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itereetyped by Wm. Hagar 4- Co^ Nae-Yotit. 


-n- ..Google 

BE IT REMEMBERED, thst on Iho SSd day of Angmi, A. D. i&gB 

L.B. in th«S4th reirorthalDdepondcncenf tha t'niteJ State* of Amerka, 

Samoet Kirkbun, of the *Bid Diitrict, hath dapoBiled inlhUolIics Ih* 

Wleof a Book, ths right whereof he cUimi aa author, in the wtirda IbUowin^ 

" En^Ui Oninmar in familiar lecliirea, aaxunpanted bf a Cwnpend'niRi ^ 
•obracmg a new nstcmatick order of Pining, ■ neiv Bjttem ofFiindiUaUon, 
•seniaea m false Syntax, and a Sjratem of P^ilsmphicol Grammar in note* : 
l« which are added an Appendix, and ■ Ker to the EiertiseB : deiisned fiir 
tlM use of Schooli and Private Leamerr. By Samuel Kiikham. Eleventh 
Sdilion, enlaced and improved. In insfomiitj to (he act of congreaa o( 
Dm linked State*, entitled "an act fnr the encouragement ofleaming, bj •*•_ 
mtwfftbecopinof mapa, charta, and booki, to the autjMn and pioi^tora 
vfaocli ooptea, during the time Iheiain mentioned." And also to an act eali- 
llad*'an ad aupplementuT to an act entitled an act for the encouravenMnl 
of laaioin^ bj ■Bearing the copiea of ni-afia, ehurti, and bonks, to tiie an> 
Ihora amt-prifrietor* of aueh co|Mea, dnnng the times therein mentliined. 
uJ'ntaMiaf the betwflta tbneoTlo the *.la of deaigning, engraving ud 
J J.; — ui-i— .1 j^ mj,^ Diinta." 

Otrk <^ Ika thutSan DUtrict a/Mhe-Tv*, 


10 - 2i^ ' N 2^:1 BBCOItUl£XDATIOXIL 

h ■■ wall kBOWB IhM lb* iirriiiiiimiil«tiriinnhiili ■anai^r Meoupw ■■■ lirmln. 
teTancylral^nifhlwitbtlMpaUick. Thkuu it>lwtildbe,iirlbaiw«L«IMi 
i«iU mor« ov its wriUfln Isstimofivis, thvi Da iti mttquick imriti for w|n«rt, ■>* 
nrti noclHtnifl to pamuuiwit ABdvrase, Bnt rocominondiuoiii whsch ksalfH th« 
Merits c^ a work, md whieh, bji nihibitini ili prDmineiit fcUum is > itriloBC liahl, 
>r* '^culaiod lo cany cnnviciiDa lo ibB reader ihu ihs lygtcm mawmraJM ia 
nMriLorinui, iha auiliDr ii pniiid u Iutb Li in ha powpr w ^oaem in Ihn nlmiK. 
Vat roUoHine ara tamt of iha nunieraus iBstuaonialii wbicb ha baa racnnd, aBd lor 
■ ■ MUBlerar 


praaantad toUu 

Sbn-ality anJ politnan iu ia indebted fvr ilianL Hon ihu au hmvini othara 
i._.i. ... i mmy tf whiah ara aqmUy fl»Uarin« iijtK a»«a,^ 

'BOfraphj DflboMiu-VaUayi'' and tDajiyotJ-T popular ud TahnM 

o Mr. ^rkhun'f " OramRU r m bmltlai LactvM," 
ry r<!n"3l- If wg cumtrctieDd tha luUior'i ilaaini, 
» priDciplaa, u lo rendar mors laiy and iittaBi|U> 
lUuhed, and to fiinuih addiiional Eicihiioi Is u a*- 

luihority of nich ■ 


ofMr. Murray, iaambnevd in Ihia; butintlMd* 

— ud rtBiUrad nuwh mora btaUifibl*. Ttmifhsurui 
in (ha (aiMtal principle! of bii otnli, hi hai, in nuiuniui 
hioa, punuhif '■--' ^ "- *-- ""'- --" — ' -- 

Ammf lima nay be mentionEd 
.lyniai, UiD arranicmieBt oTthepani 
nar oTpuiiDg, manniir of oiplaioinf k 
•ia whidi proienu Ihs euenliala of tbi 

Id hia arrannoxot of t^' part* of >i>e«di, Mr. Kirlchi 

•d lo6Uowl/.i orrfir rf nfltura ; ami we are not abla to 

' baucr. The noun aed tcHi, aa baiu the most iiaponaai pana of ipiiik, an BrM 

■ mpiainad, aqd aBirwanta thoaewtaicb an conddorodlii aae — -* ■" —'- -* 

' nito character. By fullowiDf ihii onlar, he ha* (Totdad ihc 

aacoDdarr and a ulim i fc * 

irincipaia, of i^inh thaj 

H the appandbtea, aiH haa latBnalbr Dnpond ika wi 
--iu the leamar by ■•Q' Mvuoaa to a earreet view wtna aoinw*. 

Id hii illunnuioas tX the Ttrioui tutgada oontajnad in hia worii, sar tudut vf- 
paan to haro aimed, not at a OomiT aiyle, nor at the appaanuu* of baiaa lawDad. 
Ilut at beinc UDdentood, The c^aiRra aid peiipieaitjr ofhii M««>H tM £5 

rait M rt-ftcdt «BV ^ aaMf 
MKh holp, eouU Had dHMi&i. 

Dndentandiiif, oTthe pupil, and therebr to laatnti ttw tabour of the in 
erinciplei tit ibe icieace m timr^fitA,a>id rtudtai M rtrftedt m 

Vnaiafk •"* ihoidd think no oidiuri' nuud, hanni MKh help, aoutd I 

rult. It is in iMi panicutar (bat ib* work appaara lo poaMM lla dklWaaitt, and M 
M« anuHini it canuat &il of beinf preferred to many otben. 

It tnn ua pleasure to remark, u refereoce Id the euccaaa of the aala'^a aal 
oodeit author whoic work ii btbre us, that we quota from iha Mb e d WiiD 

Cincinnati, Aug. ;!4, 1B2T. 
Ih«fi>llowin(iarroni^DpanDra(eDlleniaa of the Bar, Ibrmedy a Jal i a »il ali(^ 

(Slaaaical teacher. [Eitract (ram l!ui " NadonaJ CriiB."] 

Aa aUaad lo tilaraUira, tod acpedaHy lo lenube merit, (l >;.'<^ K^" ^VT 
wfn I aUada lo a D.,lka i^ a Uta^v^V tL ciiy. u. -Uch Mr. B. 1brl<bw*M' 
p#»a»nida&™caoouraaorL«!turaioDEMluhGraffloi.r. T'"™ SSUSa »i 
u)M m aniniiiij a ctDwal yid praenc*! Wo^)*!*!** "' V"' ""•" ^^ 

Mf. Ki*__ - . , 

•mtnar* kBOwtedn (oqnind i 

fnfcisKy m'mn i by ha e\tm --, , - 

■naiiori^ oTIw luUwd of wisbing, utd ■ hi^er liooomiuin oa liiin (hu I u> 

n* piiociplM on which Mr. Kkkhiua'a " Srm iTdmi of OTumBu-" ia prsdica 
Md, tra jixBciimly Mmpiled, ud bippnlr uhI bnsflr eipr«5<idi but tha (rai 

(IW nnrpiB (ad (ndual innuisr iu wJihA it conducta Ihs learner that fron Hep id 

mburga AendFEnj, Fek 

dial 4ht7 «wH( All u> eicjtfl in him A deep iDtereat i and whatever anlaiii Ja caU 
stilatad u> brinf inlo rvquui^DD tha mental pcwpra, muaf, 1 f:oii?eiTe, be productive 
Affaodrenilu. In nr bumble opiniwi, the ayalam of teachivg bitrodiicM iiit» ihii 
■rorSr, will enable a iblinnc pupd fa acquire, witbo^ii v^.y other aid, a practical 
iiflf^*lat\zK at gTsmaar^rn leu thoTi ont-fiwirA part of theliAir numllT devo4ed. 

My liewi of Mr. Kirihun'a ireletn are thui publickly gitep, with the gmler 
lileUBie, DD aecounl of the hletary einpir;iin« which h«ve been » eitcnmolT 
DTicliaadiii many parts'of the WBBieTB coizntrr. 


From Mr. Blood, Principal of the Charabenburth Acaduny, T». 

Mr. Kirkbain,— It i> now almost twenty yeui since I bccarae a teacher oTjwmV 
■nd, Atmiif tlui petiod, 1 baie not only coniulled all, but have uced lataff of'Ui* 
■hflrrenl ■yit'iTU of Sniliah (iviunar that have fallea ia my wky ; •sd. w, 1 dtr 
uwte you, wiihoul the reait with to flatter, tiiat youru lar eiceada any 1 h«Te jref 

UM mooUu,) that a acholv will leant BMre of ±e nature and pnaciple* of iHr ' 
Imcpage in one porter, from your lyrteai, than in a it^mie yev froa a^ other 1 had 

previuilply Da«i* 1 do, therefore, moat riiaerfiilly audflameitlTr«eoiBraeadkU>liff 
-..•.,:.,.-. , J ,^11 1. — -irfiD.aiLdoiuHoacquiteafcB^wWgootoqt 

ectfiiU)-, ' SAMUEL BLOOIk , 

From Mr. N. R. Snvlh, H^lor of a valuable Uterary Juunial, atyled ■' The Holpenu.** 

Sr, I have ciuuduik! your Lecim'es od Englnh Grammar with that dofne ol 
mamteaeaa which enablaa me to yield my unqiialified approbaliou of the worii ai ft 
■fanimtical ayeWm. The eniacinf mamier in whitJi you We eiplaiiied die el*- 

tUoaimkai of llw utility of your ^an. In addition to thia, the Grnical aOenlioa nit 
faave paid to an vu/irfual dtiiebipnunJ of (ramnutical prindplec, wUle i(ii ca£ai- 
laied loencoarvcathepCTMnirBaceafyDungatiulenteinthe march gfiiuniveiaaat, 
ia aofficnii, aba, to eoiploy Ihe luearchoa oS the lileraiy connaiaaur, I tmw dial 
your valuable fompalatioB will be ipeedily introduced into kIhwU ud initiwitf. 
■ napMi,ydur>, N. R. WOTEI, A. M 

Pittabursh, March 22, lezs. 
From Mr. lunnnaiin, Principal <d'thc Frederick Lutheran Academy .'—Kxtraet 

Having cveDlly etam'med Mr. & Kirkham'enew ■yitemof"En(lidiGn.Dioiar 
IB (iiiiiiliar Laclurea," I am latiiGfJ that the pre-eminent advantacei jl poiieoM 
aiM- our oeoinoD syiitema, will eoon convmce the publick, thai it ia not one of than 

dod ji^Nnen'W noir alt other ayalnni, caoBiils in adap^ng the Kul^jeGt-matler (a Iha 
capar.iEf of (he young Icoraer, and the hippy niodc adopted of communicating it lo 

and'um application of everi principle that comes before him. """"^ 

!w''i.SSC'7h5i?'""i^n-U-obStaS'^*° nftWvm>l»rt^t'k?nch'oI^Sn*»e in 
fVede™*!^™.^"^! """"'"''""■ JOHN K. JIWOMAWr. - 


Kmet: fr««D*Tr>llCItaMii,btoQM.<if It>*>-Tori<. 

__^_ n .i:_^ otE^vhOnnmHibr Small KiiUiuai,KiMn 

id ml] (alculatsd to &dlii«l8 tfaauqidrituB tt Ml 

DB WITT cxDrron. 

8. furidiun, Esq.— I tan enmnwd jour Gnnmar with *tMiiiion, ud with >ra»- 
bculu view 1o benefit dia Infttitutun uEdn my chun. 1 im fiillT ladtifld, IbM bl 

■ the iMtJarm in irtich Mairar'i principhu h»« Seen giren u> the miMick. Ite 
lecturee are ample, and ^'en in ao umiliar And eaij ]aJi|uafe, aa ta b« nttltf ■■ 
da-Mood, cTen by a (|rni in gnnunar. 

I fed itdua tnjou toaiy, tbtti eennDanced Iba enrainatioB atjoar mik,ari|| 

■ i(<viur fT^nidict (woiiui il, in cmteaiieiica of the aunurnit "impnmd ijiiwif 
■riih irfiii^iHu pubUckhai b*«tt iDUudatad, oTlaia, moat c^whidian bvao kmm 

m Hutraj, bnl the preducdona of mdiridunli whom t " liMt era* 
_j^ .-._,...- ... - .. . . ,^ij,„^ft|„i,,rt^„prt» 

oTHr.WbetlooraipectiiK Mr. Kitkhaw'a Ei^ah OnB- 
r. NATHAN ffTASKt^AeiiT 

~\t.) JOHN JOHNSTotJ, 

„dlniiW| udothon^ 
' fruunuinal itutiuction Is Samiil'Kiik- 
wiMi of >LemtntaiT ichoDfa in thif hiWNlH 

Hewburfh, Axi. 4, IB2». (Rav.) WH. S. BETBB. 

Prom the Bar. C. P. HcDniiw, mi oihort 

id Ifae plan of fraitinkUiDa] Ltutjuction Iw Simil Kirk* 

- be Hlmiult 

Biwddrn, Juir e, lam 

WaMjrancurinlhaabon. ANDSEW 


nnalha partial eiamlnatlan lAich I h«Te gJTiB lb. fi. Kirkhuii'i BmBiIi OraB. 
>B«r, 1 do net baaliale W roeoBunaod it " ' ■ '"' ■ - ■• 

d it to the piblick' u' tlis ItN <if tW dM f *M 
mnl and ■Imoit imnaaaaUe cUSB in wvfe* •■ 

T. 8. BlATBOli 
From A. W. Dod(e, Eiq. 

N•w.Tari^JDl*It, im. 
^[Iie experience of every one at ell acquainted with Ibe buajnen of imlnicEkiTit 
BUM have taiuht him that Ihe etudy at nammar, impoiUnt ai it ii lo erery dMi 
•fleanum, la olmaM innriaUy a dry end oninUreslinE Mudy te youni becwMr*, 
and for the vrry otMioui reaion, thet the ayetema in general uee is the ■ehoebf are 
fir itfimd the contpreheiuiDn oTyoslb, and ill adeptwl to their years. Hence il k, 
thtl Ineir lueooi u thta department of learninc, are considered a* Ueb, and if 
«imi:dtle<t at all, eomroitted to Iht mtmnrv, mittoW «niiC*(mtii« tlmr mdvUMrf. 
anfi; lo IhU many a pupil who has Ifn aroagli the KDfiiBb frunmer, ■ tMaltp 
BDieqnainled with the nature «T*n of the nmplut pans u speech. 

llH w«k of Mr. Kirfchun on gniamtt, is welt calciilUMi to remedy thwa eribi 
■ad anppAy ■ deficiency nhicb b*s been eo Ions and >o serianly fth m the imsat- 
fadt educatioD of youth in Ihn elemedtary kaowledge of their own lancuaye. By • 
^nple, ^miliar, end luod method oftrestbig the auljecl, he has rendered what was 

atrnHMns bv this piaiar to the youihfiil mind, and plentod, at '"'' ""?v™* 
SanSSdio^i cotlTinoe, er«. th^most ik.ptie^ rf lb. <«* rf ll»«™ wkj. 


Harir.^ for HMnl ftait. kwn MifBied in lactirii^ m Am niM>e« otjfmtmn 
tmi, durwf^ Ihll r«ia^ hi.nnf EkmiHirtAi kitHi <tm nmitt vtUr. 6. ftfch« »'» 

Dl- duMt, I mIe pleuure in ginng Ihi9 leiumnnul of my cocdnl aprnbalkD of 
Ihs work. Mr. Kirkhun hu itteinpted lo improie upon (liii bnaoli of ■«•«, 
cbiiBjr by uufbliluij aod oii^iuiiDE the principle! of gnDUBor in a iBunwT » el*«r 
Uid Giruplei 13 to ndapt Ihem anapUtdf Jo tJt£ imd^ nl aiul n tf of Uio ycwH lewoTi 
«nil b}-»dQptjng a now an-Mgemenl, which bmWm iho pupil le conmit lln priooi- 

S'nbyii3<n)uluuie(Miia.pplicirianori>iBialDpr>clicil«wnplei. The puUidi stur . 
It ajteiired, IhfeL be hM beoD lucceuful in hij auompt maprB-oivnivnfittgToc. I 
aalkt this asitrtion uridvr ■ full cannciion that it wiU bo cBrTobantod 1^ mty 
C4iiijid judfo of the ocionco who boooniea tfquuntod with t}iB pmcliciLl lulrutafoo 

-- —J psru of liie outoocl, ihoikcil 

liy iho "tystcmalicli modo of ptraini" adgpLeil, iho continiont and ji 
itucuon and adoptui^ of tho exercisos iiUroducad, imd liu doep n 
:ntkal inmUfuioni diiplayod in Iho " Philoiophicil Noioa," nodi 
oT f lanmr m ibaiiBlty ittpeitar tt all olhtrt alanl, that, lo n 

Mr kiHHTlodft o( tiiii •ystem from eipsriance in teaching H, (md ' 

by attudyinf dbi book fiitr montha mlhmti a Ffof Jhcr, ribiain a morn do 
of Gt9 naiure a«d pnjptr connnKtion of wordi a-^d nhnriHi. than 
obftiiiod in conunDn Khooli and (cadaniei, infm 

l( ■• U^v fmify'wf In ki 
ii lofj rapidly sup ' 
cnFi*i« of ihe yt 

I Ihink the apsciinFDi of verbal cnlicism, addilioni 
«iid oithaopy, tha IsadiDf prindnloa of rhotorick, n 
illoMrations igcoarally, vhich Mr.K. h aboot intn>ilu< 

t hsTq cuuniDcd ihu lati oiliiion of Kirkhan'a Gnounu niih pMuliar uiuTae- 

prcferFiico to any ntlisr lysltim nniv In usr. To ponat out (tu> pccidiv nualilMI 
which ■•cure la il clnimi of which no olhcr lyilein can bout,wanid be, if [<quir*rii 
porfeclly caiiy. At present it i> sollicient to remnrki that it embudiei all that U 
eaaendally eicoUeul and useful in other imtenis ; whilst it is entirely fioe from thai 

harni* tha leinior. 

The pceidia.- Pice'l"nr,F of Mr. Kirkham'a grammar is, (fct timrSiily of iU nulliad 
and tte plmnnat cf iti iU,iMra&.af. Bau^ condlicteJ by familiar (oclaroi, Ifn 
teacher and pnpl! are necouerily brought into agreeable i;on1act by each teaion. 
Both are improved by tho s.unc Iseli, wilhout the Blightcit suspiciou, on Iha part of 
the pupil, ihai Ihera i> any thing hard, difficult, or obecurc in ihe aubjoci; a con- 
In a word, ihr trca^ae T an rccummendini, la a practical one ; and lot thai teaion 
if there wem no others to be urged, it ooghl Id bo introducoJ into all our Khooli 
and academies. From actual oiperimenl I can allcsl lo the practicatnTily ul ihe 
plan whieli the author has adnntcd. Of this fici any one may Iw convineed -who 
win take the nains to make the eiperinient. SAMUEL CENTER. 

Albany, July 10.1829. 
Fnim a canununicaiion addressed to S. Eirkham by the Rev. J. StocUoa. aulfaoi 
of the " Western Calculator" and " Weslem Spelling-Boofc," 

Dor Sir,— I am much pleased with both the plan and ertcutitm of your " Enfliih 
Grammar lo Familiar Lecluij's.'^ In giving a Kfftteatatidt mode of parm ~ ' 

tho teacher from the Aiidgert cf continued intirrogidon, you faiJe mai 
■ravflnar what every cUmentar-- ■ ■ ' ■ 
This, with the copioui dofinilionj m eveiy part of Ihi 

:ry cUmentary sc 

ni dofiDilioni in every part of ll 
troduced, girai it a ibdiiH niprrimiai otbt tho iannftai 

no g-nerally used. JOSEPH STOCET^ aVh. 

PiUBbunh,) Hard) 18, 1821. 


is free to Beknowledge, that since thii tr 
publick opinion, the pirn of pstrotuge i 
<n rar more fsTOimbla than he tiad reuMi 
«ii7one,an iti first appeanjice, predicted, tiMt thedamuid <br it l>Mld«_ 
forth JtKnljf-luo thmisimd cupiea during the put fear, the niilhnr Trniilil Imh 
connderedlheprediction extrevftgaatandcliiineTicBl. In g:ratitada,ttaMAn^ 
to that publick which has smiled so propUiouily oa his honihle »Wil»la mi- 
VBDce the cause of learning, he hae endeavmrM, by unremitting attestioa to 
the improvement oCh\s wnrh, to tender it oa useAd aid as ummapliMMble 
as Mb time and talents would pemiit. 

It is beUsved that tlie Itnth and deeenlk edilioDB bava been giiatlj ko- 
proved ; but the author is apprehentive thai bis work ia not jet aaam seals 
and as much simplilied as it may lie. If, however, the duadTaatagCBof fanr- 
ing under a broken constitution, and of being able to derole to tUa m^eet 
only a small portion of his time, snatched from the active pmaita of* liM- 
aeaa life, (scltce as far as his imperfect health permits hina to it,) are any 
apology for its defects, he hopes that the candid will set dnwn tha apoloiy to 
his credit. This persoiiul slluuon is haiardedvritiitheadditkaal bep^hat 
it wilt ward ofl'semc of ilic atiowi of criticism which may be aimed at Ub, 
and render less ptunled and poisooouB those that may Sill i^OB htok Not 
that be would bc^ a truce with Ihe genttsmen crilichs and reviaw M a. Anj 
compromise with them wuuld betray a went of seltconlidence and bbmm 
cou rage which he would, by no means, be witlingfoaTOW. It««ald,BaM> 
ovor, ba prejudicial lo his interest ^ for ho is determined, if hialifa be ^ 
Gd, to avail himself of tlie advantages of any judicious and eaiKUetit 
onhi|jiraduct>on,tluit may appear, and, two or three years hence, rnrisaU* 
work, uid present to the pubhck aikother and a better edition. 

The impiovMictilB in the lealA editton, canaet«d neinly in the additini 
of many important principles ; in rendeimg the illustrations monantieal, 
eitcnsjie, accurate, and lucid ; in conneoting more closdy with the geailM 
and philosopiiy of our laiigna^e, the geitml piinciplea adopted ; and in aM- 
ing a brief view of pluluBoj£ical grammat mter^iersed in note*. TW io 
Irodnction into the elevenih kditioh, of many veiLal critidsros^ trf'addi 
lional corrections in arlhii^paphy and orthoepy, of the leading prindple* of 
rhelorici, and of general additHMs and iiajpraTementa in vaiiMMpaitoeirtba 
wot%, render lAia fdificn, It is believed, Jb- pn/ervWi to aty «f the iMiDSr 
edition? of the work. 

Perh^a some will regaod the pluloeoidncal Botes ■• a uwleM ■JJjiiliim at 
pedantry. If so, the (uithor's oolj apok^ Is, that aome iDTestifttioHS of 
this nature seemed to be called for nya portion of the communis adwrn 
minds, of late, appear to be under the influoica of a Uad of p kil i m/ Um l «•>■ 
Ms; and tn such these notes are respectfiiUy sabmKted for just wtmt lh<f 
may deem their real volae. The author's own opinion on this ponit, to, that 
they fooSer no mataial advantages to common learners ; but ihKt Ibej maj 
pr^taUy engage the attention oT the cuiioos, and pechape hnpart a degi*" 
•f iDlanwt to tlie literair conlloisKKn*. 
Naw^Tork, August t!, IBIO. 



MaBinattra >Dd objactin 

after (Im verb la it 
Actir^ paanre, and nniiar 


n (all Um philoaDphi- 

eal notaa treat of dart- 

nUm) ST, 37, m 

BtiweiagT «B 

Kawoataa fidae aj^tu ITT 












41, M, IM 























RKeloripk SIV 

Rules of aTHtax ITS 
Smlencea, deflnitlaiia of 

nuipl* sod eompooed III 

Tmniporition of IM, IM 
Standard orgnmmatioa] 

aceuracj IT, M 

Snitax H 

To II 

Teneea 139, IM 

Sinn of the Hi 

IM M,gs 

That 65, no 
Tenninationa SO, IT, tt, T8, IM 

VKba 4a, 47 

Actire-tranBtira S^ M 




HO, 159 

M, 167 


Terrification na 

Worth T^ IH 

What, vhioh, trtM> 10^ 111, 114 

Tou W 



Thcte iBpean iq b« wineUung uoiuninf in tlio act of writing, anJ ihciMl- 
big inlQ puWick notioe, a new worii oii a iu tjecl whidi hu ■Iread/ lankiycd 
mairr atuc pens j for wbn would presume to do this, unleca be believed k> bki- 
duclioR to be, in some respectB, aupBrktur tu everj one or the kind wUcli 
had proceded it ? Hence, in preaenting to tbe publick this iTataTn of Eds- 
liah UTBimnar, the author is aware that an ^pologf will b« looked for, mad 
that the srguiii«]tBOD which that apologf ii grounded, mual inavitaH; 
undergo a i^iid eciutiny, Apprehenaive, however, that no eifhmatot; 
cfibrt, on his put, would ahield him from the imputation of UTOgUMa Wy 
a tie blinded bj seU'-dntereit, or by those who are wedded to IIm 

I and t^niona of his predeceasori, with Ihtm he will tiot 
«^iii|jiTyuj:sCf bem^T in a great meaaure, lodiQerent either le tt^"' 
their censure. But with thenndid, bo is willing lo nt^tiale 
treat]', knowing that Ihej are alwaya ready to enter iato it oi 
Utiini. In thia nwotiatien be aaka nothii^ more thanmerdj toreattka 
merita of bia work on iln practical utitil;, believiog that, if it pre** >w- 
oommontj aucceesfol in bcuilating tlia proaieBa of youth in the Boardl of 
mentai impraTement, Ihal will be ita beat apijogy. 

When we bring into consJderstioD Iha numerous produc^ieiu of 1 linin 
barn ad phiiologiata who have laboured so loiig, and, u many aapiwa, ao 
■aoceaalnlly, in estabiishing tbe priociples of our langnaga ; and, n>ara 
•Bpeerally, when we view the laboura of some of our rnodero oompOan^ 
wm> have displayed so much iikgennity and Bcntaoeaa in attempting lo ar- 
ranDe tbose piindples in auch a manner aa tc form a conect and an aaiFf 
Biednimofntaatalconference; it doea, indeed, appearalitlIelilcepHaDmpti«a 
for a young man to enter upon a subject wbteh taaa ae frequaiitljr ao^Ufad 
the attention and talents of iu«i AUingwahed fof their oudiliMk TIm 
^author Tenturea forward, however, under the coBvictinn, that moat of Ua 
ire veiT delident, at leaat, in maaiwr, if not in naUtr; awl 
I, he bclieres, will be cotroboratad by a raajority oC Uw bad 
^df^ea » rammnnity. It is admitted, tjiat omDy valuable iiB|rar«- 
NKBli have been niaile by MHne of oar late writera, who bava KidaaTotNiad 
ioaoa^fy and render tbia aubject intetii^ble to the young learner, taN 
they hB*« all OTarloofead what the authOT cenaidera a tot impodaat oh- 
Jar^ aainaly,* lyilniiBtfafc orritrii/'piiriinf ; aitdnearly all have naclactad 
to norfapc nd expltbi the prindplei in each a manner aa to aaaSa Iha 

-.. ut gfe(t d^culty, to cvoipcehMid their nature and uae. 

a qiatem will, no doubt, badiacaided onacsouDt of its liayBi 
to odwra ita ainplinty will pmf e ita piinripal m nmwamiat i/m . 

this •: 

!bia no great advantagea to the reeondila 
■annnarian ; it profeases not to instruct tbe uterarr cannoiEieur; k prsaenla 
o alliaeliTe giaees of s^le to efaann, no daring oiglit* to aatoniab, ao ititp 

^thDfiieience,bydi(penring those ctouda thai BO often bewilder it, aad r«> 
mnvBigthoae obitiieleitbat {generally retard its progress. In this way il an- 
Oaavciorsto render interesting and dehghtt^la study w hiiJi baa hithwte baaa 
conaideped tedious, dry, and ir4isome. Its leading object ia to ndepl a 
correct, and an easy methud, m which pleasure is blended witli tbe IWwuia of 
the learoer, and\rhicb iacalculatedloeicilein Kim asptrit afii>1'"'7i (hal 
AaU call forth tnio vigorous and useful eierciae, even lateni enewy of hjs 
ntaid ) and thiH enable him soon to become thoroashlr acquainted with the 
natme of the prir.orpleB, and wHh th«r practical uHBty "»d appucalion. 

ContMit to ha WMftl, instnad of being brilliaIl^ (1* ">"" « *™ ^?^ 
tat** t«W«»^ !• shun th^ path of those wtaae aim appeara to hata haso 


to dud«, mihei thfiu to indruct. A* be bu *)ni*d ml m uucli at ongf 
ntHt^ M ntititv, he hu >dopt«d Uw ihoughti of hi> mAteamon wiwM 
Isboun b»Te bw-oiiio miblick etock, whenever ha could not, in fail opinion 
rurnirii better ami liri^ilnr ef his own. Aware the! there is. in the oublkk 
a (trone pmlilev-Iion for Ihe doctrines 

mmd, a (trone pmlilev-tion for Ihe doctnnee conumed in Mr. Murray 
erammar, he haft tho^iffht proper, not merely from motiTea of policy, bul 
(rom choice, to select hie princijAia chiefly from that work ; and, mnr«ov«r 
to sdopt, *) far u conBistent with hiS own Tiewh, tbelangnage of that anu- 
neni phJologiaL In no instance has he Tarred from liim, onleaa be nmcriTait 
thkt, m so dmog, some practical BdvaDlai;e woald be gairwd. He hope* 
tberetbre, 10 ei«ape the ccnaura n froqoently and so joitly awaiilnd It 
ibuie Dntbrtunale innovatore who hare not scrupled to ■Ito', mutilata 
and torture theleil of ihat abteirriler, merelj to gratify an itching pmpra 
■ily to lignre in Ihe world ai authors, and gain an ephsmaral popularitj b} 
aJTOgating to themiclTea tbe f;redit iJue to another. 

The author is not dispo»Bd, however, to diactaiin all pratamiona 1« oiiei 
nilitj ; for, allhoagh bis principle* are chiefly selected, (and uriio wo^ 
preanme to make new ones?) tba manner of arranging:, ulnitratlng, ana 
^plying them, is principally bii own. Let no ono, uierefore, if M bap- 
pen to End in other works, ideas and illuMiations rimitar to (saw C0D> 
tained in the following lectures, too haatilT accuse him sf plitgjarism. It n 
wall Known tiiat simiiar inveBligation* and pureuils oi^en elicit corraapond 
inf ideas in dISerent minds: and hence it is not uncomnran for tbs nnw 
tboughttobesttictlyorigltui with many writera. Tbe author iaDMbareal- 
. .: — . r.^...^ J garment to shietd him fromrebuke, aliODld ha 

„ — d investigation, baa oflenpradocad in 

arguments on the lubwct of grammsr, eiaetly or HMiiljr 
eomeponding with thon which he afletwara) found, liadi, undsr aiarilar 
drcurastancea, been produced in the mindBofothats. Ha bopaa, lh«raAi<Sh 
to b« pardoned by the critivk, even though he should not be willing u 
njtet a (ood idaa 0/ JUt men, merely beeaoae soma one ejie baa, at mms 
tine or other, been Ueaaod with the same thousht. 

Aa the plan of tbia treatise ii far more comprdienRve than tkoae of mtH 
■iai7 grammara, Iba writer could not, witiioat making bn work uu«^ 
snnaMy ToluminaBa, treat same topicki aa extensively as was desimbla. 
Its design is to embrace, not only all tbe most important pnndplca of (hn 
science, but alsoeierciaea in paraing, false ayntai, and puDctaallMi, suC- 
cientlT eilennve br all ordinary, practical purnoses, and a keTlolba •■• 

_ .:..i.., ......X. : ^-,oMi^d^„lli»Ue,a.e*«. 


Uthtrtt ^f#r<8i^ W« authBr onji fiieiaiary pnfil,) t 

In the selection end armngenjenf of princinlca 

tiaa endeavoured to puiBue a course betiveen the extremes, of takiniit btiodlj 
on trust whatever baa ueen sanctioned by prejudice and the autfaorily ol 
veneiable names, and of arroganl, in novating spirit, whidi seta at da 
fiance all aathoritv, Xnd attempts )o overthrow all former systems, and con- 
vince the world that all true knowled^ and science ate wrapped npin a. 
crude syatem of vagaries of its own invention. NotwithalandiDg tbe autlMr 
isawuie that publick prejudice is powerful, and that he who Teutoioi 
Bucliby way of innovation, will be liable to defeat his own putnapSlMF fktt- 
ing into nK^oct ; yet he faas taken the liberty to think for liiiMwt *o inVM 
tigata the subject critically and diapaarionately, and to adopt sack princillbi 
o^ aa ba dMoed the least objectionsbls, and best calcnilatod to s&ct lb* 
vtjset bu bad in new. Bui what hia ajstam d" " 


*lkttt, ta n d M not u mucft in bMUriog tb* ntot^u jhmaanhm, m Ht 
lit mMi i mitpud tf rtmm w tei li t ir ■ k»oaUif rf Shun U (4tnAa«^M« 
itanur. That tho wofk iid«fMi*e, UMiatharii full; nonUe: and ba m 
frM U aaknowladn, that ha dafttla am, in part, fiom db tmr want a( 
jndpDcat and ihUl. But thara is analber and a aiora aarioua oaoaa af 
tham, naiodv, tha anomatica and impufectiooa with which tba laHMf 
abounda. Tbia lattar tircumilance i* also the cauaa oT Ibo axiaCame at aa 
widalt diArant opinioiuon many importaQt pakta \ »MA,momcrwt, llw raaaoa 
Slat tha paBinutical prindplaa of our kntuaflB <:ai> narar W ktdiapatablf 
-•attled. But pnod^aaoiiftht not lobe rcjacleabaoaaatkayad^iut of «■• 
oap<ioDa. — U3 nbo ia tlioiouehlr acquaialcd with tha ganiiu and atnaMra 
ta out lanjpugo, can I'ui; appreciate the truth of thcaa remarks. 

To canfonn, in our otrthograpiiy and orthoepy, toaome admitted it and i 
ud, Ufa author dseiDaa«inaideratianDr*i^eiantiniportaoaa tojualifyUo) 
m introductng into his work an article on each of theaa aubjeeta, in wbich 
Bian^ norda that are often miupelled or mitproaounceU, are concctad *«• 
Oonluig to a work,* which, in hia ettinmtioii, Juatly clainia a dedaivs priAr-' 
ance, in point of accuracy, la any othot Dictionar; i^ Ibo Cnf[tiali luDgnagai 

*,* 3hanld parents ubjoct lo tho Compendium, fearing it will ajaalM 
4aalnyed by their children, they are infomird tlial the pu^ will not haro 
occasion to uae it onc-leath part ii much as he will the book iriiiGh it m^ 
"coropanie* : and besidaa, il it he deetroyed, he will lind aU tha daiiniUoaa 
and raJoa which it contains, recapitulated m tha aatiaa af Leoturaa. 


Aa tUa work propoaaa a new mode of parung, and puranea an irraagv- 

-iall* di^entrrDnithaIgenerallyadapl«d,itm*y notbedaanM 

ir Ihe aathor to give soma direetiona lo thoae who may be dia> 

Uiey who lake only a alight view nf tl 

it nt*, but blend it with thorn long nne ^ 

n hare, indtfod, attempted plana aomewhat limilaT; bat ni 
have they reducad tbem lo what the author coasidara a ngiltr 

Thaawthoda which they bare generally eoggested, require the teadier (» 
Marrgfsli the pupil as he proceeds; or else he ia permitted toporsa witbonl 
ipTiDg any ezplanabonB alall. Otiiera hint that tha learner Ought toapft]' 
lafimima in a general way, but they lay down no syitemalick arrangeniaBl 
I fiiiMMliiiin asfaia piid& The lystmiatitk order laid down in this wt^, if 
I nsnad by tha pu[W, compos bim to apply eicry definition and erary rula 
Cult appertains to each word ho parses, without having a qneattsn pat to 
bun by ^a teacher ; and, in So doing, he explains every word fuUvtaoa 
Mas along. Tbia coiine enables the learner to (iroceed indenendeMly ; 
■Nd lauw at the sanM time, a great relief lo Iho instmcter. The coDv«> 
nimce and advantage of this melliod, are for greater Ihoji can be easily 
(onceived by one who is unacquainted with it The author is, therefore, 
anxioua to have the absurd practice, whsrevei it ban been established, of 
f niMing leamara to oomoiit and lecite definitions and rules without any an 
MidtaBaooB ^^calion of them to yracticai examples, immediately abot- 
iAad. Thia system obviates the necessity of punning such a stupid conflM 
cf drndie^; ror the young beginner who punuee it, wilt bare, ma Af 
weeka, all the most impintant definitions and rulea perfectly oonunitlad, 
rimpW hjr applying them in parting. 

L'^thia ptu be once adopted, it ia conlidBntly believed that every laadiar 
iriu ia deau^us to consult, mther hit own coDvenience, or tha •™""(R5 
1^ pupils, will readily patsue it in preference to any Swntar method, mm 


bekHT kfeiBidHl m tba irinntages wkicb the kiilhor biiRMtTliiE nrnv 
itHuad liDiB it ID tlw jauna at aevand ye»a, devoted to the InstnKttun 
of jronUi and odBlla. Bj pumaiig thif ByRem, he oir., with less lulHiRr, 
■dMDM apapd futhotin t pnstical knowledge ot'UiiB abatnise uience, in 
fcw — tfa, Ihaa ha ecaiM ia aw jaar irtian faa laoetit in the "old way," It 
lapMauniod that 00 btauuttar, who onca givca thia aifatamafiur ttiiil, will 
doubt tha Inth of this aaaaMioii. 

Pailiap* aoma Kill, oaft&itnowof the work, diaapjirovaaf the trans- 
poaition ofmanjpvta ; balwhoaveT axaiiune* it attentwely, will find Ibnt, 
•Miougli tha aiXborhaa not f bllowed the mmmon "aitiiicial and unnatanl 
umtsemant adopted by nioat of bia prMleaeaaon," yet be hai endsa- 
(ound lo pnnua a nrare JudidDiu one, namsty, " the order of the undor- 

Tha learner ahonld conuneDce, nol Ay anamUlbtg and rthnmiitg, but by 
taadiiig atteolively the firet tiao lectures aevaral timea over. He ought 
than to parse, acconliag to the i^tamttick order, the eiunplea giren fat 
that puipoae ; in doing which, aa p-eviously atated, be haa an Sj^oMunity 
of commitU&g all tbe defiiiitiaiie and nilai belonging to the porta of apooch 
Aclnded m the examplea. 

The CoHrENDiiiu,a9 it presents to the eye of Ibe leumera condensed 
mM comprehenaiTCView ofthe whole science, may bo properly coDHderod 
(■** Ocular Analysis oftheEngtiih language." By mferriny lo it, the 
yoimg Btadent ia enaUed to apiJy all his definitions and rules from the very 
commenceraent of his parsing. To some, ihiamode of procedure may seem 
rather fcdioug; but it iiiugt appear obvioua lu every petson of disceiumeut, 
that a papil will 'dam more by parsing ^u; words cnticully, and explainuig 
lully, than he would by paraing J^y words auparfidaliy, and without 

Itanmug Iheir vaiious properties. The toacber who putease tfaiai 

pko, ia not under the necessity of bearing his pupils caoite aeincle' 

of d^Aniluiucoiiuutted tomeiDDry,for liehasa fav opportunity i^dii 
ingthcHT luwwledge of those ae they evince it in uuiDng. A31 otlwr ■■ mi - 
tions ncceaaaiy for the learner in school, as welT aa lor iJic piVBolc liammr, 
will be gives ia the aucceeding pages of Ilio waik. Should these feahle sf- 
ibrls prove I'saving of mudi timo and expense to those young penovanW 
nay be disposed to pursue this scieuce with avidity, hy enabimg tbai«:ns- 
i^ to acquire a critital knowledge of a branch ol education so impartaM 
Mid deainiUe, the author's ibndest anticipatloDS will he tiilly realbod ; hot 
AouM his work fall into Iba hands of any who are expoeting, by tfaeacqi*> 
ation, to baeome grammaoaiui, aad yet, have not sulficienl arahilinB naA 
perseveranco to luke themselves acf|uaintcd with ita contents, it is lii^Md„ 
(bat the Uams for tiieir noniraprDvemeat, wilt not be thromt upon Ami. 

■hii plan, lb 

Anr jwBdous invtruct«r of snunmar, 
fliBiar trith Ibe eanteuts of ths followiq 

eMh nvAtfin. One remark otilj- to the l _.._.___...,, 

lakao-rledgiof Ihe nature and use oTthp prbKiplea Irr in 

sBiiChi ant, m aa enl leeiura, iialUd and er^aja all ila propartiei, aot onlr bv 
ado^inf Ibe iUusBaliDss given in the book, but also by giviBif aiiien lii^it mw ocenr 
'" hts mind as he procoeda. After a part of speedi has bttsa Ujus ol^idoted, Inc dua ' 

er the rules that apply 

rttof maecb, obsarVin^, . ._^ .^^_ ^ 

I'auia baeone UioroughljF aoqaamted with i^atsver prsi<»nUs nar mvabsTO 
pnawad. If this »lan oa fiithfaUy tninusd, rapid proir«B,in tk^part ef Um 
wa^w. will be tha inevilablc rasutl ; and ihat teacher who punuei it, csonot MjuI 
I •mwtinmMA.., : — — J "'■ii popnlecilj' in his profwsic- 

■VrarnoTmaach, absarVi%, however, loracap^ulatBoecasionallr, ill 
n fasBone Uioroughl. -■ — ' ' 

S raAKfIA.U. 





TOU' are about to enter upon one of the most umful, and, 
listen rightly pnrnied, one of the moat interesting atudiea id tba 
whole circle of acionce. If, howerer, you, like many a mis- 
guided youth, are under the impreaBJon that the study of gram- 
Biar is dry Mid irtcBome, and a imStKr of little consequence, I 
trust 1 ahall soeceed in removing from your mind, all such falsa 
antions and ungrounded prejudices ; for 1 will endeavour to 
convince you, before I close these lectures, that this is not only 
a pleasing study, but one of real and substantial utility ; a study 
that fUmctty tends to adorn and dignify human nature, and mo- 
liorate the condition of man. Grammar is a leading branch of 
Ifaat learning which alone is capable of unfolding and maturing 
the mental powers, and of elevating man to his proper rank in 
the scale of intellectual existence ; — of that learning which lifla 
file sou) from earth, and enables it to hold converse with a thou- 
nad w<HldB. In pursuing any and every other path of science, 
yoa will discover me truth of these remarks, and feel its force ; 
for you will find, that, as grammar opens the door to eveiy de- 
pvtmem of leaniing, a knowledge of it is indispensable : and 
should you not aspire at distinction in the repuMick of letters, 
Ais knowledge cannot foil of being serviceable to you, even if 
vnu are destined to pass through the humblest walks of life. 1 
tUck it ia oloar, that, in one point of view, grammatical know- 
ledge possesses a decisire advantage over evety other branch of 
learning. Peimmn^P, arithmetick, geograpl?, aafonomy, 
botany, chyraistiy, and so on, uro highly usefid ^ their reapao- 
bve ^«eea ; but not one vf them is so univevsatty api^abto 
- t« p^lieal pwpoaw, as Ob In every sit»ti<m, imdwf all tsr- 


cumatuicu, on nil occuiom ; — irheti jrou speak, rsad, write, 
or think, a. knowledge of granunar ia of essential utiU^. 

Doubtleaa jou have heard some peraons assert, that thojr 
oould detect emd correct any eirour in language by the ear, and 
apeak and write accurately without a knowledge of granunar. 
Now your own ohaervation wUl soon convince you, that this an- 
aertion is incorrect. A man of refined taste, may, by peruainf; 
good authors, and conversing with the learned, acquire that 
knowledge of langucige which will enable him to avoid those 
glaring enonrs that offend the ear ; but there are other erroun 
equally gross, which have not a harah sound, and, consequent- 
ly, ^lich cannot be detected without a knowledge of the rules 
that are violated. Believe me, therefore, when I say, that with 
out the knowledge and application of grammar rules, it la im- 
poaaible for any one to think, speak, read, or write with accum- 
cy. From a want of such knowledge, many oflen express 
their ideas in a manner so improper and obscure b^ to render it 
impossible fiM' any one to wuUrtland them : their language fre- 
quently amounts, not only to bad sense, but non-sense. In 
other instances several different meanings may be afibced to the 
words they employ ; and what is still worse, is, that not un&e- 
quently their sentences are so constructed, as (e convey » 
meaning quite the revene of that which they intended. No 
thing of a secular nature can be more worthy of your attention, 
then, than the acquisition of graimiifttical knowledge. 

The path which leads to grammatical excellence, is not all 
the way smooth and flowery, but in it you will find some thorns 
interspersed, and some obstacles to be sunnounted ; or, in sim- 
ple language, you will tind, in the pursuit of this science, many 
intricacies which it is rather difficult for the juvenile mind com- 
pletely to unravel. ' I shall, therefore, as I proceed, address yov 
m plain language, and endeavour to illustrate every principle id 
a manner so clear and simple, that you will be able, t/'(fe«ezm^ 
eiit your mind, to understand its nature, and apply it to prac- 
tice as you go along ; for I would rather give you one uaefiit 
idea, than filly high-sounding words, the meanmg of which you 
would probably be unable to comprehend. 

Should you ever have any doubts concerning the meaning of 
a word, or the sense of a sentence, you must not be discount 
ged, but persevere, either by studying my explnnatious, or hj 
asking some person competent to inform you, till yo) obtain » 
tilear conception of it, and tilt all doubts are removed. By cars- 
fully esaminiQg,and frequently reviewing,theiollowiiig lectures, 
you will soon be able to discern the gnunmatical construclinv 
of our langHBge, and 6x in your mind the principles by vluoh - 

■KCItllB qraMuar. It 

it u goverited. Nothii^ deligfati yautfa ao much, u a clear 
and distinct knowled^ of any bmnch of science which thej 
are pursuing ; and, on the other band, 1 know Ihe; are apt to 
be diacouragod with any branch of learning which requirott 
much time and attention to be understood. It is tho evidence 
of a weak mind, however, to be discouraged hy die obstacles 
with which the young learner must expect to meet ; and the 
best means that you can adopt, in order to enable you to ovot- 
come the difficulties that arise in the incipient stage of your 
studies, is to cultivate the habit of thinking melhodtcalhi and 
soundly on all subjects of importance which may engage your 
attention. Nothing will be more effectual in enabling you to 
think, as well as to speak and write, correctly, than the study 
of English grammar, according to the method of pursuing ii a^ 
prescribed in the following pages. This system is designed, 
and, I trust, well calculated, to expand and strengthen the ■«• 
tellectual faculties, in as much as it iovoWes a process by which 
tho mind is addressed, and a knowledge of grammar commu- 
nicated in an interesting and familiar manner. 

You are aware, my young friend, that you live in an age of 
light and knowledge ; — an age in which science and (he arts 
are marclung onward wilh gigantick strides. You live, too, in a 
land of liberty ; — a land on which the smiles of Heaven beam 
with Oncommoo refulgence. The trump of the wairiour and 
the clangour of arms no longer echo on our mountains, or io 
our valleys ; " the garments died in blood have passed away ;" 
the mii^hty struggle for independence is over ; and you live to 
enjoy the rich boon of freedom and prosperity which was pur- 
chased with the blood of our fathers. These considerHtiona 
forbid that you should ever be so unmindful of your duty to 
your country, to your Creator, to yourself, and to succeeding 
generations, as to be content to grovel in ignorance. Re- 
member that " knowledge is power ;" that an enlightened and 
n virtuous people con never be enslaved ; and that, on the in ■ 
telligence of our youth, rest the future liberty, the prosperity, 
the happiness, the grandeur, and the glory of our beloved 
country. Go on, then, with a laudable ambition, and an un- 
yielding perseverance, in the path which leads to honour and 
I'enown. Press forward. Go, and gather laurels on the hitl 
jf science ; linger among her unfading beauties ; " drink 
deep" of her ciystal fountain ; and then join in " the march i if 
fame." Become learned and virtuous, and you will bo great 
Love God and serve him, and you will be happy 




luMaDAOK, in its most extensive sense, implies those signs 
b/ irtiich men «nd bnites communicate to each otiier theii 
thoughts, afieclions, and desires, 
ige may he dividi 
, )ken Euid written. 

Natdral Lahouage consists in the ute of those natural 
signs which different animals employ in oommuoicatiDg theii 
feelings one to unother. The meaning of these signs all per- 
fectly underatand by the principles of their nature. This lan- 
guage is common both to man and brute. The elements ol 
natural language in man, may be reduced to three kinds ; mo- 
dulations of the voice, gestures, and features. By means ol 
these, two savages who have no common,' artificial language, 
can communicate their thoughts in a manner quite intelligible : 
they can ask and refuse, affum and deny, threaten and suppli- 
cate ; they can tiaffick, enter into contracts, and pli^t their 
Ituth. The language of bnites consists in the use of those 
marttmJafc sounds by which they express their thoughts and 
affections. Thus, the chirping of a bird, the bleating of a 
lamb, the neighing of a horse, and the etowling, whining, 
and bailing of a dog, are the language of those animals, re- 

Abtificial IiANGUAOB couststs in the use of words, br 
means of which mankind are enabled to conununicate their 
tttoug^ts to one another. — In order to assist you in Gompr»- 
hencUng what is meant by the term teord, I will endeavour to 
illustrate the meaning of the term 

Idea. The notieu wluch we gain by sensation and perc^ 
tion, and which are treasured up in the mind to be the materi- 
als of t hinkin g and knowledge, are denomnated ideas. For 
example, when you place your hand upon a piece of ice, a sen- 
sation is excited which we call coldnat. That foculty which 
notices this sensation or change produced in the mind, is called 
ptrceplion; and the abstract notice itself, or notion you form ot 
tins sensation, is denommated an idea. This being premised, 
we will now^roceed to the consideraticHi of words. 

FTords are articulate sounds, used by common consent, not 
na natural, but as artificial, M|nis of our ideas. Words have 
no meaning in themselves. They are merely the artificial re- 
preoentatives of those ideas affixed to them by compact or 
agreement among those who use them. In EqgliA, for jn- 
•tanoe, to a particular kind of metal we assign the name gold ) 
not because there is, in that sound, any peculiar aptness which 

■dggesta the idea we wirii to convey, but the apftlicKtioii «f that 
vnund to the idea signified, is an act altogether arbitraiy. 
Were there any natural connexion between the sound and the 
thing signified, the word gold would convey the same idea ta 
the peopb of uther counlnea aa it does la ourselres. Btt 
such is not the fact. Other nations make use of difierenl 
sounds to ainiily the same thing. Thus, auntm d«io(es the 
same idea inXatin, and or in Frennh. Hence it fi^ws, thai 
it is by custom only we learn to annex particular idea* to par- 
ticular sounds. 

Spoken Lahsuaob or speech is made up of artieidat* 
sounds uttered hy the human Toice. 

The voiet is (ormed by lur which, aflet it passes through tha 
f^Ottis, (a smfdl aperture in the i^per part of the wind-pipe,) 
is modulated by the action of Uie throat, palate, teeth, tongue, 
Jips, and nostrils. 

Writtbn Laxodaos. The alementa of written language' 
consist of letters or characters, which, by- common ctmaent and 
general usage, are coratuned into words, and thus made tha 
«cular representatirea of tho articulate sounda att«rod by dM 


GRAIUMAR is the science of language. 

Grammar may be divided into two species, univenal and 

Universal 'Giiahsiar explams lie principles which are 
common to all langaages. 

Farticclar Gkamhar applies those general principles to 
a particular language, modifying them according to its genius, 
and the establi^ed practice of the best speakers and wrilera 
by whom it is used. Hence, 

The eatablithed praetice of Iht but tpeakert and teriUn of 
anytanguBge, is the standard of grammatical accuracy in the 
use of 4hat language. 

By the phnse,eslMi»hed practice, is implied reputable, na- 
tional, and present usage. A usage beccMoos good and l*g^t 
iVbea it has been long and {^erally adopted. 

The beat tpeakera and ■arilers, or such as mi^ be eoaudeiao 

good aufliority in tha use of language, are those who are de- 

. tarredly in Ugh estimation ; speakara, distinguishod for thon 

1» MOLua flSAtUtAK. 

^tmmHoa w>d oAw Utenry atUioDMnU, ud writers, uninuit 
fM «on«ct laate, solid matter, mid refined mumer. 

Id tbs gnmmar vf m »«r^ 1u^i»e^ no nile* tbotdd tn idndtted, bat 
Moh w u« feandsd od niad priaciidn, uuing out of the genlua oT Ihal 
i th« nalan of tninn ; but oar ttui^sge bang ltn-p«rfect, il 
iMMrj, in a jiriKlwal treatise, like this, to adopt iottib rulM la 

tjmgmgB it Doir'eatioii*!, and not only mvcnted, but, id i 
•dnoceiiMiit, cartel fat porpoaea of pnctical ccHivenience. 
■ume* «DJ aiid avetj foriD wludi tlioie who make uae of it cboose to 
^ve it. We are, therefore, •* rdwnal and pracMnaJ gnamurianB, cooipelleil 
tanbmit to the neoSHitj of the caw; to takeUwUngaigeaait 6, and 
not la it liaM he, and bmi to cualoDL 

Philosophical Grammar LnveBtigates and develops the 
pfiiMiplei of langtiage, as faunded in the natuie of things uid 
tke ori(piial laws of £ouglit. It also discusses the grounds of 
ttfi alassi£cstioD of words, and explains those procedures 
■hiili piBctical fframniar lays down for our observance. 

Pbactical GkaHHAii adopts the moat convenieat classifi- 
cation of the wtnvla of a language, lajrs down a system of de- 
finitions and rules, foimded on scientitick principles and good 
usage, iUuetrates their nature and design, and enfMces theii 

Principle. A principle in grammar is a peculiar conslnic 
ti<m of the language, sanction^ by good usage. 

Definitioii. a definition in grammar is a principle of Ian 
gmg« oxffesaed in a definite form- 

Role. A rule describes the peculiar construction or cir 
OwnstMitial relatioa of words, which custom has calablished 
for our observance. 

£:iirC)I.I8H GRAMMAR. 

Eholish Gbakhab is the art of spealdng and 
writing the English language with propriety. 

Gkahhar teaches us koie to u»e vutrdt in a proper maimtr. 
^e most important use of that faculty, called speech, ia, to 
convey our thoughts to othera. If, th^fore, we hav» a store 
of woinis, and even know what they signify, they will be of bo- 
foal use to us unless we can also app^ them to practice, and 

nUka-lheinaoBweithe purposei for wfaictitbey ware invauMl. 
'Braaaaar, well underatood, enables us to exprees oui thoughts 
fUn^ and clearly ; and, coDBequentlj, in a manner which wiH 
defy the ingenuity of man to ^ve our wotds any other meaoing 
than that which we oursdves intend them to expre«B> To bo 
able to speak and write our Temacutar tongue with accuracy 
and elegance, is, certainly, a, conaideration of the- highest mo- 
Grammar is divided into fbur parts ; 
1. Orthoorapht, 3. SxVTAXt 

3. EttmoLOGT, 4. PROflODT. 

Ortuoqraphv teaches the nature uid powers 
of letters, and the just method of spelling words. 

Orthoorapht meuiB mord-makitig, or iptUmg. It teaches 
us (he different kinds and sounds of letters, bow to combine 
Ibem into syllables, and syllables into words. 

As this is one of the first steps in the padi of Eterature, 1 
presume you already underetand the nature and use of letters, 
aad the just method of spelling words. If yon do, it is uihi9- 
cessary for you to dwell long on this part of giBmnHr, whiclv 
though T«ry imp>oTtant, is rttthei dry and uiuBterestingt for it has 
nothing to do with parsiog or ama^zing language. And, there- 
fore, if you can tpell corrtcily, you may omit Orthography, and 
eotamence with Etymology and Syntax. 

Orthography treats, \st, oi Letters, 2ndly, of 
Syllables, and 3dly, of Words. 

1. Letters. J A letter is the first principle, or 
least part, of a word. 

TTie English Alphabet contains twenty-six let ■ 

They are' divided into vowels and consonafits. 

A vowel is a letter that can be perfectly sound- ' 

ed by itself. The vowels are a, e," i, o, «, and 

sometimes iv and y. W xaA y are consonants 

. when they begin a word or syllable ; but in every 

other situation they are vowels. 

A consonant is a letter that cannot be perfectly 

■ounded without the help of a vowel ; as, b, dtf, 

. L AU letters except the rowels are consonants: 

Coasonunts are divided into mutes and seini 

The mutes cannot be sounded at qll without the 
aid of a voweL They are b, p, t, d, k, and e and 

The semi-vowels hare an imperfe.ct sound of 
themselves. They arey,/,m,n,r, v,s, z, x, and c 
and g soft. 

Foot al iha •nni.vawali, nuulj, I, tn, n, r, «ra coDed fffuUt, ba^tae 
lhe]> nmdilj' nmte with otliac conxHUutta, and floir, u it vrera, into limt 

A diphthong is the union o( two vowels, pro> 
Dounced by a single impulse of the voice ; as oi 
in voice, ou in sound. 

A triphthong is the union of three vowels pro- 
nounced in like manner ; as, eau in beau, ieio in 

A fmper diflithoag hu MA ike Toweb •muklBd ; Mi •« in otmcv. Ab 
h y i ^ ' diptiUiiKig ut oolj OM of tha vowel* (ouiuled ) u, m in boat. 

ft. Stllables. a syllable is a distinct sotmd, 
uttered by a single impulse of the voice; as, a, 
Mt, ant. 

A word of one syllable, is termed a Monosyi - 
htbie ; a ward of two syllables, a Dissyllable ; a 
word of three syllables, a TrisyDable ; a word 
of four or more syllables, a Polysyllable. 

iO, Words. Words are articulate sounds, 
used by cwaxaoa consent, as signs of our ideas. 

Word? 9T6 9f two sprts, primitive and deriva- 

A prifttttive word is tltat which cannot b^ re- 
duced to a simpler VKord in the language ; as, 
many good. 

A aerivatwe word is that which may be reduced 
to a simpler word;.as, manfiU, goodness. 

Then ja litUs or no difiimnico between dctivctiis and compound words. 
rha tenFiiiuiltona Or added ByliaUes, such t»ti,it,, tu, u(, im, iM, tn, tntt, 
wfc Am, htoi, it, aUifiii. nttt, uid the like, wars, □nginaBr, dirtnct and 
Mperatfl word*, wfaicb, bj long ate, have tieen eontractod, «ud made (a 
joalaaca with otbor word*. 



A.— ^bu (bur •■ 
o^ viM ! the thort 

bar J fartker. 

,. r _ ^ hu tba ibort aousd of ■ 

latac; artd the long sound of sia Boal, Oad^ J 

,__ .._ „..."X^" 

IS diptilhong, d, hsa the long Kiund lA *; u ia tNot, 
ylaf ij; 11^ Bfobt, mUery, ,^MnJii{n, Brilont, and wwk otaen. 

The Latin diphthang, a, has the lor^ Mund oT c in iw ig i w t , C«i<v, and 

>nie other wocda. But maor aatbon iqect Uaa a*daM eicMiicMKs of 

antiquitf, and write, «" 

»*?■.--. ,., 

IB Miinded like broad ■ io Imithl, likB flat a in awii; lik« loa% t in 
\mabrm, and like ahort o in faurvL 

Am hai aiwaya the wnmd of broad a ; a« in imA, vrmaL 

Jy baa the long Bound of ■; aainpa^''''^ 
. B. — B haa onty one K>und ; aa in Mur, minkr, tiuk. 

B ia ailont when it fotlowa m in the lanM tjUMaj u in lami, kc except 
"rt acaaib, rStrab, and laeaanb. It U alw alent befon I in the iNa* attW 
tie; aeindeuit, ib(l«-,HMe,&c 

C— Caaunda like 1; before a, o, ■, r, (, (,andatthe endofarllabtea ; aa 
in tart, coUagt, curiotu, o-o/l, Iracl, cteU; i'ic(i>n,JI'iccidL It haa the •sum af 
> before i, i, lindp; aa in cmtrc, cigr, awrc^ C ttaa the aouodoffA wbsa 
Ukiwed by a difMboog, and ia preceded by the accent, either pnaMij oi 
■eoODdaiT : as in asetaJ, srsmntcii^uii, &c. ; and of i in diicern, Hcrifitc, tict, 
n^i. It u mule ia arhueb, etar, ciiniui, mdul, vjchiab, mmdc 

Ch ia oommoiily soonded Uke l«A ; aa in chureK cMn ; bat in woids i»- 
da^ (nta the ancient lanDuasea, it haa the eouad of Jk ; aa in -djaiii^ 
chomi; and Ukewise in foreirn namea ; aa in JitU, JEnwik. In Wflni* 
from the French, ek aounda like ai ; aa in tluut, ekmiitr ; and itao hka 
jt when preceded by I or n ; aa in nMck, imck, dbick, &c. 

Ch ia orei, before a Toivel, Boanda like t ; a* in onh-aifil, exc^ it 
mrditiL mrdtrnv, mrttur, mehmtmg ; bat belbre a emaMUuit, it eonDda Mk* 
tot; aainamUMqi. Ok ia nlent in mAmM*, teMm, )WmU, A'adba. 

Dj — D has one uaifami Bonnd ; aa in itM, imUagi. It aounda Ub if 
er j when followed by long u weceded by the accent ; a*.in idtwad. strdiin. 
Italao aonnda like j in jraniiHir, (oUin'. 

liw temunation, td, in adjecdvea and partici{Hal adjei:)iTea, retajiia 
ila dMnet Bound 1 aa, aieicbifnian, ii«n>tdnian, tbitWare tbe meek: 
but in verba the ( ia generally dropped ; aa, yaiui^ tcaUadtJImilltd, almua, 
nlUd, &c which are pronoi]ncad,J)al, uaUE(,j(aiU, abnd, nU, 

&.— £ haa a tang aound 1 as in ukfliu, *tHr( ,- a ahon aoood ; aa in aMi*, 
lent; and Bometinea the Bound of Oat a; aa in.*arK»a(; and of ihort J, 
as in )M, preUy, En^mil, and generally in tlie aoaccanted tatminaliOH.S, tt, 

F. — Fhaaoneunraried BMind j aa in/imqr, na(fl!n; ucapt in ^ whick 
vben MMoinpoundod, ia pronoaaced m. A wive'a portion, a catre'a boa^ 
are improper. They ahould be, wift'i partioD, caf/'i head. 

Q.—G haa two sound*. It ia hard Wore B, D, K, ^ and r, and at tbe 
Mid 4^ a word J as in gag, ge, pm, gloriii lmg,img. Itiaaoft before t,L 
andtt; aa in rcniu, trtn^o'. EtK>t Eacepttons; git, gtiagaa,gbBta,uia 
■omeoihera. G is ulent before n ,- as in puuh. 

H.— nhaaan articulate soundj asiniU^ toru, AuU. It ia ailant ailw 
r; aa in rMerict, ilsikork 

L_-/hiBa long sound; aa in &»; and a abort one: aa,in.^ BeGna 

'^ - 'ded like u abort ; aa . -^ ~.i. .- 

n birth, virlaf. In a 

91 wuMiia OF mv lxttbri. 

J.— J ha* til* tniat at aoft g; *icqK in kJlthgali, m whkb it k pK 

^M dUtom of omilline tlui it at the end of words where t1 ii preceded 
tje, bu latrodiieed inlo the Ungituethe unwiirTBDtable noiclly of ending 
s went with an unmoaj letter, which prodiicea irregulBrilici in (ormatiTea ; 
ftr ws va aUiged to emplor the it in Jreliclaiig, fieHrktil, tn^fficldng, IraJ- 
'-"-% mtmiciiu, aOiMng, 4c. though we oniil it in>Dlicjfc, inffitk, &c 
—L hu 3"- "^ '■-■-' -■ - - ■- '— '-"— " -- -" 

U— £ tuu ^wayB a BoA hquid sound ; as in Uae, Ullmi. It is oB^ 
icnlal; exeep) 

nlent j u in Atnt/I t<^ olmotuL 

H.— Jtf hu alwava ■ 
to amftnUrr, which 

N.— JVhaa two eounds; theonepuio; as in oiBn, nel, nolle ; the other 
■ compound aound ; as in enldt, banqtiet, diilincl, &c. pronounced aHgkl, 
hmglcaet. Jf final ii nlent when preceded by m ; bb in Ayntn, oulumn. 

O. — baa a long aound ) as in notCj aetr ; and a abort one ; aa in nol, 
ffC It baa the aound of h abort ; >a in tm, aUvnuy, deth, iatt ; and g^ 
DWallj in the tenninitiona, op, o^ or, on, sm, oj, od, &c. 

F. — F baa but one uniform sound ; as in piii, MUpper ; except in cup- 
(Mn^daptovd, where it has the sound of b. It is mute in juolm, Plsbmi^ 
(»■> ■ < , oiv^ corpJ, nupioTj, mil neclpl. 

Pi baa the sound of / in p/iilempliy, Pkilis ; and of i in nqjiett, Sfj^im. 
C|. — Q ia sounded like k, and is alwaya tbllowed by n pronounced like tOi 
•• ia quM^oKt, quiOL, confuut. 

K. — X has a rough sound ; as in Anne, rher, rage ; iind a smooth one ; 
•* ia bari, card, rtgtrrd. In the noaccGnled termination ri, the r ia scund- 
•d aftar (ha i ; u ui fibrt, enln. 

S.— S bu a flat aound like i; ai in tuom, nual ; aitd, at the beginnii^ 
of wwda, ■ abarp, hissing sound ; as in jowt, jiiler, tampU. It haa the 
Mwnd of A wbmi preoe<M by the accent and onijther i or a liquid, and 
Mlowedb]ta£|A«hoDEorlon|:uy as in etpubtm, ccnnin. Saoundalikc 
(i when preceded by t£e accent and a vowel, and followed by a diphthong 
or king i>: asin hwier, hiuoI. It is mule in uIc, enrpa, denunu, rucgvni. 

T>— riasoundBdintoJa, ienvptr. T before », when the accent preoedeaj 
*l»dj«««ra«ybrforo MB, sounds likelji; as, nature, virtw, rigUmu, ar* 
jitODOUDced natilHB-t, vtrlthut, rieheia. Ti before a towoI, prsraded by the 
accent, Iwa the sound of lA,- lU in lotvolun, lugoIialiiiR ; except in soch words 
•a tlwt*, Usv, Sut. and unless an i goes before ; sa, quttUon ; and excepMog 
Wso den»«ti»ea from words ending in Ij ; ae in nrig-Wy, mig-AlieF. 

Tk, at the beginoing, mUUUi, and end of wonfe, is ^aip ; as in tMcJt^ 
panltw Ih-rrt^ Exeepliona ; &tit, baotk, viorthg, &c 

U.— i/ baa tliree MHUtds ; a long ; aa in mule, cuMot ; a short ; aa in AiU, 
CMterrf; mi an obtuse aound ; sa in JM, InakiL It is pronounced like 
■hart ( in iury ; and lik« short i in busy, bumMt. 

v.— rhaauniTonnly the soundof Bat/; asin vanilu,lme. 

W. — (F.wbena con«on«nt, haa its sound, which is heard intea,tnBarA 

IT ia riont before r; as in icry, iiri^ icrinWe ; and also b enwer, 

•wwA &C. Before A it is pronounced as if written after the A; as in toAj^ 

iBjlni,' tt*aJ,-— Amj, Auwn, kval. When heard aa a Towel, it takck Iha 

aound of u; aa in drou, crru, now. 

X. — X haa a sharp lound, like h, when it enda a syllaUe with the ac- 
eoit on it i OB, ixU, €xirciii ; or when it precedes an accented s^ble - 
which begins with any consonant except k ; as, cxcum, txtent ; bvt wbni 
the fiillon^ accented ayllable begiaa with a vowel or A, it bas^ genenlly 
■ flat sound, like gz; as in tz«rl, exkoH. X has the aound of i at 1^ ba. 
0amag oTprnper nOnaa uf Greek original ; u in Xmlkia, XtnifhtH, Xtnct. 

y. — r, wbui a coDMHwnt, bu iti pmp«r aoimd; uin iMU> ItriLfi*, 
tuv-VMr. When y U xaplnjcd u ■ r<nr«l, it hu enatlj aw womI omI i 
wou' ' havB in the nmi ntuatioa j >s in rt^nu, tftUn, p«%i wrf<. 
'Z baa the Bound of flat i; »a in Jrtiit,irautt. 


Spelling is the art of expressing a word by 

Its proper letters. 

'Ine following rules are deemed important in practice, at 
lhouf[^ ihey assist us in spoiling only a small portion «f the 
words of OUT language. This useful art is to be chioAf acqniv* 
ed by eludying the spelling-be ok and dictionary, aad by ktoiot 
attention in reading. 

RuLB I. Monosyltables ending iaf, I, or t, double die Boat 
or ending consonant when it is prec«ded by a tingU vowel ; wm, 
ftaff, mill, pass. Exceptions ; of, if^ at, m, Aw, tea*, jfu, hit, 
Ihti, tu, and tktis. 

FAe OrtAognqiAy fbr tlit Itamtr lo mrrcet. — Be tbaa Uke tba gale A»t 
mov«a the ^nts, lo thoae who ask thy aid. — The aged here oomaa fbith oa 
hw etaf; his gray hair glilten in the beam. — ^hal mortal man be nOra jiMt 
than God I Few know the raluo oT health til the; tow it,— Ooi inuuun 
riiould be neither groa, nor ciceuivelf reGaed. 

And that is not the lark^ whom note* do heal 

The vaulty heaven oa high above oiir beada : 

I have- more care (o ataj, than wil to gu. 

Role ii. ll^onosyllablea ending in any consonant buty, I, ot 
«, nerer doubl-; the tinAl^onsonant when it is preceded by a m»- 
glt vowel ; au, man, hai. Exceptions ; add, tbh, hM, *gg, oMf 
fTT, in*, Jnam, jturr, and btu*. 

F^t — None ever went tadd from Fingal. — He rejoiead o*w 
•ua ionn.— Clonar Lea bleodiog on the bedd of dealh. — Many a tnpp ii nI 
- '- a the feet of youth. 

Rule hi. Word* ending in y, form the plural of nouns, Ih* 

oersons of verba, pari jcipial nouns, past participles, con^iara- 

tiTes, and superlaliTra, by changing y into t, iriien the t( ia itr»< 

* (;ededbya consonant.' as, apy, «pie« ; I carry, lho» eaeriut, ha 

tmriet ; carrier, earned ; happy, happier, happiat, 

Tbe present participle in ing, retains the y tW > may not bo 
doubled ; as, carry, carrying. 

Butwbeny iaprecededby a eoisef, in sBcn inst«aiefl»aslbo 
jtboTe, it is not chrmgedinto t ; as, boy, b»yt ; I eloy, Aaelayt; 
except in the words lay, pay, and say ; from wiich ar? fonned 
iot'if, paitt^ and said ; and their coinnounds, trnpatd, immhIi ^a^ 


Wn Mniiiig soul* tritb modellj uid love ; 
Cut none «waj. 
The trulT giKid man ii not liknuiad by forertj. 

Era &MD iiiDniiii{ stnak liie nut, wg miut be iiMa la ttfenn jondw 
■Dm* gntn. 

RcLB IV. When words ending in y, aswnne an addilional 
■yllable beginning with a consonant, the v, if it la preceded by 
a consonant, is conunonly changed to t ; as, happy, happUif, 

nt when « is preceded hy a rowel, in BiKh inataaces, it ia 
Ttaj rarely i^ianged to t ; KB,eoy, eoyUu ; boy, boyith ; ftoy- 

JVdtf Ott^gTI)^. — Hifl mind u iminflueneed by fitncjful humours. — Thm 
Tfaiel wu heavjlj ladan. — When m met (guDst conadence, m bacmiM 
Itw dntrolan of our ditr peaee. 

ChristiMia, majden la heioii^ mten I 

9tu of the north! oi Dorthem stan the queen ! 

Rule t. Hone syllables, and words accented on tbe laat syl- 
lable, ending with a single consonant that b preceded by a singlft 
Towel, double that consonant when they assume another Byll(£lf. 
that begins with a vowel ; as, ioil, willy ; thin, Ihiimiah ; to abtt. 

But if a diphthong precedes, or the accent is nol on the laat 
syllable, the consonant remains single ; as, fo toil, toiling ; l» 
^er, a» offeriag ; mmd, maiden. 

Ttit Ort/tBgrmky.—The bnainen oT lo-daj, AatiJd not be defered tin I*. 
■tOTTOir. — Th«t law in annuted. — When we have outetripad our etriNDi^ 
we ha*e won the race.— By defering our repeDlance, wo aeC-jmuUte our 
■orrows. — The Chriatisn Lawgiver has pmhibitted man; Ibioge which tbe 
bsathen philosopheni allowed. 

Lt niminer ere, when heaven's aerial bow 

u with bri^t arch tbe glittening hills bdow. — 
J Dua mourned the hapless man ; a Uinnderring sound 
Rolled round the ahndderring waUs and shook the ground. 

Bulk Ti. Words ending in double /, in takingncM, Ism, M, 
ar/tiJ,aftei them, generally omit one/; aajidntt», §kiUat,Juaif 

But words en^g in any double letter but I, and taking mhm, 
hta, ly, OT fvl, at\er them, preserve the letter double ; as, harm^ 
leoneM, eareUtsnaa, eareUstli/, sli^y, luccestfid. 

FaUi Orthagrofhy. — Achillneu generally precedes afever.— He a weato. 
dullness. _■ a j . 

The silent alranger stood Bmaied to see 
CoDtecnpt of wealth and willful poverty. 
. ReetlnoessoTniindinipBirsour peace. — The road to tbe blisTuI racnoai^ ia 
•a open to the peasant as tothe king.— Tbe arrows of eahimnTnll ham - 
lealy at the fiiet oTTirtue. 

BULKS toft tm,itf<^ ^ 

Rule vii. JVch, Uu, %, m fid, tM^ to ««nk caAng in 
■ilent e, does not cut it ofT; as, paUnett, gwldm, ekttlg, j ia w 
/ii( : axcept in k few Words ; B3> iin1»i, (my, itw^itF 

rWic OftjtcgTapiir.— Sedntnan is bcoomiii^ 
All tbeu with oduIsbb pniM U- wotkil^oU. 
SUnrush: and GnaT niin Mnlf dti*a> 
Ker ptoDglulure c 


— Nature mulfl K paOM) 
An aweful pauso ! prophetick of h«r end I 
Rule vui. ^Vhen words emfing in silent «, usuma flw 
mination, nKiif, the e should not bo cut olT; sa, ofi ' 
tS^mf. The words judgmatt, abr.dgvutU, ael 
ore exceptions to this rale. ' 

MJml, fike odier terminfttions, rii»ng«i y mto t wfasn ths j| tf 
preceded b^ a consonant ; sa, oceon^xmif , (Ueoinpamtn«ni; Mm^ 
ry, iRerrinient. 

Abe Orthojrap&^.— \ judiciouB airangmeat ofiludiM TadBtatM lmpn» 
n>,ent,—l:ocouragnient is gpoate«t wiren wB least DBsdit. 
To ahuB'sllunneita i* oM hard, 
To txipd* •ftolr'dt fbnran'd, and w«U ft^pt,^ 
Rui,E tx. niien words ending in sileat •■ UCl^m th»t«nrt^ 
nation, <Me or ib/e, tbe t should generally be cut ofi*; u, blanUf 
bUtiimbie ; cure, atrable ; tmut, muihle. But if e or g' aoft 
comes before c in tho original mfd,'tbe c ii preterrDd in word* 
Ronipounded with abU ; as, peace, peaceable ; ckonge, ehmgw* 

I'oln Ortiigrapj&ir. — Knowledge is deareabl*. — MiscondDet II lnt»CM» 
able. — Our Dataral defecti are not chargable upon in. — We ua nuuU to b* 
MivicaUe to otbera «• well ae to oaiaalns. 

words ending in lilent 
pUut, plaemg ; todgff 

at npan a dratiMsb tprnt— 

Rule xi. Compound words are general]]' apelled in A* 
mim manner u the simple woDda of imcb lfae7Bre«oaipiMu!|[)< 
ed; as, glaitfunm, Mkytight, t/Mrtby, ktrtajter. Manj wegit 
en^Bgiado\dilbi,arcexoipfi«»tothuiru1a; as, alr««^ tM^* 
fimitt^^fii^; aalabotlMWicd*uA«wiertcJiriiAwfilw^ 
mas, ^c. t 

Tkt^ in Ihe Mtle of tMrnisB >>1* 1>i piaa, 
Then nuat be, ■oBwhan, mch a tHik •> mn. 
tin hriiMn broDgU hil k*-deli^ed hour, 


Tou Duty now answer Ibe (oHowinQ 
Wbal ii language ?— How is language divided l^What ia ii»- 
tnnl Uogui«e t — What are the elementa of natural language 
in man T— -^lerein consists the language of bnilea I—What la. 
artificial language 1— What is an idea I — What are words t — 
WbatisGnuomarl — What <l»es Universal grammar explain T — 
Wherein does Particular grammar diSer from univerBall — What 
is the slan^rd of grammatical accuracj' I — What is Philosophi- 
cal granunar T — ^tat ia Practical grammar T — What is a prin- 
e^)le of grwnmar 1— A definition I— A rul« I— WhM is Eulisb 

grammar I Into how niaaf purto is grammar #T i Ji d T— Wbal 

does Oithograpbf t««!A t 




Ettholoot treats of the different sorts of wordtTf ' 
their various modifications, and their derivation. 

SvwTAX treats of the agreement and govern- 
ment of words, and o^theu- proper- arrangement 
is a sentence. 

the word Ettmoi.ooy Bignifies the origin or fwdtgrca of 

Shph a prefix from the Greek, signifies logeUur. Syn-Ua 
murin piaeiug logttker ; or, as ^plied in grammar, smtowe 

The rules of syntax, wUtdi direct to the propw dioice •( 
words, and Ibeii juifioiaus armn^emeDt in a sentence, and 
iberebj enable US to coirect and avoid erroars in speech, ate 


^lieiy baseO on piinciplea unfoUed and espUined b^ EtTino- 
togy. EtymologicBl knowleclge, then, is a preraqnieite to the 
•tudy of S/ntax ; but, in parsing, undot the bead of Etymology, 
you BTe required to apply the rules of StuIojc. It becomes nc- 
eeagary, therefore, in a practical work of this sort, to treat then 
t*T* paKs of graounsr ia connexion. 

CoadvK*ed on sei^tifick principles. Etymology would coin- 
•prebend the exp«sition of the origin and meaning of wotdn, aod, 
in short, tbeir wbsle ^Mray, including their application, to Atogs 
in oeoordance with die laws of oab^re and of thought, and tM 
caprice of 'booo who apply tjiem ; but to follow up the curreot 
of language to iU Tarioua winces, and analyze the springs from 
' «riBch it flows, would involve a process altogether too arduous 
aid extMisiv« lor aa elementary work. It would lead to the 
study of all tiiose languages from which ours is immediately de- 
rived, sad even compel us to trace many words through those 
languageg to others more asoievt, wid so on, until the chain of 
research would become, if not endless, at least, too extensive 
to Im traced out by (hw man. I shall, tltar«fore, confine mjtself 
(o the following, limited views of this part of grammar. 
1. Etymology treats of the cJoMi^afion of words. 
S. Etymology explains the aacMlMt*erfmi}urfiM peculiar |0 
9kA class or K>rt of wmrda, mmA their present noiUeaiiom. 
By modifications, I mean the choices produced on ttieir owt 
«ig«, in consequence of their aasuming different relations in re- 
i^wet to one anodier. These changes, such as thiil, fruits, 
fniit'a ; ke, hi*, hm ; write, writerf, writeA, writes, wrofc, wriU 
tan, writing-, writer ,- a, an ,■ ample, amply, and the like, will be 
«xpla^d in their appropriate places. 

