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** Thtf who are letrntac to compote uid amnse their leoteoces with teeariey 
•atf Ofder, era leaniBS, et the «aine time, (o think with Mcuincy and order.** 











,„-,.i*A»ii) coutar uittnAKY . 

(alfl Of IHI 

t.^.- , 

^ /**•-. 




When the numbep aod variety of EngVlsli Grammari already 
pabliRbeU, and tbe ability with which some of them &re written* 
are considered, little ran be expected from a new compilalijn, 
, besides a careAif selection of the most useful matter* and some 
degree of improyement in the mode of adapting it to the un- 
derstanding* and the gradual progress of learners. In these re- 
spects something, perhaps, maj yet be done, for the ease and 
advaatage of young persons. 

In books designed for the instraetion of youth; there is a me- 
dium to be observed, between treating the subject in so eiten* 
sive and minute a manner, as to embarrass and confuse their 
minds, by offering toe much^at once for their comprehension ; 
and, on the other hand, condaeting it by such short and gene- 
ral precepts and observations, as convey to them no clear and 
precise information. A distributien of the parts, which is ci- 
ther defective or irregular, has also a tendency to perplex the 
young understanding, and to retard its knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of literature. A distinct general view, or outline, of all 
the essentia] parts of the study m which they are engfa^ed ; a 
gradual and judicious supply of this outline ; and a due arrange- 
ment of the divisions, according to their natural order and con- 
nexion, appear to be among the best means of enliehtening the 
minds of youth, and of facilitating their acquisition of knowledge. 
The author of this work, at the same time that he has endea- 
▼oured to avoid a plan, which may be too concise or too ex ten* 
sive, defective in its parts or irregular in thek disposition, has 
studied to render his subject sufficiently easy, intelligible, and 
comprehensive. He does dot presume to have completely at- 
tained these objects. How far he has succeeded in the attempt, 
and wherein he has failed, roust be referred to the determina- 
tion of the judicious and cs^1did reader. 

The method which he has adopted, of exhibiting the per- 
formance in characters of different sizes, will, he trusts, be con- 
ducive to that gradual and regular procedure, which is so favoura- 
nle to the business of instructioRv The more important rules, 
definitions, and observations, and whicYi are tlierefore the most 
proper to be committed to memory, are printed with a larger 
type ; whilst rules and remarks that are of less consequence 
ihat extend or diversify the general idea, or that serve as ex- 
PkmatioDSy are contamed ia the smaller Icfler : these, or the 


ehief of them, will be penised uy the student to the greatest 
advantage, if postponed till the general system be roiopleted. 
T)>e use of notes and observations, in the common and detached 
manner, at the bottom of tbe page, would not, it is imagined, 
be so likely to attract tbe perusal of youth, or admit of so am- 
ple and regular an illustration, as a continued and uniform order 
of the several subjects, lo adopting this mode, care has beeo 
taken to adjust it so that the whole may be perused in a r>on- 
nectqd progress, or the part contained in tbe larger character 
read in order by it self. Many of the notes and observations are 
intended, nor only (o explain the suljects, and to illustrate 
tliein« by conij>arative views of the grammar of other languages, 
<.jd of the various sentiments of English grammarians ; but also 
tc 'nviie the ingenious student to mquiiy and reflection, and to 
prouipt to a more eolargcd, critical, and philosophical research « 

V\ Tn respect to the deOnitions and rules, it may not be im- 
prfiner njore particularly to observe, that in selecting and 
lOMiiing them, it has beeii the author's aim to render them aa 
exad and compreliensive, and, at the same time, as intelli- 
Z}h{f to young minds, as the nature of the subject, and the dif* 
mMj lies attending it, would admit/ He presumes that they are 
alsr calculated to be readily committed to memory, and easlTy 
retained. For this purpovse, he has been solicitous to si^lect 
terms thai are saiot^th and voluble; to proportion the mem- 
bers of the senrenct's to one another.; to avoid protracted pe* 
riods ; and to give the whoic detlnitiou or rule, as much harmony* 
of expression as he could devise. 

From tbe sent iinenl generally admitted, that a proper selec- 
tion of faulty composition is more instructive to the young 
grain luariau, than any rules and examples of propriety that 
can be given, the Compiler has been induced to pay peculiar 
attention to this part of the subject ; and though the instances 
of falsp crauiniar, under the rules of Syntax, arc numerous, it is 
boped they will not be found too many, when their rariety and 
usefulness are considered. 

I> a work which professes itself to be a compilation, and 
which, from the nature and des^ign of it, must consist chiefly 
of materials selected from the writings of others, it is scarcely 
necessary to apologize for the use which the Compiler has made 
of his predecessors' labours; or for omitting to insert their 
names. From the alterations which have been frequently made 
in the sentiments and the languas;e, tosuit the connexion, and to 
adapt them to the particular purposes for which they are intro* 
duct'd , and, in many instances, from the uncertainty to whom 
^he passages originally belonged, the msertion of names could 
seldom be made wi*h propriety. But if this could have been 
generally done, a work of ihis nature would derive no advantage 
nroiB it, equal to the mcoaveuienee of crowding tbe p^es wiul 

» repcHtioB of mmc« anA reierenres. Tt is. hoircver. propec 
to art|nowledge. in ;en(!ral. terms. Ihat tho'i tn itrmit 
the gramma.] ica I part of this. compiJa lion i-i i)riiii-i|):i!l/ luil<'l>leil 
br itB materials, are flarri^, JuIjiisuu, Loirtli, I'rie^ll'ey, BeU< 
tie, Sheridan, Walker, and Coote. 

Tnr. Rules and Ohwrvatioin rcRpecllng Perspicuit)', &o. con- 
taioed in the Apueudix, atid which arp, chitfly, cKrarleH fmin 
the nritlass of Blair and Camphell, mil, it U prestim«<l, liirm » 
proper adaitioD to the Grammar. The eubjerts are very nearly 
related ; and the stady of perspiituity and acciirac/ in writing, 
^tpears naluraltj la fbtlow that of Orainniar. A conipf t<>ut 
arqnaintance with the principles of hotb, will prepare and 
qualify tbe studenti, (or prosecutiof those addiliimal iiiiprove- 
menU io laa^age, to which tbey mar be properiv ilirecied. 

Or- tbe utility and impnrtacre of the study of Grainiuar, and 
the priDciplea of CMiipo>iitiun, murh might be adrancetl, for the 
encouragement of persoos in earlj life to apply thernselres 
to this branch of learning ; but an the limits of thii Iniroduc- 
tioa will Dot allow of many obiervations on the tuhjerl, k 
few leadioji lentimeDtn are alt thai can he admitted here 
with propriety. At words are the signs of our ideas, aiu( 
the inediiim by which we jterceive the sentiments of otlien. 
and communicate our own; and as signs exhibit the things 
which they are intended to represpnt, more or lens acciiralely, 
•crordtng as their real or eslabliKhedmnfiirmilylo those thing* 

>_ ._._ . . jj jj, trident, that in proportion to our 

■e and properties of wonts, of (heir rcla- 

heir established cni^ikeiioD with tbe 

Iir4. will be tbe certainly aod ease, 

lur seniimeitts into tbe mmdi of one 

nt a competent knovledre of this 

be in hazard of mituoderstandiitz 

iderstood' ourselves, 1 1 may indeed 

many of the ditferencei in opinion 

aniongBl men, with tbe disputes, contentions, am) alienation! 

^f bean, which have too often proceeded t>Din such djirereitres, 

have heeo occasioned by a want of pro)ier skill in the connevon 

and meaning of words, and by a teoaciou* misapplicatiitn of lan- 


Unb of the best supports, wb)ch the recoRiraendalion of tbii 
tlndy can receive, iu small compass, oiay be derived from tbe 
fellowii^ sentiments of ab eminent and candid writer'' on htn- 
gna^e and compositioi). " All that regards the study of com- 
^ po-ition, merits the hiKber attention upon this accoimt. ibafc 
" It ic intimately coimectcdivithtlie improTeioeut of our in^e^ 
■ lectual powers. Kor 1 must he altowed 'u say, thai when wei 
"*■ we am^l^ed, af tn a proper maoBer, in the stud; of cuni!^ 
• Bluir 


:# 1NTK01>1J€TIOV 

* ittion, we are eulttTaliog the understandiog itself. The sttiify 
*^of arraiigUig and expressing our thoughts trilh propriety;^ 
•• ♦naches to Uiink, as weJl as to speak, accurately/' 

Before the close jof this Introdiictioji, it may not be super^ 
fliious to observe, that the author of the following work has no 
interest in it. but that which arises from the hope, that it will 
prove of some advantage to young persons, and relieve the la* 
hours of those who are employed in their education. He wishes 
to promote, in some degree, the cause of virtue, as well as of 
learning ; and, with this view, he has been studious, through the 
whf'le of the work, not only to avoid every example andillus* 
tratiou, which might have an improper effect on the minds of 
youth ; but ai«o to introduec, on many occasions^ si;ch as have a 
moral and religious tendency. His attention to objects of so 
cuch importance will, he trusts^ meet the approbation of every 
well-disposed reader. If they were faithfully regarded in all 
hooks of ediu-atioii, they woiild doubtless contribute very mate* 
rially to the order and happiness of society, by guarding the in^ 
iiM>cence and- cherishing tlie virtue of the rising generation. 

Hotd^ate, near York^ 170^. 



The eighth edition of this grammar received eonsiderable at* 
teratious and additims : but works of this nature admit of re* 
peated improvements; and are, perhaps, never complete. 
The author, solicitous to render his book moi^ worthy of the 
encouraging approbation bestowed on it by the^public, has again 
revised the work with care and sfttcntion. The new edition, he 
hopes, will be found much improved.' The additions, which are 
rery considerable, are, chiefiy, such as are calciilated to expand 
tbe'learner*! views of the subject ; to obviate objections ; and to 
render the study of grammar both easy and interesting. Thi» 
edition contains also a new and enlarged system of parsing; co- 
p.lous lists of nouns arranged according to their gender and num- 
ber ; and many notes and observations, which serve te extendi 
or to explain, particular rules and positions."^ 

» The autlior «)nccives that the occasional strlcturer, dispersed tbroagh 
the book, aod intended to illuitrate and suuport a uumber oi' iffipertaat gram- 
loatical points, will uot, to youi^ persons dT ingenuity, appear to he diy and 
Mselesi:- (uscussdoos. He ia persuaded that, by such penioos, they vrtll be reai 
witii uttcntioa. Aod he presutnes that these strictures will gratify their curi- 
osity, stimulate application, and give solidity 4ud peraranence to thtir grain* 
matical knowledge. In the Octavo edition of th^ graaunar, the reader wili' 
Sod many additional dtBCussioiu olthiiintur«> 

i2o%ate, near IM^ 1804 


The writer is sensible tfiat, after all bis endeaTonrs to elucl^ 
date tbe principles of the work, tbere are few of tbe divisions 
arraogeineots, definitions, or rules, against which critical inge- 
ouity cannot devise plausible objections. The subject is attend* 
ed with so much intrics^ry, and admits of views so various, that 
it was not possible to render every part of it unexceptionable ; 
or to accommodate the work, in all respects, to the opinions 
and prepossessions of every grammarian and teacher. If the 
author has adopi^ed that system which, on the whole, is best 
suited to the nature of the subject, and conformable to the sen* 
timents- of the most Judicious grammarians ; if his reasonings 
and illustrations, respecting particular points, are founded on just 
principles, and tlie peculiarities of the English language ; he has» 
pernaps, done all that could reasonably be expected in a work' 
t\i this nature ; and he may warrantably indulge a hope, that tbe 
took will be still more exteasively approved and circukte<l» 


PA RT I. Orthography. 

CHAP. 1. Of letters. Pagi 

Beet. 1. Of the nature of the letter^ and of m per- 

feet alphaliet. . . . . . . . . la 

2. Geoeral ebservations on the souods of the 

letters. 20 

3. The nature of articulation explained. - » 30 

CHAP, 2. Of syllables^ and the rules for arraf^- 

ing them. ^ 

CHAP. 3. Of words in general, and the rules for' ^ 

spelling them • . . 34 

PART II, Etymoloot 

CHAP. 1. A general view of the parts id speech. 38 

CHAP. 2. Of the articles. ••...•• 41 

CHAP. 3. Of substantives. 

Sect. 1. Of substantives in general. .... 43 

2. Ofgender. . 44 

• 3* Of number. .......... 46 

4. Of case 48 

CHAP. 4. Of adjectives. 

Sect. 1. Of the nature of adjectivet, and the de- 
grees of comparison. *. . 52 
2l Remarks on. the sul^ject of comparison. 54 

CHAP. 5. Of pronouns. , S5 

Sect. 1 . Of the personal pronouns. . • ,55 

2. Of the relatJTe pronouns. . . ,57 

3. Of the adjective pronouns. » • 59 

PHAP* 6. Of verbs. 

Sect 1. Of the nature of verbs-in general. • ^ 

2. Of Bomber and person. . . • 66 

3. Of mood*; and participles. ... 67 
4> Remarks on the potential mood« • ?0 

8«ft 5. Of tN tcBset. . . , ^ . 12 

•> The eoojugar ioa of the attxiUaty 

ircrhs /4i /tatif' sod l* be. • • 78 

7. Tbe auxiliary verta co^gaied in 

tbeir siini^le foriD > with (observations 

oit their peculiar oaturc and force. 87 

8. Tke eoBiHgatiott of regular Ferbs. 91 

9. Observaiioos oo |iasgi?e verba. • 96 

10. (K trr^lar veHw. .... 102 

11. Of detective verbs ; and of the 4ifiereiit 

vray» in which verbs are coojugated. l€^ 

CHAF. 7/ Oi' adverbs. ....... 109 

CHAP. 8. Of prepositions. ..... liS 

CHAP. 9. Of conjunctions. • • « • • 115 

CHAP. 10. or interjections. « • • . . 119 

€UAP« IK Oi' derivation. 

8eet. 1. Of the vanoiif; ways in which words 

are derived from one atidxher. . 119 
% A sketch of the ste;M»^ by which the 
Kn^iish iangaa^« has risen to its 

present state ol rehoement. • 128 

PART m ^SnTTAX. 125 

Of tbe B]nitax of the article. ...••• 151 
Of ttie syntax , of tl^ noun. 

Of several nouns joined by eopolatlTes. • • 130 

Of nounir connected by disjunctives. .. • \ 133 

Of nouns of nmltitude. . . . . . 134 

Of one noun governing another in the possessire case. IM 

Of the S3nntax of the pronoim. 

Of pronouns agreeing with their antecedents. . " 135 

Of the rehHive being nominative to the verb. * 139 
Of the rehitivB preened by nominatives of different 

persons. ... • • • « . 141 

Of the j^tax of the adjective* . . « . . 142 

Of the syntax of the verb. 

Of the verb's agreement with the nominative case. 126 

Of verbs active requiring the objective case. fi9 

Of one verb governing another in the iiffinitive mood* 161 

Of verbs reliSed in point of time. . • • 168 

Of the syntax of the participle* « • • • • 187 

Of the rotes respecting adverbs. 

OfthepotitHmofadverlit. • • • • • 169 

Of two oegatires. • • • • g ! 17f 

Of the syntax oir prepositions. .•*•*•»• 178 

Of the syntax of conjunctions* ^ * 

Of coojuDctioos coDoectiiig the ftaie oioodt, leni<i » 

and eases. . ^ • . . • • ITS 

Of ooojunctioos requiriB|^ tiie tttl»iuiicti?t mood* te* 17t 

Ofthe syntax of inteijections. • • • • • 138 

Of eomparisons by the conjunction tkan or as* 187 

Directions respecting the ellipsis. • • • • 183 

Oeneral rule of syntax. •••*•••« 192 

Directions for parsing. •••••••• 19f 

«BAP. 1. 


CH4P. 1. 
CHAP. 2. 
CHAP* $• 
CHAP. 4» 


Of pronuQCiatioii* • • 

1. Ofaeceat. 

2. Of quantity 

3. Of emphasis. 

4. Of pauses. 

5. Of tones. 

Of versification* •••••• 

Of PvNCTiTAfnoii. 

Of the comma. 

Of the semicolon 

Oftliecolon. ••••••• 

Of the period. ••••••• 

Of the dash, ootes of mterrog^on, 
esdamation, capitalsi Sie. • • 











tingle words andphruies. 
c»AP. U Of fmVf. ..••*#•• r 280 

Ifi CoimufTs. 

CHAP. 2* Of propriety. 251 

CHAP* 3* Of precision. ,«•>••• 267 

PART n. 

Cfperspicmiy and accuracy of expression^ mth respeti t^ 

(he tonHrucHon of sentences. 

CHAP. 1. Of the clearness of a sentence. • 262 

CRAP. 2. Of the unity of a sentence. . • • 267 

CHAP. 3. Of the strength of a sentence. • • 271 

CHAP. 4. Of figures of speech. «. • • • • 2R7 

ADDHCSS 70 TOUNO STlZDfiNTf. . • t « • 908 



JBvGLisH GRAMMAR is the art of speaking aad vrriting 
the English langiis^e with propriety. 
It is divided into four parts, viz. orthogkapuv, 


This division may be rendered more intelligible to the 
fitudent, by observing, in other words, that Grammar treats, 
first, of the form and sound of the letters, the combinatioo 
of letters into syllables, and sj-llables into words ; secundlyf 
of the different sorts of words, their various q^oditications, 
and their derivation ; thirdly^ of the union and right order 
of words in the formation of a sentence ; and laatlt/, of the 
just pronunciation, and poetical construction of sentences. 




Section 1. Of the nature of the letters, and of a perfect 


Orthography teaches the nature and powers of let- 
ters, and the just method of spelling words. 

A letter is the first principle, or least pait, of a 

The letters of the English language, called the En- 
glish Alphabet, are twenty-six in number. 

These letters are the representatives of certain ar- 
ticulate sounds, the elements of the language An ar- 
ticulate sotmd, is the sound of the human voice, formed 
i>7 the organs of speech. 

14 d^atisu GiuuiKAft. 

The following isr d list of the Anglo-Saxon, Romtn, Italic 

and Old English Characters. 






f • 

Old English, 











































































































































































































































A permit ilpbabet of the EagMsh langiiagef an^t in* 
deed, of every other language, woaH contain a number 
of letters, preci.«ely equal to the number of simple arti- 
tulate sounds belonging to ^e language. Kvery simple 
sound would have its distiqct character ; and that charac* 
ter be the representative of no other sound. But this 
is far from being the state of the English alphabet. It has 
more original sounds than distinct signiticant letters ; and, 
consequently, some of the^e letters are made to repre- 
sent, not one sound alone, but several sounds. This wiU 
appear by reflecting, that the sounds signified by the 
united letters' ^A, shy ng, are elementary, and have no sin- 
gle appropriate characters, in omt alphabet : and that the 
letters a and u represent the different sounds heard in 
katy hate, hall ; and in but^ bully ntule. 

To explain this subject more fully to the learners, we 
shall set down the characters made use of to represent all 
the elementary articulate sounds of our language, as 
nearly in the manner and order of the present Enghsh 
alphabet, as the design of the subject wdl admit ; and shal] 
annex to eadi character the syllable or word, which con- * 
tains its proper and distinct sound. And here it will be 
proper to begin with the vowels* 

Letters deriotiug ttie 
simple souodb. 



By this list it appears> that there are in the Englisn 
language fourteen -simple vowel soujids : but as i and t*, 
when pronounced long, maybe considered as diphtbong^^ 

as heard 


liinple souadk 










































Elf6l4al| aftAMIttlR. 

or dif bth(»Bi^W<>i>t^k4 our lai^nage ^ «tn<$ty ^pc^ings coix 
taiQs but twelve simple voweJ sounds ; to^ef)Feseiit whicit , 
we have only five distinct characters or letters, If a in 
far^ is the same specific sound as a in fat ; and ti in buU, 
the same as o in moi^e^ which is the opinion of soine 
grammarians; then there are but ten origtnai vowel 
soundii in the English language. 

The ibliowing h^t denotes the sounds of the consonants, 
being in number twenty-two. 

Letters denoting tiie , 
liiBple Bouads. 

b , 









z , 




tK ' 

Several letters marked in the English alphabet, as con 
eonants, are either supeVfluous,. or represent, not simple, 
imt complex sounds. C, for instance, is superfluous in 
both its sounds ; the one being expressed by k, and the 
other by s. G, in the soft pronunciation, is not a simple, 
but a complex sound ; as age is pronounced aidge, J is 

♦ Some gnmmariam suppose h to mJirk only an asj^iration, or hrejithinc: 
h'lt it appears to be a distinct eound, and formed in a narticulTir mariiier, by 
ttie orcant of speech. Entydgpatdiia Brikamm 

Wordf contaiininfi; thff 

Nmple MuiidB. 

as heard 


bay, tub 

as , 


day, sad 



off, for 


ih , 

van, love 



egg, go 



hop, ho 



kilU oak 



lap, all 



my, mum 



no, on 



pin, map 



rap, cry 



so, lass . 



zed, buzz 



top, mat 



wo, will 



ye, yes 



ing, sing 



shy, ash 



thin, thick 



then, them 




unDec^ssary, because it»8ound, and that of tbe 9oA gy are ia 
our language the same. Q, with its attendant u, is either 
complex, and resolvable into kw, as in quaiity ; or onnecei* 
kiry, because its sound is the same with A:, as in opaqu$. 
JT is compounded of gi^ as in example; or of ks^ as in expect. 

From the preceding representation, it appears to be a 
^int of considerable importance, that every learner of 
the English language should be taught to pronounce per* 
/ectl J, and with facility, every original simple sound that 
belongs to it. By a timely and judicious care in this re* 
spect, the voice will be prepared to utter, with ease and 
accuracy, every combination of sounds; and taught to 
avoid that confused and imperfect manner of pronouncing 
words, which accompanies, through life, many persons 
who have not, in this respect) been properly instructed 
at an early period. 

lietters are divided into Vowels and Consonants. 

A"\ owelis an articulate sound, that can be perfectly 
uttered by itself: as, a, e, o; which are formed without 
the help of any other soimd. 

A Consonant is an articulate sound, wliich cannot 
be perfectly uttered without the help of a vowel : asr, 
ii d^ ft I> which require vowels to express them fully. 

The vowels are, c, e, i, o, w, and sometimes w and y- 

fV and y are consonants when they begin a word oi 
syllable ; but in everj' other situation they are vowels. 

It is generally acknowledged by the best grammarians, 
that 'WdLod^ are consonants when they begin a syllaWe or 
word, and vowels wherf they end one. That they are 
eoosonants, when, used as initials j seems to-be evident 
from their not admitting the article un before them, as it 
would be improper to say, an walnp*^ aa yard^ &c. ; and 
from their - following a vowel wii&out any hiatus or diflS 
ciilty of utterance ;^ as, frosty winter, rosy youth. .That they 
are vowels in other situations, appears from their regularly 
taking the sound of other vowels ; as, w has the exact sound 
oftt m saw, few, now, &c.; and y that of i,in hymn, fly,, 
crystal, &c. See the letters W and Y, pages 30 and 31.*^ 

r£All¥'i EotMeli Dktiooaiyf Hdace, page 1, 

B 2. 


We present the following as more exact and phUosoplii* 

ijaj d^iinition^ of a vowel and consonant 

A vowel is a simple, articulate sound, perfect in itself 
and ibrmed by a continued effusion of the breath, and a 
certain conformation of the mouth, without any alteration 
in the position, or ai^ motion of the organs of speech, 
from the moment the vocal sound commences, till it ends, 

A consonant is a simple, aiticulate sound, imperfect by 
itself, but which, joined with a vowel, forms a complete 
sound, by a particular motion or contact of the organs of 

Some grammarians subdivide vowels into the simple and 
the co/apounoL But there does not appear to be any 
foundation for the disUnctionu Simplicity is essential to 
the nature of a vowel, which excludes every degree of 
mixed or compound sounds. It requires, according to 
the definition, but one cqnfor-mation of the organs of 
speech, to form it, and no motion in the organs, whilst 
it is forming. 

Consonants are divided into mutes and semi-vowels. 

The mutes cannot be sounded at all, without the 
aid of a vowel. They are b, p, t^ rf, Ar, and c and g 

The semi-vowels have an imperfect sound of tht^m- 
selves. They are/, /, w, n^ r, t), «, z, x,' and c and^ 
soft. - 

Four of the senM-vowels, namely, f, m, n, r, are also 
distinguished by the name of liguidsy from their readily 
uniting with other consonants, and flowing as it were 
mio their sounds. 

We have shown above, that it is essential to the natnre 
«f a consonant, thatt it cannot be fully uttered without 
the aid of a vowel. W^ may further observe, that even 
the ncnnes of the consonanu, as they are pronouiiced in 
reciting the alphabet, require tK^ help of vowels to ex- 
pres.^ ihem. In pronouncing the inoiies of the mutes, 
the assistant vowels folU/w the consonants: as, be, pe, U^ 
de ka. tn pronouncing the names of the semi-vowels, 
the vowels generally praccc/c the consonants : as, ef, el, em^ 
tn, c^r, €*, ex. The exceptions are, ce, ge, ve, zed. 

This distinction between the tuUure and the noiM «f a 

ftft¥Se&IUPR¥« 19 

consoiMiDt, IS of great importance, and should be well 
explained ^o the pupil They are frequeotly conibunded 
by writers on grammar. Observations and reasonings oa 
the name, are often applied to explain the nature, of a 
coosonaat : and, by this means, the student is led into 
error and perplexity, respecting these elements of lan- 
guage. It should be impressed on his mind, that the 
name of every qonsonant is a complex sound ; but that the 
consonant itself, is always a simple sound. 

Some writers have described the motes and semi- 
vowels, with their subdivisions, nearly in the following 

The mutes are those consonants whose sounds cannot be 
protracted. The semi-vowels^ such whose sounds can be 
continued at pleasure, partaking of the nature ofvowels^ 
from which they derive their name. 

The mutes may be subdivided into pvre and impure* The 
pute are those whose sounds cannot be at all prolonged : 
they are fc,/?, t. The impure, are those whose sounds 
may ba continued, though for a very short space : they 
are d, d, g. 

The semi-vowels may be subdivided into vocal and (W- 
pirated, - The vocal are those which are formed by the 
voice ; the aspirated, those formed by the breath. There 
are eleven vocal, and five aspirated. The vocal are /, »ih 
n, r, V, w^ y, z, thfiaL^ zk, ng : the aspirated, f, A, «, th 
sharp, .sh. 

The vocal semi-vowels nlay be subdivided into pure and 
impure. The pure are those which are formed entirely 
by the voice ; the impure, such as have a mixture of breath 
with the voice. There are seven pure — I, tw, n, r, w, y, 
ng ; four impure — v^ z^ th flat, zh. 

A diphthong is the union of two vowels, pronounced by 
a si niple impulse of the voice; as m in beat, ou in sound. 

A trij^thong is the union of thro ^^ vowels, pronounced 
in like manner; as, tau m beau, iew in view. 

A proper diphthong is that in \v*liich both the vowels 
are sounded; as, oi in voice, ou m oiince. 

An improper diphthong has but one of the vowels 
soun led ; as, en in e?igle, oa in boat. 

Each of the diphthongal letters was, aoiibtlcss, orig'- 

nally heard in pronouncing the words which contaih theA 
Though this is not the case at present, with respect to 
> many of them,. these combinations still retain the name of 
diphthongs ; hut, to distinguish them, they are marked by 
the term improper. As the diphthong derives its name 
iind nature from its soupd, and not from its letters, and 
properly denotes a double vowel sound, no union of two 
Towels, where one is silent, can, in strictnese, be entitled 
to that appellation ; *and the single letters i and u, wheir, 
pronounced long, must, in this view, be considered as . 
diphthongs. The triphthongs, having at most but two 
fiounds, are merely ocular, and are, therefore, by some 
grammariaps, classed with the diphthongs. 

Section 2« General observations on the sounds of 

the letters. 

jf has four sounds ; the long or blender, the broad, the 
jBhort or open, and the middle. 

The long-; as in name, basin, creation. 

The broad; as in call, wall, all. 

The short ; as in barrel, fancy, glass. 
' The middle ; as in far, farm, father. 

The diphthong aa generally sounds like a short in pro- 
per names ; as in Balaam, Canaan, 7$aae ; but not in Baal^ 

Ae has the sound of long e. It is sometimes found id 
Latin words. Some authors retain this form ^ as, aenigma, 
sequator, &c. ; but Others have laid it aside,, and write 
fenigma, Cesar^ Eneas, &c. / 

The diphthong ai has exactly the long slender sound of 
m^ as in pail, tail, &c. ; ^pronounced pale, tale, &c. : excejpt 
plaid, again, raillery, fountain, Britain, and a few others, 

Au is generally bounded like the broad ».: as in taught, 
caught, &c. Sometimes Uke the short or open a ; as in 
aunt, flaunt, gauntlet^ &c. It ha& the sound' of long o in ; 
hautboy ; and that of o short in laurel, laudanum, &o. 

Aw has always the sound of broad a ; a$ in bawl, ^crawl^, 

Ay^ like its near relation a«> is pronounced like ^e loilg^ 
stend^r sowd of 41 ; as in pay^ day^ de^* 


fi Iceeps .one nntaried sound, at the beginming, middley 
Weod of woriis ^ as in baker, number, rhul>arU, ax, 

/hsome i»ord» it is silent ; as in thumb, debtor, $ubtle» 
tc. In others, besides being sUeat, it ieiigtb^PB the &^1 
hble , as ia climb, comb, tomb. 

C has twa different sounds^* 

A hard sound like /t, before a, o, u^ r, /, t ; as in rart, 
eottage, curious, craft, tract, cloth,^6. ; and whes it ends 
a syllable ; as in victim, flaocid. 

A soft sound like « before e, t, and y^ gisnerally ; an in 
centre., fece, civil, cymbal, mercy, &c. It has sometimes 
the soond of sh ; as m ocean, social. 
Cis mute in czar, czarma, victualsv&c 
C, says Dr. Johnson, according to English orthography, 
never ends a word ; and therefore we find in our best dic- 
tionaries, stick, block, publick, politick, &c. But many 
irriters of latter yesg^ omit the k in words pf two or more 
syllables ; and this practice is gaining ground, though it is 
productive of irregularities ; such as writing mimic an4 
mimickry; traffic and -trafficking. : 

Ch is commonly sounded likc^cAi; as in cjhurch. chin, 
chaff, charter : -but |h words derived from the Greek, has 
the sound ofk; as in chymist, scheme, chotus, chyle, dis* 
^h; and in foreign names; as, Achish, Barueh, Enoch, 

Chi Ml some words derived from the French, takes the 
iound ofsh ; as in chaise, chagrin, chevaher, machine. 

Ch in arch, before a vowel, sounds like k ; as in arch* 
angel, archives, Archipelago ; except in arched, archery, 
archer, and arch-enemy : but before a consonant it always 
sounds like tdi ; as in archbishop, ari^hduke, archpresby- 
ier, ^(c Ch k silent in schedule, schism, and yacht. 

D ; 

D keeps one uniform sound, at the beginning, middle, 
and end of words ; as in death, bandage, kindi'ed ; unless 
it may be said to take the sound of ^^ in stuffed, tripped> 
fcc. stuft, tript) &c. 

£ has three, different sounds. 
A long somid; z» invSchepae, glehe, severe, pulley 

\sTjort sotin^ ; ag in mem, bed, clemency. 
Ap obscure and scarcely perceptible sound ; ««, ope% 
lucre, participle. 

It has Bometinfies the sound of middkr a ; as in clerk, 
Serjeant ; and sometimes that of short t; as in England, 
yes, pretty. 

E is always mute at the end of a word, except in mono* 
syllables that have no other vowel ; as, me, he, she : or itt 
substantires derired from the Greek ; ad, catastrophe, epi- 
tome, Penelope, It is used to soften and modify the fore- 
going consonants ; as, force, i*age, since, pbJige : or tc 
lengthen the preceding vowel ; as, can, cane ; pin, pine^ 
rob, robe. 

The diphthong ea is generally sounded like elong ; as ia 
appear, beaver, creature, &c. It has also the sound of short 
e ; as in breath, meadow, treasure. And it is sometimes pro- 
nounced like the long and slender a; as in bear, break, 
great. ' 

Eau has the sound of loiig o ; as in heau, flambeau, pori- 
manteau In beauty and its compounds, it has the sound 
of long u. 

Ei, in general, sounds the same as long and slender a ; as 
in deign, vein, neighbour, &c. It has the sound of long c in 
se'ize, deceit, receive, either, neither, &c. It is sometimes 
pronounced like short i; as in foreign, forfeit, sovereign, &c« 

Eo is pronounced like e long ; as in people ; ^rid sonae- 
times like e short ; as in leopard, jeopardy. It has also the 
sound of sliort u; as in dungeon, sturgeon, puncheon, &c. 

Eu is always sounded like long u or exu i'2n& in fbud, 

Ew is almost always pronounced like long n ; as in few, 
new, dew. * 

£y, when the accent is on it, is always pronounced like 
a long ; as in bey, grey, convey ; except in key, ley, where 
^t is sounded like long e. 

When this diphthong is unaccented, it takes the sound 
of « long; as, alley, valley, barley "^ 


F keeps one pure unvaried sound at the beginning,' mid- 
dle, and end of words; as, fancy, muffin, mischief, &c. • 
except in o/*, in which it has the flat sound ofov; but not 
in compdsiti JD i as, whereof thereof, kc. * We sfaonld ncd 

^Doaaec, a vrhe'i joiotore, a calre'i bmd ; bst »>«riJe*« 
uinture, a calf's head. 


G has two sounds : one bard ; as in gay, go, gno : the 
sther Boi\ ; as in gem, gianL 

At the end of a word it is always hard ; as in bag. snug, 
tog. It i» hard before a, o, ti, I, and r,- as, game, gone, 
guU, glory, grandeur. 

G before e, t, and t/, is sof\; as in genius, gesturCt gin- 
ger, Egypt ; except in get, gewgaw, finger, cra^y, and 
■ame othtirs. 

G is mute before »; as in gnash, sign, foreign, &c. 

Ga, at the end of a word, or 'syllable accented, givei 
Ibe preceding vowel a long sound ; au in resign, impugn* 
oppugn, impregn, impugned j pronounced impune, im* 

Gh, at the beginning of a word, has the' sound of the 
hard g ; as, ghot<l, ghaatly : in the middle, and sometimei 
at the end, it is quite silent j as in I'igbt, high, plough, 

At the end it hasoflen the sound of _/*; as in laugb,'coiigIi, 
tough. Sometimes only the g is sounded ; as in burgh, 

y this letter. Is, as before oliserr- 
and not merely an aspiration. It 
t, horse, Hull. It is seldom mule 
r'ord. It JB always silent aAer r; 

I vowel, is always silent-; as, aht 

the sound of this letter, in roaim 

wordj, and its total silence in others, added to the negu* 

geace of tutors, and the inattention of pupils, it has hap* 

pened, that maaj persons have become almost incapable- 

of acquiring its just and full pronunciation. It is, therefore. 

incumbent on teachers, to be ,particularly careful to inoul- 

Date a clear and distinct utterance of this sound, 


ibasa long sound; as inflne: and a short one ; asinfiH. 

The long sound is alwavri marked by the t final in mono' 

KUabloB ; M tlaia, thine } eKc«Bt give, live. Befoi« r it A 

B4 SN«it9tf GRAMMAR. 

often soiinded Tike a short u ; as flirt, first In some wordli 
it has the soond^of e long^; as in machine, bombazine, m»- 
gazine« • 

The. diphthong ia is frequently somided like ya ; as io 
christian, filial, poniard ; pronounced christ-yan, &c»- tt 
has sometimes the sound of short i; as in carriage, mar* 
rtage, parliament. ' - > , - 

k sounds in general Hke e long'; as in grief, thief, gre* 
iiadien It has also the sound of ]ong«; as in die, pie^ 
lie : ami sometimes that of short i ; ^ in sieve. 

hu has the sound of long u ; as in Meu, adieu, purlieu. . 

/o, when the accent i« upon the first vofrel, forms two 
<!isttnct syllables ; as, priory, violet, violent/ The termi- 
nations tion add sion^ are sounded exactly like the word 
shun ; except when the t is preceded by a or a; ; as in 
uestion, digestion, combustion, mixtion, &c. 

'/"he triphthong iou is sometimes pronounced distinctly in 
two syllables ; as in bilious, various, abstemious. Blit 
these vowels often coalesce into one syllable ; as in pre- 
cious, iactious, noxious. 

, J 

J is pronounced exactly hke soft g ; except in halleb 
jab, where iX is pronounced like y, 


K has the sound of c hard, and is used before e and t, 
where, according to English analogy, c would be soft ; as, 
kept, king, skirts. It is not sounded before n ; as in knife, 
knell, knocker. It is never doubled, except in Habakkuk; 
but c \% used before it, to. shorten the vowel by a double 
consonant ; as, cockle, pickle, sucker. 


L has . always a soft liquid sound; as in love^ billow, 
quarrel. It is sometimes mute ; as in half, talk, psaink 
The custom is to double the /at the end of monosyllables^ $ 
as, mill, will, fall ; except where a difMhoug precedes 
it ; as, hail, toil, soil. 

Ltf, at the end of words, is pronounced like a weak W; 
in which the e is almost mute ; as, table, shuttle. 


M has always the same sound ; as, murmur, monmnaor 
^ ; except in comptroller, which is pronounced controlbr 

^ has two sounds : the one pure ; as in man, net, noble ; 
the other a ringing sound like ng; as in thank, banquet, &c« 

JSF is mute when it ends a syllable, and is preceded by 
fn; as, hymn, solemn, autumn. 

The participial tVi^ must always have its ringing sonnd ; 
as, writing, reading, speaking. Some writers have sup-* 
posed that when m^ is preceded by ingy it should be pro* 
Qouoced in ; as, singing, bringing, should be sounded sing* 
m, bringin : hot as it is a good rule, with respect to pro- 
anaciation, to adhere to the written words, unless ci^stom 
has clearly decided otherwise, it does not seem proper to 
adopt this innovation* 


O has a long sound ; as in note, bone, obedient, over ; 
and a short one ; as in not, got, lot, trot. 
• It has sometimes the short sound of w ; as, son, come« 
attorney. And in some words it is sounded like oo ; as in 
prove ^ move ; ^nd often like oai ; as m nor, for, lord. 

The diphthong oa is tegularly pronounced as the long 
sound of o ,^ as hi boat, oat, coal ; except in broad, abroad, 
groat, where it takes the «oand of broad a ; as, brawd, &c. 

Oe has the sound of single e. It is*sometimes long ; as 
in foetus, Antoeci : and sometimes short ; as in oeconomics, 
fBcnmenical. In doe, foe, sloe, toe, throe, hoe, and billioes. 
His sounded exactly like long«. 

Oi has almost universally the double sound of a broad 
and t long united, as in boy ; as boil, toil, spoil, joint, point, 
anoint : which should never be pronounced as if written 
bile, spile, tile, he. 

Oo almost always preserves its tegular sound ; as in 
lAoon, soon, food. It has a shorter sound in wool, good, 
fi>ot, and a few o^ers. In blood and flood it sounds like 
short tc. Door and floor should always be pronounced as 
tf writ^n dore and flore. 

The diphthong ou has six diflerent sounds. The first 
tnd proper sound is equivalent to im in^own ; as in bounds 
found, surround. 

The second is that of short « ^* as in enough, trouble^ 

Vke third Is that of oo y- as to soup, youth, toumame^. ^ 


. -1 

The fourth ig tliat of long o; u ia (honf^, moaiBi 
poultice. ... 

The &(ih is that of ehort o ; aa in cough, trough. 

The siith is that of awt ; m ia ought, brought, Uwvghk 

Ow is generally sounded like ou in thoa ; aa in brown,- 
doirry, ahower. It has also tbe sound of loag o; as ja 
'sBow, grown, bestow. 

i The diphthong o^ is but anotbec form Ibrai.aad is [«9- 
nounced esactlj bke it. 


P has always the same sound, except, perhaps. Id cup- 
hoard, where it sounds like 6. It is sometimes mute ; «• 
in psalm, psalter. Ptolemy: and between mandf; as, 
tempt, empty, presumptuous. ' 

Pk is generally pronounced like f; as ia [diilosffpl^, 
philanthropy, Philip. 

Id nephew and Stephen, it has the sound of v. In 
apophthegm, phthisis, phthisic, and phthisical, both letten 
are entirely dropped. 

^ . 

Q is always followed by u ; as, quadrant, queen, ^iiir«. 

Qu is Bometimea sounded like k; as, conquer, liquor, 


R has a rongh sound ; as io Rome, river, rage : and a 
emooth oue ; as in bard, card, regard. 

Bm at the end of many words, is pronounced like a wealc 
• • St in theatre, sepulchre, massacre. 

i Has two different sounds. 

T generally sounds, ae in take, tempter. T before m 
when- the accent precedes, sounds like Uk ; as, nature, vir- 
tue, are prononnced, natchnre, ▼irtchue. Ti before a 
Tewel has^e sound of a^ ; as in salvation : except in sucb 
words as ^erce, tiara, &c and unlp$« an s goes before , 
as, question ; and excepting also derivatives from words 
ending id iy ; as, D»gbty, mightier. 

Th has two sounds : die one sofl and flat ; as, thqs^ whe* 
fter, heathen : the other hard and sharp ; as, thing, think, 

Th, at the beginning of words, is sharp ; as in thaok, 
tliick, thunder : except in that, then, thns, thither, and ^ome 
others. 7%, at the end of words, is also sharp ; as, dcath» 
breath, mouth: except in with, booth, beneath, ^c. 

Tfc, in the middle of words, is sharp ; as, panther, ortho- 
dox, misanthrope : except worthy, farthing, brethren, and 
%. few others. 

7?i, between two vowels, is generally flat in words pure- 
ly English; as, father, heathen, together, neither, mother. 
7%, between two vowels, in words from the learned Ian* 
gnages, is generally shai^ ; as, apatiiy, sympathy, Athens, 

1% is sometimes pronounced like simple t ; as, ThomaSi 
thyme, Thames, asthma. 

IT has three sounds, viz. 
A long sound ; as in mule, tube,, cubic, 
A short sound ; as in dull, gull, custard. 
An obtuse sound, like oe / as in bull, full, busheL 
The strangest deviation of this letter from its natural 
sound, is in the words busy, business, bury, and burial ; 
which are pronounced bizzy, bizness, berry, and berriaL 
A is now often used before words beginning with u long, 
and an always before those that begin wi^h u short ; as, a 
union, a university, a useful book j an uproar, aa usher, 
an umbrella. 

The diphthong ua, has sometimes the sound of 'sca ; as 
m assuage, persuade, antiquary. It has also the sound oi 
thiddle a ,*^ as in guard, guardian, guarantee- 

Ue is often sounded like we ; as in quench, querist, coo- 
lest. It has lalso the »oiMid o*^^^ng « ; as in cue, hue 

26 ENOI^H GtkkmUA* 

ftgue. In a few words, it is pronouaoed like « fiboi^ ; fttf 
lit guest, guess. In some words it is. entirely sunk ; as ta 
antique, oblique, prorogue, catalogue, dialogue, &c« 

Ui is frequently pronounced m ; as in languid, anguish, 
extinguish. It has sometimes the sound of i long ; as^^m 
guide, guile, disguise : and sometimes that of « short f as 
if) guilt, guinea, Guildhall, in some words it is mounded 
like long u ; as in juice, suit, pursuit: and aller r, like 
00 ; as in bruise, fruit, recruit. 

Uo is pronounced like wo ; as in quote, quorum, quoa* 

Uy has the sound of long e ; as in obloquy; soliloquy ; 
pronounced obloquee, &e. ; except buy, and itsderivativeaL 

Fhas the sound of flat/; and bears the same relation to 
it, as b does to p^ d to t^ hard g to ^, and z to i. It has 
also one uniform sound ; as, vain, vanity ^ Jove. 


Wy when a consonant, has nearly the sound of oo ; as 
water resembles the sound of ooa^^r ; but that it has a 
stronger and quicker so^md than oo^ and has a formation 
essentially different, will appear to any person who pro- 
nounces, with attention, the words wo, woo, bamre ; an<i 
who reflects that it will not admit the article an be^re it ; 
which 00 would admit. In some words it is not sounded ; 
as in aiiswer, sword, wholesome : it is always silent be- 
fore r / as in wrap, wreck, wrinkle^ wrist, wroi^-wry, 
bewray, &c, 

Ff^ before ft is pronoimced as if it were after the h ; as^ 
why, hwy ; when, hwen ; what, hwat. 

W 18 often joined to o at the end of a syllable, without 
afiecting the sound of that vowel ; as in crow, blow, grow, 
know, row, flow, &,c. i 

When w is a vowel, and is distinguished in the pronun- 
ciation, it has exactly the same sound as tt would have in 
the same situation ; as, draw, crew, view, now, jsav^er, 
vowel, outlaw. 


JT has three sounds, viz. 

It is sounded like «? at the beginning of proper names 
df Greek original ; as in Xanthus, Xenophon^ Xerxes.. 
. It has a sharp sound hke A«^ when it ends a svllable wiib 

the acceBt tipcm It ; aa, exit, exerctsi^, exbellence ; or 
when the accent is on the next syllable, if it begins with 
a consonant ; as, excuse, eixtent, expense. 

It has, generally, a flatsoand like gz^ when the accent 
is not on it, and ^e following syllable begins with a vowel ; 
as, exert, exists example ; pronounced, egzert, egzist^ 

y, when a consonant, has nearly the soand ofee ; as, 
youth, York, resemble the sounds of eeputh, eeork: but 
that this is not its exact sound, will be clearly perceived 
by pronouncing the words ye^ yes^ new^year, in which its 
just and proper sound is ascertained,. It not only requires a 
stronger exertion of the organs of speech to pronounce it, 
than is required to pronounce ee ; but its formation is es- 
sentially different. It will not admit of a?i before it, as e« 
will in the foDowing. example ; an eel. The opinion tliat 
•^ and a?, ^hen they begin a word or syllable, take exact- 
ly the sound of ec and oo,.bas induced some grammarians to 
assert, that these letters are always vowels or diphthongs. 
When y is a vowel, it has exactly the same sound as i 
. would have in the same situation ; as, rhyme, system, jus- 
tify, pyramid^ party, fancy, hungry. 

Z has the sound of an a uttered with a closer com* 
pression of the palate by the tongue ; it is the flat *; as, 
freeze, frozen^ brazen. 

It may be proper to remark, that the sounds of the let- 
ters vary, as they are differently associated, and that the 
pronunciation of these associations depends upon the po- 
sition of the accent It may aUo be observed, that, in 
order to pronounce accurately, great attention must be 
paid to the vowels which are not acceiaed* There is 
searoely any thing which more dis^tmguishes a person of 
. a poor education, frpm a person of a good one, than the 
nrommciation of the unaccented vowels. When vowels 
are mider the accent, the hest speakers and the lowest of 
the people, with very few excepUons, pronounce them 
in thTsame manner ; b^t the ^Pf^^^^^^^^^ ^^ th^ 

months of the former, have a disUnct, open, and specific 
sounds while the latter often totally„smk them, or cWg^ 
Aeua itttft §oia« other souBd. - .**. 


■ Section 3. ITie nature of articulation explained. ■ ■ 

A cuKciSG accouot of the origin and formation of tbe 
■ouuds emitted hy tbe human voice, m»y, perbaps, not 
tnij)ro)ierly, be here introduced. It may gratify tite in- 
genious student, and serve to explain more fully the na- 
ture of articulation, and the radical distinction between 
Toirels and cunaonanU. " 

Human voice h air sent out from the Inng«, :^d eo agi- 
tated or mo.dified in its passage through the windpipe and 
larj'ni, as to hecome distinctly audible. The windpipe is 
that tube, wbieh, on toucbii^ the forepart of our throat 
cxleniatly, we feel hard and uneven^ It conveys air in- 
to the lungs tor tbe purpose of breathing and iqieccb. The 
lop or upper pari of the windpipe ia called the larynx, 
con^iiiling of lijur or tire cartilages, that may be expand- . 
ed or brought together, by the action of certain muscles 
which operate all at the same lime. In the middle of the 
laryns tiiere ia a amati opening', called the glottis, through 
which tbe breath and voice are conveyed. This opening 
IS nut wider than one tenth of au inch ; and, therefore, 
Mie breath transmitted through it irom the lungs, must 
pass witli considerable velocity. The voice thus formed, 
id strengthened and sol^eiied by a reverberation from the 
pAtace and other hollow places in the inside of the mouth 
and nostiiU ; and as (bese are better or woi'se shaped lor 
this rcvorberation, the voice is said to be more or leu 

If we consider the many varieties of sound, which one 
and the same human voice is capable of uttering, together 
with the smallne^s of tbe diameter of tbe glottis ; and re- 
flect, that the same diameter must always produce-tbe same 
lone, and, consequently, that to every change of tone a cor- 
respondent change of P- ' — ■ '■ "-i ' 

illtid tvith admiration 3 I ' 

the fineness of the hbr I 

eo miiiule, so various, r 

uniform. For it admi i 

human glottis is capal 

grees of cotitraclion o i. 

Siffcrent note it produ' • 

•f thai aiisrtnre, as be fc 

fentli of an iucb. 

Speech is made «p of articvtate voices ; auad what w« 
cal' articulation, k pertbrmed, not by the luDgs>, wiDdpip^, 
or larynx, but by the action of the throat, palate, teeth, 
tongue, lips, ami nostrils. Articulation begins not, till 
the breath, or voice, has passed through the laymx. 

The simplest articulate voices are those which pro- 
ceed from an open mouth, and are by grammarians called 
voTKcl sounds. In transmitting these, the aperture of the 
mouth naay be pretty large, or somewhat smaller, at 
very small ; which is one cause of the variety of vowels ; 
a particular sound being produced by each particular 
aperture. Moreover, in passing through an op«n mouth, 
the voice may be gently acted upon, by tlie lips, or by the 
tongue and palate, or by the tongue and throat ; whence 
another source of variety in vowel ^4unds. 

Thus ten or twelve simple vowel sounds may be form- 
ed, agreeably to the plan in page Id; and the learners, 
by observing the poj*itionof their mouth, lip#, tongue, &c. 
when they are uttering the sounds, will perceive that va- 
rious operations of these organs of speech, are necessary 
to the production of the different vowel sounds ; and that 
by minJite variations they may all be distinctly pronoua- 

When the voice, in its passage through the mouth, is tih 
tcUly intercepted^ or strongly compressed, there is formed H 
certain nioditication of articulate sound, which, as ex- 
pressed by a character in writing, is called a ronsonant. 
Silence is the effect of a total interception; and indistinct 
sound, of a strong compression ; and therefore a conso- 
nant is not of itself a distinct articulate voice ; and its in- 
fluence in varying the tones of Janguage is not clearly 
perceived, unless it be accompanied by an opening of the 
mouth, that is, by a vowel. 

By making the experiment with attention, the student 
will perceive that each of the mutes is formed by the voice 
being intercepted^ by the lips, by the tongue and palate, or 
by the tongue and throat ; and that the semi-vowels are 
formed by the same organs strongly compressing the voice 
'h its passage, but not totally intercepting it. 

The elements of langtiage, according to the different 
seats where they are formed, or the several organs. of 
il^eech chieflj concerned iu.t^eir pronunciation* are difi^ 

l3S English urahuae. 

AeA into several classes, tuii denominated as HilloWs . 
those are culled labials, which are formed by the li]>8j 
Uiose dentals, that are formed with the teeth ; palatalt, 
that are formed with the palate ; and nasals, that are 
formed by the nose. 

S' lie importance of obtaioin^, in early life, a clear, dii- 
tinct, and accurate knowledge of the sounds of the first 
principles of language, and a wish to lead youi^ ininds to 
a further consideration of a subject so curious and ueefiil, 
have induced th6 compiler to bestow particular at- 

ention on tlie preceding part of this work. Some writ 
lei's think that these subjects- <)o not properly consti- 
tute jiny part of grammar ; and consider them as the ex- 
, clueive province of tho spelling-book ; but if tve reflect, 
that letters and their sounds are the constituent principles of 
,that art, which teaches us to epeak and write with pro- 
priety, and that, in general, very little kuowledge of their 
nature is acquired by the spellin){-bool[, we must adniiti 
that they propeily belong to grammar ; and that a ration- 
al consideration of these eleraeutary principles of lan- 
Ijuage is an object that demands the attention of the young 
grammarian. The sentiments of a very judicious und 
jeminent writer {tjjnnctilian) respecting this part of gram- 
fliar, may, perhaps, he properly introduced on the pre- 
£ent occasion. 

, " Let no person despise, as inconsiderable, the elementi ' 
of grammar, because it may seem to thein a matter of 
.small consequence, to show the distinction between vowels 
and consonants, and to divide the latter into liquids and 
mules. But they who penetrate into the innermost partf 
nf this temple of science, will there discover such refine- 
ment and subtility of matter, as are not only proper to 
eharpeu the understandings of young persons, but suffi- 
cient to give exercise for tte most profound knowledge 
and erudition." 

The ombi- 

nation, j bjned 

produce ttnetf 

•nd sent !!an or 

disr.ourst , Aat 

to prioci nSBt- 


kas been anficleiit to explain the sentimenH of so ioira- 
merable a multitude, as all the present and past generatioot 


AsTLX'ABJLB IS E souiid, either Simple or compound* 
ed, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice,, and 
constkuting a word, or part or a word : as, a, an, ant* 

SpeUing is the art of rightly dividine words into 
flieir syllables, or of expressing a woid by its proper 

The follow tng are the general rules for the dtvision ci 
words into syllables. 

1. A single consonant between two vowels, mast be 
Veined to the latter syllable : as, de-light, bri-dal, re-source : 
except the letter % ; as, ex-i&t, en -amine : and except 
h-kewise words compounded ; as, up-on, un-even; dis-ease. 

2. Two c-onsonants proper lo begin a word, must not 
be ffeparated ; as, fa-ble,sti-fle. But^ when they come be- 
tween two vowels, and are such as cannot begin a word, 
Ihey must be divided ; as, ut-most, an-der, in-sect, er-ror, 

3. Vyben three consonants meet in the middle of a 
word, if they can begin a word, and the preceding vowel 
be pronounced long, (hey are not to be separated ; as, de- 
throne, de-stroy. But when the voweJ of the precedin|f 
syllable is pronounced short, one of the consonants al- 
ways belongs to that syllable ; as^ dis-tract, dis-prove, dis- 

4. When three or four consonants, which are not proper 
to begin a syllable, meet between two vowels, such of them 
as can begin a syllable belong to the latter, the rest to 
the former syllable : as, ab-stain, com-plete, em-broil, 
dan-dler, dap-ple, con-strain, hand-some, parch-ment. 

5. Two vowels, not being a diphthongs must be divided 
into separate syllables ; i», cru-el, de-ni-al, so-ci-e-^. 

6. Compounded words must be traced into the simple 
words of which they are composed j as, icc-bouse, gUw* 
worm, ever-oower, neT«r-the-lees. 

34 «ir0ui9if gjulvmx^ 

7. Orammatfcal, and ottwrparticalar'tenmiiatioftf, are 
generally separated : as, teach-est, teach-eth, teach- m^, 
teach-er, contend*€St, great-er, wretch-ed; good-nesa^. 
free-dom, false-hood. 

The rule* for diyiding vords into syllables, with the 
fe^ions m support of them, are expressed at large in the 
euthor's English Spelling-book, 7%irietfUk, or any subse- 
quent, edition, pa^ 210— ^16. 


Of WORDS t» general, and the kvles for spelUng them. 

WoBDS are articulate sounds, used by common con* 
$ent, as si^ns Of our ideas. 

A word of one syllable is termed a Monosyllable ; a. 
word of two syDables, a Dissyllable ; a word of three 
syllables, a Trisyllable; and a word of four or more 
syllables, a Polysyllable. 

All words are either primitive or derivative. 

A primitive word is that which cannot be reduced to 
ftny simpler word in the language : as, man, good, eo»* 

A derivative word is that which may be redwced te 
another word in English of greater simplicity : as, mai»> 
ful, goodness, contentment, Yorkshire.* ' • 

There are many English words which, thou^ c<mi* 
pounds in other languages, are to us primitives : thus, cir- 
cumspect, circumvent, circumstance, delude, concave, 
comphcate, &c. primitive words in English ; will t>e found 
derivatives, when traced in the Latin tongue. , ; 

The orthography of the English Language is attended 
wiUi much uncertainty and perplexity. But a considera* 
ble part of this inconvenience may be remedied, by at* 
lending to the general laws of formation ; and, for ihia 
endi the learner is presented with a view of such gene 
ral maxims in spoiling primitive and derivative words, as 
have been almost universally received. 

* A compound word is included under the lifad of derivative words : ai, 
penJ(n!fe, t6acbp» lookiogi^aa ; imy be reduced to Other words of gretter fuft- 

,Wm9!MJtiNl»^ lift 

MoBosyllcLbles ending with/, /, or «, preceded W m sin^ 
gle VQW^, double the final ccmsonant; as, staffs iDill» 
pass, &c. The only exceptions are, d^ if^ as^ is, bas, waa» 
jfes, his, t&is, us, and thus. 


Monosyllables ending with any consonant but/, /, or «» 
and preceded by a single vowel, never double the final 
^pDsooaot ; excepting add, ebb, bntt, egg^ odd» err, ioa, 
.9ann, purr, and buzz. 


Words ending with y, preceded by a consonant, ftnn 
the plurals of nouns, the persons of verbs, verbal nouns, 
past participles, comparatives, and superlatives, by chang- 
ing «/ into t: as^spy, spies ; 1 carry, thou earnest ; he car^ 
rietli, or carries; carrier, carried; happy, happier, hap- 

The present participle in fng, retains the y, that i may 

not be doubled ; as, carry, carrying ; bury, burying, Islq, 

But y, preceoed by a vowel, in- such instances as the 

-aliOFe, is not changed f as, boy, boys: I cloy, he cloys, 

4:loyed, &c. ; except in lay, pay, and say ; from which ajtt 

ibrined, laid, paid, and said ; and their compounds, unlaid, 

. unpaid, unsaid, kc. 


Words ending with y, preceded by a consonant, upon 
assuming an additional syllable beginning with a conso- 
•oant, commonly change y into t ; as, happy, happily, hap- 
piness. But when y is preceded by a vowel, it is very 
rarely changed in the additional syllable ; as, coy, coyly ; 
^y? boyish, boyhood: annoy, anrioyer, annoyance , joy, 
joyless, joyful, 

RULE v. 

Monosyllables, amd words accented on the last syllable 
ending with a smgle conso^iant preceded by a single vowel 
.double that consonant, when they take another syllable 
beginning with a vowel: as, wit,, witty; thin, thinnish; 
to abet, an abettor ; to begin, a beginner. 

But if a diphthong precedes, or the accent is on the pre- 
ceding syllable, the consonant remains single : as, to toil» 
tptUng * to offer, an ofieiing f maid maiden, inc. 


RULE tU - • 

W6r3s ending with any double letter but /, and takin|f 
n&ssy less^ /y, or ful, after them, preserve the letter dem- 
ble ; as, hArmlessness, carelessness, carelessly, stifflj, 
9uccessfai, distressful, &c. But those words whrch end 
with double Z, and take new, tew, ly, or Ail, after them, 
generally omit one I ; as fulness, skilless^ fully , skilful, fisc. 


Ness^ lessyly, zndful, added to words enditig with silei^ 
«, do ncjt cut it off: as, paleness, guileless, closely , peace- 
ful i except in a few words ; as, duly, t^'uly, awful. 


Ment^ ^dded to words ending with silent e, generatHy 
preserves tlie e from elision ; as, abatement, chastisement, 
' incitement, &c. The words judgment, abridgment, ac* 
knowledgment, are deviations from the rule. 

Like other terminations, ment changes y into t, Tvh&k 
preceded by a consonant; as, accompany, accompaniment; 
merry, merriment. - 


Ml6 and ibfe, when incorporated into words endtng^ wMl 
silent c, almost always cut it off: as, blame, blamable; 
cure, curable; sense. Sensible, &c.: but if c or g soft 
comes before e in the original word, the e is then pr«- 
«erved in words compounded mth able^ as, cha^e^ 
changeable ; peace, peaceable, ^c, 

RULE X. , 

When tng or ish is added to words ending with silent «, 
the e is almost universally omitted : as, place, placing; 
lodge lodging; slave, slavish; prude, prudish. 


Words taken into composition, often drop those letters 
which were superfluous in the simple words : as, handful, 
dunghil, withal, also, chilblain, foretel. 

The orthography of a great number of English wavdt 
is far from being uniform, even amongst writers of dia*- 
tinction. Thus, honour and honor ^ inquire and enquire 
negotiate and negocicUe, control and coniroui, expense and 
e^pence^ allege and alledge^ surprise and surprize^ complete 
and compleat^ connexion and connection, abridgment and 
abridgement^ and many other Orthographical variations^ 
•^ lo ht m^ wt<li in the best nodeni pnblicatioQfr 

•RTHoaiupar- Sf 

Sane anth'ority for decidiog ditterencM of thn nkhira, 
■ppears to be nece^arj : and where can we find one of 
equal pretensions with Dr. Johnson's Dictionarj' ? though 
a few of hiH decisions do not appear to be warranted bjr 
the principles of etymology and analogy, the «table foun- 
dationa oi his improve menl°. — " Ax the weight of truth 
and reason (sajs Nares in his " EteioenU of Orlhoepy") 
is irresistible, Dr. Johnson's Dictionary has nearly filed 
the external form of ovr language. Indeed, dO conve- 
nient 19 it to have one acknowledged slandani to recur to; 
■0 much preferable, in matters ol this nature, is « trilling 
degree of irregularity, to a continual change, ami fruit- 
less parauit of unattainable perfection; thai it is earnestly 
ivill henceforth, on light 

>otaiiu some orthographt- 
t to be rectified: such as, 

\a)lness, fertitenesi Jtrtily, 
, ntedletsneis tueiltes'.i/. If 
,were corrected by siwll- 
cordiog to the firsi word 
igreeubly to the general 
would doubtless, in thei* 


^>. t») 




A General View of the Parts of Speech* 

The ^cond part of grammar is etymology, wfaicb 
treats of the different sorts of words, their various mo* 
difioatiops, and their deriyation* 

There are, in English, nine sorts of words, or, as 
they are commonly called, parts op speech ; namely, 
the ARTICLE^ the substantive or noun, the adjec- 
tive, the pronoun, the verb, the adverb, the i»re- 
posiTioN, the conjunction, and the tNTERJECTioN^ 

1. An.article is a word prefixed to substantives, Xq 
point them out^ and to show how far their ^ignificatioa 
extends: as, a garden, an eagle, the woman. 

2. A Substantive or noun is the name of any thin^ 
that exists, or of which we have any notion : as, Lofuhot 
man^ virtue, 

A substantive may, in general, be distinguished by \U 
taking all article before it, or by its making sense of it- 
self: as, 2ihookt the sun, ^n apple; temperance y industry ^ 

3 An Adjective is a word added to a substantive, to 
express its quality : as, ^ An industrious man ; a vif' 
tuous woman. 

An Adjective may be known by its making sense with 
the addition of the word tfung: as, a good iHng; sl bad 
thing : orof any particular substantive ; as, a sweet apple, 
a pleasant prospect, a lively boy. 

4. A Pronoun is a word used instead 'Of a noun» to 
avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word: 
as, ^' The man is nappy j he k benevolent; be is ufi^ 

STtMOLoair. S^ 

5. A Vecb IS a word which .dignifies to 3tj to bo, or 
to SUFVSB : as, " I am/ I rwfe; I a«i rw/frf." 

A Verb may. geaeraUy be dUtiDgakhed, by its makinf 
sense with any of the personal proiiodns, or the word to 
Defiireit: as, I wulk^ he plays^ they writer or, to voft, 
to plaify to wrtie, 

6. An Adverb is a part of ^ecb ^ined to a ▼erb, 
m adjective, and sonaetimes to another adverb, to ex- 
press sbhie quality or cmsumstauce respeedng it : as, 
"fleTeacb tcefl ; a ^ne/y good man j he wrhes wry tor- 

An Adverb may be generally known, by its answering 
to the question^ How? hdW much? when ? or where ? as, 
in the phrase " He reads correctly^'** the answer to the 
question, ttowdoes he read? is, corretily. 

7. Prepositions sei*ve to connect words with ont 
another, and to show the relation between them : dm, 
" He went frum London to York ;" " she is above dia^ 
guise ;" *^ they are supported by industry." 

A preposition may be known by its admitting after it a. 
personal pronoun, in the objective case ; dts^with^ fovy to^ 
Sic* fvili allow the objective case after them ; with Am, 
for ktr^ to ihem^ &c* 

8- A^onjmiotion Is a part of speech that is chiefly 
used to connect sentences ; so as, out of two or more 
sentences, to midce but one : it sometimes connects 
<^y words.: as,^ "Thqu and he are happy, because you 
we good," "Two and three are five." 

9. Intellections are words thrown in between the 
parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions 
of the speaker : as, ** O virtue! how amiable thou art!" 

The observations which have heen made, to aid learn- 
ers in cBstinguishing the parts of speecbfrom one another, 
may afford them some smaii assistance ; bift it wilt cev« 
tainly be much more instructive, to distinguish them by 
the definitions, and an accurate knowledge of tbeir na- 

In the following palsage, all tiie parts of speccb art 

* '^ 


1 t 7 2 6 1 ^ ,3 7 2 

T&ie power of speech is a &calty peculiar to man ; 
8 6 5 7 4 7 4 3 2 7 

tad was bestowed on likn by bis benefieent Cr^tor, for 

13^ Be 3 2 8 9 6 € 

<he gfi^ateBt and siosi exc^llenl lUtes ^ but alas i how often 
64 647137 2 
^ we penrert4t to the worstorpurposetl 

Id the foregoing' sentence, the words Ae^ a^VLte articles ; 
power ^ spetcki fucuity^ mtmj Creator, uses, pwposeSf a^ 
substantives ;^ peculiar ^ beneficent^ grecUesti eveceiien^ vorH^ 
are adjectives; Mm, his, w^, it, are pronouns ;- t«y woti 
beetonoed^ do, pervert, are verbs ; 'xno^t, kow, efien^ are ad- 
verbs ; of, to, op, by, for, are prepoaiUons j a»d, but, are 
conjunctions ; and al-as is WQ^ int^j.ection. 

The number of the dififerent sorts of. words, or of the 
parts of !?peech, has been variously reckoned by different 
^rammariahs. Some have enumerated ten, ipaking the 
participle a distinct part; some eight, excluding the par* 
'ticiple, md ranking the adjective under tho nouii ; some 
four, and others only two, (the noun and the verb,) sup- 
posing the rest to be contained in the parts of their din* 
jioD. We have followed those author^, who appearlo 
have given them the most natural and inteliigible distii- 
bution. Some remarks on the division made by the 
learned Ho^ne Tooke, are contained in ihe first, Boetion 
ef the eleventh chapter of etymology. 

The interjection, indeed, seems scarcely worthy of be* 
iog considered as a part of artiUcial language orspe^, 
"being rather a branch of that natdral language, which we 
^^esA in common with the brute Creation, and by which 
we express the sudden emotions and passions that actuate 
our frame. But, as it is used in written as weD as oral 
language, it may, in some measure^ be' deemed a part of 
speech^ It is with us a virtual sentence, in which the 
notin and verb are concealed under an imperfect or In- 
£ge8ted woinL-^-iSee this Chapter^ in lAe Octavo GranaMttT' 

chapteh II. * , 

0f the Articles. 
Ah Article is a woid prefixed tQ^8id»6t8iitiv«i^^»fW 

(bem out, and to show how far their sigDilIcatioo es> 
tends yas, a garden, on e&gle, the woman. 

In KngUsh, there are but two articlea, a and the: a 
becomes an before a vowel,* and berore a silent A ; a^ 
«» aeorji, an hour. But if the A be sounded, the « 
«Qly is to be used ; as, a himd, a heart, a highway. . 
The inattention ot' writers and printers to tbia neceatarj 
iigtini^ioa, hue occationed the freqnent use of an before it, 
irfaea it is t» be proaounced ; and thia c ire urn stance^ ore 
tiiao atiy other, has prdbably conlribuled to that incli«tiact 
utteraoce, or total omission, of the anund sig:Qihed by thii 
letter, which very often occurs amongst renders and 
«peaker9. Jt^ horse, an husband, an herali), an heathen, 
and maoy similar associations, are freqaently to be fonnd 
m works of taste and merit. To remedy thia evil, read- 
-ersshoutd be~ taught to omit, in all similar casei, the sound 
nf the n, beiiI to give the h ita full pronunciation. 

the indefinite article : rt is used m 
int out one single thuig of the kind, 
indeterminate ; as, " Give me a 
an apple.'; 

definite article ; because it ascer* 
it thing or things are meant : as, 
j" "Bring me tiie apples;" mean- 
ipples, rcievrcd to. 
bout any article to limit it, is gene- 
iest sei'se : as, "A candid temper 
that is. for all mankind, 
and importance of the articles »iB 
ing eaamples ; " The son of a kin^— 
-a SOD of the king.!' Each of these 
entirely different meaning,, through 
Eion of the articles a and Ae. 
," is a very general and harmless pfl- 
ntion ; butr "Thou art 1^ man," (as Nathan said to Da- 
vid,^ is an assertion capable ofstrikingteuorandremorsa! 
xtto the heart. 

• A inrtmdof miiDOwmBdhdtaewonUB^iiiiBnswilhwlofii. flta^p 

The article b omitted before oouns that iin^y the M 
iCerent virtues, vices, passions, qualities, sciences, arte^ 
metals, herbs, &c. ; as; ** prudence is commendable ; 
falsehood is odious ; anger ought to be avoided ;*' &c. l\ 
Is not prefixed to a proper name ; as, ** Alexander," (be- 
<^ause that of itself denotes a determinate individual ^ 
particular thing,) except for the sake of distinguishing ft 
l^articular family ; as, *' He is a Hosvard, 01* of &e fymir 
fy of the Hawards;" or by way of eminence : aa, ^ Er«^ 
ty man is not a Newt;on ;" " He has the courage of ai» 
Achifles :*' ' ort when son^^ notm is understood } " le 
sailed down the (river) Thames, in the (ship) Britannia.'* 
^ When an adjective is used with the noun ib which the 
airticle relates, it is placed b%tween the article and t^e 
noun; as, ** zgood man," " an agreeable \*x)man," "the 
4iest friend." On some occanone, however, the adjective 
precedes a or on; as,. ** stteh a shame," *' as great amaa 
as Alexander," ** too careless an author." 

The indefinite article can-be joined to substantives io 
the singular number only ; the definite article may be 
joined also to plurals. 

But there appears to be a remarkable exceptiot) to this 
rule, in the use of the adjectives few and many^ (ihe lat- 
ter chiefly with the word great before it,) which, though 
joined with plural substantives, yet admit of the einguficr 
article a : as, a few men ; a great many men. ^ 

The reason of it is manifest, from the effect which the 
-article has in these phrases ; it means a ^maH or great 
iiupber collectively taken, and therefore gives the id«i 
of a whoif*, that is, of unity.. Thus likewise, a dozen^m 
tcore, 2^ hundreiJ, or a thousand, is one whole number, 
<in aggregate of many collectively taken ; and thetefofe 
still retains the article a, though joined as an adjective 
to a plural substantive ; as, a hundred years, &c. 

The indefinite article is sometimes placed betwieen tbt 
ed^ective many, and a singular noun : as, 

" Full many a gem of purest tay serene, 
" The dark unfethom'd caves of ocean bear : 

*• Ful5 many a flower is bom to hlush^unseen, 
^ And waste its sweetness on the desert air.'* 

H these lines, the plirases^^m&ny^ f^wimemff c^w0$ 

refer to mnny gems and many flomeriy sepamtely^ not 
liollectiTely cooslder^d. 

^ The definite article the is fi^qnen^j ftH^ved ta adrerbt 
in the comparatiyc and superiatiye degree f and its eiTact 
is, to mark the degreie the more stronghr^ and to define 
it the more prejciselj : as, " T^e more i examine it, di§ 
tietter I like zV. I fikc' this the least of any." See this 
Chapter, in the Octayo Grammar. 


Of SubsimUitei* 
Section i. Of Substunttves in sineraL 

A SuBSTANTivi: or Noun is the name of aoy thiog 
that exists^ or of which we haye any notion; as, I^on* 
JiOn^ rnany virtue, 

Substantivea are either prefer or cdnitnon. 

Proper Jiames or substantives, are the names apprch 
priated to individuals: as, George^ l<ondon, l^hamet^ 

Common names or substuritiyes, statul £br kinib co»* 
taining many sorts, or for sorts containing m^y indiyid- 
y^s under them ; as, af^imal, mat), tree, &6C. 
. When proper names have an article annexed to theKj, 
they are used as common names : as, " He is the C^ 
eero of his age ; he is readmg the lites of the Twelve 

Common ^ames may also be used to signify indivi* 
duals, by the addition of articles or pronouns : as, " TK^ 
^y is studious ; that girl is discreet*.'* ** 

To substantives belpn^ gender, number, aod case ; 
and they are all of the third person wheii >{»^ken <^ aiM| 
of the second when spoken to ; as, "Blessings attena 
us on every side; be grateful, children of men I" that iSf 
ye children of men^ 


• NowifiF mav ad(K> be di^«^' into the fo11owiiisr:<3ann : CotUeUm Qcnott. 
or nouns of imiUlt^de j as, the p€?opie, the parliainetit, tlie army ; A^lrtm 
MHins, or^be naniM of qualKieg abstracted frooi tlhir substances • as, kijoi^ 
ted^ce, ioodu^ ifiuteoeai : VmM or maHdrial uimm ; a^ )i^piHiii«» ^^^^^ 

Section 2. (y Gender. 

* 0£iirDSE is tite <fistinetidh of noims,^th teglia^ tostfft 
^ There are three genders, the HAscuUKiSythe F^miiiinEy 

*tod the NEUTEH, . 

TheMascidine Render .deiiotes aohn^ oftlkixiale 
kind : ^, a man, a borsei almil. 

The Feminine Crender i^gnifies ahimak of tlu^ fema& 
IdoA : as, a woman, ^ duck, a hen. 

The Neuter Gtender denotes injects which are na- 
llier males nor~femades : as, a field, a house, a garden. 

Some substantives, naturally neuter, are, by a figure 
of speech, converted into the masculine or feminine 
gentfer : as, when we say of the sun, he is setting ; and 
.^f a ship, «^e sails well. 

FigulratiTely, in die Engtisb tongue, we commonly giy^ 
H^ masculine gende? to nouns which are conspicuous for 
Ae attributes of imparting or communictting, ao*! which 
dl« by nature strong an4 effi^cious. Those, again, are 
ttade feminine, which are conspicuous for the attributes Of 
^ontakiihg or Imnging forfli, or which are peculiar^ 
Jj^auMfid or amiable. Upon these principled, the sun ii 
said to be masculine ; and the moon, being the receptacle 
of the ^on's light, to be feminine. . The earth i* generally 
leminine* A. ship, a country, a eilty, &c. are likewise ma^ 
^minine, being receivers of containers. Time is alwa^ 
masculine, on account of its im'gfety efficacy. Virtue iS 
&minioe from its beauty, And its being the object of lore. 
l*ortune and the church ^e ^neraHy put in the feminilst 
fender. . 

The English language has ^ee metboiisrofdisthigQidk^ 
^the sex, viz. 

L By differeut word& : as,. ^ 

Male. Femak Male; Bei^ali^ 

Bachelor. Maid, Husband. Wife. 

BcAr. i^uw.. King*. %ieeB». * 

Soy. Girl. Lad; I^ss* 

BrottoB^ SSsteiw. , Lord*. , iadj* 









Buliocb or 

I Heifer. 










J SonsstreM m- 
I Singer. 



















■ Witch- 




By a difierence of termiDBtion ; as, 




Pnwtg. ' 









Admi nistrator. Adm ini stTotrii 

[. Marquis. 







M^joress. ' 




■ P«lroDe«. 






1. Bride. 

Poet. . 








' Prinoe*. 




Prioress. - ■ 








Protectreta. . 


- Deaconess 









Em press. 











Traitor. -. 









Votary. ■ 






3. By a Ji^iui^ proa0Qn,^ or acl^ctive, being j&f^^ec? {# 
title i^b&taQtive : a?, ^ 

A oock-gparrow, A aeo-sparrow. 

A man^g^-rvaBt. A niaid-&ei*yaiit. 

A he^-goat A she-gfoat. 

A herbear. A she -bear. 

A male child. A fsmdle child. 

Male deficendanU« Female descendants. 

It spmettmes happens^ tfaajt tbeeaaie noun is either maft- 
euline or ieminine- The wofdspareMy chiid^cousirL,/rien^^ 
neighbour^ Hrvam, and several others, are used indi^er- 
cntly for males or females. ' 

Nouns with variable terminations contribute to concise- 
ness and perspicuity of expiessicn. We have only a suffi- 
cient number of thepi to make us feel our want ; for when 
fre fsay of a woman, she is a philosopher, itn astrononier, a 
builder, a weaver, we perceive an impropriety in the ter- 
mination, which w6 cani^ot avoid ; but we can say, that 
she is a botanist, a student, a witness, a scfholar, an orphan^ 
a coTnpanionybecaa&e^esetenmDatTops have not aniiexed 
to them the^ aoti^n of sex. 

Skctjom 3. Of Number. 

NtiitBER is the consideration of an ob)eet, as one <nr 

Subs^tntives are of two numbei'S, tbe Siingular and the 

.The singular mimber expresses but xme object ; as, n 
cbair, a tame. 

The plural number signifies more objects than one-; 
as, chairs^ tablea. 

Some pmins, from the nature ofthe things which tliw 
express, are used oijtly in the siimdar form ; as, wHe^^ 

f)itch, gold, sloth, pride, &c. ; others, only in the plufca^ 
brm ; as, bellows, scissors, lungs, riches, &c* 

Some words are tl^e same in both nuoibers ; as, de^, 
diecp, swuMf, &£C r — 

The plural number of nouns is^gep^Eisdly farmed- Jbgr 
adding J to the di^BBuIar : mi dove, davea<^ face, fac^; 

ends m j;, e4 soft, M, i^ or «^ we &dd€t in the itoai: a% 
boxj bbx€S| chun>fay dmrcbes ^ lasb, Uurties ; ktss, knses; 
rebus, rebuisses. If the suigalar ends ia ek hard, the pIu* 
nl is formed by ^duig^; >s, xDonarcb, iBOiiarchs ; dkh 

tbhj distichs. ~ 

' -1 

I^OQDS which end in o, have sometimea es, added to tho 
]thira] ; asv cargo, echb, hero, negro, manifesto, potato^ 
Foicaao, wo : and aometimes only « ; asy £>ho, noncipy 
punctilio, seraglio. 

Isouns ending .in /, or^, are rendered phira! by Hhm 
change of those terminations into v«^:^ as, loaf, loaves ; 
hdf, halves ; wife, wives : elscept grief, relnef, reproof^ 
and several others, which form the plural by the addttioik 
of I. Those whi^h end in ^, have the regular, plural r 
as, raff, ruffe ; except, staff, staves. 

