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Full text of "English grammar with exercises"

i i /- 



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LITERATURE PRIMERS, 

Edited by ]. R. Greex, M.A. 
ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 



EXERCISES 



REV. RICHARD MORRIS, M.A., LL.D., 

PRESIDENT OF THE PHII.OI.OGICAL SOCIETY. 

Aullior-of" llisloricnl Outliiietof English Accidence" " Eleiiienlctry 
Leitoiu in llisto) ical English GruiiDiiar,'' &^c. 



11. COURTliOPK DOWEN, M.A., 

HEAD MASTER OF THE GROCERS' COMPANY'S SCHOOLS, 
HACKNEY DOWNS. 

Editor c/'' Studies in English," " Lord dive," is'c. 



TOROXTO : 
CANADA PUDLI.S11ING CO.. fLiMirn. 

rSSi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PACE. 

Relation of English to other Languages .... I 

Grammar and its Divisions ...... 7 

Sounds and Letters ........ 8 

Alphabet .......... 10 

CHAPTER H. 

Tarts of Speech . , . . . . . .12 

On Parsing . . . . . . . . .14 

On Changes that Words undergo . . . . .15 

CHAPTER in. 

Nouns .......... 17 

Gender . . . . . . . . . iS 

Number . . . . . . . .21 

Case 2\ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER JV. 

PACE. 

Adjectives ......... 23 

Comparison ........ 29 

CHAPTER V. 

Pronouns 32 

Personal • • 33 

Demonstrative • 3^ 

Interrogative 36 

Relative 37 

Indefinite '39 

CHAPTER VI. 

Verbs 41 

Voice 42 

Mood 43 

Tense 46 

Strong and Weak Verbs ....... 49 

Classification of Strong Verbs 50 

,, Weak Verbs ...... 54 

Alphabetical List of Strong Verbs 58 

„ „ some Anomalous Weak Verbs . . 62 

Anomalous Verbs ^5 

De f-5 

Can ^6 

Will ^7 

Owe, Dare <J3 

Have. Do (jy 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii 
CHAPTER VII. 

PAGE. 

Adverbs .......... 74 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Prepositions ......... 76 

CHAPTER IX. 

Conjunctions 78 

CHAPTER X. 

Interjections 7g 

CHAPTER XI. 

Word Making . go 

English Suffixes cj 

Compounds ... . .... S3 

Latin and French Suffixes 85 

Greek Suffixes 83 

I^tin and French Prefixes 83 

Greek Prefixes go 

CHAPTER XII. 

Syntax g2 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PAGE. 

Analysis of Sentences ....... loi 

Model of Grammatical Parsing ::2 



PRIMER 

OF 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER I." 
INTRODUCTION. 

Relation of English to other Languages. 

§ I Every language has a history of its own, 
and it may be made to tell us its own life, so to 
speak, if we set the right way to work about it. 

There are huo ways of getting at this history. The 
first mode is by comparing one language with others 
that are well known to us. The second is by study- 
ing the literature of a language in order of time, or 
chronologically, beginning with the very oldest writ- 
ten books, and coming down to the latest and newest. 

The first or comparative method is one that you 
have no doubt tried yourselves upon a small scale, 
when you have noticed how closely our word house 
resembles the German haus^ or English thou hast the 
German du hast. You may have asked yourselves, 
too, whether this likeness in words and in grammar 
proves that one of the languages is borrowed from the 



2 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

Other, as some have innocently supposed, or whether 
both have come from one parent, and are, so to speak, 
brothers or sisters. 

But the English are quite as ancient a people as the 
Germans, and their language is as old as German, if 
not older, so that it would be decidedly wrong to 
infer that the one language came from or was bor- 
rowed from the other. So we are obliged to admit 
that English and German are akin, or related to each 
other, by having descended from a common parent. 

§ 2. Scholars have carried out this comparison 
with a large number of languages, and have shown 
us that English is related, not only to German, but 
more closely to Dutch, Danish, &:c., and more re- 
motely to IVelsh, Latin, Greek, Russian, Persian^ 
Hindi, &•€. 

They have called these kindred tongues the Indo- 
European family of languages. 

They have grouped together, too, those languages 
that most resemble one another. 

The chief groups in Europe are — 

(i) Keltic, containing the Welsh, Irish, Gaelic, Manx, and 
Armorican languages. 

(2) Romanic or Italic, containing Latin and the dialects 

sprung from Latin, called the Romance languages 
(Italian, French, Spanish, and Portuguese, &c.). 

(3) Hellenic or Grecian, containing Ancient and Modem 

Greek. 

(4) Slavonic, containing the Russian, Polish, and Bohe- 

mian languages. 



FAMILIES OF LANGUAGES. 



(5) Teutonic, containing (a) English, Dutch, Flemish. 

(J)) Icelandic, Swedish, Danish, 

Norwegian, 
(f) Modern German. 

§ 3. They have proved — 
(i) That our language belongs to a group 
called Teutonic. 

(2) That English is most like Dutch, Frisian, 
and Flemish. These, including English, are 
called Low-German languages, because 
they were spoken originally along the low- 
lying shores of the German Ocean and 
Baltic Sea. 

(3) That our language closely resembles Ice- 
landic, Danish, Norivcgian, and Swedish, 
called Scandinavian languages. 

(4) That it is also, as we have seen, much like 
the modern German language which was at 
first spoken only in the Highlands of Cen- 
tral and Southern Germany, and hence 
calk'd High-German. 

§ 4. History confirms the story told us by those 
who have studied languages in the way we have 
spoken of, for we know that the first Englishmen, 
the Anf^ks, came from the land of the Low Ger- 
mans on the continent, and settled in Britain during 
the fifth century. Frti^lami moans " the land of the 
Angles." We know, too, that there were other Z^^zc*- 
Gertnan tribes that came along with them, and spoke 



4 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

the same language. The Saxons were the most im- 
portant of these, and have left their names in their 
old settlements of Sussex, Wessex, Essex, and Afid- 
dlesex. 

§ 5. The second mode of arriving at the history 
of a language by means of its literature is called the 
historical method. We have a very long and complete 
series of English works, written at different periods, 
and going as far back as the ninth century (to the 
time of Alfred). From these written documents of 
the language we learn — 

(i) How English has changed from time to time, 
and how many important events in the 
history of the English people are bound up 
with the changes that have taken place in 
the English language. 

(2) That we have gradually lost a large number 
of grammatical endings or inflexions, which 
we have replaced by using distinct words 
for them, instead of adopting new endings- 

Atone time we could translate Lat. "bib-^/-^" by " drinc-rt«," 
but now by to drink. 

(3) That though we have lost very many of our 
old English words, and have replaced them 
by others of foreign origin, yet all the most 
common and useful words, as well as<7//our 

, grammar, is thoroughly English, and is not 

borrowed. 



I.] FAMILIES OF LANGUAGES. 5 

(4) That we have greatly added to our stock of 
words from various sources, of which the 
following are the most important : — 

1. Keltic words. We have a few words {crag;, 
glen, pool, mattock, c^c.) which the old English settlers 
took from the Keltic inhabitants of Britain, just as 
our countrymen in America still retain a /ew words 
borrowed from the native Indian tribes that once 
peopled that continent. 

2. Scandinavian words. The Dam's/i //ivast'on 
introduced some few Scandinavian words, as busk, 
dairy, felloru, fro, gait, ill, same, till, are, &c. 

3. Latin words. The bulk of our borrowed 
words are, however, of Latin origin, and came itito 
the language at different times : — 

i. The old English invaders adopted the names 
which the Romans had left behind in Britain 
for a fortified station (castra), a paved road 
{strata), and a rampart (vallum), which we 
Still retain in Moin-c/iestcr, Don-caster, &:c.; 
street and wall. 

ii. The Roman priests and monks, who brought 
Christianity to our forefathers in the sixth 
century, introduced some Latin words be- 
longing to religion, worship, &c., as bishop, 
priest, monk, mass, minister, &c., as well as 
the names of a few things they brought with 
them : — butter, cheese, pease, pepper, &c. 



6 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

iii The Norman Conquest in 1066 was the means, 
through French, of introducing fresh Latin 
words much altered from their original form, 
as caitiff, frail^ feat [cp. captive, fragile, faci). 

iv. Through the Revival of Learning* the Latin 
language became familiar to educated 
men, and English writers introduced into 
the language very many Latin words with 
very little change of form. Hence we are 
able to distinguish between the French 
Latin and the later Latin words : thus poor, 
poison,comQ through Norman-French, while 
pauper, potion, come straight from the Latin, 
and are due to English writers 

4. Greek words. We have also borrowed 
many scientific and philosophical words from the 
Greek language, as archczology, botany, physics, ethics, 
music, &c. 

5. Miscellaneous words. There are miscel- 
laneous words in our vocabulary from numerous 
other languages. Our word tea is Chinese; canoe is 
American-Indian; yacht is Dutch; and cypher is 
Arabic, <S:c. 



• Thin took place in the sixtccnili century. 



I.] GRAMMA^ AND ITS DIVISIONS. 7 

GRAMMAR AND ITS DIVISIONS. 

§ 6. Language is made up of words. 

Grammar tells us about the words that make up 
a language : — 

i. If we examine a word as we hear it, we find 
that it consists of one or more sounds. 
These sounds are represented to the eye 
by written signs called letters. 

ii. Words may be put into classes, or classified 
according to their distinctive uses. Words 
sometimes undergo change when combined 
with other words, or when they have some- 
thing added to them to form new words. 

iii. Words are combined according to certain 
laws. 

Hence Grammar deals with the following subjects : 

(i) Sounds and Letters : (Orthography.) 

(2) Classification, inflexion and derivation: 
(Etymology.) 

(3) The relation of words in a sentence, and 
the rchition of sentences to each other: 
(Syntax.) 



8 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 
I. Sounds and Letters. 

§ 7. All sounds are not produced exactly in the 
same way. Some sounds are produced by means of 
the tongue and cavity of the mouth, which modify 
the breath before it passes into the air, as a m father, 
i in machine, 00 in fool, &c. These simple sounds 
are called vowels. 

Vowels were so called because they made distinct voices or 
utterances and formed syllables by themselves. (Fr, voyelU 
Lat. vocalis.) Two vowels sometimes unite to form a Diph- 
thong, as oi in boil, at in aisle, &c. 

§ 8. Other sounds are produced by the direct 
means of the lips, teeth, Sec, which are called the 
organs of speech. These sounds are called conso- 
nants, as A il, 5:c. 

Z/}*-sounds are called Zfl(J/a/j; fee/h-soxxnds Dentals; throat- 
sounds Gutturals; hissing-sounds Sibilants. 

Consonants (Lat. consonare, to sound along with) were so 
called because they could not make a distinct syllable without 
being sounded along with a vowel. 

Some consonant sounds seem to have a little breath 
attached to them and may be prolonged. Such 
sounds are called spirants (Lat. spirare, to breathe), 
as/, th, &c. 

The other consonants, in sounding which the 
breath seems stopped, are called mutes or dumb 
sounds. 

Of the mutes and sjjirants some seem to have a 
flat sound, and others a sharp sound, as : — 
b(flat) p (sharp): Z (flat) S (sharp) 



!•] 



SOUATDS AND LETTERS. 



I. — Consonant Sounds. 



MUTES. 


SPIR-\NTS. 




Flat 


Sharp. 


Nasal. 


Flat. 


Sharp. j Trilled 

! 


Gutturals 


G 

hard 


K 


NG 




H 


Palatals . 


J 


Ch 

(soft) 




Y 




Palatal . 
Sibilants 








Zh 

(azure) 


Sh 

(sure) 


R 

1 


Dental . 
Sibilants 


i 






z 

(prize) 


S 

(mouse) 


L 


Dentals . 


D 


T 


N 


Dh 

(bathe) 


Th 

(bath) 




Labials . 


B 


P 


M 


V 

W (witch) 


F 1 
Wh( which) ••• 



II. — Vowel Sounds. 



a in gnat 

a in pair. 

<3 in fame. 

a in all. 

a in w.-int. 

/ in met. 

e in meet. 



i in knit. 

o in not. 

in note. 

00 in fool. nide. 

f<> i:i wood, puL 

u in nut. 



PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



III. — Diphthongs. 



i in high. 
ai in aisle. 
oi in boil. 



ou in how, bound. 
eiu in mew. 



The pupil must not confound the sound with the name of 
the letter; '^ be" is only the name of the sign b, not the sound 
it represents. 

The Alphabet. 

§ 9. An Alphabet is a collection of written signs 
called letters. 

The word Alphabet is derived from Alpha, Beta, the names 
of the first two letters of the Greek alphabet. An old name 
for our collection of letters was ABC. 

There ought to be as many letters in a perfect 
alphabet as there are sounds in the language. We 
have forty-three sounds, which ought to be repre- 
sented by forty-three letters. Our alphabet is very 
imperfect, for it consists of only twenty-six letters. 
Three of these (^, q, x) are not wanted, so that we 
have really only twenty-three useful letters. 

(i) One letter has to stand for more than one sound, as S in 
Seas ; ch in chwrch, machine, chemistry; g in g;>/ and g/«. 
(See a, p. 9.) 

(2) The same sound is represented by different signs ; as O in 
ttote, />oa.t, toe, cro-vr, &c. 

(3) There are many silent letters, as in psa/;/i, gnat, ]cnow, 

(4) e, q, X, are called redundant letters : c may be represented 
by s ox }i,t\ by kw, and x by ks. 



1.] SOUNDS AND LETTERS. ii 

§ lo. Occasional Change of Sound in English. 

Consonants are sometimes combined. If they are 
unlike, one of them assimilates, or becomes like the 
other. Thus, if the first is a sharp sound, the 
second, \i flat, will become sharp; as weeped, wtpt. 

A _/fa/ consonant must be followed by a flat con- 
sonant, and a sharp consonant by a sharp one ; as, 

I. — (i) slabs, pronounced jAz/^^. 

(2) bathes „ bathz. 

(3) h"gK<^'i » ^'^^K^- 
lagged „ lagd. 

II. — (1) slap-s. 

(2) bath-s (gives a bath). 

( 3 ) slceped pronounced slept, 
lacked „ lackt. 

The original sound of s was sharp, as in mouse 
(See Plurals of Nouns, § 22, p. 2i.) 



12 PRTMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



CHAPTER II. 

ETYMOLOGY. 

PARTS OF SPEECH. 

§11. Words are arranged in different 
Classes, accordino to their use in a Sen- 
tence. 

1. Words used as names are called Nouns ; as, 
John saw a snake in the garden. 

2. Words used for Nomis are called Pronouns; 
as, / told John the snake would not hurt him or w<r, 
if he left it alone, to go its own way. 

3- Words used luith Nouns to distinguish or de- 
scribe the thing named are called Adjectives ; as, 
The humble-bees are known by their large size and 
hairy bodies, often of a Mack colour with orange 
bands. 

Adjectives sen'e to modify the meaning of the noun to which 
they relate. They may easily be found out by asking, " Of 
what sort?" "How viany?" "Which?" 

4. Words used for stating what anything //<?^i- or is 
done to, are called Verbs ; as. One day John saic a 
rat come out of a hole ; he found it ivas hurt and 
coulii not run fast. 



II.] PARTS OF SPEECH. X3 

5, Words used with Verbs to mark the when^^vhere, 
and hoio of what is done, are called Adverbs J as, 
The lark soars aloft, and ahvays sings sweetly. 

Adverbs may be used with Adjectives and other Adverbs 
to mark how, how much, how often, &c.; as, My father is 
quiu well ; he is very seldom ill ; he does not like ti) lake too 
much medicine. 

6, Words used with Nouns (or Pronouns) to join 
them to verbs, adjectives, and other nouns, are called 
Prepositions; as, On Monday last, early in the 
morning, as John was walking along the side 0/ the 
river, he saw a snake 0/ a large size, which he 
killed by striking it ^cith his whip. 

Prepositions join words together to show tlieir bearing tO 
one another ; as, side — river ; side 0/ the river. 

The noun or pronoun with Xht preposition depends upon the 
word to which it is joined; as, in "a man of wisdom',' "of 
wisdom " depends on " man." 

The preposition with its noun is mostly <f the same va'ue as 
an adjective or an adverb. Thus : "a mm of wisdom'' = "a 
wise man" (adj.); "lie came on shore" -- "he cam*-, ashore" 
(adv.). 

Some prepositions cannot well be separated from the words 
which they come before; as, a-loft, in vain, at iau,in deed. 
We must parse these compounds as adverbs. (See f above.) 

7. Words used to join sentences tofi^ether are called 
Conjunctions ; as, Birds fly and fish swim, but 
worms creep along the ground, for they have no 
power to do otherwise or else they would. 

8. Words used to express a sudden feeling are 
called Interjections. They might be called 
Exclamations; as, Oh! Alas! 



14 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap 

There are, as we have seen, eight Parts of 
Speech : — 



1. Noun. 

2. Pronoun. 

3. Adjective. 

4. Verb. 



5. Adverb. 

6. Preposition. 

7. Conjunction. 

8. Interjection. 



On Parsing. 

§ 12. When we say to what class or part of speech 
a word belongs, we are said \.o parse it. 

We must bear in mind that we cannot do this off- 
hand, by merely looking at a word. We must ask 
ourselves what duty it is doing in the sentence to which 
it belongs, before we can parse it accurately. 

The same word may be a noun in one part of a 
sentence,- an adjective in another, a 7'erb in a third, 
and so on ; as, John exchanged his silver watch for 
a lump of silver, with which he meant to silver some 
metal coins. The first "silver" is an adjective, the 
second a noun, and the third a verb. 

Cp. " I cannot second you in trying to get the second place 
on the list without thinking a second or two about it." 

" I learnt all my lessons but one, but that was very hard ; had 
I had bi4t more time I could have leamt it very well." 

The first but = except, is s^ preposition ; the second joins two 
sentences, and is therefore a conjunction; the third = only, is 
an adverb. 

The word that may be an adjective, ?i pronoun, or % conjunc- 
tion. "John said that that word that he had just parsed was 
a pronoun." 



II.] CHANGES OF WORDS. 15 

As may be an adverb, a conjunction, or a / ■ jnoun. " I am 
as wise as my elder brother, who has had the same teaching as 
I have had." 

It must be recollected that some pronouns can be used as 
adjectives ; as, " That's the boy that took that splendid book 
of yours off your table." 

Many words that are often used as adverbs may be used as 
conjunctions. "Now all is ready, come now, and don't delay a 
moment." "John was so naughty yesterday, he would climb 
aboui, so he fell down." 

On Changes that Words undergo. 

§ 13. Some words alter their form to express a 
change of meaning; thus, c/iiltl becomes (i) children^ 
to show that more than one is meant; (2) chihfs, to 
show that something is possessed by a child. 

"We sleep" becomes **we slept" to show that the 
action of sleeping is not now going on, but took place 
in some time gone by or past. 

All the Parts of Speech do not undergo a 
change of form, only the Noun, Pronoun, Adjec- 
tive, Verb, and some few Adverbs. 

These changes,.called t'n/lexions, are mostly brought 
about by putting some additional letter or syllable 
to the end of a word. These additions are often 
spoken of as endings or suffixes. 

I. The addition of a letter or syllable to the end of a word 
often causes a change in the word itself; as, sh-i-f>-cd becomes 
(l) sleep-d, (2) slip-t; cp. ^'o/J and gild-cn, nation and niUional, 
goose and gStling, 



I6 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap, 

2. The ending has sometimes disappeared altogether, and 
the internal change does duty for an inflexion. Thus, the word 
men (for viannis) has really lost the ending that brought about 
the change: cp, li!ad, led (pnct ledde); feed, fed {pncQ fedde). 

3. The loss of a letter in the middle of a word causes change ; 
cp. e'er for ever. It is this change that explains made from 
maked; stile from stigel, &c. 

§ 14. English has lost very many endings, but it 
is not any the worse off on that account. It sup- 
plies their place by what we may call re/ali'ona/ words 
(or words that carry us to some other word in the 
same sentence). Thus: instead of saying "a ^at's 
wing," we can say "a wing 0/ a bat." Here ^does 
duty for the ending 's. 

We say "a lion-ess" to show that we are naming 
the female. We might say "a she-Wow, just as we 
do always speak of "a j//^-bear." The word she 
does exactly the same duty, and marks the same 
notion, as the ending -ess. 

In fact, these endings, which now mean little by 
themselves, but modify greatly the words to which 
they are added, were once independent words; as, 
ly in god-ly is only a corruption of the word like in 
god-like. 



III.] NOUNS: CLASSIFICATION. 17 



CHAPTER III. 

NOUNS. ' 

I.— DEFINITION. 

§ 15. A Noun is a word used as a name. 

The word N'oun comes from Fr. nom, Lat. twmen, a name 
that by which anytliing is known. 

II.— CLASSIFICATION 
§ 16. There are two kinds of nouns: — 

1. Proper. 

2. Common. 

A Proper Noun is the name of only one person 
or thing in the same sense; as, Jlcnry, London, 
Jupiter. 

Proper means "belonging to oneself," not possessed by an- 
other, peculiar to one thing. 

A Common Noun is the name of cacli indi- 
vidual in the same class or sort of things; as, nia/i, 
girl, lity, tree. 

Common Nouns include what are called Collective Nouns 
and Abstract Nouns 

(i) When a noun stands for a number (or collcition') of per- 
sons or things considered tL^otu it is called a Collective 
Noun ; as, "a jury." 



iS PRIMER OF EXGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

(2) When a noun is the name of a quality property, or 
action, it is called an Abstract Nairn ; as tvhiteness, 
honesty, love, reading. The word abstract means drawn 
off. Abstract nouns are so called because they are the 
names of qualities or states considered apart from the 
objects to which they belong. We see and speak of a 
•white Jlower, but we may think and speak of the 7vhite' 
ftess aloue. 

The form of the verb with to before it is used as an abstract 
noun ; as " to play cricket is pleasanter than to learn 
grammar." 

III.— INFLEXIONS. 

§ 17. Nouns and Pronouns have inflexions to 
mark Gender, Number, and Case. 

i. Gender of Nouns. 

§ 18. Gender is that form of the noun v/hich 
shows whether we are speaking of living beings 
(males or females), or lifeless things. The names of 
males are called Masculine nouns. The names of 
females are called Feminine nouns. 

The word gender (Fr. ^enre. Lat. genus") means kind or class. 
It belongs only to words: thus tlie person man is of the male 
sex, but the word man is masculine or of the masculine gender. 

The names of things without life are called 
Neuter nouns, because they are of tieither gender. 

A noun that is cither masculine or feminine is 
said to be of the Common gender; as parent 
(father or mother), child (boy or girl). 

When the masculine and feminine have each a 



III.] GENDER OF NOUNS. 19 

distinct ending, then we have what is strictly termed 
grammatical gender., as — 

Masc. Fem. 

murder-er and raurder-ess. 
sorcer-er „ sorcer-ess. 

But such words arc now very few, and the masculine 
noun occurs most often without any ending to mark 
gender, as — 

Masc. Fem. 

giant and giant-ess. 
peer „ peer-ess. 
We have chiefly to consider then the endings of 
feminine nouns. 

The feminine is formed from the masculine by 
the suffix -ess. 

Masc. Fem. 

heir heir-ess. 

founder foundr-ess. 

actor actr-ess. 

catcr-er catcr-ess. 

This suffix comes to us from the Norman-French -esse 
(Lat. -issai). It is not foun'l in the language before the twelfth 
century. It is now the only common mode of forming the 
feminine. Its present use is restricted ; it cannot be put to 
e-'cty masculine noun. 

In some few borrowed words we have feminine endings of 
foreign origin, as — 

Masc. Fem. 

executor n ' cxccii-trix. 
hi-To ,, luTK-ine. 

sultan ,, sitli.in-a. 



20 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

§19. Remains of Older Modes of Marking 
THE Feminine. 

1. By the suffix -ster. 

Spin-i-A'r, the name of an unmarried woman, 
once signified a female spinner. 
In O. E. many masculines in -er had a corresponding feminine 
in -ster; as, 

Masc. Fern. 

O. E. <^<?(r-^r^= baker, b^c-estre-=\iz.x\.tx. 

jrt«^-^r^'=sing-er, ja«_^-«/r<?=song-stre3S. 

In the 14th century the N.-Fr. -ess took the place of the 
older -ster as a feminine ending. After a time, -ster merely 
marked the agent, as in songster and sempster; then, to mark 
the feminine, -ess was tacked on to -ster, as in song-str-ess, and 
semp-str-fss. 

2. By the suffix -en. 

Vix-<r/;, the old feminine of fox (once pro- 
nounced vox in some parts of England). 

Irregular Forms. 

Bridegroom (= the l)ride's man) is formed from 
the feminine l>n'<if. The word groom once meant 
man. 

Gander is formed from an old root, gans, a goose. 

Drake (=:duck-king) is formed from the old roots, 
end, a duck, and rake, a king. 

Lady is the feminine of lord. 

Lass (=lad-ess) is the feminine of /ad. 

Woman is a compound of 7oi/e and man. 



III.] NUMBER OF NOUNS. 21 

§ 20. As a substitute for suffixes of gender we 
can make a compound term by putting a masculine 
or feminine word to a noun of the common gender; 
as, 

^(?-goat, she-g02X, 

wa«-servant, wa/'^-servant. 

We have many distinct words for the masculine 
and the feminine, the use of which does not belong 
to grammar. 

ii. Number. 

§ 21. Number is that form of the noun or pro- 
noun whicli marks whether we are speaking of one 
thing or more than one. 

When a noun or i)ronoun signifies one thing, it is 
said to be of tlie Singular number. 

When a noun or pronoun denotes more than one 
of the same kind, it is said to be of the Plural 
number. 

§ 22. Formation of the Plural of Nouns. 

General Rule. — The plural is formed by adding -s 
to the singular; as, book-j, bag-.f, boy-j. 

The letter s stands for two distinct sounds: (i) for the sharp 
sound in book-/, and (2) for the flat sound z in hag-J, h<>y-j. 
(See § 10, p. II.) 

Our plural s is a shortened form of O. E. as. Thus the 
plural of smith was first s»iitA-as, then smiih-fi, and finally 
tmilJu. 



22 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

Modifiifations of the General Rule. 

1. Singular nouns ending in s, Z, X, sh, soft ch, 
j (all containing an s sound), form the plural by the 
syllable es (pronounced ez); as gas-fi-, box-^-j, 
brush-^j, church-^i^, judg-^j, 

2. Nouns of English origin ending in f, fe, hav- 
ing 1 or any long vowel (except oo) before f, fe, 
change f into v when adding the sign of the plural. 

Singular, Plural. 

loaf, loaves, 

wife, wives, 

wolf, wolves. 

The words life, wif, were once written without the final e, 
and the plural es made a distinct syllable, 

3. Words ending in y (not preceded by a vowel) 
form the plural by changing j into /and adding ^xy as, 

Singular. Phiml. 

lady, ladies, 

fly, flies. 

§ 23, Remains of older Modes of Forming the 
Plural, 

1. By change of vowel. 

Singular, Plural, 

man men. 

foot feet, 

tooth teeth, 

mouse mice. 

2. By the ending -en. 

(a) ox-en, hos-en, shoo-// (shoes). 
{I') Vi-fte, chWdr-e/t, hrcthT-e/t. 



HI.] NUMBER OF NOUNS. 23 

Ki-ui has two marks of the plural, change of vowel and the 
suffix -en. 

Childr-e-« and brethr-e-« are also double plurals. 

3. Some nouns have one form for the singular and 
plural; as, sheep, deer, sxoine. 

§ 24. (i) Some words have two plural forms, one of which is 
older than the other. They have different meanings. 

Older Form. Modern Forto. 

brethren and brothers, 
pennies ,, pence, 
clothes ,, cloths. 

(2) Some words are used only in the singular. 

(fl) Proper names, (^) abstract nouns, (t-) collective nouns, 
(d) names of metals, materials, &c.: Afillon, temper 
attct; cavalry, gold, leather, &c. 

(3) Others are used only in Vhc plural. 

{a) Parts of the body, {b) articles of dress, (c) tools, (d) 
masses of things, lights, bowels, drawers, tongs, sheart 
ashes, &c. 

§ 25. Foreign words, if naturalised, form their 
plural regularly by adding s to the singular: indexes^ 
focuses, funguses, &:c. 

All nouns treated as foreign words retain their 
foreign plurals, as 

Singular. Plural. 

formula formuUne. 

datum data, 

phenomenon i)hcnomena. 



24 r RIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

iii. Case. 

§ 26. Case is that form of the noun (i>/- pronoun) 
which shows its bearing or relation to some other 
word in the sentence. (See § 14, p. 16.) 

The Teacher must first explain the Subject, Predicate, and Object of a 
Sentence, before attempting to discuss cases. (See § iiS, p. loi.) 

§ 27. When a noun {or pronoun) is the subject of 
a sentence, it is said to be in the Nominative 
case, as John sings, / like to listen. 

It is called the Nominative because it names the person or 
thing that does or suffers the action stated by the verb. 

To find the Nominative, ask a question by putting who or 
what before the verb, and the answer will be the Nominative. 
Thus, in the example above, if we ask "Who sings?" "Who 
likes?" the answers will be John and /, which are the Norn- 
inatives. 

§ 28. When a noun stands for the person spoken 
to or addressed, it is said to be in the Vocative 
case. It has the same form as the Nominative, and 
is sometimes called the Nominative of Address; as, 
Father come and look here ! O Sir, do not be angry. 

§ 29. When a noun stands for the object of an 
action it is said to be in the Objective case; as, 
John killed a rat. 

The Ohjective case of nouns is now like the A'ominative, but 
it was not always so, and is not now so in the case of pronouns. 
The Ohjective in English includes — 



in.] CASES OF NOUXS. 25 

(i) The direct object after a transitive verb ; as, " He 
struck jfamcs." " He hurt his fool." To find the 
direct object, ask a question with whom or what before 
the verb, and the answer will give it, e. g. " Whom 
did he strike?" "What did he hurt?" James, foot, 
which are the direct objects. 

In Latin we should call the direct object the Accusative case. 

(2) The indirect object, which is equivalent to a noun 
with the preposition to or for before it ; as, " Give 
fohn his book." " He bears William a grudge." 
" Build me a house." William = to William, John = 
to John, me = for me. 

The indirect object answers to the Dative in Latin and 
other languages. In O. E. there was a suffix to distinguish 
this case (in the singular and plural) from the direct object (or 
accusative). 

The form of the verb with to before it, when it denotes purpose, is an 
indirect object. "What went ye out to ttt t" to tee —for seeing^. 

(3) A noun after a preposition ; as, " He put his foot 
on the grouftti." " He came from London," &c. 

It must be recollected, that in English \.hc frefosition along 
with a following noun is equal to a case form in Latin. 

§ 30. When a noun by its form denotes the pos- 
sessor, it is said to be in the Possessive case ; as, 
*' the /^^>''j book," "the az/'x tail," "the sitn's rays." 

(a) The Possessive case is the only form of the noun that 
expresses a relation by means of an ending or suffix. 
The difference between the A'ominative and Ohjective 
must be thought out, the sense and position being our 
guides in determining which is used. 



26 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

{b) We use the Possessive case simply to mark possession. 
It is chiefly used with reference to living things. The 
preposition of is used instead of the inflexion in other 
instances ; as, " The roof of the house ;" not, as we 
could once say, " The house's roof," 

In Old English this case corresponded to the Genitive in 
German, Latin, &c. Nouns of time still keep it ; as, "a week's 
supply ; " "a day's journey." 

§ 31. Formation of the Possessive Case. 

The Possessive case is formed by adding 's to 
the Nominative. 

Singular man-'s 
Plural men-'s 

Exception. — Nouns forming their plural by S take 
the apostrophe only. 

Singular boy-'s sweep-'s 
Plural boys' sweeps' 

In the spoken language the possessive singular 
does not differ from the possessive plural, boy's and 
days' being pronounced alike. 

(rt) The apostrophe is really a mere written device for dis- 
tinguishing the possessive case from the plural number 
of the noun. It came into use about the 17th century. 
Apostrophe means " turned away," and is so called 
because it shows that something has been omitted, 
cp. e'en = even. The real omission is the letter e; 
lord's and lords' were once written and pronounced 
lard-e$. 



