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Full text of "English heraldry"

UC-N 




L/A- 
ARCHITECTURE 



REEF 

POINT 

GARDENS 

LIBRARY 







G/ /t of Beatrix Farrand 
to the General Library 
University of California, Berkeley 





Seal of Sir RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP, K.G., Fifth Earl of WARWICK 
died A.D. 1439. (No. 448. See pages 215, 321.) 




Seal of Sir THOMAS DE BEAUCHAMP, K.G., Third Earl of WARWICK: 

died A.D. 1369. Date of the Seal, 1344. 
No. 446 See No. 447, page 322 ; also see page 321.) 



ENGLISH 

H ERALDRY. 

BY 

CHARLES BOUTELL, M.A., 



of 

"HERALDRY, HISTORICAL AND POPULAR;" "THE MONUMENTAL BRASSES OF 

ENGLAND;" "CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS IN ENGLAND AND WALES;" 

" A MANUAL OF BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGY," &c. 



WITH 



FOUR HUNDRED AND FIFTY ILLUSTRATIONS 

Drawn and Engraved on Wood by Mr. R. B. UTTING. 



"To describe . . . emblazoned Shields." 

MILTON. 




CASSELL, FETTER, AND GALPIN, 

LONDON AND NEW YORK. 
1867. 



Arms are the testimony of some noble action." 

GUILLIM. 



LANDSCAPE 
ARCHITECTURE 



GIFT 



877 
I? 7 



A NOBLE LADY, 



WHOSE ADMIRABLE QUALITIES DIGNIFY HER RANK, 



THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 



LOUISA, LADY ASHBURTON, 



THIS VOLUME 



IS INSCRIBED. 



394 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix 

PREFACE xv 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY Early Popularity of Heraldry in England 
Origin of English Heraldry : Definition : Characteristics : 
Developments : Early Uses : Not connected with Earlier 
Systems Ancient Heraldry Past and Present Treatment of 
the Subject I 



CHAPTER II. 

EARLY HERALDIC AUTHORITIES Seals : Monumental Effigies, 
&c. : Rolls of Arms, Official Heraldic Records, &c. 
Earliest Heraldic Shields and Banners Allusive Quality of 
Early Armory Attributed Arms 10 

CHAPTER III. 

The English Heraldry that is now in existence First Debasement 
of Heraldry Later Debasement Revival of English Heraldry 
Heraldic Art . . 20 



CHAPTER IV. 

GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY: Section i Language Nomencla 
ture Style Forms of Expression Blazon The Shield : its 
Parts, Points, Divisions, Dividing and Border Lines, Varieties 
of Form, and Heraldic Treatment 29 



Vi CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. PACK 

GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 2 Tinctures : Metals, 
Colours, Furs Varied Fields Law of Tinctures Counter- 
changing Diaper Disposition Blazoning Blazoning in 
Tinctures 4 

CHAPTER VI. 

GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 3 The Ordinaries : Chief : 
Fesse : Bar : Pale : Cross ; its Heraldic Varieties : Bend : 
Saltire: Chevron: Pile 49 

CHAPTER VII. 

GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY: Section 4 The Subordinaries : 
Canton or Quarter : Inescutcheon : Orle : Tressure : Bordure : 
Flanches : Lozenge, Mascle, Rustre : Fusil : Billet : Gyron : 
Frette The Roundles 6 4 

CHAPTER VIII. 

GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 5 Miscellaneous Charges : 
Human Beings : Animals : Birds : Fish : Reptiles and In 
sects : Imaginary Beings : Natural Objects : Various Artificial 
Figures and Devices Appropriate Descriptive Epithets . . 73 

CHAPTER IX. 
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 6 The Lion and the Eagle 

in Heraldry 8 3 

CHAPTER X. 
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 7 Glossary of Titles, Names, 

andTerms IO 

CHAPTER XI. 

MARSHALLING : Aggroupment : Combination: Quartering: 
Dimidiation : Impalement : Escutcheon of Pretence : Mar 
shalling the Arms of Widowers, Widows, and others ; Official 
Arms; and the Accessories of Shields l61 



CONTENTS. VI I 

CHAPTER XII. PAGK 

CADENCY : Marks of Cadency are temporary, or permanent : the 
Label : the Bordure : the Bendlet, Barrulet, and Canton : 
Change of Tinctures : Secondary Charges : Single Small 
Charges : Differences of Illegitimacy : Cadency of Crests, 
Badges, &c. : Modern Cadency 180 



CHAPTER XIII. 

DIFFERENCING : Differencing to denote Feudal Alliance or De 
pendency : Differencing without any Alliance Augmen 
tationAbatement . 200 



CHAPTER XIV. 
CRESTS 216 

CHAPTER XV. 
BADGES 227 

CHAPTER XVI. 
SUPPORTERS 245 



CHAPTER XVII. 

FLAGS : The Pennon : the Banner : the Standard : the Royal 
Standard : the " Union Jack :" Ensigns : Military Standards 
and Colours : Hoisting and Displaying Flags 254 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE ROYAL HERALDRY OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND : Shields 
of Arms of the Reigning Sovereigns of England, of Scotland, 
and of the United Kingdom : Crowns and Crests : Sup 
porters : Mottoes : Banners : Armorial Bearings of the late 
Prince Consort, of the Prince and Princess of Wales, and of 
the other Princes and Princesses, the Sons and Daughters of 
H.M. the Queen 267 



viii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIX. PAGE 

ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD AND INSIGNIA OF HONOUR : Feudal 
Knighthood Orders of Knighthood : Knights of St. John : 
Knights Templars : the Order of the Garter, of the Thistle, 
of St. Patrick, of the Bath, of St. Michael and St. George, 
of the Star of India The Victoria Cross The Albert Medal 
Naval and Military Medals Foreign Insignia bestowed on 
British Subjects 2Sl 



CHAPTER XX. 
PRECEDENCE: GENEALOGIES 2 9 6 

CHAPTER XXI. 

The COLLEGE OF ARMS The LYON OFFICE of Scotland- 
Grants of Arms Tax on "Armorial Bearings," and on 
"Arms Found" 35 

CHAPTER XXII. 

MISCELLANEOUS :- Coins Seals Heraldry in Architecture, in 
Monuments, in Illuminations, in Encaustic Tiles Heraldic 
Personal Ornaments, and various Heraldic Decorations- 
Conclusion 3 ! 7 



GENERAL INDEX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



NO. PAGE 

i. Arms of St. George ...} 
2. Arms of St. Edward ...> Preface. 
3. Arms of St. Edmund...; 
4. Arms of Sir Walter Scott, of 
Abbotsford i 
5. Lance Flag, Bayeux Tapestry. 6 
6. Lance Flag, Bayeux Tapestry. 6 
, 7. Ancient Shield, from a Greek 
Vase 8 
8. Ancient Shield, from a Greek 
Vase . 8 


NO. 
37. Compound Quartering ... 
38. Border and Dividing Lines 
39. Bowed Shield 


PAGE 

34 
... 35 
... 35 


40. Heraldic Shield 


|| 


41. Heraldic Shield 
42. Heraldic Shield 
43. Heraldic Shield 
44 Heraldic Shield 


... 36 

::: $ 

... 36 


45. Modern Shield 


... 37 


46. Cartouche 
47. Lozenge 
48. Arms of Provence 
49. Shield Couche 
50. Symbolisation of Or 
51. Symbolisation of Argent... 
52. Symbolisation of Azure ... 
53. Symbolisation of Gules ... 
54. Symbolisation of Sable ... 


37 

:::|l 

... 38 
... 40 
... 40 
... 4 o 
... 40 
... 4 o 


9. Ancient Shield, from a Greek 
Vase 8 
10. Ancient Shield, from a Greek 
Vase 8 
ii. Seal of Walter Innes n 
12. Seal of William Innes n 
13. Banner of Templars 14 
14. Banner of Leicester 14 
15. Shield of Brittany 14 
16. Shield of Waldegrave 14 
17. Shield of Fitz Warine 14 
18. Shield at Whitworth 14 
19. The Escarbuncle 15 


56. Symbolisation of Purpure 
57, 57 A. Ermine 
58. Ermines 
59. Erminois 
60 Pean 


... 40 
41, 42 
... 41 
... 41 


61. Vair 


... 41 
... 41 
... 41 


20A. Shield of Montacute 70 


62. Vair 
63. Counter Vair 
64 Potent 


22. Arms assigned to William I. 18, 268 
23. Arms assigned to the Saxon 


65. Counter Potent 
66. Compon^e 
67. Counter Compon^e 
68. Arms of Earl de Warrenne 
69. Arms of Jerusalem 
70. Arms of Fenwick 
71. A Chief. ; 
72. Arms of Le Botiler 
73. Arms of De Brus 
74. Arms of De Clintone 
75. Arms of De Clintone 
76. Arms of De Clifford 
77. Arms of De Pateshulle ... 
78. Arms of Le Vavasour 
79. Arms of De Hemenhale ... 
80. Arms of De Dageworthe 
81. Arms of De Harecourt ... 
82. Arms of Wake 
83. Arms of De Huntercumbe 
84. Arms of De la Mere 


... 4 i 

... 43 
43 
... 45 
... 44 
... 44 
... 50 
... 5 
... 50 
... 50 
... 50 
... 51 
... 51 
... 51 
... 51 
... 51 
... 51 
... 51 
... 52 
... 52 


24. Shield of Prince John of 
Eitham 26 
25. Badge of Richard II., West 
minster Hall 28 
26. Badge of Richard II., West 
minster Hall 28 
27. The Points of an Heraldic 
Shield 33 
28. Shield divided per Pale 33 
29. Shield divided per Fesse 33 
30. Shield divided Quarterly 33 
31. Shield divided per Bend 33 
32. Shield divided per Bend Sinis 
ter 33 
33. Shield divided per Saltire ... 33 
34. Shield divided per Chevron ... 33 
35. Shield divided per Tierce ... 33 
36. Shield Quarterly of Eight ... 34 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



NO. PA 

85. Arms of Fitzalan of Bedale... 
86. Arms of De Valence 
87. Arms of Erskine 
88. Arms of Grandison 
89. Cross Fimbriated 
90. Cross Pointed 


3E 

53 
53 
53 
53 
54 
54 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 

1 
56 

56 
56 

57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
57 
58 

$ 

59 

59 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
60 
61 
61 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
65 

1 

66 
66 
66 
66 
269 
68 

68 
69 

6? 


NO. FACE 
145. Arms of De Burgh, Earl of 
Kent 69 


146. Arms of Deincourt .. -7 


147. Arms of Campbell 70 
148. Frette 71 
149. Arms of De Etchingham ... 71 
150. Trellis Clou^e 71 
151. Bezant 72 


92 Latin Cross 


93. Tau Cross 


153. Fountain 72 


95. Cross Patriarchal 
96. Cross Fourchoe 
97. Arms of De Molines 
98. Arms of Bishop Anthony Bee 
99. Arms of William de Vesci ... 
loo. Cross Fleurie 
101. Cross Fleurettoe 
102. Cross Pomme e 
103. Cross Boton^e 
104. Cross Crosslet 
105. Cross Clechde 


155. Shield of Douglas 74 
156. Shield of Douglas 74 
157. Shield of Douglas 74 
158. Shield of Isle of Man 74 
159. Shield of St. Alban s Abbey... 75 
160. Early Martlet 77 
161 Martlet . .. 77 


162. Banner of De Barre 77 
163. Dolphin 78 
164, Arms of De Lucy 78 
165. Escallop 78 
166. A, B, C, Crescent, Increscent, 
Decrescent 80 
167. At Gaze 81 
168 Tripping 81 


107. Cross Maltese 
108. Cross Potent 
109. Cross Avellane 
no. Cross Botonde Fitch^e 
in Arms of Le Scrope 


169. At Speed 81 
170. Stag s Head Cabossed 81 
171. Lion Rampant 85 
172. I, ion Rampant Guardant ... 85 
173. Lion Passant 85 
174. Lion Passant Guardant 85 
175. Lion Statant 85 
176. Lion Statant Guardant 85 
177. Lion Sejant 86 
178. Lion Sejant Rampant 86 
179. Lion Couchant 86 
180. Lion Salient 86 
181. Lion Queue Fourchce 86 
182. Lion Coward 86 
183. Lion s Head 87 
184. Lion s Face 87 
185. Lion s Jambe 87 
186. Demi-Lion Rampant 87 
187 Arms of England 87, 268 


112. Arms of De Radclyffe 
113. Arms of Le Boteler 
114. Arms of De Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford 
115. Arms of De Bohun (dif 
ferenced) 


117. Arms of De Bray 
118. Paly Bendy 
119. Barry Bendy 
1 20. Arms of St. Andrew 
121. Arms of De Neville 
122. Arms of De Neville 
123. Arms of De Stafford 
124. Arms of De Clare 
I24A. Early Shield of De Clare ... 
125. Arms of De Peyvre 
126. Arms of De Chandos 
127. Arms of De Brian 
128. Arms of De Bassett 
129. Arms of De Kyrkeby 
130. Arms of Blundell 
131. Arms of De Mortimer 
132. Arms of Darcy 
133. Arms of De Wyllers 
134. Arms of De Balliol 
135. Single Tressure Flory 
136. Tressure Flory Counterflory. 
137. Double Tressure Flory 
138. Arms of Scotland 67, 
139. Arms of De Waltone 
140. Arms of Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall 


188. Arms of Richard T 88 
189. Arms of Prince John 88 
190 Arms of Richard 1 88 


191. Arms of Le Strange 89 


193. Arms of Mowbray 89 


195. Arms of De Segrave 89 
196. Arms of De Percy 90 
197. Arms of De Longesptfe 90 
198. Crest of Black Prince 91 
199. Crest, &c., Richard II 91 
200. Eagle Shield in Westminster 
Abbey 93 


201. Imperial Eagle 93 
202. Royal Eagle 93 
203. Arms of Earl of Cornwall ... 94 
204. Seal of Euphemia Leslie ... 94 
2o<;. Shield of Piers Gaveston ... 05 


141. Flanches 


143. Mascle 
144. Rustre 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



NO. PAGE 
206. ArmsofMontacuteand Mon 
thermer 96 
207. A Vol ... 96 


NO. PAGE 

263. Helm of Esquires and Gen 
tlemen 130 
264. Heneage Knot 131 


208. Arms of De Charlestone ... 96 
209. Arms of De la Mere . 96 


265. Arms of the Heralds College 131 
266. Arms of Lyon Office 132 


210. Shield at St. Albans 98 


267. Jessant de lys 134 


211. Austrian Eagle . . 98 


268, 269. Heraldic Keys . .134 


212. German Imperial Eagle ... 99 
213. German Eagle, wings erect... 99 


270. Hastings Badge 134 
271, 272, 273. Labels 135 


215. Badge of Ulster 101 
216. Breys 104 
217. Baron s Coronet 104 
218. Water Bouget 106 
219. Bourchier Knot 106 
220. Bowen Knot . . . 107 


275. Lymphad 137 
276. Arms of Hastings 137 
277. Coronet of Marquess 138 
278. Mullet 140 
279. Mullet, Pierced 140 
280. Mural Crown 141 






222. Castle . . 108 


282. Bourdon 142 


223. Celestial Crown 108 
224. Chapeau of Estate 108 
225. Arms of Saxony 108 
226. Chess Rook 109 
227. Cinquefoil 109 


283. Panache Crest of Edward 
Courtenay 143 
284. Panache Crest of William le 
Latimer 143 
285. Panache Crest of Edmund 


229. Cockatrice no 


286. Pennon of D Aubernoun 144 






231. Collar of Lancaster no 
232. Crest-Coronet 114 
233. Crest- Wreaths 114 
234. Crown of H. M. The Queen 
115, 275 
235. Dacre Knot and Badges ... 115 
236. Dragon 117 
237. Duke s Coronet 117 
238. Earl s Coronet 118 
239. Eastern Crown 118 
240. Electoral Bonnet 119 
241. Arms of Byron 119 


288. Portcullis 144 
289. Coronet of Prince of Wales 146 
290. Coronet of Queen s Daugh 
ters and Younger Sons ... 146 
291. Coronet of Queen s Grand 
children 146 
292. Coronet of Queen s Cousins 146 
293. Quatrefoil 147 
294. The Ragged Staff Badge ... 147 
295. Rebus of Abbot Kirton ... 149 
296. Rebus of Bishop Beckyngton 149 
297. Rebus of Sir John Peche ... 149 


243 Fer-de-Moline 121 
244. Fermails 121 


300. Rose-en-Soleil 150 
301. Crest of Hamilton 152 


246. Fleur de lys 122 


303. Arms of Shakespeare 153 


248. Arms of France Modern ... 123 


305 Staple Badge 153 


249. Arms of Edmund, Earl of 


306. Arms of City of London ... 155 


250. Arms of Margaret, Queen of 
Edward 1 123 


308. Badge of James 1 156 
309. Trefoil Slipped 157 


Edward 1 124 
252. Shield of Edward III., A.D. 
1340 125, 269 
253. Shield of Henry IV., about 
1405 125, 269 


311. Viscount s Coronet 159 
312. Shield at St. Michael s 
Church, St. Albans 159 
313. Wake Knot 159 
314. Catherine Wheel 159 


256. Shield of R. de Gorges ... 128 
257. Hawk s Lure 129 
258. Hawk s Bells and Jesses ... 129 
259. Helm of the Sovereign ... 130 
260. Helm of Princes and Nobles 130 
261. Helmof Baronets and Knights 130 


316. Seal of Margaret, Queen of 
Edward 1 163 
317. Seal of Margaret, Lady De 
Ros 164 
318. Seal of Joan, Countess of 
Surrey 165 


262. Helm of Esquires and Gen 
tlemen 130 


319. Seal of Mary, Countess of 
Pembroke 167 



Xll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



NO. 
320. 
321. 
322. 



326. 
327- 
328. 
329 
330. 
331. 

333. 
336. 

337- 
338. 
339- 
340. 
34i- 
342- 

343- 

344- 
345- 

346. 
347- 
348. 
349- 

350. 
35 1 - 
352. 
353- 
354- 
355- 
356. 
357- 
358. 
359- 

360. 

361. 
362. 

363- 

364- 

365- 



PAGE 

Seal of Matilda of Lancaster 167 
Seal of Oliver de Bohun ... 168 
Shield of Earl John de Dreux 168 
Shield of Castile and Leon... 169 
Shield of Henry, Earl of 

Northumberland 170 

Shield of Mayor of Winchel- 

sea 171 

Shield of De Valence and 

Claremont Nesle 172 

Shield of Camoys and Morti 
mer 173 

Shield of D Aubigny and 

Scotland 173 

Shield of Earl Richard Beau- 
champ 174 

Four Diagrams illustrative of 

Marshalling 175 

332. Two Diagrams illustra 
tive of Marshalling 175 

334 335- Three Diagrams 

illustrative of Marshalling. 176 
Shield of Eldest Sons of Ed 
ward I. and II 182 

Shield of Black Prince 182 

Label of Lancaster 183 

Label of Brittany 183 

Label of York 183 

Label of Clarence 184 

Label of Henry and John of 

Lancaster 184 

Label of Thomas of Lan 
caster 184 

Shield of Holland, of Kent... 185 
Shield of Henry of Lan 
caster 186 

Shield of Beauchamp of 

Elmely 187 

Shield of Beauchamp at Car- 
laverock 187 

Shield of Beauchamp of 

Warwick i8 

Shield of Beauchamp of Blet- 

shoe 188 

Shield of Bishop Grandison. 189 
Seal of Bishop Le Despencer 189 
Shield of Sir Fulk Fitz Warm 190 
Shield of Ihomas le Scrope. 191 
Crescent, for Difference ... 191 

Mullet, for Difference 191 

Shield of Lord Latimer ... 191 

Shield of Neville 191 

Shield of Sir Wm. de Brewys 191 
Shield of Henry, Earl of 

Worcester 193 

Shield of Beaufort, before 

1397 194 

Shield of Beaufort, after 1397 194 
Shield of Charles, Earl of 

Worcester 194 

Shield of Sir Roger de Cla 
rendon .; 195 

Arms of RadulphusdeArundel 195 
Seal of William Fraser 199 



NO. PAGE 

366. Shield of Earl of Chester ... 201 
... 202 
... 203 
... 203 
... 204 
... 204 
204 



367. Shield of Fitz Ralph ... 

368. Shield of De Luterell ... 

369. Shield of DeWadsley... 

370. Shield of De Wortley ... 

371. Shield of De Mounteney 

372. Shield of De Mounteney 

373. Shield in St. Alban s Abbey. 210 

374. Shield of Howard, after 

Flodden 211 

374A. Howard Augmentation ... 211 

375. Fan-Crest, Richard 1 216 

376. Fan-Crest, Henry de Perci... 216 

377. Fan-Crest, Henry de Laci ... 216 

378. Seal of Alexander de Halliol. 217 

379. Helm, &c., Thomas, Earl of 

Lancaster 218 

380. Helm, &c., Geoffrey Lute 

rell 219 

381. Seal, Sir Robert de Marny ... 219 

382. Seal, William de Wyndesor. 221 

383. Crest, SirR. Grey, K.G. ... 222 

384. Helm, &c., Richard II. ... 223 

385. Helm, &c., Sir Hugh Hast 

ings 224 

386. Crest-Wreath, Sir William 

Vernon 224 

387. Crest-Wreath, Sir Robert 

Harcourt 224 

388. Crest - Wreath, Effigy at 

Tewkesbury 224 

389. Basinet and Crest-Wreath, 

Sir H. Stafford 225 

390. Seal, Earl Robert Bruce ... 232 
3ji. Seal, Lord Hungerford 232 

392. Seal, Sir Robert de Hunger- 

ford 233 

393. Badge, Tau and Bell 234 

394. Ostrich Feather Badge 238 

395. 396. Three Ostrich Feathers, 

Peterborough 238 

397. Ostrich Feather Badge, Lud- 

low 239 

398. Ostrich Feather Badge, 

Deanery, Peterborough ... 239 

399. Ostrich Feather Badge, St. 

Alban s Abbey 239 

400. Ostrich Feather Badge, Exe 

ter Cathedral 239 

401. Shield " for Peace " of Black 

Prince 241 

402. Ostrich Feather Badge, Seal 

of Henry IV 243 

403. Ostrich Feather Badge, Seal 

of Thomas, Duke of Gloster 243 

404. Ostrich Feather Badge, Gar 

ter Plate of John Beaufort. 243 

405. Seal of Devorguilla Craw 

ford 247 

406. Seal of Margaret, Lady 

Hungerford 248 

407. Seal of Earl Edmund de 

Mortimer 250 

408. Seal of Robert Graham ... 251 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Xlll 



NO. PAGE 
409. Seal of Sh Wm. Lindsay ... 251 
410. Seal of Sir John Drummond 252 
411. Pennon ... .. 255 


NO. 

433- 


412. Pennon of Percy 255 
413. Banners and Pennons 256 
414. Seal of Earl John Holland ... 258 
415. Standard of Sir H. de Staf 
ford, K.G 260 


434- 

435- 
436. 
437- 


416. The Royal Standard 260 
417. The First Union Jack 261 
418. Banner of St. George 261 
419. Banner of St. Andrew 2 6i 
420. The Second Union Jack .. 262 
421. The Banner of St. Patrick... 262 
422. Red Ensign 263 
423. Royal Arms of Stuart Sove 
reigns 270 
424. Arms of Nassau 270 
425. Diagram of Arms of William 
111. and Mary 270 
426. Diagram of Arms of William 
III. alone 270 
427. Diagram of Arms of Anne... 271 
428. Arms of Hanover 271 
429, 430. Diagrams of Royal 
Arms 271, 272 
431. Crest of England 273 
432. Signet Ring of Queen Mary 
Stuart ... 274 


438. 

439- 
440. 
441. 
442. 

443- 
444. 

445- 
446. 

447- 
448. 

449- 



Shield of Prince and Princess 

of Wales 279 

"Lesser George" of the 

Garter 2 86 

Badge of the Thistle 288 

Badge of St. Patrick ... 288 

Badge of the Bath, Naval 

and Military 290 

Badge of the Bath, Diplo- 



. 291 
. 292 

293 

294 

3i9 
. 320 



matic and Civil 

Badge of the Star of Ind 

Victoria Cross 

The Albert Medal ... . 

Seal of Lord Bardolf .. 

Seal of William Mure ... 

Seal of Thomas Monypeny. 320 

Seal of Richard Stuart 320 

Seal of Earl Thomas de 
Beauchamp frontispiece 

Counter-Seal of the same ... 322 

Seal of Earl Richard de 
Beauchamp Frontispiece 

Seven woodcuts from the 
Seals of the Original 
Settlers in New England, 
respectively numbered, i, 
2, 3, 4j. 5, 6, and I 7 ... 323, 324 

beal of bir Walter Scott. A.D. 
1529 33<> 




No. 2. No. i. No. 3. 

St. Edward. St. George. St Edmund. 



PREFACE. 



THIS little Volume, specially prepared for the use of 
students at an early period of their study of English 
Heraldry, commends itself also to those inquirers who may 
desire to obtain some general information on the same 
subject, without having any intention to devote to Heraldry 
much either of their time or of their serious regard. 

The success, no less extraordinary than gratifying, of 
my larger work on Heraldry, led me to hope that a not less 
favourable reception might be extended to a simpler and 
much shorter essay, more decidedly elementary in its aim 
and character, and yet as far as possible within its limits 
complete. Such a treatise I have endeavoured to produce 
in this Volume. 

Inseparably associated with the History of our Country, 
and more particularly when our national History becomes a 
Biography of eminent Englishmen, English Heraldry has 



XVI PREFACE. 

the strongest claims upon the attention not only of all 
Historians, but also of all who desire to become familiar 
with their writings. In like manner, Heraldry may be 
studied with no less of advantage than of satisfaction by all 
Artists, whether Architects, Sculptors, Painters, or En 
gravers. Nor is it too much to assert that some knowledge 
of Heraldry, in consequence of its singular and compre 
hensive utility, ought to be estimated as a necessary 
element of a liberal education. In confirmation of my own 
views, I am tempted to quote the following passage from 
M. GOURDON DE GENOUILLAC S introduction to his ex 
cellent " Grammaire Heraldique," of which a new edition 
has just been published at Paris : " Le blason," says M. 
de Genouillac, " est une langue qui s est conservee dans sa 
purete primitive depuis les siecles, langue dont la con- 
naissance est indispensable aux families nobles, qui y 
trouvent un signe d alliance ou de reconnaissance, aux 
numismates, aux antiquaires, aux arche ologues, enfin a tous 
les artistes, gens de lettres, &c. ; cependant cette langue est 
presque inconnue, et la plupart des personnes qui pos- 
sedent le droit de porter des armoiries seraient fort en 
peine de les expliquer selon les termes techniques ! " 
Heraldry, indeed, I believe to be a study worthy to be 
universally regarded with affectionate respect, as it certainly 
is eminently qualified to inspire such a sentiment in every 
class of students. 

In this spirit I have here treated the elements of the 
Heraldry of England, confident that, of those who may 
accompany me as far as I shall lead them, very many will 
not be content to stop where I shall take leave of them. 
Thus much I promise my companions I will be to them a 



PREFACE. XV11 

faithful guide. They may trust to my accuracy. I have 
made no statement, have adduced no example, nor have I 
exhibited any illustration, except upon authority. I myself 
like and admire what is real and true in Heraldry ; and it is 
by the attractiveness of truth and reality that I desire to 
win for Heraldry fresh friends, and to secure for it firm 
friendships. 

It will be understood that from the authority, the 
practice, and the associations of the early Heraldry of the 
best and most artistic eras, I seek to derive a Heraldry 
which we may rightly consider to be our own, and which we 
may transmit with honour to our successors. I do not 
suggest the adoption, for present use, of an obsolete system. 
But, while I earnestly repudiate the acceptance and the 
maintenance amongst ourselves of a most degenerate 
substitute for a noble Science, I do aspire to aid in 
restoring HERALDRY to its becoming rank, and conse 
quently to its early popularity, now in our own times. This 
is to revive the fine old Heraldry of the past, to give to it a 
fresh animation, and to apply it under existing conditions to 
existing uses and requirements : not, to adjust ourselves to 
the circumstances of its first development, and to reproduce 
as copyists its original expressions. It is not by any 
means a necessary condition of a consistent revival of 
early Heraldry, that our revived Heraldry should admit no 
deviation from original usage or precedent. So long as we 
are thoroughly animated by the spirit of the early Heralds, 
we may lead our Heraldry onwards with the advance of 
time. It is for us, indeed, to prepare a Heraldry for the 
future, no less than to revive true Heraldry in the time now 
present We may rightly modify, therefore, and adapt 

b 



XV111 PREFACE. 

many things, in order to establish a true conformity between 
our Heraldry and the circumstances of our own era : for 
example, with advantage as well as propriety we may, in a 
great measure, substitute Badges for Crests ; we may 
decline any longer to display the armorial insignia of 
Ladies upon unsightly and inconvenient Lozenges ; and we 
shall do well to adopt a style of drawing which will be 
perfectly heraldic, without being positively unnatural. 

The greater number of my Illustrations have been 
engraved only in outline, with the twofold object of my 
being thus enabled to increase the number of the examples, 
and to adapt the engravings themselves to the reception of 
colour. It will be very desirable for students to blazon the 
illustrations, or the majority of them, in their proper 
tinctures : and those who are thoroughly in earnest will not 
fail to form their own collections of additional examples, 
which, as a matter of course, they will seek to obtain from 
original authorities. With the exception of two small 
groups, my Illustrations, in number 460, have all been exe 
cuted expressly for this work ; and they all have been drawn 
on wood and engraved by Mr. R. B. UTTING. The ex 
ceptions are thirteen admirable woodcuts of Scottish Seals, 
all of them good illustrations of Heraldry south of the 
Tweed, originally engraved for Laing s noble quarto upon 
" The Ancient Seals of Scotland," recently published in 
Edinburgh, which have been most kindly lent to me by Mr. 
H. LAING; also, seven other woodcuts, lent to me by Mr. 
W. H. WHITMORE, of Boston, in the United States, and which 
appeared for the first time in a very interesting volume by 
that gentleman, published in his own country, under the 
title of " Elements of Heraldry, with an Essay on the use 



PREFACE. XiX 

of Coat- Armour in the United States." The cuts are 
examples of some of the Seals of Arms, all of them "un 
deniably engraved in England," which the first settlers in 
New England took with them from their mother country. 
Scottish Heraldry, I must add, as in any particulars of 
law and practice it may differ from our Heraldry on this 
side of the Tweed, I have left in the able hands of the 
Heralds of the North : at the same time, however, the 
Heraldry of which I have been treating has so much that 
is equally at home on either side of " the border," that I 
have never hesitated to look for my examples and 
authorities to both the fair realms which now form one 
Great Britain. 

C. B. 



London: August, 1867. 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

Early Popularity oj Heraldry in England. Origin of English 
Heraldry; Definition; Characteristics; Developments; Early 
Uses ; not connected with Earlier Systems. Ancient Heraldry. 
Past and Present Treatment of the Subject. 



" What ! Is it possible ? not know the figures of Heraldry ! Of what could your 
father be thinking ? " ROB ROY. 



HE sentiment unquestionably was 
his own which Sir Walter Scott 
taught delightful Die Vernon to 
express when, with indignant sur 
prise, she asked Frank Osbaldis- 
tone of what his father could 
have been thinking, that he had 
been permitted to grow up with 
out any knowledge of Heraldry. 
Sir Walter was right in his estimate 
of the high value of Heraldry as 
No - 4> an element of education: and, 

in professing herself a votress of the Herald s "gentle 
science," it was quite right in Die Vernon to suggest to 
other ladies that it would be well for them if Heraldry 

B 




2 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

should find favour in their eyes also. The age of Rob 
Roy, however, was far from being in harmony with heraldic 
associations : nor was the author of " Waverley" himself 
permitted to accomplish more, than to lead the way to that 
revival of a popular sympathy with every expression of early 
Art, which now forms one of the most remarkable charac 
teristics of our own era. 

In the olden time, in England, the love of Heraldry, 
which was prevalent amongst all classes, was based upon an 
intelligent appreciation of its worthiness. A part of the 
feudal system of the Middle Ages, and at once derived from 
the prevailing form of thought and feeling, and imparting 
to it a brilliant colouring peculiar to itself, Heraldry exer 
cised a powerful influence upon the manners and habits of 
the people amongst whom it was in use. By our early 
ancestors, accordingly, as Mr. Montagu has so happily 
written, " little given to study of any kind, a knowledge of 
Heraldry was considered indispensable:" to them it was the 
" outward sign of the spirit of chivalry, the index, also, to a 
lengthened chronicle of doughty deeds." And this Heraldry 
grew up, spontaneously and naturally, out of the circum 
stances and requirements of those times. It was invented 
and introduced, because it was needed for practical use ; it 
was accepted and cherished, because it did much more than 
fulfil its avowed purpose. At first, simply useful to distin 
guish particular individuals, especially in war and at the 
tournament, English Heraldry soon became popular; and 
then, with no less rapidity, it rose to high honour and 
dignity. 

From the circumstance that it first found its special use 
in direct connection with military equipments, knightly 
exercises, and the melee of actual battle, mediaeval Heraldry 
has also been entitled ARMORY. Men wore the ensigns 
of Heraldry about their persons, embroidered upon the 



ORIGIN AND DEFINITION. 3 

garments that partially covered their armour, and so they 
called them Coats-of-Arms : they bore these same ensigns 
on their shields, and they called them Shields-of-Arms: and 
in their Armorial Banners and Pennons they again displayed 
the very same insignia, floating in the wind high above their 
heads, from the shafts of their lances. 

The Heraldry or Armory of England, an honourable and 
honoured member of the illustrious family of mediaeval 
European Heraldry, may be defined to be a symbolical and 
pictorial language, in which figures, devices, and colours are 
employed instead of letters. Each heraldic composition 
has its own definite and complete signification, conveyed 
through its direct connection with some particular indi 
vidual, family, dignity, or office. Every such heraldic 
composition, also, is a true legal possession, held and 
maintained by an express right and title : and it is here 
ditary, like other real property, in accordance with certain 
laws and precedents of inheritance. But in this respect 
heraldic insignia are singular and unlike other property, 
inasmuch as it is a general rule that they cannot be alien 
ated, exchanged, or transferred otherwise than by inherit 
ance or other lawful succession. Exceptions to this rule, 
when they are observed occasionally to have occurred, show 
clearly their own exceptional character, and consequently 
they confirm the true authority of the rule itself. It will 
be understood, as a necessary quality of its hereditary 
nature, that the signification of an heraldic composition, 
while " definite and complete " in itself, admits of augmen 
tation and expansion through its association with successive 
generations. Thus, the Royal Shield of EDWARD III. is 
" complete " as the heraldic symbol of that great monarch, 
and of the realm under his rule : and yet this same shield, 
equally "complete" (with one simple modification) as the 
heraldic symbol of each successive Sovereign till the death 

6 2 



4 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

of ELIZABETH, has its signification infinitely augmented and 
expanded through its hereditary association with all the 
Sovereigns of the Houses of Plantagenet and Tudor. 

That true Heraldry, which now is under consideration, 
appears to have been introduced into England, in all pro 
bability from Germany through France, in a very immature 
condition, in the second half of the twelfth century. Until 
the concluding quarter of that century, the traces of its 
existence are faint and few in number. Early in the thir 
teenth century the new science began to establish itself 
firmly amongst our ancestors of that age ; and it is certain 
that, as soon as its character and capabilities were in any 
degree understood aright, it grew speedily into favour ; so 
that in the reign of HENRY III. (A.D. 1216 1272) English 
Heraldry had confirmed its own claims to be regarded as a 
Science, by being in possession of a system, a classification, 
and a technical language of its own. 

The Crusades, those extraordinary confederacies without 
a parallel in the history of civilised nations, were themselves 
so thoroughly heraldic, that it was only an inevitable result 
of their existence that they should give a powerful impulse 
to the establishment and development of Heraldry in the 
early days of its career. 

But Heraldry, from the time of its first appearance in 
England, was found to be valuable for other uses besides 
those which so intimately connected it with both real and 
imitative warfare, with the fierce life-and-death conflict of 
the battle-field, and with the scarcely less perilous struggle 
for honour and renown in the lists. Very soon after the 
Norman Conquest, in consequence of their presence being 
required to give validity to every species of legal document, 
SEALS became instruments of the greatest importance ; and 
it would at once be obvious that heraldic insignia, with a 
representation of the knightly shield upon which they were 



HERALDRY OF ANTIQUITY. 5 

displayed, were exactly suited to satisfy every requirement 
of the seal-engraver. By such means Heraldry became 
interwoven as well with the peaceful concerns of e very-day 
life, as with the display of martial splendour and the tur 
moil of war. 

Many attempts have been made to set aside the opinion 
that the Heraldry of the Middle Ages in England was a 
fresh creation, a production of indigenous growth : and 
great is the ingenuity that has been brought into action to 
carry back the Heraldry of our own country from the com 
mencement of the thirteenth century through the previous 
elementary stages of its existence, in order to trace its direct 
lineal descent from certain decorative and symbolical devices 
that were in use at much earlier periods. The careful and 
diligent researches, however, of the most learned Heralds 
have at present led them almost unanimously to reject all 
such theories as these, as speculative and uncertain. At 
the same time, it is an indisputable fact that, in all ages of 
the world, and amongst all races of men, some form of 
symbolical expression has been both in use and in favour. 
And it is equally true that this symbolism, whatever it may 
have been, has generally been found in some way associated 
with a military life and with the act of warfare. Soldiers, 
and particularly those in high command, have always 
delighted to adorn their shields with devices that some 
times were significant of their own condition or exploits, or 
sometimes had reference to their country, or even to their 
families; and, in like manner, it has been a universal 
custom to display similar devices and figures in military 
standards of all kinds. At the time of the Conquest, as is 
shown in the famous Bayeux Tapestry of the Conqueror s 
Consort, the shields and standards of both Normans and 
Anglo-Saxons were painted, and perhaps the latter were em 
broidered, with various figures and devices; but certainly 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



without any heraldic significance or any personal associa 
tions being indicated by these figures and devices, which 
bear a general resemblance to the insignia of the Legions 
and Cohorts of Imperial Rome. Nos. 5 and 6 give repre- 




Nos. 5 and 6. Lance Flags Bayeux Tapestry. 

sentations of the standards that are introduced into the 
Bayeux Tapestry. The same species of decoration, con 
sisting chiefly of painted patterns, with discs, stars, crescents, 
and some other figures, continued in use in our own country 
until it was superseded by a true Heraldry ; and it also may 
be assumed to have prevailed in England in much earlier 
times. 

In still more remote ages a more decided Heraldry was 
displayed upon signets, coins, shields, and standards. In 
this ancient Heraldry, occasionally the important and cha 
racteristic quality of hereditary association in certain devices 
is apparent. Thus, Virgil (^Eneid, vii. 657) assigns to 
Aventinus " insigne paternum" upon his shield his hereditary 
device, derived by him from his father. But these devices 
generally appear to have their significance in a greater or a 
less degree restricted, amongst the ancients, to certain par 
ticular incidents ; consequently in all these examples there is 
nothing to show that the man who bore one device at one 
time, did not bear another device at another time.* For 

* In his recently published " Hand-book of Engraved Gems," Mr. 
King maintains that "the devices on the signets of the ancients were 
both hereditary and unalterable, like our armorial bearings ;" but, at 
the same time, he admits that the " armorial bearings," which appear 



HERALDRY OF ANTIQUITY. 7 

example, ^Eschylus, the Greek tragedian (B.C. 600), has 
recorded that Capaneus, when attacking the city of Thebes, 
bore on his shield the figure of a warrior carrying a lighted 
torch, with the motto, " I will fire the city !" But, on 
another occasion, we have reason to believe that the same 
Capaneus bore quite a different device, applicable to that 
other occasion; and this deprives these ancient devices, 
heraldic as they are in their general character, of that special 
personal association which true Heraldry requires and, 
indeed, implies. The beautiful painted vases, the works of 
Greek artists, that are discovered in such extraordinary 
numbers and in perfect preservation in some parts of Italy, 
constantly give most striking representations of the shields of 
ancient Greek warriors and other personages, with heraldic 
devices displayed upon them. These shields illustrate, in a 
remarkable manner, both the appropriate significance of par 
ticular devices, and the usage then prevalent for a variety of 
devices to be borne on different occasions by the same indivi 
dual. Shields upon vases in the collections in the Museum of 

" on the shields of the Grecian heroes in the most ancient pictures 
extant, the Vase-paintings," "seem to have been assumed at the 
caprice of the individual, like the knights cognisances at tournaments in 
the days of chivalry, and not to have been hereditary." " Hand-book," 
page 216. Almost immediately, however, Mr. King adds, that tra 
ditions exist which represent the mythic heroes bearing " engraved on 
their signets the same devices that decorated their shields." It would 
seem that the argument from such traditions would rather indicate the 
signet-devices to have been arbitrary, than the shield-devices to have 
been unalterable. While I readily admit the veiy interesting devices of 
antiquity to possess decided heraldic attributes, I cannot consider Mr. 
King to have shown that, as a general rule, they were held by the 
ancients themselves to have been either " unalterable" or " hereditary." 
Possibly, further light may be thrown upon the hereditary quality of 
ancient Heraldry : but, I certainly do not expect to see any evidence 
adduced, which would establish a line of descent connecting the 
Mediaeval Heraldry of England with any heraldic system of classic 
antiquity. 



s 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



the Louvre at Paris, and in the British Museum, where they 
are easy of access, contain a great variety of devices. The 
examples, Nos. 7, 8, 9, and 10, are from our own National 




No. 9. No. 10. 

Ancient Shields from Greek Vases. 

Collections. No. 7, the shield black, the border and the 
pegasus red ; No. 8, the shield black, and the two dolphins 
white ; No. 9, the shield black, with a border adorned with 
red discs, the serpent white ; No. 10, the shield black, with 
purple border, the three human legs conjoined white. The 
shields, Nos. 9 and 10, are both borne by the goddess 
A0HNH (Minerva) ; and the remarkable device displayed 
on No. 10 is also found on the coins of ancient Sicily. 
Other similar shields display lions, horses, dogs, wild boars, 
fish, birds, clusters of leaves, chariots and chariot-wheels, 
votive tripods, serpents, scorpions, with many others, in 
cluding occasional examples of human figures. In another 
collection I have seen an anchor and an Amazon s bow. 



REVIVAL OF ENGLISH HERALDRY. 9 

A device differing from that in No. 10 only in having the 
conjoined limbs in armour, will be found in our own English 
Heraldry to be the armorial ensign of the Isle of Man. 

This Heraldry of Antiquity is to be regarded as the pre 
decessor, and not as the ancestor of the Heraldry of Eng 
land. There may be much that is common to both but, 
there is nothing to show the later system to have been a 
lineal descendant from the earlier. The Heraldry, there 
fore, that has flourished, declined, and now is in the act of 
reviving in our own country in almost the full vigour of its 
best days, I shall treat as an independent science, proceed 
ing from a single source, and from thence flowing onwards 
with varied fortunes, side by side with the chequered 
chronicles of England. In the course of its progress from 
the palmy days of EDWARD III., it has had to encounter, 
in a degree without precedent or parallel, that most painful 
and mischievous of trials the excessive admiration of in 
judicious friends. Hence, Heraldry was brought into dis 
repute, and even into contempt, by the very persons who 
loved it with a genuine but a most unwise love. In process 
of time, no nonsense appeared too extravagant, and no fable 
too wild, to be engrafted upon the grave dignity of the 
Herald s early science. Better times at length have suc 
ceeded. Heraldry now has friends and admirers, zealous 
as of old, whose zeal is guided aright by a sound judgment 
in alliance with a pure taste. Very much already has been 
accomplished to sweep away the amazing mass of absurdities 
and errors which had overwhelmed our English Heraldry, 
by such men as Nicholas, Nichols, Courthope, Seton, 
Planch^, Walford, Montagu, and Lower : and the good 
work goes on and prospers, with the most cheering assu 
rances of complete and triumphant success. 



CHAPTER II. 

EARLY HERALDIC AUTHORITIES. 

Seals : Monumental Effigies, &>c. : Rolls of Amis, Official Pleraldic 
Records, &=<:. Earliest Heraldic Shields and Banners, Allusive 
Quality of Early Armory, Attributed Arms. 



" Let us begin at the beginning." PURSUIVANT OF ARMS. 



AT the head of the earliest existing authorities in English 
Heraldry are SEALS. To the fortunate circumstance of the 
legal importance attached to them we are indebted for the 
preservation of these equally interesting and valuable relics, 
in great variety and in very considerable numbers. The 
heraldic evidence of Seals is necessarily of the highest 
order. They are . original works, possessing contempo 
raneous authority. Produced with peculiar care and ap 
proved by their first possessors, their original authenticity 
is confirmed by their continued use through successive 
generations. 

Having been in use before the introduction and adoption 
of Heraldry in England, Seals enable us to compare the 
devices that preceded true Heraldry with the earliest that 
are truly heraldic : and thus they show that, in many 
instances, regular coats-of-arms derived their hereditary 
bearings from similar devices that had been adopted in 
the same families before the heraldic era. For example : 
the Seal of John Mundegumri, about A.D. 1175, bears a 
single flenr-de-lys, not placed upon a shield; and, accord 
ingly, here is seen the origin of the three golden flenrs-de-lys, 
borne afterwards upon a blue shield by the descendants of 
this John, the Montgomeries, Earls of Eglintoun. Again : 
the Seal of Walter Innes, A.D. 1431, displays the shield 



HERALDIC SEALS. II 

of arms of his house three Hue mullets (stars generally of 
five rays) on a field of silver, No. 1 1 ; and these mullets 





No. ii. Seal of Walter Innes. No. 12. Seal of Wm. Innes. 

may be traced to the single star, that appears on the Seal of 
William Innes, or De Ynays, No. 12, appended to his deed 
of homage to Edward I., in the Year 1295. I have selected 
these examples from the " Catalogue of Scottish Seals," 
published by Mr. Laing, of Edinburgh, that I may be 
enabled here to refer in the highest terms of admiring 
commendation to that most excellent work. It is greatly 
to be desired that a corresponding publication should treat, 
with equal ability, of the Seals of England which, from the 
dawn of Heraldry, continue their admirable examples and 
illustrations throughout its career. 

Monumental Effigies, Sepulchral Memorials, early Build 
ings, and early Stained Glass, frequently are rich in autho 
ritative examples of " the figures of Heraldry." In addition 
to the various forms and combinations of heraldic com 
position, these works illustrate the early style of drawing 
in favour with Heralds during the great eras of mediaeval 
Art, and they have preserved to us most useful and sug 
gestive representations of various devices in their proper 
heraldic aspect. In many instances the Heraldry of early 
Monuments and Architecture possesses a peculiar value, 
arising from the circumstance of the shields of arms and 
other insignia having been sculptured in low relief or 
outlined in incised lines, and consequently these devices 
and compositions retain their original forms : and, in like 
manner, the original colouring of the Heraldry of Stained 



12 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Glass remains safe from restoration or destruction, in con 
sequence of the impossibility of re-painting it. 

The early written Literature of English Heraldry is 
calculated to throw but little light upon either its true 
character or its history. In addition, however, to the 
various and numerous official documents of the Heralds 
College, several examples of one particular class of heraldic 
record have been preserved, the value of which cannot be 
too highly estimated. These are ROLLS OF ARMS long, 
narrow strips of parchment, on which are written lists of 
the names and titles of certain personages, with full descrip 
tions of their armorial insignia. The circumstances under 
which these Rolls were prepared are for the most part 
unknown : but, the exact accuracy of their statements has 
been established beyond all question by careful and repeated 
comparison with Seals and other Monuments, and also with 
Documents which give only an indirect and yet not the 
less conclusive corroboration to the records of the Rolls 
of Arms themselves. The earliest of these Rolls at present 
known date about A.D. 1250; and since in these earliest 
Rolls a very decided technical language is uniformly 
adopted, and the descriptions are all given in palpable 
accordance with fixed rules which must then have been 
well understood, we infer that in the course of the first 
half of the thirteenth century Heralds had framed some 
system for the regulation of their proceedings, had raised 
Heraldry to the rank of a Science, had fixed upon certain 
terms and rules for describing heraldic devices and figures, 
and had established laws to direct the granting, the 
assuming, and the bearing arms. 

The most interesting of these early heraldic Rolls rer 
cords, in a metrical form, and in Norman-French, the 
siege and capture of the fortress of Carlaverock, on the 
Scottish border, by EDWARD I., in the year 1300. In ad- 



ROLLS OF ARMS. 13 

dition to veiy curious descriptions of the muster of the 
Royal troops at Carlisle, their march northwards, and the 
incidents of the siege (which last have a strange resemblance 
to what Homer has recorded of incidents that took place 
during the siege of Troy), this Roll gives some graphic per 
sonal sketches of the princes, nobles, bannerets, and knights, 
whose banners and shields of arms are set forth in it with 
minute exactness. This Roll, as well as several others, has 
been published, with translations and very valuable notes. 

In the Manuscript Collections of the British Museum also, 
and of other Libraries both public and private, and in the 
County Histories, and other works of a cognate character, 
there are many documents w r hich contain various important 
records and illustrations of early English Heraldry. 

In any references to authorities, that it may appear de 
sirable for me to make in the course of this and the follow 
ing chapters, I must be as concise as possible. A direct 
reference to Seals, Effigies, &c., will be necessary in each 
case : but, in referring to Rolls of Arms it will be sufficient 
to denote the period of the authority in general terms. 
Accordingly, I shall refer, not to each particular Roll, but 
collectively to those of each of the following reigns 
HENRY III., EDWARD I., EDWARD II., EDWARD III., and 
RICHARD II. ; and these references will severally be made 
thus, (H. 3), (E. i), (E. 2), (E. 3), and (R. 2). 

Amongst the earliest Shields and Banners of Arms, all 
of them remarkable for their simplicity, many are found 
to be without any device whatever, their distinction. con 
sisting simply in some peculiarity in the colouring. Such 
examples may be considered to have been derived from 
pre-heraldic times, and transmitted, without any change or 
addition, to later periods. The renowned Banner of the 
Knights Templars, by them called Beauseant, No. 13, is 
black above and white below, to denote that, while fierce 



! 4 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

to their foes, they were gracious to their friends. An ancient 
Banner of the Earl of Leicester A 
(H. 3) is white and red, the divi- 
sion being made by a vertical in 
dented line; No. 14. The Shield 
of the ducal House of Brittany, 
closely connected with the Royal 
Family of England, is simply of 
the fur ermine; No. 15. The Shield 
of Waldegrave is silver and red, as 
in No. 16: and that of Fitz Warine 
(H. 3), also of silver and red, is NO. 14. 

No. 13. Banner v o/ Banner ( 

of Templars, treated as in No. 17. 



1 




mer of 

Leicester. 




No. 15. Brittany. No. 16. Waldegrave. No. 17. Fitz Warine. 

Some of the earliest of the simple devices of true Heraldry 
were evidently adopted from the structural formation (or from 
a structural strengthening) of the Shields, 
on which they were displayed. Thus, 
a raised border, and bands of metal 
variously disposed in order to impart ad 
ditional strength to a shield, with distinct 
colouring, would produce a series of he 
raldic compositions. A good example 

whitworth. Whitworth, Durham, No. 18, in which 
the heads of the rivets or screws employed to fix the 
border on the shield, appear to have been made to assume 




STRUCTURAL AND ALLUSIVE DEVICES. 



the character of heraldic additions to the simple border 
and horizontal bands. Other primary devices of the same 
simple order, which in like manner may have had a struc 
tural origin, I shall consider in detail in subsequent 
chapters. (See particularly Chapter VI.) 

The central boss, at once an appropriate ornament of an 
early shield, and an important addition to its defensive 
qualities, when extended in the form of decorative metal- 
work, would readily suggest a variety of heraldic figures, 
and amongst others several beautiful modifications of a 
simple cruciform device which it 
might be made to assume. The 
figure called an escarbuncle, No. 
19, is simply a shield-boss de 
veloped into decorative structural 
metal-work. This figure appears 
in the Temple Church, London, 
upon the shield of an Effigy, 
which Mr. J. Gough Nichols has 
shown to have been incorrectly 
attributed to Geoffrey de Mande- 
ville, Earl of Essex. 

The greater number of the No - 9- -The Escarbuncle. 
earliest devices that appear in English Heraldry were adopted 
for the express purpose of their having some allusive associa 
tion, through a similarity of sound in their own names with 
the names and titles of certain persons, dignities, and places. 
In exact accordance with the principles and aim of primitive 
mediaeval Heraldry, and in perfect harmony with the senti 
ments and requirements of the age in which it grew up into 
a science, devices of this kind addressed themselves in very 
plain and expressive language to the men of their own era. 
In them they saw the kind of symbolical writing that they 
could remember, as well as understand. They also evidently 




1 6 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

liked the quaint style of suggestiveness that was a charac 
teristic of these allusive devices : and, it is more than pro 
bable that there frequently lurked in them a humorous 
significance, which by no means tended to detract from their 
popularity. Devices of this same order have never ceased to 
be in favour with Heralds and lovers of Heraldry. They 
were used in the sixteenth century at least as commonly as in 
the thirteenth ; but, as would be expected, in the later period 
they often became complicated, far-fetched, and extravagant. 

This allusive quality, distinguished in English Heraldry 
as " canting" has commonly been misunderstood, and there 
fore incorrectly estimated, by modern writers, who have 
supposed it to be a fantastic conceit of the Heralds of a 
degenerate age. By writers such as these, accordingly, all 
" canting arms " (by French Heralds called " armes par- 
lantes ") have been absurdly assigned to a separate class, in 
their estimation having an inferior heraldic grade. 

The prevalence of the allusive quality in early arms may 
be assumed to have been even more general than is now 
apparent, since so many of the original echoes and allusions 
have become obscured or altogether lost in the lapse of 
time, and through the changes that have taken place since 
the accession of HENRY III. in the French language and in 
our own also. The use of the Latin language, again, in the 
Middle Ages led, at later periods, to translations of names ; 
French names, too, were translated in the same manner 
into English equivalents : and, at other times, the sound of 
a Latin or a French (Anglo-Norman) name was transferred 
to an English representative having a somewhat similar 
sound, without the slightest reference to the original signifi 
cation. Who, for example, now associates the well-known 
MORTIMERS, through the forgotten exploit of a Crusader 
ancestor, a " De Mortuo Mari" with the Dead Sea ? Or, 
who in the name of MONTAGU now recognises instinctively 




No. 20. 
Shi-eld of Montacute. 



EXAMPLES OF ALLUSIVE ARMS. 1 7 

the original allusion to a mountain with its sharply peaked 
crests, and so discerns the probable allusive origin of the 
sharp triple points of the devices on the old Montacute 
shield, No. 20 ? It is easy to see 
how much must have been unconsci 
ously done, by such changes in names 
and their associations, to obliterate 
what once was clear, significant, and 
expressive. I must be content here 
to give, simply by way of explana 
tory illustration, a very few examples 
of allusive arms; and, in so doing, 
it may be well for me to observe that the early Heralds of 
our country always employed the French language as it was 
spoken in their own times in England as well as in France. 
In the time of HENRY III., G. de Lucy has for his arms 
three fades fish now known as pike : Robert Quency has a 
quintefudlz. flower of five leaves : Thos. Corbett has two 
corbeaux ravens: A. de Swyneburne has "trots testes de 
senglier" three heads of the wild boar, or swine: (E 2), Sir 
R. de Eschales has six escallops shells : Sir G. de 
Trompintoun, of Trumpington, near Cambridge, has two 
trompes trumpets : Sir J. Bordoun has three bourdons 
pilgrim s staves : Sir G. Rossel has three 
roses: and Sir O. Heron has the same 
number of herons. So also, for the 
Spanish provinces Castile and Leon, a 
castle and a lion : for Falconer, a falcon : 
Butler, cups : Forester, bugle-horns : Arun- 
del, hirondettes swallows : Wingfield, 
wings : Shelley, shells : Pigot, pick-axes : 
Leveson, leaves: and Martel, martels 
hammers. The Broom-plant with its seed-pods, in Latin 
Planta genista, No. 21, gave their name to the PLANTA- 

c 




No. 21. Planta 
Genista. 



i8 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



GENETS. I shall hereafter add several other curious ex 
amples of devices of this class, when treating of Badges^ 
Rebuses, and Mottoes. 

There is one class of early arms, which it is important 
that students of Armory should observe with especial care, 
lest they be led by them into unexpected errors. These 
are arms that were invented after Heraldry had been 
established, and then were assigned to personages of 
historical eminence who had lived and died before the 
true heraldic era. In the days in which every person of 
prominence bore heraldic arms, and when Heraldry had 
attained to high renown, it was natural enough to con 
sider that suitable armorial devices and compositions 
should be assigned to the men of mark in earlier ages, 
both to distinguish them in accordance with the usage 
then prevalent, and to treat their memory with becoming 
honour. No proof can be shown that the arms said to 
have been borne by WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR are not 
of this order made for him, that is, and attributed to 
him in after times, but of which he himself had no know- 





No. 22. WILLIAM I. 



No. 23. Saxon Princes. 



ledge. These arms, No. 22, differ from the true Royal 
Insignia of England only in there being two, instead of 
three, lions displayed upon the shield. The arms of 
EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, No. 2, were certainly devised 
long after his death, and they appear to have been 



ATTRIBUTED ARMS. 19 

suggested to the Heralds of HENRY III. by one of the 
Confessor s coins : the shield is blue, and the cross 
and five birds (martlets) are gold. In like manner, 
the arms attributed to the earlier Saxon Sovereigns of 
England, No. 23, a gold cross upon blue, are really not 
earlier than the thirteenth century. The arms, No. 2, 
having been assigned to ST. EDWARD, a patron saint of 
mediaeval England, were long regarded with peculiar reve 
rence. I have placed them, drawn from a fine shield of the 
thirteenth century in Westminster Abbey, to take a part in 
forming a group at the head of my Preface, with the shields 
of the two other saintly Patrons of "old England," ST. 
GEORGE and ST. EDMUND, No. i and No. 3 a red cross 
on a silver shield, and three golden crowns upon a shield 
of blue. 



C 2 



CHAPTER III. 

The English Heraldry that is n<nv in existence. First Debasement 
of Heraldry. Later Debasement. Revival of English Heraldry. 
Heraldic Art. 



" Sans changer." MOTTO OF STANLEY. 

ENGLISH Heraldry, as it exists amongst us in our own 
times, is the very same Heraldry that flourished under the 
kindly influences of the greatest of the Plantagenets. It is 
not of a new, but of the old, Heraldry of England that I am 
setting forth the elements. Our Heraldry has had to pass 
from good days to bad ones : and, having gone through the 
worst of bad days, the circle at length has revolved, so that 
we are witnessing the happy change of a vigorous heraldic 
revival. Heraldry already enjoys a very great popularity ; 
and, without a doubt, it will become still more popular, in 
the degree that its utility is better and more generally under 
stood. For its complete ultimate success, the present revival 
of true English Heraldry must mainly depend upon the 
manner in which we apply the lessons that may be learned 
by us, no less from the warnings of the recent evil days of 
the science, than from the example of the brilliant ones that 
preceded them long ago. Nor should we deal faithfully 
with our revived Heraldry, were we not to form a just 
estimate of whatever was imperfect in the best era of its 
early history, in order to apply to present improvement the 
lessons that thus also may be learned. It must be admitted 
that the Heralds of the seventeenth century, following the 
footsteps of some of their immediate predecessors, led the 



HERALDIC DEBASEMENT. 21 

way towards the thorough debasement of their own science. 
Their example was not without effect upon those who 
followed them men quite equal to the perpetration of 
whatever had not been already done to bring Heraldry into 
contempt. This was accomplished first, by gravely dis 
coursing, in early heraldic language, upon the imaginary 
Heraldry of the patriarchal and antediluvian worthies: 
making a true coat of arms of Joseph s "coat of many 
colours," giving armorial ensigns to David and Gideon, to 
Samson and Joshua, to "that worthy gentilman Japheth," 
to Jubal and Tubal-Cain, and crowning the whole by 
declaring that our common progenitor, Adam, bore on 
his own red shield Eve s shield of silver, after the 
mediaeval fashion that would denote his wife to have 
been an heiress ! 

Then there set in a flood of allegorical and fantastic 
absurdities, by which the fair domain of Heraldry was 
absolutely overwhelmed. Wild and strange speculations, 
in a truly vain philosophy, interwoven with distorted images 
of both the myths and the veritable records of classic 
antiquity, were either deduced from armorial blazonry, or 
set forth as the sources from whence it was developed. 
Fables and anecdotes, having reference to less remote eras, 
were produced in great variety and in copious abundance 
The presence in blazon of animated beings of whatsoever 
kinds, whether real or fabulous, led to rambling disquisitions 
in the most ludicrously ^natural of imaginary Natural 
History. From every variety also of inanimate figure and 
device, the simplest no less than the more elaborate, after 
the same fashion some " moral " was sought to be extracted. 
The technical language, too, of the early Heralds, had its 
expressive simplicity travestied by a complicated jargon, 
replete with marvellous assertions, absurd doctrines, covert 
allusions devoid of consistent significance, quaint and yet 



22 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

trivial conceits, and bombastic rhapsodies. Even the nomen 
clature of the Tinctures was not exempt from a characteristic 
course of " treatment," two distinctive additional sets of titles 
for gold, silver, blue, red, &c., having been devised and 
substituted for those in general use (see Chapter V:); of these 
the one set was derived from the names of the Planets, and 
employed to emblazon the insignia of Sovereign Princes ; 
and the other set, derived from the names of Jewels, was 
applied to the arms of Nobles. In the midst of all the 
rubbish, however, which they thus delighted to accumulate, 
there may generally be discovered in the works of writers of 
this class, here and there, references to earlier usages and 
illustrations of original principles which, in the extreme 
dearth of genuine early heraldic literature, are both inter 
esting and of real value. Nor are these writings without 
their value, estimated from another point of view, as contem 
poraneous and unconscious commentaries upon the history 
of their own times. It must be added that, in more than a 
few instances, beneath the surface there lurks a vein of both 
political and personal allusion, of which the point and 
bearing now are altogether lost, or at the most are only 
open to conjecture and surmise. And, again, even in their 
most extravagant and frivolous lucubrations, the heraldic 
writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are not 
without touches of humour; as when Gerand Legh (A.D. 
1562), discoursing of "beastes," remarks of the "Ramme" 
that in " aucthoritye he is a Duke, for hee hath the leadyng 
of multitudes and flockes of his own kynde;" and of the ass, 
" I could write much of this beaste, but that it might be 
thought it were to mine own glorie." 

The adoption of additional quarterings for the purpose 
of display, and the introduction of more complicated com 
positions in the time of HENRY VIII., were speedily 
followed by the substitution of pictorial representations, 



HERALDIC DEBASEMENT. 23 

often of a most frivolous and inconsistent character, and 
many of them altogether unintelligible without written 
explanations, instead of the simple, dignified, and expres 
sive insignia of true Heraldry. For example, in the year 
1760, a grant of arms was made to a Lincolnshire family 
named Tetlow, which, with thirteen other figures, includes 
the representation of a book duly clasped and ornamented, 
having on it a silver penny, upon which is written the 
Lord s Prayer ; while above the book rests a dove, holding 
in its beak a crow-quill ! This was to commemorate one of 
the family having, with a crow-quill, actually achieved the 
exploit of writing the Lord s Prayer within the compass of 
a silver penny. Amongst the most objectionable of the 
arms of this class are those which were granted to dis 
tinguished naval and military officers arms, that certainly 
ought to have conferred fresh honour on illustrious names, 
instead of inflicting dishonour upon Heraldry itself. Battles 
by sea and land, landscapes and sea views and fortified 
cities, flags of all kinds, with medals and ribbons, all of 
them intermixed with devices not quite so unheraldic, 
abound in these extravagant compositions. The arms of 
Lord Nelson, and still more recently those of General 
Lord Gough, may be specified as flagrant examples of this 
degenerate pictorial Heraldry. The Duke of Wellington 
happily escaped a similar infliction. It would be but too 
easy to enumerate other equally inconsistent and unheraldic 
compositions : but, I must be content to refer only to the 
armorial shield granted to the great astronomer, Sir John 
Herschel, on which is displayed his forty-feet reflecting 
telescope, with all its apparatus ! These, and all such 
violations of heraldic truth and consistency, though in 
some instances they are of very recent date, are now to 
be assigned to a closed chapter in the history of English 
Heraldry. 



24 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

In our present revival of English Heraldry, it is 
essential that we impress upon our minds a correct con 
ception of the two-fold character of all Heraldry that 
it is a Science, and also that it is an Art. We have to 
vindicate the reputation of our Heraldry, as well in the 
one capacity as in the other. Of very noble heraldic Art 
we happily possess original examples in great numbers, 
which have been bequeathed to us, as a precious inheri 
tance, from "the brave days of old." The style of Art 
that we see exemplified in these early authorities we may 
accept almost unreservedly as our own style ; and we must 
aspire to sympathise heartily with their genuine heraldic 
feeling. In our representation, also, of almost all inani 
mate and natural objects in our own armorial compositions, 
as a general rule, we may trust confidently to the same 
good guidance. The early method of representation, in 
deed, must form the basis of our system of treatment; 
and, we may faithfully adhere to this rule, and yet occa 
sionally we may find it to be desirable that the form and 
the accessories of some devices should be adapted to 
modern associations. In truth, it is not by merely copy 
ing the works of even the greatest of the early heraldic 
artists, that we are to become masters in heraldic Art. 
When the copies are good, copying is always valuable, 
as a branch of study ; but, if it be our highest and only 
aim to reproduce the expressions of other men s thoughts, 
then copying is worse than worthless. What we have to 
do is to express our heraldic Art in the spirit of the early 
Heralds, to keep it in harmony with what, in the best of 
the early days, they would have accepted as the highest 
heraldic Art, and at the same time to show that our heraldic 
Art in very truth is our own. 

The treatment of animate creatures in Heraldry requires 
a certain kind, and also a certain degree, of conventionalism- 



HERALDIC ART. 25 

Here, as before, in the early Heralds we have excellent 
masters ; but, here we must follow their teaching with more 
of reserve, and with cautious steps. We recognise the happy 
consistency of the conventionalism which they displayed 
in their representation of animate creatures, without any 
purpose to adopt it in the same degree with them. Had the 
early Heralds been more familiar with the living presence 
of the various creatures that they summoned to enter into 
their service, without a doubt they would have represented 
them with a much closer conformity to Nature. We must 
apply our better knowledge, as we may feel confident the 
early Heralds would have applied a similar knowledge had 
they been able to have acquired it. Heraldic animals of every 
kind Hons, eagles, dolphins, and all others must be so 
far subjected to a conventional treatment, that they will not 
exhibit a strictly natural appearance : and, on the other 
hand, being carefully preserved from all exaggerated con 
ventionalisms, they must approach as near to Nature as a 
definite conventional rendering of natural truth will admit. 
The lions of the early Heralds, spirited beasts always, gene 
rally show a decided disposition to exhibit their heraldic 
sympathies in excess. They have in them rather too much 
that is heraldic conventionalism, and not quite enough 
that is natural lion. And, with the first symptoms of decline 
in heraldic Art, the treatment of lions showed signs of a 
tendency to carry conventionalism to the utmost extrava 
gance. The same remarks are applicable to eagles. It 
must be added, however, that truly admirable examples of 
heraldic animals occasionally may be found as late even 
as the commencement of the sixteenth century, as in the 
chantry of Abbot Ramryge, in the Abbey Church at St. 
Alban s, and in King s College Chapel at Cambridge. It 
must be our care to blend together the true attributes of the 
living lion and eagle, and those also of other living creatures, 



26 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



with the traditional peculiarities of their heraldic repre 
sentatives. And we must extend the corresponding appli 
cation of the same principles of treatment to imaginary 
beings and heraldic monsters, as they occur in our Heraldry. 
The shield, No. 24, of Prince JOHN OF ELTHAM, younger 




No. 24. Prince JOHN OF ELTHAM, 



A.D. 13: 



brother of EDWARD III., finely sculptured with his effigy in 
alabaster, in Westminster Abbey (A.D. 1336), and in perfect 
preservation, gives us characteristic examples of lions of the 
best heraldic era, their frames, attenuated as they are, being 
perfect types of fierce elasticity. With this shield may be 
grouped others, having admirably suggestive examples of 
heraldic lions of a somewhat later date, which are preserved 
upon the monuments of EDWARD III. and the BLACK PRINCE, 
severally at Westminster and Canterbury. I shall refer to 



HERALDIC ART. 27 

these fine shields again, and to other admirable examples 
with them, hereafter (Chapter IX.). The conventionalism 
in all these examples, however felicitous the manner in which 
it is treated in them, is very decidedly exaggerated. With 
out being so attenuated and so lengthy in their bodies, 
these lions might have been at least as thoroughly heraldic. 
These examples, and others such as these, are not the less 
valuable to us because their teaching includes an illustra 
tion of the excesses that we must always be careful to 
avoid. I may here observe, that on the subject of 
armorial Art I leave my examples (all of them selected 
from the most characteristic authorities, and engraved 
with scrupulous fidelity) for the most part to convey 
their own lessons and suggestions : my own suggestion to 
students being that, in such living creatures as they may 
represent in their compositions, while they are careful to 
preserve heraldic consistency and to express heraldic feeling, 
they exhibit beauty of form coupled with freedom of action 
and an appropriate expression. "Freedom of action" I 
intend to imply more than such skilful drawing, as will 
impart to any particular creature the idea of free movement 
of frame and limb : it refers also to repeated representations 
of the same creature, under the same heraldic conditions 
of motive and attitude. And, here " freedom of action " 
implies those slight, yet significant, modifications of minor 
details which, without in the least degree affecting armorial 
truth, prevent even the semblance of monotonous reitera 
tion. Thus, at Beverley, in the Percy Shrine in the Minster, 
upon a shield of England the three lions are all heraldically 
the same ; but, there is nothing of sameness in them never 
theless, because in each one there is some little variety in 
the turn of the head, or in the placing of the paws, or in 
the sweep of the tail. And again, in Westminster Hall, the 
favourite badge of Richard II., a white hart, chained, and in 



28 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



an attitude of rest, is repeated as many as eighty-three times ; 
and all are equally consistent with heraldic truth and accu 
racy, without any one of them being an exact counterpart of 





No. 25. No. 26. 

Badge of RICHARD II., Westminster Hall. 

any other. In Nos. 25 and 26 two examples are shown 
from this remarkable series of representations of this beau 
tiful badge, each one different from the other, and yet both 
really the same. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY. 

SECTION I. 

The Lan^iage of Heraldry. The Nomenclature. Style and Forms 01 
Expression. Blazon. The Shield: its Parts, Points, Divisions, 
Dividing Lines, Varieties of Form, and Heraldic Treatment. 



" The shield hangs down on every breast." LORD OF THE ISLES. 



THE LANGUAGE OF HERALDRY. The original language of 
English Heraldry was the Norman-French, which may also 
be designated Anglo-Norman, habitually spoken at the 
Court of England in the early heraldic era. After a while, 
a mixed language succeeded, compounded of English and 
the original Norman-French ; and this mixed language still 
continues in use. 

NOMENCLATURE. Like its language, the Nomenclature 
of English Heraldry is of a mixed character, in part 
technical and peculiar to itself, and in part the same that 
is in common use. Thus, many of the figures and devices 
of Heraldry have their peculiar heraldic names and titles, 
while still more bear their ordinary designations. Descrip 
tive terms, whether expressed in English or in French 
(Anglo-Norman), are generally employed with a special 
heraldic intention and significance. In the earliest Roll 
of Arms known to be now in existence, which was com 
piled (as appears from internal evidence) between the years 
1240 and 1245, the Nomenclature is the same that is found 



30 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

in Rolls and other heraldic documents of a later date. This 
fact of the existence of a definite Nomenclature at that 
time, proves that before the middle of the thirteenth cen 
tury the Heraldry of England had been subjected to a 
systematic course of treatment, and had been established 
and recognised as a distinct and independent Science. 