Koxma which have y in the singular, with no other vowel 
io thci same syllable, change it kito its in the plural : as» 
beaut)r, . beauties ; fly, flies. But the y is not changed* 
v^n there is another vowel in^ syllable: as, key,keys^ 
delay, delays ; attorney, attorneys. - 

Some nouns become plural by changing the a of th« 
singula mto e : as, man, men ; woman, women; alder- 
inaD, aldermen. The Words, ox and child, form oxen and 
cMldten; brother, makes either brothers, or brethreii. 
Sometimes the diphthong oo is changed into ee in the 
plural : as, foot, feet ; goode, geese ; tooth, teeth. Louse 
and mouse make lice and mice. Penny makes pence, ot 
pemnes, when the coia is meant : die, ^ce (ior play ;) 
die, dies (for coining.) 

It is agreeable to analogy, afid the practiee of the gene« 
rali^ of correct writers, to construe the.following words aa 
plural nouns ; pains^ riches^ alms : and also, fnathema(ie$f 
nutaphyncs, politics^ ethics^ ojptics, pnetmaiics^ with other 
•imilar names of sciences. 

Dr. Johnson says that the adjective nmch is sometioftea 
ttenn of number, as well as of <|uantity. , This may ac-. 
count for the instances we meet with of its associating with 
pomt asa.plni^ noun : as, ^ much pains.*' The connexr 
Ma, howeveiv is aottobe recommendei, v " 

iegular unmber. 

It u used both ht the sin^hr and the 

rords, whicb hare been adopted front 

'k, and Latin languages 

,&re thiu'distiQ- 

gnished, witb respect to number. 


plural. SinKUlor. 


Cherub. ■ 

Cherubim. Datum. 



Seraphim. Efflurittm. 



AntitheseB, v'^,.^ 
^ Automata. Encomium. 

( Encomia or 



Bases. Enatum. 



■ Crises. GeniHs. 

- Genii;* . 


Criteria. Genui. 



Diareses. , . - 
Ellipses. ""***■ 

Undicea or, 
f ludesea.t 



Emphases. Lamina. 

La mine. 


Hypotheses. Medium. 



J Metampr- "Majpis. 
i phoaes. Memoran- 

Magi. ■ ■ - 

- pbosis; 

k Memoranda or 

f Memorauduu 


( Appendices or Radios. 
(Appendiiea, Stamen. 




Arcana. Stratum. 



Axes. Vortex. 




d from the learned tangnai^s, ara 
number: as, antipodes, credenda^ 

i b«[ngf, in Latin, both' singular and 
i same manner when adopted kifo 
pparatuB, seriea, speciea. 

Sectiob *. Of Caie. ' ' 

In Eng^sb, substantives bare three cases, ftie nomi- j 
native, Uie possessive, and the objective.^) 

* Omi, whoi deDednt; aerisl qirta :. Ctniiua, whea dgdO^ perKu ti 
j- fwlnn, triifa it ngiaSei poSalcn^ Or Tkblaof 

ig ID Algpbnuc qi 

a (tHad tb*|HiliTe CMV wd Mt oliMtra, On 

^e BOBomfttive case simply expresses ^ name of a 
thing, or the Subject of the verb : as, " The boy plays j" 
^ The girl^ ^eam.'* 

The possessive case expresj^es the relation of property 
or possession ; and has an apostrophe with the letter • 
coming after it: as, "The scnolar's dutyj" "My father** 

When the plural ends in «, the other s is omitted, mil 
the apostTopne is retc^ined : as, " on eagles' wiugs;^ 
" The drapers' company." 

Sometimes, also, when the singular terminates in w, 
.the apostrophic s is not added : as, " For ggodue^s* 
sake ;" ** For nghteousness' sctke." 

The objective case expresses the object of an actioQ| 
or of a relation ; and generally follows a verb active, or 
a preposition ' as, " John assists Charles ;" " They live 
in London." 

English substantives are declined in the following 
manner : 

l^ingulat. Plural. 

Nominative Case. A mother. Mothers. 

Possessive Case. A mother's. Mothers'. 

Objective Case. A mother. Mothers. 

Nominative Case. The man. The men. 

Possessive Case. The man's. The men's* 

Objective Case. The man. The men. 

The English language, to express different connexiois 
and relatioiis of one thing to anoth^, uses, for the most 
part, prepositions. The Greek and Latin among the an- 
cient, and some too among the modern languages, as the 
German, vary the terroinatibn orending of the sub.^taative, 
to answer the same purpose ; an example of which, in the 
Latin, is inserted, as explanatory oi the nature and use of 
'tases, viz. 

Normnativem Dominus, A Lord. 

Genitiv Domini, Lord's, of a Lord. 

Domino, To a Lord. 







A Loud; 
By a Lord. 








Lords', of Lords 
To Lords. 
O Lords. 
By Lord^. 









Some writers ibink, that the relations signified by tib« 
itdditioa of articles and prepositions to the noun, may pro- 
perly be denominated cases, in English ; and that, on tha 
principle, there are, in our language, as many cases as 
in the Latin tongue. But to this mode of forming cases 
for our substantives, ther^ are strong objections. It would, 
indeed, be a formal and useless arrangenoent of nouns, 
articles, and prepositions. If an arrangement of this na- 
ture were to be considered as constituting cases, the Eng- 
lish language would have a much greater, number of 
them than the Greek and Latin tongues : for, as every 
preposition has its distinct.meaning and effect, every com* 
bination of a preposition and article with the noun, woul4 
form a difierent relation, and would constitute a distinct 
case. — This would encumber our language with many 
new terms, and a heavy and useless load of distinctions.* 

On the principle of imitating other languages in names 
and forms, without a correspondence in nature and idiom, 
we might adopt a number of declensions, as well as a va- 
riety- of cases, for English substantives. Thus, five or 
aix declensions, distinguished according to the various 
modes of forming the plural of substantives, with at least 
h^lf a dozen cases to each declension, would furnish a 
eomplete arrangement of English nouns, in all their trap- 
pings. $ee on this subject^ the fifth and ninth $ectumo/ 
w nxth chapter, of etymology* 

^ If cases are to bft distingiiished by the different BignificatioDs tf Bie sooB, ^ 
fy the different relaUoos it may bear to the govenun^ word, then we have in 
CUT 1aiffiiag:e as juanv cases afanost, as there are prepositions . aod above a laah 
*H&eato a mao, beyond a miui, round aboiit a man, withm a man, wiOkxitf 
van, fte» fhaU be cam, ai wdl as, of a nan, to a oiaii, and with a man.** 

Bat ilMMi|^ Hkh rmriety of 4:ases doeiJioc^a aU corres- 
pond with the idiom of oar language, there ^eems to be 
great propriety Jd admiitiDg.a case, in English suhstao- 
tiyes, which shall seri^ to denote the objects of active 
rerhs and of prepositions ; and which is, therefore, prp- 
pei^ termed the ohjedive case. Th^ general idea ofcasf 
doubtless has a referance to the termination of the noun: 
hat there are raanj instances, both in Greek and Latin, in 
which the nominative and accusative cases have precise* 
}y the same form, and are distinguished only by the rela- 
tion they bear to other wprds in the sentence. We arc 
fterefere warranted, l^ analogy, in applying this prin- 
ciple to our own language, as ^r as^ utility, and th^ idiom 
«f it, wifi adnkjt. Now it is obvious, that in English, ft 
Dono governed by an active verb, or a preposition, is 
Tery differently circumstanced, from a noun in the no- 
minative, or in the possessive case ; and that a comprehen- 
«lve case, correspondent to that diHerence, nrasi be use&l 
and proper. The business of parsing, an^ of showing the 
ik>nTiex]dn and dependence of words, will be most con- 
te^ientfy accomplisbed^ by the adoption of such a case » 
and the irregularity of having our nouns sometimes placed 
fa a sriiiation, in which they cannot be said to be in any 
case at all, will be avoided. 

The author of this work long doubted the propriety of 
assigning to JEIngtish substantives an objective case : but 
a renewed, critical examinaBon of the subject ; an exa- 
miadtion to which he was prompted by the extensive and 
ntcreasing desi^d for the grammar, has produced in bis 
BtKhid a foU persuasion, that the nouns of our language dtg% 
entitled to this c<»Aprehen8ive ol]^ective caae. 

' When -^e thing to which another Is said to belong, ft 
expressed by a circpmlocution, or by many terms, the 
sigpn of the possessive case is commonly added to the last 
term : as, ^* The king of Oreat Britain's dominions.'* < 
Sometimes, though rarely, two nouns in the possessive 
ca^e 'inime^tely succeed each othei:^ in the following 
form : ** My friend's mfe's sister ;" a sense which would 
he better expressed by saying, " the^ster of my friend]« 
wife ;" 015, "my finend's sister-in-law*^* Some grammar*;- 
ans say^^at in each ofibe following phrases, viz •* A 

soMier^bf the king's," there are two genitive cases ; ^^I0 
Bt%i phrase implyiog, ** one of the books of my ^irother," 
the next, '* one ofthe servants of the queen •/' and the las^ 
'* one ofthe soldiers ofthe king.'* IVut as the prepositicoi 
governs the oh^ctive case ; and as there are not, lu-each 
of these sentences, two apostrophes r/jtli the letter s com» 
ing after them, we cannot with propriety say, th^ there 
are two genitive cases. 


* ^ 

Of MJ€cHhes. . 

Section 1. Of the nature of Adjectvoei^ aft,d the 
degrees of companson. 

An Adjective is a word added tp a substantive, to ct- 
|iress its quality : as, '*^ \n industriouu n^an ;" " A vtr/tir 
«« woman ;*'" A 6e»€^a/ciu mind.'' 

In English, the adjective is not varied on acpouRt of 
gender, number, or case. Thus we say, '^Acardeei 
boy; careless girls." 

The only rarialion which k admits, is that of the de* 
grees of conipaiison. 

There are commonly reckoned three degrees of 
comparison; the positive, the coAirARATivk, and the 


'<iraininanans have *general]y.^nunmrated these thr^te 
degrees of comparison ; but the first of them has bees 
diought by some writers, to be, improperly, termed a d^ 
gree of comparison ; as it seems to be nothing>tnore than 
ibe simple form ofthe adjective, and not to imply-eilher 
i^omparison or degree. This opinion may be well found- 
ed, unless the adjective be supposed to iqaply compariswi 
or degree, by containing a secret or general reference to 
aUktn- things ; as, when we say, ** he«ka ^/ m?tn,*' *' thift 
ifl a fair day," we make some reference to the ordiiur|r 
size of men, and to different weather* 

The Poshivfe #tate expresses the quitJity of an- obr 
jfcet, without any increase or diminution: as, good^ 
wise, great 

The CTomparative Degree increases or lesBens the 
positive in signification : as, wiser, greater, less wise* 

Tfae Superlative Deeree increases or lessens the po» 
stive to the highest or lowest degree : as, wisest, great* 
est, least wise. 

The simple word, or positive, becomes the oompft* 
ntive, by adding r or er ; and the superlative, by add* 
icg st or est^ to the end of it : as, wise, wiser, wisest* 
great, ereater, greatest. And the adverbs more and 
moit^ placed before the adjective, have the same effect . 
as, wise, more wise, most wise. 

The termination ish may be accounted in tome sort a 
degree of comparison, by which the si^ificatiOn is dimi • 
nished belo^ the positive : as, black, blackiiA, or tending 
to blackness ; salt^ scUti$hy or having a little taste of salt. 

The word rather h very propevly used to express a small 
degree or excess of a quality : as, ^' She is ra^er profuse 
in her expenses." 

MoDosyJbbles, for the most part, are compared by er 
and est ; and dissyllables by irvore and most : as, mild, 
milder, mildest ; frugal, more frugal, most frugal. Dis- 
syllables ending in y ; as, happy, lovely : and in /« after a 
mute, as, able, ample ; or accented on the last syllable, 
as, discreet, polite ; easily admit of er and est: as, hap- 
pier, happiest ; abler, ablest ; politer, politest. Words 
of more than two syllables hardly ever admit of those 

In some words the superlative is ibrmed by adding the 
adverb most to the end of them ; as, nethermost, utter* 
most, or utmost, undermost, uppermost, foremost. 

In English, as in most languages, there are some words 
of very common use, (in which the caprice of custom il 
apt to get the better of analogy,) that are irregular in 
tibis respect : as, ** good, better, best ; bad^-worse, worst; 
fittle, less, least ; much Or many, more^. most ; n<>ar 
aearer, nearest or next-; lisite, later, latest or last ; o]d> 
older or elder, oldest or eldest^;" and a few others. 

An adjective put without a substantive, with the definito^ 
article before it, becomes a substantive in sense andl 
meaning, and is written as a substantive ^ as, ** FrovideftC#? 
aawaxds l^.rood, and punishes the bad^ 


•4 ENGLISH <»U]llfAlt. 

Varicmt nottns placed before other DOtms asstune the 
aatfire of adjeoiives ; as^ sea fish, wine vessel, coru field, 
meadow ground, &C4 

Numeral adjectives are either cardinal, or ordioaj : 
cardioaU as, one, two, three, £ic. ; ordinal, as, first, 
second, third, &c. 

Section 2. Remarks on the subject of Comparison* 

If we consider the subject of comparison attentively, 
we shall perceive that the, degrees of it are infinite in 
number, or at least indefinite. — ^A mountain is larger thaa 
a mite , — by how many degrees? How much bigger is the 
ea^^tJi than a grain of sand? By how. many degrees was 
Socrates wiser than Alcibiades ? or by how many is snow 
whiter than this paper ? It is plain, that to these and the 
hke questions, no definite answers can be returned. 

In quantities, however, that may be exactly measure^* 
the degrees of excess may be exactly ascertained. A foot 
is just twelve times as long as an inch ; ai^id stn hour is 
sixty times the length of a minute. But^ in regard to quali-' 
tie^^ and to those quantities which cannot be measured 
exactly, it is impossible to say how many degrees may be 
comprehended in the comparative excess. 

But though these degrees are infinite or indefinite in 
fact, they cannot be so in language ; nor would it be con? 
venient, if language were to. express many of them. In 
regard to unmeasured quantities and qualities, the degrees 
of more and less, (besides those marked above,) may be 
fBxpressed intelligibly, at least, if not accurately, by cer- 
tain adverbs, or words of like import: as, "-Socrates was 
much wiser than Alcibiades ;" '* Snow is a great deal 
whiter than this paper ;" '* Kpamiuondas was by far the 
JDoet acoompUshed of the Thebans ;" ** The evening star 
is a very splendid object, but the sun is incomparably more 
^lendid;*' '" The Deity is infinitely greater than the 
greatest of his creatures." The inaccuracy of these, 
and the like expressicns, is ^ot a material inconvenience ; 
s^nd, if it were, it is unavoidable; for human speech can 
•nly express himian thought ; and where thought is ne? 
>tessarily inaccurate, lang;uage^ must be so too. ; 

^ jm&n the word v^r^ M^cdinglyj or any other of Sfx^^ 

taf import, is put^efpre ttui posttif e» it is caiftd &jf 9om% 
writers the sup^rlative/of eminehce, to distinguish it Brom 
the other superlative, which has heeo already ffientioned^ 
and is called the- superlative of comparison. Tjius; viry 
%loqu€nt^ is termed the superlative of eminence ; tttaU 
^loquenty the superlative of comparison. In the superlative 
of emineoce, something of comparison is, 4)owever, re- 
motely or indirectly intimated ; for we cannot reasonably 
call a man very eloquent, without comparing his elo- 
quence with the eloquence of other men. 

The comparative may be so employed, as to eipresa 
the same pre-eminence or inferiority as the superlative. 
Thus, the sentence, '* Of all acquirements, virtue is the 
most vcdttable,** conveys the same sentiment as the fol- 
lowing ; ^' Virtue is more valtiable than every other at« 


Of Pronouns. 

A Phoxotjn is a word used instead of a noun, te 
avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word : as^ 
** The man is happy; he is benevolent ; he is useful.'* 

There are three kinds of pronouns, viz. the perso* 
NAL, the RELATIVE, and the adjective i^kOnounb. 

Section 1. Of the Personal Pronouns, 
There are five Personal Pronouns, viz. /, thou^ hi^ 

she^ it; with their plurals, we, ye, oryow, they. 
Personal pronouns admit of person, number, gender, 

and case. 

The persons of pronouns are three in each pumbep^ 


J, is the first person 

Thouy is the second person \ Singula^. 

If?, iAc, or if, is the third person 

We^ is tbe first person 

Ye or yow, is the second person ^ Plural. 

They^ is the third person 

This account of persons will be very intelligible, ifYmx 
we reflect, that there are three persons^who may be tils 

•ubjeet i»(^'smy dieconrse: first, ihe^rson who speaks, 
may speak of himself; secondly, he may speak of the per* 
son to whom he addresses himself; thiixlly, he may speak 
of some other person : and as the speakers, the persons 
qwken to, and the other persons spoken of, may he many, 
io each of these persons must have the plural number. 

The numbers of pronouns, Hke those of substantives, 
are two, the sins^ular and the plural: as, I^thaUf Ae; 
IPC, yc or you J they. 

Gender has respect only to the third person sinsular 
of the pronouns, Ae, she^ it. He is masculine ; the is 
* iEeniinine ; ii is neuter* 

The persons, speaking and spoken to, being at the same 
time, the subjects of the discourse, are supposed to be pre- 
sent ; from which, and other circumstances, their sex is 
commonly known, and needs not to be marked by a dis- 
tinction of gender in the pronouns : but the tliird person 
or thing spoken of, being absent, and in many respects 
unknown, it is necessary that it should be marked by a 
distinction of gender ; at least when some particular per^ 
900 or thing is spoken of, that ought to he more distinctly 
marked : accordingly the pronoun singular of the third 
person has the three genders, Ae, «Ae, it. 

Pronouns have thi'iBe cases ;.the nominative, the pos- 
sessive, and the objective. 

The objective case of a pronoun has, in general, a fbm 
different from that of the nominative, or the possessive 

The personal pronouns are thus declined : 

Person. Case. 

First* ffom.^ 

Second. Norn* 

Third. Nom. 
Mau Poss. 







































Sectiun 2. Oftite Relative Pronovru. 

Selatitk Pronouns-arc sucli as r«hte, in genera^ 

16 sont€ word er phrase going before, ■ which a llienca 

called the antecedent: thty are, who, uAitk, and (Aofi 

Kf, "The man is happy who lives virtuouslyf." 

What is ^ tin<i of compound relative, including both 

the antecedent and the relative, aiul is mostly eniiivalpiit 

to tkttt which : as, " This is what 1 wanted ;" tliat is 10- 


persons, lekich to An i mats and iit- 
' He is a friend, who is faitEilul in 
y, which sweefly, is flown;" 
iith produces no fruit. ' 
;, itj often used lo prevent the too 
■ who and u-hieii. It bi upplirdto 
igs : as, " Hf that acts wisely d&r 
serves praise j' ' " Modesty is a qualily titat highly utlurns 

SinguLir and Plural. 
J'fondnaiivt'. Who. 

Posaetsive. Whose. 

Objecfitx. . Whom. 

Which, thai, and viliat, are likewise of both numbers, 
but they do not vary their termination ; except that sihott 
is sometimes ',usetl as the poaseesive cane of u'ltieh : agj 
" Is there aoy ether doctrine whoK followers are-.pu- 
msbed?"' ' - 

t Tbt relali™ pi 
phraie «liich"-i« imt- 


" j i ' - '' . ' ** And the EpiAt 

Of that forhiddeD tree whose mortal taste 
Brought death" Kttnm^ 

— — ** Pare the joy without allay, 

Whose irery rapt»ire is tranquillity.'*- roviro. 

** The lights and shades, whosi well accorded strife 
Gives all the strength and colour of our life/' pope. 

** This is one of the clearest characteristics oi its.being 
a rcHg^on v^bse origin is divine/' blair. 

By the use of this license, one word js substituted ht 
Aree : as, '* Philosophy, rvhose end is to instruct us in the 
knowledge of nature," for, '^ Philosophy, the end of which 
is to instruct us," Uc. 

' fVko, which, and whaty have sometimes the words soever 
said ever annexed to them; as, ^^ whosoever or w&oeT^er, 
Wfhi€;hsoe^r or "whichever ^ whatsoever or whatever :" but they 
%re seldom used in modern style. 

The word that n spmetimes a relative, sometimes a de- 
monstrative pronoun, and sometimes a conjunction. It *• 
a relative, when it may be turned into 'who or whdpn with- 
out destroying the sense : as, '' They th^t (who) reprove 
OB, may be our best friends ;" " From every thing thai 
(which) you see, derive instruction." It is a demonstra- 
te pronoun when it is followed imtnediately by a sub- 
stantive, to which it is either joined, or refers, and which 
it Hmits or *^ qualifies : as, " Tfeat boy is industrious ^'^ 
^ That belongs to me ;" meaning, that book, that desk^ 
&c. U IS' a conjunction, when it joins sentences together, 
Uld cann<^ be turned into who or which, without destroy- 
ing the sense : as, ^' Take care that every day be well 
employed." " I hope he will believe that I have not act 
ed improperly." 

Who, which, and what^ are called tnterrogalives, when ^ 
ftey are used in asking questions ; as, ** Who is be ?^ 
''Which is the book?" " What art thou doing?" 

Whether was formerly made use of to signify interro- 
gatioB : as, '* Whether of these shall I choose ?" but it it 
now seldom used, the interrogative which being substi* 
tuted ibr it« Some Grammarians think that the use of it 
should be revived; as, IjJce eii^ter and neitKet it pomtr ^ 


me dual B«tnlx>r ; aod wonM contribnte lb render ow 
«ipreMsiona «:oncise and definite. 

Soioe writers have classed the interrogatives ai » flep«> 
nte kind of pronouns ; bat they are tno nearly related 
to the relative pronouns, both in natare and form, to rea- 
der such a division proper. They do not, in fact, los« 
the character of relatives, when they become interrogm- 
tives. The only itifference is, that teithovl an interrogi- 
liofl, the relatifee have reference to a subject which ii 
antecedent, definite, and known; milh an interrogatioBf 
to » sabject which is-subdequent. indefinite, and uDkiiown, 
and which it is expected that the anawer should eipreM 
and ascertain. 

Sectioh 3. <ythe Mjectivt Pronouiu. 

Adjective ProDouns iire of a mixed nature, partict- 

p&ting the properties both of pronouns and adjectires. 

ns may be subdivided into four 

isive, the distr^utioe,-^^ demon- 

taoee which relate to |>osse^ 
re are seven of them ; riz. myi 

id of my and thy, were fiinnerty 
!, or adjective, beginning with a 

" Blot out all mine iniquities.*' 
ine, Ihihe, have the satae foini, 
give pronouns, or the possessive 
per^nal pronouns. See note t» 

'obably assist the learner, to di^ 
tingoish the possessive pronouns from the genitive cases of 
their correspondent personal pronouns. 

The foUomng sentences exemplify the possessive pro- 
nouns. — " My lesson is finished ; Tliy books are delaced ; 
He loves hit studies ; She performs her duty ; We own 
our tanlts ; Your situation is ctistressing ; I admire Ihtir 

The following are examples of the possessive cases of 
the persona) pronouns. — " This desk is mine ,- the other 
fa Mm; These trinketa are Au- those whf' Tlin 

no BVaiiaB QRAMlfAR. 

. • . . .• ' ■ . . . 

house is ours^ and that is yours; Theirs ia rery commodi 


I^ome grammarians consider its as a possessive pronouii. 

The two words own and selfj are used in conjunction 
with pronouns. Own is added to possessives, both singu* 
lar and plural : as, ** My own hand, our own honse.^* It 
is emphatical, and implies a silent contraries or opposi- 
tion : as, '* I live in my onun house," that is, '^ not in a 
hired house.'* Self is added to possessives : ais, myself^ 
yourselves; and sometimes to personal pronouns : as, hitii^ 
self, itself, themselves. It then, like (m7n, expresses.em* 
phasis and opposition : as, *' I did this myself," that is, 
'* not another ;" or it forms a reciprocal pronoun : as* 
" We hurt ourselves by vain rag^.*' 

Himself, themselves, are now used in the nominative case 
instead of hdsse'f, theirselves; as, "He came himself;** 
" He himself shall do this ;" " They performed it them- 

2. Tb^ disiributiife are those which denote the per- 
sons or things that make up a number, as taken sepa- 
rately and singly* They are each^ every j either: as, 
*^ Each of his brothers is in a favourable situation ^* 
'• Every man must account for himself j** ** I have not 
Been et^Aer of them." 

Each relates to two or more persons or things-, and signi- 
fies either of the two, or every one of any number taken 

Every relates to several persons or things, and signifies 
each one of them all taken separately. This pronoon 
wap formerly used apart from its noun, but it is now Con- 
stantly annexed to it, except in legal proceedings : as in 
the phrase, " all and eoery of them." 

Either relates to two persons or things taken separately, 
and signifies the one or the other. To say, " either of 
the three," is therefore improper. 

Neither imports ** not either ;" that is, not one nor the 
other : as, " Neither of my firiends was there.' 

3. The demonstraiive are those which precisely point 
out the subjects to which they relate : thi* and that, 
ikese and those, are of thb class : as^ *^ Thi$ b true charity; 
Aai h only ite image.'^ 

9^'s rcfen 16 fte neareat penmi at t1i!i% and i/iM 
to the moat distant : as, *' Thitt nmn is more mt«?lligciit 
than that-" TAuindicftteaUie latter or last mentioned j 
^at, the farmer or first mentiooed : as, ** Both wealth 
and poverty are temptations ; (hat, tends (o excite pride,- 
tfta, discoDteot." 

FeriiapB the words formtr anJ loHer may be pro^riy 
lUiied amongst tbedemoDStrative uronouos, especiollyte 
iBiny of their applicadoos. Tbe following senlpiice may 
•erve as fin example : " tt nas happy for Ihe atate, thirt 
Fatrius coBtinned in Ifae comoiAD^ with Hinucina : lb« 
former^* ^legm was a check upon the UMtr'i vivacity." 

4. The irtdejmite acediose whidi express their sul>> 
jecfs in an indefinite or geaeral manoer. Ttie fot 
lowing are of this kind : lonte, dher, any, one. ail, lUiA, 

Of tfceee proneana, oiriy the words iina and oAer are Ta- 
^ed. CW has a possessive ca^, which it forma in th» 
•ame manDer as sulwtantives : as, one, ont'i. Tbia wori 
lias a geoerat sigoification, meaning people at large ; aol 
aometiiiies aUo a pecuhar reierence to the person who ia 
apeak' '■ " oaght to pity the distre'«eH of man- 

kibd.' ; to love one'* self." This word >■ 

«ften writers, in the plural aumber; at. 

•• Th< be world ;" " The Ho^ wounded the 

oTd hi yottngouM;" ** My wHe and the fc 

tie on lealth." 

(kh Hm foHowH^ maoner : 

THan, ooter OWr 

Pom. O&itH :Gthtrf. 

Ohj. Other <^^/*- 

Tlw iJural ^ken is only osed wteB apart from fte ja,^ 

to which it refers, whether expressed or underetood : u 

" When yon have perused these papers, I will geirf ,«„ 

the olA«-»." ■■ He pleases sonie, but be disK»ist« oHwr.." 

When tiiia pronoun is joined to news, either singBt, or 

plural, itbasnoTanatioa: aa, « *e fl*her nwun" •.«« 

•theriwMi.**; . ,-; ^- ■. f ■ 

.6:^ cirousa os^kmrnjOL. 

The following ^brases maj aerv^ tPiexeoapiify ihe4iide« 
finite pronouns* '* Some of you are wise and good ;* 
^* A few of them were idle, the others industrious ;" " N^* 
ther is there any that is unexceptionable ;" " Ofie ougkt to 
know one's own mind ;" ** They were all present j" ** Such 
is the state of man, that he is never at rest;'*" •* Sam4 
are happy, while afikcr* are miserable.** 

The word another is cpmposed of the tmlefiiute artieto 
|>refixed to the word ot])MF^ 

- J^me is used in both numbers: as, ^' JVpne is so deaf ^a 
he that will not hear;** *' J^one of those. are equal to 
these." It seems originally to have. signified, accordiag 
to its, derivation, not one, and the^'efore to have had no 
plural ; bat there is good authority for the use of it in the 
plural flum1)er : as, " JSTojie that go linto her return again.?* 
Vrov, ii. 19. *' Ternss of peace were none vouchsaTd." 
Milton. " A one of them are varied ta express the gen- 
der." ** JVbnc of them have different endings for the mim- 
.^^rs*" LowTH^s Introduction. ** JVo/j^* of their produe- 
tions are extant" Blair. 

We have endeavoured to explain the nature of th^ 
adjective pronouns^ and to distinguish and afirange them 
intelligibly : Jb^ut it is difficult, perhaps impracticable, to 
dehne and divide them in a manner perfectly unexcep" 
>ionable. Some ctf them, in particular, may seem to re- 
quire a different arrangement We presume, however^ 
that, for every useful purpose, the present classification ii 
wifficiently correct. All the prpnoims, except the pei;* 
sonal and relative, may indeed, in a general view of them, 
be considered as d^initive pronouns, because they de£ne 
or ascertain the extent of the common name, or general 
term, t6 which they refer, or are joined; but as each 
class of them does this, more or less exactly, a man- 
ner peculiar to itself,^ a divi^on adapted to this circum- 
stance appears to be suitable to the nature of things^ ^nd 
the understanding of learnei*s. 

It is the opinion of some respectable grammarians, thM 
the words this, that, dny, some, such, his, their, our, £(Ci ar^ 
pronouns, when they are used separately from the noons 
4o which they relate ; but that, when. they are joined to 
those nouns, they are not to be considered as belong|D|f 
l» this epecies of words ; VecaMOi in tkis association. 

Aey rather adc^rUin a mibstantiTe, than mipply the p1ac« 
oi one. 'They assert that, hi the phrases, ♦* give mt 
iftcrf," ** tkis is John's/' and^** such were $ome of you,'* 
tk4 words 'in itaircs are pronouns; but that, id the fol- 
io wiog phrases, they are not proBouns; ♦' rliiV book il 
instructive," '* some boys are ingenious," ^ niy health ia 
declining," ** otir hearts are deceitful," ^c. Other gram- 
marians thhik,that all these words are pure adjectives ; aud 
(hat none of theni can j[>rpperly be called pronouns ; as 
Ae genuine pronoun stands by itself, without the ait! of a 
noun expressed or understood. They are of opinion, 
ftiat in the expressions,. " Give me that," •' this is John's," 
fee. the noun is always understood,' and must be supplie! 
hi ttte mind of the reader : as; "Give me tfua book ;'* 
" this book is John's ;" ** and such persons were some |.'er- 
tons amongst you." 

^ome writers' a^ of opinion that (he pronouns shouTd 
b€ classed into subirtaniive and adjective pronouns. I ndef 
tie Ibftner, tihey include the personal and the relati\ Cv ; 
Under the Jatter, all the pther$. But this division, thou jjh 
ft neat One, does riot appear to be accurate. All the rela- 
tive pronouns will not range under the substantive head. — 
We haVe distributed these parts of grammar, in the mode 
which we think most fcorrect'and intelli^ble ; but, for the 
information of students, and to direct their inquiries on the 
Bot^ect, we state the different opinions of several judi- 
cious grammarians. See the Octavo Grammar on these 



Of Verbs. 
. 5kcTiOH 1. Of the nature of Verbs tn general, 
A VEBB is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to 

SCFFPR ; as, " I ara, I rule, I am nildd." 

Verbs are of three kinds ; act jve, passive, and nku* 

TEB. They are a^so divided into reg ular, ihregulah 


A Verb Active expresses; an action, .and necessarily 
implies an agent, and aa object acted iq>on: as, to 
love; ** I love Penelope," 

A Verb PMsive expresses a pas^on or a suffering, or 

S4 txfihUB QjLXmuM. 

tbe meehong af an aedOD; and neoessai^ir loi^ies iai 
object acted upon, ai»I an agent b;^ wbich it u acted 
upon: as, to be loved ; " Penelope is loved by meJ^ 

A Verb Neuter expresses neimer ^ictton nor passttm^ 
ktt being, or a state of hmtg : as, ^^ I ani^ I sleep, I 

The verb active is also called imnsUhit^ because tlie 
action passes over to the object, or has an efiect«upoB 
fonie other thing : as, " The tutor ii»tructo his p^ila^'' 
** I esteem the maa.** 

Verbs neuter may properly be denominated intrtum^ 
lives, because theelfect is confined^ within the «ubjeot, and<^. 
does not pass 07er to any object: as, ^* I sit, he Uvea,. 
Aey sjeep." 

Sojsm of the verbs that are usuaBy ranked among neife- 
ters, make a near approach to the natai-e of a vevb active ; 
but they may be distinguished from it by their being IB'* 
tiansitive : as, to n», to walk, to fly, &c. The rest are 
more obviously neiker^ and more clearly expressive of a 
middle state between action and passion :* as, to s^md, ta 
be, to sleep, &c. 

In Engii^h, many verbs are used both tnan active and a 
neuter signification, the <:onstruction only determining^ of 
which kind they are : as, to flatten, signifying to m^e ewea 
or level, is a verb active ; but when it sigmiies to grow 
dull or insipid, it is a verb neuter. 

A neuter verb, by the addition of a preposition, m^ 
become a compound active verb . To smUe is a neuter 
w&^ ; it cannot, therefore, be follewed by an <^jecteina 

• Verfafi Iwfe keen distitifi^uished hj fionie writers^ into tbe rdlomag Jda^ 

1st. Attipt-^transi^tft, or tb/dK whieb denote an action thatpasM^nxMn'te 
«|ent to some ohjwt : as, Cewir conaiiered Ponipq^. / 

2d. Acaet^yUransUxve^ or tho^ wttich express that kind of action, which hm 
DO efl^ upon anything be^^ood tlieage^t himsejf: as, C»ar walked. 

3d. Pamre, or those- which ezpresif, not action, fkit (lassoon. Whether pleat- 
im or paioful as, Portia was kKved ; Pompey wa» conquered. 

4tli AVti/er, or thoM which express an attribute tlwt coorists neitlier id actioB 
aor passTf^u : as, Cesar stood. ' 

^ ThiM appears to be aa orderly armiiURiieDt 0ut if the ckss ^itciMie- maia i. 
mtkfe v^rbs were admitted, it would nitber perplex than assist tbe learner : fot 
(be difib-ence between verbs active and neuter, as transitive and intransitive, if 
«asy aod obvious; but die dHlei^ooe between verbs absolutdy neuter aiid4b» 
transitively active, it not atwayi cl^. It 1% indsod, oftn rery diflSeisIt to. jp 

(Ase, nor be construed as a passive verb. We caooot say, 
tie a.Hihd )um,.vt, kt aiiu txnittd. Bkit to smile un beiuy 
1 cum])oiinii active verb, we [iroperlj aaj, iJti aitiltd on 
4iui; /te ;vc[9 sndieil oahy fortune in every undertakiug. 

Auxiliary or belpiDg Verbs, are tboae by ibe help of 
vbich the flnglbu verbs are principaiJy conjiigalcd. 
Tbey are, do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, wilb tlieir 
Tarialions ; aud let and must, wbicli have no vai'ialiuii.* 
bi^oar definition of tlie verb, as a part of (pttech whick 
aigDilies tu be, to do, or to mjfkr, &c. wv have included 
every thing, either espresaly or by oecegiiary consetjoence, 
tbat is essential to its nature , and nothing that is not essen- 
tial'to it. Ibis debnitiiw is warrunled by the authority 
of Dr. liotvth, ami of many 6ttier pcspectable writers on 
gram.Tiar. There are, however .'eorrie grammariaDs, wba 
be essence of the verb. Dut, as thft 
litive, if included in it, ivontd prove 
i to their scheme, tbcy have, without 
former a place in lUe verb, and dc- 
meiely an abstract noun. This ap- 
er too fer in support of au bypoiliesia. 
wnt on the:(ie grammariwis, to reject 
i niiood. What part of speech ivouid 

I n the following sentence ? " Depart 

tnetan^y: improve your lime : forgive-usoursins." Will 
it be said, that the verbs iu tbese phrases are assertions? 
Id reply to these questions, it has been said, that "De- 
part instantly," is an expression ef]uival«it to, " i -deairt) 
you to depart instantly ;" and that as the latter phrase im- 
plies affirmation or assertion, so dues the former. But, 
supposing the phrases to be exactly alike in sense, the 
reasoning is not conclusive. 1st. In the latter phrase, the 
only part iinfiiying affirmation, is, " i desire." The wdrds 
" to depart,!' are in the inbnitive mood, aad contain no 
usertioa : they affina nothing. 3d. The position is mi 
tenable, that " Equiyalence in sense implies similarity is- 
pammttical nature." It pvovee toomiich, and therefore 
nothing. This mode of reasoning would confound the ' 
Mknowledged grammatical dielinctioB of words. A pro* 
• Z^wnpriDci(»lTerb,tBlWMBiidMfellli bBlM«belpii«T«»,ii.«*J 
- Hitiaf DBTariatim. v 

' " ■ F f 

AOfni,«a ibis pnnciplef may be prored t«.bc ii mub ; a 
Boi]D, a yerb ; an adverb, a qouq and pfepositidn ; the 
aoperlaliTe degree, the comparative ; the imperative mood, 
^e indicative ; the future tense, the present ; and so on t 
because they may respectively be resolved into simiiar 
meanii^. Thus^ in the sentence, ** I desire you to de» 
part,** the words to depart ^ maybe called a noun, because 
they are equivalent in sense to the noun c^epaWure, in the 
£)llowing sentence, '* 1 desire your departure.*^ The wordi 
** depart instantly," may be proved to be, ilot the impera- 
tive mood with ^n adverb, but the indicative and inlinitive« 
with a noun and preposition ; for they are equivalent tt 
" I desire you to depart in an instant." The iuptrltUivt 
degree in this sentence, *' Of all acquirements virtue is the 
most valuable," may pass for the comparativey because it 
conveys the same sentiment as, ^* Virtue is more valuable 
than every other acquirement.'* 

We shall not pursue this subject any further, as the read- 
er must be satisfied, that only the word desire^ in the 
equivalent sentence, iip plies a^rmation ; and. that one 
jphrase may, in sense, be equivalent to another, thou^ 
its grammatical nature is essentially different 

To verbs belong nuhber, person, mood, and XKird^ 

Section 2. Of Number and Person* 
Verbs have twd numbers, the Singular and Uie Pkoyl 
^*^l ran, we run," &lc. 

Ifi each number there are three persons ; 9Bx 

Singular. PluraU 

Tirst Person. I Jove. We lov^. 

Second Person, Thoulovest.^ Ye or you love^ ' 

Third Person* He Idves. They. love. 

Thus the verb, in some parts of it, Terries its en^igs, tp 
express, or agree with, difierent persons of the same nom- 
^r : a$. '"< 1 7ot;«, thou lovest; he loveth^ or loves :" and a!* 
•0 to express^ difiepent numbers ^f the same person : at, 
** thou hvest^ ye love ; he hveth, they /ove%" In the plurd 
enmber of the verK there is no variation of ending to ex* 
jfi%f& the difff:i«Btfm$w» i andtbtt.i«rb| in the tbiee f%$ i 

* ( 

icms pluwil, ia the same as it is in ^ first f^ersen shgidar* 
¥et mis scanty provision of terminations is snflh^nt ibt 
ail the purposes of discourse, and no ambiguitjr arises firoa 
it : the verb being alwap attended^ either with the noaa 
expressing the subject acting or acted upon, or with Hbm 
pronoun representing it. For this reason, thB plural ter* 
mination in en, ihey Ityveii, they laoeren^ formerly in use, WM 
hid aside a» unnecessary, and has long been obsolete 

S&CTioN 3. Of Moeds and PariicipUs, 

Mood or Mode is a particular form of the verb, sfaow^ 
bg the manner in wbibh the being, action, (m* passioi% 
is represented. 

The nature of a mood may be more intelligibly explam* 
ed to the scholar, by observing, that it consists in thM 
change which the verb updergoes, to si^ify vari<Hls intent 
tions of the mind,^ and various modifications and circuai* 
stances of action : which explanation, if compared with tht 
following account and uses of the different moods, will be 
found to agree with and illustrate them. 

There are five moods of verbs, the indicativ c, Hbm 

ibe IlfFllVITtV£. 

The Indicative Mood simply indicates of declares # 
Aiing: as, *^ He loves, he is loved :" orH asks a que»» 
tion : as, " Does .he love ?" " Is he loved ?" 

The Imperative Mood is used for commanding, el* 
bortiDg, entreating, or permitting : as, ^^ Depart thoii) 
iDind ye ; let us stay ; go in peace." 

Though this mood derives its name from its i^tisoatioi)^ 
ttf command, it is used on occasions of a very opposite na^ 
ture, even in the humblest supplications of an inferior be« 
R^g to one who is injGnitely his superior * as, '* Give uf 
this day our daily bread ; and forgive us our trespasses/^ 

The Potential Mood implies possibility or liberty^ 
power, wiU, (^ obl^ation : as, *' It may rain ; he may 
go CHT stay, I can nde ; he would walk y tfa^y shouia 


The Subjunctive Mood represents a thing under m- 
xnotiYaj wish) supposi^n, &;c« i and is p^^ 

ted«(f1)yiatJtmfdnction, expressed or undel'siood* and 
aliended by another verb: as, **I will respect him, 
ihongh lie chide me ;" ** W^re he good, he would Ue 
happy;" that is, "tf he were good." — See noU 8 to 
Rule 19. 

The Infinitive Mood expresses a thing in a general 
and unlimited manner, without any distinction of nunoi- 
ber or person ; as, " to act, to speak, to be feared.*' 

The participle is a certain fonn of the f erb, and de • 
lives its name from its participating, notdhlyaf the 
properties of a verb, but also ol those of 2ui adjective: 
as, " I am desirous of /ijiowins^ kirn ;*' '* admired and 
Gjpplqudedy he, became vain;'' ^* Having Jinlshed his 
work, he submij;tcdit,'' &tc. 

There are three participles, >the Present or Active, 
the Perfect or Passive, and the Compound Perfect! 
%B, ** loving, loved, having loved," — Set p. 94. 

' Agreeably to the general practice of grammarians, we 
have represented the present participle, as active ; and the 
pSbSt, as passive : but they are not uniformly so : the pre- 
•eut is sometimes passive ; and the past is frequently ac- 
tive. Thus, *' The yofith was consuming by a slew mala«- 
^ ;" " The Indian was burning by the cruelty of his 
enemies ;" appear to be instaiices of Uie present partic^iple 
being used passively., " He has instructed me ^" ** I kav^ 
gratefully rcpaic^ his kindness j" are examples of the past 
participle being applied in an active sense. We may ako 
observe, that the present participle is sometimes associ- 
ated with the past and future tensfcs of the verb ; and the 
^st participle connected with the present and future 
teiises.-^The most unexceptionable distinction which 
grammarians make between the participles, is, that the one 
poirits to the continuation of the action, passion, or state, 
demoted by the verb ; and the other, to the completion of 
it; Thus, the present participle signifies imperfect action, 
©r action befgun and not ended: as, " I am writing ^ let- 
tfelr.'* The past participle signifies action perfected^ 01^ 
finished : as, ♦' I have 'written a letter ;" " The letter *• 

* Whea tbi$inrtiriple i» joined to the vtrb to Anv, it if caUed paM s wt 
ttjk j0bd to Ule verbal* ocuiulenloodiHUtitaitiidQacsij&atod^VflmWi 

The partte^le kffintiAgiii^d from ^ aj^eotiTe, ¥y Um 
Artuer's expressing the idea of time, and Uie latter'* de^ 
AOtiiig only a quality. The phrases, ^* loving to g^ve a0 
well as to receive," " numng in baste,*' " heated with 1^ 
qnor," contain participles giving the idea of time ; Imt the 
epithets contained in the expressions^ ^* a Itmng child,' 
*^ 2k moving spectacle," ** a heated imagination," mark tim* 
ply the qualkies referred to, withont any regard to time} 
aod may properly be called participial adjectives. 

Participles not only convey the notion of time ; but th^ 
ako6igni& actions, and govern the cases of nouns and pro- 
noui^, in tne san^ manner as verbsdo ; and therefore shouk} 
be comprehended in the general name of verbs. I'hat 
&ey are mere modes of the verb, is manifest, if our defini- 
tion of a verb be admitted : for they signify being, doings 
or sufferings with the designation of time jsuperadded. But 
if the essence of the verb be made to con^^ist in aSnna- 
tiQn or assertion, nqt only the participle wiH be excluded 
from its place in the verb, but the inlinitive itself also } 
which certain ancient g^mmarians of greatauthori^ 
lieiJ to be alohe the genuine verb, simple and uncoa* 
fiected with persons and circumstances. 

The blowing phrases, even when considered in theia* 
selves, show that participles include the idea of time : 
*' The letter being tvritten, or having been written;'** 
" Chaxies beit^ writingj havif^ written^ or having beeik 
writing J^ But when arranged in an entire sentence^ 
which th^y must- be tomake a complete sense, they show 
It still more evidently : as, " Charles kavmg written the 
letter, sealed and despatched it," — The participle doe« 
indeed associate with difllerent tenses of the verb : as», 
" I am writing," ** 1 was writing," " 1 shaH be writing:" 
but this forms no just objection to its denoting time. If 
t^ Ume of it is oilen relative time, this drcumstance* 
&r from disproving, supports our position.t See abservei* 
Horn under Rule 13 of Syntax. 

Participles sometimes-perform the office of substantives^ 
«id are used as such ; as in the following instances: '^ The 

f From the veiy Harare of time, an action nM^hppmmf mitt itninAaM 
lem present firtntrlyf or it mar be yreserU at sdttie futwn pm««l—fe* wnoewr. 
H^povd, tnat tbs ff9a^\ of tbe i^j^^jjKitive djeBOte^ iio time ? 

** The chancellor's being attached tcr the Icing ^ciirfed ttis 
crown f *' The general's hm>ing failed in this enterprise 
dccasionf^fl \y\^ tlisgrace ;" ** John's hamng been wr^tng- » 
lang time had wearied him.** 

That the wordj§ in, Italics t)f the three latter examples, 
perform the office of substantives, and ma^y be coBMcfered 
as-soch, will be evident, if we reflect, that the first o4- 
them has etactly the same meaning and curtstniction asy 
*TTlie chancellor' JT attachment to the king secured his 
crown ;" and that the other examples will bear a i^ilaf 
Construction. The words, '^being aitathed^ govern the wot* 
0ka?iceltor^s in the possessive cas^, in ihe one inst^no^, at- 
clearly as attachttieitt governs it m that case, in the other * 
and it is only substantives, or words and phrased whrcb- 
dpefrate as substantives, that govern the genitive olr pos-- 
sessive case. ,' 

*'■ This following sentence, is net precisely he same as the 
abo\'e . either in sense or construction, then ''h, except the 
grjTiitive case, the words are the same; ** The ehahcel* 
Ifrr, beirig attached to the king, secured fes crown/* In* 
the former, the words, being attached^ form the nomina*' 
tif^ casfe tathe verb, and are stated as the ( ^use o£the 
effect; in the' latter, they are not the nomit Uive case, 
and make only a circumstance to chancellor^ w. ich is the 
proper nominative. It may not be improper to add ano- 
thei" form of this sentence, by which the learner may 
better understand the peculiar nature and fbrm, of eacM 
of these modes of expression : '^ The' chancellor beiojf^ 
attached to the "king, his crown was secured.** Tt^' 
cOifetitutes what is prx>perly Called, the Ckse Absolute. 

Section 4. ^ Remarks en the Potential Mood. 

That the Potential Mood separated from the* 
subjunctive, is evident, from the intricacy and confusion 
which are produced by their being blended together, and 
from the distinct nature of the two moods ; the former of - 
which may be expressed without any condition, supposi- 
tion,^ &c. as will appearfrom the following instanc<bs: 
•*They mdghi have done better ;'" •* We niay always act 
upiightily.;'' *^ He was generous, ami Tn^ould not take re r 

ire»ge;** "We «feovW reeist the aUuremeots of vice;*' 
" 1 e^vld formerly indulge myself in things^ of which I 
cannot now think but with pain." 

Sofloo granmarians have supposed that the Potential 
Mood, as distinguished above from the Sabjunctijve, coni* 
cides with the Indicative. But as the latter '* simpljF- in- 
dicates or declares a tbing,'* it is manifest that the for- 
ner, -which modifies the declaration* and introduces an 
idea materially distinct from it, must be considerably 
different. " I can walk," " 1 shcmld walk," appear to be 
so esdentially distinct from the simplicity of, '* I walk," 
" I walked," as ito warrant a correspondent distinction of 
iiiootk* The Imperative and In^nitive Moods, which are 
allowed to retain their rank, do not appear to con* 
tain, such strong marks of discrimination from the fadica« 
tive, as are found in the Potential Mood* 

There are other writers on this subject, who exclude 
the Potential Mood from their division, because it is form- 
ed, not by varying the principal verb, but by means of the 
aiudh'ar} verbs may^ can^ might:, coiUd, wouldy &c. : but 
i£ we recollef^t, that moods are used ^' to signify various 
tntentiofis of the* mind, and various modifications and cir- 
cunEistaBces of action," we shall perceive that those auxi- 
liaries, iar from interfering with this design, do, in the 
clearest manner, support and exemplify it. On the reasoa 
alleged by these writers, the greater partpf the Indica- 
tive Mood must also be excluded ; as but a small part of 
it is conjugated without auxiUaries. The Subjunctive too 
will fxte no better; since it so nearly resembles the Indi- 
cative, and is formed by means of coi^junctions^ express^ 
ed or understood, which do not more effectually show the 
varied intentions of the mind, than the auxiliaries do 
which are. used to form the Potential Mood. ^ 

Some writers have given our moods a much greater ex- i 
tent than we have assigned to them. They assert that the 
English language may be said, without any great impro- 
priety, to have as many moods as it has auxiliary verbs ; 
and they allej^e, in support of their opinion, that the com- 
poond expression which they help to form, point out those 
v^oos dispositions and actions, which, in other languages* 
are expressed by moods. This would be to multiply the 
MOeds witimiit#^NHaage« ltis,faowe««ricertatnyttettbe 

confflfSu&Hi or>lLriftttoii of v«rb^ in th^ ISn^ikhs^giu^^ 
it «lfecte<l, aliBost entirely, by the mettns of aoxiliaries. 
We mast, therefore, accommodate ourselves to this cir- 
cumstance ; and do tiliat by their assistance, irhich has bdeo 
^one HI tiie learned languages, (a few insiauces to the 
contary excej^d,) in mother manner, namelj, by vaiy- 
liig the ftftm of the verb itself. At the same time, Ris 
«eceflflftry to set proper bounds to diis business, so as not 
to occasion obscurity and perplexity, when we mean tole 
•^mj^ and perspicuous. Instead, therefore, of maki^ft 
separate mood for every auxiliary verb, ai^d intrdducing 
moods hiierr0gativ€, Ojpla^ve, Prrnnimve^ HorttOhe^ Fn* 
co/fve, &c we have, exhibited such only as are obvioiMty 
^tin^t ; and which, whilst they are calculated to unfokl 
and^ftplay the subject intelligibly to the learner, seemio 
be sufficient, and not more than sufficient, to answer aU 
4he purposes for which moods were introduced 

From Grammarians who form their ideas, and mab 
ttieir decisions^ respectii^ this part of £n^Bh Grammar, 
en the fHrinciples and construction of languages whicb, 
in these points* do not sipt the peculiar nature of^ior ows, 
but difier considerably irom it^ we may naturally eip^ct 
l^rammatical schemes ^t are not very pers{^cuo(M osr 
perfeclSy consistent, and which wiH tend mm*e to perplei 
than inform the learner. See paiges 76'-^7B. 94-^* 
§9~10e. 183^184 

SxcTioirS. OfiheTtnuu 

Tsarsfi, beinethe distinction of ttme, might (xm^ 
•dmit oidy of ue [nreseiit, past, and fiiUjre; but ti 
mark it more accurately, H is made ta consist ef a 
vai-mtionSiTix. liie pRSasNT, the iHPEftFBcr, the p«** 
FECT, the PLiTFBRrEOT, aud the FiniT and %zcon 


The Piesent Terse represents an action or ev&^ 
as passing at the time in which it is mentioned: ^ 
^* I rule ; i am nded ; I thmk; I fear." 

The present tea9e likemse expresses a character, ^m* 
fi^, kc^ at present existing: as, '* He is an able man;" 
^* She is an amiable woman." Itjs also used in speaking 
0fictt»nowrt?inn<Mi, witi^ occasieital iiilenM(M>oM» ^ <^ 

ffts^liW^,: Sf, "He frequend;^ rUtei-;" "He walltt 
out every morni^;" " He goea ioto the country eveiy 
fommer.'* VVc .^oraetimes ftpply tbi^ tense even to pe»- 
wns long since dead : as, " Seneca reasons and moralizM' 
well :" " Job speaj^s feelingly of his afflictions^'* 

The piiesent tense, preceded by the words, w\«n, &♦•. 
fare^ qfier, as sooy. as„ kc. is sometimes used to point out 
the relative time of a. future action : as, " When he ar- 
mes he will hear the news ;" ** He will hear the/«e\w 
he/ort he arrives, or as soon as he arrives, or, at farthest, 
ipon after he arrives ;" ** The more she iwproveSy tbe 
more amiable she will be." 

In animated historical narrations, this tense H *oro^- 
times substituted for the imperfect tense : as^ *' He cnJtrs 
the territory of the peaceable inhabitants; hejights and 
conquersy takes an immense booty, which he divides 
amongst his soldiers, and returns home t» enjoy an emp^ 
triumph " 

The Imperfect Tense represents the aclion or ^vent, 
«kber as past and finished, or as remainitigunfinkhiid 
at a certain time past : as, " I loved her for her medeff- 
ty and virtue;" " They were travelling post when be 
JHet them." 

The Perfect Tense rtot only refers to what is pad!, 
but also conveys ^ allusion to the present time : as, 
" I have ^nishe^ my letter;" " I have ^een the jperson 
that was rep^inmepded tp me.*' 

In th0 former example, it is signified that the finisMny 
ef ifte letter^ though past, was at a period imm^diate^ 
or very neariy, preceding the present time. ^ In the J^at- 
ter instance, it is uncertain whether the personumenlioar 
ed was seen by the spejaker a long, or short tipue before 
The meaning is,/' I have seen hjm ^ome time in ibst 
caurseof a peiiod which includes, or comes to, tlie pre 
Aent^time.'* When the particular time of any occurrence 
18 sjii^cified, jaL» pjrior tp ,the present time, this tense is not 
9Si^d^ for it would be improper to say^ '' I have seen him 
WBsterday ;" or, " I have finished, my' work last week." 
fn these cases jtfaLe impedect is. necessary; as, ''J sam 
him yesterday ;'' " I j^n^Aci/ n^ywprk^ last ^.eek«" H«t 
when w^ speak kidetmitely 6( any thing fAst, aa ba^pes - 


ihg or 'not happening In the day, .yeai% vt agp^, inriv^i^ck 
We mention it, the perfect must be -emiplbye^ : as, ** I 

day as is past betore the time of out speaking, we 
the tmperfect: as, " They came home early this moru* 
fc^g^* *^ He was with them atlhree o'clock this aftetnoon.** 

i]h« perfect tense, and the imperfect tense, both denote 
% thing that is past; bwt the former denotes it in such a 
#^nner, that there is still actually remaining somB part 
of ^ time to sUde awjiy, wherein we declare the thing 
h^d b^ti done; whereas the imperfect denotes the thing 
or action ^t, in such a manner, that uothiog remains of 
that time m which it was done. If we speak of the pre- 
sent century, we say, *' Philosophers have made great 
discoveries in the present century :" but if we speak of 
the last century, we say, " Philosophers vtade great dis- 
x^overies io the iast century." ^-He lias been much diet- 
ed this year;" " 1 hi'oe this week read the king's procte- 
mation;" " f /wit^ he^rd great news this morning." ia 
these in^ances, " He has &ce«," " I have.'read^' as^ 
" heard,'' denote tilings that are past ; but they occurred 
Uk this ye^, in this week, and to-day ; and still there re- 
mains a part of this year, week., and day, whereof I 

Jn general, the perfect tense may be applied wherever 
the action is connected with the present timfc>l>y the kc- 
*6al existence, either of the author, -or of ttie work 
^Shough it may haye been performed many centuries ago ; 
•feat if neither the author nor the woHc noW Wmains, |t 
cannot be used. We may say, "Cicero has written orS^ 
tions;" but we cannot «ay, ** Cicero has opW^;^ poems;** 
%)ecause the orations are in being, but the poems ar,e lo^ 
^akii^ of priests in general, we may say^ ^^^They'itt^e 
Is ail ages c/atmcd great powers ;'' because the genei^ 
^rder ^ flie priestfiw>d still exists; but if we speak tf 
tiie Druids, as any particular order of priests, W|»i<^ 
does not now ei^, we cannot use this tense. We eaa^ 
not say, ** The Druid priests Aot?6 claimed great powers^** 
%«t must say, ^ The Druid^priwlfi c/otnicc^ji^reat powe^:** 

CTYaroLOGv. 7i 

t>ocause that ordoris cow totally extinct. Sec Pjckbouan 
<m the English Verb, 

The Pluperfect Tense represents a tiling, not only 
as past, but also, as prior to some other point of time 
spfTified in the sentence : as, " I had fuiished my let- 
ter before be arrived. " 

The first Future Tense represents the action as ^rt 
to come, either wUh or without respect to the precise 
time : as, " The sun wi!l rise to-monow ;" "1 shilf 
see them again.'* 

The Second Future intimates that the action will 
T)e fuUy accomplished, at or before the time of another 
future action or event : as, " I shall have duied at one 
o'clock;" " The two houses will have finif.hod theii 
business, when the king comes to prorogue thcui.^'f 

It is to be observed, that in the subjunctive mood, the 
event beiag spoken of under a condition or supposition, or 
m the form of a wish, and therefore as donbtful and con- 
tingent, the verb itself in the present, and the anxihary 
both o£ the present and past imperfect times, often carry 
with them somewhat of a future sense : as, " If be come 
to-morrow, I may speak to him;'' *' If he should, or 
would come to-njprrow, I mij:jht, would, could, or .«hodld 
speak to him." Observe also, that the, auxihary should 
and 7€otUdy in the imperfect times, are used to express 
the present and future as well as the past: as, " It is my 
desire, that he should, or would, come now, or to-mor* 
row ;" as well as, "^ It was my desire, that he should or 
"vroald come yesterday." So that in this mood the precise 
time of the verb is very much determined by the nature 
and drift of the sentence. 

The present, past, and future tenses, may be used 
ettber definitely or indefinitely y both with respect to time 
and action. When they denote customs or habits, and not 
individual acts, they are applied indefinitely : as, " Vir- 
tue promotes hairiness ;^' ** The old Romans governed by 
benefits more than by fear;'* *' I shall herezder employ 
mj time more usefully." In these examples, the wordf^^, 

^ Sie an aocoont of tiw rinjj^ and ampownd tense;, at pae^ au 

76 SH^LISH CKAMlfiJl. 

Cromotei^ governed, and shall emplm/, are used indefinitely^ 
oth in regjird to action and time ; for they are not con- 
fined to individual actions, nor tOsany precise points of 
present, past, or future time. When they are applied 
to^^'ignify particular actions, and to ascertain the precise 
points of time to which they are confined, lliey are used 
definitely; as in the following instances. * My brother 
is -isoriiing ," *' He built the house last summer, hut did 
not inhabit \i till yesterday." ** He will turite 9iiiK>\X\^v 
letter to-morrou." 

The different tenses also represent an action as complete 
or perfect^ or as incomplete or imperfect. In the phrases, 
** I am writing," " I was writTng," •* I shall be writiiig,'* 
imperfect, unfinished actions are signified. But the fol- 
lowing examples, '* I wrote," ** I have written," '* 1 had 
written," *' 1 shall have written," all denote complete 
perfect action. 

From the preceding representation of the different 
tenses, it appears, that each of them has its distinct and 
peculiar province ; and that though some of them niajf 
fionietimes be used promiscuously, or. substituted one foF 
another, in cases where great accuracy is not required, 
yet there is a real and essential difference in their mean- 
ing. — It is also evident, that the English language contains 
the six tenses which we have enumerated. Grammarians 
who limit the number to two, or at mos^ to three, name* 
ly , the present, tlie imperfect, and the future, do not reflect 
^at the English yerb is mostly composed of principal aod 
auxiliary ; and that these several parts constitute one verb* 
Either the English lan^a^e has no regular future tense» 
er its future i« composed of the auxiliary and the principal 
Terb. If the latter be admitted, then the auxiliary and 
principal united, constitute a tense, in one instance ; and, 
BTom reason and analogy, may doubtless do «o, in others, 
iu which minujer divisions of time are necessary, or use- 
fill. What reason can be assigned for not consi^ring thif 
ca^e as other cases, in which a whole is regarded as com- 
posed of several parts, or of principal and a^jancts ? 
There is nothing heterogeneous in the parts : and prece- 
dent, analogy, utility, and eren necessity, antharize tlMi 

- * 

vnmoto9t, 7f 

fe support of this opiDioD, we hare the authority of 
eminent grammarians ; in particular, that of Dr. Beattie 
* Some writers," sajs the doctor, " will n«*)t allow any 
thing to be a tense, but what in one inflected word, ex* 
presses an affirmation with time ; for that those parts ot 
the verb aria not properly called tenses, whicb assume 
that appearance, by means of auxiliary words. At this 
rate, we should hare, in English, two tenses only, -the 
present an<I the past in the active verb, and in the jjassive 
BO tetjses at all. But this is a needless nicety ; and, if 
adopted, woiild introduce confusion into the grammatical 
art. If amoTDeram be* a tense, why should not amatnt 
ffeeram ? If / heaid be a tense, I did hear^ I have heard ^ 
and / shall Itear^ must be equally entitled to tliat appella- 

Tbe proper form of a tense, in the Greek and Latin 
tongues, il^c^tainly that which rt has in the grammars of 
ih&se iangUages. But in the Greek and Latin grammars,. 
we urfrfonuly find, that some of the tenses are formed by 
variations of the principal verb ; and others, hy the ad- 
dition of a helping verb. It is, therefore, indisputable, 
that-'ther priiicipal verb, or rather its participle, and an 
auxiliary, constitute a regular tense in the Greek and 
Latin languages. This point being established, we may, 
<to%toeS8^, 8ipP^y it to English verbs ; and extend the prin- 
ciple ^mSdit as convenience, and the idiom of our language 

If H should be said, that, on the same ground that a par- 
ticiple and auxiliary are allowed to form a tense, and the • 
t:ej4) is to be conjugated accordingly, the English noun 
an^ pronoun Ought to be declhied at laige, with article^ 
and prepositions ; we must object to the inference. Such 
a^mode 0/ dec}enaioa is not adapted to our language. 
1^18 we think has been already proved.*, li is also cortr 
£s8ef!Qy kiap^iicable to the learnedi^langnages. Whero 
men i« the grammatical inconsistency, or the want of con- 
ftmnity to the priooiplefi of analogy, in making some ten* 
ees^df Qic^tiglish verb to consist of principal and aiixili-ary ; 
and the cases of English nouns, chiefly in their termina- 
tioB ? Tbe argument from analogy, instead of Uoilitating^ 

♦ See page 5(K 

Against m, 4tp|>eafs.t9 confiriii aiul eMabHsh our poskioa 
See pages 70^72-r-a4 — ^, 98^102.— 1 83— 184- 

W« shall close these remarks od the teases, with a few 
ghservations extracted irom the ENCTCLOPfmi BaiTiJf* 
lucik. They are worth the student's attentioD, as a pari 
of them apfdies, not only to our views of the tenses^ 1m^ 
to many other parts of the work. — '* Harris (by way of 
hypothesis) has enumerated no fewer thaii twelve ten«es« 
Of this enumeration we can by no ineans approve :. ioWp 
without entering intgr a minute examinatiofi^f it,, uothioff 
can be more obvious, than that his imc^ptive presen^^ ^* I 
am going to write," is a future tense ; and his completive 
present, '* I have written," a past tense* But, a3 was be* 
fore observed of the classification of words, we caimot 
help being of opinion, that, to take the tenses as they are 
^^ommonly received, and endeavour te^ascertajn their na- 
ture and their differences^ is a moch more useiui exer* 
cise, as well as more proper for a work of th£s ktnd,tham> 
to raise, as might easily be raised, new theories OQ the 

Section 6. Tk^ Conjugation of the etuxUiarff vei^ ' 

TO HAVE and to be. • 

The Conjugation of a v^b, is the regidkr cdiali^MK 
tion and arrangement of its several i^onibers, {^racm% 
in cods, and tenses. 

The Gonjugation of aa active verb i^ styled #ieACWvfi 
ToicE ; and that of a passive verb, the paSbivr vt^cb. 

1 he auxiliary and active verb to bate, is cc^)|ti;g^ 
icd in the following maimer. 

• The fbllowinff critidgm adMs an additioaal ttippaft to tbe «oQioc*« mlwi 
«flhelcr)aes, &c. ^^ 

" Under the head of Et^BSolpiT, the autiior of thii paiwnar^ 
fcei^es to the natunU simplicity of the fiendish laugjiage, tntiiodt etiii.^ 
. ft^^JBroer with dittinctiow peculiar to the Ijatio tougne; '*fhe diWtm, ^..s^. ^ 
the Tentefl, l« ole'j>Iy rvnbined ; and with loi enCQiQl^tafioe iifti i Imii il jilinff 



to HAVtl. 
. jbdicaAive MooiL * 

PreterU Ttnit. 

Soguteit. Pkira!. 

1. Pers. I have. 1. We hare. 

£. Pers, Thou hast. 2. Ye or yoii ba?^ 

3 Pers, He, she, or it > « rru u ^ 

hath or bM. \ 3.The,hw«. 

Imperfect Tense.* 

Singobr* PJuiil. 

I. I had. 1. We had. 

t. I'hbu had«t» 2. Fe or you had* 

S. He. &c. had. 3. They had. 

Perfee^ Tense^* 

fSmgabr. Plum). 

1. I have had* 1 . We h^Te had. 

t. Thou hast had 2. Ye or yoa hare.haiL 

a. H& has had. 3* I'hey hare Intd^ 

* ny^erjkct Tenu,''*^ 
Singiflar. Plur«L 

1 . I had had. 1. We had had. 

Z, Thou hadst had. 2. Ye or you had had 

3. He had had. 3. They had hsid. 

First Fnturt Tense. 
Sinoibr. , Flari). 

1.1 shaQ Of w^ l)iave. 1. We shall or.wiU havs* 

2. ^llio^ 9haU or vvilt haye* o2;yiBoryi6uahalWrwiUhav«» 
^. He^atH in* wOt have. 3. 'They ^hdl er wili havt^ 

* The terms nl^aA. we have adoptidy^ toderfgnate the titree »Mt tenspfs vw 
not be e!caetlf sj^aifieaDt otth^ ri^tore and <ii$tlactkMis. But as tliey ^ 
os(^ hy njBinima-iaiis itf general, and have an established authority^ and, eap^ 
dally, as the meaning attatJicd to e^ch of t|iem, ttfid their dHferent Bigiiifii:atioiii| 
baye been careftilfy expired ; we presume tliat no solid otgection can be o^Kle 
to Uie Use of terms so generafiy approved, and so tsxpiicitly defined. Bee Mt 
78 an4 8^ We an su^tporbed in these seiitimeu^ \sy Uie aajbbocity of 1^ 
Johnson, fe the nbt note in bis ** Grammar of the Etig^sh Tongue," pre* - 
fitt4.ttt^his dktiooaiy. ^ howev^, aay iNwiiers tfKmld thiok ft warrautaAite 
to cnaoBsthe estat^^ehiM name», they caooot perhaps find any moreappronnato^ 

60 ENGUtit OSiidttlAlt 

Second Futiitr€ Tense* 

SincukSr. Plural. 

1. I shall have had. L^ We shall have had. 

8 Thou wilt have had, 2. Ye or you will have ha£ 

9. He w3l have had. ' S. They will have had. 

Imperative Mood. ' 

Singular. Plural. 

J. Let me have* ). Let us tiaye. 

2. Have, or have thou, or 2. Have, r>r have ye, or do y* 

do thou have. hr you have. 

Z. Let him have. 3. Let them have.* 

The imperative mood is not strictly eatitled to thru 
persons. The command is always addres«(ed to the sKoni 
person, not to the first or third. For when we say, *' Let 
me have," " Let him, or let di«m have," the meaning 
and construction ar^, do tkou^ or doye^ let me, him* or 
them have. In philosophical strictness, both number and 
person tnight be entirely eiccluded from every verb. 
They are, in facti, i^^ properties of substantives, jMi a 
part of the essence of a verb. Even the name of the 
imperative mood, does !M>t Always correspond to its nature: 
for it sometimes )9c/tWows as well as commands. But, with 
respect to all these points, the practice of our gramma- 
rians is ^o uniformly fixed, and so analogous to the lan- 
guages, ancient and modern, which our youth have to 
study, that it would be an unwarrantable degree of inno- 
vation, to deviate from the established terms and arrange- 
ments. Seethe adi^ertisement at the end oif the IfttriMfoc- 
"t»n. page 7; and the quotation from the ^htyclojK»<B* 
Knianmca, page 78. 

. Potential Mood. : 

Present Tense. 

^ Singidar. Haral. , , 

1/ may orcaDbaye* 1. We may Of can hftf^» 

2". Thou ma)'st<>r canst have. 2, Veoryounoay^orcaB^ial** 
^. He may k^t can have. 3. They may or ca© hia^* , 

'*tf «ich sentehces sho«jId He rigorotislF exauiined, tbe lancr^iw wilN|il* 
"sQiBittaeffdyiBlkcwtfdM. Sec i>«nti«^ f. Mi 

Fiogidsr. Plonl. 

^ 1 I might, could, wotiId« or 1. We might, c<mUl, WiOul^ 
shoiild have. or tihoiikl have. 

& Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Xe or jou might, c«u|4f 

wotitdst, or shouldst have. wduld^ or should have. 

3. He mi^ht, could, would, 3. They miffht, could, wouH, 
pr shoiu^d have. or ehoula have. 

Ptrfert Tmh» 

Siogulir. Plofal 

1. 1 may or can have had. 1. We may or can have had* 

2. Thou mayst Of canst have 2. Ye or you may or can 
bad. have had. 

3. He may or c^ have had. 3.They may or can h^vehftd* 

Phtjierftct TtMt. 

CffleoSar. Plural. 

I. I might, could, would, or 1. We mi^hjt, could, woul^, 

should have had. or should hatre h&d. 

f . Thou mightst, conldst, 2. Ye or you might, confcl, 

woui<fet, or ghouldst iiave would, or should. hav« 

had. ha(L 

3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could,n^ouI4, 

or should have had. or should have had.* 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Teme. 

SiB|Qlar. PIsisa. 

1. if {have. 1. If we have* 

2, If thou have.t 2. If ye or you have* 
S. If he have.t 3. If they have* 

The remaining tenses of the subjunctive mood, are, hi 
<very respect, similar to the correspondent tenses of the 

* ^UiU and mlL wheoth^ denote melination, resfdutkii, jpTDmise, pi^y be 

Uve and wbjunctive moodsc 

f QmimBarbiDS, m gei-^mU coDijiiipte the pien^t of Mtn aoslia^^t^p 
manner. Butweaf-svHue that Una w the CorHLoT the veish, •-•— ^ t— ^ 

indicative moocI;t ^athjlie addition to the verb, of »coi:i- 
junction, expresised or implied, denoting a condition, mo- 
tive, wisJi, suppOsitioa, ^c. . it will be proper to direct 
the learner to rept^at all the tenses of this moodi ivith sl 
conjunction prefixed to each of them. See, on this. €ruh- 
ject, the observations, at page 96 ; ajid the notes on the 
niiieteenth rule of syntax. 

Infinitive Mood. * 

NLE8EKT. To have. PERFECT. To have had. 

Participles, - 

; PRESENT OR activb/ Hftving. 

*i' ' PERFECT. 0f Had. 


As the fiCfbjunctive mood, in EngU^h, has no ya^iatioI^ 
in the form of the verb, from the indicative, (except in the 
present tense, anHthe second future tense, of verbs gAie- 
I^lly, and the present and imperiecl jeitse* of the v^erb 
io he,) it would be superfluous to conjugate it in this wprk, 
tln»- Jgh every tense. But all the other moods and tensief 
^f ilre verj^s, both iji the active and passive voices^ ^re 
conjugated at large, that the learners may have no doabts 
©r n^sappreheneions respecting their particular ibrms. 
^they, to whom the subject of grammar i& eiiticely new, 
and young persons especially, are much more readily and 
effectually instructed, by seeing the parts of a subject so 
essential as the verb, unfolded and spread before them, 
in all their varieties, than^by being generally and curso- 
rily* informed of the manner in which they may be exhi* 
bited. The time employed by the scholai*s, in conse- 
^ quence of this display of the verbs, is of small moment 
compared withr the advantages which they will probably 
derive from the plan. ^ 

f H may not, however,. be generally proper fop yomig 
persons beginning the study of grammar, to commit to 
memory all the tenses of the verbs. If the simple tenses, 
»amely, the jpres€fflt and the imperfect, together wkh the 

f l£.x<eft that the second and |lnrd prrponf, liii^ikr and plural, of the te* 
^eoi d future tense, re^uir* the kuxiliajy M^rf/, 5*0//, lastead ot nt//, nill. JTbiis, 
**-He»^ftave eosM<M tpe vork hv- mi^^iimnRr,". jg Uip vindicative forui. 
Itot the suhjufictire % ^. ^^ ^^^ ^^ dxupleieA dte wdrk V zcid^mer. • 


ted fo lueiiior^?, z^ad the feyf oarefully .pexufed tod •k- 
4)latne4) the bnsine^ ^iU not >€ tedious to tlur tchelaiyL. 
aud tbeir^ progress will be rendered i&o^e ^viQUS eoh 
^easing. The general view of the »cihject, thus <c%iii9* 
ed ajid impressed^ afterwards be extend^ wii «m^ 
and advantage. 

It appears t9 be prepe^^ for the iaftrmation of the 

tearo/ers, to o^ake^ a few obserratioos in this place, ot 

some of the tensed, &o. The first m, that, m the pot^in? 

tial mood, some graxnmarkns cgnfound the present with 

the imperfect tense; and the perfect with liie pluperie^ 

But that they ar^xe?illy distinc^and have an appropriaiiui 

reference to time, correspondent to the deduitioos dt 

those tenses, will appear from a' few ex^tinplet : ^^ 1 wiih* 

ed him to «tay, but he wouidliot ;^^ '* I could not accom* 

plish tlie business in time ;'* *^* It was my direction thai 

he iUauld submit;^'. " He Wia« ill, but I Uiought be.«i%A< 

live;" '^ 1 may have miswidentood him ;** '* He cannot hav€ 

'decmv9d:me ;" *' He tmghthav^ finMed the tvorlt sooner, 

bat he could not have done it better.** — It must^ heW^vei^ 

be admitted, that, on some occasions, the auxiiiarie« 

might, could, would, and -should, refer also to preseBt 

and to future time. See page 75. 

The next remark is, that&e aujdH^ry wiil^ in the first 
person singular and plural of the second future tense ; 
and the auiuliary shall ^ in the second and third persons of 
that tense, in the indicative mood, appear to he incor- 
rectly applied. The inipropriety of such assoetatioot 
may be inured from a few exam^s; *^ I will have had 
previous notice, wheneveT the event happens';" ' ** Thc^ 
shalt have serred thy apprenticeship before the end of 
the year ;" '' He shaU have completed his business wheft 
the messenger atrives.** '* I shall have had^ thou miii 
have served ; he, mill have completed," ^^ would bate 
been correct and a^>plicjd)le. Th^ peculiar:. import oC 
these auxiliaries, as explained in page 90, under seciiott, 
7, seems to account kr their impr^riety in the a^pfica* 
tioDs just mentioBed. 

Some wiiters on Grabmar olject to Ae firomeiy of ad ^ 
tutting, the second future, in both the indicative and sub-: 

f^v^i Bi^^da : Jbplf tb^ Ots utBfMLn appliqabte>. ^<h&. 

ibBowAv cxanpler. 

lierefbre io Sie ibdi- 
iebed fcu wm-k wbeB 
1i(e reivud," Is eaii 

the yturiy KhotH> 
i« conrerte^ into tbe 
4 coaditi6<», motlv^ 
rjidSed 1» it; so dM 
; be turaed into thil 
fellbtring exan^tea: 
.ihor ft ;'• " Tholigt 
ouU not be cbari^- 
1 gain |)(> estflem, ua- 

^be, IB coBJugHted 


] T aim I We are 

X ThojiaH. 2 jBor^nV^ 

3 Uft, sb$, or U a 3 Then are. 

1 I wall. 1 We were 

» Thottw^ * Y*wyiHi we« 

i 3 He wits. 3 tausj iWfe 

I I^ave been 
t fhou hast heei 

& {fe ItfUi or bu ImA. ^ 1 

Plupfr/ect Teuu* 
itngiilar. Plurai 

1. I had be'iii. 1. We had been. 

2 Thou hadstbeen. S. Ye or you had been* 

S. He had been. 3. They had been. 

First Future Ten$e. 


Singular. Pliiral. 

1. I shall or .will be. 1. We shall w will be. 

2. Thou shalt or wilt be. 2. Ye or you shall or will be 
^. He shall or will be. 3. They shall or will be« 

Second Future Tenn. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I ghall have beeo. 1. We shall have been. 

2. Thou wilt have been. 2. Ye or you will have been 

3. He will have been. 3. They will have been. 

Imperative Mood. 

Siflgolar. PIuraL 

1. Let me be. 1. Let us be. 

S. Be thojj or do thou be. 2. Be ye or you, or do ye ba 

3, Let him be. 3. Let them be. 

Potential Mood* 

Present Tense. 

Srognlar. Plural. 

1. I may or can be. 1. We may or can be. 

ft. Thou mayst or canst be. 2. Ye or you may or can be. 

d. He may or can be. 3. They may or can be. 

bnperfect Tense. 
Singular PIuraL 

1. I might, conld, woiUd, or \. We might, could, would* 
should be. or should be. 

2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could, 
wouldst, or shouldnt be. would, or should be. 

8. He might, could, would, 3. They might;cuuld,would, 
or should be. or should be. 



■ ' • f 

Perfect Tense, 
Singular. Ptaral. 

1 . I may or can have been. 1 . We may or can hare beeA 

2 Thou mayst or canst have 2. Ye or you may 0r csum 

been. have been. 

3. He may or can have 3. They may or caa haT:^ 
been been. ' 

Pluperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, woull^ 
should have been. or should have been. 

2. Thon mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, x^ould^ 
wouldst, or shouldst have would, or should have 
been. been. 

