince. j jj^j. |vjj.^y England Chronology. 1623. 455 

Kings. Great Bntam, J AMES I.; Fratice, Louis XIII.; Spam, Philip IV. 

them ; viz., 60 passengers and 60 tons of goods; hoping 
to sail by the end of April.^ 

End of jfune. Arrives a ship, with Captain Francis 
West; who has a Commission to be Admiral of New 
England, to restrain such ships as come to fish and trade 
without licence from the New England Council : for which 
they should pay a round sum of money. Tell us they spake 
with a ship at sea, and were aboard her; having sundry 
passengers bound for this Plantation ; but she lost her mast 
in a storm which quickly followed : and they wonder she is 
not arrived, and fear some miscarriage, which fills us with 

But Master West finding the fishermen stubborn fellows, 
and too strong for him, sails for Virginia ; and their owners 
complaining to the Parliament, procure an order that fishing 
should be free.^ 

Middle of July. Nothwithstanding our great pains, and 
hopes of a large crop, GOD seems to blast them ; and 
threaten sorer famine by a great drought and heat, from the 
third week in May to the middle of this month,^' so as the 
corn withers,^ both the blade and stalk, as if it were utterly 
dead. Now are our hopes overthrown, and we discouraged ; 
our joy turned into mourning ; and to add to our sorrowful 
state, our hearing the supply sent us in company with 
another ship, three hundred leagues at sea ; and now in three 
months, see nothing of her ; only signs of a wreck on the 
coast, which we can judge no other than she. The more 
courageous are now discouraged. 

Upon this, the Public Authority^ sets apart a Day of 
Humiliation and Prayer, to seek the LORD in this distress : 
Who was pleased to give speedy answer; to our own, and 
the Indians' admiration [wonderment]. 

For though in the former part of the day, it was very 
clear and hot, without a cloud or sign of rain : yet, towards 
evening,^'^ before the Exercise is over, the clouds gather ; 

^ Governor Bradford's History. 

^ Mr. Morton mistaking Governor BRADFORD, wrongly placed this 
drought in the preceding year ; and Mr. Hubbard follows Mr. MortOiN's 
mistake. " WiNSLOW's Relation. 

456 1623. The New England Chronology, l^^"' '^- ^'l""^. 

Kings. Great B?-iiain, James L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

and next morninf]^, distil such soft,'"* and gentle,'' showers,''^''' as 
give cause for joy and praise to GOD. They come without 
any thunder, wind, or violence ; and by degrees ; and that 
abundance*^ continuing fourteen days, with reasonable 
weather,^ as the earth is thoroughly soaked, and the de- 
cayed corn and other fruits so revived, as it is astonishing 
to behold, and gives a joyful prospect of a fruitful harvest. '^ 

At the same time, Captain Standish, who had been sent by 
the Governor to buy provisions, returns with some, accom- 
panied with Master David Tompson aforesaid.''^ 

Now also, we hear of the Third Repulse ^ our Supply had ; 
of their safe, though dangerous return to England ; and of 
their preparing to come to us. 

Upon all which, another day is set apart for solemn and 
public Thanksgiving.^^ 

End of Jidy.^ August)^ Comes in the expected ship, the 
Ann, Master William Pierce, Master ^ ; and about a week 
or ten days after,^ beginning of August,^ arrives the Pinnace,'^ 
named the James, Master Bridges, Master,^ which they 
had left in foul weather; a fine new vessel of 44 tons, which 
the Company had built to stay in the country. They bring 
about sixty persons for the General [i.e., the company of 
Adventurers in England]^; being all in health, but one, who 
soon recovers.^ 

Some being very useful, and become good members of 
the Body''; ot whom the principal are Master Timothy 
Hatherly and Master George Morton, who came in the 
Ann: and Master John Jennys, who came in the Jajues.^ 
Some were the wives and children of such who came before : 
and some others are so bad, we are forced to be at the charge 
to send them home next year.^" 

By this ship, R. C, [i.e., doubtless Master CusHMAN, their 
Agent] writes, " Some few of your old friends are come. 

= WiNSLOW's Relation. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

' Neither Governor Bradford, nor Mr. Morton give any hint in this 
Third repulse. 

^ Governor Bradford, and from him Mr. Morton, mentioning Captain 
West's saiHng for Virginia, say, the Atin came in about fourteen days 
after : and Smith tells us, the two ships came in, either the next morning, 
or not long after the Thanksgiving. '^ Morton's Meniorial. 

Rev. T. Prince. -| -pj^g New England Ciironology. 1623. 457 

Kings. Great Britain, James I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV, 

They are dropping to you : and, by degrees, I hope ere long 
you shall enjoy them all, &c." 

From the General, subscribed by thirteen, we have also a 
letter ; wherein they say, " Let it not be grievous to you, 
that you have been Instruments to break the ice for others, 
who come after with less difficulty. The honour shall be 
yours to the world's end. We have you always in our 
breasts, and our hearty affection is towards you all : as are 
the hearts of hundreds more which never saw your faces ; 
who doubtless pray your safety as their own."^ 

When these passengers see our poor and low condition 
ashore, they are much dismayed and full of sadness : only 
our old friends rejoice to see us, and that it is no worse ; and 
now hope we shall enjoy better days together. 

The best dish we could present them with, is a lobster or 
piece of fish ; without bread, or anything else but a cup of 
fair spring water: and the long continuance of this diet, with 
our labours abroad, nas somewhat abated the freshness of 
our complexion ; but GOD gives us health &c.^ 

August 14. The fourth marriage is of Governor Bradford 
[see p. 403] to Mistress Alice Southworth, widow.t* 

September io.<= The pinnace,^ being fitted for trade and 
discovery to the southward of Cape Cod, is now ready to sail.^ 
And, this day, the ^«», having been hired by the Company, sails 
for London t"; being laden with clapboard, and all the beaver 
and other furs we have. With whom, we send Master Wins- 
low : to inform how things are, and procure what we want.*^ 
IS" Here ends Master WiNSLOW's Narrative, and therewith also, 

PURCHAS's Account of New England; and from this time 
forward, I shall chiefly confine myself to manuscripts. 

Now our harvest comes. Instead of famine we have 
plenty : and the face of things is changed, to the joy of our 
hearts. Nor has there been any general want of food among 
us since, to this day.^'f 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Governor Bradford's Register. 
•= WiNSLOW's Relation. 

^ Smith says, under Captain Altom : but either Smith or the printer 
mistook the name, for Alden. ^ Morton's Memorial. 

^ Governor Bradford's History reaches to the end of 1646. 

458 1623. The Nkw England Chronology. [^'''- "^^ '^'l"ll[ 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, LOUIS XIIL; Spain, PHILIP IV. 

Middle of September. Captain Robert Gorges, son of Sir 
Ferdinando, with Master [W.] Morell,^ an Episcopal 
minister,^ and sundry passengers and families arrive in the 
Massachusetts Bay, to begin a Plantation there.'^ Pitches 
on the same place, Master Weston's people had forsaken 
[pp. 442, 451] ; has a Commission from the Council for New 
England ^ to be their Lieutenant General ^ or General Gover- 
nor of the country; and they appoint for his Council and 
Assistance [i.e., the Assistants], Captain West, the aforesaid 
Admiral; Christopher Levit, Esquire; and the Governor 
of Plymouth, for the time being. Giving him authority to 
choose others as he should think fit : with full power to him 
and his Assistants ; or any three of them, whereof himself to 
be one ; to do what they should think good in all cases, 
capital, criminal, civil, &c. 

He gave us notice of his arrival, by letter ; and before we 
could visit him, sails for the Eastward with the ship he came 
in : but a storm rising, they bare into our harbour ; are 
kindly entertained, and stay fourteen days. 

Meanwhile Master Weston having recovered his ship, [the 
Swan] and coming in here : Captain Gorges calls him to 
account, for some abuses laid to his charge. With great 
difficulty. Governor Bradford makes peace between them. 

Shortly after. Governor Gorges goes to the Massachusetts 
by land, being thankful for his kind entertainment. His 
ship staying here, fits for Virginia : having some passengers 
to deliver there.^ 

The pinnace [the jfames] being sent about the Cape, to 
trade with the Narragansetts, gets some corn and beaver: 
yet " makes " but a poor voyage ; the Dutch having used 
[been accustomed] to furnish them with cloth and better 
commodities ; whereas she had only beads and knives, 
which are not there much esteemed.^- 

^ Governor Bradford's History. '' Manuscript letter. 

" Sir F. Gorges says, His son arrived at the Massachusetts Bay, about 
the beginning oi August ; and Mr. Hubbard says, in the end oi August; 
but these seem unlikely : inasmuch as Master Winslow (sailing from 
Plymouth on September 10, for London ; and there printing an account of 
New England to the very day of his sailing) has not the least hint of 
Cai-tain Gorges's arrival, ^ Sir F. Gorges. 

Rev. T. P'-j^ce.-j jjjg N Ew England Chronology. 1623. 459 

Kings. Great Britain, James I.; France, LouiS XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

November 5.^ Some of the seamen roystering in a house ; 
and making a great fire in very cold weather, it breaks out 
of the chimney into the thatch ; consumes the house with 
three or four more, and all the goods and provisions in them,^-'^ 
to the value of ;^5oo.^ The dwelling where it begun being 
right against the House which contained our Common Store 
and Provisions; that was likely to be consumed, which 
would have overthrown our Plantation. But through GOD's 
mercy, by the great care and diligence of the Governor and 
others about him, it is saved. Some would have had the 
goods thrown out : which if they had ; much would have 
been stolen by the rude people of the two ships, who were 
almost all ashore. But a trusty company was placed within 
[p. 439] ; as well as others who, with wet cloths and other 
means, kept off the fire without. 

For we suspected malicious dealing, if not plain treachery. 
For when the tumult was greatest, was heard a voice, though 
from whom is unknown, *' Look well about you ! for all are 
not friends that are near you ! " And when the vehemence 
of the fire was over, smoke was seen to rise within a shed 
adjoining to the Store House, which was wattled up with 
boughs, in the withered leaves whereof a fire was kindled : 
which some running to quench, found a firebrand, of an ell 
long, lying under the wall on the inside : which must have 
been laid there by some hand, in the judgernent of all who 
saw it. But GOD kept us in the danger : whatever was 

Captain Gorges' ship sailing for Virginia; sundry of those 
whom the Company had sent over, returned in her. Some 
because of the fire, which had burnt both their houses and 
provisions^; one of whom was Master HATHERLvt": and 
others, out of discontent and dislike of the country.*' 

■ Morton's Memorial. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

*= Smith says, there were seven houses burnt : but perhaps, by mistake, 
he may account therewith the two burnt in 1621 : and Mr. Hubbard 
seems to mistake, in writing as if the Common House was burnt ; whereas 
the fire was only right over against it, and great endangered it. 

^ Smith. 

460 1624. The New England Chronology. [^ 

ev. T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Britain, James L; France, LOUIS XIIL; Spain, PHILIP IV. 


Towards fn^p^^FxER Captain Gorges and Master Weston 
the spring. 4la^ had been to the Eastward; Master Whs- 
1^^^ TON comes again to Plymouth, then sails 
^^"^ "I fQj. Virginia.^ And Captain Gorges, not 
finding the state of things to answer his QuaHty ; with some 
who depended on him, returns to England. Some of his 
people go to Virginia : and some few remain, who are helptd 
with supplies from hence. But Master Morrell stays about 
a year after the Governor; and then takes shipping here, and 
returns. At his going away, he told some of our people, he 
had " a power of Superintendency over the Churches here " : 
but he never showed it. 

Thus this Second Plantation is broken 
up in a year ^ 

This spring, there go about fifty English ships to fish on 
coasts of New England.^ 

[This spring.] Within a year after Master David Tompson 
had begun a Plantation at Pascataqua ; he removes to the 
Massachusetts Bay ; and possesses a fruitful island, and a 
very desirable neck of land ; which are after confirmed to 
him by the General Court of the Massachusetts Colony.*^ 

About this year [and I conclude, this spring], the fame of 
the Plantation at New Plymouth being spread in all the 
Western parts of England ; the Reverend Master White, '^ a 
famous Puritan Minister,^ of Dorchester, excites several 
gentlemen there, to make way for another settlement in New 
England: who now, on a Common Stock, send over sundry 
persons to begin a Plantation at Cape Ann : employ Master 
John Tilly, their Overseer of Planting ; and Master Thomas 
Gardener, of the Fishery ; for the present year.^ 

This year [and I suppose, this spring]. Master Henry 
Jacob, who had set up an Independent Church in England, in 

^ He afterwards dies of the sickness at Bristol in England, in the time 
of the Civil War. (Bradford.) 
^ Governor Bradford's History. ■= Smith. 

^ Rev, W. Hubbard's History. « Echard's History of England. 

Rev. T. Prince.-I 'Txr-^ NeW EnGLAND ChRONOLOGY. I 624. 46 1 

1 736- J ^ 

Jrl^s. Great Britain, J AMES I.; France, Louis XIII.; Spain, Philip IV. 

i6i6- with the consent of his Church, goes to Virginia: 
where, soon after, he dies. But, upon his departure, his 
Cono-regation chose Master Lathrop, their Pastor.^ [I con- 
clude he is the same Master John Lathrop, who, about ten 
years after, comes to Scituate in Plymouth Colony.] _ _ 

The time of our electing Officers for this year, arriving; 
the Governor desires the People, both to change the persons, 
and add more Assistants to the Governor for counsel and 
help. Showing the necessity of it, that if it were a benefit or 
honour, it is fit others should be partakers ; or if a burden, it 
is but equal, others should help to bare it : and that this is 
the end of yearly elections.b.d Yet they choose the same 
Governor, viz., Master Bradford^ : but whereas there was 
but one Assistant, they now chose five; and give the Governor 

a double voice. ^■'^ ■ . . .1 t- ^ 4 

Be'^inningof iVarc/j. We send our pinnace to the bastward 
a fishing : but arriving safe in a harbour, near Damarm's 
Cove, where ships used to ride, some ships being there 
already arrived from England : soon after, an extraordinary 
storm drove her against the rocks, broke and sunk there. 
The Master and one man drowned, the others saved : but all 
her provisions, salt, and lading lost. Shortly after,d ^,.^^^ in 

March}' Master Winslow,^ our Agent,^ comes over, in the 
ship ChaYiiy; and brings a pretty good supply of clothing, 
&c. The ship comes a fishing : a thing fatal to this Planta- 
tion. He also brings a bull and three heifers : the first cattle 
of this kind in the land. But therewith, a sad account ol a 
strong faction among the [Company of] Adventurers against 
us; and especially against the coming of Master Robinson 
and the rest from Ley den. 

By Master Winslow, we have several letters. 

1 From Master Robinson, to the Governor; Leyden, 
Decemher 19 [I suppose New Style; but in ours, Deccniher 9], 
1623 ; wherein he writes with great concern and tenderness 
about our killing the savage conspirators at the Massa- 
chusetts : says " O how happy a thing had it been, that you 
had converted some ! before you ha d killed any ! "^ &c. 

« Neal's History of the Puritans. ^ Morton's Memorial 

- Rev. W. Hubbard's History. " Governor BRADFORD s History. 
"' It is to be hoped that Squanto was converted. 

462 1624. The New England Chronology. [^ 

ev T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Bri/aitt,] AMES L; France, Louis XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

2. From the same, to Master Brewster, dated Leyden, 
December 20 [I suppose New Style, but in ours December 10', 
1623 : wherein he writes of the deferring of their desired 
transportation, through the opposition of some of the 
Adventurers : five or six being absolutely bent for them, 
above all others ; five or six are their professed adversaries ; 
the rest more indifferent, yet influenced by the latter, who, 
above all others, are unwillingthat//^ should be transported, &c. 

3. From R. C. [I conclude, Master Cushman], at London, 
dated January 24, 1623-4, wherein he says, " They send a 
Carpenter to build two Ketches, a Lighter, and six or seven 
Shallops ; a Salt Man, to make salt ; and a Preacher, ' though 
not the most eminent ; for whose going,' says he, ' Master 
WiNSLOW and I gave way : to give content to some at 
London." The ship to be laden [with fish] as soon as you 
can, and sent to Bilboa. To send Master Winslow again. 
We have taken a Patent for Cape Ann," [see p. 286] &c. 

This spring. The People requesting the Governor to have 
some land for continuance, and not by yearly lot as before : 
he gives every person an acre to them and theirs, as near the 
town as can be ; and no more till the seven years expire [see 
pp. 452, 477, 635], that we may keep close together, for 
greater defence and safety.^ 

The ship is soon discharged, and sent to Cape Ann a fish- 
ing, and some of our Planters, to help to build her Stages, to 
their own hindrance. But, through the drunkenness of the 
Master which the Adventurers sent, " made " a poor voyage : 
and would have been worse, had we not kept one a trading 
there, who got some skins for the Company.^ 

The fishing Masters sending us word that, if we would be at 
the cost, they would help to weigh [raise] our pinnace near 
Damarin's Cove ; and their Carpenter should mend her. 
We therefore sent, and with several tun of caske fastened to 
her at low water; they buoy her up, haul her ashore, mend 
her; and our People bring her to us again.^ [See p. 468.] 

June 17. Born at Plymouth, to Governor Bradford, his 
son William ; who afterwards becomes Deputy Governor of 
the Colony.'' 

^ From the said Deputy Governor's original Table Book : written with 
a black lead pencil. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

Rev. T. Prince 

y%-^ The New England Chronology. 1624. 463 

A'ln^s. Great Britain, ]AUES L; France, LouiS XIIL; Spain, Philip IV. 

This month. Dies Master George Morton, a gracious 
servant of GOD, an unfeigned lover and promoter of the 
common good and growth of this Plantation ; and faithful in 
whatever public emplo3'ment he was entrusted with.^ 

The 5/!/>'s Carpenter sent us, is an honest and very 
industrious man, quickly builds us two very good and strong 
Shallops, with a great and strong Lighter : and had hewn 
timber for ketches, but this is spoilt. For, in the hot season 
of the year, he falls into a fever, and dies ; to our great loss 
and sorrow.^ 

But the Salt Man is an ignorant, foolish, and self-willed 
man, who choses a spot for his salt works ; will have eight or 
ten men to help him; is confident the ground is good ; makes 
the Carpenter rear a great frame of a house for the salt, and 
other like uses ; but finds himself deceived in the bottom. 
Will then have a lighter to carry clay, &c. Yet all in vain. 
He could do nothing but boil salt in pans. The next year, is 
sent to Cape Ann, and there, the pans are set up by the fishery : 
but, before the summer is out, he burns the house, and spoils 
the pans ; and there is an end of this chargeable business.^ 

The Minister is Master John Lyford, whom a faction of the 
Adventurers send, to hinder Master Robinson [coming over]. 
At his arrival, appears exceedingly complaisant and humble, 
sheds many tears, blesses GOD that had brought him to see 
our faces, &c. We give him the best entertainment we can. 
At his desire, receive him into our Church ; when he blesses 
GOD for this opportunity and freedom to enjoy His ordinances 
in purity among his people, &c. We make him a larger 
allowance than any other. And as the Governor used, in 
weighty matters, to consult with Elder Brewster, with the 
Assistants ; so now^ he calls Master Lyford to Council also. 

But Master Lyford soon joins with Master John Oldham, 
a private instrument of the factious part of the Adventurers in 
England ; whom we had also called to Council, in our chief af- 
fairs, without distrust. Yet they fall a plotting, both against our 
Church and Government, and endeavour to overthrow them.t* 

July.'^ At length, the ship'^ wherein Lyford came, setting 

» Morton's Memorial. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

« This date I compute, from the article of Aw^ust 22 following. 

464 1624. The New England Chronology. [^''"■'^■^T.ll: 

Kings. Great Bniain,]KU^s L; France, LOUIS XIII.; Spain, PHILIP IV. 

sail, towards evening; the Governor takes a shallop, goes 
out with her a league or two to sea ; calls for Lyford's and 
Oldham's letters ; opens them, and finds their treachery : 
Master William Pierce, now Master of the ship, who was 
aware of their actions, readily helping. The Governor, re- 
turning in the night, brings some of their letters back ; but 
keeps them private till 

Lyford and his few accomplices, which the factious part 
of the Adventurers sent, judging their party strong enough, 
rise up : oppose the Government and Church ; draw a Com- 
pany apart ; set up for themselves ; and he would minister 
the sacrament to them, by his episcopal calling.^ 

Upon this, the Governor calls a Court ; summons the 
whole Company to appear ; charges Lyford and Oldham 
with plotting and writing against us ; which they deny. 

The Governor then produces their letters ; they are con- 
founded and convicted. 

Oldham, being outrageous, would have raised a mutiny ; 
but his party leave him : and the Court expels him from the 
Colony. Oldham presently [at once] ; though his wife and 
family have leave to stay the winter, or till he can make pro- 
vision to remove them comfortably. He goes, and settles at 
Natasco,=^ i.e. Nantasket,^''^ [at the entrance of ths Massa- 
chusetts Bay], where the Plymouth People had before set up 
a building to accommodate their trade with the Massachusetts. 
And there Master Roger Conant, and some others, with 
their families, retire ; and stay a year and some few months.'^ 

Lyford has leave to stay six months ; owns his fault 
before the Court, that all he had written is false, and the 
sentence far less than he deserves : afterwards, confesses the 
same to the Church ; with many tears, begs forgiveness ; and 
is restored to his teaching.^ 

August. The ninth marriage at New Plymouth is of 
Master Thomas Prince, with Mistress Patience Brewster.^ 
[He is afterwards Governor; and by this only hint, I find he 
was now in the country.] 