STYLE AND FORMS OF EXPRESSION. With the Nomen 
clature, a settled Style and certain fixed technical Forms 
of Expression were introduced and accepted in the first 
half of the thirteenth century ; and, since that period, the 
Style and Forms of Expression have undergone only such 
comparatively slight modifications as tended to render them 
both more complete and more consistent. As it was at 
the first, it still is the essence of heraldic language to be 
concise yet complete, expressive, and also abounding in 
suggestions. Not a syllable is expressed that is not abso 
lutely necessary ; not a syllable omitted, the absence of 
which might possibly lead to any doubt or uncertainty. 
In the more matured style, the repetition of any important 
word in the same sentence is scrupulously avoided; and, 
where it would be required, another form of expression is 
substituted in its stead. Much meaning also is left to be 
implied and understood, through inference, either based upon 
certain accepted rules and established heraldic usages for 
the arrangement of the words and clauses of a sentence, 
or derived from the natural qualities and characteristic 
conditions of certain figures and devices : but, nothing is 
ever left to be inferred when an uncertain inference might 
possibly be adopted, or that can be understood clearly and 
with certainty only by means of an explicit statement. 
Superfluous words and particles of all kinds are altogether 
omitted. Descriptive epithets follow the nouns to which 
they refer : as, a red cross is styled a cross gules. The 
general rules, by which the arrangement of the words in 



STYLE BLAZON. 31 

heraldic descriptive sentences is determined, will be found 
in the last subdivision of this chapter. Examples of 
heraldic Language, Nomenclature, Style and Forms of 
Expression, will be given in abundance throughout the 
following chapters and sections of this treatise. With 
these examples students will do well to familiarise them 
selves, by repeating them in writing : then, let them 
prepare additional examples for that "practice," which 
(as Parker s " Glossary of Heraldry" says, p. 60) " alone will 
make perfect," by writing down correct descriptions of 
heraldic compositions from the compositions themselves; 
after which process they may advantageously reverse the 
order of their study, and make drawings of these same 
(or, if they prefer it, of some other) heraldic compositions 
from their own written descriptions of them. 

When any heraldic description of a figure, device, or 
composition has been completed, a statement is made to 
signify the person, family, community, or realm whose 
armorial ensign it may be. This is done by simply writing 
the appropriate name, after the last word of the description ; 
or, by prefixing the word "for" before the name when it 
is placed in the same position. Thus, a description of the 
three lions of England is to be followed by the word 
"ENGLAND;" or, by the formula "for ENGLAND." If 
preferred, with equal consistency the arrangement may be 
reversed, and the Name, with or without the prefix " for," 
may precede the description : thus " ENGLAND," or " For 
ENGLAND," three lions, &c. It is to be borne in remem 
brance, that armorial ensigns are very generally attached 
to Names, and with the exception of Sovereign Princes 
by comparison but rarely to Titles and Dignities. 

BLAZON, BLAZONING, BLAZONRY. When a knight entered 
the lists at a tournament, his presence was announced by 
sound of trumpet or horn, after which the officers of arms, 



3 2 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

the official Heralds, declared his armorial insignia they 
"blazoned" his Arms. This term, derived from the 
German word " bias en" signifying "to blow a blast on a 
honi " (or, as one eminent German Herald prefers, from the 
old German word "blaze" or " blasse" "a mark" or 
" sign "), in Heraldry denotes either to describe any armorial 
figure, device, or composition in correct heraldic language ; 
or to represent such figure, device, or composition accurately 
in form, position, arrangement, and colouring. This descrip 
tion and representation may be distinguished as blazoning 
and blazonry, the verb " to blazon " being used in either 
sense. The word "blazon" also, as a noun, may be 
employed with a general and comprehensive signification 
to denote " Heraldry." 

THE SHIELD : ITS PARTS, POINTS, AND DIVISIONS. 
Their Shield, which the knights of the Middle Ages derived 
from the military usage of antiquity, and which contributed 
in so important a degree to their own defensive equipment, 
was considered by those armour-clad warriors to be pecu 
liarly qualified to display their heraldic blazonry. And, in 
later times, when armour had ceased to be worn, and when 
shields no longer were actually used, a Shield continued to 
be regarded as the most appropriate vehicle for the same 
display. The Shield, then, which with its armorial devices 
constitutes a Shield of Arms, always is considered to display 
its blazonry upon its face or external surface. This blazoned 
surface of his shield the bearer, when holding it before his 
person, presents (or would present, were he so to hold it) 
towards those who confront him. The right and the left 
sides of the person of the bearer of a Shield, consequently, 
are covered by the right and left (in heraldic language, the 
dexter and sinister] sides of his shield : and so, from this it 
follows that the dexter and sinister sides of a Shield of Arms 
are severally opposite to the left and the right hands of all 



THE HERALDIC SHIELD. 



33 



observers. The Parts and Points of an heraldic Shield, which 

is also entitled an "Escutcheon," are thus distinguished : 

No. 27. A, The Chief: B, The Base : 
C, The Dexter Side: D, The Sinister 

Side: 
E, TJie Dexter Chief: F, The Sinister 

Chief: 
G, The Middle Chief: H, The Dexter 

Base: 
I, The Sinister Base: K, The Middle 

Base : 
L, The Honour Point: M, The Fesse 

Point. 

In blazoning the Divisions of a Shield, the term "Per" 
signifying "by" or "by means of," is employed sometimes 
alone, and sometimes (having the same signification) with 
the word "parted" or "party." The primary Divisions of 
a Shield are indicated in the following diagrams, Nos. 
2835 :~ 




No. 28. 



No. 29. No 30. 




No. 32. No. 33. No. 34 

No. 28. Per Pale, or Parted per Pale, or Party per 

Pale. 

No. 29. Per Fesse, or Parted per Fesse. 
No. 30. (Nos. 28 and 29 together) Per Cross, or 

Quarterly. 
No. 31. Per Bend. 



34 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



No. 32. Per Bend Sinister. 

No. 33. (Nos. 31 and 32 together) Per Saltire. 

No. 34. Per Chevron. 

No. 35. Per Tierce, or Tiercee (divided into three equal 

divisions by two vertical lines). 
A Shield may be further divided and subdivided, thus : 







No. 36. 

It may be divided into any number of Quartering* by lines 
drawn per pale and per fesse, cutting each other, as in No. 
36, which Shield is quarterly of eight : in like manner the 
Quartering* of any Shield, whatever their number (which 
must be an even number), are blazoned as, quarterly of 
twelve^ &>c. This, to whatever extent the dividing of the 
Shield may be carried, is simple Quartering. Again : a 
quartered Shield may have one or more of its primary 
quarters, or every one of them, quartered : this, which is 
the subdivision of a part, the quartering of quarters, is com 
pound Quartering : for example, in No. 37, the Shield is first 
divided into the four primary quarters, severally marked 
A, B, C, I) ; then, so far as the quarters A, B, D are con 
cerned, the "simple quartering" is subjected to the process 
of " compound quartering," and quarters A, C are quarters 
quarterly, and B is a quarter quarterly of six, while C 
remains unaffected by the secondary process. The terms 
"quarterly quartering" and " quarterly quartered " are used 
to signify such secondary quartering as is exemplified in 
A, B, D, of No. 37. The four primary quarters (A, B, C, D, 



BORDER LINES THE SHIELD. 



35 



of No. 37) are distinguished as Grand Quarters: conse 
quently, the quarter B of this example is the second grand 
quarter, quarterly of six. This term " Grand Quarter " may 
be employed to distinguish any primary quarter that is 
;; quarterly quartered." 

DIVIDING and BORDER LINES, in addition to simple 
right lines and curves, assume the forms that are repre 
sented in the next diagram, No. 38 : 

No. 38. A. Indented 

B. Dancette 

C. Wary or Undee ...[ 

D. Engrailed 



E. Invected .. 

F. Embattled 
G. 



H. Nebulee 

(2 varieties) 

I. Dovetail . 




THE SHIELD : ITS VARIETIES OF FORM. The front face 
of an heraldic Shield is generally flat ; but sometimes the 
curved edges are made to appear as if they had been 
slightly rounded off. Some early Shields are represented 
as bowed hollowed, that is, in order to cover more 
closely the person of the bearer, and consequently 
having a convex external contour, as in No. 39. 
In early examples of bowed Shields the whole of 
the armorial blazonry is generally displayed on 
the face of that portion of the Shield which is 
shovvn. A ridge, dividing them in pale, but not necessarily 
in any way acting as an heraldic dividing line, appears in 
many Shields, and particularly in those of the fifteenth and 

D 2 




No. 39 . 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



sixteenth centuries. The large elongated Shields that have 
been entitled " kite-shaped," and which were in use in the 
days of RICHARD I. and amongst the Barons of Magna 
Charta, were superseded by the smaller "heater-shaped" 






No 40. No. 42. No. 41. 

Shield as early as the reign of HENRY III. The most 
beautiful forms of this Shield are represented in Nos. 40, 
41, and 42 : of these, No. 40 has its curves described about 
the sides of an inverted equilateral triangle, and then they 
are prolonged by vertical lines towards the chief: in Nos. 
41, 42, the sides curve from the chief to the base. The 





forms of Shields admit of various slight modifications, to 
adjust them to varying conditions. Towards the close of 
the fourteenth century the form of the Shield is found to 
undergo some singular changes : and, at later periods, 
changes in form of this kind became generally prevalent. 
Nos. 43, 44, exemplify such changes as these : they also 
show the curved notch that was cut in the dexter chief 



THE SHIELD. 37 

of the Shields of the same periods, to permit the lance 

to pass through it as the Shield hung down on the breast : 

a Shield so pierced is said to be a bouche. The Surface of 

the Shield, No. 43, which is in the Episcopal palace at 

Exeter, is wrought into a series of shallow hollows, which 

curve gracefully from the central ridge, some to the dexter, 

and others to the sinister. Such a Shield as this may be 

consistently used in our own Heraldry : but, since now we 

do not associate lances laid in rest with our heraldic Shields, 

it appears desirable that we should not draw our Shields 

a bouche. In recent Heraldry the Shield has commonly 

been made to appear such an unsightly and 

un-heraldic deformity as is represented in 

No. 45. Instead of a true heraldic Shield 

also, a rounded oval with a convex surface, 

called a cartouche, or cartouche shield, No. 46, 

is occasionally used for the display of armorial No ^ 

blazonry; or a circle is substituted for such 

an oval. These cartouches probably owe their origin to 

the usage of placing a Garter of the Order about a 

Shield (prevalent in the fifteenth century), 

and to the subsequent omission of the 

Shield. A Lozenge, No. 47, takes the 

place of a Shield to bear the arms of 

Ladies, with the sole exception of the 

Sovereign : this very inconvenient sub- No- 46< No 47 

stitute for the heraldic Shield was introduced early in 

the fourteenth century. 

THE SHIELD : ITS HERALDIC TREATMENT. When a 
Shield is represented as standing erect, it is not necessary 
to specify that fact, since such a position may be assumed 
for a Shield unless another be set forth in blazoning. 
Shields are commonly made to appear suspended by the 
guige, or shield-belt (which was worn by Knights to sustain 




ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



and secure their Shields to their persons) ; in some Seals 
and generally in architectural compositions, Shields-of-Arms 
appear suspended, erect, from their guiges ; at Westminster 
some of the earliest Shields are thus suspended, with a 
very happy effect, from two points of suspension, the guige 
passing over sculptured heads, as in No. 48, the Arms of 
Provence, borne by ALIANORE of Provence, Queen of 
HENRY III. the shield is gold, and on it are blazoned 





Arms of Provence, Westminster Abbey. 



No. 49. 
Shield Couchc. 



four red pallets. In Seals, the suspended Shield is generally 
represented hanging by the sinister-chief angle, as in No. 
49 ; and it hangs thus diagonally from below the helm. 
A Shield thus placed is said to be " couche" This arrange 
ment is also occasionally adopted, when a Shield or an 
Achievement of arms is not placed upon a Seal. 

The entire surface of every Shield is termed the "Field." 
The same term is also applied to every plain surface. A 
Shield is said to be " borne" by the personage to whom 
it belongs: and, in its turn, the Shield "bears" whatever 
figures and devices may be displayed upon it ; whence, 
all these figures and devices are entitled "Bearings" or 
"Armorial Hearings" All figures and devices are also 
styled " Charges ;" and they are said to be " charged" upon 
a Shield, Banner, or Surcoat, or upon one another. In 
any heraldic composition, unless some other arrangement 
be particularly specified, the principal figure or device is 



THE SHIELD. 39 

placed in the centre of the Shield, and the other charges 
are displayed over the entire field of the Shield. In 
blazoning, the field of the Shield is always first noticed 
and described : next follow the charges that rest upon the 
field of the Shield itself : then descriptions are given of the 
secondary bearings that are charged upon others of greater 
importance. As a general rule, of several charges which 
all alike rest immediately upon the field of the Shield the 
most important is the first to be blazoned; so that the 
arrangement of blazoning is determined by the comparative 
dignity of the bearings, as well as by the degree in which 
charges are nearer to the field and further from be 
holders. In some cases, however, a bearing charged upon 
the field of a Shield and many times repeated on a small 
scale, is blazoned (for the sake of simplicity and clearness 
of expression) next to the field of the Shield itself: thus, 
if a lion be charged on the field of a Shield, and a consider 
able number of crosses surround the lion, and, like him, 
are placed on the field of the Shield also the field of the 
Shield is blazoned first, the crosses second, and the lion 
third ; and, if a crescent (or other bearing) be charged upon 
the lion s shoulder, it is the last in the blazon. In quartered 
Shields the blazoning commences afresh with each quarter 
ing. In blazoning armorial banners and horse-trappings, 
the latter often gorgeously enriched with heraldic blazonry, 
the dexter side of a flag is always next to the staff, and the 
head of a horse is supposed always to be looking towards 
the dexter. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY. 

SECTION II. 

The Tinctures : Metals, Colours. Furs. Varied Fields. Law of Tinc 
tures. Counterchanging. Diaper. Disposition. Blazoning in 
Tinctures. 

" All the devices blazoned on the Shield 
In their own tinct." ELAINE. 



Ix English Heraldry the TINCTURES comprise Two Metals, 
Five Colours, and Eight Furs. They are symbolised or indi 
cated by dots and lines a very convenient system, said to 
have been introduced, about the year 1630, by an Italian 
named Silvestre de Petrasancta. Some such symbolisation, 
however, may occasionally be found in anticipation of Petra 
sancta. The system now in use was not generally adopted 
till the commencement of the last century. The Metals, 
Colours, and Furs are named, their names are abbreviated, 
and they are severally indicated, as follows : 



No. 50. No. 51. No. 52. No. 53 








No. 54. No. 55- No. 56- 

Two METALS. 

TITLES. ABBREVIATIONS. 

1. Gold Or Or. ... 

2. Silver Argent Arg. ... 



SYMBOLISATION. 

,. No. 50. 
. No. 51. 



TINCTURES FURS. 



1. Blue 

2. Red 

3. Black 

4. Green 



FIVE COLOURS. 

TITLES. ABBREVIATIONS. SYMBOLISATION. 

Azure Az No. 52. 

Gules Gu No. 53. 

Sable Sa No. 54. 

Vert Vert No. 55. 



Purple Purpure ... Purp No. 56. 

(In French Heraldry, Green is Sinople.) 






No 59 




No. 63. No. 64. No. 65. 

EIGHT FURS (not abbreviated). 

TITLES. 

1 . Ermine, black spots on white No. 57. 

2. Ermines, white spots on black No. 58. 

3. Erminois, black spots on gold No. 59. 

4. Pean, gold spots on black No. 60. 

5. Vair Nos. 61, 62. 

6. Counter Vair No. 63. 

7. Potent No. 64. 

8. Counter Potent No. 65. 




42 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Two other Colours, or tints of Colour, sometimes used, 
are no longer retained in English Heraldry Tenne, a tawny 
or orange colour, indicated by vertical lines crossing those 
of Purpure: and Murrey or Sanguine, a 
dark crimson red, indicated by diagonal 
lines from both dexter and sinister, crossing 
each other. The Furs, Nos. 58, 59, 60, 
63, 64, and 65, are of comparatively rare 
occurrence, and do not appear in the best 
NO. 57^. ages of Heraldry. Vair and Ermine are 

common. A good early form of Vair is shown in No. 62 : 
and in No. 5 7 A, I give a fine example of the treatment 
of Ermine, from the monument of EDWARD III. 

In blazon the Metals always take precedence of the 
Colours, unless the contrary be specified. In order to avoid 
repeating or referring to the word " Or" the word " Gold" 
is sometimes used. The Furs, Nos. 61, 62, 63, 64, and 65, 
are always argent and azure, unless some other metal and 
colour be named in the blazoning. Animated beings, and 
all objects that in Heraldry are represented in their natural 
aspect and colouring, are blazoned "proper" abbreviated 
ppr. Heraldic charges and compositions, when sketched in 
outline with pen and ink or with pencil, are said to be 
" tricked" or " in trick" 

VARIED FIELDS. It is not necessary that the Field of 
a Shield, or of any Bearing, should be of any one uniform 
tincture : but varied surfaces are always tinctured of some 
one metal and some one colour alternating ; and the patterns 
or devices thus produced are generally derived (the Furs, 
Nos. 6 1 65, which are good examples of varied surfaces, 
being the exceptions) from the forms of the original simple 
charges that are distinguished as Ordinaries and Subordt- 
naries. And these varied surfaces or fields are always 
flat; the whole of their devices or patterns are level, their 



VARIED FIELDS TINCTURES. 43 

metal and colour lying in the same plane. It is evident 
that, in representing any examples of this class, no shading 
is to be introduced to denote relief. 

Should the field of any charge be divided into a single 
row of small squares, alternately of a metal and a colour, 
as No. 66, it is Componee or Company (sometimes written 



PI 



No. 66. No. 67. 

gobony) : if into two such rows, as in No. 67, it is Count er- 
Compony : but, if the field of a Shield, or the surface of any 
charge be divided into three, or more than three, such rows, 
it is Chequee or Cheeky; thus, the Arms of the Earl de 
WARENNE are Chequee or and az., No. 68 (H. 3 and E. 2). 

THE LAW OF TINCTURES. Every charge is supposed to 
rest upon the field of a Shield, or on the surface of some 
charge which supports it. It is a strict law, that a charge of 
a metal must rest upon a field that is of a colour ; or, con 
trariwise, that a charge of a colour must rest on a field that 
is of a metal, that is, that metal be not on metal, nor coloicr on 
colour. This rule is modified in the case of varied fields, 
upon which may be charged a bearing of either a metal or 
a colour : also, a partial relaxation of the rule is conceded 
when one bearing is charged upon another, should the con 
ditions of any particular case require such a concession. 
This rule is not so rigidly enforced in Foreign Heraldry : but, 
in the Heraldry of England, the solitary intentional violation 
of it is the silver armorial Shield of the CRUSADER KINGS 
of JERUSALEM, No. 69, upon which five golden crosses are 
charged ; the motive in this remarkable exception to an 
established rule being to cause this Shield to be unlike 
that of any other potentate. What may be termed the 
accessories of a charge are not included in this law of 



44 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

tinctures : thus, a silver lion having a red tongue may be 
charged on a blue shield, and the red tongue may rest on 
the blue field of the Shield. 

COUNTERCHANGING is dividing the field of a Shield in 
such a manner that it is in part of a metal and in part of a 
colour, and then arranging the charges in such a manner 
that they shall be reciprocally of the same colour and metal : 





No. 69. No. 70. 

Arms of Jerusalem. Arms of Fenwick. 

thus, the shield of John Fenwick, No. 70 (R. 2) is, /^r 
fesse gu. and arg.,six martlets, three, two, one, counterchangcd ; 
that is, the field is red in chief and silver in base, and the 
birds or parts of the birds on the red field are silver, and 
those on the silver field are red. 

DIAPERING. This term denotes a system of decorating 
plain surfaces in various ways, which was in great favour 
with the early heraldic artists. In the use of Diaper, which 
is always desirable, care must be taken that the decorative 
designs and patterns do not in any way admit of their being 
mistaken for charges. This diaper may be executed in 
low relief, subordinated to the relief of the charges ; and it 
is not required to yield any obedience to the law of tinctures. 
In the Shield, No. 68 (the original, a very noble shield, is 
at Castle Acre Priory, Norfolk), which is simply chequee, the 
Diapering may be alternately azure and or on the squares 
that are alternately or and azure ; or the Diaper may be 
dark blue, or sable, or argent on the azure squares, and on 
the golden ones whatever the artist might consider would be 



DIAPERING BLAZONING. 



45 



most effective ; but the Diaper, in this and in all other 
examples, must always be subordinate to the area and 
tincture of the field. The finest known early example of 
heraldic Diaper in enamel, is the Shield of WILLIAM DE 




No. 68. 
Shield of Arms of Earl de Warrenne, Castle Acre Priory, Norfolk. 

VALENCE, Earl of PEMBROKE, in Westminster Abbey, A.D. 
1296. Very beautiful early examples of Diapering have 
been preserved in relics of heraldic stained glass. 

DISPOSITION: BLAZONING. By Disposition is understood 
the placing and arranging of charges. A single important 
charge, which has not a fixed position of its own, is placed 
in the centre of any composition : and minor charges are 
arranged in their most natural and consistent order and 
positions, any deviation from which must be specified. A 
single charge, many times repeated, and small in size, 
whether with or without any special orderly disposition, is 
said to be Semee strewn, that is, or scattered over the field, 
as seed is sown by the hand; or, if the charges are very 
small or very numerous, the term poudree or powdered may 
be used. The expression " three, two, one" signifies that 
a charge is repeated six times, the Disposition being three 
in a horizontal row towards the chief of the Shield, then 



4 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

two in a similar row in the centre, and one in base. In the 
same manner, the expressions "four, four, one" "four, 
three, two, one" " three and one" &c., are used as occasion 
may require. For other dispositions of charges other 
appropriate terms will present themselves to our notice, 
growing out of our subject as it advances. 

Should a Tincture or a Number occur a second time in 
blazoning a single composition, it must be indicated, not by 
repeating the word already used, but by reference to it. 
Thus, if the tincture of the field should occur a second time, 
reference is made to it in the formula " of the field:" or, if 
the tincture that is named second in order in the blazoning 
be repeated, it is indicated by the expression " of the 
second;" and so on. Again : should there be three fleurs 
de lys and also three crescents in one and the same compo 
sition, having specified the " three fleurs de lys," the number 
of the crescents would be set forth in the words " as many 
crescents :" and so, in like manner, with any other numbers 
of these or of any other charges. 

In descriptive Blazoning, Epithets, which follow their 
own Nouns, precede the Tinctures that are associated with 
those nouns : thus, a black rampant lion having golden 
claws is blazoned, a lion rampt. sa., armed or. In written 
and printed blazoning, the arrangement of the words and 
the placing the stops are alike matters of supreme import 
ance. The sentences are to be short. A comma is to 
mark the end of each complete minor clause or division of 
a sentence : a colon, each more important clause. A point 
or period is to follow every abbreviated word, to mark the 
fact of the abbreviation, but without affecting the additional 
presence of a comma (as in the blazoning, " a lion rampant 
sa.") or of a colon, as the case may be; but a second 
period is unnecessary. It is a very common error to over 
load heraldic blazoning with commas which, instead of 



BLAZONING IN TINCTURES. 47 

aiding to simplify the sentences, obscure the meaning and 
perplex the reader. It is always correct to write " three 
lion s heads" " six pilgrim s staves" &c. : and always in 
correct to write " three lions 1 heads" " six pilgrims staves" 
&c. It appears desirable to print Blazoning in Italic type ; 
but, as a general rule, not to print particular words in that 
type ; and, where space will permit, Proper Names may be 
advantageously displayed in capitals. 

BLAZONING IN TINCTURES. On this head I must be 
content to offer to students only a few brief practical obser 
vations. The metal Gold may be rendered with gold pre 
pared in small saucers, or (most advantageously) in minute 
slabs ; this preparation is applied, like a common water- 
colour, by moistening the gold with water ; and it is 
desirable previously to have washed the paper, card (or 
vellum) with diluted white of egg. Gold leaf may also be 
used, but the process is tedious, and requires both skill and 
experience to ensure complete success. Yellow paint, 
again, may be used to represent the metal, the best colours 
being cadmium yellow, or " aureolin " (Winsor and Newton) 
mixed with Chinese white. For shading, carmine, or crimson 
lake, mixed with gum. For Silver, aluminium may be used 
with excellent effect ; or Chinese white; or the paper may 
be left white : for shading, grey (blue and Indian ink mixed) 
and gum. The Aluminium is prepared, like the gold, in 
minute slabs : it may be obtained, of great excellence, from 
Lechertier, Barbe, and Co., the Quadrant, Regent Street, W., 
by whom also a very pure preparation of gold is sold : I 
can also strongly recommend both the gold and the 
aluminium slabs that are sold by Messrs. Robinson, 99, 
Long Acre, W. These Metals may be diapered, as well as 
burnished, with an agate-burnisher. 

For Azure: French blue, freely mixed with Chinese 
white and a very little gum, the colour to be laid on thick : 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

shade with Prussian blue mixed with a larger proportion of 
gum. For Gules : Orange vermilion either pure, or mixed 
with a very little cadmium yellow or Chinese white, and still 
less gum : (never use a brilliant but most treacherous pre 
paration known as " pure scarlet :") shade with carmine or 
crimson lake, and gum. For Vert: emerald green, with 
Chinese white and a little gum: shade with dark green, 
made from mixing aureolin (or gamboge) with Prussian blue 
and gum. For Purpure : mix carmine and French blue, 
with a little gum : shade with a darker tint of the same. 
For Sable: Very dark grey, made by mixing a little 
Chinese white and gum with black : shade with black and 
more gum. Outlines to be drawn with a fine steel-pen and 
" Indelible Brown Ink," sold in small bottles (Robertson s, 
or Winsor and Newton s). " Proufs Brown " is best when 
a deeper hue of brown is required in shading, but it is not 
suitable for outlines. 

When the Metals are rendered by gold and aluminium, 
it is desirable that these tinctures should be applied, and 
that the diapering and burnishing of the Metals should also 
be completed with the burnisher, before the adjoining 
colours are laid on. The burnishing may be executed in 
two or three hours after the Metals have been applied to 
the paper ; and the paper should be placed upon a piece of 
glass during the processes of burnishing and diapering. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY. 

SECTION III. 

The Ordinaries: The Chief; Fesse ; Bar; Pale; Cross, its heraldic 
varieties ; Bend ; Sallire ; Chevron ; and Pile. 



" Marks of hereditary Honour, given or authorised by some supreme Power." 

SCIENCE OF HERALDRY. 



THE ORDINARIES. These simple Charges of early Heraldry, 
which always have been held in the highest esteem, are nine 
in number : The Chief, the Fesse, the Bar, the Pale, the 
Cross, the Bend, the Saltire, the Chevron, and the Pile. 
They may be considered to have been derived from various 
means that were adopted to strengthen Shields for use in 
combat, the Cross always having a definite symbolism of its 
own. These Ordinaries may be formed by any of the 
Border Lines, No. 38. Occasionally they are borne alone ; 
but more generally they are associated with other bearings, 
or they have various figures and devices charged upon 
themselves. In some cases, presently to be specified, more 
than one Ordinary may appear in a single composition. 
The Chief, the Bar, the Pale, the Bend, and the Chevron 
have Diminutives. The Cross has many Varieties. 

The CHIEF (H. 3), bounded by a horizontal line, con 
tains the uppermost third (or somewhat less than the third) 

E 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



of the field of a Shield, as in No. 71. The Shield of LE 
BOTILER, No. 72, is Or, a chief indented az. (H. 3). A 





No. 71. 



No. 72. Le Botiler. 



Chief may be borne with any other Ordinary except the 
Fesse ; it may also be charged with any other figures or 
devices : thus, for Sire BERNARD DE BRUS, No. 73, Az., 
a chief and a saltire or : for Sire JOHAN DE CLINTONE, 
No. 74, Arg.j on a chief az. two fleurs delysor: and for Sire 
JOHAN DE CLINTONE de Madestoke, No. 75, Arg., on a 






No. 73. De Brus. 



No. 74, No. 75. De Clintone. 



chief az. two mullets or (all E. 2). The Fillet is the Diminu 
tive of the Chief, the lowermost fourth of which it always 
occupies. When any charge is set in the uppermost third 
of a Shield, or when several charges are disposed hori 
zontally across the uppermost part of a Shield, they all 
are said to be " in Chief" 

The FESSE (H. 3), which crosses the centre of a Shield 
horizontally, when charged occupies about one-third (or 
rather less than one-third) of the field ; but when without 
charges, it is narrower. The Shield of Lord CLIFFORD 
bears, Cheques or and az., afesse gu., No. 76. For ROBT. LE 
FITZ-WATER, Or, a fcsse between two chevrons %u.: for 



THE FESSE THE BAR. 



JOHN DE PATESHULLE, No. 77, Arg., a fesse sa., between 
three crescents gu. (all H. 3) : for WILLIAM LE VAVASOUR, 
No. 78, Or, a fesse dancette sa.: for DE HEMENHALE, 






No. 76 -De Clifford. No. 77. De Pateshulle. No. 78. Le Vavasour. 

No. 79, Or, on a fesse between two chevrons gu., three 
escallops arg. : and for DE DAGEWORTHE, No. 80, Erm., 





No. 79. De Hemenhale. No. 80. De Dageworthe. 

a fesse gu. bezantee (all E. 2). When they are disposed 
horizontally across the centre of a Shield, Charges are " in 
fesse? 

The BAR (H. 3), which may be placed horizontally in 
any part of the field except in fesse or at the chief of the 
Shield, is about one-fifth of the field (or sometimes less) in 




No. 81. De Harecourt. No. 82. Wake. 

depth. A single bar very rarely occurs in blazon. Ex 
amples : Or, two bars gu., for DE HARECOURT, No. 81: 

E 2 



52 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Az., two bars daticettee or, for DE RIVERES : Or, two bars 
gu., in chief three torteaux, for WAKE, No. 82. The Dimi 
nutives of the Bar are the Closet and the Barrulet, severally 
one-half and one-fourth of its width. When they are dis 
posed in couples, Barrulets are Bars Gemelles : thus, No. 
83, for DE HUNTERCUMBE, farm., two bars gemelles gu. 
(H. 3). A Fesse or Bar, when placed between two barrulets, 
is said to be cotised by them; or, to be "doubly cotised," 






No. 83. De Huntercumbe. No. 84. De la Mere. 

\\hen placed between two bars gemelles : thus, for DE LA 
MERE, No. 84, Or, a fesse doubly cotised (or, between two 
bars gemelles} az. (E. 2). An even number of bars alter 
nately of a metal (or a fur) and a colour form the varied 
field which is to be blazoned " barry? the number of the 
bars in every case to be specified as, " barry of six" 
" barry of eight" &c. If the number of bars exceeds ten 
(some writers say eight), it is "barrulee" or " barmly ;" 
and in this case it is not necessary that the number of the 
bars should be specified, the word barrulee being used 
alone, or the expression " barrulee sans nombre? to denote a 
considerable number, but not a fixed number of bars the 
number, however, always to be even. It is to be observed 
that while the bars, whatever their number, if they are 
blazoned as bars, are to be treated as if they were executed 
in relief upon the field of a Shield; a Shield that is barrule e 
has its field formed by bars which are all in the same 
plane. Examples : Barry of six or and gu., for FITZ 



THE PALE. 



53 



ALAN of Bedale, No. 85 : Barry of six arg. and az., for DE 
GREY : Barry of eight or and az., for DE PENBRUGGE (all 
H. 3) : Barrulee arg. and az., an orle of martlets gu., for 
DE VALENCE, Earl of PEMBROKE, No. 86 ; in this example 



-v-%- 



ns: 





No. 85 Fitzalan of Bedale. 



No. 86. De Valence. 



ten bars are represented, but in the noble enamelled shield 
of the first De Valence (A.D. 1296) preserved in West 
minster Abbey, the bars are twenty-eight in number. 
Charges, not " in fesse " or " in chief," that are disposed 
horizontally across the field are " bar-wise? 

The PALE. Like the Fesse, this Ordinary occupies 
rather less than a central third of the field, but it is vertical 
in its position instead of horizontal. No. 87, for ERSKINE, 
is Arg., a pale sa. This Ordinary is not common in 




No. 87 Ersldne. No. 88. Grandison, 

blazon. Its Diminutives, the Pallet and the Endorse, 
severally one-half and one-fourth of its width, may be 
placed vertically in any part of the field. A Pale between 
two Endorses is "endorsed" An even number of Pallets of 



54 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



a metal (or a fur) and a colour set alternately, form the 
varied field to be blazoned "paly? the number of the 
Pallets (which lie all in the same plane) always to be 
specified : thus Paly of six arg. and az., on a bend gu. 
three eaglets displayed or, for GRANDISON, No. 88 (H. 3). 
Charges that are disposed one above another vertically are 
" in pale." This is the arrangement of the three golden 
lions of England. 

The CROSS (H. 3), formed from a combination of a Fesse 
with a Pale, in its simplest form is set erect in the centre of 
the field, and it extends to the border-lines of the Shield. 
If at any time it may be necessary or apparently desirable 
specially to set forth in the blazoning of a Shield, that a 
Cross charged upon it does thus extend to the border-lines, 
such a Cross is blazoned as a " Cross through? No. i, 
Arg., a Cross gu., the armorial ensign of ST. GEORGE, the 
special Patron Saint of England, may be blazoned as "A 
Cross of St. George? Of this Cross, the great symbol 
of the Christian Faith, Spenser says 

"And on his brest a bloodie Cross he bore, 
The deare remembrance of his dying Lord .... 
Upon his Shield the like was also scored." 

FAERIE QUEEN I. i. 2. 

A Cross having a narrow border lying in the same plane 





No. 89 Cross fimbriated. No 90. Cross pointed. 



with itself, is " fimbriated," such a border being a "fimbria- 
tion :" thus, No. 89, Az., a cross git., fimbriated arg., repre- 



THE CROSS. 55 

sents the Cross of St. George in our National " Union Jack." 
A Cross having its four extremities cut off square, so that it 
does not extend in any direction to the border-lines of the 
shield, is " couped" or " humettee" If the extremities of a 
Cross are cut off to points, it is "pointed," as in No. 90. 
If its central area is entirely removed, so that but little more 
than its outlines remain, it is " voided" or (H. 3) " a false 
Cross " (" faux crois ") : when its four limbs are equal in 
length, it is a " Greek Cross" as No. 91 : when the limbs 
are unequal, the lower limb or shaft 
being longer than the other three, 
as in No. 92, it is a "Latin Cross:" t __ IL^ 
if it be formed of a shaft and two |( 
horizontal limbs only (like the No - 9 1 - No -9 2 - NO. 93. 
letter T), as in No. 93, it is a " Tan Cross:" if a small 
square is pierced at the intersection of the limbs, it is 
"quarter-pierced:" but, it is "quarterly-pierced" if the 
entire central area be voided. A Latin Cross on steps, is 
" on Degrees" and it is distinguished as a " Calvary Cross." 
Charges having a cruciform arrangement are " in Cross" 

The CROSS : its HERALDIC VARIETIES. The Cross- 
symbol appears in English Heraldry under several varieties 
and modifications of form and condition, some of them of 






No. 94. No 95. 

Quadrate. Patriarchal. 




great beauty. The following engraved representations of 
the various examples are so explicit, that descriptions of 
them are unnecessary. The Cross Quadrate, No. 94. The 
Cross Patriarchal, No. 95. The Cross Fourchee, No. 96. 



56 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

The Cross Moline, represented charged upon the Shield 
attributed to the SAXON KINGS of ENGLAND, No. 23 : this 
same shield Az., a Cross moline or, is borne by DE 
MOLINES or MOLYNEUX, No. 97. The Cross Cercelee or 






No. 97. Cross Moline : No. 98. Cross Recercelc e ; No 99. - Cross Patonce : 
Arms of De Molines. Arms of Bishop Anthony Bee. Arms of William de Vesci. 

Recercelee (H. 3), Gu., a Cross recercelee erm., No. 98, for 
ANTHONY EEC, Bishop of DURHAM. The Cross Patonce 
(H. 3), Gu., a Cross patonce arg., No. 99, from the Seal of 
WM. DE VESCI, A.D. 1220. The Cross Fleurie^Q. 100 : 
this should be compared carefully with Nos. 97 and 99, 
the Crosses Moline and Patonce. The Cross Fleurettee, 






No. 101. The Cross Pomm ee, No. 102. The Cross 
Botome or Treflee, No. 103. The Cross Cross let, or Crosslet 
crossed, No. 104. The term "Crosslet" is strictly applicable 
to any Cross on a very small scale : but it is usually applied 
to denote a Cross that is crossed as in No. 104. Small 
Crosses Botone e are occasionally used as these " Crosses- 
Crosslets," as at Warwick in the arms of the BEAUCHAMPS, 



THE CROSS. 



57 



the Earls of WARWICK. Crosslets are frequently blazoned 
semee over the field of a Shield ; and, in smaller numbers, 




No. 103. 
Botonee. 








No. 105. 
Clechee. 



they also are favourite Charges. No. 105 is the Cross 
Clechee or Urdee. 

The Cross Patee or Formee is represented in No. 106. 
No. 107 is the " Cross of eight Points? or the Maltese Cross : 
this example is drawn from the portrait of PHILLIPPE DE 
VILLIERS DE L ISLE-ADAM, elected forty-third Grand Master 
of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, A.D. 1521 ; this 






No. 109. 
Avellane. 





No. 107. 
Maltese. 



No. no. 
Botonee Fitche e. 



picture is in the possession of the Earl of Clarendon, K.G. 
The Cross Potent, No. 108. The Cross Avellane, No. 109. 
The Crossed- Crosslet, and the Crosses Patee, Botonee, and 
Potent, are also drawn having their shaft elongated and 



58 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

pointed at tJie base : in this form they are severally blazoned 
as a " Crossed-Crosslet Fitchee? a " Cross Patee Fitchee? &c., 
a Cross, that is, " fixable" in the ground: No. no is an 
example of a Cross Botonee Fitchee. Several of these 
varieties of the heraldic Cross occur but rarely ; and there 
are other somewhat fanciful varieties so little in use, as to 
render any description of them unnecessary. The student 
of mediaeval monumental antiquities will not fail to observe 
a certain degree of resemblance between some of the 
Crosses of Heraldry, and those that are incised and 
sculptured on sepulchral slabs. 

The BEND (H. 3) resembles both the Fesse and the 
Pale in every condition, except that it crosses the field 
diagonally from the dexter chief to the sinister base. No. 
in, the Shield of SCROPE, is Az. t a bend or: a celebrated 
contest for the right to bear this simple Shield took place, 
A.D. 1385 1390, between Sir RICHARD LE SCROPE and Sir 
ROBERT GROSVENOR, which was decided in favour of the 
former. No. 112, for RADCLYFFE, is Arg., a bend engrailed 






No. ii2. De Radclyffe. No. in.- Le Scrope. No 113.- Le Boteler. 

sa. Two uncharged Bends may appear in one composition : 
thus, for LE BOTELER Arg., two bends az., No. 113; and 
for FRERE Gu., two bends or (both H. 3). The Di 
minutives of the Bend are the Bendlet and the Cotise, the 
one containing one-half and the other one-fourth of its area. 
A Cotise is sometimes borne couped at its extremities, when 
it is a Riband, A Bend between two Cotises is cotised: 



THE BEND. 



59 



thus, No. 114, for DE BOHUN, Az., a Bend arg., cotised or, 
between six lioncels rampt. gold ; this Shield is engraved 
from the Seal of HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, fourth Earl of 
HEREFORD (A.D. 1298 1322); in it the cotised Bend is 
very narrow, evidently to give more space for the lioncels. 
Charges displayed on a Bend slope with it that is, they 
would be erect, were the Bend to be set vertically and to 
become a Pale : thus, another DE BOHUN, Sir Gilbert, 
(H. 3), distinguishes his Shield by tincturing his Bend or, 




No. 114. 
Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford. 



No. 115. 
Sir Gilbert de Bohun. 



and charging upon it three escallops gules, as in No. 115. 
In No. 88, the eaglets also exemplify the disposition of 
charges upon a Bend. Charges set diagonally on the field 
of a Shield, or " in bend" are arranged in the same manner. 
A field divided into an even number of parts by lines drawn 
bendwise, is " bendy? the number of the divisions to be 
specified : as a matter of course, a field thus " bendy " 
becomes a " varied field," in which all the divisions lie in 
the same plane : thus, No. 116, for DE MONTFORD (H. 3 
and E. 2) Bendy of ten or and az. Bendlets are in relief, 



60 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

as in No. 117, for DE BRAY Vairee, three Bendlets gu. If a 





No. 116. De Montford. 



No. 117. De Bray. 



field be divided by lines drawn bendwise, and also by 
others drawn either vertically or horizontally, it is "paly 



\\ 
NX 

No. 118. Paly Bendy. 



y\\ \\\\\l 
\\ \\\\\, 
\\\ \ \ \ 

\\\ \ v\v 

\\\\\\\ 

v\\\\x 



No. 119. Barry Bendy. 



bendy" as No. 118, or " barry bendy as No. 119. A Bend 
issuing from the sinister chief is a Bend Sinister. 

The SALTIRE (H. 3), a combination of a Bend with a 
Bend Sinister, may also be regarded as a Diagonal Cross. 
Thus, the Crosses of St. ANDREW of SCOTLAND, and of St. 






No. 120. St. Andrew. No. 122. De Neville. No. 121. De Neville. 



PATRICK of IRELAND are Saltires the former, No. 120 
Az., a Salt ire arg.: the latter Arg., a Salt ire gu. The 



THE CHEVRON. 6 1 

arms of the great family of NEVILLE reverse those of St. 
PATRICK, and are GIL, a Saltire arg., No. 121: so Dray ton 
has recorded that 

" Upon his surcoat valiant NEVILLE bore 
A silver Saltire upon martial red." 

Barons War, \. 22. 

Charges set on a Saltire slope with its limbs, the central 
charge being erect ; and the disposition of charges set " in 
saltire " is the same : a single charge set on a Saltire is 
blazoned erect on the central point of the Ordinary, as in 
No. 122, another Shield of NEVILLE, in which the "Silver 
Saltire " is charged with a rose gules. A Saltire may be 
borne with a Chief, as in No. 73. 

The CHEVRON (H. 3), in form and proportions is rather 
more than the lower half of a Saltire. The Diminutive is a 
Chevronel, containing half a Chevron, or perhaps less : thus, 
for DE STAFFORD, (E. 2), Or, a Chevron gu., No. 123 : for 





No. 123. De Stafford. No. 124. Shield of De Clare. 

the great family of DE CLARE, from whom so many other 
families derived their Chevrons and Chevronels Gu., three 
Chevronels or, No. 124 (H. 3). Two Chevrons may be 
borne in one composition : or they may appear with a 
Fesse, as in No. 79: or with a Chief, as (H. 3), for DE 
C ROM BE Erm., a Chevron gu., and on a Chief of the last 
three escallops or; for ST. QUINTIN (H. 3) Or, three 
Chevronels gu., a Chief vair. A field Chevronee is of rare 



62 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



occurrence : the three Chevronels of DE CLARE, however, 
No. 124, appear to have been derived from a field Chevrome: 
certainly, on his seal, "Strongbow" has the Chevrone e 
Shield, No. I24A, about A.D. 1175. Charges set on a 
Chevron, or disposed " in Chevron" are placed in the same 





No. I24A. Early Shield of De Clare. 



No. 125. 



manner as those on a Saltire or "in Saltire :" thus, for Sir 
ROGER PEYVRE (E. 2) Arg., on a Chevron az., three fleurs 
delys or, No. 125. 

The PILE (H. 3), resembling a wedge in form, is borne 
both single and in small groups. Unless some other dis 
position on the field be specified, this Ordinary issues from 
the chief of the Shield. Examples: Or, a Pile gu., between 
six and charged with three estoiles (or mullets] coimter- 




No. 126. De Chandos. No 127. De Brian No. 128. De Bassett. 

changed, for ROBERT DE CHANDOS, No. 126: Or, three 
Piles az,, No. 127 for Sir GUY DE BRIAN; Or, three 



THE PILE. 63 

Piles gu., a canton erm., No. 128, for DE BASSETT (all 
H. 3) : and (E. 2), Arg., a Pile engrailed sa. for Sir ROB. 
DE FORNEUS. 

The probable structural origin of these Ordinaries is 
sufficiently apparent to render any further comment on that 
interesting circumstance superfluous. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY. 

SECTION IV. 

The Subordinarics : The Canton or Quarter : The Inescutcheon : The 
Orle: The Tress^lre: The Bordure: Planches: The Lozenge, 
Mascle, and Rtistre: The Fusil: The Billet : The Gyron : The 
Frette. The Roimdles. 



" The second in a line of stars." IDYLLS OF THE KING. 



THE SUBORDINARIES. This title has been assigned, but 
without any decisive authority, to another group of devices, 
second in rank to the Ordinaries. These Subordinaries are 
the Canton or Quarter, the Inescutcheon, the Orle, the Tres- 
sure, the Bordure, Planches, the Lozenge, Mascle and Rustre, 
the Fusil, the Billet, the Gyron, and the Frette. The Can 
ton, by the early Heralds commonly styled the " Quarter," 
sometimes has been grouped with the Ordinaries. And it 
must here be observed that the Lozenge, Fusil, Billet, 
Gyron, and Frette were not used as single charges by the 
early Heralds; but by them the fields of Shields were 
divided lozengy and gyronny, or they were scmee of Billets, 
or covered over with Frette-work, from which the single 
charges evidently were afterwards obtained. 

The CANTON (H. 3), sometimes blazoned as a QUAR 
TER, cut off by two lines, the one drawn in pale and the 
other bar-wise, or in fesse, is either the first quarter of 
the field of a Shield, or about three-fourths of that quarter, 
but smaller if not charged. A Canton ermine is of frequent 
occurrence, as in No. 128 : but it is generally borne charged, 



THE INESCUTCHEON. 



6:5 



and it always overlies the charges of the field of the Shield, 
as No. 129, for DE KYRKEBY (R. 2) Arg., two bars gu. ; on 





No. 129. De Kyrkeby. 



No. 130. Blundell. 



a canton of the last a cross moline or; and, for BLUNDELL 
(H. 3) Az., Ullettee, on a canton or a raven ppr., No. 130. 

The INESCUTCHEON (H. 3) is a Shield borne as a charge, 
and displayed " in pretence " upon another Shield larger 
than itself. When one Inescutcheon is borne, it is placed 
on the fesse-point; but several Inescutcheons may appear 
in one composition. The well-known Shield of the MOR- 






No. 132. Darcy. 



No. 131. De Mortimer. No. 133. De Wyllers. 



TIMERS supplies a good example, No. 131 (H. 3) Barry of 
six or and az., an inescutcheon arg. ; on a chief gold, gyroned 
of the second, two pallets of the same : for DARCY Arg. , an 
inescutcheon sa., within an orle of roses gn., No. 132 (E. 2): 
Arg., three inescutcheons gu., for DE WYLLERS (E. 2), 
No. 133. 

F 



66 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



The ORLE (H. 3), blazoned by early Heralds as a "false 
escutcheon " ("faux escocheon"\ or as an " inescutcheon voided" 
is the border of a Shield or Escutcheon 
a Shield, that is, voided of the central area 
of its field, and, like an Inescutcheon, 
charged on a Shield. The arms of BALLIOL, 
No. 134, are Gu., an Orle arg. (H. 3). 
These arms are blazoned on many Scottish 
Seals of the greatest interest, and on the 
Seals of Balliol College, Oxford. Small 
charges are frequently disposed about the border of a 
Shield " in Orle" as in Nos. 86 and 132. 

The TRESSURE (H. 3) may be regarded as a variety of 
the Orle ; indeed, in its simplest form it is a very narrow 
Orle, which is generally set round with fleurs de lys. A 
Tressure thus enriched is represented in No. 135 : in this 







No. 135- 
Single Tressure 
Flory. 



No. 137. 
Double Tressure 

flory counterflory. 



No. 136 
Tressure flory 
counterflory. 



example all the heads of the fleurs de lys point externally, 
and all their stalks internally, and this accordingly is 
blazoned as a "Tressure flory? In No. 136, which, like No. 
135, is a single Tressure, the fleurs de lys are so disposed 
that the heads and stalks of the flowers point alternately in 
contrary directions : this is blazoned as a " Tressure flory 
counterflory" From this last example the Tressure that is 
so well known in the blazonry of the Royal Shield of 



THE TRESSURE. 



SCOTLAND differs, in being " double" This, the double 
Tressure of Scotland, is a combination of two such single 
Tressures as No. 136, and it is produced from them in the 
manner following : From one such single Tressure, as No. 
136, all the alternate heads and stalks of the fleurs de lys 
that point internally are cut away and removed ; then a 
second similar Tressure, of rather smaller size, is denuded 
of all its external adornment, and in that condition it is 
placed within the former Tressure, leaving a narrow interval 
between the two. Each component half of this " double 
Tressure flory counterflory," accordingly, has its own in 
dependent series of demi-fleurs de lys, the stalks and heads 
of the flowers alternating, and the one alternate series 
pointing externally, while the other points internally. 
When in combination, these two series of demi-neurs de 
lys may be so arranged that the heads of the flowers in 
one series correspond with their stalks in the other, as in 
No. 137. I am thus particular in describing the process 
of producing the Royal Tressure, be 
cause it is frequently to be seen in 
correctly drawn. No. 138, the Royal 
Shield of SCOTLAND, now displayed in 
the second quarter of the Royal Arms 
of the UNITED KINGDOM, is thus bla 
zoned Or, within a double Tressure 
flory counterflory, a lion rampt. gu. It 
will be observed that a narrow strip 
of the golden eld of this Shield 
intervenes between the two Tressures. There are many 
fine examples of this Shield in Scottish Seals ; in the 
Garter-plate, also, of JAMES V. of Scotland, K.G., at 
Windsor ; and on the Monuments in Westminster Abbey 
to MARY Queen of SCOTS (A.D. 1604), and to the 
Countess of LENNOX, the mother of Lord DARN LEY (A.D. 

F 2 




No. 138. Scotland. 



68 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

1577). Mr. Seton ("Scottish Heraldry," p. 447) states that 
the Tressure may be borne " triple ;" and. after specifying 
the Scottish families upon whose Shields the same honour 
able bearing is blazoned, he adds : " In the coat of the 
Marquess of HUNTLEY, the Tressure is flowered with 
fleurs de lys within, , and adorned with crescents without ; 
while in that of the Earl of ABERDEEN it is flowered and 
counter-flowered with thistles and fleurs de lys alternately." 

The BORDURE (H. 3), as its name implies, forms a 
border to a Shield : it is borne both plain and charged. 
Thus, for DE WALTONE (E. 2) Arg., a cross patee sa., within 
a Bordure indented gu., No. 139 : for RICHARD, Earl of 



Q O Ql 





No. 139. De Waltone. No. 140. Richard, Earl of Cornwall. 

CORNWALL, second son of King JOHN (H. 3), Arg., within 
a Bordure sa. bezantee, a lion rampt. gu. crowned or, No. 140. 
The Bordure, and its important services in Heraldry, will 
be more fully considered hereafter. (See Chapters XII. 
and XIII.) 

FLANCHES are always borne in pairs ; but they are not 
of very early date, nor do they often appear in blazon. 
Ranches are formed by two curved lines issuing from the 
chief, one on each side of the Shield : they are shown, 
shaded for azure, in No. 141 ; and in No. 142 are their 
Diminutives, Flasques or Voiders, shaded for gules. There 
is a close resemblance between these charges and a peculiar 



THE LOZENGE. 



69 



dress worn by Ladies of rank in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries ; but it is not easy to determine whether the dress 





No. 141. Flanches. 



No. 142. Flasques. 



suggested the Flanches on the Shield, or was derived from 
them. One thing, however, is certain the dress must have 
possessed very decided good qualities, since it continued in 
favour for more than two centuries. It is remarkable that 
many of the ancient Greek Shields have pierced Flanches. 
The LOZENGE (E. 2), MASCLE (H. 3), and RUSTRE. 
The Lozenge is a diamond-shaped figure, or a square set 
diagonally. The Mascle is a Lozenge voided of the field, No. 
143 ; and the Rustre, No. 144, is a Lozenge pierced with a 
circular opening. In the early days of Heraldry the Lozenge 
and the Mascle were evidentlv held to be identical. The 




No. 143. Mascle. 





No. 144. Rustre. 



No. l45 ._D e Burgh, Earl of Kent. 

Shield of the famous HUBERT DE BURGH, Earl of KENT, 
in the early Rolls is blazoned as " masculee :" but his Seal 
proves it to have been, as in No. 145, lozengy vair and gu. 
The Lozenge, it will be remembered, is always set erect 
upon the field of a Shield. 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



The FUSIL is an elongated Lozenge. The Arms of MONT- 
ACUTE or MONTAGU (see No. 20) are Arg., three Fusils 
conjoined in fesse gu., No. 20A : the Arms of PERCY are 
Az., Jive fusils conjoined in fesse or. In early blazon, Fusils 
thus "conjoined in fesse" are commonly described as " a 





No. 2oA. Montacute. 



No. 146. Deincourt. 



Fesse engrailed" (the more appropriate term "indented" 
does not appear to have been introduced), the number of 
the points being specified. 

The BILLET (H. 3) is a small elongated rectangular figure. 
Thus, for DEINCOURT, No. 146 Az. t billettee, a fesse dancette 
or. The early Heralds blazoned a " Fesse Dancette " as 
simply a "Dancette" or " Danse" See also No. 130. 

The GYRON, a triangular figure, not known in English 
blazon as a separate charge, gives its title to the gyronny 
field, which is more commonly found in the Heraldry of 
the North than of the South. The field gyronny generally, 
and more particularly in Scotland, is 
divided into eight pieces : but the divisions 
are sometimes six, ten, twelve, or even six 
teen in number. A Roll of the time of 
HENRY III. has, for WARIN DE BASING- 
BORNE " Gerony d or et d azur." The 
Arms of CAMPBELL are Gyronny or and 
sa., No. 147. Here, where there are eight 
pieces or divisions, it is not necessary to specify the number ; 




No. 147. 
Campbell. 



THE FRETTE THE ROUNDLES. 71 

but if they were either more nor less than eight the blazon 
would "be gyronny of six, of ten, &c. From No. 147 it 
will be observed that in the series of gyronny divisions the 
tinctures commence in the lower triangular half of the first 
quarter of the Shield. 

The FRETTE, in more recent Heraldry, has generally 
superseded the original field fretty. This interlaced design, 
whether borne as a distinct figure, as No. 148, or repeated 






No. 148. A Frette. \v\//^ No I5 ~ Trellis Clouee. 

No. 149. De Etchingham. 

over the field of a Shield, as in No. 149, differs from a field 
lozengy or gyronny, in being a bearing charged upon the 
field of a Shield, and not a form of varied surface : No. 

149, for DE ECHINGHAM (E. 2), is Az., fretty arg. An 
early variety or modification of Frette is the Trellis or 
Treille, in which the pieces do not interlace, but all those 
in bend lie over all those in bend sinister, and they are 
fastened at the crossings with nails " douee," as in No. 

150. RICHARD DE TRUSSELL or TRESSELL (H. 3) bears 
Arg., a trellis gu., douee or. 

The ROUNDLES, or ROUNDLETS. These simple figures, 
in constant use in every age of Heraldry, are divided into 
two groups, which correspond with the division of the 
Tinctures into " Metals " and " Colours." 

The first group contains the two Roundles of the 
Metals, which are flat discs : i, The Bezant, or golden 
Roundle, No. 151, apparently has derived its name from 



y 2 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

the Byzantine coins that the Crusaders, when in the East, 
may sometimes have actually fixed upon their Shields for 
heraldic distinction. 2, The Silver Roundle, or Plate, is 
from the Spanish " Plata" silver. When Bezants or Plates 
appear in considerable numbers, the field on which they are 
charged is said to be " bezantee" or " plattee." See No. 140. 
The second group contains the five Roundles of the 
Colours, which are globular, and are to be shaded accord- 




No. 151. Bezant. No. 152. Torteau. No. 153. Fountain. 

ingly. The Torteau, No. 152, in the plural Torteaux, is 
gules : the Hurt is azure : the Pellet or Ogress is sable : the 
Pomme is vert : and the Golpe is purpure. These distinc 
tive titles, which are more calculated to perplex the student 
than to simplify his study, are of comparatively recent 
origin, the early Heralds having used the terms " Bezant" 
" Plate," and " Torteau" with the general designations 
"Roundle" and "Pellet? adding the tinctures. Examples : 
Az., bezantee, for WM. DE LA ZOUCHE : Or, on afessegu. 
three plates, for ROGER DE HUNTINGFIELD : Arg., ten tor- 
teaux, four, three, two, one, for ALEX. GIFFARD (all H. 3). 
See also Nos. 80, 82. 

A circular figure or Roundle that is barry wavy arg. 
and az., is blazoned as a "Fountain" No. 153. Examples: 
Arg., three fountains, for WELLES : Arg., a 
Chevron between three fountains, borne by a 
family named Sykes, an ancient term signifying a 
NO. i S4 . we u or f oun tain. An Annulet, or a plain ring 

Annulet. . - 

No. 154, was sometimes blazoned as a "false 
Roundle" a Roundle, that is, pierced, and having its 
central area removed. 




CHAFER VIII. 

THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY. 

SECTION V. 

Miscellaneous Charges : Human Beings Animals Birds Fish 

Reptiles and Insects Imaginary Beings Natiiral Objects 
Various Artificial Figures and Devices, Appropriate Descriptive 
Epithets. 

The Formes of pure celestiall bodies mixt with grosse terrestrials; earthly 
animals with watery ; sauage beasts with tame ; fowles of prey with home-bred ; 
these again with riuer fowles ; reptiles with things gressible ; aery insecta with 
earthly ; also things naturall with artificiall." 

GUILLIM S Display of Heraldry, A.D. 1611. 



THUS, in his own quaint fashion, the enthusiastic old 
Herald of the seventeenth century indicates the number 
and variety of the Charges, which in process of time had 
been introduced into Armory even before his era. In 
earlier days the Charges of Heraldry were much less varied, 
comparatively few in their numbers, and generally of a 
simple character. It will readily be understood, however, 
that fresh figures and devices would continually appear in 
blazon ; and also that these, in their turn, would lead the 
way for the introduction of further varieties and new 
modifications. 

Human Beings are of very rare occurrence, except as 
Supporters. Parts of the human frame occasionally appear, 
but they are more generally borne as Crests upon helms 
than as charges on shields. " Moor s heads " or " Saracen s 
heads " appear in some coats, with arms, hands and legs : 
and a human heart is well known as a charge in the coat of 
the famous house of DOUGLAS, where it was placed to com- 



74 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



memorate the duty entrusted by ROBERT BRUCE to the 
" good Sir JAMES DOUGLAS," that he should bear with him 
the heart of his Sovereign and friend to the Holy Land, 
and bury it there. Sir James fell, fighting with the Moors of 
Spain, A.D. 1330. This Shield of Douglas is a characteristic 
example of the gradual development of armorial com 
position. At first, the Douglas Shield appears with simply 
three silver stars upon a blue field. Then, about A.D. 1290, 
the Seal of WILLIAM, Lord DOUGLAS, displays his Shield, 
No. 155, bearing Arg., on a chief az. three mullets of the 
field. Next, upon the field of the Shield of WILLIAM, first 
Earl DOUGLAS, A.D. 1355, there appears, in addition, a 
human heart gules, as in No. 156. And, finally, after the 






No. 155- 



No. 150. 
Shields of Douglas 



No. 157. 



accession of JAMES I. of Great Britain, in 1603, the heart 
is ensigned with a royal crown, as in No. 157. 

The Shield of the ancient kingdom of the ISLE OF MAN, 
No. 158, still continues to be the heraldic ensign of that 
island: it is Gu., three human legs in 
armour ppr., conjoined in the fesse-point at 
the upper part of the thighs, and flexed in 
triangle. This true curiosity of Heraldry 
leads Mr. Planche to remark, that "the 
arms of MAN are legs" ("Pursuivant of 
Arms," p. 112). The Shield represented in 
No. 158 is drawn from an original ex 
ample of the age of EDWARD I. in the Heralds College. 




No. 158. 
Isle of Man. 



HUMAN BEINGS, AND FIGURES OF ANGELS. 



75 



At later periods, the armour of the conjoined limbs is repre 
sented in conformity with the usages then prevalent, and 
golden spurs are added. The ancient symbol of the island 
of Sicily, in which the limbs are without either armour or 
clothing, has been represented in No. 10 : this device also 
appears in ancient examples with a human head at the 
junction of the limbs. Three human arms, united in the 
same manner, are borne on the shield of the mediaeval 
family of TREMAINE. 

Human figures, winged and vested, and designed to 
represent ANGELS, are occasionally introduced in English 
Heraldry, their office generally being to act as "Supporters" 




No. 159. Shield of St Alban s Abbey (partly restored). 

to armorial Shields. Fine examples, in admirable preserva 
tion, may be seen boldly sculptured in the noble timber- 
roof of Westminster Hall ; also in panels over the principal 
entrance to the Hall, and in various parts of the Abbey of 
Westminster. In the grand Abbey Church of St. Alban at 
St. Alban s, numerous other examples of great excellence 
yet remain, the works of Abbot John de Wheathamstede, 
about A.D. 1440. In No. 159 I give a representation of 



76 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

the Shield of Arms of the Abbey of ST. ALBAN Az., a 
saltire or, supported by Angels, and the Shield ensigned by 
the Mitre of Abbot Thomas Dela Mere, as it is repre 
sented in his noble Brass in the Abbey Church. The 
Shield and the Angel Figures are the work of Abbot John. 
The Heads of the Figures, which are destroyed in the 
original, are restored from stained glass of the same period 
in the Abbey Church. Figures of Angels holding Shields 
of Arms each figure having a shield in front of its breast, 
are frequently sculptured as corbels in Gothic churches. 

In the earliest Rolls of Arms, the Lion is the only 
animal that is found in blazon, with the sole addition of 
Boar s heads. Deer, dogs, bulls, calves, rams, and a few 
other animals subsequently appear to share heraldic service 
and honours with the king of beasts. In modern Armory, 
however, almost every living creature has been required to 
discharge such duties as Heralds have been pleased to 
assign to them. The Lion of Heraldry I leave to be con 
sidered, with the Eagle, in the next Chapter. In compara 
tively early blazon, the Bear is borne by FITZ URSE : the 
Calf, by CALVELEY and DE VELE : the Ram, by RAMSEY 
and RAMRYGE : the Lamb, by LAMBERT and LAMBTON : 
the Otter (loutre, in French), by LUTTREL : the Hedgehog 
(Fr., herrison), by DE HERIZ, afterwards HARRIS : and so 
also, in like manner, some other animals appear as armes 
parlantes (See p. 15). 

With the lordly Eagle a few other Birds are associated 
in early Heraldry : and, after a while, others join them, 
including the Falcon, Ostrich, Swan, Peacock or Pawne, and 
the Pelican borne both as a symbol of sacred significance, 
and also by the PELHAMS from being allusive to their name. 
Cocks, with the same allusive motive, were borne by 
COCKAYNE : Parrots, blazoned as " Popinjays? appear as 
early as HENRY III. : and in a Roll of EDWARD II., the 



BIRDS FISH. 



77 



Sire MOUNPYNZON has a Lion charged on the shoulder with 
a Chaffinch in French a Pinson. The favourite bird, how 
ever, of the early Heralds is the Martlet, the heraldic 
Martin, a near relative of the Swallow or Hirondelle. The 
Martlet is always represented in profile, at rest, and with its 
wings closed. In some early examples the feet are shown, 
as in No. 160 : but, in the Shield of Earl WM. DE VALENCE 
in Westminster Abbey, A.D. 1296, the Martlet appears 



No. 161. Martlet. 




No. 160. Early Martlet. 



feetless, as in No. 161 ; and at a later period this mode of 
representation was generally adopted. French Heralds 
deprive their Martlets of feet as well as beak. 

" As the symbol of a name," writes Mr. Moule, " almost 
all Fish have been used in Heraldry ; and in many instances 
Fish have been assumed in Arms 
in reference to the produce of the A 
estate, giving to the quaint device 
a twofold interest." (" Heraldry of 
Fish," p. 13.) The earliest ex 
amples are the Barbel, the Dolphin, 
the Luce (or Pike), the Herring, and 
the Roach, with the Escallop-Shell. 
The Barbel, so named from the 
barbs attached to its mouth to 
assist it in its search for food, was 
introduced into English Heraldry 
by JOHN, Count DE BARRE, whose 
elder brother married ALIANORE, 

eldest daughter of EDWARD I. At Carlaverock he dis 
played, as the chronicler has recorded, " a blue banner, 




No. 162. 
Banner of De Barre. 



7o ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

crustily, with two Barbels of gold, and a red border en 
grailed," No. 162. The Dolphin, borne by GILES DE FISH- 
BOURNE (H. 3), and afterwards introduced into several 
English Shields, rs best known as the armorial ensign 
of the DAUPHIN, the eldest son and heir apparent of the 
Kings of France, who bore, marshalled with the arms of 
FRANCE Or, a Dolphin az. This title of "Dauphin" 
was first assumed by CHARLES V., who succeeded to the 
Crown of France in 1364. In No. 8 I have shown 
after what manner the Dolphin was represented by an 
ancient Greek Artist : in the Middle Ages the heraldic 
Dolphin appeared as in No. 163. GEFFREY DE LUCY 




No. 163. Dolphin. 



No. 165. Escallop. 



No. 164. De Lucy. 

(H. 3) bears Gu., three Lucies or. On his marriage with the 
heiress of ANTHONY, Lord LUCY, in 1369, HENRY, fourth 
Lord PERCY of Alnwick, quartered these three fish, with his 
own lion (blue on a golden field) and his fusils (gold on a 
blue field), upon the well-known Shield of the Earls of 
NORTHUMBERLAND (Chap. XL). Another Carlaverock 
Banneret, ROBERT DE SCALES, whom the chronicler de 
clares to have been both " handsome and amiable " as 
well as gallant in action, had " six escallops of silver on a 
red banner? This beautiful charge, happy in its associa 
tion with the pilgrims of the olden time, and always 



IMAGINARY BEINGS NATURAL OBJECTS. 79 

held in high esteem by Heralds, is generally drawn as 
in No. 165. 

Reptiles and Insects occur but rarely in English Heraldry. 
Bees, Flies, Butterflies, and Snails are sometimes found, but 
they have no place in the earliest Rolls of Arms. Bees, as 
might be expected, appear in the Arms of Heeston. Azure, 
three Butterflies, are the Arms of MUSCHAMP, and they are 
carved twice in the vaulting of the cloisters at Canterbury. 
Upon a monumental brass in the Church of Wheathamp- 
stead, in Hertfordshire, the Shield of HUGO BOSTOCK 
(about A.D. 1435) bears, Arg., three Bats, their wings dis 
played, sa. 

Imaginary and Fabulous Beings, some of them the crea 
tions of heraldic fancy when in a strangely eccentric mood, 
frequently appear as Supporters ; and, in some cases, they 
take a part in the blazonry of Shields, or they are borne 
independently as Badges. A very brief description (all 
that is necessary) of the greater number of these monsters of 
^natural history will be given in the " Glossary of heraldic 
terms," in Chapter X. ; consequently, it is enough here 
merely to refer to them as having a place in blazon. The 
Griffin or Gryphon, the most worthy of the group, is com 
paratively common. The Dragon and the Wivern or 
Wyvern, both of them winged monsters, differ in this 
respect, that the former has four legs, while the latter has 
two only. In early blazon this distinction is not always 
observed. The Cockatrice, always having two legs, is a 
Wyvern with a cock s head. 

Natural Objects of all kinds are blazoned as Charges of 
Heraldry, and they will be found described and illustrated 
in their proper places in Chapter X. They include the 
Sun, the Moon, the Stars ; also such terrestrial objects as 
Trees, Flowers, Fruits, Sheaves and Ears of Corn, Leaves, 
Chaplets, &c. And with these Charges I may group the 



So ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

always beautiful Fleurs de Lys, and the Trefoil, Quatrefoil, 
Cinquefoil, and Sixfoil. 

Of the various Artificial Figures and Devices that 
Heralds have charged upon Shields of Arms, it will be 
unnecessary for me to give detailed descriptions, except 
when either the heraldic name may require explanation, 
or some special circumstances connected with any par 
ticular figure or device may impart to it peculiar claims 
for attention. Again I refer to the " Glossary " for notices 
and examples of all Charges of this class Annulets, 
Buckles, Castles, Crowns, Cups, Horseshoes, Keys, Knots, 
Sickles, Stirrups, Trumpets, and many others. 

In blazoning Charges of various classes, Heralds employ 
appropriate Epithets and descriptive Terms, of which the 
following are characteristic examples : The Stin is " in 
glory" or "in splendour" or it is "eclipsed" The Moon, 
when full, is " in plenitude" or " in her complement :" she 
is a " Crescent" when she appears as in No. 166, A : she is 






A 

Crescent. 



"Increscent" or "in increment" when as in No. 166, B : and 
she is "Decrescent" or "in detriment" when as in No. 166, 
c. Animals and Birds of prey are said to be " armed " of 
their talons, teeth, and claws. All horned animals, also, 
except Stags, are "armed" of their horns; and a Cock is 
"armed" of his spurs. Animals are "hoofed" or " unguled" 
of their hoofs; and " langned" of their tongues. Fierce 
animals are " vorant " of their prey, when represented in 
the act of devouring it. Deer, when reposing, are " lodged" 
Nos. 25 and 26 : when standing, and looking out from the 



DEER BIRDS. 8 1 

Shield, No. 167, "of gaze:" when in easy motion, they are 
"tripping" No. 168 : and when in rapid motion, they are 





No. 167. At Gaze. No. 169. At Speed. 

"at speed? No. 169. The male Stag is a "Hart? and the 
female a "Hind: The antlers of the Hart are "Attires? 
their branches are " Tynes ;" and they are said to be 





No. 168. Tripping. No. 170. Stag s Head Cabossed. 

" attired" of their antlers. A Stag s head full-faced, as No. 
170, is " cabossed" 

Birds of prey with expanded wings are "displayed;" 
other birds are "disclosed" Expanded wings are "overt;" 
if elevated, but not expanded, wings are "erect;" if droop 
ing, they are " inverted" or " in lure" Birds about to take 
wing are " rising;" when in flight, they are " volant;" when 
flying aloft, " soaring;" when at rest, they are " closed " or 
"trussed" A Bird also "trusses" its prey. A Peacock 
having its tail expanded is " in its pride;" and this same 
expression is applicable to any other bird when in the same 
attitude. A Pelican, when feeding its young, is said to be 
" in its piety." A Swan, when blazoned "proper? is white 
with red legs and beak. 

G 



82 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Fish, represented swimming in fesse, are "naiant;" if 
they are in pale, their heads to the chief, they are " hau- 
riant" No. 164; but if their heads are to the base, "urinant:" 
if their bodies are bent, as the Dolphin is generally repre 
sented, they are " embowed" No. 163; and if with open 
mouth, "pame" Fish, also, are said to be "finned " of their 
fins, Insects are " volant" Reptiles are "gliding;" or, if 
they are twined into knots, " nowed" Trees of mature 
growth are " accrued;" when with leaves, " in foliage;" with 
fruit or seeds, "fructed" or "seeded;" if without leaves, 
"blasted;" and if their roots are exposed, "eradicated:" 
branches or leaves torn off are " slipped" 

The terms which denote the attitudes of Lions, all of 
them described in the next chapter, are equally applicable 
to other animals. Some other descriptive terms, not noticed 
here, will be found in the " Glossary " in Chapter X. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY. 

SECTION VI. 
The Lion and the Eagle in Heraldry. 



" The LION and a King of Beasts." SHAKESPEARE. Richard II. 
"The EAGLE, ennobled by Nature in as high a degree of nobility as the chiefest 
rrestnal animals, is the most honourable bearing of Birds." 

diti ffn 0f 1724. 



THE regal dignity of the LION amongst the creatures that 
are quadrupeds, like himself, would naturally secure for him 
a position of corresponding eminence in Heraldry. From 
the dawn of the heraldic era, accordingly, the Lion is 
blazoned on the Shields of Sovereigns, Princes, and Nobles. 
And, after a while, still retaining his original rank, the lordly 
beast also condescended to accept service with men not of 
noble, but of gentle birth. The tressured Lion has been 
already noticed upon the Royal Shield of SCOTLAND, No. 
138; and a crowned Lion has also appeared in the same 
attitude, borne by an English Prince, RICHARD, Earl of 
CORNWALL, No. 140. From the time that they first pos 
sessed any true armorial insignia, the Sovereigns of the 
Realm of ENGLAND have borne Lions upon their Royal 
Shield. A Lion was the Ensign of the Native Princes of 
WALES, as he was of the Kings of LEON, of NORWAY, and 
of DENMARK, and of the Counts of HOLLAND, HAINAULT, 
Eu, &c. And, in like manner, the Lion was in high favour 
with the most noble and powerful Barons of England the 



G 2 



84 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

BOHUNS, LONGESPEES, FlTZ-ALANS, LACIES, PERCIES, SEA- 
GRAVES, and such as they. 