HI.] 



CASES Of \OUXS. 



{b) At one time it was supposed that 's meant his, and we 
actually find some writers using such expressions as 
" the king his crown." 

The apostrophe is sometimes used to mark the loss of the 
possessive sign in the singular, as " Moses' law," " for 
Justice' sake." The sign ' is no real case form. 



Nominative) 
and > 

Vocative ) 
Possessive 
Objective 

Nominative) 
and ^ 
Vocative ) 
Possessive 
Objective 



Singular. 




Plural. 


Singular. 


Plural. 


man 




men 


child 


children 


man's 




men's 


child's 


children's 


man 




men 


child 


children 


Sing, PI 


iiral. 


Sing. 


Plural. 


Sing. Plural. 


boy I 


oys 


fox 


foxes 


thief thieves 


boy's I 


oys' 


fox's 


foxes' 


th 


efs thieves' 


boy b 


oys 


fox 


foxes 


thief thieves 



28 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



CHAPTER IV 
ADJECTIVES. 

I.— DEFINITION, 

§ 33. The Adjective is a word used with a noun to 
distinguish or describe the thing named or spoken of. 
Adjective (Lat. adjectivunt) means " added to." 

II.— CLASSIFICATION. 

§ 34. Some Adjectives express quality; as, large, 
tall, rich: others denote quantity ox number; as, much, 
little, fe7v, one, both; others again poin out and limit 
the thing spoken of; as, "a book," "///^ man." 
Hence there are three kinds of Adjectives : — 

1. Adjectives of Quantity. 

2. „ „ Quality. 

3. Demonstrative Adjectives. 

Many of the pronouns are used as adjectives ; as, ihis, that, 
each, every, &c. 

§ 35. The Adjectives an, a, and the are some- 
times called Articles. 

An or a is called the Iiulcfiuite Article, and the 
the Definite Article. 

An or a is used before a noun to show that anv 
one thing is spoken of; as, "a« apple" = any apple. 



IV.] ADJECTIVES: COM PARI SOX. 29 

An drops n and becomes a before a consonant ; 
as, "d! book," "tz history," "a yew-tree. " 

An is another form of the word otu. Cp. "all 
of a size = all of one size." 

No, meaning not one, is used for ^''not a;" as, "he 
is no dunce." 

The is used before a noun to show that some 
particular person or thing is spoken of; as, "//r 
man," "///<r boy." 

Parse the as an adverb in " so much the more," "i/t£ more 
the merrier:" here the = l>y that. 

III.— INFLEXIONS. 

§ 2,6. The Adjective once had inflexions to 
mark gender, number, and cast\ It now only changes 
its form to mark comparison. 

Comparison of Adjectives 

§ 37. The Adjective has three forms to express 
Degrees of Comparison, the Positive, Compara- 
tive, and Superlative. 

'1 he Positive is the adjective in its simple form; 
as, "a small boat," "a tall man." 

The Comparative is formed by adding -er to 
the Positive: as, 'a sinall-er boat," "a tall-er man." 

It is used when tivo things or two sets of things 
are compared, to show that one of them possesses 
the quality in a greater or less degree than the other. 



30 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

The Superlative is formed by adding -est to 

the Positive; as, "the small-est boat," " the tall-est 

*man," 

It is used when one thing is compared with all 
others of the same kind; as, "John is the tall-^rj/ 
boy in his class." 

{a) \Vhen the Positive ends in a silent e, -r and -st only 

are added ; as, large, larg-er, large-st. 

(^) When the Positive ends in y (not preceded by a 

vowel), y is changed into i before the endings ; as, 

happj, happ»-er, happz-est. 

Words of more than two syllables, and most 
words of two syllables, are compared by the adverbs 
more and 7nostj as, ''''more valiant," ''''most valiant." 

The words that are compared by the inflexions {er and est) 
are mostly pure English words. 



38. Irregular Comparisons. 





Positive. 


Comparative. 


Superlative. 


I. 


late, 


latter. 


later. 


last, latest. 




nigh, 


nigher 


(near),* 


nighest, next. 




near, 


nearer 




nearest. 




old. 


elder, older, 


eldest, oldest. 


2. 


good, 
bad, ) 
ill. 


better, 




best. 




worse, 




worst. 




evil, ) 










little. 


less, 




least. 




much, / 
many, f 


more. 




most. 



(l) Late has two cymp.-iratives and superlatives; of these, 
'Archaic 



IV.] ADJECTIVES: COMPARISOXS. 31 

latter and last (the ones most changed) are the oldest, cp. near, 
next; elder, eldest. 

Last is a contraction of an old form lat-st-=lat-est. 
Next is a contraction of nighest (cp. O. E. neh-st, in which 
the h was a sharp guttural, sounded as ch in loclt). 
Near was once comparative. 

Elder, eldest have vowel change, as well as inflexion. 
(2) The comparatives and superlatives in group (2) are all 
formed from positives no longer in use. 

Better comes from a root, bat = good (cp. our " to boot"), 

with change of vowel, as in elder. 
Best = liet-st = bet-est, cp. last. 

Wor-se comes from a root, w^eor = bad. The suffix -se 
is another form of the comparative ending -er. Worst 
is shortened from wortesl. 

Less is formed from a root, las, meaning weak, infirm. 
The suffix -s (=-se) is another form of the com- 
parative -r. 

Much once meant large, great. 

The mo in mo-re and mo-st also meant great. 
3. Farther and farthest are slightly irregular, a th having 
crept in through a confubion with further (the comparative of 
the adverb forth). 

Rather is now an adverb ; it was once an adjective. Its 
poiitive was rathe, meaning early. 

Former is a corru))tion of an old forme, meaning Jirst 
(superlative of fore). Tlie m is an old superlative 
ending, still found in for-m-ost. 

Most superlatives ending in -most contain two superla- 
tive suffixes, -ra and -ost (= -est). 

First is a superlative oi fore = front ; cp. fore leg, forehead. 

O-ther contains the numeral one (from which the n has 

gone), and a comparative ending -ther, cp. tvht-ther. 

Other once meant ud-nd; cp. every other day. 



PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



1 
I 

I 

CHAPTER V. 

PRONOUNS. 

I.— DEFINITION. 

§ 39. The Pronoun is a word used for a noun. 

A Pronoun can stand for an " equivalent to a noun," whether 
it be a phrase or sentence: "It mattered not to him whether it 
were night or day." "//" here stands for "wfnther it were 
flight or day'' 

As the Pronoun stands for the noun, it always refers to some- 
thing which has been named. 

Many Pronouns are used as adjectives: (i) the Possessive 
cases ; (2) some Demonstratives ; (3) some Relative and Inter- 
rogative Pronouns ; (4) some Indefinite Pronouns, 

II.— CLASSIFICATION OF PRONOUNS. 
§ 40. There are five kinds of Pronouns: — j 

1. Personal Pronouns. 

2. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

3. Interrogative Pronouns. 

4. Relative Pronouns. 

5. Indefinite Pronouns. 



v.] PRONOUNS: PERSONAL. 33 



I. Personal Pronouns. 

§ 41. The Personal Pronouns are so called be- 
cause they name the person speaking, spoken to, or 
spoken of. There are then three Persons : — 

1. The First, which denotes the person speaking; 
as, /, we^ &c. 

2. The Second, which denotes the person spoken 
to; as, i/iou, ye, you, (Sec. 

3. The Third, which relates to the person or 
thing spoken of; as, he, she, it, that, one. 

Strictly speaking, the pronouns of the third person arc not 
personal pronouns ; thus he is demonstrative and has gender. 
For convenience sake we may call it the pronoun of the third 
person, not a personal pronoun ; one is an indefinite pronoun. 

Declension of Personal Pronouns. 

§ 42. Pronouns have more inflexions than nouns 
for number and case. 



TiiK First P 


I.RSON. 


Singul.tr. 1 




riur:iJ. 


Nominative I 




we 


Possessive mine, my 




our, ours 


Objective (direct) me 




us 


Objective (indirect) me | 




us 



34 



PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



The Second Person. 



thou 



Nom. and ) 
Vocative j 
Possessive thine, thy 
Objective (direct) thee 
Objective (indirect) thee 



ye, you 

your, yours 

you 

you 



For the explanation of indirect object see § 2g, p. 25. 
(i) I was once written ic and ich. 

(2) Mine and thine (O. E. ;;//;/ and thUi) were once the 
only possessives of the first and second person in use. 
The loss of the letter n brought my and thy into use. 
The older forms are now only used when no noun 
follows. In poetry they are sometimes used before 
words beginning with a vowel or silent h. Cp. the 
double forms an and a. 

(3) The second person singular has gone out of common use. 

(4) You, once only objective, has taken the place of the old 
nominative ye. 



The Third Person. 



Singular. 




Plural. 


Masc. 


Fern. 


NciUcr. 




N'ominativc he 


she 


it 


they 


I'ossessivc his 


her, hers 


its 


their, theirs 


Objective (direct) him 


her 


it 


them 


Ohjeciivc (indirect) him 


her 


it 


them 



I. Till.' Pronouns contain endings marking: — 
(i) Case*, s in his; n in /;//-«£', M/'-wt- (all genitive); rain 
hi-in, r in //<•-/- Oiolh dative); r in ou-r,you-r, thfi-r 
(gen. pi.) ; n in ihi'-iii {A\\\. yX \. Onr-i, yoit-i-s, &r., are 
iloiible genitives. 



v.] PRONOUNS: REFLEXIVE. 35 

(2) Gender: t in j-/(0. E. /»'-/), once marked the neuter, 
as in ivha-t and tha-t. She was once the feminine of 
the definite article. The Old English for she was he-o, 
from which he-r is formed. 

Its is quite a modern form. The O. E. was ///-j, which 
we find in the authorised version of the Scriptures. 
(a. d. i6h.) 

They (with its cases) was once the plural of the, and 
meant the and those. 

§ 43. The Possessive cases of tlie Pronouns of the 
three persons are now used as adjectives. 

Siiti^ular : my, mine; thy, thine; his, her, 
hers, its. 
Plural: our, ours ; your, yours; their, theirs. 

(1) Notice the use of mine, thine, hers, purs, yours, theirs, 
witiiout a following noun; as, It is mine, noi yours. 

(2) Notice that my, thy =: Latin meus, tuus, not mei, tui, 
which must be expressed by of me, of thee. 

%, 44. Self is added to the pronouns of tlic llirec 
persons (i) to form Reflexive Pronouns, (2) to 
express emphasis. 

Stn(^ul(ir: myself, thyself, yourself, himself, 
herself, itself, oneself. 

Plural : ourselves, yourselves, themselves. 

(l) The Reflexives are used when a persDU docs something 
to himself; as, '• I l.iid wysr/f down," *'he hurt ///>//- 
se/f." In some old expressions the objective case of 
the simple pronoun is used , as, "I laid w«r du\\ n .Tiid 
slejil," "lie Im /■//« flow u" 



36 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

(2) The compound.s of self dre emphatic in " I saw it my- 
self;" " he himself has done it," &c. 

Formerly the dative was always joined to self; as himself, 
not the possessive, as in myself, which used to be me- 
self 

(3) Self is sometimes a noun ; as, "your innocent self;" 
"he thinks much of self!' 

2. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

§ 45. The Demonstratives are used in speaking 
definitely of the thing named: as, "//«j is the book 
I want, but I should like that which is on yonder 
table, if it is not the same. I have never seen such 
books as these." 

§ 46. The Demonstrative Pronouns are this, 
that (with their plurals, these and those), same, 
such, yon, self-same. 

That was originally the neuter of the. 

Such means "so-like:" /has been lost. 

Yon has now become a mere adjective. The Scotch use 
yen as a pronoun ; as, yon's a grand house." 

Self-same : self once meant same. 

^Vhen such (= sc>) comes before an adjective, followed by 
the conjunction that, it is used as an adverb. He has 
such great confidence that he will be sure to succeed. 
= He has confidence so great that he will, &c. The 
use of such in this way i» a late usage. 

3. Interrogative Pronouns. 

§ 47. The Interrogative Pronouns are liscd ia 
asking questions: — Who? which? v/hat? 



v.] PRONOUNS: RELATIVE. 37 

Who is thus declined: — 
Nom. who ^ 

Poss. whose ( Masc. and Fem. 

Obj. (direct) whom | Sing, and Plural. 

„ (indirect) whom'^ 
Who relates \.o persons; which to things; what 
always refers to things, unless it is used as an adjec- 
tive : What book do you want ? What boy has 
got my book ? 

For the s in 7vhose and the m in ivhom, see p. 34. 
Which is made up of who and like, meaning ivho-like, or 
what-like. It once related to persons ; as, " Our 
Father, which art in Heaven." It is also used for the 
old word ^uhether, which of two. 
Wha-t was originally the neuter of who. See p. 35. 

Who-se is the possessive of what as well as of who; cp. 
his once the possessive of he and //. 

§ 48. Compound Relatives are formed by 
adding -ever; as, whorccr^ whateirr, whichever. 

4. Relative Pronouns. 

§ 49, The Relative Pronoun is so called because 
it relates or carries us back to some noun or pronoun 
going before (and already stated), called the antece- 
dent. This is the house that I have built. Happy 
is the man that findcth wisdom, and the tnan who 
getteth understanding. 

The Relative Pronouns are who, what, which, 
that, as. 



38 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

W^ho refers to persons; which to animals and 
lifeless things; that to person and things. 

What is used when the antecedent is omitted. 
It means that which (or the thing which). " What I 
have you are welcome to." 

Do not call what a compound pronoun. 

W^ho could be used for he who. " Who steals 
my purse steals trash." 

§ 50. As is used as a relative after same and such; 
as, "This is the same as that;" "These apples are 
very good, you may eat such as are ripe." 

That was sometimes equivalent to tliat which; as, " We 

speak that we do know." 
That never follows the preposition that governs it ; as, " I 

know the person that you speak of!' 

§51. Compound Relatives are formed by 
adding -ever and -soever to who, what, and 

which ; as, whosoever, whatsoever, whichsoever. 

Some adverbs (originally cases of pronouns) can be com- 
bined with a preposition to do duty for relatives, 
though they are not usually called such : 

where-of = of which, of what, 

where-to = to which, to what, 

where-by = by which, by what, 

there-of = of that. 
&c., <S:c. 

§ 52. The Relatives, with the exception of that 
and as, were once Interrogatives only. 



v.] PRONOUNS: INDEFINJ 1 E. 39 

They are strictly so in all indirect questions ; as, " Tell me 
wftc has hurt you." " Ask him what is going on." 

§ 53. The Relative who is declined like the 
Literrogative who ; see p. 37. 

5. Indefinite Pronouns. 

§ 54. The Indefinite Pronouns do not point out 
and particularize like the Demonstratives. To this 
class belong one, none, any, some, each, every, 
either, neither, other, another (all of which 
may be used as adjectives) ; aught, naught, some- 
body, something, nothing, anything. 

One is the same word as the numeral one. The Fr. on is 

the Latin homo. 
None is made up of ne = not, and one. 
Any contains the original form of otu, seen in the article 

an. 
Some once meant one, a. 
Ea-ch originally meant any one like (of two or more 

things). The -eh stands for -lich = like ; cp. which, 

such. 
Ever-y is a corruption o^ ever each, that is, " each and all" 

(of two or more things). 
Ei-ther means any one of two. It can be used as a con- 
Junction. Neither is the negative of either. 
For the meaning of -ther, see § 38, p. 31. 
O-ther, one of two, see § 38, p. 31. 
Aught means any whit or any wi_^ht. ( IVi^ht = person, 

thing ; cp. " an unlucky 7vight.") 
Naught, noug^ht is the negative of au^ht = no whit. 
The advert* not is a worn-down form of nought or naught. 



40 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

Else in what else and something else is an indefinite pro- 
noun, being the genitivt of an old root el, meaning 
oC/ier. 

When else means otherwise it is a conjunction. 

Something (= somervhat) ; anything (= at all) ; nothing 
(= not at all), are used as adverbs. 

Certain and several are sometimes used as pronouns. 



VI.] VERBS: CLASSIFICATION: 41 



CHAPTER VI. 

VERBS. 

I.— DEFINITION. 

§ 55. The Verb is a word that states or asserts 
what a thing docs or is done to; as, " the fire burns," 
"the child sleeps" "John is beaten" 

II.— CLASSIFICATION. 

§ 56. Verbs are classified, according to their 
meaning^ into Transitive and Intransitive. 

Transitive Verbs state an action that is not 
confined to the doer; as, "he locks the gate." 

Intransitive Verbs express an action that does 
not go beyond the doer; as, "the child sleeps" "he 
behaves well.*' 

Transitive means passing over (Lat. irans-il-us), because in 
a sentence containing a transitive verb the sense is not complete 
unless the object to which the action passes over is stated ; 
as, " the boy iore his coat." 

When a verb that is usually transitive takes no object, it is 
used intransitively ; as, " the fire burns brightly." 

Some intransitive verbs may b« made transitive by means of 



42 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

2l preposition ; as, "he laughs" "he laughs-at me;" "the 
river Jlows." " the river Jlows dver the land," = " the river 
overflows the land. 

All verbs containing the idea of to cause, or to make an 
action take place, are called Causative verbs, and require an 
object ; " he fells the tree " = " he caused the tree to fall" " he 
/lies his kite" ="he causes his kite to fly'' 

Some transitive verbs are used reflexively; as, "he turned 
aside " = " he turned himself aside." 

Transitive verbs used in a passive sense become Intransitive; 
as " the vessel broke in two" = " the vessel was broken in two." 

§ 57. Verbs used in the third person only are 
called Impersonal Verbs ; as, me-thinks = it ap- 
pears to me ; it seems good ; it rains, &.c. 

III.— INFLEXION. 

§ 58. Verbs have Voice, Mood, Tense, Num- 
ber, and Person. 

I. Voice. 

§ 59. Transitive Verbs have two voices; the 
Active Voice and the Passive Voice. 

A verb is in the Active Voice when the subject 
of the verb stands for the doer or agent of the 
action ; as, 

(i) "The boy struck the table." 

A verb is in the Passive Voice when the subject of 

the verb stands for the real object of the action ; as, 

(2) "The table u>as struck by the boy." 



VI.] VERBS: MOOD. 43 

The sentences quoted above show that the voice is deter- 
mined by the subject. If it is active, as in (i), the verb is active ; 
if it is passive, i. e. suffers the action, as in (2), the verb is 
passive. 

In some languages this is shown by the form of the verb ; 
as, Lat. amalur, he is loved. 

In English the forms of the verb in -en and -ed are a rem- 
nant of the passive voice, and are always used along with the 
verb l>f, to form the passive voice ; as, " the cup which was 
broken has been mended." 

We have other roundabout ways of expressing the Passive; 
as, " the house is being built y or by the old phrase, " the 
house is a-buildin^;" a-building = on building. 

2. Mood. 

§ 60. Mood is that form or modificatioTi of the 
verb which marks the mode in which an action is 
viewed or stated. 

§ 61. There are three principal moods: (i) Indic- 
ative, (2) Subjunctive, (3) Imperative. 

\Vhcn a verb is in any of these moods it requires a subject, 
and is said to be z. finite verb, i. e. limited by the conditions of 
time, person, lic. 

These arc the only moods in English that have distinct forms 
or are inflexional. 

§ 62. The Indicative Mood is that form of the 
verb that indicates or makes a direct assertion, or 
asks some direct question ; as, He talks. Who talks? 

§ 63. The Subjunctive Mood e.xpresses possi- 
bility^ donOt, dependency; as, " If he but blench I know 



44 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

my course." "For murder, though it have no 
tongue, will speak." 

This mood is called Subjunctive, because of its use in a stib- 
joined or dependent sentence ; as, " Love not sleep, lest it brin^ 
thee to poverty." " If thou keep promise, I shall end this 
strife." 

Here we see that britig and keep in the dependent sentences 
are distinguished from the Indicative brings and keepest by 
their want of inflexion. But the subjunctive once had its own 
endings, as in Latin. The subjunctive form of the verb is now 
seldom employed. Its place is sometimes supplied by the use 
of the verb shiuld or would. 

The conjunctions which vere formerly followed by the sub- 
iunctive enable up to express doubt, condition, &c., without 
employing the old inflexional form of the verb. These Con- 
junctions are if, "whether, provided though, that, so that, lest, 
until, till, ere, unless, except, which, however, are no parts of 
the subjunctive mood. 

The verb to be has very distinct forms for the 
subjunctive. See p. 65. 

§ 64. The Imperative Mood is that form of the 
verb that expresses a command or entreaty. " Call 
him back." "/'ar^^« my fault." 

The Imperative contains the simplest form or root of the verb. 

The plural imperative once had the sufhx th to distinguish 
it from the singular ; as, loveth = love ye. 

The Imperative is only used in the second person. 

In such expressions as " let me sinp," "let him sing," parse! 
let as an independent verb, in the imperative mood. Do notj 
parse let sing as one verb. 

§ 65. Other forms, not finite (see p. 43), are some- 
times called Moods. These are — 



A 



VI.] VERBS: JNFIxXITIVE MOOD. 45 

1. The form of the verb with to before it, called 
the Infinitive ; as, to sing. 

The Infinitive once had no to before it, but was expressed 
by tlie suffix -a/»y as, drinc-an, to drink. The Infinitive 
without to CO i.cs after the verbs may, can, shall, will, dare, 
must, &c. ; xs, " he may bi" " he will be," &c. 

The Simple Infinitive is a noun in the nominative or objec- 
tive (direct) case ; " to see is to believe" " he wants to see." 

There is another kind of Infinitive called the Dative Infin- 
itive, because it was originally the dative of the simple infinitive. 

It is now often an indirect object. A house to let^^a. house 
for letting; easy to find=. co^sy for finding; the cup I have to 
drink (=. for drinking). It sometimes marks purpose, and is 
equivalent to an Adverb ; as, he came to see me = he came for 
the purpose of seeing me. {^See, p. 98.) 

2. The fornis of the verb in -ed, -en, -ing, are 
called Participles, and they are also used as adjectives. 

" Then rode Geraint into the castle court. 
His charger trarnf>ling many a prickly star 
Oi sprouted thistle on the broken stones. 
He look'd, and saw that all was ruinous. 
Here stood a shatter d archway /> I umed with fern. 
And here had falfn a great part of a tower." 

These forms in -ed, -en, -ing, were called participles because 
they participate of the nature of adjectives (in qualifying a noun) 
and of verbs (in governing an objective case). The ])articiple 
in -ing once ended in -end, -and, or ->inde. 

IJe careful to distinguish a noun in -ing from a participle in 
-ing; this is a fine building (noun) ; he is building a house 
(jiarticiplc). 

The form in -ing (O. E. -ung) is a noun in tlic followin;.^ 
passages: The hou>c is building ■=.\\\c house is a-bnilding: 



45 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

he is fond of building ( = of the 'building of) houses ; he talked 
of your coming here to-day ; he took to hunting. See Syntax, 
p. 92. 

The form in -ing is called the Present participle ; 
the forms in -<?^/and -en are c.2}\Q.di Passive participles. 

3. Tense. 

§ 66. The form or modification of the verb used 
to indicate time is called Tense (Fr. temps, Lat. 
tempus^. 

Time may be considered as 

1. Present 

2. Past. 

3. Future. 

There arc three Tenses. 

1. Present I speak. 

2. Past I spoke. 

3. Future I shall speah, 

You will speak, 
He will spca... 

The state of the action may be considered as 
(i) Indefinite; as, I write. 

(2) Progressive; as, I am writing. 

(3) Completed or perfect ; as, I have written. 

The words be, have, shall, will, which help to form tenses, 
are called auxiliary verbs. 

Each tense then has three forms, according to the 
followins scheme: 



VERBS: TEXSES. 



t/j 
M 
en 

O 





a 




j5 


1 4> bo 




0) 






S = 




ft) 

U3 


bo 

a 


.sg« 




1/1 


V 


M 


•0.2 
i« ft 




S 2 


J3 


Id 

U 


•c C 


(£ ^ 


1-4 




1-4 


•-HjQ 




,,^ 




^^ 


,-^ 














^^ 




^-' 


^^ 




•o 

M 


a 
ft> 

<u 


aised 

been 
d 


I shall have 

praised 
I shall have 
been praised 


Perfect 


a, 

> 


I have 
praise 


I had pr 

I had 
praise 




s 


3- 


"m" "ej" 


^ s 


ct and 
ssive. 


bo 
2 


being 
ised 


3 prais- 

s being 
ised 


all be 
ising 


o; J; 




E 2 
-a. 


ft byD<4 <d 


•5 •< 


^2 


ct 


?.s^^ 


V) u 


E 0. 






















^^ 


^^ 


^-^ ^^ 


^^ 






M 


w N 






"^ — ' 






' 








•o 








•a 


V 


V 






ft) 


M 








tfi 


l« 


rt -o 






rt 


•a ^- 


« "^ 




u 


u 


u o. 


ex ^ ft) 


e 


M 


O. 


1/1 


_ (TJ • — 


•A 








•D 

e 


cx 


i 




rt "C 2 
in "* 


1 


-::> 


"«■ 


3 S 


3 S 


i 




c 


, 


u 






u 










l« 






H 




a 


IT 
<< 


3 






(U 


(i< 


U- 








* 





.is! 



48 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. fcHAP. 

Notice that only the present and past tenses of the active 
voice, indicative mood, are inflected tenses. 

§ 67. An emphatic form of the present and past 
tenses may be made by using dO. 

Present I do love. 
Past I did love. 

But it is not emphatic when used in interrogative 
and negative sentences, but an auxiliary verb. 

Do you hear ? Did you listen ? 1 do not hear. I 
did not listen. (See note on Do, p. 72.) 

4. Person and Number. 

§ 68. The verb is Singular when it agrees with 
a subject in the singular number, and Plural when 
it agrees with a subject in the plural ; as. 

Singular : " he writes.'* 
Plural : "' they write." 

There are three persons (as in the pronouns, see 
§ 4r> P- Z2>)^ the first, the second, and.the third. 

The plural has no endings to mark person. We 
know the person by looking to the subject; as, " we 
speak" ^'■you speak," '' the boys speak," or "they speak." 

The first person singular has no ending; as, "I 
talk." 

The second person, which is seldom used, has -est 
(-St); as, "thou talk-est." 



VI.] VERBS: CONJUGATION. 49 

The third person (present) has -s, with the old 
form -eth ; as, "he talk-s," or "talk-eth." 

These endings belong only to the indicative mood. 

The subjunctive has no person-endings. 

We might do without any endings, because the personal 
pronoun marks the person. 

These endings were once pronouns themselves. Cp. a-w, 
ar-/, &c. 

5. Conjugation. 

§ 69. Verbs may be divided into two classes : 

( r ) Those that make their past tense by -d or -t ; as, 
Present^ I love, Past^ I love-^. 

I sleep. I slep-/. 

(2) Those that make their past tense by changing 
the vowel of the present ; as, 

Prcsenty I wr/te. Past, I wr^te. 

Verbs of the first class are called Weak, and 
those of the second Strong verbs. 

Be careful to notice that a strong^ verb adds nothing to tht 
past tense. Thus got, the past tense of get, is a strong verb ; 
but tol-d, the past tense of tell, is a weak verb. 

The change of vowel in the past tense of strong verbs, as 
fall, felt, &c., must not be confounded with the shortening of 
the vowel, as in feed and fed (once fed-de). 

Tlic Passive Participles of all strong verbs once ended in 
-€n ; but this suffix has fallen away in many verbs ; as, drunk 
= drunken, &c. Passive participles of weak verbs end in -€d 
(w/, ./) ; those of strong verbs never had this ending, and when 
they lake it they become weak ; as, he was tol-d (weak) ; he ha« 
mown (strong) ; he has mowed (yits^i). 



50 



PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



§ 70, Classification of Strong Verbs. 

) Strong verbs are classified according to the changes of their 
central vowels. 





CLASS I. 




Pres. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 


a, 0. 


e. 


a, 0. 


fall 


fell 


fallen • 


hold 


held 


held, holden* 


blow 


blew 


blown 


grow 


grew 


grown 


know 


knew 


known 


throw 


threw 


thrown 


crow 


crew 


crown* 


hang 


hung 


hung [hangen] 



beat beat beaten 

Forms marked thus * are archaic. 

Mow, sew, hew, once belonged to this class. Their strong 
participles, mozvn, sown, heivn, are sometimes used. 

Jiang once made a past tense heng. 

Go or^ow^has borrowed its past tense went from wend, to go. 

Gone is a strong past participle. 



VI.] STRONG VERBS. 


51 




CLASS II. 




Prcs. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 


i. 


a, u, ou. 


U, OU. 


begin 


began 


begun 


cling 


clung, clang* 


clung 


drink 


drank 


drunk 


run 


ran 


run 


swim 


swam 


swum 


spin 


spun, span* 


spun 


sing 


sang 


sung 


shrink 


shrank 


shrunk 


sink 


sank 


sunk 


fling 


flung, flang* 


flung 


sling 


slung, slang* 


slung 


ring 


rang 


rung 


slink 


slunk 


slunk 


spring 


sprang 


sprung 


sting 


stung, stang* 


stung 


swing 


swung, swang* 


swung 


wring 


wrung, wrang* 


wrung 


win 


won, wan* 


won 


bind 


bound 


bound, bounden* 


find 


found 


found 


fight 


fought 


fought 


grind 


ground 


ground 


wind 


wound 


wound 


e. 


0. 


0. 


help 


holp* 


holpen 


melt 


molt* 


molten 


swell 


.... 


swollen 


burst [bcr&le]* 


burst [barst]* 
' Archaic. 


burst [bursten]* 


Help, melt, swell, hav 


e now the weak 


form for past tense 


and passive participle. 







52 PRIMER 


OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 






CLASS III. 




Pres. 




Past. 


Pass. Part. 


i. 




a. 


i. 


(l) bid 




bade, bid 


bidden, bid 


give 




gave 


given 


lie 




lay 


lien, lain* 


sit 




sat 


sat [siten]* 


ea (cc\ 


c. 


a(o). 


ea (ee), 0. 


(2) eat 




ate 


eaten 


get 




got, gat* 


gotten, got* 


tread 




trod 


trodden, trod 


see 




saw 


seen 


weave 




wove 
quoth 
was 


woven 




Word: 


i marked thus * are 

CLASS IV. 


archaic. 


Pre*. 




Past. 


Pass. Part 


a. 




0, GO, e. 


a(o). 


awake 




awoke 


awoke 


forsake 




forsook 


forsaken 


lade 






laden 


grave 







graven 


stand 




stood 


stood [standen]* 


shave 




.... 


shaven 


shake 




shook 


shaken 


swear 




swore 


sworn 


take 




took 


taken 


draw 




drew 


drawn 


slay 




slew 


slain 



Lade, gravt and shave have weak forms for the past tense 
and passive participle. • Archaic. 



vr.] 


STRONG VERBS. 


53 




CLASS 


V. 




Prcs. 


Past. 




Pass. Part. 


i (long). 


0. 




i (short). 


abide 


abode 




abode, abiden* 


bite 


bit 




bitten 


drive 


drove 




driven 


chide 


chid, chode'' 


chidden, chid 


ride 


rode, rid* 


ridden, rid 


rise 


rose 




risen 


rive 


rove 




riven 


shine 


shone 




shone 


shrive 


shrove 




shriven 


slide 


slid 




slidden, slid 


smite 


smote. 


smil* 


smitten 


strode 


strode 




stridden 


thrive 


throve 




thriven 


write 


wrote. 


writ* 


written 


strike 


struck 




struck, stricken 


strive 


strove 




striven 




♦ Archaic. 




Chide, rive, slide, have also weak forms in 


the past tense and 


passive participle. 










CL-\SS 


VI. 




Prci. 


Past. 




Pass. Part. 


ee, 00. 


0. 




0. 


freeze 


froze 




fi ozen 


seethe 


sod* 




sodden, sod* 


cleave 


clove 




cloven 


choose 


chose 




chosen 


lose 






lorn* 


shoot 


shot 




shot, shottcn* 


fly 


flew 




flown 



Seethe, cleave, lose, have weak forms in the past tense and 
passive participle. 