August 22. Notwithstanding Lyford's protestations, and 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Morton's Memoj-iai. 

" Rev. W. Hubbard's History. ^ Governor Bradford's Register. 

Rev. T. Frlnce 

] The New England Chronology. 1624-25.465 

Kittgs. Greai Bri/ai/i,]AUES L; France, Lov is XI IL; Spam, PmhlP IV. 

the kindness shown him ; he, in a month or two, relapses : 
and, this day, writes by the pinnace, another letter to the 
Adventurers against us; but the party entrusted [with it] 
gives it to the Governor.^ [This Pinnace seems to sail for 
London, and Master Winslow in her.] 

This year comes some addition to the few inhabitants of 
Wessagusset, from Weymouth in England ; who are another 
sort of people than the former ^^ [pp. 442, 458] : [and on whose 
account, I conclude the town is since called Weymouth],'^ 

At New Plymouth, there are now [^^'.285] about 180 persons; 
some cattle and goats ; but many swine and poultry : 32 
dwelling houses ; the town is impaled about half a mile in 
compass. On a high mount in the town, they have a fort 
well built with wood, lime, and stone ; and a fair watch 
tower. The place it seems is healthful ; for in the last three 
years, notwithstanding their great want of most necessaries; 
there hath not died one of the First Planters.^ 

And this year, they have freighted a ship of 180 tons, &cA 

The General Stock already employed by the Adventurers 
to Plymouth is about £y,ooo.^ 

At Cape Ann, there is a Plantation beginning by the Dor- 
chester men ; which they hold of those of New Plymouth : 
who also, by them, have set up a Fishing Work.*^ 

!S^ And here Smith ends his Account of New England. 


• IK^^^^IAsTER [John] White, with the Dorchester 

wmter. ^|^^ ^ Adventurers, hearing of some religious 
people lately removed from New Plymouth 
to Nantasket, from dislike of their rigid 
principles,'^ among whom was IMaster Roger Conant, a 
pious, sober, and prudent gentleman ; they chose Master 
Conant to manage their affairs at Cape Ann, both of Plant- 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Manuscript letter. 

" They have the Reverend IMaster Barnard, their first (Noncon- 
formist) Minister ; who dies among them. But whether he comes before 
or after 1630 ; or when he dies, is yet unknown [Manuscript Letter) ; nor 
do I anywhere find the least hint of him, but in the Manuscript Letter 
taken from some of the oldest people at Weymouth. ^ SMrrn. 

= See Note'' at/. 467. 

£.\G. Gar. II. 20 

466 1625. The Nkw England CiiRoxoLOGv. [ '^""- "^^ ^'j";^: 

Kins^s. Great Britain, Charles I.; France^ Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

ing and Fishing; and Master White engages Master Hum- 
phry, their Treasurer, to signify to him the same, by writing. 
They also invite Master Lyford to be Minister to the 
Plantation, and Master Oldham to manage their trade with 
the natives.'* 

March 27, LORD'S Day. King James I. of Great Britain, 
dies, [cet. 59 ; having reigned over England twenty-two years ; 
and over Scotland above fifty-seven] : and his only son, 
Charles I., cet. 25, succeeds'^; in whose reign the Reforma- 
tion degenerates, and the Prelates load us with more Popish 
innovations ; and bind the burdens more straitly on us.'^ 

This year,^ comes over Captain Wollaston, with three or 
four more of some eminence,^ and a great many servants, 
provisions, &c., to begin a Plantation. They pitch on a 
place in the Massachusetts Bay,^ since named Braintree,'' on 
the northerly mountainous part thereof,^ which they call 
Mount Wollaston. Among whom, is one^ Thomas'^ Morton: 
who had been a kind of pettifogger at Furnival's Inn.^^'S 

This Spring, at our Election Court, Oldham, though forbid- 
den to return without leave, yet openly comes; and in so furious 
a manner reviles us, that even his company are ashamed of 
his outrage. Upon which, we appoint him to pass through 
a guard of soldiers, and every one with a musket to give 
him a blow on his hinder part. He is then conveyed to 
the water-side ; where a boat is ready to carry him away.*^ 

While this is doing, Master Winslow and Master Willl^m 
Pierce land from England ; and bid them " spare neither 
him nor Lyford ; for they had played the villains with us." 

And their friends in England had the like bickerings with 
ours there, about Lyford's calumnious letters, &c. After 
many meetings, and much clamour against our Agents for 
accusing himi : the controversy was referred to a further 
meeting of most of the Adventurers to hear and decide the 
matter. Master Lyford's party chose Master White, a 

= Rev. W. Hubbard's History, s See pp. 473, 477, 483, 496, 548,651. 

^ HowES's Continuation of Stow's Annals. ^ MORTON's Memorial. 

<= Master Benjamin W\]iY,v,K^Vi's.SermoSecularis. 

^ Deputy Governor Dudley says, " There came thirty with Captain 
Wollaston," in his Letter to tJie Countess of Lincoln, of March 28, 163 1 ; 
printed, in octavo, at Boston, 1696. ' Governor Bradford's History. 

Rev. T. Prince 

;"36:] The New England Chronology. 1625. 467 

Kings. Great Britaiji, Charles L; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

Counsellor at Law: the other chose the Reverend Master 
Hooker [as] Moderators : and many friends on both sides 
coming in ; there was a great Assembly. 

In which, Master Winslow made so surprising a discovery 
of Lyford's carriage, when a Minister in Ireland, for which 
he had been forced to leave that kingdom ; and, coming to 
England, was unhappily lighted on, and sent to New 
Plymouth: as struck all his friends mute, and made them 
ashamed to defend him. And the Moderators declared that 
as his carriage with us gave us cause enough, to do as we 
did ; so this new discovery renders him unmeet to bear the 
Ministry any morc^-t" 

Hence therefore, Lyford with some of his friends, go after 
Oldham to Natasco ^ : where receiving the invitation of the 
Dorchester gentlemen, Master Lyford removes, with Master 
CONANT, to Cape Ann ; but Master Oldham chooses to stay 
at Nantasket, and trade for himself.'^ 

But, upon this decision, the " Company of Adventurers to 
Plymouth " breaks in pieces : two-thirds of them deserting 
us. Yea, some of Lyford's and Oldham's friends set out a 
ship a fishing,^ under one Master Hewes<=; and getting the 
start of ours, they take our Stage and our provision made 
for fishing at Cape Ann, the year b'efore, to our great charge: 
and refuse to restore it, without fighting. 

Upon which, we let them keep it : and our Governor sends 
some [of our] Planters to help the Fishermen [0/ ouy Planta- 
tion to] build another.^'"^ 

^ Governor Bradford's History. = Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

^ By this, it seems as if the Rev. Master White and the Dorchester 
gentlemen had been imposed upon, with respect to Lyford and Oldham ; 
and had sent invitations to them before this discovery. And as by many 
passages in Master Hubbard, it appears he had never seen Governor 
Bradford's History ; for want thereof he is sometimes in the dark 
about the affairs of Plymouth : and especially those which relate to 
Lyford and Oldham, as also to Master Robinson. 

^ Master Hubbard tells us, that Captain Standish, who had been bred 
a soldier in the Netherlands, arriving at Cape Ann, demands the Stage, 
in a peremptory manner : and the others refusing, the dispute grows hot. 
The Captain seems resolved to attack them, and recover his right by 
force of arms : but the prudence of Master Conant, and the interposition 
of Master William Pierce, whose ship lay just by, prevents it. The 
ship's crew promising to help to build another, ends the controversy. 

468 1625. The New England Chronology. ['^•^^'T-''^;^^^; 

Kings. Great Briiaui, Charles I.; France, Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

Yet, some of the Adventurers still cleaving to us; they, hy 
Master Winslow, write on December 18, 1624, as follows, 
" We cannot forget you, nor our friendship and fellowship 
we have had some years. . . . Our hearty affections towards 
you (unknown by face) have been no less than to our nearest 
friends ; yea, to our own selves. ... As there has been a 
faction among us \at London] more than two years ; so now 
there is an utter breach and sequestration. . . . The Com- 
pany's debts are not less than ;;^i,40o; and we hope you will 
do your best to free them. . . . We are still persuaded you 
are the People that must make a Plantation in those remote 
places, when all others fail. . . . We have sent some cattle, 
clothes, hoes, shoes, leather, &c., but in another nature than 
formerly ; having committed them to the charge of Masters 
Allerton and Winslow, to sell as our factors &c." The 
goods are ordered to be sold at seventy per centum advance 
— a thing thought unreasonable, and a great oppression. 
The cattle are the best commodity.'^ 

They send also two ships a fishing, upon their own account. 
The one is [the James, pp. 456, 458] the Pinnace which had been 
sunk [p. 461] and weighed [p. 462] as before : the other, a large 
ship, which "makes" a great voyage of good dry fish, that 
would fetch ;^i,8oo at Bilboa or San Sebastian ; whither her 
owners had ordered her. 

But there being a rumour of a war with France, the 
Master, timorous, sails to Plymouth and Portsmouth ; 
whereby he loses the opportunity, to their great detri- 

The lesser ship is filled with goodly cod fish, taken on 
the Bank Fof Newfoundland] ; with eight hundredweight 
of beaver, besides other furs, from the Plantation. 

They go joyfully together homeward : the bigger ship 
towing the lesser all the way, till they are shot deep into 
the English Channel, almost within sight of Plymouth : 
when a Turks' Man of War takes the lesser, and carries 
her off to Sallee ; where the Master and men are made 
slaves, and many of the beaver skins sold for four pence 
a piece. =^ 

* Governor Bradford's History. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-j Jj^j, jNsJg^y ENGLAND ChRONOLOGY. I 625. 469 

A'//!^^s. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

In the bigger ship, Captain Standish goes, our Agent,^ 
both to the remaining Adventurers for more goods, and to 
the New England Council to oblige the others to come to a 
Composition: but arrived there in abad time; the State being 
full of trouble, and the plague very^hot in London. There 
die such multitudes weekly, that trade is dead, little money 
stirring, and no business can be done. However he engages 
several of the Council to promise their helpfulness to our 
Plantation : but our remaining Adventurers are so much 
weakened by their loss of the fish, and of the ship the Turks 
had taken, they can do but little. 

Meanwhile GOD gives us peace and health, with contented 
minds : and so succeeds our labours, that we have corn 
sufficient, and some to spare, with other provisions. Nor 
had we ever any Supply [from England] ; but what we first 
brought with us. 

After harvest, we send a boat load of corn forty or fifty 
leagues to the Eastward, up the Kennebeck river : it being 
one of those two shallops, our Carpenter built the year 
before ; for we have no larger vessel. We had laid a deck 
over her, midships, to keep the corn dry: but the men were 
forced to stand, in all weathers, without any shelter; and 
the time of year begins to grow tempestuous. But GOD 
preserves and prospers them: for they bring home seven 
hundredweight of beaver, besides other furs ; having little or 
nothing but our corn to purchase it. The voyage was made 
by Master Win slow and some old standards ; for seamen 
we have none.^ 

Sometime this fall,^ Master Lyford's people at Nantasket 
remove to Cape Ann, a place more convenient for the fishery; 
and there stay about a year. But Master Conant finding a 

^ It seems most likely that Captain Standish first went in the smaller 
ship, with the furs ; which, at first, was the only ship bound for England : 
but after the Master of the greater ship determined for England too ; that 
the Captain got into her, and so escaped the slavery. 

'° Governor Bradford's History. 

" I gather this from Mr. Hubbard, who says, that Masters Conant 
and Lyford, with their families, and those few who followed them, 
tarried at Nantasket a year and some few months ; till the door was 
opened for their removal to Cape Ann. 

Kini^s. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

more commodious place for Plantation, a little to Westward, 
on the other side of a creek called Naunikeak; secretly 
conceives in his mind that, in after times, as is since fallen 
out, it may prove a receptacle for such in England as on the 
account of religion would be willing to settle in these parts 
of the world ; and gives'an intimation of it to his friends in 

December 23. From December 22, 1624, to this day, there die 
of the plague in London and Westminster, 41,313.'^ [Seep. 


PoN a year's experience, the Dorchester Adventurers 
being disappointed of their expectations ; throw up 
their business. But the Rev. Mr. White, a Chief 
Founder, under GOD, of the Massachusetts Colony, 
being grieved that so good a work should fall to the ground, 
writes to Master Conant not to desert the business : and 
promises to Master Conant, that if three others, whom he 
knew to be honest and prudent men, viz., John Wood- 
berry, John Balch, and Peter Palfreys, would stay at 
Naumkeak ; he would procure them a Patent, and send them 
men, provisions, and whatever they write for to trade with 
the natives.^ 

This spring. A French ship is cast away at Sagadehock ; 
wherein are many Biscay rugs and other commodities, which 
fall into the hands of the people at Monhiggen, and other 
fishermen at Damarin's Cove.'^ [Seep. 473.] 

About a year after we had sent Oldham away [p. 466] , as he 
is sailing for Virginia, being in extreme danger, he makes a 
free and large confession of the wrongs he had done the Church 
and People at Plymouth ; and, as he had sought their ruin, 
the LORD might now destroy him: beseeching GOD to 
forgive him, making vows that if he be spared, to carry 

And being spared, he after carries fairly to us ; owns the 
hand of GOD to be with us ; seems to have an honourable 

^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. "^ Howes. 

" Governor Bradford's History. 

Kev. T. Prince. -j J j^jg New England Chronology. 1 626. 47 1 

Kifigs. Great Britain, Charles I.; Frqnce, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

respect for us : and we give him liberty to come, and converse 
with us, when he pleases. =^ 

Beginning of /I j!);'//. We hear of Captain Standish's ar- 
riving in a fishing ship ; send a boat to fetch him, and right 
welcome he is. Had taken up for us £t~S^, though at 50 per 
centum ; which his expenses deducted, he laid out in suitable 
goods : and has prepared the way for our Composition with 
the Company. 

But the news he brings is sad in many regards. Not only 
of the losses mentioned [p. 468] ; whereby some of our friends 
are disabled to help us, and others dead of the plague : but also 
that our dear Pastor, Master Robinson is dead,^ about the 
50th year of his age ^ ; which strikes us with a Great Sorrow. 
His and our enemies had been continually plotting how they 
might hinder hiscoming thither; but the LORD had appointed 
him a better place. ^ 

Master Roger White, in a letter from Leyden, oi April 28 
[ i.e., April 18, our Style], 1625, to the Governor, and Master 
Brewster, has the following words. " It has pleased the 
LORD to take out of this vale of tears, your and our loving 
faithful Pastor, Master Robinson. ... He fell sick 
Saturday morning, February 22 [i.e., February 12, our Style], 
1624 5. Next day, taught us twice. ... On the week, 
grew weaker every day, feeling little or no pain. . . . 
Sensible to the last. . . . Departed this life, the ist of 
March [i.e., Saturday, February 19, our Style], 1624-5. • • • 
Had a continual inward ague. ... All his friends came 
freely to him. . . . And if prayers, tears, or means would 
have saved his life ; he had not gone hence. . . . We still 
hold close together in peace . . . wishing that you and we 
were again together," &c.^ 

Our other friends at Leyden also write us many letters, full 
of lamentations for their heavy loss : and though their wills 
are good to come, yet see not how.^''^ 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Rev. \V. Hubbard's History. 

^ Contrary to Mr. Baylie's suggestion, Governor BRADFORD and 
Governor WiNSLOW tell us, that Master Robinson and his People at7uays 
lived in great love and harmony among themselves, and also with the 
Dutch with whom they sojourned. 

And when I was at Leyden in 17 14, the most ancient people, from their 

472 1626. The New England Chronology, ['^''''■^■''^"ao: 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles L; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

Our Captain also brings us notice of the death of our 
ancient friend, Master Cushman : who was our right hand 
with the Adventurers ; and, for divers years, managed all our 
business with them, to our great advantage. 

He had written to the Governor, a few months before, of 
the sore sickness of Master James Sherley \pp. 479, 502' ; 
who was a chief friend of the Plantation, and lay at the point 
of death ; declaring his love and helpfulness in all things, and 
bemoaning our loss, if GOD should take him away ; as being 
the Stay and Life of the business : as also of his own purpose 
to come, this year, and spend the rest of his days with us.^ 

These things could not but cast us into great perplexity. 
Yet, being stript of all human help and hopes, when we arc 
now at the lowest, the LORD so helps us, as we are not only 
upheld, but begin to rise; and our proceedings both honoured, 
and imitated lay others.^- 

Having now no business but Trading and Planting, wc 
set ourselves to follow them. The People finding corn a 
commodity, having sold it at 6s. the bushel; they use great 
diligence in planting : and the trade being retained for the 
General Good, the Governor and other Managers apply it to 
the best advantage. 

For wanting proper goods, and understanding the Planta- 
tion at Monhiggon, belonging to some merchants of Plymouth 
[in England], is to break up, and divers goods to be sold ; the 
Governor, with Master Winslow, take a boat, and with some 
hands, go thither. 

Master David Thompson, who lies at Piscatoway, going 
with us, on the same design ; we agree to buy all their goods, 
and to divide them equally. 

Our moiety comes to ;^40o. We also buy a parcel of goats, 

parents, told me, that the City had such a value for t/ie/n, as to let them 
have one of their churches, in the chancel whereof he lies buried ; which 
the English still enjoy : and that as /le was had in highest esteem both by 
the City and University for his learning, piety, moderation, and excellent 
accomplishments, the Magistrates, Ministers, Scholars, and most of the 
gentry mourned his death, as a public loss, and followed him to the grave. 

His son, Isaac, came over to Plymouth Colony, lived to above ninety 
years of age ; a venerable man, whom 1 have often seen ; and has left 
male posterity in the county of Barnstable. 

' Governor Bradford's History. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.j -pjjj, N Ew England Chronology. 1626. 473 

Khigs. Gn-at Britain, Charles I.; Ff:ance,'Lo\}is 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

which we distribute to our People for corn, to their great 
content. We likewise buy the French goods aforesaid [p. 470^ ; 
which makes our part arise to above ;^5oo : and which we 
mostly pay with the beaver and commodities we got last 
winter ; and what we had gathered this summer. 

After harvest, with our goods and corn, we get such store 
of trade, as to discharge some other engagements, viz., the 
money taken up by Captain Standish, with the remains of 
former debts, to get some clothing for the People, and to have 
some commodities beforehand.''^ 

This year [and I suppose, in the fall] we send Master 
Allerton to England, to finish with the Adventurers, take 
up more money, and buy us goods.-^ 

Sometime this fall, Master Conant, with the People who 
came to Cape Ann, remove a Third time [pp. 464, 467], viz., 
to Naumkeak aforesaid; on a pleasant and fruitful neck of 
land, embraced on each side with an arm of the sea; since 
named Salem : answers Master White, that they will stay on 
his terms'^; [p. 470] and Master Lyford moves with them.''^'*^ 

Captain W^ollaston having continued at Mount Wollas- 
ton some time, and finding things not answer his expectation ; 
he carries a great part of his servants to Virginia ; writes 
back to Master Rasdall, one of his Chief Partners to carry 
another part [there] : and appoints Master Fitcher his 
Lieutenant, till he or Rasdall returns. 

But Rasdall being gone, Morton excites the rest to turn 
away Fitcher, and set up for themselves : forcing Fitcher 
to seek his bread among his neighbours, till he can get a pass 
[passage] to England. 

After this, they fall to great licentiousness and profane- 

Finding we run great hazards in going such long voyages 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

'^ Master Conant lives about Salem, to 1680; when he deceases. 

'^ It is, by guess, I here insert this article, because Mr. Hubbard says, 
The Captain spent much labour, cost, and time in Planting at Mount 
Wollaston. It seems most likely that he tried the crop of this summer : 
and the autumn is the usual time for the North East fishing ships to go 
to \'irginia. 

474 1626. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T. I'rince. 

Kin^s. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

in a little open boat, especially in the winter season : we con- 
sider how to get a small Pinnace. And having no Ship- 
builder, but an ingenious House-Wright, who wrought with 
our Ship's Carpenter deceased; at our request, he tries his 
skill ; saws the bigger Shallop across the middle, lengthens 
her five or six feet, strengthens her with timbers, builds her 
up, decks and makes her a convenient vessel. 

The next year, we fit her with sails and anchors ; and she 
does us service seven years.^ 

In the beginning of winter, a ship, with many passengers, 
bound to Virginia, the Mas'ter sick, lose themselves at sea ; 
nave neither beer, wood, nor water left; in fear of starving, 
steer towards the coast to find some land; run over the 
dangerous shoals of Cape Cod in the night, they know not 
how ; come right before a small obscure harbour in 
Monamoyack Bay ; at high water, touch the bar ; towards 
night, beat over it into the harbour; and run on a flat within, 
close to the beach, where they save their lives and goods. 