It was a necessary consequence of his great popularity 
that the Lion of Heraldry should be blazoned in various 
attitudes, and also variously tinctured, otherwise it would 
not be possible duly to distinguish the Lions of different 
Shields. Heralds of all countries appear readily to have 
permitted their Lions to lay aside their natural tawny hue, 
and in its stead to assume the heraldic or, argent, azure, 
gules, and sable; but they were not generally disposed to 
recognise in their Lions any other attitude than the one 
which they held to be consistent with their Lion character, 
instincts, and habits erect, that is, with one hind paw only 
on the ground, looking forward towards their prey, so as to 
show but one eye, and evidently in the act of preparing to 
spring. This undoubtedly most characteristic attitude is 
rampant, No. 171: and only when he was in this rampant 
attitude did the early Heralds consider any Lion to be a 
Lion, and blazon him by his true name. A Lion walking 
and looking about him, the early Heralds held to be acting 
the part of a leopard : consequently, when he was in any 
such attitude, they blazoned him as "a leopard" The animal 
bearing that name bore it simply as an heraldic title, which 
distinguished a Lion in a particular attitude. These heraldic 
" leopards " were drawn in every respect as other heraldic 
"lions," without spots or any leopardz>/z distinction what 
ever. This explains the usage, retained till late in the four 
teenth century, which assigned to the Lions of the Royal 
Shield of England the name of " leopards." They were so 
called, not by the enemies of England for derision and 
insult, as some persons, in their ignorance of early Heraldry, 
have been pleased both to imagine and to assert ; but the 
English Kings and Princes, who well knew their " Lions " 
to be Lions, in blazon styled them " leopards," because 



THE LION IN HERALDRY. 



they also knew that Lions in the attitude of their " Lions " 
were heraldic " leopards." When at length the necessity of 
varying the attitude of their Lions was admitted by all 
Heralds, in consequence of the greatly increased numbers 
of the bearers of Lions, some strict adherents to the 
original distinctive nomenclature blazoned any Lion that 
was not rampant by the compound term of a " lion-leopard" 
or a " lion-feoparde" 

The following terms are now in use to denote the 
various attitudes of the Lion in Heraldry : 

Rampant: erect, one hind paw on the ground, the other 
three paws elevated, the a-nimal looking forward and having 






No. 171. 
Rampant. 



No. 176. 
Statant Guardant. 



No. 172. 
Rampant Guardant. 



his tail elevated, No. 171. Rampant Guardant: as before, 
but looking out from the Shield, No. 172. Rampant Re- 
guardant: as before, but looking backwards. 

Passant: walking, three paws on the ground, the dexter 
fore-paw being elevated, looking forward, the tail displayed 
over the back, No. 173. Passant Guardant: as before, but 






looking out from the Shield, No. 174. 
as before, but looking backwards. 



No. 174. 
Passant Guardant. 

Passant Reguardant 



86 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



Statant: standing, his four paws on the ground, and 
looking before him, his tail drooping behind him, No. 175. 
Statant Guardant : as before, but looking out from the 
Shield, No. 176 : in this example the Lion has his tail ex 
tended, but this would be specified in the blazon, since 
without such particular description this Lion s tail would be 
represented as in No. 175 ; in like manner, if the tail of a 
Lion in any other attitude be extended, there must be a 
statement to that effect. 

Sejant: at rest, his fore legs stretched on the ground 
but awake, and his head elevated, No. 177. Sejant Ram- 






No. 177. 
Sejant. 



No. 178. 
Sejant Rampant. 



No. 179. 
Couchant. 



pant: seated, his fore legs being erect, No. 178. If in 
either of these cases he looks out from the Shield, the word 
Gnardant is to be added. 

Couchant or Dormant : asleep, his head resting on his 
fore paws, No. 179. 

Salient: in the act to spring, the hind paws on the 
ground, both the fore paws elevated, No. 180. 






No. 181. 
Queue Fourchee. 



Queue fourchee : having a double tail, or two tails, as 
No. 1 8 1, which is a Lion rampant queue fourchee. 

Coward: passant reguardant, his tail between his legs, 



THE LION IN HERALDRY. 87 

and showing other signs of alarm ; his movement, indeed, 
is more rapid \han passant, No. 182. 

Two Lions rampant, when face to face, are Counter 
rampant, or Combattant : when back to back, they are 
Addorsed: when passant or salient in contrary directions, 
they are Counter passant or Counter salient. 

Lions, whatever their tincture, except it be red, or they 
are charged on a field of that tincture, are armed and langued 
gules; but azure in the case of either of these exceptions, 
unless the contrary be specified in the blazon. When 
several Lions appear in one composition, or when they are 
drawn to a comparatively very small scale, they are blazoned 
as " Lioncels." This term " Lioncel" it must be added, 
when used alone, denotes a small Lion rampant. 

A Lion s head is a Charge : it may be erased, as in No. 






No. 183. Lion s Head. No. 185. Lion s Jambe. No. 184. Lion s Face. 

183 ; or cut off smooth, when it is couped. A Lion s face 
also is a Charge, No. 184; so is \\isjambe vc paw, No. 185. 





No. 1 86. Demi-Lion Rampant. No. 187. England. 

A demi-lion rampant is the upper half of his body and the 
extremity of his tufted tail, as in No. 186. 



88 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



The LIONS OF ENGLAND are golden Lions leoparde, three 
in number, placed one above the other on a red Shield. 
They are blazoned Gu., three Lions pass, guard., in pale, 
or, No. 187. % 

A Lion in this attitude, of this tincture, and on a field 
gules, may be blazoned as a " Lion of England." These 
three Lions first appear upon the second Great Seal of 
RICHARD I., A.D. 1194, on the Shield of the King, No. 
1 88. An earlier Seal, used by Prince JOHN before his 
brother s accession, has a Shield charged with two Lions 
only, and they are passant, No. 189. The first Great Seal 






No. 188. No. 190. No. 189. 

Richard I. : 2nd Gt. Seal. Richard I. : ist Gt. Seal. Prince John: Seal. 

of the lion-hearted King has a Shield, bowed in its contour, 
and charged with a single Lion rampant facing to the 
sinister, or counter-rampant, No. 190; and it has been con 
jectured that, were the whole face of this Shield visible, a 
second Lion rampant facing to the dexter would appear, 
thus charging the Shield with two Lions combattant ; this, 
however, is a conjecture which is not supported by the 
authority of many Shields of the same form. A red Shield 
charged with two golden Lions passant guardant in pale (No. 
22), and therefore closely resembling No. 189, as I have 
already shown, has been assigned to WILLIAM I., and his 
two sons and his grandson, WILLIAM II., HENRY I., and 
STEPHEN. The Shield bearing the three Lions, No. 187, has 
been assigned to HENRY II., but it first makes its appear- 



THE LION IN HERALDRY. 



ance on the Great Seal of his son. This same Shield has 
continued, from the time of RICHARD L, to display the 
ROYAL ARMS of the REALM OF ENGLAND : how, in the 
course of ages, these Arms became grouped with other 
insignia, I shall presently have to show. 

The Lion passant is carefully distinguished in the earliest 
Rolls as a different Charge from the Lion passant guardant. 
Thus (H. 3), for HAMON LE STRANGE Gu., two Lions 
passant arg., No. 191; and for JOHN GIFFARD Gu., three 






No. 191. Le Strange. 



No. 192. Giffard. 



No. 193. Mowbray. 



Lions pass, arg., No. 192 : for Sir NICHOLAS CAREW (E. 2), 
Or, three Lions pass. sa. 

From the numerous early Shields which bear Lions ram 
pant, I select the following examples, associated with names 
illustrious in English History. For ROGER DE MOWBRAY 
(H. 3)- Gu., a Lion rampt. arg., No. 193 : this Coat is 
quartered by the present Duke of NORFOLK. For FITZ- 

ALAN, Earl of ARUNDEL 

Gu., a Lion rampt. or (H. 

3), No. 193. ForDsLACi, 

Earl of LINCOLN Or, a 

Lion rampt. purpure(. 2), 

No. 194. For Sir JOHN DE 

SEGRAVE (E. 2)Sa., a NO. i 9S . 

No. 194.- De Lacy. Um ram ^ ff ^ crowned De Segrave. 

or, No. 195, For PERCY, Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND Or, 





ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



a Lion rampt. az., No. 196 : this Shield is drawn from the 
fine counter-seal of Sir HENRY DE PERCY, first Lord of 
Almvick, who died A.D. 1315. 

Two Shields of the DE BOHUNS, Nos. 114, 115, already 
described, exemplify the display of Lioncels as heraldic 
charges. An earlier Shield, charged with six Lioncels, but 
without any Ordinary, was borne by FAIR ROSAMOND S son, 
WILLIAM LONGESPEE, Earl of SALISBURY, A.D. 1226: it is 
boldly sculptured with his noble effigy in Salisbury Cathe 
dral, and it also appears upon his Seal Az., six Lioncels 





No. 196. De Percy. 



No. 197. Longespe. 



or, No. 197. The Roll of Edward II., confirmed by his 
Seal, gives for Sir WM. DE LEYBOURNE the same composi 
tion, with a difference in the tincturing Az., six Lioncels 
arg. Other members of the same family change these 
tinctures for gules and or, gules and argent, and or and sable 
(E. 2). Examples of Shields which bear Lions or Lioncels 
with various other charges will be described and illus 
trated in succeeding Chapters. 

Lions also fulfil important duties of high honour in 
English Heraldry as Crests and Supporters, and also as 
Badges. From the time of EDWARD III. a Crowned Lion, 



THE LION IN HERALDRY. 



at the first standing on a Cap of Estate, and afterwards 
upon the Crown, has been the Royal Crest of ENGLAND ; a 
Lion also has always been the Royal Crest of SCOTLAND 
(see Chapter XVIII.). The Princes of the Royal Houses 
of England, In like manner, have always borne the Royal 
Lion distinguished by some "Mark of Cadency" (see 
Chapter XII.) : No. 198 is the Lion Crest of the BLACK 
PRINCE, from his Monument at Canterbury, the Lion differ 
enced with the Prince s silver label. The Lion also appears 
as the Crest of many noble and distinguished families, as 





No. 199. Crest of Richard II. 



No. 198. Crest of Black Prince. 



the DE BOHUNS, the PERCIES, and the HOWARDS. The 
Lion Crest of RICHARD II., sculptured statant guardant 
upon his helm, with a chapeau and mantling, and with the 
Badge of two Ostrich feathers, in Westminster Hall, is 
without any crown : No. 1 99. 

As a Royal Supporter of the Arms of England, the 
Lion appears in company with some other creature from 
the time of HENRY VI., EDWARD IV. sometimes having 
his Shield supported by two Lions. On the accession of 
JAMES I. of Great Britain, the Royal Lion Supporter 
formed that alliance with the Unicorn of Scotland which 
still continues, and will continue, it is to be hoped, 
throughout all time. Lions, as I shall point out more in 
detail in Chapter XVI., were frequently introduced into 



92 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

the composition of Seals before true heraldic Supporters 
were in use. In more recent Heraldry the Lion is a 
favourite Supporter : he now appears supporting the Shields 
of the Dukes of NORFOLK, ARGYLL, ATHOLE, BEDFORD, 
BUCKINGHAM, CLEVELAND, GRAFTON, NORTHUMBERLAND, 
PORTLAND, and WELLINGTON ; also, with many others, 
those of the Marquesses of BATH, EXETER, HEADFORT, 
and SALISBURY; of the Earls of ALBEMARLE, BROWNLOW, 
CARLISLE, CARNARVON, CORK, ESSEX, and HARDWICK ; of 
the Viscount HARDINGE; and of the Barons ARUNDEL, 
CAMOYS, DUNBOYNE, MONSON, PETRE, and SOUTHAMPTON. 
As a Supporter the Lion is represented rampant, rampant 
reguardant, and sejant rampant. Lions also, and Demi- 
Lions, are frequently borne as modern Crests. 

In our own treatment of the Lions of Heraldry, what 
ever their attitude or tincture, whatever also the position 
they may occupy or the heraldic duty they may discharge, 
we are always to draw and to blazon them as true heraldic 
Lions, while, at the same time, in their expression and 
general characteristics they are to be genuine Lions. 

In becoming fellowship with the Lion, the EAGLE 
appears in the earliest English Rolls and examples of Arms. 
The Royal bird, however, does not occur in English blazon 
so frequently as the Lion; and his appearance often 
denotes an alliance with German Princes. A Roll of Arms 
(printed in "Archaeologia," XXX.) of the year 1275 com 
mences with the Shields of the " EMPEROR OF GERMANY," 
and of the "KING OF GERMANY," which are severally 
blazoned as, " Or, an Eagle displayed having two fieads 
sa." and, " Or, an Eagle displayed sable" In York Cathe 
dral, in stained glass, there are Shields with both the 
double-headed and the single-headed Eagles, all of them 
German, which may be considered to have been executed 
before the year 1310. In the north choir-aisle at West- 



THE EAGLE IN HERALDRY. 



93 



minster, the Shield (now mutilated) of the Emperor FREDE 
RICK II. is boldly sculptured by an heraldic artist of the 
time of our HENRY III., No. 200 ; here the Eagle had one 
head only. The German Emperors naturally adopted the 




No. 200. In Westminster Abbey. 



Eagle for their heraldic Ensign, in support of their claim to 
be successors to the Roman Caesars; and the Russian 
Czars, with the same motive, have also assumed the same 
ensign. The Eagle having two heads, which severally look 





No. 201. Imperial Eagle. 



No. 202. Royal Eagle. 



to the dexter and the sinister, as in No. 201, typified a rule 
that claimed to extend over both the Eastern and the 
Western Empires; as the Eagle with a single head, No. 
202, might be considered to have a less comprehensive 



94 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



signification. The Eagles of the Princes of Germany are 
frequently to be found, blazoned for them, in England. 

RICHARD, the second son of King JOHN, in the year 
1256 was elected King of Germany (he is generally styled 
" King of the Romans "), when he bore the Eagle of the 
Empire : but the only Seals of this Prince that are known 
to exist in England display the Shield of his English Earl 
dom of Cornwall, No. 140. His Son EDMUND, who suc 
ceeded to his father s Earldom, on his Seals has represented 
an Eagle bearing in its beak his Shield of Cornwall, as in 





No. 203. Cornwall. 



No. 204. Seal of Euphemia Leslie. 



No. 203 : this is a peculiarly interesting example of an 
heraldic usage of striking significance, and it also illus 
trates the early existence of the sentiment which at a later 
period led to the adoption of " Supporters " to Shields of 
Arms. In the early Heraldry of Scotland, a single displayed 
Eagle is occasionally found supporting an armorial Shield; as 
in the Seals of ALEXANDER STEWARD, Earl of MENTEITH, A.D. 
1296, and WILLIAM, Earl of DOUGLAS and MAR, A.D. 1378 
(SETON S " Scottish Heraldry," Plates VIII. and XII.) : 
sometimes also, as Mr. Seton has observed, " the Eagle s 



THE EAGLE IN HERALDRY. 



95 



breast is charged with more than one Shield, as in the case of 
the Seals of MARGARET STEWART, Countess of ANGUS (1366), 
and EUPHEMIA LESLIE, Countess of Ross (1381), on both of 
which three escutcheons make their appearance " (" Scottish 
Heraldry," p. 268, and Plate XIL, No. 5): in No. 204 I give 
a woodcut of this interesting composition ; the Shields are, 
to the dexter, LESLIE Arg., on a bend az., three buckles or; 
in the centre, the Arms of the Earl of Ross Git., three 
Lions rampant arg., within a tressure; and, to the sinister, 
CUMMIN Az., three garbs or. The Imperial Eagle is 
sometimes represented crowned; the heads also in some 
examples are encircled with a nimbus or glory, as in No. 
212. I must add that in the Heraldry of the English 
Peerage the Imperial Eagle still supports the Shields of 
some few Peers of different ranks ; as those of the Duke 
of MARLBOROUGH, the Earl of DENBIGH, and Baron 
METHUEN. The old Scottish usage in this respect is also 
still retained, as in the case of the Shield of Sir JAMES 
STUART MENTETH, of Closeburn, Baronet, which is charged 
upon the breast of an Eagle. _ 

PIERS GAVESTON, who was 
created Earl of CORNWALL by 
EDWARD II., bore Vert, six 
Eaglets or, No. 205, (E. 2 and 
York stained glass): on his 
Seal, however, the number of 
the Eaglets is reduced to 
three. Another early example 
is the Shield of that gal 
lant and persevering knight, 
RALPH DE MONTHERMER 
Or, an Eagle displayed vert, No< 2 3-- Shield of 
No. 206, who became Earl of GLOUCESTER in right of his 
wife, JOAN, daughter of EDWARD L, and widow of GILBERT 




Gaveston. 



9 6 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



DE CLARE, the " Red Earl :" this green Eagle of Monthermer 
long held a place of high distinction in the mediaeval 
Heraldry of England, marshalled on 
the Shields of the Earls of SALISBURY 
and WARWICK ; in which, as in the 
example, No. 206, the Eagle of Mon 
thermer is quartered with the coat of 
Montacute, No. 20A (page 70). The 
Eagle of early Heraldry was some 
times blazoned as an " Erne? and 
NO. 2 o6.-Mont aC uteand sometimes as an "Alerion" WILLIAM 

Monthermer. D ERNFORD (H. 3) bears Sa., an 

Erne displayed arg. : and, at the same period WM. DE 
ERNFIELD bears a pair of Erne s or Eagle s Wings, called 
a " Vol? No. 207. From Shields of the fourteenth century 
which bear Eagles, and are blazoned in the Roll of 
Edward II., I select the following small group as good 
examples : Sir WM. DE MONTGOMERIE Or, an Eagle 
displayed az.: Sir NICHOLAS DE ETONE Gu., a Chevron 
between three Eaglets arg. Sir JOHN DE CHARLESTONS 





No. 208. De Charlestone. No. 207. A Yol. No. 2 oo..-De la Mere. 

Arg., on a Chevron vert three Eaglets or, No. 208 : Sir 
PHILIP DE VERLEY Or, a Bend gu., between six Eaglets sa. : 
Sir JOHN DE LA MERE Arg., on a Bend az. three Eaglets 
or, No. 209 : a Shield bearing a Bend charged with three 
Eagles, but with different tinctures, No. S8, I have shown 
to have been the Arms of the Grandisons. 



THE EAGLE IN HERALDRY. 97 

Eagles, under their name of "Alerions" (which some 
early Heralds represented without feet and beaks), are 
blazoned in the same disposition as in No. 209, in the Arms 
of the Duchy of LORRAINE, Or, on a Bend git. three 
alerions arg.: and this device the Dukes of Lorraine are 
said to have borne in commemoration of an exploit of their 
famous ancestor, GODFREY DE BOLOGNE, who is also said, 
when " shooting against David s tower in Jerusalem," to 
have " broched upon his arrow three footless birds called 
alerions." " It is impossible," remarks Mr. Planche upon 
this legend, " now to ascertain who broached this wonderful 
story ; but it is perfectly evident that the narrator was the 
party who drew the long bow, and not the noble GODFREY." 
Mr. Planche adds, that the Alerions of Lorraine may indi 
cate an alliance with the Imperial House ; and he directs 
attention to " a similarity in sound between Alerion and 
Lorraine, " and also to a singular Anagram produced by 
the letters ALERION and LORAINE, which are the 
same (" Pursuivant of Arms," p. 87). The Arms of Lorraine 
are still borne by the Emperor of AUSTRIA : and in England 
they were quartered by Queen MARGARET of Anjou. 

The Roll of Edward II. gives also for Sir HUGH DE 
BILBESWORTH these arms Az., three Eagles displayed or. 
A similar Shield, the tinctures changed to Arg., three 
Eagles displayed gn., armed or, was borne by ROBERT DE 
EGLESFIELD, Confessor to PHILIPPA of Hainault, Queen of 
EDWARD III., who in the year 1340 founded Queen s 
College, Oxford : this Shield of the Founder is borne by 
the College. One of the Shields in the Chantry of Abbot 
RAMRYGE in St. Alban s Abbey Church bears the same 
charges three eagles displayed, No. 210 : the drawing of the 
eagle in this Shield is remarkable, and the form of the Shield 
itself is singularly characteristic of the close of the fifteenth 
century. Another Shield in the same monument bears a 

H 



9 8 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



single Eagle, drawn in the same manner, and sculptured 
with extraordinary spirit. The heraldic Eagle is generally 
drawn in England after the manner of the Westminster 
example, No. 200, with slight modifications of that type. 
The German Heralds, and also their brethren of France, 
delight in exaggerations of what I may distinguish as the 
Westminster Eagle. The Austrian Eagle, besides having 
both its heads crowned, has a large Imperial Crown placed 




No 210. Shield at St. Albans. 



No. 2ii. The Austrian Eagle. 



between the two heads, and also above them, as in No. 211. 
The Prussian Eagle is treated after the same manner. The 
German Imperial Eagle sometimes has a nimbus or glory 
about each head, which dignified accessory is repre 
sented by a circular line, as in No. 212. I observe that 
in the last editions of Sir Bernard Burke s " Peerage," the 
German Eagles of the Duke of MARLBOROUGH and the 
Earl of DENBIGH have the nimbus drawn in such a manner 
as to have the appearance of a ring placed in each beak. 
In some examples of Eagles as well in our own Heraldry 
as in that of continental countries, the wings are repre- 



THE EAGLE IN HERALDRY. 



99 



sented as erect, and having the tips of all the principal 
feathers pointing upwards, as in No. 213. The Eagle now 





No. 212. 

German Imperial Eagle, with Nimbus. 



No. 213. 
German Eagle with Wings erect. 




borne as the Ensign of Imperial FRANCE, sits, grasping a 

thunderbolt, in an attitude of vigilance, having its wings 

elevated, but with the tips of 

the feathers drooping, as they 

would be in the living bird; No. 

214. 

EDWARD III., as a Second 
Crest, bore an Eagle. An Eagle 
also was borne for his Crest, as 
the imperial bird was displayed 
upon his Shield (No. 206), by 

Earl RALPH DE MONTHERMER. NO. ai 4 .-French imperial Eagle. 
In the more recent Heraldry of 

England, the Eagle is a Supporter to the Shields of 
the Earls of CLARENDON, COVENTRY, MALMESBURY ; 
the Viscounts BOLINGBROKE and ST. VINCENT; and the 
Barons HEYTESBURY, OVERSTONE, RADSTOCK, WYNFORD, 
and others. Eagles also and Demi-Eagles are borne as 
Crests in the English Heraldry of our own day. 

As small Lions in Heraldry are " Lioncels," so small 
Eagles are " Eaglets"" 1 In drawing our heraldic Eagles, we can 
scarcely improve upon some of the examples in which early 
English Heralds expressed their ideas of the king of birds. 

H 2 



CHAPTER X. 

THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : GLOSSARY OF TITLES, 
NAMES, AND TERMS. 



" The several denominations given to these tokens of honour .... with the 
terms of art given to them." RANDLE HOME ; Academy of Armoury, A.D. 1688. 



IN this Glossary, which obviously must be as concise as 
possible, I shall include no word that is ordinarily well 
understood, unless some special signification should be 
attached to it when it is in use in armorial blazon. 
Abased. Said of a charge when placed lower than its 

customary position. 
Abatement. A sign of degradation: also, differencing to 

denote illegitimacy. (See Chapter XII.) 
Accollee. Placed side by side; also, entwined about the 

neck. 

Accosted. Side by side. 
Accrued. Grown to maturity. 
Achievement, or Achievement of Arms. Any complete 

heraldic composition. 

Addorsed. Back to back ; pointing backwards. 
Affrontee. So placed as to show the full face or front. 
Alant, Aland. A mastiff with short ears. 
Alerion. A name sometimes given by early Heralds to the 

heraldic Eagle, which, when blazoned under this title, 

was also sometimes drawn without legs or beak. (See 

P- 97-) 
Ambulant. In the act of walking. 




GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 1OI 

Annulet. A plain ring; sometimes blazoned as a "false 
roundle /" in modern cadency, the difference of the fifth 
son or brother : No. 154. 

Annulettee. Ending in Annulets. 

Antelope. Blazoned by early Heralds in a conventional 
manner, now generally rendered naturally. 

Anthony, St. His cross is in the form of the letter T, No. 93. 

Antique Crown. See Eastern Crown. 

Appaumee. Said of a hand, when open, erect, and showing 
the palm : No. 215. 

Arched, Archy. Bent, or bowed. 

Archbishop. A prelate of the highest order in 
the English Church; his heraldic insignia 
are his Mitre, Crozier, and Pall. Next 
to the Royal Family, the Archbishop of NO 215. 
Canterbury is the first subject in the Badge of Ulster, 
realm ; he is styled " Most Reverend Father in God/* 
"by Divine Providence," and "Your Grace." The 
Archbishop of York is third in rank (the Lord 
Chancellor being second), and his style is the same, 
except that he is Archbishop " by Divine permission." 
Archbishops impale their own arms with those of their 
see, the latter being marshalled to the dexter. 

Argent. The metal silver. 

Arm. A human arm. When a charge, crest, or badge, it 
must be blazoned with full particulars as to position, 
clothing, &c. If couped at the elbow, it is a cubit arm. 

Armed. A term applied to animals and birds of prey, to 
denote their natural weapons of offence and defence : 
thus, a Lion is said to be " armed of his claws and 
teeth;" a Bull, to be " armed of his horns;" an Eagle, 
" of its beak and talons." 

Armory. Heraldry. Also, a List of Names and Titles, with 
their respective Arms. 



102 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Arms, Armorial Bearings. Heraldic compositions, and the 

Figures and Devices which form them. (See Chapter I.) 

Arms of Community. Borne by Corporate and other Bodies 

and Communities, as cities, colleges, &c. 
Arms of Dominion. Borne by Sovereign Princes, being also 

the arms of the realms over which they rule. 
Arms of Office. Borne, with the personal arms, to denote 

official rank. 

Arms of Pretension. Borne to denote a claim, or a supposed 
right, to a sovereignty or other rank, without the actual 
possession of it. 
Arms of Succession. Borne, with the personal arms, to 

denote the possession of various dignities and estates. 
Armes Parlantes. Such as are allusive to the Name, Title, 
Office, or Property of those who bear them : thus, 
Leaves for Zeveson, a Castle for Castile, a Cup for 
Butler, Fish for those who derive revenues from 
Fisheries, &c. (See Rebus : also page 15.) 
Armoyee. Charged with an armorial shield. 
Arrondie. Curved, rounded. 

Arrow. Is armed of its head, ^flighted of its feathers ; a 
bundle of arrows is a sheaf; with a blunt head, it is a 
bird-bolt. 

Ascendant. Issuing upwards, as a flower. 
Aspect. Position. 

Aspectant. Respecting (looking at) one another. 
Aspersed. Scattered over the same as semte. 
At Gaze. A term applied to animals of the chase, to denote 

their standing still, and looking about them : No. 167. 
Attires, Attired. The antlers of a Stag or Hart :" having 
antlers. A Reindeer is represented in Heraldry with 
double attires, one pair erect, and the other drooping. 
Augmentation. An honourable addition to a Coat of Arms, 
specially granted with a peculiar significance : thus, the 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 103 

"Union" Device of the British Empire, blazoned on 
an Escutcheon of Pretence, is the " Augmentation" 
specially granted to the great Duke of WELLINGTON, 
to be borne on the honour point of his paternal shield. 

Augmented. Having an " Augmentation." 

Avellane. A variety of the heraldic Cross : No. 109. 

Azure. The colour blue indicated by horizontal lines : 
No. 52. 

Badge. A figure or device, distinct from a crest, and 
borne without any shield or other accessory, except 
sometimes a motto. Badges are of two kinds ; the 
one personal, and peculiarly significant of the bearer 
himself; the other borne by all persons connected with 
and dependent on the owner, and used by him for all 
purposes of decoration. (See Chapter XV.) 

Banded. Encircled with a band. 

Banner. A square or narrow oblong flag, charged with 
the coat of arms of the owner, displayed over its entire 
surface. It was the ensign both of a Knight Banneret 
and of his followers. (See Chapter XVII.) 

Banneret. A Knight who had been advanced by the King 
to that higher military rank which entitled him to 
display a banner. 

Bar. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 81, 82. 

Bars Gemelles. Barrulets borne in pairs : Nos. 83, 84. 

Barbed. Pointed, as an arrow. The term is also applied to 
the small green leaves about heraldic roses. (See Rose.) 

Barbel. A Fish borne as an allusive device by the family of 
DE BARRE : No. 162. 

Barded. Having horse-trappings. 

Bardings. Horse-trappings, often enriched with armorial 
blazonry. On the Great Seal of EDWARD I. the Bard- 
ings of the King s charger for the first time appear 
adorned with the Royal blazonry. On both sides of 



104 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

the horse, the head is supposed to be to the dexter. A 
good example is represented in the Seal of ALEXANDER 
DE BALLIOL, in Chapter XIV. 

Barnacles, Breys. An instrument used in breaking horses. 
A rebus of Sir REGINALD BRAY, architect of St. George s 





No. 216. Breys. No. 217. Baron s Coronet 

Chapel, Windsor, and repeatedly represented there : 
No. 216. 

Baron. The lowest rank in the British Peerage, corres 
ponding with the Thane of the Saxons. A Baron is 
"Right Honourable," and is styled " My Lord." His 
coronet, first granted by Charles II., has on a golden 
circlet six large pearls, of which four appear in repre 
sentations, as in No. 217. All a Baron s children are 
" honourable." 

Baron. A husband, a wife in Heraldry being/m;;/. 

Baroness. The wife of a baron. She is " Right Honour 
able," is styled " My Lady," and her coronet is the same 
as her husband s. 

Barenet. An hereditary rank, lower than the peerage, insti 
tuted in 1612 by JAMES I., who fixed the precedence 
of Baronets before all Knights, those of the Order of 
the Garter alone excepted. As originally created, all 
Baronets were "of Ulster," or "of Nova Scotia;" now 
all are " of the United Kingdom." The " Badge of 
Ulster," generally borne as an augmentation upon a 
small inescutcheon, is Arg., a sinister hand, couped at 
the wrist and appaumee, g^t., No. 215. The arms of 
Nova Scotia, borne also on a canton or inescutcheon, 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 105 

are Arg., on a saltire az., the Royal arms of Scotland. 
(See No. 138.) By letters patent of JAMES I., the wives 
of Baronets have the titles of "Lady, Madam, and 
Dame" at their pleasure prefixed to their names. 

Barrulet. The diminutive of a Bar. 

Barrulee, Barruly. Barry of ten or more pieces. 

Barry. Divided into an even number of Bars, which all 
lie in the same plane : Nos. 85, 86. 

Barry Bendy. Having the field divided by lines drawn 
bar-wise, which are crossed by others drawn bend-wise : 
No. 119. 

Bar-wise. Disposed after the manner of a Bar, crossing 
the field, that is, horizontally. 

Base. The lowest extremity : No. 2713. 

Basilisk. A cockatrice having its tail ending in a dragon s head. 

Basinet. A helm fitting close to the head. 

Baton. A diminutive of the bend sinister, couped at its 
extremities. 

Battled. Having battlements, or bordered, as No. 38* . 

Battled, Embattled. Having double battlements. 

Beacon, or Fire Beacon. An iron case of burning combus 
tibles set on a pole, against which a ladder is placed. 

Beaked. Applied to birds, not of prey. 

Bearer. In Scottish heraldry, a Supporter. 

Bearing, Bearings. Armorial insignia, borne on shields. 

BelL Drawn, and generally blazoned as a church-bell. 

Belled. Having bells attached. 

Bend. One of the Ordinaries : Nos. in 115. 

Bendlet. The diminutive of a bend : No. 117. 

Bend-wise, or In Bend. Arranged in the direction of a bend. 

Bendy. Parted bend-wise into an even number of divisions : 
No. 116. 

Bezant. A golden "Roundle" or disc, flat like a coin : No. 
151, and No. 140. 



106 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Billet. An oblong figure of any tincture : Billctee studded 
with " Billets :" Nos. 130, 146. 

Bird. Many Birds appear in blazon, and they are repre 
sented both in heraldic tinctures and "proper" in 
their natural aspect. (See Chapters VIII. and IX.) 

Bird-bolt. An arrow with a blunt head. 

Bishop. The Bishops are " by Divine permission," and are 
styled " Right Reverend Father in God," and " My Lord 
Bishop." The Bishops of England and Wales are all 
" spiritual peers" of Parliament, except the prelate last 
consecrated. Their heraldic insignia are a mitre and 
pastoral staff; they impale their arms, as do the Arch 
bishops ; and, like them also, they bear neither supporters 
nor crests, but they ensign their shields with a mitre. 

Blasted. Leafless, withered. 

Blazon. Heraldry: Armorial Compositions. "To blazon" 
is to describe or to represent any armorial Figure, Device, 
or Composition in an heraldic manner. Blazoning 
Describing in heraldic language : also, representing in an 
heraldic manner. Blazonry the representation of any 
heraldic Figure, Device, or Composition. 





No. 218. Water Bouget. No. 219. Bourchier Knot. 



Boar. In Heraldry entitled Sanglier. 

Bordure. A Subordinary : Nos. 139, 140- Also, an im 
portant " Difference." (See Chapters XII. and XIII.) 

Botonee, Botonee Fitchee. Varieties of the heraldic Cross : 
Nos. 103, no. This Cross is also entitled Treflee. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. IOJ 

Bouget, or Water Bouget. A charge, representing the vessels 
used by the Crusaders for carrying water. Fine early 
examples occur in the Temple Church, at Beverley 
Minster, and in a monument at Blyborough, Lincoln 
shire : No. 218. 

Bourchier Knot. A badge represented in No. 219. 

Bourdon. A palmer s or pilgrim s staff. (See Pilgrim s Staff.) 

Bow. The archer s weapon, in all its varieties of form, is a 
charge. 

Bowed. Having a convex contour : No. 39. 

Bowen Knot. No. 220. 

Braced, Brazed. Interlaced. 

Breys. Barnacles. 

Brizure. A difference or mark of cadency. 

Brouchant. Placed over, as when one charge overlies 
another. 

Buckle. See Fermaile. 

Burgonet. A helm worn in the sixteenth century. 

Cabossed. The head of a stag, or other animal, represented 
full-faced, so as to show the face only : No. 170. 





No. 220. Bowen Knot. No. 221. Caltrap. 

Cadency. Figures and devices, introduced into armorial 
compositions, in order to distinguish the different mem 
bers and branches of the same family. (See Difference, 
and Chapter XII.) 

Cadet. A junior member or branch of a family. 

Caltrap. An implement used in war to maim horses : 
No. 221. 



io8 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



Canting Heraldry. Armes Parlantes. 

Canton, or Quarter. One of the Subordinaries : Nos. 

129, 130. 
Cantoned. Placed in the first quarter of a shield ; also, 

placed between four charges. 
Carbuncle. The same as Escarbuncle. 
Cartouche. No. 46. 
Castle. Generally represented crowned with three turrets, as 

in the shield of Queen Alianore, of Castile : No. 222. 





No. 222. -Castle. No. 223. -Celestial Crown. 

Celestial Crown. No. 223. 

Centaur. Also blazoned as a sagittary, and supposed to be 

a badge of King Stephen. 
Cercelee, or Recercelee. A variety of the heraldic Cross: 

No. 98. 




No. 224. 
Chapeau of Estate. 




No. 225. Arms of Saxony. 

Chapeau. Also entitled a chapeau or cap of dignity, of main- 
tenan&e, or of estate. An early symbol of high dignity, 
represented as supporting certain crests : No. 224. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 109 

Chaplet. A garland or entwined wreath of leaves and flowers, 
or of flowers alone. A chaplet of rue, sometimes called a 
crancelin, is blazoned bend-wise in the shield of Saxony 
Barry of ten or and sa., over all a chaplet of rue vert : 
No. 225. (See Crancelin?) 

Charge. Any heraldic figure or device. Charged placed 
on a shield, banner, &c., as any heraldic figure or 
device may be. 

Chequee, Cheeky. Having the field divided into three, or 
into more than three, contiguous rows of small squares, 
alternately of a metal (or fur) and a colour : No. 68. 

Chess rook. A piece used in the game of Chess : borne by 
J?vewood and others : No. 226. 

Chevron. One of the Ordinaries : Nos. 123, 125. 

Chevronel. A diminutive of the Chevron : No. 124. 

Chevronee, Chevrony. A field divided per Chevron : No. 

I24A. 

Chief. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 71 75. In Chief 
arranged horizontally across the upper part of the field. 







No. 226. No. 227. 

Chess Rook. Cinque-foil. No. 228. Clarions. 

Cinque-foil, Quint-foil. A flower or leaf of five foils: 
No. 227. 

Civic Crown. A wreath of oak-leaves and acorns. 

Clarenceux. See Herald. 

Clarion. An ancient musical instrument, a badge, appa 
rently, of the DE CLARES. By some this charge is sup 
posed to represent a lance-rest, and is sometimes so 
blazoned : No 228, which shows two varieties of form. 

Clechet, or Unde e, A variety of the heraldic Cross : No. 105. 



no 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



Close. With closed wings. 

Closet. A Diminutive of the Bar, one half its width. 

Clouee. Fastened with Nails, and showing the Nail-heads : 
No. 150. 

Coat Armour. True armorial or heraldic bearings, duly 
granted or inherited, and rightly borne : so entitled, 
from having been blazoned by knightly warriors of the 
Middle Ages upon their surcoats, worn by them over 
their armour. 

Coat of Arms. A complete armorial composition, to be 
charged upon a Shield or Banner. 

Cockatrice. A fabulous creature, represented 
in No. 229. 

Collar. One of the insignia of Orders of 
Knighthood, worn about the neck. Also 
any ornament or distinction worn in 
the same manner. Knights occasionally 
wore collars charged with their own NQ 
badge. In addition to their badges of Cockatrice. 
the Red and White Rose, the adherents of the rival 
houses of York and Lancaster wore collars, the former 






No 230. Collar of York. 



No. 231. Collar oi Lancaster. 



formed ot alternate Suns and Roses, No. 230 ; and the 
latter, of the letter S continually repeated, No. 231. 
No certain origin has been discovered for the Lan 
castrian " Collar of S.," but it is supposed to represent 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. Ill 

the word SOVERAYGNE, the motto of HENRY IV. 
No. 230 is from the Brass to HENRY BOURCHIER, K.G., 
Earl of Essex, at Little Easton, Suffolk, A.D. 1483 ; and 
No. 231 from the Brass to Lord CAMOYS, K.G., at 
Trotton, Sussex, A.D. 1424. 

College of Arms , or Heralds College. (See Herald?) 

Colour. See Chapter V., page 41. The term " Colours" is 
applied to Flags, particularly to those of infantry regi 
ments, and to such as are displayed at sea. (See 
Chapter XVII.) 

Combattant. Two lions, or other animals of prey, rampant 
and face to face. 

Compartment. In Scottish Heraldry, "a kind of carved 
panel, of no fixed form, placed below the escutcheon, 
bearing the supporters, and usually inscribed with a 
motto or the name and designation of the owner." 
Seton. 

Comporiee, Compony, or Gobony. A single row of small 
squares alternately of two tinctures or furs : No. 66. 
(See Counter Componee^) 

Complement. Applied to the moon when full. 

Compound Quartering. The quartering of a quarter, or 
division of a quartered Coat-of-Arms. (See page 34.) 

Compounded Arms. Arms formed from the combination of 
the bearings of two or more distinct coats, to produce a 
single compound coat. 

Conjoined in lure. Two wings united, their tips in base. 

Contoise. A flowing scarf, worn attached to the helm before 
1350. Two examples occur in effigies in Exeter 
Cathedral, and another in Westminster Abbey. 

Contournee. Facing to the sinister. 

Cornish Chough. A bird like a crow, black, with red beak 
and legs. 

Coronet, An ensign of Nobility worn upon the head, in use 



II2 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

in England from about the middle of the fourteenth 
century, but without any distinctive tokens of gradations 
of rank until a later period. In modern times English 
Coronets have enclosed a velvet cap with a bullion 
tassel: at the present time, however, this cap, with 
better taste, is generally omitted. (See Prince, Duke, 
Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron.) 
Cotise. A diminutive of the Bend, being one-fourth of its 
width. Cotised. When a Bend is placed between two 
Cotises, or when a Fesse or Bar is placed between two 
Barrulets. Nos. 114, IJ 5- 
Couchant, or Dormant, In repose. No. 179. 
Couch ee. Said of a Shield when suspended from the sinister 
extremity of the chief, or when placed as if it were so 
suspended. No. 49. 

Count, Countess. Count, in Latin Comes," the same as 
Earl Countess, the wife of an Earl : she is " Right 
Honourable," and styled "My Lady:" her coronet 
the same as that of an Earl. 
Counter. Reversed or opposite. 
Counter-changing. See page 44, and Nos. 70, i* 6 - 
Counter Componee. Double Compome, or two conjoined 

rows of alternately tinctured squares. No. 67. 
Counter-seal. Early seals were generally impressed on both 
sides ; and the seals thus were produced from two die 
or matrices. The two sides were severally called the 
seal and the counter-seal, the latter being the reverse of 
the compound composition. Every such double im 
pression constituted a single* seal. Both seal and 
counter-seal were sometimes used alone; and the 
counter-seal was regarded as a private seal, or secretum. 
Couped. Cut off smoothly the reverse of " erased." 
Couple-close. Half a chevronel. 
Courant. Running. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 113 

Courtesy, Titles of. Nominal degrees of rank, conceded to, 
and borne by the Eldest Sons of Dukes, Marquesses, 
and Earls. 

Covert. Partly covered. 

Coward, Cowed. An animal with its tail between its legs, 
and showing other signs of terror. No. 182. 

Crampet. The decorated end of a sword-scabbard. 

Crancelin. From the German kranzlein, " a small garland," 
applied to the chaplet that crosses the shield of Saxony, 
No. 225 : this charge is also blazoned as a bend treflee 
vert, a bend archee coronett ee, or a coronet extended in bend: 
it is said to be an augmentation conferred, with the 
Dukedom of Saxony, on BERNHARD of Ascania, by the 
Emperor BARBAROSSA. The Emperor took from his 
head his own chaplet of rue, and threw it across the 
shield of Duke Bernhard. 

Crenellated. Embattled. 

Crescent. No. 166. In modern cadency, the difference of 
the second son, or house. 

Cresset. A beacon. 

Crest. A figure or device originally worn upon a helm, 
and now generally represented above a Shield of arms. 
Crests at first were ensigns of high honour, and their 
use was restricted to a few persons of eminence : they 
were attached to a wreath, or orle, or to a coronet, which 
encircled the helm or basinet; and sometimes a crest 
stood upon a cap of estate. Crests are still represented 
standing upon either a coronet, a wreath, or a cap : but 
in our own Heraldry a crest-coronet must always be care 
fully distinguished from those coronets that are insignia 
of princely and noble rank. Crests are not borne by 
ladies, the Sovereign excepted. (See Panache, Rebus, 
and Chapter XIV.) 

Crest- Coronet. A coronet to support a crest. No. 232. 

i 



114 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Crest- Wreath, or Orle. In the Middle Ages, of rich 
materials and costly workmanship now represented 
as being formed of two rolls of silk of the principal 
metal and colour in the arms, which are twisted to show 
the metal and colour alternately. The earliest examples 





No. 232. Crest-Coronet. 

No. 233. Crest- Wreath. 

are about A.D. 1375. No. 233 shows three varieties of 
representation. (See Chapter XIV.) 

Crined. Having a mane or hair. 

Cross. One of the Ordinaries. Nos. 90 no. 

Crown. The ensign of Royal and Imperial dignity ; in 
Heraldry borne as a charge, and also used to denote 
the rank of a Sovereign Prince. The Crown that is 
generally borne as a charge is represented without 
arches, and resembling No. 232. Certain other crowns, 
each distinguished by an appropriate title, are also 
sometimes borne on shields, or introduced as heraldic 
accessories. (See Celestial, Eastern or Radiated, Mural, 
Naval, and Vallary Crowns.) The different forms 
assumed at different periods by the Royal Crown of 
England are faithfully exemplified in the seals and the 
coinage of the successive Sovereigns, and several fine 
examples are preserved in the Royal effigies. The 
adornment of the regal circlet was arbitrary before the 
fifteenth century; still, it always was enriched with 
gems and surmounted by golden foliage. HENRY V. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 115 

first arched his crown; and by HENRY VI. the circlet 
was first heightened with alternate crosses-pate e and 
fleurs de lys. This arrangement has since been retained, 
the subsequent alterations being restricted to changes 
in the number and in the contour of the arches. The 
crown of Her Majesty the QUEEN has the circlet 
heightened with four crosses and as many fleurs de lys ; 
from the crosses rise the arches, which are surmounted 
by a mound and a cross-patee. No. 234. 





234. No. 235. 

Crown of H. M. The Queen. Dacre Knot and Badges. 

Crazier. The cross-staff of an archbishop ; distinguished by 
its form from the pastoral-staff with a crook-head, of 
bishops. 

Crusilee, Crusily. Having the field semee of crosses-crosslets, 
or of other small crosses, their peculiar form (when not 
crosslets) being specified. 

Cubit-arm. A human arm couped at the elbow. 

Cup, Covered Cup. A vessel formed like a chalice, and 
having a raised cover; borne by the BOTILERS, BUT 
LERS, etc. 

Cushion, Pillow, Oreiller. Unless described of another form, 
square or oblong, and with a tassel at each corner. 

Dacre Knot. No. 235. (See Knot.) 

Dancette. No. 386. In early blazon, a fesse dancette, and 

I 2 



Il6 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

sometimes a series of fusils conjoined in fesse, is styled 
simply "a dancette" or "a danse? Nos. 78, 146; and 
No. 20A, page 70. 

Debased. Reversed. 

Debrnised. When an ordinary surmounts an animal or 
another ordinary. 

Decrescent, In Detriment. A half-moon having its horns to 
the sinister. No. i66c. 

Deer. A stag, with antlers, is a Hart; the female is a Hind. 
(See Chapter VIII.) 

Degreed, Degraded. Placed on steps. 

Demembered) Dismembered. Cut into pieces, but without any 
alteration in the form of the original figure. 

Demi. The half. The upper, front, or dexter half, unless 
the contrary be specified. No. 186. 

Depressed. Surmounted. 

Developed. Displayed, unfurled. 

Dexter. The right side. No. 270. 

Diaper, Diapering. Surface decoration. No. 68. 

Difference, Differencing. An addition to, or some change in, 
a Coat-of-Arms, introduced for the purpose of distin 
guishing Coats which in their primary qualities are the 
same. Differencing is sometimes used in the same 
sense as Cadency ; but, strictly, it is distinct, having 
reference to alliance and dependency, without blood- 
relationship, or to the system adopted for distinguishing 
similar Coats-of-Arms. (See Chapters XII. and XIII.) 

Dimidiated. Cut in halves per pale, and one half removed : 
No. 250. (See Chapter XL) 

Disclosed. With expanded wings, in the case of birds that 
are not birds of prey. The contrary to Close. 

Displayed. Birds of prey with expanded wings. No. 200 

Disposed, Disposition. Arranged, arrangement. 

Dividing Lines. No. 38: also Nos. 27 37. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 117 

Dolphin. A favourite fish with Heralds. The heraldic DoL 
phin of antiquity is exemplified in No. 8 ; that of the 
middle ages in No. 163. 

Dormant, or Couchant. Asleep, as in No. 179. 

Doubling. The lining of a Mantle or Mantling. 

Dove-tail. No. 381. 

Dragon. A winged monster having four legs. No. 236. 

Duke. The highest rank and title in the British Peerage; 
first introduced by EDWARD III. in the year 1337, when 
he created the BLACK PRINCE the first English Duke (in 
Latin, " Z>ux"). A Duke is "Most Noble;" he is 
styled "My Lord Duke," and "Your Grace;" and all 
his sons are " Lords," and all his daughters " Ladies," 
with the prefix " Right Honourable." His eldest son 
bears, by royal concession and courtesy, his father s 





No. 236. Dragon. No. 237. Duke s Coronet. 

" second title ;" and, accordingly, he generally bears 
the title of Marquess. Whatever his title, however, 
the rank of the eldest son of a Duke is always the 
same, and it assigns to him precedence between Mar 
quesses and Earls. The Coronet of a Duke, arbitrary 
in its adornment until the sixteenth century was far 
advanced, is now a circlet, heightened with eight con 
ventional strawberry-leaves, of which in representations 
three and two half-leaves are shown; No. 237. The 
present ducal coronet is represented in the portrait of 



Il8 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

LUDOVICK STUART, K.G., Duke of RICHMOND and 
LENNOX, who died in 1624; the picture, the property 
of the Crown, is at Hampton Court. 

Ducal Coronet. A term commonly, but always most im 
properly, applied to a Crest Coronet. No. 232. 

Duchess. The wife of a Duke. She is " Most Noble," and 
is styled "Your Grace." Her coronet is the same as 
that of a Duke. 

Eagle. See Chapter IX., page 92. 

Eaglet. An Eagle on a small scale. 

Earl. In Latin, "Comes;" in French, " Compte" or 
"Count." Before 1337, the highest, and now the 
third degree of rank and dignity in the British Peerage. 
An Earl is "Right Honourable;" he is styled "My 
Lord ;" his eldest son bears his father s " second title," 
generally that of Viscount; his other sons are " Honour 
able," but all his daughters are " Ladies" and " Right 
Honourable." An Earl s Coronet has eight lofty rays 
of gold rising from the circlet, each of which supports 





No- 238. Earl s Coronet. No. 239. Eastern Crown. 



a large pearl, while between each pair of these rays 
there is a golden strawberry-leaf. In representations 
five of the rays and pearls are shown ; No. 238. 
Elevated clusters of pearls appear in an Earl s coronet 
that of THOMAS FITZ ALAN, Earl of ARUNDEL as 
early as 1445 ; but the present form of the coronet 
may be assigned to the second half of the following 
century. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. IIQ 

Eastern, Radiated, or Antique Crown. No. 239. 

Electoral Bonnet. A cap of crimson velvet guarded with 

ermine, borne over the inescutcheon of the arms of 

Hanover from 1801 till 1816. No. 240. 
Embattled, Battled. No. 38F. 
Embowed. Bent. An arm embowed has the elbow to the 

dexter. 

Embrued. Stained with blood. 
Endorse. A diminutive of the pale. 





No. 240. Electoral Bonnet. No. 241 Shield of Byron. 

Enjiled. Pierced with a sword. 

Engrailed. The border-line, No. 380. By the early Heralds 
this term was used to denote " fusils conjoined in fesse," 
the number of their points being specified. 

Enhanced. Raised towards the chief. Thus the arms of 
BYRON, No. 241, are Arg., three bendlets enhanced gu. 

Ensigned. Adorned ; having some ensign of honour placed 
above as a coronet above a shield. 

Entire. Said of a charge when it extends to the border lines 
of a shield, coat, or banner; also of a shield, coat, or 
banner of arms, when borne without any difference or 
mark of cadency. 

Entoire, Entoyre. A bordure charged with a series of in 
animate figures or devices, as crosslets, roundles, &c. ; 
to a similar bordure of living figures the term Enaluron 
is applied. 

Enveloped, Environed. Surrounded. 



120 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Equipped. Fully armed, caparisoned, or provided. 

Eradicated. Torn up by the roots. 

Erased. Torn off with a ragged edge ; the contrary to 
Couped. 

Ermine, Ermines, Erminois. Nos. 57 60 and 5 7 A. The 
animal, the ermine, sometimes appears in blazon, and 
an ermine spot is borne as a charge. 

Erne. An eagle. (See p. 96.) 

Escarbunde. No. 19. 

Escroll. A ribbon charged with a motto; also a ribbon, 
coiled at its extremities, borne as a charge. 

Escutcheon. An heraldic shield : Nos. 39-40 : also No. 27. 
An Escutcheon is borne as a charge, when it is blazoned 
as an " Inescutcheon :" thus, the Arms of HAY are, 
Arg., three inescutcheons gu. : see also Nos. 131, 133. 

Escutcheon of Pretence. A shield charged upon the field of 
another shield of larger size, and bearing a distinct Coat- 
of-arms. 

Escallop, or Escallop-Shell. A beautiful and favourite charge ; 
No. 165. 

Esquire. A rank next below that of Knight. Besides those 
Esquires who are personal attendants of Knights of 
Orders of Knighthood, this title is held by all attendants 
on the person of the Sovereign, and all persons holding 
the Sovereign s commission being of military rank not 
below Captain ; also, by general concession, by Barris 
ters at Law, Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of Law and 
Physic. 

Estate. Dignity and high rank. 
Estoile. A star with wavy rays or points, which 
are six, eight, or sometimes even more in 
number : No. 242. (See Mullet.} 
False. Said of any charge when its central area 
is removedthus, an Annulet is a " false roundle." 




GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 121 

Fan, or Winnowing Fan, or Vane. The well-known imple 
ment of husbandry of that name, borne by the Kentish 
Family of De Sevans or Septvans Az., three fans or 
(E. 2). This shield appears in the Brass to Sir R. DE 
SEVANS, A.D. 1305, at Chartham, in Kent, and in the 
cloisters at Canterbury. 

Fan Crest. An early form of decoration for the knightly 
helm, exemplified in the 2nd Great Seal of RICHARD I., 
and in many other Seals, until about A.D. 1350. (See 
Chapter XIV.) 

Feathers. Generally those of the ostrich, sometimes of the 
swan, the turkey, and a few other birds, borne generally 
as Crests and Badges, both singly and in plumes or 
groups. (See Ostrich Feather, Panache, and Chapter 
XIV.) 

Femme. The Wife, as distinguished from the " Baron," the 
Husband. 

Fer-de-Moline, or Mill-rind. The iron affixed to the centre 






No. 243. Fer-de-Moline. No. 244. Fermails. No. 245. Fetter-lock. 

of a mill-stone ; No. 243 : a modification of the Cross- 

moline ; No. 97. 
Fermail (plural fcrmaux). A buckle : No. 244. Several 

varieties of form appear in blazon. 
Ferr. A horse-shoe. 
Fesse. One of the Ordinaries : Nos. 76 80. Fesse-wise, In 

Fesse. Disposed in a horizontal line, side by side, 

across the centre of the field, and over the Fesse-Point 

of a shield : No. 27M. 



122 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Fetter-lock. A shackle and padlock a Yorkist Badge : No. 
245, from the Brass to Sir S. DE FELBRIGGE, K.G., at 
Felbrigg, Norfolk, A.D. 1414. 

Field. The entire surface of a Shield or Banner, of an 
Ordinary, or of any object. 

File. A Label, from the Latin filum, a narrow ribbon. 

Fillet. A diminutive of a Chief. 

Fimbriated. Bordered the border (which is narrow) lying 
in the same plane with the object bordered : No. 89. 

Fish. Numerous Fish appear in blazon, and generally in 
their proper tinctures. They are borne as allusive 
charges, and also as types of some connection between 
those persons who bear them and the sea or lakes or 
rivers. Mr. Moule has published an admirable volume 
on the " Heraldry of Fish," beautifully illustrated with 
examples drawn by his daughter. (See p. 77.) 

Fitchee. Pointed at the base, as in No. no. 

Flanches, Flasques. Subordinaries : Nos. 141, 142. 

Fleur de lys. The beautiful heraldic device so long identified 
with the history of France : No. 246 (from the 
monument of EDWARD III.). The fleur de lys, 
derived, it would seem, from the flower of a 
lily resembling the iris, was adopted by Louis 
NO. 246. VII. (A.D. 1137 1 1 80) as his royal ensign, and 

Fleur de lys. n ^ ue ^ me ^ wag re g U i ar }y charged upon a true 

Shield of Arms. Originally the Royal Shield of France was 
Az., semee of fleurs de fys, or; the fleurs de lys scattered 
freely over the field, and the Shield itself having the 
appearance of having been cut out of a larger object, 
over the whole surface of which the flowers had been 
semee. This Shield of France is distinguished as " France 
Ancient:" No. 247. About A.D. 1365, CHARLES V. of 
France reduced the number of the fleurs de lys to three ; 
and this Shield is now known as "France Modern:" 




GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 123 



No. 248. In the year 1275, EDMUND, first Earl of Lan 
caster, the second son of HENRY III., married BLANCHE 
of Artois, when he differenced his shield of England with a 





No. 247. France Ancient. 



No. 248. France Modern. 



label of France a blue label charged on each point with three 
golden fleurs de lys : No. 249 ; thus, for the first time, did 
the armorial insignia of England and France appear 
together upon the same Shield. In 1299 EDWARD I. 
married his second Queen, MARGARET of France, and 
then this royal lady placed on one of her Seals a Shield 





No. 249. 
Edmund, Earl of Lancaster. 



No. 250. 
Margaret, Queen of Edward I. 



of England and France dimidiated : No. 250. On 
another of her Seals, a very noble example of the 
Seal-engraver s art, Queen MARGARET displayed the 
Shield of King EDWARD I., her husband, surrounded, 
on the field of the Seal, with her father s fleurs de lys : 



124 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



No. 251. On the Seals of ISABELLE of France, Queen 
of EDWARD II., the same dimidiated shield, and another 
shield quartering the arms of England with France Ancient 
and two other French coats (Navarre and Champagne) 
appear. Then Prince JOHN of ELTHAM charged a 




No. 251. Seal of Margaret, second Queen of Edward I. 

" bordure of France" ttpon his shield, No. 24 ; thus 
applying the suggestion of the Seal of Queen MARGARET, 
No. 251, in such a manner as was consistent with the 
advanced condition of heraldic art. On his accession 
in 1327, EDWARD III. placed a fleur de lys on each 
side of the Shield of England upon his Great Seal : and 
in 1340, when he claimed the crown of France, EDWARD 
quartered France Ancient with his lions of England: 
No. 252. Shortly after his accession, perhaps in 1405, 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 125 

in order to conform to the altered blazonry of the 
French sovereigns, HENRY IV. quartered France Modern 
on his shield: No. 253. The position of the three 
fleurs de lys was more than once changed in the Royal 





No. 253. 
Shield of Henry IV., about A.D. 1405. 



No. 252. 
Shield of Edward III., A.D. 1340. 



Shield of England (as I shall hereafter show more par 
ticularly) after the accession of the STUARTS ; and they 
were not finally removed till the first year of this present 
century. The fleur de lys is also borne on many English 
Shields, disposed in various ways. In modern cadency 
the fleur de lys is the difference of the sixth son, or house. 

Fleurettee, Florettee. Terminating in, or bordered with, fleurs 
de lys \ also, semee de lys. 

Fleurie. Ending as No. 100 ; also, semee de lys. 

Flexed. Bowed, bent. 

Flighted. Feathered, as arrows are. 

Fly. The length, and also the side of a flag farthest from 
the staff. 

Foliated. Crisped, or formed like a leaf. 

Fountain. No. 153. 

Fourchte, Queue Fourch ee. Divided into two parts said of 
a lion with a double tail : No. 181. 

Frette. A subordinary : No. 148. Frettee, Pretty: covered 
with frette-work : No. 149. 




126 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Fructed. Bearing fruit or seeds. 

Fumant. Having smoke issuing forth. 

Furs. See p. 41 : Nos. 57 65. 

Fusil. An elongated Lozenge : No. 2OA, p. 70. Fusillee. 

Covered with Fusils, all lying in the same plane. 
fylfot. A peculiar cruciform figure, supposed to have a 
mystic signification, found in mili 
tary and ecclesiastical decorations 
in England, and on Eastern coins, 
&c. : Nos. 254, 255 ; the latter 
example is from the monument 
!54 F , fot of Bishop BRONSCOMBE, in Exeter 

Cathedral. 
Gad, Gadlyng. A spike, knob, or other figure, projecting 

from the knuckles of gauntlets. 
Galley. An ancient ship. (See Lymphad^] 
Garb. A sheaf of wheat; or of any other grain to be 

specified. 

Garnished. Adorned in a becoming manner. 
Garter, Order of the. See Chapter XIX. 
Garter King-of-Arms. The chief of the official Heralds of 
England, and officer of arms of the Order of the Garter. 
(See Herald.} 

Gemelles. See Bars Gemelles. 
Gem-Ring. A ring for the finger, set with a jewel. 
Genet. A spotted animal, somewhat like a martin : a badge 

of Queen JOANNA of Navarre. 

George, Saint. The Patron Saint of England. The circum 
stances which led to his association with England are 
unknown, nor can the saint himself be identified as an 
historical personage. His Shield of arms, a red cross on 
a silver field, first appears in English Heraldry in the 
fourteenth century : No. i. 
George, The. A mounted figure of the Saint in the act of 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 127 

piercing the dragon with his lance, and worn as a 
pendant to the collar of the Order of the Garter ; added 
to the insignia of the Order, with the Collar, by 
HENRY VII. The Lesser George has the same group on 
an enamelled field, and surrounded by the Garter of 
the Order, the whole forming a "jewel," generally oval 
in shape : it was introduced by HENRY VIII. , and is 
now worn pendant from the dark-blue ribbon of the 
Order, the ribbon passing over the left shoulder and the 
jewel hanging on the right side of the wearer. Origin 
ally, this " Lesser George " was worn from either a gold 
chain or a black ribbon : by Queen ELIZABETH the 
colour of the ribbon was changed to sky-blue, and it 
assumed its present darker hue in the reign of either 
GEORGE I. or GEORGE II. a modification said to have 
been adopted in order to distinguish the true knights 
from those who were created by the Pretender. 

Gerattyng. Differencing by the introduction of small 
charges. It is an early term, now obsolete. 

Gimmel-ring. Two, or sometimes three, annulets interlaced. 

Girt, Girdled. Encircled, or bound round. 

Gonfannon. A long flag, pointed or swallow-tailed at the 
fly, and displayed from a transverse bar attached to a 
staff. 

Gorged. Encircled round the throat. 

Gouttee, Guttee. Sprinkled over with drops either of gold 
gouttee d or; of silver d eau; of blue d azure, or de 
formes (tears) ; of red du sang (blood) ; or of black 
de poix (pitch). 

Gradient. Walking. 

Grafted. Inserted and fixed. 

Grand Quarters. The four primary divisions of a Shield, 
when it is divided quarterly: Nos. 30, 36, 37. The 
term " Grand Quarter " may be used to signify a 



128 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



172, 174, 



and 



primary quarter or division of a quartered Shield or 
Coat, and to distinguish such a quarter when it is 
quartered. 
Greeces. Steps. 
Guardant. Looking out from the field: Nos. 

176, 187. 
Guige. A Shield-belt, worn over the right shoulder, 

frequently represented in heraldic compositions as if 
sustaining a Shield of arms : Nos. 48, 49. 
Gules. Red : No. 53. 

Gurges, or Gorges. A charge formed of a spiral line of blue 
on a white field, and supposed to 
represent a whirlpool : borne (H. 3) 
by R. DE GORGES : No. 256. 
Gyron. A Subordinary. Gyrotmy. A 
field divided into Gyrons : No. 147. 
(See page 70.) 
Habited. Clothed. 
Hames, Heames. Parts of horses har- 




No. 256. 
Shield of R. de Gorges. 



ness. 



Hammer, or Martel. Represented in 
blazon much in the same shape as the implement in 
common use (H. 3). 

Harp. A device and badge of Ireland. The Irish Harp of 
gold with silver strings on a blue field forms the third 
quarter of the Royal Arms. 

Hart. A stag, with attires ; the female is a Hind: page 81. 

Hastilude. A tournament. 

Hatchment. An achievement of arms in a lozenge-shaped 
frame, placed upon the front (generally over the 
principal entrance) of the residence of a person lately 
deceased. In the case of the decease of an unmarried 
person, or of a widower or widow, the whole of the 
field of the hatchment is painted black ; but in the case 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 129 

of a married person, that part only of the field is black 
which adjoins the side of the achievement occupied by 
the armorial insignia of the individual deceased. Thus, 
if a husband be deceased, the dexter half of the field of 
the hatchment is black, and the sinister white ; and so, 
in like manner, if the wife be deceased, the sinister is 
black and the dexter white. 

Hauriant. A fish in pale, its head in chief. See Uriant. 

Hause. Height, indicating a charge enhanced. 

Hawk s bells, jesses and lure. A falconer s decoy, formed of 
feathers with their tips in base, and joined by a cord 





No. 257. Hawk s Lure. No. 258. Hawk s Bells and Jesses. 

and ring, No. 257 ; also bells with straps to be attached 
to hawks, No. 258. 

Heightened. Raised ; placed above or higher. 

Heights. Applied to plumes of feathers which are arranged 
in rows or sets, one rising above another. See 
Panache. 

Helm, Helmet. Now placed as an accessory above a Shield 
of arms, and bearing its Crest after the fashion in which, 
in the Middle Ages, both Helm and Crest were actually 
worn. A modern usage distinguishes Helms as follows : 
The Sovereign Helm of gold, with six bars, set 
affrontee, No. 259 ; Princes and Noblemen Helm of 
silver, garnished with gold, set in profile, and showing 
five bars, No. 260 ; Baronets and Knights of steel, 

J 



) ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

with silver ornaments, without bars, the vizor raised, set 
affrontee, No. 261 ; Esquires and Gentlemen of steel, 
the vizor closed, and set in profile, Nos. 262, 263. The 
Helms that appear on early Seals and in other heraldic 
compositions till about A.D. 1600, are all set in profile, 




HELMS 
OF 




No. 259. The Sovereign. 



No. 260. Princes and Nobles. 






No. 261. 
Baronets and Knights. 



No. 262. No - 26 3- 

Esquires and Gentlemen. 



and the shield generally hangs from them couch ee, as in 
No. 49. In these early compositions, the shield is 
small in proportion to the helm and its accessories. In 
the Middle Ages, when engaged in actual combat, the 
knights wore a second helm, which rested on their 
shoulders, in addition to their close-fitting basi 
See Panache. , 

Hemp-brake, Hackle. An instrument having saw-teeth, u 

for bruising hemp. 
Heneage Knot. No. 264. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 



Herald. An officer of arms. The Heralds of England 
were incorporated by RICHARD III. ; and from Queen 
MARY, in 1555, they received a grant of Derby House, 
on the site of which, between St. Paul s Cathedral and 
the Thames, stands their present official residence, 
HERALDS COLLEGE, or the COLLEGE OF ARMS. The 
college now consists of three KINGS-OF-ARMS Garter, 
Clarenceux, and Norroy ; six HERALDS, who have 
precedence by seniority of appointment Windsor, 
Chester, Lancaster, Somerset, York, and Richmond ; and 
four PURSUIVANTS Rouge Croix, Rouge Dragon, Blue 
mantle, and Portcullis. The official habit is a Tabard, 
emblazoned with the Royal Arms, and a Collar of SS. 





No. 264. Heneage Knot. 



No. 265. Anns of the Herdds College. 



The Kings have a Crown, formed of a golden circlet, 
from which rise sixteen oak-leaves, nine of which appear 
in representations ; and the circlet itself is charged with 
the words, Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam miseri- 
cordiam tuam (" Have mercy on me, O God, according 
to thy great loving-kindness"). 

The supreme head of the English Heralds, under the 
SOVEREIGN, is the EARL MARSHAL, an office hereditary 
in the family of the DUKE OF NORFOLK. The Arms of 
the College are Arg., a cross gu., between four doves 
their /dexter wings expanded and inverted az. : No. 265 ; 
Crest From a crest-coronet or, a dove rising az. ; Sup- 

J 2 

L 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



porters Two lions ramp, guard, arg., ducally gorged or. 
Each of the Kings has his own official arms, which he 
impales with his paternal coat on the dexter side of the 
shield. The Arms of Garter are Arg., a cross gu. ; 
on a chief az., a ducal coronet encircled with a Garter of 
the Order, between a lion of England and a fleur de lys, 
all or. Clarenceux and Norroy have the same shield, 
but the former has a lion of England only, crowned, on a 
chief gules ; and the latter, on a chief per pale az. and gu., 
has a similar lion between a fleur de lys and a key, all of 

gold. 

There is also another Herald King styled " Bath," 
who is specially attached to the Order of the Bath, and 
has jurisdiction in the principality of Wales ; he is not 
a member of the College. 

" Lord Lyon King-of-Arms" is the chief Herald of 
Scotland ; and the establishment over which he presides 
is styled the " Lyon Office." The Arms of the Office 
zxQArg., a lion sejant affronte gu., 
holding in his dexter paw a thistle 
slipped vert, and in the sinister an 
escutcheon of the second ; on a chief az., 
a saltire of the first : No. 266. 

Ireland is the heraldic province of 
"Ulster King-of-Arms." His official 
No . 266 . armorial ensigns differ from those of 

Arms of Lyon office. Garter only in the charges of the chief, 
which are a lion of England between a golden harp and 
portcullis. 

Herison. A hedgehog. 
Hill, Hillock. A mound of earth. 
Hirondelle. A swallow. 

Hoist. The depth of a flag from chief to base. See / /J 
Honour Point. No. 27 L. 




GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 133 

Humettee. Cut short at the extremities. 

Hurst. A clump of trees. 

Hurte. A blue roundle. 

Illegitimacy, Difference or Abatement of. See Chapter XII. 

Imbrued, Imbued. Stained with blood. 

Impaled. Conjoined per pale. 

Impalement. The act of uniting two (or more) distinct coats 

per pale, to form a single achievement. 
Imperially Crowned. Ensigned with the Crown of England. 
Incensed, Inflamed. On fire ; having fire issuing forth. 
Increscent, in Increment. No. i66B. See Decrescent. 
Indented. No. 38 A. 
Inescutcheon. An heraldic Shield borne as a charge. This 

term is sometimes used to denote an Escutcheon of 

Pretence. 
In bend. Disposed bend-wise ; In Chevron, In Chief, In 

Cross, In Fesse, &c. Disposed after the manner of a 

chevron, or in the chief of the shield, or in the form of 

a cross, &c. 

In Foliage. Bearing leaves. 
In Glory, In Splendour. The sun irradiated. 
In Lure. Wings conjoined, with their tips drooping. 
In Pretence. Placed upon, and in front of. 
In Pride. Having the tail displayed, as a peacock s. 
In Quadrangle. When four charges are so disposed that one 

is in each quarter of the shield. 
Irradiated. Surrounded by rays of light. 
Issuant. Proceeding from, or out of. 
Jambe, Gambe. The leg of a lion, or other beast of prey : 

No. 185. 

Jesses. Straps for hawk s bells. 
fessant. Shooting forth, as plants growing out of the earth. 

Jessant de lys. A combination of a lion s face and a 

fleur-de-lys : No. 267. 



134 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



Joust. A tournament. 

Jupon. A short, sleeveless surcoat, 

from about 1340 to about 1405. 

with armorial insignia, and thus 



worn over armour 
It is often charged 
is a true " coat of 



arms. 



Jowlopped. Having wattles and a comb, as a cock. 

Key. When represented in early blazon, Keys have always 




No. 207. 
Jessant de lys. 




No. 270. 
Hastings Badge. 



T 
Nos. 268, 269. Heraldic Keys. 



elegant forms. No. 268 is from Peterborough Cathedral, 
and No 269 from Exeter. 

King-qf-Arms. See Herald. 

Knighthood, Orders of : Knights. See Chapter XVI. 

Knot. An intertwined cord, borne as a badge. The varieties 
of this device are The Bourchier, No. 219; the Bowen, 
No. 220 ; the Harrington (the same as a Frette),^. 148 ; 
the Heneagc, No. 264; the Lacy, No. 274; the Stafford, 
No. 304 ; and the Wake and Ormond, No. 313. Cords 
were sometimes intertwined about other figures and 
devices, and so formed what may be regarded as Com 
pound Badges, which significantly declared the union of 
two houses : thus, the knot of EDWARD Lord HASTINGS 
unites the Hungerford sickle with the Pelham garbe : 
No. 270 ; and the Dacre knot is entwined about the 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 135 

Dacre escallop and the famous " ragged staff" of 
Beauchamp and Neville : No. 235. 

Laid. A narrow ribbon placed across the field of a shield 
near the chief, and having three, five, or sometimes 
other numbers of points depending from it, its object 
being to mark Cadency. In the early Labels the number 
of the points was arbitrary, the usual numbers being 
five and three ; and, subsequently, three points were 
almost universally used ; the object always was to 
render the Label conspicuous. In blazon a Label is 
supposed to have three points ; but, if more, the number 
is to be specified; thus, No. 271 is simply " a Label" 
but No. 272 is " a Label of five points." Labels appear 



TIT imr 



ZXZSZS 



Labels. No. 271. No. 272. No. 273. 

early in the thirteenth century, and in the next century 
they are in constant use. Various charges may be 
placed on the "points" of Labels to extend their 
capacity for " differencing." Since the time of EDWARD 
the BLACK PRINCE the Label of the PRINCE OF WALES 
has been plain silver. The Label is almost exclusively 
(now without any exception) used in 
Royal Cadency ; but, in modern 
Heraldry, in the case of all other 
persons it is the peculiar mark of the 
eldest son. The Label is borne as a 
charge. It has become a usage in the 
degenerate days of Heraldry to repre 
sent the Label as in No. 273, instead Na *-^ Knot. 
of the earlier and far preferable forms of Nos. 271, 272. 
Lacy Knot. No. 274. 




