(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "English hymns : their authors and history"

\ . \c. 



yJ -J 



Z 



' V. ■ '-T- 



^ English Hymns : 



THEIR AUTHORS AND HISTORY 



SAMUEL WILLOUGHBY DUFFIELD, 

author of " the latin hvmn-writers and their hymns," " the heavenly lano, 
"warp and woof: a book of verse," "the burial of 
the dead," etc., etc. , 



" But the great Master said, ' I see 
No best in kind but in degree. 
I gave a various gift to each 
To charm, to strengthen and to teach, 

" ' These are the three great chords of might, 
And he whose ear is tuned aright 
Will hear no discord in the three. 
But the most perfect harmony.' " 

Longfellow : TAe Singers. 



FUNK & WAGNALLS. 

NEW YORK : jggg LONDON : 

lO AND 12 DEY STREET. 44 FLEET STREET. 

All Rights Reserved. , 







Z JZ s-^. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year iSS6, by 

FUNK & WAGNALLS, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 



To 

CHARLES SEYMOUR ROBINSON, D.D., LL.D,, 

Whose Laiides Domini furnished a Basis for the Present 

Work, as his Advice and Urgency have promoted 

its Progress, this Compendium of Biography, 

Incident and Rehgious Suggestion 

is now cordially 

DEDICATED. 



LA us rERF.YxVIS. 

monks of Aiitloch, I lYiiii 
That in the olden, happy days. 

You kept alive a precious deed, 
And sanj,"" and chanted ceaseless praise. 

]]'hoever ncarcd your holy throng — 

Whether he came l>y night or noon — 
Across his spirit passed a song ; 
Upon his heart there broke a tune. 

lie heard and kneto, and, gliding by. 

He spake within himself, and said, 
" So must the angels sing on high, 

JFhere life liath risen from the dead!" 

But now I tread your voiceless shore, 
monks of Antioch, and lo ! 

1 hear the ceaseless song no more ; 
No more the choir go to and fro. 

Nay, for the world is all too wide ! 

Too strait and close the cloisters grew ; 
All nations laud the Crucified, 

And they and we still sing with you ! 

October, 1SS5. S. W. D, 



PREFACE. 



I HAVE written this Preface, in waking and dreaming moments, 
a good many times. It is " borne in upon me" — as tlie Quakers 
say — that the Courteous Reader and I must make each other's 
acquaintance in the first person singular before we are sepjarated 
by the editorial " We." 

I would not have him " mislike me for my complexion," or 
fancy that, because this is a somewhat elaborate — and, I hope, 
somewhat accurate — treatise on the Authors and History of Eng- 
lish Hymns, it must therefore be dry reading and useless to all 
except the musty grubbers among old hymn-books. 

Nor would I have him — or her, for I know as many women 
who love hymns as I do men ! — think me capable of imposing on 
his credulity with every sort of ill-grounded or sentimental tradition 
concerning the origin or the use of these Hymns. The size of 
the present volume shows what has been omitted as well as in- 
cluded. And as this is in no sense either a work of fiction or of 
dead statistics, I have confined myself to the truth as I found it, 
and have mainly restrained a desire to indulge in the Comparison 
of Texts and the History of Alterations. I suppose I might add, 
too, that I have only plucked a few flowers from the outer lim.its 
of that great garden of Christian Biography wherein grow 
Solomon's rose, Christ's lily, Chaucer's daisy, and Robert 
Robinson's saffron-crocus. 

It was when I was busy with the Latin Hymns that this work 
was peremptorily forced upon me by the exigencies of the case. 
Large as it was, I looked upon it only as the adytum or vestibule 
to that cathedral of ancient praise. But I soon found that Eng- 
lish Hymnology afforded a very fruitful field, for, as a rule, in 
the immensity of material each editor has perforce taken a certain 
direction and dug his galleries and shafts to correspond. Such a 
thing as one General Guide to the whole subject of the Hymns 
themselves was not to be had. Especially there was a lack in 



VI PREFACE. 

America, where we employ, more freely than does England, the 
sacred songs of "all peoples, nations, and languages." This 
catholicity and the publication of Laudes Domini, Dr. Robinson's 
latest and noblest collection of hymns, determined both the basis 
and the scope of the present work. 

There are those who, in Hymns, as in Art and in IVIusic, are 
clamorous nowadays for the new, the precise, and the aesthetic. 
But the " old wine" is good enough yet, and there is honey still 
in the lion-carcass of the field-preaching Church of Lady Hunting- 
don's day. I shall not defend archaic expressions, bad rhymes, 
and halting rhythm, but I shall constantly aver that Hymns are 
pre-eminently the utterance of Spiritual Life, and that what the 
Church Universal adopts and cherishes is, by that fact, removed 
both from the control of a picking pedantry and of a cold-blooded 
correctness. 

The string with which I have bound these things together is 
undoubtedly mine own. I have not been satisfied merely to 
quote and to compile ; but I must needs bring in more or less of 
my own tying of the knots. I feel like old ' ' Democritus' ' Burton : 
" As I do not arrogate, I will not derogate." There is honest, 
hard labor here. And I take Burton's comfort to myself : " I 
shall be censured, I doubt not ; for, to say truth with Erasmus, 
nihil morosius hominum judiciis, there is naught so peevish as men's 
judgments ; yet this is some comfort, ui palata, sic Judicia, our 
censures are as various as our palates." 

I have paid particular care to our American Hymn-Writers, and 
have received from them much personal help. The Materials for 
Annotation, placed at my service, have been unusually fine — both 
as to Hymnologies (of which I have consulted all, without a 
known exception) and as to Hymn-Books and Original Editions. 
And yet I have scrupulously avoided a kind of dogmatic " Sir 
Oracle" method — which is to me one of the most unpleasant 
features of the study of these Texts and Origins. The best of 
men can be mistaken, and it does not conduce to confidence for 
any person to believe, or imply, that knowledge will perish with 
him. Good old Daniel Sedgwick is the suggestive " horrible 
example" — writing " Jeremiah Stegen" for " Gerard Tersteegen" 
and assigning R. Robinson's hymn to Lady Huntingdon ! 

I trust there is yet more light to break across this hymn- 



PREFACE. vil 

'>^ 

country, this Land of Beulah, from which the towers and palaces 
of the New Jerusalem can be seen. And while I have many 
thanks to tender to many friends who have always given freely 
what I required of them (and whom I cannot name " more 
particularly"), I am notably grateful for the help I have had upon 
the Indexes, as afforded by Mr. H. P. Main and Rev. Samuel ]\I. 
Jackson, of New York City ; Mr. C. Alex. Nelson, of the Astor 
Library ; Mr. C. R. Gillett, librarian of Union Theological 
Seminary ; Rev. J. L. Russell, of Altoona, Pa. ; and Mr. E. P. 
]\Iitchell, of Glen Ridge, N. J. From first to last, also, the work 
has received the accurate and invaluable assistance of Miss L, B. 
Day, of Bloomfield, N. J. 

I have the assurance to declare that these Authorities which I 
have consulted ; these Authors who have given me their confirma- 
tion ; these Hymn-Books which pave my floor, and these Hym- 
nologies under which my desk groans, are inaccessible to the 
ordinary reader, and are largely out of the reach of specialists. I 
have been freely laying other people's rose-leaves in my wax that 
I might burn a fragrant candle withal, in the midst of the ob- 
scurity. And if the Courteous Reader likes his light, I shall be 
well content ! 

And now, as I turn from these studies to those where I must 
toil for the most part as a solitary explorer, that I may soon send 
' ' The Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns' ' to accompany 
this volume, I beg to add that the present pages have been written 
amid the continuous and delightful occupations of an active and 
growing pastorate. They have filled its interstitial spaces with 
their own benediction of charity and peace, and if they kindle any 
other heart with love for the service of the Lord as they often have 
kindled mine, they will achieve the mission and the prayer with 
which they go forth. The years thus spent have made me ready 
to borrow the language of an unknown hymn-writer of the last 
century, and to sing, 

" I'll trim ray Lamp the while, 
And chaunt a midnight Lay, 
Till perfect Light and Gladness come 
In Glory's endless Day." 

Samuel W, Dvffield. 
Bloomfield, N. J., April 22,0.886. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 



A BROKEN heart, my God, my King. — Watts. 

It is one of the truest tests of a hymn when it is found to pos- 
sess the power of awakening and stimulating devotion. Dr. Dod- 
dridge on one occasion wrote to Dr. Watts that he had preached to 
a number of plain country folk in a large barn. The sermon was 
from Heb. 6:12, and at its close he announced and read the 
hymn, " Give me the wings of faith to rise." The effect — he tells 
Dr. Watts — was deep and pervading. The clerk, who acted as 
precentor, could scarcely utter the w^ords, and many of the audi- 
ence were in tears. " These," he continues, " were most of them 
poor people who work for their living." They had found in the 
language of the hymn — -as many have found in the words of this 
which is before us — the interpretation of their emotions. 

The present piece is Dr. Watts's version of Ps. 51 — the third 
part, L. M. He entitled it " The Backslider Restored ; or. Re- 
pentance and Faith in the Blood of Christ. ' ' It originally pos- 
sessed eight stanzas. 

A CHARGE to keep I have. — Wesley. 

This hymn is based on Lev. 8:35; a fact which was definitely 
proven by Mr. James Grant in the Christimi Standard, about 1S72. 
Calvinists and Arminians had been in controversy over the views 
contained in it, and the debate had been somewhat acrimonious. 
The doctrine taught is that of obedience : that we should " abide 
at the door of the congregation, and keep the charge of the Lord." 
It is No. 188 of Charles Wesley's ^/wr/ Scripture Hymns, 1762. 
The tune he selected for it was " Olney." 



2 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

A I'Kw more ycixrs shall roll. — Boxar. 

From Hymns of Faith and Hope, First Scries, 1857. -^^^ ^''■^^ 
is "A Pilgrim's Song," and it has six stanzas. Of that stanza 
tHMuuK'ncing " A few more Sabbaths here," Dr. Ikmar says, in a 

foot-note : " The oKl Latin hvnm expresses this well : 

' lUic nee Sabhalo succedit S,-il)baUiin, 
Pcrpes lactitia sabbalizaiuiiiin ! ' " 

The Latin is Peter Abelard's, for whom see " The Latin Hymn 
Writers and their Hymns," where there is a full account of the 
discovery of Abelard's hymns. 

The present hymn ranks in ]H->pularily next to Dr. Ronar"s " I 
lay my sins on Jesus." In the oiiL;inal form it contains six stan- 
zas, the chorus varying only by a single word in each case, as 
"great" day, "blest" day, "calm" day, "sweet" day, and 
' ' glad ' ' day. 

A MIGHTY fortress is our God. — HK.ncK, //', 

There is no grander hymn in the German tongue than the " Ein 
Feste Burg" of Martin Luther. It has been frequently rendered 
into English, and these versions have been collected (1S83) by 
Rev. Leonard W. Bacon, D.D. , and ])ublished as an accompani- 
ment to the Four Hundredth Commemoration of the great Re- 
former's birth. We venture to add to these another rendering, 
M'hich has met with favor among Luther's fellow-countrymen resi- 
dent in tlie United States, 

A firm defence our God is still, 
A trusty guard and weapon ; 
He bears us free from every ill 
Which unto us can happen. 
That old devilish foe 
Strives us to overthrow ; 
Great might and cunning art 
Arm him in every part ; 
On earth no one can match him. 

By our own might is nothing done, 

We are too soon forsaken ; 
Yet fights for us that Righteous One, 

Whom God Himself has taken. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 3 

Who is this, do you say ? 
Christ is His name alway, 
The Lord of Sabaoth ; 
No other God in sooth 
Than He shall win the battle. 

And were the world with devils filled. 

All waiting to devour us, 
We fear not what the fiend has willed, 
He shall not overpower us ; 
This prince of wickedness 
May scowl no whit the less ; 
But he can injure none. 
His might is overthrown ; 
One little word defeats him. 

And they shall let that Word abide — 

No thanks to them for favor ! 
He stands forever on our side, 
With strength and saintly savor. 
Let them deny us life, 
Goods, honor, child, and wife, 
• Let them take all away. 
They have not won the day : 
God's kingdom shall not perish ! 

[S. \V. D., tr., 1873.] 

The rendering fc»y Rev. F. H. Hedge, D. D., contests the palm 
of popularity with that by Thomas Carlyle, " A safe stronghold 
our God is still. " Rev. Frederic Henrj' Hedge was born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., December 12th, 1805, and after an education in 
Harvard College (where he obtained his B. A. in 1825) and at the 
Divinity School (1828) he entered the Unitarian ministry. He 
was pastor at West Cambridge ; Bangor, ]Me. ; Providence, R. I. ; 
and Brookline, INIass. , from which he removed to Har\'ard College 
as Professor of German Literature in 1872. He had previously 
discharged the duties of Professor of Ecclesiastical Histor}' in the 
Divinity School (from 1857) in connection with his parochial work. 
With Dr. Huntington (now bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church) he prepared the Hymns for the Church [Unitarian, 1853], 
in which this translation was first published. 

The life of the author of the original h}Tnn is too well known to 
require notice here, except as to its dates. ^lartin Luther was 
bom at Eisleben, Germany, November loth, 1483, and died at 



4 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

the same place, February 17th, 1546. He entered Erfurt Univer- 
sity in 1 501, and took his degrees of B.A. in 1502, and of M.A. 
in 1505. He intended to be a lawyer. The death of a friend by 
lightning, at his side, made him resolve to be a monk. He was 
received as an Augustinian novice at Erfurt, July 17th, 1505, and 
in 1507 was regularly ordained as a priest. The vicar of that 
order, John Staupitz, was his great help in the study of the truth. 

In 1 508, Luther took the chair of Philosophy at Wittenberg, 
During the year 1 5 1 1 he went to Rome on business connected 
•with the Augustinians. It was after this that he preached at 
Wittenberg and became acquainted with saving faith. We find 
him, in 15 16, deeply moved by Tauler's mysticism, and in a way 
to break off from the Roman Church. Yet he did not realize how 
he was drifting. 

John Tetzel's sale of indulgences drew from Luther ninety-five 
theses, nailed (October 31st, 1517) to the door of the Schloss 
Kirche in Wittenberg. Later, the cardinal-legate Cajetan was ap- 
pointed to reclaim him to the papal authority. But this was 
unsuccessful. Cajetan was greatly irritated by Luther's strength 
of argument. "I will not talk any more with the beast," he 
said ; " he has deep eyes, and his head is full of speculation." 

The Elector of Saxony now dispatched his chamberlain, Mil- 
titz, to induce Luther to be amenable to Rome. He partially 
succeeded (January, 15 19), and Luther promised to be silent. 
In these days he was of a thin and spare appearance, with great 
freshness and vigor of speech, and a " rude vehemence" which he 
could not suppress. Students ffocked to his lectures. 

In 1520, the incipient Reformer urged the Christian nobles to 
take up the work of purifying the Church — since the Pope declined 
to attempt it. The consequence was that Eck appeared (Septem- 
ber 2ist, 1520) in Meissen, with the Pope's ban, to which Luther 
made response by burning the bull and decretals (December 12th, 
1520) at Wittenberg. Charles V. did not feel free to execute the 
ban, and the professor was therefore summoned to the Diet at 
Worms. On April 17th, 1521, he was confronted there by the 
question whether he was willing to renounce his writings. To 
this he gave answer that he could not do it. He said : " I shall 
not be convinced, except by the testimony of the Scriptures or 
plain reason ; for I believe neither the Pope nor councils alone, as 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 5 

it is manifest that they have often erred and contradicted them- 
selves. ... I am not able to recall, nor do I wish to recall 
anything ; for it is neither safe nor honorable to do anything 
against conscience. Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise. God 
help me. Amen 1" 

On the 25th of May the ban was pronounced. The story, 
thenceforward — of his life in the Wartburg, and of his translation 
of the Bible and authorship of hymns and publication of commen- 
taries and controversial tracts — is thoroughly known. The first 
Wittenberg hymn-book appeared in 1524, with four of Luther's 
hymns in it. The battle gradually turned in favor of the Reform- 
ers, and from the date of his marriage (March 3d, 1540) to his 
death in 1546, Luther became the quiet arbiter of religious affairs 
in his fatherland. He died in great peace, repeating Ps. 31 15: 
" Into Thy hand I commit my spirit." 

This hymn of ours is " Luther in Song." It has all of his rug- 
gedness, his trust, and his majestic courage. A superb use of its 
music is that by Mendelssohn in the Reformation Symphony. The 
first part of that unique symphony is broken and confused, but in- 
termixed with strains from the hymn. Then follows a pretty pas- 
toral. Then the din begins again, louder and harsher than ever, 
but the listener feels that the notes of the great choral are gaining 
strength and unity. At length, in the climax of the composition, 
all the instruments sweep up together into the notes of the hymn, 
and the piece ends with one of the most majestic movements that 
Mendelssohn ever conceived. 

Many incidents attest the hold which this hymn has taken upon 
the German heart. In 1532 it was sung at Schweinfurth, in 
Bavaria, in defiance of the Roman Catholic priest. When Witten ■ 
berg was captured in 1547, just after Luther's death, Melanch- 
thon, Justus Jonas, and Creuziger fled to Weimar. There they 
heard a child singing the familiar words. " Sing, dear daughter, 
sing," quoth the good Melanchthon ; " you know not what great 
people you are now comforting." 

So, too, it was Gustavus Adolphus's hymn before the battle of 
Leipzig (1631), and also before that of Liitzen, where he lost his 
life. And when the deposed ministers of Augsburg comforted 
John Frederick, the Elector of Saxony, in his prison at Augs- 
burg, he asked them : " Has the Emperor banished you also from 



6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

the Empire ?" "Yes," they said. "But has he banished you 
from heaven ?" " No !" said they. " Then," he replied, " fear 
nothing, ' God's kingdom shall not perish ! ' " 

In 1720 a remarkable revival began in Moravia, in a town where 
David Nitschmann lived. The Jesuits opposed it, and the meet- 
ings were prohibited. Those who still assembled were seized and 
imprisoned in stables and cellars and foul outhouses. At Nitsch- 
mann's house a hundred and fifty persons were once gathered 
when the police broke in and seized all the books within reach. 
Nothing dismayed, the congregation struck up the stanza of 
Luther's hymn, 

"And were the world with devils filled, 

All waiting to devour us, 
We fear not what the foe has willed, 

He shall not overpower us !" 

Twenty heads of families, including David Nitschmann, were ap- 
prehended for this and sent to jail, Nitschmann being treated with 
special severity. He finally escaped ; fled to the Moravians at 
Herrnhut ; became a bishop, and afterward joined the Wesleys in 
1735 in their expedition to Savannah, Ga. 

The first line of this hymn is inscribed on Luther's monument 
in Wittenberg. And across the bastion-like corner of the massive 
and beautiful Lutheran church at Broad and Arch streets, Phila- 
delphia, stand the appropriate words, " A mighty fortress is our 
God." Even the Huguenots of France (between 1560 and 1572) 
borrowed this hymn as their help and stay in times of bloody per- 
secution. Whether it be true that it was composed on the road 
to Worms (1521) or later (1529), it will always be associated with 
times of peril and of the testing and trial of faith. 

But, after all other incidents, that of Luther's own use of his 
hymn is the best. When dangers thickened he would turn to 
Melanchthon and say: "Come, Philip, let us sing the 46th 
Psalm" — and they would sing it in this " characteristic version." 

A MOTHER may forgetful be. — Steele. 
It has been said of Miss Steele : " Pier hymns are a transcript 
of a deeply sensitive, humane, and pious mind, with little intel- 
lectual variety or strength ; but they have a free and graceful lyrica 
flow, and no positive faults beyond a tendency to repetition and 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 7 

too many endearing epithets." Very few hymn-writers, however, 
have had her success in reaching the sympathies of the Church. 
Twenty of her hymns are in Laudes Domini, one of the most re- 
cent compilations, and sixty-five of them were in Evans's C(?//i?(r/w«, 
1769. Her nom de plume being "Theodosia, " they are there 
signed " T." Between these dates there has been scarcely a 
hymn-book published which has not contained more or less of her 
verses. She stands fourth or fifth in the list of contributors to 
English hymnody, being outnumbered, usually, by Watts, Dod- 
dridge, and Charles Wesley ; and, occasionally, by Newton. In 
1760, she published Poems on Subjects Chiefly Devotional over the 
signature " Theodosia," to which we have just referred. This 
work was in two volumes. A version of the Psalms was added in 
1780. Mr. D. Sedgwick, in 1863, reprinted \itY Hy?7ins, Psalms 
and Poems, with a " memoir by John Sheppard. " In 1808, her 
poems were reprinted in this country in two volumes, i2mo. This 
edition includes one hundred and forty- four hymns, thirty- four of 
the Psalms and fifty poems " on moral subjects." 

A PARTING hymn we sing. — Wolfe. 
*' I can remember nothing definitely," writes Rev. A. R. Wolfe, 
" about ' A parting hymn we sing,' except that, in looking over 
the lists of topics in hymn-books with the idea of endeavoring to 
supply deficiencies, I thought something of this kind might be 
suitable in rising from the Lord's table." He adds that this came 
to mind and was composed " with scarcely any thought or labor 
of my own." 

A PILGRIM through this lonely world. — Denny. 

We have this piece from the pen of Sir Edward Denny, an 
English baronet and landholder in Ireland, whose principal resi- 
dence is London. He was born at Tralee Castle, County Kerry, 
Ireland, October 2d, 1796, and succeeded his father as fourth 
baronet in August, 1831. In 1839 he issued a volume of Hymns 
and Poems, with a second edition in 1848. In religious connec- 
tion he is a member of the Plymouth Brethren, and he is the 
author of A Prophetical Strea?n of Time and other writings upon 
similar topics. 

The present piece is from his Milleftnial Hymns, republished, 
with a long preface on prophecy, in 1870. The first edition was 



8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

issued in 1839 and the second in 1848. The title of this hymn 
is " The Man of Sorrows, " and there is prefixed to it a quotation 
from Bishop Gambold's poem, " John's Description of Jesus" : 

" Cheerful he was to us ; 
But let me tell you, sons, he was within 
A pensive man, and always had a load 
Upon his spirits." 

The original has eight stanzas. 

Abide in thee, in that deep love of thine. — J. D. Smith. 
The author. Rev. Joseph Denham Smith, is a prominent evan- 
gelist, whose efforts to promote revivals have been greatly blessed. 
He was born at Romsey, Hants, England, about 18 16 ; educated 
partially at Dublin Theological Institute, and entered the Congre- 
gational ministry in 1840. In 1849 he became pastor of the Con- 
gregational church at Kingstown, near Dublin, and has (espe- 
cially since 1863) frequently labored in other places, and preached 
to large audiences at Merrion Hall, Dublin. His hymn, "Just 
as thou art — how wondrous fair!" has been received into Mr. 
Spurgeon's book. 

Abide with me ; fast falls the eventide. — Lyte. 

From 1823 until his death in 1847, Rev. Henry Francis Lyte 
was perpetual curate of Brixham, Devonshire, England, among a 
hardy class of seafaring folk. He " made hymns for his litde 
ones, and hymns for his hardy fishermen, and hymns f®r sufferers 
like himself." Most of his hymns, indeed, were written there. 
This one, universally admired and secure of a place in all col- 
lections, was composed under very pathetic circumstances. The 
author had been steadily declining in health, and the climate was 
pronounced injurious. Of this sentence he writes : "I hope not, 
for I know no divorce I should more deprecate than from the 
ocean. From childhood it has been my friend and playmate, and 
I have never been weary of gazing on its glorious face. " 

But he was forced to see the necessity for a trip to the south, 
and again he writes : " The swallows are preparing for flight, and 
inviting me to accompany them ; and yet, alas ! while I talk of 
flying, I am just able to crawl, and ask myself whether I shall be 
able to leave En^fland at all." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. ' 9 

It was in this weak condition that he endeavored once more to 
meet his people, administer the Lord's Supper, and speak some 
parting words. His language has been preserved. " Oh, breth- 
ren, " he said, "I can speak feelingly, experimentally, on this 
point ; and I stand before you seasonably to-day, as alive from 
the dead, if I may hope to impress it upon you, and induce you 
to prepare for that solemn hour which must come to all, by a 
tim.ely acquaintance with, appreciation of, and dependence on the 
death of Christ." While these were unquestionably his senti- 
ments, it is doubtful if the exact words are here reproduced. Mr. 
Lyte was a writer of singularly terse and beautiful English, as his 
preface to the poems of Henry Vaughan will testify. His expres- 
sions may therefore be regarded as paraphrased rather than quoted 
in this final address. 

The scene of that communion was notably solemn. Its weary 
administrator dragged himself to his room and remained there a 
long while. That very evening he gave to a relative this hymn in 
its original eight stanzas. It was accompanied by music, adapted 
to it by Mr. Lyte, and which has no other merit than this asso- 
ciation. Those who are curious in such matters will find this 
tune preserved in the Evangelical Hymnal of Rev. C. C. Hall and 
S. Lasar. 

Mr. Lyte, not long afterward, and upon this very journey, 
passed away from earth. Shortly after he reached Nice, France, 
he died, pointing upward, and whispering, " Peace ! joy !" He 
was a man of high culture and genuine poetic gifts, and his ver- 
sion of the Psalms has given to us a number of admirable lyrics. 
He edited the poems of Vaughan in 1846, and thus made himself 
a record in English letters, to which his friends and successors 
have added another memorial of a different sort ; for, in 1S83, 
the church of Lower Brixham was rebuilt as a monument to his 
name and merits. 

I\Ir. Christophers thus describes the scenery amid which this 
hymn was written : 

" Then on the banks of the Dart, in South Devon. Those who have 
had the joy of gliding on the waters of that lovely river well remember 
its strange twists and turns— especially at one, point, where it turns back 
on its course, and where, in following it, we seem now to be plunging 
into a depth of oaken woods, and now are suddenly amid an open amphi- 



lO • ENGLISH HYMNS. 

theaire of leafy heights, rising one above another, and opening here and 
there into bright green lawns and ferny slopes. Around a point, and 
there, under the shelter of hills crowned with billowy foliage, her line of 
rustic roofs just peeping above the many masses of copse and garden 
verdure, in dreamy stillness, and in simple and homely beauty, is the 
village of Dittisham. There the wandering curate nestled in a cottage, 
going out now and then to officiate at Lower Brixham. Brixham was at 
last his parish ; and there, for twenty years, he toiled in his pastorate 
under many a cloud — clouds of personal suffering, clouds of pastoral 
difficulty and discouragement. To his tender, sensitive nature the pecul- 
iar condition of his flock must frequently have been a source of trial. His 
charge was the busy, shrewd, somewhat rough, but warm-hearted popula- 
tion of a fishing-coast and seafaring district, which had been subjected to 
all the corrupting influences peculiar to the neighborhood of naval and 
military forces during the French war." 

Rev. George D. Baker, D.D. , of Philadelphia, tells this story 
about the hymn : When at Nice, he went to see the grave of 
Lyte. There was one there before him, a young man, shedding 
copious tears of gratitude. The words of that hymn had been 
directly instrumental in his conversion. 

According to thy gracious word. — Montgomery. 

This is from the Original Hymins, where it is numbered as 129. 
The title given to it is, " This do in Remembrance of INIe. — 
Luke 22 : 19. " It has six stanzas. 

Among communion hymns we seldom find a sweeter strain than 
this. Montgomery was quite a Moravian ; and here is one of 
their brief sacramental songs : 

" Bread of life ; 

Christ, by whom alone we live ; 
Bread, that came to us from heaven ; 
My poor soul can never thrive. 
Unless thou appease its craving ; 
Oh, it hungers only after thee ; — 
Feed thou me !" 

Acquaint thyself quickly, O sinner, with God. — Knox. 
This is the Scottish poet whose poem, " Oh, why should the 
spirit of mortal be proud .'" was such a favorite with President 
Lincoln. He wrote what Mr. Frederick Saunders justly calls 
"splendid lyrics." William Knox was born in 1789, and died 
in Edinburgh, November 12th, 1825 — the " son of a respectable 



ENGLISH HYMNS. Ii 

yeoman," upon Sir Walter Scott's testimony. He succeeded to 
good farms under the Duke of Buccleugh, but became dissipated, 
and ultimately bankrupt. It was then that his fine vein of pen- 
sive poetry showed itself. His Lottely Hearih, Songs of Israel, and 
Harp of Z ion displayed a talent which years afterward attracted the 
attention of Abraham Lincoln to what is now, through his com- 
mendation, a poem of classic excellence. 

In 1864, during the month of March, the artist Carpenter and 
the sculptor Swayne were both in Washington. The sculptor was 
working upon a bust of Mr. Lincoln in a temporary studio in the 
Treasury Building. The President asked Mr. Carpenter to ac- 
company him thither, and there, referring again to this poem by 
Knox, he was delighted to find that Mr. Swayne possessed a copy 
of the verses in print, which he had cut, several years before, from 
a Philadelphia paper. They had been originally given to ]\Ir. 
Lincoln by a young man named Jason Duncan, and the President 
had recently written them from memory for the wife of Secretary 
Stanton, saying that he had often tried to discover the author, but 
in vain. Subsequently the re-publication of the stanzas in the 
New York Evening Post secured the identification of the poem with 
the name of William Ivnox. Lincoln's death was precisely such 
a sharp contrast as that of the final couplet : 

" From the gilded saloon to the bier and the shroud : — 
Oh, why should the spirit of mortal be proud ?" 

This hymn is in Knox's Harp of Zion, where it is based on Job 
22 : 21, 27, and 28, and has the title, " Heavenly Wisdom." 
The original form is much the best. It has apparently been 
strained through an evil sieve, and the volume, which bears the 
date 1825, is so rare that few have seen it. The lines are there 
stated to have been " written for Mr. Pettet. " 

" Acquaint thee, O mortal ! 

Acquaint thee with God — 
And joy, like the sunshine, 

Shall beam on thy road ; 
And peace, like the dewdrops, 

Shall fall on thy head ; 
And visions, like angels, 

Shall visit thy bed. 



12 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" Acquaint thee, O mortal ' 

Acquaint thee with God — 
And the prayer of thy spirit 

Shall reach his abode ; 
And the wish of thy bosom 

Shall rise not in vain ; 
And his favor shall nourish 

Thy heart, like the rain. 

" Acquaint thee, O mortal ! 

Acquaint thee with God — 
And he shall be with thee 

When fears are abroad ; 
And in every danger 

That threatens thy path, 
And even in the valley 

Of darkness and death." 

" In composing the following poems," says Knox in his pref- 
ace, " I felt a pure and elevated pleasure, and it is my sincere 
wish that the reader may experience somewhat of a similar feeling 
in the perusal of them." 

Again as evening's shadow falls. — S. Longfellow. 

Rev. Samuel Longfellow is a brother of the poet, Henry Wads- 
worth Longfellow, and a Unitarian clergyman. He was born 
June 1 8th, 1819, at Portland, Me. ; graduated at Harvard College, 
1839, and at the Divinity School in Cambridge, 1846. He then 
became pastor at Fall River in 1848, and was afterward, in 1853, 
settled over the Second Unitarian Church in Brooklyn, N. Y. He 
next went abroad on an extended tour, from which he returned to 
assume the charge of the Unitarian Church in Germantown, Pa. 
From this pastorate he resigned in 1882 in order to prepare the 
materials for a full biography of his brother. On this work he is 
understood to be at present (1885) engaged. 

Mr. Longfellow and his friend, Rev. Samuel Johnson, labored 
faithfully to advance the hymnody of their denomination. It is to 
him in particular that the " Vesper Ser\'ice" owes its popularit}'. 
He was the first to maintain it in the shape which other churches 
have since employed. Perhaps as a consequence of their labors 
among hymns, both Mr. Longfellow and Mr. Johnson have been 
for years regarded as holding strongly to " theistic opinions," and 
opposing all chilling rationalism whatsoever. It is the highest 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 13 

testimony that could be paid to the devotion of these writers that 
their compositions have not been deemed incongruous or incon- 
sistent in recent collections made for evangelical churches. The 
hymn itself was written for a little book of Vespers, prepared in 
1859. 

Again our earthly cares we leave. — Newton. 

This piece, written by Rev. John Newton, is usually changed 
from its original form as it appears in the Olney Hymns, where it 
is reckoned as No. 43 of Book III. The title given to it there 
is : " On opening a House of Worship." And the hymn begins 
with the line, " O Lord, our languid souls inspire," and has seven 
stanzas. In comparing it with the version in common use one 
would conjecture that the first and the tliird stanzas of our ordi- 
nary hymn were by Cotterill ; the rest remain substantially as they 
were written by Newton. 

Again returns the day of holy rest. — W. Mason. 

There were two persons bearing this name of Rev. William 
Mason ; one of them wrote the hymn now before us, the other 
was the author of the not less widely-known, " Welcome, wel- 
come, dear Redeemer." The first of these is to be distinguished 
from his contemporary only by his recorded life and writings. He 
was an English Episcopalian, born at Kingston-on-HuU in 1725. 
In 1742 he entered St. John's College in Cambridge, and was 
graduated with honor, becoming finally a Fellow of Pembroke 
Hall. He took orders in 1754, received the living of Aston, and 
was one of the chaplains to George III. As a friend of Thomas 
Gray he edited that poet's works in 1775, and at the time of his 
death he had been for thirty-two years precentor and canon resi- 
dentiary of York. Miss Mitford, Lord Jeffrey, and Dibdin have 
dealt kindly by his memory, and Dr. Johnson allowed him a place 
among the British poets. Perhaps Boswell borrowed his method 
of biography in which to immortalize Johnson, for Mr. Mason 
employed this same gossiping style in his memoirs of Gray. 

In art and literary criticism our author stood high, and it is pos- 
sible that his attainments were only dwarfed by comparison with 
the almost gigantic scholarship of his nearest friends. The death 
of this excellent man was occasioned by a hurt received in alight- 
ing from his carriage. This seemed of such a trivial character 



14 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

that it was neglected. The limb thereupon mortified, and, in 
spite of every attention, the worthy precentor died on the 5th of 
April, 1797. The present hymn — that by which he is best remem- 
bered — will be found at the end of Volume I. of the Works of 
William Mason, M.A., Precentor of York and Rcclor of Asion, 
which appeared in four volumes in iSi i. 

The other William Mason was born at Rotherhithe, in 171 9, 
and was an associate of Whitefield and Romaine. He succeeded 
Toplady in the editorship of the Gospel Magazifie, in 1777, and 
died of a paralytic stroke, September 29th, 1791. 

Alas ! and did my Saviour bleed. — Watts. 

This hymn is found in Dr. Watts' s works as Book II. , No. 9, 
of Hymns on Divifie Subjecls. Originally it possessed six stanzas, 
with the title, " Godly Sorrow arising from the Sufferings of 
Christ." 

At the Soldiers' Cemetery in Nashville, Tenn. , a stranger, it is 
related, was once seen planting a flower upon a grave. He was 
asked: "Was your son buried there.?" "No." "Your 
brother.^" "No." "Any relative.?" "No." Then the 
stranger laid down a small board which was in his hand and said : 
" I will tell you. When the war broke out I lived in Illinois. I 
wanted to enlist, but I was poor. I had a wife and seven children. 
I was drafted, and I had no money to hire a substitute. I made 
up my mind to go. After I was all ready to start a young man 
came to me and said : ' You have a large family which your wife 
cannot take care of. I will go for you.' He did go in my place, 
and at the battle of Chickamauga he was wounded and taken to 
Nashville. Here he died. Ever since I have wished to come and 
see his grave. So I have saved up all the spare money I could, 
and came on and found my dear friend's grave." He then took 
the head-board and fixed it into the ground at the head of the 
grave. It bore the soldier's name, and underneath were the words, 
" He died for me." 

The evangelist E. P. Hammond ascribes his conversion to the 
hymn, "Alas! and did my Saviour bleed." It was in South- 
ington, Conn. , when he was seventeen, and not at any time of re- 
vival. So that he has always, under God, regarded this hymn as 
used by the Holy Spirit to regenerate his heart. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 15 

Alas ! what hourly dangers rise. — Steele, tr. 

In Miss Steele's Poems by Thiodosia, 1760, this is entitled, 
" Watchfulness and Prayer, Matt. 26 : 41." It has six stanzas. 

All glory, laud, and honor. — Neale, tr. 

This is the Gloria, laus et honor of Theodulphus, Bishop of 
Orleans, who died in the year 821. The translation was made by 
Dr. John IMason Neale in 1856, and is to be found in h.\s Mediaeval 
Hymns. 

Clichtoveus (15 17), one of the earliest authorities on Latin 
hymnology, tells us that Theodulph wrote this hymn in prison, 
where Ludovicus Pius (Louis I., le Debonnaire) had cast him. 
The accusation, made by Theodulph" s enemies and believed by 
the king, was that the bishop was in conspiracy with the royal 
family against its head. However true or false the charge, it is 
certain that Theodulph was imprisoned at Anjou, and that on Palm 
Sunday he ' ' sweetly sang before all ' ' this hymn from his grated 
window. Another account has it that the sequence was chanted 
by boys whom the bishop had trained. This variation does not 
vitiate the fact that the king released the singer, restored him to 
office, and appointed that hymn for the processional on Palm Sun- 
day. The Roman Missal recognizes this use by its rubric : 

" At the return of the procession two or four singers enter into the 
church, and standing behind the closed door, with faces toward the pro- 
cession, they begin, ' Gloria, laus,'' etc., and chant the first two verses. 
The priest, with the rest outside of the church, repeats them. Then 
those who are within chant the other following verses, either in whole or 
in part as seems best, and those without respond to each couple of 
verses, ' Gloria, laus,' etc., as at the beginning. Afterward the sub- 
deacon strikes upon the door with the shaft of the cross." 

The ceremonial then proceeds according to the established forms. 
In the Protestant churches during the sixteenth century this 
hymn by Theodulph was frequently sung. For further informa- 
tion on the sequences and upon the life of Theodulph, see " The 
Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns." 

All hail the power of Jesus' name. — Perronet. 

It is not precisely known where or when Edward Perronet was 
born. He was the son of Rev. Vincent Perronet, who was the 



1 6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

vicar of Shoreham, in Kent, from 1726, and a fast friend of the 
Wesleys. Charles and Edward Perronet were probably born not 
far from the date just given. In 1746 they were preaching in the 
Methodist connection, and in 1 750 Edward is mentioned in Charles 
Wesley's diary. In 1755, when the question of separation from 
the Church of England came up, the Perronets favored and the 
Wesleys opposed the measure. In 1756 Edward wrote The Mitre, 
a Satyricall Poe?n, in three cantos. This enraged the Wesleys, 
and angered the Countess of Huntingdon also. The poem was 
anonymous, but it was traced to Perronet and suppressed. How- 
ever, John Wesley, by whose efforts it was cancelled, said in later 
times : " For forty years I have been in doubts concerning that 
question, ' What obedience is due to heathenish priests and wicked 
infidels .? ' " 

Perronet' s relation to Lady Huntingdon's society was thus 
broken off, and he ended his days at Canterbury, January 2d, 
1792, as the minister of a Dissenting congregation. His last words 
were : " Glory to God in the height of His divinity 1 Glory to 
God in the depth of His humanity ! Glory to God in His all- 
sufficiency ! And into His hands I commend my spirit !" 

The famous hymn was written in 1779, and published in 1780, 
in the Gospel Jllagazine. 

Some fifty years ago a Methodist local preacher, named William 
Dawson, was preaching in London on the divine offices of Christ. 
He was a very extraordinary character, even in a denomination 
which has furnished strange examples of originality and eccentric 
power. He came from Yorkshire, and was only a plain farmer, 
yet his vivid and audacious imagination enabled him to sway the 
largest audiences, and to avoid by its own tremendous momentum 
the vulgarity and irreverence which would have otherwise crippled 
his influence. " Billy Dawson," as he was familiarly styled, was 
a man of genius, and in this sermon on the offices of Christ he 
showed it. He had portrayed the Saviour as teacher and priest, 
and he proceeded to set forth his glory as a king in his own right 
over saints and angels. 

Kindling at the thought, he drew the picture of a coronation 
pageant. The great procession was arrayed. Prophets and patri- 
archs, apostles and martyrs, moved grandly on. The vast temple 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 17 

was filled, and at the climax of the thought the preacher suddenly 
broke from his ordinary tone, and sang, with startling effect : 

" All hail the power of Jesus' name. 
Let angels prostrate fall ; 
Bring forth the royal diadem 
And crown him Lord of all !" 

" The effect," says Christophers, " was overwhelming. The 
crowd sprang to their feet, and sang the hymn with a feeling and 
a power which seemed to swell higher and higher at every verse. " 
Such was the grand result of Edward Perronet's verses. 

In 1780 the hymn had appeared without signature in the Gospel 
Magazme. Five years later it was known to be of Perronet's com- 
position. It was included in Occasional Verses, Moral and Sacred, 
published in 1785, which, though it also bore no name, was known 
to be by him. The first version of the hymn contains eight 
stanzas, of which five are substantially the same as our usual form. 
The concluding stanza, however, has not suffered by its amend- 
ment, as the original shape is manifestly inferior to the present one : 

" Let every tribe and every tongue 
That bound creation's call, 
Now shout in universal song, 
The crowned Lord of all." 

A part of Dr. Belcher's account of this hymn is worth quoting : 

" We add here another anecdote ; and, though it does not directly bear 
on Perronet's hymn, it does on his character, as on that of the eminent 
preacher to whom it likewise relates. 

" Mr. Wesley had long been desirous of hearing Edward Perronet 
preach ; and Mr. Perronet, aware of it, was as resolutely determined he 
should not, and therefore studied to avoid every occasion that would lead 
to it. Mr. Wesley was preaching in London one evening, and, seeing 
Mr. Perronet in the chapel, published, without asking his consent, that 
he would preach there the next morning at five o'clock. Mr. Perronet 
had too much respect for the congregation to disturb their peace by a 
public remonstrance, and too much regard for Mr. Wesley entirely to 
resist his bidding. The night passed over. Mr. Perronet ascended the 
pulpit under the impression that Mr. Wesley would be secreted in some 
corner of the chapel, if he did not show himself publicly, and, after sing- 
ing and prayer, informed the congregation that he appeared before them 
contrary to his own wish ; that he had never been once asked, much less 
his consent gained, to preach ; that he had done violence to his feelings 



1 8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

lo show his respect for Mr. Wesley ; and, now that he had been com- 
pelled to occupy the place in which he stood, weak and inadequate as he 
was for the work assigned him, he would pledge himself to furnish them 
with the best sermon that ever had been delivered. Opening the Bible, 
lie proceeded to read our Lord's Sermon on the Mount, which he con- 
cluded without a single word of his own by way of note or comment. He 
closed the service with singing and prayer. No imitator has been able to 
produce equal effect. 

" Another fact does bear on the hymn. In 1795 the late Rev. Dr. 
Bogue preached one of the first sermons before the London Missionary 
Society. One of Rowland Hill's biographers tells us : ' Mr. Bogue, in 
the course of his sermon, said : " We are called this evening to the 
funeral of Bigotry ; and I hope it will be buried so deep as never to rise 
again." The whole vast body of people manifested their concurrence, 
and could scarcely refrain from one general shout of joy. Such a scene, 
perhaps, was never beheld in our world, and afforded a glorious earnest 
of that nobler assembly where we shall meet all the redeemed, and before 
the throne of the Lamb shall sing, as in the last hymn of the service : 

' Crown him, crown him, crown him Lord of all ! ' " 

" Mr. Jones adds : ' There is reason to fear that there has been a 
resurrection of this enemy of the Church ; but till the close of life Mr. Hill 
often repeated the remark of a favorite author : " Mr. Bigotry fell down 
and broke his leg. Would that he had broken his neck ! " ' " 

Let US not forget that, owing to the personal antipathy of the 
Wesleys, this hymn was at first refused admission into the Meth- 
odist collection. It has now become the English Te Deum, sharing 
with Bishop Ken's doxology the spontaneous approval of all 
Christian hearts. Dr. H. M. MacGill has even translated it. into 
Latin verse, commencing, *' Salve, jfcsii ! forte jionicn I" 

The Rev. E. P. Scott was a missionary in India. One day, on 
the street of a village, he met a very strange-looking native, who 
proved to be from an interior tribe of murderous mountaineers 
who had not received the Gospel. Going to his lodgings the good 
man at once prepared for a visit to them, taking, among other 
things, a violin. His friends urged that he was exposing himself 
to needless peril, but his only answer was, that he " must carry 
Jesus to them. ' ' After two days of travel, he was suddenly con- 
fronted by members of the tribe which he sought, who pointed 
their spears at his heart. Expecting nothing but instant death, he 
drew out the violin, shut his eyes, and commenced to play and 
sing " All hail the power of Jesus' name." At the stanza, " Let 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 19 

every kindred, every tribe," he ventured to open them, and found 
an altogether different face to affairs. It was the commencement 
of a residence of two years and a half, and its results were great. 
The missionary told this story on his visit to America, whence he 
returned to die among the people to whom " All hail the power 
of Jesus' name " had given him access. 

Oliver Holden, the author of the tune " Coronation," to which 
this hymn is so inseparably united, was a carpenter, whose love 
of music carried him into the study and composition of religious 
melodies. He was a pioneer in American psalmody, and his 
tune has displaced the original setting of "All hail the power of 
Jesus' name." William Shrubsole wrote the tune, " j\Iiles Lane," 
for the hymn, in the organ gallery of Canterbury Cathedral, in 
the latter part of the last century ; and to this setting it is usually 
sung in the Methodist churches in England. But " Coronation" 
is the accepted tune on this side of the water, and it is not likely 
to be changed. Of its composer we knov/ that he established a 
store for the sale of music ; that he was a teacher of music also, 
and that he published some works which have been traced. These 
were the American Harmony, 1793 ; and the Worcester Collection, 
1797. He died at Charlestown, Mass. 

All holy, ever-living One. — Hill. 

The author of this hymn is the distinguished educator and 
scholar. Rev. Thomas Hill, D. D., who is one of the lights of the 
Unitarian denomination in America. He was born at New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., January 7th, 1818, and was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1843. In 1845 he completed his course of theology in 
the Divinity School at Cambridge, and became pastor in Waltham, 
Mass., where he remained fourteen years. 

His natural fitness as an instructor then caused him to be selected 
to follow the celebrated Horace Mann, in the Presidency of Anti- 
och College, Ohio, where he began his labors in 1859. Such was 
the success of Dr. Hill in this new position that, on the breaking 
out of the Civil War, he was called to the Presidency of Harvard. 
Here he continued for six years — the most difficult period, per- 
haps, that could have demanded his attention. In 1870 he repre- 
sented the town of Waltham in the State Legislature, and in 1873 ^^ 
accepted a call to the pastorate in Portland, Maine, where he now is. 



20 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Dr. Hill's mind is scientific as well as theological. He has been 
the companion of Agassiz, and is the author of numerous articles 
in reviews and periodicals. To him is ascribed the suggestion, 
made in 1847-8, in the Philadelphia City Item, that predictions of 
the weather should be compiled from telegraphic reports, and 
published in the daily journals. He has also invented an instru- 
ment for the mechanical calculation of eclipses and occultations, 
for any latitude and longitude. 

Of late years Dr. Hill has published many hymns, principally 
in the New York Independent, and during his lifetime he must 
have composed several hundred, both originals and translations. 
In these, so far as they have fallen under our eye, we find him 
eminently spiritual and evangelical, but somewhat lacking in 
fervor, and touching neither great heights nor great depths. 

All is o'er, the pain, the sorrow. — J. Moultrie. 

Rev. John Moultrie was the author of My Brother s Grave, and 
Other Poems, which appeared in 1843. In 1876 his scattered writ- 
ings were collected by Prebendary Coleridge, and the poet's place 
in English literature has been assured to him by the emphatic 
commendation of D. M. Moir (//). Mr. Moultrie was born in 
London, England, December 31st, 1799, the descendant of a 
family who figure in our Revolutionary history as residents of 
Charleston, S. C. His education was received at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and in 1828 he obtained the rectorship of Rugby, 
which he held during his life. In the latter part of the year 1874 
he contracted a fatal disease at the bedside of a parishioner, and 
died at Rugby, December 26th, 1874. 

The present piece dates from 1858, and the author's poem of the 
" Three Sons" recalls the fact that one of them, Gerard Moultrie 
(born in 1839), is quite distinguished as a translator of Latin 
hymns. 

All my heart this night rejoices. — Winkworth, tr. 

A celebrated German hymn, the '''Warum solW ich mich denn 
grdmenp" of Paul Gerhardt. Its date, according to Dr. Schaff, 
is 1653. Seiffert styles it a true " anti-melancholicum." It has 
twelve stanzas, and is rendered by Miss C. Winkworth, in Lyra 
Germanka, II., 261 : "Wherefore should I grieve and pine.''" 
etc. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 21 

Paul Gerliardt was born in a little town in Saxony, called Grafin- 
hainichen, March 12th, 1607. His father was burgomaster, and 
the boy passed the early years of his life in a time of war. He 
was a scholar at Wittenberg in 1628. At forty- five he was still 
only a candidate for orders— a fact which strongly hints at the dis- 
appointments he must have encountered. In 1651 he was a 
private tutor in the family of an advocate named Berthold, in 
Berlin. He was in love with Berthold' s daughter ; he had no 
money, and his condition was disheartening in the extreme. 

At this period he was an author, but he had no means with 
which to publish his productions, and the future was apparently 
closed to him. The great characteristic, both of his life and his 
verses, now appears. His unflinching faith sustains him against 
adversity, and he realizes at last that God has not deserted him. 
He obtains a pastorate at Mittenwalde (which may indicate its 
nature, since Mittenwalde is "Midwood"), and, in 1655, he 
marries his Anna Maria. In six quiet years of this pastorate he 
composed many hymns, which were at once adopted by his fellow- 
countrymen. They were placed in the different collections, and 
the obscure minister speedily took his station near, if not next, 
to Luther himself. The same trust, the same cheer, the same 
melody, are in Gerhardt's that are in the great Reformer's lyrics. 
And the present writer well remembers how, on more than one 
occasion, he has found Gerhardt's hymns esteemed by Germans 
even above those of the leader of German hymnody. They seem 
to be peculiarly sought after by the poor, the sick, and the afflicted, 
as though they had carried in their verses the spirit of Him who 
came to help our infirmities. 

In this first charge, the labors required of Gerhardt were enor- 
mous. He had sermons, addresses, baptisms, marriages, funerals — 
all the ordinary duties of the ministry. Add to this that he was 
poor and exposed to the ugly speeches of the evil-minded, and 
that his first child was soon taken from him, and it is clear that 
his lot was a sad one. But we have more sorrows than these to 
record. He was beset by doubts, fears, and spiritual anguish. He 
must celebrate the Lord's Supper every Sabbath ; and must per- 
sonally spend much time with the candidates for confirmation. 
His visiting, his two weekly services for the young, and the work 
thrust on him by his connection with the Government, all must be 



22 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

included in an estimate of his anxieties and labors. It was from 
these trying circumstances that he was removed to the Nicolas 
church, in Berlin. 

In 1657, we find him the pastor of this great church, where his 
career was both honorable and useful. Here, however, he came 
into conflict with the Elector, who wished him to leave the Lu- 
therans, and enter the Reformed Communion, He was at this time 
a man of middle height, of quiet, firm, and cheerful demeanor, 
and of sincere and spiritual piety. His sermons were full of charity 
and tenderness, and his conduct was consistent and above all re- 
proach. 

In i'667, Gerhardt was compelled to relinquish his post, under 
circumstances which call for an extended notice. We know him 
as a person familiar with much -disappointment and many mis- 
givings. It is not strange, therefore, to find him often a prey to 
scruples and to trifling questions, such as might be less trouble- 
some to a more robust nature. He was an ardent Lutheran, and 
he soon had occasion to prove his loyalty. The " Great Elector" 
of Brandenburg — Friedrich Wilhelm I. — was then on the throne, 
and in 1662-3 he summoned the leaders of the Reformed and 
Lutheran churches to a Conference. The intention was to secure 
harmony of belief, but the doctors of divinity, after repeated 
efforts, only got farther apart. And Gerhardt, though not an ex- 
tremist, was opposed to the harsher tone of his religious brethren 
of the opposite school of thought. 

In 1664, the Elector had tired of these unending debates, and 
peremptorily stopped the further sessions of the Council. 

To this he added the statement that the different ministers were 
not to call each other's views in question in their public religious 
services. In 1665 he went further still, and demanded that the 
ministers should sign this edict, in order that he might bind them 
to observe it strictly. As this was specially obnoxious to the 
Lutherans, it led to a great excitement, which was not diminished 
when the Berlin clergy, with Gerhardt at their head, declared their 
refusal. Gerhardt was sick at the time, but he requested his 
brethren to come to his sick-room, and there exhorted them to 
stand firm in their determination to refuse their submission. 

One might suppose that this would draw attention to Gerhardt 
as a principal person among the offenders. It did, and he was 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 23 

deprived of his position as pastor. But the people of Berhn took 
the loss of their favorite preacher very much to heart, and numer- 
ous petitions were forwarded to the Elector, requesting his restora- 
tion. Those who interested themselves on his behalf were as ear- 
nest as they were influential. The burghers, the Town Council, 
the Estates of Brandenburg, and even the private influence of the 
Electress herself, were invoked to this end ; and presently the 
Elector conceded the point, and reinstated Gerhardt in his pulpit. 
He glossed this action by indicating that it was done as a recog- 
nition of the well-known conscientiousness of the preacher. But 
he accompanied it with the perplexing proposition that he relied 
on Gerhardt to do, without constraint, what he felt compelled to 
extort by pledges from the rest. 

Poor Gerhardt was worse perplexed now than before. To him 
such trust, in his honor was the most effectual sort of constraint, 
and he therefore tried to make the Elector understand that he 
neither could nor should consent to be deprived of his freedom 
of conscience. His letters at this time show his scrupulous desire 
after rectitude. " I fear," he writes, " that God in whose pres- 
ence I walk on earth, and before whose judgment-seat I must one 
day appear, and as my conscience hath spoken from my youth up, 
and yet speaks, I can see it no otherwise than that if I should ac- 
cept my office I should draw on myself God's wrath and punish- 
ment." 

The Elector, therefore, ordered some one else to be appointed 
by the Town Council to the post that Gerhardt occupied. The 
preacher was transferred to the archdeaconship of Liibben, in Sax- 
ony. Thus ended the difficulty, but not the distresses, of our 
hymnist. For he was delayed by sickness, and did not reach his 
new field until 1669. Here the remainder of his life was spent in 
sadness and loneliness and affliction. He had always consoled 
himself with song ; he now found in this gift his most precious 
solace. His " small, Berlin sort of martyrdom," as he called it, 
had at least this added sorrow, that it was joined with the loss of 
three of his five children, and with his own dangerous illness. 
And at Liibben he was lamenting the death of his wife, who died 
just before he removed thither. Only one child remained to him, 
and this one was frequently and seriously sick. Besides these 
depressing facts he mqs in a land of strangers. It is plain, then. 



24 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

that his hymns are heart-songs indeed. He had a great deal of 
annoyance, too, from the Town Council, who were rude and un- 
educated folk, with coarse ways and narrow minds. 

Of Gerhard t's hymns we may say with Mrs. Charles, that they 
reveal to us one clad in the true armor. That song of trust, 
" WacA auf niein Herz und singe" ("Awake, my heart, and 
sing"), sets the key for all the later hymns. It is one of his three 
oldest pieces, having been printed in 1649, and so was «(?/ written 
" on the altar stairs at Liibben, after a night of anguish. " 

The good man died in 1676, after threescore and ten years of 
Christian battle, in which he had borne himself as a faithful sol- 
dier, and had endured hardness for conscience' sake. 

Many particulars respecting his life and character have been 
brought out by the bi-centennial of his death, observed in Ger- 
many in 1876. The writings of Thomas Crenius, his contem- 
porary, have been explored for much interesting information, and 
the Brandenburg Hymn Book of 1658 has been found to be one of 
the very oldest depositories of his pieces. 

At Liibben, the portrait of Gerhardt still exists. Under it are 
the words, " Theologus in cribro Satanas versaius" — " a theologian 
sifted in Satan's sieve" — [Luke 22 : 31]. It is a pity that the 
story about the hymn, "Commit thy way to God" (John Wes- 
ley's " Give to the winds thy fears") is shown to be apocryphal. 
It was not written " at a wayside inn," after his " banishment" 
from Berlin. Lie was not banished at all — only transferred, as we 
have seen. His hymn was in print in 1666, three years before he 
tendered his final resignation, and removed to Liibben. But it ex- 
presses his profound faith and trust as perfectly as if its surround- 
ings were what hymnologists have agreed to state. Each stanza 
commences with a word from the German (Luther's) version of 
■Ps. 37 : 5, so that the first word of each stanza, when taken con- 
secutively, drops into its place, and forms a part of the text. 

Whatever obscurity may hang over the incidents and origin of 
these glorious songs of praise and trust, it is certain that they will 
themselves remain. Whether we can identify them with their 
motives, or must leave them as " a wandering voice, " they will 
never cease to be dear to Christian hearts. The next great achieve- 
ment of hymnody should be their adequate translation into Eng- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 25 

lish verse ; though there is already a version by John Kelly, Lon- 
don, 1867. 

All people that on earth do dwell. — Kethe. (?) 

This is the old favorite version of the one hundredth Psalm ; 
and the first British composition to which the tune " Old Hun- 
dred " was united. Sternhold and Hopkins were assisted in their 
rendering of the Psalms of David by H. Wisdome and others. 
Their work was designed, says good old Fuller, to make the 
Psalms " portable in men's memories, verses being twice as light 
as the same bulk of prose." But this witty commentator could 
not help adding that the translators had " drank more of Jordan 
than of Plelicon" during their labors ! These verses were, how- 
ever, regarded as very nearly inspired, and to question the metre 
or grammar was almost profanity. 

The evidence for William Kethe" s authorship of this hymn is 
mainly conjectural. He was an exile with Knox at Geneva, 
1555 ; chaplain of the English forces at Havre, 1563 ; and after- 
ward settled over the parish of Okeford in Dorsetshire. Twenty- 
five Psalms were originally added to the old Psalter attached to the 
Book of Common Prayer (1562), and all of these, except the one 
hundredth, had Kethe' s initials, " W. K. " The one hundredth 
had " T. S. " for Thomas Sternhold. On the strength of the fact 
that the initials " T. S." did not reappear, this one hundredth 
Psalm also was claimed for Kethe. In the Scottish Psalter (1564), 
the initials " W. K. " are placed with this version. A later edition 
(1606) of the Psalms gives the initials of the different writers, but 
there are two versions of this one hundredth Psalm, and both are 
without initials. Miller, therefore, expresses the opinion that this 
may be Kethe' s. W. Fleming Stevenson also speaks uncertainly 
of the authorship, though he, too, assigns it to Kethe. 

On the contrary, there is now before the writer of these notes a 
copy of the Psalms in the edition of 1666, This gives the author- 
ship by initials, and both versions of the one hundredth Psalm are 
here accredited positively to "J. H." — that is, to Hopkins. 

The initials " W. K." are appended to Ps. 104, 107, 112, 122, and 125. 
" W. W." is represented by Ps. 23, 37, 50, 51, 114, 119, 121, 124, 126, 
127, 130, 133, 134, and 137. 



26 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

"J. H." gives us Ps. 24, 27, 30, 31, 33, 36, 3S, 39, 40, 42, 47, 48, 49, 
50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 53. 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 
77, 81, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100 (two ver- 
sions), 108, 146, and 14S. 

" I. H." (evidently a different name from "J. H.") versified Ps. 45. 
46, 59, 60, 74, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, and 90. 

" T. S." affords Ps. 1-23 (inclusive), 25, 26, 28, 29, 32, 34, 35, 41, 43, 
44, 53, 66, 68, 73, 103, 120, 123, and 128. 

" M." is credited with Ps. 131 and 132. 

" N." furnishes Ps. loi, 102, 105, 106, 109, no, in, 115, 116, 117, iib, 
129, 135, 136, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 149, and 150. 

There is a " T. C." who contributed Ps. 136, and an " R. W." who 
claims Ps. 125. 

Of these initials, we know that "J. H." stood for John Hopkins; 
" T. S." for Thomas Sternhold ; and " W. K." for William Kethe. 
There is no " H. W." for H. Wisdome, but there may be an error by 
which " R. W." meets the case. " W. W." is William Whittingham 
(1524-1589). " N." is Thomas Norton, translator of " Calvin's Insti- 
tutes," who died about 1600. " I. H." is possibly — though scarcely 
probably — the same as " J. H. ;" indeed, the juxtaposition of the two sets 
of initials seems to forbid the identity. " T. C." is also unknown. 
" M." is John Marckant, or, as E. Farr asserts, John Mardley. Farr 
states that in the older edition of the " Psalms" the ii8th, 131st, I32d, 
135th, and 145th have the initial " M." Later editions, he says, assign 
all these to " N." Our own gives the 131st and I32d to " M.," the 
others to " N." 

Of John Hopkins but little is known. He was graduated at 
Oxford, in 1544, and is said to have been a clergyman and school- 
master in Suffolk. He resided at one time at Awre, Gloucester- 
shire. Warton considered him — it was faint praise ! — as " rather 
a better English poet than Sternhold." 

All praise to thee, eternal Lord. — Tr. Luther. 

This excellent translation was published in the Sabbath Hymn 
Book, 1859, but without any name attached to it. In 1523, Dr. 
Martin Luther wrote a hymn, commencing " Gelobet seist Du, 
Jestis Christ,'' which was a free rendering of the hymn of the cel- 
ebrated Notker Balbulus, of St. Gall, " Grates nunc omnes red- 
damns.'" The Latin hymn was composed in the ninth century, 
and is a sequence on the Nativity of our Lord. For the story of 
Notker and his development of the "sequences," we refer the 
reader to " The Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 27 

All things are ours, how abundant the treasure. — Holme. 
Rev. James Holme was born in Orton, Westmoreland, Eng- 
land, March 12th, i8or ; graduated at Cambridge in 1825, and 
entered the ministry of the Church of England. In 1861, in con- 
nection with his brother, Rev. Thomas Holme, he published a 
volume of Hyvins and Sacred Poetry. The present piece is entitled 
" For Time of Sickness," and contains five stanzas. 

Almighty God, thy word is cast. — Cawood. 
The author. Rev. John Cawood, was born at Matlock, Derby- 
shire, England, March iSth, 1775. He was the son of a poor 
farmer, who could give him but a meagre education. However, 
he mastered the classics, and spent four years at Oxford, being 
graduated in 1801. He then entered the ministry of the Church 
of England, and became a " perpetual curate," in Bewdley, Wor- 
cestershire, in 1814 ; dying there, November 7th, 1852. He was 
converted when very young, and has written a number of hymns, 
twenty having appeared in various collections. The best known 
of his pieces are : 

" Hark ! what mean those holy voices," 
" Hark ! what mean those lamentations," 

and the present hymn. This is entitled, " Hymn after Sermon," 
and is a most appropriate conclusion to the words of a preacher 
who was always earnest and evangelical. The text in Lyra Britan- 
nica differs somewhat from that in most of the collections in com- 
mon use. But Cawood's original can scarcely be preferred on the 
score of fitness and good taste, for it is inferior to the amended 
verses. His son considers the date of the hymn to be about the 
year 181 5, but the manuscript of Mr. Cawood gives nothing which 
settles the point. 

Almighty Lord, the sun shall fail. — Grant. 
Sir Robert Grant was born in 1785, the second son of Charles 
Grant, a man eminent as a philanthropist and statesman. He 
was graduated at Magdalen College, Cambridge, in 1806 ; called to 
the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1807, and was subsequently, in 1826, a 
representative in Parliament. He became a member of the Privy 
Council in 1831 ; was Governor of Bombay, 1834 ; and died at 
Dapoorie, Western India, July 9th, 1838, aged fifty- three. 



28 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Our author's hymns were pubhshed during his Hfetime in an 
imperfect form. In 1839, his brother Charles. Lord Glenelg, re- 
claimed them, and issued the entire twelve lyrics in a corrected 
shape. 

The historian Macaulay's first speech, after he entered Parlia- 
ment, was in support of Sir Robert Grant's bill to remove the dis- 
abilities of the Jews, April 5th, 1830. 

Along my earthly way. — Edmeston. 

James Edmeston was the author of nearly two t'nousand hymns, 
of which modern collections contain quite a fair proportion. Born 
at Wapping, London, September loth, 1791, he spent his youth 
at Hackney, and was articled to an architect in his sixteenth year. 
This became his settled profession from 181 6, at which time he 
printed a small volume of poems. In 1847 the best pieces were 
collected in one volume. In 1867 he was residing at Homerton, 
a suburb of London. His death occurred in his seventy-sixth 
year, January 7th, 1867. 

Always with us, always with us. — Nevin. 

Rev. Edwin H. Nevin, D. D. , who is now (1885) a resident of 
Philadelphia, furnishes the following important facts relative to his 
hymns and himself : He was born in Shippensburg, Pa., May 9th, 
1814 ; graduated at Jefferson College, Pa., 1833 ; and in theology 
at Princeton Seminary, in 1837. 

Dr. Nevin has been President of Franklin College, 1842 ; pastor 
at Mt. Vernon, O. (First Presbyterian church), 1845 ; ^t Cleve- 
land (Plymouth Congregational church) ; and from 1854 to 1861 
a preacher in Massachusetts. In 1870 he removed to Philadel- 
phia, and became pastor of the First Reformed church. He has 
lived in that city ever since, having retired from active duty of late 
owing to advancing years. 

"According to the best of my recollection, " he writes, "the 
hymn 'Always with us' was written in 1857. The hymns you 
refer to, with many others, were written chiefly on Sabbath even- 
ings, after I had been preaching through the day and was somewhat 
wearied with my labors. I always felt refreshed when I was per- 
mitted to enjoy the luxury of writing hymns. The exercise seemed 
to be a means of grace to my soul. ' ' 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 29 

Dr. Nevin has composed a large amount of poetry, and is 
arranging it with a view to an early pubhcation. He is also the 
author ot The Minister s Handbook, The Man of Faith, The City 
of God, and Thoughts About Christ. Recently he has been elected 
a member of the Victoria Institute, of Great Britain, of which 
the Earl of Shaftesbury was President. 

The present hymn is founded on Matt. 28 : 20, and is rivalled 
in popularity by its author's Sunday-school lyric, " I've read of a 
world of beauty." 

Amazing grace ! how sweet the sound. — Newton. 

The title of this piece in the Olney Hymns, where it is No. 41 of 
Book I., is " Faith's Review and Expectation." It has six stan- 
zas, and its appended text is i Chron. 17 : i6, 17. T\\q Moravian 
Hymn Book, 1789, also includes it. 

Like many others of Mr. Newton's hymns, it is the transcript 
of his own experience — an experience which we have reserved to 
be told in full at another place in this volume. 

Am I a soldier of the cross 1 — Watts, 

This was placed at the close of a sermon on i Cor. 16:13. As 
a sample of Dr. Watts' s sermonizing this discourse will bear notice : 
I. He describes Christian courage. 2. He represents the various 
occasions for it. These are : (a) Piety in the presence of sinners. 
{V) Courage before infidels and scoffers, (c) The practice of un- 
fashionable virtues, {f) Pleading the cause of the oppressed, 
(f) Reproving sin. (_/") Works of reformation, {g) Causes pecul- 
iar to the circumstances of persons ; as, for instance, when a ser- 
vant is forced to tell the truth. {K) Martyr faith — i.e., Passive valor 
seen : i. In bearing affliction, and, 2. In enduring persecution. 
The application and peroration run into the same thought, and 
almost the same phraseology, as the hymn. 

The date is 1709, but in 1721 the text has been somewhat 
altered, when we find it at the close of this sermon on " Holy 
Fortitude, or Remedies against Fear." 

It is surprising how very few " soldier-songs" there are in our 
hymn-books. Here is this, and then there are : "I'm not ashamed 
to own my Lord," and "Stand up, stand up for Jesus," and 
" Onward, Christian soldiers, " and " My soul, be on thy guard," 



3° ENGLISH HYMNS. 

and "Brightly gleams our banner," and "Stand up, my soul, 
shake off thy fears, ' ' and ' ' We march, we march to victory, ' ' and 
" Brethren, while we sojourn here," and that is nearly or quite 
the entire list. They are all together in Dr. Robinson's Laudes 
Domini, for the first time in hymnology. They come from every 
place and all denominations of Christians. And it is beyond a 
question that these are among the most popular, useful, and valued 
lyrics of the Church. 

In the Latin hymnology there is only one such song, " Pugnate 
Chrisii miliies" (" Fight on, ye Christian soldiers"), and it is the 
production of the seventeenth century, and of that classic revival 
which formed the Paris Breviary. Our times pre-eminently call 
for this style of composition. But in those days men seemed to 
prefer Notker's chant, " In the midst of life we are in death," and 
marched into actual battle with that on their lips. 

And are we yet alive ? — C. Wesley. 
Rev. Alexander Clark relates that his former colleague. Rev. 
Thomas H. Stockton, of Philadelphia, quoted this hymn in most 
pathetic circumstances. He was near his end, and had lingered 
on far beyond what any of his friends thought to be possible. He 
had waked from a sleep that those about him feared was death 
itself, and his first words were : 

" And are we yet alive, 

And see each other's face ? 

Glory and praise to Jesus give, 

For his redeeming grace !" 

It is the favorite Conference hymn of the Methodist Church. 
On both sides of the water the opening of Conference is rendered 
deeply impressive by the use of this sacred song. It is one of the 
Hymns for Chrislian Friends, and it was published in four stanzas 
in 1749- John Wesley made some changes in it for his edition of 
1780. 

And canst thou, sinner, slight .? — Hyde. 

Mrs. Abigail Bradley Hyde was born at Stockbridge, INIass., Sep- 
tember 28th, 1799, 3"^^ changed her maiden name of Bradley for 
that of Hyde in 1818, when she became the wife of Rev. Lavius 
Hyde. " She lived, " says Professor Bird, " in his various charges 
at Salisbury, Mass.; Bolton, Conn.; Ellington, Conn.; and at 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 31 

Wayland and Beckett, Mass.; and again at Bolton." At Elling- 
ton she was acquainted with Mrs. Phoebe Brown. On the 7th of 
April, 1872, she died at Andover, Conn. 