Not knowing where they are, as the savages come towards 
them in canoes, they stand on their guard : but some of the 
Indians ask, " If they are the Governor of Plymouth's men ? " 
and offering to bring them or their letters ; they are greatly 
revived. Send a letter with two men to the Governor : 
entreating him to send them pitch, oakum, spikes, &c. to 
mend their ship ; with corn to help them to Virginia. Those 
being abroad a trading, who were fit to send ; the Governor 
goes himself in a boat, with the materials written for, and 
commodities proper to buy corn of the natives. And it being 
no season of the year to go without the Cape, he sails to the 
bottom of the Bay within, into a creek called Naumskaket, 
whence it is not much above two miles across to the bay 
where they are : has Indians to carry the things ; is received 
with joy ; buys of the natives as much corn as they want ; 
leaves them thankful ; returns to the boat, goes into other 
adjacent harbours, buys and loads with corn, and comes 

^ Governor Bradford's History. 

^ Though Governor Bradford, and from him Mr. Morton, place the 
whole story under 1627 : yet Governor BRADFORD says, "This part of 
it happened in the beginning of winter, 1626." 

Rev. T. Prince.^ jj^g N EW England Chr onology. 1627. 47 5 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip 1\^ 


Ot many days after the Governor came home, the 
People at Monamoyack send him word that their 
ship being mended, a great storm drove her ashore, 
and so shattered her as to make her wholly unfit 
for sea ; beg leave, and means to transport themselves and 
goods to us, and be with us, till they find passage to 
Virginia. We readily help to transport, and shelter them and 
their goods in our houses. The chief among them are 
Masters Fells and Silsby, who have many servants. Upon 
their coming to Plymouth, and being somewhat settled ; 
seeing the winter before them, and likely to be the latter end 
cf the year before they can get to Virginia ; the Masters 
therefore desire some ground to employ their servants to clear 
and plant, and so help bear their charge : which being 
granted, they raise a great deal of corn.^ 

[About mid-March.'] We receive messengers from the 
Dutch Plantation, with letters written in Dutch and French, 
dated from the Manhatas in the Fort Amsterdam, March g, 
1627 [i.e., New Style; which is February 27, 1626-7], signed 
Isaac de Raster, Secretary .t" 

They had traded in those southern parts divers years before 
we came ; but began no Plantation there, till four or five 
years after our coming. In their letter, they congratulate 
us, and our prosperous and praiseworthy Undertakings and 
Government of our Colony, with the presentation of their 
good will and service to us, in all friendly kindness and good 
neighbourhood ; offer us " any of their goods that may be 
serviceable to us;" declare "they shall take themselves 
bound to accommodate and help us with them, for any ware 
we are pleased to deal for."^- 

March ig. We send the Dutch, our obliging answer; 
express our thankful sense of the kindnesses we received in 

= Governor Bradford's History. 

^ Mr. Morton Sciying, that De Rasier, not long after, comes to 
Plymouth ; thence Mr. Hubbard mistakes, in thinking he comes this 
year : whereas it is plain from Governor BRADFORD, that he comes not 
hither till the year succeeding. [See p. 4S0.] 

476 1627. The New England Chronology. l^''''-'^'-^'l"y^: 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles L; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philii' W. 

their native country : and our grateful acceptance of their 
offered friendship.^ 

This spring. At the usual season of the ships' coming, 
Master Allerton returns; having taken up for us 3^300 at 
30 per centum, laid them out in suitable goods, and brings 
them ; to the great content of the Plantation. 

With no small trouble ; and the help of sundry faithful 
friends, who took much pains : he made a Composition with 
the Adventurers, on October 26 last, which they signed 
November 15 ; a draught of which he brings for our accept- 

Wherein we allow them ^^1,800. Paying ;£'200 at the 
Royal Exchange, every Michaelmas. The first payment 
to be in 1628. In consideration of which, the Company 
sell us all their shares, stocks, merchandise, lands, 
and chattels. 

Which is well approved, and agreed to by the whole 
Plantation : though they scarcely know how to raise the 
payment, discharge their other engagements, and supply 
their yearly wants : seeing they are forced to take up monies 
or goods at such high interest. 

Yet they undertake it. And seven or eight of the chief 
become jointly bound, in behalf of the rest, to make the said 
payments. Wherein we run a great venture, as our condition 
is : having many other heavy burdens upon us, and all things 
in an uncertain state among us. 

Upon this, to make all easy ; we take every head of a 
family, with every young man of age and prudence, both of 
the First Comers and those who have since arrived, into 
partnership with us ; agree the trade shall be managed as 
before, to pay the debts ; that every single Freeman shall 
have a single Share ; and every Father of a family leave to 
purchase a share for himself, one for his wife, one for every 
child living with him ; and every one shall pay his part 
towards the debts, according to the shares he holds : which 
gives content to all. 

We accordingly divide one cow and two goats, by lot, to 
every Six shares ; and swine, though more in number, in the 

" Governor Bradford's History, 

Kev. T. Prince. -| XheNew England Ciiroxology. 1627.477 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, LouiS 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

same proportion : to every Share, twenty acres of Tillable 
land, by lot ; (beside the single acres,^ [pp. 452, 462, 635] 
with the gardens and homesteads^ they had before), the most 
abutting on the water side, five in breadth and four in depth : 
but no Meadows laid out, till many years after {p. 635] : be- 
cause being strait [siraitencd] of meadow, it might hinder 
additions to us: though, at every season, all are ordered where 
to mow, in proportion to their number of cattle.^ 

Morton and company at Mount Wollaston, having got 
some goods, and acquired much by trading with the natives: 
they spend the same in rioting and drunkenness, drinking 
;^io of wine and spirits in a morning ; set up a May Pole, 
get the Indian women to drink and dance round it, with 
worse practices as in the feast of Flora, or like the mad 
Bacchanalians: and change the name to Merry Mount; as if 
this jollity were to last for ever.^-^ 

[May and June.'-'^] For greater convenience of trade, to dis- 
charge our engagements, and maintain ourselves ; we build 
a small Pinnace at Monamet, a place on the sea [i.e., the 
Atlantic Ocean], twenty miles to the south: to which, by 
another creek on this side, we transport our goods by water, 
to within four or five miles ; and then carry them overland to 
the vessel. Thereby avoid our compassing Cape Cod, with 
those dangerous shoals ; and make our voyage to the south- 
ward, with far less time and hazard. For the safety of our 
vessel and goods ; we there also build a House, and keep some 
servants ; who plant corn, rear swine, and are always ready 
to go out with the bark : which takes good effect, and turns to 
our advantage.^ 

June 27, ^'^'g Wednesday. The Duke of BucKiNGHAM,^'f'S 
with 100 shipsj^'g sails from Portsmouth [in England] for the 
He de Rhe, on the coast of France: and begins the War 
with that kingdom.f'g 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Morton's Memorial. 

" By guess, I also place this here ; because of the "goods" they had 
gotten of the European ships, and the May Pole now erected ; which I 
suppose is the only one ever set up in New England. 

■^ I place this in May and Jufie, because in the article oijuly following 
this Pinnace is said "to be lately built at Monamet.'' 

* Howes. ^ Conti/iuaiion of Baker's Chronick, ^ Rushworth. 

478 1627. The New Engeand Chronology. [^'^''•'^■Pt/3^; 

Kings. Great Britain^ CHARLES I.; France^ LOUIS 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

July. But, besides the discharge of our heavy engagements, 
our great concern is to help over our friends at Leyden ; who 
so much desire to come to us, as we desire their company. 
The Governor therefore, with Master Edward Winslow, 
Thomas Prince, Miles Standish, William Brewster, 
John Alden, John Rowland, and Isaac Allerton now 
run a great Venture ; and hire the Trade of the Colony for 
Six years, to begin the last of next September [1627]. And 
for this, with the shallop call the " Bass Boat," and pinnace 
lately built at Monamet, with the stock in the Store House : 
we, this month, undertake to pay the ;^i,8oo, with all other 
debts of the Plantation, amounting to ;^6oo more ; bring over 
for them £^0 a year, in hoes and shoes ; sell them for corn at 
6s. a bushel : and, at the end of the term, return the Trade 
to the Colony. 

The latter end of the summer, the Virginia People at 
Plymouth sell us their corn, go thither in a couple of barks ; 
and, afterwards, several of them express their thankfulness 
to us.^ 

And [now it seems] Master Lyford sails, with some of his 
people, also to Virginia ^ ; and there shortly dies.^ 

With the return of the ships, we send Master Allerton 
again to England. 

1. To conclude our Bargain with the Company, and 
deliver our Nine bonds for the paying the £"200, at 
every Michaelmas, for nine years. 

2. To carry our beaver, and pay some of our late engage- 
ments ; for our excessive interest still keeps us low. 

3. To get a Patent for a fit trading place on the Kenne- 
beck river; especially since the Planters at Pascato- 
wa)' and other places eastward of them, as also the 
fishing ships, envy our trading there, and threaten to 
get a Patent to exclude us : though we first discover 
and began the same, and brought to so good an issue. 

4. To deal with some special friends in London, to join 
with the said eight Undertakers ; both for the dis- 
charge of the Company's debts, and the helping of 
our friends from Leyden.^ [pp. 492, 495, 501.] 

* Governor Bradford's Hisfory. ^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

Rev. T. rnnce.J'pHE NeW EnGLANdCiIRONOLOGY. I 627-28. 479 
Kings. Great Briiaui, CHARLES I.; France, LouiS 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

November 6. Master Allerton concludes our Bargain with 
the Company at London, dehvers our Bonds, and receives 
their Deed.-"^ 

December 27. Master Sherley, from London, writes to 
the Plymouth People, as follows : *' The sole cause why the 
greater part of the Adventurers malign me, was that I would 
not side with them against you, and the coming over of the 
Leyden People. . . . And assuredly, unless the LORD 
be merciful to us, and the whole land in general, our con- 
dition is far worse than yours : wherefore if the LORD 
should send persecution here, which is much to be feared, 
and should put into our minds to fly for refuge ; I know no 
place safer, than to come to you," &c.=^ 

" About this year, some friends, being together in Lincoln- 
shire, fall into discourse about New England, and the planting 
of the Gospel there ; and after some deliberation, we," says 
Deputy Governor Dudley, "impart our reasons, by letters 
and messages, to some in London, and the West Country; 
w^here it, at, length, so ripened as to procure a Patent" ^ [for 
the Massachusetts Colon}']. 

Aster Allerton, having settled all things in a hope- 
ful way, returns, in the first of the spring, with our 
supply for trade. The fishermen, with whom he 
comes, use to set forth in winter, and be here betimes. 

He has paid the first ;£"200 of our £1,800 to the Adven- 
turers ; as also all our debts to others, except Masters 
Sherley, Beachamp, and Andrews, to whom we now owe 
but ;£'400 odd ; informs, that our said three friends and some 
others, will join us in our Six Years' Bargain ; and will send 
to Leyden, for a number to come next year [see pp. 492, 501]; 
brings a competent supply of goods ; with a Patent for 
Kennebeck, but so strait, and ill bounded as we are forced to 
get it renewed and enlarged, next year, as also that we have 
at home ; to our great charge. 

He likewise brings us, one Master Rodgers, a j^oung 
man, for Minister.^ [See/). 496.] 

March 19. The Council for New England sell to Sir Henry 

^ Deputy Governor Dudley's aforesaid Leiier to the Countess 0/ 
LixcoLiY. ^ Governor Bradford's Ilisfory. 

480 1628. The New Ex\gland Chronology. ['^'^^•'^•^''^,'^^|; 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

RoswELL, Sir John Young, Knights ; Thomas Southcoat, 
John Humphry, John Endicot, and Simon Whetcomb, 
Gentlemen^; about Dorchester, in England,'' their heirs and 
associates, that part of New England between the Merrimack 
river and Charles river in the bottom of the Massachusetts 
Bay, and three miles to the south of every part of Charles 
river and of the southernmost part of said Bay, and three 
miles to the north of every part of said Merrimack river ; 
and in length with the breadth aforesaid, from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the South Sea [or Pacific Ocean], &c.^ 

After some time. Master White brings the [above] Dor- 
chester Grantees into acquaintance with several other 
religious persons in and about London, who are first Asso- 
ciated to them ; then buy their right in the Patent,^ and 
consult about settling some Plantation in the Massachusetts 
Bay on the account of Religion ; where Nonconformists may 
transport themselves, and enjoy the liberty of their own per- 
suasion in matters of Worship, and Church Discipline. 

Soon after, the Company chose Master ^^ Matthew^ Cra- 
DOCK, Governor; Master t» Thomas'^ Goff, Deputy Governor; 
with other Assistants. '^ 

The New Plymouth People having obtained their Patent 
for Kennebeck, now erect a House up the river, in a con- 
venient place for trade ; and furnish it, both winter and 
summer, with corn and other commodities, such as the 
fishermen had traded with, as coats, shirts, rugs, blankets, 
biscuits, pease, prunes, &c. What we could not get from 
England, we buy of the fishing ships ; and so carry on the 
business as well as we can.^ 

This year [and I conclude, this spring]. The Dutch send 
to us again from their Plantation, both kind letters, and 
divers commodities, as sugar, linen, stuffs, &c. ; come with 
their bark to our house at Manomet ; their Secretary, 
Rasier, comes with trumpeters, &c., but not being able to 

^ Manuscript Book of Charters in the hands of the Hon. Thomas 
Hutchinson, Esquire. ^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

■= By the Massachusetts Colony Charter and Records, it seems the three 
former, wholly sold their rights : the three latter retaining theirs in Equal 
Partnership with the said Associates. 

■^ Massachusetts Colony Records. * Governor Bradford's History. 

Rev. T. Pr;nce.-j Jpjg NeW EnGLAND CiIRONOLOGY. 1628. 48 I 
Kings. Great Britain, Charles I.; Fraticc, Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

travel to us by land, desires us to send a boat within side 
[the Cape] to fetch him. So we send a boat to Manonscusset; 
and bring him, with the chief of his company, to Plymouth. 

After a few days' entertainment, he returns to his bark ; 
some of us go with him, and buy sundry goods. 

After which beginning, they often send to the same place ; 
and we trade together, divers years : sell much tobacco for 
linens, stuffs, &c., which proves a great benefit to us ; till 
the Virginians find out their colony.^ 

But that which, in time, turns most to our advantage is 
their now acquainting and entering us in the trade of 
Wampam,^ telling us how vendible it is at their Fort Orania ; 
and persuading we shall find it so at Kennebeck. Upon this, 
we buy ^50 worth. 

At first it sticks ; and it is two years [i.e., till 1630] before 
we can put it off; till the inland Indians come to know it ; and 
then we can scarce procure enough, for many years together. 
By which, and other provisions, we quite cut off the trade both 
from the fishermen and straggling planters. And strange it 

^ Governor Bradford's History. 

^ " IVampiim, the common English name for the shell beads used for 
Ornament, and as Currency, among the northern Algonquin and Iroquois 
tribes of American Indians. They were made chiefly on Long Island, 
and around New York bay. There were two kinds : Wampum or Wam- 
pumpeag, which was white, and was made from the conch or periwinkle : 
and the Suckanhock, black, or rather purple, made from the hard-shell 
clam ; and worth twice as much as the white. 

" The shell was broken in pieces, rubbed smooth on a stone till about 
the thickness of a pipe-stem ; then cut, and pierced with a drill. It was 
strung or made into belts. 

"As money, its use passed to the New England, French, and Dutch 
settlers ; being known in French as porcelaine, and in Dutch as zeivaiit. 
In the Dutch Colony, four beads, and, at a later date, six passed for a 
stiver. In New England it varied also ; and was fixed in 1640 at six 
beads for a penny. The strings were called fathoms, and varied from 
\os. to 5 J'. 

"It was strung and used by the Indians for earrings, necklaces, bracelets, 
and belts. It was used in all treaties, and on all public occasions : a 
string of beads being given to bind each article of a treaty, and a treaty 
belt being delivered as a solemn ratification. On these, figures were 
elaborately worked with the dilTerent coloured beads, not arbitrarily, but 
according to a recognised system ; so as to form a Record of the Event 
that could be read." — G. Ripley and C. A, Dana. The American Cycio- 
pcrdia, s.v. 1876. E. A. 1S79. 

EXG. G.J/:. II. o-r 

482 1628. The New England Chronology, l^^"- '^- ^'["fi 

Kings. Great Britain^ Charles I.j France, Louis 13 ; Spam, Philip IV. 

is to see the great alteration it, in a few years, makes among 
the savages. For the Massachusetts and others in these 
parts had scarce any ; it being only made and kept among the 
Pequots and Narragansetts, who grew rich and potent by it ; 
whereas the rest, who use it not, are poor and beggarly.^ 

Hitherto the natives of these parts have no other arms 
but bows and arrows ; nor for many years after. But the 
Indians in the Eastern parts, having commerce with the 
French, first have guns of them; and, at length, they make 
it a common trade. In time, our English fishermen follow 
their example; but, upon complaint against them, the King, 
by a strict Proclamation, forbids the same, and commands 
that no sort of arms or munition be traded with them.^'^ 

June 20. Captain John Endicot, with his wife and Com- 
pany, this day, sails in the ship Abigail, Henry Gauden, 
Master, from Weymouth in England, for Naumkeak in New 
England, "^'d being sent by the Massachusetts Patentees at 
London, to carry on the plantation there, make way for the 
settling of a Colony, and be their Agent to all affairs, till the 
Patentees themselves come over.^ 

September 13. Master Endicot writes of his safe arrival 
at Naumkeak, to Master Matthew Cradock, one of the 
Massachusetts Company, in London; which Master Cradock 
receives on February 13 following. ^ With Master Endicot, 
come Masters GoTT, Brackenbury, Davenport, Captain 
Trask, and others ; who go on comfortably in preparing for 
the new Colony.^ 

' Governor Bradford's History. "^ Massachusetts Colony Records. 

^ By King, seems to be meant King James. And the Massachusetts 
Colony Records of July 28, 1629, as also Mr. Hubbard, say this Pro- 
clamation was issued in 1622. 

'' The Bills of Lading being signed on yu7ie 20 (Massachusetts Colony 
Records), I place their sailing here. But from the odd way of reckoning 
the 4th of March next, to be in 1628, Deputy Governor Dudley, Mr. 
Hubbard, and others, wrongly place INIaster Endicot's voyage after \}s\q 
grant of the Royal Charter; whereas he came above eight months before. 
And Deputy Governor DUDLEY says : "We sent him and some with him, 
to begin a Plantation, and to strengthen such as he should find there ; 
Avhich we send thither from Dorchester and some places adjoining." 

' Master Cradock's original letter among the Massachusetts Colony 
Records, com.pared with the copies of letters in the First Book of Records 
of the County of Suffolk. ^ Rev. W. HUBBARD's History. 

Rev.T. Prmce.] ^HE NeW EnGLAND CiIRONOLOGY. 16 28. 483 
Kmgs. Great Britain, Charles I. ; France, Louis 13 ; Spaift, Philip IV. 

Among those who arrive at Naumkeak, are Ralph Sprague 
with his brethren Richard and '\Villl\m ; who, with three 
or four more, by Governor Endicot's consent, undertake a 
journey, and travel the woods above twelve miles westward ; 
light on a neck of land called Mishawum, between Mistickand 
Charles rivers, full of Indians named Aberginians. Their old 
Sachem being dead, his eldest son, called by the English 
John Sagamore, is Chief; a man of a gentle and good dis- 
position ; by whose free consent, they settle here ; where they 
find but one English house, thatched and pallizadoed, pos- 
sessed by Thomas Walford, a smith.^ 

That worthy gentleman. Master Endicot, coming over for 
the Government of the Massachusetts^ ; visits the people at 
Merry Mount ; causes the May Pole to be cut down, rebukes 
them for their profaneness, admonishes them to look there be 
better walking, and the name is changed to Mount Dagon.'^ 

But Morton and company, to maintain the riot, hearing 
\vhat gain the French and fishermen made by selling guns, 
with powder and shot to the natives ; he begins the same 
trade in these parts, teaches how to use them, employs the 
Indians in hunting and fowling for him ; wherein they 
become more active than any EngHsh, by the swiftness of foot, 
nimbleness of body, quick-sightedness, continual exercise, and 
knowing the haunts of all sorts of game. And finding the 
execution guns will do, and the benefits thereby, become 
mad after them, and give any price for them. Morton sells 
themi all he can spare ; and sends to England for more. 

The neighbouring English who live scattered in divers 
places, and have no strength in any ; meeting the Indians in 
the woods thus armed, are in great terror : and those in re- 
moter places see the mischief will soon spread ; if not 
forthwith prevented. Besides, they see they should not keep 
their servants ; for Morton receives any, how vile soever ; 
and they, with the discontented, will flock to him, if this nest 

^ Town of Charlestown Records, wrote by Master Increase Nowell, 
afterwards Town Clerk of Charlestown, and Secretary of the Massa- 
chusetts Colony. "= Governor Hubbard's History. 

•^ Governor Bradford and Master Morton seem to mistake, in saying 
he came with a Patent under the Broad Seal, for the Government of the 

484 1628. The New England Chronology. [^'"■'^'■^".'Ifi 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles L; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Ptriup IV. 

continues : and the other English will he in more fear of this 
debauched and wicked crew than of the savages themselves. 

The chief of the straggling Plantations therefore, from 
Pascatoway, Naumkeak,Winisimet, Wesaguscusset, Natasco, 
and other places, meet, and agree to solicit those of Plymouth, 
who are of greater strength than all, to join and stop this 
growing mischief, by suppressing MortOxN and company 
before they grow to a further head. 