136 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Lambrequin. A mantling. 
^^ Langued. To denote the tincture of an animal s tongue. 

Leaves. Their peculiarities are to be blazoned, as laurel 
leaves, oak leaves, &c. 

Leopard, Leoparde. See page 84. 

Letters of the Alphabet sometimes are Charges. Thus, the 
Arms of the Deanery of Canterbury are Az., on a cross 
arg., the letter " x" surmounted by the letter "i" sable: the 
" x" is on the cross at the intersection of its limbs, and 
the "i" is above it. 

Line, or Border Line. No. 38. 

Lined. Having a cord attached : also, having a lining. 

Lion. See page 83. 

Lioncel. A lion drawn to a small scale, and generally ram 
pant, Nos. 114, 115, 197. 

Livery Colours. Of the PLANTAGENETS, as one family, white 
and scarlet ; of the house of YORK, blue and crimson; of 
the house of LANCASTER, white and blue; of the house of 
TUDOR, white and green ; of the house of STUART, gold 
and scarlet; of the house of HANOVER, in England, scarlet 
and blue. In the middle ages, all great families had 
their own livery colours. 

Lodged. A term denoting animals of the chase when at rest 
or in repose, Nos. 25, 26. 

Lozenge. A square figure set diagonally, No. 47 (also see 
page 69). The armorial insignia of ladies, with the sole 
exception of the Sovereign, are blazoned on a Lozenge 
instead of an Escutcheon. 

Lozengy. A field divided lozengewise : No. 145. 

Luce. The fish now called a pike. See page 77, and No. 
164. 

Lure. See In Lure. 

Lymphad. An ancient galley, No. 275, the feudal ensign of 
the Scottish lordship of LORN, and as such quartered by 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 1.37 

the Duke of ARGYLL. A Lymphad sable, on waves of the 
sea, is also borne on a field argent by the PRINCE OF 
WALES, as " LORD OF THE ISLES." 

Maintenance, Cap of. See Chapeau. 

Manche, Maunche. A lady s sleeve with a long pendent 





No. 275. Lymphad. No. 276. Arms of Hastings. 

lappet, worn in the time of HENRY I., and borne as an 
armorial charge by the family of HASTINGS, and by some 
others. HASTINGS (H. 3) Or, a manche gu.: No. 276. 

Mantle. A flowing robe worn over the armour, or over their 
ordinary costume, by personages of distinction of both 
sexes : the mantles of ladies were commonly decorated 
with armorial blazonry. 

Mantling, or Lambrequin. A small mantle of some rich 
materials, attached to the knightly basinet or helm, and 
worn hanging down and ending in tassels. It is usually 
represented with jagged edges, to represent the cuts 
to which it would be exposed in actual battle : No. 199. 
(See Panache^} Mantlings blazoned with achievements of 
arms are sometimes adjusted in folds to form a back 
ground to the composition, and they are also occasion 
ally differenced with various charges. 

Marquess, Marquis. The second order of the British 




138 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Peerage, in rank next to that of Duke. This rank and 
title were introduced into England in 1387, by RICHARD 
II., who then created his favourite, ROBERT DE VERE, 
Marquess of DUBLIN. The next creation was by HENRY 
VI. A Marquess is " Most Honourable ;" he is styled 
" My Lord Marquess :" all his sons are " Lords," and 
his daughters "Ladies;" his eldest son bears his 
father s "second title." The Coronet, apparently con 
temporary in its present form with that of Dukes, 
has its golden circlet heightened with four strawberry 
leaves and as many pearls, 
arranged alternately : in repre 
sentations two of the pearls, 
and one leaf and two half- 
leaves are shown, No. 277. 

277. Coronet of Marquess. 

The wife of a Marquess is a 

" Marchioness ; " her style corresponds with that of her 
husband, and her coronet is the same. 

Marshalling. The disposition of more than one distinct 
coat of arms upon a shield, so forming a single compo 
sition ; or the aggroupment of two or more distinct 
shields, so as to form a single composition; also the 
association of such accessories as the helm, mantling, 
crest, &c., and of knightly and other insignia with a 
shield of arms, thus again forming a single heraldic 
composition. See Chapter XL 

Mart el. A hammer. 

Martlet. The heraldic Martin, usually represented without 
feet: Nos. 160, 161, and 70 and 86. 

Masde. An elongated Lozenge : No. 143. Masculee. A 
field divided mascle-wise. 

Masoned. Representing brickwork. 

Membered. To denote the legs of a bird. 

Merchant s mark. A device, adopted as early as 1400 by 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 139 

merchants, as a substitute for heraldic ensigns which 
were not conceded to them. They are the predecessors 
of the Trade-brands and Marks of after times. 

Mermaid, Merman or Triton. The well-known fabulous 
creatures of the sea, borne occasionally as charges, but 
more frequently as badges or crests. A mermaid was 
the device of Sir WILLIAM DE BRIVERE, who died in 
1226, and it is the badge of the BERKELEYS. 

Metal. The Tinctures Or and Argent : Nos. 50, 51. 

Mill-rind. See Fer-de-Moline. 

Mitre. The ensign of archiepiscopal and episcopal rank, 
placed above the arms of prelates of the Church of 
England, sometimes borne as a charge, and adopted by 
the BERKELEYS as their crest. The contour of the mitre 
has varied considerably at different periods, the early 
examples being low and concave in their sides, the 
later lofty and convex. See No. 159. 

Moline. A cross terminating like a Fer-de-moline, No. 97. 
In modern cadency it is the difference of the eighth son. 

Moon. No. 1 66, page 80. 

Motto. A word, or very short sentence, placed generally 
below a shield, but sometimes above a crest, and 
probably derived from the " war-cries " of early times. 
A motto may be emblematical, or it may have some 
allusion to the person bearing it, or to his name and 
armorial insignia ; or it may be the epigrammatic ex 
pression of some sentiment in special favour with the 
bearer of it. As a matter of course, allusive mottoes, 
like allusive arms, afford curious examples of mediaeval 
puns. I give a few characteristic examples : " Vero nil 
verms" (nothing truer than truth, or, no greater verily 
than in Vere) VERE ; " Fare,fac" (Speak act ; that is, 
a word and blow) FAIRFAX ; " Cave " (beware) CAVE ; 
"Cavendo tutus" (safe, by caution, or by Cavendisfi) 



140 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

CAVENDISH ; " Set on" says SETON ; " Fight on" quoth 
FITTON ; " Festina lente" (On slow push forward, but 
be cautious, that is), adds ONSLOW. Again : JEFFERAY 
says, "Je feray ce que je diray " (/ shall be true to my 
word) ; SCUDAMORE Scutum amoris divini (the shield of 
Divine love] ; says ]pMK$"J aimejamais " (/ love ever); 
says ESTWICK " Est hie" (he is here}; and POLE _ 
" Pollet virtus" (valour prevails) ; and TEY " Tats en 
temps" (be silent in time). The crest of CHARTERIS, an 
arm with the hand grasping a sword, has over it " This 
our charter is" In his arms the Marquess CHOLMONDELEY 
bears two helmets, and his motto is " Cassis tutissima 
virtus " (valour is the safest helm} ; the crest of the 
MARTINS of Dorsetshire was an ape, with the significant 
motto "He who looks at Martiris ape, Martin s ape shall 
look at him!" The motto of PERCEVAL is "Perse 
valens" (strong in himself}; but, "Do no yll" quoth 
DOYLE. Some " lippes," as Camden remarks, have a 
taste for " this kind of lettuce." 

Mound. A globe, encircled and arched over with rich 
bands, and surmounted by a cross-pate e, the whole an 
ensign of the royal estate, which is placed upon the 





No. 278. Mullet. No. 279. Mullet, pierced. 

intersecting arches of the crown of the SOVEREIGN ; and 
it also surmounts the single arch of the coronet of the 
PRINCE OF WALES : Nos. 234, 289. 

Mount. A green hill represented in the base of a shield. 

Mullet. A star, generally of five, but sometimes of six or 
more points (if more than five the number to be 
specified), always formed by right lines, as No. 278. A 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 141 

mullet is sometimes " pierced," as in No. 279, when the 
tincture of the field is generally apparent through the 
circular aperture. In modern cadency it is the 
difference of the third son. See Estoile. 

Mural Crown. Represents masonry, and is embattled : 
No. 280. 

Naiant. Swimming in fesse. See Hauriant. 

Naissant. Issuant, but applied only to living creatures. 





No. 280. Mural Crown. No. 281. Naval Crown. 

Naval Crown. Has its circlet heightened with figures of 

the stern and the hoisted sail of a ship alternating: 

No. 281. 

Nebulee. No. 381*. 
Nerved. Having fibres, as leaves. 
Nimbus. A glory about the head of a figure of a sainted 

personage : sometimes used to denote sanctity in a 

symbolical device. 
Nimbed. Having the head encircled with a Nimbus-, usually 

represented by a circular line. See No. 212. 
Norroy. See Herald. 
Nova Scotia, Badge of. See Baronet. 
Nowed. Coiled in a knot, as a snake. 
Ogress. A Pellet, or black roundle. 
Opinicus. A fabulous heraldic monster, a dragon before, 

and a lion behind with a camel s tail. 
Oppressed. Debruised, 
Or. The metal gold : No. 50. 
Ordinary. An early principal charge of a simple character. 



142 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

See Chapter VI., and Nos. 71 128: see also 
page 14. 

Ordinary of arms. A list of armorial bearings, classified and 
arranged alphabetically, with the names of the bearers. 
See Armory. 

Oreiller. A cushion or pillow, generally with tassels. 
Y Orle. A Subordinary formed of a border of a Shield, which 
is charged upon another and a larger shield, as in No. 
134. /;/ Orle. Arranged after the manner of an Orle, 
forming a border to a Shield, as in No. 86. 
Ostrich feathers. A Royal Badge : also a Device in a few 
instances charged by Royal and some other personages 
on an Armorial Shield. See Chapter XV. 
Over all, or Sur tout. To denote some one charge being 

placed over all others. 
Overt. With expanded wings. 

Pale. One of the Ordinaries : No. 87. Pale-wise, or In 
Pale. Disposed after the manner of a Pale that is, 
set vertically, or arranged vertically one above another, 
as are the Lions of England in No. 187, page 87. 
Pall, Pallium. A vestment peculiar to Archbishops of the 
Roman Church : in Heraldry, as a charge, half only of 
the pall is shown, when it resembles the letter Y; it 
is borne in the arms of the Sees of CANTERBURY, 

ARMAGH, and DUBLIN. 
Pallet. Half a /W*. 

Palmer s Staff, Pilgrhrts staff, or Bourdon. No. 
282. JOHN BOURDON (H. 3) bears Arg., three 
palmer s staves gu. 

Paly. Divided per pale into an even number of 
NO 282 parts, which all lie in the same plane, as in 
Bourdon. No. 88. Paly Bendy. Divided evenly pale-wise, 

and also bend-wise, No. 118. 
Panache. A plume of feathers, generally of the ostrich, 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 



143 



set upright and borne as a crest. A panache some 
times consists of a single row of feathers ; but more 
generally it has two or more rows or "heights" of 
feathers, rising one above the other. In the greater 
number of examples the tips of the feathers are erect ; 
in others they wave, or slightly bend over. A panache 
may be charged with some device or figure, " for dif 
ference," as by the TYNDALLS, with an ermine circlet, a 
martlet, and a fleur de lys. In Nos. 283, 285, from the 
seals of EDWARD COURTENAY, and EDMUND MORTIMER 






No. 283. 
Edward Courtenay. 



PANACHE CRESTS : 

No. 284. 
William le Latimer. 



No. 285. 
Edmund Mortimer. 



(A.D. 1400 and 1372) the "heights" both expand and 
rise in a curved pyramidal form. No. 284, from the seal 
of WILLIAM LE LATIMER (A.D. 1372), shows a remark 
able variety of both panache and mantling. Waving 
plumes formed of distinct feathers first appear near the 
end of the fifteenth century, and are prevalent during 
the sixteenth century. 

Party, Parted. Divided. 

Pascuant. Grazing. 



144 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Passant. Walking and looking forward: No. 173. Passant 
Guardant, walking and looking out from the shield, 
No. 174 : Passant Reguardant, walking and looking back : 
Passant Repassant, walking in opposite directions. 

Pastoral Staff. The official staff of a bishop or abbot, 
having a crooked head, and so distinguished from an 
archbishop s crozier. 

Patee, or Form ee. ) . . , . , ... 

_, I Varieties of the heraldic Cross. Nos. 

Patonce. , 

\ 106, QQ, and <K. 
Patriarchal. 

Pean. The Fur, No. 60. 

Peer. That general title, expressing their equality as mem 
bers of a distinct " order " in the realm, which is 
applied to the Nobility of the United Kingdom. 

Peerage. The rank of a Peer ; a list of the Peers. 

Pegasus. A horse with wings a classic as well as an 
heraldic imaginary creature. 






No. 288. A Portcullis. No. 286. A Pennon. No. 287. A Pheon. 

Pelican. Blazoned " in her piety," when feeding her young 

with her own blood. 
Pellet. A black roundle. 
Pendent. Drooping. 
Pennon. An armorial lance-flag, pointed or swallow-tailed at 

the fly, borne by knights. No. 286 is from the Brass to 

Sir JOHN D AUBERNOUN, A.D. 1279; the arms are Az., a 

chevron or. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 145 

Per. By means of, or after the manner of. 

Pheon. A pointed spear-head, borne with the point in base, 

No. 287. 
Phoenix. A fabulous eagle, always represented as issuant 

from flames. 
Pile. One of the Ordinaries, in form like a wedge, Nos. 

126, 127, 128. In Pile. Arranged after the form of a 

pile. 
Planta Genista. The broom-plant badge of the Plantagenets, 

No. 21. 

Plate. A silver roundle. 

Plenitude. The moon when fall. See No. 166. 
Plume. See Panache. 

Points of Shield. No. 27. In Point is the same as In Pile. 
Pomme. A green roundle. 
Popinjay. A parrot (H. 3). 

Port. A gateway, as the entrance to a castle : No. 222. 
Portcullis. A defence for a gateway, No. 288 : the badge of 

the Houses of BEAUFORT and TUDOR, borne by the former 

with the significant motto, "Alter a securitas" (additional 

security). 
Potent. A variety of the heraldic cross, No. 108 ; also a Fur 

No. 64. 

Powdered, Poudree. The same as Semee. 
Preying. When an animal devours its prey. See Trussing. 
Prince, Princess. The rank and title of the members of the 

Royal Family. Their style is " Your Royal Highness." 

The coronet of the Prince of Wales differs from the 
t crown of the Queen, only in having a single arch, 

instead of two intersecting arches : No. 289. The 

coronets of the Princes and Princesses, the sons and 

daughters of the Queen, are the same as the coronet of 

the Prince of Wales, but without any arch : No. 290. 

The coronets of the Princes and Princesses, the grand- 

K 



146 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



children of the Queen, differ in having the circlet 
heightened with two crosses patee, as many strawberry 
leaves, and four fleurs-de-lys, No. 291 ; and the coronets 
of the Royal cousins of the Queen have the circlet 



CORONETS : 





No. 289. 
Prince of Wales. 



No. 290. 
Queen s Daughters and Younger Sons. 





No. 291. Queen s Grandchildren. 



No. 292. Queen s Cousins. 



heightened with four crosses patee, and as many straw 
berry leaves. No. 292. For the arms of their Royal 
Highnesses, see Chapter XVIII. 

Purfled. Lined and bordered with fur. 

Purpure. A colour: No. 56. 

Pursuivant. A Herald of the lowest rank. In the Middle 
Ages, these officers were attached to the households of 
personages of high rank, and bore titles generally taken 
from the armorial insignia of their lords. 

Quadrate. A form of cross : No. 94. 

Quarter. The first (from the dexter chief) of the divisions 
of a shield that is parted per cross, as in No. 30 ; also 
any other division of a shield, to be specified in blazon 
ing. See No. 36, and Canton. 

Quartering. Marshalling two or more coats of arms in the 
different quarters of the same shield. When two coats 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 147 

are thus quartered, the one in the first quarter is repeated 
in the fourth, and the one in the second in the third ; 
when three are quartered, the first quartering is repeated 
in the fourth quarter. Any required number of coats 
may be quartered on the same principle. This same 
term is also applied to denote the dividing a shield 
"quarterly" as in No. 30, or into more than four divi 
sions, as in No. 36. 

Quarterly. A shield divided into four divisions, as in No. 
30 : each division to contain a complete coat of arms, 
or a distinct heraldic device or composition. Should the 
shield be divided into more than four sections, the num 
ber is to be specified: thus, No. 36 is "quarterly of 
eight" &c. See Nos. 252, 253. 

Quarterly Quartering and Quartered. The quartering of a 
" quarter" of a shield that is divided " quarterly ;" also 
distinguished as " Compound Quartering." See page 34. 

Quatrefoil or Primrose. A flower or figure having four foils 
or conjoined leaves, No. 293. In modern cadency a 
Double Quatrefoil is the difference of the ninth son. 

Queue Fourchee. Having a double tail, or two tails ; No. 181. 

Quilled. Used to blazon the quills of feathers : thus, a blue 





No. 293. Quatrefoil. No. 294. The Ragged Staff Badge. 

feather having its quill golden is blazoned A feather 

az., quilled or. 

Radiant, Rayonee. Encircled with rays. 
Ragulee, Raguly. Serrated, as No. 38 G. A "ragged staff," 

K 2 



143 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

No. 294, is a part of a stem from which the branches 
have been cut off roughly. This "ragged staff," or 
"staff ragulee" is the famous badge of the BEAU- 
CHAMPS, and, derived from them, of the NEVILLES. 
No. 294 is from the monument of the great Earl, 
RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP, K.G., who died in 1439, at 
Warwick. 

Rampant, Rampant Guardant and Reguardant. Nos. 171, 
172 ; when reguardant, the animal looks backward. 

Rebated. Cut short, or broken off. 

Rebus. An allusive charge or device. A cask, or tun, to 
represent the final syllable "ton" of many surnames is 
frequently found. I give a few examples of several 
varieties of Rebus: JOHN OXNEY, Canterbury An 
eagle (the emblem of St. John the Evangelist, to denote 
"John") standing on an ox, charged on its side with 
the letters N E. JOHN WHEATHAMSTEDE, St. Albans 
An eagle and an Agnus Dei (the emblems of St. John 
the Evangelist and St. John the Baptist, to denote 
"John"), and clusters si ears of wheat. JOHN RAMRYGE, 
St. Albans A ram, gorged with a collar inscribed with 
the letters R Y G E. WOODSTOCK The stump or stock 
of a tree. Abbot ISLIP, Westminster A man falling from 
a tree, exclaiming, "I slip!" and a human eye, and a 
slip (small branch of a tree). WALTER LYHART, Norwich 
A hart (stag) /j ing down in water. An owl, with the 
letters D O M on a scroll in its beak, for Bishop OLDHAM, 
at Exeter. A church (f kirk") on a tun, with a pastoral 
staff and the initial R, for Abbot ROBERT KIRTON, No. 
295 ; and a bird on a tun, and a tree growing out of 
a tun, for BURTON and ASHTON, all at Peterborough. 
At Wells, with an initial T, a fas-beacon planted in 
a tun, for Bishop THOMAS BECKYNGTON, No. 296 ; and 
at Lullinstone, Kent, in stained glass, the shield of Sir 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 



I 49 



JOHN PECHE, A.D. 1522 Az., a lion rampt. queue 
fourchee erm., crowned or is encircled \sy peach-branches 




No. 295. 
Rebus of Abbot Kirton. 




No. 296. 
Rebus of Bishop Beckyngtocu 




No. 297. Arms and Rebus of Sir John Peche. 

fructed and in foliage, each peach being charged with the 
letter E, No. 297 ; the crest-wreath also is formed of a. 
similar peach-branch. 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



Recercelee. A variety of the heraldic cross: No. 98. 

Reflexed, Reflected. Curved and carried backwards. 

Regiiardant. Looking backwards : see No. 182. 

Rein-deer. A hart with double antlers, one pair erect, the 
other drooping. 

Removed. Out of its proper position. 

Respecting. Face to face applied to creatures not of a fierce 
nature. 

Rest. See Clarion, No. 228. 

Retorted. Intertwined. 

Ribbon, Riband. A diminutive of a Bend. 

Rising, Ronssant. About to fly. 

Rompu. Broken. 

Rose. Represented in blazon as in Nos. 298, 299, and 
without leaves. The five small projecting leaves of the 
calyx, that radiate about the flower itself, are styled 
barbs, and when they are blazoned " proper" these 





Nos. 298, 299. Heraldic Roses. 




No. 300. Rose-en-Soleil. 



barbs are green, as the "seeds" in the centre of the 
flower are golden. Both the "red rose" of LANCASTER 
and the "white rose" of YORK, but more especially the 
latter, are at times surrounded with rays, and each is 
termed a "rose-en-soleil" No. 300. The rose, the emblem 
of ENGLAND, is generally drawn like the natural flower ; 
or with natural stem, branches, leaves, and buds, but with 
heraldic rose-flowers. In modern cadency the heraldic 
rose is the difference of the seventh son. 
Roundle. See page 72. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 151 

Rustre. A mascle pierced with a circular opening: No. 144. 

Sable. The colour black : No. 54. 

Sagittary. The fabulous centaur, half man and half horse, 
the badge (as it would seem) of King Stephen. 

Salamander. An imaginary being, supposed to live in 
flames of fire ; it is represented sometimes as a kind of 
lizard, and at other times (as in the crest of Earl 
DOUGLAS, A.D. 1483) as a quadruped somewhat like a 
dog, breathing flames. 

Salient. Leaping or bounding. 

Saltire. An ordinary, in form a diagonal cross: Nos. 120, 
121, 122. Saltire-wise, or in saltire. Arranged after 
the form of a saltire. 

Sanglier. A wild boar. 

Sans. Without. " Sans nombre? without any number fixed 
or specified ; differing from semee in not having parts of 
charges. 

Sarcellee. Cut through the centre. 

Savage-man, or Wood-man. A wild man, naked except large 
wreaths of leaves about his head and loins, and carry 
ing a club. 

Saw, or Frame-saw, Borne in the crest of HAMILTON, Duke 
of HAMILTON, which is thus blazoned Out of a crest- 
coronet or, an oak-tree fructed and penetrated transversely 
in the main stem by a frame-saw ppr., the frame gold; 
above the crest the motto, "THROUGH !" This device is 
said to commemorate the escape into Scotland, in 1323, 
of Sir GILBERT HAMILTON, a reputed ancestor of the 
present ducal house. At the court of EDWARD II. Sir 
Gilbert had unadvisedly expressed admiration for ROBERT 
BRUCE, on which JOHN LE DESPENCER struck him. Des- 
pencer fell in single combat the next day, and Hamilton 
fled, hotly pursued, northward. Near the border the 
fugitive and a faithful esquire joined some wood-cutters, 





152 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

assumed their dress, and commenced working with them 
on an oak, when the pursuers passed by. Hamilton, 
saw in hand, observed his esquire anxiously watching 
their enemies as they passed, and at once 
recalled his attention to his woodman s 
duties by the word, "Through!" thus, 
at the same time, appearing to consider 
the cutting down the oak to be far more 
important than the presence of the 
strangers. So they passed by, and 
Hamilton followed in safety. This crest 
does not appear in the Hamilton seals 
NO. 3 oi.-Crest fti i 0n g a f ter tne days of Bruce and his 

of Hamilton. 

admirer, Sir Gilbert : No. 301. 

Scarpe, Escarpe. A diminutive of a Bend sinister. 

Scintillant. Emitting sparks. 

Seax. A Saxon sword. 

Seeded, Having seeds or seed-vessels, as in the centre of an 
heraldic rose. See Nos. 298 300. 

Segreant. A gryffin or wyvern rampant. 

Sejant. Sitting. 

Semee, or Aspersed. Sown broadcast or scattered, without 
any fixed number, over the field ; parts of the charge 
thus semee appearing at the border-lines of the compo 
sition. See Nos. 247, 250, 252. 

Seruse, Cerise. A Tortcau. 

Shake-fork. Resembles the letter Y, but does not extend to 
the margin of the shield, and is pointed at its extremities. 

Shamrock. A trefoil plant or leaf, the badge of IRELAND. 

Shield or Escutcheon. The Shield of Heraldry is fully de 
scribed at page 32. See also Nos. 27, 39 49. 

Ship. Sometimes blazoned as a modern vessel, but 
generally as an ancient galley. See Lymphad. 

Shoveller. A species of duck. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 



T 53 



Simple Quartering. Dividing a shield quarterly, with the 
quartering of any of the quarters. See Quartering. 

Sinister. The left side. No. 27. 

Simple. The colour vert in French Heraldry. 

Sixfoil. A flower of six leaves : No. 302. 

Slipped. Pulled or torn off, as a leaf or branch : No. 309. 

Spear. The spear or lance, the knightly weapon, is not of 
common occurrence in blazon ; but it appears, with 
heraldic propriety, in the arms granted 
in 1596 to the father of the great 
poet, who also bore Or, on a bend 
sa. a spear gold, the head arg. the 
arms of SHAKESPEARE, No. 303. 
(In the woodcut the bend is acci 
dentally shaded for gules, instead of 
sable.} 

Spur. Not common as an heraldic 

charge. Before about 1320 the knightly spur had a 
single point, and was known as the " pryck-spur ; " 
about that time appeared a " rouelle-spur " of simple 
form ; in the middle of the fifteenth century spurs of 
extravagant length were introduced. 




No. 303. 
Arms of Shakespeare. 




No. 302. Sixfoil. 





.Stafford Knot. 



No. 305. Staple Badge. 



SS., Collar of . See Collar, and No. 231. 

Stafford-knot. No. 304. 

Stall-plate. A plate bearing the arms of a knight and placed 
in his stall. The stall-plates of the Knights of the 
GARTER and the BATH are severally placed in the Chapels 



154 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

of ST. GEORGE and of HENRY VII., at Windsor and 
Westminster. The earliest plates now in existence at 
Windsor, though many of them bear arms of an earlier 
date, were executed about 1430. 

Standard. A long narrow flag, introduced, for the pur 
pose of heraldic display, in the time of EDWARD III., 
but not in general use till a later period. Standards 
generally had the Cross of ST. GEORGE next the staff, 
to which succeeded the badge or badges and the motto 
of the owner. See Chapter XVII. 

Staple. Borne by STAPLETON : No. 305 represents a badge 
formed of two staples. 

Statant. Standing. 

Star. See Estoile and Mullet; also a knightly decoration. 

Stirrup. Borne, with appropriate straps and buckles, by 
SCUDAMORE, GIFFARD, and a few others. 

Stock. The stump of a tree, 

Stringed. As a harp ; or, suspended by, or fastened with, a 
string. 

Subverted. Reversed. 

Sun. When represented shining and surrounded with rays, 
he has a representation of a human face upon his disc, 
and is blazoned " In splendour" or " In glory ." when 
" eclipsed" the representation is the same, but tinctured 
sable. Sunbeams, or Rays, are borne in blazon, and form 
an early charge. See Collar. 

Supercharge. A charge that rests upon anot!~>er. 

Supporter. A figure of whatsoever kind that stands by a 
Shield of arms, as if supporting or guardirg it. Single 
Supporters occasionally appear, but the general usage is 
to have a pair of Supporters one on each side of the 
supported Shield. They came gradually into use in the 
course of the fourteenth century, but were not regularly 
established as accessories of Shields till about 142,5, or 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 155 

rather later. At first they were generally alike, but 
subsequently the more prevalent custom was that the 
two Supporters should differ, as in the case of the 
Royal Supporters, the Lion and the Unicorn, famous in 
History as in Heraldry. See Bearer, Tenant, and also 
Chapter XVI. 

Surcoat. Any garment worn over armour ; but especially 
the .long flowing garment worn by knights over their 
armour until about 1325, when its form was modified by 
cutting it short in front, and it was distinguished as a 
Cyclas. See Jupon. 

Surmounted. Placed over another. 

Sustained. Having a lower (and only a lower) narrow 
border. 

Swan. When blazoned "proper" white with red beak and 
legs. It is the badge of the BOHUNS, and of their 
descendants the LANCASTRIAN PLANTAGENETS, the 
STAFFORDS, and some others. This Swan has his neck 
encircled with a coronet, from which a chain generally 
passes over his back. By HENRY V., the Swan badge 
of his mother, MARY DE BOHUN, was borne with the 
wings overt, or expanded. 

Sword. When borne as a charge, straight in the blade, 
pointed, and with a cross-guard. All the appointments 
of the weapon are to be blazoned. 
It appears, as a spiritual emblem, in 
several episcopal coats of arms ; in 
the arms of the CITY OF LONDON, 
No. 306, the first quarter of a Shield 
of ST. GEORGE (arg., a cross gu.) is 
charged with a sword erect gules, No - 3<5. 

. , Arms of City of London. 

the emblem of ST. PAUL, the special 

patron of the English metropolitan city. The sword 

is also borne in blazon in its military capacity. 




156 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 




No. 307. 
Tabard; A.D. 1444. 



Tabard. A short garment with sleeves, worn by knights 
of the Tudor era. It has the arms blazoned on the 
sleeves as well as on the front and back : No. 307, the 
Tabard of WILLIAM FYNDERNE, 
Esquire, from his brass, A.D. 1444, 
at Childrey in Berkshire : the arms 
are Arg., a chevron between three 
crosses patee sable, the ordinary being 
charged with an annulet of the field 
"for Difference." A similar gar 
ment is the official habit of heralds. 
Tau, Tau-Cross. A cross formed like 
the letter T, so called in Greek, 
No. 93 ; borne as a charge in the 
arms of DRURY, TAWKE, and some 
others : this charge is also called 
the Cross of ST. ANTHONY : it is 
sometimes borne on a badge, as in the Bishop s Palace 
at Exeter. See Chapter XV. 
Templars, Knights. See Chapter XIX. 
Tenent, Tenant. Used by French Heralds to distinguish 

human figures from animals, as supporters. 
Tennee or Tawney. A deep orange-colour; 
in use in the Middle Ages as a livery- 
colour. 

Thistle. The national Badge of SCOTLAND, 
represented after its national aspect, 
and tinctured proper. JAMES I. of 
Great Britain, to symbolise the union 
of the two realms of England and 
Scotland, compounded a Badge from Badge of James i. 
the Rose of one realm, and the Thistle 
of the other, united by impalement under a single 
crown : No. 308. The impaled rose and thistle is borne 




No. 308. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 157 

by the Earl of KINNOULL, repeated eight times upon a 
b ordure. 

Timbre. In the early Heraldry of England, this term denotes 
the true heraldic crest : but, in the modern Heraldry of 
France, the "timbre" is the Helm in an armorial 
achievement. Timbred. Ensigned with a Helm ; or, if 
referring to an early English achievement, with a Crest. 

Tiercee, In tierce, Per tierce. Divided vertically into three 
equal parts : No. 35. 

Tinctures. The two metals and the five colours of Heraldry : 
Nos. 50 56. See page 40. It was one of the puerile 
extravagancies of the Heralds of degenerate days to 
distinguish the Tinctures by the names of the Planets 
in blazoning the arms of Sovereign Princes, and by the 
names of Gems in blazoning the arms of Nobles. 

Torse. A crest-wreath. 

Torteau, plural torteaux. A red spherical Roundle: No. 152. 

Tower, Turret. A small castle. Towered. Surmounted by 
towers, as No. 222, which is a " Castle triple towered." 

Transfluent. Flowing through. Transmuted. Counter- 
changed. Transposed. Reversed. 

Traversed. Facing or inclining to the sinister. 

Trefoil. A leaf of three conjoined foils, generally borne 
" slipped," as in No. 309. 

Trefiee, or Botonee. A variety of the cross : No. 

103. Treflee also implies semee of trefoils. No 

Trtille, Trellis. See page 71, and No. 150. Trefoil sniped. 

Treasure. A subordinary. See pages 66, 67; and Nos. 
135138. 

Tricked. Sketched with pen and ink in outline. 

Tripping. In easy motion, as a stag. See page 81 : and 
No. 168. 

Triton. See Mermaid. 

Trivet. A circular or triangular iron frame, with three feet, 
borne by the family of TRYVETT. 





158 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Trumpet. In blazon a long straight tube, expanding at its 
extremity : No. 310, from the brass to Sir R. DE 
TRUMPINGTON, at Trumpingdon, near Cam 
bridge ; A.D. 1272. 
Trussed. With closed wings. Trussing. Devouring 

applied to birds of prey. 

Tudor Rose. An heraldic rose, quarterly gu. and 
arg. ; or a white heraldic rose, charged upon a 
red one. 
Tun. A cask ; the rebus of the final syllable TON 

in many surnames. See Rebus. 
NO. 3 io. 2\nes. Branches of a stag s antlers. See Attires. 

Irumpet. * 

Ulster. See Baronet and Herald. 

Undy, Undee. Wavy : No. 38 c. 

Unguled. Hoofed. 

Unicorn. A well-known fabulous animal, famous as the 
sinister supporter of the Royal Shield of England. 

Union Jack. The National Ensign of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland, fully described in Chapter 
XVII. It is borne on a Shield, charged in pretence 
upon the Escutcheon of the Duke of WELLINGTON. 

Uriant. A fish when it swims in a vertical position, head 
downwards. The reverse of Hauriant. 

Vair. A Fur: Nos. 61, 62, 63. 

Vane. See Fan. 

Verdy, Verdoy, Verdee. Semee of leaves or plants. 

Vert. In French Heraldry, Sinople. The colour green : 
No. 55. 

Vervels, Varvals. Small rings. 

Vested. Clothed. 

Vigilant. Watching for prey, as a beast or bird of prey. 

Viscount. The fourth degree of rank and dignity in the 
British Peerage, in Latin Vice-Comes, introduced by 
HENRY VI., A.D. 1440. A Viscount is " Right Honour- 




No. 311. 
Viscount s Coronet. 



GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 159 

able," and is styled " My Lord." All his sons and 
daughters are " Honourable." His Coronet, granted 
by JAMES I., has a row of sixteen 
pearls, of comparatively small size 
set on the circlet ; in representa 
tions nine are shown: No. 311. 
The wife of a Viscount is a 
Viscoiuitess, who has the same rank, style, and coronet 
as her husband. 

Vivre. An early term, fallen into general disuse; but 
apparently denoting a Barrulet or 
Cotise Dancettee; as in No. 312, at 
St. Michael s Church, St. Alban s. 
Voided. Having the central area re 
moved. 

Voiders. Diminutives of Planches. 
Volant. Flying. Vorant. Devouring. 
Vol. Two bird s wings conjoined, hav 
ing the appearance of an eagle dis 
played without its body : No. 207. 
Vulned. Wounded. 
Wake Knot. No. 313. 
Walled, Mnrallee. Made to represent brick or stone-work. 




No. 312. 

Shield at St. Michael s 
Church, St. Alban s. 






No. 313. Wake Knot. 



No. 315. Wyvern. No 314. Catherine Wheel. 



Water Bougct. No. 218. 

Wattled. Having a comb and gills, as a cock. 

Wavy, Undee. No. 38 c. 



l6o ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Wheat-sheaf. See Garbe. 

Wheel, Catherine Wheel Has curved spikes projecting from 

its rim: No. 314: from a shield upon a boss, about 

A.D. 1400, in the south choir-aisle of the church of Great 

Yarmouth. 
Wreath, Orle, Crest- Wreath. See Crest- Wreath, and 

No. 233 ; also Chapter XIV. 
Wreathed. Adorned with a wreath, chaplet, or garland; 

or twisted into the form of a wreath, &c. 
Wyvern, Wivern. A fabulous creature, being a species of 

dragon with two legs, and represented having its tail 

noived : No. 315. 



CHAPTER XI. 

MARSHALLING. 

Aggroupment Combination Quartering Dimidiation Impalement 
Escutcheon of Pretence Marshalling the Arms of Widowers , 
Widows and others ; Official Arms ; and, the Accessories of Shields. 



" Marshalling is a conjoining of diverse Coats in one Shield." GUILLIM. 

UPON this concise definition, Guillim, in another part of his 
work, adds the following comment : " Marshalling is an 
orderly disposing of sundry Coat Armours pertaining to 
distinct Families, and their contingent ornaments, with their 
parts and appurtenances, in their proper places." Hence it 
is apparent that this term, " Marshalling," implies, 

1. First, the bringing together and the disposition of two 
or more distinct " Coats in one Shield :" 

2. Secondly, the aggroupment of two or more distinct Coats 
to form a single heraldic composition, the Shields being 
still kept distinct from one another : and, 

3. Thirdly, the association of certain insignia with a Shield 
of arms, so as to produce a complete heraldic achieve 
ment. 

The association of " Arms " with Names, Dignities, and 
Estates would necessarily require, at an early period in the 
history of Heraldry, the establishment of some regular and 
recognised system for the combination and aggroupment of 
various distinct coats and insignia, whenever a single indi- 

L 



1 62 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

vidual became the representative of more than one family, 
or was the hereditary possessor of several dignities and 
properties. 

Again : it would be equally necessary that this system 
should extend to the becoming heraldic declaration and 
record of Alliances of every kind, including (a matter of no 
little importance in the Middle Ages) feudal dependence. 

In another, and a secondary sense, this same term, 
Marshalling, is used by Heralds to denote the general ar 
rangement and disposition of heraldic charges and insignia 
in blazon upon the field of a Shield. 

In its simplest form, MARSHALLING is effected by Ag- 
groupment without Combination by placing two or more 
Shields of arms, that is, in such positions as to form a con 
nected group of distinct Shields, either with or without 
various accessories. Seals afford excellent examples of 
Marshalling of this order. These Seals may be classified in 
two groups, one, in which an effigy appears; and a second, 
in which the composition does not include any effigy. Here 
I may observe that the same armorial blazonry that was dis 
played upon their military surcoats by Princes, Nobles, and 
Knights, was adopted by Ecclesiastics for the decoration of 
their official vestments, and also (towards the close of the 
thirteenth century) by Ladies of rank, as an appropriate style 
of ornamentation for their own costume : and many ex 
amples of the effigies of Ladies, with a few of Ecclesiastics, 
adorned in this manner with heraldic insignia, exist in Seals 
and in Monumental Memorials. In Beverley Minster there 
is a noble effigy of a priest, a member of the great family of 
PERCY (about A.D. 1330), the embroideries of whose vest 
ments are elaborately enriched with numerous allied shields 
of arms. Upon his episcopal seal, LEWIS BEAUMONT, Bishop 
of Durham from 1317 to 1333, has his effigy standing 
between two Shields of Arms (to the dexter, England; to 



MARSHALLING. 163 

the sinister, a cross potent between four groups of small 
crosses pate es, three crosses in each group), while his chasuble 
is seme e de lys and also charged with a lion rampant the 
arms of the house of Beaumont. The obverse of the 
Seal of MARGARET, daughter of PHILIP the Hardy, 
King of France, the second Queen of our EDWARD L, 
illustrates this usage in the instance of ladies: No. 316. 




No. 316. Seal of Margaret, Queen of Edward I. 

Upon her tunic the Queen has emblazoned the three lions 
of her royal husband ; on her right side is a shield of France, 
the arms of her royal father; and on the left side a corres 
ponding shield is charged with a lion rampant. I have 
already shown the reverse of this fine Seal (No. 251), which 
in the original is one inch more in depth than it appears in 



L 2 



164 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



these woodcuts.* Other characteristic examples are the 
Seals of AGNES DE PERCY, whose effigy, having the arms of 
Louvaine upon the tunic, holds two armorial shields, one irt 
each hand : and of MARGARET, Countess of LINCOLN and 
PEMBROKE (about 1241), who blazons the old arms of DE 
LACI quarterly or and gu., a betid sa., over all a label vert 
upon the tunic of her effigy, and has the same arms on a 
Shield to the dexter, while another Shield to the sinister is 
charged with the lion rampant, borne by the DE LACIES as 
Earls of LINCOLN. The effigies of illustrious Ladies, which 
appear on Seals with allied Shields of arms, are not always 
represented in heraldic costume : good examples are the 

Seals of ISABELLE of FRANCE, 
Queen of EDWARD II., and of 
ELIZABETH, daughter of EDWARD 
I., who was Countess, first of 
HOLLAND, and afterwards of 
HEREFORD : both are engraved 
in Sandford s "Genealogical His 
tory of England," page 121. The 
Seal of MARGARET BRUCE, of 
Skelton, Lady DE Ros, attached 
to a deed, dated 1280, has the 
effigy of the noble lady, wearing 
her ermine mantle, and support 
ing two Shields of arms the 
Shield of DE Ros, gti. t three 
water-bounds arg., to the dexter, 
and a Shield of BRUCE, a lion 
rampant: No. 317. I am indebted, for the use of the 
excellent woodcut of this very interesting seal, to Mr. Laing 
of Edinburgh, the talented author of the two noble volumes 




No. 317. Seal of Margaret, Lady 
de Ros. (Laing.} 



* In No. 251 the initial A of the word AQVITANNIE has been omitted. 



MARSHALLING. r&5 

on the Early Seals of Scotland, which occupy a foremost 
position amongst the most valuable as well as the most 
beautiful heraldic works that have ever been published in 
Great Britain. (See page n.) In the Monumental Brasses 
and also in the Sculptured Monumental Effigies of Ladies 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, heraldic costume 
is frequently represented, and the figures are constantly 
associated with groups of Shields of arms. As most 
characteristic examples I may specify the effigy of a Lady, 
about A.D. 1325, at Selby in Yorkshire; and the Brass in 
Westminster Abbey, A.D. 1399, to ALIANORE DE BOHUN, 
Duchess of GLOUCESTER. 

The aggroupment of various armorial ensigns upon a 
Seal, without the presence of any effigy, is exemplified in 




No. 318. Seal of Joan, Countess of Surrey. 

the characteristic Seal of JOAN, daughter of HENRY Count 
DE BARRE, and of ALIANORE, daughter of EDWARD I., the 
widow of JOHN DE WARRENNE, Earl of SURREY, A.D. 1347. 
In this remarkable composition, No. 318, the arms, blazoned 
on lozenges, are, in the centre, Warrenne; in chief and base, 
England; and to the dexter and sinister, De Barre (No. 



1 66 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

162): also, at the four angles of the group, the lion and 
castle of Leon and Castile, in direct allusion to the descent 
of the Countess from ALIANORE, first Queen of EDWARD I. 
In the original, this elaborate composition is only one and a 
half inches in diameter. Still smaller, measuring no more than 
one and a quarter inches in diameter, and yet no less rich in 
either its Heraldry or its Gothic traceries, is the beautiful 
little Counter-seal of MARY DE SAINT PAUL, wife of AYMER 
DE VALENCE, Earl of PEMBROKE, which is faithfully shown 
on an enlarged scale, in order to render the details more 
effectively, in No. 319. This illustrious lady, who founded 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, A.D. 1373, was the daughter 
of GUY DE CHASTILLON, Count of ST. PAUL, by his wife 
MARY, daughter of JOHN DE DREUX, Duke of BRITTANY, 
and of BEATRICE, sister of EDWARD I. On her Seal, ac 
cordingly, the Countess of Brittany marshals, in the centre, 
the arms of her husband (De Valence : No. 86), and those 
of her father (De Chastillongu., three pallets vair, on a 
chief or a label of three points az.), united upon a single 
shield by " Dimidiation" a process presently to be de 
scribed : to the dexter, the arms of her Royal relatives of 
England are blazoned in a circular compartment : to the 
sinister, in a similar compartment, are the fleurs de lys of 
France Ancient, No. 247, at that time so closely allied with 
the English lions : and, finally, in a third roundle, in the 
base of the composition, are the arms of De Dreiix (chequee 
or and az., within a bordure gu. ;* over all a canton of 
Brittany, No. 15, borne by the maternal grandfather of the 
Countess : the legend is, + S . MARIE . DE . SEYN . 
POVL . COMITISSE . PEMPROCHIE. The origi 
nal impression of this Seal, from which the woodcut, No. 

* In No. 319 the bordure of De Dreux in the roundle in base is 
charged with Lions of England, as borne by JOHN DE DREUX; but the 
presence of these in the Seal of the Countess is uncertain. See No. 322. 



MARSHALLING. 



I6 7 



319, was drawn, is appended to a charter, dated 1347, which 
is preserved amongst the muniments of Pembroke College. 
A very good example of the aggroupment of Shields upon 
a Seal, under conditions differing from those that now 
have been illustrated, I have already given in No. 204. 
Another beautiful and most interesting example, now un 
fortunately partially mutilated, is the Seal of MATILDA of 
LANCASTER, the wife, first, of WILLIAM DE BURGH, Earl of 
ULSTER (and by him mother of ELIZABETH, the wife of 
Prince LIONEL OF CLARENCE), and, secondly, of Sir 




No. 319. 
Seal of Mary, Countess of Pembroke. 



No. 320. 
Seal of Matilda of Lancaster. 



RALPH DE UFFORD. This seal, of circular form, No. 320, 
displays to the dexter a shield of De Burgh or, a cross gu. ; 
to the sinister, a shield Of Uffordor, a cross engrailed sa., 
cantoning a fleur de lys, for difference: in base there is a 
lozenge of De Chaworth (the mother of the Countess was 
MATILDA DE CHAWORTH) barrulee arg. and gu., an orle 
of martlets sa. ; and in chief there remains part of another 
lozenge of Lancaster, to complete this remarkable heraldic 
group. Of the legend there remains only . . . 1LLV 



i68 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



MATILD .... SE ... The introduction of Badges, with 
a Shield or Shields of arms, in the composition of a Seal, 
is another variety of this same system of Marshalling. No. 
321, the Seal of OLIVER DE BOHUN, exemplifies this usage, 
having the white swan Badge of the noble house of BOHUN 
thrice repeated about the Shield. See No. 114. Also see, 
in the frontispiece, the Seal of Earl RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP, 
No. 449, which is described in Section II. of Chapter XXII. 
Marshalling by Aggroupment was practised under 





No. 321. 
Seal of Oliver de Bohun. 



No. 322. 
Shield of Earl John de Dreux. 



another form by placing Shields of arms in the different 
panels of the same architectural monument. 

MARSHALLING by Combination is effected by actually 
forming, for the blazonry of a single Shield, a composition 
which includes the principal charges of two or more allied 
Shields. The composition of the Shield borne by the house 
of DE DREUX, to which I have just referred in describing 
the Seal of the Countess of Pembroke, No. 319, is a most 
striking example of this variety of Marshalling : and this 
Shield was borne by JOHN DE DREUX, created Earl of 
RICHMOND by his uncle King EDWARD I., who lived and 
died in England, as it is represented in No. 322 



MARSHALLING. 



169 



chequee or and azure, being for De Dreux ; the canton ermine 
for Brittany ; and the bordure, gules charged with golden lions 
of England, representing the royal Shield of England, and 
showing the close connection existing between the Earl of 
Richmond and his Sovereign. The shield of Prince JOHN 
of ELTHAM (No. 24), England within a bordure of France, 
is another characteristic example of this Marshalling by 
Combination. 

For many reasons, except in particular instances, these 
methods of Marshalling were not considered to be alto 
gether satisfactory. Accordingly, a fresh arrangement was 
devised which would preserve intact the original integrity of 
each coat of arms, would imply a definite systematic method 
of arrangement, and would admit into a single composition 
any required number of distinct coats. This MARSHALLING 
by Quartering, naturally suggested by such simple bearings 
as Nos. 1 6 and 17, consists in dividing the Shield, as in No. 
30, into four parts, and placing in each of these divisions or 
quarters one of the coats to be marshalled on a single 
Shield. If two coats only are thus to be " quartered" the 
most important of the two occupies the first quarter, and is 
repeated in the fourth ; and, the other coat is placed in the 
second quarter, and repeated in the 
third. The earliest example known 
in England is the quartered Shield 
of Castile and Leon quarterly : first 
and fourth, gules, a castle triple-towered 
or; second and third, argent, a lion 
rampant gu., No. 323. This shield 
is sculptured upon the monument in 
Westminster Abbey to ALIANORE, Shield of 
daughter of FERDINAND III., King 
of CASTILE and LEON, and Queen of EDWARD I. : the date 
is 1290. This form of Marshalling began gradually to be 




170 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



adopted during the first half of the fourteenth century, and 
in the second half of that century it became generally 
adopted. Other examples of quartered shields I have 
already given in Nos. 252 and 253. 

Should there be three Coats to be quartered, they would 
severally occupy the first, second, and third quarters of the 
Shield, in due order, and the first quarter would be repeated 
in the fourth. In quartering four coats, no repetition would 
be necessary. If more than four coats would require to be 
quartered, the Shield would be divided into whatever num 
ber of sections might be necessary, as in No. 36, and the 
required arrangement would be made ; should any repeti 
tion be necessary, the first quarter is to be repeated in the 
fourth. This process, whatever the number of the coats 
thus marshalled (and their number 
sometimes is very great), is always 
entitled "quartering;" and each of 
these divisions of a Shield, for the pur 
pose of Marshalling, is distinguished 
as a " Quarter." Occasionally a 
quartered coat would have to be mar 
shalled with others. In the "grand 
quartering" which then takes place, 
the quartered coat is treated precisely 
as any other member of the group. See No. 37. For 
example, the shield, No. 324 (R. 2), of HENRY, first Earl 
of NORTHUMBERLAND, is I. and IV. Grand Quarters, 
first and fourth, or, a lion rampt. az., for Louvaine, or 
Percy modern : second and third, gu., three lucies haurient 
arg. (No. 164) for Lucy : II. and III. Grand Quarters, 0s., 
five fusils conjoined infesse or, for Percy ancient. 

When a Shield to be quartered has a very numerous 
array of Quarterings, Grand Quartering is seldom adopted \ 
but, in its stead, the new quarterings are marshalled in their 




No. 324. Shield of Henry 
Earl of Northumberland. 



MARSHALLING. 



171 



proper succession, with the original quarterings of the 
Shield. 

In this Marshalling the first quarter is occupied by the 
most important quartering, which is determined (without 
any fixed rule) by the original grant or licence : the other 
quarterings follow, in the order in which they may have 
been "brought in" to the composition. A quartered Shield 
becomes a permanent hereditary bearing, being a com 
pound yet a single united Coat of Arms. 

To denote and record ALLIANCE BY MARRIAGE, two 
distinct Coats were first marshalled upon a single Shield by 
Dimidiation. This process is accomplished in the following 
manner. The Shield to be charged with the two Coats in 
union is divided per pale, as in No. 28 : on the dexter half 
the corresponding half, or generally somewhat more than 
that half, of the arms of the husband 
is marshalled : then, in like manner, the 
sinister half is charged with the corres 
ponding portion of the arms of the 
wife. In the Shield, No. 250, from 
another Seal of Queen MARGARET, Eng 
land dimidiates France ancient, Nos. 
187 and 247. This Dimidiation in 
most cases produces a singular effect ; 
as in No. 325, a Shield from the Seal 
of the Mayor of Winchelsea, one of the famous Sussex 
Cinque Ports, which bears England dimidiating azure, three 
hulls of ships, in pale, or: here the dimidiated lions and 
ships appear to unite for the purpose of forming the most 
extravagant of compound monsters. The Seal of the 
Borough of Great Yarmouth substitutes three herrings, in 
allusion to the staple fishery of the port, for the ships, and 
dimidiates them with the national lions. In the central 
Shield of the Seal, No. 319, I have shown De Valence 




No. 325. Shield of Mayor 
of Winchelsea. 



172 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



dimidiating De Chastillon. In No. 326, from the monu 
ment of WILLIAM DE VALENCE, De Valence appears dimi 
diating the French Coat of Claremont Nesle gu., semee of 
trefoils, two barbels haurient addorsed or: the Dimidiation 
here cuts off and removes one-half of the De Valence 
martlets and also one of the two barbels of Claremont. 




No. 326. De Valence, dimidiating Claremont Nesle. 

The characteristic features of one or of both of the 
united Coats, as I have just shown, being commonly 
rendered indistinct and uncertain by Dimidiation, that form 
of marshalling was generally superseded by IMPALEMENT in 
the course of the third quarter of the fourteenth century. 
This process, at once simple and effectual, marshals the 
whole of the husband s arms on the dexter half of a Shield 
divided per pale, as No. 28 ; and the whole of the arms of 
the wife on the sinister half of it. Such an impaled Shield 
is borne by a husband and wife during their conjoint lives ; 
also by the husband, if he should become a widower ; but, 
should the wife become a widow, by her the impaled 
arms are borne during her widowhood charged upon a 
lozenge. The dexter half only the husband s arms of an 
impaled Shield is hereditary. Fine examples of Shields 



MARSHALLING. 



173 




No. 327. Camoys, impaling 
Mortimer. 



that are both impaled and quartered, are preserved in the 
monuments of EDWARD III. and his Queen PHILIPPA, in 
the Brass to ALIANORE DE BOHUN, and in the monument 
to MARGARET BEAUFORT, all in Westminster Abbey. Other 
fine examples occur on the monument of Earl RICHARD 
BEAUCHAMP, at Warwick. No. 
327, from the Brass to THOMAS, 
LORD CAMOYS, K.G., and his wife, 
ELIZABETH MORTIMER (the widow 
of HENRY HOTSPUR), at Trotton, 
in Sussex, A.D. 1410, marshals 
Camoys arg., on a chief gu. three 
plates, impaling Mortimer, No. 131. 
Again, at Warwick, the Brass to 
Earl THOMAS DE BEAUCHAMP and 
his Countess, MARGARET FERRERS of Groby, A.D. 1406, has 
a Shield of Beauchamp gu., a fesse between six cross lets or, 
impaling Ferrers gu., seven mascles, three three and one, or. 

It is to be observed that 
Bordures and Tressures, which 
are not affected by Quarter 
ing, generally are dimidiated 
by Impalement, that is, that 
side of both a Bordure and 
a Tressure which adjoins the 
line of Impalement is gene 
rally removed : thus, one of 
the small Shields sculptured 
upon the canopy of the 
monument of Queen MARY 

No. 328. D Aubigny, impaling Scotland. 

STUART, at Westminster, is 

charged with D Att&ignyimpalmg Scotland, that is, az., three 
fleurs de lys or, within a bordure gu. charged with eight buckles 
gold, impaling No. 138. This Shield, represented in No. 328, 




174 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



has both the bordure on its dexter half, and the tressure 
on its sinister half, dimidiated by the impalement. There 
are other excellent examples of this partial dimidiating in 
the monuments of MARGARET TUDOR and MARGARET 
BEAUFORT, in the same chapel of Westminster Abbey. 

The husband of an Heiress or a Co-heiress, instead of 
impaling the arms of his wife, marshals them upon his 
Shield charged as an Escutcheon of Pretence. This is the 
prevailing usage : in strict right, however, the Escutcheon 
of Pretence ought not to supersede Impalement until 
the husband of an heiress, having issue by her, has a good 




No. 329. Shield of Earl Richard Beauchamp. 

pretension to have her arms quartered hereafter with his 
own, by his and her sons, and their descendants. For, the 
son of an heiress, as heir to his maternal grandfather 
through his mother, as well as to his own father, quarters 
on his Shield, and transmits to his descendants, the arms of 
both his parents , his father s arms generally being in the first 
quarter. The Shield of RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, K.G., Earl 
of WARWICK (died in 1439), is a good example of the use 
of an Escutcheon of Pretence; it is represented in No. 329, 



MARSHALLING. 175 

drawn from the garter-plate of the Earl, in St. George s 
Chapel, Windsor. The Earl himself, as his hereditary coat, 
quarters Beauchamp with Newburgh cheques or and az., a 
chei ron erm. : upon this, for his Countess, ISABELLE, 
daughter and heiress of THOMAS LE DESPENCER, Earl of 
GLOUCESTER, he marshals an Escutcheon of Pretence 
charged with De Clare, No. 124, quartering Le Despencer 
quarterly arg. and gu., in the second and third quarters a 
Jrette or, over all a bend sa. In the monument of this great 
Earl, at Warwick, upon the Escutcheon of Pretence the 
arms of Bohun are quartered with those of Clare and 
Despencer. 

A few very simple diagrams will clearly elucidate the 
principle of Marshalling the arms of Husband and Wife. 





No. 330. No. 330. No. 330. 

Suppose B (Baron) to represent the Husband, and F 
(Femme] the Wife : then, No. 330 B may represent the arms 
of the Husband, and No. 330 F the arms of the Wife. If F 
be not an heiress, the arms of B and F, as husband and wife, 
are borne impaled, as in No. 330 B F ; and their son bears 
No. 330 B only. If F be an heiress, the arms of B and F, as 



FF 





No 330. No. 331. No. 332 



husband and wife, are borne as in No. 331 the arms of 
the wife on an Escutcheon of Pretence ; and, in this case, 
the son of B and F quarters the arms of both his parents, as 



1 76 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

No. 332. Now, suppose this son, whose arms are No. 332, 
to marry a lady, not an heiress, whose arms are No. 330 F F, 
he would simply impale the arms of his wife, as in No. 333, 
and his son would bear No. 332 only, as his father bore 
that quartered shield before his marriage. But if the wife 
of the bearer of No. 332 were to be an heiress, he would 
charge the arms of his wife in pretence upon his own 
hereditary paternal Shield, as in No. 334 ; and his son, by 
this heiress, as before, would quarter the arms of both his 




T 



1 



No. 333. No. 334. No. 



335- 



parents, as in No. 335. It is obvious that Marshalling on 
this system (of which I here give the general outline) admits 
of a widely-extended application. Younger sons in all 
cases cover all the quarterings of their Shield with their 
own distinctive Mark of Cadency. 

A Widower who marries again bears the arms of both 
his wives, in accordance with the system already laid down, 
with such modifications of adjustment as may be necessary 
or desirable in each particular instance. 

An Unmarried Lady bears her paternal arms on a 
lozenge, without any Crest. 

A Widow bears on a lozenge the arms borne by her hus 
band and herself. Should she marry again, a Widow ceases 
to bear the arms of her former husband ; but if her former 
husband had been a Peer, she would continue to bear his 
and her own arms marshalled as before, but on a lozenge 
instead of a Shield, and on a separate Shield her present 
husband would marshal her arms with his own, and the 



MARSHALLING. 177 

Shield and the lozenge would be grouped together, the 
Shield having precedence. 

A Peeress in her own right, if married to a Peer, has 
both her own arms and those of her husband fully blazoned, 
and the lozenge and the Shield, with all their accessories, 
are marshalled to form a single united group, the achieve 
ment of the higher rank having precedence. If married to 
a Commoner, a Peeress in her own right bears her own 
arms on a lozenge as before, and her husband marshals her 
arms ensigned with her coronet in pretence on his Shield : 
and this lozenge and Shield are grouped together, the 
lozenge yielding precedence. 

Prelates bear the arms of their see impaling their own 
paternal and hereditary arms, the insignia of the see 
occupying the dexter half of the Shield, and this Shield is 
ensigned with a mitre only. A married Prelate bears also 
a second Shield, placed to the sinister of the other, on 
which are marshalled, in accordance with ordinary usage, 
his own personal arms with those of his wife. 

The Herald Kings, in like manner, bear two Shields, 
disposed to form a single group : on the dexter Shield their 
official arms impale their personal ; and on the sinister 
Shield their personal arms are marshalled with the arms of 
their wives. 

Again, the same usage obtains in marshalling the arms 
of Knights of Orders of Knighthood who, when married, 
bear two Shields grouped together. On the dexter Shield 
are blazoned the arms of the Knight himself alone ; and 
around this Shield are displayed the insignia of his Order, 
or Orders, of Knighthood : and on the sinister Shield the 
arms of the Knight and of his wife are marshalled, but 
without the knightly insignia. This second Shield is generally 
environed with decorative foliage. This usage, prevalent in 
England, is not accepted and adopted by foreign Heralds : 

M 



178 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

nor does it appear to be required by true heraldic principle, 
or to be strictly in accordance with it. The wife of a 
Knight shares his knightly title, and takes precedence from 
her husband s knightly rank; and a knight, with perfect 
heraldic consistency, might marshal his own knightly 
insignia about the Shield which is charged with his own 
arms and those of his wife, whether united by impalement, 
or when the latter are borne in pretence : and thus a 
single Shield would be borne, and there would cease to 
exist any motive for endeavouring to impart to a second 
Shield some general resemblance to its companion by 
wreaths or other unmeaning accessories. 

Official Arms are not hereditary. 

Royal Personages, when married, bear their own arms on 
a separate Shield to the dexter ; and a second Shield, to the 
sinister, bears the arms of the husband and wife impaled, 
or sometimes (but not in conformity with heraldic rule) 
quartered. 

The circumstances of every case must exercise a con 
siderable influence in determining the Marshalling of the 
Accessories of any Shield, Lozenge, or Group. As a general 
rule, however, the Helm always rests on the chief of the 
Shield : Commoners, Knights, and Baronets place their 
Crest upon the Helm : Peers and Princes place their 
Coronet upon the Helm, and their Crest is placed, distinct, 
above it : and, in like manner, the SOVEREIGN places the 
Royal Crest above the Crown. The Mantling is displayed 
from the back of the Helm : it is most effective when simple 
in its form and adjustment, and when it droops behind the 
Shield. The Motto is placed below the Shield ; but if it 
has special reference to the Crest, above the Crest : or, if 
Shield, Crest (or Badge), and Motto alone are blazoned, the 
Motto may be placed between the Shield and the Crest or 
Badge. Supporters are to be placed erect, as if in the 



MARSHALLING. 



act of really supporting the Shield : they ought to stand 
either on an appropriate ground, or on a Gothic basement 
to the entire Achievement. Badges, with all Official and 
Knightly Insignia, and all other Honourable Insignia of 
every kind, are rightly marshalled in an Achievement of 
Arms. 



M 2 



CHAPTER XII. 

CADENCY. 

Marks of Cadency are temporary or permanent. The Label. The 
Bordure. The Bendlet, Barndet, and Canton. Change of Tinc 
ture. Secondary Charges. Single Small Charges. Differences of 
Illegitimacy. Cadency of Crests, Badges, &~v. Modern Cadency. 



" Merke ye wele theys questionys here, now folowying ! " 

BOKE OF ST. ALBANS. A.D. 14.86. 



AMONGST his comrades in arms, or in the midst of a hostile 
array, the last object that a mediaeval Knight would expect 
or desire to observe, on the morning of a battle or a joust, 
would be an exact counterpart of himself. Occasions, 
indeed, might sometimes arise, when it might be highly 
desirable that five or six counterfeit " Richmonds " should 
accompany one real one to "the field;" or, when a "wild 
boar of Ardennes" might prefer to encounter the hunters, 
having about him the choice of his own " boar s brood," 
garnished at all -points exactly after his own fashion. These, 
however, are rare and strictly exceptional cases. And the 
Knight, to whom distinction was as the breath of his 
nostrils, as he closed his vizor trusted confidently to his 
heraldic insignia to. distinguish him, while, in the fore-front 
of the fray, with sword and lance and axe he would strive 
manfully to distinguish himself. This implies that Heraldry, 
besides assigning to different families their own distinct 
insignia, should possess the faculty of distinguishing the 



CADENCY. l8l 

several members, and also the various branches of the same 
family, the one from the other. A faculty such as this 
Heraldry does possess, and that faculty is CADENCY. 

In marking Cadency" that is, in distinguishing the 
armorial insignia of kinsmen, who are members of the very 
same family, or of some one. of its various branches, it is a 
necessary condition of every system of " Differencing" that, 
while in itself clear and definite and significant, it should 
be secondary to the leading characteristics of the original 
Goat of Arms which denotes the senior branch of the 
Family, and also declares from what fountain-head all the 
kinsmen of all the branches have derived their common 
descent. 

Various methods for thus marking Cadency were 
adopted, and accepted as satisfactory, in the early days of 
Heraldry. Of these I now shall describe and illustrate 
such as are most emphatic in themselves, and in their 
character most decidedly heraldic, such also as most ad 
vantageously may be retained in use in our own Heraldry of 
the present time. It will be seen that the " Differences" 
which mark Cadency necessarily resolve themselves into 
two groups or classes : one, in which the " Difference" is 
temporary only in its significance and use, as, when an 
eldest son, on the death of his father, succeeds to the 
position in the family which his father had held, he 
removes his Mark of Cadency as eldest son from his 
Shield, assumes the unmarked Shield as his father had 
borne it before him, and transfers to his own son the mark 
that previously had distinguished his Shield from that of his 
father. In the other group, the Marks of Cadency are per 
manent, and consequently they become integral elements of 
the heraldic composition in which they appear: thus, the 
mark of Cadency which distinguishes any particular branch 
of a family, is borne alike by all the members of that 



182 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



branch, and in that branch it is transmitted from generation 
to generation. 

More than one Mark of Cadency may be introduced 
into the same Coat of Arms ; and, for the purpose of some 
form of secondary distinction, it is good Heraldry to mark 
Marks of Cadency to charge one variety of mark, that is, 
upon another. 

The LABEL, Nos. 271, 272, is blazoned as a Mark of 
Cadency in the earliest Rolls of Arms, and it appears dis 
charging this duty in the earliest examples. The Label is 
generally borne with three points, as in No. 271 ; frequently 
with five, as in No. 272 ; and occasionally with four or with 





No. 336. Eldest Sons of Edward I. and II. 



No. 337. Black Prince. 



more than five points. It is quite certain that no signifi 
cance is, or has ever been, attached to the number of the 
points, the object in all cases being to make the Label 
distinctly visible, and to adjust the points to the general 
composition of the Shield. Labels are of various tinctures. 
EDWARD I., EDWARD II., and EDWARD III., each one 
during the lifetime of his father, bore the Shield of 
England, No. 187, differenced with an azure label, some 
times of three points, as in No. 336, and sometimes having 
five points. EDWARD the BLACK PRINCE marked the 
Royal Shield of EDWARD III. with a label argent, as in 
No. 337 ; and a silver label has since been the Mark of 



CADENCY. 183 

Cadency of every succeeding PRINCE OF WALES. The 
Label has been used in this manner by personages of all 
ranks who have borne arms, from the time of HENRY III. ; 
and examples abound in all the early Rolls of Arms, in 
Monuments, and upon Seals. 

The LABEL, borne as a Mark of Cadency, is com 
monly charged with other figures and devices, as dif 
ferences of a secondary rank. Or, when it is thus charged, 
the charges upon a Label may be considered to be 
elements of the Label itself, in its capacity of a Mark 
of Cadency. EDMOND, the first Earl of LANCASTER, as 
I have already shown, No. 249, differenced his father s 
Arms of England with a Label of France, No. 338 an 
azure label, that is, charged with golden fleurs de lys, to 
denote his French alliance ; and thus by the same pro- 




"l*i m ||r" -"]l pi 

ll 

ill 111 lU y in i 

No. 338. Lancaster. No. 339. Brittany. No. 340. York. 

cess he was Marshalling and Marking Cadency. JOHN 
OF GHENT, Duke of LANCASTER, differenced with an 
ermine Label, No. 339, derived from the ermine shield 
of Brittany (No. 15): and the Plantagenet Dukes of 
YORK charged each point of their silver Label with three 
torteaux, No. 340, which may be considered to have 
been derived from the shield of Wake (No. 82). In 
order to show them on a larger scale, the Labels in 
Nos. 338 343 are represented without the Shields on 
which they were charged. All these Shields would be 
repetitions of the same blazonry of France and England 
quarterly: Nos. 252 and 253. 

The Label, with various Differences, has generally been 
the Royal Mark of Cadency; and now differenced silver 



184 ENGLISH HERALDRY, 

Labels are borne, to mark Cadency, by every member of 
our Royal Family. 

Like the points of Labels, the Charges blazoned on 
those points had no fixed or determinate numbers. That 
both the Labels and their Charges should be distinct and 
conspicuous, was the special object with which they were 
blazoned. Accordingly, in different examples of the same 
Label the number of the repetitions of the Charges some 
times is found to differ. At the same time, in the earliest 
examples of charged Labels, the repetitions of the Charges, 
while devoid of any special differencing aim or meaning, 
may be considered to have been suggested by the sources 
from which the Charges themselves were derived. For 
example: the Label of Lancaster, No. 338, of Earl EDMOND, 




1TT 



No. 341. No. 342. No. 343. 

derived directly from the Shield of France ancient, No. 247, 
with its field semee de lys, has three fleurs de lys upon each 
point, so that this Label has the appearance of being also 
semee de lys. Had it been derived from the Shield of 
France modern, No. 248, charged with three fleurs de lys 
only, a single fleu-r de lys in all probability would have 
been blazoned on each of the three points of this same 
Label. Upon this principle the Label of Prince LIONEL, 
Duke of CLARENCE, second son of EDWARD III., which is 
differenced with cantons gules, has a single canton on each 
point, as in No. 341, evidently because only a single canton 
can be blazoned on a Shield. The figures and devices that 
are charged for secondary difference upon Labels vary widely 
in their character ; but, however difficult it now may be in 
very many instances to trace these differencing charges to 



CADENCY. 185 

their sources, and so to determine the motive which led to 
their adoption, there can be no doubt that originally they 
were chosen and adopted for the express purpose of denot 
ing and recording some alliance or dependency. Some 
early Labels are of a compound character ; that is, they are 
charged with two distinct groups of devices, which are at 
once divided and conjoined by impalement. Such a Label 
was borne by Prince HENRY, son of JOHN of GHENT, be 
tween the time of his father s death and his own accession as 
HENRY IV. (Feb. 3 to Sept. 30, 1399) : it was a Label of 
five points per pale of Brittany and Lancaster, No. 342, being 
his father s Label impaling his own. The second son of 
this Prince, THOMAS Duke of CLARENCE, instead of adopt 
ing impalement, charged a red canton upon each point of an 
ermine Label, as in No. 343 : while his brother, JOHN Duke 
of BEDFORD, bore their father s Label, No. 342. 

The BORDURE, both plain and charged, is a Mark 
of Cadency borne by Princes and by personages of 
various ranks. EDMOND, youngest son 
of EDWARD L, differenced England 
with a plain silver bordure, as in No. 
344 : the HOLLANDS, Earls of KENT, 
did the same : and the s;xne silver 
bordure also was borne by THOMAS, 
youngest son of EDWARD III., about 
the quartered shield of France ancient 
and England; and about the quartered No< 3- Holland of Kent - 
shield of France modern and England by HUMPHREY, 
youngest son of HENRY IV. Prince JOHN of ELTHAM, 
as I have already shown, and after him the HOLLANDS, 
Dukes of EXETER, differenced England with a Bordure 
of France: No. 24. Though not so numerous as Labels, 
Bordures employed to mark Cadency exist in very many 
early examples, and a variety of devices appear charged 





1 86 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

upon them for secondary Difference. See No. 140. In 
the Royal Heraldry of our own times the Bordure is not 
used as a Royal Difference ; but its use is retained for 
differencing Shields of less exalted rank. 

In some few early Examples a BENDLET is charged 
upon the paternal shield as a mark of Cadency : and a 
BARRULET is found to have been also used for the same 
purpose. Thus, HENRY, second son of 
EDMOND the first Earl of LANCASTER, 
during the lifetime of his elder brother, 
differenced England with an azure 
Bendlct, as in No. 345 : and, in the 
Seal of HENRY DE PERCY, son and 
heir of HENRY the third Baron, the 
lion is debruised, for Difference, by a 

Henrylf Lancaster. Bamilet which CrOSSCS the Shield 

the honour-point. Possibly, this Bar- 

rulet maybe a Label without points. A CANTON, plain, or more 
frequently charged, and in many examples of ermine, is also 
added to Shields to mark Cadency. See Nos. 128, 129, 130. 
To mark Cadency by a change of Tinctures was a simple 
expedient, and such a one as would naturally be practised 
at an early period. It was effected, first, in the case of the 
Field : thus (H. 3), the brothers DE LA ZOUCHE severally 
bear Gu., bezantee, and, Az., bezantee: and the brothers 
FURNIVAL (H. 3) bear Arg., a bend between six martlets gu., 
and, Or, a bend between six martlets gu. Secondly, the 
change is effected in the Charges : thus, two William BAR- 
DOLFS (H. 3 and E. 2) severally bear Az., three cinque- 
foils or, and, Az., three dnquefoils arg. Thirdly, the 
tinctures are reversed: for example, for two Sir JOHN HAR- 
COURTS (E. 2) Gu., two bars or, and, Or, two bars gu. 
Fourthly, there is a complete change in all the tinctures : 
and so, while Sir ANDREW LOTEREL (E. 2) bears Or, a 



CADENCY. 187 

bend between six martlets sa. t Sir GEFFREY LOTEREL (E. 2) 
bears Az. 9 a bend between six martlets argent. Finally, this 
system of marking Cadency admits various modifications of 
the changes already described : thus, in the Arms of Mor 
timer, No. 131, gules is substituted for azure; and, again, 
in the same Shield an inescntcheon ermine takes the place of 
the inescutcheon argent. 