4. £tym*legy treats of the darwlion of words ; that is, it 
(baches you Iiojd one leord come* frmn, or grtnea out i^ another. 
For example : from the word speak, come the words speaknf, 
speakcA, spealu, Bpeakin;f, Hfeke, spolMn, ^ealur, speaker's, 
Bpealwr*. These, yaa perceive, are all one and &e same 
word, Koi all,ezce^ the kst three, express ijw some kind of 
actton. Tluiy differ from each ether only in the termination. 
These changes in tenatnation are produced on the word in or- 
der to msike it correspond with the various ptrtons who speak, 
the nmaker of persons, or the time of speaking ; as, / speak, 
lho» speafce*/, die vtaa speakcf/i or speaks, the mtn speak, / 
apokt ; The speaker spenk* another speaker's spetcA. 

The third pan of Etymtriogy, which ia intimately connected 
widi the 9 "cond, will be more amply «cpanded in Lecture XIV, 
iind in the Philosophical notes ; but I ahsll not treat largely of 
itiat bfoncji of derivation whjch cowiats in tracing W9«4s to 

iff iTvaioLttw iKD irrtTix. 

^llratgn bnjguliigM. This is the province of the lexlci^rittifibr, 
mtber tluui of the phitologiat. It is not the bmlMn 3i hhn 
trho writes a pntctical, Er^sh granunar, to ixMb words to 4« 
Saxon, nor to the Celtick, the Greek, the Dutch, the Mtfxiewii, 
nor the Persian ; nor iii it his province to exptftin their meaai^ 
io I<Btui4 French, or Hebrew, Italian, Mohemn, or Sanscttt; 
6tit it li Ua duty to esptain their propertieB, ueir powntv, theii 
ebnnCXio&s, relations, dependances, and bearf^s, notmtde 
Mriod in which the Danes made on bruptton int» tlw islaitd ol 
%rr«at Britain, nor in the year in wtnch Iiameeh paid hie tad- 
ilfressea to Adah and Zillah, but ai the pmrHeniar poriod in 
WUek %■ vrrites. His words are alreadj derived, fbnnad, ea- 
tkhtlsfa^d, and funiished to hid hand, and b« u bound to take 
Qeta and AxpTain them as he finds them in hit dag, without aar 
tejjMrtl to their ancient conMmction and appUoatioiu 


In arrUtgitig the parts of speech, I eoaceive it to bo Iba 1» 
gitiniate object of fhe practical gramdoUiaB, to c«MUh pnutt 
tal eoneeititnct. The true pruicrole of ckaseification aeema to 
9k, not k referonce to esBentioI ^Uffirraneos in ^ frimiUet 
Itaeanin^ of words, nor to thtih origin^ con^Maatiana^ but (o the 
wanner m akieh they art tU pretent Bmpb^ei, la the vmAy aad 
rdde state of society, mankind are quite limited in their Itno#. 
leHge, and having but fefr ideas to commugoicate, a small num- 
!ber of words answtnrb their purpose in the traniMiiaBrMi of 
bought This leads them to expma their ideas m alkort, ihw 
lachMl sentences, requiring fwv or none of iifijot twrneclhu, 
or W«rd3 of transition, wUdt are af^rwards inuodifocd intc 
language by refinement, and which oontrihHte so hugely to its 
Ai»Sitcui^ and elegance. The argument appeua to he con- 
clusive, then, dfct every language must necessarily have more 
parts of ^>eech in its refined, than in its barbBfOUs stale. 

The part of speech to whieh any word beloi^, is aacer 
laioa^, not by the originai s^nHioation of that word, but b\ 
jts preseat maim«r of nwianing, or, rather, th« office whick il 
paforma in a tenttnce. 

The various wnye in which a word ia utpUed to tlm idei 
which it represents, are c&lled its mtamer of meimiitg. Thus, 
The painter iii>» his pntnl brash in paimt, to pomi the cartia^. 
nere, the word pidnl, a fh«1 employed to dtteriht the brudi 
'which the painter uses ; in thia aituatidn it is, thereforo, an 
* tMtjt^n s secondly, to ntont die mixture en^loyed ; for «Uch 
yt&BMi it ia a tmvn ; and, lastly, tt taprev Ikf ocUen perA>n» 

«l; it, Iherefoie, becwnes a verb: aaid yet, tha meMiB^ of 
Oe W9ti ia the B*m« in all these kpplicHtioiw> This meniiBig, 
komrflr, w sppUed in dtfierent wajs ; uul thus the same won 
Imcodms difl*r«at puts of speech. EicharH took wafer from 
IIm voter pot, to iMbr the plants. 


Stjatology treats, first, of ths ctatMicatitm of words. 

Thk Enolish Languaob is derived chieflf from tbe Saxon, 
Danish, Celtick, and Gothick ; but in the progreBUTe stages of 
Ms refinement, it has been greatly enrichied by ace«taioDS from 
the Greek, Latin, Franch, Spamsh, Italiao, mfd OornMa lai»> 

The Bumbas of words in int lai^ua^e, a&et daduoting pro> 
per names, and words formed by dw inflectioDa of our Tetbs, 
•Muu, aad w^eetivvs, may be estimatod at hbmil forty tkow 

' There are ten sorts of words, called parts of 
speech, namely, the noun or substantive, verb, 



Tbiw you pwtteiTe, that all the words in the English lan- 
guage are included in these (en classes ; and wbM you Have to 
do in acquiring a knowledge of English Gmmmar, is merely 
to become acquainted with these ton parts of speech, and die 
rales of Syntax that apply to them. The JVbun and Verb are 
the most important and leading parts of speech ; therefore they 
are first presented : all tbe rest (except the intetjection) are 
either appendages or connectives of these two. As you pro- 
ceed, you will find that it will require more time, and cost you 
.more labour, to get a knowledge of the noun and verbi tlian it 
idll to become familiar with all the minor parte of speech. 

The princ^ial iiae of words is, to name things, eompare them 
with each other, and expreu their aciioat. ^ 

J^oant, which ar« the names of entities or things, odtecttsc*, 
'which denote the comparisons and rclatiouH of things by-desciib- 
ing them, and expressing their qualities, and tterb«, which ex. 
press the aetious and bwig of things, are the only classes of 
words necessarily recognised in, a philosophical tisw of -^lam* 
mar. But in a treatise whicb-consulta, maiiity. the ^octieal 
advantaeea of tbe learner, it is beUeycd, that oa clawifioatiAn 

IWI tit fcnBd mora c6at<e[u»nt or accurate than *ha lune^k%. 
wiicll A^iiltM wonb Mo teM »erts. T« Ml«mpt to pmti, tb 
fllb place, fluft notlnnc woiild lie gtmtd hy adoptiaf; dlinr « 
)»ss oT a grsater nambbr of ttte parts of iifmedh, m«kl be «d» 
cipating we subject I sbaJl, tbei«fbli<e, ^^ive iby raosAm Mr 
•^opting '^ aiTungMiient in preference to any other, as the 
^St^rent sorts of wordti am raspectivety presented to you, foi 
tben you will be batter prepared to appreciate my arf^uineats. 

A HOUK is the name of any jierson, place, ot 
tiling ; aa, man, CharUaton, ]m<wledge. 

Nouna are often improperly called mhaiantiea. A aubatBo* 
4h« b the name of a wMmec only ; 'but n notMia tbe Attni; 
wUier of a uAtUmet in a ^rnHts. 

AuHfi, derived frotti the Latin word wHt«Wr<kgni6ea (hmm. 
The name of any thing* that exists, whether animate or ibiM' 
^qate, or which we can a?Oi hear, fee), taGtn, smell, |or think of, 
Uanoun. Aninoi,h\rd, ertatwrt, paper, ptn, npple, field, him$e. 

f n* woid BU^ from Ihe BuinTertiUinrliih, tatbiak.tiafenwW) 
£ndted In iu ineuiui|. It msf be ■rplicd lo everj iTfimt-l and cniatun; a 
'Ab imiTBne. By the lenii eroitare, 1 itiean th(t whidi tint kim cnnMiri 
*■, ■ dog, mter, dirt, Thia werd i> alen frequenllj applied to actionii; «k 
" To get drnok ii ■ beeatl; Mng," In thia pfanse, it siaruHaa naither uimil 
•arenatnrej hKtt <!■(■(>*■■ Mrdyel^^lioa; therefara this ictiMi M lb* 

tTOTEi on rHiLOioPHieii. grammar. 
iu« no lulffcd hM, in thii age, elicited inore patient reseucb, an^ 
t invealintaan a( orioinal, cnnRituent principles, fomintior.H, ■ml 
nitioni, thao the Engneh )ui^>ge. The Ic^Iimnte pivnnc« of|4^ 
■mo^, boKBver, b t huimy eonccrra, has, in aoine inataBosa, heen made 
Adji^ taliiatof philoeophy, ■oroToa todlYGrt theauenijun fiom tbe com- 
J^s^na af oni language which r^vement hu introduced, tn mdlcal ele- 
J ;..:_^ ,|p|,jj|j p(j way ooiicem the progrcfB of literr— — — 


theeweDlialiiaelbrwhidiUngaagewaaintended, lyere 
itodeoTinTeaiigating andappltingprindples, toahtain, nmong |ihi[etegiBta> 
■ho aroenriency orer that which BccoinrnodaleH llie use of Inngiiiige tn pro- 
kresaiTe rofinimeQl, it i» eaay to conceive (he etslo cpf harbannm to which 
■ ^ -' - ■ ■ Moreover, if w4ia* wrnie eall 

', altooeiltsr, the pnviiico el 

It by »..__. ^ ^ 

nodeln English, by. 


made$if, tit^ue, ttMagt, rkotffir, u« aH ttouni. la oriu that 
you mtiy enaily distingnish this part of Bpteoh [torn vQnen, I wiU 
giye ;au a «^g^ wMch will be useful to you when you cannot 
toU it by tbe taue. Any word that trill tnake oens£ With tIA b»- 
Tore it, is a noun. Try tbe folVowing words by tiiis mgtk, hM 
see if they are noiinn : tree, mountain, aoul, mind, conBci«IiM, 
underetanding. The tree, (Ac mountain, the soul, and bo on. 
foil j>*rceive, that they will make sense with A* ^ttifised; 
ftweforc you know they are nmtnt. There aW, however, «fe> 
ccptions to this rule, for some nouns irill not tmtke senM wttk 
Ifte {iiiefixed. These yon will be able to disNiq^Mlv ify<m <t^ 
fercisayour minA,by ^kit making aentt of tkanttiMt; ti, g»*d' 
i*«*», tobriiiy, hope, intinontiHy. 

Nouns are uaed to 'denote the oonbiitity or aUiMiee oTmlhikgt 
IS well OS its reidi^ ; aa, lurlking, ntmghl, Mcant^'n 
inft, vavintnlily. 

Nouns arc sometimes used as verba, ati verba, e 
cording ia their nxmnM- of meaning ; and nouns w 
used as adjectives, and 'at^cctTves, aa nouns. This B 
be explamod in the conclading part of tbia Icctnre, «het« y«i 
will be better prepared to comprehend it. 

. Neuas are of two kinds, common and proper. 

A Oommmi iMUn is tW name of a sort or species 
©fttings J as, ti&m, tree, rtoer. 

M the origin*] com)Hnalion<>, and the ifetacbed, MJ<NaM,«nd hHkamBi 
cuiutiurtionBoTour prngenitan, both prudence and mttnn, U wdl Ua da* 
jsoatd for correct i^ilol^. impel me to ahim. Thoae tni>d««l WIJHIi yflla, 
tiv bringine to llieit nld a little BophJBtry, much duplkit*, and a whohnh 
iiaffick in ill* swelling plirascB, " phiiosophj, reason, sail eonntmn aeoMJ* 
■ttaaiBt to ovcrthniiv tliR wtsdoiii of Rnrner ase?, and ^hoiv that die reMM 
of all the labours of those dntinmiJBbed phibl<nvn wh« had prarieady 
occnpted the Odd of grammatical Bcience, i« aotmng birt ciravr aad fcUj^ 
vdldoubtteaa meet tbe neglect and contempt jaMlv nwiitad by Mcfa cam- 
■ummoti; vanity «nd unblushiim pedantrj. Fortntnftrfyfor Ihoac wbekin' 
pluT ovi Ungnoge aa their vehicle of tn«rita] confcrciKC, eiMom wHI Mt 
yidd to the flpccuIoiivD thcorien of the vismnary. If it wenld, i n ip mwiw ii l 
in English literature would aoon be al an end, and wa riimtd ta tUnly 
conducted back to the Vandalick age. 

Aa the uie of what ia commonly calW the phikMivph]' (/ lannapr, ii an- 
'destl; misapplied b; those who make it flie t«M of jTMHnotterf trnjutntf, 
H ma; not be omias to oflsT a few conaideiaiiona with a viaw to t,4iii«i 
Uk foillacy of >o vairiic a ciiterron. 

Ul leaaoaing and inveatioation which depend on Ibb 'ptiUoaopi? "f !■" 
ffoage for an ultimate result, matt be eondaded s mttriart. Ila Qfii<% 
atoording to Iha oidinafj mode of treatma the aOtJect, ia to ti«c»lA- 
■■ '-ji origin, not for the purpose ofdetermining airi fixing g' "' 

9 origin, not for the pnrpi _ _ 

cal aaaodatioin and dependancea, aueh «a the afi— ment, ^ jp^** 
L ana BUltiul rtlatiflna of wonfa, bnt in order to *™>^.°° ™" **™ 
aviaw to<N«alop ttra tun pitndpjea of awlango*^ ""O "««•»"' 


APmpernotmis tbenaiceof uikidivuluai; u, 
CharUs, Ithaca, Gaag^. 

A noun signifying many, is called a eolUclh* 
noun, or noun of multituae i as, the people, the 

The diBtiaction between a commoa and a proper noun, ia vety 
obrioiia. For example : toy is a common noun, because it ia 
a name af^lied to au boys ; but Charltt is a proper noun, be- 
eaaae it i* tbename oiaa individual boy. Although many boy* 
may have the same name, yet you kjiow it is not a common 
noun, for the name Charles is not given to all boys. Mutitnppi 
ia a proper noun, because it ia the name of an intiividuai river ; 
but rmr is a common noun, because it ia the name of a tpecit* 
of things, and the name river is common to all rivers. 
- Nouns which denote the genus, apeciea,- or variety of beine> 
•r things, are always common ; as, tree, the genua ; oak, a*V 
ekeihnUf popjor, different species ; and red oak, white oak, black 
ooi, varieties. The word earth, when it signifies a kind or 
quantity of dirt, ia a common noun ; but when it denotes the 
vlanet we inhabit, it is a proper noun. The words person, place, 
riVer, mountain, lake, &c. are common noung, because they are 
the names of whole apMiu, or classca of things contawiiig many 
sorts ; but the name* of persons, plaoea, rivers, mouutaiaa, 

primhive nnwiungjoT word*. Now, it is preinmed, thi.t no one 'who hai 
paid critiCBl Ulention to the lubject, will contend, thnt the originat impel* 
of angle wonla, bsB uiy ntation to the ayntactical dependancea and eon 

— ^ of words in general ; — to gain a knowledge of which, ir ''■- '— '' — 

" Jie Btudent in gramraai. And, furthennere, I cha! 
. indulged in such ueeleas vagtuieB, to show by what proceH, with 

uEir □"■n Byetema, tUey can communicate a practical knoivledge '' 

oiai. I Tentore lo prodiM 

ainecl oT the student in grammaj. And, furthermere, I challenge 
wbo bare indulged in such ueeleas vagaricB, to show by what proceia 

, tUey can communicate a practical knoivledge of gnur- 
) prodict, that, if they make the attempt, thej will find 
aplendid ia theory, than UBcfuI in practice. 

'' islly be cuntended, Uiat the radical meaning Ii 

-Se Bigniricalion 

. . p many words ; „ „ ,. 

DOW to be taught and understood in compliance with the origtaa. :mport o- 
words, it would hare lo undergo a tborouah change ; to be analyzed, diriden 
and aiibdivided, almost ad tiyinihmi. Indeed, there is the same ^iiopriety lu 
««»niag, that the Golhick, DaoiBh, and Anglo-Saion elements in our Ian 
juige, ought to be pronounced eeparatelj, lo enable us to understand out 
vernMoUr toiwue, that there is in contending, that their primitiTe mearan. 
kai an aacea&ncy over the influence of the principle of asaocialion u 
'■'■Tngng, and the power of custom in delerminin^ the import of wcodt. 
tbayoTaiir words are doriTcd from the Greek, Roman, French Spa:^ 
ltBliaD,ani) G«rman laaguagea ; and theonly use wecsjintakeor thdroti- 
ginala, ia torander themcubaervient to the Jbrce of custom in cases in iriiich 
fsuBRj vatge has not varied from the primitivs ■ipniUcation. Moreovtr, tH 

KOUtlB. — COMHon iKI> I 

hikes, &c. are pt-optr nouru, bocaiue tbey denote inJi 
tm, Augustus, Baltimore, Alp?, Iluroa. 

Pkgtician, laaver, mtrchant, luid Aotmtrtrr, mn camDoa 
novins, because Uiese names ure common to cfasses of Dwh. 
Crod and Lord, when applied to Jehovah oi Jostu Christ, on 
|>raper ; but when employed to denots hektb^ oi fUaa goda^ m 
temporal lords, they are common. 

The iPfotes and remarka throughout the work, though oi* lai- 
aoT importance, demand your atte&tira and careful peniaal. 

1. When fnptr nouni hava ti: 
<lter the runner of eomnwn nooi 
(ifSoatb America." 

9. Cmunm nouni ire Kinictinm used to mgnih IniMibuU, when aniclaa 

; Hal fir] >■ 

<iT pronouTiB ue prdiMd lo them i as, " TA«Tioj; i( RuJiou* [ Ilrf 
discreet." Id hucIi inUances, thcf are n«(r1j eqiiivBleDt to proper aoi 
3. Commm nouna are wimetime? Bubdindad into the follomng cl 
AtaDU qfjaaUUudt; a^ The people, the parlUment; rctftil w |l«iftl^ 
Bcwu; u. The beeinning, reading, writing; aod JlbitrBet luutu, m Iha 

' namei of quilitiea abalracted frotn Ueir snbrtaneee ; an, knowledge, liitM, 
pwdnMi. I.eBt the Etudent be led to blend the idea of abetract nooiw wtlh 
(hat of adjectivea, both of which denote qualitiei, ■ farther iUustntka ap- 
peara to be necesBBTj, in order to mark the distinction belWefen l&cie two 
part* of ipeech. An ab>tnict noun denotes ■ qus1tt]| coHsidercd vpart {dat 
la, ahatracted>/mn the milHtancfl ot b^ng to which it belonSB ; W an ad- 

■ tetlWdenotei a quality jofced (a^eetedjlo thembataBoeor^i^towhidi 
It iMJones. Tho^ ahitenai and %cMte both denote tba suna qdaiily ; bat 
■»• speak of whitenaaa as a dialinct object ofthought, while i^ ma thewoM 

tl>ur sTSl 

tr«ni ivlii 
•awtol' ^ 



(■lUb BiWkjn in rtltnaet to tb« noon to which it bdongi ; u, )ihUt tmpur, 

A. Some intlnn ban pToceeaed to itill Dime uinDl* iHviiioBi and tab- 

dmaoiuof'iM)UM;such,fnaiample, » lb« folkminc, which kpnear to b« 
■Htn eomplai than usemi : Jfatural Ram, or names of Ihings formed hy 

natni* ; aa, maa, beaat, wiler, ait : 2. Artificial noiou, or namei of thtnn 
' fcrmcdbjarl; aa,book, resHl, bouM : S. Pen*n^ nsMU, w those which 
'MaBit for human bantfj mm, nmn, woman, Edwini 4. jftutcr nana, oi 
thoaa which denote tlaiiga in arum ate ; a^ boot, field, mouDtain, Ciocinnati. 
Ha following however, is quite a rational division : Jtfoteruf nnou arp 
the oamea of thinsB Carmsi of matter ; aa, atone, book : ImBiaUtial nount 
an the namea of uinga haviDg no sabilance ; aa, bop*, immortaliQ'. 

To nouns belong gender, person, number, and 


Gender is the distinction of sex. Nouna have 
three genders, the masculine, the feminine* and 
the neuter. 

The masculine gender denotes males ; as, a moH, 

laejeminme gender denotes females ; as, a wo- 
man, a ^l. 

The neater gmder denotes things without sex , 
as, a hat, a stic^. 

JVaUer means ntilher : therefore neuter gender sigoifiM nei- 
iber gender ; that is, neither masculine nor feminine. Heoe*, 

«ateB tor the introduction of si , 

Bcboola, at once to enter on their pilgiimi 

obfcnritr and liatbarity of the ancient Britoi , 

tiered, that the cause of learning and refinement would not sulln greatlj 

Ijj their loss, and that the good sense of the prcKnl age, would not allow 

many of our beit teachers to be of the party. 

The last consideration which I ihall give a philoaapnical manner of invea 
ligacing and enforcing the English language, is, that by this mode of anahr- 
3U1S and reducing it to practice, il coniurf, tn lhl> ori, bt comprelieiiiiil ■■ tbi 
medium of Ihought Were this metbod to prevail, our present literal lao- 

Eage would become a dead letter. Of what avail is language, if it can Dot 
understood ? And how can it be accommodated to the understanding, 
unlerj it receive the sanction of common oonaant 7 Even if we admh that 
~ unfoldinff the principles of our language, is more tatkntal 
.,-. :„1 — .u-j I tlunk a IS cleat that au<4 

... Mofoidjnary learners in schoo!. To be condstent, that ays- 

(em which instructs by tracioe a few of our words to lh«r origin, moat lat- 
fold the whole in the same manner. But the student ■--■- 

MouHa..«^t»DXft. aft 

iMutar gender mettns no gtndtr. Strictly Bpcakktg, Own u 
then are but two sexes, nouna have but two gendera , but for 
the sake of {nBcticol conTenieaco, we i^ply to them three gaiW' 
dm, by caJlingthat a gender which is no gender. The EaglMi 
and Ibe pure Persian, uppeor to be the only languages \nuch 
observe, in the distinction of sex, the natural diTisioa of nountk 
— The genders of nouns are so easily known, that a &rther ex- 
plaiMtion of them is unnecessary, except what is given in the 


1. Tha tune noun m »iaatiTnBi mucuUns and fnmntae, snd •unBtiinai 
BMSculinesr feminine, Tbonoun pwaiit n at Iha roMcuIiiie owirmninias 
poder. Tba dwidh parenl, ohmuK, ntigUmw, itn>mtt,Jriti\d, chiU, Hti, 
fith, «c if douhful, ue of the maBcnline ar feminine csader. 

%. Some DOWiB naturally nautei, nie, when lued %intirel]i, or pcngnt 

Jtf<( coBTSitad into iha m^Bculina or feminine gorajer. Tb 

gaD«r>Uy m ' ' - -> 

imputaif iH 

ciojij u, til , 

iaminin^ which are eoDBpicuoua to. — . „ _ _ 

fcfth, DT iriLch are TSr^ beuuliful, mild, or amiable i as, the tartk, sum, 
tkarck, btal, ttftL city, eattniry, nattirt, lUp, mu^ AirtwM, virttu, kept, irrlm^ 
fiaee,^ This pnn<^[de for deiiiiraBting the aei of a peraonifled objaoU whldi 
isqiutan^nial,ii genetally MbMiid to in the Kngliab lancnags; lHit,iD 
■omB antsncss^ tha poet applica the lex according to hii bncj- 

The maacutim and femiiune gend«n are diiti^gtiiahsd in tkiea waji : 
t. By difftrmi letrdt i as, 
Jttaiwline. Fenmme. MaiaJint. ■ fVmMiw. 

BBiclielor maid B07 ^ 

Boar sow Brother nater 

{duloxwhical anttqnariui, bnt a piacticat grsmmarian. If I eonipnihand 
(he deaton (if Uiay hiTe »nj) of our modem philosophical writora on this 
aubject, It is to maka grammarians by inculcating a few general princi^es, 
arinng out of the geniua of the language, ana the nature of Unnga, whic^ 
the learner, by the eserciee of hii «aJOT5ngpoioeTj,mmt reduce to pracUee. 
Hia own judaroont, BKfcpmifenJ o^graJntilnr raid, is to t>c his guHein >pe«lt- 
JDff aad writing coiractiy. Hence, many of them eiolude from their ay» 
tema, all eieriTsea in what is called /ibe SyTitu. But Iheae profound plit- 
lological dictators appear to haTo overlooked the important coneidetation, 
that the groat raasa of mankind, and eapecinlljofboysand girls in commoa 
• chooU, Ml never heccme philBaopheri ; and, coni«ogaently, on never eom> 
prehand and reduce to practice their metaphysical and obscnro Bratama of 
CTammar. I wish to see children treated as reiaoning beings. But thet* 
Aoald be a medium in all Ihmgs. It is, therefore, abaurd to instniot ch* 
drni as if they were already profouud philoBophera and logidana. 

To demom-trale the utifitv, and entorce the necessity, of exerciaiog th" 
[Buner in carractine faUe SyiUar, 1 need no other argument than the into; 
restinfi and uad^oiShU fact, that Mr. MuTray'e labours, in this department 
bsve efiecled a comptete rerolution in the EngUan language, in point oTveB 
balacemacV. Who does not knog, that the best wntara af ?"* 'j'^' *" ?"• 
iSty of W gnmmstica) i»«raracv, »i*e» those sulbote irf»'^ 
fSr.itamylnMiOO,u<t>uitJo(j<«J And what ba- pr»J'«»d tt>" «* 



Etriicti.oyv uin tiNTAX- 

do« Lotd 

hen Master 

hitch UilMr 

4uok Nfp(»w 

ajUQtwD Itain 

malhei Siagtt 

gocm BtoTW 

wife Un3« 

aatva Vliuii 

tui Sir 

iBiMrour mMnM 

EacluuiMr ■iiili«iln» 






















■ lionou 












porUut cbaugs for the better? Ask the huudredi of thousutdi who Iwt« 
ptuiiied " Mr. Murray's exerdsea to FiLsi Stntax." 11^ then, thig view ^ 

Iba subject i>cariecl,tt foUowa, that the greater portion af oar phUoMphietl 
ywnmitra, ore fw more worth; the uttcntion of Uleiuy conaouiBurs, thaK 
tf the graat masa of IcamerB. 

Knowing that a itrong predilection Tor philpBophUal granrmiTB, eiitta iq 
the ouDds of >ome leauhars of this ecience, I have tliou^^t ptoper, for the 
inatification of luch, to interaperiB through the pageeorthls work, under ^ 
Mad of "pHiLoaoraic*!, Noteb," sn entire system of grammiiliciil prifl- 
d[dea as deduced from what appeara to me to be the most rational and eon- 
■isteot nbiloeapbical investigations. They who prefer this theory to t^l 
exhibited in tha bod/ of the work, sre, of course, at liberty (o adopt It 

bi gtntral, a pUimphic^ iktan/ ^gnanmar utll btfiani to accord irttA Olf 
yertical t/uan/ tainutd in lit Soil •jfVdi icark. Whtreotr lueli urtcmcaf 

mt§ fa n ^ph c i bi/adepliag U« p^ieiplu emlaitui fa Ou other parli ^VS 

)Mv*fMMa%bMii eaaJB t lai t aU onr mwda ahatja 


Pri^ piiiatm ' . 

Frinca phneeM Tiger 

Prior priorcn TeatBtor 

Prophnt prophelMi TniloT 

Proprietoi proprivtrMi TlttO' 

Prolaetor prsuetnu Tmnt 

Sliepbetd ■hephcrdflH Victor 

SongttM Kingatrcai Tueount 

l«TMr«r MTcertM VoHij 


A ftmale-chiM 


pERsoir ia a property of the noim and pronoua 
which varies the verb. 

'J!h.e first person denotes the speaker. 

The second person denotes the persoB or thaig 
spoken to ; as, " Listen, O earth f" 

The third person denotes the person ot thing 
wptAi^i of; as, " The earth thirsts." 

]TiHiiu bare but Ado pernom, Ae second and Quri, WIi«r 
■ nan speaks, the pronoun / or ve is aJwajrs used ; therefoT« 
oouiu can never be in the firtt person. In examples bke tte 

bIimw ; for it can be euaij Bbown, that from ths noun uid verb, all tM 
oilier puti of Ipwch have Bprrnic; V%y, mora. Tuey maj vren be i«> 
d«BMl to one. V«ib« do not, in ''^■Utv; txprtit uitioDB ; but Ihej ara in- 
trinaically tlie meta iwnict of ectlonB. tie ides of action oi being comrau- 
giiiatnrt by them, u nell ■■ the nUBrinf of wards in (renenl, i* meiely ii\fi~ 

SM. The pnncjple of reuoniiV' usumed by the selabnted Hom« 
ke, ifcenied to iti fuU ezlcat, would result, it ii belisred, io proviiu 
(tot we bare biM one part of ■ p ee c h. 

■Mawnu or aJjttUKi ware orifinallf Mima. Suttt, rtd, wUU, ■» tbs 
UMi of qualitiM, aa weil u MtMbiwi, rUi^nt, wkttititit. The bimar 
Aflbr from the latter only in tlnir MOMur of ognillcatioa. To rfncM 
iW tbe«HD*ofaasieqiiaJitrara^>etaDee ia to be wed in oc 

.1 — -_. -T,[hatlhia quality iaio be aOrttBUJIoaoni 

to it the termiaatia^ m, ai oi y; which . 
I we employ tho words wottdm, woolIn,w•aItlq^ gn 
and y, b« their own inlriaitck meanint^ gin n- tice 
^OTJati, thanaaMsoraomsother anbMDcNtn w 

rtie*or<]u«lit)Ba of i~ ' ' ' — 

, tMof nouna, lued ini 

agreeable repetition. Faitiriidea an« 

r, that Ihia quality ialo be a(MiBUJI«aomeolhariiaBa«t 

we aamolimea aAi to it the terminatia^ m, aioiy; which atp^fiaef^M^ 
-" nMn. WwD we employ tlio words wooJtii, woolha-wealtlMv gr f f f i 

— IL: — ^ _ — J .. I."- .t^ lw._: — !-i ; ; — „ ticetbal 


following, some philologisls suppose the noui to be m the jSr#' 
peraoa: — " This maj certify, tluitl, Jmmm Tm/lor, do befeUy 
give and grant," &c. But it is e\-ident, that the speaker ot 
writer, in introducing his own name, speaks of himself f coi^ 
■equentl; the noun b of the third ptrton. 

If jon wish to understand the persons of nouns, a little sobor 
Utougbt is requisite ; and, hj exercising it, all difficulties will 
be lemoved. If I say, my *■>», have you seen the young manT 

fou fierceiTe that the noun xm is of the ateond person, becM»a 
address myself to him ; that ia, he is spoken to ; but the noun 
WUM ia of the third person, because he is spoken of. Again, 
if 1 Mj, young man, hare you seen my son I man ia of the 
««ipnd person, and son is of the third- 

" Hast thou left thy blue course in the heavens, golden- 
haired nw of the sky 1" 

" Father, may the Great Spirit so brighten the chain of 
(Hendship between us, that a child may find it, when the sun ia 
aaleep in his wig-wam behind tbe western waters." 

*' Lo, earth receives him from, the bendnig skies t 
Sink down, ye mouataiiu, and, ye vatUiia, riae !" 
" Eternal Hope, thy glittering winga explore 
Earth's loneUesl bounds, and ocean's wildest shore." 
In these examples, the nouns, sun, father, mountains, vai- 
leys, and hope-, are- of the teeond perron, and, aa you wS here- 
after leam, in the nominalive case independent. Courae, hsa 
Tens, sky, Spuit, chain, friendship, child, sun, wig-wwn, 
waters, earth, skies, wings, earth, boundS) ocean, and shore^ 
are all of die third person. 

intojeetiona, uheibB, prepoatlioM, an* conjmietions, are -wTftactirm* (* 
Amriadoni of nouns ami verbs. ^ (a, ant, or one) cotses from ■naiarf. 
loitdd, toheap. The aid llul,from t'xe Angto-Snxm) lerb U<m,tof[et, ms- 
mme. Lo ialhe impentiTe of looft ; ^, ofjlaii, to hate ; an<i vdamu nwana. 
It in uttU tint you are ront^. In comi!)! from the Gothith noon tiuto, tbe in 
r of rtiB body ; »nd about, froni feda, the tirst outward boondkry, 
■' iigk ia tb ~ ■ ■ ■' ■ '■ ■ -'- 

Tkmifh or Hvmiigh ia tbe Tcntonick noun OtsrvK, meaning putag«, gst«, 
door. I>i»ii is the Anglo-Saxon Donn /nun. b^nnin^, aource, aBtlKir. "' 
™dm from (*«jnningt Batanis. IJ (formerly wtitten pK jftw, fffa) is 
iMpentiTeof thaAniHo-Saxon verb g^**", to Etve. I wiU remam Ulw^ 
grant Hut fact) he will (r«milin.) But comes from the Saion verb 
t« be^oaL I uifoimed no one bat {he-aat, lnaW4«l) n^ biotHer. 

_ Butl am,byno mesne, clispoBDdtoconcede,tbatthiBia lb* 

IniepriBcipla of dasrifienCioa ; nor that it'ie anymore fUlau^liitat ot nh 
Mnu< thanone which atlowe a more praetieal divitdon and amrngMnenl of 
* worda. What has been generally received as " pInloSApllliial'grMiiiiMi,'* 
aFPsarB to pckams no atmngei cIudib to that impaaOe appdlation thwi oar 
•onnMH^ pnAcal gramman. Qoary. la not Mr. »urray>> oetMv-paa^ 

Number is the distinction ot' objects, as one or 
more. Nouns are of two numbers, the singular 
and the plural. 

The singutar number implies but one ; as, a 

The plwal number implies more than one ; as, 


1, SomnnBrnaareuMdonlylntbeBnguUifonn; ai, hmip, Su, iMrt^ 
wheat, pkoh, gold, slolh, ptide, boneaty, meekneaa, cucnpunoD, tc ; Ot^Mi 
on]; (a Uw fiaial form ; aa, belkiw«, sciuot^ ubra, riclu*, uiuflfcn, tongt, 
thaoka, Wkge^ emben^ ides, pains, *«aiwn, kc. 

2. Sbtm anuda us the Bame iu both nnmbant aa,deer, riiecp, (WID«, 
■ud, alav, biatna, aiipirdufl, series, apeciea. 

3..Tba pluiaJ number of ntmita ii gen erall; formed by adding > to Ihs ain 

; except sta^ itavea. 

gultff ; aa, dove, doves ; face, bcea ; but sometimei 

•a, boi, Mxaa j cliurcli, churchea ; lash, luhaa ; ci_,-. __„ 

A. Naanantding in/or/f, are rendered plural bja diange of that temu 

n^on »to*a,' as, hall; bakes; wifr, wives; o» -■ ' "" ' ' 

•nd aaTafriothen, which ibrm Iheii' plurals bjthej 
ii>R ID A luiTC the regular plunl ; as, ruf^ mft ; t. 

5. Mown* snding in y in the eiaguWr, with no < 
^llabla, sliaags it into iti \a tha plural ; aa, beauty, beautiwi At, flia^ 
Bat the y in oat ck:uii?ed. where Iwre is anothar vowd in tha BjUatM ; a^ 
ke^, kMft; iMay, driayi; attorney, attomays; vsHsy, yijleya; cMnuiey, 

6. JHoAbmuluib, mtiaphy^du, ftUHcks, tptitkt, OUela, pummM*, kf- 
ilraaUdu, 4<- ara construed ^ther aa ajngidar OT idural nouns. 

7. TiM iraid ncisi is alw^rs ain^ilu'. The Doans nwiau, almt, ani 
Mmaub, Ibougb plural in form, may 1^ either aiugulBa' or jilunt in aigDifica 

mat more worth; the dignified title oT a " Philato|riucal Granunar," tliaa 
HomnTooke'a"Dive«ionaorPuHey," or William 8. Cardell's treatises on 
language? What constitutes a pl^iaophUid trea^se, on this, or on any 
o^r Bt^ort 1 ITfcerein ia there a fiaplay of pliiloeophy ki a apecutatiro, 
liljaii<mfi il peiferniaace, which altemipta to derelop and explain Iha 
elementa and primitive meaning of words b; tracing dicni to their origia, 
tii^HMrtothepbiloa(H>hy employed in thedevelopaient and illuitratioa ol 
tk» sriodples by whicb we are governed in spplfing tbose words to theit 
tefcifinale parpoac, oamdy, that of Ibnniog a correct and conienient dm- 

'- — *- -iBofwhtdiwecaD conununicate our tbou^ta ? Does philot<»> 

ransacking the mouldy records of antiqmty, in order (o gum 
construction and aignification of single words 7 or have sunk 
in rwilily, any Ijiiiig to do witJi granmar 7 

Imt all the wotda of our languaga include, in ilwir or(g*Ml 

«gniiicaUaa, the import of nouns or namea, aodyet, it does not follnw, that 
they new possess aa other powers, aad, in their eombinMions and canoax- 
iansin senteBCos, are enipuiyed for no other purpoee, Iha" *?'''3''' J"** 
Matt. The fiieiotOtB case ia, tbal wonls ace vaiiouslj corobined and ap- 
ijicfl, to anawei the dislinct and divarsilicd puipoBe* ■>• *w""« M9W** ** 

flan. Anl^jiodM, credenda, IHenti, uul m 
k DOW uaed u tlie ■ngnbr of BuidhlL 

Duthe, mT« bIvvji {dtml. 

8. Tm fnllowing nouna fonn Iheir plurals not uKOrdiiig lu uy garni 
mln; thus, man, men ; woman, vamen ; child, children ; ox,oieii; tootf^ 
lM(h , gooao, gmMi ] (bat, GsM ; niDuae, mice ; louM, lice ; brothn, la» 
thers or brelbren ; con, cowsor kinej peuaj, pencn, of pennies whtn tha 
coin iameanl; die, dice ^ pfaif, diea/«r ioUmg; pM and fUt, peoMand 
fish when the apecieii is mau^ but ftm and Jbha wlMn *• ifltif lo the 
-number ; as, six p^u, len J^fAtf. 

S. The khowing cmnpoundc fbnn Ihcdr plurals Ihue : handiill, handliila ; 
cupTf I, cupfula ; spoontiil, apoonfuls : — bratheNn-Uv, brodHC'in-taw ^ 
«oDrt-martut, courts-marliaL 

The followinc worda fcnn tlmr jilaiaU accordiog to Lha rulaa of tba tM»- 
giMgea from wwdi they are adopted. 

finfud*-, Kund. SbtgutBr. rhnL 

{ appendioes Ignis btnua 

ifoea fctvi 


parraltbeiM ' 

„ , , „ s, persons cd' great mental aUlitlc 

Jf Indexes, when pcoiitora or tables of aonb 
erring to algebiau:Ji qmntitin. 

d prinripii of Iht (.m^ficatim efwarJt. Hence, e 

lips to ■ 

this principle, fUlowed b; a dereiopment knd fllin. 

tnted tiis originBl class of nords ; (if I may b< 
I L_^_ igi/ial class of word*;} birt 

thenamea of the objects ofoiii' parceptinna^ doabllsBS consti- 
J class of nords; (if I maybe al)ov«d to assume such • 
w^s^mI class of word*;} but (he aier^ctn* prineiplvaf 

1 1 1 ; ,j^ 1^ n»»k)nj UiBm, vhtu 

17ase. when applied to nouns and pronouns, 
ateans the different state, situation, or position 
they have in relation to other words. Nouns have 
tliree cases, the nominative, the possessive, and 
tbe objective 

I deem the eseential qnaKties of com, in Engliab, to contiut, 
mM n ttie ehtutgta or injUctimu produced on nouas and pro- 
BCMHM, but in the various office* which thejr perform in a no- 
teaee, by aaMimiog difiei^nt positioos in regard lo other words. 
In .acconjance with Uua definition, these cases can b« eanly ex- 
pUaod OD Foasoniog principles, founded in the nature of dungs. 
. Now, fire grwos of commwi sense will enable any one lo 
lOljWiililiiiil «Aat is meant by case. Its real cbaracter ia ax- 
bODBly s■B^>)e ; but in tbe different giammara it asBuinea as 
many meanings as ProteuH hod ahapes. The most that has been 
written on it, however, is mere vertiiage. "What, then, is meant 
by eatet In speaking of a horse, for instance, we say he is in a 
needs imika oats ; and in Ihiii sense we ajiply the term catt to 
denote the slate or condition of .the horse. So, when wc jdace a 
noun before a verb as actor or subject, we say it is in the noai- 
twlive MUe ; but when it follows b transitive verii or preposition, 
we sa^ i( l»s another ea»t ; that is, it aaaumes a Dew poiitim or 
riftM/trtt in tUe sentence : and this we call the objective cue. 
Tku, tbe boij gathers fruit Here (he boy is represented aa 
fuiiw. H« is, therefore, in the neininatinB cose. But when I 
say, Jane struck the b(nj, I do not represent the boy as tbe actor, 
but as the object of the action. He is, therefore, in a new cote 
(K c9fldition. And when I say, This is the boy's hat, I do not 
ayeak of tbe Wy either. as aclin^ oi as acted upon ; but. us poe- 
s«Mtng somediing : for which reason be is in the poMtssiee case. 
Hence, it is clear, that nouns have three cases or positions. 

As the nominative and ol^ective cases of the nouu aie insep- 
arably coaaectod with the verb, it is impossible for you to un- 

•iaploytid in a particular manner, cxpfraiive o! affirmalion. This nin* 
ptincide also operated in appropriating nnmcs to the purpoM of tltrilxitint 
ita^hlM ta nlher nunaB of objtoU; and ia thia way wns ciMiatituted tha 
ikH of WMdi called adjtclua or riJIrihilci. By the BBTae princip'o won 
Ibrmed all the olkot elaasBs. - ■ , 

In the following eipoailion of Eiiglidi grammiir nn si-iBntifli* pnnei^e^ 
J slull <fivkte woMa into imn eloBsea, .^lu 
JUmUMi. mJUtriiutea, J}dvtrit, Pnp«riMHit, Pi 
C»iu«eI"M. , . , - 

For aa aiplsnatioii of the noun, refer to tha bodv ol the worn. 

43 HTvn&boaT mo #tktix. 


(b«m iinlil yoa shall ban ttcquircd *dme knowlec^ 
oftU* pan of speech. I will, therelbre, now give you a psrlnl 
description of the verb in connexion wilh the noun ; wKch wilt 
enable mc to illuitrate tbe cases of the noun so clearly, that you 
may easiJj comprehend their aatare. 

la the formatitm of language, mankind, ia order to hold god' 
vene with each other, found it necesnary, in the first place, to 
met to the variouH objecla by which diey were surrMinded. 
the origin of the fiiEt part of speech, which we denomi- 
nate ttie Tioutt. But merely to name the objects which th^ b*> 
held or thought of, was not sufficient for their purpose. Tiny 
jierceived that these objects existed, moved, acted, or cawMd 
some action to be done. In looking at a man, for iostanoe, tfcor 
perceived thot he lived, walked, ate, smiled, talked, ran, and a 
00. They perceived that ptanta grow, flowen bloom, oik. 
jrivers flow. Hence the ^eeesraty of atiother part of apaMtti 
irhoaeoffice it should be to expresi these ezistencM aaime- 
tinna. This second class of words we call 
A Verb is a word which sonifies to bc, to im^ 
or to SUFFER ; as, I am; I rme ; I am rtUed. 

Verbs are of three kinds, active, passive, and 
neuter. They are also divided into regular, irre- 
gular, and defective. 

The term verb is derived firtni the Latin word terbmit, nMc 
■ignifies a word. This part of speech is Called a verb Or nwnf, 
4>«cause it is deemed the must important word in every eentanMt 
and without a verb and nominative, either expressed or rm^lici, 
no eentenco can exist. The noun is the original and loadlng^ 
part of speech ; the verb comes next in order, and is br moM 
^lomplex than the noun. These two are the most uaefut m ^ 
language, and form the basis of the science of grammar. Tbt 
otfa^ eight parts of speech are subnrdiuate to these two, otid, as 
you wiU hereafior leant, of minor importance. 

For all practical purposes, the foregoing definition and dirisioR 
nf die verb, though, perhaps, not philosophically correct, wilt be 
found as cotwtniaU as any other. I adopt them, therefore, to be 
consistent with the principle, that, in arranging the matenala oi 
ihts treatise, I £hMI not alter or reject any established Mt 
aitifw, rule, tr principle of grammar, unless, in my humbta 
indgnMiit, soxia practical adcimtagt to the learner is thor^f 
gained. The following, some consider a good definition. 

A VERS .is a Word which cxprttaei a^irmiiitHt. 

All ncHve verb expresses action ; and 
llie nomtTialwe cage is the actor, or subject of 
the verb ; as, Jokn writes. 

In this examplor which is the mtA t Tou know it is th« ww4 
writtt, because this word signifiea lo dx> ; that i>, it «xpreMM 
odtnt, therefore, according to the definition, it ui<ui culm Hriu 
And you know, too, that ue noun JoAn is the aclor, dwrtfan 
John ia in the noamaine cast to the verb writw. In the •>iw«»> 
■mM, Tiie naan walks— The boj plays— Thundera roll— War* 
Ti4MH« fight — you perceive that the words aailu, piays, rvU, aad 
fight, are ocbive verii ; and you cannot be at a loas to know, 
9 man, boy, ffwnderi, and worrwurs, v» in lb* 

As BO oelton can be produced without some sgent or mtmag 
ctnte, it follows, that every actire verb must have aoma Mior 
or «CMf> His aclor, doer, or proAm*r of tit* aetiou, m Hm 
Mamative. AWinalim, from the Latin nomino, litenlly si^ 
aifies lo name ,■ but in the technical sense in whioh it is used w 
fmaaasao', it msans the noun or proaoun which is the t«tj*et of 
sSMMtioK. This sobjeot or nominative may be ■cftasi jw w ' ai, 
sr i wa fcr, as faeroafler exempUfied. 

A neuter verb expresses neither action nor pas- 
mtUt but bemg, or a slate of being ; as, Johi mt. 

-Nwsi, in tMs eiample, JoAn ia not represented as on oetoy 
tal,«adHt«inelofd>e verbMti, ^refore John is in tbeaoan ' 
•aMse CM* to the verb. And you know llut the word Mb iloea 

raiLOBOFHicAL Moras. 

> nuj be ndnmietd, tor rejectiag nadir tod PMslvs 

{ tut th^ twve been found to be w conTenient in |>raCtiG«, VM the 

ttSMy whklk recogniMi them, hie etood the test of agei. If jm tall tha 
Msut hman, tlmt, in Iha fnUownuE eipresiiona, Tb« cborch Mtfi on ■!■ 
ruaiiiblinn ; The book Itu on Uie deik ; The boye nnuin (art) iii% thf 
•waM titrth, hook, and iov$, are repreient«d ad actins, and, thercbre, tits 
nrks mil. Hti, rtmofn, and on, ant tctive, be will not baliera voa, bseuwR 
llian u no seliaa tlMt ii apparent to his isDflea. And shatila von pniceMi 
fa«tW.aad,bj abUMonxlaDd melaphjaical inves'Li^lioD anddaretopment 
of tbsuw* of motion, Bttempt to prove to bini that "evei^portioD ofmaltac 
If iaBasocad by diSercnt, aotive |»ii>ciplea, tending to prodnea cbann," 
»b4 tlkanfbnk eier; Ihinff in nnivenal nalnrG is aheqw acting, it ii uK «* 
*ifM>b«Ue.tU7ou ooold cooiince his loulcrttBnifiic, in opfualioD to US 
tlaaiw taatucooir of tiis eeniea. Of wbat avail to leamet* i* ■ 1kO<T 
riiicli ibej oannot compnbmid 1 

AiKHig the vaiioiu theoriele and •pacnlative mitem on ^'°*°?*™ 
r, the iogeniou» Home Tooke Btanda preeminent i «^ "^iUJt 

not expresa apparent aelion, but a condition ofbei»g ; that ifl, il 
represents John in a. particular gtale of txutenee ; therefore titi ia 
a Heater terb. la speaking of the nsuter fender of nouns, I in 
^rmed you, that neuter means neither ; m>m which it follows, 
Jtatiteutcr gender implies neither gender; thatia, neithermu- 
euline nor feminine. Hence, bj an easy transition of ftongkt, 
yoa learn, that neuter, v/ben applied to Terbs, means ueitber of 
Ae other two classes ; that is, a neuUr verb is one \riiich is nei- 
flier active nor paasire. In these examples, The man staads— 
The lady Hvea — The child sleeps — The world suits — the words- 
■ta*d*, Uvet, sleeps, and exuls, ore neuter vtrbg ; and the nouns, 
MMti, lady, child, iumI world, are all in the nominalive etme, he- 
CMise each is the street of a verb. Thus you perceive, that 
when a noun is in the nominative case to an active verb, it ia tha 
aelor ; and when it is nominabve lo a neuter yeib, it is md u. 
actor, but the subject of the verb. 

Some neuter verbs express being in general ; as, Tfae naa 
u ; Kingdoms exist. Others express being in smne paHioilar 
slaU ; as. The man stands, sits, lies, or kangr. 

I will now give you two signs, which will enable you lo dii- 
tiDguish the verb from other parts of speech, when you vawiot 
tell it by its signiticalion. Any word that will make soaM witk 
'« before it, is a verb. Thus, to nm, to write, to smile, to sing, 
*o hear, to ponder, to live, to breathe, are verba. Or, any word 
Jkat will conjugate, is a verb. Thus, I nin, thou runnest, he 
TOM ; I write, thou writeat, be writes ; I simle, &c. But the 
words, boy, lady, child, and world, will not mi^e BMise withl*' 
prefixed — to boy, lo lady, to world, ia nonsense. Neither mil 

togical field, b; taking a boUet stand than any of hie predeceasara. Hti 
view of the verb ib novol, and ingenioiuily supported. The following i* tb« 

aubatance of his theory 

A. VBRB ia a word which expresses action ; aa, Man txiaU ; 
iflow; Mountains «fatui; lorn. 
ii have one r^jecl or more than one, eipMaaad or 
dj; that ifl, 'A heepi itittf \n an erect or stBrMnnr 
rla<iu ilK(f in tiiat pouUon. They are; \.e. they 
tair; they Inipirfl, vM^, oi i^fiombenwelras bjr 

sets Bie aeldom expressed, alwaje have ■ p«nond 
[lie doudg ■iwve,- i. e. move lAcnuelBM along. Tha- 
iles a day ; L e. marched themstltes. The noi^ 
M or lAfib a lAiniDf, aheea, bulre, or h^kbUM- 
otdAts a. fii^hl. Talkots talk or Bpeak iwnh or 
^> otwaikj; The run rains nrfn,' Sittars ait at 

no Huch thine aa a nanter verb, the tt^^nngaft 
argllnients nooiiced. 

Ibey «oigugah-~l My, thou Jidic3t,&c. ia wane tb«n MOMtnw. 
Hence you perceive, IbaC these words kto not Torba. There ar* 
Mme exceptions to these rules, for verbs are sometimei wed u 
BtMmk This will be explained by und by. 

To rerbs helougnumlier,person,mood,and tense. 

At present I shall speak only of the nuinber and person of 
Verbs ; but hereafter I will give you a. full explanation of all tbttr 
properties. And permit me to infann you, that I ihall sot Wad 
you into the iiUricaeitg of the science, until, by gradual and Mf 

progrMtiens, you are enabled to comprehend the prutcipha in* 
lived in them. Only such prinuples will be elucidaled, aj roN 
e prepared to understand at the time they are unfolded bafofe 

jou. You must not be too anxious to get along n^Mdiy { bvt 
endeavour to become thoroughly acquainted with one piincqtfe^ 
before you undertake another. This lecture wilt qualiQr you for 
the next. 

NuMBEa AifD PERSON OF VERBS. Vou recollecl, thai tbi 
nombatlTe is the actor or lul^cct, and the active verb is the me- 
Hon performed by the nominative. By this you perceive, that « 
very intimate connexion or relation exists between the t^fmin 
tive case and die verb. If, therefore, only en* creature or tfaiiit 
■cU, only DM BDtiaa, at the same instant, can be done } u, Tit* 
girt writn. The nominative girl ia here of the tingular nvn- 
ber, because k signifies but one person ; and the verb vtrU— -i*- 
oDtea but one aetion, which the girl performs ; ihMefore the verb 
tttrilu is of the nng\dar number, agreeing with ita Dominarir* 
girL Whw the nominative ca«e is •fcira^ the verb iWHtbe 
jlitinil M, girUwrite. Take notice, the fingu^ verb endend 

I. Ke pettien of mailer ii erar in a slate of pariect i^ 
ffimffUTi' Mita of erec; thing an al all lio-'- " '-"— 
•otiM prinatplai, tending to pmlace change.* 
kHu ar Ibing oan be reDTBtenlad in a HMlar a 

with tb* priaMTT Wwa of acUnn, 
Mienaa. The cofTeetnaas of ttii 

[goSBH nppetn uiDiaHauBi uivcani VI HH wit ID m ^mnmtmm 
prisMTT Wwa of actinn, aa unfiililed bjr the pnadriaa of ahyMcal 
The cofTeetnaas of ttia poailion may be donblM ; hat If tt ana 
' demonatrateil, that areiy particle sf mattar ia alwaja in nalii^ 
1^ bj any means, follow, tbat wecanaali;fMfcy thtngainaaUla 

IDsraieo, uai erar; paraciD bi nwusr n aimji ui naiM^ 
it daaaiN^bjanv means, follow, tbat we canaal i;fMfc ^ thing* in a aUla 
d quieacence. Whatis/abeinfact maybecnruluignnma)'. ntMM 
MMi^ i> M< mbtier IMnxi olinyl aot, M wAitiar, vAaa tw aMH <r V^ 
fan MNUtMif t iitfi c l kif IkM, tat olmyi rcpieawt Ihim u ocNnf, 

i. Vaiba ware nr^iMl^ naed to exgreaa the motinna ot di&gea af ttofa 
whidiproducedobvHiiia action^ andjbjaneasytnuiaiCkin.irareBfiaawaMa 
anriiad, in the aaow wajr, to things whoas acliona traia not appaiaat 

tW aaannintion ie imtaMBble, and altogether giMoitona. 

S. VatbacaUednsutaTanDeBdinthBinipeiiatiTemoad; avi, aatUi maod 
MMBaaa^ aome one to d> eomathing, any i«rb wlaofa adopu ii,^<M ha ■»> 
lira^ Tfcia, in the Eominon place pfirBan"B«lhs™ q">™'7' *"■ "^ a* 

-^ -,•■ - btlarUt fanhiiT ■> 

46 KTrH»Luar ind syhtax. 

but Um noun ia gentsrally pluroJ when it Bodt ia « { thua, Tb* 
.girl vritti — thegrtrb write. 

Pcrwn, strictly speaking, is a quality that belenga n«l to wrba, 
but to nouns and pronouas. We saj, bowever, ihnt the verb 
must agree with its nominative in -person, aa well as in number ; 
ibal is, the veit must be spelled and spoken in such a manner as 
lo correspond with the first., stcond, or third person of die noun 
or pronoun which is its nominative. 

I will now show you how Ihc verb ia Taried in order tb agrea 
with its nominative in number and person. !, Thuu, He, She 
It ; We, Ye or Tou, They, are personal pronouns. I is of th( 
first person, and singular number ; l^nt is secoiid per. *ing. ; 
fft, Skt, or Il,ia third per. sing, ; We is first per. phral ; Year 
Yoti ia second per. plural ; They is third per. ptia-id. Thes6 
pronouns are the representatives of nouns, and perform the same 
office that the nouns would for which tbey stand. When placed 
before the verb, they are, therefore, the nonrnMUees to the verb. 

Notice, particulady, the diSerent variauona oi endings of iIh 
r«b, as it ia tiius conjugated in the 

Indicative Mood, Present Tense. 
Singuivr. PUtral. 

1. Per. I walk, 1.- Per. We Walk, 

S. Par. Thou walkuf, 2. Ptr. Ve or jou walk, 

3. Per. He walkf, or\ 3. Vtr. They walk, or \ 
the boy wtdlu, > the boys walk. J 

or walkefA. } 

nita display of the verb ^owa 3'Du, that whenever it ends iti 
(*/, it ia of the stcimd person sva^Uar ; but when the verb etidi 

It ii adniitted lint these veitn ue here emfHayei ia ui ueUet noM ; bot 
it iKMrtun, thai tiiey are not UMd according to loor proper, HUrat mf aif 
Wh»alldiwmiia,iUtraUy,to$t<md,3a,orlie,bjmnbahevaiM dinbn 
me 1 iHit when I uj, " Stmd out of mj vray ," I empfoy the nenlcr nA 
mmt, iaMMd of the active verb irunw or fD, uu) in a coireepondsat Hnw. 
)i]rnMH<»gia,.M»iyatuBeiroutorin]rwa7; orlokf jourifBiJKHiMwbwM 
eiM. Hiia, however, does not prove that atand ia properl;^ uaed. If wv 
c fcaoee to overai^ the bonnda of cuatom, we can employ any wurrf ia ^ 
langnase aa on active-tiaiiBdve veifi. Be, (if, and lit, may be eiiriajnad in 

I adverbt wbtch eiprees tta 
manner of oMm. They nmat, tberefbra, be conaidered scttre veibe, Tim 
(Aild ib^ lotmdis,' He 10$ gtnttdi^; They iitic («it«it<iS|F and ha^fllm 

The dui of verbs that are never employed aa nclive, ia imalt. By ii«if» y 
adv^M inconnezianwitliTerbB, we can fiirlyprovs that some verba uieiMt 
aatire. It ii incorrect to say, I am ^jip% ; iTie; were peoc^JUijr ; She re- 
nnnu fMuUy ,- The fitdds appear grtiMg. These verba in ibair comnun 
•cceptation, do not express oijuift; &ir whidi reaaon we tay, I am AoMTi 
Tbey vieie ftaeefid : kv. Bu* in the oTTireairioni, The chili) sleopi iww^t 


■ «, or tth, it ia of the third peraso singular. fValtulf. rijml 
itanduf, are of the Bocand person eingular ; and walh or waBt- 
tth, ridtm or ridtth, ttcmdi or ilmtdeth, ore of the Hard penon 

I have told you, that when the nominative ia singular nnmtMrt 
the verb must he ; n^n the nominative is plural, Uie verb mual 
be; and when th<9 nominatiYe is Srst, second, or tturd person, 
die verb inust be of the same person. If you look again at the 
-foregoing conjogation of walk, you will notice that the verb v»> 
rim its endings in the smgviar, in order to agree infom with dK 
first, sec<Hid, and third person of its nominative ; but in the jifo- 
rtU it does not vary its endings from the first person singular. 
"He verb, however, agrees in aente with its aominative m the 
{Jural, as well as in the singular. Exercise a little mind, and 
you' wis perceive diat agrKemtal and govtmmaU in language do 
not consist merely in the /orm of words. Now, is it not clenr, thai 
when I say, I walk, the verb walk is nngviar, because it ex- 
presses but <mt action? And when I say. Two men inolfc, is it 
not equally ^parent, that walk is plural, because it expresses 
two actions? In tiie sentence, Ten men walk, the verb icoU 
denotes ttn actions, for there are ten actors. Common sense 
teaches you, that tfiere must be as' mam* actions as there are 
netora; and that the verb, when it has no form or ending to show 
H, isas strictly plural, as when it haa. So, in the phrase, Wit 
mlk, the verb walk is_^r»( person, because it expresses the ac- 
tions performed by the speakers : Ye or you walk, the rerh \» 
seeond person, denoting the actions of the persona spokm to , 
tUrd penion, Th^ walk. The verb, then, when correctly written, 

k principles, it tan bo proved that those verba gonanllv 
nated nentw, eripKcUg eifnuei acbMi^ their oreMnt, accsplM 
jg vUl Mill impem JJw UlMr;, fot Uie gwiBWi l tl j ot loaokiod *»■«« 
■ttaoh to them the idea of ar-iuKi. • 

ThuB I have endeavoured to present ■ bnef but impartial abstract of th« 
MiKtem theory if the verb, leaving it wilh the reader lo eitimalo it according 
to its Table, 

To me a aatisTaBtoi; definition ol the verb, or such a one aa ahall be finmd 
adentiRcBl^ correct and iincxceptionable. haahttberto baffled the ak HI, and 
transcended the learning, of our philosophical vmtera. If ita esaenlial qua- 
IHt, aa IB trcnerallv aappoaed, is niinle to conaiat in exprtasing ^^rmaUai, n 
re^aJattol>^deA^icAmaTed>a7r«.»>affim»tion. tn Et>|^ 
WO& b olber langoagea, woidk appiopnatod to expreas affinnation, an often 
iMod witbootanjau^ftnce; out idea of affirmation, in such iostuicM, bo- 
nir the mere (nftrmee ^culem. 

In the aeatence, — " TTHivt, Uve, and Sol*, denote moral actiona, ma wortM 
■|Ui<*,Joi«, and *•!(, are »> ma, became they are mere »«« of aetiona. S<^ 
irten I «^y. " John, miu ---^ i. «> megulai v«b." the word wn(. » • 

H ETTMOLoer uvB irntAx. 

■Imji ftgresB, id tmtt, wldi iti nooiuiatitfe in numW aAil 

At present 70U are learning two parts of speech, netdiM' 61 
which can be understood wiliiout a ItDowledge o( the other. It 
fltereioTe becomes necessary to eiplain them both in the Mntft 
lecture. You have been already inrormed, that nouns have thre» 
eaJiM ; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective. 

Possessive Case. Thepostemve com denotai 
tlie possessor of something ; aSi This is Johft 

lliia BxpressioQ implies, that John is the oinxr or jmmumt 
of the horse ; and, ihat horse is the ptvperty which he posaeMoa. 

When [ say. These sre the nun'*, and those, the boj/^ hat«, 
the two words, " boys' hats," plainly convey the idea, if tbe/ 
have any meaning at ajl, that the boys own or paiseat the hats. 
<* Samuel Badger sells hoy^ hats." Who own* the hats ? Mr. 
Badger. How is that fact ascertained 1 Tfot by the wnds. 
"boys* hats," which, taken by themselves, imply, not that they are 
Mr. Badger's haXa, northat they are /or boys, but that theyav* 
hats of, or btloj^ng to, or poiaeued ^ boys. But we mfir frooi 
the uiorda conneeitd with the phrase, " boys' hats," that the boyi 
are not yet, as tbe phrase literally denotes, in the actoal j^otsea, 
non of the hats. The possession Is anticipated. 

In the phrases, fine hats, coani hats, high-crotened hata, broad. 
arimmMl liats, tsoolUn, imu, fen, tome, ihete, many hatst thtt 
wwds in italicks, are adjectives, because they restrict, qualifr^ 
or define the term haU ; but the term boyr dons not duertbt 
m limit the meaning ai hatt. Boy^, therefore, is aet, avaooM 
gappoM, an adjoctive. 

" The sletcB'a maatw." Does the slave possess the nuA- 
tor T Tea. The slave kaa a ntaster. If he Aos torn, tHaa, hs 
yai» ww> ham ; — ha suatauu that rdatioB to hkn -wbiA «« «dl 

lien I My, " Johi^ terite your copy," u'rUe itciDad a 

- ''lU word Qonadaied a. dquii ia ona constrecbon, and a rtA 
aen both conitruotioiis, until yon pass tKyonil tha word 
J (like) IT write doei not txpnu w;tion in tkelbrnioi tear 
leaitia the Utter, for, in both, it ii introduced in the nimt 
lentifidi piindples, urile muit ba considered ■ noua in llM 
lor it does not wn-fM utibn, 01 nuke en ■ffiimatian ; butit 
B action whicb I wish John to perfbrm, and aMtnaXMa fi 

le iafinhivB, u well u m the f mperative moo< u divetted 
otvecbalGuce. T" '"*'' thfttt mnfuti, i' i« nltrijt pmiwitel 

' I IBT In ■ lemnt, " Wfni," h« inftn, that I wiA Um It 

XOUHa AND IlKBt.— 1 

A noun in th« poueat>ive cue, ta alwa)'a known by Its har- 
kg an apoBtropbfl, and senenill^ an « aHei it ; draa, Johnfi 
hat I Ihe bo^'a coat. When a plural noun in die poaanaiv]* 
case, enik in i, the apoatropbe is added, but no aadttional a ; 
as, " Boy^ hats ; Eaglet winga." When a aitigatar noun endi 
ui u, the apoatrophe only ia added ; aa, " For goodau^ sake ; 
for righttovtnai^ sake ; except the word witness ; aa, " Tba 
witatst'a teatimony." When a noun iu ihe posseanre caaa 
ends in ence, the a is omitted, but the apostrophe is retained ; 
as, "For coiMctence' sake." 

Nowplcase to turnback, and read over tins and (b» prece- 
iiag lerture three tiroes, and endeavour, not only to under- 
stand, but, also, to rtmember, what you read. In reading, pro- 
med dius : re»] <Hie sentence over nlowly, and then look att 
the book, and repeat it two or three times ever in your mind. 
AAer that, take another sentouce and proceed in the aama 
manner, and ao on through the whole lecture. Do not pre- 
sume to think, that these directions are of no real conaeqnaaee 
Id you ; for, unless you follow them strictly, you need not ex- 
pect to make rapid progress. On the other hand, if you pro* 
ceed according to ray instructions, you will be sure Ut aeqmna 
a practical knowledge of grammar in a abort tinoe. — ^Wlvn yott 
^all have complied with this requiHition, you may commit tba 
following ordtr of parsing a jioim, and the ordtr nf purging a 
verbf and then you will bo prepared to parse or analyze ibe 
fotlowing eicamples. 


Do you recollect the meaning of the word attaiyti* ? If yofk 
do not, I will explain it : and first, I wish you to remombw, 
that analysis is the reverse of aynthesis. Syntktais is Ihe act 
of combining simples so as to form a whole or compound. 

briuK nw wine j but all this is not BuJd. If 1 say, Bring- hhiib viint, tM, ia 
tSftcmaimeT, undentauds, that I wish him to brm^ me wine ; but all that la 
cxprtateA,itlbenameolibenction, and of tta objBct of tho action. Jn fact, 
M miicli ia d'lim by lii/h-ence, ai by actual axpnHtou, ia every ttranch of 
^u^atn for thougli is loo qukife to be wholly tranamitted by word*. 

ff is geuerally ooucudcd, that the termination of our verb., e«, rti, ^ e<t 
and, atao, uf the other parts of speech, were orieuially«par«l« worda of di»- 
tinet meaning ; and that, although ihej have been cnijlrnctcd, sod, by the 
refiuemeol of lanauag^ have been made to coaleacc with tlie word» in con- 
nexion with whicD ih»y arc employed, yc[, in Ibeir present character of •■'■■ 
minationB, they iet»in their r'-"'"'"' ■"""!■■" •— l f""- t„ j._„,. ihaca 

Oiey Dsed it as a verb, they ndded the termination 
(erminatioa added, was a sign that afflrmatim ibrs iotended. TM J*"* 
BTocUdura has beea adopted, aud ininany inaiancoa, is Will P^fT'.^I!?' 
UaffBV- Jln,origtB.1lTafflTeJtoour4rb^intbepr»r'"«»f«*M"«^ 


Thiu, in putting togethw letter* so ns to form eyliables, aylla- 
bl«s ao aa to form words, words so aa to form acntcnces, and 
•Wtences ao as to form a discourse, the process is called syn- 
Ibetick. .btalytu, on the contraiy, is the act of dacomposition ; 
Ibat ia, the act of separating any thing compounded into its 
■impte parts, and thereby exhibiting its elementary principlea, 
E^riDology treats of the analysis of language. To analyze a 
SMitence, va to separate from one another and classify the dif- 
feiMit words of wliich it is compiosed ; and to analyze or pant 
a word, meana to enumerate and describe all its varioua pro- 
jMities, and its grammatical relations with respect to outer 
words in a sentence, and trace it through all ita inflectiona or 
disnges. Perhaps, to you, this will, at first, appear to be of 
Utile importance; but, if you persevere, you will hereafter find 
it of great utility, for parsing will enable you to deloct, and 
correct, crrours in composition. 


The order of parsing a Nouw, is — a noun, aud 
why ? — common, proper, or collective, and why t 
gender, and why? — person, and why ? — number, 
and why? — case, and why? — ^Rule : — decline it. 

The order of parsing a Verb, is — ^a verb, and 
why 1 — active, passive, or neuter, and why ? — ^if 
active — transitive or intransitive, and why? — ^if 
passive — ^how is it formed ? — regular, irregular, 
or defective, and why 1 — mood, and why ? — tense, 
and why? — person and number, and miy? — ^with 
what does it agree ? — Rule : — conjugate it. 

I will now parse two nouns according to the order, and, in 
so doing, by applying the definitions and rules, I shall answer 
ail (hose queatioos given in the order. If you have perfeclif 

WU changsd to en, uid Satllj dropped. A lew ceniunea Bgo, the pliml 
nnabMof oar lerba was denoted bf toe termination <n; thos, they (Mrcn, they 
'otw; but, u tfacflB termiaatjonfl do not supersede the necesflitT of expi^s^ 
ng tba wyul of aflimiatioa, u it tho caee in the Lun and Greek verba, 
tlt^ IwTe been laid uide, as unneceBsary eicreacencea. For the ume 
minn we migbt, without any diapuragenient to the Un£uage, ^spenaa' 
with toe tenniMtiona of out verba in the aingular. 

In aupport of the poailion, that tbeae terminations were once aeparaCt 
wordiV ** c^ "''™ many of them to their origin. To denote tlie remioine 
cmdw of aoma nouna, we aSii cm; an, heirui, initniclrui. JE*t ia a con* 
tawtiMi of the Hebrew nann un(,a female. Of ourverba, the tenninatku 
•ritaa^mitraetion of rfsat, Hh, of daetA, i, of rfw!. We aay, thou, ibat cc 


^omtnithd the order cf paraini^ a noun and verit, fou my pro- 
■ceed with me ; but, recollect, you con Dot parse a verb ta,/iitf, 
until you ahall have had a more complete expltmalion or it. 
Joha'a kaud trembla. 

John'f is a noun, [because it is] the name of a penuTr— 
jtf^Mr, die name of an individuat-— masculine gender, it de- 
notes a male— Aird person, spoken of— singular mimfcnr. it 
iinp lie B 1»t one — and in the possenive cue, it denotoa poa- 
■etsion— it is goremed by the noun " hand," occordiag W 

Huu 12. Anoim orprotunm m the potttttivt com, w fw- 
vtmed b^ the Mun ilpoweMM. 

Declined— Sing. nom. John, poaa. John's, obj. Joho. Phl- 
ml — Hem. Johns, poss. Johns', obj. Johns. 

BmA ia a noun, the name of a thing — commen, the nnaa 
of a sort or species of 4ingB — neuter gender, it denetea a thing 
vidiout sex— d)ird person, spoken of — sing, nomher, it ini|liss 
but one — and in the nominative case, it is the actor and aiAijeM 
of die verb " trembles," and governs it agreeably to 

Rdlk 3. The nominairee com govtmt tht vtrb : — that ia, 
An nominativB determines the number and person «f the mb. 

Declined — Sing. nom. hand, poss. band's, obj. band. Pluf. 
(M>n>. hands, poss. hands*, obj. bands. 

TrmMtt is a verb, a woid which signifies to do — active, it 
eifiresses action— third person, Bingular number, because dM 
aominative " band" is with which it a^ees, according to 

fioLC 4. 3%« tatii mut 9gr»e mtk iU nominative m mini- 
b«r and pertor,. 

Yon must not say that the verb b of the third person be- 
cause U M »poken of. The verb is never spoken of; but i( ■■ 
of the third person, and singular or plura) number, because its 

Conju^ted — First pare. sing. 1 tremble, 2 pera. thou twra- 
blest, 3 pers. he trembles, or, the hand trembles. Plural, 1 
pers. we tremble, 2 pers. ye or you tremble, 3 pers. they or 
the hands tremble. 

iaal lova ; or thou lov«il ; i. •. iara-Jat, ot love-ieat. Soma beliere tkase 
UiraiiM.tioaB to be contrutiooa oT hacat, havctk, luu. We affix ed, a con- 
tnctiaa ofibJa, to tba pteacnt tenaeoTreitw to denote ibat tlu action dm*- 
•d, it, dull, ikd, doed, or Avu. 

Tt awl do, fnin llis Qotbick noun Utui,«gni{y'mgact or tffict, an.aoi*^ 
^Dg to Home Tooka, neari j alike b meaning <iiit' ToKC ; and whan tho eus. 
- »n of affixing aoine mora ancient veibaliiinB adjunct, began to ba droppad. 

a {dace and meaning were generally stip^ed by preKiias one ot th«te. 

rn.,_ . — ... ig jii watt," the verbal or afnrmat' — •"""" '* —-"-—- 

inins the samo hb do; and Mali: 

going Id watt," the verbal or afnrmat ivc fotce ia convar- 

61 BTiMOLOar and ■tktak. 

Govemmeat, in Utnguage, consists in the pow- 
er which one word has over another, in causmg 
that other word to be in some particvlar eoMt 
tmmber, person, mood, or tense. 


Sotk S. Th« a«mmafiee cote govmu (A« Mri. 

If joa omplojF ibe pronoun /, ■i^adi is of tbo Jirttjmtwon, 
iuagakt nnmber, m» the nonunatiTe lo ■ vofo, tnt Tan dmmI 
ha of tba fint pers. nng. ttuu, I nml« ; and wbon jcnr DonuB*' 
tire i* tMomi pen. aiog. your verb mtut be ; u, tbou nuilMl 
Whj, in the latter nutance, doe* the ending of the T«rb ohaog* 
lo at r Because the nominative changet. And if your noim- 
rntire ia (IwrtI perMin, the verb will rwy again ; &as, ba aniilq^ 
Hm nun smile*. How ctoar it t% tben, HiMi Uu MMiMtfiM 
goftenu ihe verb ; that is, Uie smninatiTe has power to ehaofa 
ibtfirm and mcaMRg- of the verb, in rospoct to num. and pet- 
•wi. Goremnient,' thus ^, is evinced in the firm of Ihq 
words, as well as in the sense. 

Ror.B 4. TTieverbmHtt ngrc* wtf&ff* nonniMtftM IJ»INM 
ftn- one) p«rA»t. > 

It is improper to say, thou luar, the men ktari. yfbf im- 
proper 1 Because htor is ^>( pers. and the nooHnsttre thorn 
IS second pers. heart is singnlar, and die nom. mm is pkmL 
Rule 4th sajB, TTtt v«r4 nuitl agree urilh He nommalMc. "nm 
eTpressiims should, tiierefore, be, thou heareat, the mMt Asor^ 
and then the verb would agree with its nominatives. Bat tehg 
must die verb agree with its ncMninative 1 Why moat we aari 
thou lalkc*(, ihe man taUu, men laik T Because dia genius at 
our language, and the common consent of those who speak it, 
rtqvirt such a construction : and tfaia reqvieilion aotounts to a 
law or rnit. This rvle, then, is founded in tht natur* of&M^i, 
and sanctioned by good luage. 

Rvle 19, Ji noun orproaoim in the patMttive cose, M go- 
vimed by Ike noun tB/iich il poasaati. 

It is correct to say, The tnan eats, ht cats ; but we cannot 
say. The man dog eats, he Ao% eats. Why not 1 Because Iba 

u a veibal nanip ; thnt in, I BS*ert that 1 ihall do the *el which I nuna bj 
the wordudfc, or the act of tcoUing. 

Perhaps Riich siieculationa u theaft irill prore to ba mors curioua thaa 
profHable. If it ba niaitc dearly to appear, that, on adentifick pnDcif^^ 
whenever the verbal name is unaccompanied bj a vcrbalinnfc adjunct, it i* 
m the mnm-itotf, and doeii not cjcpreni afiirmation, Hill this iliMtr; woalS 
be wory inp~ nenient in practica. 

I «ha1 T'.jumo this auhject m Let-ture XI. 

• t^"',gk 

JOKt u ii«e npreKnted >a the pont$ior, and dog, tba prvftrtif, 
or Iking foMtetitd; and the genius of our langiuge requiraa, 
th&t when we add to the possessor, the lAin^ which he is re- 
presented as poBsessing, the possessor shall take a pwticnlK: 
form to show its cius, or relalion to the proptrtif ; Omw, T^m 
tnan'i dog eats, kit dog eats. You perceive, then, that ths 
added noun, denoting the thing possessed, has power la cfciy 
At farm of the noun or pronoun denoting the posseMor, me- 
coiding to Rule 13. thus, by adding dog, in the precMlingw^ 
amples, man is changed to motft, and A«,to hi*. 

Now parse the asntence which I have parsed, ttntU dw tam^ 
Iter is quite iamiUar to you ; and then you wilt he prepusd ta 
analyze correctly and ByatemaUcaUy, the following MMcitei. 
When you parse, you may spread the CoiDpendiuin befoi* 
you; and, if you have not already committed the dsMtiaw 
and rules, you may read them on that, as you afply dwm. 
This mode of procedure will enable you to learn att the defini- 
tions and rules by applying them to practice. 


Rain descends — Rains descend — Snow falls — Snows Alt— 
Thunder rolls — Thunders roll — Man's works decay — Han'fl 
labours coase — John's dog barks — Eliza's voice tremble*— 
Julia's sister's child improves — Peter's cousin's horse limpf . 

In the next place, I will parse a noun and a netiUr verb, 
wtuch verb, you wilt notice, difiers fhnn an active only in eott 

" Birds repoie on the bnmcbes of trees." 

Bird* is a noun, ibe name of a thing or creature— common 
die name of a genua or class — mesculine and feramine gan- 
der, it denotes both males and females — third person, mmub 
of— plural number, it implies more thui one-— end in tiie n*' 
Meiative oose, it is the ntijeet of the verb " repoM,^' and go- 
verns it according to Rule 3. 7%e wm. etue govnu HW 
verb. Declined — Sing. nom. bird, poes. bird's, obj. faM. 
Plur^i nom. birds, poss. birds', obj. birds. 

Sepon is a verb, a word that si^iifies to bt — ttetrter, it ex*' 
pfAsee nei^r action nor passion, but a state of hning lliitf 
person, plural numb», because the nominative <• bmU" te 
wMh vrtiicAi it agrees, agtveably to Rtn-K 4. TV vm4 mmt 
mgru -Mlh if) hmmMeImw in number and ptrtom. ' 

Deelibe^— 1. pers. sing. I repose, 2. pers. thou i^po seety 
St pers. be r^oses, or the bird repoees. Phs; 1 - p*w . w» 
repoM, 2." pers. ye or you repose, S. pers. tfceyrepoee, «rf 
Wds repose. ' 

M iTTMOLoer aicc irKTiz. 

Nou ptarso those nouns and neuter verbs ibat an iatm 
gtfidisi] by itaHela, ia tlie following 


The book l(u on the desk — The cloak kangi on the wall— 
Maifg dayt are few — Catkmor's toarriourt altrp ia death — 
ClmlJu rtpo9u in the nanow house— Jocund day ilandt tiptoe 
on the misty mountain tops. - The sunbeams rtsl OD the gnw 
wbere ber btMily aie^t. 

You may pai'se these and the preceding exeroisea, and all 
th*t follow.^c or MX limta over, if you please. 

The objeclkie case expresses the object of an 
aotioa or of a relation. It generally follows a 
transitive verb, a particifde, or a preposition. 

A noun is in the objective case when it ia the o^tct of som^- 
Uiing. At present I shall explain this case only as the object 
of an actum ; but vi^beu we shall have advanced as for as to tho 
preposition, I will also illustrate it as the object of a. relation. 

An active verb is transitive when the action 
passes over from the subject or nominativa to an 
object ; as, Richard strikes John. 

TriMMfnie means parting. In this sentence the action o| 
the verb tlriket is transitive, because it patiu aatt from tb« 
nominative Richard to Hk object John ; and you know that the 
oouD Jdui is in the ohjeisiive case, because it is lAc o6,/acJ of A* 
ocMen expressed by the active-transitive verb strikes. Thta 
matter is very plain. For example '. Gallileo invea ed (he tsl- 
eaoop*. Now it is evident, that Galileo did not exeit hia pow- 
arK^iavenlion, without some object in view. In order loa^ 
•atain that object, put the question, Gallileo mvented wlwtl 
^Am talfwcope. TeUacope, then, ie the real <^ect of the ««• 
lion, denoted by the transitive verb invented ; and, tbniafi>re> 
t o iaasope ia in the objective case. If 1 say, The bono Uekt 
tbe ••rvsnt — Carpentera h^ld houses — Ossian uw«f« poem*-.* 
Golmfew dwooMred America — you readily perceive, Uiat the 
Wtba Uekt, hviid, ttnrf«, and di»coo*rtd, express traaaitive »a- 
tions; and tou cannot be at a loss to tall which nnflmt nrw in ikf 
' oliMtira case :— they are aenaat, houtu, poema, and dnmtia. 
Tbe-netUBiative and abjective cases of nouns are {[eIwn^y 
iMOm bj the fallowing rule : th* noninativa dest MmalUMfvj 
tk« objactiva hat aomtthing done to it. The nomiaatiw gmt^ 


imlty comes before the verb; and tb« objective, mfitr it. WImb 
I saj, George struck the eervaot, Gtorgt is in the nominative, 
■nd Berraat is in the objective case ; but, wbeo I aay, The mi^ 
vant struck Geot|^, aervimi ia in the nonunatira case, aad 
Crtorge ia in the objective. Thus you percoiTO, that Cms 
means the ilifierent state or situation of nouns with ngard to 
odier words. 