It was to Nettleton's Village Hynms, 1824, and to Nason s Col- 
leclion, 1857, that the greater part of her hymns were contributed. 
Her earliest venture in verse is traced as far back as the summer of 
1822, when she composed an "Address to Mr. Wolff.'' This 
gentleman (Rev. Joseph Wolff) was a converted Israelite whom 
]\Ir. and INIrs. Hyde met at the house of Rev. Elias Cornelius, in 
Salem. From this lengthy piece, which first appeared in the New 
Haven Religious Intelligencer , two hymns were formed. These 
were included in the Andover Hymns for the Monthly Concert, 
1823 ; and one of them, " Israel, thy mournful night is past," 
was copied into the English compilation of Josiah Pratt, 1829. In 
the Andover collection these pieces attracted the attention of Dr. 
Nettleton, who read them in Mr. Hyde's presence, and when Mr. 
Hyde stated the author's name, Dr. Nettleton desired " more 
from the same source" for his new book. She therefore sent him 
seven other hymns, which have barely escaped oblivion. Mrs. 
Hyde was not an eminent hymn-writer, but she will not be forgot- 
ten while the present hymn retains its place. 

And dost thou say, " Ask what thou wilt" .? — Newtox. 

This hymn, long reckoned among the anonymous, is found in 
the Olney Hymns, Book I., No. 32, where it is part of a piece in 
eight stanzas. The text of Scripture is i Kings 3 : 5, and is the 
same which is prefixed to " Come, my soul, thy suit prepare," 
which our present hymn immediately follows. 

And is there. Lord ! a rest .? — Palmer. 

This hymn, based on Rev. 7:17, was written in 1843, ^^ 
Bath, Me. Although one of the earlier pieces of Dr. Ray Palmer, 
it has held its place firmly in different collections. Like the other 
hymns, it has been included by its author in his Poetical Works, 
New York, 1876. 

And is the time approaching .? — Borthwick. 

An original hymn by IMiss Jane Borthwick, from Thoughts for 
Thoughtful Hours, 1859. The author is the descendant of an old 



32 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Scottish family who, in company with her sister, Mrs. Eric Ymdi- 
Izitr, Xv^vi'^XTXicd Hvmtis /rom the Land of Luiher. The signature, 
" H. L. L.," in The Family Treasury, is derived from this fact, 
and it is uncertain to how many of those hymns her name be- 
longs. They first appeared in 1854, and were continued in four 
series until 1862. 

Miss Borthwick was born in Edinburgh, in 1813, and the con- 
fusion between her own work and that of her sister has been made 
by them with deliberate purpose. 

And will the Judge descend .' — Doddridge. 

Dr. Doddridge entitled this hymn, " The Final Sentence and 
Misery of the Wicked." He placed as its text Matt. 25 : 41 ; and 
it is in seven stanzas. 

The author wrote three hundred and seventy-four hymns, in- 
cluding those for " particular occasions." They are to be found 
in the third volume of his ** Works," classified according to the 
books of the Bible, from which their themes are taken. 

And wilt thou hear, O Lord } — Neale, /r. 

From St. Joseph of the Studium (ninth century), somewhat 
altered from Dr. Neale' s translation, of which the first stanza is : 

" And wilt thou pardon, Lord, 
A sinner such as 1 ? 
Although thy book his crimes record 
Of such a crimson dye ?" 

" These stanzas, " says Dr. Neale, " are a Cento from the Canon 
for the Monday of the First Tone in the Paracletice" — a remark 
which will commend itself to those who have some knowledge of 
the extreme intricacy of Ritualism. 

Joseph was a Sicilian by birth ; a voluminous writer, and an 
exile to Thessalonica in 830, when the Mohammedans overran his 
native island. There he became a monk, and presently removed 
to Constantinople. On a persecution arising, he started for Rome ; 
was afterward captured by pirates, and for several years was a slave 
in the island of Crete ; did much missionary work in his place of 
bondage, and returned at length to Rome. There he attached 
himself to the fortunes of Ignatius and of Photius, following the 
latter into exile. Eventually he again returned and devoted him- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 33 

self to the writing of. hymns. Dr. Neale frankly states that noth- 
ing further is known of Joseph beside the tact of his martyrdom ; 
and that his productions are often marked by ' ' insufferable tedi- 
ousness," "verbiage" and "bombast." In short, the "trans- 
lator" here and elsewhere, in his reproductions of the Greek and 
Latin poets, gives us rather his own work than theirs. 

AxGELS from the realms of glory. — IMontgomery. 

In Montgomery's Original Hymns this is No. 239, with the 
title, " Good Tidings of Great Joy to all People," and contains 
five stanzas. It is, an excellent Advent hymn, of which it has been 
said that, " for comprehensiveness, appropriateness of expression, 
force and elevation of sentiment, it may challenge comparison with 
any hymn that was ever written, in any language or country." 

Angels holy, high, and lowly. — Blackie. 

Under the title of " Benedicite" this hymn appears in seven 
stanzas, among the writings of Professor John Stuart Blackie. He 
is the son of Alexander Blackie, an Aberdeen banker, and was 
born in Glasgow, July 28th, 1809. He pursued a thorough 
course of study at Mareschal College, Aberdeen, and at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. In 1834 he was called to the Scottish bar. 
He next, in 1841, became Professor of Humanity at his Alma 
]\Iater, in Aberdeen, and thence went, as Professor of Greek, to the 
University of Edinburgh, 1852. He has written upon the prin- 
ciples of beauty ; has translated ^Eschylus with exceptional suc- 
cess ; and in i860 published a volume of Lyrical Poems. The 
present hymn is taken from Lays and Legends of Ancient Greece, 
with Other Poems, which was issued in 1857. 

The list of Professor Blackie' s works is a long one, and displays 
his versatility and brilliancy by its very titles. Nothing is more 
strange than to find such a towering Saul among the sedate hymn- 
prophets. The personality of our author is both suggestive and 
interesting. He is intensely Scotch in his feelings, and quite 
combative, as well as humorous, in his character. 

The professor is enthusiastic over music, especially songs. 

He says : " I sometimes wish myself back in the Middle Ages, when 
the minstrel was the only teacher, and when singing was almost the only 
sermon. And I will tell you why ; reading is a stupid, dull kind of thing, 



34 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 



but singing stirs up the whole soul. In the best days of the world there 
was no reading and no books at all. Homer never saw a book, never 
could have seen a book. I think we see a great deal too many books. 
A great number of people become mere reading machines, having no liv- 
ing functions at all. I would like some time to give you a lecture on the 
logic of education. It simply means that you must learn to use your legs, 
your arms, your ears, your tongues, and your throats — every part of your 
soul and your body — rather than be crammed up with all sorts of things, 
and then measured with red tape by a gentleman from London. Espe- 
cially if you wish to be happy, cultivate song. I am rather a young old 
boy, and I am one of the happiest creatures under the sun at this mo- 
ment ; and my amusement is to sing songs. In railway coaches, and 
other places, I see a number smoking what they call tobacco. Well, 
whatever may be said about that, it is not an intellectual or a moral stim- 
ulant, and the flavor of it is not at all like the rose, or any poetic thing I 
know. It is essentially a vulgar sort of amusement. My amusement is 
to sing songs. At home I am always singing Scotch songs ; and abroad, 
when those wretches are smoking, I hum to myself, ' Scots wha hae,' 
' A man's a man for a' that,' and songs of that kind. I advise you to do 
the same. Your soul will become a singing bird, and then the devil won't 
get near it." 

Angels roll the rock away. — T. Scott, 

The Rev. Thomas Scott, who died about 1776, wrote " Hasten, 
sinner, to be wise," and it appeared in 1773 i'^ his Lyric Poems, 
etc. The present piece saw the light in the Gospel Magazme, for 
September, 1775, headed, "The Resurrection and Ascension." 
It appeared anonymously, Miller says, and was altered by Rev. 
Thomas Gibbons, D. D. , in 1784. It has been assigned to the 
year 1769. 

This Thomas Scott was not the commentator, but was co-pastor 
with Mr. Baxter in the Presbyterian church at Ipswich, 1737. He 
was born at Norwich, near the cominencement of the eighteenth 
century, and in 1733 was settled in the ministry at Lowestoft, Suf- 
folk. He succeeded Mr. Baxter in 1740, and continued in that 
post until two years before his death, when he resigned, removed 
to Hupton, in Norfolk, and occasionally preached until he was 
called away to heaven. One of his productions (he wrote several) 
was a translation of the book of Job into English verse (1771 — 2d 
ed. 1774). Dr. Allibone, among a long list of contemporary 
Thomas Scotts, distinguishes this one as a " Dissenting Arian 
divine of Ipswich, England, died 1775." He was, in fact, a 
"Presbyterian with Arian views." The present hymn is much 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 35 

altered from the original, which was in seven stanzas, and com- 
menced " TrembUng earth gave awful signs." After each stan- 
za was an " Hallelujah !" 

AxGEL voices ever singing. — Pott. 

The author of this piece is Rev. Francis Pott, who studied at 
Oxford, where he was graduated from Brasenose College in 1854, 
and took his master's degree in 1857. In 1856 he entered the 
ministry, and was ordained in the Church of England, 1857. He 
then was curate of Bishopsworth, Bristol ; after which he performed 
the same duties at Ardingley, Sussex, in 1858, and was appointed 
to Ticehurst in 1861. He is at present the incumbent of Northill, 
Biggleswade, Bedfordshire. The meritorious hymn before us is 
from his collection, entitled, Hynms Fitted io the Order of Common 
Prayer, 1861. 

Another day is past and gone. —I. Williaais, //-. 

Among the many translations of the later Latin hymns executed 
by Isaac Williams, B. D., this may claim an honorable place. It 
bears a passing resemblance to the pseudo-Ambrosian hymn, Diei 
luce reddita, but it is scarcely close enough to be accepted as a ver- 
sion. The Hymiii ad Vesper as — the Latin evening hymns — are 
constructed on much the same general principles, so that it is dif- 
ficult to say of which one this is a translation. 

Another six days' work is done. — J. Stennett. 

For more than a century the succession of Stennetts enriched 
the ministry of the Baptist denomination in England, First, came 
Rev. Edward Stennett, whose son, Joseph, born 1663, was the 
author of this hymn. His son, Joseph, born 1692, had a son, 
Samuel, born 1727, with whose son, Joseph, this series of clergy- 
men — and also the family name^ — ceased. Two of these Stennetts, 
Samuel and his grandfather, Joseph, were hymn-writers of no 
mean capacity. But, as it happened, they were Dissenters from 
the opinions of the State Church ; and any one who examines 
English hymnology will soon find that such are at a discount, 
while most Methodists and all Church of England authors, and 
especially those who are Ritualists, have been carefully investigated 
and edited. In point of fact, Christophers, who is himself a 



3^ ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Methodist, and Prescott, who is an Episcopalian, utterly ignore 
the existence of the Stennetts. 

Of Joseph Stennett, v/e know that in jouth he pursued his 
studies in nearly ever}- branch of knowledge, including philosophy, 
divinity, and Oriental languages. He came of a family renowned 
for intellect and piety. At the age of twenty-two he went to Lon- 
don, where for some five years he engaged in teaching. He was 
an excellent writer and a brilliant conversationalist, attracting much 
notice in literary and social life. 

In 1688 he married Susanna, the daughter of George Gill, Esq., 
a French merchant, and about this time believed himself called to 
the Gospel ministry. He began to preach, was favorably received, 
and on March 4th, 1690, was ordained as pastor of the congrega- 
tion in Devonshire Square, London. These people were Seventh- 
Day Baptists, and he continued to serve them until his death, 
preaching also to other congregations on the first day of the week. 
Mr. Miller, from whose pages we condense part of this informa- 
tion, adds that his family was large, his compensation small, but 
he refused all offers of more lucrative and ambitious positions. In 
his later years he received young men into his house to train them 
for the ministry. He died July nth, 1713, in his forty-ninth 
year, and among his last words were : "I rejoice in the God of 
my salvation, who is my strength and God." 

This Sabbath hymn, of fourteen stanzas, is perfectly fitted to the 
use of all Christians, and bears no apparent marks of its origin 
among those who observed the seventh day. 

Approach, my soul, the mercy-seat, — Newton. 
This piece appears among the Olney Hymns, Book III., No. 12. 
It is entitled " The Effort — in another measure," and is in six 
stanzas. The previous hymn is also called " The Effort, " and 
commences, "Cheer up, my soul, there is a mercy-seat." The 
division of the book in which both of these hymns appear is headed, 
" Seeking, Pleading and Hoping. ' ' Therefore, we see the author's 
idea of a struggle to secure salvation. To this section Cowper 
contributed " jMy former hopes are fled," in which we find the 

pathetic stanza, 

" I see, or think I see 

A glimm'ring from afar ; 
A beam of day that shines for me 
To save me from despair." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 37 

There is a touching story of a young woman in a hospital, who 
heard the Gospel invitation given in the words of that beautiful 
offer, " Whosoever cometh unto me I will in no wise cast out.'' 
Her changed appearance attracted the chaplain's notice, and she 
gave as the reason for her happiness that she had " just climbed 
up on that ladder of ' Whosoever.' " 

The influence of George Herbert — a favorite poet with j\Ir. 
Newton — can be traced in this hymn. 

Arise, my soul, arise. — C. Wesley. 

The date is 1742, and this piece is from Hymns and Sacred 
Poems. It is a notable hymn, and one attended with many rich 
experiences. Out of several incidents this one strikes us as very 
suggestive. William Hiskins, of Fexham, Wiltshire, was a man 
who especially valued the privilege of Christian fellowship. At 
ninety years of age he still attended divine service regularly. On 
the day of his death he looked forward to the evening preaching 
with great anticipation of a happy occasion. The sermon was 
upon the intercession of Christ, and this hymn — a favorite with 
him — was given out and sung. He sang the words, " Five bleed- 
ing wounds he bears," with emphasis, and it was remem'oered after- 
ward that he seemed much affected by them. He asked the pastor 
to pray for his son-in-law, then dangerously ill ; and when service 
was over he started to visit him. It was the last time the old man 
was seen alive. His road lay by the side of the canal, and in 
some manner he lost his footing and fell in. In about half an 
hour he was missed, and, on search being made, his body was 
found, but life had departed. This was on the 23d of March. 
1830. 

In singing this hymn, Rev. G. T. Turner, of Australia, was con- 
vinced of sin, and, while uttering the words, " ]My God is recon- 
ciled," he obtained pardon and peace, giving himself ultimately 
to the work of the ministry. 

Mr. G. J. Stevenson gives the facts which w-e now quote, and 
which it is due to him for us to copy exactly : 

" Probably the most remarkable, not to say astonishing, result from 
the use of a hymn is the following record, which has come to hand from 
the Rev. Matthew Cranswick, a Wesleyan missionary, formerly laboring 
in the West Indies, and who has since his communication personally cer- 



38 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

tified to the writer the truth of the statement hereafter made. Mr. Crans- 
wick observes : ' I feel it due to the honor and glory of God to inform 
you of the utility of one hymn in particular. No. 202, commencing, 
" Arise, my soul, arise," etc. I have a record of upward of two hundred 
persons, young and old, who received the most direct evidence of the for- 
giveness of their sins while singing that hymn [at different services and 
at various periods]. The conversion of the greatest number of these per- 
sons took place while I was a missionary abroad.' " 

But the finest account given us in connection with this hymn 
has to do with the establishment of missions in South America. 

When Richard Williams and Captain Allen Gardiner attempted, 
in December, 1850, to carry the Gospel to Patagonia, they en- 
countered a series of disasters which were simply heartrending, 
and which culminated in the death of the whole party. They had 
nets, but found no fish ; they lost their anchor and both their small 
boats at Picton Island ; of the larger boats, one was wrecked and 
one became unseaworthy ; the natives were hostile, and were al- 
ways crying, " Yammer schooner !" — "Give me!" The com- 
pany consisted of Captain Allen Gardiner and Dr. Richard Wil- 
liams ; and of John Maidment and Joseph Irwin, a carpenter ; to- 
getherwith three Cornish fishermen, Pearce, Badcock, and Bryant. 
AH were devoted Christians, and in spite of the fact that their am- 
munition had been forgotten and left on board the ship that brought 
them, they hoped to establish their mission. But disease set in. 
Williams and Badcock were attacked by scurvy. Provisions grew 
scarce. They changed their camp several times without improving 
their prospects. They had great difficulty in forming friendly re- 
lations with the Fuegians. And at last they were reduced to the 
dire necessity of waiting for help from England or the Falkland 
Islands. As a matter of judgment, it would have been better for 
them to have attempted to make a voyage to the islands in their 
solitary boat than to wait on, hopelessly ; but they preferred to 
remain where they were. 

Both Captain Gardiner and Dr. Williams kept diaries, which 
were afterward found. From these we learn the short, sad story of 
their terrible privations and suffering, and that Maidment and Gar- 
diner were probably the last survivors. The final entry is on Sep- 
tember 6th, and is in Captain Gardiner's hand : "I neither 
hunger nor thirst, though five days "rt'ithout food ! Marvellous 
loving-kindness to me a sinner !" 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 39 

This hymn of Charles Wesley's was the parting song of John 
Badcock, the first who died. Lying by R"chard Williams's side, 
in. the narrow and leaky cabin of the " Speedwell," he asked his 
companion to sing this hymn with him, and in a few minutes he 
passed away. 

H. M. S. " Dido," commanded by Captain Moreshead, reached 
Banner Cove, January 19th, 1852, and found the bodies of Cap- 
tain Gardiner and Mr, Maidment in the cabin which had served as 
their shelter. 

The outcome of this self-sacrifice has been the establishment, in 
1872, of a permanent mission station at Ushuwia, Tierra del 
Fuego, with mission operations in Patagonia and among the 
Araucanian Indians. Professor Christlieb, in his Foreign Mis- 
sions, 1880, tells us that some Pesherehs of Fuegia had declared 
to the missionary, Mr, Whaits, that they now understood why 
Captain Gardiner had taken such trouble with them, and they 
deeply regretted their indifference to him. R. Young, in Light 
in Lands of Darkness, 1884, brings the story to the latest date by 
stating that the Fuegians are now kind to all shipwrecked crews. 
Admiral Sir B. J. Sulivan testified this to the naturalist Darwin in 
1881, who replied that " he could not have believed that all the 
missionaries in the world could have made the Fuegians honest." 
Thus the text, Ps. 62 : 5-8, written by Gardiner's party on the 
rocks at Banner Cove, has had its fulfilment. 

Arise, my soul, my joyful powers. — Watts. 
John Gill, D. D., died at Camberwell, Surrey, in 1771, repeat- 
ing the lines from Watts, beginning, 

" He raised me from the deeps of sin. 
The gates of gaping hell, 
And fixed my standing more secure 
Than 'twas before I fell." 

They are from this eighty-second hymn of Book II., entided 
"Redemption and Protection from Spiritual Enemies." There 
are six stanzas. This one — the second — has been scarcely more 
cherished than the third : 

" The arms of everlasting love 
Beneath my soul he plac'd, 
And on the Rock of Ages set 
My slippery footsteps fast." 



40 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Arise, O King of grace, arise ! — Watts 

The entire C. M. version of Dr. Watts, as he has chosen to 
render the 13 2d Psalm, has nine stanzas, with a " Pause." This 
hymn begins with the fourth, and is entitled, "God's Presence 
the Glory of His House." 

Arise, ye saints, arise ! — Kelly. 

This is Thomas Kelly's hymn, No. 77 (ed. of 1809), with the 
text, Ps. 18 : 34. It las, in the original, seven stanzas. 

Art thou weary, art thou languid ? — Neale, ir. 

One of Dr. Neale' s happiest transfusions. For some high-art 
reason of his own he has entitled it : " Idiomela, in the Week of 
the First Oblique Tone," explaining " idiomela" to mean " stan- 
zas which are their own models." The original is the K'>7tov re 
K(ii Kd\iarov of St. Stephen the Sabaite. 

Stephen was a monk of the monastery of Sabas, where he was 
placed by his uncle, St. John Damascene. Here he found St. 
Cosmas, who contributed not a little to form his style — a thing 
not difficult, for Stephen entered the monastery as a boy of ten. 
He remained within these walls fifty-nine years, and during that 
time his uncle was successful in re-establishing image-worship. 

Dr. Neale speaks of these stanzas as " very sweet ' ' — which they 
certainly are ; but his own rendering is quite free. The original 
is of the eighth century. Stephen was born in 725, and died in 
794, and this is the finest of his hymns. 

Miss Sally Pratt McLean has used this hymn in her story of 
Cape Cod Folks (p. 300). It is the duet which George Olver and 
Benny Cradlebow sing together as they are mending the boat 
just before Cradlebow' s heroic death. Captain Arkell tells of it 
thus : 

" By and by, him and George Olver struck up a song. I've heern 'em 
sing it before, them two. As nigh as I calc'late, it's about finditi' rest in 
Jesus, and one a askin' questions, all far and squar', to know the way 
and whether it's a goin' to lead thar straight or not, and the other an- 
svverin'. And //^— he was a tinkerin', 'way up on the foremast. George 
Olver and the rest of us was astern, and I'll hear to my dyin' day how 
his voice came a floatin' down to us thar— chantin' like it was — cl'ar and 
fearless and slow. So he asks, for findin' Jesus, ef thar's any marks to 
foller by ; and George, he answers about them bleedin' nail-prints, and 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 41 

the great one in liis side. So then that voice comes down agin, askin' if 
thar's any crown, like other kings, to tell him by ; and George, he an- 
swers straight about that crown o' thorns. Then says that other voice, 
floatin' so strong and cl'ar, and if he gin up all and foUered, what should 
he have ? What now ? So George, he sings deep o' the trial and the sor- 
rowin'. But that other voice never shook, a askin' and what if he helt 
to him to the end, what then should it be — what then ? George Olver 
answers : ' Forevermore, the sorrowin' ended — Death gone over.' Then 
he sings out, like his mind was all made up, ' And if he undertook it, 
would he likely be turned away?' 'And it's likelier,' George answers 
him, ' that heaven and earth shall pass.' So I'll hear it to my dyin' day 
— his voice a floatin' down to me from up above thar, askin' them ques- 
tions that nobody could ever answer like, so soon he answered 'em for 
himself." 

Rev. James King, in Anglican Hymnology, 1885, says : 

" We visited Mar Saba a short time ago, while making a journey 
through Palestine, and found that the monastery stands nobly on a lofty 
cliff overhanging the valley of the Kedron, which here forms a deep 
chasm. It was founded in the beginning of the sixth century, and this 
secluded convent has therefore stood in the midst of savage desolation 
for fourteen centuries. Several times in the course of ages it has been 
plundered, and the inmates put to death by Persians, Moslems, and the 
Bedouin Arabs ; and, therefore, for the sake of safety, the monastery 
is surrounded by massive walls, and further guarded by two strong towers 
near the entrance, which tend to give the edifice the appearance of a fort- 
ress in a commanding position. On being admitted inside the gate we 
found chapels, chambers, and cells innumerable, for the most part cut out 
of the rock, perched one above the other, and connected by rocky steps 
and intricate passages. The huge building seems as if it were clinging 
to the face of a steep precipice, so that it is difficult to distinguish man's 
masonry from the natural rock. Many of the monks of this tranquil con- 
vent are well known historical persons. St. Sabas, the founder, died and 
was buried here in 532. The three sacred poets above mentioned [St. 
Stephen, the Sabaite, St. John Damascene, and St. Cosmas, of Jerusalem] 
were monks of Mar Saba, in the eighth century. 

" The Sabaites at present number about forty, and their rule is very 
severe, being under a vow never to eat animal food. They have seven 
religious services in twenty-four hours — five by day and two by night. 
Although they seem severe in their habits, they received us kindly, and 
we were carefully conducted by a monk through the whole monastery. 
We were shown their gayly-decorated chapel, the tomb of St. Sabas, the 
tomb of St. John of Damascus, and a cave chapel containing thousands 
of skulls of martyred monks. We were led to the belfry on the roof of 
their little sanctuary, and saw the bells which send forth their beautiful 
chimes, and gladden the hearts of pilgrims, who, ' weary and languid,' 



42 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

pursue their journey through the desolate wilderness. The bells of Mar 
Saba recalled to mind the soothing words : 

' Far, far away, like bells at evening pealing, 
The voice of Jesus sounds o'er land and sea.' 

" We were then conducted to a terrace, from the dizzy height of which 
we looked down into the deep gorge of the Kedron, five hundred feet be- 
low. Every morning wolves and jackals assemble at the bottom of the 
rocks, and are fed by the monks, who cast down food to the ravenous 
animals. Viewed from this terrace, the scene around and below is one 
of stern desolation, and a sight so impressive as never to be forgotten. 
Mar Saba was much more endeared to us when we remembered that here 
Stephanos, eleven centuries ago, wrote the touching hymn : 

"Art thou weary, art thou languid, 
Art thou sore distressed? 
'Come to me,' saith One, ' and, coming, 
' Be at rest.' " 

As pants the hart for coohng streams. — Lyte. 

This is given by Miller as if from Rev. H. F. Lyte's Spirit of 
the Psalms, 1834. G. J. Stevenson credits it to " Tate and Brady's 
New Version," and says : " It is a rendering true to nature, and 
has a musical ring to it." To see the force of this encomium one 
only needs to quote Sternhold and Hopkins's paraphrase : 

" Like as the hart doth breathe and bray 
The well-springs to obtain, 
So doth my soul desire alvvay 
With thee. Lord, to remain. 
My soul doth thirst, and would draw near 

The living God of might : 
Oh, when shall I come and appear 
In presence of his sight !" 

[From edition of 1666, Londoni\ 

It was altered by Rev. H. F. Lyte, in 1834, from Tate and 
Brady's version (1696) of Ps. 42, and the fourth stanza was in- 
serted by him. 

Of his own version of the Psalms, Lyte wrote that he had " en- 
deavored to give the spirit of each Psalm in such a compass as the 
public taste would tolerate, and to furnish sometimes, when the 
length of the original would admit of it. an almost literal transla- 
tion ; sometimes a kind of spiritual paraphrase, at others even a 
brief commentary on the whole Psalm." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 43 

As pants the wearied hart for cooling springs. — Lowth. 

Tiiis is Dr. Robeit Lowth' s version of Ps. 42. The altera- 
tions from the original, which are only a proof of the improvement 
of the hymn by the usual processes of time and taste, are collated 
by Dr. Hutchins, in his Annotatiotis io the (Episcopal) Hymnal. 
The author was born at Buriton, in Hampshire, England, Novem- 
ber 27th, 1 710 ; educated at Winchester School and New College, 
Oxford ; Professor of Poetry at Oxford, 1 74 1 ; Prebend of Dur- 
ham, 1755 ; Bishop of St. David's, 1766 ; translated to Oxford 
the same year, and to London, 1777 He declined the Arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury, 1783, and died, November 3d, 1787. 
His writings are favorably known for their genius and learning, 
and his translation of Isaiah is called " the greatest of his produc- 
tions." He was the second son of Dr. William Lowth, 1661-1732, 
a man distinguished for his scholarly and theological attainments, 
and specially for his Vindication of the Divine Authority and Inspi- 
ratioji 0/ the Scriptures, 1692. 

The Latin epitaph placed by Bishop Lowth upon his daughter's 
tomb has such pathetic beauty that we give it here : 

" Cara, vale! ingenio prasians, pietate, pudore, 
Et plusquam natce ttomine cara, vale ! 
Cara Mafia, vale ! At ve7iiet felicius avum, 
Quando iierum tecum, sim modo dignus, ero. 
Cara, redi ; Iceta turn dicam voce, paternos 
Eja ! age in amplexiis, cara Maria, redi.''^ 

Dear one, farewell ! Thou wast known for talent and virtue ana good- 
ness : 

Yea, and endeared beyond the name of daughter, farewell ! 

Mary, thou dear one, farewell ! But yet there shall dawn a bright morn- 
ing 

When I shall meet thee again — should I be worthy to meet thee ! 

Dear one, return ! And then, with a voice full of gladness, 

Rush to thy father's embrace ! O dear one, O Mary, return ! 

As shadows cast by cloud and sun. — Bryant, 

The life of William CuUen Bryant is an integral part of Ameri- 
can literature. His long, honorable career as a journalist and citizen 
have also identified him with the best interests of his native land. 
In the later years of his life he wrote quite a number of hymns, of 
which this is one. His religious views also ripened and grew more 



44 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 



spiritual as he neared the grave. It is only necessary that we 
should give the great facts of his history, and a list (not easily 
accessible) of his hymns. 

William Cullen Bryant, son of Peter Bryant, M. D., was bofn 
November 3d, 1794, at Cummington, Mass. He died at his 
country home on Long Island, near New York City, June 12th, 
1878, in his eighty-fourth year. 

The immediate cause of Mr. Bryant's death was a fall received 
after the exposure and fatigue which followed the delivery of an 
oration in the open air at Central Park. 

The hymns to which his name is rightly affixed are : 

" Mighty One, before whose face." 
" O thou whose love can ne'er forget." 
" Our Father, to thy love we owe." 1S24. 

[" Father, to thy kind love we owe."] 
" Deem not that they are blest alone." 1S24. 

[" O deem not," etc.] 
" O God, whose dread and dazzling brow." 1824. 
" Great God, the followers of thy Son." 1824. 
" Thou whose unmeasured temple stands." 

[" O thou whose own vast temple stands."] 
" All that in thfs wide world we see." 
" When this song of praise shall cease." 
" Lord, who ordainest for mankind." 
" All praise to him of Nazareth." 

[A communion hymn.] 
" O North, with all thy vales of green." 
" Almighty ! hear thy children raise." 1824. 
" When he who from the scourge of wrong." 1824. 
" Ancient of days, except thou deign." 
" Lord, from whose glorious presence came." 
" Look from the sphere of endless day." 
" As o'er the cradle of her Son." 
" Whate'er he bids, observe and do." 
" Go forth, O word of Christ ! go forth !" 

And yet, the " poet " was not a " hymnist. " This latter word, 
by the way, was coined by Rev. C. B. Pearson, who used it for the 
first time in ihe Oxford Essays, 1858. 

As the hart with eager looks. — Montgomery. 

This is another of the renderings of the 4 2d Psalm. In James 
Montgomery's Original Hymns it is No. 96, and is entitled 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 45 

" Longing for the Courts of the Lord's House. " It is there found 
in four stanzas. 

The word " panteth " in the Hebrew has reference to the pecul- 
iar cry of the thirsty animal, and is only used twice in the Bible — ■ 
the second instance being Joel i : 20. 

This Psalm was written before David had attained to his actual 
kingdom. He was fleeing before his enemies, and the very words 
of his plaintive song (Ps. 42:6) show us that he was far from altar 
and priests and sacrifice. He had been like a deer chased by the 
hounds, and the thought of the tabernacle, with its quiet and its 
refreshment, is like that of water to the hunted stag. It is in 
much the same spirit that he is mentioned as longing for a draught 
from the well " beside the gate. " 

As with gladness men of old. — W. C. Dix. 

This appeared in the first edition of Hyinm, Andetit and Modern, 
and is the composition of William Chatterton Dix, son of John 
Dix, surgeon, Bristol. Mr. Dix was born at Bristol, June 14th, 
1837. Lie has contributed poetry to S. Raphad s Hymnal, 1861, 
Lyra ^ucharistica, 1864, Lyra Mcssianica, 1864, and the Ilhis- 
irated Book of Poems, 1867, etc. The text of this hymn, as re- 
CjuesCed by IMr. Dix, can be found in the Free Church Hymn Book, 
and in the 1875 edition of Hymns, Ancicnl and JModcrn. The 
only difference between that and the version in common use is 
'' loivly bed" iox '' manger bed." This hymn was written in 
1856. The author was trained to a mercantile life, and in 1872 
held an appointment in a marine insurance office. The father of 
Mr. Dix wrote a life of Chatterton — who, it will be remembered, 
was a Bristol boy. 

Ascend thy throne, Almighty King. — Beddome. 

The numerous hymns of Rev. Benjamin Beddome were written 
to be sung at the close of sermons, or of Scripture lessons, or for 
his own pleasure, and without any design of publication. They 
have secured the commendation of Rev. Robert Llall, D. D., and 
of the poet Montgomerv^, and are extensively employed in our 
modern collections. They first found their way into public notice 
through the compilation made by Dr. Rippon, in 1787, who 
chose nearly fifty of them for use. 



46 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Ask ye what great thing I know. — Kennedy. 

Rev. Benjamin Hall Kennedy, D. D. , a canon of Ely Cathedral, 
and recently living in Cambridge, England, was born at Summer 
Hill, near Birmingham, England, November 6th, 1804 ; educated 
at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and afterward at Shrews- 
bury School ; and was graduated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. He took many university honors, became a Fellow and 
Classical Lecturer in 1828, and in 1830 went to Harrow to as- 
sume an assistant mastership. Thence he departed in 1836, to 
become head-master of Shrewsbury School, and in 1865 was ap- 
pointed rector of West Felton, Shropshire. Dr. Kennedy is some- 
what celebrated as the author of classical works for schools, and 
as the editor of Hymnologia Chrisiiana and The Psalter of English 
Verse. This Hjmnologia Chrisiiana must not be confounded with 
Hymnologia Christiana Latijia, a series of renderings of well-known 
English hymns into Latin verse, by Rev. Richard Bingham, 1871, 
a book of laborious inutility, produced in consequence of that 
gentleman's wakefulness during certain hours of every night. Dr, 
Kennedy's volume consists of fifteen hundred hymns, given with- 
out authors' names, and published in 1863. For this omission, 
and for other reasons, it is quite a disappointing book. The com- 
piler, in his preface, speaks regretfully of the absence of names 
and dates, and says that in a future edition he should arrange his 
work better. 

Asleep in Jesus, bfessed sleep. — Mackay. 

This hymn was contributed in 1832 to The Ariiethyst, an Edin- 
burgh annual, by Margaret Mackay, daughter of Captain Robert 
Mackay, of Hedgefield, near Inverness, and wife, in 1820, of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel William Mackay, of the Sixty -eighth Light Infan- 
try. She has written in prose and verse with considerable success, 
and her Family at Heatherdale passed to a third edition in 1854. 

This hymn originated in a visit paid by the authoress to a bury- 
ing-ground in the west of England. Dr. Belcher reprints the 
following account of its origin, from her own pen : 

" ' Sleeping in Jesus.' 

" This simple inscription is carved on a tombstone in the retired rural 
burying-ground of Pennycross Chapel, in Devonshire. Distant only a 
few miles from a bustling and crowded seaport town, reached through a 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 47 

succession of those lovely green lanes for wliich Devonshire is so remark- 
able, the quiet aspect of Pennycross comes soothingly over the mind. 
' Sleeping in Jesus ' seems in keeping with all around. 

" Here was no elaborate ornament, no unsightly decay. The trim 
gravel walk led to the house of prayer, itself boasting of no architectural 
embellishment to distinguish it ; and a few trees were planted irregularly 
to mark some favored spots." 

At evening time let there be light. — Axox. 1S38. 
Professor Bird states that this is " from a small and ignoble 
selection, The Evergreen, no date" ; but that his copy [" 7th 
ed."] is not later than 1835 or thereabouts. It is there assigned 
to Montgomery by mistake, as it does not appear in that poet's 
hymns or poems. As it was copied by W. C. Wilson in his Book 
of General Psalmody, 1838, that year is chosen by Professor Bird 
as the earliest certain date. 

At the Lamb's high feast we sing. — R. Campbell, fr. 

The Latin hymn. Ad regias Agni dapes, from which this is 
taken, is a later (sixth century) form oi Ad ccenam Agni providi, 
a hymn sometimes ascribed to Ambrose. The more recent text 
is that which appears in the Roman and Paris Breviaries. The 
other was known at Sarum, and among the early Anglo-Saxon 
churches generally ; and is one of the hymns honored by the 
attention of the great scholar, Jacob Grimm. Mr. Campbell 
(who died in 1868) prepared this (in 1850), with other transla- 
tions, to be used in a hymn-book for the diocese of St. Andrews, 
Scotland. Several of these were transferred anonymously to 
Hymns, Ancic7it and Modern, and the author has identified them 
at the request of ]\Ir. Josiah Miller. He was an advocate in 
Edinburgh ; was strongly inclined toward the Church of Rome, 
and entered its communion not long before his death, which took 
place in Edinburgh, December 29th, 1868. 

Another version of this Latin hymn is Dr. Neale's " The 
Lamb's high banquet called to share." For further knowledge 
upon the Latin hymnology, see " The Latin Hymn Writers and 
their Hymns. ' ' 

At thy command, our dearest Lord. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts has this as his Hymn 19, Book IH., with the title, 
"Glory in the Cross, or not ashamed of Christ crucified." It 



48 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

has four stanzas in the original form, and is evidently a com- 
munion hymn. 

Author of good, to thee I turn. — Merrick. 
This hymn is found in James Merrick's Sacred and Moral 
Poems, 1789. It is entitled "The Ignorance of ]\Ian," and 
commences, " Behold, yon new-born infant griev'd. " There 
are eight stanzas, of which the present first line is from the fifth. 
The concluding quatrain is the famous stanza : 

" Not to my wish, but to my want, 
Do thou thy gifts apply : 
Unask'd, what good thou knowest, grant ; 
What ill, tho' ask'd, deny." 

The rare little book which contains this piece is possessed, along 
with a fine and full list of English hymnologies, by the Ridgway 
branch of the Philadelphia Library. 

Awake, and sing the song. — Hammond. 
Rev. William Hammond, in 1745, published a collection of 
original poems, entitled Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual Songs. 
From this the present hymn was taken. Some alterations appear 
in its later verses : one verse seems to have been added wholly by 
Madan, in 1760 — the one next to the last. The author's title 
was, "Before Singing of Hymns, by way of Introduction." 
Scriptural allusion is made to Rev. 15:3. 

Awake, awake, O Zion. — Gough. 
This, and the stirring hymn, "Uplift the blood-red banner," 
are found in Benjamin Gough's Lyra Sabhatica, 1865. It is 
entitled " The Coming Millennium. — Isa. 52 : i." 

Awake, my heart, arise, my tongue. — Watts. 
We find this as Hymn 20, of Book I., and it is also printed 
after a sermon on Isa. 61 : 10. It bears the title, " Spiritual 
Apparel, namely, the Robe of Righteousness, and Garments of 
Salvation," and is in six stanzas. 

Awake, my soul, and with the sun. — Ken. 
There are thirty-two editions of Bishop Ken's Manual from 
1674 to 1799. The earliest to contain the three hymns for which 
he is most noted is that of 1695. The present writer has also 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 49 

seen the "jMorning" and "Evening" hymns, in ten-syllable 
verses, in the famous Thumb Bible. This is a small copy of the 
Word of God prepared by Jeremy Taylor for the son of Princess 
Anne, who died in 1700. Its date is October 6th, 1693, and it 
bears the imprwiahir of "J. Lancaster," It has been reprinted 
\n facsimile by Longmans, London, 1851. The prefixed motto 
speaks more for the editor's piety than for his grammar : 

" With care and pains, out of the Sacred Book, 
This little abstract I for thee have took." 

In this Child's Bible, the " Morning Hymn" is given thus : 

" Glory to thee, my God ; who safe hast kept, 
And me refresh'd, while I securely slept. 
Lord, this day guard me, lest I may transgress ; 
And all my undertakings guide and bless. 
And since to thee my Vows I now renew. 
Scatter my by-past sins as Morning Dew ; 
That so thy Glory may shine clear this day, 
In all 1 either think, or do, or say. Amen." 

Rev. Thomas Ken, D. D., the well-known bishop of Bath and 
Wells, was born in Hertfordshire, in 1637, and went to Win- 
chester School in his boyhood. It was for this institution that 
in after years he prepared his Manual of Praye/s, to which, in 
1695, he appended the " Morning," " Midnight," and " Even- 
ing " hymns. The midnight hymn commenced with the line, 
" My God, now I from sleep awake," and it has been considered 
fully equal to the others. 

Bishop Ken used to sing the morning hymn to his own accom- 
paniment on the lute. This excellent man was raised to the 
episcopal office in 1684, and ministered to Charles the Second in 
the king's last moments. Under James the Second he was im- 
prisoned in the Tower of London for his refusal to sign the 
Declaration of Indulgence. He died in 171 1, and his friends 
buried him ^t Frome, in the early morning. This had been his 
expressed desire, and he had wished to be laid in his last resting- 
place " under the east window of the chancel, just at sunrising. " 
There, in the midst of that solemn scene, and as the daylight 
brightened, they sang his own anthem of praise, " Awake, my 
soul, and with the sun." 

So picturesque a subject could hardly escape the notice of the 



50 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

poets, and certainly no pen could have touched it more gracefully 
than that of Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton) : 

" Let other thoughts, where'er I roam, 

Ne'er from my memory cancel 
The coffin-fashioned tomb at Frome 

That lies behind the chancel ; 
A basket-work where bars are bent, 

Iron in place of osier, 
And shapes above that represent 

A mitre and a crosier. 

" These signs of him that slumbers there 

The dignity betoken ; 
These iron bars a heart declare 

Hard bent, but never broken ; 
This form portrays how souls like his, 

Their pride and passion quelling, 
Preferred to earth's high palaces 

This calm and narrow dwelling. 

" There with the churchyard's common dust 

He loved his own to mingle ; 
The faith in which he placed his trust 

Was nothing rare or single ; 
Yet laid he to the sacred wall 

As close as he v«ras able,— 
The blessed crumbs might almost fall 

Upon him from God's table. 

"' Who was this father of the Church, 

So secret in his glory ? 
In vain might antiquarians search 

For record of his story ; 
But preciously tradition keeps 

The fame of holy men ; 
So there the Christian smiles or weeps 

For love of Bishop Ken. 

" A name his country once forsook. 

But now with joy inherits. 
Confessor in the Church's book, 

And martyr in the Spirit's ! 
That dared with royal power to cope, 

In peaceful faith persisting, 
A braver Becket — who could hope 

To conquer unresisting." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 5 1 

Awake, my soul, stretch every nerve. — Doddridge. 
In Dr. Doddridge's hymns this is No. 296 — " Pressing on in 
the Christian Race." Phil. 3 : 12-14 is the text affixed to it. 

Awake, my soul, to joyful lays. — Medley. 

The materials for the life of Mr. Medley are found in the 
Baptist Magazine for August, 1799, ^^<^ i^ ^ memoir published by 
his son, in 1807. From these we learn that Samuel Medley, born 
at Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, June 23d, 1738, was first apprenticed 
to an oilman in London, but disliked the business, and claimed 
the privilege, as he had the right to do, of finishing his apprentice- 
ship in the navy. 

In 1755 he was a midshipman on board of the " Buckingham," 
and was transferred to the " Intrepid," under Admiral Boscawen, 
with whom he served in the sea fight off Cape Lagos, August i8th, 
1759. In this engagement Medley received a severe wound in 
the leg. On the return of the fleet he was taken to the house of 
his grandfather, Mr. Tonge, who was a pious man, and did all 
that was in his power to induce his grandson to lead a different 
and better life. One Sunday evening he remained with him at 
home, and read .to him, in the hope of reaching his heart, a ser- 
mon by Dr. Watts, on Isa. 42 : 6, 7. To the wounded sailor it 
was a precise description of his case, and it resulted in opening his 
blinded eyes, and bringing him into liberty, like a prisoner from 
his dungeon. In a word, he was deeply convicted of his sin ; 
and not long afterward he was hopefully converted. When he 
was restored to health he frequently heard Whitefield, and in 
December, 1760, he joined Dr. Gifford's church in Eagle Street, 
London. 

Though he was assured of promotion in the navy, he resigned 
from the service, and opened a school near Seven Dials. In 1762^ 
he married, and removed his school to King Street, Soho. His 
pastor now encouraged him to preach ; and, with this support 
from Dr. Gifford, he made his first attempt in 1766. His educa- 
tion was good, and his ability justified the trial. In 1767 he 
became pastor of the Baptist Church, at Watford, Hertfordshire, 
and there remained until 1772, when he removed to Liverpool. 
Here he was very successful, especially with the sailors. His con- 
gregation became so large that a new edifice was erected in the year 



52 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

1790, and in this Mr. Medley continued, with active usefulness, 
until 1798, At that time he was overtaken by illness while on a 
missionary tour, and jaundice, in connection with the effects of his 
old wound, soon caused his death. His latest words expressed 
his confident trust in the goodness of God, and the phrases which 
he employed had singular fitness when we remember that they fell 
from the lips of a man who was heartily in love with his old pro- 
fession, and who never forgot that he had been a sailor. 

When near his death, he said : " I am thinking on the laws of 
gravitation : the nearer a body approaches to his centre, with the 
more force it is impelled ; and the nearer I approach my dissolu- 
tion, with greater velocity I move toward it." A friend who stood 
by said : "Sir, Christ is your centre." "Yes, yes," he said, 
" he is, he is." Later, he added : " I am now a poor, shattered 
bark, just about to gain the blissful harbor, and, oh, how sweet 
will be the port after the storm !" On another occasion he 
exclaimed : " Dying is sweet work, sweet work ! My heavenly 
Father ! I am looking up to my dear Jesus, my God, my portion, 
my all in all !" And then he continued : " Glory ! glory ! 
Home ! home !" And so he departed in peace, July 17th, 1799. 

These hymns of Mr, Medley are not remarkable for their poetry so 
much as for their piety. By thfs they have been preserved in the 
books and in the services of the Christian Church. The pieces 
were originally printed on " broadsides," and from these loose 
pages they have been put into more permanent shape. Thirty-six 
were issued between 1786 and 1790. In 1789, a small volume 
was published. In 1794 another appeared. He must have com- 
posed a very large number of hymns when all are reckoned up. 

Dr. Nicholas Murray, when pastor at Elizabethtown, began a 
book of records, designed for the benefit of himself and subse- 
quent pastors. Among the incidents and accounts of persons 
and scenes is one relating to a man who never appeared to be 
moved by any hymn except, " Awake, my soul, to joyful lays." 
This person was a man of the purest zeal, though of the most 
moderate knowledge, and occasionally of an injudicious turn. Yet 
he earned this praise from " a profane scoffer" : " If there is a 
Christian upon earth it is Uncle Nehemiah. " 

When the poet Carpani asked his friend Handel how he came 
to write his church music in so cheerful a strain, Handel replied. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 53 

" 1 cannot make it otherwise ; I write according to the thoughts 
I feel. When I think upon God, my heart is so full of joy that 
the notes leap and dance, as it were, from my pen ; and since 
God has given me a cheerful heart, it will be pardoned me that I 
serve him with a cheerful spirit." 

Awake, my soul, to meet the day. — Doddridge. 
Dr. Doddridge made this as a " morning hymn." He rose 
habitually at five o'clock, and used these seven stanzas as his 
morning devotion. As he reached the sixth stanza he left his bed. 
The date is 1755, and the present Methodist collection still 
exhorts its constituency to the practice of an almost forgotten 
virtue, by retaining this hymn in its pages. 

Awake our souls ! away our fears. — Watts. 
This is No. 48 of Book I. in Dr. Watts' s hymns, with the text, 
Isa. 40 : 28-31, and the title, "The Christian Race." It has 
five stanzas. 

Awake, ye saints, awake. — Cotterill. 

The authorship of this hymn is ascribed to Rev. Thomas Cot- 
terill, on the ground that he wrote the most of what is its present 
form. In Caleb Evans's Collection, fifth edition, 1786, it appears 
in five stanzas, commencing, " Awake, our drowsy souls." 

Rippon has it with the same text and the same title: "A 
Hymn for the Lord's Day Morning. " Evans credits it to " D," 
that is. Dr. Doddridge, but Dobell, who reprints it in six stanzas, 
has assigned it to " Scott." It was altered about the year 18 10 
by Cotterill, for his Sheffield collection. The original has been 
discovered in manuscript, in the library of Yale College, where it 
now is. Professor F. M. Bird has given much care to the biog- 
raphy and hymns of Miss Elizabeth Scott, and has elaborately 
annotated this manuscript volume in the columns of the New 
York Independent. In the version before us (that in Laudes 
Domini) the two opening stanzas are the work of Thomas Cotterill, 
and the third is the unchanged composition of Miss Scott. 

Rev. Thomas Cotterill was a clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land, who was born at Cannock, Staffordshire, December ist, 1779. 
He was graduated from St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1801, 
and became a Fellow there. In 1803 (some say 1806) he entered 



54 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

on his parochial duties at Tutbury, whence he removed in about 
two years' time to the Staffordshire potteries, where he labored 
among a very low class of people for nine years. Then, in 1 8 1 7, 
he became perpetual curate of St. Paul's, Sheffield. There he 
taught a small school, and spent the rest of his life. 

This residence in Sheffield brought him into association with the 
poet Montgomery, who has left us a very odd hint of the manner 
in which he and his friend amended some of the hymns of the 
Church. " Good Mr. Cotterill and I," says the bard, " bestowed 
a great deal of labor and care upon the compilation of that book, 
clipping and interlining and remodelling hymns of all sorts, as 
we thought we could correct the sentiment or improve the expres- 
sion." The work to which reference is here made is Mr. Cot- 
terill' s collection of hymns which, in 1819, had reached its ninth 
edition. It contained one hundred and fifty Psalms and three 
hundred and sixty-seven hymns ; and when it first appeared, it 
created no small stir in the diocese. The case was actually made a 
legal question, and taken regularly into court ; but it was settled 
by the mediation of the archbishop, who revised Cotterill' s selec- 
tions, and added several of his own. Under this emendation the 
number of hymns was reduced to one hundred and forty-six. In 
its former shape we know that Montgomery was represented by 
fifty pieces, and Cotterill by thirty-two. How many of these dis- 
appeared it is impossible now to say with certainty, as Cotterill 
gave no names of authors, and was absolutely independent in the 
alteration of text and sentiment. 

After a short illness, Mr. Cotterill died, December 29th, 1823. 
Montgomery was seven years his senior, and his grief found 
expression in the well-known hymn, " Friend after friend 
departs." Mrs. Cotterill and her five children were left to sorrow 
likewise; but the author of the "Family Prayers," though he 
ceased from his earthly labors, was not, nor is likely to be, forgotten 
by others beside his immediate friends. 

Awaked by Sinai's awful sound. — Occom. 

There is a small collection of hymns, originally published at 

Wilkesbarre, Pa., and whose sixth edition is dated Albany, 1804. 

It is the work of " Joshua Smith, Samson Ockum, and others." 

In it is the first form of this hymn, beginning ' ' Waked by the 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 55 

Gospel's joyful sound." There are eight stanzas, and their 
modern shape is due either to the supervising care of Rev. Asahel 
Nettleton, the evangelist, in 1824, or to that of Daniel Dodge, in 
his Sekdion, 1808. 

There are several reasons why an American work on hymnology 
should contain a full notice of this hymn — the most imperative 
being that the author was a converted Indian. The name is 
variousi}' spelled, being " Ockum " on the page of the collection 
before us ; " Occum " in the account by Belcher, and " Occom" 
in the book of Professor Briggs. 

He was born about the year 1723, at Mohegan, near Norwich, 
Conn., and was awakened and converted under the preaching of 
George Whitefield, Gilbert Tennent, and their associates in 1739- 
40. He then was instructed in that school of Mr. Wheelock, at 
Lebanon, which was afterward incorporated with Dartmouth Col- 
lege. By the help of the " Society for Propagating the Gospel in 
New England," he next continued his studies with Rev. Benjamin 
Pomeroy, of Hebron, and acquired altogether a good knowledge 
of English, considerable Latin and Greek, and a modicum of 
Hebrew. 

Like so many others abruptly taken from the apathy of igno- 
rance, and plunged into the energy of knowledge, his health failed, 
and a college career became impracticable. He then taught a 
school in New Haven, and in 1748 removed to the far limits of 
Long Island, where he preached and labored among the Montauks, 
a hardy and gallant remnant of his people, whose last surviving 
representative passed away in 1885 Here he accomplished much 
good, and in view of the success of his preaching he was licensed 
by the Windham County Association, and finally ordained, August 
30th, 1759, by '^^ Suffolk Presbytery of Long Island. The 
recent elaborate volume of Professor C. A. Briggs on American 
Preshyierianism helps us to the further knowledge that in November, 
1761, Eleazar Wheelock, of Lebanon, and David Bostwick, of 
New York, applied to the society in Scotland for the ' ' Propagation 
of Christian Knowledge," asking aid to prosecute the work among 
the Oneida Indians in New York, and naming Occom as a suit- 
able missionary. ]Many of these converted Indians were in the 
Continental arm.y, and suffered death or imprisonment. Others 
were victims of disease and hardship at home. That decimating 



56 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

process was already beginning which has ended so disastrously 
with a Century of Dishonor. 

Occom was supported by the society through an appropriation 
oi £20, and in 1766 he went abroad with Mr. Nathaniel Whitaker 
to raise funds for Mr. Wheelock's Indian school. Great interest 
was excited in England by the advent of the first Indian preacher, 
and /"lOjOoo were secured, which formed the financial foundation 
of Dartmouth College. 

Nor was Occom the only convert among the Indians whose acts 
are recorded. For, in 1766, Rev. Charles Beatty and Rev. George 
Duffield (afterward chaplain with Bishop White to the Continental 
Congress, and whose imprimatur is on the first American Bible) 
proceeded on a missionary tour to the West. They were attended 
by one Joseph Peepy, a Christian Indian, and, being at Fort Pitt 
over Sabbath, Mr. Beatty preached in the fort, and Mr. Duffield 
held service ina " collection of houses," thus conducting religious 
worship for the first time in what was destined to be Pittsburgh. 

When Occom returned from England, he was noted as a fluent 
extempore speaker ; as a fairly strong and cultivated sermonizer, 
and especially as a person of genuine evangelistic gifts. He was 
attracted, with other Mohegans, to Oneida County, N. Y., by the 
prospect of an excellent location on the Brotherton tract, and 
there labored as a minister until his death, in July, 1792. In 
James Fenimore Cooper's Leather- Stocking Tales, the fading 
glories of the tribe of Mohegans (or Mohicafis) have been caught 
and preserved. 

De Forest's History of the Indians of Co7inecticut, and similar 
monographs, contain a little additional information. We are told 
that he had great influence with his people ; that he was not 
entirely free from the baneful touch of strong drink, and that he 
wrote the present hymn, dated 1 760, and (possibly, but not prob- 
ably) another, beginning, " Now the shades of night are gone" 
(1770). 

At the funeral of this singular man (of whom De Forest gives a 
portrait) the Rev. Mr. Kirkland, missionary to the Six Nations, 
preached a sermon, and three hundred Indians attended his body 
to the grave. His hymn was in common use in England in 1809, 
and in 18 14 it was translated into Welsh, by the Rev. Thomas 
Thomas, of Peckham, London. In consequence it has had 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 57 

frequent employment among the people of Wales during revivals 
of religion. 

Away from earth my spirit turns. — Palmer. 
Rev, Dr. Ray Palmer wrote this hymn in 1833, in New Haven, 
Conn., and based it on John 6:51. It is one of a number of 
pieces contributed about this date by Dr. Palmer to Lowell Mason's 
UnioJi Hynms. It has been the author's invariable rule to receive 
nothing by way of compensation for his hymns, but he has made 
it a condition that the phraseology shall not be altered by the 
editor. The facts just stated were given by Dr. Palmer during a 
personal interview, but there seems some doubt whether in this, 
as in other instances, the venerable poet's memory has not erred 
respecting the earliest location of hymns from his pen. At all 
events, there are conflicting statements about several of them, 
which we find it impossible to reconcile. 

Before Jehovah's awful throne. — Watts. 
As Toplady altered the hymns of Wesley, so, in this instance, 
John Wesley has altered the hymn of Isaac Watts. This piece 
was published in 171 9, and originally began, " Sing to the Lord 
with joyful voice." The hymns of Dr. Watts note it as Book I., 
No. 43 ; it is more usually found, however, as the second part, 
L. M., of Psalm 100. The alteration by Wesley consisted mainly 
in beginning the hymn with the second stanza, 

" Nations attend before his throne. 
With solemn fear, with sacred joy." 

For this, in 1741, he substituted the words as we now have them. 
It is to him, also, that the grand concluding stanza is due. 

A notable incident in connection with the history of the hymn 
was its use at the time when Commodore Perry's lieet was anchored 
off Japan in 1S53-4. Divine service was held on the flagship, 
and the chaplain, in plain sight of thousands upon the shore, gave 
out this hymn to be sung. The marine band struck up the notes 
of " Old Hundred," and the natives of the empire where 
Christian civilization was to have such power beheld the religious 
worship of the nation which was knocking at their gates. 

Another incident occurred in the life of the late Dr. Dempster, 
of Garrett Biblical Institute, 111. He and his friends were on their 
way to South America, where his wife and his two companions 



58 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

were to be missionaries with himself. On their voyage they were 
chased for three days by a piratical craft which refused to exchange 
signals with them. As the ships drew nearer together, the crew 
and passengers of Dr. Dempster's vessel went on deck and joined 
in the singing of this hymn. They then knelt down in prayer and 
awaited what appeared to be their doom. But, to their surprise 
and joy, the other ship changed her course and left them. And 
this they attributed to the unexpected style of passive resistance 
which was offered. 

Before the heavens were spread abroad. — Watts. 
We find this as Hymn 2, Book I., of Dr. Watts' s hymns, with 
the title, "The Deity and Humanity of Christ, " and the texts of 
Scripture, John i : 13, 14 ; Col. i : 16, and Eph. 3 : 9, 10, It 
has six stanzas. 

Before the throne of God. — Bancroft. 
Mrs. Charitie Lees (Smith) Bancroft is the daughter of Rev. 
Sidney Smith, D. D. , rector of Drumragh, County Tyrone, Ireland. 
She was born at Bloomfield, Merrion, County Dublin, June 21st, 
1 84 1, and married Arthur E. Bancroft in 1869. Her hymns have 
found favor in various quarters. They are in Lyra Sacra Hiber- 
jiica, Lyra Bn'fannica, Ryle's Spiritual Sofigs, Times of Refreshing, 
and elsewhere. Her hymn, "Heavenly Anticipations, " is a 
favorite in England. It begins, 

" Oh for the robes of whiteness, 
Oh for the tearless eyes ! 
Oh for the glorious brightness 
Of the unclouded skies !" 

This hymn, as well as " Thy way is best, my Father," and 
" O Man of Sorrows ! hast thou given to me," are found in Lyra 
Hibernica (second edition, 1879). 

Be still, my heart, these anxious cares. — Newton. 

With the title, ' ' Why art thou cast down T ' and in seven 
stanzas, this hymn is found in the 0/ney Hymns, Book HI., No. 40. 

The Rev. Andrew Duncan, minister of Craill, in Fifeshire, was 
imprisoned in Blackness Castle by order of James VI., and after- 
ward banished from the kingdom. He was a man of great piety, 
and proceeded to Berwick, where he settled with his wife and 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 59 

several children. Though he was reduced to absolute want he 
was not dismayed. One night the children cried for bread, and 
Mrs. Duncan was much depressed because there was none to give 
them, and they were weeping. jMr. Duncan, however, both prayed 
and encouraged them until at last he got them all to bed. Com- 
forting his wife as best he could, the poor man exhorted her to 
trust God, saying that God would even rain down bread for his 
own people. That very night, though they were strangers in the 
town, a man brought a sackful of provisions, and went away with- 
out explanation or telling his nam.e. In the bag were flour, loaves 
of bread, and other articles, with a_^2onote. Bringing the whole 
to his wife, the poor man said : " See what a good Master I 
serve !" Nor was this the only instance in Mr. Duncan's career. 

Begin, my tongue, some heavenly theme. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts placed this as the sixty-ninth hymn of his second 
book. It is entitled " The Faithfulness of God in the Promises," 
and has nine stanzas. One of these is the object of a rather cap- 
tious criticism which has been lately revived. It is one of the 
grandest stanzas that Dr. Watts ever wrote : 

" His very word of grace is strong 
As that which built the skies ; 
The voice that rolls the stars along 
Speaks all the promises." 

Fault has been found with the use of very instead of every. The 
objection dates as far back as to Dr. David Nelson, the opponent 
of infidelity, with whom this hymn was an especial favorite. He 
was exceedingly severe on what he regarded as tampering with Dr. 
Watts' s original lines, in putting very [ox every j and he charac- 
terized such emendations as the " scalping and tomahawking " of 
hymns. 

But Dr. Nelson was not well informed, for his favorite author 
really wrote in that favorite hymn, " His z'^rj^ word of grace is 
strong." We so find it in the earliest editions of Watts ; in Rip- 
pon's Watts, 1805 ; in Winchell's Watts, 1832, and, indeed, in 
whatever republications assume to follow the exact text. Dr. 
David Guy, who, in 1774, published^ Compleat Index to Wails, 
gives the first lines of all stanzas, and in this one he gives very and 
not every. 



6o ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Indeed, it is possible to find every only when we come to William 
Gadsby's collection, who, in November, 1838, dates his preface 
from Manchester. In this he says : " There are others, espe- 
cially among Dr. Watts' s and Rippon's, which give as legal a 
sound as if they had been forged at a certain foundry " — which 
is a quite unnecessary fling. He proposes, therefore, " a selec- 
tion of hymns in one book, free from Arminianism and sound in 
the faith. " So he inserts "one hundred and fifty-seven hymns 
of his own composition, ' ' in order to this laudable end, and adds : 
" It will be seen that I have sometimes taken a line from another 
author ; but for this, not professing perfection, I shall offer no 
apology." (!) Thus Mr. Gadsby, by his own showing, was not 
above " scalping and tomahawking" Watls ; though Dr. Nelson 
erred as to the original word, and the sin belongs at Watts' s own 
door. 

Behold a stranger at the door. — Grigg. 

From Joseph Grigg' s pamphlet, containing nineteen hymns, 
came this and the equally popular, " Jesus, and shall it ever be." 
The date is 1765, and the present hymn is one of those "on 
divine subjects." 

Behold, the Bridegroom cometh. — G. INIoultrie. 

Rev. Gerard Moultrie is the son of the Rev. John IMoultrie. 
He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, where he became 
B.A., 1852, and M.A., 1856. He was ordained as deacon in 
1853, and as priest in 1858. He acted as third master of Shrews- 
bury School from 1852 to 1855, and was head-master of the Royal 
Kepler Grammar School from 1855 to 1864, during which time 
he was also chaplain to the Dowager Marchioness of Londonderry. 
From 1864 to 1869 he was incumbent of Barrow-Gurney, Bristol. 
He was appointed vicar of Southleigh in 1869, and warden of St. 
James's College, Southleigh, 1873. He is at present at Southleigh 
Vicarage, Witney (1885). 

In 1864 he began to translate and compose hymns, and has 
written many separate hymns, processionals and sermons. He is 
the author of Hymns and Lyrics , 1864. In 1867 he was associated 
with Dr. Littledale in the editorship of The People s Hymnal, which 
contains thirty-five of his pieces, most of them being original, but 
a few are translations. Some are given with a reference to his 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 6 1 

Hymns and Lyrics ; others with the signature " M." ; others with 
the initials of his nom de plume, " D. P. " (for ' ' Desiderius Paslor ' ), 
and one is signed " The Primer." 

Behold the glories of the Lamb. — Watts. 

Dr. Isaac Watts was the grandson of a naval commander, INIr. 
Thomas Watts, who blew up his ship during the Dutch War in 
1656, and perished on board of her. His father, Isaac Watts, 
Senior, maintained the traditions of his family in reference to this 
courage and vigor of conduct. He was a deacon in the Congre- 
gational church at Southampton, and lived through the stormy 
days of nonconformity. His pastor had been ejected in 1662 ; 
had been allowed to preach again in 1672 by the Declaration of 
Indulgence, and on its recall, in 1674, was exposed to more per- 
secution than ever. 

Just at this time — July 17th, 1674 — was born Isaac Watts, the 
hymn-writer. The pastor and his deacon were both shut into pris- 
on, and Watts' s mother, with her infant, often sat on the stone 
near the gate. In 1683 his father was again imprisoned for six 
months, and on his release was forced by prudential considera- 
tions to remain away from his home, and " live privately in Lon- 
don for two years. ' ' 

Meanwhile he had gone on with his studies, and when William 
of Orange came over, in 1688, a brighter era was begun. He 
soon had the opportunity of a free education if he would give up 
nonconformity ; but he was a stanch little Dissenter, and de- 
clined Dr. John Speed's offer. He left that benevolent ph3'sician 
behind him, and took his way to London. There he carried on 
his studies in the school of Mr. Thomas Rowe, and continued 
until 1694 under his instruction. 

It has escaped general notice that the wife of this gentleman 
was Mrs. Elizabeth Rowe — the Elizabeth Singer (born September 
nth, 1674) who jilted our poet. She died at Frome, February 
20th, 1737, and Dr. Watts published her Z^^z't'/// Exercises of the 
Heart \n 1739. 

In 1700 — when she was twenty-six — Miss Singer had married 
Mr. Rowe. He was born in 1657, and died in 1705. Watts 
has addressed him in an ode on " Free Philosophy," in the 
HorcB LyriccE, in which he says : 



62 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" I love thy gentle influence, Rowe, 

Thy gentle influence, like the sun, 
Only dissolves the frozen snow, 
Then bids our thoughts like rivers flow, 

And chuse the channels where they run. 
Thoughts should be free as fire or wind ; 
The pinions of a single mind 

Will through all nature fly ; 
But who can drag up to the poles 
Long fetter'd ranks of leaden souls ?" 

As a result of this education we have Dr. Watts' s own works on 
mental philosophy. 

It is interesting to note how, as Dr. Beman aptly puts it, 
" Watts struck out a path for himself." His earliest hymns were 
occasioned by his dislike of the verses sung in the meeting-house 
at Southampton. John Mason, his prototype — as Caedmon was 
John Milton's — belongs in 1683 ; Tate and Brady were authorized 
in 1696, and Dr. John Patrick is Watts's contemporary in 1694. 
Dr. Thomas Gibbons — himself a hymn-writer of some repute — 
published Dr. Wztts' s Memoirs in 1780, and considers this pres- 
ent hymn the first which was prepared. 

In 1696, the young student became a tutor to Sir John Har- 
topp's children, at Newington. Had it not been for this episode 
in his career we should not have known of the " little busy bee ;" 
of the dogs that " delight to bark and bite ;" of the " voice of the 
sluggard ;" and of that exquisite cradle-song, " Hush, my dear, 
lie still and slumber. " His love for these children gave us the 
Divine mid Moral Songs. 

The place and date of Watts's first sermon were Mark Lane, 
London, July 17th, 1698. After this period he preached with 
frequency, and in February, 1699, he was selected to be Dr. 
Chauncey's assistant in Mark Lane. But he had no more than 
commenced his work as a clergyman before physical infirmity 
began to lay him aside at intervals, and in 1 703 he was disabled 
for four years together. He had long been urged to make his 
poetry public, and consequently, in 1705, he sent Hora: LyriccB 
to the press. It was successful, and he followed it with the Hymns, 
July, 1707, in three books. Dr. Hatfield has been at the pains to 
pursue this line of inquiry more fully than any hymnologist in 
England or America, and his bibliographical notes on Watts's pub- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 63 

lications are valuable, and much more extensive than our own 
space permits us to emulate. 

With various distressing alternations of health and sickness, we 
find Dr. Watts still continuing his pastorate. In 17 13, after one 
of these attacks of fever and neuralgia. Sir Thomas Abney took the 
forlorn bachelor to his own home. He said, years afterward, to 
Lady Huntingdon : " This day thirty years I came hither to the 
house of my good friend, Sir Thomas Abney, intending to spend 
but one single week under his friendly roof, and I have extended 
my visit to the length of exactly thirty years." It was a home in 
the suburbs and was much frequented by the best society of the 
day. 

The Psalms followed the Hymns, in 171 9. In the original pref- 
ace he admits an indebtedness for ideas, and even expressions, to 
Denham, Milbourne, and Tate and Brady. From Dr. John 
Patrick he takes most, and there are occasional but unacknowl- 
edged traces of John Mason. In spite of genuine opposition of the 
real unflinching kind, this venture also was a success, so much so 
that no person can make a successful hymn-book to-day — at least 
for American Christians — which does not show a very large propor- 
tion of Watts in its composition. Neither ridicule nor resistance 
has any avail against the time-honored affection of the Church for 
the " little doctor." 

In the Lenox Library, New York City, and under the fostering 
care of Dr. S. Austin AUibone, can be found a collection — nearly 
or quite complete — of the republications of Watts' s Psalms in 
America. Franklin's edition of the Hy?nns, 1741 ; Joel Barlow's 
amendments to the Psalms, 1785 ; and Dr. Dwight's improve- 
ments to both, 1800, are features of American psalmody — not 
to name other less known or less influential collections, like Win- 
chell's, Worcester's, or Beman's. 

Let us also credit Dr. Watts with having done away — so saj's Dr. 
Caleb Evans, of Bristol — with the barbarous practice of " lining 
out" the hymn. An equally mighty innovation — that of the 
modern shape of the pulpit — was effected by Dr. John M. Mason, 
of New York, a century later. 

During these years Dr. Watts still kept up a connection with 
his London charge, though Mr. Price had long been his associate. 
He took deep interest in the work of Whitefield, and in that of 



64 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Lady Huntingdon and her friends. Dr. Doddridge was always 
within the range of his sympathy. And having now reached 
Luther's position in his old age, and being the conceded patriarch 
and leader of his brethren, he died peacefully, November 25th, 
1748, aged seventy-five. 

In person he was a thin, spare man, scarcely more than five feet 
in height. " His forehead was low, his cheek-bones rather prom- 
inent, his eyes small and gray, and his face, in repose, of a heavy 
aspect.'' His voice was excellent, and his rhetoric polished and 
graceful. 

The present hymn is the first number in his first book. It has 
eight stanzas, and is based on Rev. 5 : 6, 8, 9-12 ; with the title, 
' ' A New Song of Praise to the Lamb that was Slain. ' ' 

Behold, the mountain of the Lord. — Bruce. 
This is one of the pieces which were written by Michael Bruce, 
and appropriated by that " heartless literary robber," Rev. John 
Logan. It is an almost literal paraphrase of Isa. 2 : 1-5. The 
controversy as to the authorship of Bruce' s poems is given at 
length elsewhere. This hymn was included in the Scotch Para- 
phrases, in 1 78 1. 