3. He might, could, would, 3. They mtght,could,wouldy 
cr should have been. or should hav^ beeou 

Subjunctive Mood. 

JPresent Tense: 
Singular. Plural. 

1. Iff be. 1. If we be. 

2. If thou be. 2. Ifye or you b^i 
*. If he be. 3. If they be. 

Jmpe^ect Tense 
Sinflilar. Phiral. 

1. If I were. I. If we were. 

2. Ifthouwert 2. If ye or you were.. 

3. If he were. 3. If they were^ 

The remaining tenses of this mood are, in general, eimi 
far to the correspondent tenses of the Indicative niood* 
^ee pages 82, 94, 95, and the notes under the nine 
teenth rule of Syntax. 

Infinitive Mood. 

yretent Tense. To be* Perfect. To have been 7 


Present, BeinjK. Perfect. Been^ 

(kmipound PerfecU ^ ^.^ Having be^n. , 

Section 7. 7'nt Auxiliary Ferb» conjugated in their swi' 
pie form ; mth obsermtiwu on ik^ii peculiar nature and 

Ttob learner will perceive that the precedioK eittiliarv 
verbs, to have and to be, could not be conjiigated throupfh 
ali the moods and tenses, without tlie helpof other atixilinrj 
verbs ; namely, rnay, can, unll, shall, and their variatioim. 
That auxiliary verbs, in their simple stato, and una.-^sissto^ 
by others, are of a very limited extent ; ami that they ^re 
chiefly useful, in the aid which they afford in conjut^ating 
the pnncipal verbs ; will clearly appear to the scholar, by 
a distinct conjugation, of each of them, uncombined with 
any other. They are exhibited for-his inspeotioit ; not to 
be committed to memory 


' Present Tense, 
Sing. 1. Ibave. 2. Thou hast. 3. He hath or hut 
Plur. 1. We have. 2. Ye or you have. 3. They have. 

hnpeifect Tense, 

Sing. 1. I had; 2. Thou badst. 3. He had. i 

Plur. 1 . We had. 2. Ye or you bad. 3. Tb»y had 

Perfect, I have had, kc. Pluperfect, I had bad, kc 

Present, Having. Perfect, Had. * - 


Present Tense 

Sif^, I. I am. 2. Thou art. 3. He is. 

Plur. 1. We are. 2. Ye or you are. 3. Theyava. 

Imperfect Tense. 

Sing I. I was. 2. Thou wast. 3. He was. 
Plur, 1- We were. 2. Yeoryou were. 3. They were. 

PtMwU. Being. , Perfect. Eeea. 

Present TVioe. 

Xng. 1 I (Shall.* t. Thou shalt 3, He »ha&« 
i^ttf. 1 We^iU. 2. Ye or you shall. 3. They ^taft 

Itnpeifect Tense. 

fing. 1 I should. 2. Jhou dhouldst. 3. He should. 
J^lur. U We should. 2. Ye or you should. 3. They ahfl»uU 


Present Tense*. 

Sng. J. I win. , 2. Thou wilt 3. He wOi.^ 
Plur. h We win. 2- Ye i!ir you will. 3. They will. 

hnperfed Tense, 

Sing* 1. I would. 2. Thou wouldst 3. He would. 
Piw. U We would. 2. Ye or you would, 3. They wqu1& 

Present Tense* 

&tig. h r Qiaj» 2. Thou majst. 3^ He may^^- 
Fiur. 1. We may. 2. Ye or you may. 3. They m^. 

ImperfeeS Tbftke. 

tXng. 1. 1 might 2. Thou mightst 3. He mtgtit* 
Plur* I. We might. 2. Ye or you might 3. They might* 


Present Tense* 

tkng. * f can. 2. Thou canst 3. He can. 
Plur. 1. We can. 2. Y'e or you can. 3. They can« 

imperfect Tense. 

t^ng. 1. f Could. 2* Thou couldst 3.. He could. 
Pktr. 1. We could. 2. Ye or you could. 3. They could* 

^ Shall is here prop«'ly used in the proseut tense, having the jame 
69 a%nt((f ttal lilr liii to cmil(l» IM^ to ll^gH'fl^ 


Present Tense* 

Xng. 1. I do. 2. Thoii dost. 3. He loth or doef 

Flur. 1. We do. 2. Ye or you do. 3. They do. 

fmpeifect Tense, 


«Migr. 1. I did. 2. Thou didst. 3. He did. 
Plwr. 1. We did. 2. Ye or you did. 3. They did. 

Present. Doing. PerftJ, Dodc. 

The verbs have, be, will, and do, wnen they are uneoti^ 
nected with a principal verb, expresksed or undersiood^ 
are not auxiliaries, but principal verbs : as, " We turv% 
enongh ;" " 1 am grateful ;" *' He wills it to be »q ;'* 
*' They do as they please." In this view, they also hav|i 
their aaxiliaries: as, '* 1 shall have enough ;" ** 1 will he 
grateful," &.c. 

The peculiar force ef the several auxiliaries will ap- 
pear from the following account of them. 

Do and did mark the action itself, or the time of it, witk 
greater energy and positiveness : as, ** I do speak truth ;'* 
" I did respect him ;" '* Here am I, for thou didst call ine." 
They are of g^eat use in negative sentences: as, ** I do 
not fear ;" " I did not write." They are almost univer^ 
sally employed in asking qiiestions : as, '' Does he learn ?" 
** Did he not write ?" They sometimes also supply the 
place of another verb^and make the repetition of it, ia 
the same, or a subsequent sentence, unnecessary : as, 
" You attend not to your studies as he does ;" (i. e. as ha 
attends, &^c.) ^ I shall come if I can ; but if I do noty, 
please to excuse me ;" (i. e. if I come not.) 

Let not only expresses permission, but entreating, ex* 
liorting, commanding : as, ^* Let us know the truth ;" 
•* Let me die the death of the righteous ;" '' Let not thy 
heart be too much elated with success j" " Let thy in*^ 
eimation submit to thy doty." 

Mmff and might express the possibility or Ubecty of doiAC^ 
a ttnng ; can andenw/e^ the powfr : as, " It^may rai» V ** * 
write or. read;" ** He might have improved mof*? 

90 CNtiLIftH Q&AimAIl. ^ 

than he has ;*' ^' He can write much better dian he could 
last year.*' 

Must is sometimes called in for a helper, and denotes 
necessity : as, ^* We must speak the truth, whenever we 
do speak, and we must not prevaricate." 

fVill^ in the first person singular and plural, intimates 
Ksolution and promising ; in the second and* third person^ 
only foreteb : as, '* I will reward the good, and will pu- 
nish the wicked ;" '* We wil! remember benefits, and be 
grateful;*' " Thou wilt, or he will, repent of that rfoUy ;*' 
" You or they will have a pleasant walk." 

Shull^ on the contrary, in the first person, simply fore* 
tels ; in the second and third persons, promises, commands, 
er threatens: as, *^ 1 shall go abroad ;" *' We shall dine 
at home ;" *' Thou shalt, or you shall, inherit the land :" 
'* Ye shall do justice, and love mercy ;" " They shaU 
account for their misconduct." The following passage ia 
Bot translated according to the distinct and proper mean- 
ings of the words s/ia// and will: '* Surely goodness and 
mercy shall follow me all the days of my life ; and I wHl 
dwell in the house of the Lord for ever ;" it ought to be» 
" Will follow me," and " I shall dwell."— The foreigner 
who, as it is said, fell into the Thames, and cried out ; *< I 
will be drowned, no body shall help me ;" made a sad mis- 
application of these auxiliaries. 

These observations respecting the import of the verbs 
will and shall^ must be understood of explicative senten* 
ces ; for when the sentence is interrogative, just the re- 
verse, for the most part, takes place : thus, *^ I shall go: 
Tou will go ;" express event only : but, ** will you go ?" 
imports intention ; and, ^*^ shall \ go?" refers to the witt 
^another. But, " He shall go," and " shall he go?'* 
both imply will ; expressing or referring to a command. 

When the verb is put in the subjunctive mood, 'the - 
meaning of these auxiliaries likewise undergoes some 
alteration ; as the learners will readily perceive by a fow 
examples : " He shall proceed," '* If he shtUl proceed ;*• 
•♦'YoH shall consent," " if yo^ shall consent." These 
auxiliaries are sometimes interchanged, in the indicative 
1^ sfibjunctive moods, to convey toe same meaxnng of* 

Ite aozffiary: as, '' lis e^ not retum,'' <' If be aftottr 

<' ' * ' - ^' 



I &Tour. 

I favoured. 

I lOTC. 

I loved. 


Hot returo ;" " He shall not return," *• If he will not re* 

Would ^ primarily denotes inclination of will ; ftnd thovU^ 
obligration : but they both vary their import, and are oAeB 
used to express simple event. 

Section's. The Conjugation of Regular Vtrhu \ 


Verbs Active are called Re^Iar, when they form 
fheir imperfect tense of the indicative mood, and their 
perfect participle, by adding to the verb ed^ or d oolj 
when the verb ends in e : as, 

reri. rvocn. 


A Regdar Active Verb is conjugated in the foHow* 
mg manner. 


bidicative Mood. 

Present Tense, 
SUwDlar. Plural. 

1. Hove.* 1. We love. 

2. Then lovest. 2. Ye or you love. 

3. H«, «he, or it, loveth, > ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 
or loves. > "^ 

Imperfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I loved. 1. We loved. 

2. 'Thou lovedst. 2. Ye cr you loved* 

3. He loved. 3. They loved- 

Peffect Tense. 
Singulaz. Phiral. 

1. I have loved. 1. We hare loved. 

2. Thou hast loved. 2. Ye or you have loved 

3. He hath (^ has loved. 3. They have loved 

of ttic^eiti. 


Pluperfect Tense. 

SkigfjSat. Plural. 

]• I had loved. 1. We haxllov<^di. 

S. Thou hadst loved. 2» Ye or you had loveifc 

3. He had loved. 3. They had loved 

• * • _ 

First Future Tense, 

Bincilar. Plural. 

1. I shall or will love. 1. We shall or will love. 

ft. Thou shalt or wilt love. 2» Ye oryou shall or will lov0» 

S. He shall or will love. 3. They shall or will love. 

Second Fixture Tense. 
SiQs;Qlar. Plural. 

1. I shall have loved. 1. We shall have loved. 

2. Thou wilt have loved. 2. Ye or you will have loved* 
S. He will have loved. 3. They will have loved. 

Those tenses are called simple tenses, which are formed 
9f the principal, without an auxiliary verb : as, " I love, 
I loved." The compound tenses are such as cannot be 
formed without an auxiliary verb: as, **I have loveti ; 1 
had loved ; 1 shall or will love ; I niay love ; 1 may be 
loved ; I may have been loved ;'* &c. These compounds 
are, however, to be considered as only different forms of 
the same verb. 

Imperative Mood. 

Singuhir. Plural. 

1. Let me love. 1. Let us love. 

2. Love, or love thou, or do 2. Love, dr love ye «r jOw, 
thou love. or do ye luve. 

d* Let him love* 3. Let them love* 

Potential Mood. 

^ ' Present Tense. 

Sineolar. Plural. 

I* 1 may ^ chn love. 1. We may or can lo^e. 

f; Thou mayst w canst love* 2. Ye or you may or can Ibf^ 
%M% may or can knre* 3. Tbey mfty or can love. 

hnptffect TtnsiB. 

Sinoilar. Phiral. 

1. 1 mi^t, could, would, or 1. We might, eonld, woiiU» 

should lovB. or should love. 

%. Thoa mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, MSoiilSt 

wouldst, or shouldst love. would^ or should lOTe* 

9. He might, could, would, 3. They ini^lit, could, would, 

or siioiSd love* or should 1ot«« 

Per/ecr TViMf . 

(Sng^ar. Floral. 

!• I may or cata have loyed* 1 • We may or can hare loved* 
2. Thou-mayst or caost have 2. Ye or you mayor can hav« 

loYeH. loved* 

5* He may or^an have Iov« 3. They may or can hav« 

ed. loved. 

Pluperfect Ttnse* 

BSapSa, Plural. 

h I might, coaM, would, or 1. We might, could, would, 

should have loved. or should have loved. 

2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could, 
wouldst, or shouldstha ve. would, or should have loir- 
loved* ed» 

3. He might, could,- would, 3. They might, could^^ould. 
or ^md have loved. or should have loved 

Subjunctive Mood* 

Pretmt Tense* 
Siogokr. . PlaraL 

1. If I love. 1. If we loye. . 

2. If thou love. 2. If ye or you Kve. 
S. If he love. 3. If they love. 

The remaiuing tenses of thls^ mood, are, in genetd; 
similar to the coprespondeut tenses -of the indicative mood* 
See page 82, and page 95. 

It may he of use to the scholar, to remark, in this place, 
Ibat though onlythetjonjunction (/"is affixed to tli^ verh, 
any other conju'nGtion proper for the subjunctive mood, 
may, witb edual propriet^^ be occasionally 9Q9exedU Tha 

isstanre ^iyen is sufficient to e;E|)lain the subject : moi^e 
would foe tedious, and tend to embarrass the learner. 

^ ■' " ' ^ ' Xiifiriitive Mood. 


Ptp$9nt; To love* Perfect. To have toved. 

• ' ' Participles. 

Present* Loving. , Perfect. Loved. 
Compound- Perfect, Having loved. 

The active verb mky be conjugated difierently, by add-* 
iBg its present or active participle to the auxiliary verb to 
k^^ihroagb all its moo(k and tenses-; as, iost^adof ^^ f teach, 
thou *.eache8t, he teaches," he. ; we m^y say , " 1 am-teach- 
inff, chou art teaching, he is teaching,'* inc. : and instead of 
** T taught,*' &c. *' 1 was teaching," ^c^ and so on, througJi 
all the variations of the auxihary. This mode of conju- 
l^tion has, on particular occasions, a peculiar propriety ; 
and contributes to the harmony and precision of the lan- 
guage. These forins of expression are adapted to parti- 
etHar acts, not to general habits, or affections of the mind 
The^ are very fre(juently applied to neuter verbs ; as, " I 
am musing ; he is sleeping/'* 

Some grammarians apply, what 1$ called the conjitnctivt 
Hrniinationy to the persons of the principal verb, and to its 
auxiliaries, through all the tenses of the subjunctive mood. 
But this is certainly contrary to the practice of good wri- 
ters. Johnson applies this termination to the present and 
perfect tenses only. Lowth restricts it entirely to the pre- 
sent tense ; and Priestley contipes it to the present and im- 
perfect tenses. This difference of opinion amongst gram- 
marians of such eminence, may h&ve contributed to that 
diversity of practice, so observable in the use of the sub- 
junctive mood. " Uniformity in this point is highly desirable* 
It would materially assist both teachers and learners ; and 
tKould constitute a considerable improve n>ent in our" lan- 
guage. On this subject, we adopt the opinion of*Dr. 
Lowth ; and. conceive we are fully warranted bjr his aii* 

if it not QiHiiifest, that it is a speu^ or ibrti) of the V^cb, aod thut |^€api|0^bt 
(roptt-fy ^tooridered asa distida j>art of speech P 

ihority^ and tl^t of jthjB most correct and efojpMEii)ff;»tt6f0,i» 
limiting the conjunctive terminatijw of the prijgicipal verV* 
to the second and third persons singular of ike present UnH» 
Grammarians have not only difib red in .opinion, respecl* 
ing the extent and variations of the subjunctive mood ; but 
a few of them have even doubted the existence of such a 
mood in the English language. These writers a^rt, that 
tiie verb has no variation from the indicative ; and that a 
eonjanction added to the verb, gives it no title to beconi^ 
a distinct mood ; or, at most/ no better than it would ha ve^ 
if any other partxcle were joined to it. To these obsecv;a«- 
hons it may be leplied; 1st. It is evident, on rnspecUon, 
that, in the sul ''mctive mood, the present tense of tl|e 
principal verbs, fhe present and imperfect tenses of th^ 
rerb to 6e, and the second and third persons, in both num* 
bers, of the second future tense of all verbs;* require a 
Tariation from the forms which those tenses have in the 
indicative mood. So much difference in the form.of t^e 
verb, would warrant a correspondent distinction of mood« 
though the remaining parts of the subj\mctive were, in all 
respects, similar to those of the indicative. In other lao- 
guages, a principle of this nature has been admitted, both 
in the conjugation of verbs, and the declension of noima. 
2d. There appears to be as much propriety, in giving ^ 
conjunction the power of assisting to form the subjunctiiH^ 
mood, as there is in allowing the particle to to have an ef^ 
feet in the formation of the infinitive mood.t 3d. A con- 
|UDCtion added to the verb, shows the manner of beings, 
doing, or suffering, which other particles cannot show : 
they do not coalesce with the verh, and modify it, as con* 
junctions do. 4th» It may be said, '* If contingency consti- 
tutes the subjunctive mood, then it is the sense of a phrase, 
and not a conjunction, that determines this mood.'^ But a 
little reflection will show, that the contingent sense Uesia 
the meaning and force of the conjunction, expressed ot 

This subject may be farther illustrated, by the foUowii^ 
l^hflerVations. — Moods have a foundation in nature. They 

* We ttuok it has been proved, that the auxiliary b a ':<MMtituait part of the 
verb to winch it relates : tnat the principal and its auxiliary form m oaete^ 
t ConjuoctioiiB Uave an influence on the mood of the ibUowin2 verb 

C bniilw i iMu rfure mmfidan a fioffcimieat of laoodfc Bt.tmM^ 

•9 «irOttiH GKAMXiUR. 

rikdW wlilt k (Certain ; what is possible ; what is conditioM- 
al ; W'hat iftcominanded. They express also odier concep- 
tiOQS and yolitions ; all signifying the manner of being, do- 
ing,* or suffering. But as it would tend to obscure, rather 
than elucidate tiie subject, if the moods were particalarlj- 
enuine^ted, grammarians hare Tery properly given the not 
such combinatiotts and arrangements, as serve to explain 
the nature of this part of language, and to render the 
knowledge of it easily attainable. 

The grammars of some languages contain a greater 
Rumber of the moods, than others, and exhibit them in 
different forms. The Greek and Roman tongues denote 
tiiem, by particular variations in the verb itself. This 
form, however, was the effect of ingenuity and improve- 
ment . it is not essential to the nature ol the subject. Tlie 
moods may be as effectually designated by a pturality of 
words, as by a change in the appearance of a single word ; 
because the same ideas are denoted, and the same endl 
accomplished, by either manner of expression. 

On mis ground, the moods of the English verb, as wefl 
» the tenses, are, with great propriety, formed partly by 
the principal yerb itself, and partly by die as^tance which 
that verb derives from other words. For further observa- 
tions, relative to the views and sentiments- here advanced, 
fee pages 71 — 72. 76 — 78. 100—102—183—184. 


Terbs Passive are called regular, when they fono 
their perfect participle by the acmition of d! or ^, to the 
yerb : as, from the verb " To love," is formed the pa»> 
rive, " I am loved, I was loved, I shall be loved," &c. 

A passive verb is conjugated by adding the perfect 
participle to the auxiliary to 6e, through aS its clianges 
of number, person, mood, and tense, in tlie foUowuig 


Indicative Mood, 
Present Tmse. 

Sngular. Plural 

1. I am loved. U We are loved. 

2* Thou art loved* 2* Ye or you are 1qv«A 

Si He is loved. 3- Thev s^re lovedL 

SioguW. Phiral. 

1. I was loTcd. 1. We were loved* 

f. Thou wrkst loved. 2, Ye or you were lorej* 

3. He was loved. 3. They were loved* 

Perfect Tense. 

Singular. ' • Plural. 

1. 1 have been loved. 1. We have been loved. 

J. Tlio?i hast been loved. 2. Yet^ryoahavp Keeulijvedi 

3. He hath or has been loved. 3. They have been loved. 

. Pluperfect Tense,. 
Sfogolar. Plural. 

U I had been loved. 1. We had been loved. 

2. ThoQ hadst been loved. 2, Ye or you liad boon lovedr 

3. He had been loted. ^ 3. They had been loved. 

First Future Tense. 

SingDlaf. ^ Plural. . 

1. I shall or will be loved. . J . We shall or will be loved. 

2. Thon shalt or wilt be loV- 2. Ye or yoa shall or wiFl be 
ed. . loved. 

3. He shall or will be loyed. 3. They shall <»r will be loved. 

Second Future Tense, 

Siognhr. - Plural. 

IC I shall have been loved. 1. We ahdl have been loved. 

2. Thoti wilt have been lov- 2. Ye or you will have been 
ed. . loved. '" 

S. He will have been loved. 3. They will have been loved 

Imperative Mood 

Singular. . ' Ptoral. 

1. Let me be loved. 1. Let us be loved. 

1?. 3e thou loved, or do tiioii 2. Be ye or you loved, or d» 
be loved. ye be loved. 

3. Let him be loved. 3. liet them be loved. 


pQteQtial Mdod* 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Plaral. 

1. Vm-Ay or can be loved, I. We may or can be h7e.i, 

2. Tbou majst or canst be 2. Ye or yon may or can be 
loved. ^ loved. 

3. He may or can be loved; 3. They may or can be loved 

Imperfect ' Tense, 

Su^ar. Plural. 

1. I might, conld, would, or 1. We might, conid, would, 
should be loved. or should be loved. 

2. Thou mightst, . conldst, 2. Ye or you mi^:ht, could, 
would?t, or shouldst be would, or should be loy- 
loved. ed. 

3. He might, conld, would, 3, They might, could, nroa/d^ 
^r should be loved, or should be loved. 

Perfect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I may or can have befen 1. We may or can have been 

loved. ^ loved. 

% Thou mays! or canst have 2.. Ye or you may or can have 

been loved. been loved. 

3. He may or can have been 5. They may or caii have 

loved. been loved. 

Pluperfect Tense, 

Smgjalar. Plural. 

1* I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, wouW, 

' should have been loved. or should have been loved. 

%. Th6a mightst, couldst, 2. Ye br you might, could, 

wouldst, or shouldst have would, or should have 

l>eeD loved. been loved. 

A He might, could, would, or 3. They might, could, veouM, 

«houlid have been loved. or should have beenlove^ 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Toise: ^ 
Sin^olar. PluraL 

1. If I be loved. J. If we be. loyed. 

S. If thou be loved« 2. If ye or you be lovei 

d. If he be loved. 3^ 1^ they be loved. 


bnpetftct Teif^se^ < 

5io|Eulaa>. ~-^ r Plural. 

1. Ifl were love^. , I. If we were loved. 

2. irthoii wert loved* 2. If ye or yOu were lo\ed. 

3. If he were loved. 3. If they were loved. 

The remaining tenses of this mood are, in general, 
amilartothe correspondent lenses of the indicative mood. 
See pages 82, 95, and the notes under the nineteenth rule 
of Syntax. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Pres(nit Tense, Perfect. 

To be loved. To have been loved. 


Present, Being loved. 

Perfect or Passive, Loved. 

Cot/inound Perfect, Having been loved. 

Waen an auxiliary is joined to the participle of the prin 
cipal verb, the auxiliary goes through all the variations 
of peison and nnmbcr, and the participle itself continues 
invariably the same. When there are two or more auxi- 
liaries joined to the participle, the first of them only is vari-. 
ed according to person and number. The auxiliary jnusi, 
admits ^f no variation. 

The ueuter verbis conjugated like the active j but as k 
partakes somewhat of the nature of the passive^ it admits, 
in many instances, of the passive form, retaining still the 
neuter signiticatioh : as, *' I am arrived ;" " 1 was gone;* 
'* I am grown/' f be ?iuxiiiary verb, am, wasy in this case, 
precisely dednes the time of the action or event, but does 
not change the nature of it^; the passive form still express- 
ing, not properly a pasib^^i, but only a state or condition of 

Section 9. Observctiions on Passive Verbs, 

Some writers on gramm&r assent; that there are no Pasr- 
ftve Verbs it the English language, v^cause we have no 


TP'^ijs of this kind with a peculiar termination, aQ of them 
«ieinf|^ lormed by the different tenses of the auxiliary to be, 
joined to the passive participle of the verb. This is, how- 
ever, to mistake the true nature of the EngUsh verb; and 
to regulate it, not on the principles of our own tong'uej 
but on those of foreign languages. The conjugation, or 
the variation, of the English verb, to answer ail the pur- 
poses of verbs, is accomplished by the means of auxiliaries ; 
and if it be alleged that we have no passive verbs, be 
cause we cannot exhibit them without having recourse to 
helping verbs, it may with eqiial truth be said, that we 
have no perfect^ pluperfect ^ or future tense, in the indicative 
or subjunctive mood; since these, as well as some other 
parts of the verb active, are formed by auxiliaries. 

Even the Greek and Latin passive r<rbs require an auxi* 
liary to conjugate som^ of their tenses ; namely, the former^ 
in the preterit of the optative and subjunctive muods ; and 
the latter, in the perfect and pluperfect of the indicative, 
the perfect, pluperfect, and future, of the subjunctive 
mood, and the perfect of the infinitive. The deponent 
verbs, in Latin, require also an auxiliary to conjugate »e- 
Teral of <^heir tenses. This statement abundantly prove* 
that the conjug^tipn of a verb in the learned languages 
does not consist solely in varying the form of the original 
verb. It proves that these languages, like our own lan- 
guage, sometimes conjugate with an auxiliary, and some- 
times without it. There is, indeed, a difference. What 
the learned languages require to be done, in some instan- 
ces, the pecuhar genius of our own tongue obliges us to 
do, in active verbs, principally, and in passive ones, univer- 
sally. In short, the variation of the verb, in Greek and 
Latin, is generally accomplished by pretixes, or termina- 
tions, added to the verb itself; in English, by the addition 
of auxiliaries. 

The English tongue is^ in many respects, materially dif- 
ferent from the learned languages. It is, therefore, very 
possible to be mistaken ourselves, and to mislead and per- 
plex others, by an uudistinguisbing attachnieutto the prin- 
ciples and arrangement of the Greek and Latin Gramma- 
rians. Much of the confusion anJ perplexity, which we 
meet with in the writings of some Eughsh Crrammarianj», 
On the subject of verl^i i&ooda, and conjugations, has arisen 


ET^MOLOOf. 101 

from llie misapplication of names. We are apt to tbink, 
that the old naaes must always be attached to the identi- 
cal forms and thi)tgs to which tliey wefe anciently attach- 
ed. But if we rectify this mistake, and properly adjust 
the names to the peculiar forms and nature of the things in 
our own language, w^ shall be clear and consistent in oup 
ideas ; and, conseqnemly, better able to represent them 
inlelligibly to those whoai we wish to inform. 

The observations which we have made under this heaJ, 
M\d on the subject of the moods in another place» will not 
apply to the declension and c*ses of nouns, so as to reqiiire 
us to adopt names and divisions similar to those of the 
Greek and Latin languages : for we shpuld then have more 
cases than there are prepositions in connexion with the ar 
tide and noun : and after all, it would be a useless, as well 
as an unwieldy apparatus ; since every English preposition 
points to, and governs, but one case, namely the ol>jective ; 
which is also true with resf>ect to our governing verb** and 
participles. But the conjugation of an English verb in form, 
through all its moods and tenses, by meam^ of auxiliaries, 
80 far from being useless or intricate, is a beautiful and 
regular display of it, and indispensably necessary to the 

Some grammarians have alleged, that on the same ground 
that the voices, moods, and tenses, are admitted intt) tlie 
English tongue, in the forms for which we have contended, 
we should also admit the dual number, the paulo post future 
tense, the middle voice, and all the moods and tenses, 
which are to be found in Greek and Latin. But this ob- 
jection, though urged with much reliance on its weight, is 
not well founded. If the arrangement of the moods, tenses, 
&c. which we ha\e adopted, is suited to the idiom of our 
tongue ; and the princii)le, on which they are adopted, is 
extended as fai as use and convenience require f wher^ is 
the impropriety, in arresting our progress, apd fixing pur 
forms at the goint of utility ? A principle may be warrant- 
ably adopted, and carried to a precise convenient extent, 
without subjecting its supporters to. the chargo.-of incon- 
sistency, for not pursuing it beyond the line of use an^ 

ftrepriety* ' ^^^^^^ 

The imporutae* lil givk^ tiie^iffigetiiou!* #tmtent ofettf 

ted just ideaa of the oature of eur verbs, moodf, and. 

I ft 


tenses, will apologize for the extent of the Autbor'« 
marks on these subjects, both here and elsewhere, and 
fcr his solicitude to simplify and explain them. — He thinks 
it has been proved, that the idiom of o«r tongue demands 
the arrangement he has given to.thp English verb; and 
that, though the learned languages, iv^ith respect to voices, 
moods, and tenses, arr, in general, differently constructed 
from the English tongue, yet, in some respects, they are 
80 similar to it, as to warrant tiie principle which he has 
adopted. See pages 71—72. 76—78. 94 — 96. 183— 

Section 10. Of Irregular Verbs • 

Irreffular V^erbs are these which do not form their 
imperfect tense, and their perfect participle, by the 
aiidition o{ d ov ed to the verb : as, 

Pi-esent. Imperfect Perfect Pait. 

I begin, 1 began, begun. 

I know, 1 knew, known. 

Irregular Verbs are of various sorts* 

1. Such as have the present and imperfect tenses, tad 
perfect participle, the same: as, 

Present Imperfect Perfect Pttl 

Cost, . cost, cost. 

Put, put, put. 

2. Such a^ have the imperfect tense, and perfect parti* 
■ciple, the saitie : as. 

Present . Imperfect Perfect Part 

Abide, abode, abode 

Sell, sell, %old. 

9 Such a* have the imperfect tense, and perfect par- 
•^ieiple, different: as. 

Present Imperfect Perfect Part. 

Arise, arose, ansen. 

/ Blow,. Wew, blown. 

Many verb^ become irregular by contraction; as, ^'fee^t 

IM4 leav« kft •" 9timu bi tbf t^mmi&Qu tt^f w^ «' fi^ 

y EtVMOLOGT. f03 

fell, fellen:" others by the terraiaation gkt; as, "buj, 
bought ; teach, taught,^^ &c. 

The foilotying list of the irregular verbs will, it is pre- 
sumed, 1^ fonod both compreheasive and accurate. 



Peif. or Pa«. Ptet 











awoke, E. 


Bear, to bring j oHA,bare , 


Bear, to corry. 





beaten, beat* 








bereft, r. 

bereft^ r. 




Bid, ^ 

bid, bade, 

bidden, bid* 






bitten, bit 









• broken. 



















caught, ir« 

caught, R. 



chidilen, chid. 




Cleave, to 

8lich 01 



Cleave^ to 


clove, or cleft, 

cleA, cloveii. 






clad, R, 








crew, R 





Cut, . 





£k«LlS& GRAMMikY 

Present Impcrfecl. 

Dare, to venture, durat, • 
Darfe, R. to challenge. 






































dealt, R 

dug, R. 





dwelt, R. 

eat, or ate^ 













gilt, R. 

girt, R, 







huni^, a* 








knit, R. 

Ferf. or Pass. Part, 

dealt, R. 

dug, R. 





dwelt, R. 








flung. ^ 


forgotten, for&rot 




gilt, R. 
girt, R. 
graven, R. 

hang. R. 
hewn, R. 
hidden, bid. 
hurt ' 

kiiit. K. 

stC2rtfrtiiiiM»'Xyob0Olefc lb coo^oaDd /or^otten it itUl m fooa my. 





Pftrf or Paa. FMt 






















Lie, to He down 





la lien, R» 












mown, R. 

















• rode. 

rode, ridden^t 


rung, rang, 













sawn, lu 
























shaped, shapei 



shaven, r. 








shone, r. 

shone, R« ' 











iJbiUm a pearly obwlctt. 









Sli le, 
























Strow or strew 











sun^, ^aing, 

sunk, Bank, 

sal, . 






slit. R. 






spilt, *R. 


spit, spat, 



sprung, sprang, 






strode or strid, 




Perf. or Pac. Part 












shi, or slitted* 


sown, R. 






spit, spitten.* 










struck or «trickeft 



strewed or strewed, \ '^''^'^"' «trowed, 

( strewed* 

swet, R. 
swum, swam, 

* SpiUm u nearlx obsolete. 

swet, R. 
swollen, i^ 


rat. t i^mL fuu 









throve, a. 









waxen, a. 





wept, • 



won. ' 




w rou ght or worked- 















We jr, 








In the preceding li*t, some of the verbs will be fonnd 
to be conjugated regularly, as well aj* irregularly ; and 
those which admit of the regular form are marked with 
an R. There is a preference to be given to some of the«e, 
which custom and judgment must determine. Those pre- 
terits and participles which are first mentioned in the Hst, 
seem to be most eligible. The Compiler has not inserted 
such verbs as are irregular only m familiar writing op 
discourse, and which are improperly terminated by «, in- 
stead ofcci; as, learnt, spelt, spilt, &c. These should he 
aroideJ in every sort of composition. It is, however, 
proper to observe, that some contraction? of ed into ^ are 
unexceptionable : and others, the only established forms 
of expression : as crept, gilt, &c. : and lost, felt, slept, &c. 
These allowable and necessary contractions nust there- 
fore be carefully distinguished by the learner, from thoso 
that are exceptionable. The words which are obsolete 
have also been omitted, that the learner might not be in- 
duced to mistake them for words in present use. Suck 
are, wreathen, drunken, holpen, molten, gotten, holden^ 
boun'f«>n &c. : and swang, wrang, slank, strawed, gat/ 
brake, tare ware, ^Ucm 

108 cirocfsa oiummar* 

Section 1 1. Of Defective Verbs; and of the Afferent wa0 

in which verbs are ccnjugatetL 

Depectiye verbs are those which are used only Ok 
iome of their moods and tenses, 

. The principal of them are these. 

pKwnt I Imperfect Perf. or Pass. Fat. 

Can, could, ' 

May, might, 

Shall, should, 

Will, would, — • 

Must, must, ' 

Ought) ought, 

■ quoth, 

That the rerhs must and ought have both a present and^ 
past signification, appears from the following s^Dteoces^ 
•* I must own that I am to blame ;*' *' He mudit have been 
mistaken ;" " Speaking things which they ought not •," 
'* These ought ye to have done." 

In most languages there are some verbs which are de- 
fective with respect to persons. These are denominated 
impersonal verl^. They are used only in the third pep- 
eon, because they refer to a subject peculidirly approprit* 
ted to that person ; as, '' It rains, it snows, it hails,.it 
lightens, it thunders." But as the word impersonal im^ 
plies a total absence of persons, it is improperly applied 
to those verhs which have a person : and hcuce it is 
manifest, that there is no such thing in English, nor ini- 
deed, in any language, as a sort of verbs really impersonaL 

The whole number of verbs in the Enghsh language^ 
regular and irregular, simple and compounded, taken tpf 
gether, is about 4300. The number of irregular verlaii 
the defective included, is about 177.* 

Some Grammarians have thought that the English ver{% 
as well as those of the Greek, Latin, French, and other 
languages, might be classed into several conjugations; 
and <^hat the three different terminations ^f the participle 
might be the distinguishing characteristics* They have 
accordingly proposed three conjugations; namely, the 

• The whole number of irords, in the fiosUsb langMag^ is about tbirty4k« 

"■Mt* •9»s6t o#Terbs, the participles of which end in ed^ 
«r its r«mtraCtioii t; the second, of those endtne in ght; 
nd die third of those in en. But as the verbs of the firA 
«oojagation, would so greatly exceed in number those of 
kofh the others^ as may be seen by the precediDg account 
eC them ; and as those of the third conjugation are so va^^ 
flv>«B in their form, and incapable of being reduced to one 
fi«in rule ; it seems better in practice, as Dr. Lowth josl-^ 
br observes^ ^o consider the first in ed as the only regular 
$orWf and the other as deviationti from it ; after the ex« 
•Kple of the Saxon and German Grammarians* 

Be&re we close the account of the verbs, it may afford 

untroetioa to the learners, ia be toformed, more pari« n^ 

imriy than they have been, that different nations hrire 

jDade Bse of different contrivances for marking the tenseft 

and moods of their verbs. The Greeks and Latins tlis* 

^ngmsh them, as well as the cases of their nouns, adjec^ 

tivea, and pa^icipl'^s, by varying the termination, or 

tHherwtse changing the form, of the word ; retaining, 

ho^mreveVf those radical letters, which prove the inHec* 

tion to be of the same kindred with its rootr The mo* 

^ern tongues, particularly the English, abound in auxiliary 

^rords, which vary the meaning of the noun, or the verb 

'withoot requiring any considerable varieties of inflection. 

Thia«, I do love^ I did love^ I have loved, i had loved, I nhaU 

\^ have the same import with avno, amabam, atnavii ataa^ 
amabo. It is obvious, that a language, like the Greek 
mod Latin, which can thus comprehend in one word the 

ining of two or three Vords, must have some advan* 
orer those which are not so comprehensive. Per* 

», indeed, it may not be more perspicuous ; but, in tlie 
mrrangement of words, and consequently in harniouy and 
energy, as well as in conciseness^ it may be much mort 

' - • 1CBAPTER VtU 


Aw Adrerb is a part of speech joined to & rerb. aa 
^j^ectire, aad sometimes to another adverb, lo exprea* 

110 nraLTSR duBfliiR. 

reads toell;^^ " A truly good mam;" ' He writes yoefr 


Some adverbs are compared, thus: " Soon, soon^^ 
soonest;" "often, oftener, oftenest. Those ending 
in /y, are compared by morty and mo5^' as, ** Wisely^ 
more wisely, most wisely." 

Adyerbs seem origiaaUj to, have been contpived to ex* 
press corapendioosly in one word, what mnst otherwise 
have required two or more : as, " He acted wisely ,•• 
for, he acted with wisdom ; " pruriently," for, with pru- 
dence ; " He did it here," for, he did it in this place ; 
*^ exceedingly," for, to a great degree ; ^^ oAen a&d seU 
dom," for many, and for few times; '^ very^" fbr» in^ui 
eminent degree, &c. 

There are many words in the Eng^sh language thaA 
are sometimes used as adjectives, and sometimes as ad- 
terbs: as, ** More men than women were there;" o», 
** I am more diligent than he." \u the former sentence 
more is evidently an adjective, and in the latter, an ad* 
verb. There are others that are sometin>es used as sab- 
stantives^ and sometimes as adverbs : as, *^ To-daj's 
lesson is longer than yesterday's ;" here to-day and yet- 
terday are substantives, because they are words that make 
fien«e of themselves, and admit besides of a gent^ve 
ease : but in the phrase, '* He came home yesterday, and 
eets out again to-day," they are adverbs of time; be- 
cause they answer to the question Tn^tn-, The adverb 
much is used as all three : as, ^* Where much is gireB, 
much is required ;" ** Much money has been expended;" 
•' It is much better to go than to stay." In the first of 
these sentences, in/uch is a substantive ; in the second, it 
k an adjective ; and in the third, an adverb* In sborii. 
nothing but the sense can determine what they are. 

Adverbs, though very numerous, may be reduced to 
certain classes, the chief of which are those of Number^ 
Order, Place, Time, Qii&ntity, Manner or Qjuality, EHrab^ 
AffirmaUoa, Negation, Interrogation, and ComjpaTisee. 

I. Ofwumber: as, "Once, twice, tJirice," &o. 

t. Of order: as, <' First, secondly » thitdly, fewtiUf 


STYMpuy^r* 111 

. S« Of. pfatt: ft«, ♦* Here* there* wbftf^, elsewhere, 
anywhere, somewhere, nowhere, herein, whither, hither, 
Ibitter* npward, downward, forward, backward,^ whence^ 
hence, thence, whithersoever," &c. 

4. Of iitne. 

Of time present : as, ** Now, to-day," &c. 
Of tffne pa^: as, '* Already, beibre, lately, yenterday 
bereto^ore, hitherto, long since, long ago,'^ ^c. 

Of ftme to come : a», *' To-morrow, not yet, hereafter, 
henceforth, henceforward, by and by, instantly, preAently^ 
immediately, straight ways,'' ^c. 

Of time mde/inite : as, ** Oil, often, oft times, often^ 
^imes, sometimes, 800U. seldom, daily, weekly, monthly 
yearly, always, when, then, ever, never, again," kc. 

5. Of (quantity: as, ** Much, little, snfliciently, how 
much, how great, enough, abundantly," kjc 

6. Of manmr or quality: as, ** Wisely, foolishly, just 
Jy, unjustly, quickly, slowly," &c. Adverbs of t|uali* 
are the most numerous kind ; and they are general 
formed by adding the termination ly to an adjective oi 
participle, or changing le into ly : as, *' Bad, badly, 
cheerful, cheerfully ; able, ably ; admirable, admirgibly. • 

7. 0£ doubt: as, ''Perhaps, peradventure, possibly, 

8r Of qffirmcUion: as, '* Verdy, truly, undoubtedly, 
cfeubtless, certainly, yea, yes, surely, indeed, really," Ate, 

9. Of n^ation: as, '' Nay, no^ not, by no means, not 
«t alt in no wise," kc, 

10. Of interrogation: as, " How, why, wherefore, whe» 
fher," &c. 

11. Of comparison: as, " More, most, better, best, 
worse, worst, less, least, very, ahnost, little, alike,'' kc. 

Besides the adverbs already mentioned, there are ma- 
ny which are formed by a combination of several of the 
prepositions with the adverbs of place Acre, there^ and 
Tchere ; as, " Hereof, thereof, whereof; hereto, thereto, 
whereto; hereby, thereby, whereby; herewith, there- 
with, wherewith ; herein, therein, wherein ; therefore; 
(I. e> there -for,) wherefore, (i*e whcre-for,) hereuj>«n 

lit xfreiitnc •ttAmuiu 

•r bere(Mi» thereupon or thefeen, w heremf it tt •r wl 
oti, &c. Except therefore^ thef^ are seldom i^ed 

In 9ome instances the preposition sniers no ciuBgis^ 
bi]t becomes an adverb merely by its application : as wliefi 
we say, '* he rides about ;*' '* he was near falling ;" ** but 
do Dot after lay the blame on me/^ 

There are also some^ adrerbs, which are composed oi 
oonna, and the letter a used instead of at, on^ ^« : an^ 
'^ Aside, athirst, afoot, ahead, asleep, aboard, ashore 
abed, aground, adoat/' &c. 

The words when and where ^ and all others of the «am« 
aature,. such as, -mkencey whither ^ whenever , wherever^ &c« 
may be properly called adverbial conjunctiom^ becausfi 
they participate the nature botli of adverbs and conjunC' 
tions : of conjunctions, as they coqjoin sentences; of ltd" 
verbs, as they denote the attributes either of time or of 
/ luce. 

It may be particularly observed wfth respect to the 
word there/ore^ that it is an adverb, when, without joinin|^ 
sentences, it only gives the sense of, for that reason^ 
VVhei. jt give8» thai sense, and also connects, it is a coa-^ 
lunction : as, " He is good, therefore he is happy."" The 
»ame obs^ervation may be extended to the words eense'* 
auenUy^ uccnrdinglyy and the like. Whea these are sub- 
joined to and^ or joined to if since ^ &c. they are adverbs, 
the connexion being made without their help: when t^ey 
appear Hingle, and unsupported by any other connective, 
they may be called conjunctions. 

The inquisitive scholar may naturally ask^ what&ecedr 
fity there is for adverbs of time^ when verbs are provided 
with tensen, to show that circumstance. The answer is^ 
though Lensee may be suAcient to denote tlie greater dis- 
finctions of time, yet, to denote them all by the tenses 
would be a perplexity without end. What a variety (A 
>forms must be given to. the verb, to denote yesterday^ to* 
day^ tO'ULorrow^ formerly, lately, just now^ now, immediate' 
iy9 presently, soon, hereafter^ kc. It wax this ronsidera* 
tion that made the adverbs of time necessary, over ajui 
fthove the tensetu 

















on or upon 









krrnmAn^. IIS 


Cf Prepositions* 

Prepositions serve to connect words with ont 
tnotber^and toshowthe relation between them. They 
ve, for the most part, put before nouns and pronouns, 
as, "• He went yrom London to York;" " She is abov0 
^guise;'' " They aare instructed 6y him." 

The following is a list of the principal prepositions : 







Verbs are often compounded of a verb and a preposition ^ 
93, to uphold, to invest, to overlook : and this coisfio^i* 
tjko^sometimes gives a new sense to the veib ; as, to un- 
derstand, to withdraw, to forgi-ve*. But in English, the^ 
jn'^po^tlon is more frequently placed after the verb, and 
separately from it, like an adverb, in which situation 
^ is not less apt to affect the sense of it, and to give it a- 
oefv DaeaniBg ; and may still be considered as belonging 
to the verb, and as a part of it. As, to cast^ is to throw; 
l^tto easi n^, or to compute, anaeconnt, is quite a different 
tiling : thus, to fall on, to bear out, to give over, &.c. So^ 
tliaiU»e QieaniBg of the^ verb, and the propriety of the 
pjbraae^ depend on the po'eposiiion su1]^oiu^d». 

In the composition of many words, there are certain ► 
fl^Hftbles employed, which ixrammarians hare called in- 
aeparablt: prepositions : as, ^e, €on, fms^ kc, in bedeck,* 
conjoin, mistake : but as they are net words of any kind, 
they cannot pi^operly be called a species of preposition* , 

Oae ^eatuse of preposations, in EngUsh, is,to eicpress 
those relations, which, in some languages, are ohiefiy' 
marked by ca«5es, or the different endings of nouas Sea- 
page 60. The necessity and use of them wtll appewr. 
from the following examples. If we say, '*^ he writes a 
p^fl^" " IbpJ i^atfee.mgr*"/' tb*<?rcaltsi% 


114 urauts «aAidUu - 

^* Landbeih is Wettetnster-abbej,'' iheM is efa^ittttlfc. 
lo each of these expresfions, either a total want ofcos^ 
flexion, or such a connexion as produce falsehood or 0011- 
ttnue : ami it is evident, that, before they can be tamed 
unto seB«e, the vacancy must be filled up by s<nae e^a* 
necting word : as thus, *' He writes xsnth a pen ;^' " ^^jT 
van towards the river ;" " the tower fell upon the Greeks f* 
•* Lambeth is orcer against Westmiiffiter-abbey." We 
•ee by these instances, how prepositions may be necessaiy 
%o connect those words, which in their ^ni^i^oo are n^ 
Qattt rally connected. 

Prepositions, in their original and literal acceptaticM^ 
seem to have denoted relations of place ; but Hi^j are 
Qow n%%^ figwatively to express other relations^ For 
example, as they who are abaroe have in several respecti 
be advantage of such as are below, prepositions express- 
ing high and low places are used for superiority uid \tk* 
fcriarity in general: as, •* He is abofve disguise;^' '* wi 
•erve under a good master ;" "he rules over a wililnr 
^ople ;" " we should do nothing beneath our chaiPacter.**^ 

The ksportance of the prepositions "wiil^ fiirther pevh 
eeived b}^ tm explanation of a few of them. 

€^ denotet« possession or belonging, an e§&tt or coiner 
quence, and other relations connected with ^ese : 9B^ 
^ The house of my friend ;'* that is, ** the house belongit 
mg to my friend ;'* '* He died o/'a fever;" that is, " la 
^n^equence of a lever." 

Tb, or unte, n opposed to Jrom; as, '^ He rode A&m 
Salisbury to Winchester." 

For indicates the cause or motive of any action or €»• 
emm^tance, &€. as, " He loves her^r (that is, on ae» 
•ouDi of) her amiable qualities." 

By is generally used with reference to the cause, agents 
■cans, kc. ; as, "■ He. was killed by a fall :" that is, " a 
&11 was Ihe cause of his being killed ;" ^' This house wav 
kailt by him ;" that is, '' he was the builder of it." 

W^*i/i denotes the act of accompanying, uniting, Ssc. ? ai, 
** We will go with you ;" *' They are on good terms wiA 
••rh other.'*-— fF«>fe ated alludes to the instrument ot 
means ; as, '" He was cut tmth a knife." 

tn relates t» time* place, the state or manner afl^elt^ 

yt» 1790 .t> «f He ^«fie ut the cttjr ;'' «' She Hre^in ftH 

^<7 Is^ Qsed »fter r^rbs tbut imply mQtion of any kt&d * 
«d, *^ He retrred tA(a the country ;'* ^ C<^per a conveit^ 
ed ml<» brass/* 

Within J relates to something comprehended in anyplace 
or time : as, "/They are 7»ithin the house ;" " He begatt 
and finished his work Tvithin the limited time.'* 

'£he sig^ufication of without is opposite to that ofwi^int 

my ^' She BisLuds withoui the gate :** But it is more fre* 

qnentty opposed to with ; as, ** You may go without me.** 

- The import and force of the ren^aining prepositions will* 

l)e rea<^ly understood, without a partieular detail of them- 

We shaU, therefore, eoneiude this head with obsenringy 

&at there is a peculiar propriety in distinguishing thnir 

use of the prepositions by and imth ; which is observable 

ki sentences like the following: *^ He walks xmih a staff 

% moonlight ;'" *' He was taken by stratagem, and killed 

witk a swcwrd," Put the one preposition for the otheF» 

and «ay; '♦he walks by a staff anl^ moonlight ;" ** be wai 

taken with stratagem, and killed by a sword ;" and it wiB 

appear, that they differ in signification more than one, al 

Si^t mewi would be apt to imagine^ 

Some of^^ ^epositions^ have the appearance and effect 
•€ conjunctions ; as, " After their prisons were tlnrowo 
•pen," fee. *' Beforal die ;" *^ They made baste to be 
prepared agmnst their Mends arrived t** b«t if the mraii 
time^ wbich^is understood, be add^d, they will lose theit 
eiHF^yiiotive form ; as, *' After [the time when] tbfeMr pri»' 
•OBS," &c» . 

' The prepositions ctfter^ ^fore^ above ^ b9neath\, and several' 
ethers, sometimes appear tabe adverbs, and may be sO' 
considered : as, '* They had their reward soon after ;" "He 
4ied not looe^ore ,*" *' He dwells above :" but if the notinft 
ttme and pUice be adi]bd, they will lose their adverbialv* 
Ibrm^ as, *^ Be died not long before that tme^^* 4tc»^ 


4 < 

cmATVEK a.' 

Of ConjunctiofU, 
A cONJUSCTtON iaa part of s{>«ecb that is chiefly wted 



1M sffciisa -GRAittuui* ^ 

tenceS) to make but one. It sometimes connects onl^ 

Conjuncdons are principaQy divided into two sorts^ 
Ae coFULATtvE and the disjunctive. 

The Conjunction CopulaUve serves to connect or to 
continue a sentence, by expressing an addition, a sup* 
position, a cause, &c. : as, '^ He and his brother reside 
in l^ndon ;" " I will go t/* he will accompany me :** 
** You are happy, because you are goo J.'* ; 

The Conjunction DisjiHictive serves, not only to cchh 
sect and continue the sentence, but also to express op* 
position of meaning in difierent degrees : ^, ^' Thof^h 
Be was frequentlv reproved, yet he did not rcfonn f 
**^They came iwth her, btu they went away without her. 

. The folio wdng is a list of the principal ConjuRCtioas. 

' The Copulative, And, if, that, bcMth, then, siaoe, for^ 
because, therefore, where^>Fe. 

. The r^unctiven But, or, aor, as, than^ lest, though, 
ualeas, either, neither, 3 t, notwithstanding. 
Tiie «aaie word is occasionally used both as a coi^ouc*' 
tion and as an adverb; and sometimes, as a prepontioiu 
** i rest ihen upon this argument;" then is bere a con* 
IfKictioii : in the following phrase, it is an adverb; ^* He- 
arrived theti^ and not before." ^^ I submitted ; for it w^m- 
vain to resist:" ia ^is sentence, for is a coaj»netio&^ 
ki the next, it is a preposition i ^^ He contended for- 
victory only." In the first of the following senteiioes 
Miite is a conjunction ; in the second, it is a prepoMtion ^ 
aiMl in the third, an adverb : ^' Since we must part, let fm 
do it }>Aar*>ably:" *' f have not seen him aince that tmie:^^ 
•* Our rrieralship commenced long wnre." 

Beiutive prooo«as as well as conjunctions, serve to coiw- 
nf f^t ^ieatfuces : as^ *" Blessed is the man wh9 feareth the>* 
Inofi, and ke^epeth his commandments." - 

A relaU vp prooauti possesses the force both of a ptiottocua 
an<l a connective* Nay, the uaicm by relatives is rather 
closer, than that by mere conjunctions* The latter maj 
ibmi two or more sentences into one ; but, by the tbrmer, 
•everiil ^ehfenreH may incoi^orate in one and the sarne. 
itiame ef a-senteiice. Xhus> then leesta man, and he m' 

^^ioSkd Fetor," is si se&tence consutio^ of two Astmct 
ilau^tes. united by the <^puPative and : btit» ^^ the man wAoiv 
tiioo seest is called Peter,'' is a sentence of one clau;!^^ 
and not less compreheiisive than the other. 

CoDJunctioDs very often unite sentences, when they ap« 
fear to imte only words ; as in the following instances : 
**■ Daty and interest forbid vicious indulgences ;"" " Wis- 
dom or foOy governs us." Each of these forms of ezpres* 
iJoa cootains two jsentenees, namely ; ** Duty Ibrbids vi* 
cious indulgences ; interest forbids vicious indulgences ;" 
** fVisdom governs us, or folly governs us.*' 

Though the conjunction, is commonly used to conneel 

sentences toge the r^ yet, on some occasion's, it merely con* 

Bect» words, not sentences ; as, *' The kingaiid queen are 

an amiable pair ;" where the affirmation cannot reler to 

each ;. it being absurd to say, that the king or the qtieen 

on\y IS an amiable pair. So in the instances, '* two atid 

two are four ;" ** the fifth awrf sixth volumes* will complete 

fte set of books." Prepositions also, as before ol»served, 

cooaect words ; but they do it to show the relation which 

the connected words have to each other . conjunctions, 

frhen they unite words oqly, are designed tojshow tlie re-* 

lations, which those words, so united, have to other parta 

of the sentence. 

As there are many conjunctions and connective phrasei 
l^ipro^riated to the coupUng of sentences^ that are nevev 
enjoyed in joining the members of a sentence ; so there 
»re several conjimctions appropriated to the latter use, 
which sue never employed in the former ; and some that 
mre equally adapted to both those purposes ; as, ageun^ 
further^ besides, &c. of the first idnd ; thofiy Ust, wdess, thatf 
90 thai, &c* of the second; and h^t, undyforntkw^wre,^ &C* 
of the last. 

We shall ck)se this chapter with a few observations on 
peeoiiar use and advantage of the cot^imctions ; a ^ub* 
ject wloch will, doubtless, give pleasure to the ingenious 
stadeiit, and expand his views of the importance of hitf 
gmcmnatical studies. 

** Relatives are not so useful in language, as conjuno^ 
tions. The former make speech more concise ; the Utte^ 


big of a prononn and eonjonction copvJuttve . conjuDCtiottfy 
while tbey couple seinteiices, may alsid e^j»i ess opposiUon> 
inference, aad xnaoy other relations and depeodenc^s. 

Till men began to think in a train, and to carry their 
reasonings to a considerable length, it is* not probable that 
they would make much use of conjunctions, or of any 
other connectives. lg;norant people, and children, gene- 
rally speak in short and separate se^.^^nc^s. The «ame 
thing is true of barbarous nations : and heace nncullivate4 
languages are not well f»tipplied with connecting particles; 
The Greeks were the greates^treasoners that ev^ appear^ 
€d in the world ; and their langoage, accordingly, abounds 
more than any other in conoectites. 

Conjnnctions are not equally necessary in all sorts of 
writing, tn poetry, where great conciseness of phnweisr 
required, and every appearance of formality avoided; many 
of tham would have a bad effect. In passionate lai^ag^ 
loo, it may be proper to omit them : because it is the nature 
of violent passion, to speak rather in disjointed sentences, 
than in the way of interence and argument. Books o| 
mphorisras, like the Proverbs of Solomon, have few con- 
Oectived ; because they instruct, not by reasoning, but in 
detached observations. And narrative will sometime? ap- 
pear very graceful, whsn the circumstances are plainly 
lokl, with scarcely any other conjunction than the simple 
copulative and ? which is fre«|uently the case in the hi^- 
rtcal parts of Scripture. When narration is full of images 
or events, the omissicu of connectives may, by crowding 
the principal words upon one another, give a sort of pic- 
ture of hurry and tumult, and so heighten the vivacity of 
deficription. But when foots are to be traced down throngh 
their consequences, or upwards to their causes ; when the 
complicated designs of mankind are to be laid open, or 
conjectures ol^red conoerning them ; when the hidtoriaa 
argues either for the elucidation of truth, or in <>rder- to 
iitate ttie pJeas and principles of contending parties ; there 
will be occasion for every species of cenneccive, mamdb 
as in ^ilosophy itself. In fact, it is in argument, tnve«iti* 
gation, and science, that thk part of speech is p^ufiariy 
nd indispensably necessary *' 


Of Fnterjections, 

INTERJECTIONS are words thrown in between the parte 
of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the 
speaker : as, *' Oh I I have ahenated my friend ; alas! 
1 fear for life :" " O virtue ! how amiable thou art l'* 

The Engh^ Intellections, as well as those of other Ian- 

guages, are comprised within a small compass. They are 

of difierent sorts, according to the different passions which 

"Ihey serve to express. Those which intimate earnestness 

or grief, are, 0/ ok! ah! ala^ ! Such as are expressive of 

contempt, are pt$h ! tusk ! of wonder, heigh / really ! 

' strange ! of callhig, hem ! kp f soho ! of aversion or disgust, 

jisklfiel a»ay/ of R call of the attention, ^o/ behold! hark! 

of requesting silence, httfsfi ! hist I of salutation, welcomi t 

hail J aU hail ! Besides these, several others, frequent in 

the mouths of the ronltitiide, might be enumerated; but, 

in a grammar of a cultivated tongue, it is unnecessary to 

expatiate on such expressions of passion, as are scarcely 

worthy of being ranked among the branch<>« of artificial 

bngoage.-— iSee the Ocicevo Gtcmimar. 

CHAPTER XI. . - . , 

Of Derivation* 

Section 1. Of (he vc^rious ways in which words are dt* 

rived from one another. 

Having treated of the different sorts of words, and their 
various modiiications, which is the first part of Etvmology, 
it is now proper to explain the methods by which one 
word is derived from another. 

Words are derived from one another in various ways j 

1. Substantives are derived from verbs, 

2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and 
sometimes from adverbs. 

3. Adjectives are derived from substantives. 

4. Substantives are derived from adjectives* . ^ . 
' h Adverbs are derived from ad^ectiTes 

1. SdbfC<mfii^«t ai« 4erhred horn iNith$ : «t, (Hmt^ Ik 
tore/' comes ^Mover ;'' from ^*to r'mt^ fislteri'* feosft^ 
^ to aunrive, «iir?iver ;" &c. 

Id the f«)1lowiiig instances, and in many otiiers, it im 
^ifficnlt to determine whether the Terb was dedoceii 
from the noon, or the noun from the verb, viz. *' Love, tm 
lore ; hate* to hate ; fear, to fear ; sleep, to sleep ; waUc^ 
to walk ; ride, to ride ; act, to act,^* &lc^ 

2. Verbs are derived from subf>tantiF4>s, adjecdres, aiiA 
sometimes from adverbs: as, fr<Kn the substantive 5aA^' 
comes *• to «alt ;" from the adjective warm^ '* to warm ;'* 
and from the adverb /onvarc^, *^ to forward**^ Scmiettai^ 
they are formed by lengthening the ¥owel, or sofleoin|^ 
the consonant; an, from ''grass, to graze :'' somettmes by 
adding en ; as, from '-'' length, to lengthen ;** especieU/ t^ 
adjectives : as, from " short, to shorten ; br^fht, tm 

3. Adjeetiv«9 are derived from snbstantiTes, in the fol« 
lowing taanaer z Af^ectiyes denoting plenty are derived 
from substantives by adding y : as, from '' Health, healthy ; 
wealdi, wealthy ; mig^t, mighty," &c. 

Ad|ee^es denoting the matter out of which any tbin|^ 
is made, are ^rk^&d from sabstantive.^ by adding en^ 
as, froQi '** Oakr oaken ^ wood, wooden; wool, wooK 
•O) * lsc» 

A^ectiaef denoting atmndance are deHved'froitf mk 
•tantires, b^ adding^ : as, fr<»n ^ Joy, joyful ; sin, eui * 
fill ; fruit, fruitful,'^ &c. i 

Adjectives denoting plenty, but witii some Idnd of cUmi^ 
aution, are derived from substantives, by addii^ some: as^ 
from '^ Light, lightsome ; trouble, troublesome ; toil, toil 
•ome,** &c. 

Adjectives denoting virant are derived from substantivca^ 
Irf adding Usa: as, from ** Worth, worthless;" from *'Gare, 
aareless,; joy, joyless," S^o* 

Adjectives denoting likeness are deHyed from' substaa • 
tives, by adding ly : ai> from '' Man, manly ; earth, earth 
ly ; court, courtly," &c. 

Some adjectives ate derived^ from other adjectives, op 
Com substantives, by adding i^ to them ; which termina* 

arbe« added to ad)OGtty«t» imffot^ dimiauttoa^ 

^mn^th« qnaBty : as, ** White, wS!tfa1i ;** i. e. some* 
what white. When added to sahstantired, it signifies sinoii 
titude or tendency to a character : as, " Child, childbh 
tibief, thievish." 

Some adjectives are formed from substantires or verbs, 
t^ adding the termination Me ; and those adjectives sig- 
nify capacity : as, *' Answer, answerable ; to chang^^ 

4. Substantives are derived from adjectives, sometimes 
by adding the termination ncs«: as, ** White, whiteness; 
6wiil, swiftness :'* sometimes by adding th or ^ and making 
a small change in some of the letters : as, *' Long, lengthy* 
bigh, height." 

5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by 
adding ly, or changing le into hj ; and denote the same 
quality as the adjectives from which they are derived : as, 
from *^* base," comes '* basely ;" from " slow, slowly ;" 
from " able, ably." 

There are so many other ways of deriving words from 
one another, that it would be extremel}' difficult, and 
©early impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive 
words of any language are very fpw ; the derivatives form 
much the greater number. A few more instances only 
can t>e given here. 

Some substantives are derived from other substantivet, 
by adding the terminations hood or head^ ship, ery^ on'cib, 
tick, doin^ ian^ ment^ and age. 

Substantives ending in hood or head^ are such as signify 
character or qualities: as, '^ Manhood, knighthood, fai^e* 
liood," &c. 

Substantives ending in ship^ are those that signify office, 
employment, state, or condition : as, " Lordship, steward* 
ship, partnership," &c. Some substantives in ship, are de* 
rived from adjectives : as, " Hard, hardship," &c. 

Substantives which end in ery^ signify action or habit: 
M, *' Slavery, foolery, prudery," Sic, Some substantives 
of this sort come from adjectives ; as, " Brave, bravery,** 

Substantives ending in imtky rick^ and dom^ denote do- 
minion, jurisdiction, or condition : as, '' Bailiwick, biahop* 
iKk» kingdom, dukedom, freedom," ^acm' 


t£2 KKGllSja OtlAIC^AR. 

Substantires wbich end in tan, are tl^Qse t]3iat 
profession ; as, " Physician, musician,'' &c. Those 
end in ment and age, come generally from the Frei 
and commonly signify the act or habit : as, '' Command- 
ment, usage." 

Some substantives ending in ardy are derived fi^oitt 
verbs or adjectives, and denote character or habit : aal^ 
* Drunk, drunkard ; dote, dotard." 

Some substantives have the form of diminutives ; hv/t 
these are not many. They are formed by adding tba 
terminations, kitty lingy ing, ock, e/, and the like : a% 
^ Lamb, lambkin ; goose, gosling : duck, ducklipg ; hil^ 
hillock ; cock, cockerel," &c. 

That part of derivation which consists in tracing Eng^ 
lish words to the Saxon, Greek, Latin, French^ and other 
languages, must be omitted, as the English scholar h not 
supposed to be acquainted with these languages* Th% 
best English dictionaries will, however, furnish some 'm- 
formation on this head, to those who are desirous of ob- 
taining it. The learned Home Tooke, in his *' Diversions 
of Purley," has given an ingenious account of the deriva* 
tion and meaning of many of the adverbs, conjunctionsp 
and prepositions. 

It is highly probable that the system of this acute g^ram* 
marian, is founded in trutji ; and that adverbs, preposi» 
tions, and conjunctions, are corruptions or abbreviations of 
other parts of speech. But as many of them are derived 
from obsolete words in our own language, or from words 
in kindred languages, the radical meaning of which is, 
therefore, either obscure, or generally unknown ; as tli« 
system of this very able etymologist is not universally ad* 
mitted ; and as, by long prescription, whatever may have 
been their origin, the words in question appear to have 
acquired a title to the rank of distinct species ; it seems 
proper to* consider them, as such, in an elemeatarj 
treatise of grammar: especially as this plan coincides 
with that, by which other lan^ages must be taught ; and 
will render the study of them less intricate. It is ot* smaB 
moment, by what names and classification we distingnisk 
iieie words, provided their meaning and use are well un- 
derstood. A philosophical consideration of the subjecl^ 
mayj with great propri^tj^be entered upon by the g^M9fi 

4 > - 


matical stadeot, when hU knowledge and judgment be« 
come more improved. 

Section 2. A slketch of the stepsy hy which the English LaO' 
guage has ristn to its piesent state of refinement. 

Before we conclude the subject of derivation^ it wil4 
"probably be gratifying to the curious scholar, to bp in- 
formed of some particulars respecting tlie origin of the 
English language, and the various nations to which it is 
kidebted for the copiousness, elegance, and refinement, 
nrhich it hai» now attained. 

*' When the ancient Britons were so harassed and op« 
pressed by the invasions of their northern neighboiirs, 
the Scots and Picts, that their situation was truly rai<-era» 
Me, they sent an cmba.-^sy (about the middle of the tiftK 
century) to the Saxons, a warlike people inhabiting the-* 
north oi Germany, with solicitations for speedy relief* 
The Saxons accordingly came over to Britain, and were 
successfol in repelling' the incursions of the Scots and 
Picts; but *»eeing the weak and defenceless state of the 
Britons, they resolved to take advantage of it ; and at 
length established themselves in the greater part of Souths 
Britain, after having dispossessed the original inhabitants. 
" From these barbarians, who founded several petty 
kingdoms in this island, and introduced their own laws^ 
language, and manners, is derived the groundwork of the 
English language ; whichj^ even in its present state of cul- 
tivation, and notwithstanding the successive augmenta» 
tions and improvements, which it has received thh)ugh 
Various channels, displays very conspicuous traces of its 
Saxon original. 

. " The Saxons did not long remain in quiet possession of 
tke kingdom ; for before the middle of the ninth century^' 
the Danes, a hardy and adventurous nation, who had long 
infested the northern seas with their piracies, beg^n to ra^ 
rage the English coas^. Their first attempts were, in 
^n'eral, attended with such success, that they were en- 
couraged to a renewal of their ravages ; till, at length, in 
the beginning of the eleventh century, they made them- 
selves masters of the greater part of England. 

♦* Though the peh^, during which these invaders oc- 

tt4 unttLnm 9%auma^ 

eupied the English throne, was very short, not gr^^Hj 
eeeding half a century, it is highly prohal>le that bowb 
change was introduced hy them into the language spokeit 
by tho»e, w^om they had subdued : hut this change can^ 
not be supposed to nave been very considerable, as the 
Danish and Salon languages arose from one common 
•6ui«ce, -the Gothic being the parent of both. 

^ The next conquerors of this kingdom, after the Danes, 
w^re the Normans, wlio^ in the year 1066, introduced' 
their leadei \V>iiiatn to the possession of the Kngltsh throne* 
Thi$ prince, soon after bis accession, endeavoureil to brin^ 
his own language (the Norman-f rench) into use amon^ 
bis new subjects ; but his efibrts were not very success- 
ful^ as the Saxons • entertained a great antipathy to these 
kiughty foreigners. In process- of time, however, maaj 
Norman won& and phrases were incorporated into the 
Saxon language : but its general form and coDstructioQk 
Itili remained the same. 

^ From the Conquest to the Reformation, the language 
eentinued to receive occasional* accessions of foreign 
words, tiH it acquired such a degree of copiousness and 
•trength, as to render it susceptible of that polish, which 
st ha« received from writers of taste and genius, in the last 
and present centuries. During this period, the learned 
have enriched it with many ssignificant expressions, drawn 
&om the treasures of Greek and Human literjdture ; the 
ingeniouii and the fashionable have imported occasional 
supplies of French, Spanish, Italian, and German words, 
gleaned during iheir foreign excursions ; and the connex- 
ions which we maintain, through the medium of govern- 
Ibent and commerce^ with many remote nations, hare 
made some additions to our native vocaoulary. 
. "In this manner did the ancient language of the Anglo- 
Saxons proceed, through the various stages of innovation, 
an^i the several gradations of refinement, to the ibm^atioe 
©f tht* present English longiie." 

Su tk€ Dteljtk vha^r qftlu Octavo Grwaauur* 

• / 

^ C J*6 ) 

I ■ .-'if 

PART m. 


^»E third paert of grammar' is Stntax, which treelil 
•f the agreement and construction of words m a «eii- 
. A. sentence is an asseraUage of words, forming a coni^ 
plete sense. 

Sentences are of two kinds, simple and compound. 

A simple sentence has in it but one subject, and one 
finite* verb : as, " Life is short," 

A compound sentence consists of two or more simple 
sentences connected together : as, ." I^ife is sh(H;t, und 
mt isjor^.*' " Idleness produces want, vice, and misery." 

As sentences themselves aVe divided into simple and 
compound, so the me«ihers of sentences may bo divided 
likeip^ise into simple and compound members : for whol« 
sentences, whether simple or compoiiiMled. may become 
members of other sentences, by means of some additional 
csonnexioQ ; as in the following example : " The ox know- 
eth his owner, and the ass his master's crib ; but Israel 
doth not know, my people do not consider." This sen- 
tence consists of two comjK)unded members, each of whicli 
is subdivided into two simple members, which are proper- 
ly called clauses. 

There are three sorts of simple sentences ; the eocpiico 
trvcy or explaining ; the interrogative^ or asking ; the tm- 
ftrative^ or commanding. 

An expUcative sentence is when a thing is said to be os 
not to be, to do or not to do, to suffer or not to suffer, in a 
direct Tnanner : as, ** 1 am ; thou writest ; Thomas is lov- 
ed." If the sentence be negative, the adverb not is placed 
after the auxihary, or after the verb itself when it ha% 
no auxiliary : as, *' 1 did not touch him;" oi*, " 1 touched 
him not;" 

. ♦ ^ifo verbs m thcB^ lo wbifch noirber aod ^n^^sfmta^O,^ V^rfJ^ll 
liMS irfamvt mood bave oo respect to nmnber or pcnoit 


In an kiterrocrsLtrvf sontence, or when a question is ask* 
ed, the nominative case follows the principal verb or the 
auxiliary : as, ^^ Was it he f ^ ** Did Alexander conquer 
the Persians ?" 

In an imperative sentence^ when a thing is commanded 
te be, to do, to suffer, or not, the nominative case likewise 
fellows the verb or the auxiliary : as, ** Go, thou traitor I'* 
♦*^ Dd tlit>u go :*' *' Haste ye away ;" ~iinies3 the -verb'fef 
b« used : as, •' Let us be gone." 

A phrase is two or more words rightly put togethei^ 
oadEing sometimes pkrt of a sentence^ and sometimes a 
whole sentence. 

The principal parts of a simple sentence are, the sufr- 
ject, the attribute, and the obj^t. 

The subject is the thing chiefly spoken of; the attri- 
Inite is the thing or action affirmed or denied of it ; aad 
tlie object is the thing affected by such acticm. 

The nominative denotes the subject, and usuidly goes 

>efore the verb or attribute ; and the word or phrase^ 

ienoting the object, follows the verb ; as, " A wise maa 

governs his passions/' Here, a icise man is the subjecl y 

governs^ the attribute, oi thing affirmed ; and hia pas^ 

$ion9, the object. 

Syntax prmcipally consist of two par^. Concord and 

Concord is the agreement which one word has with^ 
another, in gender, number, case, or person* 

Government is that power which one part of speech. 
Las over another, in directing its mood, tense, or case. 

To produce the agreement and right disposition of 
words in a sentence, the following rules and obserrar 
^ns should he careiuily studied ^ 


A Verb must agree with its nominative case, m nunw 
ber and person :, as, '4 leam;" " Thou art impuoved/*^ 
•* The birds sing/' 

The following are a few instances of the violation of 
fbm rule. ** Wtet aiilpailiej^ good opinigiiSy w|ien our ft^^ 

tke is bad ?" ^* wbat «igm/y." " There'* ^?o or tirree of 
us, who have seen the worfi :" '* there areJ*^ *' We may 
suppose there was more impostors than one :" ** there wert 
more.'* " I have considered what have been said on both 
ttdes in this controversy:" " what ibcw been Baid/' '* IfthoM 
would be healthy, Hve temperately:'* "if thou woulcUi.** 
*' Thou sees how little has been done :" *• thou s^est,*^ 
*^ Though thou cainnot do much for the cause', thou may 
and should do something:" " cctnst not, tnaystj and 
ihoutdsU^^ ** Full many a flower are bom to blush un- 
seen:" **t« bom." "• A conformity of inclinations ami 
<$uaUties prepare us for friendship :" ^* prepares us." " A 
variety of blessings haVe he en conferred upon ua:" ^* has 
been/* " In piety and virtue consist the happiness of man i^ 
** cotiststs.^'' " To these precepts are subjoined a copious 
sel^tiOB of rules aud maxims :" '* is subjoined." 

*1. The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is some* 
times put as the nominative ca^e to the verb : as, ** To see 
the sun w pleasant ;" " To be good is to be happy;" '* A 
desire to excel others in learning and virtue is commend- 
able ;" **• That warm cHtnates should accelerate the growth 
of the human body, and shorten its duration, is very rea« 
sonable to believe ;" '*^ To be temperate in eating and 
drinking, to use exercise in the open air, and to preserve 
the mind free from tumultuous emotions, are the best pre« 
servati ves of health." 

% Every verb, excep>t in the infinitive mood, or the par* 
ticiple, ought to have a nominative case, either expressed 
or implted : as, " Awake ; arise ;" that is, " Awake ye ; 
arise ye.."" 

We shall here add some examples of inaccuracy, in the 
Hse of the verb without its nominative case. '* As it hath 
pleased him of his goodness to give you safe. deliverance, 
aiul hath preserved you in the great danger," &.€. The 
verb *^ hath preaerved,'*'*^ has here no nominative case, fop 
It cannot be properly supplied by the preceditig word^ 
** Am»," which is in the objective case. It ought to be^ 
•* and as he hath preserved you ;" or rather, *' and to pre* 
serve von." *' If the calm in which he was born, and lasl- 

• The chief practical notes under eich Rule, are remilp' !y niiniVird, in Sf^ 
te to mi^e tUem fMaes^oBA to the «mup^ iu Um» vMuaie ol iUeram 

ed so long, had contiuued ;" '* and which lasted,'' 6lc, 
*• These we have extracted from an historian of undoubted 
credit, and are the same that were practised,** &c. ; ''and 
they are the same." ** A man whose inclinations led hiadl 
(o be corrupt, and had great abilities to manage the hn^ 
ness ;" ♦• and xvho had," &c. ** A cloud* gathering in th6 
nor^h ; which we have helped to raise, and may quickly 
l>reak in a storm upon our heads ;'' '* and which majr 
iqu.ckjy." . 

3. Every nominative case, except the case absolute, and 
when an address is made to a person, should belong to 
tome verb, either expressed or implied ; as« '* Who wrote 
this book V *' James ;" that is, ." James wr^le iu" " To 
whi)m thus Adam," that is, " spoke.'* 

One or two, instances of the improper use of the nonur 
na^ive case, without any verb, expressed or implied, to 
apu^wer it, may be sufficient to illustrate the usefuhdeat 
ef tiie preceding observation. 

" Which nile, if it had been observed, a neighbouring 
ptriBce w(Hild have wanted a great deal of that inceose 
which hath been offered up to him.'** The pronoun it is 
kere the nominative case to the verb " observed ;'' and 
t^liich rvle^ is left by itsieif, a nominative case without anj 
verb following it. This form of expression, .thou^cU im- 
proper, IB very common. It ought to be, " TjT Ms mU 
had been observed," &,c. *' JWa/i, though he has great 
variety of thoughts, and such from which others as well. 
as himself might receive profit and dehght, yet they are 
all within his own breast." In tliis sentence, the nomina- 
tive man stands alone and unconnected with any ^erb, 
cither expressed or implied* It should be, •* Though tMm 
has great variety," &c. 

4. When a verb comes between two nouns, either of 
ifhich aiay be understood as the subject of the affiroiatieii, 
it may agree with either of them : but some regard must 
he had to that which is more naturally the subject of it, 
aival^o to that which stands next'to the verb: as, ** His 
meat wtts locusts and wild honey ;".'* A great cause of the 
low state of industry were the restraints put upon it ;** 
** The waijfefs of sin is Heath." 

5* Wb^n the noouoative case lias no personal tense ^ 

a. rerb, but m |>«t b«ibfe a partielfAa^ uideptiufeiitly on 
the re$t of the seateace, itig called the cs^ abfolule : a9» 
** Shame heing tost, aU ?irtue is lost -^^ '* That havin|^ 
been disciissed long ago, there » no occasion to resmne 


As ID the use of the, case absekite, the case k, in En* 
l^ish, alwajs the oomiaatiFe, the fotlowiag example is er? 
ione(Hi&, in making it the objectire. '^ Solomoa was of 
this mind ; and I hdve no doubt he made as wise and triia 
proverbs, as any body has dooe since ; him oh\y ezc^ptvd, 
who was a much greater and wiser. man than SoIojAmi*^ 
U ihouM be> *^ he only« excepteijd^'' • , 

The nominatire case ts commonty placed befbre tfit 
verb; but sometimes it is put afier the verb, if it i?*'a 
Ample tense ; and between the auxiUary, and the verb 0/ 
participle, if a compound tense : as, 

/st. When a question is a^ked, a command given, or a 
«ri»h expressed : as, " Confidest thou in me ?'' ** Kead 
thou ;" '^ Mayet thou be happy V\ " Long live the King!'* 

2d, When a supposition is made without the ^*»njunc- 
6on if: as, ** Were it not for this ;" " Had I been tljore?* 

3d, When a verb neuter is ujjed : as, " On a sudden ap» 
peared the king/* 

4th, When the verb is preceded by the adverbs, htre^ 
ihtre^ thtn^ thence, hence, thm, &c. : as, ** Here am 1 ;*' 
"There was he ' slain ;''** Then cometh the end;** 
"Thence ariseth his grief;" " Hence proceeds his an»» 
ger;" " Thus was the affair settled." 