It is sometime* very difficult to tell the case of a nova. I 
flhall, therefore, take up this subject again, when I c<mw to ghw 
^n an explanation of the participle and pr^Msitioti. 

Besides the three cases already explained, itouna aiv MflM* 
times iii die nominative case indepmdaU, sometimes in tht 
nominative cose absolute, sometimes in apposition in tke mmm 
etise, and sometimes in the nominative or objective awe lAw 
die neuter verb to be, tx aAer an active-JntransitivB or immm. 
verb. Those cases ate illustrated in Lecture X. and in the II 
and 23 Rules of Syntax. 


An active verb is irw^itioe, when the actiiHi 
tenninates on an object : but 

An acdve verb is mtransiHve, when the actkn 
does not terminate on an object ; as, Jolm uMitfc*. 

You perceive that the verb teaUtt, in this example, ia w- 
IriauiUve, because the action does not pass over to on (>bi«ot | 
that ia, the action is confined to the a^nt John. Tbe follow* 
ing ng* will ^enerallj^ enable you to distinguish a fa tan i li a a 
verb ficnn an Mfmnntte*. Any verb that will make senaa wiA 
tbe words a thing, or a jMrson, after it, is fFWuiftoc. Iiy tlta«|i 
veibs by the sign, feec, hdf, conquer, rtaeb, aMmt, v n r c ama± 
Thus, you can say, I love *p»r*on or OUng — I can help «jMr> 
son or iU»g — and so on. Hence you know that tbaae veaba 
ore transitive. But an intransitive verb will not make ■snwi 
with this sign, which fact will be shown bv the following «x* 
aniples : miie, go, eome, play, bark, tvatk, jiy. We caaaot 
say, if we mean to spoak English, I rande a person or thiag — I 
go a parton or thing : — hence you perceive that these verba aiw 
not transitive, but inti'ansitive. 

If you reflect upon these exan^les for a few jaamms^ T^ 
win have a clear conception of the ttatinre of transitive and in- 
transitive verbs. Before I close tlus subject, however, it m 
necessary Arthcr to remark, that some transitive w^. '"•'WMi- 
tiveTWba express iriMt is called a ««<i*il or ■ww^"*"' "■* 
vAers, a eorportal or pkytieal aetioB. VRtn < 


different aRections or operatiooa of the mind, denot* morct kt 
tions ; as, Brutus Untd his coiuitry ; Jamea hattt vice ; Wi> 
MietM the tale : — to r»peni, to rtlent, to (AtnJt, to rcjl«cf, to 
Mourii, to *Hin. Those expressing the actions produced by 
matter, denote physical actions ; as, The dog htar* the b^ i 
Vii^l wrote the ^nead ; Columbus dUcomred America t— ~tO 
itt, to fetl, to tiutt, to tmell, to run, to talk, to Jly, to stWfcek 
In the senteiwe, Charles rannbiM his falhar, tbe verb TtMtJiMet 
does not appear to express any action at all ; yet the construe- 
tion of the sentence, and the office which the verb porformSf 
are such, that we are obliged to parse it aa an acHve-traniilive 
verb, governing the noun father in the ubjeclive case. This 
you laay easily reconcile in your mind, by reflecting, that tba 
verb has a direct rtfermee to its abject. The following verba 
ace «f this character : Havt, ovm, relam ; as, I hoot a book. 

Active HttrBneitive verba are frequently made Irantitive. 
When I say, The birds jly, the verb jly, is mtranaitive ; but 
when I say. The boyjli** the kito, the verb^if is Irantiliee, and 
governs (he noun kite in the objective case. Almost Euiy ac- 
tive intransitive verb, and sometimes even neuter verbs, aro 
used as transitive. The berse naUet rapidly ; Tbe boy mn* 
amflly ; My friend livet well ; The man (tied of a fevor. In 
bU these examples the verbs aro intransitive ; in the following 
Aey are U^anattivt : The man teaikt his horse ; The boy ran 

race ; My friend Iiio n holy life ; Let m« dit the death ol 
Am righteous. 

m^ foregoing development of the character of verbs, is 
deemed sufficiently critical for practical purposes ; but if wo 
dip a IHtle deeper into the verbal fountain, we shall ifiscover 
qualities which do not appear ou its surface. If we throw aside 
the veil vriiich art has dfewn over the real structure of speech, 
we shaU fiud, that almost every verb has either a ptrtoiial or a 
wrM object, expressed or implied. Verbal objects; which are 
the effteit or prodiietioni resulting fVom the actions, being iw- 
casearily implied, are seldom expreteod. 

He fire burnt. If the fire bums, it must bum tvood, tool, 
MMaw, or some other combustible substance. The man loHglu. 
Ijua^wbatf haa^s knigkUr or laagh. Theyicoffc; Aatis, 
They wnlk or take imU». Rivers flow (move or roll tKtnutbn*^ 
or fteir teolers) into the ocean. 

" I ling th^shady region* of the west." 

" And tmile the wriiMts from the brow of age." 

rhe ^uld wtpt iUtlf sick ; and then, by faking (or liiujii'ng,' 
"o wiUioon' 

Aort *mp, it tiept it»df quiet and well again. 

MQUNa AND TERM. — MRUNfl. »?' 

tUtp bM «nriBstiDg Aeep f that is, ■< Ha will tlee}i Iha flty of 

Thinkers think fAmtip&fs ; Talkers talk ot employ wtrdt, kdk, 
u tpttckea ; The rain rains ruin. " Upon Sodom and Gomor- 
rah the Lord rained Jire and brmulone," " I murt go the wfadU 
U»^li." 1 shall soon go the woj of all the uarth." 

Now please to turn bacb again, and peruse this lecttne xt- 
tenlively ; after which you may parse, systematically, dw f<d. 
lowmg exorcises containing nouns in the three cases, and act- 
iro-lransitire verbs. 

The printer printi books. 

Print* is a verb, a word that signifieB to do — active, it ex- 
presses action — transitive, the action passes over fron Um 
nMMflalive " printer" to the object " books'* — third pers. sing. 
numb, because the nominative printer is with which it agrees. 
Bulb 4. The verb mv»t agrtt u>ith iU nomnaiive coat Jn mon 
otr and ptrton. 

Declined— 1. pers. sing. I printi 3- pera. thou printest, 3. 
pars, he prints, or the printer prints, and so on. 

Book* is a noun, the name of a ttung — common, the naina 
•f a sort of things, oeut. gend. it denotes a thing without tei 
^>tbird pers. spoken of — plur. num. it implies more than our 
— aad in the objective case, it is the object of the action, ex- 
pressed by the active- transitive verb " prints," and is govemiMl 
rf it according to 

RULB 20. JicHee-tramilive verbt govern the ohjeeih* ease. 

The Doun 6ooitt is thus declined — Sing. nom. book, fom. 
book's, obj. book — Plur. nom. books, poss. books', obj. bo<Aa. 

Rdlb 20. Transitive verbs govern the objective case ; ibaf 
ia, they r*qtiiVe the noun or pronoun following them to be ia 
that case ; and this requisition is govemmcat. Pronouns hare 
n particulitr/^rm to suit each case ; but nouns have not. We 
cannot say, She struck ke ; I gave the book to the^. Why 
nott Because the genius of our language requires the pro- 
noun following a transitive verb or preposition (to is a preposi- 
tion) to assume that form which we call the ol^eelhe form or 
case. Accordingly, the construction should be, Siie Btnick 
him; I gave the book to them. — Read, again, the itiustnttien 
of " government" on page 82. 

JVbm. COM. Trmu. verb. Pom, com. 06;. com. 

JuliuB prints children's prim««. 

Harriet makes ladies' booneta. 

The servant beats the man's horse. 



The home 
Tbe boy 
Tka child 
Tbe tempest 
Tbe gale 


Com. eaie. 
the eervant's 



Obj. •att. 

that man's child, 

those hoya' hall. 

those merchants' vessels. 
the mountain's brow. 
Homer's Illiad. 

Milo'a release. 

Darius' army, 

the enemy's fleet 

his country's freedom. 

Not* 1. TIm wordi Uc, Oiat, Oumi, and Ui, jau need not pane. 

S. A Doun in the piuseesive case, is sometimes covemed bj * noun un- 
dcntood ; ■*, Julia's lesBoa ia longer iban John's [leBBon.] 

As you have been analyzing nouns in their three cases, it be- 
comes necessary to present, in the next place, the declecsion 
of nouns, for yeu must decline every noun you parse. DecUit' 
$u>» treans putting a noun through the different caseu : and yoa 
will notice, that the possessive case varies from the nominativ* 
m its termination, or ending, but the olgectivt case ends like the 
nominative. The nominative and objective cases of nouna, 
must, therefore, be aBcertained by their situation in a scntancv^ 
or by considering the office lliey perform, 



JVttni. king kings ^om, man mea 

Pan. kin^s kings' Pom. man's men's. ' 

Obj, king. kings. (Hj. man. men. 

Now, if you have parsed every word in the preceding exam- 
pies, (except llu, thai, lho»e, and hi»,) you may proceed with me, 
and parse the examples in the following exercises, in which An 
liresented nouns and active-intransitivo verbs. 
"Myjiocfc increatet yearly." 
Flock is a noun, a name denoting animals — a noun of multi- 
tude, it signifies many in one collective body — masculine and 
leminiae gender, denoting both sexes — third person, spoken of 
— Rii^lar number, it denotes but one fluck — and in the nonu< 
native case, it is the tictive agent of the verb "increases," and 
piverns it, according to Rule 3. The nomnalwe aut governi 
thtvtrb. (Dechno it.) 

Increiuei is a verb, a word that signifies to do — aclivQ, it oj- 
presses action — intransitive, the action does not pass over to tin 
flhJBPt— .flf the third person, singulsr number, becatiae its-noiDi 


Mtn& " fiock" coDveye uuily of idea ; and it agiew wilb 
" flock " agreeably to 

Rdlb 10. •A noun offituUihtde conveying unity o/ideo, mittl 
Aavc a veri or pronoun agreeing with it in th* eitigular. 
" The divided miUUtudt haBtily dispu-ae." 

MuUilude is a noun, a naiao that dcnolee pcTBOna — a. coiioe- 
6n noun, or noun of multitude, it signifies many — maaedin* 
and fominine gender, it impliea both sexes — third peraon, epo- 
ken of — aingujur number, it repreaents but oqe multitude, <n 
cotlectiTe body ; (but in another sense, it is plural, as it con- 
veja plurality of idea, and, otao, implies Liore indtvidiiatt thaa 
one ;} — and in the nominative case, it ia the actor and aubjoci 
i^tboverb "disperse," which it governs, according to Rin^ 8. 
ntt>om.ciut govtrnt llieverb. — Declined. — Sing. nom. huiIIh 
fade, poaa. multitude's, obj. multitude — Flur. nom. m-dtitudea, 
poas. multitudes', obj. multitudes. 

Diverse is a verb, a word that signiflos to do — active, it es- 
|M«ssea action — intransitive, the action doea not tenninale on ta 
abject — third person, plural number, because its nominatiTe 
I' multitude" conveys pluraUty of idea; and it agrees with 
" multitude" agreeably lo 

Rui.B 11. A noun of midlitnde conteying pluraiily of idea, 
«mm( have a ttrb w pronoun agreeing mlk it in thephtriU. 

Bulea 10, and 11, rest on a sandy foundation. They appeu 
not to be baaed on the principles of the language ; and, tbore- 
fore, it might, perhaps, be better to reject than to retain them. 
Their application is quite limited. In many instances, they will 
not apply fo nouns of multitude. The existence of such a thing 
Bs " unity or pluraUty of idea," as applicable to nouns of liiia 
class, is doubtftit. It is just as correct to say, " The mteting 
-ciu divided m iU sentiments," as to say, " The mttting vert 
.Irrided in tfi«tr sentiments." Both arc equally supported hv 
I'm genius of the language, and by the power of custom. II im 
torrect to wy, either that, " Tho fleet \tere disperaed ;" " Tito 
CMWictfutre unanimous;" " The coanc*/ were divided ;" or Alt, 
" The fitei vaa disperaed ;" " Tbo cowieil imm ananinoHs ;** 
f The eouneil teaa divided." But, pertiaps for the oake of 
anpfaoBy, in some instances, custom has decided in fkvoar of m 
wigular, and in others, of a plural construction, connected wiA 
words of this class. For example ; custom gives a preferwK* 
■» the constructions, " My pefljie do not consider ;" "Tbep*'**- 
miry go barefoot ;" " The jloefc m hia trttject ;" instead o^ 
V My P*"^ ^^^ "o' consider ;" " The peatmtlry ^om ban. 
loot;" "Tbe^l: an hia object." In instencee like Ih — a, 
dte Bpjriication of the foregoing rules may be of some use ; bat 


ba C(»istnictiona in wfaich they do not apply. &re probably iR6i« 
8 than those in which they do> 

JVW. etue. IntToii, verb. JVbtn. ea»e, Intron. verb 
Has labour. The aim aets. 

Aimiw march. The moon rises. 

Teasels Bail. The stars tivinklc. 

Bird* fly- Therein deacendR. 

C^«da move. The river flows. 

MuHitudea perish. The nation mouma. 

Tonr improvement m grammar depends, not on the number 
of words whidi you parse, but on the alteiUion niiich you giro 
the aubjact Y(»t may pant the same excrciaet tweral timee ovar. 

For the gratification of those who prefer it, I here preMnt 


Verbs are of two kinds, transitive and intranaitive. 

A verb is transitive when the action affects an object ; bs> 
" Earthquakes roek kinj;doms ; thrones and palaces arc ihaknt 
down ; and potentates, princes, and subject3,art buried in otw. 
common grave." 

Tba nominalivc to a passive verb, is tlic t^^ecl, but not Qie agtni, of Uie 

A verb is intransitive when it has no object ; as, " The watera 
tame upon me ;" " I am he who was, and is, and t* to eomt." 

As an exercise on \vhat you have been studying, I will now 
pnt to you a few questions, all of which you ought to be able ta 
tmswar before you proceed any farther. 


With what two general divisions of grammar does the Second 
Ivctnre begin 1— Of what does Etymology treat I — Of what does 
S^tax treat 1— On what is based (he true {mnciple of clMri&. 
«M*im 1- How do you ascertain the pui of Hp«e<^ to which « 
word belooga I — What is meant by its iiMinner of meani^^.. 
Nama the t«n parts of speech. — Which of these are considered 
thft most iaportaat ^ — By what sign may a noun bq distingaial^ 
«d I-— How man^ kinds of nouns are there 1 — ^What belong t* 
i^B^ma} — What is gender 1 — How many genders havenomwl 
—What is perMQ 7 — How many persons have nouns ?— .-WhaT 
ia Dwnber t — How many numb^ have nouns 1 — What is ease t 
—How aiaaff e wea have nouna T — Does case uonaist in the m 
JkafiofM (tf aaouB ?.— How m^y kinds of verbs are diera f-^^ 
what saga DMy a verb be krwwn ? — What belong to verbe \— 

NOVMi AMD TKiwa.— riuma. 11 

WhM k ■TBibarial— Whil is analj^ ?— W]wt k pw0li«f_R». 
peat tbe order of parsing iho noun. — Repeal the order upvaiog 
the verb.~— What rule do you apply in paraiog « DOttn id the pM- 
•aaitive caaeT — What rule, in parsing a noon in tfa« noai m in 
emu T — Whrt n)e applies in parsing a verb T — What is meant 
by government? — Explain rules 3, 4, and 12. — By what lub 
<M ths nMuinative and objective cases of nouns known! ■ 0/ 
whM aigii can yo» distinginsb a transitive from an intnnaitin 
veob ?— Do transitive verbs ever express a mortU action 1 — At* 
mtmudtive and neuter verbs ever used a> tiaasitivel — Gim 
■OBM smnplos of transitive verbs with ptrxmai and verbal ob- 
jaeU. — ^WlMt mie do yon apply in parsing a nonn in the objoc- 
tive case 1 — Explain rule 20. — In parsing a verb agre«t^ wUi 
■ Doun (rf* multitude conveying pluratity of idea, what nil« do 


Whatitar (he launar baraqmmd toMlswei tlMlbUawiB8qwBb*B4*(>«l, 

^ of COHTM laftdiKreKonanwilli the teacher. Tlie author Ukea the. Ubut} 

IB maast the ezpediciMTofnBt, nnanll*, enrordne mch a Tequisition, wi- 

NaBie mma partidrUl nonni.— What k e abttrwt noww }— What is Hx) 
dMnctkin between (bstract nouns and adject'iveB T—WhU ue uWr* 
nounat — \TtifiQs1 nnunB? — Wh»> ■■ the dUdnctlon bptwepn malervi ano 

qiVB n— BiplCTLr— When «jo noun^ naluially neater, coDTMcd into Ike »••• 
ndine or t«nunia« sender 1 — Give eiiumileB. — ^Speak (ooie Douna that M* 
■twayi in the aingiSar numher.^Somc tWareiiltvByH plutat, — Speak lome 
Itet an in tbs aaoM form in both numhera. — Name ott the va.-«)iu vty of 
ItlM^ til* pfanal iHunber of nouaft — Of wfaat number are lh« notul* ntw, 
nWPH, ^mi, and mnendt 1 — Naioa the filuraU In the tbtlowiag wntptoM 
tMOna, iland/U, cupfid, ipwufid, bnlhtr-m-laie, emit-martitl. 

Wbat has unially been the objecl of pliilosophicsl invcsliBslion* of laj* 
(uagsl (p>ge 39.) — Do the ej^tacOcal dependances and connexiona of 
wndi dmod on Iheir nrtptut impottl— la (be jiowci of auKKJalion and 
coatom enicMUt in chanpQg the ndicfd meaning of HimewordB? — UaTa 
wordi intiinaically a aignificalion of Ihcir own ; or is their meaning tnfirtn. 
IW / I. a. aooh ■> ondm haa aangned to them ? (pntre 39.)— On whm /ad 
In baBxl the true, philosai^ical pnnciple of clasailicktion ? — Dafioe pbUcis 
ptkal grammu'. — Which is aiippoaed to be the (ujginil part ef spqvdk?^ 
Hoi* were the othera (bnned from that 7 — How many parts of speeph bibt 
ba ncogniBed in ■ BciltitUick development and arrangement of the pifac>i 
oho of our luigaagel — Name them-^-WbU tettiniDny haf* we thU (PSpiT 

of^ew^atowlugiiagej a^^ toewMwnt y< «i of * '* jf*P!|! 


I— liMl)t uMofa vaib,utbn sxpteHad orimpUod. Verbs elptMi, not iMf 

' mmtt tit (11 creature) 
have gina jdu solj ■ partial 

ihow you the , . 

is generally i noun, Bonn .... 

n iRijiHnu/ used as ■ noun. These chtngea depend on the scnie whicl 
dwwoid oonreya; or, rather, on theotRee it peribmx in tbeeentOKc; thai 
i^ the ■unarr in which it is appbed to thing*. Forinetonce; g'*ni<> gaU*- 
raltyanoun; as, " The gJory of God'a tliron-." But if I say, ( 3^ inicli- 
uion ; or, Ho (to™ in wickedneBS, tin word glory becomes a verb. TTio 
(fMofman iamconitant. In this sentence, foce is a noun; in the next, it is 
atcri.- Tber J«i lirtus. He i»rf):i swiflly ; Scavengers nM^lfaaatrolta; 
TI10 ship (oib welL In these phrases, the woida uiU), Micttpt, and rnla, 
■revetbsj in Uie rollawing theyare nouns: Those are pleasant too'ii ; lie 
lakes a broad netip ; Tlie ahip towered her loili. 

Thus you see, it u impossible for you to beconta a^ru)ir- 
nuuiui without exercising your judgment. If you have suffi- 
cient resolution to do this, you will, in 3 short time, perfectly 
iHilei Bland the natura and office of the difTurent parts ofspeec^ 
their ratious properties and retalions, and the rules of ayntax 
that ^piy to them ; and, in a few weeks, be able to ^peafc «i»l 
wiite accurately. But you must nottnke things for gmnted, 
wilhoat exBtnining their propriety and cnrrectocsa. No. You 
an not a mere aufmuaton, or bo^maehme ; but a mtioBal IwJmfi 
Vau ought, therefore, to tlUnk melhodicaliy, to rtaton s o w irf ff ; 
and to tneegtigaie every principle critically. Don't Ko afraid 
M> tkmk for yom-atlf. You know not the high deetiny that 
avails you. Tou know not tiie he^ht to whidl you may 9Vti 
in the scale of intellectual existence. Go- on, then, bottl^j 
md with unyielding pcrsevemnce ; and if you (lb not gain aJ- 
mittaoce into the temple of l^me, strive, at alt hazards,, to- 
drink of the fountain which gurgles (i-om its base. 


Note 1, to Rule 12. A noun in the posseasive caMi; 
abould always be distinguished by the apostro^ie, or mnrll of 
aKsion ; as, The niMot^» glory. 

That girls boc^ is cleaner than those boys boojisv 

t*ot correct, because the nonns giib mihinia aro both in the posaesaiva 
^■«,Bnd,tberBroro, require the apostrophe, by which thay should be dia. 
tingmAed ; thus, " girPt, ii^'," according tA tlie preceding Nor s. IRo. 
poM Ibe note.] 

Thy ancestors virtus is not thine. 

If the wiiter oTllm aenteiica meant nu incestor, ha ahnntd have inawled' 
■— ■-» after r, thea, "anaf*l«r'«;"lf nnre than one, after 1 

ter r, tbea, " anofslar'a;" If nnre than one, after «, ■%« 
,!' but, b; naglacting to placS Ifas apostrophe, be has mS 

VEKBa. -PlLte UTHTAX. 08 

vB cisnnol (ucerlsin it. Tlii», »nd a tboiuand 

''^ ' lonMrBtB lb« tralh of inj d«- 

Igf »nd applicUiun oT Brain- 

ich B manner u Twt to Sa n- 
uuoune the " ilhiitntion" 01 
Toct the Itillon-tng cxunplaa 

A mothers tenderness and n. futherfl cnre, are natures giA'a 
for mans adrantage. Wisdoms precept'a form the good mana 
tnterefet and itappiness. They suffer for conscience's Bftk«. 
He ia rending Cowpers pocrofl. James hougbl Johoaona Dic- 

Bulk 4. A verb must agree with its nominative in numb«r 
uad person. 

Those boys improves rapidly. The men labours in Ao fieUL 
Kotfaing delight sorae persons. Thou shiras the li^t. H« 
din not do it. They reftdg well. 

, ._ , >nwhich}nueuiBotc«iect,iryauaralg(HmnIer 

thf applicdtioD ciTi^minaT rules. 

Now IM 119 0161^7 understand this 4th Rule. Becnilect, It appliei to tb* 
rert, mi not to the noun ; therefbie, in these exampliH the mri> w unfiajo. 
mrtifh The aoiMi hiy>, in the tint tenleiKe, ia trf^ tb« Ikitd pvwD fi&v< 
find the verb imfma ii of Iha third penoa ni^ular j therefore. Kola 4th is 

•hoidd be, " hovB xmprott, " The verb would then be pAr^ and agia* wi^ 
Hi ■oumiiite aecotding Jo the Hule. In the fourth ■enlsDca, IheTetbdoca 
nnla^rae in pman n-ith its Domioative. Thou ie of the itcond ptttctl, and 

i4uiu II of the third. It should be, " than lAunnciE," ^. Tou ma; comcl 
the other sentences, and, likcwieo, the fotloning eieroieee in 


' A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye. The numbm 
of inhabitants of the United States exceed nine miUiona. Notk- 
iiig but vain and foolish pursuits delight some persons. 
In vain our Hocks and fields increase our store, 
When our ai}undance make ua wish for more. 

' VThjIe ever and anon, there falls 

,' Huge heaps of hoary, moulder*d wslbi. 

,=,n™,, Google 

b4 aTiTHOLoei and syktix. 



An article is a word prefixed to nouns to limit 
tbeir signification ; as, a man, the woman. 

There are only two articles, a or an, and the, 
^ or an is called the indefinite article. The in 
called the deBnjte article. 

The indefinite article limits the noun to one of a 
kind, but to no particular one ; as, a house. 

The definite article generally limits the ooun to 
a particu&r object, or collection of objects ; as, Ihe 
house, the men. 

Tbe Binal) clakoa of the article to a separate rank as a dta- 
tiact part of speech, ou^ not to be mdmitted in a ■ a i e tii eh 
clasBification of words. S and the, (Au andlhitt, ten,ftm, and 
/ouTih, and many other word*, are used to restrict, vary, or d»> 
ftne the signification of the houhb to which Aej are joiaaA. 
They might, therefore, with propriety, be ranked onder die go- 
muwi head of lUttrictiBa, Indcaa, or Defining ^djtcHve: Bat, 
■> Aere is a marked distinction in their particular ~mfriag WmI 
application, each class requires a separate explanatiiHi. Hmmv, 
BO practical advantage would be gained, by rejecting their e9> 
tablished classification as articles, numerals, and demonatn- 
tives, and by giving (hem new Dames. The character and 
application of a and Uu cu) be learned as soon when they are 
s^lad arttclet, as when they are denominated tptnf^ng or <!•• 
fining adjeclivM. 

The history of this part of speech is very brief. As there are 
but two articjes, a or on and tkt, jon will know them wherever 
they occur. 

A noun used without an article, or any other restrictive, is 
.aken m its gtntral sense ; as, " Frail is abundant ;" " Ooid m 
Heavy;" "Jaim is bom to trouble." Here we mean, truit and 
gold in general ; and aU nun, or mankind. 

When we wish to limit tbe meaning of the noun to oim obiecti 
but to no particular one, we employ a or on. If I say, " Qin 
me a pen ;" " Bring me on ^ple ;" you are at liberty to fetch 
any pen or anif apple you please. A or an, then, is indefinUt, 
oecBuse it leaves the meaning of the noun to which It is ^pliedi 

as fItT as regard! llie person £poken to, vagvf, otiniMUnmrnahf 
tiiatie, not defimte. But when reference iit made loBiMn-A'cMlMr 
abject, we employ the; as, " Give me 1^ pen ;" "BringraaUk« 
apple, or the apples." When such a requisition is made, you 
are not at liber^ to bring any pen or apple you please, but jmi 
must fetch the particidar pen or apple to which yon know ro« to 
refer. The is, therefore, called the deJuUfe article. 

" Jatarappean." Here, the star referred to, may be kKown 
aa a particaiai- star, definiU, and distinguished from all otbera, 
in the mind of the meaktr ; but to the kcarir, it is left, unooe 
the ihouRonda that bedeck the vault of heaven, tinduHngwulM 
aad vulifimle. But when the star has previously been nuide lbs 
subject of discourse, it becomes, in the minds of both speakac 
antf hearer, a dtfinift object, and he says, " TAt star appears ;" 
^t is, thatparli'cuZar star about which we weie discoursing. 

" Solomon built a temjde." Did he build any temple, ifmdt' 
Urmintd wkiek T No ; it was apartUtUar temple, pre'emiBentl 
distinguished from at! others. But hoiB does it become a defi- 
nite object in the mind of the htarer ? Certainly, not by Iba 
}An«se, " o'tomple," which indicates onif temple, leaving it al- 
together mtdrJermiTud which ; but supposing tlie person adtbvS' 
sed was totally unacquainted with the fact asserted, and K 
bMf'l^C^ *o him, in one reaped only, a deGiDite and particulu' 
t— pie, bf mcBiw of the associated words, " Solomon built;'* 
that is, by the use of these words in connexion with the others, 
the hearer gets the idea of a temple distinguished as the on* 
«Meisd by Sclomon, If the speaker were addressing one whom 
he mtpposed to be unacquainted with the fad related, he nught 
make the temple referred to a still more definite object in the 
mindpflhehearcrbyafarthor explanation of it; thus, "Solomon 
built a temple on mount Zion ; and that was the temple to vhieh 
iht Jtwi resorted to tconhip." 

■^ Tkt lunatick, the poet, and ike lover, 
" Are of imagination all compact." 


" J')>J(*<>BTitifick uraneemenl of gnminKtical primaplua, a and Ui Mong 
to that clua oT RdjectiTei dcnominsUd difiiiitma or TiHrietbitt. 

J, m, au,orme,it the put participle of moui^ to add, to H»n. It de- 
noUsthat thetfaisg to wUeliit iaprefizid, isai^ti^uni(*ii,aatJ,Bii.<'^ ■"< 
(wnuil,) OT made «u. 

Tht uid thai. According to Hunie Took«Jh>ti the impealive, and Iktl, 
the part pntticipie, of the AngtcKSa^ton yecb H wtt, towt, lake, »«roi«. Hkt 
and tM U(^ origiBBllj, the ume roeuiiile. The diftron™ in their («Mtilt 

a plural noiiq. 

*< Jkt horae ie a nofal« anjinal ;" " The dog i« a faillifuJ otm 
ttwe ;" " 1%e wind blows t" " JTw wolves were iuwling in tk* 
waoda." In these ezamplefl, we do not refer to any |»articu)«r 
Innatjcka, poets, lovers, bora eB,do^, winds, wolves, andwoodif 
hut we refer to tbese particnlar cUuaei of ttiings, in cootntdia- 
iMetwntoDlber objectsordasses. Thepbnwe, "NeitberfA* 
one not tht otber," ia an idiom of the language. 

RiUxKU.—'niis me^od of elucidating Ihe artidet, wfrieb b popaUrwidl 
H>ir, Prieall^. Lowth, Johnson^ Hanis, Bnltie, Cnou, Mann, lod ^ny 
iMhii iliitiiii[iiii»>iiil philoloflist!, is diacsrded by nainsofoiiraMaan wiiUU. 
But, by wonn^ that thu thsorjis eice|itiDaable, th*y b;no meani makalt 
appear, that il 6uf^ therefore, to be rejected. 

Exceptionable or not, they haTe not been able to mipfAj Hm place wfth aaa 
Aatia nrara commiiflil fa prodici. Neitbn btye Ihej nioftad oaalaw*K- 
esptioaabU. The InUh is, after all wfaicii can be done lo render the '-'-' 

and rules of enuninaT comprehensive and accunita, thej will ititl b 

' ' ilicaily examined by men of leamino and adence, in6»«Tl«B 

le eiceplions and imnerfactiona an Ike an*' 

imperfectionn of tbe langungB. Langnaga,*! 

Stceptionablo. These eiceplior 

_iingel«Bof humaninvcntion, will slwoyaboimptrfiif. Conaequently, 

a perfect system of grammaticRl principles, would not suit it. A petfi^ 
Cranunar will not be produced, until some per/tcl being writea it far a ^vt' 
fitt hagoage; and a^wrftct Ui]|[uage will not be conatruded, until aooif 
1p«* hWMH agency » employed in ita production. All j[runDutical piiii- 
^ples and syslema nt)ich are not perfect, are exteplUmaih. 

qualities, sciences, arts, ineMle, h«ba,sc.| asj ". 
--'--■-- -^-—la; (SmminiB- ia usaful," && 

prefixed to proper nouns ; as, Baron killed D 
enec, or for the sake of dislinguhihmg' a [ '' 
an is undentood ; as, " He is not a Fiar 
■ Lee, M oftiM rimily of lie Leei ; We sailed down U< (river) 1 

3. Ab o^slrDc is frequantl; placed l>etween the article and ti 
wbich the articia agrees ; as, " A ^ood boy ; an indaitrina mi 
timcB the adjective precedes the article ; as, " As great a man ai 
SueK a shame." 

4. In refeninglo many individBals,whsnwe wiihto brinf e* ^ 

It under consideration, the indefinite article is sometimes placed betWMn 
the adjective flumf and a nngujar nonn ; aa, " Wbate awijr a raaetaid reaia 
itlblnahinc'headi" "PuDbwu a.AaHcrtBl»ra to blnsh imaei." 

5. The definite article the is frequently applied to oAvrii in tba eoanaia- 
tire or superlative degree ; as, " Tht mere I examine it, tlu betttr 1 like k ; 
I like ihia the least of any." 

Toil ma^ proceed and parse the following articles, w^an yoa 
absll have committed this 

The order of parsing an AiUcle, is — an aiUcie. 
wad why? — definite or indefinite, and why 1 — yaAi 
what noun does it agree f — ^Ruls. 

ART1CI.BS. — ^PinaiKO. BT 

" He is the Bon of a king." 

TV b an article, a word prefixed lo & noun to Utnit tU MpriA- 
caljfMt— deliiute, tt limita tlie noun to m particular object — il 
belongs to the noun " §00," according to 

Bui^ 2. The d^niU arUcle the bdongt to noun* in th$ «m- 

Aia»n article, a word placed before a noun to limit ita aigui- 
fic»tion — indefinite, it limits the noun to one of a kind, but to no 
particular one — it agrees with "king," agreeably to 

RVLK 1. TluarHcU a or ma (^rtet with vvun* in IhttitigMlttr 

NsTX. By conaiderine the origin>l ntMning of thii aitide, the propriet]' 
tt Bats I, will appear. 3 or oii, (formeil; written am,} being equinlent ta 
— ^ 1,^ cannot bo prefiied to nouns in the Saiil nurabor. 


AA«r having pened these artielM sevenl Iknea otot, pleaM 
to read this third lecture Ihree times. Tfaeo torn back, aad Mb- 
amine the teeoTtd lecture criticaHf , observing to pao'ss every ex- 
ample according to the (Krectivns previonrir given, ^liek wtU 
prep«eB yen to parse systernatieaHy, ^1 the artiiAM, Boum, and 
ntrba in tfiese aubaeqtient 


A bird sings. An eagle flies. Mountains alan^. Tits mu^ 
titude pursue pleasure. The reaper reaps the fanner's grain. 
I'teninra mow the graea. Farmer*' boys apnmi the bay. The 
clerk sells tiie^ merchant's goods. An ostrich outruns an Arab'a 
horse. Cecrops foujuled Athens. Gallileo invented the teles- 
cope. James Macpherson tnuialated Oasian's poeaiB. Sir 
Francis Prake cireumnnvigated^lhe gl<Ae. Doctor Benjamm 
Frankbn invested the lightning- rod. Washington Irving wrote 
Ae Sketch-Book. 

I win now oAer a few remarks on the niisa[^Kation of tlio 
articles, i^ch, with the exercise of your own discriminating 
powers, will enable you to use them with propriety. But, befora 
you proceed, please to answer ttfe following 


How many articles aye there t — Inwhataenae isanountaltM^ 
when it has no article to limit it?— Repeat the order of parsing 
m article.— What rule applies in paraing the *>«*« arbcla t— 
mat rule in parsing th« nuf^nfiar 


BafiM wliat noMiM a the article omilled )— U the arlkJa tlu aver wAfd' 

t«ulvariiaT — ^esxamplee. — Wlial is the mediLugof sor onT—WEeD ii 

a or Bi plKced before a plural noun I — From what are a, llu, and Ikd derived T 


NoTi TO RuLF. 1. Alt is used before a vowel oir lilcnt h, 

and a befoTQ a consonant or u long, and also before die word 

It ii not 0DI7 dingraeable lo the «r, but, according to this nots, impraper 
losaj, ■ apple, ■ humble luppliant, on hero, an univerntv, bccauM the wind 

_ 1. i.-_t j.ji ^ rowel, and h ia not uiunded in the word AmiUt, for 

^ould be in in the 6nt two examplen; but, ai the A ia 
htm, and the u ia lone in umctrrilji, a ought (0 be praEiHl to 


bcro, and the u ia lone in umctrrilji, a 
; thue, OR apple, sn Bumble suppliant ; 
rrect the fetlowing 

Ton ma; correct the (btlowing 


A enem;, a ii^stand, a hour, an horae, an barald, on heart, 
«D heatbea, an union, a umbrella, an useful book, idmij an oae. 
This is an hard e&y'w^. Tbey met with an heavy Iobc He 
would not give an bat for an horeo. 

MoTK 1, TO Rule 2. The articles aro onen properly omit- 
ted : when used they juetly applied, according to their 
.j^iitinct dianicter ; as, "Gold is corrupting ; The sea U green; 
,A lion is bold." It would be improper to say, Tht gold is cor 
rupting ; Sea ia greeji ; Lion is bold. 

The grsBs is good for horses, and the wheat for men. G mat 
js good for (he horses, and wheat for the men. Grass looks 
jrell. Wheat is bligUed. 

latkaBialafllieaa lanlencM, wa are no! apeaking of any partkutac kiai 
tigrmi ot wJuat, neither do wc wiah to limit the meaning to any particalar 

.^M. e.u _r . ., .;i„ -f »,i..^> . i..j[ „, ^^a speaking of gran 

lould be ODUttMl. In (M M- 
<t refer to an; definitfl hind, qualilj, or number ei 
nee and men generaUy ; that iB, the lenn* are here 
ici, thereffire, the nrticle should be nmitled, and Uie 
•enteace should road thus, " Grass is good for horsee, and irheat lor men.'- 

Id the third and fourth eiamplea, we mah to limit nur meaninf; to (hs 
.aiDps.iif gnm and wlm now on iJM ground, wfaich,inc«itnd(atinelian lo 
■In crop* beieltrfare rained, are considered as ^articidar objecle ; therefore 
we dionld «l;, " Tkt grasalooIiB well ; Tht wheal is blighted." 

NoTi 2. When a nouu is used in its gentrai sense, the 
article should be omitted; as, " Poelry ih a. pleasing art;" 
." Orvnget grow in New-Orteans-" 


Com in the garden, grows weU ; but com in the field, deos 
JMt- How does the tobacco sell T The tobacco is dear. Hoi* 
^0 you like the study of the grammar t The grammar js s 

Buiaf tUKty. A caudtd temper ia profex for tb* mwt 
orM IB wide. The man is morUl. And I panecuted thw 
ij imte Ibe death. Tlw «utfa, the air, the &i«, and the waur, 
B the four demenls of the old philoaoj^n. 


An Adjective is a word added to a noun to 
express its quality or kind, or to restrict ks 
taeaning ; as, a good man, a bad mas, a free 
van, an unfortunate man, one man, forhf men. 

In d)e phrasee, a good apple, a bad apple, a large apple, a 
imedl apple, a rtd appla, a tehiU apple, a grttn apple, a tatM 
appln, a tovr apple, a inittr apple, a round apple, a hard app)«, 
a aojl apple, a mtUaw apple, a/air apple, a JVlay apple, an tariff 
appla, a lalt apple, a m'nfer apple, a crab apple, a Ikom apple, a 
uell-tasled apple, an ill-looking apple, a lealer-cored apple, jtfa 
perceive that all those worde in tlaUcka are adjectives, becaase 
each expresses some quality or property of the noun apple, i>r 
tt shows what kind of an t^pJe it is of which we are speaking. 

The distinction between a notm and an adjeetice is very clear. 
A noun is tb» namt of a thing ; but an adjective denotes simply 
the qmdily or property of a thing. l!lus IB fint ehih. In thw 
example, the difierence between the word denoting the thing, 
and diat denoting the quality of it, is easfly perceived. Tnu 
certainly cannot be at a loss to know, that the word elotk ex* 
presses the name, and fifit, the ijvality, of tho thing ; conaa- 
quently jine must be an adjtctivt. If I say. He is a wist maa, 
a fnWstt/ man, a teicked man, or an m^rai^iil man, the wwdi 


H, conee froin the Latin, Md uid jfei^ to aid tg, 

■ of HOTda odded In iiiiiiiii In iiij lliiiii iiiMniiiliiiiMinn 

. . niteniioiL ThoH which efibct the former objeot, mw 

li a^aHeu, ta lUTilniUa ! mnd those wtuch eflect ttte h.UK, rm^*^"*- 
il M not, in iJl CBBM, eaiy to determine -to which oTthuB clavra •" "dnwiB 
^niild be referred. Woria which eipreea Bmply the fuoHlfu of nomw, in 
tAjectivet ; >nd luch at denote their lUiuitiiin or mmiw, »r« r««tn»ttti«, 
XijeElriet were o(iginBlI}> oouM or verbx. 


■m ilatiek* tve aJjecliTea, because oach expreaeas & gtia fi^ '/ 
the noun man. And, if I say, He is a toU man, a i^H mvi, s 
»&tte man, a black mtui, or a })«r«ec«/<ij roan, the words, kiti, 
short, vhiU, black, and peritaited, are ftlao adjectives, becauae 
they tell what kind of a man he is of whom I am speaking, oi 
diey attribute to him some particular property. 

Some adjectiTea restrict or Until the eigniiication of the nouns 
to which they are joined, and are, therefore, aomctimcs catlod 
dtfiniimtsi 88, one era, »tvav ages, the^r«< man, the irAoIe mass, 
HO trouble, ihou men, that book, all regions. 

Other adjectives dtjme or deieribe nouo.s, or do both ; as, fin* 
nlk, hbu p^er, a heavy shower, p^ire water, grten mountiuns, 

■Uand breezes, gurgling nils, glais window, ipftiiJmn glaas, 
heaear hats, chip bonneU, blackherr'j ridge, J^onroe garden, 

.^fOHota iron, Cmcinnaii steam-mill. 

Some at^ectives are »ecendary, and qualify other adjoctivcs ; 
U, pole red lining, dark blue silk, detp ata green »aekt, scifi irqa 
blooms, red hot iron plate. 

Tou will frequently find the adjective placed aAor thu noun ; 
•C, "ThoBQ manaro (a[[,' A lion is bold ; The- tcealhei' ia calm; 

,-Tbe tree is three feet thick." 

Should you ever be at a lose to disUnguiah an adjective from 

,Oie other parts of speech, the following sign will enable you to 

,te11 it. Any word that will make sense with the word Iking ad- 

.^ed, or with any other noun following it, is an adjeclivo ; as, « 
high thing, a late thing, a fiol thing, a cold thing, an imjinithid 
thmg, a neto-ftukitmed thing : — or, a vleiuanl prospect, a long- 
dtierled dwelling, an .American soldier, a Greek Testament. 
Are these words adjectives, distant, yonder, peaceful, long-iidtd, 

..doubU-headed ? A distant object or thing, yonder hill, <J-c. 

- They are. They will make sense with a noun after them 

Adjectives sometimes become advOrbs. This matter will ba 

Soma consider tbe adjective, in its piescnl application, uoc%e<|uivalenl 
to ■noim connected loaholhernoun Sj means of jralopOMtion.ofn prepo- 
tttktn, OT oT t. oomBponAing llexian. "A gatdm rap," say Iboj, "ia the lanw 
•a ■ goU cup, or B cup efgolj." But Ihis principle oppcarl lo be eice|)tion 
abls. "Acup^ffoJJ,''mey mean cither a cup-/«fl of noW,or b cup iiind* o( 
gold. "An eakm cask," atjiniflcs an oak cask, or a ca^ of oak; i. e. ■ caA 
made of oak ; bat a bttr cask, and a caak ofheer, are (wo diflercnt tliinifB. A 
tirbuuiaaa; Baano/nr<i«. 

. 7%e diBtingaishing characterinick oT the adjective, a|>peu« to oonaat in 
ita both nomiiiy a qudjty, and oilrttWinj that ([iialitT to some obiMI. 

The tarminabom m, td, and iff, (our modem s,) aignirvlev ™t ■£!, Mh, 
danotc that the namea of qualiln* lo which tbej are poat(i»^ wte lo be at- 
.aributed to other nouna poasoaoing such qimlitiHC nood«ni, wood^ Sea 
pue 37. 

L*fl n (he paat participle of tin varbfjmt Hnra/rTookedufirBi Hf*( lo 

oxptained in Inactive VI. In parsing, you may generally kMw 
tn ddjective by its qualifyiag a aotai or pronoun. 

MoBt words ending iiu'ng tieprettntparliciplu. These are' 
fraquently used as adjectives ; therefore, most participles will 
make senae with the addition of the word thing, or any oDwr 
Doun, afler them ; as, a pUasing thing, a miming spoctacle, 
utmUdering ruins. 

In the Latin luiguage, and many otbera, adjectives, like novnat 
have gender, number, and case ; but in the English language, 
they Inve neither gender, person, number, aor caao. These 
properties belong to crtalurea and tkingt, and not to their qmaU^ 
lie* ,- therefore gender, person, nnmber, and case, are the pro- 
perties of noun», and not of adjectives. 

Adjectives are varied only to express the de- 
grees of comparison. They have toree dege^m 
of comparison, the Positive, the ComparatiTe, 
and the Superiatire. 

The positive degree expresses the quality of 
m object widiout any increase or diminution ; i.% 
good, toise, great. 

The comparative degree increases- or lessens^ 
Ae ]>ositive in signification ; as, better, wieer,- 
greater-, less wise. 

The st^erlatice degree increases or lessens the 
positive to tfie h^est or lowest de^e ; as, beat, 
wisest, greatest, least wise. 

TOUIB (fcna CUBHimmr^L YVU HJ UBO in ^noiDII4^l» UJ ULQ UVDBT. AlKIWlUa 

TOU employ ttiat in prstBrence, the other ii the iMVari, l«r>d, otf^ buld^ 
te. themia&nnt OT^. "The one ihalt be taken, and the other (faoMrff 

Oirn. Former!'.'. & mtn'i men wu what he aerttd.far, nen being a ja^ 
parli< W- of » veik fignKjinB to iboHc 

Ratl-MiiKi. Some reetclctiveB, in modem times, itre apj^ied outytakio 
galki aaaat i such m a ot.'.at, anolher, one, Ihia, that, tach, tmry, tilher. Others, 
Duly I'tplunI nouns ; as, thaei, ta«, (ib'«c,^io, inerot all. Bat moat 
restnetiveB, like adjectives, ars applied to b<ith amgnUr and pjoral nouni : 
IM. uctui, Lai, tlu, /ornw, latter, nw, taek, laiu, nmt, witich, ichat. 

^oiwruli. All numentMin w^ danbtlen, originaUy peifonaed by the 
atgere; fOr (he aumbci: of the fingin is (till Qm atmoM extent of ilg Bsnt 
Aeation. Ten is the part putim|ile of t;pUBl, to d(u& to shut in. Tbehaaili 

r 4, taud, t:\ofd, or ahul in, ugnified ltni for Ui^ nuineratioa cJamL 
denote a numbor gieater tfaxD ten, we mast hegm mgtia, ten and oM^fna- 


Mtrt and mm{ fonn the comparative wid BupsrlatiTadsBtaM bj 
llwp(witivej and l(M and Uoat by dunioiiihing it. 

ConpuiaoD by inerowuiB the poaljva. 

/»aiL Comp. A«p. 

ireat, greater, ■ greatest. 

wise, ^yiser, wisert. 

holT, more holy, most hwy. - 

frugal, more frugal, most frugal. 

Qtmfmaoa bj dimipiitung the positivo- 

Pos. Comp. St^- 

wise, less irise, least wise, 

holy, less holy, least holy. 

frugal, less frugal, least frugal. 

"numeral ADJECTIV£S. 

Words used in counting, are oaUed ntmtrm 
mdjtclivtg of the cardinal kind ; as, <mw, /w^ 
Htree, four, twenty, fifty, &c.. ■ 

Words used in numbenng, are caUed nwntriU 
StHMtivet of the ordmal fcmd ; as, >•*/, mcom^ 
ilm-d, fourth, twentieth, fiftieth, &c. . 

NoTt. ThawoTd«™ms.Jtw, andiftmrf, m thBy »!*«?■ nfcf to *n u. 
^JlluiriMBiW, m^ b. pn^K^ mIW ™««r«{ f^Miwq of th» mdetoMM 


1 Th. «mnlE word ot Poiitive, becuraes the CoiB»rati*e by adding v, 

«l;7wa£MSi b^wne. tlU S«petUUve, by Jdjog -I, pr «J, loth* 

fr.™ ^.iZr^rt-^uUirtw. mwf »nd mat, lot and ifK»(, when placed bo- 

■lortwtaoTPtw- w™" '^'•'°- **" "*"■ °"P' ""' "'"^ ^ 

'"-TT — 1 — n_ .-B (.M-ain. (wn-aM, 13 a compouniJ of ifco (too, (mo*, *IM« 

**^!!L^'(^!fl wHl«B «*o limit our acr«*l«ou of wo... to tlmt io "hi.* 
'tell«t ti.« conotWrf with wor*^ "O to t. leducal lo *m .lanoora i a« 

& Mmi/nfiaNt) ue genenllj compared b; adding «■ sad ut; dlmOatltif 
Mtt^hUtt, Itc by mm I Aai ™«(; as, mild, milder iraMaiti fnigd more 
ftvnl, moat fnical ( virtuoua, more virtuous, niMt vinuoaa. DiwTiW>)» 
aDdiDKia)|;aa,liau)y,lordTj andin Jeuler amate;aa,able,aiiiBlB; aod 
diwyl6!>lee««nlodonlliBlaat»jllable; aa, diacteet, polite; eaolyadmit 
of tr »nd at; aa, happier, happieil; politer, politut, Wordfl of more thui 
two ntUUM verj teldOm adnol of thwc terminalioiia, 

3. When t&e pontive ends in ^ or 1, preceded br a nngb Towel, tha coo- 
aoiumt IB doubled in fomuDg the compuative afld aupaAtire daffreei ; ■>, 
red. rtddtr, rtddtit ; hot. hMtr, hoUtit. 

<. In Kline wordi tlia auperlalivo is farmed hj adding moit to the end of 
tiiMn ; ■>, metluDDoat, ottermoat or utmoit, mtdarmoil, uppermoit, fbie- 

5. In Etigliah, as in nuwtIaiiguagee,thereareaonK! words of renconiinoti 
uaa, (in «hiuh the caprice of cuitom is apt to get the better of analogy,) that 
are iiTtyaUi in fanmng tbe Aegrees of oorapaiiaon ; aa, ** Qood, better, tiaat ; 
had, miTM, wont ; little, lesa^ least ; much dt many, more, meat ; dmt, 
nauer, neareit or next ; late, later, lateat or last ; old, oldw or elder, oldait 
or eldMt ;" and a few other*. 

& The GdkHring adjeetiTei^ and man; otbaiL are always in the npeiim- 
liw dense, beeausi^ IqrenreMii^aqnBlhy is the hi^teatdefiec^tbey car- 
ry in uiemselTea a siipenatiTe stgnidcatioD i eUff, esdrame, jm/ect, jigU^ 
ytrotig, hmut, juit, Irw, tamet, tmeeri, votl, iaanaue, ctattUtt, iafiniU, end' 

, _., , i,iig)rtmt,Miill«taeiLtmnlpoUnt,aB-tBiai,rtenul. 

7. Compound idjecliTes, and adjectivea denoting qualitiea ariaiag fioaa 
thefigureofbodieiS,donotadinitofc(HnjieriBon; such aa, iDcB-^rauiOsfl' 
kjUtn, mmd, tauart, cUonf , circular, quMArmgutar, cantcot, 4^. 

8. Tbe tenmnation ItA sjdded to adjectTTes, eipreoats a slight degree of 
oBriilTlMlewtheconpaiatne; aa,Nwfc,Uaftu&,' Ml(,aaMtA. renr, pre- 
B>ed tatbeesapenliTatexp>aaMaa4«Kra«of qBabt7,butnotalw»yBaea' 
perlBtivB degree. 

Read this Lecture carefully, particularly the IfoTBa ; oAer 
wfcirii yaa may pane the fblknring adjectirea atid neuter vetb, 
auik, Ukewiae, lbs examplee diat follow. If you cRHoot rqMwt 
til tba definitioiiB and nilas, spread tbe Cotnpeiidiuni wben yoii- 
parse. But before you proceed, please to commit (bo 

TTie order of paramg an Adjective, is — an 
acljective, .and why ?— compare it — degree of 
comparisoiH and why ?-^to what noun does it be- 
loqg?— Rdle. 

feK^atturt, appear not to have lufficieatly attended to the cioitgei which tbia 
Tiiadplo of assaciation actually produces. As language is tranamitted from 
IteneratioD to generation, many words become the reprcsentHtivea of ideas 
irilh which they were not originaUy associated ; and thus thej; uniiergo x 
Uiaiwe, not (nd; in the moile of their application, but also in their menjung. 
Words D^g tiie sii^na of thinga, th«r meaning must necessaiil;; changD as 
n)«aUr ■' Uiat, as things themKlies change ; but tbia variation in their im- 
port more frequently depends on acddantal drcunutancea. Among th# 
idaas. connected with a word, that whieh was once of primary, become* onH' 


" That grtal nation ua« once powerful ; but now it ia fttbl:f 
Grtot U an adjective, a wont added to a noun to expreu it* 
quality — pos. great, comp. greater, sup. greatest — it is in dw 
positire d^jree, it expresses the quality of an object without any 
'■ e or diminution, and belongs to the noun "ostion," ae 

RuLB 18. A^tciint* hdouf; to, andquaJify, nouiM txpraaeil 
or M»dar*lood. 

Wat ia B Terb, a word that signifies to be — neuter, it exprw- 
MM neither action nor paaaion, but being or a state ofbeing — 
third person singular, because its notainative " nation" is a noun, 
of multitude conveying wufy of idea — it agrees with " oatioa," 
jigreeably to 

RcLK 10. ^notm ofmuililudt eoneeytng unity ofidea^ may 
hatt a terb or fro*o»n agreeiag with it in ike singular. 

PovarftU is an adjective belonging to " nation," accordii^ l» 
Rule 18. Ji'Eebk belongs to " it," according to Note 1, ui^er 
Rule 18. /« ia a neuter verb agreeing with "it," agreeably to 
Rule 4. 

" Bonaparte entered Russia wiA 400,000 men." 

Four^Jimtdrtd-lhouaaad is a numeral adjective of the cardinal 
kind, it b B word used in counting, and belongs to the bow 
"men," according to Note 2, under Rule 18. ^mneniattiee- 
thu belong to noitat, wkich nouns mast agree in nuin&er wtlh thtir 

!£, in parting the following examples, you find any wmAi 
about which you are at a loss, you will please to turn back, wad 
parse all the foregoing examples again. This course mil enabfe 
you to proceed without any difficulty. 

More is an adverb- Of and to are prepositions, governing 
the ooans that follow them in the objective case. 

A benevolent man helps indigent beggars. Studious scho- 
lars learn many long lessons. Wealthy merchants own larga 
iliips. The heavy shins bear lat^ burdens ; the lighter sh^ 
cany less burdens. Just poets use figurativo language. TJn- 

ofBeeondBry importance ; ind sometimes, hj degrees, it Iobbb altogethBr its 
conneiion with the ward, giving place to othen with which, from sume aco- 
denlal ci.iiBes, it has been associsled. 

Two or three instaDces will illiuiCrate (he trath oi these remRrks, Tu an 
ailcient>Engli9h version of tlie New-Tcatament, we find the Ibllowiiigha. 
gaage : " I, Paul, a nuol of Jeaua Christ, unto yon Qsntiles," He, Bot 
•fao. in the present acceplsition of the word, would dare to call " the gl^ 
apostle ol the Genlilei" a rucsl ? Raictd toiaiitlj meant atnant : one j«- 
roted to the interest of another ; but now it is nouly aj^onyaHiiu wi^ 

gnuninatical expreaaioiia aflend « true critlck'a car. Weak 
critiGka nukgniry trifling errours. No coinpoNtion la pmTacU 
The rabble was tumultuous. The Ute-wa^ed graaa looks 
green. Shady treea form a delightful arbour. The aetong aan 
makes & beautiful appearance ; the variegated rainboif trnpeara 
more beautiful. Epaminondas was the greatest of the loeban 
' generals ; Pelopidaa was next to Epanrinondaa. 

The first fleet contained tliroe hundred men ; the aecond 
contained four tbouaand. The earth contain^ one thousand 
miUioa iidiabitants. Uanj a cheering ray brightens the good 
inan'a pathway. 

Norc Liki, Worth. The Mljective tibn ■ contrution of thfl puticipU 
iiiaed,uidgeaeni]jiiaalbe piepomtion wUoaudeiUood ■Tter it. "Shek 
ftt*{Knto] her brother i" "They an iBiUbi [la] liim." '■T)Mkiiigd(»n(' 
btfna 'm Uke [hieud iw made ISu] taito k bouHliolder." 

TbenooaiHrUbaiilK^berdioppeditaiwocialedwoTdi. "Tbedalh 
latMrtt tan dDlUiSBTudj" that u. The doth ii tTlic worth (>^ tu doUan 
4f VU yaid, or fir t, an*, vrcHry gird, 

Sgne emiiieat pMologiita do Dot adDiit the propriety ef nippl;iDf utdBB. 
am afttr Ukt, tMrU, en, tut otBft, md Ua, but conndw ihum prapOB- 
tioDi. Sea Anonwlie*, in the Ulter put oT ihu work. 

A oritiod wuJ jna requirn thit the adjactire whea iiawi without iti Dotm, 
"*' "~" "-• paned aa an a^jeetne bdongiag to it< noun nndirstood ; aa, 
rtamu traioul and tha itnscri [so-wiul are alwan mpectadi" 
■oe reward* tie aHri ^t—ftt,] iid noieltM thi hmilfoiU.V' 
«nfaidi*4ori>«U} Oat neo da, UvM-afler tbam ; ' 
" The fmf (iwior rfwb] ii oK iolerrad with theit boM^" 
Bat ■ottMMB Ue mIjk6(«, bj ila mmtna- of meaiiii^ become* a aetm, 
■■dhMawithar^djectHra jaiaed Miliar "the cbi^ (••</" "The raft Im- 
mmut [ jmwmiilj rl efipeoa.'' 

Varioui aomu pUeed bedsie other nouiu, ■wiiiiiii the cbuaoter of adiacy 
(itaa. aooording la lluit nauur of meaning; aa, "8t« fiah, inm moilar, mm 
1, gtid w^ch. Mm field, manbw ground, nMunlofn hemhl.'' 
• priodple wlach racogaiaa* a>>l« the RuidBnl cigtam 

euraey, mi^ reat for ita anpport on the usage of ol^y kt words, and jUPf 
all the anbUatiea of inztaratiag akeptieka to fitiavf iL If the ganio* and 
analogyef oarlangtiace weredwHBsdanl, AwoiU be correct to oba ai Ta 
tU* SDalogT, and aay, « Good, gaodtr, goodot ,■ bad, baddir, badAal ; littl^ 
littlir.littUil ; mud), machcr, mnebuf;" " By IKi atau ;" " What an the 
Htm." But such a cdtarioa betrays only the wesJtneaa of thooe wbo a^ 
Unpt to ealablidi it. Kegardlen of the doffmaa and edict* trf' the phile. 
■opnical umpire, the good serlM or the people wi1[ cnuie them, in thu nt 
■tance, aa wdi aa in a thousand otben, to yield to ciMtom, and my, ^OoodL 

eiUaiik FiUmt (nee bad none nf tbe odiumnhieh i> now aaaodated with ' 
the tana ; but it ei^itied one wba under the feudal ayatem, rented or held 
ianda of aootber. Thus, Henry the VIIL aaya to a vaasal or tenant, "Al 
you are an aecampliahed eitlaai, I order that yon receive iCTOO out of tin 
Bublick troaaor;.'' The word viUiiii, then, haa giun np ifa otiflinal i*^ oad 
baoone (he rqmaaaUlm of a pew one, the |foi4 ttntmt ba< jig lupplauted 
iL To prove that the meaning of words thmgif, a theuaand aiam{daa 
rimiJd he adducfd ; but ivith Iheintelligent read»T, proof i» •"—*•■•— 

16 BvraoLOOT aSd arKTAx. 

h^tr, ttt; tMd, Mtrx, wkK; litlk, (tt^ ttiat; lauch, nun, bu 
Uitauau,-" "Wh«tiHhen««»7" 

With RgBid to tb« naing of uliectiTsa snd other qualifiing woida 
htlakoL « jow hnsun will frequentiv KinooDt to absurdity, oi 
Lei Ihe MlowiiV ceovnd nnmrk, «4iicli la better tliao > doien niles, put 
you on your gUBM. Wbaneier you utter a sentence, or put your pen on 
paper to write, weigh well in your mind 1^ Tntoniiis of the iconb which you 
■ID (bout to amptoy. See that they convey predaely the Ideal whic^ you 
wish to eipren by tfa«n, and thus you will anMd ioaumenble eTTOtm. In 
^Making of ■ roan, we may uy, with propriety, he is vtry wicked, oi ex- 
cctdiuly lavidi, betnuse the terms otickfd and Uimih arc adjectives that ad- 
mil of compaiisoD ; but, if we take the words in thdr literal accwptalioD, 
tbara is > aoleciani ui callins a nun very honest, or tictiMngly ^un, for tha 
words Aonejt mndtust, Jitenuly admit of do eomparison. In point of fact, ■ 
men i* Ibontit or (Mhntul, jutl ortmjuif: there can be no medium or cieeu 
in this respect- Fen/ con'ect, very incorrect, very right, Bery wrong, are 
common expresuons ; but they are not Cilera£^ proper. What is not car~ 
Teet, most be tneffrrsirf ; and that which is not mcorrect, must be eerred : 
what is not r^Al, must be artm^i and that which is not wrenf, masl be 
rigU. To avoid that eironnilocotion which must otherwise take place, our 
bMt speakers and writers, however, frequently cfHDpani adjeetivei Wldeh 4a 
BOt literally adnut of comparison : " The tiwil qJaWitlirt practice ;" " Hm 
mwt uncertain method ;" "Irving, asa writer, is /ormgn accNrate OaDAddi 
■on ;" ** The metaidiysical investigations of our philDso[Aica1 gmzmun^ an 
itiil more ineaaiprdiniiiU to the learner." Comparieons like these, shndd 
generally be avoided : but sooietimes they are so convenient in practice, 
as to rendnr tbem admiauble. Such oupressions can be reconciled with 
the principles of grairunar, only by conidderine them as tinratiTB. 

Comparative members of sentences, shoold he sot in wvet tppotltiiM to 
each other ; as ** Pope was rich, but GoldBmith was poor." The foHowing 
BentanceB are inac«uiate : " SoliHnon was utier than CiaRB iraa sIssMari." 
"The principles of the reformation were deiper io the pijncs's inind than to 
be eui^ erodicalrd." This latter sentence contuns nu n m pa r h ai at aU : 
neither does it literally convey any meming, Asain, if tite PaalBrfat had 
said, " I am the wisest of my teadiers," he woold hue ipakeB ahaurily, 
because the phrase would imply, that he was one of his teacben. But m 

Before ^ou proceed any farther, you may luuwer tha follon- 


What )s the distinction between a noun and an adjective t-— 
By what sign may an adjective be known T — Are participlaa 
overused as adjectives 1 — Does gender, person, number, ot 
case, belong to adjectives T — How are they varied 1 — Name tne 
three degreoa of comparison. — What elTect have U»> and Itut 
in comparing adjectives? — Repeat the order of parsing an ait 
jective. — What rule applies in parsing an adjective 1 — What rule 
in parsing a verb agreeing with a noun of multitude conveying 
Dnihi of idea ? — What Note should be applied in parsing an s£ 
jective which belongs to a pionoimT — What Nate in paniBg 
' adjectives ? 


t M- mM . kifn. Me, gc«± UUU, mb* or matf, *.f, U 
■oma aqwlma diat an umyi m the nipalatiTa, and tun 
Ara conuioaiid •diaetJTM eoouarad } — Wut b aud iX tlia 

ra conqioaiid adjaetJTM eon^'*''' 
■^ «riha adratb vcrjr 7— Whaa dooe an adwdiT* bnmna a Bonn T— 'VbM 
-1 ■— J 1.-J, [tUcM bcfoN — •■■ ■• " — 

diaiuMr does a noon anuniB when |tlacM bcfim ■nothsr n 
can Jon prove Uut'Oiilfm iBlhB ataDdard of gl 

|Iaw are attdoona dirided T — Wbat conatitatea Uie true character <if an 
■^jactire} — Wbil an the aurnification and denotement oTIbe te 


NoTK 9, under Bulb 18. Double Comparatiet* and Supir- 
Mwu dioidd be avoided ; audi aa, waner, U»*mr, more deapcr, 
MMw wiek«deT &c. : ehitfnl, nprtmetl, ptrfteUrt, righiat ; pr 
more perfect, nuwf perfect, mo»t supreme, &c. 

Virtue coafen tbe moat aupreme digni^ on moii, and it should 
be his cluefeBt desire. 

He made the greater light to rule the day, and tbe lessor light 
to rule the night 

'Aaphiaaee "niMl •uprsm^" and "duareat,'' in the Scat aaBloMB. an 
iucociaet, becanae nipreme and eUifaiB in tbe auperlatira degree withoiit 
banng tbe auperiatire knn nipeiaddsd, wluch addition oBliea them dooU* 
anaiutivea. They aboufd be written, "conlen (upreme dignitj," and 
" iia duof destre." 

Ws can aa^, one diiag ia Uu than another, or avuiSo' thao another, ba- 
eanaa (he adtsctivea lot and nuOcr are in the comparatiTe depee ; but 
the phnae "tattr fight," in the aecood aentence, ii inaccurate. Luitr ia 
a doable Oomfatratire, which, according to the precadiag Note, abonid ba 
Maided, i-aur in *■ inqorrect ■■ iaiitr, fwair, iKirMr. " The mofltr 
li;^'* wonid be lesa eiceptiaaable. Yon can correct the following w)(ao« 
ny aniatance. Correct them favr timea over. 

The pleaaurea of the underalanding are more preferable than 
4h>m of imagination or sense. 

The tongue is like a race-horse, which runs the faster the 
lesser weight it carries. 

Hie nigfatiiigale'a voil^e is the moat sweetest in tbe grove. 

The MoetHighoat hath created ua for his ^ary. 

He was admitted to the ebiefest offices. 

The first witness gave a. alrong proof of the tact ; Oub next, 
a mote stronger still ; but the last vritnees, the moat stnHigeat 

»f Mi- 
He gave ih» fullest and the most .lincere proof of the truest 



A PABTicn?LE is a word derived from a verb, 
wid partakes of the nature of a verb, and also of 
an aajective. 

Verbs have three participles, the present or 
imperfect, the perfect, and the coBapouad. 

The present or imperfect participle denotes ac 
tion or being continued, but not perfected, ll 
always ends in iitg; as, rt^ng, hang: " I am 
writmg a letter." 

The perfect participle d^iotes action or beina; 

£erfected or finished. When derived from a rem- 
J verb, it ends in ed, and correa)ond8 with the 
imperfect tense ; as, rtded, smitea: " The letter 
is written" 

The compound participle implies action or ber 
■rag cwnpleted before the time refered to. It is 
formed by placing having before the perfect par- 
ticiple ; asjhavmgrvled, having been ruled: "Hom- 
ing written the letter, he mailed it." 

The term Participle comes from the Latin word parlteipia, 
ii4uch signifies to pmiakt ; and this BBine i» given to this part al 
speech, because itparlakts of the nature of the verb and tit Aa 

Ih HigniEBis the same as the noun bang. W.isn pontfUed to the DOUi>«Ui3 
ofUjB verb, the compound word thus formed, eipresses i continued state ol 
the verhal denotement. I( implies Ihnt wliBt ia meanl hy the verb, is Miv 
continued. En n ta elleration of irn, the Saxon Terbalcong MJi^nct ; e4 is 
■ conUsction of deds ,- and tbs terminsCianB d and 1, aie a cooUudion of «£ 
Participles ending in id or en, usually denote the ibido, dedc, dotd, did, dma, 
at finiahtd atate of frhat <s meant bj tlia verb. The book ia friattd. It it 
Ajnint-td or jirml-drnt book, oriMch a one a> tiio dmt act of prMiaj' bu 
made it. TtiBboc4.iB uaitlcn; i. baa recavodtbe duu ai finitkrtdmdi 

Parliciples bear the same relation to Torbs, tlist ajneuns do to luuna. 
They might, therefore, be styled wrbal adjtelitta. But that theory wUeh 
^ranka thorn wilk adnoun^ appears to rest qn a sandy fbnndatio*. In e( a*M 


By many writen, Uwpwiiciple isclosMd with Aeveib, and 
treated aa a part of it ; but, as it has no nominative, pwtakes ot 
the Baluve or an adjocttve, requires niaoy ^ntactical rules which 
KpfAy not to the verit, and, in some other respects, has pn^iertiea 
peonliar to itael^ it n believed that its character is sufficiently dis- 
tect irom the vecb, to entitle it to the mnk of a separate part of 
apMdi. It is, in fact, the connectiitg link between, not only Iba 
Ml|e4^tv« Bud the verb, but also the noun and the verb. 

AH parliciplee are compound in their meaning and office. Like 
verbs, they express action and being, and denote time ; and, like 
adjectivea, they describe the nouns of which they denote these- 
lioa or being. In the sentences. The boatman la trotting Ae 
liver; I see a man ItAouring in the field; ChaTles is tlcmoMig',- 
you perceive that the patticijdes crotiing and labouring czpresi 
IkeactioBB of the boatman aiKl the man, and ^fmuting'tK anteot 
being of Chariea. In these respects, then, they {)artake oT t9iB 
nature of verbs. Ton also notice, that they deacrtbt the aeveral 
nouns associated with them, like describing adioctivea ; and ttat, 
in this respect, they participate the properties t^adjectivea. Aat, 
furAermore, you observe tiiat they denote actions which are adl 
going on; diat is, incomplete or najinahed actions; fbrirtMi 
reason we call them imperfect participles. 

Perhaps I can illustrate their character more clearly. When 
the imperfect or present and perfect paiiiciplea are placed beftKe 
nouns, they become defining or describing adjectives, and xre d»- 
noaanatcd parlidpial adjectives ; as, A Jonng- companion ; The 
rm>fitfg- stream ; Roaring wmda ; A wilted leaf; An OCCOM- 
vSthed scholar. Here the words loving, rippling, rearing, ^tUt- 
eo, and aceompiuhea, describe or define the nouna with uracil 
tbey are associated. And where the participles are )daced after 
their nouns, they have, also, this descriptive quality. If I aay, I 

tjmg wotCm, va ousht to be guidsd more by their iMmur of moiunft awl 
tliair infirtKlitl meuiing. tbui by tbeir pnnutiTB,eiBealJi] lupilieBtioD. 

"1 havs s iroJcmplate ;" L e. I have » plale— *rDftm ; " I have brokmt 
p^ta.'* If there is do dlflbrence in the eiienMol meuiins of the irord knttn, 
blheae two nMnlractionB, II cannot te denied, ttat Oiatu is a wi<b dflir- 

cfKO in the meaning tn/errtd by cuetdm ; which difiennce dmands _ _~ 
■MBOMT in irhich the terra is aprlied. The former conatructHHl denotei, that' 
1 rmtu ■ ^ate wlndi ww tnfen, (whether wUi or witbaat my ageD^, i* 
DM intimated,) perhapa, one hundrnl or one thousand veus afo ; w liaf aai, 
fht BtaianB of the latter is, that I fer^bnud Uc ao( of »ducuw^e^|^ 
(torn a wWb to a bnkai state ; and it n not intimated whether' fl *'*'— '^ . 
or tame one elH. ItsBpeais rsasnaahle, that, in a muic^ »™"*%f* 
l^sl, aay wotd winch <Htcan ia oonrtrnctui^adiBaing m> widA'. <"7 H°- 
podv be dasMd with diflerent part* of Boeech. lUs iUatitntloii IftewiM 
WiuUWfcs the propric^ of rstaimng wfcal we call rt* M^l (»" of the 


Me tlw moon rUmg i The bone ia naming a. nix ; The dog ia 
ktaten ; I deacribe the sererat objecta, u a ritk^ moon, b riM-' 
MMtg- hone, and a beaten dog, as well aa when I place tfaeae puti- 
cipba befbre the Douna. ^e same word ia a participle or a par 
ticipial adjective, according to ita mamierof mmnnig. The pre 
ceding illuatration, however, shows thatjlhia distinction ia founded 
oa a very sli^ ahade of difierance in the meaning of the two. 
The foUowing examples will enable you to diatingoiah (he ooe 
from the other. 

ParlieipUt, PaTlicipial adjeclivtt. 

See the sun tetting. See the telling sun. 

8ee the moon riti'ng'. See the rising moon. 

Hie wind ia roaring. Hear the rottring win<l 

71m twig ia hrohtn. Tb& 1>roktn twig fell. 

HHie vessel anchored ip the bay, Tho oncAorcd vessel spieada 
lost her masL her sail, 

^le jm-cmmI or ia^erftel participle ia known by ita ending in 
Wg ! as, Ooatn^, nding, bearings, seoin^. These ate derived 
frm the roAaflMMl, ride, hear, and fee. But some words end- 
ing in ing are not pBrti<»ple8 ; such aa eteiUng, momrng:, &ire- 
ting, lading, wunteretUng, imbelieving, uncoiUroUing. Wben 
jrou pane a word ending in ing, you should always consider 
aAtethw it comes irom a verb or not. There ia such a verb aa 
inUrett, hence you know that the word interesting ia a paitici- 
irfe ; but there is no such verb as unintereat, consequently, tm- 
laterestiog can nol be a participle '. but it is an adjective ; as, aa 
umiUert^mg story. You will bo able very easily to diatinguiah 
the participle from the other parts of speech, when you shall have 
acquired a more extensive knowledge of the verb. 

Speak the participles From each of these veitts, learn, walk, 
shun, smile, sail, conquer, manage, reduce, relate, discover, 
«verrate, disengage. Thus, Fres. Uanting, Peif. Uanttd, 
Comp. Kamng leamti. Pros. ^Balking, Pen*, teolkti, Gohi- 
pound, having walked, and 80 on. 

Tou may now commit die order of parsing a participle, and 
then proceed with me. 


The order of parsing a Pahticiple, is — a parti- 
ciple, and why ? — ^from what verb ia it derived ? — 
apeak the three— present, perfect, or compound, 
and why? — to what doea it refer or belong?" 

" I .saw & veosei lailing," 

Saiimq; is «. piirtici[4e, a word derived from a verb.wid portakoa 
of the antuK of a verb, and alio of an adjective — it coiOBg ftom 
the verb to sail — prea. sailmg, perf. Bailed, comp, having HB^vd — 
it u a present or imperfect participle, became it dmetw Am 
continuance of an unfinished action — sod refers to the norin 
** vessel" for its subject, according to 

B.DLB 27. The praent parimpU refcrt to sonte nmm or fin 
noon deuoUng the mtbjeel or actor. 

" Nat a breath disturbs the ilteping billow." 

Sleeping is a participial adjective, a word added toaaoun to 
express its quality — it cannot, with prqpriety, be compared — it 
belongs to the noun " billow," agreeably to 

Rdlb IB. Adjectivu belong to, and qualify, houm exprtstcil 
ur mtdtrtlood. 

Te« will pleSM to ^rse these two words aevsral tiiNM iOTer, 
and, bj a little reflection, you will perfectly uederBtend Ibe ITUa 
RnLB. Recollect, the participle never varia 
agree with a noun or pronoun, for, as it has w 
DO Bgreennirt ; but it simply re/er* to sa i 
I Me a VMtti sailiDs; or, I see dvea eesseji sailing. You 
pareeivettMtdMpartioiple (aiftag'reten teasMgntarnoeninffae 
first example, and to a plural noun in the seo«tid ; mni yM^e 
participle is in the same form in botii examples. The noun vcs- 
•cJ is in the objective case, and governed by the transitive veifo 
•ee. But when a verb follows a noun, tiie ending of (he verb 
^norally varies in ordra to agree with the noun whi^ is its noroi- 
antiye; 'as, the vessel mhIi; thevess^sM^ 

In diis place it may not be improper to notice anotiier Rule 
fltat relates to the puliciple. In the sentence, "The man is 
btoUng his horse," the noun lior$e is in the otyective case, be- 
cause it is the object of the action eiLpreseed by the active-tmisi- 
tive participle "beating," and it is governed by &e paMicipIo 

iloLB S€. PartidfUa have Me srmu gootrmntmt xm^ twris 
tMeefivmvhickthe^ wrtdermtd. 

The pdnciple upon v^cb this rule is founded, is ^uite apf*- 
ront As a participle derivod friHn a tnasttive ve*b, eip ro s sw 
die same kind of action as its ve«fa, it ■P ce s s a rily follows, ^^An 
}«nicipt« most govern ^e same cue as dio verb from i^Mck it is 

When yon shall have studied 'icaa Icetore trttesitivt^yi 7^** '"^T 
^"ocoed and paisfl the foDowing eiterciaes, ooo»»ni«ig ftte parts 
M speech. If, in analyzing these axamptes, you find any words 

ti4iicb^i>u cannot parse corrcctlj ftnd «if«l«iui(wailj by rehrring 
to your GompMHl for (lefinitioas and rules, 70U will pleue U> 
turn back and read overagain the whole ^e lectures. You must 
flxerciso a little patience; and, for your encoaragemeDt, penntt 
oie to FMnind you, that when you shall have acquired a thorough 
knowledge of tb^ five parts of apeech, only jSee more will re* 
main for you to leam. Be ambitious to excel. Be thorough in 

Star investigations. Give your reasoning jMwen free scope, 
/.studying these lectures with attention, you will acquire more 
grammatical knowledge in Ihrei nmnlha, than is commonly tA- 
tained in Ueo years. 

la the following examples, the words pvrliHg, crwled, tlnm- 
b*nng, and fwinklxng, are participial adjectives. Tftere and it* 
you may omit 

Orlando left the herd grazing. The huntera heard the young 
•log buking. The old fox beard tbe sportsman's bom souading. 
Deep rivers float long rafts. Furling streams moisten tbe earth's 
Mirfftce. Tbe sun approaching, melts tbe crusted snow. Tbe 
Numbering seas calmed the grave old hermit's mind. Pais 
Cynthia decliniog, clips tbe horizon. Han beholds tbe twinkUng 
■tan adorning m^'s blue arcn. Tbe stranger saw tbe dewtt 
ttiistle bending there its lonely bead. 


PattidplM freqaeDtly become noiina ; u, " a jood imdtrttaidhf ; B» 
cellsnt imHlbtg; He made « cood btgitumg, but a bad endiitg." 

inBtriKtioiu like the toUaving, hare loog been nnetiiHied brdis bsiii 
diHim; "TbegoodaareieOt^;" ■• Thebouae ia hiiUfaw ;" 11m Mik 
.._w|>iiWliiUn;." A modem innovation, bowevBr, ia likn^ to aapanada 
this mode of anrnMeion : tbua, " Tbe goods are being lald;" " Xha boiwa 
IK ttbv MU;" '' The work ia now bang picWuitA" 

You may now answer these 

How many kinds of participles are there? — What is tb« endiiiw 
)f apresent particq>lel — What does a perfect participle denotoT 
— nitb what does the perfect participle of a regular verb corns- 

pond? — ^What is a compound participle ? — From what word is 
the term pBilici[de derived ? — Why is this part of speet^ tluB 
named ? — ^Wherein does this part of speech partaKe of the nature 
ot a verb ? — Do all participles participate die properties of ad- 
jectives 1 — In what respect 1 — When are participles called partt 
eipitil a^utivet ? — Give examptu. — How may a frtrnmi parti- 
ble be known? — Repeat the order of paraMg n partuqilo.— 
What Rule apf^s in parsing aprMeiilpariictpl«!— ^VliatRula 

r to igree with dwir subject or actor t— 
What Rule applios in paning a noun in dte oijeetiee com, gor- 
oned by a participle t — Do pniliciplBB ever bocome Donnal — 
Cive exanqma. 




An Adverb is a word used to modify the sense 
of a veHtf a participle, an adjective, or another 

^ecoHect, an adverb never qualifies a noun. It qualifies any 
of tne four parts of speech abovenamed, and none others. 
' To modify or fu«i/if, you know, means to prodace sohm 
chmtge. Tho adverb modifies. If 1 say, Wirt'a style txetti 
Irving'a, the proposition is sffirmative, and the verb tretla ex- 
pressBB the affirmation. But when I say, Wirt's style txctlt not 
kring's, the nsaortion is changed to a negt^ve. 'What is it Aat 
duu modifies or changes the meaning of the verb excel* 7 You 
perceive that it is the little word nal. This word has power to 
reverse the meaning of the sentence. JVo(, then, ia a modifier, 
qualifier, or negative adverb. 

