G/ /t of Beatrix Farrand
to the General Library
University of California, Berkeley
Seal of Sir RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP, K.G., Fifth Earl of WARWICK
died A.D. 1439. (No. 448. See pages 215, 321.)
Seal of Sir THOMAS DE BEAUCHAMP, K.G., Third Earl of WARWICK:
died A.D. 1369. Date of the Seal, 1344.
No. 446 See No. 447, page 322 ; also see page 321.)
CHARLES BOUTELL, M.A.,
"HERALDRY, HISTORICAL AND POPULAR;" "THE MONUMENTAL BRASSES OF
ENGLAND;" "CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS IN ENGLAND AND WALES;"
" A MANUAL OF BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGY," &c.
FOUR HUNDRED AND FIFTY ILLUSTRATIONS
Drawn and Engraved on Wood by Mr. R. B. UTTING.
"To describe . . . emblazoned Shields."
CASSELL, FETTER, AND GALPIN,
LONDON AND NEW YORK.
Arms are the testimony of some noble action."
A NOBLE LADY,
WHOSE ADMIRABLE QUALITIES DIGNIFY HER RANK,
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE
LOUISA, LADY ASHBURTON,
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix
INTRODUCTORY Early Popularity of Heraldry in England
Origin of English Heraldry : Definition : Characteristics :
Developments : Early Uses : Not connected with Earlier
Systems Ancient Heraldry Past and Present Treatment of
the Subject I
EARLY HERALDIC AUTHORITIES Seals : Monumental Effigies,
&c. : Rolls of Arms, Official Heraldic Records, &c.
Earliest Heraldic Shields and Banners Allusive Quality of
Early Armory Attributed Arms 10
The English Heraldry that is now in existence First Debasement
of Heraldry Later Debasement Revival of English Heraldry
Heraldic Art . . 20
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY: Section i Language Nomencla
ture Style Forms of Expression Blazon The Shield : its
Parts, Points, Divisions, Dividing and Border Lines, Varieties
of Form, and Heraldic Treatment 29
CHAPTER V. PACK
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 2 Tinctures : Metals,
Colours, Furs Varied Fields Law of Tinctures Counter-
changing Diaper Disposition Blazoning Blazoning in
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 3 The Ordinaries : Chief :
Fesse : Bar : Pale : Cross ; its Heraldic Varieties : Bend :
Saltire: Chevron: Pile 49
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY: Section 4 The Subordinaries :
Canton or Quarter : Inescutcheon : Orle : Tressure : Bordure :
Flanches : Lozenge, Mascle, Rustre : Fusil : Billet : Gyron :
Frette The Roundles 6 4
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 5 Miscellaneous Charges :
Human Beings : Animals : Birds : Fish : Reptiles and In
sects : Imaginary Beings : Natural Objects : Various Artificial
Figures and Devices Appropriate Descriptive Epithets . . 73
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 6 The Lion and the Eagle
in Heraldry 8 3
GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : Section 7 Glossary of Titles, Names,
MARSHALLING : Aggroupment : Combination: Quartering:
Dimidiation : Impalement : Escutcheon of Pretence : Mar
shalling the Arms of Widowers, Widows, and others ; Official
Arms; and the Accessories of Shields l61
CONTENTS. VI I
CHAPTER XII. PAGK
CADENCY : Marks of Cadency are temporary, or permanent : the
Label : the Bordure : the Bendlet, Barrulet, and Canton :
Change of Tinctures : Secondary Charges : Single Small
Charges : Differences of Illegitimacy : Cadency of Crests,
Badges, &c. : Modern Cadency 180
DIFFERENCING : Differencing to denote Feudal Alliance or De
pendency : Differencing without any Alliance Augmen
tationAbatement . 200
FLAGS : The Pennon : the Banner : the Standard : the Royal
Standard : the " Union Jack :" Ensigns : Military Standards
and Colours : Hoisting and Displaying Flags 254
THE ROYAL HERALDRY OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND : Shields
of Arms of the Reigning Sovereigns of England, of Scotland,
and of the United Kingdom : Crowns and Crests : Sup
porters : Mottoes : Banners : Armorial Bearings of the late
Prince Consort, of the Prince and Princess of Wales, and of
the other Princes and Princesses, the Sons and Daughters of
H.M. the Queen 267
CHAPTER XIX. PAGE
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD AND INSIGNIA OF HONOUR : Feudal
Knighthood Orders of Knighthood : Knights of St. John :
Knights Templars : the Order of the Garter, of the Thistle,
of St. Patrick, of the Bath, of St. Michael and St. George,
of the Star of India The Victoria Cross The Albert Medal
Naval and Military Medals Foreign Insignia bestowed on
British Subjects 2Sl
PRECEDENCE: GENEALOGIES 2 9 6
The COLLEGE OF ARMS The LYON OFFICE of Scotland-
Grants of Arms Tax on "Armorial Bearings," and on
"Arms Found" 35
MISCELLANEOUS :- Coins Seals Heraldry in Architecture, in
Monuments, in Illuminations, in Encaustic Tiles Heraldic
Personal Ornaments, and various Heraldic Decorations-
Conclusion 3 ! 7
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
i. Arms of St. George ...}
2. Arms of St. Edward ...> Preface.
3. Arms of St. Edmund...;
4. Arms of Sir Walter Scott, of
5. Lance Flag, Bayeux Tapestry. 6
6. Lance Flag, Bayeux Tapestry. 6
, 7. Ancient Shield, from a Greek
8. Ancient Shield, from a Greek
Vase . 8
37. Compound Quartering ...
38. Border and Dividing Lines
39. Bowed Shield
40. Heraldic Shield
41. Heraldic Shield
42. Heraldic Shield
43. Heraldic Shield
44 Heraldic Shield
45. Modern Shield
48. Arms of Provence
49. Shield Couche
50. Symbolisation of Or
51. Symbolisation of Argent...
52. Symbolisation of Azure ...
53. Symbolisation of Gules ...
54. Symbolisation of Sable ...
... 4 o
... 4 o
9. Ancient Shield, from a Greek
10. Ancient Shield, from a Greek
ii. Seal of Walter Innes n
12. Seal of William Innes n
13. Banner of Templars 14
14. Banner of Leicester 14
15. Shield of Brittany 14
16. Shield of Waldegrave 14
17. Shield of Fitz Warine 14
18. Shield at Whitworth 14
19. The Escarbuncle 15
56. Symbolisation of Purpure
57, 57 A. Ermine
20A. Shield of Montacute 70
63. Counter Vair
22. Arms assigned to William I. 18, 268
23. Arms assigned to the Saxon
65. Counter Potent
67. Counter Compon^e
68. Arms of Earl de Warrenne
69. Arms of Jerusalem
70. Arms of Fenwick
71. A Chief. ;
72. Arms of Le Botiler
73. Arms of De Brus
74. Arms of De Clintone
75. Arms of De Clintone
76. Arms of De Clifford
77. Arms of De Pateshulle ...
78. Arms of Le Vavasour
79. Arms of De Hemenhale ...
80. Arms of De Dageworthe
81. Arms of De Harecourt ...
82. Arms of Wake
83. Arms of De Huntercumbe
84. Arms of De la Mere
... 4 i
24. Shield of Prince John of
25. Badge of Richard II., West
minster Hall 28
26. Badge of Richard II., West
minster Hall 28
27. The Points of an Heraldic
28. Shield divided per Pale 33
29. Shield divided per Fesse 33
30. Shield divided Quarterly 33
31. Shield divided per Bend 33
32. Shield divided per Bend Sinis
33. Shield divided per Saltire ... 33
34. Shield divided per Chevron ... 33
35. Shield divided per Tierce ... 33
36. Shield Quarterly of Eight ... 34
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
85. Arms of Fitzalan of Bedale...
86. Arms of De Valence
87. Arms of Erskine
88. Arms of Grandison
89. Cross Fimbriated
90. Cross Pointed
145. Arms of De Burgh, Earl of
146. Arms of Deincourt .. -7
147. Arms of Campbell 70
148. Frette 71
149. Arms of De Etchingham ... 71
150. Trellis Clou^e 71
151. Bezant 72
92 Latin Cross
93. Tau Cross
153. Fountain 72
95. Cross Patriarchal
96. Cross Fourchoe
97. Arms of De Molines
98. Arms of Bishop Anthony Bee
99. Arms of William de Vesci ...
loo. Cross Fleurie
101. Cross Fleurettoe
102. Cross Pomme e
103. Cross Boton^e
104. Cross Crosslet
105. Cross Clechde
155. Shield of Douglas 74
156. Shield of Douglas 74
157. Shield of Douglas 74
158. Shield of Isle of Man 74
159. Shield of St. Alban s Abbey... 75
160. Early Martlet 77
161 Martlet . .. 77
162. Banner of De Barre 77
163. Dolphin 78
164, Arms of De Lucy 78
165. Escallop 78
166. A, B, C, Crescent, Increscent,
167. At Gaze 81
168 Tripping 81
107. Cross Maltese
108. Cross Potent
109. Cross Avellane
no. Cross Botonde Fitch^e
in Arms of Le Scrope
169. At Speed 81
170. Stag s Head Cabossed 81
171. Lion Rampant 85
172. I, ion Rampant Guardant ... 85
173. Lion Passant 85
174. Lion Passant Guardant 85
175. Lion Statant 85
176. Lion Statant Guardant 85
177. Lion Sejant 86
178. Lion Sejant Rampant 86
179. Lion Couchant 86
180. Lion Salient 86
181. Lion Queue Fourchce 86
182. Lion Coward 86
183. Lion s Head 87
184. Lion s Face 87
185. Lion s Jambe 87
186. Demi-Lion Rampant 87
187 Arms of England 87, 268
112. Arms of De Radclyffe
113. Arms of Le Boteler
114. Arms of De Bohun, Earl of
115. Arms of De Bohun (dif
117. Arms of De Bray
118. Paly Bendy
119. Barry Bendy
1 20. Arms of St. Andrew
121. Arms of De Neville
122. Arms of De Neville
123. Arms of De Stafford
124. Arms of De Clare
I24A. Early Shield of De Clare ...
125. Arms of De Peyvre
126. Arms of De Chandos
127. Arms of De Brian
128. Arms of De Bassett
129. Arms of De Kyrkeby
130. Arms of Blundell
131. Arms of De Mortimer
132. Arms of Darcy
133. Arms of De Wyllers
134. Arms of De Balliol
135. Single Tressure Flory
136. Tressure Flory Counterflory.
137. Double Tressure Flory
138. Arms of Scotland 67,
139. Arms of De Waltone
140. Arms of Richard, Earl of
188. Arms of Richard T 88
189. Arms of Prince John 88
190 Arms of Richard 1 88
191. Arms of Le Strange 89
193. Arms of Mowbray 89
195. Arms of De Segrave 89
196. Arms of De Percy 90
197. Arms of De Longesptfe 90
198. Crest of Black Prince 91
199. Crest, &c., Richard II 91
200. Eagle Shield in Westminster
201. Imperial Eagle 93
202. Royal Eagle 93
203. Arms of Earl of Cornwall ... 94
204. Seal of Euphemia Leslie ... 94
2o<;. Shield of Piers Gaveston ... 05
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
206. ArmsofMontacuteand Mon
207. A Vol ... 96
263. Helm of Esquires and Gen
264. Heneage Knot 131
208. Arms of De Charlestone ... 96
209. Arms of De la Mere . 96
265. Arms of the Heralds College 131
266. Arms of Lyon Office 132
210. Shield at St. Albans 98
267. Jessant de lys 134
211. Austrian Eagle . . 98
268, 269. Heraldic Keys . .134
212. German Imperial Eagle ... 99
213. German Eagle, wings erect... 99
270. Hastings Badge 134
271, 272, 273. Labels 135
215. Badge of Ulster 101
216. Breys 104
217. Baron s Coronet 104
218. Water Bouget 106
219. Bourchier Knot 106
220. Bowen Knot . . . 107
275. Lymphad 137
276. Arms of Hastings 137
277. Coronet of Marquess 138
278. Mullet 140
279. Mullet, Pierced 140
280. Mural Crown 141
222. Castle . . 108
282. Bourdon 142
223. Celestial Crown 108
224. Chapeau of Estate 108
225. Arms of Saxony 108
226. Chess Rook 109
227. Cinquefoil 109
283. Panache Crest of Edward
284. Panache Crest of William le
285. Panache Crest of Edmund
229. Cockatrice no
286. Pennon of D Aubernoun 144
231. Collar of Lancaster no
232. Crest-Coronet 114
233. Crest- Wreaths 114
234. Crown of H. M. The Queen
235. Dacre Knot and Badges ... 115
236. Dragon 117
237. Duke s Coronet 117
238. Earl s Coronet 118
239. Eastern Crown 118
240. Electoral Bonnet 119
241. Arms of Byron 119
288. Portcullis 144
289. Coronet of Prince of Wales 146
290. Coronet of Queen s Daugh
ters and Younger Sons ... 146
291. Coronet of Queen s Grand
292. Coronet of Queen s Cousins 146
293. Quatrefoil 147
294. The Ragged Staff Badge ... 147
295. Rebus of Abbot Kirton ... 149
296. Rebus of Bishop Beckyngton 149
297. Rebus of Sir John Peche ... 149
243 Fer-de-Moline 121
244. Fermails 121
300. Rose-en-Soleil 150
301. Crest of Hamilton 152
246. Fleur de lys 122
303. Arms of Shakespeare 153
248. Arms of France Modern ... 123
305 Staple Badge 153
249. Arms of Edmund, Earl of
306. Arms of City of London ... 155
250. Arms of Margaret, Queen of
Edward 1 123
308. Badge of James 1 156
309. Trefoil Slipped 157
Edward 1 124
252. Shield of Edward III., A.D.
1340 125, 269
253. Shield of Henry IV., about
1405 125, 269
311. Viscount s Coronet 159
312. Shield at St. Michael s
Church, St. Albans 159
313. Wake Knot 159
314. Catherine Wheel 159
256. Shield of R. de Gorges ... 128
257. Hawk s Lure 129
258. Hawk s Bells and Jesses ... 129
259. Helm of the Sovereign ... 130
260. Helm of Princes and Nobles 130
261. Helmof Baronets and Knights 130
316. Seal of Margaret, Queen of
Edward 1 163
317. Seal of Margaret, Lady De
318. Seal of Joan, Countess of
262. Helm of Esquires and Gen
319. Seal of Mary, Countess of
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
35 1 -
Seal of Matilda of Lancaster 167
Seal of Oliver de Bohun ... 168
Shield of Earl John de Dreux 168
Shield of Castile and Leon... 169
Shield of Henry, Earl of
Shield of Mayor of Winchel-
Shield of De Valence and
Claremont Nesle 172
Shield of Camoys and Morti
Shield of D Aubigny and
Shield of Earl Richard Beau-
Four Diagrams illustrative of
332. Two Diagrams illustra
tive of Marshalling 175
334 335- Three Diagrams
illustrative of Marshalling. 176
Shield of Eldest Sons of Ed
ward I. and II 182
Shield of Black Prince 182
Label of Lancaster 183
Label of Brittany 183
Label of York 183
Label of Clarence 184
Label of Henry and John of
Label of Thomas of Lan
Shield of Holland, of Kent... 185
Shield of Henry of Lan
Shield of Beauchamp of
Shield of Beauchamp at Car-
Shield of Beauchamp of
Shield of Beauchamp of Blet-
Shield of Bishop Grandison. 189
Seal of Bishop Le Despencer 189
Shield of Sir Fulk Fitz Warm 190
Shield of Ihomas le Scrope. 191
Crescent, for Difference ... 191
Mullet, for Difference 191
Shield of Lord Latimer ... 191
Shield of Neville 191
Shield of Sir Wm. de Brewys 191
Shield of Henry, Earl of
Shield of Beaufort, before
Shield of Beaufort, after 1397 194
Shield of Charles, Earl of
Shield of Sir Roger de Cla
rendon .; 195
Arms of RadulphusdeArundel 195
Seal of William Fraser 199
366. Shield of Earl of Chester ... 201
367. Shield of Fitz Ralph ...
368. Shield of De Luterell ...
369. Shield of DeWadsley...
370. Shield of De Wortley ...
371. Shield of De Mounteney
372. Shield of De Mounteney
373. Shield in St. Alban s Abbey. 210
374. Shield of Howard, after
374A. Howard Augmentation ... 211
375. Fan-Crest, Richard 1 216
376. Fan-Crest, Henry de Perci... 216
377. Fan-Crest, Henry de Laci ... 216
378. Seal of Alexander de Halliol. 217
379. Helm, &c., Thomas, Earl of
380. Helm, &c., Geoffrey Lute
381. Seal, Sir Robert de Marny ... 219
382. Seal, William de Wyndesor. 221
383. Crest, SirR. Grey, K.G. ... 222
384. Helm, &c., Richard II. ... 223
385. Helm, &c., Sir Hugh Hast
386. Crest-Wreath, Sir William
387. Crest-Wreath, Sir Robert
388. Crest - Wreath, Effigy at
389. Basinet and Crest-Wreath,
Sir H. Stafford 225
390. Seal, Earl Robert Bruce ... 232
3ji. Seal, Lord Hungerford 232
392. Seal, Sir Robert de Hunger-
393. Badge, Tau and Bell 234
394. Ostrich Feather Badge 238
395. 396. Three Ostrich Feathers,
397. Ostrich Feather Badge, Lud-
398. Ostrich Feather Badge,
Deanery, Peterborough ... 239
399. Ostrich Feather Badge, St.
Alban s Abbey 239
400. Ostrich Feather Badge, Exe
ter Cathedral 239
401. Shield " for Peace " of Black
402. Ostrich Feather Badge, Seal
of Henry IV 243
403. Ostrich Feather Badge, Seal
of Thomas, Duke of Gloster 243
404. Ostrich Feather Badge, Gar
ter Plate of John Beaufort. 243
405. Seal of Devorguilla Craw
406. Seal of Margaret, Lady
407. Seal of Earl Edmund de
408. Seal of Robert Graham ... 251
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
409. Seal of Sh Wm. Lindsay ... 251
410. Seal of Sir John Drummond 252
411. Pennon ... .. 255
412. Pennon of Percy 255
413. Banners and Pennons 256
414. Seal of Earl John Holland ... 258
415. Standard of Sir H. de Staf
ford, K.G 260
416. The Royal Standard 260
417. The First Union Jack 261
418. Banner of St. George 261
419. Banner of St. Andrew 2 6i
420. The Second Union Jack .. 262
421. The Banner of St. Patrick... 262
422. Red Ensign 263
423. Royal Arms of Stuart Sove
424. Arms of Nassau 270
425. Diagram of Arms of William
111. and Mary 270
426. Diagram of Arms of William
III. alone 270
427. Diagram of Arms of Anne... 271
428. Arms of Hanover 271
429, 430. Diagrams of Royal
Arms 271, 272
431. Crest of England 273
432. Signet Ring of Queen Mary
Stuart ... 274
Shield of Prince and Princess
of Wales 279
"Lesser George" of the
Garter 2 86
Badge of the Thistle 288
Badge of St. Patrick ... 288
Badge of the Bath, Naval
and Military 290
Badge of the Bath, Diplo-
matic and Civil
Badge of the Star of Ind
The Albert Medal ... .
Seal of Lord Bardolf ..
Seal of William Mure ...
Seal of Thomas Monypeny. 320
Seal of Richard Stuart 320
Seal of Earl Thomas de
Counter-Seal of the same ... 322
Seal of Earl Richard de
Seven woodcuts from the
Seals of the Original
Settlers in New England,
respectively numbered, i,
2, 3, 4j. 5, 6, and I 7 ... 323, 324
beal of bir Walter Scott. A.D.
No. 2. No. i. No. 3.
St. Edward. St. George. St Edmund.
THIS little Volume, specially prepared for the use of
students at an early period of their study of English
Heraldry, commends itself also to those inquirers who may
desire to obtain some general information on the same
subject, without having any intention to devote to Heraldry
much either of their time or of their serious regard.
The success, no less extraordinary than gratifying, of
my larger work on Heraldry, led me to hope that a not less
favourable reception might be extended to a simpler and
much shorter essay, more decidedly elementary in its aim
and character, and yet as far as possible within its limits
complete. Such a treatise I have endeavoured to produce
in this Volume.
Inseparably associated with the History of our Country,
and more particularly when our national History becomes a
Biography of eminent Englishmen, English Heraldry has
the strongest claims upon the attention not only of all
Historians, but also of all who desire to become familiar
with their writings. In like manner, Heraldry may be
studied with no less of advantage than of satisfaction by all
Artists, whether Architects, Sculptors, Painters, or En
gravers. Nor is it too much to assert that some knowledge
of Heraldry, in consequence of its singular and compre
hensive utility, ought to be estimated as a necessary
element of a liberal education. In confirmation of my own
views, I am tempted to quote the following passage from
M. GOURDON DE GENOUILLAC S introduction to his ex
cellent " Grammaire Heraldique," of which a new edition
has just been published at Paris : " Le blason," says M.
de Genouillac, " est une langue qui s est conservee dans sa
purete primitive depuis les siecles, langue dont la con-
naissance est indispensable aux families nobles, qui y
trouvent un signe d alliance ou de reconnaissance, aux
numismates, aux antiquaires, aux arche ologues, enfin a tous
les artistes, gens de lettres, &c. ; cependant cette langue est
presque inconnue, et la plupart des personnes qui pos-
sedent le droit de porter des armoiries seraient fort en
peine de les expliquer selon les termes techniques ! "
Heraldry, indeed, I believe to be a study worthy to be
universally regarded with affectionate respect, as it certainly
is eminently qualified to inspire such a sentiment in every
class of students.
In this spirit I have here treated the elements of the
Heraldry of England, confident that, of those who may
accompany me as far as I shall lead them, very many will
not be content to stop where I shall take leave of them.
Thus much I promise my companions I will be to them a
faithful guide. They may trust to my accuracy. I have
made no statement, have adduced no example, nor have I
exhibited any illustration, except upon authority. I myself
like and admire what is real and true in Heraldry ; and it is
by the attractiveness of truth and reality that I desire to
win for Heraldry fresh friends, and to secure for it firm
It will be understood that from the authority, the
practice, and the associations of the early Heraldry of the
best and most artistic eras, I seek to derive a Heraldry
which we may rightly consider to be our own, and which we
may transmit with honour to our successors. I do not
suggest the adoption, for present use, of an obsolete system.
But, while I earnestly repudiate the acceptance and the
maintenance amongst ourselves of a most degenerate
substitute for a noble Science, I do aspire to aid in
restoring HERALDRY to its becoming rank, and conse
quently to its early popularity, now in our own times. This
is to revive the fine old Heraldry of the past, to give to it a
fresh animation, and to apply it under existing conditions to
existing uses and requirements : not, to adjust ourselves to
the circumstances of its first development, and to reproduce
as copyists its original expressions. It is not by any
means a necessary condition of a consistent revival of
early Heraldry, that our revived Heraldry should admit no
deviation from original usage or precedent. So long as we
are thoroughly animated by the spirit of the early Heralds,
we may lead our Heraldry onwards with the advance of
time. It is for us, indeed, to prepare a Heraldry for the
future, no less than to revive true Heraldry in the time now
present We may rightly modify, therefore, and adapt
many things, in order to establish a true conformity between
our Heraldry and the circumstances of our own era : for
example, with advantage as well as propriety we may, in a
great measure, substitute Badges for Crests ; we may
decline any longer to display the armorial insignia of
Ladies upon unsightly and inconvenient Lozenges ; and we
shall do well to adopt a style of drawing which will be
perfectly heraldic, without being positively unnatural.
The greater number of my Illustrations have been
engraved only in outline, with the twofold object of my
being thus enabled to increase the number of the examples,
and to adapt the engravings themselves to the reception of
colour. It will be very desirable for students to blazon the
illustrations, or the majority of them, in their proper
tinctures : and those who are thoroughly in earnest will not
fail to form their own collections of additional examples,
which, as a matter of course, they will seek to obtain from
original authorities. With the exception of two small
groups, my Illustrations, in number 460, have all been exe
cuted expressly for this work ; and they all have been drawn
on wood and engraved by Mr. R. B. UTTING. The ex
ceptions are thirteen admirable woodcuts of Scottish Seals,
all of them good illustrations of Heraldry south of the
Tweed, originally engraved for Laing s noble quarto upon
" The Ancient Seals of Scotland," recently published in
Edinburgh, which have been most kindly lent to me by Mr.
H. LAING; also, seven other woodcuts, lent to me by Mr.
W. H. WHITMORE, of Boston, in the United States, and which
appeared for the first time in a very interesting volume by
that gentleman, published in his own country, under the
title of " Elements of Heraldry, with an Essay on the use
of Coat- Armour in the United States." The cuts are
examples of some of the Seals of Arms, all of them "un
deniably engraved in England," which the first settlers in
New England took with them from their mother country.
Scottish Heraldry, I must add, as in any particulars of
law and practice it may differ from our Heraldry on this
side of the Tweed, I have left in the able hands of the
Heralds of the North : at the same time, however, the
Heraldry of which I have been treating has so much that
is equally at home on either side of " the border," that I
have never hesitated to look for my examples and
authorities to both the fair realms which now form one
London: August, 1867.
Early Popularity oj Heraldry in England. Origin of English
Heraldry; Definition; Characteristics; Developments; Early
Uses ; not connected with Earlier Systems. Ancient Heraldry.
Past and Present Treatment of the Subject.
" What ! Is it possible ? not know the figures of Heraldry ! Of what could your
father be thinking ? " ROB ROY.
HE sentiment unquestionably was
his own which Sir Walter Scott
taught delightful Die Vernon to
express when, with indignant sur
prise, she asked Frank Osbaldis-
tone of what his father could
have been thinking, that he had
been permitted to grow up with
out any knowledge of Heraldry.
Sir Walter was right in his estimate
of the high value of Heraldry as
No - 4> an element of education: and,
in professing herself a votress of the Herald s "gentle
science," it was quite right in Die Vernon to suggest to
other ladies that it would be well for them if Heraldry
2 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
should find favour in their eyes also. The age of Rob
Roy, however, was far from being in harmony with heraldic
associations : nor was the author of " Waverley" himself
permitted to accomplish more, than to lead the way to that
revival of a popular sympathy with every expression of early
Art, which now forms one of the most remarkable charac
teristics of our own era.
In the olden time, in England, the love of Heraldry,
which was prevalent amongst all classes, was based upon an
intelligent appreciation of its worthiness. A part of the
feudal system of the Middle Ages, and at once derived from
the prevailing form of thought and feeling, and imparting
to it a brilliant colouring peculiar to itself, Heraldry exer
cised a powerful influence upon the manners and habits of
the people amongst whom it was in use. By our early
ancestors, accordingly, as Mr. Montagu has so happily
written, " little given to study of any kind, a knowledge of
Heraldry was considered indispensable:" to them it was the
" outward sign of the spirit of chivalry, the index, also, to a
lengthened chronicle of doughty deeds." And this Heraldry
grew up, spontaneously and naturally, out of the circum
stances and requirements of those times. It was invented
and introduced, because it was needed for practical use ; it
was accepted and cherished, because it did much more than
fulfil its avowed purpose. At first, simply useful to distin
guish particular individuals, especially in war and at the
tournament, English Heraldry soon became popular; and
then, with no less rapidity, it rose to high honour and
From the circumstance that it first found its special use
in direct connection with military equipments, knightly
exercises, and the melee of actual battle, mediaeval Heraldry
has also been entitled ARMORY. Men wore the ensigns
of Heraldry about their persons, embroidered upon the
ORIGIN AND DEFINITION. 3
garments that partially covered their armour, and so they
called them Coats-of-Arms : they bore these same ensigns
on their shields, and they called them Shields-of-Arms: and
in their Armorial Banners and Pennons they again displayed
the very same insignia, floating in the wind high above their
heads, from the shafts of their lances.
The Heraldry or Armory of England, an honourable and
honoured member of the illustrious family of mediaeval
European Heraldry, may be defined to be a symbolical and
pictorial language, in which figures, devices, and colours are
employed instead of letters. Each heraldic composition
has its own definite and complete signification, conveyed
through its direct connection with some particular indi
vidual, family, dignity, or office. Every such heraldic
composition, also, is a true legal possession, held and
maintained by an express right and title : and it is here
ditary, like other real property, in accordance with certain
laws and precedents of inheritance. But in this respect
heraldic insignia are singular and unlike other property,
inasmuch as it is a general rule that they cannot be alien
ated, exchanged, or transferred otherwise than by inherit
ance or other lawful succession. Exceptions to this rule,
when they are observed occasionally to have occurred, show
clearly their own exceptional character, and consequently
they confirm the true authority of the rule itself. It will
be understood, as a necessary quality of its hereditary
nature, that the signification of an heraldic composition,
while " definite and complete " in itself, admits of augmen
tation and expansion through its association with successive
generations. Thus, the Royal Shield of EDWARD III. is
" complete " as the heraldic symbol of that great monarch,
and of the realm under his rule : and yet this same shield,
equally "complete" (with one simple modification) as the
heraldic symbol of each successive Sovereign till the death
4 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
of ELIZABETH, has its signification infinitely augmented and
expanded through its hereditary association with all the
Sovereigns of the Houses of Plantagenet and Tudor.
That true Heraldry, which now is under consideration,
appears to have been introduced into England, in all pro
bability from Germany through France, in a very immature
condition, in the second half of the twelfth century. Until
the concluding quarter of that century, the traces of its
existence are faint and few in number. Early in the thir
teenth century the new science began to establish itself
firmly amongst our ancestors of that age ; and it is certain
that, as soon as its character and capabilities were in any
degree understood aright, it grew speedily into favour ; so
that in the reign of HENRY III. (A.D. 1216 1272) English
Heraldry had confirmed its own claims to be regarded as a
Science, by being in possession of a system, a classification,
and a technical language of its own.
The Crusades, those extraordinary confederacies without
a parallel in the history of civilised nations, were themselves
so thoroughly heraldic, that it was only an inevitable result
of their existence that they should give a powerful impulse
to the establishment and development of Heraldry in the
early days of its career.
But Heraldry, from the time of its first appearance in
England, was found to be valuable for other uses besides
those which so intimately connected it with both real and
imitative warfare, with the fierce life-and-death conflict of
the battle-field, and with the scarcely less perilous struggle
for honour and renown in the lists. Very soon after the
Norman Conquest, in consequence of their presence being
required to give validity to every species of legal document,
SEALS became instruments of the greatest importance ; and
it would at once be obvious that heraldic insignia, with a
representation of the knightly shield upon which they were
HERALDRY OF ANTIQUITY. 5
displayed, were exactly suited to satisfy every requirement
of the seal-engraver. By such means Heraldry became
interwoven as well with the peaceful concerns of e very-day
life, as with the display of martial splendour and the tur
moil of war.
Many attempts have been made to set aside the opinion
that the Heraldry of the Middle Ages in England was a
fresh creation, a production of indigenous growth : and
great is the ingenuity that has been brought into action to
carry back the Heraldry of our own country from the com
mencement of the thirteenth century through the previous
elementary stages of its existence, in order to trace its direct
lineal descent from certain decorative and symbolical devices
that were in use at much earlier periods. The careful and
diligent researches, however, of the most learned Heralds
have at present led them almost unanimously to reject all
such theories as these, as speculative and uncertain. At
the same time, it is an indisputable fact that, in all ages of
the world, and amongst all races of men, some form of
symbolical expression has been both in use and in favour.
And it is equally true that this symbolism, whatever it may
have been, has generally been found in some way associated
with a military life and with the act of warfare. Soldiers,
and particularly those in high command, have always
delighted to adorn their shields with devices that some
times were significant of their own condition or exploits, or
sometimes had reference to their country, or even to their
families; and, in like manner, it has been a universal
custom to display similar devices and figures in military
standards of all kinds. At the time of the Conquest, as is
shown in the famous Bayeux Tapestry of the Conqueror s
Consort, the shields and standards of both Normans and
Anglo-Saxons were painted, and perhaps the latter were em
broidered, with various figures and devices; but certainly
without any heraldic significance or any personal associa
tions being indicated by these figures and devices, which
bear a general resemblance to the insignia of the Legions
and Cohorts of Imperial Rome. Nos. 5 and 6 give repre-
Nos. 5 and 6. Lance Flags Bayeux Tapestry.
sentations of the standards that are introduced into the
Bayeux Tapestry. The same species of decoration, con
sisting chiefly of painted patterns, with discs, stars, crescents,
and some other figures, continued in use in our own country
until it was superseded by a true Heraldry ; and it also may
be assumed to have prevailed in England in much earlier
In still more remote ages a more decided Heraldry was
displayed upon signets, coins, shields, and standards. In
this ancient Heraldry, occasionally the important and cha
racteristic quality of hereditary association in certain devices
is apparent. Thus, Virgil (^Eneid, vii. 657) assigns to
Aventinus " insigne paternum" upon his shield his hereditary
device, derived by him from his father. But these devices
generally appear to have their significance in a greater or a
less degree restricted, amongst the ancients, to certain par
ticular incidents ; consequently in all these examples there is
nothing to show that the man who bore one device at one
time, did not bear another device at another time.* For
* In his recently published " Hand-book of Engraved Gems," Mr.
King maintains that "the devices on the signets of the ancients were
both hereditary and unalterable, like our armorial bearings ;" but, at
the same time, he admits that the " armorial bearings," which appear
HERALDRY OF ANTIQUITY. 7
example, ^Eschylus, the Greek tragedian (B.C. 600), has
recorded that Capaneus, when attacking the city of Thebes,
bore on his shield the figure of a warrior carrying a lighted
torch, with the motto, " I will fire the city !" But, on
another occasion, we have reason to believe that the same
Capaneus bore quite a different device, applicable to that
other occasion; and this deprives these ancient devices,
heraldic as they are in their general character, of that special
personal association which true Heraldry requires and,
indeed, implies. The beautiful painted vases, the works of
Greek artists, that are discovered in such extraordinary
numbers and in perfect preservation in some parts of Italy,
constantly give most striking representations of the shields of
ancient Greek warriors and other personages, with heraldic
devices displayed upon them. These shields illustrate, in a
remarkable manner, both the appropriate significance of par
ticular devices, and the usage then prevalent for a variety of
devices to be borne on different occasions by the same indivi
dual. Shields upon vases in the collections in the Museum of
" on the shields of the Grecian heroes in the most ancient pictures
extant, the Vase-paintings," "seem to have been assumed at the
caprice of the individual, like the knights cognisances at tournaments in
the days of chivalry, and not to have been hereditary." " Hand-book,"
page 216. Almost immediately, however, Mr. King adds, that tra
ditions exist which represent the mythic heroes bearing " engraved on
their signets the same devices that decorated their shields." It would
seem that the argument from such traditions would rather indicate the
signet-devices to have been arbitrary, than the shield-devices to have
been unalterable. While I readily admit the veiy interesting devices of
antiquity to possess decided heraldic attributes, I cannot consider Mr.
King to have shown that, as a general rule, they were held by the
ancients themselves to have been either " unalterable" or " hereditary."
Possibly, further light may be thrown upon the hereditary quality of
ancient Heraldry : but, I certainly do not expect to see any evidence
adduced, which would establish a line of descent connecting the
Mediaeval Heraldry of England with any heraldic system of classic
the Louvre at Paris, and in the British Museum, where they
are easy of access, contain a great variety of devices. The
examples, Nos. 7, 8, 9, and 10, are from our own National
No. 9. No. 10.
Ancient Shields from Greek Vases.
Collections. No. 7, the shield black, the border and the
pegasus red ; No. 8, the shield black, and the two dolphins
white ; No. 9, the shield black, with a border adorned with
red discs, the serpent white ; No. 10, the shield black, with
purple border, the three human legs conjoined white. The
shields, Nos. 9 and 10, are both borne by the goddess
A0HNH (Minerva) ; and the remarkable device displayed
on No. 10 is also found on the coins of ancient Sicily.
Other similar shields display lions, horses, dogs, wild boars,
fish, birds, clusters of leaves, chariots and chariot-wheels,
votive tripods, serpents, scorpions, with many others, in
cluding occasional examples of human figures. In another
collection I have seen an anchor and an Amazon s bow.
REVIVAL OF ENGLISH HERALDRY. 9
A device differing from that in No. 10 only in having the
conjoined limbs in armour, will be found in our own English
Heraldry to be the armorial ensign of the Isle of Man.
This Heraldry of Antiquity is to be regarded as the pre
decessor, and not as the ancestor of the Heraldry of Eng
land. There may be much that is common to both but,
there is nothing to show the later system to have been a
lineal descendant from the earlier. The Heraldry, there
fore, that has flourished, declined, and now is in the act of
reviving in our own country in almost the full vigour of its
best days, I shall treat as an independent science, proceed
ing from a single source, and from thence flowing onwards
with varied fortunes, side by side with the chequered
chronicles of England. In the course of its progress from
the palmy days of EDWARD III., it has had to encounter,
in a degree without precedent or parallel, that most painful
and mischievous of trials the excessive admiration of in
judicious friends. Hence, Heraldry was brought into dis
repute, and even into contempt, by the very persons who
loved it with a genuine but a most unwise love. In process
of time, no nonsense appeared too extravagant, and no fable
too wild, to be engrafted upon the grave dignity of the
Herald s early science. Better times at length have suc
ceeded. Heraldry now has friends and admirers, zealous
as of old, whose zeal is guided aright by a sound judgment
in alliance with a pure taste. Very much already has been
accomplished to sweep away the amazing mass of absurdities
and errors which had overwhelmed our English Heraldry,
by such men as Nicholas, Nichols, Courthope, Seton,
Planch^, Walford, Montagu, and Lower : and the good
work goes on and prospers, with the most cheering assu
rances of complete and triumphant success.
EARLY HERALDIC AUTHORITIES.
Seals : Monumental Effigies, &&gt;c. : Rolls of Amis, Official Pleraldic
Records, &=<:. Earliest Heraldic Shields and Banners, Allusive
Quality of Early Armory, Attributed Arms.
" Let us begin at the beginning." PURSUIVANT OF ARMS.
AT the head of the earliest existing authorities in English
Heraldry are SEALS. To the fortunate circumstance of the
legal importance attached to them we are indebted for the
preservation of these equally interesting and valuable relics,
in great variety and in very considerable numbers. The
heraldic evidence of Seals is necessarily of the highest
order. They are . original works, possessing contempo
raneous authority. Produced with peculiar care and ap
proved by their first possessors, their original authenticity
is confirmed by their continued use through successive
Having been in use before the introduction and adoption
of Heraldry in England, Seals enable us to compare the
devices that preceded true Heraldry with the earliest that
are truly heraldic : and thus they show that, in many
instances, regular coats-of-arms derived their hereditary
bearings from similar devices that had been adopted in
the same families before the heraldic era. For example :
the Seal of John Mundegumri, about A.D. 1175, bears a
single flenr-de-lys, not placed upon a shield; and, accord
ingly, here is seen the origin of the three golden flenrs-de-lys,
borne afterwards upon a blue shield by the descendants of
this John, the Montgomeries, Earls of Eglintoun. Again :
the Seal of Walter Innes, A.D. 1431, displays the shield
HERALDIC SEALS. II
of arms of his house three Hue mullets (stars generally of
five rays) on a field of silver, No. 1 1 ; and these mullets
No. ii. Seal of Walter Innes. No. 12. Seal of Wm. Innes.
may be traced to the single star, that appears on the Seal of
William Innes, or De Ynays, No. 12, appended to his deed
of homage to Edward I., in the Year 1295. I have selected
these examples from the " Catalogue of Scottish Seals,"
published by Mr. Laing, of Edinburgh, that I may be
enabled here to refer in the highest terms of admiring
commendation to that most excellent work. It is greatly
to be desired that a corresponding publication should treat,
with equal ability, of the Seals of England which, from the
dawn of Heraldry, continue their admirable examples and
illustrations throughout its career.
Monumental Effigies, Sepulchral Memorials, early Build
ings, and early Stained Glass, frequently are rich in autho
ritative examples of " the figures of Heraldry." In addition
to the various forms and combinations of heraldic com
position, these works illustrate the early style of drawing
in favour with Heralds during the great eras of mediaeval
Art, and they have preserved to us most useful and sug
gestive representations of various devices in their proper
heraldic aspect. In many instances the Heraldry of early
Monuments and Architecture possesses a peculiar value,
arising from the circumstance of the shields of arms and
other insignia having been sculptured in low relief or
outlined in incised lines, and consequently these devices
and compositions retain their original forms : and, in like
manner, the original colouring of the Heraldry of Stained
12 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Glass remains safe from restoration or destruction, in con
sequence of the impossibility of re-painting it.
The early written Literature of English Heraldry is
calculated to throw but little light upon either its true
character or its history. In addition, however, to the
various and numerous official documents of the Heralds
College, several examples of one particular class of heraldic
record have been preserved, the value of which cannot be
too highly estimated. These are ROLLS OF ARMS long,
narrow strips of parchment, on which are written lists of
the names and titles of certain personages, with full descrip
tions of their armorial insignia. The circumstances under
which these Rolls were prepared are for the most part
unknown : but, the exact accuracy of their statements has
been established beyond all question by careful and repeated
comparison with Seals and other Monuments, and also with
Documents which give only an indirect and yet not the
less conclusive corroboration to the records of the Rolls
of Arms themselves. The earliest of these Rolls at present
known date about A.D. 1250; and since in these earliest
Rolls a very decided technical language is uniformly
adopted, and the descriptions are all given in palpable
accordance with fixed rules which must then have been
well understood, we infer that in the course of the first
half of the thirteenth century Heralds had framed some
system for the regulation of their proceedings, had raised
Heraldry to the rank of a Science, had fixed upon certain
terms and rules for describing heraldic devices and figures,
and had established laws to direct the granting, the
assuming, and the bearing arms.
The most interesting of these early heraldic Rolls rer
cords, in a metrical form, and in Norman-French, the
siege and capture of the fortress of Carlaverock, on the
Scottish border, by EDWARD I., in the year 1300. In ad-
ROLLS OF ARMS. 13
dition to veiy curious descriptions of the muster of the
Royal troops at Carlisle, their march northwards, and the
incidents of the siege (which last have a strange resemblance
to what Homer has recorded of incidents that took place
during the siege of Troy), this Roll gives some graphic per
sonal sketches of the princes, nobles, bannerets, and knights,
whose banners and shields of arms are set forth in it with
minute exactness. This Roll, as well as several others, has
been published, with translations and very valuable notes.
In the Manuscript Collections of the British Museum also,
and of other Libraries both public and private, and in the
County Histories, and other works of a cognate character,
there are many documents w r hich contain various important
records and illustrations of early English Heraldry.
In any references to authorities, that it may appear de
sirable for me to make in the course of this and the follow
ing chapters, I must be as concise as possible. A direct
reference to Seals, Effigies, &c., will be necessary in each
case : but, in referring to Rolls of Arms it will be sufficient
to denote the period of the authority in general terms.
Accordingly, I shall refer, not to each particular Roll, but
collectively to those of each of the following reigns
HENRY III., EDWARD I., EDWARD II., EDWARD III., and
RICHARD II. ; and these references will severally be made
thus, (H. 3), (E. i), (E. 2), (E. 3), and (R. 2).
Amongst the earliest Shields and Banners of Arms, all
of them remarkable for their simplicity, many are found
to be without any device whatever, their distinction. con
sisting simply in some peculiarity in the colouring. Such
examples may be considered to have been derived from
pre-heraldic times, and transmitted, without any change or
addition, to later periods. The renowned Banner of the
Knights Templars, by them called Beauseant, No. 13, is
black above and white below, to denote that, while fierce
! 4 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
to their foes, they were gracious to their friends. An ancient
Banner of the Earl of Leicester A
(H. 3) is white and red, the divi-
sion being made by a vertical in
dented line; No. 14. The Shield
of the ducal House of Brittany,
closely connected with the Royal
Family of England, is simply of
the fur ermine; No. 15. The Shield
of Waldegrave is silver and red, as
in No. 16: and that of Fitz Warine
(H. 3), also of silver and red, is NO. 14.
No. 13. Banner v o/ Banner (
of Templars, treated as in No. 17.
No. 15. Brittany. No. 16. Waldegrave. No. 17. Fitz Warine.
Some of the earliest of the simple devices of true Heraldry
were evidently adopted from the structural formation (or from
a structural strengthening) of the Shields,
on which they were displayed. Thus,
a raised border, and bands of metal
variously disposed in order to impart ad
ditional strength to a shield, with distinct
colouring, would produce a series of he
raldic compositions. A good example
whitworth. Whitworth, Durham, No. 18, in which
the heads of the rivets or screws employed to fix the
border on the shield, appear to have been made to assume
STRUCTURAL AND ALLUSIVE DEVICES.
the character of heraldic additions to the simple border
and horizontal bands. Other primary devices of the same
simple order, which in like manner may have had a struc
tural origin, I shall consider in detail in subsequent
chapters. (See particularly Chapter VI.)
The central boss, at once an appropriate ornament of an
early shield, and an important addition to its defensive
qualities, when extended in the form of decorative metal-
work, would readily suggest a variety of heraldic figures,
and amongst others several beautiful modifications of a
simple cruciform device which it
might be made to assume. The
figure called an escarbuncle, No.
19, is simply a shield-boss de
veloped into decorative structural
metal-work. This figure appears
in the Temple Church, London,
upon the shield of an Effigy,
which Mr. J. Gough Nichols has
shown to have been incorrectly
attributed to Geoffrey de Mande-
ville, Earl of Essex.
The greater number of the No - 9- -The Escarbuncle.
earliest devices that appear in English Heraldry were adopted
for the express purpose of their having some allusive associa
tion, through a similarity of sound in their own names with
the names and titles of certain persons, dignities, and places.
In exact accordance with the principles and aim of primitive
mediaeval Heraldry, and in perfect harmony with the senti
ments and requirements of the age in which it grew up into
a science, devices of this kind addressed themselves in very
plain and expressive language to the men of their own era.
In them they saw the kind of symbolical writing that they
could remember, as well as understand. They also evidently
1 6 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
liked the quaint style of suggestiveness that was a charac
teristic of these allusive devices : and, it is more than pro
bable that there frequently lurked in them a humorous
significance, which by no means tended to detract from their
popularity. Devices of this same order have never ceased to
be in favour with Heralds and lovers of Heraldry. They
were used in the sixteenth century at least as commonly as in
the thirteenth ; but, as would be expected, in the later period
they often became complicated, far-fetched, and extravagant.
This allusive quality, distinguished in English Heraldry
as " canting" has commonly been misunderstood, and there
fore incorrectly estimated, by modern writers, who have
supposed it to be a fantastic conceit of the Heralds of a
degenerate age. By writers such as these, accordingly, all
" canting arms " (by French Heralds called " armes par-
lantes ") have been absurdly assigned to a separate class, in
their estimation having an inferior heraldic grade.
The prevalence of the allusive quality in early arms may
be assumed to have been even more general than is now
apparent, since so many of the original echoes and allusions
have become obscured or altogether lost in the lapse of
time, and through the changes that have taken place since
the accession of HENRY III. in the French language and in
our own also. The use of the Latin language, again, in the
Middle Ages led, at later periods, to translations of names ;
French names, too, were translated in the same manner
into English equivalents : and, at other times, the sound of
a Latin or a French (Anglo-Norman) name was transferred
to an English representative having a somewhat similar
sound, without the slightest reference to the original signifi
cation. Who, for example, now associates the well-known
MORTIMERS, through the forgotten exploit of a Crusader
ancestor, a " De Mortuo Mari" with the Dead Sea ? Or,
who in the name of MONTAGU now recognises instinctively
Shi-eld of Montacute.
EXAMPLES OF ALLUSIVE ARMS. 1 7
the original allusion to a mountain with its sharply peaked
crests, and so discerns the probable allusive origin of the
sharp triple points of the devices on the old Montacute
shield, No. 20 ? It is easy to see
how much must have been unconsci
ously done, by such changes in names
and their associations, to obliterate
what once was clear, significant, and
expressive. I must be content here
to give, simply by way of explana
tory illustration, a very few examples
of allusive arms; and, in so doing,
it may be well for me to observe that the early Heralds of
our country always employed the French language as it was
spoken in their own times in England as well as in France.
In the time of HENRY III., G. de Lucy has for his arms
three fades fish now known as pike : Robert Quency has a
quintefudlz. flower of five leaves : Thos. Corbett has two
corbeaux ravens: A. de Swyneburne has "trots testes de
senglier" three heads of the wild boar, or swine: (E 2), Sir
R. de Eschales has six escallops shells : Sir G. de
Trompintoun, of Trumpington, near Cambridge, has two
trompes trumpets : Sir J. Bordoun has three bourdons
pilgrim s staves : Sir G. Rossel has three
roses: and Sir O. Heron has the same
number of herons. So also, for the
Spanish provinces Castile and Leon, a
castle and a lion : for Falconer, a falcon :
Butler, cups : Forester, bugle-horns : Arun-
del, hirondettes swallows : Wingfield,
wings : Shelley, shells : Pigot, pick-axes :
Leveson, leaves: and Martel, martels
hammers. The Broom-plant with its seed-pods, in Latin
Planta genista, No. 21, gave their name to the PLANTA-
No. 21. Planta
GENETS. I shall hereafter add several other curious ex
amples of devices of this class, when treating of Badges^
Rebuses, and Mottoes.
There is one class of early arms, which it is important
that students of Armory should observe with especial care,
lest they be led by them into unexpected errors. These
are arms that were invented after Heraldry had been
established, and then were assigned to personages of
historical eminence who had lived and died before the
true heraldic era. In the days in which every person of
prominence bore heraldic arms, and when Heraldry had
attained to high renown, it was natural enough to con
sider that suitable armorial devices and compositions
should be assigned to the men of mark in earlier ages,
both to distinguish them in accordance with the usage
then prevalent, and to treat their memory with becoming
honour. No proof can be shown that the arms said to
have been borne by WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR are not
of this order made for him, that is, and attributed to
him in after times, but of which he himself had no know-
No. 22. WILLIAM I.
No. 23. Saxon Princes.
ledge. These arms, No. 22, differ from the true Royal
Insignia of England only in there being two, instead of
three, lions displayed upon the shield. The arms of
EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, No. 2, were certainly devised
long after his death, and they appear to have been
ATTRIBUTED ARMS. 19
suggested to the Heralds of HENRY III. by one of the
Confessor s coins : the shield is blue, and the cross
and five birds (martlets) are gold. In like manner,
the arms attributed to the earlier Saxon Sovereigns of
England, No. 23, a gold cross upon blue, are really not
earlier than the thirteenth century. The arms, No. 2,
having been assigned to ST. EDWARD, a patron saint of
mediaeval England, were long regarded with peculiar reve
rence. I have placed them, drawn from a fine shield of the
thirteenth century in Westminster Abbey, to take a part in
forming a group at the head of my Preface, with the shields
of the two other saintly Patrons of "old England," ST.
GEORGE and ST. EDMUND, No. i and No. 3 a red cross
on a silver shield, and three golden crowns upon a shield
The English Heraldry that is n<nv in existence. First Debasement
of Heraldry. Later Debasement. Revival of English Heraldry.
" Sans changer." MOTTO OF STANLEY.
ENGLISH Heraldry, as it exists amongst us in our own
times, is the very same Heraldry that flourished under the
kindly influences of the greatest of the Plantagenets. It is
not of a new, but of the old, Heraldry of England that I am
setting forth the elements. Our Heraldry has had to pass
from good days to bad ones : and, having gone through the
worst of bad days, the circle at length has revolved, so that
we are witnessing the happy change of a vigorous heraldic
revival. Heraldry already enjoys a very great popularity ;
and, without a doubt, it will become still more popular, in
the degree that its utility is better and more generally under
stood. For its complete ultimate success, the present revival
of true English Heraldry must mainly depend upon the
manner in which we apply the lessons that may be learned
by us, no less from the warnings of the recent evil days of
the science, than from the example of the brilliant ones that
preceded them long ago. Nor should we deal faithfully
with our revived Heraldry, were we not to form a just
estimate of whatever was imperfect in the best era of its
early history, in order to apply to present improvement the
lessons that thus also may be learned. It must be admitted
that the Heralds of the seventeenth century, following the
footsteps of some of their immediate predecessors, led the
HERALDIC DEBASEMENT. 21
way towards the thorough debasement of their own science.
Their example was not without effect upon those who
followed them men quite equal to the perpetration of
whatever had not been already done to bring Heraldry into
contempt. This was accomplished first, by gravely dis
coursing, in early heraldic language, upon the imaginary
Heraldry of the patriarchal and antediluvian worthies:
making a true coat of arms of Joseph s "coat of many
colours," giving armorial ensigns to David and Gideon, to
Samson and Joshua, to "that worthy gentilman Japheth,"
to Jubal and Tubal-Cain, and crowning the whole by
declaring that our common progenitor, Adam, bore on
his own red shield Eve s shield of silver, after the
mediaeval fashion that would denote his wife to have
been an heiress !
Then there set in a flood of allegorical and fantastic
absurdities, by which the fair domain of Heraldry was
absolutely overwhelmed. Wild and strange speculations,
in a truly vain philosophy, interwoven with distorted images
of both the myths and the veritable records of classic
antiquity, were either deduced from armorial blazonry, or
set forth as the sources from whence it was developed.
Fables and anecdotes, having reference to less remote eras,
were produced in great variety and in copious abundance
The presence in blazon of animated beings of whatsoever
kinds, whether real or fabulous, led to rambling disquisitions
in the most ludicrously ^natural of imaginary Natural
History. From every variety also of inanimate figure and
device, the simplest no less than the more elaborate, after
the same fashion some " moral " was sought to be extracted.
The technical language, too, of the early Heralds, had its
expressive simplicity travestied by a complicated jargon,
replete with marvellous assertions, absurd doctrines, covert
allusions devoid of consistent significance, quaint and yet
22 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
trivial conceits, and bombastic rhapsodies. Even the nomen
clature of the Tinctures was not exempt from a characteristic
course of " treatment," two distinctive additional sets of titles
for gold, silver, blue, red, &c., having been devised and
substituted for those in general use (see Chapter V:); of these
the one set was derived from the names of the Planets, and
employed to emblazon the insignia of Sovereign Princes ;
and the other set, derived from the names of Jewels, was
applied to the arms of Nobles. In the midst of all the
rubbish, however, which they thus delighted to accumulate,
there may generally be discovered in the works of writers of
this class, here and there, references to earlier usages and
illustrations of original principles which, in the extreme
dearth of genuine early heraldic literature, are both inter
esting and of real value. Nor are these writings without
their value, estimated from another point of view, as contem
poraneous and unconscious commentaries upon the history
of their own times. It must be added that, in more than a
few instances, beneath the surface there lurks a vein of both
political and personal allusion, of which the point and
bearing now are altogether lost, or at the most are only
open to conjecture and surmise. And, again, even in their
most extravagant and frivolous lucubrations, the heraldic
writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are not
without touches of humour; as when Gerand Legh (A.D.
1562), discoursing of "beastes," remarks of the "Ramme"
that in " aucthoritye he is a Duke, for hee hath the leadyng
of multitudes and flockes of his own kynde;" and of the ass,
" I could write much of this beaste, but that it might be
thought it were to mine own glorie."
The adoption of additional quarterings for the purpose
of display, and the introduction of more complicated com
positions in the time of HENRY VIII., were speedily
followed by the substitution of pictorial representations,
HERALDIC DEBASEMENT. 23
often of a most frivolous and inconsistent character, and
many of them altogether unintelligible without written
explanations, instead of the simple, dignified, and expres
sive insignia of true Heraldry. For example, in the year
1760, a grant of arms was made to a Lincolnshire family
named Tetlow, which, with thirteen other figures, includes
the representation of a book duly clasped and ornamented,
having on it a silver penny, upon which is written the
Lord s Prayer ; while above the book rests a dove, holding
in its beak a crow-quill ! This was to commemorate one of
the family having, with a crow-quill, actually achieved the
exploit of writing the Lord s Prayer within the compass of
a silver penny. Amongst the most objectionable of the
arms of this class are those which were granted to dis
tinguished naval and military officers arms, that certainly
ought to have conferred fresh honour on illustrious names,
instead of inflicting dishonour upon Heraldry itself. Battles
by sea and land, landscapes and sea views and fortified
cities, flags of all kinds, with medals and ribbons, all of
them intermixed with devices not quite so unheraldic,
abound in these extravagant compositions. The arms of
Lord Nelson, and still more recently those of General
Lord Gough, may be specified as flagrant examples of this
degenerate pictorial Heraldry. The Duke of Wellington
happily escaped a similar infliction. It would be but too
easy to enumerate other equally inconsistent and unheraldic
compositions : but, I must be content to refer only to the
armorial shield granted to the great astronomer, Sir John
Herschel, on which is displayed his forty-feet reflecting
telescope, with all its apparatus ! These, and all such
violations of heraldic truth and consistency, though in
some instances they are of very recent date, are now to
be assigned to a closed chapter in the history of English
24 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
In our present revival of English Heraldry, it is
essential that we impress upon our minds a correct con
ception of the two-fold character of all Heraldry that
it is a Science, and also that it is an Art. We have to
vindicate the reputation of our Heraldry, as well in the
one capacity as in the other. Of very noble heraldic Art
we happily possess original examples in great numbers,
which have been bequeathed to us, as a precious inheri
tance, from "the brave days of old." The style of Art
that we see exemplified in these early authorities we may
accept almost unreservedly as our own style ; and we must
aspire to sympathise heartily with their genuine heraldic
feeling. In our representation, also, of almost all inani
mate and natural objects in our own armorial compositions,
as a general rule, we may trust confidently to the same
good guidance. The early method of representation, in
deed, must form the basis of our system of treatment;
and, we may faithfully adhere to this rule, and yet occa
sionally we may find it to be desirable that the form and
the accessories of some devices should be adapted to
modern associations. In truth, it is not by merely copy
ing the works of even the greatest of the early heraldic
artists, that we are to become masters in heraldic Art.
When the copies are good, copying is always valuable,
as a branch of study ; but, if it be our highest and only
aim to reproduce the expressions of other men s thoughts,
then copying is worse than worthless. What we have to
do is to express our heraldic Art in the spirit of the early
Heralds, to keep it in harmony with what, in the best of
the early days, they would have accepted as the highest
heraldic Art, and at the same time to show that our heraldic
Art in very truth is our own.
The treatment of animate creatures in Heraldry requires
a certain kind, and also a certain degree, of conventionalism-
HERALDIC ART. 25
Here, as before, in the early Heralds we have excellent
masters ; but, here we must follow their teaching with more
of reserve, and with cautious steps. We recognise the happy
consistency of the conventionalism which they displayed
in their representation of animate creatures, without any
purpose to adopt it in the same degree with them. Had the
early Heralds been more familiar with the living presence
of the various creatures that they summoned to enter into
their service, without a doubt they would have represented
them with a much closer conformity to Nature. We must
apply our better knowledge, as we may feel confident the
early Heralds would have applied a similar knowledge had
they been able to have acquired it. Heraldic animals of every
kind Hons, eagles, dolphins, and all others must be so
far subjected to a conventional treatment, that they will not
exhibit a strictly natural appearance : and, on the other
hand, being carefully preserved from all exaggerated con
ventionalisms, they must approach as near to Nature as a
definite conventional rendering of natural truth will admit.
The lions of the early Heralds, spirited beasts always, gene
rally show a decided disposition to exhibit their heraldic
sympathies in excess. They have in them rather too much
that is heraldic conventionalism, and not quite enough
that is natural lion. And, with the first symptoms of decline
in heraldic Art, the treatment of lions showed signs of a
tendency to carry conventionalism to the utmost extrava
gance. The same remarks are applicable to eagles. It
must be added, however, that truly admirable examples of
heraldic animals occasionally may be found as late even
as the commencement of the sixteenth century, as in the
chantry of Abbot Ramryge, in the Abbey Church at St.
Alban s, and in King s College Chapel at Cambridge. It
must be our care to blend together the true attributes of the
living lion and eagle, and those also of other living creatures,
with the traditional peculiarities of their heraldic repre
sentatives. And we must extend the corresponding appli
cation of the same principles of treatment to imaginary
beings and heraldic monsters, as they occur in our Heraldry.
The shield, No. 24, of Prince JOHN OF ELTHAM, younger
No. 24. Prince JOHN OF ELTHAM,
brother of EDWARD III., finely sculptured with his effigy in
alabaster, in Westminster Abbey (A.D. 1336), and in perfect
preservation, gives us characteristic examples of lions of the
best heraldic era, their frames, attenuated as they are, being
perfect types of fierce elasticity. With this shield may be
grouped others, having admirably suggestive examples of
heraldic lions of a somewhat later date, which are preserved
upon the monuments of EDWARD III. and the BLACK PRINCE,
severally at Westminster and Canterbury. I shall refer to
HERALDIC ART. 27
these fine shields again, and to other admirable examples
with them, hereafter (Chapter IX.). The conventionalism
in all these examples, however felicitous the manner in which
it is treated in them, is very decidedly exaggerated. With
out being so attenuated and so lengthy in their bodies,
these lions might have been at least as thoroughly heraldic.
These examples, and others such as these, are not the less
valuable to us because their teaching includes an illustra
tion of the excesses that we must always be careful to
avoid. I may here observe, that on the subject of
armorial Art I leave my examples (all of them selected
from the most characteristic authorities, and engraved
with scrupulous fidelity) for the most part to convey
their own lessons and suggestions : my own suggestion to
students being that, in such living creatures as they may
represent in their compositions, while they are careful to
preserve heraldic consistency and to express heraldic feeling,
they exhibit beauty of form coupled with freedom of action
and an appropriate expression. "Freedom of action" I
intend to imply more than such skilful drawing, as will
impart to any particular creature the idea of free movement
of frame and limb : it refers also to repeated representations
of the same creature, under the same heraldic conditions
of motive and attitude. And, here " freedom of action "
implies those slight, yet significant, modifications of minor
details which, without in the least degree affecting armorial
truth, prevent even the semblance of monotonous reitera
tion. Thus, at Beverley, in the Percy Shrine in the Minster,
upon a shield of England the three lions are all heraldically
the same ; but, there is nothing of sameness in them never
theless, because in each one there is some little variety in
the turn of the head, or in the placing of the paws, or in
the sweep of the tail. And again, in Westminster Hall, the
favourite badge of Richard II., a white hart, chained, and in
an attitude of rest, is repeated as many as eighty-three times ;
and all are equally consistent with heraldic truth and accu
racy, without any one of them being an exact counterpart of
No. 25. No. 26.
Badge of RICHARD II., Westminster Hall.
any other. In Nos. 25 and 26 two examples are shown
from this remarkable series of representations of this beau
tiful badge, each one different from the other, and yet both
really the same.
THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY.
The Lan^iage of Heraldry. The Nomenclature. Style and Forms 01
Expression. Blazon. The Shield: its Parts, Points, Divisions,
Dividing Lines, Varieties of Form, and Heraldic Treatment.
" The shield hangs down on every breast." LORD OF THE ISLES.
THE LANGUAGE OF HERALDRY. The original language of
English Heraldry was the Norman-French, which may also
be designated Anglo-Norman, habitually spoken at the
Court of England in the early heraldic era. After a while,
a mixed language succeeded, compounded of English and
the original Norman-French ; and this mixed language still
continues in use.
NOMENCLATURE. Like its language, the Nomenclature
of English Heraldry is of a mixed character, in part
technical and peculiar to itself, and in part the same that
is in common use. Thus, many of the figures and devices
of Heraldry have their peculiar heraldic names and titles,
while still more bear their ordinary designations. Descrip
tive terms, whether expressed in English or in French
(Anglo-Norman), are generally employed with a special
heraldic intention and significance. In the earliest Roll
of Arms known to be now in existence, which was com
piled (as appears from internal evidence) between the years
1240 and 1245, the Nomenclature is the same that is found
30 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
in Rolls and other heraldic documents of a later date. This
fact of the existence of a definite Nomenclature at that
time, proves that before the middle of the thirteenth cen
tury the Heraldry of England had been subjected to a
systematic course of treatment, and had been established
and recognised as a distinct and independent Science.
STYLE AND FORMS OF EXPRESSION. With the Nomen
clature, a settled Style and certain fixed technical Forms
of Expression were introduced and accepted in the first
half of the thirteenth century ; and, since that period, the
Style and Forms of Expression have undergone only such
comparatively slight modifications as tended to render them
both more complete and more consistent. As it was at
the first, it still is the essence of heraldic language to be
concise yet complete, expressive, and also abounding in
suggestions. Not a syllable is expressed that is not abso
lutely necessary ; not a syllable omitted, the absence of
which might possibly lead to any doubt or uncertainty.
In the more matured style, the repetition of any important
word in the same sentence is scrupulously avoided; and,
where it would be required, another form of expression is
substituted in its stead. Much meaning also is left to be
implied and understood, through inference, either based upon
certain accepted rules and established heraldic usages for
the arrangement of the words and clauses of a sentence,
or derived from the natural qualities and characteristic
conditions of certain figures and devices : but, nothing is
ever left to be inferred when an uncertain inference might
possibly be adopted, or that can be understood clearly and
with certainty only by means of an explicit statement.
Superfluous words and particles of all kinds are altogether
omitted. Descriptive epithets follow the nouns to which
they refer : as, a red cross is styled a cross gules. The
general rules, by which the arrangement of the words in
STYLE BLAZON. 31
heraldic descriptive sentences is determined, will be found
in the last subdivision of this chapter. Examples of
heraldic Language, Nomenclature, Style and Forms of
Expression, will be given in abundance throughout the
following chapters and sections of this treatise. With
these examples students will do well to familiarise them
selves, by repeating them in writing : then, let them
prepare additional examples for that "practice," which
(as Parker s " Glossary of Heraldry" says, p. 60) " alone will
make perfect," by writing down correct descriptions of
heraldic compositions from the compositions themselves;
after which process they may advantageously reverse the
order of their study, and make drawings of these same
(or, if they prefer it, of some other) heraldic compositions
from their own written descriptions of them.
When any heraldic description of a figure, device, or
composition has been completed, a statement is made to
signify the person, family, community, or realm whose
armorial ensign it may be. This is done by simply writing
the appropriate name, after the last word of the description ;
or, by prefixing the word "for" before the name when it
is placed in the same position. Thus, a description of the
three lions of England is to be followed by the word
"ENGLAND;" or, by the formula "for ENGLAND." If
preferred, with equal consistency the arrangement may be
reversed, and the Name, with or without the prefix " for,"
may precede the description : thus " ENGLAND," or " For
ENGLAND," three lions, &c. It is to be borne in remem
brance, that armorial ensigns are very generally attached
to Names, and with the exception of Sovereign Princes
by comparison but rarely to Titles and Dignities.