6tb, When a senconce depends on neither or nor, so as 
to be coupled with another sentence : as, '* Ye shall not 
eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.'* 

Some granunarians assert, that the phrases, as follows, 
as appears, form what are called impersonal verbs ; and 
should, therefore, be confined to the singular number • as. 
The arffuments advanced were nearly as follows ;** 



•t, Iha ¥i>Eb i^ ^Q longer tariaedia^ftrsw^i ^\ F^?«^ 

130 ciroif^v '&)itAMMAft» ftnt^C 

ly agrees icHb fte ntmiiiMttiTe, in the pfarti!^ nnAber :' -aii, 
•^ The argumettto advanced were oearly such as fetf^^f* 
** The pt>sition8 wettf «iicA as df pear itfCoritrO"VertjWe**'* 
They who dottbt the accnrary of Home Tonke% ^late 
■lent, '* That a5, however and whenever used in En^i^^ 
rttPHns the $ame as i^ or thai^ or which;'' and whoiare not 
satisfied whether the verhs, in the sentence fii^ me^ 
tinned, fthould be in the singular or the plural finmb^ 
may vary the form of expresiwion. Thus, the sense of tite 
preceding sentences, niay be conveyed in the fciloTmng 
tenis. "The «rguments advanced were nearly t>f the 
following natarie f' " The following are nearly ^e-arg^i 
ments whirh were advanced ;'* ** The argnnienis advanced 
were nearly those which ^llow :'* ^' It appears that the 
po-^ition? were incontrovjnrtible ;" *' That the position* 
Were incontrovortiMe is Apparent}** **The position* -we re 
-ttpp^^rtntly incontrovertible." See the Octavo Gtamm^ity 
the note undej^ Uule i. ' * 

R11T.E n. 

Two or more nouns, &e. in the sm^ar numbeF, 
joiTird together by a copulative conjiinctiofi, ei^^pressed 
or undrrsiood, must have verhs, nouns,, ^nd (>roiiouoa^ 
agrfM^Ing vvitb them in the plural number: as, ** So- 
cra»^('s and Tliito were wise ; (hey were the o^st eminei^ 

Chilosophers of -Greece ;" " The sUn tliat roBs bvef eur 
eads, thic food that we receive, the rest that we enjoy, 
daily admomsh us of a superior arid superintending 

Power, "t 

^ This rule is often violated ; some instances of whjch 
lire annexed. " And so was also lames and John the son« 
ofZebedee, who were partners with Simon ;" " and so 

• These gramniariaBfli are supported by general tissue, aod by the auUi^rily 
•f an eminent critic on lai^uiffe and compo^itJoo. ** When a verb is u*d ioi- 
penvmaliy," nys Dr. Campbell In his Philiwophv of Rhtetoric, *' it ought im- 
Awhtedly to '>e in the singalar number, Whether the neuter pronoun be express- 
ed or Hnder!:tood. For thif reason,- analogy and u?age favTjiir thi« mode of 
cxpregcJon : ** The conditions of tlje ag)(^roent were a,* /ofJowfi ;" H!id not, «f 
fitlon. A few late writers have inconsiderately adopted this la^t jbrui, thrcwigli 
ft miptake of the construction. For the same reawn, we owjjlit to ?ay, " I 
1^11 consider bi^ censures so for only as eonotms my friend's c<^iict ;'' anl 
■tot * 80 for a* fbnofim.' 

t telle tsngpniitt to ^eiUei'iit 1^.16 of tbe^JT^; 

gale 2.J •YMTAX , , lai 

were also." *' All jwy, tranquillttr, aa<< peace, ereo fot 
e^er aofl ever, 'doth dwell;" " dii^etl ior evpr." " By 
w^o»e power all f|;ood and evil is distribuled;" " art du- 
tribaied." " Their lo»e, and (heir Uatred, and their envy, 
i* oo'v jienshed ;" ■' (we perished." "The thoughUea* 
»nd intemperate enjoytneut of pleasure, the criiuiatJ 
ataii*e of ii, and the forgetf illness of our being accounta- 
W« creatures, obliterates every serioua tiiought of iha 
prrip«r bi)$Ineiis of Ufe, and efiaces the tense of relij^ion 
and of God;" It ought to be, " obtileruU," and " ^aee." 
i. When tlve nouns are nearly related, or scarcely dis- 
lingaishable in sense, aod someiimee even when they ate 
very dlSTcreDt, %mae atilbofs have thought it allowable ta 
jnit the verba, no'ins, and pronouns, in tbe lingular otiia- 
D^r: a», " Tranquillity anil peace dwells there ;" " (g> 
norance and neghgence has produced the ed'ect ;" '* This 
diacom&ture and idaitghter was very great." But it ii 
evidently contrary to the drut principles of grammar, to 
conBider two die'Jnct ideas as one, however nice- may be 
tfaeir shadea of difference : and if iJiere be no difference, 
cae oCitieia must be superfluous, and on^ht to he rejected. 
instruction, it. is said, thai tl^e 
i applied to each of the pre- 
I lowing exaiuple. " Sand, and 

ii ea.sier to bear than a man 
But besides the confusion, and 
n, which such a constructioB 
% to be more proper and ana-r 
verb is intended to be applied 
to any one of the terms, to make use of the disJuuctivB 
coojuuctioo, which grammatically refers the verb to one or 
other of the preceding terms in a separate view. T* 
preserve the distinctive uses of the copulative and dis- 
junctive conjunctions, would render. the rules precise, 
consistent, and intelligible. Dr. Blair very justly observes, 
that " two or more subittantives, joined by a copulative, 
must alvaya require the verb or pronoun to which they 
tefer, to be place 1 in the plural number." 

S. In many complex sentences, it is difficult for learn- 
er* (o determine, whether one or more of the clauses ars 
to be considered as the noioinatlve case; iind cunseqiienl- 
Tg, whether th« ?»rb ehould be in the einguUi m thw 

tlartl iiumt>er. We shall, therefore, set domn a iitiiiv> 
er of raried ei^amples of this nature, which ma/ 
serve as some gorerDment to the scholar, with respect 
to seutences of a similar coostructioD. ^* Proepenty 
tttth humility, renders its possessor truly amiabJe.^* 
•* The ship, with all her furniture, was destroyed. *• 
^* Not only his estate, his reputation too has suffered 
by his misconduct "" **• The general also, in conjunctioa 
t with the otiScers, has applied for redress." '^ He cannot 
• be justified ; for it is true, that the prince, as well as tln^ 
|ieople, wtis blameworthy." ** The king, with his life« 
guard, has just passed through the village." " In the 
mutual induence of body and soul, there u a wisdom, a 
trondertul wisdom, which we cannot fathom." " Virtue^ 
honour, nay, even self-interest, conspire to recommend 
the measure." '* Patriotism, morality, every public an4 

Erivate consideration, demand our submission to just and 
iwful government." *^ Nothing delights me so mncb as 
the works of nature." 

In support of such fbrm& of expression as the followingg 
we see the authority of Hume, Priestley, and other wri- 
ters ; and we annex them for the reader's consideration, 
*^ A long course of time, wi^ a variety of accidents and 
circumstances, are reqni«ite to produce those revolutions.** 
^ The king, with the lords and commons, form an excel 
lent frame of government." '^ The side A, with the sides 
B and C, contpose the triangle." '* The fire communicatee! 
itself to the bed, wliich, with the furniture of the room* 
and a valuable library, were all entirely consuipedi" ft 
is, however, proper to obser\'e, that these modes of ex- 
pression do not appear to be warranted by the just prin- 
ciples of construction. The words, " A long course irf 
time," " The king," " The side A," and « Krhich," are 
the true nominatives to the respective verbs. In the tkst 
example, the word alt should be expunged. As the pre- 
poi^ition Tanth governs the objective case in £nglish ; an^ 
if translated into Latin, would govern Che abiative cstte^ 
it is manifest, that the clauses iollowiog wttk^ in the pre * 
<ieding sentences, cannot form any part of the naminattvf 
ease. They cannot be at the same time in the objectiY0 
and tbe nominative cases. The foflo^^iug sentence ap* 
peami to b« uQexceptibnable i and Wy sec ve te exflam 

ftule S.) ' nvvTAX. '" 135 

ilie others. " The lords and commons are eMentia! 
branches of the British constitution : the king, with them^ 
Jbrms an excellent fram^e of government."* 

3. If the singular nouns and pronouns, which are joSned 
together hy a copulative conjunction, be of several persons, 
in making the plural pronoun agree with them in person, 
the second person takes place of the third, and the first of 
%oth ; as, *' James, and thou, and F, are attached to oaf 
•Oantry.** " Thou and he shared it between yo«." 


Tbe co^jcmction disjunctive has an effect contrary td 
that of the conjunction copulative ; for as the verb, 
Doun^ or, pronoun, is referred to the precedinff terms 
taken separately, it must be in the singular number : a^, 
** Ignorance or negligence has caused this mistake ;'^ 
• J^n, James, or Joseph, intends to accompany me ;** 
•'There iff, in many minds, neither knowledge nor un- 

The following sentences are variations from this rule ; 
^ A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a pfctTir<», 
as well as read them in a description ;" " read u. *' Nel* 
ther character nor dialogue were yet understood ;" '* wti$ 
yet.** "It must indeed be confessed, that a lampouoo ora 
satire do not carry in them robbery or murder ;" " do^ 
not carry in tf.'^ ** Death, or some worse misfortune, soon 
divide them." It ought to be ^^ divides^"' 

1. When sip^ular pronouns, or a noun and pronoun, of 
Afferent p^sons, are disjunctively connected, the veA 
fnust agi^^ with that person which is placed nearest to it: 
as, " I or thou aft to blame ;" *• Thou otlmnin feo|t ;'• 
** I, or fbou, or he, is the author of it;" '^ Geoi^ or I 
itrn the person." But it would he better to say ; *'£irher i 
iBBto blame, or ihotf art," &:c. 

2. When a disjunctive occurs between a singnfarnontt, 
or pronoun, and a plural pne, the verb is made to agree 
with the plural Boun and pron<»uu r as^ *^ Neither povertjf 

» Tfyye^ the eonflractkmirdl not >a4arii oCU v^t^A verb, llk» oPOieM 
Would certimly Kbtnd bcUer thuf : ** The Inog, the lordt, afid ^ cwi^bmm^ 

134 Mrtftira oBjuHiMifr* (Role 4^ 

nor riche» were rojurious to him ;** ** I Off they tcere e^ 
fended by iu'' But in this case, the plural noun or pro. 
fiouo. wiien it can conveniently be done , should be place4 
fteit to the verii. 

RUi j: IV. 

A noun of muTtitude, or agnifying many, in«y 
have a verb or pronoun agreeing with it, either of the 
singular or plural number ; yet not without re^ird to 
the import of the word, as conveying unity or pTiirality 
of idea : as, " The meeting was large ;*' " The parfaV 
ment is dissolved ;" *' I'he nation w powerful ;" ** Mr 
people do not consider : they have not known me;' 
•* The multitude eagerly pursue pleasure, as tJieir chief 
good ;" " The council weie divided in their sentwDenfs.* 

We ought to consider whether the term will iiamediate- 
ly suggest the idea of the number it represents, or whether 
it exhibits to the mind the idea of the whole as one t^ing. 
In the former case, the verb ought to be plural ; in 4he 
latter, it ought to be singular. Thus, it seems improper 
to say, '* The peasantry goes barefoot, and the middle sort 
inakes use of wooden shoes." It would be better to say, 
<* The peasantry go barefoot, a^ the middle sort maJu 
me," kc, because the idea in both these cases, is that of a 
number. On the contraiy, there is a harshness i6 tlie 
following sentences, in which nouns of number, have verbe 
phiral ; because the idea^ they re|>resent seem not to he 
sufficiently divided in the mind. '* The court of Rome 
7»er€ not without solicitude*" '' The house of commons 
were of small weight" " The house of lords vrere so 
much inj9uenced by thc^e reasons." *' Stephen's partr 
were entirely broken up by the captivity of their leader." 
•* An army of twenty-sfour thousand were assembled." 
^ What Tcasoa Acotc the church of Rome for proceeding 
tn this manner?" ** There is indeed no; constitution S9 
tame and- careless -of iheir own defence.^' *^ All the vir- 
tues of maitkind are (o be counted upon a few fing^r^, but 
kis folHes and, vices are innumerable." U not maiUcind 
in this place a noun of multitude, and such as requires 
^e pfcmot^ j^^ftmng to it t« te in die phxvd Rwdiex, 
Aeirf ' ' " 

MO '.i ^i i',*. '<U, • ,\^ «T — 



, .K ^ 

Rule 6.) *' trffTAt; ' 136 


ProTK)uns mast advvaj^s agree witb theip antecedents, 
and the nouns for which Ibey stand, in gender and nuni^ 
bcr t as, *' This is the friend wh&m I love ;*' ** 'J hal is 
the vioe which 1 Iiate ;" " The king and the queen had 
put on M€t> robes;" "1 he moon appeal^, and 9he 
^inesy but the light is not her Own-" 

'I he relative is ufthe same person as the antecedf:nt, 
and the verb agrees with it accordingly: as, ♦* 7 lum 
uho lovest wisdom >" " i who speak from experience,' 

Of this rule there are many violations to be met with ; 
a few ot which may be sut^icient to piit the learner on hia 
guard. " Kacfi of tiie sexes shotdd keep wiihin ns |)iirti- 
cular bounds, and content Ihemsehes with the advant;iooi 
of ifieir particular districts :'"* better thus : *' The si^xe$ 
should keep within their particular bounds," kc, ** Can 
any one, on their entrance into the world, be fully secure 
that they shalj not be deceived T '* onhi.f entrance,** and 
** that he shaU." ** One should not think too favourably ot 
ourselves ;" *' of cme'a self.'' *' He had one acquaintance 
which poisoned his principles ;" ** who poisoned.'* 

ir*very relative must have an antecedent to which it re* 
fers, eithei* expressed or implied : as, *' Who is fetal ta 
others is So to himself;'' that is, *'^ tkeimn 's?&o is fatal to 

Whh, "tx^hichi what; and the relative that, though in th* 
efbjective case* are alway* placed before the verb ; as aro 
aflsb thi6ir compounds, tt^ioever^ whosoever^, 6ic.; as, " fie 
Whom ye seek ;" " 1 nis is wiiat, or the thing which, or 
that yoo want ;'*' *' WhcHnsoever you please to apjioint*** 

WheLl is sometimes applied, in a manner which appear^ 
to be exceptionable : as, " AH fevecs, except what are 
called nervous," &c. ft would at least be better to sajr^ 
** except those ap/iMare catied nervous*** 

1. Personal pronouns being used to supply the place of 
ih§ noun, are not emplbyed in the same part^f a sentenc* 
ts the nonn which they represent; for it wowld be im 
proper to baj^, '* Tht; khig he is just ;" ."- 1 saw her th^ 
^fca«€mj" "The men theyYret^ ther* i'* ** Many wof# 

^ey darken speech ;*' *' M j banks tkey are fiirni^ed witfa 
bees.*' These personalis are s^ii^rflaous, as ther^ is ndl 
the least occasion for a substitute in the same part wherd 
the principal word is present. The nominatire case they, 
m the following sentence, is afeo superflnou^ ; ** Who, in* 
^ead of going about doing good> they are perpetually in- 
tent opon doing mischief.'* 

2. The pronoun thnt is frequently applied to persons as 
well as to things ; but after an adjective in the superlativfe 
degree, and aller the pronominal adjective tutme^ it is gene- 
rally used in preference tozs^^o or Tthich : as, '' Charles XII» 
king of Sweden, was one of the greatest madmen (hat the 
world ever saw ;" *" Catiline's followers were the most pro 
Sigate that could be foOnd in any city.'* '* He is *he same 
man that we saw before." There are cases wherein we 
cannot conveniently dispense Mith this relative as applied 
to persons: as lirst, after 'who the interrogative ; ** Who 
thill has any sense of religion, would have argued thus V^ 
Secondly, when persons make but a part of the antece- 
dent ; •''The woman, and the estate^ J^/iaV became his por- 
tion were too much for bis moderation." In neither of 
enese examples could any other relative have been oaed 

3. The pronouns whichsoever^ whosoever, and the like^ 
are elegantly divided by the interposition of the corres- 
ponding substantives : thus, " On whichsoever side the king 
cast his eyes ;'* would have sounded better, if written, *' On 
which side soever," &c. 

4. Many persons are apt, in conversation, to put the ob^ 
jective case of the personal pronouns, in the place oitliem 
and those : a8, *^ Give me them bocks ;" instead of •• thos^ 
booksl" We may somethnes find this fault even iawri* 
ting ' as, " Observe them three there*" We also frequent-* 
ly meet with those instead of 4hey^ at the beginning of a 
sentence, and where there is no particular reference to 
an antecedent ; as, ^^ Those that sow in tears, sometimee 
reap in joy." They that, or they who sow in tears. 

. It is not, however, always easy to say, whether a per* 
aonal pronoun or a demonstrative is preferable, in certan 
eansiructions. •• We are not unacquainted with the ca 
ioinoy of them [or those^ who opeo^ make use of tibue 
«^amest profeasiovi '' 

5. la. soffit tKaletls^ the word v^ai Is impropcrty 'Used 
ibr tknt, and^someUmeii wefi&d it in this Aonse in wntrigl 
^ Tjiey will never believe but what 1 have be^n ^uur^lf 
to bJame^^ '^ I am not satisfied but what,'' &c. instead of 

* hat iJutL** The word aeniemhtU, in the followitig senten '*€f 
se^ms to be used improperly. ^^ These puniahmenti^ se-^A 
to have been exercised in arbitrary manner*^* 
Sometimes we read, ^Mn somewhat of." The meaoi.ig 
ift, <• in a manner which is in some respects arbitrary*"* 

6. The pronoun relative who is so much appropriateH 
to persons, that there is generally harshness in the appli* 
otion of it, except to the proper names of persons, or tha 
general terms mutin moman^ &c. A term which only im* 
plies the idea of persons, and expresses them by some cirv 
cumstaoce or epithet, will hardly authorize the use of it% 
as, ** That taction in England who most powerf*illy op 
posed his arbitrary pretensions/' ** That faction w/uV/i,** 
would have been better ; and the same remark will :^ervff 
for the following examples: '* France, who was in aiUance 
with Sweden." " The court, who,'' kc. <* The cavnlry 
U'/io,'" &c " The cities w>hd aspired at liberty." " Thai 
party among us a»^," &c. " The family whom they con- 
sider as usurpers.'* 

In some cases it may be doubtful, whether this pronoun 
is properly applied or not: as, " The number of Pub- 
stanlial inhabitants^ with whom some cities abound. ** For 
when a term directly and necessarily implies persons, it 
may in many cases claim the personal relative. " Nod« 
of the company whom he most affected, could cure him of 
the melancholy under which belaboured." The worA 
acquaintance may have the same construction; 

7. We hardly consider little children as persons, be- 
cause that term gives us the idea of reason and roflt^rtion ; 
and therefore the application of the personal relative rvho, 
in this case, seems to be harsh; " A child who "" \t is 
stiii more improperly applied to animals : *' A lake fre. 
quented by that fowl whom nature has taught to dip iho 
wmg in water " 

8. When the name of a person is used merely as a 
Mine, and it does not refer to «he person, the proponn 
wUq ought Aot to be ai>iilied *M t is no wonder if such a nni(^ 

tt8 UGLiss «Miauit ^PbslltLS* 

M'Boc Mbb ^ the cotm of ^«eao E3is9ftbeA,.z»Ao was 
bul 4LBdt^er name lor pnideace and economy.'' Better 
tbas ; '' vrbose name was but aiK>ther. word for.prudeoce, 
lu;/- The word whose begins likewise to be restricted to^ 
persons ; yet it is not done so generally, but that good 
writers, even in prose, use it wiien speaking of thiog8» 
The censtruction is not, however^ generally pleasmg^ 
1MB we may see in the following instances : *'^ Pleasure^ 
whose nature, &c." ** Call erery production, whose /pait%k 
and whose nature )'" &.c. 

In one case, however, custom authorizes us to nse 
which^ with respect to persons ; and that is when we wanj^ 
to distinguish one person of two, or a particular persos 
among a number of others. We should then say, **^ Whu^ 
ef the two,'* or " IVhich of them, is he or she ?" 

9. As the pronoun relative has no distinction of oiiffl* 
ber, we sometimes find an ambiguity in the use of it : aa 
when we say, '* The disciples of Christ, ttr^om we imitate ;** 
we may mean the imitation either of Christ, or of bia 
disciples. The accuracy and clearness of the sentence, 
depend very much upon the proper and determinata 
Hse of the relative, so that it may readily present its an* 
tecedent to the mind of the hearer or reader, without anjp 
obscurity or ambiguity. 

10. h is and t/ was^ are often, after the manner of tha 
French, used in a plural construction, and by some df oiur 
best writers : as, " /^ is either a few great men^ho decide 
for the whole, or it is the rabble that follow a seditiotis 
ringleader :" " ft is they that are the real authors, though 
|he soldiers are the actors of the revolution;" *' A wag 
the heretics that first began to rail," &c. ; ** 'Tts thes^ 
that early taint the female mind." This *icense in the 
construction of it ts, (if it be proper tr admit it at all,) 
has, however, been certainly abused i'L che following sen- 
^nce, which is thereby made a very awkward one- " Jt 
is wonderful the very few accidents, which, in seyeral 
yeai-s, happen ftoro this practice." 

11. The interjections 0/ Oh! and M! require the ob^ 
jective case of a pronoun in the first person after them ^ 
as, *' O me ! Oh me ! Ah me !" But the nominative case 
in the second person : as, ** O thou persecutor!" •♦ QJI 
ye hypocrites I* ♦* O thou, who dweUe«t»" Uf^ . > . ,r 

Uui^S^ arwTiix., lap 

Tbe Eieulerp^^ an idtem peculiar to ih^ Eaf* 
lidh language, is freqiientlj joined ia explanatory sentea* 
ces, virith a noun or pronoun of the masculine or femiointt 
gender : as, '* It was I ;" *' It was the man or womaD 
Uiat did it." 

The neuter pronoun it is sometimes omitted and ander^ 
stood; thus we say, ** As appears, as follows;" for *' As 
it appears, as it follows ;" and •* May be," for '* It majr 

The neuter pronoun ii is sometimes employed to ex* 
press ; 

Ist, The subject of any discourse or inquiry : as, •* Jl 
happened on a summer's day ;" '' Who is it that calls on 
me ?" 

2dy The state oi^ condition of any person or thing : ai^ 
^' How is it with you ?" 

3d, The thing, whatever it be, that is the cause of any 
effect or event, or any person considered merqly ab a 
cause : as, '* We heard her say it was not he ;" ** Th^ 
truth is, it was I that helped her." 


The relative is the nominative case to tlie verl> 
when no nominative comes between it and the verb : 
as, " The master who taught us ;" " The trees which 
2Lre planted." 

When a nominative comes between the retative and 
the verb, the relative is governed by some word in its 
own member of the sentehce : as, " He who preserves 
me, to whom I owe my being, whose I am^ and whom X 
serve, is eternal." 

In the several members of the last sentence, the rela- 
tive performs a different office. In the first member, it 
niarJts the agent ; in the second, it submits to the govern- 
ment of the preposition ; in the third, it represents the 
possessor ; and in the fourth, the object of an action : and 
therefore it must be in the three different cases, corres- 
pondent to those offices. 

When both the antecedent and relative become nomina* 
tivcs, each ta different itrb)i>^ relative is the ^mim- 

140 tlTOiiiir Giaiouft^ fUnfe^^ 

Kvf to ihe former, and the antecedent to flie latter verb z 
IS, ** True philosophy^ which is the omameRit of ournaiure, 
consists more in the love of our duty, and the practice of 
virtue, than in great talents and extensive knowledge. *• 

A few instances of erroneous construction, wUl illustrate 
both the branches of the sixth rule. The three foIiowiDS^ 
refer to the tirst part. " How can we avoid being gratefi3 
to those whom, by repeated kind offices, have proved 
Ihemselves our real friends !'' *' These are the men whom, 
you might suppose, were the authors of the work:^ " If 
you were here, you would find three or four, whom yoa 
would say passed their time agreeably :" in all these placet 
it should be z8?/ia instead of whom. The two latter senten- 
ces contain a nominative between the relative and the 
verb ; and, therefore, seem to contravene the rule: bat the 
Student will reflect, that it is not the nominative of (he 
verb with which the relative is connected. The remain- 
ing examples refer to the second part of the rule. ""^ Men 
of tine talents are not always the person? who we should 
esteem." '* The persons who you dispute with, are pre- 
cisely of your opinion." ** Our tutors are our bene- 
fectors, who we owe obedience to, and who we ou^ht to 
love." In these sentences, whom should be used instead 
of who, 

1. When the relative pronoun is of the interrpgative 
kind, the noun or pronoun containing the answer, must be 
in the same case as that wJiich contains the question ; as, 
** IVkose books are these ? They are John^s,^^ ** HJio gave 
them to hirai,? IVe,"** "Of whom did you buy them ? Of 
a bookseller ; hiin who lives at the Bible and Crown.'* 
•* Whma did you see there I Both him/XhA the shopman.** 
The learner will readily comprehend this rule, by supply- 
ing the words which are understood in the answers.— 
stilus, to, express the answers at large, we should aay, 
" They are John's books." "We gave them to him." 
** We bought them of him who lives, &c." ** We saw 
both him and the shopman." — As the relative pronoun^ 
when used interrogatively, refers to the subse<juent wora 
er ;i!>rdse containing the answer to the question, that word 
er phrase may properly be ierfiied the fubsequ^nt XQ tb^ 
SBteri'045ative» . 

ftul03 7> 8*> • $mjax 141 


When die relative is preceded by two nomiiMitiTet 
of different persons, the relative and verb may agree in 
persou with either, according to the sense : as, ** I aiH 
the man who command you ; or, ^' I am the man who 
^mmands you.'* 

The form of the first of the two precediDg sentences, 
^presses the meaning rather obscurely, it would be 
more perspicnous to say ; " I, who command you, am tht 
man.^^ Perhaps the difference of mieaning, produced by 
referring the relative to different antecedents, will be 
more evident to the learner, in the following sentences. 
" 1 am the general who^iv€5 the orders to-day;^' •' I am 
the greneral, who give tha orders to-day ;*' that is, '• l^ 
who give the orders to-day, am the general." 

When the relative and the verb liave been determined 
Id agree with either of the preceding nominatives, that 
agreement must be preserved throughout the sentence s 
as in the following instance : 'M am the Lord that makeup 
all things ; that streicheth forth the heavens alone." ha 
^y. 24. Thus far is consistent : The Lord, in the third 
person, is the antecedent, and the verb agrees with the re 
lative ia the third person : *' I am ^fte Ijord^ which Lord, 
or be %at makeik all things." If /were made the ante- 
cedeqt, the relative and verb should agree with it in the 
first perion : as, ^^/ am the Lord, that make all things, 
that Hretch forth the heavens alone." But should it fol- 
low ; " That spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;" 
there would arise a confusion of persons, and a manifest 


Bveiy adjeedve, and every adjective pronorai, be- 
longs to a substantive, expressed or mmerstood : as^ 
** He is a good^ as well as a tuise man ;'* " Few are hap 
py /• that iSf^ persons ;" " This is a pleasant walk ;** that 

Adjective pronouns must agree, in number, with theif 
substantives* as, *^ This book, these bodb ^. that 99X%p 
lihose i?Of^ ^ mM&er v#adi o^erroac^*' 

4- ADJECTIVE i>Roworfrs. 

A few instances of the breach of thie rule are here ea^ 
farhit4Ml. '"'l have not travelled this twenty vears ;*" '"'tket^ 
tweniy." *' I am not recomnaeuding these kindof sufier- 
m^n ;*' *' this kind." ** Those set of books was a valuable 
present ;'* ** that set." 

I. The word m4:ans in the sinp^alat number, and the 

E'n"ise»» *' By this ineans,*^ " By thm means,^^ are used by 
ur best and most correct writers ; namely. Bacon, Tillof- 
ion, Atterbury, Addison, Steele, Pope, 6ic,* They are, 
indeed in so general and approved use, that it would 
appear awkward, if not affected, to apply the old singular 
forfn, and say, ** By this mean; by that mean ; it wa>' by 
% Niean •" although it is more agreeable to the general 
gp 4 logy of the language. "The word//<«a»«(saysPriestley^ 
b«Mongs to the class of words, which do not change iheir 
trnnination on account of number; for it is used alike in 
bolh numbers." 

The word amends is used in this manner, in the fbllow- 
b^o: •sentences: *' Though he did not succeed, he gained 
th ' approbation of his country ; and With' this atnenrls'he 
w i^ rontent." *' Peace of mind is an honourable amends 
for the sarritices of interest." " In return, he received 
Ihc thanks of* his employers, and the present of a large 
Estate ; these were ainpl^ amends for all his labours." 
^* We have described the rewards of vice: the good 
man's «)/.^n6/s ar« of a different nature." 

ft can scarcely be doubted, that this word amends (Vke 
the word means) had formerly its correspondent form in 

**^ Bp tki3 rnmns, be had Hieoi the more at raiitage, being tired and fas- 
cassed witb a long march *' Boml, 

«' Bit thU meam one jrreat ratraiBt fmrn 66mg evil, would be takefta^r;^.*'— 
«» And this w an aJniirahle mr/rm to improve men in virtne."— 5S|r I*ct< m ea n 
Ibey have rendered their duty more difictHt*' T&MmL 

** It rendeni a§ rareleso ol' apptoving ouraelvei taOod, and 6« that mecma fe> 
cdi-iug tiie continuance of his goodnefs.**— " k good character, when e8^MI«h«l, 
flhottid rvpt be rested io ait ait end, hut empl6yea ata mauu of doing rtill fiirtbcr 
good •• jtOe^bury. 

" Bp tkUmeansthey are haf py in «ch other.**—" He hy that meanspr^Sk-rrm 
1lis«u^^r:ority.*' > AtUimm. 

** Your V iiiity &^ thu means will want its food." Sittk. 

** iJL'^ Tw^M frfonp, tiieir greatest oh?tii'.le8 will vanish •* Papa. 

«^ Plyi^ cmMi lias pfWsdlM ai^ «i^^ 

Rule 8.) tYWAt^ 14$ 

the singular number, as it is derire^ from thi^ French 
atnende^ though now it h exclusivcl)' e8Ubli.shed in the 
plural ibrm. it\ therefore, it be alleged that meam 
should be applied in the singular, because it ie derived 
from the French inoyen^ the f^ame kind of argument may 
be advanced in favour of the :»ingular amende ; and the 
general analogy of the language ma v also be pleaded 19 
support of it. 

Campbell, in his " Philosophy of Rhetoric," has the 
following remark on the subject l>efore u«: *' Nopersory 
of taste will, 1 presume, venture so far to violate the pre 
lent usage, and consequently to shock the ears of the ge 
ne.raVity of readers, as to say, " By this mean, by tha^ 

Lowih and Johnson seem to be against the use of meam 
in the singular number. They do not, however, s|>eak 
decisively on the point ; but rather dubiously, and as jf 
they knew that they were questioning eminent authorities^ 
as well as general practice. That they were not decided^ 
iy against the apphcationof this word to the singular num- 
ber, appears from their own language: '* Whole senten- 
ees, whether simple orcomponnd, may become mcmhera 
of other sentences by tneans of some additional cmtne^^ 
ioju''— -Dr. Lowth's Introduction to Kngiish Chratninar, 

*'*' There ts no other method of teaching that of which 
any one is ignorant bat by meam of toinetliing already 

known."^ Dr. Johnson. Idler. 

It is remarkable that our present version of the Scrip» 
tures makes no use, as far as the compiler can discover^ 
of the word mean; though there are several instances te 

•• There is 00 means of Mcaping the pewecution." — .— •• Faith is not only « 
wuam of obeyiog, but a principal- art of obedience.* Dr F/mr^. 

** He looked od money as a uecewaiy moms of maiotaiuiiiff aitd increasing 
fower." Lord LijtMitm's Henry if, 

^ John was too much Jntimidated not to embrace twry mtnm aflforded R^r his 
«fet^.** GotdmidL 

** Lest tfns means should fiifl.**--** By meam tf skip^nmty, the late kiiig,* 
Ac ** The: only memu of •eciirine a durable peace.'* Bums, 

** Bytkis means thern was nothing left to the parliaBent of Irebod,** &c 


^ By this means to many slavee escaped out of tlie haodi of their mast n.** 

Dr. Bubtrtmtt 

^ By this means they bear witness to each other.** ^^S?^ 

** 1^ (Msmeom the wrath of man was m^detoWromimt itadf/* Dr- tsim*,. 

«* k magazine, which has, hw this weaw, coB^mmL *%--m*' B^wfe:'" J^ 

-|44 Mgltsh GHAkMAii. (Ride «• 

'"be found ih ft of tiie ase of means, in the sense and coii&€<* 
ion contended for. ^' By this means thon shalt have no 
portion on tiiw side the river." Ezra iv. 16; • ** That ly 
meam of death,'' &c. Heb. ix. 16. It will scarceijr be 
pretended, that the translators of the sacred rolumes did 
not accurately understand the English language ; or that 
they would have admitted one form of this word, and n^* 
jected the other, had not their determination been coir- 
fbrmable to the best usage. An attempt therefore to re* 
cover an old word, so long since disused by the most coi*- 
rest writers, seems not likely to be successful ; especial^ 
as the rejection of it- is not attended with any inconve- 

The practice of the best and most correct writers, ort 

f^reat majority of them, corroborated by general usuge, 
onus, during its continuance, the standard of langtiage; 
especially, if, in particular instances, this praddoe con- 
tinue, afier objection and due consideration. Every con- 
nexion and application of words and phrases, thus sup- 
ported, must therefore be proper, and entitled to respect^ 
if not exceptionable in a moral point of view. 

" Si volet imi8 

" Qjxm peoes arbltrium est, et jus, et uonna Joqueodi.*' HOfc 

On this principle, many forms of expressioti, not leai 
deviating from the general analogy of the language, than^ 
those before mentioned, are to be considered as stricdiy 
proper and lus'^fiable. Of this kind are the folio win^ 

.\^M! of t^eui are varied to express the gender;** %M 

yet none originally signified no one. ** He himself ahaQ 
do the work :" here, what was at firit appropriated^ 
the objective, is now properly used as the nominatiir$ 
ease. ** You have behaved yourselves well:" in fhit 
example, the word you is put in the nominative case pfa|* 
ral, with strict propriety ; though formerly it was con- 
fined to the objective case, and ye exclusively used for tb0 

With respect to anomalies and variations of lang^ge^ 
th\]s established, it is the grammarianV business to sob- 
ait, n<k-to remonstrate. In pertinaciously opposing the 
<(ecii»ion of proper authorify, aud contending (of obsolete 
modes of expression, he may, indeed, display learning and 
oeiiical sagacity^ and, in seme degree^ obscure poHiH 

IWift*! mn*^. '. . ttt 

reasonably hope either to aucceed in. bk ainM op to amst 
t{ie. learner, io discoyariagandlrespecti&g tb» ra. staoj- 
ard ft&d pxiacL|jles of language » 

Cases which, custom hag left dubious, are tertai.'ly 
withixi the grammarian 's pra^ince* He re , he may reascm 
and remonstrate oti the growid of derivatioii, analogy, 
and propriety ; and his reasonings may retine and improve 
the language : but when authority »peakd out and decides 
^e point, it were perpetnaiiy to unsettle the languagei^ 
to admit t)f cavil and debate. Anomaiiea then, under th* 
limitation mentioiied* become the law« aa cicasty ^ thm 
plainest analogies. 

. The reader will perceive that, m the P>liomng aentea- 

«es, ^e use of the word «*«a» in the old form has a rery 

pncoQtb appearance : ** By the jnean of adversity we af^ 

often instructed."' '^ He preserved his, health by meim ol 

ixercise^'" *' Frugality is one rueunr of acquiring a commie* 

lency/' They should be," By titeuns of adversity," ktk 

^'By means of exercise.*' &c. "Frugality is imiO means ;^^ kc^ 

, Good writers do indeed, make use of the siibstanttvA 

fgurni in the sir^gular number, and in that numher onlyt tp 

fiigni^ mediocrity, middle rate,^c« as, ** This is a tueat^ 

between the two ertretnes.'* But in the sense of instru* 

meRtality,. it has heen long disused hy the best authorv, 

and by ahnost ever}^ writer. 

7%is means and that rmans should be used only when 
H^fey refer to what is singular ; these mems and those means^ 
when they respect plurals ; as, " He lived temperately^ 
amd by this vveans preserved his health;" '* The scho* 
!ars were attentive, industrious, a«d obedient to theia* 
jtutors ; and by these tn^ans acquired knowledge." 

We have enlarged on .this article ^ that the youi^ stu- 
dent may bp led to reflect on a point so important, as tJiuit 
of ascertaining the standard of propriety in the use of 
language. • , 

. 2 When two persons or thing!) are spoken of i^ a warn* 
tence, and there is occasion to mention them again for the 
iake of distinction, that is used in reference to the former* 
anS this, in reference to the latter : as, " Self-lov«t 
wJhH^h ta^e fl|>iiDg of action in ^be aoul) is ruled by rea«. 

' , - ■> 1 *<■",- 

ioQ : Inst iar fW, man would be inacUye ; and but ^ fl£^ 
ke would be active to no end/* 

3. The <fi8tnbtitivft a^ective p^iK^uns, eadi. Wifff 
either^ a^ree with the notios, pronouns, and verbs, of tlui 
ting^ilar number only : as, " Tbp king of Israel^ and Je* 
hosbaphat, the king of Judah, sat eadi on hh throbe ;*^ 
** Rvery tree i» known by its frnit :" unless the pkurd 
Ikonn convey a collective idea : as, " Etery six months ;" 
•* Every hundred years."—- — The following phrases are 
exceptionable. **' Leteac^ esteepi others betu^r than them^ 
•elves:" It ought to be ^' himself.^' ** The language 
^Hiuld be both perspicuous and correct : in proportioa 
»• either of these two qualities are wanting, the languagt 
is miperfect :" it should be, *^ is wanting." " Btery one 
^ the letters bear regular dates, and contain prod/§ 0/ 
ftttackmest :" *' bears a regular rfate, and conttdntJ'^ **£z;«* 
9y town and village were burned ; eoery grove and «^«rti 
tree were cut down:" " twa« burned, and two* cut Aown.^ 
Sh ike Key^ p« 16 ; and the Octavo Qrammar^ S£€QN|» 
tdition^ volume 2, page 3^2. 

Either is often used improperly, instead of eaehr as, 
" The king of Israel, and Jehosfaaphat tlieltmg of Judab, 
iat either of them on his throne ; *' Nadab and Abiho, 
fee sons-of Aaron, took either of them his censer.*' EatU 
signifies both of them taken distinctly or separately |«<A«f 
properly signifies only the one or the other of tbem takefi 

in the course of this work, some examples will appear 
«f erroneous translation^ from the Holy Scriptures, with 
respect to granmiatical construction r but it may be proper 
to remark, that notwithstanding these verbal mtstakei, 
the Bible, fyr the size of it, is the most accurate gram* 
Biatical composition that we have in the English language. 
The authority of several enunent gramHiariaDs might be 
ftddctced in stipport of tliis adsertion ; l^ut it may be suffi- 
cient to mention only that of Dr. Lowki, who saytiy '^ The 
|d%sett translatioQ of die Bil^, b Hm best statidaci ol 
file En^^kb l^guage.*^ 

11. ADjecrrvst. 

4. Adjectives are sometiBiea uaproperly applied a« a4» 
«eilis* as, ^ ia^ferent boMst * excdUkat weU ; mtaeraUt 

El^C ^) STfTTAX ^ 147 

poor;^ iu^^i^ of " Indifferentfy KoMst ; «ceHently well| 
nusw^rably poor.'' '" He behaved himself coDformahle to 
that great example ;** " cenformMy.^ *' Endeavour to 
live ^reafter suitable to a person in thy station ;" *' suit- 
ably.^^ " I can never think so very mean of him ;*• 
♦*jnean%.'* " He describefl this river agreeable to th« 
common reading^:** ** agreeably.''' ** Agreeable to ray pro- 
■^se, 1 now write ;'* ^^ agreeably J*^ *' Thy exceeding great 
reward :*"* When united to an adjective, oi adverb nol 
einiiog in /y» the ivord exceeding has ly added to if . aa, 
"exceedingly dreadful, exceedingly great ;*' •* exceeding- 
ly well, exceedingrly more active :" but when it is joiued 
to an -adverb or adjective, having that termination, tlie Jy 
is omitted: a$, *'Sorac men t;hink exceeding clearly, and 
reason exceeding forcibly ;" '* She appeared, on this oc- 
casion, exceeding lovely.'^ ** He acted b this businefet 
Mdcr than was expected.:" " '^^£y behaved the noblest. 
because they were disinterested." They should have been. 
*'mo« boldly; tnost nobly,^^ — The adjective pr^aoun suef 
is often misapphed v- as, ** He was such an extravagan. 
youag man, that he.^peiU bis whole patrimony in a fer 
yeans;" it should be, *' 50 extravagant a young man.* 
**l never before saw such large trees :" '*«att? trees io 
large.'*'' When we refer to the species or nature of a 
things the word mch is properly applied : as, " Such a 

ieaiper is fiemoBi lounu ; uui wiieu i^^ree is sign^t^cM^ 
we use the word so c as, '* So bad a temper is seldom 

AdTerbs are likewise improperly ii$ed as adjectives : as^ 
'* The tatoratddressed him in terms ratber warm, but su^- 
ably to bis ojfence ;'' *' smiabUJ*'' *' Tbey were seen wan- 
deriDg about solitarily and distressed ;" ^ solitary J'* ^* He 
Kred ib a manner agreeably to the dictates of reason and 
***ig*oii;'' ''^ agreeable*^ " Tbe study ^ aynt*^ ^should be 
pfevionsly to tbat of punctuation ;*' " previous.^^* 

5. Doat)le comparatives and saperiatives sh<»]Id be 
mToided : soekas, ^^ A worser eo&dnct ;" ** On" lesser bopeti" 
** A more sereaer temper :" '•^ The Biost strailest sf ct ;" *'A 
more svfK^or wock.'" Tbey^thould bew ^' worse coadu^^^'' 

• Wm tbp rale todetenuBue vriiedier m adj«etive or an adverb h to ^ 
es£i«M£MiclMii,Suc£pcstt» txvxy YnSkmiE^miiy edition, pas^ 140 

)4i - j^lTfttlHtf ^jJtkAM. (Ride 9 

*^ lesi bopes ;" " a more serene temper ;^ •* the stfait'> 
eit sect ;" '* a superior work." i 

H. Adjective? that ha?e in themselves a ^aperiatrre si|ft 
iitficatioD, do aot properly admit of the superlative or com* 
parative form superadded: such as, ^'Chief» extreme^ 
perfect, right, universal, supreme,'* ^c. ; which at>e some - 
times improperly written, ** Chiefest, extremest, perfect.* 
.eat, tightest, most universal, most supreme,*' &c. The fol- 
lowiog expressions are therefore improper. '* Hesom^ 
times claims admission to the chiefest offices.** *' Th« 
quarrel became so universal and national ;*' ^ A method 
of attaining the r^htest and greatest happiness.'* TMft 
phrases, so perfect, so right, so extreme, so universal, ^ic 
are incorrect ; because they imply that one thing is lem 
perfect, leaa extreme, &c. ^haa another, which is not po^ 

7. Inaccuracies are often fbund in the way in which lli^ 
jegrees of comparison are applied and construed. The 
following afe examples of wrong construction in tkns re* 
•pect : '* This noble nation hath, of ail others, admitted 
fcvver corruptions."'* The word fewer is here conatmed 

, precisely as if it were the superlative, tt should be, 
'* Tlu? noble nation hath admitted fewer corruptions thao 
any other '' We commonly say, "' This is the weaker 
©f the two;*' or, "The weakiest of the two:" bat the 
^rmer is the regtitar mode of expressictti, beeanse 
there ate only two things com^ ared» ** The vice of c^ 
vetousness is what enters deepest into the soul inf ai^ 
other.*' ** He celebrates the church of £n|^aiid-es the 
most perfect of all others," Both tiiese modeaoi' expree* 
•ion are faulty: we should not say, ** The best '♦f ai^ 
man,'* or, *' The best of any other man,'* Ibr.^^the 
best of men.'* The sentences may be cmrected 

%y substituting the comparative in the room of the 
•uperiative. "The vice, &c. is what eaters deeper 
iDtb the seul than any other." " He ceiebra^s, he* 
flM more perfect than any other." It is aka posaiye-le 
retain the seperlattve, and render the -exfveaatoa -gvefli 
entticak "'€oveto«i«nes8, of all vices, e«ten tt» decfioit 
into the soul.*' ** He celebrates, &c. as the most pedecl 

' ef all' churches." The«ie ftenieeces centain mother enrersy 
tBMisui which it ia ^oper to caotioa the learser. XlN| 

Role 8.) vtWTkx. kid 

words deeper ancl deepest, being intended far ftdvejrbt^ 
^0Dld kave ^en more deeply^ most deeplif^ The phrases 
m»re perfect, and mo^l perfect, are improper ; beca«0«. 
peHection admits of no degrees of comparison^ We may 
say nearer or nearest to perfectioii, or more or leas ua 
perfect. . 

8. In some cases, adjectiFes should not be separated 
firom ^leir subsianttyes, even by words which Boodify theiir 
neanhig^, and make but one sense with them : as, " A 
iaarge enough number surely.*' It ^ould be, ** A nom* 
l»r large enough." " Tbe lower sort of people are 
Ipkod enough judges of one not very distant from theffl.'* 

'Bie ad^ctive is usuaUy placed before its substantire t 
^ ** A generous man ;" *' How amiable a woman !'* Tht 
itistaQces4n which it comes after the substantive, are the 

ist. When something depends upon the adjective ; and 
when it g^yes a better sound, eapeciaJly in poetry : as, 
**-A Bian generous to his enemies ;" '• Feed roe with food 
€ u9e me nt for me ;" ** A tree three feet thich.^"* " A body 
«f troops 6fly thousand strong y^ '* The torrent tumbling 
tiurevgh rocks abrupt J*^ 

2d, When the adjective is emphatical : as, " Alexander 
ih&Gtee^;'^ '' Le^is the J5oW;" "Goodness infiniUi"^ 
" Wisdom wisearehable,*^ 

3d, When several adjectives belong to one substantive ; 
ftSy '* A man just, wise, and charitable ;" "A woman 
modesty sensible, and virtuous." 

4th, When the adjective is preceded by an adverb: 
aft, " A boy negularly studious ;," " A girl unaffectedly 

6th, When the verb to be, in any of its variations, 
caiBes beteeen a substantive and an adjective, the adjec- 
ti¥« Biay &e«^>ently either precede or follow it: as^ 
** The man is happif; or, happy is the man who makes 
▼irtue his choice :" ** The interview was delightful i*"* or, 
•* deUgktM was the interview.** 

6tli When U^e adje<iive expresses some circumstance 
^ Sk «iil3«teiitiTe pkMoedaiUr an active verb : as, '' Va 

ally 0tt^ fen^tn its possessor despieMe-J^ ht im ex^ft^ 
laatoiy t*entence, the adjective geoieraHy precedes^ ibe 
snbstantive ; as, ** How despicable does vanity oftea r&i* 
der its possessor I" 

'There is soinetiiries great beauty, as well as ^tcq, kk 
placing the adjective before the verb, and the substaa* 
tive immedifCteiy after it: as, ^' Great is the Lord! just 
and true are thy ways, thou King of saints l" ' 
' Sometimes the word alt is emphatically put after « 
dtimber of particulars comprehended under it. ^* Ami** 
(ion, interest,' honour, aU concurred/' Sometimes a sob* 
stanttre, wltich tikewise^ comprehends the preceding par*, 
ticulars, is used in conjunction with this adjective : as^ 
** Royalists, republicans, churchmen, sectaries, courtien^ 
patriots, ail parties^ concurred in the illusion.'* » 

An adjective pronoun, in the plural dumber, wiH dOniJK* 
times properly associate with a singular noun : as, *' 0«r 
desire, your intention, th^ir resignation." This sssocia* 
tion applies rather to things of an intellectual aaturef 
Aian to tho^ which are coi^poreal, it ^rms an excep- 
tion to the general rule, / 

A substantive with its adjective is reckoned ^ oae 
compounded word, whence they often take another ad- 
jer^tive, and sometimes a third, and so on : as, *' An M 
man ; a good old man ; a very learned, judiciou^^ good 
old man.*' 

Though the adjective always relates tb a subs^titive, 
it is, in many instances, put as if it wer^-absohit* ; espe« 
fially where the noun has been mentioned before, ork 
•asily understood, though not expressed : as, *' 1 ofteft 
fiurvey the green fields, as I am very fond of ^rrtotn ,•** 
'VThe wise, the virtuous, the honoured, ^med, and 
great," that is, '* persons ;" •* The twelve," that is, 
" apostles ;" '* Have compassion oti the itoor; be feet (0 
Ihe lante^ and eyes to the blind,''* 

Substantives are often used as at^ttive^. In tbis ea«e, 
the word so used is sometimes unconnected with the sub- 
stantive to which It relates ; sontetime^ Connetrted with it 
by a hyphen ; and sometimes joined to it, «o a» to tnak^ 
the two words coalesce. The total 8et)aration is projmr, 
when either of the two words is long, or when they can 
jMt be flaentlj jpraiM>iiQC«4 ^ ^^^ word ; as/ «ii a^eo i 

^lle 91) ' 9YNTAY. • ^tSl 

tire proEKmn; a ^lyer watch, a stone <:it9teni : the hyphet 
19 used) when both the words are shorty and are redUily 
pronounced as a single word : as, coai-mine, coru-milly 
froit-tree : the words coalesce, when they are reatlily 
pronofinced together; hare a long established associa^ 
tion ; and are in freqaent use : as, honeycomb, ginger* 
bread, inkhom, Torkshire. 

Sometiriies the adjective becomes a substantive, and 

has another adjective joined to it : aa, '* The chie/ 

good ;** " The vast immense of space." 

When an adjective has a prepi>sition before it, th« 

silbstanttve being understood, it takes the nature of aa 

Jidverb, and is considered as an adverb : as, " In gene 

raf, in particular, in haste,'* &c ; that is, '* Generally^ 

particularly, hapUly." 

Enms^ was formerly used as the plural of ^nou^h : bol 

it is now obsolete. 


Tbe artick a or an agrees with nogans^mtbe singtdttT 
ftumber only, individually or coBectivelv : as, ** A 
cfaristian, an iniidel, a score, a thousand. Tbe deft- 
taXe article the may agree With nouns in the singular 
and plural number: as, "The garden, the bouses, the 

The articles are often properly omitted : when use^i 
they should be justly appiiea, according to their dis- 
tinct nature : as, " Gola is conrupting ; tbe sea is greeny 
a lion is bold.** 

H is of the nature of both the articles to determine ^ 
Itmit the thing spoken of. A determines it to be one sin* 
^le thing of the kind^ leaving it still uncertain which 4 
li^ determines* which it is, or of many, which th^y are.- 

Thfe following passage will serve as an eiiample of th« 
different uses of and the^ and of the force of the substan^ 
five without any article. '* Man was made for society, 
rnnd ought to extend his good will to all men : but a ^tuin 
frill naturally entertain a more parti< «dar kindness for the 
oten^ with whom he has the most frequent intercourse j 
and enter into a ttill closer union with the man wiiosft 
t^?^r iM ^etttits Mi frost wi€b i^ owtb'* 

Ii2 CffGLlSB OiUifMAR. (Rfile0. 

Aa the articles are scMnctimes misapplied, U may be of 
tome iise to exhibit a few instances : *^ And 1 pei^secuted 
thii* way anto tke death.'* The apostle does not mean aajr 
particular sort of death, but death in general ^ tke definite 
article therefore is improperly used : it ought to be ** uq<> 
to death/' without any article. 

*•• When he, the Spirit of Truth, is come^ he Tvill guide 
jTou into aU truth ;" that is, according to this translatioD, 
•* into all truth 'whatsoever, into truth of all lands ;'* 
▼ery different from the meaning of the evangelist, and £rom 
file original, ** into all the truth ;'* that is, *^ into all eran- 
gehcal truth, all truth necessary for you to know." 

'* Who breaks a butterfly upon a wheel ?" it ought to be 
*^ Ike wheel,^ used as an instrument for the particular piiu^ 
po9e of torturing criminals. *' The Almighty hatii givesi 
feason to a man to be a light unto him :'' it should rather 
be, *' to t/ian," in general. *' This day is salvation come 
to this house, forasnmch as he also is the son of Abraham :^ 
it ought to be, *' a son of Abraham.'* 

The^e remarks may serve to show the great importance 
ef the proper use of the article, and the excellence of the 
English language in this respect ; which, by means of its 
two articles, does most precisely determine the extent of 
signification of common names. 

1. A nice distinction of the sense is sometimes made by 
tte use or omission of the article a. If I say, *' He be- 
haved with a little reverence i'^ my meaning is positive. 
If I say, <' He behaved with little reverence ;" xny mean- 
ing is negative. And these two are by no means the same, 
^r to be used in the same cases. By the former, 1 rather 
praise a person ; by the latter, I dispraise him. For the 
take of this distinction, which is a very useful one, we may . 
better bear the seeming impropriety of the article a before 
nouns of number. When 1 say, ''There were few men 
witb him ;" I speak diminutively, and mean to represent 
tbem as inconsiderable : whereas, when I say ; '* There 
were a few men with him ;'* I evidently intend to make 
tfie most of them. 

2. In general, it may be sufficient to prefix the artick 
to the former of two words in the same construction ; 
tboagb tbe JE rench .oev«r fyA Iq repeat it in thiii esse. 

Rule 10.) " STNf JDc? * fdr 

"There trcrfe many libxire, both of tlie tiig^W and day, 
which he could spend, mthoHT suspicion, in solitary 
thought.*' It might have been *' of the night and cftk9 
day.* And, for the sake of emphasis, we often repeat the 
am<^le in a series of epithets. '* He hoped that this title 
would secure him an ample and <xn independent authority.* 

5. In common conversation, and in familiar style, we 
frequently omit the articles, which might be inserted with 
propriety in writing, especially in a grave style. " At 
worst, time might be gained by this expedient. " At th€ 
worst," would have been better in tliis place. **<jfiveme 
here John Baptist's head." There would have been more 

dignity in saying, " John ihe Bapti&t's head ;" or, *' The 

head of John the Baptist." 

The article the has sometimes a good efltect in dis^ia* 
gnishing a person by an epithet. " In the history of llenry 
the fourth, by Father Daniel, we are surprised at not find- 
ing him the great man.*' ** I own I am often surprised that 
he should have treated so coldly, a man so much the gea- 

This articfe is often elegantly put, after the manner of 
the French, for the pronoun possessive : as, "He looks 
him full in th£ face ;'' that is, ''in his tace.'^ *' In hit 
presence they were to strike the forehead on the ground '^ 
that is, * their foreheads,^ 

We sometimes, acc(3rding to the French manner, repeal 
the same article, when the adjective, on account of any 
clause depending upon it, is put after the substantive. ** Of 
afi the considerable governments among the Alps, a com- 
monwealth is a constitution the most adapted of any to the 
poverty xjf those countries.^ ** With such a specious title 
as that of blood, which with the multitude is always a 
claim, the strongest, and the most' easily comprehended.'* 
** They are not the men in the nation the most difficult tfe 
l>e replaced." 


One subs^aotiTe ^vems another, signifying a differ- 
ent thing, HI th^ possessive or genitive? case :,.as, ' My 

fiber's. bjH^}" '*JMw»> M**»«»^" *'Ym^'^ J^ 

IM nrM.rai ^MmAtu (Rale t# 

Whn^ #6 ftt«»ex«l sab^tacHiv^ s^oift^ the^same thing 
M» the fir^t, ther^.is no variation of case: as, "George* 
iung pf Great Britaiii, elector of Hanover,^ ^c. ; " Pom- 
.pey conteoded with Caesar, the greatest general of his 
time ;'' *' Religion, the wippoct of adversity, adorns pros- 
periW.^' Nouns thu& circumstanced are said to be m ap^ 
pontton to each other. The interposition of a relative 
and verb will sometimes break the construction: as, 
♦• Pompey contended with Caesar, who was the greatest 
general of his time.'' Here the word general is m the 
Dominative case, governed by note 4, under rule xu 

The preposition of joined to a substantive, is not alwajs 
equivalent to the possessive case. It is only so, when the 
expression can be ccmverted into the regular form of the 
possessive case. We can say, "The reward of virtue,** 
and ** Virtue's reward :" but though it is proper to say, 
** A crown of gold," we cannot convert the expression in- 
to the possessive case>, and say, " Gold's crown,*' 

-Substantives govern pronouns as well as nouns, in the 
possessive case : as, *' Every tree is known by its fruit ;" 
♦• Goodness brings its reward ;'^ *' That desk is mine?* 

The genitive its\9> often improperly used for ^tia ovilu: 
j^, " Its mj book *' ir^tead of *' It is my book," 

The procioun kit when detached from the noun to which 
it relates, is to be considered, not a» a possessive pronoun, 
but as ine genitiVG ZZ%Z cf tkf [>^r««^f^»> pronoun • ^ 
." This composition is his:* ^* Whose book is that V' " His.*^ 
If we used the noun itself, we should jsay, "Thiscompo- 
•ition is John's," "Whose book is that?" ** Eliza V 
The position will be still more evident, when we consider 
that both the pronomjs in the following seutencee must 
have a similar construction : " Is it her or, his honour thi^ 
is tarnished ?" " It is not^«, but his,^ 

Sometimes a substantive in the genitive or possessiY« 
case stands alone, the latter one by which it is governed 
-being understood : as, " I called at the bookseller's," that 
is, " at the bookseller's shop.*' 

I. If several nouns come togefter in the genitive case, 
ti>e apostrophe with s is annexed to Uie last, and under- 
atood to the rest r as, *' John and EMs^^s books .** '* This 
tvas my Either, motlier, and uncle's advice.** But when 
an; wordi intctrvtie, perbap* <m account of the hicreaied 

fiause, tfi<e sigti of Vbe potmesdive Should fee mnexed tq 
each : as, ** They are Jobo*« ua well a« Efea*« books ;•* 
** i had the physician's, the sUrgeon's, and the apotbe* 
cary's assisfence.'* 

2. In poetry, thfe additional s is frequently omitted, btrf 
flie apostrophe retained, in the same manner as in stib* 
«tantives of the plural number ending in 8 : as, ** Th# 
wrath of Peleus' son." This seems not so allowable ui 
prose ; which the follo««'ing erroneous examples will de» 
monstrate : " Mdses^ minister ;^' ** Phinehas^ wife ;** ** Fe»J 
<us came into Felix' room." *' Thesfe anslvers were made 
to the witness'' qdestions.'^ But in cases which would 
give loo much of the hissing sound, or increase the diffi- 
culty of pronunciation, the omission takes place even in 
prose ; as, " For righteousness' sake ;** '* For conscience'' 

3. Little ejcplanatory circumstances are particularly 
awkward between a genitive case, and the word whrclr 
usually follows it : as, " She beg^n to extol the farmer's,* 
st8 she called him, excellent understanding." It ought 
to be, *' the excellent understandii^g of the farmer, at 
•he called him.** 

4. When a sentence consists of terms signifying atiame 
and an office, or of any expressions by which one part if 
descriptive or explanatory of the other, it may occasion 
some doubt to which of them the sign of the genitive case* 
ehould be annexed ; or whether it should be subjoined to 
theih both. Thus, some would say ; *' 1 left the parcel a^ 
Smith's the bookseller ;*' others, " at Smith the bookseir 
ler's :" and perhaps others, ** at Smith's the bookseller's.** 
The fitsi of these fbnris is most agreeable to the Enghsb 
idioni ; and if the addition consists of two or more words, 
the case seems to be less dubious : as, '* I lefl the parcel 
at Smith's, the bookseller and stationer." But as thi^ 
eubject requires a little further explanation to make it In- 
telligible to the learners, we shall add a few observattoi^ 
fending to unfold icS princijiles. 

A phrase in which the words are so cooneetei' and de4 
pendent, as to admit of bo pause before the cosciusion: 
necessarily requires Uie genitive sign at or near the cna 
of the phrase : as, ** Whose prerogative is it ? H fe the kin|j 
^ Great Britain's ^** « Ttot is &e di^e of BcMgewatcf * 

iord major of London's autboriiy;'' ^' The captaiD ai 
Ihe guardfe house." 

Whea words in apposition follow each (^ber in quick 
flocctstton, it •eenis also- most agreeabk to our idiem, to 
give the iHgn of the genitive a similar situation; especial^ 
if the noun which govems the genitive be expressed : aa» 
•* The emperoi' Leopold's ;" " Dionystus the tyrant^s ;*• 
'* For David my servant^ sake ;" " Give me Joim ^% 
Baptist^i head ;" *' Paiu the apostle^i advice.'' But whea 
H pause is proper, and the governing noun not expressed/ 
and when the latter part of the sentence is extended ; it 
appears to be requisite that die sign should be applied to 
the ^t genitive, and understood to the other : as, '^' I re- 
aide at lord Stormont's, my old patron and bene&cior ;** 
** Whose glory did he emulate ? He emulated Caesar's, the 
jgreatest general of antiquity*" in the following sentences. 
it woukl be very awkward to place the sign, either at tbe 
end of each of the clauses, or at the end of the latter one 
alone : '* These psalms are David's, tbe king, priest, and 
prophet of tl^e Jewish people ;" *' We staid a month at 
lord Lyttelton's, the ornament of his country, and tbe 
friend o£ every virtue." The sign of the genitive case- 
may very properly be understood at the end of these 
members, an ellipsis at the latter part of sentences being 
a comiuon construction in our language ; as the learner 
will see by one or two examples ; *' They wished to sub- 
mit, but he did not ;" that is, '' he did not "msh to submit;^* 
^ He said it was their concern, but not his f" Uiat is, ^ not 
t»8 concern*^* 

, if we anoex the sign of the genitive to the end of the last 
diause.only, we shall perceive that a resting place is w^ant- 
ed, and that the connecting circumstance is placed too re- 
motely, to be either perspicuous or agreeable : as, 
** Whose glory did he emulate f " He emulated Caesar> 
^e greatest general of on^/^^i^'*;" ** These psakns are 
Ji)avid, the king, priest, and prophet of the Jewish peo^ 
U/e'»." It is much better to say, ** This is Paulas advice^ 
the christian hero, and great apostle of the gentiles,'^ 
01 an, *^ This is Paul the christian nero, and great a4)osde 
•f the. gef^ihs^ advice." On the other hand, tbe appiica- 
^|p^^t|kd fen^ve Biga (p fioth or aUol the aouoa m ap- 

Itale 10.) ftNTAT. Iftf 

position, woul4 tft gei^erally Uarsli and dtff Jeasin^, an^ 
|i^riia|»» ia sanae cases iRcorrect : as, ** The €ui])eror'8 
Leopold's 4'* *' King's George's;'' ** Charles' tbesecond^s;" 
** yUe parcek was left at Smith's the bookseller's and sta* 
ti0tter's.*' The rules which we hare endeavoured to ein^ 
cviit.e^ will prevent Ibe inconvenience of both these mode» 
of i^Xi^reiiHiou j and they appear to be simple, periipicu* 
o*j55, aad consistent with the idiom of the language. 

5. riie f^usrlish genitiveh^s oilen an un[>lea3ant sound) 
so thai we daily inake mort* use of the particle of to cx^ 
p^e^s lUt? ^aiiie relation. There is something a wkwaj*d 
tu.ihe. following sentences, in which tbis method fws not 
bt»eu Ukeu. *'' The general, in the army's name, pubUsh-* 
e»i= rf -flecJaratiea/' '* The commons' vote." " The lords'* 
lio^^e.'^ '* L/nless. he u» very ij^norant of the kingdom's 
condition.'' It were certainly better to say, ** In the nanrt 
«>C the army ;" " The vote of the Gommons ;" '■'• The 
Loii^ of lor<l>i;" ** The cofiditioi, of the kingdom." It is 
also Ti^ther harsh to use two English genitives with the 
esille substantive •. as, '-^ Whom he acquainted wiih the 
pope'p and the king's pleasure.'' '* The pleasure of thft 
pope and the king," would have been better. 

VVe soioetimes meet vviih three s«ib.*flantives dependent 

Ofi one another, and connected by !ie pref)0.4tion of appli-> 

ed to each of them : ^s, *' The severilv of the distress of 

the *M>D of the king, touched the nation ;" but tbis mode 

of expression is not to be rccommerided. It would be t>et- 

imt to say, '* The severe distref^ of tl>e king's son, touoh* 

e4 the nation.*' Wc have a striking instance of this lul>o* 

r^ouia mode of expression, in the following sentence ; ^'^Of 

8drae of'tXi^ books o/'eacb o/* these classes <^ literature, * 

' cattalogne will be given at the end of the work.'* 

.,6, In SJDme cases, we use both the genitive termination. 

sUEKd the preposition of: as, " It is a discovery of 8ir Isaac- 

^ Newrtan's." Sometime^s indeed, unless we throw the sen- 

teDce into another form, this roethotl is absolutely n^Ge^sa•• 

tj^ in order to distinguish the ^ense, and to give tbetde* 

of property, strictly so called, whicjj is the most inijvorrant 

■ of the relations expressed by the genitive case : for the ex* 

' pr*>ssioti«*, " This picture of my friend,'' and *•• This pi« t!!r# 

of mv friend^s," wiggest very ditlerent ido:»s. The latter 

' ^f^\ is that of property in the strictest sense. Tiwi id«* 

would, clouli^89, be CfmreyeA in a b«Uer manaer, by sajr* 
tig, ^^ ThM picture belona^Qg to mj frfend.'' 

When this double genitive, as some grammaiians t<!nm 
It, is not necessary to distinguish the sense, and especial^ 
in a grave dtyle, it is generally omitted. &cept to pre* 
vent ambiguity, it seems to be allowable only hi easef 
which suppose the existence of a plurality of subject of 
tike same kind. In the eipressions, *' A subject of the 
emperor's ;" " A sentiment of my brother's ;" more thaa 
<me subject, and one sentiment, are supposed to belong 
to the possessor* But when this plurality is neither intt- 
mated, nor necessaiily supposed, th(> doodle genitive, ex- 
cept as before mentioned, should not be used : a«5, ** This 
house of the governor is very commodious ;" *' The crown 
of the king was stolen ;" '* That privilege of the schoiar 
was never abused." (See page 51.) But after al/^Aa^ 
can be said ibr this double genitive, as it is teivied, some 
grammarians think that it would be better te avoid the ma% 
of it altogether, and to give the sentiment another term tif 

7. Whea an entire clause of a sentence, begjnni^ with 
ft participle of the present tense, is used as one name, <^ 
to express one idea or circumstance, the noun on which 
it depends may be put in the genitive ease ; thus, instekd 
of sayings ^ What is the reason of this person d^missing 
his servant so hastily ?'* that^, ^ What is the reason m 
this person in dismissing his servant so hastily V* we mar 
Bav9 ^i>d perhaps ought to say, ^* What is the reason of 
this person's dismissing of his servant so hastily V* Just at 
we say, '* What is the reason of this person's hasty ^Bs» 
mission of his servant ?" So also, we say, ^^ 1 remember 
it being reckoned a great exploit ;" or more properly, **1 
remember its being reckoned," ho. The foUowtng sett* 
ience is correct. and proper: ''Much will depend on the 
fupiV$ compofif^f but more on his reading frequentfy*^^ b'! 
would not be accurate to say, ^ Much will depend od the' 
m^ eotnpoaingy" &c. We also properly say; " This wiBI 
W the effect ^the pvpiPs composing frequently f* jMttijI 


Hide 11^ STSTAX- ' 1» 


• Active Yeihs gorem the obJBetive case : as, ** Trutli 
•nnobiei^ Aer ;*' "^She comforts me;" "Tbey support 
«« •*' ** Virtue rewards her JbUatpers.*^ 

In English, the nominative case, denoting the subject, 
xi&^aUy goes b<^fore the verb ; and the objective case, 
denotiug the object, follows the verb active ; and it is the 
orJer that determines the case in nouns ; as^ " Alexan* 
der conquered the Persians." But the pronoun having 
a yroperform for each of those cases, is sometimes, when 
it is in the objective case, placed before the verb; and, 
whan il is in the nominative case, follows the object an4 
verb ; as, '' lilwrn ye igaprajitljr worship, him ijeclare'l 

Uttto ye^i. 

Thia position of the pronoun sometimes occasions ili 
proper ca^e aiul government to be neglected : as in th« 
following instances: "AVho should I esteem more thai^ 
the wise and good ?" '* By the character of thos*^ whi^ 
joa choose for your friends, yoyr own is Ukely to be form- 
ed." "* Those are the persons who he thought true te 
bis intere^fe?." ** Who should I see the other day but my 
c\d iriend.'* " Whosoever the court favours/"* In aII 
these places it ought to be whoji, the relative being: go- 
verned in the objective case by the verbs '* esteem, 
choose., thought,'" &c. " He, who under all proper cir- 
camstances, has the boldness to speak truth, choose folf 
thy friend;" It should be *' him who," &-C, 

Verbs neuter do not act upon^^or govern, nouns and 
pronoood. ** He sleeps; they wm^," &c. are not transi- 
tive. They are, therefore, not followed by an objective 
ca«e, specifying the object of an action. But wlien thit 
case, or an object of action, comes after such verbs, though 
it may carry the appearance of being governed by theai, 
it is affected by a preposition or some other word under- 
stood : as, " He resided many years [that iSyfor or during 
maoy years] in that street ;" *' He rode several milet 
{that is, /or or tkrauffh the space of several miles] on that 
day ;" '* He lay an hour [that is, during an hour] in grea*^ 
torture." hi the phrases, " To dream a dreara/' " 1^ 
five a virtuocm life " " To run * titce^** '♦ T# waft 

i6% ^jraUsB dtAHi^&v ^ule Vt 

liopse/* '' To dance the child/' *he verbs certainlj as» 
fiirae a transitive fomi, and may not, in these cased, be 
improperty denominated transitive vetbi* 

1. Some writers, however* use. certain neuter ve^^ ai 
•if they were transitive, putting aflerthetn the ol^ectiv^ 
case, agreeably to the French construction of reciprocal 
Terbs ; but tliia custom is so foreign to the idiom o£ thft 
' English tongue, that it ought not to be adopted or imita- 
ted. The following are some instances of this practice. • 
^* Repenting him of his design," •' The king soon ibutid 
Yeason to repent him of hi« provoking such dangerous ene- 
mies/' " The popular lords did not fail to enlarge tfaesi* 
"lelves on the subject." '* The nearer his sticcedses 
'Approached bim xO the thrr>ne." - Go^etheeawajij^ 

aL land of Judak" "» <^»«k '^^y °?.^t^^ i^^ ^'^: 

cent thing to vie charities,'' «c, ^^^^ haFe spent 
their whole time and pains to (tgree the sacred witn unt 
profane chronology." 

2. Active verbs are sometimes as improperly made 
-neuter; as, " 1 must pre tut ae with three circumstancea.* 
^* Tfiose that think to ingratiate with him by calumnise- 
ting me." 

3. The neuter verb is varied like the active ; but, 
having in some de«:ree the nature of the passive* it ad- 

'mit<, in many instunces, of the, pus.^ve form, retaining 
»8tin the neuter signitication,cbieiiy in such verba as sig- 
nify some sort of motion, or change of place or condition : 
as, •' 1 am come ; I was gone ; I am grown ; 1 was taU- 
en." The following examples, however^ appear to be 
erroneous, in giving the neuter verbs a passive fomi, in* 
"jftead of an active one. "■ The rule of our holy religion, 
*from which we are infinitely swerved.^^ *' The whole ob- 
' ligation of that law aud covenant zs^as also ceasedJ^\ Whose 
number now amounted to three hundred." " This 
marescbal, upon some discontent, was entereti into a cen- 
•piracy against his master." " At the end of a campaign, 
•^Ifen half the men arft deserted or killed-'' It should be. 
** have swerved, had ceased," &c, - 

4. The verb to be, through all its variations, ha? the 
•am'^ra"** -ift^r it, a*^ that which next precedes it : '* /am 
h$ when\ they iiwlted ;'' J' It maybe (or mi^ht hare been) 

*1W, b«it ^ c«iiaot1be (6p could aot hare been) /;** •* ft i# 

impodsifale to be t&e^;^* ^' It sieems to itav« been &«, wh^ 

•co&dueted biHideif 80 wisely ;" ^' /iT appeared to be fht that 

•transacted th^ businesff ;'* ^' I anderstood i^ to be ^m;^ 

•• I believe t< to have been r^cm;" " We at first took it to 

%e h^T ; bqt were afterwards conviaced that it wab not 

1^" " He is BOt the person wkd it seemed he was*'* 

*'He is really the person tohQ he appeared to be." ** She 

is net DOW the woman ivAom they represented htr to 

■liave been." *' fF?M>m do yon fancy him to be?" By 

fliese examples, if appears that this sabstantiva verb ha« 

MO ^OFeniinent of case, but serves, in all it» forms, as a 

von^ctor to the cases ; so that the two cases which, m 

the comstntctioo of the sentence, are the ne:xi before and 

ftfler it. must always be alike. Perhaps thi<« subject rSk 

be' more inteihgilde to the learner, by observmg, that thft 

words in the cases precediu|^ and folio wing the verb^o&tf^ 

may be said to be %n apposituni to each other. Thus, m 

tile sentence, " I understood it to be him," the wor<ls U 

und kim are in apposition ; that is, '' they refer to thtt 

same &ing, and arc in.the same case." 

The following sentences contain deviations from th© 
»n\e. and exhibit the pronoun in a wrong case : " It mighl 
liave been kim, but there is no proof of it ;" '* Though I 
wa^ blamed, it could* not have bee J me ;" " I saw oos 
whom 1 took to be ^e ;" " She is the person a'Ao 1 undeiv 
fitood it to have been ;" *' Who do you think me to be P* 
♦* Whofh do men Say that I am^" ** And u^ikim think y# 

' #mt f am ?"- See the Octava Grammar. 

Passive verbs which signiiy naming, Sac. have^the safM 
tase before and after them : as, "He was called C«sar; 
She was named Penelope ; Homer is styled the prince of 
Boets ; James Was created a duke ; The general was slt^ 
fated emperor ; The pro&ssor was appointed tutor to tho 

5, The auxiliary kt goveni» the e^jec^e ease: ai^ 
'^Let Mm beware;'* " Let «» judge candidly;" *• Let 
-Hem tkoi presume ;" '< Let G^oi^ study his tessoo*** 

On« verb governs another that foflow«H, cm* depend^ 
;1V0# ih l»^ »&iit^v« mood X ai^ ^ C^fM 1^ ^ orfh 

learn to do weH;" " We should be prepated t^^i^mdm 
til. account of our actieri!*." 

The preposition ^0, tbougb generally used before die 
latter verb, is sometimes properly omitted : as, '^ I 
heard him say it;" instead of " to say it." 

The verbs which have cpiurnonly other verbs following^ 
ttem in the iniinitive mood, without the sign to^ are Bid, 
dare, neod, make, sec, hear, feel ; and also, let, not used 
as aB auxiliary ; and perhaps a few others: as, '* I bade 
him do it;'' " Ye dare not do it;'' '* 1 saw him do it;'* 
♦* 1 heard him say it ;" *' Thou lette^ him go." 

I. lo the following passages, the word tOi'ihe^aigBof 
the infinitive mood, where it in distinguished by Itabd 
characters, Is asaperflnous and improper. ** 1 have ob* 
ferved some satirists to me^'^ 6ic. *' To see so-caany -to 
.»iake so little conscience of so great a sin." '• It cani^ 
.but be a delightful spectacle to Ood and angels, to see a 
joung pei-son, hcr^ieged by powei^ful temptations on evecy 
^de, to acquit himself gloriousl^y, and resolntely to hold 
out against the most violent assaults ; to behold one iu tbe 
prime and dower of his age, that is courted bypleaatirea 
And hondurs, by the devil, and ail the bewitching vanitiea 
of the world, to reject all these, and to cleave stead&stlj 
.«fito God" 

This mood has also been improperly used in the follaw- 
ing places : *' 1 am not like other men, to envy tlie taieite 
I cannot reach." *' Grammarians hate denied, <« at 
least doubted, theni to be genuine ;" *' That all onr <;^ 
dbgs may be ordered by thy governance, «o<^<» always wlia% 
itt righteous in thy sight." 

- Tiie infinitive is fi^equently governed by adjectives, 

\aubst«n*ive9f and participles : as, " He is eage r. to learn ;^* 

*' She is worthy to be loved;" ''They have a'desurelo 

iHipr€rt?e;" *' Endeavduring to persuade." 

. '. The infinitive mood has much of the nature of a sob* 

•tantivet ex|)reBsine the action itself which the veapb ^i^ 

4^'*, as the participle has the nature of an adjective. Tha» 

|he infinitive mood does the office of a substantive in dijfep* 

cm f^ases : in the nominative : as, **'Tb pfdif is pleasant :'* 

ft ttOi-obleoiiife^ as/* Boys tevc to j^thf A**^Hb-(H^ #0^*81 

KiiU 13.} svwTix^ lU 

i?;irHsi^nt with me ; hut to perform that ivfiich is good. I 

The lulinitive mood is often made absolute, or used in- 
de^»t»ucently'on the rest of the sentence, supplying the 
^ce of the conjunction that with the potential mood: 
as, " To coafess the truth, I was in fault;*' " To begin 
^th the first;'* " To proceed;" " To conclude;" thai- 
«, " That I may confess," &.c. 



In the use of words and phrases which, in pomt of 
b'luey re/ate to each other, a due regard to that reiatioa 
sliould be observed. Instead of saying, " i he Lord 
iwuK giren, and the Lord hath taken away;" we should 
say, ^'' The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away." 
Instead of, " I remember the family more than twenty 
years ;" it should be, " I have remembered the family 
wore than twenty yeai^." 