Another and a favourite method of marking Cadency, 
calculated to exercise a great and decided influence in the 
development of heraldic blazon, is the addition of secondary 
Charges of small size (not on a Label or a Bordure, but) 
seme e over the field of a Shield, or charged upon an 
Ordinary, or disposed in orle. In the greater number of 
examples, these small charges are found to have been 
gradually reduced to six or three, in order to admit of their 





No. 346. Beauchamp of Elmely. No. 347. Beauchamp at Carlaverock 

being blazoned on a somewhat larger scale, and conse 
quently made more distinct. Again : while the number and 
the tinctures of the secondary differencing charges remain 
the same, in order to carry out the Cadency still farther 
the secondary charges themselves are varied : and, once 
more, in other cases the identity of the original secondary 
charges is retained, but their number is increased or 
diminished. I must be content to illustrate these various 
forms of Cadency with a few examples only. First, a group 
of shields of the BEAUCHAMPS : Beauchamp of Elmely 
(H. 3) Gu., a fesse or, No. 346 : Beauchamp at Car- 



1 88 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

laverock Gu., crusileeandafesseor, No. 347: Beauchamp, 
Earl of Warwick Gu., a fesse between six crosses cross lets 
or, No. 348 : and Beauchamp of Bletshoe Gu., a fesse 
between six martlets or, No. 349. Second, a corresponding 
group of shields of the BERKELEYS : Maurice de Barkele 
(or Berkeley) Gu., a chevron arg. (H. 3) : and then for 
other Berkeleys Gu., a chevron between ten crosses pattees, 
six and four, arg. ; and the same Ordinary, with either ten 
cinqucfoils of silver, or the same number of white roses. 
Three CORBETS bear severally (E. 2) Or, a raven sa.; Or, 
two ravens sa; and Or, three ravens sa. And, once more, 
their original Shield Gu., a chevron or, is differenced by the 






No. 348. Beauchamp of Warwick. No. 349. Beauchamp of Bletshoe. 

COBHAMS by charging the Ordinary with three lioncels, 
three eaglets, three crosslets, three mullets, three estoiles, 
three crescents, or three fleurs de lys, all of them sable. 
The particular devices and figures selected thus to mark 
Cadency, like those charged upon Labels or Bordures, must 
be considered to have a special significance of their own, 
though this significance may frequently fail to be discerned 
in consequence of our being no longer able to trace out 
their association with the sources from which they were 
obtained. The alliances and the incidents that give these 
various Marks of Cadency, when it is possible to ascertain 
what they may have been, illustrate in a striking manner 
the motives by which the early Heralds were influenced 
when they differenced the Arms of Kinsmen. 



CADENCY. 



189 



Official Insignia sometimes become Marks of Cadency. 
Thus, JOHN DE GRANDISON, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1327 
1369), on the bend in his paternal arms, No. 89, substitutes 
a golden mitre for the central eaglet, as in No. 350. WILLIAM 
COURTENAY, Archbishop of Canterbury (A.D. 13811396), 
adopts a different course, and charges three golden mitres 
upon each point of the Label of Courtenay Or, three tor- 
tcaux, over all a label of three points az. charged on each 
point with as many mitres gold. And again, HENRY LE 
DESPENCER, Bishop of Norwich (A.D. 13701406), places 
about his paternal shield an azure bordure charged with 




No. 350. Bishop Grandison. 




No. 351. Secretum of Bishop le Despencer. 



eight golden mitres (see the largest shield in No. 351). On 
his official seal the canopied effigy of the Bishop stands 
between this, his personal Shield, and the Shield of his see 
az., three mitres or: but his Secretum, or private seal, is 
much more interesting, as an heraldic image of the man 
himself. Haughty, fierce, cruel, and pugnacious, his career 
not less inglorious as a military commander than as a 
churchman, this HENRY LE DESPENCER, a grandson of the 
unhappy favourite of the no less hapless EDWARD II., 
was one of the war-loving prelates who occasionally appear 
sustaining a strange, and yet as it would seem a charac- 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



teristic, part in the romantic drama of mediaeval History. 
His Secretum, No. 351, displays his Shield of Despencer, 
differenced with his bordure of mitres, couche from a large 
mantled helm, surmounted by a mitre, in place of a crest- 
coronet, which supports the Despencer crest, a silver 
griffin s head of ample size ; on either side are the Shields 
of the see of Norwich, and of Ferrers (the Bishop s mother 
was Anne, daughter of WILLIAM Lord FERRERS of Groby) 
Or, seven mascles, three three and one, gu. ; the legend 
is, S . HENRICI . DESPENCER . NORWICENSIS . 
EPISCOPI. 

At an early period, Cadency was marked by adding a 
single small charge to the blazon of a Shield, or by charging 
some secondary device or figure upon any accessory of a 
Shield of arms. Such a Mark of Cadency as this, obtained 
from some allied Shield, and charged upon an ordinary or 
principal bearing, or occupying a conspicuous position in 
the general composition, was in high favour 
with the Heralds of both the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. From the early 
examples, which exist in great numbers and 
in as great variety, it will be sufficient for 
me to adduce only a few specimens a 
single example, indeed, illustrates the sys 
tem. The Shield of Ufford, in the Seal of 
MATILDA of LANCASTER, which I have 
already described (No. 320), is thus differenced with a single 
fleur de lys in the first quarter. Precisely in the same 
manner Sir FULK FITZ WARIN differences the Shield of the 
head of his house, No. 17, by charging a mullet sable upon 
the first quarter, as in No. 352. THOMAS LE SCROPE, 
on the other hand, for Cadency marks the golden bend 
upon his azure Shield, No. in, with an annulet sable, 
as in No. 353. Two members of the family of Beau- 





No. 352. 

Sir Fulk Fitz Warin. 



CADENCY. 



champ charge their golden fesse (see Nos. 346 349), the 
one with a crescent sable, and the other with a pierced mullet 
of the same tincture: Nos. 354, 355. In like manner, in 
addition to various labels, the NEVILLES charge no less 




No. 354. 





No. 355. 



No 353. Thomas le Scrope. 



than eight different small figures upon their silver saltire, 
No. 121, to distinguish different members and branches of 
their powerful race : I give one of these Shields in No. 
356, which was borne by GEORGE NEVILLE, Lord LATIMER, 
from the monument to Earl RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP at 
Warwick Gtt., on a saltire arg. a gimmel-rmg az. : another 




No. 356. Lord Latimer. ^\?~/ No 357- Neville. 

No. 358 Sir William de Brewys. 

differenced shield of Neville, No. 357, has a tinquefoil 
charged on the saltire : a third example from this group 
I have already given, No. 122, differenced with a rose: this 
shield, No. 122, is now borne by the Earl of ABERGAVENNY. 
Once more: Sir WILLIAM DE BREWYS (E. 2) bears Az., 
crusilee and a lion rampt. or, No. 358, which coat another 



192 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Sir WILLIAM DE BREWYS differences, to distinguish himself 
from his kinsman, while at the same time declaring their 
near relationship, by simply charging a red fleur de lys upon 
his lion s shoulder. 

Differences of Illegitimacy, which rightly and indeed 
necessarily are included under the general head of 
" Cadency," do not appear at any time to have assumed 
a definite or decided character, and yet they bring before 
the student of Heraldry much curious matter for inquiry 
and investigation. Early in the true heraldic era illegiti 
mate sons are found to have differenced their paternal arms, 
as other sons lawfully born might have done : and it does 
not appear that any peculiar methods of differencing were 
adopted, palpably for the purpose of denoting illegitimacy 
of birth, before the fourteenth century had drawn near to 
its close. And even then, if any express heraldic rule on 
this point ever was framed, which is very doubtful, it 
certainly was never observed with any care or regularity. 

The earliest known example of the arms of a man of 
illegitimate birth is the fine Shield of WILLIAM LONGESPEE, 
Earl of SALISBURY, son of HENRY II. and FAIR ROSAMOND, 
No. 197. This Shield is supposed to have been assumed 
and borne by the Earl on his marriage with the daughter 
and heiress of D EUREUX, when in right of his wife he suc 
ceeded to the Earldom of Salisbury : but this theory does 
not rest upon any solid foundation, since it would be very 
difficult to show that the Shield with the six lioncels was 
certainly borne, on his armorial ensign, by the father-in-law of 
Earl William. Also, if a Shield charged with an escarbuncle 
and many lioncels, which has been assigned to GEOFFREY 
Count of ANJOU, was really borne by the Founder of the 
House of PLANTAGENET, Earl WILLIAM LONGESPEE may 
have derived his own Shield from his paternal grandfather. 
Upon his Counterseal the Earl displays his own "long 



CADENCY. 193 

sword" as his proper device. In like manner, certain 
other personages, also illegitimate, appear to have borne 
arms which were either expressly assigned to themselves 
by the Sovereign, or such as they assumed in right of their 
mothers or wives. In all such cases as these, the Arms 
were not the paternal coat in any way differenced, but 
what now would be designated "fresh grants." Towards 
the beginning of the fifteenth century, however, a peculiar 
kind of Differencing for Illegitimacy gradually prevailed 
throughout Europe : thus, illegitimate children either altered 
the position of the charges in their paternal Shield ; or 
they marshalled the entire paternal arms upon a bend or a 
fesse ; or they composed for them 
selves a fresh Shield, either using their 
father s badges and the actual charges 
of his Shield, or adopting devices evi 
dently derived from the paternal bear 
ings ; or they bore the paternal Shield 
differenced in a peculiarly conspicuous 
manner with certain marks by which 
they might be readily and certainly 
distinguished. NO. 359. 

,,, . . . _ . Henry, Earl Worcester. 

When the composition of the 

paternal Shield would admit of such an arrangement, the 
field not being argent, an illegitimate son sometimes bore 
his father s arms marshalled fesse-wise, so as to leave both 
the chief and the base of his Shield plain white. HENRY, 
Earl of WORCESTER, whose father was an illegitimate son 
of HENRY BEAUFORT, third Duke of SOMERSET, bore the 
arms of Beaufort couped in this manner in chief and in 
base, as if they were charged upon a very broad fesse on 
a silver field : No. 359. 

JOHN DE BEAUFORT (great-grandfather of HENRY, Earl 
of WORCESTER), eldest illegitimate son of Prince JOHN of 




194 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



GHENT, before the Act for his legitimation was passed in the 
year 1397, bore his father s hereditary arms of Lancaster 
England with a label of France, No. 249 on a broad bend, 
the field being per pale arg. and az., the Lancastrian livery 
colours : No. 360. After their legitimation act had become 
a law, this same JOHN DE BEAUFORT, with his brothers, sons, 





No. 360 Beaufort before 1397. 



No. 361. Beaufort after 1397. 



and grandsons, bore the Royal quartered shield of France 
and England, No. 361, differenced, not with labels, but with 
a bordure componce arg. and az. (the Lancastrian colours) : 
the different members of the Beaufort family slightly varied 
the bordure, but by the head of their house it was borne 
as in No. 361. It will be seen that 
this is the coat that HENRY, Earl of 
WORCESTER (himself the legitimate son 
of an illegitimate son), bore fesse-wise, 
as in No. 359. The father of this Earl 
HENRY, CHARLES SOMERSET, Earl of 
WORCESTER (illegitimate son of the 
third Duke of SOMERSET), differenced 
Beaufort, No. 361, with a silver bendlct 
sinister, as in No. 362, the bendlet 
covering the quarterings, but being included within the 
bordure. 

Since the fifteenth century, in English Heraldry, a 




No. 362. Charles, Earl 
of Worcester. 



CADENCY. 



195 



narrow bendlet or baton sinister, couped at its extremities, 
either plain or charged, has differenced the illegitimate 
descendants of the Royal Family. It was borne by ARTHUR 
PLANTAGENET, Viscount LISLE, son of EDWARD IV. : by 
HENRY FITZ ROY, Duke of RICHMOND, son of HENRY VIIL, 
and, variously differenced, by all the illegitimate descendants 
of CHARLES I. that is, it is borne at the present day, 
argent, by the Duke of BUCCLEUCH ; ermine, by the Duke of 
CLEVELAND ; componee arg. and az., by the Duke of GRAFTON ; 
and, gules charged with three white roses, by the Duke of ST. 
ALBANS. 

Sir ROGER DE CLARENDON, illegitimate son of the 





No. 363. Sir Roger de Clarendon. No. 364. Radulphus de Arundel. 

BLACK PRINCE, bore on a sable bend the three Ostrich 
FeatJiers of his illustrious father s " Shield of Peace" the 
field of his Shield being golden, as in No. 363. Here the 
" Difference for Illegitimacy" is very emphatically marked 
in a singularly felicitous and beautiful Shield. 

The paternal arms of illegitimate children have also 
sometimes been carried by them charged on a canton, either 
dexter or sinister, the rest of the Shield being left blank, or 
perhaps in some cases displaying the maternal arms; of 
this usage I am not able to give any good example, in 
English Heraldry, of certain authority : one other variety of 

N 2 



196 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

these singular Shields, however, I must add to my small 
group of examples, which was first noticed by Mr. MONTAGU 
("Guide to the Study of Heraldry," p. 44). This is the Shield, 
No. 364, of RADULPHUS DE ARUNDEL; and it bears the 
quartered arms of the Earls of ARUNDEL Fitz Alan and 
Warretine (gu. a lion rampt. or, and No. 68), "flanched? 
that is, blazoned only upon the flanches (see No. 141) of 
the Shield, the central area being blank. 

In the more recent Heraldry of our own country, the 
bendlet or baton sinister is generally regarded as the most 
appropriate and decided Difference of Illegitimacy. Still, 
now, as in earlier times, there exists no fixed and universally 
recognised system of treating this peculiar application of 
Cadency : and, consequently, the Marks of Illegitimacy in 
use (whenever they are used) at the present time are both 
arbitrary in their character, and uncertain (or, at least, ques 
tionable) in their signification. The associations of the 
baton sinister, when borne " over all," may be considered to 
assign to it the exclusive duty of marking the Cadency 
now under our consideration : but there certainly is no 
oth er variety of Differencing, nor is there any other charge, 
of which it can be affirmed that its use or presence 
necessarily denotes this particular circumstance. Modern 
Heralds may difference for Illegitimacy in various ways, as 
it may seem to them to be most desirable ; and their 
Differencing may or may not be understood ; and, perhaps, 
after all, this very ambiguity may not be the least satisfac 
tory element of the existing practice. The feeling might be 
different, were this Cadency to be marked upon the Shields 
of the fathers of illegitimate children, 

In treating of this subject, some writers have maintained 
that the bordure componee is, in its heraldic nature, the most 
decided and unquestionable Difference of Illegitimacy : and 
this opinion these writers have derived from the singularly 



CADENCY. 197 

contradictory fact, that the BEAUFORTS differenced with a 
bordure componee when they became legally legitimate. A 
bordure compon6e may, indeed, be used with such an 
intention, as it is used by the Duke of RICHMOND, who 
bears the arms of CHARLES II. within a bordure componee 
arg. and gu., charged with eight roses of the last ; while by the 
BEAUFORTS it was used with an intention exactly the reverse 
of this. Very recently, a bordure engrailed has been 
employed to discharge this particular duty : but this appli 
cation of the bordure engrailed does not abate the honour of 
that bearing, or disqualify it for use under perfectly different 
conditions. In fact, the bordure, whatever its aspect or 
modification of treatment, remains still, as it was of old, an 
honourable Difference, until some abatement of honour has 
been associated with its presence under special circum 
stances. And precisely the same words may be applied to 
any other charge that has been employed, or may be 
required to mark Cadency. 

In the case of the illegitimate issue of Kings, the baton 
sinister or other decided Difference must continue to be 
borne from generation to generation, since the Royal Arms 
cannot be assumed by any subject without " due Differ 
ence :" and it is highly probable that the remote (or the 
comparatively remote) descendants of the illegitimate sons 
of Kings may regard with happy complacency their heredi 
tary Shield, with the associations of high honour that, in the 
course of time, may have gathered around it, the original 
baton sinister notwithstanding. But, in all other cases, true 
Heraldry cannot require the sustained presence of so 
marked a Difference as a baton sinister, and more particu 
larly if with its presence painful memories should be 
associated. All that can be either desirable or necessary is, 
that such Differences in every instance should be main 
tained and transmitted, as may preserve becoming distinc- 



198 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

tions, and at the same time may be consistent with both 
historical veracity and heraldic propriety. 

Marks of Cadency, as they are borne on Shields of 
Arms, are also charged on Badges, Crests, Supporters, and 
Mantlings. As a matter of course, they appear on Armorial 
Banners and Standards under the same conditions that they 
are blazoned upon Shields and Surcoats. Such examples as 
may be necessary to illustrate heraldic usage in these cases, 
I propose to describe in the following Chapters. 

It cannot be necessary for me to adduce any arguments 
in order to impress upon Students of Heraldry the import 
ance of investigating early Cadency, or to assure them that 
a special interest is inseparable from this inquiry : I may 
suggest, however, that it is most desirable that Students 
should arrange groups of allied Shields, and should carefully 
blazon them in full both in writing and in colour, with their 
various " Marks of Cadency," being careful also to record 
their authorities for every example. 

MODERN CADENCY is marked by the Label and by 
single small Charges, which take precedence in the follow 
ing order : 

1. The Label, No. 271. 

2. The Crescent, No. i66A. 

3. The Mullet, No. 278. 

4. The Martlet, No. 161. 

5. The Annulet, No. 154. 

6. The Fleur de. lys, No. 246. 

7. The Rose, No. 298. 

8. The Cross Moline, No. 99. 

9. The Octofoil, or Double Quatrefoil. 

At the present time, these Marks of Cadency are rarely 
used to denote the contemporary brothers of the same 
family; but almost invariably they distinguish different 
branches of the same family, and thus they become perma- 



CADENCY. 



I 99 



nent Charges borne "for difference." When they are 
adopted, Marks of Cadency now are generally placed upon 
the Honour Point of the Shield, or in some other con 
spicuous position : one of these Marks 
also may be charged upon another, if 
desired, as a Martlet may be charged 
upon a Label, to denote the fourth son 
of an eldest son ; and so in other cases. 
The Seal of WILLIAM FRASER, No. 
365, from Mr. Laing s Collection, ex 
emplifies in a singular and interesting 
manner the early use of a differenced 
Label. Here the Label appears, without 

,-,,1 , j , . c . 

any Shield, borne as if it were a Badge : 

and it is charged, on each of its three 

points, with two devices that have the appearance of 

mullets of six points, but which really may be /raises 

strawberry-leaves, the rebus-device of Fraser (see pp. 182 

-185). 




NO. 365. 



r)eed A - D - I2 95 Pre- 

served in H.M. Record 

office. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

DIFFERENCING. 

Differencing to denote Fmdal Alliance or Dependency: Differencing 
without any Alliance. Augmentation. Abatement. 



" Differencing, which comprises in truth the growth and ramification of Coat- 
Armour, and the whole system, of its early development, has been strangely lost 
sight of in the numerous treatises on Armory that have satisfied recent generations 
of Englishmen." HERALD AND GENEALOGIST, II., 32. 



DIFFERENCING, as distinct from CADENCY, implies, first, 
the treatment of Coats of Arms and other armorial insignia, 
that denote and are based upon Feudal Alliance or Depend 
ency, but without blood-relationship ; and, secondly, it also 
implies a comprehensive system of distinguishing similar 
Arms, when they are borne by individuals or families 
between whom no kind of alliance is known to have 
existed. It is evident, on the one hand, that a feudal 
influence would naturally lead to some degree of assimi 
lation to the Coat Armour of the feudal Chief, in the Arms 
of all allies and dependents : and, on the other hand, it 
will readily be understood that, even in the early days of 
its career, Heraldry would see the necessity for providing 
for the constantly increasing demands upon its resources ; 
and, consequently, that it would organise a system which 
would enable the same Ordinaries and the same principal 
Charges to appear in distinct Shields, without either con 
fusion or misapprehension. 



DIFFERENCING. 2OI 

It is highly probable, and indeed it may be assumed to 
be certain, that what I have called a " feudal influence," in 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in no slight degree 
affected the general composition of Coats of Arms. In 
very many instances the working of this influence is still 
palpable ; and it is always interesting to the student of 
Heraldry, as it must always be eminently useful to the 
student of History, to detect its presence and to explore 
its method of action. Like Cadency, feudal Differencing 
is expressed by various means, all of them indicating, in a 
greater or a less degree, the motive which suggested their 
adoption. I proceed at once to examples, which illustrate 
and explain the system so clearly and 
so fully, that prolonged introductory re 
marks are altogether superfluous. 

Upon his Seal, RANULPH DE BLON- 
DEVILLE, Earl of CHESTER (died in 
1232)- bears three garbs or wheat- 
sheaves; and Rolls of Arms of the 
time of HENRY III. blazon the Shield 
of the Earl of CHESTER as Az., three N 
garbs or, No. 366. This Shield has been borne by the Earls 
of CHESTER to this day, and for his Earldom of CHESTER 
it now is borne by the PRINCE OF WALES : and, in token 
of feudal alliance, from the middle of the thirteenth cen 
tury, " one or more garbs," in the words of Mr. PLANCH^, 
" are seen in the majority of Coats belonging to the nobility 
and gentry of the County Palatine of Chester." Thus, 
since the year 1390, the arms of GROSVENOR have been 
az., a garb or. 

A cinquefoil, said to have been borne by him on a 
red Shield, was the device of ROBERT FITZ-PARNEL, Earl of 
LEICESTER, who died in 1204. Accordingly, the cinquefoil, 
derived from him, as early as the thirteenth century, 




2O2 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

appears in token of feudal connection on the Shields of 
many families of Leicestershire. As I have already shown, 
(page 1 8 8) a BERKELEY, who was of Leicestershire, sub 
stituted ten cinque/oils for the ten crosses patee of the 
Berkeley Shield ; and thus he combined feudal Differencing 
with Cadency. 

Many a red chevron or chevronel, with other devices, 
charged upon a golden field, or a gold chevron on a red 
field, is a sign of feudal alliance with the great house of 
DE CLARE, whose Shield was or, three chevronels gu., No. 
124. For example, the FITZ-RALPHS, 
near neighbours of the De Clares at 
Clare in Suffolk, differenced the Shield 
of the Earls by charging silver fleurs 
de lys on each chevronel, as in No. 
367 (E. 2) ; and, for secondary dif 
ference, they sometimes added a bor- 
dure azure, as in the fine early Brass 
at Pebmarsh, near Clare. Again : by 
No. 3 6 7 .-Fit z Ralph. a change o f t i nc tures, without affect 
ing the charges of the Shield, the Arms of L ERCEDECKNE 
(now Archdeacon) are Arg., three chevronels sa. 

At Carlaverock, EDMOND DE HASTINGS, brother of the 
Earl, bore Or, a maunche gu., with a label of Jive points 
sa., the Earl himself bearing simply Or, a maunche gu., 
No. 276. And, close by the side of EDMOND DE HASTINGS 
was his friend and companion, the feudal ally, without 
doubt, of his house, JOHN PAIGNEL, a very proper comrade, 
as the chronicler testifies 

" Un bacheler jolif et comte, 

who differenced Hastings by change of tinctures, and bore 
Vert, a maunche or. 

The Shield of the noble house ot DE LUTERELL, or 




DIFFERENCING. 



203 




LOTEREL, I have blazoned with changed tinctures for two 
near kinsmen bearing that name (page 186), thus showing 
in what manner they marked their Cadency. This same 
shield, No. 368 Or, a bend between six martlets sa., was 
also differenced by other families to 
mark their feudal alliance with the 
house of Luterell. Thus, the DE FUR- 
NIVALS, themselves a powerful and 
distinguished family, who held their 
lands by feudal tenure under the Lute- 
rells, in token of this alliance bore the 
Shield of De Luterell with a fresh 
change of tinctures ; and, accordingly, 
the arms of the De Furnivals are No< 368 ~ De Lutere!L 
well known as Arg., a bend between six martlets gu. 
Then, while the FURNIVALS, for Cadency, differenced these 
arms amongst themselves, their feudal allies and depen 
dents, the ECCLESALLS or EKELESHALES, the MOUNTENEYS, 
the WADESLES or WADSLEYS, and the WORTELES or WORT- 
LEYS, all united in declaring their 
connection with their chief by assum 



ing arms founded upon the Furnival 
Coat. These very interesting and 
characteristic examples of feudal Dif 
ferencing are well blazoned, as follows, 
in the Roll of EDWARD II. For DE 
ECCLESALL Sa., a bend between six 
martlets or: for DE MOUNTENEY 
Git., a bend between six martlets or: 
for DE WADSLEY Arg., on a bend between six martlets 
git., three escallops or, No. 369 : and for DE WORTLEY 
Arg., on a bend between six martlets gu., three bezants, No. 
370. 

The MOUNTENEYS further difference their common arms, 




No. 369. De Wadsley. 



204 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



for Cadency, after this manner. Instead of gules, Sir ERNAUF 
DE MOUNTENEY has the field of his shield azure, his bend 
and martlets being golden : Sir JOHN bears these same arms, 
but charges his bend with a mullet gules, No. 371 : Sir T. 
DE MOUNTENEY bears Sir John s arms, but with afield gules: 
and another Sir JOHN cotises his bend thus Gu., a bend 
cotised between six martlets or, No. 372. 

North of the Tweed, also, the same principle is found 
to be exemplified in Scottish Heraldry. " In Annandale," 
writes Mr. SETON, " the chief and saltire of the Bruces are 
carried (of different tinctures and with additional figures) by 




No. 370. 
De Wortley. 



No. 371. 
Sir John de Mounteney. 



No. 372. 
Sir John de Mounteney. 



the Jardines, Kirkpatricks, Johnstons, and other families." 
The arms of BRUCE are Or, a saltire and a chief gu., No. 73 : 
those of JARDINE are Arg., a saltire and a chief gu., the 
latter charged with three mullets of the field, pierced of the 
second: and the arms of KIRKPATRICK are Arg., a saltire 
and chief az., the latter charged with three oreillers or. This 
coat of Kirkpatrick is also borne by the JOHNSTONS, the 
tinctures differenced thus Arg., a saltire sa., and on a chief 
gu. three oreillers or. 

Once more, returning to the southern side of the Scottish 
border, of RICHARD DE NEVILLE, the renowned "King 
maker," we find it to be recorded that, so great was his 



DIFFERENCING. 205 

popularity at Calais, of which city he was governor, that his 
Badges were universally adopted, "no man esteeming 
himself gallant whose head was not adorned with his silver 
ragged staff , No. 294 ; nor was any door frequented, that had 
not his white cross (silver saltire, No. 121) painted thereon." 
This was an extravagant application of the earlier usage in 
denoting feudal alliance, such as was in keeping with the 
heraldic sentiment of the second half of the fourteenth 
century. Those good citizens of Calais, however, who 
were Neville-worshippers four hundred years ago, were not 
singular in exhibiting an armorial ensign at the entrance to 
their houses. Numerous, indeed, are the doorways in 
various parts of England, and particularly in the counties of 
Surrey, Sussex, and Norfolk, which in the " sign of the 
chequers" still display the insignia (chequee or and az., No. 68) 
of the once mighty Earls of WARRENNE and SURREY ; and 
thus show that relics of the old feudal influence are endowed 
with a tenacious vitality, which prolongs their existence for 
ages after the feudal system itself has passed away. 

Differencing adopted, so far as now is apparent, simply 
for the sake of distinction, lays open before the student of 
Heraldry a wide and a diversified field of inquiry. All the 
miscellaneous charges that are associated in blazon with 
the Ordinaries, and also with the Subordinaries, thus are 
brought under consideration ; and, without a doubt, it was 
for the express purpose of Differencing that many of these 
charges were introduced into English Heraldry. How far 
some remote degree of relationship, or some subordinate 
feudal motive now lost to sight and forgotten, may originally 
have affected the choice of Charges " for difference," it is 
not possible now to determine ; nor can we always follow 
the rebus-loving search for a " Difference," that might speak 
through that allusive quality which is a primary element of 
the Herald s science. We do know that the act of bearing 



206 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

the same arms by different families, without some heraldic 
Difference, was of very rare occurrence j and that, when it 
did occur, it was regarded with marked surprise, and on 
more than one occasion led to a memorable controversy : 
and, further, we find great numbers of early differenced 
Shields, which illustrate in a very effective manner the 
growth and development of English Heraldry. Shields 
of this order have strong claims on our attention. The 
examples that I am able here to place before students are 
to be regarded simply as specimens, few in number, and 
yet sufficient to show some of the varied forms under which 
early Differencing was effected. 

The proceedings in the High Court of Chivalry in the 
suit between Sir RICHARD LE SCROPE and Sir ROBERT GROS- 
VENOR, relative to the right to the Arms Azure, a bend or, 
No. in, commenced on the iyth of August, 1385, and the 
final judgment of the King himself upon the appeal of the 
defendant against the finding of the Court, was not pro 
nounced till the 27th of May, 1390. On the i5th of May, 
1389, the judgment of the Court assigned the arms azure, 
a bend or to Sir RICHARD LE SCROPE ; and to Sir ROBERT 
GROSVENOR, these arms az., a bend or, within a plain 
bordure argent. Thus the Court confirmed to Sir Richard 
le Scrope the right to bear the Ordinary in its severe 
simplicity, without any other charge and without any 
Difference : and, at the same time, it was decided that 
these arms of Scrope should be differenced, in order 
that they might become the arms of Grosvenor, and 
the " Difference " was to be a plain silver bordure. The 
whole of the proceedings in this remarkable case are pre 
served, and have been published ; and they derive a peculiar 
interest from the circumstance, that amongst the witnesses 
who gave evidence was the father of English Poetry, 
GEOFFREY CHAUCER. Appeal having been made to the 



DIFFERENCING. 207 

Sovereign, RICHARD II. determined that a "plain bordure 
argent" was a Mark of Cadency, good and right, and 
perfectly sufficient as a Difference "between Cousin and 
Cousin in blood ;" but that it was " not a sufficient Diffe 
rence in Arms between two strangers in blood in one king 
dom." The King, therefore, cancelled and annulled the 
sentence of the Court of Chivalry; and in so doing he 
gave a very clear definition of the distinction to be observed 
in Heraldry between " Cadency" and " Differencing." 
Then it was that the shield, azure, a garb or, was adopted as 
the arms of Grosvenor. We may assume, that the judg 
ment of the Court would have been confirmed by the King, 
had Sir Robert Grosvenor been commanded to blazon his 
golden bend between two garbs, or charged with one or 
more garbs, or with three garbs on a chief, or with any 
other decided Difference which would be palpably distinct 
from a Mark of Cadency. 

The examples of Differenced Shields which follow I 
have selected from the Roll of EDWARD II. It will be seen 
that in each small group of these examples some primary 
feature of the composition is common to every Shield, so 
that the distinction between the Shields in each group is 
effected either by a simple change of tinctures, or by the 
introduction of various secondary charges. 

CHIEFS. Sir JOHN DE ARDERNE Gu. 9 crusilee and a 
chief or. Sir THOMAS LE Rous Erm., on a chief indented 
gu. two escallops arg. Sir JOHN DE CLINTONE Arg., on a 
chief az. two fleurs de lys or. No. 74. Sir JOHN DE CLIN 
TONE, of Maxtoke Arg., on a chief az. two mullets or, No. 
75 : here the Difference denotes Cadency as well as a 
distinct individuality. 

BENDS. Sir ROBERT POUTREL Or, on a bend az. three 
fleurs de lys arg. Sir WALTER DE BERMYNGHAM Arg., on 
a bend gu., cotised az., three escallops or. OLIVER DE BOHUN 



208 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Az., on a bend, cotised and between six lionccls or, three 
escallops gu., No. 321. 

FESSES AND BARS. Sir JOHN DE DAGEWORTH Erm., 
a fesse gu. bezantee, No. 80. Sir G. DE WACHESHAM Arg., 
a fesse and in chief three crescents gu. Sir R. DE COLEVILLE 
Or, a fesse gu., and in chief three torteaux. Sir J. DE 
GEYTONE Arg., a fesse between six fleurs de lys gu. Sir G. 
DE OUSFLET Arg., on a fesse az. three fleurs de lys or. Sir 
R. DE LOMELYE (Lumley) Gu., on a fesse between three 
popinjays arg., as many mullets sa. Sir B. BADLESMERE 
Arg., a fesse between bars gemelles gu. -Sir G. DE LA MERE 
Or, a fesse between bars gemelles az., No. 84. Sir J. DE 
PREIERES Gu., a fesse between bars gemelles arg. Sir J. 
WAKE Or, two bars gu., in chief three torteaux, No. 82. 
Sir B. PYCOT Az., two bars or, in chief three bezants. Sir 
R. DE WEDONE Arg., two bars gu., in chief three martlets 
sa. Sir R. BORDET Az., two bars or, on the uppermost 
three martlets gu. Sir R. DE ROYINGE Arg., three bars 
and an orle of martlets gu. Sir N. DE ESTOTEVILLE Barry 
arg. and gu., three lioncels sa. Sir R. DE YNGELFELD Bar- 
rulee arg. and gu., on a chief or a lion pass. az. Sir W. DE 
MONECASTRE Barrulee arg. and gu., on a bend sa. three 
escallops or. Sir T. DE PON INGE Barry or and vert, on a 
bend gu. three mullets arg. 

CROSSES. Sir N. DE WEYLANDE Arg., on a cross git. 
five escallops or. Sir R. BYGOD Or, on a cross gu. five 
escallops arg. Sir WM. KIRKETOT Az., on a cross arg. five 
escallops gu. Sir WM. DE BERHAM Sa., a cross between four 
crescents arg. Sir R. DE BANNEBURY Arg., a cross patee 
between four mullets gu. Sir J. RANDOLF Gu., on a cross 
arg. five mullets sa. Sir G. DE DUREM Arg., on a cross gu. 
five fleurs de lys or. Sir P. DE GEYTONE Arg., crusilee and 
three fleurs de lys az. Sir R. DE HOFTOT Az., a cross patee 
efm, between four roses erm. 



DIFFERENCING. 209 

CHEVRONS. Sir G. Rossel Or, a chevron az., between 
three roses gu. Sir J. de Cretinge Arg., a chevron between 
three mullets gu. Sir R. Malet Sa. 9 a chevron between three 
buckles arg. Sir T. de Anvers Gu., a chevron between 
three mullets or. Sir Wm. de Berkeroles Az., a chevron 
between three crescents or. Sir W. Bluet Or, a chevron 
between three eagles vert. Sir R. de Caple Arg. y a chevron 
gu. between three torteaux. Sir T. Malet Sa., a chevron 
between three buckles arg. Sir R. de Peyvre Arg., on a 
chevron az. three neurs de lys or, No. 125. Sir R. de 
Boterels Chequee or and gu., on a chevron az. three horse 
shoes arg. 

LIONS. The Earl of Lincoln Or, a lion rampt. purp., 
No. 194. The Earl of Arundel Gu., a lion rampt. or. 
Sir Henry de Percy Or, a lion rampt. az., No. 196. Sir 
John Mowbray Gu., a lion rampt. arg., No. 193. Sir R. 
de Sottone (Sutton) Or, a lion rampt. vert. Sir J. de 
Nortone Vert, a lion rampt. or. Sir W. Fauconberg 
Arg., a lion rampt. az. Sir G. de Hautville Sa., crusilee, 
a, lion rampt. arg. Sir de Moimtfort Arg., crusilee gu., a 
lion rampt. az. Sir Wm. Maufee Arg., semee of escallops 
gu., a lion rampt. sa. Sir J. de Creppinge Gu., billetee or, 
a lion rampt. arg. Sir R. de Asscheby Arg., a lion rampt. 
sa. billetee or. Sir J. de Deyville Gu., semee de lys, a lion 
rampt. arg. Arg., within a bordure gu. bezantee, a lion rampt. 
sa., for Sir T. de Pickering; and, Arg., within an orle of 
roses gu., a lion rampt. sa., for Sir R. Pirepound, both 
apparently founded on the shield of the Earl of Cornwall, 
No. 140, which also is blazoned in this Roll. Sir J. Le 
Strange Gu., two lions pass, arg., No. 191. Sir J. de 
Someri Or, two lions pass. az. Sir R. de St. Waly 
Or, two lions pass. git. Sir N. Carru (Carew) Or, three 
lions pass. sa. Sir J. Giffard Gu., three lions pass arg., No. 
192. Sir R. le Fitz Payn Gu., three lions pass, arg., over all 

o 



2IO ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

a bendlet az. Sir G. de Canvyle Az., three lions pass arg. 
In the beautiful chantry of Abbot Thomas Ramryge, at St. 
Albans, one of the large sculptured Shields is charged with 
a lion rampant within what may be considered to be 
an orle of roses the arms, as I have just shown, assigned 
in the Roll of Edward II. to Sir R. Pierpound. This 
Shield, carefully drawn by the engraver himself from the 




No. 373. At St. Albans. 

original in the Abbey Church of St. Alban, is represented in 
No. 373. 

AUGMENTATION, or AUGMENTATION OF HONOUR, is a 
term employed to denote an addition to a Shield of arms, 
specially granted by the Sovereign to commemorate some 
worthy or illustrious deed, and forming an integral element 
of the Shield as an hereditary bearing. Such additions may 
be marshalled as Escutcheons of Pretence, as Cantons, or as 
Quarterings or they may assume the character of additional 



DIFFERENCING. 



211 



charges. Also, this same term denotes similar additions of 
Crests, Badges, or any other accessories of Shields. 

The Augmentation displayed upon the Ducal Shield of 
WELLINGTON, a most honourable exception to the prevailing 
degenerate heraldic feeling of the period in which it was 
granted to the Great Duke, in characteristic and expressive 
qualities is second to no other example of its own class and 
order. This true Augmentation of Honour is the National 
Device of the British Empire, as it is blazoned in the " Union 
Jack," charged upon an escutcheon of pretence, and dis 
played upon the honour point of the Duke s paternal Shield. 

An equally significant Augmentation of an earlier date is 





No. 374. Howard, after Flodden. No. 374A.-The Howard Augmentation. 

borne in the shield of the DUKE OF NORFOLK. The Arms 
of HOWARD before the battle of Flodden were Gu., a bend 
between six crosses crosslets fitchee arg. To commemorate 
the great victory won by him at Flodden Field, Sept. 9, 
1513, when JAMES IV. of Scotland was defeated and slain, 
HENRY VIII. granted to THOMAS HOWARD, Duke of Nor 
folk, and to his descendants, as an Augmentation of 
Honour, the Royal Shield of Scotland (No. 138), having a 
demi-lion only, which is pierced through the mouth with an 
arrow, to be charged upon the silver bend of his Shield. 
This Shield is represented in No. 374 ; and in No. 374A 
the augumentation is shown on a larger scale. 

o 2 



212 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

A small group of additional examples will be sufficient 
to illustrate this most interesting class of historical Arms, 
and at the same time will not fail to excite in students a 
desire very considerably to extend the series through their 
own inquiries and researches. In memory of the devoted 
courage and all-important services of JANE LANE, after the 
disastrous battle of Worcester, CHARLES II. granted as an 
Augmentation a Canton of England (No. 187 marshalled on 
a canton), to be added to the hereditary Coat of Lane, 
which is -per fesse or and az., a chevron gu. between three 
mullets counter changed. The Crest of the family of DE LA 
BERE was conferred by the BLACK PRINCE upon Sir RICHARD 
DE LA BERE, as a memorial of the good service rendered by 
that gallant knight on the memorable field of Cressi. This 
Crest is out of a crest-coronet a plume of five ostrich feathers 
per pale arg. and az., the Plantagenet colours the device 
(as Mr. LOWER observes) being evidently derived from the 
Prince s own Badge, and also forming a variety of the 
"panache," the Crest then held in such high estimation. 
The heart charged upon the shield of DOUGLAS (see Nos. 
J 56, 157, p. 74) is another remarkable Augmentation. So 
also is the adoption of the armorial insignia of the CON 
FESSOR, No. 2, by RICHARD II., and his marshalling it upon 
his own Royal Shield, impaled to the dexter with the 
quartered arms of France and England. 

English Heraldry has been required to recognise 
another and a perfectly distinct class of " Augmentations," 
which consist of additions to the blazonry of a Shield or of 
additional quarterings or accessories, granted as tokens of 
Royal favour, for heraldic display, but without any par 
ticular "merit" in the receiver, or any special historical 
significance in themselves. Augmentations of this order may 
be considered to have been first introduced by RICHARD 
II., when he granted, "out of his mere grace," to his 



DIFFERENCING. 213 

favourite, ROBERT DE VERE, Earl of OXFORD, Marquess of 
DUBLIN and Duke of IRELAND, a differenced Coat of ST. 
EDMUND (No. 3) Az., three crowns or, within a bordure 
argent, to be quartered with the DE VERE arms as the arms 
of IRELAND. In the same spirit, RICHARD II. granted, as 
similar Augmentations, the arms of the CONFESSOR to be 
marshalled, with Differences, on their Shields by THOMAS 
and JOHN HOLLAND, Dukes of SURREY and EXETER, and by 
THOMAS MOWBRAY, Duke of NORFOLK. It will be remem 
bered that it was one of the capital charges against a lineal 
descendant of this THOMAS MOWBRAY, the Duke of Norfolk, 
in 1546, that he had assumed, without the special licence of 
HENRY VIII., the same arms of the CONFESSOR as an 
augmentation. 

By EDWARD IV. similar augmentations, " by grace " and 
not " for merit," were granted ; and by HENRY VIII. the 
system was carried to excess in the grants made to augment 
the armorial blazonry of ANNE BOLEYN, and of his English 
consorts, her successors. 

ABATEMENT is a term which was unknown until it 
made its appearance in certain heraldic writings of the 
sixteenth century, when it was used to denote such 
marks or devices as, by the writers in question, were 
held to be the reverse of honourable Augmentation 
Augmentations of dishonour indeed, and tokens of degra 
dation. True Heraldry refuses to recognise all such pre 
tended abatements, for the simple reason that, if they 
could exist at all, they would be in direct antagonism to 
its nature, its principles, and its entire course of action. 
Honourable itself, Heraldry can give expression only to 
what conveys honour, and it records and commemorates 
only what is to be honoured and held in esteem. All 
the devices of true Heraldry, accordingly, in their various 
degrees, are "Tokens of Honour;" and " Arms," if they 



214 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

attest anything whatever, "are the testimony of some 
noble action." 

The very idea of an heraldic Abatement implies, if not a 
complete ignorance, certainly a thorough misconception of 
the character and the office of Heraldry. Even if Heraldry 
were to attempt to stigmatise what is, and what ought to be 
esteemed, dishonourable, who would voluntarily accept 
insignia of disgrace, and charge and display them upon 
his Shield, and transmit them to his descendants ? And 
the believers in Abatement must hold that Heraldry can 
exert no compulsory legislative power, which might com 
mand a man to blazon his own disgrace, and force him to 
exhibit and to retain, and also to bequeath, any such 
blazonry. A belief in heraldic Abatement, however, is by 
no means singular or rare. A curious example of its 
existence was recently brought under my notice, in 
connection with one of the most renowned of the historical 
devices of English Heraldry. The bear, the badge of the 
BEAUCHAMPS, Earls of WARWICK, which appears at the feet 
of the effigy of Earl RICHARD in the Beauchamp chapel at 
Warwick, in accordance with a special provision to that 
effect, is " muzzled; " and, wearing a muzzle has this bear 
been borne, as their Badge, by the successors of the BEAU- 
CHAMPS in the Warwick Earldom, the Earls of the houses of 
NEVILLE, DUDLEY, RICH, and GREVILLE. But, it would 
seem that a legend has found credence at Warwick Castle 
itself, which would associate the muzzle of the bear with some 
dishonourable action of an Earl of the olden time ; and, 
consequently, it was proposed that at length this Abatement 
should be removed from the bears still at Warwick ! Earl 
RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP was not exactly the man to have 
displayed upon his bear any ensign of dishonour ; nor were 
his son-in-law, the " King-maker," and Queen ELIZABETH S 
ROBERT DUDLEY, at all more probable subjects for any 



DIFFERENCING. 215 

similar display ; still, it is quite certain that they bore the 
muzzled bear, as he appears on the seal of the great 
Earl, No. 448.* That muzzle, doubtless, has its becoming 
heraldic significance, without in the slightest degree par 
taking in the assumed character of an Abatement I hope 
eventually to be able to trace out conclusively what the 
muzzle may really imply, and I commend the research to 
other inquirers : meanwhile, neither at Warwick nor else 
where is there any such thing as " Abatement " in English 
Heraldry. 

* See Frontispiece. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

CRESTS. 



" On high their glittering crests they toss." LORD OF THE ISLES. 

" Then he bound 
Her token on his helmet." ELAINE. 



THE idea of a CREST, of some accessory specially designed 
to form its crowning adornment, appears inseparable from 
the existence and use of a Helm. The Warriors and Warrior 
Divinities of classic antiquity are represented to us, wearing 
head-pieces richly crested : and, in the Middle Ages, had no 
other Heraldry ever been devised, assuredly heraldic Crests 
would have been placed on helms and basinets, and these 
insignia would have been held in high esteem and honour. 





No. 375. Richard I. No. 376. Henry de Perci. No. 377. Henry de Laci. 

Accordingly, about the time that Coat-Armour became 
hereditary, having been reduced to a system and accepted 
as an independent science, heraldic Crests began to be 
worn as honourable distinctions of the most exalted 
dignity by the mediaeval chivalry. 

Upon the Second Great Seal of RICHARD I. the cylin 
drical helm of the King appears surmounted by a kind of 



CRESTS. 2 I 7 

cap charged with a lion passant, the whole being arched 
over by a radiated ornament somewhat resembling a dis 
played fan, as in No. 375. Similar Crests, somewhat 
modified in their details, are represented in other seals of 
the same era, and with them the flowing Contoise or Scarf 
is sometimes associated, as in No. 376, from the seal of 




No. 378. Seal of Alexander de Balliol, A.D. 



Baron HENRY DE PERCI, A.D. 1300. Similar Crests were 
also placed by the knights of those ages upon the heads of 
their chargers. The seal of HENRY DE LACI, Earl of LIN 
COLN, A.D. 1272, shows the Fan-Crest both upon the helm of 
the Earl, No. 377, and the head of his war-horse. Another 
equally characteristic example is the Seal of ALEXANDER DE 



2l8 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

BALLIOL, No. 378, appended to the "General Release "given 
by JOHN BALLIOL to EDWARD L, 2nd January, 1292 : it 
will be observed that this knight displays the arms of his 
house, No. 134, upon his Shield, and also, in addition to 
the Fan-Crest, upon the barding of his charger. Again I 
am indebted to the kindness and liberality of Mr. Laing 
for the use of his admirable woodcut of this fine and 
interesting seal. 

The flowing Contoise continued to be attached to helms 
till about the middle of the fourteenth century; unless, 
indeed, some veritable "lady s favour" were worn in its 
stead by knights favoured as was Sir LAUNCELOT, who, on 
a memorable day 

" Wore, against his wont, upon his helm 
A sleeve of scarlet, broidered with great pearls, 
Some gentle maiden s gift." 

The seal of THOMAS, second Earl of LANCASTER, about A.D. 
1320, gives an excellent example both of such figures as 




No. 379. Helm of Thomas, second Earl of Lancaster. 

were beginning at that early time to supersede the Fan- 
Crests, and also of the Contoise; No. 379. About this 
same period the fashion was introduced of fixing two tall 
spikes, one on each side of the Crest, upon the helm, 
probably intended in the first instance to display the con- 
toise. These singular spikes may have been derived by 



CRESTS. 



2IQ 



the English Heralds from their brethren of Germany, who 
delighted, as they still delight, in placing upon helms as 
Crests, or as the accessories of Crests, small banners dis 
played from staves set erect and surmounted by spear 
heads. In German Heraldry also Crests are very fre 
quently placed between tall upright horns or trumpets : 
and, sometimes, upon a German helm the Crest stands 
between two elephant s trunks, placed in the same erect 
position, and, like the trumpets, so adjusted as to have the 
general aspect of the curved outline of a classic lyre. The 





No. 380. Helm and Crest of Sir 
Geoffrey Luterell : A.D. 1345. 



No. 381. Seal of Sir Robert de 
Marny : A.D. 1366. 



helm of Sir GEOFFREY LUTERELL, A. D. 1345, No. 380, drawn 
from a celebrated illumination, between the tall spikes has 
a late example of the Fan-Crest; and it exemplifies the 
practice sometimes adopted of charging armorial insignia 
upon Crests of this fan form. The Arms of Luterell Or, a 
bend and six martlets sa. were borne by Sir GEOFFREY thus 
differenced (E. 2) Az., a bend and six martlets arg. A 
pair of lofty upright wings were held in much esteem in the 



220 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Heraldry of both England and Scotland, to form the acces 
sories of Crests. The Seal of Sir ROBERT DE MARNY, A.D. 
1366, No. 381, shows his armorial shield Gu., a lion ram 
pant guardant arg., suspended from a tree, between two 
crested helms, the crest in both cases being a winged 
chapeau, having the wings very tall and very slender. 

From the earliest times, Crests have occasionally been 
identical with the principal charge in the Shield of Arms, 
or they have repeated the principal charge with some slight 
modification of attitude or accessory : but, more generally, 
Crests have been altogether distinct The Dragon and the 
Wyvern, the latter well exemplified in No. 315, are amongst 
the earliest figures that were borne as Crests in England. 
Other early Figure-Crests are the Lion, crowned and 
assumed for the first time by an English Sovereign by 
EDWARD III. ; and the Eagle, borne by the same Prince. 
Various devices and figures are found gradually to have 
been added to these earliest Crests. The graceful and 
peculiarly appropriate Panache soon joined them, with the 
heads of various animals and other creatures : and, as the 
fourteenth century advances, the Crest Coronet, No. 232, 
the Crest- Wreath, No. 233, and the Chapeau, No. 224, 
assume their places in connection with Crests ; and the 
Mantling falls in rich folds from them, covering the back of 
the Helm. In the succeeding century, with Helms less 
dignified in form, but more elaborately enriched, and with 
strangely fantastic Mantlings, Crests become considerably 
larger in their proportions ; and they often are extravagant 
in their character, devices constantly being assumed and 
borne as Crests, which are no less inconsistent with true 
heraldic feeling, than with the peculiar conditions and the 
proper qualities of true heraldic Crests. The Crest of the 
Duke of HAMILTON, No. 301, is far from being one of the 
most inconsistent devices that were intended to be worn 



CRESTS. 221 

upon helms. And, as it is scarcely necessary for me to add, 
every really consistent Crest must be such a figure or device 
as might be actually worn upon his helm, by a mediaeval 
knight, with dignity and with a happy effect. 

Early examples of Panache-Crests exist in considerable 
numbers, and they show much variety of treatment. No. 
285, already given at page 143, shows a Panache of several 
heights of feathers, the general outline having an oval 
contour. In No. 283, from the Seal of EDWARD DE COUR- 
TENAY, Earl of DEVON, A.D. 1372, there are three heights of 
feathers, and the outline has a square form. Again, the 




No. 382. 



Seal of WILLIAM LE LATIMER, A.D. 1415, gives the peculiar 
Panache, with the no less peculiar variety of mantling, 
shown in No. 284. A Panache of ample proportions, and 
of exceedingly graceful form, is represented in the Seal ot 
WILLIAM DE WYNDESOR, A.D. 1381. The comparatively 
small size of the armorial Shield, as it generally appears when 
introduced into the composition of Seals in the fourteenth 
century, is shown in a striking manner in this same ex 
ample, No. 382, which in the woodcut is slightly enlarged, 
in order to show the device more clearly : the arms are 
gu., a saltire or. Other fine examples of Panache-Crests 
may be seen in the effigies of Sir RICHARD DE PEMBRIDGE, 



222 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



K.G., A.D. 1375, in Hereford Cathedral; of Sir ROBERT DE 
MARMION, A.D. 1400, at Tanfield, Yorkshire ; and of Sir 
THOMAS ARDERNE, about the same date, at Elford, in Staf 
fordshire. The very fine effigy of Sir EDWARD DE THORPE, 
A.D. 1418, at Ashwelthorpe, in Norfolk, has a helm of rare 
beauty of form, with a rich mantling, and a most graceful 
Panache of peacock s feathers : and peacock s feathers also 
form the Panache of Lord FERRERS of CHARTLEY, in his 
Brass, A.D. 1425, at Merevale, in Warwickshire. And, once 
more, upon the Seal of THOMAS DE HATFIELD, Bishop of 
Durham, A.D. 1345, the Panache rises from the episcopal 
mitre, after the same manner as it 
does in No. 383 from a Coronet. 

Another episcopal Seal, that of 
Bishop HENRY LE DESPENCER, No. 
351, shows a Shield of small size 
when compared with the helm and 
crest, the latter being the favourite 
device of a gryphon s head between 
two tall upright wings. The Seals 
of the FITZALANS, Earls of Arundel, 
and the Seal of JOHN TIPTOFT, Earl 
of Worcester, may be specified as 
displaying fine examples of the same Crest. With them 
may be grouped the Crest of Sir RICHARD GREY, K.G., 
Lord Grey of Codnor, A.D. 1420 a peacock s head and 
neck, between two wings erect, the feathers az., and their pens 
(quills) arg., No. 383, from the Garter-Plate at Windsor. 
This Crest rises from such a Crest-Coronet as was borne on 
their helms by noblemen in the time of HENRY V. 

The use of the Chapcau, or Cap of Estate, instead of a 
Crest-Coronet, to support a Crest upon a helm, I have 
already illustrated with Nos. 198 and 199, severally the 
Lion-Crests of the BLACK PRINCE and of his son 




CRESTS. 223 

RICHARD II. Like No. 199, No. 384 is from one of the 
unrivalled series of helms sculptured in Westminster Hall, 
with the Crest and Ostrich-feather Badge of King RICHARD 
II. In both of these examples the adjustment of the 
Mantling is shown. Two famous Lion-Crests are those 
borne by the great families of HOWARD and PERCY, severally 
Dukes of Norfolk and Northumberland. The HOWARD 
lion, originally granted by RICHARD II. to THOMAS MOWBRAY, 
Earl Marshal, and now borne by the Duke of NORFOLK, 
as his representative, is a lion statant 
gtiardant, his tail extended or, and 
ducally gorged arg.: the PERCY lion is 
statant y his tail extended or: each lion 
stands upon a chapeau. The Lion- 
Crest of the BLACK PRINCE, being 
charged with the silver Label (which 
he may be said to wear after the 
fashion of a collar), exemplifies the , r No A f 4 ,. 

Helm, Crest, Mantling, and 

prevailing practice of differencing Crests Badge of Richard n., 
with marks of Cadency. Crests admit from Westminster HalL 
every variety of Difference: and Mantlings also are fre 
quently differenced with small charges, or with badges ; 
as in the Garter-plate of Sir JOHN BEAUMONT, K.G., and 
in the Brass at Little Easton, Essex, to Sir HENRY 
BOURCHIER, K.G., Earl of ESSEX. 

The Crest- Wreath first appears about the middle of the 
fourteenth century. The earliest example to which I can 
refer is represented in the Brass to Sir HUGH HASTINGS, at 
Elsyng, in Norfolk, A.D. 1347. In this most remarkable 
engraven memorial, the finial of the principal canopy is 
surmounted by a helm with mantling, wreath, and the crest 
of HASTINGS # bull s head sable; No. 385. In the effigy 
of Sir R. DE PEMBRIDGE, K.G., already noticed, the date of 
which is 1375, the crest is united to the great helm that 




224 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

supports the head of the knight by a wreath formed of 
a band of four-leaved flowers. A little later, A.D. 1384, at 
Southacre, in Norfolk, the Brass of Sir JOHN HARSYCK has a 
Crest-Wreath formed of two rolls, probably of silk, twisted 
as in No. 386. In the second half of the next century, 
amongst many good examples of Crest-Wreaths I select as 
typical specimens those which appear in the Brasses to Sir 
WILLIAM VERNON, A.D. 1467, at Tong, in Shropshire, No. 





No. 385- -Crested Helm of Sir Hugh No ^ 6> ^ and 388 ._ C rest- Wreaths. 

Hastings; A.D. 1347. 

386 ; and to Sir ROBERT HARCOURT, K.G., No. 387, at 
Staunton Harcourt, Oxfordshire. 

The Crest-Wreath in the form shown in the last 
examples, and now almost universally used in repre 
sentations of such Crests as are without the Crest-Coronet 
and the Chapeau, may fairly be considered to have been 
derived from. the rich ornamentation, generally, as it would 
seem, formed of costly textile fabrics, if not executed in 
jewelled or enamelled goldsmith s work, that was frequently 
wreathed about knightly basinets. These wreath-like orna 
ments are represented in numerous effigies both sculptured 
and engraven ; and they are shown to have been worn 
either flat, as in No. 388, or wrought to high relief, as in 
No. 389. These two examples are severally from the 



CRESTS. 25 

effigies of a knight in Tewkesbury Abbey Church, about 
A.D. 1365, and of Sir HUMPHREY STAFFORD, A.D. 1450, at 
Bromsgrove, in Worcestershire. The enamelled effigy of 
Earl WILLIAM DE VALENCE, A.D. 1296, at Westminster, has a 
wreath of delicate workmanship in relief, which once was 
set with real or imitative jewels. 

For many years after their first appearance, heraldic 
Crests were regarded as insignia of great dignity and 
exalted estate ; and it was not till a considerably later 
period that the right to bear a Crest was considered to be 
identified with the right to bear arms. Still later, when 
they were granted with Coat Armour to corporate bodies, 




No. 389, Basinet with Crest-Wreath, Effigy of Sir Humphrey Stafford, A.D. 1450. 

communities, and institutions, Crests altogether lost their 
original significance \ and they became Badges in everything 
except the habit of placing them, with their accessories of 
Wreath or Crest-Coronet, of Chapeau and Mantling, upon 
representations of helms. In our own times, unless they 
have been inherited from the old Crest-wearing days, 
or are now borne by personages at the lowest of knightly 
rank, Crests might generally be superseded by Badges, 
or borne as Badges by the simple omission of their 

p 



226 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

distinctive accessories, with decided advantage to our 
Heraldry. 

When they were actually worn, Crests were undoubtedly 
constructed of some very light materials. It is probable 
that cuir bonilli (boiled leather), the decorative capabilities of 
which were so well understood by mediaeval artists, was 
generally employed. 

It has been sometimes held that Crests are personal 
bearings only ; and, therefore, not hereditary, though capable 
of being bequeathed or granted by their possessors. This 
theory is not sustained by early or general usage; and, 
accordingly, Crests must be pronounced to be hereditary, 
precisely on the same conditions as Coat Armour. 

It is evident that, as one person may inherit, and there 
fore may quarter two or more Coats of Arms, so the same 
person may claim to bear two or more Crests by a similar 
right of inheritance. When Crests were worn, such a per 
sonage might have chosen any one of his Crests, or worn 
them all on different occasions, it being obviously impossible 
for him to wear more than one Crest upon his helm at one 
and the same time. At the present day, several Crests, 
each with its own helm and mantling, are occasionally repre 
sented above a quartered Shield of arms : but, in England, 
by strict heraldic rule, two (or more than two) Crests can 
be borne by one individual, only when he has obtained the 
Royal licence to bear and use the Surname and Arms of 
another family in addition to those of his own family ; or, 
by a special grant from the Crown. 



CHAPTER XV. 

BADGES. 



Might I but know thee by thy household Badge." 

SHAKESPEARE, Henry VI., Part a. 



A BADGE, like a Coat of Arms, is an armorial ensign that is 
complete in itself, and possesses a definite signification of 
its own. In use with a decided heraldic significance long 
before the adoption of a systematic Heraldry, Badges have 
always held a conspicuous position in the estimation of 
Heralds. A Badge resembles any single charge in 
Heraldry, in being a figure or device that is assumed as the 
distinctive cognisance of a particular individual or family : 
but, unlike a charge, it is borne by itself, without any Shield, 
and also without any accompanying accessory, with the ex 
ception, in some instances, of a Motto (See " Motto," p. 
139). It will be evident that a Badge may be the very same 
figure or device as a Crest; but, it must be remembered 
that a Badge always differs from a Crest, in being altogether 
without crest-wreath or coronet, in consequence of having 
no connection whatever with the knightly helm. 

After the establishment of a true Heraldry, Badges were 
generally used to commemorate remarkable exploits, or in 
reference either to some family or feudal alliance, or to 
indicate some territorial rights or pretensions. Very many 
Badges are allusive, and consequently they are Rebuses (see 

P 3 



228 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

"Rebus," p. 148). Some are taken from the charges of 
the bearer s Shield, or they have a more or less direct 
reference to those charges. Some trace of Marshalling or of 
feudal Difference may constantly be observed in Badges ; and 
even where the motive for the selection of certain devices 
has not been discovered, it may fairly be assumed that 
a good heraldic motive still exists, although it has become 
obscured or been forgotten. It was not uncommon for the 
same personage or family to use more than one Badge ; 
and, on the other hand, two or more Badges were often 
borne in combination, to form a single compound device, as 
in Nos. 235 and 270. The ragged staff, in like manner, 
No. 294, and the bear, both of them Badges of the 
BEAUCHAMPS, Earls of WARWICK, were sometimes united to 
form a single Badge, and by the successors of that great 
family the "bear and ragged staff" were generally borne as 
a single device. (See No. 448, and p. 321.) 

Two distinct classes of Badges were in general use in 
the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. Those of 
the first class, well known as the insignia of certain eminent 
personages and powerful houses, were borne by all the 
followers, retainers, dependants, and partisans of those 
personages and houses : and they were so borne by them, 
and they were used by their owners for eveiy variety of 
decorative purpose, because they were known and under 
stood ; and, consequently, because the presence of these 
Badges would cause all persons and objects bearing them to 
be readily and certainly distinguished. By means of these 
most useful devices a wide and comprehensive range was 
given to the action and the influence of true Heraldry, 
without infringing in the slightest degree upon the lofty and 
almost sacred exclusiveness of the Coat Armour of a noble or 
a gentle house. In the words which SHAKESPEARE teaches 
CLIFFORD to address to WARWICK, " Might I but know thee 



BADGES. 229 

by thy household badge ! " it is implied that all the followers 
of Warwick were well known by his "household Badge," 
which was displayed by them all, while some other insignia 
were worn by the great Earl upon his own person. Had it 
pleased him so to do, the " King-Maker," with all honour 
able consistency, might have worn his own " household 
badge," in common with the members of his own house 
hold ; but his " arms," or such a Badge as he might elect to 
assume as his own personal device, might be borne by none 
beside himself. 

Mr. Lower has remarked (" Curiosities of Heraldry," p. 
145) that "something analogous to the fashion" of embroi 
dering the household Badges of their lords "upon the 
sleeves or breasts" of the dependants of great families in 
the olden times, " is retained in the Crest which adorns the 
buttons of our domestic servants." The accomplished 
writer might have added that, in thus employing Crests to 
discharge 2fcM&*-duties, we are content to indulge a love for 
heraldic display without observing becoming heraldic dis 
tinctions. Crested livery buttons are heraldic anomalies 
under all circumstances even the head of a house himself, 
if he were a Herald, would not display his Crest, as a Crest, 
upon buttons to be used exclusively by himself. Crests 
are to be borne on helms, or represented as being borne on 
helms : Badges are decorative insignia, and fulfil with 
consistent significance their own distinct and appropriate 
functions. 

Badges of the second class were devices that were borne 
exclusively by the exalted personages who v. ere pleased to 
assume them, often for temporary use only, and generally 
with some subtle or latent significance, which had been 
studiously rendered difficult to be detected, and dubious in 
its application. 

These Badges, thus displayed rather to effect disguise ci 



230 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

to excite curiosity than to secure recognition, must be 
regarded for the most part as the expressions of heraldic 
revelry as the fantasies and eccentricities of an age, which 
loved to combine quaint conceits and symbolical allusions 
with the display of gorgeous magnificence. Accordingly, 
Badges of this order are found generally to have been 
assumed on the occasion of the jousts or Hastiludes, the 
masques, and other pageants that in feudal times were 
celebrated with so much of elaborate and brilliant 
splendour. 

The adoption of Badges of this peculiar character is 
exactly in keeping with the sentiment which prompted men 
of exalted rank and eminent distinction to appear in public, 
on occasions of high festivity, bearing the arms of some 
friend, kinsman, or ally, instead of their own. A mark of 
especial favour and of peculiar distinction would be con 
ferred, when a Sovereign or a Prince thus would display 
upon his own person the armoury of some honoured sub 
ject or comrade. EDWARD III. delighted thus to honour 
the most distinguished cavaliers of his chivalrous Court. 
For example, in or about the year 1347, royal Hastiludes 
were celebrated at Lichfield with great splendour, the 
j ousters consisting of the KING and seventeen Knights, and 
the Earl of LANCASTER and thirteen Knights. A conspicuous 
part was taken in these festivities by the King s daughter 
ISABELLE, afterwards Countess of BEDFORD, and by six Ladies 
of high rank, with twenty-one other Ladies, who all wore 
blue dresses and white hoods of the same materials as well 
as the same colours as the robes of the Knights, together 
with various masks or vizors. On this occasion, the KING 
himself over his armour wore a surcoat with the Arms of 
Sir THOMAS DE BRADESTONE. These Arms in a Roll of 
EDWARD III. are blazoned as arg., on a canton gu. a rose 
or (see Archaologia, xxxi., pp. 40 and 118). On another 



BADGES. 231 

occasion, during Hastiludes at Canterbury, EDWARD III. "is 
said to have given eight harnesses, worked with the arms 
of Sir STEPHEN DE COSYNTON (az., three roses arg.), to the 
PRINCE OF WALES, the Earl of LANCASTER, and six other 
Knights." In the same spirit, RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP, Earl 
of WARWICK, at a great festival of arms held at Calais under 
his presidency, on the first day entered the lists decorated 
with the arms of his ancestor the Lord TONEY : on the 
second day, he wore the arms of Hanslap : and, on the 
third day, "he appeared as the Earl of WARWICK, quartering 
Beauchamp, Guy, Hanslap, and Toney, on his trappings ; 
his vizor open, and the chaplet on his helm enriched with 
pearls and precious stones." In such times, Badges of 
curious device and occult signification could not fail to 
enjoy a popularity, not the less decided because of the 
restricted use and exclusive character of the Badges them 
selves. 

EXAMPLES OF BADGES, such as are distinctive, and 
consequently of the class that I have first described. The 
Badges of PERCY are a silver crescent and a double manacle : 
of HOWARD, a white lion: PELHAM, a buckle: DOUGLAS, a red 
heart : SCROPE, a Cornish chough : CLINTON, a golden tmillet : 
TALBOT, a hound ; BOHUN, a white swan : HUNGERFORD, a 
sickle : PEVEREL, a garb. The various " Knots," described 
and illustrated in Chapter X., Nos. 219, 235, 263, 270, 
274, 304, and 313, are Badges. The bear and ragged 
staff of the BEAUCHAMPS, and, after them, of the NEVILLES 
and DUDLEYS, I have already noticed. Seals frequently 
have Badges introduced upon them, in very early times, 
by themselves, the Badge in each case constituting the 
device of the Seal (see p. 199). The Secretum or pri 
vate Seal of ROBERT BRUCE, Earl of CARRICK, the father 
of the King, appended to the homage-deed extorted by 
EDWARD I. from the Scottish nobles, is a good example, 



2-2 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



No. 390 : this is another of Mr. Laing s beautiful wood 
cuts. Badges also constantly appear upon Seals in asso 
ciation with Shields of arms. Thus, a Seal of one of 
the BERKELEYS, A.D. 1430, has a mermaid on each side of 
an armorial shield. Two other examples of this kind I 
have already given : No. 318, the Seal of JOAN DE BARRE, 
which is charged with the castle and lion of Castile and 
Leon, as Badges: and No. 321, the Seal of OLIVER DE 




No. 390. 

Secretum of Robert Bruce, 
Earl of Carrick; A.D. 1296. 




No. 

Seal of Sir Walter de Hungerford, K.G. 
A.D. 1425. 



BOHUN, charged, about the Shield, with the Bohun Swan. 
On his Seal, No. 391, Sir WALTER DE HUNGERFORD, K.G., 
Lord of HEYTESBURY and HOMET (the latter a Norman 
barony), displays his own Badge, the sickle, in happy 
alliance with the garb of Peverel (borne by him in right 
of his wife, CATHERINE, daughter and co-heir of THOMAS 
PEVEREL), to form his Crest. The Crest, it will be observed, 
in No. 391, is a garb between two sickles. The Shield of 
Hungerford only sa. two bars arg., and in chief three plates, is 
also placed between two sickles. Two banners, denoting 



BADGES. 233 

important alliances, complete the Heraldry of this remark 
able composition : the banner to the dexter, for Heytes- 
bury, bears per pale indented gu. and vert., a chevron or; 
and that to the sinister, for Hussy barry of six erm. 
and gu. Lord HUNGERFORD died in 1449, and was 
succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Sir ROBERT DE 
HUNGERFORD. The Seal of this Sir Robert, used by 
him during the lifetime of his father, precisely the 




No. 392. Seal of Sir Robert de Hungerford : before A.D. 1449- 

same in its heraldic composition as his father s Seal, is 
remarkable from having each of its four sickles differenced 
with an ermine-spot upon the blade, to mark Cadency ; and 
also, with the same motive, it shows that a label of three 
points was charged upon the Shield, and upon each of 
the two banners : No. 392. 

Through an alliance with the Hungerfords, sickles were 
borne, as one of their Badges, by the great family of 
COURTENAY. They appear, with a dolphin, a tau-cross, 
and this same tau-cross having a bell attached to it, as 



2 34 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

in No. 393, sculptured on the fine heraldic chimney- 
piece, the work of Bishop PETER DE COURTENAY (died 
in 1492), now in the hall of the Episcopal Palace at 
Exeter. 

The BADGES of our early Heraldry are comparatively 
but little understood. They invite the particular attention of 
students, both from their own special interest, and the light 
they are qualified to throw upon the personal history of the 
English people, and also from their peculiar applicability 
for use by ourselves at the present day. Indeed, at this 
time when the revival of true Heraldry is in 
the act of being accomplished with complete 
success, it appears to be peculiarly desirable 
that Badges should be brought into general 
use. It is not enough for us to revive our old 
English Heraldry as once in the olden time it 
flourished in England, and to rest content 
with such a revival : but we must go on to 
adapt our revived Heraldry, in its own spirit 
A Coiirtenay and in ful1 sympathy with its genuine feeling, 
Badge, at to conditions of our age and of the state of 
things now in existence. And very much may 
be done to effect this by the adoption of Badges, as our 
favourite and most expressive heraldic insignia, both in 
connection with Coat Armour and for independent display. 
Unlike Crests, which must necessarily be associated with 
helms and the wearers of helms, and consequently have 
both a military and a mediaeval character, Badges are 
equally appropriate for use by Ladies, as well as by men of 
every profession, and they belong alike to every age and 
period. 

ROYAL BADGES. I conclude this chapter with a con 
cise list of the more important of the Badges that have 
been borne by the Sovereigns and Princes of England ; and 




BADGES. 235 

with some general remarks upon the famous Badge of the 
Ostrich Feathers, now considered to be exclusively the 
Ensign of the PRINCES OF WALES. 

The Planta-genista, or Broom-plant, No. 21, is well 
known as an English Royal Badge, from the surname 
derived from it for one of the most remarkable of the 
Royal Houses that ever have flourished in Europe. 

As well known are the Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock, 
severally the Badges of the three realms of the United 
Kingdom of ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, and IRELAND. A golden 
Rose stalked proper was a badge of EDWARD I. : and from it 
apparently were derived, but by what process it is unknown, 
the White Rose of YORK, the Red Rose of LANCASTER, and 
the White and Red Rose of the House of TUDOR. 
WILLIAM RUFUS : A Flower of Jive foils. 
HENRY I. : A Flower of eight foils. 
STEPHEN: A Flower of seven foils : a Sagittarius. 
HENRY II. : The Planta-genista : an Es carbuncle: a 

Sword and Olive-Branch. 

RICHARD I. : A Star of thirteen rays and a Crescent : a 
Star issuing from a Crescent: a Mailed Arm grasping 
a broken Lance, with the Motto " Christo Duce" 
JOHN and HENRY III. : A Star issuing from a Crescent. 
EDWARD I. : An heraldic Rose or, stalked ppr. 
EDWARD II. : A Castle of Castile. 

EDWARD III. : A Fleur de lys : a Sword: a Falcon: a 
Gryphon : the Stock of a Tree: Rays issuing from a 
Cloud. 

RICHARD II. : A White Hart lodged: the Stock of a 
Tree: a White Falcon: the Sun in splendour: the 
Sun clouded. 