Those of Plymouth receiving their messengers and letters, 
are willing to afford our help. However, first send a 
messenger with letters to advise him, in a friendly way, to 
forbare their courses ; but he scorns their advice, asks, 
"Who has to do with him?" declares he will trade pieces 
with the Indians, in despite of all, &c. 

We send, a second time, to be better advised ; for the 
country cannot bare the injury ; it is against the common 
safety, and the King's Proclamation. He says, " The King's 
Proclamation is no law, has no penalty but his displeasure ; 
that the King is dead, and his displeasure with him:" and 
threatens, "If any come to molest him; let them look to 
themselves ! he will prepare for them !" 

Upon this, they see no way but force; and therefore obtain 
of the Plymouth Governor to send Captain Standish with 
some aid to take him. 

The Captain coming ; Morton arms his consorts, heats 
them with liquor, bars his doors, sets his powder and bullets 
on the table ready. The Captain summons him to yield, but 
has only scoffs, &c. 

At length, Morton fearing we should do some violence to 
the house ; he and some of his crew come out to shoot the 
Captain. At which, the Captain steps up to him, puts by 
his piece, enters the house, disperses the worst of the com- 
pany, leaves the more modest there : brings ^Iorton to 
Plymouth; where he is kept till a ship going from the Isle 
of Shoals to England, he is sent in her to the New England 
Council with a messenger and letters to inform against him, 
&c, ; yet they do nothing to him, not so much as rebuke him. 
And he returns the next year.^ [pp. 473, 496, 548, 651, &c.] 

This year [and I suppose, this fall] we send Master 

* Governor Bradford's History, 

^"''•'^■^tse:] The NewEngland Chronology. 1628-29. 485 

Kings. Great Britain, CHARLES I.; France, LouiS 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

Allerton, our Agent, again to London ; to get our Kenne- 
beck Patent enlarged and rectified, as also this at home 
enlarged; and help our friends from Leyden.'i [pp. 492, 501.] 

This year. Dies Master Richard Warren, a useful 
instrument, and bare a deep share in the difficulties attend- 
ing the first Settlement of New Plymouth.^ 

This year. The Massachusetts Patentees at London send 
several servants to Naumkeak [p.$o^] ; but for want of whole- 
some diet and convenient lodgings, many die of scurvy and 
other distempers.*^ Upon which, Master Endicot hearing we 
at Plymouth, have a very skilful Doctor, Master Fuller, 3- 
Deacon of Master Robinson's Church, skilled in the diseases 
of the country which the people at Naumkeak are filled 
with'^ ; sends to our Governor for him ; who forthwith sends 
him in their assistance. ^•'^ 

[See//. 350, 398, as to the Italic type in the Text. E. A. 1879.] 


February 16. [ h ^^^ gi lAsTER Cradock, at London, in his letter 
to Captain Endicot at Naumkeak, 
says, " We are thoroughly informed of 
the safe arrival of yourself, your wife, 
and the rest of your good company in our Plantation, by 
your letters of September 13 ; which came to hand the 13th 
instant. . . . Our Company is much enlarged since your 
departure. . . . There is one ship bought for the Company, 
of 100 tons ; and two more hired of 200, one of 19, the other 
of 20 ordnance. In which ships are likely to be sent between 
200 and 300 persons to reside there ; and about a 100 head of 
cattle. ... I wrote to you by Master Allerton of New Ply- 
mouth, in November. . . . It is resolved to send two Ministers, 
at least, with the ships now to be sent. . . . Those we send 
shall be by approbation of Master White of Dorchester, and 

^ Governor Bradford's History. *" Morton's Memorial. 

^ Governor Bradford, and Mr. MORTON from him, seem to mistake 
in blending the several sicknesses at Naumkeak of 1628 and 1629 
together ; and writing, as if Dr. Fuller went first thither to help in the 
sickness introduced by the ships in 1629 : whereas, by Governor Endi- 
cot's letter of May 11, 1629, it appears that Dr. Fuller had been then 
to help them : which was above a month before the ships' arrival there, 
in 1629. " Rev. W, Hubbard's History. 

486 1629. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T. Piince. 

Kings. Great Britain^ CllARLES L; France, LOUIS 13 ; Spain, PHILIP IV. 

Master Davenport. ... I account our ships will be ready 
to sail hence, by the 20th of next month." ^ 

The Massachusetts Company, for promoting their great 
design, first consider where to find two or three able 
Ministers to send ; not doubting but if they meet with such, 
they shall have a considerable number of religious people to 
go with them : especially if there be grounded hopes of an 
Orderly Government to protect the people and promote the 
cause of Religion among them, as well as their civil rights 
and liberties. For which, they, with one consent, agree to 
petition the King, to Confirm their aforesaid Grant to them- 
selves and Associates, by a Royal Charter^ : Master White, 
an honest Counsellor at Law, and Master Richard Belling- 
HAM furthering the same.<= 

March 2, Monday. At a meeting of the Massachusetts 
Company, in London. Present, the Governor, Deputy 
Governor, Masters Wright, Vassal, Harwood, Coulson, 
Adams, NowELL, Whetcomb, Perry, and HusoN'^;when 
Master Coney propounding, on behalf of the Boston men, 
that ten of them may subscribe jTio a man to the Joint 
Stock ; and with their ships to adventure 3^250 more, on 
their own account ; and provide able men to send for 
managing the business : it is condescended [agreed] to.^ 

March 4. At the petition of the Massachusetts 
Company, King Charles, by Charter, confirms the 
Patent of the Massachusetts Colony to them, i.e., to the 
aforesaid Sir Henry Rosewell, Sir John Young, 
Thomas Southcot, John Humfrey, John Endicot, 
Simon Whetcomb ; and their Associates, viz., Sir 
Richard Saltonstall Knight, Isaac Johnson, 
Samuel Aldersey, John Ven, Matthev;^ Cradock, 
George Harwood, Increase Nowell, Richard 

^ Master Cradock's original letter, among the Massachusetts Colony 
Records. ^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

" Captain Edward Johnson's History. 

^ This is the first account of Names set down at their meetings in the 
Massachusetts Colony Records. By Governor, is doubtless meant Master 
Cradock ; and by beputy Governor, Master Goff ; who stem to be 
chosen to those Offices, by virtue of their Patent from the New England 
Council. ^ INLissachusetts Colony Records. 

Rev. T. Prince. J -pjjg NeW EnGLAND ChRONOLOGY. I 629. 48/ 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

Perry, Richard Bellingham, Nathaniel Wright, 
Samuel Vassal, Theophilus Eaton, Thomas Goff, 
Thomas Adams, John Brown, Samuel Brown, 
Thomas Hutchins, William Vassal, William 
Pynchon, and George Foxcroft : their Heirs and 
Assigns, for ever. 

That they, and all who shall be made Free of their 
Company, be, for ever, a Body Corporate and Politic, by 
the name of The Governor and Company of the Massachusetts 
Bay, in New England; and have perpetual succession. 

That there shall be, for ever, a Governor, Deputy 
Governor, and eighteen Assistants, chosen out of the 
Freemen of the said Company. 

That Matthew Cradock be the first and present 
Governor; Thomas Goff, first Deputy Governor; and the 
eighteen printed in Italic capitals, be the first Assistants. 
That on the last Wednesday in Easter term, yearly ; 
the Governor. Deputy Governor, and all other Officers 
shall be, in the General Court held that day, newly 
chosen by the greater part of the Company. 

That they may have four General Courts a year, viz., 
the Last Wednesday in Hillary, Easter, Trinity, and 
Michaelmas Terms, for ever ; which may admit Freemen, 
remove and choose Officers, order lands, and make laws 
not repugnant to the laws of England. 

That " the Governor and Company," and their suc- 
cessors and assigns, may carry people who are willing, 
out of any of the King's dominions, thither ; transport 
goods; have all the privileges of natural subjects in all 
the King's dominions. 

That theirchief Commanders, Governors, other Officers; 

and others under them, may, by force of arms, encounter 

all who shall attempt any detriment or annoyance, to 

them : and take their persons, ships, armour, goods, &c. 

But that fishing shall be free &c.^'^ 

^ Book of Charters. 

^ The Chronologies at the end of Master Danforth's Almanack, 
printed at Cambridge, New England, 1649 ! of IVIaster Jessey's. at London, 
1651 ; and of Master Foster's, at Boston, New England, 1676 ; are all 
greatly mistaken, in representing this Charter \.Q\i^ granted S:)^ Parliament. 

488 1629. The New England Ciironoeogv. l^^"''- 

T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Britain, CHARLES I.; France, Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

March 9. At a meeting of the Massachusetts Company, in 
London. John Washborn entertained Secretary, for one 
whole year ; and directed to call on all such as have char^^e 
of provisions for the ships now bound to New England, that 
they may be despatched by the 25th of this month, at 

March 10. At a meeting of the Massachusetts Company, 
in London. Master Thomas Graves, of Gravesend, gentle- 
man, agrees to go to New England ; and serve the Company 
as a person skilful in mines of iron, lead, copper, m.ineral 
salt, and alum; fortifications of all sorts [p. 505I, surveying, &c.^ 
March 16. Estimate of charges for one hundred passengers, 

and their provisions, at ;^i5 a man £1500 

Freight of the ship Talbot, five months at 

£80 400 

Her victuals and wages for 32 men, at £yo 

[a month] 350 

Lion's Whelp set to sea. 500 

Twenty cows and bulls at £4 80 

Ten mares and horses, at £"6 60 

Charges of them 470 610 



March 23. Governor Cradock sworn in Chancery.^ 
Deputy Governor Goff, and eleven Assistants sworn : as also 
Master George Harwood sworn Treasurer.^ 

At a meeting of the Massachusetts Company, this day, at 
London. Master N dwell giving intimation by letters from 
Master Johnson, that Master Higginson of Leicester, an 
able ^ and eminent '^ Minister,^ silenced for Nonconformity, 
would be likely c to go to our Plantation; who being approved 
for a reverend grave Minister, fit for our occasion : It is Agreed 

® Massachusetts Colony Records. *= Rev. W. Hubbard's History, 

^ Assuming that each of the 1,500 persons that went out in 1629, cost 
£10 a head, the mere passage outlay of this Great Puritan Exodus would 
come to ^45,000; or about ^^200,000 in present value. E. A. 1879. 

'' Master Hubbard mistakes, (i) in thinking Master Cradock now 
chosen Governor ; (2) in omitting Master NoWELL, as among the eleven 
Assistants sworn ; and, (3) in writing that Master Harwood is sworn 
Treasurer, on April 6, 

Rev.T.Prince.J Jp^g NeW ENGLAND ChRONOLOGY. 1 629. 489 

Kings. Great Britai7i, Charles I.; Frcpice, Louis 13 ; Spam, Philip IV. 

to intreat Master Humfrey to ride presently [at once] to 
Leicester, and if Master Higginson can conveniently go this 
present Voyage, to deal with him : first, if his remove may 
be without scandal to that people, and approved by some of 
the best affected among them ; with the approbation of [the 
Reverend and famous] Master Hildersham of Ashby de la 
Zouche.^'t' [See j!». 611.] 

Master Higginson being addressed, both by Master Hum- 
frey and Master White, he looks upon it as a call from 
GOD ; and, in a few weeks, is, with his family, ready to 
take his flight into this savage desert.^ 

April 8. At another meeting of the Massachusetts Com- 
pany, in London. Master Francis ^ Higginson, Master 
Samuel Skelton,^ another Nonconformist Minister of Lin- 
colnshire,^ and Master Francis Bright, entertained by the 
said Company as Ministers for the Plantation, to labour 
both among the English and the Indians. Master Higgin- 
son having eight children, is to have ^^'lo a year more than 
the others. Master Ralph Smith, a Minister, is also to be 
accommodated in his passage thither.^ 

April 16. Sixty women and maids, twenty-six children, and 
three hundred men, with victuals, arms, apparel, tools ; 140 
head of cattle, &c., in the Lord Treasurer's Warrant^ [to go 
to New England].*^ 

April 17. The said Company's Committee date their letter, 
at Gravesend, to Master Endicot : wherein they say, ** For 
that the Propagating of the Gospel is the thing we profess 
above all, in settling this Plantation ; we have been careful to 
make plentiful provision of godly Ministers, viz., Master 
Skelton, in the George Bonaventure; Master Higginson, in 

* Massachusetts Colony Records. "= Rev. W. Hubbard's History.. 

^ Master John Davenport first time mentioned as present at this meet- 
ing. He is also at the meetings of March t,o, April?,, August 28 and 29, 
October 15, 19, and 20, Noveniber 25, and December 15 following. In that 
of October 20, he is styled " Clerk ;" and of December 15, " Minister ;" 
(Massachusetts Colony Records). By which, I conclude, he is the same 
who afterwards comes over, and becomes the famous Minister both of 
New Haven, and of Boston in New England. 

^ Mr. Hubbard happens, by mistake, to call him John. 

^ Deputy Governor Dudley therefore seems too short in saying, about 
three hundred people, with some cows, goats, and horses. 

490 1629. The New England Chronology. [^^^■'^'^","11; 

Kings. Great Britain^ Charles L; France, LOUIS 13 ; Spain, PHILIP IV. 

the Talbot; and in the Lion's Whelp, Master Bright, trained 
up under Master Davenport, As the Ministers have de- 
clared themselves to be of one judgement, and to be fully 
agreed in the manner how to exercise their Ministry, we have 
good hopes of their love and unanimous agreement. "^'^ 

April 21. The George now rides at the Hope; the Talbot 
and Lion's Whelp at BlackwalLt" 

April 30.C At a General C o u r t oi ihe Massa- 
chusetts Company, in London. 

" There are three ships now to go to New England. . . . 
And the Company Order that thirteen in their Planta- 
tion shall have the sole ordering of the affairs and 
Government there, by the name of The Governor and 
Council of London's Plantation in the Massachusetts Bay, in 
New England. . . . Elect Master Endicot Governor ; 
Masters Higginson, Skelton, Bright, John and 
Samuel Brown, Thomas Graves, and Samuel Sharp, 
to be of the Council. The said Governor and Council 
may choose three others, and the Planters choose two 
more. Of which twelve Counsellors, the Governor and 
major part may choose a Deputy Governor and Secretary. 
That they all continue a year, or till the Court appoint 
others. That the Governor, or in his absence the 
Deputy, may call a Court at discretion ; and therein, the 
greater number, whereof the Governor or Deputy to be 
always one, have power to make laws not repugnant to 
the laws of England," 
Order [that] copies of this Act be sent by the first con- 
veyance,'^ and a Commission is accordingly sent to Master 
Endicot, &c.e 

May 4. The George Bonaventnre sails from the Isle of 
Wight. May 11, sail from thence, the Lion's Whelp and 

^ By this, it appears Master Bright was a Puritan ; and Mr. Hubbard 
seems mistaken in supposing him a Conformist : unless he means in the 
same sense as were many Puritans in those days, who, by particular 
favour, omitted the more offensive ceremonies and parts in the Common 
Prayer ; while, for the unity and peace of the Church, and in hopes of 
a further Reformation, they used the other. ^ Suffolk County Records. 

" Mr. Hubbard mistakes April 10, for April 30. 

^ Massachusetts Colony Records. * Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

Rev. T.Prince.-j-pjjg ]\J g^y ENGLAND ChRONOLOGY. I 629. 49 I 

A'i>!^s. Great Britain, Charles I.; Fr,atice, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

Talbot ^ ; bein,^ all full of godly passengers,t> with the four 
Ministers, for the Massachusetts.^'^^ 

The Planters in the Lion's Whelp go from Somerset and 
Dorset.^ And, within a monthjt' are three more ships to follow.'^ 

May 10, Lord's Day. Peace between Great Britain and 
France proclaimed at London.^^ 

Dr. Fuller, of Plymouth, being well versed in the Discipline of 
Master Robinson's Church, and acquainting Master Endicot 
therewith : on May 11, Governor Endicot writes a grateful and 
Christian letter to Governor BRADFORD ; wherein he says, "/ 
acknowledge myself much bound to you, for your kind love and 
care in sending Master Fuller among us ; and rejoice much 
that I am, by him, satisfied touching your judgements of the Outward 
Form of GOD'S Worship. It is, as far as I can gather, no 
other than is warranted by the evidence of Truth ; and the same 
which I have professed and maintained ever since the LORD, in 
mercy, revealed Himself unto me : being far from the common 
report that hath been spread of you, touching that particular ; but 
GOD'S children must not look for less here below," &c.^'^ 

And as this is the beginning of their acquaintance, and 
closing in the Truth and Ways of GOD^ ; it is the founda- 
tion of the future Christian love and correspondence, which 
are, ever after, maintained between the two Governors and 
their respective Colonies.^ 

May 13. Ais^GENERALCoURToiihe Massachusetts 
Company, in London. MasterCRADOCK,'^a prudent and wealthy 
citizen,*^ chosen Governor ; Master Goff, Deputy ; Master 
Harwood, Treasurer; Master William Burgess, Secretary 
for the year ensuing : and the same Assistants ; only that 
Master Endicot and Master John Brown being out of the 
land. Master John Pocock and Master Chistopher Coul- 
SON are chosen in their room.^'' 

* Sufifolk County Records. " Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

^ Doctor Cotton Mather's Li/e of Master Higginson. 

8 Mr. Hubbard mistakes, in thinking this letter was written to obtain 
the Doctor's help ; when it plainly appears a letter of thanks for his help 
received. ^ Massachusetts Colony Records. ^ Howes. 

^ Pointer mistakes in saying March 20 ; and Salmon, in saying 
May 20. '^ Governor Bradford's History. 

' Mr. Hubbard styles this the Second Court of Election ; while by the 
Royal Charter it is the First, though by virtue of the former Patent 

492 1629. The New England Chronology, ['^^'''•'^•^'^"j;:: 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles L; France, Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

May 21. At a Court of Assistants of the Massachusetts 

Company, in London. For the present accommodation of 

the people lately gone to the London Plantation in 

New England, Ordered, That the Governor, Deputy, 

and Council there, allot Half an Acre within the plat of 

the town, and Two Hundred Acres more, to every £^^0 

Adventurer in the Common Stock; and so in proportion, 

That for every servant or others they carry, the Master 

shall have Fifty Acres more to himself, And those who 

are not Adventurers in the Common Stock, shall have 

Fifty Acres for themselves, or more, as the Governor and 

Council there, think necessary.^''^ 

May 25. Master Sherley writes from London, to Governor 

Bradford ^^ Here are now many of your and our friends from 

Leyden, coming over. . . . A good part of that end obtained, 

which was aimed at (by us), and has been so strongly opposed by 

some of our former Adventurers. . . . With them, we have 

also sent some servants in the Talbot, that went hence lately ; but 

these come in the May Flower."^ 

June 3. The Committee of the Massachusetts Company at 
London, writes from Gravesend, to Governor Endicot, and 
say, " We now send three ships, the May Flower, Four 
Sisters, and Pilgrim. . . . The charge of their freight, men, 
and victuals stands us in ^^2,400, &c.^ And they sail from 
England, before Master Allerton can get ready to come 
away.^' "^ 

jftme 24. Master Higginson,^ and [either the same day, or] 
sometime this month,^ the other Ministers with the People 
in the first three ships, arrive at Naumkeak ; which they 
now name Salem, from that in Psalm Ixxvi. 2.S 

Master Graves, with spme of the Company's servants 
under his care, and some others, remove to Mishawum ; to 
which, with Governor Endicot's consent, they give the 
name of Charlestown. Master Graves lays out the town in 

from the New England Cotiticil, it seems the Company had chosen a 
Governor, &c., the year before. 

* Massachusetts Colony Records. <= Governor Bradford's History. 

^ Mr. Hubbard mistakes, in placing this on May 13. 

^ Suffolk County Records. ^ Doctor Cotton Mather's Life. 

f Morton's Memorial. s Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

Rev.T. prince.-| ^^^ New England Chronology. 1629. 493 

A'ifigs. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

Two Acre lots to each inhabitant ; and [after] builds the 
Great House for such of the Company as are shortly to 
come over ; which becomes the House of Public Worship.^'t* 

Of the four Ministers, Salem needing but two^.; Master 
Smith goes with his family, to some straggling people at 
Natasco^: but Master Bright disagreeing in judgement with 
the other two, removes to Charlestown, where he stays above 
a year.*= 

Some Plymouth People putting in with a boat at Natasco, find 
Master Smith in a poor house that could not keep him dry. He 
desires them to carry him to Plymouth ; and seeing him to be grave 
man, and understanding he had been a Minister, they bring him 
hither: where we kindly entertain him, send for his goods and ser- 
vants, desire him to exercise his gifts among us; afterwards, choose 
him into the Ministry, wherein he remains for sundry yearsA 

July 20. Governor Endicot, at Salem, sets apart this Day 
for solemn Prayer with fasting ; and the Trial and Choice of 
a Pastor and Teacher. The forenoon they spend in prayer 
and teaching ; the afternoon about their Trial and Election : 
choosing Master Skelton, Pastor; Master Higginson, 
Teacher. And they accepting : Master Higginson with 
three or four more of the gravest Members of the Church, 
lay their hands on Master Skelton, with solemn prayer: 
then Master Skelton &c._; the like, upon Master Higginson. 
And Thursday, August 6, is appointed another Day of Prayer 
and Fasting, for the Choice of Elders and Deacons, and 
ordaining them.^-^ [See next page.] 