BLAZON, BLAZONING, BLAZONRY. When a knight entered
the lists at a tournament, his presence was announced by
sound of trumpet or horn, after which the officers of arms,
3 2 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
the official Heralds, declared his armorial insignia they
"blazoned" his Arms. This term, derived from the
German word " bias en" signifying "to blow a blast on a
honi " (or, as one eminent German Herald prefers, from the
old German word "blaze" or " blasse" "a mark" or
" sign "), in Heraldry denotes either to describe any armorial
figure, device, or composition in correct heraldic language ;
or to represent such figure, device, or composition accurately
in form, position, arrangement, and colouring. This descrip
tion and representation may be distinguished as blazoning
and blazonry, the verb " to blazon " being used in either
sense. The word "blazon" also, as a noun, may be
employed with a general and comprehensive signification
to denote " Heraldry."
THE SHIELD : ITS PARTS, POINTS, AND DIVISIONS.
Their Shield, which the knights of the Middle Ages derived
from the military usage of antiquity, and which contributed
in so important a degree to their own defensive equipment,
was considered by those armour-clad warriors to be pecu
liarly qualified to display their heraldic blazonry. And, in
later times, when armour had ceased to be worn, and when
shields no longer were actually used, a Shield continued to
be regarded as the most appropriate vehicle for the same
display. The Shield, then, which with its armorial devices
constitutes a Shield of Arms, always is considered to display
its blazonry upon its face or external surface. This blazoned
surface of his shield the bearer, when holding it before his
person, presents (or would present, were he so to hold it)
towards those who confront him. The right and the left
sides of the person of the bearer of a Shield, consequently,
are covered by the right and left (in heraldic language, the
dexter and sinister] sides of his shield : and so, from this it
follows that the dexter and sinister sides of a Shield of Arms
are severally opposite to the left and the right hands of all
THE HERALDIC SHIELD.
observers. The Parts and Points of an heraldic Shield, which
is also entitled an "Escutcheon," are thus distinguished :
No. 27. A, The Chief: B, The Base :
C, The Dexter Side: D, The Sinister
E, TJie Dexter Chief: F, The Sinister
G, The Middle Chief: H, The Dexter
I, The Sinister Base: K, The Middle
L, The Honour Point: M, The Fesse
In blazoning the Divisions of a Shield, the term "Per"
signifying "by" or "by means of," is employed sometimes
alone, and sometimes (having the same signification) with
the word "parted" or "party." The primary Divisions of
a Shield are indicated in the following diagrams, Nos.
No. 29. No 30.
No. 32. No. 33. No. 34
No. 28. Per Pale, or Parted per Pale, or Party per
No. 29. Per Fesse, or Parted per Fesse.
No. 30. (Nos. 28 and 29 together) Per Cross, or
No. 31. Per Bend.
No. 32. Per Bend Sinister.
No. 33. (Nos. 31 and 32 together) Per Saltire.
No. 34. Per Chevron.
No. 35. Per Tierce, or Tiercee (divided into three equal
divisions by two vertical lines).
A Shield may be further divided and subdivided, thus :
It may be divided into any number of Quartering* by lines
drawn per pale and per fesse, cutting each other, as in No.
36, which Shield is quarterly of eight : in like manner the
Quartering* of any Shield, whatever their number (which
must be an even number), are blazoned as, quarterly of
twelve^ &&gt;c. This, to whatever extent the dividing of the
Shield may be carried, is simple Quartering. Again : a
quartered Shield may have one or more of its primary
quarters, or every one of them, quartered : this, which is
the subdivision of a part, the quartering of quarters, is com
pound Quartering : for example, in No. 37, the Shield is first
divided into the four primary quarters, severally marked
A, B, C, I) ; then, so far as the quarters A, B, D are con
cerned, the "simple quartering" is subjected to the process
of " compound quartering," and quarters A, C are quarters
quarterly, and B is a quarter quarterly of six, while C
remains unaffected by the secondary process. The terms
"quarterly quartering" and " quarterly quartered " are used
to signify such secondary quartering as is exemplified in
A, B, D, of No. 37. The four primary quarters (A, B, C, D,
BORDER LINES THE SHIELD.
of No. 37) are distinguished as Grand Quarters: conse
quently, the quarter B of this example is the second grand
quarter, quarterly of six. This term " Grand Quarter " may
be employed to distinguish any primary quarter that is
;; quarterly quartered."
DIVIDING and BORDER LINES, in addition to simple
right lines and curves, assume the forms that are repre
sented in the next diagram, No. 38 :
No. 38. A. Indented
C. Wary or Undee ...[
E. Invected ..
I. Dovetail .
THE SHIELD : ITS VARIETIES OF FORM. The front face
of an heraldic Shield is generally flat ; but sometimes the
curved edges are made to appear as if they had been
slightly rounded off. Some early Shields are represented
as bowed hollowed, that is, in order to cover more
closely the person of the bearer, and consequently
having a convex external contour, as in No. 39.
In early examples of bowed Shields the whole of
the armorial blazonry is generally displayed on
the face of that portion of the Shield which is
shovvn. A ridge, dividing them in pale, but not necessarily
in any way acting as an heraldic dividing line, appears in
many Shields, and particularly in those of the fifteenth and
No. 39 .
sixteenth centuries. The large elongated Shields that have
been entitled " kite-shaped," and which were in use in the
days of RICHARD I. and amongst the Barons of Magna
Charta, were superseded by the smaller "heater-shaped"
No 40. No. 42. No. 41.
Shield as early as the reign of HENRY III. The most
beautiful forms of this Shield are represented in Nos. 40,
41, and 42 : of these, No. 40 has its curves described about
the sides of an inverted equilateral triangle, and then they
are prolonged by vertical lines towards the chief: in Nos.
41, 42, the sides curve from the chief to the base. The
forms of Shields admit of various slight modifications, to
adjust them to varying conditions. Towards the close of
the fourteenth century the form of the Shield is found to
undergo some singular changes : and, at later periods,
changes in form of this kind became generally prevalent.
Nos. 43, 44, exemplify such changes as these : they also
show the curved notch that was cut in the dexter chief
THE SHIELD. 37
of the Shields of the same periods, to permit the lance
to pass through it as the Shield hung down on the breast :
a Shield so pierced is said to be a bouche. The Surface of
the Shield, No. 43, which is in the Episcopal palace at
Exeter, is wrought into a series of shallow hollows, which
curve gracefully from the central ridge, some to the dexter,
and others to the sinister. Such a Shield as this may be
consistently used in our own Heraldry : but, since now we
do not associate lances laid in rest with our heraldic Shields,
it appears desirable that we should not draw our Shields
a bouche. In recent Heraldry the Shield has commonly
been made to appear such an unsightly and
un-heraldic deformity as is represented in
No. 45. Instead of a true heraldic Shield
also, a rounded oval with a convex surface,
called a cartouche, or cartouche shield, No. 46,
is occasionally used for the display of armorial No ^
blazonry; or a circle is substituted for such
an oval. These cartouches probably owe their origin to
the usage of placing a Garter of the Order about a
Shield (prevalent in the fifteenth century),
and to the subsequent omission of the
Shield. A Lozenge, No. 47, takes the
place of a Shield to bear the arms of
Ladies, with the sole exception of the
Sovereign : this very inconvenient sub- No- 46< No 47
stitute for the heraldic Shield was introduced early in
the fourteenth century.
THE SHIELD : ITS HERALDIC TREATMENT. When a
Shield is represented as standing erect, it is not necessary
to specify that fact, since such a position may be assumed
for a Shield unless another be set forth in blazoning.
Shields are commonly made to appear suspended by the
guige, or shield-belt (which was worn by Knights to sustain
and secure their Shields to their persons) ; in some Seals
and generally in architectural compositions, Shields-of-Arms
appear suspended, erect, from their guiges ; at Westminster
some of the earliest Shields are thus suspended, with a
very happy effect, from two points of suspension, the guige
passing over sculptured heads, as in No. 48, the Arms of
Provence, borne by ALIANORE of Provence, Queen of
HENRY III. the shield is gold, and on it are blazoned
Arms of Provence, Westminster Abbey.
four red pallets. In Seals, the suspended Shield is generally
represented hanging by the sinister-chief angle, as in No.
49 ; and it hangs thus diagonally from below the helm.
A Shield thus placed is said to be " couche" This arrange
ment is also occasionally adopted, when a Shield or an
Achievement of arms is not placed upon a Seal.
The entire surface of every Shield is termed the "Field."
The same term is also applied to every plain surface. A
Shield is said to be " borne" by the personage to whom
it belongs: and, in its turn, the Shield "bears" whatever
figures and devices may be displayed upon it ; whence,
all these figures and devices are entitled "Bearings" or
"Armorial Hearings" All figures and devices are also
styled " Charges ;" and they are said to be " charged" upon
a Shield, Banner, or Surcoat, or upon one another. In
any heraldic composition, unless some other arrangement
be particularly specified, the principal figure or device is
THE SHIELD. 39
placed in the centre of the Shield, and the other charges
are displayed over the entire field of the Shield. In
blazoning, the field of the Shield is always first noticed
and described : next follow the charges that rest upon the
field of the Shield itself : then descriptions are given of the
secondary bearings that are charged upon others of greater
importance. As a general rule, of several charges which
all alike rest immediately upon the field of the Shield the
most important is the first to be blazoned; so that the
arrangement of blazoning is determined by the comparative
dignity of the bearings, as well as by the degree in which
charges are nearer to the field and further from be
holders. In some cases, however, a bearing charged upon
the field of a Shield and many times repeated on a small
scale, is blazoned (for the sake of simplicity and clearness
of expression) next to the field of the Shield itself: thus,
if a lion be charged on the field of a Shield, and a consider
able number of crosses surround the lion, and, like him,
are placed on the field of the Shield also the field of the
Shield is blazoned first, the crosses second, and the lion
third ; and, if a crescent (or other bearing) be charged upon
the lion s shoulder, it is the last in the blazon. In quartered
Shields the blazoning commences afresh with each quarter
ing. In blazoning armorial banners and horse-trappings,
the latter often gorgeously enriched with heraldic blazonry,
the dexter side of a flag is always next to the staff, and the
head of a horse is supposed always to be looking towards
THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY.
The Tinctures : Metals, Colours. Furs. Varied Fields. Law of Tinc
tures. Counterchanging. Diaper. Disposition. Blazoning in
" All the devices blazoned on the Shield
In their own tinct." ELAINE.
Ix English Heraldry the TINCTURES comprise Two Metals,
Five Colours, and Eight Furs. They are symbolised or indi
cated by dots and lines a very convenient system, said to
have been introduced, about the year 1630, by an Italian
named Silvestre de Petrasancta. Some such symbolisation,
however, may occasionally be found in anticipation of Petra
sancta. The system now in use was not generally adopted
till the commencement of the last century. The Metals,
Colours, and Furs are named, their names are abbreviated,
and they are severally indicated, as follows :
No. 50. No. 51. No. 52. No. 53
No. 54. No. 55- No. 56-
1. Gold Or Or. ...
2. Silver Argent Arg. ...
,. No. 50.
. No. 51.
TITLES. ABBREVIATIONS. SYMBOLISATION.
Azure Az No. 52.
Gules Gu No. 53.
Sable Sa No. 54.
Vert Vert No. 55.
Purple Purpure ... Purp No. 56.
(In French Heraldry, Green is Sinople.)
No. 63. No. 64. No. 65.
EIGHT FURS (not abbreviated).
1 . Ermine, black spots on white No. 57.
2. Ermines, white spots on black No. 58.
3. Erminois, black spots on gold No. 59.
4. Pean, gold spots on black No. 60.
5. Vair Nos. 61, 62.
6. Counter Vair No. 63.
7. Potent No. 64.
8. Counter Potent No. 65.
42 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Two other Colours, or tints of Colour, sometimes used,
are no longer retained in English Heraldry Tenne, a tawny
or orange colour, indicated by vertical lines crossing those
of Purpure: and Murrey or Sanguine, a
dark crimson red, indicated by diagonal
lines from both dexter and sinister, crossing
each other. The Furs, Nos. 58, 59, 60,
63, 64, and 65, are of comparatively rare
occurrence, and do not appear in the best
NO. 57^. ages of Heraldry. Vair and Ermine are
common. A good early form of Vair is shown in No. 62 :
and in No. 5 7 A, I give a fine example of the treatment
of Ermine, from the monument of EDWARD III.
In blazon the Metals always take precedence of the
Colours, unless the contrary be specified. In order to avoid
repeating or referring to the word " Or" the word " Gold"
is sometimes used. The Furs, Nos. 61, 62, 63, 64, and 65,
are always argent and azure, unless some other metal and
colour be named in the blazoning. Animated beings, and
all objects that in Heraldry are represented in their natural
aspect and colouring, are blazoned "proper" abbreviated
ppr. Heraldic charges and compositions, when sketched in
outline with pen and ink or with pencil, are said to be
" tricked" or " in trick"
VARIED FIELDS. It is not necessary that the Field of
a Shield, or of any Bearing, should be of any one uniform
tincture : but varied surfaces are always tinctured of some
one metal and some one colour alternating ; and the patterns
or devices thus produced are generally derived (the Furs,
Nos. 6 1 65, which are good examples of varied surfaces,
being the exceptions) from the forms of the original simple
charges that are distinguished as Ordinaries and Subordt-
naries. And these varied surfaces or fields are always
flat; the whole of their devices or patterns are level, their
VARIED FIELDS TINCTURES. 43
metal and colour lying in the same plane. It is evident
that, in representing any examples of this class, no shading
is to be introduced to denote relief.
Should the field of any charge be divided into a single
row of small squares, alternately of a metal and a colour,
as No. 66, it is Componee or Company (sometimes written
No. 66. No. 67.
gobony) : if into two such rows, as in No. 67, it is Count er-
Compony : but, if the field of a Shield, or the surface of any
charge be divided into three, or more than three, such rows,
it is Chequee or Cheeky; thus, the Arms of the Earl de
WARENNE are Chequee or and az., No. 68 (H. 3 and E. 2).
THE LAW OF TINCTURES. Every charge is supposed to
rest upon the field of a Shield, or on the surface of some
charge which supports it. It is a strict law, that a charge of
a metal must rest upon a field that is of a colour ; or, con
trariwise, that a charge of a colour must rest on a field that
is of a metal, that is, that metal be not on metal, nor coloicr on
colour. This rule is modified in the case of varied fields,
upon which may be charged a bearing of either a metal or
a colour : also, a partial relaxation of the rule is conceded
when one bearing is charged upon another, should the con
ditions of any particular case require such a concession.
This rule is not so rigidly enforced in Foreign Heraldry : but,
in the Heraldry of England, the solitary intentional violation
of it is the silver armorial Shield of the CRUSADER KINGS
of JERUSALEM, No. 69, upon which five golden crosses are
charged ; the motive in this remarkable exception to an
established rule being to cause this Shield to be unlike
that of any other potentate. What may be termed the
accessories of a charge are not included in this law of
44 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
tinctures : thus, a silver lion having a red tongue may be
charged on a blue shield, and the red tongue may rest on
the blue field of the Shield.
COUNTERCHANGING is dividing the field of a Shield in
such a manner that it is in part of a metal and in part of a
colour, and then arranging the charges in such a manner
that they shall be reciprocally of the same colour and metal :
No. 69. No. 70.
Arms of Jerusalem. Arms of Fenwick.
thus, the shield of John Fenwick, No. 70 (R. 2) is, /^r
fesse gu. and arg.,six martlets, three, two, one, counterchangcd ;
that is, the field is red in chief and silver in base, and the
birds or parts of the birds on the red field are silver, and
those on the silver field are red.
DIAPERING. This term denotes a system of decorating
plain surfaces in various ways, which was in great favour
with the early heraldic artists. In the use of Diaper, which
is always desirable, care must be taken that the decorative
designs and patterns do not in any way admit of their being
mistaken for charges. This diaper may be executed in
low relief, subordinated to the relief of the charges ; and it
is not required to yield any obedience to the law of tinctures.
In the Shield, No. 68 (the original, a very noble shield, is
at Castle Acre Priory, Norfolk), which is simply chequee, the
Diapering may be alternately azure and or on the squares
that are alternately or and azure ; or the Diaper may be
dark blue, or sable, or argent on the azure squares, and on
the golden ones whatever the artist might consider would be
most effective ; but the Diaper, in this and in all other
examples, must always be subordinate to the area and
tincture of the field. The finest known early example of
heraldic Diaper in enamel, is the Shield of WILLIAM DE
Shield of Arms of Earl de Warrenne, Castle Acre Priory, Norfolk.
VALENCE, Earl of PEMBROKE, in Westminster Abbey, A.D.
1296. Very beautiful early examples of Diapering have
been preserved in relics of heraldic stained glass.
DISPOSITION: BLAZONING. By Disposition is understood
the placing and arranging of charges. A single important
charge, which has not a fixed position of its own, is placed
in the centre of any composition : and minor charges are
arranged in their most natural and consistent order and
positions, any deviation from which must be specified. A
single charge, many times repeated, and small in size,
whether with or without any special orderly disposition, is
said to be Semee strewn, that is, or scattered over the field,
as seed is sown by the hand; or, if the charges are very
small or very numerous, the term poudree or powdered may
be used. The expression " three, two, one" signifies that
a charge is repeated six times, the Disposition being three
in a horizontal row towards the chief of the Shield, then
4 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
two in a similar row in the centre, and one in base. In the
same manner, the expressions "four, four, one" "four,
three, two, one" " three and one" &c., are used as occasion
may require. For other dispositions of charges other
appropriate terms will present themselves to our notice,
growing out of our subject as it advances.
Should a Tincture or a Number occur a second time in
blazoning a single composition, it must be indicated, not by
repeating the word already used, but by reference to it.
Thus, if the tincture of the field should occur a second time,
reference is made to it in the formula " of the field:" or, if
the tincture that is named second in order in the blazoning
be repeated, it is indicated by the expression " of the
second;" and so on. Again : should there be three fleurs
de lys and also three crescents in one and the same compo
sition, having specified the " three fleurs de lys," the number
of the crescents would be set forth in the words " as many
crescents :" and so, in like manner, with any other numbers
of these or of any other charges.
In descriptive Blazoning, Epithets, which follow their
own Nouns, precede the Tinctures that are associated with
those nouns : thus, a black rampant lion having golden
claws is blazoned, a lion rampt. sa., armed or. In written
and printed blazoning, the arrangement of the words and
the placing the stops are alike matters of supreme import
ance. The sentences are to be short. A comma is to
mark the end of each complete minor clause or division of
a sentence : a colon, each more important clause. A point
or period is to follow every abbreviated word, to mark the
fact of the abbreviation, but without affecting the additional
presence of a comma (as in the blazoning, " a lion rampant
sa.") or of a colon, as the case may be; but a second
period is unnecessary. It is a very common error to over
load heraldic blazoning with commas which, instead of
BLAZONING IN TINCTURES. 47
aiding to simplify the sentences, obscure the meaning and
perplex the reader. It is always correct to write " three
lion s heads" " six pilgrim s staves" &c. : and always in
correct to write " three lions 1 heads" " six pilgrims staves"
&c. It appears desirable to print Blazoning in Italic type ;
but, as a general rule, not to print particular words in that
type ; and, where space will permit, Proper Names may be
advantageously displayed in capitals.
BLAZONING IN TINCTURES. On this head I must be
content to offer to students only a few brief practical obser
vations. The metal Gold may be rendered with gold pre
pared in small saucers, or (most advantageously) in minute
slabs ; this preparation is applied, like a common water-
colour, by moistening the gold with water ; and it is
desirable previously to have washed the paper, card (or
vellum) with diluted white of egg. Gold leaf may also be
used, but the process is tedious, and requires both skill and
experience to ensure complete success. Yellow paint,
again, may be used to represent the metal, the best colours
being cadmium yellow, or " aureolin " (Winsor and Newton)
mixed with Chinese white. For shading, carmine, or crimson
lake, mixed with gum. For Silver, aluminium may be used
with excellent effect ; or Chinese white; or the paper may
be left white : for shading, grey (blue and Indian ink mixed)
and gum. The Aluminium is prepared, like the gold, in
minute slabs : it may be obtained, of great excellence, from
Lechertier, Barbe, and Co., the Quadrant, Regent Street, W.,
by whom also a very pure preparation of gold is sold : I
can also strongly recommend both the gold and the
aluminium slabs that are sold by Messrs. Robinson, 99,
Long Acre, W. These Metals may be diapered, as well as
burnished, with an agate-burnisher.
For Azure: French blue, freely mixed with Chinese
white and a very little gum, the colour to be laid on thick :
shade with Prussian blue mixed with a larger proportion of
gum. For Gules : Orange vermilion either pure, or mixed
with a very little cadmium yellow or Chinese white, and still
less gum : (never use a brilliant but most treacherous pre
paration known as " pure scarlet :") shade with carmine or
crimson lake, and gum. For Vert: emerald green, with
Chinese white and a little gum: shade with dark green,
made from mixing aureolin (or gamboge) with Prussian blue
and gum. For Purpure : mix carmine and French blue,
with a little gum : shade with a darker tint of the same.
For Sable: Very dark grey, made by mixing a little
Chinese white and gum with black : shade with black and
more gum. Outlines to be drawn with a fine steel-pen and
" Indelible Brown Ink," sold in small bottles (Robertson s,
or Winsor and Newton s). " Proufs Brown " is best when
a deeper hue of brown is required in shading, but it is not
suitable for outlines.
When the Metals are rendered by gold and aluminium,
it is desirable that these tinctures should be applied, and
that the diapering and burnishing of the Metals should also
be completed with the burnisher, before the adjoining
colours are laid on. The burnishing may be executed in
two or three hours after the Metals have been applied to
the paper ; and the paper should be placed upon a piece of
glass during the processes of burnishing and diapering.
THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY.
The Ordinaries: The Chief; Fesse ; Bar; Pale; Cross, its heraldic
varieties ; Bend ; Sallire ; Chevron ; and Pile.
" Marks of hereditary Honour, given or authorised by some supreme Power."
SCIENCE OF HERALDRY.
THE ORDINARIES. These simple Charges of early Heraldry,
which always have been held in the highest esteem, are nine
in number : The Chief, the Fesse, the Bar, the Pale, the
Cross, the Bend, the Saltire, the Chevron, and the Pile.
They may be considered to have been derived from various
means that were adopted to strengthen Shields for use in
combat, the Cross always having a definite symbolism of its
own. These Ordinaries may be formed by any of the
Border Lines, No. 38. Occasionally they are borne alone ;
but more generally they are associated with other bearings,
or they have various figures and devices charged upon
themselves. In some cases, presently to be specified, more
than one Ordinary may appear in a single composition.
The Chief, the Bar, the Pale, the Bend, and the Chevron
have Diminutives. The Cross has many Varieties.
The CHIEF (H. 3), bounded by a horizontal line, con
tains the uppermost third (or somewhat less than the third)
of the field of a Shield, as in No. 71. The Shield of LE
BOTILER, No. 72, is Or, a chief indented az. (H. 3). A
No. 72. Le Botiler.
Chief may be borne with any other Ordinary except the
Fesse ; it may also be charged with any other figures or
devices : thus, for Sire BERNARD DE BRUS, No. 73, Az.,
a chief and a saltire or : for Sire JOHAN DE CLINTONE,
No. 74, Arg.j on a chief az. two fleurs delysor: and for Sire
JOHAN DE CLINTONE de Madestoke, No. 75, Arg., on a
No. 73. De Brus.
No. 74, No. 75. De Clintone.
chief az. two mullets or (all E. 2). The Fillet is the Diminu
tive of the Chief, the lowermost fourth of which it always
occupies. When any charge is set in the uppermost third
of a Shield, or when several charges are disposed hori
zontally across the uppermost part of a Shield, they all
are said to be " in Chief"
The FESSE (H. 3), which crosses the centre of a Shield
horizontally, when charged occupies about one-third (or
rather less than one-third) of the field ; but when without
charges, it is narrower. The Shield of Lord CLIFFORD
bears, Cheques or and az., afesse gu., No. 76. For ROBT. LE
FITZ-WATER, Or, a fcsse between two chevrons %u.: for
THE FESSE THE BAR.
JOHN DE PATESHULLE, No. 77, Arg., a fesse sa., between
three crescents gu. (all H. 3) : for WILLIAM LE VAVASOUR,
No. 78, Or, a fesse dancette sa.: for DE HEMENHALE,
No. 76 -De Clifford. No. 77. De Pateshulle. No. 78. Le Vavasour.
No. 79, Or, on a fesse between two chevrons gu., three
escallops arg. : and for DE DAGEWORTHE, No. 80, Erm.,
No. 79. De Hemenhale. No. 80. De Dageworthe.
a fesse gu. bezantee (all E. 2). When they are disposed
horizontally across the centre of a Shield, Charges are " in
The BAR (H. 3), which may be placed horizontally in
any part of the field except in fesse or at the chief of the
Shield, is about one-fifth of the field (or sometimes less) in
No. 81. De Harecourt. No. 82. Wake.
depth. A single bar very rarely occurs in blazon. Ex
amples : Or, two bars gu., for DE HARECOURT, No. 81:
52 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Az., two bars daticettee or, for DE RIVERES : Or, two bars
gu., in chief three torteaux, for WAKE, No. 82. The Dimi
nutives of the Bar are the Closet and the Barrulet, severally
one-half and one-fourth of its width. When they are dis
posed in couples, Barrulets are Bars Gemelles : thus, No.
83, for DE HUNTERCUMBE, farm., two bars gemelles gu.
(H. 3). A Fesse or Bar, when placed between two barrulets,
is said to be cotised by them; or, to be "doubly cotised,"
No. 83. De Huntercumbe. No. 84. De la Mere.
\\hen placed between two bars gemelles : thus, for DE LA
MERE, No. 84, Or, a fesse doubly cotised (or, between two
bars gemelles} az. (E. 2). An even number of bars alter
nately of a metal (or a fur) and a colour form the varied
field which is to be blazoned " barry? the number of the
bars in every case to be specified as, " barry of six"
" barry of eight" &c. If the number of bars exceeds ten
(some writers say eight), it is "barrulee" or " barmly ;"
and in this case it is not necessary that the number of the
bars should be specified, the word barrulee being used
alone, or the expression " barrulee sans nombre? to denote a
considerable number, but not a fixed number of bars the
number, however, always to be even. It is to be observed
that while the bars, whatever their number, if they are
blazoned as bars, are to be treated as if they were executed
in relief upon the field of a Shield; a Shield that is barrule e
has its field formed by bars which are all in the same
plane. Examples : Barry of six or and gu., for FITZ
ALAN of Bedale, No. 85 : Barry of six arg. and az., for DE
GREY : Barry of eight or and az., for DE PENBRUGGE (all
H. 3) : Barrulee arg. and az., an orle of martlets gu., for
DE VALENCE, Earl of PEMBROKE, No. 86 ; in this example
No. 85 Fitzalan of Bedale.
No. 86. De Valence.
ten bars are represented, but in the noble enamelled shield
of the first De Valence (A.D. 1296) preserved in West
minster Abbey, the bars are twenty-eight in number.
Charges, not " in fesse " or " in chief," that are disposed
horizontally across the field are " bar-wise?
The PALE. Like the Fesse, this Ordinary occupies
rather less than a central third of the field, but it is vertical
in its position instead of horizontal. No. 87, for ERSKINE,
is Arg., a pale sa. This Ordinary is not common in
No. 87 Ersldne. No. 88. Grandison,
blazon. Its Diminutives, the Pallet and the Endorse,
severally one-half and one-fourth of its width, may be
placed vertically in any part of the field. A Pale between
two Endorses is "endorsed" An even number of Pallets of
a metal (or a fur) and a colour set alternately, form the
varied field to be blazoned "paly? the number of the
Pallets (which lie all in the same plane) always to be
specified : thus Paly of six arg. and az., on a bend gu.
three eaglets displayed or, for GRANDISON, No. 88 (H. 3).
Charges that are disposed one above another vertically are
" in pale." This is the arrangement of the three golden
lions of England.
The CROSS (H. 3), formed from a combination of a Fesse
with a Pale, in its simplest form is set erect in the centre of
the field, and it extends to the border-lines of the Shield.
If at any time it may be necessary or apparently desirable
specially to set forth in the blazoning of a Shield, that a
Cross charged upon it does thus extend to the border-lines,
such a Cross is blazoned as a " Cross through? No. i,
Arg., a Cross gu., the armorial ensign of ST. GEORGE, the
special Patron Saint of England, may be blazoned as "A
Cross of St. George? Of this Cross, the great symbol
of the Christian Faith, Spenser says
"And on his brest a bloodie Cross he bore,
The deare remembrance of his dying Lord ....
Upon his Shield the like was also scored."
FAERIE QUEEN I. i. 2.
A Cross having a narrow border lying in the same plane
No. 89 Cross fimbriated. No 90. Cross pointed.
with itself, is " fimbriated," such a border being a "fimbria-
tion :" thus, No. 89, Az., a cross git., fimbriated arg., repre-
THE CROSS. 55
sents the Cross of St. George in our National " Union Jack."
A Cross having its four extremities cut off square, so that it
does not extend in any direction to the border-lines of the
shield, is " couped" or " humettee" If the extremities of a
Cross are cut off to points, it is "pointed," as in No. 90.
If its central area is entirely removed, so that but little more
than its outlines remain, it is " voided" or (H. 3) " a false
Cross " (" faux crois ") : when its four limbs are equal in
length, it is a " Greek Cross" as No. 91 : when the limbs
are unequal, the lower limb or shaft
being longer than the other three,
as in No. 92, it is a "Latin Cross:" t __ IL^
if it be formed of a shaft and two |(
horizontal limbs only (like the No - 9 1 - No -9 2 - NO. 93.
letter T), as in No. 93, it is a " Tan Cross:" if a small
square is pierced at the intersection of the limbs, it is
"quarter-pierced:" but, it is "quarterly-pierced" if the
entire central area be voided. A Latin Cross on steps, is
" on Degrees" and it is distinguished as a " Calvary Cross."
Charges having a cruciform arrangement are " in Cross"
The CROSS : its HERALDIC VARIETIES. The Cross-
symbol appears in English Heraldry under several varieties
and modifications of form and condition, some of them of
No. 94. No 95.
great beauty. The following engraved representations of
the various examples are so explicit, that descriptions of
them are unnecessary. The Cross Quadrate, No. 94. The
Cross Patriarchal, No. 95. The Cross Fourchee, No. 96.
56 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
The Cross Moline, represented charged upon the Shield
attributed to the SAXON KINGS of ENGLAND, No. 23 : this
same shield Az., a Cross moline or, is borne by DE
MOLINES or MOLYNEUX, No. 97. The Cross Cercelee or
No. 97. Cross Moline : No. 98. Cross Recercelc e ; No 99. - Cross Patonce :
Arms of De Molines. Arms of Bishop Anthony Bee. Arms of William de Vesci.
Recercelee (H. 3), Gu., a Cross recercelee erm., No. 98, for
ANTHONY EEC, Bishop of DURHAM. The Cross Patonce
(H. 3), Gu., a Cross patonce arg., No. 99, from the Seal of
WM. DE VESCI, A.D. 1220. The Cross Fleurie^Q. 100 :
this should be compared carefully with Nos. 97 and 99,
the Crosses Moline and Patonce. The Cross Fleurettee,
No. 101. The Cross Pomm ee, No. 102. The Cross
Botome or Treflee, No. 103. The Cross Cross let, or Crosslet
crossed, No. 104. The term "Crosslet" is strictly applicable
to any Cross on a very small scale : but it is usually applied
to denote a Cross that is crossed as in No. 104. Small
Crosses Botone e are occasionally used as these " Crosses-
Crosslets," as at Warwick in the arms of the BEAUCHAMPS,
the Earls of WARWICK. Crosslets are frequently blazoned
semee over the field of a Shield ; and, in smaller numbers,
they also are favourite Charges. No. 105 is the Cross
Clechee or Urdee.
The Cross Patee or Formee is represented in No. 106.
No. 107 is the " Cross of eight Points? or the Maltese Cross :
this example is drawn from the portrait of PHILLIPPE DE
VILLIERS DE L ISLE-ADAM, elected forty-third Grand Master
of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, A.D. 1521 ; this
Botonee Fitche e.
picture is in the possession of the Earl of Clarendon, K.G.
The Cross Potent, No. 108. The Cross Avellane, No. 109.
The Crossed- Crosslet, and the Crosses Patee, Botonee, and
Potent, are also drawn having their shaft elongated and
58 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
pointed at tJie base : in this form they are severally blazoned
as a " Crossed-Crosslet Fitchee? a " Cross Patee Fitchee? &c.,
a Cross, that is, " fixable" in the ground: No. no is an
example of a Cross Botonee Fitchee. Several of these
varieties of the heraldic Cross occur but rarely ; and there
are other somewhat fanciful varieties so little in use, as to
render any description of them unnecessary. The student
of mediaeval monumental antiquities will not fail to observe
a certain degree of resemblance between some of the
Crosses of Heraldry, and those that are incised and
sculptured on sepulchral slabs.
The BEND (H. 3) resembles both the Fesse and the
Pale in every condition, except that it crosses the field
diagonally from the dexter chief to the sinister base. No.
in, the Shield of SCROPE, is Az. t a bend or: a celebrated
contest for the right to bear this simple Shield took place,
A.D. 1385 1390, between Sir RICHARD LE SCROPE and Sir
ROBERT GROSVENOR, which was decided in favour of the
former. No. 112, for RADCLYFFE, is Arg., a bend engrailed
No. ii2. De Radclyffe. No. in.- Le Scrope. No 113.- Le Boteler.
sa. Two uncharged Bends may appear in one composition :
thus, for LE BOTELER Arg., two bends az., No. 113; and
for FRERE Gu., two bends or (both H. 3). The Di
minutives of the Bend are the Bendlet and the Cotise, the
one containing one-half and the other one-fourth of its area.
A Cotise is sometimes borne couped at its extremities, when
it is a Riband, A Bend between two Cotises is cotised:
thus, No. 114, for DE BOHUN, Az., a Bend arg., cotised or,
between six lioncels rampt. gold ; this Shield is engraved
from the Seal of HUMPHREY DE BOHUN, fourth Earl of
HEREFORD (A.D. 1298 1322); in it the cotised Bend is
very narrow, evidently to give more space for the lioncels.
Charges displayed on a Bend slope with it that is, they
would be erect, were the Bend to be set vertically and to
become a Pale : thus, another DE BOHUN, Sir Gilbert,
(H. 3), distinguishes his Shield by tincturing his Bend or,
Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.
Sir Gilbert de Bohun.
and charging upon it three escallops gules, as in No. 115.
In No. 88, the eaglets also exemplify the disposition of
charges upon a Bend. Charges set diagonally on the field
of a Shield, or " in bend" are arranged in the same manner.
A field divided into an even number of parts by lines drawn
bendwise, is " bendy? the number of the divisions to be
specified : as a matter of course, a field thus " bendy "
becomes a " varied field," in which all the divisions lie in
the same plane : thus, No. 116, for DE MONTFORD (H. 3
and E. 2) Bendy of ten or and az. Bendlets are in relief,
60 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
as in No. 117, for DE BRAY Vairee, three Bendlets gu. If a
No. 116. De Montford.
No. 117. De Bray.
field be divided by lines drawn bendwise, and also by
others drawn either vertically or horizontally, it is "paly
No. 118. Paly Bendy.
\\\ \ \ \
\\\ \ v\v
No. 119. Barry Bendy.
bendy" as No. 118, or " barry bendy as No. 119. A Bend
issuing from the sinister chief is a Bend Sinister.
The SALTIRE (H. 3), a combination of a Bend with a
Bend Sinister, may also be regarded as a Diagonal Cross.
Thus, the Crosses of St. ANDREW of SCOTLAND, and of St.
No. 120. St. Andrew. No. 122. De Neville. No. 121. De Neville.
PATRICK of IRELAND are Saltires the former, No. 120
Az., a Salt ire arg.: the latter Arg., a Salt ire gu. The
THE CHEVRON. 6 1
arms of the great family of NEVILLE reverse those of St.
PATRICK, and are GIL, a Saltire arg., No. 121: so Dray ton
has recorded that
" Upon his surcoat valiant NEVILLE bore
A silver Saltire upon martial red."
Barons War, \. 22.
Charges set on a Saltire slope with its limbs, the central
charge being erect ; and the disposition of charges set " in
saltire " is the same : a single charge set on a Saltire is
blazoned erect on the central point of the Ordinary, as in
No. 122, another Shield of NEVILLE, in which the "Silver
Saltire " is charged with a rose gules. A Saltire may be
borne with a Chief, as in No. 73.
The CHEVRON (H. 3), in form and proportions is rather
more than the lower half of a Saltire. The Diminutive is a
Chevronel, containing half a Chevron, or perhaps less : thus,
for DE STAFFORD, (E. 2), Or, a Chevron gu., No. 123 : for
No. 123. De Stafford. No. 124. Shield of De Clare.
the great family of DE CLARE, from whom so many other
families derived their Chevrons and Chevronels Gu., three
Chevronels or, No. 124 (H. 3). Two Chevrons may be
borne in one composition : or they may appear with a
Fesse, as in No. 79: or with a Chief, as (H. 3), for DE
C ROM BE Erm., a Chevron gu., and on a Chief of the last
three escallops or; for ST. QUINTIN (H. 3) Or, three
Chevronels gu., a Chief vair. A field Chevronee is of rare
occurrence : the three Chevronels of DE CLARE, however,
No. 124, appear to have been derived from a field Chevrome:
certainly, on his seal, "Strongbow" has the Chevrone e
Shield, No. I24A, about A.D. 1175. Charges set on a
Chevron, or disposed " in Chevron" are placed in the same
No. I24A. Early Shield of De Clare.
manner as those on a Saltire or "in Saltire :" thus, for Sir
ROGER PEYVRE (E. 2) Arg., on a Chevron az., three fleurs
delys or, No. 125.
The PILE (H. 3), resembling a wedge in form, is borne
both single and in small groups. Unless some other dis
position on the field be specified, this Ordinary issues from
the chief of the Shield. Examples: Or, a Pile gu., between
six and charged with three estoiles (or mullets] coimter-
No. 126. De Chandos. No 127. De Brian No. 128. De Bassett.
changed, for ROBERT DE CHANDOS, No. 126: Or, three
Piles az,, No. 127 for Sir GUY DE BRIAN; Or, three
THE PILE. 63
Piles gu., a canton erm., No. 128, for DE BASSETT (all
H. 3) : and (E. 2), Arg., a Pile engrailed sa. for Sir ROB.
The probable structural origin of these Ordinaries is
sufficiently apparent to render any further comment on that
interesting circumstance superfluous.
THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY.
The Subordinarics : The Canton or Quarter : The Inescutcheon : The
Orle: The Tress^lre: The Bordure: Planches: The Lozenge,
Mascle, and Rtistre: The Fusil: The Billet : The Gyron : The
Frette. The Roimdles.
" The second in a line of stars." IDYLLS OF THE KING.
THE SUBORDINARIES. This title has been assigned, but
without any decisive authority, to another group of devices,
second in rank to the Ordinaries. These Subordinaries are
the Canton or Quarter, the Inescutcheon, the Orle, the Tres-
sure, the Bordure, Planches, the Lozenge, Mascle and Rustre,
the Fusil, the Billet, the Gyron, and the Frette. The Can
ton, by the early Heralds commonly styled the " Quarter,"
sometimes has been grouped with the Ordinaries. And it
must here be observed that the Lozenge, Fusil, Billet,
Gyron, and Frette were not used as single charges by the
early Heralds; but by them the fields of Shields were
divided lozengy and gyronny, or they were scmee of Billets,
or covered over with Frette-work, from which the single
charges evidently were afterwards obtained.
The CANTON (H. 3), sometimes blazoned as a QUAR
TER, cut off by two lines, the one drawn in pale and the
other bar-wise, or in fesse, is either the first quarter of
the field of a Shield, or about three-fourths of that quarter,
but smaller if not charged. A Canton ermine is of frequent
occurrence, as in No. 128 : but it is generally borne charged,
and it always overlies the charges of the field of the Shield,
as No. 129, for DE KYRKEBY (R. 2) Arg., two bars gu. ; on
No. 129. De Kyrkeby.
No. 130. Blundell.
a canton of the last a cross moline or; and, for BLUNDELL
(H. 3) Az., Ullettee, on a canton or a raven ppr., No. 130.
The INESCUTCHEON (H. 3) is a Shield borne as a charge,
and displayed " in pretence " upon another Shield larger
than itself. When one Inescutcheon is borne, it is placed
on the fesse-point; but several Inescutcheons may appear
in one composition. The well-known Shield of the MOR-
No. 132. Darcy.
No. 131. De Mortimer. No. 133. De Wyllers.
TIMERS supplies a good example, No. 131 (H. 3) Barry of
six or and az., an inescutcheon arg. ; on a chief gold, gyroned
of the second, two pallets of the same : for DARCY Arg. , an
inescutcheon sa., within an orle of roses gn., No. 132 (E. 2):
Arg., three inescutcheons gu., for DE WYLLERS (E. 2),
The ORLE (H. 3), blazoned by early Heralds as a "false
escutcheon " ("faux escocheon"\ or as an " inescutcheon voided"
is the border of a Shield or Escutcheon
a Shield, that is, voided of the central area
of its field, and, like an Inescutcheon,
charged on a Shield. The arms of BALLIOL,
No. 134, are Gu., an Orle arg. (H. 3).
These arms are blazoned on many Scottish
Seals of the greatest interest, and on the
Seals of Balliol College, Oxford. Small
charges are frequently disposed about the border of a
Shield " in Orle" as in Nos. 86 and 132.
The TRESSURE (H. 3) may be regarded as a variety of
the Orle ; indeed, in its simplest form it is a very narrow
Orle, which is generally set round with fleurs de lys. A
Tressure thus enriched is represented in No. 135 : in this
example all the heads of the fleurs de lys point externally,
and all their stalks internally, and this accordingly is
blazoned as a "Tressure flory? In No. 136, which, like No.
135, is a single Tressure, the fleurs de lys are so disposed
that the heads and stalks of the flowers point alternately in
contrary directions : this is blazoned as a " Tressure flory
counterflory" From this last example the Tressure that is
so well known in the blazonry of the Royal Shield of
SCOTLAND differs, in being " double" This, the double
Tressure of Scotland, is a combination of two such single
Tressures as No. 136, and it is produced from them in the
manner following : From one such single Tressure, as No.
136, all the alternate heads and stalks of the fleurs de lys
that point internally are cut away and removed ; then a
second similar Tressure, of rather smaller size, is denuded
of all its external adornment, and in that condition it is
placed within the former Tressure, leaving a narrow interval
between the two. Each component half of this " double
Tressure flory counterflory," accordingly, has its own in
dependent series of demi-fleurs de lys, the stalks and heads
of the flowers alternating, and the one alternate series
pointing externally, while the other points internally.
When in combination, these two series of demi-neurs de
lys may be so arranged that the heads of the flowers in
one series correspond with their stalks in the other, as in
No. 137. I am thus particular in describing the process
of producing the Royal Tressure, be
cause it is frequently to be seen in
correctly drawn. No. 138, the Royal
Shield of SCOTLAND, now displayed in
the second quarter of the Royal Arms
of the UNITED KINGDOM, is thus bla
zoned Or, within a double Tressure
flory counterflory, a lion rampt. gu. It
will be observed that a narrow strip
of the golden eld of this Shield
intervenes between the two Tressures. There are many
fine examples of this Shield in Scottish Seals ; in the
Garter-plate, also, of JAMES V. of Scotland, K.G., at
Windsor ; and on the Monuments in Westminster Abbey
to MARY Queen of SCOTS (A.D. 1604), and to the
Countess of LENNOX, the mother of Lord DARN LEY (A.D.
No. 138. Scotland.
68 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
1577). Mr. Seton ("Scottish Heraldry," p. 447) states that
the Tressure may be borne " triple ;" and. after specifying
the Scottish families upon whose Shields the same honour
able bearing is blazoned, he adds : " In the coat of the
Marquess of HUNTLEY, the Tressure is flowered with
fleurs de lys within, , and adorned with crescents without ;
while in that of the Earl of ABERDEEN it is flowered and
counter-flowered with thistles and fleurs de lys alternately."
The BORDURE (H. 3), as its name implies, forms a
border to a Shield : it is borne both plain and charged.
Thus, for DE WALTONE (E. 2) Arg., a cross patee sa., within
a Bordure indented gu., No. 139 : for RICHARD, Earl of
Q O Ql
No. 139. De Waltone. No. 140. Richard, Earl of Cornwall.
CORNWALL, second son of King JOHN (H. 3), Arg., within
a Bordure sa. bezantee, a lion rampt. gu. crowned or, No. 140.
The Bordure, and its important services in Heraldry, will
be more fully considered hereafter. (See Chapters XII.
FLANCHES are always borne in pairs ; but they are not
of very early date, nor do they often appear in blazon.
Ranches are formed by two curved lines issuing from the
chief, one on each side of the Shield : they are shown,
shaded for azure, in No. 141 ; and in No. 142 are their
Diminutives, Flasques or Voiders, shaded for gules. There
is a close resemblance between these charges and a peculiar
dress worn by Ladies of rank in the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries ; but it is not easy to determine whether the dress
No. 141. Flanches.
No. 142. Flasques.
suggested the Flanches on the Shield, or was derived from
them. One thing, however, is certain the dress must have
possessed very decided good qualities, since it continued in
favour for more than two centuries. It is remarkable that
many of the ancient Greek Shields have pierced Flanches.
The LOZENGE (E. 2), MASCLE (H. 3), and RUSTRE.
The Lozenge is a diamond-shaped figure, or a square set
diagonally. The Mascle is a Lozenge voided of the field, No.
143 ; and the Rustre, No. 144, is a Lozenge pierced with a
circular opening. In the early days of Heraldry the Lozenge
and the Mascle were evidentlv held to be identical. The
No. 143. Mascle.
No. 144. Rustre.
No. l45 ._D e Burgh, Earl of Kent.
Shield of the famous HUBERT DE BURGH, Earl of KENT,
in the early Rolls is blazoned as " masculee :" but his Seal
proves it to have been, as in No. 145, lozengy vair and gu.
The Lozenge, it will be remembered, is always set erect
upon the field of a Shield.
The FUSIL is an elongated Lozenge. The Arms of MONT-
ACUTE or MONTAGU (see No. 20) are Arg., three Fusils
conjoined in fesse gu., No. 20A : the Arms of PERCY are
Az., Jive fusils conjoined in fesse or. In early blazon, Fusils
thus "conjoined in fesse" are commonly described as " a
No. 2oA. Montacute.
No. 146. Deincourt.
Fesse engrailed" (the more appropriate term "indented"
does not appear to have been introduced), the number of
the points being specified.
The BILLET (H. 3) is a small elongated rectangular figure.
Thus, for DEINCOURT, No. 146 Az. t billettee, a fesse dancette
or. The early Heralds blazoned a " Fesse Dancette " as
simply a "Dancette" or " Danse" See also No. 130.
The GYRON, a triangular figure, not known in English
blazon as a separate charge, gives its title to the gyronny
field, which is more commonly found in the Heraldry of
the North than of the South. The field gyronny generally,
and more particularly in Scotland, is
divided into eight pieces : but the divisions
are sometimes six, ten, twelve, or even six
teen in number. A Roll of the time of
HENRY III. has, for WARIN DE BASING-
BORNE " Gerony d or et d azur." The
Arms of CAMPBELL are Gyronny or and
sa., No. 147. Here, where there are eight
pieces or divisions, it is not necessary to specify the number ;
THE FRETTE THE ROUNDLES. 71
but if they were either more nor less than eight the blazon
would "be gyronny of six, of ten, &c. From No. 147 it
will be observed that in the series of gyronny divisions the
tinctures commence in the lower triangular half of the first
quarter of the Shield.
The FRETTE, in more recent Heraldry, has generally
superseded the original field fretty. This interlaced design,
whether borne as a distinct figure, as No. 148, or repeated
No. 148. A Frette. \v\//^ No I5 ~ Trellis Clouee.
No. 149. De Etchingham.
over the field of a Shield, as in No. 149, differs from a field
lozengy or gyronny, in being a bearing charged upon the
field of a Shield, and not a form of varied surface : No.
149, for DE ECHINGHAM (E. 2), is Az., fretty arg. An
early variety or modification of Frette is the Trellis or
Treille, in which the pieces do not interlace, but all those
in bend lie over all those in bend sinister, and they are
fastened at the crossings with nails " douee," as in No.
150. RICHARD DE TRUSSELL or TRESSELL (H. 3) bears
Arg., a trellis gu., douee or.
The ROUNDLES, or ROUNDLETS. These simple figures,
in constant use in every age of Heraldry, are divided into
two groups, which correspond with the division of the
Tinctures into " Metals " and " Colours."
The first group contains the two Roundles of the
Metals, which are flat discs : i, The Bezant, or golden
Roundle, No. 151, apparently has derived its name from
y 2 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
the Byzantine coins that the Crusaders, when in the East,
may sometimes have actually fixed upon their Shields for
heraldic distinction. 2, The Silver Roundle, or Plate, is
from the Spanish " Plata" silver. When Bezants or Plates
appear in considerable numbers, the field on which they are
charged is said to be " bezantee" or " plattee." See No. 140.
The second group contains the five Roundles of the
Colours, which are globular, and are to be shaded accord-
No. 151. Bezant. No. 152. Torteau. No. 153. Fountain.
ingly. The Torteau, No. 152, in the plural Torteaux, is
gules : the Hurt is azure : the Pellet or Ogress is sable : the
Pomme is vert : and the Golpe is purpure. These distinc
tive titles, which are more calculated to perplex the student
than to simplify his study, are of comparatively recent
origin, the early Heralds having used the terms " Bezant"
" Plate," and " Torteau" with the general designations
"Roundle" and "Pellet? adding the tinctures. Examples :
Az., bezantee, for WM. DE LA ZOUCHE : Or, on afessegu.
three plates, for ROGER DE HUNTINGFIELD : Arg., ten tor-
teaux, four, three, two, one, for ALEX. GIFFARD (all H. 3).
See also Nos. 80, 82.
A circular figure or Roundle that is barry wavy arg.
and az., is blazoned as a "Fountain" No. 153. Examples:
Arg., three fountains, for WELLES : Arg., a
Chevron between three fountains, borne by a
family named Sykes, an ancient term signifying a
NO. i S4 . we u or f oun tain. An Annulet, or a plain ring
Annulet. . -
No. 154, was sometimes blazoned as a "false
Roundle" a Roundle, that is, pierced, and having its
central area removed.
THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY.
Miscellaneous Charges : Human Beings Animals Birds Fish
Reptiles and Insects Imaginary Beings Natiiral Objects
Various Artificial Figures and Devices, Appropriate Descriptive
The Formes of pure celestiall bodies mixt with grosse terrestrials; earthly
animals with watery ; sauage beasts with tame ; fowles of prey with home-bred ;
these again with riuer fowles ; reptiles with things gressible ; aery insecta with
earthly ; also things naturall with artificiall."
GUILLIM S Display of Heraldry, A.D. 1611.
THUS, in his own quaint fashion, the enthusiastic old
Herald of the seventeenth century indicates the number
and variety of the Charges, which in process of time had
been introduced into Armory even before his era. In
earlier days the Charges of Heraldry were much less varied,
comparatively few in their numbers, and generally of a
simple character. It will readily be understood, however,
that fresh figures and devices would continually appear in
blazon ; and also that these, in their turn, would lead the
way for the introduction of further varieties and new
Human Beings are of very rare occurrence, except as
Supporters. Parts of the human frame occasionally appear,
but they are more generally borne as Crests upon helms
than as charges on shields. " Moor s heads " or " Saracen s
heads " appear in some coats, with arms, hands and legs :
and a human heart is well known as a charge in the coat of
the famous house of DOUGLAS, where it was placed to com-
memorate the duty entrusted by ROBERT BRUCE to the
" good Sir JAMES DOUGLAS," that he should bear with him
the heart of his Sovereign and friend to the Holy Land,
and bury it there. Sir James fell, fighting with the Moors of
Spain, A.D. 1330. This Shield of Douglas is a characteristic
example of the gradual development of armorial com
position. At first, the Douglas Shield appears with simply
three silver stars upon a blue field. Then, about A.D. 1290,
the Seal of WILLIAM, Lord DOUGLAS, displays his Shield,
No. 155, bearing Arg., on a chief az. three mullets of the
field. Next, upon the field of the Shield of WILLIAM, first
Earl DOUGLAS, A.D. 1355, there appears, in addition, a
human heart gules, as in No. 156. And, finally, after the
Shields of Douglas
accession of JAMES I. of Great Britain, in 1603, the heart
is ensigned with a royal crown, as in No. 157.
The Shield of the ancient kingdom of the ISLE OF MAN,
No. 158, still continues to be the heraldic ensign of that
island: it is Gu., three human legs in
armour ppr., conjoined in the fesse-point at
the upper part of the thighs, and flexed in
triangle. This true curiosity of Heraldry
leads Mr. Planche to remark, that "the
arms of MAN are legs" ("Pursuivant of
Arms," p. 112). The Shield represented in
No. 158 is drawn from an original ex
ample of the age of EDWARD I. in the Heralds College.
Isle of Man.
HUMAN BEINGS, AND FIGURES OF ANGELS.
At later periods, the armour of the conjoined limbs is repre
sented in conformity with the usages then prevalent, and
golden spurs are added. The ancient symbol of the island
of Sicily, in which the limbs are without either armour or
clothing, has been represented in No. 10 : this device also
appears in ancient examples with a human head at the
junction of the limbs. Three human arms, united in the
same manner, are borne on the shield of the mediaeval
family of TREMAINE.
Human figures, winged and vested, and designed to
represent ANGELS, are occasionally introduced in English
Heraldry, their office generally being to act as "Supporters"
No. 159. Shield of St Alban s Abbey (partly restored).
to armorial Shields. Fine examples, in admirable preserva
tion, may be seen boldly sculptured in the noble timber-
roof of Westminster Hall ; also in panels over the principal
entrance to the Hall, and in various parts of the Abbey of
Westminster. In the grand Abbey Church of St. Alban at
St. Alban s, numerous other examples of great excellence
yet remain, the works of Abbot John de Wheathamstede,
about A.D. 1440. In No. 159 I give a representation of
76 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
the Shield of Arms of the Abbey of ST. ALBAN Az., a
saltire or, supported by Angels, and the Shield ensigned by
the Mitre of Abbot Thomas Dela Mere, as it is repre
sented in his noble Brass in the Abbey Church. The
Shield and the Angel Figures are the work of Abbot John.
The Heads of the Figures, which are destroyed in the
original, are restored from stained glass of the same period
in the Abbey Church. Figures of Angels holding Shields
of Arms each figure having a shield in front of its breast,
are frequently sculptured as corbels in Gothic churches.
In the earliest Rolls of Arms, the Lion is the only
animal that is found in blazon, with the sole addition of
Boar s heads. Deer, dogs, bulls, calves, rams, and a few
other animals subsequently appear to share heraldic service
and honours with the king of beasts. In modern Armory,
however, almost every living creature has been required to
discharge such duties as Heralds have been pleased to
assign to them. The Lion of Heraldry I leave to be con
sidered, with the Eagle, in the next Chapter. In compara
tively early blazon, the Bear is borne by FITZ URSE : the
Calf, by CALVELEY and DE VELE : the Ram, by RAMSEY
and RAMRYGE : the Lamb, by LAMBERT and LAMBTON :
the Otter (loutre, in French), by LUTTREL : the Hedgehog
(Fr., herrison), by DE HERIZ, afterwards HARRIS : and so
also, in like manner, some other animals appear as armes
parlantes (See p. 15).
With the lordly Eagle a few other Birds are associated
in early Heraldry : and, after a while, others join them,
including the Falcon, Ostrich, Swan, Peacock or Pawne, and
the Pelican borne both as a symbol of sacred significance,
and also by the PELHAMS from being allusive to their name.
Cocks, with the same allusive motive, were borne by
COCKAYNE : Parrots, blazoned as " Popinjays? appear as
early as HENRY III. : and in a Roll of EDWARD II., the
Sire MOUNPYNZON has a Lion charged on the shoulder with
a Chaffinch in French a Pinson. The favourite bird, how
ever, of the early Heralds is the Martlet, the heraldic
Martin, a near relative of the Swallow or Hirondelle. The
Martlet is always represented in profile, at rest, and with its
wings closed. In some early examples the feet are shown,
as in No. 160 : but, in the Shield of Earl WM. DE VALENCE
in Westminster Abbey, A.D. 1296, the Martlet appears
No. 161. Martlet.
No. 160. Early Martlet.
feetless, as in No. 161 ; and at a later period this mode of
representation was generally adopted. French Heralds
deprive their Martlets of feet as well as beak.
" As the symbol of a name," writes Mr. Moule, " almost
all Fish have been used in Heraldry ; and in many instances
Fish have been assumed in Arms
in reference to the produce of the A
estate, giving to the quaint device
a twofold interest." (" Heraldry of
Fish," p. 13.) The earliest ex
amples are the Barbel, the Dolphin,
the Luce (or Pike), the Herring, and
the Roach, with the Escallop-Shell.
The Barbel, so named from the
barbs attached to its mouth to
assist it in its search for food, was
introduced into English Heraldry
by JOHN, Count DE BARRE, whose
elder brother married ALIANORE,
eldest daughter of EDWARD I. At Carlaverock he dis
played, as the chronicler has recorded, " a blue banner,
Banner of De Barre.
7o ENGLISH HERALDRY.
crustily, with two Barbels of gold, and a red border en
grailed," No. 162. The Dolphin, borne by GILES DE FISH-
BOURNE (H. 3), and afterwards introduced into several
English Shields, rs best known as the armorial ensign
of the DAUPHIN, the eldest son and heir apparent of the
Kings of France, who bore, marshalled with the arms of
FRANCE Or, a Dolphin az. This title of "Dauphin"
was first assumed by CHARLES V., who succeeded to the
Crown of France in 1364. In No. 8 I have shown
after what manner the Dolphin was represented by an
ancient Greek Artist : in the Middle Ages the heraldic
Dolphin appeared as in No. 163. GEFFREY DE LUCY
No. 163. Dolphin.
No. 165. Escallop.
No. 164. De Lucy.
(H. 3) bears Gu., three Lucies or. On his marriage with the
heiress of ANTHONY, Lord LUCY, in 1369, HENRY, fourth
Lord PERCY of Alnwick, quartered these three fish, with his
own lion (blue on a golden field) and his fusils (gold on a
blue field), upon the well-known Shield of the Earls of
NORTHUMBERLAND (Chap. XL). Another Carlaverock
Banneret, ROBERT DE SCALES, whom the chronicler de
clares to have been both " handsome and amiable " as
well as gallant in action, had " six escallops of silver on a
red banner? This beautiful charge, happy in its associa
tion with the pilgrims of the olden time, and always
IMAGINARY BEINGS NATURAL OBJECTS. 79
held in high esteem by Heralds, is generally drawn as
in No. 165.
Reptiles and Insects occur but rarely in English Heraldry.
Bees, Flies, Butterflies, and Snails are sometimes found, but
they have no place in the earliest Rolls of Arms. Bees, as
might be expected, appear in the Arms of Heeston. Azure,
three Butterflies, are the Arms of MUSCHAMP, and they are
carved twice in the vaulting of the cloisters at Canterbury.
Upon a monumental brass in the Church of Wheathamp-
stead, in Hertfordshire, the Shield of HUGO BOSTOCK
(about A.D. 1435) bears, Arg., three Bats, their wings dis
Imaginary and Fabulous Beings, some of them the crea
tions of heraldic fancy when in a strangely eccentric mood,
frequently appear as Supporters ; and, in some cases, they
take a part in the blazonry of Shields, or they are borne
independently as Badges. A very brief description (all
that is necessary) of the greater number of these monsters of
^natural history will be given in the " Glossary of heraldic
terms," in Chapter X. ; consequently, it is enough here
merely to refer to them as having a place in blazon. The
Griffin or Gryphon, the most worthy of the group, is com
paratively common. The Dragon and the Wivern or
Wyvern, both of them winged monsters, differ in this
respect, that the former has four legs, while the latter has
two only. In early blazon this distinction is not always
observed. The Cockatrice, always having two legs, is a
Wyvern with a cock s head.
Natural Objects of all kinds are blazoned as Charges of
Heraldry, and they will be found described and illustrated
in their proper places in Chapter X. They include the
Sun, the Moon, the Stars ; also such terrestrial objects as
Trees, Flowers, Fruits, Sheaves and Ears of Corn, Leaves,
Chaplets, &c. And with these Charges I may group the
So ENGLISH HERALDRY.
always beautiful Fleurs de Lys, and the Trefoil, Quatrefoil,
Cinquefoil, and Sixfoil.
Of the various Artificial Figures and Devices that
Heralds have charged upon Shields of Arms, it will be
unnecessary for me to give detailed descriptions, except
when either the heraldic name may require explanation,
or some special circumstances connected with any par
ticular figure or device may impart to it peculiar claims
for attention. Again I refer to the " Glossary " for notices
and examples of all Charges of this class Annulets,
Buckles, Castles, Crowns, Cups, Horseshoes, Keys, Knots,
Sickles, Stirrups, Trumpets, and many others.
In blazoning Charges of various classes, Heralds employ
appropriate Epithets and descriptive Terms, of which the
following are characteristic examples : The Stin is " in
glory" or "in splendour" or it is "eclipsed" The Moon,
when full, is " in plenitude" or " in her complement :" she
is a " Crescent" when she appears as in No. 166, A : she is
"Increscent" or "in increment" when as in No. 166, B : and
she is "Decrescent" or "in detriment" when as in No. 166,
c. Animals and Birds of prey are said to be " armed " of
their talons, teeth, and claws. All horned animals, also,
except Stags, are "armed" of their horns; and a Cock is
"armed" of his spurs. Animals are "hoofed" or " unguled"
of their hoofs; and " langned" of their tongues. Fierce
animals are " vorant " of their prey, when represented in
the act of devouring it. Deer, when reposing, are " lodged"
Nos. 25 and 26 : when standing, and looking out from the
DEER BIRDS. 8 1
Shield, No. 167, "of gaze:" when in easy motion, they are
"tripping" No. 168 : and when in rapid motion, they are
No. 167. At Gaze. No. 169. At Speed.
"at speed? No. 169. The male Stag is a "Hart? and the
female a "Hind: The antlers of the Hart are "Attires?
their branches are " Tynes ;" and they are said to be
No. 168. Tripping. No. 170. Stag s Head Cabossed.
" attired" of their antlers. A Stag s head full-faced, as No.
170, is " cabossed"
Birds of prey with expanded wings are "displayed;"
other birds are "disclosed" Expanded wings are "overt;"
if elevated, but not expanded, wings are "erect;" if droop
ing, they are " inverted" or " in lure" Birds about to take
wing are " rising;" when in flight, they are " volant;" when
flying aloft, " soaring;" when at rest, they are " closed " or
"trussed" A Bird also "trusses" its prey. A Peacock
having its tail expanded is " in its pride;" and this same
expression is applicable to any other bird when in the same
attitude. A Pelican, when feeding its young, is said to be
" in its piety." A Swan, when blazoned "proper? is white
with red legs and beak.
82 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Fish, represented swimming in fesse, are "naiant;" if
they are in pale, their heads to the chief, they are " hau-
riant" No. 164; but if their heads are to the base, "urinant:"
if their bodies are bent, as the Dolphin is generally repre
sented, they are " embowed" No. 163; and if with open
mouth, "pame" Fish, also, are said to be "finned " of their
fins, Insects are " volant" Reptiles are "gliding;" or, if
they are twined into knots, " nowed" Trees of mature
growth are " accrued;" when with leaves, " in foliage;" with
fruit or seeds, "fructed" or "seeded;" if without leaves,
"blasted;" and if their roots are exposed, "eradicated:"
branches or leaves torn off are " slipped"
The terms which denote the attitudes of Lions, all of
them described in the next chapter, are equally applicable
to other animals. Some other descriptive terms, not noticed
here, will be found in the " Glossary " in Chapter X.
THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY.
The Lion and the Eagle in Heraldry.
" The LION and a King of Beasts." SHAKESPEARE. Richard II.
"The EAGLE, ennobled by Nature in as high a degree of nobility as the chiefest
rrestnal animals, is the most honourable bearing of Birds."
diti ffn 0f 1724.
THE regal dignity of the LION amongst the creatures that
are quadrupeds, like himself, would naturally secure for him
a position of corresponding eminence in Heraldry. From
the dawn of the heraldic era, accordingly, the Lion is
blazoned on the Shields of Sovereigns, Princes, and Nobles.
And, after a while, still retaining his original rank, the lordly
beast also condescended to accept service with men not of
noble, but of gentle birth. The tressured Lion has been
already noticed upon the Royal Shield of SCOTLAND, No.
138; and a crowned Lion has also appeared in the same
attitude, borne by an English Prince, RICHARD, Earl of
CORNWALL, No. 140. From the time that they first pos
sessed any true armorial insignia, the Sovereigns of the
Realm of ENGLAND have borne Lions upon their Royal
Shield. A Lion was the Ensign of the Native Princes of
WALES, as he was of the Kings of LEON, of NORWAY, and
of DENMARK, and of the Counts of HOLLAND, HAINAULT,
Eu, &c. And, in like manner, the Lion was in high favour
with the most noble and powerful Barons of England the
84 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
BOHUNS, LONGESPEES, FlTZ-ALANS, LACIES, PERCIES, SEA-
GRAVES, and such as they.
It was a necessary consequence of his great popularity
that the Lion of Heraldry should be blazoned in various
attitudes, and also variously tinctured, otherwise it would
not be possible duly to distinguish the Lions of different
Shields. Heralds of all countries appear readily to have
permitted their Lions to lay aside their natural tawny hue,
and in its stead to assume the heraldic or, argent, azure,
gules, and sable; but they were not generally disposed to
recognise in their Lions any other attitude than the one
which they held to be consistent with their Lion character,
instincts, and habits erect, that is, with one hind paw only
on the ground, looking forward towards their prey, so as to
show but one eye, and evidently in the act of preparing to
spring. This undoubtedly most characteristic attitude is
rampant, No. 171: and only when he was in this rampant
attitude did the early Heralds consider any Lion to be a
Lion, and blazon him by his true name. A Lion walking
and looking about him, the early Heralds held to be acting
the part of a leopard : consequently, when he was in any
such attitude, they blazoned him as "a leopard" The animal
bearing that name bore it simply as an heraldic title, which
distinguished a Lion in a particular attitude. These heraldic
" leopards " were drawn in every respect as other heraldic
"lions," without spots or any leopardz>/z distinction what
ever. This explains the usage, retained till late in the four
teenth century, which assigned to the Lions of the Royal
Shield of England the name of " leopards." They were so
called, not by the enemies of England for derision and
insult, as some persons, in their ignorance of early Heraldry,
have been pleased both to imagine and to assert ; but the
English Kings and Princes, who well knew their " Lions "
to be Lions, in blazon styled them " leopards," because
THE LION IN HERALDRY.
they also knew that Lions in the attitude of their " Lions "
were heraldic " leopards." When at length the necessity of
varying the attitude of their Lions was admitted by all
Heralds, in consequence of the greatly increased numbers
of the bearers of Lions, some strict adherents to the
original distinctive nomenclature blazoned any Lion that
was not rampant by the compound term of a " lion-leopard"
or a " lion-feoparde"
The following terms are now in use to denote the
various attitudes of the Lion in Heraldry :
Rampant: erect, one hind paw on the ground, the other
three paws elevated, the a-nimal looking forward and having
his tail elevated, No. 171. Rampant Guardant: as before,
but looking out from the Shield, No. 172. Rampant Re-
guardant: as before, but looking backwards.