HENRY IV. : The Monogram SS : a crowned Eagle: an 
Eagle displayed: a White Swan : a Red Rose : a 
Columbine Flower: a Fox s Tail: a crowned 



236 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Panther: the Stock of a Tree: a Crescent. His 
QUEEN, JOAN OF NAVARRE : An Ermine, or Gennet. 

HENRY V. : A Fire-beacon : a White Swan gorged and 
chained : a chained Antelope. 

HENRY VI. : Two Ostrich Feathers in Saltire: a chained 
Antelope : a Panther. 

EDWARD IV.: A White Rose en Soldi: a White Wolf 
and White Lion : a White Hart : a Black Dragon 
and Black Bull : a Falcon and Fetter-lock : the Sun in 
splendour. 

HENRY VII.: A Rose of York and Lancaster, a Port 
cullis and a Fleur de lys, all of than croivned : 
a Red Dragon : a White Greyhound : a Hawthorn 
Bush and Crown, with the cypher H. R. 

HENRY VIII. : The same, without the Hawthorn Bush, 
and with a White Cock. His QUEENS : CATHERINE OF 
ARRAGON A Rose, Pomegranate, and Sheaf of Arrows. 
ANNE BOLEYN A Crowned Falcon, holding a Sceptre. 
JANE SEYMOUR A Phoenix rising from a Castle, 
between two Tudor Roses. CATHERINE PARR A 
Maiderfs Head crowned, rising from a large Tudor Rose. 

EDWARD VI. : A Tudor Rose : the Sun in splendour. 

MARY : A Tudor Rose impaling a Pomegranate also 
impaling a sheaf of Arrows, ensigned with a Crown, 
and surrounded with rays : a Pomegranate. 

ELIZABETH : A Tudor Rose with the motto, " Rosa sine 
Spin&" (a Rose without a Thorn) : a Crowned Falcon 
and Sceptre. She used as her own motto " Semper 
Eadem " (Always the same). 

JAMES I.: A Thistle: a Thistle and Rose dimidiated and 
crowned, No. 308, with the motto " Beati Pacifici " 
(Blessed are the peacemakers). 

CHARLES L, CHARLES II., JAMES II. : The same Badge 
as JAMES I., without his motto. 



BADGES. 237 

ANNE : A Rose-Branch and a Thistle growing from one 
branch. 

From this time personal Badges ceased to be borne by 
English Sovereigns. 

The Ostrich Feather Badge. The popular tradition, that 
the famous Badge of the Ostrich Feathers was won from the 
blind KING OF BOHEMIA at Cressi by the BLACK PRINCE, 
and by him afterwards borne as an heraldic trophy, is not 
supported by any contemporary authority. The earliest 
writer by whom the tradition itself is recorded is CAMDEN 
(A.D. 1614), and his statement is confirmed by no known 
historical evidence of a date earlier than his own work. As 
Sir N. HARRIS NICHOLAS has shown in a most able paper 
in the Archczologia (vol. xxxi., pp. 350 384), the first time 
the Feathers are mentioned in any record is in a document, 
the date of which must have been after 1369, and which 
contains lists of plate belonging to the King himself, and 
also to Queen PHILIPPA. It is particularly to be observed, 
that all the pieces of plate specified in this roll as the 
personal property of the Queen, if marked with any device 
at all, are marked with her oivn initial, or with some 
heraldic insignia that have a direct reference to herself. 
One of these pieces of plate is described as " a large dish 
for the alms of the Queen, of silver gilt, and enamelled at 
the bottom with a black escutcheon with Ostrich Feathers 
eym in fund vno scnch nigro cum pennis de ostrich" And 
these "Ostrich Feathers," thus blazoned on a sable field 
upon the silver alms-dish of Queen PHILIPPA, Sir N. H. 
Nicholas believed to have been borne by the Queen as a 
daughter of the House of HAINAULT; and he suggested 
that these same " Ostrich Feathers " might possibly have 
been assumed by the Counts of the Province of Hainault 
from the ComtS of Ostrevant, which formed the appanage 
of their eldest sons. 



233 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



At the first, either a single Feather was borne, the quill 
generally transfixing an escroll, as in No. 394, from the 
monument of Prince ARTHUR TUDOR, in Worcester 
Cathedral; or, two Feathers were placed side by side, as 
they also appear upon the same monument. In Seals, or 
when marshalled with a Shield of Arms, two Feathers are 
seen to have been placed after the manner of Supporters, 
one on each side of the composition : in such examples the 
tips of the Feathers droop severally to the dexter and 
sinister : in all the early examples also the Feathers droop 
in the same manner, or they incline slightly towards the 
spectator. Three Feathers were first grouped together by 






No. 395. No. 394. 

At Peterborough Cathedral. At Worcester Cathedral. 



No. 396. 
At Peterborough Cathedral. 



ARTHUR TUDOR, PRINCE OF WALES, eldest son of HENRY 
VII., as in Nos. 395 and 396, from Peterborough 
Cathedral or with an escroll, as in No. 397, from a 
miserere in the fine and interesting church at Ludlow. The 
plume of three Feathers appears to have been encircled 
with a coronet, for the first time, by Prince EDWARD, after 
wards EDWARD VI. , but who never was PRINCE OF WALES : 
No. 398, carved very boldly over the entrance gateway to 
the Deanery at Peterborough, is a good early example. In 
No. 399 I give a representation of another early plume of 
three Ostrich Feathers, as they are carved, with an escroll 
in place of a coronet, upon the Chantry of Abbot 



BADGES. 



239 



RAMRYGE in the Abbey Church at St. Alban s : and again, 
in No. 400, from the head of a window near the east end of 
the choir, on the south side, in Exeter Cathedral, the three 
Feathers are charged upon a Shield per pale azure and gules, 
and this Shield is on a roundle. 




No. 399. In the Abbey Church of St. Alban. No. 400. In Exeter Cathedral. 



The Ostrich Feathers were borne, as a Badge with his 
Shield of Arms, upon one Seal of EDWARD III. himself: 
they were used, as an heraldic device, about the year 1370, 
by PHILIPPA, his Queen : they appear on some, but not 
on all, the Seals of the BLACK PRINCE, and they are omitted 
from some of his Seals after the battle of Cressi (A.D. 1346): 



240 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

and they were also borne, generally with some slight 
difference, marking Cadency, in all probability by all the 
other sons of EDWARD III. certainly by JOHN of Ghent, 
Duke of LANCASTER, and by THOMAS of Woodstock, Duke 
of GLOUCESTER. They were adopted by RICHARD II., and 
placed on either side of his crested Helm in the heraldic 
sculpture of Westminster Hall, as appears in two of these 
beautiful examples, Nos. 199 and 384: by this Prince the 
Ostrich Feathers were placed on his first Royal Seal, and 
they were habitually used for decoration and heraldic dis 
play; and they also were formally granted by him, as a 
mark of especial favour, to be borne as an Augmentation of 
the highest honour, to his cousin THOMAS MOWBRAY, Duke 
of NORFOLK. The Ostrich Feathers were borne, in like 
manner, by the succeeding Princes, both LANCASTRIAN and 
YORKIST: by at least two of the BEAUFORTS : by the Princes 
of the House of TUDOR: and by their successors the STUARTS. 
Thus, it is certain that the Ostrich Feathers were held to 
be a Royal Badge, from the time of their first appearance 
in the Heraldry of England about the middle of the four 
teenth century; and that in that character they were adopted 
and borne by the successive Sovereigns, and by the Princes, 
sometimes also by the Princesses (as in the instance of a 
Seal of MARGARET BEAUFORT, the mother of HENRY VIL), 
of the Royal Houses, without any other distinction than 
some slight mark of Cadency, and without the slightest trace 
of any peculiar association with any one member of the 
Royal Family. From the time of the accession of the 
House of Stuart to the Crown of the United Kingdom, 
however, the coroneted plume of three Ostrich Feathers 
appears to have heen regarded, as it is at this present day, 
as the special Badge of the PRINCES OF WALES. 

In accordance with the express provision of his will 
two armorial Shields are displayed upon the monument of 



BADGES. 



241 



the BLACK PRINCE in Canterbury Cathedral, which Shields 
the Prince himself distinguishes as his Shields " for War" 
and "for Peace;" the former charged with his quartered 
arms of France and England differenced with his silver 
Label, No. 337 ; and the latter, sable, charged with three 
Ostrich Feathers argent, their quills passing through scrolls 
bearing the Motto, " Ich Dien" No. 401. The same motto 
is placed over each of the Shields that are charged with 
the Feathers, as in No. 401 : and over each Shield charged 
with the quartered arms (there are on each side of the tomb 




No. 401. Shield "for Peace" of the Black Prince. 

six Shields, three of the Arms, and three of the Feathers, 
alternately) is the other motto of the Prince, " ffoumout" 
In his will, the BLACK PRINCE also desired that a " black 
Pennon with Ostrich Feathers" should be displayed at his 
Funeral; and he further appointed that his Chapel in Canter 
bury Cathedral should be adorned in various places with 
his Arms, and " likewise with our Badge of Ostrich Feathers 
noz bages dez plumes d>ostruce" 

The will of the BLACK PRINCE proves the Feathers to 
have been a Badge, and not either a Crest or the ensign of 
a Shield of Arms, since twice he expressly calls them " our 

Q 



242 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Badge :" and it also is directly opposed to the traditional 
warlike origin and military character of the Feathers, as a 
Badge of the BLACK PRINCE, for it particularly specifies the 
peaceful significance of this Badge, and distinguishes it from 
the insignia that were worn and displayed by the Prince 
when he was equipped for war. The Mottoes " Ich Dien" 
and " Houmout " are old German, and they signify, " I 
serve," and "magnanimous." It has been suggested by Mr. 
Planche, that " Houmout " is Flemish, and that the three 
words really form a single Motto, signifying, "Magnanimous, 
I serve," that is, "I obey the dictates of magnanimity." 
ArchaologUt, xxxii. 69. 

Upon a very remarkable Seal, used by HENRY IV. a 
short time before his accession, the shield with helm and 
crest are placed between two tall Feathers, about each of 
which is entwined a Garter charged with his favourite and 
significant Motto the word SOVEREYGNE, as in No. 
402. His father, Prince JOHN OF GHENT, placed a chain 
upon the quills of his Feathers, as in the very curious boss 
in the cloisters at Canterbury. The uncle of HENRY IV., 
THOMAS, Duke of GLOUCESTER, on one of his Seals, 
differenced his two Feathers with Garters (probably of the 
Order) displayed along their quills, as in No. 403. And, 
about A.D. 1440, JOHN BEAUFORT, K.G., Duke of SOMERSET, 
on his Garter-plate placed two Ostrich Feathers erect, their 
quills compon ee argent and azure, and fixed in golden escrolls ; 
No. 404. In the Harleian MS. 304, f. 12, it is stated that 
the Ostrich Feather of silver, the pen thus compone e argent 
and azure, " is the Duke of Somerset s : " also that the 
" Feather silver, with the pen gold, is the King s : the 
Ostrich Feather, pen and all silver, is the Prince s : and the 
Ostrich Feather gold, the pen ermine, is the Duke of 
Lancaster s." 

The Shield charged with three Ostrich Feathers, No. 



BADGES. 



243 



401, was borne by Prince JOHN OF GHENT ; and it appears 
on the splendid Great Seal of HENRY IV., between the 
Shields of the Duchy of CORNWALL and the Earldom of 
CHESTER. HUMPHREY, Duke of GLOUCESTER, is also 
recorded to have borne this same Feather Shield. 

In the Vaulting of the ceiling over the steps leading to 
the Hall at Christchurch, Oxford, the Ostrich Plume Badge 
is carved within a Garter of the Order : and, again, the 






No. 402. From the Seal 
of King Henry IV. 



No. 403. From the Seal 

of Thomas, Duke of 

Gloucester. 



No. 404. From the 

Garter- Plate of John 

Beaufort, K.G. 



Badge is represented after the same manner, environed 
with the Garter, in the beautiful binding of a copy of 
the Bible, now in the possession of Robert Skere, Esq., 
of Rubislaw, which is reputed to have been used by 
CHARLES I. in his last moments. 

The Ostrich Feathers are repeatedly mentioned in early 
documents; and they are shown to have been constantly 
used for various decorative purposes, always evidently with 

Q 2 



244 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

an heraldic motive and feeling, by the same Royal person 
ages who blazoned them on their Seals, and displayed them 
elsewhere as their armorial insignia. A well-known example 
of a diaper of White Ostrich Feathers on a field per pale 
argent and vert, is preserved in the stained glass now in 
the great north window of the transept of Canterbury 
Cathedral. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

SUPPORTERS. 



" Standing by the Shield 
In silence." IDYLLS OF THE KINGS. 



A SUPPORTER is a figure, sometimes of an angel, frequently 
of a human being, but more generally of some animal, bird, 
or imaginary creature, so placed in connection with a 
Shield of Arms as to appear to be protecting and supporting 
it. In English Heraldry a single Supporter is of compara 
tively rare occurrence, but examples appear more frequently 
in the Heraldry of Scotland. In early examples, when two 
Supporters appear, they are in most cases alike : but, more 
recently (except in the Heraldry of France), the two figures 
are generally quite distinct the one from the other, the 
earlier usage of having the two Supporters alike being 
comparatively rare. The modern prevailing practice in 
England is happily exemplified in the well-known in 
stance of the present Royal Supporters, the Lion and the 
Unicorn. 

Supporters, which admit all Marks of Cadency and all 
Differences, are considered to have been introduced into the 
Heraldry of England during the reign of EDWARD III. ; but 
they may with greater accuracy be assigned to the middle of 
the fifteenth century, than to the second half of the four 
teenth. As armorial insignia of a very high rank, Supporters 



246 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

are granted in England only by the express command of the 
Sovereign. In Scotland, where they occur more frequently 
than in the Heraldry of the South of the Tweed, the 
" Lord Lyon " has power to grant Supporters : originally by 
the Scottish Heralds these accessories of Shields were 
entitled " Bearers." 

Supporters are now borne, by right, by all Peers of the 
Realm, by Knights of the Garter, Knights Grand Crosses 
of the Bath, Knights Grand Commanders of the Star of 
India, by Nova Scotia Baronets, and by Chiefs of Scottish 
Clans. They are conceded, with due difference, to all Sons 
of Peers who, by courtesy, bear titles of Peerage. They 
appear also borne with the arms of many persons now not 
of knightly rank, who have inherited supporters from illus 
trious ancestors. 

Supporters probably owe their origin rather to several 
concurrent circumstances, than to any one particular cir 
cumstance. The mere fact of a Knight carrying his own 
armorial Shield, or his Esquire bearing it beside him, would 
suggest the general idea of some supporting figure in con 
nection with a representation of that Shield. The act of 
carrying a Banner of Arms, in like manner, would suggest 
a representation of a "Supporter" for a Shield of Arms. 
To early Seals, however, Heraldry is in an especial degree 
indebted for the development of the idea of Supporters, 
and for bringing it into a definite form. Again, the pre 
valent use of Badges in the fourteenth century, and in the 
fifteenth also, would necessarily exercise a powerful in 
fluence in the same direction; and would lead Heralds to 
associate with Shields of Arms certain other figures which, 
while in themselves distinct and independent, were closely 
allied with certain Shields of Arms. The prototypes of 
true Supporters, indeed, as they appear on Seals, are 
Badges. 



SUPPORTERS. 



247 



An Effigy represented upon a Seal, as in No. 405, the 
Seal of DEVORGUILLA CRAWFORD, about A.D. 1290, from 
LAING S Volume : or in Nos. 316, 317, would be even more 
than a suggestion of a Supporter. The same may be said, 
when some figure, almost certainly a Badge, was introduced 
into the composition of a Seal, holding or supporting a 
Shield by its guige, as in No. 203 ; or when a Shield, or 
two or more Shields, were charged upon some figure, as 
in No. 204: both of these examples, indeed, might be 
regarded as illustrations of the first 
adoption of single Supporters. 

The introduction of angelic figures, 
which might have the appearance of 
acting as "Guardian Angels," in their 
care of Shields of Arms, was in ac 
cordance with the feeling of the early 
days of English Heraldry ; and, while 
it took a part in leading the way to the 
systematic use of regular Supporters, 
it served to show the high esteem and 
honour in which armorial insignia were 
held by our ancestors of those ages. 
In No. 159 I have already shown an example of a sculptured 
Shield thus supported by Angels, from St. Albans. In the 
same noble church there are other examples of the same 
character in stained glass. Angel Supporters, the figures 
treated in various ways, occur in very many Gothic edifices ; 
particularly, sculptured as corbels, bosses or paterae, or 
introduced in panels, and employed for the decoration of 
open timber roofs, as in Westminster Hall. They appear 
also on Seals ; as on the Seal of HENRY OF LANCASTER, 
about A.D. 1350, which has the figure of an Angel above the 
Shield, and a lion on each side of it. 

The representation of armorial Banners upon Seals 




No. 405. Seal of 

Devorguilla Crawford ; 

about 1290. 



248 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



would lead to at least the occasional introduction of some 
figure to hold, or support, the Banner ; and here, again, we 
discern the presence of some of the immediate predecessors 
of "Supporters," properly so called. In the Seals, Nos. 
391, 392, the Banners are not supported, and yet they are 
indirectly suggestive of giving support to the Shield which is 
marshalled with them in the same composition. Another 
Hungerford Seal, that of MARGARET BOTTREAUX, widow of 
the second Baron HUNGERFORD (who died in 1477), in the 




No. 406. Part of Seal of Margaret, Lady Hungerford. 

centre of the composition has a kneeling figure of the noble 
lady, and on each side a banner of arms is held (supported} 
erect, so that the two banners form a kind of canopy over 
her head, by a lion and a gryphon. In No. 406 I give a 
part only of this elaborate Seal, sufficient to show how its 
general composition bears upon the adoption of Supporters. 
The Monument in Westminster Abbey of Sir LUDOVIC 
ROBSART, K.G., Lord BOURCHIER, Standard-Bearer to 
HENRY V. at Agincourt, has two banners sculptured in the 
stone-work of the canopy, which are placed precisely in the 



SUPPORTERS. 249 

same manner as the banners in No. 406 ; and, like them 
they are held by Badges acting as Supporters. Two well- 
known seals of the PERCIES are charged with banners, and 
in each case the banner-staff is held by a single Supporter : 
one of these figures is a man-at-arms, A.D. 1386 ; the other is 
a lion, A.D. 1446. At the same period, two lions appear 
on another Percy Seal. Another, of the same date, has 
the shield supported by an armed man, without any banner, 
but having a lance with a long pennon charged with the 
Crescent badge of PERCY, No. 412, p. 255. Other Percy 
Seals, again, of the fourteenth century, on either side of the 
Shield have two lions or two birds. 

Numerous examples of great interest illustrate the early 
introduction of Badges into the composition of Seals, as 
accessories of Shields. A Seal of Prince JOHN OF GHENT, 
which has two falcons and padlocks, is one of the most 
beautiful and suggestive works of its class : in this Seal the 
two birds are addorsed, and consequently they also have their 
backs turned towards the central achievement. This posi 
tion of the figures on early Seals is not uncommon ; but it 
must be considered to have been adopted simply and solely 
as an artistic necessity, arising from the form of the spaces 
to be occupied by the figures upon the Seal. Another most 
characteristic example of that marshalling of Badges upon 
Seals, which certainly led the way to true Supporters, is the 
Seal of Sir MAURICE DE BERKELEY, A.D. 1430, upon which 
a mermaid the Berkeley badge is blazoned on each side 
of the Shield. The two figures are drawn with much skill 
and elegance. The Shield itself quarters Berkeley within a 
bordure, and a differenced coat of Bottetourt: it hangs from 
a large helm, which, in its turn, is ensigned by as large a 
mitre the singular Crest of the Berkeleys. The two 
figures, generally animals, which fill up the spaces to the 
dexter and sinister of the central achievement on Seals, in 



250 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

the fifteenth century are almost invariably drawn of a com 
paratively large size ; and, for the most part, they really act 
as Supporters to the Crested Helm, being themselves sup 
ported by the Shield. The composition of the Seal of 
EDMUND DE MORTIMER, Earl of MARCH, A.D. 1400, though 
now mutilated, exhibits in a most satisfactory manner this 
very effective arrangement, from which true Supporters to a 
Shield of Arms might obviously be derived. In this Seal, 




No. 407. Seal of Earl Edmund de Mortimer : 
A.D. 1400. 

No. 407, the Shield quarters Mortimer, No. 131, and or, a 
cross gu., for Ulster. The Seal of WM. DE WYNDESOR, No. 
382, illustrates with no less happy effect the occasional use 
of birds instead of beasts, as Supporting Badges. Other 
examples exist in great numbers, and in abundant variety : 
the two that I add from Mr. Laing s Volume, Nos. 408 and 
409, are in every respect most characteristic ; they are 
severally the Seals of ROBERT GRAHAM, of Kinpont, and 
of Sir WILLIAM LINDSAY, of the Byres. 



SUPPORTERS. 251 

It is scarcely necessary for me to point out to students 
that Supporters always have a decided heraldic significance. 
In supporting a Shield of Arms, they discharge an heraldic 
duty : but, in themselves, Supporters are armorial symbols 
of a high rank ; and, with peculiar emphasis, they record 
descent, inheritance, and alliance, and they blazon illus 
trious deeds. 

Supporters should always be represented in an erect 
position. In whatever direction also they actually may be 
looking, they always ought to appear to fulfil their own 
proper office of giving vigilant and deferential support to the 





No. 408. No. 409. 

Seal of Robert Graham, of Kinpont : Seal of Sir Wm. Lindsay, of the Byres : 

A.D. 1433. A.D. 1390. 

Shield. It would be well, in our blazoning of supported 
Achievements, not only for us to regard a becoming posi 
tion and attitude for Supporters to be matters determined 
by positive heraldic law, but also that some satisfactory 
arrangement should be made and recognised for general 
adoption, by which an equally becoming support would be 
provided for "Supporters." The existing custom is to 
place the Supporters, whatever they may be, upon some 
very slight renaissance scroll-work, that is neither graceful 
nor consistent; or, to constrain the Motto to provide a 
foundation or standing-place for them. In the latter case, 
an energetic lion, or a massive elephant, and, in a certain 



252 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

class of achievements of comparatively recent date, a 
mounted trooper, or a stalwart man-of-war s man, probably 
with a twenty-four pounder at his feet, are made to stand on 
the edge of the ribbon that is inscribed with the Motto. Mr. 
Laing has enabled me to give an excellent example of 
Supporters two lions standing upon a motto-scroll or 
ribbon in No. 410, the Seal of JOHN DRUMMOND, created 
Earl of MELFORT and Viscount FORTH in the year 1686 : 
the Shield is Scotland, within a bordure compon ee ; the Sup- 




No. 410. Seal of John Drummond, Earl of Melfort : A.D. 1686. 

porters are gorged with collars charged with thistles ; and 
the Crest is the Crest of Scotland issuing from a celestial 
Crown. As says the Motto of Sir WILLIAM MAHON, 
" Moniti, meliora sequamur" now that we have been told 
of it, let us produce something better than this support for 
our Supporters. 

The Heralds of France still restrict the term " Sup 
porters " " Les Supports " to animals ; and to human 
beings, to figures of angels, and to mythological personages 
or other figures in human form, when supporting a Shield, 
they apply the term " Les Tenants? When trees or other 
inanimate objects are placed beside any armorial shield, and 



SUPPORTERS. 253 

so discharge the duty of Supporters in French achievements, 
they are distinguished as " Les Soutiens" An old French 
writer on Heraldry, PALLIOT, says that in his time (A.D. 
1660), Tenant ^ used in the singular number, and denotes 
any kind of single Supporter, while Supports is used when 
there are two. 

In the French Heraldry of the present time, a single 
Tenant or Support is of rare occurrence; and when two 
Tenants or Supports appear in blazon, they are generally, 
though not always, alike. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

FLAGS. 

The Pennon. The Banner. The Standard. TJic Royal Standard. 
The Union Jack. Ensigns. Military Standards and Colours. 
Blazoning. Hoisting and Displaying Flags. 



"Many a beautiful Pennon fixed to a lance, 
And many a Banner displayed." 

SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK, A.D. 1300. 
"Prosper our Colours !" SHAKESPEARE, Henry VI., Part 3. 



ADMIRABLY adapted for all purposes of heraldic display, 
rich in glowing colours, and peculiarly graceful in their free 
movement in the wind, FLAGS are inseparably associated 
with spirit-stirring memories, and in all ages and with every 
people they enjoy an enthusiastic popularity peculiar to 
themselves. 

In the middle ages, in England, three distinct classes of 
heraldic Flags appear to have been in general use, each class 
having a distinct and well-defined signification. 

i. First, the PENNON, the ensign of knightly rank, small 
in size, of elongated form, and either pointed or swallow- 
tailed at the extremity, is charged with the Badge or some 
other armorial ensign of the owner, and by him displayed 
upon his own lance, as his personal ensign. The Pennon 
of Sir JOHN D ABERNOUN, No. 286, fringed and pointed, 
A.D. 1277, bears his arms Az. t a chevron or: and No. 
411, another example of the pointed form of Pennon, is 



FLAGS. 



255 



from the Painted Chamber, Westminster, about A.D. 1275. 
No. 412, a long swallow-tailed Pennon, charged with the 
Percy crescent Badge, is from the Seal of HENRY DE PERCI, 
first Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND. Before the true heraldic 
era, Lance-Flags with various decorative devices, but without 
any blazonry having a definite signification, were in use : 
See Nos. 5, 6. The Pennoncelle was a modification of the 
Pennon. 

2. Second, the BANNER, square or oblong in form, and 
of a larger size than the Pennon, bears the entire Coat of 
Arms of the owner blazoned over its whole surface, pre- 





No. 411. 
Pennon, from the Painted Chamber. 



No. 412, 
Pennon ol Percy : A.D. 1400. 



cisely as the same composition is blazoned upon a 
Shield : No. 162. The Banner is the ensign of the 
Sovereign, or of a Prince, a Noble, or a Knight who had 
been advanced to the higher rank or degree of a " Ban 
neret ; " and its presence signifies the position occupied 
by a Banneret or personage of still higher rank, and by 
all who are his personal retainers or followers, or who 
are under his immediate command. Two Banners are 
represented in each of the Hungerford Seals, Nos. 391, 
392. A small group of oblong Banners, with two pointed 



256 ENGLISH HERA.LDRY. 

Pennons, is represented in No. 413, from the Painted 
Chamber. 

In the olden time, when a Knight had distinguished 
himself by conspicuous gallantry, it was the custom to 
mark his meritorious conduct by prompt advancement on 
the very field of battle. In such a case, the point or points 
of the good Knight s Pennon were rent off, and thus the 
small Flag was reduced to the square form of the Banner, 
by which thenceforth he was to be distinguished. FROISSART, 
in his own graphic manner, has described the ceremonial 




No. 413. Oblong Banners and Pointed Pennons, from the Painted Chamber. 



which attended the first display of the Banner of a newly- 
created Banneret on the field of battle. Sir JOHN CHANDOS, 
one of the Knights Founders of the Garter, appeared with his 
maiden Banner on the field, on the morning of the battle 
of Naveret, in Castile, April 3rd, 1367: "He brought 
his Banner in his hands," says the chronicler, "rolled 
up" (rolled round the staff), "and said to the PRINCE 
OF WALES" it was the BLACK PRINCE, " My Lord, 
behold, here is my Banner : I deliver it to you in this way " 
still rolled round the staff, that is " * that it may please 
you to display it, and that this day I may raise it; for, 
thank God, I have land and heritage sufficient to support 



FLAGS. 257 

the rank as it ought to be ! Then the Prince and the 
King " Don PETRO, King of Castile " took the Banner, 
which was of silver with a sharp pile gules, between their 
hands by the staff, and displayed it, and returned it to him, 
the Prince saying Sir John, behold your Banner; may 
God grant you may do your duty! Then Sir JOHN 
CHANDOS bore his Banner (displayed) to his own Company, 
and said Gentlemen, see here my Banner and yours ; 
preserve it as your own ! " We see that, like another hero 
of a later period, the BLACK PRINCE held the maxim 
" England expects every man to do his duty." 

Quarterings, Marks of Cadency, and Differences are 
blazoned on Banners under the very same conditions that 
they appear on Shields of Arms. For example, the Banners, 
as well as the Shield, on the seal of Sir Robert de Hunger- 
ford, No. 392, are Differenced with a label for Cadency, 
and thus are distinguished from the corresponding Banners 
and Shield on the Seal of Sir Robert s father, No. 391. 

Crests, Badges, Supporters, and other external accesso 
ries and ornaments of Armorial Shields have no place on 
Banners, a Banner representing a Shield, and being charged 
as a Shield. In the seventeenth century, however, English 
Banners sometimes were charged with Achievements of 
Arms, including all the accessories and ornaments of Shields. 

In early times Banners appear in use at sea, as well as 
on land ; and the same Banners were used both on shore 
and afloat. The sails of our early shipping, also, are con 
stantly represented as covered with armorial blazonry, and 
they thus were enabled to act as Ship-Flags. Many curious 
and interesting representations of the strange, unwieldy, 
unship-shape looking craft that were the ancestors of the 
British Navy, are introduced with their heraldic sails and 
their Banners into the compositions of Seals. A fine 
example of its order is the Seal of JOHN HOLLAND, Earl of 

R 



258 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

HUNTINGDON, A.D. 1436, "Admiral of England, Ireland, 
and Aquitaine," No. 414. The ship is really a noble-looking 
vessel, with her solitary sail blazoned with the Lord 
Admiral s Arms England, within a bordnre of France, the 
same arms that were borne by Prince JOHN OF ELTHAM, 
No. 24. In this example the crew are not represented : 




No. 414. Seal of Earl John Holland, Admiral of England, &c. ; A.D. 1436. 

but in other Seals of early shipping figures are commonly 
introduced, and almost always they are drawn of ludicrously 
disproportionate size. This ship does not display any 
Banner from a banner-staff, but has a nautical Pennon of 
ample size flying at the mast-head : when Banners are 
displayed on board ships upon early Seals, they are gene 
rally narrow in proportion to their height, a form of Banner 



FLAGS. 259 

adopted on land as well as at sea, in consequence of the 
greater inconvenience attending the display of broad or 
really square Banners. At a later period, however, Ship- 
Flags of very large size came into favour. 

3. The STANDARD, the third variety of early heraldic 
Flags, which first appears about the middle of the four 
teenth century, and was in general use by personages of 
high rank in the two following centuries, appears to have 
been adopted solely for the purpose of adding to the splen 
dour of pageants, and for enhancing "the pomp and 
circumstance of war." Standards may be considered to 
have been devised for the special purpose of displaying 
Badges on a grand scale. 

This Flag is of ample proportions, and great length ; 
but its size varies with the owner s rank. Next to the Staff 
the red cross on a silver field of ST. GEORGE is blazoned, 
except in some Royal Standards, which omit this cross : 
the rest of the field is generally divided per fesse into two 
tinctures, in most cases the livery colours of the owner, or 
the prevailing tinctures of his Coat of Arms. With some 
principal figure or device occupying a prominent position, 
various Badges are displayed over the whole field, a Motto, 
which is placed bend-wise, having divided the Standard into 
compartments. The edges are fringed throughout, and the 
extremity is swallow-tailed, unless the owner be a Prince of 
the Blood Royal, when it is pointed. 

The Standard of Sir HENRY DE STAFFORD, K.G., second 
son of HENRY, second Duke of BUCKINGHAM (executed in 
1483), is represented in No. 415, from a drawing in the 
Heralds College. It is charged, first, with a banner of St. 
George: then, on a field per fesse sable and gules, the White 
Swan of the De Bohuns, with the silver Stafford-knot (No. 
304), differenced with a Crescent gules for Cadency; the 
Motto is HVMBLE : ET : LOYAL ; and the fringe, like 

R 2 



260 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



the field, is componce sa. and gu. In other examples a 
greater variety of Badges are introduced. The student will 




No. 415. Standard of Sir Henry de Stafford, K.G. : about A.D. 1475. 

not fail to take notice of the systematic display of the 

ensign of St. George in these Standards, as the national 

armorial device of England. 

The ROYAL STANDARD, which stands at the head of our 
. English Flags of the present 

(j|) day, bears the full blazonry of 

the Royal Arms of Her Majesty 
THE QUEEN, as they are mar 
shalled on the Royal Shield : 
No. 416. This splendid Flag, so 
truly heraldic in its character, 
and, like the early Banners, of 
square shape and charged with 
Coat Armour and not with 
Badges, ought to be styled the 
NO. 4 i6. ROYAL BANNER. The same 

The Royal Standard, or Banner. Standard fc duly differ enced with 

their own Marks of Cadency 
and their Shields of Pretence for the different members of 
the Royal Family. 

The UNION JACK, our own national British Flajg, as we 




FLAGS. 



26l 



now display it, is the second of its race. The First Union 
Jack, No. 417, was produced in- obedience to a Royal 
Proclamation of JAMES I. in the year 1606. Its object 
was to provide a single National Flag for both England and 
Scotland as a single kingdom, which might put an end to 
certain serious disputes concerning the precedence of their 
respective Banners of St. George and St. Andrew, Nos. 418, 
419, between the natives of England and Scotland of 
" South and North Britain." This " Union" Flag combined 
the blazonry of the two rival ensigns, not marshalling 




No. 418. 
St. George. 





No. 419. 
St. Andrew. 



No. 417. The First Union Jack. 



them by Quartering after the early heraldic usage, but by 
reviving a still earlier process, and by blending the cross 
and the sal tire of Nos. 418 and 419 in a single composition. 
This was effected, accordingly, by charging the Cross of St, 
George, with a narrow border or " fimbriation" of white to 
represent its white field, upon the Banner of St. Andrew, the 
result being the Flag shown in No. 417. On the final 
"Union" between England and Scotland in 1707, this 
device was formally declared to be the " Ensign armorial of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain." 

Upon the first day of January, 1801, the Second Uniofi 



262 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



Jack, the " Union Jack" of to-day, No. 420, superseded the 
Flag of King JAMES and Queen ANNE. The " Union" with 
Ireland rendered a change necessary in the Union Jack, in 
order to incorporate with its blazonry the Banner of ST. 
PATRICK, No. 421, arg., a saltire gu. The process that had 
been adopted before was again brought into action, but 
now a single compound device had to be formed by the 
combination of a cross and two saltires, Nos. 418, 419, and 
421. As before, in this new Flag the blue field of ST. 
ANDREW forms the field: then the two Saltires, the one 





No. 420. 
The Second Union Jack. 



No. 421. 
St. Patrick. 



white and the other red, are formed into a single compound 
Saltire of the two tinctures alternating, the white having 
precedence ; a narrow edging of white is next added to 
each red side of this new figure, to represent the white field 
of St. Patrick, as the narrow edging of white about the red 
cross represented the white field of ST. GEORGE in No. 418 ; 
and, finally, the red cross of St. George fimbriated with 
white, as in the First Jack, is charged over all. Such is the 
Second Union Jack, No. 420. In this compound device it 
will be observed that the broad diagonal white members 
represent the silver saltire of St. Andrew, No. 419 = that the 



FLAGS. 



26 3 



red diagonal members represent the saltire gules of St. 
Patrick, No. 421, and that the narrow diagonal white lines 
are added in order to place this saltire gules on a field 
argent : that the diagonal red and the broad diagonal white 
members represent the two Saltires of St. Andrew and St. 
Patrick in combination : and that the fimbriated red cross in 
the front of the goodly alliance declares the presence of the 
symbol of St. George. 

Sir HARRIS NICHOLAS has suggested that this flag may 
have acquired its name of " Jack " 
(" Union " is obvious enough) from 
the original author of the First 
Union Flag, King JAMES, who, in 
the Heralds French language, 
would be styled Jacques : and so 
the Flag would be called "Jacques 
Union," which would easily settle 
down into "Jack s Union," and 
finally would as easily become 
" Union Jack." The Second Union 
Flag is always to be hoisted as it 
is represented in No. 420, the 
diagonal white having precedence in the first canton. To 
reverse the proper display of the Flag implies distress or 
danger ; or such a procedure (very often, as I am aware, 
unconsciously adopted, through ignorance of the real 
meaning of the Flag itself) subjects the Union Jack to 
degradation. 

The ENSIGNS now in use are : 

i. The Red Ensign, a plain red Flag cantoning a Union 
Jack having a Jack in the dexter chief angle next to the 
point of suspension : No. 422. This Ensign shares with the 
Union Jack the honour of being the " Ensign of England" 
the Ensign, that is, of the British Empire. When dis- 




No. 422. 
The Red Ensign. 



264 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

played at sea, it now distinguishes all vessels that do not 
belong to the Royal Navy : but, before the year 1864, it 
was the distinguishing ensign of the " red squadron of the 
Navy," and of the "Admirals of the Red" the Admirals 
of the highest rank. 

2. The WJiite- or St. Georges Ensign, is the old banner 
of St. George, No. 418, with a Jack cantoned in the first 
quarter. It now is the Ensign of the Royal Navy : but, 
before 1864, it distinguished the " white squadron " of the 
Navy, and the Admirals second in rank of that Squadron. 

3. The Blue Ensign differs from the Red only in the 
field being plain blue instead of red. It now is the Ensign 
of the Naval Reserve : before 1864 it was the Ensign of 
" Admirals of the Blue," third in rank, and of their 
Squadron of the Royal Navy. 

A Red Ensign is often charged with a Crown, or with 
some appropriate device, to denote some particular depart 
ment of the public service. 

With the Ensigns may be grouped the Flag of the 
Admiralty, which displays a yellow anchor and cable set 
fesse-wise on a red field. 

The Ensigns are always to be hoisted so as to have 
the Jack next to the point of suspension, as in No. 422. 

MILITARY FLAGS, i. Cavalry Standards, which are, 
and ought to be called, Banners, being lineal descendants 
and true representatives of the knightly Banners of the 
mediaeval chivalry, are small square Flags, the colour of 
the field the same as the regimental facings ; and each 
Standard bears the Number, Motto, and specific Title of 
its own Regiment, with whatever heraldic Badge or Device 
may be associated with it. Upon these Standards also are 
blazoned the regimental "Honours" such words as 
WATERLOO, ALMA, LUCKNOW, and others, which briefly and 
with most emphatic significance declare the services of the 



FLAGS. 265 

corps. The Household Cavalry, the Life Guards and 
Blues, have all their Standards of Crimson, and they are 
blazoned with the Royal Insignia and their own "Honours" 
and Devices. 

2. Infantry Colours. In the first instance, each Regi 
ment of Infantry had one " Colour :" subsequently, two 
others were added : and, finally, in the reign of Queen 
ANNE, it was decided that every Infantry Regiment or 
Battalion of the Line (the Rifles of the Line excepted, who 
have no " Colours") should have its own " Pair of Colours." 
Of this " Pair," one is the " Queen s Colour" a Union Jack 
charged with some regimental Devices : the other, the 
" Regimental Colour? is of the tincture of the facings, 
on which the "Honours" and "Devices" of the Regiment 
are charged, and in the dexter chief angle a small Jack is 
cantoned : in fact, the " Regimental Colour" is the same as 
the Red or Blue Ensign (No. 422), the Colour of the field 
varying with the regimental facings, and the field itself 
being charged with the various Devices. 

In their Colours, the Guards reverse the arrangement 
that obtains with the Regiments of the Line. With them, 
the Queen s Colour is always crimson, with or without a 
Jack, but charged with the Royal Cypher and the regi 
mental Devices : the Regimental Colour of the Guards is 
the Union Jack. 

3. The Royal Artillery have no Colours or Standards. 

4. The characteristic Banner of the Volunteers, with its 
admirable Motto, DEFENSE . NOT . DEFIANCE, dis 
plays figures of such an archer as might have been " out " 
with ROBIN HOOD, and such a rifleman as L a devoted 
subject of QUEEN VICTORIA. Excellent as it is, this can 
scarcely be considered an heraldic Flag. Perhaps it will 
have a comrade "Colour" of a more decidedly heraldic 
character : either a Union Jack, charged with the Motto of 



266 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

the Force, ensigned with a Crown, and within an oak- 
wreath ; or a Flag of English scarlet, charged with the 
Union Device blazoned upon an escutcheon of pretence, 
the escutcheon ensigned with a Crown and encircled by a 
wreath of oak and laurel, with the Motto of the Volunteer 
Force, the Number and special Device of each Regiment 
being also added on a canton. 

I conclude this Chapter, which treats briefly of the 
Heraldry of the most important English Flags, with four 
still more brief general remarks : 

1. First: by all English people who are disposed to 
exclaim, making SHAKESPEARE S words their own, " Prosper 
our Colours /" it ought to be understood that their National 
Flags are endowed with heraldic, that is, with historical 
significance, recorded after an heraldic fashion. 

2. Second : this significance of their Flags ought also to 
be understood, that it may be appreciated, by all true 
English people. 

3. Third : our Flags ought always to be made and 
represented correctly. 

And 4. Lastly: our Flags, and all other Flags also, 
ought always to be hoisted and displayed rightly and 
properly. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE ROYAL HERALDRY OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

Shields of Arms of the Reigning Sovereigns of England of Scotland 
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Crests. 
Supporters. Mottoes. Crowns. Banners. Armorial Insignia of 
the late Prince Consort of the Prince and Princess of Wales oj 
the other Princes and Princesses, the Sons and Daughters of the 
Queen. 



" On his Banner were three Leopards, courant, of fine gold, set on red : fierce 
were they, haughty and cruel, to signify that, like them, the KING is dreadful to his 
enemies ; for his bite is slight to none who inflame his anger : and yet, towards such 
as seek his friendship or submit to his power his kindness is soon rekindled." ROLL 
OF CARLAVEROCK. 

"With Scotland s Arms, Device and Crest 

Embroidered round and round." MARMIOX. 



How the " three Leopards courant " of the shrewd chroni 
cler of Carlaverock are identical with the "three Lions 
passant guardant " of the Royal Shield of England I have 
already shown (see page 84). To the Norman Sove 
reigns of England, WILLIAM I., WILLIAM II., HENRY I., 
and STEPHEN (A.D. 10661154), the same Shield of Arms 
has been assigned Gu., two lions pass, guard., in pale, or, 
No. 22. It must be distinctly understood, however, that 
there exists no certain authority for these Arms. 

In like manner, STEPHEN is also said to have borne on a 
red Shield three golden Sagittaries, or Centaurs, with bows 
and arrows. And, again, HENRY II. is considered to have 
added a third lion to the two on the Shield of his father, 



268 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

a single golden lion passant guardant on red being (also 
considered to be) the armorial ensign of the province of 
Aquitaine, acquired by HENRY in right of his Consort, 
ALIANORE. 

As early as the reign of HENRY III., a Shield of Arms, 
No. 23, was assigned to the Anglo-Saxon Kings : another 
Shield, No. 2, was assigned to EDWARD THE CONFESSOR : 
and a third Shield, No. 3, to another sainted Anglo- 
Saxon Prince, EDMUND. 

From the appearance of the Second Great Seal of 
RICHARD I., about A.D. 1195, all uncertainty concerning the 





NO. 22. 

Royal Arms, supposed to have been borne No. 187. 

before A.D. 1189. Royal Arms, from AD. 1189 to 1340. 

Royal Arms of England is at an end, and they are borne as 
follows by the successive English Sovereigns : 

RICHARD I. : JOHN : HENRY III. : EDWARD I. : 
EDWARD II. : and EDWARD III., till the thirteenth year of 
his reign, A.D. 1340 : Gu., three lions passant guardant, in 
pale, or, No. 187. 

EDWARD III., from the thirteenth year of his reign, 
when he claimed to be King of France as well as of 
England, and so styled hfmself : RICHARD II. : and 
HENRY IV., till about the fifth year of his reign : France 
Ancient and England quarterly, No. 252. 

RICHARD II. sometimes bore the Arms of the CON 
FESSOR, No. 2, with his own, on a separate shield, as at 



ROYAL HERALDRY. 



269 



Westminster Hall ; and sometimes he impaled the Con 
fessor s Arms with his own quartered Shield, the arms of 
the Confessor having the precedence. 

HENRY IV. from about 1405: HENRY V.: HENRY VI. : 





No. 253. Royal Arms from about 
A.D. 1405 to 1603. 



No. 252. Royal Arms from A.D. 
to about 1405. 



EDWARD IV. : EDWARD V. : RICHARD III. : HENRY VII. : 
HENRY VIII. : EDWARD VI. : MARY : and ELIZABETH, to 
A.D. 1603 : France Modern and England Quarterly, 
No. 253. 

The Royal Shield of SCOTLAND, No. 138, first appears 
upon the Seal of ALEXANDER II. about A.D. 1235 ; and, as 
Mr. Seton well observes, the origin 
of its bearings " is veiled by the mists 
of Antiquity." The same Shield, 
without any modification or change, 
was borne by all the Sovereigns of 
Scotland. 

JAMES I. : CHARLES I. : CHARLES 
II. : JAMES II. : WILLIAM III. and 
MARY: and ANNE, till May i, 1707 : 
Quarterly: i and 4, Grand Quarters, 
France Modern and England (No. 253) : 2, Grand Quarter, 
Scotland (No. 138): 3, Grand Quarter Az., a harp or, 
stringed arg., for Ireland: No. 423. 




No. 138. Royal Arms of 
Scotland. 



270 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



WILLIAM III., as an elected Sovereign, charged his 
paternal shield of NASSAU, No. 424. Az., billettee, a lion 
rampt. or, in pretence upon the Royal Shield : also, during 




No. 423. Royal Arms of the Stuart Sovereigns. 

the life of his Consort, till Dec. 28, 1694, he bore the 
Stuart shield with Nassau in pretence on the dexter half of 
his Shield, and thus impaled in the sinister half of his Shield 




No. 425. Diagram of Shield 
of William III. and Mary. 



No. 424. 
Arms of Nassau. 



No. 426. Diagram of 
Shield of William III. alone. 



the same Stuart arms, as in the Diagram, No. 425, to 
denote their joint Sovereignty : the Shield represented in 
this Diagram, No. 425, bears the whole of No. 423 on its 



ROYAL HERALDRY. 



271 



dexter half, with No. 424 in pretence ; and on its sinister 
half it also bears the whole of No. 423. When he reigned 
alone, WILLIAM III. bore his own dexter half of the im 
paled Shield alone, as in the Diagram, No. 426 : the 
Shield represented in this Diagram bears the dexter half 
of No. 425. 

Queen ANNE, from May i, 1707, till 1714, bore the 
Royal Arms marshalled as in the Diagram, No. 427 : 




No. 427. Diagram of 

the Second Royal 
Shield of Queen Anne. 




No. 428. 
Arms of Hanover. 



No. 429. Diagram of 

the Royal Shield 
from A.D. 1714 to 1801. 



i and 2j England impaling Scotland ; 3, France Modern 
(No. 253) ; 4, Ireland (the Harp, as in the third quarter of 
No. 423). 

The Arms of HANOVER, on the accession of GEORGE I., 
August i, 1714, were added to the Shield of the United 
Kingdom. This was accomplished by removing the 
charges (England and Scotland impaled ) from the fourth 
quarter of the Shield, No. 427, and charging that quarter 
with the arms of Hanover as they appear on the Shield, No. 
428 : Per pale and per chevron, i, Gu., two lions of 



272 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

England, for Brunswick: 2, Or, Semee of hearts, a lion 
rampt. az., for Lunenburgh : 3, Gu., a horse courant arg., for 
Westphalia : 4, Over all, on an inescutcheon gules, the golden 
crown of Charlemagne. This marshalling is shown in the 
Diagram No. 429, which represents a Shield bearing, 
i and 2, England impaling Scotland; 3, France Modern; 
4, Ireland ; 5, Hanover (as in No. 428, without the 
Crown). 

On January i, 1801, the Fleurs de Lys of France were 
removed from the Royal Shield of Great Britain, which then 
was marshalled as in the diagram, No. 430, quarterly, i and 
4, England; 2, Scotland; 3, Ireland; 5, Hanover the 
shield of Hanover being ensigned with the Electoral Bonnet, 
No. 240, till 1816, but with a Royal Crown from 1816 till 
1837, as it appears in No. 428. 

GEORGE I. : GEORGE II. : GEORGE HI., till Jan. i, 
1 80 1 : The arms indicated in the dia 
gram, No. 429. 

GEORGE III., till 1816 : The arms in 
dicated in the diagram, No. 430. the in 
escutcheon ensigned with an electoral 
bonnet. 

No. 43 o.-Diagram of GEORGE III., after l8l6 I GEORGE IV. : 

the Royal shield WILLIAM IV. i The same arms as No. 
jg ^ * 430, but the inescutcheon ensigned with 

a Royal Crown. 

HER MAJESTY, QUEEN VICTORIA : The same as No. 
430, but without the inescutcheon, and as the four quarters 
are marshalled on the Royal Standard, No. 416. 

ROYAL CRESTS. 

For ENGLAND : A golden lion statant guardant, im 
perially crowned; assumed by EDWARD III., and by him 
borne on his Helm standing upon a Cap of Estate ; retained 




ROYAL HERALDRY. 



273 



from his time, and now borne standing on an Imperial 
Crown. No. 431. 

For SCOTLAND : First Crest. A lion statant guardant 
gu., assumed by ROBERT II., about A.D. 
1385 j retained, and with some modifica 
tions used by his successors, till about 
A.D. 1550. Second Crest. On an Im 
perial Crown, a lion sejant affronte gu. ; 
imperially crowned, holding in the dexter 
paw a sword, and in the sinister paw a 
sceptre, both erect and ppr. ; with the 
motto IN: MY: DEFENSE; assumed 




by JAMES V.; borne by MARY, and Crest of En s land - 
shown in her signet-ring, No. 432, about 1564; retained, 
and now in use. 

ROYAL SUPPORTERS. 

For ENGLAND. Of uncertain authority before HENRY 
VI. , who bore two white antelopes: also, a lion and a 
panther, or antelope. 

EDWARD IV. : A lion or, or argent, and a bull sable: 
or, two lions argent : or, a lion and a hart argent. 

RICHARD III. : A lion or and a boar arg. : or, two 
boars arg. 

HENRY VII. : A dragon gu., and a greyhound arg. : or, 
two greyhounds arg. : or, a lion or and a dragon gu. 

HENRY VIII. : A lion or and a dragon gu. : or, a 
dragon gu., and either a bull, a greyhound, or a cock arg. 

EDWARD VI. : A lion or, and a dragon gu. 

MARY and ELIZABETH : A lion or, and a greyhound 
arg., or a dragon gu. 

For SCOTLAND. First Supporters: Two lions rampt. 
guard. ; first seen on a Seal of JAMES I., A.D. 1429. 
Second Supporters : Two silver unicorns, royally gorged and 

s 



274 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

chained or ; assumed by JAMES IV., and retained in use. 
On the signet of Queen MARY STUART, No. 432 : for this 
beautiful cut once more I am indebted to Mr. Laing. 

For the UNITED KINGDOM. Dexter Supporter : A lion 
rampt. guard., royally crowned, or. Sinister Supporter : A 




No. 432. The Signet of Queen Mary Stuart, considerably enlarged. 

unicorn rampt. arg., royally gorged and chained or. Assumed 
by JAMES I. of Great Britain : retained, and still in use. 

ROYAL MOTTOES. 

The ancient English war-cry DIEU . ET . MON . 
DROIT ! " God and my Right!" assumed as a regular 
Motto by HENRY VI., has been retained in use since his 
time. 

Queens ELIZABETH and ANNE also used SEMPER . 
EADEM "Always the Same." JAMES I. used BEATI . 
PACIFIC I " Blessed are the Peace-makers" 

Mottoes of Scotland : NEMO . ME . IMPUNE . LA- 
CESSIT "No man with impunity attacks me:" and, above 
the Crest IN . MY . DEFENSE. 



ROYAL HERALDRY. 275 

THE CROWN. 

Till the time of HENRY IV., the Crown, the symbol of 
England s Royalty, was a golden circlet richly jewelled, 
and heightened with conventional strawberry-leaves: fine 
examples are represented in the effigies of HENRY III., 
JOHN, and EDWARD II. 

HENRY IV., as shown by his splendid effigy at Canter 
bury, introduced^*?// de lys, alternating with the leaves. 

From the time of HENRY V., the circlet has been 
heightened by crosses pattees and fleurs de lys alternating, 
four of each, and without any leaves. HENRY V. also first 
arched the circlet with jewelled bands, which at their intersec 
tion he surmounted with a mound and cross. 

The arched Crown of HENRY V. has four half-arches, 
that is, it is arched over twice : 
HENRY VI. and CHARLES I. 
arched their crown three times : 
all the other Sovereigns have had 
two complete arches only, and the 
Crown still retains these two arches 
intersecting at right angles, as in 
No. 234. At different periods, 
while the design of the Crown 
has remained unchanged, the con- No - 2 34- 

r , , Crown of H.M., The Queen. 

tour of the arches, and the artistic 

treatment of the ornamentation have undergone various 

modifications. 

The ROYAL BANNERS, or STANDARDS, are charged with 
the bearings of the Royal Shield of Arms for the time 
being. 

The Armorial Insignia of H.R.H. the late PRINCE CON 
SORT. The SHIELD is Quarterly, i and 4, The Royal 
Arms of the Queen, as in No. 416, but differenced with a 
silver label of three points charged on the central point with a 

s 2 




276 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

cross of St. George: 2 and 3, Saxony, No. 225. This 
Shield is encircled with the Garter of the Order; and 
ensigned with the Prince s own Coronet, shown in 
No. 441. 

The CREST is the Royal Crest of England, No. 431, 
the lion having the same label that differences the Shield, 
adjusted about his neck as a collar, and being crowned 
with the coronet, No. 441, in place of the Imperial Crown. 

The SUPPORTERS are those of the Royal Arms, the 
golden lion and silver unicorn, both of them differenced with 
the same label, and the lion crowned with the same coronet. 

The MOTTO. TREU. UND . FEST " True and 
Faithful." To the dexter of this Achievement, the com 
plete Royal Achievement of Her Majesty the Queen. 

THE ARMORIAL INSIGNIA OF T.R.H., THE PRINCE AND 

PRINCESS OF WALES. 

As PRINCE ROYAL and HEIR APPARENT, and also as 
PRINCE OF WALES, His Royal Highness bears the Royal 
Shield of Arms of the QUEEN, as in No. 416, differenced 
with a silver label of three points ; as the Black Prince 
differenced with the same label the Shield of EDWARD III. 
(see Nos. 252, 337). 

Upon this Shield the Prince bears, in pretence, this 
quartered Inescutcheon of the Arms of his high dignities of 
the second rank: Quarterly of Seven: i, PRINCIPALITY 
OF WALES Quarterly gu. and or, four lions pass, guard. 
counter changed : 2, DUCHY OF CORNWALL Sa., ten bezants, 
four, three, two, one: 3, DUKEDOM OF ROTHSAY Scotland, 
differenced with a label of three points arg. : 4, EARLDOM OF 
CHESTER Az., three garbs or: 5, EARLDOM OF DUBLIN 
Az., a harp or, stringed arg., with a label as in the third 
quarter : 6, LORDSHIP OF THE ISLES Arg., on waves of the 
Seappr., a lymphad sa. : 7, FEUDAL EARLDOM OF CARRICK 



ROYAL HERALDRY. 277 

and BARONY OF RENFREW Or, a chevron g?t. This last 
quarter is of uncertain authority : I am disposed to believe 
that it should be blazoned arg., a saltire and chief az. 

Over all, a second inescutcheon of the arms of SAXONY, 
No. 225.* 

The Shield encircled with the Garter of the Order, and 
ensigned with the Prince s own CORONET, No. 289. The 
CREST and SUPPORTERS, those of England, differenced with 
the silver label, and ensigned with the Coronet of the 
Prince. Above the Arms, with the Crest, is placed the 
OSTRICH FEATHER BADGE of the PRINCE OF WALES, with 
the motto, ICH . DIEN " I serve." 

H.R.H. THE PRINCESS OF WALES bears, without any 
difference, the Arms of her Royal Father, the KING OF 
DENMARK. Recent events that have taken place upon the 
Continent of Europe, and the territorial changes consequent 
upon them, might rightly require a fresh marshalling of the 
Arms of Denmark. In Continental Royal Shields, how 
ever, Quarterings are frequently retained as "Arms of 
Pretension " heraldic reminiscences or heraldic aspi 
rations, and marshalled with the insignia of actual 
Sovereignty ; as, indeed, was long the case with our own 
Royal Shield, which bore the fleurs de lys of France for 
more than two centuries purely as "Arms of Pretension." 
Consequently, it is possible that the King of Denmark may 
continue to bear his Arms with precisely the same 
blazonry that his Shield displayed at the time of his 
accession. At all events, no change has yet taken place, 



* In place of the Arms of Saxony only, upon his inescutcheon surtout 
the PRINCE OF WALES might marshal the numerous German quarter- 
ings of his paternal Coat of Arms. Also, the insignia of the Prince 
might be marshalled upon a group of three Shields, instead of a single 
Shield and two inescutcheons ; and the insignia of the Princess might 
be marshalled to form a similar group. 



278 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

and, accordingly, the Arms of the Princess are now what 
they were on the occasion of her marriage. 

THE ROYAL ARMS OF DENMARK. The Shield divided 
into four quarters by the national white cross, having a 
border of red to represent the red field of the Danish Ensign. 
First Quarter : DENMARK Or, semee of hearts gu., three 
lions pass, guard., in pale, az. Second Quarter : SLESWICK 
Or, two lions pass. , in pale, az. Third Quarter \-Perfesse, 
in chief, SWEDEN Az., three crowns or; in base, ICELAND 
Gu., a stock-fish arg., crowned or ; impaling, for FAROE 
ISLANDS Az., a buck pass, arg.; and, for GREENLAND a 
polar bear rampt. arg. Fourth Quarter : Perfesse, in chief, 
for JUTLAND or, ten hearts, four, three, two, one, gu., and in 
chief a lion pass. az. ; in base, for VANDALIA Gu.,a wyvern, 
its tail nowed and wings expanded, or. 

On an Inescutcheon, quarterly : First, for HOLSTEIN 
Gu., an inescutcheon per fesse arg. and of the first, in every 
point thereof a nail in triangle, between as many holly-leaves, 
all ppr. Second, for STORMERK Gu., a swan arg., gorged 
with a coronet or. Third, for DITZMERS Az., an armed 
knight ppr., brandishing his sword, his charger arg. Fourth, 
for LAUENBURGH Gu., a horse s head cotiped arg. 

Over all, in pretence upon a second Inescutcheon, 
OLDENBURGH Or, two bars gu. ; impaling Az., a cross 
pateefitchee or, for DALMENHURST. 

This Shield is placed to the sinister of the Shit- id of the 
Prince of Wales, and with it stands between his Supporters. 
It would be good Heraldry to impale the Charges of the 
two Shields on a single Shield. 

Or, a single Shield of the primary Arms of the Prince, 
without his quartered Inescutcheon, but with Saxony in 
pretence, may impale Denmark only ; and, with the 
Coronet, Crest, Badge, and Supporters of the Prince, 
this comparatively simple impaled Shield, represented 



ROYAL HERALDRY. 



279 



in No. 433, might be adopted and borne as the Ensigns 
of the Prince and Princess for general use. 

The other PRINCES and PRINCESSES, Sons and Daugh 
ters of the QUEEN, all bear the Royal Arms of the Sove 
reign, the Princes on Shields, the unmarried Princesses 
on Lozenges. All their Royal Highnesses bear the Royal 
Supporters and Motto ; all have a Shield of Saxony, in 
pretence on their own Shield or Lozenge ; all ensign their 
Shield or Lozenge with their own Coronet, No. 290; and 




No. 433. Impaled Shield of Prince and Princess of Wales. 



the Princes bear the Royal Crest. In every case, the Sup 
porters and the Crest are ensigned with the same Coronet : 
all the Shields, Lozenges, Crests, and Supporters, are 
differenced with a silver label of three points, tJie labels being 
differenced as follows : 

H.R.H. the Duke of EDINBURGH, &c. : On the central 
point a red cross ; on each of the other two points a red anchor. 
H.R.H. the Prince ARTHUR: Red cross, and two red fleurs 
de lys. H.R.H. the Prince LEOPOLD : Red cross, and two 



280 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

red hearts. H.R.H. the Princess LOUISA : Red rose, and two 
red cantons. H.R.H. the Princess BEATRICE: Red Jieart, 
and two red roses. 

Their Royal Highnesses, the Princesses who are married, 
bear the Royal Arms of the QUEEN impaled by the armorial 
ensigns of the Princes, their Consorts : but each Princess 
differences the Royal Arms of England with her own label. 
Thus : 

H.R.H. the CROWN PRINCESS OF PRUSSIA, PRINCESS 
ROYAL OF ENGLAND, on the central point of her label 
has a red rose, and on each of the other two points a 
red cross. 

H.R.H. the Princess ALICE OF HESSE has on her label a 
red rose, between two ermine spots. 

H.R.H. the Princess HELENA, Princess CHRISTIAN, has on 
her label a red cross between two red roses. 

The youthful eldest son of the PRINCE OF WALES bears 
his Father s Shield, differencing the label with a red cross on 
the central point only. 

The label of H.R.H. the Duke of CAMBRIDGE is silver, 
of three points, and the points are differenced with a red 
cross in the centre, and on each of the two side points two 
red hearts in pale The Duke bears the Royal Arms, but 
with his own Coronet, No. 292, and differencing the acces 
sories as well as the Shield with his own label. 

H.R.H. the Princess MARY OF TECK differences with 
the same label as the Duke her Brother : and her Arms are 
impaled by those of Prince TECK, her Husband. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD AND INSIGNIA OF HONOUR. 

Feudal Knighthood. Orders of Knighthood : Knights of St. John 
Knights Templars The Order of the Garter of the Thistle of 
St. Patrick of the Bath of St. Michael and St. George of The 
Star of India. The Victoria Cross. The Albert Medal. Naval 
and Military Medals. Foreign Insignia bestowed on British 
Subjects. 



" The same King would make an Order of KNIGHTS of himself and his Sons, and 
of the bravest of his land." FROJSSART. 

" I will say as I have said, 

Thou art a noble KNIGHT." LORD OF THE ISLES. 



KNIGHTHOOD, as that term is generally understood in its 
comprehensive acceptation, has been well defined to be "a 
distinction of rank amongst freemen, depending not upon 
birth or property, but simply upon the admission of the 
person so distinguished, by the girding of a sword or other 
similar solemnity, into an order of men having by law or 
usage certain social or political privileges," and also a 
certain appropriate title. It is evident, therefore, from this 
definition that Knighthood implies the existence of these two 
conditions : the one, that the man to be admitted to the rank 
of Knighthood should possess such qualifications as may 
entitle him to that distinction ; and the other, that Knight 
hood should be conferred by a personage endowed with a 
competent power and authority. 

In feudal times the qualifications for Knighthood were 



282 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

military exploits of a distinguished character, and eminent 
services, of whatever kind, rendered to the King and the 
realm : also, the holding a certain property in land (in the 
time of EDWARD I., land then of the yearly value of 20, or 
upwards), whether directly from the King, or under some 
Noble, by the feudal tenure of personal military service 
to be rendered under certain established conditions. During 
the first two centuries after the Conquest, Knighthood was 
conferred by the great Barons and by the Spiritual Peers, as 
well as by the King himself, or by his appointed representa 
tive : but, after the accession of HENRY III., the prevailing 
rule appears to have been that in England no persons should 
be created Knights except by the King, or the Prince Royal 
acting for his Father, or by the King s General-in-Chief, or 
other personal representative. 

The knightly rank, as it gave an increase of dignity, 
implied also the maintenance of a becoming state, and the 
discharge of certain civil duties : and, more particularly, all 
Knights were required to make such a provision for render 
ing military service as was held to be consistent with their 
position and their property ; and it was expected from them 
that they should take a dignified part in the chivalrous 
exercises and celebrations of their times. It followed, that 
feudal Knighthood was a distinction which, if not conferred 
for the sake of honour, became obligatory ; and fines, ac 
cordingly, were imposed upon men qualified for Knight 
hood who, notwithstanding, were found not to be Knights, 
In the course of time, as the rigour of the feudal system 
abated, the numbers of the military tenants of small tenures 
greatly increased : and, since many of these persons had no 
inclination for the profession of arms, they gladly accepted 
the alternative of paying a fine, which enabled them to 
evade an honour unsuited as well to their means as to their 
personal tastes and their peaceful avocations. A fruitful 



ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 283 

source of revenue thus was secured for the Crown, while the 
military character of Knighthood was maintained, and at 
the same time a new and important class of the community 
gradually became established. 

The Knights of Norman England, who at first were 
stipendiary soldiers of the highest order, derived their 
designation from their warlike predecessors of Anglo-Saxon 
times, the word " cniht" in the late Anglo-Saxon tongue, 
signifying a military attendant. When they had established 
themselves in the position and in the possession of the lands 
of the Anglo-Saxons, the Anglo-Norman Knights retained 
their own original title. The Latin equivalent for that title 
of "Knight" is "Miles" and the Norman-French is 
"Chevalier." 

These Knights may be grouped in two classes. The 
first class contains all persons who had been admitted into 
the comprehensive Order of Chivalry who were Knights 
by reason of their common Knighthood. The second class 
is formed of Knights who, in addition to their Knightly 
rank, were members of some special and distinct Fraternity, 
Companionship, or Order of Knighthood. Every Society 
of this kind has always possessed Laws, Institutions, Titles, 
and Insignia peculiar to itself. 

The peculiar character and object of the Crusades led to 
the formation of two Orders of Priest-Knights Orders not 
belonging to any particular nation, but numbering amongst 
their members men of all nations. These are the Orders of 
the KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN OP JERUSALEM, or HOSPI 
TALLERS, and of the KNIGHTS TEMPLARS. 

The HOSPITALLERS, instituted about A.D. 1092, were 
introduced into England about noo. In the year 1310 
they were established at Rhodes, and in 1530 at Malta, 
under their forty-third Grand Master, PHILIPPE DE VILLIERS 
DE L lsLE-AoAM. Their device is a silver cross of eight 



284 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

points, No. 107, charged upon a black field, or worn upon a 
black surcoat or mantle. The Order was finally suppressed 
in England in 1559. 

The TEMPLARS, instituted about A.D. 1118, were intro 
duced into England about 1140. In the year 1309 they 
were suppressed, and in 1312 their Order was finally 
abolished. They wore a Cross of the same form as No. 
107, but of a red colour upon a white field. This red cross 
they charged upon a white banner : and they bore another 
banner, No. 13, of black and white, entitled "Beau Seant." 
The same words, "Beau Seant!" were their war-cry. The 
Badges of the Templars were the Agnus Dei the Holy 
Lamb, holding a red-cross banner ; and a device represent 
ing two Knights mounted on a single horse, intended to 
denote the original poverty of the Order.* 

THE ORDER OF THE GARTER, a military Fraternity 
under the special patronage of "ST. GEORGE, the good 
Knight," was instituted at Windsor by King EDWARD III. 
in, or about, the year 1350 very probably in the summer 
of 1348, but the exact time is not positively known. It 
may safely be assumed, that the occasion which led to the 
institution of this most noble and renowned Order, was a 
Tournament or Hastilude of unusual importance held at his 
Castle of Windsor by EDWARD III. at the most brilliant 
period of his reign : and it is highly probable that the Order 
suggested itself to the mind of the King, as a natural result 
of his own chivalrous revival of a knightly " Round Table," 
such as flourished in the days of King Arthur. How much 
of historical fact there may be in the popular legend, which 
professes to derive from a certain romantic incident the 

* The Arms of the Barrister Templars of the present day are 
azure, a pegasus (or, winged horse) argent, or sometimes or. This 
Coat is derived from the early Badge, the two horsemen, having been 
mistaken in later times for -wings. 



ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 285 

Title certainly borne by King EDWARD S Order from the 
time of its original institution, it is not possible to deter 
mine : but the legend itself is not in any way inconsistent 
with the spirit of those times ; nor would the Knights 
Founders of the Garter regard their Order as the less 
honourable, because its Title might remind them of the 
happy gallantry, with which the casual misadventure of a 
noble Lady had been turned to so good an account by a 
most princely Monarch. The Statutes of the Order have 
been continually modified and altered, and the original 
military character of the Institution has long ceased to 
exist : still, no changes in the Order of the Garter have 
affected the preeminence of its dignity and reputation. 
Illustrious now as ever, and foremost in rank and honour in 
our own country, the GARTER is second to no knightly 
Order in the world. 

The MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER consists of 
the SOVEREIGN and Twenty-five KNIGHTS COMPANIONS, of 
whom the PRINCE OF WALES always is one. By a Statute 
of the year 1805, the Order includes such lineal descendants 
of GEORGE III. as may be elected : and still more recent 
statutes have provided for the admission of foreign Sove 
reigns, and also of certain "Extra Knights," who are elected 
" Companions " as vacancies occur. 

The OFFICERS of the Order are, the Prelate, the Bishop 
of Winchester : the Chancellor, the Bishop of Oxford : the 
Registrar, the Dean of Windsor : the Herald, Garter King 
of Arms : and, the Usher of the Black Rod. 

Knights of the Garter place the initials "K.G." after their 
names ; and these letters take precedence of all other titles, 
those of Royalty alone excepted. 

The Stalls of the Knights are in the choir of St. George s 
Chapel, Windsor Castle, where their Garter-Plates are fixed, 
and their Banners are displayed 



286 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



The INSIGNIA of the Order of the Garter are The 
Garter itself, of a light blue originally, now of a dark 
blue, with border, buckle, and pendant of gold. On it, 
in golden letters, the Motto HONI . SOIT . QVI . MAL . 
Y . PENSE " Dishonour to him who thinks ill of it ; " 
and not, as it is commonly rendered, " Evil to him that 
evil thinks." 

The Badge of the Order is circular, and formed of a 
buckled Garter enclosing a Shield of St. George, the whole 
blazoned in the proper tinctures : it 
is worn on the left shoulder of the 
blue velvet Mantle. When irradiated 
with eight rays of silver or diamonds, a 
device resembling the Badge in every 
respect, except that the cross of St. 
George is enclosed within the Garter 
without being charged on a Shield, 
forms the Star of the Order. 

The Collar, of gold enamelled, is 
formed of twelve buckled Garters, each 
encircling a Tudor Rose, and as many 
knots of intertwined cords. Attached 
to this Collar is the George a mounted 
figure of the Saint in the act of tramp 
ling down the dragon and piercing him 
with his lance. The Collar and George were added to 
the Insignia by HENRY VII. 

The Lesser George, or Jewel, added by HENRY VIII., has 
the same device placed on an enamelled field, and forming 
a jewel generally oval in form ; it is encircled by a buckled 
Garter of the Order, and represented in No. 434. It was 
this Lesser George that CHARLES I., immediately before he 
suffered, delivered to Archbishop JUXON, with the word, 
" Remember." As a matter of course, the figure of ST. 




No. 434. The Lesser 
Gorge, of the Garter. 



ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 287 

GEORGE ought always to be represented as a Knight, armed 
and equipped as one of the Christian chivalry of the Middle 
Ages not as a pagan horseman of antiquity, and more 
particularly not in the guise of such a nude champion as 
appears on some of our modern coins. The Lesser George, 
often incorrectly called the Badge, at first was sometimes 
worn from a gold chain, and sometimes from a black Ribbon. 
The Colour of the ribbon was changed to sky-blue by 
Queen ELIZABETH ; and, after the accession of the pre 
sent Royal Family, it was again changed to the dark blue 
of the broad Ribbon now worn. This Ribbon of the 
Order crosses the figure of the wearer, passing over the 
left shoulder, and the Lesser George hangs from it under 
the right arm. 

Since the time of CHARLES II. it has been customary 
for the nearest representatives of a deceased K.G. to return 
his Insignia to the Sovereign. 

Each Officer of the Order, except the Usher, has his 
own proper Badge. 

THE ORDER OF THE THISTLE, OF SCOTLAND, styled 
" Most Noble and Most Ancient," and indicated by the 
Initials " K.T.," was originally instituted long before the 
accession of a Scottish Sovereign to the Crown of England ; 
but it is now governed by statutes framed by JAMES II. of 
Great Britain, ANNE, and GEORGE IV. 

The Order consists of the SOVEREIGN and sixteen 
KNIGHTS. Its OFFICERS are the Dean ; the Lord Lyon 
King of Arms ; and the Gentleman Usher of the Green Rod. 

The INSIGNIA are the Badge or Jewel, of gold 
enamelled, being a figure of St. Andrew holding his 
silver Saltire and surrounded by rays, the whole within an 
oval border bearing the Motto NEMO . ME . IMPUNE . 
LACESSIT. "No man with impunity challenges me." 



288 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



This Badge, No. 435, is worn from the Collar of the Order, 
formed of sixteen Thistles alternating with as many bunches 
of rue-sprigs ; or, from a broad dark green Ribbon, which 
crosses the left shoulder. There are fine examples of these 
Insignia sculptured upon the Monument of MARY, Queen 
of Scots, in Westminster Abbey. 