When an advKb '» used to modify the semte of a verb or pMt»< 
ciple, it generally expresses the manner, time, or place, in whtoh 

the ha^^anesB and increanng OTwpsrity of a paopl« CHealiallv dapend 
cir mdnncement in 'science >ncl file artB, and u language, in ad its mib- 

m tlMir adnncement 

of the rakthstten and leliBenMiit rf lite latter. The truth ef this Mnaifc <■ 
dloMiated bf tboM wbo have, fiic man; ages, emplojed the Epj)i »h j"" - 
ga«£e as their laBchnm tbr the tnnsmiaaran of tbaodit. AiBong it* nfine- 
inraitB m*y he ranked thoee proeedores by which verts and noma have keen 
MroodAiLand contracted as to form what we call B(lir«b*< w<i'°a'>ve% 
MoiuacliHi*, and prspoKtiDns: tat I praniiiM it wOl b« readily conceded. 


ilMintinn is perfbimeJ, or aome accidentalcUieMtnalaaco araipBcfc 
ng iL In the fUKKs, Tbe man ri<te3 grace^vU^y amkuarJfy, 
fimliifytiMfUg,uowly, lie. ; or, I saw the man ndingni^^, *fini>- 
^ t> it itr riy t v«ryf<ul, &o., 7«u perceive that the wonbgroce/n^ 
^, awtvardly, veryfatt, &c. are adverbs, qualifyit^ dw verb 
rpitM, or the participle riding, bocauee they express &e mafwur 
■1 v^ch tbe action denotod by the verb and participle, is done. 

Ib tbe phrases, The man lides daily, iBeekh/, ieldom,Jrtqv«HU 
hi, vJUn, Kytnelima, never ; or. The man loSe yeaUrday, hereto^ 
/ore, long nnce, long ago, recently, lately, jutt runr ; or, The 
■Utn will ride ioon, preaently, directly, immediately, by and by, 
to-day, hereafter, jou perceive that all these words in ilaiickt, are 
kdreibs, qualifjing the meaning of the verb rides, because they 
express the Umc of the action deoDtBd bf tbe verb. 

AgaiD, if I SB7, The mva lives here, near btf, yonder, rttttoU, 
fur off, «ometcWe, novhere, everyuikert, &c., the words in 
ilaiUks are adverbs ot place, because they tell where he lives. 

Adverbs likeirise qiialifj adjectivos, and sometimes other ad- 
vcrbH ; a«, more wise, most wise ; or more wisely, most teiaelg 
When an adverb is joined to an adjective or adverb, it generally 
fiXpreases the dagrce of comparison; for adverbs, like adjectiveB, 
have degrees of compaiison. Thus, in tbe phrase, A skilful 
artist, you know tbe adjective ikitftU is in the positive degree ; 
but, by j^acing the adverb more before the adjective, we iaciwfl* 
die degne of quality denoted by the adjectivo to tbe comparti 
tire ; a»t A more skUfiil ariial : and moat renders it superlative } 
as, Amotf skil&l artist. And if we place more snd most before 
other adverbs, the efiect is the same ; as, skiltiiUy, more skilliiUy; 
mo«< skitfuUv. 


PmUmi*. Compantiut. SupcrlalMe. 

soon, sooner, soonest. 














more wisely. 

most wisely 



most justly. 


less justly. 

least justiy. 

la irdl as copiouiuteBS ind penjucuity in langoan w th'* 
....,...„ ment. That an inunense amount oF time «iidlt««lh i» 

n*«d by tbe hm t^advertiB, [he falloiriTig development will dtwly denwD 
Mnte. He who ia eucceBaml in contracting ona mode of eiprsemn that '• 
itjiy need by tUity millionB, donbtleee does much for their b«M^ 

MoMadrccb* eipraw in one wotd what weald otiierwne reqnba l«« W 

or ADVKRBa. to 

You win ^nerallj know an advert) at sight ; bul KHnetiinea 
you will find it more difiieuh to be disfinguisbed, Oiiui any odiet 
|wrt of epeech in the English language. I will, tfaeTeibra, give 
^ou some tignt which wiU arsiBt you a little. 

Most woi^ ending in % are adTerba ; such as, poUleh/, gract- 
fiilly,Jttdieum»ty. £aj won] or short phrase that wiU iu»wer to 
taj oaa of the ijuestions, how ? how much ? vhtn ? m where T 
is an adverb ; as, The river flows rapidhf ; He walks very 
/btl; Hehasgoneyiir nteay; but he will *ocnro(iuo; Sfaaamgs 
iwtetbf ; They leam none at aU. How, or in what roaaner does 
tbfl rivn flow! Sapidiy. How does he walk I Ver^ijiut. 
Whore has be gone 1 Far aasav. When will kie return T Swm. 
How diMa she sing I SweeUy. How ouich do they leamT 
JV«M at ail. From this illustration you perceive, thai, if you 
could not tell these adverbs by the sense, you would know Ibem 
1^ ttmr answmog to (he questions. However, your better way 
inU be to distinguish adverbs by considering the oflica tbey per* 
fomi in the sentence ; or by noticing their grammatical relation, 
oc (heir situation, with respect to other words. To gain a 
Iboroush knowledge of their real character, is highly important. 
MmiS^ffattffor amay, loon, atsec%, &c. are knows to bo ad- 
vwiM by ibeir qualifying the sense of verbs. " A. very good pen 
writes txtremdy vt&." WM, in this sentence, is known to be 
an ftdrerb by its qualifying the sense of the verb urtUi ; cxlrcmc- 
^, by its ending in% or by its being joined to the adverb leeUto 
qualify it ; and vary is known as an adverb by its Joining the ad- 
jective good. 

ExpresGions like these, none, at aU, a grcal deal, a fete day* ■ 
ago, iong nnce, at Unglh, in rain, yibea they are used to denote 
be marmer or lime of the action of v^s or participles, are gene- 
rally called odmrhial phriuej, 

MnawQtdi; ■■."Hadid it Ao-g," for. He did it n> ttit pUee; tlurt,tia,iH 
liatftaa; lehtrt, fiyr, in Khct ftac*; imw, rw, at lUi (inu. WlnineuMfBr 
wU reanni haw — in loAot mbid, mood, modi, or moniur; exafSa^ii—iv « 
grtaii'gree; very — in an eminetU degree; often tsiA idiom agfoijimmtfitima, 

' The pcDcedun 

Unedgto form tt . 

Jeily of itia BlegHimato race, are thorn \al^,t _ _ 

iM»Jr> meant! gemlemmSkt, Ske > gmllenuji. We do not jrX wmj,M»h 
M lad^Oa. Tlie nortli Bittone DtillBay, aitdOce, numiitt, ioBtsad tJ, fflti- 

Oirfcl; comes from gvfafc, thenutinrt. of the Anido-Siuaii rnt> jH'''''"'! 
- ^^. ™. i;f„ D,j,tjy or jle,jj, nieani, in a qahk-Oa or HH*** >»«»• 
creattire that has Sft. fiopi**— '^*»-'™. ■*• • 



AdT«rbs, lhou|^ very numeroua, may, for the laka «f pnctf- 
cal convenience, be reduced to particular claaaei. 

1. Ofjfimbtfi as, Once, twice, tbrice, &c. 

2. (kOrdtr ; as, First, aecondlf, lastly, finallj, &c. 

Z. i^Plaet ; um. Here, there, where, elMwh«r«, anjwhere, 
•omewbsre, noi^ere, herein, whither, hither, thither, iip> 
wan), downward, fcnward, backward, wbmco, thanca, 
whitbemoever, &c 

4. W'TlM. 

JVwmi; as. Now, to-day, &c. 

Piul; as. Already, befoTe, lately, yesterday, heretofore, 
hitherto, long since, long ago, &c. 

Futere; as, To-morrow, not jet, hereafler, heaaeSarA, 
henceforward, by and by, instantly, presently, immediate- 
ly, ere long, etraigfatwayti, &c. 

timt indefiniU ; as, OR, oRen, ofl-tiroes, oflen>timeB, 
sometimes, soon, seldom, daily, weekly, monthly, yeuiyi 
always, when, then, ever, never, again, ftc. 

6. Of Quantily ; as, Much, little, sufficiently, how nrach^ 
how great, enough, abundantly, &c. 

6. OfMaantr oTqaatibf; as, Wisely, foohshly, justly, m- 
justly, quickly, slowly, &c. Adverbs of quality are the 
most numerous kind ; and they are generally formed 1^ 
adding the termination ty to an adjective or a pailioipte, OT 
by changing leintoly; as, Bad, badly; cheerful, dieer- 
fufly; able, ably; admirable, admirably. 

7. Of Doi^t ; as, haply, perhaps, peradventure, poaaibiy, 

8. Of Afirmaiion ; as, Teiily, truly, undoubtedly, doubll«u, 
certainly, yea, yes, surely, indeed, really, &c. 

9. Of JS'tgation ; as, Nay, no, not, by no means, not at all.- 
in no wise, &c. 

Mt aU tiaut. .Sl-imi, cnntraclioD of aB-ont. Oo'ly — mu-Mke. M-tt — all ii, 
HUM (tluDg.} £vcr — an qfe. For nwr ami (Hr — for qg-ti and agwi. ETeri* 
not oyneayiDOiu nitb bI ways. Iftver — hccmt. U B\giA&emne age, tie ptria* 
^Uau. Mb, contnctioD of lul. .KU, a madiiicaCiDQ of lut-iiing, tuM-inf, 
mMlilt nmigU. "He is not greater" — ig gre&tar in noughl — in no thins. 

Mrytitlbefat part sdrtM, adrifd, adriflj from the Saxon iM/at, or 
a^^fim, todri»e, ^gt, fonnerlj wrilten ygo, gm, agin, goni, ^nmt, is Ihe pact 
part, of the vsit> In ge- It cefen to time goai by. dmnda, toe Butui. fut. 

CL MBHtdrtn, from the -verb luiuiHan or aamubiaa, to aepsrata. .^Iqft — at 
lqp,imb^m lulti bfft being the Anglo-Saxon void Tor a' 


11 Of Comparwon; n, More, dn»I, better, bwt, wan; 
wont, loss, least, very, almoat, little, alike, fcc 

I. Thia caltlosiie oontiini bat ■ null portion of tbe adraib* in our !■■• 
>mg& Huiy aHTBrbs are formed bj a combination of prepoaliDiM with 
the idrerbi at place, hirt, thtrt, tehert ; as, Hereof, theno^ wtwreof ; kera> 
to, thereto, whereto ; hereby lberM>T, whereby { hneinib, iheiwWiA, 
wlwrBwith ; tierran, therein, wberain ; UierefonL (i. » tbarfrAr,) viMMiRHH^ 

(i, e. wbar»-f<>r,) hnvnpm, hereon, Iberenpon, tlumoD, wherei^aD, « 

S. Some aJTarba are eompoeed of nouns or lerba and tbe letter a, naai 
mrtsail of at, an, ftc ; aa. Aaide, athint, afoot, aaleep^ aboard, ubiM abed, 
agronod, afloat, adrift, aghast, ago, aAaiiee, away, aaander, asbaj, ae. 

Tou will BOW pleas« to read thia lecttuv/ow- time* over, and 
wad slowl V and carefully, for nnleaa you undeTstftnd well tba 
aatura and character of this part of speech, you will be frs* 
quently at a Iobb to distin^iadi it from others in compoattioB. 
Now do yon notice, that, tn thin aeateace which you Bav« juM 
read, the worda f^ow^, eartftilig, wtil, and /reqMNJty, are ad- 
rerbs I AM do yon again obaerre, that, in tbe questioa 1 har* 
just put to you, me worda iMw and JMf era adveiiMT Exeadw 
a little Mux thought Fifteen roinut«a apent in refleetioB, an 
worth whole days occupied in cueleaa reading. 

In Aa folhnnBg exeroses aiz parts trf speech are preairtiJ, 
pamelyt Nouna, verbs, Articlea, AttjectiveB, Partk^laa, ^1 
AdvenM ; and I beliere you are now prepared lo parae fliam all 
agrecnUy lo the ^stematick order, fottr times over. Tboa» 
mrdi in UaUeks are adrerbs. 

Tlte order (^parsing an Adtbrb, is — an adrerb, 
and why? — ^wliat sort? — ^what does it qualify ? — 

" Hy frimd has returned agaia ; but his health is not aary 

Again is an adreib, a word used to modify the sense of a 

*erb--or time indefinite, it expresses a period of time not pre- 

- ciaely defined — it qualifiea the rerb "has rotumed," according to 

IWwit, the m&iitlTa of wUn, to know. It meuia, ta h JbMMn. 
Jjf or jftt sigaifiea iax il, njiV il._ Yti ia ay-u, have, poiaaia, ngpf IM. 
Onr eorrapt »wt of die crier, ia m 

Hnigfat way. VUf— wiitl/ peiiod in whMsb m 

ilii^ronnd. mi--ta while. 
Ph, Latin, — tbe Englidi hf. Terhapa— per bapa, per ch*Dc& 
These aiamplM of d|rii«lran are givan with die view " ioTiia Ui" " 
m of Am intelligant penl to tbe "I^DiTenion* of Purie;, by John Hi 

88 BTTHnL«or amb nKTAX. 

Rule 99. JdcerhM ^^ify terit, porttcipJw, odJMltnM, omf 
olktr adterbt. 

JVul is an adverb, a word used to modify the Bense of an ikd- 
retb— of ne^tion, it makes the aiweilton negative ; that ia, il 
changes flu proposition from an affinnalivo to a ite^^re~«iid 
it qualifies the adverb " very," agreeably to Rulb 39. Adverha 
quaify vtrha, ^e. 

Kenf is an adveib, a wiwd used to qualify the sense oS an ad- 
jective — of comparison, it compares tha adjective " good," 
and qualities it according to Rulk 39. Adxerh* fuaUfy adjtc- 

tin—, 4«. 

"Hte trsTaUer 4esenbed a lofly caslle decaying gr«fataUy. 
Fitry lew litemiy men wer become distinguished poats. The 
It HihoD ezcc^ not Homer. The Roman women race, so- 

neat MilU 
filarihf e 

^ contributed their moH precious jewels ta save the oUv. 
Haay mudl streams unitiiw, form eery large rivers- Tbo 
tmr Fonza lallii^ ftrftmSievMtrhj, forms a vast cataraet. At- 
teadve setraata dtHiyt drive hones vtry tareful^i ae(iMgoat 
■•rranta o/lm ime fattnMS imry c m 'tlt Mi f/r Awiifaioua s^udan 
JMjWBTB vryfaat ; idb Mkokm lewn now at oU, FrieiMUi^ 
•^ea enda in love ; bat lofe io feraadslup, wnar. 

ba ^majp aiid can^iUti bolh qoalj^ the veib "drirB:" ths former i 
^____Mtt»,mnd tiM IbJW, nufluwr, «t«c and VotBiUliB^f qMOif; the *(-. 
" umliibatcd ;" the former eipreraei mimttr, and the Utter, vmUttr. The 
iTordUca- 7<Mi need not piTse. The actiTe mfc l« mk hu bo noiMjMtivtk 
The nouMT loct uid JHcndiAiji, fallowing in, are in &e DbjectiTe OM, and 
^remed bj that prepositiaD. 

When the noria thtrtfare, tomcqHaillv, aeearibtgbf, aai At Ikt,*m and 

in coDaeiion wilh othenoonjimetionB, tfiey are a£rrit; \ """ *" 

poar linglet 'ifj an conunonty conadered c»i;'imctj«u. 

injinictioaB, ther are a£rrit; but wbeo tUaj af- 
^ AwT are conunonty conadered taijimcUuu. 
'Olds KAai and loherc, and B.l olhers of the eame nilm^, audi a* 

nhfluc, (cUlAer, loAcnacr, mhtTner, IUl,vatJ, b^oTt, elhtnrtt, w. 

fiirt, ftc. may be property called rulvcrUiiI amjtncttim*, beea«M flnj jpwtici- 
pale tiie natare bath nf adveriM aad eonanciioiw { of achrerfat, u tfiey dn- 
note the attiibutea either o( (hik or pLxe ; of conjiUMtioni^ artbay cmjbia 

Th^ are many wordi that are Bonctinies ii«ea a« a^eebvei, and acaot- 
liut e a aa adverb* ; si, " More men tban women were Uiere ; I am man dili. 
gent than he." In the fbrmsr sentence nun ig endent^ an adjective, for It 
ia Jamed to a n<Min to qoalify it ; in tiie latter it is an acfveih, baoauae it qoa- 
Idaa an adjective. Thete are olhers that are itwnonnee ulM «■ nouns, aad 
Minieiiinea aa adverbs ; at, " l9-ia)i') lewon is loncer than yiHtTiaffi" 
in thji eiamplt, lo-da^ and ytilerdmf nrs no:ina in tne DOiaaaMva o^atipat 

tlljjfiiMwliV nihil following, lim are geaersny unaidarcd ftdrnb* of tin*) 
" B« came [(« kit] hevu yesterday, and will Ht wit again to-i»n." B«n 
iJuir are ooons, if ws aul^lr on before them. 

. "WherenMicA rwcoJU, to^nC, cv somethiiig elie} isgWaii, mrnci UMcrtum, 
imprnxniffiif] will berequired; dfucAmoDBf haabeen expended i ItiaaHWt 
beDer to writs then atarre." In the Giet two of theie exunple*, mici ia 
■a adjeetiTe, became it ifoalifiea a noon; in the last, an adrtib, b 
qoaiiflei the adiectiTe btUtr. In al 
^eecb B wordMoags, by iti it%tt 
it a aasocieted with other wonla. 

An adJeetJTe may, in general, be diBtingnished froc 
mie; WMDB wordqualineaaiuKnorpriHtouii, it ii an adjectiT& but whM 
it qoalifie* a vtrb, particifle, aJjtctiv, or advtrb, it ia an adrcnrb. 

FrepoaitiaiiB an someliinea errooeoualy called adTeiba, when their iMNUa 

ilood. " He ridel oAiwI ,-" that ia, about the Mvn, ct^imtTf, or 
igdie. "ShewaBn«ar[the<K(orjBij/brt«iKo/]faninei" ''Bm 
iaimit after \ib*X Hint tatvtnt] lav the blame <m me." " He came doiM ^ha 
awmlj from the hill ;" " They lifted him up [the fuceiU] out of the pit." 
"The Angela nfrffre;" — above lu— " Above these lower liravciu, to u* iiiTiai- 
bla, or dimly secD." 

Before yov proceed to Correct the followiag exerciiea in 
Mae Syntax, yu may answer these 


'Does an adverb ever qualify a noun 1 — What parti of 
■peeeh does it qualify? — When an adverb qualUies a wb 
Qr participle, V hat does it express? — When an adverb qnali- 
ftes an adjective oradverb, what does it generally express T — 
Compare some adverbs. — By what signs raay an adverb b^ 
known I — Give examples. — Repeat some adverbial phratet. 
— Name the different classea of adverbs. — Repeat some of 
each class. — Repeat the order of parsing an adverb. — What 
rule do you apply in parsing an adverb? 


H^eat tonMadverlM that are formed by comtHningpre^oeitionB with ait 
vaifaa of place. — Repeat tome that are composed of lEe article a and noOna. 
What part of apeech are the words, tiirefare, cmue^uttttiy . Ac. 1 — What 
words arc ityled adverbial conjv,nctiims ?— Why are Ihey aa called T5_Ia 
the same word sometimea used as aji adiectiTe, and sometimes as an adiarfa t 
Oivc Biamplea. — What is said ofmuciT—By what niie can you distinguiih 
■n adjectivs from an adverb V^DopreposUiiaui ever tiecomsodTerbiT 

How does the use of adveibs contnbule to the conciacnen of langosfa 1 
maslTate the fact, — What is said of ly, like, and quick? — How anthetbl- 
lowing worde composed, aiieafs, aione, only, also ?— What is the nenBifV 

otevtfj never, not, adrift, age, onoidtr, alefl, astira/y, awryJ Qi« thesig- 

oiflcatKm of n«dj, to-wt(, ye, jws, o-yts, straigUieatt. vthiit, tiU, and per. 

Note. Learners need not answer •'■- ■■ -■-- ■>'.i""-~>i>— i 

niiua, in this or any other Lecture, ur. 



tuad, becHMB ■4)eotn*i do not axpn m Ibe degree of ailjwtif *• oi aimilwi 
Dot Mchnoilifioitioasandawitedt^edveifae. TheflmMtwbioM,1hat»- 
fore, be, "«i4ifin)Ufa|banMLccHl(sUfa wan, ■rffm^r poor." BUfrnttxi 
•(mvh* ■iMHiMcBnle.feUiiDM tba ctteeof the adjeo^re la tapttm 
tb* Meaner, tirat^ or plaice ef tbe ectMii of veihe tad putiDiple^ bat it it 


NoTB 3, TO RclC S9. Adjectives are sometimeB im{>ropoil]r 
applied ai adverbs ; u, indifleront honeat ; ezcell^ weU ; mi 
lecabte poor : — She wrilM el^sol ; He it walking «low. 

Hm a^iectiTCs tedifmnl, taedlad, end mlMraU^ ei* bate inproperl* 

.__! t ,!....._ 1 .L_ '-- (Be rf adiaethaa --*---- 

titattljf poor." 

_ , J of the adjeetir ,..,. 

tbe Meaner, tjrat^ or plaice of tbe acttan of verba ind partiDiple^ bat it it 
(tt^Aedif theadverii. Tbe cooftenetioaa aboold b& ■' Sbe wiilM <luaM- 
«;B«iiwaIkbkg<l(w%." / 

Tou nutf correct tbe following examples several times oveft 
and explain tbe principlea tbat are violated. 

He speaks fluent, and reasons efferent. 

Sbe aeada ptaper, and writes veiy neat. 

They once lived tolerable wel), but now tbey are miBei«b|« 

The lowering clouds are moving alow. 

He Mieved bimaelf subnrisBive, and was exceeding careful 
not to ghre efience. 

NoTB 4, TO Role 29. Adverba are sometimes improperly 
used instead of adjectives ; as, " Tbe tutor addressed him in 
terms radier warm, but mutably to bis offence." 

Ilta adTeib mUnblf ie incoirect. It duet not eipreaa the maiiner of the 
■ctiiHi of the verb '■ addreaaed,^ bat itdenoCea the giuriiljr irf'tha noun Icdm 
nnderatood ; for which reaaon it diould be an adjective, taUablt, 


The man was slowlj wandering about, soUtariig and «ha- 

He lived in a maimer agrettUihf to his condition. 

iWfltDd; of Syntax should bepmiou«^ to tbat ofPunctawlioE. 

He introduced bimself in a manner very airupily. 

Coi^ormatlg lo tbeir vebwnence of tbougfat, was ibeir Tebe- 
menceof geature. 

I saw bun fmioa^ to bis arrival. 


vaoTvaia tii. 


A Proposition is a word iduch serves to' con- 
nect words, and show the relation between &an. 

The tenn pr^otUton is derived from the two Lalm wmd»,frt, 
iriDch aignifies b^on, and ftmofto fiace. PrapnAkMUi an ■» 
called, b«caaM uiey are mostlj placed before the Bntiaa tat 
pronouns «4ueh they pf^tni in the cAjjectire caaev 

The principal prepOMtions are presented in the foBowiag hat, 
whitdi you may now commit to roemny, and Ana yoa will be en- 
■tded to diatii^uish tbem from other [ttita t^ apeedi wbenaviar 
you Bee tbem m compoailion. 

df over at m&a betwixt 

to under neu abont boaide 

br through op againit athwart 

bv ahove down UDto towaida 

wiUi belitw before acRiM ItotwiUntaaJliif 

m between belund aroond out of 

iMo benaath off amidit initBadoT 

vithin from on upon tbroagboat over aninat 

witbont beyond antoag undenieatb teoat&igia 

This Ust contains many vorda thai toe sometimes used aa con- 
(uacticHiB, and sometimes as adverbs ; bat Mien you riiaB lutTe 
become acquainted with the ttatan of tbe prepoaition, and of fte 
eoojunetion and adverb too, you will find no difficulty in ascer 
tauuBg to which of these classes any word belongs. 

By looking at the definition of a preposition, yuu will notiea, 
diet it performs a double office in a sentence, namely, it comueft 
words, Bikd also shows a relolion between them. I will first abow 
you Itae use and importance of this part of speech as a connective. 
When com is ripe— -October, it is gathered — the field — men- 

Ana, >ce(»diiig te H. Tooke, U ilie An^o-Bazon atd GoOadc nooa Jtvai, 
iMginBac, iHiKe, anthra-. " Ha came frm (t« <i miwj-}.Bg riiMtai '." WIm 
m m f M m to b« ■ fiacmeat of tbe GoUddi and Saaoa aonn ^Ira, oa*i» 
«mG«,o»|nia8,fiilk>wer. "8f>U«>wi,tiMa««!f (^fl^riiv) Dmd.- OT* 
afttaiUBieAMm accaptatkra, neinaaa Aifabw^ amlw*].- A pee* V («)' 
aaloa^w,ai>ta(ie<KQiiiiu^<iricpiinMi(EHioitbalMC Tbs &■«««>• ^Tdl 

Vm ■■■filii iiM»» "Iwnte/oryonraatit&ction;'' i-a-ronrMtMMtMl' 
I MWE. By or ic ii the impaiatiTe MV <» *^ Saioa Imm, tvb* 
I i)^pM«tJT« of wiMaa, to jMit or, whM aqtiinlant ioh%^ iv 



who go — hiD — hilt — baskets, — whicn they put the ears. Toa 
perceive, that ia Ihia Benleoce there ia a total want of conneiion 
tmd meamng ; but let ua fill up each vacancy with a preposition, 
and the tense will be clear. " When com is ripe, in October, h 
is gathered >'» the field by men, who go from bill (o bill tnilh bas- 
ket, inlo which they put the ears." 

From this illustration you are convinced, no doubt, that our 
language would be very deficient without prepositions to connect 
the various words of which it is composed. It would, in fiict, 
■BMont to nothing but nonaense. There is, however, anotiiei 
|Mrt of apeecb thid performs this office, namely, the conjunctirai. 
Ilufl will be explained in lecture IX. ; in which lecture you will 
Imm, that dte nature of a prepositi(»i, as a connective particle, ia 
neariy allied to that nf a canjuncti<Hi. In the next place I ^1 
■bov you how prepositions express a rcUilion between words. 

The boy's hat is wtdtr his arm. In this expression, what re* 
lation does the preposition wider show I You know that hat and 
omt are words used as signs of two objects, or ideas ; but imder 
IB not the sign of a thing you can think of; it is merely the sigTi 
of the relation existing between the two objects. Hence you may 
perceive, that since the word under is the sign of the relatton ex- 
Hling between particular ideas, it also expresses a relation exist* 
ing between the words hot and arm, which words are the rapre- 
eentatives of those ideas. 

The boy holds his hat in his hand. In this sentence the pro- 
position in shows the relation existing between fuU and Aond^ or 
tlie situation, or relative position, each has in regard to the othei. 
And, if I say, The boy's hat is on his head, you perceive that on 
shows the relation between hat ^nd head. Again, in the expres- 
sions, The boy threw his hat up ttain — under the bed — behind 
tbo table — through the window—war the bouse— acroM the 
street — vnlo the water — and so on, you perceive that the several 
Impositions express the difierent relations existing between the 

llUn, to be. " I will go iciUt him." " I, Join him, will go." I» comes from 
Iba Gothick noun tnno, the interiour of the bodj- ; a. cava or eeO. ^bout. 
Bom iodo, the Gist outward boundary, .immg atheptalpmrUo^ gamatH- 
«, lo mingle. Thravgh nc thoTPUgh is the Goihiok rabstantiTO daan, or !h» 
TflUtonick Itaaiih. It means ptaea^, geie, door. 

B^vri — bi-Jare, be-hind, it-ino, ht-Mt, bc-sida^ bc-neath, ar* formed ^ 
oombiniDf the imperative tf, wilh the nouns /on, hind, late, tide, smA 
JVMt—iSaiOD neof km, niotht, hu the same si^iGcation u nofir. Bt ■ 
(•MM, it-taixt — it and lioon. A dual prepoeition. Be-iiend—ie-peutd. 
M m ni a pUce, means, bi jmtid that place. 

Mltintlutaiiding—not-tlimd^ng-vith, tMl-wUbtandinc. "Any order to 
*■■ ' — ; oDt-witlwtaiiding" (this order;) L e.nol eOictaally HJIManAr 

FRBFOStTlONt. — PlBftNO. n 

hat and die olber noune, ttmn, btd, loWf, inndo», kww, ilrMf, 
and wafer. 

A prepoiitioi] tella abere a thing la : thus, " The peu is o* 
the ground, «nder the tree." 

Freporitioos gorern the objective case, but IIkij do not ex* 
press on action done to some object, as an active-tranaitive veib 
or participle does. When a noun or pronoun follows a prepoai- 
tion, it ia in the objective caa«, because it is the object of the 
relation expreaaed bj the prepoaition, and not iha object of an 

I can BOW givo you a taoie extensive explanation of the ob- 
-jtcHvt eatt, &an that whii^ was ^ven ia a former lecture. I 
hitFe »iroadf informed you, that the objective case expresses tb* 
ebj«ct of an actioa or of a relation ; and, also, that there are 
An* parts of speech which govern doiuib and pronouna in the 
objective case, oaoMly, actitx-trtataitivt verbs, parlieipU* dtrwtd 
frim tratuiUee writ, and prapoMtiimt. A noun or pronoun in 
tbi) objectiTe case, cannot be, at the aame time, the object of 
in action and of a rdatioo. It must be either the object i^an 
acticHi or of a relation. And I wish you particulailj to remem- 
ber, that whenever a noun or proaonn i* governed hy a transi- 
tive verb or participle, it ia the object of anaelM>ri;ai^'!nMtalMr 
matraett his pupUa ; or, The tutor ia hutrwling t^ JH^ibt tet 
whenever a noun or pronoun ia governed b; a prepoatbon, it is 
the object of S relafwn ; aa, The tutor givea good ii 

led to parse 
to review tbia lecture, and then the whole seven ii 
|«eviouBly recommended, namely, read one or two sentences, 
andtheii took off your book and repeat tiiem two or tlvee&nea 
over in jour mind. This course will enable you to retMu &» 
most important ideas advanced. If you wish to {ffoceed anth 
eaaeand advantage, you must have the subject-m^ter of the pre- 
ceding lectures stored in your mind. Do not consider it an un- 
pleasant task to comply with my requisitiona, fw whra yon shall 
have learned thus for, you will understand seven parts of speech ; 
and only three more will remain to be learned. 

If rou have complied with the foregoing request, you may com- 
Ktit Qie following order, and then proceed in parsing. 

Tfte order of parsing a Pbepositioit, ia — t 
preposition, and why? — what does it connect ?— 
what relation does it show ? 

9i GTrHOLOdr and strtax. 

" He nw an antelope in Ae wildcnKtt." 
/« is K preposition, a word which serves to connect wordii, ano 
show tb« relation between them — it connects die words "ante- 
lope" and "wilderness" — and shows the relation between them. 
fFildemeis is a noun, the name of a place — com. the name of 
<t sort or species — neut. gend. it denotes a thing without aex— 
third pers. spoken of — sing. num. it implies but one — and in (he 
objective case, it is the object of the relaUon expressed by the 

>re|H)aition " in," and governed bj it, according t( 
Ruix 31. Prmosilions gimerniht ohjeclivecaai 
The genius of oiu- lan^age will not aUow us to say, Staod 

iMfore he ; Hand the paper to (Key. Prepositions rcjutrs tha 
pronoun following them to be in the objective form, position, oi 
case ; and this requisition amounts to gtntruMttU. Hence «• 
»ay, "Stand before Attn;" " Hand the paper to then." HaXWJ 
preposition expresses a relation, and every relatiMi must have 
ia ohftet : consequently, every preposition must he followed bj 
ft noun or pronoun in the objective case. 

Tin all<wiae Creator bestowed the pow»' of speech upon 
una, for Ibe most escelkHft uses. Augustus heard the orator 
pleadiDgthe client's cause, in a flow of most powerful eloquence. 
Fair Cynthia smites sereneljr over nature's soil repose. LifeU 
varying schemes no more distract the labouring mind of man. 
Septjoiius stabbed Fompey standing on the shore of Egypt. 
A beam of tranquillityoflen plays round the heart of Ae tnilr 
' pious man. The thoughts of former years glide over my sou], 
like Bwift-shooting meteors over Ardven'a gloomy vales. 

At the approach of day, night's swill dragons cut the cloudt 
full fast ; and ghosts, wandering here and there, troop home to 

Love still pursues an ever devious race. 
True to the winding lineaments of grace. 
NvtB. — TInwordinwuidaidyoanMiIiiolpuie. Tha naan " mvtaora," 
Jbllewing themdnirb "Uke," is in the objsctiie case, ■nd govsmcd b^mit* 
undeiMooct, according to Notb S, undei Rule 39. The naan ■' hom^ w 
COvemed bj ta nndnslaod, according to Kale 39. 


A ndnn or proaoon in the objective case, is often governed by ■ prqisa, 

lion undsntMid; u, "Obc Atn that book ;" theE u, "Give that MoklM 

t^ l" " Orti^nl was one day wandering," &.-^ that is, m one dajr. ■< Mar, 

a fives ^^cSan a eracoj" that is, Mercy givee a gnca lo at^UoD. 8«* 
>ta 1, under Rule 3S. 

a proper tn; oT [omoiiitiona, pailicalar atteidwn is 

.. peculiar propriely to be oDserved in the use ofl^aii^ 

■."HewslkiwtUa staffkif moonlight;" "He vaslakanlyiMta 

Hqninle. There ii a. peculiar propriety tt 

/m, and killed wilA > awonL" Put thi oneinpontien tor Um otbw, and 
■■/, "Hawallu ty astaffirilA moonlight;" ''Heiruliikcnwilii Mratagt^ 
and killed h ■ sword ;" and it will appear, that the latter i ijiiiaaiiim m- 
At Irom the fonnec in ngnificalion, more than one, at fiiat view, woaU be 
iqn to imagine. 

Verba are oflen compouaded of a verb and a preyonfion; aa, to uphold, to 
trilAatond, to oseriook ; and thin composiliun ^vea a now meaninij to the 
reifa ; aa, to underatand, to ipifabdiaw, to Tbrgire. But tbe piepoMtieo is 
more frequeritly placed after tbe verb, and separately from it, tie an ad- 
nihf in vhich aituatioo it da«a not leas afiect the tense of the vcob, and 
giva It a new meaaiiig ; and in alt instances, whether the prapoaitim ia 
placed either before or after the verb, if it giyes a new meaning to the »eil^ 
It ma; be considered as a purl qf Iht vtri. Thin, (o cod meaas la Um», 
but locaif apan acooont, Bignifiealo ccmputi it ; therefiireup is a psrtoTlbo 
TarbL . The phrasea, (o/aU on, (g fteoriiui, to^r owr, conTcv very diffirent 
■Deanincii from what they would if the prepoatioos on, oul, and aver, wen na 
ttmd. Verba (rf'this kind aro called aonpnoutTerbs. 

Yon nifty now answer the following 

From what worda is tba term prtpotilion derived I — Why is 
it thus named! — Repeat the list of prepositions. — Name the 
tlnee parts of speech tb&t govern nouns and pronouns in the 
objective case. — Wlien is a noun or pronoun m the abjective 
case, the object of an action 1 — When ia it the object of a rela- 
tion i — Repeat the order of parsing a preposition. — What rule 
do you apply in parsing a noun or pronoun governed by a pie- 
poaition? — Does every preposition require an objective case 
kfter it t — Is a noun or pronoun ever governed by a preposition 
understood T — Give examples. — What is said of verbs com- 
pounded of a vorb and preposition 1 — Give the origin and mean- 
ing of the prepositions explained in the Philosophical Notes. 



' A Pkonoun is a word used instead of a noun, 
and ecnei^y to avoid the too frequent repetttioD 
of t£e same word. A pronoun is, likewise, 
Bometitttes a substitute for a sentence, or mem 
ber of a sentence. 


The word proMHM comee from the two Latin word*, prv, 
«Uch meana jor-, or ttubaij o/*, and nomcn, a name, or noun. 
Hoaii you perceive, that in'onom means _/br anotm, « ttuteoJ 

In the sentence, " The man is happy ; &c is benevolent ; he 
if iMOliil;" 70U perceive, that the woAi A« ie used instoBd of the 
Boun moN; consequently he must be a prmoiM. You obsenre, 
too, that, by making use of the pronoun ht in this sentence, we 
avoid the r^ttitioit of the noun man, for without the pronouut 
Iba sent^Ko would be rendered thus, " The mui is happy ; At 
mam is benevolent ; the nuui is useful." 

By looking again at the definition, you will notice, that pro- 
tMMiaa alnsyB tlandfor nouna, but they do not always oooi'ij iht 
rtpttiiio* of nouns. Repclition means rtpeaiing ox mentioning 
the same thing again. In the sentence, " I come to die for my 
. cotmtiy," tite pronouns, /and n^, (fciii^for the noma of the per- 
son who spoahH ; but they do not aroid the repetUioti of that 
name, because the name or noun for which the pronouna are 
nsed, is not mentioned at all. Pronouns of (he third person, 
genemlly avoid the repetition of the nouns for which ftey stand ; 
but pronouns of the Jtral and second person, sometimes avoid 
tte repetition of nouns, and sometimes they do not. 

A little farther illustration of the pronoun will show you its 
Importance, and, also, that its nature is very easily compre- 
hended. If we fed no pronouns in our language, we should be 
obliged to express ourselves in this manner : " A woman went 
to a man, and told the man that tho man was in danger of being 
■nurderod by a gang of robbers \ as a gang of robbers had made 
pteparations for attacking the man. Thu man thanked the wo- 
man for the woman's kindness, and, as the man was unable to 
defend the man's self, the man left the man's house, and went 
to a neighbour's.'' 

This would be a laboijous style indeed ; but, by the help of 
pronouns, we can express the same ideas with far greater ease 
and conciseness : " A woman went to a man, and told kini, 
that he was in great danger of being murdered by a gang of rob- 
bers, who had made preparations for attacking him. He thank- 
ed her for her kindness, and, as he was unable to defend hitu- 
teff, he left hit house and went to a neighbour's." 

If you look at these examples a few moments, you cannot be 
st a loss to tell which words are pronouns ; and you will ob- 
serve, toe, that they all stand for nouns. 

Pronotms are generally divided into threa 
kmda, the Personal, the Adjective, and the He- 

JU£m pronounB. They are all known hf the 


Persokai. Prokoitns are distinguished from 
the relatirej by their denoting the person of the 
nouns for ivhich they stand. There arc five of 
them ; /, thou, he, she, it ; with their plurab. 
We, ye ox you, they. 

To pronoiuM belong gender, pcnon, number, 
and ca|e- 

Gbmdkb. Wliea w« spesk of amon, we wttj, he, kit, tni>' 
whna we apeak of a vowum, we aa^, <A«, htr», k»r ; rad vim 
we apedt of a Omtg, we aay U. Hence 70a perceive, that gMH 
iler belongs to pronoona aa well as to nouoe. Example ; '■ tIm 
jeoeral, in gratitude to the lady, offered her hi* hand ; but tkt, 
not knowing Aim, dedtoed accepting it." Tbe pronoona Ut 
and him, in thia sentence, peraooate or represent the noim gt' 
ncrof ; they are, therefore, of the masculine gender: Am* and 
th* perscHiate Wy ; therefore, they are feminine : and U repre- 
•enta bond; for wtaeh reason it ia of tiie neuter gender. TIh 
illuatiBtion ahows you, then, that pronouna must be of the aaan 
gender aa the nouna are for which (hey stand. But, a« it rehitaa 
to the variation of the pronouns to expread sei^ 

Gender has respect only to the third person 
aingular of the pronouns, he, she, it. He u mas- 
cuhne ; the is feminine ; it is neuter. 

Ton may naturally inquire, why pronouns of the first and 
second peracmia are not varied to denote the gendw of Steir 
nouna, aa well as of the tbiid. The reason ia obvious. Xb* 
first person, tHat is, the person speaking, and the second person, 
or the person spoken to, being at the same time (be subjects of 
the Aicoiirae,aresupposed to be present; from wluch, end other 
circinnstances, their sex is commonly known, and therefore, 
the pronoHDs that represent these persons, need not be mailed 
by a distinction of gender ; but (he thitd person, (hat is, (he 
person or tbiog spoken of, beicg absent, and in many reapecta 
nnknown, necesstu^ t^uires the proAoun that stenda Tor it. Id 
be marked by a distinction of gender. 

In parsing, we sometimes apply gender to pronouns of (he 
ftrst utd second person, and also to the plural number of ^ 
third pemon ; but tbeae have no peculiar form to denote fteir 


■Mdoc ; tberafore thej have no agreemeiit, in Ihu raapeci, vitfa 
3iB ntluas which Ibey repnaent. 

Pessoh. Pronouns have three persons in each 
/, is the first person "] 

llum, is the second person V Singular. 

ifs, «Ae, or t/, is the tnird person j 
We, is the first person "| 

¥e or yottt is the second person > Plural. 
They, 18 the third person J 

Thia account of persons will be very intelligible, when you 
reflect, that tbere^are three persons who may be the subject ol 
any discoime : first, the person who speaks, may speak of him- 
■ebT ; secondly, he may speak of the person to whom be addresg- 
«a himself; thirdly, he may speak of some other person ; and 
aa the speakers, the persons spoken to, and the persons spoken 
of, may be many, so each of these persons must have a plural 

Pronouns of the second and third person, always agree in 
person with the nouns they represent ; but pronouns of the first 
peraon, do not. AVhenever a pronoun of the first person is used, 
it represents a noun ; but nouns are nracr of the first person, 
therefore these pronouns cannot agree in person widi their 

NuHBEK. Pronouns, like nouns, have two 
numbers, the singular and the plural ; as, /, tlwu, 
he; we, ye or you, they. 

Case. Pronouns nave three cases, the no- 
mmative, the possessive, and the objective. 

In die next place I will present to you the dttUiuion of the 
peisoital pronouns, which declension you must commit to me- 
mory before you proceed any farther. . 

T)m advantages resulting from the committing of the follow 
ing declension, are so great and diversified, that you cannot be 
too particular in your attention to it. You recollect, that it is 
sometimes very d^cult to distinguish the nominative ease of a 
Boim from the objective, because these cases of nouns are not 
marked by a difference in termination ; but this difficulty m 
Mnmved in regard to the personal pronouns, for theff cases an 
always known by their taminatioo. By studying (he declen 


■ion you will learn, not only the cases of the pronouna, but, «Im>, 
thoir genders, persons, nod numbers. 






JVom. I, 


Pass, my or mine, our or own, 

Ohj. me. 





JVom, thou. 

ye or you. 

Pass, thy or 

thine, your or yours, 

Oltj. thee. 



Mas. Smg. 


^om. he. 


Pass, his. 

then- or theirs. 

Obj. him. 



Fern. Sing. 


mm. she. 


Pom. her or 

hers, their or thein. 

06;. her. 



AVW. Siiw. 



Po»». its, 

then" or theirs, 

0*}. it. 



1. Wban Hffii added to Uw penonol prontxini, u lomieir, iiijm(( JUdL 
thanaalraa, fcc Ibej ua odled annpnmd ftT$imid prminttu, and are u*^ 
in ths Doi^naliTe or otnectirs caae, but not in the poBSMsiye. 

S, lnoi*Brto»ioHlfi«dia»BTaD»bloh«™hne»BofiioiiniJ,occaBionedl)Ttno 
fiwiaent Meonenca of the teniiin«lk.D» t>l, lihl, in the KdapUtion of ov 
Tsiia to tlio vaaia^an tkm, ■ nndeni iunovaUon "hjcli aulwtit^ea !"" ™ 


ooubvMioii, however, u 

iB nseoftDUwould Btilt be imgrain- 
neil to the liiit and third penoDB, 
Hwnd penon, it would ■ppruiiniiLts 
We nsTer use the rnigalu of the 
pnHDt Uate with you : — you art, you m; you toattrjf, you aaiki. Why, 
Hiwi,ihn BMmy attempt be roaije to force a. usage so onnstural and gralnilom 
1 the eoniMWling of the Mngulafgetb in the paittenaewilhthia pronoun? Id 
&mj poiDt of new, the construction, " When were you there !" " How Ui 
wtre no ftom tba patrlie* T" is preferable to the other. 

S. na word* m§, tkn, JUi, Atr, our, your, Ihar, are, by many, denominated 
pmtnftt aJjteUtt fnaimu i but they alwiytiCaiut fbrnooDi in the poasea. 
_. »-. _i. ., . , .. . ^,^,1, 

iincaM^ lihnoaglkt, Ihu^fore, to heel , „, 

llMt prilK>l)kordMBScat>an which imnk* them with tba kdjectiTe prooouna, 
would alio tlUDW all mHUU in the poameamn case among tba adjeethrea. 

Smnpte : "Tlie ladj gave the notlaniaD her watch for ku borae." In ttua 
— '~~M Aa*p«taonala^ ocatanda fiir, the noun "lady," and Marepnaaola 

" gml— an " "Tlua &ct i» doaily ahown by « _ _ . , 

" Tbe lady gave the gentleman the tatlfi watch for the gttttltmaa't hone.** 
ITIa^t aud|«iUcniai'i ate nouua. Wand lUamiwt be peraoaal proaouna. 
"Aa aama ramarica Wplj to «m, llm,»ur, amr, thtir and itt. Thn view of 
ij ba objected to by umms mu apecolate and leRne opon the 

giammaiiana, bMn oonaidered m^ely the poaaawiTe caaea of pancuial pro- 
■Bon^ whilst, bj otbera, they hare b«o denominaled pronouns or noona in 
(baBOBunaliToocotjectnecaae. ltiabelieTed,lioweTer,lhBt«bttloaU«ik. 
tini to Iha meaning and office of these words, will dtatlT show tbo impto- 
plietj nf botb these daanficabons. Hume who pursue the former arrange- 
RBtnl, tllc«& tlMt, in tba ezamplea, " Tou may imagina what kind «( fiHtfi 
flWri was ; My BteaantM are past ; ien and jroun aie to come : Ihey ap- 
plmdad Ida condiict, but Condemned hert and ycun," the words ladrt, htn, 
and jCTBV, an paiaonal pronouns in the possessive case, and gotemcd bj 
tbeir teepMti** Donns ooderstood. To proie this, they cooatruct the sen- 
lODcea tfioa, " you may imagine what kind of faith Ihtir JMh waa ; — ktr 
yitaMT*! and yMrmtatura are to come ; — but condemned htr amdiut and 
jfmir foaJMcff" or tluu, " Tou may iuiasine what kind of laith tba ftitb of 
them waa ; — the |deaaurea of her and the pleasures of yon, are to coata, — 
but condemned tlie condoct of her and the conduct of you." But these con- 
atroctiona, (botb of which are correct,) prove too much for their pnrpoae ; 
for, aaaoonaawesinnjlythenonni afterthese words, tbey are roaolved into 
peraooal prcinouns of ktadred meaning, and the nouns which we auppljr; 
tbua. Ikon becoiaes, their faith : hert, her plcaaniea ) and yari, your 
pleaautea. This evidently mves ns two winds instead of, and alto^tber dia' 
linct fioin, the Rrat ; ao tEat, in parsing, their fidlh, we are not, in rMl^ 
aoalynng ihart, hut two other words of which Ifcairs is the ptofor rapreMOto- 
lira. l^ese renuuks also prove, with equal fofee.tbe impropriety of oallug 
tbaae words merely nmple prononns or noons in the nommativeot otiieaiin 
eaaa. Wthout BttemptiDg lo dewilop U>e originsl or intrinsick meaoing ol 
Ibeaa plumlixing adjunela, ne and «, wWh were, no donht, formeiiy detatud 


Dounl, Utqr innnab]]> lUad fbr, not only the penon poB*Maiiig,TM^dlio 
the Uun( umeaaai, which pm Unid a empounil cluncter. Tbcj mi*, 
tlisnibra, ba propeilj daiKaniiifttad C(iMiimiiDPttaimu.fuoN(itimti vA, 
utbsjahnji parium K doohto offioe in ■ Kiitenca by rapraMDliiif two 
«thar words, mad, oonssqaenllf , iDcludiiig two caies, tbey il^xM, l£« tlw 
uompoand rdatire wAal, ba puied u two wordt. Thui, io the ezamf))^ 
" Ten ni>7 imafjne what kind (rf'fkitb theirs wu," lAeiri ii ■ coD^aad per- 
KHul proDouD, equivalent to Uulrfmlk. Thtir i> ■ pronoun, a word nmi 
knitead of a nooa ; petaooal, it peiKiDatea the personi ^wkeii of^ nnder- 
■loodj third pen. plnr- nimih. fcc. — and in the poawaKre caw, uijginanad 
by'*&lh," aoooiding to Enls II. H(jk ia a nomi, the name of a thiu j 
b. fcc.—- and in ths nominative coee to " was," and goreniB it ; Rule 3. Or, 
if wa render the aentencfl tbiu, " You may unasine what kind of fakh Ilia 
fiiU t^Umi* waa," fallk would be in the nominative case to " waa," and 
Um would be in the objective caae, and gaiemed by " of:" Rule SI. 

Objectiona lo tlua method of treating theaa pranooiu^ wil douMUea b* 
pnTnrTed by thou who aaeett, lh«t a noiui ia underalood aRar thaaa wordt, 
and Dot rapnaented by th«n. But this ia aaaeitioD without proof; for, if a 
■oan wera midentood, it miclit be aupplied. Ifthe question be put, wftoaa 
boiA land the answer be, mlru,M(rt,An'>,orM*ir(, the word bocA ia iadnd- 
•d io aneh answer. Were it not inclndMl, we nugbt sui^ly it, thn^ milM 
ML ours ttak, hen ioak, and so on. This, however, ws cannot do, for it 
woaald ba living a doMt anawer : but when the <iuestion is answered by a 
noon in the poMeiaiTe ease, the word book ia noimcluded.but imphed; al^ 
WhoMbookl John'i, Bichaid's ; that is, John's ftoot,- Richard's feoi. 

'lUa view of the subjea, without a parallel, eicept in the compounds iMot, 
mkocttr, and elisr^ is respectfully submitted to the publick ; believing, that 
Qiaae who approve of a critical analysts of words, will comdde with me. 
KMuld any still be dispoaed to treat these words >o auperfidaliy as to rank 
them atnong tho nmiJe pronoun^ let them answer the following interrogw 
•«ry: If uM, when Compound, should bo parsed as two words, vhy not 
mlmt, lUM, kU, hat, awn, yturt, and IMn 7 

A. Jlfiru and Ohti, instead oftt^ and %, are used in solenm style, bsfbra 
■'-—^— :Tgwithavowslor silent ft; aa," Blot oV-"-^-'-^"""-" 

anid when thna used, they are not compound. HU always has the same 
farm, iriialber simple or compound i ss, " Give John Aii book ; That desk is 
Mt." Htr, lAtm fdaced before a noun, is in the possessiva case ; as. Take 
isr bat : when standing alone, it is in the objective case ; as, Qive the hat 

When 70U shall have studied thu lecture attentively, and com 
mitted the dtcUation of the personal ptonouna, you may camnut 
the following 

Tie order of parsing a Fersokai. Pronovit, 

e In Ih* note Mxt piecediDg, it is assertad, that my, thy, hia, her, onr, 
TOOT, and thi^.jare parsonal woDOnQS, What can more (Martydemonstfatt 
be oonectnsBB of that asaerW, than this lattsr eonatractlon of ^ wom 
thna? All admit, that, in the cooatonction, '^Tha tiuth tf tkwa." the w<«d 
Umb is « panoaal pcrauran: and (br this eondnahrereeaoai — it lepreaenta 
anoonimdntood. What, tben,iBlMr,in thephnsa, "^OwMthT^ 

lot mTTHoLoar and aTHTAx. 

is — a pronoun, and why ? — personal, anil why ? — 
person, and why? — gender and number, and 
why? — Rule: case, and why? — Rule. — De- 
cline it 

Tbera ara many peculiarities to be observed in paning pei- 
•onal ptonouoa in their different persons ; therefore, if you wiih 
ever to pane them correcttj, you must paj particular attention 
to the Manner in which the foUowing are analyzed. Now no- 
(icei particularly, and you will perceive that we apply only on* 
rnl« in paraing / and my, and two in parsing Ihov, htm, and they- 
" I «aw my friend." 

/ ia a pronoun, a word used instead of a noun — ^peraonal, it 
fe)Nresenta the person speaking, understood — tirst person, it de- 
notes the speaker — singular number, it imolies bat one — mad is 
tbs iMminative case, it represents the actor and subject of the 
Tech " •aw," and governs it, agreeably to Role 3. 77m nom. 
eau goB. fht verb. Declined — first pers. sing. num. nom. I, 
poM. my or mine, obj. mc Plur. nom. we, poss. our or ours, 

My is B pronoun, a word used instead of a noun — persoaal, 
it personates the person apeaking, understood — first pers. it de- 
iHtea the speaker-^ing. num. it implies but one— and in the 
poosessive case, it denotes possession ; it is governed by flie 
noun "friend," agreeably to Rulb 13. ^ notm orproitoua in 
tke poMetnve eate, it governed by ihe nouti U pot»e»se». Decltn 
ed-— fint pers. sing. oom. I, poss. my or mine, obj. me. Flur 

" Young man, thott hast deserted thy companion, and lefl kim 
in distress." 

Tlwtt is a pronoun, a word used instead of a noun — personal, 
it personates "man" — second person, it represents the parson 
spoken to — maa. gend. sing. num. because the noun " man" 
is for which it stands, according to 

Rdls 13. Pertonal pronouat must tigree milh Ihe noittu for 
vhieh Ike^ gland tn gender and nu)n£«r. 

' Tkoit is in the nom. case, it represents the actor and subject 
nf thfl verb "hast desertedj" and goreras it agreeably to Rdle 
8. n> nonb cote gov. th« verb. Declined — sec. pers. aing. 
num. nom. Jhou, poss. tiiy or thine, obj. thee. Plur. nom. yi 
or you, poss. your or yours, obj. you. 

Am ia k pronoun, a word used instead (f a noun — psraosri, 
it pecsonates " companion" — third pers. it represents thepM<- 
son spoken of— mas, g«nd. aing. numb, becauia the boub 

* eompnnioii" is for which U stands : Rule IS, Petri, pro. ^e. 
(Repeat the Rule. ) — Hita is in the objective case, the object of 
die action Mprossed by (be active-transitive verb "hastleft," 
and gov. by it : Rule 20. Aclite-lrana. verba gov. Ike obj. coat. 
Decbned — third pers. max. gend. sing. num. nom. he, pora. 
hi*, obj. bim. Plui. nora. they, posa. their or theirs, obj. 

" Thrice I raised my voice, and culled the chiefs to combat ; 
but ffcay dreaded the force of my ana." 

7%«y is a pronoun, a word used instead of a noun — person- 
al, it repiesents " chiefs" — third pera. it denotes the persoofl 
qwken of— mas. gend. piur. num. because the noun " chiefs" 
M for which it stands : Rdle 13. Pera. Fron. &e. (Repeat 
tte Rale.) It is the nom. case, it represents the actors and 
aubjact ef die verb " beaded," and governs it : Rule S. THt 
nam, cote, gov, tht verb. Declined — third pers. maa. gewU 
nng. numb. nom. be, posa. bis, obj. him. Plur. nom. they 
poM. dieir or theirs, obj. them. 

NoTc We do Bot apply pnder in parsiiB the penonal [wonouni, (bi- 
captinf tha third penon Kngiiki,) iT Uki nouns Oiej repTGsent are nodar- 
itacid ; ftnd tharerore we do out, in such iastaDcCB, apply Rule 13. Bat 
when tba aaan ia a a pr— icd, geoder riknld be applied, madtiee Rulei, 

I saw a man leading his borso slowly over the new bridge. 
My fnends visit me very often at my father's office. We im- 
prove ourselves by close application. Horace, thou leamcel 
many lessons. Charles, you, by your diligence, make easy 
work of the task given you by your preceptor. Totmg ladies, 
you nm over your lessons very carelessly. The stranger drove 
his horses too far into tiie water, and, in so doing, be drowned 

Gray morning rose in the eaaL A green narrow vole ap- 
peared before us : its winding stream murmured through the 
grore. The daric host of Rothmar aiood on its banks with 
uteir glittering spears. We fought along the valo. They fled. 
Rothmar sunk beneath my sword. Day was descending in the 
west, when I brought his arms to Crothar. The aged hero felt 
diem widi his bands : joy brightened his thoughts. 

DTE. Hanee, Chaiitt, and UMa, are of the •aeonit penMk and noni. 
iiidtpatdmt: ■eaBou 5, and Note. The fint mU ia tuad ui »>• nom. 
^andobi-caae.— ItrepceaaBtaChailea, tbeiefiiMit iatingiilw inaena^ 

altbaash ptand inform. ln1heneilfluinple,y«MnoniB*a'<''*i' 
ftMitujilNndL GnvituaperfaetpBHiciple. roufiitbiwiiiagi<ren,i>(;ovem- 
adl>jlaaa<Ientood,aoconEDgIoni>TEl,underRala3>. Auneea-iaaeon). 
unnd vmb. .Aul w a coajimctiai). Thefinlil9p«w>nate*Ta)ai thtwcond 

104 irtMOLooT AND avNTAx. 

You ma; now pcrae the following examples tbrea UmM 


"Juliet, tetain her paper, and present yours." 
Youn is a compound personal pronoun, Tepresenting both 
tlie posaeaoor and the thing possessed, and is equivalent to yma 
"paper, Yovtr is a pronoun, a word used instead of a noun — 
peraonsl, it personates " Juliet" — second person, it represents 
the person spoken to — fern, gender, sing, numher, (aingutar iii 
Bense, but plural in form,) because the noun Juliet is for whinh 
it stands: Rule 13. Per».priM. ^c. — ifour isin the possessive 
case, it denotes poBseasion, and is governed by "paper," ac- 
cording to Rule 13. AnovMorpron. S^c. (Repettt the Rule, 
and decline the pronoun.) Paptr is a noun, the name of a 
thing — common, uie name of a sort of things — neuter gender, it 
denotes a thing without sex — third p^mon, spoken of — Mng> 
number, it implies but one — and in the obj. case, it is the object 
of the action expressed by the transitive veri> "Dresent," and 
governed by it ; Rule 20. Aeiivt-tranntne eero*, gm»m th* 
^Aj. case. 

Nori. SlmnU it ba oUaoted, thai ygiM ioe» not meui your pMxr, taj 

more than it meuii wxb* oooJt, your houn, yaa- an; thing, let it ba born* in 

miDd, that pronouns liave no ^JMtt meuiing, like other worda j bnt Ibcii 

fmUodar ngaification ia always detennined by the nouiia tliey repreaent. 


Jtilia injured her book, and soiled mine : hers is better than 
mine. Mj friend sacrificed bis fortune to secure yours : his 
deeds deserve reward ; yours merit disgrace. Heniys labours 
are past; thine are to come. We leave your forests of beasts 
for ours of men. My sword and yours are kin. 

Note. Sht uadetitood, ia nominative to mUed, in the luat example i and 

the BubetODtive pait of tninc, after than, i> nom. to ii, andanitood : Rule 36. 

Jhe verbs In tecurc and to comi have no nominative. The pronouns mSat, 

mil, jcuri, tldru, we, tinir, ouri, my, and youri, pereonate nouns undeislood. 


For the want rf a proper knowledge of thia little pronoun it, many grant- 
nisriana have been greall; puzzled how to dispose of it, or how to acoaiuit 
for its muttifbrm, and, Eeeminitly, contradictory chstactera. It la in great 
deniiind by writers of every description. They use it without caraimny ; 

thing, or mote than ona II ia appUed to nouns in the rosscuhne, feminuM, 
or neuter gender, and, very frequently, it repreeeijts a mombei of a sentence, 
a whole aenteiKW, or a number of seotenceB taken in amass. 

A little attention to its true character, will, at once, strip it of all its mys- 
tery. Jt, formeily written Ut, according toH.Tooke, is the past partidpla of 
the Moeao-Gotbick verb haittm. It meana, 1^ nid, and, therefor^ Ska Ha 
near relative llial, meaning, Iki aanantd, onranallj had no reapect, tn lis «»• 
jilication, to nombei, person, or gendn. "Aisa iriralesoras law;"ie. ^f 


■wt (bw) ia s wbolcnxn* Isw ; or, tkal (Uk) it a wbolaiKiin* Uw ) — lit M- 
MMci (law) ia ■ wholenme taw. " fl is the mui ; I beliere il to be Aem :" 
-^Ht hM (msD) ia the mui ; (Aolfinan) istheman; I hehere tin aid (per- 
■Mia) to be them ; I IwLeve lAa/ petsora (according to the ancient applica- 
tion of thai) to be them. " It happened on a aummer'a iaf, that man; peopi* 
wan awembled," 8cc— MBI17 people were aanembled: it, that, or lit MJrf 
(Act or cinumitance) happened on a lummer'B day. 

It, eccotding to it< sccepled meaning in modern timec^ ii not rcfeired to 
■ conn underatood ader it, but is considered a lubatitute. " How ia it with 
70U 1" that ie, Hotr is your italt or conditien ?" " It raina ; It lieei«i ; It ia 
a bud winter ;"—7A<rrunrBinB; Tb fr«( froBte or Treezea ,- T^uU (win- 
ter) ia ■ hard winter. "/( ia detightfuT to aeo brothers and natera )i™e in 
HninUmipted love to the end of their dsja." What is delightful? Tilt* 
bri4hen mnd listers Umg In vninitTTtrntcdloetl^lht out of Iktir daft. It,tku 
M»g, i* delighU'ul. II, then, stands lor all that part of the sentence ezpreas- 
ed IB itoJicliB ) and the aeulence will admit of the foUowing constnictian ; 
"^To aee brotbera Lving in uninterrupted Iotb to the end of ^eirdaj^ilde- 


AujrECTiTE Prokouns, Phonominal Adjec- 
tives, or, more properly, Speciftino Adjec- 
tives, are a kind of adjectives which point out 
nouns by some distinct specification. 

FronotioB and adjectives are totally distinct in their cha 
meter. The former fland for nouns, and never belong to them ; 
fte latter belong to nouns, snd never stand for them. Hence, 
such a thii^ as an adjeetive-fironoiiit cannot exist. Each, 
m>mry, tUktr, tKit, that, tvme, olktr, and the roaidoe, are purs 

Those specifying adjectives commonly called 
Adjective Pronouns, may be divided into three 
sorts; the diWrifiufive, ~the demonstrative, and the 
indefinite. They are all known by the lists. 

1. The distributive adjectives are Uiose that 
denote the persons or things that make up a 
number, each taken separately and singly. JOist: 
each, every, either, and sometimes neither; as, 
*' Each of his brothers is in a favourable situa- 
tion;" " JEJocry man must account for himself;" 
" ^''either of them is industrious." 

These diBtributives are words which are introduced into lan- 
guage in its rHfiaed state, in order to express the nicest shades 
and odours of thought. "Man must account for hiiiMolf;" 
"Mmkind must account for tLwnscNes ;" " -M »••»• most wr. 


count for thenuelTM;" " Ml men, women, and ehildr*it, iiuist 
account for themselvna ;" " Every man must account for ium- 
self." Each of these assertions conve/a the eanie fact or 
truth. But the last, instead of presenting tlie whole hum&n 
fiunily for the mind to eoQtemplal« in a mass, by the pecultM 
force of every, dittribtUet them, ajid presents each separatelj 
and singlj ; and whatever is affirmed of one individual, the 
■nind instantaneously transfers to the whole human race. 

Eaek relatw to two or more persona or things, and Bignifiog sillier of tV 
two, or BTery una oTanjr numbei token sepontelj. 

EBtry relate* to sarenl peraona or things, and aigniliei eiuA one of tima 
■U Imkea BepirBtely. 

Either relatea to luo peraona or things taken leparatelj, and agniSea tin 
Mie or the other. " Eiiaer of the thne^'" ia an improper Bipniialoii. If vhooU 
be, "an J of the thrae." 

A'nUcr imports nol either ; that ii, not one nor the other ; ««, " Miltttr 
oTmy fiien<u wai there." When an alluuon is made to more thui Iwo, niu 
■hoiud be used instead of neiihtr ; aa, " Miou of mj friends was then." 

II. The demonstrative are those which pre- 
cisely point out the subject to which they relate. 
List : this and that, and their plurals, these and 
those, and former and latter; as, " TTiis is true 
charity ; that is only its image." 

There is but a slight shade of difference in the meaning and 
^^lication of Ihi and thai. When reference is made to a par- 
ticular book, we aar, " Take the book ;" but when we wish tfi 
oe very pointed wta precise, we say, " Take that book ;" or, if 
it be near by, " T^ce this book." Tou perceive, Aen, that 
these demonstratives have all the force of the dofiQite article, 
and & little more. 

TUt and tjlut refer to the naareat persona or things, that and thou to tbs 
moat dntant ; aa, " TTute goods are superiourtothofe.'' TMn and lien indi- 
cate the latter, or laat mentioned ; tAol and thoie, the fonner, or first men- 
tioned ; as, '■ Both nedlh and pmerty are temptation* ; that tsnda to cxdts 
idde, liWa, discontent." 

" °—K place the bliss in ------ 

Tiay, Hum. As it is ttie oiGce of the personal tliey U 

mnionslT introduced to our notice, there aiipears to be ■ alight departure 
Bom analogjr in the foUowitiB application of it : " They ivho seek alter wii- 
dom, are auie to find her : Thei/ thai sow in lesrs, somelimeB reap in yq." 
This nsage, however, is well establiahed, and they. In audi conatructiona^ ia 
pmersJlf employed in preference to Ihmt, 

III. The indejlniie are those which express 
dieir subjects in an indefinite or general manner. 
IList : some, other, any, one, all, such, both, same, 
mtother, none. Of these, one and other are de- 

dined like nouns. Jlnoiher is declined, but wants 
the plural. 

The ind^nite adjectives, IUm tiie iadefimle article, leave the 
ineaning unfixed, or, in some degrae, vague. With a alight 
■hade of differeace in meaning, we sa/. Give me a paper, one 
pttpcr, any paper, tome paper, and so on. Tboii^ these word» 
rwtrict tite meaning of the noun, tbey do hot fix it to a porliciilar 
object. We therefore call them indefinite. 

Th«ae tdjectireB, or adjecdve praDooni, frequent 1 j bdong to noDiu niider' 
rtotd, in wUch ritu&tion (hey should lie paned kccordingty ; x, " Ton DUT 
t^eolher; He IB pteaaed with IMi book, but dialikee Uol (book;) ^(mea) 
havs unned, but lonu (men) have repented." 

The words one, other, and none, are used in 
both numbers ; and when they stand for nouns, 
they are not adjecdres, but indefinite pronouns ; 
as, " The great ones of the world have their fail- 
ings ;" " Some men increase in wealth, while 
others decrease ;" " J^one escape." 

The word " ones," in the preceding example, iow not be- 
long to a noun understood. If it did, we could enpplj th« 
BMID. The meaning is not " the great one men, nor ones 
men," therefore one in not on adjective pronoun ; but the mean- 
ing is, " The great men of the world," therefore onet ia a pro 
noun of the indefinite kind, representing the noun men under 
Mood, and it ought to he parsed like a personal pronoun. The 
word otktn, in the next example, is a compound proaoui^ 
equivalent to other men ; and should be parsed tike mine, tJwM, 
4^. See Note, 4di page. 

I will now parse two pronouns, and then present stmie oxani- 
l^ea for you to analyze. If, in parsing the following exercises, 
you ibouid be at a loss for definitions and rules, please to refer 
to dM compendium. But before you proceed, yon may commit 
&e fdlowing 

. The order of parsing an Adjectjte Pronoun, 
is — an adjective pronoun, and why ?— distribu- 
tive, demonstrative, or indefinite, and why ? — tj> 
wtiat noun does it belong, or with what does it 
agree ? — Kule. 

" One man instructs maST olh»r»." 
ihu is an adjective pronoun, or specifying adjectivo, it spoci 

lOS tTtMOLooT 4Mi> aintux. 

fieallypouiU out a Doun — indefinite, it espieBsn tta Babjact n 
ui indefinite or general manner, and belongs to the noun " man," 
according to 

RiTLB 19. Adjectha prtmowu hdot^ Is nouna, expruttd or ■ 

Other* is a compound pronoun, including both an odjaetiTe 
jironoiin and a noun, and is eqyirdent to other nun. Ottn* 
is an adjective pronoun, it is used specifically to desciiba its 
noun — indefinite, it oxpresses its subject in an indefinite manner, 
and belongs to men : Rule 19. (Repeat the rule.) J^tm n a 
noun, a name denoting person? — common, &c. (parse it in &H ;) 
and in the objective caae, it is the object oftho action e.ipressed 
by tbe transitive verb " instrucla," and gov. by it : Rule 20. . 
Aelwe'traaMtiee wrhi, ^c, 

" Thott books are mtns." 
Than is an adjective pronoun, it apecifiee what nowi is r»- 
UirnA to— demonstrative, it precisely points out the subject to 
which it relates — and agrees wilh Uie noun " books" in the 
plural number, according to IN'ote 1, under Rule 19. Adjeetwe 
pnmotme matt agrte in number \eith their nouiu. 

JUina is a compound personal pronoun, including both tbe 
Bosseesor and the thing possessed, and ia equivalent to h^ 
Moiti. JVfj is a pron. a word used instead of a noua— personal, 
it etaitds for the name of the person speaking — first person, it 
doBOtas tbe q>eaker — sing, number, it implies but oat — and in 
Ibe posS. case, it denotes possession, and is gov. by " books," 
according to Rule 12. (Repeat tbe Rule, and decline tbe pro- 
noun.) Book$ is a noun, the mune of a thing — common, &g. 
(parse it in full ;)^ajKl in the nonauative case after " are," ac- 
cording to Role 21. The vtrb to be admilt the »amt com ajiar 
it atbeJor*il. 

Eadi individual fills a space in creation. Every man balpa 
a little. These men rank amcm^ tbe great ones of the wothL 
That book belongs to the tutor, this belongs to me. Sonte men 
labour, olbeta labour not ; tbo former increase in wealth, the 
latter decrease. The boy wounded the old bird, and stole the 
young ones. None performs his duty too well. STone of those 
poor wretches complain of their miserable lot. 

Kan. Id p«niag the diatributive fvononiitial adjecliva^ Nora 9, wmUt 
Bule 19, sbould ba sppHed. 


Relative Pronouns are such as relate, in ye- 

tieral, to some word or phrase going before, wbvdi 

is caUeA the antecedent. They are who, wMehf 
and that. 

The word antteedenl, cornea from the two Latin words, anl«, 
hefort, oud ctdo, to go. Hence you p^veive, that antecedeni 
meant gMQ^ before ; ttus, "The man is happy uAo livea virtn- 
mislf ; This ia the Jadyviho relieved my vtmts; TTiott leho 
Inveat wiadoni, &c. We vho speak from experience," &G- 
Xha relative who, in theaa aenteuceB, relates to the several 
wonb, man, lad^, (Aok, and tee, which words, you observe, cobm 
before th« relative: they are, therefore, properly csiled anle^ 

The relative b not varied on account of gender, person, or 
noiaber, like a personal pronoun. When we use a personal 
pronoun, in cpeiduDg of a man, we say ht, and of a wotnan, 
sAe ; in speaking of one person or tlmia, we use a singular 
pvonoun, of more than one, a plural, and ao on ; but there ia 
no such variation of the relative. Who, in the first of the pre- 
ceding examples, relates to an antecedent of the maa. gei4 
third pen. siag. ; in the sec<HMi, die antecedent is of the fen's. 
^Htd. ; >■ the third, it la of the second pers. ; and in the fourth. 
It ia (rf* the first pers. phir. num. ; and, yet, the celottye is in the 
saune form in eadi example. Hence you perceive, that the re 
lative has no peculiar /on» to denote its gend. pers. and numb, 
but it alwaya ogteea with its antecedent in senee. Thus, whan 
I «ay. The man who writes, vho is mascuJine grnd. and sing. ] 
but v^n I Bay, The lotttM w&o write, vho ia Semaaoa- and 
pluntL In or^ to ascertain the gend. pers. and oun^ of Ih* 
relative, you must always look at its antecedest. 

Who, Which, and That. 

Who is applied to persons, which to tMues KaA 
brtUea ; ea, " He ia 9l friend who is faititiful m ad" 
vtmitj i The bird which sung so sweetly, i» 
Sown ; This is the tree which produces no fruit." 

That is often used as a relative, to prevent the 
Loo frequent repetition of who and wtach. It is 
applied both to persons and thii^ ; as, "Hethat 
acta wisely, deserves praise; Modesty is a quaUty 
that highly adorns a woman." 

.„, , N0TE3, 

1. fniaabonldDeTerbe sppliedtiiBoiiusls. The following *pp'<o^o'ioltt 
ke iiuu fe uM :—^ Ha is like a UaH of fnj, «*• daaliny* without taly." It 
shoM b«f tM dastto;*, ke. 

110 ETtMOLOCV «Kt> SVttTAlf. V 

t. ir*» ihmiid not bi tpplied (o dliUcan. U il iwmnwil to M.7, •"TIm 
cMU wi«n we hare Jntt •MO," fcc. It rimuld be, "lliediili' UHtwehavs 

3. iniefcinajbeappUed topenaMwhninwidi tadiMia|iMhnHiHr- 
>on of tvo, or a inrticitliir penoD unang ■ number of othera ) u, " tfUct 
oftbetvoT ITjUctartlMTnMlHr 

4. Tmtt, in pnA>«li« to tsAe or ujUc>, ia aptiiied ta pecsma wNi-n tber 
•re qaalifiad bj ao adjectin in the ■uporiative degree, or by the pcoaamiDal 
adjective mhu; ai, " Chuies XII., kxn^ of Sweden, was one of the grtalett 
madmen Oat the winld (Tfer sMT ;— He n the Mnu man liM we WW Infore." 

5. I^hcl it emplojed aJW the mteiTC«atiTe ufu, in caaea lika tbt foOMr- 
ingi "Who UoIhaianjKsiiH of rdigian, would faai>ear|(MdUiiuT" 

When the word ever or goeter is annexed to a 
relative pronoun, the combinatioQ is called a cotn- 
potmd pronovn ; as, u)hoever or wbosoever, toMch- 
ever or whichsoever, whatever or toAofooever. 


JVon. who, Pom. wboae, Ohj. whom. 

" wh<MT«r, " wlw>8ever, " wbMnerm-. 

" whosMver, " whosaaoerer, " wbontsoev«r. 

fFhiehaai that are indeclinable, except tiiat whMt ts some- 
Ibnea used a« the poaseasive case of which ; as, '■ b tt>ere anjr 
other doctrine uhoM followers are paniehod ;" th^ is, the Tal- 
knrora of which are pimisfaed. The a«e of this license has ob- 
tained emong our best writers ; but the constracttcm is not to 
be Tecommended, for it is a departure Irom a plain priue^Ie of 
grammar, namely, who, whoso, whom, in thiair aj^icaitioiis, 
should be confined to mtional beings. 

ITuU may be used ta a pronoun) ea adjective, and a coi^wk- 
tion, depending on the office which it perfonnfi in tho sentence. 

Titot is a relative only when it can be changed to i«ho or urhUk 
wiflioiit destroying the sense ; as, " They fW (who) reprove us^ 
may be our best friends; From every tiung thai (which) yon aee, 
derive ioBtniction." That is a demonstrative adjective, when it 
belongs to, or points out, some particular aoun, either express 
ed or implied ; as, " Return that book ; Thai belongs to me ; 
6We me thai." When that ia neiAer a relative nor an ad^c- 
(i«e pt«noun, it is a conjunctiiKi ; as, " Take care that every day 
be welt en^loyed." The word fAaf,in this last sentence, can- 
not he changed tj who or which without destroying the seoM, 
therefore you linow it is not a relative pronoun ; neither doeu it 
point out any particular noun, for wluch reason you know it if 
qet an ai^ective proDoi'n ; but it cwutects (be h ' 
fort it ia a conjunction. 


If you pay particular nttention to dus elucidaliod of tlw word 
*A<(J, you will find no difficulty in parsing it When it ia a r«l«- 
tire or an adjective pronoun, it inay be known by die aignig^ten ; 
Bnd 'n^enevor these signs will not apply to it, you know it ii a 
Some writers are apt to make too free a use of this word. I 
«-ill give you one example of afirooted that, which may serve M 
ftcaution. The tutor said, in apeakingof the word that, that 
that that thai that lady parsed, waa not the that that that geiv 
tieman requested her to analyze. Tlus sentence, though ren- 
dered iaelcgant by a bad choice of words, is etrictly grammatical. 
'Jlie first thai •« t noun ; the Becond, a conjunction ; tka third, 
an adjective ptcnoun ; the fourth, a noun ; the fifth, a relative 
prononn ; the sixth, au adjective pronoun ; the seventh, a noun ; 
the eighth, a relative pronour ; the ninth; ui adjective pronoun. 
The meanbg of the sentence wiii be more obvious, if rendered 
thus ; The ;utor said, in speakmg of ex void that, that that thot 
mhieh that lady parsed, was not the tljat wkick tim. gentteauu) 
requested ner to analyze. 

What is geuerally a compoimtl relative, ioclud ' 
ing both the antecedent aod the relative, and is 
equivalent to that which; as, "This is what I 
wanted;" that is, that which, or, the thing which I 

What is compounded a{ vfueh that. These words have been 
m»lracted and made to coalesce, a part of the orthography of 
hofti being still retained : tehaf — wAfich — Qhai ; {tekich-that.') 
Anciently it appeared in the varying forms, Ihn qua, qua tha, 
qu'tha, qtitkal, ifokat, hwot, and Anally vckaL 

What may bo used as three kinds of a pronoun, and w an 
interjection. When it is equivalent to that wUeh, Ihe thing vhich, 
or tkoM thingt which, it iB acompound relative, because itia' 
eludes both the antecedent and the relative ; as, " I will try 
what (that which) can be found in female delicacy ; JFhat you 
recotleet with most pleasure, are the virtuous actions ofyourpaat 
life ;" that is, thoic thxttg* lehieh you recoUect, &c. 

When mkat is a compound relative, you must always parse H 
as twA words ; that is, you must parse the antecedent part as a 
noun, and give it • ease ; the relive part yuu may analyze like 
■ny otber relative, giving it a case likewise. In the first of dia 
-praeoding examples, that, lheaBtecod<«t p«rt ofw&of, ia in tbs 
Ob|. «asie, goTWned by tba verb '■* will try j" v>)uch, the relaliv* 

put, it in the Dom. cAse to " cnn be fouoil." " 1 hav« beard 
what (i. e. Ihal vhick, or Ihe Ikine tekUh) has been slleged." 

Whotnr aod whoiontir are also compouod rolalives, tai 
Aovld be pcned like the eonpouod ahal; as, " fTAoeoer tikea 
thst oath, is bound to enforce the laws." In this sentenca 
wA<MBwr ia equivalent to Ac trha, or, tkt man mho ; thiu, " Hi 
*rAo takes that oath, is bound," Stc 

fVko, vibieh, and tekat, when used in asking (jueations, an 
called intemgative pronouns, or relatives of the interrogative 
kiod ; aa, " fFho is he I Which is the person 1 What are yo* 
.doing V 

Interrogative pronouns have no antecedent ; but they relab 
to the word or j^UBse which ia the answer to the ijueatioa, fo. 
-lbMrsnbse<}uent;as, "IF&omdidyouioe? The ;)receflor. Wka. 
have 70U dona T Nothing." Antecedent and Bubsequent an> 
opposed to eeoh other in signilicatioii. Antecedent mean* 
preceding, or going before ; and subaequent means following, 
pr eomii^ after. What, when used as an interrogative, is Derer 

What, which, and thai, when joined to nouna, are speciQring 
adjectives, or adjective pronouns, in which situation thej have 
no case, but are parsed like adjective prononna of fln detno^ 
strative orindefitutekiDd; aa, " Unto whiefc promise otu twatr* 
trihea hope to camt ;" " What tmseTj the victoti* endure! 
fFhat havock haat thou made, foul monster, sin 1" . 