It is not easy to, give particular rules for the manage^ 
tient of the moods and tenses of verbs with respect tf 
one 2nothcB» so that they may be proper and consiste«^ 
Tiie best rule that can be given, is this very general one! 
' To observe what the sense necessarily requires," 1% 
may, however, be of use to give a few examples of irre- 
l^lar construction. *' The last week 1 intended tv^ imtm 
'^T nen^"* is a very common phrase ; the intinilive being in 
ihi; past time, as well as the verb which. it follows. Bui 
il is certainly wrong ; for hovv long soever it now is sinc^ 
I thought of writing, *' to write' was then pje^eni to 
Hie, and mnst stiil be considered as present, when i brrug 
back that time, and tl>e thoughts of it. It ought, then^tbre^ 
to be, " The last week 1 intended to write.''' i he iol* 
lowing" sentences are als'> erroneous : " I caimot excuse 
the remissness of those whose b'lsinessit should have bt en, 
as it certainly was their iuterc^t^ to hai^e interposed thoir 
guod otHces/' *' Ther^ were ♦wo circumst^mces wlncfe 
«i.iil<» it necessary fta* them to haue hst no liLie*"- '* i^is* 
tjorv piintcrs wonhl have found it dirticuU tv) h.ive. hai^nted 
SHz-J. -d -[ 1 cie= of ^'viiigs " They ought i^ t^*o, ? a^ '"^^t- 
P'.i€, tolQ^e, to inveut.'* •' Oft the niuirow, bccaua© «» 

\i4 OtfLisn GRjLMVi!^ (Rule 1% 

•boald hare known the certainty, wherefore he was a«* 
Ctised of the Jews, he iooBed him.^' If ought to be, '^ be* 
taose he would hnorao*^ or rather, ** being willing to Jfenow.** 

** The blind man, said onto him, Lord, that I uiig/it re* 
Ceive my sight/' ^' If by any means 1 might attain uBta 
the resurrection of the dead ;" ** fiwiy,'* in both places^ 
Would have been better* <* From his biblical knowledge^ 
he appears to study the Scriptures with great attention f* 
•• to have stucUedy'*^ &c. ** I feared that I snould have idak 
it, before I arrived at the city ;" " should lose »>." " 1 
had rather walk ;" It should be, "I would rather walk.** 
•♦ It would have afforded me no satisfaction, if I coaUl 
perform it :^' it should be, '* if I could have performed it ;^ 
or, ** Itwould afford me no satisfaction, if 1 could perjbrjfi it.** 

To preserve consistency in the time of rerbs, we mwst 
Recollect that, in the subjunctive mood, the present and 
imperfect tenses often carry with them a fiiture s^nsei 
end that the auxiliaries should and wonld^ in the imperfect 
ttmes, are used to express the present and future as weE 
M the past : for which S3e page 75. ' 

1. It is proper forther to observe, that verbs of the in 
f nitive mood in the following form ; *' to write,*' ** to be 
writing,^ and •• to be written,'^ a)ways denote someltiing 
^mtemporary with the time of the governing verb, or sub' 
%eqtkent to it : but when verbs of that mood are expressed 
as follows; *' To have been writing,^ '* to have written,** 
end '• to have been written,** they always denote some* 
thing antecedent to the time of the govemmg v^erb. This 
remark is thought to be of importance ; for if duly at- 
tended to, it will, in most cases, be suflScient to direct oi 
k) the relative application of these tenses. 

The following sentence is properly and analogical^ 
expressed : ** I found him better than I expected to Hfid 
fcira.'* ** Expected to have found him,** is iitecooctlable 
alike to grammar and to sense. Indeed, all verbs ex<- 
pressive of hope, desire, intention, or command, must 
nivariably be followed by the present^ and not the per- 
fect of the in6mtive. Every person would perceive an 
error in this expression ; ** It is long since I commanded 
*im to have done it :" Yet " expected to huve J'ound,^" m 
eo betUf. li ii as clear that ike J&u^ muat be poate* 


Rale 134 «TNTAm. 1(J6 

rior to the expectation, as that the obedience must be po** 

' t^rior to the command. 

In the sentence which follows, the verb is with j»roj>ri* 
ety ptit in the perfect tense of the iniioitive mood , *' ft 
would have afforded hie great pleasure, as often us* I re- 
fiected upon it, to have been the messenger of such ii>iel- 

■\igence.'' As the message, in this instance, was ;iruece- 
dent to the pleasure, and not contemporur^ with it, th« 
Verb expresi^ive of the message must denote that ante- 
cedence, by being in the perfect of the iniinitive. if the 
message and the pleasure had been referred to as run- 
temporary, the subcequent verb would, with equai ^>i'0- 
priely, have been put in the present of the infiniiive : .1% 
** It would have afforded me groat pleasure, lo he th« 
messengor of such intelligence," In tlte fornier instance, 
the phrase in question is equivalent to these v\ ords ; "- if 
J had been the messenger ;" in the latter instance, to this 
expression ; ** P^^n^r the messenfirer/'-r-For a funiier dis- 
cussion of this subject, see the Eleventh cdUion ot timt 
Key to the Exercises, p. 60, and the Octavo Grammar, 

li is proper to inform the learner, that, in ordt^r to eX- 

ousjui w nave aone 11. vvnen we use mis vern, inis is 
the only possible way to distinguish tJie past from liie 

In support of the positions advanced under this rule, 

we can produce the sentiments of eminent grammarians; 

amongst whom are Lovvth and Campbell. But there are 

some writers on grammar, who strenuously maintain, that 

the governed verb in the infinitive ought to be in the pa#t 

tense, when the verb which governs it, is in the past time. 

Though this cannot be aihnitled, in the instances which 

are controverted under this rule, or in any instances of a 

wmilar nature, yet there can be no doubt that, in many 

cases, in which the thing referred to preceded the go- 

Terning verb, it would be proper and allowable. VVe may 

say ; ** From a conversation i once had with him, he €tfi- 

pe(fred to have sfvdied Homer with great care and judgfn 

ffient.''' it would he proper also to «<iy, '' From his **oii- 

Ter^atioi^ h$^ aj^pcar^ tQ have HudUd^ liomer vlth J?"^* 

166 irKCLisH 6RAMMAR '^" (Rqte i% 

care and ja^gment ;" '^ That unhappy maipi is supposed fm 
iasfe died by violence/^ These examples are not otdy 
coDtfistent v^ith our rule, but they contirm and illufttrat^ 
it. It is the tens«^ of the governing verb ODly, tbdt 
marks ivhat is called the absolute time; the tense' of thtt 
verb governed, marks solely its relative time with respect 
to the other. 

To assert, as some writers do, that verbs in the infinl* 
' tive mood have no tenses, no relative distinctions of pre^ 
gent, past, and future, is inconsistent with just grammatH 
cal views of the subject. That these verbs associate 
with verbs in all the tenses, is no proof of their having 
no peculiar time of their own. Whatever period the go- 
verning verb asstimes, whether present, past, or future, 
the governed verb in the infinitive always ,respecfe that 
period, and its time is calculated from it. Thus, the 
time of the infinitive may be before, after, or the saoi^ 
it«, the time of the j^overning verb, according as the 
thing signified by the mfiniiive is jsupposed to be before, 
after, or present with, the thing denoted by the govern- 
ing verb. It is. therefore, wjth great propriety, that 
tenses are assigned to verbs of the infinitive mood. The 
poml of time from which they are computed, is of no 
consequence ; ^since pre-^ent, past, and future, are coo^ 
pletely applicable to them. 

We shall conclude our observations under this rule, hj 
remarking, that thougl? i*. k often proper to use the per- 
fect of the infinitive after the governing verh, yet there 
are particular cases, in which it would be better to give 
the expression a different form. Thus, instead of saying, 
«* I wish to have written to him sooner,'' " I then wished 
to have written to him sooner," " He will one day wish 
to have written sooner ;" it would be more perspicuous 
and forcible, as welt as more agreeable to the practice rf 
good writers, to say ; *• I wish that I had written to hijti 
sooner," ** I then wished that I bad written u» him sooq!- 
er," ♦' He will one day wish that he had written sooner**' 
Should the justness of these strictures be admitted, thei« 
would still be numerous occasions for the use of the past 
infinitive ; as we may perceive by s^ few examplest. " It 
would ever afterwards have heen a source of pleasure* 

|o i^vo fintad turn rt'm ^ Tirtuom.'^ ^* Tq taye dc* 

1Me 14.}; . MtVAiS m 

terred hk repefitelK^ longer, would htv# difquaKfiei 
hka for repetitiag at all." ^^ Th^y will then «ee, Uiat t» 
bve fattfafuUj performed their duty, would havo betn 
Ibeir greatest consolatioD*''* 


Farticiples have the same government m the veft» 
liave from which they are derivftd : as, ^^ I am wearj 
with hearing him ;** " She is instructing us ;** ** The 
Mar is admonishing Charles,^ 

1. Participles are sometimes governed by the article { 
fer the present participle, with the definite article the b^ 
fore it, becomes a snlMtantive, and must have the prepo* 
ntion of after it : as, '^ These are the rules of g^mmary 
by the observing of which, you may avoid mistakes.'^ It 
#ouId not be prop^ to say, '' by the observing which ;^ 
»or, " by obser nng of which;" but the phrase, without 
either article or preposition, would-be right: as, ** by 
observing which.*' The article a or an, has ihe same e& 
lect : as, '* This was a betraying of -the trust reposed u^ 

This rule arises from the nature and idiom of our Ian* , 
^age, and from as plain a principle as any on which it it 
TOnaded; namely, that a word which has the article be« 
fi>re it, and the possessive preposition (^afler it, must be 
* noun: and, if a noun, it ought .to foHow ihe construe^- 
lion of a noun, and not to have the regimen of a verb^ 
it is the participial termination of this sort of words that 
18 apt to deceive us, and make us treat them as if they 
•rere of an amphibious species, partly nouns and partly 

The following are a few examples of the violation of 
tins rule. '* He was eent to prepare the way by preach* 
*iig iA repentance ;" it ought to be, ** by kt preachin|^ 
•f repentance ;" or, ♦* by preaching repentance.'* *' By . 
fi>e continual mortifying our corrupt affections ;'' it shouUl 
•e, ** by the continual mortifying of/' or, ** by continual* 
1j mortifying our corrupt affections.*' *' They laid out . 
ftemselves towards tht advancing and promoting the goo4- 

«f It;" "towards advancing and promoting th« goo«l.** 
•* It 19 an overvaluing ourselves^ to reduce every thin^ 
. to the Harrow measure of our capacities-;'^ '' it is over- 
Vtlutng ourselves/' or, '* an overvaluing of o-irselves.** 
♦* Keeping of one day in seven," Lc. : it ought to be, ** M^ 
Iceepiog of one day;'' or, " keeping one day." 

A phrase in which the article precedes the present par- 
ticiple and the possessive preposition follows it, will not» 

• in every instance, convey the same meaning as would • 

• Jbe conveyed by the participle without the article and pre- 
position. " He expressed the pleasure he had io the 
hearing of the philosopher," is capable of a different sense 
irom, " He expret^sed the pleasure he had in hearing the 
philosopher.'* Wlien, therefore, we wish, for the 5ak# 
of harmony or variety, to substitute one of these p/irai!»e- • 
ologios for the other, we should previously consider whe- 
ther they are perfectly similar in the sentimenls they ' 

£. The same observati^jns which have been made re-* - 
•pectingtbe effect of the article and participle, appear to 
lie applicable to the pronoun and participle, when they 
•re similarly associated : as, *' Much depends on their oh" 
'Serving of the rule, and error will be the cpnsequenee of 
their neglecting of iU^^ instead of *' their obsei-ving the rule, 
ftnd thtir neglecting \V^ We shall perceive this more 
elearly, if we subjjtitute a noun for the pronoun t as, 
•' Much depends upon Tyro^i observing of the rule," &c. 
Bnt, as this construction sounds rather harshly, it would,., 
in general, be better to express the sentiment in the fol- 
lowing, or some other form : *' Much depends on the ' 
mie^s being observed i and error will be the consequence * 
ofits being neglected ;'^ or — ** on observing the rule ; and— • 
ef neglecting it.'* This remark may be applied to seve- 
ral other modes of expression to be found in this work; * 
wi»ich, though they are coirtended for as strictly correct,, 
are not always the most eligible, on' account of their ttft** 
pleasant sound. See pages 61, 70, 155 — 159, 

We sometimes meet with expressions like the ftl* 
loi%ing J ** In forming of his sentences, he was very «x-^ 
•Gt ;" *' From culling «/ names,Jie proceeded to blows.^ 
But this is incorrect language ; for prepositions do not* 
ftfce articlei and pronouuiv coovert the participle itself 

Rule 15.) f YiiTAsc. " * 16$ 

mto the nature of a substantive ; as we bare shown abore 
in the phrase, " By observing which." And yet the par- 
ticiple with its adjuncts, may be considered as a substan* 
live phrase in the objective case, governed by the prepo- 
iHtioa or verb, expressed or understood : as, '* By pro* 
wising muck,, and performing but little,, we become denpi* 
cable." *' He studied to avoid expressing himself too i€* 

3. As the perfect participle and the imperfect tense are 
tfometimes different in their form, care must be takeo 
that they be not mdisrriminately used. Ft is frequently 
said, *" He l»egun.*' for ** he began •" " he run," for *' he 
jr^ii ;"' '* He drnnk, ' for " he drank;" the participle being 
here used instead of the imperfect tense : and much 
piore frequently the imperfect tense instead of the parti- 
ciple ; as, ** I had wrote," for " I had written :" '* I was 
chose," for, " T was chosen;" *' I have eat," for, ** I have 
eaten." '* His words were interwove with sighs ;" " were 
tntenroi'en." '* He would have spoke ;" *' spok^n.^^ **JHe 
fwth bore witness to his faithful servants ;" " borne,^^ " By 
ftis means he over-ruR his guide ;" *^nver-ran,^^ *' The 
Bun has rose ;" *' risen.'''* '* His constitution has been 
greatly shook » but hi« mind is too strong to be shook by 
jBucb causes ;" *' shaken^'' in both places. *' They were 
yerses wrote on glass ;" *' wrifien.^^ '* Philosophers have 
often n^stook the source of true happiness:" it ought to 
be '* tnistakenJ'^ 

The participle ending in ed is often improperly con 
Iracted by changing ed into t ; as, " In good behaviour, 
|ie 18 not surpast by any pupil of the school." " She was 
much distrest." They ought to be '* surpassed,'^^ " disr 


Adverbs, though they have no government of case^ 
tense, &c* require an apprapriatf situation in the sea- 
lenre, viz. for the most part, before adjectives, after 
'terhd active or neuter, and frequently between the auxi- 
liary and the verb : as, " He made a very stndbJr dia- 
"Course ; he spoke unaffecifdiy tjid forcibly, and was at' 
^t^f^ibdff heard by the trbole assembly." 


• A few iostaaoes of «rroneQU8 positioDs of adverbs majr 
ceire to illustrate the rule. *' He must not eicpect to 
iind study . agri^^able always ;" '' always agreeable.^ 
** We always find them ready when we want them j** 
" we find them alway$ ready,'' &c. ** Dissertationys on the 
prophecies which have remarkably been fulfilled ;.t' 
** which have been remarkahly.^* '' Instead of looking 
contemptuously down on the crooked in miud or in body, 
we should look up thankfully to God, who hath made vm 
better;" "instead of looking down contemptuously^ &ۥ 
we should tkankfvUy lock up,*^ &c. '^ If thou art blessed 
naturally with a good memory, continually exercise it;** 
** naturally blessed,^^ &c. " exercise it continually,*^ ! 

Sometimes the adverb is placed with propriety before 
the verb, or at some distance after it ; sometimes between 
the two auxiliaries ; and sometimes after them botb ; sm 
in the following examples. '* Vice always creeps hy de- 
grees, and msensif'^y twines around us those concealed 
fettem, by which we are at last completely bound." " He 
encouraged the English Barons to carry their opposition 
/arther.^^ " They compelled him to declare that he would 
abjure the realm for ever ;" instead ofj " to carry fiit- 
/her their opposition;'* and ** to abjure for ever tlie realm.* 
** He has generally been reckoned an honest man." ** The 
book may always be had at such a place ;'* in preference 
to *' has been generally ;" and ^' may be always.'' " Theae 
rules will be clearly understood, after they have been dt^ 
ligently studied,*' are preferable to, " These rules' wffl 
clearly be understood, after they have diligently beem 

From the preceding remarks and exan^les, it appears 
that no exact and determinate rule can be given for tlie 
placing of adverbs, on all occasions. The general nde 
may be of considerable use ; but the easy fiow ajid per* 
spicuity of the phrase, are the things wMch ought to be 
chiefly regarded. ^ , 

The adverb ^lere is often used as an expletive, or et 
a word that adds nothing to the sense ; in which case k 
IHrecedes the verb and the nominative noun : as, " T^ere 
IS a person at the door ;'^ '' There are some Uiieyea A 
Hhe house ;" which would be as well, or better, expreae- 
<0d by sayingi <* A f ersan is at thft dear ^" ^' Seaie tmi»f^ 


Rule 16.) SfifTAX tl\ 

are in the ho^se.^ Sometimes, it is mftde Q«e of to five 
9 imiall degree of emphasis to the sentence : as, ** nen 
was a man sent from GocK whose name was iohn.^ 
li lien it 19 applied' in its strict sense, it principally fol- 
\o^n the rerb and the nommaave case : as, ^' The maa 
ttands there,^^ 

1. The adverb never generally precedes the verb : m, 
** I never was there ;" ** He never comes at a proper 
time/' When an auxiliary is used, it is placed indiffer- 
ently, either before or after this adverb : as, ♦' He waa 
never seen (or never wa? seen) to laugh from that timo.*' 

Never seems to be improperly used in the foilowing 

rassages. ** Ask me never so much dowry and gift." '* II 
make my hand? never so clean."' *' Charm he never 
so wisely. ' The word "rucr" would be more suitable 
to the sense. 

2. In imitation of the French iJIom,.the adverb of 
phce where^ is often used instead of the prtmonn relotive 
anrJ a preposition. " They framed a protestation, tkV/ere 
Ihey repeated all their former claims ;" i. e. *' in ukich 
^ey repeated." ** The king was still determined to run 
&rwards, in the same course where he was already, by 
his precipitate career, too fatally advanced ;'^ i. e. *^ m 
which he was.'' But it would be better to avoid .this mode 
of expression. 

The adverbs hence, thence, and whence, imply a prepo- 
sition ; for they signify, ^' from this place, troni that place, 
from what place." It seems, therefore, strictly speaking, 
to be improper to join a preposition with them, because 
it is superfluous : as, ** This is the leviathan, from whence 
the wits of our age are said to borrow their weapons ;" 
** An ancient author prophesies fVom hence.'' Bat the 
origin of these words is little attended to, and the pre- 
position Jironi 80 often used in construction with tliem, 
that the omission of it, in many cases, woaM seem stifi^ 
and be disagreeable. 

The adverbs here, there, where, are often improperly ap- 
plied to verbs signifying motion, instead of the awerbs W* 
ther^ thither, whither: as, ** He came here hastily ;" " They 
rode there with speed,** T4iey should be. ** He came 
Mther;^ ** They rode thither,*" &c. 
, ^ We have some examples of adverbs being nsod Qr 



subetantiFeB : '* In 1687, he ere<?ted it ioto a commuQity of 
jt^gubrs, since u>li€n^ it has begun to increase . in thosf 
countries as a religious ordcjr ;" i»e. *' since which timeJ^ 
'♦ A little while and I shall not see you ;" i. e. ** a short 
thuJ*'' *' It is worth their while,;" i^e. "it deserves thetf 
time and pains." But this use of the word rather suite 
&miliar than grave style. The same may be said of the 
phrase, *' To do a ih\\\^ anyhow ;" i. e. '*in any manner ;'• 
or, *^ somehow ;^^ i.e. " in some manner* '^ "Somehow, 
worthy as these people are> they are under the uulueiicc 
uf prejudice.** 


Two negatives, in English, destroy one mother, ar 
are equivalent to an affirmative : as, " A or did theytiot 

i perceive him ;'• that is, " they did perceive liim." " His 
anguage, though inelegant, is not ungramtnattcal f that 
k, ** it is grammatical. 

It is better to express an affirmation, by a regular affir- 
mative, than by two separate neg-^tives, as in the former 
f entence : but when one of the negatives is joined to 
another word, as in the latter sentence, the two negativ^es 
form a pleasing and delicate variety of expression. 

Some writers have improperly employed two negatives 
instead of one ; as in the following instances : '* I never 
did repent of doing good, nor shall not now ;" *' nor skaH 
I now,''* "Never no imitator grew up to his author :" 
*' never did any^** &c. " I cannot by no means allow him 
what his arg^mentmust prove ;" ** I cannot by any mean^,'* 
&c. or, *' I can by no means*''* '* Nor let no comforter ap- 
|)roach me ;'" *' nor let any comforter," &c. " Nor ia~dati- 
ger ever apprehended in such a. government, no more 
than we conmionly apprehend danger from thunder or 
earthquakes :" it should be, *' any mere.'" ** Ariosto, Tasso^ 
Galileo, no more than Raphael, were not born in republican** 
** Neither Ariosto, Tasso, nor Galileo^ anymore 4^a» 
Raphael, was bom in a republic." 

Rn^E XVIL ] 

Prq)ositioQs govern Uie Objective case * as, ^f I bave 

IttJe W^) 'vnxrJsHk ITS 

tieard a good cbmwteT of her ^ ^ From Mm tbtf it 
Beedy tuin not away ;'* " A word to the wise is sutticient 
for them f^ " We may be good and happy withovi 

The following are examples of the nominative case be» 
Sng used instead of the objectiye. <* Who serrest thou un* 
der ?" " Who do you speak to ?*' " We are still much al 
a loss who civil power belongs to :" '^ Who do&t thou ask 
forV^ ** Associate not with those who none can speali 
well of/' In all these places it ought to be *' whovi*^ 
See Note 1. 

The prepositions io and ybr are often understood, chiefly 
Ife/bre tiie pronouns : as, *' Give me the book ;"" Get 
me some paper ;" that is, *•• to me ; for me.*' *' Wo is me ;'* 
i* e. '^io me," '* He was banished Englai^d ;" i. e. ''from 

1. The preposition is often separated from the relativ©^ 
wiiich it governs : as, " Whom wilt thou give it to ?" in* 
stead of, '' To whom wilt thou give it ?" '*^ He is an aiithof 
whom I am much delighted with ;*' " The world is too po* 
Hie to shock authors with a truth, which gene rail}' thelp 
booksellers are the first that inform them of." ThiH is an 
idiom to which our language is strongly inclined ; it prer 
vails in common conversation, and suits very well with th# 
familiar style in writing : but the placing of the preposi* 
tion before the relative, is more graceful, as well as more 
perspicuous, and agjr^es much better with the solemn and 
elevated style. . 

2. Some writers separate the preposition from its noufty 
in order to connect dififerent prepositions with the same 
Bouci: as, *' To suppose the zodiac, and pls^nets to be 
efficient ff^ and antecedent i^, themselves*" This, whe^ 
ther in the familiar or the solemn style, is always inele* 
l^nt, and should generall[y be avoided.^ In forms of Law^ 
and the like, where fulness and exactness of expressioa 
nqst take place of every other consideration, it may bf 
admitted. . 

3. Different relations, ai^ different senses, must be 
pressed by different prepositions, though in conjnm;tioa 

frith the sao^ verb or adjective. , Thua we say, *.*te 


if4 CKGLISH GKAMIUnb (H^le t% 

We ftli'o ^y> " We -are di^iappmiited^ o^, a thing," whet 
W^ canoot gel it, '* and disapppinted in il/' when we have 
it* and dnd it does not answer our expectations. But two 
different prepositions must be improper in the same coo* 
struction, and in the same sentence : as, '' The combat 
between thirty French against twenty Englisti." 
^ in some cases, it is diiScult to say, to which of two pre* 
positions the preference is to be given, as both are use^i 
promfjicauusly, and custom ha^s not decided in iayour <^ 
either of them. We say, '* Expert at,** and '* expert in 
a thing.'' *^ Expert at finding a remedy for his mistakes;" 
*' Expert in deception.'* 

When prepositions are subjoined to nouns, they ar^ 
generally the same that are subjoined to the verlw irom 
which the nouns are derived : as, *' A compiiaoce with^'^ 
♦* to comply aiV\;" " A disposition ta tyranny," "t]^*poaed 
(o tyrannize." 

• 4. As an accurate and appropriate use of the preposi* 
tion is of great importance, we shall select a considera* 
We number of examples of impropriety, in the applica* 
tion of this part of speech. 

Isl, With respect to the preposition o/^ — "He is resolved 
0f going to the Persian court ;'' " on going,*' &c. " He 
was totally dependent of the Papal Crown ;" " on the Pa- 
^al," &c. *' To call of a person," and *' to wait of him,* 
** on a person," &c. " He was eager of recommending it 
to his fellow citizens,*' '* in recommending," &c. Cy it 
tometimes omitted, and t^ometimes inserted, after iieortlty: 
a?, '* It IS worthy observation," or, *' of obSei*vation.*' 
^i it would have been better omitted in the following 
sentences. " The emulation, who should serve their 
twintry best, no longer subsists among them, but o/' who 
fhould obtain the most lucrative command.*' '* The rain 
hath been falling of a long time ;'^ '* falling a long tinae." • 
^ It is situation chiefly which decides of the fortune and 
characters of men :" " decides the fortune,'* or, '* con* 
kerning the fortune." *' He found the greatest difficulty 
©f « 'iting;*' " in writing." ** It might have given nae a 
Ifreaier la^jte of its antiquities." A taste ef a thing implies 
Kctual eofoyment of it t but a taste /or it, implies oiHy a 
ifapacity for enjoyment. "*Thk had a m«^h greatet 
«kftre .eHueiti^ hnn^ tiifi^ ax^ Jiega^ Mterfc^imlief^ 

commands ;" *^ share t» inciting," and " regard to bU fi^ 

2<3, With respect to the prepositions to and /or.— > You 

have bestowed your favours to the most desenring per- 

aoni! ;" " upo7h the most deserving,'' &c. " He accused 

4lie ministers for betraying the Dotch :'* ** of having be* 

Grayed.'* *' His abhorrence to that superstitious figure ;** 

**^<j that," &c. " A great change to the better ;'° ''for 

the better." ** Your prejudice to my cause ;" " againstJ* 

** The English were very different people then to whflt 

they are at present ;" ''from what,'' &c. " In compU* 

"mnce to tiie declaration ;" " with^'^ &c. '* It is more than 

.tiiey thought for ;" ** thought of,^^ '* There is no need 

Afr it ;" '* of it." For is superfluous in the phrase* 

** More than he knows for.^^ " No discouragement fi>r 

t\\e authors to proceed ;'' ** to the authors," &c. " It wat 

perfectly m compliance to some persons ;" '* wtVA." " The 

wisest princes need not think it any diminution to tlieir 

greatness, or derogation to their sufficiency, to rely upon 

counsel ;" " diminution q/"," and " derogation from.^^ 

3d, With respect to the prepositions zmth and upon,^^ 
** Reconciling himself with the king." *• Thoiie thin^ 
which have the greatest resemblance with each other, 
frequently differ the most." '* That such rejection should 
be consonant with our common nature." ** Conformeble 
with," &c. " The history of Peter is agreeaWe witfe 
tfie sacred teicts*" In ail the above instances, it should be, 
" <o," instead of " wUhJ'^ " It is a use that perhaps \ 
should not have thought on ;" *' thought q/"." ." A greater 
quantity may be taken from the heap, without makings anjr 
sensible aitcji-ation upon it ;" " in it." " Intrusted to peiv 
sons oD^ whom the parliament could confide ;" ** in whom*?* 
*i' He was made much on at.Argos ;" " much o/*." " if 
policy can prevail upon force j" " over force." " I d^ 
likewise dissent with the examiner;" "from,^ 

4th, With respect to the prejwsitions in^ fronti &c.-»*- 
** They should be informed in soaae parts of ftia charac^ 
if^r ;^'* ^' about,^ or, *' concernimgJ*^ " Upon such occasions 
as M\ into their cogpizance ;*' ** nnderJ*" " That variety 
of factions into which we are still engaged ;" " in which,** 
•• To restore myself into the favour;" '^ to the favour.** 
**^CottW he 4iave profited from Repeated exyemaces? 

fit AoLTiif iMUfmiA -^^ (Rale If. 

** 6^** />^(?m seems to be superfluous after farhear : a^ 
*' He could DOt forbear from appointing tcie pope/^ Sie. 
^ A strict observance after times andfashioos ^'' ** o/* times. *• 
* The character which we may now yalue ourselves by 
drawing ;" " upon drawing." ** Neither of them shui 
make me swerve out of the path;^' **fr(Hn the path.^ 
'* Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swsdiow^ 
%amel ;" it ought to be, ** which strain oiu a gnat, or tak# 
a gnat out of the liquor by straining it." The impro* 
fNnety of the preposidon has wholly destroyed themeas* 
tag of the phrase. 

The preposition among generally implies a number ^ 
things. It cannot be properly used in conjunction witk 
i^the word retry y which is in the singular number; as, 
** Which is found among every species of liberty ;" " Th# 
•pinion seems to gain ground among every b6dy.^ 

6. The preposition to is made use of before nouns of 
l^aee, when they foUow verbs and participles of motion: 
*s,** I went lo London ;**'* I am going lo town." Hut the pre- 
position at is generally used after the neuter verb to he : as> 
** 1 have been at London ;'' '* I was ai the place appoint* 
*d ;•* "I shall be at Paris." We likewise say : " He 
touched^ arrived at any place.'' The preposition in n 
«et be/bre countries, cities, and large towns : as, *• Ha 
Iive9 in France, in London, or in Birmingham. '' But be- 
fore villages, single houses^ and cities which are in dis> 
laot countries, at is osed ; as, ^'^ He lives at Hackney;^ 
^ He resideA at Montpelier." 

It is a matter of indite rence with respect to the pro» 
1K>un one unotheTy whether the preposition of be placed 
l^tw^en the two parts of it, or before them both. We 
l*ay say, "They were jealous of one another ;** or, 
*^ They were jealous one of another ;" but perhaps the 
^Mrmer is belter. 

Participles are frequently used as prepositions : a«. e«* 
feptitig, respecting, touching, concerning, accordmf 
^They fi^re all in fiiuU ex<€fi or excepting hinu'* 


Conjunctions connect the same moods and tenses if ' 
licbs» aiMl caries of aautt$ md ^^ixm^mi^ ^* Cwdomr 

Rule IS.) , . , tWTJirj? . w^ lit 


hto be appr&J^ a»A /raciUed .^* ** If thou smocreljr 
diBsire, ana eamestly pursue Ttrtue, she vnll assuredly 
be fownd by thee, and prove a rich reward 5" ** The 
master taught her and me to vrrite ;'* " Hie and she were 
school fellows.*'* 

A few examples of inaccuracy respecting this rule may 
f«rther display its utihty. " If he prefer a virtuou? Iif§, 
and is sincere m bis professions, he will succeed ;'^ ** if 
be prefers.''^ '* To deride the miseries of the unhappy, 
is inhuman ; and wanting compassion towards them, is 
JUi^clmBtian ;^'' " and to awini compassioai" "The parlia- 
ment .addr<Qssed the king, and has been prorogued th^ 
same day ;" ^' and was prorogued/' *' His wealth and 
him bid adieu to each other;" '* and Ac." " He entreat<'.cl 
us, my comrade and I, to live harmoniously ;'^ *' comra<le 
^m! me J' ** My sister and her wet*e on good terms f* 
" and ske.^ " We often overlook t-he blessings which .\re 
in our possession, and are searching after those which 
are out of our reach ;'' it' ought to be, '* and search after.** 

t. Conjunctions are, indeed, frequently made to ronn*^ 
different moods and tenses of verbs : but in these irntanceg 
the QomiQative must generally, if not always, be repealed, 
Whickis not necessary, though it may be done, under the 
eonstiraction to which the rule refers. We may say, ** He 
Uoes temperately, and he should live temperately ;" " He 
may return^ but he will not continue ,*'' '* She was prowd, 
though she is now humble :" hut it is obvious, that in .suck 
cases, the nominative ought to be repeated ; ^nd that, by 
this means, the latter members of these sentences are ren- 
ilerednot sa strictly dependent on the preceding, as those 
are which come under the rule. When, in the progress of 
ft* sentence, we pass from the affirmative to the negative 
form, or from the negative to the affirmative^ the subject 
or nominative is always resiuned : as, *' He is rich> but he 
is^not respectable." " He is not rich, bul he is respect* 
able." There appears to he, in general, equal reason fcn^ 
repeating tl^ nominative^ and resuming i\9f^ suli^ect, when 
the course of the sentence is diverted by a change of the 

.* TWp rule refers onlv to Hmnw and pronmuns, which hafc 
it>d0UQp, inthrfi»M:^tp<Ai)ttsart»cf tbesfsHflfiiet. 

mood or tense* The followmg sentence* nmj thercfot* 
he improved. ** Anger glances into the breast of m wise 
man, but will rest only in the bosom of foofe ;" ^ but resfg 
only ;" or, " but it will rest only." " Virtue is praised bjr 
many, and would be desired also*^, if her worth were reallj 
known ;" ** and she would." " The world begins to recede, 
trd will soon disappear;" "and it will." See theOctatO 
Srammary Rule xviji. 


Some conjmictions require the indicative, some the 
kibiuuctive mood, after them. It is a general rule, iViat 
when somcth'mg contingent or doubtful is implied, the 
^hiimctive ought to be used : as, " If I wtre to write. 
he would not regard it ;" " He will not be pardoned, 

unless he repent.^ 

Conjunctions that are of a positive and absolute mc 
ture require the indicative mood. " As virtue /idi?a»^ 
#0 vice recedei :" " He is healthy, because he is tempe- 

The conjunctions, i/, ihmtgh^ unless^ except ^ whe^er, to 
generally require the subjunctive mood afterthem: as, " |f 
th'»»i he, afflicted, repine not ;" " Thaugk he skty me, yet 
wi*l I trust in him;" *' He cannot be clean, unless hewa^ 
himself;" *' No power, except it were given from above >•" 
^^Whether it were i or they, so we preach." But eveft 
these conjmctions, when the «entence does not imply 
dt^ubt, admit o( the indicative : as, ** Though he is poor, he 
is contented."— hSc* subjunctive moocLtp, 68, and pages 183, 

The iotlowing example may, in some measure, serve to 
Illustrate ihe distinction between the subjunctive and tto 
indicative moods. " Though he wefe divinely inspired, an^ 
•poke therefore as the oracles of God, with supreme antho* 
tily ; though he were endued with supematorsd powers^aa^ 
eould, therefore, have confirmed the truth of what he n^ 
tered, by miracles ; yet, in compUarwe w«th the way v^ 
irhich human nature and reasonable creatures are usually 
Vrottght upon, he reasoned." That our Saviour was ^ 
nmiy m'^fixtdj^ and endju^d with eupernaturrj pc wejp^, $te 

positions that ape Lere taken for graAte^fyas ii«t a^flrit^f 
the least doubt ; they would thereforo' have ba6A bettai: 
expressed in the indicative mood : *' Though he^was di» 
rinelj inspired ; though he w<i8 endued with 8Upeniat«ra} 
powjBrs.'" The aubjunctive i» used in the like improiier 
manner in the following example : '' Thot^h he were aeooi 
yet learned he obedience, by the things which he suffered.^' 
but, in a similar passage, the indicative, with great propri* 
ety, is employed to the same purpose ; '^ Though he wm 
rich, yet for your sakes he became poor.*' 

1. Lesty and that^ anoexed to a command preceding, Im* 
eessarily require the subjunctive mood: as, '^Love not 
sleep, le$t thou coine to poverty /' *' Reprove not a scora^ 
et, lest he hate thee f '^ Take heed that thou speafi not i0 

If with but following it, when ibturity is denoted, re* 
quires the subjunctive mood : as, *' /jf he c^ 6u/ touch thiK 
hills, they shall smoke ;" ** ^ he 6* ^Mf discreet, he will 
succeed.'* But the indicative ought to be used, on thisoo 
casion, when future time is not signified : as, *' If^ in this 
expression, he (foes &«< jest, no offence should be taken;** 
** y she U 6Mr sincere, 1 am happy." The same ditstinc« 
tion appHes to the following forms of expression : '* If h« 
do submit, it will be from necessity \^ ** Though he do9$ 
ttibmit, he is not convinced ;" "If thou do not reward thii 
service, he will be discouraged ;" *' If thou dost heartily 
Jbrgive him, endeavour to forget the offence*" 

2. In the following instances, the oonjunction l/Ua, em» 
pressed or understood, seems to be improperly acoompa* 
Bie4 with the subjunctive mood. '* So much ^e dreaded 
his tyranny, that the fate of her friend sheifcre not lament* 
'< He reasoned so artfully that his fiiends would listen^ andi 
think [ihatl he were not wron^." 

3. The same conjiwction governing both the indicatiir« 
0K^ the suhjunctive moods, in the same sentence, and ia 
the same circumstances, seems to be a great improprieijr t 
«8 in these instances. '* If there he but one body of legis>^ 
btors, it is no better than a tyranny ; ^ ^re are oaly two, 
there will want a casting voice," " |f a man heme a hu»^ 
ired sheep, and one of them is gone astray," Ice.' -- » 

4. Almost all the irregularities, in-the constniction of ai^ 

%xgU4£e> l^^re am§Q. fr«D tli# eUismflC^**!^ woe4# 

wUch w%f^t>i%inaf}j inserted id the seuOence, and made 
it regolaHr ; amd it is probable, that this has genera U^r been 
the case with respect to the conjunctive form of words, 
now in use ; which wtU appear from the following exam- 
ptos : " We shall orertake him though he run ;'* that is, 
^ though he should ran ]^ "Unless he act prudently, he 
will not accompiifih hi? purpose ;'' that is, ^' unless he shall 
act pradently.'* " If he succeed and obtain his end, he will 
Bot be the happier for it ;^* that is, " If he should succeed 
•and should obtain his end." These remarks and examples 
•re designed to show the original of many of our present 
eonjnnctive forms of expression ; and to enable the stadeot 
to examine the propriety of nsing them, by tracing the 
words in questkm to their proper origin and ancient con- 
nexions. But it is necessary to be more particular on this 
subject, and therefore we shall add a few obserra^/oitf 
respecting it. 

That part of the verb which grammarians call the pre- 
sent tense of the subj^mctiTe mood, has a future sigm&ca- 
tion. This is effected by vaiying the terminations of the 
second and third persons singular of the indicative ; as will 
be evident from the following examples : " If thoupto^per, 
Hiou shouldst be thankful ;'' '^ Unless he study more close- 
ly, he will never be learned/* Some writers however 
would express these sentiments without those variations ; 
•♦ If thou prosper est,'** &c. *' Unless he studies,^ &c. :. and 
fis there is great diversity of p«ictice in this point, it is 
^eper to offer the learners a ^w remarks, to assist them 
in di^inguishing the right application of these different 
ferms of expression. It may be considered as a rule, that 
the changes of termination are necessary, wheu these two 
eircumstances concor: 1st, When the subject is of a du- 
bious and contingent nv.ture ; and 2d, When the verb has 
a reference to future time. In the following sentences, 
both these circumstances wiU be found to unite : ^* ff thdv 
injure another, thou wilt hurt thyself;*' ** He has a hard 
heart ; and if he continue impenitent; he must suffer ;* 
i^ He will maintain his principles, though he lose his es- 
tate ;'* •' Whether he succeed Kyrnoiy his intention Is laud- 
mble ;" '^ If he '6« not prosperous, he will not rapine;* 
•♦ If a mail smite hi^ servant, and be die" &:c. Fhcod, xxi- 
M^ In. ftil^ these examptes^ Uie tti»gs signified:: b; IfM 

jerba afammttftiik* and refkMo iUlnre ^n»* ttotla ^tm 
insUDces which follow, future time i^not referred te ; ani 
tiierefore ^ di^erent CQA6truction tftkes place ; ** if liioil 
Kvest virtuously, thou art happy ;" **" Unless lie 'tnMMfr 
xrbat h^ fi^ys, he is douhly fait^ess ;*' <^ If bft^itffoM the 
excettence of yirtiie, he does m>t regard her precepts ;^ 
" Though he seems lo be simple and artless, be has deceive 
ed us ;^ " Whether virtue is better than rank or weuUhit 
admits not of any dispute ;" '*^ If thou believest with ail lUf* 
lieart, thou riKiystv' kc, Mts viii* 37.'— Thtre are many 
teatences, introduced by conjimctions, in which aeithe?- 
COQtiiigency uor futurity is denoted : as, *' Though he ea^ 
tdi h^r in knowledge, she far exceeds liim in virtue." " I 
bave uo doubt of his principles: but if he ^e/teve^the t«>iittM 
ofreligioa, he does no^ act according to them." 

TbH both the circumstances of contingency and fiiturity> 
are necessary, as tests of the propriety of altering the ter- 
n^QatioQS^ will be evident, by inspecting the following ex* 
^mples ; which show that there are instances in which nei*' 
ther of the circumstances aione imphes the other, in the 
three examples following, contingency is denoted, but ttel 
futurity. '^ If he iktnks d» he speaks, he may saiely be 
6'iwted." *• If he is now disposed to it, 1 will perfiwm the. 
Operation." *' He acts uprightly, unless he deenves mc.*' 
In the following sentences, lutHrity is signified, but not 
contingency. " As soon as the sun sets^ it will be ceoler*** 
* As the autumn advances^ th^se birds will gl^duaHy emi^ 

U appears* from the tenor ofthe examples adduced, thi^ 
the rules above mentimiedmay be extended to assert, thai 
in cases wherein contingency and futurity do not concur,!! 
IS not propex: to turn the verb from its digmfication of pre- 
sent time, nor to vary its form or tenriination. The verifc 
^vould then be in the indicative mood, whatever conjwno 
tions might attend it. — If these rules, wbiph seem to form 
iJie true distinction between the sul^uricttve and the indi- 
cative moods in this tense, were adopted Mid established in 
practice, we should have, on this poiet, a f>rinciple ofde* 
cisioo simple and precise, and -really applicable to every 
case that might occur.-^k wlfl^ doubtl^s, sdmetiroes hap* 
pen, that, on this o<;casaon, as. Wf»ll as on many oth^r;OCj 
^It^oofi^ a strkt ad^teref^e to ^E^uamnattOiitl m^t ikouiq 


tSt svfititff eniwiAE. (Role 19^ 

render the langti4ge stiff tod fbrimtX : I^Dt-when cuse^ of 
dtk sort occur, it is better to gire the expression a diiSer* 
^t turn, than to violate grammar-^ the sake 4>f ease, c^ 
«ve» of elegance. See i?M/« 14. JVb^^ 2-. 

5. On the form of the auxiliaries in the compound tenset 
of the subjanctive mood, it seems proper to make a few ob- 
serrations. Some writers express themselves in the perfect 
tense as follows : '* If thou hnve determined, ^*e must stib- 
iBit:" '* Unless he have consented, the writing will be 
void :" but we believe that few authors of critical sagacit]r 
write in this manner. The proper form seems to be^ *' If 
thou hast determined ; xinless he has consented,*' &c. coo- 
fi>rmabljr to what we generally meet with in the Bible: 
'' I have aumamed thee, though thou kast not known mes" 
haiah xlv. 4, 5. " What is the hope of the hjpocn'te, 
though he hath gained,^' &c. Job xxvii. 8. See also Jets 
xxviii. 4. 

6. In the pluperfect and future tenses, we sometimea 
meet with such expressions as these ; " If ihoii had ap- 
plied thyself diligently, thou woiildigt have reaped the ad- 
vantage ;'* ** Unless thou 5^aW speak the whole truth, we 
cannot determine ;" *^* \f thou will undertake the businesa, 
there is little doubt of succe^." This mode of exptres*- 
ing the auxiliaries does not appear to be warranted by the 
general practice of correct writers. They should be 
hadst^ shalt^ and xvilt : and we find them used m this fbrm, 
in the sacted Scriptures. 

•' If thou hadst known,** &c. Ltilfce xix. 47. " II thoa 
hadst been here,** &c. John xi. 21. '< If thou wiU^ tluHi 
canst make me clean,*^ Matt. viii. 2. ISee also, 2 Satn. iL 
27. Mait, xvii. 4. 

7. The second person singular of the imperfect tense 
in the subjunctive mood, is also very freqneody varied in 
its termination : as, *' If thou loved lum truly, thou wouldst 
obey him ;" "Thongh thou did conform, thon hast gain- 
ed nothing by it.'* This variation, however, appeai-a to 
be improper. Ottr present version of the Scriptures, 
which we again refer to, as a good grammatical authority 
In points of this nature, decides against it. " If thoo 
kntwest the gift," iic. John iv. 10. ** If thou didst receive 
it, why dost thou glory ?*' &c. I Cor. iv. 7. See also Daiu 
y f2% Btit it ui proper to remafifc,, that ibe IcMa of |hi9 

♦erb to ^, wliea use^ §ul!^uQctiTeIy m the imperfeet 
tende, is indeed yerj consrderabty and properly varied 
from thait which it has in the imperfect of the indicative 
mood r as the learner will perceive by turning to the 
coBjagation of that verb. 

8. it may not be superfluous, also to ofoser^^e^ that the 
mnidlianes of the potential mood, when appHed to the 
fiiibjuncdve, do not change the termination of the second 
person ishigiriaf. We properly say, ** If thou itutyst or 
xanH go ;" '* Though thou mightst live ;" '* Unless thou 
cov<ci»< read ;" " If thou zvouldst learn ;" and not *' If tiiou^ 
maty or ctffi go,'^ ^c. It is sufficient, on this point, t( 
aLdduGe the authorities of Johnson and Lowth ; *' If thor 
MkouldH go ;" Johnson. " li' tliou maysi^ mi^htst^ or conlds* 
love ;^ Lowtk. Some authors think, that when that ex- 
presses the motive or end, the termination of these aux- 
iliaries should beraried: as, ** I advise thee, tliat thor 
may beware ;" ** He checked thee, that thou shovlH not 
presume :^ but ^ere does not appear to be any ground 
&r thisi exception. If the expression of *' condition, 
doubt, contingency," &c does, not warrant a chanjfo ib 
tile l^rm of these auxiliaries, why should they have it, 
when a motive or end is expressed ? The translators oi 
the Scnptures do not appear to have made the distinctioo 
CfWtended for. *' Thou buildest the wall, that thou tnayU 
be their king," JVeA. vi. 6. " There is forgiveness with 
thee, that thou mayst be feared.*" Psalm cxxx. 4. 

From the preceding observations under this mle, it 
appears, that wttli respect to what is termed the preseB^ 
tense of any verb, when the circumstances of contingency 
and futurity concur, it is proper to vary the terminations 
of the second and third persons singular ; that witliout 
tbe concurrence of those circumstances^ the terminations 
sbo^d not be altered ; and that the verb and the auxilia- 
ries of the three past tenses, and the auxiliaries of the 
first future, undergo no alterations whatever : except the 
imperfect of the verb to be, which, m cases denoting con- 
tingency ^ is varied in all the persons of the singular num- 
ber. See yage 82. The Note. 

After perusing what has been advanced on this subject, 
it will be natural for the student to inquire, what is the 
extent ©f tfee ttthjiHicave tiwod? Some grammanans 

184 INGLI|t« ftlMitllAlU |iMft.#> 

Untk it eitlettAi 0ii}jr ta what is oaUed j^be^^reseot tense 
•f verbs geoerally, under the circumstances of conlin- 
gency and futurity ; a^d to the im^riect tense of th% 
verb to be^ when it denotes contingencj, kc: becaa^ela 
these tenses ouLy, the form of the verb admits of vana- 
tton; and they suppose tha^ it is variation merely , which 
constitutes the distinction of moods« It is the. opinion of 
other grammarians, (in which opinion we concur*) tha^ 
tbe^ides the two cases just mentioned, all verb% in thd 
tbi'ee past, and the two future tenses, are in the subjune* 
tive mood, when they denote contingency or uncertainty^ 
though they have not any change* of termination; and 
that, when contingency is not signilied, the vei'h, through 
all these five tenses, belongs to the indicative mood, what* 
ever conjunction ma> attend it. They think, thai t6a 
definition and nature of the subjunctive mood, have no 
reference to change of. termination, but.tJiat they refaf 
aaerely to the manner of I he being, action, or passiony 
Mgnified by the verb ; and that the su^unctire mood may 
as properly exist without a variation of the verb, as tlie 
infinitive mood, which has no terminations diiierent fron 
those of the indicative. The decinion of thit potat may 
not, by some grammarians, be thought of much conse* 
^^uence. But the rules which ascerttiin the propriety of 
varying, or not varying, the terminations of the verb, 
ivill certainty be deemed important. These rules may te 
Weil observed, without a uuiibrmity of sentiment re«pecl- 
ing the nature and limits of the subjunctive mood. For 
Ibtihor remarks on the 6abject> see pages 72, 76<—7S . 
94 — 9(j* 100—102** ^ 

# W^ hsve ftatcd, Ibi ^ etodfot^t mlbniMitlon. t^ dlftrmt 'OfRfiiom ef 
t |caj»inariao<(, rettpectiug the ErrIirIi Subjunctive Mood . FirH^ that whkb 
|Wppoi«es tbere m no *«jic1i mood io our language ; Sfomdbt, Aat wfaidi extendi 
ft iK> fertJwr thao the \*ariatiotis of the verb extend ; Tmrdl^, that wtiieAi wa 
jter.'o adbptf>d, «nd e^qilaioed at luise} htkI which, ia £«»«^,««TeipoE|ds with 
tw vifws of the most approved wnterp on English Gr.tmmar. Vte may add « 
jn>t(7^ opinion; whicii appears to ponsefv. at lea^t, much plausibility. THi 
ipmhakm »aiuit« the arnuDfemeot we have eiveu, with one variatiMi, oaoielf. 
tnat ci aftfiiniiog to the first tense of the Mibjunctive, two ^mt : lit, thai 

ierisqftn dr^ire it.^* Thfe fcMt theorj- of the !»uhjtanetivp ntood| 
dsmnt tlW' merit of r^Ddrrio^ the whole system o/ the juoodn consistent and 
vsulvi Qf^emf iDQMCODionA^tle than way «lUer, to tbe ^tofinkiaB «f ^f 

Rule 19.) sYfTTAZ. t8d 

'9. Som^ coajttnctions have correspottdentconjoncticni 
liNeftonging to them, either expi^essed or understood . af , 

l4t, Though r-^ety nevettheUss : as, *^ Though he was 
rich, yet for our sakes he became poor." *• T%ough pow 
erful, fie was meek." 

?d, Whether — or : at, ** Whether he will go or not, t 
cannot tell." 

3d, Either-'-'^or : as, *♦ I wrfl either send it, or bring it 
myself.'* ^ * 

4th » J^Hther — nor: as, "Aether he nor I am able to 
compass it" 

5th, As^-^as : expressing a comparison of equality ; as 
^* She is as amiable cw her sister; and as much re- 

6th, As — id :, expressing a comparison of equality : as, 
** As the stars, so shall thy seed be." 

7th, A^ — so: expressing a' comparison of quality . as, 
" j}^ the^ one dieth, ^adieth the other." '* j3s he readr, 
tliey read." 

Bth, So — as : with ar rerb expressing a comparison of 
qnalfty : as, '*' To see thy giory, «o as I have seen thee 
i|i the sanctuary." 

■ 9tb, So— rts : Mrith a negatiV0 and an adjective express* 
mg* a comparison of quantity: as, *' Pompey was not »0 
great a general as Caejiar, nor so great a man." 

10th. iSo — that: expressing a consequence : asj **He[ 
wa«< io fatigued^ that he could scarcely aiove.'^ 

The conjunctions or and nor may often be used, with 
n€9.rty equal propriety-. •* The king, whose character 
was not sufficiently vigorous, nor decisive, assented tf> 
the measure.'* In this sentence j or would perhaps have 
been better : but, in general, nor seems to repeat the 
D<^^ation in the former part of the sentence, and there-* 
fere gives more emphasis to the expressions 

1 0. Conjunctions are often improperly used, both singly 
aH in pairs.. The following are examples of this impro- 
jM^rHy. •" The relations are so uncertidn^ as that the;^ 
require a great deal of examination :" it should be, " that 
they reouire,'' &c. ** There was no man s© sanguine, 

aOttBittgtW i f JxAwSttM i l iartHi to the hidi<aat<i> mmed fyrm ^^'ff^^^ 
w^h Ul awwd with its mm^^y and oatim. f^rlnpi ttM tUeoiT wxU b«» 

]ft6 BKGLtsnr aRMfMAJi. {Role 19« 

WHO did not Afiprehttmi some ill caiiiie^piMK^»« :'* it-ou^i 
fo be, '' so saDguiue as uot to apprehend/' kc, ; or» ^* nm 
man, how saDguioe soever, who did not," kc *^ To 
trust in him is do more but to acknowledge his power/* 
** This is no other but the gate of paradise." in l>otk 
these instances^ but should be thatk, '* We shoaM suffi* 
ciontly weigh the objects of our hope ; whether they aire 
iHch as we may reasonably expect from them what tbef 
wopose/' &c. It ought to be, '* that we may reafloaabty,* 
he *' The duke ^d not behaved with, that loyafty at 
be ouffht to have done ;" '* with which he ou^t.'^ ^\ in. 
the order as they lie in his.pre&ce:" it shoi^d be, '* in 
order as they lie ;*' or. '* in the order in which they tie*" 
'* Such sharp replies that cost him his Ufe ;'' " as cost 
him/' &.C, ^* If he were truly that scavecrew, as he it 
now commonly painted /' " #ticA a scar<etcrow/' lu% ** \ 
wish I could do that justice to his memory,'to oWge the 
painters,'* kc^ ; '^ do such justice as to oblige«"^tc» 

' There is a peculiar neatness in a sentence be^iimiof 
with the conjunctive form of a verb. " Wens there jie 
difference, there would be no choice." 

A double conjunctive, in two cpirespondent clauae» of 
a sentence, is sometimes made use of:, as, ^""had he done 
Uh's, he had escaped ;'' ** tlad the limitations on the pre* 
COgalive been, in his time, quite fuEed and certain, bis in* 
te^nty ha/^ made him regard as sacred, the boundaries of 
ti»e constitution/' The sentence in^ the common fbroi 
would have read thus : ** If the hmitations on the prero* 
gative im\ been, &c his integrity would, have made hiza 
^gard/' &c* 

The particle as, when it is connected with.Uie pronomi 
SucA, has the force of a relative pronoun : as, *^ Let swh 
ms presume to advise others, look well to their own con- 
4iict./' which \^ e<^tiivaleut to, ** het them who presume 
fcc. But when used by itself, this particle is to be con^ 
sidered as a conjunction or perhaps a» au adverb. See 
A)e Key. 

Our l^guage w%nts a conjunction adapted to familiar 
style, equivalent to fMtwithsiandistg^ The words for ah 

d!sii» seem to he toe Imri <*Tiie mrd wae4» Ito ramf 

;Qf every oite» bnt^ for all that, the subject may stOl be m 


hi regard thai h solemn and antiquated ; becawe would 

ido much better in the following sentence, ** It cannot 

be otherwise, in regard that the French prosody dififert 

fioni ^at of every other language." 

-■ The word except is hr preferable to other than. ••' li 
ftdimtted of no effectual cure other than amputation/^ 
£xeept is also "to be preferred to a W but, *' They wer« 

iappy all but the stranger/' 

In the two following^ phrases, the conjunction cts is im- 
fToperly otnitted ; *^ Which nobody presumes, or is so san- 
gfUBe A to hope." "» I must, however, be so just a i^ 


- T^e cotipmction^^^ is often properly omitted, and uo* 
ierstood ; as, ** I beg you would come to me ;" " See thoa 
do it not ;" instead of *« that you would,*' *' that thou do/* 
But in tbe following and many similar phrases, this con* 
function were much better inserted . * Yet it is reason 
l&e memwyof their virtues remain to.posterity/' It should 
fee, " yet it is^jusi. that tbe memory," &c. 


When the qualities of different tilings are corwpStre^ 
the latter noun or pronoun is not governed by the con- 
junction than or ew, but agrees with the verb, or is gb* 
vemecl by the verb or the preposition, expressed or un- 
derstood : as, " Thou ait wiser than I j'* that is, ** than 
I am/' " Tbey loved him more than tne ;" i. e. " more 
tfian tbey loved me/* "The sentiment is well expressed 
by Plato, but much better by Solomon than him ;" that 
is, " than by him/** 

The propriety o impropriety of many phrases, in tt» 
prec€^ding as well as in some other forms, may be discover*. 
ed, by supplying the words that are not expresses! •; wHicli* 
win be evident from the following instances of erfoneotui' 
^i^Rsitruction. '* He can read better ^lan me/* ** He it 
29 g^ood as her/' «* Whether I be.pitWMrtiKw no/' *♦ Wh© 
did this '? Me/' By 9«^|^jajRg the ^m^)B widiBwrttxwl Ift^ 

1b<M>r W il*K1Wt4 ^tKwf qflte IMfs Riiie;p(. f%t MH. 

^ ^s- "i^ 5* '* * *■ 

#a<*'ti of these phrases, their impropriety and gpoverning 
rule will appear : as, " Better than 1 can read ;" " As god 
19 uhe 18 ;"' ** Present or not present ;" *• I did if 

t Bj not attending to this ride, many errors have beea 
C^mumtted : a numher of which is suhjoioed, as a further 
CA'ition and direction io the learner. *' Ti-^ j art a oiuch 
greater loser than rae by his death." " ChQ sufiesi 
hourly more than me." " We contributed a third mora 
than the Dutch, who were obliged to.the same^^proportioit 
more than us.". *'King Charles, and more than him, the 
duke and the popish faction, were at liberty to form new 
Schemes." ** The drift of all his sermons was, to pne* 
bare the Jews for the reception of a prophet migiitier thsun 
mm, and whose shoes he was not worthy to hear." *^ U 
was not the work of so enunent an author, as him to wbsift 
Jt was first imputed." '^ A. stone is heavy, and the 
sand weighty;, but a fool's wrath is heavier than tbea 
both." '* If the king give us leave, we may perform thft 
office as well as them that do." In Ihes^ passages il 
oufi^ht to be, " /, wcy he^ ihty^ respectively," 
' vVhen the relative wko immediately follows ihan^ it 
•eems to form an exception to the .20th rule ; for in that 
connexion, the relative must be in the objective case ; 
aft« '* Alfred, ikan xiohomy a greater king never reigned," 
&c. ** Beelzebub, ikan xs7&om, Satan excepted, none iiigheif 
Mit," &c. H is remarkable that in such instances, if the 
personal pronoun were used, it would b^ in the nonuna* 
live case; as, *' A greater king never reigned thuu he^ 
that is, *' Hum he t»aj." '* Beelzebub, /^ait/ic," ^c. ; thai. 
is, *^ timn he siU,^* The phrase ^Aa?» ^^om,. is^ ho weyer^. 
avoided by the best modern writers. 


To avoid disagreeable repetitions, and to express ou^ 
idi'as in few wurds^ an ellipsis, or, ormssion of some- 
Words, is frequently admitted. Instead of saying, ** He 
WiLH a learned n»ao, he was a wise man, aDd he was a 
§t>od man ;" we^iaake.ttse ofibeielKp^s, m^A say^ *^ He 
mis a ieai^nec^ wkevandTgfNMt^fiii^." 
. yykm tb^. oinissioa, pf,wioi^ai^a«iJi4'«hs9t»e dre ses- 
teiw^. weak'**! its fonic^ or be altc-^'***^ with »¥% tw» 

Bsle ST.) «Tirr^ fft 

nemrie^, iliejr no^ be expressed* In ^ smteocaw 
** We are apt to lo¥e who lovce us/' the vtotdtkem skoida 
be suppUed* '^ A beautiful field and trees,' ^ is oot pro- 
per language. It should be, ^^ Beautiful fields and 
frees;'' or, '^ A beautiful field and fine trees/' 

Almost all compounded sentences are cnore or less ellip* 
tical ; some examples of which may be seen under iim 
^USerent parts of speech* 

1. The ellipsis of the article is thus osedt ^* A man, 

wt>maii, and child :'' that is, ^* a man, a woman, and a 

ehild.'* ** A faonse and garden ;" that is, <* a house a«<t 

% frarden.*^ " The sun and moon ;" that is, " the sun 

aad the moon.'' " The day and hour ;" that is, *♦ the day 

Bod the hodr.*^ in aH these instances, the article being 

^OBCe expressed, the repetition of it becomes unnecessary. 

TTbere is, however, an exception to this observation, 

%i^en some peculiar emphasis requires a repetition ; at 

in the following sentence. " Not only the year, but the 

day and the hour.'' In this case, the ellip«:i8 of the last 

aitiele would be improper, When a different form of the 

artkfe is requisite, the article is also properly repeat f»d » 

ms^ ** a house and an orchard ;'^ instead of, '^ a house and 


4. The noun is frequently omitted in the following man- 
ner. •* The laws of God and man ;" that is, " the law^ of 
Go«I and the laws of maiu" In .^ome very emphhtii',Ai e)^- 
pressiouri, the ellipsis should not he used : as, '' Christ the 
power of God, and the wisdom of God ;'* which is more 
emphatical than, *' Christ the power and wisdom of God.** 

-S- The ellipsis of the adjective is used in the foUowtng 
manner. " A dehghtful garden and orchard ;" that is, 
** a delightful garden and a dehghtful orchard ;" ** A 
little man and woman ;" that is, ^^ \ little man and a lit* 
tie woman.'* In such elliptical expressions as these, thft 
adjective ought to have exactly the same signification, 
and to be quite as proper, when joined to the latter i!ub<» 
etantive a9 to the former ; otherwise the ellipsis should not 
be admitted. 

Sometines the ellipsis is improperly applied to nounf* of 
different njMlwi t. nt ^^ A 9iagni&cent kou9e and ynr ^ 

dUiits.** fn this case it i» better to me^ an^tfier axl}ecti^ 9 
g8. " A magniticent hoiwe and iine gardens." 

4. Tl»e followiiig is the ellipsis of the pronoun. ** I \oy^ 
ami fear him ;*' that is, ** I love him, ^nd i fear bim." 
•* My house and lands ;" that is, " my house and mf 
lands/* In the^e instances the ellipsis may take place 
with propriety ; but if we would be more ex{>re88 atid em- 
^hatical, it must not be used : as, '^ His friends and bit 
foes ;•* *' My sons and my daughters.'* 

In some of the common forms of speech, the relatiFe 
pronoun is usually omitted : as, ^' This is the man ch^ 
fove;'' instead of, "This is the man whom they lo?ei" 
•* These are the goods they bought ;" for, " These are 
the goods which they bought." 

In complex sentences, it is much better to hare the re* 
lative pronoun expressed : as it is more proper to say, 
"The posture in which I laj," than, "In the posture I 
lay:" "The horse on which 1 rode, fell down;'* thSA 
** The horse I rode, fell down." 

The antecedent and the relative connect the parts «f» 
sentence together, and, to prevent obscurity and confa:* 
f ion, should answer to each otht*r with great exactnress. 
** We speak" that we do know, ami testify that we have 
seen." Here the eflipsis is manifestly improper, and 
ought to be supplied : as, " We speak that which we do 
know, and testifv that vchich we have seen." 

6. The ellipsis of the verb is used in the fbtldwing in- 
stances. " The man was old and crafty ;" that is, " the 
man was old, and the man was crafty.*' " She was young, 
and beautiful, and good;" that is, " She was young, she 
was beautiful, and she was good." *' Thoa art poor, and 
wretched, and miserable, and blind, and naked." Ifwa 
would fill up the ellipsis in the last sentence, ifitott aHi 
ought to be repeated before each of the adjectives. 
'If, in such enumeration, we choose to point oiit one pro- 
jpierty above the rest, that property must be placed las^ 
and the ellipsis supplied : as, " She is young and beauti^ 
ful, and she is good." 

" I went to see and hear liim ;" that is, " I went to siefi 

and I went to hear him." In this instance there is not oiJf 

an ellijpsis of the governing verb I went, but likewise oflb^ 

Ijn of the infinitive mood, which 15 governed trf it;: * '"•^ 

B^'Ctv^ »HTAZ. 191 

. Do, did,hi^t, kml, thtZf, mi'U, "lay, ^t^i sdJiIm ml 
»f tbe auxiliaries of the ctuapouod tenses, are freqiit-ntly 
vsed alone, (o spsre the repetition of the verb ; an, '■ iJa 
regards liis woid, but thou dustnat :" i. e. " doat not re- 
jard it." " We succeeded, but they did not ;" " did no 
■ucceed." '* I haie learned my task, butEhou hast not;' 
" hagt not learned.'' " They must, and tbey shall be i,ja- 
uhed i" tliat ia, " they must be punished. " See the Ket. 
,. €. The ellipsis of the adverb \» aanA in the foltowii^ 
' ipaaner. " He spoke and acted wisely ;" that is, '' Her 
■p<)ke wisely, and he acted wisely." " Thrice I went and 
offered mj service ;" that is, " Thrice I went, and thric« 
l.otTered my service," 

7- The ellipsis of the prepoiilinn, as well as of the verb; 
h seea in. tbe following; instances '■ " He went into the ab ' 
be^9, balls, and pnblic buitilings ;" that is, " be went tote 
into the halls, and he went into the 
lie atfo went through all the street*' 
;■' that is, " Through all the streets, 
anes," 4tc. " He i^poke to every maw 
bat is, " to every man and to every' 
next month, last year ;" thai ir, " ob' 
noDth, in the last year ;" " The Lord 
;h him good ;" that is, " which seem-' 

he eot^anetion is as follows : " They 

I'iidom, goodness, and love, of theif 

: power, and miadom, and goodness,' 

KDd lore of," kc. " Though I love him, I do not datler 

kum," that is, " Though I love bim, yet 1 do not flatter 

9. Tbe ellipsis of the tn/(r;«c(um is not very common ; it, 
however, is sometimes nsed : as, " Ob 1 pity andshame 1" 
that is, " Ob pity ! Oh shame !" 

As the ellipsis occurs in almoet every sentence in. the 
&]gttsh language, numerous examples of it might be gir- 
*D ; but only a few more can be admitted here. 

la the following in^Unce there is a very considerable 
•ae : "He wUI often argue, that if^his part of our trade 
were well pulsated, we shoald gain frwn one nation ; ' 
ud if another, from another ;" that is, " He will often 
M^goe^.that jf.tbia.fwt.Qf oitrtsade weren^CQltnstedi 

W% ab^M fili» IroiB one aatioii, «B<ft4f znoAier patt of 
our trade were well 6altiTate4» we should gun fi*oiii 
ABother Datioa." 

The following instances, though short, contain mtich of 
the ellipsis ;" '* Wo is me ;** i. e. " wo is to me.** " Tm 
let Wood;" i. e- " to let out blood." " To let down;* 
L e* ''to let it fiiJJ or slide down/' '^ To walk a nule f 
i» e* *' to walk through the spaco of a mile.*' '' To sleep 
mil night ;" i* e. ** To sleep through all the night.'* *' To 
* go % fishing ;'* '' To go a hunting ;'* i. e. <* to go on a 
fisbiRg voyage or business ;" '' to go on a hunting partf*^ 
•' 1 dine at two o'clock ;^ i. e. " at two of the clock.* 
" By sea, by land, on shore :" i. e. **• By ihe sea, by the 
lanJk on the shore." ' - 

10. The examples that follow are produced to show tbe^ 
impi'opriety of ellipsis in some particular cases. " The* 
I%4u) was always possessed, during pleasure, by those in- 
tnisted with the command ;'* it should be, ^^ those persons 
intrusted ;" or» " those who were intrusted.** " If he had 
•ead further, he would have found several of his objectioot 
might have been spared :'* that is, *^he would Jiave found 
tkot several of his objections," 6lc. '^ There is nothing 
men are more deficier>t in, than knowing their own cha* 
f>actei«," It ought to be, " nothing in which men ;'** and« 
^ than 111 knowing." '* 1 scarcely know any part of nata- 
val ' philosophy would ^'ield more variety and use ;" il 
ehould be, " vohich would yield," &c. '* In the temper of 
nifid he waa then ;'* i. e. *' in which he then was*.'' ^ The 
litUe satisfaction and consistency, to be found in most of 
the systems of divinity I have met with, made me betal^ 
myself to the sole reading of the Scriptures:" it ought li 
be, ^* whdch are to be found," and, '* rvhich 1 have met 
with." ** He desired they might go to the altar together, 
imd jointly return their thanks to whom only thejr weft 
due ;" ir «• " to kirn to whom," &c. 

RULE xxn. 

An tbe parts of a sentei^e should co?respondto eaidi 
^her : a regular and dependent construction^ thrdu^ 
miA^ sihould be carefully preserved. The followii^ seii« 
iil|»«re£H« ina^Hirat0» '^ lie mM more beloveds 

^^ H<> was more beib^e^ than Cinthio, but not so mueb 

The first example under this rule, iiresents a. most irre*' 
gular Qonss traction^ namely , *' He was more beloved a^ Cm* 
thio." Tiieworcift mpre atnd so wucA^are very improperijr 
fituted as having the same regimen. In correcting such 
fleDtences, it u* not necessary ta supply the latter euip«is, 
becdv^se it canuol lead to any discordant or improper con- 
fitrurtiop, a;id the supply would often be harsh. or ilteie* 
gant. See p. 185. ^ 

As the 2'2d Rule comprehends all the preceding mlei, 
it Taaj,', at the firsl.view, appear to be too general to be 
u^eful. But by ranging ijnfter it a number ot sentence* 
pecuJiariy constructed, we shall perceivei, that il is calcu- 
lated to asr.erirtiq the true graujipatical conirtruction of 
many mode« ol* expression, which uojpte of the particular 
riiles can sufficiently explain. 

'* This dedicati(»n may serye lor almost any book, that 
has, is, or shall be published." l^ ought to bSe, '' that iv^ 
been, or shall be puljlished,'* *' He *fat- guided by inter^ste 
always diiferent, sometimes co^^rary to, those of the Gi^m 
manity ;^ '* different fr^fn ;" or, ** always diilerent Irom 
those ofthe comnnmity, and sometimes contrary to tii«'m.^ 
*' Will Lt be urged tlial these books .are as ol4» or even 
older than tradition /" The words," as old,'' and ** older,** 
cannot have a common regimtfn ; it should be ^'•as.oldai 
tradition, or even older." ^' It requires (ew talents te 
which n^ost men are not boru, or at least may not ac- 
quire ;" '* or wJiich, at least they may not aci|nire.* 
^ The court of chancery fi-equently mitigates and breaki 
the teeth of the common law*'* In, this construction^ the 
fii'st verb is said, ** to mitigate the teeth of the commoa 
law,** which is an evident solecism* *' Mitigate? the com- 
mon law, and breaks the teeth of it,'' would have beea 

" They presently grow into good humour, and go«d Ian- 
^itstgG towards the crown ;'' ^\gnm into gotxl h»oguuge,*' 
IS very improj>er. "There is never wanting a set^>t*vil 
instrnmV^nls, who either.out of^ mad zeal, private hatred, 
er iilthy lucre, are always -ready,*' &c. IVe « . - 4^4foj>ejclpi 

'''"■■ U 

^ A oiaii aefai oat of siack Be^;^ 0ty^ i^i^'ptim9k»h$t' 
ired ;'' but we cannot say, if -vre wcMtld-i^aaik ilngU^, 
*' he acts out of filthy lucre.*' '* To double her kiDdAess 
snd caresses of me ;" the word *• kindpesft** requires to be 
fbllowed by either to or /or, and cannot be coiiastrued with 
the preposition of* " Ncrer was man so tea^^d, orsirf- 
fered half the uneasiness, as I h^ve done this evening:^ 
the first and third clauses, viz. ** Never was man so teas- 
ed, as f have 3one this evening," cannot be joined with- 
out an impropriety ; and to connect the second apd tbfrd, 
the word tJiat riiust be substituted ^r as^; *' Or sudered 
half the uneasiness that 1 have done f^ or^lsei *' half so 
much uneasiness as 1 have suffeped." 

The first part of the followiwg sentence abounds widi 
adverbs, and those such as are hardly coiisistent with one 
another : ** How mneh toever the reformation of this degen- 
erate age is aiinost utterly Aq be despaired of, we may yet 
liave a more comfortable prospect of future times." The 
sentence would be more ccirrect in the following form : 
' ** Though the reformation of this degenerate age is nearly 
*fo be despaired of,*^ &c. 

" Oh I shut not up my soul witfi the sinners, nor my life 
^ith the blood-thirsty ; in whose hands is wiclcedness, and 
thtir right-hand is full of gifts." As the passage, introduc- 
ed ^y the copulative conjunction nmd, was not intended as 
a continuation of the principal and independent part of 
the sentence, but of the dependent paift, the relative wk4)n 
should have been u.«ed instead of the possessive their; viz. 
" and whose right-hand is full of gifts/* 

** Eye bath not seen, nor ear heard, neither havf entered 
into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared 
for them that love him." There seems to be an improprie* 
tv in this instance, in which the same noun serves in a 
oouble capacity, perfotmiog at the same time the offices 
both of ih^ nominative and objective cases. ** Neither 
hash a e«itered into tlie heart of man, to conceive the 
Ihiogs," lie. would have been. regular, 

"We have the power of retaining, altering, and com* 

ponn<Mng, ^ose hashes which we have once received, into 

' aU tiic varieties of picture and Vision." It is, very proper 

to say, " altering and confounding those imsHB^s which we 

h%fB wee t^tiSm^ iaio all tb« varieties of picture an^ 

^<*' *SM«PJ«^' lis 

iB^ aH ^^ turietiet f*- m4 yet, aecording t« tke mamiev 

to i?^fHnlf tKe t^onls are r^oged^ this ciwwtniction n h»* 

STr^dahte i for *'^ relaining^, alterip^, ajKl ccrmpofuhdwg,'* 

are participles, each of whkh equally infers to, aiida^a?^ 

ems* the subsequent noant> ^ote imij^es ; an<l that nouil 

aeaia is necessarily connected with the following preposi- 

fioii, into. The construction might easily have been recti 

feed, by disjoirihig the participle reUtimng fi-oni the other 

two participles, in this way : " We have the power of re* 

tainioig those imageB which we have once received* anj 

bf altering and c()inpounding them into all the varieties* of 

|n'-.tvite tSid vision ;" or, perixap** better thus : ** We hav^ 

the power of retaining, alto ring, and compounding th<>*»# 

images which we 'have 'once received, ainl of fornain|[ 

tiieifi into- all the varieties of picttijre, and vision.'' 


. Por the syntax of the Interjeciiort, $e« Btila ▼* Koti 
11. |»age l^t and ^^tt. 9» of fttde £X4v 


. As WB have finished the ejtplanation oil' the different 
|»it0 of s()eeeh» and the rules for (brming them mto s^eii* 
le.»ce9, it is nmpr proper to give «ome, exarnple^* of th^ 
manner in which the learners should be exercised, in or- 
der to prove their kuowlcdge, and to fender it familiar 
to theifi. This is called parsing. The nature of the 
Imfbject, at! well as the adaptation of it to learners, re^ 
Quires that it should be divided into two parts ; viz« par*** 
kig, as it respects ety biology alone; and parsing, as it 
tespects boUi etymology and syntaai.* 

' Section I, Spt^rmtts of ettfinologkat parsing, 
•' Virtue eimohles us." 

'Piriue is a common substantive, of the neuter gendef^ 
tiie third pers<>ii, the singular number, and in the mnnbi^ 
live case. (Decline the rioitn,) Ennobles is a regular verb 

* See tbe ** General Pirectioira for ii?ing th« fiiigllsh fixerdtfliNi,** 
tP'tlie Migfi^ flndemy subtequeBt t^itiousi tbat bosk.. 

and ikt perftct participle A) Us k a personal pi»Q&€»iii^.o( 
the Brst person pl|iral, and in the objective case» (£k- 

" Goo(!nes8 will be rewarded/* 

Goodness is a common substantive, of the tienter ge»- 
<fer, the tbird person, the singular ntiniber, and. in tne 
nominative caae. (Decline it.) fVili be rewarded is a re- 
ipiar verb, id the passive voice, the indicative mood, the 
^rsl lutOre tense, and the tliird person singular. (Repeqt 
ike presegU tense^ the itnptrJeQt tense, -and tf^ perfect parii-^ 


*' Strive to improve.'' - 

Strive is an irregulai verb neuter, in die feapelrativc 
BQood, and of the second person singular, (hepem fK* 
fff'esenr tetise:, «V*. ) To improve -is a regulai- verb neuter, 
and in tlie intinitive tnood, \ Repeat llie present, tense ^^i*j 

" Time flies, O ! how swiftly." 

Tiine \^ a common substantive, of ll^ neuter gender^ 
the third person, the singular number, and in the nomina- 
tivp case. (Dedint the noun.) Flies hs an irregular verb 
netiter, the indicative mood, present tense,' and the third 
person singular. (Repeat tire present tense ^ 4*c.J Oi is ail 
fijjterjection. How and sr^iftly are adverbs. 

*' Gratitude is a delightful emotion.'* 

isratihidt is a common substantive, ^i the neuter |fe«f 
chrr. the third person, the singular number^ and in tha 
nominative case. (Decline it,) Is is an ircegfular verb 
neuter^ indicative mood, present ten^> and the third 
person singular. (Repeat the present tense^ ^c.) A is the 
indefinite article. Delightful is an adjective in the posi- 
tive state. (Repeat the .degrees of eompartsQnpX Emotion 
w a common substantive &( the neuter gender, the third 
yersoo, tbe singular nuiBber, aodin the nosmi^tiye cf^ac 
^Decline Up) 

The leuner fhodd wxmsaSly nptsk dl the moodi and taoaei of tbi 

** They w!i6 forgive, act nobly." 

They is a pei*sonal pronoun, of the third person, thd 
phiral number, and in the nominative case. (DecHnt it.) 
Who is a relative pronoun, and the nominative case. (De* 
dine it.) Forgive is an irregular verb active, indicative 
mood, present tense, and the third person plural. (Re* 
peat the present tensey ^c.) Act is a regular verb active, 
indicative mood, present tense, and the third person plu- 
ral. (Repeat^ ^c) Kobly is an adverb of quality* (R^p>^ 
Ike degrees o^' comparison.) 

" By Hving temperately, onr health is promoted.** 

By is a preposition. Living is the present participle of 
Ihe regular neuter verb '• to live." (Repedt the partict*' 
pies.) Temperately is an adverb of quality. Our is an ad- 
jective pronoun of the possessive kind. (Declvne t<.J| 
tlealih is a common substantive, of* the third person, the 
singular number, and in the nominative case. (Decline tt.) 
h promoted is a regular verb passive, indicative mood^ 
]^resent tense, and the third person singular. (Repeaty^c.) 

*'.We should be kind to them, who arc unkind to ub.**^ 

fVe is a persona! pronoun, of the first person, the i^ural 
nunaberj and in the nominative case. ( Decline it.) Slionld 
6c is an irregular verb neuter, in the potential mood, the 
imperfect tense, and the first person plural. (Repeat the 
present tense^ ^c.) Kind is an adjective, in the positivi^ 
state. (Repeat the degrees of comparison.) To is a prepo* 
eition. Them is a pei-sonal pronoun, of the third perssoii, 
the plural number, and in the objective ease. (Deckhe 
tt.) IVho is a relative pronoun, and in the nominative 
case. ^Decline it.) ^re is an irregular verb neuter, in* 
dicative mood, present tense, and the third person plu^dl. 
( Repeat y ^c ) Unkind is an at^ective in the positive state. 
(Repeat the degrees of comparison.) To is a prep^isi^oil* 
Us is a personal pronoun, of the itrst persba, the flund 
Jlsmbeff, and in th^ objective ease, (Decline it,) . 

/ Section 2. ^eeimern of syntactical parsin^m. 