Behold, the Saviour of mankind. — Samuel Wesley, Sr. 
This hymn, written by the father of John and Charles Wesley, 
was one of the few things rescued when the author's parsonage 
was burned, for the second time, August 24th, 1709. Four leaves 
of music have been kept as a precious memento of that occasion. 
They bear fire-marks on their edges, and Charles Wesley, Jr., has 
written on one of them : " The words by my grandfather, the Rev. 
Samuel Wesley. Probably the music was adapted by Henry Pur- 
cell or Dr. Blow." The hymn has six stanzas, and bears the title, 
" A Hymn on the Passion : the words by the Rev. Mr. Samuel 
Wesley, rector of Epworth, in the diocese of Lincoln." The 
author was born in November, 1662, and was graduated, 1688, at 
Exeter College, Oxford, where he had supported himself by his own 
exertions for five years. He married Miss Annesley in 1689, and 
their family consisted ultimately of nineteen children, of whom 
Samuel, John and Charles attained to wide reputation. Mr. Wes- 
ley was appointed rector of Epworth, in 1726, and there continued, 
preaching, praying and writing, until his death, April 25th, 1735. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 65 

One can get no better picture of that life than Christophers has 
given, in his Epworth Singers. The rector, with his wife and 
child, was "passing rich on [fifty] pounds a year." He was 
quite too energetic for his own good ; very much in haste ; not 
allowing his ideas time to simmer slowly, but always keeping 
them at boiling-point. It was very characteristic of a man of this 
sort to lay his hand on Charles's head, and say : "Be steady ! 
The Christian faith will surely revive in this kingdom ; you shall 
see it, though I shall not. ' ' 

Bkhold, the throne of grace. — Newton. 

We find this in the Olncy Hymtts, Book I., No. ■^■^, where it 
follows the well-known hymn, " Come, my soul, thy suit pre- 
pare." It is entitled, "Another," that is, another on the same 
theme, i King 3 : 5, which inspired the previous hymn. The 
keynote is that " Ask what I shall give thee," of which Matthew 
Henry furnishes a true exposition when he says that whatever God 
sends down to us in a promise we ought to send back to him in a 
prayer. The original of this piece extends to eight stanzas. 

Mr. Newton was a firm believer in the power and efficacy of 
prayer. It delighted him to have an opportunity to ifnpress the 
truth that we should live by faith and that all our affairs should be 
regarded in the light of God's will. He once commented in his 
pulpit in London upon a small placard put up at St. Mary Wool- 
noth's (his own church), which read as follows : "A young man, 
having come to the possession of a considerable fortune, desires 
the prayers of the congregation, that he may be preserved from the 
snares to which it exposes him." " If this man had lost a fort- 
une, ' ' said Newton, ' ' the world would not have wondered to see 
him put up such a bill, but /his man has been better taught." 

Behold, the western evening light ! — Peabody. 
The Rev. William Bourne Oliver Peabody was born in Exeter, 
N. H., July 9th, 1799, and pursued his studies, at first, in his 
native town. He entered Harvard College when only fourteen 
years of age, and was graduated there in 181 7. He then took a 
theological course in the Cambridge Divinity School, and began 
to preach in 1819. In 1820 we find him in his first and only 
settlement, at Springfield, Mass., where he remained until his 
death, May 28th, 1847. His horticultural taste was highly cul- 



66 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

tivated, and it is to him, more than to almost any other person, 
that Springfield owes her fine cemetery. He is to be distinguislied 
from his twin brother. Rev. O. W. B. Peabody, whose life ne 
wrote, and whose writings he edited. The Springfield Collection 
of psalms and hymns was Dr. Peabody' s work, in 1835. He 
had already (1823) printed a couple of dozen hymns in a little 
collection for the Sunday-scnool. 

The Record of Unilarian Worthies says of Dr. Peabody that he 
fulfilled the maxim of Lord Bacon : " Certainly it is heaven upon 
earth to have a man's mind move in charity, rest in providence, 
and turn upon the poles of truth. " 

Behold what wondrous grace. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts has this hymn, in six stanzas, at the close of a sermon 
upon I John 3:1, with Gal. 6:6. It is the sixty-fifth hymn of 
his first book, with the title, " Adoption." 

Beneath our feet and o'er our head. — Heber. 
The second stanza of the four-line form of this hymn is omitted 
by Laudes Donmii and other recent books. It runs thus : 

" Their names are graven on the stone, 
Their bones are in the clay ; 
And ere another day is done, 
Ourselves may be as they." 

It appeared in Hyvms Written and Adapted to the Weekly Ser-vice 0/ 
the Church, 1827, with the title, "At a Funeral." Perhaps no 
lines have been more often quoted than 

" The earth rings hollow from below, 
And warns thee of her dead !" 

There is such an aroma of Watts about them that they are fre- 
quently credited to him. 

Behold, where in a mortal form. — Enfield. 
The life of William Enfield furnishes few matters of interest. 
He was born at Sudbury, Suffolk, England, March 29th, 1741. 
His parents were poor. His efforts to secure an education cost 
him a hard struggle, and introduced him to the favorable notice 
of Mr. Hexall, a Dissenting clergyman, who encouraged him to 
studv for the ministry. He therefore pursued a regular course of 
instruction at Daventry, from 1758 to 1763, and almost immedi- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 67 

ately took charge of the congregation at Benn's Garden, Liver- 
pool. In 1767 he married ]\Iiss Mary Holland, of Liverpool, and 
shortly afterward became Professor of Belles-Leitres in the Unitarian 
College, at Warrington. His next remove was to the " Octagon 
Congregation," at Norwich, where he died, November 3d, 1797. 

He deserves to be remembered for his Speaker, once a popular 
school-book on elocution. Dr. Aitkin, his friend, prepared a 
notice of him for the Biographical Dictionary. Mr. Enfield also 
edited a collection of hymns (the Warrington Collection, 1772) 
which contained some of T. Scott's verses, and in the edition of 
1802 some of his own are included. 

The present hymn was originally written, " Behold, where in 
the Friend of man, ' ' and was altered to its present form by an 
unknown hand. 

Beyond the Starr}'- skies. — Fanch, altered. 
The original is probably the hymn, " Beyond the glittering, 
starry skies," which was the joint production of the brothers 
Berridge, early Wesleyans — the elder one a preacher of great ability 
and eccentricity, and the other a humble porter. The clergyman, 
Christophers tells us, called on his brother to take a letter for him. 
The porter replied that he could not go, as he was making a hymn. 
" That's my business," said the elder, " you take the letter, and 
I'll finish the hymn." On his return, the hymn was not quite 
ready, the preacher being staggered at the last stanza. " Oh, I 
have that," cried the porter, and added the four lines : 

" They brought his chariot from above 
To bear him to his throne, 
Clapp'd their triumphant wings and cried. 
The glorious work is done." 

This hymn is also claimed for the Rev. James Fanch, of Rom- 
sey, England, and the Rev. Daniel Turner, of Abingdon, Eng- 
land. It appears in Dr. Tnxn&v' s Sacred aJtd Moral Poems, i8mo, 
1 794 ; and, in that work, has over twenty stanzas. Thus it would 
seem to be the enlargement of the first draft by the brothers Ber- 
ridge. We have it also quite at length in Lord Selborne's Book of 
Praise. Dr. Turner communicated it to Dr. Rippon, in 1791 
(see Rippon's Baptist Annual Register, vol. 3, p. 47i)- He in- 
formed Dr. Rippon that the greater part of the twenty- eight 



68 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

stanzas were of his own composition. But the piece has been very 
much altered in nearly every collection that has printed it. 

Beyond the smiling and the weeping. — Bonar. 
Dr. Bonar gave to this hymn the title, " A Little While." It is 
in \\\'i Hynms of Faith and Hope (first series, 1857), and has six 
stanzas. Nothing can be lovelier than this little lyric. Already to 
some of us it has tender and dear associations ; but it is scarcely 
old enough to have an extended history. Dr. Bonar wrote to 
Rev. W. F. Stevenson that some of his hymns had been written 
at Edinburgh, and some in the railway carriages when he was 
travelling, and that he had never recoirded place or time. 

Bless, O my soul ! the living God. — Watts. 
This is Ps. 103, ist part, L. M., vs. 1-7, " Blessing God for his 
Goodness to Soul and Body," and is in eight stanzas. 

Blessed are the sons of God. — Humphreys. 

Joseph Humphreys, son of Rev. Asher Humphreys, rector of 
Barton, Hertfordshire, and finally of Burford, was born at Bur- 
ford, Oxfordshire, October 28th, 1720. At the age of ten he was 
sent to grammar school at Fairford, Gloucestershire, and on the 
death of his father, in 1732, he was placed (being only twelve !) 
in a " theological school " in London. In ,1738 he was converted 
to the views of the Wesleys, -and began to preach at the Foundry, 
London ; and at Bristol, and elsewhere. This was too much for 
the patience of the divinity school, which proceeded to expel him 
for irregular conduct, the sentence being dated (somewhat ironi- 
cally) on December 25th, 1739. This was their comment on 
" glad tidings," and on " peace on earth, good-will to men." 

Humphreys agreed with Cennick, after a time, more than with 
the Wesleys, and so separated from them in April, 1741. Subse- 
quently he published his testimony against their doctrine of perfec- 
tion, and was instrumental (January, 1743) in organizing the first 
society of Calvinistic Methodists in Wales, near Cardiff. His 
hymns were printed at the end of Cennick's volume, in 1743- 

Wesley's diary (April 3d, 1746) bears witness that he " spent an 
agreeable hour with our old fellow-laborer, ]\Ir. Humphreys. I 
found him" (he adds) " open and friendly, but rigorously tena- 
cious of the unconditional decrees." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 69 

Mr. Humphreys preached many years at Bristol, and has been 
commemorated in the Centenary Memorial of the Bristol Tabernacle, 
a copy of which is in our possession. These centennial services 
were held November 25th, 1853. He is there called " a prudent 
and zealous man. ' ' We get but a glimpse of him in John Wesley' s 
journal (September 9th, 1790), where he is mentioned as a friend 
of Mr. Whitefield's who renounced that gentleman, and became a 
Presbyterian, and at last " received Episcopal ordination." " He 
then," continues Wesley, with some acerbity, " scoffed at inward 
religion, and, when reminded of his own ' Experience ' [published 
at Bristol, in 1742], replied, ' That was one of the foolish things 
which I wrote in the times of my madness.' " It has been 
suggested that Wesley was taking these facts upon hearsay, and 
that they need to be received with some allowance. Gadsby — a 
tolerably accurate hymnologist — says that Humphreys " died in 
London, and was buried in the Moravian Cemetery at Chelsea. 
In this statement he is supported by Dr. Belcher. 

This hymn is one of six appended to Cennick's Sacred Hymns, 
Part II. (1743), all of which have the remark : "These were 
done by Mr. Joseph Humphreys." Rippon (1787) follows Mar- 
tin Madan (1760) in the arrangement of the refrain to the stanzas. 
This is taken " from the latter half of the first stanza of the 
original," and this text has ever since been adopted. 

Blessed city, heavenly Salem. — Benson, tr. 

This rendering, by Rev. Edward W. Benson, D.D., the pres- 
ent Archbishop of Canterbury, is the close translation of that beau- 
tiful Latin hymn, " Urbs beata Hirusaiem,^' for which see " The 
Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns." 

The present Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of all Eng- 
land, who in the order of precedence comes next to the Royal 
Family, is Edward White Benson. He was born near Birming- 
ham, in 1829. His education was received at King Edward's 
School, Birmingham, and at Trinity College, Cambridge. Here 
he was graduated in 1852, and was afterward Scholar and Fellow. 
In his University career he showed distinguished ability, and ap- 
pears to have always been a man with a marvellous power of stand- 
ing well all around. At first he was an assistant master at Rugby ; 
then head-master at Wellington College, from its origin in 1858 



70 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

down to the year 1872. At this latter date he \vas appointed 
Canon Residentiary, and Chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral. For 
some years previous he had been a prebendary of the same establish- 
ment. His peculiar qualities as an irenic can be inferred from the 
fact that he was a special preacher at Cambridge, 1864-71 ; and 
at Oxford, 1875-6. For several years he was examining chaplain 
to the Bishop of Lincoln. He was nominated by the Crown 
(December, 1876,) at the instance of Lord Beaconsfield, to the 
(new) episcopate of Truro, with the church of St. Mary, Truro, 
for a cathedral. The diocese consists of the County of Cornwall, 
and of the Scilly Isles, with five parishes in Devonshire. The 
bishop at once began the erection of a cathedral at Truro, to cost, 
without the furnishing, fully ^90,000, most of which amount he 
had himself secured. In December, 1882, on the recommenda- 
tion of Mr. (Gladstone, he was appointed to the Archbishopric of 
Canterbury, made vacant, December 3d, 1882, by the death of 
Dr. Tait. Dr. Benson is a contributor to the Speaker s Commentary. 
He has written some volumes of sermons, but the singular feature 
of his career appears to be the manner in which he has been 
chosen, by opposite parties, to places of high distinction. This 
argues the possession of either the very noblest and most exalted 
character, to which each alike bow down, or else it proves that he 
possesses the keenest possible sense of intrigue and political manage- 
ment. There is no middle ground to be taken. And we must 
either believe that men of the shrewdness of DTsraeli and Glad- 
stone were overreached on their own ground, or else that Dr. Ben- 
son' s talents, piety, and skill, in the administration of affairs, com- 
mended him in a marked degree to these two great political op- 
ponents. We prefer to rank him thus honorably, and to believe 
that this comparatively unknown hymnist is a fit and true translator 
for the ' ' Urbs beaia Hirusaleiri ' of the old Latin poet. 

Blessed fountain, full of grace. — Kelly, 
In Kelly's hymns (edition of 1809) this is No. 278, and is in six 
stanzas, being founded upon the text, Zech. 13:1. 

Blessed Saviour, thee I love. — G. Duffield. 
This hymn was composed after a Thanksgiving service in the 
First Presbyterian Church, Bloomfield, Essex County, N. J., of 
which Dr. Duffield was then the pastor. The date is about 1851. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 71 

It was not intended as a sacramental hymn, but its success for this 
use was predicted by the late Asa D. Smith, D. D., who, however, 
criticised the refrain. This was, "Ever let my z'c/i?/ be, " etc. 
The author at once changed it to its present form, and the hymn, 
in a pure text, has been generally employed ever since its publica- 
tion. The tune in 7s, 61, called " Duffield," was written by L. 
W, Bacon, D. D., in 1866, to accompany the words. 

The hymn first appeared in Darius E. Jones's Temple Melodies, 
1851, and is there entitled " For Preparatory Lecture." To this 
collection Dr. Asa D. Smith and Dr. Dufifield contributed several 
original hymns. Dr. Dufifield wrote, "Parted for some anxious 
days." This is "a family hymn," in five six-line stanzas. An- 
other piece, " Slowly in sadness and m tears," is a funeral hymn 
in six stanzas. This contains some excellent lines : 

" Fair rose his sun of life — few such 
Indeed ! to set at noon. 
His Master must have loved him much, 
To call him home so soon." 

" Blessed Saviour, thee I love" has an additional stanza to 
those in common use : 

" Since the day I called thee mine, 
Since the answer, ' I am thine,' 
Sweetly have I walked between 
Waters still and pastures green. 
Soft thine hand upon my brow, 
I the sheep, — the shepherd, thou." 

Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power. — Bonar. 
This hym.n has been adopted by the Hymnal of the Canada Pres- 
byterian Church, and thus has come into use in America. 

Blest are the sons of peace. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts gives this as Ps. 133, S. M. , " Communion of Saints ; 
or, Love and Worship in a Family." It has four stanzas. 

Blest are the souls that hear and know. — Watts. 
We have this hymn as Ps, 89, 3d part, C. M. , vv. 15, etc., " A 
Blessed Gospel. ' ' It possesses three stanzas. 

Blest be the dear uniting love. — C, Wesley. 
The original title of this hymn was " At Parting," and it first 
appeared in the Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1 742. There were some 



72 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

slight changes made in the text, as we find from comparison with 
the collection published in 1780, by John Wesley. 

Mr. John B. Gough, the temperance lecturer, has made use of 
this hymn in his autobiography. He says : 

" I was twelve years of age, and my father being unable to furnish the 
premium necessary to my learning a trade, and having no prospect for 
me other than to be a gentleman's servant, made an agreement with a 
family of our village, who were about emigrating to America, that they, 
in the consideration of the sum of ten guineas paid by him, should take 
me with them, teach me a trade, and provide for me until I was twenty- 
one years of age. After much hesitation, my mother, from a sense of 
duty, yielded to this arrangement. I, boy-like, felt in high glee at the 
prospect before me. My little arrangements having been completed, on 
the 4th of June, 1839, I took, as I then supposed, a last view of my native 
village. The evening I was about to depart, a neighbor invited me to 
take tea at her house, which I accepted. My mother remarked to me 
afterward, ' I wish you had taken tea with your mother, John ; ' and this 
little circumstance was a source of much pain to me in after years. The 
parting from my beloved parents was bitter. My poor mother folded me 
to her bosom, then she would hold me off at arm's length, and gaze 
fondly on my face, through her tearful eyes, reading, as only a mother 
could, the book of futurity to me. She hung up, on the accustomed peg, 
my old cap and jacket, and my school-bag, and there they remained until 
years after she quitted the house. At length the parting words were 
spoken, and I left the home of my childhood, perhaps forever. A touch* 
ing scene it was, as I went through the village toward the coach-office 
that evening. As I passed through the streets many a kind hand waved 
a farewell, and not a few familiar voices sounded out a hearty ' God bless 
you.' On the loth of June, everything being arranged, we sailed from 
the Thames, in the ship ' Helen.' Passing Dover, we arrived off Sand- 
gate, when it fell a dead calm, and the ship's anchors were dropped. I 
afforded some amusement to those around me by the eagerness with 
which I seized a telescope, and the positiveness with which I averred that 
I saw my old home. During that day, boat after boat came off to us 
from the shore, and friends of the family I was with paid them visits, but 
I was unnoticed ; my relatives did not come. After long and weary 
watching, I saw a man standing up in a boat, with a white band round his 
hat. ' That's he ! That's my father ! ' I shouted. He soon got on deck 
and almost smothered me with his kisses — from which I somewhat shrank, 
as his beard made very decided impressions on my smooth skin. I heard 
that my mother and sister had gone to a place of worship, at some dis- 
tance from Sandgate, which I regretted much. When evening came on, 
our visitors from the shore repaired to their boats, which, when a few 
yards from the ship, formed in a half circle. Our friends stood up In 
them, and o'er the calm waters floated our blended voices, as we sang, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 73 

" ' Blest be the dear uniting love, 
Which will not let us part ; 
Our bodies may far hence remove, 
We still are one in heart.' 

Boat after boat then vanished in the gloomy distance, and I went to bed. 
About midnight I heard my name called, and going on deck I there found 
my beloved mother and sister, who, hearing on their return that I was in 
the offing, had paid half a guinea (money hardly earned and with difficulty 
procured, yet cheerfully expended) to a boatman to row them to the ship. 
They spent an hour with me (and oh, how short it seemed !), then de- 
parted with many tears." 

Blest be the tie that binds. — Fawcett. 

This hymn was written by Rev. John Fawcett, D. D. , an English 
Baptist, who was born at Lidget Green, in Yorkshire, January 6th 
(O. S., i.e. 17th, as we reckon), 1739, and who died July 25th, 
181 7, aged seventy-seven, having spent nearly sixty years in the 
ministry. In 1782 he published a small volume of hymns. It was 
in 1772, after a few years spent in pastoral work, that he was called 
to London to succeed the Rev. Dr. Gill. His farewell sermon 
had been preached near Moinsgate, in Yorkshire ; six or seven 
wagons stood loaded with his furniture and books, and all was 
ready for departure ; but his loving people were not ready. They 
gathered about him, and " men, women, and children clung 
around him and his family in perfect agony of soul." Finally, 
overwhelmed with the sorrow of those they were leaving. Dr. 
Fawcett and his wife sat down on one of the packing-cases, and 
wept bitterly. Looking up, Mrs. Fawcett said : " Oh, John, 
John, I cannot bear this ! I know not how to go !" " Nor I 
either," said the good man; "nor will we go. Unload the 
wagons, and put everything in the place where it was before. " 
This determination was hailed with tears of joy by those around, 
and a letter was at once sent to London, explaining the case. Dr. 
Fawcett then resolutely returned to his work on a salary of some- 
thing less than two hundred dollars a year, and this hymn is said 
lo have been written to commemorate the event. 

Few hymns have had sweeter associations than this. When Mr. 
Cofiing, a missionary at Aintab, in Armenia, set out in i860 to 
explore the Taurus Mountains, he was to penetrate an entirely new 
and dangerous field, fully a hundred miles northwest of Marash. 
This fact was so keenly felt by the inhabitants of Aintab that they 



74 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

gathered to the number of fifteen hundred, on the sides of the 
road, and bade farewell to the missionary and his family in the 
Armenian words of this hymn. 

Mr. Moody relates that, in his early experience as a Sunday- 
school superintendent, he had a class of girls whom he gave into 
the charge of a teacher, a gentleman, who, as he thought, would 
interest and keep them quiet. In those days he himself thought 
a great deal about " sowing," and not much about " reaping," 
and this teacher evidently shared the ideas of his superintendent. 
But one day he came into Mr. Moody's store quite disheartened 
and sad. He had suffered from hemorrhage of the lungs, and 
was ordered away from the bleak winds of Lake Michigan. It 
was probably only to reach home and die, and he felt that he had 
not made any true effort to save the souls of his class. His 
despair over this result induced Mr. Moody to propose that they 
should go together and visit each of the young ladies. They took 
a carriage, and began their work, the teacher, in his feebleness, 
saying what he could to each one. As far as his strength would 
allow the visiting was continued, until after about ten days of this 
direct and faithful effort, every one had yielded her heart to Christ. 
And when at length this was accomplished, they were all gathered 
for a farewell meeting at the teacher's house — the most affecting 
meeting Mr. Moody declares that he ever attended. It was then 
that they endeavored to sing this hymn, but their hearts were full, 
and their voices failed. 

The next day the teacher was to depart for his home, and to 
the speedy prospect of certain death. As if by common consent, 
every member of the class and the superintendent assembled for a 
final good-by at the railroad station. Many gathered about them 
as the last words were said, and the faithful teacher, happy in the 
thought of what he had been permitted to see, but pale and feeble 
from his illness, stood on the platform of the car, pointing upward 
as the train moved away. 

Dr. Belcher's description of the last public service conducted by 
Dr. Fawcett may well be copied in full, to close this account. 
He says : 

" Let us take our last look at this excellent minister of Jesus Christ. 
He has ascended the pulpit at an Association in Yorkshire. A thousand 
eyes are fixed on him in love and admiration, and al) present express 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 



75 



their conviction, by nods and smiles, that a spiritual feast has been pro- 
vided for them. As a good soldier of Christ, he has endured hardness 
for far more than half a century. His praise has been in all the churches ; 
his ministry has been greatly prized through the whole o( that populous 
district, and his usefulness has been honored at home and abroad, in the 
cottage and in the palace itself. He has now come to bear his dying tes- 
timony to the doctrines of the cross, and to bid farewell to the ministers 
and friends with whom he has been so long associated. Many of them 
have a strong presentiment that they shall see his face no more, and are 
prepared to receive his message as from the lips of a man who has finished 
his course and now stands at the entrance of heaven. As he rises in the 
pulpit, a death-like silence overspreads the crowded congregation, and all 
ears are opened to catch the words of inspiration. With a tremulous 
voice, and with deep emotion, he reads the text, ' I am this day going the 
way of all the earth,' Josh. 23 : 14 ; and, long before he finishes his dis- 
course, the place becomes a BocJmn — the house of God — the gate of 
heaven. The sermon, which was committed to the press by the agency 
of its hearers, yet exists as a monument to his love of truth, his holy • 
affection, and his zeal for the extension of the doctrines of sovereign 
mercy." 

Blest Comforter divine. — Sigourney. 

Mrs. Lydia Huntley Sigourney' s biography belongs more par- 
ticularly to American literature than to these pages. She was 
born in Norwich, Conn., September ist, 1791, and in her nine- 
teenth year opened, with her friend, Miss Ann Maria Hyde, a 
school for young ladies at Norwich, afterward, in 1814, removing 
to Hartford, Conn., and continuing her work as a teacher. A 
year later she issued her first volumes of poems. In 1819, she 
married Mr. Charles Sigourney, of Hartford, who died December 
30th, 1854. Mrs. Sigourney' s life was full of love and good works, 
and she survived him until June loth, 1865, when she, too, passed 
away. 

In hymnology we trace her work first in Nettleton's Village 
Hymns, 1824, where this and other hymns appear without designa- 
tion, except the initial " H." She also contributed to Leonard 
Bacon's Supplement to Dwighf s Collection, 1833, and to the Con- 
necticut Collection, 1845. 

Blest feast of love divine. — Denny. 
Sir Edward T>e.x\ny' s Miscellaneous ^///«j (1839) contains this 
hymn, commencing, "Sweet feast of love divine." It is based 
on the Scripture truth found in Luke 22 : 19, and Solomon's Song 



76 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

5:1. In view of the very apparent change that has been made in 
this first Hne, Sir Edward's language in the preface to his collected 
Hymns and Poetfis (3d edition, 1870) merits our notice. It is his 
request that 

" Should any of these poems or hymns be deemed worthy of a place in 
any future collections, they may be left as they are, without alteration or 
abridgment [his italics]. And also (inasmuch as here and there I have 
revised them myself, I trust for the better), I should wish that they may 
be copied from this, rather than from any previous collection wherein they 
are found. ^^ 

The present piece has six stanzas. 

Blest is the man whose softening heart. — Barbauld. 
This hymn is by Mrs, Anna Laetitia Barbauld. It is founded 
upon the forty-first Psalm, and suggests a delicacy and considera- 
tion in even the administering of help to the weak and the poor. 
An interesting comment is found among the writings of the Tal- 
mudists, upon the verse Isa. 59 : 17. This they rendered, " He 
put on charity as a coat of mail," that is, coin was joined to coin 
in the long account as scale to scale in a soldier's armor. It 
was Rabbi Jochanan who used to devise methods of giving alms 
by which he was enabled to spare the feelings of any one who was 
in need. Thus he would say to one whom he desired to help : "I 
hear that you have quite a fortune coming to you ; so take this 
money, and repay it when you inherit your property." 

Blest Jesus, when my soaring thoughts. — Heginbotham. 
Ottiwell Heginbotham, the author of this hymn, was in all prob- 
ability the son of a man of the same name, a person of consider- 
able wealth, who was one of the early followers of the Wesleys. 
The hymnist himself was born in 1744, and became a student at 
Daventry, where he showed ability and scholarship of no ordinary 
kind. He was placed under the instruction of Dr. Caleb Ash- 
worth, and in his nineteenth year we find him ordained as pastor 
at Sudbury, November 20th, 1765. The church was divided in 
sentiment, and Mr. Heginbotham took this so much to heart that 
his health failed, and he died of consumption in 1768, being 
scarcely twenty-four years of age. His twenty-five hymns were 
privately printed in 1799, and are characterized by gentleness and 
sweetness, without much strength. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 77 

Blest Trinity, from mortal sight. — Baker, ir. 

Rev. Sir Henry Williams Baker, Bart, was born in London, 
May 27th, 182 1. His father was Sir Henry Loraine Baker, 
second baronet, and a vice-admiral of the Royal Navy. The son 
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1844. In 1 85 1, he was appointed to the vicarage of 
Monkland, Herefordshire. He is one of the " forty clergymen " 
who prepared Hymns, Ancient and Modern (1861), and had the 
honor to be their chairman. His own hymns are excellent. He 
died February nth, 1877, at Monkland. 

This is a translation from the "■ O luce qucB tua lates," of the 
Paris Breviary. 

Blow ye the trumpet, blow. — C. Wesley. 
This is No. 3 of Charles Wesley's Hy7mis for the New Year, 
1750. It is based on Lev. 25 : 25. Its title is " The Year of 
Jubilee." Toplady has sometimes been credited with the author- 
ship, but, as he was only born in 1 740, this is manifestly incorrect. 
The date of the publication of the seven hymns, of which this is 
one, has been much disputed ; and, by way of example, we will 
give the dates favored by some of the authorities. Rev. James 
King's date is 1743 ; Professor Bird's, 1756 ; Mr. Nutter's, 1750; 
Dr. Hatfield's, 1750; Mr. Creamer's, 1755 ; Rev. W. F.Steven- 
son's, 1750. This will also be a sufficient demonstration of the 
method which we have ourselves employed. We take the oppor- 
tunity to add that Mr. W. T. Brooke, 157 Richmond Road, 
Hackney, London E. , has discovered Charles Wesley's earliest 
hymn-book. It was printed at Charles-Town [Mass.] in 1737, by 
Lewis Timothy, and contains seventy hymns. This volume ante- 
dates all others by a year. 

Bread of heaven, on thee we feed. — Conder. 
This hymn appeared in 1824, in the collection of Josiah Con- 
der' s pieces, which he entitled. The Star of the East, and other 
Poems. It is founded on John 6 : 32, " My Father giveth you 
the true bread from heaven." 

Bread of the world in mercy broken. — Heber. 
This hymn is from Hymtis Written and Adapted to the Church 
Service of the Fear (1827.) This collection was published by Mrs. 



78 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Heber, after her husband's death. There are but two stanzas to 
the hymn. 

Break thou the bread of life, — Lathbury. 

A ' ' Study Song ' ' for the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific 
Circle, written in the summer of 1880. 

This is a very lovely little lyric, especially when taken in con 
nection with Mr. Sherwin's music. The encomium of Professor 
W. C. Wilkinson upon Miss Lathburj^'s verse (in The Indepejident, 
September, 1885) is well deserved. She has truly become the 
" lyrist of Chautauqua " — Dr. John H. Vincent's great " Summer 
University," whose " Chautauqua " ideas are a power in the land. 

Brethren, while we sojourn here. — Swain. 
This piece, frequently entered among the " anonymous," has 
been identified as the production of Joseph Swain, an English 
Baptist. It is taken from the author's Walworth Hymns, 1792. 

Bride of the Lamb, awake. — Denny. 
We find this piece in Sir E. Denny's Millennial H}>mns, with the 
title, " The Church Cheered with the Hope of her Lord's Return," 
and the text, Solomon's Song 2 : 14. It has seven stanzas. The 
author adds to this hymn the following note : 

" Sent of Jesus, even as He was sent of the Father, and while seeking 
to be worthy of the name put upon her, may she remember that it is not 
of herself the Bride is to speak, but her object, her subject, her delight, 
her hope, her only resting-place is her Beloved — the Bridegroom of her 
heart. — Lady Po-verscourfs Letters." 

Brief life is here our portion. — Neale, ir. 
This portion of " Jerusalem the Golden " is the " Hie hreve 
vivitur,'' etc., of Bernard of Cluny. Dr. Neale's hymn is, in 
effect, an original composition. Bernard's famous poem is treated 
at large in " The Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns. " 

Brightest and best of the sons of the morning. — Heber. 
Bishop Heber's hymns were, for the most part, composed 
shortly after his marriage, in 1809, and were first published in the 
Christian Observer, in 1811-12. The prefatory note to the series 
states that the author intended them for ' ' the Sundays and prin- 
cipal holy days of the year, connected in some degree with their 
particular Collects and Gospels, and designed to be sung between 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 79 

the Nicene Creed and the sermon. ' ' The idea is derived from the 
Roman liturgy, and Mr. Heber (then rector of Hodnet) further 
adds, that in these lyrics " no fulsome or indecorous language has 
been knowingly adopted ; no erotic addresses to Him whom no 
unclean lips can approach ; no allegory, ill-understood and worse 
applied." This design was never completely executed, but the 
present hymn is intended for Epiphany. The date is 1811. 

When the author became bishop of Calcutta he spent Christmas, 
1824, at Meerut, where, on December 19th, he dedicated a church. 
At this service he records that he had the satisfaction of hearing 
this hymn, and that for St. Stephen's day, " sung better than he 
ever heard them before. ' ' 

Brightly gleams our banner. — Potter. 
This gentleman's name is given by ^Ir. Miller as " Thomas J. 
Potter, " and by Thring as " T. J. Potter." The authority for 
calling him " Thomas Joseph Potter " does not appear. He was 
born in 1827, and died in 1873, and there seems to be little doubt 
that he is the " Thomas J^cj/zw.w^ Potter" who was graduated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, B.A., 1850, and M.A., 1853. We 
only know further that he is a Roman Catholic priest, and has 
written several books between i860 and 1866. The hymn is in 
the People s Hymnal, 1867. 

By Christ redeemed, in Christ restored. — Rawson. 
Mr. George Rawson, the " Leeds Layman," contributed twenty- 
seven hymns to i\\e Psalms afid Hy?nns /or the Baptisl Deyiomination, 
1858, of which this is one. It is dated 1857. 

By cool Siloam's shady rill. — Heber, 

The date of this hymn is 181 2. The title is " Christ a Pattern 
for Children," Luke 2 : 40. 

By faith in Christ I walk with God. — Newton. 
In the Olney Hymns, 1779, this is Book I., No. 4. It is based 
on Gen. 5 : 24. 

Call Jehovah thy salvation. — IMoxTcoiiERY. 
This is from \hQ Original Hymns, Hymn 145, " God's Merciful 
Guardianship of His People." It is based on Ps. 91, and contains 
five stanzas. The date is 1822. 



8o ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Calm me, my God, and keep me calm. — Bonar. 
The title of this quiet and beautiful song is " The Inner Calm. " 
It is found in Hymns of Fail h and Hope (first series, 1857), and 
has eight stanzas. 

Calm on the listening ear of night. — Sears. 
This, which is called by its author " A Christmas Song, " is often 
assigned to the date 185 1. In reality, it was first published in the 
Boston Observer, in 1834 ; then recast and republished in the 
Christian Register, in 1835, and eventually appeared in the Monthly 
Magazine, Vol. XXXV. It has five double stanzas, and is given 
in full in Dr. Putnam's Singers and Songs of the Liberal Faith. 
By this, and by the hymn, " It came upon the midnight clear," 
Rev. E. H. Sears has established his claim to be one of the great 
hymn-writers of the United States, for these two pieces are univer- 
sally accepted. Dr. O. W. Holmes considers it one of the finest 
and most beautiful poems ever written. It is known as " Sears's 
first Christmas hymn." 

Cast thy bread upon the waters. — Hanaford, 
Mrs. Phoebe A. Hanaford was born on Nantucket Island, May 
6th, 1829. Her father. Captain George W. Coffin, was a descend- 
ant of Tristram Coffin, earliest of the name in this country. On 
the mother's side, Mrs. Hanaford boasts of her descent from Peter 
Folger, grandfather of Benjamin Franklin. 

Our authoress studied in the public and private schools of Nan- 
tucket, and was trained, in Latin and the higher mathematics, by 
an Episcopalian clergyman. She began teaching when only six- 
teen, was married at twenty, and has a son and a daughter. In 
her short autobiography she does not give her husband's name. 
After a year's previous preaching in the place, she was ordained as 
pastor of the Universalist Church, at Hingham, Mass. This was 
in 1868, and in 1869 she also had the charge of the neighboring 
parish of Waltham. In 1870 she resigned, and was installed as 
pastor in New Haven, Conn., to which place she has lately (18S3) 
returned. 

In 1874 she removed to Jersey City, taking charge of the 
" Church of the Good Shepherd," on the Heights. She claims 
to be the first woman who ever offered an ordaining prayer, and 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 8r 

who has exchanged pulpits with her own son — both being settled 
pastors. Additional!}', she is proud of being the first woman to 
officiate at the marriage of her own daughter, and the first woman 
regularly ordained in Massachusetts, or New England. Also, she 
was the first woman to serve as chaplain of the Connecticut Legis- 
lature, which she did in 1870 and 1872. The remarkable list of 
this iconoclastic lady's actions is increased by the fact that she, " a 
woman-minister," gave the charge at the ordination of " a man- 
minister," he being Rev. W. G. Haskell, of Marblehead, Mass. 
Nor do we care to diminish aught of her satisfaction in having been 
the first woman to attend a Masonic Festival, and to respond, by 
invitation, to a toast. This trenchant " woman-minister " (her 
own term, by the way) has been as active with her pen as with her 
tongue. Anti-Slavery parnphlets have been her recreation, and 
prose and verse of all kinds have been her delight. Her Life of 
Abraham Lincoln reached a sale of twenty thousand. The list of 
her works is long, and we must honestly add that the books which 
she has prepared have been good. Her poetry is found in Fro7n 
Shore io Shore, and in the same year with that publication (1871) 
she published a Life of Charles Dickens. Other poems remain un- 
gathered, in various periodicals — among which is the present 
hymn. It does not appear in her book of poems. 

Cast thy burden on the Lord. — Hammond. (.?) 

William Hammond's hymns were published at London, 1745, 
under the title. Psalms, Hyynns and Spiritual Songs. It is to his 
pen that Professor Bird assigns this hymn. We take the liberty of 
showing how little positiveness there can be in such a statement. 

Dr. Hatfield (who was aided byD. Sedgwick) gives it to " John 
Cennick, 1745, altered by Rowland Hill " — who, by the way, was 
greatly addicted to the alteration of other persons' verses. Drs. 
Hitchcock, Eddy, and Schaff — assisted by Professor Bird — attribute 
it, in a confusion of punctuation, as follows : " Rev. Rowland 
Hill. (1744-1833.) 1783, v. I. George Rawson. •(1807-) 1857. 
ab, and much alt." The present ascription to Hammond is the 
designation in Laudes Domini, and we offer it as the latest, 
but the query, which is our own addition, appears to be necessary 
to complete the sense. The hymn is not the same, in many books, 
after one has passed the first few lines. 



82 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Whatever may be the authorship, the thought of the hymn is 
undoubtedly that of Ps. 55 : 22, which teaches us (in the Hebrew) 
that we are to cast on the Lord " that which he hath given us." 
Our " burden " is our " gift ;" and, if we so consider it, it 
becomes a blessing. 

Chief of sinners though I be. — McComb. 
William McComb was born at Coleraine, County Londonderry, 
Ireland, in 1 793. His business, for many years, was that of a 
bookseller in Belfast. In 1867 he had retired from trade. After 
some other previous publications, Mr. McComb' s poetry was col- 
lected into one handsome volume in 1864. 

Children of light, arise and shine. — Denny. 
This hymn is from the Miscellaneous Hymns of Sir Edward 
Denny, 1839, ^'^d bears the title, " Looking unto Jesus ;" John 
14 : I. It has four stanzas. 

Children of the heavenly King, — John Cennick. 
Whatever may have been Cennick' s peculiarities of religious 
doctrine, there can be no doubt of his genuine piety. This hymn, 
dear to all Christians, and preserved without the omission of a 
stanza, in every collection which is able to afford the space, is tes- 
timony sufficient. He began with Wesley, changed to Whitefield, 
and ended in the ranks of the Moravians. But, as Christophers 
happily says : "he has again joined those with whom he began his 
Methodist itinerancy. . . . Those early poets of Methodism sing 
together now." The date of this composition is 1742. 

Chosen not for good in me. — McCheyne. 

The Rev. Robert Murray McCheyne was one of the loftiest and 
most spiritually-minded Christians of his generation. He was born 
in Edinburgh, May 21st, 1813 ; studied at the High School and 
University of his native city, and was licensed to preach July, 1835. 
After some years' service in Stirlingshire, he was, on November 
24th, 1836, set over the congregation of St. Peter's Church, Dun- 
dee, and in 1839 accompanied a deputation from the General 
Assembly (Presbyterian) to Palestine on a " Mission of Inquiry to 
the Jews. " He died, after a brief illness, March 25th, 1843. 

The story of McCheyne's conversion is an apt commentary 
upon his hymn. The death of his brother, some eight or nine 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 83 

years older than himself, awakened him to a sense of his condition 
in the sight of God. This brother, a man of unusual abilities, fell 
into a deep melancholy, which was partly the causa and partly the 
consequence of his disease. Each influence apparently aggravated 
the other, though doubtless the mind was earliest affected by the 
body. He continued in this state of awful gloom, wasting away 
gradually under the mental and physical strain, until a few days 
before his death. He then, for the first time, obtained peace and 
hope, and died, July 8th, 1831, with the blessing of a perfect trust 
in Christ. Robert McCheyne was consequently impressed in the 
most solemn manner, and when his brother David was taken, it 
appeared as though the divine voice never ceased its appeal to his 
soul. 

The condition of affairs in those days was such as to sound 
strangely now in the ears of any fervent Christian. The students 
of the Divinity Hall, under Drs. Chalmers and Welsh (1831- 
1836), it is to be feared, were sometimes very far from spiritual- 
mindedness. It is reported by McCheyne's biographer that they 
often " broke the Sabbath, danced, and played cards." But Mc- 
Cheyne himself, reading Henry Martyn's memoir and Legh Rich- 
mond's life, and recording in his journal his profound desire after 
holiness, came at length into the freedom of the truth. There 
were students in the Divinity Hall who devoted themselves to the 
poor of Edinburgh ; and with such as these McCheyne went out 
to work and pray. 

It is interesting also for us to learn that McCheyne was anxious 
to speak as directly to his hearers as possible, and therefore wrote 
his discourses carefully, conned them over before entering the pul- 
pit, and then delivered their suhstatice, without notes, and without 
the slavish effort of verbatim recitation. Once, however, when he 
was upon his road to Dunipace, he lost his sermons, and, being 
compelled to preach, he did so with a fluency that never afterward 
forsook him. But he did not rely upon this discovery in order to 
slight his preparation for the pulpit. 

When McCheyne returned from the Holy Land he reached 
Dundee on a Thursday afternoon. This being the evening of the 
weekly meeting at St. Peter's, he hurried at once to the church, and 
was met by a great assemblage of his devoted people, and of his 
brother ministers. It was a night to be long remembered. He 



84 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

gave out the sixty-sixth Psalm to be sung, and then, refusing to 
utter one word abouthimself or his journey, he took i Cor. 2 : i, 4 
as his text, and so broke the bread of Hfe after Paul's manner. 
Again and again on the way home, he had to pause and shake hands, 
and even pray, with those who would not leave until he told them 
more about "this way." At length, completely exhausted, he 
reached his house, and there, to those about him, he expressed 
himself in the most devout gratitude for God's goodness. " To 
thy name, O Lord," he said, " to thy name, O Lord, be all the 
glory." 

His disease was simply the burning out of his physical system by 
his zealous labor. It baffled all the physicians ; but he was ready 
to go, and before he died he exclaimed : " My soul is escaped as 
a bird out of the snare of the fowler ; the snare is broken, and I 
am escaped. ' ' 

The hymn before us is a portion of the longer piece, " When 
this passing world is done," which contains nine six-line stanzas, 
and the date is, conjecturally, 1837. 

Christ above all glory seated. — Woodford, tr. (.') 
This hymn has been attributed to James Russell Woodford, as 
a translation. It certainly resembles, faintly, the Ambrosian 
hymn, " Christe, rex coelt domine,'' and it has a trifling likeness to 
the Paris Breviary hymn, " Christe, qui sedes Olympo." But in 
neither case is it a translation — or even a close paraphrase. The 
date " 1863 (?) " is assigned, by H. P. Main, to a slightly 
different form of this piece. 

Christ for the world we sing. — Wolcott. 

The author of this hymn is a Congregational clergyman. Rev. 
Samuel Wolcott, D. D. He was bom at South Windsor, Conn., 
July 2d, 1 813. He is a graduate of Yale College, in 1833, and 
of Andover Theological Seminary, in 1837. In 1840-42, he was 
a missionary in Syria. Since then he has been a pastor, and has 
had charge of churches in Longmeadow, Mass. (where he resides 
at the present writing) ; in Belchertown, Mass. ; Providence, R. I. ; 
Chicago, 111. ; and Cleveland, O. He has now retired from active 
work. Among other useful labors, he compiled the elaborate 
Wolcott Manorial — a record of that family in America. 

Dr. Wolcott's account of his earliest attempt to compose hymns 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 85 

merits a full recital. He began his work in this direction, it ap- 
pears, as late in life as Prudentius or Chaucer, and with as little 
training for it as " Piers Ploughman." 

" In the year 1868, Rev. Darius E. Jones requested me to mark for him 
the published hymns which I would use in a new collection. After a 
partial performance of this service, near the close of the year, the query 
arose in my mind, ' Can I not write a hymn ? ' I was then in my fifty- 
sixth year, had never put two rhymes together, and had taken it for 
granted that I was as incompetent to write a hymn, or even a stanza, as 
to work a miracle. However, I resolved that I would try to write a hymn 
of five stanzas, and proceeded to plan it precisely as I would plan a ser- 
mon. I said, the first stanza shall be a recognition of God the Father ; 
the second, a recognition of Christ the Redeemer ; the third, a prayer to 
God the Father ; the fourth, a prayer to Christ the Redeemer, and the 
fifth shall blend the two in one address. All this, you understand, with- 
out any train of thought in my mind ; and a more perfect recipe for wooden 
stanzas it would be difficult to frame. I went to work to fill out my plan, 
and the result was the hymn as it now stands, ' Father! I own thy voice.' 

" I cannot express to you my surprise when I found that I had written 
what could actually be sung. I sent the hymn to Mr. Jones, who was so 
much pleased with it that he composed a tune for it, and inserted both in 
his Songs for the N'eiu Life (Chicago, 1869). I have not seen the hymn in 
any other collection, but I retain a natural predilection for it. 

" I soon tried my hand again. The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tions of Ohio met in one of our churches, with their motto, in evergreen 
letters, over the pulpit : ' Christ for the World, and the World for Christ.' 
This suggested the hymn, ' Christ for the world we sing.' " 

Dr. Wolcott writes that it was on his way home from this service, 
in 1869, walking alone through the streets, that he " put together 
the four stanzas of the hymn. ' ' Each stanza began, 

" Christ for the world we sing. 
The world to Christ we bring." 

Altogether, he has composed more than two hundred hymns, many 
of which are still unpublished. 

Christ is born, tell forth his fame. — Neale, tr. 
This is Dr. Neale's translation of the ^piGxoi ysvvatat. 
do^dffare of St. Cosmas, a.d. 760. It appeared first in the 
Hymns of the Eastern Ctiureh, where it is given in full as the render- 
ing of Ode I. , in the Cancm for Christmas Day, and is in four 
stanzas. St, Cosmas of Jerusalem is placed by Dr. Neale in the 
second rank of Greek ecclesiastical poets. He was early left an 



86 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

orphan, adopted by the father of St. John Damascenus, and grew 
up with that poet in a hfe-long friendship. St. Cosmas was a 
Sabaite monk, and was consecrated as bishop of Maiuma, near 
Gaza, in Palestine, under the patriarchate of John of Jerusalem. 
His poetical compositions resemble those of Adam of St. Victor in 
their fondness for types and imagery. He wrote in a contracted 
and difficult style, and his hymns are hard to be understood. Dr. 
Neale has adopted, with these and other sacred verses, the prin- 
ciple of Bishop Heber, who held that it was better — he referred, 
however, to the Latin hymns — " to pillage than to translate." 

Christ is made the sure foundation. — Neale, /;-. 
This is the Angular e fundamenltini, a portion of the hymn, 
' ' Urbs beata Hirusalem. ' ' Dr. Neale has rendered it as, 

Blessed city, heavenly Salem, 
Vision dear of peace and love," 

and of that translation this is the second part. 

There are several other versions. One, by Archbishop Benson, 

commences, 

" Blessed city, heavenly Salem, 
Peaceful vision dim descried." 

There is still a third, with the same initial line, in the Hymnal 

Noted, 1 87 1, 

" Blessed city, heavenly Salem, 
Land of glory, land of rest." 

The authorship of the Latin original is unknown, but it is re- 
ferred, conjecturally, to the eighth century. See "The Latin 
Hymn Writers and their Hymns" for further information on the 
subject. 

Christ is coming ! let creation. — Macduff. 

Rev. John Ross Macduff, D. D., the author of this hymn, was 
born in the year 18 18, at Bonhard, Perthshire, Scotland. His 
education was obtained at the High School, Edinburgh, and at 
the University of the same ancient town. For three years he 
studied under the celebrated Dr. Thomas Chalmers, whose influ- 
ence determined him to devote his life to the Gospel ministry. It 
did not, however, carry him into disestablishment, for he was 
licensed in the Established Church of Scotland, in 1842, and re- 
ceived the parish of Kettins, Forfarshire. Thence he was trans- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 87 

ferred to the church of St. Madoes, in Perthshire, from which he 
was again, in 1856, removed to Glasgow, where he was given the 
pastorate of a handsome new edifice and a large congregation at 
Sandyford. Here he continued for fifteen years, declining mean- 
while the offer of an appointment by the Crown to the cathedral 
church in Glasgow, made vacant by the death of Principal jNIac- 
Failan. In 1871, Dr. ]\Iacduff gave up his pastoral duties 
altogether, and surrendered his parish in order to spend the re- 
mainder of his life in literary labor. 

He has been remarkably successful as an author of religious 
works, and his Faiihful Proniiser, Morning aiid Night Watches, 
and The Mind and Words of Jesus, have had a very great circula- 
tion. Some of his hymns were published as early as 1853. They 
have been gathered up in his Gates of Praise, issued in 1875. 

The title of the present piece is " Second Advent," and the 
text of Scripture affixed to it by the author is Rev. 22 : 20. The 
date is 1853. 

Christ is our corner-stone. — Chandler, tr. 

This, like " Christ is made our sure foundation," is the Angu- 
tare fundamentum, from the famous heaven- hymn, " Urbs beata 
Hirusalem." It is from John Chandler's Hymns of the Pri?nitive 
Church, 1837. For the Latin hymn itself, see " The Latin 
Hymn Writers and their Hymns." 

Christ is risen ! Christ is risen ! — A. T. Gurxey. 
This hymn appeared in ]\Ir. Gurney's Book of Praise, 1862, 
which contained 147 of his own hymns. The author, Archer 
Thompson Gurney, was born in 1820, and is an English gentle- 
man who has had a varied and peculiar history. He received a 
good education, but is not recorded as having been graduated from 
any of the great universities. Following his inclination for the 
study of law, he became (and still is) a barrister of the Middle 
Temple, But he changed from the court-bar to the pulpit, and 
was made deacon in 1849, priest in 1850. and assumed the curacy 
of Holy Trinity, Exeter, 1849-51, His subsequent history is 
briefly comprehended in the following exact statement, which 
shows on its very face that Mr, Gurney is an unusual character. 
He has been curate of St. IVIar}', Crown Street, Soho, 1851-53 ; 
senior curate of Buckingham, 1854-8 ; chaplain to the Court 



88 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Church {Cour dcs Coches), Paris, 1858-71 ; evangelical lecturer 
of Holy Trinity, Westminster, 1872-4 ; curate of Holy Trinity 
Chapel, Brighton, 1874-5 ; curate- in-charge of St. Andrew's (iron 
church), Hastings, 1S77-8 ; assisted at St. Katherine's Hospital, 
Regent's Park, 1879-80 ; curate-in-charge of Rhyader, Radnor, 
1880-81 ; curate-in-charge of Llangunider, Ereconshire, Wales, 
1882, where (but for the natural uncertainty induced by this 
record) we should suppose him to be still residing at the rectory. 

Mr. Gurney has written much — frequently in poetry, sometimes 
in drama, and occasionally in controversy from the Ritualistic 
standpoint. One of his works was, Reasons for Living and Dying 
in the Communion of the Church of England. Orby Shipley in- 
cluded ten of his pieces in the Lyra Messianica, a very High Church 
collection. This is not one of them. 

An American work on authors, written and published over 
twenty-five years ago, gives us this racy description of the man as 
he then was : 

" Mr. Archer Gurney is another specimen of that small tribe of verse- 
mongers which have the same proportion to poets that monkeys have to 
men ; like that chattering tribe, their gibbering and antics are sometimes 
diverting, but there is something painful and revolting to our feelings in 
the absurd resemblance they bear to the superior race. Mr. Gurney has 
published two volumes, the first, an apish resemblance to ' Lalla Rookh,' 
entitled ' Love's Legends,' and the other a curious drama, called Charles I.; 
the latter is, perhaps, the funniest specimen of a tragedy on record. 
While Talfourd's tragedies are pretty, Gurney's are funny ; it was sug- 
gested by the author of ' Orion ' [jzV] that there was a striking resem- 
blance between the hero and the poet, in the fact of both having no head ; 
be this as it may, Mr. Archer Gurney might just as well have been with- 
out his head, seeing the little use he has made of it in this curious drama. 
Two out of three of the scenes end thus, in the very middle : ' The scene 
closes in great confusion — exeunt confusedly.' An act is generally 
brought to its termination in this ingenious manner : ' A great uproar, the 
curtain falls amid wild confusion.' This terrific confusion and disorder 
are the only evidences we have of Mr. Archer Gurney's head. We ought 
to add, as another proof of this young bardling's genius, that at the dis- 
solution of Parliament he rushes about, as a sort of clown, contesting im- 
possible elections ; now he suddenly appears as the antagonist of Lord 
Morpeth, for the West Riding of Yorkshire, but on the day before election 
he forgets all about it, and rides home on the outside of the mail ; he then 
throws a somerset, and comes plump down at Lambeth, where he threatens 
to annihilate Mr. Hawes, but he don't altogether do that, for on the close 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 89 

of the poll, the numbers are somewhat in this fashion— Hawes, 6097 ; 
Gurney, i. This solitary voter turns out to be Mr. Hawes himself, it 
being customary for each candidate to vote for his antagonist. Mr. Gur- 
ney's last political feat was to accompany his friend, Mr. Ernest Jones, 
to a Chartist meeting, where he disturbed the harmony of that rational 
class of beings by undertaking to prove them all wrong, and consequently 
engaging to convert them all into loyal and contented citizens. The argu- 
ment was closed by their ejecting the eloquent Tory head over heels 
through a window into the street, minus his hat and coat ; it is rumored 
that Mr. Fergus O'Connor was seen the next day in a far superior cover 
to where [j-zV] his brains ought to be, and also in a better surtout. It is 
shrewdly suspected that he, like the Romans of old, wore his vanquished 
enemy's armor as optima sjioiia." 

The writer's Latin, as well as his English, will safely bear filing 
and polishing, but his graphic method is very much to our purpose. 

Christ, of all my hopes the ground. — Wardlaw. 
Rev. Ralph Wardlaw was born at Dalkeith, Mid-Lothian, De- 
cember 22d, 1779, and entered the University of Glasgow at twelve 
years of age. He then united with the Seceders' Church, and 
joined the Congregationalists, under the brothers Haldane. In 
1803, he was ordained to the pastorate of a chapel in Albion 
Street, Glasgow. In 181 1, he was chosen Professor of Divinity, 
in the (Congregational) Glasgow Theological Academy, and died 
in that city, December 17th, 1853. Dr. Wardlaw edited a vol- 
ume of hymns for the use of the Scottish Congregationalists, in 
which several of his original pieces were included. While he re- 
ceives no mention from Anglican hymnologists, this hymn, and 
" Lift up to God the voice of praise," will show that he merits it. 
The present hymn has two parts and thirteen stanzas, and its date 
is 18 1 7. 

Christ the Lord is risen again. — Winkworth, //', 
We have here Miss Winkworth 's rendering of the " Christus ist 
ersiandejt" of Michael Weisse. It is an Easter hymn, from the 
first hymn-book of the Bohemian Brethren, 1531. This religious 
sect, called by their enemies /*/i;(r<7rr/j, i.e., Beghards, allied them- 
selves in Reformation times with Luther. Their four great doc- 
trines were : i. Taking the eucharist " in both kinds," that is, 
bread and cup ; 2. Prohibition of temporal authority to the clergy ; 
3. Preaching of God's word free to every man ; 4. Public crimes 



90 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

to be surely punished. These points they debated with the Coun- 
cil of Constance for fifty days. In modern times they are the 
Moravians, Count Zinzendorf having revived their tenets and cus- 
toms. Weisse, like Luther, translated much from the Latin, and 
enriched German hymnology from the media3val breviaries. He 
also wrote some fifteen or seventeen original hymns ; and possibly 
more, which have not been identified. He was bom at Neisse, in 
Silesia, and was pastor of the Bohemian Brethren, at Landskron 
and Fulneck, in Bohemia, He died in 1540. 

It is Kiibler's opinion that both Weisse and Luther (in his Easter 
hymn, Christ lag, etc.) availed themselves of some older piece be- 
ginning with this first line. The present hymn may have arisen 
from a Latin sequence : " Mors et vita duello conflixere mirando : 
dux vitcB mortuus regnat vivus," which has afforded much comfort 
to the dying. 

The date of Miss Winkworth's translation is 1858. 

Christ the Lord is risen to-day. — Anon, 1708. 

There are three hymns with this first line. One is by Charles 
Wesley, 1739 : 

" Christ the Lord is risen to-day, 
Sons of men and angels say." 

Another is by Miss Jane E. Leeson : 

" Christ the Lord is risen to-day ; 

Christians, haste your vows to pay," 

which is a translation of the " Victimce paschali laudes,''^ a well- 
known sequence, sometimes attributed to Notker of St. Gall, but 
probably of the eleventh or twelfth century. The third is the 
present hymn : 

" Christ the Lord is risen to-day. 
Our triumphant holy day." 

It may easily have been the suggestion from which Wesley's 
lyric came. It was appended to the New Version of the Psabns, 
in 1796, but had previously appeared in C. Evans's Collection (5th 
edition, 1786), and in the Cojnpleat Psalmodist of John Arnold, 
1749. In the earliest form to which it has been traced, it begins, 
" Jesus Christ is risen to-day." In Evans's collection it is called 
" The Resurrection Hymn," and has but three stanzas ; and the 
" Gloria," which makes the fourth, is undoubtedly the work of 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 91 

Charles Wesley, for it is found in his Hymns and Sacred Poems. 
The oldest book in which it has been discovered is the Lyra 
Davidica, 1708. 

Christ the Lord is risen to-day. — C. Wesley. 

From \X\& Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1739, this piece is taken. 
The tune " Georgia," adapted to this in the Church of England 
psalmody, is itself an adaptation of Handel's " See the Conquer- 
ing Hero Comes." 

This hymn afforded great comfort to Thomas Lacy, an earnest 
English Methodist. On Easter morning he repeated the first 
stanza to his sister, though with a faltering voice. He was told 
that he was near death, " Then," said he, "I have a pleasant 
prospect before me. ' ' And so he passed away in peace. 

Christ, whose glory fills the skies. — C. Wesley. 

This hymn has received the praise of Montgomery, as being 
one of the loveliest which Charles Wesley composed. It bears a 
close resemblance to that of Ennodius, Bishop of Pavia, " Christe 
lumen perpeiuum," which will be found, in an American trans- 
lation, as, " O Christ, the eternal light." 

There can be no doubt that this composition is properly ac- 
credited to Wesley, although it has been printed in some editions 
of Toplady's works, as if belonging to him ; and something similar 
to it can be found in the writings of Sir Robert Grant. In a ser- 
mon on the "Christian Inheritance," Rev. Morley Punshon, 
D. D., quotes the lines as if written by Grant. But the claim put 
forward in behalf of Toplady is effectually disposed of, when we 
find that the sam.e year, 1740, witnessed his birth as well as the 
publication of the hymn. For it appears in the Hymns and Sacred 
Poems of Wesley, 1740, where it is entitled " A Morning Hymn," 
and is in three stanzas. Charles Wesley wrote two pieces with this 
same first line. The one now before us had formerly a stanza 
prefixed to it commencing, " Oh, disclose thy lovely face," but 
that was no part of it, and has disappeared. 

Very beautiful are the comments upon the promise, " I will 
make thy windows of agates," which we find in the volume, Bible 
Teachings in Nature, by Hugh Macmillan. 

" ' I will make thy windows of agates ; ' not bright and transparent, 
for our weak eyes, dimmed with pain and weeping, cannot bear the strong 



92 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

sunshine ; not dark and opaque, for the soul climbing up and straining 
to look out and see the light behind the cloud — the beauty beyond the 
shadow-^and baffled in its efforts, would fall back upon itself, morbid 
and despairing. They are windows of agates— neither transparent nor 
opaque — but mercifully tempered by Him who best knows the require- 
ments of each individual case, and who in all our afflictions is afflicted. 
How soft and subdued is the light they admit, inexpressibly soothing to 
the soul which affliction has made tender ! Through the smoked glass 
the most delicate eye can look long without shrinking upon the Sun of 
Righteousness. There is no garishness jarring with the sorrow, no daz- 
zling lustre scorching and bewildering the soul, but a mild, moonlight 
radiance, exquisitely harmonizing with the loneliness and darkness within." 

Christian, dost thou see them. — Neale, ir. 
This translation (1862) is from the hymn Ot yap fiXlTteii 
rovi raparrovrai of St. Andrew of Crete. Dr. Neale calls it 
the " Stichera for the Second Week of the Grand Fast." St. 
Andrew was born at Damascus about 660 ; became a monk in 
Jerusalem ; and, going on church business to Constantinople, was 
there made a deacon. He was Archbishop of Crete, in the reign 
of Philip Bardanes, just about the time (711-714) when Africa 
had been subdued by the Saracens. He died in the island of 
Hierissus, near Mitylene, a.d. 732. His hymns are still sung in 
the Greek Church. 

Christian, seek not yet repose. — C. Elliott. 
There are six stanzas to this hymn, which was first published by 
Miss Charlotte Elliott, in 1839. It is the Wednesday morning 
hymn, in Hymns for a Week, by the late Charlotte Elliott, London, 
forty-first thousand, no date. The first edition of these hymns 
was issued, however, in 1839. This one is founded on the words, 
" Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation." 

Christians, awake, salute the morn. — Byrom. 
The personal appearance of John Byrom was remarkable. He 
was extremely tall, carried a stick with a crook-top, and wore " a 
curious low-polled, slouched hat, from under the long-peaked 
front brim of which his benignant face bent forward a cautiously 
inquisitive kind of look, as if he were in the habit of prying into 
everything, without caring to let everything enter deeply into him." 
In his journal for February 7th, 1739, this tall person has recorded 
that he had " walked with John Wesley and another young fel- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 93 

low, from I\Ir. Bray's to Islington." He was then about forty- 
eight years of age, the son of a linen-draper, and born at Man- 
chester in 1691. He was a lover of the mystics — which is no 
blame to him now, though it was then. Jacob Bohme and 
Madame Guyon and Fenelon are different names to us than to the 
people of his time. He was also a Cambridge man, while the 
Wesleys and the most of their friends were Oxonians. So it came 
about that this incipient close association did not last long, though 
the friendship continued firm to the end. Byrom was too much 
of a dilettante, too little inclined to the awful seriousness of early 
IMethodism, and while he was always kindly, and even affectionate, 
toward John Wesley, the connection between them was never really 
intimate. The Cambridge scholar preferred to write his pastorals 
on " Colin and Phoebe," for the Spectator ; to glide into verse in 
praise of " Careless Content," and to invent a system of stenog- 
raphy. He occasionally wrote hymns for recreation. Otherwise, 
his rule was, as he himself says, to be quiet and happy, and let 

the world go : 

" I am content, I do not care, 

Wag as it will the world for me !" 

But there was one thing in which he is of more than casual im- 
portance to hymnology. Although he composed verses of his own, 
neat and smooth in character, and his translations of hymns from 
some of the French mystics are notably fine, yet it is as the ste- 
nographer that he is to be remembered. For he taught his system 
of short-hand to the Wesleys, and they used it for their journals. 
The greater part of Charles Wesley's hymns were dashed down, in 
this brief fashion, as they arose in his mind. Byrom 's taste aided 
his friends, too, in the publication of their first volume of religious 
poetry. 

Nothing can better illustrate Byrom 's characteristics than his 
famous epigram, written in 1745, when the Pretender made his 
advent in England. The Wesleys kept to their work, preaching 
and praying, and putting no hand to the secular business of king- 
making. But Byrom, for a wonder, came out boldly on the side 
of the Stuarts, and it took all his skill to avoid an awkward di- 
lemma. This he achieved by tossing this stanza like a tub to the 
whale, or like the sacrifice which Alcibiades made of his dog's tail 
to divert the wrath of his fellow-citizens. Thus wrote Byrom : 



94 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" God bless the King — I mean the Faith's defender ; 
God bless — no harm in blessing — the Pretender ; 
But who the Pretender is, or who is King — 
God bless us all — that's quite another thing !" 

He was always, though, a good Christian, and Hved on in happy 
quiet — as he wished — until his death, September 28th, 1763, and 
in his seventy-second year. He might appropriately have com- 
posed a hymn on the prayer of Jabez, 

Not as the hymn-writer, then, do we recall him, but as the one 
who said of Handel and Bononcini, 

" Strange all this difference should be 
'Twixt tweedledum and tweedledee," 

and as the one who professed 

To take what passes in good part, 

And keep the hiccoughs from the heart." 

He was, and is, a light of English letters ; but as for piety or ear- 
nestness — well, let us think kindly of him and say no more. 

Come, all ye chosen saints of God. — Hart, 
We are able to fix the exact date of this hymn by its connection 
with a most interesting religious experience on the part of its 
author, Rev. Joseph Hart. He sa3's : 

*' The week before Easter, 1757, I had such an amazing view of the 
agony of Christ in the Garden as I know not how well to describe. I 
was lost in wonder and adoration, and the impression was too deep, I 
believe, ever to be obliterated. ... It was then I made the first part of 
my hymn on the Passion : ' Come, all ye chosen saints of God.' " 

This hymn is placed as the first of the pieces composing Hart's 
second edition, 1762. It has two parts, respectively of fourteen 
and of ten stanzas. A couplet from it has been more than once 
effectively quoted : 

" Gethsemane, the Olive-Press ! 

(And why so call'd let Christians guess)." 

The italics are his own 

Speaking critically, this production has never attained, by any 
cento, to general acceptance as a hymn. It could not possibly 
do so, as it is the unlyrical meditation of a devout soul over the 
agony of the Lord in the Garden. Portions of it are not removed 
from prosaic baldness and impropriety, as, for example : 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 95 

" Dispatch'd from Heav'n an Angel stood, 
Amaz'd to find him bath'd in Blood ; 
As if all Heav'n had rais'd a Doubt, 
' Perhaps the Lord may scarce hold out.' " 

Other portions are strong, original, and almost grand ; as when 

he speaks 

" Of sinners base, 
A harden'd Herd ; a Rebel-race 
That mock'd and trampled in thy Blood, 
And -.vanton'd with the Wounds of God." 

And, again, the last two stanzas : 

" A Love of unexampled kind 

That leaves all Thought so far behind ; 

Where Length, and Breadth, and Depth, and Height 

Are lost to my astonish'd Sight. 
" For Love of Me the Son of God 

Drain'd ev'ry Drop of vital Blood ; 

Long time I after Idols ran, 

But now my God's a martyr' d Man." 

A Study of such a " hymn" will help those who desire to under- 
stand the vivid earnestness of the great race of English hymn- 
writers in the eighteenth century. It cannot be commended for 
taste and beauty, but it is wonderfully actual. 

Come, behold a great expedient. — Kelly, 
One sometimes wonders why certain hymns secure an approval 
which others — decidedly superior to them — fail to obtain. This 
hymn, for example, has been abundantly acceptable, but it scarcely 
seems to deserve its distinction. It appears as early as 1809, in 
Kelly's pages, and is part of the hymn beginning, '* Death is sin's 
tremendous wages." There are five stanzas altogether, and this 
piece commences with the third. 

Come, gracious Lord, descend and dwell, — Watts. 
In Dr. Watts's Hymns, Book I., No. 135, this commences, 
" Come, dearest Lord," etc., and is based on Eph. 3:16, with the 
title, "The Love of Christ shed abroad in the Heart." It has 
three stanzas. 

Come, blessed Spirit ! source of light. — Beddome. 
This is given as the original text, by Dr. Rogers, in Lyra Bri- 
tannica. He there alludes to the other form of the hymn com- 



96 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

mencing, " Come, Spirit, source of light," which can be found as 
No. 531 of Laudes Domini. The present hymn is in the Songs 0/ 
ihe Spirit (p. 414). 

Come, gracious Spirit, heavenly dove. — Browne, 

Rev. Simon Browne, the author of this hymn, was born about 
1680, in Shepton-Mallet, Somersetshire, England, and began to 
preach when but twenty years of age. In 1716, having left a large 
congregation in Plymouth, he was settled over the Independent 
Church in Old Jewry, London. Dr. Watts was his near neighbor, 
being at that time pastor in Berry Street. Seven years later Mr. 
Browne was afflicted with a hypochondriacal malady which took 
the form of a delusion that he could not think. In this year 
(1723), he had, it is true, lost his wife and son, and was greatly 
distressed. But the compelling cause was thought to be an attack 
made on him by a highway robber. ]\Ir, Browne and a friend were 
upon a journey, when they were stopped by the highwayman, 
who presented his pistols and demanded their money, Mr. 
Browne, being a large and strong man, seized the robber, flung him 
down and disarmed him, while his friend ran for assistance. But 
the clerical wrath, and the clerical grip upon the man's throat, 
choked the poor wretch to death, and when assistance came the 
thief was literally defunct. This had a most serious effect on Mr. 
Browne's mind. Frequently after this he was tormented with a 
desire to destroy himself, and he always maintained that his mental 
powers were gone. Yet, though he would not patiently suffer any 
contradiction of this idea, he wrote a defence of Christianity, a 
work on the Trinity, made a dictionary, and continued Matthew 
Henry's Commentary by the Exposition of the First Epistle of St. 
Paul to the Corinthians. The dedication of his Defence 0/ Chris- 
tianity is copied under Browne's name as a curiosity in the (old) 
Encyclopcedia Britannica. Indeed, some twenty-three separate pub- 
lications attest the energy and scholarship of this man who " could 
not think ;" and they justify Toplady's remark that " instead of 
having no soul, he wrote and reasoned and prayed as if he had 
two." Dr. Watts also endorses the intellectual vigor and clear- 
ness of this singularly deluded person. "If he was crazy," says 
Dr. Allibone, " he was at least more than equal to two infidels" 
— Woolston and Tindal. He v.-as, however, strangely persistent 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 97 

in his opinion, and on being pressed by a friendly opponent as to 
his mental soundness, because he was " making a dictionary," he 
retorted, " I am doing nothing that requires a reasonable soul." 
His impression, to quote his own words, was that God had " an- 
nihilated in him the thinking substance, and utterly divested him 
of consciousness ; that, though he retained the human shape, and 
the faculty of speaking in a manner that appeared to others rational, 
he had all the while no more notion of what he said than a parrot. ' ' 

But we may profitably place his " First Epistle to the Corinthi- 
ans," in Matthew Henry's Commentary, in contrast to this ab- 
surd opinion. It is lucid, and even epigrammatic in its style, 
and is one of the very best of commentaries for practical use. 

He lived beloved and respected, but cherishing his delusion to 
the last, dying at length near the close of the year 1732. He con- 
trived during his life to v\'in the approbation of good people, and 
he left two hundred and sixty-six hymns as his legacy to Christian 
praise. 