54 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

§ 71. Classification of Weak Verbs. 

We may divide the weak verbs roughly into two 
classes. 

1. Those that have -ed, -d, or -/ in the past tense 
and passive participle. 

2, Those that have lost the -d or -/ in the past 
tense and passive participle. 

Class I. 

We often write -cd, but we only sound it when the 
verb ends in -d or -/, as mend-ed, lift-ed. 

In all other cases it is pronounced -d or -/, as 
dragged = dragd. 
locked = lockt. 
(i) This -d was once a separate verb and meant did. I loved 
= / love-did. 

(2) -d becomes -/ after a sharp mute (for reason see p. Ii) 
and sometimes after /, m, 11, as slept, felt, burnt, dreamt. 

(3) Some verbs shorten the long vowel in the past tense and 
passive participle ; as, hear, heard; Jlee, Jled; sleep, slept (see 
§ 13. P- 15). 

(4) A few have not the same vowel in the present as in the 
past. 

id) tell, tol-d, tol-d. 

buy, bought, bought. 
(/') teach, taught, taught. 

work, wrought, wrought. 

(5) Some have lost an internal letter; as, »/»fldV = malted ; 
^iat/ shaved. 



VI.] IVEAAT VERBS. 55 

Class II. 

1. Some verbs of this class shorten their vowel 
in the past tense and passive participle, and look 
like strong verbs. 

feed, fed, fed. 
&c., &c., &c. 

2. Others ending in Id or «</ change the d into / 
in the i)ast tense and passive participle. 

buil^, buil/, buil/. 
senfl', sen/, sen/. 
&c., &c., &c. 

3. A third kind ending in // or / have the three 
forms (present, past, and passive participle) alike. 

rid, rid, rid. 
set, set, set 
&c., &c., &c 

All verbs of Class II. had an inflexion in Old English, e.g. 

Past Tens«. Pass. Part, 

fed-de fc-d-ed = fed. 

sende [ = send-de] send-ed = sent, 

set-te sett-ed = set. 

As the verb in both conjugations is inflected only 
in the present and past indefinite tenses, the forms 
of the English verb are easily mastered. 



56 



PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. [cHAP. 



§ 72. I.— STRONG CONJUGATION. 

To Smite. 

Present, sm/te. Past, sm^^te. Passive Participle, 
sm/'ten. 

Present Tense. 
Singular. 
Indicative Mood. 



1. I sm/te 

2. Thou sm/t-est 

3. He sm/te-S 

smi't-eth 

Plural. 

1. We sm/te 

2. Ye, you sm/te 

3. They sm/te 

Past Tense, 
Singular. 

1. I sm^te 

2. Thou sm<7/-est 

3. He sm^te 

Plural. 

1. We sm<7te 

2. Ye, you sm<?te 

3. They sm^te 



Subjunctive Mood. 

1. I sm/te 

2. Thou sm/te 
■J. He sm/te 



We sm/te 
Ye, you sm/te 
They sm/te 



I sm^te 
Thou sm<?te 
He sm^e 



1. We sm<7te 

2. Ye, you sm^^te 

3. They sm^Jte 



Imperative Mood. 

Singular — Smite (thou). Plural — Smite (ye, you). 

Infinitive, to smite. Present Participle, smit-/«^. 

Passive Participle, smit-<r«. 



vr]_ 


WEAJC VERBS. 5; 




§ 73. 11. WEAK C0N7UGATI0X. 




To Lift. 




r 


i<ES., lift. Past, Y\it-ed. Pass. Part., Yiit-cd. 




Present Tense. 


Sing 
Indicative Mood, 

1. I lift 

2. Thou lift-est 

3. He lift-s (-th) 


ular. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

1. I lift 

2. Thou lift 

3. He lift 




Plural. 




I. 
2. 
3- 


We lift 
Ye, you lift 
They lift 


I. 
2. 
3- 


We lift 
Ye, you lift 
They lift 




Past Tense. 




I. 
2. 

3- 


Sing 

I Wh-ed 
Thou lift-A/-st 
He Wii-ol 


ular. 
I. 
2. 
3- 


I Wii-ed 
Thou lift-^"^ 
He lift-^^ 




Plural. 




I. 

2. 

3- 


We Wh-cd 
Ye, you Wh-cd 
They lift-e-r/ 


I. 
2. 
3- 


We Wh-ed 
Ye, you Wii-cd 
They Wh-ed 



Imperative Mood. 

Singular — lift (thou). Plural — lift (ye, you). 

Infinitive, to lift. Present Particiim.e, Wh-ing. 

Passive Participle, lift-*-*/. 



53 



PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



§ 74. Alphabetical List of Strong Verbs. I 

The forms in italics are •weak. Those marked thus * are archaic. 



Pres. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 


abide 


abode 


abode 


arise 


arose 


arisen 


awake 


awoke 


awoke 




awaked!^ 


awaked 


bake 


. . . • 


baken 




baked 


baked 


bear (bring forth) 


bore, bare* 


born 


bear (carry) 


bore, bare* 


borne 


beat 


beat 


beaten 


begin 


began 


begun 


behold 


beheld 


beholden, beheld 


bid 


bade, bid 


bidden, bid 


bind 


bound 


bounden,* bound 


bite 


bit 


bitten, bit 


blow 


blew 


blown 


break 


broke, brake* 


broken 


burst 


burst 


burst, bursten* 


chide 


chode,* chid 


chidden, chid 


choose 


chose, chase* 


chosen 


cleave (split) 


clove 
clave* 


cloven 




deft 


cleft 


climb 


clomb 


.... 




(limbed 


climbed 


cling 


clung 


clung 


come 


came 


come 


crow 


crew 


crown 




crowed 


crowed 


do 


did 


done 



VI.] 


LIST OF STRONG 


VERBS. 59 


Pres. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 


draw 


drew 


drawn 


drink 


drank 


drunk, drunken 


drive 


drove, drave* 


driven 


eat 


ate 


eaten 


fall 


fell 


fallen 


fight 


fought 


foughten,* fought 


find 


found 


found 


fling 


flung, flang* 


flung 


fly 


flew 


flown 


forbear 


forbore 


forborne 


forget 


forgot 


forgotten 




fcrgat* 


forgot* 


forsake 


forsook 


forsaken 


freeze 


froze 


frozen 
from, frore* 


get 


got, gat* 


got, gotten 


give 


gave 


given 


BO 


•went 


gone 


grave 


graved 


graven 


en-grave 




en-graven* 




engraved 


engraved 


grind 


ground 


ground 


grow 


grew 


grown 


hang 


hung 


hung 




hanged 


hanged 


heave 


hove 


.... 




heaved 


heaved 


help 


.... 


holpen 




helped 


helped 


liew 




hewn 




hewed 


hewed 


hold 


held 


held, holden 


know 


knew 


known 


lade 


.... 


laden, loaden 




laded 


laded 


lie 


lay 


lain, lien* 



6o PRIMER 


OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 


Pres. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 


lose 




lorn, forlorn 




lost 


lost 


melt 


.... 


molten 




melted 


melted 


mow 




mown 




mowed 


mowed 


ride 


rode, rid* 


ridden, rid* 


ring 


rang, rung* 


rung 


rise 


rose 


risen 


rive 




riven 




rived 


rived 


run 


ran 


run 


see 


saw 


seen 


seethe 


sod 


sodden, sod* 




seethed 


seethed 


shake 


shook 


shaken 


shave 


shaved 


shaven, shaved 


shear 


sheared, shore* 


shorn, sheared 


shine 


shone 


shone 




shincd 


shined* 


shoot 


shot 


shot, shotten* 


shrink 


shrank 


shrunk 




shrunk* 


shrunken 


sing 


sang, sung* 


sung 


sink 


sank 


sunk, sunken 


sit 


sat 


sat, sitten* 


slay 


slew 


slain 


slide 


slid 


slid, slidden 


sling 


slung, slang* 


slung 


slink 


slunk 


slunk 


smite 


smote, smit* 


smitten, smit* 


sow 


.... 


sown 




sowed 


sowed 


speak 


spoke, spake* 


spoken 


spin 


spun, span* 


spun 


spring 


si)rung, sprang* 


sprung 



VI.] 


LIST OF STRONG 


VERBS. 6r 


Pres. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 


Stand 


stood 


stood 


steal 


stole, stale* 


stolen 


sting 


stung, stang* 


stung 


stink 


stank 


stunk 


stride 


strode, strid* 


stridden 


strike 


struck 


struck 
stricken 


strive 


strove 


striven 


swear 


swore 
sware* 


sworn 


swell 


swelled 


swollen, swelled 


swim 


swam, swum* 


swam 


swing 


swung 


swung 


take 


took 


taken 


tear 


tore, tare 


torn 


thrive 


throve 


thriven 




thrived 


thrived 


throw 


threw 


thrown 


tread 


trod 


trodden, trod 


wake 


woke 






•waked 


waked 


weave 


wove 


woven 


win 


won, wan* 


won 


wind 


wound 


wound 


wring 


wrung, wrang* 


wrung 


write 


wrote, writ* 


written 


wear 


woref 


wornf 



veak. The past tenser of o'/f and slick were formerly 
the p.iuivc participles of hide, rot, show^ slrew, sa'.v. 



62 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

§ 75. Alphabetical List of Weak Verbs 
Apparently Irregular. 

Class I. 



Pres. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 


bereave 


bereft 


bereft 




bereaved* 


bereaved* 


beseech 


besought 


besought 


bring 


brought 


brought 


burn 


burnt 


burnt 


buy 


bought 


bought 


catch 


caught 


caught 


cleave 


cleft 


deft 


creep 


crept 


crept 


deal 


dealt 


dealt 


dream 


dreamt 


dreamt 




dreamed 


dreamed 


dwell 


dwelt 


dwelt 


feel 


feel 


felt 


flee 


fled 


fled 


have 


had 


had 


hide 


hid 


hid, hidden 


keep 


kept 


kept 


kneel 


knelt 


knelt 


lay 


laid 


laid 


lean 


leant 


leaned 




leaned 


leant 


learn 


learnt 


learnt 




learned 


learned 


leap 


leapt 


leapt 


leave 


left 


left 


lose 


lost 


lost 


make 


mad* 


made 


mean 


meant 


meant 


pay 


paid 


paid 



VI.] 


LIST OF WEAK 


VERBS. 


63 


Pres. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 




pen 


pent 


pent 






penned 


penned 




rap (to 


transport) rapt 


rapt 




rot 


rotted 


rotten 
rotted 




say 


said 


said 




seek 


sought 


sought 




sell 


sold 


sold 




shoe 


shod 


shod 




sleep 


slept 


slept 




spell 


spelt 


spelt 




spill 


.spilt 


spilt 




stay 


staid 


staid 




sweep 


swept 


swept 




teach 


taught 


taught 




tell 


told 


told 




think 


thought 


thought 




weep 


wept 


wept 




work 


wrought 


wrought 






worked 


worked 






Class II. 






Pre*. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 




bend 


bent 


bent 
bended 




bleed 


hied 


bled 




breed 


bred 


bred 




build 


built 


built 




cast 


cast 


cast 




clothe 


clad 


chad 






clothed 


clothed 




cost 


cost 


cost 




cut 


cut 


cut 





64 PRIMER 


OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 


Pres. 


Past. 


Pass. Part. 


feed 


fed 


fed 


gild 


gilt 


gUt 




gilded 


gilded 


gird 


girt 


girt 


[wend] 


went 


see p. 50. 


hit 


hit 


hit ' ' 


hurt 


hurt 


hurt 


knit 


knit 


knit 


lead 


led 


led 


let 


let 


let 


light 


lit 


lit 




lighted 


lighted 


meet 


met 


met 


put 


put 


put 


read 


read 


read 


rend 


rent 


rent 


rid 


rid 


rid 


send 


sent 


sent 


set 


set 


set 


shed 


shed 


shed 


shred 


shred 


shred 


shut 


shut 


shut 


slit 


slit 


slit 


speed 


sped 


sped 


spend 


spent 


spent 


spit 


spit, spat* 


spit* 


split 


split 


split 


spread 


spread 


spread 


sweat 


sweat 


sweat 


thrust 


thrust 


thrust 


wet 


wet 


wet 




wetted 


welted 


whet 


whet 


whet 




whetted 


whetted 



* t^i 1 1 eti occurs in 171)1 century writers. 



ANOMALOUS VERBS. 



65 



§ 76. ANOMALOUS VERBS. 

To Be. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 





Singular. 




Plural. 


I. 


I a-m 


I. 


We are 


2. 


Thou ar-t 


2. 


Ye, you are 


3- 


He is 


3- 


They are 




Past 


Tense. 






Singular. 




Plural. 


I. 


I was 


I. 


We were 


2. 


Thou was-t 


2. 


Ye, you were 


3- 


He was 


3- 


They were 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 



Singular. 

I be 

Thou be 
He be 



Singular. 

I were 



Plural. 

1. We be 

2. Ye, you be 

3. They be 



Past Tense. 



Thou were,* wer-t 
He were 



Plural. 

We were 
Ye, you were 
They were 



• Archaic. 



J 



66 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



Imperative Mood, 

Singular — be (thou). Plural — be (ye, you). 

Infinitive, to be. Present Participle, h^-ing. 
Passive Participle, bee-«. 

Can. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 



1. 

2. 

3- 


Singular. 

I can 

Thou can-st 

He can 


I. 

2. 
J- 


Plural. 

We can 
Ye, you can 
They can 


I. 

2. 

3- 


Past 

Singular. 

I cou-1-^/ 
Thou cou-1-^-st 
He cou-1-// 


Tense. 
I. 

2. 

3- 


Plural. 

We cou-1-// 
Yc, you cou-1-^ 
They cou-1-^ 




Shall. 






Indicative Mood. 


I. 

2. 

3- 


Present 

Singular. 

I shall 
Thou shal-t 
He shall 


' Tense 
I. 

2. 

3- 


Plural. 

We shall 
Ye, you shall 
They shall 


I. 

2. 

3- 


Past 

Singular. 

I shoul-^/ 

Thou shoul-^-st 

He shoul-// 


Tense. 
I. 

2. 

3- 


Plural. 

AVe shoul-^ 
Ye, you shoulw/ 
They shoul-^ 



VI. 


] ANOMALOUS VERBS. 67 






Win. 








Indicative Mood. 






Present Tense. 




I. 

2. 

3- 


Singular. 

I will 

Thou wil-t 
He will 




I. 

2. 

3- 


Plural. 

We will 
Ye, you will 
They will 






Past Tense. 




I. 

2. 

3- 


Singular. 

I woul-^ 
Thou woul-</-st 
He woul-</ 


I. 
2, 
3- 


Plural. 

We woul-rt' 
Ye, you woul-</ 
They wowX-d 






May. 








Indicative Mood. 






Present Tense. 




I. 

2. 

3- 


Singular. 

I may 

Thoumay-est,may-st 
He may 


I. 

2. 

3- 


Plural. 

We may 
Ye, you may 
They may 






Past Tense. 




I. 

2. 


Singular. 

I migh-/ 
Thou migh 
migh 
He migh-t 


-/-est, 

-/-St 


I. 

2. 

3- 


Plural. 

We migh-/ 
Ye, you migh-/ 

Thry migh-/ 



63 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



Owe. 



Indicative Mood. 





Present 


Tense. 






Singular. 




Plural 


I. 


I owe 


I. 


We owe 


2. 


Thou owe-st 


2. 


Ye, you owe 


3- 


He owe-S 


3- 


They owe 




Past 


Tense. 




I. 

2. 

3- 


Singular. 

I ough-/ 

Thou ough-/-est 

He ough-/ 


I. 

2. 

3- 


Plural. 

We ough-/ 
Ye, you ough 
They ough-/ 



Dare. 



Indicative Mood. 







Present 


Tense. 






Singular. 




Plural. 


I. 


I dare 




I. 


We dare 


2. 


Thou dar-est, 


dar-st 


2. 


Ye, you dare 


3- 


He dare, dare 


-S 3- 

Past Tense. 


They dare 




Singular. 






Plural. 


T. 


I durs-/ 




I. 


We durs-/ 


2. 


Thou durs-/ 




2, 


Ye, you durs-/ 


3- 


Jle durs-/ 




3- 


They durs-/ 



VI.] 



AXOMALOUS VERBS. 



69 







Have. 






Fr 


esent 


Tense 




I. 

2. 

3- 


Singular. 

I have 
Thou ha-st 
He ha-s, ha-th 




I. 
2, 
3- 


Plural. 

We have 
Ye, you have 
They have 


I. 
2. 

3- 


Past 

Singular. 

I ha-// 

Thou ha-//-st 
He ha-// 


Tense. 

I. 
2. 
3- 


Plural. 

We ha-// 
Ye, you ha-// 
They ha-// 



I.MPERATivE Mood. 
Singular — have (thou). Plural — have (ye, you). 

Infinitive, to have. Present Participle, hav-Z/zg'. 
Passive Participle, ha-//. 

Do. 

Present Tense. 





Singular. 




Plural. 


I. 


I do 


I. 


We do 


2. 


Thou do-st, do-est 


2. 


Ye, you do 


3- 


He doe-s, do-th, 
do-eth 


3- 


They do 




Past Tense. 






Singular. 




Plural. 


I. 


I did 


I. 


We did 


3. 


Thou did-st,didd-est 


2. 


Ye, you did 


3. 


He did 


3- 


They did 



70 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

Imperative Mood. 
Singular — do (thou). Plural — do (ye, you). 

Infinitive, to do. Present Participle, ^o-ing. 
Passive Participle, do-«^. 

§ 77. Remarks on Anomalous Verbs. 
I. Be. 

1. Am, art, is, are, are formed from an obsolete root as, 
to be. The m in am is identical with the pronoun me. 

2. Was is the past tense of the old strong verb wes-an, to 
be. The r in were represents an older s. 

3. Bee-n shows that the old verb be was a strong verb. 

4. We sometimes find, as late as the 17th century, the verb 
be conjugated fully in the Present Indicative. 

Plural. 



Singular. 

1. I be 

2. Thou bee-st, be'st 

3. He be [be-th, be-eth] 



1. We be-n, bi-n, be 

2. Ye be-n, bi-n, be 

3. They be-n, bi-n, be 



5. When the verb is = exists, lives, it is not to be parsed as 
an auxiliary verb. (See § 66, p. 46.) 

2. Can. 

This verb once signified " to know," " to be able," cp. to con, 
cunning, uncouth. 

Could. This form is rueak. The / has crept in from false 
analogy to should and would, 

3. Shall. ] 

I. "I shall" once meant "I owe," "I am bound to," "I 
ought," " I must." It still has this sense in the second and 
third persons. It is seen more plainly in such expressions as, 
" you should be kind to one another." 



vx.] ANOAfALOUS VERBS. 71 

2. Shall is only an auxiliary of the future in the first person, 
and in interrogative sentences in the second person ; as, "shall 
you go." It is an independent verb in the second and third 
persons. 

3. Should is a weak past form. \Vhen it means ought it 
must be parsed as an independent verb. It sometimes has a 
present sense. In such expressions as, "should you see him" 
(= if you see him)= " if you shall see him," should must be 
parsed as subjunctive past, used with the force of a present 
tense. 

4. WilL 

Will once meant " to desire" " luish" 

It is used as a sign of the future in the second and third 
persons. It is an independent verb in the first person, and 
expresses determination or purpose. 

Won't = wol not contains the Middle English form of will. 

Would is a weak past tense, like should. 

When vtIII means to desire, exercise the will, it is conjugated 
regularly. Will in this sense is often found for wiliest. 

5. May. 

Maj once meant " to be able " (cp, " Do what I may, I can- 
not please him"). It expresses aXso permission. 

It must be parsed as an independent and not as an auxiliary 
verb. 

In $uch expressions as " may they be happy," " teach me that 
I may be able to learn," may is in the subjunctive mood. 

Mig^ht is a weak past tense. It preserves the g of may, 
O. E. mieg. 

6. Must. 

Must is the past tense of an old verb, mot, "to be able," 
"be obliged." It expresses necessity, and is now used with a 
present and future sense. 



72 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

7. Ought. 

Ought is the past tense of the verb outre. It has now a 
present as well as a past meaning when used to express duty, 
obligation. 

Owe originally meant " to have," " to own," hence " to have 
as a duty" 

When owe means " to have to fay," " to be in debt," it is con- 
jugated regularly : as, (i) owe, (2) owest, (3) owes ; past tense, 
owed. 

8. Durst. 

Durst is the old past tense of dare. WTien dare means to 
challenge, it is conjugated regularly, and has dared for its past 
tense and passive participle. 

9. Wit. 

The old verb to wit, " to know," makes its present tense wot/ 
its past tense is -zinst. These forms are used in the English 
Bible. To wit is the old dative infinitive, now used as aa 

adveri. 

10. Have. 

Hast = havst = haziest. 
Hath = hav'th = haveth. 
Has = havs = haves. 
Had = liavd = haved. 

II. Do. 

Did is not a weak form, like had, but a strong verb, being 
originally the reduplicated perfect tense of do, cp. Lat. dedi. 

It is used as (i) a tense auxiliary in negative and interrog- 
ative sentences ; as, " 1 do not believe it;" " Do you beliex>e it?" 
(2) To express emphasis : " I do believe that he did do it." 



Tl.] AUXILIARY VERBS. 73 

12. Go. 

Go has lost its true past tense. We supply its loss by the 
verb went, the old past tense of wend, " to turn." 

Gone shows that go was originally a strong verb, cp. cfi>»e. 

13. Let, in "let me go," is the imperative mood of the verb 
let, fo allow, permit. 

14. The subjunctive mood of anomalous verbs, with the 
exception of the verb " to be," has no suffixes to mark person. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

§ 78. The auxiliary verbs used for forming tenses 
are be, have, shall, will, do. . The verb to be is used 
for forming the passive voice. To conjugate the 
verb in all its parts, see tables, p. 47 and pp. 56, 57, 
65-69. 



74 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. |chap. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ADVERBS. 

I.— DEFINITION. 

§ 79. An Adverb is a word that modifies the 
meaning of a verb^ adjective^ or other adverb, (See 
page 13.) 

II.— CLASSIFICATION. 

Adverbs may be divided into the following 
classes : 

1. Adverbs of time. When! Then, now, often, 
soon, &c. 

2. Adverbs of place. Whersl Here, there, 
whither, &c. 

3. Adverbs of manner. Thnvl (i) Well, ill, 
badly, so, thus. Degree, quality ; (2) little, much, 
quite, very. Affirmation, negation ; (3) yes, in- 
deed, no, not. 

4. Adverbs of cause and effect. Whyi 
Therefore, thence, wherefore, whence, &:c. 



VII.] ADVERBS: INFLEXIONS. 75 

III.— INFLEXIONS. 

Most Adverbs are compared by — more and most. 

See Adjectives, § 38, p. 30. 

§ 80. Irregular Comparison of Adverbs. 



well 


better 


best 


ill 


worse 


worst 


much 


more 


most 


forth 


further 


furthest 


far 
late 


farther 
later 


farthest 
last ^' 


[rathe] 


rather 


[rathest 



§ 81. Adverbs are formed from other parts of 
speech. 

1. Nouns and Adjectives: — 

w^^-tZ-j (of necessity), noways, a/ways, unawares, 
on-ce, whils-t. This s is an old genitive 
suffix. Wfiil-om and seld-om contain an old 
dative ending. 

2. Pronouns : — 

whe-re, w/te-n, whence; why, (he-re, ihe-n, i^'c; 
he-re, &:c. 

3. Nouns or Adjectives compounded with a Pre- 
position : — 

an-on {a/ once), a-bed, a-broad, of kin, of late, of 
old, to-day, be-times, by turns, cp. at last, for 
once, vteamuhile ( :^ in the mean while). 



76 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

I.— DEFINITION. 

§ 82, Prepositions join words to mark certain 
relations. See p. 13. 

By means of Prepositions we are able to express the relation 
of things to other things, or the relation of things to their 
actions or attributes. The most common relations expressed 
by Prepositions are place, time, manner, cause. 

A Preposition joins a noun i^ox pronoun) 

(i) to another noun (or pronoun) : There is a 
book on the table. 

(2) to an adjective: He is fond 0/ his book. 

(3) to a verb: John goes to school in time. 

II.— CLASSIFICATION. 
§ 83. Prepositions arc cither simple or compound. 
I. Simple: — 
at, hy\ for, ///, of, off, out, to, up, with, on. 



VIII.] PREPOSITIONS. 77 

2. Compound : — 

(i) af-ter, ov-er, un-der, throu-gh, b-ut, a-b-out, 
a-b-ove^ un-to^ in-to, be-hind^ ivith-in, out of^ 
fro-tn^ for-thy out-side^ in-side. 

(2) a-mong, a-gain^ a-head, beside y be-yond^ 
a-thwarty be-huixt, a-roundy a-long. 

(3) From verbs (participles) : (rwing tOy notwith" 
standing, except, save. 

(4) We have many adverbial phrases; as, in- 
stead of, close to, because ofy on account of, in 
spite 0/ {= in despite oO- 

(5) Round = around ; down = a-down (= ^/ 
down, i.e. off or from the hill). 

Nigh, tuar, nearer, next, since, arc sometimes used as prep- 
ositions. 

Past, the passive participle of the vcrb/iw/, is a preposition 
in " I went past the church." 



78 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. [cHAP.ix. 



CHAPTER IX. 
CONJUNCTIONS. 
I.— DEFINITION. 
§ 84. Conjunctions join sentences. See p. 13. 

Sometimes they join two independent words together ; as, 
" three and three make six." 

II.— CLASSIFICATION. 

§ 85. Conjunctions are of two kinds : — 

1. Co-ordinate Conjunctions, which join two 
independent sentences : and, either, or, neither, nor^ 
but, also, moreover, besides. (See § 126, p. 105.) 

2. Subordinate Conjunctions, which join a prin- 
cipal sentence to another that depends upon it for 
its full meaning: for, because, since, as, if, unless, lest^ 
that, whether, till, ere, hence, while, than, so, &c. (See 

§ 130. P- 108.) 
Some conjunctions are used in pairs, and are called correlo- 
tives : both — and, what — and, as well — as, either — or, &c. 
We use many compound expressions as conjunctions: like^ 
wise, in order that, to the end that, so that, how be it, 
although, albeit, nevertheless, however, notwithstanding, 
whereas, provided that. 

See An:ily>is of Sentences, p. lOI. 



MAP. X.] INTERJECTIONS. 79 



CHAPTER X. 
INTERJECTIONS. 

§ 86. Interjections, being mere exclamations, 
do not stand in grammatical relation to any other 
word in the sentence : oh ! alas ! 

Many interjections are phrases cut short; zs^ good- 
bye ! = God be with you j marry ! = the Virgin 
Mary; wassail = was (be) //^/f (healthy) ; cp. hail/ 
all hail ! welcome ! adieu ! 

Mdiuy adverbs^ prepositions, and even verbs, are used 
as interjections: howl well! out! look! behold! 



8o PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



CHAPTER XI. 
WORD-MAKING. 

§ 87. A word that cannot be reduced to a simplerj 
form is called a root ; as, vian, good, drink. 

§ 88. Particles added to the end of the root are! 
called suffixes ; as, man-/)', good-«^JJ, drink-/«^. 

Suffixes are said to form derivatives ; as, man-/v, 
is derived from man. 

§ 89. Particles placed before the root are called 
prefixes ; as, «/z-man-ly, w/V-deed, &c. 

Prefixes are used to form compounds ; as, for- 
bid^ gain-say, &c. 

Prefixes were once independent words. Many of them are 
still so used : cp. wjij-take = take a-miss ; fore-VtiO^ •= know 
before; wwaV/'-stand, &c. 

§ 90. Compounds are also formed by putting 
two words together ; as, black-bird, ink-stand. 

§ 91. Besides English sufiixes we have very many 
others that we have borrowed from French, Latin, 
and Greek. 

§ 92, These suffixes mark different notions and 
relations. Some denote the doer or agent ; others 
form abstract nouns; a few express diminution or 
augmentation. 



xi.l ENGLISH SUFFIXES. 8i 

English Suffixes. 

§93. I.— NOUNS. 

1. The Agent: — 

-er (-ar, -or) : bak-^/-, do-^r, begg-ar, \\-ar, 

sail-<?r, cloth-i-^r, law-y-^r. 
-en : (fem.) vix-^;;, 
-Ster : (fem.) spin-^/^-r. It merely marks the 

agent in song-j/<fr, vaiSX-ster. 

2. Abstract Nouns, marking s^afg, action, con- 
dition, being, SlC. : — 

-dom : \\\s-(iom, king-^<?/«. 
-hood, -head : god-head, xwdin-hood. 
-ing: learn-/«^, \\r'\i-ing. 
-ncss: goo<\-ness, dark-«<:jj. 
-redr hat-r<'</, kind-r<r//. 
-ship: friend-j////, Xord-ship. 
-th, -t: heal-///, steal-M, bread-//4, dep-/// 
wid-///, heigh-/", drif-/, sigh-/. 

3. Diminutives : — 

-en : chick-^«. 

-ing: farth-//;^, tith-///^, shill-///^, whit-zV/^, 

wild-//r^. 
-ling: ducV-ling, gos-/tng. 
-kin: lamb-XvV/, nap-/t//x. 

^ 94. II.— ADJECTIVES. 

-ed (like /laving): \\rcU\\-C(i, hooi-etl, letter-<r^. 
-en (made oQ : go\d-en, wood-^*//. 



82 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

-ful (///// of) : truth-////, {^ds-ful. 
-ish {somewhat like) : girl-is/t, vfhit-is/t. 
-ly (like) : god-/y, good-/y, love-/)', 
-like : god-//Xr, war-///v. 
; -less (without) : shame-/ess, house-/«^. 

-y {pertaining to, abounding in) : hill-_v, storm-_y. 

-some (full of): gaxne-some, win-some. 

-ward (turning to) : ixo-ivard^ %o\x\X\-ward. 

-teen, -ty {ten) : nine-/^^//, twen-Zy. 

-th {order) : six-///, seven-///. 

-fold (folded): two-/o/d, many-fo/d. 

-ern (direction to) : east-er/i, north-r/v/. 

§ 95. III.— ADVERBS. 

-ly (like) : god-Zy, ha.d-/y, on-/y. 

-ling, -long (= -wise, -ways) : flat-////^--, liead-/£;//^'-, 
side-Aw^. 

-meal (division) : Vimh-mea/, inece-wea/. 

-ward, -wards (turning to) : hkhev-iaard, up- 
wards. 

-wise (manner, mode) : other-7£'/V^, no-wise, like- 
7c<ise. 

-vrdiy, -ways : ViX-iuays, straight-7f'<z}'. 

-S, -ce, -st : need-.y, twi-cf, beside-J, whil-j-/. 

-n : whe-«, the-;/, the-;/-ce, he-«-ce. 

-om : se\<\-om, •w\\\\-om. 

-re : whe-/r, the-r^*, \\Q-re. 

-ther : \\\\\-i/ier, \\\\-t/icr, h\-t/ur. 

(See p. 75.) 



XI.] ENGLISH SUFFIXES. 83 

§ 96. IV.— VERBS. 

1 . Frequentative : 

-k : tal-i', har-X', stal->^. 

-le, -1 : dibb-/t', spark-A*, start-A', knee-/. 

-er : ling-^r, flitt-^r, falt-^/-. 

2. Causative {making): 

-en, -n : fatt-^«, short-^"//, length-^//, lear-«. 

Some few Causative Verbs are formed from Intran- 
sitii'e Verbs by vowel-change: 



ransitlve. 


Transitive 


fall 


fell 


sit 


set 


rise 


raise 


&c. 


&c. 


§ 97- 


Compounds. 



Two words may be joined together to make a new 
word, as rail-road^ steam-boat, &c. 

The accent of the true compound is on the first syllable ; e.g. 
A crow is a Hack birJ. but not a bldckbird. 

The hyphen is u'sed in writing to mark a compound ; as, 
passir-by, coasl-liru. 

I.— NOUN COMPOUNDS. 