The Star of this Order, of silver or diamonds, is in the 
form of a St. Andrew s Saltire, having its four limbs alter 
nating with the four points of a lozenge : in the centre, 
surrounded by the Motto, is a Thistle proper. 





No. 435. Badge of the Thistle. 



No. 436. Badge of St. Patrick. 



The Most Illustrious ORDER OF ST. PATRICK, OF 
IRELAND, indicated by the Initials, " K.P.," and instituted 
in 1783 by GEORGE III., consists of the SOVEREIGN, the 
GRAND MASTER, and twenty-two KNIGHTS. The OFFICERS 
are the Prelate, the Archbishop of Armagh : the Chancellor, 
the Archbishop of Dublin : the Registrar, the Dean of St. 
Patrick s : Ulster King of Arms : two Heralds and four 
Pursuivants : the Genealogist : and the Usher of the Black 
Rod. 



ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 289 

The INSIGNIA are the Badge or Jewel, of gold 
enamelled, and oval in form. It has a Shamrock (or 
Trefoil slipped) having on each leaf a Royal Crown, charged 
on the Saltire of St. Patrick, the field being surrounded by 
the Motto QVIS . SEFARABIT . ("who will sever?") 
MDCCLXXXIIL, on a blue band, which in its turn is 
encircled with a wreath of Shamrocks on gold. This 
Badge, No. 436, is worn from the Collar, composed of 
Roses and Harps, alternating with each other and with 
knotted cords, a Crown surmounting a Harp being in the 
centre ; or, the Badge is worn from a broad sky-blue Ribbon, 
crossing the right shoulder. 

The Star resembles the Badge, except that its centre is 
circular instead of oval ; and that it has eight rays of silver 
or diamonds, in place of the wreath of Shamrocks. 

The Most Honourable ORDER OF THE BATH is an early 
Institution which, after having long been in abeyance, has 
been revived and remodelled, and has received fresh statutes 
in the years 1725, 1815, 1847, and 1859. 

The Order, now numbering 985 members, consists of 
several distinct Groups or Classes, which include, with the 
SOVEREIGN, the Royal Princes, and some few dis 
tinguished Foreigners, Officers of our own Navy and Army, 
and also Diplomatic and Civil Servants of the Crown. 

Another Group is still needed, to render this Order 
what it ought to be what, indeed, it ought to have been 
from the moment of its revival, an ORDER OF MERIT. 
This additional Group should include all the Heroes of 
Peace those sons of England who have deserved well of 
their Country, without serving as either soldiers, sailors, 
or diplomatists. 

The Three " Classes " of the Order alike include mem 
bers of the Three Services. 



290 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



The " First Class," of KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS OF THE 
BATH G.C.B., has fifty Naval and Military, and twenty- 
five Civil Knights. 

The " Second Class " numbers (with power to increase 
these numbers) 102 Naval and Military and fifty Civil 
KNIGHTS COMMANDERS OF THE BATH K.C.B. 

The "Third Class," not of Knights, but of COMPANIONS 
OF THE BATH C.B., has 525 Naval and Military and 200 




No. 437. Naval and Military Badge of the Bath. 

Civil Members, who take rank between Knights and 
Esquires. 

The Naval and Military INSIGNIA are The BADGE, a 
complicated combination of devices, characteristic of the 
debased period which produced it. It is represented in 
No. 437. The Cross is white ; the circle with the Motto, 
red ; and the small Scroll in base, blue ; all the rest being 



enamelled "proper." 



This Badge is worn by the G.C.B. 



ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 



2 9 I 



attached to a Collar, formed of nine Crowns and eight 
clusters of the Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock issuing from a 
Sceptre, alternating with seventeen Knots enamelled 
argent : or, this Badge is suspended by the G.C.B. from a 
broad red Ribbon, crossing the left shoulder. By the 
K.C.B. the Badge is worn from a narrower red Ribbon 
about the neck, or a still narrower at the button-hole. 
Also, by the C.B. it is attached to a narrow red ribbon at 
the button-hole. 

The Star of the G.C.B. is the Badge, without the Cross 
and the lions, charged with silver rays 
having a lozenge-shaped outline. The 
Star of the K.C.B., which is in the form 
of a Maltese Cross, omits the Cross of 
the Badge. The C.B. have no Star. 

The Diplomatic and Civil INSIGNIA 
are the Badge, No. 438, worn with the 
same distinctions as the Naval and 
Military Badge; but the C.B. Badge is 
of smaller size than the Badges of the 
two higher Classes. 

The Star of the G.C.B. has eight 
silver rays encircling their Badge in a 
circular form. The Star of the K.C.B. is the same as that 
of the Naval and Military K.C.B., omitting the laurel- 
wreath and the small scroll and motto. 

The Motto of the Order TRIA. JUNCTA. IN. UNO 
" Three united in one," refers to the Union of the three 
Realms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, as well as to 
that of the three Services, in the Order. 

The Stalls of the G.C.B., and those of their Esquires, 
are in Henry the Seventh s Chapel, Westminster Abbey; 
but no installation has taken place since 1815. The Dean 
of Westminster is officially connected with the Order. 

T 2 




NO. 43 s. 



2p2 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

THE ORDER OF ST. MICHAEL AND ST. GEORGE, 
founded in 1818, is restricted to natives of Malta and the 
Ionian Islands. 

The Most Exalted ORDER OF THE STAR OF INDIA, 
instituted by Her Majesty, the Queen, in 1861, to render 
especial honour to high merit and loyalty in the Indian 




No. 439. Badge of the Star of India. 

Empire, on the 24th of May, 1866, was enlarged, and 
ordained to consist of the SOVEREIGN, a GRAND MASTER, 
and 175 Ordinary COMPANIONS or MEMBERS; together 
with such extra and Honorary Members as the Sovereign 
at any time may be pleased to appoint. 

The VICEROY AND GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF INDIA for 
the time being is always the GRAND MASTER. The 
Ordinary Members are divided into Three Classes : The 



ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 



293 



No. 439, formed of 
field of light blue 



" First Class " comprises twenty-five KNIGHTS GRAND COM 
MANDERS : G.C.S.I. In the "Second Class" there are 
fifty KNIGHTS COMMANDERS: K.S.I. And, the "Third 
Class " numbers 100 COMPANIONS : C.S.I. 

The original Constitution of this Order limited its 
Members to the Sovereign, the Grand Master, and 25 
Knights. 

The INSIGNIA are The Badge, 
diamonds, having the Motto on a 
enamel, and the bust of the Queen 
executed as an onyx cameo. This Jg 
Badge is attached by a mullet to the 
Collar, composed of heraldic-roses \J 

and lotus-flowers alternating with 
palm-branches, a crown being in the 
Centre : or, the Badge is worn from 
a Ribbon of pale blue with white 
borders, crossing the left shoulder. 
The Star, of diamonds, has a mullet 
upon an irradiated field in its centre, 
within the Motto HEAVEN S 
LIGHT . OUR . GUIDE, the 
whole being environed with wavy rays having a circular 
outline. 

The VICTORIA CROSS, of bronze, was instituted by Her 
Majesty, the Queen, in 1856, to render honour to "con 
spicuous bravery" in actual conflict, by sea or land. This 
Cross, No. 440, is worn on the left breast, attached to a 
blue ribbon for the Navy, and to a red ribbon for the Army. 
A Bar is attached to the ribbon for every such act of 
bravery as would have won the Cross. 




No. 440. The Victoria Cross. 



THE ALBERT MEDAL, No. 441, was instituted by Her 



294 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



Majesty, the Queen, March 13, 1866, to distinguish those 
who save, or who at the peril of their own lives endeavour 
to save, life at sea. The Coronet is that of H.R.H. the 
late PRINCE CONSORT ; and the Monogram consists of the 
Initials, V. A., with an anchor. This Medal is executed in 

Silver and Bronze for two classes 

of recipients. 

MEDALS and CLASPS OF 
HONOUR. Various Medals have 
been ordained and conferred for 
signal services of the Navy and 
Army : they are worn attached to 
Ribbons which vary in their 
Colours. Clasps are small bars, 
attached to the Medal-Ribbons, 
upon each of which the name of 
some particular action is inscribed. 
The Name, Rank, and Ship or 
Regiment of every recipient of a 
Medal is engraved on the Medal 
itself. "Good Service Medals" 
were instituted in 1830 : they are 
worn by seamen of the Navy and 

Marines from a blue ribbon, and by soldiers from a crimson 
ribbon. The "Crimean Medals" are worn from a 4 blue 
ribbon with yellow edges for service in the Crimea itself, and 
for service in the Baltic from a yellow ribbon with blue edges. 
Medals for service in India are worn from ribbons striped 
white and scarlet. English Medals, however honourable, as a 
prevailing rule are certainly not artistic. It is to be hoped 
that, at no distant period, they all will be made to assume 
as high a character as works of Art, as they are eminently 
distinguished in their capacity of Decorations of Honour. 




No. 441. The Albert Medal. 



INSIGNIA OF HONOUR. 295 

FOREIGN INSIGNIA, even when bestowed by Sovereign 
Princes, cannot be worn by any British subject without 
the express sanction and authority of his own Sovereign. 
In the existing state of things, it is most desirable that this 
regulation should be withdrawn ; and, in its stead, that the 
recipients of Honour Decorations bestowed by Foreign Sove 
reigns should register the fact of their having received any 
such distinction at the College of Arms, and should then 
assume the right to wear their Insignia, unless forbidden to 
do so by an express command from the Crown. 

The Foreign Decorations that now are frequently worn 
by British officers, soldiers, seamen and marines, are the 
elegant Cross of the French LEGION OF HONOUR, attached 
to a red ribbon ; and the " French Military Medal," 
attached to a yellow ribbon with green edges. The " Sar 
dinian (Italian) War Medal," suspended from a sky-blue 
ribbon. And the Badge of the Turkish ORDER OF THE 
MEDJIDIE, worn from a red ribbon having green edges. 






CHAPTER XX. 

PRECEDENCE. GENEALOGIES. 



"ORDERS and DEGREES 
Jar not with Liberty, but well consist." PARADISE LOST, Book V. 

"The use of ARMS was closely connected with the Study of GENEALOGY." 

DALLAWAY, Science of Heraldry: A.D. 1793. 



WHEN JAMES I. succeeded to the Crown of England while 
he was actually the King regnant of Scotland, and accord 
ingly became Sovereign of the two Realms, he found it 
necessary to produce a " Union Flag " for the whole of 
Great Britain, in consequence of the serious disputes for 
Precedence that arose between the natives of South and 
North Britain. Before the time of the peace-loving son of 
MARY STUART, a Sovereign of another mould, HENRY 
VIII., had felt the necessity of framing and establishing 
some definite system of Precedence amongst the various 
degrees, orders, and ranks of his subjects : and, in 1539, a 
statute to that effect was enacted. Other statutes after 
wards were added \ and, from time to time, Royal Letters 
Patent on the same subject have been issued ; and thus 
the Precedence now recognised and in use amongst us 
has been established. 

It will be observed, that tenure of office in certain cases 
constitutes actual Rank : also, that conceded Rank gives a 
fixed Precedence. 



PRECEDENCE. 297 

THE ORDER OF PRECEDENCE. 

The SOVEREIGN. 

The Prince of Wales. 
The Younger Sons of the Sovereign. 
The Grandsons of the Sovereign. 
The Cousins of the Sovereign. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Lord Chancellor. 

The Archbishop of York. 

The Archbishop of Armagh. 

The Archbishop of Dublin. 

The Lord High Treasurer : now represented by the " First 

Lord of the Treasury," popularly styled " Prime 

Minister." 

The Lord President of the Council. 
The Lord Privy Seal. 

The following GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE precede all 
Peers of their own Degree that is, if Dukes, they 
precede all other Dukes ; if Earls, all other Earls \ 
&c. : 

The Lord Great Chamberlain. 
The Lord High Constable. 
The Earl Marshal. 

The Lord Steward of the Royal Household. 
The Lord Chamberlain of the Royal Household. 
The Secretaries of State, being Peers. 

The Peers of each Degree take Precedence in their own 

Degree, according to their Patents of Creation. 
Dukes. 
Marquesses. 

Eldest Sons of Dukes. 
Earls. 

Eldest Sons of Marquesses. 



298 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Younger Sons of Dukes. 
Viscounts. 

Eldest Sons of Earls. 

Younger Sons of Marquesses. 
Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester. 
Bishops, according to Seniority of Consecration. 
Barons. 

The Speaker of the House of Commons. 
The Treasurer and the Comptroller of the Royal House 
hold. 

The Master of the Horse. 
The Secretaries of State, when not Peers. 

Eldest Sons of Viscounts. 

Younger Sons of Earls. 

Eldest Sons of Barons. 
Knights of the Garter, Thistle, and St. Patrick, not being 

Peers. 

Privy Counsellors. 
The Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 
The Lord Chief Justice of the Queen s Bench. 
The Master of the Rolls. 
The Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. 
The Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 
The Judge Ordinary. 
The Lords Justices of Chancery. 
The Vice Chancellors. 
The Judges of the Queen s Bench. 
The Judges of the Common Pleas. 
The Barons of the Exchequer. 

Younger Sons of Viscounts. 

Younger Sons of Barons. 
Baronets. 
Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath. 



PRECEDENCE. 299 

Knights Grand Commanders of the Star of India. 

Knights Grand Crosses of St. Michael and St. George. 

Knights Commanders of the various Orders. 

Knights. 

Serj eants-at-Law. 

Masters in Chancery and in Lunacy. 

Companions of the Various Orders. 

Eldest Sons of the Younger Sons of Peers. 
Eldest Sons of Baronets. 
Eldest Sons of Knights. 

Esquires to Knights of Orders. 

Esquires : Including the Eldest Sons of the Sons of 
Viscounts and Barons, the eldest Sons of all the 
younger Sons of Peers, and their eldest Sons in per 
petual Succession : the younger Sons of Baronets : 
persons holding the Queen s Commission, or who may 
be styled " Esquire " by the Queen in any Official 
Document : Members of the Royal Academy of Arts : 
Barristers at Law : Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of 
Law. 

Clergymen. 

Gentlemen. 

THE PRECEDENCE OF WOMEN 

is determined, before Marriage, by the Rank and Dignity, 
but not by the Office, of their Father. 

All the unmarried Sisters in any family have the same 
Degree, which is the Degree that their eldest Brother holds 
(or would hold) amongst men. Thus : Of the Sons of an 
Earl the eldest alone has an honorary Title of Nobility, and 
is styled " My Lord," while all the Daughters of an Earl 
have a similar honorary Title, and are styled " My Lady." 

By Marriage Women share the Dignities and Precedence 
of their Husbands : but, the strictly Official Dignity of a 



3OO ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Husband is not imparted to a Wife, as in the case of the 
Archbishops and Bishops. 

The Dignities which Ladies have by Birth or by right of 
Inheritance, are not imparted by Marriage to their Hus 
bands : nor does Marriage with an inferior in Dignity in 
any way affect the Precedence that a Lady may enjoy by 
Birth, Inheritance, or Creation both her own Precedence 
and that of her Husband remain as before their Mar 
riage. 

In the ROYAL FAMILY the following Precedence takes 
effect : 

The Princess of Wales. 

The Daughters of the Sovereign. 

The Wives of the Younger Sons of the Sovereign. 

The Wives of the Eldest Grandsons of the Sovereign. 

The Granddaughters of the Sovereign. 

The Wives of the Younger Grandsons of the Sovereign. 

The Cousins of the Sovereign. 

To whatever Precedence she may be entitled by Birth, 
the Wife of a Peer always takes her rank, and therefore 
takes her actual Precedence, from her Husband. 

The Widow of a Peer, so long as she remains a Widow, 
retains the rank she enjoyed whilst married : but, should 
she contract a second Marriage, her Precedence then is 
determined either by the rank of her second Husband, or 
by the rank that was her own by Birth and which she 
enjoyed before her first Marriage. 

The Wife of the Eldest Son of any degree precedes all 
her Husband s Sisters, and also all other Ladies having the 
same degree of rank with them. Thus : the Wife of the 
Eldest Son of an Earl takes Precedence of all Daughters of 
Earls. In actual practice, however, by a principle of Pre 
cedence that is accepted and adopted in all families of the 
same degree amongst themselves, the Sisters in every case 



GENEALOGIES. 301 

have their place immediately after the Wife of their own 
Eldest Brother. 

GENEALOGIES. 

GENEALOGIES, the Records of the Descents and Alli 
ances of Families, are necessarily associated with the 
Armorial Ensigns borne by those Families, and by the 
several Members and Branches of them. Still, it does not 
apparently follow, in the same manner, as a matter of 
necessity, that the study and investigation of Genealogies 
should be interesting and even attractive, because interest 
and attractiveness are inseparable from Heraldry. And 
yet, I do not hesitate to claim for genealogical researches 
the favourable regard of students of Armoury, on the very 
ground of the interest which they are certain to feel in such 
researches ; and also in confident reliance on that inherent 
power of attraction, inseparable from the subject itself, that 
will not fail both to win their favourable regard, and to lead 
them on from one inquiry to another. 

The very act of tracing up some eminent and illustrious 
personage, from generation to generation of his forefathers, 
noting down the alliances that have interwoven one thread 
of a brilliant line with others not less lustrous ; or, the 
reverse of this process, the following the lineage of some 
worthy of the olden time onward down the stream, observ 
ing both the tributaries that flow into the main channel and 
the streamlets that issue from it all this, when once it has 
been systematically undertaken, leads the student through 
the most picturesque regions of historical romance. 

The popular idea of Genealogy may be, that it consists 
in placing in a formal order of arrangement a series of dry 
names, connected with dates that (if it be possible) are even 
more dry. It is not uncommon to dispose of many things 
precisely in the same way, when an opinion is formed with- 



32 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

out even the slightest attempt to judge of a question by its 
true merits it is so easy to decline the trouble and to 
avoid the effort attendant on inquiry and investigation, and 
so pleasant to become the possessor of an " opinion" and 
"views," without any outlay in acquiring them. A Map 
has no value in the estimation of those who ignore Geo 
graphy : the claims of Archaeology are disregarded by all 
who are content to remain in ignorance even of what it 
implies : and History itself becomes and continues to be a 
dead letter, so long as an acquaintance is formed only with 
the exterior of its volumes. And, in like manner, Gene 
alogy appears under a very different asptct to those who 
know it only by name, and to lovers of Biography and 
History who are familiar with its lucid and yet ever sugges 
tive guidance. Without written Genealogies, who can 
clearly understand the political and historical position of 
the rival Princes of the red and white Roses ; or of HENRY 
VII. and the "last of the Plantagenets ;" or of Queens 
ELIZABETH TUDOR, MARY STUART, and JANE GREY? Or 
who, without similar aid, will follow out the fortunes of the 
Houses of BEAUCHAMP and NEVILLE and DUDLEY, and 
connect them with the existing noble lord of Warwick 
Castle; or, when reading of the DE CLARES, the DE 
BOHUNS, or the DE PERCIES, will see at a glance the con 
nection between " STRONGBOYV " and the " red Earl 
GILBERT," or will understand the significance of the white 
swan Badge of the DE STAFFORDS, or will read at sight the 
quartered Shield of the Duke of NORTHUMBERLAND, of to 
day, and will discern the line that connects the living Earl 
PERCY with the " HOTSPUR" whose fame was two centuries 
old when SHAKESPEARE wrote of him ? And further, who, 
that is unable to accomplish such things as these, can 
appreciate History, can enjoy it and apply its lessons aright? 
In arranging a Genealogy the utmost conciseness is essen- 



GENEALOGIES. 303 

tial, all details being left for full description elsewhere. All 
the members of the same family are placed side by side, on 
the same level, in their order of seniority ; and all are con 
nected by lines with one another and with their parents. 
Successive generations also, throughout all the branches of 
any family, or in allied families, have their places on the 
same levels ; and the connecting and distinguishing lines 
are continued throughout. Examples of Genealogies treated 
in the most scientific and yet simple manner, easy to be 
understood, and perfect as models for students, may be 
obtained in any Part of the "Herald and Genealogist," edited 
by Mr. J. G. NICHOLS, F.S.A., 25, Parliament Street, West 
minster. I refer to this excellent Periodical, because it is 
not possible for me here in the space at my disposal to set 
forth a really useful example of a Genealogy : and, I must 
add, because it is most desirable that students of Heraldry 
should form such an acquaintance with Mr. Nichols, as may 
be acquired through his works. " Miscellanea Genealogica et 
Heraldica," edited by Dr. J. J. HOWARD, F.S.A., is another 
bi-monthly Periodical, which ought to be in the hands of all 
Genealogists. 

In Genealogies, this mark = denotes alliance by marriage, 
and it is placed between the names of a husband and wife : 
and the lines that proceed from this mark, thus, = 

f ^ 

point out their issue. The initials S.P. (of the Latin words 
Sine Prole, " without issue ") show where a line or a branch 
ceases. Other abbreviations and signs in general use will 
suggest their own signification. 

As I began this Chapter with quotations, so with a 
quotation I conclude it. " There are some persons," writes 
Mr. LOWER, in his "Curiosities of Heraldry" (p. 292), "who 
cannot discriminate between the taste for pedigree " (or 
genealogy) "and the pride of ancestry. Now these two 



304 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

feelings, though they often combine in one individual, have 
no necessary connection with each other. Man is said to 
be a hunting animal. Some hunt foxes ; others for fame or 
fortune. Others hunt in the intellectual field ; some for 
the arcana of Nature and of mind; some for the roots 
of words, or the origin of things. I am fond of hunting out 
a pedigree." So am I. And, gentle reader, when you have 
joined the chase genealogical, I promise you, so also will 
you be. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

The College of Arms. The Lyon Office of Scotland. (1 rants of Arms. 
Tax on " Armorial Bearings " and on "Arms Found." 



" They were conspicuous for judgment, experience, learning, and elegance . 
they gained honour whenever they were employed." 

NOBLE : History of the College of Arms. 

"What is your Crest and Motto? Send name and county to s Heraldic 

Office. For plain Sketch, 33. 6d. In heraldic colours, 6s." 

MORNING NEWSPAPERS. 



I. THE HERALDS OF ENGLAND, who before had been attached 
to the Household either of the Sovereign or of some 
Personage of exalted rank, were incorporated as a Fraternity 
by RICHARD III., a Prince whose historical reputation is by 
no means in harmony with that early act of his reign, which 
has done such good service to English History the 
Foundation and Establishment of the COLLEGE OF ARMS, 
or, as it is commonly called, the HERALDS COLLEGE. 

The Letters Patent, issued for this purpose by RICHARD 
III., bear date March the 2nd, 1483, the first year of his 
reign. Very important privileges and immunities, with 
high powers and authority, were granted to the incorporated 
Heralds : and the " right fair and stately house," called 
" Pulteney s Inn," situate in the metropolitan parish of All 
Saints, was assigned to them as their permanent official 
residence. The Charter granted to the Heralds by the last 
Plantagenet Sovereign was confirmed by his successors. 

The buildings of the College were destroyed by the 



305 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

great fire of 1666 ; but all the records and documents 
fortunately escaped, having been removed to Whitehall ; 
and the edifice was subsequently re-built, chiefly at the cost 
of the Heralds themselves, as it now stands between St. 
Paul s Cathedral and the Thames. There, in the College 
of Arms, are still carefully preserved all that the early 
Heralds recorded and transmitted to our times. There, 
not the least valuable of the contents of the College, an 
unique Library is in the keeping of Guardians, who under 
stand its true uses, as they appreciate its preciousness. 
And there also the Head Quarters of English Heraldry 
are as duly established, as those of the British Army are 
at the Horse Guards in Whitehall. 

The great change that has come upon London since the 
Heralds re-built their official home, has caused the College 
of Arms now to appear out of place in its original position 
in the City. Other changes, which follow in such rapid 
succession in that busy neighbourhood, render it by no 
means improbable that the site of their College may be 
required for some great " City improvement ; " and so the 
Heralds may be constrained to establish themselves in the 
more congenial regions of the metropolitan "far west." 
This, as I am disposed to consider, is one of those con 
summations that are devoutly to be desired. 

The times have been in which Heraldry could not 
number amongst its true friends the official Heralds of the 
College of Arms : but, happily, a very different, and in 
many most important respects a thoroughly satisfactory 
condition of things now obtains at the College. So far as 
the Heralds are concerned, as a body of learned, accom 
plished, and courteous gentlemen, Heraldry now is ad 
mirably represented amongst us, and faithfully supported. 
What still is deficient in the existing constitution of the 
College of Arms, as a National Institution, is adaptation to 



COLLEGE OF ARMS. 307 

existing circumstances, sentiments, and requirements. It is 
but a truism to assert that, as a National Institution, the 
College of Arms does not fill its proper position : and, to all 
who are familiar with the facts of the case it is equally 
obvious, that this is simply because the College does not 
vindicate its indisputable title to that position which really 
is its own. 

Heraldry is decidedly popular. This popularity also 
is assuming a more practical, and at the same time a more 
enduring form, through gradually becoming the result of a 
correct appreciation of the true character of Heraldry, and 
of its intrinsic value. At a time in which people are 
beginning to feel and to admit that they ought to know 
something about Heraldry, the College of Arms ought to take 
the lead in making Heraldry still better understood, still 
more justly appreciated, still more popular. The time, 
also, is indeed come in which it is the bounden duty of the 
College of Arms to impress upon the community at large, 
that the sole source and fountain-head of authority in all 
matters armorial, under the Sovereign, centres in itself. This 
is to be accomplished by the same process, and only by the 
same process, by which the College of Arms may win for 
itself thorough popularity and universal confidence. If the 
College requires fresh or increased powers, application to 
that effect should be made to the Legislature. The 
Heraldry of Scotland, as I write, is in the act of being dealt 
with by Parliament : and it would be equally easy to obtain 
such a statute as would enable English Heraldry to do 
justice to itself, while fulfilling its own proper duties. 

Without abating or compromising in the slightest degree 
its own dignity or the dignity of Heraldry, the College of 
Arms requires to be transmuted from an exclusive into a 
popular Institution. It requires, not indeed to have its 
object and aim and system of action changed, but to have 

U 2 



308 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

them expanded, and expanded so widely as to comprehend 
all the heraldic requirements of the age. This is a subject 
of too urgent importance not to be noticed here ; but still, 
it is not possible to do more than to notice it in very 
general terms. 

Upon one specific point, however, a few plain words 
may be spoken without hesitation, and may be left by 
themselves without comment. The Fees and Charges of 
all kinds for granting, matriculating, confirming, and re 
cording the rightful possession of armorial Insignia must be 
arranged upon a perfectly fresh system, with such provisions 
and modifications as may adapt them to every variety of 
circumstance and of requirement. This is a question which 
can be regarded only from one point of view by every true 
lover of Heraldry, and consequently by every true friend of 
the College of Anns. 

II. The National Heraldic Corporation in Scotland, 
entitled the LYON OFFICE, is under the presidency of the 
Lord Lyon King of Arms. The Chief of the Scottish official 
Heralds since May, 1796, has been a Peer of that realm; 
and the duties of the office, accordingly, have been dis 
charged for seventy years by a Lyon Depute. But, on the 
death of the last Earl of KINNOUL, in February, 1866, it was 
determined to remodel in some respects the arrangements of 
the Lyon Office ; and now Mr. GEORGE BURNETT, who had 
long been " Lyon Depute," has been appointed by Her 
Majesty to be " Lyon King." The Arms of the Lyon 
Office I have already given, No. 265. 

The action of the Scottish Lord Lyon King of Arms, and 
of the Institution over which he presides, after having de 
generated from the worthy standard of earlier days, has 
revived under far happier conditions, and with prospects 
that are eminently gratifying. It may be fairly expected, 
indeed, that the most salutary results will be produced by 



LYON OFFICE. 309 

the very decided "tendency" that for some time has 
existed, " to cultivate the rules and principles of that earlier 
age, to which " writes Mr. Seton " we are indebted for a 
system of Scottish Heraldry, whose purity certainly has not 
been surpassed in any other corner of Christendom." 
These words occur in a highly interesting memoir of the 
Lyon Office, in the fourth chapter of the work entitled 
" The Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland," an able 
and admirable volume, published in 1863 in Edinburgh, 
which shows the growing popularity of a true Heraldry 
north of the Tweed, and proves that in the author, Mr. 
SETON, Scottish Heraldry possesses an advocate no less 
powerful than zealous and judicious. 

III. Arms and Armorial Insignia are granted only 
through the College of Arms in England, and through the 
Lyon Office in Scotland, in both realms with the direct sanc 
tion of the CROWN. In Ireland all Grants are made by Ulster 
King of Arms, with the sanction of the Lord Lieutenant. 

It is to be observed and kept in remembrance that, as a 
Rule, the sole right to Arms is a Grant from the College or 
the Crown, or Inheritance by lineal descent from an 
ancestor to whom a Grant was made. Some few excep 
tional cases may occur, from time to time, in which 
armorial ensigns may become lawful property, and there 
fore may be rightly borne, without either Grant or lineal 
Inheritance. These cases are strictly exceptional, and not 
to be regarded as precedents for general usage : moreover, 
in them the right and title to Arms, however obtained, is 
sanctioned and confirmed by lawful authority. 

All English "Grants" and "Confirmations of Arms" 
(Confirmations, that is, of the Claims of certain individuals 
to bear certain Arms, by some right and title duly set forth 
and approved) are formally and regularly recorded, with a 
full blazon of the insignia, at the College. 



31O ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

It is very greatly to be desired that, in addition to this 
time-honoured usage of the Heralds in making these 
records, some simple plan could be adopted for the 
periodical registration at the College of Arms of all armorial 
insignia that are borne by right. Almost equally desirable, 
also, it would be to make a corresponding registration, as 
far as it might be possible, of whatever insignia are borne 
without any right. The contents of both registers would 
form unquestionably useful publications of a periodical 
character. In connection with any such project as I have 
just suggested, it appears to me that good service might be 
rendered to the cause of true Heraldry amongst us, if 
Badges and Mottoes (without any other insignia whatever) 
were formally granted by the College, under certain con 
ditions, and at the cost of a small Fee. 

In fresh Grants of Arms, as in so many formal docu 
ments, something of the early form of Expression, with 
some traces of its piquant quaintness, are still retained. 
Very quaint indeed, and very extravagant also, is the style 
that was generally adopted by the Heralds of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, and yet characteristic of both 
the men and their times. As an example of one of these 
old documents, an example of no common interest in itself, 
I now give the Grant of Arms to JOHN SHAKESPERE, the 
Poet s father, in the year 1596. Two draft copies of the 
original Grant are preserved in the College of Arms ; the 
following transcript is printed from the later of the two 
copies, the earlier having been used to supply any word or 
passage that now is wanting in the other. The insertions 
thus obtained are printed in brackets. 

GRANT OF ARMS TO JOHN SHAKESPERE, A.D. 1596. 
To ALL and singuler Noble and Gentelmen of what estate [or] 
degree bearing arms to whom these presentes shall come, William 
Dethick alias Garter principall King of Armes sendethe greetinges. 



GRANTS OF ARMS. 311 

Know yee that, whereas by the authoritie and auncyent pryveleges 
perteyning to my office from the Quenes most excellent Mate and by 
her highnesse most noble and victorious progenitors, I am to take 
generall notice and record and to make declaration and testemonie for 
all causes of arms and matters of Gentrie thoroughe out all her Majestes 
Kingdoms, Domynions, Principalites, Isles, and Provinces, To th end 
that, as manie gentelmen, by theyre auncyent names of families, kyn- 
dredes and descentes, have and enjoye certeyne enseignes and cotes of 
arms, So it is verie expedient in all ages that some men for theyr 
valeant factes, magnanimite, vertu, dignites, and desertes, may use and 
beare suche tokens of honour and worthinesse, whereby theyre name 
and good fame may be the better knovven and divulged, and theyre 
children and posterite in all vertu (to the service of theyre Prynce and 
Contrie) encouraged. Wherefore being solicited and by credible 
report informed that John Shakespeare of Stratford uppon Avon in the 
counte of Warwik, whose parentes and late antecessors* were for 
theyre faithefull and va[leant service advaunced and rewarded by the 
most prudent] prince King Henry the Seventh of [famous memorie, 
sythence which tyme they have continewed at] those partes, being of 
good reputacion [and credit ; and that the] said John hathe maiyed 
[Mary, daughter and one of the heyrs of Robert Arden, of Wilmcote, 
in the said] counte, esquire, t In consideration whereof, and for the 
encouragement of his posterite, to whom such Blazon [or Atchevement] 
by the auncyent custome of the lawes of armes maie descend, I the said 
Garter King of Armes have assigned, graunted and by these presentes 
confirmed this shield or cote of arms, viz. Gould, on a bend sables a 
speare of the first, steeled argent ; and for his crest or cognizance a 
falcon, his winges displayed, argent, standing on a wrethe of his 
coullors, supporting a speare gould, steeled as aforesaid, sett upon a 
helmett with mantelles and tasselles as hath ben accustomed and dothe 
more playnely appeare depicted on this margent. Signefieng hereby, 
and by the authorite of my office aforesaid ratifieng, that it shalbe law- 
full for the sayd John Shakespeare gent, and for his cheldren, yssue 
and posterite (at all tymes and places convenient) to bear and make 
demonstracion of the said Blazon or Atchevement uppon theyre 
Shieldes, Targets, Escucheons, Cotes of arms, Pennons, Guydons, 
Ringes, Edefices, Buyldinges, Utensiles, Lyveries, Tombes or Monu- 
mentes, or otherwise, for all lawfull warrlyke factes or civile use and 
exercises, according to the lawes of armes, without let or interruption 
of any other person or persons for use or bearing the same. In wit- 

* Above the ivord antecessors is written Grandfather, 
t Gent, was first writien t and it is altered to esquire. 



312 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

nesse and perpetuall remembrance hereof I have hereunto subscribed 
my name, and fastened the scale of my office endorzed with the signett 
of my armes, At the Office of Armes, London, the xx. daye of October, 
the xxxviij. yeare of the reigne of our Soveraigne Lady Elizabeth, by 
the grace of God Quene of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of 
the Faythe, etc. 1596. 

Like other documents of its class, in this Grant the 
language is framed after certain regular forms ; so that it is 
to be read without that exact observance of particular 
expressions, which is rightly bestowed upon legal and 
historical records. The interest inseparable from this 
Grant is enhanced in no slight degree by the strong pro 
bability that John Shakespere made his application to the 
College of Arms by the advice and in consequence of the 
request of his son. Had the worthy Garter been able to 
divine the " dignites and desertes " of the son, he might 
possibly have employed formal language of a still more 
complimentary character, when drawing up a Grant of Anns 
for the father. 

A much more curious specimen of the heraldic style and 
form of expression (and also of the spelling) of the earlier 
clays of the Queen ELIZABETH era, is a Grant of Augmenta 
tion and Crest, by LAWRENCE DALTON, Norroy King of 
Arms, to JOHN BENNETT, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, Gentle 
man, A.D. 1560. The Preamble to this Grant, which is 
printed in full in "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica," 
(p. 48), is thus written : 

To All and Singuler as well nobles and gentles as kings herauldes 
and officers of Armes as others wch thes presentes shall see Reade or 
heare Lawrence Dalton Esquire Al s Norrey Kinge of Armes of thest 
and west p tyes of Englande fro the Ryver of trent northwarde 
Sendythe Due and humble comendacons and greatinge fforasmuche as 
awncyentlye fro the begynnynge and not w* h owt great Delyberacon 
Equitie and Reason hyt hathe byn by the moste noble and famous 
princes Constytutyd and ordeynyd that men of wysdom knoledge vertue 
and of noble lyefe and Coorage haue byn notoryowslye commendyd to 



GRANT AND CONFIRMATION OF ARMS. 313 

the Woorlde wth Sonndrye monumentes and Remembrances wih 
tokens of honnor for A testamonye of theyre good Desertes As Amonge 
the Romayns ye Erecc on of Statues and Images wth tytles and 
Appellac ons of honnour And of more latre Dayes wth the moste p te of 
nac ons bearinge of Signes and tokens in Shyldes callyd Armes wch 
be the Demonstrac ons and Evidences of noblenes vertue and woorthynes 
that to eu ry man accordinge to theyre Desertes be Dyu slye Dys- 
trybutyd Wherby such signes and tokens of the woorthye and cooragyous 
might appeare before the cowarde vnwoorthye and Ignorant Even so yt 
ys yet obs vyd that suche wch have merytyd or donne com endable 
s vice to theyre prince or countrye or by theyre woorthye and Lawdable 
lyefe Do Daylye encrease in vertue wysdom and knowledge shulde not 
be forgoten and so put in oblyvyon but rewardyd wth S om token of 
honnor for the same the Rather to move and styrre other to the 
Imytac on of lyke noblenes vertue and woorthynes ffor wch purpose 
hyt was not therefor w th owt great provydence ordeynyd and yet ys that 
there Shulde be officers and herauldes of Armes to whose office hyt 
shulde be appropryate to kepe in Regestre tharmes pedegrees and 
Descentes of nobles and gentles wth theyre woorthye and valyant actes 
and to have power and awethorytye to allowe and Ratefye vnto the 
woorthye Som awgmentac on token or Remembrance of noblenes for 
theyre seyde woorthynes And now beinge Desyryd 

And so forth, worthy Mr. Norroy having forgotten such 
" signes and tokens " as stops, while carefully showing what 
style and form it is not desirable for us to adopt, however 
excellent may be his system of building up honourable 
insignia upon a foundation of nobleness, virtue, and 
worthiness. 

I add one other early document of another kind, which 
is an excellent model for present use by the Heralds of our 
own days, the orthography having by them been duly 
corrected. 

EXAMPLE OF A CONFIRMATION OR RECORD OF ARMS : 
Theis are the anncient Armes and Creast, belonging to the name and 
famely of LEECHFORDE in the County of Surrey, descended from the 
LEECHFORDS in Buckinghamsheire. Which at the request of SR 
RICHARD LEECHFORDE of Shelwood in the County of Surrey Knight, 
I WILL M SEGAR Garter, Principall King of Armes have blasoned, and 
sett forth in coullors, according as they are here depicted in the margent. 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

Viz." (here follows a written blazon) " Testifying hereby 

the saide armoryes to belong vnto the saide S* RICHARD LEECHFORD 
and to his yssue, to vse, beare, and she we forth at all tymes, and in all 
places, at their free lib ty and pleasure. In Witnes wherof. .... 

&c. &c., with Seal and Signature, and the Date 3rd of 
JAMES I. 

I presume that an argument in support of the abolition 
of all Taxation of " Armorial Bearings," on the plea of the 
utter absurdity of a tax upon an honourable distinction, 
would be met with the reply that "Armorial Bearings" are 
taxed purely as " luxuries," and without the slightest refer 
ence to their intrinsic character. If the validity of this plea 
must be admitted, still this tax might be levied with what 
may be styled a becoming heraldic discrimination. 

For example : Arms distinguished by " Augmentations 
of Honour" might be altogether exempted ; a higher 
rate might be fixed in the case of Arms that are ensigned 
with Coronets, and that display Supporters. Arms borne 
by unquestionable right, and which are duly recorded 
at the College, might be rated at a comparatively low 
charge, certainly not to exceed five shillings a year : and a 
Badge borne alone might be rated at one-half the tax for a 
Shield of Arms with Crest or Badge. On the other hand, 
all Arms or armorial insignia borne with a very questionable 
right, or without even the pretence of any right whatever, 
might be subjected to the ordinary tax for "Armorial Bear 
ings" of their class multiplied (according to circumstances) 
by four, six, or ten. 

The tax estimated by the aid of the multiplication-table, 
that has just been suggested, would extend, under a special 
schedule possessing a high multiplying power, to any self- 
constituted " Establishment" or " Office," which, powerless 
to "grant" Arms, undertakes in consideration of a very 
trifling fee to "find," and either to "sketch" or to "colour" 



TAX ON "ARMORIAL BEARINGS." 315 

them. Exceedingly simple is the process, by means of 
which this undertaking is accomplished. It consists in 
consulting a printed Armoury; and, when the desired 
"Arms" have been "found" in its well-stored columns, they 
then at once are assigned to the applicant, in conformity 
with the comprehensive and beautifully simple theoiy, that 
all persons having the same surname and who also live (or 
were born) in the same county are equally entitled to bear 
the same Arms. Probably it does not occur to the patrons 
of advertising Heraldry-dealers, that upon precisely the 
same principle every person who has the same " name and 
county" with any officer who may be "found" in the Navy 
or the Army List, might assert a right to whatever rank and 
title such an officer may enjoy by virtue of his commission. 
The almost universal desire to possess some kind of 
armorial insignia, implies a corresponding recognition of the 
necessity to obtain them from some Institution or Personage, 
supposed to be competent and authorised both to determine 
what they should be, and to impart a right to accept and to 
assume and bear them. It rests with the Heralds of the 
College of Arms to take the initiative in a course of action, 
which would direct all aspirants for heraldic distinctions, as 
a matter of course, to their own doors. The Heralds, who 
really are Heralds, and who alone are real Heralds, may 
rely on the support of Public Opinion. If a fictitious 
Heraldry is not only prevalent, but in some sense actually 
in the ascendant, it is not because the counterfeit is pre 
ferred to the genuine, but because it is unconsciously 
mistaken for it. In very many instances, indeed, a deter 
mination to obtain " Arms " is coupled with an ignorance of 
Heraldry so complete, as to ignore the existence of any 
such thing as a Heraldry that is fictitious. 

A popular College of Arms, without any serious 
difficulty, might establish its own authority with all classes 



316 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

of the community ; and, at the same time, it would not fail 
to impress upon the public mind the very decided difference 
that exists between the heraldic and the non-heraldic accep 
tation of the expression " an escutcheon of pretence" Much 
real good would certainly result from the rude shock that 
would be given to many a complacent display of armorial 
insignia, by showing the proud blazonry to be abated with 
the baton sinister of heraldic untruth and unwarrantable 
assumption. And better still it would be to show to all who 
possess, or who desire to possess and to bear " Arms," that 
the " Pride of Heraldry " is a worthy and a noble pride, 
because it is the Pride of Truth and Right. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

MISCELLANEOUS : Coins. Seals. Heraldry in Architecture in Momi- 
ments in Ilhiminations in Encaustic Tiles. Heraldic Personal 
Ornaments, and various Heraldic Decorations. Conclusion. 



" The Spandrels over the Wall-arcading are exquisitely beautiful. . . . Those 
in the western arm contained Shields of a large number of the great men of the day. 
. . . the few which remain are nobly executed." GLEANINGS FROM WEST 
MINSTER ABBEY, by G. G. Scott, R.A. : 2nd Edition, p. 33. 



I. THE HERALDRY OF THE COINAGE, in addition to the Shields 
of Arms of successive Sovereigns, exemplifies the changes 
that have taken place in the form and adornment of the 
Crown, and it also is rich in various Badges and Devices 
having an historical significance. 

In Coins the Royal Shield is sometimes quartered by a 
cross charged upon it, as in the silver penny of EDWARD VI. 
A mediaeval ship, having a sail covered with heraldic 
blazonry, appears on the Noble a coin worthy of its name. 
A figure of the King in armour (not particularly well 
proportioned to the size of the vessel), his sword in one 
hand, and his Shield of arms in the other, is also represented 
in these fine examples of mediaeval numismatic art. A ship 
without any sail, but in its stead charged with the Royal 
Shield heightened by a Cross, forms the reverse of another 
excellent coin, the Angel, the obverse bearing a figure of ST. 
MICHAEL with his lance thrusting down the dragon. The 
Angel of EDWARD IV. on either side of the Cross has the 
initial E and the white rose of York ; and the legend is 



3 T ^> ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

PER : CRVCEM : TVA : SALVA : NOS : XTE : 
REDEMPT : ("By thy Cross save us, O Redeemer 
Christ ! "). A Crowned Rose, with a Royal Cypher, is 
another favourite device ; as in the Shilling of HENRY 
VIIL, with the legend POSVI : DE~V : ADIVTOREM : 
MEVM : ("I have placed God (before me as) my 
helper"). 

Such are a few examples of the early Heraldry of 
English Coins. More recently, and particularly in our 
own Coinage, Heraldry and Art have declined together, so 
that feeble designs, but too commonly executed with 
lamentable consistency, are associated with heraldic inaccu 
racies which continue unconnected to this day witness the 
tressureof Scotland always incorrectly blazoned on the Royal 
Shield ; and poor BRITANNIA sitting forlorn on the copper 
and bronze coinage, as if conscious of being constrained to 
display on her oval Shield an obsolete blazonry, that places 
the reign of Queen VICTORIA in the eighteenth century !* 

II. To what has been already said on the value of 
heraldic SEALS I desire here to add a few words, in the 
hope of inducing all students of Heraldry to study them 
with the most diligent care. 

Casts of fine impressions are not difficult to obtain. 
Almost every accessible fine Seal has been copied by 
Mr. Ready, of the British Museum, who supplies admirable 
casts at a very moderate cost. In like manner, Casts of 
Scottish Seals may be obtained from Mr. H. Laing, of 
Elder Street, Edinburgh. The most satisfactory casts are 
made in gutta-percha, which may be gilt by simply rubbing 

* The specimens of the existing Coinage of Europe, displayed at 
the present time in the central edifice of this year s Universal Expo 
sition, at Paris, show that if the art of the English Mint is now at a 
low ebb, the prevailing standard of numismatic art is not a single 
degree higher, the coins of France alone being in many respects an 
honourable exception to the general rule. 



SEALS. 



3*9 



a gold powder with a soft brush upon them, after slightly 
warming their surfaces. Moulds for reproducing casts or 
impressions may be made in gutta-percha ; and from these 
moulds casts, also in gutta-percha, may be obtained. The 
process is very simple : the gutta-percha, softened by im 
mersion in hot water, is pressed upon an impression in 
relief, until a perfect intaglio is formed. When this mould is 
cold and hard, it will stamp an impression upon gutta- 
percha softened in the same manner. 

I add to the examples of fine heraldic Seals that I have 




No. 442. Seal of Lord Bardolf. 

already given, the richly traceried Seal bearing the armorial 
Shield of JOHN, Lord BARDOLF, of Wormegay in Norfolk, 
about A.D. 1350 ; No. 442. This most beautiful Seal, which 
in the original in diameter is only one and one-sixth inches, 
has been somewhat enlarged in the engraving, in order to 
show the design more plainly. The arms of BARDOLF are 
Az. , three cinquefoils, or. 

The liberality and kindness of Mr. Laing enable me to 
associate with the Seal of Lord BARDOLF a small group of 
additional examples of Scottish Seals : two of them are good 



3 20 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



illustrations as well of English as of Scottish Heraldry, 
and they exemplify the usage of introducing Gothic 
traceries into the composition of Seals with Shields of 
Arms : in both these examples, however, the leading out- 





No. 443. Seal of William Mure. 



No. 444. Seal of Thomas Monypeny. 



lines only of the traceries remain, and the rich cusping 
(which is so perfect in the Seal of Lord BARDOLF) is lost. 
No. 443, the Seal of WILLIAM MURE, A.D. 1397, has a 
Shield bearing Arg., on afesse az. three mullets of the field. 
No. 444, the Seal of THOMAS 
MONYPENY, A.D. 1415, has the 
Shield couchee charged with Az., a 
chevron between three crosses-crosslets 
fitchee issuing from as many cres 
cents arg. : the Crest, on a helm, 
is a bird, probably a popinjay or 
parrot. The Seal of RICHARD 
STUART, No. 445, probably about 

No, 44S.-Seal of Richard Stuart. ^^ ^^ ^ compared with NQ< 

414, p. 258 : in the smaller and earlier example, the solitary 
individual who represents the crew may be assumed to be 
Richard Stuart himself; his vessel displays two banners 
which are evidently affected by contrary currents of air, 
aaid a pennon. 




SEALS. 321 

The noble Seal, No. 446, engraved from a most perfect 
impression recently discovered appended to a document in 
the guardianship of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, 
represents its illustrious owner, THOMAS DE BEAUCHAMP, 
K.G., third Earl of WARWICK, in armour, with his shield 
and jupon charged with the armorial insignia of Beauchamp, 
(gu., afcsse between six crosses crosslets or], and with the same 
insignia repeated upon the bardings of the charger upon 
which the Earl is mounted. The engraving of the Seal 
itself appears on the Frontispiece to this Volume : and the 
Counter-Seal, one of the most beautiful and most perfect 
examples in existence of the early seal-engraver s art, is here 
represented in No. 447. The Shield displayed on this 
Counter-seal is charged only with the Arms of the NEW- 
BURGHS (chequee or and az., a chevron erm.), from whom the 
Earldom of Warwick passed by inheritance to the House of 
Beauchamp. The inscription is commenced on the Seal, 
No. 446, and continued on the Counter-seal, No. 447, and 
is as follows : S : THOE : COMITIS : WARRWYCHIE : 
ANNO ^ REGNI : REGIS : E : T CII : POST : CO- 
QVESTV : ANGLIE : SEPTIO : DECIO : ET : REGNI : 
SVI : FRANCIE : QVARTO " The Seal of Thomas, 
Earl of Warwick, in the seventeenth year of the reign of 
King Edward III. (of that name) after the Conquest of 
England, and the fourth of his reign over France." Thus, 
the date of the execution of this fine Seal is the year 1344. 
The Earl himself died in 1369. 

A second Beauchamp Seal is also represented in the 
Frontispiece. This is the Seal of RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP, 
K.G., fifth Earl of WARWICK, who died in the year 143 9. 
The Heraldry in this example is particularly interesting. 
The Shield, charged with Newburgh and Beauchamp quar 
terly, is couchee from the helm of the Earl which is en- 
signed with his coronet and crest ; and on either side is 

v 



322 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



a bear with a ragged staff, the famous Badges of the BEAU- 
CHAMPS : No. 448. The Inscription is SIGILL : RIC : 
DE : BELLO : CAMPO : COMIT : WARWICII " The 
Seal of Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick" (see 
pages 231 and 246). 




No. 447. Counter-Seal of Earl Thomas de Beauchamp : A.D. 1344. 

At the present time the popularity of English Heraldry 
extends, beyond the realm of England and the entire British 
Empire, to the United States of America, where a very 
great interest in the Herald s Art is both felt and expressed. 
And a remarkable illustration of this popularity of Heraldry 
with the great nation who speak our language on the other 



SEALS. 



323 



side of the Atlantic, is shown at Boston by the publication 
in that city of a very able and well illustrated periodical 
devoted exclusively to matters connected with Heraldry and 
Genealogy : and also by a gentleman of the same city, Mr. 
W. H. WHITMORE, having very recently published there a 
well-written, handsome, and copiously illustrated volume, 
conceived in the true heraldic spirit, entitled " Elements of 
Heraldry ; with an Essay upon the Use of Coat-Armour in 
the United States." The concluding Chapter of this singu 
larly interesting work is devoted to " Heraldry in America," 
and it commences with a description, accompanied by fac 
simile wood-cuts, of a number of the Seals of Anns which 
the original settlers in New England took over with them 






Ex. i. 



Ex. 2. 



Ex. 3. 



from the mother country. The courteous kindness of Mr. 
Whitmore has enabled me to insert a few of his examples, 
which, while characteristic of the debased Heraldic art of 
the seventeenth century, form a little group of Seals that 
have peculiar claims of their own upon our regard. The 
original Seals (of which he has engraved twenty-nine 
examples), Mr. Whitmore informs us, " were all un 
deniably engraved in England." 

Example i. Seal of SAMUEL, son of Governor RICHARD 
BELLINGHAM, used in 1650: it bears the arms of the 
Lincolnshire family of that name Sa., three bugle-horns ar%. 

Ex. 2. From the Will of Governor THOMAS DUDLEY, 
A.D. 1654. 

v 2 



324 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



Ex. 3. Arg., a chevron between three leverets coitrant sa. : 
the Seal of Governor JOHN LEVERETT, also of an old 
Lincolnshire family. 

Ex. 4. Arg., a Cross between four escallops sa. : from 




Ex. 4. 



Ex. 5 





Ex.6. 



Ex. 7. 



the Seal of JOHN COGGESHALL, of Rhode Island, first 
President under the patent of 1647-48, c. A descendant 
of an English family long seated in Essex. 

Ex. 5. From the Seal of JOHN LEVERETT, of Cambridge, 



SEALS. 325 

in the United States, grandson of Governor LEVERETT. who 
on his tombstone is styled " armiger." 

Ex. 6. From the Seal of Governor PEPPERELL. 

Ex. 7. Arg., three crescents barry und ee az. and gu. ; 
Crest, a Stork rising, ppr. From the Seal of Governor 
JOHN HAYNES, originally of Copford Hall, Lexden 
Hundred, in the County of Essex. 

III. In GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE Heraldry is always a 
consistent, beautiful, and most effective accessory. Indeed, 
so thoroughly is the spirit of Heraldry in harmony with the 
great Architecture which grew up in the middle ages, that 
Heraldry must be considered rather as an element of its 
nature than as an allied Art. Gothic Architecture is 
essentially heraldic ; and hence, as well as from its elastic 
nature and its equally consistent and happy applicability to 
every use and requirement, it is peculiarly appropriate as our 
own national style. 

From the earliest years of its existence as a definite 
Science, Heraldry is found to be most intimately associated 
with the Gothic Architecture of England : and happy it 
was for the early Heralds, that in their days the English 
Gothic was at work in the full strength of its first maturity. 
And this alliance was never interrupted, or permitted to 
decline from its original cordiality. As long as the Gothic 
flourished, Heraldry held its own place in Architecture. 
And in the finest works that exist amongst us, relics of the 
grand Gothic Ages of English Architecture, Heraldry is ever 
present to adorn them with its graphic records. In the 
spandrels of arcades, in panels, upon bosses in vaulting, in 
stained glass, in encaustic floor-tiles, and indeed in almost 
every position in which such ornamentation could be 
admissible, the early Herald is found to have been the 
fellow-worker with the early Gothic architect. Gothic 
Architecture, .accordingly, has preserved for us very noble 



326 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

collections and specimens of the most valuable illustrations 
of our national Heraldry. Canterbury and York Cathedrals, 
and the Abbey Churches of Westminster and St. Alban s, 
with the Chapel of King s College, Cambridge, are 
especially rich in heraldic treasures : and Westminster Hall 
and the northern Castles of Alnwick and Warkworth may be 
specified as noble examples of secular Architecture, which 
retain their heraldic enrichments. 

IV. Gothic MONUMENTS, and in common with them 
their successors of the Renaissance era, abound in every 
variety of armorial blazonry. And fine examples of 
heraldic Monuments are no less abundant, than are the 
Shields and other insignia that appear on particular 
memorials. The principles which directed the selection of 
Shields to be introduced into the composition of early 
Monuments are worthy of careful consideration : and the 
same remark is no less applicable in the case of Architecture. 
I must be content to specify a very small group of heraldic 
Monuments of especial interest and value. In Westminster 
Abbey : the Monuments of Queens ALIANORE of Castile, 
PHILIPPA of Hainault, ELIZABETH TUDOR, and MARY 
STUART ; the Monuments of King EDWARD III. and King 
HENRY VII. ; and those of ALIANORE DE BOHUN, Duchess 
of GLOUCESTER, the Countess of LENNOX, the Countess of 
DERBY, the two De VALENCES, Earls of Pembroke, 
EDMUND, Earl of Lancaster, Lord BOURCHIER, and Sir 
GILES DAUBENEY, K.G. In Canterbury Cathedral : the 
Monuments of the BLACK PRINCE, and of HENRY IV. and 
JOANNA of Navarre. In Salisbury Cathedral : the Monu 
ment of Earl WILLIAM LONGESPEE. In St. Alban s Abbey 
Church : the Monuments of HUMPHREY, Duke of GLOU 
CESTER, and of the Abbots WHEATHAMSTEDE and RAMRYGE. 
Also, other fine Monuments in the Churches at Elsyng in 
Norfolk, Ewelme and Northleigh in Oxfordshire, King s 



ILLUMINATIONS PAVING TILES COSTUME. 327 

Langley in Hertfordshire, and Cobham in Kent ; in 
Beverley Minster, and in the Beauchamp Chapel at 
Warwick. 

V. In the ILLUMINATIONS of the Middle Ages Heraldry 
has a place of honour : and in the revival of that early 
Art, which is held in such high estimation at the present 
day, Heraldry ought to occupy a position of corresponding 
prominence. This implies in the Illuminators of to-day 
some knowledge of Heraldry, and at least some degree of 
familiarity with good early examples. I venture to suggest, 
therefore, to students of Illumination the study both of the 
Herald s Art and his Science, as no unimportant part of 
their preparation for the practice of the Art of Illumina 
tion on the principle of the sagacious maxim of a great 
modern painter, quoted by Mr. RUSKIN in his " Seven 
Lamps of Architecture " " Know what you have to do. 
and then do it." 

VI. In the ornamentation of early ENCAUSTIC or INLAID 
PAVEMENT TILES, Shields of Arms and various heraldic 
devices frequently occur: and in many examples the Shields 
of Arms are arranged with much skill and in excellent taste, 
to form decorative compositions in combination with foliage 
and traceries. Numerous heraldic Tiles of a very interesting 
character remain in the Cathedrals of Worcester, Gloucester, 
and Exeter ; and in the Churches of Great Malvern, King s 
Langley, the Abbey Church of St. Alban, and many others. 
The student will observe that the devices upon these Tiles 
are frequently reversed, evidently the result of the neglect to 
reverse the designs upon the original dies or stamps. 

VII. Heraldic blazonry was highly esteemed in the 
middle ages as a becoming decoration for PERSONAL COS 
TUME. The Knights wore their Coats of Arms, and they 
carried and used their Shields of Arms, and their armorial 
insignia were displayed upon their weapons and upon the 



328 ENGLISH HERALDRY. 

various accessories of their personal equipment. The 
Ladies adapted this usage to their own Costume, and they 
also wore Mantles and Dresses of Arms ; and many of their 
personal ornaments were strictly heraldic. Without even 
suggesting now to our Ladies any revival of heraldic cos 
tume, properly so called such as dresses, mantles, or 
shawls emblazoned with the bearings of armorial shields I 
certainly do desire to see Heraldry exercising a powerful 
influence in all designs for personal ornaments, the works of 
the goldsmith and the jeweller more especially. Badges 
also may supply the motive for designing many patterns 
that are to adorn fabrics used for costume : and, in like 
manner also, the designs woven into carpets, curtains, and 
various other fabrics may be derived with the greatest 
advantage from the same source. The loom is employed 
in blazoning heraldic insignia in white damask : why should 
it not work, under judicious and cautious guidance, in silk 
and velvet, in satin and every woollen fabric ?* 

It must be understood, however, that heraldic orna 
ments and devices, unless they be of such a character that 
they are universally applicable, must have a reference to the 
wearer, or they degenerate at once into heraldic parodies. 
Personal ornaments, costume, furniture, if heraldic, must 
display devices that have a significance as well as a beauty : 
such costume and ornaments must be, not "becoming" 
only to the wearer, but (in the heraldic acceptation of that 
term) " belonging" also. And so in every instance. 

For purposes of universal decoration and adornment, 
Heraldry is no less applicable now than when EDWARD III. 

* I have lately seen a design for the embroidery of a dress for a 
young lady of the Clan CAMPBELL ; its characteristic features are 
the Scottish Thistle and the Myrtle, the latter the Badge of the 
Campbells. I may express my approval of the motive of this design : 
others, as I have reason to believe, have approved the treatment ol it. 



HERALDIC DECORATION. 329 

or HENRY IV. reigned in England. Happily, a taste for 
furniture and all the appliances of every day life in the 
Gothic style is gradually becoming prevalent ; and this is 
inseparable from the use of Heraldry for the purposes of 
ornamentation. I presume that the fallacy of regarding the 
Gothic style of Art as exclusively ecclesiastical in its asso 
ciations and uses, or as no less necessarily inseparable from 
mediaeval sentiments and general usages, is beginning to 
give way to more correct views, as the true nature of the 
Gothic and its original universal employment are better 
understood. I consider it to be unnecessary for me, there 
fore, to enter here, in support of my own sentiments, into any 
detailed explanations to show that the revival of a Style of 
Art which flourished in bygone ages, and with it the revival 
of Heraldry as it was invented and grew into its early 
dignity and popularity, are in no way or degree whatever 
connected with an implied return to the mode of life of 
four, five, or six centuries ago. We have used Roman and 
even what we intended to be Greek Architecture in nine 
teenth-century England ; we are still in the habitual use of 
Roman and Greek designs for every variety of decoration ; 
and of late we have added Egyptian and Scandinavian 
works of Art to the deservedly prized collections of models, 
that we have formed for the express purpose of imitating 
them : and yet we do not consider that we thus in any way 
bind ourselves to adopt Roman, or Greek, or Egyptian, or 
Scandinavian costumes or customs ; nor in our use of the 
Arts of Antiquity do we perceive any demonstration of 
retrogression in ourselves. 

It is the same with Mediaeval Heraldry and Gothic Art. 
We may apply to our own times, our own uses, our own 
delight, what the old Heralds and the Gothic Artists have 
taught us, without even dreaming of wearing armour or re 
establishing the feudal system. True Heraldry (for it is 



330 



ENGLISH HERALDRY. 



with Heraldry that I am now more especially concerned) is 
a Science, and it also is an Art, for all time for our times, 
and for future times, as well as for the times that are past. 
If we understand and appreciate it, we shall not fail to 
use and to apply it aright. 

From the initial-letter of my 
first Chapter I suspended the 
Shield borne by that Sir WALTER 
SCOTT, of Abbotsford, whose name 
will ever be a household word with 
every lover of what is chivalrous 
and knightly. Here, at the end of 
this my last Chapter, I place the 
Seal, No. 449, of an earlier Sir 
WALTER SCOTT, of Branxholm and 
Kirkurd a Knight of another 
branch of the same distinguished House, who differenced 
the Shield of Scott so as to bear Or, on a bend azure a 
mullet and two crescents gold. 




No. 449. 

Seal of Sir WALTER SCOTT, of 
Branxholm and Kirkurd : A.L>. 
1529. (Laing.) 




GENERAL INDEX. 



Abated. Abatement, 100, 213. 

Abbotsford, i, 330. 

Aberdeen, Earl of; Arms, 68. 

Abergavenny, Earl of; Arms, 191. 

Accoll^e, 100. 

Accosted, 100. 

Accrued, 82, 100. 

Achievement, Achievement of Arms, 

100. 

Addorsed, 87, 100. 
Admirals, 264; "Admiral of England," 

258. 

Admiralty, Flag of, 264. 
./Eschylus, 7. 
Affrontee, 100. 

Aggroupment of Arms, 161, 167. 
Agnes de Percy ; Seal, 164. 
Agnus Dei, as a Badge, 148, 284. 
Alant, Aland, 100. 
Albemarle, Earl of; Supporters, 02. 
Albert, H.R.H., The late Prince See 

Prince Consort. 
Albert Medal, 293. 
Alerion, 96, 100. 

Alianore de Bohun. See Bohun. 
Alianore of Aquitaine ; Arms, 268. 
Alianore of Castile and Leon ; Arms, 

166, 169 ; Monument, 326. 
Alianore. Daughter of Edward I., 77. 
Alice of Hesse, H.R. H., The Princess, 

280. 
Alliance. Heraldic Record of, 162, 

167 ; Feudal, 200. 
Allusive Heraldry, 15. 
Alnwick Castle, 326. 
Alphabet, the Letters of the, in 

Heraldry, 136. 
Aluminium, 47. 
Ambulant. 100. 
America, Heraldry in, 322. 
Angels, Heraldic figures of, 75; as 

Supporters, 75, 247. 
Angio-Saxon Shields and Standards, 

5,56. 

Anglo-Saxon Sovereigns, Arms at 
tributed to the, 19, 268. 
Anjou, Geoffrey, Count of, 192. 
Anjou, Queen Margaret of, 97. 
Annandale, Arms in, 204. 
Anne Boleyn, Queen, 236. 



Anne Stuart, Queen, 262 ; Arms, 269, 
271 ; Badge, 237 ; Motto, 274. 

Annulet, Annulett^e, 72, 101, 120 ; in 
Modern Cadency, 198. 

Antelope, 101. 

Anthony, Saint ; his Cross, 101, 156. 

Antique Crown, 101. 

Anvers, Sir T. de ; Arms, 209. 

Appaum^e, roi. 

Aquitaine; Arms, 268. 

Archbishop, 101; Marshalling his Arms, 
177. 

Archdeacon, L Ercedeckne ; Arms, 

202. 

Arched, Archy, 101. 

Arderne, Sir J. ; Arms, 207. 

Argent, 40, 47, 101. 

Argyll, Duke of ; Supporters, 92. 

Arm, Armed, 80, 101, 102. 

Armagh, See of; Arms, 142. 

" Armes Parlantes," 16, 76, 102. 

Armorial Bearings, 38, 102; Tax on, 
314- 

Armory, 2, 101. 

Arms, Shields and Coats of, 3 ; Ag 
groupment of, i6t ; Attributed, 18 ; 
Combination of, 161 ; of Community, 
102 : of Dominion, 102 ; of Heiress 
and Co-heiress, 174, 176; of Herald 
Kings, 177 ; of Husband and Wife, 
171, 175; of Knight, 177; of Office, 
192 ; of Peeress in her own right, 
177; of Prelate, 177; of Pretension, 
102 ; of Royal Personages, 178, 267 ; 
of Succession, 102 ; of Unmarried 
Lady, 176; of Widow and Widower, 
176. 

Arms, Grants and Confirmations of, 

" Arms found," 314. 

Armoyee, 102. 

Arragon, Queen Catherine of; Arms, 

236. 

Arrondie, 102. 
Arrow, 102. 

Art, Heraldic, 24, 27, 330. 
Art, Gothic, 329. 
Artificial Figures and Devices in 

Heraldry, 80. 
Arthur, H.R.H., The Prince, 279. 



332 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Arthur Plantagenet, 195. 

Arthur Tudor, The Prince; Badge, 

238. 

Arundel ; Arms, 17, 209. 
Arundel, Fitz Alans, Earls of, 89, 195, 

222. 
Arundel, Thomas Fitz Alan, Earl of, 

iiS. 

Anindel, Radnlphus de ; Arms, 196. 
Arundel, the Baron : Supporters, 92. 
Ascmia, Bernhard of, 113. 
Ascendant, 102. 
Ashton ; Badge, 148. 
Ashwelthorpe ; Monument, 223. 
Aspect, Aspectant, 102. 
Aspersed, 102. 
Asscheby (Ashby), Sir R. de j Arms, 

209. 

At ga/e, 81, 102 ; At speed, 81. 
Athole, Duke of; Supporters, 92. 
Attires, Attired, 81, 102. 
Attributed Arms, 18. 
Aulernoun, Sir J. d ; Pennon and 

Arms, 144, 254. 

Augmentation, Augmented, 102, 103. 
Augmentations of Honour, 210; by 

" Royal Favour," 212. 
Austria, The Emperor of, 97. 
Avellane, 57, 103. 
Aventinus, 6. 
Azure, 41, 47, 103. 

Badge, 103, 179, 227 ; Varieties of, 
228, 229 ; Examples of, 231, 249 ; 
marked for Cadency, 198, 233 ; in 
Seals, 168, 232 ; peculiarly appro 
priate for present use, 234 ; to super 
sede Cre-sts, 225, 234 ; borne by 
Ladies, 234; in Modern Heraldry, 
310. 

Badge, of Ostrich Feathers, 237; of 
Garter, 286 ; of Thistle, 287 ; of St. 
Patrick, 289 ; of Bath, 290, 291 ; of 
Star of India, 292. 

Badlesmere, Sir B. de ; Arms, 208. 

Balliol ; Arms, 66 ; Sir Alexander de, 
Seal, 104, 217. 

Balliol College, Oxford, 66. 

Banner, Armorial, 3, 103. 255 ; blazon 
ing of, 39 ; made on field of Battle, 
256 ; Royal, 275 ; marked for Ca 
dency, 198, 257 ; on Seals, 247 ; at 
Sea, 257 ; of Leicester, 14 ; of Tem 
plars, 13, 284. 

Banneret, 103 ; creation of, 256. 

Bar, 51, 103 : examples of, 208. 

Barbarossa, The Emperor, 113. 

Barbed, 103. 

Barbel, 77, 103. 

Barded, Barding, 39, 103, 218. 

Bardolf; Arms, 186; John Lord, 319. 

Barkele. See Berkeley. 

Barnacles, Breys, 103. 

Baron, Baroness, 104. 

Baronet, 104. 



Barre, de ; Arms, 103, 165 ; Joan de, 

165, 232 ; Henry de, 165 ; Joaa 

de, 77. 

Barrulee, 52, 105. 
Barrulet, 52, 105, 186. 
1 arry, 52, 103. 
Barry bendy, 60, 105. 
Bars Gemelles, 52, 103. 
Bar-wise, 53, 105. 
Base, 33, 105. 
Basilisk, 105. 
Basinet, 105, 225. 
Basingborne, Wm. de ; Arms, 70. 
Bassett ; Arms, 63. 
Bat, in Heraldry, 79. 
Bath Herald, 132. 
Bath, Order of the, 289 ; Knights of, 

290; Companions of, 290; Insignia 

of, 290 ; Stalls of Knights, 291. 
Bath, Marquess of, 92. 
Baton, 105 : Sinister, 195. 
Battled, Battled Embattled, 105. 
Bayeux Tape- try, 5. 
Beacon, Fire Beacon, 105. 
Beaked, 105. 
Bear, in Heraldry, 76 ; Bear and 

Ragged Staff, 228, 321. 
Bearer, 105, 246. 
Eeirings, Armorial Bearings, 38, 105. 

See Arms. 

Beasts, in Heraldry, 76. 
Beatrice, H.R.H., The Princess, 279. 
Beauchamp, Earl Richard de, 168, 

175 214, 321; his Badges, 228; at 

Jousts at Calais, 231. 
Benu^hamp, Earl Thomas de, 173, 321, 

322. 
Beauchnmp, of Warwick ; Arms, 173, 

175, 188; Badges, 147. 
Beauchamp, of Bletshoe ; Arms, iS. 
Beauchamp, of Elmley; Arms, 187. 
Beauchamp, at Carlaverock; Arms, 

188. 

Beauchamp ; Differences, 191. 
Beauchamp Chapel, the, at Warwick, 

173, 191, 327. 
Beaufort ; Arms and Differences, 194, 

197 ; Badge, 145, 240. 
Beaufort, Margaret de, 173, 174, 240. 
Beaufort, John de, 193, 194, 242. 
Beaufort, Henry de, 193. 
Beaumont, Bishop Lewis de; Effigy 

and Arms, 162. 
Beaumont, Sir J. ; Crest, 223. 
Beau-seant, 13, 284. 
Bee, Bishop Anthony, 56. 
Beckyngton, Bishop ; Rebus, 148. 
Bedford, Isabelle, Countess of, 230. 
Bedford, John, Duke of, 185. 
Bedford, the Duke of ; Supporters, 92. 
Bees, in Heraldry, 79. 
Beeston, Arms, 79. 
Bellingham, Richard ; Seal, 323. 
Bend, 58, 105 ; Examples, 207 ; Sinis 
ter, 60. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



333 



Bendlet, 58, 105; in Cadency, 186 ; 

Sinister, 196. 

Bend-wise, In Bend, 59, 105. 
Bendy, 59, 105. 

Bennett, John ; Grant of Arms to, 312. 
Bere, Sir R. de la ; Crest, 212. 
Berkeley ; Arms, 188, 202, 249 ; Badge, 

139, 232, 249: Crest, 139, 249. 
Berkeroles, Sir Wm. de ; Arms, 207. 
Bermyngham, Sir Wm. de ; Arms, 

267. 

Bernhard, of Ascania, 113. 
Beverley Minster, 27, 107, 162, 327. 
Bezant, 71, 105; Bezantee, 72. 
Bilbesworth, Sir H. de ; Arms, 97. 
Billet, Billett^e, 64, 70, 106. 
Birds, in Heraldry, 76, 106. 
Bird-bolt, 102, 106. 
Bishop, 106, 177. 
Black Prince. See Edward. 
Blasted, 82, 106. 
Blazon, 31, 106 ; Epithets and Terms 

in, 80, 106. 
Blazoning, 31, 39, 45, 106 ; Descriptive, 

46, 106 ; in Tinctures, 47. 
Blazonry, 31, 106. 

Blondeville, Ranulph de; Arms, 201. 
Blue Ensign, 264. 
Bluemantle, 131. 
Bluet, Sir Wm. ; Arms, 209. 
Blundell ; Arms, 65. 
Blyborough, Monument at, 107. 
Boar, in Heraldry, 106; Boars Head, 

76. 