** V4ce piwInG^ OM«ery»" * ^ 

Vice is a common substantive, of the netiler fwn^eiV 

fll» tiuE^ feff^eiv» 4lM«iDfi^N<^*flai>>^^»t ^^^ ttoMii^ 

X9d nMiLiafi oaLimuuu 

native C9me. Pr^^»0t» i« a regular f^th a^«i^, in^a^ 
aiuod, present teoBe* the third person singular., agi*eein|; 
with i^ nominative " vke,^ according to rvlz i. whicJi 
iays ; (here repetcu ike ruU^ Misery is a ci^mrooD substao*, 
tive, 01 the neuter gender, the third person, the singuJaj^ 
igumber, and the objective case, governed by the active 
?€rb. *' produces^'" according to Rule xi. which says, &c 

** Peace and joy are virtue's crown." 

P^ace ig> a common siibstantiye. (Repeat (he gender, 
person, number,. and case.) And is a copulative coi^ooc* 
tton- «/o^ 10 a common substantive. (Repeat the .persm^ 
number, mid case,) Are is an irregular verb neuter, indl» 
native mood, pmsent tense, and the third person p/uraj^ 
»grecmg with the nominative case ** peace and^y/'atf- 
carding to rule ii. which says ; (here repent the nife« 
Vlrine^s is a common substantive, of the third peTson; 
tlie singular number, and in the possessive case, govern* 
ed hy the substantive " crown," agreeably to rule z^ 
jvhich says, &c. Crown is a common substantive, of tirts 
neuter gender, the third person, the singular nutnber, 
and in the nominative case, agreeably to the £>ur& D0t6 

0f RULE XI. 

** Wisdom or folly governs us.** 
Wisdmn is a common substantive. (Repeat the gettde$^ 

ferson, number, and case.) Or is a disjunctive colijuftction- 
oJIy is a common substantive. (Repeat the person, nun^ 
b^r, and case*) Governs is a regular verb active, indica>* 
tive jnood, present tense, and the third person singular^ 
agreeing with its nominative case " wisdom" or '* folly ,^ 
according to rule ni. Which says, &c. Us is a personal 
jjronoun, of the first person, plural number, and in tbf 
abjective case,^ governed by the active verb ** governs," . 
s^lpre^ably to rule xi. which says^ ke. 

'^ Bv^ry heart knows its sorroiv«.'* 
Every is din ad^tive pronoifti of the distribnti^re -fein^ 
agreeing with its substantive " heart,'* according to Note 
S under rulb vrH. which say», ike,; Heart is a coraoion 
substantive. (Repeat tim gtnder, persim^ nuuther, and case*) 
f^tftyw^^^^irregMl^T verb ac{,ive, indir.adve mopd, |Mre 

^c ifr is a p^:!^soQai {H*onottti, of the third pepsoo (iMtgii« 
hiTr ai>d oi the aeulep gender,- to agree with itfl salisttatl^ 
4ive ."heart," according- to rule ^<. which saye, &o. it it 
m the possessive case, governed by the bouq '* sorrows,'* 
^tccoFvlifig to RutE X. which says, &c. Sorrows is a Goa» 
nKm «ufb9t3ki9ftive, of the third person, the ploraJ aatthep^ 
UdwI the objective case governed by the active verli 
MiuMtws,*' according to Rule xi. which says* &c* 

*' The man is happy who lives wisely.** 

The is the definite article. Man is a common substail^ 
Vive, (Repeat the person, number^ and cuse.) Is is an ir* 
regular verb neater, indicative mood, present tense, and 
fhe fhird person singular, agreeing witli the nominative 
Case ^* man," according to rule i. which says, &c. Happf 
is an adjective in the positive state. JVho is a relative 
pronOtin, which has for its antecedent, " man,*^ witli 
ivhicb it agrees in gender and number, according to ruli 
V, which says, &c. Lives is a regular verb neuter, indica- 
tive mood, present tense, third person singular, agreeing 
With Hb nominative ** Who," according to rule vi. wliicJi 
•ays, &c. Wiseiy is ah sdverl> of quality, placed after th« 
verb, according to rule XV. ^ 

♦* Who preserves us ?" 

Who is a relative pronoun of the mterrogative f(in& 
ami in the nominative case singular. The word toAvhicC 
k relates, (its subsequent,) is the fioun or pronoun con*^ 
taining the answer to the question ; agreeably to a note 
unde-i* RULE Vi. Preseroeiis a regular verb active, indica* 
five jBQod, present tensn, third person singular, agreein|p 
witli its Bomioative ^* who," according to rule vi. whicS 
flays, &c. Us i»2L personal pronoun. (Repeat ^ p^somp 
nmnber, ease^ and rtUt*) 

'' Whose house is that ? Uy brother't and miaft. 
, Who itihabit ? We." . 

• Wke$e is- a relative pronoun of the interrogative Im^ 
•s4 relates* 10, 4h© ftvUo wing words ^ ^' Brother's" »b4 
«f yx^0^^ ^aHfr^eaMy - ta a .n«te luider rule vi . U is i» the* 
jposisessive case, governed by ^'sho«^et,"*accofdie^ t* 

(JR^t€a$ Ifitf.^fetMfisf, per$0n^ nuw^er^ cAtiitmie.) k is aft if^' 
mgukr verb neuter^ iinlicaliTe jsood, pieseitt Cesae, sail 
^be third persoa din^lar^ agreeisg wijtbila iu»»inative caad 
** bottse^'' Aoeording to rule i. wMdi says, &c Tfuu i$ 
tm adjective pronoimof the demonnti^tiYe ki&d. ^ii 
Itt adjective pronoan of the possessive kind. Brother^s m 
M cotiMBeai substantive, of the third pej^on^ the si^^iito 
iftomber, and in the possessive case, governed bjr '^ iiou^** 
understood, according 'to rvle x- and a note under Ru<.£ vt 
Jbid is a copulative coajuocOon. Min^ is a pe^roonal pro* 
nouu, of the first person, the singular number^ and in tbe 
possessive case, according to a note under kvl^ x. and »&• 
other under rule vi. Who is a relative pronoun of the 
interrogative kind, of the plural number, in the nomioa* 
five case, and relates to " we*' following, according to a 
kiote under rule vi. Inhabit is a regular verb active 
(^Repeat the rnood^ tense^ person, &c.^ b is a personal pro^ 
noun of the third person, the singular number, a^ in tbt 
objective case, governed by the active verb ^* inhabit,*? 
according to rule xj. which says, &c We is a- person^ 
j^ronouu, of the first person, the plural, number^ and tht 
nominative case to the verb " inhabit'' understood. 7 he 
ironfe '* inhabit it" are implied after *' we," agreeahl| 
Id a note under rule vi. 

** Rensember to assist the distressed." 

. Remember is a regular verb active, inoperative moodi 
the second person singular, and agrees with it^ nomina- 
^ve case ^* thouV understood. To amst is a regular veib 
active, in the infinitive mood, governed by^the precedtnf 
verb " remember," according to rump kiu which, says, 
&c. T%e IS the definite article* Distressi^ is aa aK^eo* 
live put aab9tai^tively« 

** We are not unemployed.**' 
'Wk ii a pei^oital pronoun. (Repeat the person^ nmnbet^ 
tmd eme.) Are is an irregular verb neuter. (Repeal dbc 
wl^oid, t^««, person^ kc, ) jYot m ^n adverb of negatioo* 
$neitnpl^i^ is an adjective in the positive stale. The twe 
negatives not and un^ ^em «& aivAMliltei^ wpte^aMy U 

^ Tbhl^aoii^W relieved yoo «fkl x»^ floidlias gtatiB* 

• 71^ 18 an adjetetive ppofiouii of the demon«trative kind» 

fidtM^ k a common mibstantive. (Repeat the person^ nvm' 

ter, and case^) ffas relieved k a regular verb active, tn- 

^Ik^tive mff&d, perfect tense, third person singular, agree- 

iiig with its nominative " bounty," according to Kulc 1. 

which says, Sic. Vou is a personal. pronoun, of the second 

person plural, and in the objective case. (I\epeat the go* 

vemmeni and rule.) And is a copulative conj unci ion. U» 

»« personal pronoun, in the objective case. You and ut 

ire put in the same case, according to rule «viji. which 

■ays, tic. And is a copulative conjunction. Has iryatified' 

i^ a TCgiHair verb active, indicative mood, perfo«:t tvrise, 

9aid third person srnsrular, agreeing »vith its no;iiinative 

^* bounty,*' understood. ** Haffelievedr and *' flos i(riiri/i' 

#rf," are in the same mood and tenso, accordni^ to rule 

Xvni. which says, &c; The h the detlnite arti< U^. D^nwr 

IB a common substantive, of the third pers^)u, the "jiiiAuUr 

number, and the objective case governed by tin* active 

VfTT^ " has gratified,'* according to Rule xj. which days^ 

fte. Ste the Octavo Gfammary on Gender. \ 

*' He will not be pardoned, unless he repent.*' 

He \A a personal prooouni of the third pei*son, singufeup 
number, masculine gender- and in tho uomiuative case* 
Wiil be pariloned is a regular pa-fsive verb, indicative mbud« 
&^t Aiture tense, and the third person singular, agreeing 
with it8 nominative "he/' according to rule i. and com- 
posed of the auxiliaries ** will be," and the perft'ct par- 
ticrpje *' pardoned." Not is a negative adverb. Unlea 
is a disjunctive conjunction. He is a personal proiK»ua 
(Repeat the ptrmn^ mwiber, gender, and case.) Repent is a 
regular verb neuter, in the subjunctive mood, the present 
tense, the third person singular, and agrees with its no- 
minative case *' he,^' according to Rule 1. which saySy 
Jbc.- U 18 in the sdb^unctive mood, because it imiplies a 
ifature sense, and denotes uncertainty sig^nitied 1^ tlwt 
^oojuaetion ." unless-^" agreeably to Ruh» 19, and the n^efl* 

** Good works being neglected, devotion is fulse.** 

Q<^d norkf fretr^ »^f^^«rf^ Jnwg i^j^ 

4it> MTGtlSff QKAl^iAll. 

rest ef^tB BkaibfiMtb, ^ the^^aAe^Woinlfr, tf^^in^dte^ to l9ie 
fiitli DOte of Hul« I. Devotion is a cotiunoo substantive 
(Hepeat the tmn*Jber^ person^ and ease,) I9 «» an tpreg»la«'yer]^ 
/le liter. (Jiepeaiihc maod, tenH^ftrson^ ^'e^) FnUe IB aii^a^ 
lective in the po^^itive ^tate, and belongs to its ^abstanto^ 
^ devotion" urtdeiatood, agreeabhr to Rule viiu ivhi<^ 
fays, &e. 

*• Tl*e emperor, Marcus Anreiius, wa% a wise and vir- 
tnouH prince." 

T^c is the definite article. Emperor is a c^mimon subr 
stantive, of the masculine gender, the third person, the 
fiu^uijr nnmber, and in the nominative ease, MittawK 
Aurefim i* a proper name or substantive, and in the no- 
minuive case, because it is put in apposition witfe ike 
fubstantive " emperor," agreeably to the first note of 
Rule X. WIfw is an irregular verb neuter, indicative mood^ 
injpertect tense, and tbe third person ^ingular^ agreemg 
with its nominative case " emperor." A is theinde^nitQ 
article. Wise is an adjective, and belongs to its substan- 
tive "prince.'^ ^»</ is a copulative conjunction. Firi^ 
^is is an adjective, and belongs, kc. Prince is a commoii 
substantive, and in the nominative case, agreeably to th^ 
(burth note of Role xi. 

" To err is human,** 

To etr^ IS th^ 4n6mtrve mood, and the nominathre easi 
to the verb " is*" h is an irregular verb neuter, indica- 
tive mood, present tense, and the third persbn singular, 
agreeing with its nominative case '* to err,'' agreeably to 
Note 1, tmder Rule the lirst. Human is an adjective, 
and belongs to its substantive ** nature" understood, ac- 
cording to Rule 8. which says, ifec. 

^ To countenance persons who are guilty of bad 91:^ 
tions, is scarcely one remove irom actaaUy comott^ 
ting them." 

' To ^ountBfKmce p0rs0n8 who -are §mlty ofbetd-acBhmt » 
part of a sentence, which is the nominative caae totiM 
r€rb '* is." is IS an irrc^br verb neutef", fee* agreeiiijf 
with the aforementioned part of a sentence, as its noraina- 
U\e ca!<e, agTt'f-ably to Note 1. under Rule the first 

Sem-cdjf m an adv^rl^ Qn^h a nameiai ddje^ire agrae- 

it^ with ilB iiAiitetiliT« ** remote.^ Btmom b fe com 
m&D sutwUMHire, ^ tike iMfrter f e&d«r, Itie third persoB» 
Hie 9iii|^tarfiaBil>er, anU iu the noimiiatiTe caee, agreeft-* 
My to the fourth note of Role xi. From is a prepositicm* 
€)ommiittng h the pr^eot participle of the regular active 
V«jrb ^* tocoikiinit/' Themis a personal pronoun, of the 
third person, the pinral number, and in the objectiye casOt 
governed by the partirjpie " committing/' agreeably to 
• Rule xir. which says, ^c. 

" Let me {ivoceed.'^ 

This sentence, according to the statemeBt of gramma- 
mns in general, is in the Imperative mood^ of the irst per^ 
ton, and the ^lingular number. The sentence may, ho«r* 
ever, be analyzed in the following manner. Let is aa 
jrreguiar verb active, iu the imperative okxk), of the 
second person, the plural nf^niber, and agrees with its 
nominative case ** you'* ujkder^^tood : as, "do you let.** 
JM« is a personal pronoun, of the first person, the singular 
Bninber, and in the objective case, governed by the active 
^Terh " let," agreeaWy to Rule xi. which says, &c. Pr^ 
ceed is a regular verb neuter, in the infinitive mood, gov«- 
cmed by the preceding verb '* let," according to Rai« 
zii. which says, 6lc, 

* * 

♦* idiriag expensively and hixqriocmly dettreys heahb^ 
By hviog frugally and temperately, health is pres^rred^ 

Living expensively and luxuriously^ is the nominative caac 
to the verb "■ destroys,**' agreeably to Note 1 , under Rule !• 
LdvingfmgaUy and temperately^ is a substantive phrase ^n 
the objective case, governed by the preposition ** by,* 
according to Note 2, under Rule xiv. 

The preceding specimens of parsing, if carefully studied 
by the learner, seem to be adnciently expUcit, to enable 
hkra to comprehend the nature of this employment ; and 
ai^ciently diversified, to qualify bim, in other exercisep, 
to noiat out and aji|jly tl^e reipair^ing ral6»| bothpnncii^ 
and ^uhor^Uiate* 


PsosoDT consists of two parts : the former teaches 
the true prohuhciatio!! of words, comprising a cit^xt, 
t^uAnriTV, EMraAsrs, pav»f.^ acid Tons; aodtbelal- 
tur, tbe lavKs of nutsiffic^Tioir; 



Seotiov I. Cf AcctnU 

I *AccewT IS the laying of a peculiar stress of ft% 
^oice» on a certain letter or syllable in a wojt), tbat it 
may be better heard than the rest, or distinguished 
from them : as, in the word presume^ tbe stress of the 
voice must be on the letter u^ and second syltabli^, ^tfme, 
which take the accent* 

As words may be formed of a difierent niimber of syBa*" 
tfles, from one to eight or niae, it was necessary to have 
iome peculiar mark to distinguish words from mere sylla- 
bles ^ otherwise speech would be only a continued aucces- 
,sioD of syllables, without conveying ideas; for, as words 
' are the marks of ideas, any confusion in the marks, must 
cause the same in the ideas for which they standi It wM 
therefore necessary, that tbe mind should at once perceive 
what number of syllables belongs to each word, in utter- 
ance. Tht9 might be done by a perceptible pause at^e 
•nd of each word in speaking, as we fi>na a certam dis- 
ts^Ace betweea them in writing and printiag* But this 
Would u^ke discourse extremely tedious ; and tlioiigh H 
iM|^t fonder woMb distind^ wsadd make tli« iiwuoiay-rf 

Aoeent) ^ prosody. M$ 

•entences eoBfiiseA. Syllables mtglit ako 1m sufficieotly 
distiDgutsbec} by a certain eleration or depression of yoice 
spon one syUable of each word, which was the practice 
•f some nations. But the Engiish tongue has, for this pur* 
pose, adopted a mark of the easiest and simplest kiod« 
whicii is called accent, and which elTectualiy answers the 

Every word in our language, of more than one syllable, 
kan one of them di^^tinguished from the rest in this^ man* 
ner; an<l !$ome writers assert, that every monosyllable of 
two or more letters, has one of it^ letters thus distinguished* 

Accent is either principal or secondary. The principal 
accent i> that which necessarily dir^tinguishes one syllable 
in d tvonl liom the rest. The secondary accent is that 
itre-'s which we may occasionally place upon another *»yl- 
laiile. bej^ides that which has the principal accent ^in ordet 
to pronounce ever^ part of the word more distinctly, for- 
cibly, and harmonion!«ly : thus, "Complaisant, caravan,*' 
•od '* violin," have frequently an accent on the first as wefl 
«» on the IdM syllable, though a somewhat less forcible 
one. The same may be observed of ** Repartee, releree, 
|»nvateer, domineer,'* &c. But it must be observed, thait 
though an accent is allowed on the fir«t syllable of these 
words, it is by no means necessary ; they may all be pro* 
nonnced with one accent, and that on the last syllable^ 
wit hoot the least deviation from propriety. 

Ae emphasis evidently points out the most significant 
word in a sentence ; so, where other reasons <Io not for- 
bid the accent always dwells with greatest force on that 
part of the word which, from itji importance, the hearer hat 
always the greatest occasion to observe : and this is neces- 
sarily the root or body of the word. But as> harmony of 
termination frequently attracts the accent from the root 19 
the branches of words, so the first and most natural law 
of accentuation seems to operate less in fixing the stress 
than any other. Our own Saxon terminations, indeed, 
with perfect uniformity, leave the principal part of the 
word in qttiet possession of what seem.^ its lawful proper 
ty ; but Latin and Greek terminations, of which our iaff- 
giiage is fiill, assnme a right of preserving their original 
accent, and subject almost every word tbey bestow iipo« 
Hi to their owa classical laws. 


fttJt Mnattsn ominiAii 

Accent, Uierefbre, seems to be reguL^.^v. m a great mea* 
atire by etymology. In words ft*om the Saxon, tbe^ acceai 
ji generally on the root ; 4n words from the learned Ian* 
^ages, it is generally on the tennination ; and if to these 
we add the different accent we lay on some words, to-dia* 
finguish them from others^ we seem to have the thret 
Ipreat principles of accentuation ; namely, the radiccd, the 
ttrwinationaly and the distinciive. The radical: as^ 
** L6rc, 16vely, I6veliness ;'* the terminational : as, " Hkr* 
mony, hann6niou8 ;" the distinctive: as» " C6nTert, te 

AccBirr oir disstllablks* 

Words of two syllables have necessarily one of themaOf- 
4ented, and but one. It islrue, for the sake ofemphsisia, 
we sometimes lay an equal stress upon two successive syl- 
lables : 9f>y ** Di-r6ct, s6me-times ;" but when these worda 
are pronounced alone, they have never more than one^ 
accent. I'he word '* &-m6n," is the only word which is 
pronounced with two accents when alone* 

Of dissyllables, formed by affixing a termination, the &!<* 
mer syllable is commonly accented : as, ** Childish, king" 
dom, &cte8tr&cted, t6ilsome, 16ver, scdffer, fairer, fore- 
most, z6alous, fdlness, meekly, irtist.'* 

Dissyllables formed by prefixing a syllable to the radical 
word, have commonly the accent on the latter : as, <^ To 
lieseem, to be.«*6w, to return.'* 

Of dis6ylla1>les, which are at once nouns and verbs, tha 
verb has commonly the accent on the latter, and the noun 
on the former syllable : as, *•'' To cement, a cement ; t9 
•ODtr&ct, a contract ; to pres&ge, a presage.'' 

This rule has many exceptions. Though verbs seldom 
have their accent on the former, yet nouns oflen have it 
en the latter syllable : as, " Delight, perf&me." Those 
nouns which, in the common order of language, must have 
preceded th^ verbs, often transmit their accent to the vei^ 
4iney form, and inversely. Thus, the noun " water'* must 
have preceded the verb " to witer," as the verb " to cor- 
JMesp6nd," must have preceded the noun *'corresp6ndent:* 
and " to pursiiie" claims priority to " purs^." So that 
.«re «iay ^undudei irherever verlia «ieviate Snm ti» itd^ 

AcceL.^.) PROSODY. f^ 

it is seWom by GbaQce^ and generally in those words onlr 
wbere a superior law of accent take** place. 

All dissyllables ending in y, onr, o:*-, /«, ish^ cAr, ter, age, 
m^ et : as, " Cr4nny, labonr, willow, wallow;'' except 
•* all6w, av^Wy cnd6w, tniliiw, bestow ;'' *' bittie, biinishy 
ckmbric, better, co6rage« &.sten, quiet;'' accent the for- 
mer syllable. 

Dissyllable nouns in ci% as, *' C4nker, batter," hare 
ihe accent on the former Kyllable 

Dissyllable verbs, terminating in a consonant and $ 
final, as, " Compnse, escape ;'' or having a diphthtuig 
in ihe last syllable, as, ** A|>pease, reveal ;'* or endtn^ in 
two consonants ; as, " Attend ;" have the accents on the 
latter s^ytlablc. 

Di.ssyHahle nounR, having a diphthong in the latter sy|. 
lable, havo commonly their accent on the latter syllable ; 
■as, " Appliuse ;" except some words in aiu : as, '* Villato^ 
curtain, motiatain/' 

Dissyllables that have two vowels, which are separated 
ID the pronunciation, have always the accent on the first 
ijHable : as, ** Lion, riot, quiet, liar, ruin ;'' except 
" creite.^ 


Trisyllables formed by adding a termination, or prefix- 
ing a s)'liable, retain the accent of the radical word : as« 
** Loveliness, tenderness, contemner, w4^oner, phj^sical^ 
bespatter, commenting, commending, asstjranc« ." 

Trisyllables endine in ous^ al^ ion : as, '^ Arduous, capi- 
tal, mention,'' accent the firsts 

' Trisyllables ending in c«, ent, and atCy accent the first 
syllable : as, '' Cotintenance, c6ntinence, Armament, im* 
mment, Elegant, prdpagate ;" unless they are derived 
from words having the accent on the last : as, ' Conni- 
vance, acquaintance ;" and unless the middle syllable 
has a vowel before two consonants : as, '^ Promulgate.'' 

Trisyllables ending in y, as, ** Entity, specify, liberty, 
victory, subsidy,'* commonly accent the first syllable. 

Trisyllables ending in rt or /«• a^c^nt the tirst sylla- 
ble.: as, ** WgiWe, theatre;" except ** Disciple,'' an4 
£ome words which have a preposition : as, '* Ex&mple, 

TrtsjDablep en^ng in ude, commonly ftctent the flxHt 
•yllable: as, " Fl^nitade, hibitude, re6^tude.'* | 

Trisyttables ending in ator, have the accent on tin 
middle' sellable; as, ** Spectator, cre&tor,'* &c.: except 
•* 6rator, senator, b&rrator, legator." 
' Trisyllables which have in the middle sjrilahfe a diph* 
thong, as, *' Endeavour ;" or a vowel before two cons«* 
nants ; aa, '* Domestic j" accent \he middle syllable. 

Trisyllables that have their accent on the last syllahlei 
are commonly French : as. ** Acqniesce, repartee, mag»- 
j5ine ;" or they are words formed by prefixing one or two 
syJKbles to a long sj'llable : as, *' Immature, overchirge.*' 


Polysyllables, or words of more than three Bylhbhg, 
generally follow the accent of the words from wfuch they 
lire derived: as, *v Arrogating, contineney, inc6Q\iiieikUy, 
commcMdable, comm(inicableness." 

Words ending in ator have the accent generally on the 
penultimate, or last syllable but one : as, '^ Cmenditor, 
gid4likiior, equivocator, prevaricktor." 

Words ending in le commonly have the accent on tb« 
first syllable* as, ** Amicable, despicable :'^ unless the 
second syllable ha? a vowel before two consonants: as^ 
** Combustible, condemnable." 

WordR ending in ton, ous^ and ty^ have their accent o& 
the antepenultimate, or last syllable but two: a», *^ Salr 
vltion, vict6rious, activity." 

Words which end in la^ to, and cah have the accent oa 
the antepenult: as, " Oyclop4edia, punctilio, despdtical.** 

The rules respecting accent, are not advanced as com^ 
plete oriofallible : they are merely proposed as useful. 
Almost every rule of every language has its exceptions; 
and, in English, as in other tongues, much must be learn- 
ed by example and authority. 

It may be frirther observed, that though the syllable on 
which the principal accent is placed, is fixed and certain, 
yet we may, and do, frequently make the secondary prin- 
cipal, and the principal secondary : thus, *' Caravan, com- 
plaisant, violin, repartee, referee, privateer, domineer," 
may ail have the greater streM on the first, and the le0 


dn the last fiyllftble, without anj violent offence to the 
ear : nay, it may be asserted, that the piiucipal a^.cent on 
the first syllable of these words, aud none at all on the 
last, though certainly improper, has nothing in it grating 
dr discor^mt ; but placing an accent on the second syl* 
lable of these words would- entirely derange them, and 
produce gpreat harshness and dissonance. The same eb< 
serrations may be applied to *' demonstration, lamenta- 
tion, proYocation, navigator, propagator, aUigator," ami 
every aimiiar word in the language. 

Sections. Of Qucmtity* 

The quantity of a syllable is that time which is oe- 
copied in pronouncing it. Il i& coosidered as lono 

or SHORT. 

A vowel or sylfable is long, when the accent is on 
the vowel ; which occasions it to he slowly joined ta 
pronunciation with the following letters : as, •'FdU, 
bale, inoSd, hotl'^, feature." 

A syllable is short, when the accent is^ on the coi>* 
sonant; which occasions the vowel to be quickly join- 
ed to the succeeding letter: as, *' int, bSnnet, bOnp^r.** 

\ long syllable generally recjpires doublo the time 
of a short one in pronouncing it; thus, "Mate" and 
"Note" should be pronounced as slowly again as " M^V* 
and " Not. ' 

Unaccented syllables are generally short : as, •' Sd* 
mire, h6!dn^s, sinner." But to this rule there ar« 
many exceptions : as, ** 41so, exile, g4ngrene, <!implra« 
^re taste," &c. 

When the accent is on a consonant, the syllable is af^ett 
more or less short,- as it ends with a single consonant, or 
with more than one: as,.*^ S&dly, r6bber ; persist, m&tch- 

When the accent is on a semi-vowel^ the time of the 
syllable may be protracted^ by dwelling upon the semi- 
▼owel: aSj ** Cui^, can', fulfil .•" but when the acceift 
&lls on a mute, the syllable cannot be lengthened in the 
manner: as, *' Babble, c&ptain, t6tter.'* . < 

Tke qnaniity of vowels haa^ ia some aieasure^ been 


ft6 KNGLI9B (UUMilAR. (Seet f 

ccKisi/f^red trader ilie ikst part &f grammar, which treato 
of the different sounds of tbe letters ; and therefore we 
•hall diHcniss tha subject with a few general rules and 

Iftt, AH vowels under the principal accent, before the 
lermin<^tions xa, lo, and ton, preceded by a single conso* 
nant. are pronounced long : as, *< Regalia, folio, adbesiony 
explosion, confusion :'^ except the vowel t, which in ^hat 
iuuati'>n is short: as, *' Militia, punctilio, decision, con* . 
trition.*' The only exceptions to this rule seem to be 
*' Discretion, battalion, gladiator, national, and rational." 
2d, All vowels that immediately precede the termina- 
tions ity-AQdety^ are pronounced 'ong : as, " Deity, piety, 
spontaneity." But if one consoudut precedes these ter- 
ipinations, every preceding accented vowel is short ; ex- 
cept u, and the a in " scarcity,*' and " rarity ;*' as, <* Po- 
larity, severity, divinity, curiosity ; — impunity.*' Evenu 
before two consonants contracts itself: as, "' Curvity, U 
cituruity," &c. 

3d, Vowels under the principal accent, before the 
terminations ic and ica/, preceded by a single consonant, 
are pronounced short ; thus, '* Satanic, pathetic, elliptic, 
harmonic," have the vowel short ; while *' Tunic, runic, 
cubic," have the accented vowel long : and " Hmatical, 
poetical, levitical, canmiical,'; have the vowel short; but 
" Cubical, musical," &c. have the u long. 

4th, The vowel in the antepenultimate syllable of words, 
with the following terminations, is always pronounced short- 
It^iiy ; as, obloquy. parous : as, oviparous. 

itrophe ; as, apostrophe. cntcy ; as, aristocracy* > 

teeter; as, barometer. gony ; as, cosmogony. 

gonal ; as, diagonal. phony; as, symphony. 

vrrous; as, carnivorous* nomy ; as, astronomj^. 
ferous ; as, somniferous. iotny; as, anatomy. 

fluom ; as, superfluous. patky ; as, antipathy. 

Jlneni ; as, mellifluent. 

As no utterance which is Toid of proportion, can be 
agreeable to the ear ; and as quantity, or proportion of 
lime in utterance, greatly depends on a doe attention lo 
■the accent, if is absohitely necessary for every persoa 
who would attain a just and pleasing delivery, to be ma«* 
ler -of thai p^nt. iSie ikU ^Mtion ^4ha Octavo Gravitnor 

Section 3. €ff Emphasis. 

B7 emphasis is meant a stronger and fuller sound of 
voice, by which we distinguish some word or words 00 
which we design to lay particular stress, and to show 
how they affect tlie rest of the sentence. Sometimes 
the empnatic words must be distinguished by a paiticu* 
lar tone of voice, as weU as by a greater stress. 

On the nght management of the emphasis depends the 
hfe of pronunciation. If no emphasis be placed on any 
words, not only will discourse be rendered heavy and 
lifeless, but the meaning often left ambiguous. If the 
emphasis be placed wrong, we shall pervert and confound 
the meaning wholly. To give a coramok instance : such 
a simple question as this, ** Do you nde to town to-day V^ 
is capable of no fewer than four different acceptations, 
according as the emphasis i» differently placed on the 
ivords. If it be pronounced thus : ** Do you ride to town 
to-day ?" the answer may naturally be, ** No, we send a 
servant in our stead.^' If thus ; " Do you rtde to towa 
to-day f answer, '* No, we intend to walk." •* Do you 
ride to town to-day ?" " No, we ride into tlie country." 
** Do you ride to town to-day P"^^ " No, but we shall to- 
morrow." In like manner, in solemn discourse, the whole 
force and beauty of an expression often depend on the 
.emphatic word ; and we may present to the hearers quite 
different views of the same sentiment, by placing the em- 
phasis differently. In the following words of our Saviour^ 
observe in what different lights the thought is placed, ac- 
cording as the words are pronounced. " Judas, betrayest 
thou the son of man with a kiss ?" ** Betrayest thou,'* 
makes the reproach turn on the infamy of treachery. 
** Betrayest thou^^^ makes it rest upon Judas's conn(*xion 
with his niaster. " Betrayest thou the son of itmn^^ rests 
jt upon our Saviour's personal character anrt eminence. 
** Betrayest thou the son of manm^A a kiss?'''' up- 
on his prostituting the signal of peace and friendship to 
the purpose of degtruction«, 

The emphasis often lies on the word that asks a ques- 
tion : as, " W'ho said so >*' *' When will he come f '* What 
^U 1 do r " Whiter shall 1 50 V " fFAvdo&t thou weep 


And when two words are set id contrast, or in opposition 
to one anothei*, tixey are both emphatic ; as, '' He is the 
iyrfmty not the yaf^er, of his people ;" " His subjects y^ar 
lum, but they do not love him.*' 

Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that «K« 
mo^t every word is emphatical: as, *' Ye hills and dales^ 
ye rivers, woods, and plains :" or, as that pathetic expostu- 
lation in the prophecy of Ezekiel, *' V. hy will ye die I* 
In the latter short sentence, eveirword is emphatical; 
and on which ever word we lay the emphasis, whetiier 
on the first, second, third, or fourth, it strikes out a dif- 
ferent sense, and opens a new subject of moving expos* 

As accent dignifies the syllable on which it is laid, and 
miakes it more distinguished by the ear than the rest ; so 
emphasis ennobles the word to which it belongs, and pre- 
sents it in a stronger light to the understanding. Were 
there no accents, words would be resolve.d into their origi- 
nal syllables : were there no emphasis, sentences would 
be resolved into their original words ; and, in this case, 
the hearer would be under the painf«l necessity, first, of 
making out the words, and afterwards, their meaning. 

£mphasis is of two kinds, simple and complex. . Simple, 
when it serves to point out only the plain meaning of any 
proposition ; complex, when, besides the meaning, it marks 
also some affection or emotion of the mind; or gives a 
meaning to wqrds, which they would not have in theif 
tisual acceptation. In the former case, emphasis is scarce* 
ly more than a stronger accent, with little or no change of 
tone ; when it is complex, besides force, there is always 
superadded a manifest change of tone. 

The following sentence contains an example of simple 
emphasis : " And Nathan said to David, Thou art the 
man.'^ The emphasis on thou^ serves only to point out the 
meaning of the speaker. But in the sentence which fol- 
lows, we perceive an emotion of the speaker superadded 
to the simple meaning : *' Why will ye die I*' 

As the emphasis often falls on words in different parts 
of the same sentence, so it is frequently required to be 
eontinued, with a little variation, on two, and sometim«« 
three words together. The following sentence exempli- 
fies both the parts of this poiition : " If you seek to xaake 

]Bmpha$ir.) pnotooi^^ t 4 

one rich, study not to %ncrea$4 kt$ stora^ bat to dimnptA 
his desires,^ Emphasin may be itirther dutingui^hed, int^ 
the weaker and the stronger emphasis. In the sentence 
** Exercise and temperance strengthen the coni«titution ;' 
we perceive more force on the word sH-engfhen, than oil 
any other; though it is not eqaal to the stress which we 
apply to the word indifferent, in the foHowing sentence* 
*' Exercise and temperance strengthen even an indiffereni 
constitution."' It is also proper to remark, that the words 
exercise^ temperance, constitution, in the last example birt 
one, are pronounced with greater torce, than the parti- 
cles und and the ; and yet those words cannot properly ha 
called emphalical : for the stress tiiat is laid on them^ it 
no more than sufficient to convey distinctly the meauingp 
of each word — From these observations it appears, that 
the smaller parts of speech, namely, the articles, con- 
jiincti^ms, prepositions, ^c. are, in general, obscurely 
and feebly expressed ; that the subt^tantives, verbs, and 
more significant words, are firmly and distinctly pronoun* 
ced ; and that the emphatical words, those whir.h mark 
the meaning of a phrase, are pronounced with peculiar 
stress and energy, though varied according to the degree 
of their importance. 

Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regu- 
lartpr of quantity. Though the quantity of our syllables 
is fixed, in words separately pronounced, yet it is muta- 
ble, when these words are ranged in sentences; the long 
being changed into short, the short into long, according 
to the importance of the words with regard to meaning: 
and as it is by emphasis only, that the meaning can be 
l^ointed out, emphasis must be the regulator of the quan* 
tity* A few examples will make this point very evident^ 

Pleas'd thoG sh&lt hear — and learn the secret power, &e 
Pleas'd thofl shalt hear — and thou alone shalt hear — • 
Pleas'd thou sbak heaiv*-in spite of them sh&lt hear—- 
Pleas'd thou sh&lt hear — though not behdld the fair — 

In the first of these instances, the words pleased and 
hear, being equally emphatical, are both long; whilst the 
two intermediate word?, ^ou and shalt ^ being rapidly 
passed over, as tbe sense dejnands are reduced «t a short 

914 tftoi-iSH G&AJfMAR. fS^fti^ 

In the f^econd instance, the word thoU by being the most 
importaDt, obtatas the chief, or rather the 8oie emphasis; 
ftD<l thus, it is not only restored to it9 natural long quantity^ 
but obtains from emphasii^ a still greater degree of length, 
^an when pronounced in iU separate state. This greater 
degree of length, is compensated by the diminution of 
quartity in the words pleased and hear^ which are i^dunded 
•horter than in the preceding instance. The word skak 
Btill continneft short. Here we may also observe, that 
though Mollis loug in the tirst part of the verse, it becomes 
short when repeated in the second, on account of the more 
ftM*cible emphasis belonging to the word abme^ which ibl*> 
lows it. 

- In the third instance, the word $h4ih hanngthe empha- 
sis, obtains a long quantity. And though it t» impo^/^/f 
to prolong the sound oi this word, as it ends in a piirt 
mute, yet in this, as in all simitar instances, tiie additiouti 
Quantity is to he made out by a rest of the voice, prt>\mr- 
ticHied to the im|iortance of the word. In thiii insuiuce, 
we rnay also ol>serve, that the word shaU^ repeated in the 
second part of the line, is reduced again to a short quaii* 

in the fourth instance, the word h^ar placed in opposi* 
tion to the word behold, in the latter part of the line, ob- 
tains from the sense the chief emphasis, and a proportion* 
ate length. The words thou and shait^ are again reduced 
to short quantities ; and the word pleased lends <4ome of 
the time which it possessed, to the more important word 

From these instances, it is evident, that the quantity of 
pur syllables is not fixed ; but governed by emphasis. — ^To 
observe a due measurenlent of time, on all occasions, it 
doubtless very difficult ; but by instruction, attention, and 
practice, the difficulty may be overcome. 

Emphasis changes, not only the quantity of words and 
gyllables, but also, in particular cases, the seat of the ac- 
cent. This is demonstrable from the following examples* 

** He shall increase, but I shall c^ifcrease." " There is a 
difference between giving an^^irgiving." *' In thissperiea 
of composition, ^^/ausibility i^iuch more essential than 
;3rfJb}ibility.'* In these evampies, the emphasis requir«# 
tho I r cent to be placed Qn avUabks, to which it doeB v^ 
^Qmmonly belcog 

Id order to acquire the proper iiMin»fement of the em» 

easis, the great rule, and indeed the onlj rule possible to 
given, is, that the speaker ot reader study to attain a 
just conception of the force and spirit of the sentimentf 
which he is to pronounce. For to lay the emphasis with 
exstct propriety, is a constant cierdse <i>{ good sense and 
attention. It is far from being an inconsiderable attain* 
ment. It is one of the greatest trials of a true and just 
ta?te ; and must arise from i^e\m^ deKcately ourselves^ 
and from judging accurately, of what is fittest to strika 
the feelingo of other . 

I There is one error, against which it is particularly pro- 
per to caution the learner; namely, that of multiplying 
emphaUcal words too much. It is only by a prudent ra- 
§eTye in the use of them, that we can giv e them any weight* 
If they recur too often ; if a speaker or reader attc'm[»t0 
fto render every thing which he expre»ses of high import- 
ance, by a multitude of strong emphases, we soon leam 
to pay little regard to them. To crowd every sentence 
with emphaticai words, is like crowding all the pages of 
a book with Italic characters, which, a!< to the effect, M 
Just the same as to use no such distinctions at alL 

Section 4. Of Pauses, 

Pattbcs or rests, in speaking and readkig, are a tot^ 
aessation of the voice, during a perceptible, and, in 
oiany cases, a measurable space oi time. 

Pauses are equally necessary to the speaker, and the 
kearer. To the speaker, that he may take breath, with# 
out which he cannot proceed far in dehvery ; and that ha 
Bay, by these temporary rests, relieve the organs of 
ipeech, which otherwise would be soon tired by continued 
action : to the hearer, that the ear also may be reUeve^ 
from the fatigue, which it would otherwise endure from a' 
eoatiBuity ofsound ; and that the understanding may have 
tuflicieni time to mark the distinction of sentences, an4 
Aeir several members. 

There are two kinds of paus^^s : first, emphaticai pauses ; 
and next, such as mark the distinctions of the sense. An 
emphaticai pause is made, after something has been sai^ 
W jpec«i«ar aMMBeo^ ;wd oo whtcii wh deik« to ta til«^ 

hearer's atteiitton. SonK'times, betbre such a thing is said, 
we usher it iu with a pause of this nature. Such pauses 
have the same effect as a strong emphasis ; and are subject 
to the same rules ; especially to the caution just now given, 
•f not repeating them too frequently. For as they eicite 
uncommon attention, and of course raise expectation, if 
the importance of the matter ij> not fully answerable ta 
■uch expectation, they occasion disappointment and dis^irst 
But me most frequent and the principal une of paus^eSi 
IS, to mark the divisions of the sen^e, and at the same time 
to allow the speaker to draw bis breatb ; and the propel 
apd delicate adjurttmentof such pauses, i^ one of the most 
nice and difficult articles of delivery. In all reading, wid 
public speaking, the management of the breath requires^ a 
good deal of care, so as not to oblige us to divirle worda 
ircm one another, which have so intimate a conDexioo, 
that they ought to be pronounced with the same brea\ii» 
and witiiout the least separation. Many sentences arfe 
miserably mangled, and the force of the emphasis totally 
lost, by the divisions being made in the wrong place. To 
avoid this, every one, while he is speaking or reading, 
fihould be very careful to provide a full supply of breath 
fcr ^hat he is to utter. It is a great mistake to imagme, 
that the breath must be drawn only at the end of a period, 
when the voice is allowed to fall. It may easily be ga- 
thered at the intervals of the period, when the voice is 
only suspended for a moment ; and, by this managenaeBt* 
one may always have a sufficient stock for carrying on the 
Ijongest sentence, without improper interruptions. 

rauses in reading, and public discourse, must be formed 
upon the manner in which we utter oui selves in ordinarj^t 
iensible conversation ; and not upon the stiff >a£titicial mao- 
ner which we acquire, from reading books according ta 
the common punctuation. It will by no means be sudicieni 
to attend to the points used io printing ; for the»e are iaf 
from marking all the pauses which ought to be made U 
speaking. A mechanical attention to these resting-places 
^ has perhaps been one cause of monotony, by leading the 
reader to a simibir tone at ev»ry stop, and a unitbmi ca-i 
4ence at every period. Tlie primary use of foints is, \m 
assist^ the reader in discerning the grammatical construe 
tion ; and it is only as a secondarv object, tliat they regil« 
lale hki prouunciatioD^ 

To render janses pkaslag uid ^f^feaorer titej mw^ 
Bot only be made In the right place, bat also accompanied 
with a proper tone ei roice^ by which thie nature of i^se 
pattses 19 intimated ; much more than by the length ot 
them, which can sseJdom be exac^ noeasured. Sometimes 
it ^ only a slight and simple guspensiitm of mce that is 
|jTepcr ; sometimes a degree *of cadence in the voice is 
required ; and ^fometimes that peculiar ^ohe and cadence 
which denote the sentence to t>e finished. In all the«^ 
cases, we are to regulate oitrsei?es» by attending to the 
manner in which nature teaches os to speak, when eii» 
l^ged in real and earnest discourse with others. 

It is a general rale, that the suspending pau^ sheuhl 
be used when the sense is incomplete ; and the ciosini^ 
paoife, when it is £nished« Bat there are phrases^ in 
whicb^ thou|^ the sense i»^ not completed, the Totce takes 
the closing, rather than. the suspending pause ; and others, 
in which ^be^nti^nce finishes by tl^ pause of suspensioB* 
The closing pause must not be confounded withthat £slU 
mf the Toice, or ^adtacc^ with which many readers uia- 
fermiy finish ^ sentence. Nothing is more destructtTe of 
projaiety an4 energy tlisui this habit. The tcmes and iii'> 
fleeMns of the voice at the dose of a senteneey ought to be 
dtverafied, according to \he general nature of the duh 
course, and the particular construction and meaning of 
tlie sentence* in plain narrative, and especially in ai^u- 
asentatioa, a small attention io the manner in which we 
wel^te a f%ct, or maintain an argoment, in cenirergation, 
will shaw, that ft is frequently more woper to raise the 
Tcttce^ than to let it fall, at the end of a sentence. Some 
sentences are so constructed, &at the last words require 
a 8tro0|^er emphasis than any of the preceding ; while 
others admit <^ being closed with a boA and gentle sound. 
Where there is m^og in the sense which requires the 
last Bom^ to he elevated or emphatical, an easy fall, suf- 
ficient to show that the sense is Wished, will be proper. 
And in pathe^ pieces, especially those of the plaintive, 
tender, or solemn kind, the tone of the passiop will oflen 
require a still greater cadence of the YX>ice. The best 
metibod of eorrectip^ a (milbrm caden^ is fitt<|uently to 
read seltt^l mttenfie*^ m which the style is poi^led, and i». ^ 
•wImGh mntithfitn mm Aeyiently ia4i?oduoed; wA v0'\ 

2T8 fciTGLiSR aRAMMAR. (Sect. § 

mentatkve pieces, or such as abouiKl witli mterrogatiyes, 
or earnest exdtftnaiti^. ' ^ - 

SECTioif 5k Of Tenes. - 

Tones are different both from emphasis and pauses; 
consisting in the modulation of the voice, the notes or 
variations of sound which we employ in the exprebsioii 
9f our sentiments. 

Emphasis afTects partictilar words and phrase with a 
degree of tone or inflection of the voice; but tones, pe- 
cuHarly so caHed, affect sentences, paragraphs, and some- 
times even the whole of a discouree. 

To show the use and necessity of tones, we need only 
observe, that the mind, in communicating its ideas^ is in 
a continual state of activity, emotion, or agitatroo, from 
the different effects which those ideas produce m the 
speaker. Now the end of such communication bein^, not 
merely to lay open the ideas, but also the different feeV 
ings which they excite in him who utters them, there 
must be other signs than words, to matiilest those feel- 
ings 5 as words uttered in a monotonous manner, can re- 
present only a similar state of mind, perfectly free from 
all activity or emotion. As^ the communication of these 
internal feelings, was of much more consequence in our 
social intercourse, than the mere conveyance of ideas» 
the Author of our being did not, as in that conveyance, 
leave the invention of Sbe language of emotion, to man; 
but impressed it hiooself upon our nature in the same 
manner as h6 has done wi^ regard to the rest of the ani- 
mal world ; all df which express their various feeUngs, by 
various tones. Ours -indeed, f5rom ihe superior rank that 
we iiold, are in a high degree more' comprehensive ; as 
tliere is not an act of the mind, an exertion of the fancy, 
01^ an emotion (^ the heart, which has not its peculiar 
tone, OT note -of the voice, by which it is to be expressed ; ' 
and which is suited exactly to the degree of internal 
fueling. It is chiedy in the proper use of these tones, 
that the fi^, spirit, beauty, and harmony of d^eliverf 

An extract from the beatitiMlam6ntation of t)aTid oTer 
Saul &nd Jonathan; may serve aa an Example c^ what lias 

been said on this subject " The beauty of Israel is slaia 

upon thy high places. Ufm *|se tlic mighty fallen 1 TeU 

it not in Gath ; pablisrh U not in the streets of A«kelon : 

lest the daughters -of the Philistines rejoice ; lest th€ 

^^aagliters «rf the uncfrcoattcised triuq»ph. Ye mouDtain« 

«f Griiboa, let there be no .dew, nor rain, upon you^ nor 

'fieki» of offerings ; Jbi^ there the shield of the mighty was 

vilely capt away ; ike ktneld of Saul, as though h^ liad 

Hoi been anointed wtth<»l!'' The first of these divisions 

«rpTcsdes seiTOw and lamentation ; therefot^ the nqte is 

low. T4}e ne-xt^ootaiDs a sprnted'Commandy andi^^liouii 

be pronounced mach higher^ Th^ other sentence^ in 

IKJ^^ he makes a pathetic address to the mountains where 

his friends were slain, must be expressed in a note quite 

different from the two former ; not so lowas the tirst, nor 

so^higb as the second, in a manly, tirm, and yet plalnttTe 


This correct and natural language of the emotions, it 

' not s6 di^uH to be. attained, a& most jreader;^ seem te 

imagine. If we ewf^^r jnio^^h^ «"^^^t ^t th«i authors swi- 

timents, as well as into the meaning of his words, we shall 
not fail to dehvcr the words in properly varied tones. For 
there arc few people, who $peak English without a pro- 
vincial tone, that have not an accurate use of emphasis, 
pauses, and tones, when they utter Ifaeir sentMnents in 
earnest discourse : and the reason that they have* nef the, 
same use of them, in reading aloud the sentiraeiit»t)f 
others, may be traced to the very defective and errone- 
ous method, in which the art of reading is taught ; where- 
by all the various, natural, expressive tones of epeefb, 
are suppressed, and a few artitictal, unmeaning; readhig 
notes, are substituted for them. 

But when we recommend to readers an attention to 4lie 
tone and language of emotions, we must be undei^tdoii^to 
do it with proper limitation. Moderation is nece9«a?y*in 
this point, as it is in other things. For when reading be- 
comes strictly imitative, it assumes "a theatrical manfr9r, 
and must be highly improper, as well a^ give ofifence to 
the hearers ; because it is incoiwistetit with that delieaacy 
, and modesty^ whicb, on all occasions, are i^nHspensable. 

J » 


t^ lurcuM B%mmAZ. ^ (Veniliriiidh 

caAPtBB ii« 


As there are ^w persoM wiio cky tiat 8din«4&ttM r«a4 
poetical conip<MitioD« U seems aec^asaiy to give tihe 9t«i> 
(N^nt some idea of that part of grammar, which exptaies the 
principles of yersiiicadon ; that, in reading poetry, he matf 
he the hetter able to jndge of its eorrec^iess, aiid relish ili 
beanties. When this ftrelj mode of esiiih^iig ns^ufe 
and sentiment, is perfectly chaste, it is oll#n fo^Mi to te 
* highly interesting and instructive. 

Versification is the arrangement of a certm 
number and rarietj of syllablesi according to ceitikk 


Kbyme is the correspondence of the last soimd oC 
ttne verse, to the last sound or syOable of another. 
Feet and parses ave4he oonstttuent parti of rerte* W« 


JL cettain number of syllables connected^ fi>rm a Iboi 
They are called fiet^ because it is by their aid that the 
voice, as It were, steps aloi^ throngh the verse, in a 
measured pace; and it is necessary that iiv^ sy Ha hies 
which mark th^ regular morement of the voice, should, 
ia some iiiaiHier, be distinguished from the others. Thia 
distinction was made aimmg the ancient Romana, by di- 
vitKng their syllables into long and short, and asceFtainiug 
their quantity by an exact Broportion of time in sounding 
them ; the long being to the short* as two lo one ; and 
the long syllables, being thus the more important, mark* 
«d the movemenL In Lnglish, syllables are divided iaio 
accented and unaccented ; and the accented syllables he- 
ttg as strouf^ distinguishoe^ from the unaccented, by tii# 
peculiar stress of the voice upon them, are equally capa* 
iie of marking the movement, and pomting out the regu* 
lar paces of the voice, as the long syllaUes were by theit 
^antity^ among the Romans. 

When the feet are formed by an accent on vowels^ 
^y are exactif ot tto Aame^Mtiupe m the aocmit feel^ 

and have the saiiie just quantity in tlieir syllables*. So 
ihat, in tliis respect, we have all that the aucknts had, 
aad semethiBg which they had not. We have in fact do- 
|>)icates of eskch foot, yet wilh ^ucli' a dtl^reoe^^ u to 

fit them 6>r differ^t p.ucpo^^s to be fipplMd at ^puf fi^< 


Every foot has, from nature, powers peculiar- to itself; 

and it is upon the knowledge and right applioation of 

these powers, that the pleasure and effect .of numbers 

chiefly depend. 

AM' teet used in poetry consist either of two, or of three 

syllahles; and are reducible to eight kinds; four of two 

syUabJes, and four of three, as follows : ^ . 


ATi»oche§— w A Dactyl -wu 

An Iambus u - An AmpW>raGh w -^ ^ • , 

A Spondee -— AnvAnapaest w ** 

A Pyrrhic w w . A Trtbrach w^ ^ w 

* A Trochee has the first syllable' acceirted, and the last 
anaccentod : as, " Hateful, pettish*" 
. An hnfima has Uie first syjlal^le unaccented, andtlielAlt 
accented' as, " Betray, coiisist." 

A Spondee has both the words or syllables accented 
as, '* The p&le moon." 

A Pyrrhic has both the words Or syllables unaccented : 
as, " on the taU troc" ^ 

A Dactyl has the first syllable accented, aat^ ^^^ ^® 
latter unaccented : as, " Labourer, p69sible.*^ 

Aa Amphibrach has the first and last syllables tma<>- 
cented ; and the middle one accented : as, *^ Delightfi^, 

A« Anapaest harth^ two first sylkbTes tmaecented, and 
the last accented : ^s, " Cdntr^tenfe, acqtilfece.*^ 

A Tribrach ha^ all it^ syllables unaccented : i^ "^Nd* 
Merftbl^, c6nquerable.^ 

Some of these flB«t may be dcfnofHiiiated |)nne/pa/ feet; 
ma pieces of po«^ may be wh<4iy, ^r chiefiy mrmed e£ 
aoy of .them. . 39ch are the lambits. Trochee, Dactjrl^ and 
teapaest. The others may be termed secondary fe^ , 
because |0ieir ^hieCuse. m to dkl&^^B^ t^mm^ers, aad to 
iprove the verse. ' .^ ' . , ^ ^ , 

Wo iliall first eiplain the nature of the priocipa) fttt» 

T * .< 

.9tB EMQum mtmum ■ (VMriiottkii* 

IAMBIC renm iqaj be derided i^lbo^ ae^^eral ^peciei, 
tecording teUie nomlimr of^etor^iNbles^oJFwhicii they 

f. TheidioHegt ftrm of tbe Eii|^b& laaibk-ceiuisli el 


We haveBojTOemof this measnre, botttimjrhe nietwidi 
m stanzas. The Xan^NiSy with thi» addiikH^ coincidei svWk 
^ iteptuhraGh. 

f . The seco&d ^>nn of our lunhie » ahid toe short t» 
he eontimied through any great Ausiher of hoieft. It con 
iiit»9f tttn> lambose?. 

Whftt pBure Is h^re ! 

What »cepe» appear! 

To>Q»e the rose 

No loitger gknvv^ 
it Mnnetimefl taifei^ or may take^ aft addiHoiiil AoH f]|- 
ladiie ; aa, 

Upon t moHiitdm 
B^ide a foiiataia* 

Z. The ^ird (onaik consiists otihree faodhtnea 

In ^hd^ far or near^ 
Or iamous or obscure. 
Where wholesome is the air. 
Or where the most impure. 

II smnetiittes admits of an ad<Htibaal shori^llable : as. 
Our hearts no Idng^ l^ngiiish. 

4. The fourth form is. made op of/our lamhoaea* 

Andm&y &t tost my w§ary 4ge^ 
Fiod out the peaee&i hersoatage^ 

5. Th^ &f^ species df £hgtish Iambic, conslsfts <>fjh^ 

- Hdw 18v*d, hdw vftill fece, ftr&tts tfc^e iSdt* 
^ . To whom rob^dt «r by whiim begol ; Z .; ' 

*Tn ati tb<m art, Miii all &e pro^AlukU ^ 

B« wfte t6-4&y, *tli tnidn^sd td d€(ir : 
N«ixt da^r tbe &tal preeedeiit will plea<f^ 
Tfam oa, tifi ffttcbm is p««taeii out of life* 

Th» iaca^d the Heroic measure, la its simpteitt AfM 
it cousists of five Iambuses; but by the adfl(iis«ioii*of othev 
feet, ae Trochees, Dactyk, AuapaMts, kc. it b capable el 
autuy yarieties. Indeed, most of the £QgUsh conuftoo 
iQneasurea aiay be varied ia the same way, as if ell as ^ 
liie difierent position of their pauses. 

6. The sixth ferm of our Iambic is comnotdfy ci^ed 4te 
dUxandrvM measure. It cooaists of n» Iambuses. 

Fdr thou &rt bilt df dOst ; bd htlmbie ind b^ wise. 

The Alexandrine is sometimes introduced tntor heroie 
rhyme ; and when used sparii^ly, alid w^ jtk^|^eQt^ 
^ccasioiia an agreeable variety, 

T)^ seas sbtU waste, the skies In emeke ifiD^jfr 
Rocks fall to dust, and mountatfis melt away ^ 
But ftx'd his word, his sailing pow'i^ remaias . 
Thy realm fur tuvt ImUt thy own Messiah reignt* 

7. The seren^ and last form of o«r laod^ measi% 
is made up of «evfii Iambuses. 

TbiS Ldrd d£iicend6d from Vbor^^ 
And bow'd the heavens high. ^ 

This was anciently written in one h'ne ; bift it is mnr 

Iwoken into two ; the first containing four feet, and thi 

^cond three : 

Wh^n on thy mercies, 6 my God I 

My rising soul surveys, 
Transported, with the view, I'm lost 

In wonder, love, and praise. 

In all these measures, the accents are to be placed on eveft 
syllables; and every line consi^rod by itself, is, ingene« 
,ral, more melodious, as tliis rule is more strictly observed* 

TROCHAIC verse is of several kinds. 
1. The shortest Trochaic verse in ourlanguafe»€pBsist9 
of one Trochee and a IcriC syllable. 

tt4 SMRttMff-^ttAttiAK. ^^t^lSC^LUWL 

Tutfitiitcga^eF, . ^ 

Sii^ to pesl€e« 
This meaeure is defective in iBgiutyf ^^i can seldom be 

usedoii fterious occasiooa* 

2. The second E7%li^ form of the Trochaic consists oi 
.. ime iiM ; Bnd is likevfise so hneff Ihatft^a^^a^efy-tised for 
f B«jF v^Fy serious -purpose. • ^ 

■ ' 6n tH€ mauntSin 

By a fountain. . 

' tt 'sometimes contains two feet or trochees, with as adi£« 
tionai long syllable : as, 

* ' Fn the'dfeysofold 
Fables plainly told. 

3. The third species consists o{thre$ trochees: as, - 

When our hearts are mSurmng : 

or of three trochees, with<an^ additionaMotig* syllable : as. 

. RSsttesB mSrtils t^ilfor ia^ght ; 
Bliss in vain from earth is sought j * 
Bliss, a native of the sk}^ 
Nferer wandersi Mortals, try ; 

There yQu cannot seek io> vain J 
For to seek her is to gain. 

4 The fbtMrth TrochaiCispecies cojdsislB. of four Ire- 
chees : as, 
.. ., . .Rdnnd Qs r5ars th^ tempest Idudcr*. 

^^£hii iorm may take an additiopal long syileble, ae foOowe ; 

Idlg^ alter dinner in his chair, 
Sat a farnxer^ ruddy, fat, and fidr. 
But this measure is very uncommon. 

5* The filUi Trochaic species Is Hkei^se uncbnuooii. 
It is composed offiut trocliees. 
' AH Ant ivftik on foot or ride in chari5t5, 
^ AH that dwell^Htn palaces or garrets. ' 


r I 


6. The sixth form of the English Trochaic. consists of 
mx trochees : as, 

On A m6untam, strctch'd Jbeneath 2l b^ary mQoiv, 
^ '. - h2iy a shepherd swain, and viewed the roUiof billofr*. 

This 86eitt« to be iii» iEmge«t Troclifttc line ^at our 
langaai^ admils. 

In all these Trochaic measures, the accent is to IM 
placed en the odd syllables. 

The DACTYLIC oieasnre beings very uncommon^ «m 
diall gwe mly ose example of one species of k: 

From th^ i6w pleasfures df this flKUen natdre. 
Rise we to higher, &c. 

ANAP^STIC verses are divided into several species 
I. The shortest aaapsstic verse must be a single vm* 

Bdt iQ v&in, 

They complain. 
This measnre is, however, ambignons ; for, by laying 
the stress of the voice on the first and third syllables^ wa 
might make a trochaic. And therefore the first and sim- 
pJest form of our genuine Anapasstic verse, is made up of 
t9so Anamests : as, 

Bat h!s couHige 'gSn fail. 
For no arts coold avail. 

This Ibrm admits of an additional short syQaMe* 
Th^ his courige 'gftn fail him, 
For no arts couM avail him. 

f . l^e second species consists of three Anap0sti. 

O^ j€ w^>ds, spread ydur branches Jipace ; 

To your deepest recesses I fly ; t 

I would hide with the beasts of the chac^ ; 

I would vanish from every eye. 

This is a very pleasing measure, and much used, he^ 
in solemn and cheerful subjects. 

3. The tlord kind of tte English Anapaa^^ c^asists «t 
Jour AnapaBsto* 

Mfty I govern my passions with absdl^ am^ i V 
And gr^w wiser and better as life wears awi^ 

This measure will admk of a short syllable at the end 

On IM warm cMlefc ^ ^utb^ 911^8 ^nd th^ l^e 

.ti6 iwcuaw #miMAR. (Ver9i^catiMk 

TJ^ ^re^ding.^re. th« diSac^ft^ kkuU of Xhe principal 

feet, ID their more simple forms. The^ are ca|>able of 

^umeroos vanaliptis, hy the inteisnixture of thoj^e feet 

with each other ; and by the admissyioo pf the ,^ecoodary 


We b»ve observed* that Engli»h-verse is composed of 
feet formed by accent ; and that when the accent fails oo 
voweU* the feet are eqiiiyaieat ti> tho^e formed by quan- 
tity. That the student may clearly perceive tJus difier- 
CDce, we shall pnxluce a specimen of each kind. 

O'dr heaps of rQitis ctSlk'd th^ stately hfnd. 

Here we see the acceiit is upon the vowel in eacK se- 
cond syllable. In the following line, we shaU j^nd the 
tame iambic movement, but formed by accent on cooso* 
Bants, except the last sy'lable. 

Then rustling, crackling, crashing tbtinder down. 

Here the time of the short accented syllables, is com- 
pensated by a short pause, at the end of each word to 
which they belong. 

»t e now proceeii tu s*.Jt» ».»^». ».*..ii*«v..» m »*^t%^^ ^Mjeuy 
is varied and in>proved, by the admission of eeccodary 
feet into its Com position. 

Miirmuring, and with him fled the shades of night. 
The first foot here is a Dactyl ; the rest are iambics. 

O'er minyH frozen, m4ny a fiery Alp. 
This line contains three Amphibraclmouxed with lambict. 

innumerable before th' AUni^ty's throne. 
Here, in the second foot, we find a Tribrach* 

See the bold youth strain dp the threatening steep. 

In this line, the first fpot is a Trochee ; the second a 
, genuine Spondee by quantity ; the third a Spondee hy ac- 
* cent. ... 

In the following line, the first foot is a Pjrrrliic, ^ 
second 4 Spoodee. * ' • 

That on weak wings from far pursues your flight. 

From the preceding view of English versification, we 
Cftay see n^hat a copious ^oek of pateri^Sis ii po^esses 
For we are not only allowed the use of all the. ancient 

xfj . w ww oa r. --• Mtf 

poetic &et, in'«iiv tiftvaic nwaMipe. biitw« hmrc^ M be- 
fore oba«ir««(l, <litpb««tcsof cacb^ Bgr««iD^i[) KraTnnfent,' 
tboiigh..iliAei'in)r tn-tm.'uui«,* and wliicli make iHffet«ii(r 
ini(>FeitMmi>i «■ the (^ar; >n Q|j)ilenc« pecntiar to «itp 
lanr'iHge, and wbich ma; be the lource uf i biimilliiM 
Vitnetf^ - ' 

or roETioiL pavsgi:. 

There are two sorts of paus 
Ibr melody, pprftr.tly (Kr^lJnct f 
mer may be called tautiaial, tl 

The lentential \w\f.r.?, ??e M 
by llie name ol«tO|M, and r/hic 
c« the comma, semicolon, colou. i^iiu iienuu. 

The harmonic pauHee may ba Hiibdivided into the^no/ 
p(««e, aod the efri-jraf pauiie. Theie aatttetimei cotDctde 
X'iSh the tentential |i 9 ime, sometimes hare aa iDdegiendent 
atat^v tb«t i>. eijst ^vtiera there ia no stop in tbe lense. 

The dnal |Hi<iae takea plice at the end of the line, ' 
etetea Uie venn, and niriu tha me an u re : the CKsuraJ 
ditides it intir equal or une»inal partj). 

The final pause preserves t'>e melody, witbent iotei^'- 
ftring with the ecsiKC. For the pause iUcIt' per&cify 
marks the bound of the metre ; and being made on}y l^. 
a »iispeii^ion of l!ie vo'ce, not by any change of note, H 
can never affect the teiv-e. This is net the only advarir,- 
tag« gained to numbers, by thi^ final pa^se or stop of 
XiSpefisio]]. It aUo prevents that monotony, that eune- 
neM of note at the end of lices, which, however pleu* 
ing to a rude, ia disgjfting to a delicate ear. For b| , 
this dnal pause hta no peculiar note of its own, hot 
alvays takes that which belongs to the preceding word, 
k changes continaally with the matter, and is as varv>M 
u the senfe. 

It is the final pavr; Trhicii alone, on many occasions, 
•ttrks the difierence between prose and verse ; which 
wni be evideut from the following arrangomeat of a ,fis.w , 
poetical liae<. 

* Moiemmt uH nwanre >k (hm diitmcniiilirJ. JHhrannit m ir w u n tb* 
FWUM'X'idn'of «andi,'«tw(ba'rnnt>trUiK temak, Crom Im^ In fhoi^ 

VAUMTH. JfaHMTI licDifal Ite ffTOfSTtiOi of tJBe, totb IK NOdl nA' 

or mnf$ ifBt disobed^Bce, «biI Hit ftwt of that for- 
Uddbtt ii^ftt vv^i^M iB<»rtol tl»te kf^ni^ 4e«tb into tb« 
WQrU» Mid mU^oiir wo, with ksi a£ £d^» tSlioiie g^reater 
Mso reitore tia, aad regtao the hiittifiil sei^ nug hea- 

A stTftfiger to the poem wooU not eai^ discoTer that 
Ab WM Terse ; but woaM tdke it for poetical prcwe. Bj 
property adjiMting the final fanse* we shall restore the 
f9mt^ to its true state of verse 

Of maa^s first disobedience > and the fi*t|it 
Of that (brhiddei) tree* whose mortal taste 
Brought death into the world, and all our wo^ 
With loss of Eden, till one greater m^ia 
' Restore os, and regain the blissfol seat. 
Sing, heaTealjr muse i 

These examples show the necessity of readio;^ Muk 
r^rse, in such a manner, as to make every line sensible 
lo the ear ; (or, what is the use of melody, or for m\a3i 
•nd has the poet composed in verse, if, in reading his 
lines, we suppress his numbers, by omittiBg the final 
pause; and degrade them, by our pronunciAtioi^, i^r 
IMte prose ? 

The Cesnra is commonly on the ^jurth, fifth, or sixdk 
sgpMabie of heroic verse 
Oiirtheiba#tii'syliatde> or at the end of tiie second f&ni*. 

Th6 stiver eel" in shining volumes rolled. 
The rellow carp'^ in scales bedropp'd with go1& 
Qathe fifth syllable, or in the middle of the ttird fo^: 

Roond broken columns^' clasping ivy twin'd^ 
O^er heaps of rnin^ :,talkM the stately hind. 
'^ Uie sixth syllable, or at the end of the ^ird ttkA i U9 
Oh s^y what stranger cause" yet unexplored, 
Could make a gentle belle'' reject a lord. 
A Vm» may be di%*ided into three portions, by twiT 
ttssuras : as, 

Outstretch' d he lay^ on the cold ground'^ and oft ^ 
. Look'd up to beav'n. 
^There is another mode of dividing linesj well suited te 
ft$ aaiore oC the oou^let, by kKroducing semi-paiiiM% 

^irbich divide the litae into foar paina^s. Tliis sjeaiirpaiife 
may be caMed-a demi-casura^ 

The fbllbwing lines admit of, and exemplify it 

Glows' while he reads" but trembles' as he writes^ 
. Reason' the card" but passion' is the g^le. 
Rides' in the whirlwind" and directs' the storm* 


Having shown the general nature of feet and panset, 
the constituent parts of verse, we shall now point ont 
more particulatlj, their use and importance. 

Melody, harmony, and expression, are the three great 
objects of poetic numbers. By melody, is meant, a pleas- 
ing e^ct produced on the ear, from an apt arrangement 
of the constituent parts of verse, according to the laws of 
measure and movement. By harmony^ an effect produ- 
ced by an action of the mind, in comparing the different 
members of a verne with each other, and perceiving a 
due and beautiful proportion between them. By ex- 
pre«8ioQ, such a choice and arrangement of the constitu- 
ent parts of verse, as serve to enforce and illustrate the 
thought or the sentiment. 

We sball c<msider each of these three oligects in versi 
fication^ both with respect to the feet and the pauses. 

Ifit. With regard to melody. 

From the examples which we have given of verses 
composed in all the principal feet, it is evident that a 
considerable portion of melody is found injeach of them, 
though in diflepent degrees. Verses made up of pure 
Iambics have an excellent melody. 

That the final and ca^nral pauses contribute to melody, 
eamiot be doubted by any person who reviews the in- 
stances which -we have already given of those pausesr 
To form lines of the first melody, the csesura must be at 
the end of the sidcondy or of the third foot, or in the mid- 
dle of the third. 

2d, With respect to harmony. 

Verses composed of Iambics have indeed a fine har- 
ftiony; but as thb stress of the voice, in repeating such 
verses, is always in the same places, that is, on every 
sejcond syllable, such a uniformit7 would disgust the etff 

M2Q EiNGLISU OR^MMAR. X^^^^^^^^*^^ 

in a loDff succession ; and therefore s,uch changes wer« 
sought lor, as might introduce the pleasure of variety, 
ivithout prejudice to melody ; or which might even con- 
tribute to its improvement. Of this nature waa the in- 
troductioa of the Trochee, to form the first loot of aa 
heroic verse : as, 

FIvotirs to none, t5 all she smiles gxt^nds» 
O'fl she rejects, but never once offends. 
Each of these lines begins with a Trochee ; the rt- 
if^ainin^ feet are in the Iambic movement, la the foU 
lowing line of the same movement, the fourth foot is n- 

All th^se dur noti5ns vain, gees &nd derides. 
The next change admitted for the sake of variety, with- 
out prejudice to melody, is the intermixture of ryrrhia 
and Spondees ; in which, two impressions in the one foot 
make up for the want of one in the other ; and Vno lon^ 
Syllables compensate two short ones, so as to make the 
sum of the quantity of the two feet, equal to two iambice* 

Cn the green bank t5 look into ih.€ clear 
Sm&oth lake thiit to me seemM another sky^ 

Stdod rard stood v&st infinitude confined. 

The next variety admitted is that of the Amphibrach- 
Which manf I bard hid ch4unted mk[yj % d&y. 

In this line, we find that two of the feet are Amphi- 
hrachs; and three. Iambics. 

We have before shown that the caesur . improves the 
melody of verse ; and we shall now sp^ak of its other 
more important office, that of being the chief source of 
harmony in numbers. 

The first and lowest perception of harmony, by meaoi 
of the cssura, arises from comparing two members of the 
same line with each other, divided in the manner to be 
seen in the instances before mentioned ; because the 
beauty of proportion in the members, according to each 
of these divisions, is founded in nature ; being as one to 
two— two to three— or three to two. 

The next degree arises from comparing the memben 
^f a couplet, or two contiguous hues : as, 

See the bold youth" strain up the tbreat'ning atee|i» 
:^ ^fuih thro' the thicketi^ d^WB ik^ valleys eweef ,. ^^ 

I-lere we find the cassiira of the first lioe, at the end cf 
the Becood foot ; and in the middle of (he third foot, in 
the last line. 

Hang o'er their coursefs' heads" with ea<^r speed, 
And earth rolls back" beneath the fljing* gteed. 
In this couplet, the caesura is at the end of the third 
ibot, in the first line ; and of the second, in the latter line. 
The next perception of harmony arises from comparing 
a greater number of Knes, and observing the relative pro- 
portion of the couplets to each other, in point of similaritj^ 
aod dirersity, as : 

Thy forests Windsor'' and thy green retreats, 
At once the monarches'' and the muse's seats, 
Invite my lays." Be present Sylvan maids, 
Unlock your springs" and open all your shades. 
Not half so swift" the trembling doves can fly. 
When the fierce eagle" cleaves the liquid sky ; 
Not half so swiftly" the fierce eagle moves, 
"- When through the clouds" he drives the trembling 
In this way, the comparison of lines variously appor- 
tioned by the different seats of the three cjesuras, may be 
the source of a great variety of harmony, consistent with 
the finest melody. This is still increased by the intro- 
duction of two caesuras, and much more by that of semi- 
panses. The semi-pauses double every where the terms 
of comparison ; give a more distinct view of the whole and 
the parts; afford new proportions of measurement, and 
an ampler scope for diversity and equahty, those source! 
of beauty in harmony. 

.. Warms' in the sun" refreshes' in the breeze. 
Glows' in the stars" and blossoms' in the trees ; 
' Lives' through all life" extends' through all extent, 

; Spreads' undivided" operates' unspent. 

3d. The last object in versification regards expression. 

When men express^ their sentiments by words, they na- 
turally fall into that sort of movement of the voice, 
which is consonant tp that produced by the emotion in 
the mind ; and the Dactylic or Anapaestic, the Trochaic, 
Iambic, or Spondaic, prevails even in common discourse, 
accarding to the different nature of the sentiments ex- 

9&t ENGLISH oRAHtfAA. (VersificatioB. 

f ressed. To iikiitate nature, therefore, the poet, in ar- 
rangingr his words in the artificial composition of verse, 
must t^ce care to make the movement correspond to the 
sentiment, by the proper use of the several kinds of feet: 
and this is the first and most general source of expression 
in numbers. i 

That a judicious management of the feet and pauses^ 
may be peculiarly expressive of particular operations and 
f entimeiits, will suHTiciently appear to the learner, by a few 
Select examples under each of those heads. 

In the following instance, the vast dimensions of Satan 
are shown by an uncommon succession of long syllables, 
which detain us to survey the huge arch fiend, in his fixed 

So strctchM oiit huge in length the &rch Bend liy. 

The next example affords instances of the power of a 
Trochee beginning a line, when succeeded by an Iambus 

. — a nd sheer within ^ 

Lights on Ms feet : as when a prowling wolf » 

hekps o'er the fence with ease into the fold. 

The Trochee which begins the line shows Satan in the 
act of lighting: the Iambus that follows, fixes him-<- 
*» Lights on his feet.'' 

The same artifice, in the beginning of the next line, 
makes us see the wolf — " lelip o'er the fence.'* — But as 
the mere act of leaping over the fence, is not the only 
circumstance to be attended to, but also the facility with 
which it is done, this is strongly marked, not only by the 
smooth foot wliich follows — " with ease" — itself very ex- 
pressive, but likewise by a Pyrrhic preceding the last 
foot — ** into the fold" — which indeed carries tne wolf— 
*' with ease int6 the fold." 

The following instances show the effects produced by 
eassurag, so placed as to divide the line into very unequaJ 
portions : such y« that afier the first, and before the last 

thus with the year , . ' 

Seasons return, but not to me returns ^ " 

Day" or the sweet approach of even or mom. "^ 

Here the ctesura a.fter the first semipede Day^u>j^9 US 

VersificatioB.) -"* fkosoby. f33^ 

uhexpectecNly, and forcibly impresses the imagination with 
the greatness of the author's loss, the loss of sight 

No sooner had th' Almighty ceasM, but all 

The multitude of angels, with a shout 

Loud" as from numbers without number^ sweet 

As from blest voices uttering joy. 

There is something very striking in this uncommoQ 

CKsura, which suddenly stops the reader, to reflect on the 

importance of a. particular word. 

We shaU close the subject^ with an example containing 
the united powers of many of the principles which hav% 
been explained. 

Dire w&s the t6sslng" dfiep the groans* Despair* 
Tended the sick" busiest from cSich to cofich" 
And dver them trithnph^nt de&th" hfe d^rt* 
Shook" bQt d^l&y*d to strike. 

Many of the rules and observations respecting Prosody, 

are taken from *' Sheridan's Art of Reading ;" to which 

book the Compiler refers the ingenious student, for mof # 

extensive information on the subject* 


( «34 ) 


PcwcuuATiON IS the art of dividing a written compo- 
sition into sentences, or parts of sentences, by points or 
stop, for the purpose of marking the different pauses 
which the sense, and an accurate pronunciation require. 

The Comma represents the shortest pause ; the Se- 
micolon, a pause double that of.the comma; the Colon, 
double th9.t of the ^micolon ; and the Period, dooUe 
that of the colon. 

The precise quantity or duration of each paa^e, cannot 
be defined ; for it varies* with the time of the wkole. The 
same composition maj be rehearsed in a quicker or a slow- 
er time ; but the proportion between the pauses should be 
eVer invariable. 

In order more clearly to determine the proper applica- 
Hon of the points, we must distinguish between an intptr* 
feet phrase, a simple Hntence^ and a compound sentence. 

An imperfect phrase contains no assertion, or does not 
amount to a proposition or sentence : as, ^'Therefore; 
ui haste ; studious of prrise." 

A simple sentence has but one subject, and one finite 
verb, expressed or imphed : as, ** Temperance preservei 

A compound sentence has more than one subject, or one 
finite verb, either expressed or understood , or it consists 
•f t4ro or more simple sentences connected together : as, 
•*Good nature mends and beautifies all objects ;" " Virtue 
refines the affections, but vice debases tliem.*' 

In a sentence, the subject and the verb, or either of 
Ihem, may be accompanied with several adjuncts: as, the 
•bject, the end, the circumstance of time, place, manner, 
and the like : and the subject or verb may be either im- 
mediately connected with them, or mediately \ that is, by 

* As puDctimtioQ Is inil tided to sad both the sense, and tiie prommciatSoB of 
a fmtence, it coold not have been exdunrely discuaeed under ttie part of Syn- 
tnx. or of Prosody. The nature of the sabject, its exteot'aiid inaprtaocev and 
the gramma^ icHl knowledge which h presupposes, have induced wlo maks it a 
dikUnct and subsequent artidt. 

CamBEi&«) pyircruATioN, S36 

being connected with somethina^ which is connected with 
sotae other, and so on : as, " The mind, unoccupied with 
useful knowledge, becoinea a magazine of trifles and foir 

Members of sentences maybe divided into simple a»d 
compound members. See page 125. 


The Gomma usually separates those parts of a sen- 
tence, which, though very closely connected in sense 
and construction, require a pause between them. 

Ruts I. With respect to a simple sentence, the several 
words of which it consists have so near a relation to ea<^ 
other, that, in general, no }K>ints are requisite, except a 
full stop at the end of it : as, " The fear of the Lord is tht 
beginning of wisdom." " Every part of matter swarms 
with living creatures." 

A simple sentence, however, when it is a long one, afid 
the nominative case is accompanied with inseparable^ ad^ 
jun^'ts. may admit of a pause immediately before the verb : 
as, ^^ The good taste of the present age, has not allowed 
us to neglect the cultivation of the Engjttsh language :" 
** To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, ia a real • 
defect in characten" 

Rule ii. When the connexion of the different parts of* 
simple sentence is interrupted by an imperfect phrase, a 
comma is usually introduced before tiie beginning, and al 
the end of this phrase ; as, "I remember, wth gtaiitudt^ 
his goodness to me :" ** His work is, in many re$p€ets, very 
imperfect. It is, therefore, not much approved.** But when 
these interruptions are ^ight and unimportant, the com- 
ma is better omitted ; as, ** Flattery is certainly pernici* 
ons ;" ** There in surely a pleasure in beneficence.** 

In the generality of compound sentences, there is fre- 
quent occasion for commas. This will appear from the 
following rules ; some of which apply to simple, as well 
as to compound sentences. 