In his hymn-writing, Mr. Browne was a great admirer and imi- 
tator of Dr. Watts, whose influence on the English hymnology is 
like that of Ambrose upon the Latin. Browne and others follow 
Watts, as Ennodius, Gregory the Great, and the late Latinists, 
like Coffin and Santeul, follow Ambrose. Sometimes he conveys 
lines bodily from Watts, as these do from Ambrose, confessing 
(which may be due to his mental malady, for such confession is 
now rare enough), "I have borrowed my stamina from others. " 
" Yet, 'tis no vanity to say," quoth Mr. Browne, " I aim at being 
more poetical. ' ' Perhaps this, at last, shows his impaired intellect ! 

Come, Holy Ghost, Creator, come. — Tate, ir. 
We have here Nahum Tate's rendering of the Veni Creator 
Spiritus of Rabanus IMaurus, for whom see "The Latin Hymn 
Writers and their Hymns. " It is from the Supplement to his New 
Version of the Psalms (1703) and is in four double stanzas. 

Come, Holy Ghost ! in love. — Palmer, tr. 
This is the Veni Sancte Spiritus of Hermannus Contractus, for 
which see " The Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns." Dr. 
Palmer made this translation in New York City in 1858. He was 
then in the habit of using certain opportunities of leisure in this 
manner. 



98 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Come, Holy Ghost, my soul inspire. — Nettleton. 

This hymn is in the collection of Asahel Nettleton, where it has 
three stanzas, the text being precisely the same as in Laudes 
Domini These Ullage Hymns of Nettleton are copyrighted in 
Connecticut, in the " forty-eighth year of the Independence of the 
United States of America" (1824). Their history is given by the 
compiler in a preface. He designed his work as a supplement to 
that of Dr. Watts, and states that it grew out of a resolution of the 
General Association of Connecticut, in 1820, appointing a com- 
mittee to " devise measures for the prosperity of religion within 
their limits." Of this committee the compiler was a member, and 
in it the matter of a " New Selection of Hymns" came up, but 
nothing was done. "Four years," says Mr. Nettleton, "have 
nearly elapsed, and nothing has been done pursuant to their ap- 
pointment. " 

When Nettleton went as an evangelist through the region of 
Eastern and Central New York, the idea of this book grew upon 
him. He states that there was a demand for it "in the West and 
South" — these in his time being terms very much restricted in 
meaning. Buffalo, for example, was in "the West." So was 
Pittsburgh. 

The preface contains a number of valuable comments — valuable, 
because they show the condition of American hymnology at that 
day as compared with our own generation. " I had hoped," he 
writes, " to find, in the style of genuine poetry, a greater number of 
hymns adapted to the various exigencies of a revival. Laborious 
research has, however, led me to conclude that not many such 
compositions are in existence." And for the sufficient reason 
that revivals were looked upon with great disfavor. 

This exceedingly important compilation occupied about two 
years' time. INIr. Nettleton adds that it " contains a number of 
original hymns," and mentions that he has taken some of these 
"originals" from the Hartford Selection, and that they are the 
composition of " Strong" and " Steward " — i.e., Nathan Strong, 
D. D., and James Steward, D. D. In addition, we are to remem- 
ber that this collection contains also several of the hymns of Phoebe 
H. Brown, for which ]\Ir. Nettleton personally consulted her. In 
some cases, the compiler reconstructed the hymns. " W'lh this 
view " [to fit them for use in " meetings for religious purposes"] 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 99 

" some of them have been divided, and others reduced to a stricter 
unity of thought." The tunes are printed above the different 
pieces, and are found in Zion s Harp, a collection designed to 
accompany Village Hyjnns. 

The hymn before us was first printed without any name. It 
can safely be considered an original production, and it does honor 
to its author. 

The Rev. Asahel Nettleton was born at North Killingworth, 
Conn., April 21st, 1783. His early life was that of a farmer's 
boy, who soon (1801) had charge of the entire farm. In 1S09 he 
was graduated from Yale College, and having studied theology with 
the Rev. ]\Ir. Pinneo, of Millord, he was licensed to preach in 
iSii. Almost immediately afterward he entered upon the life 
of an evangelist, and from 1812 to 1822 he labored in Connecti- 
cut, New York, and Massachusetts. He seems to have met with 
approval from the pastors as well as from their people, and we 
hear of him twice in New Haven by the invitation of his brethren. 
An attack of typhus fever, in 1822, left him in an enfeebled con- 
dition, from which he never fully recovered, and in 1827 he went 
to Virginia for his health. Returning thence he was not long 
afterward (1830-31) engaged in revival work in New York City. 
He visited Great Britain in the latter year, and in 1833 was ap- 
pointed Professor of Pastoral Theology in the institution at East 
Windsor (now Hartford Seminary), but declined. 

INIr. Nettleton never married. His theology was distinctly Cal- 
vinistic, and his preaching was powerful, and exceedingly efiective 
in bringing his hearers to repentance and faith. Large accessions 
to the churches followed his labors. Great good sense character- 
ized his methods, and he was in some degree an opponent of the 
measures advocated by Dr. Finney, with whom he held two or three 
conferences and ])ersonal arguments. Finney encouraged women 
to pray in public, adopted the practice of praying for persons by 
name, and in other ways endeavored to make sharp distinctions 
between the saved and the lost. Nettleton, on the other hand, 
emphasized the power of the Gospel upon the conscience, rejected 
the " an.xious seat," and everything which implied a doubt of tlie 
efficacy of the divine Spirit in the conversion of the soul. He 
rested entirely on the finished work of Christ, and discredited — 
sometimes ])ublicly — any arrangements which looked toward the 



lOO ENGLISH HYMNS. 

influence of excitement, sympathy, or unworthy motives. The 
hymns in his collection are such as prove the calmness and judg- 
ment of the man who gathered them. 

He died at East Windsor, Conn., May i6th, 1844, and his life 
has been fully written by Bennet Tyler. 

Come, Holy Spirit ! calm my mind. — Stewart. 
The name of this author is John Stewart, and the date affixed to 
his composition is 1803. D. Sedgwick is the authority for these 
facts, which are all we are able to gather. 

Come, Holy Spirit, come. With, etc. — Beddome. 
It emphasizes such a hymn as this to know that its author was so 
earnest a man that he was often carried to church in his later years, 
and frequently preached sitting in a chair. His great desire was 
to die in the active work of the ministry. This was accomplished 
in his sudden decease, at the age of seventy-nine. He had com- 
posed a hymn only an hour previous to his death. 

Come, Holy Spirit, come ; Let, etc. — Hart. 

The story of Joseph Hart's life is to be found in his " experi- 
ence," prefixed to his book of hymns. He was born in London 
in the year 171 2. His parents were pious people, from whom he 
received an excellent education and a good start in life. He was, 
at first, a classical teacher, and continued in this calling for many 
years. Though he had many serious thoughts at the time of his 
early manhood, he stifled them all, and even wrote a work entitled 
The Unreasonableness of Religion. This bears the date 1741. He 
still felt qualms of conscience, and in 1757 received impressions, 
not to be shaken off, from the contemplation of Christ's suffering 
in the Garden. His hymn, " Come, all ye chosen saints of God," 
was written at this period, and afterward enlarged. At length he 
was hopefully converted while listening to a sermon preached at 
the Moravian Chapel, Fetter Lane, from Rev. 3 : 10. 

There is now before the present writer the second edition of Mr. 
Hart's hymn-book. It is " Printed for the Author, and Sold at 
his house, Hart's Warehouse (the Lamb), near Durham Yard, in 
the Strand, and at the Meeting in Jewin Street. 1762. Price, 
bound, \s. ()d." It contains one hundred and nineteen hymns, 
with a supplement of eighty-two hymns and seven doxologies. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. loi 

The twenty- seventh hymn is an autobiography. In it he con- 
fesses, " With swine a beastly hfe I led." And if we are to take 
him at all literally, he was not a fit instructor for youth, being a 
very heinous sinner indeed. The three closing stanzas are worth 
quotation : 

" Thus I, who lately had been cast, 
And feared a just but heavy Doom, 
Received a Pardon for the Past, 
A promise for the Time to come. 

" This Promise oft I call to Mind, 

As through some painful Paths I go. 
And secret Consolation find, 

And Strength to fight with every Foe. 

" And ofttimes, when the Tempter sly 
Affirms it fancied, forged or vain, 
Jesus appears, disproves the Lie, 
And kindly makes it o'er again." 

In 1759 he began, in good earnest, both to preach and to write 
hymns. Soon afterward we find him the minister of the Indepen- 
dent Chapel in Jewin Street, at the age of forty-eight. His path 
was not without its thorns, and his brother-in-law, the Rev. Mr. 
Hughes, in his funeral sermon, compared the dead pastor to 
" the laborious ox that dies with the yoke on his neck." He con- 
tinued : "So died he with the yoke of Christ on his neck, neither 
would he suffer it to be taken off ; for ye are his witnesses that he 
preached Christ to you with the arrows of death sticking in him." 
It is not an improper inference, then, that all his life he felt the 
effects of his early dissipation. 

The hymn before us is a proof that Joseph Hart believed in the 
truths of the Gospel with a deep personal sincerity. In his preface 
he speaks of his conversion in terms which show how profoundly 
he had been brought under a sense of sin. He says : 

" The Lord, by His Spirit of love, came, not in a visionary manner 
into my brain, but with such divine power and energy into my soul, that 
I was lost in blissful amazement. I cried out, ' What ! me, Lord?' His 
Spirit answered in me, ' Yes, thee ! ' The answer was, ' I pardon thee 
freely and fully ! ' The alteration I then felt in my soul was as sudden 
and palpable as that which is experienced bj- a person staggering and 
almost sinking under a burden, when it is immediately taken from his 
shoulders. Jesus Christ and him crucified is now the only thing I desire 
to know." 



I02 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

He died May 24th, 1768, aged fifty-six, and his funeral was at- 
tended by some twenty thousand persons. He was buried in 
Bunhill Fields, where his tomb can still be seen. 

This hymn is No. 4 of his hymns, in nine stanzas, and does not 
at all justify the assertion that it is based on the Vcni Sande. It is 
strictly an original production. 

Come, Holy Spirit, from above. — Stanley, tr. 

Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., dean of Westminster, is better 
known by his Eastern Church, and Jewish Church, and Sinai and 
Palestine, and Christian Institutions than by his poetry. He was 
born December 13th, 181 5, at Alderley, in Cheshire, England, 
where his father. Rev. Edward Stanley, was then rector. He died 
in London, July i8th, 1881. His scholarly and literary tastes 
were as marked as his devotion to a broad and generous religious 
faith. Upon his public and ecclesiastical services all cyclopaedias 
— notably the Schaff-Herzog — are well informed. His health, al- 
ways feeble, failed in 1881. He fell ill after lecturing on a por- 
tion of the Beatitudes, and died on the i8th of July. His life has 
been written by G. G. Bradley, London and New York, 1883. 

The present hymn is a translation of the Vetii Sancie of Her- 
mannus Contractus, for whom see " The Latin Hymn Writers 
and their Hymns." 

Come, Holy Spirit, heavenly dove. — Watts. 
In Dr. Watts's hymns this is Book II., No. 34, in five stanzas. 
Its title is, " Breathing After the Holy Spirit ; or. Fervency of 
Devotion Desired. " It was with this first line that Simon Browne's 
hymn originally began, which we now have as " Come, gracious 
Spirit, heavenly dove. ' ' 

Come, kingdom of our God. — Johns. 
There is an additional stanza of four lines, with which this hymn 
concludes, in Daivson' s Collection (1853) : 

" Come, kingdom of our God ! 
And laise thy glorious throne 
In worlds by the undying trod, 
Where God shall bless his own." 

It adds nothing to the completeness of the hymn. The author, 
Rev. John Johns (1801-47), was an English Unitarian, whose 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 103 

thirty-six hymns were contributed to Beard's Colleciion, 1837. 
This work was entirely composed of pieces by Unitarian writers. 

Come, Jesus, Redeemer, abide thou with me, — Palmer. 
The hymn was written in 1867, in New York City, and is based 
on John 14:18. It is a pleasant fact to note that this and " Away 
from earth" are the two favorite hvmns of the poet's wife — aside, 
of course, from " My faith looks up to thee." 

Come, let us join our cheerful songs. — Watts. 

This hymn was prepared to be sung at the close of a sermon 
(1709) on Rev. 5:11-13, and is entitled, "Jesus Christ, the 
Lamb of God worshipped by all the Creation." It has five 
stanzas, and is the 62d hymn of Dr. Watts's Book I. 

A sailor at the approach of death was alarmed by the prospect 
before him. He had no Bible ; no power to read one if he had 
it ; and could only remember this hymn. Even this was an im- 
perfect recollection, but, as he repeated the line, 

" Worthy the Lamb that died they cry," 
the next flashed upon his memory, 

" For he was slain for us." 
This phrase " slain for us" gave him a glimpse of salvation, re- 
vived old lessons received in the Sunday-school, and brought him 
at last to pardon and peace. 

Susanna Harrison, a poor girl at Ipswich, went out to domestic 
service at the age of sixteen. In the midst of her duties she was 
seized with a painful disease which baffled medical skill. It was 
then that she learned to believe in Christ, and it was then that she, 
too, sang songs of her own in the night. Many of her hymns, 
]\Ir. Christophers assures us, are worthy of a place among the best 
productions of our best-known hymnists. In her last hours she 
said : " I have not sung for some time. Sing with me-; it will 
not hurt me. Sing Dr. Watts's hymn, 

• How sweet and awful is the place i 

With Christ within the doors !' " 

And after this was sung she added : " Let us sing again, 

' Come, let us join our cheerful songs 
With angels round the throne.' " 

Says ]Mr. Christophers ; 



I04 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" Nobody seemed able to sing with her. Her voice was like some- 
thing more than human, and she waved her arm exultingly as she sang. 
' You do not sing with me,' she said ; ' well, I cannot forbear.' Then 
she continued nearly the whole night, warbling softly, though at times 
apparently dying. Her last night was full of song ; and, just before she 
took her upward flight, she pointed heavenward, and said : ' I cannot 
talk, but I shall soon sing there.^ " 

Mr. Christophers aptly calls these strains of music about the 
dying saint, " songs of deliverance." 

Come, let us join our friends above. — Wesley. 

Dr. Nicholas Murray (the celebrated " Kirwan" of controversial 
fame) visited Rev. Dr. Childs, of Hartford, in January, 1861. 
His host invited him to officiate in the pulpit of the Presbyterian 
Church, which he did on the 13th of January, taking as his text, 
Eph. 3 : 15, and repeating, with deep pathos, during the service 
the stanzas : " One family we dwell in him," and " One army of 
the living God." " Vvlio of us," says Dr. Childs, " supposed that 
his feet were even then touching the dark waters — that our next 
message from him would be that he had ' crossed the flood.' " 

The hymn before us is taken from C. Wesley's Funeral Hymns ^ 
2d series, 1759. Those lines, " One family we dwell in him," 
and "Part of the host have crossed the flood" are classic in 
Christian hymnody. Rev. Thomas K. Beecher, of Elmira, N. Y., 
has written a ver}' brilliant and suggestive article, which was printed 
and reprinted in the New York Independent, by way of describing 
his experience with a certain colored preacher in his neighborhood. 
As the conclusion of a stirring address, v/hich made Mr. B. quite 
ashamed of his own colder and less emotional remarks, he gave 
out this hymn with telling effect. 

So, too, this was a hymn to which IMr. Nettleton, the evangel- 
ist, often recurred during his last illness, and of which he always 
spoke with the deepest affection. 

Come, let us join our songs of praise. — Pirie. 
Alexander Pirie' s hymn is found in the Glasgow Baptist Collec- 
tion, as early as 1786. Its use in American collections dates from 
Dr. N. S. S. Beman's two books. Sacred Lyrics, 1841, and their 
revision, the Christian Psalmist, 1843. In this, as in some other 
matters. Dr. Beman was a true pioneer in American hymnody. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. I05 

Nettleton, Hastings, Leavitt, Beman and Robinson have done 
more for current collections in the way of introducing new hymns 
than any other compilers. Honorable mention, too, must be 
made of S. Longfellow and S. Johnson, whose Hymns of the Spirit 
have given seme excellent things to later works. On glancing at 
this hymn the thought of the present writer is instantly carried 
back to a quiet Presbyterian church in Philadelphia. He sees 
himself sitting where the afternoon service is in progress. The 
Quaker simplicity of the colors of wall and carpet and cushion 
harmonize with the stillness and peace of God's house. And now 
he hears the opening hymn, and reads its words — these very words. 
Henceforth, through all his worship in pew or in pulpit, appears 
that glorious figure, our High Priest, bearing our names as the 
tribes and families of his Israel, " engraven on his breast." It 
was a vision of glory to the boy that was never forgotten. 

The history of the writer of the verses is no less remarkable than 
the story of the acceptance of his hymn. He was a Scotchman, 
educated for the ministry in connection with the Antiburgher Synod 
of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and was appointed, in 
1760, to succeed Rev. John !Mason as Teacher of the Philosophi- 
cal Class in the Theological Seminary, New York City. Mr. 
Mason w-as then pastor of the (Associate Reformed) Scotch Church 
in Cedar Street. In 1762 Mr. Pirie came out to Mr. Mason's 
assistance — this John r^Iason being the father of Dr. John M. 
Mason (whose great sermon, Messiah's Throne, is classic in Ameri- 
can homiletics) and grandfather of Dr. Erskine INIason. 

Mr. Pirie arrived at New York about the year 1762, and shortly 
afterward incurred the displeasure of his denomination. He was 
charged (in August, 1763) with " laxity of doctrine ;" his license 
as a probationer was revoked ; and, after being rebuked at the bar 
of Synod, he was formally excommunicated from the Church. So 
dreadful a punishment would augur a decided divergence in point 
of belief, but when w-e remember the rigidity of the " Secession 
Church" we naturally incline to a charitable judgment. Historj' 
shows that, in 1732, some forty ministers presented an address to 
the General Assembly of the Scotch Presbyterian Church, specify- 
ing grievances and departures from the constitution. The As- 
sembly refused this and also a similar petition, signed by elders 
and church members. They then enacted that the election of 



Io6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

ministers to vacant charges — a subject under complaint — should 
be competent only " to a conjunct meeting ot elders and heritors, 
being Protestants. ' ' Now a ' ' heritor' ' was a landowner, and, as it 
appeared that not more than one in thirty of the church members 
in every parish had landed property, the objection was again raised 
that many persons had no voice in the selection of a pastor. 
Against this deliverance of the Assembly of 1732 Mr. Ebenezer 
Erskine, of Stirling, was one of the first to protest. As Moderator 
of the Synod of Perth-and-Stirling, he opened the session with a 
sermon from Ps. 118 : 22, which excited so warm a debate in the 
Synod that that body, by a majority of six, found him censurable. 
He took an appeal to the Assembly of 1733 which sustained the 
Synod, and ordered him to be publicly rebuked from the chair of 
the Assembly. Hereupon, Mr. Erskine "protested" that, as he 
had been openly censured and rebuked for doing what he held to 
be " agreeable to the Word of God," he should consider himself 
at liberty to preach the same truths on any suitable occasion. 
Three other ministers, namely, William Wilson, of Perth, Alex- 
ander Moncrief, of Abernethy, and James Eisher, of Kinclaven, 
joined with him in this protest. The Assembly, of which they 
were members, cited them to answer for their views the very next 
day. A committee was appointed, and retired with them to per- 
suade them to withdraw their protest. This failing, they were 
ordered to appear the following August before this Commission, 
and retract their views. Should they still adhere to their position, 
they were to be suspended from the ministry. 

They did adhere ; they were suspended ; and in November the 
Commission again had their cases in hand. Certain synods and 
presbyteries sent letters to the Commission, advising tenderness ; 
but that body authoritatively cut them off and dissolved their pas- 
torates. On this the exscinded brethren declared a " secession." 
The names of Ralph Erskine, James Wardlaw, and others, appear 
in a protest against the committee's action, but this remonstrance 
was unavailing. In 1734 the Assembly modified their action a 
little, and allowed the Synod of Perth-and-Stirling to " fellowship" 
these ministers. 

The seceders now formed an " Associated Presbytery," and 
published their Ad, Declaration and Testimony as its basis. These 
ministers consequently — being eight in number — were cited for 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 1 07 

libel in 1739 ; and, appearing as a Presbytery before the AssembI}', 
they decHned its authority and withdrew in a body. 

The seceders themselves became divided at a later period on the 
Burghers', or Burgesses', oath, which was in force in certain royal 
boroughs of Scotland. It reads : " I profess and allow with my 
heart the true religion presently professed within this realm, and 
authorized by the laws thereof. I will abide at and defend the 
same to my life's end, renouncing the Romish religion, called 
Papistry. " To Ebenezerand Ralph Erskine, and to James Fisher, 
with some others, this was not objectionable. To Alexander 
Moncrief, Thomas Mair, James Gib, and others, it was decidedly 
obnoxious. Thus the Erskines headed the Burgher Seceders, and 
the others were called Aniiburghers. Each claimed to be the 
true succession to the " Associate Synod." 

This is as far into the history as it is needful for us to go. 
Pirie, being ejected by the Aniiburghers, went to the Burghers, 
having received a call from the church at Abernethy. But here 
also he was in trouble with his Presbytery, and was again suspended 
from the ministry. He now seceded altogether from the Secession 
Church. In 1769 he gave his reasons in a pamphlet, and con- 
nected himself with the Independents. He became the laborious 
and useful pastor of a congregation at Newburgh, Fifeshire, and 
died in 1804. 

Perhaps some clue can be found to his opinions in the fact that 
he published 2i Dissertation on Baptism (1790), and that in other 
writings he showed himself an " acute millenarian." He was an 
excellent student of the prophecies, and of the Hebrew language. 

The hymn before us is a proof of his close adherence to the 
truths and traditions of the Hebrew Scriptures. It is Josephus who 
affords us the quotation, and those who would look further may 
profitably compare The Bible Educator (II. 349). 

The language of Josephus is as follows : 

" There were also two sardonyxes upon the ephod, at the shoulders, to 
fasten it, in the nature of buttons, having each end running to the sar- 
donyxes of gold, that they might be buttoned by them. On these were 
engraven the names of the sons of Jacob, in our own country letters, and 
in our own tongue, six on each of the stones, on either side ; and the 
elder sons' names were on the right shoulder. Twelve stones also were 
there upon the breastplate, extraordinary in largeness and beauty ; and 
they were an ornament not to be purchased by men, because of their im- 



io8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

inense value. . . . The names of all those sons of Jacob were engraven 
in these stones, whom we esteem the heads of our tribes, each stone hav- 
ing the honor of a name in the order according to which they were born." 
{Ant. III. 7, § 5.) 

Come, let us lift our joyful eyes. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts' s hymns contain this piece as Book 11. , No. 108, 
"Access to the Throne of Grace by a Mediator." It has six 
stanzas. 

Come, let us sing the song of songs. — Montgomery. 
This hymn is in James Montgomery's Original Hymns, No. 89, 
where it has the title, " The Song of Songs." There are seven 
stanzas, and the date is 1853. 

Come, my soul, thou must be waking. — Buckoll, /r. 

This and other translations were made from the German lyrics 
in Bunsen's Gesang und Gebdbuch, by Henry James Buckoll. 
He was graduated at Queen's College, Oxford, 1826. He died 
in 1 87 1, an assistant master at Rugby School. The translation 
was published in the British Magaziiie for July, 1838, and is from 
the hymn of Baron von Canitz : " Seek du Muszt viiinter wer- 
deny Of the original hymns of Buckoll almost nothing is known 
to the American public. Some of his compositions are to be 
found in the collections used at Eton and Harrow Schools, and in 
the Marylebone collection of Rev. J. H. Gurney. As Dr. Thomas 
Arnold was at one time the editor of the British Magazine, this 
hymn has often, but inaccurately, been referred to his pen. 

The author of the German hymn, Friedrich Rudolph Ludwig, 
Freiherr von Canitz, was born in Berlin, November 27th, 1654, 
and he died as Staatsrath (State Councillor), August nth, 1699. 
His poetry is principally lyrical,, and was not published — at least, 
his hymns were not — until 1727. This translation, as lately as 
1873, was marked ^^ Anon. 1838." 

Some other particulars relating to Von Canitz are worthy of pres- 
ervation in connection with his hymn. He married, 1681, the 
half-sister of that Baron von Canstein who, with Franke, estab- 
lished the Bible Society at Halle. He was highly valued as a 
diplomat, and regarded as an " ornam.ent of the aristocracy." In 
1695, when his estate of Blumberg was ravaged by fire, he merely 
said: "I shall build the poor people's cottages again." His 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 109 

wife died, April 9th, 1695, in hope and peace, and named to him, 
as her successor, a lady to whom he was united December 29th, 
1697. He was a friend of the pious Spener, and when, in 1699, 
his health failed, he retired into calmness and meditation, severing 
his relations with the busy world. 

On the nth day of August, 1699, in the early morning, being 
then very low with dropsy, he asked to be supported to the win- 
dow. The air was balmy and sweet, and the sun was just rising. 
Gazing upon it, he exclaimed : " Oh, if the sight of this created 
sun is so charming and beautiful, what will be the sight of the un- 
speakable glory of the Creator himself !" The thought overpow- 
ered him ; he suddenly fell back, and breathed his last. 

Come, Lord, and tarry not — Bonar. 

There are fourteen stanzas to this hymn, which is taken from 
Hymns of Faith a7id Hope (ist series). It also bears the motto, 
*' ' Sennit mundus.' — Augustine.'" 

This conviction that the affairs of earth are maturing is as deep 
with the hymn-writers as with the theologians. " All things ripen, 
and righteousness also." 

Come, my soul, thy suit prepare. — Newtox. 
This is another of Rev. John Newton's contributions to the 
Olney Hymns. It is No. 31 of Book I. There it has seven 
stanzas, and is founded upon i Kings 3:5. It owes something 
of the modern revival of its popularity to the use Rev. C. H. 
Spurgeon has been making of it in divine service. It is said he 
was long accustomed to have one or more stanzas of it softly 
chanted just before the principal prayer. In this way many addi- 
tional thousands of people became familiar with its words, and 
so learned to love it. 

Come, O Creator Spirit, blest. — Caswall, /;■. 
In this piece we get a version from the Veni Creator of Rabanus 
I\Iaurus. For the original hymn and its history' see " The Latin 
Hymn Writers and their Hymns." 

Come, O my soul ! in sacred lays. — Blacklock. 

The author of the present hymn (whose date is 1754) is Rev. 
Thomas Blacklock, a man whose history is at once pathetic and 
stimulating. His father was an English bricklayer, and his mother 



I TO ENGLISH HYMNS. 

was of the same nationality ; but he himself was born at Annan, 
in Scotland, November loth, 1721. His afflictions began with 
his loss of sight through small-pox at the early age of six months. 
The remainder of his life was spent in total blindness. This fact 
furnishes a touching commentary on the second stanza of the 
hymn before us. 

In spite of the combined disadvantages of poverty, and the loss 
of vision, the child showed an energy in the pursuit of knowledge 
which ultimately made him an excellent scholar, and gave him 
merited distinction in literature. Dr. Stevenson, of Edinburgh, 
furnished him with the means of prosecuting his education, which 
was carried on for ten years, and until he had been graduated 
with honor at the university. He then entered upon the study 
of theology, and was licensed to preach, in the year 1759, by the 
Established Presbytery of Dumfries. In 1 760 a Crown appoint- 
ment was tendered to him through the Earl of Stirling, and he 
assumed the care of the congregation at Kirkcudbright. 

Once more that which should have been a reason for pity and 
charity became a cause of difficulty and obstruction. For the 
people of his charge, resenting his lack of sight, and not appreci- 
ating his wonderful attainments, made him as uncomfortable as 
they could for the space of two years. They had, indeed, objected 
to his settlement Wiien he was first brought to them, and they be- 
came more inveterate as time went on, as is the manner of small- 
minded and prejudiced folk. The case was taken to the Presby- 
tery of Kirkcudbright, thence to the Synod of Galloway, and thence 
again to the General Assembly of 1761. By the order of this last- 
mentioned judicatory he was installed ; but that did not relieve 
the matter, and in two years' time the parish rebelled and forced 
his retirement. 

Dr. Blacklock then went to reside in Edinburgh, where, with 
his wife's help, he opened a boarding and day school, which had 
a fair patronage. He also possessed a small annuity ; and thus 
he lived for many years with some share of happiness and compe- 
tence. During this period he acquired the French and Italian 
languages in addition to the ancient tongues, and grew in reputa- 
tion as a scholar and literary man. The University of Aberdeen 
gracefi "ly recognized this fact by giving to him, in 1766, the hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of Divinity. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. Ill 

There was, however, another Hne of hterary labor in which Dr. 
Blacklock gained distinction. As early as 1745, and again in 
1754, he had appeared as a poet, and with very flattering results. 
In 1756, Rev. Joseph Spence, the Professor of Poetry at Oxford, 
wrote an introduction to the quarto edition in which Blacklock's 
poems were reissued. And from this date, the recognition which 
he obtained surpasses that of most of our best poets. Edmund 
Burke, in his Sublime and Beautiful, and Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
as reported by Boswell, unite lo do him honor. It seems to have 
peculiarly impressed all his critics that this blind man excelled in 
accurate descriptions of a world of nature on which he had never 
consciously gazed. But it should not be forgotten that such a 
case is within the limits of several parallels. It was Francis Ed- 
ward Smedley (1819-64) who, although a cripple, and utterly 
ignorant of the personal experience of such a scene, wrote one of 
the best descriptions of a Derby Day which we can meet in English 
literature. It was Beethoven who conducted his orchestra to per- 
fect success when he was too deaf to hear the plaudits of the audi- 
ence, and needed some one to turn him about that he might 
acknowledge them at the proper time. And, not to multiply ex- 
amples, the late venerable Lyman Coleman, D. D., had seen his 
Biblical Geography an accepted text-book long before he had set 
foot in the Holy Land. To this last fact we may add the singular 
incident that Dr. Coleman finally took his own volume as his hand- 
book through the country, which he had correctly described with- 
out having seen ! 

Dr. Blacklock's achievement was therefore not unparalleled, 
though it is certainly amazing. Scotchmen remember him by his 
song, "The Braes o' Ballenden, " and the list of his other pro- 
ductions is extensive and valuable. In the original edition of the 
Eticyclopccdia Britamiica he is the author of the paper on the edu- 
cation of the blind. 

The poet has left us his own portrait in verse : 

" Straight is my person, but of little size, 

Lean are my cheeks, and hollow are my eyes ; 
My youthful down is, like my talent, rare, 
Politely distant stands each single hair. 
My voice too rough to charm a lady's ear, 
So smooth a child may listen without fear ; 



112 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Not formed in cadence soft and warbling lays, 

To soothe the fair through pleasure's wanton ways. 

My form so fine, so regular, so new, 

My port so manly, and so fresh my hue ; 

Oft, as I meet the crowd, they laughing say, 

' See, see Memento Mori cross the way ! ' " 

There is nothing great or grand in the worthy doctor's poetry, 
but, when his disadvantages are considered, he is to be regarded 
with respect, and the present hymn, in the opinion of a good 
critic, is estimated as " ambitious, and somewhat subhme. " 

Dr. Blacklock died in Edinburgh, July yth, 1791, of a nervous 
fever. 

Come, pure hearts, in sweetest measure. — R. Campbell, tr. 
This hymn is a free translation of the '' Jiiciindare plebs fidelis," 
which was written by Adam of St. Victor for the festival of the 
Holy Evangelists. Many of Mr. Campbell's translations are in 
Orby Shipley's Annus Sanctus, 1884. He has not scrupled to 
* ' make the freest use of the previous labors of others. ' ' 

Come, sacred Spirit from above. — Doddridge. 
This hymn is Dr. Doddridge's " Hear, gracious Sovereign, from 
thy throne," with the irrelevant first and last stanzas omitted. It 
has affixed to it the text Ezek. 36 : 37. The hymn has been de- 
cidedly improved by dropping these stanzas, neither of which add 
any dignity or force to its truly devout aspiration. The date 's 
1740. 

Come, see the place where Jesus lay. — Kelly. 

This hymn begins " He's gone ! see where his body lay," and 
is in the 3d edition (1809) of Kelly's hymns. It is based on 
Matt. 28 : 6, and has six stanzas. It was re-written into this form 
(1861) for Hymns, Ancient and Modern.^ where it is No. 116. In 
Hutchins's Anjioiations to the Hymnal the original is given in six 
stanzas. It is also found in i?^j"//rjo'?'/, p. 216. 

The catholicity of hymns has a fine illustration in this one. 
Kelly was so strong against the Church of England in his sermons 
at Dublin that the archbishop forbade his preaching, and he 
seceded altogether from that Communion. Hymns, Ancimt and 
Modern, on the other hand, represents the strictly High Church 
side. The hymn has made its place by virtue of its Christianity. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 113 

Come, sound his praise abroad. — Watts. 
This is Ps. 95, S. M., " A Psalm before Sermon," and has 
six stanzas. The last two are rather minatory and are usually 
omitted. There is a German hymn by John Mentzer, " dass 
ich tausend Zungen hdt/e" (" Oh, that I had a thousand 
tongues!"), which expresses this same idea of praise. It was 
written in 1704, just after a fire had destroyed all that its author 
possessed. It is almost the prototype of " Oh, for a thousand 
tongues to sing !" There is also a suggestive story of Schlipalius, 
a Dresden preacher, about 1 74 5, who used to say to his family, 
" Children, accustom yourselves to God's praise, for that will be 
our chief occupation throughout eternity. Bui here we must make 
the beginning. ' ' 

Come, Spirit, source of light. — Beddome, altered. 

This is a hymn which is altered from " Come, blessed Spirit ! 
source of light !" by some unknown and temerarious hand ! 

Come, thou Almighty King. — C. Wesley. (?) 
There seems to be some doubt about this authorship. The 
hymn is not in John Wesley's Coi/ection, 1779. In the majority 
of hymn-books it is entered as the production of Charles Wesley, 
but the facts are, at least, worth stating. It appeared about nine- 
teen years subsequently to the British national song, " God save 
the king," which was originally published in the Gent/eman's 
Magazine, in 1745. It is found in the collection prepared by 
Rev. Spencer Madan, 3d edition, 1763. In this it is adapted to 
the same tune as " God save the King." George Whitefield 
placed it in his own Collection, and this appears to be its earliest 
publication for general use. He made this when chaplain to Lady 
Huntingdon, 1748-9, and it cannot have undergone much change, 
for it retains this designation of him in its 1 8th edition, 1773, 
where this hymn is called, " A Hymn to the Trinity." 

The late D. Sedgwick, on the strength of a half-penny leaflet, 
printed in 1757, and containing this hymn, with two others by 
Charles Wesley, but bearing no author's name, assigned it to 
Charles Wesley. Other authorities mark it doubtful or exclude it 
altogether. The metre in which the hymn is written is unique 
among Wesley's verses, and ]Mr. Sedgwick has damaged his abso- 
lute authority on such points by his error in respect to the proper 



114 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

designation of "Come, thou Fount of every blessing," Conse- 
quently, it is by no means certain that this piece is the work of 
Charles Wesley. On the evidence before us we can only query 
it, and let it pass. 

During the Revolutionary War, and while the British had pos- 
session of Long Island, a body of troops invaded a place of wor- 
ship one Sunday morning, and insisted that the congregation 
should sing " God save the King." In reply the people did sing, 
but it was another set of words to the same tune : 

" Come, thou almighty King, 
Help us thy name to sing, 

Help us to praise ; 
Father all-glorious, 
O'er all victorious, 
Come and reign over us, 
Ancient of days." 

The tune, " God save the King," has been much disputed. It 
is now usually entered as an amendment by Henry Carey (1696- 
1743), from Dr. John Bull, who died in 1622. Carey died in 
1743, and he is said to have composed the words, and adapted 
the music, in honor of George II., about three years previously 
(1740). The tune was first published in 1742. The French, on 
the other hand, claim the tune as found at St. Cyr by Handel, in 
1 72 1. The words also, " Grand Dieu, sauvez le Roi," they assert 
were composed by Madame de Brinon, the Mother Superior. It 
is further stated that the original music was by Lulli, and that 
three hundred young ladies sang the piece before Louis XIV. at 
St, Cyr, Mr. J. Cotter Morison, in a recent work, favors this 
origin for words and tune. 

Come, thou Desire of all thy saints, — Steele. 

This hymn was published in Miss Steele's Poems by Theodosia, 
1760. It has seven stanzas. Dr. C. Evans, of Bristol, intro- 
duced many of the hymns to public notice in his Collection. 
These are signed " T." 

The temptation which comes to all of God's children, soon or 
late, to distrust his love, to mingle "complaints" with "praises," 
and to wish that he had made matters other than they are, is hap- 
pily illustrated by a story which Rabbi Akiba told to his disciples. 
" A fox," said he, " was walking by the side of a river in which 



ENGLISH HYMNS. I15 

the fish, in great agitation, were hurrying to and fro. ' Why are 
you hurrying ? ' he asked. ' We fear the nets of the angler, ' they 
replied. ' Then come svith me,' said the fox, ' and live on the 
dry land.' But the fishes only laughed. ' Thou art thought to 
be the wisest of beasts, ' they exclaimed, ' and yet thou art the 
most foolish. If we are in danger in our own element, how much 
more do we risk in leaving it ! ' " 

Come, thou everlasting Spirit. — C. Wesley. 
Charles Wesley has this as No. 16 of his Hymns on the Lord's 
Supper, with the title, "A Memorial of the Death of Christ." 
This is not the same hymn as " Come, thou everlasting Lord." 

Come, thou everlasting Lord. — C. Wesley. 

Charles Wesley's Hymns for a Family have a peculiar charm, 
and they all seem to date from the hymn, " Come, thou everlasting 
Lord." Wesley had remained single for nearly forty years. He 
then met a young lady in Wales who interested him greatly, and 
after much pondering and consultation and hymn-writing, he pro- 
posed, was accepted, and was married, "Saturday, April 8th, 
1749." From the experiences of that wedding-day and that mar- 
riage these hymns came, and they will be more and more remark- 
able for their perfect fitness to the vicissitudes of family life, as they 
are studied with this fact in view. 

The bridegroom's own experience can be best given in his own 
language : 

" Not a cloud was to be seen from morning till night. I rose at four ; 
spent three hours and a half in prayer, or singing, with my brother, with 
Sally, with Beck. At eight, I led My Sally to church. Her father, sis- 
ters, Lady Rudd, Grace Bowen, Betty Williams, and, I think, Billy 
Tucker, and Mr. James were all the persons present. At the church-door 
I thought of the prophecy of a jealous friend, * that if we were even at 
the church-door to be married, she was sure, by revelation, that we could 
get no farther.' We both smiled at the remembrance. We got farther. 
Mr. Gwynne gave her to me (under God) ; my brother joined our hands. 
It was a most solemn season of love ! Never had I more of the Divine 
Presence at the sacrament. My brother gave out the following hymn : 
' Come, thou everlasting Lord,' etc. He then prayed over us in strong 
faith. We walked back to the house, and joined again in prayer. Prayer 
and thanksgiving was our whole employment. We were cheerful without 
mirth, serious without sadness. . . . My brother seemed the happiest 
person among us." 



Il6 ENGLISH HYMNS. ' 

Not many men are married to the music of their own hymn as 
Charles Wesley was. Nor are there many weddmgs of such a 
religious and reverential cast. Says Henry Vaughan : 

" Praying ! and to be married ! It was rare, 
But now 'tis monstrous ; and that pious care, 
Though of ourselves, is so much out of date 
That to renew't were to degenerate." 

Yet Charles Wesley did not " degenerate" when he chose to 
' ' renew' t. ' ' 

Come, thou Fount of every blessing. — Robert Robinson. 

There are notes on this hymn in Notes and Queries, volume for 
July-December, 1858, pp. 54, 116, 129, 198, 259, 420, 484, 
530. Many points of interest are there discussed at large, and can 
be examined at leisure. The controversy, carried on in those col- 
umns, and in the notes to Lyra Britannica and elsewhere, related 
especially to the claim of Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, to the 
authorship of the hymn. It was attributed to her by Mr. Daniel 
Sedgwick, who professed to have possession of a manuscript in 
which her friend, Diana (Vandeleur) Bindon, assigned it to her. 
Mr. Sedgwick declared that the handwriting was of a more ancient 
st3'le than that in use when Robinson wrote his hymn. Further, 
this manuscript is bound up with Wesley's hymns of the Dublin 
edition of 1747, and the name of Mrs. Bindon is written on the 
title-page as "Diana Bindon, 1759." O^ ^^ cover is pasted a 
ticket of membership in a Wesleyan society, of the presumed date 
of 1763. 

Canvassing this evidence Mr. Miller asserts that the date thus 
claimed does not necessarily go back of 1758, which in itself is 
not destructive of Robinson's authorship. Mr. Robinson, more- 
over, when giving a catalogue of his writings up to 1781, positively 
includes this among them, stating that " Mr. Wheatley, of Nor- 
wich, published a hymn, beginning, ' Come, thou Fount of every 
blessing,' since reprinted in the hymn-books of Messrs. Madan. 
Wesley, Gifford, and others, etc." (1758). At that time, too, 
Mr. Robinson lived near Norwich. 

In short, the evidence appears conclusive that any other claim 
than Robert Robinson's will not stand. We only know him as the 
author of two hymns, this and the Christmas hymn, " Mighty 



ENGLISH HYMNS. I17 

God, while angels bless thee." Mr. INIiller and Dr. Rogers have 
been at great pains to establish the facts, and they may be re- 
garded as fixed henceforward. A certain confusion arose, indeed, 
from a letter by Robinson, dated December 3d, 1766, in which 
he speaks of his "II hymns which ]\Ir. Whitefield printed." 
Once it was thought that this numeral stood for " eleven" instead 
of " two," and the lost lyrics were assiduously, and, of course, 
unsuccessfully, sought. 

Among those who add testimony to the truth of this opinion as 
to the authorship of the hymn is Rev. Dr. Joseph Belcher, whose 
Historical Sketches of Hymns were prepared in Philadelphia 
about 1858, and whose care and accuracy were well known to 
those — of whom the present writer was one — who encountered him 
in his researches. He relates that in the latter part of his life IMr. 
Robinson was somewhat frivolous in his conduct, and unspiritual 
in his ideas, and that, travelling in a stage-coach, he encountered 
a lady who compelled him to admit his acquaintance with religion. 
Do what he would he could not divert her from the topic. He 
became much agitated, but not being dressed in a conventionally 
clerical costume, she did not suspect that he was a minister. 
Finally she quoted to him this, his own hymn, and spoke of the 
blessings that it had brought to her heart. Agitated beyond the 
power to control his emotion, Robinson broke out, " Madam, I 
am the poor unhappy man who composed that hymn, many years 
ago, and I would give a thousand worlds, if I had them, to enjoy 
the feelings I then had." This was told to Dr. Belcher by one 
of the descendants of the parties in question — but whether a rela- 
tive of Mr. Robinson, or of the lady, he does not say — in the 
neighborhood of 1838. 

Let it be noted that this is not the same hymn as that begin- 
ning, " Hail, thou source of every blessing !" which was written 
in 1799 by the Rev. Basil Woodd, of Portland Chapel, Maryle- 
bone. The only resemblance is in the first line of each. 

Come, thou soul-transforming Spirit. — Evans. 

This hymn is the composition of a very remarkable man. Rev. 
Jonathan Evans was born at Coventry, in England, 1749. Until 
he came of age, he was an employe in a ribbon factory ; he had 
received no religious instruction, and was associated with the de- 



ii8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

graded and the profligate. In 1776 he was deeply convicted of 
sin, and after his conversion became a very different person. When 
he had united with the church of Rev. George Burder, or, rather, 
with that West Orchard Street chapel of which Burder became 
pastor in 1783, he was found to be a most active and tireless 
Christian worker. Although, in one sense, a business man all his 
days, he soon began to preach, and was presently known as a lay 
evangelist of gifts and spirituality. It was he who preached in the 
afternoon of the day on which Mr. Burder was installed. He was 
also in the habit of gathering the neglected children at Foleshill, 
near Coventry, as Robert Raikes was doing at Gloucester, for 
purposes of instruction. 

It was in 1784 that he fitted up his historic " boat-house " on 
the canal-bank, as a place of worship. This grew into a chapel 
in 1797, and on the 4th of April, 1797, Mr. Evans was publicly 
ordained to the pastorate of that organization, which was the result 
of his most indefatigable labors. To these people he continued 
to minister with great success and spiritual power until his death, 
which occurred suddenly on the 31st of August, 1809. 

It is related of him that he was quite a doctor, too, and was in 
the habit of helping the physical as well as the mental infirmities 
of his flock. He began to produce poetical compositions very 
early, and published some in the Gospel Magazine for Februar}' 
and October, 1777. Three of his hymns are found in Burder's 
Collection, 1784, and twenty-two appeared in the Christian Maga- 
zine, 1790-93. Dr. Belcher says he left many others in manu- 
script. The present hymn is derived from Dr. Rippon's Collec- 
tion, 1787. Mr. Evans's biography, by Rev. John Styles, D. D,, 
his successor at Foleshill, is in the Evangelical Magaziiie for 
March, 1847. 

Come, thou long-expected Jesus. — C. Wesley. 

From the Nativity Hymns (1744). Two stanzas comprise the 
entire hymn. It is a notable piece, but has only of late years ob- 
tained its true rank in the collections. 

Come, thou who dost the soul endue. — Caswall, tr. 
This hymn does not appear in Caswall 's collected Hynvts and 
Poems, 1873. It is credited to him, however, in Novello's 
Hymnaiy, 2d ed., 1872, where he is thanked in the preface for 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 119 

allowing, with others, the " free use of their translations and 
hymns." The date is, consequently, c. 1871. 

Come to Calvary's holy mountain, — Montgomery. 
In the Original Hymns of James Montgomery this is Hymn 
57, "A Fountain opened for Sin and Uncleanness." It has four 
stanzas, and the date is taken from its appearance in the Christian 
Psalmist, 1825. 

Come unto me, ye weary. — W. C. Dix. 
Rev. James King, in compiling \i\'s, A7iglican Hymfiology^ 1885, 
has given this hymn a place among the " Standard Hymns of the 
Future," as indicated by the preferences expressed in current 
hymnals. The date is 1S64, and thirteen out of the fifty-two 
English collections which he examines include it. 

Come, we who love the Lord. — Watts. 

This is No. 30 of Dr. Watts' s Book II. There it has ten 
stanzas, and is entitled, " Heavenly Joy on Earth." In the sec- 
ond stanza the author wrote the line, " But fav'rites of the heav- 
enly King. ' ' With a very finical taste for so-called restoration, 
some of the modern collections have expunged the excellent emen- 
dation, children, and replaced the awkward fav'rites. 

There was once a difficulty in Rev. Dr. Samuel West's congre- 
gation in the old New England times. The choir had declined 
to proceed with the music. So the shrewd clergyman introduced 
the services with this hymn. Having read it slowly through, he 
looked significantly up at the performers in the gallery, and said : 
" Please commence at the second verse." It is needless to men- 
tion that the choir went on as usual, and sang with the rest : 

" Let those refuse to sing 
Who never knew our God." 

This was a better method than one pursued by a clergyman in 
America, who shall remain nameless, and who said to the choir in 
high dudgeon : " If the angels in heaven could hear you singing, 
they would come down and wring all your little necks !" It was 
in the early part of the present century. Had it been in these 
degenerate times he would scarcely have dared to free his soul in 
so bold a fashion. 

Rev. Andrew Kinsman met a young clergyman with Rev. 



I20 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

George Whitefield, at the Tabernacle-house, just before White- 
field's departure for America. There was after dinner a tremen- 
dous storm of thunder and lightning, Mr. Kinsman, supposing 
the clergyman "to be a serious person," put his hand on his 
shoulder, and quoted a stanza of this hymn, which is not in our 
later collections : 

" The God that reigns on high, 
And thunders when he please. 
That rides upon the stormy sky 
And manages the seas," 

ending with the next stanza, 

" This awful God is ours, 
Our Father and our Love." 

It resulted in the conversion of his companion. 

Come, ye thankful people, come. — Alford. 

These verses were written in the year 1844, as a hymn for 
"After Harvest." The author is Dean Henry Alford, who was 
born in London, October 7th, 18 10. His education was received 
at Ilminster Grammar School, Somerset, and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Here he took high honors, and in 1834 became a 
Fellow. His career has been that of a scholar and ecclesiastical 
writer. His Greek Testament with notes, and his beautiful " Re- 
vision" of the English version, are permanent testimony to his 
taste and research. He was the editor of the Contemporary Re- 
view, and prepared, in 1867, a hymnal in which fifty-five out of 
the whole number of hymns are his own. 

From 1853 to 1857 he preached in the Quebec Street Chapel, 
London, printing these eloquent sermons in 1854 and 1855. In 
1857 he succeeded Dean Lyall, of Canterbury. His poems ap- 
peared in a fourth edition, in 1865. He died at Canterbury, on 
the 1 2th of January, 1871. 

An incident in connection with Dr. Alford's catholicity of feel- 
ing may not be out of place here. He was in the South of Eng- 
land, and took occasion to attend worship in a small chapel where 
the person who preached the sermon was a woman. She held 
forth in language which has been reported to less emancipated 
Christians as follows : " Some men tell us they are the only au- 
thorized dealers in truth, when they themselves have never under- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 121 

Stood it ; they sing their prayers and chant their psahiis, while 
they have no more of the spirit of either than the organs in their 
steeple-houses." 

It is not unexpected for us to read that the stranger, who was the 
dean himself, was amused, and that he told his friends about the 
circumstance. But whether he received it as a moral lesson may 
be safely considered an unsettled point. 

Come, ye disconsolate, where'er ye languish. — Moore. 

It is something of a surprise for us to find that the Sacred 
Songs, 1816, of Byron's friend, Thomas Moore, number not 
less than thirty-two. And it is an additional surprise when we 
see that there is nothing of godliness that made any noticeable 
mark on the author's life and character. 

He was born in Dublin, May 28th, 1779. His personal history 
is in any work on English literature, and therefore needs no further 
notice except that he died at Sloperton Cottage, in Wiltshire, Feb- 
ruary 26th, 1852, in his seventy-third year. One of the best brief 
biographies of him is in Howitt's Homes of the Poets. 

" Tom Moore" is an unequalled song-writer, and these sacred 
pieces have a fervor which would lead us to augur well for the soul 
behind them. Lyra Hiberniea Sacra contains seven of them, and 
even then does not include this. But no one can read " Thou 
art, O God, the life and light," or " The bird let loose in eastern 
skies," or "O thou! who dry' st the mourner's tear," without 
becoming convinced that the poet of the L'ish Melodies was also a 
poet of the Church. Moore's prose was as smooth as his verse, 
and The Epicurean, and the lives of Sheridan, Byron, Fitzgerald, 
and Lord John Russell evince his industry. His latest years were 
passed under the cloud of mental infirmity, and perhaps, if we ex- 
amine his " Travels of an Irish Gentleman in Search of a Re- 
ligion," we shall have reason to be somewhat charitable toward 
his apparent lack of faith. 

Come, ye that know and fear the Lord. — Burder, 
This was a hymn of nine stanzas, prepared by Rev. George 
Burder, after his settlement at Coventry, and published in his 
Collection, in 1784. It is one of the three hymns of the first 
edition of that book, which are credited to him. 

The others are : " Great the joy when Christians meet " [Some- 



122 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

times written, " Sweet the time," etc.], and, " Come, dear Desire 
of nations ! come. ' ' 

Complete in thee, no work of mine. — Wolfe. 

The Rev. Aaron Robarts Wolfe, of Montclair, N. J., is a clergy- 
man of the Presbyterian Church. Modest, and even sensitive, as 
he has always been regarding any personal history of himself and 
his hymns, he has been good enough to remove somewhat of this 
restriction in recent letters to Professor Bird, and to the present 
writer. In reply to certain questions, called forth by an imperfect 
sketch which this last inquirer had diligently ferreted out, Mr, 
Wolfe says : 

" I was indeed bom in 182 1, September 26th, at Mendham, 
N. J., and was baptized by Philip C. Hay, just after he succeeded 
Samuel Hanson Cox in the pastorate at that place. 

Mr. Wolfe was graduated at Williams College with the class of 
1844, for whose fortieth reunion (July ist, 1884) he wrote a very 
pleasant litde poem. This has one stanza, at least, with the real 
hymn-movement to it : 

" The world lies backward to our gaze, 
The future close at hand, 
The hoary heads now catch the rays 
That gild the better land." 

From Williams College our author turned to the Union Theologi- 
cal Seminary, where he remained until the completion of his 
studies, in 1851. Next, he was in charge of a school for young 
ladies in Tallahassee, Florida (1852-55). 

As Mr, Wolfe's account differs decidedly at this point from 
other statements which are in print, we quote his own language : 

" I completed my theological course at the Union Theological Semi- 
nary, in June, 1851, having previously been licensed by the Third Pres- 
bytery, of New York, April 9th. I established in this place [Montclair, 
N. J.], in 1859, ' The Hillside Seminary for Young Ladies,' and carried 
it on successfully until 1872. Since the latter year I have been in retiracy, 
and much of the time a very great invalid." 

The present hymn was written while Mr, Wolfe was in the theo- 
logical seminar)^ and is the only piece which was not directly pre- 
pared for Dr. Hastings's Church Melodies. It first appeared in 
the New York Evangelist, 185 1 or 1852. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 123 

When so little has been known about the author of such excel- 
lent and acceptable hymns, it is proper to record their titles and 
themes. They are signed in Church Melodies with the initials, 
"A. R. W.," and the first numbers here given are the numbers 
in that collection : 

407. " A parting hymn we sing." 
(" And when they had sung a hymn, they went out." — Matt. 26 : 30.) 

421. " Complete in thee, no work of mine." 
(" Ye are complete in him." — CoL. 2 : 10. This hymn was recast from 
" Complete in him," etc.). 
771. " Draw near, O holy Dove, draw near." 

(" At the Communion." — I CoR. 11 : 24 ; Luke 22 : 19.) 
837. " How blest indeed are they." 

(" Assimilation to Christ." — 2 Cor. 3 : 18.) 

[Mr. Wolfe comments : " I? the thoughts of this hymn were re-cast to another measure, 
it seems to me it might be made to fill a vacancy."] 

487. " My God, I thank thee for the guide." 

(" Conscience.") 
726. " Mysterious influence divine." 

(" Attraction of the Cross.") 

[Mr. Wolfe's note : " This reads very well, but does not sing^ — a remark which shows 
his close scrutiny of his own work, for this is a good deal less philosophical than some 
" hymns" that are offered to the Christian Church. But it is quite true that the Christian 
Church will not sing them.] 

466. " Thou Maker of our mortal frame." 

(" Chief End of Man." — i Cor. 6 : 19-30.) 

This makes a list of seven pieces — all, in fact, which Mr. Wolfe 
has published in the form of hymns. The younger Dr. Hastings 
was a classmate, and the author was a frequent visitor in the family. 
We may possibly be forgiven for extracting another passage from 
one of Mr. Wolfe's letters : 

" In truth, having given wings to these things, I never expected to hear 
of them again, much less to have any of them ' return to plague the in- 
ventor.' I have been, within the last three or four years, greatly sur- 
prised by inquiries similar to yours, with reference to two or three others 
of the small list. Sometimes I have serious questioning whether I ought 
not to have given place to the earnest counsel of my dear old friends, 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hastings, to engage with special directness in this 
line of composition ; but somehow the idea of ' making a business of it' 
was not congenial to me, and, besides, I have found the afflattis singu- 
larly independent and defiant of the will. Pardon me for writing so much 
about so little, and believe me," etc. 



124 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Creator Spirit, by whose aid. — Dryden, tr. 

This is a translation, by the celebrated poet, John Dryden, 
of the Veni Creator Spiritiis of Rabanus Maurus, Bishop of 
Mayence, tor which see "The Latin Hymn Writers and their 
Hymns." Dryden' s version has been among the best-known and 
most acceptable. But the man himself was not a commendable 
person. His courage and ability as a literary knight-errant are 
conspicuous in the history of English letters. He arrived at Lon- 
don in a " drugget coat," wretchedly poor. He attained, by 
various means, a commanding position in literature, and his st)'le 
of composition affected the productions of many later poets, par- 
ticularly those of Alexander Pope. But it is to Dryden that 
we must ascribe the foulness of the " rhymed drama," and the 
degradation which much of the poetry of the time exhibits. 

The translation from which this hymn is selected consists of 
thirty-nine lines. The date may be put, conjecturally, about 
1690. It is doubtless somewhere between 1686 and 1700. It 
only remains for us to place John Dryden on record as born 
August 9th, 163 1, at Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, and dying 
May 1st, 1700. It is a strange fact that one of his hymns — a really 
admirable one — has never been utilized. We insert it here, from 
the original edition (now in the Philadelphia Library) of his Sacred 
Poetry, in two volumes. (London : T. Rickaby, 1790.) 

ON GOD'S HOLINESS. 

O holy, holy, holy Lord ! 

In deep abasement we 
To sing thy holiness accord, 

And join in praise to thee. 
Holy art thou in all thy ways, 

Thy works are holy, too, 
And none but those shall see thy face, 

That holiness pursue. 
Thy holiness immensely bright, 

Thro' worlds unknown must shine ; 
The rays too strong for angel's sight. 

Too glorious and divine ! 
But round thy throne this sacred throng, 

Forever veiled adore ; 
And holy, holy, is their song, 

Lord God, for evermore ! 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 1 25 

Cross, reproach, and tribulation ! — Tr. Cotter. 

The curse of the righteous is better, so the ancients used to say^ 
than the blessing of the wicked. For example, they often pointed 
to the curse of Ahijah the Shilonite (i Kings 12 : 15), and to the 
blessing of Balaam, the son of Beor. Ahijah cursed Israel, and 
said that it should be smitten " as the reed is shaken in the 
water." But the reed in the water bends and does not break, 
since in that situation its roots are strong. But Balaam blessed 
Israel, and said that it should be " as the cedar-trees beside the 
waters." But the cedar does not naturally grow beside the waters, 
and should it be found there, its roots are weak. 

This hymn is translated from the German of Lewis Andrew 
Cotter, born at Gotha, 1661, where his father was the court chap- 
lain. It is not known who gave this rendering into English, but 
the original author became private secretary to the Duke of Gotha, 
and was a pious, gifted, and humble man — so humble, indeed, 
that he did not make it known that he wrote hymns. His verses 
include the Psalms and the Passion of Christ, and the pieces 
number two hundred and thirty-one in all. After his death at 
Gotha, in 1735, these were published. They are marked by fervor 
of spirit and simplicity of expression. 

The original hymn is, " Gluck zu Creulz von ganzem Herzen," 
rendered in the 1754 edition of the Moravian hymn-book as 
"Welcome, cross and tribulation." In the edition of 1789 the 
present version takes its place, in five stanzas. The date of the 
German composition is 1697, and the Lyra Germanica, first 
series, has Miss Winkworth's translation, commencing, " O cross, 
we hail thy bitter reign, ' ' and containing eleven stanzas. 

Crown him with many crowns. — Bridges. 
Matthew Bridges (improperly spelled Brydges), the younger son 
of John Bridges, of Wallington House, Surrey, England, was born 
at The Friars, Maldon, Essex, England, July 14th, 1800. He 
was a brother of Rev. Charles Bridges, and published his earliest 
verses in 1825. The probable date of the hymn is 1852, since it 
is found in Mr. Bridges's volume of that date, entitled, The Pas- 
sion of Jesus. He had published Z^^towj- of the Heart in 1847, 
and followed them into the Roman Catholic Church, in 1848. 
The title given to the present piece (which has been re-cast by 



126 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Rev. Godfrey Thring) is "The Song of the Seraphs." Roman 
CathoHc and RituaHstic pubHcations contain many of his hymns. 
They are, indeed, spiritual and beautiful. 

Crown his head with endless blessing. — Goode. 

Goode deserves a certain enlarged notice for other reasons beside 
his hymns. In 1816 he is recorded xxi Living Authors as rector 
of " St. Andrew [by the] Wardrobe and St. Ann's, Blackfriars, 
and lecturer of St. John's, Wapping." He was (it is added) " a 
graduate of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, [B. A. 1784, M.A. 1787], and 
curate to Mr. Romaine, whom he succeeded in the rectory of St. 
Ann's." 

William Goode was born of pious parents, at Buckingham, 
April 2d, 1762. At thirteen years of age he went to be educated 
by Rev. William Bull, a Dissenting minister, at Newport Pagnel, 
where young Goode soon became earnestly religious, and con- 
ducted prayer- meetings among his fellow-pupils. This was the 
clergyman who was so devoted to Madame Guyon's memory, and 
who induced Cowper to translate her hymns. 

The boy's time, from the age of fourteen to that of sixteen, was 
given to assisting in his father's business, with "morning exer- 
cises" in Hebrew. In 1778 he underwent a more formal prepa- 
ration for college, at the house of Rev. Thomas Clarke, rector of 
Chesham Bois. His parents had been driven from the parish 
church by the unspiritual preaching, and hence they were Church 
people with Dissenting tendencies. 

After his graduation, Mr. Goode was ordained a deacon, 1784, 
and received the curacy of Abbott's Langley, the same year. 
Thence he removed, 1786, to become the curate of the godly Wil- 
liam Romaine, author of the Triiwiph of Faith, whom he suc- 
ceeded at St. Ann's and St. Andrew's, after nine years (July 25th, 
1795), upon the presentation to him of the living by the Crown, 
Mr. Goode held the lectureship of St. Lawrence, as well as that 
of St. John — a sufficient proof that he was an earnest and devoted 
man. 

It is as a pastor that he was most eminent, but from the year 
1 79 1 he combined with these duties much of literar}^ work and 
outside benevolence. He was for twenty-one years the secretary 
of the ' ' Society for the Relief of Poor Pious Clergymen. ' ' The 



ENGLISH HYMNS. \Z1 

title is patlietic. There were many clergymen who did not merit 
either adjective, and the religious system of those days placed less 
reliance on a man's piety than it did on his social standing. 

Mr, Goode assisted also to found the " Church Missionary 
Society," and it was on one of his journeys with the secretary, to 
promote the interests of the society, that he fell sick at Ipswich, 
September, 1814, and contracted a disease which never left him. 
On the 15th of April, 1816, he died. His great sufferings were 
borne with patience and resignation, and his last words were, 
" Dear Jesus ! precious Jesus !" He was a person of the sincerest 
and purest piety, and from his pen fitly comes this hymn, which 
is one of our very noblest songs of praise to the Lord Jesus Christ. 

He left (in short-hand) one hundred and fifty-six essays on the 
Titles of our Lord, which were printed posthumously in 1822. In 
i8n he had published a New Version of the Psalms (2 vols., 
8vo), by which he attempted, but in vain, to supersede the use of 
Tate and Brady in the Prayer-Book. The third edition, however, 
was called for and issued the same year in which he died. 

Daily, daily sing the praises. — Baring-Gould. 
The date of this hymn is about 1867. It is part of a long poem 
of eleven stanzas, with a chorus which can be added to each, and 
which is printed in the Schaff Gilman Library of Religious Poetry. 
Rev. Sabine Baring-Gould is one of the most deeply learned me- 
diaevalists of the present generation. His knowledge of old legends, 
and of the Middle-Age imagery as found in its religious writers, 
have conspired to produce the hymn, which is one of great beauty. 
It was probably first utilized in America as a hymn in the Hitch- 
cock-Schaff-Eddy Hymns and Songs of Praise, 1874. 

Daughter of Zion ! awake from thy sadness. — Anon, 1830. 

This piece, in the Church Psalmody, 183 1, is attributed to Fitz- 
gerald's Collection, 1830. This is the credit given in Beman's 
Sacred Lyrics, 1841, and in the New Haven Collection of 1845, 
It was printed in Hastings's Spiritual Songs, 1833. The infer- 
ence fairly is that the hymn is of American origin, and ought to 
be so identified. Dr. Hastings, however, did not write it. So 
Rev. Thomas S. Hastings, D. D. , has verified for us. He has in- 
dexed the six hundred hymns left in manuscript by his father, and 
this is not among them. 



128 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Day is dying in the west. — Lathbury. 
This hymn, as INIiss Lathbury is good enough to inform us, 
was written at the request of Rev. John II. Vincent, D. D. , in the 
summer of 1880. It was a "vesper song," and has been fre- 
quently used in the responsive services of the Chautauqua Literary 
and Sdcjitific Circle ("C.L. S. C") The author is Mary A, 
Lathbury, born in IManchcstcr, Ontario County, N. Y., August 
loth, 184 1, She is at present a resident of New York City, and 
this hymn is one of those which has a secure place in Chautauqua 
Carols. Miss Lathbury is known to the readers of current religious 
periodicals as a writer of more than ordinary merit. Her verses 
are always graceful and spiritual. She will be remembered equally 
well, however, as the founder of the " Look-Up Legion," which 
is based on the four good rules in Edward Everett Hale's " Ten 
Times One is Ten. " These are : 

" Look up, and not down ; 
Look forward, and not back ; 
Look out, and not in, 
And lend a hand." 

To these he now adds a fifth : " In His name. " 

The history of these little rules is remarkable, and their author 
has been collecting information, as to their employment and bene- 
ficial effects, for many years. They furnish a really unique con- 
tribution to the history of Christian endeavor. Miss Lathbury' s 
share in this work obtains an appropriate recognition in the sketch 
of Mr. Hale's life and writings in the Century Magazine for Janu- 
ary 1885, p. 342. A magazine called Lend a Hand is the 
present exponent of the movement. 

Day of judgment, day of wonders. — Newton. 
John Newton sailed from Liverpool in August, 1750, as com- 
mander of a stanch ship. His crew consisted of thirty persons, 
whom he endeavored to treat in accordance wiUi his principles, 
for he had now become a Christian. He read prayers on Sunday, 
and set a good example to his men. Having leisure, he now re- 
vived his studies, which had been practically suspended since he 
was taken to sea by his father (a ship captain), in his eleventh 
year. By the help of a Latin dictionary he attacked the classics, 
and mastered Horace, Juvenal, Livy, Caesar and Sallust. " Pie 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 129 

began with the first page, and made it a rule not to proceed to a 
second," says his biographer, Cecil, " till he understood the first." 
He added to this list in the sfjace of two or three voyages, and 
read Terence, Virgil, Cicero, and such modern writers as the Eng- 
lishman, Buchanan ; the Hollander, Erasmus ; and the Polish 
poet Casimir, the author of " Urit me patricz decor." It must 
have been in some such manner that he gradually fell in with the 
Latin hymns — at least with the " Dies Irce," for the present hymn 
is nothing if not a paraphrase of that grand sequence. The date 
is June 26th, 1774, on which day (Sunday) he used it for his 
theme, having taken two days to complete iL 

Day of wrath, O dreadful day. — Stanley, tr. 
Mr. John Edmands, Librarian of the Mercantile Library of 
Philadelphia, has prepared a bibliography of the ^'Dies Tree," which 
(like all his excellent compilations of this sort) is wonderfully elab- 
orate and complete. His list of versions is very valuable as locat- 
ing — in most cases — the first appearance of the translation. We 
are indebted to him for the information that this hymn was pub- 
lished by Dean Stanley in Macmillan s Magazine, vol. 19, p. 167, 
and re^unicd. m LiUeir s Living Age, vol. 100, p. 130. The date 
is 1868. Mr. Edmands's notes on Dr. Irons's version, 1848, are 
also valuable. See also " The Latin Hymn Writers and their 
Hymns" for the Latin hymn and its history. 

Days and moments quickly flying. — Caswall. 
An original hymn by Rev. Edward Caswall, bearing date 1858, 
and taken from his Masque of Mary, and Other Poems. Or, 
rather, it may be said to be a combination of two original hymns, 
one being on the " Swiftness of Time," and the other " A Warn- 
ing," Mr. Caswall has himself placed it among his " Hymns 
and Meditative Pieces" in his Hymns and Poems, 1873. 

Dear Lord, amid the throng that pressed. — Denny. 
Among Sir Edward Denny's Miscellatieous Hymns this is 
"The Faithful Few," Luke 2t, 149. There are three stanzas, 
and the date is probably 1839. 

Dear Father, to thy mercy-seat. — Steele. 
It is no wonder that this hymn, like others, perplexes the anxious 
inquirer after origins. For it begins in the original, " My God, 



130 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

'tis to thy mercy-seat." We find it in iho. Poems by Theodosia, 
1760, in six stanzas, and with the title, " Refuge and Strength in 
the Mercy of God." 

Dear Lord and Master mine. — Gill. 
Our hymn is taken from The Golden Chain of Praise (about 
1868). The title is " Sweet Subjection. " It has seven stanzas. 
Mr. Gill says of his hymns : 

" The spiritual experience of more than twenty years is recorded in 
these sacred songs. Though spread over so long a period, they are now 
given to the world for the first time, with the exception of about thirty, 
which have appeared partly in collections, and partly among The Anni- 
versaries (poems published ten years ago)." 

Thomas Hornblower Gill came of Puritan stock ; one of his 
ancestors, Rev. Richard Serjeant, having been assistant to Mr. 
Baxter, at Kidderminster, and an ejected clergyman in 1662. Mr. 
Gill was born, 1819, at Birmingham, England ; educated at Bir- 
mingham Grammar School, and trained in the Unitarian opinions 
of his parents. Since he could not subscribe to the Thirty-nine 
Articles he declined to enter Oxford, and devoted himself for seven 
years (until his twenty-sixth year) to the study oi the Greek New 
Testament. As might have been expected, this led him, gently, to 
the light. He has himself recorded that "The assiduous perusal 
of the Greek Testament, for many years, showed me clearly that 
Unitarianism failed to interpret the Book of Life. As truth after 
truth broke upon my gaze, God put a new song into my mouth." 

Mr. Gill, being a man of independent means, has devoted him- 
self through life to historical and theological studies, and has re- 
sided alternately in London, Birmingham, and Lewisham, Kent. 
In his opinions he is a Puritan, ajid opposes Ritualism. Dr. Hat- 
field's critique on his hymns is just. They are " too intricate" 
to be popular. But they are very admirable in point of metre and 
language, and their spiritual feeling is fine. 