July 28, Tuesday. At slGeneral C o u r t of the 
Massachusetts Company, at London, Governor Cradock 
reads certain Proposals, conceived by himself, i;z5r., " That for 

^ The Charlestown Records here mistake in placing this in 1628 : for 
Master Graves comes not over till June 1629 (Massachusetts Colony 
Records). And as by Deputy Governor Dudley's letter, there was a great 
mortality among the English at the Massachusetts Colony, in the winter 
of 1629-30 ; so, by Captain Clap's account, there were but one house 
and some few English at Charlestown, in June succeeding. 

" Rev. W. Hubbard's History. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

" This article is nowhere found but in a letter from Master Charles 
GOFF, dated Salem, 7/c/}' 30, 1629 ; and preserved in Governor Bradford; 
and it being written between July 20 and August 6, must be an undoubted 
record of past matter of fact on Ju/y 20. ^ Charlestown Records. 

494 1629. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles I.; France^ Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

the advancement of the Plantation, the inducing Persons of 
Worth and Quahty to transplant themselves and families 
thither, and other weighty reasons" mentioned: to "trans- 
plant the Government to those, who shall inhabit there ; and 
not continue the same subordinate to the Company here." 

This occasions some debate ; but defer the consideration 
and conclusion to the next General Meeting : and Agree 
to carry the matter secret, that it be not divulged.^ 

The religious people at Salem designing to settle in a 
Church state, as near as they can to the rules of the Gospel ; 
apprehend it needful for the Thirty who begin the Church, to 
enter solemnly into Covenant one with another, in the Pre- 
sence of GOD : to walk together before Him according to 
His Holy Word ; and then Ordain their Ministers to their 
several Offices, to which they had been chosen. 

Master Higginson, being desired, draws up a Confession 
of Faith, and Church Covenant, according to Scripture. 
Thirty copies are written, one delivered to every Member. 
And the Church of Plymouth invited to the solemnity t"'^; 
that the Church at Salem may have the approbation and con- 
currence, if not direction and assistance, of the other. t> 

August 6,'='"^'^ being Thursday."^ The appointed Day being 
come, after the prayers and sermons of the two Ministers : in 
the end of the day,^ the said Confession, and Covenant being read 
in the Public Assembly, are solemnly consented to. And 
they immediately proceed to ordain their Ministers '^•^ ; as 
also. Master Houghton, a Ruling Elder : being separated to 
their several Offices by the impositions of hands of some of 
the brethren, appointed, by the Church thereto. ^'S [See 
previous page.] 

Governor Bradford and others, as Messengers from the 

=» Massachusetts Colony Records. ^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

" Morton's Memorial. ^ Governor Bradford's History. 

^ Mr. Hubbard mistakes the 9th, for the 6th of August. 

f A Manuscript letter. 

K As Masters Skelton and HiGGINSON had been Ministers ordained 
by Bishops in the Church of England ; this Ordination was only to the 
care of this particular flock, founded on their free election. But as there 
seems to be a repeated Imposition of Hands : the former, on July 20, 
may only signify their previous separation for their solemn charge ; and 
this latter ol August 6, their actual investiture therein. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-j -pjjg NeW EnGLAND ChRONOLOGY. I 629. 495 

Kings. Great Britain, CHARLES I.; France, LOUIS 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

Church of Plymouth, being, by cross winds, hindered from 
being present in the former part of the Service ; come in time 
enough, to give them the Right Hand of Fellowship; wishing 
all prosperity to these hopeful beginnings. ^'t* 

But two of the passengers (observing the Ministers used 
not the Common Prayer, nor ceremonies ; but profess to 
exercise Discipline upon scandalous persons, and that some 
scandalous ones were denied admission into the Church) 
begin to raise some trouble, to gather a separate company, 
and read Common Prayer. Upon which, the Governor con- 
vents the two ringleaders before him ; and finding their 
speeches and practices tend to mutiny and faction, send 
those two back to England, at the return of the ships, the 
same year; and the disturbance ceases.^* 

August 28. At a General Court of the Massachusetts 
Company, at London. Ordered that Masters Wright, 
Eaton, Adams, Spurstow, with others they think fit, 
consider arguments against removing the Chief Government 
of the Company to New England; and that Sir R, Salton- 
STALL, Master Johnson, Captain Ven, with others they 
think fit, prepare arguments /or the removal : that both sides 
meet to-morrow morning at seven ; confer and weigh their 
arguments; and at 9, make report to the whole Company.<= 

A ugust 29. The said Committees meeting, and makingreport : 
the generality of the Company vote " That the Patent and 
Government ofthe Plantation be transferred to NewEngland."° 
August. Thirty -five of our friends, with their families, front 
Ley den, arrive at New Plymouth. They were shipped at London 
in Ma.y, with the ships that came to Salem; which bring over 
many pious people to begin the Churches there, and in the Massa- 
chusetts Bay. So their being thus long kept back is now recom- 
pensed by Heaven with a double blessing. In that we not only 
enjoy them, beyond our late expectation, when all hope seemed to be 
cutoff: but with them, many more godly friends and Christian 
brethren ; as the beginning of a larger harvest to Christ in the 
increase of his People in tJie Churches in these parts of the earth ; 
to the admiration of many, and almost wonder of the world. ^ 
The charge of our Leyden friends is reckoned on the several 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Mopton's Memorial. 

" Massachusetts Colony Records. 

496 1629. The New England Chronology. ['^*^''-'^-''';^^^: 
Kings. Great Britain, Charles L; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

families; some £50, some £\o, some £^0, as their numbers and 
expenses were : which our Undertakers pay for gratis ; besides 
giving them houses, preparing them grounds to plant on, and 
maintain them with corn, &c., above thirteen or fourteen months 
before they have a harvest of their own production.^ 

An infectious disease grew at sea among the Salem pas- 
sengers, which spread among those ashore, whereof many 
died ; some of the scurvy ; others of an infectious fever, 
which continued some time among them : while the Leyden 
people, through the goodness of GOD, escaped it.^ 

Master Allerton returns, without accomplishing the enlarge- 
ment and confirmation of our Plymouth Patent : but gives great 
and just offence, this year, in bringing over Morton; using him 
as his scribe, till catised to pack him away. {pp. 484, 548, 651.] 

Upon which, he goes to his old nest, at Merry Mount.^ 

This year [and I suppose, this fall] we send Master ALLER- 
TON again for England, to conclude our Patent, S-c. : and 
Master Rodgers, the Minister which Master Allerton 
brought over last year [p. ^.yg], proving crazed in his brain ; we 
are forced to be at the farther charge to send him back this year ; 
and lose all the cost expended in bringing him over, which was 
not small, in provisions, apparel, bedding, &c.^ 

September 19. At a General Court of the Massa- 
chusetts Company, at London, " Letters read from Captain 
Endicot, and others ... by the Lion's Whelp and Talbot ; 
now come laden from New England. "t" 

September 29, Tuesday. At a General Court of the 
Massachusetts Company, in London, " Desire the Governor' 
to buy the ship Eagle, of 400 tons, for the safety, honour, and 
benefit of the Plantation.''^ 

October 15, Thursday. At slGeneral Court of the Mas- 
sachusetts Company, in London, " Agree that the charge of 
Ministers, and of building convenient churches,'^ be borne : half 
by the Joint Stock for seven years, and half by the Planters-^i'd 

^ Governor Bradford's History. ^ Massachusetts Colony Records. 

" Thus " Houses of PubHc Worship" are also called " churches" in the 
record oi February 10 succeeding. (Massachusetts Colony Records) 

^ Masters Dudley and Winthrop the first time mentioned at this 
meeting (Massachusetts Colony Records). And Master Dudley says, 
" That Master Winthrop of Suffolk, well known for his piety, liberality, 
wisdom, and gravity, coming in to us : we come to such resolution, as to 
sail from England in April, 1630. 

Rev.T. Prince.-|'J'jjg ]^E\Y EnGLAND CiIRONOLOGY. 1629. 497 
A'w^s. Great Britain^ Charles I.; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

October 19, Monday. At a meeting at the Deputy 
Governor's house, " Agree that at the General Court to- 
morrow, the Governor and Assistants be chosen of the 
Government [of the Massachusetts Colony] in New Eng- 
land. "^-^ 

October 20, Tuesday. At a General Court of the 
Massachusetts Compan)'-, at London. They chose a Com- 
mittee for the Planters, another for the Adventurers, to draw 
up Articles between them : and Master White of Dor- 
chester, with Master Davenport, to be Umpires between 

And the Governor representing the special occasion of 
summoning this Court, was for the Election of a new 
Governor, Deputy, and Assistants ; the Government being to 
be transferred to New England : the Court having received 
extraordinary great commendation of Master John Win- 
THROP (both for his integrity and sufficiency, as being one 
very well fitted for the place), with a full consent, choose him 
Governor for the ensuing year, to begin this day ; who is 
pleased to accept thereof. 

With a like full consent, choose Master Humfrey, Deputy 
Governor ; and for Assistants, Sir R. Saltonstall, Masters 
Johnson, Dudley, Endicot, Nowell, W. Vassal, Pyn- 
CHON, Samuel Sharp, Edward Rossiter, Thomas Sharp, 
John Revell, Cradock, Goff, Aldersey, Venn, Wright, 
Eaton, Adams. 

Master Harwood, still Treasurer^ [and by the same kind 
of writing, I suppose Master Burgess, Secretary]. 

November 20, Friday. At a Court of Assistants of the 
Massachusetts Company, in London, " Master Cradock 
informing of ;£'i,200 still owing for mariners' wages and 
freight on the ships Talbot, May Flower, and Four Sisters ; 
Order it to be paid, before other debts-^" 

[By which it seems, that all those ships are now returned 
to England.] 

^ Master Davenport, Master White the Preacher, Master White 
the Counsellor, Master Winthrop, Dudley, &c., present at this meeting. 
(Massachusetts Colony Records.) ^ Massachusetts Colony Records 

" Masters White and Davenport are present, and entituled "Clerks" 
in the list of Members. (Massachusetts Colony Records.) 

Eng. Car. II. 03 

498 1629. The New England Chronology. [R<=v '^- i^--; 


Kings. Great Briiaitt, CHARLES L; Frajice, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

November 25, Wednesday. At a General Court of 
the Massachusetts Company, at London, " Read a letter of 
September 5, from Governor Endicot and others in New 
England. . . . Master White moving that the business 
may be proceeded in with the first intention, which was 
chiefly the glory of GOD ; and to this purpose, that their 
meeting may be sanctified by the prayers of some faithful 
ministers resident in London, whose advice would be likewise 
requisite on many occasions : the Court admits into the 
Freedom of this Company, Master John Archer and Master 
Philip Nye, Ministers in London, ; who being present, 
kindly accept thereof. . . . Master White also recommends 
to them. Master Nathaniel Ward of Standon."""- 

December 1. The GENERAL Co c/ i?r of the Massachusetts 
Company in London, choose Ten Undertakers, who, with 
much entreaty, accept the charge of the sole management of 
the Joint Stock for seven years ; Master Aldersey to be 
their Treasurer : and Order them to provide a sufficient 
number of ships of good force for transporting passengers at 
^5 a person, and goods at £4. a ton ; to be ready to sail from 
London by the ist of March. That sucking children shall 
not be reckoned ; those under four years old, three for one 
person ; under eight, two for one ; under twelve, three for 
two. That a shin of 20c tons shall not carry above 120 
passengers complete, and others in like proportion. That 
for goods, homeward, the freight shall be for fur, £^ a ton ; 
for other commodities 40s. a ton ; for assurance, £^ per 
centum. That the Undertakers furnish the Plantation with 
all commodities they send for, at Twenty-five per centum 
above all charges. But the Planters are free to dispose their 
Half Part of the fur: and to fetch or send for any commodities, 
as they please; so as they trade not with interlopers."^ 

IS^ This year. The inhabitants of Piscataqua river enter 
into a Combination for the erecting a Government among 

^ Massachusetts Colony Records. ^ A Manuscript letter. 

*^ So says the Manuscript letter : but being uncertain from what 
authority ; I therefore rather adhere to their Combination in 1640. 

Rev. T. Prince. 


] The New England Chronology. 1630. 499 

Kitigs. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 


January 13. ^ ^fgj^ '^ ^ ^HE Council for New England — in con- 
sideration that William Bradford 
and his associates have, for these nine 
years, lived in New England ; and have 
there planted a town called New Plymouth at their own charges : 
and now seeing that, by the special Providence of GOD, and their 
extraordinary care and industry, they have increased their Planta- 
tions to nearly three hundred people : and are, on all occasions, 
able to relieve any new Planters, or other of His Majesty's 
subjects who may fall on that coast — therefore seal a Patent to 
the said William Bradford, his Heirs, Associates, and 
Assigns of all that part of New England between Cohasset 
rivulet towards the north, and Narragansett river towards the 
south, the Western Ocean on the east, and between a straight 
line directly extending up into the main land towards the 
west from the mouth of Narragansett river to the utmost 
bounds of a country in New England called Pacanokit alias 
Sawamset westward, and another like straight line extending 
directly from the mouth of Cohasset river towards the west so far 
into the mainland westward as the utmost limits of the said 
Pacanokit or Sawamset extend. As also all that part of New 
England between the utmost limits of Capersecont or Comas- 
cecont which adjoincth to the river Kennebeck and the falls 
of Negumke with the said river itself, and the space of 
fifteen miles on each side between the bounds above said. 
With all prerogatives, rights, royalties, jurisdictions, privileges, 
franchises, liberties, and immunities ; and also marine liberties, 
with the escheats and casualties thereof {the Admiralty Jurisdiction 
excepted) with all the interest, right, &c. which the said Council 
have or ought to have thereto ; with liberty to trade with the 
natives, and fish on the seas adjoining. And it shall be lawful for 
them to Incorporate themselves or the people there inhabiting by 
some fit name or title : with liberty to them and their successors to 
make orders, ordinances, and constitutions, not contrary to the laws 
of England, for their better Government ; and put the same in 
execution by such officers as he and they shall authorise and 
depute. And for their safety and defence, to encounter by force of 
arms, by all means, by land and sea, seize and make prize of all 

500 1630. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T. Prince, 

Kinj^s. Great Britain, Charles L; France, LOUIS 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

who attempt to inhabit, or trade with the savages, within the 
limits of their Plantation; or attempt invasion, detriment, or 
annoyance to their said Plantation &c.^'^ 

February 10, Wednesday. At a General Court^ of 
the Massachusetts Company, at London, " Forasmuch as the 
furtherance of the Plantation will require a great and con- 
tinual charge that cannot be defrayed out of the Joint Stock 
which is ordered for the maintenance of trade. It is Pro- 
pounded that another Common Stock be raised from such as 
bear good affection to the Colony and the propagation thereof, 
to be employed in Defrayment of Public Charges; as main- 
taining ministers, transportingpoor families, building churches 
and fortifications ; and all other public and necessary occa- 
sions of the Colony." Ordered that two hundred acres of 
land be allotted for every ^^50 : and so proportionably, for 
what sums shall come in for this purpose ; and Master 
Harwood chosen Treasurer for this Account. 

Master Roger Ludlow now also chosen, and sworn 
Assistant, in the room of Master S. Sharp, who, by reason 
of absence, had not taken the oath.<^ 

End of February. Here is [i.e., in England] a fleet of 
fourteen sail, furnished with men, women, children; all 
necessaries; men of handicrafts, and others of good condition, 
wealth and quality; to make a firm Plantation in New 
England, between 42° and 48° N. Lat. : but stay at South- 
ampton and thereabouts, tillM^j', to take 260 kine, with other 
live cattle, &c.^'^ 

'^ Book of Charters. ^ Massachusetts Colony Records. ^ HowES. 

"^ Master Hubbard says, that in 1629 \i.e., according to the Old 
Accounts, but in the Julian year, 1630] the Plymouth People obtain 
another Patent by the Earl of Warwick's and Sir F. Gorge's Act ; and 
a grant from the king for the confirmation thereof, to make them a 
Corporation in as ample manner as the Massachusetts (Hubbard), Now 
this is the Patent : but the King's Grant miscarries. 

Deputy Governor Dudley also mistakes, in thinking the Plymouth 
People had obtained successive /"a/tv/Zj from King James and Charles : 
their Patents being only from the Council of New England, as before. 

'^ This is their last General Court in England. (Massachusetts Colony 

^ Deputy Governor DUDLEY says, " that one ship sailed in February 
[which I suppose is Master WiLLIAM PlERCE, from Bristol] ; that another 

Rcv.T. Prince.-j Yjjj^ N ew England Chronology. 1630. 501 

A7//^s. Great Britain, Charles I.; Fnvtce, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

The latter end of 1629.-'^ A Conf^regational Church t" is, by 
a pious People,'^ gathered ^ in the New Hospital at Plymouth, 
in England ; when they keep a Day of solemn Prayer and 
Fasting. That worthy man of GOD, Master White, of 
Dorchester, being present, preaches in the fore part of the day; 
and in the after part the People solemnly choose and call 
those godly Ministers, the Reverend Master John Warham, 
a famous Preacher at Exeter; and the Reverend Master 
John Maverick, a Minister who lived forty miles from 
Exeter, to be their Officers ; who expressing their acceptance,'^ 
are, at the same time, Ordained their Ministers.^'^i 

This winter. Die in the Massachusetts Colony above eighty 
English.^ And among the rest, Master Houghton, a Ruling 
Elder of the Church of Salem. But Master Samuel Sharp 
chosen Ruling Elder there, serves in the Office till about 

March 8. Master Sherley, at London, writes to Governor 
Bradford, " Those who came in May, and these now sent ; 
micst some while be chargeable both to you and us." 

This is another Company of our Leyden friends, who are 
shipped in the beginning of March, and arrive [in New England] 
the latter end of May. And the charge of this last Company 
comes to above ^550 [ = now about ;£"2,ooo] i.e., of transporting 
them from Holland to England, their lying there, with clothing 
and passage hither : besides the fetching them from Salem and the 
Bay, where they and their goods are landed. 

sailed in A/arc/i [which I conchide is Captain Squep., from Plymouth], 
that four sailed in April, eight in May, one in June, and one in August 
besides another set out by a private merchant, 17 in all." The 14 former 
seem to be meant by Howes. 

^ The latter end of 1629, according to the old way of reckoning is the 
beginning of 1630 in the Julian Year : and by Captain Clap's Account, 
this transaction seems but just before their New England voyage ; and 
preparatory to it. ^ A Manuscript letter. 

■^ These had also been Ordained Ministers by Bishops in the Church 
of England ; and they are now only separated to the special care of this 
People. "^ Captain Roger Clap's Memoirs, in manuscript. 

^ Deputy Governor Dudley's Letters &^c. 

^ He was a person of note in the First Settlement [Manuseript lette?') ; 
and I conclude is the same who was chosen Assistant, April 30, and 
October 20, 1629 : but whether chosen Ruling Elder at the same time 
with Master Houghton, or after his decease, is uncertain. 

502 1630. The New England Chronology. [^""'-'^'■^''rjlZ 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles L; France, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

A II which, the New Plymouth Undertakers pay gratis ; besides 
the providing them housing, preparing them ground, and maintain- 
ing them with food for sixteen or eighteen months, before they 
have a harvest of their own ; which comes to nearly as much more. 
— A rare example of brotherly love and Christian care in per- 
forming their promises to their brethren ; even beyond their power. ^ 
March 18. At a Meeting of the Massachusetts Assistants, 
at Southampton. Present, the Governor, Sir R, Saltox- 
STALL, Masters Johnson, Dudley, Humfrey, Nowell, 
Pynchon, Goff. 

They choose Sir Brian Janson, William Coddington, and 
Simon Bradstreet, gentlemen, to be Assistants in the room 
of Masters Eaton and Goff of London; and Master 
Wright, all merchants. And Sir Brian is accordingly 
sworn this day.^'-^ 

Master Sherley [at Bristol,] writes to Governor Bradford, 
S-c, " That Master Allerton got granted from the 
Earl of Warwick and Sir F. Gorges, all that Master 
WlNSLOlV desired in his letters or more. Then sued to 
the King to Confirm their Grant, and make yon. a Corpora- 
tion ; and so enable you to make and execute laws in such 
ample manner as the Massachusetts. Which the King 
granted, referring the Lord Keeper [Lord COVENTRY] to 
order the Solicitor [Sir R, Sheldon] to draw it up. The 
Lord Keeper furthered it all he could; and so the Solicitor. But 
as Festus said to Paul, With no small sum, I obtained 
this freedom : 7nany riddles must be resolved ; and many 
locks must be opened with the silver ; nay, the golden, key. 
For when it came to the Lord Treasurer [Lord Weston] for 
his Warrant to free the Customs for seven years inward, and 
twenty-one outward : he refused ; but referred to the [Privy] 
Council Table. And there Master Allerton attended, day 
by day, when they sat : but could not get his Petition read, 
A7id because of Master Pierce's staying at Bristol, with all 
the passengers, he was forced to leave the prosecution of it to 
a Solicitor ; but it will be needful he should return by the 
first ship from New England. 