1. Adjective -I- Noun : black-hini, blue-bell. 

2. Noun or Pronoun + Noun : noon-tide, shoe- 
maker., hearts-ease, he-goat. 

3. Noun -f- Verb : tell-tale, scare-cr,r.c<. dare-devil. 



84 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

II.— ADJECTIVE COMPOUNDS. 

1. Noun + Adjective : sky-blue^ blood-red, foot- 
sore, sea-sick, /leari-r ending, heart-broken. 

2. Adjective + Noun : bare-foot. 

3. Adjective 4- Adjective: blue-green, red-hot, new- ^ 
made, fair-haired, six-sided. 

III.— VERB COMPOUNDS. 

1. Noun + Verb : back-bite, way-lay. 

2. Adjective + Verb : white-wash, rough-hew. 

3. Verb + Adverb : doj^ (do-off), don (do-on). 

For Adverb Compounds, see p. 75. • 

§ 98. English Prefixes. 

A- (on, in) : a-hed, a-shore, a-b-out. 

A- (out of, from) : a-rise, a-wake, a-go. 

A- (of, off) : a-kin, a-new, a-down. 

After- (following) : after-noon, after-w^rd. 

Al- (all) : al-one, /-one, a/-most, a/-so. 

At- (to) : at-one, aZ-onement. 

Be- (by) : (i) It forms transitive and intransitive 
verbs : ^^-speak, /^^-think, ^<'-dew, <5^-smear. 

(2) It forms a part of some nouns, adverbs, and 
prepositions : ^^-half, ^^-quest, be-\ow, ^^-neath, be- 
sides, b-nt. 

For- (through, thorough) : forswear, for-get, 
f or -hca^r. 

Fore- (before): /^r^r-cast, /^r^r-tell. 



XI.] LA T/y AND FRENCH SUFFIXES. 85 

Forth- : forth-com\\\g, for-\\dLxd.. 

Gain- (against) : gai/i-say (cp. confra-dict). 

In- : ///-come, /'//-land, ///-lay, ///-to. 

Mis- (amiss) : ////.$--deed, w/V-lead, ////V-take. 

Of- ( = off, from) : of-ia.], i>^-spring. 

On- : on-set, on-ward. 

Out- : <7tt/-cast, i7«/-let, c'/^/'-side, ^n/Mandish. 

Over- (above, beyond, too) : <?trr-eating, i/rr/-- 
flow, <7zrr-hear, ^rr-coat. 

To- (to, for) : /c?-day, /<7-night, /<7-gether, /o-ward, 
un-/<7-ward. 

Un- (not) : ////-true, ////-truth, ////-wise. 

Un- (back) : ////-do, ////-bolt, ////-tie. 

Under- : //«//<r/'-go,«/////<rr-mine,//«//<rr-hand, under' 
ling, ////^//rr-neath. 

Up- : ///-hold, ///-shot, ///-right, ///-ward, ///-on. 

With- (against, back) : zc//M-draw, t£'////-hold, 

§ 99. Latin and French Suffixes. 

I.— NOUNS. 

I. Agent: — 

-ain, -an: librari-<7//, vill-a///, artIs-<7/7. 

-ard : drunk-ar</, duU-a/v/, \s\z-ard. 

-ee : trust-^^, devot-^^. 

-eer, -ier : engin-^rr, brigad-/Vr. 

-our, -er I 

-or cmper-/?/-, govern-<7//r, preach-/r, 

-tor j robb-rr, act-<p/', docX-or. 

-sor 



86 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

-trix (fern.) : execu-Z^-zjc, testa-/r/jf. 

-ess (fern.) : lion-^jj-) song-str^j^-. 

-ive : capt-/Vr, fugit-zV*?. 

-iff: cait-/^, plaint-/^. 

-ant, -ent : merch-a;//, %\-ant^ stud-^///. 

-ist : evangel-/^/, novel-/jr/. 

-ite, -it : Israel-/'/^', Jesu-//. 

2. Abstract Nouns (see p. 8i) : — 

-age : cowx-age, horn-a^^, vcv:\xx\-age 
-ance, -ence : t-w^wx-ance^ obeis-a/;r<f, obedi- 

ence, ipuxvey-ance, ridd-ance. 
-ancy, -ency: hxiWi-ano', excelWncy. 
-ess, -ice, -ise : \axg-€ss, rich-^j, pxow-ess, 

merchand-/V^, just-/V^?. 
-son, som : beni-^<?//, "poi-so/i, xaxi-som. 
-tion ; benedic-//'^-^, po-^ion, xcdemp-iion. 
-sion : coxiver-swu, occa.-sio/iy pxoces-sion. 
-lence : pesti-Zena:, \'\o-lence. 
-ment : command-w^///, enchant-w^^/, nour- 

ish-/;/r///. 
-mony : matri-/;w//v, testi-w^//)'. 
-our : co\-our, (av-our, hoxi-our. 
-eur : grand-r//r, V\qu-cur. 
-ry, -ery: chival-r>', jcwel-n', poct-ry, surg- 

ery, witch-r/7. 
-tude : 1 on gi -/////<•, xnu\t'i-//nf<r. 
-ty : boiin-/v, cruel-/v, frail-^v- 
-ure : creat-//r^, vest-ure, forfeit-«r<r. 
-y : folon-v, victor-v, niiscr-v. 



;.] LATIN AND FRENCH SUFFIXES. 87 

3. Diminutives : — 

-aster : -^ott-aster. 

-el, le: parc-^/, dams-^/, cast-/^*. 

-icle, cule : zxt-icUy part-ic/e, animzWu/e. 

-ule: glob-///t'. 

-et, -let : hatch-r/, lanc-<r/, pock-^/, brace-/?/, 

stream-A*/. 
-ette: etiqu-ef/c, co<\\x-ctte. 

II.— ADJECTIVES, 
-al : \o\-al, Toy-a/, equ-a/. 

-an, -aim ccrt-<7///, hum-rt-//. 

-anei hum-a//^. 

-ant, -ent: en-anf, ramp-a/i/, pati-r///. 

-ary: contr-arj, necess-<zr)', honor-^/rj. 

-ate : consider-i//^, desol-a/^, priv-<7/^. 

-ble, -able : sta-M-, icc-l>/e, mo\-al>le, favour- 

ablCf \a.\x^-al}le, CdX-able (edi-/^/<'). 
-ese: Q\\\n-ese^'^\.2\\.-ese. 
-esque '. \i\xx\-esque, '^ixzx.wx-esque. 

le : serv-/7<r, frag-//.?. 

I, -le : civ-//, ix:i-il, gcnt-/t'. 
-ine : div-///^, infant-//;^. 
-ian: Austral-/a«, Christ-/<7«. 

ve : act-/zr, coerc-rVr, sport-wr, talk-at-/Vr. 
-ose : verb-<7j^, ')oc-osf. 
-OUS : danger-^z/j, glori-<?//5, lcpr-^//y. 
-ble : Aou-bi/-, irc-ble. 
-pie : Ux-p/f, sim-//(f. 



I 



88 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

III.— VERBS. 

-ate: alien wr/^, assassin-a/(f, accentu-a/^. 
-ish : flour-;V-^, nour-zV/^, -^yxn-ish. 
-fy : raagni-_/)', %\gvi\-fy^ simpli-/y. 

§ loo. Greek Suffixes. 

I.— NOUNS. 

-ic : log-/V, mus-/V. 

-ism : idXdX-ism, barbar-/Vw, magnet-/V/«. 

-sy:* drop-jy, pal-jj'. 

-sis : paraly-j/V. 

-y: monarch-j. 

-isk (diminutive) : aster-/V/t, obel-/V^'. 

II.— VERBS. 
-ise, -ize : civiI-/V^, fertil-z^r, anathemat-«<r. 

§ loi. Latin and French Prefixes. 

A-, ab-, abs- (away, from): a3-normal, a^-dicate, 
abs-\xz.cX, <z^j-tain, a- vert, a-d-vance, &c. 
Ad- (to) : 

By assimilation ad becomes ac-, a/-, ag-, al-, am-, an-, aj>-, 
ar-, as-, at-. 

ad-)0\n, ad-vQxi, <zr-cept. 
Ante- (before) : aw/^'-chamber, anie-dmiQ. 
Bene- (well) : ben^-fit. 

Bi- (two), bis- (twice) : <^/-ennial, ^/-ped, bis-c\\\i. 
Circum-, circu- (around): r/><r«w-stance, circu-xi. 

• Norman French form of -sis. 



XI.] LATIN AND FRENCH PREFIXES. 89 

Com-, con-, co- (with) : 

By assimilation, col-, com-, cor-. 

com-xwxwA^ ^(j/z-tend, r^-eternal, ^<?/-lect, cor-xftzX. 

Contra-, Counter- (against): contra-d\c\., counter- 
act, counter-it'it. 

De- (down): rt't'-part, ^'c'-scend, dc-iorxn. 

Dis-, di- (asunder, not): dis-cord, </;>-honour, dis- 
please, <//V-like, dif-itx. 

Demi- (half) : demi-god. 

Ex-, e- (out of, from): r.r-alt, ^-lect, ^jc-mayor. 

Extra- (beyond) : ^jr/ra-ordinary, ^*/ra-work. 

In-, en-, em- (in, into, on), with verbs : /«-vert, im- 
pose, ;7-Uiminc, <r«-rich, ^-w-dear, ^/«-balm, <rw-bolden. 

In- (not) : ///-cautious, //-legal, /'///-piety, //--regular. 

Inter-, intro- ) r •^■,- \ \ t'nter-conxsc.in/ro-dwct. 
_ r (within) \ . ' . 

Enter- ) ( enier-io.\x\, en(er-\ix'\SQ. 

Male-, mal- (ill, badly): ///a/f-factor, wrt/-treat. 

Mis- (from Lat. ot/>///x, less): /w/V-chief, w/V-fortune. 

Non- (not) : //^«-sense, «£>/i-existent. 

Ob- (in front of, against): ^^-ject, ^f-cupy, <7/-fcr, 
^/-pose. 

Par-, per- (through) : /^-r-forcc, /rr-spire, pcr- 
jure, par-dox\, /<r/-lucid, /(?/-lute. 

Post- (after) : /^j/-datc, /<7j/-scrii)t. 

Pre- (before) : pre-d\ci, //r-face. 

Pur- (forth) : ///r-chase, />i/r-vey. 

Pro- (forward, forth, for): />rc>-j(ict, />ro-pose, pro- 
noun. 

Re- (back, again): rt'-claim, rr-join, r^'-act, rt'-ncw. 



go PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

Retro- (backward) : rr//-(7-spect, ;-(?//v-grade. 

Se- (apart, away) : jt'-clude, ^^--parate, sed-\\\ow. 

Semi- (half): ^^w/-circle. 

Sub- (under): j«(^-ject, ^//^-cour, j.y/-fer, j«/-gest, 
^///^-committee, j//j-tain. 

Super-, sur- (above, over, beyond) : siiper--Ax\\cX- 
iire, ^///'-face, jwr-pass. 

Subter- (beneath) : subter-higt. 

Trans- (across): /r^z/w-figure, frans-form. 

Tra-, tres- (across): /ra-verse, fres-pass. 

Ultra- (beyond) : uUra-Viheral, u/fra-ma.Tine. 

Vice-, vis- (instead of): ztV^-regent, zvV-count, 
ivV^-roi. 

§ I02. Greek Prefixes. 

Amphi- (about, on both sides): a-w/^Z-theatre, 
flrw////-bious. 

An-, a- (not, without; like English u/i-): an-archy, 
rt-pathy. 

Ana- (up to, again, back) : ana-tomy, afia-logy. 

Anti-, ant- (opposite to, against) : a/i/i-cluist, 
anf-CLTCt\c. 

Apo- (away from, from) : a/>o-\ogy, rz/^-strophe. 

Arch-, archi- (chief, head) ; arc/i-hGTciic, arch- 
bishop, archi-icci. 

Auto- (self) : «///^-graph, auto-'b\ogxa.\)\\y . 

Cata,- cat- (down) : caia-xoiCi, r^/-hedral. 

Dia- (through) : ^//(Z-mcter, ^//^/-logue. 

Di- (in two): ^/-syllable, rt'/'-ph'.hong. 



XI.] GREEK PREFIXES. 91 

Dys- (ill) : //i\r-peptic, ^-j-entery. 

EC", ex- (out, from) : r.v-odus, rr-centric. 

En- (in) : r«-thusiasm, rw-phasis, ^/-lipsis. 

Eu- (well) : r«-phony, ^-angelist. 

Epi- (upon, or) : ('//'-tome, <?/-och. 

Hemi- (half) : //^'w/-sphere. 

Hyper- (above, over, beyond) : /n/^'r-critical, 

Hypo- (under) : /ny^^-crite, hypo-\\\^%\%. 

Meta- (after, across) : wt7a-morphosis, wr/-aphor, 
wt-/-on)'niy. 

Mon(J- (single, alone) : W(?/w-graph, wf//-archy. 

Pan- (all) : /a//-thcist. 

Para- (beside): /d-rdi-phrase, /^r^z-ble, /<zr-ody. 

Peri- (around) : /^r/-meter, /^r/-phrases. 

Pro- (before): /rr^-gramme, //-f-logue. 

Syn- (with) : jr)7;-thesis, jv//-tax, jr>7«-pathy, syl- 
lable. 



92 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



CHAPTER XII. 
SYNTAX. 

§ 103. Syntax teaches us how words are pu' 
together in a sentence. It treats of the right us« 
of the parts of speech and their inflexions. 

The chief combinations of the Parts of Speed 
are : — 

1. A verb and its subject; as, " Time flies." 

2. An adjective and its noun; as, '' A good man* 

3. A verb and its object ; as, " John hurt th< 

dog." 

4. An adverb and the verb, adjective or adverl 

to which it is joined. See examples 01 
P- 13- 

• The Jirst, which shows the relation of the Predicate to iti 
subject, is called Predicative combination. (See § 118, p 
loi.) 

The second is called Attributive combination. (See p. 103, 
for the different modes of expressing an attribute^ 

The third is called Objective combination. (See pp 42, 
104.) 

The fourth is called Adverbial combination. (See nn. 7^ 
104, 108.) ' ' '* 



SYNTAX. 93 

< 104. I. Verb and Subject. (See p. 104.) 

1. A finite verb is in the same number and person 
as its subject ; as, 

/ think We think 

Thou ihink-est You think 

lie thinks They think 

The verb must agree with its subject in number 
and person. 

/ thinks would be wrong, because / is of the first person and 
hinks of the third. 

The subject of a finite verb is said to be in the 
Nominative case. 

2. The verb to be takes a Nominative case after it 
as well as before it ; as, 

"/r<f is a king i' 

" The king is a child." 

Some verbs are used like the verb to be in this respect ; as, 
he bfcame a bankrupt ;" * he seems an iJiol ;" " he is eat/eJ a 
/>oet ," " he is maJe a knighl." 

3. When two or more subjects in the singular 
number are joined together by the conjunction and, 
the verb must be put in the plural number; as, 
"John and William are good boys." 

4. Two or more singular subjects joined by Of or 
nor, take a verb in the singular number; as, " John 
or William, or James is going with me." " Neither 
John nor William is going." 

(I) Or originally meant either (see p. 39)- I' impli«6 any 
»ne of iw >, ( r an alternative. 



94 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

(2) ^Vhen two nouns are of different numbers or persons the 
verb must agree with the latter. " Either he or I am right." 
" Neither John nor his brothers have come'' 

5. When the subject is a collective and singular 
noun the verb is sometimes put into the plural ; 
"The jury were dismissed." "The multitude wen 
divided." 

When the collective noun refers to a number of things coa 
sidered separately, then the verb should be in the plural number 
If the objects denoted by the collective noun be regarded as 
whole, the verb should be singular ; as, 

(i) The jury (each of them) were dismissed. 

(2) The council (as one body) has chosen its president. 

§ 105. 2. Adjective and Noun. 

1. When the adjective is used after the verb to bi 
it is said to be used predicatively; as, " The wound 
is mortal." When put close to the noun (before 01 
after it) it is said to be used attributively j as, " H< 
received a fnortal wonnd." 

The adjective is used predicatively after the verbs become, 
seem, appear, turn, &c. (See p. 93.) 

2. A noun {or pronoun) used as an attribute tc 
another noun, signifying the same thing, is said to b< 
in apposition with it; as, William the Norman 
conquered England " (= " the Nortnan William con- 
quer'd England "). 

The word Norman is in apposition to JVilliam, and agree 
with it in number and case. 

2. Sometimes the preposition 0/ comes before the apposi- 
tional word ; as. the county of Rutland = the county Rutlandi 



XII.] SYNTAX. 95 

A noun {or pronoun) in the Possessive case stands 
in the relation of an attribute to another noun. 

Sometimes the preposition ^ marks the same re- 
lation as the sign of the possessive case. (See p. 26.) 
*' Eye 0/ neiL'i and toe of frog, 
Wool of bat and tongue of dog, 
Adder's fork and blind-worvis sting, 
Lizard's leg and howlet's wing." 

Macbeth iv, I. 

§ 106. 3. Verb and Object. 
I. Direct Odject. 

1. The direct object of a transitive verb is put 
in the Objective case; as, "The lightning struck\\\Q. 
tree and made it wither." (Sec p. 25.) 

2. The verb teach, ask, forgive, tell, Src, take two 
Objectives, one of a person and the other of a thing. 
"He taught his //////^ history." " They asked //;'/// 
his name." 

The verbs to make, name, call, esteem, k.c., take two 
Objectives of the same person or thing; as, "They 
made him king." " They called John a traitor." 

3. Intransitive verbs often take an objective case, 
akin in form or meaning to the verb itself; "He 
dreamed a dream." " They 7cient their 7ciay." 

The Objective case is sometimes used after intran- 
sitive verbs to express(i) time — how long 1 {2) space — 
htno much ? " Tlie battle lasted tlie whole day." " He 
slept three hours." " I walked two miles a day." 

The Objective case follows some few impersonal 



96 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

verbs, as it did in Old English ; as, it repents me; 
me lists; it ails me; it irks me; it recks me; it con- 
cerns us; it grieves me. 

2. Indirect Object. 
The Indirect Object comes after many transitive 
and intransitive verbs. It may be known by asking 
the question fo or /or whom or what? (Seep. 25.) 
" He built me a house." " Give fne my book," 

The indirect object is used with the impersonal 
verbs, becotne, behove, please, likes, beseem, &c. ; cp. 
met/links = it seems to me; 7nethought =■ it seemed to 
me. " Good actions become wj." " It behoved C7/r/V/ 
to suffer." "If it please you;" or, ^^ if you please." 
The Indirect object follows the verb worth; as, 
"woe worth the day." In imitation of this we have, 
"woe is me;" "well is him." 

The words /t7v(and unlike), nigh, near, next, are followed bjr 
the Indirect object. " He is like a giant." He was near us." 

Many adjectives (as well as veros) are followed by the prep- 
osition to, and the governed noun- may be treated as the indirect 
object ; 3.^, dear to,cruelto, fair to, similar to, obedient to, equal to. 

The adjectives worth and worthy (also unworthy) are some- 
times followed by the Indirect Object; as, " it is not worth one's 
while." 

In O. E. these adjectives, like many others, governed the 
genitive case, cp. the adjectives, slow of, swift of, hard of, 
weary of, worthy of, guilty of, fond of, proud of, ashamed of; 
and the verbs, think of, smell of, taste of, laugh at (originally 
laugh of). 

The genitive was once used with the adjectives long, high, 
broad, &c. ; as, " the box was six yards long, and six feet broad, 
and fen inches high;" " the boy is two years old." 



XII.] SYNTAX. 97 

§ 107. 4. Adverb and Verb, Adjective, 
or Adverb. 

Adverbs, as we have already seen (p. 74), are 
joined to verbs, adjectives, or adverbs, to express cer- 
tain relations of time, place, manner, cause, and effect. 

The adverb is not always a simple word. It is 
often (i) a phrase, (2) clause or sentence; as, 

1. " He went on shore." 

" He came down step by step." 

2. " T/ie day having dawned \\^ set out." 
" When the day dawned WQ set out." 

(Sec § 130, p. loS.) 

MISCELLANEOUS RULES. 

I. Pronouns. 

§ 108. The relative agrees with its antecedent in 
number and person ; as, " The boy who was late was 
punished;" " He Ma/" is contented is happy;" "O 
thou that leadest Israel." 

The relative does not always agree in fuse with its relative. 
" He whom we worship, by whose gift we live, is the Lord." 

.\s the relative introduces a new clause, its case must depend 
upon its relation to the verb in its own clause. In the example 
quoted above, whom is objective, because governed by the tran- 
sitive verb worship. " Tell me whom I am " is wrong ; it ought 
to be, " Tell me who I am." " Do you know who you speak 
to," ought to be, " Do you know whom" &c. 

§ 109. The Indefinite Pronouns, each, every, 
cither, neither, are sim^u/ar, and must be followed 
by a verb and pronoun in tlie singular. *' F.ach person 
knows his own property." ''''Every bird tries to pro- 
tect its young." " Either of the two is to be taken." 



98 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

2. Verbs. 

§ no. The Indicative Mood states a positive 
fact, and is used in simple assertions and questions. 
(See p. 43.) 

§ 1 1 1. The Subjunctive Mood is used to express 
a doubt, supposition, opinion. The inflected sub- 
junctive has nearly gone out of use. It is still found 
after such conjunctions as if, unless, though, lest, till; 
as, "//"fortune serve me, I'll requite this kindness." 
" For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak." 
" Let me stand here //// thou retneinber it." (See p. 43.) 

§ 112. Infinitive Mood. 
The Infinitive Mood is used after the verbs 
shall, 7C)ill, may, can, must, dare, let, do, without the 

sign to before it; as, "he can read," "he will talk." 

1. The infinitive without to occurs after the transitive verbs 
bid, make, see, hear, feel. 

2. It is used after ^0; cp. "go seek" which is sometimes 
changed to "go and seek." 

The gerundial infinitive is the infinitive with the 
preposition to {:=for) before it, used after nouns and 
adjectives; as, " a house to let," " ready to go," " hard 
to tell." Here the infinitives are equal to verbal nouns 
with the preposition /«3ry as, to let ^^ for letting, &c. 

The gerundial infinitive is also used to mark a 
purpose; as, "What went ye out to seel" 

The gerundial infinitive is so called because it often corre- 
sponds to a gerund in Latin. 

The simple infinitive must be either in the nomi- 
native or objective case ; as, " to err is human " 
(nom.); "he began to err" (obj.). 



XII.] SV.VTAX. 99 

§ 113. Participles. 

Participles in -I'ng' and -ed bjq used as adjectives, 
and always refer to some noun in the sentence to 
which they belong. They may be used attributively 
or predicatively (see p. 45); as, "a loving mother;" 
" a drunken man ;" " a bruised reed." 

Participles {ami Adjectives) with the before them are used as 
nouns; as, "the living/" "the dead;" "the first begotten;" 
" the Lord's anointed" 

The Participle is sometimes used absolutely with 
the Nominative case before it; as, "The dawn ap- 
pearing, we rose ;" "This done, Mazeppa spread his 
cloak." 

The participle is said to be ueed absolutely because it stands 
in no grammatical relation to any other word in the sentence. 

The nominative before the participle is called the Nomina- 
tive absolute, because it agrees with no finite verb. 

§ 114. Verbal Nouns. 

Verbal Nouns in -ing. These must not be 
confounded with present participles in -ing. 

Verbal nouns are used either as nominatives or 
objectives. 

(i) The mending of the table will not take long. 

(2) The mending must be done at once. 

(3) The tabic wants mending. 

(4) The cost of mending the table will not be 
jjreat. 



loo. PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

The verbal noun mending in (4) seems to govern the noun 
table : but in older English the preposition 0/ came between 
the verbal noun and the following noun, and the phrase would 
have stood thus : " The cost 0/ the mending of the table." 
See example (i), p. 99. 

In such phrases as, "The house is building" &c. (= " the ^ 
house is a-l<ui!ding"), the form in -ing is a verbal noun. 

3. Prepositions. 

§ 115. Prepositions are said to govern the object- 
ive case, (See p. 25.) 

Notwithstanding, considering, respecting, &c., were once 
participles used absolutely. (See p. 99.) They have now got 
the force of prepositions. 

4. Conjunctions. 

§116. Conjunctions simply join sentences. They 
must be carefully distinguished from (i) Adverbs, 
{2) Prepositions. 

Some words, as save, exccpi, but, ere, are used both 
as Conjunctions and Prepositions. 
But is used as three parts of speech. (See p. 14.) 
(i) " I cannot hut believe." 

Here not but must be taken together as a compound 

Adverb = only. 

(2) In " There is no one but knows," but stands for the older 

English, that ne = that not. It must be parsed as a Conjunction. 

Cp. " No roof arose, but was open to the homeless stranger " 

= " No roof arose that was not," &c. 

% 



XIII.] 



ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. 

§ 117. A complete thought put into words is called 
a Sentence. 

Sititt-nci (Lat. sententia) means judgment, sense. A complete 
sentence makes complete sense. Every sentence expresses 
either an assertion or a question, command, wish, &c. 

To analyse a sentence is to break it up into its separate parts. 

§ 118. Subject and Predicate. 

We can break up every sentence into two parts : — 

( 1 ) The name of that of which we speak. 

(2) What is said about the thing spoken of. 
The name of that which is spoken of is called the 

Subject. 

What is said about the subject is called the 
Predicate. 



Subject. Predicate. 




Corn grows. 




Rain falls. 




Snow is white. 




Every sentence mutt contain these two parts. 


Sometimes 


the subject is omitted ; as. Go —£0 [thou]. 




Subject. Prkdicate. 




thou go 





I02 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



§ 119. The Subject. 

As the Subject names something that is spoken 
of, it must be : — 

1. A Noun. (See p. 17 for the various kinds 
of nouns ^ 

2. Some word or words that may take the place 
and do the duty of a noun, as a Pronoun 
or a Sentence. 

Examples : — 

Subject. Predicate. 
Man is mortal. 

He is erring. 

He is in error. 

Erring is human. 

To err is human. 

That he erred is certain. 
An adjective with the definite article is equivalent to a 

noun; as, " tlu ^/tW" = "dead man;" cp. "//;<r wise are 
respected." 

§ 120. The Enlarged subject. The simple 
subject is a word in the Nominative case. We may 
call this the gram?natical subject. 

Every noun, however, may have an adjective 
joined to it to qualify it. The subject noun with i^s 
adjective is called the enlarged subject ; as, 
(i) Sharp words give offence. 

(2) A virtuous man will be rewarded. 



Simple Subject, 
(i) Words 
(2) Man 



Enlargement. 

sharp 

a, virtuous 



Predicati:. 
give offence, 
will be rewarded 



XIII.] ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. 103 



Enlarged Subject. 
(i) Sharp words 
{2) A virtuous man 



Predicate, 
give offence, 
will be rewarded. 



§ 121. Instead of adjectives we may use words, 
phrases, or sentences, to qualify or enlarge the sub- 
ject These are called Attributes, and maybe : — 
(i) A noun or pronoun in the possessive case; 
as, ''''Johns hat is lost;" "/«Vcoat is torn." 

(2) An adjective phrase ; as, *' A man oi wisdom 
is respected;" "A walk in the fields is pleas- 
ant ;" " A desire to learn is to be encouraged." 

(3) An adjective sentence; as, "John, who is a 
carpenter y made this box." 

(4) A shortened adjective clause, called a noun 
in apposition; as, " John, the carpenter, made 
this box." 

Participles, whether they come before or after the noun, are 
adjectives; as, "ratlin:^ stones gather no moss," or "stones, 
rolling continually, gather no moss." 

§ 122. The Predicate. 

The Predicate is that part of the sentence that 
makes a statement about the subject. It must there- 
fore contain the chief verb of the sentence. When the 
l)redicatc isasingleword it isavcrb; as, "DogS(J<7r/'." 

The verb " to be," when it docs not mean to live, or exist, 
cannot form a predicate. \Ye must therefore join some word 
to it to make the predicate ; as, " the earth is round'' 

Ilcrc we predicate of the earth, roundness, not existence; 
cp. " The lion it a noble animal" 

Other verbs, like become, seem, lic, require another word 
after them to form tlie predicate. (See pp. 93, 94.) 



104 riilMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 



§ 123. When the Predicate consists of more than 
a finite verb it may be called the Enlarged predicate ; 
as, " The village master iaught his little school." 

AVhen the simple predicate is a transitive verb an 
object must of course be added. (See § 59, p. 42.) 



Subject. 
The villaEre master 



Predicate. 
taught 



Object. 
his little school. 



(i) The object must be a noun, or some word doing duty for 
a noun. It may have attributes joined to it. See Subject, 
p. 102. 

Some verbs have two objects, (i) direct, (2) indirect ; as, 



Subject. 
They 



Predicate. 
gave 



Object, 
him (indirect) a book (direct). 



Others have two direct objects : 



Subject. 
They 



Predicate. 
made 



Object. 
him a kin!?. 



Some writers on grammar call the object the Completion oj 
the Predicate, or the Complement of the Predicate. 

§ 124, The verb may be qualified by an Adverb, 
^r some word or words (phrase or sentence) doing 
duty for an adverb. This addition to the predicate 
is called the Extension of the Predicate or Ad- 
verbial qualification of the Predicate ; as, 



Subject. 


Predicate. 


Extension. 


He 


acted 


wisely. 


He 


acted 


in a wise fnanncr. 


He 


acted 


as a wise man should act. 



XIII.] 



AXALYSIS OF SICXTEXCES. 



§ 125. The Extensions are nothing else than 
adverbial adjuncts or qualifications of the Predicate, 
and they may be put into the same classes as Ad- 
verbs (see p. 74), according as they mark the when, 
u'/ierc, how, and why of the Predicate. 

Examples : — 



Subject. 


Predicate. 


Object. 


Adverbial Adjuncts. 


The village- 
preacher's modest 
mansion 


rose 




near yonder 
copse (place). 


All 


met 




here (place) on 

a Sunday-eve 

(time). 


I 


knew 


him 


well (manner). 


Jle 


gave 


me a book 


yesterday (lime). 


Swallows 


appear 




spring coming 
(time). 


He 


came 




to see me (cause). 



§ 126. The Compound Sentence. 

When a sentence contains only one subject and one 
finite verb, it is called a Simple sentence. Two 



loG PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

simple sentences may be united together by a co- 
ordinate conjunction (see p. 78) to form a compound 
sentence; as, ^'' Birds Jly 3.\\d Jish swim." 

Each member of the compound sentence makes 
complete sense by itself, and neither depends upon 
the other for its meaning. The second member of a 
compound sentence is said to be co-ordinate with the 
first. 

(1) Compound sentences maybe contracted; as, "John re- 
turned home and James returned home yesterday "=" John 
and James returned home yesterday." 

(2) And is often used to join two or more co-ordinate terms 
belonging to the same word in the sentence ; as, that new and 
expensive toy is spoilt. 

Subject. I Predicate. 

That new and expensive toy | is spoilt. 

§ 127. The Complex Sentence. 

We have seen that a sentence may do duty for (i) 
a Noun, (2) an Adjective, (3) an Adverb. As 
such sentences depend upon another sentence called 
the Prituipal one, for their full meaning, they are 
hence called Subordinate sentences. Subordi- 
nate sentences are of three kinds. Substantival, 
Adjectival, and Adverbial. The principal sen- 
tence, with the subordinate part or parts, is called a 
Complex Sentence. 

In the complex sentence, " They lived unknown, till perse- 
cution dragged them into fame," the two sentences are : — 



xiii.l ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES. 107 

(i) " They lived unknown." 
(2) " Persecution dragg'd them into fame." 
Lach sentence as it stands makes complete sense ; but the/><// 
meaning of sentence two is not felt before it is joined and related 
to sentence one by the connecting word or conjunction ////, 

I. Noun-Sentences. 

§ 128. A Substantival or noun-sentence does 
the duty of a noun, and may be used as the subject 
or object of the verb in the principal sentence. It is 
sometimes introduced by the word that ; as, (subject) 
" That Julius Ccesar tm^aded Britain is a well-known 
fact ; " (object) " he tried to prove that the earth is 
not round." 

Indirect questions are often objects ; as, "Tell me 7vho said 
so," "Ask him wky he did so," "Can he explain hoiu it is done." 