Rule in When two or more nouns occur in the same 
construCTion, they are parted by a comma: as, ** Reason, 
'virtue, answet one great aim:" " The husband, wife, ^ 

2|M ENaLisH eRAimiR. " . (Commau 

And children, suffered extrenaely :"* " They took away 
their furniture, clothes, and 8to6k in trade :'' " He ia 
akemately supported by his father, his uncle, and his 
elder brother." 

From this rule there is mostly an exception, with re- 
gard to two nouns closely connected by a conjunction : as, 
** Virtue and yice form a strong contrast to each other :'* 
'* Libertines call religion bigotry or superstition ;" *' There 
is a natural difference l>etween merit and demerit, virtue 
€md vice, wisdom and folly." But if the parlt connected 
are not short, a comma may be inserted, though the 
conjunction is expressed : as, ** Romances may be said to 
be miserable rhapsodies, or dangerous incentives to evil;'* 
*' Intemperance destroys the strength of our bodies, and 
the vigour of our minds." 

Rule iv. Two or more adjectives belonging to the same 
substantive are likewise separated by commas: as, ** Plain, 
honest truth, wahits no artificial covering ;" " David was 
a brave, wise, and pious man ;'' '* A woman, gentle, sen- 
sible, well-edocated, and religious;'^ "The most inno- 
cent pleasures are the sweetest, the most rational, the 
most affecting, and the most lasting*^ 

But two adjectives, immediately connected by a con- 
junction, are not separated by a comma: as, " True 
worth is modest and retired /' " Truth is fair and artless, 
simple and sincere, uniform and consistent." '* We 
must be wise or foolish ; there is no medium." 

Rule v. Two or more verbs, having the same nomina- 
tive case^ and immediately following one another, are 
also separated by commas : as, " Virtue supports in adver- 
fiity, moderates in prosperity :" ** In a letter, we may ad- 
rise, exhort, comfort, request, and discuss." 

Two verbs immediately connected by a conjunction, are 
an exception to the above rule : as, *' The study of natu- 
ral history expands and elevates the mind ;'^ " Whether 
we eat or drink, labour or sleep, we should be moderate." 

Two or more participles are subject to a similar rule, 
and exception: as, " A man, fearing, serving, and loving 
his Creator ;" ** He was happy in being loved, esteemed, 

• As a considerable pause in pronunciation, is necessary betnmi tlim lait 
naon and the verb, a comma should !ie inserted to denote it Butas oo paxjst 
n allowable between the last a<3yective and the douo, uuder Rule IV. Ille 
^noipa 15 there properly omitted See W^LtK^^li's EUmmb qf Elocution. ^- 

Comma.) punctcatiow.^ €37 

and respected ;'' *' By being a^hnired and flattered, w^^ 

are often corrupted.** 

Rule vi. Two or more adverbs immediately succeed* 

ing- one atiother, must be separated by commas : aSf 

4* We are fearfully, wonderfully framed ;" " Success ge* 
nerally depends on acting prudently, steadily, and vigor- 
ously, in what we undertake.^ 

But when two adverbs are joined by a conjunction, 
they are not parted by the comma : as, '* Some men sin 
deliberately and presumptuously ;" *' There is no mid* 
die state ; we must live virtuously or vtttously ^ 
- Rule vii. When participles are followed by something 
that depends an them, they are generally separated from 
the rest of the sentence by a comma: as, ^' The king, 
approving the platiy put it in execution ;*' ** His talents^ 
Jormed for great enterprises^ could not fail of rendering 
him conspicuous ;" " All mankind compose one familyi 
assemhled under the eye of one common Father." 

Rule viii. When a conjunction is divided by a phrase 
or sentence from the verb to which it belongs, such in- 
tervening phrase has usually a comma at each extremity.: 
as, ** They set out early, and^ before the close of the 
day, arrived at the destined place." 

Rule ix. Expressions in a direct address, are separated 
from the rest of the sentence by commas : as, '* My son^ 
give me thy heart ;" " I am obliged to you, piy friends, 
for your many favours." 

Rule x. The case absolute, and the infinitive mood ab- 
solute, are separated by commas from the body of the 
sentence: as, " His father dying, he succeeded to the 
estate ;" *' At length, their ministry performed, and race 
well run, they left the world in peace ;" ** To confess 
the truth, I was much in fault." 

Role xi. Nouns in apposition, that is, nouns added to 
other nouns in the same case, by way of explication or 
illustration, when accompanied with adjuncts, are set 
off by commas : as, *' Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, 
was eminent for his zeal and knowledge ;" *' The but- 
terfly, child of the summer, flutters in the sun." 

But if such nouns are single, or only form a proper 
name, they are not divided : as, '^ Paul the apostle ;". 
•* The exBperor Antoninus wrote an excellent book." 


RtTLB XII. Simple members of sentences cennected by 
tomparatives, are for the mobt part distinguished bj a 
«omma : as, ** As the hart panteth after the water brooks, 
«o doth ray soul pant after thee ;" ** BetUr is a dinner of 
herbs with love, tfian a stalled ox and hatred with it." • 

If the members in comparative sentences are short, the 
comma is, in general, better omitted : as, •* How much 
bttfer is it to get wi«dom than gold I'' ** Mankind act often* 
tr from caprice tJiun reason.'* 

Rule xiif. When words are placed in opposition to eacA 
•ther, or with some marked variety, they require to be 
fctingnished by a comma : as, 

" Tho' deep, yet clear ; tho' gentle, yet not dull ; 
Strong, without rage ; without o'erflowiinj;, fuli.*' 

" Good men, in this frail, imperfect state, are oficD /bund, 
not only in union with^ but in opposition to, the view* 
und conduct of one another.'* 

So'd^ctimes when the word with which the last preposi- 
tion agrees, is single, it is better to omit the comma be- 
fore it : as, '* Many states were in alliance withy and un 
der the protection of Rome." 

The same rule and restrictions must be applied when 

tw?o or more nouns refer to the same preposition : as, 

*< He was composed both under the threatening, and at the 

^ approach, of a cruel and lingering death ;" " He was 

not only the king, but the father of his people." 

Rule xiv. A remarkable expression, or a short obser- 
vation, somewhat in the manner of a quotation, may be 
properly marked with a comma : as, '* It hurts a man's 
pride to say, I do not know ;" ** Plutarch calls lying, the 
vice of slaves." 

Rule xv. Relative pronouns are connective words, 
and generally admit a comma before them : as, '' He 
preaches suUimely, who lives a sober, ri^teous, and 
pious life ;" *^ There is no charm in the female sex^which 
can snpply the place of virtue." 

But when two members, or phrases, are closely con- 
nected by a relative, restraining the general notion of the 
antecedent to a particular sense, the conuna should be 
omitted : as, ** Self-denial is the sacrifice which virtue 
must make ;" " A man who is of a detracting |pirit, will 
misconstrue the most innocent words that can oe pat to- 

gether.'* In the latter example, the assertiop is not of 
•* a man in general,'* but of *' a man who is of a detract- 
ing spirit ;" and therefore they should not be separated. 
The fifteenth rule applies equally to cases in which the 
relative is not expressed, but understood : .as, <* It was 
from piety, warm and unaffected, that his morals derived 
streng^th." *' This sentiment, habitual and strong, iaflu- 
enced his whole cowhict.'* In both of these examplefli« 
the relative and verb which was, are understood. 

Rule xvi. A simple member of a sentence, contained 
within another, or following another, must be distinguisb- ' 
ed hy the comma : as, '* To in>provc time fihilst we arc 
blessed with health, will smooth the bed of sickness.*' 
*' Very oflen, while we are complaining of the vanity, 
and the evils of human life, we make that vanity, and 
we increase those evils.'* 

If, however, the members succeeding each other, are 
very closely connected, the comma is unnecessary : as, 
" Revelation tells us how we may attain happiness.'' 

When a verb in the infinitive mood, follows its govern ! 
ing verb, with several words between them, those words 
should generally have a comma at the end of them ; as^ 
** It ill becomes good and wise men, to oppose and degrade 
one another." 

Several verbs in the infinitive mood, having a common 
dependence, and succeeding one another, are also divided 
by commas : as, ** To relieve the indigent, to comfort the 
afflicted, to protect the innocent, to reward the deserv- 
ing, are humane and noble employments.^ I 
Rule xvir. When the verb to be is followed by a verb 
in the infinitive mood, which, by transposition, might be 
made the nominative case to it, the former is generally 
separated from the ktter verb, by a comma : as, *' The 
most ohvious remedy is, to withdraw from all associations 
with bad men.*' " The first and most obvious remedy 
against the infection, is, to withdraw from aU associations 
with bad men." ! 
Rule xviii. When adjuncts or circmnstances are of im- 
portance, and often when the natural order of them is in- 
verted, they maybe set off by commas : as, ^* Virtue must 
be formed and supported, not by unfrequent acts, but by 
MljT and repeated exertions*" *' Vkee, like shadows^ 

f !• KKQLlbU GKAHMAA. (AemiCOloB 

towards the eycimfi[|^ of Uk, grow great and moostrous.^ 
** Out iotereits are interwoven bj threads innumerable ;" 
« By threads innumerable, our interests are interwoven." 

Rule zix. Where a verb is nndenttood, a comma maj 
often be proper^ introduced. This is a general rule, 
which, besides comprising some of the preceding^ rules, 
will apply to many cases not determined by any of them 
as, '* From law arises security; from eecurtty, curiosity, 
from curiosity, knowledge." In this example, the veiib 
"larises" is understood before " curiosity" and " know- 
ledge ;^' at which words a considerable pause is necessajy. 

Rule xx. The words, nay, $o^ kence, agaiuy firsl^ se- 
€ondlyy formerly^ now^ lastly^ once morey ab&ve all, on the 
eorUrary, in the next place, in short, and all other words jafid 
phrases of the same kind, must generally be sepurated 
from the context by a comma : as; *' Retp ember &y best 
and first £riend ; formerly, the supporter of thy ifilMkcy^ 
and the gpiide of thy childhood ; now, the i^ardiaa of 
thy youth, and the hope of thy coming years." " He 
feared want, hence, he over-yalued riches.'* " Thiscon- 
* duct may heal the difference, nay, it may constantly pre- 
vent any in future." " Finally, I shall only repeat what 
has been oflen justly said." ** If the spring put forth no 
blossoms, in sununer there will be no beauty, and in au- 
tumn, no fruit ; so, if youth be trifled away without im- 
provement, riper years may be contemptible, and old age 

In many of the foregoing rules and examples, great re- 
gard must be paid to the length of the clauses, and the 
proportion which they bear to one another. An attention 
to the sense of any passage, and to the clear, easy com- 
munication of it, will, it is presumed, with the aid of the 
preceding rules, enable the student to adjust the proper 
pauses, and the places for inserting the commas. 

^ CHAPTER ri. 

The Semicolon is used for dividing a compoimd seor 
tence into two or more parts, not so closely coimectej 
as those which are separated by a comma* nor jet ao 
iittle dependent on each olber^ at thoie waicb are di^ 
tifiiguisbedi»7 a coiod* 

' The semicolon is sometimes used, when the preceding 
member of the senteDce does not of itself give a complete 
i^eDse, but drpends on the following* clause : and some- 
tiaiei» when the sense of that member would be complete 
without the concluding: one : as in the following instan- 
ces* " As the desire of approbation, when it works accord*' 
ing to reat^oQv improves the amiable part of our species 
in every thing that is laudable ; so nothing is more de- 
^ructi% e to thern when it is governed bj vanity and folly.^ 
** Experieace teaches us, tliat an entire retreat frtrfri'* 
worldly aliair?, ;d not "vhat religion reauires ; oor doea it 
%ven enjoin a l..^g retreat fiom them.'* 

*^ wtraws swim upoti the surface ; but {learls lie at the ^ 

' * Pililosophcr? assert, that Nature is unlimited in her 
operations ; that she has inexhaustible treasures in reserve ; 
that knowledge uUl always be progressive ; and that alt 
jfuture feoeratlona will contiuae to make diSGOveries, ef 
which we have not the teast idea *' 

:^rAPTER iif. 


Thb Col<m is used to divide a sentence into two pi 
9Bore parts, less connected than those which are s€^)A» 
tated by a seimccJcii; but not so independent as eepa* 
Irate di^nct sentences. 

The Coloij may be properly applied in the three foi 
lowing cases. 

J. When a member of a sentence is complete in itself, 
but followed by some supplemental remark, or further 
illustration of the subject : as, '* Nature felt her inability 
to extricate herself from the consequences of guilt : the 
gospel reveals the plan of Divine interposition and aid.* 
•'Nature confessed some atonemdnt t^ be necessary: the 
gospel discovers that the necessary atonement is made." 

2. When several semicolons have preceded, and a still 
greater pauae is necessary, in order to mark the connect* 
mg or concluding sentiment : as, ** A divine legislator 
uttering bis voice from heaven; an almighty governor, 
^tfetcfc^ig 46iih hk a«ai i^ paaii^ or re^^rd ; in^irming 


t4t IHK}M«H MMOfAR. ^-^^'^ (Fsftolt 

US of perpetual r^iprepared hereafter fot the righteous, 

aihi ofin/iignation and wrath awaiting the wicked : thete 
are the consiile rations which overawe the world, whidi 
support integrity, and check guilt." 

3. The Ct>]oD is commonly used when an eirample, a 
quotation, or a speech is introduced: as, ** The Scrip- 
tures gi?e us an amiahle represeutation of the Deity, ia 
Ijiese words : * God »s love.' " *' He was of^en heard to 
aay ; * I have done with the world, and 1 am willing to , 
Uaveit." ^ * 

The propriety of unng a colon, or semicolon, is some* 
times determined hy a conjunction's being expressed, nr 
not expressed : as, •* Do not flatter yourselves with \he" 
hope of perfect happiness : there is no such thing in the 
world." *' Do not flatter yourselves with the nope of 
perfect happiness ; for there is no sach thing in thi worUy 



-> Whejc a sentence is complete and independent, m4. 
act connected in construction with the following seiv^ 
tence, it is marked with a Period. 

Some sentences are independent of each other, both in 
their sense and construction : as, *' Fear God. Honour' 
the king. Have charity towards all men." Others are 
independent only in their grammatical construction/: as, 
*'• The Supreme Being changes not, either in his desire 
to promote our happiness, or in the plan of his admiois^ 
tration. One light, always shines Upon us from ahove.' 
One clear and direct path is always pointed out to man." 

A period may sometimes be admitted between^wo sen- 
tences, though thejr are joined by a disjunctive or copu- 
lative conjunction. For the quaUty of the point does not 
always depend on the connective particle, but on the 
aense and structure of sentences ; as, " Recreations^ 
tliough they may he of an innocent kind, require steady 
government, to keep them within a due and limited pro- 
vince But such as are of an irregular and vitious nature ^ 
are not to be governed^ but to be banished from eveiy 
^ell-regulated ini^dt 


Interrogation.^ ' w»cWATioiii * .fti 

** He who lifte Wmself up to tbe obseiratfon and nhtice 
of the world, is, of all men, the least likely to avoid cei> 
sure. For be draws upon himself a thousand eyes, that 
win narrowly inspect him in every part." 

The period should be used after every abbreyiated word: 
18, *♦ M. S. P, S. N. B. A. D. O. S. N. S.^* &c. 


Of the Dash, Noie^ of hterrogcUwn and Exclamation, ^€ 

THS DA8&. 

Th» Dasb, though often used improperiyby hasty and 
tnooherent writers, may be introduced with propriety, 
where the sentence breajcs off abruptly ; where a signifi- 
cant pause is required ; or where there is an unexpected 
turn in the sentiment : as, *' If thou art he, so much re- 
spected once— but, oh ! how fallen t how degraded !*' '* If 
acting conformably to the will of our Creator ; — if pro- 
noting the welfare ^ mankind around us ; — if securing 
our own happiness ; — are objects of the highest moment : 
' — then we are loudly called upon, to cultivate and extend 
*he g^eat interests of religion and virtue." 

** Here lies the great ^False marble, where ? 

Nothing but sordid dust lies here." 
Besides the points which mark the pauses in discourse, 
there are others, which denote a different modulation of 
Toice, in correspondence to the sense. These are. 
The Interrogation point, ? 
The Exclamation point, ! 

The Parenthesis- ( ) 


A note of Interrogation is used at the end of an interroga- 
tive sentence ; that is, when a question is asked : as, *^ Who 
. will accompany me ?" '* Shall we always be friends ?" 

Q^estioiM which a person asks himself in contemplation* 
ought to be terminated by points of ii^terrogation : ^s, 
'* Who adorned the heavens with such, exquisite beaotr^ 

• »^- 

t44 mmwi oiUJWia. * 

frtant revolutians ?" 

A point of iDterrogatton 19 improper after ^enteoees 
which are not questions, but only expresaioiift^ of admin 
Mon, or of 9oaie other emotion* 

*" How many instances have we of chastity and exed' 
leuce in the fair sex !*' 

** With what prudence does the son of Siraeh advise na 
in the choice of our companions !" 

A note of interrogation should not be employed, in case# 
where it is only said a question has been-asJtr^, aaJ where 
the words are not u&ed as a question. ** The Cyprians asked 
me, why 1 wept." To give this sentence the interrogative 
ferm, it should be expressed thjo^ ; ** The Cyprians said to 
rae, ' Why dost thou weep V '* 


The note of Exclamation is applied to expressioBB o( 
tudden emotion, surprise, joy, grief, &c. and also to invp*^ 
cations or addresses : as, ^ My friend ! this conduct an^aiZ6S 
me i^ '* Bless the Lord, O my soul i and forget not all bia 
benefits T* 

** Oh ! had we both our humb)g state maintaia'd, . 

And safe in peace and poverty l-emain'd i'* 

'* Hear me, O Lord ! for thy loving kindness is gfreatl* 

It IS difficult, in some cases, to distinguish between an 
interrogative and exclamatory sentence ; but a sentence, 
in which any wonder or admiration is expressed, and do 
answer either expected or implied^ may be always properly 
tenninated by a note of exclamation: as, ** How mud» 
vanity io the pursuits of men !*' ** Who can sufficiently 
express the goodness of our Creator !** " What is more 
amiable than virtue !** 

The interrogation and exclamation points are indetermi- 
nate as to their quan^ty or time, and may be equivalent 
in that respect to a semicolon, a colon, or a period, as the^ 
«ense may require. They mark an elevation of the voice. 

The utility of the points of Interrogation and Exclama- 
tion, appears from the following examples, in which the 
meaning is signified and discriminated fiolely by the poiAUli 
*• What condescension !** 

Parenthesis.) i ktwctuation. 246 

" How great wa^ the 8acrt6ce !'^ 
- . . " How great was the sacrifice '^ 


' A Parenthesis is a clause coDtaining some necessary i» 
Ibrmatioji, ojt useful remark, introduced into the body ofa 
seatence obliquely, and which maybe omitted without io*- 
luring the graihmatical coostruction : as, 

** Know then this truth, (enough for man to know,) 

Virtue alone is happiness below/* 
** And was the ransom paid ? h was ; and paid 

(What can exalt his bounty more ?) for thee.** * 

** To gain, a posthumous reputation, is to save four or 

fiye letters (for what is a name besides ?) from oblivion.' 

* Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know 

4he law J how that the law hath dominion over a man as 

long as he liveth ?" i 

'. If the incidental clause is short, or .perfectly coincides 

with the rest of the sentence, it is not proper to use thft 

f)arenthetical characters. The following instances are 

therefore improper uses of the parenthesis. '* Speak yon 

^who saw) his wonders in the deep>" " Every planet (as 

Ihe Creator has made nothing in vain) is moat probably 

inhabited." *' He found them asleep again ; (for their eyes 

were Jieavy ;) neither knew they what to answer him." 

^ The parenthesis marks a moderate depression of the 

voice, and may be accompanied with every point which 

Uie sense would require, if the parenthetical characters 

.were omitted. It ought to terminate with the same kind 

of stop which the member has, that precedes it ; and to 

4pjoQtaiti that stop within, the parenthetical marks. We 

^ust, however, except cases of interrogation and excla- 

xnation : as, *< While they wish to please, (and why should 

tliey not wish it ?) they disdain dishonourable means.- 

** It was represented by an gyialogy, (Oh, how inadequate !) 

'Which was borrowed from pagani^." See (he Octan^ 

Qrammo^^ on this subject. 

X^re MM et&«r diarftcters, wbicli are freqnentlv mam 


Me of hi cwnp t ii ti^a^ and which maybe explained in tbis 
place, viz. 

An Apostrophe, marited ihas * is^sed to abbreriate or 
•hortCQ a word : as, hu far it in ; the? for though ; m^en &a 
tten ; judged for judged. It* chief use is to show <3te geoi" 
tive case of nouna : as, ''A man's property ; a Mr(»naui^ 

A Caret, marked thus a is placed where some i/v^of6 
liappens to be lei^ out in wi^iting, and which is inserteif 
over the line. This mark is ako called a circum^ei^ 
when placed over a particular irow^, to deoalie a loBg 
Byllabie : as, " EnphralesJ' 

A Hyphen, marked thus - is employed in oono^ecUng 
compounded words ; as, *' Lap-dog, tea-pot, pre«existence, 
self- love, to-morrow, motUer-in-law.^' 
- It is also used when a word is divided, and tfie former 
part is written or printed af the end of one line, and the 
tatter part at the be^a^nning of another. In *bis case,\tVa 
jplaced at the end of the drst Hne, not at the beginning of 
the j<econd. 

The Acute Accent, marked thus ' . ae^ " FancyJ* The 
Crrave thus * : as, ** FkvourJ*'' 

In English, the Accentual marks are chiefly used in 
fpelling- books and dictionaries, to mark the syllables which 
feqnire a particular stress of the voice in pronunciation. 

The stress is laid on long and shopt syllables indiscrinu- 
dately. In onier to distinguish the one from the otherf 
aome writers of dictionaries have placed the grave on the 
£>rmer, and the acute on the latter, in this manner: *' Mi- 
nor, mineral, lively, livid, rival, river." 

The proper mark to distinguish a long syllable, is this *: 
as, ** Rdsy ;" and a short one this " : as, ** Folly.'' This 
last mark i« called a breve. 

A Diaresis, thus mai'ked ", consists of two points placed 
ever one of the two vowels that would otherwise make 
a diphthong, and parts them into two syllables : a^ 
** Creator, co&djutor, atrial.'* 

t A Section, marked thus §, ia the division of a discoufsei 
-«r chapter, into less parts or portions. 

A Paragraph ^ <tenotes the beginning of a new subject 
•r a sentence not cafn^cted with the ibcegoing. Ths* 

i / 

dftaracter h dst iy used in the Old^.tiiditt tke Kair T««« 


A QjaoUtion '* *'* Two inverted commas are generallv 

placed at the begioniog of a phrase or a passage, whicn 

is quoted or transcribed from the speaker or author in 

his own words ; and two commas in their direct positioo^ 

are placed at the conclusion : as, I 

** The proper study of mankind is naan.'* I 

Crotchets or Brackets [ ] serve to enclose a word or 

sentence, which is to be explained in a note, or the ex* 

planatioo itself, or a word or a sentence which is intend 

ed to supply some deficiency, or to rectify some mistake* 

Kti Index or Hand Q^ points out a remarkable passage, 

or something that requires particular attention. 

A Bntee > is used in poetry at the end of a triplet or 

three lines, which have tlie same rhyme. 

Braces are also used to connect a number of words 
with one cotnmon term, and are introduced to prevents 
repetition In writing or printing. 

An Asterisk, or little star*, directs the reader to somf 
note in the margin, or at the bottom of the page. Two 
or three asterisks generally denote the omission of som^ 
ietters in a word, or of soFue bold or indeUcate expres- 
sion, or some defect in the manuscript 

An Ellipsis — is also used, when some letters in a word* 
or someword^ in a verse, are omitted as, ** The k — g, 
for *^ the king.^ 

An Obelisk, which is marked thus t, and Parallels thus J, 
together with the letters of the Alphabet, and ligures, 
are used as re^reoces to the margin^ or bottom of the 


It may not be impioper to insert, in this place, a few 
general directions respecting the division of a composi* 
Hon into paragraphs* 

Drtlerent subjects, unless they are vety short, or tecy 
numerous in small compass, should be separated into psp* 
ragraphs, t 

VVhen one subject is conttowed to a considev&ble lengthy 
^ larger divkMoa^ of il should h» put kiU» pairagi^phs 

24ft * ilNaiSX «ltAMMAl!L« */ . 

And it wi{] hare a good effect to focm the breaks », wlien i4 
cao property be done, at gentiments of the most weight, 
or that call for pecnliar attention. 

*^ The facts, premises, and conclusions, of a subject,' 

'sometimes naturally point out the separations into para- 

*graphs5 and each of these, when of great length, wiB 

again require subdivisions at their most distinctive parts. 

In cases which require a connected subject to be form* 

ed into several paragraphs, a suitable turn of expression, 

exhibiting the connexion of the broken parts, vviJi give 

beauty and force to the division. 5ec iht Octavo Gra/nrnar* 

DIRECTIONS respecting the we of capital letters* 

It was formerly the custom to begin every noun wit|i 
a capital: but as this practice was troublesome, and gave 
the writing or printing a crowded and confused appear 
"fence, it has^ been discontinued. It is, however, very 
proper to begin with a capital, 

1. The first word of every book, chapter, letter, note^ 
or any other piece of writing. 

2. The first word after a period ; and, if the two Sen^ 
lences are totally inckpendeiU, after a. note of interroga-^ 
tlon or exclamation. 

But if a number of interrogative or exclamatory sen- 
fences, are thrown into one general group ; or if th0 
construction of the latter sentences de|>ends on the for* 
^er, all of them, except the £rst, may begin with a small 
letter : as, *' How long, ye simple ones, will ye love sim- 

!>licity ? and the scorners delight in their scorning t and 
bols hate knowledge f ' *^ Alas ! how difierent ! yet how 
Mke the same !'' 

3 The appellations of the Deity ; as, " God, Jehovah, 
fte Aln^ghty, the Supreme Being, the Lord, Frovidemie, 
the Messiali, the .Holy Spirit.'' 

4. Proper names of persons, places, streets, raoontaint, 
l^ers, ships: aa* *' George, York^ the Strand, the Alps, 
^e Thaotes, the Seahorse." 

5. Adjectives derived from the proper names of places* 
, **^ Grecian, Roman, English, French, and Italian." 
^ Xte firit word ^ a qii^ta(&oii^ ia^oduced aiker m 

^mlon, or wtMit it u ia a direct form u, " Always r«- 
Buember this ancient maxim: ' iliyKelf.'" '* Ouv 
^reat Lawgiver eays, ' Take up tliy crasa daily, and fol- 
low me.' " But when a quolalion is brcL;;ht in ohliqiit'ly 
^ler a comma, a capital is ticiiiicejs^i'y : as, " Solouiun 
oliEcrves, ' that pri'^e goes before dcsli-iictioa.' " 

The firit woril oi an esaiu|)Ie may also very properly 

begin v^ith a crinital : sh, " Terojjtatioa proves ou» 


7. Every subslaDtive and principal word in the titles of 

books : B3, " Johnson's Dictionary of Ihn English Laa- 

^lase ;" " Thomson's Seasons ;" " Koliin'a Ancient 

iril of every line ia pottry. 
a I, and the interjection O, are written 
I 1 write :" " Hear, O earlh !" 

icides the preceding, may begin with 
ley are remarkably emphatioal. oi the 
ot the composition. 

i na y 




^^S the fandameDta) quality of style ! a quality so esseii* 
tial in eveiy kind of writing, that for tl^e want of it no* 
thing can atone. It is not to be considered as merely a 
hori of negative virtue, or freedom from defect. U b^ 
liigher merit : it is a degree of positive beauty. We ace 
pleased with an author, and consider him as deserving 
praise, who frees ns from all fatigue of searching for k^ 
meaning; who carries us through his subject without ai^ 
embarrassment or confusion ; whose style fiows alwa^ 
like a limpid stream, through which we see to the ve^ry 

The study of perspicuity and accuracy of expressH>]i 
consists of two parts : and requires attention, first, to Si$^ 
^ Wards and rhrases ; and then, to the Comtrudion ef 


4Jf VmMncmm and AcctrRAcv of Expressioit, nnik 
I reipect to nngU Words and Phrases, 

TuESB qualities of style, considered with regard to 
words and phrases, require the following properties: 




PimiTV of 8|^le consists in the »8e of such words, and 
such GOBttructioDSt iis belong to the idiom ol' the language 

which we spealr ; in op[K>^itton to word* and leases (hat 
lire taken from other languages, or that are uugramma* 
fk^al, obsolete, new-coined, or used without proper au- 
tiiority. All Huch words and phrases as the followiog^ 
•houid be avoided : ^otk he; i wist not ; erewhiie ; 6«- 
mH ; selfiauie ; delicattsst^ for delicacy ; politeisBy for po- 
liteoess; hauteur ^ for hanghtii^Scj ; incumhemunt ^ cmintxi' 
ly^ martyrised^ for eocunibrance, counesioo, martyred. 

Foreign and learned wor^%^ nnlet»i» where necessity re- 
quires them^sbouid never be admitted into oiir composition. 
Barren languages may needsucb assistance, but ours is not 
CKte of these. A multitode of Latin, words, in |iarticular» 
bave, of late, been poiired iu \ipon our language. On, 
0ome occa^ionsi they give an appearance of elevation and 
diguity to «tyle ; but they often reader it stiif and ap|>a* 
rently forced. In general, a plain, native style, is more 
intelligible to all readers ; and, by a proper management 
of words, it can be made as strong and expressive as this , 
£atinised English, or any foreign idioms 



' PnoFRtEtT of langitage is the selection of siicb words aa 
tbe best usage has appropriated t;o those ideas, which we. 
intend to express by th^m ; in opposition to low expressions;^ 
and to wor^ and phrases which would be less significant 
of the ideas that we mean to convey. Style may be pure, , 
that is, it may be strictly English, without Scotticisms or 
Gallicisms, or ungrammatical, irregular expressions of any^ 
fcffnd, and may, nevertheless, be deficient in propriety: for 
^6 words may be ill chosen, not adapted to the subject^ 
Dor fully expressive of the author's sense. 

To preserve propriety, therefore, in our words and. 
phraseS) we must avoid /<n» expressions ; supply words that ^ 
are inatUing ; be careful not to use the same word in differ^ 
^nt semes ; avoid the tnjudicious use of technical phrases^^ 
tftiVD^calor ambiguous words, unintelligible expressions, and , 
edl 5uM words and phrases as are not adapted to our meaning, 

t.- Avoid low expressions : such as, '* Topsy turvy, burly ^ 
IWrl J» feilgi0tt ; ton^^ a month's mind for a thing ^ aiH*« 



JSf ' AJ»i»EBrDni fPropnely; 

rjiag favotir trlth a person ; dancing attendance on t^ 

" Meantime the Britons, left to shift for themselvety 
were forced to call in the Saxons for their defence." The 
phrase " left to shift for theinsthtSy^ is rather a low phrase,, 
and too much in the familiar style to be proper in a grave 

2. Supply words that are wafittng, " Arbitrary power I 
look npon as a greater evil thr.n anarchy itself, as much as 
a savage is a happier state of life than a slave at the oar ;'^ 
it should have been, ** as much as ike state of a savage i$ 
liappier than that of a slave at the par.*' ** He ha« not 
treated this subject liberally, hj the views of others as 
well as his own ;" *' By advertmg to the views of others," 
would have been better. ** This generous action greatly 
increased his former services;'^ it should have been» 
'* greatly increased the merit of his former services."' " By 
the pleasures of the imagination or fancy (which 1 shaft 
use promiscuously) I here mean,*^ &c* This passage 
ought to have haa the word '^ terms" supplied, which 

• would have made it correct . ** tehm which I shall tue 

It m^iy be proper in this plkce to bBserve, flfat articl^i 
mnd prepositions are sometimes improperly omitted ; as in 
the following instances : " How immense the difi'erenee - 
between the pious and profane I" " Death is the common 
lot of all ; of good men aud bad." They should hare had 
the article and preposition repeated : ** How immense 
the difference between the piou" and fAc profane !'* ** Death 
is the common lot of all'; c/'^ood men and ofha^P 

The repetition of articles and prepositions is proper, 
when we intend to point out the o^ccts of which we speak, 
as distinguished from each other, or in contrast ; and when 
we wish that the reader's att&i*tion should rest on thiit 
distinction : as, " Our sight is at pxice the most delightful, 
i^nd the most usefiil of all our senses." 

3. In the savie sentence, be careful not to use the same Ti'ord 
too frequently^ nor in different s§nscs» ** One may have 
An air TSfhich proceeds from a just suffiiciencv and know^ 
ledge of the matter before him, which w^y natui^Uy pro- 
duce some motion* of his head and botly^ ar^i^^jiftigJat W^ 

Ili0 bettoh better Ui«A tb^ btr/' . 

^Fropncty.) KRaficmrV, ttt» f55 

The pronoun whdch is here thrice used, in such a man* 
©er as to throw. obscurity over the sentence* 

•* Gregory favoured the undertaking, for no other rea- 
■OD than this, that the manager, in countenance, favoured 
bis friend.^ It should have been, *^ resembled his friend.^ 

** Charily expands our hearts in love to God aud man: 
it is by the virtue of charity that the rich are blessed, and 
^e poor supplied, in this sentence, the word ^' charily'* 
is ioiproperly used in two different senses ; for the highest 
benevolence, and for almsgiving. 

4. Avoid the tnjudicipus use of te^nical terms* To in* 
fenn those who do not understand sea-phrases, that '* We 
tacked to the larboard, and stood off to sea," would be ex- 
pressing ourselves very obscurely. Technical plirases not 
Seing* in current use, but only the peculiar dialect of ft 
pardcular class, we should never use them but when we 
know they will be understood. 

5. Avoid equivocal or ambiguous words. The following 
leniences are exceptionable in this respect. ** As for sucF 
animab as are mortal ur noxious, we have a right to de* 
ftroy them.'' ** I long since learned to like notliing but 
idiat you do^ " He aimed at nothing less than the crown,'^ 
may denote either, ** Nothing was less aimed at by him 
than the crown,^' or ** Nothing inferior to the crown could 
satisfy his ambition." <' / will have m^rcy^ and not sacrifice.^ 
^he first part of this sentence denotes, '* I will exercise 
mercy ;" whereas it is in this place employed to signify, 
** I require others to exercise it." The translation should 
therefore have been accommodated to thes^ different 
meanings. ^* They Were both much more ancient among 
the Persians, than Zoroaster or Zerdusht." The or va 
this sentence is equivocal. It serves either as a copula- 
jtive to. synonymous words, or as a disjunctive of different 
things. If, therefore, the student should not know that 
Zoroaster and Zerdusht mean the same person, he wi|l 
mistake the sense. *' The rising tomb a lofly column 
bore :" " And thus the son the fervent sire addrest." Did 
the tomb bear the column, or the column the tomb ? Did 
the son address the sire, or the sire the son ? 

6. Avoid untntelHgihle and inconsistent words or phrasee 
*'l have observed,'* says Steele, " that the superiority 
amoiig &ese coffeehouse poUticiansi proceeds i^m ap 

opiaioii of g^Haatry and fashion/' This sentence, coa- 
«idered in itself, evidently conveys no meaning. First, It 
m not said whose opinion, their own, or that of others t 
Secondly, it is not said what opinion, or of what sort, fa« 
Voorable or unfavourable, true or false, but in ^peneraly 
*' an opinion of gallantry and fashion," which contains n^ 
definite expression of any meaning. With the joint assist- 
VUce of the context, rejection, and coi^ecture, we shall 
perhaps conclude that the author intended to say ; ** That ; 
the rank among these politicians was determined by the j 
opinion generally entertained of the rank, in point of gal* 
iantry and fashion, that each of them had attained.'* 

** This temper of mind," says an author, speaking of 
humility, ''keeps our understanding tight about ua.*^ 
Whether ihe author had any meaning in this expression 
or what it was, is not easy to detennine. 

Sometimes a writer runs on In a specious rer!>ositj^ 
tmusing his reader with 6ynon3rmous termis and identic^ 
propositions, weU- turned periods, and high sounding words; 
imt at the same time, using those words so indefinitely^ 
that the reader can either affix no meaning at alt to them, 
^t may affix to them almost any meaning he pleases. j 

" If it is asked," says a late writer, '* whence arises the 
barmony, or beauty of language ? what are the rules*fi>r 
^>taining it ? the answer is obvious. Whatever retiders 
a period sweet and pleasant, makes it also graceful. A 
good ^ar is the gift of nature ; it may be much improved, 
but not acquired by aK. Whoever is possessed of it, will 
scarcely need dry critical precepts to enable lum to Judge 
of a true rhythmus, and melody of composition. Jastnam* 
bers, accurate proportions, a musical symphony, magnifi* 
Oent figures, and that decoru]m which u Uie result of aK 
these, are unison to the human mind.'* ^ 

The following is a poetical example of the same natare^ . 
hi which there is scarcely <a glimpse of meaning, diottgli 
it was composed by an eminent poet 

From harmony, from heavenly haii&oiif» ^ . 

This umversal frame began : -^ 

}?Tom harmony to harmony 
Thro' all the compass of the notes H raSf 
- The diapasom cbsing foil ia matti^ ..*^ 

F«>j»riety.) rKRsncmrr^ &<L tS^ 

^ In general) it may be skid; that in wHtki]|^ of tifts-stamp, 

"we iBUflt accept of sound instead of sense ; being assnredt 

that if we naeet with little that can infomir the judgmeot^ 

we sbaU at least find nothing that will offend the ear. And 

perhaps this is one reason that we pass over such smooth 

language, without suspecting that it contains little or no 

meaning. In order to write or speak clearly and inlelli- 

gibiy, two things are especially requisite : one, that w% 

haee clear and distinct ideas of our subject ; and the other, 

that oar words be approved signs of those ideas. That 

persons who think confusedly, should express themselireci 

obscmcely, is not to be wondered at ; for embarrassed, 

ohecure, and feeble sentences, are generally,if not always^ 

tixe result of embarrassed, obscure, and feeble thought; 

bat that persons of judgment, who are accustomed to 

scrutinize their ideas, and the signification of their wordfi^ 

shouM sometimes write without any meaning, is, at first 

sight, matter of admiration. This, however, when (vtv* 

tlwr considered, appears to be an effect denved from th« 

iBame cause, mdistinctness of conception, and inattentiop 

to the exact import of words. The occasions on which 

we are most apt to speak and write in this unintelligible 

manner, are the three following. 

The j^st is, where there is an exuberance of metaphor^ 
"Writers who are fond of the metaphoric style, are gen^ 
rally disposed to continue it too long, and to pursue it too 

They are often misled by a desire of flourisbing on 
ttie several properties of a metaphor which they have 
ushered into the disconr^ , without taking the trouble to 
examine whether there are any qualities in the subject, 
to which these properties can, vyith justice and perspicuity 
he applied. The following instance of this sort of wri- 
ting is from an author of considerable eminence. *' Me« 
must acquire a very |)eculiar and strong habit of turning 
their view inward, m order to explore the interior regfoos 
and re<^68se9 of the mind^ the hollow cavenis of deep 
tltought^ the private seats of fancy, and the wastes and 
mMemesses, as well as the more firuitful and cultivated 
tracts of thiB obscure chmate." A most wonderful way 
4>f telling us, t^at it is difficult to trace the operations ol 
tb# mind* The author having datermined t^ represeal 


imnnik. (froprwIT.: 

tbe Beta|Aor of a coimtty, revotv* 
ml in his thougUs th« various ebjerts ffbicb might be foonJi 
jn a Countrj, withont coDsiderini; nbether there are map 
things in tbe mind [>ro[)erly aoalogous to these. Heaca 
tiie strange parade he makes with regioiu and rtcttttg^ 
hollmi eavtrm and private ttalt, waatts and Ti:iliiarn*uea , 
'nitful and eultivated tract*; words which, though the^ 
lave a precise meaning, as applied to countrjr, hare a^ 
definite signification, as applied to mind. 

The KCond oc^cagjon of our be 
gibly, is that wherein the terms n 
deiuite Uiings which are of a ci 
which the mind is not Riifficientl 
tbe instances are numberlesB in 
GoTenimeiit. church, state, coi 
tare, jurisdiction. &c. 

The Aird and principal o* 
writing, is, when the lenns em 
snd coilsequently of very estei 

the word /i<m is more distiactl; apprehended by the mind 
than the word btait, htatt than animal, animal than heing, 

Tbe 7th and la^t rule for preserving propriety in our 
words and pbrai<es, is, to avoid all thou -ahich are not adapt' 
ed to the tdeat we mtan to communiccie: or which are lett 
tignificavt than otken, qf those ideat *' He feels any sof 
Pow that can arrive at man ;'* better " happen to man-** 
" Tbe comcienee of approving one's self a benefactor, is 
Ae beat recompense for being so ;" it should bare been 
" conaciovfnesi." " He firmly believed the divine precept, 
' There is not a sparrow h\la to the ground,' *' &c. It 
riiould have been " doctrine." 

•* It is but opening the eye, and the scene enters." A 
•eene cannot be said to enter: an Mier enters; but • 
Kene appears or present! itself. 

• " We immediately assent to tbe beauty of an ol^ect, 
without inquiring into the causes of it:" it is proper to 
■ay, that we assent to the truth of a propoftition ; but it 
cmnot so well be said, that we Mxnt to the beawty »/ a» 
«bjteL Acknowledge would have expressed the seme with 

*' The seme of feeling, can, indeed, give us a notion 
frfeztcDsion, shape, and lU ether idau that enter at tto 

eye, except colours.*' Extension and shape caD, with no 
propriety, be called tWeaj; they are properties of matter. 
Neither is it accurate, to speak of any sense giving its a 
notion of ideas : our senses give us the ideas themselves* 
'Phe meaning of the sentence would have been proper, 
and much clearer, if the ai^thor had expressed himself 
thus : ** The sense of feeling can, indeed, give us the idea 
of extension, figure, and all the other properties of mat«^ 
ter, which are perceived by the eye, except colours.'* 

** The covetous man never has a sufficiency ; although 
lie has what is enough for nature," is much inferior to, 
*' The covetous man never has enough; although he haf 
what is sufficient for nature." 

** A traveller observes the most striking objects he 
sees; a general remai^ks all the motions of his enemy;" 
better thus ; ** A traveller remarks,'^ kc. ; " A general 
ohserves^^^ &c. " This measure enlarged his school, and 
obliged him to increase the buildings ;" it should be, *' in- 
creased his school ;" and ** enlarge th& buildings." 

*' He applied a medicine belbre the poison had time 
t6 work ;" better thus : " He applied an antidotey^ kc, 

" The poison of a suspicious temper frequently throws 
out its bad qualities, on all who are within its reach ;*^ 
better, " throws o?it its maligncnt qualities." 

" I will go except I should be ill;" *' I saw them alt 
unless two or three :" corrected thus s * unless I should 
be ill ;" ** except two or three." 

A selection of words and phrases, which are peculiarly 
expressive of the ideas we design to communicate ; oc 
which are as particular and determinate in their signifi- 
cation, as is consistent with the nature and the scope of the 
discourse ; possesses great beauty^ and cannot &j1 to pra* 
duce a good effect > 

• '* CHAPTER in. 


pRECisnoN is the third requisite of perspicuity widi 

tespect to words and phrases. It signifies retrenching 

superfluities, and |Mrumng the expression, so as t% 

ei^ibit neither more nor less than an exact copy of 4t 

:f%x9on*B idem w%o usea^U* ^ 

ttl9 .j^ Arramsix (Frecwon 

Tiie wor&inecl^ express ideas may be fatjitylii three 
Inspects. Ist, They may not express the idea which the 
author intends, but some other which only resembles it; 
secondly, They may express that idea, but not fully and 
completely ; thirdly. They may express it, together willi 
tome thing more than is intended. Precision stands op* 
posed to these three faults, hut chiefly to the last. Pro* 
prie^ implies a freedom from the two former faults. The 
words which are used may be py'opcr ; that is, theyma^ 
express the idea intended, and they may express it fully ; 
but to be precise^ signifies that^they express thai ideataid 
no more. 

The use and importance of precision may be deduced 
from the nature of, the human^mind* It never cAn view, 
clearly and distinctly, mor^ than one object at a^ttme. tf 
it must look at two or three together, especially objects 
that have resemblance or connexion, it finds itself con 
&sed and embarrassed^ It -cannot cleariy perceive tn 
what they agree, and in what they differ. Thus, were 
any object, suppose Qome animal, to be presented to my 
view, of who^ structure I wished to form a distinct no- 
tion, i should desire aH its trappings to be taken off; I 
should require it to be brought before me by itself, and 
to stand alone, that there might be nothing to divide mj 
attei^tion. The same is the case with words. If, when 
any one would inform me of his meaning, he also tells 
me more than what conveys it ; if he joins Toreign cir- 
cumstances to the principal objects; if, by unnecessarily 
varying the expression, he shifts the point of vievir, and 
makes me see sometimes the object itself, and sometimea 
another thing that is connected with it, he thereby obliges 
me to look on several objects at once, and I lose sight of 
the principal. He loads the animal he is showing ine. 
With so many trapping^ and collars, that 1 cannot distinct- 
ly view it ; or he brings so many of the same species be- 
&Te mey somewhat resembling, and yet somewhat differ* 
ing, that I see none of them clearly. When an authoi 
tells me of his hero's courage in the day of battle, the 
expression is precise, and I undenstand it fully : but i^ 
from the desire of multiplying words, he should praise 
bis courage and fortitude ; at the moment Jbe joins these 
words u^ether, my idea begiaalo wfvejDV> \^e means tP 

Precisto^*) PEitsncvixir, k^ fS$ 

express one qnaiUy more strongly^ but he ia lalnHb cv* 
pressing two : courage resists danger ; fortitude support 
pain. The occasion of exerting each: of these qualitiet 
18 different; and being led. to. think of both together, 
when only one of them should be considered^ my view m 
Tendered ansteady, and my conception of the oli^ect iii» 

All subjects do not equally require precision. It is nut^ 
ficieiEit>. on many occasion^, that we have a general view 
of th^ meaning. The subject, perhaps, is of the known 
and familiar kindy and w^ s^re m no hazard of mistaking 
ibe sense of. the author, though every word which .he 
uses is not precise and exact. 

Many authors offend against (his rule of precision. A 
considerable one, in describing a bad action, expresses 
himself thus : '' It i$ io remove a good and orderly affec- 
tion, and to introduce an ill or disorderly one ; tocominijl 
an actioQ that is ill> immoral, and unjust ; to do ill. or ta 
act IB prejudice of integrity, good natuce, and worth.". 

A crowd of unmeaning or useless words is brought to- 
gether by some authors, who, afraid of expressing them- 
selves in a common and ordinary manner, and allured by 
an ajipearance of splendour, surround every thing which 
they meani to say with a certain copious loquacity. 
• The great source of a loose style in opposition to pre?- 
cisioD, is the injudicious use o£ the words termed ^j/ncmy* 
mous* They are called synonymous, because they agree 
in expressing one principal idea ; but, for the most part, 
if not always, they express it with some diversity in tJ^B 

The .Allowing instances show a difference in the meaiph 
ing of words reputed synonymous, and point out the us# 
of attending, with care and strictness^ to the exact import 
of words. 

Custtmiy kahit. — Custom, respects the action ; habit, the 
actor. By custom, we mean the frequent repetition of 
the same act ; by habit, the effect which that repetitioa 
produces on the mind or body. By the custom of walJE- 
mg often in the streets, one acquires a habit of idleuesa. 

Pridp., vanity,' — Pride makes us esteem ours^elves ; va- 
nity makes ns d«^sire the esteem of others. It is, juill 
to say, that a man.ji^ too proud tq be yai\^ 


ffaugJtitnea, disdain. — HaughtincM is Ibundeil on th« 
high opioion we entertain of ourselves; disdain, od the 
low opinion we have of others. 

Only, atont. — Only, imports that i 

Batne kind ; alone, imports being ac 
An only child, is one that ha* nei: 
■ child alone, is one who is \eR 
differeoce, therefore, in precis3 la 
two phrases : " Virtue only makes 
tiie alone makes «a liappy." 
■ Wisdom, prudence. — Wisdom let 
Vhat is most proper. Prudence, 
or acting improperly- 

Entire, eompUte. — A thiog is entire, by wanting none of 
"its parts: complete, hy wanting none of the appendages 
that belong to it. A man may have an entire bouse to 
himself, and yet not have one complete apartment. 

Surpriud, oitonislied, amiued, confounded. — 1 am snr- 
prised with what is new or unexpected; I am astonished 
at what is vast or great ; I am amazed at what it incom- 
prehensible ; I am confounded by what is sUocking or 
terrible. -> 

TranquiUity, peace, calm. — TranquiHity, respects a ai- 
tnatioD free from trouble, considered in itself; peace, the 
Bume situation with respect to any causes that might in- 
terrupt it; calm, with regard to a disturbed situation 
g^ing before or following it. A good man enjt^B tntQ- 
quillity, in himself; peace, with others ; and calm, alter 
the storm. 

These are sotne of the numerous instances of words, 
in our language, whose signitications approach, but are 
not precisely the same. The more the distinction in the 
Cleaning of such words is attended to, the more clearly 
and forcibly shall we speak or write. It may not, on all 
occasions, be necessary to pay a great deal or attention 
to very nice distinctions ; yet the foregoing iilstancei show 
the utility of some geueral care to understand the distinct 
import of our words. 

While we are attending to precision, we most be on 
evr guar^I, lest, from the desire of pruning too closely, 
we retrench all copiousness. Scarcely in any language 
u* there twv wants ttiat convey precuely tite smbc ide»» 

« person tbomughly conyersant- ib the propi^y of Hie 

language, ivill fdwajs be able lo observe somethiog tbal 

distingoishes them. As they are like difiereQt shades of 

the same colour^ an accurate writer caa employ them to 

great advantage, by using them so as to heighten ai^ 

complete the object which he presents to «g. He sup- 

pfies by one what was wanting in the other, to the strength, 

or to the finishing, of the image which he means to e*- 

hibit. But, for this purpose, he must be attentive to the 

choice of his words*, and not employ tliem carelessly, 

Jiierely for the sake of filling up a period, or of rounding 

or diversifying hifi language, as if their signification were 

Exactly the same, while in truth it is not. To u«ite Co» 

pioosne^ and precision, to be full and easy, and at the 

game time correct and exact in the choice of every word, 

tt DO doubt one of the highest and most di^&GuH attaia* 

ments in writing. 



SfeffTEWCEs, in general, should neither be very long,, 
nor very short : long ones require close attention to make 
us clearty perceive the connexion of the several parts; 
and short ones are apt to break the sense, and weaken 
the connexion of thought. Yet occasionally they may 
both be used with force 'ind propriety ; as may be seen 
ia the following sentences 

" If you look about you, and consider tTlje lives of othem 
93 well as your own ; if you think how few are born witJi 
honour, and how many die without name or children; 
how little beauty we see, and huw few friends we hear 
of; hoiv much poverty, and how many diseases there are 
in the world ; you will fall down qpon your knees, and 
Instead of repining at one affiictiori, will admire s^ many 
blessings which you have received from the Pivine hand.** 
This is a sentence composed of several members ltnke4 
together, and, ban^g upon one another, so that the aens^ 
of the whole is not brought out till the close. The 
following is an example of one in which the senut 
i» fonxied into .short independent propoMtiontt esMcb oom 

plete -mthln iterif. " I confess^ itJ^art^irat of considCTa*. 
tioD that made me anaiitbor. I wrote l>eca use it amused 
me. I corrected, because it was as pleasant to roe t<i 
correct as* to write. I published, because ! was told 1 
mfgbt please such- as it was a credit to please," 

A train of sentences, constructed in the .-same manner, 
and with the same number of members, should never be 
ftllowed to succeed one another. A long succession of 
•ither long or short sentences should also be avoided ; for 
the ear tires of either of them when too long continued. 

WhereaS; by a proper mixture of long and short period^ 
•nd of periods variously constructed, not only the ear m 
gratified ; but animation and force are given to our styte. 

We now proceed to consider the things most essential to 
an accurate and a perfect sentence. They appear to be 
tiie four following: 1. qlkarness. 2, UNtry. 3.sTK£jroT9> 




Purity, propriety, and precision, in words and phrases 
separately considered, have already been explained, and 
shown to l>e necessary to perspicuous and accurate wrr» 
Ung. The just relation of sentences, and the parts of sea- 
tences, to one another, and the due arrangement of the 
whole^ are the sulKJects which remain to be discussed. 

The first requisite of a perfect sentence is clearness* 

Whatever leaves the mind in any sort of suspense as to 
the meaning, ought to be avoided. Obscurity arises from 
Iwo causes ; either from a wrong choice of words, or a 
wrong arrangement of them. The choice of words and 
phrases^ as far as regards perspicuity, has been already 
considered. The disposition of them comes now under 

The first thing to be stuped here, is grammatical pro- 
jjriety. But as the grammar of our language Is coitipar»- 
^vely notextensive,there may be an obscureerderofwof^, 
where there is no transgression of any grammatical rule. 
The relations of words, or members of a period, are> with 
us, ascertained only by the position in which they stand. 
|l«&c« a q^pilaj fulf .ii the arratoj^^iofent ©f sentepcea- 

wiay be broai^t." Al it is probaltle tbat &a htUr wat 
iDiended, die arraD^meot ought to have beeu condiiGted 
thus : " Are these designs which an> roan, vha ia born & 
Briton, ought to be aahtuned or arraid, in any «ituatioD, in 
any cKcumttances, to avow ;" 

The foUowing is another instance of » wrong arrange 
ment of circutnstaiictig. "A great stone that I ha]>peue< 
to tind, after a king search, L>^y the dea shore, arrved me 
for an aachor." One would thinh tbat the search was cob- 
fiiied to the sa shore ; but as the meaning is, that the 
great stuiie was found by the sea shore, the period ought 
to have ron thus : " A great stone, that, after a lony 
^atch, I bappenedto find bjT the sea Hhote.aervedmefor 
>n anchor." 

It is a rale, too, never to crowd many circumstancea 
t^^;eiber, but rather to intersperse them in diSerentparti 
Mthe sentence, joined with the principal word« on wlticb 
ttey depend. For instance : " What i had the opportu- 
nitj of mentioning to my friend, sometime ago, in conver- 
sation, was not a new thought." These two circumetaitF 
ces, " sointlime ago," and " in convtrtation," which an 
here put tof^tber, would hare had a better effect disjoia. 
ed, thus - " What 1 had the opportuni^, sometime ago^ 
of mentioning to mj' ftiend in cooverBation, was not a ne«r 

u.- Here follows an example of the wrong arrangement of 
« member of a sentence. "The minister of state wba 
grows tets by bis elevatioB, hke a little statue placed on % 
tnigh^ pedestal, will always have his jealousji strong about 
biok." Here, so far as can be gathered from the arrange* 
dent, it is doubtful whether the object iDtro4'iced, by 
wiy of simile, relates to what goes before, or to whatfol* 
low). The ambiguity is remcvRd by the following order 
"The nunister of state who, like a little statue placed 
en a migh^ pedestal, grows less by bis elevation, wil| 
always," iic- 

Wori tlungs connected in the though!^ 

•ugbt t as near together as possiUe, even 

whed tl: n would convey no ambiguity. TTjia 

will be following passages from Addison. 

f* For t! re naturaOy fancihil, and very ofteB 

may h^ Wongiit^ As it -is ppobaMe tbat^e l^Uer wit 
iDtended, the arrangement ought to have been conducted 
lii<]9 : " Are these designs which any roan, who is bom a 
BrttoD, onght to be ashamed or afraid, in any iiCuatioii, in 
any circamstances, to avow ?" 

The following is another instance of a wrong arrange 
ment of circumstances. *' A great stone that I happened 
to find, aflf^r a long sealrch, by the sea shore, served me 
for an anchor,^' One wotfld think that the search was con- 
fined to the sea shore ; but as the meaning is, that the 
great stone was found by the sea shore ^ the period ou^iii 
^ have mn thus : ** A great stone, that, after a Jong 
March, I liappened to find by the sea dhore, served me {oy 
am anchor.'* 

It is a rule, too, never to crowd many eircnmstances 
^ether, but rather to intersperse them in different parts 
of the sentence, joined with the principal word$ on which 
ftey depend. For instance : ** What i had the opporta- 
ittty of mentioning to my friend, sometime ago, in conver- 
sation, was not a new thought." These two circumstan* 
<»s, " swnetime dgo^^'* and *' in convtrmiimhi^^ which iare 
here put together, would have had a better efifect disjohif 
«d, tlius • « What 1 had the opportunity, somf time a^Oj, 
«f mentioning to my firiend in conversation, was not a new 

Here follows an example of the wrong arrangement ol 
m member of a sentence. " The minister of state :whoi 
grows less b/his elevation, Hl^e a little statue placed on a 
ttiighty pedestal, will always have his jealousy strong about 
bim. "^ Here , so far as can be gathered from the arrange- 
ment, it is doubtfi^l whether the object introdaced, by 
way of simile, relates to what goes before, or to whatfcf* 
lows. The ambiguity is remrved by thfe following order 
*' The minister of state who, hke a little statue placdl 
•ti a mighty pedestal* grows le^s by his elevation, wiD 
always, &c. 

Words expressing things coufiected in the ^oughtf 
•ug^t to be placed as near together as potssibl^, evea 
when their separiation would convey no ambiguity, Thil 
will be seen in the following passages from Addison^ 
** For the English are naturally fancifiil, and very often 
deposed by ^i gl^raittinesa aiui mehsclioljr iif tem|^. 

which are fio fre^aent in our oation, to many wild noUooa 
and eitravagancies, to which others are not sq liable.'* 
Here the verb or assertion is, by a pretty long circiim- 
itance, separated froiu the subject to whi&h it refers 
This might have been easily prevented, by placing Chft 
•ircDmatance before the verb, thus: " t'ov the English 
■re nataralljr fanciful, and by that gloomineM and melan- 
choly of temper which are so frequent in oAr nation, aic 
#en disposed to many wild notions," kc, 

" For as no mortal author, in the ordinary fate attd vicis- 
divide of things, knows to what use his works may, some 
6me or other, !•** applied," &c, Bettsr thus ; " J'or as, 
in the ordinary fdte and vicissitude of things, no mortal 
anthor knows to what use, some time or other, his works. 
may be applied," Jic. 

From thes« examples, the following obserratione will 

occur : that a circumstance ought never to t>e placed be* 

ttreen two capital members of a period ; but either be- 

member to which it belongs, or in 

canine it to iis proper member. 

its it, the sooner a circumstance i> 

.jieakiog, the better, that the more 

at words may possess the last place, 

The following sentence is, in^this 

le Emperor was so intent on the 

isolute power in Hungary, that he 

lubly to desolation and ruin for th« 

lus: " That, for the sake of it, he 

lubly to desolation and ruin." 

proper place to observe, that when 

1 obvious relation to each other, ia 

nature or time, that order should be 

(hem their places in the sentence j 

■ passages require it to be varied. 

following lines is inaccurate in this 

re will be such a mixture of delight, 

le degree in which any one of these 

onspicnou? and prevailing." Tbo 

I ) last words are placed, should have 

1 nade to stand, prevailing and eon- 

tpieuovs- — Tbey are eonspicwoMj, because they prevail. 

The ibUoiritig seiiteDce u a beautifol etam^ le of strict 

£66 APPEjmHc/ <Hearne«. I 


cooformitj to this rule. " Our sight fills the mind with 
the largest variety of ideas, converses with its objects at 
the greatei^t distance, and continues the longest in action, 
without being tired or satiated with its proper enjoyments.'* 
This passage follows the order of nature. First, we have 
the variety of objects mentioned, which sight furnishes to 
the iriind ; next, we have the action of sight on those ob- 
jects ; and lastly, we have the time and continuance of 
its action. No order could be more natural or exact. J 
. The order which we now recommend, is, in single words! 
especially, frequently violated for the sake of better , 
sound ; but, perhaps in no instances, without a deviatioa 
ftom the Hne of strict propriety. 

3. In the dispontion of the relative pronouns^ who, which^ 
what, whose, and of all those particles which express the 
connexion of the parts of speech with oft6 atioiher. 

A small error in the position of these words may cloud \ 
the meaning of the whole sentence ; and even where the 
meaning is intelUgible, we always find something awkward 
and disjointed in the structure of the sentence, wh^n these 
relatives are out of their proper place. ** This kind of wit,'* 
says an author, " was very much in. vogue among our 
countrymen, about an age or two ago ; ra)ho did not practise 
it for any obhque reason, but purely for the sake of being 
^tty." We are at no loss about the meaning here ; but 
the construction would evidently be mended by disposing 
the circumstance, *' about an age or two ago," in'such a 
manner as not to separate the relative who from its ante- 
cedent our countrymen; in this. way : /* About an sige or 
two ago, this kind^of wit was very much in vogue among 
onr countrymen, who did not practise it," &c. 

The fi)llowing passage is still more censtiraWe. " It 
is folly to pretend to arm ourselves against the accidents 
of life, by heaping up treasures, which nothing can protect 
us against, but the good proviiience of our Creator.** 
ffhich always refers grammatically to the substantive 'mt- 
mediately preceding ; and that, in the instance just men- 
tioned, is ^* treasures." The sentence ou^ht to have 
stood thus: ** It is folly to pretend, by heapmg up trea- 
flurefl, to armvourselves. against the accidents of u&> which 
nothing can protect us against,'* &ۥ 

With rega^rd to rdatives, it may be &a^^ otaerre^^ 

that obsCHfiity oAttMoisesfrom &e^ toa^frclfiieikt'rvf^thton 
of them^ particularly of the proDOuns who and ikey^ aod 
them and tk^irs, when we have oceasion to refer to dif- 
ferent persons ; as in the following sentence of TiUotson. 
** Men look with an evil eye upon the good that is m others, 
and think that iheir reputation obscures ihem^ and ikeir 
connTtendable qualities stand in their light ; and therefore 
they do what they can to cast a cloud orer^c?n, that the 
bright shining of iheir virtues may not obscure ihem.^* 
This is altogether careless writing. When we find these 
personal pronouns crowding too fast upon us, we have 
often no naeth^ left, but to throw the whole sentence into 
come other form, which may avoid those frequent refer- 
ences to persons who have before been mentioned. 

To have the relation of every word and member of a 
wB^ntence marked in the most proper and distinct manner, 
j30t only gpives clearness to it v but makes the mind pa^ 
smoothly and agreeably along all the parts of it — Set tht 
Afpsudxi: to the Exercises, 



The second requisite of a perfect sentence, is its Unityn 

In every composition, there is always some connecting 
principle among the parts. Some one object must reiga 
and be predominant. But most of all, in a single sentence, 
is required the strictest unity. For the very nature of -a 
sentence implies that one proposition is expressed. It may 
consist of parts, indeed, but these parts must be so closely 
bound together, as to make the impression upon the mind 
of one object, not of many. To preserve this unity of a 
.sentence, the following rules must be observed. 

In the first place, During the course of the sentence, the 
scene should be changed as little as possible. We should not 
be hurried by sudden transitions from person to person, 
nor from subject to subject. There is commonly, in every 
sentence, some person or thing which is the gov£;rning 
word. This should be continued so, if possible, from the 
beginning to the end of it. 

The following sentence varies ifrom this rule : " After 
nfe came to anchor, they pait me on ^hQc«, wb^m I wm 

ifeIco»i4ky«B^frieiM}8, wto M«tii^ in^ wh& the 
IpreatMt kiBdoesfl*'^ In tbb sentence.^ though the objectl^ 
contaioed hi it have a suffident connexion wi^ each other, 
yet, by this manner of rep^enting tbem, by $hifliDg so 
oflen both the place and the person, we and thei/^ and / 
and who^ they appear in so disunited a view, that the 
sense of connexion is much impaired. The sentence is re- 
stored to its proper unity, by turning it after the folio- «-- 
ing manner. *' Having come to an anchor, I was put on 
shore, where I was welcomed by all my friends, and re- 
ceived with the greatest kindness." 

Here follows another instance of departure £rom the 
rule. " The sultan bjeing dangerously wounded, they 
carried him to his tent ; and, upon hearing of the defeat 
of his troops, they put him into a litter, which transportei 
him to a place of safety, at the distance of about fifleen 
leagues.'* Better thus : " The sultan being dangerously 
wounded, was carried to his tent ; and, on hearing of the 
defeat of his troops, was put into a htter, and transported 
to a place of safety about fifteen leagues distant." 

A second rule under the head of unity, is. Never to crowd 
tnto one sentence, things which have so. little connexiony thai 
they could bear to be divided into two or three sentences. 
; The violation of this rule tends so much to perplex anj 
obscure, that it is safer to err by too many short senten- 
ces, than by one that is overloaded and epobarrassed. 
Examples abound in authors. "Archbishop Tillotson," 
•ays an author, '* died in this year. He was exceedingly 
beloved by king William and queen Mary,> who nomina- 
ted Dr. Tennison, bishop of LinQoIn, to succeed him.'* 
Who would expect the latter part of this sentence to fol- i 
low in consequence of the former? '* He was exceeding- ' 
ly beloved by both king and queen," is the proposition of 
die sentence. We look for some proof of this, or at least 
Something related to it to follow ; when we are on a sud- 
den carried off to a new proposition^ 

The following sentence is still worse. The author, 
•peaking of the Greeks under Alexander, says : f^ Their 
march was through an uncultivated country, whose sa« 
rage inhabitants rared hardly, havmg no'^other riches than 
ft breed of lean sheep, whose^esh was rank^and unsavoury^ 
ihf reasojn of their contiaiial jeeding upon sea-fish.'* Here 

the scene is chaDged upon us again and again. Ybe march 
of the Greeks, the description of the inhabitants through 
whose country they travelled, the account of their sheepj 
and the cause of their sheep being ill-tasted food, form a 
jumble of objects, slightly related to each other, which 
the reader cannot, without much difficulty, comprehend 
Bnder one view. 

Thes« examples hare been taken from sentences of no 
great length, yet very crowded. Writers who deal in longf 
sentences, are very apt to be faulty in this article. Take* 
for an instance, the following from Temple. " The usual 
^acceptation takes profit and pleasure for two different 
things, and not only calls the followers or votaries of them 
by the several names t)f busy and idle men ; but distin- 
guishes the faculties of the mind, that are conversant 
about them, calhng the operations of the first, Wisdxymf 
and of the other. Wit ; which is a Saxon word, used to 
express what the Spaniards and Italians call hgenio, and 
the French Esprit ^ both from the Latin, though I think 
wit more particularly signifies that of poetry, as may oc- 
cur in remarks on the Runic language.'' When the read- 
er arrives at the end of this perplexed sentence, he is 
surprised to find himself at so great distance from the ob- 
ject with which he set out. 

Long, involved, and intricate sentences, are great ble- 
mishes in composition. In writers of considerable cor- 
rectness, we find a period sometimes running out so far, 
and comprehending so many particulars, as to be more 
properly a discourse than a sentetke. An author, speak- 
ing of the progress of our language after the time of 
Cromwell, runs on in this manner : " To this succeeded 
that licentiousness which entered with the restoration, 
and, from infecting our religion and morals, fell to cor- 
rupt our language ; which last was not like to be much 
iBiproved by those who at that time made up the conrt 
of king Charles the Second ; either such as had followe<i 
Bim in his banishment^ or who had been altogether con- 
Tcrsant in the dialect of these times, or young men who 
had been edacated in the same country : so that the court, 
which used to be the standard of correctness andproprie*- 
ty of speech^ wa»then, and I think has ever since coi^^ 
Cuued^ the wont ecfaooi so E^land :fi»c tibat accomf^iA 


StTO U..J* jMomf ■'■•■. (Umgr 

■Dent ; sod so will remaio, till better care be taken 'm tbB 
educalioa of our nobility, tbat tfaey may set out into the 
world with some foundation of literature, in order to 
qaalily them for patterns of politeness." 

The author, in place of a sentence, has here given a 
loose dissertation upon several subjects. How many di^ 
iereot iacts, reasonings, and observations, are here pre- 
•ented to the mind at once t and yet so linked togetlisr 
by the anthor, that they all make parte of a sentence, 
which admits of no greater division In pointing than a co- 
loo, between any of ita members. 

It may be of use here to pve a 
sentence, broken down into several ] 
shall more clearly perceive the d 
sentences, and how easily they may 
fellows the sentence in its original 
yesterday's paper we showed how 
great, new, or beautiful, is apt to a 
with pleasure, we must own, that it 
to assign the necessary cause of th 
we know neither the nature of an id 
of a human soul : and thereibre, for 
all that we can do, in speculations o 
fleet on those operations of the soul 
able; and to range, under their proper heads, what ift 
pleasing or displeasing to the mind, without being &hle t^- 
trace out the several necessary and eflicient causes, froio 
whence the pleasure or displeasure arises." 

The following amendment, besides breaking down the 
period into several sentences, exhibits some other usetiil 
alterations : " In yesterday's paper, we showed that every 
thing which Is great, new, or beautiiul, is apt to affei^ 
the imagination with pleasure. We must own,, that it is 
impoasible for us to assign the efficient cause of this plea- 
sure, because we know not the natnre either of an idea, 
er of the human soul. All that we can do, therefore, in 
■peculations of this kind, is to reflect on the operations 
•f the aoul which are most agreeable, and to range un- 
der proper heads what is pleasing or displeasing to the. 

A tfiird rule for preserving the unity of- EeutenceM, )«, 
' i» lu^ skat y aU imnfcewar^ ^ran&eui^ ^ ^ 

On some occasions, when the sense is not too long snsr- 
"pended by them, and when they are introduced in a pro- 
per place, they may add both to the vivacity and to the 
energy of the sentence. But fc? the most part their effect 
is extremeiy bad. They are wheels within wheels ; sen- 
tences in the tnidst of sentences ; the perplexed method 
of dispomng of some thought, which a writer wants judg- 
ment to introduce in its proper place. 

The parenthesis in this sentence is striking and proper; 

** And was the ransom paid ? It was ; and paid 
** (What can exalt the bounty more ?) for thee." 

But in the following sentence, we become sensible of an 
impropriety in the use of it.. " If your hearts secretly 
reproach you for the wrong choice you have made, (aa 
there is time for repentance and retreat i and a return ttf 
wisdom is always honourable,) bethink yourselves that the 
evil IS not irreparable.'* It would be much better to ex- 
press in a separate sentence,, the thoughts contained tH 
this parenthesis ; thus : *' If your hearts secretly reproach 
you for the wrong choice you have made, bethink your- 
selves that the evil is not irreparable* Still there is tiiM 
for repentance and retreat ; and a return to wisdom is 
always honourable/''— iSec the ArP»N»ix to tike HxertiiSin 

CHAPTER ni. i 


The third requisite of a perfect sentence, is, StrengA* 

By this is meant such a disposition and management ol 
the several words and members, as shall bring out the^ 
sense to the best advantage, and give every word and 
f very member, its due weight and force. 

4 sentence may be clear, it tniay also be compact in all 
Its parts, or have the requisite unity, and yet, by some cir- 
cumstance in the stmcture, it may fail in that strength of 
hnpfession, ^hich a better management would have pro-, 

The Jirst rule for promoting the strength of a sentence/ 
is, to prune it of all redundant words and members. 

It is a general ma^im, that any words wliifeh dCT notadd 
some importance to the meaning of a sentence, always 

S72 , ArPEjriM*. fStresg^. 

Bijure it Gare should there]R>re be exercised with respect 
to syoooymous words, expletives, circumlocutions, tauto* 
logies, and the expressions of unnecessary circumstances. 
The attention becomes remiss, when words are maitiplied 
without a- correspondent multiplication of ideas. ^* Con- 
tent with deserving a triumph, he refused the honour of 
il ;'* is better language than to say, *< Being content with 
deserving it,*' &c. 

'* In the Attic commonwealth;*' says an author, <* it 
was the privilege and birthright of every citizen and poet, 
to rail aloud and in public." Better simply thus : "In 
the Attic commonwealth, it was the privilege of every 
citizen to rail in public." 

Another expresses himself thus : " They returned back 
tgain to the same city from whence they came forth ;'* in- 
stead of, " They returned to tht city whence they came.** 
The five words, back^ again^ same, from, and forth, are 
mere expletives, that have neither use nor beauty, and 
are therefore to be regarded as encumbrances. 

The word but is often improperly used with that: as, 
** There can be no doubt but that he seriously means what 
he says.'* it is not only useless, but cumbersome : ** There 
can be no ddubt that he seriously means what he says.* 
By transposing the parts of the sentence, we shall im- 
mediately perceive the propriety of omitting this word : 
*' That he seriously means what he says, there can 1^ 
BO doubt" 

** 1 am honestly, seriously, and unalterably of opinion, 
that nothing can possibly be more incurably and empha- 
tically destructive, or more decisively fatal, to a kingdom, 
than the introduction of thoughtless dissipation, and the 
pomp of lassy luxury." Would not the fnW import of this, 
noisy sentence be better expressed thus: '* I am of opi- 
z^OR, that nothing is more ruinous to a kingdom, than 
luxury and dissipation." 

Some writers use much circumlocution in expressing 
tiieir ideas. A considerable one, ibr so very smiple a 
thing as a man's wounding himself, says, " To mangle, 
#r wound, his outward form and constitution, his natural 
Jkn^fs or body." 

iRui^ojotsome occasioiMi titcumlocutioB has^a peculiar^ 

jbrce ; as ia tibe foBewing sentence i ** flteil not (^/nc^e 
' •f d// <^ «aH^ do right ?'* 

Iq the sentences which &llow> the iB effects of tauto- 
logy appear. 

*' So it is, that 1 must he forced to get hcmie, partly by 
stealth, and partly by force>^^ 

> *' Never did Attlcud sacceed better in gaining the W. 
versal love and esteem of cdi men," 

The subsequent sentence contains several unnecessary 
drcumstances. '* On receiving this in^rmation, he arose^ 
went out, saddled his hprse, mounted hiiA, and rode to 
town." All is implied m saying, " On receiving this infor* 
mation, he rode to town." 

This manner, however^ in a certain degree^ is so strong* 
ly characteristic of the simple style of remote ages, that, 
in books of the highest antiquity, particularly the Bible, 
it is not at all ungrace&L Of this kind are the following 
8cripturaUphrases. ** He lifted up his voice, and wept." 
** He opened his mouth, and said." It is true, that, km 
strictness, they are not necessary to the narration, but 
they are of some importance to the composition, asbear^ 
ing the venerable signature of ancient simplicity. It may, 
on this occasion, be furtlTer observed, that the language 
of the present translation of the Bible, ought net to be 
viewed in an exceptionable light, though some parts of 
it may obsolete. From universal admission, 
this language has become so familiar and intelligible, that 
in all transcripts and allusions, except where the sense 
is evidently injured, it ought to be carefully preserved* 
And it may also be justly remarked, that, on religious 
subjects, a frequent recurrence of scripture-language is 
attended with peculiar force and propriety. 

Though it promotes the strength of a sentence, to con* 
tract a roundabout method of expression, and to lop off 
excrescences, yet we should avoid the extreme of pruning 
too closely : some leaves should be left to shelter and 
surround the fruit. . Even synonymous expressions may, 
on some occasions, be used with prc^riety. One is, 
when an obscurer term^ which we cannot well avoid em* 
ploying, needs to be explained by one that is clearer 
The other is, when the language of the emotions is ex- 
hibited* Emotion naturally dwells oa ^ts object: a^^ 

J74 Ammvs%. (StFength, 

when the iwtor abo^feek interested) repetition and ay- 
nonjmy have frequently an agreeable effect. 

The ibUowlng passage, taken from AdcBson, who de- 
lighted io a full and flowing style, may, by some persons, 
,be deemed not very exceptionable. " But there is no- 
thing that makes its way nore directly to the soul than 
l;»eauty, which immediately diffuses a secret satisfaction 
edJ complacency through the imagination, and gives a 
.finisVing to any thing that is great or uncommon. The 
Yery lii^t disccvery of it strikes the mind with inward joy, 
and a]^>i eads a cheerfulness and delight through all its 
' -faculties.'' Some degree of verbosity may be discovered 
in these sentences, as phrases are repeated which seem 
•little more tuan the echo of one another; such as- — dij' 
/using saiisf action and complacency through the imagination 
'^striking the mind with inward joy^-^^preading cheerfulness 
,and delight through all its f acuities. But, perhaps, some 
redumiancy is more allowable on such Hvely subjects, 
than it would be on other occasions. 

Afler removing superfluities, the second rule ibr pro- 
-moting the strength of a sentence, is, to attend particu* 
Jarly to the use of copulatives, relatives, 4md nil the parti" 
ties employed for transition and connexion* 

These little words, but, and, or, which, whose, where^ 
ihen, therefore, because, &c. are frequently the most im- 
portant words of any ; they are the joints or hinges upon 
which all sentences turn ; and, of course, much of their 
strength must depend upon such particles. The varieties 
in using them are, indeed, so many, that no particular 
system of rules respecting them can be given. Some 
observations, tending to illustrate the rule, may, however, 
be mentioned* 

What is called splitting particles, or separating a pre- 
position from the noun which it governs, is to be avoid- 
ed. As if I should say, *' Though virtue borrows ne 
assistance from, yet it may oAen be accompanied by, the 
advantages of fortune.'' Here we are put to a stand in 
thought, being obhged to rest a tittle on the prepositioB 
by itself, which, at the same time, carries no significancy, 
tUl it is joined to its proper substantive. 

Some writers needlessly multiply demonstrative and 
t^Iative particles^ by the frequent use of such phraseology 

as this : " There is notliing: which disgusts us sooner th4n 
the empty pomp of language." In introducing a suhject, 
or laying down a proposition » to which we demand parti- 
cular attention, this sort of style is very proper ; hut, oa^ 
common occasions, it is better to express ourselves more 
simply and brielly : ** Nothing disgusts us sooner than the 
empty pomp of ismguage." 

Other writers make a practice of omitting the relative, 
where they think the meaning can be understood without 
it : as, '* The man I love ;'' " The dominions we pos- 
sessed, and the conquests we made.'' But though this 
e\\\ptical style is intelligible, and is allowable in conver- 
cation and epistolary writing, yet in all writings of a se- 
I'ious and dignified kind, it ought to be avoided. There, 
ibe relative should always be inserted in its proper place, 
and the construction filled up, ** The man whom I love.^* 
*' The dominions which we possessed, and the conquests 
which we made." 