* Governor Bradford's History. ^ Massachusetts Colony Records. 
'^ Mr. Hubbard is mistaken, in supposing these not chosen till March 23 

Rev.T.Prince.-j'Pjjj. ]S^j^^Y EnGLAND ClIRONOLOGY. 1 63O. 5O3 

Kiiii^s. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

N.B. The clause about the Customs was not thought of by the 
Colony, nor much regarded ; but unhappily put in by Masters 
Allerton and Sherley's device^ ; or the Charter, without all 
question, had been then finished, having the King's hand. But 
by that means, this opportunity being lost ; it was never accom- 
plished : but above ^^500 vainly and lavishly cast away about it)-* 

March 19. Masters Sherley and Hatherly, at Bristol, 
write to the Plymouth Undertakers " That they two, with Masters 
Andrews and Be AUCHAMP of London, have taken a Patent 
for Penobscut, to carry on a trade with the natives there. That 
they employed Master Edward Ashley, a young man, to 
manage it ; and furnished him with large provisions. That 
Master William Pierce is joined with them : because of land- 
ing Ashley and his goods there; and will bend his cotirse 
accordingly. With four or five stout felloivs, one of them a 
carpenter; with a new boat, and boards to make another. And 
moving ns to join them.'" ^ 

Master Allerton accordingly returns (this spring) to New 
England; and as soon as Ashley lands at Penobscut, about 
eighty leagues north-east of Plymouth, Ashley writes; and 
after, comes to be supplied with wampampeag and corn against 
winter. So, with much regret, we join ; and give them supplies, 
to our great prejudice : but, with ASHLEY, we consort THOMAS 
WiLLET, a discreet, honest young man come from Leyden ; in 
whom we can confidc.^-^ [See p. 590.] 

March 20. The Reverend Masters Warham and Maverick, 
with many godly famihes and people, under their care,^ from 
Devonshire, Dorsetshire, and Somersetshire ^ ; with Masters 
RossiTER and Ludlow, two Assistants of the Massachusetts 
Company,^ and Master Roger Clap, (bI. 21, [afterwards 
Captain of the Castle in Boston harbour], this day sail from 

* I suppose they took the hint from the like advantage given in the 
Massachusetts Colony Charter. ^ Governor BRADtORD's History. 

" Deputy Governor Dudley telling of a ship that sailed from England 
in February 1629-30; it seems to be this Captain William Pierce with 
Masters ALLERTON, AsHLEY, &c. But Governor Bradford, beginning 
1630, on the 25th of March, draws all this Account of the Charter, 
Allerton, Ashley, &c., unto 1629. ^ Captain Robert Clap's Memoirs. 

« A Manuscript letter. ^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

504 1630. The New England Chronology. [ 

Rev. T. Prince. 

Kings. Great Britain, Charles L; Fnmcc, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

Plymouth in England, in the Mary and John,^ a ship of 400 
tons, one Squeb, Master ; for the Massachusetts.^ 

March 23. Masters Coddington, Bradstreet, and T. 
Sharp, formerly chosen Assistants of the Massachusetts 
Colony, now take their oath [, at Southampton]. 

And this day, at a Court of Assistants on board the Arhella. 
Present, Governor Winthrop, Sir R, Saltonstall, Masters 
Johnson, Dudley, Coddington, T. Sharp, W. Vassall, 
and Bradstreet. 

Master Humfrey being to stay behind ; is discharged of 
his Deputyship : and, in his place, Master Dudley chosen 
Deputy Governor. '^•'^ 

March ig. Monday. The four principal ships, viz., the 
Arhella,^ of 350 tons, 28 guns, 52 seamen; the Talbot; the 
Ambrose; and the Jewel : now riding at Cowes, and ready to 
sail. Master Cradock this morning, being aboard the A rbclla, 
advises them to sail ; the rest, viz., the May Flower, the Whale, 
the William afid Francis, the Trial, the Charles, the Success, 
and the Hopewell being at Southampton not yet ready : and 
takes leave of his friends. At ten, they weigh ^ [, and get to 
Yarmouth, in the Isle of Wight]. 

April 7. Governor Winthrop, Deputy Governor Dudley, 
Sir R. Saltonstall, I. Johnson, W. Coddington, Charles 
Fines, Esquires : with the Reverend Master George Phil- 
lips, on board the Arbella, at Yarmouth, sign A71 humble 
Request of His M ajesty's loyal subjects the Governor and Com- 
pany late[ly] gone for New England, to the rest of their brethren 
in and of the Church of England; for the obtaining of tlicir 
prayers, and the removal of suspicions and misconstructions of 
their intentions. Printed, in quarto, London, 1630. 

This is commonly said to be drawn up by that learned, 
holy, Reverend, and famous Master [J.] White, of Dor- 

[And having signed this, they set sail again.] But having 

= Rev. W. Hubbard's History. ^ Captain Roger Clap's Memoirs. 

•= Massachusetts Colony Records, 

^ This is the last Record of the Massachusetts Company in England. 

^ Johnson says, This was the Eagle, now named Arbella in honour of 
the Lady Arbella, wife to that pious gentleman Isaac Johnson, Esquire. 
And the Massachusetts Colony Records say, she was of 400 tons. 

Rev. T. Pnnce.-| 'J'jjj^ ]^ E\Y EnGLAND CiIRONOLOGY. 1630. 505 
Kings. Great Britabi, Charles I.; Frq?ice, Louis 13 ; Spain, Philip IV. 

been told, at the Isle of Wight, that ten ships at Dunkirk 
[which then belonged to Spain], with brass guns, the least of 
which had 30, were waiting for us : we on 

April 10, discover several sail of ships bearing towards us ; 
and provide to fight them^; but drawing nearer, find them 
to be the rest of our fleet : wdth whom, we clear the Channel 
on the I2th of April b; and, the Arbella being Admiral, steer 
our course for the Massachusetts,'^ but make a very trouble- 
some and costly voyage. For as they had been wind bound 
long in England : so, after they had set sail, they are hindered 
with cross winds, and so scattered with mists and tempests, 
that few of them arrive together.'! 

About April and May, is a great conspiracy of the Indians in 
all parts, from the Narragansetts round about to the Eastward, 
to cut off the English : which John Sagamore, who always 
loved us, revealed to the inhabitants of Charlestown. The 
design was chiefly against Plymouth, not regarding our 
paucity at the Massachusetts ; to be effected under colour of 
having some sport at Plymouth : which the Governor refus- 
ing, they told him, " If they might not come with leave ; 
they would, without." 

At this time, the people of Charlestown agree to make a 
small fort, with pallizadoes and flankers, on the top of the 
Town Hill : which is performed at the direction of Master 
Graves [p. 488], by all hands, viz., men, women, and children ; 
who labour in digging and building, till the work is done. 

But the people at Salem shooting off their great guns to 
clear them ; the report so terrifies the Indians ; that they 
disperse and run away. Their design breaks up. And though 
they come flattering afterwards, and call themselves "our 

^ Johnson writes but of four Men of War of Dunkirk, who wei-e said to. 
lie in wait for their saihng ; and but of four ships that now appeared to 
pursue them : but, as Hubbard writes of ten ships at Dunkirk ; so by 
his account there seems to be seven [of the Puritaji fleet'\ now bearing 
towards them. 

^ It seems strange that Deputy Governor Dudley should not only be 
wholly silent in this article ; but also write of no more than four ships 
sailing in April, and of the next eight in May j but in Masters JOHNSON 
and Hubbard, we have two witnesses. 

■= Rev. W Hubbard's History. 

^ Deputy Governor Dudley's Letter &^c. 

5o6 1630. The New England Chronology. [^^'^'•'^•^'^1""; 

Kings. Great Britain, QwkVJUL'a \.\ France, LOVIS 13; Spaiji, PHILIP IV. 

good friends"; yet this plot obliges us to be in continual 

[Latter end of May], The Lion, William Pierce, Mas- 
ter, arrives in Salem harbour; though none of the Fleet 

May 29, Saturday. Prince Charles born ^ [afterwards. 
King Charles II.] 

May 30, [Lord's Day]. Masters Warham, Maverick, 
Rossiter, and Ludlow arrive [in the Mary and, John] at 
Nantasket. Captain Squeb [I suppose, on Monday, &c.], 
puts them and their goods on shore at Nantasket Point; 
and leaves them to shift for themselves. But getting a boat 
of some old Planters, they lade her with goods ; and some 
able[-bodied] men, well armed, go up to Charlestown : where 
they find some wigwams, some few English, and one house ; 
vvith an old Planter who can speak Indian. We go up Charles 
river, till it grows narrow and shallow. There, with much 
labour, land our goods ; the bank being steep. 

At night, we are told of three hundred Indians hard by ; 
but our Planter going and desiring them not to come near us : 
they comply. Our Captain is Master Southcot, a brave 
Low Country soldier ; but we not above ten in number. 

In the morning, some of the natives stand at a distance, 
looking at us ; but come not near, till they had been a while 
in view : and then one of them holding out a bass towards 
us, we send a man with a biscuit, and change them. After 
which, they supply us with bass; giving a bass for a biscuit ; 
and are very friendly. And by our diligence, we get up a 
shelter to save our goods. 

But are not there many days, before we have order to come 

" Charlestown Records. ^ Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

^ This account is nowhere found but in Charlestown Records : and 
though they place this history in A />rit and Afay, 1629 ; yet inasmuch as 
Master Graves comes not thither till yu/y, i629[/^. 488], I therefore place 
it in the April and May succeeding. 

M place this arrival at this time, (i) Because Mr. Hubbard says, He 
arrived in Salem harbour, some days before Jiine 12. (2) Because this 
seems to be the same ship mentioned under March 8, last ; which Gover- 
nor Bradford says, arrives the latter end of May : and I suppose he 
had now landed Ashley at Penobscut. [p. 503.] 

'^ Howes. f Captain Roger Clap's Memoirs. 

Rev. T, 

^'^"36:] The New England Chronology. 1630. 507 

Kings. Gi-eat Britain, Charles L; France, Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

away from this place {pp. 542, 545] ; which is after called 
Watertown, to Matapan, because there is a neck to keep our 
cattle on, so we remove to Matapan.'^ Begin the town, name 
it Dorchester'^ {p. 549]; and here the natives are also kind 
to us.^-'^ 

June 12^ Saturday. At two in the morning, the Arbella, 
Admiral [i.e., Flag Ship] of the New England Fleet, finding 
her port near, shoots off two pieces of ordnance : and des- 
crying the Lion, William Pierce, Master, who had arrived 
there some days before, sends the skiff aboard; stands in 
towards the harbour; and some shallops coming, by their 
help, she passes through the narrow strait between Baker's 
Island and another little island ; and comes to an anchor a 
little way within the said island. 

Master Pierce comes presently to us ; but returns to fetch 
Master Endicot : who, with Master Skelton and Captain 
Levit, come aboard us, about two o'clock. 

And with them, this afternoon, the Governor, with those 
Assistants on board the Admiral, and some gentlemen and 
gentlewomen, go ashore to their friends at Salem. Many of 
the other people also landing on the eastern side of the 
harbour; regale themselves with strawberries, wherewith the 
woods are everywhere, in these times, replenished.^ 

Next morning, Masconomo, the Sagamore or Lord Pro- 
prietor of that side of the country towards Cape Ann, with 
one of his men, comes on board the Admiral, to bid him^ 
welcome : stays all day. And 

^ Captain ROGER Clap's Memoirs. ^ A Manuscript letter. 

" By this means, Dorchester becomes the first settled Church and Town 
in the County of Suffolk ; and in all Military Musters or Civil Assemblies 
where dignity is regarded, used to have the precedency {Manuscript Itttct):- 
and by this, it appears that JOHNSON and others are mistaken, when they 
place the beginning of Dorchester Church and Town in 1631. But the 
Manuscript letter is mistaken, in supposing that this People removed to 
Matapan, in the beginning of June. " Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

"^ Johnson mistakes, in saying Ju/jy 12, instead of June 12 ; and several 
Manuscript Letters mistake July for June. 

f This is a confusion of thought on the part of HUBBARD : and inte- 
resting, as marking the transition, in his day, of the idea of Admiral, from 
the Flag Ship, to the supreme Commander (formerly styled. General at sea) 
sailing on board of it. E. A. 1879. 

5o8 1630. The New England Chronology. [^'^- "^^ ^v;^^: 

Kings. Great Britain^ Charles L; France, Lovis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

In the afternoon, arrives the Jewcl.^ 

Jtmc 14, [Monday] morning. The Admiral weighs, is 
warped into the inner harbour; and, this afternoon, most of 
the passengers go ashore.''^ 

But find the Colony in an unexpected and sad condition. 
Above eighty of them being dead, the winter before. Many of 
those alive, weak and sick. All the corn among them, hardly 
sufficient to feed them a fortnight : so that the remains 
[remainder] of 180 servants we had sent over [p. 485], the two 
years before, coming to us for victuals ; we find ourselves 
unable to feed them, by reason that those we trusted to ship 
their provisions failed, and left them behind. Whereupon 
necessity forced us to give them all liberty, to our extreme 
loss : who had cost us £ib or ;£'20 a person, furnishing and 
sending over.^ 

June 17. Thursday. The Governor with the chief of the 
gentlemen, travel to the Massachusetts ; to find out a place 
for settlement : but return on Saturday; taking Nantasket in 
their way. Where they meet the Mary and John, the ship 
that sailed from the West Country, and brought Masters 
RossiTER and Ludlow, with other passengers ; who missing 
Salem, needed the help of the Governor and other Assistants, 
to make up the difference between the Master and other 
gentlemen; which was composed on this occasion.''^ 

The Ambrose arrives at Salem, before the Governor and 
company return from the Massachusetts.^ 

July I. Arrive i\\Q May Flower and Whale in the harbour of 
Charlestown. The passengers all in health ; but most of 
their cattle dead. July 2, comes in the Talbot : which had 
been sore visited by the small-pox ; whereof fourteen died at 

In one of these ships, came Master Henry Winthrop, 
the Governor's second son, a sprightly and hopeful young 
gentleman : who was unhappily drowned in a small creek on 
July 2, the very next day after his landing ; to the no small 
grief of his friends, and the rest of the Company.^ 

» Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

^ Deputy Governor Dudley's Letter ^c. 

Rev. T. Prmce.J ^^^ NewEnGLAND CiIRONOLOGY. I 63O. 5O9 

A'i/i^s. Great Britain, Charles I.; France, Louis 13; Spain, Philip IV. 

July 3. Arrives the William and Francis; July 5, the Trial 
and the Charles ; and Jtily 6, the Success. So as now the 
whole Fleet being safely come to port, they, on July 8, 
[Thursday], keep a public Day of Thanksgiving throughout 
all their Plantations, to praise Almighty GOD, for all His 
goodness and wonderful works towards them.^ 

[By this, it seems as if the Hopewell also was now arrived, 
though not mentioned : or, at least, that she arrived before 
July II, by the following passage in Mr. Hubbard.] "There 
were no less than ten of eleven ships employed to transport 
the Governor and Company with other Planters, at this time, 
to New England ; some of them, ships of good burden, that 
carried over about two hundred passengers a piece : who all, 
by the good Providence of God, arrive at their desired port 
before the nth of July, 1630." ^ 

[By the ten or eleven ships, Mr. Hubbard must mean only 
those which came from Southampton ; and that arrived at 
the Massachusetts before July 11 : and if the Hopewell was 
not then arrived, there were ten ; but if she was, there were 

These ships are filled with passengers of all occupations, 
skilled in all kinds of faculties, needful for planting a new 
colony. Some set forth from the West of England ; but the 
greatest number came from about London : though South- 
ampton was the place of rendezvous, where they took ship. 
The three biggest brought over the Patentees and Persons of 
greatest Quality : with Governor Winthrop, that famous 
pattern of piety, wisdom, justice, and liberality, which 
advanced him so often to the Place of Government by the 
annual choice of the people ; and Deputy Governor Dudley, 
a gentleman, who, by reason of his experience and travels 
abroad, as his other natural and acquired abilities, qualified 
himself, next above other, for the chief Place of Government.^ 

With these, in the same fleet, there came several other 
Gentlemen of Note and Quality,^ as Sir R. Saltonstall, 
Masters Ludlow, Rossiter, Nowell, T. Sharp, Pynchon, 
S. Bradstreet [ whom I find at the First Court in Charles- 
town, August 23] ; as also Masters Johnson and Codding- 

^ Rev. W. Hubbard's Histoty. 

5IO 1630. The New England Chronology. ['^ 

ev. T. Prince. 

Kin^^s. Great Britain, Charles L; France, LouiS 13 ; Spain, PHILIP IV. 

TON [whom, with Master Endicot, I find at the Second Court 
there, September y]^-^ ; with other gentlemen of the civil order. 
As also some eminent and noted Ministers, as Master [John] 
Wilson, who had formerly been a Minister of one of the 
parish churches in Sudbury in the County of Suffolk; Master 
George Phillips, who had been Minister at Bocksted in 
Essex : with [the aforesaid] Master John Maverick and 
Master [John] Warham, who had been Ministers in the 
West Country.c.d 

These were they, who first came to set up Christian 
Churches in this heathen wilderness, and to lay the founda- 
tion of this renowned Colony. 

^ Massachusetts Colony Records. 

'^ Mr. Hubbard also mentions Master William Vassal : but though one 
of the Patentees, and Assistants this year ; yet neither in all the lists of the 
Courts, nor anywhere else in the Massachusetts Colony Records, can I 
find his name mentioned, after their departure from England. \_Bnt see 
pp. 546, 570.] " Rev. W. Hubbard's History. 

^ See Prince's biographical sketches of all these Worthies, at//. 566- 
571 ; 600-605. E. A. 1879. 





Fro7n the begi?tni?tg of the Settlement of the 
Massachusetts or Second Colony^ to the 
Settlement of the Seventh and last^ by 
the combination of Forty-one persons 
i?2to a Form of Government 07t 
Piscataqua river ^ October 22, 1640; 
afterwards called the Provi?tce of 
New Ha?npshire, 

hIEing now arrived from England, with 
another Colony of Pious People, and on the 
known [avowed^ account of Religion only : 
for the information of the present age, as 
well as posterity ; we must observ^e, That 
they were of a denomination somewhat 
different, in those early times, from them of 

512 Preface to Part II., Sec no . v 2 . l^^""- ^- ^'\';il[ 

Plymouth. Those of Plymouth being then called Separatists ; 
these of the Massachusetts with the following colonies 
issuing from them, Puritans. The former had, about 
twenty-eight years before, separated from the Church of 
England, as what (on account of the impure mixture of 
unscriptural inventions in religious Worship, as well as the 
admission of the scandalous to the Sacraments of Baptism 
and the Lord's Supper ; with the almost entire refusal of 
Discipline) they could not, therefore, in conscience join with: 
but the latter were, till now, professed members of the Church 
of England. 

But that the reader may more clearly see the difference 
then between them, with the occasional causes of their 
transmigration, we must retrace to their origin in England ; 
and take a summary view of their gradual progress to this 
memorable period. And though I might spare much labour 
by citing only out of Dr. E. Calamy, Mr. Pierce, Bennet, 
Neal, &c. ; yet, to avoid exception, I rather chiefly use 
those noted Church of England writers, Fox, Camden, 
Fuller, Burnet, Strype, and Echard ; which I have 
taken no small pains in searching and comparing. 

N June g, i536,"aas Fuller says, "begins the First 
Reformed Convocation of the Clergy of England; 
I in which, the Lord Cromwell, Prime Secretary, sits 
in state, above all the Bishops, as the King's Vicar 
or Vicegerent General in all Spiritual Matters." And Bishop 
Burnet tells us, *' That by King Henry's order, he de- 
clares, It was the King's pleasure that the rites and ceremonies of 
the Church should be reformed by the rules of Scripture; and 
that nothing was to be maintained which did not rest upon that 

Now this is the Grand Principle of Puritanism. Upon this, 

^ Fuller's printer wrongly places this indeed under 1535 ; but Keeble 
and Burnet assure us, it was in 1536. 

Rev. T. rrince.-| PREFACE TO PaRT II., SeCTI0n2. 513 

as the Scriptures were more searched and known, the 
Reformation gradually went on, to the death of King Edward 
VI. ; and had the Governors of the Church adhered strictly 
to this " One Principle," kept close to the Scriptures, and 
reformed the Worship as well as the Doctrine by them {i.e., 
purged out of the Church whatever they themselves 
acknowledge is not prescribed in Scripture), the whole 
Church had then been Puritan ; and had never driven such 
multitudes from her Communion. 

Fuller also tells us that " Master John Rogers and 
Master John Hooper were the heads of those Reformers, 
called Puritans." Mr. Echard, that High Flying writer, 
calls Master Rogers " a learned man, and Prebendary of 
St. Paul's, London." Bishop Burnet calls Master Hooper 
"a pious, zealous, and learned man; first Bishop of 
Gloucester, and then of Worcester." Fuller says " He 
was bred at Oxford : well skilled in Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew." And King Edward, in his Letter to Cranmer, of 
Atigust ^, 1550, writes "We, by the advice of our Council, 
have chosen our right beloved and well worthy Master John 
Hooper, Professor of Divinity, to be our Bishop of 
Gloucester ; as well for his great knowledge, deep judge- 
ment, and long study, both in the Scriptures and profane 
learning ; as also for his good discretion, ready utterance, 
and honest life for that kind of vocation." ^^ 

These two led the van of martyrs under Queen Mary L ; 
Master Rogers being the first who died at the stake ; and 
Master Hooper, the first Bishop burnt in her reign, if not 
the first Bishop that was ever burnt in the world. 