Dear Refuge of my weary soul. — Steele. 
The title of this hymn, in the Poems by Theodosia, 1760, is 
"God the Only Refuge of the Troubled Mind." It has eight 
stanzas, and is so excellent that very little of it (the second, sixth 
and seventh stanzas mainly) has been omitted from our collections, 
and the alterations are few and slierht. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 131 

Dear Saviour, we are thine. — Doddridge. 
In Dr. Doddridge's hymns this is No. 267, having the title, 
" Being Joined to Christ and one Spirit with Him, i Cor, 6 : 17." 

It begins : 

" My Saviour, I am thine 
By everlasting bands ; 
My name, my heart, I would resign, 
My soul is in thy hands." 

This piece has five stanzas, and its date is 1755. 

Delay not, delay not, O sinner, draw near. — Hastings, 
This hymn appeared, in five stanzas, in Dr. Thomas Hastings's 
Spiritual Songs, 1833. It is upon the same page with Knox's 
"Acquaint thyself quickly, O sinner, with God," is of the same 
metre, and perhaps was suggested by it, and written in order that 
the vacant space upon the page might be filled by a hymn of 
similar purport. 

Depth of mercy, can there be. — C. Wesley, 
From the Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1742, The original has 
thirteen stanzas. This hymn stands at the head of the third sec- 
tion of that collection, with the title, " For Persons Convicted of 
Backsliding," 

The incident inseparably joined to the present hymn is that of the 
actress, whose story Dr, Belcher (1859) has traced back to the 
Sunday-School yournal. Stevenson, in his Methodist Hymn- 
Book Notes, quotes this account almost verbatim (p. 140). It is 
also found in Revival hicidents (p. 117), prepared by W. C. 
Conant in 1858. The version which we give is from the Meth- 
odist Hymn-Book Notes of G. J. Stevenson, 

" An actress in one of the provincial towns, while passing along the 
street, had her attention arrested by singing in a cottage. Curiosity 
prompted her to look in at the open door, when she saw a few poor peo- 
ple sitting together, one of whom was giving out Hymn 168— 

' Depth of mercy, can there be 
Mercy still reserved for me ?' 

which they all joined in singing. The tune was sweet and simple, but 
she heeded it not ; the words had riveted her attention, and she stood 
motionless, until she was invited to enter. She remained during a prayer 
which was offered up by one of the little company, and which, though un- 
couth in language, carried with it the conviction of sincerity. She quitted 
the cottage, but the words of the hymn followed her, and she resolved to 



132 . ENGLISH HYMNS. 

procure a copy of the book containing it. The hymn-book secured, she 
read and reread this hymn. Her convictions deepened ; she attended 
the ministry of the Gospel, and sought and found that pardon which alone 
could give her peace. Having given her heart to God, she resolved 
henceforth to give her life to Him also, and, for a time, excused herself 
from attending on the stage. The manager of the theatre called upon her 
one morning, and urged her to sustain the principal character in a new 
play. This character she had sustained in other towns with admiration, 
but now she gave her reasons for refusing to comply with the request. 
At first the manager ridiculed her scruples, but this was unavailing ; he 
then represented the loss which her refusal would be to him, and promised 
if she would act on this occasion, it would be the last request of the kind 
he would make. Unable to resist his solicitations, she promised to appear 
at the theatre. The character which she assumed required her, on her 
entrance, to sing a song, and as the curtain rose the orchestra began the 
accompaniment. She stood like one lost in thought ; the music ceased, 
but she did not sing ; and, supposing she was embarrassed, the band 
again commenced, and they paused again for her to begin, but she opened 
not her lips. A third time the air was played, and then, with clasped hands 
and eyes suffused with tears, she sang — not the song of the play, but — 

' Depth of mercy, can there be 
Mercy still reserved for me ? 
Can my God His wrath forbear? 
Me, the chief of sinners, spare ? ' 

The performance suddenly ended ; many ridiculed, though some were in- 
duced from that memorable night to ' consider their ways ' — to reflect on 
the power of that religion which could influence the heart and change the 
life of one hitherto so vain. The change in the life of the actress was as 
permanent as it was singular, and after some years of a consistent walk, 
she at length became the wife of a minister of the Gospel of Christ." 

Descend from heaven, celestial Dove. — Hart. 

Dr. Samuel Johnson has a curious reference to Hart : " I went 
to church — I gave a shilling ; and, seeing a poor girl at the sacra- 
ment in a bed-gown, I gave her privately half a crown, though I 
saw Hart's hymns in her hand." 

This is the hymn with which Miller confuses " Come, Holy 
Spirit. " It is a partial translation of the Veni Sancte Spiriius of 
Hermannus Contractus. In Hart's " Second Edition, with Sup- 
plement," 1762, it has six stanzas. 

Did Christ o'er sinners weep. — Beddome. 
Rev. Benjamin Beddome was born at Henley-in-Arden, in War- 
wickshire, January 23d, 171 7 ; removed with his parents to Bristol 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 133 

at the age of seven, where his father. Rev. John Beddome, a Bap- 
tist minister, was co-pastor of Pithay Church ; was apprenticed 
there to a surgeon, and finally went to London. At twenty years 
of age he was converted, and in 1743 became pastor of the Baptist 
congregation at Bourton-on-the-Water, in Gloucestershire. In 
this small station he continued during his life. 

In 1749, it is related that, after a severe illness, he probably 
composed his first hymn, but the account does not state what it 
was. The London congregation of Rev. Mr, Wilson, who had 
been his pastor, and under whom he had united with the Church 
in 1739, desired to secure Mr. Beddome as successor, but he de- 
clined to go. The church in Goodman's Fields had not only sent 
the call, but had deputed a gentleman to carry it, who went down 
to Bourton on horseback. A poor parishioner of I\Ir. Beddome, 
having been intrusted with the care of his horse, discovered the 
errand, and brought the animal to the door, saying to the London 
emissary, "Robbers of churches are the worst sort of robbers." 
He then turned the horse loose, to the discomfiture of its rider. 
" I would rather honor God," said Mr. Beddome, " in a station 
even much inferior to that in which he has placed me, than intrude 
myself into a higher without his direction. " He died, Septem- 
ber 3d, 1795, having labored at Bourton for fifty-two years. 

In reference to his hymn-writing nothing is more suggestive 
than the statement of the actual facts. He first contributed about 
fifty hymns to Dr. Rippon's volume, 1787. Then he published, 
with a recommendatory preface by Rev. Robert Hall, his Hymns 
Adapted io Public Worship or Family Devotion, 18 18. Of these 
— which included all former waifs and strays — there were eight 
hundred and twenty-two, with eight doxologies. They are, as a 
rule, terse and good. Many of them were appended to sermons, 
after the manner of Watts and Doddridge. One, at least, for its 
largeness of Christian charity, will not be easily forgotten : 

" Let party names no more 

The Christian world o'erspread." 

DiDST thou, dear Jesus, suffer shame. — Maxwell. 

This hymn, by James Maxwell, appeared in Dobell's Collection, 
1806, in four stanzas, and with a reference to Mark 8 : 38. Its 
title is ' ' Self-Denial ; or, Taking up the Cross. ' ' The author was 



134 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

one of the early Methodist preachers, and a Scotchman. His 
Divine Miscellanies \mqxc published at Birmingham, in 1756, and 
his Hymns and Spiritual Songs in 1759. ^^ '^'^'^ ^ weaver, hving 
in the North of England, born May 9th, 1720. He prepared a 
version of the Psalms in 1773. An American reprint of Max- 
well's hymns, about 1780, introduced his pieces to the churches 
of the United States, Such were : " Go forth, ye heralds, in m.y 
name" [from "Thus saith the Lord, your Master dear"] and 
" Lord, when together here we meet." 

Dismiss us with thy blessing, Lord. — Hart. 
This is No. 78 of the Supplement to Hart's Hymns, and is 
found in the second edition, 1762. One line may be noticed : 
" Give every _/t'//trV soul release." 

Do not I love thee, O my Lord ? — Doddridge. 
Among Dr. Doddridge's hymns this stands as No. 246, with 
the title, "Appeal to Christ for the Sincerity of Love to Him." 
It is in seven stanzas, and has the text of Scripture, John 21 : 15, 
affixed to it. 

Draw nigh and take the body of the Lord. — Neale, tr. 
This is a translation from the " Sancti veniie, corpus Christi 
sumile," a Latin anonymous hymn, assigned by Dr. Neale to the 
seventh century, by Moll to the eighth, and placed by Daniel be- 
tween the sixth and ninth centuries. The original is reprinted in 
the Lyra Hibcrnica Sacra, 1878, from Dr. Todd's Liber Hym- 
norum, and it can be found in Daniel's Thesaurus, I. : 193, and 
IV. : 109. It was a hymn of the early Irish Church, and was, per- 
haps, composed within her borders. Dr. Neale, in Aledicwal 
Hymns, speaks of it as one of the earliest examples of a communion 
hymn, and his comments on its rugged simplicity and strong 
piety are not unmerited. This translation is found in its complete 
form in Lyra Eucharistica, 1863. 

Draw nigh, draw nigh, Immanuel. — Neale, ir. 
This is the ' ' Veni, veni, Immanuel, ' ' an anonymous Latin com- 
position of the twelfth (?) centur3\ Dr. Neale gives it in his 
McdicTval Hym7is as an Advent hymn. It was first used in the 
Hyvmal Noted, 1856, then in Hymns, Ancieiit and Modern, 1861 ; 
latterly among Christmas hymns and carols. The Latin is in 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 1 35 

Daniel's Thesaurus, from the Mozarabic Breviary, the ancient 
hymnary of Spain. For further information as to these and other 
Latin hymns, see " Tlie Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns." 

Early, my God, without delay. — Watts. 
The title given to this hymn by Dr. Watts is, " The Morning 
of a Lord's Day." It is the rendering of Ps. 63, first part, CM., 
embracing vv. 1-5, and has six stanzas. 

Earth below is teeming. — Monsell. 

A " Harvest Hymn," from Hymns of Love and Praise, second 
edition, 1862, where it is based upon Isa. 9:3. It has four 
stanzas. Mr. Monsell, dating his preface from " Egham Vicarage, 
Surrey, All Saints' Day, 1862," says that the most of the hymns 
in his book appear for the first time. " We are, alas !" he con- 
tinues, " too distant and reserved in our praises. We sing not as 
if our hearts were on fire with the flame of divine love and joy, as 
we should sing to Him, and of Him, Who is Chief among ten 
thousand, and altogether lovely. If we loved Him as we ought 
to do, we could not be so cold." The curious feature of some 
miodern High Church hymns is that they run almost to an extreme 
of sentimental affection — the very' thing reprobated by John Wesley, 
in 1787, as " doggerel, double-distilled J" 

John Samuel Bewley Monsell, LL. D., was born at St. Col- 
umbs', Londonderry, Ireland, March 2d, 181 1. He was edu- 
cated at Trinity College, Dublin, and was graduated in 1832, tak- 
ing holy orders in 1834. He was examining chaplain to Bishop 
Mant ; then rector of Ramoan ; then chancellor of Connor, and 
afterward rector of St. Nicholas, Guildford, Surrey, 1870, where 
his death occurred, April 9th, 1875. Some of his least usual 
poems can be found in Lyra ILibertiica Sacra, second edition, 
1879. Dr. Monsell's hymns can be examined at leisure in Par- 
ish Musings, 1850 ; Hymns of Love and Praise, 1863 ; and 
Spiritual Songs (n. d.). His hymns have sometimes been pub- 
lished in leaflets. 

Earth has nothing sweet or fair. — Cox, ir. 
Miss Frances Elizabeth Cox published, in 184 1, a little volume 
of translations from the German, calling it Sacred Hyynns. The 
present piece appears on page 165, and is a Sommerlied, or sum- 



136 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

mer-song, based on Rev. 4:11. It has eleven stanzas, and is 
from the original of " Angelus Silesius, " 1624-77, whose real 
name was Johann SchefHer. He was a native of Breslau, and 
physician-in-ordinary to Ferdinand the Third. In 1653 ^^ ^^' 
signed his post, and entered the Roman Cathoh'c Church, having 
previously assumed this name of "Angelus." The German 
piece begins : " Kerne Schcmheii hat die Welt." It is one of the 
finest of lyrics, as here rendered, being an expression of the 
thought that all the world is full of the Word. It makes us think 
of that suggestive incident related by Bunyan as having occurred 
in the Holy War. There Prince Immanuel is represented as 
making a feast, and after the eating was over, he entertained the 
town with some curious riddles, made upon King Shaddai, and 
upon Immanuel his son, and upon his wars and doings with Man- 
soul. Some of these riddles 

" Immanuel expounded unto them, and oh, how they were lightened ! 
They saw what they never saw before ; they could not have thought that 
such rarities could have been couched in so few and such ordinary words. 
Yea, they gathered that the things themselves were a kind of portraiture, 
and that of Immanuel himself. For when they read in the scheme where 
the riddles were writ, and looked in the face of the Prince, things looked 
so like one to the other, that Mansoul could not forbear but say, This is 
the Lamb, this is the Sacrifice, this is the Rock, this is the Door, and this 
is the Way ; with a great many other things more." 

Eternal Father ! strong to save. — Whiting. 

This hymn is the composition of William Whiting, in i860, 
and altered by the compilers of Hymns, Ancient and Modern, 
1 861. The author informed Mr. Josiah Miller that his hymn 
was written for that collection, and originally began, "O thou 
who bidd'st the ocean deep." He vi^as born at Kensington, 
London, November ist, 1825, and educated at Clapham and 
Winchester. He had been for many years master of Winchester 
College Choristers' School at the date of his death, in 1878. 

The piece was originally printed with the title, " Intercession 
for those at Sea." Says G. J. Stevenson : " It has been widely 
circulated in seaport towns, and has been an especial favorite on 
Sabbath evening at the close of the services of the day, when 
Christian families have sung it as a prayer for absent members of 
their household whose calling is on the great waters." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 137 

The tune, " Melita," has been invariably associated with this 
hymn in England. Dr. Dykes, whose harmony it is, so named 
it from the island where St. Paul was shipwrecked. 

Eternal Father, when to thee. — Ganse. 

Rev. Hervey Doddridge Ganse, the author of the present hymn, 
was born February 27th, 1822, near Fishkill, N. Y. , and gradu- 
ated at Columbia College in 1839. His theological course was 
taken at New Brunswick, N. J., and in 1843 he was licensed, by 
the Reformed (Dutch) Church, to preach the Gospel. He has 
been pastor at Freehold, N. J., and of the Northwest Reformed 
Church, Madison Avenue, New York. In 1876 he entered the 
Presbyterian denomination, having accepted a call to the First 
Presbyterian Church of St. Louis, Mo. From this position he 
was invited, in 1883, to the secretaryship of the new " Board of 
Aid for Colleges and Academies," where he is now actively en- 
gaged, having his headquarters at Chicago. 

In a private note Dr. Ganse states that this hymn was composed 
" at a sitting, in very nearly its present form, in the midst of 
some other work of the same sort" — although he " sees no motive 
for stating the fact." Dr. Ganse (as we must still call him, 
though he declines the title) cannot so easily escape the scrutiny 
of the hymnologist, to whom all that is connected with the 
origin and use of any hymn is of importance. Therefore we shall 
offend yet further, and add that our author has written, in all, 
about half a dozen pieces, which mostly appeared for the first 
time in Hymns and Songs of Praise, 1874. The hymn before 
us is of that number. The dates of composition are from 1869 
to 1873, since which time we have nothing noticeable from his 
pen. 

The earliest of his hymns was " Lord, I know thy grace is nigh 
me, "which was written in 1869. The author's own account is 
interesting, as showing the movement of his mind. He says : 

" While living in New York I had occasion to visit a family in my 
former congregation at Freehold — -I think to conduct a funeral service, 
certainly to console them in some affliction. At night, as I crossed the 
threshold of my bedroom, the first couplet ran through my mind in metri- 
cal form, without the least forethought. It was midwinter, in a farm- 
house, and my room had no fire. So I composed on my pillow, in the 
darkness, completing the verses with no little feeling, before I slept." 



138 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Eternal Light ! eternal Light. — Binney. 

Rev. Thomas Binney, D.D., LL. D. , was born in the yeaf 
1793, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, In his youth he was employed in a 
bookstore, but while he was serving the customers with books he 
was engaged also in improving his mind. He studied Latin and 
Greek, and paid careful attention to the art of English composi- 
tion. He then made an effort to secure the advantages of a more 
thorough course of instruction, and we find him at Wymondley 
College, where he was prepared for the ministry. His first charge 
was at Bradford, whence he removed to Newport, Isle of Wight, 
and was regularly ordained to the work before him. 

It was from this position that he was called to the pastorate of 
the " King's Weigh-House Chapel," in London, in 1829, This 
proved to be his life-work, and here he labored for more than forty 
years, It was diversified by the constant, and sometimes con- 
troversial, publications which bear his name. His first book was 
a life of Stephen Morell, which was issued in 1826. He followed 
it by several pamphlets, over the signature, '' Fiat Jusiitia," in 
which he treated of whatever subjects happened to agitate the re- 
ligious world. He handled his themes with great independence 
and vigor, and the pamphlets were quite popular. In 1834, the 
new chapel was erected, and this gave him the opportunity for a 
discourse which was not relished by those who believed in the 
supremacy of the Church of England, though others heartily en- 
joyed its keen thrusts. The titles of his books are enough to tell 
the whole story of his opinions. He gave them such names as, 
Dissent 7iot Schism ; The Christian Miitistry not a Priesthood j 
Are Dissenters to have a Liturgy P and Conscientious Clerical No7i- 
conformity. He also contributed to the literature of the vexed 
question, " Whether marriage with a deceased wife's sister should 
be legalized. " 

On the other hand. Dr. Binney has earnestly advocated certain 
Episcopalian practices among the Independent churches, such as 
chanting in the services, and the use of a better psalmody. His 
Service of Song in the House of the Lord had much to do with 
the present advance in taste. 

Dr. Binney paid a visit to the United States and Canada in 
1845, and spent his time to advantage. In 1857 he made a voy- 
age to Australia, out of which came his celebrated controversy with 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 139 

the Bishop of Adelaide. In 1869 he had completed forty years 
of warfare in the Weigh-House Chapel, and in January, 1871, he 
retired altogether from his public duties, and was succeeded by 
Rev. W. Braden, of Huddersfield. The degree of LL. D. came 
to him from the University of Aberdeen, and that of D. D. was 
sent from America. He died, February 24th, 1874. 

Dr. Binney was unable to endure a platform at any time or 
place when he was to speak. He has been known ' ' to fetch 
gowns and other materials to hang over the rails of an open rostrum 
if he found himself placed in one. " "This," Mr. Spurgeon re- 
marks, " must have arisen wholly from habit, for there can be no 
real advantage in being inclosed in a wooden pen. ' ' 

The present hymn has five stanzas. The third stanza was often 
on his lips during his last illness : 

" Oh ! how shall I, whose native sphere 
Is dark, whose mind is dim. 
Before the Ineffable appear. 
And on my naked spirit bear 
That uncreated beam ?" 

The date assigned to this composition, by Mr. Binney himself, is 
about 1826. It was prepared for a charitable object, the details 
of which he had forgotten, and was set to music at the time. 

Eternal Source of every joy. — Doddridge. 
Dr. Doddridge writes to his vvife from Northampton, October, 
1742, in this strain : 

" I hope, my dear, you will not be offended when I tell you that I am, 
what I hardly thought it possible without a miracle, that I should have 
been — very easy and happy without you. My days begin, pass, and end 
in pleasure, and seem short because they are so delightful. It may seem 
strange to say it, but really so it is ; I hardly feel that I want anything. 
I often think of you, and pray for you, and bless God on your account, 
and please myself with the hope of many comfortable days and weeks 
and years wilh you ; yet I am not at all anxious about your return, or, 
indeed, about anything else. And the reason, the great and sufficient 
reason is, that I have more of the presence of God with me than I re- 
member ever to have enjoyed in any one month of my life. He enables 
me to live for him, and to live with him. . . . It is pleasant to read, pleas- 
ant to compose, pleasant to converse with my friends at home ; pleasant 
to visit those abroad — the poor, the sick — pleasant to write letters of 
necessary business, by which any good can be done ; pleasant to go out 
and preach the Gospel to poor souls, of whom some are thirsty for it, and 



14° ENGLISH HYMNS. 

others dying without it ; pleasant in the week-day to think how near 
another Sabbath is, but, oh, how much more pleasant to think how near 
Eternity is, and how short the journey through this wilderness, and that 
it is but a step from earth to heaven !" 

The hymn, to which this is an apt commentary, is dated 1755, 
owing to its publication ; but it must have been written earher. 
Its title is, " The Year Crowned with the Divine Goodness, Ps. 
65 : II," and it has seven stanzas. 

Eternal Spirit, we confess. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts places this as Hymn 133, of Book II., " The Oper- 
ations of the Holy Spirit. " It has four stanzas. 

Every morning mercies new. — Bonar. 

Dr. Bonar's hymns have no especial date or incident, but the 
accompanying illustration from the Talmud seems an appropriate 
comment on this very spiritual little song. 

In studying the account of the manna, the scholars of Rabbi 
Simon ben Jochai once asked him, " Why did not the Lord give 
to Israel enough manna for a year, at one time.?" Then the 
rabbi said : *' I will answer you with a parable : Once there was 
a king who had a son to whom he gave a yearly allowance, paying 
him the entire sum on a fixed day. It soon happened that the day 
on which the allowance was due was the only day in the year when 
the father saw his son. So the king changed his plan, and gave 
his son, day by day, that which sufficed for the day. And now 
the son visited his father every morning. Thus did God deal with 
Israel." 

Fairest Lord Jesus ! Ruler of all nature ! — Willis. 
This piece first appeared in the Church Chorals and Choir 
Siudies (1850) of Richard Storrs Willis, the brother of N. R 
Willis, born in Boston, Mass., 18 19. The translator has been a 
distinguished musician and writer on musical art for many years. 
He now resides in Detroit, Mich. The melody to which these 
historic words are set was secured by him from the ancient music, 
as sung by the Crusaders in the twelfth century. He gives the 
following account of the origin of the song he rendered into 
English : 

" This hymn, to which the harmony has been added, was lately (1850) 
discovered in Westphalia. According to the traditionary text by which it 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 141 

is accompanied, it was wont to be sung by the German knights on their 
way to Jerusalem. The only hymn of the same century, which in point 
of style resembles this, is one quoted by Burney from the Chatelaine de 
Coucy, set about the year 1190, very far inferior, however, to this. At a 
missionary meeting held lately in the principality of Lippe-Detmold, this 
hymn was commenced by three voices, but ere the third verse was reached 
hundreds joined in the heart-stirring song of praise." 

In the introduction to " The Ten Theophanies," by Rev. Will- 
iam M, Baker, D. D. , Dr. F. N. Zabriskie has given a very elo- 
quent account of this old melody. The German words are not 
easily accessible, so we add them here : 

Schonster Herr Jesu, 
-•Herrscher aller Enden 
Gottes und Maria Sohn ; 

Dich will ich lichen, 

Dich will ich ehren, 
Du meiner Seelen Freund und Kron. 

Schon sind die Felder, 

Noch schoner sind die Wiilder 

In der schonen Friihlingszeit ; 

Jesus ist schoner 

Jesus ist reiner 
Der unser traurig Herz erfreut. 

Schon leucht't die Sonne, 

Noch schoner leucht't der Monde 

Und die Sternlein allzumal ; 

Jesus leucht't schoner 

Jesus leucht't reiner 
Als all die Engel in Himmelsaal. 

Faith adds new charms to earthly bliss. — Turner. 
This is No. 234, in .six stanzas, in Caleb Evans's Collection, 
fifth edition, 1786, where it has " D. T. " — Daniel Turner — for 
its author. The date is therefore earlier than Gadsby gives, who 
assigns his " few hymns" to the year 1794. Mr. Turner was a 
Baptist minister, settled for half a century at Abingdon, Berkshire, 
England. His birthplace was Blackwater Park, near St. Albans, 
Hertfordshire, where he saw the light, March ist, 17 10. When 
quite young he united with a Baptist Church at Hemel-Hemp- 
stead, not far from his father's farm, and having, after a time, ob- 
tained a fairly good education, he kept (1738) a boarding-school. 
In 1740 he removed to Reading, on the Thames ; then (1741) 



142 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

took charge of the Hosier Lane Baptist church, and in 1748 re- 
moved again to his Hfe settlement at Abingdon. He was a man 
highly esteemed, and is praised in the Evangelical Magazine for 
his ' ' useful writings, excellent character, and amiable disposi- 
tion." He died September 5th, 1798, aged eighty-nine. His 
Divine Songs, Hymns atid Poems, 1747, and Poems, Dezioiional 
and Moral, 1 794, reveal the sources of his hymns. Rippon used 
nine of them. 

Far as thy name is known. — Watts. 
This is Ps. 48, Second Part, S. M., vv. 10-14, "The Beauty 
of the Church ; or, Gospel Worship and Order. " It is in six 
stanzas. 

Far from my thoughts, vain world, begone. — Watts. 

This is Hymn 15 of Dr. Watts's second book. It is entitled 
"The Enjoyment of Christ ; or. Delight in Worship," and has 
six stanzas. Most appropriate and beautiful is the language of St. 
Augustine {Confessions, Book VII. [X.] 16) : 

" He that knows the Truth, knows what that Light is ; and he that 
knows It, knows eternity. Love knoweth it. O Truth Who art Eter- 
nity ! and Love Who art Truth ! and Eternity Who art Love ! Thou art 
my God, to Thee do I sigh night and day. Thee when I first knew. 
Thou liftedst me up that I might see there was what I might see, and that 
I was not yet such as to see. And Thou didst beat back the weakness of 
my sight, streaming forth Thy beams of light upon me most strongly, 
and I trembled with love and awe : and I perceived myself to be far from 
Thee, in the region of unlikeness, as if I heard this Thy voice from on 
high : ' I am the food of grown men ; grow and thou shalt feed upon Me ; 
nor shalt thou convert Me, like the food of thy flesh, into thee, but thou 
shalt be converted into Me.' " 

Far from the world, O Lord, I flee. — Cowper. 

The poet's language in his journal is quite as fine as this hymn 
itself, for it shows us one of those periods of " clear shining" 
which Avere so rare in his troubled life. It is the story of his con- 
version, which he commences in these words : " The happy period 
which was to shake off my fetters and afford me a clear opening to 
the free mercy of God in Jesus Christ was now arrived." 

This hymn, and its companion lyric, " How blest thy creature 
is, O God," belong to this period of his religious experience. 
He had gone from St. Albans to Huntingdon, passing the whole 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 1 43 

time in silent communion with God. " It is impossible," he de- 
clares, " to tell with how delightful a sense of his protection and 
fatherly care of me it pleased the Almighty to favor me during the 
whole of my journey." At its close he was left alone for the first 
time among strangers, and, feeling a little despondent, he wan- 
dered out to a secluded spot and there prayed in secret. A sweet 
and blessed consciousness of renewed peace filled his soul, and he 
came back rested and happy. The following day was Sunday. 
He attended church for the first time since his recovery — that is, 
for nearly two years — and found the utmost joy in the service of 
God. A person who afterward became his friend was attracted 
to him by his devoutness at this time, and altogether the poet's 
own emotion was beyond any language to express. He describes 
himself as seeming to be at the very gate of heaven. From the 
church he hastened away to his secluded retreat, and adds : " How 
shall I express what the Lord did for me, except by saying that he 
made all his goodness pass before me V That lonely and bliss- 
ful place was therefore the true home and birth-spot of this lovely 
hymn. Here it burst forth in a song unto the praise of God. 
From this date (1765) until 1773, Cowper's life was more peace- 
ful and happy than at any other period. 

One can hardly explain how this piece should appear, as it 
does, in the Evangelical Magazine for November, 1797, with the 
title, " Retirement from the World," and signed " H. P." In 
1812, Cowper's authorship of it was distinctly recognized in the 
same magazine. 

When William Wilberforce, the statesman, was quite advanced 
in life, and had sat in Parliament for twenty-eight years, his 
friends induced him to contest the election for York. The poll 
was open, according to the English custom, for fifteen days. 
None of the candidates had less than ten thousand votes. Daily, 
Mr. Wilberforce addressed meetings, and entertained friends at his 
house. But it was noticed that, in the midst of the excitement 
about him, he was singularly calm, and one of his agents relates 
that, as he met him, day after day, on his return to his home, he 
would hear him repeating something to himself. As this seemed 
to be in the same words always, the agent finally contrived to 
catch what he said, and found it to be a stanza from this 
hymn : 



144 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" The calm retreat, the silent shade, 
With prayer and praise agree, 
And seem, by thy sweet bounty made, 
For those that follow thee." 

Father, again, in Jesus' name we meet. — I.ady Whitmore. 

Lady Lucy Elizabeth Georgiana Whitmore was the daughter of 
Orlando, second Baron Bradford, of Shropshire. She was born 
in 1792, and was married in 18 10 to W. W. Whitmore, of Dud- 
maston, Shropshire. The present hymn is found at the end of 
her little volume of Family Prayers, 1824. In 1861 it was some- 
what altered by Rev. Francis Pott. The authoress died in 1840. 

Father, hear the blood of Jesus. — C. (.?) Wesley. 
This hymn is taken from Hymns on the Lord' s Supper by 
John and Charles Wesley, 1745. It is not included in the hymn- 
book prepared by John Wesley in 1779, but has since obtained a 
place in Methodist collections. There is no way, Mr. Creamer 
says, of distinguishing between the compositions of John and 
Charles in these Hymns on the Lord' s Supper. The book con- 
tains one hundred and sixty-six separate pieces, arranged under 
six heads. The Lord's Supper is considered as : i. The me- 
morial. 2. Tlie sign and means of grace. 3. The pledge of 
heaven. 4. The sacrifice ; and the fifth part embraces hymns 
" after the sacrament. " 

Father, by thy love and power. — Anstice. 
Professor Joseph Anstice was born in 1808, the second son of 
William Anstice, of Madeley Wood, Shropshire, England. Edu- 
cated by his uncle, Rev. John Poole, until his thirteenth year, he 
passed a happy childhood with his grandmother and aunts in the 
rectory of Enmore, Somersetshire, and then went to Westminster 
School. Here he was elected a King's scholar, and proceeded to 
Christ Church College, Oxford. His collegiate career was honor- 
able, and he took a high rank in classical and English studies. 
At twenty-two years of age he was professor of Classical Literature 
at King's College, London, marrying soon afterward. His health 
failed him in 1835, and he died at Torquay, February 29th, 1836. 
This hymn and others, which have been drawn from a collection 
of fifty-four, published subsequent to his death, cannot fail of a 
certain pathetic value, when it is known that they were composed 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 145 

by a dying man. They were all dictated to his wife during the 
final weeks of his illness. 

The time which he chose for composition was the afternoon, as 
he then felt the oppression of his disease most forcibly. His 
widow wrote to Mr. Miller that her husband continued to teach his 
classes up to the last day of his life. It is an indescribably melan- 
choly thing for us to find, in these lines, the very exudation of 
perishing hopes and broken purposes. But in their trust they are 
as lovely as in their sorrow. Some of the verses have been so 
good as to be erroneously ascribed to Keble. 

Father, hear the prayer we offer. — Anon. 1864. 
This piece, in four stanzas, entitled " The Prayer of Life," is 
anonymous in Hymns of the Spirit, 1864. 

Father ! how wide thy glory shines. — Watts, 
In HorcB Lyriccc, Book I. , 1 709, this is the piece entitled 
" God glorious and vSinners saved. " It has nine stanzas. One 
of them, usually omitted, contains a striking expression : 

" Our thoughts are lost in rev' rend awe. 
We love and we adore ; 
The first archangel nevey- saw 
So much of God before." 

Father, I know that all my life. — Waring. 
Miss Anna Laetitia Waring's long hymn, entitled " Supplica- 
tion," has furnished the material for this beautiful song of praise. 
As given in Lyra Britajinica, it consists of eight six-line stanzas. 
One stanza, not in common use, is too fine to be omitted here : 

" And if some things I do not ask 

In my cup of blessing be, 
I would have my spirit filled the more 

With grateful love to thee ; 
More careful — not to serve thee much 

But to please thee perfectly." 

These last tvN^o lines contain a touch of real spiritual genius — a 
flash of that illuminating divine knowledge which shows us how 
the Lord, who " is not served by men's hands," delights most in 
those who love his will, and do " always the things that please 
him. ' ' The whole poem is exquisite. It has been frequently 
reprinted entire. Miss Waring has also written : 



146 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" In heavenly love abiding. " 1850. 

" Go not far from me, O my Strength." 1850. 

" My heart is resting, O my God." 

" My Saviour, on the word of truth." 

" Source of my life's refreshing springs." 

" Sweet is the solace of thy love." [Isa. 2 : 12.] 

The present hymn is derived from Hymns a7id Meditations, by 
A. L. W., 1850. She has printed her sacred songs since that date 
in Additional Hymns, 1858, and in the Sunday Magazine, 1871. 

Few authors are so sensitive and shy of pi;bhcity as Miss Waring. 
She has written her heart into her hymns, but the particulars of 
her Hfe and education are concealed from us. She was born in 
1820, and we know additionally that she is a native of Neath, 
Glamorganshire, South Wales, where she resided at last accounts. 
Rev. F. D. Huntingdon, D.D., deserves the credit for having in- 
troduced her verses, in 1S63, to the notice of American readers. 
She must have been a great sufferer to have written : 
" Who would not suffer pain like mine 
To be consoled like me ?" 

Father, in high heaven dwelling. — Rawson. 
The author of this hymn is George Rawson, known for some 
years as " A Leeds Layman," who contributed fifteen pieces to 
the Leeds Hymn-Book, 1853, and twenty-seven to the Psalms 
and Hynms of the Baptist Denomination, 1858, both of which 
collections he helped to edit. His version of the 99th Psalm, 
"God, the Lord, is King, " is in the English Methodist collec- 
tion. Mr. Rawson lives at Clifton, near Bristol, and he published 
in 1876 all his hymns in one large volume, under his own name. 
He was born June 5 th, 1807, and to the best of our present 
knowledge, is still living (1885). The present hymn is in the 
Leeds Collection, 1853, 

Father ! in thy mysterious presence kneeling. — Johnson. 

This prayer " For Divine Strength" was first published as a 
hymn in the Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, of which the author. 
Rev. Samuel Johnson, was one of the compilers. Eleven of Mr. 
Johnson's pieces are in Songs of the LAberal Faith, and among 
them is his splendid " City of God, how broad and far.'' 

Mr, Johnson was born in Salem, Mass., October loth, 1822. 
He was absent from his native town during his college years at 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 147 

Harvard, where he was graduated in 1842, and at the Divinity 
School in 1846, and subsequently in an Independent religious 
pastorate at Lynn, Mass., from 1853 to 1870. Then he returned 
to Salem, where he died, in 1882. 

His sentiments were Theistic in religion and Anti-slavery in 
politics. In spirit he was always devotional, and he is, probably, 
better known by his works on the Oriental Religions than by any- 
thing else that he has done. These books display great learning 
and breadth of thought, and deservedly rank with the treatises of 
Max Mliller, James Freeman Clark, De Pressense, Green and 
Hard wick. 

Father of heaven, whose love profound. — Cooper. 

The author is Rev. Edward Cooper — unmentioned by Miller, 
Hatfield, Belcher, Gadsby, Hutchins, Nutter, G. Stevenson or 
Bird, and by King only to err. Prescott says, briefly, that he 
was " the rector of a parish in Staffordshire, who died in 1833. 
The hymn appears in collections as early as 1808." 

The earliest known copy is in " Portions of the Psalms, chiefly 
selected from the Versions of Merrick and Watts, with Occasional 
Hymns, adapted to the Service of the Church, for every Sunday in 
the Year. Uttoxeter, 1808." This text, carefully edited, is the 
same as is reprinted in Laiuks Domini, from the Free Church 
Hymn- Book, 1882. 

The information which we are able to furnish is derived from a 
scarce volume in the Astor Library, entitled Living Authors 
(18 1 6). Mr. Cooper's name is there given as " Edward Cooper, 
Rector of Hamstall Ridware, and Yoxhall, Staffordshire, and late 
Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford." The titles of some of his 
sermons are mentioned. In the Oxford lists of graduates there 
are several persons of the same name and of nearly the same 
period. This one (we think) is the Edward Cooper who was a 
" Grand Compounder" of All Souls' College, receiving his B.A., 
December 17th, 1792, and being "starred" so as to indicate 
that he took precedence of others in point of social standing. A 
'* Compounder" is " one who, at a university, pays extraordinary 
tees, proportioned to his estate, for the degrees which he takes. ' ' 

The assiduous Dr. Allibone enlarges our knowledge of Cooper. 
His rectorship of Yoxhall began in 1809 ; he died in 1833. His 



148 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

P radical and Familiar SermoJis (7 vols., 12 mo) passed through 
many editions. Bickersteth, in his Christian Shuicnt, calls these 
discourses "plain, sound and useful." The Free Church Hymn- 
Bnok, 1882, states that the hymn appeared in the collection named 
above, v/hich was printed anonymously, " but attributed to Mr. 
Cooper on the authority of an aged clergyman who knew him per- 
sonally (the Rev. John Wakefield, Rector of Hughlcy, Salop)" — 
which fact is taken from a note in the annotated copy of Church 
Hymns. In the original collection it is also marked " Cooper," 
and it is said to have been in two previous collections. Sometimes 
it is attributed to "J. Cooper" — as by Rev. W. F. Stevenson, in 
Hymns for the Church and Home, and Rev. James King, in 
Afjglican Hymnology. 

Father of mercies, in thy word. — Steele. 

There are twelve stanzas to this hymn, which is usually em- 
ployed in England before the reading of the Scriptures, in the Dis- 
senting Churches. Christophers has reprinted it entire, in his 
Hyffuis and Hymn Writers. 

The Jewish teachers were accustomed to say that the Word of 
God was properly compared to wine and milk — as in the 55th 
chapter of Isaiah — because these fluids are best preserved in vessels 
of earthenware, and not in gold or silver. Thus, they said, those 
minds which are of humble and modest character are best adapted 
to storing up the great truths of the divine revelation. 

Father of mercies, send thy grace. — Doddridge, partly. 

In Doddridge's hymns this bears the title, " The Good Samari- 
tan." The text is Luke 10 : 30-57, and it has five stanzas. This 
piece, however, appeared in the Evangelical Magazine, in 1805, 
with the omission of the first stanza (which is Doddridge's) and 
with the following preliminary statement : 

" On a Box being fixed in Stroud Meeting, Ivent, for the Benefit 
of the Sick Poor, March 10th, 1794." It is signed " A Lady." 
The stanzas commence with the lines : 

1. " Oh may our sympathizing breasts^" 

2. " When the most helpless sons of grief — " 

3. " So Jesus looked on dying men — " 

4. " On wings of love the Saviour flew — " 

5. " The mite your willing hands can give — " 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 149 

Father, thy name be praised, thy kingdom given. — Winkworth, /r. 
In Laudes Donwii there are four lines added to this hymn, as 
a doxology, from iht Hymnary, 1872. Our piece is, originally, 
the closing stanza of an evening hymn of the Bohemian Brethren, 
" Die Nacht ist Kommen," etc. (" Now God be with us, for the 
night is closing"). 

Father, Son and Holy Ghost. — C. (.^) Wesley. 
From the Hymns on the Lord' s Supper, 1745. The authorship 
cannot be settled positively. 

Father, whate'er of earthly bliss. — Steele. 
This hymn is from the sick-room. In Miss Steele's poems, 
1760, a copy of which in the original edition is now before us, 
this appears at p. 134 of Vol. I. It commences : 

" When I survey life's varied scene 
Amid the darkest hours." 

The hymn willi which we are so familiar, and which is probably 
the best known and loved of all that Miss Steele ever wrote, is 
the last three stanzas. The whole piece has ten, and the eighth 

begins : 

" And oh, whate'er of earthly bliss 
Thy sov'reign hand denies." 

The poem is entitled " Desiring Resignation and Thankfulness." 
The author, we are told, permitted her hymns — one hundred and 
forty-four in number — to be published with the understanding 
that the profits from their sale should go to benevolent objects. 

The tune, " Naomi," was written by Lowell Mason, in 1836, 
to accompany these words, and to sing them to any other would 
seem to the American churches almost like sacrilege. 

When the holy Fletcher of Madeley was in high favor with 
George III. of England, because of a paper which he had written 
on the American war, the monarch asked him what preferment he 
would desire. " Sire," said the good man, " I want nothing but 
more grace. ' ' 

Father, whose hand hath led me so securely. — Massie, ir. 
We derive this hymn from the German of Carl Johann Philipp 
Spitta, through the translation of Richard IMassie. The original 
is in Spitta's Psalter und Harfe. Mr. ?vlassie entitled his volume 



150 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

of translations Lyra Domestica. It appeared in i860, and has 
been reprinted, and supplied with a prefatory notice, on this side 
of the water, by Rev. F. D. Huntingdon, D. D. 

Fear not, O little flock, the foe. — Winkworth, tr. 

This was one of the noblest strains evoked by the Thirty Years' 
War. It was the battle-song of Gustavus Adolphus's army, and 
after the king had knelt in their presence and solemnly invoked 
the divine blessing on their cause, they were accustomed to sing 
it together. That thousands of Swedish voices should sound forth 
such a song of praise and trust must have been an inspiration of 
victory in itself. 

The authorship of the piece has frequently been ascribed to 
Johann Michael Altenburg, who doubtless arranged the music of 
it, and who made the German version, from which Miss Wink- 
worth has taken the present hymn. But the real author was Dr. 
Jacob Fabricius (born, 1593 ; died, 1654). He it was who com- 
posed it for his king's use. Dr. Fabricius was the court chaplain, 
and the hymn arose in the king's own heart, but he was incapable 
of expressing it as he desired, being no man of letters, but only a 
man of the sword. 

The incidents connected with the hymn are recorded at length 
by Simon Wolimhaus, a Swedish writer, in a book published at 
Stockholm, 1655. In 1707, Nordberg, the chaplain of the Swedish 
king, Charles XII., showed to Dr. Rechenberg, in Leipzig, a 
document establishing these facts : viz. , that the hymn was really 
composed by Gustavus Adolphus, and put in shape by Dr. Fabri- 
cius, who versified the prose of his royal master. Further, we 
know that Dr. Fabricius informed Dr. Born, at Leipzig, in the 
presence of Dr. Hiilsemann, that this account was correct. 

At the battle of Leipzig the king bade his army sing Luther's 
hymn, " Ein feste Biwg tsl wiser Golt." So he did again in 
his last struggle at Liitzen with Wallenstein. On that occasion 
he followed it with this hymn, to the accompaniment of the drums 
and trumpets of the army. Then he knelt beside his horse and 
offered this prayer : " O Lord Jesus Christ, bless our arms and this 
day's battle for the glory of thy holy name." Then he arose and 
went along the line encouraging his troops. ]\Iany of his sayings 
have been preserved. He gave the men their old slogan, " Gott 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 151 

tnit uns" — " God with us" — as their battle-cry. Then he called 
aloud : " Now let us begin !" The fog which had hung over 
the plain was thinning away, and the king had only a buff coat 
on his body. " God is my armor," he said to his servant, who 
wanted to induce him to put on his coat-of-mail. Later he ex- 
claimed : " Jesu, Jesu, help us to-day to fight for thy holy name's 
honor." About eleven o'clock the fatal bullet struck him from 
his horse, but the victory was secure to the evangelical troops. As 
he fell, he cried out : " I seal with my blood the liberty and re- 
ligion of the German nation." Then he said : " My God, my 
God." And, finally: "Alas! my poor queen!" The hymn 
is, therefore, a most befitting production to come from one who 
always wished that faith should be put in God, and not in any 
earthly leader. 

A certain Peter Streng, who sang this hymn throughout Ger- 
many, once asserted that it was " dearer to him than the best 
house m Coburg, " for when he was a poor boy the people would 
always give him bread when they heard this song from his lips. 

The excellent Spener made this his Sunday hymn. After din- 
ner, each week, the company around his table joined in singing 
it. It is also sung at the meetings of the " Gustavus Adolphus 
Association," which supports needy Protestant churches in the 
Roman Catholic countries. 

Perhaps it is as well to add to this story that the king was born 
in 1594, and died, November i6th, 1632. 

Fierce raged the tempest o'er the deep. — Thring, 
The date of this hymn is 1858, and it is so generally accepted 
by the Anglican hymnals as to induce Rev. James King to class it 
among the " standard hymns of the future." 

Fierce was the wild billow. — Neale, /r. 
Dr. Neale translated these verses from the Greek of St. Ana- 
tolius, L,oq)£pa'^ Tpinv/.iuxc;, and placed the rendering in his 
Hymns of the Eastern Church, 1862. St. Anatolius was bishop 
of Constantinople, being consecrated in 449. He died in 458, 
having been the apocrisiarhis, or ecclesiastical representative of 
Dioscuras, the Patriarch of Alexandria, at Constantinople. The 
Pope of Rome also maintained such a functionary there for some 
time, the purpose being to hold the right of prerogative, as a cog- 



152 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

nate and equal dignitary. Anatolius found his post a difficult 
one. He crowned the Emperor Leo, and contrived, through the 
Council ot Chalcedon, to set the Eastern and Western churches on 
a level, by insisting upon the equality of Constantinople and 
Rome. He was evidently acting in the interests of a rival third 
party — Alexandria — and therefore was charged with ambition and 
intrigue. But he seems to have been fairly innocent of serious 
offences, although living in a troublous age. 

This hymn, and others like it, show that he possessed a vein of 
real and tender poetry. Dr. Neale compares him, not very hap- 
pily or successfully, to Venantius Fortunatus, for whom see " The 
Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns." The hymns translated 
from him by Dr. Neale have been popular. They are, addition- 
ally : 

" The day is past and over." 

" The Lord and King of all things." 

" A great and mighty wonder." 

Firm as the earth thy Gospel stands. — Watts. 

We find this hymn after a sermon on John 10 : 28, 29. It is 
also the 138th hymn of Dr. Watts' s first book, with the title, 
" Saints in the Hands of Christ." 

The hymn is in three stanzas, and its first line reads : " Firm 
as the rock thy Gospel stands." 

For a season called to part. — Newton. 

This was written as a " Pardng Hymn," in November, 1776, 
when Newton was leaving Olney for London, there to undergo a 
painful operation. It begins with the words : " As the sun's en- 
livening eye," and in the Olney Hymns it is Book II., No. 71. 

For all thy saints, O God. — Mant. 

This hymn is No. 64, in Mant's Ancient Hymns, in six stanzas. 
It commences : " For all thy saints, O Lord." The date is about 
1837. The original has " For thy dear saints, O Lord." 

Richard Mant was born at Southampton (Dr. Watts' s birth- 
place), February 12th, 1776. His father was rector of All Saints' 
Church, in that place, and was somewhat celebrated as an author 
and scholar. The son was placed at Winchester School, in 1789, 
and subsequently at Trinity College, Oxford, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1801, and soon ordained as curate to his father, at Buriton, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 153 

Petersfield, Hants. In 18 10 he became vicar of Coggeshall, 
Essex, and was appointed, in 18 13, to be domestic chaplain to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. In 18 16, we find him rector of 
St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, London. In 1820 he was consecrated 
bishop of Killaloe, Ireland, and was translated to the see of Down 
and Connor in 1823. In 1842 he was elevated to the bishopric of 
Dromore, and died on the 2d of November, 1848. Bishop 
Mant's writings are voluminous, and his hymns — of which there 
is a multitude — are scattered through his different works. 

For all thy saints, who from their labors rest, — How, 
This hymn, dated 1854, is the production of Bishop William 
Walsham How, and is one of the coming " standard " hymns of 
the English Church. 

Forever with the Lord. — Montgomery. 

Montgomery said, in the winter of 1849, that he had received 
more indications of approval for the verses beginning " Here in 
the body pent ' ' than for anything he had ever written, except the 
lines on prayer. 

This hymn is found as No. 234, among his Original Hymns, 
with the title, " At Home in Heaven : i Thess. 4:17." It has 
twenty-one stanzas, and the date is 1835, in which year it was 
published in the Poei's Portfolio, and also in the first edition of 
the author's Original Hymns. It seems strange that so precious 
a song of trust and aspiration was unknown to the Methodist 
churches for nearly a quarter of a century. Then it was placed in 
their hymnals, and the first occasion of its use, during a meeting 
of the Conference of churches at Leeds, was marked by the deep 
emotion of a very aged man. Rev. James Everett, a personal friend 
of the writer of the hymn. 

This was the favorite hymn of the distinguished Christian jurist, 
Hugh McCalmont Cairns, Earl Cairns, Lord High Chancellor of 
England, He was born December 27th, 18 19, and this hymn 
was sung at his funeral services, April 7th, 1885. 

For the beauty of the earth. — Pierpoint, 
Folliott Sandford Pierpoint is the son of William Home Pier- 
point, of Bath, England. He was born at Spa Villa, October 
7th, 1835, and this hymn, it is stated, first appeared in Lyra 



154 • ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Eiicharistka, second edition, 1864, He also contributed to tl:e 
first edition, 1863, a hymn — " O cross, O cross of shame." His 
name does not appear in the hst of graduates from Oxford, Cam- 
bridge, or Edinburgli universities, nor is he on the clerical lists. 
The present information is from W. Fleming Stevenson's capital 
little collection. Hymns for Church and Home, London, 1873, 
to whose brief biographical notes we are much indebted. 

For the mercies of the day.- — O. P., 1826. 

" O. P." edited a \\\.\\& Missionary Psalmist, 1826. This was 
one of his own hymns included in that collection. Nothing 
further is known of the author. The hymn originally began with 
the stanza, " Ere another Sabbath's close," and is entered under 
this line as "Anon., 1841," in Lord Selborne's Book 0/ Praise. 

It has been sometimes credited to Hon. and Rev. Baptist W. 
Noel, in whose SeledioJt, 1832, it appeared. It has been also re- 
ferred to " J. Montgomery, 1853" — but this is a palpable error. 

For thee, O dear, dear country. — Neale, //-. 
This is part of "Jerusalem the Golden," 1851, commencing 
with the line, " O bona palria, lu?nina sobria te specidantur.'" 
Bernard's unique poem (of which we possess a perfect copy) is 
divided into three books, embracing about three thousand lines. 
Dr. Neale's and Archbishop Trench's cento has been made up 
from the first part of the first book, and this verse occurs about 
one third of the distance from the commencement. Further in- 
formation is reserved for appropriate and extended treatment in 
" The Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns." 

For what shall I praise thee, my God and my King. — Wilson. 
Mrs. Caroline (Fry) Wilson, born at Tunbridge Wells, Decem- 
ber 31st, 1787, is the reputed author of " We speak of the realms 
of the blest" — which Dr. Charles Rogers assigns to her, with a 
trifle of misgiving, and which now seems the property of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Mills. She was the daughter of a farmer in easy cir- 
cumstances, and published a Poetical Catechis7n in 1821, which 
passed through several editions. Her Serious Poetry also met 
with favor. She married in 1831, and died at Tunbridge Wells, 
September 17th, 1846. Her Autobiography, Letters and Re- 
ffiains, 1843, show her to have been a person of deep religious 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 155 

experience. This hymn has been sometimes assigned to Mrs. 
Elizabeth Fry. 

Forsake me not ! O thou, my Lord, my Light ! — Morgan, ir. 

This translation, by Mrs. John P. Morgan, of N. Y. City, ap- 
peared in the Chrisiiari Uniim in 1883. The lady's residence is 
not now known, and every effort to procure further information 
has failed. The version is probably from some German hymn. 

Forward, be our watchword. — Alford. 
This hymn was written, and the music composed, to be sung 
at the " Tenth Festival of Parochial Choirs of the Canterbury Dio- 
cesan Union," June 6th, 1871. It has eight stanzas in all. 

Friend of sinners ! Lord of glory. — N. Hall. 

Rev. Christopher Newman Hall, LL.B. , was born at Maid- 
stone, Kent, England, May 2 2d, 1816. He is the son of John 
Vine Hall (author of The Sm?icr's Friend), and brother of Cap- 
tain John Vine Hall, once the commander of the " Great East- 
ern." He was educated at Totteridge and at Highbury College, 
and took his degree at the London University. In 1S42 he be- 
came pastor of the Albion Congregational Church, Hull, and in 
1854 succeeded Rev. James Sherman at Surrey Chapel (sometimes 
called Rowland Hill's Chapel, from its former minister) in 
Blackfriars Road, London. Here Mr. Hall has done a great and 
good work — though not without detraction and opposition. He 
has planned and carried out many measures for the benefit of the 
working classes. He took the part of the North against the South 
in the American Civil War, and has visited this country on several 
occasions. The tower of his present church (Christ Church, Lon- 
don) is named after Abraham Lincoln, and the greater part of the 
money to erect it came from America. This church was dedicated 
July 4th, 1876 — the "Centennial" year. Mr. Hall advocates 
open-air preaching, and may often be seen addressing a crowd 
upon the street at the close of his regular services. His tract, 
Come to /esus, has been translated into at least thirty languages, 
and is still circulating by the million in all parts of the world. 

The present piece is taken from Rhymes Composed at Bolton 
Abbey, and Other Rhymes, 1857. The author's hymns are now 
collected in Pilgrim Songs in Cloud and Sunshine, 1886. 



IS a ENGLISH HYMNS. 

From all that dwell below the skies. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts's version of Ps. 117, L. M. It is a brief ren- 
dering of the shortest chapter in the Bible, and yet it is full of 
force and fervor. There is a charm in poetry and music which 
has never been exhausted, and by some not even fully realized. 

" An instance of this was witnessed," says G. J. Stevenson, " in 1849, 
in a large school of poor children at Lambeth Green, London. The day's 
work was done, the usual singing and prayer were over, and three hundred 
boys were expecting in a moment to be free from authority and at play. 
This Psalm by Dr. Watts had been sung to the tune of the ' Portuguese 
Hymn.' The master made a few remarks about the pleasure music pro- 
duced, and asked the children to try and sing the hymn again. They did 
so ; it was done with care and much feeling. Again the request was pre- 
ferred — wrould they like to sing it again ? The reply from hundreds of 
voices was a simultaneous ' Yes.' It was repeated, if possible with in- 
creased delight to the boys. Then followed a few remarks about the 
music of heaven, and how sweet it must be there, and the boys were 
asked if they had not felt more happy by that singing than if they had 
been at play. Another unanimous ' Yes ' was the response ; and again 
they were asked to sing. ' Oh, yes,' was the instant reply ; and thus half 
an hour of their play-time was occupied by singing praise to God by 
three hundred poor children, immediately under the shadow of the palace 
of the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, and the children thanked 
the teacher for the pleasure their own voices had afforded to themselves. 
The hymn and tune were fixed in their memories for life." 

From every stormy wind that blows, — Stowell, 
Rev. Hugh Stowell, the author of this hymn, bore a very high 
reputation in the Church of England. He was born at Douglas, 
in the Isle of Man, December 3d, 1799. His father was the 
rector of Ballaugh, near Ramsay, and the son was educated for the 
Church. In 1 818 he entered St. Edmund's Hall, O.xford, and 
was graduated in 1822. He was made deacon in 1823, and 
priest, October 3d, 1824. He was first curate of Shapscombe, 
Gloucestershire, and was then stationed for two years at H udders- 
field before he became the incumbent of St. Stephen's, Salford, 
across the river from Manchester. Here he gathered multitudes 
to hear the Gospel, and their generosity equalling their numbers, 
the beautiful structure called Christ Church was speedily erected. 

In this he preached with fervor to thronged assemblages until 
his power was so well recognized that he was made an honorary 
canon of Chester Cathedral, and afterward rural dean of Salford. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 157 

The duty of these deans, it has been sometimes wittily said, is to 
do their best to keep the bishops out of their cathedrals. Cer- 
tainly Dean Stowell was no lover of Ritualism, for his sympathies 
all ran toward the Low Church and evangelical wing of the Angli- 
can Communion. He was a hearty supporter of the religious and 
benevolent societies of the day. The Bible, Tract, and Mission- 
ary causes had his constant encouragement, and the Oxford Trac- 
tarians met his unflinching opposition. 

After his death, at Salford, October 8th, 1865, several of his 
sermons and forty-six of his hymns were published. A memoir 
of his life, from the pen of Rev. J. B. Marsden, appeared in 1868. 
In 1 83 1 he had already issued some of these pieces in his Collec- 
tion of Psabns and Hymns. The present hymn is entitled 
" Peace at the Mercy-Seat," and was contributed, in 1827, to the 
Winter s Wreath, from which it was copied into Littell's Religions 
Magazine (Philadelphia), in 1S28. Its author republished it, in 
1832, in his Pleasures of Religion and Other Poems. 

The hymn, " Lord of mercy and of might," was written by him 
for the Jubilee of the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

The Rev. Thomas Alfred Stowell, canon of IManchester, gives 
the following account of his father's death : 

" My father's last utterances abundantly showed his love of, and delight 
in, prayer. Almost every word was prayer, couched for the most part in 
the language of Holy Scripture, or the Book of Common Prayer, and 
these prayers were characterized by the deepest humility and most entire 
self-distrust. 

" Equally apparent was his simple and firm reliance on his Saviour. 
To the question, ' Is Jesus with you and precious to you?' the answer 
was, ' Yes, so that he is all in all to me.' 

" During his waking moments he frequently exclaimed, ' Very much 
peace,' and several times, ' No fear,' ' Abundance of joy,' ' A very pres- 
ent help in time of trouble.' The morning of his death the only articulate 
words that we could catch, uttered two or three hours before his decease, 
were : ' Amen ! Amen ! ' 

' His watchword at the gates of death, 
He enters heaven by prayer.' 

" At one o'clock, on the afternoon of God's day of rest, without a 
struggle, and without the shadow of pain crossing his peaceful counte- 
nance, he entered into rest." 

His was, therefore, " The calm, the sure retreat," of which he 
has sung. 



158 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

From Greenland's icy mountains. — Heber. 

Dean Howson, in the Art Journal for June, 1873, relates that 
Mr. Heber, then rector of Hodnet, was visiting Dean Shirley, 
dean of St. Asaph, and vicar of Wrexham, his father-in-law, just 
before Whit-Sunday, 1819. He gives the story of the composition 
of the hymn in much the same way as others, and it is now well 
authenticated. 

The facts are that a royal letter had been issued, calling for mis- 
sionary collections in aid of the ' ' Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel" on that particular day. Mr. Heber had gone to 
hear the dean preach, and to take his share of the Sunday even- 
ing lectures just established in that church. On the Saturday pre- 
vious, he was asked by him to prepare some verses to be sung at 
the closing of the morning service. The poet sat down at the 
window of the old vicarage, and in a short time produced this 
hymn, all but the lines, "Waft, waft, ye winds, his story." 
These he wrote just afterward. He would even have added 
another stanza, but the dean was now positive that anything more 
would spoil the unity of the piece. Only one change was made 
in the copy — " heathen" being put instead of " savage" nations 
— and the manuscript was hurried off to the printer. Dean How- 
son has seen the clear and beautiful first draft — since lithographed 
— and the printer, Kennedy, who set up the type, as a boy, that 
Saturday night, was living in 1873, ^^ Wrexham. 

The manuscript passed through several hands, and finally came 
into the possession of Rev. Dr. Raffles, of Liverpool. The litho- 
graphed facsimile was made by Mr. Hughes, of Wrexham, and 
shows the mark of the printer's " copy-hook" on which it had 
been impaled. On the back is a circumstantial history of its com- 
position, signed " E." The original was shown at the World's 
Exhibition of 1851, in London. It was, of course, sung for the 
first time in Wrexham church, on Whit-Sunday, 18 19. 

Not the least interesting particular connected with it is its asso- 
ciation with the passage in Yiob^v' s Jourttal 0/ a Voyage to India, 
where, under date of September, 1823, he writes : 

" Though we were now too far off Ceylon to catch the odors of the 
land, yet it is, we are assured, perfectly true that such odors are percep- 
tible to a very considerable distance. In the Straits of Malacca a smell 
like that of a hawthorn hedge is commonly experienced ; and from Cey- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 159 

Ion, at thirty or forty miles, under certain circumstances, a yet more 
agreeable scent is inhaled." 

This is the author's own comment upon the " spicy breezes" 
which " blow soft from Ceylon's isle." 

In 1852, two missionaries were sent by Bishop Andrew to repre- 
sent the South CaroHna (M. E. ) Conference on the Pacific Coast. 
They afterward reported that among their bits of happiness was the 
pleasure of finding a man and his wife from South Carolina, who 
were sitting before a tent in the Santa Clara Valley, in 1853, sing- 
ing this hymn. 

In the revival of 1858 there were several converted sailors on 
board the " North Carolina," a frigate in the U. S. Navy, When 
they compared nationalities they found that they came from ten 
different countries, and when the last man stated that he had been 
born in Greenland, one of the others spontaneously started this 
hymn, which they all sang heartily. 

From the cross uplifted high. — Haweis. 
Dr. Thomas Haweis was one of that glorious group of hymn 
writers who surrounded Selina Shirley, Countess of Huntingdon. 
Like the others, he contributed to that square- shaped, odd-look- 
ing, and really admirable collection of hymns, to which her lady- 
ship, and her cousin, Walter Shirley, devoted so much care and 
taste. The genealogy of the later English hymns is soon told. 
They come from the early Greek, through the Latin of Bernard of 
Clairvaulx, and of Peter the Venerable, by way of the German of 
Luther and Gerhardt. Also, through the Bohemians and Mora- 
vians, the holy strain comes down until, in Lady Huntingdon's 
hospitable drawing-room. Watts, Doddridge, and the Wesleys put an 
ineffaceable character upon the Christian songs of the eighteenth 
— and even of the nineteenth — centuries, by blending the vigor 
and spirituality of both these sources into one stream. The lesser 
rivulets of song are attuned to the same concord of sweet sound. 
It is the heart-life of the Church which is being hymned. And 
while Haweis is by no means among the masters, he has their 
tone, and so surely has it that he is kept in memory still. His 
hymns are such as : 

" Enthroned on high, almighty Lord !" 

" To thee, my God and Saviour," 

" O thou, from whom all goodness flows," 



l6o ENGLISH HYMNS. 

and this which is before us. They are fervent and true in their 
utterance, and the Church has approved a fair proportion of them. 
Rev. Thomas Haweis, LL.B., M.D., was born at Truro, Corn- 
wall, England, in the year 1733, according to Dr. John Morrison. 
His family was of good, and even aristocratic, lineage, and he was 
naturally affiliated with the society in which Lady Huntingdon 
moved. The young man's education was a liberal one, and an 
associate of his student days was that Samuel Foote, the comic 
actor, of whom so many entertaining stories are related. 

When he was about fourteen years of age the curate of St. Mary's 
church, Truro, was Rev. Samuel Walker, an earnest advocate of 
the evangelical views then beginning to prevail in the Church of 
England. It was under the preaching and personal influence of 
this spiritually-minded man that young Haweis was sincerely con- 
verted, and became a pious and devoted character. Mr. Walker 
soon saw in him many indications of fitness for the work of the 
ministry. He had both ardor and oratory, and, although he had 
begun the study of medicine with a physician in Truro, the other 
calling was the more imperative. 

With the consent of his family he now entered Oxford as a 
gentleman commoner of Christ Church College, whence he after- 
ward removed to Magdalen Hall. His associates and habits were 
of the best. When he graduated he was therefore appointed, in 
1757, to the curacy of St. Mary Magdalen's church, Oxford, and 
ordained by Dr. Thomas Seeker, then bishop of Oxford. His 
success as a preacher was immediate. But it was soon noised 
abroad that he was a " Methodist," and that he made religion 
quite too serious a matter upon men's consciences. In a few 
years this feeling culminated, and Rev. Dr. John Hume, the new 
Bishop of Oxford, ousted him from his curacy. Our phrase is 
deliberately chosen. He was very popular, and doing a great 
deal of good, especially among the students of the university. 

Just at that time Rev. Martin Madan — known as a hymn com- 
piler, and perhaps as the composer of an original piece or two — 
was in charge of the Lock Hospital chapel, in London, which 
belonged to the parish of Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire. A 
" Lock Hospital " was one where peculiarly depraved and aban- 
doned persons could be met, and Mr. Kimpton, the rector of the 
parish, and Madan's superior, had been so far corrupted by bad 



ENGLISH HYMNS, l6i 

example that he was in debt and in prison himself. The " living" 
— such as it was — was in his gift, and Madan persuaded him to 
appoint Haweis to the post. This he did, but alter awhile he was 
offered a thousand guineas for this privilege, or " advowson," as 
it was called, and regretted that he had parted with it for nothing. 
He then attacked Haweis in order to induce him to pay a com- 
pensation or else give up the position. Under advice of compe- 
tent persons Haweis declined to do either one thing or the other. 
The result was a controversy, conducted, as was the custom then, 
by a fusillade of small pamphlets — in which (one is sorry to have 
to say) ]Mr. Haweis and his friends did not spare their powder and 
shot. It is now before us in Fathers and Founders of the Missionary 
Society, edition of 1844. 

Lady Huntingdon then interposed, and, by a payment of 
;^iooo on her own account, forever silenced Mr. Kimpton. The 
affair had assumed an internecine character, and vital piety was 
suffering, though Mr. Haweis' s conduct has never been im- 
peached. From 1763, therefore, to the end of his life, Thomas 
Haweis held this pulpit of Aldwinkle, honored and prosperous, 
and turning many to righteousness. He was a special chaplain 
also to the countess, and was one of the founders of the " London 
Missionary Society," in 1795. 

The list of his writings shows him to have been a man of learn- 
ing, and of considerable exegetical powers. His Car?nina Chrisio, 
1792, contained one hundred and forty-one original hymns, to 
which, in 1808, he added others, which made the entire number 
two hundred and fifty-six. Not more than fifteen or twenty of 
them, however, have been in common use, and these, like the 
present, are mostly from his earlier productions. 

When advancing years rendered him infirm, Dr. Haweis retired 
to Bath, and there, in his eighty-ninth year, February nth, 1820, 
he peacefully expired. 

Of his hymns he said : " They are such as my heart indited, 
and they speak of the things which I have believed concerning my 
God and King. They all point to one object — to a crucified 
Jesus." 

From the recesses of a lowly spirit. — Bowring. 

This chant, dated in 1823, is another striking instance of the 
power of hymns to free themselves from all association with their 



l62 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

authors. Sir John Bowring's verses have occasionally been re- 
garded as composed by a " Unitarian," and consequently placed 
under the ban of some compilers. But such an admirable strain 
as this, and such a triumphant song as "In the Cross of Christ I 
glory," and such a significant lyric as " Watchman, tell us of the 
night," could not be repressed by any narrow code. The good 
man's evangelical truth entitled him to say — if he cared to say it 
— " After the way which men call heresy, so worship I the God 
of my fathers. ' ' 

From the table now retiring. — J. Rowe. 

Rev. John Rowe was a Dissenter, and is said by some (but 
erroneously) to have been a Baptist. He was for thirty-four years 
a minister in Bristol, and his theology was first Calvinistic, and 
then Socinian. He was born at Spensecomb, near Crediton, 
April 17th, 1764, and was trained from boyhood for the ministry 
— a fact which, if it was unaccompanied by any desire on the 
lad's own part, will go far to explain his subsequent opinions. 

After a preliminary classical course in the school of Rev. Joseph 
Bretland, he entered Hoxton Academy. This being closed, he 
was transferred to Hackney College, 1786. In 1787 he became 
one of the ministers of High Street Presbyterian church, Shrews- 
bury. How long he continued here we do not know, but in 1797 
he was chosen as one of the ministers of Lewin's Mead chapel, 
Bristol. Rev. Dr. John R Estlin, a distinguished Unitarian, was 
his colleague until 181 7. Then, and until Mr. Rowe's death, 
this position was occupied by Rev. Dr. Lant Carpenter, another 
Unitarian. So there can be no doubt of Mr. Rowe's own senti- 
ments. He was a "serious, earnest and impressive" preacher, 
and it is very certain that in those days much theology was called 
" heterodox" which is vvell received in our times, as being more 
in the spirit of the Master than that which condemned it. 

In January, 1831, ]\Ir. Rowe was stricken with paralj'sis, and 
in 1832 he gave up his charge, and proceeded, with his daughter, 
to Italy. He had been sorely afflicted in the loss of different 
members of his family, and this sole surviving daughter closed his 
eyes at Siena, July 2d, 1832. He died, " perfectly resigned and 
composed," in his sixty- ninth year. 

The present hymn dates from 181 2. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 163 

Gently, Lord, oh, gently lead us. — Hastings. 

Dr. Thomas Hastings was born in Washington, Lichfield 
County, Conn., October 15th, 1784. His parents removed, in 
1796, to Clinton, N. Y,, making their way through what was then 
an unbroken wilderness, in sleighs and ox-sleds. The lad was 
thus inured to the hardships of a pioneer life, and his early youth 
was spent in the routine duties of the farm. But with the winter 
months came the eager desire for knowledge, to gratify which he 
counted it no hardship to go six miles daily, on foot, to the 
school. He had already begun the study of music from a six- 
penny primer of four small pages. Next he became fifth chorister 
in the village choir, and his musical career was commenced in 
earnest. Deriving from a treatise on music many valuable ideas^ 
he puzzled out its difficult places, and finally mastered its contents. 
Then he turned to what was to be his profession, and endeavored 
to secure a situation in some school to teach music. At first this 
was a failure ; but finally, in 1806-7, he was invited to Bridge- 
water, Oneida County, and Brookfield, Herkimer County. 

It must not be forgotten that the singing-schools of that time 
and region were by no means places of hard work. Those who 
went were mainly young people, bent on fun and flirtation. 
Hence a conscientious instructor had no sinecure. But Mr. Hast- 
ings was inflexible in his purpose, and he not only enforced his 
rules, but managed to obtain very apparent good results by the 
end of the third season. In 181 6, after a period of five years 
spent in business and on the farm, IMr. Hastings returned to 
music, and compiled, v/ith Professor Norton, the famous Musica 
Sacra. In 18 18 he was invited to Trov, and at this date he ap- 
pears to have given his first distinctive attention to religious music. 

The year 1822 witnessed the outcome of these thoughts, in a 
work Oil Musical Taste. In this he took the ground that ' ' re- 
ligion has the same claim substantially in song as in speech." 
And it was under this banner that he fought all the rest of his life. 

In his management of the singing at Dr. Chester's church in 
Albany he carried these views into immediate practice, and with 
the best results. He had arranged his singers so that the congre- 
gation was really led by several trained voices, though it seemed as 
if he stood forward alone as precentor. The church became cele- 
brated for its congregational singing, and Mr. Hastings wrote 



1 64 ENGLISH HYMNS, 

articles upon this new departure for the Utica papers. As one 
thing- usually leads to another, this led to his being invited to the 
editorial chair of a religious newspaper, called The Recorder. His 
salary was fixed at six hundred dollars per annum, half the amount 
being conditioned on the support which the paper received. 