Passant: walking, three paws on the ground, the dexter
fore-paw being elevated, looking forward, the tail displayed
over the back, No. 173. Passant Guardant: as before, but
looking out from the Shield, No. 174.
as before, but looking backwards.
Statant: standing, his four paws on the ground, and
looking before him, his tail drooping behind him, No. 175.
Statant Guardant : as before, but looking out from the
Shield, No. 176 : in this example the Lion has his tail ex
tended, but this would be specified in the blazon, since
without such particular description this Lion s tail would be
represented as in No. 175 ; in like manner, if the tail of a
Lion in any other attitude be extended, there must be a
statement to that effect.
Sejant: at rest, his fore legs stretched on the ground
but awake, and his head elevated, No. 177. Sejant Ram-
pant: seated, his fore legs being erect, No. 178. If in
either of these cases he looks out from the Shield, the word
Gnardant is to be added.
Couchant or Dormant : asleep, his head resting on his
fore paws, No. 179.
Salient: in the act to spring, the hind paws on the
ground, both the fore paws elevated, No. 180.
Queue fourchee : having a double tail, or two tails, as
No. 1 8 1, which is a Lion rampant queue fourchee.
Coward: passant reguardant, his tail between his legs,
THE LION IN HERALDRY. 87
and showing other signs of alarm ; his movement, indeed,
is more rapid \han passant, No. 182.
Two Lions rampant, when face to face, are Counter
rampant, or Combattant : when back to back, they are
Addorsed: when passant or salient in contrary directions,
they are Counter passant or Counter salient.
Lions, whatever their tincture, except it be red, or they
are charged on a field of that tincture, are armed and langued
gules; but azure in the case of either of these exceptions,
unless the contrary be specified in the blazon. When
several Lions appear in one composition, or when they are
drawn to a comparatively very small scale, they are blazoned
as " Lioncels." This term " Lioncel" it must be added,
when used alone, denotes a small Lion rampant.
A Lion s head is a Charge : it may be erased, as in No.
No. 183. Lion s Head. No. 185. Lion s Jambe. No. 184. Lion s Face.
183 ; or cut off smooth, when it is couped. A Lion s face
also is a Charge, No. 184; so is \\isjambe vc paw, No. 185.
No. 1 86. Demi-Lion Rampant. No. 187. England.
A demi-lion rampant is the upper half of his body and the
extremity of his tufted tail, as in No. 186.
The LIONS OF ENGLAND are golden Lions leoparde, three
in number, placed one above the other on a red Shield.
They are blazoned Gu., three Lions pass, guard., in pale,
or, No. 187. %
A Lion in this attitude, of this tincture, and on a field
gules, may be blazoned as a " Lion of England." These
three Lions first appear upon the second Great Seal of
RICHARD I., A.D. 1194, on the Shield of the King, No.
1 88. An earlier Seal, used by Prince JOHN before his
brother s accession, has a Shield charged with two Lions
only, and they are passant, No. 189. The first Great Seal
No. 188. No. 190. No. 189.
Richard I. : 2nd Gt. Seal. Richard I. : ist Gt. Seal. Prince John: Seal.
of the lion-hearted King has a Shield, bowed in its contour,
and charged with a single Lion rampant facing to the
sinister, or counter-rampant, No. 190; and it has been con
jectured that, were the whole face of this Shield visible, a
second Lion rampant facing to the dexter would appear,
thus charging the Shield with two Lions combattant ; this,
however, is a conjecture which is not supported by the
authority of many Shields of the same form. A red Shield
charged with two golden Lions passant guardant in pale (No.
22), and therefore closely resembling No. 189, as I have
already shown, has been assigned to WILLIAM I., and his
two sons and his grandson, WILLIAM II., HENRY I., and
STEPHEN. The Shield bearing the three Lions, No. 187, has
been assigned to HENRY II., but it first makes its appear-
THE LION IN HERALDRY.
ance on the Great Seal of his son. This same Shield has
continued, from the time of RICHARD L, to display the
ROYAL ARMS of the REALM OF ENGLAND : how, in the
course of ages, these Arms became grouped with other
insignia, I shall presently have to show.
The Lion passant is carefully distinguished in the earliest
Rolls as a different Charge from the Lion passant guardant.
Thus (H. 3), for HAMON LE STRANGE Gu., two Lions
passant arg., No. 191; and for JOHN GIFFARD Gu., three
No. 191. Le Strange.
No. 192. Giffard.
No. 193. Mowbray.
Lions pass, arg., No. 192 : for Sir NICHOLAS CAREW (E. 2),
Or, three Lions pass. sa.
From the numerous early Shields which bear Lions ram
pant, I select the following examples, associated with names
illustrious in English History. For ROGER DE MOWBRAY
(H. 3)- Gu., a Lion rampt. arg., No. 193 : this Coat is
quartered by the present Duke of NORFOLK. For FITZ-
ALAN, Earl of ARUNDEL
Gu., a Lion rampt. or (H.
3), No. 193. ForDsLACi,
Earl of LINCOLN Or, a
Lion rampt. purpure(. 2),
No. 194. For Sir JOHN DE
SEGRAVE (E. 2)Sa., a NO. i 9S .
No. 194.- De Lacy. Um ram ^ ff ^ crowned De Segrave.
or, No. 195, For PERCY, Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND Or,
a Lion rampt. az., No. 196 : this Shield is drawn from the
fine counter-seal of Sir HENRY DE PERCY, first Lord of
Almvick, who died A.D. 1315.
Two Shields of the DE BOHUNS, Nos. 114, 115, already
described, exemplify the display of Lioncels as heraldic
charges. An earlier Shield, charged with six Lioncels, but
without any Ordinary, was borne by FAIR ROSAMOND S son,
WILLIAM LONGESPEE, Earl of SALISBURY, A.D. 1226: it is
boldly sculptured with his noble effigy in Salisbury Cathe
dral, and it also appears upon his Seal Az., six Lioncels
No. 196. De Percy.
No. 197. Longespe.
or, No. 197. The Roll of Edward II., confirmed by his
Seal, gives for Sir WM. DE LEYBOURNE the same composi
tion, with a difference in the tincturing Az., six Lioncels
arg. Other members of the same family change these
tinctures for gules and or, gules and argent, and or and sable
(E. 2). Examples of Shields which bear Lions or Lioncels
with various other charges will be described and illus
trated in succeeding Chapters.
Lions also fulfil important duties of high honour in
English Heraldry as Crests and Supporters, and also as
Badges. From the time of EDWARD III. a Crowned Lion,
THE LION IN HERALDRY.
at the first standing on a Cap of Estate, and afterwards
upon the Crown, has been the Royal Crest of ENGLAND ; a
Lion also has always been the Royal Crest of SCOTLAND
(see Chapter XVIII.). The Princes of the Royal Houses
of England, In like manner, have always borne the Royal
Lion distinguished by some "Mark of Cadency" (see
Chapter XII.) : No. 198 is the Lion Crest of the BLACK
PRINCE, from his Monument at Canterbury, the Lion differ
enced with the Prince s silver label. The Lion also appears
as the Crest of many noble and distinguished families, as
No. 199. Crest of Richard II.
No. 198. Crest of Black Prince.
the DE BOHUNS, the PERCIES, and the HOWARDS. The
Lion Crest of RICHARD II., sculptured statant guardant
upon his helm, with a chapeau and mantling, and with the
Badge of two Ostrich feathers, in Westminster Hall, is
without any crown : No. 1 99.
As a Royal Supporter of the Arms of England, the
Lion appears in company with some other creature from
the time of HENRY VI., EDWARD IV. sometimes having
his Shield supported by two Lions. On the accession of
JAMES I. of Great Britain, the Royal Lion Supporter
formed that alliance with the Unicorn of Scotland which
still continues, and will continue, it is to be hoped,
throughout all time. Lions, as I shall point out more in
detail in Chapter XVI., were frequently introduced into
92 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
the composition of Seals before true heraldic Supporters
were in use. In more recent Heraldry the Lion is a
favourite Supporter : he now appears supporting the Shields
of the Dukes of NORFOLK, ARGYLL, ATHOLE, BEDFORD,
BUCKINGHAM, CLEVELAND, GRAFTON, NORTHUMBERLAND,
PORTLAND, and WELLINGTON ; also, with many others,
those of the Marquesses of BATH, EXETER, HEADFORT,
and SALISBURY; of the Earls of ALBEMARLE, BROWNLOW,
CARLISLE, CARNARVON, CORK, ESSEX, and HARDWICK ; of
the Viscount HARDINGE; and of the Barons ARUNDEL,
CAMOYS, DUNBOYNE, MONSON, PETRE, and SOUTHAMPTON.
As a Supporter the Lion is represented rampant, rampant
reguardant, and sejant rampant. Lions also, and Demi-
Lions, are frequently borne as modern Crests.
In our own treatment of the Lions of Heraldry, what
ever their attitude or tincture, whatever also the position
they may occupy or the heraldic duty they may discharge,
we are always to draw and to blazon them as true heraldic
Lions, while, at the same time, in their expression and
general characteristics they are to be genuine Lions.
In becoming fellowship with the Lion, the EAGLE
appears in the earliest English Rolls and examples of Arms.
The Royal bird, however, does not occur in English blazon
so frequently as the Lion; and his appearance often
denotes an alliance with German Princes. A Roll of Arms
(printed in "Archaeologia," XXX.) of the year 1275 com
mences with the Shields of the " EMPEROR OF GERMANY,"
and of the "KING OF GERMANY," which are severally
blazoned as, " Or, an Eagle displayed having two fieads
sa." and, " Or, an Eagle displayed sable" In York Cathe
dral, in stained glass, there are Shields with both the
double-headed and the single-headed Eagles, all of them
German, which may be considered to have been executed
before the year 1310. In the north choir-aisle at West-
THE EAGLE IN HERALDRY.
minster, the Shield (now mutilated) of the Emperor FREDE
RICK II. is boldly sculptured by an heraldic artist of the
time of our HENRY III., No. 200 ; here the Eagle had one
head only. The German Emperors naturally adopted the
No. 200. In Westminster Abbey.
Eagle for their heraldic Ensign, in support of their claim to
be successors to the Roman Caesars; and the Russian
Czars, with the same motive, have also assumed the same
ensign. The Eagle having two heads, which severally look
No. 201. Imperial Eagle.
No. 202. Royal Eagle.
to the dexter and the sinister, as in No. 201, typified a rule
that claimed to extend over both the Eastern and the
Western Empires; as the Eagle with a single head, No.
202, might be considered to have a less comprehensive
signification. The Eagles of the Princes of Germany are
frequently to be found, blazoned for them, in England.
RICHARD, the second son of King JOHN, in the year
1256 was elected King of Germany (he is generally styled
" King of the Romans "), when he bore the Eagle of the
Empire : but the only Seals of this Prince that are known
to exist in England display the Shield of his English Earl
dom of Cornwall, No. 140. His Son EDMUND, who suc
ceeded to his father s Earldom, on his Seals has represented
an Eagle bearing in its beak his Shield of Cornwall, as in
No. 203. Cornwall.
No. 204. Seal of Euphemia Leslie.
No. 203 : this is a peculiarly interesting example of an
heraldic usage of striking significance, and it also illus
trates the early existence of the sentiment which at a later
period led to the adoption of " Supporters " to Shields of
Arms. In the early Heraldry of Scotland, a single displayed
Eagle is occasionally found supporting an armorial Shield; as
in the Seals of ALEXANDER STEWARD, Earl of MENTEITH, A.D.
1296, and WILLIAM, Earl of DOUGLAS and MAR, A.D. 1378
(SETON S " Scottish Heraldry," Plates VIII. and XII.) :
sometimes also, as Mr. Seton has observed, " the Eagle s
THE EAGLE IN HERALDRY.
breast is charged with more than one Shield, as in the case of
the Seals of MARGARET STEWART, Countess of ANGUS (1366),
and EUPHEMIA LESLIE, Countess of Ross (1381), on both of
which three escutcheons make their appearance " (" Scottish
Heraldry," p. 268, and Plate XIL, No. 5): in No. 204 I give
a woodcut of this interesting composition ; the Shields are,
to the dexter, LESLIE Arg., on a bend az., three buckles or;
in the centre, the Arms of the Earl of Ross Git., three
Lions rampant arg., within a tressure; and, to the sinister,
CUMMIN Az., three garbs or. The Imperial Eagle is
sometimes represented crowned; the heads also in some
examples are encircled with a nimbus or glory, as in No.
212. I must add that in the Heraldry of the English
Peerage the Imperial Eagle still supports the Shields of
some few Peers of different ranks ; as those of the Duke
of MARLBOROUGH, the Earl of DENBIGH, and Baron
METHUEN. The old Scottish usage in this respect is also
still retained, as in the case of the Shield of Sir JAMES
STUART MENTETH, of Closeburn, Baronet, which is charged
upon the breast of an Eagle. _
PIERS GAVESTON, who was
created Earl of CORNWALL by
EDWARD II., bore Vert, six
Eaglets or, No. 205, (E. 2 and
York stained glass): on his
Seal, however, the number of
the Eaglets is reduced to
three. Another early example
is the Shield of that gal
lant and persevering knight,
RALPH DE MONTHERMER
Or, an Eagle displayed vert, No< 2 3-- Shield of
No. 206, who became Earl of GLOUCESTER in right of his
wife, JOAN, daughter of EDWARD L, and widow of GILBERT
DE CLARE, the " Red Earl :" this green Eagle of Monthermer
long held a place of high distinction in the mediaeval
Heraldry of England, marshalled on
the Shields of the Earls of SALISBURY
and WARWICK ; in which, as in the
example, No. 206, the Eagle of Mon
thermer is quartered with the coat of
Montacute, No. 20A (page 70). The
Eagle of early Heraldry was some
times blazoned as an " Erne? and
NO. 2 o6.-Mont aC uteand sometimes as an "Alerion" WILLIAM
Monthermer. D ERNFORD (H. 3) bears Sa., an
Erne displayed arg. : and, at the same period WM. DE
ERNFIELD bears a pair of Erne s or Eagle s Wings, called
a " Vol? No. 207. From Shields of the fourteenth century
which bear Eagles, and are blazoned in the Roll of
Edward II., I select the following small group as good
examples : Sir WM. DE MONTGOMERIE Or, an Eagle
displayed az.: Sir NICHOLAS DE ETONE Gu., a Chevron
between three Eaglets arg. Sir JOHN DE CHARLESTONS
No. 208. De Charlestone. No. 207. A Yol. No. 2 oo..-De la Mere.
Arg., on a Chevron vert three Eaglets or, No. 208 : Sir
PHILIP DE VERLEY Or, a Bend gu., between six Eaglets sa. :
Sir JOHN DE LA MERE Arg., on a Bend az. three Eaglets
or, No. 209 : a Shield bearing a Bend charged with three
Eagles, but with different tinctures, No. S8, I have shown
to have been the Arms of the Grandisons.
THE EAGLE IN HERALDRY. 97
Eagles, under their name of "Alerions" (which some
early Heralds represented without feet and beaks), are
blazoned in the same disposition as in No. 209, in the Arms
of the Duchy of LORRAINE, Or, on a Bend git. three
alerions arg.: and this device the Dukes of Lorraine are
said to have borne in commemoration of an exploit of their
famous ancestor, GODFREY DE BOLOGNE, who is also said,
when " shooting against David s tower in Jerusalem," to
have " broched upon his arrow three footless birds called
alerions." " It is impossible," remarks Mr. Planche upon
this legend, " now to ascertain who broached this wonderful
story ; but it is perfectly evident that the narrator was the
party who drew the long bow, and not the noble GODFREY."
Mr. Planche adds, that the Alerions of Lorraine may indi
cate an alliance with the Imperial House ; and he directs
attention to " a similarity in sound between Alerion and
Lorraine, " and also to a singular Anagram produced by
the letters ALERION and LORAINE, which are the
same (" Pursuivant of Arms," p. 87). The Arms of Lorraine
are still borne by the Emperor of AUSTRIA : and in England
they were quartered by Queen MARGARET of Anjou.
The Roll of Edward II. gives also for Sir HUGH DE
BILBESWORTH these arms Az., three Eagles displayed or.
A similar Shield, the tinctures changed to Arg., three
Eagles displayed gn., armed or, was borne by ROBERT DE
EGLESFIELD, Confessor to PHILIPPA of Hainault, Queen of
EDWARD III., who in the year 1340 founded Queen s
College, Oxford : this Shield of the Founder is borne by
the College. One of the Shields in the Chantry of Abbot
RAMRYGE in St. Alban s Abbey Church bears the same
charges three eagles displayed, No. 210 : the drawing of the
eagle in this Shield is remarkable, and the form of the Shield
itself is singularly characteristic of the close of the fifteenth
century. Another Shield in the same monument bears a
single Eagle, drawn in the same manner, and sculptured
with extraordinary spirit. The heraldic Eagle is generally
drawn in England after the manner of the Westminster
example, No. 200, with slight modifications of that type.
The German Heralds, and also their brethren of France,
delight in exaggerations of what I may distinguish as the
Westminster Eagle. The Austrian Eagle, besides having
both its heads crowned, has a large Imperial Crown placed
No 210. Shield at St. Albans.
No. 2ii. The Austrian Eagle.
between the two heads, and also above them, as in No. 211.
The Prussian Eagle is treated after the same manner. The
German Imperial Eagle sometimes has a nimbus or glory
about each head, which dignified accessory is repre
sented by a circular line, as in No. 212. I observe that
in the last editions of Sir Bernard Burke s " Peerage," the
German Eagles of the Duke of MARLBOROUGH and the
Earl of DENBIGH have the nimbus drawn in such a manner
as to have the appearance of a ring placed in each beak.
In some examples of Eagles as well in our own Heraldry
as in that of continental countries, the wings are repre-
THE EAGLE IN HERALDRY.
sented as erect, and having the tips of all the principal
feathers pointing upwards, as in No. 213. The Eagle now
German Imperial Eagle, with Nimbus.
German Eagle with Wings erect.
borne as the Ensign of Imperial FRANCE, sits, grasping a
thunderbolt, in an attitude of vigilance, having its wings
elevated, but with the tips of
the feathers drooping, as they
would be in the living bird; No.
EDWARD III., as a Second
Crest, bore an Eagle. An Eagle
also was borne for his Crest, as
the imperial bird was displayed
upon his Shield (No. 206), by
Earl RALPH DE MONTHERMER. NO. ai 4 .-French imperial Eagle.
In the more recent Heraldry of
England, the Eagle is a Supporter to the Shields of
the Earls of CLARENDON, COVENTRY, MALMESBURY ;
the Viscounts BOLINGBROKE and ST. VINCENT; and the
Barons HEYTESBURY, OVERSTONE, RADSTOCK, WYNFORD,
and others. Eagles also and Demi-Eagles are borne as
Crests in the English Heraldry of our own day.
As small Lions in Heraldry are " Lioncels," so small
Eagles are " Eaglets"" 1 In drawing our heraldic Eagles, we can
scarcely improve upon some of the examples in which early
English Heralds expressed their ideas of the king of birds.
THE GRAMMAR OF HERALDRY : GLOSSARY OF TITLES,
NAMES, AND TERMS.
" The several denominations given to these tokens of honour .... with the
terms of art given to them." RANDLE HOME ; Academy of Armoury, A.D. 1688.
IN this Glossary, which obviously must be as concise as
possible, I shall include no word that is ordinarily well
understood, unless some special signification should be
attached to it when it is in use in armorial blazon.
Abased. Said of a charge when placed lower than its
Abatement. A sign of degradation: also, differencing to
denote illegitimacy. (See Chapter XII.)
Accollee. Placed side by side; also, entwined about the
Accosted. Side by side.
Accrued. Grown to maturity.
Achievement, or Achievement of Arms. Any complete
Addorsed. Back to back ; pointing backwards.
Affrontee. So placed as to show the full face or front.
Alant, Aland. A mastiff with short ears.
Alerion. A name sometimes given by early Heralds to the
heraldic Eagle, which, when blazoned under this title,
was also sometimes drawn without legs or beak. (See
Ambulant. In the act of walking.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 1OI
Annulet. A plain ring; sometimes blazoned as a "false
roundle /" in modern cadency, the difference of the fifth
son or brother : No. 154.
Annulettee. Ending in Annulets.
Antelope. Blazoned by early Heralds in a conventional
manner, now generally rendered naturally.
Anthony, St. His cross is in the form of the letter T, No. 93.
Antique Crown. See Eastern Crown.
Appaumee. Said of a hand, when open, erect, and showing
the palm : No. 215.
Arched, Archy. Bent, or bowed.
Archbishop. A prelate of the highest order in
the English Church; his heraldic insignia
are his Mitre, Crozier, and Pall. Next
to the Royal Family, the Archbishop of NO 215.
Canterbury is the first subject in the Badge of Ulster,
realm ; he is styled " Most Reverend Father in God/*
"by Divine Providence," and "Your Grace." The
Archbishop of York is third in rank (the Lord
Chancellor being second), and his style is the same,
except that he is Archbishop " by Divine permission."
Archbishops impale their own arms with those of their
see, the latter being marshalled to the dexter.
Argent. The metal silver.
Arm. A human arm. When a charge, crest, or badge, it
must be blazoned with full particulars as to position,
clothing, &c. If couped at the elbow, it is a cubit arm.
Armed. A term applied to animals and birds of prey, to
denote their natural weapons of offence and defence :
thus, a Lion is said to be " armed of his claws and
teeth;" a Bull, to be " armed of his horns;" an Eagle,
" of its beak and talons."
Armory. Heraldry. Also, a List of Names and Titles, with
their respective Arms.
102 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Arms, Armorial Bearings. Heraldic compositions, and the
Figures and Devices which form them. (See Chapter I.)
Arms of Community. Borne by Corporate and other Bodies
and Communities, as cities, colleges, &c.
Arms of Dominion. Borne by Sovereign Princes, being also
the arms of the realms over which they rule.
Arms of Office. Borne, with the personal arms, to denote
Arms of Pretension. Borne to denote a claim, or a supposed
right, to a sovereignty or other rank, without the actual
possession of it.
Arms of Succession. Borne, with the personal arms, to
denote the possession of various dignities and estates.
Armes Parlantes. Such as are allusive to the Name, Title,
Office, or Property of those who bear them : thus,
Leaves for Zeveson, a Castle for Castile, a Cup for
Butler, Fish for those who derive revenues from
Fisheries, &c. (See Rebus : also page 15.)
Armoyee. Charged with an armorial shield.
Arrondie. Curved, rounded.
Arrow. Is armed of its head, ^flighted of its feathers ; a
bundle of arrows is a sheaf; with a blunt head, it is a
Ascendant. Issuing upwards, as a flower.
Aspectant. Respecting (looking at) one another.
Aspersed. Scattered over the same as semte.
At Gaze. A term applied to animals of the chase, to denote
their standing still, and looking about them : No. 167.
Attires, Attired. The antlers of a Stag or Hart :" having
antlers. A Reindeer is represented in Heraldry with
double attires, one pair erect, and the other drooping.
Augmentation. An honourable addition to a Coat of Arms,
specially granted with a peculiar significance : thus, the
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 103
"Union" Device of the British Empire, blazoned on
an Escutcheon of Pretence, is the " Augmentation"
specially granted to the great Duke of WELLINGTON,
to be borne on the honour point of his paternal shield.
Augmented. Having an " Augmentation."
Avellane. A variety of the heraldic Cross : No. 109.
Azure. The colour blue indicated by horizontal lines :
Badge. A figure or device, distinct from a crest, and
borne without any shield or other accessory, except
sometimes a motto. Badges are of two kinds ; the
one personal, and peculiarly significant of the bearer
himself; the other borne by all persons connected with
and dependent on the owner, and used by him for all
purposes of decoration. (See Chapter XV.)
Banded. Encircled with a band.
Banner. A square or narrow oblong flag, charged with
the coat of arms of the owner, displayed over its entire
surface. It was the ensign both of a Knight Banneret
and of his followers. (See Chapter XVII.)
Banneret. A Knight who had been advanced by the King
to that higher military rank which entitled him to
display a banner.
Bar. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 81, 82.
Bars Gemelles. Barrulets borne in pairs : Nos. 83, 84.
Barbed. Pointed, as an arrow. The term is also applied to
the small green leaves about heraldic roses. (See Rose.)
Barbel. A Fish borne as an allusive device by the family of
DE BARRE : No. 162.
Barded. Having horse-trappings.
Bardings. Horse-trappings, often enriched with armorial
blazonry. On the Great Seal of EDWARD I. the Bard-
ings of the King s charger for the first time appear
adorned with the Royal blazonry. On both sides of
104 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
the horse, the head is supposed to be to the dexter. A
good example is represented in the Seal of ALEXANDER
DE BALLIOL, in Chapter XIV.
Barnacles, Breys. An instrument used in breaking horses.
A rebus of Sir REGINALD BRAY, architect of St. George s
No. 216. Breys. No. 217. Baron s Coronet
Chapel, Windsor, and repeatedly represented there :
Baron. The lowest rank in the British Peerage, corres
ponding with the Thane of the Saxons. A Baron is
"Right Honourable," and is styled " My Lord." His
coronet, first granted by Charles II., has on a golden
circlet six large pearls, of which four appear in repre
sentations, as in No. 217. All a Baron s children are
Baron. A husband, a wife in Heraldry being/m;;/.
Baroness. The wife of a baron. She is " Right Honour
able," is styled " My Lady," and her coronet is the same
as her husband s.
Barenet. An hereditary rank, lower than the peerage, insti
tuted in 1612 by JAMES I., who fixed the precedence
of Baronets before all Knights, those of the Order of
the Garter alone excepted. As originally created, all
Baronets were "of Ulster," or "of Nova Scotia;" now
all are " of the United Kingdom." The " Badge of
Ulster," generally borne as an augmentation upon a
small inescutcheon, is Arg., a sinister hand, couped at
the wrist and appaumee, g^t., No. 215. The arms of
Nova Scotia, borne also on a canton or inescutcheon,
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 105
are Arg., on a saltire az., the Royal arms of Scotland.
(See No. 138.) By letters patent of JAMES I., the wives
of Baronets have the titles of "Lady, Madam, and
Dame" at their pleasure prefixed to their names.
Barrulet. The diminutive of a Bar.
Barrulee, Barruly. Barry of ten or more pieces.
Barry. Divided into an even number of Bars, which all
lie in the same plane : Nos. 85, 86.
Barry Bendy. Having the field divided by lines drawn
bar-wise, which are crossed by others drawn bend-wise :
Bar-wise. Disposed after the manner of a Bar, crossing
the field, that is, horizontally.
Base. The lowest extremity : No. 2713.
Basilisk. A cockatrice having its tail ending in a dragon s head.
Basinet. A helm fitting close to the head.
Baton. A diminutive of the bend sinister, couped at its
Battled. Having battlements, or bordered, as No. 38* .
Battled, Embattled. Having double battlements.
Beacon, or Fire Beacon. An iron case of burning combus
tibles set on a pole, against which a ladder is placed.
Beaked. Applied to birds, not of prey.
Bearer. In Scottish heraldry, a Supporter.
Bearing, Bearings. Armorial insignia, borne on shields.
BelL Drawn, and generally blazoned as a church-bell.
Belled. Having bells attached.
Bend. One of the Ordinaries : Nos. in 115.
Bendlet. The diminutive of a bend : No. 117.
Bend-wise, or In Bend. Arranged in the direction of a bend.
Bendy. Parted bend-wise into an even number of divisions :
Bezant. A golden "Roundle" or disc, flat like a coin : No.
151, and No. 140.
106 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Billet. An oblong figure of any tincture : Billctee studded
with " Billets :" Nos. 130, 146.
Bird. Many Birds appear in blazon, and they are repre
sented both in heraldic tinctures and "proper" in
their natural aspect. (See Chapters VIII. and IX.)
Bird-bolt. An arrow with a blunt head.
Bishop. The Bishops are " by Divine permission," and are
styled " Right Reverend Father in God," and " My Lord
Bishop." The Bishops of England and Wales are all
" spiritual peers" of Parliament, except the prelate last
consecrated. Their heraldic insignia are a mitre and
pastoral staff; they impale their arms, as do the Arch
bishops ; and, like them also, they bear neither supporters
nor crests, but they ensign their shields with a mitre.
Blasted. Leafless, withered.
Blazon. Heraldry: Armorial Compositions. "To blazon"
is to describe or to represent any armorial Figure, Device,
or Composition in an heraldic manner. Blazoning
Describing in heraldic language : also, representing in an
heraldic manner. Blazonry the representation of any
heraldic Figure, Device, or Composition.
No. 218. Water Bouget. No. 219. Bourchier Knot.
Boar. In Heraldry entitled Sanglier.
Bordure. A Subordinary : Nos. 139, 140- Also, an im
portant " Difference." (See Chapters XII. and XIII.)
Botonee, Botonee Fitchee. Varieties of the heraldic Cross :
Nos. 103, no. This Cross is also entitled Treflee.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. IOJ
Bouget, or Water Bouget. A charge, representing the vessels
used by the Crusaders for carrying water. Fine early
examples occur in the Temple Church, at Beverley
Minster, and in a monument at Blyborough, Lincoln
shire : No. 218.
Bourchier Knot. A badge represented in No. 219.
Bourdon. A palmer s or pilgrim s staff. (See Pilgrim s Staff.)
Bow. The archer s weapon, in all its varieties of form, is a
Bowed. Having a convex contour : No. 39.
Bowen Knot. No. 220.
Braced, Brazed. Interlaced.
Brizure. A difference or mark of cadency.
Brouchant. Placed over, as when one charge overlies
Buckle. See Fermaile.
Burgonet. A helm worn in the sixteenth century.
Cabossed. The head of a stag, or other animal, represented
full-faced, so as to show the face only : No. 170.
No. 220. Bowen Knot. No. 221. Caltrap.
Cadency. Figures and devices, introduced into armorial
compositions, in order to distinguish the different mem
bers and branches of the same family. (See Difference,
and Chapter XII.)
Cadet. A junior member or branch of a family.
Caltrap. An implement used in war to maim horses :
Canting Heraldry. Armes Parlantes.
Canton, or Quarter. One of the Subordinaries : Nos.
Cantoned. Placed in the first quarter of a shield ; also,
placed between four charges.
Carbuncle. The same as Escarbuncle.
Cartouche. No. 46.
Castle. Generally represented crowned with three turrets, as
in the shield of Queen Alianore, of Castile : No. 222.
No. 222. -Castle. No. 223. -Celestial Crown.
Celestial Crown. No. 223.
Centaur. Also blazoned as a sagittary, and supposed to be
a badge of King Stephen.
Cercelee, or Recercelee. A variety of the heraldic Cross:
Chapeau of Estate.
No. 225. Arms of Saxony.
Chapeau. Also entitled a chapeau or cap of dignity, of main-
tenan&e, or of estate. An early symbol of high dignity,
represented as supporting certain crests : No. 224.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 109
Chaplet. A garland or entwined wreath of leaves and flowers,
or of flowers alone. A chaplet of rue, sometimes called a
crancelin, is blazoned bend-wise in the shield of Saxony
Barry of ten or and sa., over all a chaplet of rue vert :
No. 225. (See Crancelin?)
Charge. Any heraldic figure or device. Charged placed
on a shield, banner, &c., as any heraldic figure or
device may be.
Chequee, Cheeky. Having the field divided into three, or
into more than three, contiguous rows of small squares,
alternately of a metal (or fur) and a colour : No. 68.
Chess rook. A piece used in the game of Chess : borne by
J?vewood and others : No. 226.
Chevron. One of the Ordinaries : Nos. 123, 125.
Chevronel. A diminutive of the Chevron : No. 124.
Chevronee, Chevrony. A field divided per Chevron : No.
Chief. One of the Ordinaries: Nos. 71 75. In Chief
arranged horizontally across the upper part of the field.
No. 226. No. 227.
Chess Rook. Cinque-foil. No. 228. Clarions.
Cinque-foil, Quint-foil. A flower or leaf of five foils:
Civic Crown. A wreath of oak-leaves and acorns.
Clarenceux. See Herald.
Clarion. An ancient musical instrument, a badge, appa
rently, of the DE CLARES. By some this charge is sup
posed to represent a lance-rest, and is sometimes so
blazoned : No 228, which shows two varieties of form.
Clechet, or Unde e, A variety of the heraldic Cross : No. 105.
Close. With closed wings.
Closet. A Diminutive of the Bar, one half its width.
Clouee. Fastened with Nails, and showing the Nail-heads :
Coat Armour. True armorial or heraldic bearings, duly
granted or inherited, and rightly borne : so entitled,
from having been blazoned by knightly warriors of the
Middle Ages upon their surcoats, worn by them over
Coat of Arms. A complete armorial composition, to be
charged upon a Shield or Banner.
Cockatrice. A fabulous creature, represented
in No. 229.
Collar. One of the insignia of Orders of
Knighthood, worn about the neck. Also
any ornament or distinction worn in
the same manner. Knights occasionally
wore collars charged with their own NQ
badge. In addition to their badges of Cockatrice.
the Red and White Rose, the adherents of the rival
houses of York and Lancaster wore collars, the former
No 230. Collar of York.
No. 231. Collar oi Lancaster.
formed ot alternate Suns and Roses, No. 230 ; and the
latter, of the letter S continually repeated, No. 231.
No certain origin has been discovered for the Lan
castrian " Collar of S.," but it is supposed to represent
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. Ill
the word SOVERAYGNE, the motto of HENRY IV.
No. 230 is from the Brass to HENRY BOURCHIER, K.G.,
Earl of Essex, at Little Easton, Suffolk, A.D. 1483 ; and
No. 231 from the Brass to Lord CAMOYS, K.G., at
Trotton, Sussex, A.D. 1424.
College of Arms , or Heralds College. (See Herald?)
Colour. See Chapter V., page 41. The term " Colours" is
applied to Flags, particularly to those of infantry regi
ments, and to such as are displayed at sea. (See
Combattant. Two lions, or other animals of prey, rampant
and face to face.
Compartment. In Scottish Heraldry, "a kind of carved
panel, of no fixed form, placed below the escutcheon,
bearing the supporters, and usually inscribed with a
motto or the name and designation of the owner."
Comporiee, Compony, or Gobony. A single row of small
squares alternately of two tinctures or furs : No. 66.
(See Counter Componee^)
Complement. Applied to the moon when full.
Compound Quartering. The quartering of a quarter, or
division of a quartered Coat-of-Arms. (See page 34.)
Compounded Arms. Arms formed from the combination of
the bearings of two or more distinct coats, to produce a
single compound coat.
Conjoined in lure. Two wings united, their tips in base.
Contoise. A flowing scarf, worn attached to the helm before
1350. Two examples occur in effigies in Exeter
Cathedral, and another in Westminster Abbey.
Contournee. Facing to the sinister.
Cornish Chough. A bird like a crow, black, with red beak
Coronet, An ensign of Nobility worn upon the head, in use
II2 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
in England from about the middle of the fourteenth
century, but without any distinctive tokens of gradations
of rank until a later period. In modern times English
Coronets have enclosed a velvet cap with a bullion
tassel: at the present time, however, this cap, with
better taste, is generally omitted. (See Prince, Duke,
Marquess, Earl, Viscount, and Baron.)
Cotise. A diminutive of the Bend, being one-fourth of its
width. Cotised. When a Bend is placed between two
Cotises, or when a Fesse or Bar is placed between two
Barrulets. Nos. 114, IJ 5-
Couchant, or Dormant, In repose. No. 179.
Couch ee. Said of a Shield when suspended from the sinister
extremity of the chief, or when placed as if it were so
suspended. No. 49.
Count, Countess. Count, in Latin Comes," the same as
Earl Countess, the wife of an Earl : she is " Right
Honourable," and styled "My Lady:" her coronet
the same as that of an Earl.
Counter. Reversed or opposite.
Counter-changing. See page 44, and Nos. 70, i* 6 -
Counter Componee. Double Compome, or two conjoined
rows of alternately tinctured squares. No. 67.
Counter-seal. Early seals were generally impressed on both
sides ; and the seals thus were produced from two die
or matrices. The two sides were severally called the
seal and the counter-seal, the latter being the reverse of
the compound composition. Every such double im
pression constituted a single* seal. Both seal and
counter-seal were sometimes used alone; and the
counter-seal was regarded as a private seal, or secretum.
Couped. Cut off smoothly the reverse of " erased."
Couple-close. Half a chevronel.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 113
Courtesy, Titles of. Nominal degrees of rank, conceded to,
and borne by the Eldest Sons of Dukes, Marquesses,
Covert. Partly covered.
Coward, Cowed. An animal with its tail between its legs,
and showing other signs of terror. No. 182.
Crampet. The decorated end of a sword-scabbard.
Crancelin. From the German kranzlein, " a small garland,"
applied to the chaplet that crosses the shield of Saxony,
No. 225 : this charge is also blazoned as a bend treflee
vert, a bend archee coronett ee, or a coronet extended in bend:
it is said to be an augmentation conferred, with the
Dukedom of Saxony, on BERNHARD of Ascania, by the
Emperor BARBAROSSA. The Emperor took from his
head his own chaplet of rue, and threw it across the
shield of Duke Bernhard.
Crescent. No. 166. In modern cadency, the difference of
the second son, or house.
Cresset. A beacon.
Crest. A figure or device originally worn upon a helm,
and now generally represented above a Shield of arms.
Crests at first were ensigns of high honour, and their
use was restricted to a few persons of eminence : they
were attached to a wreath, or orle, or to a coronet, which
encircled the helm or basinet; and sometimes a crest
stood upon a cap of estate. Crests are still represented
standing upon either a coronet, a wreath, or a cap : but
in our own Heraldry a crest-coronet must always be care
fully distinguished from those coronets that are insignia
of princely and noble rank. Crests are not borne by
ladies, the Sovereign excepted. (See Panache, Rebus,
and Chapter XIV.)
Crest- Coronet. A coronet to support a crest. No. 232.
114 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Crest- Wreath, or Orle. In the Middle Ages, of rich
materials and costly workmanship now represented
as being formed of two rolls of silk of the principal
metal and colour in the arms, which are twisted to show
the metal and colour alternately. The earliest examples
No. 232. Crest-Coronet.
No. 233. Crest- Wreath.
are about A.D. 1375. No. 233 shows three varieties of
representation. (See Chapter XIV.)
Crined. Having a mane or hair.
Cross. One of the Ordinaries. Nos. 90 no.
Crown. The ensign of Royal and Imperial dignity ; in
Heraldry borne as a charge, and also used to denote
the rank of a Sovereign Prince. The Crown that is
generally borne as a charge is represented without
arches, and resembling No. 232. Certain other crowns,
each distinguished by an appropriate title, are also
sometimes borne on shields, or introduced as heraldic
accessories. (See Celestial, Eastern or Radiated, Mural,
Naval, and Vallary Crowns.) The different forms
assumed at different periods by the Royal Crown of
England are faithfully exemplified in the seals and the
coinage of the successive Sovereigns, and several fine
examples are preserved in the Royal effigies. The
adornment of the regal circlet was arbitrary before the
fifteenth century; still, it always was enriched with
gems and surmounted by golden foliage. HENRY V.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 115
first arched his crown; and by HENRY VI. the circlet
was first heightened with alternate crosses-pate e and
fleurs de lys. This arrangement has since been retained,
the subsequent alterations being restricted to changes
in the number and in the contour of the arches. The
crown of Her Majesty the QUEEN has the circlet
heightened with four crosses and as many fleurs de lys ;
from the crosses rise the arches, which are surmounted
by a mound and a cross-patee. No. 234.
234. No. 235.
Crown of H. M. The Queen. Dacre Knot and Badges.
Crazier. The cross-staff of an archbishop ; distinguished by
its form from the pastoral-staff with a crook-head, of
Crusilee, Crusily. Having the field semee of crosses-crosslets,
or of other small crosses, their peculiar form (when not
crosslets) being specified.
Cubit-arm. A human arm couped at the elbow.
Cup, Covered Cup. A vessel formed like a chalice, and
having a raised cover; borne by the BOTILERS, BUT
Cushion, Pillow, Oreiller. Unless described of another form,
square or oblong, and with a tassel at each corner.
Dacre Knot. No. 235. (See Knot.)
Dancette. No. 386. In early blazon, a fesse dancette, and
Il6 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
sometimes a series of fusils conjoined in fesse, is styled
simply "a dancette" or "a danse? Nos. 78, 146; and
No. 20A, page 70.
Debrnised. When an ordinary surmounts an animal or
Decrescent, In Detriment. A half-moon having its horns to
the sinister. No. i66c.
Deer. A stag, with antlers, is a Hart; the female is a Hind.
(See Chapter VIII.)
Degreed, Degraded. Placed on steps.
Demembered) Dismembered. Cut into pieces, but without any
alteration in the form of the original figure.
Demi. The half. The upper, front, or dexter half, unless
the contrary be specified. No. 186.
Developed. Displayed, unfurled.
Dexter. The right side. No. 270.
Diaper, Diapering. Surface decoration. No. 68.
Difference, Differencing. An addition to, or some change in,
a Coat-of-Arms, introduced for the purpose of distin
guishing Coats which in their primary qualities are the
same. Differencing is sometimes used in the same
sense as Cadency ; but, strictly, it is distinct, having
reference to alliance and dependency, without blood-
relationship, or to the system adopted for distinguishing
similar Coats-of-Arms. (See Chapters XII. and XIII.)
Dimidiated. Cut in halves per pale, and one half removed :
No. 250. (See Chapter XL)
Disclosed. With expanded wings, in the case of birds that
are not birds of prey. The contrary to Close.
Displayed. Birds of prey with expanded wings. No. 200
Disposed, Disposition. Arranged, arrangement.
Dividing Lines. No. 38: also Nos. 27 37.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 117
Dolphin. A favourite fish with Heralds. The heraldic DoL
phin of antiquity is exemplified in No. 8 ; that of the
middle ages in No. 163.
Dormant, or Couchant. Asleep, as in No. 179.
Doubling. The lining of a Mantle or Mantling.
Dove-tail. No. 381.
Dragon. A winged monster having four legs. No. 236.
Duke. The highest rank and title in the British Peerage;
first introduced by EDWARD III. in the year 1337, when
he created the BLACK PRINCE the first English Duke (in
Latin, " Z>ux"). A Duke is "Most Noble;" he is
styled "My Lord Duke," and "Your Grace;" and all
his sons are " Lords," and all his daughters " Ladies,"
with the prefix " Right Honourable." His eldest son
bears, by royal concession and courtesy, his father s
No. 236. Dragon. No. 237. Duke s Coronet.
" second title ;" and, accordingly, he generally bears
the title of Marquess. Whatever his title, however,
the rank of the eldest son of a Duke is always the
same, and it assigns to him precedence between Mar
quesses and Earls. The Coronet of a Duke, arbitrary
in its adornment until the sixteenth century was far
advanced, is now a circlet, heightened with eight con
ventional strawberry-leaves, of which in representations
three and two half-leaves are shown; No. 237. The
present ducal coronet is represented in the portrait of
Il8 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
LUDOVICK STUART, K.G., Duke of RICHMOND and
LENNOX, who died in 1624; the picture, the property
of the Crown, is at Hampton Court.
Ducal Coronet. A term commonly, but always most im
properly, applied to a Crest Coronet. No. 232.
Duchess. The wife of a Duke. She is " Most Noble," and
is styled "Your Grace." Her coronet is the same as
that of a Duke.
Eagle. See Chapter IX., page 92.
Eaglet. An Eagle on a small scale.
Earl. In Latin, "Comes;" in French, " Compte" or
"Count." Before 1337, the highest, and now the
third degree of rank and dignity in the British Peerage.
An Earl is "Right Honourable;" he is styled "My
Lord ;" his eldest son bears his father s " second title,"
generally that of Viscount; his other sons are " Honour
able," but all his daughters are " Ladies" and " Right
Honourable." An Earl s Coronet has eight lofty rays
of gold rising from the circlet, each of which supports
No- 238. Earl s Coronet. No. 239. Eastern Crown.
a large pearl, while between each pair of these rays
there is a golden strawberry-leaf. In representations
five of the rays and pearls are shown ; No. 238.
Elevated clusters of pearls appear in an Earl s coronet
that of THOMAS FITZ ALAN, Earl of ARUNDEL as
early as 1445 ; but the present form of the coronet
may be assigned to the second half of the following
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. IIQ
Eastern, Radiated, or Antique Crown. No. 239.
Electoral Bonnet. A cap of crimson velvet guarded with
ermine, borne over the inescutcheon of the arms of
Hanover from 1801 till 1816. No. 240.
Embattled, Battled. No. 38F.
Embowed. Bent. An arm embowed has the elbow to the
Embrued. Stained with blood.
Endorse. A diminutive of the pale.
No. 240. Electoral Bonnet. No. 241 Shield of Byron.
Enjiled. Pierced with a sword.
Engrailed. The border-line, No. 380. By the early Heralds
this term was used to denote " fusils conjoined in fesse,"
the number of their points being specified.
Enhanced. Raised towards the chief. Thus the arms of
BYRON, No. 241, are Arg., three bendlets enhanced gu.
Ensigned. Adorned ; having some ensign of honour placed
above as a coronet above a shield.
Entire. Said of a charge when it extends to the border lines
of a shield, coat, or banner; also of a shield, coat, or
banner of arms, when borne without any difference or
mark of cadency.
Entoire, Entoyre. A bordure charged with a series of in
animate figures or devices, as crosslets, roundles, &c. ;
to a similar bordure of living figures the term Enaluron
Enveloped, Environed. Surrounded.
120 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Equipped. Fully armed, caparisoned, or provided.
Eradicated. Torn up by the roots.
Erased. Torn off with a ragged edge ; the contrary to
Ermine, Ermines, Erminois. Nos. 57 60 and 5 7 A. The
animal, the ermine, sometimes appears in blazon, and
an ermine spot is borne as a charge.
Erne. An eagle. (See p. 96.)
Escarbunde. No. 19.
Escroll. A ribbon charged with a motto; also a ribbon,
coiled at its extremities, borne as a charge.
Escutcheon. An heraldic shield : Nos. 39-40 : also No. 27.
An Escutcheon is borne as a charge, when it is blazoned
as an " Inescutcheon :" thus, the Arms of HAY are,
Arg., three inescutcheons gu. : see also Nos. 131, 133.
Escutcheon of Pretence. A shield charged upon the field of
another shield of larger size, and bearing a distinct Coat-
Escallop, or Escallop-Shell. A beautiful and favourite charge ;
Esquire. A rank next below that of Knight. Besides those
Esquires who are personal attendants of Knights of
Orders of Knighthood, this title is held by all attendants
on the person of the Sovereign, and all persons holding
the Sovereign s commission being of military rank not
below Captain ; also, by general concession, by Barris
ters at Law, Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of Law and
Estate. Dignity and high rank.
Estoile. A star with wavy rays or points, which
are six, eight, or sometimes even more in
number : No. 242. (See Mullet.}
False. Said of any charge when its central area
is removedthus, an Annulet is a " false roundle."
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 121
Fan, or Winnowing Fan, or Vane. The well-known imple
ment of husbandry of that name, borne by the Kentish
Family of De Sevans or Septvans Az., three fans or
(E. 2). This shield appears in the Brass to Sir R. DE
SEVANS, A.D. 1305, at Chartham, in Kent, and in the
cloisters at Canterbury.
Fan Crest. An early form of decoration for the knightly
helm, exemplified in the 2nd Great Seal of RICHARD I.,
and in many other Seals, until about A.D. 1350. (See
Feathers. Generally those of the ostrich, sometimes of the
swan, the turkey, and a few other birds, borne generally
as Crests and Badges, both singly and in plumes or
groups. (See Ostrich Feather, Panache, and Chapter
Femme. The Wife, as distinguished from the " Baron," the
Fer-de-Moline, or Mill-rind. The iron affixed to the centre
No. 243. Fer-de-Moline. No. 244. Fermails. No. 245. Fetter-lock.
of a mill-stone ; No. 243 : a modification of the Cross-
moline ; No. 97.
Fermail (plural fcrmaux). A buckle : No. 244. Several
varieties of form appear in blazon.
Ferr. A horse-shoe.
Fesse. One of the Ordinaries : Nos. 76 80. Fesse-wise, In
Fesse. Disposed in a horizontal line, side by side,
across the centre of the field, and over the Fesse-Point
of a shield : No. 27M.
122 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Fetter-lock. A shackle and padlock a Yorkist Badge : No.
245, from the Brass to Sir S. DE FELBRIGGE, K.G., at
Felbrigg, Norfolk, A.D. 1414.
Field. The entire surface of a Shield or Banner, of an
Ordinary, or of any object.
File. A Label, from the Latin filum, a narrow ribbon.
Fillet. A diminutive of a Chief.
Fimbriated. Bordered the border (which is narrow) lying
in the same plane with the object bordered : No. 89.
Fish. Numerous Fish appear in blazon, and generally in
their proper tinctures. They are borne as allusive
charges, and also as types of some connection between
those persons who bear them and the sea or lakes or
rivers. Mr. Moule has published an admirable volume
on the " Heraldry of Fish," beautifully illustrated with
examples drawn by his daughter. (See p. 77.)
Fitchee. Pointed at the base, as in No. no.
Flanches, Flasques. Subordinaries : Nos. 141, 142.
Fleur de lys. The beautiful heraldic device so long identified
with the history of France : No. 246 (from the
monument of EDWARD III.). The fleur de lys,
derived, it would seem, from the flower of a
lily resembling the iris, was adopted by Louis
NO. 246. VII. (A.D. 1137 1 1 80) as his royal ensign, and
Fleur de lys. n ^ ue ^ me ^ wag re g U i ar }y charged upon a true
Shield of Arms. Originally the Royal Shield of France was
Az., semee of fleurs de fys, or; the fleurs de lys scattered
freely over the field, and the Shield itself having the
appearance of having been cut out of a larger object,
over the whole surface of which the flowers had been
semee. This Shield of France is distinguished as " France
Ancient:" No. 247. About A.D. 1365, CHARLES V. of
France reduced the number of the fleurs de lys to three ;
and this Shield is now known as "France Modern:"
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 123
No. 248. In the year 1275, EDMUND, first Earl of Lan
caster, the second son of HENRY III., married BLANCHE
of Artois, when he differenced his shield of England with a
No. 247. France Ancient.
No. 248. France Modern.
label of France a blue label charged on each point with three
golden fleurs de lys : No. 249 ; thus, for the first time, did
the armorial insignia of England and France appear
together upon the same Shield. In 1299 EDWARD I.
married his second Queen, MARGARET of France, and
then this royal lady placed on one of her Seals a Shield
Edmund, Earl of Lancaster.
Margaret, Queen of Edward I.
of England and France dimidiated : No. 250. On
another of her Seals, a very noble example of the
Seal-engraver s art, Queen MARGARET displayed the
Shield of King EDWARD I., her husband, surrounded,
on the field of the Seal, with her father s fleurs de lys :
124 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
No. 251. On the Seals of ISABELLE of France, Queen
of EDWARD II., the same dimidiated shield, and another
shield quartering the arms of England with France Ancient
and two other French coats (Navarre and Champagne)
appear. Then Prince JOHN of ELTHAM charged a
No. 251. Seal of Margaret, second Queen of Edward I.
" bordure of France" ttpon his shield, No. 24 ; thus
applying the suggestion of the Seal of Queen MARGARET,
No. 251, in such a manner as was consistent with the
advanced condition of heraldic art. On his accession
in 1327, EDWARD III. placed a fleur de lys on each
side of the Shield of England upon his Great Seal : and
in 1340, when he claimed the crown of France, EDWARD
quartered France Ancient with his lions of England:
No. 252. Shortly after his accession, perhaps in 1405,
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 125
in order to conform to the altered blazonry of the
French sovereigns, HENRY IV. quartered France Modern
on his shield: No. 253. The position of the three
fleurs de lys was more than once changed in the Royal
Shield of Henry IV., about A.D. 1405.
Shield of Edward III., A.D. 1340.
Shield of England (as I shall hereafter show more par
ticularly) after the accession of the STUARTS ; and they
were not finally removed till the first year of this present
century. The fleur de lys is also borne on many English
Shields, disposed in various ways. In modern cadency
the fleur de lys is the difference of the sixth son, or house.
Fleurettee, Florettee. Terminating in, or bordered with, fleurs
de lys \ also, semee de lys.
Fleurie. Ending as No. 100 ; also, semee de lys.
Flexed. Bowed, bent.
Flighted. Feathered, as arrows are.
Fly. The length, and also the side of a flag farthest from
Foliated. Crisped, or formed like a leaf.
Fountain. No. 153.
Fourchte, Queue Fourch ee. Divided into two parts said of
a lion with a double tail : No. 181.
Frette. A subordinary : No. 148. Frettee, Pretty: covered
with frette-work : No. 149.
126 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Fructed. Bearing fruit or seeds.
Fumant. Having smoke issuing forth.
Furs. See p. 41 : Nos. 57 65.
Fusil. An elongated Lozenge : No. 2OA, p. 70. Fusillee.
Covered with Fusils, all lying in the same plane.
fylfot. A peculiar cruciform figure, supposed to have a
mystic signification, found in mili
tary and ecclesiastical decorations
in England, and on Eastern coins,
&c. : Nos. 254, 255 ; the latter
example is from the monument
!54 F , fot of Bishop BRONSCOMBE, in Exeter
Gad, Gadlyng. A spike, knob, or other figure, projecting
from the knuckles of gauntlets.
Galley. An ancient ship. (See Lymphad^]
Garb. A sheaf of wheat; or of any other grain to be
Garnished. Adorned in a becoming manner.
Garter, Order of the. See Chapter XIX.
Garter King-of-Arms. The chief of the official Heralds of
England, and officer of arms of the Order of the Garter.
Gemelles. See Bars Gemelles.
Gem-Ring. A ring for the finger, set with a jewel.
Genet. A spotted animal, somewhat like a martin : a badge
of Queen JOANNA of Navarre.
George, Saint. The Patron Saint of England. The circum
stances which led to his association with England are
unknown, nor can the saint himself be identified as an
historical personage. His Shield of arms, a red cross on
a silver field, first appears in English Heraldry in the
fourteenth century : No. i.
George, The. A mounted figure of the Saint in the act of
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 127
piercing the dragon with his lance, and worn as a
pendant to the collar of the Order of the Garter ; added
to the insignia of the Order, with the Collar, by
HENRY VII. The Lesser George has the same group on
an enamelled field, and surrounded by the Garter of
the Order, the whole forming a "jewel," generally oval
in shape : it was introduced by HENRY VIII. , and is
now worn pendant from the dark-blue ribbon of the
Order, the ribbon passing over the left shoulder and the
jewel hanging on the right side of the wearer. Origin
ally, this " Lesser George " was worn from either a gold
chain or a black ribbon : by Queen ELIZABETH the
colour of the ribbon was changed to sky-blue, and it
assumed its present darker hue in the reign of either
GEORGE I. or GEORGE II. a modification said to have
been adopted in order to distinguish the true knights
from those who were created by the Pretender.
Gerattyng. Differencing by the introduction of small
charges. It is an early term, now obsolete.
Gimmel-ring. Two, or sometimes three, annulets interlaced.
Girt, Girdled. Encircled, or bound round.
Gonfannon. A long flag, pointed or swallow-tailed at the
fly, and displayed from a transverse bar attached to a
Gorged. Encircled round the throat.
Gouttee, Guttee. Sprinkled over with drops either of gold
gouttee d or; of silver d eau; of blue d azure, or de
formes (tears) ; of red du sang (blood) ; or of black
de poix (pitch).
Grafted. Inserted and fixed.
Grand Quarters. The four primary divisions of a Shield,
when it is divided quarterly: Nos. 30, 36, 37. The
term " Grand Quarter " may be used to signify a
primary quarter or division of a quartered Shield or
Coat, and to distinguish such a quarter when it is
Guardant. Looking out from the field: Nos.
Guige. A Shield-belt, worn over the right shoulder,
frequently represented in heraldic compositions as if
sustaining a Shield of arms : Nos. 48, 49.
Gules. Red : No. 53.
Gurges, or Gorges. A charge formed of a spiral line of blue
on a white field, and supposed to
represent a whirlpool : borne (H. 3)
by R. DE GORGES : No. 256.
Gyron. A Subordinary. Gyrotmy. A
field divided into Gyrons : No. 147.
(See page 70.)
Hames, Heames. Parts of horses har-
Shield of R. de Gorges.
Hammer, or Martel. Represented in
blazon much in the same shape as the implement in
common use (H. 3).
Harp. A device and badge of Ireland. The Irish Harp of
gold with silver strings on a blue field forms the third
quarter of the Royal Arms.
Hart. A stag, with attires ; the female is a Hind: page 81.
Hastilude. A tournament.
Hatchment. An achievement of arms in a lozenge-shaped
frame, placed upon the front (generally over the
principal entrance) of the residence of a person lately
deceased. In the case of the decease of an unmarried
person, or of a widower or widow, the whole of the
field of the hatchment is painted black ; but in the case
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 129
of a married person, that part only of the field is black
which adjoins the side of the achievement occupied by
the armorial insignia of the individual deceased. Thus,
if a husband be deceased, the dexter half of the field of
the hatchment is black, and the sinister white ; and so,
in like manner, if the wife be deceased, the sinister is
black and the dexter white.
Hauriant. A fish in pale, its head in chief. See Uriant.
Hause. Height, indicating a charge enhanced.
Hawk s bells, jesses and lure. A falconer s decoy, formed of
feathers with their tips in base, and joined by a cord
No. 257. Hawk s Lure. No. 258. Hawk s Bells and Jesses.
and ring, No. 257 ; also bells with straps to be attached
to hawks, No. 258.
Heightened. Raised ; placed above or higher.
Heights. Applied to plumes of feathers which are arranged
in rows or sets, one rising above another. See
Helm, Helmet. Now placed as an accessory above a Shield
of arms, and bearing its Crest after the fashion in which,
in the Middle Ages, both Helm and Crest were actually
worn. A modern usage distinguishes Helms as follows :
The Sovereign Helm of gold, with six bars, set
affrontee, No. 259 ; Princes and Noblemen Helm of
silver, garnished with gold, set in profile, and showing
five bars, No. 260 ; Baronets and Knights of steel,
) ENGLISH HERALDRY.
with silver ornaments, without bars, the vizor raised, set
affrontee, No. 261 ; Esquires and Gentlemen of steel,
the vizor closed, and set in profile, Nos. 262, 263. The
Helms that appear on early Seals and in other heraldic
compositions till about A.D. 1600, are all set in profile,
No. 259. The Sovereign.
No. 260. Princes and Nobles.
Baronets and Knights.
No. 262. No - 26 3-
Esquires and Gentlemen.
and the shield generally hangs from them couch ee, as in
No. 49. In these early compositions, the shield is
small in proportion to the helm and its accessories. In
the Middle Ages, when engaged in actual combat, the
knights wore a second helm, which rested on their
shoulders, in addition to their close-fitting basi
See Panache. ,
Hemp-brake, Hackle. An instrument having saw-teeth, u
for bruising hemp.
Heneage Knot. No. 264.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS.
Herald. An officer of arms. The Heralds of England
were incorporated by RICHARD III. ; and from Queen
MARY, in 1555, they received a grant of Derby House,
on the site of which, between St. Paul s Cathedral and
the Thames, stands their present official residence,
HERALDS COLLEGE, or the COLLEGE OF ARMS. The
college now consists of three KINGS-OF-ARMS Garter,
Clarenceux, and Norroy ; six HERALDS, who have
precedence by seniority of appointment Windsor,
Chester, Lancaster, Somerset, York, and Richmond ; and
four PURSUIVANTS Rouge Croix, Rouge Dragon, Blue
mantle, and Portcullis. The official habit is a Tabard,
emblazoned with the Royal Arms, and a Collar of SS.
No. 264. Heneage Knot.
No. 265. Anns of the Herdds College.
The Kings have a Crown, formed of a golden circlet,
from which rise sixteen oak-leaves, nine of which appear
in representations ; and the circlet itself is charged with
the words, Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam miseri-
cordiam tuam (" Have mercy on me, O God, according
to thy great loving-kindness").
The supreme head of the English Heralds, under the
SOVEREIGN, is the EARL MARSHAL, an office hereditary
in the family of the DUKE OF NORFOLK. The Arms of
the College are Arg., a cross gu., between four doves
their /dexter wings expanded and inverted az. : No. 265 ;
Crest From a crest-coronet or, a dove rising az. ; Sup-
porters Two lions ramp, guard, arg., ducally gorged or.
Each of the Kings has his own official arms, which he
impales with his paternal coat on the dexter side of the
shield. The Arms of Garter are Arg., a cross gu. ;
on a chief az., a ducal coronet encircled with a Garter of
the Order, between a lion of England and a fleur de lys,
all or. Clarenceux and Norroy have the same shield,
but the former has a lion of England only, crowned, on a
chief gules ; and the latter, on a chief per pale az. and gu.,
has a similar lion between a fleur de lys and a key, all of
There is also another Herald King styled " Bath,"
who is specially attached to the Order of the Bath, and
has jurisdiction in the principality of Wales ; he is not
a member of the College.
" Lord Lyon King-of-Arms" is the chief Herald of
Scotland ; and the establishment over which he presides
is styled the " Lyon Office." The Arms of the Office
zxQArg., a lion sejant affronte gu.,
holding in his dexter paw a thistle
slipped vert, and in the sinister an
escutcheon of the second ; on a chief az.,
a saltire of the first : No. 266.
Ireland is the heraldic province of
"Ulster King-of-Arms." His official
No . 266 . armorial ensigns differ from those of
Arms of Lyon office. Garter only in the charges of the chief,
which are a lion of England between a golden harp and
Herison. A hedgehog.
Hill, Hillock. A mound of earth.
Hirondelle. A swallow.
Hoist. The depth of a flag from chief to base. See / /J
Honour Point. No. 27 L.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 133
Humettee. Cut short at the extremities.
Hurst. A clump of trees.
Hurte. A blue roundle.
Illegitimacy, Difference or Abatement of. See Chapter XII.
Imbrued, Imbued. Stained with blood.
Impaled. Conjoined per pale.
Impalement. The act of uniting two (or more) distinct coats
per pale, to form a single achievement.
Imperially Crowned. Ensigned with the Crown of England.
Incensed, Inflamed. On fire ; having fire issuing forth.
Increscent, in Increment. No. i66B. See Decrescent.
Indented. No. 38 A.
Inescutcheon. An heraldic Shield borne as a charge. This
term is sometimes used to denote an Escutcheon of
In bend. Disposed bend-wise ; In Chevron, In Chief, In
Cross, In Fesse, &c. Disposed after the manner of a
chevron, or in the chief of the shield, or in the form of
a cross, &c.
In Foliage. Bearing leaves.
In Glory, In Splendour. The sun irradiated.
In Lure. Wings conjoined, with their tips drooping.
In Pretence. Placed upon, and in front of.
In Pride. Having the tail displayed, as a peacock s.
In Quadrangle. When four charges are so disposed that one
is in each quarter of the shield.
Irradiated. Surrounded by rays of light.
Issuant. Proceeding from, or out of.
Jambe, Gambe. The leg of a lion, or other beast of prey :
Jesses. Straps for hawk s bells.
fessant. Shooting forth, as plants growing out of the earth.
Jessant de lys. A combination of a lion s face and a
fleur-de-lys : No. 267.
Joust. A tournament.
Jupon. A short, sleeveless surcoat,
from about 1340 to about 1405.
with armorial insignia, and thus
worn over armour
It is often charged
is a true " coat of
Jowlopped. Having wattles and a comb, as a cock.
Key. When represented in early blazon, Keys have always
Jessant de lys.
Nos. 268, 269. Heraldic Keys.
elegant forms. No. 268 is from Peterborough Cathedral,
and No 269 from Exeter.
King-qf-Arms. See Herald.
Knighthood, Orders of : Knights. See Chapter XVI.
Knot. An intertwined cord, borne as a badge. The varieties
of this device are The Bourchier, No. 219; the Bowen,
No. 220 ; the Harrington (the same as a Frette),^. 148 ;
the Heneagc, No. 264; the Lacy, No. 274; the Stafford,
No. 304 ; and the Wake and Ormond, No. 313. Cords
were sometimes intertwined about other figures and
devices, and so formed what may be regarded as Com
pound Badges, which significantly declared the union of
two houses : thus, the knot of EDWARD Lord HASTINGS
unites the Hungerford sickle with the Pelham garbe :
No. 270 ; and the Dacre knot is entwined about the
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 135
Dacre escallop and the famous " ragged staff" of
Beauchamp and Neville : No. 235.
Laid. A narrow ribbon placed across the field of a shield
near the chief, and having three, five, or sometimes
other numbers of points depending from it, its object
being to mark Cadency. In the early Labels the number
of the points was arbitrary, the usual numbers being
five and three ; and, subsequently, three points were
almost universally used ; the object always was to
render the Label conspicuous. In blazon a Label is
supposed to have three points ; but, if more, the number
is to be specified; thus, No. 271 is simply " a Label"
but No. 272 is " a Label of five points." Labels appear
Labels. No. 271. No. 272. No. 273.
early in the thirteenth century, and in the next century
they are in constant use. Various charges may be
placed on the "points" of Labels to extend their
capacity for " differencing." Since the time of EDWARD
the BLACK PRINCE the Label of the PRINCE OF WALES
has been plain silver. The Label is almost exclusively
(now without any exception) used in
Royal Cadency ; but, in modern
Heraldry, in the case of all other
persons it is the peculiar mark of the
eldest son. The Label is borne as a
charge. It has become a usage in the
degenerate days of Heraldry to repre
sent the Label as in No. 273, instead Na *-^ Knot.
of the earlier and far preferable forms of Nos. 271, 272.
Lacy Knot. No. 274.
136 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Lambrequin. A mantling.
^^ Langued. To denote the tincture of an animal s tongue.
Leaves. Their peculiarities are to be blazoned, as laurel
leaves, oak leaves, &c.
Leopard, Leoparde. See page 84.
Letters of the Alphabet sometimes are Charges. Thus, the
Arms of the Deanery of Canterbury are Az., on a cross
arg., the letter " x" surmounted by the letter "i" sable: the
" x" is on the cross at the intersection of its limbs, and
the "i" is above it.