And from Fuller and Burnet we learn. That in 1550, 
under the reign of Edward VL, we must begin the Era of 
the English Puritans: and not in 1554, among the exiles at 
Frankfort; and much less, lower down in Queen Elizabeth's 
reign, as Echard and others place it, who seem to write as 

= The Lcf/(-r is entire in Fox, and Fuller. 
£XG. gaf. w. y^ 

514 Preface to Part II., Section 2. l''''-''-''7ni 

if they had not a very exact acquaintance with the ReHgious 
History of England. 

For Bishop Burnet tells us, That on April i, 1550, 
Ridley was made Bishop of London ; orders Altars to be 
pulled down, and turned into Communion Tables ; and that 
this change was universally made in England this year. That 
on July 3 ensuing, King Edward appointed Hooper to be 
Bishop of Gloucester, who refuses on these two accounts : 
I. The last six words in the Oath of Supremacy, " So help me, 
GOD ! all Saints! and the holy Evangels /" which all the 
Bishops had sworn by, before. 2. The Popish habits, such 
as the rochet, chimere, square cap, &c., ^ still required by law. 
Upon this. Hooper is cited before the King in Council, who 
sees so much of the reasonableness of his objections, that (i) 
he strikes those six words out of the Oath, with his own hand ; 
(2) the law threatening a Prcemnnire, he writes a Warrant to 
Archbishop Cranmer to consecrate him without the habits ; 
that Archbishop Cranmer was willing to yield ; that Cox, 
the King's preceptor, writes to Bullinger " I think all things 
in the Church ought to be pure and simple, removed at the 
greatest distance from the pomps and elements of this world ; 
but in this our Church, what can I do in so low a station ? " 
That the famous Professors of Divinity, Bucer, in Cambridge, 
and Martyr in Oxford, being consulted, express their dislike 
of the habits [clerical garments], and wish them removed by 
law, though till then, advise to use them ; that Ridley was 
very earnest Hooper should be made a Bishop ; and that 
both Ridley and Goodrich, Bishop of Ely, wish the habits 
abolished, but think the breaking through the law so bad a 
precedent, and may have such ill consequences, that they 
cannot consent. That Hooper, declaring himself for another 
way of ordination, is committed to the Fleet [prison] 
January 27 ; but is at length prevailed upon, and consecrated 
in March ensuing, upon "allowance of liberty to lay by the 

^ Fox, and Fuller. 

Rev. T. Prince 

™^^.] Preface to Part II., Section 2. 515 

habits on common occasions, though to wear them when he 
preached in public." 

And the Treatise of the Troubles at Frankfort, printed in 1575, 
says, " This was the common grief of all godly minds." 

Burnet also says, that, " In 1551, the Common Prayer Book 
was, a second time, revised and corrected; and in 1552 
authorised by Parliament." But Pointer and Echard, 
that "therein wasneither Confession nor Absolution." Doctor 
Layton, That it thus expressly spake concerning the cere- 
monies, "As for kneeling, the sign of the cross, the lifting up 
of the hand, smiting of the breast, and gestures of the like 
nature ; it shall be left for every one to do as he list." And 
Doctor E. Calamy, "That in the days of King Edward VI., 
the Liturgy was for the most part used, and what was matter 
of scruple omitted without molestation ; nor could he find 
any Subscription required to the Book of Common Prayer, ihQ 
Articles of Religion, or anything else." 

Thus the Puritans continued ; and both they and the Re- 
formation grew in the Church, till the decease of King Edward 
VI., on June 6, 1553 ; by which time Archbishop Cranmer, 
Bishop Ridley, Bishop Latimer, Doctor Taylor, Masters 
Philpot, Bradford, and other glorious martyrs (as Mr. 
Neal, from Fox and Heylin, observes) came into the same 
sentiments with Hooper, about the Popish habits : and the 
four first treated them with great contempt, at their degrada- 
tions. Nor were they Puritan only, in respect to the Popish 
habits; but also in removing crosses, copes, and altars, as well 
as images and pictures out of churches, and setting Com- 
munion Tables in convenient place. -^ 

But Queen Mary I. succeeding, soon reduced the Church 
to Popery; and burnt to death those most and zealous 

Then Fox and Burnet tell us, Ridley in prison, wrote 
to Hooper, "That he was entirely knit to him ; though in 

^ See Stow, and Burnet. 

5i6 Preface to Part II., Section 2. [ 

Rev. T. Prince. 

some circumstances of religion, they had formerly jarred a 
little. It was Hooper's wisdom and his own simplicity that 
had made the difference." 

And Fox informs us, That when they came to be degraded, 
they were forced to be clothed with the Popish habits ; in 
order to be stript ; as a token of their being deprived of their 
Offices. That then Ridley did vehemently inveigh against 
all that foolish apparel ; call the apparel foolish and abom- 
inable ; yea, too fond [ridiculous] for a Vice in a play. That 
when they were put on Taylor, he walked up and down, and 
said to Bonner, How say you, my Lord ? Am I not a goodly 
fool ? If I were in Cheap [Cheapside], should I not have boys 
enough to laugh at these apish toys and toying trumpery ? That 
Cranmer said, at his clothing and stripping. All this needeth 
not, I had myself done with this gear long ago. And Neal, from 
Fox [first edition of his Martyrology in] Latin (which I have 
not seen) says, That Latimer, at his degradation, also de- 
rided the garments : for when they pulled off his surplice, 
Now, says he, / can make no more holy water. 

Nd then the Treatise of the Troubles at Frankfort tells 
us. That Master William Whittingham and 
other famous Puritans, with their Company, flying 
the kingdom ; they, on jfune 27, 1554, enter Frank- 
fort in Germany; being the first Englishmen that arrived 
there to remain. 

July 8. They applied to the Magistrates for a church 
wherein they might have GOD's Word truly preached and 
the sacraments sincerely [i.e., purely] ministered in their 
natural tongue. Jidy 14, they obtained their request ; and 
then [forming themselves into an Independent Church] con- 
sult what " Order of Service " to use. And the English 
Order being perused: they, by general consent, conclude that 
the answering aloud after the Minister should not be used ; 
that the Litany, surplice, and many other things be omitted; 
that in the Sacraments also, sundry things be omitted as 

Rev. T. Prince."] 

•;";^a Preface to Part II. ^ Section 2. 517 

superstitious and superfluous. And having chosen their 
Ministers and Deacons; they enter their Church on [Lord's 
Day] July 29 : and thus continue till [Wednesday] March 13 
[1555] following, when Doctor Cox and others with him, come 
to Frankfort, out of England; and begin to break their Order. 

On the Lord's Day following, one of his Company, without 
the consent and knowledge of the Congregation, getting up 
suddenly into the pulpit, reads the Litany ; and Doctor Cox 
with his Company answers aloud after the Minister, contrary 
to the Church's determination : and being admonished by the 
Seniors of the Congregation, he with the rest who came with 
him, answered, " They would do, as they had done in 
England." &c.a 

Upon this, there rises a grievous controversy about the 
ceremonies ; which brake the Church to pieces, and drave 
many of the Puritans, viz., Fox [the Martyrologist ] with some, 
to Bale; and Knox [the famous Scotch Reformer] with 
Master Christopher Goodman, Whittingham, and others, 
to Geneva : where they form two other Churches. 

In the meanwhile, Cox, with those who are for the 
Common Prayer and Ceremonies staying at Frankfort, form a 
second [Independent] Church; and chose Master David 
Whitehead, Bishop or Superintendent; to whom, at length, 
they agreed to give the title of Pastor, with two Ministers, 
four Seniors or Elders, and two Deacons. The Pastor to 
preside in preaching, ministering the Sacraments, example of 
good life, in exhorting, admonishing, rebuking ; and, as the 
chief mouth of the Church, to declare all Orders taken by 
him and the Elders. The two Ministers to assist the Pastor 
in preaching and administering the Sacraments. The Elders 
to assist the Pastor in oversight and discipline. And the 
Deacons to care for the poor, visit the sick ; and, if required, 
to assist in catechizing.^ 

Other exiles out of England set up another [Independent] 

' Treatise of the Troubles at Frankfort. 

5i8 Preface to Part II., Section 2. ['^''' "^^ ^^"js; 

Church at Embden in East Friesland ; whereof Bishop 
ScoRY was the Superintendent.^ Others form another [Inde- 
pendent] Church in Westphalia, to which Bishop Coverdale 
preaches ; but he being called away, they remove to Aarau in 
Switzerland, under the conduct of Master Thomas Lever.'^ 
Others settle at Zurich, Strasburg, Worms, Mannheim, and 
DoesburgC; but whether, at all these places, in a Church state, 
seems uncertain. 

But I must now surprise the reader with some observations 
of matter of fact, which have been overlooked by our histo- 
rians, both Conformists and Nonconformists ; and which have 
opened clearly to me upon my nicely examining the aforesaid 
authors, and comparing them together. 

For in the " Frankfort tract," I find, That on further con- 
sultation, even the Second Church there, under the conduct 
of Master Whitehead, A. Nowell, and others, in a little 
while, became also Puritan: agreed on a pure Scheme of Dis- 
cipline ; and though they kept the Form and Order of minis- 
tration of the Sacraments and Common Prayer, as set forth in 
King Edward's last Book ; yet they left out certain rites and 
ceremonies in it. That towards the end of Queen Mary's 
reign, the grudge between these, and those of the First Church 
who removed to Geneva, seem to be almost quite forgotten. 
That both before and after Queen Elizabeth's accession, 
they proceed to say, " We trust that true religion shall be 
restored ; and that we shall not be burdened with unprofitable 
ceremonies. . . . And if any shall be obtruded, that shall 
be offensive, at our own meeting with you [i.e., yon of Geneva] 
in England, which we trust will be shortly ; we will brotherly 
join with you to be suitors for the reformation and abolishing 
of the same."*^ And by comparing this Tract with Styrpe, 
I find that, soon returning to England, they were as good as 
their word, 

^ Fuller. <= Treatise of the Troubles at Frankfort. 

^ I call them all Independent Churches : for though their historians 
give them not this title ; yet they were plainly such in reality. 

Rev. T. Prince.-| PreFACE TO P ART II., SeCTION 2. 519 

fOR Strype informs us-, That Queen Elizabeth 
ascending the throne on Novoiibcr 17, 1558 ; her 
First Parliament meets on January 23, 1559 ; her 
First Convocation of the Clergy on the next day : 
and they both hold to May following. That the Convocation, 
being entirely Papists, vote for Transubstantiation, the Sac- 
rifice of the Mass, with the Pope's supremacy : and yet the 
Parliament passes the Ads of the Queen's Supremacy and of 
Uniformity, which last, restored King Edward's Liturgy with 
some alterations ; before one Protestant was made a Bishop, 
and while all the Bishops in Parliament were Roman Catho- 
lics. That in May 1559, ^^^ the Bishops, except Kitchin of 
Landaff, refusing the Oath of Supremacy, are in a short time 
expulsed their Bishoprics. And that the Act of Uniformity 
taking place on June 24, the Queen's Commissioners soon 
after visited the kingdom to administer the oath, and see the 
Order for Uniformity observed : when several of the Popish 
Clergy refusing, were deprived ; and so made way for Pro- 
testants to take their places. 

Then, Neal informs us. That those famous Puritans, 
Master Whitehead, was offered the Archbishopric of Can- 
terbury; Bishop Coverdale to be restored; and Masters 
Knox, Sampson, and others were offered Bishoprics : but 
refused on account of the Popish habits and ceremonies. 

And Strype, That on December 17, was Matthew Parker, 
Queen Elizabeth's first Protestant Bishop, consecrated ; 
and that by April 19, 1562, were consecrated twenty-two 
Bishops more: of whom, says Neal, Grindal, Parkhurst, 
Sandys, Pilkington, and others, accepted their Bishoprics 
with trembling; in hopes, to obtain an amendment in the Con- 
stitution. And from Burnet, Pierce, and Strype ^ that 
both Archbishop Parker, with the Bishops Horne, Jewel, 
Grindal, Pilkington, Guest, and Sandys were, at first, 
against the habits : and cite their writings. 

* See Burnet, Vol. III. ; and Strype, Vol. I. : under 1559 and 1560. 

520 Preface to Part II., Section 2. ['^'' 

T. Prince. 
• 7A 

And Strype expressly says, The first Bishops made by 
Queen Elizabeth, as Cox, Grindal, Horne, Sandys, 
Jewel, Parkhurst, Bentham, upon their return, laboured 
all they could against receiving into the Church the Papis- 
tical habits; and that all the Ceremonies should be clean laid 
aside : but they could not obtain it from the Queen and Par- 

Trype also says, That on January 12, 1563, Queen 
Elizabeth's First Protestant Convocation met,^ 
which agreed on the Thirty-nine Articles. But the 
beginning of the Twentieth Article being this. That 
the Church hath power to decree rites and ceremonies, and authority 
in controversies of faith, Fuller tells us, That both the English 
and Latin Thirty-nine Articles set forth in 1571, when they were 
first ratified by Act of Parliament, in Archbishop Parker's time, 
are without this passage : and this published book being just 
before the Act confirming it, must be the book confirmed ; and 
not the private manuscript attested only by a Public Notary,*^ 
He also says. This passage appears in the editions of 1593, 
in Whitgift's time ; of 1605 , in Bancroft's time ; and of 
1612, in the beginning of Abbot's time: though Doctor Moc- 
ket, Chaplain to Archbishop Abbot, left it out of his Latin 
translation of 1617. And Fuller leaves the matter undecided. 
Yet Strype says. The Clause appears in two copies printed 
in 1563; but these were in Latin: and there is nothing of 
it in the original manuscript itself, subscribed by the Con- 
vocation, and now in Bennet College Library [Oxford] ; 
by which he seems to decide the matter, and make it a 

Having finished the Articles of Faith, Strype says, the 

" In Burnet and Strype, we find that Master Alexander Nowell 
that fanioug Puritan and Dean of St. Paul's, London, was chosen and 
approved Prolocutor of the Lower House. But Burnet mistakes Jmiuary 
13 for yanuaty 12, 

^ And yet the Act of Parliament confirms not all the Articles ; but 
those which only concern the Confession of the truefaith and the Doctrine 
of the Sacraments. The very words of the Act, in Keeble. [S<f6'/. 352.] 

uev. T. p.mce.-| Prepace TO Part II., Section 2. 521 

Convocation, proceeded to the Reformation of Ceremonies in 
the Public Liturgy. 

That Bishop Sandys advised, 1. That private Baptism may 
he taken out of the Common Prayer, which has respect to 
women ; who, by the Word of GOD, cannot be Ministers of the 
sacraments. 2. That the Collect for Crossing the Infant, at baptism, 
may be blotted out, as needless and very superstitious. 

And that thirty-three^ of the Lower House signed a 

1. That playing with organs may be removed ; 2. That none 
but Ministers may he allowed to baptize ; and may leave off the 
Sign of the Cross in baptism; 3. That kneeling at the Communion 
may be left indifferent, to the discretion of the Ordinary; 4. That 
the tise of copes and surplices may be taken away ; and that Min- 
isters use a comely side-garment, as they commonly do in preaching; 
5. That Ministers be not compelled to wear such gowns and caps, 
as the enemies of Christ's Gospel have chosen to the special array 
of their priesthood ; 6. That in the Thirty-third article,^ the clause 
about traditions and ceremonies, may be left out &c. 7. That all 
Saints' Holy Days, as tending to superstition, be clearly abrogated. 

And to these subscribed 


1 DODS, Gregory, Dean of Exeter. 

2 Ellis, John, Dean of Hereford. 

F 3 NowELL, Alexander, ... Dean of St. Paul's, London, Prolocutor. 

F z:^ N'owELL, Lawrence, ... Dean of Lichfield. 

5 Sampson, Thomas, Dean of Christ's Church, Oxford. 

I Day, William, Provost of Eton College. 


Z I Bemont, Robert, Archdeacon of Huntingdon. 

F 2 Crowley, Robert, Archdeacon of Hereford. 

S -^ Heton, GuiDO, Archdeacon of Gloucester, 

4 Kemp, David, Archdeacon of St. Al ban's. 

= Though StryI'E says Thirty-three : he gives the names of but Thirty- 

'^b'/.^. King Edward's Thirty-third : but Queen Elizabeth's Thirty- 

522 Preface to Part II., Section 2. \^ 

ev. T. Prince. 

Z 5 Lever, Thomas, 

6 LoNGLAND, John, 
F 7 MuLLiNS, John, 

8 Prat, John, ... 
G 9 PuLLAN, John, 
F 10 Rogers, Richard, 
Z II Spencer, Thomas, 
F 12 Watts, Thomas, 


of Coventry, 
of Buckingham, 
of London, 
of St. David's, 
of Colchester, 
of .St. Asaph, 
of Chichester, 
of Middlesex, 


1 Avis, Robert, 

2 Bonner, W 

3 Calfhill, James, ... 

4 T/iLL, or Hills, John, 

5 Nevynson, Steven, 

6 Reeve, Richard, ... 
S 7 Renyger, Michael, 

8 Roberts, Thomas, ... 

9 Savage, George, ... 
F ID Saul, Arthur, 

11 Tremayn, Richard, 

12 Walker, John, 


F 14 Wilson, Thomas, ... 

Proctor of the Church of Worcester. 

Proctor of the Clergy of Somerset. 

Proctor of the Church of Oxford. 

Proctor of the Clergy of Oxford. 

Proctor of the Clergy of Canterbury. 

Proctor of Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 

Proctor of the Dean and Chapter of Winchester. 

Proctor of the Clergy of Norwich. 

Proctor of the Clergy of Gloucester. 

Proctor of the Dean and Chapter of Gloucester. 

Proctor of the Clergy of Exeter. 

Proctor of the Clergy of Suffolk. 

Proctor of the Church of Rochester. 

Proctor of the Church of Worcester. 

Strype and Burnet also tell us, That on February 13, 
the Six foWow'mg Articles were brought into the Lower House ; 
the determination whereof depended on a narrow scrutiny. 
1, That all Sundays and principal feasts of Christ he kept Holy 
Days ; and that all other Holy Days he abrogated. 2. That the 
Minister, in Common Prayer, turn his face to the people ; and dis- 
tinctly read the Service. 3. That in Baptism, the ceremony of 
Making the Cross on the child's forehead may be omitted, as 
tending to superstition. 4. That at the Communion, kneeling 
may he left to the discretion of the Ordinary. 5. That it he 
sufficient, in time of saying Divine Service and Ministering the 
Sacraments, to iise a surplice : and none to say Divine Service 
or Minister the Sacraments, but in a comely garment. 6. That 
the use of organs be removed. 

That upon this, arose a great Contest ; and when they 

R.v. T. Prince.j PREFACE TO Part II., Section 2. 523 

came to vote, those that were against the Articles carried it ; 
though with great difficulty; there being Forty-three for 
them, and Thirty-five against them. Yet the Forty-three 
producing but Thirteen proxies, and the Thirty-five pro- 
ducing Twenty-four proxies : the latter carried it by a Single 
Proxy [of a person absent, who had no opportunity of being 
enlightened by the consultation].^ The four in the list above, in 
Roman Capitals [as Gregory Dodds], happening then to be 
absent ; the Forty-three Approvers were the Twenty-Eight 
there printed in Italic Capitals ; with these Fifteen below. 

F I Pedder, John, ... . 
I Bradbridge, William, . 
I Lancaster, Thomas, 

1 Tod, William, 

2 Weston, Edward,... . 
F 3 Wisdom, Robert, ... 

F I Besely, Richard, ... , 

2 BOWRE, GUALTkR, ... 

3 CoccREL, Ralph, ... . 

4 Ebden, John, 

5 Godwin, Thomas 

6 Proctor, James, ... 

F 7 SoREBY, Thomas, ... . 

1 Becon, Thomas, ... . 

2 Burton, 

Dean of Worcester. 
Chancellor of Chichester. 
Treasurer of Sarum. 
Archdeacon of Bedford. 
Archdeacon of Lewes. 
Archdeacon of Ely. 
Proctor of the Clergy of Canterbury. 
Proctor of the Clergy of Somerset. 
Proctor of the Clergy of Surrey. 
Proctor of the Clergy of Winchester. 
Proctor of the Clergy of Winchester. 
[Proctor] of the Clergy of Sussex. 
Proctor of the Clergy of Chichester. 
[I suppose, of Canterbury.] 

These were some of the principal Fathers of the English 
Low Church and Puritans. And in this Company, 1 observe 
— 1. There were 6 Deans, i Provost, i Chancellor, i Trea- 
surer, 15 Archdeacons, 21 Proctors, and 2 uncertain. 2. I 
find but I of the English Church of Geneva, marked G. 3. 
There were 12 of the Second Church of Frankfort, marked F ; 
3 of Zurich, marked Z ; and 2 of Strasburg, marked S : which 
17 were all for King Edward's Book in Germany t" ; but yet for 
removing the Ceremonies, and promoting a further Reforma- 
tion. Hence see how much those writers are mistaken ; 

^ A Proxy is the power of voting for an absent person. 
'' Treatise of the Troubles at Frankfort. 

524 Preface to Part II., Section 2. P'^"- "^^ ^""^ei 

who, pouring out their spleen against Geneva, thought they 
were only or chiefly the exiles returning thence who were 
for a Further Reformation than Queen Elizabeth's First 
Parliament began, while there was not one Protestant 
Bishop in it. 4. Of many of those in the lists above, who 
were for removing the ceremonies ; Strype gives great 
characters for learning, piety, and usefulness. 