He accepted these meagre terms, and in 1823 he removed to 
Utica. The Recorder was first issued as a fortnightly publication in 
January, 1824. It was an era of revivals, followed by equally 
great dissensions — facts which have indelibly stamped their record 
on the population of Oneida County. The editor continued his 
relations with the paper until its ninth volume had appeared. He 
never lost sight of the interests of sacred music in these years, and 
hence he came to be known, more and more widely, as the advo- 
cate of many reforms. In 1832, New York City sought his aid ; 
twelve churches combining to secure him for the metropolis. 
While the matter was tentative, a meeting was held in the old 
Broome Street (Presbyterian) church. At this Mr. Hastings 
spoke, and with such power and persuasiveness that the case was 
decided at once, for it was felt that he must be obtained. 

From 1832 to 1872, Dr. Hastings (as we must now style him) 
was a resident of New York City, devoting himself to its psalmody, 
and affecting the entire country from this commanding situation. 
To him church music had become a sacred duty, " an holy call- 
ing," and he gave himself up to it in all its aspects. This, of 
course, included the hymns themselves ; and, in point of fact, he 
composed no less than six hundred original pieces. He also cor- 
rected many of the older hymns, according to a more elevated 
standard of taste. To do this without detracting from their piety 
was, of itself, no slight achievement. Dr. Hastings, however, was 
a man eminent in his knowledge of the Scriptures, and of a truly 
devout spirit. YVx-s, Church Psalmist, published in 1836, was there- 
fore a marked example of his methods. It was severely criticised, 
but gained a wide circulation, as Spirilual Sofrgs, 1S33, had done 
before it. 

The educational influence of all these various publications was 
becoming more and more apparent. In 1844 his connection with 
William B. Bradbury added great strength to the cause. It would 
be tedious and unnecessary to enumerate the different works which 
these friends produced, alone, or in partnership. Of them all. Dr. 



ENGLISH HYMNS, . ' 165 

Hastings felt that Selah, 1856, was his best. The Church Melodies, 
1858, was the pioneer of modern works of the combined hymn- 
book and tune- book class. Like the Plymouth Collection, 1855, it 
aimed to secure congregational singing in public worship. 

It should be added that this was by no means an easy task to 
which Dr. Hastings so devotedly consecrated his powers of mind 
and will. The oppositions and discouragements of it are known 
to those who have trodden the same path. Its success is seen in 
the present opinions which prevail in the deep heart of the Church, 
undisturbed by the ambitious designs of less religious professional 
musicians. 

On the 15th of May, 1872, he went to join the choir of the 
saints about the throne. It is simply marvellous (as Mr. A. D. 
F. Randolph has remarked, in the little memoir which furnishes 
our facts) that Dr. Hastings should have accomplished so much. 

He was hampered by the perpetual drawback of imperfect eye- 
sight, and yet, in spite of this and other hindrances, he carried out 
a life-work which is its own best memorial. Whenever " Grati- 
tude" or " Rock of Ages" is sung, there is still the presence of 
the singer whose praise is in all the churches. 

Give to the Lord, ye sons of fame. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts has entitled this " Storm and Thunder." It is his' 
version of Ps. 29, L. M. , in six stanzas. 

" We might, no doubt," says Dr. Andrew Bonar, " apply every clause 
of it [the Hebrew Psalm] to the Lord's display of his majesty in any 
thunder-storm. An awe-struck spectator cries, as the lightning plays and 
the thunder rolls : ' The God of glory thundereth ! ' (v. 5.) ' The voice 
of Jehovah is breaking the cedars ! ' and as the crash is heard, ' The Lord 
has broken the cedars of Lebanon.' Travellers tell us of the solemnity 
and terrific force of storms in the East. But the thunders of the Great 
Day shall, most of all, call forth these strains to the Lord the King." 

Give to the winds thy fears. — John Wesley, tr. 

This is from the hymn commencing " Commit thou all thy 
griefs," and is a translation from the " Befiehl du deine Wege" of 
Paul Gerhardt. That was first printed in 1656, and is founded on 
Ps. 37:5. The sixteen stanzas of the translation are in Chris- 
tophers' Epworth Siyigers. 

Gerhardt was a preacher in Brandenburg in 1659, and the story 
goes that this hymn was the result of his sad communings when 



1 66 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

sent into banishment by the Elector. It is unfortunate that the 
celebration of the bi-centenary of the poet's death should have dis- 
proved, by its cognate inquiries, all this beautiful legend. Yet 
the man's lovely character is not affected, though the facts are 
changed. 

A very touching incident, however, may take the place of the 
vanished story of the hymn. It is that of the German peasant, 
Dobry, who lived near Warsaw. He had fallen into arrears with 
his rent, and his landlord was about to eject him from his home. 
It was the dead of winter, and the poor man had thrice appealed 
for mercy, but in vain. The next day was to see himself and his 
family homeless and hopeless in the midst of the snow. But 
Dobry kneeled down and prayed, and then they all sang this 
hymn. At length they came to the words, ^' Dein Werk kann 
7uematid hindem ' ' : 

" Nothing thy work suspending 
No foe can make thee pause, 
When thou, thine own defending, 
Dost undertake their cause." 

There was a rap at the window. Dobry went to it, opened it, and 
a raven which his grandfather had trained and set at liberty, pop- 
ped in with a valuable jewelled ring in its beak. The peasant 
took it at once to his minister, who identified it as the property of 
King Stanislaus, and to whom he restored it. The king sent for 
Dobry, rewarded him handsomely, and the next year built him a 
new house, and gave him cattle from his own herds. Over this 
house door, on an iron tablet, appears still, it is said, the efifigy of 
a raven with a ring in his beak. Underneath are the first four 
lines of the stanza which was being sung: " Weg' hast du aller- 
wegeti," etc., which are thus rendered in the admirable version of 
Mrs. Charles ; 

" All means always possessing, 
Invincible in might ; 
Thy doings are all blessing. 
Thy goings are all light." 

Another incident which connects itself with the present English 
hymn is the story of the closing hours of the eccentric and elo- 
quent " Billy Dawson," the great farmer- preacher of Barnbow, 
England. These words of Wesley had always been his comfort. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 167 

Once, while working in his fields, he had been much perplexed, 
and very anxious. Taking trom his pocket sundry notices which 
had been sent to him to be read from the pulpit from time to 
time, he looked them over to divert his mind ; then, as they were 
of no more use, he tore them small and scattered them in the air. 
They sailed away like so many butterflies, and instantly the words 
of the hymn came home to him : 

" Give to the winds thy fears, 
Hope and be undismayed !" 

It was natural, therefore, that he should turn to this hymn on his 
death-bed. Slowly, and with evident difficulty, he repeated : 
" Let us in life, in death, 

Thy steadfast truth declare," 

but he could not muster strength to add : 

" And publish, with our latest breath. 
Thy love and guardian care." 

After an effort to repeat the lines he crossed his hands upon his 
breast, and so died, July 4th, 1841. 

Nor are these the only instances where this hymn and its trans- 
lations have been especially blessed. The present writer on one 
occasion quoted in the pulpit a portion of Gerhardt's first stanza, 
in the German language, following it with several lines from Mrs. 
Charles's version. At the close of the service he was accosted by 
a German recently arrived from the fatherland, whose sensibilities 
were deeply stirred by almost the only words which he could com- 
prehend, as his knowledge of English was very slight. It would 
appear that to this poor man, also, in his trouble, the familiar, 
" Befiehl du deine Wege " had come like a message of hope and 
trust. 

Gerhardt composed one hundred and thirty-three hymns, and 
is undoubtedly the greatest and most spiritual of German hymn 
writers, unexcelled even by Luther himself. 

Glorious things of thee are spoken. — Newton. 
This hymn is in the O/ney Hymns, Book I., No. 60. The title, 
" Zion, or the City of God," has a reference to Book II., No. 
24, "Asking the Way to Zion" (Jer. i : 5), and to the hymn 
commencing, " Zion, the city of our God." The original is 
plentifully supplied with Scripture texts, which we give so far as 



l68 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

they apply to this form of the hymn, which is shortened from five 
to three stanzas in Laiides Dotnini. 

Text : Isa. 33 : 20, 21. 

First stanza : spoken, Ps. 87 ; abode, Ps. 132 : 14 ; founded. Matt. 
16 : 18 ; snrroimded, Isa. 26 : I. Second stanza : love, Ps. 46 : 4. Third 
stanza : appear, Isa. 4 : 5, 6. 

Newton's admiration and love for the 87th Psalm undoubtedly 
found expression in this hymn. 

Glory be to God the Father. — Bonar. 

Rev. Horatius Bonar, D. D. , is one of our most successful 
modern hymn- writers. No other name appears so frequently as 
his since the days of Watts and Wesley, Newton and Cowper. He 
has had the rare fortune to express the deepest of Christian feel- 
ing and the loftiest of Christian praise. But, strange to say, 
even his own congregation are rigid Psalm-singers to this day. 
He comes of a poetical family. His grandfather, Rev. John 
Bonar, also wrote hymns, some of which found acceptance. 

Dr. Bonar was bom December 19th, 1808, at Edinburgh. At 
the High School and the University there his education was re- 
ceived. His theological instructor was the celebrated Dr. Thomas 
Chalmers, and few scholars have reflected more credit on the faith- 
ful men that gave them their instruction than has he upon that 
great man who made Scotland even greater than before. At the 
time of the Disruption he followed his old teacher, and Dr. Guthrie, 
and the rest of the illustrious leaders, in the establishment of the 
Free Church, with which he has ever since been ecclesiastically 
connected. He is the brother of the commentator. Dr. Andrew 
A. Bonar, of Dundee, and his wife (just deceased, 1885) was the 
sister of that devotedly pious woman, Mary Lundie Duncan. 

In 1837 he was ordained and settled at Kelso, on the river 
Tweed, near the English border. In this charge he succeeded 
his father-in-law, Rev. Robert Lundie. In 1866 he removed to 
Edinburgh, where he has since remained the pastor of the Grange, 
or " Chalmers Memorial " church. His pen has been constantly 
busy through all the years of his mature life. His " Kelso Tracts" 
were the early fruit of that productive zeal which has so enriched 
the literature of the Church at large. He has seen at least one 
extensive revival which can be traced to those pages scattered 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 169 

broadcast. Some of the later writings of this spiritually-minded 
and marvellously acute man have been circulated on both sides of 
the ocean with great acceptance. His two little books, God' s Way 
of Peace and God' s Way of Holiness, M'ould relieve many a 
troubled Christian if he would turn to them in preference to ab- 
stract theology. Like all that Dr. Bonar does, they are eminently 
scriptural and practical. 

His hymns are to be found in Songs for the Wilderness, two 
series, 1843-4 ; i\\Q Bible Hymn-Book, 1845 ; Hymns, Original and 
Selected, 1850 ; Hymns of Faith and Hope, three series, 1857, 1861, 
1866. It is not necessary to annotate them any further than 
this, for the dates of composition have not been preserved, and 
the very place is generally unknown to the author, who seems 
to shrink, with much sensitiveness, from any reference to his own 
share in their production. 

A visitor to Dr. Bonar's church (about 1876) has given this 
pen-portrait of him : 

" The striking feature of his face is the large, soft, dark eye, the power 
of which one feels across the church. There are no bold, rugged lines in 
bis face ; but benevolence, peace and sweetness pervade it. The first 
thought was, ' He is just like his hymns — not great, but tender, sweet 
and tranquil.' And everything he did and said carried out this impres- 
sion. His prayer was as simple as a child's. His voice was low, quiet, 
and impressive. His address, for it could scarcely be called a sermon, 
was founded on the words, ' The Spirit and the Bride say. Come ! ' ' the 
last invitation in the Bible.' It was marked by the absence of all attempt 
at originality, which is to an American so striking a feature of most for- 
eign preaching. It was simply an invitation — warm, loving, urgent. 
His power over the audience was complete. Even the children looked 
steadily in his face ; once he paused in his discourse and addressed him- 
self especially to the Sunday-school children who sat by themselves on 
one side of the pulpit. I was sure the little ones never heard the Good 
Shepherd's call more tenderly given. With one of the most winning 
faces I ever saw he closed : ' Whosoever — that includes you — whosoever 
■will — does that include you ? ' " 

Glory be to God on high. — C. Wesley. 

This fine hymn of praise comes from the Hymns a?id Sacred 
Poems, 1739. Its theme is Luke 2 : 14, and it has seven stanzas. 

As Wesley's strong line, " Hear, the ivorlds atonenmtt, thou !" 
strikes the ear, it recalls an incident from Luther's experience. 



lyo ENGLISH HYMNS. 

When he encountered the mighty hymn of Ambrose, '^ Jesu, 
Redempior gentium,'' it so challenged his admiration that he ex- 
claimed : " Nun kom?nt der Heiden Hdlarid !' ' — " Now comes the 
Saviour of the heathen 1" All great hearts have had great ideas 

of God's love. 

Glory, glory to our King ! — Kelly. 

This hymn is No. 22 of Thomas Kelly's third edition, 1809, 
based on Ps. 47 : 6. It has four stanzas. 

Glory to God on high. — J. Allen. 

James Allen was the son of Oswald Allen, and was born at 
Gayle, Yorkshire, England, June 24th, 1734. Though he was 
destined for the ministry of the Church of England, his con- 
science was aroused by seeing the flagrant wickedness of his tutor 
tolerated, and even extenuated, by that ecclesiastical authority. 
His sentiments then assumed a character which fitted him to join 
the Methodists. He therefore became an " Inghamite," and was 
sent out as an itinerant preacher. This was not exactly being a 
" Methodist," but it approached it so nearly that Allen knew both 
the perils and the pleasures of field-preaching. Once he was saved 
from a mob by an old friend who had been with him at St. John's, 
Cambridge, and who was then — fortunately for the preacher — the 
magistrate of the place which he was stirring up to righteousness. 
This James Allen was therefore a very fit man to write, " Sinners, 
will you scorn the message.'" 

Charles Wesley records in his journal, October 17th, 1756, that 
he paid a visit to Haworth, where, it seems, he met James Allen. 
" A young preacher of Mr. Ingham's came to spend the evening 
with me at Mr. Grimshaw's. I found love for him, and wished 
that all our sons in the Gospel were equally modest and discreet." 

When Allen went to Scotland with Mr. William Batty he en- 
countered the noted preachers, Glas and Sandeman. The effect 
of this intercourse was to remove him from one schism into 
another, and he united himself with the " Sandemanians, " who 
have been kept in the recollection of modern readers in America 
by the singular use made of their name in the writings of Edward 
Everett Hale. 

About this time Mr. Allen bewailed both his preaching and the 
hymn-book he had been so forward to print, in 1757, at Kendal. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 171 

The brief history of this collection is a matter of interest. It was 
compiled by Allen as principal editor, assisted by Christopher 
Batty, William Batty, Thomas Rawson, James Hartley, John 
Green, Alice Batty, Benjamin Ingham, and a certain " S. M. " 
There were one hundred and forty-two hymns, of which seventy- 
one are the composition of Allen, and thirty were written by C. 
Batty. To this book an Appendix y^zs, printed, in 1761, and in 
this is found the present piece. Another hymn, " While my 
Jesus I'm possessing," is also Allen's, and was modernized by 
Rev. Walter Shirley, for Lady Huntingdon's collection, into 
" Sweet the moments, rich in blessing." It goes without saying 
that these hymns of Allen's were rude and inferior. He printed 
some more, with the title of Christiari Soiigs, while at Gayle. A 
second edition appeared in 1805. 

Finally Mr. Allen left the Sandemanians also, and erected a 
chapel on his own grounds at Gayle. There he continued to 
preach until his death, October 31st, 1S04. 

Glory to thee, my God, this night. — Ken. 
In the Thumb Bible, prepared by Jeremy Taylor, this hymn 
has been expanded after the singular fashion which once obtained, 
of making a hymn in two metres. It reads : 

" Forgive me, dearest Lord, for thy dear Son, 
The many ills that I this day have done, 
That with the world, myself, and then with thee, 
I, ere I sleep, at perfect peace may be. 

" Teach me to live that I may ever dread 
The Grave as little as I do my Bed. 
Keep me this night, O keep me, King of Kings, 
Secure beneath thine own Almighty Wings. 
Amen." 

Elsewhere we give an account of the good bishop's life, but 
there are many incidents which can properly be placed under the 
present heading. 

The college which Ken attended was Hart Hall, occupying the 
site afterward to be covered by Magdalen College, Oxford. Here 
he was a member of various musical coteries, and " sang his part." 
In his rooms at Winchester he had an organ, which was left behind 
on his departure, and about which there is an interesting anecdote. 
Rev. Philip Barton was his immediate successor in the apartments. 



172 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

and during his absence one of the boys who were his pupils got 
access to the instrument, and played upon it. This was a fault 
which Mr. Barton was not slow to punish ; but the culprit was 
that Philip Warton who has transmitted to us the first really good 
history of English poetry. 

Ken's skill in music was by no means despicable. His hymns 
were composed during those tranquil days when, under the favor 
of Bishop Morley, he enjoyed the rectorship of Brixton, in the Isle 
of Wight. They are all adapted to a melody which, while it is 
substantially the same as an old tune written by Tallis, neverthe- 
less owed very much to the hand of the poet. Such is the opinion 
of Mr. Bowles, at least ; and the views of Bishop Mant respecting 
the origin of the actual hymns are not to be passed in silence, 
either. All of the three pieces, the Morning, Evening, and, possi- 
bly, the Midnight Hymns, can be traced to a Latin source. From 
the fourteenth century to the present time the ''Jam lucis or to 
sidere" has been sung by the Winchester scholars in the exercises 
of the college. This fact undoubtedly impressed itself on the 
writings of Ken, who was no inferior poet in other respects. Thus, 
"Awake, my soul," is the "^ solis orlus cardine," and " Glory 
to thee" would be the " Te lucis ante ternmnim.'" In neither 
case can the hymn be called a translation, but rather a transcrip- 
tion. This can be said, too, about the hymn of Sir Thomas 
Browne, in the Rdigio Medici, " The night is come like to the 
day. ' ' 

It is Bishop Burnet, in the History of His Own Times, who tes- 
tifies most pointedly to the pure fidelity of Ken in the instance of 
the dying Charles II. He states that he " applied himself to the 
awakening of the king's conscience" — albeit with no very notable 
success. 

At the time of his retirement Bishop Ken lived upon the bounty 
of Lord Weymouth, who allowed him £80 per annum, in lieu of 
property valued at about £700, and which Ken transferred to his 
patron, retaining only his books and musical instruments. It is 
recorded of him that he kept with him, as his immediate personal 
property, "his lute," and a Greek Testament, together with a 
favorite but " sorry" horse. The Testament was said to open, of 
its own accord, at the 15th chapter of ist Corinthians. 

His preaching was not that of a Boanerges, but of a Barnabas. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 173 

He aimed to secure his hearers, rather than to stun them. And 
Dryden's portrait of a " Good Parson " is enlarged from Chaucer's 
(supposed) character of Wiclif in the Canterbury Tales., and is con- 
sidered by excellent critics to have been Ken's own picture. 

Among his other verses are certain poems which the exiled bishop 
styled Anodynes. They were composed in waking hours of the 
night, and hours of pain by day, " between his couch and his 
chair." Some of them are very pathetic : 

" Pain keeps me waking in the night ; 
I longing lie for morning light : 
Methinks the sluggish sun 
Forgets he this day's course must run, 

heavenly torch ! why this delay 
In giving us our wonted day ? 

1 feel my watch, I tell my clock, 
I hear each crowing of the cock ; 
Even Egypt, when three days 

The heavens withheld the solar rays, 
And all in thickest darkness dwelt, 
Night more affecting never felt." 

This watch was so contrived that the sufferer could by his finger 
" discern the time to half a quarter of an hour." It still remains 
in the possession of interested parties, and, in 1838, was owned 
by Dr. Hawes. Another of these Anodynes is equally touching : 

" As in the night I restless lie, 
I the watch-candle keep in eye, 
The innocent I often blame 
For the slow wasting of its flame. 

** My curtain oft I draw away, 
Eager to catch the morning ray ; 
But when the morning gilds the skies, 
The morning no relief supplies." 

Glory to God ! whose witness train. — JMoraviax, tr. 
This appears in the later editions of the Moravian Hymn-Book, 
where it is in present use as a hymn of six stanzas, and is marked 
as a translation. The original is doubtless German, but in that 
immense source of hymnology it is needless to search for it. 
Count Zinzendorf wrote 2000 hymns ; Schmolke, 11 88; Heer- 
man, 400 ; Bogatzky as many more ; Garve (a Moravian), 368 ; 
Solomon Frank, 300 ; Spittaand many others, 100 each ; and the 



174 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

instances of lesser numbers are almost infinite. Knapp's Lieder- 
schatz alone contains 3067, and is regarded merely as a choice 
selection. Latin hymnology is more manageable. Four thou- 
sand will probably cover all that are available for reference, in- 
cluding those in the Paris Breviary. 

Go, labor on, while it is day. — Bonar. 
This is "The Useful Life, " and is derived ixom Hymns of 
Faiih and Hope, ^vst SQXxes, 1857. It has eight stanzas. 
Dr. Bonar prefixes to this hymn the Greek words, 

'Avdara, tI Ka&evdeig ; 

which are the first two lines of a beautiful little lyric, found in 
Daniel's Thcscmrus, IIL, p. 128. For further information see 
the opening chapter of " The Latin Hymn Writers and their » 
Hymns," where these lines are translated into English verse. 

Go to dark Gethsemane. — Montgomery. 

The date assigned to the original composition of this hymn is 
1820. It was first published in the Christian Psalmist, 1825, 
It has been much altered, and is included in the author's Original 
Hymiis, 1853, where it is No. 60, with the tide, " Christ our 
Example in Suffering," and has four stanzas. 

The expression, " dark Gethsemane," is a very natural and yet 
a very affecting one, when we take it in connection with a passage 
from that stirring and eloquent book. Tent Life in the Holy Land, 
by W. C. Prime. Mr. Prime writes : 

" Here I saw the declining sun go down behind the battlements of 
Moriah, and here not infrequently the round moon, coming up over the 
holy summit of Olivet, silvered the leaves of the old trees, and shed that 
radiance on the spot in which, best of all, I could realize the scene that 
so thrills the hearts of Christian men. 

" Did the moon shine on that last night of the life of the Lord before 
the sacrifice ? Did the full moon, in whose light young maidens love to 
hear the words of young love, behold that love which would not put away 
the cup of agony, though countless angels stood ready to seize the chalice 
and dash it down to hell ? 

" I never thought of it before. In all the scenes of all the centuries 
that I have imagined the moon beholding, and of which I have striven 
sometimes to gather some intelligence in those cold, calm rays, I never 
before imagined that on that still orb, in the blue sky of Judea, the tear- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 1 75 

dimmed eyes of the Lord gazed through the rustling leaves of Geth- 
semane." 

Rev. James King, in Anglican Hymnology, has a striking illus- 
tration to the same effect : 

" A few years ago, while making a sojourn in Jerusalem, we set out 
for the Mount of Olives on the evening of Holy Thursday, that we might 
visit the Garden of Gethsemane by moonlight, and tread the scene of the 
Saviour's agony on the very night, and at the very hour, when his soul 
was exceeding sorrowful, even unto death. Gethsemane means an olive 
and wine-press, and here were fulfilled the dark words of the Prophet : 
' I have trodden the wine-press alone,' the great wine-press of the wrath 
of God, the wine-press trodden without the city. Passing Gethsemane 
we walked a few paces up the Mount of Olives, and sat down on a rock 
overlooking the garden. The moon was still bright, and the venerable 
olive-trees were casting dark shadows across the sacred ground. The 
silence of night increased the solemnity. No human voice was heard, 
and the stillness was only broken by the occasional barking of dogs in 
the city. We read, by the light, passages bearing on the agony, and 
James Montgomery's solemn hymn, 

' Go to dark Gethsemane, 
Ye that feel the tempter's power.' " 

Go to the grave in all thy glorious prime ! — Montgomery. 
Mr. Montgomery entitled this hymn, " On the Death of a 
Minister, cut off in his Vigour." It has six stanzas, and is found 
as No. 308 of the Original Hymns, 1853. In point of fact, it was 
written to commemorate the death of the Rev. John Owen, one 
of the first secretaries of the " British and Foreign Bible Society," 
a man of learning and eloquence. The date is about 1825. The 
chorus, " Soldier of Jesus," etc., is no part of the original hymn. 

God Almighty and All-seeing ! — Pierpont. 
The author of this hymn is the Rev. John Pierpont, a Unitarian 
clergyman of high repute as a poet. He was the son of James 
Pierpont and Elizabeth Collins, his wife, and was born at Lich- 
field, Conn., April 6th, 1785, the second of six children. He 
was graduated at Yale College in 1804 ; and, after teaching in 
New England and at Charleston, S. C. , he passed some years in 
the study of law. In 181 2 he was admitted to the Massachusetts 
bar, at Newburyport. But his distaste to the profession induced 
him to give it up, in 18 14, and to devote himself to literature and 
mercantile pursuits. It is not often that two such litterateurs as 



176 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

John Neal and John Pierpont are partners in so prosaic a calHng 
as the dry-goods business, but so it was in Baltimore. And no 
less a man than Joseph L. Lord was the third member of the firm. 
Pierpont was his brother-in-law, having married his sister in 18 10. 
Inasmuch as we find our author, a few years later, a student at 
the Divinity School in Cambridge, we may infer that he felt himself 
steadily drawn away from the counter to the desk. In 1 818 he 
entered the ministry, in company with Jared Sparks, Palfrey, and 
other men of eminence in the Unitarian pulpit. 

Mr. Pierpont was pastor in the Hollis Street church, Boston, 
from 18 1 9. He was settled at Troy, N. Y., in 1845, and over 
the parish in Medford, Mass., 1849. For ten years he continued 
in this position, and then relinquished the active ministry. He 
preached, however, from time to time, and when the War of the 
Rebellion broke out he volunteered, 1861, as chaplain of the 2 2d 
Massachusetts Infantry, and saw service in Virginia. This was in- 
deed an achievement for a man who was over seventy-five years of 
age. In 1862, his friend, Salmon P, Chase, then Secretary of the 
Treasury, em.ployed him to make a digest of the Treasury decisions, 
an important work, and one that demanded both skill and good 
judgment. Between November, 1861, and March, 1864, he com- 
pleted this task with fidelity and neatness. He died suddenly, 
August 27th, 1 866, while on a visit to Medford. 

The history of ]Mr. Pierpont' s life reveals him as a devoted 
friend of the temperance cause, whose advocacy led to a request 
from his Hollis Street church that he should resign. He did not 
possess the requisite meekness to do as he was bidden, and fought 
the matter, from 1838, before an ecclesiastical tribunal, which 
rendered its decision, in 1841, that he was not under any obliga- 
tion to depart. He was, in fact, a controversialist all through his 
career, a ready and effective speaker, a fine elocutionist, and an 
uncompromising opponent. He w-as as vigorous against slavery 
as he was against intemperance, and his muse is rather to be named 
Bellona than Melpomene. 

Some of Mr. Pierpont' s hymns merit the highest praise. That 
one which begins, " O thou to whom in ancient time," has a 
real stateliness to its measure which must commend it to every ad- 
mirer of true poetry. His stanzas, " Passing away," and " I can- 
not make him dead," are well known, and the long list of his con- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 177 

tributions to literature can be found in Allibone's Dictionary of 
Atilhors. An appreciative sketch of his hfe by his old friend, the 
veteran John Neal, is in the Ailcmtic Monthly for December, 1866. 

God calling yet ! shall I not hear ? — Borthwick, tr. 

The original German hymn of Gerhard Tersteegen commences, 
" Gait rufet noch j sollt ich nicht endlich horenP " It is in Schaff's 
Deutsches Gesangbuch, and it is from this hymn that the translation 
has been made. 

Gerhard Tersteegen was the great poet of that mystical school 
which flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and 
which was founded by " Angelus Silesius," 1624-1677. A full 
account of its doctrines and ideas can be found in Vaughan's 
Hours with the Mystics, II., p. 5. Silesius is there compared with 
Emerson, and both with the Persian Sufis. Of this same school 
was Tersteegen, who was born, November 27th, 1697, in the town 
of Mors, in Westphalia. His father, a pious tradesman, died not 
long afterward. At fifteen the lad was put into business at Mlihl- 
heim, the family being in straitened circumstances. Here he ex- 
perienced the power of religion, and changed his business for the 
manufacture of silk ribbons, as this, he fancied, was more con- 
ducive to his growth in grace. It did not interfere with opportu- 
nities for meditation, and therefore he liked it. Next he associated 
with himself one Sommer, as a partner, and thus gained additional 
leisure. His religious experience was singular. While an ap- 
prentice at Miihlheim he was once taken with spasms, when he was 
alone and in the midst of a wood upon a journey. He prayed 
earnestly that his life might be spared, in order that he might pre- 
pare for eternity. His prayer being immediately answered, as he 
believed, and the fit passing off, he dedicated himself without 
delay to the service of Christ. 

His earlier austerities were revealed to him as hindrances rather 
than helps, and he records of himself that the Saviour " took me 
by the hand, he drew me away from perdition's yawning gulf, 
directed my eye to himself, and instead of the well-deserved pit of 
hell, opened to me the unfathomable abyss of his loving heart." 
Yet this tendency to asceticism was so strong in him that, at the 
age of twenty-seven, he wrote out a covenant between himself and 
Christ in his own blood. 



178 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Three years after this there was a great religious awakening in 
Muhlheim, and Tersteegen was induced to address the people. He 
gave up the ribbon business ; his house became the refuge of mul- 
titudes of the troubled and sick, and was called " Pilgrim's Cot- 
tage," from that fact; and he was compelled consequently to 
meet many demands upon his purse, either from the savings of 
liis own frugality or from the gifts of friends. His own soul was 
absorbed, for the most part, in communion with God. 

Physically, he was a great sufferer, but always patient, and he 
bore reproach and misjudgment equally calmly with his bodily 
pains. At the age of sixty he was forced to restrict his labors, 
owing to his overtaxed strength, and on the 30th of April, 1769, 
he died of an attack of dropsy. Several of his hymns have been 
translated by John Wesley, as, notably, " Thou hidden love of 
God whose height " (" Verborgne Gotfes Liebe, Dti ") and " Lo, 
God is here, let us adore." [" Go/t ist gegenwdrtig.'") There 
are one hundred and eleven of his hymns, and his little book, 
Crumbs from the Master s Talk, has been very popular, both in 
English and German. 

Tersteegen was a member of no sect, and for this reason, and 
also because he did not marry, he was accused of keeping people 
from church and of teaching celibacy. This calumny he met with 
loving patience ; and with equal firmness he refused to join him- 
self to the Moravians, though they entreated him often to be one 
of their number. His verses all breathe the conviction that God 
is present, is in us, and is in communion with our spirits through 
Christ. 

The present translation is by Miss Jane Borthwick, and is 
derived from Hyvms from the Land of Luther, whose several series 
run from 1854-62. This is from the earlier series — about 1854. 

God eternal, Lord of all. — Millard, /;■. 

An original hymn, commencing, " God eternal, mighty King," 
was contributed, in 1848, by Dr. Millard, to The Devout Chorister. 
It is from that piece that this present hymn has been taken. As 
can easily be seen, it is a version of the Te Deum, the last two 
four-line stanzas being omitted in Laudes Domini. 

James Elwin Millard was born in the year 182 1, and was a 
graduate, 1845, ^''^^ Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. He 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 179 

received the degree of D.D. in 1859, having entered the ministry 
of the Church of England in 1846. His first position was that of 
curate at Bradford, Berkshire. From this he was promoted to be 
Head Master of Magdalen College School. In 1864, after these 
years of service as a teacher, he was made vicar of Basingstoke, 
Hampshire, where, at last accounts, he still remains. His antique 
style is so well calculated to beguile the unwary that Mr. J. Cam- 
den Hotten, in 1861, published Millard's Christmas carol, begin- 
ning, " Last night I lay a-sleeping, " as an " ancient piece." 

God is in his holy temple. — Montgomery. 
This hymn, in four stanzas, probably dates from the Original 
Hymns, 1853. It bears the title, " For the Great Congregation. " 
John Burroughs aptly describes the nature of a temple without 
God by saying of St. Paul's in London, empty in its vastness, that 
it " makes the tenant seem cold and frivolous and in danger of 
being lost within it. ' ' But when Tyndall stood under Niagara he 
, declared that the immense cascade above him produced in his soul 
peace and good-will to all mankind. 

GoD loved the world of sinners lost. — Mrs. Stockton. 
This hymn, written in 1872, is the composition of Mrs. Martha 
Matilda (Brustar) Stockton. She is the wife of Rev. W. C. Stock- 
ton^ of Ocean City, Cape May County, N. J., and was born June 
1 1 th, 1 8 2 1 . 

God moves in a mysterious way. — Cowper. 

This, which has been called the greatest hymn ever written on 
the subject of divine Providence, owes much of its power to the 
circumstances which gave it birth. It was composed by Cowper 
" in the twilight of departing reason," and during a solitary walk. 
So says one account, but the better and more correct version of 
the incident is slightly different, though not inconsistent with this 
statement. 

The fact is that it constituted his last contribution to the Olney 
Hymns, and was written when the shadows of his troubled mind 
were darkening heavily down upon him. Believing that he was 
doomed to end his life in the river Ouse, he had ordered a post- 
chaise, and bidden the driver to proceed to a certain spot. For 
some reason this spot could not readily be found, and as the poet 



A 



1 80 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

considered that this was the only place for such a suicide, he re- 
luctantly gave orders to turn the chaise homeward. Arriving at 
home, he sat down and composed this hymn — or, it may be, 
started forth upon a solitary walk, during which it was produced. 

It is not possible for us to be more exact, and it seems as if the 
reconciliation of accounts here attempted is the proper one. The 
date is about 1773. 

Of this settled melancholy which now clouded his path we have 
a pathetic picture in his own language. 

" I have never met," he says, " either in books or conversation, with 
an experience at all similar to mine. More than a twelvemonth has 
passed since I began to hope that, having walked the whole breadth of 
the bottom of the Red Sea, I was beginning to climb the opposite shore, 
and I proposed to sing the song of Moses. But I have been disap- 
pointed." Yet he can still say, speaking to the Saviour : " I love thee, 
even now, more than many who see thee daily." 

It was such agonies as these which have given Cowper's hymns 
their marvellous hold upon the heart. To his brother, John, for 
instance, who was a man of no vital godliness, though a clergy- 
man, the poet was a messenger of mercy in the last hour. But 
with this piece before us we may safely regard Cowper's song as 
coming to an end. He composed a few indifferent Sunday-school 
verses later than this period, but they deserve no approbation. The 
broken fragment of a beautiful hymn, " To Jesus, the Crown of 
my hope," was all that ever touched the old music. To Mr. Bull 
he said, in 1788 : " My dear friend, ask possibilities, and they 
shall be performed, but ask not for hymns from a man suffering 
by despair, as I do. I could not sing the Lord's song, were it to 
save my life !" 

Before the facts of Cowper's personal history were known, and 
somewhere in the year 18 10, josiah Conder had penetrated the 
secret of the hymns. These are his words : 

" Doubtless in Cowper's pathetic effusions there are bound up many 
painful mental histories, many a mysterious experience, which are only 
to be even guessed at by those who have known something of the same." 

Among the singular and suggestive incidents which cluster 
thickly about this beloved lyric, are at least two which seem to 
indicate that it has been employed by those who had a hidden 
presentiment of approaching death. Rev. Joseph Entwisle had 



ENGLISH HYMNS. i8i 

just announced and read it in public service at Moorside, England, 
in 1864, and the congregation had only reached the fourth line 
when he fell back in the pulpit and expired. It was much the 
same with Samuel Potter, of Calmstock, who used it at prayers one 
evening, and the next morning was dead. 

Undoubtedly in the mind of the author there was such an an- 
ticipation, now and then mitigated, but always gloomy. On one 
occasion he pathetically described his mental perplexities, in lan- 
guage which shows only too surely how he was doomed to brain 
disease. He said : 

" The meshes of that fine net-work, the brain, are composed of such 
mere spinner's threads in me, that when a long thought finds its way into 
them, it buzzes, and twangs, and bustles about at such a rate as seems 
to threaten the whole contexture." 

We may still add to our annotations upon this hymn. Some of 
the incidents which have occurred in our reading are touching and 
suggestive. 

In a letter from Archibald Alexander, D.D. , to Dr. Nicholas 
Murray (" Kirwan "), dated at Princeton, December i6th, 1841, 
occurs this passage : " Read Cowper's hymn, ' God moves in a 
mysterious way,' etc. Christ seems to say : ' What I do you 
know not now, but you shall know hereafter. All things work 
together for good to them that love God.' " Dr. Murray had 
lost an only son by scarlet fever, and he and his wife were then in 
the deepest grief. 

During the " cotton famine" in Lancashire, in 1865, just after 
the war in America, one of the mill-owners called his hands to- 
gether, and told them he must close the mills. It meant poverty to 
them and ruin to him, and no one could speak. Suddenly, how- 
ever, there rose up the clear voice of a girl — she was a Sunday- 
school teacher — and she started the words of the stanza : 

" Ye fearful samts, fresh courage take, 
The clouds ye so much dread 
Are big with mercy, and shall break 
In blessings on your head." 

It was the "word fitly spoken." — Even James T. Fields felt 
that to be the author of such a hymn was an achievement that 
" angels themselves might envy." 

The noble song receives another and very forcible recent illus- 



i82 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

tration from the experience of Dr. Cullis, of the Faith Cure and 
Consumptives' Home in Boston. He had been hard pressed for 
money, and had been earnestly praying for the supply of his large 
necessities. On the 6th of February, 1883, a friend sent him the 
following note : 

" Dear Doctor : I am impressed that you are in need of funds, and 
the Lord inclines me to send you help. I send you, by express, to-day, 
a. package of U. S. bonds, say $1000, four and one half per cent, and 
$500, four pfr cent— $1500 in all. This amount will cover the pledge I 
made you for your Foreign Mission work. Yours very truly, 

a " 

The same day Dr. Cullis received another letter, which read as 

follows : 

*' Ballardvale, February 5, 18S3. 
" Dr. Cullis : 

" Dear Sir : Somehow it keeps ringing in my ear. ' Send your $1 to 
Dr. Cullis's work, even if it is so small a gift. I, the Lord, can multiply 
it a thousandfold ;' and so with the promise given 10 me this morning 
for your work, I will send the Lord's gift, believing that the mite shall be 
multiplied by the thousandfold. Yours in Christ, 

" E. A. W." 

The remarkable part of the story now remains to be told. Dr. 
Cullis positively asserts that the $1 preceded the $1500, and that 
the pledge for the Foreign Mission work was $400. " The one 
dollar," says Dr. Cullis, "reached me last evening; the $1500 
this morning. The donor of the one dollar I do not know ; the 
donor of the large gift I have not seen for many months. Truly, 

" ' God moves in a mysterious way 
His wonders to perform.' " 

God is the refuge of his saints. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts's version of Ps. 46, ist part L. ]M., in six stanzas, 
" The Church's Safety and Triumph among National Desola- 
tions." It is one of his most majestic and beautiful strains. Let 
any person who would use this hymn aright make of the idea of 
" sanctuary " a Bible-reading, using these passages of Scripture : 

Hos. 14 : 5-7 ; Deut. 33 ; Num. 2 : 12 ; Deut. 32 : 11 ; Ps. 17 : S ; 57 : 

I ; 61 : 4 ; 46 : I ; 27 : 5 ; 31 : 20 ; 63 : 7 ; 62 : 7, and especially, Ezek.. 

II : 16 ; Ps. go : I ; 91 : 9, and Isa. 9 : 14. God's pavilion is " darkness" 
(2 Sam. 22 : 12 ; Ps. 18 : 11). His " secret" (Ps. 25 : 14) is with them that 
fear him. " Mystery " is that with which we have fellowship (Ps. 51:6; 
Isa. 45 : 3 ; 48 : 6 ; John 16 : 13, 14, 15 ; Eph. 3 : 9). But it is all 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 183 

" light " on our way (i John i). And the vision of ihe holy stream is 
in Ezek. 47 and Rev. 22. 

God, my King, thy might confessing. — Mant. 
A version of Ps. 145, as given in Bishop Mant's^(?»/^ of Psalms, 
1824. 

God of my Hfe, to thee belong. — E. Scott. 

Miss EHzabeth Scott was born at Norwich, England, probably in 
1708, and died at Wethersfield, Conn., June 13th, 1776. She 
refused the hand but retained the friendship of Doddridge, who 
made her acquainted with Colonel Elisha Williams, who, from 
1726 to 1739, w^s Rector of Yale College. Him she married in 
1 75 1, emigrated with him to Connecticut, survived him, and mar- 
ried in 1 76 1 the Hon. William Smith, of New York, whom she 
also survived. In 1769, when she was for the second time a 
widow, she returned to Wethersfield, where she died. Her hymns, 
begun at her father's suggestion, did not see the light until 1740 
at least, and perhaps not until much later. Some were in' Dr. 
Dodd's Christian Magazine, 1763 ; twenty-one in Ash and Evans' s 
Collection, 1769 ; and eight of these, with twelve new ones, in 
DobelT s Selection, 1806. Her entire poetical manuscripts are in 
the library of Yale College. The lady is now much set aside by 
our modern taste, but deserves notice for the present hymn. 

God of the passing year, to thee. — A. A. Woodhull. 
Alfred Alexander Woodhull, r>I.D., born jNIarch 25th, -iSio, at 
Cranbury, N. J., wrote this Thanksgiving hymn (1828) for the 
Presbyterian Psalms and Hynms. He was a pious physician, who 
died at Princeton, N. J., October 5th, 1836. 

God of my life, thy boundless grace. — C. Elliott. 
This hymn, written in her favorite stanza, dates from 1841. 
We may join with this constant longing for God as expressed in 
her hymns the exalted language of another hymn-writer, Madame 
Guyon : 

"When I had lost all created supports, and even divine ones, I then 
found myself happily necessitated to fall into the pure divine, and to fall 
into it through all which seemed to remove me farther from it. In losing 
all the gifts with all their supports, I found the Giver. Oh, poor creatures, 
who pass along all your time in feeding on the gifts of God, and think 
therein to be most favored and happy, how I pity you if ye stop here, 



1 84 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

short of the true rest, and cease to go forward to God, through resigna- 
tion of the same gifts ! How many pass all their lives in this way and 
think highly of themselves therein '" — " I have been," says Miss Elliott, 
" many years learning this difficult lessor, and even now am but little 
skilled in this blessed alchemy." Yet she could add, " The struggle is 
over now," and then she wrote, " Thy will be done." 

God of our salvation, hear us. — Kelly. 
This hymn does not appear in the third edition of Kelly's 
hymns, 1809, but is found in the fifth edition, 1820. It is enti- 
tled, or rather is placed under the heading of, " Commencing and 
Concluding Worship." The text affixed to it is, "I cried unto 
thee, save me," Ps. 119 : 146. It has four stanzas, and the 
words are reprinted correctly in Latidcs Domini. 

God of pity, God of grace. — Mrs. Morris. 
Mrs. Eliza Fanny (Goffe) Morris was born in London in 1821, 
and in 1849 married Mr. Josiah Morris, editor of the Malverti 
News. Her hymns are included in The Voice and the Reply, 1858, 
and in Life Lyrics, about 1866. The author says of her book, 
The Voice and the Reply, that " there is a regular progression of 
Christian Experience running through the volume." The first 
part — " The Voice" — consists of eighteen pieces. The second — 
" The Reply" — is man's answer to conscience, and embraces 
sixty-eight. She calls the present hymn — which is found in Part 
II, — " The Prayer in the Temple. " ' It was written September 4th, 
1857. 

God of the world ! thy glories shine. — Cutting. 

The Rev. Sewall Sylvester Cutting, D. D., was born at Windsor, 
Vt. , January 19th, 181 3. He came remotely of English parent- 
age, his ancestors having arrived in Watertown, Mass., about 1634. 
Here, in the New England colonies, the family continued — his 
parents being both of them from Vermont. When the boy was 
only an infant they removed across Lake Champlain to Westport, 
in New York, and there his early years were spent. , There, too, 
he joined the Baptist Church, in May, 1827. At sixteen he began 
to study law, but the next year it seemed to him that his vocation 
was the ministr)\ He therefore studied at South Reading, Mass., 
and entered Waterville College in his eighteenth year. After a 
year had passed he removed to the University of Vermont, whence 
he was graduated with the class of 1835, He received no regular 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 1 85 

theological training, but was ordained at West Boylston, Mass., 
INIarch 31st, 1836, and settled there over the Baptist church. He 
was at Southbridge from 1837 to 1845, and then ceased from 
pastoral labor, as it proved, for the rest of his life. 

From 1845 to 1855 he was engaged in editorial work, on jour- 
nals connected with his own denomination. He was on the staff 
of The Recorder, the Walchman and Reflector, and the Christiati 
Review, and aided to establish The Examiner. In all of these 
duties he displayed unusual ability. He was well read in public 
affairs, and was eminently qualified as an historian of Baptist 
opinions and debates. As a writer he was somewhat stately, pos- 
sessing more imagination than he suffered to be prominent, and 
having a tendency toward the philosophy of Coleridge. In poetry 
he did more at a later period of his life than at this time. 

He was appointed in September, 1855, to the chair of Rhetoric 
and History in the University of Rochester, where he continued 
until January, 1868. He then resigned and took the secretary- 
ship of the Baptist Educational Commission. Into this brief, and 
apparently fruitless undertaking, he threw his best energies, and 
those who have knowledge of the results which came from it say 
that it is impossible, even now, to measure its power for good. 

Dr. Cutting, in 1876, became Secretary of the Baptist Home 
Mission Society, and held that position for three years, residing 
in Europe afterward for about a year, and pursuing special studies. 
His former associate, writing of him, speaks of this as a character- 
istic feature of his life — a life not massed in one direction but dif- 
fused, and taking advantage of every providential opportunity to 
develop itself. There was decided catholicity in his spirit of 
Christian brotherhood, and we have this exemplified in his funeral. 
He directed in a final memorandum, " That a minister of another 
denomination than my own may take some part in the funeral 
service, as my last testimon}' to the proper fellowship of Christian 
believers who share in the same redemption, and look for the same 
heavenly rest." 

On the 1 6th of January, 1882, while seated at table, at noon, in 
Brooklyn, he received a stroke of paralysis, for which his friends 
had indeed been partially prepared. By the 7lh of February he 
was at rest. According to the request mentioned above. Dr. S. 
Irenaeus Prime had part in the funeral services, and thus a devout 



1 86 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

and faithful man was laid in the tomb. We are indebted to his 
son for these particulars. 

God reveals his presence. — Mercer, tr. 

Major Crawford, in his Biographical Notes to the Hymnal of the 
Irish Episcopal Church, states that this hymn is a translation by 
the Moravian bishop, Frederick William Foster, in 1789 ; that it 
appeared in the Moravian Hymn-Book, and was revised by the late 
Rev, William Mercer. It is the hymn, " Golt ist gegemvdr/ig," 
of Gerhard Tersteegen, 1697-1769. The original is in Dr. 
Schaff' s Deuisches Gesanghuch. In the Moravian book of 1789 it 
appears in five stanzas, and the discrepancies between that version 
and Mercer's are very sharply defined, but Mercer's rendering is 
no great improvement on Foster's. The piece in Laudes Domini 
is plainly a revision of a revision, and with better results. 

William Mercer was born at Barnard Castle, county of Durham, 
England, about 181 1. He was graduated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1835, and entered the ministry as a deacon in the 
Church of England in 1836. In 1839 he was appointed to the 
rectory of Trinity church, Habergham Eaves, Lancashire. In 
1840 he became curate of the large church of Burnley, two miles 
distant. In 1841 he took the perpetual curacy of St. George's in 
Sheffield, where he remained until his death at Leavy Greave, 
August 2ist, 1873. 

For some years the poet Montgomery was a member of his 
congregation, and assisted him in preparing the well-known 
Mercer s Collection, whose proper title is The Church Psalter and 
Hymn-Book, 1854. This book of praise in 1864 had the remark- 
able annual sale of about a hundred thousand copies, and was used 
in fifty-three of the London churches, not to mention the remain- 
der of the " thousand churches, cathedrals and royal chapels," 
which had by this date adopted it. It undoubtedly was the vol- 
ume by whose aid many of the best pieces, now in use in America, 
were started on their way. 

Mercer's own powers as a translator were good. His hymno- 
logical morals, judging by the specimen before us, did not rise 
above the desire to amend, without possessing the ability to im- 
prove, the original text. It is this alteration for the mere sake of 
altering which gives abundant ground for the complaints against 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 187 

"hymn-mending" or " hymn-tinkering. " But, then, Mercer at 
that time was working in an atmosphere saturated by the methods 
of Cotterill and Montgomery, and it is due to him to say that many 
of his alterations have been cordially adopted. A copy of 
Mercer's Psalter, annotated by D. Sedgwick, is in the Union 
Theological Seminary library, New York City. The veteran has 
assigned the present hymn to "Jeremiah Stegen, tr. F. Miller and 
William Mercer." " Jeremiah Stegen" is charitably supposed to 
be phonetic for " Gerard Tersteegen." This is another case where 
Homer nodded ! 

God, that madest earth and heaven. — Heber, Whately and 

Mercer. 

It is suggested that the " Compline Antiphon" may have fur- 
nished the idea of the third stanza of this hymn. The piece itself 
is a composite production, and before we speak more particularly 
of its spiritual meaning, we may as well notice its origin. 

The first of these four stanzas, as given in Laiides Domini, is by 
Bishop Heber, and appeared posthumously in 1827. The second 
and fourth are by William Mercer, 1864. The third is by Arch- 
bishop Richard Whately, i860. The hymn is usually found in a 
two-stanza form, the first and third verses going together. To 
these Mercer, in his Church Psaller and Hymn-Book, added the 
rest. All of these singers have gone to join the " choir invisible," 
but their combined music helps to swell the chorus of the Church 
on earth, and they being dead, yet speak. 

The internal structure of the piece is eminently suggestive, 
though it is not in our power, owing to lack of space, to pursue 
the theme beyond a short distance. Here, for example, is the 
" Compline Antiphon" : 

' ' Salva nos, Domine, vigilantes j custodi nos, dormientes : ut 
vigilemus in Christo, et requiescamus in pace. ' * 

There is a prayer which stands very near to this in the Breviary. 
It commences : 

" Deus, a quo sancta," etc. — We translate it thus : 

" O Lord, from whom all holy desires, right counsels, and just woiks 
proceed, grant unto thy servants that peace which the world cannot give ; 
that our hearts, devoted to thy precepts, and our times set free from the 
fear of the enemy, may alike be at rest beneath thy protection. Through 
Jesus Christ, our Lord." 



1 88 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

And here is another, from which Heber may have taken his 
inspiration. It begins : 

" Visita, qucesumus, Domine,'" etc. — Our rendering of it is as follows : 
" Visit, we beseech thee, O Lord, this habitation, and drive far away 
therefrom all snares of the enemy ; let thy holy angels, who defend us in 
peace, keep guard in it ; and let thy benediction be upon us evermore." 

Richard Whately was born in London, in 1787 ; educated at Oriel 
College, Oxford, 1808, where he was a Fellow in 181 1, and re- 
ceived his degree of M. A. in 18 12. He was named as the Bamp- 
ton lecturer for 1822. In the same year he was given the rector- 
ship of Halesworth, and, three years later, became principal of St. 
Albans' Hall, Oxford, with the degree of D. D. After spending 
five years he was made professor of Political Economy at Oxford ; 
and, a year later, 1831, he attained to the archepiscopate of 
Dublin. At Dublin, in 1863, he died. He was a man of such 
distinction that this brief outline of his career is all that is required 
in these pages. But we may well pause to commend his vigorous 
championship of Low Church opinions in the Church of England. 
His was a logical as well as a satirical mind, and he was a formid- 
able opponent to the Ritualists. That he was equally unpleasant 
to sceptics, his Historic Doubts Relative to Napoleon Bonaparte will 
easily demonstrate. Taking an undeniable historic character, he 
applies to it the method of the German rationalists, and triumph- 
antly exhibits Napoleon as a myth — the unreal creation of times 
and circumstances, non-existent, and incredible ! 

God with us ! oh, glorious name ! — Slinn. 

This hymn was written by a lady named Sarah Slinn, and this 
is probably her maiden name. The date is fixed in the neighbor- 
hood of 1779. The hymn itself is in Dobell' s Collection, credited 
to ' ' Wood' s Coll. , ' ' and is in five stanzas. Dobell' s Scriptures are : 
Matt. I : 23 and i Tim. 3 : 16. The original publication was 
made in the Gospel Alagazine, 1779. 

This resembles a German hymn by Dr. Johann Peter Lange 
(written, however, about 1830), and which commences : " Gott 
mil uns ! Mit uns atif Erden. 

Goodly were thy tents, O Israel. — Wolcott. 
Dr.' Wolcott has been heartily identified both with Foreign and 
Home Missions, To the latter cause this hymn belongs. The 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 1S9 

present hymn, as he kindly informed us, was written in the spring 
of 1 88 1, while he was in the service of the American Home Mis- 
sionary Society (Congregational), as a State Secretary and Super- 
intendent. His death occurred at Longmeadow, Mass., February 
24th, 1886. 

In 1 88 1 Dr. Wolcott also wrote a very successful hymn, set to 
Bradbury's " Sing of his Mighty Love," which commences. " O 
gracious Redeemer ! O Jesus our Lord !" 

' Golden harps are sounding. — F. R. Havergal. 

This hymn is in Miss Havergal' s Poems, p. 50. It has three 
stanzas; its title is "Ascension Song. — Eph. 4 : 8." The 
author's date is 1871. 

Frances Ridley Havergal was born December 14th, 1836, at 
Astley, Worcestershire, England, where her father was rector for 
twenty years. She was the youngest child of Rev. W. H. Haver- 
gal, known widely as a musician and author of some good hymns. 
At three years of age she could read, and at seven she wrote 
verses. She had an active, buoyant temperament — what she 
called a " stormy-petrelism of nature," which enabled her to 
" skim any waves when she was not under them. " 

In 1845 her father was appointed to the rectory of St. Nicholas, 
and to be canon of Worcester Cathedral. He therefore removed 
to Worcester, where the early years of Miss Havergal were passed. 
She received her education at English and German boarding- 
schools, and enjoyed exceptional advantages of culture and travel. 
In the midst of it all her Christianity became her predominant 
characteristic, and her piety was as attractive as it was profound. 
She mastered languages with great ease. French, German, Ital- 
ian, Latin, Greek and Hebrew were among her acquirements. 
She even learned enough Welsh from her donkey-girl to take part 
in the Welsh church services. The scholarly instinct was strong 
within her, and her Bible — noted and underlined — was one of 
the best of proofs that she applied herself earnesdy to the noblest 
themes. She was also finely musical — a performer, vocalist and 
composer, whom Heller was glad to approve — and the Songs of 
Grace and Glory furnish good proof of this. In poetry she was 
intensely religious, intensely subjective, and intensely sensitive to 
all beautiful or inspiring things. Many of her verses (like the 



I go ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" Moonlight Sonata," of which, by the way, she was an almost 
unrivalled interpreter) are really autobiographic. 

She had deep trials and experiences — both of mental and physi- 
cal pain — which mellowed and enriched her character. In i860 
she appeared in Good Words as a poet — there is no reason why 
we should say " poetess." From that period she contributed with 
more or less frequency to religious periodicals. Her little books 
of hymns and verses are treasured now all over England and 
America. Perhaps the keynote of them is her own expression : 
" ' Thy will be done ' is not a sigh, but only a song !" 

In October, 1878, she and her sister were at Caswell Bay, Swan- 
sea, South Wales, for a change of air. Here Miss H. took a 
severe cold which caused inflammation of the lungs. When told 
that her life was in danger, she exclaimed : " If I am really going, 
it is too good to be true !" At another time she said : " Splen- 
did 1 To be so near the gates of heaven ! ' ' 

Toward the last she sang, clearly but faintly: "Jesus, I will 
trust thee," to " Hermas," one of her own tunes. " And now," 
says her sister, " she looked up steadfastly, as if she saw the Lord ; 
and surely nothing less heavenly could have reflected such a 
glorious radiance upon her face. For ten minutes we watched 
that almost visible meeting with her King, and her countenance 
was so glad, as if she were already talking to Him ! Then she 
tried to sing ; but, after one sweet, high note her voice failed, and 
as her brother commended her soul into the Redeemer's hand, she 
passed away." 

The date was June 3d, 1879. She was buried at Asdey, and on 
her tomb was carved by her own request the text ist John i : 7, 
" The blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin." 

Grace, 'tis a charming sound. — Doddridge. 
This stands among Dr. Doddridge's hymns as No. 286. " Sal- 
vation by Grace" is the title, and Eph. 2 : 5 the text. It has 
four stanzas. 

Gracious Saviour, thus before thee. — Bateman. 
Henry Bateman, a nephew of Bishop Daniel Wilson, of Cal- 
cutta, and a Swedenborgian, was a surgeon, born at Burton-on- 
Trent, Eng,, September 30th, 1806. He died November 21st, 
1880, at the Chestnuts, Canonbury, London, N. His Heart 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 191 

Melodies contain " Three Hundred and Sixty-five Psalms and 
Hymns for Public Worship and Domestic Use," 1862. He is to 
be distinguished from Rev. Christian Henry Bateman, born 1813. 
and is recorded in The Lancet, London, November 27th, 1880. 

Gracious Spirit, dwell with me. — Lynch. 

The author of this hymn is Rev. Thomas Toke Lynch, who was 
the son of John Burke Lynch, M. D., of Great Dunmovv, Essex, 
where he was born July 5th, 181 8. He entered the Congrega- 
tional ministry in 1848, and from that date until his death in Lon- 
don, May 9th, 1 87 1, he was marked as a man of great ability, and 
of talent which approached to genius. His personal attractiveness 
in conversation and the suggestive character of his mind were 
noticed by all his acquaintances. On the publication of The Riv- 
ulet, 1885 (2d edition, 1856, and enlarged edition, 1868), his 
poems were attacked with severity by Dr. John Campbell, who 
professed to see in them, under the garb of poetry, that " Negative 
Philosophy" which he detested. The reply of Mr. Lynch was in 
pamphlet form, and was widely circulated. " The controversy 
was aggravated, and assumed greater importance," says Miller, 
" because seven eminent London ministers, of the same denom- 
ination, put forth a statement in vindication of their friend and 
brother minister." 

Mr. Lynch was for several years the pastor of the Mornington 
Congregational church, Hampstead Road, and his hymns are one 
hundred and sixty-seven in number. The present piece is from 
The Rivulet, 1855. 

Gracious Spirit, Holy Ghost. — C. Wordsworth. 
This hymn, by Bishop Wordsworth, is founded on the words of 
the epistle for Quinquagesima Sunday, " And now abideth faith, 
hope, and charity, these three, but the greatest of these is charity." 
It was first published in his Holy Year, 1862. 

Gracious Spirit, Love divine. — Stocker. 
It is among the singular freaks of hymnology that this lovely 
hymn — originally containing s^x stanzas — is printed beside a bitter 
and satirical poem in the Gospel Magazitie, for July, 1777. In 
" The Serpent and the Fox ; or, an inter\'iew between Old Nick 
and Old John" [Wesley], some one has v/ritten verses so scurril- 



f 

192 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

ous that Tyerman, Wesley's biographer, declares that it would be 
a crime to reprint them. Making all allowance for Methodist sen- 
sitiveness, there the poem is, and any one can still inspect it, as 
we have. It is a pungent commentary on the editor's lack of 
Christian charity, and would not be tolerated to-day. 

John Stocker remains as the shadow of a name. No investiga- 
tion detects anything beyond the facts that he was from Honiton, 
Devonshire ; that he contributed nine hymns in all to the Gospel 
Magazine during the years 1776-77, and that his pieces have been 
reissued by D. Sedgwick, 1861. 

It has been conjectured that he was some friend of Toplady. 
That hymn -writer had become the editor of the Gospel Magazine in 
1776, and to him, therefore, the enormity of the publication of 
" The Serpent and the Fox" must be charged. He had been 
settled not far from Honiton for several jears, and may thus have 
known Stocker. 

Great Creator ! who this day. — J. A. Elliott. 

Mrs. Julia Ann Elliott, the wife of Rev. Henry Venn Elliott, 
of Brighton, England, was the sister-in-law of Miss Charlotte 
Elliott. Her marriage to this gentleman, who, at the time, was 
perpetual curate of St. Mary's, Brighton, was a romantic one. 
She met him in 1827, having with her father been temporarily in 
his congregation, and the acquaintance thus formed resulted in 
their marriage, October 31st, 1833. She was much beloved by 
the people of her husband's parish, and between herself and Miss 
Charlotte Elliott there was a deep and lasting affection. Mrs. Elliott 
contributed some hymns to her husband's collection, 1835. She 
died, not long after the birth of her fifth child, November 3d, 1841. 

Mrs. Elliott was the author of "We love thee. Lord, yet not 
alone." The present hymn is the second part of a hymn given 
in three parts in Mr. Elliott's collection. These parts commence : 

I. Hail, thou bright and sacred morn. 
II. Great Creator ! who this day. 
III. Soon, too soon, the sweet repose. 

Great God, now condescend. — ^Fellows. 
Dr. Hatfield has specially noticed John Fellows, and Miller has 
given a long list of his writings. Dr. Belcher considered him a 
Baptist, and says : 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 1 93 

" Several hymns on baptism, which appear in some of our books, were 
written by John Fellows, a poor shoemaker of that denomination, of 
Birmingham, England, in the latter part of the last century." 

Allibone, following Watts' s Bibliolhcca Britannica, speaks of him 
as a Methodist, and names him as author of The Holy Bible in 
Verse (4 vols., i2mo, 1778). These and other investigations re- 
sult in the positive statement which can now be made that Fellows 
was, for most of his life, a Calvinistic Methodist. He first resided 
at Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, thence removing to Birmingham, 
and becoming a Baptist. In 1780 he was immersed by the Rev. 
Mr. Turner, pastor of the First Baptist church in Cannon Street. 

It appears that Fellows is to be ranked with John Pounds, Gif- 
ford the critic, and Edwards the naturalist, as an ornament to the 
cobbler's bench. He was a man with some fluency in verse, who 
was given to elegies, hymns and paraphrases. He eulogized 
Whitefield, Gill and Toplady when they died ; and between 1770 
and 1779 he poured out upon an astonished world " hymns in a 
great variety of metres," and other similar productions, with ease 
and frequency. Albeit, we must sadly add, in the words of a 
judicious biographer, that " the most of his poetry is scarcely 
worth the name." 

He died at Birmingham, November 2d, 1785. The time and 
place of his birth are unknown. The date of the present hymn is 
fixed by its appearance in the book. Infants Devoted to God hit 
not Baptized, 1773, of which Fellows was the author. 

Great God ! attend while Zion sings. — Watts. 
This is Dr Watts's version of Ps. 84, 2d part, L. M., " God in 
his Church ; or, Grace and Glory. ' ' It has five stanzas. 

Great God, how infinite art thou. — Watts. 
We have this from the hymns of Dr. Watts, Book II., No. (i'j, 
'* God's Eternal Dominion." It is in six stanzas. 

Great God, the nations of the earth. — Gibbons. 
For some time this hymn was credited to Rev. William Ward 
(b. Derby, England, 1769 ; d. India, 1821), a companion of 
Marshman and Carey. Dobell assigns it to " Gibbons," and it 
is found as part of a hymn of forty-six stanzas in the collection of 
Thomas Gibbons, D. D., 1769, and with his name attached. 



194 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Dr. Gibbons was born at Reak, in the parish of Swaffham Prior, 
near Newmarket, England, May 31st, 1720. After receiving a 
grammar school and academy education until 1742, he was, on 
the 5th of July in that year, licensed to preach by the " London 
Association of Independent Ministers." He then assisted the 
Rev. Thomas Bures of Silver Street Presbyterian chapel, and was 
ordained October 27th, 1743, to the charge of the Independent 
church in Haberdasher's Hall, Cheapside, London. Here he 
continued during the rest of his life. 

In 1754 he was tutor of Logic, Ethics, and Mathematics in the 
Mile End Academy, and was one of the Sunday evening lect- 
urers at Monkwell Street Meeting- House. When President Samuel 
Davies, of Princeton, visited England, Dr. Gibbons aided in secur- 
ing funds for the college, and this was the origin of the compli- 
mentary " D. D. " tendered to him by the "College of New 
Jersey. ' ' Four years later (i 764), the University of Aberdeen con- 
ferred the same degree. 

As the biographer of Dr. Watts and the author of the present 
hymn and of " Now let our souls on wings sublime," Dr. Gib- 
bons will not be easily forgotten. The date of the piece before 
us is 1769. 

Our author died suddenly of apoplexy, February 2 2d, 1785, 
leaving behind him a number of literary and religious composi- 
tions. He was the friend of Lady Huntingdon and of Dr. Samuel 
Johnson, and was distinguished for his piety and zeal. 

Great God, to thee my evening song. — Steele. 
In Miss Steele's Poems, 1760, this is entitled "An Evening 
Hymn." It is in nine stanzas. The last is seldom quoted, but 
it deserves notice : 

" Let this blest hope my eyelids close, 
With sleep refresh my feeble frame ; 
Safe in thy care may I repose 

And wake with praises to thy name." 

Great God, what do I see and hear. — Collyer. 
The author, or perhaps we should rather say translator, of this 
hymn was Rev. William Bengo Collyer, D. D., LL. D., a popu- 
lar Nonconformist minister in London, and pastor for half a cen- 
tury of the Presbyterian church at Peckham. He was born at 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 195 

Blackheath near London, April 14th, 1782, and it is reported of 
him that, even in his early years, he displayed a liking for the 
pulpit, and was quite well known as an " exhorter" when he was 
but fourteen. The church in Surrey, at Peckham, had been Pres- 
byterian, but was much debased in doctrine, and was only able to 
muster a membership of ten, while its congregation had declined 
to about four times that number. They cast their eyes on the 
young Collyer, who was then but eighteen, and besought him to 
undertake their pastorate. In 1801, when he was ordained, he 
had increased the attendance tenfold, and the gentry and nobility 
were among his hearers. 

In this position he continued faithfully during his life, being in- 
debted to the favor of the Duke of Kent for his degree from the 
University of Edinburgh, His collection of hymns — in which, by 
the way, are the original seven which bear the name of INIrs. Voke 
— was issued in 181 2. At the close of the volume he has placed 
some fifty-seven of his own compositions. Two or three of them 
have been generally received ; the others are obsolete. 

Dr. Collyer has given us : 

" When bending o'er the brink of life," 1805. 
" Return, O wanderer, return," 1806. 
" Another fleeting day is gone," 1812. 
" Morning breaks upon the tomb," 1812. 

These hymns have been styled " stilted and sensational," but 
the man himself was a sincere and devoted pastor and preacher, 
and died in the faith of the Gospel, January 9th, 1854. It was 
oddly said of him that he closely resembled in person his attached 
friend, the Duke of Sussex. On the testimony of Dr. Belcher, 
who knew him, he was simple, earnest and effective in the pulpit, 
and often closed his sermon by the use of a hymn written to ac- 
company it, according to the manner of Doddridge and Watts. 

The hymn before us is a translation from the stanzas, " Es ist 
gewisslich an der Zeit," of Bartholomaeus Ringwaldt. The two 
first stanzas of it Dr. Collyer ' ' conveyed ' ' from the verses by 
Johann Christian Jacobi, included in a collection of Psalms and 
Hymns printed at Sheffield, in 1802. The third and fourth stanzas 
are of his own composition, and he acknowledges Jacobi 's trans- 
lation which was made for Psalmodia Germanica, 1722. The Ger- 
man original is considered to be a free rendering of the ''Dies 



196 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

IrcB," and there is another English version by Arthur Tozer Rus- 
sell. That in the Moravian book, " 'Tis sure that awful time 
will come," is Jacobi's. 

This hymn of Ringwaldt's is found in almost every German 
collection. Sometimes (incorrectly, of course) it is ascribed to 
Luther. Ringwaldt was born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1530, 
and died [ch-ca 1598) at Langfeld in Prussia, where he had been 
a faithful Lutheran pastor. His whole life was a struggle with 
"pestilence, famine, fire, floods and other calamities," and to 
comfort himself and those about him he wrote many hymns, which 
are not unlike Luther's. The tune to which this hymn is sung is 
sometimes known as " Luther's Judgment Hymn," but it may 
not be his, though it is said to have been his first composition. 
The present piece originally appeared in 1585, in six stanzas. 

There is a German story that, on the 8th of August, 1702, John 
Schmidtgens, a gardener in Conzendorf, Saxony, took refuge under 
an oak-tree during a thunderstorm. He began to sing this hymn, 
and had come to the close of the final stanza, when the lightning 
struck the tree, and he was instantly killed. 

The English version was sung at the funerals of both the 
Duchess of Kent and the Prince Consort of England, " Albert the 
Good." 

Great God, we sing that guiding hand. — Doddridge. 
In Dr. Doddridge's hymns this is No. 257. " Help obtained 
of God, Acts 26 : 22," It is " A hymn for New Year's Day." 

Great God, when I approach thy throne. — Bathurst. 

Rev. William Hiley Bragge-Bathurst, born at Cleve Dale, near 
Bristol, England, August 28th, 1796, is the author of this and 
other excellent hymns. His father's name was Charles Bragge, 
Member of Parliament for Bristol, who assumed the name of 
Bathurst on succeeding to his uncle's estate. The son studied at 
Oxford (Christ Church College), whence he was graduated, and 
proceeded in 181 9 to take orders in the Church of England. In 
1820 he was appointed rector of Barwick-in-Elmet, Yorkshire, 
from which he retired in 1852. 

In May, 1863, he succeeded to his paternal estate of Lydney 
Park, Gloucestershire, on the death of an elder brother. His own 
death occurred November 25th, 1877, at Lydney Park. From 



ENGLISH HYMNS, 1 97 

his Psalms and Hymns for Public and Privafe Use, 1830, we de- 
rive the most of what we owe to him. He issued a translation 
of the Georgics of Virgil, and another small volume of verses 
about 1849. It is astonishing that so admirable a hymnist should 
not be noticed in Prescott's Christian Hymn-Writers. We have 
but few particulars of his life, but there is one which has some sig- 
nificance. In 1852 he resigned his living of Barwick-in-Elmet 
owing to his conscientious scruples about portions of the Burial 
and Baptismal services of the Church of England. He remained 
from that date in private life, until the time of his death. 