Line, or Border Line. No. 38.
Lined. Having a cord attached : also, having a lining.
Lion. See page 83.
Lioncel. A lion drawn to a small scale, and generally ram
pant, Nos. 114, 115, 197.
Livery Colours. Of the PLANTAGENETS, as one family, white
and scarlet ; of the house of YORK, blue and crimson; of
the house of LANCASTER, white and blue; of the house of
TUDOR, white and green ; of the house of STUART, gold
and scarlet; of the house of HANOVER, in England, scarlet
and blue. In the middle ages, all great families had
their own livery colours.
Lodged. A term denoting animals of the chase when at rest
or in repose, Nos. 25, 26.
Lozenge. A square figure set diagonally, No. 47 (also see
page 69). The armorial insignia of ladies, with the sole
exception of the Sovereign, are blazoned on a Lozenge
instead of an Escutcheon.
Lozengy. A field divided lozengewise : No. 145.
Luce. The fish now called a pike. See page 77, and No.
Lure. See In Lure.
Lymphad. An ancient galley, No. 275, the feudal ensign of
the Scottish lordship of LORN, and as such quartered by
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 1.37
the Duke of ARGYLL. A Lymphad sable, on waves of the
sea, is also borne on a field argent by the PRINCE OF
WALES, as " LORD OF THE ISLES."
Maintenance, Cap of. See Chapeau.
Manche, Maunche. A lady s sleeve with a long pendent
No. 275. Lymphad. No. 276. Arms of Hastings.
lappet, worn in the time of HENRY I., and borne as an
armorial charge by the family of HASTINGS, and by some
others. HASTINGS (H. 3) Or, a manche gu.: No. 276.
Mantle. A flowing robe worn over the armour, or over their
ordinary costume, by personages of distinction of both
sexes : the mantles of ladies were commonly decorated
with armorial blazonry.
Mantling, or Lambrequin. A small mantle of some rich
materials, attached to the knightly basinet or helm, and
worn hanging down and ending in tassels. It is usually
represented with jagged edges, to represent the cuts
to which it would be exposed in actual battle : No. 199.
(See Panache^} Mantlings blazoned with achievements of
arms are sometimes adjusted in folds to form a back
ground to the composition, and they are also occasion
ally differenced with various charges.
Marquess, Marquis. The second order of the British
138 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Peerage, in rank next to that of Duke. This rank and
title were introduced into England in 1387, by RICHARD
II., who then created his favourite, ROBERT DE VERE,
Marquess of DUBLIN. The next creation was by HENRY
VI. A Marquess is " Most Honourable ;" he is styled
" My Lord Marquess :" all his sons are " Lords," and
his daughters "Ladies;" his eldest son bears his
father s "second title." The Coronet, apparently con
temporary in its present form with that of Dukes,
has its golden circlet heightened with four strawberry
leaves and as many pearls,
arranged alternately : in repre
sentations two of the pearls,
and one leaf and two half-
leaves are shown, No. 277.
277. Coronet of Marquess.
The wife of a Marquess is a
" Marchioness ; " her style corresponds with that of her
husband, and her coronet is the same.
Marshalling. The disposition of more than one distinct
coat of arms upon a shield, so forming a single compo
sition ; or the aggroupment of two or more distinct
shields, so as to form a single composition; also the
association of such accessories as the helm, mantling,
crest, &c., and of knightly and other insignia with a
shield of arms, thus again forming a single heraldic
composition. See Chapter XL
Mart el. A hammer.
Martlet. The heraldic Martin, usually represented without
feet: Nos. 160, 161, and 70 and 86.
Masde. An elongated Lozenge : No. 143. Masculee. A
field divided mascle-wise.
Masoned. Representing brickwork.
Membered. To denote the legs of a bird.
Merchant s mark. A device, adopted as early as 1400 by
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 139
merchants, as a substitute for heraldic ensigns which
were not conceded to them. They are the predecessors
of the Trade-brands and Marks of after times.
Mermaid, Merman or Triton. The well-known fabulous
creatures of the sea, borne occasionally as charges, but
more frequently as badges or crests. A mermaid was
the device of Sir WILLIAM DE BRIVERE, who died in
1226, and it is the badge of the BERKELEYS.
Metal. The Tinctures Or and Argent : Nos. 50, 51.
Mill-rind. See Fer-de-Moline.
Mitre. The ensign of archiepiscopal and episcopal rank,
placed above the arms of prelates of the Church of
England, sometimes borne as a charge, and adopted by
the BERKELEYS as their crest. The contour of the mitre
has varied considerably at different periods, the early
examples being low and concave in their sides, the
later lofty and convex. See No. 159.
Moline. A cross terminating like a Fer-de-moline, No. 97.
In modern cadency it is the difference of the eighth son.
Moon. No. 1 66, page 80.
Motto. A word, or very short sentence, placed generally
below a shield, but sometimes above a crest, and
probably derived from the " war-cries " of early times.
A motto may be emblematical, or it may have some
allusion to the person bearing it, or to his name and
armorial insignia ; or it may be the epigrammatic ex
pression of some sentiment in special favour with the
bearer of it. As a matter of course, allusive mottoes,
like allusive arms, afford curious examples of mediaeval
puns. I give a few characteristic examples : " Vero nil
verms" (nothing truer than truth, or, no greater verily
than in Vere) VERE ; " Fare,fac" (Speak act ; that is,
a word and blow) FAIRFAX ; " Cave " (beware) CAVE ;
"Cavendo tutus" (safe, by caution, or by Cavendisfi)
140 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
CAVENDISH ; " Set on" says SETON ; " Fight on" quoth
FITTON ; " Festina lente" (On slow push forward, but
be cautious, that is), adds ONSLOW. Again : JEFFERAY
says, "Je feray ce que je diray " (/ shall be true to my
word) ; SCUDAMORE Scutum amoris divini (the shield of
Divine love] ; says ]pMK$"J aimejamais " (/ love ever);
says ESTWICK " Est hie" (he is here}; and POLE _
" Pollet virtus" (valour prevails) ; and TEY " Tats en
temps" (be silent in time). The crest of CHARTERIS, an
arm with the hand grasping a sword, has over it " This
our charter is" In his arms the Marquess CHOLMONDELEY
bears two helmets, and his motto is " Cassis tutissima
virtus " (valour is the safest helm} ; the crest of the
MARTINS of Dorsetshire was an ape, with the significant
motto "He who looks at Martiris ape, Martin s ape shall
look at him!" The motto of PERCEVAL is "Perse
valens" (strong in himself}; but, "Do no yll" quoth
DOYLE. Some " lippes," as Camden remarks, have a
taste for " this kind of lettuce."
Mound. A globe, encircled and arched over with rich
bands, and surmounted by a cross-pate e, the whole an
ensign of the royal estate, which is placed upon the
No. 278. Mullet. No. 279. Mullet, pierced.
intersecting arches of the crown of the SOVEREIGN ; and
it also surmounts the single arch of the coronet of the
PRINCE OF WALES : Nos. 234, 289.
Mount. A green hill represented in the base of a shield.
Mullet. A star, generally of five, but sometimes of six or
more points (if more than five the number to be
specified), always formed by right lines, as No. 278. A
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 141
mullet is sometimes " pierced," as in No. 279, when the
tincture of the field is generally apparent through the
circular aperture. In modern cadency it is the
difference of the third son. See Estoile.
Mural Crown. Represents masonry, and is embattled :
Naiant. Swimming in fesse. See Hauriant.
Naissant. Issuant, but applied only to living creatures.
No. 280. Mural Crown. No. 281. Naval Crown.
Naval Crown. Has its circlet heightened with figures of
the stern and the hoisted sail of a ship alternating:
Nebulee. No. 381*.
Nerved. Having fibres, as leaves.
Nimbus. A glory about the head of a figure of a sainted
personage : sometimes used to denote sanctity in a
Nimbed. Having the head encircled with a Nimbus-, usually
represented by a circular line. See No. 212.
Norroy. See Herald.
Nova Scotia, Badge of. See Baronet.
Nowed. Coiled in a knot, as a snake.
Ogress. A Pellet, or black roundle.
Opinicus. A fabulous heraldic monster, a dragon before,
and a lion behind with a camel s tail.
Or. The metal gold : No. 50.
Ordinary. An early principal charge of a simple character.
142 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
See Chapter VI., and Nos. 71 128: see also
Ordinary of arms. A list of armorial bearings, classified and
arranged alphabetically, with the names of the bearers.
Oreiller. A cushion or pillow, generally with tassels.
Y Orle. A Subordinary formed of a border of a Shield, which
is charged upon another and a larger shield, as in No.
134. /;/ Orle. Arranged after the manner of an Orle,
forming a border to a Shield, as in No. 86.
Ostrich feathers. A Royal Badge : also a Device in a few
instances charged by Royal and some other personages
on an Armorial Shield. See Chapter XV.
Over all, or Sur tout. To denote some one charge being
placed over all others.
Overt. With expanded wings.
Pale. One of the Ordinaries : No. 87. Pale-wise, or In
Pale. Disposed after the manner of a Pale that is,
set vertically, or arranged vertically one above another,
as are the Lions of England in No. 187, page 87.
Pall, Pallium. A vestment peculiar to Archbishops of the
Roman Church : in Heraldry, as a charge, half only of
the pall is shown, when it resembles the letter Y; it
is borne in the arms of the Sees of CANTERBURY,
ARMAGH, and DUBLIN.
Pallet. Half a /W*.
Palmer s Staff, Pilgrhrts staff, or Bourdon. No.
282. JOHN BOURDON (H. 3) bears Arg., three
palmer s staves gu.
Paly. Divided per pale into an even number of
NO 282 parts, which all lie in the same plane, as in
Bourdon. No. 88. Paly Bendy. Divided evenly pale-wise,
and also bend-wise, No. 118.
Panache. A plume of feathers, generally of the ostrich,
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS.
set upright and borne as a crest. A panache some
times consists of a single row of feathers ; but more
generally it has two or more rows or "heights" of
feathers, rising one above the other. In the greater
number of examples the tips of the feathers are erect ;
in others they wave, or slightly bend over. A panache
may be charged with some device or figure, " for dif
ference," as by the TYNDALLS, with an ermine circlet, a
martlet, and a fleur de lys. In Nos. 283, 285, from the
seals of EDWARD COURTENAY, and EDMUND MORTIMER
PANACHE CRESTS :
William le Latimer.
(A.D. 1400 and 1372) the "heights" both expand and
rise in a curved pyramidal form. No. 284, from the seal
of WILLIAM LE LATIMER (A.D. 1372), shows a remark
able variety of both panache and mantling. Waving
plumes formed of distinct feathers first appear near the
end of the fifteenth century, and are prevalent during
the sixteenth century.
Party, Parted. Divided.
144 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Passant. Walking and looking forward: No. 173. Passant
Guardant, walking and looking out from the shield,
No. 174 : Passant Reguardant, walking and looking back :
Passant Repassant, walking in opposite directions.
Pastoral Staff. The official staff of a bishop or abbot,
having a crooked head, and so distinguished from an
archbishop s crozier.
Patee, or Form ee. ) . . , . , ...
_, I Varieties of the heraldic Cross. Nos.
\ 106, QQ, and <K.
Pean. The Fur, No. 60.
Peer. That general title, expressing their equality as mem
bers of a distinct " order " in the realm, which is
applied to the Nobility of the United Kingdom.
Peerage. The rank of a Peer ; a list of the Peers.
Pegasus. A horse with wings a classic as well as an
heraldic imaginary creature.
No. 288. A Portcullis. No. 286. A Pennon. No. 287. A Pheon.
Pelican. Blazoned " in her piety," when feeding her young
with her own blood.
Pellet. A black roundle.
Pennon. An armorial lance-flag, pointed or swallow-tailed at
the fly, borne by knights. No. 286 is from the Brass to
Sir JOHN D AUBERNOUN, A.D. 1279; the arms are Az., a
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 145
Per. By means of, or after the manner of.
Pheon. A pointed spear-head, borne with the point in base,
Phoenix. A fabulous eagle, always represented as issuant
Pile. One of the Ordinaries, in form like a wedge, Nos.
126, 127, 128. In Pile. Arranged after the form of a
Planta Genista. The broom-plant badge of the Plantagenets,
Plate. A silver roundle.
Plenitude. The moon when fall. See No. 166.
Plume. See Panache.
Points of Shield. No. 27. In Point is the same as In Pile.
Pomme. A green roundle.
Popinjay. A parrot (H. 3).
Port. A gateway, as the entrance to a castle : No. 222.
Portcullis. A defence for a gateway, No. 288 : the badge of
the Houses of BEAUFORT and TUDOR, borne by the former
with the significant motto, "Alter a securitas" (additional
Potent. A variety of the heraldic cross, No. 108 ; also a Fur
Powdered, Poudree. The same as Semee.
Preying. When an animal devours its prey. See Trussing.
Prince, Princess. The rank and title of the members of the
Royal Family. Their style is " Your Royal Highness."
The coronet of the Prince of Wales differs from the
t crown of the Queen, only in having a single arch,
instead of two intersecting arches : No. 289. The
coronets of the Princes and Princesses, the sons and
daughters of the Queen, are the same as the coronet of
the Prince of Wales, but without any arch : No. 290.
The coronets of the Princes and Princesses, the grand-
children of the Queen, differ in having the circlet
heightened with two crosses patee, as many strawberry
leaves, and four fleurs-de-lys, No. 291 ; and the coronets
of the Royal cousins of the Queen have the circlet
Prince of Wales.
Queen s Daughters and Younger Sons.
No. 291. Queen s Grandchildren.
No. 292. Queen s Cousins.
heightened with four crosses patee, and as many straw
berry leaves. No. 292. For the arms of their Royal
Highnesses, see Chapter XVIII.
Purfled. Lined and bordered with fur.
Purpure. A colour: No. 56.
Pursuivant. A Herald of the lowest rank. In the Middle
Ages, these officers were attached to the households of
personages of high rank, and bore titles generally taken
from the armorial insignia of their lords.
Quadrate. A form of cross : No. 94.
Quarter. The first (from the dexter chief) of the divisions
of a shield that is parted per cross, as in No. 30 ; also
any other division of a shield, to be specified in blazon
ing. See No. 36, and Canton.
Quartering. Marshalling two or more coats of arms in the
different quarters of the same shield. When two coats
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 147
are thus quartered, the one in the first quarter is repeated
in the fourth, and the one in the second in the third ;
when three are quartered, the first quartering is repeated
in the fourth quarter. Any required number of coats
may be quartered on the same principle. This same
term is also applied to denote the dividing a shield
"quarterly" as in No. 30, or into more than four divi
sions, as in No. 36.
Quarterly. A shield divided into four divisions, as in No.
30 : each division to contain a complete coat of arms,
or a distinct heraldic device or composition. Should the
shield be divided into more than four sections, the num
ber is to be specified: thus, No. 36 is "quarterly of
eight" &c. See Nos. 252, 253.
Quarterly Quartering and Quartered. The quartering of a
" quarter" of a shield that is divided " quarterly ;" also
distinguished as " Compound Quartering." See page 34.
Quatrefoil or Primrose. A flower or figure having four foils
or conjoined leaves, No. 293. In modern cadency a
Double Quatrefoil is the difference of the ninth son.
Queue Fourchee. Having a double tail, or two tails ; No. 181.
Quilled. Used to blazon the quills of feathers : thus, a blue
No. 293. Quatrefoil. No. 294. The Ragged Staff Badge.
feather having its quill golden is blazoned A feather
az., quilled or.
Radiant, Rayonee. Encircled with rays.
Ragulee, Raguly. Serrated, as No. 38 G. A "ragged staff,"
143 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
No. 294, is a part of a stem from which the branches
have been cut off roughly. This "ragged staff," or
"staff ragulee" is the famous badge of the BEAU-
CHAMPS, and, derived from them, of the NEVILLES.
No. 294 is from the monument of the great Earl,
RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP, K.G., who died in 1439, at
Rampant, Rampant Guardant and Reguardant. Nos. 171,
172 ; when reguardant, the animal looks backward.
Rebated. Cut short, or broken off.
Rebus. An allusive charge or device. A cask, or tun, to
represent the final syllable "ton" of many surnames is
frequently found. I give a few examples of several
varieties of Rebus: JOHN OXNEY, Canterbury An
eagle (the emblem of St. John the Evangelist, to denote
"John") standing on an ox, charged on its side with
the letters N E. JOHN WHEATHAMSTEDE, St. Albans
An eagle and an Agnus Dei (the emblems of St. John
the Evangelist and St. John the Baptist, to denote
"John"), and clusters si ears of wheat. JOHN RAMRYGE,
St. Albans A ram, gorged with a collar inscribed with
the letters R Y G E. WOODSTOCK The stump or stock
of a tree. Abbot ISLIP, Westminster A man falling from
a tree, exclaiming, "I slip!" and a human eye, and a
slip (small branch of a tree). WALTER LYHART, Norwich
A hart (stag) /j ing down in water. An owl, with the
letters D O M on a scroll in its beak, for Bishop OLDHAM,
at Exeter. A church (f kirk") on a tun, with a pastoral
staff and the initial R, for Abbot ROBERT KIRTON, No.
295 ; and a bird on a tun, and a tree growing out of
a tun, for BURTON and ASHTON, all at Peterborough.
At Wells, with an initial T, a fas-beacon planted in
a tun, for Bishop THOMAS BECKYNGTON, No. 296 ; and
at Lullinstone, Kent, in stained glass, the shield of Sir
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS.
JOHN PECHE, A.D. 1522 Az., a lion rampt. queue
fourchee erm., crowned or is encircled \sy peach-branches
Rebus of Abbot Kirton.
Rebus of Bishop Beckyngtocu
No. 297. Arms and Rebus of Sir John Peche.
fructed and in foliage, each peach being charged with the
letter E, No. 297 ; the crest-wreath also is formed of a.
Recercelee. A variety of the heraldic cross: No. 98.
Reflexed, Reflected. Curved and carried backwards.
Regiiardant. Looking backwards : see No. 182.
Rein-deer. A hart with double antlers, one pair erect, the
Removed. Out of its proper position.
Respecting. Face to face applied to creatures not of a fierce
Rest. See Clarion, No. 228.
Ribbon, Riband. A diminutive of a Bend.
Rising, Ronssant. About to fly.
Rose. Represented in blazon as in Nos. 298, 299, and
without leaves. The five small projecting leaves of the
calyx, that radiate about the flower itself, are styled
barbs, and when they are blazoned " proper" these
Nos. 298, 299. Heraldic Roses.
No. 300. Rose-en-Soleil.
barbs are green, as the "seeds" in the centre of the
flower are golden. Both the "red rose" of LANCASTER
and the "white rose" of YORK, but more especially the
latter, are at times surrounded with rays, and each is
termed a "rose-en-soleil" No. 300. The rose, the emblem
of ENGLAND, is generally drawn like the natural flower ;
or with natural stem, branches, leaves, and buds, but with
heraldic rose-flowers. In modern cadency the heraldic
rose is the difference of the seventh son.
Roundle. See page 72.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 151
Rustre. A mascle pierced with a circular opening: No. 144.
Sable. The colour black : No. 54.
Sagittary. The fabulous centaur, half man and half horse,
the badge (as it would seem) of King Stephen.
Salamander. An imaginary being, supposed to live in
flames of fire ; it is represented sometimes as a kind of
lizard, and at other times (as in the crest of Earl
DOUGLAS, A.D. 1483) as a quadruped somewhat like a
dog, breathing flames.
Salient. Leaping or bounding.
Saltire. An ordinary, in form a diagonal cross: Nos. 120,
121, 122. Saltire-wise, or in saltire. Arranged after
the form of a saltire.
Sanglier. A wild boar.
Sans. Without. " Sans nombre? without any number fixed
or specified ; differing from semee in not having parts of
Sarcellee. Cut through the centre.
Savage-man, or Wood-man. A wild man, naked except large
wreaths of leaves about his head and loins, and carry
ing a club.
Saw, or Frame-saw, Borne in the crest of HAMILTON, Duke
of HAMILTON, which is thus blazoned Out of a crest-
coronet or, an oak-tree fructed and penetrated transversely
in the main stem by a frame-saw ppr., the frame gold;
above the crest the motto, "THROUGH !" This device is
said to commemorate the escape into Scotland, in 1323,
of Sir GILBERT HAMILTON, a reputed ancestor of the
present ducal house. At the court of EDWARD II. Sir
Gilbert had unadvisedly expressed admiration for ROBERT
BRUCE, on which JOHN LE DESPENCER struck him. Des-
pencer fell in single combat the next day, and Hamilton
fled, hotly pursued, northward. Near the border the
fugitive and a faithful esquire joined some wood-cutters,
152 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
assumed their dress, and commenced working with them
on an oak, when the pursuers passed by. Hamilton,
saw in hand, observed his esquire anxiously watching
their enemies as they passed, and at once
recalled his attention to his woodman s
duties by the word, "Through!" thus,
at the same time, appearing to consider
the cutting down the oak to be far more
important than the presence of the
strangers. So they passed by, and
Hamilton followed in safety. This crest
does not appear in the Hamilton seals
NO. 3 oi.-Crest fti i 0n g a f ter tne days of Bruce and his
admirer, Sir Gilbert : No. 301.
Scarpe, Escarpe. A diminutive of a Bend sinister.
Scintillant. Emitting sparks.
Seax. A Saxon sword.
Seeded, Having seeds or seed-vessels, as in the centre of an
heraldic rose. See Nos. 298 300.
Segreant. A gryffin or wyvern rampant.
Semee, or Aspersed. Sown broadcast or scattered, without
any fixed number, over the field ; parts of the charge
thus semee appearing at the border-lines of the compo
sition. See Nos. 247, 250, 252.
Seruse, Cerise. A Tortcau.
Shake-fork. Resembles the letter Y, but does not extend to
the margin of the shield, and is pointed at its extremities.
Shamrock. A trefoil plant or leaf, the badge of IRELAND.
Shield or Escutcheon. The Shield of Heraldry is fully de
scribed at page 32. See also Nos. 27, 39 49.
Ship. Sometimes blazoned as a modern vessel, but
generally as an ancient galley. See Lymphad.
Shoveller. A species of duck.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS.
Simple Quartering. Dividing a shield quarterly, with the
quartering of any of the quarters. See Quartering.
Sinister. The left side. No. 27.
Simple. The colour vert in French Heraldry.
Sixfoil. A flower of six leaves : No. 302.
Slipped. Pulled or torn off, as a leaf or branch : No. 309.
Spear. The spear or lance, the knightly weapon, is not of
common occurrence in blazon ; but it appears, with
heraldic propriety, in the arms granted
in 1596 to the father of the great
poet, who also bore Or, on a bend
sa. a spear gold, the head arg. the
arms of SHAKESPEARE, No. 303.
(In the woodcut the bend is acci
dentally shaded for gules, instead of
Spur. Not common as an heraldic
charge. Before about 1320 the knightly spur had a
single point, and was known as the " pryck-spur ; "
about that time appeared a " rouelle-spur " of simple
form ; in the middle of the fifteenth century spurs of
extravagant length were introduced.
Arms of Shakespeare.
No. 302. Sixfoil.
No. 305. Staple Badge.
SS., Collar of . See Collar, and No. 231.
Stafford-knot. No. 304.
Stall-plate. A plate bearing the arms of a knight and placed
in his stall. The stall-plates of the Knights of the
GARTER and the BATH are severally placed in the Chapels
154 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
of ST. GEORGE and of HENRY VII., at Windsor and
Westminster. The earliest plates now in existence at
Windsor, though many of them bear arms of an earlier
date, were executed about 1430.
Standard. A long narrow flag, introduced, for the pur
pose of heraldic display, in the time of EDWARD III.,
but not in general use till a later period. Standards
generally had the Cross of ST. GEORGE next the staff,
to which succeeded the badge or badges and the motto
of the owner. See Chapter XVII.
Staple. Borne by STAPLETON : No. 305 represents a badge
formed of two staples.
Star. See Estoile and Mullet; also a knightly decoration.
Stirrup. Borne, with appropriate straps and buckles, by
SCUDAMORE, GIFFARD, and a few others.
Stock. The stump of a tree,
Stringed. As a harp ; or, suspended by, or fastened with, a
Sun. When represented shining and surrounded with rays,
he has a representation of a human face upon his disc,
and is blazoned " In splendour" or " In glory ." when
" eclipsed" the representation is the same, but tinctured
sable. Sunbeams, or Rays, are borne in blazon, and form
an early charge. See Collar.
Supercharge. A charge that rests upon anot!~>er.
Supporter. A figure of whatsoever kind that stands by a
Shield of arms, as if supporting or guardirg it. Single
Supporters occasionally appear, but the general usage is
to have a pair of Supporters one on each side of the
supported Shield. They came gradually into use in the
course of the fourteenth century, but were not regularly
established as accessories of Shields till about 142,5, or
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 155
rather later. At first they were generally alike, but
subsequently the more prevalent custom was that the
two Supporters should differ, as in the case of the
Royal Supporters, the Lion and the Unicorn, famous in
History as in Heraldry. See Bearer, Tenant, and also
Surcoat. Any garment worn over armour ; but especially
the .long flowing garment worn by knights over their
armour until about 1325, when its form was modified by
cutting it short in front, and it was distinguished as a
Cyclas. See Jupon.
Surmounted. Placed over another.
Sustained. Having a lower (and only a lower) narrow
Swan. When blazoned "proper" white with red beak and
legs. It is the badge of the BOHUNS, and of their
descendants the LANCASTRIAN PLANTAGENETS, the
STAFFORDS, and some others. This Swan has his neck
encircled with a coronet, from which a chain generally
passes over his back. By HENRY V., the Swan badge
of his mother, MARY DE BOHUN, was borne with the
wings overt, or expanded.
Sword. When borne as a charge, straight in the blade,
pointed, and with a cross-guard. All the appointments
of the weapon are to be blazoned.
It appears, as a spiritual emblem, in
several episcopal coats of arms ; in
the arms of the CITY OF LONDON,
No. 306, the first quarter of a Shield
of ST. GEORGE (arg., a cross gu.) is
charged with a sword erect gules, No - 3<5.
. , Arms of City of London.
the emblem of ST. PAUL, the special
patron of the English metropolitan city. The sword
is also borne in blazon in its military capacity.
Tabard; A.D. 1444.
Tabard. A short garment with sleeves, worn by knights
of the Tudor era. It has the arms blazoned on the
sleeves as well as on the front and back : No. 307, the
Tabard of WILLIAM FYNDERNE,
Esquire, from his brass, A.D. 1444,
at Childrey in Berkshire : the arms
are Arg., a chevron between three
crosses patee sable, the ordinary being
charged with an annulet of the field
"for Difference." A similar gar
ment is the official habit of heralds.
Tau, Tau-Cross. A cross formed like
the letter T, so called in Greek,
No. 93 ; borne as a charge in the
arms of DRURY, TAWKE, and some
others : this charge is also called
the Cross of ST. ANTHONY : it is
sometimes borne on a badge, as in the Bishop s Palace
at Exeter. See Chapter XV.
Templars, Knights. See Chapter XIX.
Tenent, Tenant. Used by French Heralds to distinguish
human figures from animals, as supporters.
Tennee or Tawney. A deep orange-colour;
in use in the Middle Ages as a livery-
Thistle. The national Badge of SCOTLAND,
represented after its national aspect,
and tinctured proper. JAMES I. of
Great Britain, to symbolise the union
of the two realms of England and
Scotland, compounded a Badge from Badge of James i.
the Rose of one realm, and the Thistle
of the other, united by impalement under a single
crown : No. 308. The impaled rose and thistle is borne
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 157
by the Earl of KINNOULL, repeated eight times upon a
Timbre. In the early Heraldry of England, this term denotes
the true heraldic crest : but, in the modern Heraldry of
France, the "timbre" is the Helm in an armorial
achievement. Timbred. Ensigned with a Helm ; or, if
referring to an early English achievement, with a Crest.
Tiercee, In tierce, Per tierce. Divided vertically into three
equal parts : No. 35.
Tinctures. The two metals and the five colours of Heraldry :
Nos. 50 56. See page 40. It was one of the puerile
extravagancies of the Heralds of degenerate days to
distinguish the Tinctures by the names of the Planets
in blazoning the arms of Sovereign Princes, and by the
names of Gems in blazoning the arms of Nobles.
Torse. A crest-wreath.
Torteau, plural torteaux. A red spherical Roundle: No. 152.
Tower, Turret. A small castle. Towered. Surmounted by
towers, as No. 222, which is a " Castle triple towered."
Transfluent. Flowing through. Transmuted. Counter-
changed. Transposed. Reversed.
Traversed. Facing or inclining to the sinister.
Trefoil. A leaf of three conjoined foils, generally borne
" slipped," as in No. 309.
Trefiee, or Botonee. A variety of the cross : No.
103. Treflee also implies semee of trefoils. No
Trtille, Trellis. See page 71, and No. 150. Trefoil sniped.
Treasure. A subordinary. See pages 66, 67; and Nos.
Tricked. Sketched with pen and ink in outline.
Tripping. In easy motion, as a stag. See page 81 : and
Triton. See Mermaid.
Trivet. A circular or triangular iron frame, with three feet,
borne by the family of TRYVETT.
158 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Trumpet. In blazon a long straight tube, expanding at its
extremity : No. 310, from the brass to Sir R. DE
TRUMPINGTON, at Trumpingdon, near Cam
bridge ; A.D. 1272.
Trussed. With closed wings. Trussing. Devouring
applied to birds of prey.
Tudor Rose. An heraldic rose, quarterly gu. and
arg. ; or a white heraldic rose, charged upon a
Tun. A cask ; the rebus of the final syllable TON
in many surnames. See Rebus.
NO. 3 io. 2\nes. Branches of a stag s antlers. See Attires.
Ulster. See Baronet and Herald.
Undy, Undee. Wavy : No. 38 c.
Unicorn. A well-known fabulous animal, famous as the
sinister supporter of the Royal Shield of England.
Union Jack. The National Ensign of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, fully described in Chapter
XVII. It is borne on a Shield, charged in pretence
upon the Escutcheon of the Duke of WELLINGTON.
Uriant. A fish when it swims in a vertical position, head
downwards. The reverse of Hauriant.
Vair. A Fur: Nos. 61, 62, 63.
Vane. See Fan.
Verdy, Verdoy, Verdee. Semee of leaves or plants.
Vert. In French Heraldry, Sinople. The colour green :
Vervels, Varvals. Small rings.
Vigilant. Watching for prey, as a beast or bird of prey.
Viscount. The fourth degree of rank and dignity in the
British Peerage, in Latin Vice-Comes, introduced by
HENRY VI., A.D. 1440. A Viscount is " Right Honour-
Viscount s Coronet.
GLOSSARY OF TITLES, NAMES, AND TERMS. 159
able," and is styled " My Lord." All his sons and
daughters are " Honourable." His Coronet, granted
by JAMES I., has a row of sixteen
pearls, of comparatively small size
set on the circlet ; in representa
tions nine are shown: No. 311.
The wife of a Viscount is a
Viscoiuitess, who has the same rank, style, and coronet
as her husband.
Vivre. An early term, fallen into general disuse; but
apparently denoting a Barrulet or
Cotise Dancettee; as in No. 312, at
St. Michael s Church, St. Alban s.
Voided. Having the central area re
Voiders. Diminutives of Planches.
Volant. Flying. Vorant. Devouring.
Vol. Two bird s wings conjoined, hav
ing the appearance of an eagle dis
played without its body : No. 207.
Wake Knot. No. 313.
Walled, Mnrallee. Made to represent brick or stone-work.
Shield at St. Michael s
Church, St. Alban s.
No. 313. Wake Knot.
No. 315. Wyvern. No 314. Catherine Wheel.
Water Bougct. No. 218.
Wattled. Having a comb and gills, as a cock.
Wavy, Undee. No. 38 c.
l6o ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Wheat-sheaf. See Garbe.
Wheel, Catherine Wheel Has curved spikes projecting from
its rim: No. 314: from a shield upon a boss, about
A.D. 1400, in the south choir-aisle of the church of Great
Wreath, Orle, Crest- Wreath. See Crest- Wreath, and
No. 233 ; also Chapter XIV.
Wreathed. Adorned with a wreath, chaplet, or garland;
or twisted into the form of a wreath, &c.
Wyvern, Wivern. A fabulous creature, being a species of
dragon with two legs, and represented having its tail
noived : No. 315.
Aggroupment Combination Quartering Dimidiation Impalement
Escutcheon of Pretence Marshalling the Arms of Widowers ,
Widows and others ; Official Arms ; and, the Accessories of Shields.
" Marshalling is a conjoining of diverse Coats in one Shield." GUILLIM.
UPON this concise definition, Guillim, in another part of his
work, adds the following comment : " Marshalling is an
orderly disposing of sundry Coat Armours pertaining to
distinct Families, and their contingent ornaments, with their
parts and appurtenances, in their proper places." Hence it
is apparent that this term, " Marshalling," implies,
1. First, the bringing together and the disposition of two
or more distinct " Coats in one Shield :"
2. Secondly, the aggroupment of two or more distinct Coats
to form a single heraldic composition, the Shields being
still kept distinct from one another : and,
3. Thirdly, the association of certain insignia with a Shield
of arms, so as to produce a complete heraldic achieve
The association of " Arms " with Names, Dignities, and
Estates would necessarily require, at an early period in the
history of Heraldry, the establishment of some regular and
recognised system for the combination and aggroupment of
various distinct coats and insignia, whenever a single indi-
1 62 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
vidual became the representative of more than one family,
or was the hereditary possessor of several dignities and
Again : it would be equally necessary that this system
should extend to the becoming heraldic declaration and
record of Alliances of every kind, including (a matter of no
little importance in the Middle Ages) feudal dependence.
In another, and a secondary sense, this same term,
Marshalling, is used by Heralds to denote the general ar
rangement and disposition of heraldic charges and insignia
in blazon upon the field of a Shield.
In its simplest form, MARSHALLING is effected by Ag-
groupment without Combination by placing two or more
Shields of arms, that is, in such positions as to form a con
nected group of distinct Shields, either with or without
various accessories. Seals afford excellent examples of
Marshalling of this order. These Seals may be classified in
two groups, one, in which an effigy appears; and a second,
in which the composition does not include any effigy. Here
I may observe that the same armorial blazonry that was dis
played upon their military surcoats by Princes, Nobles, and
Knights, was adopted by Ecclesiastics for the decoration of
their official vestments, and also (towards the close of the
thirteenth century) by Ladies of rank, as an appropriate style
of ornamentation for their own costume : and many ex
amples of the effigies of Ladies, with a few of Ecclesiastics,
adorned in this manner with heraldic insignia, exist in Seals
and in Monumental Memorials. In Beverley Minster there
is a noble effigy of a priest, a member of the great family of
PERCY (about A.D. 1330), the embroideries of whose vest
ments are elaborately enriched with numerous allied shields
of arms. Upon his episcopal seal, LEWIS BEAUMONT, Bishop
of Durham from 1317 to 1333, has his effigy standing
between two Shields of Arms (to the dexter, England; to
the sinister, a cross potent between four groups of small
crosses pate es, three crosses in each group), while his chasuble
is seme e de lys and also charged with a lion rampant the
arms of the house of Beaumont. The obverse of the
Seal of MARGARET, daughter of PHILIP the Hardy,
King of France, the second Queen of our EDWARD L,
illustrates this usage in the instance of ladies: No. 316.
No. 316. Seal of Margaret, Queen of Edward I.
Upon her tunic the Queen has emblazoned the three lions
of her royal husband ; on her right side is a shield of France,
the arms of her royal father; and on the left side a corres
ponding shield is charged with a lion rampant. I have
already shown the reverse of this fine Seal (No. 251), which
in the original is one inch more in depth than it appears in
these woodcuts.* Other characteristic examples are the
Seals of AGNES DE PERCY, whose effigy, having the arms of
Louvaine upon the tunic, holds two armorial shields, one irt
each hand : and of MARGARET, Countess of LINCOLN and
PEMBROKE (about 1241), who blazons the old arms of DE
LACI quarterly or and gu., a betid sa., over all a label vert
upon the tunic of her effigy, and has the same arms on a
Shield to the dexter, while another Shield to the sinister is
charged with the lion rampant, borne by the DE LACIES as
Earls of LINCOLN. The effigies of illustrious Ladies, which
appear on Seals with allied Shields of arms, are not always
represented in heraldic costume : good examples are the
Seals of ISABELLE of FRANCE,
Queen of EDWARD II., and of
ELIZABETH, daughter of EDWARD
I., who was Countess, first of
HOLLAND, and afterwards of
HEREFORD : both are engraved
in Sandford s "Genealogical His
tory of England," page 121. The
Seal of MARGARET BRUCE, of
Skelton, Lady DE Ros, attached
to a deed, dated 1280, has the
effigy of the noble lady, wearing
her ermine mantle, and support
ing two Shields of arms the
Shield of DE Ros, gti. t three
water-bounds arg., to the dexter,
and a Shield of BRUCE, a lion
rampant: No. 317. I am indebted, for the use of the
excellent woodcut of this very interesting seal, to Mr. Laing
of Edinburgh, the talented author of the two noble volumes
No. 317. Seal of Margaret, Lady
de Ros. (Laing.}
* In No. 251 the initial A of the word AQVITANNIE has been omitted.
on the Early Seals of Scotland, which occupy a foremost
position amongst the most valuable as well as the most
beautiful heraldic works that have ever been published in
Great Britain. (See page n.) In the Monumental Brasses
and also in the Sculptured Monumental Effigies of Ladies
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, heraldic costume
is frequently represented, and the figures are constantly
associated with groups of Shields of arms. As most
characteristic examples I may specify the effigy of a Lady,
about A.D. 1325, at Selby in Yorkshire; and the Brass in
Westminster Abbey, A.D. 1399, to ALIANORE DE BOHUN,
Duchess of GLOUCESTER.
The aggroupment of various armorial ensigns upon a
Seal, without the presence of any effigy, is exemplified in
No. 318. Seal of Joan, Countess of Surrey.
the characteristic Seal of JOAN, daughter of HENRY Count
DE BARRE, and of ALIANORE, daughter of EDWARD I., the
widow of JOHN DE WARRENNE, Earl of SURREY, A.D. 1347.
In this remarkable composition, No. 318, the arms, blazoned
on lozenges, are, in the centre, Warrenne; in chief and base,
England; and to the dexter and sinister, De Barre (No.
1 66 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
162): also, at the four angles of the group, the lion and
castle of Leon and Castile, in direct allusion to the descent
of the Countess from ALIANORE, first Queen of EDWARD I.
In the original, this elaborate composition is only one and a
half inches in diameter. Still smaller, measuring no more than
one and a quarter inches in diameter, and yet no less rich in
either its Heraldry or its Gothic traceries, is the beautiful
little Counter-seal of MARY DE SAINT PAUL, wife of AYMER
DE VALENCE, Earl of PEMBROKE, which is faithfully shown
on an enlarged scale, in order to render the details more
effectively, in No. 319. This illustrious lady, who founded
Pembroke College, Cambridge, A.D. 1373, was the daughter
of GUY DE CHASTILLON, Count of ST. PAUL, by his wife
MARY, daughter of JOHN DE DREUX, Duke of BRITTANY,
and of BEATRICE, sister of EDWARD I. On her Seal, ac
cordingly, the Countess of Brittany marshals, in the centre,
the arms of her husband (De Valence : No. 86), and those
of her father (De Chastillongu., three pallets vair, on a
chief or a label of three points az.), united upon a single
shield by " Dimidiation" a process presently to be de
scribed : to the dexter, the arms of her Royal relatives of
England are blazoned in a circular compartment : to the
sinister, in a similar compartment, are the fleurs de lys of
France Ancient, No. 247, at that time so closely allied with
the English lions : and, finally, in a third roundle, in the
base of the composition, are the arms of De Dreiix (chequee
or and az., within a bordure gu. ;* over all a canton of
Brittany, No. 15, borne by the maternal grandfather of the
Countess : the legend is, + S . MARIE . DE . SEYN .
POVL . COMITISSE . PEMPROCHIE. The origi
nal impression of this Seal, from which the woodcut, No.
* In No. 319 the bordure of De Dreux in the roundle in base is
charged with Lions of England, as borne by JOHN DE DREUX; but the
presence of these in the Seal of the Countess is uncertain. See No. 322.
319, was drawn, is appended to a charter, dated 1347, which
is preserved amongst the muniments of Pembroke College.
A very good example of the aggroupment of Shields upon
a Seal, under conditions differing from those that now
have been illustrated, I have already given in No. 204.
Another beautiful and most interesting example, now un
fortunately partially mutilated, is the Seal of MATILDA of
LANCASTER, the wife, first, of WILLIAM DE BURGH, Earl of
ULSTER (and by him mother of ELIZABETH, the wife of
Prince LIONEL OF CLARENCE), and, secondly, of Sir
Seal of Mary, Countess of Pembroke.
Seal of Matilda of Lancaster.
RALPH DE UFFORD. This seal, of circular form, No. 320,
displays to the dexter a shield of De Burgh or, a cross gu. ;
to the sinister, a shield Of Uffordor, a cross engrailed sa.,
cantoning a fleur de lys, for difference: in base there is a
lozenge of De Chaworth (the mother of the Countess was
MATILDA DE CHAWORTH) barrulee arg. and gu., an orle
of martlets sa. ; and in chief there remains part of another
lozenge of Lancaster, to complete this remarkable heraldic
group. Of the legend there remains only . . . 1LLV
MATILD .... SE ... The introduction of Badges, with
a Shield or Shields of arms, in the composition of a Seal,
is another variety of this same system of Marshalling. No.
321, the Seal of OLIVER DE BOHUN, exemplifies this usage,
having the white swan Badge of the noble house of BOHUN
thrice repeated about the Shield. See No. 114. Also see,
in the frontispiece, the Seal of Earl RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP,
No. 449, which is described in Section II. of Chapter XXII.
Marshalling by Aggroupment was practised under
Seal of Oliver de Bohun.
Shield of Earl John de Dreux.
another form by placing Shields of arms in the different
panels of the same architectural monument.
MARSHALLING by Combination is effected by actually
forming, for the blazonry of a single Shield, a composition
which includes the principal charges of two or more allied
Shields. The composition of the Shield borne by the house
of DE DREUX, to which I have just referred in describing
the Seal of the Countess of Pembroke, No. 319, is a most
striking example of this variety of Marshalling : and this
Shield was borne by JOHN DE DREUX, created Earl of
RICHMOND by his uncle King EDWARD I., who lived and
died in England, as it is represented in No. 322
chequee or and azure, being for De Dreux ; the canton ermine
for Brittany ; and the bordure, gules charged with golden lions
of England, representing the royal Shield of England, and
showing the close connection existing between the Earl of
Richmond and his Sovereign. The shield of Prince JOHN
of ELTHAM (No. 24), England within a bordure of France,
is another characteristic example of this Marshalling by
For many reasons, except in particular instances, these
methods of Marshalling were not considered to be alto
gether satisfactory. Accordingly, a fresh arrangement was
devised which would preserve intact the original integrity of
each coat of arms, would imply a definite systematic method
of arrangement, and would admit into a single composition
any required number of distinct coats. This MARSHALLING
by Quartering, naturally suggested by such simple bearings
as Nos. 1 6 and 17, consists in dividing the Shield, as in No.
30, into four parts, and placing in each of these divisions or
quarters one of the coats to be marshalled on a single
Shield. If two coats only are thus to be " quartered" the
most important of the two occupies the first quarter, and is
repeated in the fourth ; and, the other coat is placed in the
second quarter, and repeated in the
third. The earliest example known
in England is the quartered Shield
of Castile and Leon quarterly : first
and fourth, gules, a castle triple-towered
or; second and third, argent, a lion
rampant gu., No. 323. This shield
is sculptured upon the monument in
Westminster Abbey to ALIANORE, Shield of
daughter of FERDINAND III., King
of CASTILE and LEON, and Queen of EDWARD I. : the date
is 1290. This form of Marshalling began gradually to be
adopted during the first half of the fourteenth century, and
in the second half of that century it became generally
adopted. Other examples of quartered shields I have
already given in Nos. 252 and 253.
Should there be three Coats to be quartered, they would
severally occupy the first, second, and third quarters of the
Shield, in due order, and the first quarter would be repeated
in the fourth. In quartering four coats, no repetition would
be necessary. If more than four coats would require to be
quartered, the Shield would be divided into whatever num
ber of sections might be necessary, as in No. 36, and the
required arrangement would be made ; should any repeti
tion be necessary, the first quarter is to be repeated in the
fourth. This process, whatever the number of the coats
thus marshalled (and their number
sometimes is very great), is always
entitled "quartering;" and each of
these divisions of a Shield, for the pur
pose of Marshalling, is distinguished
as a " Quarter." Occasionally a
quartered coat would have to be mar
shalled with others. In the "grand
quartering" which then takes place,
the quartered coat is treated precisely
as any other member of the group. See No. 37. For
example, the shield, No. 324 (R. 2), of HENRY, first Earl
of NORTHUMBERLAND, is I. and IV. Grand Quarters,
first and fourth, or, a lion rampt. az., for Louvaine, or
Percy modern : second and third, gu., three lucies haurient
arg. (No. 164) for Lucy : II. and III. Grand Quarters, 0s.,
five fusils conjoined infesse or, for Percy ancient.
When a Shield to be quartered has a very numerous
array of Quarterings, Grand Quartering is seldom adopted \
but, in its stead, the new quarterings are marshalled in their
No. 324. Shield of Henry
Earl of Northumberland.
proper succession, with the original quarterings of the
In this Marshalling the first quarter is occupied by the
most important quartering, which is determined (without
any fixed rule) by the original grant or licence : the other
quarterings follow, in the order in which they may have
been "brought in" to the composition. A quartered Shield
becomes a permanent hereditary bearing, being a com
pound yet a single united Coat of Arms.
To denote and record ALLIANCE BY MARRIAGE, two
distinct Coats were first marshalled upon a single Shield by
Dimidiation. This process is accomplished in the following
manner. The Shield to be charged with the two Coats in
union is divided per pale, as in No. 28 : on the dexter half
the corresponding half, or generally somewhat more than
that half, of the arms of the husband
is marshalled : then, in like manner, the
sinister half is charged with the corres
ponding portion of the arms of the
wife. In the Shield, No. 250, from
another Seal of Queen MARGARET, Eng
land dimidiates France ancient, Nos.
187 and 247. This Dimidiation in
most cases produces a singular effect ;
as in No. 325, a Shield from the Seal
of the Mayor of Winchelsea, one of the famous Sussex
Cinque Ports, which bears England dimidiating azure, three
hulls of ships, in pale, or: here the dimidiated lions and
ships appear to unite for the purpose of forming the most
extravagant of compound monsters. The Seal of the
Borough of Great Yarmouth substitutes three herrings, in
allusion to the staple fishery of the port, for the ships, and
dimidiates them with the national lions. In the central
Shield of the Seal, No. 319, I have shown De Valence
No. 325. Shield of Mayor
dimidiating De Chastillon. In No. 326, from the monu
ment of WILLIAM DE VALENCE, De Valence appears dimi
diating the French Coat of Claremont Nesle gu., semee of
trefoils, two barbels haurient addorsed or: the Dimidiation
here cuts off and removes one-half of the De Valence
martlets and also one of the two barbels of Claremont.
No. 326. De Valence, dimidiating Claremont Nesle.
The characteristic features of one or of both of the
united Coats, as I have just shown, being commonly
rendered indistinct and uncertain by Dimidiation, that form
of marshalling was generally superseded by IMPALEMENT in
the course of the third quarter of the fourteenth century.
This process, at once simple and effectual, marshals the
whole of the husband s arms on the dexter half of a Shield
divided per pale, as No. 28 ; and the whole of the arms of
the wife on the sinister half of it. Such an impaled Shield
is borne by a husband and wife during their conjoint lives ;
also by the husband, if he should become a widower ; but,
should the wife become a widow, by her the impaled
arms are borne during her widowhood charged upon a
lozenge. The dexter half only the husband s arms of an
impaled Shield is hereditary. Fine examples of Shields
No. 327. Camoys, impaling
that are both impaled and quartered, are preserved in the
monuments of EDWARD III. and his Queen PHILIPPA, in
the Brass to ALIANORE DE BOHUN, and in the monument
to MARGARET BEAUFORT, all in Westminster Abbey. Other
fine examples occur on the monument of Earl RICHARD
BEAUCHAMP, at Warwick. No.
327, from the Brass to THOMAS,
LORD CAMOYS, K.G., and his wife,
ELIZABETH MORTIMER (the widow
of HENRY HOTSPUR), at Trotton,
in Sussex, A.D. 1410, marshals
Camoys arg., on a chief gu. three
plates, impaling Mortimer, No. 131.
Again, at Warwick, the Brass to
Earl THOMAS DE BEAUCHAMP and
his Countess, MARGARET FERRERS of Groby, A.D. 1406, has
a Shield of Beauchamp gu., a fesse between six cross lets or,
impaling Ferrers gu., seven mascles, three three and one, or.
It is to be observed that
Bordures and Tressures, which
are not affected by Quarter
ing, generally are dimidiated
by Impalement, that is, that
side of both a Bordure and
a Tressure which adjoins the
line of Impalement is gene
rally removed : thus, one of
the small Shields sculptured
upon the canopy of the
monument of Queen MARY
No. 328. D Aubigny, impaling Scotland.
STUART, at Westminster, is
charged with D Att&ignyimpalmg Scotland, that is, az., three
fleurs de lys or, within a bordure gu. charged with eight buckles
gold, impaling No. 138. This Shield, represented in No. 328,
has both the bordure on its dexter half, and the tressure
on its sinister half, dimidiated by the impalement. There
are other excellent examples of this partial dimidiating in
the monuments of MARGARET TUDOR and MARGARET
BEAUFORT, in the same chapel of Westminster Abbey.
The husband of an Heiress or a Co-heiress, instead of
impaling the arms of his wife, marshals them upon his
Shield charged as an Escutcheon of Pretence. This is the
prevailing usage : in strict right, however, the Escutcheon
of Pretence ought not to supersede Impalement until
the husband of an heiress, having issue by her, has a good
No. 329. Shield of Earl Richard Beauchamp.
pretension to have her arms quartered hereafter with his
own, by his and her sons, and their descendants. For, the
son of an heiress, as heir to his maternal grandfather
through his mother, as well as to his own father, quarters
on his Shield, and transmits to his descendants, the arms of
both his parents , his father s arms generally being in the first
quarter. The Shield of RICHARD BEAUCHAMP, K.G., Earl
of WARWICK (died in 1439), is a good example of the use
of an Escutcheon of Pretence; it is represented in No. 329,
drawn from the garter-plate of the Earl, in St. George s
Chapel, Windsor. The Earl himself, as his hereditary coat,
quarters Beauchamp with Newburgh cheques or and az., a
chei ron erm. : upon this, for his Countess, ISABELLE,
daughter and heiress of THOMAS LE DESPENCER, Earl of
GLOUCESTER, he marshals an Escutcheon of Pretence
charged with De Clare, No. 124, quartering Le Despencer
quarterly arg. and gu., in the second and third quarters a
Jrette or, over all a bend sa. In the monument of this great
Earl, at Warwick, upon the Escutcheon of Pretence the
arms of Bohun are quartered with those of Clare and
A few very simple diagrams will clearly elucidate the
principle of Marshalling the arms of Husband and Wife.
No. 330. No. 330. No. 330.
Suppose B (Baron) to represent the Husband, and F
(Femme] the Wife : then, No. 330 B may represent the arms
of the Husband, and No. 330 F the arms of the Wife. If F
be not an heiress, the arms of B and F, as husband and wife,
are borne impaled, as in No. 330 B F ; and their son bears
No. 330 B only. If F be an heiress, the arms of B and F, as
No 330. No. 331. No. 332
husband and wife, are borne as in No. 331 the arms of
the wife on an Escutcheon of Pretence ; and, in this case,
the son of B and F quarters the arms of both his parents, as
1 76 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
No. 332. Now, suppose this son, whose arms are No. 332,
to marry a lady, not an heiress, whose arms are No. 330 F F,
he would simply impale the arms of his wife, as in No. 333,
and his son would bear No. 332 only, as his father bore
that quartered shield before his marriage. But if the wife
of the bearer of No. 332 were to be an heiress, he would
charge the arms of his wife in pretence upon his own
hereditary paternal Shield, as in No. 334 ; and his son, by
this heiress, as before, would quarter the arms of both his
No. 333. No. 334. No.
parents, as in No. 335. It is obvious that Marshalling on
this system (of which I here give the general outline) admits
of a widely-extended application. Younger sons in all
cases cover all the quarterings of their Shield with their
own distinctive Mark of Cadency.
A Widower who marries again bears the arms of both
his wives, in accordance with the system already laid down,
with such modifications of adjustment as may be necessary
or desirable in each particular instance.
An Unmarried Lady bears her paternal arms on a
lozenge, without any Crest.
A Widow bears on a lozenge the arms borne by her hus
band and herself. Should she marry again, a Widow ceases
to bear the arms of her former husband ; but if her former
husband had been a Peer, she would continue to bear his
and her own arms marshalled as before, but on a lozenge
instead of a Shield, and on a separate Shield her present
husband would marshal her arms with his own, and the
Shield and the lozenge would be grouped together, the
Shield having precedence.
A Peeress in her own right, if married to a Peer, has
both her own arms and those of her husband fully blazoned,
and the lozenge and the Shield, with all their accessories,
are marshalled to form a single united group, the achieve
ment of the higher rank having precedence. If married to
a Commoner, a Peeress in her own right bears her own
arms on a lozenge as before, and her husband marshals her
arms ensigned with her coronet in pretence on his Shield :
and this lozenge and Shield are grouped together, the
lozenge yielding precedence.
Prelates bear the arms of their see impaling their own
paternal and hereditary arms, the insignia of the see
occupying the dexter half of the Shield, and this Shield is
ensigned with a mitre only. A married Prelate bears also
a second Shield, placed to the sinister of the other, on
which are marshalled, in accordance with ordinary usage,
his own personal arms with those of his wife.
The Herald Kings, in like manner, bear two Shields,
disposed to form a single group : on the dexter Shield their
official arms impale their personal ; and on the sinister
Shield their personal arms are marshalled with the arms of
Again, the same usage obtains in marshalling the arms
of Knights of Orders of Knighthood who, when married,
bear two Shields grouped together. On the dexter Shield
are blazoned the arms of the Knight himself alone ; and
around this Shield are displayed the insignia of his Order,
or Orders, of Knighthood : and on the sinister Shield the
arms of the Knight and of his wife are marshalled, but
without the knightly insignia. This second Shield is generally
environed with decorative foliage. This usage, prevalent in
England, is not accepted and adopted by foreign Heralds :
178 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
nor does it appear to be required by true heraldic principle,
or to be strictly in accordance with it. The wife of a
Knight shares his knightly title, and takes precedence from
her husband s knightly rank; and a knight, with perfect
heraldic consistency, might marshal his own knightly
insignia about the Shield which is charged with his own
arms and those of his wife, whether united by impalement,
or when the latter are borne in pretence : and thus a
single Shield would be borne, and there would cease to
exist any motive for endeavouring to impart to a second
Shield some general resemblance to its companion by
wreaths or other unmeaning accessories.
Official Arms are not hereditary.
Royal Personages, when married, bear their own arms on
a separate Shield to the dexter ; and a second Shield, to the
sinister, bears the arms of the husband and wife impaled,
or sometimes (but not in conformity with heraldic rule)
The circumstances of every case must exercise a con
siderable influence in determining the Marshalling of the
Accessories of any Shield, Lozenge, or Group. As a general
rule, however, the Helm always rests on the chief of the
Shield : Commoners, Knights, and Baronets place their
Crest upon the Helm : Peers and Princes place their
Coronet upon the Helm, and their Crest is placed, distinct,
above it : and, in like manner, the SOVEREIGN places the
Royal Crest above the Crown. The Mantling is displayed
from the back of the Helm : it is most effective when simple
in its form and adjustment, and when it droops behind the
Shield. The Motto is placed below the Shield ; but if it
has special reference to the Crest, above the Crest : or, if
Shield, Crest (or Badge), and Motto alone are blazoned, the
Motto may be placed between the Shield and the Crest or
Badge. Supporters are to be placed erect, as if in the
act of really supporting the Shield : they ought to stand
either on an appropriate ground, or on a Gothic basement
to the entire Achievement. Badges, with all Official and
Knightly Insignia, and all other Honourable Insignia of
every kind, are rightly marshalled in an Achievement of
Marks of Cadency are temporary or permanent. The Label. The
Bordure. The Bendlet, Barndet, and Canton. Change of Tinc
ture. Secondary Charges. Single Small Charges. Differences of
Illegitimacy. Cadency of Crests, Badges, &~v. Modern Cadency.
" Merke ye wele theys questionys here, now folowying ! "
BOKE OF ST. ALBANS. A.D. 14.86.
AMONGST his comrades in arms, or in the midst of a hostile
array, the last object that a mediaeval Knight would expect
or desire to observe, on the morning of a battle or a joust,
would be an exact counterpart of himself. Occasions,
indeed, might sometimes arise, when it might be highly
desirable that five or six counterfeit " Richmonds " should
accompany one real one to "the field;" or, when a "wild
boar of Ardennes" might prefer to encounter the hunters,
having about him the choice of his own " boar s brood,"
garnished at all -points exactly after his own fashion. These,
however, are rare and strictly exceptional cases. And the
Knight, to whom distinction was as the breath of his
nostrils, as he closed his vizor trusted confidently to his
heraldic insignia to. distinguish him, while, in the fore-front
of the fray, with sword and lance and axe he would strive
manfully to distinguish himself. This implies that Heraldry,
besides assigning to different families their own distinct
insignia, should possess the faculty of distinguishing the
several members, and also the various branches of the same
family, the one from the other. A faculty such as this
Heraldry does possess, and that faculty is CADENCY.
In marking Cadency" that is, in distinguishing the
armorial insignia of kinsmen, who are members of the very
same family, or of some one. of its various branches, it is a
necessary condition of every system of " Differencing" that,
while in itself clear and definite and significant, it should
be secondary to the leading characteristics of the original
Goat of Arms which denotes the senior branch of the
Family, and also declares from what fountain-head all the
kinsmen of all the branches have derived their common
Various methods for thus marking Cadency were
adopted, and accepted as satisfactory, in the early days of
Heraldry. Of these I now shall describe and illustrate
such as are most emphatic in themselves, and in their
character most decidedly heraldic, such also as most ad
vantageously may be retained in use in our own Heraldry of
the present time. It will be seen that the " Differences"
which mark Cadency necessarily resolve themselves into
two groups or classes : one, in which the " Difference" is
temporary only in its significance and use, as, when an
eldest son, on the death of his father, succeeds to the
position in the family which his father had held, he
removes his Mark of Cadency as eldest son from his
Shield, assumes the unmarked Shield as his father had
borne it before him, and transfers to his own son the mark
that previously had distinguished his Shield from that of his
father. In the other group, the Marks of Cadency are per
manent, and consequently they become integral elements of
the heraldic composition in which they appear: thus, the
mark of Cadency which distinguishes any particular branch
of a family, is borne alike by all the members of that
branch, and in that branch it is transmitted from generation
More than one Mark of Cadency may be introduced
into the same Coat of Arms ; and, for the purpose of some
form of secondary distinction, it is good Heraldry to mark
Marks of Cadency to charge one variety of mark, that is,
The LABEL, Nos. 271, 272, is blazoned as a Mark of
Cadency in the earliest Rolls of Arms, and it appears dis
charging this duty in the earliest examples. The Label is
generally borne with three points, as in No. 271 ; frequently
with five, as in No. 272 ; and occasionally with four or with
No. 336. Eldest Sons of Edward I. and II.
No. 337. Black Prince.
more than five points. It is quite certain that no signifi
cance is, or has ever been, attached to the number of the
points, the object in all cases being to make the Label
distinctly visible, and to adjust the points to the general
composition of the Shield. Labels are of various tinctures.
EDWARD I., EDWARD II., and EDWARD III., each one
during the lifetime of his father, bore the Shield of
England, No. 187, differenced with an azure label, some
times of three points, as in No. 336, and sometimes having
five points. EDWARD the BLACK PRINCE marked the
Royal Shield of EDWARD III. with a label argent, as in
No. 337 ; and a silver label has since been the Mark of
Cadency of every succeeding PRINCE OF WALES. The
Label has been used in this manner by personages of all
ranks who have borne arms, from the time of HENRY III. ;
and examples abound in all the early Rolls of Arms, in
Monuments, and upon Seals.
The LABEL, borne as a Mark of Cadency, is com
monly charged with other figures and devices, as dif
ferences of a secondary rank. Or, when it is thus charged,
the charges upon a Label may be considered to be
elements of the Label itself, in its capacity of a Mark
of Cadency. EDMOND, the first Earl of LANCASTER, as
I have already shown, No. 249, differenced his father s
Arms of England with a Label of France, No. 338 an
azure label, that is, charged with golden fleurs de lys, to
denote his French alliance ; and thus by the same pro-
"l*i m ||r" -"]l pi
ill 111 lU y in i
No. 338. Lancaster. No. 339. Brittany. No. 340. York.
cess he was Marshalling and Marking Cadency. JOHN
OF GHENT, Duke of LANCASTER, differenced with an
ermine Label, No. 339, derived from the ermine shield
of Brittany (No. 15): and the Plantagenet Dukes of
YORK charged each point of their silver Label with three
torteaux, No. 340, which may be considered to have
been derived from the shield of Wake (No. 82). In
order to show them on a larger scale, the Labels in
Nos. 338 343 are represented without the Shields on
which they were charged. All these Shields would be
repetitions of the same blazonry of France and England
quarterly: Nos. 252 and 253.
The Label, with various Differences, has generally been
the Royal Mark of Cadency; and now differenced silver
184 ENGLISH HERALDRY,
Labels are borne, to mark Cadency, by every member of
our Royal Family.
Like the points of Labels, the Charges blazoned on
those points had no fixed or determinate numbers. That
both the Labels and their Charges should be distinct and
conspicuous, was the special object with which they were
blazoned. Accordingly, in different examples of the same
Label the number of the repetitions of the Charges some
times is found to differ. At the same time, in the earliest
examples of charged Labels, the repetitions of the Charges,
while devoid of any special differencing aim or meaning,
may be considered to have been suggested by the sources
from which the Charges themselves were derived. For
example: the Label of Lancaster, No. 338, of Earl EDMOND,
No. 341. No. 342. No. 343.
derived directly from the Shield of France ancient, No. 247,
with its field semee de lys, has three fleurs de lys upon each
point, so that this Label has the appearance of being also
semee de lys. Had it been derived from the Shield of
France modern, No. 248, charged with three fleurs de lys
only, a single fleu-r de lys in all probability would have
been blazoned on each of the three points of this same
Label. Upon this principle the Label of Prince LIONEL,
Duke of CLARENCE, second son of EDWARD III., which is
differenced with cantons gules, has a single canton on each
point, as in No. 341, evidently because only a single canton
can be blazoned on a Shield. The figures and devices that
are charged for secondary difference upon Labels vary widely
in their character ; but, however difficult it now may be in
very many instances to trace these differencing charges to
their sources, and so to determine the motive which led to
their adoption, there can be no doubt that originally they
were chosen and adopted for the express purpose of denot
ing and recording some alliance or dependency. Some
early Labels are of a compound character ; that is, they are
charged with two distinct groups of devices, which are at
once divided and conjoined by impalement. Such a Label
was borne by Prince HENRY, son of JOHN of GHENT, be
tween the time of his father s death and his own accession as
HENRY IV. (Feb. 3 to Sept. 30, 1399) : it was a Label of
five points per pale of Brittany and Lancaster, No. 342, being
his father s Label impaling his own. The second son of
this Prince, THOMAS Duke of CLARENCE, instead of adopt
ing impalement, charged a red canton upon each point of an
ermine Label, as in No. 343 : while his brother, JOHN Duke
of BEDFORD, bore their father s Label, No. 342.
The BORDURE, both plain and charged, is a Mark
of Cadency borne by Princes and by personages of
various ranks. EDMOND, youngest son
of EDWARD L, differenced England
with a plain silver bordure, as in No.
344 : the HOLLANDS, Earls of KENT,
did the same : and the s;xne silver
bordure also was borne by THOMAS,
youngest son of EDWARD III., about
the quartered shield of France ancient
and England; and about the quartered No< 3- Holland of Kent -
shield of France modern and England by HUMPHREY,
youngest son of HENRY IV. Prince JOHN of ELTHAM,
as I have already shown, and after him the HOLLANDS,
Dukes of EXETER, differenced England with a Bordure
of France: No. 24. Though not so numerous as Labels,
Bordures employed to mark Cadency exist in very many
early examples, and a variety of devices appear charged
1 86 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
upon them for secondary Difference. See No. 140. In
the Royal Heraldry of our own times the Bordure is not
used as a Royal Difference ; but its use is retained for
differencing Shields of less exalted rank.
In some few early Examples a BENDLET is charged
upon the paternal shield as a mark of Cadency : and a
BARRULET is found to have been also used for the same
purpose. Thus, HENRY, second son of
EDMOND the first Earl of LANCASTER,
during the lifetime of his elder brother,
differenced England with an azure
Bendlct, as in No. 345 : and, in the
Seal of HENRY DE PERCY, son and
heir of HENRY the third Baron, the
lion is debruised, for Difference, by a
Henrylf Lancaster. Bamilet which CrOSSCS the Shield
the honour-point. Possibly, this Bar-
rulet maybe a Label without points. A CANTON, plain, or more
frequently charged, and in many examples of ermine, is also
added to Shields to mark Cadency. See Nos. 128, 129, 130.
To mark Cadency by a change of Tinctures was a simple
expedient, and such a one as would naturally be practised
at an early period. It was effected, first, in the case of the
Field : thus (H. 3), the brothers DE LA ZOUCHE severally
bear Gu., bezantee, and, Az., bezantee: and the brothers
FURNIVAL (H. 3) bear Arg., a bend between six martlets gu.,
and, Or, a bend between six martlets gu. Secondly, the
change is effected in the Charges : thus, two William BAR-
DOLFS (H. 3 and E. 2) severally bear Az., three cinque-
foils or, and, Az., three dnquefoils arg. Thirdly, the
tinctures are reversed: for example, for two Sir JOHN HAR-
COURTS (E. 2) Gu., two bars or, and, Or, two bars gu.
Fourthly, there is a complete change in all the tinctures :
and so, while Sir ANDREW LOTEREL (E. 2) bears Or, a
bend between six martlets sa. t Sir GEFFREY LOTEREL (E. 2)
bears Az. 9 a bend between six martlets argent. Finally, this
system of marking Cadency admits various modifications of
the changes already described : thus, in the Arms of Mor
timer, No. 131, gules is substituted for azure; and, again,
in the same Shield an inescntcheon ermine takes the place of
the inescutcheon argent.