2. Adjective-Sentences. 

§ 1 29. The Adjectival sentence does the duty of 
an adjective and qualifies some noun in the principal 
sentence. 

It is very often joined to the principal sentence by means of 
a relative pronoun or relative adverb. 

(i) At daybreak on a hill they stood that over- 
looked the moor. 
(2) And shall the audacious traitor brave 
The presence where our banners wave f 
In (i) the adjective sentence qualifies the noun Milt in the 
principal sentence. 

In (2) the adjective sentence qualifies the noun presence In the 
principal sentence. Notice that where = in which. 



lo8 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. [chai>. 

3. Adverb-Sentences. 

v< 1 30. The Adverbial sentence does the duty 
of an adverb, and modifies some verb, adjective, or 
advirb, in the principal sentence. 

The classification of adverbial sentences is the 
same as that of adverbs. (See p. 74.) Adverbial sen- 
tences are generally joined to the principal sentence 
by a subordinate conjunction. (See p. 78.) 

Examples : — 

" On Linden, when the sun ivas lo7v, 
All bloodless lay the untrodden snow." 

" ^Ve went where the lions were kept. " " He died <ts 
he had lived." " That man is as good as he is great." 
"He is taller t/ian his brother." ''The higher he 
climbs the more heavily he will fall." " The weather 
was so cold that I 7C>as nearly frozen." 

A subordinate member of a complex sentence may stand in 
the place of principal to some other subordinate sentence, that 
modifies one of its elements." [See (2), p. no.] 



\ 



xin.] 



A.VALYSIS OF SEyTE.VCES. 



109 






-3*3 

O w "a 



c^ S 






^ o 
1 * 

C O 

;= o 

• ^ u 

o • 

I- 

Z £ 
15^ 



.2 -5 -.5 


there, at the 

foot of yonder 

beech (]ilace) 

at noontide 

(time) 


2 S, 


• 


by (place). 


u 

IS* 





its old fantastic 
root 










J 

u 


would 
slrctcli 


wreathes 


would 
pore 
upon 

babbles 


3 


5 i 3i 2 

i 


€1 
U 

e 
c 



-3 
c 

u2 


Principle Sentence. 


Subordinate, Ad- 
jective t(j t>it-ih in 
sentence (l). 


Principal Sentence, 
Co-ordinate with 

(0- 


Subordinative, 

Adjective to brook 

i" (4). 


« 

e 

V 

s 


(i) There, nt the 

foot of yonder 

nodding beech, 

his listless length 

at noontide would 

he stretch. 


(2) That wreathes 

its old fantastic 

root so high. 


(3) An<l [he woul.l] 
pore upon the 
brook. 


5 
H 

3 



no PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 






c ^ 












^- o o 
























"? w C rt 












■erbi 
unc 
nsio 
edic 


; 


; 


I 


















•o-o i:^, 












<:<^^ 


























rt 












C « 












C ~ -. 






V o 


^ 


o 


o ex, 
rt 




• 


if 


•a 

<< 










«> 






C 


.y 


u 


c 


c 
o 

w 
4< 


•5 




ll 


o 


rt 

.6 




> 


^ 


tn 






1^ 


rt 





O 




in 






V) 


_o 








■"■ 


















u 


t3 
1 


3 


,i3 
O 




a 


•S 


O 


IS 




o 






1 Vi 


^^ 




43 


C X, 


c 




1 ^-1 


U 

c 




c 


w" 5 • 


rt 2 


§2- 


c 


«r.s^ 


u 


rt '~ '? 


:r ^ c 


w 


III 

S Si 


o 

-3 

a 


CO—' 


.S o 
1.^ 


u rt "^ 


-rt 

a. 
'u 

c 


'u. 


3 ^ 
C/2 J* 


^1 


TS 

< 






rt . 


1) 


w 








i" c iy 


^ 


.^ 






art 2 
•^ rt ~ 


u. . 


J 


>« 


.t^ii 


o 

c 

c 


o-a 
"■ 13 




is 


^rt 

O w 

3« 


C/J 


2£§ 




|S 




s ft. 


2 


3 








«) "^ 











XIII.] 



AXALYSIS OF SENTENCES. 



-3 O 



8 r 



3 •'^-, 

"*^ = !? 
_ c a 

•Z u.*- 
«< --« 

<- 




wholly (manner) 

from affection 

and good-will 

(cause) 


finding (cause) 

( = because he 

found) only 

(manner) 




.8 
o 


- 






him too high 
a compli- 
ment. 


V 

1 

'■5 
1. 


was 

acquainted 

with 


13 

CI 

•a 

U 


^ 


r2 

rt 


V 

3 


u 

'in 


n 
n 






V 

u 

c 
« 
e 

o 
•c 

B 

'-2 


Subordinate, 

Adverbial to 

(3). 


Subordinate, 
Noun io find- 
ing in (3). 


c 


Subordinate, 

Noun to told 

i«^ (3). 


1 


(i) As soon as 

Sir Roger was 

acquainted with it, 


(2) that his ser- 
vant's indiscretion 
proceeded wholly 
from affection 
and good-will. 


(3) he (finding, 

&c. ) only told 

him 

1 


rt 

•= s 
3 



112 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

^ 132. MODEL OF GRAMMATICAL PARSING. 

I. Noun: — i. A'/W( Common, Proper); 2. Num- 
ber ; 3. Gender ; 4. Case ; 5. Syntax. 

II. Pronoun: — i. A7//</ (Personal, Demonstra- 
tive, &c.); 2. Person; 3. Number j 4. Gender; 5. 
Case ; 6. Syntax. 

III. Adjective: — i. Kind; 2. Degree of Com- 
parison; 3. Function (attribute of, or predicate of). 

IV. Verb: — i. Kind (Transitive, Intransitive); 

2. Conjugation (Strong, Weak); 3. Voice ; 4. Mood ; 
5. Tense; 6. Person; 7. Number; 8. 6>'«/a;c (agree- 
ing with); 9. Parts (Present, Past, Passive Parti- 
ciple). 

V. Adverb: — i. Kind; 2. Degree of Comparison; 

3. Function (qualifying Verb, Adjective, or Adverb). 

VI. Preposition: — i. Kind; 2. Function (join- 
ing a Noun to a Noun, &c.). 

VII. Conjunction: — i. Kind; 2. Function join- 
ing two sentences co-ordinately or subordinately). 

Example. 

j My father lived at Blenheim then, 

' Yon little stream hard by; 

They burnt his dwelling to the ground, 
And he was forced to fly. 
JIfy .... Pronoun, personal, possessive, 1st person, 

singular number, common gender, attribute 
of father. 
fathtr , , , . Noun, common, singular number, masculine 

gender, nominative case, subject of lived. 



XIII.] 



PARSING. 



"3 



liv(d 



at 
BhnJuim 



thin 
Yon 



UtlU 



Thty 



\'crb, intransitive, weak conjugation, active 
voice, indicative mood, past tense, 3rd 
person, singular number, agreeing with its 
subject father. Parts : live, lived, lived. 

Preposition, joining lived and Blenheim. 

Noun, proper, singular number, neuter gen- 
der, objective case, after at. 

Adverb of time, qualifying the verb lived. 

Pronoun, demonstrative, used as the attribute 
of stream. 

Adjective of quality, positive degree, attribute 
of stream. 

Noun, common, singular number, neuter 
gender, objective case, governed by the 
compound preposition fiard by. 

Pronoun, demonstrative, 3rd person, plural 
number, common gender, nominative case, 
subject of burnt. 

Verb, transitive, weak conjugation, active 
voice, indicative mood, past tense, 3rd 
person, plural number, agreeing with its 
subject they. Parts : burn, burnt, burnt. 

Pronoun, demonstrative, possessive, 3rd per- 
son, singular number, masculine gender, 
attribute of dwelling. 

Noun, common, singular number, neuter 
gender, objective case, governed by the 
transitive verb burnt. 

Preposition, joining burnt and ground. 

Adjective, demonstrative, attribute oi ground. 

Noun, common, singular number, neuter gen- 
der, objective case, after the preposition to. 



\ 



114 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

And .... Conjunction, co-ordinate, joining the two 

sentences, " They burnt," &c., to " He was 
forced to fly." 

he .... Pronoun, demonstrative, 3rd person, singular 

number, masculine gender, nominative 
case, agreeing with the verb was forced. 

luas forced* . . . . Verb, transitive, weak, passive voice, indica- 
tive mood, past tense, 3rd person, singular, 
agreeing with its subject he. Parts : force, 
forced, forced. 

to fly .... Verb, intransitive, weak, iHfinitive mood, 

indirect object, after was forced. 



§ 133. Examples of Analysis of Sentences 
not in a Tabular Form. 

(See § 131, p. 109.) 

I. My worthy friend, Sir Roger, when we are talk- 
ing of the malice of parties, very frequently tells us 
an accident that happened when he was a school- 
boy. 



My worthy friend. Sir Roger, very frequently tells us an 
accident 



♦ The verbs luaj xnA /orctd may be parsed separately, as follows : 
viat ... Verb, intransitive, strong, auxiliary, indicative mood, past 

tense, 3rd person, singular, agreeing with its subject he. 
/orctd... Verb, transitive, weak, passive participle of the verb force, 

forming with wot a passive past tense. 



XIII.] 



PARSING. 



B. 

fwhen) we are talking of the malice of parties 

C. 



that happened 



(when) he was a school-boy. 



D. 



A. Principal sentence. 

B. Subordinate, Adverbial (time) to tells in A. 

C. Subordinate, Adjectival to accident in A. 

D. Subordinate, Adverbial (time) to happened in C. 







A. 


Friend 




Subject. 


My worthy, Sir Roger, 




Attributes of Subject. 


tells 




Predicate. 


us 

an accident 


. 


Object, 


very frequently 




Extension of Predicate (time), 
B. 


When 




Connective, joining A and B. 


we 




Subject. 


are talking of 




Predicate. 


malice 




Object. 


the, of parties 




Attributes of Object. 
C. 


That 




Subject. 


happened 




Predicate. 
D. 


WTicn 




Connective, joining C and D. 


he 




Subject. 


was a school-boy 




Predicate. 



Ii6 PRIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, [chap. 

2. I had worn out all the waistcoats I had, anc 
my business was now to try if I could not make 
jackets out of the great watch-coats which I pos-^ 
sessed, and such other materials as I had. 

A. 

I had worn out all the waistcoats 

B. 

[that] I had 

C. 
(and) my business was now to try 

D. 

(if) I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats and 
such other materials 

E. 

(which) I possessed 

F. 

as I had. 

A. Principal ; co-ord. with C. 

B. Subord. Adject, to waistcoats in A. 

C. Principal ; co-ord. with A. 

D. Subord. Noun (obj.) to try in C. 

E. Subord. Adject, to luaistcoats in D. 

F. Subord. Adject, to materials in D. 

A. 
I Subject, 

had worn out Predicate, 

waistcoats Object, 

all the Attributes of Object. 



xm.] 




PARSFA'G. 117 






B. 


I 

had 

[that] 




Subject. 

Predicate. 

Object. 

C. 


And 
business 
m7 
•w'a£ now 


to try 


Connective, joining A and C. 

Subject. 

Attribute of Subject. 

Predicate. 

D. 


If 

I 

could not 

jackets 


make 


Connective, joining C and D. 

Subject. 

Predicate. 

Object. 



out of the great watch-coats \ . er, y. 1 .1 

„ , , / Extension of Predicate (material 

and (out oQ such other ma- > . 

\ instrument). 



terials 



possessed 
which 



I 

had 



E. 

Subject. 
Predicate. 
Object.* 

F. 

Subject. 

Predicate. 

Object.* 



* Notice that the relatives %vhick and as are used as Connectifet. 



I IS 1' RIMER OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 



CONTRACTIONS. 



0. E. 


= 


Old English. 


Fr. 


= 


French. 


N.-Fr. 


sc 


Norman-French, 



I^tteatare primers. 



English Grammar 
Exercises. 



BY THE 

REV. RICHARD MORRIS, M.A., LL. jl»., 

PKJiSIDENT OF THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

Author of " BUtorical OtUlinet of English Aecideiiee," " Eletnent»i\ 
L*.»»on» in Hitlorical EngliA Oranimar, dre. 

AUD 

H. COURTHOPE BOWEN, M.A., 

HEAD MASTER OF THE GROCERS' COMPANY'S SCHOOLS, 
HACKNEY DOWNS, 

Editor of " Studitt in English," "Lord Clive," tte. 



Itovonio: 

CANADA PUBLISHING COMPANY 
(limited), 



Entered according to Art of the Parliament of Canada, in the 
year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-eight, by 
Macmillan & Co., in the officaoi the Minister of Agriculture. 



CONTENTS. 



On Teaching Grammar -.-... 
On the Use of Teaching Grammar - • . . 
On the Method and Aim of the following Exercises - 

Exercises - ' 

The Definitions of the Parts of Speech ... 
The Parts of Spec Ii - • , . . . 
Phrases ---.-.^.- 

Sentences » . 

Analysis --...-.. 

Nouns 

Gender, Number, and Case of Nouns 

Adjectives 

Pronouns 

Verbs .-•..- . . 

Auxiliary Verbs and Others sometimes mistaken forlhem 

Verbal Nouns and Participles 

The Infinitive 

Adverbs 

Prepositions - 

Conjunctions - 

Interjections • 

Word-Maki:,- 

Syntax - 

Parsiii? • 



PAGE 
119 
119 
121 

'33 
141 
146 
150 

154 
i^''3 
167 
169 

173 
17S 
182 
1S5 
189 

'93 
t9S 
202 
206 
207 
210 
?.I7 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR 
EXERCISES. 

ON TEACHING GRAMMAR. 

The object we should have in teaching English children 
English grammar seems to us so often ill understood, 
that we think it may be useful to preface the following 
exercises by a few remarks ; first, on the use of teaching 
grammar, and secondly, on the way we intend the follow- 
ing exercises to be used. 

On the Use of Teaching Grammar. 

So many slighting remarks have been made of late 
on the use of teaching grammar as compared with 
teaching science, that it is plain the fact has been lost 
sight of that grammar is itself a science. The object 
we have, or should have, in teaching science is not to 
fill a child's mind with a vast number of facts that may 
or may not prove useful to him hereafter, but to draw 
out and exercise his powers of observation, and to 
show him how to make use of what he observes. The 
facts must be laid before him, his notice must be 



ENGLISH GRA MMAR EXERCISES. 



attracted to them, and he must be tauglit how to 
arrange them in such a manner that he may make use 
of them. A mere knowledge of facts is a barren know- 
ledge, unless a knowledge of their use be also acquired. 
And here the teacher of grammar has a great advantage 
over the teacher of other sciences, in that the facts he 
has to call attention to lie ready at hand for every pupil 
to observe without the aid of apparatus of any kind \ 
while the use of them also lies within the personal 
experience of everyone. 

If we are to find fault with the teaching of grammar, 
or of languages, it should rather be with the methods 
adopted than with the things themselves. The teaching 
of a foreign language so constantly fails because the 
science wliich treats of the facts of the language is 
attempted before the learner is in any way made 
familiar with the facts themselves. The cart is put be- 
fore the horse. The pupil should be first made familiar 
with the language, and then, and not till then, should 
his attention be called to the facts, and he should 
be taught how to arrange them in the most usable 
way.. 

In teaching an English child English grammar we 
may assume that he is conversant with the language, 
and all we have to do is to call his attention to the 
facts, and to show him how to arrange them that he 
may best make use of them. Up to the time that the 
teacher does this for him he is what Bacon calls an 
"expert": he has experience, but he is not learned, 
or skilled in the use of that of which he has gained 



ON TEACHING GRAMMAR. 



:.\I)ericncc. \\^\?,ViOX educated. His knowledge is barren. 
It is limited to just what he has experienced, and no- 
:hing more. It is productive of nothing beyond. It is 
not usable knowledge, and therefore, properly speaking, 
not knowledge at all. 

The teacher of grammar, as of any other science, 
should therefore bear thib in mind ; that his object 
should be to call the pupil's attention to facts, the more 
familiar the better, and then to teach him how to ar- 
range those facts that he may be able to make use of 
them. Mere hearifig of lessons, mere driving of facts 
into a boy's brain, is not teaching. The teacher must 
remember that his task is to draw out and exercise his 
pupil's powers of observing, and to show him how to 
use them. If he does this thoroughly on any one sub- 
ject (and he cannot do it unless he is well acquainted 
with that subject), he confers an inestimable benefit on 
his pupil, and sends him out into the world, trained to 
take note of facts, and fitted to deal with facts and to 
make use of them. 

Grammar may therefore in this way be made as useful 
a part of education as any other science. 

O.v THE Metk'od and Aim of the following 
Exercises. 

VVc do not intend the following exercises as tasks 

hich may be set to pupils, and exacted of them with- 

out any thou;;ht or teaching on the master's part \ nor 

do we intciid them as exercises for the m.ister's 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



thought alone, in the results of which the pupils a.e 
only required to acquiesce. We rather hope that they 
will serve as food for thought to both master and 
pupils. 

Before commencing each exercise, the teacher should 
carefully point out and explain its object and method, 
and should then carefully argue out with his pupils 
some dozen or so of the examples ; not keeping all 
the argument to himself, which would render his 
lesson tedious, but encouraging his pupils to take 
part in it, and viewing the matter from every possible 
standpoint. He next should set a certain number of 
examples to be worked through by his pupils alone, 
and then, taking their results, should confirm or upset 
them by arguing through the questions anew with his 
class, taking care not to discourage beginners by too 
severe criticism. To merely mark a result as wrong 
without explanation is, we all know, quite useless ; 
and to discourage a learner from observing and think- 
ing is, of course, fatal. Then some more examples 
should be given to the pupils, and the same 
method pursued as before to the end of the exer- 
cise. And so with the next exercise, to the end of the 
book. 

In some cases the exercises are only suggested, and 
not printed in full. The method and the object are 
stated, but the examples are not given. This we have 
done only when the examples may be readily chosen 
by the teacher from any book at hand, and are all the 
fresher and m<ire likely to attract and hold attention ii 



ON TEACHING GRAMMAR. 123 

chosen from a book with which the learners are then 
and there occupied. Indeed, in the case of every 
exercise the teacher will do well to add to the examples 
given a certain number taken from whatever standard 
book of literature his class may be engaged with at the 
time. 

We commence our exercises by calling the pupil's 
attention to the -words in a sentence, and bid him 
observe their meaning, that is ivhat they tell us. We 
point out that these meanings may be divided into eight 
general classes, and the words therefore into the same 
number. Thus, one word tells us the name of a thing, 
another what a thing does, and so on. These classes 
we C2\\ parts of speech. We commence, of course, with 
the very simplest of simple sentences, taking them 
from any book, or making them up as we go along. 
We then point out that a word has not always the same 
kitid of meaning whenever it is used, and that there- 
fore it cannot invariably belong to the same part of 
speech. Hence, when we want to state the part of 
speech to which a word belongs, we see that we must 
first decide what it tells us in the sentence we arc con- 
sidering, and then draw our conclusion accordingly. 
The pupil having been well exercised in arranging the 
words of sentences in the various classes called " noun" 
*^verb,'^ ^^ adjective," &c., we next lead him to observe 
that groups of words whose meanings are closely united, 
and which we call phrases, very often, when taken 
together, perform the same duties that words performed 
b the first exercise ; and that, therefore, when we have 



124 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

decided what that duty is, /'. e., w/ial iluy tell us in the 
sentence, we may arrange ///ra^jv^ in the same classes in 
which we arrange words. We thus get ''■ noun-phrases ^\ 
"vc/b-phrases" ^^ adjective-pkrases^^ Src. To prove this 
conclusively, the teacher should take an ordinary 
simple sentence, and substitute for its nouns, verbs, 
adjectives, &c., equivalent phrases ; and then take 
sentences containing noun-phrases, verb-phrases, &c., 
and substitute for its phrases equivalent nouns, verbs, 
&c. Then we pass on and show by the same method 
that groups of words forming complete sense by them- 
selves, and which we call sentences, may in the same 
v,-ay, in an extended statement, do the duty of nouns* 
adjectives, and adverbs ; and, when they do so, may 
therefore be classed as noun-sentences, adjective-setitences, 
and adverb-sentences. 

We have hitherto treated of the words of a sentence, 
or their equivalents, individually. We next turn to treat 
of them collectively as forming a statement. We find 
that a simple statement may be divided into two parts : 
I. That about which we make the statement ; 2. The 
statement we make about it. The former we call the 
subject ; the latter the predicate. Then we show how 
both the subject and the predicate may be divided up 
into their component parts, and that the most import- 
ant word iri the predicate, the verb, often requires a 
noun to complete its sense. This noun we call the 
object. And so we must proceed until the whole system 
of simple analysis is explained. Then follow the exer- 



ON TEACHING GRAMMAR. 125 

cises. In a highly-inflected language analysis is not of 
very great service to us, because the terminations of 
the woids mark their relations to one another clearly 
enough. But English has lost nearly all its inflexions, 
and it thus becomes necessary to consider the logical 
relations of the component parts of a sentence, lest the 
plan on which a sentence is built up should escape our 
notice altogether. 

So far we have shown how the Parts of Speech and 
Analysis are to be treated, and how we mean the 
exercises on them to be used. We now take each 
separate part of speech, and examine it more carefully 
by itself to learn what we can about its own special 
forms and classes. 

Noun. — A noun is a word used as a name; and as 
names are not all of one kind, inasmuch as they may 
designate things in general, or particular things or 
merely ideas, so nouns are not all of the same kind 
or class. We first then point out the classes in which 
nouns may be grouped, and show how to group 
them by deciding what kind of thing or idea they 
name. We then treat of gender, and show in what 
it really consists; then oi number ; and lastly of the 
possessive case ; omitting to set exercises where it is 
obvious to every teacher what they should be, and where 
they are easily procurable from any grammar or from 
any book. 

Adjective. — In the case of adjectives we show that 
they may be grouped in classes according to the kind 
of way in which they distinguish or describe nouns, and 



126 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

on this an exercise is set. We have then to consider 
their inflexions for comparison, and we leave the exer- 
cise to be framed by the teacher. 

Pronoun. — The pronoun is a word used instead of 
a noun. We point out that there are five kinds, accord- 
ing to the ways in which they are used in the place 
of nouns, and that the personal and relative pronouns 
are made definite by their reference to some noun 
expressed or understood ; that the demonstrative is 
also made definite by the general sense of its reference ; 
while the interrogative and indefinite pronouns have 
no such distinct reference. We have then to consider 
the inflexions of the personal and relative pronouns, 
and to make quite clear what we mean by case. The 
nominative and objective are best explained by reference 
to analysis, and by substituting pronouns for nouns in 
simple sentences ; the dative, or indirect objective, by a 
reference to the indirect object of analysis, and by 
showing that we can insert the preposition to ox for 
before the pronoun when used in this case. A mixed 
exercise is set on all these points. 

Verb. — The question of transitive and intransitive 
verbs having been discussed under the head of ana- 
lysis, we have first to consider the inflexions, and to 
explain what we mean by voice, mood, tense, number, 
and person. Voice is best explained by changing such 
a statement as " Henry struck John " into the equiva- 
lent statement, " John was struck by Henry," and by 
pointing out in this way that in the first case the sub" 



ON TEACHING GRAMMAR. 27 

ject of the verb is active, i.e., acts, in the second the 
subject is passive, i.e., is acted on, and how the verb 
shows this. With regard to mood, we should first point 
out the indicative and the imperative by the help of 
simple sentences ; we must then explain the nature of 
a dependent sentence by showing by means of examples 
that its statement is not meant as true in itself, but 
that it depends on the statement in another sentence, 
and thus arrive at the subjunctive mood. (See Eng. 
Gram. Primer, § di.) An exercise is set on these 
points. Then we must notice the past tenses, and 
divide our verbs into strong and weak conjugations, 
and show clearly how to distinguish iliem. Lastly, 
we explain the real nature of auxiliary verbs, and 
set a mixed exercise for the teacher and pupil to dis- 
cuss. 

In connection with verbs we have, liowever, yet 
two other matters to consider, viz. participles, and the 
so-called infinitive mood. These are fully treated in 
the headings to the exercises which next follow. 

Adverb. — Adverbs, like so many of the other parts 
of speech, have first to be divided into their classes. 
We have also to show that they are formed from words 
which commonly belong to other parts of speech. The 
difficulties which occur in treating them are clearly 
itated in the heading to the exercise on them. 

Preposition. — The classes into which prepositions 
may be divided, are far too numerous to be of any 
practical service. We must explain clearly their nature 



128 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



and use, and then treat each independently, according 
to the duty it performs in the sentence in question. 

Conjunction. — The same ' remark may be made 
with regard to the classes of conjunctions. We must 
explain their nature and use, and then treat them in 
connection with the analysis of sentences. 

Interjection. — Interjections are simply exclama- 
tions, and require no special treatment. 

Let us add it here, as a general direction, that each 
part of speech should be treated, as far as 
possible, as forming part of a sentence, and 
not as an isolated word. 

Word-making. — On this subject we have expressed 
ourselves very fully in the body of this book. The 
intimate knowledge of his language, and the increased 
facility in its use which a pupil cannot fail to acquire 
in studying this subject, will, we hope, prevent the 
teacher's passing it over. The exercises, for which we 
set models, are of the simplest kind. 

Syntax. — The analysis of simple sentences forms 
the groundwork of the chief rules of syntax. These, 
in the case of the English language, owing to the loss 
of most of its inflexions, are of the simplest kind. It 
should be carefully pointed out what a very important 
part is played by the order of words in a sentence ; and 
this can be best done by shifting about the words of a 
simple sentence, and showing what are their possible 
and what their impossible positions if we wish to convey 
our ideas clearly. Clearness of expression is, indeed, the 
chief point we have to attend to. Ambiguity is as 



O.V TEACHING GRAMMAR. 125 

much a fault of syntax as a false concord. The exer- 
cise consists of a mixed selection of good and bad 
sentences taken from the works of standard writers, and 
should be very carefully discussed — not condemned or 
sanctioned hurriedly. 

Parsing.— Parsing consists in giving a full account 
of each word in a sentence separately — stating what 
part of speech it is, its class, in what state it is, and 
why it is in that state. Full directions are given in the 
proper place, and the exercises may be chosen from 
those already given, or from the pages of any book with 
whicli the pupil is occupied. 

The following exercises .are intended to be used 
with Dr. Morris's "English Grammar Primer." But they 
may also be used independently, or with any other 
grammar. 

The examples are taken, with but very lew excep- 
tions, from the works of established modern writers, 
with here and there a few colloquial phrases added 
which may prove useful in keeping the pupil in mind 
of a very important fact, he is only too likely to forget 
when studying grammar. The fact we wish him to 
remember is this — that language is meant primarily to 
be spoken^ and only lives and grows by being spoken ; 
while literature or written language, having no power of 
growth in itself, serves only to record the expression of 
thought and the forms of speech, and acts as a check 
— sometimes useful, sometimes not — on the exuberance 
oi speech, 'llicreis noiYangunprindfleJ in a colloquial 



ijO ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

pi, rase. The pupil may, too, in this way be reminded 
that language was not made to accord with the rules 
of grammar, but grammar to accord with and register 
the habits of language. Grammar is a science, an inquiry 
into what is, not 3. statute ox Act of Parliament which 
orders what shall be. To learn to speak and write, 
therefore, in the best and ablest way, a man or a boy 
must attend to, and copy the speech of the best educated 
about him, and must make himself familiar with the 
works of the best authors, for Grammar cannot help 
bim in this, and does not pretend to do so. 

KiCHARD Morris. 

H. COURTHOPE BOWEN. 



EXERCISER 

Those who are commencing the study of English 
Grammar for the first time would do well, perhaps, to 
omit for that time the consideration of the " relation oi 
English to other languages " (^ i-s)- For advanced 
pupils the teacher should illustrate his lessons on this 
subject by reference to an etymological dictionary,* 
and should require such pupils to collect still further 
illustrations for themselves from the same source. 

When proceeding to Orthography, the teacher treats 
of "sounds and letters" (§5 7-10), he cannot too 
frequently remmd his pupils of the difference between 
the sound and the name of a letter. He should require 
his pupils to give ^r^z/Zy several examples of words in 
which the vowel sounds and the diphthongs occur, and 
of words in which a change in the sound of one or 
more of the consonants is to be remarked ; or he may 
dictate examples, or write them on the black board, 
and require his pupils to note the peculiarities, and 
then to arrange the words in groups according to these 
peculiarities. 

* Chambers's Etym. Eng. DicL is generally sound, and is not 
expensive. 



r32 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

For example — "Arrange the following words accord- 
ing to their vowel sounds and diphthongs : alms^ bat, 
set, wool, sigh, sow, &c." 

" Note any peculiarities in the pronunciation of the 
following : pass, stabs, hacked, blessed, &c." 



THE DEFINITIONS OF THE PARTS OF 

SPEECH. 

At the very outset of grammar w« have to do with 
definitions. The pupil has to learn the fact that the 
words of a sentence can be divided into eight classes, 
each of which has its definition ; and he is only too 
commonly required simply to acquiesce in, and com- 
mit to memory, this fact and these definitions. But 
the teacher, as distinguished from the mere task-mas- 
ter, will at once recognise the faultiness of such a plan, 
which only exercises the memory, and in no way 
draws out the thinking powers. The proper method 
to pursue, in grammar as in geometry, is to place the 
matters which require definition before the pupil, to 
examine with him their properties and peculiarities, to 
induce him to state the facts concerning them, and 
gradually with his aid to formulate the most concise 
and complete definitions. 

The following lesson, which is carefully described 
throughout, will show how this may best be doae '^or 
the Parts of Speech of English Grammar. 



134 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

Lesson. 

1. We first choose, and write clearly on th"; black 
board, some such sentence as the following : 

" The cruel boy twice struck his dog Prince sharpl^i 
with the three stones which he found in John's bag; 
and this was a very spiteful action," 

2. We then go through the sentence, word by word, 
requiring the pupils to state what each word tells us in 
tJie sentence. We ask them to compare " the cruel boy 
twice struck, &c.," with " cruel boy twice struck, &c.," 
then with "a cruel boy, &c.," '■'■ tJiat cruel boy, &c. " 
"<z«_y cruel boy, &c." — and so on, till they see clearly 
that " the "points out " boy.'' 

Firsts as we see, leaving out the word in question^ 
and then substituting other words for it. 

So with " cruel." We bid them compare " the 
cruel boy twice struck, &c.," with " the boy twice 
struck, &c.," then with " the kind boy twice struck, 
&c.," " the good boy, &a," " the big boy, &c.," " the 
bad boy, &c." — and so on, till they see clearly that 
" cruel " tells us 7uhat sort of ^'^ boy twice struck." 

" Boy." Compare " the cruel boy twice struck, 
&c.," with " the cruel twice struck, &c.; " then with 
" the cruel girl twice struck, &c.," " the cruel man, 
&c.," "the cruel woman, &'c.," and so on. Thus they 
see that " boy '' tells us the name of the person wJw 
"twice struck." 

" Twice." Compare " the cruel boy twice struck, 
&C./' with " the cruel boy struck, &c; " then with 



DEFINITIONS. 1.^5 



" the cniel boy once struck, «S:c.," " the cruel boy never 
struck, &:c.," and so on. Thus they see that " twice*' 
tells us how often " the cruel boy struck." 

" Struck." Compare " the cruel boy twice struck hi3 
dog, &c.," with " the cruel boy twice his dog, &c.," 
then with " the cruel boy twice frightened his dog, 
Zic." and so on. Thus they see that " struck" tells 
us what " t/u cruel boy " did. 

" His." Compare " the cruel boy twice struck his 
dog, &c.,"with " the cruel boy twice struck dog, &c.," 
then with " the cruel boy twice struck my dog, &c," 
" that dog, &c.," " PIcnry's dog, &c.," " the dog, &c.," 
and so on. Thus they see that " his " points out, or 
tells us which " dog." 

We then ask whether we have already considered 
any word which "points out." The answer is "yes, 
the.'^ Therefore, we say, "his "and "the "must be 
classed together, for they tell us the same sort of thing. 