With regard to the copulative particle and, which oc- 
curs so fire que ntly in all kinds of composition, severaf 
observations are to be mado- First, it is evident, that 
the unnecessary repetition o/*it enfeebles style. The 
jfbllowing sentence from Sir William Temple, will serve' 
for an instance. He is speaking of the refinement of the ' 
French language : ** The academy, set up by Ciardinal 
Richelieu, ia amuse the wits of that age and country, 
and divert them from raking into his politics an(£ ministry, 
brought this hito vogue ; and the French wits have, for 
this last age, been wholly turned to the refinement of 
their style and language ; and, indeed, with such success,' 
that it can hardly be equalled, and runs equally through^ 
their verse and their prose." Here are no fewer than 
ei^ht ands in one sentence. Some writers ofleh make 
their sentences drag in this manner, by a careless multi- 
plication of copulatives. I 

But, in the next plaqe, it is worthy of observation^ 
that though tt^ natural use of the conjunction and, is to 
join objects together, yet, in fact, by dropping the con- 
junction, we often mark a closer connexion, a quicker 
succession of objects, than when it is inserted between 
^m. ** I came^ 1 saw^ I conquered,*' e^^resses with 

■M>re l!>rc« the rapidity aDd quick succetsion of coDquest, 
tiiBQ if connecting particles had beea used. 

Od the other hand, when we seek to prevent a quick 
transition from one object to another, when we are making 
•ome enumeration, in which vre wish that the objecb 
■hoold appear as distinct from each other as possible, and 
that the miod should rest, for a moment, on each object 
by itself, copulatives may be mu 
vantage. As when an author sa 
iall a victim to power ; but truth 
woald &11 with him." Observe, 
ration made by the Apostle Paul 
and distinctness are given to eat 
petition of a conjunction : " I ai 
death, nor life, nor angek, nor p: 
nor things present, nor things t< 
llepth, nor any other creature, 
us from (he love of God," 

The words designed to mark the transition from one 
Sentence to another, and the connexion between riea- 
|ences, are lometimes very incorrect, and perform their 
office in an imperfect and obscure manner. The follow- 
ing U an example of this kind of inaccuracy. " By great- 
uess, I do Dot mean the bulk of any single object only, 
bnt the largeness of a whole view. Such are the prospects 
of an open champaign country, a vast uncultivated desert," 
die. The word iugA signifies of that nature or quality, 
'which necessarily presupposes some adjective or word 
ilescriptive of a quality going before, to which it refers. 
But, in the foregoing sentence, there is no such adjec- 
tive. The author had spoken of greatiun in the abstract 
only; and, therefore, tueh b.'* no distinct antecedent to 
which we can refer it. The seutence would have been 
introduced with more propriety, by saying. To (kit clou 
ielottg, or under this head are raitged, the prospects, &c. 

As connective particles are the hinges, tacks, and pins, 
by which the words in the same clause, the clauses in the 
saToe member, the members in the same sentence, and 
wen the sentences in the same discourse, are united to- 
gether, and their relations suggested, so they should Dol 
be either too frequently repeated, awkwardly exposed to 
i4ew. Of made v^ of poIysyllaUei, wJiea ihortsr w«rA 

f^ould as well convey the meaning. Kofmithstanding that, 
insomuch that, forasmuch as, furthermore, &c. are tedioua 
words, which tend to overload and perplex a sentence. 

We shall conclude this head with two remarks on the 
' 5Ubject of inserting or omitting the conjunctions. The first 
i$^ that the illative conjunctions, the causal, and the dis* 
tlHictive, when they suit the sense, can more rarely be 
lUspensed with than the copulative. The second is^ that 
tiie omission of copulatives always succeeds best, wheft 
the connexion of the thoughts is either very close, or very 
distant. It is mostly in the intermediate cases that the 
conionciion is deecued necessary. When the connexion 
in thought is vary distant, the copulative appears absurd ; 
mnd when very close, superfluous. 

The third rule for promoting the strength of a sentence, 
. ii; to dispi^st of the capital ^mord^ or words, so thai they ma^ 
fttgke the greatest impression^ 
^ That tfcjere a5,*';in every sentence^ such capital words on 
which tW :ii^*aning principally rests, every one most see ; 
and that these words shoald possess a conspicuoas and dis* 
tinguished place, b equally plain. For the most part, with 
US, the iniportant words are placed in the beginning of the 
sentence. So In the following passages : *^ Silver and gold 
have 1 none ; but such as I have, give 1 unto thee,*' &c. 
*• Your fathers, where are they? and the . prophets, do 
they live for ever ?" 

Sometimes y however, when we intend to give wei|^hl 
to a sentence, it is of advantage to suspend the meanmg 
for a little, and then bring it out full at the close. •* Thusr 
pays an author, ^' on whatever side we contemplate this 
ancient writer, what principally strikes us, is his wonuer 
ful inventipn."*^ 

To acc9mplish this end, the placing of capital words in * 
conspicuous part of the sentence, the natural-order ofouf 
language must sometimes be inverted. According to this 
naturalorder, the nominative has the first place, the verb 
the second, and the objective, if it be an active verb that 
is employed, has the tliird. Circumstances follow the nomi- 
luxtive, the verb, op the objective, as they happen to be- 
long to any of them. ^' Diana of Ibe Ephesians is great,*' 
is Ihie natural order of the sentence. But its strength !# 
ihcreaged by inversion, €bm : ^* Great is Diuia (tf the £]^* 


278 A»ENW« 


^ians.'* " I pro4s88, ia the sincerity of my heart/* &c. it 
the natural order of a circumstance. Inverted thus : *^ In 
the sincerity of my heart, I profess," &c. 

Some authors greatly invert the natural order of sea ' 
fences ; others write mostly in a natural style. Each me*-, 
fhod has its advantages. The inverted possesses strength 
dignity, and variety : the other, more nature, ease, and 
simplicity. We shall give ^n instance of ^ch ntethod^ 
taken from writers of considerable eminence. The first it 
of the inverted order. The author is >pealung of the i 
misery of vice. *^ This, as to the complete immoral stated 
is, what of their own accord, men readily remark. Wheris 
there is this absolnte degeneracy, this total apostacy from 
all candour, truth, or equity, there are few who do not 
flee and acknowledge the misery which is consequent. 
Seldom is the case misconstrued wheii at worst The 
misfortune is, that we look not on this depravity, nor con- 
sider how it stands in less degrees. As if, to be absolute* 
ly immoral, were, indeed, the greatest misery ; but to be 
so in a little degree, should be no misery or~ harm atall^ 
Which, to allow, is just as reasonable aef to own, that it rf 
the greatest ill of a body to be in the utmost manner 
maimed ot distorted ; but that to lose the use only of one 
limb, or to be impaired in some single organ or member^ 
is no ill worthy the least notice.** Here is no violence 
done to the language, though tiiere are many inversions. 

The following is an example of natural construction : 
*^ Our sight is the most perfect, and the most delightful, of 
all our senses. It 31s the mind with the largest variety of 
ideas, converses with its objects at the greatest distance, 
and continues the longest in action, without beii^ tired, or 
satiated with its proper enjoyments. The sense of deling 
can, indeed, give us a notion of extension, shape, and aU 
other ideas that enter at the eye, except colours ; but, at 
the same time, it is very much straitened and confined im 
its operations," &c. 

But whether we use inversion or not,- and in whatever 
part of the sentence we dispose of the capital words, it is 
always a point of conisequence, that these capital words 
should stand clear and disentangled from any o^er words 
(hat would clog them. Thus, when the^ are aByxi^cum^ 
«t^ces of timei place, or other linutatioifiS; wbidb the f&9 

Strenglb.) ^tRSPicuiTr, &c. ttJ, 

CApal object of our sentence requires to have connected 
with it, we must take care to dispose of them, so as not to 
cloud that principal object, nor to bury it under a load o] 
circumstances. This will be made clearer by an exam- 
ple. ** If, whibt they profess only to please, they isecret • 
\y advise, and give instruction, they may now perhaps, as 
well as formerly, be esteemed, with justice, the best and 
most honourable among authors." Phis is a well con- 
structed sentence. It contains a great many circumstances 
and adverbs necessaiy to qualify the meaning j only, secret- 
ly , as well f perhaps y now, with justice, formerly ; yet these 
are placed so properly, as neither to embarrass, nor 
weaken the sentence ; while that which is the capital ob- 
ject in it, viz. ** being justly esteemed the best and most 
honourable among authors," comes out in the conclusion 
clear and detached, and possesses its proper place. See^ 
now, what would have been the effect of a different ar- 
rangement : *' If, whilst they profess to please only, they 
advise and g^ve instruction secretly, they may be esteemed 

- the best and most honourable among authors, with justice, 
perhaps, now as well as formerly." Here we have pre- 
cisely the same words, and the same sense ; but by means 

^ of the circumstances being so intermingled as to clog the 
capital words, the whole becomes feeble and perplexed. 

The fourth rule for promoting the strength of senten- 
ces, is, that a weaker assertion or proposition should never 
cojoe after a stronger one ; andukat, when our sentence cof^ 
sists oftwp members, the lon^$r sfiould^ generally, be the con* 
eluding one. 

, Thus^ to say, '* When our passions have forsaken in, 

ire flatter ourselves with the belief that we have forsaken 

. < them,'^ is both more easy and more clear, than to begin 

with the Longer part of the proposition : *' We flatter our* 

selves with the belief that we have fbrsakea our passions^ 

, when they have forsaken us.'' 

In general, it is agreeable to find a sentence rising up* 
^1 OS, and growing in its importance, to the very last 
word, when this construction can be managed without af- 
fectation. " If we rise yet higher,^' says Addison, *' and 
consider the fixed stars as so many oceans of flame, that 

- are each of theov attended with a different set of planets; 
^and. still, discover neir firmaments and new lights» that are* 

Bimk furtBer in itkose nti&tkomable depths of ether ; we 
are lost in snch a labyriiith of suns and worlds, and con-r 
Quoded with the magaificence and immensity of nature .^«^ 

The JifA rule for the strength of sentences is, to ^dquH 
concluding tium 'miih an adverb^ a preposition^ or any inctrn^ 
siderabU word. 

Agreeably to this rule, we should not cpnclud^ with 
any of the particles^ of^ to, from, withy 6y. For instance, 
it is a great deal better to say, "Avarice is a crime of 
which wise -men are often guilty," than to say, "Avarice 
is a crime which wise men are often guilty of/' This f$ 
a phras.eology which all correct writers shun ; and with 
reason. For as the mind cannot help resting a Ultle, on 
the import of the word which. closes the sentence, it must 
be disagreeable to be lefl pausing on a word, which does 
not, by itself, produce any idea. 

For the same reason, verbs which are used in a conl* 
pound seAse, with some of these propositions, are, though 
not so bad, yet still not proper conclusions of a period 
such as, bring about, Icty held o/*, eoviei over to, char upl 
and many othar of this iind ; instead of which, if we can 
employ a simple verb, it always terminates the sentence 
with more strength. Even the pronoun it, should, i/pos- 
icible,. be avoided in the conclusion ; especfally when it 
IS joined %vith some of the prepositions ; as,%i(h it, in it', 
to it. We shall be sensible of this in the following s^n 
tence. " There is not, in my opinion, a more pleasing 
and iriumphaint consideration in religion, than this, of the 
perpetual progress which the soul makes towards the per<: 
lection of its nature, without ever arriving at a period 
in i>." How much more agreeable the sentence, if it 
had be/en so constructed as to close with the word period ! 
■ Besides particles and pronouns, any phrase, which ex« 
presses a circumstance only, always appears badly in the 
rear of a sentence. We may judge of this by the fol- 
lowing passage : " Let me therefore conclude by repeat- 
ing, that division has caused alLthe mischief we lament^ 
that union alone can retrieve it ; and that a great advance 
towards this union, was the coalition of parties, so hap«- 
pily begun, so successfully carried on, and of late so un- 
accountably neglected ; to say no worse.** This last phrase, 
' to say no worse,' occasions a ialUng off at the end. 


The proper disposition oi rach circumstances in a sea- 
tence, re<|uire9 attention, in order to adjust them so ai 
ihail consist equally with the perspicuity and the strength 
of the period.— Though necessary parts, they are, how- 
ever> like irregular stones in a building, which try the 
«kill of an artist, where to place them with the least 
offence. But it must be remembered, that the close is 
always an unsuitable place for them. Notwithstanding 
^hat has been said against concluding a period with an 
Bdyerb, &c. this must not be understood to refer to such 
lyords, when the stress and signi^cancy of the sentence 
rest diiefly upon them. In this case they are not to be 
considered as circumstances, but as .the principal objects : 
as in the folio sentence. ** In their prosperity, my 
iiiends shall never hear of me, in their adversity, al- 
ways.*^ Here, •' never** and *• always*^ being emphatical 
words, were to be so placed as to make a strong im- 

The nxth rule relating to the strength of a sentence, 
is, that^ in the members of a sentence^ where two ihings^are 
compared or contrasted tmth one another ; where either a 
resemblance or an opposition is intended to be expressed 
»<nne resemhlanci^ in the laiiguage and construction^ shouUL 
le preserved. For when the things themselves correspond to 
each other ^ we naturally expect to find a similar correspon^* 
den^e in ^e z»ords, * 

Thus, when it is said, ^ The wise man is happy when 
he gains his own approbation; the fool, when he recom- 
mends himself to the applause of those about him ;" the 
opposition would hare been more regular, if it had been 
expressed thus : ** The wise man is happy when he gains 
bis own approbation; the &ol, when. he gains that of 

"A friend exaggerates a man V virtues: att enemy in- 
ftames his crimes/*^ Better thus : *^ A friend exaggerates 
a man V virtues; an enemy, his crimes." 

The following passage from Pope^s Preface to his Ho- 
mer, folly exemplifies the rule just given : ** Homer was 
the greater genius ; Virgil, the better artist : in the one, 
we most admire the man ; in the other, the work.^ Homer 
Hurries us with a cominanding impetuosity ; Virgil leads 
'Qiwith an attractive majesty. Homer scatters with a 

gtnerow profiuioa ; Virgjl bestows with a careful mag* 
■luAcence. Homer, like the Nile, pours out his riches 
with a sodden overflow ; Virgil, like a river m its banks, 
with a constant stream."— Periods tnus constructed^ when 
introduced with propriety, and not returning too oflen, 
have a sensible beauty. But we must beware of carrying 
jOur attention to this beauty too far. It ought onfy U} be 
occasionally studied^ when comparison or opposition oi 
objects naturaHy leads to it. If such a construction a^ 
this be aimed at, in all our sentences, it leads to a dis* . 
agreeable uniformity; produces a regularly retunung 
clink in the period, which tires the ear; and plainly dia* 
covers affectation. 

The stvtfdh rule for promoting the strength and effect 
of sentences, is, to atiend to the soundy the harmony a^d 
tasy ^im, of ^e wordt and members. 

Sound is a quality much inferior toseuse,; yet such ai 
must not be disregarded* For, as long as sounds are the 
vehicle or conveyance for our ideas, there, will be a very 
considerable connexion between the ide^ which is con- 
veyed, and the nature of the sound which conveys it.— • 
Pleasing ideas, and forcible reasoning^ can hardly hn 
transmitted to the mind, by means of harsh and disagree- 
able sounds* The mind revolts at such sonjxdfi, and th% 
impression of the sentiment must consequently be weak- 
ened. The observations which we have to make on this 
subject, respect the choice of words ; their, arrangement ; 
the order and disposition of the members ; and the ca- 
dence or close of ^sentences. 

We begin with the choice of words. It is evident, 
that words are- most agreeable to the ear, when ihey are 
composed of smooth and liquid sounds, ia w^ich there 
is a proper intermixture of vowels and consonants ; witlK ^ 
#ut too many harsh consonants, rubbing against each other; 
or too many open vowels in succession » to cause a hiatus, 
•r disagreeable aperture of the mouth. 

It may always be assumed as a principle, that whatever 
sounds are difficult in pronunciation, are, in the same 
proportion, harsh and painful to tbe ear. Vowels give 
noftness; consonants, strength .to the sojund of words. ' 
The melody of language requires a just proportion oi 
•^hi aod Um^ coii8t3Citftion will k«iurt, will b^ rendered ' 

either gfating or eliminate, bj an excess of either* 
L<M>g words are eommonly more agreeable to the ear 
than monoejllables. They please it by the composition or 
succession of sounds which they present to it ; and accord* 
ingly, the most harmonious languages abound most iti 
them. Among words of any length, those are the most me- 
lodious-, which do not run wholly either upon long or short 
syllables, but^re composed of an intermixture of them: 
such an, repent t profess, ^awerful^ velocity y celerity , indt^ 
pendente impetuosity* 

If we would spea^ forcibly and eflfectually, we mu^ 
avoid the use of such words as the following ; 1. Such as 
are composed of words already compounded, the severe 
parts of which are not easily, and therefore not closely 
united : as, ^' Unsuccessfulness^ t ongheadednessy iendef" 
heo^rtedness :" 2* Such as have the syllables which imme* 
' diately follow the accented syllable, crowded with con- 
sonants that do not easily coalesce : as, ^^ ^ueitionless^ 
chroniclers, conventiciers :^* 3. Such as have too many syl*^ 
lables fbllowiog the accented sj'llable^ as, ** Prinuirtly^ 
eursorilyi smnmarilyy peremptoriness :^^ 4. Such as have 
a short or unaccented syllable repeated, or followed hf 
another short or unaccented syllable very much resem* 
bling: as, ^^ Holily, sillily^ lovsUly, farriery J*^ A little 
harshness, by the collision of consonants, which never- 
theless our organs find no difficulty in articulating, and 
which do not suggest to tlie hearer the disagreeable 
-idea either of precipitation or of stampierin^, is by 
no means a su£Scient reason for suppressing a use- 
ful term. The words Jiedg^dy. fledg^d^ nedg^d, drudg^d^ 
grudged/ adjtidg^dy which some have thought very offen- 
sive, are not exposed to the objections which lie against 
the words above mentioned. We , should not do well tot 
introduce such hard and strong sounds too frequently; 
but when they are usted sparingly and properly, the/'^ 
h'rive even a good effect. They contribute to that variety 
in 5ound which is advantageous to language. 

The next head, respecting the harmony which results 
from a proper arrangement of words, is a point of greater 
nicety; I^or, let the words themselves be ever so well 
chosen, and well sounding, yet, if they be ill disposed, tl)# 
i^elody of tha semcnce is utterly lost, org;reatly imnfocef^ 

t94 APt^fiHDO^ ^St^CDgttl* 

That this is (ke case, the learners will perceive by th« 
ibUowing examples *' Pleasures simple and moderate 
always are the best :*' it would be better to say, •* Sim- 
ple and moderate pleasures are always the besf ** 0£> 
See or rank may be the recompense of intrigue, versa* 
ttUty, or flattery ;^' hetter thus, " Rank or office may be. 
.the recompense of flattery, versatility, or intrigue." "A 
great recommendation of the guidance oifered by integri- 
'ty to us, is, that it is by all men easily understood ;" bet- 
ter in this form ; ** It is a ^eat recommendation of the 
guidance ofiered to us by integrity, that it is easily un- 
<ler8tood by all men»'' In the following examples, the 
words are neither selected nor arranged, so as to produce 
the most agreeable efiect. ^* If we make the best of oar' 
life, it is but as a pilgrimage, with dangers surrounding 
it :" better thus, " Our life, at tlie best, is a pilgrunage^ 
and dangers surround it." ** We see that we are encum- 
bered with difficulties, which we cannot prevent :'* bet- 
ter, " We perceive ourselves involved in difficulties that 
cannot be avoided." " It is plain to any one who views' 
the subject, even slightly, that there is nothing here tha^ 
is mthout allay and pure i'* improved by this form ; '* his 
evident to the slightest inspection, that nothing here is 
unallayed and pure.'' 

We may take, for an instance of a sentence remarkably 
tiarmoniou», the following from Milton's Treatise on £dii 
cation . ** We shall conduct you to a hill-side, laborious 
indeed, at the flrst ascent ; but else so smooth, so green» 
•o full of goodly prospects, and melodious sounds on every 
gide, that the harp of Orpheus was not more channing." 
Every thing in this sentence conspires to promote the 
harmony. The words are well chosen ; full of liquids, 
and soft sounds ; laborious^ smooth^ green j goodly y melodi' 
cus^ charming ; and these words so artfully arranged, that 
were we to alter the situation of any one of them, we 
should, presently, be sensible of the melody's sufiering. 

To promote this harmonious arrangement of words,. 
th^ following general directions will be found of some use. 
Ist, When the preceding word ends with a vowel, let 
the subsequent one begin with a consonant ; and vi(4 
9trsd» A true friend^ a cruel enemy, are smoother and 
#aaier<to the voiee, than a true wiian^ a cruel deUroytr, 

fltrengtb) pj^spicuity, tt. £65 

Bufrtvheirit in more perspicuoua or convenient, for vowelg 
or consonants to end one word and begin the next, it is 
proper that the vowels be a long and short one ; and that 
the consonants be either a liquid and a mute, or liquids of 
different sorts : thus, a lovely offspring ; a piirer dengn / 
a calm retreat ; are more fluent than, a happy union, t» 
brief petition, a cheap triumph, a putrid distemper, a calm 
matron, a clean nurse. From these e:ramples, thi3 studetiK 
will perceive the importance of accurately understanding 
the nature of vowels and consonants, liquids and mutes 5 
with the connexion and influence- which, subsist amongst 
Jhem. 2d, In general, a considerable number of long ok 
short words near one another should be avoided. " Dis- 
appointment in our expectations is wretchedness :'* bet- 
ter thus; ** Disappointed hope is misery." "No C3urse 
of joy can please us long :" better, ** No course of en- 
joyment can delight us long *' A succession oi words 
having the same quantity in the accent*»d syllables, whether 
it be long or short, should also be avoided * James wz$ 
needy, feeble, and fearful :" improved thus, "^ Jame^ 
was timid, feeble, and destitute." ** They could not h% 
happy \ for be was silly, pettish, and sullen :" better thus; 
'* They could not,, be happy ; for he was simple, peevish, 
and gloomy.-' .3d, Words whioh begin alike^ or end 
alike, must not come together; and the last syllable pf 
the preceding word, should not be the same as the first 
syllable of the subsequent one. It is not so pleasing and' 
harmonious to say, " This is a cenvenient contrivance ;'* 
" He is an indulgent parent ;" .*• She behaves with uni- 
form formality;*^ as, '* This is a useful contrivance;'^ 
*^He is a kind parent;" •' She behaves with unvaried 

We proceed to .consider the members of a sehtence^ 
with regard to harmony. They should not be too long, 
nor disproportionate to each other. When they have a 
regular and proportional division^ they are miich easier 
to the voice, are more c|early understood, and better re-*" 
membered, than when this rule is not attended to : for 
whatever tires the vmce, and offends the ear, is apt to 
mar the strength of the expression, and to degrade the 
sense of the author. And this is a su^Scient ground for 
pacing attention to the order and proportion of Lenten- 

186 Ai>PENDix. (S€reiig6k 

ces, and the different parts of wh^cb they consist. The 
following passage exhibits sentences in which the differ- 
ent members are proportionally arranged. 

Temple, speaking sarcastically of man, says ; *' But hit 
pride is greater than his ignorance, and what he wants Jo 
knowledge he supplies by sufficiency. When he has 
looked about him as far as he can, he concludes tiiere is 
* no more to l»e seen ; when he is at the end of his h'nC| 
he is at the bottom of the ocean ; when be has shot his 
best, he is sure none ever did, or ever can, shoot better, 
or beyond it. His own reason he holds to be the certain 
measure of truth; and his own knowledge, of what ia 
possible in natare." Here every thing is at once easy 
to the breath, grateful to the ear, and intelligible to the 
understanding. See another example of the same kindi 
in the 17th and 18th verses of the 3d chapter of the pro- 
phet llabakkuk. We may remark here, that our present 
version of the Holy Scriptures, especially of the Psalms, 
abounds with instances of an harmonious arrangement of 
the words and members of sentences. 

In the following quotation from Tillotson, we shall be- 
come sensible of an effect very different from that of the 
preceding sentences. '* This discourse, concerning the 
easiness of the Divme commands, does all along suppose 
and acknowledge the difficulties of the first entrance upon 
a religious course ; escept only in those persons who have 
had the happiness (o be trained up to reli^on, by the 
easy and insensible degrees of a pious and virtuous edu 
cation.'^ Here there is some degree of harshness and 
unpleasantness, owing principally to this, that there ia 
prpperly no more than one payse or rest in the senteDce, 
falUng betwixt the two menxbers into which it is divided; 
each of which is so long as to occasion a considerable 
atretch of the breath in pronouncing it. 

With respect to the cadence or close of a sentence^ 
care should be taken, th^t it be not abrupt, or unpleas- 
ant. The following instances maybe sufficient to show 
the propriety of some attention to this part of the rule. 
•* Virtue, diligence, and industry, joined with good tem- 
^r and prudence, are prosperous in general." It would 
be better thus : '* Virtue, diligence, and industry, joined 
with j;ood temper and^urudence^ hav^ eyer been found 


the surest road (o prosperity." An author speaMlig of 
the Trinity, expresses himself thus : *' It is a mystery 
which we firmly believe the truth of, and humbly adore 
the depth of." How much better would it hare been 
with this transposition : " It is a mystery, the truth of 
which we firmly believe, and the depth of which we 
bumMy adore-" 

In order to dve a sentence this proper close, the long** ^ 
est member of it, and the fullest Vvords, should be re- 
served to the conclusion. But in the distribution of the 
members, and in the cadence of the period, as well as 
in the sentences themselves, variety must be observed; 
(or the mind soon tires with a frequent repetition of the 
same, tone. 

Thoi)gh attention to the words and members, and the 
close of sentences, must not be neglected, yet it must also 
be kept within proper bounds. Sense has its own har- 
mony ; and in no instance should perspicuity, precision, 
or strength of sentiment, be sacrificed to sound. All un- 
meaning words, introduced merely to round the period, or 
fill up the melody, are great blemishes in writing. They 
are childish and trivial ornaments, by which a sentence 
always loses more in point of weight, than it can gain by 
such additions to its sound. Sec the Octavo Grammar ^ on 
this chapter. 

See nUiQ the appekdix to the Exerci$eip 



Tbe pouRTB requisite of a perfect sentence, is a jndid* 
ous use of the Figures ofiSpeech. 

As figurative language is to be met with in almost eretf 
sentence ; and, when properly employed, confers beauty 
'#nd strength on composition ; some knowledge of it ap« 
f aars to be indispensable to the scholars, who are learning 
to form their sentences with perspicuity, accuracy, and 
force. We shall, therefore, enumerate the principal 
Qgures, and give tiiem some explanation. 

In general. Figures of Speech imply some^epartur^ 
^ tto^ dn^citjr ofezpression ; the idea which we Bwan 4r 


convey is expressed in a particular matmigr, and with som^ 
drcomstaDce added, which is designed to render the im« 
pression more strong and vivid. When i saj, for instance, 
** That a good man enjoys comfort in the midst of adversi- 
ty ;" I just express my thoughts in the simplest manner 
{ Possible : but when I say, " To the upright there arisetb 
ight in darkness ;" the same sentiment is expressed in a 
figurative style ; a new circumstance is introduced ; ^' light,'' 
is put in the place of >* comfort,'^ and '* darlcness*' is used 
to suggest the idea of adversity. In the same manner, to 
say, <* It is impossible, by any search we can make, to ex- 
plore the Divine Nature fully," is to make a eunple propo* 
sition : but when we say, ** Canst thou, by searc^mig, huA 
' out" the Lord ? Canst thou find out the Almighty to perfec* 
tion ? It is high as heaven, what canst thou do ? deeper 
than hell, what canst thou know ?" this iolroduces a figure 
into style ; the proposition being not only expreaipedi but 
with it admiration and astonishment t 

But, though figures imply a deviation from wn&t may be 
reckoned the most simple form of speech. We are not. 
thence to conclude, that they imply any thing uncosumon, 
or unnatural. On many occasions, they are both the most 
natural, and the naost common method of utterin|^ our sea- 
thnents. It would be very difficult to compose any dis» « 
course without using them often : nay, there are few sen- 
tences of considerable length, m which there does not 
occur some expression that may be termed a figure. Thia 
being the case, we may see the necessity of some atten* 
lion, in order to understand their nature and use. 

At the first rise of .anguage, men wouM begin w\i]| 
giving names to the different objects which they discern* 
ed, or thought of. The, stock of words would, then, be 
Tery small. As men^s ideas multiplied, and their ac- 
quaintance with objects increased, their store of names 
and words would also increase. But to the vast variety 
cf objects and ideas, no language is adequate. No Ian* 
Ifuage is so copious, as to have a separate word for every 
veparate idea Men naturally sought to abridge this la- 
kour of multiplying words without end ; and, in order te 
lay less burden on their memones, made one word, which 
ii^eyhad already appropriated to a certain idea or object, 
itand s^teo &>v some other idea or obj0<;t^ between wbiA 

■^lyures.) '■■ FER8fiCUITT,^C. 18* 

aad the primary ODe, they Ibuod, br fancied, lome rehtion. 

The names ofBeasible objecta, were the words moat early 

iatroduced ; aod nere, by degrees, extended to those 

mental objecU, of which men had more obscure concep- 

tioDs, aud to which they fouad it more difficult to assign 

distinct nam(>s. They borrowed, therefore, the name of 

Booie sensible idea, where their ima^riatioa found some 

affinity. Thus, we speak of a piercing juilgmcnt, and a 

dear head ; a iqfc or a kard heart ; a rough or a tmooth 

behaviour. We sav, infiained by anger, watmtd by love, 

ef ; and these are almost 

ve bare for such ideas. 

pina of speech, are the 

ind render it more copi- 
uhra«fs are multiplied, 
for describing even the 
shadea and colours ol 
Id possibly do by proper 
Tom Tropes, 
lis a much clearer and 
al oltject, than we could 
iple terms, and divested 
chosen figure, even con- 
sion of a truth upon the 
ble than it would other- 
le following illustration 
eep in pleasure, we al- 
it-impure and noxious :* 
loiltng with riolent pas- 
t ing fumes to the head." 

ch congruity between a 
qioral and a seBSible idea, serves, Uke an argument from 
analogy, to enforce what the author userts, and to induce 

Having considereil the general nature of figures, we 
proceed nest tn particularize such of them as are of the 
most impDrtaii..ii ; viz. Metaphor, Allegory, Comparison, 
Uetonymy, Synecdoche, Personification, A|K)itrojihe, 
Antithesis, Interrogation, Eiclamation, Ampliiication o^ 
Climax, lie. 

blaoce vdiich one object bears to another. Hence, it ir 
much alUed to simile or comparison, and is indeed no othei^ 
than a comparison, expressed in an abridg^ed form. When 
I say of some great minister, *' that he upholds the state, 
like a pillar w^ch supports the weight of a whole edifice/* 
I fairlj make a comparison : but when I say of such a 
minister, *' That he is the pillar of the state," it now 
becomes a metaphor. In the latter case, the comparison 
between the minister and a pillar is made in the mind| 
but it is expressed without any of the words that denote j 

The following are examples of metaphor taken from 
Scripture : ^* I will be unto her a wall of fire roundabout, 
and will be the glory in the midst of her.** " Thou art my 
rock and my fortress." ''Thy word is a lamp to my fee^ 
and a light to my path.*' 

Rules to be obserred in the use of metaphors. 

If Metaphors i as well as other figures ^ shotddy on no oeei" 
sion^ be stuck on profusely ; and should always be such a$ 
accord with the strain of our sentiment. The latter part of 
the following passage, from a late historian, is, in this 
respect, very exceptionable. He is giving an account of 
the famous act of parliament against irregular marriages 
m England. •*Tne bill," says he, "underwent a great 
number of alterations and amendments, which were not 
efiected without violent contest. At tength, however, it 
was floated through both houses on the tide of a grea 
majority, and steered into the safe harbour of royal ap- 

ft. Care should be taken that the resemblance, ^hicK ti 
the foundation cf the metaphor , be clear and perspt€uou$^\ 
not farfetched^ nor difficult to discover. The transgression 
of this rule makes what are called harsh or forced meta- 1 
phors ; which are displeasing, because they puzzle the 
reader, and instead of illustrating the thought^ render it 
perplexed and intricate. 

3. In the third place, we shouldl>e careful, in the con- 
duct of metaphors, nerver to jumble metaphorical and plain 
uage together. An author^ addressing himself to the 

To thee the world its present homage pays ; 
The iiorveitearly, but mature the /7rai9<* 

figurel.) " FERSPICUITY, &ۥ $Bl 

It IS plain, that, had not the rhyme misled him to tiie 
choice of an improper phrase, he would have said. 

The fiarvest early, but mature the crop ; 
and so would have continued the figure wtuch he had he- 
gun. Whereaa, by dropping it unfinished, and by employ- 
ing the literal word *^' praise," when we were expecting 
.something that related to the harvest, the figure is oroken, 
and the two members of the sentence have no suitable 
correspondence to each other. 

4. We should avoid making two inconsistent metaphors 
meet on one object. This is what is called mixed metaphor, 
and is indeed one of the greatest misapplications of tbfs 
figure* . One may be '* sheltered under the patronage ol 
a great man :" but it would be wrong to say, ** sheltered 
under the mask of dissimulation :'' as a mask conceals^ 
but does not shelter Addison in his letter from Italy« 

I bridle in my struggling muse with pain. 
That longs to launch into a bolder strain 
The mi|se, figured as a horse, may be bridled ; but Nvhen 
we speak of launching, we make it a ship ; and by bo 
force of imagination, can it be supposed both a horse 
and a ship at one moment; bridled, to hinder it firom 

.The same author, elsewhere, says, " There is not a 
single view of human nature, which is not sufficient to 
extinguish the seeds of pride." Observe the incoherence 
of the things here joined together ; making a view extin" 
guishy and extinguish seeds. 

As metaphors ought never to be mixed, so they should 
not be crowded together on the same> object,; for the. mind 
Jia^ difficulty in passing readily through many different 
Tieivs of the same object, presented in quick succession. 
The last rule concerning metaphors, is, that they Genot 
too far pursued. If the resemblance, on which the figure 
is rounded, be long dwelt upon, and carried into all iia 
minpte circumstances, we tire the reader, who sood 
grows wearv of this stretch of fancy ; and we render our 
fiiscourse obscure* This is called straining a metaphor* 
Authors of a lively and strong imagination are apt to run 
into this exuberance of metaphor. When they hit upon 
a fig:ure that pleasee theiii> they are loth to part with ft 

mnd frequently cantiDae it 80 long, a9 to become tedioiM 
mnd intricate. We may observe, for instance, how the 
tbllowing metaphor is spun out. 

Thy thoughts are vagabonds ; all outward bound* 
Midst sands, and rocks, and storms, to cruise for plea* 

sure ; 
If gain'd, dear bought ; and better miss'd than gain*d> 
Fancy and sense, n*om an infected shore, 
Thy cargo bring ; and pestilence the prize • — 
Then such a tliirst, insatiable thirst, ; - 

By fond indulgence but iuflam'd the more ; ^ '^ 

Fancy still cruises, when poor sense is tired. 

An Allegory may be regarded as a metaphor continued , 
since it is the representation o^some one thing by another 
that resembles it, and which is made to stand for it. We 
inay take from the Scriptures a very fine example of an 
allego\ j , in the COth Psalm ; where the people of Israel 
are represented under the image of a vine : and the 
figure IS carried throughout with great exactness and 
beauty. ** Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt ; thou 
bast cast out the heathen and planted it. Thou preparedst 
room before it ; and didst cause it to take deep root, and 
it filled the land. The hills were covered with the sha- 
dow of it : and the boughs thereof were like the goodly 
cedars. She sent out her boughs into the sea, and her 
branches into the river. Why hast thou broken down 
her hedges, so that all they which pass by the way do 
pluck her ? The boar out of the wood doth waste it, 
and the wild beast of the field doth devour it. Return, 
we beseech diee, O God of Hosts, look down from hea- 
ven, and behold, and visit this vine !" See also Ezekiet, 
xvii. 22— «4. 

The first and principal requisite in the conduct of an 
allegory, is, that the figurative and the Hteral meaning be 
not mixed inconmiently together. Indee^, alf the rales 
that were given for metaphor^ may also be applied to 
allegories, on account of the affinity they bear to each 
other. The only material difference between theili, be- 
ttdei the one being short and the other being prolonged, 
is, that a metaphor always explains itself by the words 
Diat are connected with it in their proper and natm»a) 

meaoiDgr as, when t say, '* Achilles wad a lion;'^ " An 
able minister is the pillar of the state ;" the '* iioil" aad 
the *♦ pillar'* are sufficiently interpreted by the mention 
of " Achilles" and the ** minister," which I join to them ; 
but an allegory is, or may be, allowed to stand less con- 
nected with the literal meaning, the interpretation not 
being so directly pointed out, but left to our Own reflec- 

Attepfory was a favourite method of delivering instruc- 
tion >o ancient times ; for what we call fables or parables, 
are no other than allegories. By words and actions at- 
tributed to beasts or inanimate objects, the dispositions of 
meii were figured ; and what we call the moral, is the 
lintigured sense or meaning of the allegory. 

A Comparison *>r simile, is, •hen the resemblance be* 
tween two objects is expressed in form^ and generally 
pursued more fuHy than the nature of a metaphor admits : 
as when it is said, " The actions of princes are like 
those great rivers, the course of which every one be- 
holdSj but their springs have been seen by few.*' **Aa 
^e mountains are round about Jerusalem, so the Lord i» 
roaad about his people." *' Behold, how good and how 
pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity ♦ 
It is like the precious ointment, kc. and as the dew that 
descended upon the mountains of Zion." 

The advantage of this figure arises from the illustra*' 
tion which the simile employed gives to the principal ob- 
ject ; from the clearer view which it presents ; or the 
more strong impression which it stamps upon the mind. 
Observe the effect of it in the following instance. The 
author is explaining the distinction between the powers 
of sense and imagination in the human mind. ^ As wax,^^ 
fays he, " would not be adequate to the purpose of sig- 
Bature, if ii had not the power to retain as well as- to re- 
ceive the impression, the same holds of the soul witb 
respect te seme and imagination. Sense is its receptive 
power; imagination, its retentive* Had it sense without 
imagination, it would not he as wax» but as water, wher« 
though all impressioBt are instantly made,, yet aa soon at 
ihey are made, they are instantly lost*' 

In comparisons of this nature, the nndersfondtng jsi 
^ficerged much mere than the fimc; : and tliere^MW tiafi 

ruLea to he oinerved, with respect to tbem, are, tbtt 
tfae> be clear, and that they be useful ; that they tend 
to render our concepiioD of the principal object more 
4i3liact ; aad that thejr do Dot lead our view aside, and 
bewilder it with any 6lse light. We should always re- 
meoiber that eimilea are not argumeiiti. However apt 
they may be, they do no moi '§ 

lentinients, they ito not prove k 

Comparisons ought not to r 

which are too f^int and remol ' 

atiiating. strain the mind to c< 
QO light upon the subject. It 
a comparison which, in the p 
lies a KuiTiciently near resemt 
raland obscure, if pushed too 
sile lo the design of this figur 
number of coincidences in mi 
how far the writer's ingenu 

A Metonynij is founded on like setera! relations, of came 
and etl'ect, container and contained, sign and thing signi- 
fied. When we say; "They read Milton," the cause 
is put instead of the effect ; meaning " Milton's worts." 
On the other hand, wheu it is said, " Gray hairs shouU 
be respected," we put the effect for the cause, meaning 
by " gray hairs," old o«t. " The kettle boils," is a 
phrase where the name of the container is substituted 
for that of the thing contained. " To assume the sceptre,'* 
is a ciimnaon eipression for entering on royal authority ; 
the sign being put for the thing signified. 

When (he whole is put for a part, or a part for the 
whole ; a genus for a species, or a species for a genus ; 
in general, when any thing less, or any thing more, is 
^t for the precise object meant ; the hgure is then call- 
od a Syaerdocht or Cmnprehension. It is very common, 
for instance, to describe a whole object by some reutark- 
able part of it: as when we say, "A fleet of twenty 
$aiC," in the place of " skips ;" when wa use the " ktad" 
ibr the "person," the " aaBei" for the " lea." In like 
nanner, an attribute may be put for a subject: as, 
" Youth" for the " young," the " deep," for the " seal'', 
and Eometiraea a subject for its attribute. , >' ~ -' 

]5Sgures.) '. tJEBJSwcuiTif, to. iB^ 

Ptrsonytcation or Frosopopoeiiiy is tKsit figure by Whi(^ 
we attribute life and action to inanimate objects. The 
use of thtS figure is very natural and extensive : there is 
a wonderful proneness in human nature, under emotion, to 
animate all objects. When we say, ** the ground thirsts 
for rain," or, ** the earth smiles with plenty ;'* when we 
speak of ** ambition's being restless,^^ or, *'a disease's 
being deceitful ;^' such expressions show the facility witfc 
which the mind can accommodate the properties of liv* 
ing creatures to things that are inanimate, or to abstract 
coticeptions of its own forming. The following are 
striking examples from the Scriptures : *^* When Israel 
went out of Egypt, the house of J u dab from a people of 
strange language ; the sea saw it, and fled : Jordan was 
driven back! The mountains skipped like rams, and 
the little hills like lambs. What atie<i thee, O thou sea i 
4hat thou fleddest ? Thou Jordan, that thou wast driven 
back ? Ye mountains, that ye skipped like rams ; and ye 
little hills, like lambs ? Tremble, thou earth, at the pre- 
sence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob." 

" The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glait 
for them : and the desert shall rejoice and blosson) as the 


Milton thus describes the immediate effebts of eating 
the forbidden fruit. Terror produees the figure. 

' Earth trembled from her entrails, as again 
In pai^, and nature gave a second groan ; 
Sky lew'r'd, and, muttering thunder, some sad drop5 
Wept, at completing of the mortal sin. 

The impatience of Adam to know his origin, is suppo- 
sed to prompt the personification of all the objects he 
beheld^ in order to procure information. 

Thou sun^ said I, fair light ! 
And thou enlighten'd earth, so fresh and gay I 
Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plain% 
And ye that live and move, fair creatures, tell, I, 

Tell, if you saw, how came I thus, how here ? - 

We shall give a remarkably fine example of this figure> 
from bishop Sherlock, He has beautifully personified 
Natural Religion ; and we may perceive, in the persooifi^ 

MtioB, t&e spirit knd grace which (he figvre, when weH 
eondacted, beatowi oa diacoune. Tfae author is com- 
puiDg to^ber our Saviour and Mahoaiet. " Go (saya Iw) 
t» your hKtaraJ Relifiw : lay before her Maboinet, ana 
Ub duciplea, arrayed in armoar and bbod, ridisg in trt- 
imph over the epoiis of thousands who fell by hia victori- 
es sword. Show her the cities «(liich he set iii B^Ktea, 
ttie countries which he ravaged and destroyed, and lita 
miserable distress of all the iuhabi h> 

tVhen she has viewed htm in this at. » 

■is retirement; shew her the P { 

bis concubines and bia wives ; and 1 L- 

lege revelatioD, and a Diviw coma is 

«dultery and lost." 

" When she ia tired with this prospect, then show her 
Ac Messed Jesua, humble and meek, doing good to aU 
tiie sons of men. Let her see hiai in his uioat retired 

JrivBcies ; let her follow him to the mount, and hear his 
svotioBS and Eopplicatioos to God. Carry her to hit 
(able, to view his )>bor fare ; and hear bis heavenly 
diocourse. . Let her attend him to the tribunal, and god* 
aider the patience ivith which he endured the ecaffa do4 
reproaches ufliis enemies. ' Lead her to his cross; fet 
her vieiv bim in the' agony of death, and hear bis \aA 
prayer for bis persecutors ; ' Father, forgive them, for 
they know not what they do,' — When tiattiral Religion 
faas thus viewed both, ask her, which is the Prophet ot 
God ? — But her answer we have already had, when ahe 
nwpart of this scene, through the eyes of the Ceuturion, 
who atteixleil at the ci;oi^a. By bim she spoke, and »aid, 
* Truly tiiia m^n was the Son of Uod.'" This ia more 
tttan elegant ; it is truly subUme. The whole passage is 
•nimnted ; and the Figure rises at the conclusion, when 
Natural Religion, who, before, was only a spectator, is 
iDlrodvced as speaking by the Centurion's Voice. 

This figure of speech is eonetimes very improperly and 
•stravagantly applied. A capital error in pei-sonilyiug 
•bjects, is, to deck them with fantastic and tri£og circum- 
stances. A practice of this sort dissolves the potent 
charm, whirl) enchants and deceives tlw reader; anil 
cither leaver him dissatisfied, or excites, iteihajis, his tia 

Another error; fr^q^^ai ia deseripiiTe personificationj», 
consists in introducing them, when the subject of discus- 
sion is destitute of dignity, and the reader is not pfrepared 
to relish them. One caQ< scarcely pefuse, with compo-^ the following use of this iigure. It is the language 
of our elegant poet Thomson, who thus personifies and 
connects the bodily appetites, and their gratifications. 
Then sated Hunger bids his brother Tliirst 
Produce the mighty bowl : 
Nor wanting is the brown October, drawn 
Mature and perfect, from his dark retreat 

• Of thirty years: and, no w hi» honest front 
Flames in the light. refulgent. • 

, It is to he remarked, concerning thia %ure, and short 
Metaphors and similes, which ako have been allowed to 
be the proper language of high passion, that they are the 
proper expression of it, only on those occasions when it 
is so far moderated asto admit of words. The first an4 
liigbest transports seem to overwhelm the mind, and ari^ 
denoted by silence or groans : next succeed* th^ ^'P'^i^l 
and passionate language ^of which these figures constitute 
a great part# Such agitation, however, cannot long coo*- 
tiinue; the passiope having spent their force, the. mind sooii 
subsides into that exhausted and dispirited state, in which 
all figures are improper. 

Apostrophe is a tuuiing off from the regular course of 
ihe subject, to address some person or thing; as, *' Death 
k swallowed up in victory. O death ! where is thy sting ? 
O grave ! where is thy victory ?" , ^ 

. The following is an instance of personification and apo- 
strophe .united : *' O thou sword of the Lord ! how long 
will it be ere thou be quiet ? put thyself up into thy scab» 
bard, rest and be still-l How can it be quiet, seeing the 
Lord hath given it a charge against Askelon, and against 
the sea-shore ? there hath he appointed it." See also 
an extraordinary example of these figures, in the 14th 
chapter of Isaiah, from the 4th to the 19th verse, where 
the prophet describes the fall of the Assyrian empire. 

A principal error, in the use of the Apostrophe, is, to 
deck the object addressed with affected ornaments ; by 
which authors relinquish the expression of passioB, stai 
fttbstitute Cor it the language of i[ancy 

Another li«<pi«iit error is^ to extend tms figure to t<i0' 
great length- The language of violent passion is always 
concise, and oflen abrupt. It parses suddenly irom 
•ne object to another. It often glances at a thoug^bt, 
starts ^001 it, and leaves it unfinished. The succcraioti 
of ideas is irregular, and connected by distant ^nd uncom* 
men relations. On all tbe«e accounts, nothing is more' 
unnatural than long speeches, uttered by persons under 
the influence of strong passions. Yet this error occurs 
in several poets of distinguished reputation. 

The next tigure in order, is AnHthesis, Comparison is 
founded on the resemblance ; antithesis, on the contrsiat 
or opposition of two objects. Contrast has always the 
effect, to make each of the contrasted objects appear m 
the stronger tights White, for instance, never appears 
so bright as when it is opposed to black ; and when both 
are viewed together. An author^ in his de&nce of t 
IHeud against the charge of murder, expresses himself 
thus : '*:* Can you believe that the pc»0D whom he sera* 
pled to slay «' when he might have done so with full justice^ 
m a convenient place, at a proper time, with secure im* 
punity ; he made no scruple to murder against justice, in 
an unfavourable place, at a|i unseasonable time, and at 
the risk of capital condemu^tion ?'' 

The following examples further illust3*ate. this fi^re. 
Tho' deep, yet clear ; tho' getotle, yet not duU ; 
Strong, without rage ; without o'erflowing, full. 

^* if you wish to enrich a person, study not to iacreas^ 
hb stores, but to diminish his desires." 

" If you regelate your desires accoirding to the stand- 
^rd of nature, you will never be poor ; u according to 
the standard of opinion^ you will never b^ rich." 

A maxim, or moral saying, very properly receives tht 
Ibrm of the two last examples; both because it is sup* 
posed |jO be the fruit of meditation, and because it is de- 
signed td be engraven on the memory, which .recalls it 
more easily by the help of such contrasted expressions. 
But where sucK sentences firequently succeed each other; 
where this becomes an author's favourite and prevailing 
nianner of expressbg himself, his ^tyle appears too mucn 
studied and laboured ; it gives us the impression of an 
author attending more to his manner of saying tbiiigs 
liMm to Ihe thinip thesBT^' 


Big^res.) - ptiicspicviTT, l&e« '. ttft 

' The folIawiDg is a beatitifal example of Antithesis.* 
** If Cato may b^ censured, severely indeed, but justly, 
for abandoning the cause of liberty, which he would not;, 
however, survive ; what shall we say of those, who em- 
brace it faintly, pursue it irresolutely^ grow tired of it 
when they have much to hope, and give it up when they 
have nothing to fear?" — The capital antithesis of thi!| 
sentence, is instituted between the zeal of Cato for liber-' 
ty, and the indifference of some otherv of her patrons j 
But, besides the leading antithesis, there are two subor*^ ' 
dinate ones, in the latter ipember :* ^* Grow tired of it^' 
when they have much to hope: and give it up, when 
fliey have nothing to fear." ' 

The eloijuent Burke has exhibited a fine instance of 
Ibis (ig\jT9p in hiseulogium of the philanthropic Howard, 

" He has visited all Europe, — not to survey the surap* 
tuousness of palaces, or the stateliness of temples ; not 
to make accurate meaaurementa of the remains of ancient 
grandeur, nor to form a scale of the curio<»ity of modern 
arts ;.nor to collect medals, or collate manuscripts; — -but 
to dive into the depths of dungeons; to plunge into the 
infection of hospitals ; to survey the. mansions of sorrow 
and pain ; to take the gage and dimeniions of misery, de- 
pression, and contempt; to remember the forgotten, to 
attend to the neglected, to visit the forsaken, and com- 
pare and collate Uie distresses of all men, in all countries." 

The next figure concerning which we are to treat is 
called Hyperbole or Exuggeraiion. It consists in magni- 
fying aB object beyond its natural bounds. In all lan^ 
guages, even in common conversation, byberbolical 
expressions very frequently occur : as swifl as the wind ; 
s|8 white as the snow ; and the like ; and the commoii 
forms of compliment, are almost all of them extravagant 
byperboles. If any thing be remarkably good or greai 
in its kind, we are instantly ready to add to it some ex-. 
aggerating epithet, and t<i make it the greatest or best 
we ever saw. The imagination has always a tendency tQ 
gratify itself, by maguifying its present object, and car- 
rying it to excess. Mpre or less of this hyperbolical 
turn will prevail in language » according to the liveliness 
of imaginatioD among &e people who speak it. HeQC# 
Jfoiuig people fcd mnck ia hyperboles* Heoce the h/^ 

900 APPENDIX. ' (Figure? 

guage of the Orientak was far more Kji^erbolical, thai^ 
fiat of the Europeans, who are of more phlegmatic, or, 
jperhaps we may 8&y> of more correct imagination. Heoce^ 
among all writers in early times, and in the rude p^rio^ 
of society, we may expect this %ure to abound. Greater 
experience, and more cultivated society^ abate the warmth 
of imagination, and chasten the manner of expression. 

Hyperboles are of two kinds ; either such as are em- 
ployed in description, or such as are suggested by the 
warmth of passion. All passions without exception, Jove^ 
terror, amazement, indignation, and even grief, throw 
the mind into confusion, ap^ravate their objects, and ot 
course prompt a hyperbolical style. Hence the following 
sentiments of Satan in Milton, as strongly as they are 
described, contain nothing but what is natural and proper; 
exhibiting the picture of a mind agitated with rage and 

Me, miserable ! which way shall I fly 

Infinite wrath, and infinite despair ? 
^ Which way I fly is Hell, myself am Hell ; 
i And in the lowest depths a lower deep. 

Still Ihreafning to devour we, opens wide, 
•r To which the Hell I sufler seems a Heaven. 

The fear of an enemy augments the conceptions of the 
•ize of their leader, ** 1 saw their chie^" says the scout 
of Ossian, ** tall as a rock of ice ; his spear, the blasted 
&r; his shield, the rising moon : he sat on the shore, 
Kke a cloud of mist on the hill." 

The errors frequent in the use of Hyperboles, arise 
either from overstraining, or introducing them on unsait<r 
able occasions. Dry den, in his poem on. the restoration 
of king Charles the Second, compliments that monarch, 
at the expense of the sun himself 

^ That star at your biilh shone out so bright, 
J It stained the duller sun's meridian light. 

This is indeed mere bo^nbast. It is difficult to ascer- 
filin, by any precise rule, the proper measure and boun- 
dary of this figure. Good sense and just taste munt de- 
tisrmine the pointi, beyond which, if we pass, we beccMiie 

Bjgiires.) TKftsricuiTi, Jke. ^t 

Fision is anolher figure of speech, ivliictk is proper 
ttt\y in ^aimateit and warm cfim posit! on. IE is produced 
wtiea, in»iEead of relating something that is past, we use 
the present tense, and describe it as actually passing 
before our eyem. Thus Cicero, in his fourth oration, 
against Caliiine : " 1 seem to myself to behold this city, 
tha ornament of the earth,' aad the' capital of all natiooi, 
Suddenly invulred in one conttugration. f see before me 
the ttUu^hicred heap^ of citii!en«, lying unburied in the 
midtt ofiht'ir ruined coumry. The furiout counteoance 
cf CetheEf^is rises to mj view, while, mth ft savage joj 
he is triumphing in your miseriec." 

Thi^ maiiuer of descciplion supposes a sort of enthu- 
siasm, which carries the person who ' 
measure out of himself; and, when w 
reeds, by the forc« of sympathy, imp] 
fcearer very strongly. But, in order i 
ecutiou, it re([uires an uncommonly \ 
and so happy a selection of circumMau 
w think we see before our eyes the scene that is d«- 

InttrrogatioH. The unfigured, literal use of interroga- 
tion, is to ask a question : but when men ate strongly 
tnored, whatever they would affirm or deny, with great 
earnestness, they naturally putin the ibrui of a question, 
eipressing thereby the strongest confidence of the truth 
of their own seotimnnt, and a^peahng to their hearer* 
fer the impossibility of the contrary. Thus Balaam «s 
pressed himself to Balak. ' '' The Lord is not a man that 
tie should he, neither the son of man that he shouU 
repent. Hath he gaid it ! and shall he ool do it 1 Halli 
be spoken it ? and shall he not make it good ?" 

Interrogation gives life and spirit to di<:course. We Be<! 
this in the animated, introductory speech of Cicero against 
Catiline : " How long will yon, Catiline, ahu^e our pa- 
tience ? Do you not perceive that your designs are disco- 
vered ?" — He might indeed have said; " You abuse our 
patience a long white. You must be sensible, thai your 
designs are diitcovered." Bill it is easy to perceive, hoW 
much this latter mode of expression (alls short of the fores 
«itid rehemeace of'the fanner. 

fecfonwlMiu SF& the aSecf of strong emotions of the 

hM; such as, fiurpriae, admiration^ joj, gne^ and th« 
like. ** Wo i8 me that I sojourn iu Mesecb, that I dwell 
10 the tents of Kedarl" Pscdms. 

** that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fbun« 
tain of tears, that I might weep day and night, for the 
slain of the daughter of my people ! O that 1 had in the 
wilderness a lod^ng*place of wayfaring men !" Jerenu&h. 

Though interrogations n^y be introduced into close . 
and earnest reasoning, exclamations belong only to 
strong emotions of the mind. When judiciously employ- 
ed, they agitate the hearer or the reader with similar 
passions : but it is extremely improper, and sometimes 
ridiculous, to use them on trivial occasions, and on mean 
or low subjects. The unexperienced writer oflen attempts 
to elevate his language, by the copious display of this 
figure : but he rarely or never succeeds* He frequently 
renders his composition frigid to excess, or absolutely lu- 
dicrous, by calling on us to enter into his ti^nsports^ 
when nothing is said or done to demand emotion. 

Irony is expressing ourselves in a manner contrary to 
dur thoughts, not with a view to deceive, but to add force 
to our observations. Persons may be reproved for their 
negligence, by saying ;. " You have taken great care in- 
deed. Cicero says of the person against whom he waa 
pleading ; ** We have great reason to believe that the 
modest man would not ask him for his debt, when he pur* 
sues his life." 

Ironical exhortation is a very agreeable kind of figure ; 
which, after having set the inconveniences of a things 
in the clearest light, concludes with a feigned encourage- 
ment to pursue it. Such is that of Horace, i^ea, having 
beautifully described the noise and tumults of Ronie^ he 
adds iromcally ; 

" Go now, and study tuneful verse at Rome^*' 

l^he suljigects of Irony are vices and follies of all kinds : 
and this mode of exposing them, is often more effectual 
than serious reasoning. The gravest persons have not 
ileclined the use of this figure, on proper occasions. The 
wise and virtuous Socrates made great use of it, in his 
endeavours to discountenance vicious and faoH<5h practices. 
J^venin tbe sacred writinsrs. we ti^Ve a rem arlrg^M e. ^ 

Figtires.) PERSPicuiTr, Aa 38S3 

stance of. it. Tiie im)phet Elijah, when he chaBengea 
the priests of Baal to prove tiie tnidi of their deky, 
^mocked them, and said: Cry alond for he is a god 
either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, 
or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked." 

Exclamations and Irony are sometimes united : as in 
Cicero's oration for Balbus, wher6 he derides his accu- 
ser, by saying ; ^ O excellent interpreter of the law ! 
master of antiquity I corrector and amender of our con- 
stitution I'* 

1 he la«t figure of speech that we shall mention, is wh;^ 
writers call Amplificatton or Climax. It consists in height- 
ening all the circumstances of an object or action, which 
we desire to place in a strong light. Cicero gives & 
lively instance of this figure, when he says ; " It is ? 
crime to put a Roman citizen in bolads ; it is the height oi 
guilt to scourge him ; little less than parricide to put bin? 
to death: what nanye then shall 1 give to the act of cru- 
cifying him?^' 

Archbishop Tiflotson uses this figure very happily, tt 
recommend good and virtuous actions : " After we have 
prsLCtised good actions awhile, they fcsccsss Casy; and 
when they are easy, we begin to take pleasure in thedi'; 
ima Avneii tlrey pldMe bs, weifotHem Tre^iuentlyT^^im- 
by frequency of acts, a thing grows into a habit j and con- 
firmed habit is a kind of second nature ; and so far as any 
thing is natural, so far it is necessary ; and we can hardly 
do otherwise ; nay, we do it many times whea we do not 
think of it.^ ^'^" 

We shall conclude this article with an example of a 
beautiful cUmiax, taken from the charge of a judge to the 
jury, iii the case of a woman accused of murdering her 
own child. *' Gentlemen, if one man had any how slain 
another ; if an adversary had killed bis oppose r, or a 
woman occasioned the <leath of her enemy ; even these 
criminals would have been capitally punished by the Cor- 
neltan law ; but if this guiltless infant, that could make 
no enemy, had been murdered by its own nurse, what 
punishment would not then the mother have demanded ? 
With what ci^es and exclamations would she have stunned 
your ears I What shall we say then, when a woman, 
guilty of homicide, a iiiother» of the murder ef her wm* 

cent chiTd» iiaA oomprised aU thofi€ misdeecb in one siiv^ 
gle crime ? a crline» io its own natute, detestable ; in 4 
woman, prodtgions ; in a mother, incrediUe ) and perpe- 
trated agamst one wliose age called for compassion, who#e 
near relation claimed afiection, and whose innocence de» 
served the highest favour." 

We have now finished what was proposed, concemiD|^ 
Perspicuity io single words and phrases, aod the accurate 
construction of sentences. The former has been con- 
tsidored under the heads of Purity, Propnety, and Pre- 
cision ; and the latter^ under those of Clearness, Unity, 
Strengfth, and the proper use of Figurative Language. 
Though many of those attentioBS which have been re- 
commended, may appear minute, yet their effect upon 
writing and style, is much greater than might, at first, be 
imagined* A sentiment which is expressed in accurate 
language, and in a period, clearly, neatly, and well ar- 
ranged, always makes a stronger impression on the mind, 
than one that is expressed inaccurately, or in a feeble or 
embarrassed manner. Every one feeb this upon a com- 

Earison : and if the efiect be sensible in one sentence, 
ow mtiehflM^F* in a wboi*? dfecoBrse,~ercompo^tioR that 
is made up of such sentences? 

. The frrndamental role for writinf with a<;curacy, an* 
into wbi<:h all others might be resolved, undoubtedly is, 
to comtnunieate, in correct language^ and in the clearest ami 
most natural order, the ideas which we mean to transfuse into 
the minds of others* Such a selection and arrai^ement of 
words, as do most justice to the sense, and express it 
to most advantage, make an agreeable and strong impres- 
aion. To these points have tended all the rules which 
have been given. Did we always think clearly, and were 
we, at the same time, fully masters of the language in 
which we write, there would be occasion for few rules* 
Oor sentencef^ would then, of course, acquire all those 
properties of clearness, unity, strength, and accuracji 
which have been recommended. For we may rest as- 
sured, that whenever we express ourselves ill, besides 
the mismanagement of language, there is, for the most 
part, some mistake in our manner of conceiving the sub- 
ject. Embarrassed, obscure, and feeble sentences, are 
feneEally^ if not ahvaj^Bi^ the tf%v^^ mbisnm^ ^ 


Kgures.) ^ fiRSPiciriTY, &«i 3ltt 

scare, and feeble thought. Thought and expression act 
and re-act upon 4ach other. The understanding and Ian* 
guage have a strict connexion ; and they who are leam« 
ing to compose and arrange their sentences with accuracy 
and order, are learnings at the same time, to thdtik witli 
accuracy and order ; a tonsideration which alone will re* 
compense the student, for his attention to this branch of 
litei at are. For a further explanation of the Figures ^ 
Speech f tee the Octamo GranwMr^ on this subjecU 

JP^ ^^^JH^lJf^ • '•fJ^ consldewble enlargement of the precedixtf Appe** 
m^^ iutb« Third Sditibttol the Ociavo Grammar. «* *fp«»- 

He mny tjao find, at the end of tbe Tirctlftbr or any subsequent edition of th« 
X«y tothe fcicercises, a e(n>i(*wt Alpbtbetical fndes to the various suhjectB con- 
Uuic«t in the Onunmar. tbe Exerdseg, and ttie Key to tbe exerciser Thit Index ' 
mms^ tto nme time, a CpUooe of tbe chief rules and priociplea <9f tbs 



Ti^E CompUer c 
iaiiguagc, hopes itw 
the nature and desi 
address to the young 
respecting their fului 
and the chief purpoa 

In ibraiing this Grsiaffi&r, ud the volume of Illus- 
trations connected with iti the author was influenced 
by a desire to facilitate your prngresi in leamjn^ kndf 
at the same time, to impresi on your minda prindplet 
of piety uid virtue. He wiahed also to assist, in som* 
degree, the I&bours uf those who are cultivating your 
imdenitandings, and providing for you a fund of rational 
a)id useful employment ; an employment calculated to 
exclude those frivolous pursuits, and that love of eaae 
and seuMial pleasure, which enfeeble and corrupt thv 
pinds of many inconsiderate youth, and render them- 
neeless to society. 

Without your own hest exertions, the concern of 
•thers for your welfare, wilt be of litUe av»I : with 
Ibem, you may f^rly promise yourselves success. Tb« 
Vtiter of this address, therefore, recommends to you^ 
an earnest co-operation with the endeavours of y»u> 
Aboute to promote yow UDfffBvvmwt end happinMBI^ 

"^ "^' JIftBRKSS TO TOUNG STUl>I»MPS« 307 

This ae-operation, whilst it secures your own pro- 
gress, wUl afford you the heart-4elt satisfaction, of 
knowing that you are cherishing the hopes, and aug* 
menting the pleasure^ of those with whom you ar« 
connected by the most endearing ties. He recom« 
mends to you also, serious^ and ele^at^d riews of the 
studies in which you may be engaged. Whatever"' 
may be your attainments, n^ver allow yourselves to ' 
rest satisfied with mere literary acquisitions, nor wiA' 
a selfish or contracted application of tb6m« Wh^a 
they advance only the interests of diis stage of beings 
and look not beyond the present transient scene, their 
mfluence is circumscribed within a very narrow sphere* 
The great business of this life is to prepare, and 
c^ualify us, for the enjoyment of a better, by culti*^ 
vating a pure and humble state of mind, and che^ 
risbing habits of piety towards Gtod* and benevolence 
to men. Every thing Aat promotes or retards this im»» 
portant woiir, is of great moment to you, and claiiM 
your fitst and most serious attention. 

If, then, the cultivation of jetters, and an advance^ 
ment in knowledge, are found to strengthen and e» 
large your minds, to purify and exalt your pleasui^ 
and to dispose you to pious and i^rt^ous sentiments and 
conduct, they produce excellent effects ; which, witU 
your best endeavours to improve them, and the Divine 
Messing superadded, will not fail to render you, not 
c»nly wise and good yourselves, but also the li^ppy m^ 
struments of diffliising wiisdoni, religion, and goodness 
around you. Thus improved, your acquisitions becomii 
liandmaids to virtue ; and they may eventually serve ta 
Increase the r^w^ards* which the Suprei^e Being h» 

^A8 jkmtfKESB TO Tocrire sTiii^fillf^ 

promised to faicMd aod w«ll-difected«^ef|idiis, tat dte 
promation. of truth and goodness am^i^ men. 

But if you counteract the hopes of your friends, 
and the tendency oi these attainments ; if you grow 
▼sun of your real or imaginary distinctions, and regard 
with C4»ntempt, the virtuous^ unlettered. mind ; if you 
suffer yoiuselves to be abeoi))ed in over-curioUs or tri» 
fling speculations ; if your heart and principles he de- 
based and poisoned^ by the inl' e ace of corrupting and 
pemteious bor«ks, for which no elegance of comiiosittoB 
can make amends ; if you spend so much of your tune 
in literary engagements, as to make them interfere with 
tiig!^4>r occupations, and lead yon lo forget, that pious 
wd benerolent action is the great end of your being : 
tf such be the unhappy misapplication of your acqui* 
IJtipns and advantages, — instead of becoming a blessing 
to you, they will prove the occasion of ^ i-eater coo" 
Jemnation ; and, in this hour of sej^ious thought, they 
Qiay excite the painful reflections,^ — ^that it would have 
been better for you, to have remained illiterate and 
imaspiring ; to have been confined to the humble!^ 
ivalks of life ; and to have been even hewers of wood 
and drawers of water all your days. 

Contemjdatiiig the danger? to which you are ex- 
posed^ the sorrows and dishonour which accunapany 
talents misapplied, and a course of indolence and 
ibtly» may yoM exert yoiir utmost endeavours to avoid 
|bem! Seriously reflecting on the great end for whicti 
you were brought into existersce ; oa tlie bright and 
encouraging examples of m^ny excellent young per- 
sons ; and on the mournful deviations of others, who 
once were promising ; may you be sti wise as to choov^ 
«fed ibllow that path, which leads to honour^ useMk 


ADDRESS TO TOtmo 9Timviivi* 8dl< 

«e8S, and true enjojnnent ! This is the morning of jout 
life, in which pursuit is ardent, and obstacles readily 
give way to vigour and perseverance. Embrace this 
favourable season ; devote yourselves to the acquisition 
of knowledge and virtue ; and humbly pray to God 
tliat he may bless your labours. Often reflect on the 
advantages you possess, and on the source from whence 
they are all derived. A lively sense of the privileges 
and blessings, by which you have been distinguished^ 
will induce you to render to your heavenly Father, the 
just returns of gratitude and love: and these fruits of 
early gooebess will be regarded by him as acceptable 
offerings, and secure to you his favour and protection. 

Whatever diiliculties and discouragements may be 
found in resisting the allurements of vice, you mzj 
be humbly confident, tiiat Divine assistance wiU be^ 
afforded Ut zS: your good and piourresotutiony^ aa^ 
that every virtuous eflfert will have a correspondent re- 
ward. You may -rest assured too, that all the advan* 
tages arising from vicious indulgences, are light and 
contemptible, as weU as exceedin^y transient, com- 
pared with the sidbstantial enjoyments, the present 
pleasures, and the future hopes, which result from 
piety and virtue. The Holy Scriptures assure u% 
that " The ways of wisdom arc ways of pleasant- 
ness, and that all her paths are peace :** " that re^ 
ligion has the promise of the bfe that now is, and 
of that which is to come :" and that die truly good 
man, whatever may be the condition allotted to him 
by Divine Providence, ** in dl things gives thanks^ 
and rejoices even in tribulation.''— -Some of these 
sentiments have been fiodly illustrated by a celebrated 
fm^U The author of this i^ddress presents the iUin^ 

tration to you, as a striking and beautiful poTtmf o| 
Ti rtue : with bis most cordial widies, that your hearts and 
U\'es may correspond to it ; and ^t your happiness 
here, may be an earnest of happiness hereafter. 


Know then this truth, (enough for man to know,) 
Virtue sikKie is happiness befow : » 

The ou^ point where hantan bli»s stands stiU ; 
ARd tastes the ffmd^ without the f^iH to ill : 
Where ofily merit eonstaat psiy receiTes, 
Ii bl€«HS*(l in wh&t it takes, asd vbat it gives; 
The joy une<|iian'd, if its eud it gain. 
And if it k)se, atteivied with no pain : 
Without satiety, though e'er so bless'd ; 
And but iRore relished as the more distresi'd : 
The broadest mirth nnfeoling foliy ^veai^s. 
Less ploasmg far than virtue's very tears : 
Good, from each object, from each place acqtiir'd ; 
For e%er ext?rci.s'dj yet never tir'd ; 

A ever idaleJ, vvhilc one man's oppressM; 
Never dejected, while anotliC'^s biess'd : 
And where no wants, no wishes can remain; 
Since but to wish more virt«ei is to gain. — 
For him aU>^e hope leads from goal to goa), 
And opens still, and opens on his soul ; 
Till length«3»*d on to faith, and uncaifin'd. 
It pouri tbe bliss that fills up all the mliRl.*' 


< »u ) 

Of the same booksellers inay he had^ Mm eHi^tns tf (dM 
following books ^ by the same author^ 

1. Abridgment of Muarays Grammar. Hs* 

The Stereotype e^itidn. Price ----- 80 

2. English Grammar. Tlie SUreotype edklMi * • 75 

3. English Exercises. Price - - • " • • ^'^ 

4. A Key to the Exercises. Price - - - - 68«| 

** Mr- Murray's Giamtitni*, Exercises, and Key to the Exerctees, fom tltogethtr, 
hj Tar, the most complete aod judicioui aualysis of tbie Eji^itbf laaguace^that ttas 
bitiierto been pu^lish^ The rules for corbposition are ^xeellent; Uie examploB 
are selected with ta^e and judgmem ; and the execution 6f the whol&dlaplay^ ftU 
vniwual degree of critical acuteneas and sagacity.** AiaauU AeVietr, 18Q8. 

**Mt. Murray's English GramnMir, EngUsli Gsercises, and AtwidgniviDt erf the 
' OraoMnar, claim our attention, oo \ccount of thnir being comppsed on the principle 
me have so frequently recommenUed, of corobiniog religioua. and moral improve- 
nent with the elements of £cientttl<r knowledge. But aa it is not a oart of our plai^ 
to enter into a particular examination <^f "worlcB of this nature, we shall oslj aay^ 
Chat they have long been in high estimation.** 

" The fate learned Dr. Blair gave his opinion of them in the foUowiog terms : * Mr. 
*'Lindley Murray's Grammar, with the Exercises and the Key in a separate volume* 

* I esteem as a most excellent performance 1 think it superior tQ any work of that 

* nature we have yet had ; and am persuaded that it is, by much, the best Grammat 
*of the English language extant. On l^yntax, in particular, he luu shown a rtoiqr 

* derful degree of acuteness and precision, in ascertaining the propriety of languaga, 
*and in rectifying the numberless errors which writers are apt to commit. Moat 
'useful these books must certainly be to all who ere applyitif themselv,*tto tha 

* arts of composition.* ** GtuirdiaM t^ EdueaSioih •^u^* 1008. 

** This Grammar is a publication of much merit, and fully answers the profisa- 
nions in the title. The Appendix contains ?ome of the best rules f(tf writins elegant- 
ly, and with protMiety, that we recollect to have seen.** 

Monthly Revim, Je/y. 17S^ 

** We have been much pleased wHh the perusal of Mr. "Murray's ** fingliah RX' 
erciaee.'* They occupy, with disti&;uiahed excellence, a most important place io 
the science <rf the Bo^lish language; and, as such, we can warmly recommend tbeoi 
to the teachera of schools, as well aa to all those who are desirous of attaining cor-, 
reetneai and precision in their native tongue.** Monthly RtvUtVt Jvly^ ITtt 

" This book (English Exercisea) has been accidentally mislaid : but we willingir 
repeat the praise we formerly gave the author for his English Grammar. There \m 
great judemeM ahown in these Exercises -, and, what is no common merit* the great- 
est penplcuity in the adwtation of the examples te'tbe several rules.*' 

BrUUh Critic, iVwswber, 17WL 

** The very general approbation, which this grammwr has received from the pub-^ 

lie, is sufficiently indicative of its merits ; aod weiiav^ much pleasure in conttrm- 

ing the decision of the public, respecting its superiority over all other English gram- 

-fDiurt. We request the author to coatinue his exertums for the insteuctioa of the 

lising generation.** Criiiad Review^ June, 18QI 

** The principle upcm which all the publiei^ons of Mr. Murray, for the ia- 
itraction of ^>e rising generation, are founded, is such as gives him an unqueetioDa* 
ble claim to public protection. The man who blends religion and morftle with the 
elements (rfseieotiife knowledge, renders an eminent service te society : and where 
ability 9t execution ia added to excellence of design, as in the present case, thu 
eleim, becomes irreelstible.*' Anh-jacobin RevUn, Jantiary, I8O4. 

** Our tentlmenli, witb regard to the omission or insertion of the relative tiro- 
BOUD, are exactly stated by Mr. Lindley Murray, the in^enitnia author of the beat 
EBglieb OniMBtt, beyond iQ eomperison, that haa yet appeared.** 

ImfrUu Review, SepUmUrf lBQi> 

^ We r^lce that this Grammar haa attained to ao extensive a ckcolatkm : aod 
^B etTMBUy leeooneBdittDaUyWhove deniroei eC M^Ogii^ • •!•« w4 «b- 

( dl2 > 

fCibeoriVA kaomi^^ of the Engliak luguatt; but iDore mpBcUSif to thoM «&• 
•!« epffigcd io tbe gnummtkal iostractioD of joutb ; as we h«T« do doobt that th9f 
will dirivtfrom It tlie motl vidiwtle anlfttoge to their labeura.*' 

Kdeetic MtwUm, Stptemher, 19(IS. 


r«o<ype edition. Price 37|ct8. 

** Oar MM k«r •nple teetimooy, betli to tke abilitv and tba dDiceoce of Mr* 
lf«mf . Rif d Mhr c ot pubUesUoaa evicoe nncb souod judgment and good sen!»e : 
aad hit adeetioae tre venr well e«lcultt«d to aofwer the ioteoded purpose. What 
Mr. Murray obeerrea, la Ida sytftem of rules ft>r aaaietias childreu to read with pro- 
prietf , ia worth tftftnrton : tbe precept witb which he concludes, is particulariv sos 
>f1odo«it,aBdlaitai«afoodexMa|ile.*** BrUithCrUU, aovtmb»r,\Ml, 

d* Ths Enohisn Reabkr. Stereotype editioD. Price 75 cts. 

** Thk lel^ctieo refleete nmeli credk am the terte of tbe Comuttar ; aod the arraoga- 
aeot of tbe Tarkma piecea la judkkHia. The preliaaiaary rules for eouudat iou are 
useful, and elearly delivered. We therefore reoommeod tbfai snail voiume ii> iboae 
who wieh to attels* wkhont tbe help of teatructera, the tapertaiit ^vantagee oT 
tbiflklQg and ai>eakli)S wHb propriety.** MmlUg Rtview, JmgiuU 1799. 

7. Se^usl to THB English Reader. Price 1 dollar. 

** We have already bone onr teatioxjoy to tbe high merk of Mr. Murray, an aa 
mculte grammarteBt abd aa blendine, io Ma varioua works, with uocommoD b^>phi««a, 
a delicate and correct taate both ui literature and mcrala. We are pleased, thougb 
not Burpriaedt to eee tbat tbe pubUc baa demanded a new edition of tbe re^>ectai>le 
work now beft»e ua.** Jnmtal Kevim, 180^ 

** We regard, aa a very vriuable ioproTenient, tbe biofrwhical aodaritical Jppen- 
4i«,introdocedlolotUa edition of the "8equel to tbe Sngkisb Reader.** TbiscoiD- 
pilatioo appear* more free froB ohjeetlnnablfi paaaages, and better adapted to tbe im- 
provement of yoiitb« tbto any other of the kind wbieb we have seen.** 

MeUcHc R$9iew, Jvaa, ISQtr 

** The eeeood edhioD ai tbia exeelleet ecbool book eoDtaias tbe addition of nine 
extraota eeleeted from Addiaoo. Carter, Rewkeaworth, fce. An Appendix aJee ai 
43 pagea ia nubjeioed, eontaioini Biogn^ioal Sketchea at tbe aocborv (rojp wfaon 
tbia aelection ia made. Theee are executed with brevity and nsataeaa. We bave 
■0 baaitatloo in reeommendios tbia aetecUon, aa tbe best of Ma kind.** 

CrOlcef Aaeim, Mqr , I80». 

8. A First Book for Childrcr. The Eighd^ editioa. 

Price 6| cts. 

** Tbie very improved primer ia totendad to prepare tbe Seamer for tbe author^ 
Bogl^b SpeUiae-Book ; and m particularly deaiipoed by him, toaasiat BKXhera In tbe 
loBtractiro of their young < ' 

young obudreit"*Tbi8 little volume is entitled to our 
neodttioii.'* AUnUMa lUpi$t$, April, WHL 

9. Air £iroi:.iSB Spm.UN0-BooK. Price 90 cts. 

- •* We reeoounend to the pubUe this moat Important little volume, aa tbe only 
work »lth which we are acquaioted ie tbe Eazllab Lai^uage, for teacbiag ebildree 
to read* writtee by a pUkwopber and a man of taste.** 

UUrfjf JoumaXy Nwtmbw, I8(M. 

• Thia little book la dncvlaply well adapted to answer tbe purpose for which it ia 
ibteoded? and moat be an acceptable tbe teachers of Eogiisb youth. Mt. 
W ifray, who has already dieplayed great skill in the dei>artmeot of instruction, win 
acquire additional reputation from this manual. The ruies for flpelling and prooun 
c%tion are geod, and tbe Leseoas, JCxaiiipie«, and Ezerciaea, are Judidously cbe- 
•8^ TteiaabiiegtMatfto^af reaniMawiiiltoii.*' 


■ - ^ ■ ■*