What and takich, when joined to nouns in asking questiona, 
are denominated interrt^ative pronominal adjectivaa ; ad, 
" What man ia Otat^ fPiUchiwul didho takal" 

What, wkalewr, and uhataoiter, tahich, wUehwtr, and vtKiek 
toevtr, in eonstnictioas like the follomag, wro compound pfo- 
nouns, but not compound retatives ; as, "In what chamclar 
Butler was admitted, is unknown ; Give him what name you 
choose ; Nature's care largel}r endows whatever haf^y man 
will deign to use ber treasures ; Let him take which courae, or, 
ahiekeetr course be will." These sentences may be r«M)cred 
(bus ; " That character, or, the character in wMch Butlw was 
admitted, is unknown ; Give him thai name, Or, Ih* name 
^hiek you choose ; Nature's care endows that happy mas teh» 
will deign, &c.; Lut him take fAui course, or the course icUeA 
be will." A Gompoimd relative necessarily includes both anan- 
tecedeot and a relative. Theae compounds, you viU iH>tic«f 
ill) not include anteaedenta, the first part of each word bains ifaa ■ 
article the, or the adjective [wtmoun, tAof ; tbNofore tliay mb> 
tiot properly be denonunated aatofieaxkA reUtivea. — ^With roMn) 
tn th« woid ewr annexed to thaae pn)f|Oiins> >< >■ f ein^ltT mat. 

lh*l, u iDoii am we analyze the wotd to wbich it is lubjoined, 
nwr u entirely' excluded from Ibe sentence. 

fFknt iasofBetiKiesumd as aaintenection; as, " But uho/ .' 
is diy ■wvant a dog, that he should do this i JFAai .' rob ua of 
a«r Tight of Buffiage, and then shut us up in dnngcoiis I" 

■ Too baw BOW come to ihe most formidable obstacle, or.if I 
may ao speak, to Ae raost nigged emineoce in the path oreram* 
■atical sci^ce ; but be not diBheHilened, for, if jou can get 
•afelf OTer this, your future course will be interrupted with only 
here and there a gentle elevation. It will require close applii 
CKtioD, and a great d«at of sober thinking, to g«in a clear con- 
ception of the nsture of the relative pronouns, particularly the 
compound relatives, which are not easily compreheuded by the 
^o«ng leatner. Ab Utis VHI. lecture b a very important one, 
4 becomes necessary for you to read it carefally four or fiv* 
times over b^ore you proceed to commit the following order. 
mtenever you parse, you may spread the compendium before 
you, if ycHi please. 


■ 7%e order of parsmg a Relative PnoNotJir, 
is — a pronoun, and why ? — ^rektive, and why? — 
g^d<er, person, and number, and why ?— Rttlb • 
case, and why? — Rfle. — ^Decline it. 

" 1!^ is the man whom wf> saw." 

Whom is a pronoun, a word used instead of a noun — relative, 

it relates to " man" for its antecedent — moB. gend. third pers. 

■H^. D1U0. beeauBe the antecedent " man" ta with which il 

^preea, actun^ing to 

Rule 14, Rdiuivt tuvHioun* agree toiVJi their anleetdent* m 
gtnder, permMi, <md maabtr. Whom iB in the objective case, the 
eb^at of die action expressed by the active-transitive verb 
** saw," and governed by it,agreeably to 

Rule 16. Whtn a nomtnolioc coma brtween the relalitt and 
tiu e«t4, iht reitdive is govtmtd by Ikt foBomug vtrh, or torn* 
olhtr »ord tit it* own member of Iht aeiUenet. 

Whom, in the objective case, is placed before the verb flist 
soverns it, secording to Note 1, under Rule 16. (Repeat the 
Note, and dei^&e vho.) 

" From what is recM'ded, he appears," &c. 

What i* a camp. rel. pron. including both the antecedent and 
the relative, and is equivalent to tAAfivAK^, or the lUn^' teUcft.— . 
Thing, the ulece^ent part of inkal, is a opun, tite namf of |^ 

J 14 ZTruoLDCT tKB irMTAX. 

Aiag — cam. tba aamo of ■ sp«ciM — iMUter gaadn, tt baa JMt 
■es— third person, spokea erf* — eing. nuinbeT, it impUetbutoiw— ^ 
and in the obi. caae, it is the abject of the relation a^ekMd by 
the prep, "froni," mid gpr. hy il : Rule 31. (Rcfwat flw 
Rule, and ereiy other Rule to which I reft*. ) Which, the ni^ 
five part of what, is a pronoun, a wori ua*d instead of a ihmu — 
/alati*e, it relates to " thing" (or it« antecedent-^teut. gMider, 
third person, sing, number, because the antecedent " tluag" is 
widi which it agrees, according to Rule 14. Bti. proa. tie. 
mw&isinthenom. case to the verb "isFeooTded,"a9««ablyl« 

Rdi-k 15. 7^ raktiivt ia ths woMinaftce com to tin vsri, 
jeh»n no nommtUive comts bitipetn it and tk* vrb. 
" What have vou leamedl Nothbg." 

What is B |mHi. a word used, ftc— relative of the inteTl'Ogs 
tire kind, because it ia used in asking a questiMH-4t raftn t* 
the word " nothing" for its ttAaeqaatt, accoidiDg to 

Rule 17. Whtm tht reL prWu iiofthtinterrog. kind, it n 
fan to tht word or phraie eoniaimng the cauteer to tht q»ftb>n, 
for ilM tvhtequmt, which githiequtnt mtut agree in cote with ths 
taterrogatiae. What ia of the seuL gea. thiH per. sing, bacftuae 
the autaequent *' noddn^' is with irttich it agrees ; Rdlk 14. 
JM. ffvn. tignt, &C. — It is in the objective case, the object of 
(he actioni of the active-tranuttve verb " have learned," and 

bL to Om intaiTOgatm 

Truth and simplicity are twin sialen, and generaMy go hand in 
hand. The foregoing exposition of the " rdative pronouna," k 
jn accordance with the usual method of treeing them ; but if they 
were unfolded according to their true character, they woald bp 
found to be very simple, and, dtmbUaa, much lah<Mir and oer- 
ple^ty, on the part of the learner, would thereby be aaved. 

Of the words called " relatives,'' who, only, is apronouc; and 
Ous is strictly jMrsonoi ; more so, indeed, if we exc^ /and we, 
than any other wrard in our language, frtt it is always reetiicted 
to persons. It ought to be classed with the personal jHtmouns. 
/, JAoK, ht, the, it, we, jroti, and they, rdale to antecedents, wt 
well as who. Which, that, and what, are always adjectivei. 
They never stand for, but always btlvng to, nouns, either ex- 
presseJ or implied. They *peeify, hke many other edjecUTes, 
and Conner/ seotcnces, 

ffho Euppliea tl)e place o! whtek nr what, and Ui ^trfntal 

KEUTiTi rmoiioiiH».—9AmMiHO. lis 

wu». fPho cameT i. e. what tnan, \§ktU idowm, lubof p«raoi»; 
— which m«», loomon, or ptraon, came I •' Tbej heud wftof I 
■aid"— they heard that (thing) which (thins] I said. " Tak« 
what (or whichever) coarae you pleaau ;'^— take thai coarse 
which (coorae) you please to take. " What have you done V 
i. 8. what thing, act, or S»ed have you 4onel " Which thing 
I also did at Jerjsalem." " Which will you tak«t" — uUek 
book, hmt, or something else? " This ia the tree uUek (tnw) 
produces no fhtjt." " He that (man, or which man) acta via»- 
ly, deaerves pmise." 

They who pre&r this method of tieating the " ralatmat" m 
at liberty to adopt it, and pane accordingly. 


The man who instracts you, biboars faithfully. Ite htj 
whom I ioatnict, learns well. The lady irtiOBe faouie we oeca* 
py, bestows many cbaritieB. That modesty wUch highly adoms 
a woman, she possesses. He that acts wisely deserrea pnJM. 
Thia is the tree wiiicb produces no fruit I believe what ha 
says. He speaks what he Itnovrs. Whaterw poiifiea ft» 
heart, also fortifies it 'What doest* thou ? Notfan^. WhU 
book have you? A poem. Whose hat have yooT John'a. 
Who does ftat work? Henry. Whom aeest diou I To whoa 
gave you the present? Which pen did he taket Wbem n 
ignorsnlly worship, him declare I unto y^. I heard iritat M 
said. George, you may pursue whatever sdeoce auita your 
taste. ElizB,take whichever paltem (leases you best Wta«*«r 
lives to see this republick forsake her moral Bud Uterwy inrtitUf 
tions, will behold her liberties prostrated. Whoaoevar, 4)m»> 
fore, will be a friend of flie. world, is the enemy of Gtti. 

NOTE. Tbs Domui&tive case ii rreqnent) j phced sfter the taA, anl Iht 
objectiTe cask, befbratbe verb th&tgoTOnii it. mon, in evenr atatanca «H 
cept one, bawl, msdiib^ tMJ^ kal, pns Um, the timd laial udisMct, the !•■ 
tattra pot of the iist Iwd whati, aro all m the tiiaeVet can. and gorefned 
^ the nTeni tbiImi that follon Ihem. See Svle 16, and Nor* 1. Trtt \t 
Dom. after ia,umrdinetoRDLa SI. TMng, Uw anlceedeal part ti w ht ttu r^ 
ienom. to " ibrtifie* ;" wMei, tbe telalive jart, b noai. to ■■ pmifiea" AV 
Mtffiieavuned by itis and yiinn, by ilai^ uiiderstood. Hmr)i is nomina- 
IjM to <Cu, imdoiBtood. Whon and Mtn'$ am gmtrneS aocoidmf to Rn-a 
IS. / Ibuiysu, Mm, &c. represent nanaRODderMoed. ffin, in the la«lae*> 
UnoeWtn^bgoveniedi^dcdanVBlKl/ianoniinativetarfBlare. Omk* 
aad Bba ara n the nonuutne caM independent: Hole fi. " WHalfr 
Mianca," 4ia u eqiavBlent to, Uat science uhich Bails joai latrte ; — " "^^ 
tvtr pattern j" i. e. tkat pattern mhith pleaseg yon beM, Whotatr i* ■ o"*- 

* The second person nitfnlar of ilo, when, need as a piincipal vaib, is 
snalKil witti an « ; thus, " V/bU thou iatt, do quicU; i" but wh<^ eaqttmi 
<d •• u awili«ar, the ( sbo^ be omitted ; as, '' IM* then not tataH aieik 
with its h*fd (Tbealh ?" 

116 >inrM«La»ir um rntfix. 

* nami rrioAia; k^ th* anUcedMl wt, ia nofninatin to ■ wOl bahaU.' 
nb afTM* Mh MMi imdentMid. A<mb ia la the mliiiitiT* mood altM- 
"Mc:" BoleU. 


WMek ■omctimc* r«l&tn to ■ imetiiiber of » senUoice, or to ■ •rfaoli Mn 

Uacdjibr itf uUcodciDt: u, "Wsuenqaiied to faar God and kaapln* 

uAiiiiiaDdm«its,wiUciku tbairiMledalyoriiuB.'' What ia tha whols dntf 

ofaaaaf "ToImj GodaiMlkeqihkc(niuiuiH]nieiiti:''therctbre,t)uapliikaa 
ii tha uitecvdent to uUth. 
Tba coojunctioa at, when it follows t\uK, mmty, or lami, ia fisqucBtly da> 

tMHiwrtateifa rdative pronoun j aa, " I am pleued with lucli ai bars a leflned 
Uata,-"(balia, wJthMou tcia, orUnkuL jb<iK,&f. " L^t met at pnauma 
(•adnaaollun,hMik wall to their own conducij" that is, Let lhatt,mthm 

wia prenuno, &C. "^ many ai vera oTdained ioGtemal lire,bdievedi''thal 

ia, Ucjl, tkow, oi aO inAa were ordained, bcJiflVed. " He exhibited tha «i 

laatiaoiiiaU u were adduced on a ToniHr occaa' - -' - ' 

tlUa wtU were adduced, ftc But, in eiamplw 

dHpM wUch > critical aoalnia nNfuirea us tc ' 

eoBfODCtioD; thiu,"lampieuedwithiueitp< 

have a refined taale ; Let luct ptrtmu, tt Mm j 

From what words is the tenn pronoun derived I- Do pro- 
MMins olwayn avoid the repetition of nouns ? — Name the three 
kiaik ofpronmuui. — What distinguiahea the personal from the 
relative pronouns I — Haw maaj personal pronouns are thfirfl ? 
— Repeat them. — What belong to pronouns 1-^Ib gender ap- 
plied to all the. personal pronouns } — To which of them is it 
applied } — Which of the personal pronouns baro no peculiar 
tarmination to denote their gender I — How many persons havft 
pronouns 1 — Speak them in dieir difierent persona. — How nta- 
nj aumbrav have pronouns I — How many cases ? — What mn 
t)wyl>— Decline all the personal pronouns. — When tdfh added 
to the personal pronouns, what are they called, and how are 
Ibey used J — When ia you singular in sense 1 — Is it erer singu- 
lar in form 1 — Why aie the words, uw, thy, kit, her, eur, your, 
their, called personal prcmouns 1 — ^Why are the words, mmc, 
Ihiut, hufh*r», ouri, JfOvr*, Ikeirs, denominated compound pen. 
proa.t — How do you parse these compounds 1 — What is said 
ar other* f — Repeat the order of parsing a personal pronoun. — 
What rtile do you apply in parsing a pronoun of the first person, 
and in the nom. case ? — What Rule when the pronoun is in tha 
possessive case ? — >Tliat Rules f^ply in parsing personal pro- 
nouns of the second and third person 1 — What Rules in pwsing 
lh« componnda, yowt, our; mine, &c.? — ^What is swd of the 

Wliat are adjective pronouns t — Name the three kinds. 
-T-What does each relate to T — To what does teery relate t 
r-To what d««f titlur relate t— Wh«t do<ea ifHififr inqiaif t- 

1 o what do thii and llu»t refer ?— Giro exBinplM.-~T* v^ 
do Ihal anil thoae lefeil — Gire exaisplen.— Repeftf all the ad- 
JACtire pronowM. Wken adj. pronouns belong to mmum uDdaP- 
stood, how «n they paraed ? — When they staad for, or repTMoK 
nouns, what are they colled t — Gire exunple*. — Repeat tlu 
order of paraing an adj. pronoun. — What Ride do you iq)p}y in 
parsing the indefinite adjective pronoun* ? — "Wbrni Notoa, m 
parsing Ae distribntive? and demonstratiree ? 

What are relative pronouns 1 — Repeat them. — From what 
nrords is the term antecedent derived f — Wliat does antecMtUut 
meanl — &re relatives varied on account of gender, person, or 
number ? — To vrbat ue who and which applied T — To what is 
liuU applied ? — Should who ever be applied to irrational b^nn 
or cluldren 1 — In what instances may which be applied to per* 
•ona t — Decline the rel- pronouns. — Can which and tk«t be do* 
cUacd? — Is thai ever used as three parts of speech 1 — Glv« 
examples. — What part of speech is the word what? — Is what 
evei used as three kinds of a pronount — Give examples. — What 
ia said of whoevert — What words are used as interregatrrQ 
pronouns I — Give exunples. — ^When are &e words, what, vhiek, 
and ^ta, called adj. pron.l>-Wfaen are they coUad intNnga- 
tire pronominal adjectives 1 — ^Wbat is said of tih^Uttr wtl 
whiehever? — Is tpft«le>ver uBedaaaninteijectMnt— Giveezan*- 
piM.-— Repeat the order of paniing a reL pron. — ^Wbat Rules do 
you apply in paratng a relative? — 'What Rules in parsing a omb- 
pound relative? — What Rules in parsing an interrogalire t'- 
Does the relative which ever relatt) to a sentence for ila ante- 
cedent ? — When does the conjunction m become a relatiTa 1 — 
Givto examples. 


NoTB 1, to Rule 13. When a now or pronoun ia the aub 

ject of a verb, it must be in the nominative case. 

Who will go ? Him and I. How does tiiee do ? Is thee wellT 

X Him uid 1 1" not proper, becanae the pronoun him ia tba mbjact of (ba 

V4rb aill go undnMood, uereAra him nhwld be iii iIm aoaiinatita cut, it, 

•tcordingto (he BboTG NoTK. (Repeat the Note.) ff nn and J ue cooned- 

ed bj Ihe conjunclloD and, and Aim is in the obj. cue, and 1 la Aa iMNa. 

thenfcre Eui-e 33d, is viotatad. (Kapcat the Bule.) In the MCiutd ud Ihtni 

sxampiea, thii should bo thou, sccording to tho Noti. The feitw, Aw* and 

Ir, are of tbe third penon, uid llie nom. that k Hoond, fS>r which rnaoa tlV 

mb« rimild be ofT the aacoBd pnwn, dud ^ and art, apeeably to BinM 4. 

Tou mBj comet the other examples, ,^ur timet over. 


Him and me went to town yesterday. Thaa must be aUes- 

tjve. Him who is earaless, will not improve. They can mite 


ma wM «« DM. Thu is the inaa whom wu expected. Uiir 
and I deMTTtt Mtoem. I have maile greyer pro&cieacy thaq 
him. Whooit of all in; acquaintancea, do you Ihiok waa th^v. 
WhMi, for dM sake of his important services, bad an office of 
hoooor bestowed upon him. 

Mora S, to Rule 13. Peramial proaouos being used to sup- 
ply the pliice of nouns, should not be employed in the same 
member of the seatence with the uoun which they repreaent. 
no men they are there. I saw him the king. Our cause 
■I is jnst Many words they darken speech. Tlut noble gene- 
ral who had gained so many victories, he died, at last, in prison 
Who, inslesJ of going about doing good, they are contmually 
doing evil. 

1b asdi of the pracedUtg axamplo, tbe pomiiul pronoun ■boald be omit 
led, leewdnig to Note S. 

Note 3, to Rule 18. A personal pronoun in the objective 
«ase, ritould not be used instead of Ihat and Ihoae. 

Rcmave them papers from the desk. Give me them books. 
Give dtmn men their discharge. Observe thorn three thaire. 
Which of Ibom two persons deMrves most crediL 

lBsUlheseezuiiBla*,ltdMdio(ildlMnBid in plaeeoftlM. Thsussgf 
tha pnsoul, !*«, m niBfa onubnctku pnM«t> two otMotivea slUroM 

SB adieelife proaoan in its itewl. 



A CoNJTTNCTiON 18 a part of speech that ii 
diiefly used to connect sentences, joining two or 
more simple sentences into one compound sen- 
tence : it sometimes connects only words ; as, 
" Thou and he are happy, because you are good." 

Conjunctions are thou parts of language, which, by joining 
sMiteoces in different ways, mark the connexions and various de- 
peudances of human tbou^^t. Thay belot^ to lauguags osif 
m if rafined state. 


The l«TBa CoNJUMCTioN comw tiom the two I«tb wor^, 
MM, wUchaigDifiM to^W,«i]d.^wij:o, totoin. A e«njaBMlioa, 
tkM^isaiKMtlMtcmiJMiia, orjoiDBtogediArMHiiethuig. B>»- 
kn you eim fully comprehend the nature and office of Ihia aort 
rf woids, it u roqiueite that you diould know what is meaDt by « 
NUteneo, a simple seoteiioe, and a compound SMleBce, for con- 
IwctionsBie dufifly uwd to connect MUitances. 

A Sentence is an assemblage of vords form- 
ing complete sense. 

A Simple Sehtencb contains but one subjec^ 
or nomiDatiye, and one verb which agrees with 
dutt nominative ; as, " Wheat grows in the field." 

Yoa perceive that this sentence contains several words besides 
fte nomioative and the Terb, and you will otlen see a simple sen- 
tence eontdning many puts of speech ; but, if k baa only <ma 
Monnative and ormfinUe rerfo, (thatia, a verb nol in Ibe infinitive 
mood,) it is a simple saKetRe, though it is longer than many 
compound sentences. 

A Compound Sentence is composed of two or 
more maple sentences connected together ; as, 
" Wheat grows in the field, and men reap it." 

This (tentence is compound, because it is formed of two sim 
(ite seatences joined together by the word oiMJ; whichw<ml,OH 
account of its conoecting power, is called a conjunction. If 
we write this sentence without the conjunction, it becomes two 
nmpie sentences: thus, "Wheat grows in the field. Hen 

Th« nature and importance of die conjunction, ore easily 
illuatiated. After expressing one thought or sentiment, you 
bsaw we fmqnently wi^ to odd amrther, or aevend odiiers, 
irittch are closely oMinectod with it. We generally efiect tiiis 
addition by means of the conjunction: thus, "The GeonJAUs 
atftivKte rice and cotton ;" that is, " They cultivate rice, tuUcot- 
taa." Thia sentraoe is compound, and without ihe use of the 
conjunction, it would be written in two separate, simple .aen- 
tences: thus, "The Georgians cultivate rice. They cultivate 
cotton." The conjunction, though chiefly used to connect sen- 
tences, sometimes connectB only words ; in iriiich capacity it is 
BBady allied to the preposition ; as, " The sun and (odd) the 
pluMta Gouatitate the solar ayet«in." In this, which is a siiapU 
■entence, cuid connects two words. 

A ftw mor» asamptaa will illustnita Ow nature, and eidahit 

IN STTKotoAT i.m minx. 

Ae naaof Aiipttt of ifMcli m cleariy, a* to^ubl* jnou fiillj 
u MHfntMad it. Ite firitnring nMfila ■mHmkm and mf 
b«ra of MMtMWM, bsFe oe nfatioci4* each «th«r aMU tbef ww 
cowwefed by eonjtBCtkMW. He laboun htrier — nion •Meant- 
ffaOj— fA>. ThatmuiabmltbT'— beiRtwaiperato. BfbHiam 
op dMYacMKiea in these aentences irith coejunctiona, you mS 
SM the importiMM of dns sort of word* : tfaofl, Ha hibaan 
h arf af oMt mora auccwafUJj than I do. ThM man ic kealthy 
tw— w he ia tempente. 

Conjunctions are divided into two sorts, the 
CopulatiTe and the Disjunctive. 

r. The GonjuncticHi Copulatwe serves to con- 
nect and continue a sentence by joining on a 
member which expresses an addition, a siqipo- 
■ition, or a cause; as, "Two and ttieee are 
five ; I will go t/* he will accompany me ; Yoa 
are happy because you are good." 

In the firat of these examples, ami joins on a word that ex- 
presaes an addition; in the secDnd, if connecta a nmtaber that 
implies a Mtppoaih'on or condition ; and in the thMi buwtt attt 
iwcts a member that expresses a came. 

n. The Conjunction DujoHctive serves to 
connect and continue a sentoice by joinii^ on 
a member that expresses opposition of meaniiw; 
as, " They came with her, out they went away 
wfthout her." 

JM jirina on a member of this aentenee vhit^ e^MiBM, not 
ooij BomeAing added, but, also, oppotition of meaning. ' 

The principal cenjunctionB may be known by the Mk 
Kafa, nUch yon may now commit to memory. Somewoida ii 
ftese llata, are, boweTsr, frequentiy used as adMvba, and nmnici 
times as prepositions ; but if you study well the natm« of ^ tba 
dUbrent ■orts of worda, you cannot be at a loaa to ted the pnt 
of apeedi of any worI in the language. 

On acinitifick [ouiciples, our cmuuclniu.commoalv denominated prepoai' 
tioDi and conjunctionB, are but one p«rt of speech, Ihe dwtincUon betwMB 
Ibom tnnf merely technical. Some conjoiMtiDna BDJta only-irordi, «ii 
aaue pcapp^uoa connect Mnteocn. Tbey are denied ftew noawa and 
*«A< ; and Iba tnne ha> been, when, pmbafia, id oat hagntge, tbeydiijiol 

coMJtnatiOKt. ISl 


VapuUUive. And, if, that, both, then, since, for, 

because, therefore, wherefore, prorided, besides. 

Di^wtctioe. BuL or, nor, as, than, lest, ^oiigfa, 

tniless, either, neither, yet, notwtthstaading, ne- 

•tertheless, except, whether, whereas, as well as. 

Some conjunctionB are followed hj corresponding conjunc- 
tiffiu, M> that, in the subsequent member of the sentenco, tbo 
litter wibWMv to fliefonuer; as, 

I. Tkettgk — ytt at naierthdeu; ta, " TloKj*^ he WU riel^ 
|M< tor oar s^dces he became pour." 

a. WktOntr—w, as, " fFhefJkcr he will go, or not, I ouuMt 
tril." It is improper to say, " Whether be will go or no." 

8. Ei&ar — or ; as, " I will eithtr send it, or bniur it mr- 

4. ^tiilur ' nor ; u, "^tith«r Ihou nor I can comprdwnd 

" She is Of amiable at her sister." 
** ■3t tbo atRTB, to shall tbr seed be." 
" To see thy glory, lo ail have lean Am ii 

5. So— that; as, "He became m vain, Inol erery on* ifia- 


I. Some conjiinctionB are used (o connect siniple lenJenui only, uid bim 

Aeia into compound amUncti ; Buch M, fucther, ngtin, bemdes, &c. (Ilben 

-roftmidoyedtoconnecl Bimplein«m**rjonlj, BO Bstomsko l"- -" 

-, iplt 

B. IMatiT* pronounB, u well sb conjoncCions, Bcrre to connect i 
I, " BiMMd w the man ink) feucth the L<hi1, and keepeth bn 

opiDioit of H. Tooke, our iiiademconiunctk>DC&al,Umeratyademonittatin 
•djcdiTe, in ■ diflgniBed (arm : and he aUemptB la prore it by the faOowinf 
Maolalian : " I vonid not wilfUlty hurt a %. I irish pm to lielieve that [u- 
tt r titn."] New, if ire sdmil, that that ie an ndjectiTfl in the latter emiatriw. 
lion, it doei not neceBsuil? follow, that it ie the wme part of speech, noi 
Am ita aasDciBted meaning is predael j the eame, in the former conBtructiim. 
'-^" ' )f eipMsring our ideas in two dctachecl sentences, b'" '' ' 

ph m a tJ ogy we h«TC a onicker and ckreer Iriinaition of thought, and boih 
ttwrnodsoTemplojine tti(,and its Bt/srenfiai meaning, lire clwnged. More- 

OTM, if we eiainine tlie mcanins of each of those conalructions 
h(ja, we riiall find, that they do not both coniev the same ideas, aj loo 
Iter, I aaeert, poaitireW, that " I wniild not wilfully hurl a 8» i" "hmen 
rUwrenner, I mw^ly iri.* s«i (o btHevc that " 1 wouM not wiUWlir imrt a 
r f but 1 4<t nut Mm (bat a> a ftet . ._ . 

■rW HtatttopSit part, of tt««l, t« gM. tA^ «i«nie, by rmd«*ntS|« 


Tou tnll now pleue to turn back uid read thi* lecture faar m 
lira timeB over ; and then, aAer comnutting the following ordwt 
voD may parse the sobaeqtieDl exercises. 


The order of parsing a Conjunction, is — a 
conjuDction, and why ? — copulative or disjunctive* 
and why? — what docs it connect ? 

" Wisdom and yiitae form the good man's character." 

A»d a B conjuncltoa, a word that ia ehie% used to coime^ 
■entonces ; but in this example it connects otAy words— copnla- 
tire, it serves to connect and continue the senleDee bj jiMiiaig 
on a member whichexpreases an addition — itcomeets liw words 
"wisdom and virtue." 

Wiadam is a noun, the name of b thing — (¥ou may ptiriM it at 
fiill.) — Wisdom is one of the nominatives to the verb " fontt." 

Firlue is a noun, the name, &c. — (Parse it in full:) — and in 
the nom. t^ase to the verb " form," and connected to the noun 
" wisdom" by oihI, according to 

RuLB 33. Conjunetioiu connect noutu and prououiu in thf 

Form is a verb, a word which signifies to do, &C — ofthelhbri 
person, fUttrtd, because its two nominatives, " wisdom and vir 
tue," are connected by a copulative conjunction, agreeably to 

Rule 8. Two or more noun» in tkt singular number, joinett 
6if copulative coajuneliom, mru/ have verbs, nount, and pnmouiu 
fuelling' with thtm in (he plural. 

" Wisdom or folly governa us," 

Or is B conjunction, a word that is chiefly used to conneu 
sentences ; it sometimes connects words — disjunctive, it serve* 
not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to Jmr 
on amembcr which expresses opposition of meaning — itcomiecCa 
the nouns " wisdom and folly." 

a patiei^, insteftd of an adjeclive, we should coma nearer to iu primitiTa 
character. Thus, " I would not wilfully hurt a Hy. I wiah you to Mtia tU, 
aiaamtd [fad or ttidemint ;] or, tha fact assumed or taken." 

If, (formerly written gif, gin, gin,) as previously ataterj, i« the imp«ritin> 
of tlwAnglo-SsionvorbgVoji, togive. In unitalion of Home Tookfl, lona 
of OUT modem philosophical writers sir inclined to teach pupils to roular «< 
as a verb. Thus, "1 willgo, yhe wilt accompany mo;"— " Ha will ac«jai 
pui* me. Gran^—jw' that rtactj I will go." For the purpose of aseartaiD- 
ing the BTimitiei meaning of this word, I have no objection to huUi a reao- 
lutiOD j but, by it, do we get the exact meaning and force of f/' aa it is ap- 



-TAUlNtl. IIS 

Ootiema is & veib, a word that signifies, tcc.^-of Um third 
oerson, singular number, agreeing with "wisdom oi feUy," ac- 
cording to 

Rule 9. Two or more twtttu tingular, jomtd by disjunctiva 
cot^tmclioru, nmtl haee vtrbt, tM>t«M, and pronotuu agrumg vitk 
ihem in Iht singular. 

If vou reflect, for a few moments, on the meaniog of the last 
two Rules presented, you will see, at once, tbsir propiie^ ai^ 
hnportance. For example; in the sentence, "Oriaodo rati 
Tltomas, teho iludy tktir Utaoiu, make rapid prt^reas," you 
notice that the two singuW nouns, (Mando aad Tkomat, are con- 
aected hy the copulative conjunction and, therefore dte verb 
WMtkt, which agrees with them, is plural, because it expreaaes 
tte action of ^A its nominatives or actors. And yon observe, 
too, that the pronouns viho and ihtir, and the noun Umtnu, are 
p^uroj, agreeing with the nouns (Maado and Thomat^ according 
to Rule 8. The verb study is plural, agreeing wiUi who, ac- 
cording to Rui^ 4. 

But let us connect these two nouns by a disjunctive conjunc 
tion, and see how the sentence will read : " Orlando or Thomas, 
who ttudiet At* luaaa, makes rapid progress." Now, you per- 
ceive, that a difierent construction takes place, for the latter ex- 
pression does not imply, that Orlaitdo and Thomas, both stud/ 
and make rapid progress ; but it asserts, that either dM one <r 
tbe other studies, and makes rapid progress. Hence the verb 
makes is singular, because it expresses the action of the one or 
toe other of its nominativBa. And you observe, too, that the 
pfODouoB w&o Bod his, and the noun letsott, are likewise in tba 
aiBgukr, agreeing vith Orlando or Thomas, agreeably to Rulk 
9. Stttdiei is also singular, agreeing with who, according to 
Bulb 4. 

.not be denieil, that iastead of tettiang the learner to aMH«» » him*elf ow- 
Tocll; in modem EngUah, such & niBolnlioii U mertl]' TDiking him &ndi»i' 
^-^Ih an andeiit and barbaiDiu construction wluch modern refinemNit bu 
^Bcted. Our forefcthers, 1 mdmit, who were governed by tboee Uwi oTne- 
caaBt; winch compel ell nations in the cariv and rude itsls oT their Ungoif, 
10 *' press thems»vEs in short, detached eentencee, emptoved JTm ■. vafli 
wn(T they used the tBilowing circumlocution : " My son will retorm. Gie* 
mar/ocl, 1 will forgive him." But in the preeent, improved at«l» of our Un- 
ga»ee, by using t/ s» B cmnmcKon, (for I maintsin that it ia one,) we oipwee 
^e same thou^t more hnefly ; and our modem modeof expreuon hu, tea. 

HI perspLcu 
pie etill mi 

nntage over the Hnciant, not only in point of elegance. 
andforce. In Bcolland and Ihe north of Eogliind, Mi 

tpreuon hu, wa. 

It peihapa the advocates of what thty call a pUl 
npuf% will MLj, that I7 their i«wl«i«n of een" 



JoaephaadhisfcrotheTieeidtiinlS'ew-Yorib Tbe wn, Eooav 
and stars, admcHiish us of a superiour and auperiDteading Po«wi- 
I respect mj fnend, because he is upright aod obliging. Uoiuy 
and niHiatD, who obey their teai^ier, inqjfove r^idly. iten>f ' 
or William, who obeys his teacher, improves very fast. 7f ei^ier 
nnk nor i>osBes8ioD makes the guil^ mind h^py. Wiadoin, 
virtue, and meaknesa, form the good man's happiness and ug|A- 
nat : lfa» suppml kim in adversity, and conifort bim in j|urp% 
Mrilj. Han. is a little loww than the angels. The Cajl^d 
States, as justly aa Great Britain, can now boast of dtai« lit^nu] 

Nara. Tbeverb Jbm ia plonl, and tgntt with thrm uoaaa 

«annacUdb;c^aUti*acoBJuDctiaii^u«MD^|[l<>ItDu9. Tb* , 

JM ■grwf witli fify Tor its BomwuiUie. It ii connected to nqiporl b; dM 
camnnptinn au^ ■oneabl; to Rule 34. .Angela ii nom. to on undemopd 
and Crcot Britain n doid. to can boiat anderatood, Bccording to StVhK M. 
Tba Buna word is occanoDstI; employed, either a* a conjoneGort, an att 
lerb. or a Drepaiiti6n. "I eobiDitteil, fir it wa* m fain lo rasitt;" iutUa 
ia ■ dwiunotiDn, bocMae it ooonecls the tiro H»ail>an of a 
la tba next it ia « prnpoailiua, and govern^ ntdw^f in 
Ha contended for victory onl;." 
. !,._..._ .....:__ oon junetioa ; in thaa^ 

ttw oUadhre «aaa : " Ha eonb 

In the licit of the foUowm^ 

coad, il >a a prepadtion, and a 

tb^ana^recV; ■^5NnW«m(WtBHrfc 

udaitMaoMUf ; 1 have aot Men bim iin«< that 

"Be win tmaHafin bedaa; Stand ifftrt me ; VijAi nM lUl i^ 
torn t^br^ [bat or tliU Mmti] ia tiie ftil ef (baa* thtoa fl^mfle^ Mn V 
•aaAwnbial eoninnetioB, baoauw it eipreaa«a tuttsfodcona^ta; i^a u 
the aacoiMl aad thiid, it ia a pieporilion. 

Ailba WOidg of a aentencB are often traaapoaed, no are alKi its m ewhat^ 
Wilheot attendinc to ibfj circumatance, the learaer ipajr aoBwtii|iBa be at • 
Iw to percnva ike emuctiag power of a pnpvaitiM or co^uaalipit, ^ 
flvetj prepuaitioo and ererj conjunction connect! either worda or phiaafp^ 
•antencea or membera of aeulencea. Whenever a •entenee begioB with ■ 
pr«j>o«tii>noTconjiinctioa,it3mombera«aotranani)a«di aa, "Zatbada^of 
Iwaa, kinff of laro^, Souriahttd the prophet Eliahai" "{ftbou aaejc th* 
LordThei^hefeuDtld'tliee; but, i^thoufaraaks htm.beiTW caatltwecff 

;i]r an cUipaia. B; by an ellipaja, tbey nwan sucbRoBeaa ja nacfiWLiTja 
the cnramatical oonatnictian, I oannat sceade to thrai aasanqdMq. (a 
teacmnv gnunnwr, aa well aa in oU)er things, wo ought to avoid ajtHqiiaai— 
-we ouht neither to paaa niperticialiy over an eUipau aeeoKOrf (o Uis unar 
Vlt a pnni*, nor to piit modern Enghih (o the bluih, by adopting » nMde fit 
i«ealving aeuteticea that would enlicely clian^o the duuacler of our ItQ. 
{Qage, and carry the learner back to the Vandalkk a|[e. 

iW cornea Stun the Saxon verb, htsn-iUan, to be-out. "All weie VeUtf4 
(k-wl, !we<-wl} the atiancer." " Man ia tut a reed, floatiog on tlie cuirtBl 
afliine^" Reaojutian; "Man La a re*d,floaliiq[ on Aaouiniit oftiiiiB; )|tf 
(W^irf tina bet) be i< not a atable beinf." 

•AX— aiur^im'd, oK^iatbepaatpad. ofaMa(i4toadd,join, 4,m^fint 


" Ah, whitlwr Mivja tb 
Thu the words in, }f. aiul uAni, in tbele examplec connect tlie memban 
BTtbe respective senUnces to which they are attacbed, will obviausly appear 
(Twe natore these aentences to their natural order, and bring theae paRicle* 
ktwMB the meraben which they connect: thus, " Elidiathe prophet 9aiu- 
ishedte the days of Jorun king aTIirael;" "The Lord win be round of the* 
i^tlioa seek him ; but he will cast theeoflTor erer j/tboufbrnke him : 
" Ah, whither Mrays the immortal mind, 
" Wktn coldness wraps this suflering claj '" 
A* an exercise on this lecture, yeu maj' now answer these 

From what words ia the term conjunction derived^ — What is 
a sentence? — What is a simple sentence T — WhatieacDinpoiiBd 
sentencel — Give examples. — In what respect do conjunclionii 
and.prepoHitions agree in their nature? — How many sorts of 
r.onjunctions are there 1 — Repeat the lists of conjunctiona. — Re- 
peat some conjtinctions with their corresponding conjunctiona. — 
Do relative pronouns ever connect sentences? — Repeat the or- 
der of parsing a conjunction. — Do you apply any Rule in pars- 
ing a conjunction? — ^What Rule should be appUed in parsing a 
noun or pronoun connected with another? — What Rule in pars- 
ing a vert) agreeing with two or more nouns singular, connected 
by a copulative conjunction? —What Rule when the nouns are 
connected by a disjunctive ? — In parsing a verb connected to 
another by a conjunction, what Rule do you apply ? — Is a con- 
junction ever used as other parts of speech? — Give examples. — 
What is said of the words /or, ftnc«, and before P— What is sai^ 
of the transposition of sentences? 

w tmi, from the' same verb, pomts out whatever is ontd^ ontd, or made out. 
jtnd ■loorefen to the thing that Mjnincdlo, addtd lo, or mode one with, aame 
Mher person or thing mentioned. "Julius ami Harriet will make a hajqty 
pair." Resolution; "Julius, Harriet jonin(,imi((ii,or(Bw.l, wiH rnako a Sap. 
py pair i" i. e. Harriet Tnadt mt with JuHns, will make a happy pur. 

Btcam — fte-couie, is a compound of the verb it, and the noon coun. It 
retaioa the meamng of both ; as, " I believe the manm, fvr I know it to b« 
troe j" — "Ibelteva the maxiin, be-taat I know it to be true;" i,e.lhe eawt 
of my belief, bt, or it, I luiow il to be true. 

.Aw is a contraction of ne or. JV> is a contraction of tul, sad et^ olMnr. 
}far is, nol olAa'-wiBe : not in the etha way or manDei. 

Eiie \i the imperative of stumu tmJCM, of onJwan, and Utt, the past part, of 
iMon, all ognifyiog to diamtss, release, loosen, set free. "He will ba panisk- 
adiunltu be repent ;"— "I7iiieH,r(I(an,;t»iip (the fact) he repanta, be will 
l>e puoisbcd." 

Thaugh is the imperative of the Saxon verb IJMnn, to allow, and Mt, oC 
C(lan,togal. Fd is ^nply, jvf ; aDcient r is our modero V- " TA«ii|* »• slay 
me, j>l will I trust in bun t—Cronl or aUnir (the fact) he alay me, r^'i or rf 
late (the opposiM fact) I will tnul in him." 



Fran what paM sf «paMh ua nvpoaiion* »d eonjwietioiu deMoedT— 

What k Home Ttxk^i opinioa aCOuX t—Trom wh*t is ewh of Um foDpir 

to woids denrctf. Od, {^ M, aul, leewn, nor, dn, unjut, ImI, Umv)),.**^ 



Inteiuectioks are words which e^iipress the 
Midden emotioiis of the speaker ; as, " AUu t I 
fe»r for Bfe;" " O death ! where is thy sth^?* 

Intoijectiona are cot so much the signs of thought, as of 
IMUng. Almost any word may be used as an interjection ; but 
when so emptoyed) it is not the representative of a dialinel idea. 
A word which denotes a distinct conception of the mind, must 
neceasarily belong to some other part of speech. They vriio 
wish to speak often, or rather,to nwke nois£», whea they hars 
no \isefut information to communicate, are apt to use words vety 
fimely in this way; such as the following expressions, la, la me, 
Mgp, Omy, O dear, dear me, tarptitiitg, astomihirtg, and fho 

Interjections not included in the fallowing list, are genenll) 
Iraown by their taking an exclamation point after them. 

1. Of enrnerinera or gWe/"; &s,0! oh! ah! alas! 

2. Contempt i as, Fish! tush! 

8. Womdtr; a>, H^hl really! stnuige ! 

n* iBim iHTBmiBonoM ii appiled to (hoK (nortfeufate ooaadt aofiajeS 
bsdlkj Ktenand brates, not to express drglinct idesa, bat emotiono, pas. 
■ons, or fedings. Tha sounds smployed bj homaii beings in groaning 
■ghin^ UyiBS, acrouning, abiitking, snd lauding, bylhe dog in bufcing, 
powlmg, ana whining, by the horvti in snorting and ne^ing, by the ohMp 
U UOMug, Inr the cat to newrng, by tbc dove in cooing, b; ilia duck m 
nacking, and bj the gouse in hissing, we sonHChnei attempt ta rcpraant 
Bi' wards : bat, u icrfilen words are the ocular repreaentatives of vticnMa, 
Boands, they cannot be mule clearly to denote tnorticuJafe or hulaUMtt' 
— '— Sum indietioct ullerwioee belong to natural langu *— • "■ — 

. 4. GtMtgi M».HMt ko! bi4l9«l. 

0. JitatHoni u, l.»I b«bpld! hftricl 

7). B it o miti» g anbrntc ; at, HuabI hist ! 

8. Satvtatiou; u, Welcome I haill aUhBill 

Note. We &wi(>eii% meet with wM aonu mU w tapjtttlu pkrm! 
■wsh u, nngntejiil wretch I impndeiKse oThope I folly in ikt ezbiuiM ! wmt 
ingiKtitQde 1 awky with him ■ 

As tile interjection is the least important part of speech, in Aa 
English liinguage, it will require but little attention. Tou maj, 
liowever, make yourself w^ soquaintsd with what ha> b««i 
•aid respecting it, and then commit Hm - 


The order of parsing an Intebiection* ii — 
axk wterjectlon, and why ? 

"Ovirttie! how amiable thou art!" 

O.M an intMJeotion, a word used to expceu sodm pWficHi or 
emotion of Am speaker. 

The tea ports of speech have now been unfolded ^d eltHii-. 
dated, although some of them baTe not been full)r axplajped'L 
Before JDU proceed any farther, ^u will [dease to begin agau 
at the first lecture, and read over, atteotivelj', the iriiole, obserr- 
ing to parse every example in the exercises systematicallj. Tou 
WW then be able to parse the following exercises, wtuch contain 
aH flte parts of speech. If you study faithftiliy tix hours in a 
dsy, ead pursue the directions given, you may become, if not a 
critical, at least, a good, practical grammarian, in tir tSMb; 
but if jou study only three hours in a day, it will take yon 
Boarty three month$ to acquire the same knowled^ 

XVttfl cbeerfiilnesB makes a man happy in hiinseff, a^id pror 
matM the luMnnesB of all around him. 

Mttd/mty; always appears graceful in youth ■ it doub)«|i Av 
iQBtre of every virtue which it seerap to bide. 

Tfa« meaniiig of tbofe words commoely ctUeil i^letjectioai, ii.afnSy 
|(M>wti by tradBg Ulem to their loats. 

nil ud piihm are the Aaglo-Suoii pws, pacta; and an eqnialenliD 
Iwwi p wy / i. 0. Irompfrie, from tmnper. 

.^1 or b i« the impenlire, fit, the pes! teiue, and fik oi fiaigh, (ha put 
part, of Uie Baion lerb fim, to hats. 

iviathe impentiTeitftoMk Matl i> tha invtnJive of W<te, to kidd, 
f^rtwM—firamUfU acompoaod ri fiama, to eh, and the kd*nD udt It 
Bteu% to n vdt. Wdeemt—weO-cmu, ngniflM, H is mtt that yon ■ 
. .Mgi.epnw* frwn llw Frenth « JtH«^ to Qod ; w ani nfci' 


ur..-..,,, Google 


Hb who, every morning, plans the tranaaclions of ttia Af, 
and foIlawB out nat plan, carries on a thraad that will goide lun 
ihrough the labTtinth of die most busy liTs. 

The king gave me a generous reward for conRnitting thai 
bart>aroua act ; but, alas I I fear the conBe<]Deiic*< 
E'en now, wbere Alpine solitDdea ascend, 
J set me down a pensive hour to spend ; 
And, placed on bigh, above the storm's career, 
I-ook downward where abundred reaJnu appear:— 
AJas! ihe joj'B that fortune brings, 

Are trifling, and decay ; 
And those who mind tiie paltry things, 
More trifling still than they. 

: second sentence of the foreaoina eieroMB, uUgh is gof 
.u r^ uj. -~- i: .- ft 10 Tt. :_ _1_, - ■ - 

ioA« undentood, and ii 

ubymd; Rule 34. What did the king fiive? A rruonl lo me. Then 
mHirtf is in the oi). case, iiDv. by j'ltK,' RniB 90. Me it gav, bf ni attitf 
■tood ; NoTI I, RtTLi 33. Tba phraee, commilltiij' that lartanu iK(r>*'gOi«^ 
bvjV; NoTi E, under Rfi-k SB. HaUTiain the cbj.caae, gov. by it- ntad; 
KBLmiO. Lool: !■ connected to III by and,- Bulk 34. joifi is nom. Oi ar«^ 
n^iagoi. by brings ; Kclb 1C "THoai is nam. to en undentood. Z^iwy 
la Bfxn. to art nndentood ; Biit.a 35. 


In a former lecture, I promised to give you a more ei^teiuiva 
explanation of the cases of nouna ; and, as they arc, in many 
situations, s little difficult to be ascertained, I will now offer 
some remarks on this subject. But before you proceed, I wish 
you to parse all the examples in the exercises just presented, 
obaerviDg to pay particular attention to the remarks in the aub- 
jomed Note. Those remarks will assist you much in analyzing, 

A noun ia Bomelimes nominative to a verb placefl many lines 
aAcr the noun. Tou must exercise your judgment in this matter. 
Look at the sentence in the preceding exercises beginning with, 
** He who, every morning," &c. and see if you can find the verb 
to which he ia nominative. What does he dof He carries rat 
a thread, &c. He, then, is nominative to the verb earriei. 
What does who dot Who plans, and v/ho follows. Sic. Then 
who is nom. to plans, and who understood, is nominative to 

" A Boul without reflection, like a pile 
" Witiioot inhabitant, to ruin runs." 

In order to find the verb to which the noun sotU, in this sen- 
tence, is the nominative, put the question ; What does a totu 
without reflection do 1 Such a soul runs to niin, like k ^fit 


urtthout iptMhitwit. Vbm pu diaeovei) tbot nml ia noOHMtir* 

IVhon tlw words of a aeotence Kreanviged^ccocdiDglolhur 
natural order, the DOixinative cue, you recollect, k pltced )it^ 
fore the verb, aod the objective, wStet it ; but wbeu the wonli qf 
a aenteuoe are tronsjiosed ; that is, not arranged accordiog ta 
iheir natuntl order, it frequently happens, that the aominatiTa . 
co^ca <■/}"'» aod the objective, before the verb ; esp«(;ially in 
poietry, or when a tjuesiion ia asked : as, " Whence orue^ Um 
muer^ (<the present world I" "What good tkJug ikaU Ido %» 
labent etenxd Ijfe I" Put these espres«ion* in tke decjaiatitv 
f<»nn, and the BominstivB will p-ccede, and Uw ab^nctix^ follttif 
ita verb : thus, ■' The wtarg of the present world ocmm wl^n^; 
I ^vmU do what good Aing to inherit eternal life." 

" Now eawe still «*cntia^ on, and twilij^t gny 
" Had, in her sober liverj, tJA <&«*;« cla«t" 
" St^m n^g^ »urse, thy rigid lort 
" With patience many a year she boro." 
Wl^t did t|ie eventnr do T The evening catne on. Gtaj^ hN- 
Hght had clad what 1 Twilight had clad tdl thing* in hur aobw 
livery. £cniing-,then,ia nom. to ctaae, and the nauii tkkt^ !■ 
^,the otg)^y« case, and gov. by &nd cl«d : RtJLK 20^ What 
^^l She bjore Ay rigid lore with patienca, ^, or d>r^ 

iNg-, many a year. Hence yqu find, that Ior> is in Iba ebwctv 
(iHFi VfA g(iv»>^«d by biore, according to Bnu 20. YtPf a 
gov. I9 Ai rj i' g Hnd«vata>od : S,di:.k 33. 

A noun is fiequently nominative to a verb understea^ ar ia 
Ibo ptu^pttyoj w4 governed by a verb und^ratood ; ai(, " Ha 
f (Acre m] the poor Mdton / whose untutored mind." "Q,. UW 
pain [then UQ. the fcI(W [Atre tf] in dying [" " All wera 
sunk, but the wakeful niglUingaii [loai not Mmifc."] " H« 
lhi«i|^ ^ a «§-• [lAtaik*,} though be feh as a tWM [jleal*.''] 
■'■HisihaSfc iwmwtal. blow them by, as *w* [t« 4W» %t" J 
^ule 3^ w)U^ to these lost ^ree examples. 

In the next place I will explain several cases of nouaaand 
pronouns which have not yet come upder our notice^ Soro«> 
tunes a noun or pronoun may be in the aeiBiBative ca«e -whwi 'tt 
%m B» votb t« agi«4 wkh it. 

Whenever a.t&ect address is made, the pcrsraii 
Ar thing spoken to, is in the nommative cote wdk- 
fMWim'/ a!» " J«mt*, I desire you to sUidy.* 


Ton notice that, in this expression, I tkddresB myulf to JmteJ,' 
that lA, 1 speak to him ; and you obserre, too, that there is no verb, 
Vither expressed or implied, to which James can be the nomina* 
lire ; therefore you know that James is in the nom. case )nde< 
vendent, according to Rule 5. Recollect, that whenevtr a nom 
it tf the second perton, it is in the nom. case independent ; thai 
IS, mdependent of any verb ; as, Sehaa, thy halU are silent ; 
Ifove and meekness, my ford, become a churchman, bottei Aan 
ainbitien ; O Jenualem, Jtru$alem, bow often would I bava 
gathered thy children together, even as a ben gathereth her 
chickens under her wings, but ye woutd not \ — For a farther 
illustration of tlus case, see Note 2, under the Gth Rule- of 

" ThHinilar.ldetMttheB." 


A noun or pronoun placed before a participle^ 

without any verb to agree with it, is in the OQin- 

inative case absolute ; as, "The stai being risen, 

we pursued our journey." 

Sun is here placed before the partible "being risen," and 
lua no verb to agree widi it ; dterafore it is in the noaui»Uif« 
cue absalute, according to Sdli 6. 

Nora I. A noun or praDano in tfae naimaatiTS'Oue'iiHlsfMidmt, is at 
wa7( of the itcnd penon i tnrt, is &e cue ■lMiilate,.it a ^onaUj oT tk* 

" ""- ' — Inta IB tiwtjn aominative; tfie foUowina nnieacait 

I'Wbwe top ilnll tremble, Um dewModiaK'' he. ; i> 

Two or more nouns or pronouns ^gmfying tbe 
same person or tlung, are put, by t^wUion, in 
tbe same case ; as, " Cicero, the great ora$ort 
philosopher, and statesman of Rome, was mur- 
dered by Anthony." 

Appotilion, in a grammatical sense, means something sddsrf, 
•r names added, in order more fully to define or illustrate the 
MOse of tbe first name mentioned. 

' Xou perceive that Ctetro, ia tbe preceding example, is mere- 
ly tbe proper name of a man; but when I give him the three 
additional appellations, and call htm a great oraior, ptUtosopltir, 
And MMta mim, you understand what kind of a man M ««b ; thai 


m, by giving him these (bree additkiaal namea, lua chwactW and 
■bilitiea ss a man are mortt fullj made known. And, surolf, 
joa cannot be at a loss to know that these four nouns mnit be 
b the same case, for they are all nameB given to the same 
person ; therefore, if Cicero was murdered, &e orator was mui- 
dqred, and the philosopher was murdered, and the tlaietman waa 
owrdered, because thej all mean one and the same person. 

Nouns and pronouns in the objective case, are frequently in 
npponUim ; as, He struck Charltt the silent Now it is obvi 
cms, that, when he struck Gharlca, he struck the student, becnude 
<Jharles was tile tbideni, and the etudent was Charles ; therefore 
Ihc noun thident is in tbo objective case, governed by ' ■ struck," 
and put by apposition with Chcu'les, according to Rui.E 7. 

Please to examine this lecture very attentively. Tou wUI 
then be prepared to parse the following examples correctly and 


'•* Weep on the rocks of roaring winds, O maid of Inistore." 
. Jilaid is a noun, the name of a person — com. the nanw 4^a 
Hort — fern, gender, it denotes a female — second pers. spoken 
to — sing- num. it implies but one — and in the nominative cas* 
jndependent, because it is addressed, and Ims no vrab to agiMi 
vith it, according to 

ButE 5. fVhen an address is made, the noun or prottotm ad- 
ire*»ed,i»fHit in the noi»inafitie case indepmidtnt. 
. " The general being ransomed, the barbarians permitted him 
to daparl." 

General is a noun, the name, &c. (parse it in full :) — and in 
the nominative case absolute, because it is placed before the 
participle " being ransomed," and it has ho verb to agree wkh 
it, agreeably to 

Rule 6. A noun or pronoun placed before a participle, omI 
btittg independent of the rest of the sentence, is in the nonwwtne 
cote absolute. 

" 7%i>uinii» of God, flee to the land of Judah." 

Tftou is a pronoun, a word used instead of a noun — penonal, 
it personates "man" — second pers. spoken to^mai. gender, 
smg. num. because the noun "man" is for ^it^iich it standa ; 
Rule 13. (Repeat the Rule.) — ITum is in the nominative ewe 
indepeiideirt, and put by apparition with man, because it wgm- 
fies the same thing, accovding to 

RuLB 7. TiBO or morrnowM, or nomni and prcmouns, WgM^ 
^ing iht same thing, are put, ty nppotitioH, in the mm* east. • 


■aW S. Am ■gnoB iri& Hum vadnntooi. 

" Lo t M»foM, prieX or NstUre, slimos ttlkr, 
"*< ElccOu tbe ifi<lQ would, and numbert ereiy stai.** 
JWw&m is a boud, (parse it in fail,) and in ttw nominadrd 
CMM to "shines :" Rulk 3. 

Prial is a noun, (parse it in full,) and in the Dom. case, it is 
dwvctor and subject of the verb "shines," and put bfappontion 
irith " Newton," because it eigaifies the same thing, agneaUf 
to Rule 7. (Repeat tbe Rule.) 


IWni from your evil ways, O house of Israel 1 Ye fields of 
^ht, celestial plarna, ye scenes divinely fair ! proclaim jom 
Maker's wondrous power. O king I live for ever. The mur- 
raor of tl^ streams, Lora, brings back the memory of the 
Mst> Tbe sound of thy woods, Ganna]lar, is lovely in my ear. 
Dost thou not behold, Malvina, a rock with its head of heatht 
^nme aged pines bend frcm its face ; green is the plain at its 
fort ; tfaere die flower of the mountain grows, and (diakes its 
vUte head in the brcese. 

Ti» Ge—mi being slain, the army was muted. Commeree 
hmi^ thus got mto the legislative body, prt\itege must be done 
away. Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitmie bsii^ 
ia that pl^ee. 1 being in great haste, he consented. The raic 
having ceased, tbe darii clouds rolled away. The Son of Ood, 
■U* dotted in fle^, was subject to all the frailties and incon- 
reniencea of human nature, sin excepted ; (that is, sin being e»- 

Inlbe JajTB of Joram, king of Israel, 'flourisbed Ifae p>op]Mt 
Hirtia. Faalthe apostle sufiered mirtyrdont. Corns, pese* 
of mind, delightful guest I and dwtV with me. FMonds, S^ 
tHma, ««uiitrynMB, hiti, me your ears. 

Soul of the just, companion of the dead! 
Where is thy home, and whither art thou fled T 
Till Hymen brought his love-delighted hour, 
JVttn awrft no joy in Eden's rosy bower :— 
The wortil was sad, the gardsn was a wild, 
-And man the hermit sighed, till woman smiled. 

vciba ui ilnKctt, in the preceding -ci 

.. . , nhd tit—-' ■ ■'■ ' 


■liLjIMjansUB .MJM MansolacTecbmaiaaai 
pi*fct fsrtidete- Till ,i««aadvwlMlcoiijandion. 

KOUM or TKBU. Its 

ft'heii yoa ahrfl htm mtljxoA, wjttmBaiitMj, vmj woid w 
M foragnn^ tizercises, jrou nuj wiewer tho foUowing 


B^tet file lifit of inteijectiona. — Repeat aonte inteijectiTS 
.pbnMS. — Repeat the order of paraing an interjection. — In or- 
ilf to fittd tto Terb to which a noun is nom. what qu«atioii do 
fta put t — Oire esamples. — Is the nominative case ertf plaMd 
lAer Ao veA 1 — When ? — Give examples. — Does the objeothw 
dA»overeoine before the verb? — Give examples. — Is a nom 
mt%t nom. to a veib nnderstoed t — OHve examples. — When is tf 
OMn or pronoun in the nom. case independent 1 — Qm eXMO- 
ptoh— Are nouns of the sacond person always in file noin. bmb 
adj^ndentl — When a pronoun is put by ^poaitirai vifli s 
IKUa tadependent, in what case is it 1 — When is a noun or pro- 
■kCKin ilk Ike nom. case absolute T — Give ezampias. — ^When ara 
noiiiis or noinu and pronouns put, by apposition, in the sanrn 
-MBo?— Giv« examples. — In ]wning a noun or pronomi in (be 
jmn. e»B% independent, what RiAe should be applied I — In pars- 
ing the nom. ease absolute, what Rule 1 — ^WlMt Rule in pacing 
notnu or pronouns in apposition 1 — Do real irrtBtj«ctioiw bekwg 
to written language ? t^Phit. JVotet.) — From what are the foU 
.owing woTdadenved,pMft,/7, Jo, biJt,/iircucU,iMfeom«,<uUM/ 



Xon have now acquired a general, and, I may say, on exten- 
tkrt, knowledge of nine parts of speech ; birt yvu know bM 
litltei aa yet, reapecting the most important one of all; I ni«Bn 
tin VtRB. I will, therefore, ciwimenoe tiiis letUtire by siviiig 
ydn an exjdanation of the Moods and Tenses of verbs. Hsro 
Ika ModneBB, however, first to turn back and read over Let^- 
tui* II. and refieet well upon what is there said respecting th* 
verb ! . b(\w which I will conduct you so smoothly tlu^u^ the 
moads and tenses, and the conjugation of verbn, that, instead of 
findfa^ yourself involved in obsciiritiea and deep inbicacies, yMi 
W KarcelT find an obstruction to impede your progrMH. 


The Mood or Modjc of a Terf) means the man 
Her in which its action, passion, or beings is re. 

When I wjah to assert a thing, positively) 1 use tbe dcclaft^ 
Imm or indiealht mode ; aa, The mim mulcM ; but sometim^ 
be aicti<»i oi occiurence of which I wish to Bpeak,is doubtiqi. 
and iheB I must not declare it poaittvelyj but I must wdopl, 
another taode ofazpressiom ; thus, If the man waOc, he will «e^ 
fraah himself with the blond breezes. This seoond mod&V 
Humer of representiDg the action, is called the lubfmelio^. ot 
tonditioiuU mode. 

. Agaioi we sometimes employ a Tetfa when we do not wi^ to 
ittiare a thing, nor to represent the action in a doubl/ol or eoi»-, 
(UwHoJ manner ; but we wish to command some one to act 
We then use the vnperaiitit or commaTuUng mode, imd say, 
fFaU, sir. And when we do not wish to command a man to. 
act, we sometimea allude to his poieer or ability to act. This 
fourlh mode of repteaeBtiDE action, is called the jwfcnfwiJ mode; 
as. He ca» toaik ; He coidd tcaik. The Mh and last mode, 
called the infinitive or unlimited mode, we employ in expresskv 
action in an unlimited manoer ; that is, without confining it, in 
reotect to number bad person, to any particular agent , as. To 
wait, b> ride, Thua you perceive, that the mood, mode, Or 
manner of representing the action, paeaion, or being of a retfo, 
must vBxy according to the different intentiona of the mind. 

Were we to assign a particular name to enery change in (he 
mode or manner of representing action or being, the number ol 
moods in our language woidd amount to many hundreds. But 
this principle of division and arrangement, if followed out in de- 
tail, would lead to great perplexity, without producing anr bene- 
ficial result. The division of Mr, Harria, in his Heiines, la 
much more eurioua than instructive. He has fourteen moods ; 
Us tnUrrogaHve, optaHve, kortaiive, promugtue, precoutive. r*- 
^ttititivt, etMinciaiive, &c. But as far aa philosophical aaouiacy 
and the convenience and advantage of the learner are coacem> 
ed, it is believed that no arrangement is prefer^le to the fol- 
lowing. I am not unaware that plausible objections may be 
raised against it ; but what arrangement cannot be objected lo t 

There tire five moods of verbs, the Indicative^ 
the Subjunctive, the Imperative, the PotendsL 
and the Infinitive. 


The Indicative: Mood simply indicates or de- 
clares a thing; as, "He writes:" or it asks a 
question ; as, " Does he icrite ? Who wrote that T" 

The tenn intUealuit, comes from the Latin iadica, to dteUir^ 
Hooce, the legitimate province of the indicatiTe mood,ia to (!•• 
elara tiiiagB, whether poeitively or negatively ; thus, potitivthl, 
He came with me ; negaiivtly, He came not with me. But m 
order to avoid a multiplication of moods, we esteiut its meMung, 
and use the indicative mood m asking a question ; as, Who com* 
with you ? 

The subjunctive mood being more anakigons to the intfic*- 
live in conjugation, than any other, it ought to be ]x«Miil«d 
next in order. This mood, however, differs nuterially from the 
'ndicative in sense ; therefore you ought to make yoiUMlf wall 
acquainted with the nature of the indicative, before jou cms- 
raence with the aubjunctive. 

, The SiTBJuycTiTE Mood expresses action) 
passion, or being, in a' doubtful or conditional 
manner: or, 

When a verb is preceded by a word that er- 
^•esses a condition, doubt, raotire, wish, or sup- 

Eosition, it is in the Subjunctivk Mood ; as, " 7^ 
e study, he will improve; I will respect lum, 
thowhhe chide me; He will not be pardoned, «n- 
^esstie repent ; Had he been ihere, he would have 
fonquered ;" (that is, if he had been there.) 
.- The conjunctions if, though, vrUe*», in the preceding exam^ 
plea, expt«9B condition, doubt, &c. ; therefore the verbs itudy, 
tkidt, rtpeiU, and had been, are in the subjunctive mood. i 

Ndti 1. A TOrb in this mood i> general!; nttended by aaother nrb in 
tome other mood. You observe, tbal eub of the fint throe of the precediag 
Hamplei, containa t verb in the iDdicative mood, und the fourth, ■ verb u 
the potential. 

8. Whenever the conjunctions V, though, untui, except, ahetier, itit, at 
any othera, denote contingencv or doulit, the verbs that follow theni are in 
Ae aDbiunctive mood ; aa, " (fhe rii&oul every day, his health will probably 
It i«, if he naU or should lide out hereafter. Bui whan thew - 
jo not imply doubt, &c, the verba that follow them are in th* 
■ome othet mosd ; as, " Thxiagh be rides out daily, hja health 
u iiu unier." The conjunctive aad indicative forma of thia mood, are aiptain 
■d in the conjugatien of the verb to loci. See page 145. 

The Imperative Mood is used for command 
ing, exhorting, entreating, pr permitting ; as, 

IM BTruOLOor aitd ijktax. 

" DqMrt thou ; Semember my admooitioiis ; Ttw- 
ry awhile longer ; Go in peace." 

Tho veil) d^jart expieagma a commuid ; renwmbcr exWU ; 
larr^r expressea cntrest)' ; and g'o, permission ; therofaro ihny 
mi« all in the imperative mood. 

The iotperativt, trom imptro, to cornmaod, is Uteralljr that 
node of the verb used in eommiatding ; but its technical mean- 
ing in f^nuwnar is extMided to the use of the verb in exhoiting, 
r, and pemu'tting. 

A rerb in (be imperative mood, is always of the second per 
Ma, though never varied in its terminationa, agreeing widi Ami, 
y*, oryoN, either expressed or implied. Yon maj know a verb in 
tUa nood by the sense ; recollect, however, that the nominatirtt 
iaalwaya itetmd person, and frequently understood ; as, Geoi^, 
give me my hat ; that is, give thou, or give you. Wh>;n tha 
nominative is expressed, it is general^ placed after the verb ; sot, 
fio IKm ; Depttft *« ; or between die aaxiUnqr and tba veib \ 
as, Do thou go ; Do ys depart. {Do ia th« awJciliary.) 

The Potential Mood implies possilnfity* 
liberty, or necessi^, power, will, or ob%ation ; 
ag, *' It OMif rain ; He may go or stay ; We ntutt 
tatzoAdrvUc; Icanrtde; lie uwuM ir«U; ; 1^9 

la the first of diese examples, the annliary mag impGea pos 
iibility ; in the aecond it implies liberty ; that is, he is at hborty 
to go oi to stay ; in the third, bumI danotea necessity ; «an de- 
notes power or ability ; woajd implies will or inclination ; ttat 
is, Iw tud a nund to walk ; and thotdd implies obtig^mi. Hence 

was upraadMd on page 49. II ij agun Uken up for the porpoaa of ... 

»tbat tlw roooda an) teows, ■> wAX ai the number aad petaon, of Eag. 
veriMj do not kMj depend on inflection. 
The HMleadng lyllablsa which form the number and penon oT th* Ha- 
knw VBib, ue atill conatdered pronouns ; uid, by Ihon who hare invaati.' 
nled the mbjecl, it i* concedetL that the ume plan hu been adopted in 
Die bniutian or Ibo Luin >nd Greek Tertni, •■ in the Hebrew. Soma 
UDguiges biLTe curied this ))roceBS to a veiy great oitent. Oun ia remaik* 
■lile for the amall number of ita inQections. But the; who reject the paiiita 
verii, aad tho« mooda and teniea which ore formed by emjiJoyiiig what ara 
dttsd "auxiliary vertM," httaiae tfitf wefirvud qfUeotrimrt eni, daaot 
■PMT to reamn soundly. It ia incononeat to admit, that wa]ki-(<ik,an< 
mn-trf, are.tenssa, becauaa each ii but one word, and to redact taM walk- 

vmi perceive, that dnevBrbi, may rain; may go, miut eat, muat 
diink, can tide, would walk, and sliould leam, ara in the pol*m- ■ 

^ NoTB 1. As t *eib in Ihe indicative mood is converted into the nibiiiDC- 
bra when il is preceded by a conjunction eipresaiog doubt, oontinftitCT, 
■Vppostion, &C., eo e veib in the potential mood, may, in like mannm', be 
tumod into the Bubjunclive ; as, "Vl muWdiMfcc him, I should abhor Hj 
Thmifk he tlundd irureaie in wealth, he would not be chantabU." I caaU 
dieeiee, is in the potential.; ffl cwM dtctiee, is in tlie EubiuDctne mood. 

3. The potential mood, as well as the indicative, is ueed in asking a qnw 
Uwi; ««,«M«yIgo? Could joa andentand him ? Mustwe**?" 

The IwFiNiTiVE Mood expresses actiim, pas- - 
sion, or being, in a general and unlimited maa- 
ner, having no nominative, consequently, neither 
person nor number ; as, " To speak, to walk." 

lafatiHw means wiconfined, or taUitaited. Thia mood u 
called the infinitive, because its verb ia not confined or limited to 
a nominative. A verb in any other mood is limited ; thftt is, 
it must agree in number and peraoii with its nominative ; bol a 
. .erb in this mood has no nominative, theTefore, it never changes 
its termination, except to fonn the perfect teoBe. Now you un- 
dentand wby all 'verbs are called ,^nt(e or Itmiied, excepting 
dioBe in die infinitive mood. 

Hon. To, the mgn of the infinitive mood, is crflen undeistood btfore taa 
verb i as, " Let me pTooeed ;" that is, Let me to proceed. See Boti M. 7>' 
is not a preposition when joined to a verb in this ntood ; thus, Id lidc^ (* 
nd^ Iqit it should be paned with the verb, and as a part of it. 

If you study this lecture attentively, you will perceive, that 
^en I st^, I terilt, the verb is in the' indicative mood ; but vi4ten 
I say, if I write, or, wUeti I write. Sec. Ihe verb is in the atib- 

i' imctive mood ; tmle thou, or -arite ye or you, the imperatiTe ^ 
tna^ vrile, I imul utiIc, 1 could wriit, ^e. the potential ; and 

•d, and vrill witk, as teases, becsuas each is composed of two wotila! BUi, 
•apnnously shown, is ^ contraction of dOtlA, or liiBetA, sod (d^ of iledc, iM^ 
4p^ or did; and, therefore, walk-fiA; i. e. wulkHfMtA, or ifMlA-wtlk, ana 
^alk-xfi i.e. watk-i&j. or lioid or did-vralk, are, when snalyzed, u strictly 
eompotind, as taill walk, iWt walk, and Aom walked. The onlj tGAbraneo 
ia the fonoation of these teiises, is, tha.! in the two former, the anodatetl 
varbs have toen contracted and mode (o coalesce with the main veri>, bat ia. 
the ti«>o latter, they stilt maintain thdr ground as separate words. 

If it be said that urill Kolk is cranpos^ of two words, each of which eoo- 
veyr a distinct idea, and, therefore, should be analyied by itaalfl the saiiia , 
■XgaiiMnl, withall its force, n^y be applied to waJk-tU, w«lk-«l, ««llL-ili^ 
itt did urslk. Tlie result of^sll the investigatiana of this sul^aEt, amwis Ut 
•atlledown into the luokneyed Imism, that the poinve veifca^ and u«nuda 
and teaser of some languages, ore formed 1^ inflections, or tenmiiatiaDa 
otlw r pnfixed or postfiied, and of other lansusgea, by the assooatiaB oC 
au^iary veitw, vhioh hsv* not yet been contracted ana mad* tocoalaaM 

wa J bs eiiipl«5Ml ii 


Tehsk means time. 

Verbs have six tenses, the Present, the Imper- 
fect, the Perfect, the Pluperfect, and the First 
and Second Future tenses. 
The P^rsEVT Tense represents an actum or 
ot as taking phice at the time in which it is 
"^ ^" "I, "Ismye; 1 see ; lamgeeitJ" 

% Tfii tea** ii aofDCtimn .apidisd to rapresent tba ictiaai of pwaooa 
lou BiDce dead i-u," Seneca. Vnogm and nurolutiwafl; An hoMit man 
fa dia noUeat wodc of Ood." 

& Whao Ihe pfaaanl tcnaa ia preceded bj tbs woid^ uhttt, i^for^ b/Ici 
at MMN ai, he. it ia aametime* used to poiot oat the relative ttms of a fntora 
■ctiMt ; aa, " tflua he nritit) we ahill hear the newa.** 

The Imperfect Tense denotes a past action 
or event, however distant ; or, ' 

The Imperfect Tense represents an action or 

event as past and finished, but without defimnir 

tite precise time of its completion ; as, "I lovea 

her for her modesty and virtue ; They were tnav 

• filling post when he met them." 

Ib IbBM exaMfdes, the verba loved and me( expreaa pwrt and 
fi mi tkt i aalioBs, nod therefore constitute a per/tcl teDM aa 
tUittly M my fom of the verb in our laaguoga ; but, as tbey da 

•■ UrniMitlmt. The anxiliarr, whan contracted into a terminal^ 'V''*^ 
nlHia ita £atii>ct and iotiinnck meaning, as mach as when aaxMnied wiOt 
>*aibb7Ji>xtapo«itioD: conaeqaentl;, an " auiiliaiy verb" may fannaput 
of a naaodor tMiae, or passive verb, with •« much propcielj as a lermMatttf 
tfHtUr, The; who contend Tor the aadent custom of keeping (ha anxRia- 
naa diatioGt, and paramg them ns primary vexbt, are, bj the same prfrid[d^ 
boond to eztand tteir diasoclinn-knifo lo trcry cimpamd ward in tht tangumgt. 
Uavins UiDa attempted brieflj (o prove tfae philoiophical accuracy of tb* 
IImmT <nieh recogniae* the tensea, moods, and passive verba, formed by tfae 
tiitf auriliariea, I shall now oSer one ar^ment to show that this llnor]r, 
altd tlia ento, ww subserve the purposes of tliD pnictital grammarian. 

n properly in framing lentencei 
s Dame of comp " '" 

to teach the student tooo 

„_j by the Dame oi — , ^-.. . ._., „ 

7f«wnliBf and discouiae, it rollom, eoneluavely, that thatthMri' 


aet defina did preclae tims of th« cornptetioB of ikaaa utiuna, 
dMOT tMise may properly b« denominateid aji intUjiiiiU pofl. B]r 
deflaing Ae prennt porticiplA. in coBJunetkia with the rerb, wa 
twTC an mperfect tense in liie expreBsioo, inere travelling. Ttua 
course, however, would not be in accordance with the ordiiuuj 
method of trealiiig the participle. Hence it follows, that the tenna 
imptrfeet tuid fpiftct, as applied to due and- the neil auccaeding 
teiUe, are aot alb^tber ugnifioant of tbeii true character ; but 
if jta leant ta apply these teoMs eorrtetly, the propiie^ or im- 
propriety of their names is not a consideration of\try great mo- 

The pERrECT Tense denotes past time, and 
idso conreys an allusion to the present ; as, "I 
have finisbiBd my letter.** 

The verb kaet Jinithed, in this example, signifies that the ac- 
tion, though past, was perfectly fiaisbod at a point of time imma- 
£a(e!y precraing, or in the com^e of a period which comes to 
*e (waient. Under this view of the subject, the term per/ke( 
'^tf be propeHy ^plied to this tense, for it epecifies, not 011I7 
th>. completion of the action, but, alao, alludes to the particidar 
period «f its aeeoBpliBbment. 

The pLUPKapECT Tense represents a past 
action or event that transpired before some other 
Mist time specified ; as, <' I hadjmi^d my letter 
before my brother arrived." 

Tou observe diat the verb had^nithtd, in this example, repre- 
aaots one }Mu( action, and the arrival of my brother, anotberpott 
actJon ; therefore hadfinishtd is in the pluperfect tense, because 

■rtadi doH not ei^UD Uibh vacbs in their cirmbincd stata, CKnnot tench ths 
tCndcatthaourreotuaevid tppUcationof thorerbaorourlaneaafiB. BysDch 
Ui •nangement, h« eajinot leara when it 19 propel' to use tbe phraser, ihaU 
l^ieal&d, might Imu goiu, haci tetn, inateu! of, ahaU JCnUr, might ga, and lau; 
kacauM Ais theory baa nottiiug todo with the combioing of verbs. If it be 
■Uagoi^ .that the q)eaher ot wntoi'ii own pood Beas« must miide him in conv- 
htmng tb«Be Teiim, and, Ihereforo, that Iho direcliona or the giaionMriar 
an nnnoceBsary, it must be recollected, that Buch an argument would b«ar, 
•■Mlly, agBBMt every principle or grammar whatever. In riioit, the theory 
ef tba compound teneea, andof thepiiBsiveverb,BjipeatBtobeaa nrmlf ba*ea 

^BibMer, t< 


at ptaunble objectiou to the old theory ia, that it 
hbb imwh udelnu technieaUty and tadioua [ — <■—— —f•<'•^' ■ 
%• rimptt pfKwe ofupleding the ptwive v( 


dM actioD took placB prior to the uking placo of ttn other pajil 
letion specified in ibe same aentence. 

The First Futitre Tense denotes a future 
action or event ; as, " I vnllfinhh ; I shall Jii^th ' 
my letter." 

The Second Future Tense represents a fu- 
ture action that will be fully accomplished, at or 
before the time of another future action or event; 
as, " I shall have finished my letter when my 
brother arrives." 

This example cleailj sbowa you the meaning and the proper 
use of the second future tense. The vert> "iluiil have finished" 
implies a fiiture action that will be completelj finiihed, at or b»7 
fore the time of the olhor future erent denoted by the phmae, 
" when my brother orriDe*," 

NoTB. What ii KHnetimea uiled the /uMpJiiw ruture, ia eipnased dim j 
" lun gmng tiurile;" "lam about (« turile." Future tims ia also indi- 
cated hr placJDg the infioitire pieseDt inuoediately after the indleatiTe pre- 
■ant of the verb Is he; thus, " I am lamriit;" " HuiiaoDia la (c, oro^fat 
Ib k, caminander in chief;" " Haniion ia ta tamntmd the army." 

You may now read what is said respecting the moods and 
teases Buveral times over, nnd then you may learn to eonjugptt 
a verb. But, before you proc:eed to the conjugation of verbs, 
you will please to commit the following paragraph on the Aueili 
iary verbs, and, also, the ngns oftiie moods and tenses ; and, in 
conjugating, you roust pay particular attsntion to the manner \n 
which these signs are applied. 


Auxiliary or Helping Verbs are those by 
the help of which the English verbs are princt- 

the mooda to tiaee, and af the teniea to two. It ia ceitaiu, howerer, that if 
we reject the notnct of the parfect, pluperfect, and future tenaea, the namu 
of the potential and aubjuactiTa maoda, and of the paaHire Tsrb, in wrhng 
and di^nuTse we rauat Htilt empley those verbal conMnaUoHe which fbrm 
tjipm^ and it ii equally certain, that the proper mode of employing aoeli 
eombinaliona, is na easilj' (au^hl or learned by the old theory, which naraei 

ofthBTerb,b, , „ , ^ , - -, 

Gge 79, the combined words which foim our perfect and pluperfect tt , 
ve an aasoeialed meaning, which ia destroyed by Biialyiing e«ch word aofi*. 
lately. That gjiangcment, therefore, which rejecU these teosea, sppeara lo 
be. Dot only unphiHaopldtal, but inconaiatent and inaccurate^ 

For the aatiafaction of those teachers who prefer it, and for thcu tjtf 
fwn, loo, a modcrniTed jAilmtiiilnnl thtory of the njooda and ten*M ibImM 

■laXS OF THK MOOM tll» tBKSEI. Ul 

piltty^ conjugated, Jtfew, can, must, nugftf, oou/t^ 
mould, should, and «Aa/i, are ' always auxOkries ; 
do, be, have, and will, are sometimes auxiliaries, 
and sometimes principal verbs. 

Tba oM of the aii»1iariea is shown in (he following coDJugn 


Tile Indicathe Mood is known by the sonat, or 
by its havine: no sign, except iu asidng a qucB* 
tion ; as, " ^yho loves you ?'' 

Tbe conjunctions i/", though, unless, except, 
it^etker, and /eW, are generally si^ss of the Si^ 
fwtctwe; as, ** If I love; unless f love," &c. 

A verb is generally known to be in the Impera- 
Oce Mood by its agreeing with thou, or ye or wow, 
understood; as, *' Love virtue, and _/o/i<Mffner 
steps ;" that is, love thou, or love ye or you ; foU 
low thou, &c. 

Jlfoy, can, and must, might, xould, would, and 
thotdel, are signs of the Potential Mood; as, " I 
nuw lore ; I must love ; I should love," &c. 

To is the sign of the Infinitive; as, " To lore, 
to smile, fo hate, to walk. 


The first fonn of the verb is tbe sign of the 
fwesent tense ; as, love, smile, hate, waUe, 

^eiented. If it ii not quite bo conveiuent ind useful ai the old on«, (hOT 
iinul DDt hSditBtD to Bdopt it. It haa (he Bdf antnge of beins new ; and, 
(DOteover, it lounda large, &nd wiU make the ctnttmimaUif tlart; Let it be dia- 
tioctly underttood, that jou teach " philatpkieii gTananm;ftaniidoKnmn 
■arf tamnuiK lavit," and you inll pass for a leiy teamed man, and nuke all 
the good Iv'iaewive* wonder at the rapid mardi of intsUecti and tlie vaM 
mpiotHButu of Ibe age. 