" Dog." Compare " the cruel boy twice struck his 
dog Prince, &c.," with " the cruel boy twice struck 
Piincc, &c.," then with " the cruel boy twice struck 
his cat Prince, &c.," and so on. Thus they see 
that " dog " tells the name of what " the cruel boy 
sti-uckr 

We ask again whether there is any word we have 
ilready considered which tells us a " name." The 
answer is " boy." Therefore " dog " and " boy " must 
•je classed together ; for they tell us the same sort of 
thing. 

The teacher will now see clearly how to proceed 



136 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

with the remaining words ; so we shall only state the 
results we arrive at, and then pass on to the next stage 
of the lesson : 

*' Prince " — tells us the name of the " dog^ There- 
fore "Prince," "dog," and "boy" must be 
classed together. 

" Sharply " — tells us how " the cruel boy struck his 
dog." 

" With "—joifis " stones " to " struck:' 

" The "—points out " stones," and must be classed 
with " his " and the other " the." 

" Three " — tells us how many " stones," 

" Stones " — tells us the name of what " t/ie cruel boy 
struck his dog with;" therefore it must be 
classed with " Prince," " dog," and " boy." 

" Which " — stands for ^^ stones,^' arid joins the sentence 
"/;<? found in JohtHs baq" o?i to ^^ tJu cruel 
boy" ^c. 

« He "—stands for " boyP 

"Found" — tells us what '■^ he" did; therefore it 
must be classed with " struck." 

" In "—joins ^^ bag" to "found;" therefore it must 
be classed with " with." 

" John's "—^points out or tells us 7vhich bag " he 
found the stones in ; " therefore it must be 
classed with the two " the's " and '* his." 

" Bag " — tells us the name of the thing " in which he 
found the stones; " therefore it must be classed 
with " stones," " Prince," " dog," and " boy." 



DEFINITIONS. 137 



** And" — joins the sentence " this was a very spiteful 
action " to the sentence " The cruel boy .... 
three stones." 

" This " — stands for tJu name of what he did ; there- 
fore it must be classed with " he." 

" Was " — forms the words " a very spiteful action " 
into a statement about " this." 

" A " — points out " action ; " therefore it must be 
classed with " John's," the two " the's," and 
"his." 

'• Very " — tells us how much '' spitrfu/.'* 

" Spiteful " — tells us what sort of " action ; " there- 
fore it must be classed with " cruel." 

" Action " — tells us the name of what " was very 

spiteful;" therefore it must be classed with 

"bag," " stones," " Prince," " dog," and *' boy." 

3. We now go through the sentence again, and test 
whether the pupils know what each word tells us. 
Then we take the statements of what the words tell 
us, and ask the pupils to name the words that tell us 
these things. 

4. Then we take up our chalk again, and ask the 
pupils to state what " The" tells us. We write down 
this statement, and ask the pupils to dictate all the 
words which can be gathered under it We thus 
arrive at the following results: 

Words which point out names. 
The, his, the, John's, a. 



138 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

Words which tell us what sort of thing we speak oj 
Cruel, spiteful. 

IVords which tell us the names of things. 
Boy, dog. Prince, stones, bag, action. 

Words which tell us how often a thing is done. 
Twice. 

Words which tell us what things do. 
Struck, found. 

Words which tell us how things arc done. 
Sharply. 

Words which join words. 
With, in. 

Words which tdl us how many things we speak oj 
Three. 

Words which stand for names, and join sentaices. 
Which. 

Words which stand for names. 
He, this. 

Words which join sentences. 
And. 

Words which form words into statements. 
Was. 

Words whitji tell us how much a thing it 

of a particular kind. 

Very. 



DEFINITIONS. 139 



5. Having done this for some dozen lessons — that 
is, for some dozen sentences — the pupils will recog- 
nise that the classes into which words may be divided 
are not unlimited in number. Even with the most 
ingenious discrimination, the number will be found 
not to exceed twenty. 

6. When the pupils are thoroughly acquainted with 
these, the next lesson consists in helping them to see 
that these classes may be grouped together in sets 
according to the similarity of the duties their words 
perform in a sentence. Thus : words which tell us 
what sort of a thing we speak of in a certain sense 
may be considered to point out the thing; and so 
njdy words which tell us Jww many things zue speak 
of. These three classes may therefore be grouped 
together under one head ; and, for convenience of 
reference, may be given a name. Tliat name is 
"Adjective."* We have thus the following result: 

Words which point out names. 
Words which tell us what sort of 

a thing we speak of. / << a m 

Words which tell us how many \ 

/ ings we speak of. 



Are called 



We proceed in like manner with the other classes ; 



• There is no need to explain the derivation o^ "adjective." 
We choose it lo mean a certain thing, and that is quite sufficient. 
The (Urivation of words comes under our preceding section, 
irhich, as wc explained, need cot be attempted at present. 



I40 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

and thus arrive at our €\^\> principal classes of words, 
or " Parts of Speech." 

7. Lastly, we have to consider the classes of each 
part of speech, with the view of formulating the best 
definition for that part of speech. The results will be 
found stated in the grammar. The definition must 
include all the classes of the Part of Speech ; and it 
must be as clear as possible, as simple as possible, 
and as short as possible. 

N.B. — The teacher should be careful, during these lessons, 
not to go dut of his way to explain that "twice" is the genitive 
oi " two," "^w" of "y^^"," and " y(7//«'j" of "j/^>4«," and such- 
like matters. These must be left till he comes to treat of each 
particular part of speech by itself. All he has to do here is tc 
help his pupils to see and to state what each word tells us in the. 
sentence. 



THE PARTS OF STEECH. 

When the pupil has thoroughly mastered the (^fiai' 
tions of the Parts of Speech, or the classes m w1 ich 
words are arranged according to their uses in sen- 
tences, he should then proceed to the following exer- 
cises. 

N. B. — Young beginners should of course be set exercises far 
simpler than Exercise I. at first ; but any page of any reading- 
hook will supply these. The kind of exercise, however, should 
be the same. 

Direction. — The teacher should be careful to make 
the pupil understand that in the English language a 
word does not belong exclusively to a single class or 
Part of Speech, though it may be generally or almost 
always used as one of a particular class. The Part 
of Speech to which a word belongs in a particular 
sentence depends entirely upon its use — upon what it 
tells us — in that sentence, and, apart from its sentence, 
it cannot properly be said to belong to any part of 
speech. The pupil should be made to state, T^rx/, what 
the word tells us, and then to name its class or Part of 
Speech. 

Example. — ** On the wild New-England shore." 
,\\-ioE.ii^land tells us ivlucJi shore, therefore it is an 



*42 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



Exercise I. 

State the Parts of Speech in the following sentences 
of each of the words printed in italics : 

1. Fear no more the heat of the sun. 

2. When all aroimd the wind doth blow. 

3. The thunder afar roused up the soldier. 

4. Each foeman drew his bailie blade. 

5. 'Tis morn, but sca^xe yon level sun 
Can pierce the luar clouds rolling dun. 

6. She it is that 7iight and day raves and moans. 

7. We saw no 7Jiore of them that day, 

8. When her barbarous sons came like a deluge on 

the sojiih. 

9. To equal which the tallest pine were but a wand. 

10. Wide waves the eagle plume. 

11. But see the morn in russet mantle clad 
Walks o'er tlie dew oi yon hjgh eastward hill. 

12. All heart-broke y I heard her say. 

13. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note. 

14. Not a soldier discharged \\\% farewell %\iO\.. 

15. The torrid clime smote on him sore besides. 

16. When the British ayarr/i?r queen, &c. 

17. In all oi good 
Found there, it sees but //mt'^^-granted types 
Oi good znd beauty. 

18. What more eggs were with the two. 

19. EUie went home, sad and slotu. 

20. (Love) hath its food served u[) in earthemvare. 

21. It is a thing to walk with, hand in hand, 
Through the everyday ness of this work-day world. 

22. Yet letting not one heartbeat go astray 
From beauty's law of plaiuaess and content. 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 



23. Life in the chill wind shivers bare and ieafi:ss. 

24. A love t/i(it shall be new and fresh each hour 
As the sweet cotnvig of the evening star. 

25. Then they praised him soft and loiu. 

26. Home they brought her warrior dead. 

27. There to put away all wrong. 

28. Then he will arise so faie, 

I shall feel my own lips tremble 

With dijes I must not say — 
Nathless, maiden brave, " Fareivell^^ 
I will utter and dissemble — 
" Light to-morrow with to-day.^* 
19. And so make life, death, and that vast for- ro 

one grand sweet song. , 
30. All that is shall be turned to was. 
51. All the hollow deep of hell resounded. 
32. Do you think \ fable with you. 
53. They askance their eyes. 

34. The Jews' coats were collared above. 

35. The cruel'st j/j:<? alive. . . . 

36. I'll bring my action on the proudest he that stops 

my way. 

37. All the y^/w in fairest ladies' mouths. . . . 

38. The effect of thine o-yes was strange. 

39. This sorrowful heigho fell on my ear. 

40. Be mum until I return. 

41. And //w; when he should groan. 

42. And hems and beats her hearL 
^3. Farthest from him is best. 

4 \. This was my happy //-/«/;///< -morning. 

45. Here we may reign j^r//r^. 

46. Thus at the last must figure Luria then I 

47. I was weary with wandering. 

48. Heavens I how dull he is. 

49. The old shi-^QdX seemed uneasy iu her mind. 



144 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

50. Address him with care ; do not thou him for the 

world. 

51. Yonfine down your distinction till there is nothing 

left. 

52. I second your proposal. 

53. Considaing all things, he cannot be said to have 

failed. 

54. Pending the enquiry she retired to France. 

55. Providing these things turn out so, you will win. 

56. Take any number, twenty suppose. 

57. The why and the ivhercfore %&^mt(\. of no con- 

sequence to him. 

58. His eyes were ever fixed on the great hereafter. 

59. The day before was rainy, and so was the day after. 

60. You tiicrcfort every statement I make. 

61. The ins and intos, the bys and ofs, were terribly 

confused. 

62. The £7?// houses caughtyfrA 

63. He put on liis ^^z'^-coat. 

64. She spoke in z^«^,?r- tones. 

65. //me no ifs. 

66. He was an 07ily son. 

67. They were as alike as they could be. 

68. The ayes were declared to have it amidst loud 

hurrahs. 

69. Hq pooh-poohed aX\ their ^ sdeaths and jingoes. 

70. He bowled only six overs, with seven byes. 

71. Knowledge is the wing wherewith we fly to 

heaven. 

72. I like to see hex just like this ; 

For in like mood I do not know her like. 

73. Round the rocks they ran, where the round bay, 
Swerving round gQn\\y, rounds the rugged shore. 

74. Full many rounds they ran, and still cried 

'' round r' 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 14S 

75. If thou thottest him some thrice it will not be amiss. 

76. No man whosoever has united more perfectly 

pure virtue and lofty wisdom. 

77. Li/ce will to like. 

78. He was an old salt, as tough and indeed z% salt 

as if he had slept in salt these seven years. 

79. Perhaps the natives had tried to 5^// him once, 

and he had escaped. Be that as it may, we 
christened him Tom 6a// there and then. 

80. I have no silver with me, but only gold and notes. 

81. I must leave the silver spoons out of my list, 

and get my man to silver over the old ones. 

82. Fast, thou art all to me, and Future, naught 

fast hope I have lived, for my noonday is 
past. 

83. T\\Q past years went/^j/ in a long sad train. 

84. D'ye know that man yonder ? Yonder man that 

owns the ho:u«;e there and the tree, &c. 

85. ** That there man's a fool " obscived Sally, 



146 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

Direction. — In the following sentences the pupil is 
to state with regard to the phrase what he has stated 
in Exercise I. with regard to the word, viz., what it tell^ 
us in the sentence, and then name its Part of Speech. 

Example. — " She was a goddess of the itifant worid." 
Of the infant world tells us what sort cf goddess, there 
fore it is ah adjective phrase. 

N.B. — The pupil should notice that though a phrase may be 
grammatically an attribute to a word or another phrase, it may 
Uv^ically contain a more prominent idea. For example, in " deep 
in the shady sadness of a vale," or in "a thing of beauty is a 
joy for cvtr," of avale, and 0/ dc-aii/y are ^rammaltcally adjectivQ- 
ph.rases to sadmss and thing respectively, but logically they con- 
lain ideas more prominent than sadness and thing 

KaERCISE II. 

<rtatc ll'? Parts of Speech of each of the phrasti 
piinted in ilalics. 

1. Abou Ben Adhem — may his tribe increase ! — 
Awoke one nii^ht from a deep dream of peace. 
And saw, within the twilight in his room, 
Making it rich, and like a lily ifi bloom, 

An angel. 

2. It came again wi!h a great wakening Ught. 

3. The gleaming rushes \tdsv a thousand ways. 

4. It is not poetry at all. 

5. It can be understood only when heard. 

6. For Love is blind but with the fleshly <ye, 

7. Little Ellie, ivith her smile. 
Not yet ended, rose up gaily. 

8. It is a thing to walk with. 



n/RASES. 147 

9. Who sang cheerly all day long. 

10. The clock struck the honr /or retiring. 

1 1. We steadfastly gazed on the face 0/ /he dead. 

12. We buried him darkly at dead of night. 

13. Look on all these living pages 0/ God's book. 

1 4. Rushed to battle, fought, and died. 

15. Resentment ties 
All the terrors of our tongues. 

16. I kneel hcxt for thy grace. 

17. He shall love me without guile. 

18. And children coming home from school 
Look in at the open door. 

19. They love to see the /laming forge. 

20. He hears the parson pray and preach. 

?. I. It sounds to him like her mother s voice. 
22. Something atiem/ted, something done, 

Has earned a night^s repose. 
21- Harmony (shall be) the path to fame. 

24. MakeYxia . . . one grand sweet song. 

25. I am set to light the ground. 

26. The sounding aisles of the dim woods raig 
To the anthem of the free. 

27. Ring out tlie thousand wars of old. 

2i. Dear common flower, that growest beside the 

way, 

Fringing the dusty road with harmless gold. 
29. You reckon yoursuM a privileged person. 
33. The humour of the time judged every effort of 

the muse a crime. 

31. She was forced to own herself my wife. 

32. You have confessed yourself a spy. 

33. Towards the latter she declared herseU inexorable. 

34. Ev'n silent night /r^<r/<j;<'/«imy soul immortal. 

35. My penitential stripes have purchased 

heaven an^proied my title good. 



148 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

36. The 2^l feels sharp this morning. 

37. Attention //(?A/ them mute. 

38. Who could make you a bishop. 

39. I dub thee knight. 

40. His eloquence had struck them dumb. 

41. The hyssop doth tree it in Judsea. 

42. I who have Egypt-rivered this map to purpose. 

43. Here is something to eat. 

44. He counts the years to come. 

45. Thou teachest me to think. 

46. Ring in the Christ that is to be. 

47. With God there is no shall be, no was. 

48. /// spite of all the world I will be brave. 

49. Owing to this report I retired. 

50. They strove to be good to the end tliat they 

might be happy. 

51. I looked ill on him as I came from school. 

52. The tall Amazon 
Had %\.0Q^' a pigmf s height. 

53. It seemed no force could wake Wxafrom his place. 

54. The sullen rear 

Was, with its stored thunder, labouring up. 

55. Tliy sharp lightning, in unpractised hands, 
Scorches and burns our once serene domain. 

56. A stream went voiceless by, still deadened more 
By reason of his fallen divinity spreading a shade. 

57. They loved the rests /;/ noonday heat. 

58. Give him this instead of ihsit. 

'59. We could have fancied them the tracks of water- 
fairies. 

60. The butterflies with outspread wings slept upon 

the glossy leaves. 

61. I am going a long way. 

62. Who amojig the whole ckatlcring crowd can tell 

me. 



PHRASES. 149 

63. The curse of quarrelsomeness, of hand against 

every man, was inflicted on the children of 
the desert. 

64. It is not a \.\mefor adulation. 

65. The England of Dotnesday Book, the England 

of the Curfew and the Forest Law s\i2.% become 
the England we know. 

66. He falls, like Lucifer, never to hope again. 

67. This once known, I shall soon return. 

68. Now lies he there, 
And none so poor to do him rei^erence. 

69. Like deiu upon a sleeping flower there lies 

A tear some dream has loosened from his brain. 

70. She faded like a cloud \\\2X had outwept its rain. 

71. Conscience, her fust law broken, wounded lies. 

72. Thou knowest what a thing is poverty among 

the fallen on evil days. 

73. That arose from the fear of my cousin hearing oj 

these matters. 

74. Mr. Pecksniff having been comforted internally^ 

they sat down. 
53. The melting Phoebe stood wringing her hands. 

76. I'll have lee hanged to feed the crow. 

77. Returning were as tedious as go oer. 

78. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 

79. The story was by tradition affirmed to be truth. 

80. lie came as a flash, and vanished in a dream. 

8 1. The House was very {wWfor a first night. 

82. I am very well satisfied considering all thifigs. 

83. This is sufncicntyiT my purpose. 

84. Through the dark clouds the summit of the hill 

was still visible. 

85. The Turks are bold in spite of all their crimes, 

86. Hoping past hope is what men call despair. 

87. Deep in the buried wisdom ofthepaff he was. 



I50 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

Direction. — In the following exercise the pupil is 
to state with regard to sentences what he has stated in 
Exercise I. with regard to words, and in Exercise II. 
with regard to phrases, viz., what each sentence tells us, 
and then name its Part of Speech. 

Example. — " As we stood watching, a breeze from 
the eastward dived into the basin of the bay." **As 
we stood watching" tells us when the breeze dived, 
therefore it is an adverb sentence. 

N.B. — The caution given above with regard to the phrase 
applies almvist equally to the subordinate sentence. 



Exercise III. 

State the Parts of Speech of each of the sentence 
liated in italics. 

1. Each thought of the woman who loved him the best. 

2. (Three wives) trimmed the lamps as the sun went 

down. 

3. And bright (be) the flowery sod, 
Where first the child's glad spirit loves 
Its country and its God. 

4. She answered : " Seven are 7£'<f." 

5. " England expects every man to do his duty " was 

Nelson's motto that day. 

6. Yet, ere we part, one lesson I can leave you. 

7. Once a dream did weave a shade 
O'er my angel-guarded bed, 
lluxt an etnmct lost its way, 
Whre on grass methought I lay. 



SENTENCES. 15: 



8. But I saw a glow-worm near, 

Who replied': " What wailing wight 
Calls the watchman of the niglUt 
I am set to li,:^ht the ground 
While the beetle goes his round," 

9. A^ot as the conqueror conies. 
They true-hearted came. 

10. Amid the storms they sang 
Till the stars heard and the sea. 

11. Yes, call that holy ground, 

Which first their brave feet trod t 
They have left unstained what tJiere they found-^ 
Freedom to worship God. 

12. He needs must think of her once more, 

Ho'iu in her grave she lies. 

13. Then think I . . . oi m^zdo^xs where in sun 

the cattle graze. 
74. And I . . . Wstened as i/ 1 heard an angel sin§. 

15. Not X soldier discharged his farewell shot 
O'er the grave where cur hero we buried. 

16. We thought . . . how . . . . the stranger 

would tread der his head. 

17. Such the bard's prophetic words bending as he 

S7uept the chords. 

18. r.ut my lover will not prize 
All the glory that he rides in, 
W'hcn he gazes on my face. 

19. A love that doth not kneel for what it seeks. 

20. He is as good as he is strong. 

21. I know 71'here he is. 

22. They held a consultation as to how they sjiould 

act. 

23. I was certain he would die. 

24. My uncle has no idea tliat I am here, ■ 

25. This is a proof that lu: never came. 



152 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



26. We felt again the fear that he was dead.' 

27. What's the natural cause 

Why on a si^^ii no painter- drag's 
The full moon a'er._ Imt the 'half? 

28. I was, as it jcere, a child of thee. 

29. It argues ;;; what good plight and constitution die 

body is. 

30. I am going a long way 
To the island valley of Avilion, 

Where falls not hail, or rain, or any snow, 
Nor ever wind blows hnidly. 

31. For now I see the true old times are dead, 

When every morn i tig brought a noble cha?ice. 

32. The old order changeth, yielding place to new, 
Lest one good custom should corrupt the world. 

33. Still he dreams at midnight that the little guiding 

hatid is locked within his own. 

34. If the apathy be ever shaken off'\\. is only by what 

is gross or ivhat is extraordinary. 

35. It seemed no force could wake him from his place. 

36. There was a listening fear in her regard, 
As if calamity had but begun. 

37. Oh, what a fall 2vas there, my countrymen ! 

38. For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angeL 

39. Who, you all ktiow, are honourable men. 

40. She weeps still, as she did then, the memory of 

her lord. 

41. What sorrow would it be 
That mountain floods should thunder as before. 

42. And so sepulchred in such pomp dost lie, 
'J'liat yt.v/i^j for such a tomb would wish to diet 

43. He wisely witlihcld rebuke, where reluke and 

advice would have been equally unavailing. 

44. Tlie cofTm now only waited the father to support 

the head, as is customary. 



iL.VTEiVCES. 153 

45. Be, as thou hast et'er been, kind, benignant, ea^^iv 

to be entreated. 

46. The king fixed his eyes on this emblem, as ''r 

about to kneel. 

47. To which, /■/ is to be observed, the grossness of bis 

superstition induced him. 

48. Where a man is otherwise unobjectionable, I would 

not look with too curious a jealousy at his 
boots. 
4y. It is evident that the man jor such a post should 
be brave. 

50. In every light he was a fine subject for murder, 

except, indeed, that he was lean and bony. 

51. The reason why tlie seven stars are no more than 

seven is a pretty reason. 

52. They have no sense of why they sing. 

53. For those that fly may fight again, 

Which he can na>er do that's sin in. 

54. That you have wronged me doth appear in this. 

55. She thought it strange they did not come. 

56. I carried her to btd, cohere I laid her doicm. 

57. I do assure you / would offer him no less. 

58. I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent 

blood. 

59. ]Vhy me the stern usurper spared I knew ao*« 

60. You have heard i/ Jjaughi bravely. 



ANALYSIS. 

To analyse is to break up a sentence into its comi^o- 
uent parts, and then to state the duty that each sopa 
rate part performs. This requires no more know- 
ledge of Etymology than the pupil has so far gained. 
It should therefore next occupy his attention as a 
natural sequence to Exercise HI, Having then learnt 
something of the subject (see " Primer of English 
Grammar," chap, xiii.), he should proceed to analyse 
the sentences in Exercises I., II., and HI., to which 
Hxercise IV. is supplementary. 

The following is the best ipethod to use in teaching 
analysis : 

I St. Creak up the sentence into its component 
simple sentences (if there be any). 

2nd. State the duty performed in these sentences. 

3rd. Write down the words in each sentence, as far 
as possible in the order in which they occur, and then 
state the duty they perform. 

Exajnple. — "I remember the strange words, 'You 
are dreaming,' &c., which you used when I last saw 

you." 

A. 

I remember the strange words, 



ANALYSIS. 155 

& 

* You are dreaTiing,' &c, 

C 

Which you used 

D. 

When I last saw you. 

A. Principal sentence. 

B. Noun sentence in apposition to "words" in A. 

C. Adjectival sentence {^Demonstrative) to ";vords " 

in A. 

D. Adverbial sentence {Tinu) to " used " in C. 

A. 

I Subject. 

remember Verb. ^ 

ihe Descriptive* of object {de- I 

inonstrative). V Predicate.' 

strange Descriptive of object {kind). I 

words Object, 

B. 

You Subject. 

are dreaming Verb. Predicate. 

C 

\\\:\z\\ Subject. 

you Object. ) T, ,. . 

used Verb. I Predicate. 



" A word is calletl a descriptive when it marks ciU cl.arly, or 
dmribtt, tuolhcr word. AU adjcclivcs aud advtibs are therefore 



(55 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

D. 

When Connective, joining D and C 

I Subject. 

last Descriptive of verb {tim). \ 

saw Verb. VPredicalo. 

you Object. ) 



EXSRCISS IV. 



1. Dangerous it were for the feeble brain of man to 

wade far into the doings of the Most High; 
whom, although to know be life, and joy to 
make mention of His Name, yet our soundest 
knowledge is to know Him not as indeed He 
is, neither can we know Him. 

2. For who knows not that Truth is strong next 

to the Almighty ? She ne°ds no policies, nor 
stratagems, nor licensings to make her vic- 
torious ; those are the sUghts and defences 
that Error useth against her power. Give !ier 
but room enough, and do not bind her when 
she sleeps, for then she speaks not truth as 
the old Proteus did who spoke oracles only 
when he was caught and bound ; but then 
rather she turns herself into all shapes except 



descriptive!. The terms attribute aud extension are both clumsy 
sinJ inaccurate. 

" Not," when used with a verb, should be called simply 
" negative of verb." 



ANALYSIS. 157 

her own, and perhaps tunes her voice accord- 
ing to the time, until she be adjured into hei 
oym likeness. 

3. I cannot tell if to depart in silence, 
Or bitterly to speak in your reproof. 
Best fitteth my degree or your condition. 

4. Heaven doth with us as we with torches do, 
Not light them for themselves ; for if our virtues 
Did not go forth of iis, 'twere all alike 

As if we had them not. 

5. What stronger breastplate than a heart un- 

tainted ? 
Thrice is he armed that hath his quarrel just ; 
And he but naked, though locked up in steel, 
Whose conscience with injustice is corrupted. 

6. Setting aside his high blood's royalty, 
And let him be no kinsman to my liege, 
I do defy him, and I spit at him, 

Call him a slanderous coward and a villain, 
Which to maintain I would allow him odds, 
And meet him were I tied to nm afoot 
Even to the frozen ridges of the Alps. 

7. Vice is a monster of so frightful mien, 
As, to be hated, needs but to be seen ; 
Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face, 
We first admire, then pity, then embrace. 

6. Be this, or ought 

Than this more secret, now designed, I haste 
To know ; and, this once known, shall soon 

return 
And bring you to the place, where thou and 

Death 
Shall dwell at ease. 
9. Once a dream did weave a shade 
O'er my angel-guarded bed, 



158 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

That an emmet lost its way 
Where on grass methought I lay, 

10. Pitying, I dropp'd a tear, 
But I saw a glow-worm near, 
Who replied : " What wailing wight 
Calls the watchman of the night ? 

I am set to light the ground 
While the beetle goes his round : 
Follow now the beetle's hum ; 
Little wanderer, hie thee home ! " 

11. Three corpses lie out on the shining sands 

In the morning gleam, as the tide goes down, 
And the women are weeping and wringing theii 
hands, 
For those who will never come home to the 
town. 

12. Three wives sat up in the light-house tower, 

And trimm'd the lamps as the sun went down ; 
And they look'd at the squall, and they look'd at 

the shower. 
While the night-rack came rolling up ragged 

and brown. 

13. We cannot perceive that the study of grammar 

makes the smallest difference in the speech of 
people who have always lived in good society. 

14. When the fit was on him I did mark how he did 

shake. 

15. There comes a murmur from the shore, 
And in the place two fair streams are 
Drawn from the purple hills afar — 
Drawn down unto the restless sea. 
The hills whose flowers ne'er fed the bee, 
The shore no ship has ever seen, 
Still beaten by the billows green, 
Whose murmur comes unceasingly 



ANALYSIS. tS9 

Unto the place for which I cry. 

16. We thought, as we hollowed his narrow bed, 
And smoothed down his lonely pillow, 

How the foe and the stranger would tread o'er 
his head. 

1 7. Dear common flower, that growest beside the way. 

Fringing the dusty road with harmless gold, 
First pledge of blithesome May, 

Which children pluck, and full of pride uphold, 
High-hearted buccaneers, o'erjoyed that they 

An Eldorado in the grass have found. 
Which not the rich earth's ample round 

May match in wealth — thou art more dear to me 
Than all the prouder summer blooms may be. 

18. And what delights can eqi'al those 
That stir the spirit's inward deeps, 

When one that loves, but knows not, reaps 
A truth from one that loves and knows ? 

19. While we breathe beneath the sun, 
The world which credits what is done 
Is cold to all that might have been. 

20. You all did see that, on the Lupercal, 

I thrice presented him a kingly crown, 
Which he did thrice refuse. 

21. Much pleased was he to find 

That, though on pleasure she was bent, 
She had a frugal mind. 

22. This is the cat that killed the rat that eat the 

malt that lay in the house that Jack built 

23. Then think I of deep shadows on the grass, 

Of meadows where in sun the cattle graze; 
Where, as the breezes pass, 

The gleaming rushes lean a thousand ways. 

24. But my lover will not prize 

All tlic glory that lu rides in : 



l6o ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



When he gazes in my face 

He will say, " O love, thine eyes 

Build the shrine my soul abides in, 
And I kneel here for thy grace 1 " 

25. Then, ay, then, he shall kneel low, 

With the red-roan steed a-near him, 
Which shall seem to understand. 
Till I answer, " Rise and go ! 

For the world must love and fear him 
Whom I gift with heart and hand." 

26. And, when I am forgotten, as I shall be, 

And sleep in dull cold marble, where no mention 
Of me more must be heard of, say, I taught thee; 
Say Wolsey — that once trod the ways of glory. 
And sounded all the depths and shoals ol 

honour — 
Found thee a way, out of his wreck, to rise in ; 
A sure and safe one, though thy master missed iL 

27. The quick dreams. 
The passion-winged ministers of thought, 
Who were his flocks, whom near the living 

streams 
Of his young spirit he fed, and whom he taught 
The love which was its music, wander not, — 
Wander no more from kindling brain to brain, 
But droop there whence they sprung. 

28. Who saw the narrow sunbeam that came out of 

the south, and smote upon their summits till 
they 'melted away in a dust of blue rain ? 

29. Since such were the consequences of going to 

law, Tom thought his father really blamable, 
as his aunts and uncles had always said he was. 

30. Maggie hung on his neck in a rather strangling 

fashion, while his blue gray eyes wandered 
towards the croft and the river, where he 



ANAL YSIS. i6l 

promised himself that he v.'ould begin to fish 
to-morrow. 

31. The part of the mill she liked best was the top- 

most story, where were the great heaps of 
grain, which she could sit on and slide down 
continually. 

32. If the knight touched his opponent's shield with 

the reverse of his lance, the trial of skill M'as 
made with what were called the arms ol 
courtesy. 

33. The squire's life was quite as idle as his sons', 

but it was a fiction kept up by himself and 
his contemporaries tiiat youth was exclusively 
the period of folly. 

34 Seen at a little distance, as she walked across 
the churchyard and down the village, she 
seemed to be attired in pure white, and her 
hair looked like a dash of gold on a lily. 

•5. .She had told Tom that she should like him to 
put the worms on her hook for her, although 
she accepted his word when he assured her 
that worms couldn't feel. 

36. And I knew by childish memories that she could 

go abroad upon the winds when she heard 
the sobbing of litanies, or the thundering of 
organs, and when she beheld the mustering 
of summer clouds. 

37. It is clear, too, what must be gained by bringing 

those whose minds are fresh and open to all 
noblest impulses into close ccmtact with true 
greatness, earnest longings, noble purity and 
strength. 

38. The object we have, or should have, in setting 

pupils to learn poetry and prose by heart is 
«o often missed, and what should be one ot 



I62 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

our most useful means of education is so 
commonly turned into a tedious barren exer- 
cise tor the memory, that I have thought it 
might be useful to teachers to have the chief 
points of the subject brought once more promi- 
nently before them. 

39. Vocabulary teaches us the words, and grammar 

the facts of language ; but it is only the study 
of literature which can teach us how to speak 
and write both correctly and well. 

40. It is with the hope of oflfering an opportunity of 

such a study that this small book has been 
put together. 



N0U>T3. I 

CLASSIFICATION. 

Direction. — In the following exercise the pupil 

sbculd be required to state first what the noun names 
in the sentence in question, and then the class to which 
it belongs, bearing in mind that the class to which a 
noun belongs depends entirely upon the duty it per- 
forms in each particular case. 

Example. — " The Speaker then ruled that the House 
was out of order." 

The Speaker — names a particular officer in the 
House of Commons, therefore it is a proper 
noun. 
House — names a particular assembly, therefore 

it is a proper noun. 
Order — names a state or condition of being, 
therefore it is an abstract noun. 