Bohemia, the King of, 237. 
Bohun, De, Earl of Hereford ; Arms, 
59, 90 ; Crest, 91 ; Badge, 155, 168, 
.259, 

Bohun, Alianore de, 165, 173, 326. 
Bohun, Mary de, 155. 
Bohun, Earl Humphrey de, 59, 84. 
Bohun, Sir Gilbert de, 59. 
Bohun, Oliver de, 165, 207, 232. 
Boleyn, Queen Anne ; Arms, 213, 236. 
Bolingbroke, the Viscount j Sup 
porters, 99. 

Bologne, Godfrey de, 97. 
Bordet, Sir R. ; Arms, 208. 
Bordoun, Sir J. ; Arms, 17, 107, 142. 
Bordure, 68, 106 ; Examples, 26, 185 ; 
Quartered and Impaled, 173 ; Com- 
ponde, 196 ; Engrailed, 197 ; of 
France, 124. 

Bostock, Hugo; Arms, 97. 
Boston, United States; Works on 

Heraldry published at, 323. 
Boterels, Sir R. de ; Arms, 209. 
Botiler, Le ; Arms, 50, 58, 115. See 

Butler. 

Botone e, Botony, 56, 106. 
Bottetourt ; Arms, 249. 
Bottreaux, Margaret ; Seal, 248. 
Bouget, Water Bouget, 107. 
Bourchier, Lord ; Arms, 248, 326. 
Bourchier, Sir H. de; Arms, in, 223. 



Bourchier Knot, 107, 134. 

Bourdon, 17, 107. 

Bow, Bowed, 107. 

Bowen Knot, 107, 134. 

Braced, Brazed, 107. 

Bradestone, Sir T. de ; Arms, 230. 

Brey, Sir Reginald de ; Badge, 60, 104. 

Brays, 107. 

Brian, Bryan. Sir Guy de ; Arms, 62. 

Brittany ; Arms, 14, 169. 

Brittany, John, Duke of, 166. 

Brivere, Sir W. de ; Badge, 136. 

Brizure, 107. 

Bromesgrove, 225. 

Bronscombe, Bishop, 126. 

Broom-plant, 17. 

Brouchant, 107. 

Brownlow, the Earl ; Supporters, 92. 

Bruce, de ; Arms, 164, 204. 

Bruce, Margaret, Lady de Ros ; Seal, 

164. 

Bruce, King Robert de, 151. 
Bruce, Robert de, Earl of Carrick ; 

Seal, 231. 

Brunswick ; Arms, 272. 
Brus, Sir Bernard de ; Arms, 50. 
Buccleuch, Duke of; Difference, 195. 
Buckingham, Duke of; Supporters, 92. 
Buckle. See Fermail. 
Burgh, de ; Arms, 167. 
Burgh, Elizabeth de; Aims, 167. 
Burgh, Hubert de; Arms, 69. 
Burgh, William de ; Arms, 167. 
Burgonet, 107. 

Burke, Sir B. ; his " Peerage," 98. 
Burnett, George, Esquire, Lord Lyon, 

308. 

Burton, Abbot; Rebus, 148. 
Butterflies, in Heraldry, 79. 
Buttons, Heraldic, 229. 
Byron; Arms, 119. 

Cabossed, 81. 

Cadency, 107, 180 ; Marked, 182 ; 
Marks of, 182, 188 ; by Label, 1^2 ; 
by Bordure, 185, 196; by Bendiet, 
186, 194 ; by Canton, 186, 195 ; by 
Change of Tinctures, 186; by 
Change of Charges, 186 ; by Small 
Charges, 187; by Official Insignia, 
189 ; by Single Small Charge, 190 ; 
of Illegitimacy, 192; Marked on 
Badges, Banners, Crests, Mant- 
lings, Standards, and Supporters, 
198, 233, 257 ; Modern, 198. 

Cadency, King Richard II. on, 207. 

Cadet, 107. 

Calais, Citizens of, 205. 

Calf, 76. 

Caltrap, 107. 

Calvary Cross, 55. 

Calveley ; Arms, 76. 

Cambridge, H.R.H., The Duke of, 
280 

Camden, 237. 



334 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Camoys, Eliz., Lady, 173. 

Camoys, Thos., Lord de, in, 173- 

Camoys, The Baron ; Supporters, 92. 

Campbell ; Arms, 70 ; Badge, 328. 

Canterbury ; Arms of See, 142 ; Arms 
of Deanery, 136; Archbishop of, 
101 : Heraldry of the Cathedral, 
244, 326. 

Canterbury, Wm. de Courtenay, Arch 
bishop ot, 189. 

Canting Heraldry, 16, 108. 

Canton, Cantoned, 64, 108 ; in Ca 
dency, 185, 195. 

Canvyle, Sir G. de ; Arms, 210. 

Caple, Sir R. de ; Arms, 209. 

Carbuncle. See Escarbuncle. 

Carew, Sir Nicholas ; Arms, 89. 

Carlaverock, Roll of, 12, 267. 

Carlisle, Earl of; Supporters, 92. 

Carnarvon, Earl of ; Supporters, 92. 

Carrick, Earl of, 231 ; Earldom of, 276. 

Cartouche, 37, 108. 

Castile and Leon ; Arms, 17, 102, 169. 

Castile and Leon, Queen Alianore of, 
169. 

Castile and Leon, Ferdinand III., 
King of, 169 ; Pedro, King of, 257. 

Castle, 102, 108. 

Castle-acre Priory, 44. 

Catherine, Queen, of Arragon, 236. 

Catherine Parr, Queen, 236. 

Cavalry Standards, 264. 

Cave; Motto, 139. 

Cavendish ; Motto, 140. 

Celestial Crown, 108. 

Centaur, Sagittarius, 108, 267. 

Cercelde, Recercetee, 56, 108. 

Chaffinch, 77. 

Champagne; Arms, 124. 

Chandos, Sir R. de, 62 ; Sir John, 256. 

Chapeau, 108, 220, 222. 

Charge, 38, 109; Miscellaneous, 70; 
Secondary, 187 : Single Sma.l, 190. 

Charlemagne ; his Crown, 272. 

Charles I., 195, 286; Arms, 269; 
Badge, 236 ; Crown, 275. 

Charles II., 104, 197, 212, 287; Arms, 
269; Badge, 236. 

Charles V., of France, 78, 125. 

Charlestone, Sir J. ; Arms, 96. 

Charteris ; Motto, 140. 

Chastillon; Arms, 166, 172; Guy de, 
1 66. 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 206. 

Cha worth, De ; Arms, 167 ; Matilda 
de, Seal, 167. 

Chequee, Cheeky, 43, 109. 

Chess-rook, 109. 

Chester, County Palatine of, 201 ; 
Arms, 201, 276; Ranulph, Earl of, 
201 ; Prince of Wales, Earl of, 201, 
276. 

Chester Herald, 131. 

Chevron, Chevronel, Chevronnee. 
Chevrony, 61, 109 ; Examples, 209. 



Chief, 33, 49, 109 ; Examples, 207. 

Childrey, Brass at, 156. 

Chivalry, High Court of, 206 ; Order 
of, 283. 

Cholmondeley ; Motto, 140. 

Christchurch, Oxford, 243. 

Church-Bell. See Bell. 

Cinquefoil, 109. 

Cinque Ports ; Arms, 171. 

Civic Crown, 109. 

Clare, De ; Arms, 61, 175, 202 : 
Badge, 109. 

Clare, Gilbert de, the " Red Earl," 96. 

Clare, in Suffolk, 202. 

Claremont Nesle ; Arms, 172. 

Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, 167, 184. 

Clarence, Thomas, Duke of, 185. 

Clarenceux, 109, 131 ; Arms, 132. 

Clarendon, Sir Roger de ; Arms, 195. 

Clarendon, the Earl of; Supporters, 99. 

Clarion, 109. 

Clasps, 294. 

Clechtfe, Urde, 57, 109. 

Cleveland, Duke of; Difference, 195. 

Clifford, Lord, 50. 

Clintone, Clinton, Sir J. de, 50,207; of 
Maxtoke, 207 ; Badge, 231. 

Close, no, 116. 

Closed, 81. 

Closet, 52, no. 

Cloude, 71, no. 

Coat of Arms, 3, no, 327. 

Coat Armour, no. 

Cobham Monuments, 327. 

Cockatrice, 79, no. 

Cockayne ; Arms, 76. 

Coggeshall, John ; Seal, 324. 

Co-Heiress; Arms, 174. 

Coinage, Heraldry of the, 317. 

Coleville, Sir R. de ; Arms, 208. 

Collar, no, 131 ; of the Garter, 286; 
of the Thistle, 288 ; of St. Patrick, 
289 ; of the Bath, 291 ; of the Star 
of India, 293. 

College of Arms. See Heralds 
College. 

Colour, 40, 47, in. 

" Colours," in, 265. 

Combattant, 87, in. 

Combination of Arms, 161, 168. 

Compartment, in. 

Complement, in. 

Compon^e, Compony, 43,111; Bordure, 
196. 

Compound Badges, 134. 

Compound Quartering, 34, in. 

Compounded Arms, 111, 161, 168. 

Confessor, the, 212. See St. Edward. 

Confirmation of Arms, 309 ; Ex 
ample. 313. 

Conjoined m Lure, lit. 

Consort, H.R.H., The late Prince; 
Arms, 275; Difference, 275 ; Coronet, 
276, 294; Crest, 276; Supporters, 
276 ; Motto, 276. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



335 



Contoise, in, 218. 

Contournee, in. 

Controversy, the Scrope and Gros- 
venor, 206. 

Copford Hall, Essex, 325. 

Corbet ; Arms, 17. 

Cork, Earl of ; Supporters, 92. 

Cornish Chough, in. 

Cornwall ; Arms of the Duchy of, 276. 

Cornwall, Edmund, Earl of, 94 ; 
Richard, Earl of, 68, 83, 94, 209. 

Cornwall, Piers Gaveston, Earl of, 95. 

Cornwall, The Prince of Wales, Duke 
of, 276. 

Coronet, in. 

Costume, Heraldry of. 327. 

Cosynton, Sir S. de ; Arms, 231. 

Cotise, Cotised, 58, 112. 

Couchant, Dormant, 86, 112. 

Couchee, 38, 112. 

Counter, 112. 

Counter-changing, 44. 112. 

Counter Componee, 43, 112. 

Counter Passant, 87. 

Counter Potent, 41. 

Counter Rampant, 87. 

Counter Salient, 87. 

Counter-Seal, 112. 

Counter-Vair, 41. 

Couped, 55, 87, 112. 

Couple-Close, 112. 

Courant, 112. 

Courtenay, William de, Archbishop, 
189: Peter de, Bishop, 234. 

Courtenay, Earl Edward de, 143, 221; 
Badge, 233. 

Courtesy, Titles of, 113. 

Courthope, William, Esq., late Somer 
set Herald, 9. 

Coventry, Earl of; Supporters, 99. 

Covert, 113. 

Coward, Cowed, 86, 113. 

Crampet, 113. 

Crancelin, 113. 

Crawford, Deverguilla ; Seal, 247. 

Crenelated, 113 

Crescent, 68, 113; in Modern Cadency, 
198. 

Cresset, 113. 

Crest, 113, 178, 215 ; Early, 220 ; 
Marked for Cadency, 198 ; Diffe 
renced, 223 ; as originally worn, 
226 ; two or more, 226 ; superseded 
by Badge, 225, 234 ; of England, 
91, 272: of Scotland, 91, 273: of 
English Princes, 91, 276 ; of Edward 
III., 99; German, 219. 

Crest-Coronet, 113, 120. 

Crest-Wreath, 114, 120, 123. 

Cretinge, Sir J. de ; Arms, 209. 

Crined, 114. 

Crombe, de ; Arms, 61. 

Cross, 54, 114; Through, 54; Couped, 
or Humette e, 55 ; Voided, 55 ; 
Fimbriated, 54 ; of St. George, 54, 



261 ; of St. Andrew, 60, 261 ; of St. 
Patrick, 6t, 262 ; of St. Anthony, or 
Tau, 55 ; Greek, 55 ; Latin, 55 ; 
Quarter-pierced, 54 ; Quarterly- 
pierced, 55 ; on Degrees, 55 ; Calvary, 
55 ; Heraldic Varieties of, 55 ; 
Quadrate, 55, 146 ; Patriarchal, 55, 
144 ; Fourche e, 55, 125 ; Moline, 56, 
139, 198; Recercel^e, 56, 150; 
Patonce, 56, 144 ; Fleurie, 56, 125 ; 
Fleurette e, 56, 125; Pommee, 56; 
Botontfe, orTreflee,56, 106; Crosslet, 
56; Clech^e, or Urde e, 57, 109; 
Pat^e, or Formee, 57, 144 ; Maltese, 
and of eight points, 57 ; Potent, 57, 
145 ; Avellane, 57, 103 ; Fitcuee, 
58, 122. 

Crosslet, Crossed Crosslet, 56. 

Crown, 114, 140, 275. 

Crozier, 115. 

Crusader Kings ; Arms, 43. 

Crusades, 4. 

Crusilee, Crusily, 115. 

Cubit- Arm, 115. 

Cummin ; Arms, 95. 

Cup, Covered Cup, 115. 

" Curiosities of Heraldry," by Mr. M 
A. Lower, 303. 

Cushion, Oreiller, Pillow, 115. 

Czar, The j Arms, 93. 

Dacre Knot, 115, 134. 

Dageworth, Sir J. ; Arms, 51, 208. 

Dalmenhurst ; Arms, 278. 

Dancette, 34, 70, 115, 159. 

Danse. See Dancette. 

Darcy, D Arcy ; Arms, 65. 

Darnley, Lord : Arms, 67. 

Daubeney, Sir Giles, K.G., 326. 

D Aubigny ; Arms, 173. 

Dauphin, The, 77, 82. 

Debased, 116. 

Debruised, 116. 

Decoration, Heraldic, 328. 

Decrescent, In Detriment, 80, 116. 

Deer, 81, 116. 

Degrees, Degreed, Degraded, 55, 116. 

Deincourt; Arms. 70. 

Delamere, Sir John, 96 ; Sir G., 208. 

Demembered, Dismembered, 116. 

Demi, 116. 

Demi-Eagle, 99. 

Demi-Lion, 87. 

Denbigh, Earl of, 95, 98. 

Denmark ; Arms, 83 278. 

Dependency, Feudal, 200. 

Depressed, 116. 

Despencer, Le ; Arms, 175, 190. 

Despencer, Isabelle le. 175 ; Bishop 

Henry le, 189, 222 ; John le, 151 
Developed, 118. 
Devon, Earl of, 221. 
Dexter, 32, 33, 118. 
Deyville Sir J. de, 209. 
Diaper, Diapering, 44, 116. 



336 



GENERAL INDEX. 



94- 



Difference, Differencing, 116, 181, 200. 

Differenced Shields, 191, 207. 

Differences, Temporary, 181 ; Perma 
nent, 181 ; for Distinction only, 205 ; 
of Illegitimacy, 192. 

Dignities, 31. 

Dimidiation, Dimidiated, 116, 166, 171. 

Disclosed, 8r, 116. 

Displayed. 81. 116. 

Disposition, Disposed, 45, 116. 

Ditzmers ; Arms, 278. 

Dividing and Border Lines, 34, 116. 

Dolphin, 8. 78, 82, 117. 

Dormant, 86, 117. 

Doubling, 117. 

Douglas ; Arms, 74 ; Crest, 151 ; 
Badge, 231 : Augmentation. ?T2. 

Douglas, Sir James, 74 ; Lord William, 
74 ; the first Earl, 74. 

Douglas and Mar, William, Earl of, 

Dove-tail. 34, 117. 

Doyle ; Motto, 140. 

Dragon, 79, 117. 

" Dresses of Arms," 328. 

Dreux, De; Arms, 116, r6S. 

Dreux, John de, Duke of Brittany. 
166, 168. 

Drummond, John ; Seal, 252. 

Drury ; Arms, 156. 

Dublin, De Vere, Marquess of, 138. 

Dublin, Earldom ; Arms. 276. 

Dublin ; Arms of See, 142. 

Ducal Coronet, 118. 

Duchess, Ti8. 

Dudley, Earl Robert, 214. 

Dudley, Thomas ; Seal, 223. 

Duke, 117. 

Dunboyne, the Baron ; Supporters, 92. 

Eagle. Heraldic, 25, 76; in Stained 
glass at York, 92 ; sculptured in 
Westminster Abbey, 93 ; with one 
Head, 93 ; with two Heads, 93 : Im 
perial, crowned, 95 ; with Nimbus, 
95 ; Drawing of, 98 ; German, 98 ; 
Austrian, 98 ; French, 98 ; as Sup 
porter. 99 ; as Badge, 148. 

Eaglet, 95, 99, 118. 

Earl, 118. 

Earl Marshal, The, 131. 

Eastern, Radiated, or Antique Crown, 
119. 

Ecclesal, Ekeleshale ; Arms, 203. 

Ecclesiastics, Heraldic decoration of 
their Vestments, 162. 

Echingham, De ; Anns, 71. 

Eclipsed, 80. 

Edinburgh. H.R.H., the Duke of, 279. 

Edmond, Son of Edward I., 185. 

Edmund, Saint ; Arms, 19, 213, 268. 

Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, 94. 

Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, 123, 183, 
1 86, 326. 

Edward, Saint, the Confessor; Arms, 
18, 268. 



Edward I. ; Label as Prince Royal, 
182 ; Arms, 268 ; Badge, 235 ; Bard- 
ing of Charger, 103 ; Rolls of Arms 
of his era, 13. 

Edward II. ; Label as Prince Royal. 
182 ; Arms, 268 ; Badge, 235 ; Roll 
of Arms of his era. 13. 

Edward III. ; Label as Prince Royal, 
182 ; Arms, 268 ; quarters France 
Ancient, 124 ; Crest, 90, 99, 220, 

272 ; Badges, 235, 239 ; Supporters, 
245 ; Heraldry of his Monument, 
26, 173 ; Roll of Arms of his era, 13 ; 
Heraldry in his time, 9 ; his love of 
Heraldry, 230 ; founds the Order of 
the Garter, 284. 

Edward IV. ; Arms, 269 ; Supporters, 
273 ; Badges, 236 ; Coins, 317 ; 
grants Augmentations, 213. 

Edward V. ; Arms, 269. 

Edward VI. ; Arms, 269; Supporters, 

273 ; Badges, 236 ; bears the Ostrich 
Feather Badge, 238 ; Coins, 317. 

Edward the Black Prince ; Arms, 135, 
182, 195 ; Crest, gt, 222 : Badge, 237, 
239 ; Motto, 241 ; First English Duke 
and Prince of Wales. 117, 241 ; at 
Naveret, 256 ; his Will, 241 ; his 
Monument, 26, 241. 

Eglesfield, Robert de ; Arms, 97. 

Eleanor. See Alianore. 

Electoral Bonnet, 119, 272. 

Elford, Monuments at, 222. 

Elizabeth, Queen ; Arms, 260 ; Sup 
porters, 273 ; Badges and Mottoes, 
236. 274 ; Changes Colour of Ribbon 
of the Garter, 127, 287 ; her Monu 
ment, 326. 

Elizabeth, Countess of Holland and of 
Hereford, 164. 

Elsyng, Brass at, 223, 326. 

Eltham, Prince John of, 26, 124, 163, 
185, 258. 

Embattled, Battled, 34, 119. 

Embowed, 82, 119. 

Embrued, 119. 

Enaluron, 119. 

Endorse, Endorsed, 53, 119. 

Enfiled. 119. 

England ; Arms, 27, 83, 89, 267 ; 
Royal Heraldry of, 267 ; Patron 
Saints of, 19 ; Lions of, 88, 267 ; 
Crest, 91, 272 ; Supporters, 91, 273; 
Badges, no, 235; Crowns, 275; 
Flags, 260. 

Engrailed, 34, 119, 197. 

Enhanced, 119. 

Ensign, 263 : Red, 263 : White, 264 ; 
Blue, 264. 

Ensigned, 119 

Entire, Entoire, Entoyre, 119. 

Enveloped, 119. 

Epithets, Heraldic, and Descriptive 
Terms, 80. 

Equipped, 120. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



337 



Eradicated, 82, 120. 

Erased, 87, 120. 

Erect, 81. 

Ermine, Ermines, Ermmois, 41, 42, 

120. 

Erne, 96, 120. 

Erneford, Wm. de ; Arms, 96. 

Erskine ; Arms, 53. 

Escallop, 59, 77, 78, 120. 

Escarbuncle, 15, 120. 

Eschales ; Arms, 17. 

Escroll, 120. 

Escutcheon, 120 ; of Pretence, 120, 

174, 316. 
Esquire, 120. 

Essex, Henry, Earl of, 223. 
Essex, the Earl of j Supporters, 92. 
Estate, 120. 
Estoile, 120. 

Estoteville, Sir M. de ; Arms, 208. 
Estwick ; Motto, 140. 
Etone, Sir N. de ; Arms, 96. 
Eureux, D , of Salisbury, 192. 
Ewelme, 326. 

Exeter Cathedral, in, 239. 
Exeter, Hollands, Dukes of, 185 ; John 

Grandison, Bishop of, 189. 
Exeter, Marquess of; Supporters, 92. 

Fabulous Beings, in Heraldry, 79. 

Fairfax ; Motto, 139. 

Falconer ; Arms, 17. 

False, 120; False Cross, 55; False 

Escutcheon, 66 j False Roundle, 72, 

120. 

Fan, Vane, 121. 
Fan-Crest, 121, 217. 
Faroe Islands ; Arms, 278. 
Fauconberg, Sir Wm. ; Arms, 209. 
Feathers, in Heraldry, 121. See 

Ostrich Feathers. 
Fees, for Grants of Arms, &c., 308, 

310. 

Felbrigge, Sir S. de, K.G., 122. 
Felbrigg, Brass at, 122. 
Femme, 121. 

Fenwick, John ; Arms, 44. 
Fer-de-MoIine, 121. 
Fermail, Fermaux, 121. 
Ferr, 121. 
Ferrers, De ; Arms, 190 ; Anne de, 

190; Margaret de, 173; William, 

Lord, of Groby, 190; Lord, of 

Chartley, 222. 

Fesse, 50, 121 ; Examples, 208. 
Fesse-Point, 33, 121. 
Fesse-wise, In Fesse, 51, 121. 
Feudal Influence, in Heraldry, 201. 
Feudal Alliance and Dependency, 

Heraldic Record of, 150, 162, 200. 
Field, 38, 122 ; Varied Fields, 42 ; 

"Of the Field," 43. 
File, 122. 
Fillet, 50, 122. 
Fimbriation, Fimbriated, 54, 122. 



Finned, 82. 

Fish, in Heraldry, 82, 102, 122. 

Fishbourne, Giles de j Arms, 78. 

Fitchee, 58, 122. 

Fitton ; Motto, 140. 

Fitz Alan, of Bedale, 53. 

Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, 84, 89, 118, 

222. 

Fitz Parnel, Earl Robert, 201. 

Fitz Payne, Sir R. le ; Arms, 209. 

Fitz Ralph ; Arms, 202. 

Fitz Roy, Henry ; Arms, 100. 

Fitz Walter, Robert Le ; Arms, 50. 

Fitz Warine, Fitz Waryn ; Anns, 14 ; 
Sir Fulk de, 190. 

Fitz Urse : Arms, 76. 

Flags, 254; Military, 264; Four re 
marks upon, 266. 

Flanches, Flasques, 68, 69, 122. 

Flanched, 196. 

Fleur de Lys, 122 ; quartered by Ed 
ward III., 124; Removed from 
Royal Shield of England, 272 j iu 
Modern Cadency, 198. 

Fleurie, 56, 125. 

Fleurettee, Florettee, 56, 125. 

Flexed, 125. 

Flighted, 102, 125. 

Flodden Field, 211. 

Fly, 125. 

Foliated, 125. 

Foreign Insignia, 295. 

Formee, 57. 

Forneus, Sir R. de ; Arms, 63. 

Forth, Viscount ; Seal, 252. 

Fountain, 72, 125. 

Fourch^e, 55, 86, 125. 

Fraise, 199. 

" France Ancient," 122, 124 ; " France 
Modern," 122, 125 ; " Bordure of 
France," 124 ; " Label of France," 
123 ; Imperial Eagle of, 99. 

Fraser, Wm. ; Seal, 199. 

Frederick II., Emperor; Arms, 93. 

Frere ; Arms, 58. 

Frette, Frettee, Fretty, 64, 71, 125, 134. 

Froissart, 256, 281. 

Fructed, 82, 126. 

Fur, 40, 42, 126. 

Furnival, De ; Arms, 186, 203. 

Fusil, Fusillee, Fusily, 70, 126. 

Fylfot, 126. 

Fynderne, Wm., 156. 

Gad, Gadlyng, 126. 

Galley, 126. 

Gambe. See Jambe. 

Garb, 126, 201. 

Garnished, 126. 

Garter, Order of the, 127, 284; In 
signia of the, 127, 286 ; Stalls and 
Garter Plates of Knights, 285 j Offi 
cers, 285. 

Garter King-of-Arms, 126, 131 ; Arms, 
132. 

W 



333 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Gaveston, Piers ; Arms, 95. 

Gemelles, Bars Gemelles, 52. 

Gem-Ring, 126. 

Genealogies, 301. 

Genet, 126. 

Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, 192. 

George, Saint ; Arms, 19, 126, 261 ; 

Chapel of, 104. 
George, The, of the Garter, 126, 286 ; 

The Lesser, 127, 286. 
George I. ; Arms, 271, 272. 
George II. ; Arms, 272. 
George III. ; Arms, 272. 
George IV. ; Arms, 272. 
Gerattyng, 127. 

Germany, The Emperor of; Arms, 92. 
Germany, The King of; Arms, 92. 
Geytone, Sir J. de ; Arms, 208. 
Ghent, Prince John of, 183, 193, 240, 

242, 249. 
Giffard ; Arms, 154. 

Giffard, Sir A., 72; Sir J., 89, 209. 

Gimmel-Ring, 127. 

Girt, Girdled, 127. 

Gliding, 82. 

" Glossary of Heraldry," The Oxford, 

3 1 - 
Glossary of Titles, Names, and Terms, 

100. 

Gloucester, Alianore, Duchess of, 326. 

See De Bohun. 
Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of, 185, 

243, 326 ; Thomas, Duke of, 240, 
243, 326. 

Gloucester, Thomas le Despencer, 

Earl of, 175. 
Gloucester, Ralph de Monthermer, 

Earl of, 95. 

Gloucester Cathedral, Tiles at, 327. 
Gold, 42, 47. 
Golpe, 72. 
Gonfannon, 127. 
Gorged, 127. 

Gorges, R. de ; Arms, 128.. 
Gothic Architecture, Heraldry in, 325. 
Gothic Art, its Heraldic Character, 329. 
Gothic Monuments, Heraldry of, 326. 
Gough, Lord ; Arms, 23. 
Goutte e, Gutte*e, 127. 
Gradient, 127. 
Grafted, 127. 
Grafton, Duke of; Supporters, 92; 

Differences, 195. 
Graham, Robert ; Seal, 250. 
Grand Quartering, Grand Quarters, 

34, 127, 170. 

Grandison ; Arms, 54, 96, 189. 
Grandison, Bishop John de, 189. 
Grants of Arms, 309 ; Example, 310. 
Great Malvern, Tiles at, 327. 
Great Yarmouth ; Arms, 171. 
Greeces, 128. 
Greek Cross, 55. 
Greenland ; Arms. 278. 
Greville, Earl of Warwick, 214. 



Grey ; Arms, 53 ; Crest of Sir Richard 

de Grey, K.G., 222. 
Griffin. See Gryphon. 
Grosvenor; Arms, 201 ; Sir R. de, 58, 

206. 

Gryphon, Griffin, 79. 
Guardant, 85, 128. 
" Guide to the Study of Heraldry," by 

Mr. Montagu, 2, 9, 196. 
Guige, 37, 128. 
Gules, 41, 48, 128. 
Gurges, Gorges, 128. 
Gyron, Gyronnee, Gyronny, 64, 70, 

128. 

Habited, 128. 

Hainault, The Counts of; Arms, 83. 

Hainault, Queen Philippa of, 237, 239. 

Hames, Haimes, 128. 

Hamilton; Crest, 151, 220. 

Hamilton, Sir Gilbert de, 151. 

Hammer, 128. 

Hanover ; Arms, 271 ; Livery Colours, 
136. 

Harcourt, Sir R. ; Arms, 224 ; Hare- 
court, or Harcourt ; Arms, 51, 186. 

Hardinge, Viscount ; Supporters, 92. 

Hardwick, Earl of; Supporters, 92. 

Harp, 128. 

Harris ; Arms, 76. 

Harrington Knot, 134. 

Harsyck, Sir J. ; Crest, 224. 

Hart, 81, 116, 128. 

Hastilude, 128. 

Hastings, the Earl, 202 ; Edmund 
de, 202 ; Edward, Lord, 134; Sir 
Hugh, 223. 

Hastings ; Arms, 137 ; Crest, 223. 

Hatchment, 128. 

Hatfield, Bishop, 222. 

Hauriant, 82, 129. 

Hause, 129. 

Hautville, Sir G. de ; Arms, 209. 

Hawk s Bells, Jesses, and Lure, 129. 

Hay ; Arms, 120. 

Haynes, John ; Seal, 325. 

Headfort, The Marquess of; Sup 
porters, 92. 

Hedge-hog, 76. 

Heightened, 129. 

Heights, 129. 

Heiress, Arms of, 174. 

Helena, H.R.H., The Princess, Prin 
cess Christian, 280. 

Helm, Helmet, 129, 178. 

Hemenhale ; Arms, 51. 

Hempbrake, Hackle, 130. 

Heneage Knot, 130, 134. 

Henry I. ; Arms, 88, 137, 267 ; Badge, 

Henry II. ; Arms, 267 ; Badges, 235. 

Henry III. ; Arms, 268 ; Badge, 235 ; 
Rolls of Arms of his Era, 13. 

Henry IV. ; Label, as Duke of Lan 
caster, 185 ; Motto, in, 242 ; Arms, 



GENERAL INDEX. 



339 



268 ; quarters " France Modern," 
125; Badges, 235; Crown, 275; 
Seal, 242. 

Henry V.; Arms, 269; Badges, 155, 
236; Supporters, 273; Crown, 115. 

Henry VI. ; Arms, 269; Badges, 236; 
Supporters, 91, 273; Crown, 115, 
275 ; Motto, 274. 

Henry VII.; 127, 238, 286, 296 ; Arms, 

269 : Badges, 236 ; Supporters, 273 ; 
Seal, 247. 

Henry VIII. ; 127, 195, 213, 286; 
Arms. 269; Badges, 236; Supporters, 
273 ; Coins, 318. 

Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, 186. 

" Herald and Genealogist," 303. 

Heralds of England, Incorporated, 305. 

Herald, 131. 

Herald-Kings, 131, 177. 

Heraldic Sails, 257. 

Heralds College, 131, 305 

Heraldry, Early Love of in England, 
2; Early Influence, 2; Definition 
and True Character of, 3 ; Introduc 
tion into England, and Establish 
ment, 4 ; Utility of, 4 ; English 
Mediaeval, 5; Ancient, 6, 9 ; English, 
its Career, 9 ; Early English Litera 
ture of, 12 ; its Allusive Character, 
15 ; Canting, 16 ; Revival in England, 
20, 24. 307 ; Debasement, 21, 22 ; a 
Science, 24, 27, 30, 330; an Art, 24, 
27, 330 ; Style of Art in, 24, 30 ; 
Treatment of Animate Creatures in, 
24, 27 ; Language of, 29 ; Nomen 
clature, 29 ; Style and Forms of Ex 
pression, 30 ; Birds in, 76 ; Beasts in, 
76; Human Beings in, 73 ; the Lion 
in, 83, 87 ; the Eagle in, 9, 92 ; 
Scottish, 132, 204 ; of Monuments, 
326 ; Royal, 267 ; cf the Coinage, 



317 ; its present Popularity, 307 ; in 
Architecture, 325 ; of Illuminations, 
327 ; in Inlaid Tiles, 327 ; of Cos 
tume, 327 ; in the United States of 



America, 323. 
" Heraldry of Fish," by Mr. Moule, 

77, 122. 
Hereford, De Bohuns, Earls of, 59 ; 

Elizabeth, Countess of, 164. 
Hereford Cathedral, 222. 
Herison, Herrison, 76, 132. 
Heriz, De (Harris) ; Arms, 76. 
Heron, 17. 
Herring ; Arms, 77. 
Herschel, Sir J. ; Arms, 23. 
Heytesbury and Hornet, Lord, 232, 

Heytesbury, the Baron; Supporters, 

HH?, Hillock, 132. 
Hind, 81, 116, 132. 
Hirondelle, 77, 132. 
Holland, Counts of, 83 ; Elizabeth, 
Countess of, 164. 



Hollands, of Exeter, 185, 213 ; of Kent 

and Surrey, 185, 213. 
Holland, John, Earl of Huntingdon : 

Seal, 258. 

Holstein ; Arms, 278. 
Honour, Augmentations of, 210. 
Honour-Point, 33, 132. 
" Honours," Regimental, 264. 
Honourable Insignia, Medals, and 

Clasps, 179, 294. 
Hoofed, 80. 

Hospitallers. See St. John, Knights of. 
Hotspur, Henry, 173. 
Howard; Arms, 211; Augmentatior , 

211 ; Crest, 91, 223 ; Badge, 231. 
Howard, Thos., Duke of Norfolk, 211. 
Howard, Dr. J. J., 303. 
Human Beings, in Heraldry, 73. 
Humett^e, 55, 133. 
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 185, 

243, 326. 

Hungerford, 232 ; Badge, 231. 
Hungerford, Lord, 248 ; Sir Walter de, 

232, 255, 2 57 J Sir Robert de, 233, 

255. 257. 

Huntingdon, Thos., Earl of, 258. 
Huntingfield, Roger de ; Arms, 72. 
Huntley, the Marquess of, 68. 
Hurste, 133. 
Hurte, 72, 133. 
Husband and Wife, Marshalling their 

Arms, 171, 175. 
Hussy ; Arms, 233. 

Iceland ; Arms, 278. 

Illegitimacy, Cadency of, 192. 

Illuminations, Heraldry of, 327. 

Imaginary Beings, in Heraldry, 79. 

Imbrued, Imbued, 133. 

Impalement, Impaled, 172 ; of the 
Bordure and Tressure, 173. 

Imperial Crown, The, 114, 275; Im 
perially Crowned, 133. 

In Bend, 59, 133. 

In Chevron, 62, 133. 

In Chief, 50, 133. 

In Complement, 80, 133. 

In Cross, 55, 133. 

In Detriment, 80. 

In Fesse, 51, 133. 

In Foliage, 81, 133. 

In Glory, 80, 133. 

In Increment, 80. 

In Lure, 81, 133. 

In Orle, 66. 

In Pale, 54. 

In Piety, 81. 

In Plenitude, 80. 

In Pretence, 133. 

In Pride, 81, 133. 

In Quadrangle, 133. 

In Saltire, 61. 

In Splendour, 80, 133. 

Increscent, 80, 133. 

Indented, 34, 133 

W 2 



340 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Inescutcheon, 65, 135. 

Infantry Colours, 265. 

Innes, Walter ; Seal, 10. 

Innes, or De Ynays, Wm. ; Seal, n. 

Insects, in Heraldry, 79, 82. 

Insignia, Foreign, 295. 

Invected, 34. 

Inverted, 81. 

Ireland; Badge, 152, 235; Heraldry 

of, 309 ; Chief Heiald of, 132. 
Ireland, De Vere, Duke of, 213. 
Irradiated, 133. 

Isabel, of France ; Seal, 124, 164. 
Isabel, Countess of Bedford, 230. 
Isabel le Despenser, 175. 
Isle of Man ; Arms, 9, 74. 
Isles, Lordship of, 276 
Islip, Abbot ; Rebus, 148. 
Issuant, 133. 

Jambe, Gambe, 87, 133. 

James I. of Scotland ; Supporters, 273. 

James IV. of Scotland; at Flodden, 
211 ; Supporters, 274. 

James V. of Scotland; Crest and 
Motto, 273 ; Garter Plate, 67. 

James VI. of Scotland James I. of 
Great Britain ; Arms, 269 ; Sup 
porters, 91, 273 ; Badges and Motto, 
156, 236, 274 ; creates Baronets, 104; 
his proclamation for first " Union 
Jack," 261. 

James II.; Arms, 269; Supporters, 
274; Badge, 236; frames Statutes 
for Order of Thistle, 287. 

iames ; Motto, 140. 
ane Seymour, Queen, 236. 
ardine ; Arms, 204. 
Jefferay ; Motto, 140. 
Jerusalem ; Arms, 43. 
Jessant. Jessant de lys, 133. 
] esses, 133. 

Jewellery, Heraldic, 328. 
Joan, Daughter of Edward I., 95. 
Joan, Countess of Surrey; Seal, 165. 
Joanna, of Navarre, Queen; Badge, 

126, 236. 
John, King ; his Seal as Prince, 88 ; 

Arms, 268 ; Badge, 235. 
John, Prince, of Eltham, 26, 124, 169, 

185, 258. 

John, Prince, of Ghent, 183, 193, 240 
242, 249. 

iohn de Dreux, 166, 168. 
ohn, Duke of Bedford, 185. 
ohn de Warrenne, Earl of Surrey, 
165. 

ohnston ; Arms, 204. 
oust, 134. 
owlopped, 134. 
upon, 134. 
uxon, Archbishop, 286. 

Kent, De Burgh, Earl of, 69; Hol 
lands, Earls of, 185. 



Key, 134. 

" King Maker," the, 204, 214, 229. 

King, Mr. ; his " Hand-book of En 
graved Gems," 6. 

King-of-Arms, 131. See Herald. 

King s College Chapel, Cambridge, 
Heraldry of, 25, 326. 

King s Langley, Monument at, 326. 

Kinnoul, Earl of, 308. 

Kirkpatrick ; Arms, 204. 

Kirton, Abbot ; Rebus, 148. 

Knight, Knighthood, Knightly Orders, 
117, 134, 179, 281. 

Knights of St. John, 57, 283 ; Tem 
plars, 13, 284. 

Knot, 134, 231. 

Kyrkeby ; Arms, 65. 

Label, 135, 182 ; Forms of, 135 ; Points 
of, 135, 182; Differenced, 183, 184; 
a Royal Difference, 183; as borne 
by Princes Royal, 182 ; by Black 
Prince, 182 ; by Princes of Wales, 
183 ; of Brittany, 183 ; of France, 
183; of Lancaster, 183, 184; of 
York, 183; borne as a Badge, 199; 
in Modern Cadency, 198. 

Laci, Lacy, De ; Arms, 84, 89, 164. 

Laci, Earl Henry de ; Crest, 216. 

Lacy Knot, 135. 

Ladies, Unmarried ; their Arms, 176. 

Ladies , Heraldic Costume, 162, 165, 
327 ; their right to bear Badges, 234. 

Laing, Mr. H., his "Catalogue of 
Scottish Seals," n, 164, 199, 218, 
232, 247, 250, 274, 318, 330. 

Lamb, 76. 

Lambert ; Arms, 76. 

Lambrequin, 136. 

Lambton ; Arms, 76. 

Lancaster, Label of, 183 ; Rose of, 150, 
235 ; Badge of, 155 ; Livery Colours 
of, 136 ; Collar of, no. 

Lancaster, Edmund, Earl of, 123, 183, 
186, 326; Henry, Earl of, 186, 247 ; 
Thomas, Earl of, 218 ; John of Ghent, 
Duke of, 183 (see John of Ghent) ; 
Matilda of, 167, 190. 

Lancaster Herald, 131. 

Lance-Rest. See Clarion. 

Lane, Jane, 212. 

Language, of Heraldry, 29, 30. 

Langued, 80, 136. 

Latimer, George, Lord, 191 ; William 
le, 143, 221. 

Latin Cross, 55. 

" Law and Practice of Heraldry in 
Scotland," by Mr. Seton, 9, 68, 94, 
140, 204, 309. 

Law of Tinctures, 43. 

Leaves, in Heraldry, 102, 136. 

Leechford, Sir R., Confirmation cf 
Arms to, 313. 

Legh, Gerard, 2?. 

Legion of Honour, 295. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



341 



Leicester, Banner of, 14. 
Leicester, Robert, Earl of, 201. 
Leicestershire Families, their Arms, 

202. 

Lennox, Countess of; Arms, 67, 326. 
Leon ; Arms, 83, 169. See Castile. 
Leopard, Leopard^, 84, 267. 
Leopold, H.R.H., The Prince, 279. 
L Ercedeckne ; Arms, 202. 
Leslie ; Arms, 95 ; Euphemia, Countess 

of Ros, 95. 

" Lesser George," The, 127. 
Le Strange. See Strange. 
Letters of the Alphabet, in Heraldry, 

136. 

Leverett, John ; Seals, 324, 325. 
Leveson ; Arms, 17, 102. 
Leybourne, Sir W. de ; Arms, 90. 
Lichfield, Joust at, 230. 
Lincoln, Earls of ; Arms, 89, 164, 209. 
Lincoln, Henry, Earl of; Crest, 216. 
Lincoln and Pembroke, Margaret, 

Countess of, 164. 
Lindsay, Sir W. ; Seal, 250. 
Line, Border Line, Lined, 136. 
Lion, in Heraldry, 25, 27, 76, 83 ; 

Heraldic Treatment of, 23, 92; of 

England, 88, 267 ; of Scotland, 67, 

269 ; as a Crest, 90 ; as a Supporter, 

90, 91, 274 ; Percy Lion, 223 ; 

Howard Lion, 223 ; Examples of 

Lions, 209. 

Lion s Face, 87 ; Head, 87 ; Jambe, 87. 
Lioncel, 87, 136. 

Lion-leopard, Lion-leopard^, 85. 
Lionel, Prince, of Clarence, 167, 184. 
Lisle, Arthur, Viscount, 195. 
Little Easton, Brass at, in, 223. 
Livery Colours, 130. 
Lodged, 80, 136. 

Lomelye, Lumley, Sir R. ; Arms, 208. 
London, City of ; Arms, 155. 
Longesp^e, William, Earl of Salisbury, 

84, 90, 192, 326. 

Lord of the Isles ; Arms, 137, 276. 
Lord Lyon, 132, 246, 308. 
Lorn ; Arms, 136. 
Lorraine ; Arms, 97. 
Loterel, Luterell ; Arms, 76, 186, 202, 

219. 
Loterel, Luterell, Sir A., 176; Sir G., 

177, 219. 

Louis VII., of France, 122. 
Louisa, H.R.H., The Princess, 279. 
Lcutre, 76. 

Louvaine ; Arms, 170. 
Lower, Mr. M. A., 9, 303; on Crests, 

229. 

Luce, 17, 77, 136. 
Lucy ; Arms, 17, 170 ; Sir Anthony, 

78 ; Geoffrey de, 78. 
Ludlow Church, 238. 
Lullingstone, 148. 
Lunenburgh ; Arms, 272, 278. 
Lure, 81, 136 



Luterell. See Loterel. 

Lyhart, Bishop Walter ; Rebus, 148. 

Lymphad, 136. 

Lyon Office, 132, 308 : Depute, 308. 

Mahon, Sir W. ; Motto, 252. 

Maintenance, Cap of, 137. 

Malet, Sir R., 209 ; Sir T., 209. 

Malmesbury, Earl of; Supporters, 99. 

Maltese Cross, 57 

Man, Isle of, 9, 74. 

Manche, Maunche, 137. 

Mandeville, Geoffrey de, 15. 

Manfee, Sir W. ; Arms, 209. 

Mantle, 137; of Arms, 328. 

Mantling, 137, 178, 220; Marked for 
Cadency, 198. 

March, Mortimers, Earls of; Seals, 
250. 

Margaret, of Anjou, Queen, 97 ; of 
France, 123, 163, 171 ; Bruce, 164 ; 
Beaufort, 173 ; Tudor, 174 ; Countess 
of Lincoln, 164 ; de Ferrers, 173. 

Marks of Cadency, Marking Cadency. 
See Cadency. 

Marlbprough, Duke of, 95, 98. 

Marmion, Sir R. de ; Crest, 222. 

Marny, Sir R. de ; Seal, 220. 

Marquess, Marquis, Marchioness, 137. 

Marriage, Heraldic Record of, 171. 

Marshalling, 138, 161 ; by Combina 
tion, 168 ; by Quartering, 169 ; 
Quartered Coats, 170 ; Arms of Hus 
band and Wife, 171, 175 ; Crests, 
178 ; Helms, Coronets, Mantlings, 
Mottoes, Supporters, Badges, and 
Various Insignia, 178, 179. 

Martel, 17, 138. 

Martlet, 77, 138 ; in Modern Cadency, 
198. 

Martin ; Crest and Motto, 140. 

Mary Tudor, Queen ; Arms, 269 ; Sup 
porters, 273 ; Badges, 236 ; grants 
Derby House to the Heralds, 131. 

Mary Stuart, Queen ; Arms, 269. 

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots ; her 
Signet, 274 ; Heraldry of her Monu 
ment, 288. 

Mary, The Princess, of Teck, 280. 

Mary de Saint Paul ; Seal, 166, 168. 

Mascle, Mascutee, 69, 138. 

Masoned, 138. 

Matilda de Chaworth, 167 ; of Lan 
caster, 167. 

Medals, 294. 

Medjidie, Order of the, 295. 

Melfort, Earl ; Seal, 252. 

Membered, 138. 

Menteith. Earl of, 94 ; Sir J., 95. 

Merchant s Mark, 138. 

Mere, De la. See Delamere. 

Merevale, Brass at, 222. 

Merit, Order of, 289. 

Mermaid, Merman, or Triton, 139. 

Metals, 40, 42, 139. 



342 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Methuen, the Baron, 95. 

Mill-rind. See Fer-de-Moline. 

" Miscellanea Genealogica et He- 

raldica," 303. 
Mitre, 139. 
Moline, 56, 139. 

Molines, Molyneux, De ; Arms, 56. 
Monecastre, SirW. de ; Arms, 208. 
Monson, the Baron ; Supporters, 92. 
Montacute, De, Montagu ; Origin of 

the Name, 16 ; Arms, 70, 96. 
Montagu, Mr., his work on Heraldry, 

a, 9, 196. 
Montfort, De ; Arms, 59 ; Sir de, 

209. 

Montgomerie, Sir W. de, 96. 
Montgomerie, Earl of Eglintoun ; 

Arms, 10. 

Monthermer, Sir Ralph de, 95, 99. 
Moon, the, 80. 

Monypeny, Thomas ; Seal, 320 
Mortimer, De ; Origin of the Name, 

16 ; Arms, 65,173; Differences, 187; 

Crest, 143. 
Mortimer, Edmund de, Earl of March; 

Seal, 250. 

Motto, 139, 178, 227 ; Royal, 227 
Moule, Mr., his " Heraldry of Fish," 

77, 122. 
Mound, 140. 
Mounpynzon ; Arms, 77. 
Mount, 140. 
Mounteney, De ; Arms, 203; SirE de, 

204; Sir J. de, 204; SirT. de, 204. 
Mowbray, Sir J., 209 ; Roger de, 89 ; 

Thomas de, Duke of Norfolk, 213, 

223, 240. 

Mullet, 140 ; in Modern Cadency, 198. 
Mundegumri, John ; Seal, 10. 
Mural Crown, 141. 
Murallee, Walled. See Walled. 
Mure, Wm. ; Seal, 320. 
Murrey, 42. 
Muschamp ; Arms, 79. 

Naiant, 82, 141. 

Naissant, 141. 

Names, 31. 

Nassau ; Arms, 270. 

Natural Objects, in Heraldry, 79. 

Naval Crown, 141. 

Navarre ; Arms, 124, 236. 

Naveret, Battle of, 256. 

Nebulee, 34, 141. 

Nelson, Admiral Lord: Arms, 23. 

Nerved, 141. 

Neville ; Arms, 61 ; Differences, 191 ; 

Badge, 148. 

Neville, George de. Lord Latimer, 191. 
Neville, Earl Richard de, 204, 214, 229. 
Newburgh ; Arms, 321, 322. 
Nicholas, Sir N. Harris, 9 ; on Ostrich 

Feather Badge, 237 ; on " Union 

Jack," 263. 
Nichols, Mr. J. Gough, 9, 15, 303. 



Nimbus, Nimbed, 95, 98, 141. 

Nomenclature, Heraldic, 29. 

Norfolk, the Duke of; Arms, 21 T ; 
quarters Mowbray, 89: Supporters, 
92 ; Crest, 223 ; Earl Marshal, 131. 

Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, Duke of, 
240. 

Normans, their Shields and Standards, 

Norroy, 131. See Herald. 

Northkigh, 326. 

Northumberland, Earls of; Arms, 78, 

89, 255. 
Northumberland, Henry, ist Earl of, 

170; the Duke of, 92, 223. 
Nortone, Sir J. de ; Arms, 209. 
Norway ; Arms, 83. 
Norwich; Arms of See, 189; Henry, 

Bishop of, r8g. 

Nova Scotia, Badge. See Baronet 
Nowed, 82, 141. 

Octofoil, in Modern Cadency, 198. 

Official Insignia, 179 ; in Cadency, 189, 

Official Arms, 177. 

Ogress, 72, 141. 

Oldenburgh ; Arms, 278. 

Oldham, Bishop ; Rebus, 148. 

Onslow ; Motto, 140. 

Opinicus, 141. 

Oppressed, Debruised, 141. 

Or, 40, 141. 

Orders of Knighthood. See Knight 
hood. 

Order of Merit, 289. 

Ordinaries, 42, 49, 141 ; their struc 
tural Origin, 14, 63. 

Ordinary of Arms, 141. See Armory. 

Oreiller, 142. 

Orle, In Orle, 66, 142, 160. 

Ostrevant, Comte of, 237. 

Ostrich Feather Badge, 142, 223, 237. 

Otter, 76. 

Ousflet, Sir G. de ; Arms, 208. 

Overall, Sur tout, 142. 

Overstone, the Baron ; Supporters, 99. 

Overt, 8r, 142. 

Oxford, De Veres, Earls of, 213. 

Oxney, John ; Rebus, 148. 

Padlock, Badge, 249. 
Paignel, John ; Arms, 202. 
Painted Chamber, Westminster, 255. 
Pale, Pale-wise, In Pale, Paly, 53. 54. 

Pall, 142. 

Palliot, French Writer on Heraldry, 

253. 

Paly Bendy, 60, 142. 
Fame", 82. 

Panache, 142, 220, 221. 
Parr, Queen Catherine, 236. 
Party, Parted, 33, 143. 
Pascuant, 143. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



343 



Passant, Passant Guardant, Passant 
Reguardant, Passant Repassant, 85, 
144. 

Pastoral Staff, 144. 
Patee, or Formee, 57, 144. 
Pateshulle, J. de. ; Arms, 51. 
Patonce, 57, 144. 
Patriarchal, 57, 144. 
Pawne, Peacock, 76. 
Peach-Branches, 149. 
Pean, 41, 144. 
Pebmarsh, Brass at, 202. 
Peche, Sir John, 149. 
Pedro, King of Castile, 257. 
Peer, 144. 
Peerage, 144. 

Peeress in her own Right, 177. 
Pegasus, 144, 284. 
Pelham ; Arms, 76 ; Badge, 231. 
Pelican, 76, 144. 
Pellet, 72, 144. 

Pembridge, Sir R. de ; Crest, 221. 
Pembroke, the Earl of, 166 ; De 

Valences, Earls of, 326. 
Pembroke College, Cambridge, 166,167. 
Penbrugge ; Arms, 53. 
Pendent, 144. 
Pennon, 3, 144, 254. 
Per, 33, 145. 
Perceval ; Motto, 140. 
Perci, Percy ; Arms, 70, 84, 170 ; 
Crest, 91, 223; Badges, 231, 249, 
255 ; Seals, 249. 

Perci, Henry de, 78, 80, 186, 209, 216. 
Perci, Henry de, 3rd Baron, 186 ; 

Agnes de, 164. 

Percy Shrine, Beverley Minster, 27. 
Percy Effigy, at Beverley, 162. 
Peterborough Cathedral and Deanery, 
238. 

Petrasancta, Silvester de, 40. 

Petre, the Baron ; Supporters, 92. 

Peverel ; Badge, 231 ; Catherine, 232. 

Peyvre, Sir R. de ; Arms, 62, 209. 

Philip, " the Hardy," 162. 

Philippa, Queen, of Hainault ; Badge, 
237, 239 ; Heraldry of her Monu 
ment, 173, 326. 

Pickering, Sir T. de ; Arms, 209. 

Pigot ; Arms, 17. 

Pile, In Pile, 62, 145. 

Pirepound, Sir R. ; Arms, 209. 

Planch^, Mr., 9, 74, 97, 201, 242. 

Plantagenet, The Royal House of, 
17, 192 ; Livery Colours of, 136 ; 
Arthur, 195. 

Planta Genista, 17, 145, 235. 

Plate, Plattde, 72, 145. 

Plenitude, 145. 

Plume, 145. 

Points, or Stops, in Heraldry, 46. 

Points of a Shield, 33, 145 ; of a Label, 
162 ; In Point, 145. 

Pole ; Motto, 140. 

Pomme, Pommee, 56, 72, 145. 



Poninge, Sir T. de ; Arms, 208. 
Popinjay, 76, 145. 
Port, 145. 

Portcullis, 145 ; Pursuivant, 131. 
Portland, Duke of; Supporters, 92. 
Potent 41, 57, 145. 
Poudree, Powdered, 45, 145. 
Poutrel, Sir R. ; Arms, 207. 
Preieres, Sir J. de ; Arms, 208. 
Precedence, Order of, 296 ; in the 

Royal Family, 300 ; of Women, 299. 
Prelates ; Arms, 177. 
Pretence, Escutcheon of, 120, 174, 316. 
Preying, 145. 
Prince, Princess, 145. 
Princes and Princesses of the Royal 

Family ; Armorial Insignia, 278, 

279; Coronets, 145. 
Proper, 42. 
Provence ; Arms, 38. 
Prussia, H.R.H., The Crown Princess, 

Princess Royal, 280. 
Purfled, 146. 
Purpure, 41, 146. 
Pursuivant, 131, 146. 
"Pursuivant of Arms," by Mr. Planch^. 

See Planche. 
Pycot, Sir B. Arms, 208. 

Quadrate, 55, 146. 

Quarter, 64, 146, 170. See Canton. 

Quarter Pierced, 55. 

Quartering, 34, 146 ; Simple, 34 ; 

Compound, 34, 170; Grand, 170; 

Marshalling by, 169; the Bordure 

and Tressure, 173. 
Quarterings, Quarters, 34, 170 ; Grand, 

34, 170. 

Quartered Coats, Marshalling of, 170. 
Quarterly Quartered, 34, 147. 
Quarterly Quartering, 34, 147. 
Quarterly Pierced, 55. 
Quatrefoil, 147. 
QUEEN, H.M.,The; Crown, 115, 275; 

Arms, 272 ; Banner, 260. 
Queen s College, Oxford, 97. 
" Queen s Colour," the, 265. 
Quency, De ; Arms, 17. 
Queue Fourchde, 86, 147. 
Quilled, 147. 

Radclyffe, Radcliffe ; Arms, 58. 

Radiant, Rayonee, 147. 

Radstock, the Baron ; Supporters, 99. 

Ragged Staff, 135, 147, 205, 228, 321. 

Ragulde, Raguly, 34, 147. 

Ram, 76. 

Rampant, Rampant Guardant and 



Reguardant, 84, 85, 148. 
Ramryge, Thomas, 



Albans, 25, 76, 
Ramsey ; Arms, 
Ready, Mr., his ( 
Rebated, 148. 
Rebus, 148, 227. 



Abbot of St. 
, 210, 239, 326. 

its of Seals, 318. 



344 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Recercelee, 56, 150. 

Red Ensign, 263 

References to Authorities, 13. 

Reflexed, Reflected, 150. 

" Regimental Colour," the, 265. 

Reguardant, 85, 150. 

Rein-deer, 102, 150. 

Removed, 150. 

Renfrew, the Barony of, 276. 

Reptiles, in Heraldry, 79. 

Respecting, 150. 

Rest. See Clarion. 

Retorted, 150. 

Rhode Island, 324. 

Ribbon, Riband, 58, 150 : of the Gar 
ter, 287 ; Bath, 291 ; Thistle, 288 ; 
St. Patrick, 289 ; Star of India, 293. 

Richard I. ; Arms, 88, 268 ; Crest, 
121, 216; Seals, 88, 215; Badges, 

Richard II.; Arms, 212, 268; Crest, 
91,223; Badges, 27, 223, 235, 240; 
Roll of Arms of his Era, 13. 

Richard III.; Arms, 269; Badges, 
235 ; Supporters, 273 ; incorporates 
Heralds, 131, 305. 

Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and King 
of the Romans, 68, 94. 

Richard, Earl of Warwick, 214. 

Richmond, Henry, Duke of, 195, 197. 

Richmond, John de Dreux, Earl of, 
168. 

Richmond and Lennox, Ludovic 
Stuart, Duke of, 118. 

Richmond Herald, 131. 

Rising, Roussant, 81, 150. 

Riveres ; Arms, 52. 

Robert II. of Scotland, 273. 

Robsart.Earl Ludovic ; Monument, 248 

Rolls of Arms ; 12, 29. 

Romans, Richard, King of the, 68,94. 

Roringe, Sir R. de; Arms, 208. 

Ross, Euphemia, Countess of, 95 ; 
Margaret, Lady de, 164; the Earl 
of, 95. 

Rosamond, Fair, 90, 192. 

Rose, 150; en Soleil, 150 ; of England, 
150, 235 ; of Lancaster, 150, 235 ; of 
York, 150, 235 ; Badge of Edward I., 
235 ; in Modern Cadency, 198. 

Rossel, Sir G. ; Arms. 17, 209. 

Rothsay, H.R.H., The Prince of 
Wales. Duke of, 276. 

Rouge Croix, Pursuivant, 131. 

Rouge Dragon, Pursuivant, 131. 

Roundle, Roundlet, 71, 72. 

Royal Badges, 234 ; Banners, 275 ; 
Personages, their Arms, 178 ; Mot 
toes, 274 ; Standards, 6o, 275 ; 
Supporters, 273. 

Rue, Chaplet of, 109. 

Ruskin, Mr., 327. 

Rustre, 69, 151. 

Sable, 41, 151. 



Sagittarius, Sagittary, 151, 267. 
Sails, Heraldic, 257. 
Saint Alban, Abbey Church and Arms 
f> 2 5> 75> 3 2 6 ; Heraldic Tiles at, 

Saint Albans, Duke of, 195. 

Saint Andrew ; Arms, 60 ; Banner, 

261. 

Saint Anthony ; Badge, 156. 
Saint Edmund. See Edmund. 
Saint Edward, the Confessor. See 

Edward. 

Saint George ; Arms and Banner, 54, 
259, 261, 287 ; Ensign, 264 ; Chapel, 
285. 
Saint John, of Jerusalem, Knights of, 

283. 
Saint Michael and Saint George, 

Order of, 292. 
Saint Michael s Church, St. Albans, 

159- 

Saint Patrick ; Arms and Banner, 60, 
. 262 ; Order of, 288. 
Saint Paul ; Badge, 155. 
Saint Paul, Mary de, 166 ; Guy, Count 

de, 166. 

Saint Vincent, the Viscount; Sup 
porters, 99. 

Saint Waly, Sir R. de ; Arms, 209. 
Salamander, 151. 
Salient, 86, 151. 
Salisbury, Longespee, Earl of, 90, 96, 

192. 

Salisbury, D Eureux, Earl of, 192. 
Salisbury Cathedral, 326. 
Salisbury, Marquess of; Supporters, 

92. 

Saltire, Saltire-wise, In Saltire, 60, 151. 
Sanglier, 106, 151. 
Sans, 52, 151. 
Sarcelee, 151. 

Sardinian, or Italian Medal, 295. 
Savage-man, Wood-man, 151. 
Saw. Frame-Saw, 151. 
Saxony ; Dukedom and Arms, 113, 277. 
Scales, Rob. de ; Arms, 78. 
Scarpe, Escarpe, 151. 
Science of Heraldry, 24, 30, 330. 
Scintillant, 151. 

Scotland, Early Heraldry of, 94; 
Heraldry of, 204 ; Royal Heraldry 
of, 267; Royal Arms of, 67, 83, 173, 
267 ; Crests. 91, 252. 273 ; Badge, 
156, 236; Supporters, 273, 274; 
Mottoes, 274; Scottish Supporters, 
245 ; Differenced Shield of, 211 ; 
Early Seals of, 165 (see Laing, 

Scott, Sir Walter, of Abbotsford, i, 

330. 

Scott, Sir Walter, 330. 
Scottish Seals, Laing s Catalogue of, 

ii. See Laing. 
Scrope, Le; Arms, 58, 206; Badge, 



GENERAL INDEX. 



345 



Scrope, Sir R. le, 58, 206; Thos. le, 
190 ; Controversy, 206. 

Scudamore ; Arms, 154 ; Motto, 140. 

Seals; their Value in Heraldry, 10, 
318 ; Early Scottish, u ; Casts of, 
318 ; Suggestive of Supporters, 246 ; 
Examples, 318 ; American, 323. 

Seax, 152. 

Secondary Charges, 187. 

Seeded, 82, 150, 152. 

Segrave ; Arms, 84 ; Sir John, 89. 

Segreant, 152. 

Sejant, Sejant Rampant, 86, 152. 

Seme, 45, 152; de lys, 125. 

Seruse, Cerise, 152. 

Seton, Mr., his " Scottish Heraldry," 
9, 68, 94, 140, 204, 269, 309. 

Sevans, Septvans ; Arms, 121. 

Seymour, Queen Jane, 236. 

Shakefork, 152. 

Shakespeare ; Arms, 153 ; grant of 
Arms to, 310. 

Shamrock, 152, 235. 

Shelly ; Arms, 17. 

Shield, or Escutcheon, Heraldic, 14, 
37, 152; Parts, Points, and Divisions 
of, 32 ; Varieties, 35 ; Bowed, 35 ; 
k Bouche, 36 ; Couch&j, 38 ; Differ 
enced, 207. 

Shield-belt. -SV^Guige. 

Shield-boss, 15. 

Ship, 152. 

Shoveller, 152. 

Sickle, 232, 233. 

Simple Quartering, 34, 153. 

Single Small Charges, for Difference, 
190. 

Sinister, 32, 33, 153. 

Sinople, 153, 158. 

Six-foil, 153. 

Skere, Robt., Esquire, 243. 

Sleswick ; Arms, 278. 

Slipped, 82, 153. 

Soaring, 81. 

Someri, Sir J. de ; Arms, 209. 

Somerset, Henry, Duke of, 193, 194 ; 
John, Duke of, 242. 

Somerset Herald, 131. 

Sottone, Sutton, Sir R. de; Arms, 

Southacre, 224. 

Southampton, the Baron ; Supporters, 

" Soutiens, Les," 253. 
Spear, 153. 
Spiritual Peers, 106. 
Spur, 153. 

S. S., Collar of, no. See Collar. 
Stafford, De ; Arms, 61 ; Badge, 155. 
Stafford, Sir H. de ; Standard, 259. 
Stafford, Sir Humphrey de ; Crest- 
wreath, 225. 

Stafford Knot, 134, 153, 259. 
Stall-Plate, 153, 285. 
Standard, 154, 259 ; Anglo-Saxon, 5 ; 



Anglo-Norman, 5 ; Marked for Ca 
dency, 198 ; Royal, 260, 275. 

Staple, 154. 

Stapleton ; Badge, 154. 

Star, 154. 

Statant, Statant Guardant, 86, 154. 

Staunton Harcourt, 224. 

Stephen ; Arms, 88, 262 ; Badges, 108, 
151, 235, 262. 

Steward, Alexander, Earl of Men- 
teith ; Seal, 94. 

Stewart, Margaret, Countess of Angus, 

C 95- 

Stirrup, 154. 

Stock, 154. 

Stormerk ; Arms, 278. 

Strange, Le Strange ; Arms, 89. 

Strange, Hamon Le, 89; Sir J. Le, 
209. 

Stringed, 154. 

" Strongbow ; " Seal, 62. 

Stuart, Ludovic, 118; Sir Richard; 
Seal, 320 ; Badge, 240. 

Stuarts ; Arms, 125 ; Livery Colours, 
136. ^ 

Subordinaries, 42, 64. 

Suns and Roses, Collar of, no. See 
Collar. 

Supporters, 154, 178, 245 ; their pro 
bable Origin, 94, 246 ; their heraldic 
Significance, 251 ; rightly supported, 
251 ; Royal, 273 ; of the United 
Kingdom, 274 ; of Scotland, 273 j 
granted by the Lord Lyon, 246. 

" Supports, Les," 252. 

Surcoat, 155, 198. 

Surmounted, 155. 

Surrey, Earl of, 165. 

Sustained, 155. 

Swan, 81, 155, 259. 

Sweden ; Arms, 278. 

Sword, 155. 

Swyneborne ; Arms, 17. 

Sykes ; Arms, 72. 

Symbolical Expression and Record, 
ancient and universal, 5. 

Tabard, 131, 156. 

Talbot ; Badge, 231. 

Tanfield, 222. 

Tau Cross, 55, 233. 

Tawke ; Arms, 156. 

Tax on "Armorial Bearings," 314. 

Templars, Order of, 284 ; their Banner, 
13, 284. * 

Templars, Barristers of the Temple, 
284. 

Temple Church, London, 15, 107. 

Tenent, 156, 253. 

Tenne, Tawny, 42, 156. 

Tetlow ; Arms, 23. 

Tey ; Motto, 104. 

Thane, 104. 

Thistle, 68, 156, 235 ; Order and In 
signia of the, 287. 



346 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Glou 
cester, 148, 185, 240, 242. 

Thomas, Duke of Clarence, 185. 

Thorpe, Sir E. de ; Helm and Crest, 
222. 

Through, 54. 

Tiercde, In Tierce, Per Tierce, 34, 157. 

Tiles, Encaustic, 327. 

Timbre, Timbred, 157. 

Tiptoft, John, Lord ; Seal, 222. 

Tinctures, 40, 157 ; Law of, 43, 46 ; 
Blazoning in, 47 j Change of, for 
Cadency, iS6. 

Titles, 31. 

Tong, 224. 

Torse, 157. 

Torteau, Torteaux, 72, 157. 

Tower. Turret, 157. 

Transfluent, 157. 

Transmuted, 157. 

Transposed, 157. 

Traversed, 157. 

Treflee, or Boton^e, 56, 157. 

Trefoil, 157. 

Treille, Trellis, 71, 157. 

Tremaine ; Arms, 75. 

Tressure, 66, 157 ; impaled and quar 
tered, 173 ; incorrectly blazoned, 316. 

Tricked, In Trick, 42, 157. 

Tripping, 81, 157. 

Triton, 157. 

Trivet, 157. 

Trompintoun, Trumpington, Sir R. 
de, 17, 158. 

Trotton ; Brass at, in. 

Trumpet, 158. 

Trumpington ; Brass at, 17, 158. 

Trussed, Trussing, 81, 158. 

Trussell, Tressell ; Arms, 71. 

Tryvett; Arms; 157. 

Tudor, Arthur ; Badge, 238, 240. 

Tudor, Margaret, 174. 

Tudor; Badge, 145; Livery Colours, 
136; Rose, 158, 235. 

Tun, 148, 158. 

Tyndall ; Crest, 143. 

Tynes, 81, 158. 

Uffbrd, Sir Ralph de ; Arms, 167, 190. 
Ulster, Badge of, 104, 260. See Baronet 

and Herald. 

Ulster, William, Earl of, 167 
Ulster King-of-Arms, 132, 309. 
Und(5e, Undy, 34, 158. 
Unguled, 80, 158. 
Unicorn, 91, 158, 273, 274. 
" Union Jack," 158, 260 ; the First, 

261 ; the Second, 261, 262. 
Union Device, 103, 211. 
United Kingdom ; Supporters, 274. 
Unmarried Ladies ; Arms, 176. 
Urdde, 57- 
Uriant, 82, 158. 

Vair, 41, 42, 158. 



I Valence, De ; Arms, 166, 171, 326 ; 

Dimidiating Claremont Nesle, 172. 
Valence, Earl William de, 45, 53, 77, 

225 ; Earl Aymer de, 166. 
Vandalia; Arms, 278. 
Vane. See Fan. 
Varied Fields, 42, 59. 
Vavasour, William le, 51. 
Vele, De ; Arms, 76. 
Verdy, Verdde, Verdoy, 158. 
Vere, De ; Motto, 139. 
Vere, Robert de, 138, 213. 
Verley, Sir Philip de, 96. 
Vernon, Sir William, 224. 
Vert, 41, 48, 158. 
Vervels, Vervals, 158. 
Vesci, William de, 56. 
Vested, 158. 
VICTORIA, H.M.,The QUEEN ; Arms, 

272. 

Victoria Cross, 293. 
Vigilant, 156. 
Villiers, de L Isle Adam, Phillippe de, 

57, 283. 

Viscount, Viscountess, 158. 
Vivre, 159. 
Voided, 55, 159. 
Vol, 96, 159. 
Volant, 81, 82, 159. 
Volunteers ; Motto and Flag, 265. 
Vulned, 159. 

Wachesham, Sir G. de ; Arms, 208. 

Wadsle, Wadseley, De ; Arms, 202. 

Wake ; Arms, 52, 183 ; Sir J., 208. 

Wake Knot, 134, 159. 

Waldegrave ; Arms, 14. 

Wales, Native Princes of, 83. 

Wales, the Princes of, always K.G., 
285 ; also Earls of Chester, 201. 

Wales, Arms of the Principality of, 
276. 

Wales, H.R.H., Albert Edward, The 
Prince of; his Armorial Insignia, 
276, 280; his Label, 135, 183; his 
Coronet, 140 ; his Badge, 240 ; his 
eldest son s Label, 280. 

Wales, H.R.H. Alexandra, The Prin 
cess of; her Armorial Insignia, 277. 

Walford, Mr., 9. 

Walled, Murallde, 159. 

Waltone, De ; Arms, 68. 

Warkworth, 326. 

Warrenne, De, the Earls; Arms, 43, 
45, 205. 

Warwick, the Earls of; Arms and 
Seals, 96, 173, 175, 188, 214, 321. 

Water Bouget, 159. 

Wattled, 159- 

Wavy, Undee, 34, 159. 

Wedone, Sir R. de ; Arms, 208. 

Welles ; Arms, 72. 

Wellington, the Duke of; Arms, 23; 
Supporters, 92 ; Augmentation, 103, 
158, 211. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



347 



Westminster Abbey, Heraldry of, 19, 

26, 67, 93, 291, 326. 
Westminster Hall, Heraldry of, 27, gi, 

223, 269. 

Westphalia ; Arms, 272. 
Wheathamstede, John de, Abbot of 

St. Albans, 75, 148, 326. 
Wheathampstead Church, Brass at, 79. 
Wheat-Sheaf. See Garbe. 
Wheel, Catherine Wheel, 160. 
White Ensign, 264. 
Whitmore, Mr., his " Elements of 

Heraldry," 323. 
Whitworth, Shield at, 14. 
Widow, Widower ; Arms, 176. 
Wife and Husband, Marshalling their 

Arms, 175. 

Willers, De ; Arms, 65. 
William I. ; Arms, 18, 88, 267. 
William II.; Arms, 88, 267; Badge, 

2 35- 

William III. and Mary ; Arms, 269. 
William III. ; Arms, 271. 
William IV. ; Arms, 272. 
Winchelsea ; Seal of the Mayor of, 171. 
Windsor Herald, 131. 



Wingfield ; Arms, 17. 
Wings in Crests, 219. 
Woodstock, Duke Thomas of, 185,240, 

242; Badge, 148. 
Worcester, Charles, Earl of, 194 ; 

Henry, Earl of, 193 ; John, Earl of, 

222. 

Worcester Cathedral, 238, 327. 
Wortele, Worteley, De ; Arms, 203. 
Vreath, Orle.Crest-Wreath, Wreathed, 

160. 

Wyndesor, Wm. de ; Seal, 221, 250. 
Wynford, The Baron ; Supporters, 99. 
Wyvern, Wivern, 72, 160. 

Yarmouth, Great ; Arms, 171. 
Yngelfeld, Sir R. de ; Arms, 208. 
York, Dukes of, 183. 
York, Archbishop of; Arms, 101. 
York, Rose of, 150, 235 ; Collar of, 

no; Livery Colours of, 136. 
York Cathedral, Heraldic Glass at, 92. 
York Herald, 131. 

Zouche, de La ; Arms, 72 ; Differenced 
Arms, 1 86. 



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APR 1 






LD 21-100m-6, 56 
(B9311slO)476 



General Library 

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f 



MBHHMMB