Veriw hate three moods, the indicative, (embmring what is comnvinl; la. 
dnded uader the iRiKeaCnc, the mbjvactai, and the fottnUii,) the impin*- 
.Im^ and the iulinilive. — Foi definitioia, refer lo the botlyf^ the work. 

VailM bsve onlj' l*ra teoiBa, ^te pment and lb* paat. 

jkveAcrairMninaactioneotninenced"'' — ■ '-•-* ■-*" '""■■■"* 

Uhm; u,^nte1inon 

hat gained numj vietoriM : i 

Ed — the inperfect tense o{ r^ular verbs: 
as, /oced, smiled, hated, walked. 

Have — the perfect ; as, have loved. 

ffad — the pluperfect ; as, had loved. 

Shall or teill—^e firat future ; as, shall love, 
or wilt love ; shall smile, will smile. 

Shall or will have—the second future; as, 
shall have loved, or mil have loved. 

NsTC There are lome eiceptinns ta these signs, which you will potka 
bj nfirmg to the coDJug&tion in the polenbml nKwd. 

Now, 1 hope ^u will bo far consult your own ease end ad- 
vsntage, as to coninut, perfectly, the signs of the inoods uri 
tensea before you proceed farther than to the subjunctive mood.' 
Jf yiiu do, the supposed Herculean task of learning to conjugal* 
verbs, will be transformed into a few hours of pleasant paslinM. 

The Indicative Mood has sia: tenses. 
The Subjunctive has also six tenses. 
The Imperative has only one tense. 
The Potential has /our tenses. 
The Infinitive has two tenses. 


The Conjugation of a verb is the regxdcr 
^combination and arrangement of its several num- 
bers, persons, moods, and tenses. 

The Conjugation of an active verb, is styled 
the active voice ; and that of a passive verb, the 
passive voice. 

• When s verb expreaaes finished action, it ia in the put tenia ; ■*, *■ Una 
pace (the Bible) (iod hang out orheaven, snd ritirei." 

X verb in the imperative and infinitive mood^ is always inthj ]veMm 
lense, high BUlhontieB to the contrary notwilhetanding. The comffland muM 
naaaarSv bo given in time preaant, although its/BJjWmml muR be fiitura.— 

John, what »re you doing'? Learning my tMk. Why-- .-- - -. 

Betanae my preceptor conimonded mo to do so. When 
TOU 1 Yattriay.—tiol taw, of course 

That it is incoDBJBtent with the natnio of things for i . . 

riven in Aiiurt time, and that tiie>i^lmenl of the command, though liitiiiik 
Eu nothing to do vrith the tense or tune of the command itosi^ ara tnitbt •» 
pUia as to put to thebluih the btoh abcntdilv of tha>a wlu> klentiflrths 
R^a «rtlM falfitoMi^ wiA that oTtlw eonnntnd. ' ' 



Verba are called Regular when they form their 
imperfect tense of the indicative mood, and their 
pwfect participle, by addine to the ptesent tens* 
a2, or mly when the vero ends in « ; as, 

Ptm. Tense. frop. Tense. Perf. Farticipte. 

I rkvour. ^ I favoured. fevoured. 

I love. * 1 loved. lov«d. 

A Rcgtriu Teib u caigiigatet] in the following maiUMr. 
To Love. — Indicative Hood. 
Preaent Tense 
Singtiiar. PhraL 

1. Ptr*. I love, 1. We love, 

2. Para. Thou lovest, 2. Te or you love, 
S. Per$. He, she, or it, lor- > 3. They love. 

etb or lovea. f 

WImo wa wiah to eipreu energy or pondvensH^ the aujdliuy Jo riioaU 
fneede ths verb in the present tenae : tfaua, 

Slnnlar. PiuraL 

I. Idolore, I. Wedolove, 

% Thoa doet lore, S. Ye «r ron de lov^ 

3. He dolh m doea Ioto. 3. They do love. 

Inqieifect Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

1. I loved, I. We loved, 

2. Thou tovedst, 2. Ye or you lovei. 

3. He loved. 3. They loved.. 

Or 1^ prBfudng Hd to (he preient : (hui^ 

Muutor. Pbinl. 

I. I didlove, I. We did Avcy 

I. Thou didat lore, E. Ta «r you did lov^ 

3. H« did lova; 3. They did love. 

You mag read the book nhkb I hate printed. 

Ma), an irn^ar aclive verb, agaifjins "to hare and to cierciae mishl 
M atjengtfa " indie mood, piea. lense, second pera. plur. agreeing with ila 
nom. you. Stad, an irregiijar veib active, inBnittve mood, prea. teoae, with 
the Bn Id nodentood, reTRring to ym as ita agent. Hact, en aotive veib, 
eigmfying to jnaiii, indie, preaenl, and having for ita object, book OBdac- 
atoodaflar'^ which." iViqtfd,aparCpajtioi[de,rflterTinfftobooknnderatood. 

J^neon, and Blair, and Lowth, wauld hme btai tmiglud at, had theycuay. 
td to tkmt any thing hko our modemizod philoaophiul grammar down tli* 
tbroata of their cotemporariei. 

WiM, an active vmb, iisnilyrog " to exerciw volitioii," in the paal tann 
of theindicaiivp. BoH, a varb, nt the infinitive, M nndantood. Bin,Bpet> 


14i KTmuLueT AXD ■trtax. 

PMfact TeoM. 
Sihgidar. PbtraL 

1. Ibavelored, I. WeharoloTed^ 

2. Tbou h&st loved, 2. Ye orvouhav«I(nrod, 
a. He balh or has loved. 3. They We lorad. 

nuparfecl Tense. 
Swgwlar. Phirai. 

I. I had loved, 1- We bsd loved, 

1. l^ou hadal lotMi, 2. Yt or yoahad ImntL 

a. He bad loved. 3. Tbef had loved. 

First Futiira Tense. 
Smgtdar. PhtraL 

1. I shall or will love, 1. We shall or wffl love, 

S. Thou f^ialt or wilt love, 3. Te or you shaU or will 

S. He riiall or will love. love, 

3. Iliey shall or will lava. 
Secood Future Tease. 
Singular. Plural. 

I. I s&U hav« loved, I- We shall have lored, 

3. Thou wilt have loved, 2. Te or you will hm« 
8. He will have loved. loved, 

3. They will have loved. 
NoTK. Tenswfonnedwitlmut n<iSiBHaiVBcal1*d>iinpIiteiMesj u,l 
•mt; II— i I bat tboa« fanned Eijtha help^ «iiziliaii«, ue denommatad 
(MiptHid Uuaa ; t*,Miavehced; I had ImtJ, kc 

This dUpIay of the verb shows you, in the clearest light, tte 
^pKcBtion of the ngtts of the Itrues, which signs ought to Im 
^fectly committed to memory before you proceed any farther. 
By loolung again at the conjugation, you will notice, that hate, 
placed before the perfect portijciple of any verb, forms the per- 
'fect tense ; fiod, (he pluperfect ; thaU or ibUI, the first future, 
and so on. 

Now speak each of the verba,Io«e, hate, walk, tmitt, mle. and 
eomqutTf in the first person of each tense in this mood, wiui tiM 
pronoun / before it ; thus, Indicative mood, pres. tense, firat 
p^rs. aiog. I love ; imperf. I loved ; peif. I have loved ; and so 
on, through all the tenses. If you laarq thorougtily the conjo- 

f»ctput.oflot*,refeniiif toJohnWD, Bbir.udLowlh. LoKghtd aL fg^ 
pM. of (a IsHfil tf, nbmng to Ihs B»me aa btai. Had, nctiva Teib, m th« 
p«atteBHofUeiiidiesti*c,BgTeaiig withitsi>a(n.Ucy. JBttnyt^ pnC put. 
nAninc to tb«v. 

Call Uija "pMiai^likal parnng, on raasaninv priociplas, aooefdtiu| to the 
annoU laws efitttura and of t}»atU," and riie piU wiB bs awiUoirad, ty 
liaaaniaand tbctrdifa^withthfl gnateateaMimafUi^Mt. < 

TIBBB. 145 

gatirat oflbe veib in the indtcatire mood, jaa wiR find no diffi- 
culty in conjugating it through those that follow, for in Ike con- 
jngntion throogh aU the taooi; there is a great Bimiltmt;^. 
SoBJtiNcTiVK Mood. 

Present Tenfe, or ellipticBl future. — Conjtmctieefomt. 

SmgiUar. Plural. 

1. If I lore, 1. If we love, 

2. If thou lore, 3. If ye or you lore, 

3. If he love. 2. If they love. 

Iiook again at the conjugation in the indicative present, and 
you vrill observe, that the form of the verb differs from this form 
in Ae subjunctive. The verti in the preaont tense of this mood, 
does not vary its terminatiDn on account of number or person. 
This is called the coitjmnclive form of tbe verb ; but sometimea 
the vwb in the subjunctive mood, present tense, is coqjugated in 
the Mine manner as it is ia the indicative, with this exception, if, 
Ikough, ftnicM, or some other conjunction, is prefixed ; aa, 
ladicmlwe form. 
Swgwlor. Phtroi. 

1. Ifllove, 1. If we love, 

2. If thou lovest, . 2. If ye or you love, 

3. If he loves. 3. If they love. 

T\m following general rule will direct you when to use the 
im^mtetme form of (he verb, and when the indicaUtit. When a 
vert) in tbe subjunctive mood, present tense, has a.fidun sixni- 
hcation, or a reference to fiiture time, the conjunctive Ion's 
should be used ; as, " If thou protper, thou shouldst be thank- 
fill ;" "Hewilt maintainhispriaciplea, thougbhe/oaehis estate;" 
that iSf If thou iktiU or ahtnddil prosper ; though be fhall oi 
thoaid lose, &:c. But when a verb in tiie subjunctive mood, 
present tense, has no reference to future time, the indicative 
Tomt ought to be used ; aa, " Unless he taetmt what he says, 
he is doubly faithless." By this you perceive, that when a 
Tcrti in die present tense of the subjunctive mood, has a future 
signification, an auxttiary is always understood before it, for 
which reason, in this constniction, the tennination of the princi- 
pal verb never varies; as, "He will not become eminent, 
unless he extrt himself;" dut is, unless he thail exert, or thoaid 
exert himself. This tense of the subjunctive mood ou^t to b« 
called the eUipticai fnturt. 

The imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, and the first future 
(Buses of Uiis mood, are conjugated, in every respect, libe ttic 
same tenses of the indicative, with this exception ; in tiie sub 


jUDcIive mood, a coquDction iin|dying doubt, 8e6. ia prefixed Ur 

In the Mcond futute taiiM of (hia mood, the verb is conju' 
gal«d thus, 

Second Future Tense. 
Singular. PiuraL 

1. ir I ^all have loved, 1. If we shall have lored, 

2. If thou shall have loved, 2. If you shall have loveil, 
a. If he shall have loved. 3. If they shall have lov«4 
Look at the same tense in the indicative mood, and you will 

mdily percaire the distinction between the two conjugations. 
Ihpebative Mooc. 
Sutgnlar. PlwaL 

t. Love, or love thou, or do 2. Love, or love yo or you, 
thou love. * or do yo or you love. 

Note. We cunot cqjimsnd, cThort, fcc. eithar in jhuI or JUtrt Urns ; 
Ihwrfore ■ «eib Id tbii xiKod it alwajs in the fratnl teme. 


Present Tense. 
Singular. Plural. 

I-. I may, can, or must love, 1. We may, ran, or must Iotc, 

3. Thou mayst, canst, or 2. Te or you may, cam, «r 

must love, must love, 

Z. He may, can, or must 3. They may, can, or must 

love. love. 
Imperfect Tense. 

Singuitrr. Phtral. 

1. I might, could, would, or I. We might, could, wotddr 

should love, or shMild love, 

9. Thou mightst, couldst. 2. Ye or you might, couU, 

wouldst, or shouldat woul^ or should love, 

8. Ho might, could, would, 

or diould love. 

Perfect Tense. 

Singvlar. Phirttl. 

1, Imay,can, ormusthave 1. We may, can, or must have 

loved, loved, 

3. Thou mayst, canat, or 2. Ye or you may, can, or 

must have love;], must ha^'e loved, 

a. He may, can, or must 3. They may, can, or most 

have lo\ct'. Hva lovsd. 


Pluperfect Teoie. 

1. I mi^t, could, would, or 1. We might, could, weidd, 

should faave loved, or should haVe loved, 

3. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Te or you might, could, 
wouldst, or efaouldst would, or should h&ia 

IWTe loved, loved, 

3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, w«ttld, 

or ahoiild have loved. or should^ave loved. 

By examinuig carefully the conjugation of the verb through 
Am mood, you wilt find it very easy ; thus, you will notice, tut 
wbenever any of the auxiliarieB, may, can, or null, is placed 
AefofO K verb, that verb is in. the potential mood, prtitni tense ; 
might, eovid, teoidd, or »hoidd, renders it in the potential mood, 
imptrftet tense ; may, can, or mtul have, the perfect tense ; mod 
tmght, eould, teoutd, or thotdd hose, the plvptrject tense. 

, , - Inmnitivb Moon. 

Ptes. Tease. To love. Pctf. Tense. TohaveloT»d 


Present or imperfect. Loving. 

Perfect or passive. Loved. 

Compound, Having loved. 

■tha Ju^MlfeCt unn : 

tha latter, bv the foll< 

For your encouragement, allow me to inform you, that when 
you shall have learned to conjugate the verb to love, you will 
be able to conjugate all the regular verbs in the English hw- 
guage, for they are all conjugated precisely in the same man- 
ner. By pursuing the following direction, you can, in a veiy 
short time, learn to conjugate any verb. Conjugate the veib 
Icve through all the moods and tenses, in the firet person sin* 
Kulu", with the pronoun / before it, and apeak the Faiticipl«a . 
thus. Indicative mood, prea. tense, first pera. sing. 1 iove, 
irsperf. tense, I loved; perf. tease, I hone loved: and so on, 
through every mood and tense. Then conjugate it in the 
second pors. sing, with the pronoun thou before it, through «11 
the moods and tenses ; thus. Indie, mood, pros, tense, seeund 
pers. sing. Ihou lovttl ; imperf. tense, thou Imtdtt : and ao on, 
through the wholo. After that, conjugate it in the third peta. 
ling, with he before it ; and then in tii6 first pers. plural, with im 
>efi>re it, in tike manner, through all Am moods and t ons w 


Ahbougli this mode of procedure ttmy, at first, ftppesr to be 
taborioua, jet, as it is necessaiy, I trust joa will not heaitata 
to adopt it. Mj confidence in jour perseverance, induces me 
to recommend any course which I know will tend to facililato 
jour progress. 

When jou shall have complied with my requisition, von may 
conjugate tbe following verbs in the same manner ; wtuch will 
enable you, bereafter, to tell the mood and tense of any verb 
without hositetion : viUk, halt, Mtili, rule, eonqair, reduce, relate. 



lBnEODU.R verbs are those that do not form 
their imperiect tense and penect particq>le by 
the addition of d or ed to the present tense ; as. 

Pro. Tmn. IJKpaJ, Taat, Peif. at Pat, Part, 

Xwmk* awoka, R. awalud 

Betx, t,] bring faiilt bare bom 

B«r, Ic emry boca borna 

Beat baat beatan, I 

B^Sin bagaa bofpm 

Bend beDl bent 

BereaTa bercA, R. bereft, R. 

Beaaaoh beaonsht *" '"' 

Bid bade,bi<I 

Bind bound 



buraLR. bunt, R. 

beqaW boolht 



IVCS. IteN. 


*.»«■/ T««. 



















Dwe, tocMfav* 













drunk, dnuik,> 





eat, alt 





































V^K. , 


















hewn, R. 















knit, R. 





p^i^. as-/'-— a* 

t.7 Uid 1^ 

Lot* kA Mt 

Lend '«nt I^nt 

Lat IM lat 








































•moto . 









a nerfv obwlete. 

1 S«i>g ud tank ihould not be used in ftmirw tty.*. 

















■prong, «^ng 












■trade, Mria 




■track •TitiiAMi 





Straw M-Xrw 
















































ffind ' wonnd wonnd 

Vfoik wraught, worked wronghl, wotkad 

Wring wrung wrung 

Write wrote written. 

In Suniliai writing and diaconrse, Uie following^ and m<neothra'Tefbe,ar« 
•Aen imprapeitj tenninaled b; I instead of ttfj u "leant, melt, qnll, 
Mopt, latohl.'' Tlnj ■hould be, " Imnsd, apslled, quUed, atopped, laldied." 

Tou ma^ now conjugnte tho following irregular vedw ia a 
maflDersiaiilnrtodisconjugationof regularverfos: ariu, btgin, 
bM, do, go, grote, nm, Itnd, Uaek, mrilt. Thiu, to orW'— In- 
dietttiT« mood, prua. tense, first parson, sing. I arise ; impeif. 
tense, I arose ; perf. teiue, 1 have nnsen, and so od, thmugh all 
ibo naoods, and all the tenses of each mood ; and then speak 
Aft putic^lM 1 thus, pres. arising, perf. arisen, comp. baTiag 
* BpHtan ia nawly obeolete. 

IS3 KTTKOLOaT AUD ithtax. 

ariMn. talh«nextpkce, conjugate theBaiDBretbiadiesecaad 
ponoa stag, throu^ ail the moode and tenses ; aoA dwn m the 
Ihinl person mg. and in the first pers. plural. After that, vou 
mar proceed in me same mannerwith the words bepn, bmd, sc 
Now read the XI. and XII. lecturea four oj^e limes orer, 
and leam the order of parsing a verb. You will then be pre- 
pared to parse the followingverbs in lull ; and I presume, all 
Ihe other parts of speech. Whenever you parse, you mustrefei 
to ^ Compendium for definitions and rules, if you cannot re- 
pe^ tbem wilbout I will now parse a. verb, and describe «ll itM 
propertiea by applying the definitions and rules according to tbt 
sjrstematick order. 

" We cmiU not accoii^iUh the business." 
Ckmld aeeon^Uh is a verb, a word which signifies to do — ac- 
tive, it expresses action — transitive, tho action passes over from 
litB nom. " we" to the object " business" — r^jular, it will fonn 
'its imperfect tense of the indie, mood and per^ part, in et^po- 
tential mood, it implies possibility or power — imperfect tense, it 
denotes paat time however distant — first pers.'plural, because the 
oom. "we" is with which it agrees, agreeably to Rule. 4. ,3 vari 
nttut a^rte, &c. Conjugated — Indie, mood, preseat tense, firal 
pers. smg. I accompli^ ; imperfect tense, I accomplisbodj per- 
fect, I have accomplished ; pluperfect, I hoA accomplished ; and 
BO on. — Speak it in the person of each tense through all Qm 
woods, and conjugate,in the same manner,every rerb you parM. 


Thut txereita canttin a ctmpUlt varies iff JSaeds and TVnwt. 

I leam my lesson well. Charles, thou leameat thy lesson 
badly. John, do you write a good hand 1 Those ladies wrote a 
beautifiil letter, but they did not despatch it. Have you seoi (be 
gentleman to whom I gave the book 7 He has. gone, llifly 
had received die news bef<H« the messenger arrived. When 
will those persons return 1 My fnend shall receive his reward 
Ha will have visited me three times, if he come to-morrow. 

If Eliza study diligently, she will improve. If Charles studies 
he does not improve. Unless that man shall have accomplished 
his work by midsummer, he will receive no wages. Orlando, 
obej my precepts, unless jou wish to injure yourself. Remem- 
ber what is told you. The physician may administer the medi- 
cine, but Providence only can bless it. I told him thai he might 
' jg«, but he would not He mi^t tiave gone last week, bad he 
conducted himself properly; (that is, if he had condueUd, 
ikc.) Boys, prepare to recite your lessons. Young ladief^ let 
me b«ar vou repeat what vou have learned. Study, diKgeody, 

tVXlLURT TBRSm. ffit 

wjktaTer task may be allotted to you. To oorroct the apirit 
ofdiscoDlent, let uHconaider how little we dttaerre. To die for 
one's counby, is gionons. How -can we become wiae I To 
peek God ia wisdom. What is true greatness 1 Active benevo- 
lence. A good man is a great man. 

Note 1. .Von, fbllowinj gnnf, and vhat, in the lut two eiamplei, m 
□om. Bflei i> .- Rule SI. To aik Ood, and Is dUJiir ofu'i cvmhy, tn meni* 
ben of lenleDces, each pnt ■■ tfae nom. cue to ii renwctirelr: Rule S4. 
The Tcrb ti> ttmct 'm (he ialinitive oiood absotute : Note under Rule tS, 
JWajr ie alloltid i« a passive verb, agreeing with wUci, the retative put of 
wkatrtrr. Thai, tlis 5nt part of whateirar, ia an adj. proDoon, agreana with 
font; and liuiU governed by ilurfy- Aeor, foUowmg M, and r^«f, lollow- 
jfig hear, are in the infinitiTe Tnood without the lign to, acccrding to Rdlk 

SS. ToncUt a gmernfA by prepare: Rdle S3. Ii W " " " 

mgnang with lo&A, the relative part of w'-' 

Tcmed bj In iindeniood : MotB I, under 

S. In puany a proDoun, if tbe noua for which it stand* ■• not nipinwriil. 
jou mmt ny it repreaenta Bome person oi thing undci ttood. 

1.VCTVKB xm. 


Before t«u attend to the fi>l]owing additiuOfd remariu <mi tfae 
Auxiliary Verbs, you will do well to read again what a said rei- 
pectiog them in lecture XI. page 140. Tbe short aDcount dteie 
giTOD, and their application in conjugating verbsi havo already 
made them quite familiar to you ; and you have undoubted^ 
observed, that, widiout their help, we cannot conjugate any verb 
in any of the teoaes, except the pretent and imperfect of the 
indicetiTe and subjiHietive moods, and tfae present of tbe in- 
perativo and infinitive. In fte formation of all tfae other tenaea, 
they are brought into requisition. 

Moat oTtbeauziliaryveiba are defacttvemconjagation; ihiU 
is, thpy are used only in emne of (be aMwds and teoaaa ; aad 
when unconnected wiUi piincipal verba, th^ ara coiyugstaij in 
the following maimer : 

Pre*. ( Sing. I majr, tliou majst, he may. 

Ten**. i Plur- We may, ye er yon tmy, diey may. 

tmperf. j Sa^. I nu^t, Ibou nd^t^ he nrisht. 

Tenaft j Pita-. We roif^t, ye or you might, Ui j nieht. 



!3iiig. I oil, tbou cusl, he un. 
Plw. We can, ye or you c«n, tbey can. 
SSing. I could, tbou coubbt, he conld. 
Pho: We could, ye or you could, they coold. 


J Smg. I win, thou will, he will. 

( Phr. We will, ye er you will, they will. 

( SiNf- I would, thou woutdat, he would. 

J Plw. We would, ye or you would, they would. 


( Sui;. 1 BhMl, thou Bhalt, he ahaU. 

\ Pbtr. We ahall, ye or you ahall, tbey ahaU. 

iStRg. I abould, tbon ahoaldat, he ahoald. 
Pbir. Wo ahonld, yc or you ahould, they (hotlld. 


( Sn; . I do, Ihou dost or doest, be doth or doea. 
( Plur. We do, ye or you do, they do. 
( aing. I dii than didtt, he did. 
i PUr. We did, ye or you did, tbey did. 
Pvftc^iiu. Pre*, doing. PnC done. 
i Sbtg. I am, tbou art, ha is. 
{ ifMT. We *ro, ye or you are, they are. 

SSkig. I wu, thoa wtat, he wa& 
Phr. We wore, yo or you were, they wen. 
Ptr^tipta. Prea. being. Perf. boeo. 

I.nperi'. t Smr. I had, tboa hadot, he had. 

Tmim. { nw. We had, ye or Tou bad, tbey had. 

PartitipUi, Free, baving. teA had. 
Do, ht, have, aod wiU, are sometimea used &s priacipal rerbs; 
ud when employed as such, do, (e, and hoet, may ba coDJuga 
ted, by the help of other auziliaries, tbrou^ &11 the moods and 

Do. The difierent teiues of do, in the several moods, ate 
ttas ftHined : Indicative mood, pres. tense, first pen. BiDf^. I 
do ; imperfect tense, I did ; petf. I have done ; pluperfect, 1 
had done ; first future, I ohall or will do ; sec. fut I shall have 
done. Subjunctive mood, prea. tense, If I do ; imperf. if 1 
did ; and bo on. Imperative mood', do thou. Potential, pres 
I maij, can, or must do, &c. lofinitive, present, to do ; perf 
tohaT»dane. Farticiples, pres. doing; perf. done ; compoMiul, 
pning dono 


Have. Have ia in great demniid. No verb can be CMijn- 
gated throu^ all the moods and tenses without it. /fove, irtuD 
uaedasapniKiipal verb, is doubled in some of the past tcnaea, 
and becomes an auxiliary (o itself; thus, Indie, mood) pTee. 
tense, first pers. sing. I luve ; imp. tense, I had ; perf. I have 
had ; plupwf. I had bad ; first Ait 1 shall or will have ; sec. f\it 
I shall have had. Subjunctive, present, if I have ; imperf. if I 
had ; perf. if I have had ; pluperf. if I had had ; first fut. if I 
ahall or wifl have ; sec. fut. if I shall have had. Imper. mood, 
hare thou. Potential, present, I may, can, or must have ; 
imperf. I might, could, would, or diould l»ve ; perf. X may, can, 
or must have had ; pluperf. I might, could, would, or should 
have had. Infinitive, present, to lukve ; perf. to have had. 
Participles, pres. having ; perf. had ; compound, having had. 

Bb. In the next place I will present to you the ccmjugatioa 
of the irresular, neuter verb, Bt, which is an auxiHarj Mienever 
it is placedbefore the perfect participle of another verb, but in 
eveij other situation, it is aprino^MiJ verb. 

To Be. — iNDiciTiTE Moon. 

IinperfL < Sing. I was, tbou wait, he was. 

Tcnsa. ) Plvr. We were, yti or jroa were, the; were. 

PvC ( Sin^. I have been, thou hast been, he bxh sr haa been. 

Tense. J Pbtr. We baie been, jeer ;ou have been, they have been. 

Phip. % Sing, I bad been, thou hsdet been, he had been. 

Tena& \ Phr. We had been, je or you had been, they had been. 

Fbat t Smg. I ehall or will be, thou ehalt or will be, he shaU er will be. 

FnL T. {Pbir. WeehaH n-wUl be,yoti EJialli>r will be, IheyahaUerwiDbe. 

Second ( S(Bg. I shall have been, thou wilt have been, he idll have bean. 

fat. T. ) Pbr. We ahall have been, you will have been, they will have b*^ 

Subjunctive Moon. 
Frea. i Sing. Ifl be, if thou be, if he be, 
Tenae. ( /*r. irwobe,if ye«-yoube,if they be, 
ImperC ( Sinf . If I were, if thou wert, if he were. 
Tenae. { Kwr. If we were, if ye or you were, if they wera 

The neuter verb to be, and all passive verbs, have two forms 
m the imperfect tense of tiiis mood, as well aa in the present ; 
therefore, the following rule may serve to direct you in the 
proper use of each form. When the sentence implies doubt, 
supposition,* &c. and the neuter verb bt, or the passive verb, ia 
used with a reference to present or future time, and is either 
followed or preceded by another verb tn the imperfect of tbv 
potential mood, the eonjoncftre form of the imp^ect tense most 
Memployed; as, "J/'beiMrehere, weaftWrfrejoicotogeAeri'* 


" Ma nught go, were she eo dispoaod." But when there is no 
rcAnBce to prtaaot or fliture time, and the veAt is neithei' M- 
UnMi nor prec«ded ^>y another in the potential imperfect, dio 
mmUcoInw fbnn of the imperfect tense muBt be used ; as, " if br 
WM ill, he did not make it knoini ;" " Wluihtr ha teiu atMen- 
ar present, is a matter of no conseqaeace." The general rdji 
for niiRg the ctmjnnctive fonn of the verb, is presented on pagi 
146. See, also, page 135. 

"Hm petfiKt, plaperfecl, ud fint totate tenna of (h« BubjunctlTe 
I im^iriiil in ■ maiuter siniilai to tba comapondent teniea tf tbe iiidi(«- 
tin. Hh BMtmd Tiitun ia conjugated tbiu : 

Sacond J Sing. Ifl ilull h«Te tMwn, iftboualMlllMve been, ifhaahBiL Ac 
PutT. \Flmr. IfvreahftUtwT«beeD,if]raaehallharebBeii,ifthe7,kc. 

Impkiutitb Mood. 
Fns. t Sfaf . B«, ar Im tbon, tr do Ihoa be. 
Tmmi )Phr. B«k«rti«7««r7o«,ordayeirimilM. 

PoTBKTiAi. Mood. 

( Attf. 1 may, ran, or ranat be, Ibou mtjat, euut, er miut be, bt 

Fna. TmM. To be. Pert Toms. Te h>*e been. 


Pica. Bsing. Peril Been, Cunpoaod, Hanng bean. 

This Terb to be, though very irregular in its conjugation, is by 
far the most important verb in our language, for it is more fre- 
quently used than any other ; many rules of syntax depend on 
constructions associated with it, and, without its aid, no passire 
verb can be c^ugated. You ought, therefore, to make your- 
self perfectly famUiar with all its changes, before you proceed 
any farther. 


The eata ofnouiu are a fhiitful theme for investigation and 
diacusMOQ. In the progress of these lectures, this subject has 
frequently engaged our attention ; and, now, in introducing to 
your notice the passive verb, it will, perhaps, be found both in' 
torasting and profitable to present aae more view of the nomina- 
tive case. 

FAMIVB TlftBS. 137 

Krery MBt«nM, you recollect, nMal have onejiitiu verb, oi 
mora thtui one, and one noiMnaJtee, either tixpr«saeA or impKed, 
for, #idiout them, no sentence cbu exist. 

The nomiiiafivt is the actor or aubjeet concoming which the 
rerb makes an afflnnalicfn. There are ttiroc hinds of nomina- 
tires, adive, pattite, and nw/er. 

The nomincrti^ to an aclirt rerb, ie aelive, bennisB K produ- 
ct* an action, andfte nominative toa;>(MMreTerb,i«paniite, be 
Pause it receiBM or nxJurM the action expressed bythe verbjfbi, 

A Passive Verb denotes action received or en- 
dured by the person or thing which is the nom- 
inative ; as, "The Boy is beaten by his father." 

You pM«eira, thM (he naninative boj, in this example, ia mU 
represented aa the a«f»r, but as the oifMf of tba action expraw* 
ed by the verb t« btaten ; that is, the boy reeehes or enduret the 
action performed by his father ; tberefiKc hoy ia a pamve nom- 
inative. And you observe, too, that the verb u beaten denolea 
the actum received or endured by die nominative ; therefore u 
btaten b a paiiivc verb- 

If I say, John fcicfced the horse, John is an active Qontinallve, 
necauseheparlbTmedor produced the ^^tion; butif l»nv. John 
iMU kicked by the horse, John is a itastmre uoKuuauwV) ifeowiM 
ne received or endured tbn nctivu. 

The nominative m a<aaiicr veri>, ia MNfor, becaun it d»M 
not pmd'ice an action nor receive one ; as, John n(* in Uie tUmr. 
J^iiD IS here connected with the neuter verb »ilf, which exarma- 
es simply the state of bciitg of its nominative, therefore John is 
a neuter nominative. 

I wilt now illustraBa the active, passive) lai neuter nonUBS* 
tives by a few examples. 

I. Of Active NoHiNiTtvEs ; as, " The boy beats the dog ; 
rbe lady sings ; The ball rolls i The man walks>' 

II. Of Passive Nomihativeh ; as, " The boy is heateii ; The 
iadyie loved i The ftoil is rolled ; The man was killed." 

lU. OfNKi;TxRNo>u[iATiVBa;aa, " The boif remaias idle ; 
The lady is beautir«l ; The bail lies ob the ground ; Hie nmw 
ln«8 in town." 

Tdu may now proceed to ttie conjugation of passive verbs 

Passive Verbs are caHed regular when ^ey 
end in ed ; as, was loved ; was conquered. 

All Passive Vertis m-e formed by adding the 
perfect partiemle ef wi active-trawitiye verb, to 
the neuter veiii iobt) 


198 KTmoi.ooT AJiD aiHTAx. 

Ifyoa plftce *. pwiact participle of an Bctive-tiaiuitive verb 
after thia nsuter vwb bt,ja an; mood or tense, ;ou will hara a 
pa— tee verb is (he aama mood and tenae that the v«rb U would 
be ia if the participle were not ua«d ; as, 1 am xHghUd ; I was 
tlighUd ; He will ba lUgkUd ; If I be aUgbltd ; I Jtmj, <;an, of 
niiut be tUghted, ^c. Hence you perceive, that when jou shall 
lure learaed the conjugation wTtbe verb 6«, jouwUlbe able to 
conjugate any passive TOib in the English language. 

The r^ulnr passive verb to 6« Jonerf, which is formed by a;dd- 
ing tb« perfect participle loved to the nepter Tsrb to l/e, iapon 
jugated in.the following maimer : 

To Bs Loved. Ikdtcitivb STood, 

PfM. ( Sfaf. 1 tm loTed, Ihou art loxcd, lie is toted. 
TawM. ( Hv. We uc loved, year you iMlovad, day an loTMk' < 
ImfinC ( 9i^. I «u kxsd, tbou natt Icfred, be i*u Imed. 
Taaw. ) Pba^ W« were loved, }• rs jan were laved, tbty ~W9» kned. 
Paifttf } Simg, 1 bsve been lovad, Ihou hut been loved, Iw hu been lovad. 
Tenae. ( PIht. We have been loved, jou have been loved, th^ have, &c. 
Pluper. < Sing-. I bad been Igvcd, thou hndst been lovpd, be had been, &c 
TeoM. ) Pba. We had been loved, you had been loved, the; had been, &c. 
Pint J Sin;. 1 shall or will be loved, thou (halt or wilt be Inved, be, &c 
Ftilnre. } Pbar. We Ai^ «r wiH be loved, jon 8bill or will be loved, Ibey, fiu 
Second ( Sing. I lihall bave 6een loved, Ihon wUt baft been loved, be, Sni 
VMva. t Php. WedwU bare been bved, you wiU bava been loved, &«. 

SuBJUNCTivB Mood. ■■ 
PtaK {Mtf. Ifl be loved, if tboo be k>nd,if'h«.ba loved. :. 
TMaa. inar. ir we ba loved, iTye arjrsube loied, iflliojr balovad. 
Ifmf < SiKg. ir I were loved, if Ihou werl loved, if be were loved. 
Teni& I fiw. ir we were loved, ifyoii were loved, IT Ihej were loved. ' 
nicmoad bai eli tenses : — See conjugation 6ftheva1>tohi 
Imperative Mood. 
no* J Mtir. BBt)Makr*od,M-dotlKUbebi«Ml. ! 

Tenae. ( Kbt. Be jeer you loved, or do ya beloved... 

PoTRNTiAL Mood. 

Piee. i Stag. 1 may, can, «r muel be loved, tbou :r3]wt, cansi, or mMrt, fta. 

T-ni~ f nur. We may, can, or must be loved, you maj, can, or must, Ice. 

fanperC ( Sing, t might, could, would, or ihould be loved, Ibco inishlst, ftc. 

Tense. ) Plitr. Wo might, could, wouM, or Bbould b« litved, f e or jvui Ita 

fetfeet X Sing. I may, can, ornnist bave been loved, Hiou mayHt, eanet,lu. 

TetWe.' ( PJur. We may, caB, or musl have been W«il, yon raay, can, im 

f Smg-. 1 might, could, would or shoold have bent loved, tfcetf 

Phlft j migbIM, couldat, wouldst, or sbouldat h^ve been loved,ftG, 

Traatb 1 PbT. We nught, could, would, or should have been loved, voh 

' i might, could, would, orshould have been^oved, tbey, he. 

IvriHiTivH A{oo». 

rr«a.TBMe. To be loved. PerCTcuM. Tohavebeea^ved. 



Mrra. TWr amjagUiiat tt tho puni* rerb l« t« iM*'. w caUad itte 
funvt MiM fd' dw rapiUr KtiT«>tmintive rerb It lovt. 

Now conjugate the foUowing paseive Tetba ; that is, tmeak 
tbem in the first pers. Bing- and plur. of each tense, throng all 
the moods, and speak the participles ; "to be lored, toberejoct- 
.ed, to be slighted, to be conquered, to be seen, to be beateo, to 
be sought, to be taken." 

NoTB I. when the perfect puiici^le of a 
llie neuter rerb lo he, the combination ■■ not ■ 

inlmiilJH verb !■ 

■iv« vetbjbut a nailtr nA 
JInm ; Tfta bt 

I binU hmM flnmi ; Tha bof JtMt pvwa j 

n apMritK/orm; as, "He it Font ; The birds ore JInm ,■ TWtbajit grcmn. 

Mr fncnd ii orrtHiI." liw Ibtfowitig madeoTconilnMtoi, ia, in ffanwal, to 

4« preftrred ; " " ' _. 1 ■ . . - _..... 

Wy friend ui aj 
S. Active «n. 

of, 1 leWh, thou teaehfl^ be teachaa, ftcqlre mav Mj, I am tJiacMng, Ui 

uid, initead o^ 

oC I taught, &c ; J wai le 

or BUleof beiog; and hu, on tome oecaaiooa, a paoidiar pnmnetjiiad 
cool ribulei to the harmony and preciKon of Unguaga* Wh«« tha proaaat 
psnicipie of on aetive verb i« joined with Bw MMar Terblo ba, the two 
wordj united, are, by Bome grammarian*, denoimnalad an arti* «TWifa;«mar 
tranndveor iotraniitive, ai the ease may be ; aa, •• I an mttlDg a latUr ; 
Haia walkmgi'-aiKlvhen the;«e»ent participle of a neoUrTerb la tte 
employed, thev term the eombinalion a neuter verb ; ai, " 1 am nttiat ; Ha 
ia Btaoding." Otbera, in conatractioQa like these, pMae each word wpaiaMf. 
Either m<Me may be adopted. 

Defective: Verbs are those which are used 
only ID some of the moods and tenses. 

The prinopal of them am tbaae. 

pni. Tout Imprf- Toim. Vttjkt «r Paiaiaa ^wMjpf' 

I* iMMllag. 

Maj, might 

aconld. ^__— . 

would. ■ — ■ 


Most, molt 

Ought, ooght '■'■■ — — 

Nora. JWii«aiidoi«*l aranot»ariod. OagUand l«lf&araii«*«r OHd 
«a«iui8aiwa. (HgU » alwayi fUlowed ^ a vsib m the infinitive mood, 
which Serb detemmei ita tenao. OagU t» in tho freital tenie when the io- 
fmitive foHowine il IB in the preaent ] ai, " He oaght to do it ;" and eu^At la 
In the (in;«T/«( tenie when followed by the porftct of tha infculiw i aa," Ha 

you may read over the l^t /Arfelllrfi^ iSi'S^^^!!; 
tiTflly ; and as soon as you become ac4]uaiBtod witf ,ii *i,-.j_ 
lieen preMtited, yaa wfll umkntuul newfy aU Iba prmcwks 
aztA regtiUr constructiona of our lanpuiga. In parsing » -wm^ 


or my «tker part of speech, be careful to (mrwM llw »s»Mnalieli 
ordtr, and to conjugate every verb until yaa beeMne toniiliar 
with bH the moods and tense*. 

" lie akould have bttn punished before he committed that 
atrocicmB deed-" 
StufvM have bttn punished is a verb, a word llial signifies to 
du — passive, it denotes action received or endured by the nom. 
— it is fonncd by adding the perfect part, pwithed to the neuter 
veib to bt — regulur, the perf pi^. ends in ed — potential mood, 
it implMB obligation, &c. — pluperfect tense, it denotes a past 
act which was prior to the other post time speoifidd by " com- 
mitted" — third pen. sing. num. because the nom. " he" is witn 
wfak^ it agrees : Rule 4. The verb naal agree, &c. — Conju- 
gated, Indie, mood, pres. tense, he is punished ; impeif. tense, 
be was punished ; perf. tense, he has been punished ; and so 
on. Conjugate it through all the moods and tenses, and speak 
the particles. 

Columbus discoveted America. .Vmerica was discovered 
by Columbus. The preceptor is writing a letter. The letter 
is written by the preceptor. The work can be done. The 
house would have been built ere this, had he fulfiHed his promise. 
If I be beaten by that man, he will be punished. Young man, 
if you wi^ to be respected, you must be more assiduous. Bemg 
ridiculed and despised, he lell the institution. He is rettding 
Homer. They are talking. Hemny be respected, if he bocona 
mace ingenuous. My worthy friend ou^t to be honoured for 
his b«ievo]«nt deeds. This ought ye to have done. 

All the mostimportant principles of the science, together with 
many of the ndes, have now been presented and illustrated. 
But before you proceed to analyse the following e^tercises, yon 
may turn over a few pages, and you will find all the rules pre- 
sented in a body. Please to examine ihem critically, and parse 
'(be txamplea under each rule and note. The examples, yuu will 
nc^e, are given to iDnstrate the respective rules and notM 
■jnder which they are placed ; bence, by paying particular ot- 
tcntiaa to them, you will be enabled fully and cleuly to com- 
prehend the meaning and * PF' ' "^^^jllUXQlLliJB J" tJ IOt"iill' Utu d«- 
fc^^rr*" S^y^^^S'^^piy^^'i^^^^^''^^'''^^ you may <»nit 

S«!in oa»»Wg 1 l""* y*" ■°"*' '''™^ ^PP'^ "" ™^ "'" ^^^ 
tw. Wba»youp»rs*iwitUout^^yingthodBfin(Uon«,yo«B)^ 

praceed in ibe fullowing nwnner : 

VERBt. — PARtlKd. 161 

*' Marcy ia the true badge of nobility." 
Mtny u ft nouB coromoa, of the neater gender, fluid pcnoB, 
MDgular number, and in the nominative case to "ia: " Hulk 8. 
TV nominativt caae governs the verb. 

J* is an irregular neuter verb, indicative mood, premnt tenae, 
third person, singular number, Hgreeins with " mercy ," accord- 
ingto Rule 4. T%e verb inutl agree, &.C. 

The is a definite article, beJoBgiog to " badge" in die •ingu- 
lu number : Rulb 2. The defirnU arlieU the, &c. 

True is an adjective in the positive degree, and belong* to 
. th« noun" badge :" Rui-a 18. JdJMtitietWMg-, &c. 

Bad^ is a noun com. neuter grader, third person, nngutar 
munber, and in the nominative case after " is," and put by ap- 
position with " mercy," according to Rulb 21. TA« »«r4 to*< 
■Mtf have the same catt after it ai before iL < 

Of a a preposition, connecting *" b^d gt " mmI " nobility," and 
Aowing the relation between th^pn. 

Jfobilily is a ridiin of multitude, ma«. and fem. gender, tUrd 
pMSon, sing, and in die obj. case, and governed by "of;" Rulb 
31. Pr«po»iliont govern the objective cote. 

Learn to nnleam what yon hove learned andas. 
What I forfeit for myself is a trifle ; that my indiscretions 
riiould reach my posterity, wounda mfe to thfe hevt. 

Lady Jane Gray fell a aacTJflc« to the wiM ' ailiUtion of the 
duke of Nortbumberlwd. ... 

King Mimipsi charged his sons to consider the senate and 
people of Rome as propriotots of the kingdom of Nuaiidia. 

H^zael smote the cluldren of Israel ia all their ooaats { «b4 
from what is left on record of bis actions, he plainly appeum to 
hare proved, what the [iropbet foresaw him to be, a man of vio- 
lence, cruelty, and blood. 

Heaven bides from brutes what men, from' men iriiat spirite 

He that formed' the ear, can he not hear T 
"He that hath ears lo hear, let him hear. 

{toM^*ftiHU«a<Affiypoiler«y, wkpartorBsenteacepututbSDOTninatint* 
tb* **•!> toBUmb, according to the aarneBule. 

e. WiBnoun foer^Sef, in the third erample, is nom. ■ftei the icttVe-ialraii- 
m6te retb Jelt: Hvlk 32. The noun pnprietiiri, m the next aenteiic*, i« 
in th« ol>j««i»B CMC, and pat by ippogitien with louft and people ,- Rnii 7, . 
tT.mrtntei hjfuiuidef, understood, according ti> Ruli 35. 

3. Id the filth example, lehal. Intloiring prmrJ, ii ■ compMUul i«lati*<i 


^, tka ant*c*d(Dt pvt,ii in tha nem. cue Bfter to b, nDdcntood. ■» ' 

fMl ij ^tpontion witli Ac, wamdiag to Rclk 31, tnd Note. WUck^ tba 
nlalifa put, ii ia tlia o^ cue ■flor^ he expresMHl, aod put by ({ifiaritioii 

"'" "' ... - .. ■ n ([,5 o|,j_ j^aae, put hy »|i» 

in with wUc'i .' Rulf. T. Tfae latter imrt of the aentence may b« lucr 
nUf rendfired thus : He pUinly appears la have pn)> edio li that iaat thar- 
Mtor tcukki tba fiofial ionaaw turn (o tw, ni. » mm of ncdoiua, 4Z«alt^, 

•nd blood. The antecedent part of tho iiral ahal, is the ib 

([DTemed by Uda ; «nil tojUoll^ the relative part, is governed by Ja 

■tood. The antecedent part rf Ibc second Khat, L> governed by hidti under- 

■tood, and ths relative part ii governed by himi eipressed. 

i. The Rral ht, in tlie Hrenth example, ie, in the opinion of aoHtev Doeb. 
(o an A<ar understood ; but Mr. N. It. Smth, a dUtmguiahod and acnts 
gramnarian, euggesta the propriety of rendering the sentence thus ; " IIb 
thai formed the ear, JbniKrKlla hear, -can he not hear?" The first jIc, in the 
lait eiani|ile, ia ledundaDt ; yet the cunMruction is samalines admswimble, 

who hilh cara to hear ;" 

s erunmatinJ, an 
\a hear ; let hiia hi 

tdionu, amomoKet. onH iritneoeit. " ' .^ 

\. "The wall ig thrte/wf l»M.» ' . "",■,, 

2. " His son is eight ytort'oWt*^ ■". '^ ,,,,,;".,, , 

3. " My knife is worth a thilling." ' "^ ' 

4. " She IB worth AtMaAJaH his MnneMoiM." 

5. "Hehaslwan there three iftiK*-" 
,£. "TbahtX coat tea deitart." 

7. " The Io«d weighs a Iwft." 

8. "Tfaenpar measures oitte^ _/«</." 

BaMAKu. — ifnMnoly » derived from the Greek, n, withoni, and mmiIm, 
aunilw ;. lb»t U, wilAoHt Maularit^ Soma gite ita deavalion Avk ; mtm^, 
from the Latin, at, from, oi out of, and norma, a rule, or law, meaoji an oat- . 
law; a mode of exprenrion that departs from the rules, laws, or gaural 
iiiafM cf IhaiaofiDuB; a cMB^nKtmn in langtiage peculiar to ileelf. Thm, 
il i> a na^ nif« oT the laneiiagB, that adjectives of one syllable ara eom- 
pared by adding r, or tr, and it, or «l, to the positive dcgreei but gowl, t^ 
ttr, hat; bad, \ettii, wtmt, are not compared according '" '' " ' 

TlMiy are, therefore, anomaUes. The plural ■ ' 

fmnt'bf a4dingt,Io theeingnlai: maB, n 
ifrfli; penny, ftnei, ore atiomalies. The nse oi ntvjs, mii 

omauli, in the aingiilar, constitutes anomalies. Anomalous 

are correct according to custom i but, as they are depaituroa from gonol 
ndea, by them they cannot be analjacd. 

An ufioHi, Latin idiania, a construction peculiar to a Ungual^ may b* Di 
koomaly, or it maynoC An idiomatirol cxpreuioa which ia not aDanoniBb, 
can be analyzed. 

Feet and ytan, in the 1, and S, euunplea, are not in the aoaiinathw afUr 
it, accordins to Rule 21, because thay are not in ^ppoNtion wiUi the maiisa 
tnenonBSUiat precede the Terbi but the conalruclions are anomaloua ; aoA 
therefore, no rule can be 4>P^. ^ •halyie them. The same ideas, hov- 
evsr, can be conveyed by a Imtiniate construction which can b« aiialyHd - 
thus, " The kaght of t)iB walTts three fiet ,-" " The iv< of my aoa h ei^l 

A.^ixiLiHi— ^riutnua. - 163 

J% Mmtif, irbw t^wUioaJ to b« w 

U'kik it 11 Taiyfifficstt lad«cid« whether & ei ._^. 

x>L Tha Sd, 41h, uid 5th eiamplee, ue geamajtoimdtmi um«m1>W| 
^ if wo n^pl J. ■• we tn, peHmii^ wamated in doing, the aeeoaielM 
worde which modern icfiiMinent hu drapped, tliaj «fll ooaae to be ukhbi* 
ttee{thiH^'<M]'1uufeit«^lk«w«nh^&ilulUn2;" '•—^t*' worth ^h^» 
kc " He bee been there Jiir three timei ;" es we aay, " I w» unwell JW 
three d«ys, after I arrived i" or, " I wu nawdl three daye." Hiiw it appean, 
that bj tMciiig baok,^ a few eentniiea, what the mer^ modem rngliih 
■cboUr auppoMW lo be snanomaly.Mi diiMi* wiU finqiuslljbediaeevwe^ 
wliich, whea euppfied, deatroye Um anooiMjr- 

On eztreoM pwota, and peeaiUar and *Bt7ing eo ne trwetioaa ia a Mdm Ud- 
guuc, the maatabUphilDlontBcaB never beamed; becMWMM 

will alwmya be nneettlcd and B»rtuatinfe andwM, aniMayMnlly, b»-i_., 

of aoeording to IheeaprieeaftheigraBBaiian. By aome, a ■entaaea aaj b« 
. J - - *"' ; by othara wbo oontend for, and enpflj, an eUna^ 

IheBBmenntencenwTbi ......_... __ 

otben, whsdeny both Ub dliptMsl and I 
conBtract - ■ ■ > - > . . 


rale by iAlchtoanal7Mit.wh>EhraUba*foti(«fi> 

Unguage, appeus to no to be the nuM eiocfitiniabte of Ibe IWm. Kwf- 
pearelohe makmtyiag ndea beyond the bonadi ofutili^. 

The Torba^rart, wde**, and mMHKt, in the 6th, 7lh, and 8lh MunpiN, 
may be eonudered a> tiamitiie. See (omarka on rcMmW>, taai^ Men, ka, 

i. "And God said, ^ Lei there be light,' and fltere wm 
ti^it." " Let ua rriEikc man." " I^t us bow before the Lord." 
''Let bigh-born seraphs tune the Ijre." 

5. "Betf enacted." "iletf remembered." "Btutdhehe 
hat blesseth thee ; and evrsed be he that curseth Ihce." "Hjr 

soul, turn from them : — (urn tee to survey," &g. 

3. " Mtikmki I see the portals of etemitjr wide opmi to re- 
cede bhn." ^MHhonght I was incarcerated beneafli lh» 
mighty deej)." " \ was there just thirty ytart ago."" 
■ 4'. " Their laws and th^r mEtaners, geiteraUy tpatlamg, mm 
estremelr rude." "CofMuiermg' Uieir means, they hare effected 

A. "Ahtne.' nor hope nor life remains." 
'• Mt miserable ! which way shall I fly 1" 

6. "Ohappintii! our bang's «nd and ium ! 

Good, Measure, ease, content 1 whate'er thy aune , 
Thfi* something still wlach prompts th' eMnal ugh. 
For which we bear to livfl, or-dara to die." — 
Fob verb Itl, in the idiomatiok entnplee nnder number I, haamnoodna 
tive epeclfiod, and ia letl appbcaUe to a nomiwOiva of ths Giat, accoad, •■ 
third peraon, and of either number. Every action neceeeuiiy depend* on all 
agent or morin^ canee ; and hence it fnllows, Ihst the verh,in euch Go ' 
tioni\ hai a nonunative mdentood ; bnt aa t)ut nominaUTe is not ' 
•dy pdKlei nd, the ^oaetrnatwaa mav be ci>«<id«Ted anomalona. 


, ,. r, " He (Wlbs blessed;" 

..J." fec;{ tMteik^te nuKWiteUwnd, turn, C(c.«ccordiag to uikliomof 
our la>caig«, or tbapoet's IiesiiMi, ue used in ths in^er^iee, sp«ang wilb 
a aoninadi* of tbe bit or thin) peraoa. 

Tbe ylii»»n«. UMlMidb utd mMeugU, ue anomalies, in wiricb the dijae- 
Itvepfooona m^ in the ^i< neraon, is used in placs of a nominatrra, and 
take* a Tetb after il in tbe tWipenon. Htm was ancientlj iwed mtha 
•anM raaDnar ; aa,''iUm OnOt, hiin tbmight" There was a penod wbe« 
these coaslnietiiwa were not anomaliei in oar laoguage. Formeih, wtvil 
we call the ai;H(ni cases of iHirpimouna,wereeii^^ed iDtheauneinaB>' 
ner as our la ee iiut iiMwdisWuin are. -Sgc i* a conttmction ofagsfw, the past 

pait-aTtoKK Before this participle I ' — -" ' — ^ -■- 

gtmfncKtiag it, ms in the Doinu" 

and " oonnderin^ thsv means," under nninber 4, a 
■MrJoH^ tbe aokjOEta to flie paittcMea not being spedfled. 

Aeoasding to tin genivi of the EogfiahUn^rafe, IrBntitiveTeiheandpra 
poaitioRi reqwe tbe olrKittiHcaaeafaBonn orprononn after tbem ; andtUi 
raqaiaitiM is all that is meant t^govenunent, when we mf, tbat these parts 
of spoeeb goveni the ofatectiTe case. 8eepage>5S,57, andM. The same 
psM^e aii|4ies to ths intetjection. " Inleij^tions reqarretheeMcdfocaM 
ofa [minouD of the&stpersDB aftertfaem; bat the ncmtnaMvcoTa noun oi 
OMBinuicflke seMmd or third petaon; as,''AhMe.' Oh thou I Omy cmialry r" 
To saj, thsB, that jnleijectioea rCfsirc pactici^r eases after thein, is nyno- 
nymous with saying, that they gvecm thiose cases ; and this office nflhe in. 
leijection is in perfect accOFdaoee with !bat nthich il performs in Itic Latin, 
and many other languagea. In the mam pies 'under number 5, the first m; 
is in the objeclive after " ah." and tbe accobd mc, after iiA.und(rilood; thus, 
"Ah miserable me!" according to Note 2, under Rule 5. — ifsjqucsi, under 
nmnbere, is nom. independent; Rule G, or in the nom. slier O, according 
to this Nolei The prindple contained in the note, )ira*ea that every noun 
uf the SBHtad jwraon i* in Ibe noninatin ease ; lor, as the jJwnAiin of the 
seeond pemn, io such a situation, is always nominative, v.-hich is abofrab* 
its firm, it lojiicatly folluwe that the noun, under siicli circumstanccii, af- 
ihougfa it has no/inii to show it« case, nmst necossorily h« in the aaine case 
a* tbapnMtovn. " Good, pleasnrc, ease, conMat, Ihtt,*' tbe anteeed^t pan 
ofwliatcTer," anduAicA, tharelaiiite part,'ara nom. niter art undsrsloodi 
Rule SI, and naiui is nam. to be understood. 

The second line may be rendered ttiul ; Whether thou art good, or 
l e a t h e r thou art pleasnM, 4«. or ti thy tuniK that [tldn^ which [erer 
thing] it iiuLf be I patting if inihe imperative, agreeing with «csM intiM 

o petmn. SmutUng is nominative after ort undeisliMid. 

1. "All were well fmt the tlranger/" "laaw nobody but 
the •irongrer." "■All had returned but he." " None bOt Um 
brane demrvBtbe rair." "The thing they can't 6«f purpose, 
they poatpoDB." " ITiia life, at heal, ia 6tif a dreairt."' " It 
affi»da &tiJ a scBDtj meamre of enjoyment." "Ifhe ftntloueh 
lh« hiUa, tbey will amoke." ''Man is &tit a reed, floating; on 
the Min-ent ol* time." 

2- ." Notwithatanding his poverty, be ia content." 

3. "OpcnyourbAndwtdc." '■Tkewpplesboil ao^." "The 

ANOM4UKS.— PtKltVC. 16ft 

pnreat cby |a that wbidi bunu toUle." " Driak d—p, or tMt* 
not the Pierian spring." 

4. "What tkoitgkiitB MwoiliagBUTge ihoaaoeV' Uc. " fVkml 
l/'tho foot, ordain'd the dust to tread V &c. 

REHiBia."According to tha priacipU of analygU ummsd by nunj o( 
our motl cnticul philolngiats, buJ ia attsinii a diajunctirc eonjODCtioB {^ mud 
agreenfaly to the B&me Butboritiea, to eoiutrua it, in uijoua, us prepoalMNi, 
would lewl to emiir. See falw S^itsx uodei Rula 35. '"-Tff'"' *'?.'*■" 
its legitiniala tod undevinting office ia, tojaia on * member of « mi ' 
which ixprmit airpoiltioa rfnuaning, and thereby IbnQB mn exceptioi 
lakea Iroin the univerulity ol^ the praponlioa contunad in (ba pre 
moKiber of the eentenoe. Tbit it - ■ - ■ ■ - 

, „^ ^ d purpDaiog to _.. 

life, at beat, {ijiul arialitg,} hil it ia ■ drcaDi. It (r^d> nitl tntsumleitAiii- 
(im| hUitatlbrds a aouity meinjre of enjoymflnt." " If he tauek the biUa, 
tol txert no grtaler fwirer iqun lAcm, thej will anuka ;" — " If kt fstrt ■• 
grtatiT poieer ^wa llu hilU, hit Ht-mt Mi fmti] if he touch them, they will 
Btnoke." " Man ii net a tIMt Mag, ial he it need, lloatiaf on tiiacunenl 
of tiiDo." Thia metboi] afanalyiiag seiitencei, however, tf I mistake not, 
— 'TO niach on tha plui of our pretended phJoaophical writers, who, in (heir 
EoOBtructiona and combinaliona, often oTsrloiJc tha modf 

•aaodated meaaing and api^cation of thia wonL It •ppeati lo me to b« 
■yira.con^atent wiui the maCtrn uaeofthe word, to coneidei it an oAicrlin 
coitatmction^ like the following: " If he Atil ((mly, miriJy) touch tha hills 
they will amoke." 

£ntpt and tuar, in example* like the fbllowk^, an gMerally cOMtnnd 
-aa pavpokliaai : 'fAU went ixttalki ~ ■■ "' - ■ _ ~ . 
~ "' ■-•--•- — eemployi 

ai*Dj ctmland, tl^at when we employ bul inataad ofexeepi, m such oonatnie- 
tiiHia, anmntwitnieahoiiMfbllaw: ''All went butht[tSd nal go,"] On thia 
point and many olhera, eailim a evbUi; but thB p«Bd will dmifaHw m 

) hit, temti, and Uluj will be coiiM[erad prapoailnai, and, in at 
like tf>e fbregoing; inToiiablj be ndlowed by an objectire caj 

lOt be the case, bowarer, 'until the pradka of auppl^ng ao d*^ 

Thia will not be the case, bowarer, 'until the pradka of auppl^ng w _ 
after these wotda ia enfirelj dropped. ifrtm JfrjT 

Pmtriy, nnder aumber S, is governed by the prepositiDn "tnlinrlTini 
Rate 31, The adjeclivea mdt, tofl, mUtt, and deem, under J^Tlj laiAm. 
onlyoipress the qu*"'! of nouna, but «lao qualily ver^vrj^tn Intani 
Bule 18.— Wiof, in the phnuea " what though'? and " ■""?i „"i!ILtoSL« 
«ti« in tha objective caaa^and governed "y/heW' ^i'^STft^Sg 
br some other verb: thua, " What matters it— "■ha' ™" ^-.h- cJ*.""" 
thou see the itvetllns surge V 'l^l— ■'^'i£°?,„ ^ 
-ord^nedtoj^^jj^-^^^'^be^';^^ i, .«-! « awml 

parts of speech. But by exercining judgment sufficient U OMi- 
prehend the meaning, and by supplying what is understood, you 
will ho able to analyze them correctly. 

I like what you dislike. 
Every creature loves iti like. 
Angar, envy, and tike passions, are sinfulr 

.,,.-.., ...Google 

Clumty, like the Bun, brighten! tverj object annnd i: 

Thou^t flicB swifter thaa light. 

He thon^ as a sage, ihon^ he felt as a man. 

Hail often proves destructive to vegetation. 

I was happy to hail him as my friend. 

Haill beeuitaoua stranger of the wood. 

The more I examine the woric, the better I like it. 

Johnson is a better writer than Sterne. 

Calm was the day, and the scene delightful. 

We nmy expect a calm after a storm. 

To prevent passion is easier than to calm iL 

Damp ait is unwholesome. 

Gialt (Aen caats a damp over our sprightlieal hours. 

Soft bodies damp the boumI much more than hard eoes 

Much money has been expended. 

Of him to whom mu<^ is given, much will'be required. 

ft is mncii betler'to give than to receive. 

Still water runs deep. 

He laboured to still the tumult. 

Tboea two young profl^iates remain still in the wrong. 

They wrong tfaemselveH as well as iheii friends. 

I will now present to you a few examples in poetry. Pws- 
ing ia poetry, as it brings into requisition a higher degree of 
■Dental exei^mi ttMn parsing id prose, -will be found a more de- 
li^tful aiid profilable exercise. In tUs kind of analyaia, !■ 
order to come at the meaning of the author, you win find it 
y to (ran*fio#e bis laoguoge, and supply what is under- 
od then you will have the titeral meaning in pioee. 
■"-.j.^Apostropbb to Hopk. — Campbell. 
, ^?V^e 1 when yonder spheres sublime 
PMled their Snt, notes to sound the march of time, 
Thyjoyois youth'iegBn :— but not to fade.— 
When aU the aiatw planets have decayed ; 
A 1,1 H^T*'*'" "■'"** *« '"^s of ether glow, 

A«d light Ay toToh at Iflnture's funeral pile ! - , 

Eternal Hope 1 thy joyous youth began when yaitder MiblioM 
spheres pealed their first notes to sound the march of time : — 
but it began fade,. — Thou, imdisnu^d, shalt smite OTer 
the ruins, when all the sister planets shall have decayed ; and 
thou Rbalt light thy torch lU Nature'* funeral pile, whMt wrapt 


b flbnios,.tbe reaiata of eOMr glow, md Hvmwn'* lost thiuder 
shakes the world below. 

Address to Adt«iiiit7. — €IiuY. 

Daughter of faeuon, retendws power, 

Thou lamer of the human braut, 

Whose iron icourfie, aad tort'riag hoar. 

The bad affii^t, afflict tiM beat ! 

The gea'rous spark extinct rsTire ; 

Teach me to tov« and to foi^ve ; 

Exact my own defects to scad : 

What others are to feel ; and know myself a man. 


Vaugfaler of heavea, rdentleaa power, thou tamer of (ba 
Liunnn breast, wboae iron scourge and torturing hour afitighl 
die bad, and affliut the best ! 'Bevive thou in me the genermia, 
extinct ^aric ; and t«ao)i thou ms to lovo others, andiofBrgiv* 
them ; and teach thou me to ecan my owndefacts exactly, or 
critically : and teach thou me that which others an to f^el ; 
and make thou dw to know my*cf f to be a man. 

Addbess to the Albhohtt. — Pore. 
What conscience dictates to be done, 
Or warns me not to do,, 
. .This- teach me jaore tiian Iiell to phun, 
That more than heav'a pursue. 
' O God, teach thou me to pnrsue that {the Ihing) which con- 
science dictates Id be done, more ardently than I pursnc bearen ; 
and teach thou me to shun this (the thing) which conscience 
y/ams me not to do, more cautiously than I woul ' ' ' " 
Trials of Virtue. — Mbrxicr:. 
, ..for see, ah! sec, while yet her ways 
Witii dpubtful step I tread, 
A hostile world its terrours raise, 

Its sitarfes delusive spisad. - ' ' 

O how shall h with iteart prepand, ' 

Hioso terroura team to meeti 
How, from Ibe tkeusand ■— t d s to gtiwd ' 

My unexperienced tnet 1, 

■ ■■! Taiits^oliKD.- 

For saethoUrt^l'seelkou a hostile wmM to nlM' iM"t«< 
ruurs, and sep thoa a hcptjlewculd tagpnad ilad«lHriTe snarm, 
vhiie I yet tread her {wViwe'*) -ways w^.doublAilatepa. . ' 
O how shall I laaxn to m^et^tliifHta.tHfvuQ* with a pi«o«ed 

19S BTIH(M.Oay AilD'tTHTAX. 

RNTtl HowriiaUIIeBm toguArdm^uiiexpeTwacsdAtttAaM 
ibc Ihouaand soavea of Ibe world 1 

The Morning ik Summer. — Thomfsok. 
Short i» Ihe donbttui etnpite of tbe nigfat ; 
And aoon, observant of appraacbing day, 
The meek-eyei taora afptiatm, mother of dews. 
At first, faint gleaming in the dappled east. 
Till br o'er «Uier spreacls the wid'ning glow. 
And from before the lustre of bar face 
While break the clouds awfty. 

The doubtful ompire of tlM ni^t is short i and tbe meek 
eyed mora, [tehicli w Ike) raotfaer of dewa, obserrant of' ap- 
proaching (lay, soon appears, gleaming faintly, at first, in toe 
dapplad east, till the widening glow Siireads far over elh«r, and 
he white clouds break away from before tbe lustre of her face 
Natbrb Bountiful. — Akerside. 

Nature's Care, to all her children just, 

With richest treasures, and on ample state, 
Endows at large whaterer happy man 
Will deign to use them. 

JNature's care, which is just to all her children, largely «D> 
duws, with richest treasures and an ample slate, thai happy man 
wbo will deign to use ihem. 

NtfTt What, in the secoad eiBm^rie, ia a comp. rel. The antecedent 
(iBjt U gev. b; ttack lUiderMood : and Ibe relalJTe part by taftd fiTpmnnnil 
Te iSan tad to gurme, in tbe third example, are in the infinitive mood, gor. 
by (Am, aceonfing to a Non under Rule S3. Fmnl and Jrom, in the Bth 
eianipte, are adveib*. I^a adverb, in poetry, is often written if !he lotm of 
an adjective^ WkaUverf in the faal sentence, ia a compoujio pron. and ia 
equivalent to that and w&o. Thai is an adj, prnti. belonging lo " man ;" tote 
M nmn. to " will deign ;" and mr u, eicluded from the lentence 'in aense. 
S« page 1 1 3. Fane tbeae eiani)deB aa they are tranapoeed, and you nitl 
lind the analysia veij easy. , - 

Gold, not Genuine Wealth. ■ 
Where, thy true treasure 7 Gold says, '< not m ilie ;" 
And, " not in rae," the Diamond. Gold is poer. 

Where is thy true treasure! Gokl saya, " It is not in m« j^' 
and the Kamood says, "It is not in me." Gdtd ia poen 
Source o* Friendsuif. — Dk. Youwa. 
Lwemw^ prida repress ; nor hope to find 
AfHaath but ti^Mt ho* found a friend iil'tbM.' 


posnti TftAMapOKB. 119 

Lorenzo, i^nu Ihou pHda ; nor hope thou to find afiitndi 
onljr in him who haa alread/ found a friend in thee. 
TuiK Obbathcm.— FoPK. 
Who Boble mkIb hy noble memiM obuiu, 
Oti fuliag, smiles in exile or in chaifls, 
like good Aureliua let him reign, or bleed 
Like Socrates, tkat man is great indeed. 
That man is great indeed, let ymlo reign like unto good 
Aureliua, or le* him to bleed like unto Socratesi who obtaiOB 
noble ends by noble means ; or that man ia great indeed, who, 
Uling to obtain noble ends hy noble means, smilea In exile or in 


Xltem^ Spirit ! God of truth I to whom 

All things seem as they are, inspire my song ; 

Hy eye unseals : me what is substance teach ; 

And riiadowwhat, while I of things to come, 

As past rehearsing, sing. Me thought and phrase 

Severely filing out the whole idea, gnmt. 


£lemal Spirit ! Ga6 of truth I to whom all things wero ta be 
aa they really are, inspire thou my song ; and unscale thou mr 
eyes : teach thou to me the thing which is substance ; and teaen 
thou to me the thing which is shadow, while I sing of things which 
are to come, as one sings of things which are past rebearaing. 
drant thou to me thought and phraseology which shall severely 
mft out the whole idea. 

ThB VoTAOB oy LlFL. 

Jiow fcw, &Toured by ev'ry ehtvent, 
With Mralltog sails make good the promised port, 
WiOt all their wiriies fteoghted ! Yst eT*n lliMa, 
Freif^tted with all ifaeir wwms, aosa eonplaitt. 
FneftonHMfottuiM, not from iiatun free, 
Tkm atiU an man ; and when is man secnra I 
Aa MiltiijMi as Mann. The rush of yoara 
Baala 4am their strength; diair nUmbeihMB ewofM 
Innuaend: and, iww, their pnmd saeoaaa 
Bat plaatt B«w tecronra oa the notar's brow. 
What pain, to quit the world just msde thMf own 1 
IMr «eals lo deeidy downed and buUt so bighl— 
laelovthiv bitild, who baild haaMth tba atarM 

15 , , , ,_.._.og\c 

ito kttmotaov ami. 8tntax. 


How few persons, favoured by every element, safely maka 
Um promiaed port widi BwelHng sails, and with all their vrishea 
frai^itedl Yet eveo these few petaona who do safely make the 
promiMd port with all their wishes freighted, soon complain. 
Though they aie free Iroin misfcntuneH, yet {thoitgh and ytl, 
correspondmg coDJunctiona, form only one connexion] Ihey ore 
not free frvm the coorae of nature, for they still are men ; and 
when is man secure 1 Time is as fatal to Um, as a storm Is to 
the mariner. — The rush of years beats down their strength , 
[Ikatit, Ihe ilrtjiglh of these ftw ;) and their numberless escapes 
end in ruin : and then their proud success only plants new 
terrours on the victor's biow. What pain it is to tliera to quit 
the world, just as they have made it (o he their own world ; 
when their nests are built so high, and when thoy aie downed ho 
deeplyl — Thoy who build beneath the stars, build too low foi 
their own safety. 

Rbplbctions oh a Scull. — Lord BraoN. 

Remove yon scull from out the scattered heaps. 

Is that a temple, where a God may dwelU 
Why, ev'n the worn) at last disdains her shattered eel' ! 

Look on its broken arch, its ruined wall, 

Its chamberH desolate, and portals foul : 

Tea, this wsa once ambition's airy ball. 

The dome of thought, the palace of the soul. 

Behold, through each laclc-lustre, eyeless hole. 

The gay recess of wisdom and of wit. 

And passion's host, ti)at never brooked control. 

Can all, saint, sage, or sophist ever writ, 
People this lonely tower, this tenement refit I 
Teaks POSED. 

Remove thou yonder scuH out from the scattered heaps. Is 
that a temple, where a God may dwell ? Why, even the worm 
at last d:adaiDB her fdiattered cell J Look thou on its broken 
arch, and look thou on its ruined wall, and on its deaolata 
chambers, and on its foul portals : — yes, this skull was onca 
ambition's airy hall ; ((( mat) die dome imT tiiought, the palace 
of the soul. Behold thou, through each lack-lustre, eyeless 
hole, Ibe gay recess of wisdom and of wit, and passimt's boat, 
Ktich never brooked control. Can all the works vUeh sunts, 
or sages, or so):4iists have ever wrrttrai, repef^te this lonely 
tower, or eta they Te& Qiis tenemrait ? 

For your future exercises in parsing, you may select pieces 
from the Engbdi lUader, or any other grammatical work. 1 

DBRITAnoN. 171 

DBVfl airt^ij hinted, diat paniog in poetry, om it brings more 
immediatoty into requisition the reasoiuiig facultiea, than para- 
ing in proee, will necessarilj tend more rapidly to facilitate your 
progreas : therefore it is advisable that your future exercise* in 
thia way, be chiefly confined to the analysis of poetry. Pr«*t' 
0U8 to your attempting to parse a piece of poetry, you ougbt 
Always lb transpose it, in a manner similar to the examples juat 
presented ; and then it can be as easily analyzed as proae. 

Before you proceed to correct the following exercises in laUa 
syntax, you may turn back and read over the whole thirteen lec- 
tures, untess you have the subjecUmatter already stored in your 



At the commencement of lecture II. I informed you that Ety- 
mology treats, Sdly, of derivmtion. This branch of Etymology, 
important as it is, cannot be very extensively treated in an el^ 
mentaiy worii on grammar. Id the course of the preceding lec- 
tures, it has been freqtiently agitated ; and now I shall ofier k 
few more remai^, which will doubtless be useful in illustratiDg 
some of the various mediods in which one word is derived from 
another. Before you proceed, however, please to turn back 
and read again what is advanced on this subject on page 27, 
and in tbe Fbilobofhicil Notkb. 

1. Nouns are derived frmn verbs. 

2. Tertu are derived from nouns, adjecdvas, and lometimeM 
{roni adverbs. 

3. Adjectives are derived &om nouns. 

4. Nouns are derived from adjectives. 
Jt. Adverbs are derived from adjectives. 

1. Nouns are derived from verbs; as, from "to love," 
eomes " lover ;" from " to visit, visiter;" from "to aurviva, 
■urviver," &c. 

In the following instances, and in many odiers, it is difficult to 
d«*'>rmine whether tbe verb was deduced from the noon, or ths 
noon from tbe verb, viz. " Love, to love ; hate, to hale ; fear, 
to fear ; sleep, to sleep ; walk, (o walk ; ride, to ride ; act, to 


S. Taiba are dMived fton noiuUfB^i^ctives, and aomeiinealhHit 
«ctf«HM; u, from die Dou&*aI<,com«a"tanltj"firMitlhead- 
jactiTe toonn, "to warm;" and Iroin the advert) ybrMord, "to 
finrward." SomotimMi they are foimed by leagtheiung (ha 
lowtA, or loflsDing the coaflanaat ; us from "grass, to p«ze ;*" 
sometiineB by adding en ; as, from " length, to lengdien ;" eape- 
eially to adjectiveB; aa, from "short, to sbculeD ; bright, to 

i. Adjectirefl ar« derived from nouns in tbe following man 
nes : ^eo^rea denoting plenty are derived &om nouns bj add 
ingv; aa, fiom "Health, nealthy; wealth, weailby; might, 
mi^ty," &c 

Adjectivea denoting the matter out of which any thing is made, 
are derived from nouns by adding en ; as, from " Oak, oaken , 
wood, wooden; wool, woollen," &c. 

Ac^actives denoting abundance are derived from nouna by 
adding^; as, from "Joy, joyful; ain, ainfiil ; fruit, fruit- 
fiil," &c. 

AdjectWea denoting plenty, but with some kind of diminution, 
are derived from noons by adding lome ; aa, from " Ijgbt, 
lightsome ; trouble, troubleaome ; toil, toilsome," &c. 

Adjaetivea denoting want an derived ftom nouns by adding 
[m»; aa, from "Wottb, woi^hleas ;" froRX "care, caieloaa; 
j«y, jayteaa," &c. 

A ^ a clivoa denoting hlumaas ore darived from nouns by add^ 
ing hf. ; as, ftom " Bfaa, manly ; eartii, eaethly ; court^. court* 

Vi" &»• 

Sobs a^entives ai» derived from, other adjectivea, ot frtun 
wMma. by adding itk to then ; which termination when ad^d 
to adJMitiTwa, fanporta dimiaution>, or leaiening the quaUty ; m, 
" White, whitiah ;" i. o. aomewhat white. When addad to 
nonos, it ainufies aimditude or tendency to a chancier ; aa, 
V CUii, d^iah ; thief, thievi^" 

Some adjectives are formed from nouns or verba by adding 
the termination 4i6I< ; and dMaeadjeoliraa sonify c^>acity ; aa, 
" Answer, answerable ; to change, changeable." 

4. Nouns are den^ved from adjeetivas, somelunea by. adding 
Aa tnmmation nets ; as, " White, whiteness ; awifl, aw^hteaa ;" 
aMBclimea by adding th or I, and making a nnall change in 
Bome of the letters ; as, " Long, length ; hi^, height." 

G. Adveiba of quaUly ate derived from adjectivea, by adding 
iy, or cduraging U. into bj ; and denote tlM same qn^ty aa Iba 
ad)«ctiv«s from which they ai« derived ; as, from " baaa," 
oenea " basely ;" from " dow, slowly ;" from "^le,aUy." 

Tbera are so many other ways of deriving words fr«n ow 

njRiViTioK. ITS 

Knottier, that it would be extremely difficult, if not iropoBnble, (o 
enumerate them. The primitive words of eveiy language are 
very few ; the derivativea form much the greater number. A 
lew more instances only can be given hero. 

Some nouna are derived from other nouna, by adding tbv 
terminations hood or htad, »kip, e^y, teick, rick, iom, iaa, mtHl, 
and age. 

Nouns ending in hood or head, are such as signify charscter 
or qualities ; as, " Manhood, knighthood, falsehood," &c. 

Nouns ending in thip, are those that signify office, employ- 
njent, staie, or coodiuon ; as, " Lordship, stewardship, part- 
nership," &;c. Some nouiifi :n shiv are derived from adjectives j 
as, " Hard, hardship," &c. 

N'ouns which end in try, signify action or habit ; as, '< Slaveiyr 
foolery, prudery," &c. Some nouns of this sort come from 
adjectives; ae, " Brave, bravery," &c. 

Nouns ending in wiek, riek, and dom, denote dominion, 
jurisdiction, or condition ; as, " Bailiwick, hishopriek, kiogdoni, 
dukedom, freedom," &c. 

If ouns iririefa end in ion, are thoso that signify profession ; 
as, " Physician, musician," &c. Those titat end in wmiI ami 
age, come generally from the Frenefa, and commonly signify 
ttre set or habit ; as, " Commandment," " usage." 

Some nouns ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjec 
tives, and denote chuvcter or habit ; as, " Drunk, drunkard ; 
dote, dotard." 

Some nouns have the form of diminutives ; but these ara not 
mai^. They are formed by adding the terminations A;in, ling, 
*ng, ock, el, and the like ; as, " Lamb; lambkin ; goose, gos- 
ling ; duck, duckling ; hiil, hillock ; cock, cockerel," &c. 


I ahidl conclude this lecture bfpreaenl 
and Greek prepomtions which sra ext 
By carefully studying; their ngnificntii , ^ 

Jar»t«ndthB meaning of those words into the composition of which 
tCT, and of which they form a materid part. 


^ a&, ail— signify from or awaj; as, n-un-i, to turn from ; oi-jMt, '.( 
throw away ; nhs-traet, lo draw away. 

M—lo or at ; as, ad-herc, lo atiek to ; ad-mire, to wonder at. 

.dnit— nwausbeforei aa, antt-aden^ g.Ang btbre. 

dream — lignilieB round, about ; ai, circinn-nmigate, to nil round. 

Om, coat, ea, cat — together ; HB, ciM'join, to join togolher : ainw>ruf, to 
pteM together j cv-nperiilt, to work together ; ro^Jc^He, to fall together. 

CWn— agunat ; as, imlra-dict, to speak ttgwnat, 

De-'^fmxi, down ; as, dt'duel, to take &om ; da-acaui, lo ffo down. 

DL, a* — asunder, away ; as, dUanrsti, to tear aeundar ; du-m(M, ta laa^ 

resentine and exjdainins a list oTIjitui 
'Xlensively used m English as pre^ea, 
.tion, you wiH b* better qualified to tUr 

TImm pnfizM, wbMi inowponud with «^i«tiTiia or doudb, 
wtm tWiMwnhig; M, ii>.n|0tcb»l, in-ii^c, U-feplimab, t 

Mip — batmen ; as, liilir-jwK, to pal betwem. 

Inhm wilbm^ into ; fMrv-vert, to torn witlmi ; tqlro-tfucc, to lead into. 

Ot| on de»(it< oppowliai ; *M, tt-jitt, to bm^ igunRt ; gp-jnign, to op- 

Ar — thnn^ bj ; u, pir«miiJa<e, to walk through ; pMvhip*, h; kapik 

JPinl aftar; aa, ^ a> ( a cHp f. wntteu aftei; pctt-fis, plaoed after. 

A^ J im b tfcre ) a*, prc-jtz, ta fii befbn. 

A*— lor, Ibilli, unran' -- '- - 

Mith ; jm-jttt, to aboot (b 

Awltr — put,bejoad ; aa, rnlir^Krfnl, pulpciftct; ynt m a W ^ f ^ ba- 
fopdrfta Mwaa of natace. . 