N.B. — The pupil's attention should be carefully drawn to the 
change producctl in a proper noun by placing before it the 
definite adjective " a," or "the "with the noun in the plural, 
or simply by making the proper noun plural ; in a common noun 
by placing " the " before ifc ; in an abstract noun by placing "a" 
before it, or ky making it plural. 



i64 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



Exercise. 

State the classes to which th6 nouns in the following 
sentences belong : 

1. The dog is distinguished above all other animals 

for its faithfulness. 

2. The child is father to the man. 

3. I met none but Toms, Dicks, and Harrys. 

4. John is a name very common in England. 

5. The lives of great men all remind us, &c. 

6. Many times he repeated the words " Time and 

Eternity.** 

7. She gave him a piece of her mind. 

8. Art is long, and Time is fleeting. 

9. Here's a health to all good lasses. 

10. He was an Antony, she a Cleopatra. 

1 1. Liberality in him became a vice. 

12. Spenser makes magnanimity the highest of 

virtues. 

13. Virtue had gone out of him. 

14. Studies serve for ornament and for delight. 

15. He had no masters but nature and solitude. 

16. The duty on tobacco is very high. 

17. We must take the will for the deed. 

18. Megara is one of the wonders of the world, and 

the aspect of it fills the beholder with wonder 
and admiration. 

19. He was filled with the thought of the joys and 

beauties of life. 

20. Mom in the white wake of the morning star 
Came furrowing all the orient into gold. 

a I. He forgets that to excite is not necessarily to 
pi caiiC. 



NOUNS. 1O5 

22. I only heard the whispering of the wind. 

23. The beautiful and the true are one and the same. 

24. All the Johns of history were unfortunate, 

25. The " Academy " and the " Examiner " are well- 

known pajicrs. 

26. To live the life of a Milton seemed his greatest 

longing. 

27. Some village Hampden, that with dauntless 

breast 
The iittle tyrant of his fields withstood ; 
Some mute, inglorious Milton here may rest, 
Some.Cromwell guiltless ofhis country's bloo a. 

28. There he paused, and ever fainlly 

Moved the music down the wind ; 
Whispered words of singing saintly 
Stole in sadness o'er his mind. 

29. The House then went into committee. 

30. He saw in a vision Faith struggling with demon 

Despair. 

31. No sleep till morn, when youth and pleasure 

meet 
'i'o chase the glowing hours with flying feet. 

32. Who laid him down and basked him in the sun, 
And rail'd on lady Fortune in good terms. 

33. " Good morrow, fool," quoth I. 

34. Look up towards the higher hills, where the 

waves of everlasting green roll silently into 
their long inlets among the shadows of the 
pines. 

35. The miserable inhabitants, flying from their 

flaming villages, in part were slaughtered ; 
others, without regard to sex, to age, to the 
respect of rank or sacredness of function — 
fathers torn from children, husbands frora 
wives, enveloped in a whirlwind of cavalry, 



i66 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

and amidst the goading spears of drivers and 
the trampling of pursuing horses — were swept 
into captivity in an unknown and hostile 
land. 

36. Such was the fruit of his labour that he had no 

heart to turn again to work. 

37. No, not the salt ; I said the salts. 

38. I have no silver with me, but only gold and 

notes. 

39. I saw a large flight of pigeons last night. 

40. Whenever she sent up any of her excellent 

mushroom sauce, Tom always quoted, " What 
is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander." 

41. I thought you had too much brains to do such a 

thing. 

42. We are under orders to march. 

43. This is beyond my abilities, and does not come 

within my powers. 

44. He asked an alms. 

45. The gallows after all will make amends. 

46. Both horse and foot reached the pass in timu 

47. Cannon to right of them, 
Cannon to left of them, 
Cannon in front of them, 

VoUey'd and thunder'd ; 
Storm'd at with shot and shell, ore. 

48. The wages of sin is death. 

49. She took great pains with his get-up. 

50. He studied physics, sitting under the eaves of 

his cottage. 

51. I'll have none of your leavings. 

C2. And, when all the passions had fled, poor inqui- 
sitive little Pandora found hope had remained 
to comfort her. 



AUUNS. 16; 

GENDER, NUMBER, AND CASE OF NOUNS. 

Exercises on these should consist, in the first case, 
of the names of masculine living things, the names 
for the females of which are to be given, and vice 
versA ; in tne second case, ut nouns m tne singular 
whose plural is required, and vice versd. 

The teacher should be careful to make the pupil 
clearly understand the difference between gender and 
sex. Grammatical gender, being marked simply by 
the tcrnwiation of the word, strictly speaking went 
out of use in English when these distinctive termina- 
tions were lost, that is, not long after the Norman 
conquest The names of things without life had as 
much right to gender as any others, though they had 
none to sex. tf 

At present gender is used to denote the form of the 
name of a male or female living thing ; but even in 
this sense there is a marked tendency to give up the 
distinctive termination in the case of the name of the 
male, as in giani, peer, &c ; or, again, to use the name 
of the male for both male and female, e.g., author, 
f,iant, doctor, &c. 

The pui)irs attention should also be called pointedly 
to the diflcrtnce between tiaturaiised nouns used in 
everyday familiar talk, diud foreign nouns used only in 
technical phraseology. To give a foreign plural to a 
noun which Las been naturalised is pedantic, and 
shortS bad laAtf. 



i68 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

Cases are the different forms of the terminations of 
nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, by which we denote 
the various relations of these words to other words 
in the same sentence. In modern EngHsh, nouns have 
lost every case except the possessive or genitive case. 
The method of forming this is too simple to need 
an exercise. 



ADJECTIVES. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

Direction.— \\\ the following exercise the pupil 
should be required to state first what the adjective tells, 
and then the class to which it belongs, bearing in mind 
that the class of an adjective depends on the duty it 
performs in the sentence in question. 

Example.'-^'- The bell tolled from the neighbouring 
cathedral." '* Neighbouring " tells which cathedral, 
therefore it is a demonstrative adjective. 

Exercise. 

Pick out the adjectives and adjective-phrases from 
the following sentences, and state to what classes they 
belong : 

1. The way was long, the wind was cold, 
The minstrel was infirm and old. 

2. I have had such real disasters to lament. 

3. I have little reason to hope that the same good 

fortune will attend me forever. I have had an 
affectionate and promising family, many friends, 
few unfriends, and, I think, no enemies ; and 
more fame and fortune than mere literature 
ever procured fur a man before. 



170 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

4. In these times, or indeed in any times, such 

change is to be apprehended. 

5. Such news will wring your hearts, and many a 

poor fellow besides to whom my prosperity 
was daily bread. 

6. Here and there too, upon some shallow, pebbly 

shore, scarlet flamingoes stood dreaming knee- 
deep on one leg. 

7. The very butterflies ceased their restless flitting 

over the meadow grass. 

8. Each man worked with one hand only, while the 

other hand held a weapon of some sort. 

9. Any girl, however inexperienced, knows how to 

accept an ofTen 

10. Hundreds of broad-headed, short-stemmed, wide- 

branched oaks, which had witnessed perhaps 
the stately march of the Roman soldiery, flung 
their gnarled arms over a thick carpet of the 
most delicious greensward. 

1 1. It deals with the outward and immediate matter 

of the day, and with the inner and immutable 
ground of human nature. 

12. Except when there may arise unsought, 
Haply at times, a passing thought 

Of the old days which seem to be 
Much older than any history 
That is written in any book, 

13. Every touch of real detail and minute colour in 

the study serves to heighten and complete the 
finished picture. 

14. Perpetual benedictions were showered on his 

smgle head. 

15. Upon the sodden ground 

His old right hand lay nerveless, listless, dead, 
Unsccptrcd ; and his rcahnlcss eyes were closed j 



ADJECTIVES. 171 

While his bowed head seemed listening to the 

earth, 
His ancient mother, for some comfort yet. 

1 6. Some mourning words she spoke 
In solemn tenor and deep organ tone ; 

Some mourning words, which in our feeble tongue 
Would come in these like accents. 

17. Lost Echo sits amidst the voiceless mountains, 
And feeds her grief with his remembered lay. 

18. All last summer she sat by the often-mentioned 

bedside of her only son. 

19. They went up to the little gray church on the 

windy hill. 

20. Where once the sign-post caught the passing 

eye. 

21. Imagination fondly stoops to trace 

The parlour splendours of that festive place. 

22. The often copying of it wearied him out. 

23. Though a mere boy he is the very person we 

want. 

24. Ah ! sad and strange as in dark summer dawns 
The earliest pipe of half-awakened birds 

To dying ears, when unto dying eyes 

The casement slowly grows a glimmering square j 

So sad, so strange, the days that are no more. 

25. Bring me the yellow silk and leave the others 

alone. 

26. Concerning this change let the voters for be 

arranged on this side, and the voters against 
on that 

27. He was caught in the very act of startmg by the 

outward mail. 

28. There was left one infinite incredible grey void 
2y. . What powerful cause shall bid arise 

The buried warlike and the wise. 



1 73 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



30. Thebes did his rude unknowing youth engage; 
He chooses Athens in his riper age. 

31. Sir, I know, your smoother courtiers please you 

best. 

32. Through utter and through middle darkness 

borne. 

33. A thing not manageable, suppressive, save by 

some strongest and wisest man. 

34. A comic romance is a comic epic poem in prose. 

35. Come then — a still small whisper in your ear. 

36. True self-love and social are the same. 

37. This is a full poor cell. 

38. He has a right noble instinct of what is doable. 

39. The famine seems to return every five years. 

40. The green trees whispered soft and low. 

41. A little learning is a dangerous thing. 

42. They are divided into twenties and thirties ; 

which will you have, a twenty division or a 
thirty ? 

43. Ayr, gurgling, kissed his pebbled shore, 

O'erhung with wild woods, thickening, green; 
The fragrant birch and hawthorn hoar 

Twined amorous round the raptured scene. 

44. With lower, second, and third stories you shall 

make it. 

45. He holds him with his glittering eye — 

The wedding guest stood still, 
And listens like a three-years' child; 
The mariner hath his will. 

Exercises should also be set consisting of lists of 
adjectives, the forms of comparison of which are tc 
be given, and the.se forms, when irregular, explained. 



PRONOUNS. 

CL AS SIF IC ATION. 

Direction.— In the following exercise the pupil 
should be required to state first what the pronoun 
stands for, and then its class and person. Where the 
pronoun is inflected the force of the inflexion must 
be pointed out. 

Example. — " Do you see the man who dropped 
this?" 

You — stands for the name of the person spoken 
to, therefore it is a pronoun — personal, of the 
2nd person. 
Who — stands for " man," and relates or carries 
back the clause "dropped this" to "man" the 
person spoken of, therefore it is a pronoun — 
relative, of the 3rd person. 
This — stands for and points out definitely the 
name of the thing spoken of, therefore it is a 
pronoun — demonstrative, of the 3rd person. 

N.B. — Pupils so commonly make the mistake of calling a 
demonstrative adjective ?l. demonrtrative prououu, that it would 
be well to remind them, before they commence the following 
exercise, that a prcmoun is a word ussd for a noun, not with a 
noun. Nor does a prunouQ describe or point out a noun under* 



174 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

stood immediately after it ; though occasionally the feeling that 
a noun is understood is so slight that the adjective becomes a 
pronou , almost if not altogether. For example in Sentence 2, 
"certain," though strictly an adjective with "people" under- 
stood after it, may fairly be called a pronoun, for one hardly 
feels at all that " people " is understood. 



Exercise. 

Pick out the pronouns from the following sentences, 
and state their class and person, and, when inflected, 
the force of their inflexions : 

1. Is this the region, this the soil, the clime, 

That we must change for heaven ? 

2. Certain were there who swore to the truth of 

this. 

3. What's that she mumbles ? The devil's pater- 

noster? Would it were else. 

4. The men were so alike, he knew not which was 

which. 

5. All that wealth e'er gave 
Awaits alike the inevitable hour. 

6. Few shall part where many meet. 

7. They had their several (= separate) partitions for 

heathen nations, their several for the people 
. . . their several for men, their several for 
women, their several for the priests, and for 
the high priest alone their several. 

8. One takes upon him temperance, holiness ; 

another austerity ; a third an afi"ected kind of 
simplicity, whenas indeed he, and he, and 
he, and the rest are hypocrites, ambidexters, 
outsides, so many turning pictures — a lion ou 
one side and a lamb on the other. 



PRONOUNS. 175 



9. For what else is the law but the gospel fore- 
showed ? 

10. Then cither's love was either's life. 

11. Every of your wishes shall be done. 

12. It's all one to me. 

13. One in a certain place testifieth. 

14. Thus saith Pope Alexander, Gregory, John, 

Clement, or some such other like. 

15. Framing unto some unwholesome sores plaistcrs, 

and applying other some where no sore is. 

16. God Cupid, or the keeper, I know not whether, 
Unto my cost and charges brought you hither. 

17. Whether of them twain did the will of his father? 

18. Yonder is a bad man. 

19. Yon are thieves. 

20. He is one the truest-mannered. 

21. Myself hath been the whip. 

22. So that sometime myself carries me where my- 

self knoweth not. 

23. May I not do what I will with mine own? 

24. What's he for a man ? 

25. I do repent me. 

26. Signor Antonio commends him to you. 

27. Wlien Warwick disannuls great John of Gaunt, 
Which did subdue the greatest part of Spain. 

28. Many are called, but few chosen. 

29. Some certain of the noblcst-mindcd Romans, £:c 

30. I write not to hurt any, but to profit some. 

31. Some say he is with the Emperor of Russia, 
Other some, he is in Rome. 

32. For books are as meats and viands are, some of 

good, some of evil substance. 

33. Howsoe'er it shock some's self-love. 

34. But of all somes none is displeased 

To be welccrae. 



tjS ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

35. For't must be cJone to-night, 
And something from the place. 

36. There is somewhat in the wind. 

37. It is a pretty saying of a wicked one. 

38. Such counterfeit jewels make true ones oft 

suspected. 

39. For taking one's part that is out of power. 

40. 'Tis all one to be a witch as to be counted one. 

41. For aught I know the rest are dead, my lord. 

42. They are both in either's power. 

43. There came from the ruler of the synagogue's 

house certain which said. 

44. To hunt the boar with certain of his friends. 

45. Whether is greater, the gift or the altar ? 

46. What is this woman, quod I, so worthily attired ? 

47. What is he that shall buy his flock and pasture? 

48. 'Twas a foolish quest, 

The which to gain and keep he sacrificed all rest. 

49. The winds 
Who take the nifhan billows by the tops, &c. 

50. The bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay, &c. 

51. This is the point whereat he would have stayed. 

52. We speak that we do know, and testify that we 

have seen. 

53. What wight is that which saw that I did see? 

54. The that that that uiau used should have been a 

which. 

55. That that that gentleman has advanced is not thai 

that he should have proved to your lordship. 

56. What is done cannot be undone. 

57. That what we have we prize not to the worth. 

58. All such such reading as was never read. 

59. That gentleness as I was wont to hare. 

60. Under these hard conditions as this time is like 

to lay on me. 



PRONOUNS. 177 



61. Such a one as is already well furnished. 

62. As I expected, the journey was long and tedious. 

63. Folly that both makes friends and keeps them so. 

64. He is that same I told you of. 

65. There's nothing good or bad, but thinking makes 

it so. 

66. Is yon thy page ? 

67. He called them dogs and kites and such like. 

68. Though good men are scarce, I hope to find 

some such at homa. 

69. Forget ! forget ! Is th s thine only word ? 

70. Tlie tempest may break out which overwhelms 

thee, and thine, and mine, 

71. Come, lay thee down. 

72. Ladies, go sit you down amidst this bower. 

73. Woe is me. 

74. Villain, I say, knock me at this gate, and rap me 

well. 

75. The place whereto he came was waste and bare. 

76. There are so many advantages in speaking one's 

own language well, and being a master of it 
that let a man's calling be what it will, it 
cannot but be worth our taking some pains 
in it. 

77. We are much beholding to this learned man. 
So are we, madam ; which we will recompense. 

78. It could not more delight me than your sight 

79. (An instrument) put into his hands 

Who knows no touch to tune the harmony. 

80. Their children yet unborn, 

Who dare to raise their hands against their kinjj 



VERBS. 

CLASSIFICATION AND INFLEXION. 

£>IRECT10N- — In the following exercise the pupil 
should be required to state first the kind and manner 
of the action of the verb, and then its class and mood. 
With regard to tense, number, and person, no prior 
statement need be made. 

Example. — " Now, sir 1 speak one word more and 
I close the book." 

Speak — the action parses over to " word," and 
dependency is denoted, tJierefore "speak" is 
transitive and in the subjunctive »/(7i?^— present 
tense, singular number, second person. 
Close — the action passes over to " book " and 
a direct assertion is made, therefore " close " is 
transitive, and in the indicative vwisd — future 
tense, singular number, first person. 

N.B. — The pupil's attention should be called to the above 
asc of the piuttit-tense foim of the verb with a futvre meaning. 



VERBS. 179 



Exercise I. 

State the class, mood, tense, number, and person of 
the verbs in the following sentences : 

1. She gave me of the tree, and I did eat 

2. He was a man, take him all in all, 

I shall not look upon his like again. 

3. I thought I should have seen some Hercules. 

4. If thou hadst said him nay, it had been sin. 

5. My son has been offered a situation in the 

Custom-house. 

6. What matter where, if I be still the same, 
And what I should be, all but less than He 
Whom thunder hath made greater. 

7. Motionless as a cloud the old man stood. 
That moveth altogether, if it move at alL 

8. Some heavenly power guide us hence. 

9. Well, then, be it so. 

10. Thy will be done. 

1 1. Be we bold and make despatch. 

12. A little weeping would ease my heart 

13. It is on the tenth page, which see. 

14. He will be here to-morrow, when please call 

again. 

15. May there be no iU-*i'ill between us. 

16. Will you permit that I stand in the pillory? 

17. Be aye sticking in a tree. Jack; it'll be growing 

while ye're sleeping. 

18. The Lord judge between thee and me. 

19. Had I a daughter worthy of such a husband, he 

should have such a wife. 
80. The wedding-guest he beat his breast, yet he 
cannot choose but hear. 



I So ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



21. He doubted what were the best methods ol 

raising money in such a case. 

22. Woe worth the man 

That first did teach the cursed steel to bite 
In his own flesh. 

23. I would not enter on my list of friends the man 

who heedlessly sets foot upon a worm. 

24. She had told Tom that she should like him to 

put the worms on the hook for her, although 
she accepted his word when he assured her 
that worms couldn't feel. 

25. Then she awoke suddenly and the dream was fled. 

26. He was come now, he said, to the end of his 

journey. 

27. Report speaks you a bonnie monk, that would 

hear the matin chime ere he quitted his bowL 

28. He looked a look that threatened her insult. 

29. Who is there in our company to represent the 

queen of beauty ? 

30. Though the same room served us for parlour 

and kitchen, that only made it warmer. 

31. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. 

The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea, 
The ploughman homeward plods his weary way, 
And leaves the world to darkness and to me. 

32. The creation of the world had not, in my 

opinion, anything to do with my business. 

33. Still I feel 
My father's slow hand .... 

Stroke out my childish curls across his knee. 

34. These rufflings will only make us hated by all the 

wives of our neighbours. 

35. These are the mansions of good men after death, 

who, according to the degrees and kinds of 
virtue in which they excelled, are distributed 



VERBS. i8i 

among these several islands, which abound 
with pleasures of different kinds and degrees, 
suitable to the relishes and perfections of 
those who are settled on them, so that every 
island is a paradise accommodated to its 
respective inhabitants. 

36. Come all the world 

To rescue thee, so will we guard us now, &:c, 

37. The Lord make his face to shine upon thee, 

and be gracious unto thee. 

38. Publish we this peace 
To all our subjects. 

39. Part we in friendship from your land. 

40. O ! that I were a mockery king of snow. 

41. It is fit this soldier keep his oath. 

42. 'Tis better that the enemy seek us. 

43. 'Tis time that I were gone. 

44. I charge thee that thou attend me. 

45. Law wills that each particular be known. 

46. But see thou change no more. 

47. Let 'em war, so we be conquerors. 

48. And creep time ne'er so slow. 

Yet it shall come for me to do thee good. 

49. Be it scroll, or be it book. 

Into it, knight, thou must not look. 

50. liowe'er the world go, 
I'll make sure for one. 

51. The men of her city shall stone her with stones 

that she die. 

52. [Our destined end is] 

To act that each to-morrow 
Find us further than to-day. 
53.1.... return or e'er your pulse beat thrice. 

54. He leaves town to-morrow. 

55. He is leaving for India almost immediately. 



lS2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

56. Should I not write, you must know all is well. 

57. Now tread we a measure, said young Lochinvar. 

58. If 'twere done, when 'tis 4one, then 'twere well 
It were done quickly. 

59. Many acts, that had been otherwise blamable, 

were done by them. 

The exercises on strong and weak verbs (§§ 7075) 
should consist of mixed lists with regard to which 
the pupil should be required to state their principal 
parts (present and past tense and passive participle), 
and also whether they are strong or weak, with the 
reason for this last statement in every case. 

AUXILIARY VERBS AND OTHERS SOME- 
TIMES MISTAKEN FOR THEM. 

Auxiliary verbs are verbs used to form the tenses, 
moods, and voices of other verbs. In deciding, 
therefore, whether a verb is an auxiliary or not, it is 
necessary to decide whether it marks the time or the 
manner of the action of another verb, or whether it 
makes the subject, or thing spoken of, the doer or 
sufferer of the action. If it does none of these things 
then it is no auxiliary. It is a very safe guide to 
consider whether, in the case of two verbs, one finite 
and the other in the infinitive mood, the chief 
meaning rests on the former or the latter ; if it rests 
on the latter then the former is generally an auxiliary ; 
but if an equal or greater force rests on the former 
then the former is generally not an auxiliary. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 183 



Exercise II. 

Decide whether the finite verbs (when used with 
infinitives) in the following sentences are auxiliary or 
not, giving your reasons in each case : 

1. Princes and lords may flourish or may fade : 

A breath uimiakes them as a breath hath made. 

2. You have done that you should be sorry fi^r. 

3. If he cannot conquer, he may properly retreat. 

4. Let me die the death of the righteous. 

5. I thought ten thousand swords must have leaped 

from their scabbards to avenge even a look 
that threatened her with insult. 

6. Milton ! thou shouldst be living at this hour. 

7. Who w^ould be free, himself must strike the 

blow. 

8 They apprehended that he might have been 

carried off by gipsies. 

9 I do entreat that we may sup together. 

10. You would be taught your duty, I suppose. 
1 1 Who is here so rude that would not be a 
Roman? 

12. Shall the thing formed say to him that formed 

it : Why hast thou made mc thus? 

13. I am about to return to town. 

14. I am so deeply smitten through the helm, 

That without help I may not last till mom. 

15. She was as fair as fair migiit be. 

16. Thou shalt not steal. 

17. If thou wilt, thou mayest make me clcaa I willj 

be cleansed. 

18. Tliou shalt do no murder. 

19. Ifrou mark him you shall oflfend hioo. 



84 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

20. The lion shall He down with the lamb. 

21. He shall take the blood and sprinkle it upon the 

lintel. 

22. There thou shalt lack nothing. 

23. Let me be free. 

24. I have you caught and fast bound at last, 

25. I will not do it come what may. 

26. When you come there you shall find a place 

planted with trees. 

27. If he insults you, you should still bear in mind 

your own dignity. 

28. If it be defaced and black, 'tis still my mother's 

picture. 

29. Thou hast me now ruined and at thy mercy- 

30. You miglit do it if you chose. 

31. If it so happened that he might be there, you 

should nevertheless have been in your place. 

32. If he were damned and utterly reprobate she 

still would love him. 

33. I will be drowned and nobody shall save me. 

34. She might have been the happiest in the land, if 

she had cared to be so. 

35. I would not hurt him for the world. 

36. If I can come you may be sure I will be there. 

37. Your lordship shall do well to let them have it 

38. Some of you shall be my father. 

39. He of you all that most desires my blood, 

And will be called the murtherer of a king. . . . 

40. If they go, the prince shall lose his right 

41. We may not, nor we will not suffer this. 

42. I do indeed believe him, but do you ? 

43 Do you think so ? Perhaps I did act foolishly 
then after all, though it did not seem so at 
the time. 

44- He should be here to-night, by what I hear. 



VERBAL NOUNS AND PARTICIPLES. 185 

VERBAL NOUNS AND PARTICIPLES. 

By ihe side of our participles in -ing, we have in 
English verbal nouns also ending in -iiig^ i.e. nouns 
formed from the roots of verbs by the addition oi -itJg; 
and it is sometimes difficult to decide whether a given 
word in a sentence should be classed under- one head 
or the other. Indeed, from the similarity in form and 
meaning of the words, the two constructions are often 
hopelessly confused. 

The easiest plan is to divide the constructions under 
three heads: (i) those in which the word in -ing is 
clearly a noun ; (2) those in which the word is clearly 
a participle ; (3) those in which there is confusion of 
the noun and participle. 

If the word names a perfectly general action without 
reference to a subject or object, it is clearly a noun, 
as, "«'t7//{7v^ was his favourite amusement;" "he 
stumbled in running ;^' " she listened to the fnurmur- 
/«^of the itrcani." In this case ^/le precedes and 0/ 
follows the word in -ing, or both ^and ///<? are omitted, 
or the wc»rd is governed by a preposition and itself 
governs no object 

If the word states an action with regard to a subject 
It is a participle, as, " I have been dreaming ; " " I saw 
him running ;"" he was striking the woman." [Oi 
couise, if the word in -///^qualifies a noun it is an 
adjective, as in " he was a striking example."] 

But if the word, though naming a perfectly general 
action without reference to a subject, governs an 



lS6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

object, or if, though preceded by the or a preposition, 
it governs an object ; or if, again, though staling an 
action with regard to a subject, it is followed by <?/, 
then the construction is a mixed one, as in " leaving 
my house is inconvenient ; " " the clapping her hands 
ruined us; " " he made a mistake in writing the letter;" 
" I found him searching of her wounds." 

Exercise III. 

Decide whether the words in -ing in the following 
sentences are verbal nouns or participles, or whether 
the construction is a mixed one, giving your reasons 
in each case : 

1. I remember the hissing of her batlet . . . and the 

wooing of a peascod instead of her. 

2. I did it upon pain of losing my life. 

3. It is not dying for a faith that is hard. 

4. The giving a bookseller his price for a book has 

this advantage. 

5. Thou respectest not spilling Edward's blood. 

6. Women are angels, wooing. 

7. I saw great pieces of ordnance making. 

8. He contemplated marrying Esther. 

9. Quoting of authors is most for matters of fact 
ID. Seeing is believing. 

11. Returning were as tedious as go o'er. 

12. Father's gone a-hunlmg. 

13. If all fcar'd drowning that spy waves ashore, &c. 

14. Whether it is worth my knowing is another 

question. 

15. We do not dance for dancing's sake. 



VERBAL NOUNS AND PARTICIPLES. 1S7 



16. The sea begins, and there is no more jumping 

ashore. 

1 7. Who can hold a fire in his hand 

By thinking on the frosty Caucasus? 

18. For repeaHng my banished brother I am grateful 

to him. 

19. If two fall to scuffling, one tears the other's band. 

20. Your father is a-going, good old man. 

21. Hodge fell a-swearing. 

22. God who ... didst teach the hearts of thy faithful 

people by the sending to them the light of 
Thy Holy Spirit. 

23. Sent to prepare the way by preaching of 

repentance. 

24. No tyrannical penance, no whipping them- 

selves .... 

25. In the meantime the dog fell to eating his 

mutton. 

26. Dick, the shepherd, blowing of his nails. . . . 

27. The church was three years building. 
23. To prove him, in defending of myself, 

A traitor to my God, my king, and me. 

29. The gooseberries were of her gathering. 

30. Your remaining here would ruin us all. 

31. Cedric would have avoided pledging her in this 

ominous conviviaHty. 

32. For mine own part I durst not laugh, for fear of 

opening my lips and receiving bad air. 

33. In searching of thy wound 

1 have by hard adventure found mine own. 

34. Well, we shall see what good they will make by 

exchanging a wise man for a fool. 

35. Beware of hasty gathering of riches. 

36. In the royal ordering of gardens there ought to be 

gardens for all months in the year. 



i88 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



37. It is the bright day brings forth th« adder. 
And that craves wary walking. 

38. He now used his walking-stick constantly. 

39. A summer's eve he loved to lie 

Within the sound of some church-going belL 

40. Morn, in the white wake of the morning star 
Came furrowing all the orient into gold. 

41. I determined to increase my salary by managing 

a little farm. 

42. Such resting found the sole 
Of unblest feet 

43. I remember his pointing with the wooden sword. 

44. Who gave you knowledge of your wife's being 

here? 

45. Cedric, though surprised ... at his ward appear- 

ing in j)ublic, &c. 

46. When we had dined, to prevent the ladies 

deserting us, I generally ordered the table to 
be removed. 

47. I see men as trees walking. 

48. Here it runs sparkling, 
There it lies darkling. 

49. The gray-eyed morn smiles on the frowning 

night, 
Checkering the eastern clouds with streaks ol 
light. 

50. The middle station of life seems to be the most 

advantageously situated for the gaining of 
wisdom ; poverty turns our thoughts too much 
upon the supplying of our wants, and riches 
upon enjoying our superfluities. 

51. And happy is the man whom he vouchsafes, 
For vailing of his bonnet, one good look. 

52. Look where the sister of the King of France aits 

wringing of her hands. 



THE INFINITIVE. 189 

53. 'Tis not ... . 

Smelling to a nosegay all the day, 

Or holding of a napkin in your hand, 

Or saying a long grace at a table's end, 

Or m iking low legs to a nobleman, 

Or looking downward with your eyelids dose, 

And saying '* Truly an't may please your 

honour." 
Can get you favour with great men. 

54. My lord of Cornwall is a-coming over. 

55. Touching the sending of this Gaveston, &c. 

56. By curing of this raaimdd empery, &c. 

57. Why stay we thus, prolonging of their lives? 

58. Sitting as if they were a-telling riddles, &c. 

59. I shall cheerfully bear the reproach of having 

descended below the dignity of history. 

60. Doubtless the pleasure is as great 
Of being cheated, as to cheat. 



THE INFINITIVE. 

The iii.'^jnitive, with " to," wlien it stands as the sub- 
ject or object in a sentence, is a noun. When it de- 
notes a purpose or intention after a verb, as in " he 
came to see me," it should be called " a gerund," or 
" infinitiveof purpose," When, as in "give me 
something to eat," (= for eating) it describes a noun, 
it is best to call it an " adjectival phiase." ^^■hile, 
again, it is an " adverbial phrase " in " tilings hard to 
be understood." 



190 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCIoES. 



Exercise IV. 

In the following sentences state what llie infinitives 
lell us, and then decide whether tliey are nouns, 
gerunds, adjectival-phrases, &:c. : 

1. To be, or not to be — that is the question. 

2. I am glad to have met you. 

3. I intended to write long before this. 

4. To reign is worth ambition, though in Hell : 
Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven 

5. This house is to let. 

6. I have much work to do. 

7. Of all men he is the man to do it 

8. He did not dare to leave it where it was. 

9. You had better go home. 

10. I had rather die than do it. 

11. For him, to hear is to obey. 

12. He did nothing but stroll up and down the 

streets. 

13. Returning were as tedious as go o'er. 

14. I cannot but grieve for her I used to love. 

15. He was just about to start when I called him 

back. 

16. What went ye out for to see? 

17. I care for you too much, my friend, to let you 

venture forth. 

18. I feel 

The bond of Nature draw me to my own. 

19. Cromwell, I did not think to shed a tear 

In all my miseries. 

20. I can see that you are anxious for her not to 

find out the truth. 



THE INFINITIVE. 191 

21. Leaves have their time to fall, 
And flowers to wither at the north-wind's breath. 

22. Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast. 

23. Bid me tear the bond. 

24. He invoked Heaven to witness the sincerity of 

his professions. 