Another and a favourite method of marking Cadency,
calculated to exercise a great and decided influence in the
development of heraldic blazon, is the addition of secondary
Charges of small size (not on a Label or a Bordure, but)
seme e over the field of a Shield, or charged upon an
Ordinary, or disposed in orle. In the greater number of
examples, these small charges are found to have been
gradually reduced to six or three, in order to admit of their
No. 346. Beauchamp of Elmely. No. 347. Beauchamp at Carlaverock
being blazoned on a somewhat larger scale, and conse
quently made more distinct. Again : while the number and
the tinctures of the secondary differencing charges remain
the same, in order to carry out the Cadency still farther
the secondary charges themselves are varied : and, once
more, in other cases the identity of the original secondary
charges is retained, but their number is increased or
diminished. I must be content to illustrate these various
forms of Cadency with a few examples only. First, a group
of shields of the BEAUCHAMPS : Beauchamp of Elmely
(H. 3) Gu., a fesse or, No. 346 : Beauchamp at Car-
1 88 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
laverock Gu., crusileeandafesseor, No. 347: Beauchamp,
Earl of Warwick Gu., a fesse between six crosses cross lets
or, No. 348 : and Beauchamp of Bletshoe Gu., a fesse
between six martlets or, No. 349. Second, a corresponding
group of shields of the BERKELEYS : Maurice de Barkele
(or Berkeley) Gu., a chevron arg. (H. 3) : and then for
other Berkeleys Gu., a chevron between ten crosses pattees,
six and four, arg. ; and the same Ordinary, with either ten
cinqucfoils of silver, or the same number of white roses.
Three CORBETS bear severally (E. 2) Or, a raven sa.; Or,
two ravens sa; and Or, three ravens sa. And, once more,
their original Shield Gu., a chevron or, is differenced by the
No. 348. Beauchamp of Warwick. No. 349. Beauchamp of Bletshoe.
COBHAMS by charging the Ordinary with three lioncels,
three eaglets, three crosslets, three mullets, three estoiles,
three crescents, or three fleurs de lys, all of them sable.
The particular devices and figures selected thus to mark
Cadency, like those charged upon Labels or Bordures, must
be considered to have a special significance of their own,
though this significance may frequently fail to be discerned
in consequence of our being no longer able to trace out
their association with the sources from which they were
obtained. The alliances and the incidents that give these
various Marks of Cadency, when it is possible to ascertain
what they may have been, illustrate in a striking manner
the motives by which the early Heralds were influenced
when they differenced the Arms of Kinsmen.
Official Insignia sometimes become Marks of Cadency.
Thus, JOHN DE GRANDISON, Bishop of Exeter (A.D. 1327
1369), on the bend in his paternal arms, No. 89, substitutes
a golden mitre for the central eaglet, as in No. 350. WILLIAM
COURTENAY, Archbishop of Canterbury (A.D. 13811396),
adopts a different course, and charges three golden mitres
upon each point of the Label of Courtenay Or, three tor-
tcaux, over all a label of three points az. charged on each
point with as many mitres gold. And again, HENRY LE
DESPENCER, Bishop of Norwich (A.D. 13701406), places
about his paternal shield an azure bordure charged with
No. 350. Bishop Grandison.
No. 351. Secretum of Bishop le Despencer.
eight golden mitres (see the largest shield in No. 351). On
his official seal the canopied effigy of the Bishop stands
between this, his personal Shield, and the Shield of his see
az., three mitres or: but his Secretum, or private seal, is
much more interesting, as an heraldic image of the man
himself. Haughty, fierce, cruel, and pugnacious, his career
not less inglorious as a military commander than as a
churchman, this HENRY LE DESPENCER, a grandson of the
unhappy favourite of the no less hapless EDWARD II.,
was one of the war-loving prelates who occasionally appear
sustaining a strange, and yet as it would seem a charac-
teristic, part in the romantic drama of mediaeval History.
His Secretum, No. 351, displays his Shield of Despencer,
differenced with his bordure of mitres, couche from a large
mantled helm, surmounted by a mitre, in place of a crest-
coronet, which supports the Despencer crest, a silver
griffin s head of ample size ; on either side are the Shields
of the see of Norwich, and of Ferrers (the Bishop s mother
was Anne, daughter of WILLIAM Lord FERRERS of Groby)
Or, seven mascles, three three and one, gu. ; the legend
is, S . HENRICI . DESPENCER . NORWICENSIS .
At an early period, Cadency was marked by adding a
single small charge to the blazon of a Shield, or by charging
some secondary device or figure upon any accessory of a
Shield of arms. Such a Mark of Cadency as this, obtained
from some allied Shield, and charged upon an ordinary or
principal bearing, or occupying a conspicuous position in
the general composition, was in high favour
with the Heralds of both the fourteenth
and fifteenth centuries. From the early
examples, which exist in great numbers and
in as great variety, it will be sufficient for
me to adduce only a few specimens a
single example, indeed, illustrates the sys
tem. The Shield of Ufford, in the Seal of
MATILDA of LANCASTER, which I have
already described (No. 320), is thus differenced with a single
fleur de lys in the first quarter. Precisely in the same
manner Sir FULK FITZ WARIN differences the Shield of the
head of his house, No. 17, by charging a mullet sable upon
the first quarter, as in No. 352. THOMAS LE SCROPE,
on the other hand, for Cadency marks the golden bend
upon his azure Shield, No. in, with an annulet sable,
as in No. 353. Two members of the family of Beau-
Sir Fulk Fitz Warin.
champ charge their golden fesse (see Nos. 346 349), the
one with a crescent sable, and the other with a pierced mullet
of the same tincture: Nos. 354, 355. In like manner, in
addition to various labels, the NEVILLES charge no less
No 353. Thomas le Scrope.
than eight different small figures upon their silver saltire,
No. 121, to distinguish different members and branches of
their powerful race : I give one of these Shields in No.
356, which was borne by GEORGE NEVILLE, Lord LATIMER,
from the monument to Earl RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP at
Warwick Gtt., on a saltire arg. a gimmel-rmg az. : another
No. 356. Lord Latimer. ^\?~/ No 357- Neville.
No. 358 Sir William de Brewys.
differenced shield of Neville, No. 357, has a tinquefoil
charged on the saltire : a third example from this group
I have already given, No. 122, differenced with a rose: this
shield, No. 122, is now borne by the Earl of ABERGAVENNY.
Once more: Sir WILLIAM DE BREWYS (E. 2) bears Az.,
crusilee and a lion rampt. or, No. 358, which coat another
192 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Sir WILLIAM DE BREWYS differences, to distinguish himself
from his kinsman, while at the same time declaring their
near relationship, by simply charging a red fleur de lys upon
his lion s shoulder.
Differences of Illegitimacy, which rightly and indeed
necessarily are included under the general head of
" Cadency," do not appear at any time to have assumed
a definite or decided character, and yet they bring before
the student of Heraldry much curious matter for inquiry
and investigation. Early in the true heraldic era illegiti
mate sons are found to have differenced their paternal arms,
as other sons lawfully born might have done : and it does
not appear that any peculiar methods of differencing were
adopted, palpably for the purpose of denoting illegitimacy
of birth, before the fourteenth century had drawn near to
its close. And even then, if any express heraldic rule on
this point ever was framed, which is very doubtful, it
certainly was never observed with any care or regularity.
The earliest known example of the arms of a man of
illegitimate birth is the fine Shield of WILLIAM LONGESPEE,
Earl of SALISBURY, son of HENRY II. and FAIR ROSAMOND,
No. 197. This Shield is supposed to have been assumed
and borne by the Earl on his marriage with the daughter
and heiress of D EUREUX, when in right of his wife he suc
ceeded to the Earldom of Salisbury : but this theory does
not rest upon any solid foundation, since it would be very
difficult to show that the Shield with the six lioncels was
certainly borne, on his armorial ensign, by the father-in-law of
Earl William. Also, if a Shield charged with an escarbuncle
and many lioncels, which has been assigned to GEOFFREY
Count of ANJOU, was really borne by the Founder of the
House of PLANTAGENET, Earl WILLIAM LONGESPEE may
have derived his own Shield from his paternal grandfather.
Upon his Counterseal the Earl displays his own "long
sword" as his proper device. In like manner, certain
other personages, also illegitimate, appear to have borne
arms which were either expressly assigned to themselves
by the Sovereign, or such as they assumed in right of their
mothers or wives. In all such cases as these, the Arms
were not the paternal coat in any way differenced, but
what now would be designated "fresh grants." Towards
the beginning of the fifteenth century, however, a peculiar
kind of Differencing for Illegitimacy gradually prevailed
throughout Europe : thus, illegitimate children either altered
the position of the charges in their paternal Shield ; or
they marshalled the entire paternal arms upon a bend or a
fesse ; or they composed for them
selves a fresh Shield, either using their
father s badges and the actual charges
of his Shield, or adopting devices evi
dently derived from the paternal bear
ings ; or they bore the paternal Shield
differenced in a peculiarly conspicuous
manner with certain marks by which
they might be readily and certainly
distinguished. NO. 359.
,,, . . . _ . Henry, Earl Worcester.
When the composition of the
paternal Shield would admit of such an arrangement, the
field not being argent, an illegitimate son sometimes bore
his father s arms marshalled fesse-wise, so as to leave both
the chief and the base of his Shield plain white. HENRY,
Earl of WORCESTER, whose father was an illegitimate son
of HENRY BEAUFORT, third Duke of SOMERSET, bore the
arms of Beaufort couped in this manner in chief and in
base, as if they were charged upon a very broad fesse on
a silver field : No. 359.
JOHN DE BEAUFORT (great-grandfather of HENRY, Earl
of WORCESTER), eldest illegitimate son of Prince JOHN of
GHENT, before the Act for his legitimation was passed in the
year 1397, bore his father s hereditary arms of Lancaster
England with a label of France, No. 249 on a broad bend,
the field being per pale arg. and az., the Lancastrian livery
colours : No. 360. After their legitimation act had become
a law, this same JOHN DE BEAUFORT, with his brothers, sons,
No. 360 Beaufort before 1397.
No. 361. Beaufort after 1397.
and grandsons, bore the Royal quartered shield of France
and England, No. 361, differenced, not with labels, but with
a bordure componce arg. and az. (the Lancastrian colours) :
the different members of the Beaufort family slightly varied
the bordure, but by the head of their house it was borne
as in No. 361. It will be seen that
this is the coat that HENRY, Earl of
WORCESTER (himself the legitimate son
of an illegitimate son), bore fesse-wise,
as in No. 359. The father of this Earl
HENRY, CHARLES SOMERSET, Earl of
WORCESTER (illegitimate son of the
third Duke of SOMERSET), differenced
Beaufort, No. 361, with a silver bendlct
sinister, as in No. 362, the bendlet
covering the quarterings, but being included within the
Since the fifteenth century, in English Heraldry, a
No. 362. Charles, Earl
narrow bendlet or baton sinister, couped at its extremities,
either plain or charged, has differenced the illegitimate
descendants of the Royal Family. It was borne by ARTHUR
PLANTAGENET, Viscount LISLE, son of EDWARD IV. : by
HENRY FITZ ROY, Duke of RICHMOND, son of HENRY VIIL,
and, variously differenced, by all the illegitimate descendants
of CHARLES I. that is, it is borne at the present day,
argent, by the Duke of BUCCLEUCH ; ermine, by the Duke of
CLEVELAND ; componee arg. and az., by the Duke of GRAFTON ;
and, gules charged with three white roses, by the Duke of ST.
Sir ROGER DE CLARENDON, illegitimate son of the
No. 363. Sir Roger de Clarendon. No. 364. Radulphus de Arundel.
BLACK PRINCE, bore on a sable bend the three Ostrich
FeatJiers of his illustrious father s " Shield of Peace" the
field of his Shield being golden, as in No. 363. Here the
" Difference for Illegitimacy" is very emphatically marked
in a singularly felicitous and beautiful Shield.
The paternal arms of illegitimate children have also
sometimes been carried by them charged on a canton, either
dexter or sinister, the rest of the Shield being left blank, or
perhaps in some cases displaying the maternal arms; of
this usage I am not able to give any good example, in
English Heraldry, of certain authority : one other variety of
196 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
these singular Shields, however, I must add to my small
group of examples, which was first noticed by Mr. MONTAGU
("Guide to the Study of Heraldry," p. 44). This is the Shield,
No. 364, of RADULPHUS DE ARUNDEL; and it bears the
quartered arms of the Earls of ARUNDEL Fitz Alan and
Warretine (gu. a lion rampt. or, and No. 68), "flanched?
that is, blazoned only upon the flanches (see No. 141) of
the Shield, the central area being blank.
In the more recent Heraldry of our own country, the
bendlet or baton sinister is generally regarded as the most
appropriate and decided Difference of Illegitimacy. Still,
now, as in earlier times, there exists no fixed and universally
recognised system of treating this peculiar application of
Cadency : and, consequently, the Marks of Illegitimacy in
use (whenever they are used) at the present time are both
arbitrary in their character, and uncertain (or, at least, ques
tionable) in their signification. The associations of the
baton sinister, when borne " over all," may be considered to
assign to it the exclusive duty of marking the Cadency
now under our consideration : but there certainly is no
oth er variety of Differencing, nor is there any other charge,
of which it can be affirmed that its use or presence
necessarily denotes this particular circumstance. Modern
Heralds may difference for Illegitimacy in various ways, as
it may seem to them to be most desirable ; and their
Differencing may or may not be understood ; and, perhaps,
after all, this very ambiguity may not be the least satisfac
tory element of the existing practice. The feeling might be
different, were this Cadency to be marked upon the Shields
of the fathers of illegitimate children,
In treating of this subject, some writers have maintained
that the bordure componee is, in its heraldic nature, the most
decided and unquestionable Difference of Illegitimacy : and
this opinion these writers have derived from the singularly
contradictory fact, that the BEAUFORTS differenced with a
bordure componee when they became legally legitimate. A
bordure compon6e may, indeed, be used with such an
intention, as it is used by the Duke of RICHMOND, who
bears the arms of CHARLES II. within a bordure componee
arg. and gu., charged with eight roses of the last ; while by the
BEAUFORTS it was used with an intention exactly the reverse
of this. Very recently, a bordure engrailed has been
employed to discharge this particular duty : but this appli
cation of the bordure engrailed does not abate the honour of
that bearing, or disqualify it for use under perfectly different
conditions. In fact, the bordure, whatever its aspect or
modification of treatment, remains still, as it was of old, an
honourable Difference, until some abatement of honour has
been associated with its presence under special circum
stances. And precisely the same words may be applied to
any other charge that has been employed, or may be
required to mark Cadency.
In the case of the illegitimate issue of Kings, the baton
sinister or other decided Difference must continue to be
borne from generation to generation, since the Royal Arms
cannot be assumed by any subject without " due Differ
ence :" and it is highly probable that the remote (or the
comparatively remote) descendants of the illegitimate sons
of Kings may regard with happy complacency their heredi
tary Shield, with the associations of high honour that, in the
course of time, may have gathered around it, the original
baton sinister notwithstanding. But, in all other cases, true
Heraldry cannot require the sustained presence of so
marked a Difference as a baton sinister, and more particu
larly if with its presence painful memories should be
associated. All that can be either desirable or necessary is,
that such Differences in every instance should be main
tained and transmitted, as may preserve becoming distinc-
198 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
tions, and at the same time may be consistent with both
historical veracity and heraldic propriety.
Marks of Cadency, as they are borne on Shields of
Arms, are also charged on Badges, Crests, Supporters, and
Mantlings. As a matter of course, they appear on Armorial
Banners and Standards under the same conditions that they
are blazoned upon Shields and Surcoats. Such examples as
may be necessary to illustrate heraldic usage in these cases,
I propose to describe in the following Chapters.
It cannot be necessary for me to adduce any arguments
in order to impress upon Students of Heraldry the import
ance of investigating early Cadency, or to assure them that
a special interest is inseparable from this inquiry : I may
suggest, however, that it is most desirable that Students
should arrange groups of allied Shields, and should carefully
blazon them in full both in writing and in colour, with their
various " Marks of Cadency," being careful also to record
their authorities for every example.
MODERN CADENCY is marked by the Label and by
single small Charges, which take precedence in the follow
ing order :
1. The Label, No. 271.
2. The Crescent, No. i66A.
3. The Mullet, No. 278.
4. The Martlet, No. 161.
5. The Annulet, No. 154.
6. The Fleur de. lys, No. 246.
7. The Rose, No. 298.
8. The Cross Moline, No. 99.
9. The Octofoil, or Double Quatrefoil.
At the present time, these Marks of Cadency are rarely
used to denote the contemporary brothers of the same
family; but almost invariably they distinguish different
branches of the same family, and thus they become perma-
nent Charges borne "for difference." When they are
adopted, Marks of Cadency now are generally placed upon
the Honour Point of the Shield, or in some other con
spicuous position : one of these Marks
also may be charged upon another, if
desired, as a Martlet may be charged
upon a Label, to denote the fourth son
of an eldest son ; and so in other cases.
The Seal of WILLIAM FRASER, No.
365, from Mr. Laing s Collection, ex
emplifies in a singular and interesting
manner the early use of a differenced
Label. Here the Label appears, without
,-,,1 , j , . c .
any Shield, borne as if it were a Badge :
and it is charged, on each of its three
points, with two devices that have the appearance of
mullets of six points, but which really may be /raises
strawberry-leaves, the rebus-device of Fraser (see pp. 182
r)eed A - D - I2 95 Pre-
served in H.M. Record
Differencing to denote Fmdal Alliance or Dependency: Differencing
without any Alliance. Augmentation. Abatement.
" Differencing, which comprises in truth the growth and ramification of Coat-
Armour, and the whole system, of its early development, has been strangely lost
sight of in the numerous treatises on Armory that have satisfied recent generations
of Englishmen." HERALD AND GENEALOGIST, II., 32.
DIFFERENCING, as distinct from CADENCY, implies, first,
the treatment of Coats of Arms and other armorial insignia,
that denote and are based upon Feudal Alliance or Depend
ency, but without blood-relationship ; and, secondly, it also
implies a comprehensive system of distinguishing similar
Arms, when they are borne by individuals or families
between whom no kind of alliance is known to have
existed. It is evident, on the one hand, that a feudal
influence would naturally lead to some degree of assimi
lation to the Coat Armour of the feudal Chief, in the Arms
of all allies and dependents : and, on the other hand, it
will readily be understood that, even in the early days of
its career, Heraldry would see the necessity for providing
for the constantly increasing demands upon its resources ;
and, consequently, that it would organise a system which
would enable the same Ordinaries and the same principal
Charges to appear in distinct Shields, without either con
fusion or misapprehension.
It is highly probable, and indeed it may be assumed to
be certain, that what I have called a " feudal influence," in
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in no slight degree
affected the general composition of Coats of Arms. In
very many instances the working of this influence is still
palpable ; and it is always interesting to the student of
Heraldry, as it must always be eminently useful to the
student of History, to detect its presence and to explore
its method of action. Like Cadency, feudal Differencing
is expressed by various means, all of them indicating, in a
greater or a less degree, the motive which suggested their
adoption. I proceed at once to examples, which illustrate
and explain the system so clearly and
so fully, that prolonged introductory re
marks are altogether superfluous.
Upon his Seal, RANULPH DE BLON-
DEVILLE, Earl of CHESTER (died in
1232)- bears three garbs or wheat-
sheaves; and Rolls of Arms of the
time of HENRY III. blazon the Shield
of the Earl of CHESTER as Az., three N
garbs or, No. 366. This Shield has been borne by the Earls
of CHESTER to this day, and for his Earldom of CHESTER
it now is borne by the PRINCE OF WALES : and, in token
of feudal alliance, from the middle of the thirteenth cen
tury, " one or more garbs," in the words of Mr. PLANCH^,
" are seen in the majority of Coats belonging to the nobility
and gentry of the County Palatine of Chester." Thus,
since the year 1390, the arms of GROSVENOR have been
az., a garb or.
A cinquefoil, said to have been borne by him on a
red Shield, was the device of ROBERT FITZ-PARNEL, Earl of
LEICESTER, who died in 1204. Accordingly, the cinquefoil,
derived from him, as early as the thirteenth century,
2O2 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
appears in token of feudal connection on the Shields of
many families of Leicestershire. As I have already shown,
(page 1 8 8) a BERKELEY, who was of Leicestershire, sub
stituted ten cinque/oils for the ten crosses patee of the
Berkeley Shield ; and thus he combined feudal Differencing
Many a red chevron or chevronel, with other devices,
charged upon a golden field, or a gold chevron on a red
field, is a sign of feudal alliance with the great house of
DE CLARE, whose Shield was or, three chevronels gu., No.
124. For example, the FITZ-RALPHS,
near neighbours of the De Clares at
Clare in Suffolk, differenced the Shield
of the Earls by charging silver fleurs
de lys on each chevronel, as in No.
367 (E. 2) ; and, for secondary dif
ference, they sometimes added a bor-
dure azure, as in the fine early Brass
at Pebmarsh, near Clare. Again : by
No. 3 6 7 .-Fit z Ralph. a change o f t i nc tures, without affect
ing the charges of the Shield, the Arms of L ERCEDECKNE
(now Archdeacon) are Arg., three chevronels sa.
At Carlaverock, EDMOND DE HASTINGS, brother of the
Earl, bore Or, a maunche gu., with a label of Jive points
sa., the Earl himself bearing simply Or, a maunche gu.,
No. 276. And, close by the side of EDMOND DE HASTINGS
was his friend and companion, the feudal ally, without
doubt, of his house, JOHN PAIGNEL, a very proper comrade,
as the chronicler testifies
" Un bacheler jolif et comte,
who differenced Hastings by change of tinctures, and bore
Vert, a maunche or.
The Shield of the noble house ot DE LUTERELL, or
LOTEREL, I have blazoned with changed tinctures for two
near kinsmen bearing that name (page 186), thus showing
in what manner they marked their Cadency. This same
shield, No. 368 Or, a bend between six martlets sa., was
also differenced by other families to
mark their feudal alliance with the
house of Luterell. Thus, the DE FUR-
NIVALS, themselves a powerful and
distinguished family, who held their
lands by feudal tenure under the Lute-
rells, in token of this alliance bore the
Shield of De Luterell with a fresh
change of tinctures ; and, accordingly,
the arms of the De Furnivals are No< 368 ~ De Lutere!L
well known as Arg., a bend between six martlets gu.
Then, while the FURNIVALS, for Cadency, differenced these
arms amongst themselves, their feudal allies and depen
dents, the ECCLESALLS or EKELESHALES, the MOUNTENEYS,
the WADESLES or WADSLEYS, and the WORTELES or WORT-
LEYS, all united in declaring their
connection with their chief by assum
ing arms founded upon the Furnival
Coat. These very interesting and
characteristic examples of feudal Dif
ferencing are well blazoned, as follows,
in the Roll of EDWARD II. For DE
ECCLESALL Sa., a bend between six
martlets or: for DE MOUNTENEY
Git., a bend between six martlets or:
for DE WADSLEY Arg., on a bend between six martlets
git., three escallops or, No. 369 : and for DE WORTLEY
Arg., on a bend between six martlets gu., three bezants, No.
The MOUNTENEYS further difference their common arms,
No. 369. De Wadsley.
for Cadency, after this manner. Instead of gules, Sir ERNAUF
DE MOUNTENEY has the field of his shield azure, his bend
and martlets being golden : Sir JOHN bears these same arms,
but charges his bend with a mullet gules, No. 371 : Sir T.
DE MOUNTENEY bears Sir John s arms, but with afield gules:
and another Sir JOHN cotises his bend thus Gu., a bend
cotised between six martlets or, No. 372.
North of the Tweed, also, the same principle is found
to be exemplified in Scottish Heraldry. " In Annandale,"
writes Mr. SETON, " the chief and saltire of the Bruces are
carried (of different tinctures and with additional figures) by
Sir John de Mounteney.
Sir John de Mounteney.
the Jardines, Kirkpatricks, Johnstons, and other families."
The arms of BRUCE are Or, a saltire and a chief gu., No. 73 :
those of JARDINE are Arg., a saltire and a chief gu., the
latter charged with three mullets of the field, pierced of the
second: and the arms of KIRKPATRICK are Arg., a saltire
and chief az., the latter charged with three oreillers or. This
coat of Kirkpatrick is also borne by the JOHNSTONS, the
tinctures differenced thus Arg., a saltire sa., and on a chief
gu. three oreillers or.
Once more, returning to the southern side of the Scottish
border, of RICHARD DE NEVILLE, the renowned "King
maker," we find it to be recorded that, so great was his
popularity at Calais, of which city he was governor, that his
Badges were universally adopted, "no man esteeming
himself gallant whose head was not adorned with his silver
ragged staff , No. 294 ; nor was any door frequented, that had
not his white cross (silver saltire, No. 121) painted thereon."
This was an extravagant application of the earlier usage in
denoting feudal alliance, such as was in keeping with the
heraldic sentiment of the second half of the fourteenth
century. Those good citizens of Calais, however, who
were Neville-worshippers four hundred years ago, were not
singular in exhibiting an armorial ensign at the entrance to
their houses. Numerous, indeed, are the doorways in
various parts of England, and particularly in the counties of
Surrey, Sussex, and Norfolk, which in the " sign of the
chequers" still display the insignia (chequee or and az., No. 68)
of the once mighty Earls of WARRENNE and SURREY ; and
thus show that relics of the old feudal influence are endowed
with a tenacious vitality, which prolongs their existence for
ages after the feudal system itself has passed away.
Differencing adopted, so far as now is apparent, simply
for the sake of distinction, lays open before the student of
Heraldry a wide and a diversified field of inquiry. All the
miscellaneous charges that are associated in blazon with
the Ordinaries, and also with the Subordinaries, thus are
brought under consideration ; and, without a doubt, it was
for the express purpose of Differencing that many of these
charges were introduced into English Heraldry. How far
some remote degree of relationship, or some subordinate
feudal motive now lost to sight and forgotten, may originally
have affected the choice of Charges " for difference," it is
not possible now to determine ; nor can we always follow
the rebus-loving search for a " Difference," that might speak
through that allusive quality which is a primary element of
the Herald s science. We do know that the act of bearing
206 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
the same arms by different families, without some heraldic
Difference, was of very rare occurrence j and that, when it
did occur, it was regarded with marked surprise, and on
more than one occasion led to a memorable controversy :
and, further, we find great numbers of early differenced
Shields, which illustrate in a very effective manner the
growth and development of English Heraldry. Shields
of this order have strong claims on our attention. The
examples that I am able here to place before students are
to be regarded simply as specimens, few in number, and
yet sufficient to show some of the varied forms under which
early Differencing was effected.
The proceedings in the High Court of Chivalry in the
suit between Sir RICHARD LE SCROPE and Sir ROBERT GROS-
VENOR, relative to the right to the Arms Azure, a bend or,
No. in, commenced on the iyth of August, 1385, and the
final judgment of the King himself upon the appeal of the
defendant against the finding of the Court, was not pro
nounced till the 27th of May, 1390. On the i5th of May,
1389, the judgment of the Court assigned the arms azure,
a bend or to Sir RICHARD LE SCROPE ; and to Sir ROBERT
GROSVENOR, these arms az., a bend or, within a plain
bordure argent. Thus the Court confirmed to Sir Richard
le Scrope the right to bear the Ordinary in its severe
simplicity, without any other charge and without any
Difference : and, at the same time, it was decided that
these arms of Scrope should be differenced, in order
that they might become the arms of Grosvenor, and
the " Difference " was to be a plain silver bordure. The
whole of the proceedings in this remarkable case are pre
served, and have been published ; and they derive a peculiar
interest from the circumstance, that amongst the witnesses
who gave evidence was the father of English Poetry,
GEOFFREY CHAUCER. Appeal having been made to the
Sovereign, RICHARD II. determined that a "plain bordure
argent" was a Mark of Cadency, good and right, and
perfectly sufficient as a Difference "between Cousin and
Cousin in blood ;" but that it was " not a sufficient Diffe
rence in Arms between two strangers in blood in one king
dom." The King, therefore, cancelled and annulled the
sentence of the Court of Chivalry; and in so doing he
gave a very clear definition of the distinction to be observed
in Heraldry between " Cadency" and " Differencing."
Then it was that the shield, azure, a garb or, was adopted as
the arms of Grosvenor. We may assume, that the judg
ment of the Court would have been confirmed by the King,
had Sir Robert Grosvenor been commanded to blazon his
golden bend between two garbs, or charged with one or
more garbs, or with three garbs on a chief, or with any
other decided Difference which would be palpably distinct
from a Mark of Cadency.
The examples of Differenced Shields which follow I
have selected from the Roll of EDWARD II. It will be seen
that in each small group of these examples some primary
feature of the composition is common to every Shield, so
that the distinction between the Shields in each group is
effected either by a simple change of tinctures, or by the
introduction of various secondary charges.
CHIEFS. Sir JOHN DE ARDERNE Gu. 9 crusilee and a
chief or. Sir THOMAS LE Rous Erm., on a chief indented
gu. two escallops arg. Sir JOHN DE CLINTONE Arg., on a
chief az. two fleurs de lys or. No. 74. Sir JOHN DE CLIN
TONE, of Maxtoke Arg., on a chief az. two mullets or, No.
75 : here the Difference denotes Cadency as well as a
BENDS. Sir ROBERT POUTREL Or, on a bend az. three
fleurs de lys arg. Sir WALTER DE BERMYNGHAM Arg., on
a bend gu., cotised az., three escallops or. OLIVER DE BOHUN
208 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Az., on a bend, cotised and between six lionccls or, three
escallops gu., No. 321.
FESSES AND BARS. Sir JOHN DE DAGEWORTH Erm.,
a fesse gu. bezantee, No. 80. Sir G. DE WACHESHAM Arg.,
a fesse and in chief three crescents gu. Sir R. DE COLEVILLE
Or, a fesse gu., and in chief three torteaux. Sir J. DE
GEYTONE Arg., a fesse between six fleurs de lys gu. Sir G.
DE OUSFLET Arg., on a fesse az. three fleurs de lys or. Sir
R. DE LOMELYE (Lumley) Gu., on a fesse between three
popinjays arg., as many mullets sa. Sir B. BADLESMERE
Arg., a fesse between bars gemelles gu. -Sir G. DE LA MERE
Or, a fesse between bars gemelles az., No. 84. Sir J. DE
PREIERES Gu., a fesse between bars gemelles arg. Sir J.
WAKE Or, two bars gu., in chief three torteaux, No. 82.
Sir B. PYCOT Az., two bars or, in chief three bezants. Sir
R. DE WEDONE Arg., two bars gu., in chief three martlets
sa. Sir R. BORDET Az., two bars or, on the uppermost
three martlets gu. Sir R. DE ROYINGE Arg., three bars
and an orle of martlets gu. Sir N. DE ESTOTEVILLE Barry
arg. and gu., three lioncels sa. Sir R. DE YNGELFELD Bar-
rulee arg. and gu., on a chief or a lion pass. az. Sir W. DE
MONECASTRE Barrulee arg. and gu., on a bend sa. three
escallops or. Sir T. DE PON INGE Barry or and vert, on a
bend gu. three mullets arg.
CROSSES. Sir N. DE WEYLANDE Arg., on a cross git.
five escallops or. Sir R. BYGOD Or, on a cross gu. five
escallops arg. Sir WM. KIRKETOT Az., on a cross arg. five
escallops gu. Sir WM. DE BERHAM Sa., a cross between four
crescents arg. Sir R. DE BANNEBURY Arg., a cross patee
between four mullets gu. Sir J. RANDOLF Gu., on a cross
arg. five mullets sa. Sir G. DE DUREM Arg., on a cross gu.
five fleurs de lys or. Sir P. DE GEYTONE Arg., crusilee and
three fleurs de lys az. Sir R. DE HOFTOT Az., a cross patee
efm, between four roses erm.
CHEVRONS. Sir G. Rossel Or, a chevron az., between
three roses gu. Sir J. de Cretinge Arg., a chevron between
three mullets gu. Sir R. Malet Sa. 9 a chevron between three
buckles arg. Sir T. de Anvers Gu., a chevron between
three mullets or. Sir Wm. de Berkeroles Az., a chevron
between three crescents or. Sir W. Bluet Or, a chevron
between three eagles vert. Sir R. de Caple Arg. y a chevron
gu. between three torteaux. Sir T. Malet Sa., a chevron
between three buckles arg. Sir R. de Peyvre Arg., on a
chevron az. three neurs de lys or, No. 125. Sir R. de
Boterels Chequee or and gu., on a chevron az. three horse
LIONS. The Earl of Lincoln Or, a lion rampt. purp.,
No. 194. The Earl of Arundel Gu., a lion rampt. or.
Sir Henry de Percy Or, a lion rampt. az., No. 196. Sir
John Mowbray Gu., a lion rampt. arg., No. 193. Sir R.
de Sottone (Sutton) Or, a lion rampt. vert. Sir J. de
Nortone Vert, a lion rampt. or. Sir W. Fauconberg
Arg., a lion rampt. az. Sir G. de Hautville Sa., crusilee,
a, lion rampt. arg. Sir de Moimtfort Arg., crusilee gu., a
lion rampt. az. Sir Wm. Maufee Arg., semee of escallops
gu., a lion rampt. sa. Sir J. de Creppinge Gu., billetee or,
a lion rampt. arg. Sir R. de Asscheby Arg., a lion rampt.
sa. billetee or. Sir J. de Deyville Gu., semee de lys, a lion
rampt. arg. Arg., within a bordure gu. bezantee, a lion rampt.
sa., for Sir T. de Pickering; and, Arg., within an orle of
roses gu., a lion rampt. sa., for Sir R. Pirepound, both
apparently founded on the shield of the Earl of Cornwall,
No. 140, which also is blazoned in this Roll. Sir J. Le
Strange Gu., two lions pass, arg., No. 191. Sir J. de
Someri Or, two lions pass. az. Sir R. de St. Waly
Or, two lions pass. git. Sir N. Carru (Carew) Or, three
lions pass. sa. Sir J. Giffard Gu., three lions pass arg., No.
192. Sir R. le Fitz Payn Gu., three lions pass, arg., over all
2IO ENGLISH HERALDRY.
a bendlet az. Sir G. de Canvyle Az., three lions pass arg.
In the beautiful chantry of Abbot Thomas Ramryge, at St.
Albans, one of the large sculptured Shields is charged with
a lion rampant within what may be considered to be
an orle of roses the arms, as I have just shown, assigned
in the Roll of Edward II. to Sir R. Pierpound. This
Shield, carefully drawn by the engraver himself from the
No. 373. At St. Albans.
original in the Abbey Church of St. Alban, is represented in
AUGMENTATION, or AUGMENTATION OF HONOUR, is a
term employed to denote an addition to a Shield of arms,
specially granted by the Sovereign to commemorate some
worthy or illustrious deed, and forming an integral element
of the Shield as an hereditary bearing. Such additions may
be marshalled as Escutcheons of Pretence, as Cantons, or as
Quarterings or they may assume the character of additional
charges. Also, this same term denotes similar additions of
Crests, Badges, or any other accessories of Shields.
The Augmentation displayed upon the Ducal Shield of
WELLINGTON, a most honourable exception to the prevailing
degenerate heraldic feeling of the period in which it was
granted to the Great Duke, in characteristic and expressive
qualities is second to no other example of its own class and
order. This true Augmentation of Honour is the National
Device of the British Empire, as it is blazoned in the " Union
Jack," charged upon an escutcheon of pretence, and dis
played upon the honour point of the Duke s paternal Shield.
An equally significant Augmentation of an earlier date is
No. 374. Howard, after Flodden. No. 374A.-The Howard Augmentation.
borne in the shield of the DUKE OF NORFOLK. The Arms
of HOWARD before the battle of Flodden were Gu., a bend
between six crosses crosslets fitchee arg. To commemorate
the great victory won by him at Flodden Field, Sept. 9,
1513, when JAMES IV. of Scotland was defeated and slain,
HENRY VIII. granted to THOMAS HOWARD, Duke of Nor
folk, and to his descendants, as an Augmentation of
Honour, the Royal Shield of Scotland (No. 138), having a
demi-lion only, which is pierced through the mouth with an
arrow, to be charged upon the silver bend of his Shield.
This Shield is represented in No. 374 ; and in No. 374A
the augumentation is shown on a larger scale.
212 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
A small group of additional examples will be sufficient
to illustrate this most interesting class of historical Arms,
and at the same time will not fail to excite in students a
desire very considerably to extend the series through their
own inquiries and researches. In memory of the devoted
courage and all-important services of JANE LANE, after the
disastrous battle of Worcester, CHARLES II. granted as an
Augmentation a Canton of England (No. 187 marshalled on
a canton), to be added to the hereditary Coat of Lane,
which is -per fesse or and az., a chevron gu. between three
mullets counter changed. The Crest of the family of DE LA
BERE was conferred by the BLACK PRINCE upon Sir RICHARD
DE LA BERE, as a memorial of the good service rendered by
that gallant knight on the memorable field of Cressi. This
Crest is out of a crest-coronet a plume of five ostrich feathers
per pale arg. and az., the Plantagenet colours the device
(as Mr. LOWER observes) being evidently derived from the
Prince s own Badge, and also forming a variety of the
"panache," the Crest then held in such high estimation.
The heart charged upon the shield of DOUGLAS (see Nos.
J 56, 157, p. 74) is another remarkable Augmentation. So
also is the adoption of the armorial insignia of the CON
FESSOR, No. 2, by RICHARD II., and his marshalling it upon
his own Royal Shield, impaled to the dexter with the
quartered arms of France and England.
English Heraldry has been required to recognise
another and a perfectly distinct class of " Augmentations,"
which consist of additions to the blazonry of a Shield or of
additional quarterings or accessories, granted as tokens of
Royal favour, for heraldic display, but without any par
ticular "merit" in the receiver, or any special historical
significance in themselves. Augmentations of this order may
be considered to have been first introduced by RICHARD
II., when he granted, "out of his mere grace," to his
favourite, ROBERT DE VERE, Earl of OXFORD, Marquess of
DUBLIN and Duke of IRELAND, a differenced Coat of ST.
EDMUND (No. 3) Az., three crowns or, within a bordure
argent, to be quartered with the DE VERE arms as the arms
of IRELAND. In the same spirit, RICHARD II. granted, as
similar Augmentations, the arms of the CONFESSOR to be
marshalled, with Differences, on their Shields by THOMAS
and JOHN HOLLAND, Dukes of SURREY and EXETER, and by
THOMAS MOWBRAY, Duke of NORFOLK. It will be remem
bered that it was one of the capital charges against a lineal
descendant of this THOMAS MOWBRAY, the Duke of Norfolk,
in 1546, that he had assumed, without the special licence of
HENRY VIII., the same arms of the CONFESSOR as an
By EDWARD IV. similar augmentations, " by grace " and
not " for merit," were granted ; and by HENRY VIII. the
system was carried to excess in the grants made to augment
the armorial blazonry of ANNE BOLEYN, and of his English
consorts, her successors.
ABATEMENT is a term which was unknown until it
made its appearance in certain heraldic writings of the
sixteenth century, when it was used to denote such
marks or devices as, by the writers in question, were
held to be the reverse of honourable Augmentation
Augmentations of dishonour indeed, and tokens of degra
dation. True Heraldry refuses to recognise all such pre
tended abatements, for the simple reason that, if they
could exist at all, they would be in direct antagonism to
its nature, its principles, and its entire course of action.
Honourable itself, Heraldry can give expression only to
what conveys honour, and it records and commemorates
only what is to be honoured and held in esteem. All
the devices of true Heraldry, accordingly, in their various
degrees, are "Tokens of Honour;" and " Arms," if they
214 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
attest anything whatever, "are the testimony of some
The very idea of an heraldic Abatement implies, if not a
complete ignorance, certainly a thorough misconception of
the character and the office of Heraldry. Even if Heraldry
were to attempt to stigmatise what is, and what ought to be
esteemed, dishonourable, who would voluntarily accept
insignia of disgrace, and charge and display them upon
his Shield, and transmit them to his descendants ? And
the believers in Abatement must hold that Heraldry can
exert no compulsory legislative power, which might com
mand a man to blazon his own disgrace, and force him to
exhibit and to retain, and also to bequeath, any such
blazonry. A belief in heraldic Abatement, however, is by
no means singular or rare. A curious example of its
existence was recently brought under my notice, in
connection with one of the most renowned of the historical
devices of English Heraldry. The bear, the badge of the
BEAUCHAMPS, Earls of WARWICK, which appears at the feet
of the effigy of Earl RICHARD in the Beauchamp chapel at
Warwick, in accordance with a special provision to that
effect, is " muzzled; " and, wearing a muzzle has this bear
been borne, as their Badge, by the successors of the BEAU-
CHAMPS in the Warwick Earldom, the Earls of the houses of
NEVILLE, DUDLEY, RICH, and GREVILLE. But, it would
seem that a legend has found credence at Warwick Castle
itself, which would associate the muzzle of the bear with some
dishonourable action of an Earl of the olden time ; and,
consequently, it was proposed that at length this Abatement
should be removed from the bears still at Warwick ! Earl
RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP was not exactly the man to have
displayed upon his bear any ensign of dishonour ; nor were
his son-in-law, the " King-maker," and Queen ELIZABETH S
ROBERT DUDLEY, at all more probable subjects for any
similar display ; still, it is quite certain that they bore the
muzzled bear, as he appears on the seal of the great
Earl, No. 448.* That muzzle, doubtless, has its becoming
heraldic significance, without in the slightest degree par
taking in the assumed character of an Abatement I hope
eventually to be able to trace out conclusively what the
muzzle may really imply, and I commend the research to
other inquirers : meanwhile, neither at Warwick nor else
where is there any such thing as " Abatement " in English
* See Frontispiece.
" On high their glittering crests they toss." LORD OF THE ISLES.
" Then he bound
Her token on his helmet." ELAINE.
THE idea of a CREST, of some accessory specially designed
to form its crowning adornment, appears inseparable from
the existence and use of a Helm. The Warriors and Warrior
Divinities of classic antiquity are represented to us, wearing
head-pieces richly crested : and, in the Middle Ages, had no
other Heraldry ever been devised, assuredly heraldic Crests
would have been placed on helms and basinets, and these
insignia would have been held in high esteem and honour.
No. 375. Richard I. No. 376. Henry de Perci. No. 377. Henry de Laci.
Accordingly, about the time that Coat-Armour became
hereditary, having been reduced to a system and accepted
as an independent science, heraldic Crests began to be
worn as honourable distinctions of the most exalted
dignity by the mediaeval chivalry.
Upon the Second Great Seal of RICHARD I. the cylin
drical helm of the King appears surmounted by a kind of
CRESTS. 2 I 7
cap charged with a lion passant, the whole being arched
over by a radiated ornament somewhat resembling a dis
played fan, as in No. 375. Similar Crests, somewhat
modified in their details, are represented in other seals of
the same era, and with them the flowing Contoise or Scarf
is sometimes associated, as in No. 376, from the seal of
No. 378. Seal of Alexander de Balliol, A.D.
Baron HENRY DE PERCI, A.D. 1300. Similar Crests were
also placed by the knights of those ages upon the heads of
their chargers. The seal of HENRY DE LACI, Earl of LIN
COLN, A.D. 1272, shows the Fan-Crest both upon the helm of
the Earl, No. 377, and the head of his war-horse. Another
equally characteristic example is the Seal of ALEXANDER DE
2l8 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
BALLIOL, No. 378, appended to the "General Release "given
by JOHN BALLIOL to EDWARD L, 2nd January, 1292 : it
will be observed that this knight displays the arms of his
house, No. 134, upon his Shield, and also, in addition to
the Fan-Crest, upon the barding of his charger. Again I
am indebted to the kindness and liberality of Mr. Laing
for the use of his admirable woodcut of this fine and
The flowing Contoise continued to be attached to helms
till about the middle of the fourteenth century; unless,
indeed, some veritable "lady s favour" were worn in its
stead by knights favoured as was Sir LAUNCELOT, who, on
a memorable day
" Wore, against his wont, upon his helm
A sleeve of scarlet, broidered with great pearls,
Some gentle maiden s gift."
The seal of THOMAS, second Earl of LANCASTER, about A.D.
1320, gives an excellent example both of such figures as
No. 379. Helm of Thomas, second Earl of Lancaster.
were beginning at that early time to supersede the Fan-
Crests, and also of the Contoise; No. 379. About this
same period the fashion was introduced of fixing two tall
spikes, one on each side of the Crest, upon the helm,
probably intended in the first instance to display the con-
toise. These singular spikes may have been derived by
the English Heralds from their brethren of Germany, who
delighted, as they still delight, in placing upon helms as
Crests, or as the accessories of Crests, small banners dis
played from staves set erect and surmounted by spear
heads. In German Heraldry also Crests are very fre
quently placed between tall upright horns or trumpets :
and, sometimes, upon a German helm the Crest stands
between two elephant s trunks, placed in the same erect
position, and, like the trumpets, so adjusted as to have the
general aspect of the curved outline of a classic lyre. The
No. 380. Helm and Crest of Sir
Geoffrey Luterell : A.D. 1345.
No. 381. Seal of Sir Robert de
Marny : A.D. 1366.
helm of Sir GEOFFREY LUTERELL, A. D. 1345, No. 380, drawn
from a celebrated illumination, between the tall spikes has
a late example of the Fan-Crest; and it exemplifies the
practice sometimes adopted of charging armorial insignia
upon Crests of this fan form. The Arms of Luterell Or, a
bend and six martlets sa. were borne by Sir GEOFFREY thus
differenced (E. 2) Az., a bend and six martlets arg. A
pair of lofty upright wings were held in much esteem in the
220 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Heraldry of both England and Scotland, to form the acces
sories of Crests. The Seal of Sir ROBERT DE MARNY, A.D.
1366, No. 381, shows his armorial shield Gu., a lion ram
pant guardant arg., suspended from a tree, between two
crested helms, the crest in both cases being a winged
chapeau, having the wings very tall and very slender.
From the earliest times, Crests have occasionally been
identical with the principal charge in the Shield of Arms,
or they have repeated the principal charge with some slight
modification of attitude or accessory : but, more generally,
Crests have been altogether distinct The Dragon and the
Wyvern, the latter well exemplified in No. 315, are amongst
the earliest figures that were borne as Crests in England.
Other early Figure-Crests are the Lion, crowned and
assumed for the first time by an English Sovereign by
EDWARD III. ; and the Eagle, borne by the same Prince.
Various devices and figures are found gradually to have
been added to these earliest Crests. The graceful and
peculiarly appropriate Panache soon joined them, with the
heads of various animals and other creatures : and, as the
fourteenth century advances, the Crest Coronet, No. 232,
the Crest- Wreath, No. 233, and the Chapeau, No. 224,
assume their places in connection with Crests ; and the
Mantling falls in rich folds from them, covering the back of
the Helm. In the succeeding century, with Helms less
dignified in form, but more elaborately enriched, and with
strangely fantastic Mantlings, Crests become considerably
larger in their proportions ; and they often are extravagant
in their character, devices constantly being assumed and
borne as Crests, which are no less inconsistent with true
heraldic feeling, than with the peculiar conditions and the
proper qualities of true heraldic Crests. The Crest of the
Duke of HAMILTON, No. 301, is far from being one of the
most inconsistent devices that were intended to be worn
upon helms. And, as it is scarcely necessary for me to add,
every really consistent Crest must be such a figure or device
as might be actually worn upon his helm, by a mediaeval
knight, with dignity and with a happy effect.
Early examples of Panache-Crests exist in considerable
numbers, and they show much variety of treatment. No.
285, already given at page 143, shows a Panache of several
heights of feathers, the general outline having an oval
contour. In No. 283, from the Seal of EDWARD DE COUR-
TENAY, Earl of DEVON, A.D. 1372, there are three heights of
feathers, and the outline has a square form. Again, the
Seal of WILLIAM LE LATIMER, A.D. 1415, gives the peculiar
Panache, with the no less peculiar variety of mantling,
shown in No. 284. A Panache of ample proportions, and
of exceedingly graceful form, is represented in the Seal ot
WILLIAM DE WYNDESOR, A.D. 1381. The comparatively
small size of the armorial Shield, as it generally appears when
introduced into the composition of Seals in the fourteenth
century, is shown in a striking manner in this same ex
ample, No. 382, which in the woodcut is slightly enlarged,
in order to show the device more clearly : the arms are
gu., a saltire or. Other fine examples of Panache-Crests
may be seen in the effigies of Sir RICHARD DE PEMBRIDGE,
K.G., A.D. 1375, in Hereford Cathedral; of Sir ROBERT DE
MARMION, A.D. 1400, at Tanfield, Yorkshire ; and of Sir
THOMAS ARDERNE, about the same date, at Elford, in Staf
fordshire. The very fine effigy of Sir EDWARD DE THORPE,
A.D. 1418, at Ashwelthorpe, in Norfolk, has a helm of rare
beauty of form, with a rich mantling, and a most graceful
Panache of peacock s feathers : and peacock s feathers also
form the Panache of Lord FERRERS of CHARTLEY, in his
Brass, A.D. 1425, at Merevale, in Warwickshire. And, once
more, upon the Seal of THOMAS DE HATFIELD, Bishop of
Durham, A.D. 1345, the Panache rises from the episcopal
mitre, after the same manner as it
does in No. 383 from a Coronet.
Another episcopal Seal, that of
Bishop HENRY LE DESPENCER, No.
351, shows a Shield of small size
when compared with the helm and
crest, the latter being the favourite
device of a gryphon s head between
two tall upright wings. The Seals
of the FITZALANS, Earls of Arundel,
and the Seal of JOHN TIPTOFT, Earl
of Worcester, may be specified as
displaying fine examples of the same Crest. With them
may be grouped the Crest of Sir RICHARD GREY, K.G.,
Lord Grey of Codnor, A.D. 1420 a peacock s head and
neck, between two wings erect, the feathers az., and their pens
(quills) arg., No. 383, from the Garter-Plate at Windsor.
This Crest rises from such a Crest-Coronet as was borne on
their helms by noblemen in the time of HENRY V.
The use of the Chapcau, or Cap of Estate, instead of a
Crest-Coronet, to support a Crest upon a helm, I have
already illustrated with Nos. 198 and 199, severally the
Lion-Crests of the BLACK PRINCE and of his son
RICHARD II. Like No. 199, No. 384 is from one of the
unrivalled series of helms sculptured in Westminster Hall,
with the Crest and Ostrich-feather Badge of King RICHARD
II. In both of these examples the adjustment of the
Mantling is shown. Two famous Lion-Crests are those
borne by the great families of HOWARD and PERCY, severally
Dukes of Norfolk and Northumberland. The HOWARD
lion, originally granted by RICHARD II. to THOMAS MOWBRAY,
Earl Marshal, and now borne by the Duke of NORFOLK,
as his representative, is a lion statant
gtiardant, his tail extended or, and
ducally gorged arg.: the PERCY lion is
statant y his tail extended or: each lion
stands upon a chapeau. The Lion-
Crest of the BLACK PRINCE, being
charged with the silver Label (which
he may be said to wear after the
fashion of a collar), exemplifies the , r No A f 4 ,.
Helm, Crest, Mantling, and
prevailing practice of differencing Crests Badge of Richard n.,
with marks of Cadency. Crests admit from Westminster HalL
every variety of Difference: and Mantlings also are fre
quently differenced with small charges, or with badges ;
as in the Garter-plate of Sir JOHN BEAUMONT, K.G., and
in the Brass at Little Easton, Essex, to Sir HENRY
BOURCHIER, K.G., Earl of ESSEX.
The Crest- Wreath first appears about the middle of the
fourteenth century. The earliest example to which I can
refer is represented in the Brass to Sir HUGH HASTINGS, at
Elsyng, in Norfolk, A.D. 1347. In this most remarkable
engraven memorial, the finial of the principal canopy is
surmounted by a helm with mantling, wreath, and the crest
of HASTINGS # bull s head sable; No. 385. In the effigy
of Sir R. DE PEMBRIDGE, K.G., already noticed, the date of
which is 1375, the crest is united to the great helm that
224 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
supports the head of the knight by a wreath formed of
a band of four-leaved flowers. A little later, A.D. 1384, at
Southacre, in Norfolk, the Brass of Sir JOHN HARSYCK has a
Crest-Wreath formed of two rolls, probably of silk, twisted
as in No. 386. In the second half of the next century,
amongst many good examples of Crest-Wreaths I select as
typical specimens those which appear in the Brasses to Sir
WILLIAM VERNON, A.D. 1467, at Tong, in Shropshire, No.
No. 385- -Crested Helm of Sir Hugh No ^ 6> ^ and 388 ._ C rest- Wreaths.
Hastings; A.D. 1347.
386 ; and to Sir ROBERT HARCOURT, K.G., No. 387, at
Staunton Harcourt, Oxfordshire.
The Crest-Wreath in the form shown in the last
examples, and now almost universally used in repre
sentations of such Crests as are without the Crest-Coronet
and the Chapeau, may fairly be considered to have been
derived from. the rich ornamentation, generally, as it would
seem, formed of costly textile fabrics, if not executed in
jewelled or enamelled goldsmith s work, that was frequently
wreathed about knightly basinets. These wreath-like orna
ments are represented in numerous effigies both sculptured
and engraven ; and they are shown to have been worn
either flat, as in No. 388, or wrought to high relief, as in
No. 389. These two examples are severally from the
effigies of a knight in Tewkesbury Abbey Church, about
A.D. 1365, and of Sir HUMPHREY STAFFORD, A.D. 1450, at
Bromsgrove, in Worcestershire. The enamelled effigy of
Earl WILLIAM DE VALENCE, A.D. 1296, at Westminster, has a
wreath of delicate workmanship in relief, which once was
set with real or imitative jewels.
For many years after their first appearance, heraldic
Crests were regarded as insignia of great dignity and
exalted estate ; and it was not till a considerably later
period that the right to bear a Crest was considered to be
identified with the right to bear arms. Still later, when
they were granted with Coat Armour to corporate bodies,
No. 389, Basinet with Crest-Wreath, Effigy of Sir Humphrey Stafford, A.D. 1450.
communities, and institutions, Crests altogether lost their
original significance \ and they became Badges in everything
except the habit of placing them, with their accessories of
Wreath or Crest-Coronet, of Chapeau and Mantling, upon
representations of helms. In our own times, unless they
have been inherited from the old Crest-wearing days,
or are now borne by personages at the lowest of knightly
rank, Crests might generally be superseded by Badges,
or borne as Badges by the simple omission of their
226 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
distinctive accessories, with decided advantage to our
When they were actually worn, Crests were undoubtedly
constructed of some very light materials. It is probable
that cuir bonilli (boiled leather), the decorative capabilities of
which were so well understood by mediaeval artists, was
It has been sometimes held that Crests are personal
bearings only ; and, therefore, not hereditary, though capable
of being bequeathed or granted by their possessors. This
theory is not sustained by early or general usage; and,
accordingly, Crests must be pronounced to be hereditary,
precisely on the same conditions as Coat Armour.
It is evident that, as one person may inherit, and there
fore may quarter two or more Coats of Arms, so the same
person may claim to bear two or more Crests by a similar
right of inheritance. When Crests were worn, such a per
sonage might have chosen any one of his Crests, or worn
them all on different occasions, it being obviously impossible
for him to wear more than one Crest upon his helm at one
and the same time. At the present day, several Crests,
each with its own helm and mantling, are occasionally repre
sented above a quartered Shield of arms : but, in England,
by strict heraldic rule, two (or more than two) Crests can
be borne by one individual, only when he has obtained the
Royal licence to bear and use the Surname and Arms of
another family in addition to those of his own family ; or,
by a special grant from the Crown.
Might I but know thee by thy household Badge."
SHAKESPEARE, Henry VI., Part a.
A BADGE, like a Coat of Arms, is an armorial ensign that is
complete in itself, and possesses a definite signification of
its own. In use with a decided heraldic significance long
before the adoption of a systematic Heraldry, Badges have
always held a conspicuous position in the estimation of
Heralds. A Badge resembles any single charge in
Heraldry, in being a figure or device that is assumed as the
distinctive cognisance of a particular individual or family :
but, unlike a charge, it is borne by itself, without any Shield,
and also without any accompanying accessory, with the ex
ception, in some instances, of a Motto (See " Motto," p.
139). It will be evident that a Badge may be the very same
figure or device as a Crest; but, it must be remembered
that a Badge always differs from a Crest, in being altogether
without crest-wreath or coronet, in consequence of having
no connection whatever with the knightly helm.
After the establishment of a true Heraldry, Badges were
generally used to commemorate remarkable exploits, or in
reference either to some family or feudal alliance, or to
indicate some territorial rights or pretensions. Very many
Badges are allusive, and consequently they are Rebuses (see
228 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
"Rebus," p. 148). Some are taken from the charges of
the bearer s Shield, or they have a more or less direct
reference to those charges. Some trace of Marshalling or of
feudal Difference may constantly be observed in Badges ; and
even where the motive for the selection of certain devices
has not been discovered, it may fairly be assumed that
a good heraldic motive still exists, although it has become
obscured or been forgotten. It was not uncommon for the
same personage or family to use more than one Badge ;
and, on the other hand, two or more Badges were often
borne in combination, to form a single compound device, as
in Nos. 235 and 270. The ragged staff, in like manner,
No. 294, and the bear, both of them Badges of the
BEAUCHAMPS, Earls of WARWICK, were sometimes united to
form a single Badge, and by the successors of that great
family the "bear and ragged staff" were generally borne as
a single device. (See No. 448, and p. 321.)
Two distinct classes of Badges were in general use in
the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. Those of
the first class, well known as the insignia of certain eminent
personages and powerful houses, were borne by all the
followers, retainers, dependants, and partisans of those
personages and houses : and they were so borne by them,
and they were used by their owners for eveiy variety of
decorative purpose, because they were known and under
stood ; and, consequently, because the presence of these
Badges would cause all persons and objects bearing them to
be readily and certainly distinguished. By means of these
most useful devices a wide and comprehensive range was
given to the action and the influence of true Heraldry,
without infringing in the slightest degree upon the lofty and
almost sacred exclusiveness of the Coat Armour of a noble or
a gentle house. In the words which SHAKESPEARE teaches
CLIFFORD to address to WARWICK, " Might I but know thee
by thy household badge ! " it is implied that all the followers
of Warwick were well known by his "household Badge,"
which was displayed by them all, while some other insignia
were worn by the great Earl upon his own person. Had it
pleased him so to do, the " King-Maker," with all honour
able consistency, might have worn his own " household
badge," in common with the members of his own house
hold ; but his " arms," or such a Badge as he might elect to
assume as his own personal device, might be borne by none
Mr. Lower has remarked (" Curiosities of Heraldry," p.
145) that "something analogous to the fashion" of embroi
dering the household Badges of their lords "upon the
sleeves or breasts" of the dependants of great families in
the olden times, " is retained in the Crest which adorns the
buttons of our domestic servants." The accomplished
writer might have added that, in thus employing Crests to
discharge 2fcM&*-duties, we are content to indulge a love for
heraldic display without observing becoming heraldic dis
tinctions. Crested livery buttons are heraldic anomalies
under all circumstances even the head of a house himself,
if he were a Herald, would not display his Crest, as a Crest,
upon buttons to be used exclusively by himself. Crests
are to be borne on helms, or represented as being borne on
helms : Badges are decorative insignia, and fulfil with
consistent significance their own distinct and appropriate
Badges of the second class were devices that were borne
exclusively by the exalted personages who v. ere pleased to
assume them, often for temporary use only, and generally
with some subtle or latent significance, which had been
studiously rendered difficult to be detected, and dubious in
These Badges, thus displayed rather to effect disguise ci
230 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
to excite curiosity than to secure recognition, must be
regarded for the most part as the expressions of heraldic
revelry as the fantasies and eccentricities of an age, which
loved to combine quaint conceits and symbolical allusions
with the display of gorgeous magnificence. Accordingly,
Badges of this order are found generally to have been
assumed on the occasion of the jousts or Hastiludes, the
masques, and other pageants that in feudal times were
celebrated with so much of elaborate and brilliant
The adoption of Badges of this peculiar character is
exactly in keeping with the sentiment which prompted men
of exalted rank and eminent distinction to appear in public,
on occasions of high festivity, bearing the arms of some
friend, kinsman, or ally, instead of their own. A mark of
especial favour and of peculiar distinction would be con
ferred, when a Sovereign or a Prince thus would display
upon his own person the armoury of some honoured sub
ject or comrade. EDWARD III. delighted thus to honour
the most distinguished cavaliers of his chivalrous Court.
For example, in or about the year 1347, royal Hastiludes
were celebrated at Lichfield with great splendour, the
j ousters consisting of the KING and seventeen Knights, and
the Earl of LANCASTER and thirteen Knights. A conspicuous
part was taken in these festivities by the King s daughter
ISABELLE, afterwards Countess of BEDFORD, and by six Ladies
of high rank, with twenty-one other Ladies, who all wore
blue dresses and white hoods of the same materials as well
as the same colours as the robes of the Knights, together
with various masks or vizors. On this occasion, the KING
himself over his armour wore a surcoat with the Arms of
Sir THOMAS DE BRADESTONE. These Arms in a Roll of
EDWARD III. are blazoned as arg., on a canton gu. a rose
or (see Archaologia, xxxi., pp. 40 and 118). On another
occasion, during Hastiludes at Canterbury, EDWARD III. "is
said to have given eight harnesses, worked with the arms
of Sir STEPHEN DE COSYNTON (az., three roses arg.), to the
PRINCE OF WALES, the Earl of LANCASTER, and six other
Knights." In the same spirit, RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP, Earl
of WARWICK, at a great festival of arms held at Calais under
his presidency, on the first day entered the lists decorated
with the arms of his ancestor the Lord TONEY : on the
second day, he wore the arms of Hanslap : and, on the
third day, "he appeared as the Earl of WARWICK, quartering
Beauchamp, Guy, Hanslap, and Toney, on his trappings ;
his vizor open, and the chaplet on his helm enriched with
pearls and precious stones." In such times, Badges of
curious device and occult signification could not fail to
enjoy a popularity, not the less decided because of the
restricted use and exclusive character of the Badges them
EXAMPLES OF BADGES, such as are distinctive, and
consequently of the class that I have first described. The
Badges of PERCY are a silver crescent and a double manacle :
of HOWARD, a white lion: PELHAM, a buckle: DOUGLAS, a red
heart : SCROPE, a Cornish chough : CLINTON, a golden tmillet :
TALBOT, a hound ; BOHUN, a white swan : HUNGERFORD, a
sickle : PEVEREL, a garb. The various " Knots," described
and illustrated in Chapter X., Nos. 219, 235, 263, 270,
274, 304, and 313, are Badges. The bear and ragged
staff of the BEAUCHAMPS, and, after them, of the NEVILLES
and DUDLEYS, I have already noticed. Seals frequently
have Badges introduced upon them, in very early times,
by themselves, the Badge in each case constituting the
device of the Seal (see p. 199). The Secretum or pri
vate Seal of ROBERT BRUCE, Earl of CARRICK, the father
of the King, appended to the homage-deed extorted by
EDWARD I. from the Scottish nobles, is a good example,
No. 390 : this is another of Mr. Laing s beautiful wood
cuts. Badges also constantly appear upon Seals in asso
ciation with Shields of arms. Thus, a Seal of one of
the BERKELEYS, A.D. 1430, has a mermaid on each side of
an armorial shield. Two other examples of this kind I
have already given : No. 318, the Seal of JOAN DE BARRE,
which is charged with the castle and lion of Castile and
Leon, as Badges: and No. 321, the Seal of OLIVER DE
Secretum of Robert Bruce,
Earl of Carrick; A.D. 1296.
Seal of Sir Walter de Hungerford, K.G.
BOHUN, charged, about the Shield, with the Bohun Swan.
On his Seal, No. 391, Sir WALTER DE HUNGERFORD, K.G.,
Lord of HEYTESBURY and HOMET (the latter a Norman
barony), displays his own Badge, the sickle, in happy
alliance with the garb of Peverel (borne by him in right
of his wife, CATHERINE, daughter and co-heir of THOMAS
PEVEREL), to form his Crest. The Crest, it will be observed,
in No. 391, is a garb between two sickles. The Shield of
Hungerford only sa. two bars arg., and in chief three plates, is
also placed between two sickles. Two banners, denoting
important alliances, complete the Heraldry of this remark
able composition : the banner to the dexter, for Heytes-
bury, bears per pale indented gu. and vert., a chevron or;
and that to the sinister, for Hussy barry of six erm.
and gu. Lord HUNGERFORD died in 1449, and was
succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Sir ROBERT DE
HUNGERFORD. The Seal of this Sir Robert, used by
him during the lifetime of his father, precisely the
No. 392. Seal of Sir Robert de Hungerford : before A.D. 1449-
same in its heraldic composition as his father s Seal, is
remarkable from having each of its four sickles differenced
with an ermine-spot upon the blade, to mark Cadency ; and
also, with the same motive, it shows that a label of three
points was charged upon the Shield, and upon each of
the two banners : No. 392.
Through an alliance with the Hungerfords, sickles were
borne, as one of their Badges, by the great family of
COURTENAY. They appear, with a dolphin, a tau-cross,
and this same tau-cross having a bell attached to it, as
2 34 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
in No. 393, sculptured on the fine heraldic chimney-
piece, the work of Bishop PETER DE COURTENAY (died
in 1492), now in the hall of the Episcopal Palace at
The BADGES of our early Heraldry are comparatively
but little understood. They invite the particular attention of
students, both from their own special interest, and the light
they are qualified to throw upon the personal history of the
English people, and also from their peculiar applicability
for use by ourselves at the present day. Indeed, at this
time when the revival of true Heraldry is in
the act of being accomplished with complete
success, it appears to be peculiarly desirable
that Badges should be brought into general
use. It is not enough for us to revive our old
English Heraldry as once in the olden time it
flourished in England, and to rest content
with such a revival : but we must go on to
adapt our revived Heraldry, in its own spirit
A Coiirtenay and in ful1 sympathy with its genuine feeling,
Badge, at to conditions of our age and of the state of
things now in existence. And very much may
be done to effect this by the adoption of Badges, as our
favourite and most expressive heraldic insignia, both in
connection with Coat Armour and for independent display.
Unlike Crests, which must necessarily be associated with
helms and the wearers of helms, and consequently have
both a military and a mediaeval character, Badges are
equally appropriate for use by Ladies, as well as by men of
every profession, and they belong alike to every age and
ROYAL BADGES. I conclude this chapter with a con
cise list of the more important of the Badges that have
been borne by the Sovereigns and Princes of England ; and
with some general remarks upon the famous Badge of the
Ostrich Feathers, now considered to be exclusively the
Ensign of the PRINCES OF WALES.
The Planta-genista, or Broom-plant, No. 21, is well
known as an English Royal Badge, from the surname
derived from it for one of the most remarkable of the
Royal Houses that ever have flourished in Europe.