JIa — ■^■Dorbafk; u,r»>;Mntu, lopeniae again ) r«-'rii»,totT&eeb*^. 

Jtdra— badmrda ; a^ nti-Mpietfw, loolung backwaidb 

Sa— aiide, apart ; a*, «s-A», ta dnw ande. 

■J — •— ; aa, n * a ct a e , to — ■' -' 

■__ __ - 1-— •— B(. nowuiBnnaBr. 

above; mptri^, t 

i-Hw>, partakina ef both or two naturoa. 
y, agsimrl maaoUT. 
ring thnngba eiiela. 

_._ ^fa^^ing ooDceiLliaeut ntiiagaam; as, JtjFa-ente.ooecGa- 
ig hia real chaiacter. 
Jf<to--danolaa change oj 

rtn — nxma aoont ; aa, y«rv y ar« «« , ctrenmiocotioii. 

f^*fI,tyM— «af(«liei; ia.>fn-laz, aplaaoB togvtbarj m^aMM*- 
iuoreainingtaaet&er; ni-laUe, that portioDof a wotdwUehialakm to 
t«a«f ; M fm f dXi), Mkiilr-Ading, nr feahng togethar. 


Iliri.E9 OF aV^NTAX, 


The third part: of Grammar is Syntax, which 
treats of the agreement and govermnent of words> 
and of their proper arrangement in a sentence. 

Syntax consists of two parts, Concord and 

Co^qoan.i^ the agreement wjiich one word has 
with another, in geoder, person, number, or case. 

Vttt ihB illuttnttoD.of,agreeineBt and govenuneot, see pagei 

For ibe deSnition of a sentence, and the tnmapoution of ill 
i*wdB, and. members, Bee pages 119, 124, 128, and 16?. 

Xt^e principal parts of a simple sentence are 
the nominative or subject, the verb or attribute, 
or word that makes the affirmation, and the ob- 
ject, or thing affected bj the action of the verb ; 
as, " A wise man governs his passions" In this 
sentence^ nton is the subject ; governs, the at- 
trttiute ; asxd passions the object 

A PHRASE is two or more words rightly put to- 
gether, making sometimes a part of a sentence, 
and sometimes a whole sentence. 

Ellipsis is the omis^on of some word or' 
words, in order to avoid disagreeable and imoe- 
cessary repetitions, and to express our ideas con- 
cisely, and with strei^h and elegance. 

In lluB recapitulation of the rules. Syntax is presented in a 
condensed form, many of the essebtial Nous being omitted. (L necesaajy consequence of mj general plan, in iriiich 
£tynioiog7 and Syntax, you know, are blended. Henabj to 

176 nULEH or BVNTAX. 

Bcquiro tk (Complete knowledga of Sjntsx from ihin worlc, jron 
must look over tlie whole. 

You may now proceed Bsd parse the foDowing additional ex 
ercises in falae Syntax ; and, anaJyao, eBdevvour (o cor- 
rect ail the errours without looking a* the L.«y. If, in correct' 
ing these examples, you should beat a loss in tUlsiiEningtbe nu- 
eoDS why the constructions are erroneous, you can refer to tho 
manner adopted in the foregoing pages. 
Rrz.E I. 
The article a or an agrees with nouiis in the 
singular number only, individually or collec- 
tively ; as, "^ star, an eagle, a score, a thou* 


The definite ai-ticle the belongs to nouns m the 
singular or plural number ; as, " 7%e star, the 
stars ; Me hat, the hals," 

Note I. A nice diBtinctiorbin the meuiins i< ■o'netnnei ellketad fcj'C'- 
ute nr omiwiun of the article a. If I «;, "He behaved with ■ liula re «. 
•vnce," m; meanng is poaitive. But ir I w, " He behaved with litlte revc- 
ren™," my meHninp i> negslive. By the fonner, I ralhet praiM ■ penon ; 
by thelstler, I dispTaisehim. When I aay, "There were few men with him," 
I speak diminntiruj, and mean to lepreaent them u inconsiderable j whera- 
os, when I aaj, "There were a tew men with bim," I evidently intend to 
nnike the moat of tbetn. 

9. The imtefiaite article vnmelimee haa the meaning of fiwry ot foch; a<^ 
"They cost five shillinffs a doien {"that in, ' nrry doten,^ 
" A man ne wai to all the couDtty deal-, 
"And poning rich with forty pounda a year I" 
thai ia, ' cDtry year.' 

3. When several a^aotives an CMineeted, and expreaa the vaiioua uiiali' 
liu of things individually dilTejent, tbourh alike in name, the aitid* should 
be repeatea ; but when the qualities all belong to the aonia tlung r tbingB, 
Ihe article ahould not be repeated. "A black and a white ctlC* oignilie^ A 
bintkcalf, and a while col/,- but ".1 black and white c«lf>''de*ciibM the two 


The nominative case governs the verb ; as, " /" 
learn, tkou learnest, A* learns, they learn." 


• The verb must agree with its nominative in 
number and person; as, "The bird sings, the 
birds sing, thou singest." 

NoT» I. Every verb, whan it is not in the infinitive mood, mutt have « 
nominaiive, eTproafSd or impW; aa, "Awake, alias ;" thai ii^ Awake f>f OP aTNTAX. 177 

%. THier. a, vwb cornea between two noons, either oTwhicIl n&j da oon- 
iadand oi Ihe lubjeet of tne affimutiOD, it oiurt agree with thtt iririeh ■ 
more Dfttunllf ita b jbject i as, " The mgea of lin ji death j Hia meat ten 
■ •C Mt a and wiM honej;" "Hia paviUon were daik uolert and thick etaiuU.* 

Frequent commiaslon of sin bardeu men id it. 
Great pains has been taken to reconcile the parties. 
8a mnch both of abilitj and merit, a :e seldom found. 
The siticere is always esteemed. 
Not one of them are happy. 

Wkal awls the best acntunenta, J* peopUdoMimr* •oit- 
«bly to them T 

Disappointmenta sinks the heart of man ; but the ranewal «f 
AOpe give consolation. 

Tha raricty of the productions of gentuo, like that of Ihe 
•p«ratioits of nature, are withotit limit. 

A variety of blessings have been conferred upon us. 
Thou cannot heal him, it is true, bat thou may do soraethin 
to relieve him. 

In piety and virtue consist die happiness of num. 
O &ou, my voice inspire, 
Who touched Isaiah's hallowed lips with fire. 
* Soie 1. Will martial flames for ever hre thy mind, 
And never, never be to Heaven resigned 1 
He was a man whose incUnationx led him to be corrupt, and 
bad groat abilities to manage the business. 
Aob 3. The ciown of virtue is peace and honour.' 
Hia chief occupation aud ei^oytnent were controversy. 
KdA V.' 

When an address is made, the noun or pronoun 
addressed, is put in the nomiaative case tndepm- 
dexU; as, '* Plato, thou reasonest weU ;'* "Do, 
Trim, ssud my uncle Toby." 

Nail 1. A Bonn ii iadepeadent, when it haa o» verb to agna with iL 
«. Intaijectiona require Ihe objective caaa of a pronoun oflhe^nt peraen 

after them, but the nomindtive of a noon or pronoun of the ncvad m third 

panoo; a>,"Ah! nu; Oh! thmi; 01 tfrluc." 

A noun or pronoun placed before a participle, 
and bein)^ independent of the rest of the seit- 
tence, is in the nominative" case absolute; as, 
" Shame bang lost, all virtue is lost;" "The sun 
hang risen, we travelled on." 

Him Deatroyed, 
Or woo lo what may work bis utter loss, 
All this will follow soon. 

A()le. — Two eubstaDtives, when they como together, ami do 
aot signify the same thing, the former must be in the genitive 

Tirtnc, however it may be neglected for n time, men are bo 
constituted as ultimately to acknowledge and respect genuioa 

BVLE Til. 

Two or more nouns, or nouns and pronouns, 
signifying the same thing, are put, by apposition, 
in the same case; as, " Patitthe apostle;" "Joram 
the king ,-" " Solomon, the son of David, khig of 
Israel, wrote many proverbs." 

Ndtc a noun in sometimeB put in upositton with «. Bsntence ; >*, " The 
■beiilf has junl seiied and sold oiavduable libnrj;— (toJiicA uu) u mb/brhBU 
Hal gTMtl/ depressed him." 


We ought to love God, he who created and sustains all things. 

The pronnan ht in this eenlence, is iinproperl; used in the iKnDi;)atiTe ease. 
It is the ohject of the action of (he Iransilive verb " love," and put bj uppo- 
sition with " God ;" thcrefora it should be the objective case, Uni, aeeoratng 
(o Rule 7. (Repeat the Rule, and correct the foUowiog.) 

I saw Juliet and her brother, Aey that you visited. 

TVey slew Varus, be that was mentioned before. 

It #BS John, him who preached repentance. 

Adams and Jeflerson, them who died on the fourth of July, 
1826, were both signers and the firm supporters of the Decl&ra 
tion of Independence. 

Augustus the Roman emperour, him who succeeded JitUus 
Cesar, is variously described by historians. 


Two or more nouns, or nouns and pronouns 
m the singular niunber, connected by copulativt 
conjunctions, must have verbs, nouns, and pro> 
nouns, agreeing with them in the plural; as» 
" Socrates and Plato were wise ; they were ea^ 
oent philosophers." 

HiiTt I. Wbcn Met or nwr) Tal>t« to Nro or more nominktiTai in Ihsrin- 
rulu, alttMiB^ ownec'""' 1-.:— -i .. .■.^ .--•. -r 

Wr, (emu with life," 

a. When tha smgutai nominative of ■ complsn aenlence, has another noun 
jrined to it with ■ preposition, it i» cuatorawy to put the verb and pronoun 
■freeiiig wUh it, in (lie aogiilaT ; ■■, " Proaperitjr with hunihty, rtnim tti 
possessor tnitf aiziiiLble ;" " The General, tlio, in conjunction with the offi- 
cers, hat applied Tot redrasa." 

Coffee and mgar grows in the Weat Indies : it is exported in 
«rg« quiwtitiea. 

Two singulAT nouns coupled tonthcr, form s plural idoa. The verb gratoa 
is improper, becauee it expresses Qie action of both its nominatives, " coS^ 
and sugar," which two nominatives are connected by the copulative coi»- 
juncUon, sriif,' therefore the verb should be plural, frvic ; and then it wouU 
•gr«e with o^ee and sugar, accordiafj to Rule B. (Kepegt the Rule.) The 
proDoan il, ss il represents both the nouns, "coflee and sugar " ougbl also 
to be plural, Uflf, agreeably to Rule 8. The scutencn should Iw wrilten 
(hus,«CoBMudnigw(mointhaWe8tIndiea: lAsy an eipottad in larg* 

Time and tide waita for no m&n. 
. Fatience and diligence, like faith, i 

Life and health la both uncertain. 

Wisdom, virtue, happinegs, dwells with the golden mediocrity. 

The planetary system, boundless space, and the iinm«ns« 
ocean) affects the mind with sensationa of astonishment. 

What signifies the cotinsel and care of preceptors, when jaa 
think you ^ve no need of assistance 1 

Their love, and their hatred, and their envy, is now perished. 

Why is whiteness and coldness in snow ? 

Obey the commandment of thy father, and the law of thy 
mother i bind it continually upon thy heart. 
' Pride and vanity alwi^ render its possessor despicable in the 
eyes of the judicious. 

There is enour and discrepance in the achemcs of the 
orthoepists, which shows the impossibility of carrying them into 


Every man, woman, and child, were numbered. 

Notprap"! fbr>allhouglimi{coiipleslfainntogelhersaub>pr«asnt Iha 
wbole at one view, jet atry has ■ contrary rfftct : it diMributss them, and 
biibgs each ■spaiataly and sirujiy nndur couMdeiatioii. Wm nomlMred is 
therefore improper. Il should be, "uos nnnbeted," in the dngular, so- 
coidiDC to the Note. (Repeat it) 

When benignity and gentleness reign in our breasts, every 
person and every occurrencn are beheld in the most fBToniablQ 


Two or more nouns, or nouns and pronouns, in 
the amguUtr number, connected by disjunctive 
conjunctions, must have verbs, nouns, and pro- 
nouns, agreeing with tliem in the stttffuiar ; as, 
** Neither John nor James has learned Jua lesson.* 

Nbte I. When dnpilor pronnDBS, or k noan &nd pranoun, of difierent 
pwfona, Rra dii^nclivelj connected, the verb must sgree, in person, whb 
lfaUwluebi(|uaidDnre>Ctoitj is, •■ Tboa vr I am in flnilt : Itrtbomst 
to UuTM ; I, or Ihou, or he, u the author of it." But it would Iw beam to 
•>7, " Either I am to blame or thou art," fcc. 

1: When i disjimclna occurs belveen a ainfjnlar notm or pnMKMm and ■ 
phira] one, the Terb inuat agree v-ith the plural noun or pronono, wtudi 
•boaMgenerallybe placed next to the verb; as, " NertlKr pmwty mr rt«:A«i 
were injurioiu to him ;" " I or thej were ofTended by it." 
Conatroclians like theiw ought gcnRrally tobeayoided. 


Ignorance or negligence have caused this mistalio. 

Tba Tctb, kact eauaed, In this eenlnice, is improperly used in Uw ptmm^ 
bMWBC it expresses the action, not nfAoft, but of either the one or IheeAsr 
of its uoDunalives ; therefore it ehould be in the singular, hat caused ; and 
Ihen it would agree with " ignorance or negligence," agresabl; to Rula ft 
<Bepsat die Role,} 

A circle or a fl<)uare are (ho same in idea- 

Neither «4uteness nor reiJnoBS are in the porphyry. 

Neither of them are remarkable for precision. 

Man is not such a machine as a clock or a, watch, whit^ more 
merely as they are moved. 

When sickness, infirmity, or revorde of fortune, affect us, the 
aincenty of friendship is proved. 

Man's happiness or misery are, in a great rmasure, piut into 
his own hands. 

]Deapise no infinnily of mind or hody, not any contfition of 
li&i for tbey may be thy own lot. 

The prince, as well as the people, were blamewoithy. 

A collective noun or noun of multitude, con- 
veying unity of idea, generally has a verb or pro> 
noun agreeing with if mthe smrular; as, "Tie 
meeting was large, and it held three hours." 

NoTl. Bule* 10, and 1 1, are UmitBd in tiieir a^tcatifm. S«a pfit 09 

The nation are powerful. 
The fleet were seen sailing up the channel. 
Tha church have no power to inflict corporal punishment 

RtLM OF ■TMTAX. 181 

Tite flock, and not be fleece, are, or ought to be, the object* 
oi'lbe ahepberd's care. 

ThM nation waa ance powerful ; bat now thsj an feeU(^ 


A noun of multitude, conveying plurality of 
idea, must hare a Tert> or pronoun agreeing; with 
it in the plural; as, " The council were divided 
in their sentiments." 


Xy people doth not consider. 

The multitude eagerly puraues pleasure as its chief good. 
The committee was divided in its sentiments, and it has n- 
feired the busineHs to the general meeting. 

Tfa» p*0ple r^ioicM in that whidt abould gn^ it aanov 

Rin^ xn. 
A noun or pronoun in the possessive case, U 
governed by the noun it possesses; as, " Jifan'a 
happiness ;" "Its value is great." 

NoTt 1. When the poraeswr is described by k circuniloeutinn, tba po*. 
■essive ngn should genetsllf be anplied lo the last term only ; M, '■ Th« 
dukt of B^gncaleT'i cinat ; The MiAgji ofLmdaff't cicellent book : Tba 
tmptalK of tkt gaar^i boose." This atMge, however, ou^bt fwoatulr to 
be anNited. Tm word* do not literally conray tba idMs iMeiMed. What 
. — ,.>.«.-_i. .. n-^aMo's houae !" 

ia appHitian, and follow eack 
otDer in qtiicK BiicceBsion, lob poaseasive sign is gcoenlly annexed to tba 
laatonlji t^ " Far Danid lay lervmri enke ; John the Uapliii'i iiead j Tli» 
canal was bmlt in cmneequence i>r De Will Clinton the gmerninr'i adnce." 

But when n paum ia proper, and the govemine noun not expnmei, tba 
Mfn ibooU be applied to tbe Ural posMsaive omj, and undcistixid to tba 
aM* I a*, " I reside at Lord Slarmant'i, my old patrta and keiu/izMor." 

3. III, the poBseaaive case or ((, is often improperly used for 'Hj, or, itUi 
as,"/!! my book: Iti his,''&c. ) instead of, "A it my book ; or, "Tti atj 
book ; n <> his i or, 'Til Usl" 

4. Farticiples frequently eo*em nouns and pTonouna in the poaaesEiTB 
cM>i as, "in case of bis i«gutv't dying without issue, kc ; Upon (3«Fi 
k tvUg endtd all his works, Hq. ; I remember iti bttng rtebnui a great ex- 
ploit; At m)i comjnj-in he BBid,"&c. But in snch inBtances,tlin (laftinplll 
with lis adjwieta msy be connderad a sobatanlive [riiraae,,acsoniiac lo Note 

' 2, Ride 38. • 

5. Phia«B like theae, " A work of WaiUnglim Inin^i ; A brother ofJb- 
itpVi; A friend of'nJni; A neighbour of yours," do n^ as some have sup- 
poiad, eadi aontiBn a doable poaKsaive, or two poaaaaeive ea«^ but ther 
may be tbua cowtraed j " A work of (oii( ^ or, among thi tramber qf) fToifi- 
6>rf(»( /rrinr-j ttorfa; (bat is,0ne ofthe work* oftrMUng/m/r^; Ou 
arWlmtiBM of JbniA,' dMfiiendor my^Hmrfi,- One nM(hboui<^|Mr 


Bonwra works are much admired. 

N«vertbeto*s, Abu bia heart was not per&ct with the Lwd. 

Jnmea Hart, his book, bought August the 19, 1829. 

^qU I. It waa the men'a, wonwn's, and children's lot lo 
nifier gFeat calamities. 

This » Peter's, John's, Mid Anikew's occupatioB. 

JVo(< 2. Ttds is Campbell's the poet's production. 

The silk was purchased at Brown's, the mercer's and hab> 

JVoltA. Muchwilldcpendontbepujulcompoainglrequentlj. 

Much depends on this rule being observed. 

The measure failed in consequence of the president neglect- 
ing to lay it before the council. 

RULE xin. 

Personal pronouns must a^ree with the nouns 
for which they stand, in gender and number ; as, 
" John writes, and he will soou write well." 

NoTB. You, though frequenlly employad to repreganl ■ lingular noun, it 
UwKjt piml infirm; Iberarore the vetb connected with it diould ba plunl; 
U, " Hjr fhond, ;ou tettt tnMliiken.'' See f%*a 99 wkI tOO. 


Every mar will be rewarded according to their works. 

Incomet, bei>_j» the pronoun Oieir does not Kgree in gendei or Ditmbw 
witbthfl noun *'iTtui,''for which it Blmnda{ comeouenlJyBulo 13, ' ^ ■ - ■ 
Tkar AaiMYit Ui ; uhI then the prenonn would be of [he raati 

theprenonn would be of ^_„ 

with man, eeeording lo Ruie 13. (BeiMartba 

An orator's tongue should be ngVeeable to the ear of tbeir 

Rebecca took goodly raimeitt, and put them on Jacob. 
Take hondfuls of ashes, and let Mosc^ sprinkle it towards 
heaven, in the sight of Pharaoh, and it shall become small duat. 
No one should incur censure fur being tender of their reputSf 


JVote. Horace, you was blamed ; and I think yoa was worAy 

'Witness, where was yt>u standing during the tiutsaotion t 
How &r was you from tiie defendant^ 

Relative pronouns a^e with their antecedents* 
Bi gender, person, and number ; as, " Thou toha 
i(W)e«/ wisdom ;" " 1 who speak from -experience," 

HatK. Wb«nard>ttv«pro>Muii iipMcadadb; twoanlM^anUaftiflbr- 
CBl panooa, Uh nialna ud Ihe varb nULy agrfe in p«non with «ttbar, bnl 
AntwiUuKt regudio thewiue; aa, "Iud the man tvlto cmtmimd too ;" 
c^ "1 am Um man wlit tommmub yon." The meuiing of tbefintof tbw* 
•umpUe wiQ more abviouat; >[q>e)ir, if n-e render it Uiiu ; " I who conk 
mand you, am the sian." 

Whan the screementor the relative has been lixeJ with either of the prfc 
ceding anleceoBnli, it muat bo fuBBerved thronghout the sentence j aa, " I 
■m the Lord, Ihal makclh all things ; that itrtltUti Tocth tlu heavsm akuw j 
«!■< lyrttdillt (liroad the earth by myaeU;" tic 


Thou who h«3 be«n a witness of tho fact, cuut ■btto it 

The wheel killed anotlier man, which make (he HXth «4itdi 
"faavtt le«ttfaeir lives bj this meanB. 

Thou grout First Cause, least understood ! 

Who all iny sense confined. 

JVoU, 2d part. Thou art the Lord^ who dicbt ehooao Abn- 
ham, and brought him forth out oT Ur of Ibe Chald eea . 


The relative is the nominative case to the verb, 
when no nominative comes between it and the 
vefb ; as, " The master who taught ua, was eml- 

If he wUl not hear his belt friend, whom shaQ be aeat te 
-admonish him. 

Thia iM tiie man whom, be infonned me, was m3r benefhctor. 

When a nominative themes between the relative 
antl the verb, the relative is governed by the fol- 
lowing verb, or by some other word in its own 
member of the sentence ; as, " He tokom X serve, 
ie eternal." 

NoTK 1. Wha, tBUch, vHtot, the rditive Ikil, and thnr compooiidl, wtMn • 
twr, tBhaiaoBiar, &c, tbough in the ot^ective case, ore alwayi placed befiifa 
the verb ; a>, " He tcham ye leek, has gone hence." 

S. Ever); lelative mutt liave ua aatw»dent to which it relates, either ex- 
lireuedor implied ; as. *■ IPIu/ tieale my purse, steals tnih ;"that ia,^wbci. 

3. The pronoun! wtdchaoeuirj ulultDain-, and the like, are tometinu:* ele. 
ganlly divided by (hn intei-poaition of the coriespondini; nounij as, "Ois 
_toUch sde toever the kin^ cut his eyes," &c. 

4. Hw pronoun uAol ■■ aomelimes iiaprepeHy used instead of the caB> 
junction tiol; ai, ■■ Ha weiUd notbrlirvaVL-tulUl t waim&ult." ItriunH 
^ " but UhO," kc 


^niat is Ibe friend who I ninccrely esteem. 
NM prapor, becltue inhii, whiuh ii tbe ubject of Ibe aclion eipTetaed by 

Ibe traiuiliTflTeri) "esteem," ii in Uie nominutive cage. It ought to be lohDBi, 
in the objective; and then it would bs governed by eeiecm, &.:«»£ng to 
Bule tS. (BcpesttheKuJe,-)— ■"<!> >W| ueoidias to Rule SO, "That if 

They who much ia given to, wiil have much to answer for. 
From the cbamcter of (hose who yeu aBsociate with, youi 
OWD will be estimated, 

Ue is s luan who I great]/ respect. 

Our beoefaclorB aii<i tulora sre the porsoHa who fre oiigbt to 
love, and who we ought lo bo gratefiri to. 

Thej who conscience and virtue support, Diaj' smile at the 
caprices of fortune. 

Who did you walk with t 
Who rfid you seo tfiere ? 
.Who did yod give the book to 1 


When a relative pronoun is of the interrogative 
kind, it refers to the word or phrase containing 
the answer to the question for its subsequent^ 
which subsequent must agree in case with the in- 
terroa;ative ; as, " Whose book is that? Joseph's ;" 
** Wno gave you this ? John." 

Nfftc WlMheilM iii1errog*'.ireMi^n{ln'lo b Mbmqumter poI, b 
doubtful ; but it 19 certtun ibat tbe subsequent (buufit agree in cue with the 

Who gave John those books? Us. Of whom did you buy 
Aeml Of a bookseller, he who lives in Fcarl-itreet. 
Who walked with you ? My brother and him. 
Who will accompany me to the country? Her and me. 

Adjectives belong to, and qualify nouns, ci- 
pressed or understood ; as, "He is a good, as 
Well as a tcise man." 

Note 1. Adjecliveo freijuenlly belong lo pronoiina; bs, "J am ntinmWe/ 
Be IS iadaitriaia." 

8. Numeral adjectives belong lo nouns, which nouns must agree in imm. 
bet iviththetr adjectives, when oflhe tirJinni kind; as, "Ten /eel; Eighty 
fithimi." But some an»malou!i and fiauralivceiprasBionsformBneici^lioB 
to ttuB rulej OS, "A fleet of fmtyaaa;" "Ttvo aundrtd htaJ »/ mlUt." 

3. A^jaolivEs 

Cnwnt.-To be hiinii* unfiirtvnati; 

4. AdtcctivM are often uied lo rnodirTth* wnseerotlaf >d)aoliTei,otth* 
MUon of vertn, and to einem the qualil; of Unnga id canneikiB with th* 
■Etioa br vhkh thai qiuLty is produced ) as, " Rtd hot imn ; PoU Ibu 
Iming; Vtfp ua-grten sash; The applos boil tijl; Open TOUr hand wiik; 
The dv bunu uliilc ; The fire bams Utte; The eggs Wl ionL" 

M day bi.._ 

5. When an a(l}iic(ife is preceded by a; , 

■lood, the two words maj' becfflnudered an adTerhiiil phimso; M, "In e»> 
BenJ, in particular ;" that is, genetally, particularlj. 

6. Adjectivea ehould be placed next to the noum which they qualify ; a>, 
" A tnet of gKid land." 

7. We dwuld genenJIy avoid comparing auch odjectiTes aa do not litani- 

nm fmiMf , martferfitl, ifc. See Ruiaiisa on adjectiTes, page 76. 

8. When an adjective or an adveib » oaed In companng two objecU, it 
■hoiild be in the comparative degree ^ hut when mora tban tws are ocm- 
pared, the ■□perlalive ought to be employed i >8, " Julia ii the taUtr of tlw 
two ; Her apedmen ia the iat of the tluve." 


Jfott 3. Tho boat cames thir^ tun. 

Tke ckoam was twenty foot broad, and ono hundred fatbom 
in depth. 

JfoU 6. H« bought a new pair of shoes, and an elegant pi«c« 
of furniture. 

My cousin gave hia fine pair of horses for a poor tract ol 

JVote 7. The contradictions of impiety are still mora incoD»- 

It is the most uncertain way that can be devised. 

This is a more petfect model tban I ever saw before. 

JVole 8. Which of those two cords is the strongest 1 

I was at a loss to determine which was the wiser of the three; 

Adjective pronouns belong to nouns, expi-ess- 
ed or understood ; as, " ^ny man, all men." 

Note I. The demonstrative adjective pronouna muat anee in nnmbw 
wMh their aoana ; as, " Thit book; IJiaa hooka ; thai Mri, liet eorta." 

S. The prononunal adjectivea, eae;^ ncrif, eilktr, niUhtr, mietlter, and ant, 
agree with noiina a the aingniar munber oni; ; aa, " Each man, nn^ per- 
■oi, muthrr IsMon ;" unless the plintJ nouna convey a collective idea : a*, 
" £**ry aix nontha^" 

3. JGilt«r ii oAen impropnly embayed inetead of fch ; aa, " The king of 
laml, and Jdnahapbat the king of Judah, aal rUker of •hem on bia thioD*." 
CoeJi lunihee hoth taken eepaiateiy ; rWur impliea only liki aw OT tt* <<*«r 
taken dujunctively: — " sat «uJi on U> throne." 

Aoie 1. Those sort of favours do real injuiy. 
They hare been playing this two hours. 
'Hioee kind of indulgences soften and injure the duikU 
He saw one or more \ arsons enter the garden. 

1»» . 


yMt S. L*l ««ck wMem otben better than iheDiMlres. 
There are bodies, eacbof which are so smali aa to be inTisSife 
Every peraoo, whatever tiieir station may be, are ba«nd by 
the laws of morality asd religion. 

JVob 3. On eitber side of the river waa the tree of life. 
Nadab and Abihu took eitber of them his e^ver. 

Active-transitire verba goveni the objective 
case ; as, " Cesar eonqtierea ■Pompey ,-" " Colmn- 
biu discovered America ;'^ "Trum omobles her." 
To who were dead, hath he qmckened. 

Yi, in tha nominstiTe cue, a Bnoaeaat, becwiM it li Dm obwct of tlw ao- 
tion niprmod by the trnisilire *ari> " hsth qptekcoMl j" ina ijftntan it 
Amriil fas fM, in the obpctirs CM». Fou vould then bege*emedbj"Wth 
quickmod," «igree>blj to Rule SO. JcttK-lronnlbi verb gvMnt tlu a^fMMM 

Who did they entertain so freely ^ 

They who opulence has made proud, and who luxury bat 
corrupted, cannot relish' the simple pleasures of mtura. 

H« and they we know, but who are ye t 

She that is negligent, reprove sharply. 

Ho invited my brother and I to pay him a visit. •■ 

Who did thdy send on that imssion t 

Tbey Fbo be has most injured, he bad the greatest reason to 


Tke verb to be may bare the same case after ii 
AS before it ; as, " / am the man ,-" " I believe it to 
have beeu them ;" " ffe is the tfuef." 

Note 1. When nouas or ptnneaiu next preoediiig and rdlawing the vaik 
l» it, atgnify Ihe lame iKbig, they are m if^atUim, tni, tbenfbt*, in the 
»iiu easi. Rule 91 ii predicated on the piioeipte coBtaiaed ia Bate 7- 

£. The lerb la ie ia often undentood ; Bi, "Tbe Lord made im nmti Be 
made him what be was ;" that ia, " The Lord made mc fa it man ; He nada 
him te bt that isUci he tna." " They deeirad ma to call t^Mi irtthrtn;" L a. 
iylhcnoineq/'brethrcn. "They namod Ain Jnbi,'" Le. hfUiimw^Jata : 
cr, by the name John : patting Iheaa two noun* in ep^ witfajt. 

I know it to be they. 

Improper, because il is in tlic objective caaa before the Verb "to bt" and 
thcg ii in the nominative after ; coageqnently, Rule SI il vkdatad, 7%^ n 
4n appantion with jl, therefore Chtg ehould be them, in the otHaclive ^ter M 

be, according to RiifeSJ. {Repeat til c Rule. 1 

>tri.B» or nHT^x. IHV 

Be composed, it is me. 

I would not act thus, if I were him. ^ 

WaU may jov be kfraid i it is hiBi, indeed. 

Who do you fency him to b« t 

Wiom do men a«y that I aint Whom s^ ye that I am t 

If it Was not kim, who do you imagine it to have been T 

He supposed it woa me ; but yon knew that it was him. 

BiTu: xxn. 

.Actire-iDtransitive and passive verbs, the verb 
io beeomey and other neuter verbs, have th6 same 
case after them as before them, when both words 
refer to, and signify, the same thing ; a«, " TVot 
struts a soldier /* " JVUi sneaks a aerwtnerf 
"flip was called Cesar f "The general was st- 
\uted emperoitr •" " 7%fiy have become ^^no/*." 

Note 1. Active-intranutive verbs «omB^ine» ■■sume > tmuitiTa feni^ 
■ndgoTsm the objectire cue ; m, " 3^ •frnn a Awm; 3>MB*raMi T» 

— .t.u_ . -._ ._.... .L. ...-,,. ^. .. -ihBkUe." 

in coUoijtiid Itjlk, kn wMl hoi 

,^ «.»..;... >!.,. t„ , paMMTB T«lt) 

. , - witbont tha po«^ 

bilily of Buppt^hg beTors it a prepontioD : (bus, " niKciw wuoflbrad4t>i(a 
turn by Ik* king;" "Bht mn promited them {1}m jemtU) bj her roothai''' 
" /wu asked a. qualion," It would be better ■enae, and more &{ 

mOctimlianet To Jaaci the cluldiyofy the kUi 

' th* Idioin of our lansuage, to a»j. " A lai^ nm was of^nd U 
" ~lq wars promiaec (d) Atr,-" " A mutlifln was put (d nu-" 

Same passive verbs are loraied by uuing the participles of compound 

-9 verbs. Tonnib, to icoiubr, to (frcinn, are intransitive Terba, for wUdi 

<n Uiey have tio passive voice ; hut, to miJi mi, to uswbr sL to drsMI 

jtire veibe, and, (hemrore, admit of a paaB*( 

n bj fortune; The acodent is not fa fa W*n< 

a quaHon," It would be better sense, and more agree^ile la 

.urlanr — ' " * ' ...... ~ 

" Thtit were promisei 
" Some passive * 
re verl«. To nnib, to icondcT, to dra 
'ley have tio passive voice ; hut, 

mpotind active-tran^tire leibe, an£, (hemrore, admit oi 
vorca ; ■■, ' Us 

" There an more thioga u heaven and Mrth, Hotatiot 
" Than an irtmui (fin your phileaophy." 

A verb in the infinitive mood may be governed 
by a verb, uoun, adjective, participle, or pronoun ; 
as, " Cease to do evil ;" *' We, aU have our /a- 
lent to be improved ;" " She is eager to learn ;" 
"They areprepsriiig^ to go;" " Let Aim do it." 

rt^e, may be thus il 

coKarmannBr in which e(«jei« introduced, mfmra ^ r— 

TSib ds in tb< intiiliiive mood ; and, according to the genius of oui lao^uag*^ 
wecflimot express this act of doing, when thus comiectsd with eaaat^ manj 
btbermood, unloM we change the cohstniction of thasmltoBM. BMotwa 

kvi.ti or nNTAX. 
It ^*«Bi tba mood of th* vwb it, ISimUu' mnarka ins; di 

uiplei HDdat Km rale. 

Huj rf pfiflihlft gnmnuiuu rafer the gimnmemt of thi* mood ini& . 
Mbl7 to tlM prnnBtion ItpreGied, whkii tnxd they do not, oTcourae, eon ■ 
■der a put n tbe rtab. Othen contend, utd with ■ome pUnaihilit^, Ihkt 
this moed ii not governed bj uiy paiticolar word. If we reject the idee ol 
fOTcennKot, m applied to tbe verb in tlus mood, the foUowtng rule, if ■<■)>- 
atitoled br tka Ibregoing, mi^t, pertupa, enawer ell prectical purpoeea. 

A verb in the infinitive mood, refers to some 
noun or pronoun, as its subject or actor. 

Illditutidk of the examplee undet Rule XXIII. ■' To do" refen to 
Ah vnAaratood da its tgent ; " to be improved" leTera lo laltat ; " to 
leun," to tkt ; " to go," to lltey ; and " to do," rereni to Atm. 

NoTi 1. The infinitive tnood absolate eland* independeat of the Teat ol 
the wnteo ca ; ■>, " Td cm/eti the truth, 1 was in fault." 

S. The infinitira mood is eonietimes governed by conjunctions or ad- 
vert* j aa, " An object ao tiigfa w to le inviable ;" "HeumiaettuKghttiU 
oiKf •' The anay ie aktii In aimck." 


The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is fre 

auently put as the nominative case to a verb, oi 
le object of an active-transitive verb ; as, " To 
]^lay is pleasant ;" " Boys love to play ;" " lliat 
warm catnates shorten life, is reasonable to sup- 
pose ;** " He does not consider how near he ap' 
proaches to his end." 

NoTi. IV, the H^n of the inRnitive mood, is sametimee properiy omit- 
led) u,"I heaidbUDMnrit:" initead o^ "taiag il." 


The verbs which follow bid, dare, need, make^ 
tee, hear, feel, help, let, and their participles, are 
in the infinitive mood without the sign to prefixed ; 
as, " He bids me come ;" " I dare engage j" 
" Let me f o /* " Help me doit j" i. e. to come, 
to go, to do i^ &c. " He is hearing me recite" 


Bid Dim to come. 

He dant not to do it without pennissicn. 
Hear blm to nad his lesBon. 

It is the difTerence in their conduct, which makea lu to ap* 
prove the one, and to raject (he other. 

I( is better live on a Utile, than outlive a great d«d. 
[ wiah bim not wreitle with hi» happinesi. 



Participles have the same governmetit as the 
verbs have from which they are derived * Ut " I 
saw the tutor instrucHng bis pupils.*^ 

NoTi. The prewnt pmiticiple wilh Iha definite artide OU bafen K, bsK 
csnna ■ Bonn. Mid rouM hwre (he prtpneiliim qfmRar it. nawid V'»<i'' 
jr both be omilled ; *B, " BflAiobierriug^lniUi, j»a wil 
set ;" or, " By otwetviug truth," ic. 

JVote. We cannot be wise and good wHboul tha taking 
pttins for it. 

The chniigiiig timea and seasons, the remorng and Mtting 
up kings, belong to FTOvideace aloiM. 

These are the rules of grammor, by observing ef n^i^ jron 
may avoid mistakes. 

Rtn.B XXTU. 

The present participle refers to some Qoun or 
pronoun denoting the subject or actor ; as, "I 
see a boy rtmning.^ 


"The perfect participle belongs, like an adjec- 
tive, to some noun or pronoun, expressed or vm- 
derstood ; as, " I saw the boy abused." 

Note 1. FsrlicipIeB of neuter reHis hare tha B&tne ca» ^ler th«iil ■« be- 
fore them ; u, " Amlnu PiltUi baiug Gottmvur of Judea, uid Hcnd btitg 
Telrarch," be 

t. A putidpln with iti odjuncU, may KiDetimea t>e conndeied u ■ m^ 
slantive or p»riicipLal phra»8, which phtaiie may bo the subject of a verb, or 
the object of a verb or prepositioa ; as, " TiJang from miithtr ufUctd kU 
humttdgeoTiatB^, iv called Btealiug; lie eludied to avoid apraib)ghkm^ 
Ion icwrdjr ; I cannot fail of Annn^nunei), dcj By pramiibig mueh aid pif' 
fer^dng iut liItU, we becmnc dcBnicable." 

3, A* the peifoet partidple and toe imperfect tenae of irregnlaT verba, an 
■umGEimea different in their fonn, cars muat he taken that they be notincfiB. 
criininatoly uaed. It ia frequently said, ■ he begun,' for ' be be^u j' < H* 
lun,' for, ' he ran ;" Ho come,' for 'he came;' the partidpleg i»eina hers 
used instead of the imperfect tense ; and much mora frequently u the im- 
9d instead of the participle ; as, ' I had wrote,' fiir ' 1 
■ " '■ chosen;"! have eat ' for ■ I iisvs 

, 'HeOTBrnmhisgukis;*— «HmM 

[ seen him. I have saw many a one. 

tM u improper, the perfect ptrticiplebmg used butesd of llM taparihet 
wofthsTail), It osght to b«, " I Mw him," aoeo>diii( to Nats 3. Bm* 

bet tern* beioE •mpio jod inilwl of ll 
ie oTinrb ■■ fonued bj oonlHuw dx 
iple: Iherefare tha seiilcnra tdiMUd b> 


HW it abo •rron«aW, the in^eifect tc 
IMpwtiaplB. The iMrieet tense oT 
buy kact with iti pinfbct participle: 
Un tfaua, "IbkVcKmmuf kone;" Note X 

JVob 3. He dmie me no harm, for I hftd wrote Riy letter 
belbra be GODM home. 

Had not that niiafbitiuie befel my cousin, he would have wont 
lo Europe long age. 

The aun had abieady arose, when t began mj journey. 

Since the work ia began, it inuat be prosecuted. 

The French l ang uage ia api^ in every stide in Europe. 

He wntes «s the best authora would hsve wrote, tud they 
Wilt on the sameaubject. 


Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives, 
and other adverbs ; as, " A very good pea torites 
extremely well f " By liviag temperately," &c- 

NOTC I. AdTerba ere ^nenlly K* before sdjectiyes or adierba, afla 
Tcrta, or between the kunliuy and the Tub ; n, " He nude a verg lentibh 
Jiaeumt, and wu MatHedji heard." 

I. When the qtulifying word which foUows > verb, expreuea niolttu, il 
mmt be u> adjectiTe, but when it npreases manner, an lidTeTb gtunitd ba 
"She look* oU; She looks c^d^ on him; He feels wam ,■ He 
in be adbatitated 
IB (hould IblloH, utd not 

, J „.slla rul jw«(: The Gelda 1 

^^ j,[m]»yr; The ,, .__ 

3l It u not •tiicUj proper to >pply the adverbs kert, then, and whtrt, to 
Terbsngiii^ngmotion.inBteadcif tbeaJverbaUt^tWIka-jUiUtbr.' thui, 
"He came ken [htOitr] hMlily;" "They rode there [IMt/ur] in — 
hours j" " Whtn [whitker] will he gol" But in famihar atvlo. these 
■tructwoB are to lar aanctianed u eotnelimes to be adni' 

4. The use of wkere, inalead of in which, in constructions like the Tolloir- 
ing, is hardly admisable : " The imtnortal sages of '7B, Conned a charter, 
when t*n loMcA] their rights are boldly assertS." 

G. As the adverbs hentt, thence, and nrkenei, liternDy supply the fdace ol 
a noun and prepoution, there appears to he a solecism in employing a pr^ 
podtion in conjunction with thom : " Frma lekenct it follows ;" " He came 
fivn thence since nioniing." Better " wkenct il follows ;" » He caitM 
Ikaue." The following phrases are also exceptionable ; " The then minis- 
Irj;" "The abtn argumeal ;" "Ask me neoer ao much dowry ;" " Cbum 
he no«r so wisely," Better, " The ministry !(/■ (Aa( (inw or ;)tr*«( ;" " Tim 
fneijbtg BTgunienl ;" " Enr ao much dowry ;" " Evtr so wisely," 

It cannot be impertinent or ridicutoua therefore lo 

He was pleasing not ol^n, because he was vain. 

These things should be never separated. 

We nitty hepi^ly lire, though our possessions are small. 

HULM or SIMTAX. 101 

KUI.E xxs:. 
Two negatives destroy one another, and are 
^lerally e^uivaleDt to an affinnative ; as, " Such 
atiings are not toicominon ;" i. e. they are com- 

Note. When oae of the two negsttres emplojcd is joioed to uiothsr 
word, it fbrnu a pleudng and ddictts Tftrietf of eipmnon ; as, " Hte Ian- 
gaage, though inele^ot, in not tmgramnwticBl ;" thi.t u, it is cnunouuicaL 

Bat, as two nvgitivea, b/ deitroving each other, aro cquivaient to an af- 
firmatne, they abovlditot be used wnenm wish to convey aiKg^wnisaDUi^ 


JVof«, ad port. I dun't know nothing about it 
I did not sen nobodjr there. Nothing nevei affects her. 
Be honest, nor take no shape nor semblance of disguise. 
Thera caonot be nothing more insignificant than TOoitj'. 
Piecept nor discipline is not so forcible as example. 

Prepositions govern the objective case ; as, 
" He went jfrom Utica to Rome, and then passed 
through Redfield." 


Eadi is accountable for hisself. 

They settled it among theirselvea. 

It is not I who he is diaploosed with. ' 

Who did you go with T ' 

Who did you recei»e instruction from ? 

Home, and nouns signiiying distance, time whan 
how long, &c. are generally governed by a pre^ 
position understood; as, '* The horse ran a mile ;" 
" He came home last June ;" " My friend lived 
four years at college ;" that is, ran through the 
apaee.of a mile; or,. ran over a space called a 
mile ; to has home in last June ; diirtngtouv yeais, 



Not*). The pwpoeitions to and/eraj»<rftenuTidemtooJ,duefly before 
ieDnAiaU;^'<OiTe[lo]nuaboak; Get [Ibr] Uai senie paper." 
TV III wOd, U, by pome. sapp«»«l W pB under«tood t&et Uktwai 

MDi.Ba o» stiitaB. 

^mvmi wm, " d« mm hb [oduij □■ mvtam ; Buv w iMHaB ^wj luu* 

■iMiwiinr tlii* mods «f uprawioD vi jdioiu of tha Unguife, uid ir 
0>t Mil fOTwni ttM objective roUowing iL 

& Nova* ligni^nuajiaBnaoivtliuatiMliauMtitjl ^iBtit}', ocTihn^ *n 
BWd withBut > govtcmng iroid ; as, " The Obio is one Ihoiuatid mla long ; 

huij: XXXIII. 
Conjunctkms connect nouns aad pronouns in 
die same case ; as, " The master taught her and 
me to write ;" " ffe and she are associates." 
Mj brother and him are grammEuiana. 
Tou and me eajoj gnat privileges. 

Him and I weot to the city in company ; but John and turn 
lebimed without me. 

Between you and I there is a great diDparily of years. 

Rtn.X! XXXIT. 

Conjunctions generally connect verbs of like 
moods and tenses ; as, " If thou sincerely desire, 
and earnestly pursue virtue, she vnll assuredly be 
found by thee, and prove a rich reward." 

NOTK I. When difierent inoodiT nnd teniea sre connected by conjUDctkiDi, 
Iba BOimiubTe must be repeated; aa, " Ho nuqj refurit, bolA^'ioill aotlirTjt" 

1: CtojuDctionB hnplyifig contingency. or doubt, require the aubjunctivB 
DMod after them ) u, " {''he >(uA|, ha will improve." See ytgfia 133, 145, 

' ^ ■- • ■ xcept, tehtther, and U>t, gentnttj 

Did he not tell me his fault, and entreated me to forgive him t 
Professing regard, and to act difierenti]', diacovem a baa« 

JVble 1. He has gone barae, but may return. 
The attorney executed the deed, but will write no more 
JVole 2. I shall walk to-day, unless it rains. 
Ifhe acquires riches, tbey will corrupt his mind. 

A noun or pronoun following the conjunc^cm 
Ihant as, or imt, is nominatiTe to a veA, or gov 
emed by a verb or preposition, expressed or t» 
derstood ; as, " Thou art wiser than I lam."} " I 
taw nobody but [/ sttw] him." 

KMal.Tbtc ^ . ^__^ 

tamtf St ■oBiBtdnea, thnugh erroinaiul7, caUid t. rftoHx pmwMi ,' u, *■ 
nic«MI>re»unMtaadti«othws,'>&o.;lbatia,L«tUflni»k*,kc. Seep 

1 An ritipnc, or omiaaion (rf »oms woids, ii &eq««il)j admittsd, waidi 
niut be mpplisd in the mini in order to pam gntnmktacaUj ; u " Wd a 
mef IbatiR, tome, "To deep all ni^t;" L e. Ij^raug-A all U< night { "He 
bugonea ioiimey;"L e. cii a journey j " They wdked ■ league j^ Le.«)ir 
a noM Mtfetf a lea^p. 

3. IThen the omiesion of worda would obaenra the aenH, or weaken it* 
fotce, they mnsl be expressed. 

4. Id thenae of prepoiitiona, and words that relate to oach othsr, va aboolcl 
pay partinular legard lo the meaning of tho words or acnlaaees which tb«y 
connect: all the puts of a. sentence ahonld CDrrespaiid to eaefa otlier. and a 
legnhi and clear conatructtoD thraaehoul ahonld be carcBilly preaamd. 


Tbej are much greats* gainers than me. 

Tbey know how to write as well as him ; but he ia « b«Mar 
pvnuDariaii than thero. 

Tbey were dl well but him. 

None were rewarded but him and me. 

Jesus sought none but they w^io had gone ftatmy. 

I. In the UBS of verbs, and other words and phrases whicfa, 
m point of tmn, relate to each other, a due regard to that rela- 
tion abould be observed. 

Instead of soyinRi " The Lord hath givcTi, and the Lord kali Uktn away ;" 
W4 should aay, " The Lord gme, and the Lord hath lotnt away." iMtaad 
«(; "I mnmicr the ftnHjy more thsJi twenty yean,-" it ahonld be, " I 
HaM nmemimJ the family more than twenty years," 

i. Tbehest rule that can be given for the management of the 
lenses, and of words and pbreaea which, in point of ume, relata 
lo each other, is this very general one ; Ohttrve vkal the wnt* 
nKtuarily requires. 

To say, " I hmx visited WoshingtaD last summer ; 1 htae iisa the woiil 
more than a month ago," hi not good taut. The conattuctions ahould b^ 

■ I titOti Wa^ngton, &e. j I icu the work, be" " This mode of expna- 
■M hat btrn fonnerly much admired ;" — " mm formerly much admired." 

■ Wl had hmt been Ihete ;" "If I had •uai seen htm ;" " Sad ynu Wt 
tnown him," are soledsms loo gross to need Gorrectieo. We cna say, I 
tiBi kaiw- I had been ; hat what sort of a tense is, had hart bun I To 

before the deftcticc verb ought, is sn errour equally gross and 

-" had ought, hadn't ought." This is as low a vulgwieni as the 

of lA*frit, htm, and hixien, tothtr, Jirder, bofnt, tU> n-a, I tatd it, I 

3. When we refer to a past action or event, and no part of 
that tiiUA in vrUoti it took jdace; remains, the imptrftct tetm, 
Aould be used ; but if there is stilt remaining some portion of 
tba timt in whidi wa declare that the thing has been doMi Ibe 
fmfitt tMM should bs employed. 

t^ ' 

Id genenl, the perfec* tenao dut b 
iMCtad wilh the pnmnt lime, bv the 

tMt to be v^fiejei. SpnJui 
JbHiin bD uea,<Mmcd grea 

194 STBTir OT TE" T""- 

Thaa, «• MY, " niilMi^)lMn nuilt grskt dueoveiiea in tns lut eantiU7 1° 
"HetMt moetaafflMtMdlut jeu- j" Erat when we reforloUie preaentMO- 
tofj, jrar, wwk, day, fee we ou^hl In ubs the ptT-fecl tense ; as, " PhiW 
opSera **N tMA greil discoTenes in the present century ;" " Ha i^ 
H« DMdi atfclad this year;" " 1 hne ruii the president's message thii 
wedc;" "WeAoHkacrd important news this moiniag;" because tbese 
CTODti occnmd in this century, this yeai, this week, and to-day, snd itill 

.t ■-. ^ p»rt of thji cenlary, year, week, and day, of Which 1 apeak. 

the perfect tenao may be applied wherever the tction is coa- 

... le present lime, by the actaal existence either of the authoi 

St of the woifc, tboTwh it mnv bsTe been pcrfonned many centuries ago; 

~ IT tM urtbot nor the wock now remains, the pnfect tense owA 

aplejtd. Spesking of priests in general, we may say, " idy 

.._..... ( gi^jt powers j" becBuae the general omer of IM 

. but no cannot properly «y, " The Druid prioilB 

K dt^mid great powers -," because that order la now extinct. Wo ought, 
therefore, la say, " The Uniid priests claimtd great powers." 

The following examples may serve atill farther la illustrate the propa 

IBS and application of the t " *'- '-—■'--- >- '- ■-- '• 

Philaddphia." It should be, ' 
■dferb reanOy refers to a time completely past, without any allusion to the 
preaent time. " Charles is grown considenblt since I have seem lum the 
Uattime." Corrected, " Charles *os grown, ainco I raw him," &c "Pay- 
meot was at length mode, hut no reason assigned for its Ijeing so long 
postponed." Corrected, " for its honing teen so long postponed." " Thej 
■ere arrired an boor before we reached the city :" — " They had arrived." 

" The workmen will complete the building at the time I take posseaaion 
ofit." It should be, "vrill^iDt comnleleil the building," &e. "Th^curioni 
piece of workmanship was preserved, and riiown to Btrai:gera for ntorelban 
BAy years past :"— "Aoi hem preserved, and been shown to strangera," lu. 
>■ I had rather write than beg :"— " I tcoiiJd rather write than beg." 

** On the morrow, because he wonid have known the certunty whereof Paul 
was accnaed of the Jews, he looeed him from hia bands." It ought to bc^ 
" beesuae he acald kwa ; or, hemg leUhag (o kaoai,'! &c. " The Uind man 
■aid, ' Lord, that I might receive my sight j' " " If by any means I roighl 
attain unto the reBurreclionof the dead." In both these ejampleB,in«( would 
be prefenble to rmghl. " I feared that I should have lost the parc^ bafbia 1 
amrnd ;" — " that 1 should bus." " It would have aSirded me no satiahc* 
(ion, if I could perform it" It ought to he, "ifl could have pafonrud it;" or, 
"It vmidiffiird me no satisfaction, if I raald ftrform it" " TOs dedicalior 
may serve lor almost any book that baa, is, or shall be published ;" — " that 
tai ken, or utiU bt jumthtd." 

4. In order to employ the two tensea of the infinitive mood 
with propriety, particular attention should be paid to the metm- 
mg of what we express. 

Veihs expressive of hope, deaire, tntimtion, or tommand, tH^bi 
to be followed by the fresbnt tense of the Infinilive mood. 

" Last week I intended to hone vtrilUn," is improper. The intention of 
WTTting was then pr«™( with mo ; and, therefore, the construction ^oold 
bs^ " rinteDded (0 iDrilc" The following examples arc also inaccurate; "F 
found him better than 1 expected la hice fmad him ;" " My porpOBo waa 
Wr spending ten months more in cotnmerco, la him wilUniifn ny wealth 
WaooMoTcouDtry." Thev thotild be, "expected to Jinit him;'' "loisilU'cw 

'''This is a book which provea itself to be written by the person lAnaa 
7aoM it beats." It ought to bo "which proves itscAfts but h^ii iBi<lisN,"fab 

'TotMhJmirould Inve Bflbrdod me piMwire *ll m; Hfa." Catnct«d, "T« 

k species of beinga:" — "Id intent auch aapedes." 
6. General und immutable truths ought to be expressed i 
the praent tense. 

iMfiil, mat gaSi ;" " My opponent wDnld not believe, tint virtus wa atwaji 
idvantageom ;" Tb« conalructtons ahould be, '■arc equil to twcnifj" 
' nbatevsr it uaeful, i> ffxii ;" " virtue it aiwaya advuitageoua." 


We adore the Divine Being, he vbo is from eternity Is 

On these causes de[>end all the happiuess or su*«ry which 
exist among men. 

The enemies who we hare most to fear, are those of our own 

Is it me or him who yon TBquested to go* 

Though great has been bia diaobedience and his toKy, yvt u 
he sincerely acknowledges his misconduct, ha shall be forgiren. 

There were, in the metropolis, much to arouse them. 

B^ exercising of oar memories, they are improved. 

The property of my friend, I mean his hooks and fumilBre, 
were wholly consumed. 

Affluence might give us respect in the eyea of the nttgu, but 
will not recommend us to tiie wise and good. 

The cares of this world, they often choke the growth of virtue . 

They diet honour me, I will honour ; and them that despise 
tne, shaH be lightly esteemed. 

I intended to have called last week, but couU not. 

The fields look freshly and gayly since the rain. 

The book is printed very neat, and on fine wove pi4>er. 

I have recently been in Washington, where 1 have seon Gen. 
Andrew Jackson, he who is now president. 

Take the two first, and, if you please, the three last 

The Chinese wall fa thirty foot high, 

It is an union supported by an hypothesis, merely. 

I have saw him who yon wrote to ; and he wcHild have eanM 
back with me, if be could. 

Not one in fifty of those who call themselves deists, under- 
stand the nature of the religion which they reject. 

ir thou studiest diligently, thou will become learned. 

Edncation ia not attended to properly in Spain. 

U« know'd it wu hk duty; and he ought, themfora, to do it 
He haa Utde more of the great man bendea die title. 
Richard acted very iadepeodent on the occaBJon. 
We have done no mote than it waa our duty to have done. 
The time of my friend entering on business soon arrived. 
His speech is tiie most perfect specimen I ever saw. 
C^umny and detraction are sparlu which, if you do not bloir, 
■hey will go out of ihemaelves- 

Those two authors have each of them their merit. 
Reasons whole pleasure, all the joya of wnse, 
laea in three words, health, peace, and competence. 
Agreat mass of rocka thrown together by the hand of natmc 
with wiMneu and confusion, strike the mind with more gran. 
tiuar, than if diey wmr« adjuated to one another with the accuratesi 

A lampoon or a satire do not cttrry in them robbery or munler. 
The aitle A, with the sides B and C, compose the triangle. 
If some penona opportunities were never so tavotmble, lliey 
ivould be too indolent to improve. 

It la reported IhiU the goveroour will come here to-morrow. 
Beautj n>d imoeence should be never aepaiated. 
£ali»agMMM and folly naay rodnee you to a aitualioa wfaera 
foa mil hm much t« fear and Uttle to hope. 

Not ooe in fi% of our modero infidels are thorou^y versed 
■ilMr knowledge of the Scriptures. 

Tirtne and mutual confidence ia the sool of frienddiip. 'Where 
Aas» are wanting, di^u«t or hatred otien follow little difierencM. 
An army present a peinful sight to a feeling mind. 
To 4o good to tbeoi that hate us, and, oanooecasioii, taaeek 
ravenge, ia the duty of a christiai). 

The poUte, accomplished libertine, ia but miserable amidst all 
• pletunires : the rude inhabttaot of Lapland is h^pier than 

There are principles in man, wtuch ever have, and ev«r will, 
■Bcline him to offend. 

This is one of the duties which rec^uires great circunapeotion. 

They that honour me, them will 1 honour. 

Every church and sect have opioiona psculiai' to themselrea. 

Pericles gained auch on ascendant over the minda of the Atb»> 
iiniiii, that he might be saiii to attain a monarahical power in 

'ntoa, Lord, who bath perraitted affiction to come upon u^ 
■hall deliver us from it in due time. 

Thai writer ha* given us an acocunt of the manau in whicb 
christihnity bos formerly been propagated among the h ' ~ 

HioUghlhe meuurftbemyiteiioiu, it ia not unworthy of your 


Iti bis conduct wu treachery, and in his words, faidilMa 

AAer I visited Europe, 1 returned to America. 

I have Dot, Bor shall not, consent to a proposal so unjust. 

I had intended yesterday to hare walked out, but I have been 
again disappointed. 

Five and eight makes thirteen ; five from eight leaves three. 

If he goes to Saratoga nest week, it will make eight times 
diat he has visited that renowned watering place. 

I could not convince him, that a forgiving disposition was 
Boblor than a revengeful one. 1 conaider the first, oao of the 
brightest virtues that ever was or can be possessed by man. 

The college coDsists of one great, and several smaller edifices. 

He would not believe, that honesty was the best policy. 

The edifice was erected sooner than I expected it to have 

Surely, goodneas and mercy ^aU follow me all the days of 
my life ; and 1 will dwelt in the house of the Lord for over. 

If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of tbem be gone 
astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, &c. ? 

He might have completed his task sooner, but he could not 
do it better. 

The most ignorant and the most savage tribes of men, K4ien 
they have looked cound on the earth, and on (he heavens, coidd 
not avoid ascribing their origin to some invisible, designnig 
cause, and felt a propensity to adore their Gi%ator. 


()b9ERtatidn 1. The following absurd phrascE so comman in the Bacnd 
d»k and elsewhere, should be caretiillv ayoided by all who recani coirnnotf 
„nBe; — " SiuglhB ItHO^ril and liret lost veraes." Juat aa if (here could be 
nnre than tme Brat and ont last. There may be a^sf Itco, a iccond tioo, Icc j 
n first three, a second Ihree, a liul three. "Within the two loil centuries;" 
" TTie eemnd syllable of the three firit wards ;" " The three finl of the«i or- 
thoepists have no tulc by ivhioh their pronuncialion is regulated :" — " the 
loit (100 cenlnriea ;" " the Jlril Ihrte woida i" " the Jirit three of these or- 

2. Adjectivea should not be used to express the manner of action. "In 
higher Iha river, the sioi/ier it flows;" "JamBB learns (uin- than Juliet; he 
seen deeper into the mUialone thnn she:" — "Uio more taiJUy it Bowa;" 
"lB»rns mure lasUy; Jarther into the millstone." "Ha conducted the 
^ijdtlt of any :"-« the most baldly." . 

B. JWrwr requires thim after it. The following BcntenoCB are therefore un- 
pmpei- "He waa mote beloved, but not so muoh aumired, « Cinthio ;" 
" Diehard is more active, but not so eludious, u his companion." The le|t< 
tlnits mode rf nipplviDS th* allipMi in theae conitmctiMU, wiU 4 — " — 

__ "^^ • It* 

jpoaimproprie^: thii% " He vu more lielond u Onthio ;" " Bicbwii li 
more sctne ■> hu axnpwiioa," tu:. 

4. AduertM, >i illuBtnited on pa^ 65, are generally tubililiUa fbt W* M 
■wtWilsMoagingloci^erjBrtsof ipeedi. " will vou aecowpwij dm 
to £nrepe iMZt ■ummei P " ta," " Do you believe that the voya^a irill 
mlora jDor hedth 1" " Mi." In these eiamplcg, the adverbs yu and na 
'^''-'Bi lor whole aontence^ and, therefore do not ntnlify any word" 

nnknWod. Fcj^ in Ihb inatanco, literally roeane, " I tc'S'acca mp my . 

haUk." Many other adverbs are often employed in a simiW manner. 

" nraf^" B oAeo improperiy uacd instead of the adverbyEnt; " a gmd 
MMt," amamJ oT, much, or, ■ frnit duL 

Sl a mea dMineUon ■hould be obaened in the usa otmeh and m. ^ Tb« 
(btmar may be emj^yed in expreeeing fualif ji ,- the latter, in exprcians a 
d^rtt of tbe quality ; a^ " Suet a temper in seldom found ;" " So bad a 
tamper if wldont found.'* In the following example^ » should be aaed in- 
Mad tfaMt.- ** He is nek an eiliavigBnl roungman, that I cannot naso- 
ciaU willi him ;" " I nevBr before asw ttu^ fa.rge treca>" 

Tha aAtoed nee of caidina], inBlead of ordinol numhera, ouahtnot toba 
brftaled. " On page forty-Jite ;" " Look at page iiintleoi -—furty-ffih, 

<> !■ theduioe and appltcatioDOf piepa«t)on|%par(iealar regard diMild 
be paid to thnr meaning as established by Ihe idiom of oiirlangiMse and 
the beat maffe. " In my procecdines, I have been actuated from the cson- 
-'-'' — \, thai I was supporting a righteous cause ;" " He should have pro. 

lection in favour of established „__, ,__ 

m;" "They are resolved of goine;" " The tain has been felling of along 
OOM ;" " It ia a work deserving ofeneouFa^enienL" These eiam^es joaj 

be corrected thus, " — • — '—' >- "■- •- — " " ' 

eepta ;" " by the 

goa;" "Dngniiig:"""railingBlongliniB;" " deserving encouranement," 

1. The preposition Ip ia used befora nouns of place, where they fbtbm 
•Wbl m paKiciplta of motion ; as, " I went Id WaehiuEtan." Batatiaem- 
oloyed ^teitbeieib tofc<; a^"I have been oJ V/a^ington j" " He baa 
Men l0 New-York^ fe home," &c. are improper. The pieposition ni is set 
oefbrs countries, attes, and large towns ; " He lives in Fiance, f n London, 
fn Philadel)ihiB, iit Rochester." But befbia sinpta houses, and dtiea and 
viliagM whKh are in disUnt countries, al is oommonly osed ; a& " He live* 
dt Park-place ;" " She rBaidea nt Vincennea." People in the northom Matea 
mar say, " They live in New-Orleans, or, aJ New-Otleana" 

i, Paaiive agents to verbs in the infinitive mood, should not be amploy«d 
as active agents. The following aje sQlecisms : " This house to let ;" 
"IlDiVe* and oairiages to let j" " CoDgreas has much huwnesato peribmi 
•bis BBsdon 1** because the agents, koiae, honsei and cmriages, and iusiatu, 
which are rMllypoiRK, are, sEcarding to these coiutnictions, renderedna 
active. The eipreaaions should be, " This house to bt let ;" " Horses aad 
tamafB* to tc let ;" " much business to be performed." 

t, Ambioditt. — "Nothing is more lo be desired than wisdom," tiot 
BUnSftomd, fortouiJOTniBcsrtainLy more to be desired than notUn^; but, 
as ■ figurative eipresaion, it is well established and unexceptionable. 

** Adow is a large black bird:" — a large, black — bird. 

" I saw n horse — fly through the window :''~I saw s hori^/ly, 

** I saw a ship slidmg under t\dl sail through a soy alaaa." I saw. thiouA 
• •P7*a.s,nfepglidrng under fujl soil, ^'*^ w.uuo^a 

coEKKCTioH* u( •KTnoaKArsT- 

dior% Mmi M* Dx » tnebor." llua anuigemeat of the numM 

dreumfUnaw or tlai nntwo«, moSdm the RiMker^ narah (a Ut Mi H«r« ; 
wlierau, ha mauit, ■■ A Jorn (Ioihi vAieA, after ■ iMg leatdi, I happMM 

ImfiitdHUt—athtrt, h ' — ' 1.— n 

■I I ^.D «i- _>i« <i 

" 1 iball oolj aoHea thoM Mlled ponoiul pmnDun 
tboM called peraoDtl pronooi ~ 
UL Taiit(ii.osi. — Amid w 

ft ought ta 

" i doat dunk it >■ *a." Tou d» (UU, thai it 

Ekt, ahsqif, " I h«e ever bean of thii mit 

Ewr and oIwm are not ijrnoayDMHii. Etir reft 

oTliine; aa, "BTbe nwr become rich:" ahMtmcMMi ~- 

EioiK, sarAia. The fenner aigoifiealo releaaa Cram an oHiptioii wUA 
reCnatoAefutaie; ttw laUer, to fiu^va a negleet OT crioM IhaliapaM. 
"EiCDse me £» negleetinjf la call yemerday :" pm^a m tue. 

T,nceUaL vfe rtntmiir t liMg wloA m letaia in our niMi ; 

Dtfcit, dglcifac|r. A thing whkh ii incomplete in any of ha parta, ia dB 
JieHu I a tatat abaenee of tlu thins, ia a thfiaena/. 

Tbi* aubject wiU be reaamad in the ^ipendix to tUa w«k. 



Tbe fiilhiwmginirda being often i 

MwN pcDDOuncsd b; nUupaopl^ 
In ihi* plnce, (frwaU; to Crtt'l 

lanf . Same of Um nuiproDimcH^ 

Fkta, (It, rlO, {U^mi, mlt ^ne, pin— dA, nira, nir, nSt— flba, tHk 
Oktsooka- tuvROFSK. PsouDtTii-' OsTHOGKji- iMritopiK. PanroVK- 

Anin t-gliia' tfti/ 

juij im u« 












batfalt bSn^It 
briuh braauh 

Uarflre kWflt 

kluh Utah 

krt^wi ktw>%rl 

t«U>ta UhWni 

t^WbU tthWnJ 

Uhlma tihlna 

kdir kwire 

kllTia kUT^ 

kUruk klh^ 

kSl'/Bm kSIlSoi 

kSmlitt tflmlitt 

kftmW ktrn'ml 

ki^kwjtf ki>klf 

UcH kiM 

kVBr kSvlr 

dUf 4Jf 


irlin driaa 

drUlA drUt 
driatidid drUnd 


fU^n flt'nl 

























IMiiatun irdne-tlne' mln-l^ue 

nttih' ^idik 



htmUi Unwit 












[ OKTHDIrV- -> 

OiTBavi^- IxracHia. rmowmH* Omxaoatu- biMwrsK. PttaHomt 





















Aeue uid fanw 


















(pile ■pBll 

■tn'78ri» itUlyird 













jiu, jtta 

ivi-ai^tB ^ 
























ki-nh^Ira' ' 


















































mine-tin Bin le 


mflr^Jn-tUa ) 

mai-kin-liM' } 

mSr-kintn S 






pllH)n-Ajo ' 




























Tn-dj.kA r4a 






DiniiTHi,, Google 



FuKoDiicaa. - 

prtfi^ (noon) 
qrtf ^ (teib) 

^ ■! (noun) 

prtr'i^! (TOb) 

•tki^-fho •r(ni) 

iTuuparent trlm-pir'SDt 

Traiupuenej trlos-pti'Sn-ai 

rotMtiai Tlr-biflm 

Voloioo vtl-kl'nA 

Wlyflkitne hwlp-pl-trj 

' NOTL 1. — Wbeo Uie woid> Itoiu^ ileaiJ,loi<tJ, 4-e. are DMd W fArtiu 
pnl adjectira, tba tcnnination li should genenlly M pronounced U a aepft- 
ilfl salable i ML " A lara-id man ; The Uat'ed tledeewei ;" bat vrtaen 
tbvj an ei^ilojrad aa verba, the id is contmcted in pronanciatiati ; M, " Ha 
(■ant'd hia laoaoD ; Thsy srs fw'd ; I have ualif d." 

S. TlMaccentoftbelbllowin^irordaraUaon throHsjUahleaexpicawdui 
fheAiifeicliataeteri: Europeaji, hy me )ie>l,Ceaa re a, coadjutor, epico- 
nu,i»t«te*ted, in tet eat in^ reparable, rwognise, k^ is la tura,«l Fi- 
galoiy.incon para ble,imB arable, inuo la b:e. In a large clut of 
waida,tbav«welaa,<,aiidai,*)u)iildbeprDiiaimGe<llike!ongaiDlcl(,- n>^ 
»m,/mt,rtrt,tJuTe.aiir,ahiTi,iar,ehiBr,conaari,dtciiirt,kc. lathewoid* 

_._»... _._. — ... -•-■^-■--| and tbolike.tha vowel « befiirer, 

~ I proper aouad is that of < IB 











MnoB, fer/eet, mereyf mierjirett deUrmaUf an 
uoAen tiivnimiilf aoiinded like short h. 

ie eMT«loae,and uroeabletotbapio- 
Iker. Tlie proper tSphtbongal sooDd* 
by the comnon mua, and ffnerhd 

and aOecte4 pronDDcialkin of tliOM 
Itis Utter mode of piDiuHuuing them 

ridicutooi as to nonouoce the vrotd/l 

•nliaslad inth %, Ait, her, ynr, && it 
ns,iti*pn>aonn^,fDi; aa, " Jqr ("x] 
ElieD wmd anda a line in poetry.uid J4 
d, wlmfjDul, ia 

uoe untutored mind 

ears him id the uind." 

u, in this word, hM its propsr windi it 





win Im fiiuad BMlU in ibs^iku to 






tk-Uw-il IbtdiMl 






la Pmmiti.»hi«. 
















r ROTIKC uuuu . 

Alt or Ihit 
l6te or fBtch 

mite [BUg^l 

CIhw yreajF, Brti, » 

li txptd, giHia, and rccfain, tboueh Oor 

reel En^Ui irorda, have, amon^ the common people of New-Enriind mno 
New-Torii, ■ proTiDciid application and moanrng. With them, ■ daier man, 
'tone of > gentle and obliging dispoaitkiD ; instrad dC, a man ardiiitinginslK 
ad tolenti and profound acquirements, Prtlty and ugly, thay apply to the 
diiporiltim ofa pemon, instead of, to big extmud apptarmcc In tbeM a^toa^ 
one will often hear, "I puii it rains," when the speaker fexnoi this to be ■ 
fact, and, therefore, siuuinj: is uncalled for. " I uptcl 1 cui go -," or, " I 
rscbn I can ;" instead Of, " I mppoic or praunu." In New-Engiand, ■ 
n is often called a ntnulcr, in Nev-Yoik, a frittl, and south of 
The last is preferable. 

dfligjman u 


to hum tins two wB^a 
Y«i faaddent ought to do it. 1 
Tamt DO better than hizzeo. 
Inent that are line writ well } 
TixMOt DO better than thia ere. 

Hie keows be gooB to hum, aea 
and Pmer cohi oitet nm. 

He^ be tieie, derights, and bring 
joam andlhaim. 

He tonoh'd the itun wluch I daw 
hiiB,att£^iies9it madelum nthe,for 
■tww daauig hot. 

Bon, Ttuuiel, and cut a staddle, for 
to make a lera cm. Ize jest agooeter 

Where^dJ .. . , 

Damp it Tender. Whats the nefl of 

I dumpmy cart, sqnai 
ler. What! the heH 

When ju git hum from Hatlbnl 
A fbrtiut ago. Vou diddent, did ye ? 
Jn ■«« my Donel, whose sot 
tarron there? No. Hede gone 
Igotthoe. 0,thepeakycnlei! Ueta 
■oon be Dp a stump. 

My fHnda supob mannon is de- 
li^idilly otcwated on a naie-eral 
■Kmnd oTcMiaider^ib! hiths. li 
* long stoim in front ; but it is f 
&Mn the mty than I*de like my 

I ki»«*d the sal wa* drowndod, 
ud I ull'dtha inqmiitioners, that ito 

1 am going. He lives at borne. 
Ht hoM htm at hmu IhtMt S weeks. 
You ought tul to do iu CtrloiTi^ I 

etter, or. it is nal aȤ bet 
ter tbu this. 

Tlie ceut art gone home, and / mi 

He tcili btt here, dicectiy, and bring 
>uis and theira. 

He touched the dnu which Iiiw»tf 
him, and it made bim i^k, (at it mm 
' 'ling hot. 

Go, Nathaniel, and cut a itgiHng, to> 

moke a Uvtr ^. I wat abml to g\ 

inJflut^r to^ imnuilUlif, &tb«r. 

Where ihatt Iwiload m} carti Yatt- 

icr. WhatiaOiiBvaghtofjoia^imAI 

. Jortnigkt ago. Ii it prtstOk ! Bii 
on lee mj Hn DaKM, nla lua opowit 
pubtickiattithom No. HehadUfi 
hcfort 1 arrived there. 0, the pufiry 
ftliim ! Ht inU soon eanu ta naighL 
My fiimd't superb tnanaioB'ia d^ 
lifihtfuUy lituattd va • noturil miaimd 
M considerabte Aei^. It kw a iDnf 
pprefcinttonti butitis,/arfilarft«MtlM 
city than I imuU like to retUt. 

I faHwthe gM A<ul»M«.*MWMi 
aadltoM the jurtio/infiuit, that /tM 


uUicr gMMin nor jokin about it ; 
if tlMj*d permit laa lo giv em 
ideie, they'd obleeee me. So 1 1 
nvercd, and carriM mj piate. ' 
don't surso. Be youfiflin Barltitii 
Ibe. Weowlawan! in aint clean 

You baint from the Jaraeya, be ye 7 

iMl jaling about It , bat, 

id, and gainti my potal. 
you from Berliri-- ' ' — • 


> tflad tarrem. 

le know'J me. 

1 AoH done nn Issk. Have JM 

nc voiird } No, bat I mutt. 
I iLtl be tkere ; or, I twu( IM Iberv. 
He bunc hm. 

ma be, for I am qfrnid. 

Oive me them there books. 
He ort to ao ; n> he oit. 
Dont ecrotige iqe. 
I diddent go to do it. 
Aintlhata good hand write T 
' IUnTlkiiow'dirti«tbotneanl,biit 

It if ■ long mils to town. 
OKHight twai nnle a alioil mile. 

Ne* hn* the day 
Let as be aflei painina 
Where did you lom it f 
an. Ya. Kt. oh M 
Carry the hone to wate 

he w«it tUl 


Ter noHcuI it. 
I had not dofu it: 
litm. They c 

«, better 


He mgU not. 
Don't trattd me. 

I did not iaiend to do iL 

I) nni that btmiUfiil mrUktg 7 
TTAdl? I kntv what he meant, fari 

II iealtlUfovcramileto town. Ah! 
tufpntd it Jo Ac iui thim a mile. 

Ht ia not here iHlay. He went la 


Let uajMriiB tiltli. 
Where did yon l«w it 7 

Lead the hone to watet ; or, water 

Is that TOUT 
He wiltaooT 

der, elnuin 

IK nnnd 300 buahels of com 
this year. 
I that yoor Uggtt, sir 1 
e will eoon murcDdw, mg^ridtf. 

I wivdiar, and I seen his boat waa 
oadend too becTy. 
Whar yougwic- 

lie ii in fmatTthip with me. 
Didfoiiff!lr<^w^fnM'af, yam 

IVbo hdpiijou to aetl it) 


pKOtoDT treats of the moilulati ins of the voice 
wccot^agto the usages of the language we speak, 
and the seDtiments we wish to expresa : hence, 
in tf9 most extensive sense, it comprises all 1^ 
laws of elocution. 

Prosody is commonly divided into two parts : 
the first teaches the true pronunciation of words, 
comprising accent, quantity, emphasis, pause, and 
IMK ; and the second, the laws of vera^attom. 

Jttt t n t . Accent is Ike laying ofa peculiw stroaa of the voic» 
on a particular letter or »yi\Me in a word, that it may be better 
heard than the rest, or distingutDbed from them ; as, in the mird 
fruimt, dM BtreiiB of the voice must be on the letter w, Aad 
tkb Mcosd ayllaUe, *imu>, which EySebie lukem Ae aooeat. 

Krery word of more sylfaMes than one, has one acoeaitMl 
ajllable. For the soke of euphony or diBtinctness in a itmg 
wotd, we frvqueatly give n Becondaiy accent to another aylla 
Ue beaides the one «^ich takes the [mnc^tal accent; ■•, "(w /t 
mm' m''^ a ban' don ^ing. 

QiUMdily. Tke quantity of a a^L^ite la that time viack u 

■ ec fio d m pnAooneing it. It ia conatdered ■■ long or akDrt. 

A Towel or syllKble m lois, when the accent is on ^ tmref ; 

lAich cauMB it (o be slowly joined in pronunciation Vifh tbs 

foUowiDg lettara ; aa, "F^ll, t^Ie, mofid, hOiiae, l^ature." 

AvjlfaUe ia ahori, when the oecent ia on tlie cmMoWDt , 
wUch cauMs the vowel to be qnickly joined to the Bacceedinji 
UMer ; as, " ini, bonnfit, bingSr." 

A l<Hig ayliable generally requires double the tijne of a short 
ona in pronouncing it ; thus, "m&te'*and "nMo" rfiouM b« 
pronounced as slowly again as " mit" and " nOt." 

tfmfkain. By ■Bmphnsii is meant a stronger and fuller aoaml 
of the voice, by which we distinguish some word or words on 
which we design to lay particular stress, and to show bow Aher 
affect the rest of tlM sentence. Sometimes the enyhaticit wu^ 
nroat be distjaguirited by a particular tone of voice, ■■ weU s« 
by m greyer stress. 

tm]f\m«a irilllir mnin fiillj e^unadimdeitiMksadof BlooitiMi. 
Pmtut. Ponse* or rests, in speaking and reading, are Ktetal 
cessation of the voice during a [terceptible, aoA, in mat^ cases, 
a naaaurable space of time. 
Tonnt. Tones are different both from emohaais and pause* ;coifc 

FimQTDA.TION. sot 

«wthig in the modalatioiu of the voice, or the doIm oc vkiialiona 

of sound which we emptor in the expTeaeton of our Moments 

£inphaas afiects puttculu- wotdfi and gdiraaes ; hut tMie« 

iffect aenteoces, paragrapha, and oometimea k whole diacovne. 


Punctuation ia the art of dividing written com- 
position into sentences ot parts ofsentences, by 
points or stops, in order to mark the different 
pauses which the sense and an accurate pronun- 
eiation require. 

The Comma representa the shortest pauae ; the Stmieelon, a 
pause double tnat of the comma ; the Colon, douUe (hat t^ the 
((eiqictdon ; and the Period, double that of die colon. 

Functtution m t piodero art. The nncLentB were entirely 
irith the aie of pointe ; an<l wrote, not only without an^ (tiMmetiOD of I 
twra tnS periods, btit ^so withnat anv disthtction of irorda. Tkit MMMa 
continued till the year 360 before CbriKt. How ths aocients road their 
worka, written in thia manner, it ia not eae3r'to conceive. AJler the practice 
oT juinins word* together had ceased, notea of distinction were jdaced at 
flui^nd Meyeiy word. This practice continued a coniideitble tune. 