Of the Thirty-five Opposers ; I observe 1, There were but 
4 Deans, 14 Archdeacons, 10 Proctors, and 7 uncertain. 2. 
I find not one of the Church of Geneva; nor of the First or 
Second Church of Frankfort ; nor of Strasburg ; nor ot 
Zurich. 3. Of most of the Opposers, Strype gives indifferent 
or no characters. 4. He informs us, That two of the Deans, 
viz., Perne and Turnbull, and two Archdeacons, viz.. 
White and Cotterell, had complied with the Popish re- 
ligion ; were in place and dignity under Queen Mary ; and 
even adhered to Popery till June 24, 1559, when they were 
obliged to leave it or lose their places. That another, i.e., 
Bridgwater, afterwards went over sea, carried several 
young men with him, and turned Papist. That Perne had 
been Queen Mary's Chaplain ; and had been named by her 
to the Pope to be Bishop of Salisbury, a little before her 
death. That White is mentioned in a letter of Bishop 
Grindal's, wrote to the Secretary [Sir W. Cecil] soon after 
the Synod, as " a great Papist," but yet in the Convocation : 
and was aftervv^ards reproved by a Popish writer, as dissemb- 
ling in religion against his conscience. That Bridgwater 
produced one proxy, and Cotterell three. 

And these were they, who helped to stop the Reformation, and 
retain the Popish ceremonies as a perpetual fountain of offence, 
contention, and division to this very day. Yea, Sampso2nT and 
Humphrey, in Burnet, write, "That many things were 
agreed to in this Convocation, that would have tended to the 
great good of the Church ; but were suppressed," &c. Strype 
also tells us, "That besides these Conforming Papists, there 
were divers others in Convocation of the same character," 

Rev. T. Prince 

i"/^Q Preface to Part II., Section^. 525 

[which he seems to have known, and yet concealed: however, 
by comparing Camden, Burnet, Strype, and Echard, I 
think I have found them.] 


Or from the Rise of the English Reformation, there 
appeared two sorts of people, who divided the 
Church through the successive changes in the reigns 
of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Queen Mary I., and 
Queen Elizabeth. 1. Those, both Protestants and Papists, 
who were so conscientious in their several Religions; as both to 
quit their places, and either fly or suffer when the Public 
Alteration turned against them. 2. Both Protestants and 
Papists in disguise, who, rather than suffer or lose their places, 
openly submitted to the Public Changes ; while they in- 
wardly retained their former principles. 

Of the Former Sort, the more conscientious Papists, re- 
fusing the Oath of Supremacy, lost their preferments ; though 
not many : and some of them, in Henry VIII.'s time, their 
lives ; though none at the stake. Of the more conscientious 
Protestants, many were burnt in the reigns, both of Henry 
VIII. and Mary I.; and many concealed themselves in the 
kingdom. Others fled, as we observed before, but returning 
at Queen Elizabeth's accession, were advanced in the 
Church : who, by disputing, preaching, good life, and writing, 
greatly helped her Reformation ; and would have thoroughly 
reformed her, but were for ever hindered by the Queen and 

As to the latter sort, Echard says, Upon Henry VIII.'s 
beginning the Reformation, All the Bishops, Abbots and 
Priors in England, except Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, 
were so far satisfied, or so unwilling to leave their prefer- 
ments, that they resolved to comply with the changes the 
King was resolved to make : and that the Convocation, the 
Universities, and the inferior clergy renounced the Pope's, 
and owned the King's supremacy. 

Burnet tells us. That in the farther Reformation of 

526 Preface to Part II., Sectiox 2. \^^''-'^-^''^^X 

Edward VI., he could not find one Head of a College, in 
either University, turned out; for though they generally loved 
the old superstition, yet they loved their places much better : 
and indeed, the whole Clergy did so readily conform to every 
change, that it was not easy to find colours \cxcuscs\ for turn- 
ing out Bonner and Gardiner. 

Upon Queen Mary's accession, Burnet says, All who 
adhered to the Reformation were sure to be excluded all 
favour ; and that the Reformed Bishops of St. Davids, 
Exeter, and Gloucester [who were Farrar, Coverdale, 
and Hooper], with Taylor, Philpot, Bradford, Crome, 
Sanders, Rogers, and Lawrence, in their paper of May 
1554, declare ** that the Universities were their open enemies, 
and condemned their cause; contrary to the Word of GOD, 
and the determinations they had made in King Edward's 
time." Fuller says, That on October 18, the Convocation 
meeting, there were found but Six therein who opposed the 
re-duction [restoration] of Popery; and that all the Bishops, 
but thirteen, returned to it. Archbishop Parker, in Bur- 
net and EcHARD, says, " That of the 16,000 clergymen then 
in the Nation, about 12,000 were turned out for being 
married:" but by Doctor Tanner's account, in Burnet, 
there were not above 3,000, for that cause, ejected. 

4,000 or more then, of King Edward's Clergy seem to keep 
their places in Queen Mary's reign ; and the vacancies of the 
others must needs be filled with the most zealous Papists. 

Upon Queen Elizabeth's being proclaimed in London : 
EcHARD says. The joy of the City was such as gave the 
melancholy priests just cause to fear a new Revolution in 
religious affairs, That the priests were forced to vent their 
griefs in private corners, And the Queen had reason to ex- 
pect the Clergy, and those employed in the late reign, would 
oppose the change. From Strype, we learn that her First 
Convocation meeting January 24, 1559, both votes for Popery, 
and beseeches her not to change it. 

May 20, 1559, Cox, in Burnet, writes, " That the Clergy 

Rev.T.Prince.J PreFACE TO PaRT II., SeCTION 2. 527 

Stand as stiff as a rock, and not' one of them is yet come over 
[i.e., from Popery to the Reformed religion]." May 22, Jewel, 
in Burnet, writes, "Besides those who had always been our 
enemies, the Deserters who left us in the former reign are 
now our most bitter enemies ; and the Universities are uni- 
versally corrupted." June 24, Queen Elizabeth's Act of 
Uniformity takes place ; when the English Common Prayer 
Book is to be used through the Kingdom, upon pain of 
loss of benefices and promotion. The like loss are they also 
subject to, who refuse the Oath of the Qneen^s Supremacy.^ 

And now / the sudden change.^ For Strype informs us, That 
soon after this, the Queen's Commissioners go through the 
kingdom to administer the Oath, and see the Act of Uniformity 
observed. And then Echard, from Camden and Burnet, 
tells us. That Oath of Supremacy was offered to the Popish 
Bishops and all other Ecclesiastical persons ; that as many 
as refused the Oath, were turned out of all their preferments : 
and that of the 9,400 benefices then named in England, 14^ 
Bishops, 6 Abbots, 12 Deans, 12 Archdeacons, 15 Heads of 
Colleges, 50 Prebendaries, and 80 Rectors of parishes [but 
189 in all] was the whole number that were deprived, or, as 
Bishop Burnet expresses it, " left their benefices, on the 
account of religion. 

Strype says, That [Sir Simon] D'Ewes's Journal reckons 
but 177 "who left their livings " : but that a volume in the 
Cottonian Library reckons 13 Deans and 14 Archdeacons ; 
and so 192 in all. And that a book (supposed to be Cardinal 
Allen's) reckons 12 Deans, 14 Archdeacons, above 60 
Canons, above 100 Priests, and 20 Doctors. 

Ow there being about 14 Roman Catholic Arch- 
deacons (deprived in 1559); and 15 Protestant Arch- 
deacons (about three years after) in the list above, of 
those who were for removing the ceremonies, and 

= Keeble. 

*> CAiMDEN numbers but 14 Bishops, and yet gives the names of 15. 

528 Preface to Part II., Section 2. \^ 

ev. T. Prince. 

carrying the Reformation further (of whom 10 at least had been 
famous Exiles), it seems that most of the other Archdeacons 
in the Convocation (with others among the Proctors, in pro- 
portion), who stiffly adhered to the ceremonies, were of the 
Popish clergy, Cox had written of, who "stood like rocks" 
till June, 24 or May 20, 1559 ; and then came over, to save 
their places. 

To this account, Camden adds, Most of the Popish priests 
thought it more behoveful for themselves and their religion, 
to sware obedience to the Prince, renouncing the Pope's 
authority ; were it for nothing else but that they might shut 
the Protestants out of their churches, and withal be able 
to relieve the wants of those of their own side who were 
thrust out: and this they thought to be pious wisdom, and 
in a manner meritorious. 

Burnet adds. The Popish clergy, when they saw no 
appearance of any new change, did generally comply with 
the laws then made ; but in so untoward a manner that they 
made it very visible, that what they did was against their 
heart and conscience. So compliant were the Papists gener- 
ally, and indeed the Bishops, after this time, had the same 
apprehension of the danger into which religion was brought 
by the jugglings of the greatest part of the clergy, who 
retained their affections, to the old superstition, which those 
in King Edward's time had. And Echard adds, " It was 
strongly believed that the greatest part complied against 
their consciences; and would have been ready for another 
turn, if the Queen had died, while that race of incumbents 
lived, and the next Successor had been of another religion." 

But every knowing reader may likewise add, That as this 
is indeed agreeable to the common practice of mankind in 
public Changes of Religion, as well as the known characters of 
that race of Ministers who kept their places in those religious 
revolutions ; so if preferments kept the lovers of the Popish 
superstition in the Church : for the same reason these pre- 
ferments would successively draw in their relatives, friends, 

Kev. T. Piiiice 

';;a PKiii-ACE TO Part I/., Sectiox 1^. 529 
and others, of the same principles and spirit; who would be 

but's 00" T "" '' '"^.^"■'"^- ^^^^---tion/ And .f v" low 
but 8,000 clergymen in England, which is but half Archbishop 
Parker's number: then thirty-nine to one of those stiff 
Roman Cathohcs at that time conformed to keep their pa es 
And these, with their successors, were the High FK-inc. Party 
m the Church, stiff adherers to the old Popfsh ce'r em^nfes^ 
opposers of a thorough Reformation, and haters of those who 
laboured for it. It is, therefore, rather a wonder thaTso 
many Reformers got into the Convocation of 1562-3 Ld 
that so many joined with them in the Purity of Doctrine as 
expressed in the original of the Thirtynine Articles ' 

Uxas Fuller tells us, "Though none of these ^.^eV/.s 
were ratified by Pariiament till nine years after; yet 
the^ Bishops conceiving themselves empowered by 
their Canons, begin to show their authority in urgin- 
the Clergy to subscribe to the Liturgy, Ceremonies, and Dis^ 

"Z^n. '' a'"/!" '' ^;f-^"''' ^'' ^'^""^'^ '^'"'^ the name of 
i^n 1 ] . ""^ '^'^ ^'"^^ ^^^■^^^^^' the Church is divided 

le ain nr,r° ^^'''"'■' ^^^ '^' CONFORMITANS, who were for 
letaining these unscriptural Ceremonies; (b) the Puritans 

veZr T''^""^ '^''''' ""^ '''''y''''^ the Reformation to 
perfection ; conforming her entirely to Scriptural rule ; and 
leducmg her to the Apostolical purity in Disciplin and 
Worship, as well as Doctrine. 

(a) Of the CONFORMITANS, there were these two sub- 

1. The High Flyers were for retaining them as things they 
thought venerable for antiquity; though not brought into the 
Church in the Apostles' times, but after she declined from her 
primitive simplicity : as also on the account of their imagined 

frrZ !''';/^'^? ^"^^^^''"'»^' they judged them expedient to 
be added to the Christian Institution. 

2. Others were more low and moderate, as being of the 
^^21 c^r ^""^ ^''''' '^''^' '^^ ^"^"^tans ; but were for 

£.V0. G.!R. II. 


530 Prki ACE TO Part II., Section 2. ['''^^•'^•^7;^^: 

retaining them, at present, for prudential reasons only: partly, 
to gain the Papists, of whom there were then great numbers 
in the kingdom ; and partly in submission to the Queen, who 
appeared fond and zealous for pomp and ceremony in religious 
matters ; but were in hopes of removing them afterwards, as 
appears by Bishop Jewel's, Bishop Horne's, and Bishop 
Grindal's Latin letters, in Strype and Burnet. The 
Puritans therefore found themselves embarrassed not only 
with the High Flying Party in that and the following reigns ; 
but even the Queen herself and her successors James I. and 
Charles I. were their continual prosecutors. 

As to Queen Elizabeth, Camden tells us, " That to seven 
Protestants; she chose thirteen others into her Privy Council, 
who were of Queen Mary's Council before, and of the same 
religion with her. That she had no contemptuous {i.e., she 
had a high] opinion of the cross, of the Virgin Mary and the 
saints [i.e. ,thesaintscanonizedby Popes, and worshipped by Papists] ; 
and would not suffer others to speak unreverently of them." 
Jewel, in Burnet, on April 10, 1559, laments, "The want of 
zeal in promoting the Reformation, that the Queen had 
softened the Mass much; but there were many things amiss 
left in it ; and that she could not be prevailed upon to put the 
crucifix out of her chapel." And Echard says, " She loved 
magnificence in religion, which made her inclinable to some 
former ornaments^ and even images in Churches." Yea, she 
grew so superstitous, that when she was above sixty years 
old, and her decaying nature required it, yet she would not eat 
a bit of flesh for the forty days of Lent, as being against the 
Canons ; without a solemn license from her own Archbishop 
Whitgift [who depended wholly on her, for the power to 
grant it]: nor would she be easy with one general license, but 
must have it renewed every year, for several years before she 
died; as we learn from Fuller. At first, indeed, she 

^ Burnet has called them, some old Rites her- father had retained 
[7C'//!c/i were crucifixes, lights, S^^c^ : but ECHARD gives them the finer 
name of Ornaments. 

Ucv. T. Princ 


T^^'] Preface to Paj^t //., Sect/ox 2. 531 

indulged the Puritans ; who were known to be her steady 
friends : but on January 25, 1564-5, she began to grow 
severe upon them ; and Archbishop Parker, with some other 
Bishops, followed her directions : yea, when she and her 
Council flagged, the Archbishop stirred them up to give him 
further power to vex them. 

He Puritans seemed, at first, for retaining Episco- 
pacy in the Diocesan form, in general ; for they 
accepted of Prebendships, Archdeaconries, Deaneries, 
Bishoprics; and GRiNDAL.of an Archbishopric: though 
they knew these were not of Divine appointments, yet they 
seemed to judge them as prudential methods for preserving 
order ; and so interwoven with the national Constitution, that 
they could not well be sundered. 

But they insisted, That the Hierarchy ought to be reformed. 
That the Spiritual Courts, the Commissary Courts, the Courts 
of Faculties, &c., invented in the times of Popery, and 
managed according to the Canon Laws, which are the Decrees 
of Popes (almost infinite in number, all with their processes 
in Latin, and exceedingly intricate), who, for money, gave 
out licenses and dispensations even from the said Laws them- 
selves, and change the penances for crimes for money, &c. : 
that these offences to pious people be removed. That non- 
residences of Ministers in their parishes, with their plurality 
of benefices, be disallowed. And that the godly "Discipline" 
in the primitive Church, so often wished for in the Common 
Prayer, might be revived, and exercised not according to the 
Pope's decrees, but according to the Scriptures only. That 
Ecclesiastical Measures be merely spiritual, and for none but 
crimes condemned in Scripture. That the power of choosing 
Parish Ministers, before they be presented by the patrons to 
the Bishops for ordination, be restored to the parochial 
churches. And that their Ministers and Churchwardens be 
allowed to admonish and suspend immoral members from 
their communion. 

532 Preface to Part II., Section 2. {'^"''■'^'^"Tn'X 

If now, the unscriptural parts of the Common Prayer had 
been removed, or the ceremonies left indifferent; the Popish 
habits changed for more comely garments ; the Pope's 
decrees, with the Inquisition oath called ex officio^ abolished ; 
and the Hierarchy thus reformed : the general frame of 
Diocesan Episcopacy had, no doubt, remained untouched ; 
and almost all the People of England had continued in it 
without uneasiness. 

But the Queen, with some of the superior Clergy, opposing 
such a Reformation ; they employ their power to crush the 
Puritans : by requiring their Ministers' Subscription to the 
habits, the ceremonies in the Common Prayer, All the Articles 
and the Queen's Injunctions, though the Parliament had yet 
appointed no Subscription. 

Upon this, as Strype relates. Those two eminent men of 
Oxford, and Heads of the chief Colleges, Doctor Sampson, 
Dean of Christ's Church, with Dr. Humphrey, President of 
Magdalen College and Regius Professor of Divinity, appear 
at the head of the Puritans. In March, 1564-5, Doctor 
Sampson is deprived ; and about 30 [Neal, from Strype's 
Life of Parker, says 37] Ministers in London alone, are 
suspended, and some of them deprived. 

And thus the severities on the Puritans begin: wherein 
some of the Ministers were suspended, some deprived, some 
are fined, some imprisoned. Yea, in 1566, Sampson and 
Humphrey, in Burnet, write that *' Many of the people 
are put in prison ; because they would not provide Godfathers 
and Godmothers for baptizing their children." 

But while the Puritan Ministers are deprived, the Papists 
comply and triumph; and an author, whom Strype supposes 
was Sir T. Smith or Secretary Sir William Cecil, says, 
that " In 1569 and before. Papists were frequent in Church, 
in Court, in Place ; that Popish priests still enjoy the great 

^ By the oath ex officio, the swearers were obhged, on oath, before the 
Ecclesiastical Courts, to answer every question proposed, both against 
themselves and others ; or go to prison. 

Rev. T. Prince 

;';76;] Preface to Part II., Section 2. 

Ecclesiastical livings, without recantation or penance yea 
in simoniacal heaps, Cathedral Churches are stuffed with 
them ; the very spies and promoters of Queen Mary's time 
are cherished, &c." Yea, Strype informs us, That notwith- 
standing the repeated risings of the Papists against of the 
Queen m 1569 and 1570, defacing and tearing Bibles, &c • 
she, on June 15, 1570, - declared in the Star Chamber, that she 
would not have any of their consciences unnecessarily sifted, 
to know what affection they had to the old religion." 

However, the more the Puritans suffer, the more the people 
search the Scripture ; to which appeals are made in these 
religious matters : and the more they grow acquainted with 
this inspired Rule of Worship, the more they discover of the 
Popish superstitions, the more they abhor them, the more 
they prefer the Divine Institutions, the more pure they de- 
sire the Worship of the Church to be. And Strype informs 
us, " That the Puritans grew, both in city and country • 
and not only the lower sorts, but also in the Universities "— 
"That, in December, 1565, the Fellows and Scholars in St. 
John's College in Cambridge, with the Allowance of Doctor 
LoNGWORTH, the Master, to the number of nearly 300, 
threw off the surplice, with one consent. That in Trinity 
College, all but three, by Master Cartwright's [influ. 
ence] ; and many in other Colleges, were ready to follow their 

And from Fuller, and Strype, we learn, "That the 
House of Commons, in the Parliaments of 1566, 1571, 1572, 
I575> 1580, 15S5, and 1587 laboured earnestly for a further 
Reformation ; but the Queen would never allow it." 

The only Act that established the Articles in that, and the 
Two following reigns, was made in 1571 ; and yet this Act 
takes so much care of the Puritans, as to require no more of 
the Ministers, than to declare their assent, before the Bishop of 
the diocese, to all the Articles of Religion which Only concern 
the Confession of the true Christian Faith, and the Doctrine of the 
Sacraments, comprised in the book imprinted, cntitnlcd Articles &c.; 

534 Pkki'ACE to Part //., Section 2. [R--'''''^- 


and to subscribe the same. " Yet now," Fuller says, " the 
Bishops urge Subscription to the Thirly-nine Articles more 
severely than before : " and Strype, that "by force of this 
Act, many Ministers were deprived in this, and the following 

The Puritan Ministers were indeed as ready as any to sub- 
scribe, according to the Act, i.e., To all the Articles of Re- 
ligion ic'A/c/i Only concern the Confession of the true Christian 
Faith, and the Doctrine of the Sacraments ; which are commonly 
called the *' Doctrinal Articles." Yet, under colour of this 
Act, the Bishops deprive them for not subscribing to All the 
others, without exception. 

'Ut the Queen and Bishops growing more severe on 
the Puritans, it only alienates them more from the 
Hierarchy, as well as the Ceremonies ; and turns 
their minds to the Presbyterian Discipline. And 
though many of their clergy were deprived and silenced ; yet 
many others, by the favour of several great men in Court and 
Council,''^ stay in their places, upon using the less offensive 
parts of the Liturgy, without Subscription. 

And now Bancroft and CowELLt" tell us, " That on 
November 20, 1572, this Puritan part of the Clergy began to 
erect a Presbytery at Wandsworth, in Surrey," which, 
Fuller says, " was the First Born of all the Presbyteries in 
England," and names sixteen of the Clergy belonging to it. 
That May 8, 1582, there was a Synod of three score Ministers 
[i.e. , Church Ministers] of Carnhndgeshire, Suffolk, and Norfolk, 
at Cockfield, in Suffolk; and, the summer following, another 
in Cambridge at the Commencement. That, on April 10, 
1588, there was another of the Warwickshire Classis at 
Coventry. That, by September i, 1590, the Presbyterian Dis- 

^ Such as the Earl of Leicester, Sir