25. He spoke, and to confirm his words out flew 
Millions of flaming swords. 

26. Be swift to hear, and slow to speak. 

27. He lies with not a friend to close his eye$. 

28. None knew her but to love her; 
None named her but to praise. 

29. There is a time to weep, and a time to laugh. 

30. In politics, the Independents were — to use the 

phrase of their time — root-and-branch men. 

31. *Tis excellent to have a giant's strength; 
But tyrannous to use it like a giant. 

32. They passed the word to keep a sharp look-out 

on the weather-bow. 
II. The sight of means to do ill deeds 

Makes ill deeds done. 

34. Hast thou a charm to stay the morning star? 

35. I chatter, chatter as I flow 
To join the brimming river. 

36. The little creature was forced to sit down and 

pant. 

37. He ... . will add .... a name that Tyranny 

shall quake to hear. 

38. And we did speak only to break 
Tlie silence of the sea. 

39. He has the sense to know good things from bad. 

40. Youth and pleasure meet to chase the glowing 

hours with flying feet. 

41. Call them not to share with us their part in this 

unhappy mansion. 



IC32 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

42. One who brings a mind not to be changed by 

place or time. 

43. Tliis is all I have brought from my own land to 

help me. 

44. Another morn shall find all e)'es disposed to 

watch and understand my work. 

45. He brought this successfully to bear upon his 

foes. 

46. Sufficient to have stood, but free to fall. 

47. As long as you have the wisdom to keep the 

sovereignty 

48. Her bower that was guarded by word and by 

spell — 
Deadly to hear, and deadly to tell. 

49. 1 find it hard to suffer all this wrong in silence. 

50. I am like to die, who having hoped to swim 
This sea of troubles, sir — too wide to swim 
And dangerous to cross — alas, still tried, 
And now am left for rrinds to beat upon, . • • 



ADVERIiS. 

CLASSIFICATION AND DERIVATION. 

Direction. — It cannot be always seen at a glance 
whether a particular word in a sentence is an adverb 
or not ; nor can we decide off-hand in every, case 
ivhat word is modified by the adverb; or, again, to 
what class the adverb belongs. The pupil should 
therefore first clearly state wliat the adverb tells us in 
the sentence, and then decide on its class j or if it be 
doubtful whether the word in question is really an 
adverb, he should give his reason for his decision. 

Example : " Ho»v jocund did they drive their team 
Qfiehr 

Jocund. — This word rather describes the state in which 
they were than the manner in which " they 
drove," therefore it is an adjective^ not an 
adverb. 

A-fuld. — Tells us where " they drove," therefore it is 
an adverb of place, derived from the noun 
field, and the preposition a (= on, in'). 

N.B. — The pupil should also he careful to notice the use <\ 
Ihe relative adverb to link on adjfclivc ci.uiscb to iho main clause 
in sentences of ihe following kuvl : "This is llie point whercia 
(b in which) I onfcnded." It will Lc luoiw' coiisi^tcui to call 
"wherein " a rcla.tive/zv/it'a/j. 



194 EXGLISII GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



Exercise. 

Decide whether in the foUowirig sentences the words 
and phrases printed in italics are adverbs (giving your 
reasons), and state their classes and the word or words 
(with their parts of speech) from which llicy are 
derived : 

1. It is exct'sive wrong. 

2. This was all excel letit good. 

3. Egenhart, who was secretary to Charles I., be 

came exceeding popular. 

4. Right against the eastern gate, 
Where the sun begins his state. 

5. I hear the /^r-off curfew-bell. 

6. For the falling and rising again of many in 

Israel, <S:c. 

7. Not but that it is healthy, only I do not like it. 

8. Whether he be a sinner or no, whether his love 

be natural or not, I cannot tell. 

9. Be it ever so homely there's no place like home. 

10. The sublime Longinus in sonieiuhat a latter 

period, &c. 

11. He had suffered the woodman only io use his 

discretion in the distant woods. 

12. They two went hand-in-hand the long dark way. 

13. She stood silent ^ as the heralds pressed her 

hand. 

14. A tear at hast is due to the unhappy. 

15. Napoleon, lately Emperor of the i'lench. retired 

to Chiswirk. 

16. Ha ! that blow hit him home I 

17. Smack went the whip. 

18. He let it go bangaX the window. 



ADVERBS. I9S 

19. Peradventure there shall be twenty found there. 

20. He was welcomed by almost everybody. 

21. Follies that are only to be lulled by a constant 

and assiduous culture. 

22. The honour and dignity of Her ^\.^t%\.y reluctantly 

compel her to withdraw from the arbitration. 

23. Unfortuf lately the old lines of the streets had 

been to a great extent preserved. 

24. Perhaps, cried he, there may be such monsters 

as you describe. 

25. I, even I, only am left. 

26. Even a fool, when he holdeth his peace, is 

counted wise. 

27. He looked thoughtfully towards the glimmering 

sea-line. 

28. He called so loud that all the hollow deep of 

hell resounded. 

29. Old John of Gaunt is grievous sick, my lord. 

30. There was a man of our town, 
And he was wondrous wise. 

31. What need we any spur for our cause ? 

32. I d(jn't care a straw which way it goes. 

33. They cry day and night unto him. 

34. They wandered north and south. 

35. He must needs die. 

36. Longtime I waited by the accustomed tree. 

37. They burst their bonds asunder. 

38. I say unto you verily it is not so. 

39. You that are noble born should pity him. 

40. You that ^.vc princely born should shake him off. 

41. Behold an army comes incontinent. 

42. Will all great Neptune's ocean wash his blood 

dean from my hand ? 

43. Be not lost so poorly in your thoughts. 
.^4. Over them the sca-wiiid bang shrill. 



r96 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

45. (He) strode back sloiv to the wounded king. 

46. (His lustrous cuils were) clotted into points and 

hanging loose. 

47. Which raufet glow, 

Through time and change, tinquoichably the 
same. 

48. But wherefore let we then our failhful friends 
Lie thus astonished on the oblivious pooL 

49. The torrid clime 
Smote on him sore besides. 

50. So thick bestrewn, abject, and lost\-^y these. 

51. Bright the lamps shone o'er fair won>en and 

brave men. 

52. (And there were) cheeks nl' pale. 

53. And 7oi/d and high the " Cameron's gathering " 

rose. 

54. Yet am I in/and bred. 

55. Doubt, of whatever kind, can be ended by action 

a/one. 

56. They serve equally the first capacities and the 

lowest. 

57. A stream went voiceless by, still deadened more 
By reason of his fallen divinity 

Spreading a shade. 

58. Her focc was large as that of Memphian sphinx 

Pedestaled haply in a palace court. 

59. (Thy thunder) rumbles reluctant o'er our fallen 

house. 

60. Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears. 

61. No7vadays mtn wander ^h'^wi a-fjights ^r\A seldom 

arise betimes m the mom. 

62. He lies lurking for you unawares. 

63. They tore him to death //Vavz/fu/. 

64. The owl for all his feathers was a-coU. 

65. There she lay askej>. 



ADVERBS. 197 



66. Perchance his soul has gone aloft. 

67. The house stood something from the river. 

68. 'Tis somewhat hard, 

69. Ah Johnnie ! He was a good man to be sure^ 

and mayhap we shall have none other like 
him. 

70. She stood petrified, as it were, and dazed with 

horror. 

71. 'Tis marvellous good wine, abbot; though a trijle 

strong. 

72. *' He is a right doivn shrewd fellow," answered 

Tom, " and in all conscience, good enough for 
them." 

73. 'Twas linked sweetness, long drawn out. 

74. As the sun rose higher and higher, a stillness fell 

upon the forest. 

75. All uicks, they say, z.rc fair in Icit and tvar. 



PREPOSITIONS. 

Prepositions are connecting words, by means ot 
which we express the relation of one thing to another, 
or of a thing to an action or attribute. They connect 
a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence, 
so as to mark clearly or describe that word, as in " a 
man of sense" " he talked long enough for his £ur£0S6y 
•* this was done by him,^' " he is very foi.d qf her." 
They are also in some cases so united to verbs as to 
form new compounds, as in " Do as you would be 
doneby."* Prepositions express a great variety of 
relations, the most common of which are place, time, 
manner, catise ; and the variety is so great that it is 
advisable not to attempt classification, but simply to 
state in each case the relation expressed by the pre- 
position. 



• The teacher would do well to point out to his elder pupils 
that prepositions used in this last way were orijjinally adverbial 
in their character, and to call attention to such pairs of forms as 
"to look over" and *' to overlook," "t<> stand under" and "to 
understand," &c. Nijlice should also be called to the fact that 
many verbs now intransitive are made transitive by the help of a 
prepOiition, as iu " 'i he alcauicr ran intj the vessel aiid sunk it." 



PREPOSITIONS. 199 



Exercise. 

Pick out the prepositions and prepositional phrases 
from the following sentences, and state what words 
they join and what relations they express : 

1. He received a third of the proceeds. 

2. He stabbed him from behind. 
• 3. Few of the host survived. 

4. You are a greater blockhead than 1 tool: you for. 

5. He laughed at me. 

6. He despaired of success. 

7. He had the strength of a lion. 

8. The man of God returned alone. 

9. Your case shall be attended to. 

10. In pride, in reasoning pride our error h'es. 

1 1. The smiling daisies blow beneath the sun. 

12. Their clear spirits shone through the dark like 

stars at night. 

13. The city of Amsterdam stands upon wooden piles. 

14. This is a good horse to ride on. 

15. He longed to fmd a place to pitch his tent in. 

16. They are not worth si)eaking with. 

17. This is a matter often inquired into, but ncvei 

disposed of. 

18 . Before then she had been a washerwoman. 

19. Tiie soft light from above 

Fell on its little breast swelled out with song. 

20. He pushed his boat alongside the quay. 

21. 'Tis all the joy I can hope for this side heaven. 

22. A rumbling sound was heard beneath their feet. 

23. 1 can dispense with your services. 

24. I swear that no one was to blame but me. 



ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 



25. Notwithstanding this, they were all good friends 

in general. 

26. Moses, on the contrary,, gave him a question or 

two from the ancients, for which he had the 
satisfaction of being laughed at 

27. It appeared to me one of the vilest instances of 

unprovoked ingratitude I had ever met with. 

28. A stick and a wallet were all the movable things 

upon this earth that he could boast of. 

29. A feast was provided for our reception, to which 

we at once sat down. 

30. Poor soul ! his eyes are red wiih weeping. 

31. I saw a smith stand with his hammer thus. 

32. An old man broken with the storms of state, &c. 

33. Thou art beside thyself. 

34. That is beside the mark. 

35. He was slain by Lady Macbeth with her dagger, 

in cold blood, and from ambition. 

36. By our swords we gained these lands, and with 

our swords we will maintain them. 

37. Of him, and through him, and to him are all 

things. 

38. We feel obliged to tlie editor both for making 

Lord Collingwood known to us, and for the 
very pleasing modest way he has taken to do 
it in. 

39. Why then thou knowest not what colour jet is of 1 

40. The thing is known .^11 Sestos over. 

41. And from before the lustre of her face 
White break the clouds away. 

42. He sold it at above its market value. 

43. Iambic verse consists of from two to six feet \ 

that is of from four to twelve syllables. 

44. And the meagre fiend 
Blows mildciv from between his shrivcll'd lips. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



45. The love of our neighbour was his leading idea. 

46. Vou have no right of pasturage here. 

47. This affair of the mutiny was much talked of. 

48. He has a brute of a dog. 

49. He always greatly admired the Book of Job. 

50. To all intents and purposes the war is now over. 

51. The joint was boiled to rags. 

52. They marched to the tune of " Yankee Doodle." 
5^. They arrived to the number of fourscore. 

54. Oh for a draught of vintage that hath been 
Cool'd a long age in the deep delved earth I 

55. A man's a man for all that. 

56. He is tall for his years. 

57. For one whom all men esteem as a saint to fear 

lest himself become a devil is as hard as for 
a prince to submit himself to tutors. 
5S. ?Ie fled from the city of destruction. 

59. l>y this time they are faraway. 

60. With Nelly by his side he felt supremely happy. 

61. The streets of hell are paved with good in- 

tentions. 

62. I am completely at a loss to understand you. 

63. He came at full speed. 

64. Now fades the glimmering landscape on the 

sight. 

65. He dined on fish. 

66. The truth came on her all of a sudden. 

67. Once upon a time there lived a prince. 

68. This picture is after Rubens. 

69. He did it out of sheer kindness. 

70. All save one ran past the house. 

71. Nigh the shore a church once stood. 

72. In spite of you I will return. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 

Conjunctions, like prepositions, are connecting words. 
But while prepositions join words, conjunctions join 
sentences. Not that both tlie sentences joined by a 
conjunction are always expressed in full ; this would 
lead to far too cumbrous and awkward a form of 
expression. Thus, in the statement, " John and Mary 
went to town," we have only one word of the first 
sentence, "John went to to\\Ti," expressed, viz. "John;" 
but logically there are really two statements, one con 
cerning " John " and the other concerning " Mary." 
Or, again, in " Not John, but Mary came to see us," 
we have really the two statements " John did not 
come to see us," " Mary came to see us." In fact, 
one or other of the statements is usiial/y abbreviated 
just so far as is possible without interfering with the 
sense. 

From the frequent use of this abbreviated form of 
expression we have come to use conjunctions, in a 
few cases, to join luords, and not sentences ; as, for 
instance, in, "Four and four is eight," "They walked 
two and two," "They are husband and wife." But 
these cases are very few in number ; while moreover 
it is particularly to be noticed that, when a con- 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



junction does join words, it nner causes citlier of the 
words to affect or modify the other in any way, — as a 
preposition alzvays does. 

The conjunction does not form a part of eithei of 
the sentences it joins. It is merely a Unk-word, and 
may often be omitted with great effect, or again inserted 
in every possible place. As, for instance, in the fol- 
lowing: " Thou stretchedst out thy hand — the earth 
swallowed them." 

" Charity beareth all things, believeth all things, 
hopelh all things, endureth all things." 

" But a certain Samaritan came where he was, and 
when he saw him he had compassion on him, and went 
to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and 
wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him 
to the inn, and took care of hira." 

Exercise. 

Pick out the conjunctions and conjunctional phrases 
Trcm the following sentences, and state what they join 
and what relations they express : 

1. I saw them standing between you and him. 

2. He carefully placed everything under lock and 

key. 

3. The crowd surged to and fro. 

4. One of the holiest relations, he said, was that of 

mother and son. 

5. The question of master and servant occupied all 

his attention. 



204 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

6. It was honesty no less than prudence that guided 

his efforts. 

7. Not this man, but Barubbfis ; now Barabbas was 

a robber. 

8. Then he returned. Well you know what followed 

next 

9. Such was the condition. This condition, how- 

ever, he was not disposed to accept. 

10. Say what you please ; only do not do what you 

please. 

11. As we are at leisure, let us see what is to be 

seen. 

12. I wished to remain, whereas everyone else wished 

to return. 

13. Seeing that the world is not yet perfect, you had 

better take men as they are. 
14- Considering that the subject is quite new, he has 
really made great progress. 

15. He argued as if the world were just on the point 

of ending. 

16. In spite of all that you say, I still believe it. 

1 7. He was not very clever, but for all that he was a 

noble fellow. 

18. As I looked up I saw the man before me. 

19. Before he was done the end had already come. 

20. He was of poor but honest parents. 

21. She was a great and good woman. 

22. Believe me he is a wiser man than you are. 

23. Thee I revisit now with bolder wing 

Escaped the Stygian pool, though long detained 
In that obscure sojourn, while, in my flight 
Through utter and through middle darkness 

borne, 
To other notes than to the Orphean lyre 
I sung of Chaos and eternal Night. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



24. I then turned again to the vision which I had 

been so long contemplating ; but instead of 
the rolling tide, the arched bridge, and the 
happy islands, I saw nothing but the long 
valley of Bagdad, with oxen, sheep, and 
camels grazing upon it 
85. If he do bleed, 

I'll gild the faces of the grooms withal. 

For it must seem their guilt 

26. His face did shine as the sun. 

27. Nor hope to be myself less miserable 
By what I seek, but others to make such 
As I. 

25. Scrooge went to bed again, and thought, and 

thought, and thought it over and over and 
over. 

29. I have borne, and borne, and bome, and have 

been fubbed off, and fubbed off, and fubbed 
off, from this day to that 

30. I gazed and gazed until mine eyes grew dim. 

31. He has told me so again and again. 

32. I still meet him now and then. 

33. Let them wander up and down for meat 

34. My lord, and shall we pass this bill ? 

35. Good -day, old friend I And so you have re- 

turned at last 

36. I fancy he must be the man. And so he is. 

37. He, and he alone, has done all this, 

3S. Yet there is one, and he amongst the foremost 
in his power. 

39. God shall help her, and that ri^iht early. 

40. A few days, and we are parted for ever ! 

41. What with their noise, and what with the trem- 

bling of the ground, and the flashing of fire, 
we may well leel giddy. 



:o6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

42. I am not afraid of you, nor tliem neither. 

43. They met with little, or rather with no opposi- 

tion at all. 

44. You shall be repaid, or I'rii an ass. 

45. Awake, arise, or be for ever fallen ! 

46. Hush, and be mute, or else our spell is marr'd. 

47. You won't fight him, Bob ? Egad, but I will, 

Jack I 

48. But thou 
Revisit'st not these eyes. . . . 

Yet not the more cease I to wonder. . . o . 

49. We have no slaves at home — then why abroad? 

50. Where squire and yeom.an, page and groom, 
Plied their loud revelry. 



INTERJECTIONS. 

Interjections, being mere exclamations, do not stand 
in grammatical relation to any other word in the 
sentence. They are frequently abbreviated seatences, 
as in " Good-bye '' z=.God be with you / 
They need no exercise. 



WORD-MAKING. 

We have pointed out, and the examples in the first 
exercise of this book have fairly shown, that it holds 
true as a general rule in English that any word may 
be used as any pert of speech. This, however, chiefly 
applies to words in their simplest forms, which we 
may here for all practical purposes call roots, such as 
man, old, sfeet, &c. But there are syllables and letters 
which we add on to the end of roots to give them 
some distinctive meaning, as in man-/)', o\d-en, steal- 
eih, &c. ; and these new-coined words, ox derivatives as 
they are called, being less general in their meaning, 
are less general in their use, and belong almost exclu- 
sively to some particular part of speech. There is a 
feeling that they have been formed into particular 
parts of speech and should not be used as others. 
These syllables and letters added on to the end of 
roots to give them a distinctive meaning are called 
suffixes, e.g. -ly, -en, -th, &:c. 

There are also syllables and words which we place 
before or prefix to roots and other words to modify 
their meaning. These we call prefixes, as in inis- 
deed, «/;-manly, ?/;/^^<?r-stand. New words thus formed 
are termed compounds. 



2o8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

Lastly, we form another class of compounds by 
joining two words together so as to form one new word, 
as in black-bird, bare-foot, white-rtvash, &c. 

These are the methods by which we make words, 
and it is highly advisable that pupils should be 
thoroughly well exercised in them. 

Suffixes give new notions to the roots to which they 
are joined, thus, -er {-or, -ar) when added to do, sail, 
beg, gives them the notion of " agent," as in doer, sailor, 
beggar. Pupils should therefore be given a list of 
suffixes, and a list of roots to join, and should be 
asked to state what notions the suffixes add to the 
roots. The pupil should also be required to form 
abstract and diminutive nouns from nouns, adjectives, 
and verbs ; adjectives from nouns, verbs, &c. ; and so 
on with verbs and adverbs. 

So lists of prefixes and roots and words should be 
given to be joined, and the modifying force of the 
prefix demanded. And, lastly, lists of words should 
be given to be joined together so as to form single 
new words. 

Then the process should be reversed, and lists of 
derivatives and compounds should be given to be 
divided up into roots and suffixes, and roots and pre- 
fixes, with the force of the suffix and prefix clearly 
stated in each case. 

These exercises should be carried through each 
part of speech in succession, the suffixes and prefixes 
being obtained from the lists which any good English 



WORD-MAKING. 209 



grammar gives, and the roots and other words chosen 
according to the teacher's fancy. To print exercises 
of this kind would clearly be waste of labour. 

There is also another kind of exercise which may 
here be used with advantage. Phrases should be set 
and the pupil required to form particular parts of 
speech from them. Thus, " Form nouns from the 
following phrases : — Deal in pictures, hunt after for- 
tunes, gaze at stars, &c." — from which we get picture- 
dealer, fortune-hunter, star-gazer, &c. ; or. " Form 
adjectives from the following: — With a mouth of gold, 
inspiring dread, abide by the laws, like a knight, &c." 
— from which we ^t\ gohkn-mouthal, dreadful, laiv-abi^i- 
ing, knightly, &c. ; and so on through the different 
parts of speech. The teacher may form any number 
of these exercises for himself by simply writing down 
the meanings of the various derivatives and com- 
pounds that occur to him, and then requiring the pupil 
to turn them back again into derivative and com- 
pound wcrdi. 



SYNTAX. 

The main object, and the sole use, of the laws ol 
syntax is to insure that what is spoken and written 
shall be intelligible. It is a much greater sin against 
language to be ambiguous or unintelligible, than to 
make a false concord. The pupil should, therefore, 
be constantly warned against too hastily pronouncing 
a sentence to be incorrect or correct merely because 
the rules of syntax are or are not broken. He should 
be instructed to look farther, and to see whether the 
meaning of tlie sentence is dear, or whether it is 
obscured by a clumsy order or a wrong use of words. 
In the following sentences, which are taken almost 
without exception from standard authors, there are 
many in which the syntax is correct but the sense 
obscure, and in which the syntax is sinned against to 
avoid obscurity, and where again the sense is quite 
clear though the syntax is wrong. The pupil shosld 
not fail to point out this in each instance. 

Exercise. 

Justify or correct the following sentences, stating 
your reasons fully in each case : 



SYNTAX. 211 

J, O Thou my voice inspire 

Who touched Isaiah's hallowed lips with fire. 
3. I am a man that have travelled and seen many 
countries. 

3. Whom none but Heaven and you and I shall 

hear. 

4. There is none of my uncle's marks upon you. 

5. Homer as well as Virgil were studied on the 

banks of the Rhine. 

6. 'Twas Love's mistake who fancied what it feared. 

7. All the Stuart sovereigns had very {^\i good 

qualities. 
S. I am a plain blunt man that love my friend. 
9. Sir Theodore was one of the few South Sea 

Directors, who (though he lost considerably) 

did not lose his character. 

10. We sorrow not as them that have no hope. 

11. A great and a good man looks beyond time. 

12. Our climate is not as healthy as those of France 

and Italy. 

13. Let none of you imagine evil in your hearts 

against your neighbour. 

14. Art thou the man that comest in dyed garments ? 

15. Ph have the sound of/ in philosophy. 

16. I remember it being done. 

17. The grass ouglil to be cut before this. 

18. And many a holy text around she strews, 
That teach the rustic moralist to die, 

19 What art thou, speak, that on designs unknown, 
While otliers sleep, thus range the camp alone? 
'o. It is her talents, not her beauty, that attracts 
attention. 
Sense, and not riches, win esteem. 
All their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly 
committed, ^c. 



!I2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

23. He is not only accused of theft but of murder. 

24. I soon expect to have finished my work. 

25. This veil of flesh parts the visible and invisibk 

world. 

26. It cannot be me you mean I 

27. Praise from a friend or censure from a foe 
Are lost on hearers that our merits know. 

28. That wife of my cousin's and that friend of my 

brother's were there. 

29. I do not know who you profess to be. 

30. Man never is but always to be blest. 

31. I thought I should have died with laughter. 

32. That is seldom or never the case. 

33. Let me awake the king — he who lies there 

drenched with sleep. 

34. Less than twenty tons is sufficient. 

35. He comes, nor want nor cold his course delay. 

36. No one had exhibited the structure of the human 

kidneys ; Vesalius had only examined them in 
dogs. 

37. The terms rich or poor are not so used. 

38. The whole need not a physician, but them that 

are sick. 

39. He will in no wise cast out whomsoever come 

unto Him. 

40. Now therefore come thou, let us make a cove- 

nant, I and thou. 

41. Early to bed and early to rise, 

Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. 

42. Mankind is appointed to live in a future 

state. 

43. The blessings that i)olitical and intellectual 

freedom have brought in their train, &c 

44. The logical and historical analysis of a language 

generally in some d.gice tuincides. 



SYNTAX. 213 

45. But it, as well as the lines immediately following, 

defy all translation. 

46. Neither men nor money were wanting. 

47. The river of Kishon swept them away — that 

ancient river, the river Kibhon. 

48. Two shillings and sixpence is half-a-crown, but 

not a hall-crown. 

49. The idea of such a collection of men as make 

an army, (Sec 

50. The masterly boldness and precision of his out- 

line which astonish those who have trodden 
parts of the same field, is apt to escape the 
uninformed reader. 

51. Who should I meet the other day but my old 

friend. 

52. My desire has been for some years past to retire 

myself to some of our American plantations. 

53. With such a spirit and sentiments were hostilities 

carried on. 

54. The deepest and the bitterest feeling still is the 

separation. 

55. Verse and prose run into one another like light 

and shade. 

56. This twenty years have I been with you. 

57. Go bear this tidings to the bloody king. 

58. ^Vere you not affrighted, and mistook a spirit for 

a body ? 

59. I observed that love constituted the whole 

moral character of God. 
60i Neither will they be persuaded, though one rose 
from the dead. 

61. He had suffered the woodman only to use his 

discretion in the distant woods. 

62. Men who but speak to display their abilities are 

unworthy of attention. 



214 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

63. And when it was told Saul, he sent othei 

messengers, and they |)ro|<hesied likewise. 

64. Having failed in this attempt no other trial 

was made. 

65. Nothing but grave and serious studies delight 

him. 

66. Dreams are instances of that agility and perfec 

tion which is natural. 

67. Half a million of human beings was crowded intc 

that labyrinth. 

68. It is not for such as we to sit with the princea 

of the land. 

69. To this lady he presented David as his mother. 

70. You have weakened instead of strengthened 

your case. 

71. Of all others he is the ablest man they have. 

72. He trusted to have equalled the Most High. 

73. We know little, individually, of his hearers. 

74. I am verily a man v/ho am a Jew. 

75. The following facts may or have been adduced 

on the other side. 

76. Adam, the goodliest man of men since born, 
Tlie fairest of her daughters, Eve. 

77. In the sister island, indeed, we had read of such 

horrors. 

78. He had all the wit for which I toiled, without 

making any pretensions to it. 

79. Wherever the giont came all fell before him ; 

but the dwarf had liked to have been killed 
more than once. 

80. Hoping I shall soon hear from you, believe me 

yours truly. 
31. The man whom you thought was philanthrope 
turns out to be a scoundrel. 



SVATAX, 21$ 

S2. There was a row of trees on either side of the 

road. 
83. Neither of the workmen had their tools with 

them. 
8/f Thomson's "Seasons" is now comparatively 

little read. 

85. This man with his twelve children were notori- 

ous robbers. 

86. There was now a large number of voters assem- 

bled. 

87. I am by no means sure the jury were right in 

their verdict. 
83. The crowd were now heard forcing the doors of 
the palace. 

89. Siberia even has some places where Nature 

smiles. 

90. Vv'here nothing save the waves and I 
Shall hear our mutual murmurs creep. 

91. Sparta hath many a worlluer son than he. 

92. An angel thou wast that did preserve me. 

93. Let boys play tricks and kick the straw, not I. 
94. My r(;l)C and mine integrity to heavea 

Is all 1 dare now call my own. 

95. The splendour of the furniture, the decorations 

and the pictures were perfectly dazzling. 

96. What shall we say since silent now is he, 

Who when he spoke, all things would silent be? 

97. F.very thought and fueling are opposed to it. 

98. ^Vc know little, individually, of his hearers. 

99. His wijrship and strength is in the clouds. 

too. The doctor, in his lecture, said that feveralways 

produced thirst. 
(01. Either the young man or his guardians has 

acted improperly. 



Jl6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

102. Sailing up the river, the whole town may I e seen. 

103. This is either a mnn or a woman's voice coming 

from John and Henry'^ apartment 

104. If we look within the rough outside, we shall be 

rirhly rewarded by its penisal. 

105. Afui wra: hss hi;o(:utd, you had best be silent 



PARSING. 

The exercises which have been already set, especially 
the four first in this book, will afford ample examples 
for parsing. The following model contains all that 
need be said concerning each part of speech : 

I. Noun: — i. Ki:ui ; 2. Number; 3. Subject or 
Object Aoun, or Tosscssjre Case; 4. Syntax. 

II. Pronoun: — i. Kind; 2. Person; 3. Number; 
4. CenJcr ; 5. Case; 6. Syntax. 

III. Adjective : — 1. Kind; 2. Degree of Comparison; 

3. Function. 

IV. Verb: — 1. Kind; 2. Conjugation; 3. Voice; 

4. Mood ; 5. Tense ; 6 Person ; 7. Number ; 8. Syntax . 
9. Principal Parts (Present Tense, Past Tense, Passive 
Participle). 

V. Adverb; — i. Kind; 2. Decree of Comparison-, 
3. Function. 

VI. Preposition: — i. Kind; 2. Fu7iction. 

VII. Conjaiictioii :— I. Kind; 2. Function, 



2iS ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES. 

Example: "Henry often told him he was very 
fond of running and jumping in the neighbour's 
garden, which stretched right round the back of his 
father's hoiise." 

ITenry Konn, proper, singular, subject of " told." 

often A, Ivcib, of time, positive, marking " told." 

told Verb, tranritive, ^veak, active, indicative, 

post, 3rd pers. sing., agreeing with its 
subject "Ilenry" — tell, told, told. 

him ... ... Tionoun, personal, 3rd pers. sing., stand- 

ing for person spoken of — indirect objec- 
tive to "told." 

I^g , Pronoun, personal, 3rd pers. sing., stand- 

ing for " Ilenry" — subject of " was very 
fond, &c." 

^jj5 ... Verb, intransitive, strong, indicative, past, 

3frl pers. sini^., agreeing wilh its subject 
"he'' — am, was, been. 

very ... ... Adverb, of degree, marking "fond." 

fontl . ... Adj'fctipc, of quality, poiilive, predicate of 

-he." 

of Preposition, expressing -{7W, joining, "run- 
ning and jumping" to " fond." 

mnnir'^ Noun, abstract, sing., objective of preposi- 

^ tion "of." 

^jj^J Conjunction, co-ordinate, joining "(hewas 

foml of) jumping" to "he was fond of 
running." 

iumt'no . Noun, abstract, sing., objective of preposi- 

^ ' ' ' "^ " tion "of." 

JQ Preposition, expressing f^ace, joining 

"garden" to "running" and "jump- 
ing." 

tjje . Adjective, d«monstrative, marking "gar- 

den." 

npi''hhotiT'3 . (Noun used aj) /idj :ctivc, densonitrativo, 
marking garden. 



PARSIXG. 



219 



garden Nonn, common, sing., objective of prepo- 
sition "in." 

which Pronoun, relative, 3rd pers. sing., neuter, 

standing for " garden " — subject oi 
"stretclied" — ^joins its own sentence on 
to "he was very fond," &c. 

stretched Verb, intransitive, weak, indicative, past, 

3id pcrs. sing., agreeing \vith its sub- 
ject " w hich " — stretch, stretched 
stretched. 

right Adverb, of degree, marking "round the 

Lack of his lather's house." 

round Preposition, expressing place, joining 

" Lack " to " stretched." 

the Adjective, demonstrative, marking "back." 

back Noun, common, sing., objective of prepo- 

sition " round." 

q{ Preposition, expressing definition, joining 

"hou'ie" to " back." 

his Adjective, demonstrative, marking"falher.'' 

fTthfr'c (Noun us-J as) Adjective, demonstrative, 

marking house. 

J^Q^5g Noun, common, sing., objective of prepo- 
sition "of." 



Note.— Notice with regard to prepoMtions ("of," "in," 
" round." and "of") that iheV cannot of themschcs express anj 
idea. We must consider in wliat way the words they join on tc 
other words describe or mark those other words before we cafl 
ttate what kind of prepositions we have to deal witik 



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