As tt appears that the present usage of pointB did not take fUae lAilat 
rauinatript* and monumental inacripliMis were the ooljr knowD method* ol 
totnmng knowledge, we must conclude, thut it wai introduced with the 
■It tayrm6ag. The introduction was, however, gradual : aDlIaepmnta 
Adnot upoaiatouee. Tbecolra, aemicoloo, and note pfadiniratioa, were 
iln>4scM some time aficT the oMi"'*- Tha whole aet, a* ther are now nied, 
necame eataUiahed, when learning aikd refioemeat had made coDdderal^ 

Aa the rules of punctuation are foimded altogether <ai Uie 
grvBroatical construction of sentences, their application pre?- 
Mppovea, on the part of the student, a knowledge of Syntax. 
Although they admit of exceptions, and require a continual e\- 
erciae of judgment and literary taBte in applying them properly, 
they are of great utility, and justly merit our particular attention. 
The great importance of acquiring a thorough knowledge of 
piuctualion, and of attending strictly to the application of its 
ndea, ia establiriied by the siDgie fact, that the mtanitig of a len- 
Imee t* ofim totally parvtrled by ike oatunon or MuamUeatia* 
ofpoMi. To illustrate the correcmess of this remark, nunoer- 
ona examples might be selected. The foUowing border on the 
ridiciilotis ; *' Mr. Jarad Uurton having KO"^ ^ ^*^ ^ wife, 
denrts Ae prayers of this church ;" <■ Tryon, who «Bcape(l 

M* rriKTUATioif. 

flM»4fc»JHlM FiUqr lut, u as jr«ut af «ge, hu auid^ Iwir, 
IMt «rM> Am titigg, widt ■ dwrt nose twand up aboul aix feet 
t^tsMe." CoROCted; "Mr. J«redStirtoalwnnggoiMto««a, 
im Kife ^MJTM Ae pnyms rfthia dnm^ i" " Ikia viuge, widi 
• ■kortnoMbimodiipiftbout sis feet hi^, &c." 

B«fera ODO eaten upoo the stud/ of punctnatiaii, it is nec«a 
■wj for him to undanland what is meant by an ad/tatet, a wim 
pit •fiUettcc, and a Mamtumd wwtotct. 

An o^pmel or imparfcct phrase contains no aasertion, or doM 
B<i anooDl to a propontioa «r aoateooe ; aa, " TherefMV ;" 
"atndwaaorjMraifle;" "in the pureuit of commerco." — For the 
d«£iuti«n of n aentence, and a compound aentence, turn to 

page 119, 

n two or more adjunct* are connected with the verb in 
(OB BKiiM inaiuier, and by the same prepoaitioD or conjuactioa, 
the •entoDce ia compound, and maj b« resulved into as many 
•irnpU onea aa there are adjuncts ; " as, " They have sacrificed 
dieir htalth aitdfortwu, at tho thrine of vanity, pridt, and extra 
wigmKCA." But wbea the adjuncts are connected with Ae verb 
"" Dt manner, the BBotence ii Bimple ; aa, "BraMStiCaa 
maUtg, is produced in great abundoNc* in the norlherd 

UTLE 1. Hm nwadMTS of a simple sentence should not, i* 
gmetal, be separated by a comma ; as, " Every part of matter 
•warms with Uvtng creatures." 

rIiiaHim.~-ltnenaB ii the jgrMt tammtn of aU comp- 
tioni inllwbuaunheuu Tba friend nfoMn hu mad* half hii w^ to 
tMos. JUISiMryisaaga<iflita«a«aB. 

RULE 3. When a simple sentence is long, and the nominft- 
tire is accompanied with an inseparable adjunct of importance, 
it may admit a comma immediately before the verb ; as, " Tt» 

ri taste of this present age, has not allowed u> to iie^Act 
cultivation of the Enslish language ;" " Too many </ Uu 
pretmded friendahipi of youlk, are mere combinatioiw in 

Bxereita,— The indulgence of > harsb diapadliao w die mtroduction in 
filture iiiiMi7. To be lotoU; kidiflbreDt to praise or censura it a real dAct 
in diaracter. The inlemiixtare of eril in hoBMa aoeiely mrm (o eiwciaa 
theauAtBig grace* and viilnei iflhs good. 

RULE 8. When the conation o( the difierent paiia of a 
rimpte sentence, is interrupted by an adjunct of importaace, the 
adjnnet must be distingui^ted by a icomma beforo and afler it ; 
a*. " His work ia, in many retpteU, very imperfect. It is, thw- 


1^, not nueh mppionti." But wken Awe intmmiptioiu an 
WlMrt Bitd utaimpHtWit, k is brtlar to oint the comma ; u, 
** WMIxrf is ««r«M% peraiowus ;" " Then u mrtb/ a pleosUro 

HonlLW BM koowWdM with poor Bpjnnl excel prida and ignorance uii> 
dw coatlj attire, inn best men atUn experience diuppolnlnienti. Adnce 
«lio4M lie se«aon«bly rndtniolMerML No misiimed bcturrisu oan tlwajn 
taiia tiM rail dumrcto'. 

KUliE 4. ^Hie Domtnative case indepfindent, aod nouna in 
appoaitioQ when acctnnpsnied with adjtmcta, must b« distdnguiah- 
«d br commas ; aa, " My *<m, gire me thy heart ;" " Dear Sir, 
I wnte to express my gratitade for your mm^ ktadneaaea ;" " 1 
an obliged to you, my friends, for your many fttroora ;" " Pmtl, 
the apostk of Uie G«ntilBs, was eminent for his zeal and knoir- 
ledje ;" " The bnOetrfiy, child of Oie sammer, flatten in Aeaan," 

B«t if ltH> nouDa in apposition are unattended widi at^aaota, 
^r if thoy form only a prt^wr name, (hey ahould not be aeporated ; 
u, *Patd Ae Otrarilc, BHSeved mai^rdmn {" " The tf a i aw m w 
J^trvm, wrote OM declaration oflndependence.** 

KairdUa.—1ari thou )iB*C Ihbb ok totMifm pIsM a iB gSMtMiea*. 
Continne my dear ehiM to imke Tiitne thy cliief«tiHly. CuM Ihoa eipacl 
tbou belnyer of Itmocence to «*f^ tba hand of mweuiee I Death the 
kuic oftenonn choae * prime inMrier. H^m tiM balm <tf Bfc aoodw n 
under Mery n^fortuae. Cmiliadin the peat CMaen philiMO[dier ma em- 
ineaU; gixid ai w^ «• wise. n>e patriarch JoWph ia an iUaatriDU* ana- 
^ oftiue piety. 

RULE 5. Th€ nominative case absolute and the infinitive 
aaeed dbsa ln te with llMir mlg/iMM, a participle with worda de- 

Knding MI it, mod, g«mmlly, any impeifect plvase which taay 
resotvecl idto a aimple sentence, must be aepnnied fmn Ae 
cast of the sentenc« by commas ; aa, " J9t» fttlhtr dytttg, he 
Mcoeeded to the estate ;" " 7b Mfyfaat iJla tnifh, I was in &ult;» 
" The king, approxAng fhe pk», put it in eseeution ;" " He, 
haoing finished his academical covrte, has retuified home, to 
prmeemtt kit prtftttiontU thuiit*," 

jSxrrCbes.-^TtaKe of mind Minz cecated we rtay imll* at mtaTortmiB, 
To enjoT present pleasure he raerinced hie fhtnre ease aad reputatkm. Ifia 
talents loimed Tor tfreat RnterpriMa could not fail of leBdormg hira conspic 
UDu's. "The p'th 6f pietj and Ti^^Ie punrued with a Enn and constant 
spirit wilt aasuredlj lead to hapfjneis. All maiddnd compoaa on* Ikmily 
MaeAl^ed under the eye of one common Father. 

RULE 6. A Gompoiuid sentence must be resolved into simple 
ones by placing commas between its members ; aa, " The 
decay, the waste, and tile dissolution of a plant, may ailecl our 
spirits, and auggesta train of serious reflectiona." 

TbrM or motm novtus Tetbs, adjactivea, partici^eo, or ad- 
verbs, connected hf coajnnetiona, exprewed or understoo<^ 
mnst b«i sepanded b;^ commaa ; as, " The'husbaDd, wife,* and 
chUdraa.t suffered ertremelj' ;" " In a letter, wo may adTOe, 
e^diort, comfort, reqoeet, Bod discuss ;" " David was a brave 
wise, tiad pious man ;" " A man, feaimg, sarving, and lovBg tu) 
Creator, lives for a noble purpose )" " Snceess generally ds'- 
pends on acting prudently, sUiulily, and ngorously, in what in. 

Two or more owins, veri>s, objectives, participles, or advert 
occurnng in the aaine construction, with their conjunction! un 
der^tood, mnst be separated by commas ; as, " Reason, virtue 
answer one great aim ;" " Tirtue suppc»ta in adversity, modec 
atea in prosperity ;" " Plain, honest truth, needs no artiicia 
covering ;" " We are feariiilly, wonderfully framed." 

Bxertiitt. — Wa hs*a no tcuoq to eomplun ofUw lotof man norof IV 
.rauttbilitf of tbe world. Sennulily cnntanunatei die body depreae* tiM 
underMaiidiag deaden! the moral Jeslings of tha beut and iegnia mua 
from )ui lank in creation. 

SttfoancMt preanmptioo and obflCbucy hUat the pnmeota of nenj a 
yoalh. He ia alteniatel; aupported b; bu bther hia nndiB and bia -alder 
brotbar. The man of nitue and honour will be tniated rtlM opon an4 

■ Tlia comctneas and importance of dua mle apfiur to be « . _, 

MlaieBdarit Bota UUla miifiimt, that «>y icvllir. iinaafiiainff ttn laeat 
4i«nM of ikModnal taste, ahauld reiact it. 1 am Wd to affirm, that Hm 
obaerrod by ereiy correct reader and apcaker ; and jet. Strange aa it may 
asem, it is generallj violated by those printera Wbo punotaete bytha^Mr, 
■md all ottteta who are infiaeoead by their Mniicioiit wtsi^le ; thns, 
"The head, the besrt and tbe handa, akonldlM cooitantlyuM a^tvsty 
employed ia duns good." Why do they not onu*. the ooianiB where tha 
conjnnction ia undentood ? It would be ddng no gisaler violcooe' to tAa 
pHnciplea or elocution I thiu, " The head the heart and tfaa hiniln. aWn»H 
ba, he" or thuB, " The head the heart, and the hands, ahould be empln- 
ed," &1X Whodoea not peroeirc that the latter pauee^ where the coi^ 
Juaction is expi^Bsed, ie aa neceanry M the former, where the conjunction 
la underatood 7 And, since l^iis is the case, what biit objection can be 
made to the following melhod of punctuation J '■ The head, the heart, and 
the hands, should be constantly and actively employed in dfflng good :•■ 
." She i> a womnn, ganlle, sensible, well-educated, and rbligioue." 

t As a consideiable panEe in pronundalioa is neceaaaij betwcon tha 
-sat noun and the verb, a comma should ba inserted la denote it ; but u 
ho pause is allowsble between the laat adjective and the noun, or belncen 
the Usi ad*orb and the verb, the comma, in euoh instsncea, ia properl* 
.•miitsi; tbu.. "D«i-id'Tas«br»v^,wiS8iOTd]i(m.ip5ii.» ■ ' / 

rvncTOATiaii. Sit 

aoEB; ImpefecplU} woAtng. P cl ib — t o ilinri; Mtaeiila MWUk. An 
«dla inffini; MciMf ianen mkm to mch u ia comiptW- Ita DBlMpn 
^mn Bad bara Beiioualy mffectioiulel; edmoMbedWHi raia. 

ftuLB T. Oomparative aetriencea whose loeinbOTB are Aort, 
and sentences coonectMl with rehUivA pronouns ike meuUBf of 
nliose antecedents is resbwted or tiinited to a^iarticular aeiMe, 
^heuld not be Hcpsrated ^y a comma ; tta, " Wiedooi ie bdter 
Umlh riches ;" " No preacher is so BnooesHful as time ;" " He 
accented tekal 1 had rejectnd ;" " Self-denial is the loerifScs 
(o&jcA Tirtuo muBt make ;" " Subatract from manj' modem poets 
rtH that tmlj be foaud in Shakspeartt, and tiash will remain ;" 
** Give it to the man wliom you moat esteem." In dus last ex- 
am^, the «saertioa is not of " man in generat," but of « fte 
mtam whom you most esteom." 

But whan the antecedent is used in a general sense, a comma 
is properlj inserted before the relative ; as, " Man, leko is born 
«fa,w<»iain, is«f few days and full of trouble ;" " ThK« is no 
aAorm ia ttie female aex, wkich can supply the place of yirtue." 

This nie is equally applicable to constructions in which the 
MlNlive ii understood; as, ■' Talae duly dte privileges you 
«DJ«y ;" that is, " privUeges mhich you enjoy." 

XuroiM*. — How imieh better it >« to get wisdom thsn gold I Tho &)«iid* 
Mifm af Ue warid can aiiit do longer than inleren cementa th«m. Eat 
wlttt ia ml before job. Thej who eieite eavy will eaailf incur aearaia. 
A maa wLo ia of a delractir^ apirit will mjacoaalme the moat innocat 
WohI* th*l c«n be put together. Manj of the erila which oecasian ow 
«emEtainti of the worid are whoH}^ inaginuy. 

Tae gontle nuud ia like the amooth ttream whidi reflaita ever^ objaet in 
<ta wat pniportioD and ia ita faimt coloum. In tbat unafiecled cinlit; wUcb 
a|iiiimii fiiiin a gentle miiid Ibore ia an incomparable chum. Tm Lord 
arhamlMrro ia eteniaL TUaiathenSQ wa aaw yeaterds;. 

SUZ'ti! 8. When two worda of the same sort, «r« connected 
by a conjunction expressed, they must not be separated ; as,. 
-*' Libertines call religion, bigotry or superstkioii ;" " True 
worth is modest and retired ;" " The study of natural history, 
MKpaads and elevates the mind ;" " Some men sin deliberately 
«Mlipr«sumpt«o«sly." When words are connectod in pairs, tlw 
puivB only should be separated ; as, " Than is a nalimJ dif- 
lereKce between merit a»d demerit, virtue and vice, wisdom and 
MIy ;" " Wbethcr we eat or drinli, labour or sleep, ve should 
be Iwrnpernte " 

But,if the parts connected by a conjimction are not skott, 
tbey may be separated by a comma ; as, " Romances may be 
«aid lobe miserable ifaapaodies, or dangerous incentives toeviL" 

EmrlMt.—MitBmt bringa forward and Boariih« auDT bad paaaioiuk 
'niMliiaiidabifiwillatalttimeaaToidaroug^ioicardeeabdaviaaT. Health 
«m9pe|c«a>D>Nl«n>etbitaiMendabwfn«ida>aBi9aIl ths undoubtad 


RULES. Wher«lkaT«ibortiMBa^ineinberiiiHidentood, 
a eonoM nmy, ia aome inetaiiceB, b« ioMfted : aa, " From law 
uis«s Mcuri^ ; fram sM»uity, curiositf ; from eudosity, know- 
ledge." But in others, it i» better to omit the camnia i " No stv 
tkm is so high, no power bo great, no cbaiactet so UDUranished, 
na to exempt men from the attacks of raahnesj, malice, and 

Ermrltn — Aaacompuiioii be wu H*tn>B(l ntirieil ; »»a ft iw»i l e»p 
twn and daagemiii. If the aprmg put forth no blosMuia in lutmanr thm 
will be no beaut; and in nntamn no fhiit Soir7aDtb be triiltd awaj wiA 
nut improTement mutbaod will be contemptible uhI old age niaerable. 

RULE 10. When a sunple member stands as tha object of a 
preceding verb, and its verb may be changed into tie iafimtiT* 
mood, the comma ia generally omitted ; aa, " I suppoae htit mt 
rat ;" changed, " I suppose kim to bt at rett." 

But when the verb to be ia followed by a verf> in the ix^nitivc 
msod, which, by transpoaiUon, may bo made the nominatm 
case to it, the verb lo be ia generally aeparatod Trani the infiri. 
,(ive by a comma ; as, " The most obvious remedy 'la, lo urfM- 
draw from all attocialtoni vntk bad mtn ;" " The firat and most 
obvious remedy against Ibc infection, is, to withdra.^ from all 
associations with bad men." 

Sxercha. — The; believed he was dead. Hedidnot know tl«.t I^raallM 
ipan. I knew ahe was atill alive. "His greateit misery ia to be condammtt 
hj oai own heaita. The grealeat miaeiy thai w« can sn^re i| to ba con 
.^•niO»d by oar cwnhesrta, 


1 tViwDaooiiiuattknisi^iantedbjapfaTaseertneisAwTfninllMmam 
ber to which it belongi, auch intervening phrase appears-to n^nin ■ com 
ma at eseb extrenul; ; as, "They act out early, anil, before the doae of A* 
da;, aTTiTod at the dettined place." TMb mle, however, ia nol gmenUy fU- 
towed by Dor best writers ; as, " If thou eeek Cie XiOid, be will be (bund ol 
thee; iitt if thoa forsake him, he will cast tlieeolT for ever j" " But if the pnru 
eonnected are not short, a comma may be inserted." 

9. Several verba eucceedktg each oiber in the infliiitive tootd, nnd havias 
a conHUOD dq>eDd«iiee, may bo divided by caminas ; as, "To r^ieve tb* 
indigent, to comfort the afflicted, to protect the innocent, to leward Iba 
deserving, are humane and noble eoiployments. 

3. A remai-kahle eipresson, or a short obaervation, lonMwIiat ht the fitfn 
of a quotation, mav bo properly marked with n comma; aa, "It hiutia 
man'ajihde to say, Ida not kiune ;" " Plutard) calls lyine, thi cica qftlavet.'' 

4, When words are placed in opposition to each olher, or vnh aonw 
narked variety, the; must be distinguished by a comma ; as. 

" Tho" dttp, yet dear ; Iho' gtnSk, yet not itaJ ; 

" Slmig, without ragi ; without o'erftmiiing, /uU.' 
" Sood PMn, in thii frail, impeifoet atat^ are oflan lonnd, n*t oalv ia iwpon 
*alU, but in opposttioa i«, th*vi«wi and eoadad af aadi e4hei.'! , 

rvKCTu^TioK, lis 

H tmtti mf wMa lb* WMd wilb which Um Uat ptwpawtioa mmm, b ^ 
^^tbeeorama kkj ba omhtod ; u, "Muiy itMoa WKvindUanoa w<U, 
taa undar th* protectian of Rome." 

The UDM nde and natiidkias apply, wfton two or mora nouns nfn to 
Ih-i BUM (mpentioD ; u, " He wu compoBed both nndu Iho lkrtatmtnt, ktthe^i)>r«ac^^ft cruel uidlingenDg death i" "Hewu not odItUo 
img, but the/rilftwo/hi» people." 

5. Tho words, " •■, thOB, n«;, so, hcnca, agun, firel, eecondly, fbrnwrlT, 
ttvm, Urtly, onco mtn, aboro all, on tha cobUvv, in tho nejit place, in 
■hort," aod all other woida and phnaei ol a ainiilBr kind, niurt generkll; 
bo Kpuntod from the context by « comma ; oj, " Remember Ihy bert friend ; 
ftrmcrly, the supporter of Ihy mbncy ; now, the guardian of thy youth ;" 
■* He feared want I Jbou*, ha oTNTalued richea ;" •• So, if youth be trifled 
«waj," frc " •4ffds, we mBM, have food and cloUung ;" " ftesUy, let na 

The foTegoJng rutas and exunplea are aufficient, it 
autned, to sugcest to tho learner, in all ordinary insuincea, the 
proper place tor inserting the comma ; but in applying diesa 
rules, great regard must be paid to the length and meaning of th*^ 
d^ues, and the proportion which they bear to one another. 

file aemicolao is used for dividing a compound sealCDca into' 
two or more parts, not so closely connected en those which are- 
sep&rated by a conima, nor jet so little dependant oa each otner,- 
aa those wluch are distinguished by a colon. 
. RULE 1. When the preceding member of the sentence does- 
Hot <rf' Itself give complete sense, but depends , on the following 
elaMse, twd sometimes when the sense of that member would 
be complete without (he concluding one, the semicolon is used ; 
•s in the following examples ; "As the desire of approhatioD, 
when it works occonKng to nmson, improves (he amiable part 
of our species ; so, nothing is more destructive to them, when 
it is governed by vanity and (My ;" " The wise man is happy, 
when he gains hie own approbation ; the fool, when he gams the 
■yylinup o! these around him ;" " Straws swim upon the sur' 
f^ , bwt pearls lie at tiie bottom." 

ExertUa. The path of tnith is a |;lain and safe path that of Uacteed ■ 
pet^uinf nase. Beavsoia ther^ootrf'gentleaeuaiMltHendahiphellor 
faMWDew and animonty. Aa there is a woildly happiDeaa which God per- 
e«ves to be no other than disguised misery as there are worldly honours- 
whichin hisestimatiaaar«reproaehBo there isawoddly wisdom whiehiB 
bis n^l is IboUahiMaB. 

Bat all MilMuda by damsBtalatrife 
And puaionsare the element* of life. 

RULE 2. When an example is introduced to- iihistnUa a rule 
or proposition, the semicolon may be used before the conjunc- 
tion OS ; as in the DaUowing irutaace : Prepositions govern ihfl 
Directive caae ; as, "Kiegwaihebooh (ohink" 


Hh) Colon is oBed to dWide a B«ntenoe into t«r4 or more pato^ 
le«i connected than those whica are separated by a semicolan i 
hmt not BO ind^endent aa sepant^ distinct eeidencca. 

RUIiB 1. When a member of a sentence iaeomptete in itsril^ 
bat followed b^ some supplemental remark, or ftrther illuotm* 
tMB of the subject, the colon ma; be properly employed ; a», 
*' NatBito felt her inabifitf to ^vtncale benielf fiom lira coaa»- 
qnences of guilt: the f!;osp«I reveided the {dttti of divine iMerpo- 
sjtion and aid." " Great works are performed, not by strength, 
but by pemverance : yonder palace was raised by Bingf« stonea ; 
y«t you see iu haghl and spMciouaiwsi." 

fnrcbcft tbt tbne peat eotimm ta traiwuiDil; va nee supenrtitioD 
and idlenesa lice wluch poisofw and dialuHw the mind with bad paiwkiiu 
■uparMitioa which fiUa it whh iangaiary WiToura id(4iMM wbieh loaAi M 
with tediooaiMa and diwiM. 

Wbm we Inok forward tMit tiM year which h iMeinning wlut do we be- 
faBldthsiaT MnMbMhroabaUnkMoiiTViawadarii uaJuiowoptaMfita 

RULE 3. When a seDucolmi has preeedod, or lOom thaa 
one, and a still giesterpmije tBnec«aaaTy,1n tmlerto marklbe 
oonnecting or ciMKludii^ aeatiineDt, Utaixitm aboalil be applnd ; 
at, " A divine legUator, utfenng Ua -viiica front kmvea ; an 
almigh^goTemonr, stretching fmlb hb arm to ptmiata M rewwd ; 
inAunuf^ na of perpetnd rest (Hrripaisd ftr the ri^hleMwbar*- 
ftfler, and of incKgmtion and trratb aVraiting Ao wieked i tbeaa 
mn (be coosidentiana wUch ovcnwe tin InM, «Moh support 
hit^rity, and eheek guilt" 

When a senleace is complete, and bo independ«it aa not to bfl 
connected with die one which follows it, a period shooW ba to- 
aerted at its close ; as, " Feat- God." " Hcmoor die patriot." 
'* Reapect virtue." 

In the use orihany of ^le palTMs, th«ra is a diversi^ oCpno- 
ice among out beat writers sad grammarians. GenyMUH) 
aentenees ccuinected by ccu^unctioiM, are somMimes divided by 
the period ; as, '■ Recreations, thou^ tiiey may be of w isBO- 
cent kind, require steady govcramMt to k»ep them within a due 
and limited province. Bui such as are of tm irregolar and 
viClotiri Aature, are not to be govenwd, but to be badiAed (l4m 
mntf wi^-regubted imnd." 

^Tlw period iAuMild follow every BbtoflviMad wwii i «s, " A 
P. N. B. U. S. V«. B*<l. Via. CiA^ttk." 

mKcTBATioM. ai7 


Tka Daah, Diough often used improperly hy hasty ned inco- 
Immt mit«rs, may be introduced with propriety, wh^re tb«' 
•enteoce breaks off abruptly ; where a eignificant pause ii re- 
quired ; <x where there ie ofi unexpected turn in the sentiment ; 
oa, " If thou urtbe, so much Tesp«cted once — but, oh! how 
fallon ! hoiv degraded !" " If acliog conformably to the will of 
our Craator v—if fHxtmoting the welfare of mankind around us; 
— if secnnng onr own happineBBj — wa objects of tha highest 
moment!: then we are loudly called upon to cultivate and ex- 
lend thegreat iateiefits of rebgion and virtue." 

A dash fbllowing a stop, denotes that the pause is to be greater 
thnn if the step were alone ; and when used by itaeU*, rei{aB«s 
^laRueofBuch length OS the sense <Hily ctio de (ermine. 
" Here lies the great — -False marble, where T 
" NoQnng but sordid dust lies .lere." 


f Im note of interrogation is used at the end of an interroja. 
!i«« sMAence ; as, " Who adorned the heavens with su<^ ei- 
quisiift bQituty 1" 

Note. Tfae iDtorro^Uie point ahonld not be employsd in cues wlieTsit 
ii only laif tiiM a qmtion bat bMn uked ; u,"TheCypiiawubedma, 
why 1 v/apV 


The ante of exclamation is applied to expressions of s^idden 
emotion, surprise, joy, grief, &c. and sometimes to invocatioDS 
and addresses ; aa, " How much vanity in the pursuits of men !" 
" What is more amiable than virtue !" " My friend I this con> 
duct amazes me !" " Hear me, Lord ! for thy loviag kindness 
IS great T" 

a olause centaining some uaeftil' romattc, 
wbidh nmf be omitted without injuring the grammtifeal cotH 
Btruction ; as, " To gain a pcsthumoua reputation, is ta save'ft 
fow tetters (fiW what is a name besides 1) rrom oblivieK" 
" " Show then tiiis truth, (enough for man lo know,) 
" Virtue «loBe is happiness below." 

NoTU . The parentbcos DmmUy deuotea a. modAnUo dffpnuiMt af tlia 
Toicc) and, u the parentheliCBl Diulu da not Buppty the pleueof >)Kw''> 

the clause shnuld be acconipnnind with every stop which the seme a-nvla 
require, if The parentheiics! characters were not used. It ought to tcnin- 
ndlB witk the mne kmd efpcnnt which the meniherhsB^itpr«wi]esit ; aL, 
"UaltvM nobb, (lapeUof ftiettd^p,) who is not jeduof wbtn h» bsa 
partnera of love> 


"Loat Hmt>ii K panat to 

tuntlMMS, bovsrar, eonUiningintaK^itiaMW Blel«nMtbtDB.fon 

eieeption to Ifaw rula ; ■% " If I grant Us rev'™') ("^ "''o «>™' rift>« 
t T) 1 ah'all seciuv iun esteem and ittAchmaiL 


The apostrophe b uEied to abbreviate a word, and also tik 
mm-k tite possessire case of a noun ; as, " 'tit, for tf u ; t}»f, 
(br Ihemgh ; o'tr, for over ;" " A man'* po»«rty." 

A Quotation marfca a seDlence taken in A« snthoKa am 
laogn^e; as, "TheprtTtershniyof maakfndb man," 

Wben an aulhor represents a person as speaking, the laO' 
guage of that person MMuld be designnted b^ a quotation ; a«. 
At my coming in, he aaid, " You and tile [^jsician ore come 
too late." A quotation contained within another, shoaid be dt»- ' 
Qogurahed by two ti'n^e comrnna ; as, " AWajs remendwr thia 
ancient maxim : ' Know thyself.' " 


It is proper to begin with a capital, 

1 The first word of every sentence. 

3. Proper names, the ^pellations of the Deitf, &e.; sn, 
"James, Ciooinnati, the Andes, Huron;" " God, Jehovi^ tba 
Almighty, the Supreme Being, Providence, the Holj SfHrik" 

3. Adjectires derived from proper names, the titles (j'booka^ 
Doiuu iniich are used as the subject of discourse, the pronouB 
/ and the interjection O, and every line in poetry ; as, " Amen- 
am, OreciaD, English, French ; Iiving'a Sketch Book, Perci- 
vbI's Poems ; I vritQ ; Hear, O etulb !" 


FoKTKTU die language of passion, or of enlivened imapnation. 

TaaairiCATioK, in Engliab, is the harmonioua nrtrngnmcal 
of a paiticidar number and variety of aoeeated and nasccentel 
■jUablee, according to particular laws. 

Rhtmb is the correspondence of the sound of the last ^ »■ 
Die in one line, to the sound of tiie last syJIable.ioBDOtfaer; as,' 

" O'er the glad wntera of the dajk-Woa tea, 
" Our tlioiights M boundless and our sonia ttafrte.'* 
Blahk TuiaE conaialH in poetioal thongbta expresMd in r^ 
ular nnmben, but without the corrmpondence of sound at Ate 
end of the lines which constitutes Ayinc. 

PoaxicAL FsBT consist in a particular anwigemenl aad 
caMnraioDofa number of accented- and usaenented syHaUSB. 


Tltej are <:Medft*l, becMse it is by their aid that the voic*, » 
■it wer«, steps along throu^ the veree in a meaiurcd pace. 

All poetical feet oonsiet eiutar of two, or of three Byllabki ; uid an 
Tsducilile to eight kinds; faurDftwoBy1lules,aDdfi>iiiarthree, u ftUowp: 
DmiLLABUl. Tbistlliblc 

A Trochee - u A Dactjle - u « 

An lunboB u • An AioptArach t, - w 

A Spoade* An Arapaeat v v - 

APynbick ., „ A TribrBch . „ „ 

k Trochee has the first syllable ncceoted, and the laat luuie- 
ceMed ; aa, H&tetuI, polish : 

R^stleas tnOrt&U t5il for nOu^t. 
An Iambus has the first syllable unaccented, and the lut ac- 
Xtented ; 03, BetrAy, consist : 

The sSna shall waste, the sklea in amOke decay. 
A..Dacty)e has the first syllahle accented, and the two latter 
tinaccentsd j as, Labourer, pi3ssibie : 

FrOm the low pleasures of ll^s IKIIcd nftture. 
An Aaapaest baa the first two syllables unaccented, ood tha 
last accented ; as, Contravene, acquiesce : 

Atthecl69eoftbed&y whSnlhS hamlet la still. 
A Spondee ; aa, The p&le mOOn : a Fyrriuck ; as, on thS tall 
tree: an Am[rfubEach; as, IKilgbtful : a Tribrach; oa, No- 


Orammak inabvcta ua how to-express our thoughts correctl/ . 
Baetorick teaches us to expreas them with force and «lft- 

-void*, of tbe happtest method of constructing sentences, of their mnfl tuHnui- 
trngfiaOM amngement in fomning a. discourse, and of the luioiu kinds and 
<|aalitiei of eompoiritioTi. The principles of rhctocick are ptincipgJl; based 
oa thane Dofbldad andiUinlntedio the science of grainmu'. Hence, an ao- 
jgainlan"' with the latter, uid, indeed, with Ihe Iiher«] aiti, ia a prerequi- 
Mta to the atudy of rtietorick and beHes-IMtrea. 


It may be laid down as a maxim of eternal truth, (hat good 
««n« is tbe fsundation of all good writing. One who under- 
•taods a subject well, will scarcely write ill upon it. 

Rhetotick, or the aitofpersnanon, requires inamiter, the anion of good 
..-- — -> ' '^cly and duHlsima^nattoa. Itis, than, her prorincetotescli 

■- ■-■— ---^ts with elegant Bi ' " ----- ' =-" 

and duIneM meet.' 


StTLB is the peculiar mxnamt in whrct we eipreM our «»»- 
ceptiona br means of languttK«- It is a picture of tbe ideas 
wluch rise m our minda, and ofthe order in which thc^ aro pro- 

The qualiliei of a good style, may be ranked under two beads, 
pnrtpieMtty and oraomenl. 

PEIUPICI7ITT, which ia considered the fundamental quality 
of a good style, claims attention, first, to single words and phra^ 
sea ; and, secondly, to the construction of sentences. When 
coniidercil with lespect to words and phrases, it requires these 
three qualities, purity, propriety, and prtcitton. 

Purity of laogua^ consists in the use of such words and such 
constructiooB as belong to the language whi(^ we speak, in op- 
position to wmds and phrases belonging to other languages, or 
which are obsolete or new-coined, or employed wiAoirt proper 

Prapriehf is the choice of those words uiricfa die best oaage 
■has (q>propriated lo tho ideas which we intend to ettpress by 
them. It implies their correct and judicious applicntion, in op- 
position to low expressions, and to words and phrases which 
would be less significant of the ideas whi^h we wish to convey. 
It is the union ofputity and propriety, which renders st^e grace- 
fid and perspicuous. 

Preciiion, from proxidtre, to cut off, signifies retrenching all 
superfluities, and pruning the e.iprcssion in such a manner as to 
eutibit neither more aer less thMi V* exfct copy of the ideas 
intended to l>e conveyed. 

WTwtvvrvnvi op sentences. 

A ^p«r eonstraction of sentences is of so great imporlanca 
in evsiy species of composition, that we cannot be too sfrict or 
piinute in our attention to it. 

ElegutCB of st^le lequires us eeneidl; to avmd hibut short or 1on{ RC^ 
tencea in siKa:eaaion ; a rnonoloBouacorrcspondeneeofone member to out- 
ther ; and the coiQmaiicing oT «. piece, seclion, or paragraph, with k long 

The qualities most essential to a peifect sentences ani VntU/, 
Cltamai, Slrtn^th, and Hartueny. 

TTkitt is an indispena&ble pmftaitf of a correct sentence. A 
sentence impSiesan arrangement of words in which only tmcfro- 
position is expressed. It may, indeed, consbt of parts; bw 
these parts ought to be so closely bound together, as to woke 
on^ mind the impression, not of many objects, htU of only 
ono. In order to preserve thia unit)>^ toe following rules may be 


Hk. laavHT'VMtneatlHmiaMaMlmKtiiuoT gonmioa vonl, whidh, H 
rMBbIs, ooBhl to he condDosd aa tnira tb« beginntng to the end of it. Tba 
Uvwing MntaiK* ii not comtraeted MoonEng to thti rale : " iiW wt 
•Hds to MMhor, they jnt nw onahtRi, whan I wu nluled b; all m; fhoidf 
who i«cenHl me with tliB greiton kindneis." Id this aenteDCts tbougfa til 
•bJMta are mfficientlr connecMd, jet, by ihirtiDs bo freaaently the plra and 
tlie pemm, dM hih^ the aWrc, wt, Ikai, I, unTicAo, itiej appear in bo dU- 
unjtad a tmw, that the naad is led to wander for the HnH. Tbe amtence 
is restored to ila proper Biut; by couMructing it tbu* ; " Having coma to 
■ncbor, I waa pat on abore, wime ) was Hiluted by all my fh^d*. who 
rseeivecl tne with the grealflat kindneaa." 

"9. .KMPctMMiMvinMMBtoiKttfjUivanMdiAiwiioMIIIfannKXiMililal 
tug IHMiMtMr lo bt 4MdHJ(a<a Mm er mmtttnUntm. Tba violalioa of thi* 
rala pniducea ao Dnfavadrable an eSect, that H in lafer lo err rather by too 
many Aort aenteMea, tkui by one tliat ia orailoadod and confuaed. 
3< Avoid all unnrttaaru parentkuu, 

Clxarnem. Ambigitity, which is opposed to clearneBs, may 
wise front a bad choice, or a bad arTangemenl of words. 

A leading rule id the arrangement orHenlences, is, that thou 
worrf* or nuvtbert mott nearly related, ihould be placed in tht sen- 
fence at near lo each other a» potfible, ao at thtrehy to make tkmr 
muUtial relation elearhf appea/r. Thin rule ou^ to be observed, 

Wj tba phraae, a n'nfb okjtcl ,- tbus, " Bv greatness, I do not mean tb 
Mk of any aitgla abject only, but the largAieee of a wbide new." 

9. AtM()M*5foii*f^*rwasBrfmaifrB«. " Are these deaigna wlach ai^ 
Btan win ia bom a Bntuo, in any dicumatuicee, in any ailuation, (Miehl la 
be ashamed or afraid to avow 1" Corrected: " Are these designs which any 
man who is bom a Briton, ooght to be aihamed or afraid, in <ms dreitiiutaii - 
ffit, A< snir ttfiwtiMt, to avow r 

3. At U« romUam ef^ntfim*. Tfae reference of a prooonn toils noun, 
ahou^ always ha to eUof tinC w cannot pombly wnstaie it : otherwise the 
noan ought to be repeated. "Itie folly to pretend to arm ourselves igBinat 
the MDcidcnls of life, by heaping up IroaBures, which nothing can protect oa 
•g«inat but the good proiidencd a our Heavenly Father." IFMcA, in thia 
■Mitfllioe, gnnnnatictdly tefera to (rtanrei,' and this would convert tha 
«bol« periMl into nonsense. The sentence should have beenthusconsimc- 
tod, *■ It la tolly to pretend, by heaping up treasures, to arm ourselves 
ifuiut tbe aeadtHU of life, against wliitli nothing can protect us but tho 
goad piDvideDce of our Heavenly Father." 

STRsnaTH. -By thea(r«ng-fAof a Beotence ia meaat auch u) 
arrangement of its ■evaral wofde and members, as exhibits tfa* 
•onae to (h» beat advantage, and gives every word and member 
ita dtte weight and force. 

1. TheErst rule for promoting the strength of a sentence, is, lo t^efinm 
jl tO rti'u'utiint tcanj] oniJ mrmicrs. Whatever can be easily supplied in the 
nun^ehoold generally be omitted ;thae, " Content with deserving a triumph, 
lier^fViscd Ihebonourofit," is better than to say, •' Bttn; content with d»' 
•erriag a triumph," &c. *' They returned back agointolhe same city from 
wbance the; cante forth." If we expango from thia abort sentence fbc 
woida wUca are mer« eipielivet, it will ba much mora neat and forcible ; 
Ihnv, " Tbey returned to tho eity wh«\ce Utay eama." But wo ahoqU iif 


SaoMlMTMimwtTeMt loAabwandadoin thsfhiit. 

L P a r t i a iim ^nUm lotiuMte tf gfi ii^i B M , r(i«tiwi^ mi at 

njMtitiaa of *»d nnfirMn atjla j but wimi eoumaraling objeoti wbicb 
Wuh to tm.-r» appMir u ditUnct from cadi atha' as paanMe, it tony tie rapeatp 
•d wiib pecnlur adrantage ; Ihna, " Bitch a laaii may fall a TJt&ia to flW 
*r; bnltral)), and naaon, «d libarty, woald fall vilb him." 

3. DiqHM ^ (fcf capila/ tcgrri or b*^ m UU ^ e/Un wnlMct tn wMst 
Itnr tmS mail (&> mu( itriHng mprmiim. 

4. Cmut tkt •winto* i^ m ttnttaet Uigr «n riiiw M i 

mMi tmrd, tmlni if bt tmpkaHeaL 

5. fTkert two UlagiQn€mK^ilaret»tnuMiiritit0tktlkm, 4 r itemi l ifie r 
tt Ua tmgnage mtifontbifciiontliaiid it ottavti. 


F^urea of Spoeck maj b« deacnbad u thai language whicb 
■ prompted either bj the iraagratitioa, or bf the pasBiiHia. Tbe^ 
^(eiierally imply some departure from simplicity of expression ; 
an<l oxhibit ideas in a inaanor more vivid aad impressive, iha^ 
^.oold be done by {dain tftsguaga. Figtiras haye been CMamoD- 
ly divided into two gre«t clftssea ; Figures of Word), and Fi^ 
urea of "nunight. 

FigureB of Words are called Tropei, and consist in a w(wd*s 
being emploTod to signily lomelhing that is digbreBt from ita 
original meaning ; so that by altering the word, we destroy tba 


Wbsn we taj (^a peTBon, thot he Ima a fine (oilt in vinea, tlie wot^ taMe 
■■ iiscd in its common, literal sense ; but when v oaj, he has a fine tatU 
for paiatirg, poetry, or muBick, we usethe wordfiouratiTely, "Agaaivaat 
enjoys eoiiW)rt in the midst of" ■dYereily,'',ia Hmple laneusfre; kot'^lieBil 
ii said, " To the upright there ariieth tight in ihrinai," Uie aune santimeM 
ie sipreased in a fig^tire atjle, ligU it pot in the [riaoe vf MHijtot, a»d 
ilarlouu is UMd (□ suggest the idea of odMmly. 

Thp following are tho most important figyre* : 
1. A HeTAi^HoiL is founded on the refemblaBco which on* 
object bears to another ; or, it is a comparison in an abridged 

When I mj oS some great nuniHtec, " That he upholds the statd like • 
pjUor wfaichsapportsthewoigbtofawhtJeeditke," l^il; mikc acompar- 
■HHi: but vheal sayorsuchainiuivtsr, "Thathoia tho;SUarof state," the 
word pillar become* s meiaphor. In Ihe latter oonstmcUion, the ctunpap- 
"on bMwecD the loiiiister aiid a pillar, is nude ia the nwid ; but It ui^t 
Biaasail witJwBt WM of thP fOias tha.1 doi)ote comp.t»i»gij. 

viGUBK* op trKBca. 3t» 

W*m4wr* *)wiiim1 u all wntion. In Iko •ci^ptnn* tha; n^r hf ftwnd 
jn vut variety. Thas, our hlesgecLord is etiled ■ imt, a lamb, ■ llinii lu. % 
and men, according to thrar diflerent diapoailioni, are ilTlel welvM, Aaap, 
ikvs, sei^nla, vqMn, tu. 

WaabiDglDn Inrin^, in Kakiiia of tba damatkid -state of the Amencsn 
Mmudiih who linger on the bcrferaof the "white mtllenienlt" «iiiil<^ 
thtfollawingbeButiTu! melaphor: "The proud pIBar of their iixfapen g W M ^ 
haa been Bhaken down, and the whole numl/alwidl baa in nix.'^ 

2. An ALLBGoRTmaybe regarded aa«inetiq>)KircoBtuiM4t 
or, it is several metaph^ «t> coooMMd togpOiae in mom, as 
frequentl}r to form a kind oTpH^tle or &Me- It ASewB froin k 
single metaphor, in Ifae same manner that a cluster on the vin* 
diSers fi-om a single grape. 

The following ia a fine example of an afl^oir, taken from fhntlTHh paalai [ 
irberein the people of fared an iwae a a n ted aDdsr the imafaof BVIMI 
"Thou haat btaudrt a tin* out of Egvpt: Ihoa haat eaat ptf the b<i»tlw» 
and planted it. Thou nep4|redat room More it ; •addidstcaofeitloljc* 
deeo RKi[,ani) it filled the land, llwtnlla wei«Mi*efed with tba ahadowif 
it j ind the bougha thereof were like the goodly csdan. 9k» aant oM hm 
baa|^iaUlheaaa,aod hntmocbeaiMothBnver." 

9. A 6niu.B or C«H»RiaoN is when tbe nMrablwc* b»- 
itreen ;wo objects, whether real or imagtnaiy, ia n K p r a—d ia 

Thiu, «e uia a naih, whan w* aay, "Tbe vtimvi of owe** ut Htp 
'* ~ " great rivera, tbe course of which erery one heboid^ but tbnr ipiiaga 
t — L_ K.._ t, u . _ .1.- — Tontalna -* -■■ — ' * — ^— ■— 

n b; few." " Ab the moanUina are round about 
» tbe Lord isroutidabautlua people." " Hie muatck of Oaryi woafikalh* 
cnaiMrref kwslhaluepMt, |rf«M*iit«nd monnfiil to the aotd." "Owr 
IttdiHs m WLD those wild idanta wbiidi tbave beat in the dtada, but whid> 
withflf when expoaed to the influence of die aun." 

** The Asavrian came down, like the wolf on the feU, 
And hia cohorta were gleamnig whb purpi* and nU I 
Aiiri the ahean (if tbeir Bpeors waB lifc« Btara on the aa«, 
WieD the blue wave kJIb nightly on deep Oolilee." 
4. A Metontmt is where the cause is put for (he effeat, or 
the cfieot for the causa ; tbe container for the tbing CDntamed ; 
t>r Ae dgnibr the thing signified. 

When WGsay, " They rrad AiJltm," the canie Ib putfbr the eflect, meau 
igg ■■ MUtmi's uorti," " tiraj hain abonld be respected ;' faete the eAel 
ia put for the eauao; meaning by " gray haira," lid agtj ^ucb producaa 

KijbaiH. Inth«phrMB,"Tbekelfleboaa," the emtiuBei is substilvtad 
'Um thiDf <aalained. " HeaddiwBed tfaeciajr,-" that is, (hepeiWD ip 

5. A ilvNECPOCHE on CoMPREKENsioK. When the whol* {■ 
j>m for & part, or a port for the whole ; a genus for a epeotea, or 
B Species for a geous ; in genera], when any thing iea$, or amr 
th^ more, is put for the practae object meaal, tho figure ia tsajir 
ed a Synecdoche. ' 

Thia,''A fleet of twenty soil, inrtead o^ li^" " The i<r« ia a noble 
animal^ " Thedbg' ia afoilhful orealuro:" here an individual is put for the 
»i.[i,a. We Bometimea uae the " bead" far the ptraon, aad the " WKrsi^ 
Sr Mw aao. In lika mMUMr, en attribute luay be put iiw a sDbJMt ) —, 
" T«B» " ftw the s<"»«. the " d«p" for fta »f B. 

& pBRSoMincATiaHorPBosororaiAiadiatfigunbj wiitch 
m ■Uiibuta Ufa and action to inaminate objects. When we ny, 
" (hegrooDd tidnU for rain," or, " (be eartb im iU i with pleuly ;" 
when we speak, of" ambition's btins retUtti," or, " a diaeasa's 
b«ng dt*itfid ;" aucb expression* mow the feciliQr, with wluch 
the mind eu aacoamodate the pn^rtiea of liTiog creatures to 

IfeasraMbl umD, iM Oam tma—t" 

a and ibe wilituy idacB ihall be gwd for (hem j and tha 

1 and tdosaom as the roae." 

T. Am iLvotTBOPHK ia an addma to some persoo, either ab- 
Mnt or dead, as if ba were preaent and liateniog to ua. The ad- 
dreaa ia fre^uentl/ made to a personified object ; aa, " Death ia 
•wallowed up in victory. O death I where a tl^ stingl O 
grmau 1 «4>eie is thy victory I" 

"Waapoo the rocks oT roaring wioda, Omniifar Iniotoce; baadthjiair 
haad OTCT be wavai^ Iboa Eunit Ihu lbs ^loat of tba biOa, wbm il maraa 
'm a a^i^aani at noon onrlha mleoBtetMomo." 

8. AiiTiTHaBM. Comparison is founded on (he resemblanee, 
aoitilhesis, on the contrast or opposition, of two objeato. 

Hmmfh. " li* jou wiih to oniich a penon, atnd; not to faurt«H Itia 
Itow, b^ to diiamui lua dufa-u." 

9. HmsBOLK or ExAGSKRATioN conaists in magni^r<ag aa 
object bejond its natural bounda. " As swifl as the wtnd ; sw 
white as the snow ; as slow as a snail ;" and Ihe Uke, are ex- 
it hypeiboiea. 

"1 saw thor ehie^ tall aa a rock oTIee; hia sppar, the blasted 6r; h» 
■ImU, tba liaing moon j he tat on the ihote, like a dond of mirt on tba 

10. TiaioH is produced, when, in relating something that ia 
past, we iiae the present tense, and describe it as actually pass- 
■ng bsfbre our eyes. 

11. Ihtkrbogation. The literal use ofan interrogation, ia to 
ask a question; but when men are strongly moved, wbfttevei 
(hey would affirm or deny with great earnestness, they natntally 
put in the form of a question. 

llnM B-l—" exproaaed hiranlf to Bolak : " The lAitd ia not man, thai 
ba should tie, nor Uie eon of man, that he ehould lepent Hath he Bud H > 
and Bhall he not do it ? Hath he apoken it ? and shal! he not raeko il 
Mod?" " Hast tiiouan arm lik« God t or eanat than thaoder with a mki. 
Eke bun r 

12. ExcLAHATioira are the effect of strong emotions, such as 
■viprisB, admiration, joy, grief, and the like. 

"0<hallhadin tha wJldeTnlaa a lodging pUee of way-fariagaaeill'' "O 
Mat I bad winga like a dor* ! ibr than wooM I fty anaj, and be at mt^ 


13. Irort ia expreisiog oursalves ia n maiwef contnHT ta 
:>ur thoughts ; not with a view to de^'.oive, but to aU fbrc* to 
aar nmofk*. We can reprove one for bis negligence) bjr stij- 
ins, "Tou hftve taken great care, indeed." 

The prophel Elijah kdopted this (ignre, when he chdlanged the prie«tf«f 
Baal to prove [he tnilh of their deity. " He RBcked them, and raid, CiJ 
aloud, for he is * god : either he is tklfcing, or he is puiiuing, or Iw i> on a 
iouraej, or, perai^eature, he aleepetii, and niiut be waked." 

14. Amplification or Climax consists in heightening all th« 
circumstances of an object or action, iriiich we desire to phuB 
in a strong light. 

CicerojnTei a liiely instance of thiaSnire, when he Mfa, " Ktaacriina 
to nut s Kaman dtiien inbonda: it lathe heizht of guilt to acmase t^n ; 
little lees thnn parricide to put him to death : what nante, than, Aau I fpt* 
to the act orcmciiyiiig lura[" 

Corrulioiu of Ike FaUe Syntax arranged undtr the Bi^e* Q***! 


Ai.:.' 4. Frequent oommiaaion of sin tarileiu men ia it. Gnat |HBa 
hme been b:!;en, kc — ii eeldom found. The einoere are, fcc i4i hijpiy. 
What —lU, be. — DiaBf^toiatnienta rink — the rsnewal of hope s^na^ tki^^-b 
lulhaiit JimiU Jioj been confetiod upon us. — ThouMMf nothaal — iiatJbM 
nwyit Jo, itc—cmiiiU the happiness be— Who UmeAtM, or dUtI Umk 
laaiah'i bAltowedlip with fire. 

Mil 1. Abil will IhcBoeverbe to Heaven iiaa^adT — iadmiabud^amt 
atdtitie^ fcc. 

MHii. .9o peace and honour. — uuu ooDtraverBj. 

Bulb 7. Thtm that jou Tuited. — Mb that wai mentianedL — Ai vfao 
preached repentance, &c. — Uuu who died. — ki who aaeceaded- 

RcLE S. Time and tide ami, Gic.— renme inoiaitaiiia.— «r« both nootr- 

RdleS. 7i the BBjne in idea. — ft in the porphyry. — ia remailialdc^ fe&^ 
which movit merely aa U it moved. — ^eel* as, &£. — Mau'a bapfinaia «i 
iniaery it, in a great measure &e.— for U nay be, be. — wai blamemilhy. 

" ■" "' "■ ~' « Sset wu aeen, Iw.— The shmd) 

E 10. The nation it pow^ul. — The Si 
-it. Drought tu be, thaoHec*, &c. — .. ._ . . 
II. My people ifo fec^-The mnlliludo eagerly pwwt ptlaiuRa f 

_. i ..j_j._.t : J... . — r«naa,fav-ini 

in lAitriKDtiimnta, uid tlUy htM referr 

tor &!!. — it, or ought tn be, the obitct, be. — il i( feeble. 

Rdl> II. My peorileiIa&c_Themu 

Uuir, it— wwt divided ii 
peo|rfB ri/oiee— give litm 

Rule 1 i. Homtr'i works are &c— Jia'j heart. Jonui Harl'* boe^ 

^Yoft 1. It was the mm, innun, and ohildren's kit, &c. or, 11 teat Iki Ut tf 
the men, women, and children. — Piter, John, and Aiirdraw'a, &c 

J/Vi 2. Thia ia ConqittS the poet's {m>duotuui j or, TU pnAuHl^^ 
CuMpMl, 4^. — The nlV was purchased at Brawn's the nurMr BTtd Mw> 

AW(4. The piq)tr> composing, fee. — rWt't being obaarvad. — of thafeat- 
irnfi neglecting to lay it batiiia tha caDwuL 


■■LB IS. or lit •udieBM.^put {( on Ju»b.— qkrinkU U«n— aDdlbf 
vkaif'-' — cf UrnpaUtioo. 
AMc Ta« uat bUmed ; }ou am worthj^~ii4)era wov ;o«1— bow liu 

Kdu 14. Wko kott b«en, &c.— nAo li tne Biith that ku liwt Mi Hft b« 

Wb> all mir mm CMffbwAt ; or, dUfI uH^nt. 

MIe. And ak *iwU<ri him forth out of Cr. 

RvLt 15. m* ihd be Mmt, &£. — Tfai* ib tho man (eh^ &c 

Baia II. Tbejr I* taitm noch U gtvm, tu. — wHA wjhnn you aisseiate, hf- 

— Milaai I greatl* raapeet, kc — itknuv >----■ — .;i . — i — .. 

TliaT »k«i coaadence, ^— With loA. 
■as f — To v*«i did you give Ihe book 1 

Kpt« IT. Who gave John thoBo books T ITf.-^-Wm who lire* ioPaari 
■beet— My brother anfl he.—Slii and f. 

KulbIS; M'aUi. Thiit;r hou. — twenty /»t — ana hundred jUibmu. 

JMa •. He boogbt ■ pair of luw ahoea — ]Hece of lUgaHi furnitura. — pait 
of jfau hoiaea — tract of poor land. 

MUt 7. Are wbU tnait fftflrwlf /o bt enniprdiendcd. — moat doub({¥t, or ftt 
ccriMU wav, fcc — TMi bu^ ctnnat amr pcr^elim llum aui I, ke. 

mmMliiJiUt. Ttolaort.— Uddwahoura.— rUi kind, &£.— Heaav 
,»ina aaraoM, or man that om, enter Ihe garden. 

iVM* t. Batter than Umitif. — it to imnlL— Ait atation aaj be, U boon I 
bf the taint 

JVWt 3> On Hdi aide, &c — took tiu;\ his censer. 

RblcM JFlcai did th^.fcc—TbeyiBfcoBt opulence, — iDhow liunny, Itci. 
^flta uil UoK «e know, ftc— Sir that ia negligent, tK.—mj broAai 
anl iM, #«. — mom did tb^ aend, tic^Them takna he, &c 

Rvutl. Itiaf.— 4r I wsnht.— itlaJU,indeed.— IClbondo Jlm,Su~- 
Wht An maa mj, lie.— and wks aay *e, ILc — uAmi do you Jilia(iDe H t> 
km* baaal— it was /; bat yon kiMw that it w*a kt. 

BvlbU. Bidhimragu.— dutst nntcloit. — Hear him nail,^^. — makaaaa 
^ff^Bt mai nftt, 4^ — batter to Uie— than faoallive, &«^ — la wraalla. 

BoLsM: JMfc — The taking ^paina: or, without tailing pamc, lu. ■ 
Aa ebangiDg ^tnoea, — the renwnng and aatling up a/kinga. 

Sou » : NaU 3. Ha fid me — I had urrUien^-bo tant home. — bifaia 
mj eomn — be would haie foot, — alreadj rum. — is bigwt^-^ fpotm. - 
wmM liam tm-iUen — had they vtr^tat, ^. 

Biru KP : J?d1c 1. It cannol, thereon, he, Stc — he was nal efttti pleas. 
iw — aboald (wecr be aacarated. — We nu; live Jkofiptfy, 4-c. 

Ihlix W: iroli. I dont know aity tUttg ; or, I huxB uolluBg, lu. — I did 
tut aaa oaabod* : or, I saw vohoAi, i<- — Nothin? ever affteti her. — ami 
ambiance, &c — There can be nothing, Jcc. — JVntJlar prai 

caM <urdBapllne ia sororo^leaa enjnjde. 
RnaSI. For" " 

, „ snlkvikom he ia,&c. — Wift 

— naa ^d, ttc. — Praia tatoa did you receive Inatmction ? 

Kdle S3. My brother and ke, &c.— You and f, ^e. Ht and I— Jt^ui and 
t», ^. — Between yon and au, ^ 

Bou H. And (Mfnol me, ^a— and aeHn^ dilfimntly, f*. 

XaU I. But hi may returo— but kt will wnlo no more. 

ITeU 4 Unleaa it Mill.— If he acquire liehaa, ^. 

tanx 3S. Than /. — aa wefl ai A*, than (Vj. — hot U. — but ht and f.— lat. 
tl^ wbo had gone aatray. 

Tiiiaiiiiaiaii Enaiplm. — IliiR who ia from eternity, i^—Jipaidi aU tba 
happiness, — whidi tzuli, 4^. — the anemiaa uAon, ie. — la it / or Ha teiam 
TWi lequeatsd T— Tbooj^ great kaoe been,— sincerely ackooa^iit'-'r-Thtn 
■aw, in the metn^lif. — aierciting our memories. — ust consumed. — .\flhi 
•one nuiy give— but A will not— of thif world iHen choke.— neat that hoa 


our ,— aiid Iby that dsapbe.— I intsnded to call lait wwk.— tba fi«|di look 
/ivih mdgi^. — Terjmatty,fiiuhitewtn paver. — wben I tmc Gen. Andrew 
Aduon, **■ Trim.— TBko thefini too, — (aat Mr«.— thirty /iid WtL— a 
7iaoa,-~tth.jpaHiem.~l lave, trntiimur whom jouwroto,be n-odd hkn 
-vMi back, or ntKnuiL—toidB-ittuuit the,— he njtctt.-H tboo ituAr, 

■-thon wiB become.— JB not i>rop«rfy atlenclBd to.— He tww Iherefore, to 

iaet done it — Oan the title.— vwy indtperuUnlty.—iatj to do. — m^.^vnrf't 
«itering.^B the btH epedmen, or it coma ntarn- pcriection ijhon my, f^^-. 
Uow Um, will go, ki-.~Eaeh <f titott two aulhan hot Ui merit. — Rmton't 
irliok,— ficDL — arilitt One nunA,—^OMa if Oe part, had been adju»Ud,~i^ 
^aftet tpmnetrj. 

Satire ilH* not CUT7 in tL—cofl^KMi the tiitnria.— wh>iu> oppottoniliM 
voranwr.— Itkottem reported.— ahould luvn- be.— mtaationBi »MdL— v 
tmioiuUj vened in Ml— on the Bmd,— :)U(mu little.— An army fmwnb. 
—mt the OalUi of ■ chiutisn. — happier than hi. — oltBoyt have inclawd, ai»d 

vhith ahoagi will incline him to o&inid whidi nquirt great. Thtm Uiat 

honoor me, will 1. — hat oinnioQa peculiar to vbd/,— that U may be n^ h 
nttoiiMd moaarchical. — Aivt permitted, — imK deliier, — tea, romierlj' prapa- 
gated. — the measure i«,— unworthy jour.- lowe ftilhleBs.- After I had risitad. 

— nor ahall f, consent Yaalanlay I intended lo toatk ont, but taat. itab 

nr a,e thirteen,— kate three.-If be go,— make (it tigUh Umt Oiat he mill 
W( Timlfld. — it noUer. — wu posaessed, or that aim- cod be.-'-one great 
idiJkti—titaiieT oua. — honeity it.— it to it— totH follow me,— I thaU dwell, 
-it gone utcay. — he could not Aooe done— /Hlins ■ propensity. 


CmrtetioM of the ExtrcitM in PimctuaUon, 

RT1LE 1. Idleneu ii Ibe great romenler oTall cormptionii in tbehnmn 
beut. The friend of order has made half hia way to virtue. All finorj ba 
•isnef little neia. 

KlTLE 3. The indulgence of ■ harsh diaposition, i> the introduction to 
liitiire miaery. To ba totally indiflerenlto praise or censure, iaa realdcl^ 
m character. The intermixture of evil in human society, Bervea to exercise 
the mflitring gracea and virtuee of the good. 

RULE 3. Charity, like the sun, br^tena all its objects. (lentleneei is, 
in truth, the great avenue to mutual enjnyment. Tou, too, have your fail- 
ings Hamifity and knowledge, with poor apparel, eicd pride and Ignor- 
ance, under coetiy attire. The best men oElen experience disappointntenla. 
Advice dimld be aeasonably adtMniateraA No assumed behaviour can 
akwtcn hide tint real character. ... 

RULE 4. Lord, thou hast bean our dwelling place in all genen " 
. — 1 iiii ._ __!__ .^^... thy i-hief Hludy. " ■■- 

CoDtioue, my deu cbud, lo make virtue thy chief study. Canst thon ei- 
paet, thon betrayer of innocence, toesoipe the hand of vengeance T Death,., 
tbfi king of terrours chose a prime minister. Hope, the balmof li&, aoetha 
OS trndST every misfortune. Confucius, (he great Chinese philosopiior, was . 
eminently gci<>d, as well as wise. The patriardi Joseph is an illuslrioas ex- 
ainple oflniojMetr. 

KlTLE 6, Peace of mirtd being secured, wB may sMile at misfortune. To 

™ :, fnrgreate , . , ., „ .,_ 

uoiis- The path of piety and virtue, putsncd with a (irm and conatuit 
■(nrit, will assuredly fesd lo ha|ipiness. All mankind compose one familv. ' 

■Mtth. U 


■IJ^iB C Wa have na reMon 1« onplmm af the Int of mui, aor at tlu 
■ataUkj af taa woiU. Satuomlilv conUnii»ta> the botlj, dfipreuet th« 
■iTewtiniliin datiltiu tin snnl fmingi <^ ttw hemtt, uid degndea dnui 
fam lyaimnk m cnatku. 

SdtcMMM^ pteMip^tioa, end obMinuj, blut ttx pnwpect of iduit a 

■■- "' '■ altanMtelf BUppinted b; bU fathar, hia uodr, and his elder 

s nun of viitna and hououi, will be Inisted, relied upon, and 

._ , Cooasknu guilt noden one msan-spiriled, timoroiu, uid btae. 

An uprUit mind will nerar be «t ■ lou to diacsm whet ia jiul uid tiuo, 
■only, Eoneat, end of good report. Habits of reading, writing, tnd thtalc- 
ing, v* the indiiqieiisable qnalificalionB of a good student. The neat bum- 
DM* of lile II, to be em^ojed in doing jaeuy, loving menyf and walluag 
KwdU; witb our God. To live soberly, nghteoualy, and piouilj, cotapro- 
ktnd* (be whole of oiu duty. 

!■ our health, life, poiueMions,conaeuons, fjeaaurei, there are cauaeaof 
decay imperceptibly working. Debtwrate dowly, execute promptly. An 
idle, triflinB aoeiety, ia near akin la such sa ia corrupting 'Hiia unhappy 
penoa baobeen aertnusly, afiectionetety admoniahed, but id lain. 

ROLE ?. How munli better it is to get wisdom than gold. The friend- 
dupe of the world can exist no longer ttaoji intereet eementri tbem. Eat 
what ia set before you. The}' who eidte envy, will easily incur ix\ — 

RULE 8. Idleneaa brinoe forward and nnunBhee many bai 

-^..,.;_j.ui — :.. ...u5 ■:. .. -iBsbiSiavit 

up alflhe 

Bilklea oftomfnral felidty. TmChia faiiajid ailUu^ aimpleandiuncerc^UBi- 
fami and conautcnt. Inlempcranoa doelroya the strength of our boiliea 
and tbe Tisour of our mindii. 

RULE £ As a cumponion, he was severe and saliiical ; aa a fiiend, oap 
tions and dangeroua. If the spring pot forth no btoBBomB, in aummer there 
will be no beauty, and in oulumn. no frail. So, if yauth be trifled away 
without improvenient, manhood will be craitemptible, and old up, miserable. 
RULE W. They believed he was dead. He did not know Oiat 1 was the 
Ban* 1 knew ahe waa atill alive. The greatoat miaety ia, to he condemned 
bjour ownheaita. The greatest miaery that we caDenduce,i^ lobe con- 
damned hj' out own hearts. 

RULE 1. Tift path of tnith ia a plain and aaftpatht Out at bbetMod- 
ia«]>MfiaiiiiginBM. Hearen is the rwion of gentleness and fifendshipj 
hel. at Ssnwneaa and animosily. Aa there ia a worMy happiDesa, whidt 
Ood pstceiTBa to be no other than diaguised misery ; as Ibere are WorkD* 
bonnna, ^lich, in bis estiraalion, are a reproach; so, there is ■ W«rt<Br 
wMoD^ wluch, in his Bight, is fiielishness. 

But all aubsists by elemental strife ; 
And passions are the elements of 1^. 

and idleneaa: vice, which poisons and di^lm-hi the mind with bad paiaioot' 
■ttpwatition, iriiich fills it with imaginary tsrroun i idlehesa, wMef) loads ii 
**"■ tedioosnesa and disgust. 

_ ._ , . :h reflects every object in 

ts biresl colours. Inthatunafiectedcitililywbicb 
ipimga irom a genue mind, there is an incompaTaWe chaniL 'Hie Lnrd. 
whom I seme, is elemaL TIub is the man we saw yesterday. 

RULE& Idleneaa brin^ forward and nnnrishes many bL_ ,. 

Tniefiieadslnpwill, at all umeB, avoid arougborcarelessbebavioor. Health 


BLE works: 
Being and Alttibutes of God, and his works in Creation, Pro- 
Tidence, and Grace. Dy ADAM CLARKE, LL.D. FA.B. 
&c. &c. 2 vols. 8vo. 

" Uuring mj Ion? minlmruU iUt. I htx wrium but nrv few Betmom, inoB rf 
vrtikh h4vebH«iBlr«kil7publ1flbBd; um], Th wAnlof Liiae Ann teoJUi, Ihey bimUiA 
PAm:LLl0il ut Ri nm dT pnnt. 1 WIAed u> have rBpublis^ed ihcv, and la Ijavb addfld « 
In ouA. wBlchlliail nnpunl for Iha pna ; but the Ediura ha'ln; got m; MSn., 
*lih«iu pmtKTlj uuMiJiing iiie,uiniiun»laralunHorsn>innI^rniiHii;l<>riThlchl 

Wmaill [lieptrHi. HUnj ■to™ ljnw(hl lo nw wliWlwcre miil 10 h»— ■— - '-'—' 

tiir •faoruiand wriim;' boiwhonl tame lo iKriME iheni I founJ 1 

Wu<«°rhHhhJihauetu Ibex ouki oblige il«VBlic'°rKW«E<^ 
iHtdlnounHiHdjbjuieiinwIinlihi bamumdl Thcl'iood liucniiom hinliHB 

•sraHMdilllH ndltddt Wld mit Bliet •ppurad, andtlua ir[i1«ne«uUn(A»» 

taS^DT-toB^UHul^r^^ x^fu a. I c^J, d» tol™ Bocktng ofu- Diylo. 
■ ' ■■—AlOlaT'i Prtlaa. 

~ ■ nnOloatomDJpu 

mj dlinf iJir, IhnM imlnenl Dittnea imd pr»cUfTB aver wraU!. Sife kOOwSnoStf^ 
BODa LaVbich noiiiFdilnmingabmuQhlui bear upon LtwBUlTDpDnnlll lUl^Kl of e^ 
parlnuvljU nligloiL" — 'WtMieyaii Miii^fdiit Magasins. 

MEMOIRS of the LIFE and MINISTRY of the Hev. JOHN 
8UMMERFIELD, A. M. late a preacher in connexion wHh 
the Methodist Episcxipal Church in America. By JOHN 
HOLIAND. With an introdnclory Letter, by JAMES 

*A1bTT(fiL ftartm, iBtfflurtAeln^pRactwr.Iha delight of wcodpiini^ wflOfitaffMBd 
fctoirtngiwdw n cw, i^Hnverha weDL"— Jtfonfnuvry. 

•■|)iHaBadilialll*<riba Rer, JafaaSumuMtddd uriih MUiBiiiAialcn, Iilaa 
fUT [nunBln§n<ni5,uidIlni«wULpnoH(«lhBlntflnauai'curGODiiiionClirlHlud- 
IT.ol'wUeh Mr. 9. WHBbrtghluioniumu; vAwi h^ipf u uxfflph of lbs ddIob 
vtvti wtA mhsMcism unl of udw iriih bumllUT. I ban, bomrer, 10 ngm tint 
IboaMndianleMdJgiiir^ who ««)£ uid outhi 10 have inlhuDnd ihs coune of th* 
joiuhlU amnJu^ taid dm vHhheld Mm frDin Ihne cnwlire obUdiih irhkh jmdi. 

(iltjFmnd, Ina An ibail fun, the power p i - J bf blrn tbt ibe gwd oT nvuitln^ 

Htan H dMU hiwibed ir» luaue of genloa and pwiT ow hall 1 Mniury."— iWe»- 

■■ /^q^AniHHi^ridii.'Wehavi been reedlngnirh much taOaTactlcnlliiiMimDln 
q^tbla pofiduaDd dented Tnung mlnlMer. Hio booft uhibiLs b epecljcten of BiagA. 

ffi••llMlUlmtBndflIltIlled vritnplidty, puriij, and lbr» of iijla^ udIuiI 10 ricbioi 
cbBVnian of omaiueiu cannUma^ 11, tn^l (he maierlato an IntonMlTf uidDh 


WKtln-uJ tthH b nomaa pnlit, It tefaDihiUT paicil <■ UiHrT wl MctWHdNi,' 
— ZMrt R^ormt* Mitgatint. 

Bum ptod^ flloquBnt uid popuJu eknyman, caiAnsd tn lavaliubfe bcDdk oa IhL 
Ctirtatan coDuuutf M lui^ Hid (KHciiUtr nilu^ hhsaUKi U» (lutat uunnn il 
■heianiilnn (4'iIh Tei7 uioMlnicfaUKliif wUch Mr. SumiurfliU va ■ dMii^Mud 

,-,_ , ilndfaM 

Uu poMMougiiawi]', iDbiHil wfUi u omtewiDf mal In ih* euuacirnIMn, uduk 
■ulBdbT»llTdT and dnDUdnniid for Ilia unliHaTlnaKilu iu«iiniirn tialT, and 
Iba ImfinmlnidoqiienMiifhLi Aatnti tHend, ha bHJudlehnalr uenbrniHl iba cnaif* 
"■ — ad IS Uin In an onpnteodliig iMt aanain lirai, caT" ' — ■- - " 

•cucWrg panialida nwbi U> onipla tnUddinf, « an lollalioa o( hlawMiK 
•xctllaiiGkaakliialgaBaaaBuituaialHUBlilaiaeluianulHliHaaaDitTiitiH. Pw anfc 
IMOS lAn, aad apnadlK^ha irida HDbcacs ftofa gaatlowM, aul inib to aool^ 
whannr (ha huaii fonn lAta an <iliita te iu nEtnl and a iuiau>w fa In aunko, 
afcancMlBa Ilia WB and iplrh In wMch thbmlunH li miuwi. Ws BHjr aaM; ■» 
«aBWadlfalahtagr«iiraa*ataMracafaIiidioleniui«work."— ATawTsntJArnr. 
"ThlaiaamrkiTranaiuUHiH. Wa aneak oat noworiu Ulanij JuerlL Wa 
apaakorahlgbDrquallij. It laihaalniJIaanAlogdilniiiaTDronewhisliiTaAwbllaf 
i>aan llTad and latmina ud aiilKnd amux ga In Iba uoaa oTChiiH, latdtmrntt, 
fordtiUHkkim. Ii laanMbaraddaduUiaiclwM'puUiuiiaiMniMtfHAilMd 
whabmUHLocdJtaiulDiinuiHf.aDdwIulirisiginMhlalinwlBliMdiMMBa. H 
laontoribwrcwboDtiirtikhwenBdirJQibtaiumUai ibaDSlilnea u Gul-an^ 

Tachcar, indgtildaai^iiawanlaaHepnaiL" 
Wa ban laulrat mnch adniuage and mucb claaiura boa Ihli bnolL and ncoamaiid 
lila<nr mdan, Wa wM ihal Iha ■■c^o' aununnHaU^ abundjuu Ubonn maj 

pniiaa BOodfecall bk Hmnn daiiaiHd IhiaLla, [n big lalUi and rear: and m Ion « 
ftlDk thai ba Din Da ID many aa ha l> to OL 

" Vh ana mira Inaca on Iho hniR baalomd 

Tht^trial Rtperbiry, k« Febrmrj, ISM 
" Wa bara pannd tbaHamobaoflbeUfeor BummarAaU Hlib dae auiniion, aat 
•oncur wllb tba jnat MmlgnrnaiT In awanJiu praiaa lolha bueni^iar, and alas In dia 
^nlon ofdtaraiuBofEndhncarilB lothaUviDf. Hla blotitauwr baa Injnthicad hini 

toadbladai^or blalauen^ wMuulbrinAcanTlRodllialhepratiilnd wbathapnaehad. 
Tha Talama will ba anaghi altar wlUi aitdlly, anil md tij ibauBDda niih i^aaKin, al- 
Ihourb Ibay m.t)' na havd aflan him ; hut tatboK whoknewblmaahabvad.ahd taad 
how he died, ll MJ be a maaun niib wblchthey win not readily puL"'-JfercdiititB 

wherein the advantages and disadvantages, attending the 
consumption of that entertaining weed, are {Mrticularly con- 
•idered. Humbly addressed to all the Tobacco consumers; 


They bad Ibelr TBiy iiMilla n .. 

One and bnl ana degna ia wanllni yal, 
TD uaka ovr mamkm Umr]' comiMe | 
SomeiMca ratals u atl w aa anaffandd—r, 
Tafeadlbamaiywlidiivac'lliaaar.— « Walty. 
UUachllifren kop rmiratnn Ann tDOLB.— fit. Jabt. 
"F0THEIl£U>BR.-4n«tlltnf "' "* ' 

ttnca B (he penona to whom Iba pannAlel la dlntcML I tnaufbt li n 
lihlHin Inwaoioa wHn aerioiai edinonhlao : and ibanfcn hare giian i 
... , J. ^giacjulsntma " 


I* t^lM II nacaKT u^ 

uiuoa : ana uamof* nave gina a non uaaLii^ 
wkbina blauny orila Duna and inponatlon InM 
I hava drawn ni^ Infaraadon fkan a varMy vt 

Odiilty, and with aanucb accmvy aa ividbla— I bope I hmm 

r In 

<ta^ i am nM ao Tabi ■ 10 lnn«lna Ihal Ihoaa wbff hata to 
Piii, (he AutfJAr. or Iba Qiiid, will pay mucb rtfaid to wh( 

aihian I tnonuoinocbar huMannmii* ueipKiibtliibe 


zmx 90NGSTBH ; a CuUectioa of Hrnuta and Spiritual 
Bob fa, gvemiXj s«bc u f^np and Prayer meetiagh and in 
TcmabofRlinn. Compiled t^ PETER D. HYERS^ with 
* rtMg fp taH ' IrcmiiaatEK and Tieneue title page. 

ZI0VS90NGSTEB, or a CiJkcliaa of Hymua and Spiritual 

" ■ ■■ -idsIIt song at Camp MeetingB, and also in revivals*^ 

Cooipiled by THOMAS hAsON. 

INFANT SCHOOL LBSSONa A seriefi of questions in nine 

l^mooB on the book of Genema, accompanied by the text in 

larse type, ftepared by a Lady Higaged in Inbnt Schoola, 

THE SCHOLAR'S MANUAL, containing the Declaratioa of 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR, in Familiar Lectures, accompanied by 
a Gvapndium ; embracing a new syatematic order of Fan- 
^H>j a m ew wW em rfPonctuatioa, EmaiiiaffB in Pttlw. Syninx. 
^••yattMofi'hilaaophicalOnmmar, in note* : to wfaieh 
^•added,M Aivendtx, and a KeytotbeBxNciaes. De- 
wigmti fetr the uee of %boo)s and Prirate Leamen. BY 


Higiied to giTG young pupils a knowledge of the firsl prin- 
ciples of language. BY RICHARD W. GREEN. 

aMniDfjwiUigibeoecqiiemluHbwtliiieJytninduMd. IcMueusniiinilswbteln 
JjWiihniwliK* BoaUTHquIn^ ud idi; kk snl; ta nnuDilwed bia inidtnimL 
W M Air Ih iinl^ and tmi wlih > IKid (hgrn Id plHwn, cluldnn wHI )>• Inind K 
u «u1y ■«« imKzh In iihuxe of itaoB wb«B lacMeni EdnuUoo, for u nu] pttio4 
wuan3t[lliauBlaElnglnia.''_^411iu'M(fatr&«H'<Q^WKiDar, jSy*,^Sr 


Thi> Piinw aiBlsB nT Iini pan* Purl On Firil la cddiiiimi: or 39 Tfm, ud 
ti^ iwmaitdlrKdr iindK- cbvoo. 

Pari IAk Stmtd, iftofnpoBcd Dr72 pB^e^ abd ccnrHlna tlig cDU whJdianln Ptn 
tha Hr^ vnnced id Ihe lame Dcdar, wlch BxpUnaLkm^ ilHifrki^ the nauin ttiid vn 
of (hs abJKii wtiicb lltej leenatm. Tba aptwaliaii* an ahon iml an iliiilgaij 
w ■iBwar me p tp w — Ijoth of Raading aai fulling LaiMia, Eipeilnica bai norad 
IhaimiAesmMudtiiaaiiDnn^ amn amiKbbeOB pniniaifiir BpelUot Unona 
UMQ whan amiud In cgliunfia. Tin avmlnCeal Wimt, hpirw, ^ ubI dalMd 
matrir tt nth aMMwn inapdl ani taad. aiit j4« tJ camnuiileate Infimiailiin. adapt- 
ta lo Iba T«iB( iBlBa. ir pmnca aBd leulieia nil] gin cba laiur o^aci tba mlilii 
wMch « aiTTt^ th^ will iigiiu ottjea u> ii. on tha ([nnnd iliai li mnulacisi) amaj 
pKVaim and ni tsluiiiiialar ^xdllnc, ThaGicl K diua ia miihlr^ in cc'iinuiaal'ininb, 
Ulannl totSfaUliC leaaana, catcDlaud U uciU Iba aueniiwotloallbidltia laaal <u- 
amicUoi^uidonnBgqDaiulTaiUibaaeaiuwbaniailau par much aueatloiiioikaai. Ba- 
Mia Ibe onMgnpbr of wonb Uiua atouauadlf, cannoi be RmembaniiiriUi- 
•M a pNt ileal <? dlneuk)', InaaoDcb aa Ultra la Dodiliig wllh idiltA <1h worii call ba 
MBctaM W aoiK iha manufj. 

•* THE SPELLER and DEPINER, or Class Book, No. %» 

SpaiyiM BmA and an Eijualuriir DLcliudarT. u >a cdidpubhI c^3I5 pafiat and 
coniauMBlBiiiewOWDid^iriileii ineiplnlaail and {sonuiKsl actvdint lo Un Imi 

a iBim numbir, amucd on 11m comiooa nUn. TV tlma luultl' dirou 
loaauiinHBn*,«Ulb>abiiiidandriuS<i<mubenDaitrilicqiDilnudiilili"n< ' 
fymSMHir ^Vinar.' an] " TV SjMtr and Udintr,' in ihu iba kfiotilBlft 
gTilH iHaginfof thevanbaiidollialnfednaUoii wMCb nia)> ba atulnod, HlU ba 

■"Aa 0vnAallulPrtiiw" h ■!» puUMiad on caidi^ liilugal7pB,liKIIiaiBaaf In- 
&M«d MnaiBvIe] acbookL 


' Br 'nioinaa Dbt, &q. Xetlaad b; Oh Awlur of Anwrinui Popular LHHa 

andaom^pnnlei' on fine paper, and illoaOWed with three wood ongrannga. 
" The Hiaa-j' of Saodford and Mertoo, written fi^J"" fP> la al thia mi 

■Mhihiliiii; the ban eiti^ilea, incululijift a nrti»» conducl, Ihe right uae of rat 
«Bn, juil moral pfiocipln. and UKful truth in nganl la pbyaioal naiuio, all in w 

"^NFAyTs'cHo'oL CARDS, containing appropriat) 

faaona, Hymna, and Pmyera, fuc Inlant Schoola. There areliflesnaiaalitardtt 
tl q< fttaal Bwt* 01 




■n UMlnla pirOied la eich book, if N. W. Flak, <■' t 

The Mwiolr of tlM *uU»r, IneralacloiT NoUm, 
•d lor tUi work b^ Mr. Ftok, hive codlldcrablT enl 


*ha Antbor oT AnMrtun PopolKr LeiHiw, with DumcnKv coEP ; dnliaed bb • 
_ji — . — t.,— v — igChitoen. 

•flDlar d«B«rtmeiu of 

OoBcK udttH Puh' 

tagntitift, aal ■uonnuikd hi ■ Binwrlor modern jltln or fouitHn mmw, vta. 

Tlta W«tL Ncclh Aawrtu, tnllnf Stalea, Nsw-York, Wnt IndiMi^laua 

AboIu, Biinnr, Great BcIUiIb vid Ireleiul, Oohudt, IfedUunnun Oa^ 

Alia, PaelOe Ocmi^ A&Wa, bibirtoc o{ AfHu. Br JOefiPB a HAKT. 


ravlnii, isd hea alnadT puvd llmilfc 
oompentea llila n Iba laifar work ; g| 

V, ; .J 








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