Great God ! whose universal sway. — Watts. 
As we have it in Dr. Watts' s Psalms, this is Ps. 72, ist part, 
" The Kingdom of Christ." It is in six stanzas. 

Great is the Lord our God. — Watts. 
This is Ps. 48, of Dr. Watts's version, ist part, S. M. " Vv. 
1-8, The Church is the Honor and Safety of a Nation." It has 
seven stanzas. 

Great Sun of Righteousness, arise ! — Watts. 
The last two stanzas of a preceding hymn in Latides Domini are 
here separated into a piece by themselves. The previous verses 
begin, ' ' The heavens declare thy glory, Lord. ' ' 

Guide me, O Thou great Jehovah. — W. Williams. 
Mr. Christophers records an interview with an excellent old lady, 
a " widow, indeed," at " a retired villa a few miles out of Lon- 
don, amid fruit trees, honeysuckles and jasmine." 

" There," he says, " was a summer-like drawing-room, looking out, 
on one side, upon a lawn bounded by stately trees and fringed with flow- 
ers, and on the other opening into a little paradise of a conservatory ; 
there the dear old woman sat in a small elbow-chair, and looked like a 
pattern of antique simplicity and gracefulness. She was dressed in a 
black silk gown, open at the neck so as to show a snowy neckerchief 
folded and pinned under the chin, with a small, neatly fringed, cream- 
colored shawl brought over the shoulders and fastened at the waist in 
front, with its corners falling over a white muslin apron. She wore a 
mobbed cap, with a modest crown, and a neat close border, yet not so 
close as to hide a clear, open brow, beautiful still ; and it seemed more 
sweetly beautiful with its silvered locks than when it had been more 
richly adorned in the prime of womanhood. . . . Her eyes revealed a 



198 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

spiritual depth of kindness and peace. . . . Dear old saint ! she soon 
left her earthly paradise. Not long after an interesting chat with her, in 
which she seemed more at home with Wesley and Romaine than with the 
visible things of my own generation, she was called for from above. She 
had lived nearly a century ; but her mind was as clear as an evening 
in spring. ... As she lay murmuring a song in sweet undertones, it 
was asked, ' What are you singing ? Shall I join you ? ' 'I was sing- 
ing,' said she, 

' When I tread the verge of Jordan, 

Bid my anxious fears subside; 
Death of death and hell's destruction. 
Land me safe on Canaan's side ; 

Songs of praises 
I will ever give to thee ! ' 

" Her love was perfect. Her tuneful spirit caught a higher strain, and 
took its part in the harmonies of Paradise." 

When Robert Flockhart, a well-known field and street preacher 
of the last century, was in battle at the Isle of France, as a sol- 
dier against the French, he was suddenly moved to sing. So he 
lifted up his voice, and sang : 

" Plagues and death around me fly. 
Till he bid I cannot die ; 
Not a single shot can hit, 
Till the love of God sees fit ;" 

following it with the stanza : 

" When I tread the verge of Jordan 
Bid my anxious fears subside." 

This was the cheerful spirit he always showed. To one who 
asked him how he could manage to preach every night, he an- 
swered : " Man, I have grand pipes !" Of his preaching this 
may serve as an example. Speaking of the Bible, he said : 

" I have just been silting under its shadow with great delight, and 
finding its fruit sweet to my taste. There are grand, sweet apples on 
that tree. There's the apple of justification : ' Justified freely by his 
grace ! ' There's the apple of sanctification : ' We are made partakers of 
his holiness.' There's the apple of adoption : ' Now are we the sons of 
God?' And, best grace, there's the golden apple of glorification— we'll 
get that by and by ; but ' It doth not yet appear what we shall be.* I 
mind when I've been in tropical countries, I've seen trees whose fruit 
seemed as if it wanted to drop into your mouth, it was so rich and ripe. 
And doesn't the Lord say to us, when we come to this blessed Book 
now, ' Open thy mouth wide and I will fill it ! ' " 

This hymn before us was first written in Welsh, and then trans- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 199 

lated into English. Its present form is due to the amendments of 
Keble. In the Free Church Hynm-Book, 1882, the first line in the 
Welsh tongue is given as, " Arglwydd, arwain tnvy r miialwch/^ 

The translation was published by William Williams, as a leaflet, 
in 1773, with the following heading : "A Favourite Hymn sung 
by Lady Huntingdon's young Collegians. Printed by the desire 
of many Christian Friends. Lord, give it thy blessing !" The 
facsimile of the original leaflet as discovered by Mr. W, T. Brooke 
was used for the text of the Free Church collection. There is a 
fourth stanza which is not printed. The first stanza is said to be 
the translation of Peter Williams, 1771, the second and third are 
supposed to be by William Williams himself. 

Rev. William Williams was born at Cefncoed, near Llandover}', 
Caermarthenshire, in 171 7. He was originally intended for the 
medical profession, but under the vigorous preaching of Howell 
Harris, in Talgarth churchyard, he was converted, devoted him- 
self to the work of the ministry, and was ordained as deacon in 
1740 in the Church of England. He officiated at first in two 
small churches in Breconshire — Henry Vaughan's county — and 
did not by any means confine himself to his parish in preaching 
the Gospel. The result was that he was summoned before the 
authorities a score of times, and was denied full ordination. But 
this diaconate ordination proved enough for Mr. Williams, who 
became a Calvinistic Methodist, and took Wales at large for his 
parish. For forty-five years he went everywhere preaching the 
Word. 

It was soon discovered that he was not only an orator but a 
poet. Being urged, in consequence of this, by his brethren, he 
prepared a collection of hymns for them, which is substantially the 
same as that in use to-day. The first issue he called the Alleluia, 
1745-47, and it was printed in six parts at Bristol. The book 
called Hosannah was published at Bristol in 1759, and in it were 
fifty-one of his hymns in the English language. In 1859, Mr. D. 
Sedgwick reproduced this and a later collection. 

Mr. Williams merited and received the praise of his contempo- 
raries as a poet of real fire and genius. He did for Wales what 
Wesley and Watts did for England, or what Luther did for Ger- 
many. In 1 79 1, on the nth of January, he died at his home in 
Pantycelyn, near Llandovery, having suffered long from a painful 



200 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

illness. He was another of that famous company which centred 
at Lady Huntingdon's drawing-room. 

Hail, happy day ! thou day of holy rest. — S. Browne. 
One of the two hundred and sixty-six hymns, designed as a 
supplement to those of Dr. Watts, written by Rev. Simon Browne, 
who was the eccentric, and possibly insane pastor of the Old Jewry 
congregation, London, for many long and useful years. This 
piece breathes the very spirit of religious devotion and content. 
We have been told that the Pythagoreans would not allow their 
disciples to pay homage to any of their deities in a thoughtless or 
careless manner. They insisted that they must come to the 
temple prepared by meditation at home for their solemn worship. 
Their minds were to be disengaged from mere secular occupation, 
so that all their souls' fervor might be thrown into their prayers, 
or the gods would not hear or answer them. If such was the rev- 
erence demanded of their devotees by even the heathen teachers, how 
much more energetically should we, in the Christian assemblies, 
bid earth's vanities move from our sight and leave our souls alone ! 

Hail, Holy Spirit ! bright immortal Dove ! — S. Browne. 
This hymn is from a piece containing twelve stanzas, and the 
date is 1720. It is reprinted at large in the Hynms of the Spirit. 

Hail, sacred day of earthly rest. — Thring, altered. 
This hymn is by Rev. Godfrey Thring. The second line in 
each of the stanzas has been changed, in order to adapt it to the 
music which is set to it. It is an exquisite piece for the close of 
the Lord' s Day, It is said in the Jewish Talmud that, when a 
man leaves the synagogue for his home on the Sabbath eve, two 
angels, one of good and one of evil, accompany him. If he finds 
the table spread in his house and the Sabbath lamps lighted, the 
wife and children being all ready in their proper attire for the 
sacred day, then the good angel says : ' ' May the next Sabbath, 
and all thy Sabbaths, be like this ! Peace unto this dwelling, 
peace !" And to this blessing the angel of evil is forced to add, 
"Amen!" But if the house is not ready, and no preparations 
have been made for the holy day, then the angel of evil speaks, 
and says : " May all thy Sabbaths be like this 1" And the good 
angel answers with tears, " Amen !" 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 20I 

Hail, the day that sees him rise. — C. Wesley, 
This is a hymn " For Ascension Day," in ten stanzas, 1739. 
The amendments of this hymn have been to its advantage. 
** Glorious" triumph was originally " pompous" triumph ; 
" Great Forerunner of our race" was " Harbinger of human race" 
— and so on. The " hymn-mender" is not by any means to be 
rashly despised ; and, while the original form of Wesley's hymns 
is generally too good to be amended, there are cases — like the 
present — where some one has "mended" without "marring." 
In the preface to John Wesley's hymn-book, 1779, he says, and 
we quote from the original page nov/ before us : 

" And I here beg leave to mention a thought which has been long upon 
my mind, and which I should long ago have inserted in the public papers, 
had I not been unwilling to stir up a nest of hornets. Many gentlemen 
have done my brother and me (though without naming us) the honor to 
reprint many of our hymns. Now they are perfectly welcome so to do, 
provided they print them just as they are. But I desire they would not 
attempt to mend them ; for they really are not able. None of them is 
able to mend either the sense or the verse. Therefore I must beg of them 
one of these two favors : either to let them stand as they are, to take 
them for better or worse ; or to add the true reading in the margin, or 
at the bottom of the page, that we may no longer be accountable either 
for the nonsense or for the doggrel («V) of other men." 

Of hymn-mending, Christophers has this to say further : 

" The Wesleys are seen mending Herbert and Watts ; Toplady and 
Madan are found hashing and re-cooking Charles Wesley. Somebody 
else is trying to improve Toplady. Heber makes free with Jeremy Tay- 
lor. Montgomery is altering — and altered. Keble and Milman and 
Alford are all pinched and twisted and re-dressed in turn. Among all 
these menders, John Wesley was perhaps one of the best. He was posi- 
tively sure that nobody could mend his own hymns, but he was not 
scrupulous in mending other people's." 

The whole subject is exhaustively discussed by Professor Park in 
Hymns and Choirs, Andover, i860. 

Hail, thou God of grace and glory, — Aveling, 
The Rev. Thomas William Baxter Aveling, D.D., the author of 
this hymn, was born at Castletown, in the Isle of INIan, May nth, 
181 5. He was of Irish descent on his mother's side, a fact which 
sufficiently accounts for his fervid eloquence in the pulpit. 

In early life Dr. Aveling had no religious help from his parents. 



202 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

who were not pious people. His education was received in the 
school of Mr. James Smith, in Cambridgeshire, where he after- 
ward became an usher. He then entered Highbury College to 
study for the Congregational ministry. After four years at High- 
bury he was ordained at Kingsland, a suburb of London, October 
nth, 1838. ]n this charge he has continued from that date until 
his death, which occurred July 3d, 1884. Dr. Aveling was at first 
co-pastor with Rev. John Campbell, the African traveller, but suc- 
ceeded him at his death two years later and retained his post, 
honored, beloved, and attracting large congregations to the close 
of his life. His pastorate covered a period of forty-six years. Dr. 
Aveling died at Reedham, where for thirty-six years he had been 
honorary secretary of the Asylum for Friendless Children. Within 
those walls he finally passed away. 

The present hymn is one of four which were sung at the Jubilee 
of the old Congregational Chapel, Kingsland, June i6th, 1844. 

Hail the night, all hail the morn. — Anon., 1837. 
This piece is from an anonymous volume of Christmas Carols, 
London, 1837. In the Sabbath Hynm-Book it is No. 278, and is 
marked as " From the German." 

Hail, thou once despised Jesus. — Bakewell. 
The author of this hymn was John Bakewell, the friend of 
Thomas Olivers, at whose house, in Westminster, Olivers wrote 
his famous lyric, "The God of Abraham praise." The present 
composition may justly be considered as a hymn of equal merit, 
for its solemn and pathetic melody of praise and love. We have 
nothing else authentic from Bakewell' s pen. The brief particu- 
lars of his life by no means represent his Christian activity and 
success. He was born in Derbyshire, England, at Brailsford, in 
the year 172 1. When about eighteen he was much affected by 
reading Boston's Foin-fold State, and, in the year 1744, he is 
known to have begun to preach the Gospel in his own neighbor- 
hood. He was next associated with the Wesleys and the Methodist 
connection in London, where he carried on the " Greenwich 
Royal Park Academy," and was (from 1749) a local preacher. 
He frequently appeared in the pulpit, and he wrote other hymns, 
but this is the only one of whose authorship we feel quite secure. 
Mr. Bakewell finally gave it to Toplady, who altered it to suit his 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 203 

own views, and published it in his Collection, in 1776. It had 
appeared in an abridged form, in 1760, in Madan's hymn-book. 
It was first included, however, in a collection of Hymns Ad- 
dressed to the Holy, Holy, Holy, Triune God, in 1759. The 
original form is found in Christophers' Epworth Singers, and the 
form in Laudes Domini is that given by Lord Selborne in the Book 
0/ Praise. This differs merely in a few words from what Bakewell 
originally wrote, and these changes may be fairly supposed to have 
received his sanction. 

His life was not more useful than it was long. His tombstone, 
near that of his friend John Wesley, in City Road Chapel, reads : 

Sacrctr to tJ)e l^tmorg 

OF 

JOHN BAKEWELL, 

LATE OF GREENWICH, 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE MARCH 1 8, 1819, 

AGED NINETY-EIGHT. 

HE ADORNED THE DOCTRINE OF GOD, OUR SAVIOUR, 

EIGHTY YEARS, 

AND PREACHED HIS GLORIOUS GOSPEL 

ABOUT SEVENTY YEARS. 

" The memory of the just is blessed." 

When he was beyond his fourscore and ten years he wrote a 
letter on brotherly love, published in The Methodist Magazitte for 
July, 1816. The hymn " Jesus hail enthroned in glory," is part 
of this present piece, as is also " Paschal Lamb by God ap- 
pointed." 

It is instructive for us to add to this hymn Bakewell's prayer, 
written when he was very old, and published in the Methodisi 
Magazine : 

" May God of his infinite goodness grant that we and all serious 
Christians of every denomination, may labor for a perfect union of love, 
and to have our hearts knit together with the bond of peace, that, follow- 
ing after those essential truths in which we all agree, we may all have 
the same spiritual experience and hereafter attain one and the same king- 
dom of glory." 



204 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Hail lo the brightness of Zion's glad morning. — Hastings. 

The date of this hymn is "^1830. Its four stanzas appear in 
Spiritual Songs, 1833. 

Hail to the Lord's anointed. — Montgomery. 

The poet recited this hymn at the close of an address in the 
Wesleyan Chapel, Liverpool, April 14th, 1822, Dr. Adam Clarke 
being in the chair. Dr. Clarke was so pleased with it that he beg- 
ged the manuscript and printed it in his own commentary beside 
the 72d Psalm, of which it is a version. 

In the Original Hymns of Montgomery, 1853, this is No. 267, 
and is entided " The Reign of Christ on Earth. Ps. 72." The 
date is, of course, 1822. 

Hail to the Sabbath-day. — Bulfinch, 
Rev. Stephen Greenleaf Bulfinch, D. D., was born in Boston, 
June 1 8th, 1809, and was the son of Charles Bulfinch, who dis- 
tinguished himself as the architect of the National Capitol at Wash- 
ington. To that city the architect removed his family in 18 18, 
and his son was graduated at Columbian University, Washington, 
1827, and at the Theological School in Cambridge, Mass., 1830. 
Dr. Bulfinch was a Unitarian, and commenced his public work as 
an evangelist in Georgia. He was ordained by Rev. Samuel Gil- 
man, D. D., of Charleston, S. C. , January 9th, 1831. During the 
succeeding years he had settlements in Pittsburgh, Pa., 1837 ; 
Washington, D. C, 1838 ; Nashua, N. H., 1845 ; Dorchester, 
Mass., 1852 ; and at East Cambridge, Mass., 1865. His death 
was caused by a sudden attack of heart disease, at East Cambridge, 
Mass., October 12th, 1870. This hymn is an excellent one ; it 
appears in its original form in Contemplations of the Saviour, 1832, 
and was reprinted in the Poetus, 1834, and in Lays of the Gospel, 
1845. -^^ the latest revision, following a practice not always to 
be commended, the author added three stanzas, of no especial 
value, to his former work. The abilities of this writer are liable 
to be underrated. In poetry he was chiefly known to his own de- 
nomination, and his best repute was of his religious hymns. 
When his first little volume of poems was issued in Charleston, 
1834, there were (so Dr. Putnam states) only five copies sold, of 
which Dr. and Mrs. Gilman considerately bought three. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 205 

Hallelujah ! best and sweetest. — Chandler, /;-. 

This line is sometimes written " Alleluia, best," etc. It is a 
translation from the ''Alleluia, dulce carmen,'^ attributed by some 
to the thirteenth centurj'. See " The Latin Hymn Writers and 
their Hymns." 

Hallelujah 1 fairest morning. — Borthwick, tr. 

This is taken from Hymns from the Land of Luther, and is the 
translation, by Miss Jane Borthwick, of the hymn, " Hallelujah, 
schoner Morgen," by Rev. Jonathan Krause, who published it in 
1732. It has been sometimes wrongly ascribed to Schmolke, who 
wrote, ''Hallelujah, Jesus lebt," which is itself often confused with 
the "Hallelujah, Jesus lebt" of Christian Garve, 174 2-1 798. 
Jonathan Krause was born in Silesia in 1701, and was pastor in 
Liegnitz. 

Hark ! my soul, it is the Lord. — Cowper. 

The eloquent words of Archdeacon Farrar are an appropriate 
comment on this hymn : 

" And when I think on all this, when I remember that love is ' not so 
much a virtue as a substratum of all virtues, the virtue of virtue, the 
goodness of goodness ; ' when I think that ' God is love ;' when I read 
that amid the unnumbered choirs of heaven, each shall retain his individ- 
ual life, and have a name which none kiiovveth save himself ; when I see 
the latent germs and possibilities of goodness which exist even in the 
worst ; when I think that a wretched, sinful man is but the marred clay of 
some sweet, innocent and lovely child ; when I read how Jesus so loved 
our race that he left the glory of heaven to die amid its execration ; when 
the Gospel tells me IVho it is that searches for the lost sheep until He 
finds it ; IV/io wept on the neck of the prodigal ; JVho suffered the harlot 
to bathe His feet with tears ; IVho prayed for His murderers ; Who with 
one look of tenderness broke the heart of His backsliding apostle ; Who 
in one flash of forgiveness made of the crucified robber a saint of God ; 
when the boundless promises of Scripture crowd upon my mind ; when I 
recall the hymn which we sing : 

'Mine IS an unchanging love, 
Higher than the heights above. 
Deeper than the depths beneath. 
True and faithful, strong as death,' — 

when I read that God will not forget His people though the mother 
may forget her sucking child, then there come into my mind two thoughts ; 
of hope for ourselves, and of hope for all the world !" 

Our hymn was first published in the Gospel Magazine, 1771. 
We find it also in the Olney Hym?is, 1779, in six stanzas, under 



2o6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

the heading " Lovest thou Me?" It is Book I., No. ii8, and is 
based on the Gospel of St. John 21 : 16. We do not a little ad- 
mire and rejoice when we discover that the very next hymn in the 
Ohiey Collection is written by Newton upon the same Scripture, 
and is the no less known and no less loved lyric, " 'Tis a point 
I long to know. ' ' 

Hark, hark, my soul ! angelic strains are swelling. — Faber. 

In the Poems of Rev. F. W. Faber this is a hymn chosen from 
the seven stanzas of " The Pilgrims of the Night." The metre 
is the same as that of the famous " St. Paul," of F. W. H. Myers. 

Hark ! ten thousand harps and voices. — Kelly. 

The author of this hymn, Rev. Thomas Kelly, was born in 
Kelly ville, near Athy, County Queens, Ireland, July 13th, 1769. 
His education was received at the University of Dublin. He was 
intended for the bar, and was in a fair way to start well, as he was 
the friend of Edmund Burke. But, being led by his perusal of 
Hutchinson's Principia into the study of Hebrew, he was thus 
drawn to consider religious truth. One of the works written by 
the pious Romaine fell in his way, and he was so deeply affected 
by the volume that he renounced the world and its legal allure- 
ments, and gave himself up to the study of theology. For a time 
his anxiety and earnestness of mind quite took the form of fanati- 
cism. He really endangered his health by his ascetic practices, 
but after awhile he found the way of justification by faith, and in 
this he walked to the end of his days. 

In 1792 he was ordained in the Established Church, one of his 
associates being Rev. Walter Shirley, Lady Huntingdon's cousin. 
Evangelical religion had but little esteem in Ireland at that period, 
and it is not surprising that the young man and his friends should 
have attracted the notice of Rowland Hill. In company with Mr. 
Hill, Kelly shared the fate of being silenced because his preaching 
was too spiritual for the rector of St. Luke's, in Dublin, Dr. 
Fowler, the Archbishop of Dublin, closed the pulpits of his whole 
diocese to these two preachers. 

Thus Mr. Kelly became a Dissenter, and established chapels at 
several different points. In this procedure he had the opposition 
of his family, as well as that of the archbishop. But he persevered, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 207 

and consecrated his learning and his musical and poetical abilities 
to the service of Christ. What this meant it may be well for us to 
pause and think. This man was to be the hymnist of Ireland in 
that giant generation of hymn-writers as Williams was of Wales, 
or Michael Bruce of Scotland. 

When about thirty years of age, Mr. Kelly married a lady of 
similar views to his own, and of considerable property. He con- 
tinued in his chosen path of duty until 1855, when he had a stroke 
of paralysis, and died on the 14th of May, aged eighty-six. His 
last words were, " Not my will, but thine be done"; and when 
one at his side repeated to him, " The Lord is my Shepherd," he 
responded, ' ' The Lord is my everything. ' ' 

The sincerity and humility of his life are apparent in his hymns. 
His first edition of the book in which he collected them was 
printed in 1804. The third edition, now before us, is dated 1809. 
The fifth edition, also before us, with the name of Mr. Divie 
Bethune upon its fly-leaf, came out in 1820. The seventh and 
last edition appeared in 1853, and drew from the old man the re- 
mark that the seven hundred and sixty-seven hymns which it con- 
tained, had spanned a space of sixty years, but that there was no 
difference in the doctrine of the verses, whatever might be the dif- 
ference in their age. 

It is noticeable that Kelly's hymns have lately revived in popu- 
larity, owing to the fine tunes to which Miss Havergal has set them. 
Thus : ' ' From Egypt lately come, " " Through the day thy love 
hath spared us," "In thy name, O Lord, assembling," and " See 
from Zion's sacred mountain," are among our best-known modern 
pieces. The date of the hymn before us is that of Kelly's second 
edition, 1806. 

Hark, the herald angels sing. — C. Wesley. 

This is the only hymn by Charles Wesley which has been in- 
cluded in the Church of England's Book of Cormnon Prayer. Its 
history is singular enough. It was written and published in 1739, 
and appeared in a revised form in 1743. Its place in the Hyinns 
and Sacred Poems SQcnxed for it the early esteem of the Methodists, 
and its popularity was great. In 1760, or thereabouts, Martin 
Madan (or, as Prescott hints, John Wesley) changed the first line 
to its present shape from the original, " Hark, how all the welkin 



2o8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

rings." He (or sortie one else) having done this, and also cut 
out three stanzas, gave circulation to this abridged form in his Col- 
ledion. No one can tell how it came into the Prayer-book, unless 
in the same way as some of Doddridge's pieces. The " Univer- 
sity printer" who did it certainly showed his good judgment in 
the selection. We have elsewhere given the most reliable account. 
But the curious fact remains that, being in, there has been no get- 
ting it out. Ritualists have fought against this especial lyric, but 
in vain. As it could not be settled how it got in, so there is no 
possibility of breaking over that Anglicanism which 

" Broadens down 
From precedent to precedent," 

and thus reversing the authority \^ij9h put it, there! Hundreds 
of thousands, therefore, sing this truly catholic hymn, and it is a 
great favorite at Christmas-time. 

Hark, the hosts of heaven are singing. — Plumptre. 
Rev. Edward Hayes Plumptre, D. D. i^xonowxic^d, plum-tree), is 
the present dean of Wells. He was born August 6th, 1821, and 
graduated at University College, Oxford, with the highest honors 
("double first-class"), in 1844. He took his M.A. degree in 
1847 \ ^t which time he had been for three years a Fellow of 
Brasenose College. His ecclesiastical career, like that of other 
writers chronicled in these pages, is a significant and instructive 
commentary on the cause of preferment in the Anglican Church, 
It run thus : 

Chaplain, King's College, London, 1847 ; Professor of Pastoral Theol- 
ogy there, 1853 ; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1S63 ; Professor of New 
Testament Exegesis, 1864 ; assistant preacher, Lincoln's Inn, 1851-58 ; 
Select preacher, Oxford, 1851-53, 1864-66 and 1872-73 ; Boyle lecturer, 
1866-67; rector of Pluckley, Kent, 1869; exchanged parishes zvith Rev. 
E.J. Selwyn, vicar of Brickley, 1873. 

Pursuing another line we find the mention of his name as, 
from 1869 to 1874, one of the Old Testament Company of Re- 
visers of the Bible ; as Grinfield lecturer on the Septuagint at Ox- 
ford, 1872-74 ; as Examiner in the Theological School, Oxford, 
1872-73, and as Principal of Queen's College, Harley Street, 
1875-77. He was installed as dean of Wells, December 2 1 St, 1881. 

It is as a poet and as a scholar that Dean Plumptre has his re- 
pute. He has written Lazarus, and Other Poems, 1864 ; Master 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 209 

and Scholar [Poems], 1866, and has frequently published essays 
and sermons and papers on scholarly topics. The Bible Educator 
— an invaluable compendium of biblical knowledge — was under 
his editorial care during its four volumes. 
The date of this hymn is about 1866. 

Hark ! the song of jubilee. — Montgomery. 
The Moravians have always been most devoted missionaries of 
the Church of Christ. Their zeal was infused into the being of 
James Montgomery, whose father and mother died in the West 
Indies, sent thither by their denomination upon this errand. 
Hence this hymn, in which the hearty and hopeful spirit of the 
followers of Zinzendorf can be plainly observed. In Montgomery's 
Original Hymns, 1853, this bears the title "Hallelujah." Its 
date is 1819. 

Hark ! the sound of holy voices. — C. Wordsworth. 
This chorus of triumph was written by Bishop Wordsworth as 
the hymn for All Saints' Day, and appeared in his Holy Year, in 
1862. The words on which it is based are the familiar ones found 
in Rev. 5:6. " Hark ! the sound of angel voices" is an anony- 
mous combination of the sentiment and style of Bishop Words- 
worth's and John Ca wood's hymns. 

Hark ! the voice of love and mercy. — J. Evans (?) 
The authorship of this hymn has been disputed, but it seems to 
be Evans's production. It is first found in Rippoti s Selection, 
1787. Mr. Miller has quite a monograph upon it (p. 298), from 
which we are inclined to think that the authorship had better not 
be decided ex cathedra by anybody. In Biirder s Collection, 
" Come, thou soul-transforming Spirit," it is assigned to Evans ; 
but there is no name given with this present hymn. In Rippon's 

book it is ascribed to " F , " whoever that may be. Some have 

conjectured "Francis," some " Foleshill, " where Evans lived. 
The piece does not appear in the manuscript book of Evans, to 
the best of Rev. G. L. Wither' s recollection, who was his successor 
at Foleshill. 

Rev. Dr. Charles Rogers, editor of Lyra Britannica, carefully 
supervised a second edition of his work in 1868. Of this issue 
but two hundred and forty copies were printed, as he testifies over 



2IO ENGLISH HYMNS. 

his own signature in the book from which these notes are enriched. 
It is the property of Dr. S. Austin AlUbone, of the Lenox Library, 
New York City, and we gratefully acknowledge the kindness 
which has placed it at our disposal. In this edition Dr, Rogers 
follows Belcher, who, in 1859, unhesitatingly gave the hymn to 
Evans. Rev. James King, in Anglican Hymnology, 1885, repeats 
the statement that Evans is presumably, but not certainly, the 
author. 

Hark ! what mean those holy voices. — Cawood. 

A Christmas hymn. The original form is in Lyra Bnta7inica, 
to which it was contributed by the poet's son from his father's 
manuscript. It has six stanzas, and is one of the thirteen hymns 
which were composed by Mr. Cawood, and found their way into 
print without the author's connivance. The date is considered 
uncertain, but as we have found the hymn in six stanzas in the Re- 
ligious Magazine, 1829, credited to the Youth' s Ifist?-ucfor, 1829, 
we feel confident that year, at least, can be safely assigned to it. 
Miss Havergal, in Hymns of Grace and Glory, fixes on the year 
1 8 16 — for what reason we cannot say. Others give 181 9. 

Hasten, Lord ! the glorious time. — Auber. 
Miss Harriet Auber wrote this hymn in seven stanzas, and it was 
printed in her Spirit of the Psalms, 1829. Its reference is to 
Ps. 72. 

He comes in blood-stained garments. — Bancroft. 

Mrs. Charitie Lees (Smith) Bancroft contributed this hymn in 
seven double stanzas to Lyra Brilannica, 1866. It commences, 
" The King of glory standeth, " and its title is, " Mighty to Save," 
The date of composition is i860. 

He gave me back the bond. — Sabine. 
This is No. 300 in Bickersteth' s Hymnal Companion, 1876, 
where it is credited to "Sabine." It is in five stanzas, with a 
Scripture reference to Luke 7:42. It also appears in Rev. J. H. 
Brooke's Gospel Hymiis (St. Louis, 1871), where it is marked 
"Anon." The name, " Charles Sabine, " is sometimes attached, 
with the date 1857, to the hymn, " Behold the Lamb of God ;" 
but a hymn with that first line is also credited by the compilers of 
Hymns, Ancient and Modern, to Matthew Bridges, 1848. "Charles 
Sabine" is given as the author of " The Jewel and the Star," a 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 2ii 

volume of poems published in London, 1855, but not containing 

this piece. 

He has come ! the Christ of God. — Bonar. 

The title given to this piece by its author is "A Bethlehem 
Hymn." It is in six stanzas, and is accompanied by the quota- 
tion, "3Iimdum imp/ens, m j?ra'sepio j'acens" irom Augnsiine. We 
find it in the first series of Hymns of Faith and Hope, 1857. 

He is gone — a cloud of light. — Stanley. 

The fine Ascension hymn, " He is gone, and we rem.ain, " from 
which this piece is taken, has seven stanzas. It was written by 
Dean Stanley in 1859, for the use of a private family, and was 
first published in Macmillan s Magazine, June, 1862. As origi- 
nally composed its first stanza begins, " He is gone beyond the 
skies, ' ' etc. 

Dean Alford, in his Year of Praise, 1862, is responsible for the 
alterations. Differing arrangements are given in The Church 
Praise Book [of H. P. Main and M. W. Stryker], 1881, and 
Laudes Domini, 1884. These include six of the seven stanzas. 
It only remains for us to add that the entire hymn (from the 
author's manuscript furnished to Dr. Philip Schaff, on Ascension 
Day, May 6th, 1869) is printed in the Schaff-Gilman Libraiy of 
Religious Poetry, p. 789. 

He lives, the great Redeemer lives. — Steele. 
In Miss Steele's Poejus, 1760, this hymn is entitled " The In- 
tercession of Christ. — Heb. 7 : 25. " It has five stanzas. 

He that goeth forth with weeping. — Hastings. 
The date of this hymn is 1836, at which time Dr. Hastings pre- 
pared the Christian Psalmist. He had been assiduously laboring 
to improve the standard of current hymnody, and this hymn may 
be taken as a true expression of his own feelings in sowing pre- 
cious seed. 

He that hath made his refuge God. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Isaac Watts' s version of Ps. 91, L. INI. It is en- 
titled " Safety in Public Dreads and Dangers," and has six stan- 
zas. A very quaint story is told in the Talmud about Rabbi 
Akiba. He was once journeying, and had with him a rooster, an 
ass and a lamp. At nightfall he sought shelter in a village, but 



212 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

^yas inhospitably refused. " All that God does is well," he said, 
and proceeded to the forest. There he lit his lamp, but the wind 
would not suffer it to burn. " All that God does is well," he re- 
peated. The ass then escaped, and was quickly devoured by wild 
beasts, and even to this he made the same pious response. Then 
the fowl flew away without eliciting so much as a murmur from 
his lips. But in the morning he perceived that the enemy's troops 
had passed that way ; the village was destroyed, and he owed his 
own safety to the darkness and the silence. If the lamp had 
burned, or if the ass had brayed, or if the cock had crowed, he 
would have been noticed, and might have been instantly killed. 
So that, as he set out upon his journey once more, it was with a 
repetition of his old saying, " All that God does is well." 

He who once in righteous vengeance. — Caswall, /;-. 
In these stanzas Mr. Caswall has versified the " Ira jtista condi- 
toris' — an anonymous hymn of the Roman Breviary. It has five 
stanzas in Lyra Messiajiica, 1865, but as reprinted in Annus 
Sancius, 1885 (corresponding to the original Latin), it has six, 
and is styled a " Matins Breviary Hymn." 

Head of the Church triumphant. — Wesley. 
This noble hymn of praise was composed by Charles Wesley, in 
1745, and embraced in his Hymns for Thnes of Trouble and Perse- 
cution. Those v^ere days in which England was engaged in the 
war with France and Spain, and was also occupied at home with 
the matter of the Pretender, Charles Edward. The country was 
in a disturbed and agitated condition ; there was fear even when 
there was no actual violence, and there was always enough violence, 
especially where the preaching of the Gospel was concerned. We 
have a reference to this hymn in the story of the last days of Bishop 
Heber, who had grown up under the traditions of that time, and 
to whom the verses of Charles Wesley were always precious. One 
who was much with the good bishop in the latter months of his 
life tells this interesting incident in connection with his love for 
this particular hymn : 

" On returning from church in the morning I was so ill as to be 
obliged to go to bed, and, with his usual affectionate consideration, the 
bishop came and sat the greater part of the afternoon with me. Our con- 
versation turned chiefly on the blessedness of heaven, and the best means 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 213 

of preparing for its enjoyment. He repeated several lines of an old 
hymn by Charles Wesley, which, he said, in spite of one or two expres- 
sions, he admired as one of the most beautiful in our language for a rich 
and elevated tone of devotional feeling : 

' Head of the Church triumphant, 
We joyfully adore thee.' " 

Heal me, O my Saviour, heal me. — Thring. 
Though the Rev. Godfrey Thring commenced hymn-writing in 
1 86 1, he has preferred to date his hymns from 1866, when he 
pubhshed them — in the form preferred by him — in Hymns, Con- 
gregational and Others, and Hymns and Verses. The present piece 
was allowed by him to the Hymnary, 1872. 

Hear my prayer, O heavenly Father, — Miss Parr. 
Miss Harriet Parr, an English lady, wrote a successful novel 
called Sylvan Holt's Daughter, and was a contributor to Charles 
Dickens's Household Words. In 1856 she prepared a portion 
of the Christmas story, The Wreck of the Golden Mary, which 
appeared in that magazine. The thread of narrative which con- 
nects the various parts is that the ' ' Golden Mary' ' on her voyage 
to California encounters an iceberg and is wrecked. The pas- 
sengers and crew take to the boats, and to pass away the time they 
are supposed to relate these incidents and experiences. " Poor 
Dick" Tarrant tells his tale, and then says : 

" 'What can it be that brings all these old things over my mind? 
There's a child's hymn I and Tom used to say at my mother's knee, 
when we were little ones, keeps running through my thoughts. It's the 
stars, maybe ; there was a little window by my bed that I used to watch 
them at — a window in my room at home in Cheshire ; and if I was ever 
afraid, as boys will be after reading a good ghost-story, I would keep on 
saying it till I fell asleep.' 

" ' That was a good mother of yours, Dick ; could you say that hymn 
now, do you think ? Some of us might like to hear it.' 

" ' It's as clear in my mind at this minute as if my mother was here 
listening to me,' said Dick. And he repeated : 

" ' Hear my prayer, O heavenly Father,' " etc. 

Miss Parr has written over the signature " Holme Lee," and 
this is her only hymn. It attracted the notice of Rev. Henry 
Allon, one of the compilers of the New \_English'\ Congregational 
Hymn-Book. He applied to Mr. Dickens for permission to use 
it, who gave him the address of Miss Parr, at York, England, and 



214 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

thus the hymn entered into sacred Hterature to its author's sur- 
prise. 

Hear what God the Lord hath spoken. — Cowper. 

We find this in the Olney Hymjis, Book I., No. 65. "The 
future Peace and Glory of the Church." It is based on Isa. 
60 : 15-20. 

It is not generally known that several of Cowper' s poems and 
hymns — though not this one to our knowledge — were retouched 
by. Joseph Johnson, the publisher of the Olney Colleciion. He sug- 
gested to Cowper, through Newton, that " if Mr. Cowper would 
not be offended, he could point out lines that might easily be 
much improved," This the author took in good part — the Chris- 
tian side of him overcoming the irritabile genus vaidm — and he 
writes, July 7th, 1781, giving Johnson permission to query the 
lines on the margin. The publisher did so, and the poet con- 
ceded the justice of the critiques on verses that " he or his objected 
to." This is supposed lobe the origin of the stanza, "Then 
hear, O Lord," etc., in " God of my life, to thee I call." 

Heavenly Father, grant thy blessing. — Anon., 1835. 

This hymn is first found in Sunday-school Ujiiori Hyjuns, 1835. 
Here I can firmly rest. — Winkworth, //-. 

This is Paul Gerhard t's " 1st Goti fur viich, so trete." It was 
composed about the year 1656 (not 1664), and is based on Rom. 
8 : 31-39. It can profitably be compared with Luther's ''Em' 
feste Burg." A translation appears in full m Lyra Germatiica, 
first series, p. 130, " If God be on my side." It is in twelve 
double stanzas. 

From this rendering the present hymn in Laudes Domini is 
taken, beginning with the second stanza and utilizing the second, 
third, fourth and ninth. Montgomery's hymn, " God is my 
strong salvation," is certainly a free version of this song of Ger- 
hardt. It exactly carries the idea of the two opening stanzas. 
There is also a translation in the Moravian book (edition of 1789), 
commencing, " Is God my strong salvation V It is in eight stan- 
zas, and is spirited and good. It is retained in their later books. 

Another and equally beautiful hymn has been also formed from 
the same translation, commencing, " Since Jesus is my Friend, 
and I to him belong." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 215 

The Epistle for the " Fifth Sunday after Trinity" is printed by 
INIiss Winlcworth above her hymn and is Rom. 8:31. But there 
is a collect for that day, which deserves place also. It comes from 
the (Unitarian) book prepared by Dr. Samuel Osgood, and in 
which Rev. S. Longfellow's vesper hymn reappeared, 1862. 

" O God, the protector of all who trust in thee, without whom nothing is 
strong, nothing is holy ; increase and multiply upon us thy mercy, that 
ihou being our ruler and guide, we may so pass through things temporal, 
that we finally lose not the things eternal. Grant this, O heavenly 
Father, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.'' 

Here the King hath spread his table. — A. R. Thompson, Ir. 
This is froin the sacramental hymn of Aquinas, of which " Sion 
to thy Saviour singing," is the former part. Dr. Thompson's 
translation appeared in the Sunday-school Times for September 
29th, 1883, and is in six stanzas. 

High in the heavens, eternal God. — Watts. 
Dr. Isaac Watts gives this as his version of Ps. 36, L. M. It 
has six stanzas, and is entitled, " The Perfections and Providences 
of God ; or. General Providence and Special Grace." 

" I once joined a party for a day's pleasure trip in the west of Eng- 
land," says an old rambler. " Our plan was to get to the top of the 
highest hill in the neighborhood, and there for a time take our fill of joy 
from the grandeur and beauty of the scenes around and beneath us. 
Alas, for human pleasures ! The morning opened with rain, and we were 
seemingly doomed to disappointment. At length, encouraged by some 
weather-wise folks, we resolved to accomplish our purpose even at the 
risk of wet jackets by the way. We climbed the steeps in spite of wind 
and rain, and came by and by on the highest peak, to some steps leading 
to the door of an old tower, which from time immemorial had withstood 
the rush of years and storms. As we mounted these steps we found, to 
our wonderment and delight, that, on looking out, our eyes glanced along 
the upper surface of the clouds ; and when we had fairly reached the roof 
of the old tower, there was nothing of our native earth to be seen but the 
few square feet of stone-work on which we stood. Beneath us was an 
ocean of clouds ; above us were the bright blue heavens. The sun had 
gone down just to the horizon, where the clear sky touched the cloud- 
billows. The faint-looking crescent of the new moon was peeping on 
us, too, from above the offing line of the cloudy deep. We could hear 
the carol of a lark, but otherwise the silence of nature was profound and 
solemn. We felt ourselves for once beyond the sight and sound of the 
world which gave us birth. One voice uttered the key-note, and then, 
as if we had but one soul we sang : 



2i6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" ' High in the heavens, eternal God, 

Thy goodness in full glory shines ; 
Thy truth shall break through every cloud 
That veils and darkens Thy designs.' " 

Holy and infinite ! viewless ! eternal ! — F. R, Havergal. 
This is taken from \i^x Poetns, p. 31. " The Infinity of God. — 
Ps. 139 : 6." It has five stanzas. The author's date is 1872. 

Holy and reverend is the name. — Needham. 
The Rev. John Needham was pastor of a Baptist church at 
Hitchin, Hertfordshire, England, which he left to become co- 
pastor of the Pithay Baptist church, Bristol, England, with Rev. 
John Beddome, about 1746. In 1752 there was a dispute as to 
the co-pastorate, and he took another charge at Callowhill, in the 
same city. His Hynms, Devotional and Moral, on Various Sub- 
Jecls (8vo), were published in 1768. As we have record of his 
continuance, until 1787, in his Callowhill pastorate, it is inferred 
that he died in that year. 

Holy Bible, book divine. — John Burton, Sr. 

This hymn appeared in the Evattgelical Magazine for June, 1805, 
signed "J. B., Nottingham," and is in four stanzas. The author 
is known as John Burton, Senior, to distinguish him from 
another of the same name — not, however, his son. He was born 
— probably at Nottingham — February 26th, 1773. In religious 
affiliations he was a Baptist, and was closely identified with Sun- 
day-school work. In 1802 he published the Youth' s Monitor, and 
followed it with Hytnns for Sunday-schools, in two parts, whereof 
one contained thirty-six and the other sixty hymns of his compo- 
sition. The latter part appeared at Nottingham, 1806. Among 
the number of his Sunday-school hymns we find, " Time is wing- 
ing us away." 

In 1805 Mr. Burton married, and removed, in 1813, to Lei- 
cester. He was a friend of the famous Robert Hall, of Cam- 
bridge, edited the Nottinghatn Collection of hymns (ninth edition, 
1823), and wrote a voluminous mass of pieces of little or no merit, 
which are painfully evident to any one who examines the files of 
the Evangelical Magazine. The two hymns by which he is re- 
membered have themselves almost escaped into the limbo of for- 
getfulness. Mr. Burton died June 24th, 1822. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 217 

Holy Father, cheer our way. — R. H. Robinson. 
No other hymns bearing the name of Mr. Robinson are known 
to be in use. He has himself eluded the strictest search until 
recently ; but we are now well assured as to some points in his 
personal history. His full designation is Richard Hayes Robin- 
son ; he was born in 1842, and he is a clergyman of the Church 
of England. Having received his education at King's College, 
London, he was ordained to the ministry in 1868. The curacy 
of St. Paul, Penge, which he held from 1867 to 1869, had been 
given him when he was still a deacon. From this position he 
was transferred to be the minister of the Octagon chapel, Bath, 
which he served until 1871. He was then curate of Weston, and, 
later on, we find him the rector of St. Michael, Bath, where he 
continued until 1879. His present residence is Sion-Hill Place, 
Bath, and he is known to contemporary literature as the author of 
Serjnons on Faith a7id Duty, 1873. This book has been issued in 
a second, and perhaps also in a third edition. 

Holy Father, hear my cry. — Bonar. 

This is a " Child's Prayer, Prov. 8 : 17," in Dr. Bonar' s Hymns 
of Faith and Hope, first series, 1857. It has four stanzas. 

Dr. William Reid, in his Praise Book, third edition, 1873, in- 
cluded everything of his friend's composition which could be 
utilized for religious worship. 

Holy Father, thou hast taught me. — Neale. 
It is probable that this hymn emigrated to America, and was 
recognized first, in 1864, by the Hymns of the Spirit, where it is 
anonymous. The original of it is, " Blessed Saviour, who hast 
taught me," which is one of Dr. John Mason Neale' s Hymns for 
Children, which were published in three series, 1844, and later. 

Holy Father, we address thee. — Peters. 

Mrs. ]\Iary (Bowley) Peters was the wife of Rev. John McWill- 
iam Peters, the rector, 1822, of Quenington, Gloucestershire. In 
1825 he became vicar of Langford, Berkeshire, and had charge 
also of the chapel of Little Farringdon, Oxfordshire. He died in 
1834. Mrs. Peters' s hymns are in Hymns Intended to Help the 
Co7nniunion of Saints (fifty-eight in number, 1847). 

Mrs. Peters was the daughter of Richard Bowley, of Cirencester, 



21 8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

and was born in that borough. She wrote, in seven volumes, Ti:c 
World's History from the Creation to the Accession of Queen Victoria 
— ^a title which sadly needs punctuation. She died at Clifton, 
England, July 29th, 1856. Others of her hymns are: "Jesus, 
how much thy name unfolds," and " Through the love of God, 
our Saviour," by which last she is best known. 

Holy Ghost, the Infinite. — Rawson. 
This hymn commences, " Come to our poor nature's night," 
and is in the Leeds Collection, 1854, to which its author con- 
tributed it. There are nine stanzas. 

Holy Ghost ! with light divine. — A. Reed. 
The Rev. Andrew Reed, D. D., was born in London, Novem- 
ber 27th, 1787. He was intended for a commercial life, but de- 
cided to study for the ministry, and took the regular course at 
Hackney College. He was then called to the pastorate of the 
church of which he was a member (New Road Chapel), and was 
ordained November 27th, 181 1. Here he continued a popular 
and successful minister all the rest of his life. In 1834 he visited 
America, and was honored with the degree of D. D. by Yale Col- 
lege. He published a Supplement to Watts in 1817, and in 1841 
he issued a revised and greatly enlarged collection of hymns. In 
this there are twenty-seven by himself and nineteen by his wife, 
who was a Miss Elizabeth Holmes. Dr. Reed died at Hackney, 
London, February 25th, 1862. He was a man of marked benev- 
olence and spirituality. 

Holy, holy, holy Lord. — Montgomery. 
In the Origiiial Hymns of Montgomery, 1853, this is Hymn I., 
" Thrice Holy !" with the Scripture reference to Isa. 6:3. It 
has three stanzas. 

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty ! — Heber. 
This is Bishop Reginald Heber' s " Trinity Hymn, " and one of 
the noblest that he ever wrote. It comes from the collection pub- 
lished in 1827, which was a posthumous work, and contained 
hymns by Milman and others, carrying out Heber's original de- 
sign of connecting these pieces with the Church services — an idea 
which has ever since been worn almost threadbare. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 219 

It may be useful to compare with this splendid song of praise 
another and almost unknown hymn, which is found in Miss War- 
ner's Hymns of Ihe Church Militant, New York, 1858. She says 
of the hymn in question : " The old leaf whereon I found ' The 
Saviour's Merit' (p. 351) was so worn through with use, though 
the rest of the book was perfect, that some few of the words had 
to be supplied." There is, of course, a very great deal of differ- 
ence between Heber's hymn and this somewhat crude composition 
of an unknown author. But whoever the Moravian or Methodist 
might have been who wrote this piece, it has the real spirit of 
adoration in it, beyond almost any of our best lyrics ; and it is for 
this reason worthy of comparison with the smooth and elegant 
poem before us : 

" Saviour, I do feel thy merit, 

Sprinkled with redeeming blood, 
And my weary, troubled spirit 

Now finds rest with thee, my God ; 
I am safe, and I am happy, 

While in thy dear arms I lie ; 
Sin and hell no more molest me, 

While I feel my Saviour nigh. 

" Glory, glory, glory, glory, 

Glory be to God on high, 
Glory, glory, glory, glory, ^ 

Sing his praises through the sky ; 
Glory, glory, glory, glory. 

Glory to the Father give ; 
Glory, glory, glory, glory, 

Sing his praises all that live ! 

" Now I'll sing my Saviour's merit. 

Tell the world of his dear name, 
That, if any want his Spirit, 

He is still the very same. 
He that asketh still receiveth, 

He that seeks is sure to find ; 
Whosoe'er on him believeth, 

He will never cast behind. 

" Glory, glory, glory, glorj^ 

Glorious Christ of heavenly birth ; 
Glory, glory, glory, glory, — 
Sing his praises through the earth. 



2 20 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Glory, glory, glory, glory, 

Glory to the Spirit be ; 
Glory, glory, glory, glory, 

To the sacred One in Three ! 

" Now our Advocate is pleading 
With his Father and our God ; 
And for us is interceding, 

As the purchase of his blood ; 
Now methinks I hear him praying, 

' Father ! save them — I have died !' 
And the Father answers, saying : 
' They are freely justified.' 

" Worthy, worthy, worthy, worthy, 

Worthy is the Lamb of God ; 
Worthy, worthy, worthy, worthy, 

Who hath washed us in his blood. 
Holy, holy, holy, holy, 

Holy is the Lord of Hosts, 
Holy, holy, holy, holy, 

Father, Son, and Holy Ghost !" 

Holy, holy, holy Lord— God of hosts ! — C. Wordsworth. 
Like all of Bishop Wordsworth's hymns, this dates back to the 
Holv Year, 1862, where it has eight stanzas. 

Holy night ! peaceful night ! — Tr. German. 
The author of this hymn is said to be Michael Haydn. It be- 
gins, "■StUle nacht, heiV ge nachi," and is a favorite Christmas carol. 
There is another version commencing, 

" Silent night, holy night, 
All is calm, all is bright." 

The words of the original are in Dr. Wichern's Unsere Lieder. 

Holy Spirit, come and shine. — S. W. Duffield, /;-. 

This is a translation by Rev. Samuel W. Duffield, of the Veni 
sancle Spiriius, of Hermannus Contractus, the crippled monk of 
Reichenau, in the eleventh century. There is no stranger series 
of events than that which now brings this hymn into connection 
with the name of Hermannus, instead of the usual ascription to 
Robert H., King of France. See, for the full account, "The 
Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." 

The present translation first appeared \xi Laudes Do77mii, 1884. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 221 

There is another rendering with the same first Hne, by J. D. 

Aylward : 

" Holy Spirit, come and shine 
On our souls with beams divine." 

Holy offerings, rich and rare. — ^Ionsell, 
This does not appear in Mr. Monsell's Hymns of Love and 
Praise. Sir Arthur SulUvan's Chw'ch Hymns, 1881, has it in five 
parts, amounting in all to ten stanzas. As the tune to which it is 
set is " Holy Offerings," and the composer is Richard Redhead, 
it is safe to infer that the Church Hymns was the place of its first 
publication. 

Holy Saviour ! we adore thee. — J. G. Deck. 
The hymns of Mr. Deck are mainly in the Plymouth Brethren s 
Collection, edited by him and entitled Hymns for the Poor of the 
Flock, 1838. Others appear in the Wellingtoti Hymn-Book, 1857, 
which contains twenty-seven ; and Hymns a?ui Spiritual Songs for 
the Children of God, i860, in which there are seventeen. The pres- 
ent hymn is in Deck's collection, but is anonymous. 

Holy Spirit ! gently come. — Hammond. 
This is a free version of the Veni Creator Spiritus, of Rabanus 
Maurus, for whom see " The Latin Hymn-Writers and their 
Hymns." The present translation, in five stanzas, is from Ham- 
mond's /*5(?/w5. Hymns, and Spiritual Songs, 1745- 

Holy Spirit 1 in my breast. — Mant. 
Bishop Mant's first stanza begins, " Come, Holy Ghost, my soul 
inspire !" Our present, in a different metre, is the second. The 
title is, " Hymn to the Comforter for ' Faith, Hope, and Charity.' " 
The original has six stanzas, and is found in the bishop's Ancient 
Hymns, 1837. 

Holy Spirit ! Lord of light. — E. Caswall, tr. 
This is Caswall's best rendering of the Veni Creator. It bears 
date 1848, and is from Lyra Catholica. 

Honor and glory, thanksgiving and praise. — Dayman. 
Rev. Edwin Arthur Dayman is the son of John Dayman, and 
was born at Padstow, in Cornwall, England, July nth, 1807. 
He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, of which he was a 



222 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Fellow in 1828. He entered the ministry of the Church of Eng- 
land in 1835, and became rector of Shilling-Okeford, or Shilling- 
stone, near Blandford, in Dorset, 1842. He was rural dean in 
1849, and in 1862 became a prebendary of Salisbury Cathedral. 
To that noted list of ecclesiastical books, the Sarum Breviary, the 
Sartim Missal, and the Saru?)i Psalter, Mr. Dayman helped to add 
the Sarum (" Salisbury") Hymnal, of which he had been one of 
the compilers in 1868. His own translations from ancient hymns 
formed quite an important feature of the collection. He was 
also a contributor to the Hymnary, Novello, 1872. 

Hope of our hearts, O Lord appear. — Denny. 
This hymn is taken from Sir E. Denny's Millennial Hymns, 
" The Church waiting for the Son from Heaven. — i Thess. 1:10; 
4:16-18." It has eight stanzas. 

HosANNA ! raise the pealing hymn. — W. H. Havergal. 

Rev. William Henry Havergal, M.A., son of Wm. Havergal, 
was born at High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, January i8th, 
1793. He was rector of Shareshill, Wolverhampton, and canon 
of- Worcester Cathedral, and died at Leamington, April 19th, 
1870. His hymns appeared in the Worcester Diocesan Hymn- 
Book, 1849, which he compiled. There are over one hundred in 
all, some being printed as leaflets. Mr. Havergal is not merely 
known as one of the best musical composers of his day, but it is as 
the father of Frances Ridley Havergal that he will be held in 
affectionate memory. 

The present hymn dates from 1833, and was copied by the 
author for Lyra Britannica. 

FIosANNA to the living Lord. — Heber. 

This was published in the Christian Observer, October, 181 1. 
In the collection issued posthumously in 1827, it was assigned to 
the First Sunday in Advent. 

How are thy servants blest, O Lord ! — Addison. 

This piece was originally published in the Spectator, where it is 
described as the production of " a gentleman at the conclusion of 
his travels." Like Mrs. Adams's "Nearer, my God, to thee," 
this hymn has been attacked because it contains no direct refer- 
ence to Christ. The critics, perhaps, forgot that the book of 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 223 

Esther is also amenable to the reproach of not containing the divine 
name, and that there are those who worship with the Hps while 
the heart is far away. In a word, they forgot to judge righteous 
judgment. 

So, too, this fine hymn has been censured" for halting rhyme, 
and has been reduced to its present length from ten stanzas. Both 
of these judgments are narrow and unfair. Hymns are made to 
be sung, not to be dissected, and especially they are not made to 
be dissected by very bigoted and conventional judges. This was 
the third of five hymns, and follows a paper on ' ' The Sea, ' ' in 
the Spectator, No. 489, in 171 2. 

The poet and essayist had embarked at Marseilles in December, 
1700, for a foreign tour. While sailing near the shores of Italy a 
great storm arose. And at this time, while others gave up all for 
lost and the captain in despair' was confessing his sins to a Capu- 
chin friar, the English traveller solaced himself with these verses, 
which he composed, partly as a description, and partly as a song 
of trust and praise. Hence this is usually called the " Traveller's 
Hymn.' ' 

The late Dr. Kirk, of Boston, and his companions, travelling 
in Syria during the sickly season of 1857, made this hymn a part 
of their regular devotions. 

How beauteous are their feet. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts's Hymn 10, of Book I. It was first used 
after a sermon on Isa. 52 : 7, 8, 9, 10; and Matt. 13 : 16, 17. 
The title given to it is, " The Blessedness of Gospel Times ; or, 
the Revelation of Christ to Jews and Gentiles," and it has six stan- 
zas. The date is fixed as i 707. 

How beauteous on the mountains. — Gough. 
Benjamin Gough, born 1805, at Southborough, Kent, England, 
and recently dead, 1883, was a Methodist local preacher who had 
amassed a fortune in mercantile pursuits in London. In 1832, 
while living in London, he published An Lidian Tale and Other 
Poems, and has been a frequent contributor to Methodist journals. 
After he became independent in property, he retired to Mount- 
field, near Faversham, Kent, whence he sent out Lyra Sabhatica 
in 1865, and Kentish Lyrics in 1867. His hymns are to be found 
in these volumes. Miller's critique is that they are "pious and 



224 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

pleasing, without reaching the very highest poetic excellence. " 
The hymn, " Jesus, full of love divine," is doubtfully ascribed to 
him, as it is not in his works. 

How beauteous were the marks divine. — Coxe. 

The Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe, D. D., Bishop of Western 
New York, is the son of Samuel Hanson Cox, D. D., the cele- 
brated Presbyterian clergyman. Between father and son there was 
waged for years a curious but not uninstructive warfare, respect- 
ing the doctrines on which they differed, and also with regard to 
the spelling of the family name. While there was much of wit 
and of good humor on both sides, it gave a spice of novelty to the 
remarks of the brilliant veteran to hear him refer to his son as 
one who had abandoned his original creed, and had even added 
an e to his name ! So, with the utmost of kindly feeling, this little 
odd debate would be constantly renewed, as it has been in the 
hearing of the writer. 

Bishop Coxe is a gentleman of distinguished ability ; a scholar 
and a poet as well as a man of affairs. He was born in Mend- 
ham, N. J., May loth, 1818 ; graduated at the University of the 
City of New York, 1838, and at the General Theological Semi- 
nary (Episcopalian) in 1841. He was ordained in St. Paul's 
chapel. New York City, June 27th, 1841, as a deacon, and be- 
came a priest, September 25th, 1842. He was first settled at Mor- 
risania ; then in Hartford ; then in Baltimore, and, finally (1863) 
in Calvary church, New York City. While rector of this last 
church he was elected to the episcopate. He had been previ- 
ously chosen to be bishop of Texas, but had declined. It was 
during this rectorship that he wrote the "Soul-Dirge," which 
has lost nothing of its power or appropriateness by lapse of 
time. 

From January 4th, 1865, he has been the Bishop of Western 
New York, with his residence at Buffalo ; and his writings have 
been frequent and scholarly. He has contributed prose and verse 
to current periodical literature, and the list of his works is long 
and valuable. It is given in full in ^'\\Xax%o\\ ?> American Episcopate 
(Philadelphia, 1878). His Chrisfiaii Ballads, 1840, have had a 
larger popularity than any other of his poetical productions. Bishop 
Coxe is a bold and even impetuous lUtb-ateur, and is a complete 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 225 

refutation of the idea that a bishop is not expected to be an ag- 
gressive or outspoken man. 

The present hymn is from Chrisiian Ballads, 1840, where it 
appears in seven double stanzas. 

How blest the righteous when he dies. — Barbauld. 

Mrs. Anna Lcetitia (Aiken) Barbauld was born June 20th, 1743, 
the daughter of Dr. John Aiken, of Kibworth, Leicestershire, 
England. She was the sister of that Dr. Aiken who edited the 
British Poets, and her early years were spent in an atmosphere of 
thought and culture. She was instructed in the Latin and Greek 
languages, and her education was, in point of fact, precisely that 
which she would nowadays receive at Wellesley, or Vassar, or 
Smith, or Girton colleges. Personally she was very attractive, 
having dark blue eyes, a slender figure, and a brilliant mind. 

\\\ 1774 this incomparable young lady was married to Roche- 
mont Barbauld, one of her father's pupils, a young man of French 
Protestant descent, and not — so her niece, Lucy Aiken, thought 
— her equal in any respect. Indeed, Barbauld was a gesticulating 
Frenchman, whose position in the Dissenting ministry was nothing 
in (or to) the world. Dr. Samuel Johnson was sufficiently bitter 
on the subject when he called him " a little Presbyterian parson, 
who keeps an infant boarding-school. ' ' 

This was really the occupation to which she was condemned, 
and the Rev, Rochemont Barbauld being half-crazy when she 
married him, at last became altogether crazy, and finally so wildly 
furious as to be dangerous. Once he attacked her with a knife. 
This being too much, even for her forbearance, she separated from 
him, saw that he was secured in a proper asylum near London ; 
and, when he escaped, in 1 808, and drowned himself in New River, 
she fulfilled her duty by writing "an affecting dirge on the 
event. ' ' 

Five of Mrs. Barbauld's hymns were contributed to the War- 
rington Collection in 1772 ; and eleven, including these five, to 
Rees and Kippis s Collection, 1795. She was a sincere Christian, 
who bore the sorrows of her life without complaint, and who has 
illustrated her faith in her verses. As the friend of Dr. Doddridge, 
she comes within the scope of that charmed circle of hymnists 
who have made English hymnody illustrious. After an old age 



226 • ENGLISH HYMNS. 

which was benignant and beautiful, she died March 9th, 1825, 
having attained to over fourscore years. By the side of this hymn, 
and as its fit commentary, we transcribe Mrs. Barbauld's lines on 
life, written when she was grown old, and so written as to obtain 
the admiration of Wordsworth the poet : 

" Life ! I know not what thou art, 
But know that thou and I must part ; 
And when, or how, or where we met, 
I own to nie's a secret yet. 

Life ! we've been long together. 
Through pleasant and through cloudy weather ; 
'Tis hard to part when friends are dear — 
Perhaps 'twill cost a sigh, a tear ; 
— Then steal away, give little warning, 

Choose thine own time ; 
Say not Good-night, — but in some brighter clime 

Bid me Good-morning." 

The present hymn commences, " Sweet is the scene when virtue 
dies. " It has five stanzas, and was composed about 1773. 

How brightly shines the morning star. — Sloan, ir. 

This is sometimes given as the translation by John Morrison 
Sloan from the hymn, ' ' Wie herrlich strahlt der Morgenstern, ' ' 
of Johann Adolph Schlegel. It is apparently, however, a free 
rendering, almost a paraphrase of the famous " Wie schim leiichtet 
der Morgens/cr7t," of Philipp Nicolai. A comparison of the stan- 
zas with the original (in Schaff's Deutsches Gcsangbuch, No. 311) 
will show correspondences too close for this version to belong to 
any other hymn than Nicolai's ; and, at the same time, it will 
reveal a freedom which makes it almost a paraphrase, or transcrip- 
tion, of Nicolai's theme. The structure of the verse is the same 
in English as in German. 

Philipp Nicolai was pastor in Unna, a town of Westphalia. 
About the year 1597 a terrible pestilence was raging. Fourteen 
hundred persons perished ; and Nicolai, from his windows, saw 
the sorrowful processions passing by. He was thus led to medi- 
tate very deeply on death and the future life, and this hymn, as 
one of the compositions in which he expressed his emotion, was 
first printed in 1599. With it went another, both being appended 
to his book, which was a work of devout reflection, entitled 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 227 

'^ Frcudenspiegcl des Ewigen Lebens /' or, "The Joy-glass of 
Eternal Life." 

The companion piece commences, " Wachel auf ! ruft uns die 
Stimme,'" "Wake, awake, for night is flying;" or, "Sleepers, 
wake ! a voice is calling," For these hymns Nicolai himself 
composed chorales. That for ^ ' Wachel an/ /" has been intro- 
duced into Mendelssohn's oratorio of "St. Paul." There are 
other and closer renderings of the " Marriage Feast Hymn," as 
this present piece is called. One is, 

" O morning star ! how fair and bright 
Thou beamest forth in truth and light," 

and is by Miss Winkworth. Another is, ' ' How bright appears 
the morning star," a translation by Philip Pusey and Algernon 
Herbert ; and still another, " How lovely shines the morning 
star," by Dr. H. Harbaugh. 

It is also said that the melody of the chorales was suggested to 
Nicolai by well-known popular songs ; and that the one borrowed 
by Mendelssohn was caught from the notes of the watchman's 
horn. 

This hymn marks an era in German hymnody. Its music is a 
familiar feature of marriage ceremonies, and many bells chime it 
forth above the cities' noise. All. critics of these verses notice their 
poetic fervor and personal faith. Indeed, these were of the nature 
of the man, for Nicolai was born August loth, 1556, in Men- 
geringhausen, the son of a clergyman who devoted him ' ' to God 
and the Church," and he became, after a thoroughly Lutheran 
education at Erfurt and Wittenberg, a pastor and preacher of 
notable piety and excellence. People flocked to hear him. He 
resisted Romanism on the one hand and Calvinism on the other. 
In 1601, he was addressing immense audiences in Hamburg. His 
Christology is his most celebrated work, but his hymns have been 
his lasting memorial. He died in Hamburg, October 26th, 
1608. 

How charming is the place. — S. Stexnett. 

This hymn, by Dr. Samuel Stennett, is one of five which he 
contributed to Rippon's Selection, 1787, and is therefore so dated. 
It has six stanzas. 

General Sir Henry Havelock was accustomed to assemble his 
men for prayer in a chamber in one of the great pagodas in India, 



228 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

with idols on every side. It was at Rangoon, during the Burmese 
war of 1824, that his men consequently obtained the name of 
*' Havelock's saints." "Call out Havelock's saints," ordered 
Sir Archibald Campbell. " He is always ready, and his men are 
never drunk." 

How condescending and how kind. — Watts. 

The Rev. J. Leifchild tells how he was once invited to preach 
in Berkshire, in a straggling village where there was very little of 
the Gospel ever heard. The rough element of the place were 
greatly against the service. Shouts and disturbance attended the 
opening of the meeting, and a large haystack, the property of his 
host, was set on fire. But Mr. L. persevered, and opened the 
service, with a somewhat motley crowd of hearers, by reading 
the Scripture in a solemn and earnest manner. Then he offered 
prayer, and felt as though he had secured somewhat of the sym- 
pathy of his audience. He next read this hymn, and especially 
emphasized certain words in its concluding stanza : 
" Here we receive repeated seals 

Of Jesus' dying love : 
Hard is the heart that never feels 

One soft affection move." 

As he read he heard a dull noise near the door like that of a 
heavy weight falling. At the close of the meeting, he asked 
about it — when a man was pointed out who came forward and 
acknowledged that it was caused by a great stone which he had 
brought in his hand, in order to hurl it at the preacher when he 
announced his text. " But," he said, " the prayer of the minis- 
ter, and particularly the hymn that was read, touched my heart, 
and no sooner, sir, had you uttered the words, 

" ' Hard is the heart that never feels 
One soft affection move,' 

than doitm dropped the sfone." With tears in his eyes he then 
stayed to converse with the clergylnan, and at length became a 
truly devout person, and was even a religious teacher in later 
years. 

The hymn which produced this result is the fourth of Dr. 
Watts' s Book HI. It has eight stanzas, and its title is, " Christ's 
dying Love ; or, our Pardon bought at a dear Price." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 229 

How did my heart rejoice to hear. — Watts. 

This is Dr. Watts' s version of Ps. 122 C. M. It has six 
stanzas, and he entitles it, " Going to Church." 

Old as these words are — they belong to the year 171 9 — they 
express ideas which are still fresh and new. David's language was 
not antiquated in Watts's day nor is Watts's hymn antiquated 
now. More than ever do we feel, at the present time, the value 
of the house of God as a haven and refuge for the soul. Christi- 
anity has a vital bearing on daily life. This has been so pointedly 
conceded by Robert Buchanan, the poet, in his novel. The New 
Abelard, 1883, that we quote his exact words : 

" He had refined away his faith until it had become a mere figment. 
Christ, the Divine Ideal, had been powerless to keep him to the narrow 
path, whereas Christ the living Lawgiver would have enabled him to 
walk on a path thrice as narrow, yea, on the very edge of the great gulf, 
where there is scarcely foothold for a fly. I who write these lines, though 
perchance far away as Bradley himself from the acceptance of a Christian 
terminology, can at least say this for the Christian scheme — that it is 
complete as a law for life. Once accept its facts and theories, and it 
becomes strong as an angel's arm to hold us up in hours of weariness, 
weakness, and vacillation. The difficulty lies in that acceptance. But 
for common work-day use and practical human needs, transcendental- 
ism, however Christian in its ideas, is utterly infirm. It will do when 
there is fair weather, when the beauty of art will do, and when even the 
feeble glimmer of aestheticism looks like sunlight and pure air. But 
when sorrow comes, when temptation beckons, when what is wanted is 
a staff to lean upon and a divine finger to point and guide, woe to him 
who puts his trust in any transcendental creed, however fair ! 

" It is the tendency of modern agnosticism to slacken the moral fibre 
of men, even more than to weaken their intellectual grasp. The laws of 
human life are written in letters of brass on the rock of Science, and it is 
the task of true Religion to read them, and translate them for the com- 
mon use. But the agnostic is as short-sighted as an owl, while the atheist 
is as blind as a bat ; the one will not, and the other cannot, read the co- 
lossal cypher, interpret the simple speech of God." 

How firm a foundation, yh saints of the Lord. — Keith (?) 
This was first given to the Christian churches in Rippon's 
Selection of Hymns from the Best Authors, published in 1787. 

There appeared only the letter " K " to fix the authorship. 

In later editions of that book, the sign was changed to "Kirk- 
ham ;" but examination among the pieces of Thomas Kirkham, 



V 



230 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

published in 1788, does not show this one. Neither is it the work 
of Carohne Keene, nor (as D. Sedgwick held) of Rev. Wilham 
Kingsbury. The origin of the hymn is only conjectural ; but 
now most compilers have agreed in crediting it to George Keith, 
a publisher and bookseller in London. He was the son-in-law 
of Dr. Rippon, and, as his clerk, led the singing in the congrega- 
tion for many years, A few critics, induced by Mr. Spurgeon's 
hymn-book, which assigns the piece to " Kirkham or Kennedy," 
are lately inclined to discredit even Keith. But Kennedy also 
eludes us entirely. 