As well known are the Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock,
severally the Badges of the three realms of the United
Kingdom of ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, and IRELAND. A golden
Rose stalked proper was a badge of EDWARD I. : and from it
apparently were derived, but by what process it is unknown,
the White Rose of YORK, the Red Rose of LANCASTER, and
the White and Red Rose of the House of TUDOR.
WILLIAM RUFUS : A Flower of Jive foils.
HENRY I. : A Flower of eight foils.
STEPHEN: A Flower of seven foils : a Sagittarius.
HENRY II. : The Planta-genista : an Es carbuncle: a
Sword and Olive-Branch.
RICHARD I. : A Star of thirteen rays and a Crescent : a
Star issuing from a Crescent: a Mailed Arm grasping
a broken Lance, with the Motto " Christo Duce"
JOHN and HENRY III. : A Star issuing from a Crescent.
EDWARD I. : An heraldic Rose or, stalked ppr.
EDWARD II. : A Castle of Castile.
EDWARD III. : A Fleur de lys : a Sword: a Falcon: a
Gryphon : the Stock of a Tree: Rays issuing from a
RICHARD II. : A White Hart lodged: the Stock of a
Tree: a White Falcon: the Sun in splendour: the
HENRY IV. : The Monogram SS : a crowned Eagle: an
Eagle displayed: a White Swan : a Red Rose : a
Columbine Flower: a Fox s Tail: a crowned
236 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Panther: the Stock of a Tree: a Crescent. His
QUEEN, JOAN OF NAVARRE : An Ermine, or Gennet.
HENRY V. : A Fire-beacon : a White Swan gorged and
chained : a chained Antelope.
HENRY VI. : Two Ostrich Feathers in Saltire: a chained
Antelope : a Panther.
EDWARD IV.: A White Rose en Soldi: a White Wolf
and White Lion : a White Hart : a Black Dragon
and Black Bull : a Falcon and Fetter-lock : the Sun in
HENRY VII.: A Rose of York and Lancaster, a Port
cullis and a Fleur de lys, all of than croivned :
a Red Dragon : a White Greyhound : a Hawthorn
Bush and Crown, with the cypher H. R.
HENRY VIII. : The same, without the Hawthorn Bush,
and with a White Cock. His QUEENS : CATHERINE OF
ARRAGON A Rose, Pomegranate, and Sheaf of Arrows.
ANNE BOLEYN A Crowned Falcon, holding a Sceptre.
JANE SEYMOUR A Phoenix rising from a Castle,
between two Tudor Roses. CATHERINE PARR A
Maiderfs Head crowned, rising from a large Tudor Rose.
EDWARD VI. : A Tudor Rose : the Sun in splendour.
MARY : A Tudor Rose impaling a Pomegranate also
impaling a sheaf of Arrows, ensigned with a Crown,
and surrounded with rays : a Pomegranate.
ELIZABETH : A Tudor Rose with the motto, " Rosa sine
Spin&" (a Rose without a Thorn) : a Crowned Falcon
and Sceptre. She used as her own motto " Semper
Eadem " (Always the same).
JAMES I.: A Thistle: a Thistle and Rose dimidiated and
crowned, No. 308, with the motto " Beati Pacifici "
(Blessed are the peacemakers).
CHARLES L, CHARLES II., JAMES II. : The same Badge
as JAMES I., without his motto.
ANNE : A Rose-Branch and a Thistle growing from one
From this time personal Badges ceased to be borne by
The Ostrich Feather Badge. The popular tradition, that
the famous Badge of the Ostrich Feathers was won from the
blind KING OF BOHEMIA at Cressi by the BLACK PRINCE,
and by him afterwards borne as an heraldic trophy, is not
supported by any contemporary authority. The earliest
writer by whom the tradition itself is recorded is CAMDEN
(A.D. 1614), and his statement is confirmed by no known
historical evidence of a date earlier than his own work. As
Sir N. HARRIS NICHOLAS has shown in a most able paper
in the Archczologia (vol. xxxi., pp. 350 384), the first time
the Feathers are mentioned in any record is in a document,
the date of which must have been after 1369, and which
contains lists of plate belonging to the King himself, and
also to Queen PHILIPPA. It is particularly to be observed,
that all the pieces of plate specified in this roll as the
personal property of the Queen, if marked with any device
at all, are marked with her oivn initial, or with some
heraldic insignia that have a direct reference to herself.
One of these pieces of plate is described as " a large dish
for the alms of the Queen, of silver gilt, and enamelled at
the bottom with a black escutcheon with Ostrich Feathers
eym in fund vno scnch nigro cum pennis de ostrich" And
these "Ostrich Feathers," thus blazoned on a sable field
upon the silver alms-dish of Queen PHILIPPA, Sir N. H.
Nicholas believed to have been borne by the Queen as a
daughter of the House of HAINAULT; and he suggested
that these same " Ostrich Feathers " might possibly have
been assumed by the Counts of the Province of Hainault
from the ComtS of Ostrevant, which formed the appanage
of their eldest sons.
At the first, either a single Feather was borne, the quill
generally transfixing an escroll, as in No. 394, from the
monument of Prince ARTHUR TUDOR, in Worcester
Cathedral; or, two Feathers were placed side by side, as
they also appear upon the same monument. In Seals, or
when marshalled with a Shield of Arms, two Feathers are
seen to have been placed after the manner of Supporters,
one on each side of the composition : in such examples the
tips of the Feathers droop severally to the dexter and
sinister : in all the early examples also the Feathers droop
in the same manner, or they incline slightly towards the
spectator. Three Feathers were first grouped together by
No. 395. No. 394.
At Peterborough Cathedral. At Worcester Cathedral.
At Peterborough Cathedral.
ARTHUR TUDOR, PRINCE OF WALES, eldest son of HENRY
VII., as in Nos. 395 and 396, from Peterborough
Cathedral or with an escroll, as in No. 397, from a
miserere in the fine and interesting church at Ludlow. The
plume of three Feathers appears to have been encircled
with a coronet, for the first time, by Prince EDWARD, after
wards EDWARD VI. , but who never was PRINCE OF WALES :
No. 398, carved very boldly over the entrance gateway to
the Deanery at Peterborough, is a good early example. In
No. 399 I give a representation of another early plume of
three Ostrich Feathers, as they are carved, with an escroll
in place of a coronet, upon the Chantry of Abbot
RAMRYGE in the Abbey Church at St. Alban s : and again,
in No. 400, from the head of a window near the east end of
the choir, on the south side, in Exeter Cathedral, the three
Feathers are charged upon a Shield per pale azure and gules,
and this Shield is on a roundle.
No. 399. In the Abbey Church of St. Alban. No. 400. In Exeter Cathedral.
The Ostrich Feathers were borne, as a Badge with his
Shield of Arms, upon one Seal of EDWARD III. himself:
they were used, as an heraldic device, about the year 1370,
by PHILIPPA, his Queen : they appear on some, but not
on all, the Seals of the BLACK PRINCE, and they are omitted
from some of his Seals after the battle of Cressi (A.D. 1346):
240 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
and they were also borne, generally with some slight
difference, marking Cadency, in all probability by all the
other sons of EDWARD III. certainly by JOHN of Ghent,
Duke of LANCASTER, and by THOMAS of Woodstock, Duke
of GLOUCESTER. They were adopted by RICHARD II., and
placed on either side of his crested Helm in the heraldic
sculpture of Westminster Hall, as appears in two of these
beautiful examples, Nos. 199 and 384: by this Prince the
Ostrich Feathers were placed on his first Royal Seal, and
they were habitually used for decoration and heraldic dis
play; and they also were formally granted by him, as a
mark of especial favour, to be borne as an Augmentation of
the highest honour, to his cousin THOMAS MOWBRAY, Duke
of NORFOLK. The Ostrich Feathers were borne, in like
manner, by the succeeding Princes, both LANCASTRIAN and
YORKIST: by at least two of the BEAUFORTS : by the Princes
of the House of TUDOR: and by their successors the STUARTS.
Thus, it is certain that the Ostrich Feathers were held to
be a Royal Badge, from the time of their first appearance
in the Heraldry of England about the middle of the four
teenth century; and that in that character they were adopted
and borne by the successive Sovereigns, and by the Princes,
sometimes also by the Princesses (as in the instance of a
Seal of MARGARET BEAUFORT, the mother of HENRY VIL),
of the Royal Houses, without any other distinction than
some slight mark of Cadency, and without the slightest trace
of any peculiar association with any one member of the
Royal Family. From the time of the accession of the
House of Stuart to the Crown of the United Kingdom,
however, the coroneted plume of three Ostrich Feathers
appears to have heen regarded, as it is at this present day,
as the special Badge of the PRINCES OF WALES.
In accordance with the express provision of his will
two armorial Shields are displayed upon the monument of
the BLACK PRINCE in Canterbury Cathedral, which Shields
the Prince himself distinguishes as his Shields " for War"
and "for Peace;" the former charged with his quartered
arms of France and England differenced with his silver
Label, No. 337 ; and the latter, sable, charged with three
Ostrich Feathers argent, their quills passing through scrolls
bearing the Motto, " Ich Dien" No. 401. The same motto
is placed over each of the Shields that are charged with
the Feathers, as in No. 401 : and over each Shield charged
with the quartered arms (there are on each side of the tomb
No. 401. Shield "for Peace" of the Black Prince.
six Shields, three of the Arms, and three of the Feathers,
alternately) is the other motto of the Prince, " ffoumout"
In his will, the BLACK PRINCE also desired that a " black
Pennon with Ostrich Feathers" should be displayed at his
Funeral; and he further appointed that his Chapel in Canter
bury Cathedral should be adorned in various places with
his Arms, and " likewise with our Badge of Ostrich Feathers
noz bages dez plumes d>ostruce"
The will of the BLACK PRINCE proves the Feathers to
have been a Badge, and not either a Crest or the ensign of
a Shield of Arms, since twice he expressly calls them " our
242 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Badge :" and it also is directly opposed to the traditional
warlike origin and military character of the Feathers, as a
Badge of the BLACK PRINCE, for it particularly specifies the
peaceful significance of this Badge, and distinguishes it from
the insignia that were worn and displayed by the Prince
when he was equipped for war. The Mottoes " Ich Dien"
and " Houmout " are old German, and they signify, " I
serve," and "magnanimous." It has been suggested by Mr.
Planche, that " Houmout " is Flemish, and that the three
words really form a single Motto, signifying, "Magnanimous,
I serve," that is, "I obey the dictates of magnanimity."
ArchaologUt, xxxii. 69.
Upon a very remarkable Seal, used by HENRY IV. a
short time before his accession, the shield with helm and
crest are placed between two tall Feathers, about each of
which is entwined a Garter charged with his favourite and
significant Motto the word SOVEREYGNE, as in No.
402. His father, Prince JOHN OF GHENT, placed a chain
upon the quills of his Feathers, as in the very curious boss
in the cloisters at Canterbury. The uncle of HENRY IV.,
THOMAS, Duke of GLOUCESTER, on one of his Seals,
differenced his two Feathers with Garters (probably of the
Order) displayed along their quills, as in No. 403. And,
about A.D. 1440, JOHN BEAUFORT, K.G., Duke of SOMERSET,
on his Garter-plate placed two Ostrich Feathers erect, their
quills compon ee argent and azure, and fixed in golden escrolls ;
No. 404. In the Harleian MS. 304, f. 12, it is stated that
the Ostrich Feather of silver, the pen thus compone e argent
and azure, " is the Duke of Somerset s : " also that the
" Feather silver, with the pen gold, is the King s : the
Ostrich Feather, pen and all silver, is the Prince s : and the
Ostrich Feather gold, the pen ermine, is the Duke of
The Shield charged with three Ostrich Feathers, No.
401, was borne by Prince JOHN OF GHENT ; and it appears
on the splendid Great Seal of HENRY IV., between the
Shields of the Duchy of CORNWALL and the Earldom of
CHESTER. HUMPHREY, Duke of GLOUCESTER, is also
recorded to have borne this same Feather Shield.
In the Vaulting of the ceiling over the steps leading to
the Hall at Christchurch, Oxford, the Ostrich Plume Badge
is carved within a Garter of the Order : and, again, the
No. 402. From the Seal
of King Henry IV.
No. 403. From the Seal
of Thomas, Duke of
No. 404. From the
Garter- Plate of John
Badge is represented after the same manner, environed
with the Garter, in the beautiful binding of a copy of
the Bible, now in the possession of Robert Skere, Esq.,
of Rubislaw, which is reputed to have been used by
CHARLES I. in his last moments.
The Ostrich Feathers are repeatedly mentioned in early
documents; and they are shown to have been constantly
used for various decorative purposes, always evidently with
244 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
an heraldic motive and feeling, by the same Royal person
ages who blazoned them on their Seals, and displayed them
elsewhere as their armorial insignia. A well-known example
of a diaper of White Ostrich Feathers on a field per pale
argent and vert, is preserved in the stained glass now in
the great north window of the transept of Canterbury
" Standing by the Shield
In silence." IDYLLS OF THE KINGS.
A SUPPORTER is a figure, sometimes of an angel, frequently
of a human being, but more generally of some animal, bird,
or imaginary creature, so placed in connection with a
Shield of Arms as to appear to be protecting and supporting
it. In English Heraldry a single Supporter is of compara
tively rare occurrence, but examples appear more frequently
in the Heraldry of Scotland. In early examples, when two
Supporters appear, they are in most cases alike : but, more
recently (except in the Heraldry of France), the two figures
are generally quite distinct the one from the other, the
earlier usage of having the two Supporters alike being
comparatively rare. The modern prevailing practice in
England is happily exemplified in the well-known in
stance of the present Royal Supporters, the Lion and the
Supporters, which admit all Marks of Cadency and all
Differences, are considered to have been introduced into the
Heraldry of England during the reign of EDWARD III. ; but
they may with greater accuracy be assigned to the middle of
the fifteenth century, than to the second half of the four
teenth. As armorial insignia of a very high rank, Supporters
246 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
are granted in England only by the express command of the
Sovereign. In Scotland, where they occur more frequently
than in the Heraldry of the South of the Tweed, the
" Lord Lyon " has power to grant Supporters : originally by
the Scottish Heralds these accessories of Shields were
entitled " Bearers."
Supporters are now borne, by right, by all Peers of the
Realm, by Knights of the Garter, Knights Grand Crosses
of the Bath, Knights Grand Commanders of the Star of
India, by Nova Scotia Baronets, and by Chiefs of Scottish
Clans. They are conceded, with due difference, to all Sons
of Peers who, by courtesy, bear titles of Peerage. They
appear also borne with the arms of many persons now not
of knightly rank, who have inherited supporters from illus
Supporters probably owe their origin rather to several
concurrent circumstances, than to any one particular cir
cumstance. The mere fact of a Knight carrying his own
armorial Shield, or his Esquire bearing it beside him, would
suggest the general idea of some supporting figure in con
nection with a representation of that Shield. The act of
carrying a Banner of Arms, in like manner, would suggest
a representation of a "Supporter" for a Shield of Arms.
To early Seals, however, Heraldry is in an especial degree
indebted for the development of the idea of Supporters,
and for bringing it into a definite form. Again, the pre
valent use of Badges in the fourteenth century, and in the
fifteenth also, would necessarily exercise a powerful in
fluence in the same direction; and would lead Heralds to
associate with Shields of Arms certain other figures which,
while in themselves distinct and independent, were closely
allied with certain Shields of Arms. The prototypes of
true Supporters, indeed, as they appear on Seals, are
An Effigy represented upon a Seal, as in No. 405, the
Seal of DEVORGUILLA CRAWFORD, about A.D. 1290, from
LAING S Volume : or in Nos. 316, 317, would be even more
than a suggestion of a Supporter. The same may be said,
when some figure, almost certainly a Badge, was introduced
into the composition of a Seal, holding or supporting a
Shield by its guige, as in No. 203 ; or when a Shield, or
two or more Shields, were charged upon some figure, as
in No. 204: both of these examples, indeed, might be
regarded as illustrations of the first
adoption of single Supporters.
The introduction of angelic figures,
which might have the appearance of
acting as "Guardian Angels," in their
care of Shields of Arms, was in ac
cordance with the feeling of the early
days of English Heraldry ; and, while
it took a part in leading the way to the
systematic use of regular Supporters,
it served to show the high esteem and
honour in which armorial insignia were
held by our ancestors of those ages.
In No. 159 I have already shown an example of a sculptured
Shield thus supported by Angels, from St. Albans. In the
same noble church there are other examples of the same
character in stained glass. Angel Supporters, the figures
treated in various ways, occur in very many Gothic edifices ;
particularly, sculptured as corbels, bosses or paterae, or
introduced in panels, and employed for the decoration of
open timber roofs, as in Westminster Hall. They appear
also on Seals ; as on the Seal of HENRY OF LANCASTER,
about A.D. 1350, which has the figure of an Angel above the
Shield, and a lion on each side of it.
The representation of armorial Banners upon Seals
No. 405. Seal of
Devorguilla Crawford ;
would lead to at least the occasional introduction of some
figure to hold, or support, the Banner ; and here, again, we
discern the presence of some of the immediate predecessors
of "Supporters," properly so called. In the Seals, Nos.
391, 392, the Banners are not supported, and yet they are
indirectly suggestive of giving support to the Shield which is
marshalled with them in the same composition. Another
Hungerford Seal, that of MARGARET BOTTREAUX, widow of
the second Baron HUNGERFORD (who died in 1477), in the
No. 406. Part of Seal of Margaret, Lady Hungerford.
centre of the composition has a kneeling figure of the noble
lady, and on each side a banner of arms is held (supported}
erect, so that the two banners form a kind of canopy over
her head, by a lion and a gryphon. In No. 406 I give a
part only of this elaborate Seal, sufficient to show how its
general composition bears upon the adoption of Supporters.
The Monument in Westminster Abbey of Sir LUDOVIC
ROBSART, K.G., Lord BOURCHIER, Standard-Bearer to
HENRY V. at Agincourt, has two banners sculptured in the
stone-work of the canopy, which are placed precisely in the
same manner as the banners in No. 406 ; and, like them
they are held by Badges acting as Supporters. Two well-
known seals of the PERCIES are charged with banners, and
in each case the banner-staff is held by a single Supporter :
one of these figures is a man-at-arms, A.D. 1386 ; the other is
a lion, A.D. 1446. At the same period, two lions appear
on another Percy Seal. Another, of the same date, has
the shield supported by an armed man, without any banner,
but having a lance with a long pennon charged with the
Crescent badge of PERCY, No. 412, p. 255. Other Percy
Seals, again, of the fourteenth century, on either side of the
Shield have two lions or two birds.
Numerous examples of great interest illustrate the early
introduction of Badges into the composition of Seals, as
accessories of Shields. A Seal of Prince JOHN OF GHENT,
which has two falcons and padlocks, is one of the most
beautiful and suggestive works of its class : in this Seal the
two birds are addorsed, and consequently they also have their
backs turned towards the central achievement. This posi
tion of the figures on early Seals is not uncommon ; but it
must be considered to have been adopted simply and solely
as an artistic necessity, arising from the form of the spaces
to be occupied by the figures upon the Seal. Another most
characteristic example of that marshalling of Badges upon
Seals, which certainly led the way to true Supporters, is the
Seal of Sir MAURICE DE BERKELEY, A.D. 1430, upon which
a mermaid the Berkeley badge is blazoned on each side
of the Shield. The two figures are drawn with much skill
and elegance. The Shield itself quarters Berkeley within a
bordure, and a differenced coat of Bottetourt: it hangs from
a large helm, which, in its turn, is ensigned by as large a
mitre the singular Crest of the Berkeleys. The two
figures, generally animals, which fill up the spaces to the
dexter and sinister of the central achievement on Seals, in
250 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
the fifteenth century are almost invariably drawn of a com
paratively large size ; and, for the most part, they really act
as Supporters to the Crested Helm, being themselves sup
ported by the Shield. The composition of the Seal of
EDMUND DE MORTIMER, Earl of MARCH, A.D. 1400, though
now mutilated, exhibits in a most satisfactory manner this
very effective arrangement, from which true Supporters to a
Shield of Arms might obviously be derived. In this Seal,
No. 407. Seal of Earl Edmund de Mortimer :
No. 407, the Shield quarters Mortimer, No. 131, and or, a
cross gu., for Ulster. The Seal of WM. DE WYNDESOR, No.
382, illustrates with no less happy effect the occasional use
of birds instead of beasts, as Supporting Badges. Other
examples exist in great numbers, and in abundant variety :
the two that I add from Mr. Laing s Volume, Nos. 408 and
409, are in every respect most characteristic ; they are
severally the Seals of ROBERT GRAHAM, of Kinpont, and
of Sir WILLIAM LINDSAY, of the Byres.
It is scarcely necessary for me to point out to students
that Supporters always have a decided heraldic significance.
In supporting a Shield of Arms, they discharge an heraldic
duty : but, in themselves, Supporters are armorial symbols
of a high rank ; and, with peculiar emphasis, they record
descent, inheritance, and alliance, and they blazon illus
Supporters should always be represented in an erect
position. In whatever direction also they actually may be
looking, they always ought to appear to fulfil their own
proper office of giving vigilant and deferential support to the
No. 408. No. 409.
Seal of Robert Graham, of Kinpont : Seal of Sir Wm. Lindsay, of the Byres :
A.D. 1433. A.D. 1390.
Shield. It would be well, in our blazoning of supported
Achievements, not only for us to regard a becoming posi
tion and attitude for Supporters to be matters determined
by positive heraldic law, but also that some satisfactory
arrangement should be made and recognised for general
adoption, by which an equally becoming support would be
provided for "Supporters." The existing custom is to
place the Supporters, whatever they may be, upon some
very slight renaissance scroll-work, that is neither graceful
nor consistent; or, to constrain the Motto to provide a
foundation or standing-place for them. In the latter case,
an energetic lion, or a massive elephant, and, in a certain
252 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
class of achievements of comparatively recent date, a
mounted trooper, or a stalwart man-of-war s man, probably
with a twenty-four pounder at his feet, are made to stand on
the edge of the ribbon that is inscribed with the Motto. Mr.
Laing has enabled me to give an excellent example of
Supporters two lions standing upon a motto-scroll or
ribbon in No. 410, the Seal of JOHN DRUMMOND, created
Earl of MELFORT and Viscount FORTH in the year 1686 :
the Shield is Scotland, within a bordure compon ee ; the Sup-
No. 410. Seal of John Drummond, Earl of Melfort : A.D. 1686.
porters are gorged with collars charged with thistles ; and
the Crest is the Crest of Scotland issuing from a celestial
Crown. As says the Motto of Sir WILLIAM MAHON,
" Moniti, meliora sequamur" now that we have been told
of it, let us produce something better than this support for
The Heralds of France still restrict the term " Sup
porters " " Les Supports " to animals ; and to human
beings, to figures of angels, and to mythological personages
or other figures in human form, when supporting a Shield,
they apply the term " Les Tenants? When trees or other
inanimate objects are placed beside any armorial shield, and
so discharge the duty of Supporters in French achievements,
they are distinguished as " Les Soutiens" An old French
writer on Heraldry, PALLIOT, says that in his time (A.D.
1660), Tenant ^ used in the singular number, and denotes
any kind of single Supporter, while Supports is used when
there are two.
In the French Heraldry of the present time, a single
Tenant or Support is of rare occurrence; and when two
Tenants or Supports appear in blazon, they are generally,
though not always, alike.
The Pennon. The Banner. The Standard. TJic Royal Standard.
The Union Jack. Ensigns. Military Standards and Colours.
Blazoning. Hoisting and Displaying Flags.
"Many a beautiful Pennon fixed to a lance,
And many a Banner displayed."
SIEGE OF CARLAVEROCK, A.D. 1300.
"Prosper our Colours !" SHAKESPEARE, Henry VI., Part 3.
ADMIRABLY adapted for all purposes of heraldic display,
rich in glowing colours, and peculiarly graceful in their free
movement in the wind, FLAGS are inseparably associated
with spirit-stirring memories, and in all ages and with every
people they enjoy an enthusiastic popularity peculiar to
In the middle ages, in England, three distinct classes of
heraldic Flags appear to have been in general use, each class
having a distinct and well-defined signification.
i. First, the PENNON, the ensign of knightly rank, small
in size, of elongated form, and either pointed or swallow-
tailed at the extremity, is charged with the Badge or some
other armorial ensign of the owner, and by him displayed
upon his own lance, as his personal ensign. The Pennon
of Sir JOHN D ABERNOUN, No. 286, fringed and pointed,
A.D. 1277, bears his arms Az. t a chevron or: and No.
411, another example of the pointed form of Pennon, is
from the Painted Chamber, Westminster, about A.D. 1275.
No. 412, a long swallow-tailed Pennon, charged with the
Percy crescent Badge, is from the Seal of HENRY DE PERCI,
first Earl of NORTHUMBERLAND. Before the true heraldic
era, Lance-Flags with various decorative devices, but without
any blazonry having a definite signification, were in use :
See Nos. 5, 6. The Pennoncelle was a modification of the
2. Second, the BANNER, square or oblong in form, and
of a larger size than the Pennon, bears the entire Coat of
Arms of the owner blazoned over its whole surface, pre-
Pennon, from the Painted Chamber.
Pennon ol Percy : A.D. 1400.
cisely as the same composition is blazoned upon a
Shield : No. 162. The Banner is the ensign of the
Sovereign, or of a Prince, a Noble, or a Knight who had
been advanced to the higher rank or degree of a " Ban
neret ; " and its presence signifies the position occupied
by a Banneret or personage of still higher rank, and by
all who are his personal retainers or followers, or who
are under his immediate command. Two Banners are
represented in each of the Hungerford Seals, Nos. 391,
392. A small group of oblong Banners, with two pointed
256 ENGLISH HERA.LDRY.
Pennons, is represented in No. 413, from the Painted
In the olden time, when a Knight had distinguished
himself by conspicuous gallantry, it was the custom to
mark his meritorious conduct by prompt advancement on
the very field of battle. In such a case, the point or points
of the good Knight s Pennon were rent off, and thus the
small Flag was reduced to the square form of the Banner,
by which thenceforth he was to be distinguished. FROISSART,
in his own graphic manner, has described the ceremonial
No. 413. Oblong Banners and Pointed Pennons, from the Painted Chamber.
which attended the first display of the Banner of a newly-
created Banneret on the field of battle. Sir JOHN CHANDOS,
one of the Knights Founders of the Garter, appeared with his
maiden Banner on the field, on the morning of the battle
of Naveret, in Castile, April 3rd, 1367: "He brought
his Banner in his hands," says the chronicler, "rolled
up" (rolled round the staff), "and said to the PRINCE
OF WALES" it was the BLACK PRINCE, " My Lord,
behold, here is my Banner : I deliver it to you in this way "
still rolled round the staff, that is " * that it may please
you to display it, and that this day I may raise it; for,
thank God, I have land and heritage sufficient to support
the rank as it ought to be ! Then the Prince and the
King " Don PETRO, King of Castile " took the Banner,
which was of silver with a sharp pile gules, between their
hands by the staff, and displayed it, and returned it to him,
the Prince saying Sir John, behold your Banner; may
God grant you may do your duty! Then Sir JOHN
CHANDOS bore his Banner (displayed) to his own Company,
and said Gentlemen, see here my Banner and yours ;
preserve it as your own ! " We see that, like another hero
of a later period, the BLACK PRINCE held the maxim
" England expects every man to do his duty."
Quarterings, Marks of Cadency, and Differences are
blazoned on Banners under the very same conditions that
they appear on Shields of Arms. For example, the Banners,
as well as the Shield, on the seal of Sir Robert de Hunger-
ford, No. 392, are Differenced with a label for Cadency,
and thus are distinguished from the corresponding Banners
and Shield on the Seal of Sir Robert s father, No. 391.
Crests, Badges, Supporters, and other external accesso
ries and ornaments of Armorial Shields have no place on
Banners, a Banner representing a Shield, and being charged
as a Shield. In the seventeenth century, however, English
Banners sometimes were charged with Achievements of
Arms, including all the accessories and ornaments of Shields.
In early times Banners appear in use at sea, as well as
on land ; and the same Banners were used both on shore
and afloat. The sails of our early shipping, also, are con
stantly represented as covered with armorial blazonry, and
they thus were enabled to act as Ship-Flags. Many curious
and interesting representations of the strange, unwieldy,
unship-shape looking craft that were the ancestors of the
British Navy, are introduced with their heraldic sails and
their Banners into the compositions of Seals. A fine
example of its order is the Seal of JOHN HOLLAND, Earl of
258 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
HUNTINGDON, A.D. 1436, "Admiral of England, Ireland,
and Aquitaine," No. 414. The ship is really a noble-looking
vessel, with her solitary sail blazoned with the Lord
Admiral s Arms England, within a bordnre of France, the
same arms that were borne by Prince JOHN OF ELTHAM,
No. 24. In this example the crew are not represented :
No. 414. Seal of Earl John Holland, Admiral of England, &c. ; A.D. 1436.
but in other Seals of early shipping figures are commonly
introduced, and almost always they are drawn of ludicrously
disproportionate size. This ship does not display any
Banner from a banner-staff, but has a nautical Pennon of
ample size flying at the mast-head : when Banners are
displayed on board ships upon early Seals, they are gene
rally narrow in proportion to their height, a form of Banner
adopted on land as well as at sea, in consequence of the
greater inconvenience attending the display of broad or
really square Banners. At a later period, however, Ship-
Flags of very large size came into favour.
3. The STANDARD, the third variety of early heraldic
Flags, which first appears about the middle of the four
teenth century, and was in general use by personages of
high rank in the two following centuries, appears to have
been adopted solely for the purpose of adding to the splen
dour of pageants, and for enhancing "the pomp and
circumstance of war." Standards may be considered to
have been devised for the special purpose of displaying
Badges on a grand scale.
This Flag is of ample proportions, and great length ;
but its size varies with the owner s rank. Next to the Staff
the red cross on a silver field of ST. GEORGE is blazoned,
except in some Royal Standards, which omit this cross :
the rest of the field is generally divided per fesse into two
tinctures, in most cases the livery colours of the owner, or
the prevailing tinctures of his Coat of Arms. With some
principal figure or device occupying a prominent position,
various Badges are displayed over the whole field, a Motto,
which is placed bend-wise, having divided the Standard into
compartments. The edges are fringed throughout, and the
extremity is swallow-tailed, unless the owner be a Prince of
the Blood Royal, when it is pointed.
The Standard of Sir HENRY DE STAFFORD, K.G., second
son of HENRY, second Duke of BUCKINGHAM (executed in
1483), is represented in No. 415, from a drawing in the
Heralds College. It is charged, first, with a banner of St.
George: then, on a field per fesse sable and gules, the White
Swan of the De Bohuns, with the silver Stafford-knot (No.
304), differenced with a Crescent gules for Cadency; the
Motto is HVMBLE : ET : LOYAL ; and the fringe, like
the field, is componce sa. and gu. In other examples a
greater variety of Badges are introduced. The student will
No. 415. Standard of Sir Henry de Stafford, K.G. : about A.D. 1475.
not fail to take notice of the systematic display of the
ensign of St. George in these Standards, as the national
armorial device of England.
The ROYAL STANDARD, which stands at the head of our
. English Flags of the present
(j|) day, bears the full blazonry of
the Royal Arms of Her Majesty
THE QUEEN, as they are mar
shalled on the Royal Shield :
No. 416. This splendid Flag, so
truly heraldic in its character,
and, like the early Banners, of
square shape and charged with
Coat Armour and not with
Badges, ought to be styled the
NO. 4 i6. ROYAL BANNER. The same
The Royal Standard, or Banner. Standard fc duly differ enced with
their own Marks of Cadency
and their Shields of Pretence for the different members of
the Royal Family.
The UNION JACK, our own national British Flajg, as we
now display it, is the second of its race. The First Union
Jack, No. 417, was produced in- obedience to a Royal
Proclamation of JAMES I. in the year 1606. Its object
was to provide a single National Flag for both England and
Scotland as a single kingdom, which might put an end to
certain serious disputes concerning the precedence of their
respective Banners of St. George and St. Andrew, Nos. 418,
419, between the natives of England and Scotland of
" South and North Britain." This " Union" Flag combined
the blazonry of the two rival ensigns, not marshalling
No. 417. The First Union Jack.
them by Quartering after the early heraldic usage, but by
reviving a still earlier process, and by blending the cross
and the sal tire of Nos. 418 and 419 in a single composition.
This was effected, accordingly, by charging the Cross of St,
George, with a narrow border or " fimbriation" of white to
represent its white field, upon the Banner of St. Andrew, the
result being the Flag shown in No. 417. On the final
"Union" between England and Scotland in 1707, this
device was formally declared to be the " Ensign armorial of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain."
Upon the first day of January, 1801, the Second Uniofi
Jack, the " Union Jack" of to-day, No. 420, superseded the
Flag of King JAMES and Queen ANNE. The " Union" with
Ireland rendered a change necessary in the Union Jack, in
order to incorporate with its blazonry the Banner of ST.
PATRICK, No. 421, arg., a saltire gu. The process that had
been adopted before was again brought into action, but
now a single compound device had to be formed by the
combination of a cross and two saltires, Nos. 418, 419, and
421. As before, in this new Flag the blue field of ST.
ANDREW forms the field: then the two Saltires, the one
The Second Union Jack.
white and the other red, are formed into a single compound
Saltire of the two tinctures alternating, the white having
precedence ; a narrow edging of white is next added to
each red side of this new figure, to represent the white field
of St. Patrick, as the narrow edging of white about the red
cross represented the white field of ST. GEORGE in No. 418 ;
and, finally, the red cross of St. George fimbriated with
white, as in the First Jack, is charged over all. Such is the
Second Union Jack, No. 420. In this compound device it
will be observed that the broad diagonal white members
represent the silver saltire of St. Andrew, No. 419 = that the
red diagonal members represent the saltire gules of St.
Patrick, No. 421, and that the narrow diagonal white lines
are added in order to place this saltire gules on a field
argent : that the diagonal red and the broad diagonal white
members represent the two Saltires of St. Andrew and St.
Patrick in combination : and that the fimbriated red cross in
the front of the goodly alliance declares the presence of the
symbol of St. George.
Sir HARRIS NICHOLAS has suggested that this flag may
have acquired its name of " Jack "
(" Union " is obvious enough) from
the original author of the First
Union Flag, King JAMES, who, in
the Heralds French language,
would be styled Jacques : and so
the Flag would be called "Jacques
Union," which would easily settle
down into "Jack s Union," and
finally would as easily become
" Union Jack." The Second Union
Flag is always to be hoisted as it
is represented in No. 420, the
diagonal white having precedence in the first canton. To
reverse the proper display of the Flag implies distress or
danger ; or such a procedure (very often, as I am aware,
unconsciously adopted, through ignorance of the real
meaning of the Flag itself) subjects the Union Jack to
The ENSIGNS now in use are :
i. The Red Ensign, a plain red Flag cantoning a Union
Jack having a Jack in the dexter chief angle next to the
point of suspension : No. 422. This Ensign shares with the
Union Jack the honour of being the " Ensign of England"
the Ensign, that is, of the British Empire. When dis-
The Red Ensign.
264 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
played at sea, it now distinguishes all vessels that do not
belong to the Royal Navy : but, before the year 1864, it
was the distinguishing ensign of the " red squadron of the
Navy," and of the "Admirals of the Red" the Admirals
of the highest rank.
2. The WJiite- or St. Georges Ensign, is the old banner
of St. George, No. 418, with a Jack cantoned in the first
quarter. It now is the Ensign of the Royal Navy : but,
before 1864, it distinguished the " white squadron " of the
Navy, and the Admirals second in rank of that Squadron.
3. The Blue Ensign differs from the Red only in the
field being plain blue instead of red. It now is the Ensign
of the Naval Reserve : before 1864 it was the Ensign of
" Admirals of the Blue," third in rank, and of their
Squadron of the Royal Navy.
A Red Ensign is often charged with a Crown, or with
some appropriate device, to denote some particular depart
ment of the public service.
With the Ensigns may be grouped the Flag of the
Admiralty, which displays a yellow anchor and cable set
fesse-wise on a red field.
The Ensigns are always to be hoisted so as to have
the Jack next to the point of suspension, as in No. 422.
MILITARY FLAGS, i. Cavalry Standards, which are,
and ought to be called, Banners, being lineal descendants
and true representatives of the knightly Banners of the
mediaeval chivalry, are small square Flags, the colour of
the field the same as the regimental facings ; and each
Standard bears the Number, Motto, and specific Title of
its own Regiment, with whatever heraldic Badge or Device
may be associated with it. Upon these Standards also are
blazoned the regimental "Honours" such words as
WATERLOO, ALMA, LUCKNOW, and others, which briefly and
with most emphatic significance declare the services of the
corps. The Household Cavalry, the Life Guards and
Blues, have all their Standards of Crimson, and they are
blazoned with the Royal Insignia and their own "Honours"
2. Infantry Colours. In the first instance, each Regi
ment of Infantry had one " Colour :" subsequently, two
others were added : and, finally, in the reign of Queen
ANNE, it was decided that every Infantry Regiment or
Battalion of the Line (the Rifles of the Line excepted, who
have no " Colours") should have its own " Pair of Colours."
Of this " Pair," one is the " Queen s Colour" a Union Jack
charged with some regimental Devices : the other, the
" Regimental Colour? is of the tincture of the facings,
on which the "Honours" and "Devices" of the Regiment
are charged, and in the dexter chief angle a small Jack is
cantoned : in fact, the " Regimental Colour" is the same as
the Red or Blue Ensign (No. 422), the Colour of the field
varying with the regimental facings, and the field itself
being charged with the various Devices.
In their Colours, the Guards reverse the arrangement
that obtains with the Regiments of the Line. With them,
the Queen s Colour is always crimson, with or without a
Jack, but charged with the Royal Cypher and the regi
mental Devices : the Regimental Colour of the Guards is
the Union Jack.
3. The Royal Artillery have no Colours or Standards.
4. The characteristic Banner of the Volunteers, with its
admirable Motto, DEFENSE . NOT . DEFIANCE, dis
plays figures of such an archer as might have been " out "
with ROBIN HOOD, and such a rifleman as L a devoted
subject of QUEEN VICTORIA. Excellent as it is, this can
scarcely be considered an heraldic Flag. Perhaps it will
have a comrade "Colour" of a more decidedly heraldic
character : either a Union Jack, charged with the Motto of
266 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
the Force, ensigned with a Crown, and within an oak-
wreath ; or a Flag of English scarlet, charged with the
Union Device blazoned upon an escutcheon of pretence,
the escutcheon ensigned with a Crown and encircled by a
wreath of oak and laurel, with the Motto of the Volunteer
Force, the Number and special Device of each Regiment
being also added on a canton.
I conclude this Chapter, which treats briefly of the
Heraldry of the most important English Flags, with four
still more brief general remarks :
1. First: by all English people who are disposed to
exclaim, making SHAKESPEARE S words their own, " Prosper
our Colours /" it ought to be understood that their National
Flags are endowed with heraldic, that is, with historical
significance, recorded after an heraldic fashion.
2. Second : this significance of their Flags ought also to
be understood, that it may be appreciated, by all true
3. Third : our Flags ought always to be made and
And 4. Lastly: our Flags, and all other Flags also,
ought always to be hoisted and displayed rightly and
THE ROYAL HERALDRY OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND.
Shields of Arms of the Reigning Sovereigns of England of Scotland
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Crests.
Supporters. Mottoes. Crowns. Banners. Armorial Insignia of
the late Prince Consort of the Prince and Princess of Wales oj
the other Princes and Princesses, the Sons and Daughters of the
" On his Banner were three Leopards, courant, of fine gold, set on red : fierce
were they, haughty and cruel, to signify that, like them, the KING is dreadful to his
enemies ; for his bite is slight to none who inflame his anger : and yet, towards such
as seek his friendship or submit to his power his kindness is soon rekindled." ROLL
"With Scotland s Arms, Device and Crest
Embroidered round and round." MARMIOX.
How the " three Leopards courant " of the shrewd chroni
cler of Carlaverock are identical with the "three Lions
passant guardant " of the Royal Shield of England I have
already shown (see page 84). To the Norman Sove
reigns of England, WILLIAM I., WILLIAM II., HENRY I.,
and STEPHEN (A.D. 10661154), the same Shield of Arms
has been assigned Gu., two lions pass, guard., in pale, or,
No. 22. It must be distinctly understood, however, that
there exists no certain authority for these Arms.
In like manner, STEPHEN is also said to have borne on a
red Shield three golden Sagittaries, or Centaurs, with bows
and arrows. And, again, HENRY II. is considered to have
added a third lion to the two on the Shield of his father,
268 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
a single golden lion passant guardant on red being (also
considered to be) the armorial ensign of the province of
Aquitaine, acquired by HENRY in right of his Consort,
As early as the reign of HENRY III., a Shield of Arms,
No. 23, was assigned to the Anglo-Saxon Kings : another
Shield, No. 2, was assigned to EDWARD THE CONFESSOR :
and a third Shield, No. 3, to another sainted Anglo-
Saxon Prince, EDMUND.
From the appearance of the Second Great Seal of
RICHARD I., about A.D. 1195, all uncertainty concerning the
Royal Arms, supposed to have been borne No. 187.
before A.D. 1189. Royal Arms, from AD. 1189 to 1340.
Royal Arms of England is at an end, and they are borne as
follows by the successive English Sovereigns :
RICHARD I. : JOHN : HENRY III. : EDWARD I. :
EDWARD II. : and EDWARD III., till the thirteenth year of
his reign, A.D. 1340 : Gu., three lions passant guardant, in
pale, or, No. 187.
EDWARD III., from the thirteenth year of his reign,
when he claimed to be King of France as well as of
England, and so styled hfmself : RICHARD II. : and
HENRY IV., till about the fifth year of his reign : France
Ancient and England quarterly, No. 252.
RICHARD II. sometimes bore the Arms of the CON
FESSOR, No. 2, with his own, on a separate shield, as at
Westminster Hall ; and sometimes he impaled the Con
fessor s Arms with his own quartered Shield, the arms of
the Confessor having the precedence.
HENRY IV. from about 1405: HENRY V.: HENRY VI. :
No. 253. Royal Arms from about
A.D. 1405 to 1603.
No. 252. Royal Arms from A.D.
to about 1405.
EDWARD IV. : EDWARD V. : RICHARD III. : HENRY VII. :
HENRY VIII. : EDWARD VI. : MARY : and ELIZABETH, to
A.D. 1603 : France Modern and England Quarterly,
The Royal Shield of SCOTLAND, No. 138, first appears
upon the Seal of ALEXANDER II. about A.D. 1235 ; and, as
Mr. Seton well observes, the origin
of its bearings " is veiled by the mists
of Antiquity." The same Shield,
without any modification or change,
was borne by all the Sovereigns of
JAMES I. : CHARLES I. : CHARLES
II. : JAMES II. : WILLIAM III. and
MARY: and ANNE, till May i, 1707 :
Quarterly: i and 4, Grand Quarters,
France Modern and England (No. 253) : 2, Grand Quarter,
Scotland (No. 138): 3, Grand Quarter Az., a harp or,
stringed arg., for Ireland: No. 423.
No. 138. Royal Arms of
WILLIAM III., as an elected Sovereign, charged his
paternal shield of NASSAU, No. 424. Az., billettee, a lion
rampt. or, in pretence upon the Royal Shield : also, during
No. 423. Royal Arms of the Stuart Sovereigns.
the life of his Consort, till Dec. 28, 1694, he bore the
Stuart shield with Nassau in pretence on the dexter half of
his Shield, and thus impaled in the sinister half of his Shield
No. 425. Diagram of Shield
of William III. and Mary.
Arms of Nassau.
No. 426. Diagram of
Shield of William III. alone.
the same Stuart arms, as in the Diagram, No. 425, to
denote their joint Sovereignty : the Shield represented in
this Diagram, No. 425, bears the whole of No. 423 on its
dexter half, with No. 424 in pretence ; and on its sinister
half it also bears the whole of No. 423. When he reigned
alone, WILLIAM III. bore his own dexter half of the im
paled Shield alone, as in the Diagram, No. 426 : the
Shield represented in this Diagram bears the dexter half
of No. 425.
Queen ANNE, from May i, 1707, till 1714, bore the
Royal Arms marshalled as in the Diagram, No. 427 :
No. 427. Diagram of
the Second Royal
Shield of Queen Anne.
Arms of Hanover.
No. 429. Diagram of
the Royal Shield
from A.D. 1714 to 1801.
i and 2j England impaling Scotland ; 3, France Modern
(No. 253) ; 4, Ireland (the Harp, as in the third quarter of
The Arms of HANOVER, on the accession of GEORGE I.,
August i, 1714, were added to the Shield of the United
Kingdom. This was accomplished by removing the
charges (England and Scotland impaled ) from the fourth
quarter of the Shield, No. 427, and charging that quarter
with the arms of Hanover as they appear on the Shield, No.
428 : Per pale and per chevron, i, Gu., two lions of
272 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
England, for Brunswick: 2, Or, Semee of hearts, a lion
rampt. az., for Lunenburgh : 3, Gu., a horse courant arg., for
Westphalia : 4, Over all, on an inescutcheon gules, the golden
crown of Charlemagne. This marshalling is shown in the
Diagram No. 429, which represents a Shield bearing,
i and 2, England impaling Scotland; 3, France Modern;
4, Ireland ; 5, Hanover (as in No. 428, without the
On January i, 1801, the Fleurs de Lys of France were
removed from the Royal Shield of Great Britain, which then
was marshalled as in the diagram, No. 430, quarterly, i and
4, England; 2, Scotland; 3, Ireland; 5, Hanover the
shield of Hanover being ensigned with the Electoral Bonnet,
No. 240, till 1816, but with a Royal Crown from 1816 till
1837, as it appears in No. 428.
GEORGE I. : GEORGE II. : GEORGE HI., till Jan. i,
1 80 1 : The arms indicated in the dia
gram, No. 429.
GEORGE III., till 1816 : The arms in
dicated in the diagram, No. 430. the in
escutcheon ensigned with an electoral
No. 43 o.-Diagram of GEORGE III., after l8l6 I GEORGE IV. :
the Royal shield WILLIAM IV. i The same arms as No.
jg ^ * 430, but the inescutcheon ensigned with
a Royal Crown.
HER MAJESTY, QUEEN VICTORIA : The same as No.
430, but without the inescutcheon, and as the four quarters
are marshalled on the Royal Standard, No. 416.
For ENGLAND : A golden lion statant guardant, im
perially crowned; assumed by EDWARD III., and by him
borne on his Helm standing upon a Cap of Estate ; retained
from his time, and now borne standing on an Imperial
Crown. No. 431.
For SCOTLAND : First Crest. A lion statant guardant
gu., assumed by ROBERT II., about A.D.
1385 j retained, and with some modifica
tions used by his successors, till about
A.D. 1550. Second Crest. On an Im
perial Crown, a lion sejant affronte gu. ;
imperially crowned, holding in the dexter
paw a sword, and in the sinister paw a
sceptre, both erect and ppr. ; with the
motto IN: MY: DEFENSE; assumed
by JAMES V.; borne by MARY, and Crest of En s land -
shown in her signet-ring, No. 432, about 1564; retained,
and now in use.
For ENGLAND. Of uncertain authority before HENRY
VI. , who bore two white antelopes: also, a lion and a
panther, or antelope.
EDWARD IV. : A lion or, or argent, and a bull sable:
or, two lions argent : or, a lion and a hart argent.
RICHARD III. : A lion or and a boar arg. : or, two
HENRY VII. : A dragon gu., and a greyhound arg. : or,
two greyhounds arg. : or, a lion or and a dragon gu.
HENRY VIII. : A lion or and a dragon gu. : or, a
dragon gu., and either a bull, a greyhound, or a cock arg.
EDWARD VI. : A lion or, and a dragon gu.
MARY and ELIZABETH : A lion or, and a greyhound
arg., or a dragon gu.
For SCOTLAND. First Supporters: Two lions rampt.
guard. ; first seen on a Seal of JAMES I., A.D. 1429.
Second Supporters : Two silver unicorns, royally gorged and
274 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
chained or ; assumed by JAMES IV., and retained in use.
On the signet of Queen MARY STUART, No. 432 : for this
beautiful cut once more I am indebted to Mr. Laing.
For the UNITED KINGDOM. Dexter Supporter : A lion
rampt. guard., royally crowned, or. Sinister Supporter : A
No. 432. The Signet of Queen Mary Stuart, considerably enlarged.
unicorn rampt. arg., royally gorged and chained or. Assumed
by JAMES I. of Great Britain : retained, and still in use.
The ancient English war-cry DIEU . ET . MON .
DROIT ! " God and my Right!" assumed as a regular
Motto by HENRY VI., has been retained in use since his
Queens ELIZABETH and ANNE also used SEMPER .
EADEM "Always the Same." JAMES I. used BEATI .
PACIFIC I " Blessed are the Peace-makers"
Mottoes of Scotland : NEMO . ME . IMPUNE . LA-
CESSIT "No man with impunity attacks me:" and, above
the Crest IN . MY . DEFENSE.
ROYAL HERALDRY. 275
Till the time of HENRY IV., the Crown, the symbol of
England s Royalty, was a golden circlet richly jewelled,
and heightened with conventional strawberry-leaves: fine
examples are represented in the effigies of HENRY III.,
JOHN, and EDWARD II.
HENRY IV., as shown by his splendid effigy at Canter
bury, introduced^*?// de lys, alternating with the leaves.
From the time of HENRY V., the circlet has been
heightened by crosses pattees and fleurs de lys alternating,
four of each, and without any leaves. HENRY V. also first
arched the circlet with jewelled bands, which at their intersec
tion he surmounted with a mound and cross.
The arched Crown of HENRY V. has four half-arches,
that is, it is arched over twice :
HENRY VI. and CHARLES I.
arched their crown three times :
all the other Sovereigns have had
two complete arches only, and the
Crown still retains these two arches
intersecting at right angles, as in
No. 234. At different periods,
while the design of the Crown
has remained unchanged, the con- No - 2 34-
r , , Crown of H.M., The Queen.
tour of the arches, and the artistic
treatment of the ornamentation have undergone various
The ROYAL BANNERS, or STANDARDS, are charged with
the bearings of the Royal Shield of Arms for the time
The Armorial Insignia of H.R.H. the late PRINCE CON
SORT. The SHIELD is Quarterly, i and 4, The Royal
Arms of the Queen, as in No. 416, but differenced with a
silver label of three points charged on the central point with a
276 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
cross of St. George: 2 and 3, Saxony, No. 225. This
Shield is encircled with the Garter of the Order; and
ensigned with the Prince s own Coronet, shown in
The CREST is the Royal Crest of England, No. 431,
the lion having the same label that differences the Shield,
adjusted about his neck as a collar, and being crowned
with the coronet, No. 441, in place of the Imperial Crown.
The SUPPORTERS are those of the Royal Arms, the
golden lion and silver unicorn, both of them differenced with
the same label, and the lion crowned with the same coronet.
The MOTTO. TREU. UND . FEST " True and
Faithful." To the dexter of this Achievement, the com
plete Royal Achievement of Her Majesty the Queen.
THE ARMORIAL INSIGNIA OF T.R.H., THE PRINCE AND
PRINCESS OF WALES.
As PRINCE ROYAL and HEIR APPARENT, and also as
PRINCE OF WALES, His Royal Highness bears the Royal
Shield of Arms of the QUEEN, as in No. 416, differenced
with a silver label of three points ; as the Black Prince
differenced with the same label the Shield of EDWARD III.
(see Nos. 252, 337).
Upon this Shield the Prince bears, in pretence, this
quartered Inescutcheon of the Arms of his high dignities of
the second rank: Quarterly of Seven: i, PRINCIPALITY
OF WALES Quarterly gu. and or, four lions pass, guard.
counter changed : 2, DUCHY OF CORNWALL Sa., ten bezants,
four, three, two, one: 3, DUKEDOM OF ROTHSAY Scotland,
differenced with a label of three points arg. : 4, EARLDOM OF
CHESTER Az., three garbs or: 5, EARLDOM OF DUBLIN
Az., a harp or, stringed arg., with a label as in the third
quarter : 6, LORDSHIP OF THE ISLES Arg., on waves of the
Seappr., a lymphad sa. : 7, FEUDAL EARLDOM OF CARRICK
ROYAL HERALDRY. 277
and BARONY OF RENFREW Or, a chevron g?t. This last
quarter is of uncertain authority : I am disposed to believe
that it should be blazoned arg., a saltire and chief az.
Over all, a second inescutcheon of the arms of SAXONY,
The Shield encircled with the Garter of the Order, and
ensigned with the Prince s own CORONET, No. 289. The
CREST and SUPPORTERS, those of England, differenced with
the silver label, and ensigned with the Coronet of the
Prince. Above the Arms, with the Crest, is placed the
OSTRICH FEATHER BADGE of the PRINCE OF WALES, with
the motto, ICH . DIEN " I serve."
H.R.H. THE PRINCESS OF WALES bears, without any
difference, the Arms of her Royal Father, the KING OF
DENMARK. Recent events that have taken place upon the
Continent of Europe, and the territorial changes consequent
upon them, might rightly require a fresh marshalling of the
Arms of Denmark. In Continental Royal Shields, how
ever, Quarterings are frequently retained as "Arms of
Pretension " heraldic reminiscences or heraldic aspi
rations, and marshalled with the insignia of actual
Sovereignty ; as, indeed, was long the case with our own
Royal Shield, which bore the fleurs de lys of France for
more than two centuries purely as "Arms of Pretension."
Consequently, it is possible that the King of Denmark may
continue to bear his Arms with precisely the same
blazonry that his Shield displayed at the time of his
accession. At all events, no change has yet taken place,
* In place of the Arms of Saxony only, upon his inescutcheon surtout
the PRINCE OF WALES might marshal the numerous German quarter-
ings of his paternal Coat of Arms. Also, the insignia of the Prince
might be marshalled upon a group of three Shields, instead of a single
Shield and two inescutcheons ; and the insignia of the Princess might
be marshalled to form a similar group.
278 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
and, accordingly, the Arms of the Princess are now what
they were on the occasion of her marriage.
THE ROYAL ARMS OF DENMARK. The Shield divided
into four quarters by the national white cross, having a
border of red to represent the red field of the Danish Ensign.
First Quarter : DENMARK Or, semee of hearts gu., three
lions pass, guard., in pale, az. Second Quarter : SLESWICK
Or, two lions pass. , in pale, az. Third Quarter \-Perfesse,
in chief, SWEDEN Az., three crowns or; in base, ICELAND
Gu., a stock-fish arg., crowned or ; impaling, for FAROE
ISLANDS Az., a buck pass, arg.; and, for GREENLAND a
polar bear rampt. arg. Fourth Quarter : Perfesse, in chief,
for JUTLAND or, ten hearts, four, three, two, one, gu., and in
chief a lion pass. az. ; in base, for VANDALIA Gu.,a wyvern,
its tail nowed and wings expanded, or.
On an Inescutcheon, quarterly : First, for HOLSTEIN
Gu., an inescutcheon per fesse arg. and of the first, in every
point thereof a nail in triangle, between as many holly-leaves,
all ppr. Second, for STORMERK Gu., a swan arg., gorged
with a coronet or. Third, for DITZMERS Az., an armed
knight ppr., brandishing his sword, his charger arg. Fourth,
for LAUENBURGH Gu., a horse s head cotiped arg.
Over all, in pretence upon a second Inescutcheon,
OLDENBURGH Or, two bars gu. ; impaling Az., a cross
pateefitchee or, for DALMENHURST.
This Shield is placed to the sinister of the Shit- id of the
Prince of Wales, and with it stands between his Supporters.
It would be good Heraldry to impale the Charges of the
two Shields on a single Shield.
Or, a single Shield of the primary Arms of the Prince,
without his quartered Inescutcheon, but with Saxony in
pretence, may impale Denmark only ; and, with the
Coronet, Crest, Badge, and Supporters of the Prince,
this comparatively simple impaled Shield, represented
in No. 433, might be adopted and borne as the Ensigns
of the Prince and Princess for general use.
The other PRINCES and PRINCESSES, Sons and Daugh
ters of the QUEEN, all bear the Royal Arms of the Sove
reign, the Princes on Shields, the unmarried Princesses
on Lozenges. All their Royal Highnesses bear the Royal
Supporters and Motto ; all have a Shield of Saxony, in
pretence on their own Shield or Lozenge ; all ensign their
Shield or Lozenge with their own Coronet, No. 290; and
No. 433. Impaled Shield of Prince and Princess of Wales.
the Princes bear the Royal Crest. In every case, the Sup
porters and the Crest are ensigned with the same Coronet :
all the Shields, Lozenges, Crests, and Supporters, are
differenced with a silver label of three points, tJie labels being
differenced as follows :
H.R.H. the Duke of EDINBURGH, &c. : On the central
point a red cross ; on each of the other two points a red anchor.
H.R.H. the Prince ARTHUR: Red cross, and two red fleurs
de lys. H.R.H. the Prince LEOPOLD : Red cross, and two
280 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
red hearts. H.R.H. the Princess LOUISA : Red rose, and two
red cantons. H.R.H. the Princess BEATRICE: Red Jieart,
and two red roses.
Their Royal Highnesses, the Princesses who are married,
bear the Royal Arms of the QUEEN impaled by the armorial
ensigns of the Princes, their Consorts : but each Princess
differences the Royal Arms of England with her own label.
H.R.H. the CROWN PRINCESS OF PRUSSIA, PRINCESS
ROYAL OF ENGLAND, on the central point of her label
has a red rose, and on each of the other two points a
H.R.H. the Princess ALICE OF HESSE has on her label a
red rose, between two ermine spots.
H.R.H. the Princess HELENA, Princess CHRISTIAN, has on
her label a red cross between two red roses.
The youthful eldest son of the PRINCE OF WALES bears
his Father s Shield, differencing the label with a red cross on
the central point only.
The label of H.R.H. the Duke of CAMBRIDGE is silver,
of three points, and the points are differenced with a red
cross in the centre, and on each of the two side points two
red hearts in pale The Duke bears the Royal Arms, but
with his own Coronet, No. 292, and differencing the acces
sories as well as the Shield with his own label.
H.R.H. the Princess MARY OF TECK differences with
the same label as the Duke her Brother : and her Arms are
impaled by those of Prince TECK, her Husband.
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD AND INSIGNIA OF HONOUR.
Feudal Knighthood. Orders of Knighthood : Knights of St. John
Knights Templars The Order of the Garter of the Thistle of
St. Patrick of the Bath of St. Michael and St. George of The
Star of India. The Victoria Cross. The Albert Medal. Naval
and Military Medals. Foreign Insignia bestowed on British
" The same King would make an Order of KNIGHTS of himself and his Sons, and
of the bravest of his land." FROJSSART.
" I will say as I have said,
Thou art a noble KNIGHT." LORD OF THE ISLES.
KNIGHTHOOD, as that term is generally understood in its
comprehensive acceptation, has been well defined to be "a
distinction of rank amongst freemen, depending not upon
birth or property, but simply upon the admission of the
person so distinguished, by the girding of a sword or other
similar solemnity, into an order of men having by law or
usage certain social or political privileges," and also a
certain appropriate title. It is evident, therefore, from this
definition that Knighthood implies the existence of these two
conditions : the one, that the man to be admitted to the rank
of Knighthood should possess such qualifications as may
entitle him to that distinction ; and the other, that Knight
hood should be conferred by a personage endowed with a
competent power and authority.
In feudal times the qualifications for Knighthood were
282 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
military exploits of a distinguished character, and eminent
services, of whatever kind, rendered to the King and the
realm : also, the holding a certain property in land (in the
time of EDWARD I., land then of the yearly value of 20, or
upwards), whether directly from the King, or under some
Noble, by the feudal tenure of personal military service
to be rendered under certain established conditions. During
the first two centuries after the Conquest, Knighthood was
conferred by the great Barons and by the Spiritual Peers, as
well as by the King himself, or by his appointed representa
tive : but, after the accession of HENRY III., the prevailing
rule appears to have been that in England no persons should
be created Knights except by the King, or the Prince Royal
acting for his Father, or by the King s General-in-Chief, or
other personal representative.
The knightly rank, as it gave an increase of dignity,
implied also the maintenance of a becoming state, and the
discharge of certain civil duties : and, more particularly, all
Knights were required to make such a provision for render
ing military service as was held to be consistent with their
position and their property ; and it was expected from them
that they should take a dignified part in the chivalrous
exercises and celebrations of their times. It followed, that
feudal Knighthood was a distinction which, if not conferred
for the sake of honour, became obligatory ; and fines, ac
cordingly, were imposed upon men qualified for Knight
hood who, notwithstanding, were found not to be Knights,
In the course of time, as the rigour of the feudal system
abated, the numbers of the military tenants of small tenures
greatly increased : and, since many of these persons had no
inclination for the profession of arms, they gladly accepted
the alternative of paying a fine, which enabled them to
evade an honour unsuited as well to their means as to their
personal tastes and their peaceful avocations. A fruitful
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 283
source of revenue thus was secured for the Crown, while the
military character of Knighthood was maintained, and at
the same time a new and important class of the community
gradually became established.
The Knights of Norman England, who at first were
stipendiary soldiers of the highest order, derived their
designation from their warlike predecessors of Anglo-Saxon
times, the word " cniht" in the late Anglo-Saxon tongue,
signifying a military attendant. When they had established
themselves in the position and in the possession of the lands
of the Anglo-Saxons, the Anglo-Norman Knights retained
their own original title. The Latin equivalent for that title
of "Knight" is "Miles" and the Norman-French is
These Knights may be grouped in two classes. The
first class contains all persons who had been admitted into
the comprehensive Order of Chivalry who were Knights
by reason of their common Knighthood. The second class
is formed of Knights who, in addition to their Knightly
rank, were members of some special and distinct Fraternity,
Companionship, or Order of Knighthood. Every Society
of this kind has always possessed Laws, Institutions, Titles,
and Insignia peculiar to itself.
The peculiar character and object of the Crusades led to
the formation of two Orders of Priest-Knights Orders not
belonging to any particular nation, but numbering amongst
their members men of all nations. These are the Orders of
the KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN OP JERUSALEM, or HOSPI
TALLERS, and of the KNIGHTS TEMPLARS.
The HOSPITALLERS, instituted about A.D. 1092, were
introduced into England about noo. In the year 1310
they were established at Rhodes, and in 1530 at Malta,
under their forty-third Grand Master, PHILIPPE DE VILLIERS
DE L lsLE-AoAM. Their device is a silver cross of eight
284 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
points, No. 107, charged upon a black field, or worn upon a
black surcoat or mantle. The Order was finally suppressed
in England in 1559.
The TEMPLARS, instituted about A.D. 1118, were intro
duced into England about 1140. In the year 1309 they
were suppressed, and in 1312 their Order was finally
abolished. They wore a Cross of the same form as No.
107, but of a red colour upon a white field. This red cross
they charged upon a white banner : and they bore another
banner, No. 13, of black and white, entitled "Beau Seant."
The same words, "Beau Seant!" were their war-cry. The
Badges of the Templars were the Agnus Dei the Holy
Lamb, holding a red-cross banner ; and a device represent
ing two Knights mounted on a single horse, intended to
denote the original poverty of the Order.*
THE ORDER OF THE GARTER, a military Fraternity
under the special patronage of "ST. GEORGE, the good
Knight," was instituted at Windsor by King EDWARD III.
in, or about, the year 1350 very probably in the summer
of 1348, but the exact time is not positively known. It
may safely be assumed, that the occasion which led to the
institution of this most noble and renowned Order, was a
Tournament or Hastilude of unusual importance held at his
Castle of Windsor by EDWARD III. at the most brilliant
period of his reign : and it is highly probable that the Order
suggested itself to the mind of the King, as a natural result
of his own chivalrous revival of a knightly " Round Table,"
such as flourished in the days of King Arthur. How much
of historical fact there may be in the popular legend, which
professes to derive from a certain romantic incident the
* The Arms of the Barrister Templars of the present day are
azure, a pegasus (or, winged horse) argent, or sometimes or. This
Coat is derived from the early Badge, the two horsemen, having been
mistaken in later times for -wings.
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 285
Title certainly borne by King EDWARD S Order from the
time of its original institution, it is not possible to deter
mine : but the legend itself is not in any way inconsistent
with the spirit of those times ; nor would the Knights
Founders of the Garter regard their Order as the less
honourable, because its Title might remind them of the
happy gallantry, with which the casual misadventure of a
noble Lady had been turned to so good an account by a
most princely Monarch. The Statutes of the Order have
been continually modified and altered, and the original
military character of the Institution has long ceased to
exist : still, no changes in the Order of the Garter have
affected the preeminence of its dignity and reputation.
Illustrious now as ever, and foremost in rank and honour in
our own country, the GARTER is second to no knightly
Order in the world.
The MOST NOBLE ORDER OF THE GARTER consists of
the SOVEREIGN and Twenty-five KNIGHTS COMPANIONS, of
whom the PRINCE OF WALES always is one. By a Statute
of the year 1805, the Order includes such lineal descendants
of GEORGE III. as may be elected : and still more recent
statutes have provided for the admission of foreign Sove
reigns, and also of certain "Extra Knights," who are elected
" Companions " as vacancies occur.
The OFFICERS of the Order are, the Prelate, the Bishop
of Winchester : the Chancellor, the Bishop of Oxford : the
Registrar, the Dean of Windsor : the Herald, Garter King
of Arms : and, the Usher of the Black Rod.
Knights of the Garter place the initials "K.G." after their
names ; and these letters take precedence of all other titles,
those of Royalty alone excepted.
The Stalls of the Knights are in the choir of St. George s
Chapel, Windsor Castle, where their Garter-Plates are fixed,
and their Banners are displayed
The INSIGNIA of the Order of the Garter are The
Garter itself, of a light blue originally, now of a dark
blue, with border, buckle, and pendant of gold. On it,
in golden letters, the Motto HONI . SOIT . QVI . MAL .
Y . PENSE " Dishonour to him who thinks ill of it ; "
and not, as it is commonly rendered, " Evil to him that
The Badge of the Order is circular, and formed of a
buckled Garter enclosing a Shield of St. George, the whole
blazoned in the proper tinctures : it
is worn on the left shoulder of the
blue velvet Mantle. When irradiated
with eight rays of silver or diamonds, a
device resembling the Badge in every
respect, except that the cross of St.
George is enclosed within the Garter
without being charged on a Shield,
forms the Star of the Order.
The Collar, of gold enamelled, is
formed of twelve buckled Garters, each
encircling a Tudor Rose, and as many
knots of intertwined cords. Attached
to this Collar is the George a mounted
figure of the Saint in the act of tramp
ling down the dragon and piercing him
with his lance. The Collar and George were added to
the Insignia by HENRY VII.
The Lesser George, or Jewel, added by HENRY VIII., has
the same device placed on an enamelled field, and forming
a jewel generally oval in form ; it is encircled by a buckled
Garter of the Order, and represented in No. 434. It was
this Lesser George that CHARLES I., immediately before he
suffered, delivered to Archbishop JUXON, with the word,
" Remember." As a matter of course, the figure of ST.
No. 434. The Lesser
Gorge, of the Garter.
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 287
GEORGE ought always to be represented as a Knight, armed
and equipped as one of the Christian chivalry of the Middle
Ages not as a pagan horseman of antiquity, and more
particularly not in the guise of such a nude champion as
appears on some of our modern coins. The Lesser George,
often incorrectly called the Badge, at first was sometimes
worn from a gold chain, and sometimes from a black Ribbon.
The Colour of the ribbon was changed to sky-blue by
Queen ELIZABETH ; and, after the accession of the pre
sent Royal Family, it was again changed to the dark blue
of the broad Ribbon now worn. This Ribbon of the
Order crosses the figure of the wearer, passing over the
left shoulder, and the Lesser George hangs from it under
the right arm.
Since the time of CHARLES II. it has been customary
for the nearest representatives of a deceased K.G. to return
his Insignia to the Sovereign.
Each Officer of the Order, except the Usher, has his
own proper Badge.
THE ORDER OF THE THISTLE, OF SCOTLAND, styled
" Most Noble and Most Ancient," and indicated by the
Initials " K.T.," was originally instituted long before the
accession of a Scottish Sovereign to the Crown of England ;
but it is now governed by statutes framed by JAMES II. of
Great Britain, ANNE, and GEORGE IV.
The Order consists of the SOVEREIGN and sixteen
KNIGHTS. Its OFFICERS are the Dean ; the Lord Lyon
King of Arms ; and the Gentleman Usher of the Green Rod.
The INSIGNIA are the Badge or Jewel, of gold
enamelled, being a figure of St. Andrew holding his
silver Saltire and surrounded by rays, the whole within an
oval border bearing the Motto NEMO . ME . IMPUNE .
LACESSIT. "No man with impunity challenges me."
This Badge, No. 435, is worn from the Collar of the Order,
formed of sixteen Thistles alternating with as many bunches
of rue-sprigs ; or, from a broad dark green Ribbon, which
crosses the left shoulder. There are fine examples of these
Insignia sculptured upon the Monument of MARY, Queen
of Scots, in Westminster Abbey.
The Star of this Order, of silver or diamonds, is in the
form of a St. Andrew s Saltire, having its four limbs alter
nating with the four points of a lozenge : in the centre,
surrounded by the Motto, is a Thistle proper.
No. 435. Badge of the Thistle.
No. 436. Badge of St. Patrick.
The Most Illustrious ORDER OF ST. PATRICK, OF
IRELAND, indicated by the Initials, " K.P.," and instituted
in 1783 by GEORGE III., consists of the SOVEREIGN, the
GRAND MASTER, and twenty-two KNIGHTS. The OFFICERS
are the Prelate, the Archbishop of Armagh : the Chancellor,
the Archbishop of Dublin : the Registrar, the Dean of St.
Patrick s : Ulster King of Arms : two Heralds and four
Pursuivants : the Genealogist : and the Usher of the Black
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD. 289
The INSIGNIA are the Badge or Jewel, of gold
enamelled, and oval in form. It has a Shamrock (or
Trefoil slipped) having on each leaf a Royal Crown, charged
on the Saltire of St. Patrick, the field being surrounded by
the Motto QVIS . SEFARABIT . ("who will sever?")
MDCCLXXXIIL, on a blue band, which in its turn is
encircled with a wreath of Shamrocks on gold. This
Badge, No. 436, is worn from the Collar, composed of
Roses and Harps, alternating with each other and with
knotted cords, a Crown surmounting a Harp being in the
centre ; or, the Badge is worn from a broad sky-blue Ribbon,
crossing the right shoulder.
The Star resembles the Badge, except that its centre is
circular instead of oval ; and that it has eight rays of silver
or diamonds, in place of the wreath of Shamrocks.
The Most Honourable ORDER OF THE BATH is an early
Institution which, after having long been in abeyance, has
been revived and remodelled, and has received fresh statutes
in the years 1725, 1815, 1847, and 1859.
The Order, now numbering 985 members, consists of
several distinct Groups or Classes, which include, with the
SOVEREIGN, the Royal Princes, and some few dis
tinguished Foreigners, Officers of our own Navy and Army,
and also Diplomatic and Civil Servants of the Crown.
Another Group is still needed, to render this Order
what it ought to be what, indeed, it ought to have been
from the moment of its revival, an ORDER OF MERIT.
This additional Group should include all the Heroes of
Peace those sons of England who have deserved well of
their Country, without serving as either soldiers, sailors,
The Three " Classes " of the Order alike include mem
bers of the Three Services.
The " First Class," of KNIGHTS GRAND CROSS OF THE
BATH G.C.B., has fifty Naval and Military, and twenty-
five Civil Knights.
The " Second Class " numbers (with power to increase
these numbers) 102 Naval and Military and fifty Civil
KNIGHTS COMMANDERS OF THE BATH K.C.B.
The "Third Class," not of Knights, but of COMPANIONS
OF THE BATH C.B., has 525 Naval and Military and 200
No. 437. Naval and Military Badge of the Bath.
Civil Members, who take rank between Knights and
The Naval and Military INSIGNIA are The BADGE, a
complicated combination of devices, characteristic of the
debased period which produced it. It is represented in
No. 437. The Cross is white ; the circle with the Motto,
red ; and the small Scroll in base, blue ; all the rest being
This Badge is worn by the G.C.B.
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.
2 9 I
attached to a Collar, formed of nine Crowns and eight
clusters of the Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock issuing from a
Sceptre, alternating with seventeen Knots enamelled
argent : or, this Badge is suspended by the G.C.B. from a
broad red Ribbon, crossing the left shoulder. By the
K.C.B. the Badge is worn from a narrower red Ribbon
about the neck, or a still narrower at the button-hole.
Also, by the C.B. it is attached to a narrow red ribbon at
The Star of the G.C.B. is the Badge, without the Cross
and the lions, charged with silver rays
having a lozenge-shaped outline. The
Star of the K.C.B., which is in the form
of a Maltese Cross, omits the Cross of
the Badge. The C.B. have no Star.
The Diplomatic and Civil INSIGNIA
are the Badge, No. 438, worn with the
same distinctions as the Naval and
Military Badge; but the C.B. Badge is
of smaller size than the Badges of the
two higher Classes.
The Star of the G.C.B. has eight
silver rays encircling their Badge in a
circular form. The Star of the K.C.B. is the same as that
of the Naval and Military K.C.B., omitting the laurel-
wreath and the small scroll and motto.
The Motto of the Order TRIA. JUNCTA. IN. UNO
" Three united in one," refers to the Union of the three
Realms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, as well as to
that of the three Services, in the Order.
The Stalls of the G.C.B., and those of their Esquires,
are in Henry the Seventh s Chapel, Westminster Abbey;
but no installation has taken place since 1815. The Dean
of Westminster is officially connected with the Order.
NO. 43 s.
2p2 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
THE ORDER OF ST. MICHAEL AND ST. GEORGE,
founded in 1818, is restricted to natives of Malta and the
The Most Exalted ORDER OF THE STAR OF INDIA,
instituted by Her Majesty, the Queen, in 1861, to render
especial honour to high merit and loyalty in the Indian
No. 439. Badge of the Star of India.
Empire, on the 24th of May, 1866, was enlarged, and
ordained to consist of the SOVEREIGN, a GRAND MASTER,
and 175 Ordinary COMPANIONS or MEMBERS; together
with such extra and Honorary Members as the Sovereign
at any time may be pleased to appoint.
The VICEROY AND GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF INDIA for
the time being is always the GRAND MASTER. The
Ordinary Members are divided into Three Classes : The
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD.
No. 439, formed of
field of light blue
" First Class " comprises twenty-five KNIGHTS GRAND COM
MANDERS : G.C.S.I. In the "Second Class" there are
fifty KNIGHTS COMMANDERS: K.S.I. And, the "Third
Class " numbers 100 COMPANIONS : C.S.I.
The original Constitution of this Order limited its
Members to the Sovereign, the Grand Master, and 25
The INSIGNIA are The Badge,
diamonds, having the Motto on a
enamel, and the bust of the Queen
executed as an onyx cameo. This Jg
Badge is attached by a mullet to the
Collar, composed of heraldic-roses \J
and lotus-flowers alternating with
palm-branches, a crown being in the
Centre : or, the Badge is worn from
a Ribbon of pale blue with white
borders, crossing the left shoulder.
The Star, of diamonds, has a mullet
upon an irradiated field in its centre,
within the Motto HEAVEN S
LIGHT . OUR . GUIDE, the
whole being environed with wavy rays having a circular
The VICTORIA CROSS, of bronze, was instituted by Her
Majesty, the Queen, in 1856, to render honour to "con
spicuous bravery" in actual conflict, by sea or land. This
Cross, No. 440, is worn on the left breast, attached to a
blue ribbon for the Navy, and to a red ribbon for the Army.
A Bar is attached to the ribbon for every such act of
bravery as would have won the Cross.
No. 440. The Victoria Cross.
THE ALBERT MEDAL, No. 441, was instituted by Her
Majesty, the Queen, March 13, 1866, to distinguish those
who save, or who at the peril of their own lives endeavour
to save, life at sea. The Coronet is that of H.R.H. the
late PRINCE CONSORT ; and the Monogram consists of the
Initials, V. A., with an anchor. This Medal is executed in
Silver and Bronze for two classes
MEDALS and CLASPS OF
HONOUR. Various Medals have
been ordained and conferred for
signal services of the Navy and
Army : they are worn attached to
Ribbons which vary in their
Colours. Clasps are small bars,
attached to the Medal-Ribbons,
upon each of which the name of
some particular action is inscribed.
The Name, Rank, and Ship or
Regiment of every recipient of a
Medal is engraved on the Medal
itself. "Good Service Medals"
were instituted in 1830 : they are
worn by seamen of the Navy and
Marines from a blue ribbon, and by soldiers from a crimson
ribbon. The "Crimean Medals" are worn from a 4 blue
ribbon with yellow edges for service in the Crimea itself, and
for service in the Baltic from a yellow ribbon with blue edges.
Medals for service in India are worn from ribbons striped
white and scarlet. English Medals, however honourable, as a
prevailing rule are certainly not artistic. It is to be hoped
that, at no distant period, they all will be made to assume
as high a character as works of Art, as they are eminently
distinguished in their capacity of Decorations of Honour.
No. 441. The Albert Medal.
INSIGNIA OF HONOUR. 295
FOREIGN INSIGNIA, even when bestowed by Sovereign
Princes, cannot be worn by any British subject without
the express sanction and authority of his own Sovereign.
In the existing state of things, it is most desirable that this
regulation should be withdrawn ; and, in its stead, that the
recipients of Honour Decorations bestowed by Foreign Sove
reigns should register the fact of their having received any
such distinction at the College of Arms, and should then
assume the right to wear their Insignia, unless forbidden to
do so by an express command from the Crown.
The Foreign Decorations that now are frequently worn
by British officers, soldiers, seamen and marines, are the
elegant Cross of the French LEGION OF HONOUR, attached
to a red ribbon ; and the " French Military Medal,"
attached to a yellow ribbon with green edges. The " Sar
dinian (Italian) War Medal," suspended from a sky-blue
ribbon. And the Badge of the Turkish ORDER OF THE
MEDJIDIE, worn from a red ribbon having green edges.
"ORDERS and DEGREES
Jar not with Liberty, but well consist." PARADISE LOST, Book V.
"The use of ARMS was closely connected with the Study of GENEALOGY."
DALLAWAY, Science of Heraldry: A.D. 1793.
WHEN JAMES I. succeeded to the Crown of England while
he was actually the King regnant of Scotland, and accord
ingly became Sovereign of the two Realms, he found it
necessary to produce a " Union Flag " for the whole of
Great Britain, in consequence of the serious disputes for
Precedence that arose between the natives of South and
North Britain. Before the time of the peace-loving son of
MARY STUART, a Sovereign of another mould, HENRY
VIII., had felt the necessity of framing and establishing
some definite system of Precedence amongst the various
degrees, orders, and ranks of his subjects : and, in 1539, a
statute to that effect was enacted. Other statutes after
wards were added \ and, from time to time, Royal Letters
Patent on the same subject have been issued ; and thus
the Precedence now recognised and in use amongst us
has been established.
It will be observed, that tenure of office in certain cases
constitutes actual Rank : also, that conceded Rank gives a
THE ORDER OF PRECEDENCE.
The Prince of Wales.
The Younger Sons of the Sovereign.
The Grandsons of the Sovereign.
The Cousins of the Sovereign.
The Archbishop of Canterbury.
The Lord Chancellor.
The Archbishop of York.
The Archbishop of Armagh.
The Archbishop of Dublin.
The Lord High Treasurer : now represented by the " First
Lord of the Treasury," popularly styled " Prime
The Lord President of the Council.
The Lord Privy Seal.
The following GREAT OFFICERS OF STATE precede all
Peers of their own Degree that is, if Dukes, they
precede all other Dukes ; if Earls, all other Earls \
The Lord Great Chamberlain.
The Lord High Constable.
The Earl Marshal.
The Lord Steward of the Royal Household.
The Lord Chamberlain of the Royal Household.
The Secretaries of State, being Peers.
The Peers of each Degree take Precedence in their own
Degree, according to their Patents of Creation.
Eldest Sons of Dukes.
Eldest Sons of Marquesses.
298 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Younger Sons of Dukes.
Eldest Sons of Earls.
Younger Sons of Marquesses.
Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester.
Bishops, according to Seniority of Consecration.
The Speaker of the House of Commons.
The Treasurer and the Comptroller of the Royal House
The Master of the Horse.
The Secretaries of State, when not Peers.
Eldest Sons of Viscounts.
Younger Sons of Earls.
Eldest Sons of Barons.
Knights of the Garter, Thistle, and St. Patrick, not being
The Chancellor of the Exchequer.
The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.
The Lord Chief Justice of the Queen s Bench.
The Master of the Rolls.
The Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
The Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer.
The Judge Ordinary.
The Lords Justices of Chancery.
The Vice Chancellors.
The Judges of the Queen s Bench.
The Judges of the Common Pleas.
The Barons of the Exchequer.
Younger Sons of Viscounts.
Younger Sons of Barons.
Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath.
Knights Grand Commanders of the Star of India.
Knights Grand Crosses of St. Michael and St. George.
Knights Commanders of the various Orders.
Masters in Chancery and in Lunacy.
Companions of the Various Orders.
Eldest Sons of the Younger Sons of Peers.
Eldest Sons of Baronets.
Eldest Sons of Knights.
Esquires to Knights of Orders.
Esquires : Including the Eldest Sons of the Sons of
Viscounts and Barons, the eldest Sons of all the
younger Sons of Peers, and their eldest Sons in per
petual Succession : the younger Sons of Baronets :
persons holding the Queen s Commission, or who may
be styled " Esquire " by the Queen in any Official
Document : Members of the Royal Academy of Arts :
Barristers at Law : Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of
THE PRECEDENCE OF WOMEN
is determined, before Marriage, by the Rank and Dignity,
but not by the Office, of their Father.
All the unmarried Sisters in any family have the same
Degree, which is the Degree that their eldest Brother holds
(or would hold) amongst men. Thus : Of the Sons of an
Earl the eldest alone has an honorary Title of Nobility, and
is styled " My Lord," while all the Daughters of an Earl
have a similar honorary Title, and are styled " My Lady."
By Marriage Women share the Dignities and Precedence
of their Husbands : but, the strictly Official Dignity of a
3OO ENGLISH HERALDRY.
Husband is not imparted to a Wife, as in the case of the
Archbishops and Bishops.
The Dignities which Ladies have by Birth or by right of
Inheritance, are not imparted by Marriage to their Hus
bands : nor does Marriage with an inferior in Dignity in
any way affect the Precedence that a Lady may enjoy by
Birth, Inheritance, or Creation both her own Precedence
and that of her Husband remain as before their Mar
In the ROYAL FAMILY the following Precedence takes
The Princess of Wales.
The Daughters of the Sovereign.
The Wives of the Younger Sons of the Sovereign.
The Wives of the Eldest Grandsons of the Sovereign.
The Granddaughters of the Sovereign.
The Wives of the Younger Grandsons of the Sovereign.
The Cousins of the Sovereign.
To whatever Precedence she may be entitled by Birth,
the Wife of a Peer always takes her rank, and therefore
takes her actual Precedence, from her Husband.
The Widow of a Peer, so long as she remains a Widow,
retains the rank she enjoyed whilst married : but, should
she contract a second Marriage, her Precedence then is
determined either by the rank of her second Husband, or
by the rank that was her own by Birth and which she
enjoyed before her first Marriage.
The Wife of the Eldest Son of any degree precedes all
her Husband s Sisters, and also all other Ladies having the
same degree of rank with them. Thus : the Wife of the
Eldest Son of an Earl takes Precedence of all Daughters of
Earls. In actual practice, however, by a principle of Pre
cedence that is accepted and adopted in all families of the
same degree amongst themselves, the Sisters in every case
have their place immediately after the Wife of their own
GENEALOGIES, the Records of the Descents and Alli
ances of Families, are necessarily associated with the
Armorial Ensigns borne by those Families, and by the
several Members and Branches of them. Still, it does not
apparently follow, in the same manner, as a matter of
necessity, that the study and investigation of Genealogies
should be interesting and even attractive, because interest
and attractiveness are inseparable from Heraldry. And
yet, I do not hesitate to claim for genealogical researches
the favourable regard of students of Armoury, on the very
ground of the interest which they are certain to feel in such
researches ; and also in confident reliance on that inherent
power of attraction, inseparable from the subject itself, that
will not fail both to win their favourable regard, and to lead
them on from one inquiry to another.
The very act of tracing up some eminent and illustrious
personage, from generation to generation of his forefathers,
noting down the alliances that have interwoven one thread
of a brilliant line with others not less lustrous ; or, the
reverse of this process, the following the lineage of some
worthy of the olden time onward down the stream, observ
ing both the tributaries that flow into the main channel and
the streamlets that issue from it all this, when once it has
been systematically undertaken, leads the student through
the most picturesque regions of historical romance.
The popular idea of Genealogy may be, that it consists
in placing in a formal order of arrangement a series of dry
names, connected with dates that (if it be possible) are even
more dry. It is not uncommon to dispose of many things
precisely in the same way, when an opinion is formed with-
32 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
out even the slightest attempt to judge of a question by its
true merits it is so easy to decline the trouble and to
avoid the effort attendant on inquiry and investigation, and
so pleasant to become the possessor of an " opinion" and
"views," without any outlay in acquiring them. A Map
has no value in the estimation of those who ignore Geo
graphy : the claims of Archaeology are disregarded by all
who are content to remain in ignorance even of what it
implies : and History itself becomes and continues to be a
dead letter, so long as an acquaintance is formed only with
the exterior of its volumes. And, in like manner, Gene
alogy appears under a very different asptct to those who
know it only by name, and to lovers of Biography and
History who are familiar with its lucid and yet ever sugges
tive guidance. Without written Genealogies, who can
clearly understand the political and historical position of
the rival Princes of the red and white Roses ; or of HENRY
VII. and the "last of the Plantagenets ;" or of Queens
ELIZABETH TUDOR, MARY STUART, and JANE GREY? Or
who, without similar aid, will follow out the fortunes of the
Houses of BEAUCHAMP and NEVILLE and DUDLEY, and
connect them with the existing noble lord of Warwick
Castle; or, when reading of the DE CLARES, the DE
BOHUNS, or the DE PERCIES, will see at a glance the con
nection between " STRONGBOYV " and the " red Earl
GILBERT," or will understand the significance of the white
swan Badge of the DE STAFFORDS, or will read at sight the
quartered Shield of the Duke of NORTHUMBERLAND, of to
day, and will discern the line that connects the living Earl
PERCY with the " HOTSPUR" whose fame was two centuries
old when SHAKESPEARE wrote of him ? And further, who,
that is unable to accomplish such things as these, can
appreciate History, can enjoy it and apply its lessons aright?
In arranging a Genealogy the utmost conciseness is essen-
tial, all details being left for full description elsewhere. All
the members of the same family are placed side by side, on
the same level, in their order of seniority ; and all are con
nected by lines with one another and with their parents.
Successive generations also, throughout all the branches of
any family, or in allied families, have their places on the
same levels ; and the connecting and distinguishing lines
are continued throughout. Examples of Genealogies treated
in the most scientific and yet simple manner, easy to be
understood, and perfect as models for students, may be
obtained in any Part of the "Herald and Genealogist," edited
by Mr. J. G. NICHOLS, F.S.A., 25, Parliament Street, West
minster. I refer to this excellent Periodical, because it is
not possible for me here in the space at my disposal to set
forth a really useful example of a Genealogy : and, I must
add, because it is most desirable that students of Heraldry
should form such an acquaintance with Mr. Nichols, as may
be acquired through his works. " Miscellanea Genealogica et
Heraldica," edited by Dr. J. J. HOWARD, F.S.A., is another
bi-monthly Periodical, which ought to be in the hands of all
In Genealogies, this mark = denotes alliance by marriage,
and it is placed between the names of a husband and wife :
and the lines that proceed from this mark, thus, =
point out their issue. The initials S.P. (of the Latin words
Sine Prole, " without issue ") show where a line or a branch
ceases. Other abbreviations and signs in general use will
suggest their own signification.
As I began this Chapter with quotations, so with a
quotation I conclude it. " There are some persons," writes
Mr. LOWER, in his "Curiosities of Heraldry" (p. 292), "who
cannot discriminate between the taste for pedigree " (or
genealogy) "and the pride of ancestry. Now these two
304 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
feelings, though they often combine in one individual, have
no necessary connection with each other. Man is said to
be a hunting animal. Some hunt foxes ; others for fame or
fortune. Others hunt in the intellectual field ; some for
the arcana of Nature and of mind; some for the roots
of words, or the origin of things. I am fond of hunting out
a pedigree." So am I. And, gentle reader, when you have
joined the chase genealogical, I promise you, so also will
The College of Arms. The Lyon Office of Scotland. (1 rants of Arms.
Tax on " Armorial Bearings " and on "Arms Found."
" They were conspicuous for judgment, experience, learning, and elegance .
they gained honour whenever they were employed."
NOBLE : History of the College of Arms.
"What is your Crest and Motto? Send name and county to s Heraldic
Office. For plain Sketch, 33. 6d. In heraldic colours, 6s."
I. THE HERALDS OF ENGLAND, who before had been attached
to the Household either of the Sovereign or of some
Personage of exalted rank, were incorporated as a Fraternity
by RICHARD III., a Prince whose historical reputation is by
no means in harmony with that early act of his reign, which
has done such good service to English History the
Foundation and Establishment of the COLLEGE OF ARMS,
or, as it is commonly called, the HERALDS COLLEGE.
The Letters Patent, issued for this purpose by RICHARD
III., bear date March the 2nd, 1483, the first year of his
reign. Very important privileges and immunities, with
high powers and authority, were granted to the incorporated
Heralds : and the " right fair and stately house," called
" Pulteney s Inn," situate in the metropolitan parish of All
Saints, was assigned to them as their permanent official
residence. The Charter granted to the Heralds by the last
Plantagenet Sovereign was confirmed by his successors.
The buildings of the College were destroyed by the
305 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
great fire of 1666 ; but all the records and documents
fortunately escaped, having been removed to Whitehall ;
and the edifice was subsequently re-built, chiefly at the cost
of the Heralds themselves, as it now stands between St.
Paul s Cathedral and the Thames. There, in the College
of Arms, are still carefully preserved all that the early
Heralds recorded and transmitted to our times. There,
not the least valuable of the contents of the College, an
unique Library is in the keeping of Guardians, who under
stand its true uses, as they appreciate its preciousness.
And there also the Head Quarters of English Heraldry
are as duly established, as those of the British Army are
at the Horse Guards in Whitehall.
The great change that has come upon London since the
Heralds re-built their official home, has caused the College
of Arms now to appear out of place in its original position
in the City. Other changes, which follow in such rapid
succession in that busy neighbourhood, render it by no
means improbable that the site of their College may be
required for some great " City improvement ; " and so the
Heralds may be constrained to establish themselves in the
more congenial regions of the metropolitan "far west."
This, as I am disposed to consider, is one of those con
summations that are devoutly to be desired.
The times have been in which Heraldry could not
number amongst its true friends the official Heralds of the
College of Arms : but, happily, a very different, and in
many most important respects a thoroughly satisfactory
condition of things now obtains at the College. So far as
the Heralds are concerned, as a body of learned, accom
plished, and courteous gentlemen, Heraldry now is ad
mirably represented amongst us, and faithfully supported.
What still is deficient in the existing constitution of the
College of Arms, as a National Institution, is adaptation to
COLLEGE OF ARMS. 307
existing circumstances, sentiments, and requirements. It is
but a truism to assert that, as a National Institution, the
College of Arms does not fill its proper position : and, to all
who are familiar with the facts of the case it is equally
obvious, that this is simply because the College does not
vindicate its indisputable title to that position which really
is its own.
Heraldry is decidedly popular. This popularity also
is assuming a more practical, and at the same time a more
enduring form, through gradually becoming the result of a
correct appreciation of the true character of Heraldry, and
of its intrinsic value. At a time in which people are
beginning to feel and to admit that they ought to know
something about Heraldry, the College of Arms ought to take
the lead in making Heraldry still better understood, still
more justly appreciated, still more popular. The time,
also, is indeed come in which it is the bounden duty of the
College of Arms to impress upon the community at large,
that the sole source and fountain-head of authority in all
matters armorial, under the Sovereign, centres in itself. This
is to be accomplished by the same process, and only by the
same process, by which the College of Arms may win for
itself thorough popularity and universal confidence. If the
College requires fresh or increased powers, application to
that effect should be made to the Legislature. The
Heraldry of Scotland, as I write, is in the act of being dealt
with by Parliament : and it would be equally easy to obtain
such a statute as would enable English Heraldry to do
justice to itself, while fulfilling its own proper duties.
Without abating or compromising in the slightest degree
its own dignity or the dignity of Heraldry, the College of
Arms requires to be transmuted from an exclusive into a
popular Institution. It requires, not indeed to have its
object and aim and system of action changed, but to have
308 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
them expanded, and expanded so widely as to comprehend
all the heraldic requirements of the age. This is a subject
of too urgent importance not to be noticed here ; but still,
it is not possible to do more than to notice it in very
Upon one specific point, however, a few plain words
may be spoken without hesitation, and may be left by
themselves without comment. The Fees and Charges of
all kinds for granting, matriculating, confirming, and re
cording the rightful possession of armorial Insignia must be
arranged upon a perfectly fresh system, with such provisions
and modifications as may adapt them to every variety of
circumstance and of requirement. This is a question which
can be regarded only from one point of view by every true
lover of Heraldry, and consequently by every true friend of
the College of Anns.
II. The National Heraldic Corporation in Scotland,
entitled the LYON OFFICE, is under the presidency of the
Lord Lyon King of Arms. The Chief of the Scottish official
Heralds since May, 1796, has been a Peer of that realm;
and the duties of the office, accordingly, have been dis
charged for seventy years by a Lyon Depute. But, on the
death of the last Earl of KINNOUL, in February, 1866, it was
determined to remodel in some respects the arrangements of
the Lyon Office ; and now Mr. GEORGE BURNETT, who had
long been " Lyon Depute," has been appointed by Her
Majesty to be " Lyon King." The Arms of the Lyon
Office I have already given, No. 265.
The action of the Scottish Lord Lyon King of Arms, and
of the Institution over which he presides, after having de
generated from the worthy standard of earlier days, has
revived under far happier conditions, and with prospects
that are eminently gratifying. It may be fairly expected,
indeed, that the most salutary results will be produced by
LYON OFFICE. 309
the very decided "tendency" that for some time has
existed, " to cultivate the rules and principles of that earlier
age, to which " writes Mr. Seton " we are indebted for a
system of Scottish Heraldry, whose purity certainly has not
been surpassed in any other corner of Christendom."
These words occur in a highly interesting memoir of the
Lyon Office, in the fourth chapter of the work entitled
" The Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland," an able
and admirable volume, published in 1863 in Edinburgh,
which shows the growing popularity of a true Heraldry
north of the Tweed, and proves that in the author, Mr.
SETON, Scottish Heraldry possesses an advocate no less
powerful than zealous and judicious.
III. Arms and Armorial Insignia are granted only
through the College of Arms in England, and through the
Lyon Office in Scotland, in both realms with the direct sanc
tion of the CROWN. In Ireland all Grants are made by Ulster
King of Arms, with the sanction of the Lord Lieutenant.
It is to be observed and kept in remembrance that, as a
Rule, the sole right to Arms is a Grant from the College or
the Crown, or Inheritance by lineal descent from an
ancestor to whom a Grant was made. Some few excep
tional cases may occur, from time to time, in which
armorial ensigns may become lawful property, and there
fore may be rightly borne, without either Grant or lineal
Inheritance. These cases are strictly exceptional, and not
to be regarded as precedents for general usage : moreover,
in them the right and title to Arms, however obtained, is
sanctioned and confirmed by lawful authority.
All English "Grants" and "Confirmations of Arms"
(Confirmations, that is, of the Claims of certain individuals
to bear certain Arms, by some right and title duly set forth
and approved) are formally and regularly recorded, with a
full blazon of the insignia, at the College.
31O ENGLISH HERALDRY.
It is very greatly to be desired that, in addition to this
time-honoured usage of the Heralds in making these
records, some simple plan could be adopted for the
periodical registration at the College of Arms of all armorial
insignia that are borne by right. Almost equally desirable,
also, it would be to make a corresponding registration, as
far as it might be possible, of whatever insignia are borne
without any right. The contents of both registers would
form unquestionably useful publications of a periodical
character. In connection with any such project as I have
just suggested, it appears to me that good service might be
rendered to the cause of true Heraldry amongst us, if
Badges and Mottoes (without any other insignia whatever)
were formally granted by the College, under certain con
ditions, and at the cost of a small Fee.
In fresh Grants of Arms, as in so many formal docu
ments, something of the early form of Expression, with
some traces of its piquant quaintness, are still retained.
Very quaint indeed, and very extravagant also, is the style
that was generally adopted by the Heralds of the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries, and yet characteristic of both
the men and their times. As an example of one of these
old documents, an example of no common interest in itself,
I now give the Grant of Arms to JOHN SHAKESPERE, the
Poet s father, in the year 1596. Two draft copies of the
original Grant are preserved in the College of Arms ; the
following transcript is printed from the later of the two
copies, the earlier having been used to supply any word or
passage that now is wanting in the other. The insertions
thus obtained are printed in brackets.
GRANT OF ARMS TO JOHN SHAKESPERE, A.D. 1596.
To ALL and singuler Noble and Gentelmen of what estate [or]
degree bearing arms to whom these presentes shall come, William
Dethick alias Garter principall King of Armes sendethe greetinges.
GRANTS OF ARMS. 311
Know yee that, whereas by the authoritie and auncyent pryveleges
perteyning to my office from the Quenes most excellent Mate and by
her highnesse most noble and victorious progenitors, I am to take
generall notice and record and to make declaration and testemonie for
all causes of arms and matters of Gentrie thoroughe out all her Majestes
Kingdoms, Domynions, Principalites, Isles, and Provinces, To th end
that, as manie gentelmen, by theyre auncyent names of families, kyn-
dredes and descentes, have and enjoye certeyne enseignes and cotes of
arms, So it is verie expedient in all ages that some men for theyr
valeant factes, magnanimite, vertu, dignites, and desertes, may use and
beare suche tokens of honour and worthinesse, whereby theyre name
and good fame may be the better knovven and divulged, and theyre
children and posterite in all vertu (to the service of theyre Prynce and
Contrie) encouraged. Wherefore being solicited and by credible
report informed that John Shakespeare of Stratford uppon Avon in the
counte of Warwik, whose parentes and late antecessors* were for
theyre faithefull and va[leant service advaunced and rewarded by the
most prudent] prince King Henry the Seventh of [famous memorie,
sythence which tyme they have continewed at] those partes, being of
good reputacion [and credit ; and that the] said John hathe maiyed
[Mary, daughter and one of the heyrs of Robert Arden, of Wilmcote,
in the said] counte, esquire, t In consideration whereof, and for the
encouragement of his posterite, to whom such Blazon [or Atchevement]
by the auncyent custome of the lawes of armes maie descend, I the said
Garter King of Armes have assigned, graunted and by these presentes
confirmed this shield or cote of arms, viz. Gould, on a bend sables a
speare of the first, steeled argent ; and for his crest or cognizance a
falcon, his winges displayed, argent, standing on a wrethe of his
coullors, supporting a speare gould, steeled as aforesaid, sett upon a
helmett with mantelles and tasselles as hath ben accustomed and dothe
more playnely appeare depicted on this margent. Signefieng hereby,
and by the authorite of my office aforesaid ratifieng, that it shalbe law-
full for the sayd John Shakespeare gent, and for his cheldren, yssue
and posterite (at all tymes and places convenient) to bear and make
demonstracion of the said Blazon or Atchevement uppon theyre
Shieldes, Targets, Escucheons, Cotes of arms, Pennons, Guydons,
Ringes, Edefices, Buyldinges, Utensiles, Lyveries, Tombes or Monu-
mentes, or otherwise, for all lawfull warrlyke factes or civile use and
exercises, according to the lawes of armes, without let or interruption
of any other person or persons for use or bearing the same. In wit-
* Above the ivord antecessors is written Grandfather,
t Gent, was first writien t and it is altered to esquire.
312 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
nesse and perpetuall remembrance hereof I have hereunto subscribed
my name, and fastened the scale of my office endorzed with the signett
of my armes, At the Office of Armes, London, the xx. daye of October,
the xxxviij. yeare of the reigne of our Soveraigne Lady Elizabeth, by
the grace of God Quene of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of
the Faythe, etc. 1596.
Like other documents of its class, in this Grant the
language is framed after certain regular forms ; so that it is
to be read without that exact observance of particular
expressions, which is rightly bestowed upon legal and
historical records. The interest inseparable from this
Grant is enhanced in no slight degree by the strong pro
bability that John Shakespere made his application to the
College of Arms by the advice and in consequence of the
request of his son. Had the worthy Garter been able to
divine the " dignites and desertes " of the son, he might
possibly have employed formal language of a still more
complimentary character, when drawing up a Grant of Anns
for the father.
A much more curious specimen of the heraldic style and
form of expression (and also of the spelling) of the earlier
clays of the Queen ELIZABETH era, is a Grant of Augmenta
tion and Crest, by LAWRENCE DALTON, Norroy King of
Arms, to JOHN BENNETT, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, Gentle
man, A.D. 1560. The Preamble to this Grant, which is
printed in full in "Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica,"
(p. 48), is thus written :
To All and Singuler as well nobles and gentles as kings herauldes
and officers of Armes as others wch thes presentes shall see Reade or
heare Lawrence Dalton Esquire Al s Norrey Kinge of Armes of thest
and west p tyes of Englande fro the Ryver of trent northwarde
Sendythe Due and humble comendacons and greatinge fforasmuche as
awncyentlye fro the begynnynge and not w* h owt great Delyberacon
Equitie and Reason hyt hathe byn by the moste noble and famous
princes Constytutyd and ordeynyd that men of wysdom knoledge vertue
and of noble lyefe and Coorage haue byn notoryowslye commendyd to
GRANT AND CONFIRMATION OF ARMS. 313
the Woorlde wth Sonndrye monumentes and Remembrances wih
tokens of honnor for A testamonye of theyre good Desertes As Amonge
the Romayns ye Erecc on of Statues and Images wth tytles and
Appellac ons of honnour And of more latre Dayes wth the moste p te of
nac ons bearinge of Signes and tokens in Shyldes callyd Armes wch
be the Demonstrac ons and Evidences of noblenes vertue and woorthynes
that to eu ry man accordinge to theyre Desertes be Dyu slye Dys-
trybutyd Wherby such signes and tokens of the woorthye and cooragyous
might appeare before the cowarde vnwoorthye and Ignorant Even so yt
ys yet obs vyd that suche wch have merytyd or donne com endable
s vice to theyre prince or countrye or by theyre woorthye and Lawdable
lyefe Do Daylye encrease in vertue wysdom and knowledge shulde not
be forgoten and so put in oblyvyon but rewardyd wth S om token of
honnor for the same the Rather to move and styrre other to the
Imytac on of lyke noblenes vertue and woorthynes ffor wch purpose
hyt was not therefor w th owt great provydence ordeynyd and yet ys that
there Shulde be officers and herauldes of Armes to whose office hyt
shulde be appropryate to kepe in Regestre tharmes pedegrees and
Descentes of nobles and gentles wth theyre woorthye and valyant actes
and to have power and awethorytye to allowe and Ratefye vnto the
woorthye Som awgmentac on token or Remembrance of noblenes for
theyre seyde woorthynes And now beinge Desyryd
And so forth, worthy Mr. Norroy having forgotten such
" signes and tokens " as stops, while carefully showing what
style and form it is not desirable for us to adopt, however
excellent may be his system of building up honourable
insignia upon a foundation of nobleness, virtue, and
I add one other early document of another kind, which
is an excellent model for present use by the Heralds of our
own days, the orthography having by them been duly
EXAMPLE OF A CONFIRMATION OR RECORD OF ARMS :
Theis are the anncient Armes and Creast, belonging to the name and
famely of LEECHFORDE in the County of Surrey, descended from the
LEECHFORDS in Buckinghamsheire. Which at the request of SR
RICHARD LEECHFORDE of Shelwood in the County of Surrey Knight,
I WILL M SEGAR Garter, Principall King of Armes have blasoned, and
sett forth in coullors, according as they are here depicted in the margent.
Viz." (here follows a written blazon) " Testifying hereby
the saide armoryes to belong vnto the saide S* RICHARD LEECHFORD
and to his yssue, to vse, beare, and she we forth at all tymes, and in all
places, at their free lib ty and pleasure. In Witnes wherof. ....
&c. &c., with Seal and Signature, and the Date 3rd of
I presume that an argument in support of the abolition
of all Taxation of " Armorial Bearings," on the plea of the
utter absurdity of a tax upon an honourable distinction,
would be met with the reply that "Armorial Bearings" are
taxed purely as " luxuries," and without the slightest refer
ence to their intrinsic character. If the validity of this plea
must be admitted, still this tax might be levied with what
may be styled a becoming heraldic discrimination.
For example : Arms distinguished by " Augmentations
of Honour" might be altogether exempted ; a higher
rate might be fixed in the case of Arms that are ensigned
with Coronets, and that display Supporters. Arms borne
by unquestionable right, and which are duly recorded
at the College, might be rated at a comparatively low
charge, certainly not to exceed five shillings a year : and a
Badge borne alone might be rated at one-half the tax for a
Shield of Arms with Crest or Badge. On the other hand,
all Arms or armorial insignia borne with a very questionable
right, or without even the pretence of any right whatever,
might be subjected to the ordinary tax for "Armorial Bear
ings" of their class multiplied (according to circumstances)
by four, six, or ten.
The tax estimated by the aid of the multiplication-table,
that has just been suggested, would extend, under a special
schedule possessing a high multiplying power, to any self-
constituted " Establishment" or " Office," which, powerless
to "grant" Arms, undertakes in consideration of a very
trifling fee to "find," and either to "sketch" or to "colour"
TAX ON "ARMORIAL BEARINGS." 315
them. Exceedingly simple is the process, by means of
which this undertaking is accomplished. It consists in
consulting a printed Armoury; and, when the desired
"Arms" have been "found" in its well-stored columns, they
then at once are assigned to the applicant, in conformity
with the comprehensive and beautifully simple theoiy, that
all persons having the same surname and who also live (or
were born) in the same county are equally entitled to bear
the same Arms. Probably it does not occur to the patrons
of advertising Heraldry-dealers, that upon precisely the
same principle every person who has the same " name and
county" with any officer who may be "found" in the Navy
or the Army List, might assert a right to whatever rank and
title such an officer may enjoy by virtue of his commission.
The almost universal desire to possess some kind of
armorial insignia, implies a corresponding recognition of the
necessity to obtain them from some Institution or Personage,
supposed to be competent and authorised both to determine
what they should be, and to impart a right to accept and to
assume and bear them. It rests with the Heralds of the
College of Arms to take the initiative in a course of action,
which would direct all aspirants for heraldic distinctions, as
a matter of course, to their own doors. The Heralds, who
really are Heralds, and who alone are real Heralds, may
rely on the support of Public Opinion. If a fictitious
Heraldry is not only prevalent, but in some sense actually
in the ascendant, it is not because the counterfeit is pre
ferred to the genuine, but because it is unconsciously
mistaken for it. In very many instances, indeed, a deter
mination to obtain " Arms " is coupled with an ignorance of
Heraldry so complete, as to ignore the existence of any
such thing as a Heraldry that is fictitious.
A popular College of Arms, without any serious
difficulty, might establish its own authority with all classes
316 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
of the community ; and, at the same time, it would not fail
to impress upon the public mind the very decided difference
that exists between the heraldic and the non-heraldic accep
tation of the expression " an escutcheon of pretence" Much
real good would certainly result from the rude shock that
would be given to many a complacent display of armorial
insignia, by showing the proud blazonry to be abated with
the baton sinister of heraldic untruth and unwarrantable
assumption. And better still it would be to show to all who
possess, or who desire to possess and to bear " Arms," that
the " Pride of Heraldry " is a worthy and a noble pride,
because it is the Pride of Truth and Right.
MISCELLANEOUS : Coins. Seals. Heraldry in Architecture in Momi-
ments in Ilhiminations in Encaustic Tiles. Heraldic Personal
Ornaments, and various Heraldic Decorations. Conclusion.
" The Spandrels over the Wall-arcading are exquisitely beautiful. . . . Those
in the western arm contained Shields of a large number of the great men of the day.
. . . the few which remain are nobly executed." GLEANINGS FROM WEST
MINSTER ABBEY, by G. G. Scott, R.A. : 2nd Edition, p. 33.
I. THE HERALDRY OF THE COINAGE, in addition to the Shields
of Arms of successive Sovereigns, exemplifies the changes
that have taken place in the form and adornment of the
Crown, and it also is rich in various Badges and Devices
having an historical significance.
In Coins the Royal Shield is sometimes quartered by a
cross charged upon it, as in the silver penny of EDWARD VI.
A mediaeval ship, having a sail covered with heraldic
blazonry, appears on the Noble a coin worthy of its name.
A figure of the King in armour (not particularly well
proportioned to the size of the vessel), his sword in one
hand, and his Shield of arms in the other, is also represented
in these fine examples of mediaeval numismatic art. A ship
without any sail, but in its stead charged with the Royal
Shield heightened by a Cross, forms the reverse of another
excellent coin, the Angel, the obverse bearing a figure of ST.
MICHAEL with his lance thrusting down the dragon. The
Angel of EDWARD IV. on either side of the Cross has the
initial E and the white rose of York ; and the legend is
3 T ^> ENGLISH HERALDRY.
PER : CRVCEM : TVA : SALVA : NOS : XTE :
REDEMPT : ("By thy Cross save us, O Redeemer
Christ ! "). A Crowned Rose, with a Royal Cypher, is
another favourite device ; as in the Shilling of HENRY
VIIL, with the legend POSVI : DE~V : ADIVTOREM :
MEVM : ("I have placed God (before me as) my
Such are a few examples of the early Heraldry of
English Coins. More recently, and particularly in our
own Coinage, Heraldry and Art have declined together, so
that feeble designs, but too commonly executed with
lamentable consistency, are associated with heraldic inaccu
racies which continue unconnected to this day witness the
tressureof Scotland always incorrectly blazoned on the Royal
Shield ; and poor BRITANNIA sitting forlorn on the copper
and bronze coinage, as if conscious of being constrained to
display on her oval Shield an obsolete blazonry, that places
the reign of Queen VICTORIA in the eighteenth century !*
II. To what has been already said on the value of
heraldic SEALS I desire here to add a few words, in the
hope of inducing all students of Heraldry to study them
with the most diligent care.
Casts of fine impressions are not difficult to obtain.
Almost every accessible fine Seal has been copied by
Mr. Ready, of the British Museum, who supplies admirable
casts at a very moderate cost. In like manner, Casts of
Scottish Seals may be obtained from Mr. H. Laing, of
Elder Street, Edinburgh. The most satisfactory casts are
made in gutta-percha, which may be gilt by simply rubbing
* The specimens of the existing Coinage of Europe, displayed at
the present time in the central edifice of this year s Universal Expo
sition, at Paris, show that if the art of the English Mint is now at a
low ebb, the prevailing standard of numismatic art is not a single
degree higher, the coins of France alone being in many respects an
honourable exception to the general rule.
a gold powder with a soft brush upon them, after slightly
warming their surfaces. Moulds for reproducing casts or
impressions may be made in gutta-percha ; and from these
moulds casts, also in gutta-percha, may be obtained. The
process is very simple : the gutta-percha, softened by im
mersion in hot water, is pressed upon an impression in
relief, until a perfect intaglio is formed. When this mould is
cold and hard, it will stamp an impression upon gutta-
percha softened in the same manner.
I add to the examples of fine heraldic Seals that I have
No. 442. Seal of Lord Bardolf.
already given, the richly traceried Seal bearing the armorial
Shield of JOHN, Lord BARDOLF, of Wormegay in Norfolk,
about A.D. 1350 ; No. 442. This most beautiful Seal, which
in the original in diameter is only one and one-sixth inches,
has been somewhat enlarged in the engraving, in order to
show the design more plainly. The arms of BARDOLF are
Az. , three cinquefoils, or.
The liberality and kindness of Mr. Laing enable me to
associate with the Seal of Lord BARDOLF a small group of
additional examples of Scottish Seals : two of them are good
illustrations as well of English as of Scottish Heraldry,
and they exemplify the usage of introducing Gothic
traceries into the composition of Seals with Shields of
Arms : in both these examples, however, the leading out-
No. 443. Seal of William Mure.
No. 444. Seal of Thomas Monypeny.
lines only of the traceries remain, and the rich cusping
(which is so perfect in the Seal of Lord BARDOLF) is lost.
No. 443, the Seal of WILLIAM MURE, A.D. 1397, has a
Shield bearing Arg., on afesse az. three mullets of the field.
No. 444, the Seal of THOMAS
MONYPENY, A.D. 1415, has the
Shield couchee charged with Az., a
chevron between three crosses-crosslets
fitchee issuing from as many cres
cents arg. : the Crest, on a helm,
is a bird, probably a popinjay or
parrot. The Seal of RICHARD
STUART, No. 445, probably about
No, 44S.-Seal of Richard Stuart. ^^ ^^ ^ compared with NQ<
414, p. 258 : in the smaller and earlier example, the solitary
individual who represents the crew may be assumed to be
Richard Stuart himself; his vessel displays two banners
which are evidently affected by contrary currents of air,
aaid a pennon.
The noble Seal, No. 446, engraved from a most perfect
impression recently discovered appended to a document in
the guardianship of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster,
represents its illustrious owner, THOMAS DE BEAUCHAMP,
K.G., third Earl of WARWICK, in armour, with his shield
and jupon charged with the armorial insignia of Beauchamp,
(gu., afcsse between six crosses crosslets or], and with the same
insignia repeated upon the bardings of the charger upon
which the Earl is mounted. The engraving of the Seal
itself appears on the Frontispiece to this Volume : and the
Counter-Seal, one of the most beautiful and most perfect
examples in existence of the early seal-engraver s art, is here
represented in No. 447. The Shield displayed on this
Counter-seal is charged only with the Arms of the NEW-
BURGHS (chequee or and az., a chevron erm.), from whom the
Earldom of Warwick passed by inheritance to the House of
Beauchamp. The inscription is commenced on the Seal,
No. 446, and continued on the Counter-seal, No. 447, and
is as follows : S : THOE : COMITIS : WARRWYCHIE :
ANNO ^ REGNI : REGIS : E : T CII : POST : CO-
QVESTV : ANGLIE : SEPTIO : DECIO : ET : REGNI :
SVI : FRANCIE : QVARTO " The Seal of Thomas,
Earl of Warwick, in the seventeenth year of the reign of
King Edward III. (of that name) after the Conquest of
England, and the fourth of his reign over France." Thus,
the date of the execution of this fine Seal is the year 1344.
The Earl himself died in 1369.
A second Beauchamp Seal is also represented in the
Frontispiece. This is the Seal of RICHARD DE BEAUCHAMP,
K.G., fifth Earl of WARWICK, who died in the year 143 9.
The Heraldry in this example is particularly interesting.
The Shield, charged with Newburgh and Beauchamp quar
terly, is couchee from the helm of the Earl which is en-
signed with his coronet and crest ; and on either side is
a bear with a ragged staff, the famous Badges of the BEAU-
CHAMPS : No. 448. The Inscription is SIGILL : RIC :
DE : BELLO : CAMPO : COMIT : WARWICII " The
Seal of Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick" (see
pages 231 and 246).
No. 447. Counter-Seal of Earl Thomas de Beauchamp : A.D. 1344.
At the present time the popularity of English Heraldry
extends, beyond the realm of England and the entire British
Empire, to the United States of America, where a very
great interest in the Herald s Art is both felt and expressed.
And a remarkable illustration of this popularity of Heraldry
with the great nation who speak our language on the other
side of the Atlantic, is shown at Boston by the publication
in that city of a very able and well illustrated periodical
devoted exclusively to matters connected with Heraldry and
Genealogy : and also by a gentleman of the same city, Mr.
W. H. WHITMORE, having very recently published there a
well-written, handsome, and copiously illustrated volume,
conceived in the true heraldic spirit, entitled " Elements of
Heraldry ; with an Essay upon the Use of Coat-Armour in
the United States." The concluding Chapter of this singu
larly interesting work is devoted to " Heraldry in America,"
and it commences with a description, accompanied by fac
simile wood-cuts, of a number of the Seals of Anns which
the original settlers in New England took over with them
from the mother country. The courteous kindness of Mr.
Whitmore has enabled me to insert a few of his examples,
which, while characteristic of the debased Heraldic art of
the seventeenth century, form a little group of Seals that
have peculiar claims of their own upon our regard. The
original Seals (of which he has engraved twenty-nine
examples), Mr. Whitmore informs us, " were all un
deniably engraved in England."
Example i. Seal of SAMUEL, son of Governor RICHARD
BELLINGHAM, used in 1650: it bears the arms of the
Lincolnshire family of that name Sa., three bugle-horns ar%.
Ex. 2. From the Will of Governor THOMAS DUDLEY,
Ex. 3. Arg., a chevron between three leverets coitrant sa. :
the Seal of Governor JOHN LEVERETT, also of an old
Ex. 4. Arg., a Cross between four escallops sa. : from
the Seal of JOHN COGGESHALL, of Rhode Island, first
President under the patent of 1647-48, c. A descendant
of an English family long seated in Essex.
Ex. 5. From the Seal of JOHN LEVERETT, of Cambridge,
in the United States, grandson of Governor LEVERETT. who
on his tombstone is styled " armiger."
Ex. 6. From the Seal of Governor PEPPERELL.
Ex. 7. Arg., three crescents barry und ee az. and gu. ;
Crest, a Stork rising, ppr. From the Seal of Governor
JOHN HAYNES, originally of Copford Hall, Lexden
Hundred, in the County of Essex.
III. In GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE Heraldry is always a
consistent, beautiful, and most effective accessory. Indeed,
so thoroughly is the spirit of Heraldry in harmony with the
great Architecture which grew up in the middle ages, that
Heraldry must be considered rather as an element of its
nature than as an allied Art. Gothic Architecture is
essentially heraldic ; and hence, as well as from its elastic
nature and its equally consistent and happy applicability to
every use and requirement, it is peculiarly appropriate as our
own national style.
From the earliest years of its existence as a definite
Science, Heraldry is found to be most intimately associated
with the Gothic Architecture of England : and happy it
was for the early Heralds, that in their days the English
Gothic was at work in the full strength of its first maturity.
And this alliance was never interrupted, or permitted to
decline from its original cordiality. As long as the Gothic
flourished, Heraldry held its own place in Architecture.
And in the finest works that exist amongst us, relics of the
grand Gothic Ages of English Architecture, Heraldry is ever
present to adorn them with its graphic records. In the
spandrels of arcades, in panels, upon bosses in vaulting, in
stained glass, in encaustic floor-tiles, and indeed in almost
every position in which such ornamentation could be
admissible, the early Herald is found to have been the
fellow-worker with the early Gothic architect. Gothic
Architecture, .accordingly, has preserved for us very noble
326 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
collections and specimens of the most valuable illustrations
of our national Heraldry. Canterbury and York Cathedrals,
and the Abbey Churches of Westminster and St. Alban s,
with the Chapel of King s College, Cambridge, are
especially rich in heraldic treasures : and Westminster Hall
and the northern Castles of Alnwick and Warkworth may be
specified as noble examples of secular Architecture, which
retain their heraldic enrichments.
IV. Gothic MONUMENTS, and in common with them
their successors of the Renaissance era, abound in every
variety of armorial blazonry. And fine examples of
heraldic Monuments are no less abundant, than are the
Shields and other insignia that appear on particular
memorials. The principles which directed the selection of
Shields to be introduced into the composition of early
Monuments are worthy of careful consideration : and the
same remark is no less applicable in the case of Architecture.
I must be content to specify a very small group of heraldic
Monuments of especial interest and value. In Westminster
Abbey : the Monuments of Queens ALIANORE of Castile,
PHILIPPA of Hainault, ELIZABETH TUDOR, and MARY
STUART ; the Monuments of King EDWARD III. and King
HENRY VII. ; and those of ALIANORE DE BOHUN, Duchess
of GLOUCESTER, the Countess of LENNOX, the Countess of
DERBY, the two De VALENCES, Earls of Pembroke,
EDMUND, Earl of Lancaster, Lord BOURCHIER, and Sir
GILES DAUBENEY, K.G. In Canterbury Cathedral : the
Monuments of the BLACK PRINCE, and of HENRY IV. and
JOANNA of Navarre. In Salisbury Cathedral : the Monu
ment of Earl WILLIAM LONGESPEE. In St. Alban s Abbey
Church : the Monuments of HUMPHREY, Duke of GLOU
CESTER, and of the Abbots WHEATHAMSTEDE and RAMRYGE.
Also, other fine Monuments in the Churches at Elsyng in
Norfolk, Ewelme and Northleigh in Oxfordshire, King s
ILLUMINATIONS PAVING TILES COSTUME. 327
Langley in Hertfordshire, and Cobham in Kent ; in
Beverley Minster, and in the Beauchamp Chapel at
V. In the ILLUMINATIONS of the Middle Ages Heraldry
has a place of honour : and in the revival of that early
Art, which is held in such high estimation at the present
day, Heraldry ought to occupy a position of corresponding
prominence. This implies in the Illuminators of to-day
some knowledge of Heraldry, and at least some degree of
familiarity with good early examples. I venture to suggest,
therefore, to students of Illumination the study both of the
Herald s Art and his Science, as no unimportant part of
their preparation for the practice of the Art of Illumina
tion on the principle of the sagacious maxim of a great
modern painter, quoted by Mr. RUSKIN in his " Seven
Lamps of Architecture " " Know what you have to do.
and then do it."
VI. In the ornamentation of early ENCAUSTIC or INLAID
PAVEMENT TILES, Shields of Arms and various heraldic
devices frequently occur: and in many examples the Shields
of Arms are arranged with much skill and in excellent taste,
to form decorative compositions in combination with foliage
and traceries. Numerous heraldic Tiles of a very interesting
character remain in the Cathedrals of Worcester, Gloucester,
and Exeter ; and in the Churches of Great Malvern, King s
Langley, the Abbey Church of St. Alban, and many others.
The student will observe that the devices upon these Tiles
are frequently reversed, evidently the result of the neglect to
reverse the designs upon the original dies or stamps.
VII. Heraldic blazonry was highly esteemed in the
middle ages as a becoming decoration for PERSONAL COS
TUME. The Knights wore their Coats of Arms, and they
carried and used their Shields of Arms, and their armorial
insignia were displayed upon their weapons and upon the
328 ENGLISH HERALDRY.
various accessories of their personal equipment. The
Ladies adapted this usage to their own Costume, and they
also wore Mantles and Dresses of Arms ; and many of their
personal ornaments were strictly heraldic. Without even
suggesting now to our Ladies any revival of heraldic cos
tume, properly so called such as dresses, mantles, or
shawls emblazoned with the bearings of armorial shields I
certainly do desire to see Heraldry exercising a powerful
influence in all designs for personal ornaments, the works of
the goldsmith and the jeweller more especially. Badges
also may supply the motive for designing many patterns
that are to adorn fabrics used for costume : and, in like
manner also, the designs woven into carpets, curtains, and
various other fabrics may be derived with the greatest
advantage from the same source. The loom is employed
in blazoning heraldic insignia in white damask : why should
it not work, under judicious and cautious guidance, in silk
and velvet, in satin and every woollen fabric ?*
It must be understood, however, that heraldic orna
ments and devices, unless they be of such a character that
they are universally applicable, must have a reference to the
wearer, or they degenerate at once into heraldic parodies.
Personal ornaments, costume, furniture, if heraldic, must
display devices that have a significance as well as a beauty :
such costume and ornaments must be, not "becoming"
only to the wearer, but (in the heraldic acceptation of that
term) " belonging" also. And so in every instance.
For purposes of universal decoration and adornment,
Heraldry is no less applicable now than when EDWARD III.
* I have lately seen a design for the embroidery of a dress for a
young lady of the Clan CAMPBELL ; its characteristic features are
the Scottish Thistle and the Myrtle, the latter the Badge of the
Campbells. I may express my approval of the motive of this design :
others, as I have reason to believe, have approved the treatment ol it.
HERALDIC DECORATION. 329
or HENRY IV. reigned in England. Happily, a taste for
furniture and all the appliances of every day life in the
Gothic style is gradually becoming prevalent ; and this is
inseparable from the use of Heraldry for the purposes of
ornamentation. I presume that the fallacy of regarding the
Gothic style of Art as exclusively ecclesiastical in its asso
ciations and uses, or as no less necessarily inseparable from
mediaeval sentiments and general usages, is beginning to
give way to more correct views, as the true nature of the
Gothic and its original universal employment are better
understood. I consider it to be unnecessary for me, there
fore, to enter here, in support of my own sentiments, into any
detailed explanations to show that the revival of a Style of
Art which flourished in bygone ages, and with it the revival
of Heraldry as it was invented and grew into its early
dignity and popularity, are in no way or degree whatever
connected with an implied return to the mode of life of
four, five, or six centuries ago. We have used Roman and
even what we intended to be Greek Architecture in nine
teenth-century England ; we are still in the habitual use of
Roman and Greek designs for every variety of decoration ;
and of late we have added Egyptian and Scandinavian
works of Art to the deservedly prized collections of models,
that we have formed for the express purpose of imitating
them : and yet we do not consider that we thus in any way
bind ourselves to adopt Roman, or Greek, or Egyptian, or
Scandinavian costumes or customs ; nor in our use of the
Arts of Antiquity do we perceive any demonstration of
retrogression in ourselves.
It is the same with Mediaeval Heraldry and Gothic Art.
We may apply to our own times, our own uses, our own
delight, what the old Heralds and the Gothic Artists have
taught us, without even dreaming of wearing armour or re
establishing the feudal system. True Heraldry (for it is
with Heraldry that I am now more especially concerned) is
a Science, and it also is an Art, for all time for our times,
and for future times, as well as for the times that are past.
If we understand and appreciate it, we shall not fail to
use and to apply it aright.
From the initial-letter of my
first Chapter I suspended the
Shield borne by that Sir WALTER
SCOTT, of Abbotsford, whose name
will ever be a household word with
every lover of what is chivalrous
and knightly. Here, at the end of
this my last Chapter, I place the
Seal, No. 449, of an earlier Sir
WALTER SCOTT, of Branxholm and
Kirkurd a Knight of another
branch of the same distinguished House, who differenced
the Shield of Scott so as to bear Or, on a bend azure a
mullet and two crescents gold.
Seal of Sir WALTER SCOTT, of
Branxholm and Kirkurd : A.L>.
Abated. Abatement, 100, 213.
Abbotsford, i, 330.
Aberdeen, Earl of; Arms, 68.
Abergavenny, Earl of; Arms, 191.
Accrued, 82, 100.
Achievement, Achievement of Arms,
Addorsed, 87, 100.
Admirals, 264; "Admiral of England,"
Admiralty, Flag of, 264.
Aggroupment of Arms, 161, 167.
Agnes de Percy ; Seal, 164.
Agnus Dei, as a Badge, 148, 284.
Alant, Aland, 100.
Albemarle, Earl of; Supporters, 02.
Albert, H.R.H., The late Prince See
Albert Medal, 293.
Alerion, 96, 100.
Alianore de Bohun. See Bohun.
Alianore of Aquitaine ; Arms, 268.
Alianore of Castile and Leon ; Arms,
166, 169 ; Monument, 326.
Alianore. Daughter of Edward I., 77.
Alice of Hesse, H.R. H., The Princess,
Alliance. Heraldic Record of, 162,
167 ; Feudal, 200.
Allusive Heraldry, 15.
Alnwick Castle, 326.
Alphabet, the Letters of the, in
America, Heraldry in, 322.
Angels, Heraldic figures of, 75; as
Supporters, 75, 247.
Angio-Saxon Shields and Standards,
Anglo-Saxon Sovereigns, Arms at
tributed to the, 19, 268.
Anjou, Geoffrey, Count of, 192.
Anjou, Queen Margaret of, 97.
Annandale, Arms in, 204.
Anne Boleyn, Queen, 236.
Anne Stuart, Queen, 262 ; Arms, 269,
271 ; Badge, 237 ; Motto, 274.
Annulet, Annulett^e, 72, 101, 120 ; in
Modern Cadency, 198.
Anthony, Saint ; his Cross, 101, 156.
Antique Crown, 101.
Anvers, Sir T. de ; Arms, 209.
Aquitaine; Arms, 268.
Archbishop, 101; Marshalling his Arms,
Archdeacon, L Ercedeckne ; Arms,
Arched, Archy, 101.
Arderne, Sir J. ; Arms, 207.
Argent, 40, 47, 101.
Argyll, Duke of ; Supporters, 92.
Arm, Armed, 80, 101, 102.
Armagh, See of; Arms, 142.
" Armes Parlantes," 16, 76, 102.
Armorial Bearings, 38, 102; Tax on,
Armory, 2, 101.
Arms, Shields and Coats of, 3 ; Ag
groupment of, i6t ; Attributed, 18 ;
Combination of, 161 ; of Community,
102 : of Dominion, 102 ; of Heiress
and Co-heiress, 174, 176; of Herald
Kings, 177 ; of Husband and Wife,
171, 175; of Knight, 177; of Office,
192 ; of Peeress in her own right,
177; of Prelate, 177; of Pretension,
102 ; of Royal Personages, 178, 267 ;
of Succession, 102 ; of Unmarried
Lady, 176; of Widow and Widower,
Arms, Grants and Confirmations of,
" Arms found," 314.
Arragon, Queen Catherine of; Arms,
Art, Heraldic, 24, 27, 330.
Art, Gothic, 329.
Artificial Figures and Devices in
Arthur, H.R.H., The Prince, 279.
Arthur Plantagenet, 195.
Arthur Tudor, The Prince; Badge,
Arundel ; Arms, 17, 209.
Arundel, Fitz Alans, Earls of, 89, 195,
Arundel, Thomas Fitz Alan, Earl of,
Anindel, Radnlphus de ; Arms, 196.
Arundel, the Baron : Supporters, 92.
Ascmia, Bernhard of, 113.
Ashton ; Badge, 148.
Ashwelthorpe ; Monument, 223.
Aspect, Aspectant, 102.
Asscheby (Ashby), Sir R. de j Arms,
At ga/e, 81, 102 ; At speed, 81.
Athole, Duke of; Supporters, 92.
Attires, Attired, 81, 102.
Attributed Arms, 18.
Aulernoun, Sir J. d ; Pennon and
Arms, 144, 254.
Augmentation, Augmented, 102, 103.
Augmentations of Honour, 210; by
" Royal Favour," 212.
Austria, The Emperor of, 97.
Avellane, 57, 103.
Azure, 41, 47, 103.
Badge, 103, 179, 227 ; Varieties of,
228, 229 ; Examples of, 231, 249 ;
marked for Cadency, 198, 233 ; in
Seals, 168, 232 ; peculiarly appro
priate for present use, 234 ; to super
sede Cre-sts, 225, 234 ; borne by
Ladies, 234; in Modern Heraldry,
Badge, of Ostrich Feathers, 237; of
Garter, 286 ; of Thistle, 287 ; of St.
Patrick, 289 ; of Bath, 290, 291 ; of
Star of India, 292.
Badlesmere, Sir B. de ; Arms, 208.
Balliol ; Arms, 66 ; Sir Alexander de,
Seal, 104, 217.
Balliol College, Oxford, 66.
Banner, Armorial, 3, 103. 255 ; blazon
ing of, 39 ; made on field of Battle,
256 ; Royal, 275 ; marked for Ca
dency, 198, 257 ; on Seals, 247 ; at
Sea, 257 ; of Leicester, 14 ; of Tem
plars, 13, 284.
Banneret, 103 ; creation of, 256.
Bar, 51, 103 : examples of, 208.
Barbarossa, The Emperor, 113.
Barbel, 77, 103.
Barded, Barding, 39, 103, 218.
Bardolf; Arms, 186; John Lord, 319.
Barkele. See Berkeley.
Barnacles, Breys, 103.
Baron, Baroness, 104.
Barre, de ; Arms, 103, 165 ; Joan de,
165, 232 ; Henry de, 165 ; Joaa
Barrulee, 52, 105.
Barrulet, 52, 105, 186.
1 arry, 52, 103.
Barry bendy, 60, 105.
Bars Gemelles, 52, 103.
Bar-wise, 53, 105.
Base, 33, 105.
Basinet, 105, 225.
Basingborne, Wm. de ; Arms, 70.
Bassett ; Arms, 63.
Bat, in Heraldry, 79.
Bath Herald, 132.
Bath, Order of the, 289 ; Knights of,
290; Companions of, 290; Insignia
of, 290 ; Stalls of Knights, 291.
Bath, Marquess of, 92.
Baton, 105 : Sinister, 195.
Battled, Battled Embattled, 105.
Bayeux Tape- try, 5.
Beacon, Fire Beacon, 105.
Bear, in Heraldry, 76 ; Bear and
Ragged Staff, 228, 321.
Bearer, 105, 246.
Eeirings, Armorial Bearings, 38, 105.
Beasts, in Heraldry, 76.
Beatrice, H.R.H., The Princess, 279.
Beauchamp, Earl Richard de, 168,
175 214, 321; his Badges, 228; at
Jousts at Calais, 231.
Benu^hamp, Earl Thomas de, 173, 321,
Beauchnmp, of Warwick ; Arms, 173,
175, 188; Badges, 147.
Beauchamp, of Bletshoe ; Arms, iS.
Beauchamp, of Elmley; Arms, 187.
Beauchamp, at Carlaverock; Arms,
Beauchamp ; Differences, 191.
Beauchamp Chapel, the, at Warwick,
173, 191, 327.
Beaufort ; Arms and Differences, 194,
197 ; Badge, 145, 240.
Beaufort, Margaret de, 173, 174, 240.
Beaufort, John de, 193, 194, 242.
Beaufort, Henry de, 193.
Beaumont, Bishop Lewis de; Effigy
and Arms, 162.
Beaumont, Sir J. ; Crest, 223.
Beau-seant, 13, 284.
Bee, Bishop Anthony, 56.
Beckyngton, Bishop ; Rebus, 148.
Bedford, Isabelle, Countess of, 230.
Bedford, John, Duke of, 185.
Bedford, the Duke of ; Supporters, 92.
Bees, in Heraldry, 79.
Beeston, Arms, 79.
Bellingham, Richard ; Seal, 323.
Bend, 58, 105 ; Examples, 207 ; Sinis
Bendlet, 58, 105; in Cadency, 186 ;
Bend-wise, In Bend, 59, 105.
Bendy, 59, 105.
Bennett, John ; Grant of Arms to, 312.
Bere, Sir R. de la ; Crest, 212.
Berkeley ; Arms, 188, 202, 249 ; Badge,
139, 232, 249: Crest, 139, 249.
Berkeroles, Sir Wm. de ; Arms, 207.
Bermyngham, Sir Wm. de ; Arms,
Bernhard, of Ascania, 113.
Beverley Minster, 27, 107, 162, 327.
Bezant, 71, 105; Bezantee, 72.
Bilbesworth, Sir H. de ; Arms, 97.
Billet, Billett^e, 64, 70, 106.
Birds, in Heraldry, 76, 106.
Bird-bolt, 102, 106.
Bishop, 106, 177.
Black Prince. See Edward.
Blasted, 82, 106.
Blazon, 31, 106 ; Epithets and Terms
in, 80, 106.
Blazoning, 31, 39, 45, 106 ; Descriptive,
46, 106 ; in Tinctures, 47.
Blazonry, 31, 106.
Blondeville, Ranulph de; Arms, 201.
Blue Ensign, 264.
Bluet, Sir Wm. ; Arms, 209.
Blundell ; Arms, 65.
Blyborough, Monument at, 107.
Boar, in Heraldry, 106; Boars Head,
Bohemia, the King of, 237.
Bohun, De, Earl of Hereford ; Arms,
59, 90 ; Crest, 91 ; Badge, 155, 168,
Bohun, Alianore de, 165, 173, 326.
Bohun, Mary de, 155.
Bohun, Earl Humphrey de, 59, 84.
Bohun, Sir Gilbert de, 59.
Bohun, Oliver de, 165, 207, 232.
Boleyn, Queen Anne ; Arms, 213, 236.
Bolingbroke, the Viscount j Sup
Bologne, Godfrey de, 97.
Bordet, Sir R. ; Arms, 208.
Bordoun, Sir J. ; Arms, 17, 107, 142.
Bordure, 68, 106 ; Examples, 26, 185 ;
Quartered and Impaled, 173 ; Com-
ponde, 196 ; Engrailed, 197 ; of
Bostock, Hugo; Arms, 97.
Boston, United States; Works on
Heraldry published at, 323.
Boterels, Sir R. de ; Arms, 209.
Botiler, Le ; Arms, 50, 58, 115. See
Botone e, Botony, 56, 106.
Bottetourt ; Arms, 249.
Bottreaux, Margaret ; Seal, 248.
Bouget, Water Bouget, 107.
Bourchier, Lord ; Arms, 248, 326.
Bourchier, Sir H. de; Arms, in, 223.
Bourchier Knot, 107, 134.
Bourdon, 17, 107.
Bow, Bowed, 107.
Bowen Knot, 107, 134.
Braced, Brazed, 107.
Bradestone, Sir T. de ; Arms, 230.
Brey, Sir Reginald de ; Badge, 60, 104.
Brian, Bryan. Sir Guy de ; Arms, 62.
Brittany ; Arms, 14, 169.
Brittany, John, Duke of, 166.
Brivere, Sir W. de ; Badge, 136.
Bronscombe, Bishop, 126.
Brownlow, the Earl ; Supporters, 92.
Bruce, de ; Arms, 164, 204.
Bruce, Margaret, Lady de Ros ; Seal,
Bruce, King Robert de, 151.
Bruce, Robert de, Earl of Carrick ;
Brunswick ; Arms, 272.
Brus, Sir Bernard de ; Arms, 50.
Buccleuch, Duke of; Difference, 195.
Buckingham, Duke of; Supporters, 92.
Buckle. See Fermail.
Burgh, de ; Arms, 167.
Burgh, Elizabeth de; Aims, 167.
Burgh, Hubert de; Arms, 69.
Burgh, William de ; Arms, 167.
Burke, Sir B. ; his " Peerage," 98.
Burnett, George, Esquire, Lord Lyon,
Burton, Abbot; Rebus, 148.
Butterflies, in Heraldry, 79.
Buttons, Heraldic, 229.
Byron; Arms, 119.
Cadency, 107, 180 ; Marked, 182 ;
Marks of, 182, 188 ; by Label, 1^2 ;
by Bordure, 185, 196; by Bendiet,
186, 194 ; by Canton, 186, 195 ; by
Change of Tinctures, 186; by
Change of Charges, 186 ; by Small
Charges, 187; by Official Insignia,
189 ; by Single Small Charge, 190 ;
of Illegitimacy, 192; Marked on
Badges, Banners, Crests, Mant-
lings, Standards, and Supporters,
198, 233, 257 ; Modern, 198.
Cadency, King Richard II. on, 207.
Calais, Citizens of, 205.
Calvary Cross, 55.
Calveley ; Arms, 76.
Cambridge, H.R.H., The Duke of,
Camoys, Eliz., Lady, 173.
Camoys, Thos., Lord de, in, 173-
Camoys, The Baron ; Supporters, 92.
Campbell ; Arms, 70 ; Badge, 328.
Canterbury ; Arms of See, 142 ; Arms
of Deanery, 136; Archbishop of,
101 : Heraldry of the Cathedral,
Canterbury, Wm. de Courtenay, Arch
bishop ot, 189.
Canting Heraldry, 16, 108.
Canton, Cantoned, 64, 108 ; in Ca
dency, 185, 195.
Canvyle, Sir G. de ; Arms, 210.
Caple, Sir R. de ; Arms, 209.
Carbuncle. See Escarbuncle.
Carew, Sir Nicholas ; Arms, 89.
Carlaverock, Roll of, 12, 267.
Carlisle, Earl of; Supporters, 92.
Carnarvon, Earl of ; Supporters, 92.
Carrick, Earl of, 231 ; Earldom of, 276.
Cartouche, 37, 108.
Castile and Leon ; Arms, 17, 102, 169.
Castile and Leon, Queen Alianore of,
Castile and Leon, Ferdinand III.,
King of, 169 ; Pedro, King of, 257.
Castle, 102, 108.
Castle-acre Priory, 44.
Catherine, Queen, of Arragon, 236.
Catherine Parr, Queen, 236.
Cavalry Standards, 264.
Cave; Motto, 139.
Cavendish ; Motto, 140.
Celestial Crown, 108.
Centaur, Sagittarius, 108, 267.
Cercelde, Recercetee, 56, 108.
Champagne; Arms, 124.
Chandos, Sir R. de, 62 ; Sir John, 256.
Chapeau, 108, 220, 222.
Charge, 38, 109; Miscellaneous, 70;
Secondary, 187 : Single Sma.l, 190.
Charlemagne ; his Crown, 272.
Charles I., 195, 286; Arms, 269;
Badge, 236 ; Crown, 275.
Charles II., 104, 197, 212, 287; Arms,
269; Badge, 236.
Charles V., of France, 78, 125.
Charlestone, Sir J. ; Arms, 96.
Charteris ; Motto, 140.
Chastillon; Arms, 166, 172; Guy de,
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 206.
Cha worth, De ; Arms, 167 ; Matilda
de, Seal, 167.
Chequee, Cheeky, 43, 109.
Chester, County Palatine of, 201 ;
Arms, 201, 276; Ranulph, Earl of,
201 ; Prince of Wales, Earl of, 201,
Chester Herald, 131.
Chevron, Chevronel, Chevronnee.
Chevrony, 61, 109 ; Examples, 209.
Chief, 33, 49, 109 ; Examples, 207.
Childrey, Brass at, 156.
Chivalry, High Court of, 206 ; Order
Cholmondeley ; Motto, 140.
Christchurch, Oxford, 243.
Church-Bell. See Bell.
Cinque Ports ; Arms, 171.
Civic Crown, 109.
Clare, De ; Arms, 61, 175, 202 :
Clare, Gilbert de, the " Red Earl," 96.
Clare, in Suffolk, 202.
Claremont Nesle ; Arms, 172.
Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, 167, 184.
Clarence, Thomas, Duke of, 185.
Clarenceux, 109, 131 ; Arms, 132.
Clarendon, Sir Roger de ; Arms, 195.
Clarendon, the Earl of; Supporters, 99.
Clechtfe, Urde, 57, 109.
Cleveland, Duke of; Difference, 195.
Clifford, Lord, 50.
Clintone, Clinton, Sir J. de, 50,207; of
Maxtoke, 207 ; Badge, 231.
Close, no, 116.
Closet, 52, no.
Cloude, 71, no.
Coat of Arms, 3, no, 327.
Coat Armour, no.
Cobham Monuments, 327.
Cockatrice, 79, no.
Cockayne ; Arms, 76.
Coggeshall, John ; Seal, 324.
Co-Heiress; Arms, 174.
Coinage, Heraldry of the, 317.
Coleville, Sir R. de ; Arms, 208.
Collar, no, 131 ; of the Garter, 286;
of the Thistle, 288 ; of St. Patrick,
289 ; of the Bath, 291 ; of the Star
of India, 293.
College of Arms. See Heralds
Colour, 40, 47, in.
" Colours," in, 265.
Combattant, 87, in.
Combination of Arms, 161, 168.
Compon^e, Compony, 43,111; Bordure,
Compound Badges, 134.
Compound Quartering, 34, in.
Compounded Arms, 111, 161, 168.
Confessor, the, 212. See St. Edward.
Confirmation of Arms, 309 ; Ex
Conjoined m Lure, lit.
Consort, H.R.H., The late Prince;
Arms, 275; Difference, 275 ; Coronet,
276, 294; Crest, 276; Supporters,
276 ; Motto, 276.
Contoise, in, 218.
Controversy, the Scrope and Gros-
Copford Hall, Essex, 325.
Corbet ; Arms, 17.
Cork, Earl of ; Supporters, 92.
Cornish Chough, in.
Cornwall ; Arms of the Duchy of, 276.
Cornwall, Edmund, Earl of, 94 ;
Richard, Earl of, 68, 83, 94, 209.
Cornwall, Piers Gaveston, Earl of, 95.
Cornwall, The Prince of Wales, Duke
Costume, Heraldry of. 327.
Cosynton, Sir S. de ; Arms, 231.
Cotise, Cotised, 58, 112.
Couchant, Dormant, 86, 112.
Couchee, 38, 112.
Counter-changing, 44. 112.
Counter Componee, 43, 112.
Counter Passant, 87.
Counter Potent, 41.
Counter Rampant, 87.
Counter Salient, 87.
Couped, 55, 87, 112.
Courtenay, William de, Archbishop,
189: Peter de, Bishop, 234.
Courtenay, Earl Edward de, 143, 221;
Courtesy, Titles of, 113.
Courthope, William, Esq., late Somer
set Herald, 9.
Coventry, Earl of; Supporters, 99.
Coward, Cowed, 86, 113.
Crawford, Deverguilla ; Seal, 247.
Crescent, 68, 113; in Modern Cadency,
Crest, 113, 178, 215 ; Early, 220 ;
Marked for Cadency, 198 ; Diffe
renced, 223 ; as originally worn,
226 ; two or more, 226 ; superseded
by Badge, 225, 234 ; of England,
91, 272: of Scotland, 91, 273: of
English Princes, 91, 276 ; of Edward
III., 99; German, 219.
Crest-Coronet, 113, 120.
Crest-Wreath, 114, 120, 123.
Cretinge, Sir J. de ; Arms, 209.
Crombe, de ; Arms, 61.
Cross, 54, 114; Through, 54; Couped,
or Humette e, 55 ; Voided, 55 ;
Fimbriated, 54 ; of St. George, 54,
261 ; of St. Andrew, 60, 261 ; of St.
Patrick, 6t, 262 ; of St. Anthony, or
Tau, 55 ; Greek, 55 ; Latin, 55 ;
Quarter-pierced, 54 ; Quarterly-
pierced, 55 ; on Degrees, 55 ; Calvary,
55 ; Heraldic Varieties of, 55 ;
Quadrate, 55, 146 ; Patriarchal, 55,
144 ; Fourche e, 55, 125 ; Moline, 56,
139, 198; Recercel^e, 56, 150;
Patonce, 56, 144 ; Fleurie, 56, 125 ;
Fleurette e, 56, 125; Pommee, 56;
Botontfe, orTreflee,56, 106; Crosslet,
56; Clech^e, or Urde e, 57, 109;
Pat^e, or Formee, 57, 144 ; Maltese,
and of eight points, 57 ; Potent, 57,
145 ; Avellane, 57, 103 ; Fitcuee,
Crosslet, Crossed Crosslet, 56.
Crown, 114, 140, 275.
Crusader Kings ; Arms, 43.
Crusilee, Crusily, 115.
Cubit- Arm, 115.
Cummin ; Arms, 95.
Cup, Covered Cup, 115.
" Curiosities of Heraldry," by Mr. M
A. Lower, 303.
Cushion, Oreiller, Pillow, 115.
Czar, The j Arms, 93.
Dacre Knot, 115, 134.
Dageworth, Sir J. ; Arms, 51, 208.
Dalmenhurst ; Arms, 278.
Dancette, 34, 70, 115, 159.
Danse. See Dancette.
Darcy, D Arcy ; Arms, 65.
Darnley, Lord : Arms, 67.
Daubeney, Sir Giles, K.G., 326.
D Aubigny ; Arms, 173.
Dauphin, The, 77, 82.
Decoration, Heraldic, 328.
Decrescent, In Detriment, 80, 116.
Deer, 81, 116.
Degrees, Degreed, Degraded, 55, 116.
Deincourt; Arms. 70.
Delamere, Sir John, 96 ; Sir G., 208.
Demembered, Dismembered, 116.
Denbigh, Earl of, 95, 98.
Denmark ; Arms, 83 278.
Dependency, Feudal, 200.
Despencer, Le ; Arms, 175, 190.
Despencer, Isabelle le. 175 ; Bishop
Henry le, 189, 222 ; John le, 151
Devon, Earl of, 221.
Dexter, 32, 33, 118.
Deyville Sir J. de, 209.
Diaper, Diapering, 44, 116.
Difference, Differencing, 116, 181, 200.
Differenced Shields, 191, 207.
Differences, Temporary, 181 ; Perma
nent, 181 ; for Distinction only, 205 ;
of Illegitimacy, 192.
Dimidiation, Dimidiated, 116, 166, 171.
Disclosed, 8r, 116.
Displayed. 81. 116.
Disposition, Disposed, 45, 116.
Ditzmers ; Arms, 278.
Dividing and Border Lines, 34, 116.
Dolphin, 8. 78, 82, 117.
Dormant, 86, 117.
Douglas ; Arms, 74 ; Crest, 151 ;
Badge, 231 : Augmentation. ?T2.
Douglas, Sir James, 74 ; Lord William,
74 ; the first Earl, 74.
Douglas and Mar, William, Earl of,
Dove-tail. 34, 117.
Doyle ; Motto, 140.
Dragon, 79, 117.
" Dresses of Arms," 328.
Dreux, De; Arms, 116, r6S.
Dreux, John de, Duke of Brittany.
Drummond, John ; Seal, 252.
Drury ; Arms, 156.
Dublin, De Vere, Marquess of, 138.
Dublin, Earldom ; Arms. 276.
Dublin ; Arms of See, 142.
Ducal Coronet, 118.
Dudley, Earl Robert, 214.
Dudley, Thomas ; Seal, 223.
Dunboyne, the Baron ; Supporters, 92.
Eagle. Heraldic, 25, 76; in Stained
glass at York, 92 ; sculptured in
Westminster Abbey, 93 ; with one
Head, 93 ; with two Heads, 93 : Im
perial, crowned, 95 ; with Nimbus,
95 ; Drawing of, 98 ; German, 98 ;
Austrian, 98 ; French, 98 ; as Sup
porter. 99 ; as Badge, 148.
Eaglet, 95, 99, 118.
Earl Marshal, The, 131.
Eastern, Radiated, or Antique Crown,
Ecclesal, Ekeleshale ; Arms, 203.
Ecclesiastics, Heraldic decoration of
their Vestments, 162.
Echingham, De ; Anns, 71.
Edinburgh. H.R.H., the Duke of, 279.
Edmond, Son of Edward I., 185.
Edmund, Saint ; Arms, 19, 213, 268.
Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, 94.
Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, 123, 183,
1 86, 326.
Edward, Saint, the Confessor; Arms,
Edward I. ; Label as Prince Royal,
182 ; Arms, 268 ; Badge, 235 ; Bard-
ing of Charger, 103 ; Rolls of Arms
of his era, 13.
Edward II. ; Label as Prince Royal.
182 ; Arms, 268 ; Badge, 235 ; Roll
of Arms of his era. 13.
Edward III. ; Label as Prince Royal,
182 ; Arms, 268 ; quarters France
Ancient, 124 ; Crest, 90, 99, 220,
272 ; Badges, 235, 239 ; Supporters,
245 ; Heraldry of his Monument,
26, 173 ; Roll of Arms of his era, 13 ;
Heraldry in his time, 9 ; his love of
Heraldry, 230 ; founds the Order of
the Garter, 284.
Edward IV. ; Arms, 269 ; Supporters,
273 ; Badges, 236 ; Coins, 317 ;
grants Augmentations, 213.
Edward V. ; Arms, 269.
Edward VI. ; Arms, 269; Supporters,
273 ; Badges, 236 ; bears the Ostrich
Feather Badge, 238 ; Coins, 317.
Edward the Black Prince ; Arms, 135,
182, 195 ; Crest, gt, 222 : Badge, 237,
239 ; Motto, 241 ; First English Duke
and Prince of Wales. 117, 241 ; at
Naveret, 256 ; his Will, 241 ; his
Monument, 26, 241.
Eglesfield, Robert de ; Arms, 97.
Eleanor. See Alianore.
Electoral Bonnet, 119, 272.
Elford, Monuments at, 222.
Elizabeth, Queen ; Arms, 260 ; Sup
porters, 273 ; Badges and Mottoes,
236. 274 ; Changes Colour of Ribbon
of the Garter, 127, 287 ; her Monu
Elizabeth, Countess of Holland and of
Elsyng, Brass at, 223, 326.
Eltham, Prince John of, 26, 124, 163,
Embattled, Battled, 34, 119.
Embowed, 82, 119.
Endorse, Endorsed, 53, 119.
England ; Arms, 27, 83, 89, 267 ;
Royal Heraldry of, 267 ; Patron
Saints of, 19 ; Lions of, 88, 267 ;
Crest, 91, 272 ; Supporters, 91, 273;
Badges, no, 235; Crowns, 275;
Engrailed, 34, 119, 197.
Ensign, 263 : Red, 263 : White, 264 ;
Entire, Entoire, Entoyre, 119.
Epithets, Heraldic, and Descriptive
Eradicated, 82, 120.
Erased, 87, 120.
Ermine, Ermines, Ermmois, 41, 42,
Erne, 96, 120.
Erneford, Wm. de ; Arms, 96.
Erskine ; Arms, 53.
Escallop, 59, 77, 78, 120.
Escarbuncle, 15, 120.
Eschales ; Arms, 17.
Escutcheon, 120 ; of Pretence, 120,
Essex, Henry, Earl of, 223.
Essex, the Earl of j Supporters, 92.
Estoteville, Sir M. de ; Arms, 208.
Estwick ; Motto, 140.
Etone, Sir N. de ; Arms, 96.
Eureux, D , of Salisbury, 192.
Exeter Cathedral, in, 239.
Exeter, Hollands, Dukes of, 185 ; John
Grandison, Bishop of, 189.
Exeter, Marquess of; Supporters, 92.
Fabulous Beings, in Heraldry, 79.
Fairfax ; Motto, 139.
Falconer ; Arms, 17.
False, 120; False Cross, 55; False
Escutcheon, 66 j False Roundle, 72,
Fan, Vane, 121.
Fan-Crest, 121, 217.
Faroe Islands ; Arms, 278.
Fauconberg, Sir Wm. ; Arms, 209.
Feathers, in Heraldry, 121. See
Fees, for Grants of Arms, &c., 308,
Felbrigge, Sir S. de, K.G., 122.
Felbrigg, Brass at, 122.
Fenwick, John ; Arms, 44.
Fermail, Fermaux, 121.
Ferrers, De ; Arms, 190 ; Anne de,
190; Margaret de, 173; William,
Lord, of Groby, 190; Lord, of
Fesse, 50, 121 ; Examples, 208.
Fesse-Point, 33, 121.
Fesse-wise, In Fesse, 51, 121.
Feudal Influence, in Heraldry, 201.
Feudal Alliance and Dependency,
Heraldic Record of, 150, 162, 200.
Field, 38, 122 ; Varied Fields, 42 ;
"Of the Field," 43.
Fillet, 50, 122.
Fimbriation, Fimbriated, 54, 122.
Fish, in Heraldry, 82, 102, 122.
Fishbourne, Giles de j Arms, 78.
Fitchee, 58, 122.
Fitton ; Motto, 140.
Fitz Alan, of Bedale, 53.
Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, 84, 89, 118,
Fitz Parnel, Earl Robert, 201.
Fitz Payne, Sir R. le ; Arms, 209.
Fitz Ralph ; Arms, 202.
Fitz Roy, Henry ; Arms, 100.
Fitz Walter, Robert Le ; Arms, 50.
Fitz Warine, Fitz Waryn ; Anns, 14 ;
Sir Fulk de, 190.
Fitz Urse : Arms, 76.
Flags, 254; Military, 264; Four re
marks upon, 266.
Flanches, Flasques, 68, 69, 122.
Fleur de Lys, 122 ; quartered by Ed
ward III., 124; Removed from
Royal Shield of England, 272 j iu
Modern Cadency, 198.
Fleurie, 56, 125.
Fleurettee, Florettee, 56, 125.
Flighted, 102, 125.
Flodden Field, 211.
Foreign Insignia, 295.
Forneus, Sir R. de ; Arms, 63.
Forth, Viscount ; Seal, 252.
Fountain, 72, 125.
Fourch^e, 55, 86, 125.
" France Ancient," 122, 124 ; " France
Modern," 122, 125 ; " Bordure of
France," 124 ; " Label of France,"
123 ; Imperial Eagle of, 99.
Fraser, Wm. ; Seal, 199.
Frederick II., Emperor; Arms, 93.
Frere ; Arms, 58.
Frette, Frettee, Fretty, 64, 71, 125, 134.
Froissart, 256, 281.
Fructed, 82, 126.
Fur, 40, 42, 126.
Furnival, De ; Arms, 186, 203.
Fusil, Fusillee, Fusily, 70, 126.
Fynderne, Wm., 156.
Gad, Gadlyng, 126.
Gambe. See Jambe.
Garb, 126, 201.
Garter, Order of the, 127, 284; In
signia of the, 127, 286 ; Stalls and
Garter Plates of Knights, 285 j Offi
Garter King-of-Arms, 126, 131 ; Arms,
Gaveston, Piers ; Arms, 95.
Gemelles, Bars Gemelles, 52.
Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, 192.
George, Saint ; Arms, 19, 126, 261 ;
Chapel of, 104.
George, The, of the Garter, 126, 286 ;
The Lesser, 127, 286.
George I. ; Arms, 271, 272.
George II. ; Arms, 272.
George III. ; Arms, 272.
George IV. ; Arms, 272.
Germany, The Emperor of; Arms, 92.
Germany, The King of; Arms, 92.
Geytone, Sir J. de ; Arms, 208.
Ghent, Prince John of, 183, 193, 240,
Giffard ; Arms, 154.
Giffard, Sir A., 72; Sir J., 89, 209.
Girt, Girdled, 127.
" Glossary of Heraldry," The Oxford,
3 1 -
Glossary of Titles, Names, and Terms,
Gloucester, Alianore, Duchess of, 326.
See De Bohun.
Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of, 185,
243, 326 ; Thomas, Duke of, 240,
Gloucester, Thomas le Despencer,
Earl of, 175.
Gloucester, Ralph de Monthermer,
Earl of, 95.
Gloucester Cathedral, Tiles at, 327.
Gold, 42, 47.
Gorges, R. de ; Arms, 128..
Gothic Architecture, Heraldry in, 325.
Gothic Art, its Heraldic Character, 329.
Gothic Monuments, Heraldry of, 326.
Gough, Lord ; Arms, 23.
Goutte e, Gutte*e, 127.
Grafton, Duke of; Supporters, 92;
Graham, Robert ; Seal, 250.
Grand Quartering, Grand Quarters,
34, 127, 170.
Grandison ; Arms, 54, 96, 189.
Grandison, Bishop John de, 189.
Grants of Arms, 309 ; Example, 310.
Great Malvern, Tiles at, 327.
Great Yarmouth ; Arms, 171.
Greek Cross, 55.
Greenland ; Arms. 278.
Greville, Earl of Warwick, 214.
Grey ; Arms, 53 ; Crest of Sir Richard
de Grey, K.G., 222.
Griffin. See Gryphon.
Grosvenor; Arms, 201 ; Sir R. de, 58,
Gryphon, Griffin, 79.
Guardant, 85, 128.
" Guide to the Study of Heraldry," by
Mr. Montagu, 2, 9, 196.
Guige, 37, 128.
Gules, 41, 48, 128.
Gurges, Gorges, 128.
Gyron, Gyronnee, Gyronny, 64, 70,
Hainault, The Counts of; Arms, 83.
Hainault, Queen Philippa of, 237, 239.
Hames, Haimes, 128.
Hamilton; Crest, 151, 220.
Hamilton, Sir Gilbert de, 151.
Hanover ; Arms, 271 ; Livery Colours,
Harcourt, Sir R. ; Arms, 224 ; Hare-
court, or Harcourt ; Arms, 51, 186.
Hardinge, Viscount ; Supporters, 92.
Hardwick, Earl of; Supporters, 92.
Harris ; Arms, 76.
Harrington Knot, 134.
Harsyck, Sir J. ; Crest, 224.
Hart, 81, 116, 128.
Hastings, the Earl, 202 ; Edmund
de, 202 ; Edward, Lord, 134; Sir
Hastings ; Arms, 137 ; Crest, 223.
Hatfield, Bishop, 222.
Hauriant, 82, 129.
Hautville, Sir G. de ; Arms, 209.
Hawk s Bells, Jesses, and Lure, 129.
Hay ; Arms, 120.
Haynes, John ; Seal, 325.
Headfort, The Marquess of; Sup
Heiress, Arms of, 174.
Helena, H.R.H., The Princess, Prin
cess Christian, 280.
Helm, Helmet, 129, 178.
Hemenhale ; Arms, 51.
Hempbrake, Hackle, 130.
Heneage Knot, 130, 134.
Henry I. ; Arms, 88, 137, 267 ; Badge,
Henry II. ; Arms, 267 ; Badges, 235.
Henry III. ; Arms, 268 ; Badge, 235 ;
Rolls of Arms of his Era, 13.
Henry IV. ; Label, as Duke of Lan
caster, 185 ; Motto, in, 242 ; Arms,
268 ; quarters " France Modern,"
125; Badges, 235; Crown, 275;
Henry V.; Arms, 269; Badges, 155,
236; Supporters, 273; Crown, 115.
Henry VI. ; Arms, 269; Badges, 236;
Supporters, 91, 273; Crown, 115,
275 ; Motto, 274.
Henry VII.; 127, 238, 286, 296 ; Arms,
269 : Badges, 236 ; Supporters, 273 ;
Henry VIII. ; 127, 195, 213, 286;
Arms. 269; Badges, 236; Supporters,
273 ; Coins, 318.
Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, 186.
" Herald and Genealogist," 303.
Heralds of England, Incorporated, 305.
Herald-Kings, 131, 177.
Heraldic Sails, 257.
Heralds College, 131, 305
Heraldry, Early Love of in England,
2; Early Influence, 2; Definition
and True Character of, 3 ; Introduc
tion into England, and Establish
ment, 4 ; Utility of, 4 ; English
Mediaeval, 5; Ancient, 6, 9 ; English,
its Career, 9 ; Early English Litera
ture of, 12 ; its Allusive Character,
15 ; Canting, 16 ; Revival in England,
20, 24. 307 ; Debasement, 21, 22 ; a
Science, 24, 27, 30, 330; an Art, 24,
27, 330 ; Style of Art in, 24, 30 ;
Treatment of Animate Creatures in,
24, 27 ; Language of, 29 ; Nomen
clature, 29 ; Style and Forms of Ex
pression, 30 ; Birds in, 76 ; Beasts in,
76; Human Beings in, 73 ; the Lion
in, 83, 87 ; the Eagle in, 9, 92 ;
Scottish, 132, 204 ; of Monuments,
326 ; Royal, 267 ; cf the Coinage,
317 ; its present Popularity, 307 ; in
Architecture, 325 ; of Illuminations,
327 ; in Inlaid Tiles, 327 ; of Cos
tume, 327 ; in the United States of
" Heraldry of Fish," by Mr. Moule,
Hereford, De Bohuns, Earls of, 59 ;
Elizabeth, Countess of, 164.
Hereford Cathedral, 222.
Herison, Herrison, 76, 132.
Heriz, De (Harris) ; Arms, 76.
Herring ; Arms, 77.
Herschel, Sir J. ; Arms, 23.
Heytesbury and Hornet, Lord, 232,
Heytesbury, the Baron; Supporters,
HH?, Hillock, 132.
Hind, 81, 116, 132.
Hirondelle, 77, 132.
Holland, Counts of, 83 ; Elizabeth,
Countess of, 164.
Hollands, of Exeter, 185, 213 ; of Kent
and Surrey, 185, 213.
Holland, John, Earl of Huntingdon :
Holstein ; Arms, 278.
Honour, Augmentations of, 210.
Honour-Point, 33, 132.
" Honours," Regimental, 264.
Honourable Insignia, Medals, and
Clasps, 179, 294.
Hospitallers. See St. John, Knights of.
Hotspur, Henry, 173.
Howard; Arms, 211; Augmentatior ,
211 ; Crest, 91, 223 ; Badge, 231.
Howard, Thos., Duke of Norfolk, 211.
Howard, Dr. J. J., 303.
Human Beings, in Heraldry, 73.
Humett^e, 55, 133.
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 185,
Hungerford, 232 ; Badge, 231.
Hungerford, Lord, 248 ; Sir Walter de,
232, 255, 2 57 J Sir Robert de, 233,
Huntingdon, Thos., Earl of, 258.
Huntingfield, Roger de ; Arms, 72.
Huntley, the Marquess of, 68.
Hurte, 72, 133.
Husband and Wife, Marshalling their
Arms, 171, 175.
Hussy ; Arms, 233.
Iceland ; Arms, 278.
Illegitimacy, Cadency of, 192.
Illuminations, Heraldry of, 327.
Imaginary Beings, in Heraldry, 79.
Imbrued, Imbued, 133.
Impalement, Impaled, 172 ; of the
Bordure and Tressure, 173.
Imperial Crown, The, 114, 275; Im
perially Crowned, 133.
In Bend, 59, 133.
In Chevron, 62, 133.
In Chief, 50, 133.
In Complement, 80, 133.
In Cross, 55, 133.
In Detriment, 80.
In Fesse, 51, 133.
In Foliage, 81, 133.
In Glory, 80, 133.
In Increment, 80.
In Lure, 81, 133.
In Orle, 66.
In Pale, 54.
In Piety, 81.
In Plenitude, 80.
In Pretence, 133.
In Pride, 81, 133.
In Quadrangle, 133.
In Saltire, 61.
In Splendour, 80, 133.
Increscent, 80, 133.
Indented, 34, 133
Inescutcheon, 65, 135.
Infantry Colours, 265.
Innes, Walter ; Seal, 10.
Innes, or De Ynays, Wm. ; Seal, n.
Insects, in Heraldry, 79, 82.
Insignia, Foreign, 295.
Ireland; Badge, 152, 235; Heraldry
of, 309 ; Chief Heiald of, 132.
Ireland, De Vere, Duke of, 213.
Isabel, of France ; Seal, 124, 164.
Isabel, Countess of Bedford, 230.
Isabel le Despenser, 175.
Isle of Man ; Arms, 9, 74.
Isles, Lordship of, 276
Islip, Abbot ; Rebus, 148.
Jambe, Gambe, 87, 133.
James I. of Scotland ; Supporters, 273.
James IV. of Scotland; at Flodden,
211 ; Supporters, 274.
James V. of Scotland; Crest and
Motto, 273 ; Garter Plate, 67.
James VI. of Scotland James I. of
Great Britain ; Arms, 269 ; Sup
porters, 91, 273 ; Badges and Motto,
156, 236, 274 ; creates Baronets, 104;
his proclamation for first " Union
James II.; Arms, 269; Supporters,
274; Badge, 236; frames Statutes
for Order of Thistle, 287.
iames ; Motto, 140.
ane Seymour, Queen, 236.
ardine ; Arms, 204.
Jefferay ; Motto, 140.
Jerusalem ; Arms, 43.
Jessant. Jessant de lys, 133.
] esses, 133.
Jewellery, Heraldic, 328.
Joan, Daughter of Edward I., 95.
Joan, Countess of Surrey; Seal, 165.
Joanna, of Navarre, Queen; Badge,
John, King ; his Seal as Prince, 88 ;
Arms, 268 ; Badge, 235.
John, Prince, of Eltham, 26, 124, 169,
John, Prince, of Ghent, 183, 193, 240
iohn de Dreux, 166, 168.
ohn, Duke of Bedford, 185.
ohn de Warrenne, Earl of Surrey,
ohnston ; Arms, 204.
uxon, Archbishop, 286.
Kent, De Burgh, Earl of, 69; Hol
lands, Earls of, 185.
" King Maker," the, 204, 214, 229.
King, Mr. ; his " Hand-book of En
graved Gems," 6.
King-of-Arms, 131. See Herald.
King s College Chapel, Cambridge,
Heraldry of, 25, 326.
King s Langley, Monument at, 326.
Kinnoul, Earl of, 308.
Kirkpatrick ; Arms, 204.
Kirton, Abbot ; Rebus, 148.
Knight, Knighthood, Knightly Orders,
117, 134, 179, 281.
Knights of St. John, 57, 283 ; Tem
plars, 13, 284.
Knot, 134, 231.
Kyrkeby ; Arms, 65.
Label, 135, 182 ; Forms of, 135 ; Points
of, 135, 182; Differenced, 183, 184;
a Royal Difference, 183; as borne
by Princes Royal, 182 ; by Black
Prince, 182 ; by Princes of Wales,
183 ; of Brittany, 183 ; of France,
183; of Lancaster, 183, 184; of
York, 183; borne as a Badge, 199;
in Modern Cadency, 198.
Laci, Lacy, De ; Arms, 84, 89, 164.
Laci, Earl Henry de ; Crest, 216.
Lacy Knot, 135.
Ladies, Unmarried ; their Arms, 176.
Ladies , Heraldic Costume, 162, 165,
327 ; their right to bear Badges, 234.
Laing, Mr. H., his "Catalogue of
Scottish Seals," n, 164, 199, 218,
232, 247, 250, 274, 318, 330.
Lambert ; Arms, 76.
Lambton ; Arms, 76.
Lancaster, Label of, 183 ; Rose of, 150,
235 ; Badge of, 155 ; Livery Colours
of, 136 ; Collar of, no.
Lancaster, Edmund, Earl of, 123, 183,
186, 326; Henry, Earl of, 186, 247 ;
Thomas, Earl of, 218 ; John of Ghent,
Duke of, 183 (see John of Ghent) ;
Matilda of, 167, 190.
Lancaster Herald, 131.
Lance-Rest. See Clarion.
Lane, Jane, 212.
Language, of Heraldry, 29, 30.
Langued, 80, 136.
Latimer, George, Lord, 191 ; William
le, 143, 221.
Latin Cross, 55.
" Law and Practice of Heraldry in
Scotland," by Mr. Seton, 9, 68, 94,
140, 204, 309.
Law of Tinctures, 43.
Leaves, in Heraldry, 102, 136.
Leechford, Sir R., Confirmation cf
Arms to, 313.
Legh, Gerard, 2?.
Legion of Honour, 295.
Leicester, Banner of, 14.
Leicester, Robert, Earl of, 201.
Leicestershire Families, their Arms,
Lennox, Countess of; Arms, 67, 326.
Leon ; Arms, 83, 169. See Castile.
Leopard, Leopard^, 84, 267.
Leopold, H.R.H., The Prince, 279.
L Ercedeckne ; Arms, 202.
Leslie ; Arms, 95 ; Euphemia, Countess
of Ros, 95.
" Lesser George," The, 127.
Le Strange. See Strange.
Letters of the Alphabet, in Heraldry,
Leverett, John ; Seals, 324, 325.
Leveson ; Arms, 17, 102.
Leybourne, Sir W. de ; Arms, 90.
Lichfield, Joust at, 230.
Lincoln, Earls of ; Arms, 89, 164, 209.
Lincoln, Henry, Earl of; Crest, 216.
Lincoln and Pembroke, Margaret,
Countess of, 164.
Lindsay, Sir W. ; Seal, 250.
Line, Border Line, Lined, 136.
Lion, in Heraldry, 25, 27, 76, 83 ;
Heraldic Treatment of, 23, 92; of
England, 88, 267 ; of Scotland, 67,
269 ; as a Crest, 90 ; as a Supporter,
90, 91, 274 ; Percy Lion, 223 ;
Howard Lion, 223 ; Examples of
Lion s Face, 87 ; Head, 87 ; Jambe, 87.
Lioncel, 87, 136.
Lion-leopard, Lion-leopard^, 85.
Lionel, Prince, of Clarence, 167, 184.
Lisle, Arthur, Viscount, 195.
Little Easton, Brass at, in, 223.
Livery Colours, 130.
Lodged, 80, 136.
Lomelye, Lumley, Sir R. ; Arms, 208.
London, City of ; Arms, 155.
Longesp^e, William, Earl of Salisbury,
84, 90, 192, 326.
Lord of the Isles ; Arms, 137, 276.
Lord Lyon, 132, 246, 308.
Lorn ; Arms, 136.
Lorraine ; Arms, 97.
Loterel, Luterell ; Arms, 76, 186, 202,
Loterel, Luterell, Sir A., 176; Sir G.,
Louis VII., of France, 122.
Louisa, H.R.H., The Princess, 279.
Louvaine ; Arms, 170.
Lower, Mr. M. A., 9, 303; on Crests,
Luce, 17, 77, 136.
Lucy ; Arms, 17, 170 ; Sir Anthony,
78 ; Geoffrey de, 78.
Ludlow Church, 238.
Lunenburgh ; Arms, 272, 278.
Lure, 81, 136
Luterell. See Loterel.
Lyhart, Bishop Walter ; Rebus, 148.
Lyon Office, 132, 308 : Depute, 308.
Mahon, Sir W. ; Motto, 252.
Maintenance, Cap of, 137.
Malet, Sir R., 209 ; Sir T., 209.
Malmesbury, Earl of; Supporters, 99.
Maltese Cross, 57
Man, Isle of, 9, 74.
Manche, Maunche, 137.
Mandeville, Geoffrey de, 15.
Manfee, Sir W. ; Arms, 209.
Mantle, 137; of Arms, 328.
Mantling, 137, 178, 220; Marked for
March, Mortimers, Earls of; Seals,
Margaret, of Anjou, Queen, 97 ; of
France, 123, 163, 171 ; Bruce, 164 ;
Beaufort, 173 ; Tudor, 174 ; Countess
of Lincoln, 164 ; de Ferrers, 173.
Marks of Cadency, Marking Cadency.
Marlbprough, Duke of, 95, 98.
Marmion, Sir R. de ; Crest, 222.
Marny, Sir R. de ; Seal, 220.
Marquess, Marquis, Marchioness, 137.
Marriage, Heraldic Record of, 171.
Marshalling, 138, 161 ; by Combina
tion, 168 ; by Quartering, 169 ;
Quartered Coats, 170 ; Arms of Hus
band and Wife, 171, 175 ; Crests,
178 ; Helms, Coronets, Mantlings,
Mottoes, Supporters, Badges, and
Various Insignia, 178, 179.
Martel, 17, 138.
Martlet, 77, 138 ; in Modern Cadency,
Martin ; Crest and Motto, 140.
Mary Tudor, Queen ; Arms, 269 ; Sup
porters, 273 ; Badges, 236 ; grants
Derby House to the Heralds, 131.
Mary Stuart, Queen ; Arms, 269.
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots ; her
Signet, 274 ; Heraldry of her Monu
Mary, The Princess, of Teck, 280.
Mary de Saint Paul ; Seal, 166, 168.
Mascle, Mascutee, 69, 138.
Matilda de Chaworth, 167 ; of Lan
Medjidie, Order of the, 295.
Melfort, Earl ; Seal, 252.
Menteith. Earl of, 94 ; Sir J., 95.
Merchant s Mark, 138.
Mere, De la. See Delamere.
Merevale, Brass at, 222.
Merit, Order of, 289.
Mermaid, Merman, or Triton, 139.
Metals, 40, 42, 139.
Methuen, the Baron, 95.
Mill-rind. See Fer-de-Moline.
" Miscellanea Genealogica et He-
Moline, 56, 139.
Molines, Molyneux, De ; Arms, 56.
Monecastre, SirW. de ; Arms, 208.
Monson, the Baron ; Supporters, 92.
Montacute, De, Montagu ; Origin of
the Name, 16 ; Arms, 70, 96.
Montagu, Mr., his work on Heraldry,
a, 9, 196.
Montfort, De ; Arms, 59 ; Sir de,
Montgomerie, Sir W. de, 96.
Montgomerie, Earl of Eglintoun ;
Monthermer, Sir Ralph de, 95, 99.
Moon, the, 80.
Monypeny, Thomas ; Seal, 320
Mortimer, De ; Origin of the Name,
16 ; Arms, 65,173; Differences, 187;
Mortimer, Edmund de, Earl of March;
Motto, 139, 178, 227 ; Royal, 227
Moule, Mr., his " Heraldry of Fish,"
Mounpynzon ; Arms, 77.
Mounteney, De ; Arms, 203; SirE de,
204; Sir J. de, 204; SirT. de, 204.
Mowbray, Sir J., 209 ; Roger de, 89 ;
Thomas de, Duke of Norfolk, 213,
Mullet, 140 ; in Modern Cadency, 198.
Mundegumri, John ; Seal, 10.
Mural Crown, 141.
Murallee, Walled. See Walled.
Mure, Wm. ; Seal, 320.
Muschamp ; Arms, 79.
Naiant, 82, 141.
Nassau ; Arms, 270.
Natural Objects, in Heraldry, 79.
Naval Crown, 141.
Navarre ; Arms, 124, 236.
Naveret, Battle of, 256.
Nebulee, 34, 141.
Nelson, Admiral Lord: Arms, 23.
Neville ; Arms, 61 ; Differences, 191 ;
Neville, George de. Lord Latimer, 191.
Neville, Earl Richard de, 204, 214, 229.
Newburgh ; Arms, 321, 322.
Nicholas, Sir N. Harris, 9 ; on Ostrich
Feather Badge, 237 ; on " Union
Nichols, Mr. J. Gough, 9, 15, 303.
Nimbus, Nimbed, 95, 98, 141.
Nomenclature, Heraldic, 29.
Norfolk, the Duke of; Arms, 21 T ;
quarters Mowbray, 89: Supporters,
92 ; Crest, 223 ; Earl Marshal, 131.
Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, Duke of,
Normans, their Shields and Standards,
Norroy, 131. See Herald.
Northumberland, Earls of; Arms, 78,
Northumberland, Henry, ist Earl of,
170; the Duke of, 92, 223.
Nortone, Sir J. de ; Arms, 209.
Norway ; Arms, 83.
Norwich; Arms of See, 189; Henry,
Bishop of, r8g.
Nova Scotia, Badge. See Baronet
Nowed, 82, 141.
Octofoil, in Modern Cadency, 198.
Official Insignia, 179 ; in Cadency, 189,
Official Arms, 177.
Ogress, 72, 141.
Oldenburgh ; Arms, 278.
Oldham, Bishop ; Rebus, 148.
Onslow ; Motto, 140.
Oppressed, Debruised, 141.
Or, 40, 141.
Orders of Knighthood. See Knight
Order of Merit, 289.
Ordinaries, 42, 49, 141 ; their struc
tural Origin, 14, 63.
Ordinary of Arms, 141. See Armory.
Orle, In Orle, 66, 142, 160.
Ostrevant, Comte of, 237.
Ostrich Feather Badge, 142, 223, 237.
Ousflet, Sir G. de ; Arms, 208.
Overall, Sur tout, 142.
Overstone, the Baron ; Supporters, 99.
Overt, 8r, 142.
Oxford, De Veres, Earls of, 213.
Oxney, John ; Rebus, 148.
Padlock, Badge, 249.
Paignel, John ; Arms, 202.
Painted Chamber, Westminster, 255.
Pale, Pale-wise, In Pale, Paly, 53. 54.
Palliot, French Writer on Heraldry,
Paly Bendy, 60, 142.
Panache, 142, 220, 221.
Parr, Queen Catherine, 236.
Party, Parted, 33, 143.
Passant, Passant Guardant, Passant
Reguardant, Passant Repassant, 85,
Pastoral Staff, 144.
Patee, or Formee, 57, 144.
Pateshulle, J. de. ; Arms, 51.
Patonce, 57, 144.
Patriarchal, 57, 144.
Pawne, Peacock, 76.
Pean, 41, 144.
Pebmarsh, Brass at, 202.
Peche, Sir John, 149.
Pedro, King of Castile, 257.
Peeress in her own Right, 177.
Pegasus, 144, 284.
Pelham ; Arms, 76 ; Badge, 231.
Pelican, 76, 144.
Pellet, 72, 144.
Pembridge, Sir R. de ; Crest, 221.
Pembroke, the Earl of, 166 ; De
Valences, Earls of, 326.
Pembroke College, Cambridge, 166,167.
Penbrugge ; Arms, 53.
Pennon, 3, 144, 254.
Per, 33, 145.
Perceval ; Motto, 140.
Perci, Percy ; Arms, 70, 84, 170 ;
Crest, 91, 223; Badges, 231, 249,
255 ; Seals, 249.
Perci, Henry de, 78, 80, 186, 209, 216.
Perci, Henry de, 3rd Baron, 186 ;
Agnes de, 164.
Percy Shrine, Beverley Minster, 27.
Percy Effigy, at Beverley, 162.
Peterborough Cathedral and Deanery,
Petrasancta, Silvester de, 40.
Petre, the Baron ; Supporters, 92.
Peverel ; Badge, 231 ; Catherine, 232.
Peyvre, Sir R. de ; Arms, 62, 209.
Philip, " the Hardy," 162.
Philippa, Queen, of Hainault ; Badge,
237, 239 ; Heraldry of her Monu
ment, 173, 326.
Pickering, Sir T. de ; Arms, 209.
Pigot ; Arms, 17.
Pile, In Pile, 62, 145.
Pirepound, Sir R. ; Arms, 209.
Planch^, Mr., 9, 74, 97, 201, 242.
Plantagenet, The Royal House of,
17, 192 ; Livery Colours of, 136 ;
Planta Genista, 17, 145, 235.
Plate, Plattde, 72, 145.
Points, or Stops, in Heraldry, 46.
Points of a Shield, 33, 145 ; of a Label,
162 ; In Point, 145.
Pole ; Motto, 140.
Pomme, Pommee, 56, 72, 145.
Poninge, Sir T. de ; Arms, 208.
Popinjay, 76, 145.
Portcullis, 145 ; Pursuivant, 131.
Portland, Duke of; Supporters, 92.
Potent 41, 57, 145.
Poudree, Powdered, 45, 145.
Poutrel, Sir R. ; Arms, 207.
Preieres, Sir J. de ; Arms, 208.
Precedence, Order of, 296 ; in the
Royal Family, 300 ; of Women, 299.
Prelates ; Arms, 177.
Pretence, Escutcheon of, 120, 174, 316.
Prince, Princess, 145.
Princes and Princesses of the Royal
Family ; Armorial Insignia, 278,
279; Coronets, 145.
Provence ; Arms, 38.
Prussia, H.R.H., The Crown Princess,
Princess Royal, 280.
Purpure, 41, 146.
Pursuivant, 131, 146.
"Pursuivant of Arms," by Mr. Planch^.
Pycot, Sir B. Arms, 208.
Quadrate, 55, 146.
Quarter, 64, 146, 170. See Canton.
Quarter Pierced, 55.
Quartering, 34, 146 ; Simple, 34 ;
Compound, 34, 170; Grand, 170;
Marshalling by, 169; the Bordure
and Tressure, 173.
Quarterings, Quarters, 34, 170 ; Grand,
Quartered Coats, Marshalling of, 170.
Quarterly Quartered, 34, 147.
Quarterly Quartering, 34, 147.
Quarterly Pierced, 55.
QUEEN, H.M.,The; Crown, 115, 275;
Arms, 272 ; Banner, 260.
Queen s College, Oxford, 97.
" Queen s Colour," the, 265.
Quency, De ; Arms, 17.
Queue Fourchde, 86, 147.
Radclyffe, Radcliffe ; Arms, 58.
Radiant, Rayonee, 147.
Radstock, the Baron ; Supporters, 99.
Ragged Staff, 135, 147, 205, 228, 321.
Ragulde, Raguly, 34, 147.
Rampant, Rampant Guardant and
Reguardant, 84, 85, 148.
Albans, 25, 76,
Ramsey ; Arms,
Ready, Mr., his (
Rebus, 148, 227.
Abbot of St.
, 210, 239, 326.
its of Seals, 318.
Recercelee, 56, 150.
Red Ensign, 263
References to Authorities, 13.
Reflexed, Reflected, 150.
" Regimental Colour," the, 265.
Reguardant, 85, 150.
Rein-deer, 102, 150.
Renfrew, the Barony of, 276.
Reptiles, in Heraldry, 79.
Rest. See Clarion.
Rhode Island, 324.
Ribbon, Riband, 58, 150 : of the Gar
ter, 287 ; Bath, 291 ; Thistle, 288 ;
St. Patrick, 289 ; Star of India, 293.
Richard I. ; Arms, 88, 268 ; Crest,
121, 216; Seals, 88, 215; Badges,
Richard II.; Arms, 212, 268; Crest,
91,223; Badges, 27, 223, 235, 240;
Roll of Arms of his Era, 13.
Richard III.; Arms, 269; Badges,
235 ; Supporters, 273 ; incorporates
Heralds, 131, 305.
Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and King
of the Romans, 68, 94.
Richard, Earl of Warwick, 214.
Richmond, Henry, Duke of, 195, 197.
Richmond, John de Dreux, Earl of,
Richmond and Lennox, Ludovic
Stuart, Duke of, 118.
Richmond Herald, 131.
Rising, Roussant, 81, 150.
Riveres ; Arms, 52.
Robert II. of Scotland, 273.
Robsart.Earl Ludovic ; Monument, 248
Rolls of Arms ; 12, 29.
Romans, Richard, King of the, 68,94.
Roringe, Sir R. de; Arms, 208.
Ross, Euphemia, Countess of, 95 ;
Margaret, Lady de, 164; the Earl
Rosamond, Fair, 90, 192.
Rose, 150; en Soleil, 150 ; of England,
150, 235 ; of Lancaster, 150, 235 ; of
York, 150, 235 ; Badge of Edward I.,
235 ; in Modern Cadency, 198.
Rossel, Sir G. ; Arms. 17, 209.
Rothsay, H.R.H., The Prince of
Wales. Duke of, 276.
Rouge Croix, Pursuivant, 131.
Rouge Dragon, Pursuivant, 131.
Roundle, Roundlet, 71, 72.
Royal Badges, 234 ; Banners, 275 ;
Personages, their Arms, 178 ; Mot
toes, 274 ; Standards, 6o, 275 ;
Rue, Chaplet of, 109.
Ruskin, Mr., 327.
Rustre, 69, 151.
Sable, 41, 151.
Sagittarius, Sagittary, 151, 267.
Sails, Heraldic, 257.
Saint Alban, Abbey Church and Arms
f> 2 5> 75> 3 2 6 ; Heraldic Tiles at,
Saint Albans, Duke of, 195.
Saint Andrew ; Arms, 60 ; Banner,
Saint Anthony ; Badge, 156.
Saint Edmund. See Edmund.
Saint Edward, the Confessor. See
Saint George ; Arms and Banner, 54,
259, 261, 287 ; Ensign, 264 ; Chapel,
Saint John, of Jerusalem, Knights of,
Saint Michael and Saint George,
Order of, 292.
Saint Michael s Church, St. Albans,
Saint Patrick ; Arms and Banner, 60,
. 262 ; Order of, 288.
Saint Paul ; Badge, 155.
Saint Paul, Mary de, 166 ; Guy, Count
Saint Vincent, the Viscount; Sup
Saint Waly, Sir R. de ; Arms, 209.
Salient, 86, 151.
Salisbury, Longespee, Earl of, 90, 96,
Salisbury, D Eureux, Earl of, 192.
Salisbury Cathedral, 326.
Salisbury, Marquess of; Supporters,
Saltire, Saltire-wise, In Saltire, 60, 151.
Sanglier, 106, 151.
Sans, 52, 151.
Sardinian, or Italian Medal, 295.
Savage-man, Wood-man, 151.
Saw. Frame-Saw, 151.
Saxony ; Dukedom and Arms, 113, 277.
Scales, Rob. de ; Arms, 78.
Scarpe, Escarpe, 151.
Science of Heraldry, 24, 30, 330.
Scotland, Early Heraldry of, 94;
Heraldry of, 204 ; Royal Heraldry
of, 267; Royal Arms of, 67, 83, 173,
267 ; Crests. 91, 252. 273 ; Badge,
156, 236; Supporters, 273, 274;
Mottoes, 274; Scottish Supporters,
245 ; Differenced Shield of, 211 ;
Early Seals of, 165 (see Laing,
Scott, Sir Walter, of Abbotsford, i,
Scott, Sir Walter, 330.
Scottish Seals, Laing s Catalogue of,
ii. See Laing.
Scrope, Le; Arms, 58, 206; Badge,
Scrope, Sir R. le, 58, 206; Thos. le,
190 ; Controversy, 206.
Scudamore ; Arms, 154 ; Motto, 140.
Seals; their Value in Heraldry, 10,
318 ; Early Scottish, u ; Casts of,
318 ; Suggestive of Supporters, 246 ;
Examples, 318 ; American, 323.
Secondary Charges, 187.
Seeded, 82, 150, 152.
Segrave ; Arms, 84 ; Sir John, 89.
Sejant, Sejant Rampant, 86, 152.
Seme, 45, 152; de lys, 125.
Seruse, Cerise, 152.
Seton, Mr., his " Scottish Heraldry,"
9, 68, 94, 140, 204, 269, 309.
Sevans, Septvans ; Arms, 121.
Seymour, Queen Jane, 236.
Shakespeare ; Arms, 153 ; grant of
Arms to, 310.
Shamrock, 152, 235.
Shelly ; Arms, 17.
Shield, or Escutcheon, Heraldic, 14,
37, 152; Parts, Points, and Divisions
of, 32 ; Varieties, 35 ; Bowed, 35 ;
k Bouche, 36 ; Couch&j, 38 ; Differ
Sickle, 232, 233.
Simple Quartering, 34, 153.
Single Small Charges, for Difference,
Sinister, 32, 33, 153.
Sinople, 153, 158.
Skere, Robt., Esquire, 243.
Sleswick ; Arms, 278.
Slipped, 82, 153.
Someri, Sir J. de ; Arms, 209.
Somerset, Henry, Duke of, 193, 194 ;
John, Duke of, 242.
Somerset Herald, 131.
Sottone, Sutton, Sir R. de; Arms,
Southampton, the Baron ; Supporters,
" Soutiens, Les," 253.
Spiritual Peers, 106.
S. S., Collar of, no. See Collar.
Stafford, De ; Arms, 61 ; Badge, 155.
Stafford, Sir H. de ; Standard, 259.
Stafford, Sir Humphrey de ; Crest-
Stafford Knot, 134, 153, 259.
Stall-Plate, 153, 285.
Standard, 154, 259 ; Anglo-Saxon, 5 ;
Anglo-Norman, 5 ; Marked for Ca
dency, 198 ; Royal, 260, 275.
Stapleton ; Badge, 154.
Statant, Statant Guardant, 86, 154.
Staunton Harcourt, 224.
Stephen ; Arms, 88, 262 ; Badges, 108,
151, 235, 262.
Steward, Alexander, Earl of Men-
teith ; Seal, 94.
Stewart, Margaret, Countess of Angus,
Stormerk ; Arms, 278.
Strange, Le Strange ; Arms, 89.
Strange, Hamon Le, 89; Sir J. Le,
" Strongbow ; " Seal, 62.
Stuart, Ludovic, 118; Sir Richard;
Seal, 320 ; Badge, 240.
Stuarts ; Arms, 125 ; Livery Colours,
Subordinaries, 42, 64.
Suns and Roses, Collar of, no. See
Supporters, 154, 178, 245 ; their pro
bable Origin, 94, 246 ; their heraldic
Significance, 251 ; rightly supported,
251 ; Royal, 273 ; of the United
Kingdom, 274 ; of Scotland, 273 j
granted by the Lord Lyon, 246.
" Supports, Les," 252.
Surcoat, 155, 198.
Surrey, Earl of, 165.
Swan, 81, 155, 259.
Sweden ; Arms, 278.
Swyneborne ; Arms, 17.
Sykes ; Arms, 72.
Symbolical Expression and Record,
ancient and universal, 5.
Tabard, 131, 156.
Talbot ; Badge, 231.
Tau Cross, 55, 233.
Tawke ; Arms, 156.
Tax on "Armorial Bearings," 314.
Templars, Order of, 284 ; their Banner,
13, 284. *
Templars, Barristers of the Temple,
Temple Church, London, 15, 107.
Tenent, 156, 253.
Tenne, Tawny, 42, 156.
Tetlow ; Arms, 23.
Tey ; Motto, 104.
Thistle, 68, 156, 235 ; Order and In
signia of the, 287.
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Glou
cester, 148, 185, 240, 242.
Thomas, Duke of Clarence, 185.
Thorpe, Sir E. de ; Helm and Crest,
Tiercde, In Tierce, Per Tierce, 34, 157.
Tiles, Encaustic, 327.
Timbre, Timbred, 157.
Tiptoft, John, Lord ; Seal, 222.
Tinctures, 40, 157 ; Law of, 43, 46 ;
Blazoning in, 47 j Change of, for
Torteau, Torteaux, 72, 157.
Tower. Turret, 157.
Treflee, or Boton^e, 56, 157.
Treille, Trellis, 71, 157.
Tremaine ; Arms, 75.
Tressure, 66, 157 ; impaled and quar
tered, 173 ; incorrectly blazoned, 316.
Tricked, In Trick, 42, 157.
Tripping, 81, 157.
Trompintoun, Trumpington, Sir R.
de, 17, 158.
Trotton ; Brass at, in.
Trumpington ; Brass at, 17, 158.
Trussed, Trussing, 81, 158.
Trussell, Tressell ; Arms, 71.
Tryvett; Arms; 157.
Tudor, Arthur ; Badge, 238, 240.
Tudor, Margaret, 174.
Tudor; Badge, 145; Livery Colours,
136; Rose, 158, 235.
Tun, 148, 158.
Tyndall ; Crest, 143.
Tynes, 81, 158.
Uffbrd, Sir Ralph de ; Arms, 167, 190.
Ulster, Badge of, 104, 260. See Baronet
Ulster, William, Earl of, 167
Ulster King-of-Arms, 132, 309.
Und(5e, Undy, 34, 158.
Unguled, 80, 158.
Unicorn, 91, 158, 273, 274.
" Union Jack," 158, 260 ; the First,
261 ; the Second, 261, 262.
Union Device, 103, 211.
United Kingdom ; Supporters, 274.
Unmarried Ladies ; Arms, 176.
Uriant, 82, 158.
Vair, 41, 42, 158.
I Valence, De ; Arms, 166, 171, 326 ;
Dimidiating Claremont Nesle, 172.
Valence, Earl William de, 45, 53, 77,
225 ; Earl Aymer de, 166.
Vandalia; Arms, 278.
Vane. See Fan.
Varied Fields, 42, 59.
Vavasour, William le, 51.
Vele, De ; Arms, 76.
Verdy, Verdde, Verdoy, 158.
Vere, De ; Motto, 139.
Vere, Robert de, 138, 213.
Verley, Sir Philip de, 96.
Vernon, Sir William, 224.
Vert, 41, 48, 158.
Vervels, Vervals, 158.
Vesci, William de, 56.
VICTORIA, H.M.,The QUEEN ; Arms,
Victoria Cross, 293.
Villiers, de L Isle Adam, Phillippe de,
Viscount, Viscountess, 158.
Voided, 55, 159.
Vol, 96, 159.
Volant, 81, 82, 159.
Volunteers ; Motto and Flag, 265.
Wachesham, Sir G. de ; Arms, 208.
Wadsle, Wadseley, De ; Arms, 202.
Wake ; Arms, 52, 183 ; Sir J., 208.
Wake Knot, 134, 159.
Waldegrave ; Arms, 14.
Wales, Native Princes of, 83.
Wales, the Princes of, always K.G.,
285 ; also Earls of Chester, 201.
Wales, Arms of the Principality of,
Wales, H.R.H., Albert Edward, The
Prince of; his Armorial Insignia,
276, 280; his Label, 135, 183; his
Coronet, 140 ; his Badge, 240 ; his
eldest son s Label, 280.
Wales, H.R.H. Alexandra, The Prin
cess of; her Armorial Insignia, 277.
Walford, Mr., 9.
Walled, Murallde, 159.
Waltone, De ; Arms, 68.
Warrenne, De, the Earls; Arms, 43,
Warwick, the Earls of; Arms and
Seals, 96, 173, 175, 188, 214, 321.
Water Bouget, 159.
Wavy, Undee, 34, 159.
Wedone, Sir R. de ; Arms, 208.
Welles ; Arms, 72.
Wellington, the Duke of; Arms, 23;
Supporters, 92 ; Augmentation, 103,
Westminster Abbey, Heraldry of, 19,
26, 67, 93, 291, 326.
Westminster Hall, Heraldry of, 27, gi,
Westphalia ; Arms, 272.
Wheathamstede, John de, Abbot of
St. Albans, 75, 148, 326.
Wheathampstead Church, Brass at, 79.
Wheat-Sheaf. See Garbe.
Wheel, Catherine Wheel, 160.
White Ensign, 264.
Whitmore, Mr., his " Elements of
Whitworth, Shield at, 14.
Widow, Widower ; Arms, 176.
Wife and Husband, Marshalling their
Willers, De ; Arms, 65.
William I. ; Arms, 18, 88, 267.
William II.; Arms, 88, 267; Badge,
William III. and Mary ; Arms, 269.
William III. ; Arms, 271.
William IV. ; Arms, 272.
Winchelsea ; Seal of the Mayor of, 171.
Windsor Herald, 131.
Wingfield ; Arms, 17.
Wings in Crests, 219.
Woodstock, Duke Thomas of, 185,240,
242; Badge, 148.
Worcester, Charles, Earl of, 194 ;
Henry, Earl of, 193 ; John, Earl of,
Worcester Cathedral, 238, 327.
Wortele, Worteley, De ; Arms, 203.
Vreath, Orle.Crest-Wreath, Wreathed,
Wyndesor, Wm. de ; Seal, 221, 250.
Wynford, The Baron ; Supporters, 99.
Wyvern, Wivern, 72, 160.
Yarmouth, Great ; Arms, 171.
Yngelfeld, Sir R. de ; Arms, 208.
York, Dukes of, 183.
York, Archbishop of; Arms, 101.
York, Rose of, 150, 235 ; Collar of,
no; Livery Colours of, 136.
York Cathedral, Heraldic Glass at, 92.
York Herald, 131.
Zouche, de La ; Arms, 72 ; Differenced
Arms, 1 86.
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Illustrated. In paper covers . . . . . is. 6d.
Bound in cloth, with pocket ... . . 2s. 6d.
Cassell s Topographical Guide to Sussex.
Illustrated .... Sewed, 2s. 6d. Cloth, 35. 6d.
Cassell s Topographical Guide to Nor
mandy. Illustrated. Crown 8vo, cloth . . .75. 6d.
Cassell s Guide to Paris : What to See,
and HQIV to See It. Illustrated paper covers
Bound in cloth
Cassell s Shilling Gitide to the English
Sea Watering-Places. In paper covers . ..,,, . , ; . is. od.
Cloth . . . . . . . . . is. 6d.
Cassell s Emigrants Maps, with Handy
Or mounted on canvas in a cloth case
PRINCIPAL BRITISH COLONIES.
SOUTH AND WEST AUSTRALIA.
NEW SOUTH WALES.
CAPE COLONY AND NATAL.
NORTH AMERICA AND VAN
COUVER S ISLAND.
CANADA EAST. CANADA WEST.
viii Cassell, Fetter, 6 Galpiifs Illustrated Volumes.
SHILLING STORY BOOKS.
The Richest er College Boys. By Mrs.
HENRY WOOD. And other Tales is.
The Delft Jug. By SILVERPEN. And
other Tales . . . . ., ^ r . . .is.
My First Cruise. By W. H. KINGSTON.
And other Tales . . . . . . v . is.
Little Lizzie. By MARY GILLIES. And
other Tales . . *. . Is -
Luke Barnicott. By WILLIAM HOWITT.
And other Tales . . .. -.. Is -
The Secret Society. By M rs. DE MORGAN.
And other Tales Is -
The Boat Club. By OLIVER OPTIC. And
other Tales . . . . . . - Is -
The Little Peacemaker. By MARY
HOWITT. . And other Tales ..*. ; * . is.
CASSELL, FETTER, AND GALPIN, LONDON, E.G.
14 DAY USE
RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED
LANDSCAPE -CTURE LIBRARY
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NOV 1 1965
I.:.;?, is 1968
LD 21-100m-6, 56
University of California