In its original form the hymn was called " Precious Promises," 
and had seven stanzas. In the course of years the text has been 
much altered. One pecuHarity is noticeable in the last line of 
the closing verse. The very singularly repetitious grouping of 
words reminds us that a similar style of expression is found in 
the passage of Scripture (Heb. 13:5) upon which the hymn is 
in some measure constructed. There are, in the Greek text, five 
negatives grouped in a single sentence. In our language, the rule 
says : " Two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative." Not so 
here ; each adds its meaning with all the intensity of a cumulative 
force. " I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee," as in the 
Common Version, is strengthened much in the New Revision, so 
that it stands : " I will in no wise fail thee, neither will I in any 
wise forsake thee. ' ' 

" Once in the old Oratory at evening devotion in Princeton Seminary," 
as Dr. C. S. Robinson relates, " the elder Dr. Hodge, then venerable 
with years and piety, paused as he read this hymn, preparatory to the 
singing, and in the depth of his emotion was obliged to close his delivery 
of the final lines with a mere gesture of pathetic and adoring wonder at 
the matchless grace of God in Christ, and his hand silently beat time to 
the rhythm instead : 

' I'll never — no, never — no, never — forsake ! ' " 

In the Western Skckh-Book, by Rev. James Gallaher, he men- 
tions a visit to General Jackson at the Hermitage in September, 
1843: 

" The old hero," says Mr. Gallaher, " was then very frail, and had the 
appearance of extreme old age ; but he was reposing with calmness and 
confidence on the promise and covenant of God. He had now been a 
member of the church for several years." During the conversation which 
took place. General Jackson turned to Mr. G., and remarked : " There 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 231 

is a beautiful hymn on the subject of the exceeding great and precious 
promises of God to his people. It was a favorite hymn with my dear 
wife, till the day of her death. It commences thus : ' How firm a foun- 
dation, ye saints of the Lord.' I wish you would sing it now." So the 
little company sang the entire hymn in its seven stanzas. 

How gentle God's command. — Doddridge. 
In Dr. Doddridge's hymns this is No. 340, " God's Care a 
Remedy for Ours. — i Peter 5 : 7." It has four stanzas. In the 

last we read : 

"His goodness stands approved 
Down to the present day. ' ' 

This is a good illustration of the prosaic lines which intrude 
into the very best of Doddridge's verse. It must be conceded 
that he has been improved, and not harmed, by the labors of the 
hymn-mender. He might appropriately have addressed his liter- 
ary critics in the words of Milton : 

" What in me is dark. 
Illumine ; what is low, raise and support." 

How helpless guilty nature lies. — Steele. 
This hymn is found in the enlarged collection of Miss Steele's 
pieces, published by her friend, Dr. Caleb Evans, in three vol- 
umes, 1780, but it is not in the previous edition (two volumes, 
1 760). Dr. Evans also included it in six stanzas, in his own Coi- 
leclion. There is a short-metre modification of this hymn found 
in the present Methodist Episcopal Hymnal, which has been formed 
by obliterating two syllables in the first line of each stanza. It 
begins, " How helpless nature lies." 

Antoninus, arguing with Rabbi Judah, said to him : " Cannot the soul, 
freed from the body at the day of judgment, lay the blame of its sin on 
the body ? Can it not declare that the sin belongs to the body and no 
longer to it, since the body alone caused it to sin ?" But Rabbi Judah 
answered : " There was a king who had a fine orchard of fig-trees. To 
guard it he placed two watchers, one blind and one lame, thinking that 
thus he would prevent them from being themselves tempted. But the 
lame man said to his companion, ' I see very fine figs. Carry me to the 
tree that we may partake of them.' So the blind man carried the lame 
man, and the figs were stolen. Then came the king and demanded what 
had become of his choicest figs. The blind man replied : ' I do not 
know ; I cannot even see them ! ' And the lame man made answer : 
' Neither do I know ; I am lame and cannot even approach the tree ! ' 



232 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

But the king was wise. ' Lo ! I perceive,' said he, ' that the blind car- 
ried the lame.' " And he gave orders to punish them both. 

" Thus it is with us," continued Rabbi Judah, " the soul and the body 
are but one man. Neither can one of them charge the commission of sin 
upon the other." 

How pleasant, how divinely fair. — Watts. 
The title given to this hymn is, " The Pleasure of Public. Wor- 
ship. " It has seven stanzas, and is the version of Ps. 84, first 
part, L. M. 

How pleased and blest was I.^ — Watts. 

We have here Dr. Watts's version of Ps. 122, P, M. "Going 
to Church" is the title, and it is in five stanzas. 

How precious is the book divine. — Fawcett, 
This is from Rev. John Fawcett's Hymns Adapted to the Circum- 
stances of Public Worship and Private Devotion, 1782. It is sug- 
gested by the 105th verse of the 119th Psalm, " Thy word is a 
lamp unto my feet." The hymn receives an illustration from one 
of those old parables of which the ancient Hebrews were so fond. 

A traveller, it is said, was passing through a gloomy forest in the 
night. He feared the robbers, and he could not see his way. Finally he 
discovered a torch, by whose light he went on without fear of pitfalls 
and wild beasts. But still he was in mortal dread of the robbers. At 
length he emerged into the highway, and then felt at ease. The darkness, 
so the interpreters add, is the lack of religious knowledge ; the torch is 
God's precepts ; the forest is the world ; beyond the forest shines out the 
unclouded sun of divine love. 

How sad our state by nature is. — Watts. 
In Dr. Spencer's Pastor s Sketches occurs a very suggestive inci- 
dent connected with this hymn. He had given out the piece to 
be sung, forgetting the possible application it might have to the 
case of a young woman then under deep anxiety of mind. The 
account proceeds : 

" The next day she came to tell me that she had made a new discovery. 
' Well,' said I, ' what is it that you have discovered ? ' ' Why, sir,' said 
she, ' the way of salvation all seems to me now perfectly plain. My 
darkness is all gone. I see now what I never saw before.' 

" ' Do you see that you have given up sin and the world, and given 
your whole heart to Christ ? ' 

" ' I do not think that I am a Christian ; but I have never been so 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 233 

happy before. All is light to me now. I see my way clear ; and I am 

not burdened and troubled as I was.' 

" ' And how is th"s ? What has brought you to this state of mind ?' 
" ' I do not know how it is, or what has brought me to it. But when 

you were reading that hymn last night, I saw the whole way of salvation 

for sinners perfectly plain, and wondered that I had never seen it before. 

I saw that I had nothing to do but to trust in Christ : 

' A guilty, weak and helpless worm, 
On thy kind arms I fall.' 

" * I sat all the evening just looking at that hymn. I did not hear your 
prayer. I did not hear a word of your sermon. I do not know your 
text. I thought of nothing but that hymn ; and I have been thinking of 
it ever since. It is so light and makes me so contented. Why, sir,' 
said she, in the perfect simplicity of her heart, never thinking that she 
was repeating what had been told her a thousand times,-' don't you think 
that the reason that we do not get out of darkness sooner is that we don't 
believe ? ' " 

Dr. Doddridge conversing one day with his pupils at Northamp- 
ton on the various ways in which Christians met death, said : "I 
wish that my last words may be those hnes of Watts : 

' A guilty, weak and helpless worm, 
On thy kind arms I fall.' " 

How shall I follow him I serve } — Conder, 
This hymn breathes the sentiment most conspicuous in Mr. 
Josiah Conder' s life. It is not a great hymn, but it is a very use- 
ful one, and has its commentary in the experience of Rev. William 
Kingsbury, author of " Let us awake our joys." That good man 
said : 

" O my soul ! preach all thy sermons repeatedly to thyself ; that, 
while I caution others against counterfeits, I may not myself lose the 
reality." " I have found," he said, on another occasion, " that the edge 
of the soul has been so blunted by a single hour's unprofitable conversa- 
tion, as to injure its peace and advancement for many days." 

How shall the young secure their hearts .'' — Watts. 
This is Ps. 119 — fourth part, C. M., " Instruction from Script- 
ure." Of this Psalm Dr. Waits says that he has " collected and 
disposed the most useful verses . . . under eighteen different 
heads, and formed a divine song upon each of them. But the 
verses are much transposed to attain some degree of connection." 
The present piece is in eight stanzas. 



234 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

How sweet and awful is the place. — Watts. 
This hymn is No. 13 of Book III., with the title, " Luke 
14 : 17-22, 23. Divine Love making a Feast, and calling in the 
Guests." It has seven stanzas. It is a well-beloved communion 
hymn, and there are many persons who have associated it, beyond 
change, with the old tune " Dundee." 

How sweet the name of Jesus sounds. — Newton. 

It is probable that this hymn is an echo, or paraphrase, of the 
great Latin hymn of St. Bernard of Clairvaulx, for whom see 
"The Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." In the Olney 
Hymtis, 1779, it is entitled " The Name of Jesus," and has seven 
stanzas. The Scripture text is Solomon's Song i : 3. 

A short time before his death. Rev. John Deck, a devoted ser- 
vant of Christ, in Hull, England, asked that this hymn might be 
sung. There was a most pathetic appropriateness in the request 
when we remember that he had been a patient curate of St. Ste- 
phen's church, and that his missionary work was from door to 
door, and was environed with many hardships and privations. 

How sweet, how heavenly is the sight. — J. Swain. 
The author is Joseph Swain, born in 1761, at Birmingham, 
England. He was early left an orphan and apprenticed to the 
trade of an engraver. It is reported of him that in his youth he 
was fond of wild and gay society, and that his gift of song was em- 
ployed in the composition of such lyrics as would please his asso- 
ciates. He is said, also, to have written some plays. But after 
a time he came under the influence of serious thoughts,, purchased 
a Bible, and, by reading the sacred words, was hopefully converted 
to a new and better life. His memoir, appended to the last edi- 
tion of the Walworth Hy?nns, 1869, gives the date of his baptism 
by Rev. Dr. John Rippon, as May nth, 1783. From this pro- 
fession of his faith he never afterward departed, and he gradually 
developed into an active and useful Christian of more than ordi- 
nary abilities. This led to his entering the ministry, and, in 1791, 
he took charge of a mission field in East Street, Walworth, Lon- 
don, The Walworth Hymns, 1792, which included his previous 
pieces, and which consisted entirely of his own compositions, 
numbered one hundred and ninety-two. His labors were blessed, 
and his church-membership increased from twenty-seven to two 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 235 

hundred in a very short time. The building itself was enlarged 
on three occasions. But his feeble constitution yielded to the 
strain of this severe work, and after two weeks' illness he died, in 
his thirty-fifth year, April 14th, 1796. 

When trouble and sorrow are the portion of God's people, and when 
the faint-hearted separate from their brethren, then, the Rabbins say, two 
angels come to the deserter. They lay their hands on his head and pro- 
nounce against him the solemn sentence : " This one shall not see the 
comfort of the congregation." For it was one of the finest of the old 
Jewish rules that no man had a right to go home and eat and drink " when 
trouble came to the congregation." And of Moses they were wont to 
remember that he sat neither on a chair nor a cushion, in the day of the 
battle with Amalek, but on a stone, as if he had said : " I will share some- 
what of their hardship." 

How sweet to leave the world awhile. — Kelly. 
This hymn is found in Thomas Kelly's third edition, 1809, and 
that is about its date. It has six stanzas, and is based on Matt. 
18 : 20. To which we may add Gen. 28 : 17. 

How vain are all things here below. — Watts. 
We encounter this as the forty-eighth hymn of Dr. Watts's 
Book n. It has five stanzas, with the significant title : " Love to 
the Creatures is Dangerous." So it proved ; for we are told that 
the hymn was written after he had been jilted by Miss Elizabeth 
Singer. There must have been some bitterness in the good Doc- 
tor's heart when he wrote, 

" Each pleasure hath its poison too, 
And every sweet a snare." 

Miss Singer (i 674-1 737) became Mrs. Rowe, and has left a 
record as the friend of Bishop Ken, and as the author of some 
hymns published posthumously in 1739. Five of them are in C. 
Evans's Collection {^i\h edition, 1786), including " Begin the high, 
celestial strain." 

They are of the orotund variety, much befretted with adorn- 
ments. Dr. Watts, on the contrary, wrote plainer verse, and 
remained a bachelor. 

How vain is all beneath the skies. — D. E. Ford. 
Rev. David Everard Ford is indebted, posthumously, to Rev. 
E. F. Hatfield, D. D., for rescuing him from religious uncer- 



236 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

tainty. It was not until the appearance of the Poets of the 
Church, 1884, that Mr, Ford was really established as a Congre- 
gationalist. 

He was born at Long-Melford, England, a name indelibly im- 
pressed on the memory of any lover oi George Sorrow's Lavengro 
and Romany Rye. Here his father, Rev. David Ford, ministered 
for forty-two years. The son was the eldest of three brothers, 
and pursued his studies for the ministry at Wymondley College, 
Hertfordshire. He received his ordination October nth, 1821, 
as pastor of the Old Town Congregational chapel, Lymington-on- 
the-Solent, overlooking the Isle of Wight. Here he remained 
twenty-two years, until November, 1843, when he accepted a call 
from a new church — Greengate chapel, Salford, Manchester. 

Mr. Ford was a musician, and began in 1823 his publication 
of Psalm and Hymn Tunes, a matter which has occupied much of 
his attention. The date of the present hymn is given as 1828. 
It is one of the IJymns on the Parables of Christ. 

One of the quaint legends of the Talmud relates that Alexander the 
Great once wandered to the gates of Paradise, and there demanded 
entrance. The guardian angel asked who was there. In reply, Alexander 
announced his name. "Who is Alexander?" inquired the angel. "Alex- 
ander the conqueror of the world," was the answer. " We know him 
not," said the angel ; " this is the Lord's gate, which only the righteous 
can enter." Then Alexander prayed for a token that he had indeed 
reached the gate of Paradise, and he received a bone which was broken 
from a skull. When this was weighed in a balance against gold, silver, 
and jewels, it turned the beam in spite of their greater bulk. Then was 
it revealed to him that this was the bone from the eye-socket of a man, 
since nothing can satisfy man's desires until he rests in the dust. 

I AM so glad that our Father in heaven. — Bliss. 

Phillipp Bliss was born in Clearfield County, Pa., July 9th, 
1838. His first name was spelled in this singular fashion, and, 
later on in life, he divided it, and wrote " Philip P. Bliss" — or, 
more frequently, " P, P, Bliss" — as his signature. When he 
was only twelve years old he joined, by immersion, the Baptist 
church of Cherry Flats, Tioga County, Pa. He was thrown 
much among the Methodists, however, and was early familiar with 
camp-meetings and revival services. He regarded William B. 
Bradbury as his instructor and pioneer in sacred song. 

In 1864 he removed from Pennsylvania to Chicago, where he 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 237 

entered the service of Mr. George F. Root, and for nearly ten 
years conducted musical institutes and conventions in the West. 
The crisis of his hfe was reached when, in May, 1874, he was ap- 
proached by Mr. Moody, Major Whittle, and others with a view 
to his engaging in evangelistic work. As a result, the names of 
" Whittle and Bliss" became almost as widely known as those of 
"Moody and Sankey. " Indeed it was INIr. Bliss who had the 
chief share in making Gospel Sotigs. His personal singing was 
one of the charms of any service in which he was engaged. The 
writer of these lines knew him, loved him and lamented him. 
It is a memory to be treasured when one has heard Mr. and Mrs. 
Bliss sing " Waiting and Watching for Me." 

On Friday, December 29th, 1876, they left Rome, Pa., for 
Chicago. During the journey Mr. Bliss was busy with his Bible, 
and the notes of a new song which he was writing. But at Ash- 
tabula, O., a bridge suddenly broke ; the entire train was thrown 
into the stream below ; the cars caught fire, and all that is known 
further is that Mr. Bliss escaped through a broken window, and 
lost his life, finally, by returning to save his wife. 

At the memorial meeting held in Chicago after his death it was 
remembered that the last time he sang in that city he had said : 
" I don't know as I shall ever sing here again, but I want to sing 
this as the language of my heart." Then he sang : " I know 
not the hour when my Lord will come." 

The present hymn was the rallying song of the Scottish revival. 
It was suggested to its author by the fact that we sang so much 
about our love to Christ and so little about His love to us. 

INIr. Sankey relates that a little dying girl, one of his Thursday 
evening singing-class, bore beautiful testimony to the power of 
this hymn : 

"Don't you remember," she said, "one Thursday when you were 
teaching me to sing ' I am so glad that Jesus loves me,' and don't you 
remember how you told us that if we only gave our hearts to him he 
would love us ? and I gave it to him." 

" What that little dying girl said to me," adds Mr. Sankey, " helped to 
cheer me on more than anything I had heard before, because she was my 
first convert." 

A missionary of the American Sunday-school Union sang this 
song in a hamlet in Missouri, where he had just organized a Sun- 



238 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

day-school. He then put the question : " hxeyou glad ? If not, 
why?" when a young man in the deepest emotion rushed up to 
him, threw his arms around his neck, and besought his prayers. 
" Oh, that song !" he cried. " I could not get away from it, 
and it has saved me !" 

I AM trusting thee. Lord Jesus. — F. R. Havergal. 
This hymn is taken from her Poems, p. 255 — " Trusting Jesus. " 
It has six stanzas. Miss Havergal's date is 1874. 

I ASK not now for gold to gild. — Whittier. 
The date of this hymn is 1850. It is taken from the piece en- 
titled " The Wish of To-Day," and is by the Quaker poet, John 
Greenleaf Whittier. 

I BLESS the Christ of God. — Bonar. 
This is from a hymn in twelve stanzas, found in Dr. Bonar' s 
Hymns of Faith atid Hope, second series, 1861, with the title, 
"•Not what these hands have done." 

I BUILD on this foundation. — Massie, ir. 
Mr. Massie has made this rendering of Paul (lerhardt's " /?/ 
Gott filr mich, so trele." The first line is, " If God himself be for 
me," and there are eleven eight-line stanzas. Miss Winkworth 
has also offered a translation of this same piece, for a portion of 
which we refer the reader to " Here I can firmly rest." 

I CANNOT tell if short or long. — Knowlton. 
This hymn is by a lady. Miss H. O. Knowlton, who was a 
school-girl in Illinois at the time of its composition. Professor 
W. F. Sherwin received it from her, through the good offices of 
one of her teachers, a mutual friend. The author married, re- 
moved to Minnesota or Dakota, and disappeared from Mr. Sher- 
win' s knowledge — as he writes under date of February 25th, 
1884. Her name, merged in that of her husband, has also 
escaped observation. 

I HEARD the voice of Jesus say. — Bonar. 

The title of this hymn is, "The Voice from Galilee. — John 
I : 16." It appears in Hymns of Faith and Hope, first series, 1857, 
and is in three stanzas. 

"The Almighty," says De Tocqueville, "does not general- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 239 

ize. " The essence of this lovely hymn is that very thought. It 
is, "Come unto me.''' . . . "Lay down, thou weary one, thy 
head. ' ' And so the verses proceed : " / came . . . I found . , . 
He has made 7«^ glad." "Now the care of Christianity," says 
Bishop Warburton, ^' \sioT particulars.'" 

I FEED by faith on Christ, my bread. — Montgomery. 
This is No. 130 of James Montgomery's Original Hymns, 1S53, 
in six stanzas, and is entitled " The Lord's Supper." 

I HEAR my Sa\iour say. — Mrs. Hall. 
Mrs. Elvina Mabel Hall was born in Alexandria, Va., June 
4th, 1818. This hymn was written in the spring of 1865 on the 
fiy-leaf of the New Lute 0/ Zion. Moreover, we are bound to add 
that the writer was in the choir gallery of a Baltimore church, and 
that the pastor was praying, while this poetic inspiration was ex- 
pressing itself in verse. For some years Mrs. Hall resided, a 
widow, in Baltimore, Md. , but a paragraph in the daily papers of 
September loth, 1885, shows that we must now record her by 
another name and residence. She was married, near that date, 
to Rev. Thomas Myers, of Woodberry, Md., a gentleman of about 
eighty years of age. 

I JOURNEY through a desert drear and wild. — Mrs. Walker, 
Mrs. Mary Jane (Deck) Walker is a daughter of John Deck, 
Esq., of Bury St. Edmunds, England, and sister of James 
George Deck, the hymn-writer. She married, in 1848, the Rev. 
Edward Walker, rector of Cheltenham. Her hymns were mainly 
contributed to her husband's compilation of Psalms and Hymns 
for Public and Social Worship. 

I KNOW no life divided. — Massie, tr. 

This rendering is made from the hymn, " Jesu, meine Sonjie," 
of Spitta (1801-1859), 1833. We are indebted to Mr. Massie 
himself for much of the information which we possess regarding 
Carl Johann Philipp Spitta. Dn Miinkel (1861) has also given 
us a biography of his friend. 

Spitta was of humble family. His father was French, and his 
mother a baptized Jewess. He was born in Hanover, August ist, 
1 80 1, and his earliest years were marked by the presence in his 
character of gentle and pious traits. His father's death, when the 



240 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

child was but four years of age, threw his care and training entirely 
on his mother, who seems to have been a woman possessed of 
much more than ordinary intellect and good sense. The boy was 
sick from his tenth to his fourteenth year, and this prevented her 
cherished design of preparing him for the university. He was at 
length apprenticed to a watchmaker ; but the confinement proved 
irksome, and he solaced himself with his Bible and the writing of 
hymns. In 18 18 he renewed his original purpose of entering the 
ministry, and, on the death of his younger brother, he set about 
his preparation in earnest. At first he studied at home. He then 
was received into the highest class of the school, and in 1821 he 
was regularly enrolled at the University of Gottingen. From 1824 
to 1828 he was a private tutor near Liineburg — a place aways as- 
sociated, in the mind of the writer of this notice, with Ernestus, its 
duke, who struck certain coins on which was the motto, Aliis 
servcns meipsiim confer — " In working for others I wear myself 
away." Here at Liineburg, Spitta wrote many hymns ; and in 
1828 he began his labors as a Lutheran clergyman at Sudwalde, 
Hanover. 

As might have been anticipated he proved to be a devoted pastor 
and an evangelical preacher — a man whose earnestness excited op- 
position as well as approval. In 1830 he assumed the chaplaincy 
of the reformatory and garrison at Hameln, in Hanover, and in 
1833 he published his Psaltery and Harp, embracing sixty-six 
hymns. This sprang into immediate popularity, and in 1861 it 
had attained a twenty-third edition. Again, his zeal aroused jeal- 
ousy and resistance, and he was removed in 1837 to Wechold in 
Hoya, Hanover. 

He had been married, October 4th, 1837, to Joanna Mary Mag- 
dalene Hotzen, and was ultimately the parent of seven children. 
His home was the abode of peace and domestic enjoyment, and 
he was never so happy as when he was singing hymns with his 
daughters. 

In 1843 a second collection of his pieces was issued, which had 
come to a seventh edition in 1869. He removed not long after- 
ward (1847) to Wittingen, in Liineburg, where he became super- 
intendent minister. In 1853 he was made chief pastor at Peine, 
and two years later the University of Gottingen bestowed on him 
the degree of D. D. He was appointed to the church at Burgdorf, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 241 

in 1859, and while visiting iiis district as rural dean was attacked 
by gastric fever, and died, September 28th, 1859, from a superven- 
ing disease of the heart. After his death his scattered unpublished 
pieces were collected under the title, Nachgelassene Geistliche 
Liedcr. Dr. Huntington adds to our information concerning this 
writer that " most of his hymns were set to music, and that he 
often sang them at evening with his daughters, perhaps composing 
both hymn and tune together, as Luther did, — the harmony of 
the voices and the melody of the words being such that crowds of 
people used to gather under his windows to listen." 

I KNOW that my Redeemer lives — C. Wesley. 
From Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1 742. The original has twenty- 
three stanzas. It bears the title, "Rejoicing in Hope. — Rom. 
12 : 12." The second line is, " And ever prays for me." 

I LAY my sins on Jesus. — Bonar. 
Dr. Bonar entitles this " The Substitute." It was published in 
his Hymns of Faith atui Hope, first series, 1857, in four stanzas. 
The inscription indicates that it was founded upon a portion of a 
Latin hymn of about the fourteenth century : 

" Jesu plena caritate 
Manus tuse perforatse 
Laxent mea crimina." 

This hymn of Dr. Bonar has been traced to the Bible Hymn- 
Book, 1844. 

I LEFT it all with Jesus, long ago. — Miss Willis. 
The name of Miss Ellen H. Willis, an English lady, belongs 
with this piece. It appears in the Gospel Songs of Bliss and 
Sankey. 

I LOVE thy kingdom, Lord. — Dwight. 

This is the composition of the author of the Conquest 0/ Canaan, 
the Rev. Timothy Dwight, D. D. , LL. D. , vA\o was born in 
Northampton, Mass., May 14th, 1752, and died in New Haven, 
Conn., January nth, 18 17, as President of Yale College. He had 
entered the college at the age of thirteen, and was graduated in 
the class of 1769. He next became a tutor, and, when he resigned 
this post at the age of twenty-five, the students w^ere unanimous 



242 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

for his election as president. He was finally chosen in 1795, and 
held the office until his death. The interval between his tutorship 
and the presidency was spent as a chaplain in the Revolutionary 
army and as pastor of the Congregational church at Greenfield, 
Conn. Dr. Dwight is known by his Theology, which contains the 
views of a moderate Calvinist, and has been lately reprinted in 
England, His piety was pure and gentle, and this hymn expresses 
with admirable correctness the purpose of his life. He was, in 
fact, one of the broadest and most scholarly examples of American 
culture at that period, and his ability had no small share in de- 
termining the opinion of other nations in regard to the United 
States, and the trend of thought and education at home. 

Dr. Dwight had been requested by the General Association of 
Connecticut, in 1797, to complete Watts's version of the Psalms, 
a task left unfinished by Joel Barlow, the American poet, whose 
book appeared in 1785. The work was approved in 1800, and 
consists of a revision of Dr. Watts's Psalms, with such other 
hymns and additions as Dr. Dwight found suitable. In the edi- 
tion of Dwighfs Waffs now before us, this hymn is " Ps. 137, 
third part, S. M.," in eight stanzas. 

Dr. Dwight is a wonderful example of energy and application 
under great physical disadvantages. His sight failed him after his 
recovery from small-pox, with which, in the barbarous manner of 
ancient days, he had been deliberately inoculated. For the greater 
part of forty years he was seldom able to read consecutively for 
fifteen minutes during the twenty-four ; and for days and weeks 
together his eyes were often useless. The pain behind the eye- 
balls and in the frontal region of the brain was constant and ago- 
nizing. Yet, in defiance of all this, he achieved the results which 
we have but partially recorded. 

I LOVE to steal awhile away. — Brown. 

Phoebe Hinsdale was the daughter of George Plinsdale, the re- 
puted composer of the old tune that bears that name. She was 
born at Canaan, N. Y., May ist, 1783, and was left an orphan at 
two years of age. Her opportunities for education were slight 
enough. She never, it is presumed, had more than three months 
of consecutive school instruction, and she was eighteen before she 
even learned to read. " As to my histor}', " so she wrote to Rev. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 243 

Elias Nason, " it is soon told. A sinner saved by grace and sanc- 
tified by trials." 

Always poor, and pressed by the daily ca'^es of the house, she 
did not improve her worldly fortune by marriage with Timothy H. 
Brown, a house-painter, who took her with him to Ellington, 
Tolland County, Conn. Here she first began to use her pen. 
Here also she crept away at dusk from her children and her pov- 
erty to a grove near by, where she could meditate and pray. The 
gossips who observed these evening excursions did not fail to put 
their own coarse construction upon them. It was due to this un- 
kindness that the persecuted woman replied, in the verses which 
we quote in their original form : 

AN APOLOGY FOR MY TWILIGHT RAMBLES, ADDRESSED 
TO A LADY. 

{Ellington, August, 1818.) 

Yes, when the toilsome day is gone, 

And night, with banners gray, 
Steals silently the glade along 

In twilight's soft array, 

I love to steal awhile away 

From little ones and care. 
And spend the hours of setting day 

In gratitude and prayer. 

I love to feast on Nature's scenes 

When falls the evening dew. 
And dwell upon her silent themes, 

Forever rich and new. ~' 

I love in solitude to shed 

The penitential tear. 
And all God's promises to plead 

Where none can see or hear. 

I love to think on mercies past, 

And future ones implore, 
And all my cares and sorrows cast 

On Him whom I adore. 

I love to meditate on death ! 

When shall his message come 
With friendly smiles to steal my breath 

And take an exile home ? 



244 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

I love by faith to take a view 

Of blissful scenes in Heaven ; 
The sight doth all my strength renew. 

While here by storms I'm driven. 

I love this silent twilight hour 

Far better than the rest ; 
It is, of all the twenty-four, 

Tlie happiest and the best. 

Thus, when life's toilsome day is o'er. 

May its departing ray 
Be calm as this impressive hour 

And lead to endless day. 

The compression of this into the five stanzas which form our 
familiar hymn was effected by the EvangeUst Nettleton in his Vil- 
lage Hymns. He found Mrs. Brown " in a very humble cot- 
tage," at Monson, Mass. Her own account of the origin of the 
hymn is as follows : 

" I had, while living in East Windsor, kept a kind of diary, and con- 
tinued it in Ellington, Conn. I wrote several scraps of poetry in Elling- 
ton, which were published by my brother, Nathan Whiting, in the Relig- 
ious Intelligeiuer, at New Haven. It was in Ellington that I wrote the 
' Twilight Hymn.' My baby daughter was in my arms when I wrote it. 
I had been out on a visit at Dr. Hyde's, and several were present. After 
tea one of my neighbors, who I had ever felt was my superior in every 
way, came and sat down near me, chatting with another lady, without 
noticing me. Just as I was rising to go home, she turned suddenly upon 
me, and said : ' Mrs. Brown, why do you come up at evening so near 
our house, and then go back without coming in ? If you want anything, 
why don't you come in and ask for it ? I could not think who it was, and 
sent my girl down the garden to see ; and she said it was you. That you 
came to the fence, but, seeing her, turned quickly away, muttering some- 
thing to yourself.' There was something in her manner, more than her 
words, that grieved me. I went home, and that evening was left alone. 
After my children were all in bed, except tny baby, I sat down in the 
kitchen, with my child in my arms, when the grief of my heart burst forth 
in a flood of tears. I took pen and paper, and gave vent to my op- 
pressed heart in what I called ' My Apology for my Twilight Rambles, 
addressed to a Lady.' It will be found in its original form in an old 
manuscript among my papers. In preparing it (some years after) for 
Netileton's ' Village Hymns,' some three or four verses were suppressed 
and a few expressions altered. In the original the first stanza was : 

' I love to steal awhile away 
From little ones and care.' 

This was strictly true. I had four little children ; a small, unfinished 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 245 

house ; a sick sister in the only finished room ; and there was not a place, 
above or below, where I could retire for devotion, without a liability to 
be interrupted. There was no retired room, rock, or grove where I could 
go, as in former days ; but there was no dwelling between our house and 
the one where that lady lived. Her garden extended down a good way 
below her house, which stood on a beautiful eminence. The garden was 
highly cultivated, with fruits and flowers. I loved to smell the fragrance 
of both (though I could not see them), when I could do so without neg- 
lecting duty ; and I used to steal away from all within doors, and, going 
out of our gate, stroll along under the elms that were planted for shade 
on each side of the road. And, as there was seldom any one passing 
that way after dark, I felt quite retired and alone with God. I often 
walked quite up that beautiful garden, and snuffed the fragrance of the 
peach, the grape, and the ripening apple, if not the flowers. I never saw 
any one in the garden, and felt that I could have the privilege of that 
walk and those few moments of uninterrupted communion with God 
without encroaching upon any one ; but, after once knowing that my steps 
were watched and made the subject of remark and censure, I never could 
enjoy it as I had done. I have often thought Satan had tried his best to 
prevent me from prayer, by depriving me of a place to pray." 

The singular fact regarding this account is not that it is given 
by the author in simple and touching words, but that it comes to 
us from the Sandwich Islands. On the 27th of January, 1879, 
Dr. S. R. Brown, of Yokohama, Japan (Mrs. Brown's son), sent 
to Dr. Damon of the Sandwich Islands, in reply to his request, a 
long letter respecting his mother's life and writings. It was printed 
in TJie Friend, Honolulu, April, 1879, ^^^1 the statement just 
given is taken from her autobiography, which is in manuscript, in 
the possession of her children. This personal history was written 
at their urgent entreaty in Chicago, in the year 1849. 

Mrs. Brown lived at Monson for some thirty years, until about 
1849-50. Subsequently, she removed to Henry, 111., and there 
died, October loth, 1861. Her son, who died in 1886, was the 
first missionary from America to Japan, and went out under the 
auspices of the Reformed (Dutch) Church. The autobiography 
and poems of Mrs. Brown were under the editorial care of Rev. 
Charles Hammond, who died bef(Dre the completion of his task. 

Dr. Brown in a letter to Dr. Damon gives an incident which 
will serve to show how deep and abiding have been the Christian 
influences which she set in motion. 

" A month ago I received a sprig and clover-blossom from her grave, 
sent me by a gentleman in Walton (N. Y.), who always visits the spot 



246 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

when he goes to Monson, his birthplace, because he cannot forget his 
teacher, having been a member of an infant class she taught there for 
many years. It was a large class, and she prepared lessons for them that 
were published by the Massachusetts Sunday-school Society. . . . Her 
record is on high, and she is with the Lord, whom she loved and served 
as faithfully as any person I ever knew ; nay, more than any other. To 
her I owe all I am ; and if I have done any good in the world, to her, 
under God, it is due. She seems even now to have me in her hands, 
holding me up to work for Christ and his cause with a grasp that I can 
feel. I ought to have been and to be a far better man than I am, having 
had such a mother." 

It may be interesting to add that this hymn, which is before us, 
was (so she told Dr. Wolcott) preserved in her portfolio for a long 
time unpublished, and was probably rescued by Rev, Lavius 
Hyde, husband of the hymn-writer, Abigail (Bradley) Hyde. It 
is also said that Nettleton was advised by Rev. Alfred Ely, D.D, 
(Mrs. Brown's brother-in-law and pastor of a church at Monson), 
to apply to Mrs. Brown for some hymns, and this and three others 
were given to him for his use. 

The tune " Monson" was composed for this hymn by Rev. Dr. 
Samuel R. Brown, her son ; and the tune " Brown" was written 
for the same purpose by William B. Bradbury, and named in her 
honor. She contributed also to the Parish Hymns, compiled in 
Philadelphia by S. C. Brace, in 1843, ^.nd her pieces were desig- 
nated in that collection by the reversed initials, " B. H. P." 

I'll praise my Maker with my breath. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts's version of Ps, 146, P. M. It is entitled 
'* Praise to God for his goodness and truth," and consists of six 
stanzas. It was with the words of the opening line of this piece 
upon his lips that John Wesley rose, at the age of eighty-eight, for 
his last day upon earth. " I will get up," he said, and began 
singing the stanza. Seated in his chair, he murmured : " Lord, 
thou givest strength to those that can speak, and to those that 
cannot. Speak, Lord, to all our hearts, and let them know that 
thou loosest tongues. " Then he started again to sing what proved 
to be his final song on this side of the City : 

" To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
Who sweetly all agree." 

But his voice was exhausted, and after gasping a moment for 
breath, he said : " Now we have done ; let us all go." During 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 247 

the few hours that remained, he often tried to repeat this hymn, 
but could only manage to utter : " I'll praise — I'll praise." And 
at the end, he said nothing more, but — " Farewell." 

I'm not ashamed to own my Lord. — Watts. 

This hymn is printed at the close of a sermon on 2 Tim. 1:12. 
It is No. 103 of Dr. Watts's first book of hymns, and has four 
stanzas, with the title, " Not ashamed of the Gospel." 

In relating the account of a visit paid to a minister much broken 
in health. Dr. Leifchild says : 

" I found but the wreck and remnant only of what I had formerly 
known him to be. . . . He seemed wholly taken up with trifles, and 
was muttering a request for sweetmeats, as though he were in reality 
again a child. I was confounded and appalled at what I saw, and ex- 
claimed : ' What, my old friend, do you not know me ? ' He gave no re- 
sponse, but simply repeated his former request. One of his daughters 
then said to me : ' Ask him something about the Scripturesor the Saviour, 
and you will soon see a vast difference.' Upon this I said to him as if 
complainingly : ' Well, I see you do not know me ; do you know Jesus, 
whom I serve in the Gospel ? ' He started and looked as if just aroused 
from sleep ; when, lifting up his eyes, he exclaimed : 

' Jesus, my God, I know his name ; 
His name is all my trust ; 
Nor will he put my soul to shame, 
Nor let my hope be lost ! ' " 

I NEED thee, precious Jesus ! — F. Whitfield, 
This hymn is found in the Rev. Frederick Whitfield's Sacred 
Poems and Prose, 1859. The author is the son of H. Whitfield, 
and was born at Threapwood, in Shropshire, January 7th, 1829. 
He was graduated at Dublin University in 1859 ; ordained deacon, 
1859; ordained priest, i860; curate of Otley, Yorkshire, 1859- 
61 ; rector of Kirkby-Ravensworth, 1861 ; and has been in- 
cumbent of St. John's, Bexley Heath, London, and vicar of St. 
Mary's, Hastings. He has also been Secretary for Irish Church 
Missions, and has some repute as an author and poet. This 
hymn is based on the words, " Unto you who believe, he is pre- 
cious. " 

I SEE a man at God's right hand. — Boxar. 
In Dr. William Reid's Praise Book (third edition, 1S73) this 
hymn is first found. It was taken from the first edition and printed 
by Rev. J. H. Brookes, D. D., in his Gospel Hymns, St. Louis, 



248 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Mo., 187 1. Dr. Reid, in an autograph letter to Dr. E. F. Hat- 
field, which we have seen, declares that he has included in the 
Praise Book " everything that was singable" of Dr. Bonar's 
hymns. The author of Xh^ Blood 0/ Jesus — that wonderful little 
tract — might well appreciate and introduce his friend's verses. 

I SAW one hanging on a tree. — J. Newton. 

This is part of the illustrious hymn, " In evil long I took de- 
light," and is Book II., No. 57, " Looking at the Cross," in 
the Olney Hymns, ij"]^. It has eight stanzas. 

The life of Rev. John Newton was written by the pious and 
scholarly Rev. Richard Cecil, and revised by Mr. Newton's own 
hand. It may therefore be considered as the most accurate 
account which we possess, as it certainly is one of the most read- 
able. The second edition of this work, London, 1808, is our 
authority for any statements in the present notice. There is also 
a later and fuller biography, but the facts which we require are 
unaltered by it. 

John Newton was born in London, July 24th, 1725 (" old style" 
— i.e., August 4th, of our present reckoning). His parents were 
"respectable though not wealthy," and his father was for many 
years the master of a vessel in the Mediterranean trade. In 1748 
he entered the Hudson's Bay Company's service, became " gov- 
ernor" of their Fort York, and died in 1750. His wife, New- 
ton's mother, was a godly woman and a Dissenter, She was in 
feeble health, and of consumptive habit, loving retirement and the 
care of her only child. She constantly prayed and earnestly hoped 
for his salvation, and Newton was told that from his birth he had 
been devoted to the ministry. It was intended that he should 
receive an education suited to this end, but before he was seven 
years old his mother died. 

The child was rather thoughtful and sedentary, and learned to 
read (hard names excepted) when he was only four years of age. 
He also knew the Westminster Catechism with all the appended 
Scripture texts, and had by heart Dr. Watts' s Child's Catechism, 
and all the hymns for children which that father of English 
hymnody composed. The bearing of these facts on his own 
future career can easily be estimated. 

Newton's father shortly married again, and a step-brother soon 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 249 

" engrossed the old gentleman's notice," as Newton quaintly 
told Cecil. Hence, with no decided religious teaching at home, 
and being free to run loose with other wild lads, the boy was in a 
fair way to become bad himself. He had but two years of school- 
ing — though he educated himself marvellously well, later on — and 
this period was between his eighth and tenth years. His father 
was not really neglectful, nor was his step-mother unkind, but 
somehow the discipline was too severe. Fear of his schoolmaster 
also, he says, nearly made him "a dolt." He presently lost 
whatever good his own mother had taught him. 

On his eleventh birthday he went on board his father's ship, and 
made five voyages with him to the Mediterranean. During the 
last of these voyages he was left at Alicant, in Spain, Avith a mer- 
chant, a particular friend of his father, and could have been settled 
in a good business. But he was both careless and vicious, and 
' ' being his own enemy he seemed determined that nobody should 
be his friend." 

In 1742 his father left the sea, but Newton made one more 
voyage to Venice, before the mast. On his return he was im- 
pressed on board of the " Harwich" man-of-war, and there and 
then he appears to have abandoned every virtuous principle. It 
may be that his Xarrative is, like the great mass of similar produc- 
tions, rather overdrawn. Very few penitent sinners can preserve 
themselves from the desire to paint their previous lives as black as 
possible. And Newton has been more than once criticised for this 
Narrative, which he certainly intended as an ample and honest 
confession of his past misconduct. 

Mr. Cecil's judicious treatment of such a mass of information 
brings out of it the assurance that Newton's conscience was never 
completely at ease. " He took up and laid aside a religious pro- 
fession three or four different times, before he was sixteen years 
of age. " But during all this protracted struggle he confesses that 
his heart was insincere. He might be, and he was, a Pharisee in 
rigid performance of duty, but he was only going about to estab- 
lish his own righteousness. It sounds strangely when one is told 
that this wild and dangerous scapegrace often fasted and fre- 
quently spent a great deal of time in reading the Bible and in 
prayer. For two jears he once held to such a course. " But," 
he adds, significantly, " it was a poor religion." 



250 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

About the date when his father gave up his seafaring life, New- 
ton was affected by infidelity. He read Shaftesbury, and liked 
him. And somewhere in the neighborhood of 1742 he fell vio- 
lently in love with a lady (a Miss Mary Catlett), who had been 
destined, strangely enough, both by her mother and his own for 
his future wife. It was a notably romantic affair. He was so 
reckless in respect to delaying at her home as to lose an important 
business opportunity, and when he again visited her in 1743 he 
did much the same thing. Finally, his impressment on the 
" Harwich" was caused by his thoughtless wearirag of a checked 
shirt, and so drawing attention to the fact that he was a sailor. 

The captain of the " Harwich," at the instance of Newton's 
father, promoted him to a midshipman's berth. This put him 
among the gentlemen, but, as a war with the French was threaten- 
ing, it was the best that could be done, and there was no hope of 
his release. His delight was now to talk virtue and practice vice 
— a feature of his character which must have rendered him severe 
enough in later life, both upon himself and on others. Such is 
always the outcome of this experience. Augustine is an excellent 
example. 

Newton's habit in those days was " never to deliberate, " but to 
act on the moment's impulse. Hence he deserted at Torbay, but 
was caught and brought back, like a felon, to Plymouth. He 
was kept two days in the guard-house — then sent on board ship, 
stripped and whipped, and degraded from the rank of midship- 
man to his old place in the forecastle. 

As he had been very overbearing to the men he now suffered 
the natural consequences. He was miserable enough, and full of 
" eager desire, bitter rage, and black despair." He even plotted 
suicide. His only restraint was his love for the girl whom he 
afterward married. 

At length he had the chance to be exchanged on board of a 
Guinea trader, and it all came about through a midshipman 
having maliciously cut down his hammock and dropped him to 
the deck ! On such slight events turns our fate — as though 
Ezekiel's flying wheels of Providence rejoiced to whirl upon the 
slenderest of axles ! And now Newton was embarked on that 
well-known career of wickedness which landed him among the 
slavers of Sierra Leone. Here he literally was famished, and no 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 251 

one gave unto him. He was reduced to so low an ebb that he 
was thankful, not exactly for the husks of the swine, but for what 
ma}^ well stand as their equivalent, the food of *' the slaves in the 
chain," who did not even dare to be seen giving it. He received 
also an abundance of scorn and contempt, for he had landed 
from the vessel with nothing but the clothes on his back, and was 
practically a slave to the Portuguese master who employed him. 

He appears, moreover, to have had a bitter enemy in his master's 
black wife, who would visit him in his illness to insult him, and 
would set her attendants to mock him, mimic his actions, and 
pelt him with limes and even with stones. This disastrous malig- 
nity, whose cause we do not know, wrought out another result. 
The master was persuaded that his servant cheated him — about the 
only sin, perhaps, of which that poor wretch could not have been 
convicted ! So it goes, always, and the way of this transgressor 
was only another proof that the Bible has pictured truly the fate 
of the evil-doer in all its " hardness." But he was unchanged in 
heart, remaining simply " a tiger tamed by hunger." 

Strange as it may appear, he found diversion amid this dread- 
ful suffering in studying mathematics, and mastered Barrow's 
Euclid, drawing the diagrams of the first six books with a stick on 
the sand. His miserable condition can best be told in his own 
words : 

" Had you seen me, Sir, then go so pensive and solitary in the dead of 
night to wash my one shirt upon the rocks, and afterward put it on wet, 
that it might dry upon my back, while I slept ; had you seen me so poor 
a figure, that when a ship's boat came to the island, shame often con- 
strained me to hide myself in the woods, from the sight of strangers ; 
especially, had you known that my conduct, principles, and heart were 
still darker than my outward condition — how little would you have im- 
agined, that one, who so fully answered to the arir/Tirol Kal fiiaovvTcc 
[' hateful and hating one another'] of the Apostle, was reserved to be so 
peculiar an instance of the providential care and exuberant goodness of 
God." 

The nature of his wickedness can be better appreciated when we 
find him speaking of his " vile, licentious life," and yet referring 
to his love for the girl he had left behind him in England, as the 
only good desire he possessed. 

After a while Newton was transferred to another trader on the 
same island — the largest of the three Plan/anes, near the mouth of 



252 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

the Sherbro River. Here he was treated decently, trusted, and 
grew almost happy and Africanized. But in the mean time some 
of his letters had reached England and his father had sent out to 
ransom him by a vessel then on her voyage to the coast. Here, 
again, Providence interfered, for the captain, landing at Sierra 
Leone, discovered that Newton was far away, and troubled himself 
no more on the subject. In reality the poor fellow was then at 
Kittam, scarcely a mile from the ship, and, in a restless mood, he 
and a fellow servant used often to walk on the beach, crossing the 
narrow neck of land from the inland river. In February, 1747, 
they saw a vessel passing. Others had gone by and never slack- 
ened sail, but this one unexpectedly answered their smoke signal, 
which they made for trading purposes. The wind was fair, and 
the captain at first was disinclined to stop ; but, when he rounded 
to, Newton and his companion took a canoe and went off. It 
was the very ship whose captain had the order for his return. Half 
an hour later they would have failed to stay her course. Notwith- 
standing which, the unrepenta,nt prodigal, being now well-fed and 
clothed, heard the news with indifference. The captain, however, 
having got him would not lose him, and contrived an ingenious 
fiction — every word being a falsehood — to the effect that Newton 
had come into £400 per annum, and that he had orders to redeem 
him at the cost of half his cargo, but unfortunately he had lost the 
packet of papers which he was to deliver. This seemed plausible, 
especially when it was combined with the hope of seeing Mary 
Catlett, whom he finally married February ist, 1750. 

At this time, then (1747), he suddenly accepted the captain's 
offer, and abruptly left Kittam. Homeward bound he was lodged 
in the cabin, and treated with the utmost kindness, and having 
little to do and nothing to read, he came upon Stanhope's 
Thomas a Kempis. Like hundreds of the deepest and most devout 
Christians, he, too, was affected by the Imitalion of Christ, and 
asked himself if it could be true. The voyage was interrupted b}' 
a severe storm. The ship was in danger of sinking, and to the 
awakened conscience of Newton every woid and circumstance had 
a spiritual fitness. When, at length, the peril was practically ended, 
he arrived at that day in his life which he commemorated with the 
profoundest gratitude ever afterward. It was the loth of March, 
"old style" (or, as we would say, the 21st), 1748. [The new 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 253 

Style came in in 1752.] He was at the pumps from three in the 
morning until noon, and being utterly exhausted lay down in his 
berth. Called in about an hour, he could only muster strength to 
steer. This he did till midnight, and there, at the wheel, God's 
mercy reached his heart. He thought of " those awful passages, 
Prov. I : 24-31 ; Heb. 6 : 4-6 ; and 2 Pet. 2 : 20." He felt 
himself doomed by the divine wrath. And when at six in the 
evening he heard that the ship was free from water, and that there 
was some hope, he began to pray. His prayer was " like the cry 
of the ravens, which yet the Lord does not disdain to hear." He 
remembered Jesus, whom he had " so often derided." And now 
he wanted evidence ; he desired to believe. Light did not come 
at once, but this was the earliest streaking of the dawn, and hence 
he always observed this day as that of his spiritual birth. 

Our space will not permit any further enlargement of this story. 
Suffice it that Newton turned eagerly to the New Testament, and 
that, after great hardship, they reached their port. He found him- 
self freed from the habit of profane swearing, and felt a sincere 
sorrow for his past life. To all appearance he was a new man, 
and the ship-owner, whose vessel brought him home, took him 
into his service. This was important, as the elder Newton had 
just gone to America, where he died, but not without learning of 
his son's reformation. 

It was only this and nothing else — a reformation, which took 
him to church and externally improved him, but which did not 
prevent his going again in the Guinea trade and purchasing slaves 
whom he sold in the West Indies. Mentally, though, as well as 
morally, he advanced. He had several hair-breadth escapes — in 
which any one who reads of them can see that ordinary luck or 
good fortune will not quite explain his preservation from death. 

Subsequent to his marriage he made several voyages as captain, 
trading to the African and West Indian ports. After six years of 
morality he then experienced the power of true godliness through 
the aid of a pious captain whom he met at St. Christophers. For 
nearly a month they spent alternate evenings in each other's 
cabins. This good friend brought him to his knees in social 
prayer, taught him the love of Christ indeed, and, when he reached 
Liverpool, August, 1754, he was for the first time a regenerated 
man. 



254 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

At this point God put forth his hand in a marked manner. 
Newton fell in a fit at his own table, and the physicians declared 
him unfit for a new voyage. He resigned the command of his 
vessel ; the man who went in his place died, as did many others ; 
and Newton, through his friend the captain, became acquainted 
with a circle of religious people. His wife was taken ill. His 
means ran low. By degrees he was brought to consecrate every- 
thing to Christ, and to hope that he might be called into his ser- 
vice. He became temporarily a " tide-surveyor," visiting the ar- 
riving ships at Liverpool and inspecting those in dock. He had 
fifty or sixty persons under his control. Once, when slightly be- 
hind time — an unusual occurrence — the vessel to which he was 
being rowed blew up just before he reached her. Five minutes 
sooner would have lost him his life along with those on board, 
who all perished. 

During this period he was studying Greek as well as Latin, and 
although disappointed in his first application for a position in the 
ministry he succeeded, December i6th, 1758, and was appointed 
to a curacy in the Church of England. But the irregularity of his 
entrance was an obstacle, and the Archbishop of York, Dr. Gil- 
bert, declined to ordain him. The refusal, curiously enough, 
came through the archbishop's chaplain, whose name also was 
Newton. 

In 1 764 he was offered the curacy of Olney, and Dr. Green, the 
Bishop of London, examined him and ordained him as deacon, at 
Buckden, April 29th, 1764. The next year he was made a priest. 
The Olney people were evangelical, and had been under an excel- 
lent vicar, Rev. Moses Brown, whose duties Mr. Newton now 
undertook. A Mr. Thornton also became his friend, not only as 
a Christian but in temporal affairs, too ; and this generous patron 
gave him, first and last, little short of £3000 (|i5,ooo), during 
his stay at Olney. This enabled Newton to extend his benevo- 
lence beyond what would have been otherwise possible. 

Here at Olney he met William Covvper, the poet. And while 
there is no doubt that Newton's almost ascetic earnestness was 
likely to foster the morbidness in Cowper's character, it is equally 
clear that the robustness of the sailor was of great use to the fragil- 
ity of the poet. Few persons realize that Cowper was over fifty 
years of age when he published his first poems, and that the Olney 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 255 

Hymns were among the earliest developments of his poetry as well 
as of his religion. He was born in 1731, came to Olney in 1767, 
and the hymns were printed in 1779 ; whereas "John Gilpin" 
only saw the light in 1782, and the " Task" appeared in 1784. 

In 1779 Newton became rector of the united parishes of St. 
Mary-Woolnoth and St. Mary-Woolchurch-Haw, in Lombard 
Street, London. Here he labored faithfully, and died in peace on 
the 2ist of December, 1807. His epitaph, written by himself, 
deserves to stand as the peroration of this account : 

JOHN NEWTON, Clerk, 

Once an Infidel and Libertine, 

A servant of slaves in Africa, 

Was, by the rich mercy of our Lord and Saviour 

JESUS CHRIST, 

Preserved, restored, pardoned. 

And appointed to preach the Faith 

He had long laboured to destroy. 

Near 16 years at Olney in Bucks ; 

And . . . years in this church. 



"And I earnestly desire," he added, " that no other monu- 
ment, and no inscription but to this purport, may be attempted 
for me." Yet his services as a hymn-writer would of themselves 
and alone preserve his memory among the precious things of the 
Church. 

I SING the almighty power of God. — Watts. 

From the Divine and Mural Songs /or the Use of Children. It is 
the second number, and is entitled " Praise for Creation and 
Providence." It has eight stanzas. 

I STAND on Zion's mount. — J. Swain. 
This hymn, written probably at some date in the neighborhood 
of 1790, represents the confident trust of a Christian soul. When 
Mr. Swain was converted he was filled with such joy and trust that 
he expressed himself in many similar verses. A friend overhearing 
him as he sang them to himself, ascertained their meaning, and 
took him, for the first time, to hear Gospel preaching. Not long 
afterward he was admitted to the ministry of the Baptist Church. 
It did not then require any greater preparation for such a service 



256 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

than what was found in earnest piety and a " gift ' ' in prayer and 
exhortation, all of which Swain eminently possessed. 

I've found the pearl of greatest price. — J. INIasox. 

This well-known hymn — much altered in Bliss and Sankey's 
Gospel Hymns — is found in Whitefield's Collection (eighteenth edi- 
tion, 1773), whence it has come into general use in one form or 
another. The author was John jNIason, who wrote the Spiritual 
Songs, 1683, and who is commended by George MacDonald in 
England' s Atitiphon. He was contemporary with Bunyan and 
Baxter, Ken and Dryden, Tate and Brady. We do not know 
when he was born, but his school-days were spent in Strixton, near 
Northampton, England. He entered Clare Hall, Cambridge, 
1660, and was graduated as B.A., 1664, and M.A., 1668. His 
ministry began as curate at Isham, Northamptonshire ; next he 
became vicar of Stanton-Bury, Buckinghamshire, October 31st, 
1668, where he remained about five years. January 28th, 1674, 
found him presented to the rectory of Water-Stratford, where the 
Lord gave him satisfaction in days of famine, and rest in the midst 
of troublous times round about, for twenty years. He died there 
in 1694. 

This was the man whom Richard Baxter styled the " glory of 
the Church of England." His grandson, Rev. John ]\Iason, 
edited his Select Remaitis. 

Of his personal character it is enough to say that he was an 
eccentric and even enraptured man, who declared that he had 
visibly " seen the Lord. " He has a remarkable purity of spiritual 
expression, and his hymns undoubtedly affected Watts, Pope, and 
the Wesleys. His is that fine Sabbath hymn — whose first line 
suggests George Herbert's poem : 

" Blest day of God, most calm, most blight, 
The first and best of days." 

His, too, is that other hymn, " Now from the altar of my 
heart. ' ' Daniel Sedgwick reprinted the Spiritual Songs — and they 
are well worthy of it. 

If human kindness meets return. — Noel. 
The Hon. and Rev. Gerard Thomas Noel, the second son of 
Sir Gerard Noel-Edwardes, Bart., and Diana, the daughter and 
heiress of Charles ]MiddIeton, first Baron Barham. was born De- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 257 

cember 2d, 1782. He had the first Earl of Gainsborough for an 
elder brother, and his younger brother was the celebrated Rev. 
Baptist W. Noel. The studies of Gerard Noel were prosecuted at 
Edinburgh and Cambridge Universities. His degrees (of B.A., 
1805, and i\I.A. , 1808) were received from Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. He then entered the ministr}'- and became curate of Rad- 
well, Hertfordshire ; then vicar of Rainham, Kent, and curate of 
Richmond, Surrey. His final positions were canon of Winchester 
cathedral, 1834, and vicar of Romsey, 184.0, where he died, Feb- 
ruary 24th, 1 85 1. 

In 1820 he published 2l Selection 0/ Psalms and Hy??ms, which 
passed to at least three editions (third edition, 18 20), and in which 
several hymns are his own. Others were amended and corrected 
by his hand. The present piece, which has secured general favor, 
is from the conclusion of Arvendel ; or, Sketches in Italy and Swit- 
zerland (second edition, 18 13). 

If God is mine, then present things. — Beddome. 
The other form of this hymn is, " If Christ is mine, then all is 
mine." The date is 1776. 

If you cannot on the ocean. — Mrs. Gates. 

We have included this hymn because it has a histor}', and be^ 
cause, while it has its own associations, it serves as a suggestive 
commentar}' on other pieces found in these pages. Strictly, one 
would not call it a " hymn," and yet none who have heard 
Philip Phillips sing it will doubt its fitness to be a " sacred song." 

It came into notice through the admiration felt for it by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, but for a long time its authorship was not known. 
The composer is now identified as IMrs. Ellen Huntington Gates, 
of Elizabeth, N. J., a sister of ]\Ir. C. P. Huntington, a prominent 
financier of New York City. Her account of its origin is as 
follows : 

" The lines were written upon my slate one snowy afternoon in the 
winter of i860. I knew, as I know now, that the poem was only a simple 
little thing ; but somehow I had a presentiment that it had wings, and 
would fly into sorrowful hearts, uplifting and strengthening them." 

This has been fulfilled. Many " may forget the singer," but 
they " will not forget the song." 

The most appropriate comment upon the piece itself was Abra- 



258 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

ham Lincoln's own life. Mr. F. B. Carpenter, the artist, in his 
volume of reminiscences, tells this interesting story, to show how 
firmly the colored people believed in him as God's chosen mes- 
senger and in his " mission" to their race : 

" On a certain day, when there was quite a large gathering of the 
people, considerable confusion was created by different persons attempt- 
' ing to tell who and what ' Massa Linkum ' was. In the midst of the ex- 
citement the white-headed leader commanded silence. ' Brederin,' said 
he, 'you don't know nosen' what you'se talkin' 'bout. Now, you just 
listen to me. Massa Linkum, he eberywhar. He know eberyting.' 
Then, solemnly looking up, he added : ' He walk de earf like de Lord I ' 

" When this story was told to the President he did not smile, but rose 
from his chair and walked in silence two or three times across the floor. 
Then he said : ' It is a momentous thing to be the instrument, under 
Providence, of the liberation of a race.' " 

And this is the hymn — "Your Mission." To the critical eye it has 
faults — but it has also some things which a colder correctness does not 
always secure. 

" If you cannot on the ocean " You can visit the afflicted, 

Sail among the swiftest fleet, O'er the erring you can weep, 

Rocking on the highest billow, You can be a true disciple. 

Laughing at the storms you meet, Sitting at the Saviour's feet. 

" You can stand among the sailors, " If you cannot in the conflict 

Anchored yet within the bay, Prove yourself a soldier true, 

You can lend a hand to help them. If, where fire and smoke are thickest, 

As they launch their boats away. There's no work for you to do, 

" If you are too weak to journey " When the battlefield is silent, 

Up the mountain, steep and high. You can go with careful tread. 

You can stand within the valley. You can bear away the wounded. 

Where the multitudes go by. You can cover up the dead. 

" You can chant in happy measure, " Do not, then, stand idly waiting 

As they slowly pass along ; For some greater work to do ; 

Though they may forget the singer. Fortune is a lazy goddess, 

They will not forget the song. She will never come to you. 

" If you have not gold and silver " Go and toil in any vineyard, 

Ever ready to command ; Do not fear to do or dare, 

If you cannot toward the needy If you want a field of labor. 

Reach an ever open hand ; You can find it anywhere." 

If through unruffled seas. — Toplady. 
This hymn is made from Toplady' s " Your harps, ye trembling 
saints" {c. 1772). Its entire sixteen stanzas are in Sir Roundell 
Palmer's Book of Praise. The first stanza of our piece has been 
prepared by another hand, but the fifth, eighth, and tenth stanzas 
of the original have been modified until they form this fine lyric 
in Laudes Do?mni. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 259 

In all my Lord's appointed ways. — Ryland. 
The origin of this hymn is somewhat singular. The author, 
Dr. John Ryland (born 1753), ^^'^s a celebrated Baptist divine, 
who at the date of its composition was settled in Northampton. 
It was his practice to be at the inn when the stage-coaches changed 
horses, as it was not far from his house. Thus he would meet 
many clergymen, some of whom he would often induce to remain 
and preach for him. Once he thus captured a brother minister 
who consented, very reluctantly, to stay and give a sermon. The 
text chosen was " Hinder me not" (Gen. 24 : 56), and Dr. Ry- 
land sat in the desk below the pulpit to " read the hymns," as 
was then customary. While the discourse proceeded, the hymn- 
writer below was turning the heads of it into verse. This, at the 
close of the sermon he read, and some of it was sung. The hymh 
had nine stanzas and originally began : 

" When Abraham's servant to procure 
A wife for Isaac went." 

It is under this title-line that Dr. Rippon's Selection, 1787, con- 
tains it. 

In all my vast concerns with thee. — Watts. 

This is Ps, 139, first part C. M., " God is Everywhere." It 
has ten stanzas, with a "pause" after the fifth. The hymn, 
" Lord, where shall guilty souls retire," is this same piece, from 
the " pause" onward. It has a fine stanza — the eighth of the 
present arrangement : 

" If wing'd with beams of morning light, 
I fiy beyond the west, 
Thy hand, which must support my flight. 
Would soon betray my rest." 

In heavenly love abiding. — Waring. 

The text of this hymn, as approved by Miss Waring, appears in 
three double stanzas in the Free Church Hymn-Book, 1881. 

Mr. Joseph Williams, a devout layman of Dr. Fawcett's congre- 
gation, in Kidderminster, wrote (April 23d, 1753) to his sister in 
this wise : 

" If we look only with eyes of flesh there is no happiness without 
health and strength ; but if the eye of faith be clear, we may be happy 
without either. ... It is more than time that I should ' weep as though 
I wept not.' I do not want many months of the age of our dear and 



26o ENGLISH HYMNS. 

much-honored father, when his stronger constitution was worn out by 
pains and cares. How long I am to sojourn in this tabernacle I know 
not, neither do I wish to know ; as Mr. Baxter sings : 
'It is enough that Christ knows all. ' " 

This Joseph Williams, born November i6th, 1692, was a hymn- 
writer of some note. He wrote, " To thy great name, O Prince of 
peace" (which appears in Dobell), and " This thought transport- 
ing pleasure gives" — a hymn on the resurrection of the body. 
Four of his stanzas (November, 1737) fitly accompany the present 

hymn : 

***** 

" ' Thou art my portion, Lord,' I cry ; 
' Oh, let my cry be heard ! 
Thy favor is the light of life. 
Thy providence my guard.' 
***** 

" I find no certain dwelling-place, 
But wander here and there ; 
I'm but a pilgrim here below 
As all my fathers were. 

" But there remains for me a rest, 
A house not made with hands, 
A mansion on the heavenly plains 
Where my salvation stands. 
***** 

" There is a region all serene, 
No cloud infests the sky ; 
Storms never roar, or gather round 
The saints that dwell on high." 

This excellent and spiritually-minded man — largely wealthy and 
as largely benevolent — could say in his latest hours : " I can cast 
myself at his feet, and say (I think, with my whole heart) as holy 
Baxter did — ' Lord, what thou wilt, when thou wilt, how thou 
wilt.' " He died after a short illness, December 21st, 1755. His 
" Diary" (revised edition, 1826) has much in it which we regret 
not to be able to quote. 

In the cro.ss of Christ I glory. — Bowring. 
Sir John Bowring published Matijis and Vespers, which is 
still in print. Hytnns by John Bowring, 1825, has been long 
out of print, but the Memorial Volmne, by Lady Bowring, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 26 1 

1873, contains the best religious poetry in this and the other col- 
lection. 

The author was born in Exeter, October 17th, 1792 ; educated 
at the grammar school of Moreton, Hampstead ; and then em- 
ployed by his father in his trade, which was the manufacture of 
coarse woollens for China and the Spanish peninsula. His lin- 
guistic ability was remarkable. In French only had he any mas- 
ter to instruct him. He acquired Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, 
German and Dutch by his own efforts, before he reached the age 
of sixteen. 

One part of his experience is too useful not to be detailed in 
Lady Bowring's own words : 

" He found that the great art of language-learning is to get rid of the 
notion of verbally translating the phrase ; that the same thought takes 
another shape when expression is given, and it is in another tongue ; 
that the real and exact synonyms of language are few ; and that diction- 
ary aid, at least, in the beginning of study, is rather pernicious than 
useful." 

Subsequently to this mercantile life, young Bowring essayed the 
political, and soon became the associate of Jeremy Bentham, and 
also a contributor to the Westminster Review. Still keeping up 
his study of languages, he first acted as Bentham' s literary ex- 
ecutor and the editor of his collected works, and then published 
translations from various Continental sources. 

He gave specimens from the lyrics of the Bohemian, Bulgarian, 
Sclavonic, Russian, Servian, Polish, Slovakian, and Illyrian 
tongues. To these he added Teutonic, Esthonian, Dutch, Fri- 
sian, Lettish, Finnish, Hungarian, Biscayan, French, Proven9al, 
Gascon, Italian (and its dialects), Spanish, Portuguese, Cata- 
lonian, and Gallician. Among these renderings the magnificent 
Oda Bog of Derzhavin, the Russian poet, claims the foremost place 
for felicity and power in its English dress. But the acquirements 
of Bowring are little less than marvellous. To parody Praed's 
rhyme : 

" You would have sworn as you looked at them 
He had fished in the Flood with Ham and Shem." 

He seems to have touched the very nerve centres of language, 
and to have comprehended by a supreme instinct the essence of 
the poet's thought. 



262 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

From this period dates the diplomatic and Uterary career of this 
wonderful man. In 1828 he received the degree of LL. D. from 
the University of Groningen. His versatility and scholarship im- 
press us at every turn. 

In 1835 he was elected as a Radical from Kilmarnock, and 
entered the House of Commons, and, in 1841, he was returned 
from Bolton on a similar issue. He prided himself in never hav- 
ing voted against the Whigs except when the Whigs had voted with 
the Tories. 

His labors for foreign nations were only recognized after a time. 
In 1849 he became British Consul at Canton, afterward Superin- 
tendent of Trade and Minister Plenipotentiary to China, 1853, 
and finally Governor, Commander-in-Chief, and Vice-Admiral of 
Hong Kong and its dependencies, and Superintendent of Trade 
east of the Ganges. 

In 1854 he was knighted, and from this date the decorations 
and orders bestowed upon him are quite beyond our enumeration 
in the space allowed by these limits. Siam, the Philippine Islands 
and Italy had some of his best endeavors for their advancement. 
His mind was always vigilant, and, in spite of weakness induced 
by the attempted arsenical poisoning of himself and family in 
China, he toiled on incessantly until a week or so before his 
death. He was accustomed to reply to every remonstrance : " I 
must do my work while life remains to me ; I may not long be 
here. ' ' In all benevolent and Christian enterprises he was inde- 
fatigable. He was a strenuous advocate of Prison Reform. But 
deep beneath all else ran the undertone of Christian praise. At 
eighty years of age he was frequently known to begin the day with 
some new song of adoration and thanksgiving. 

He loved to take young men of promise and start them for a 
virtuous and befitting career. "You are now launched," he 
would say, "your fortune rests with yourself. I trust that by 
steadiness and diligence you will do credit to my recommenda- 
tion." 

Theoretically, Sir John Bowring was a Unitarian. Practically, 
he was a devoted and evangelical believer. He died in peace and 
hope, November 23d, 1872. His tombstone bears the appropriate 
words of his own hymn : " In the Cross of Christ I glory." 

His best- known hymns are : 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 263 

" How sweetly flowed the Gospel's sound," 1S23. 
" From the recesses of a lowly spirit," 1823. 
" Thy will be done ! In devious way," 1823. 
" God is love ! His mercy brightens," 1825. 
" Watchman, tell us of the night," 1825. 
" In the Cross of Christ I glory," 1825. 

In the hour of trial. — Montgomery, altered. 
This hymn has been much improved by Henry Wollaston Hut- 
ton, who changed the last two stanzas to the form which appears in 
the text. The original, as found in Alford, reads : 

" If with sore affliction 

Thou in love chastise, 
Pour thy benediction 

On the sacrifice ; 
Then upon thine altar 

Freely offered up. 
Though the flesh may falter. 

Faith shall drink the cup. 

" When in dust and ashes 

To the grave I sink. 
While heaven's glory flashes 

O'er the shelving brink ; 
On thy truth relying 

Through that mortal strife 
Lord, receive me, dying. 

To eternal life." 

The reason for the alteration is the excess of consonants, which 
makes the verses difficult to sing. It is a righteous and poetical 
judgment upon a man who was always prating about " hymn- 
menders," and who yet, with " good Mr. Cotterill " to help him, 
cut and slashed the verses of others in a most merciless fashion ! 

In the Original Hymns, 1853, Montgomery's form is found as 
No. 193, in four stanzas, and with the title " Prayers on a Pil- 
grimage." 

In the dark and cloudy day. — Rawson. 

We have here another hymn by George Rawson, the " Leeds 
Layman." It will be welcomed by many who are in the midst of 
that peculiar experience which is better recognized than described ; 
the soul does not know exactly what it wants, but something must 
come speedily, or hope will fail. 

* ' There is always, ' ' says Dr. C. S. Robinson, in one of his dis- 



264 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

courses, " a certain amount of help in human courage, cool tem- 
perament, and dauntless will. But in times of perplexity there is 
no real unfailing reliance save in divine interposition and God's 
powerful aid. And especially at the last, when nerves are racked 
with pain ; when usual fortitude gives way before unusual strain ; 
neither one's own brave heart nor the sustaining sympathy of 
friends is enough to hold us up. At the last extremity, the eye 
must look, not within or around, but simply up. God meets the 
glance with reassurance. 'A living hope,' said good Bishop 
Leighton, ' lives in death itself. The world dares say no more 
than Dum spiro, spero ; but the children of God can add, Dum 
expiro, spero.' " 

In thy name, O Lord ! assembling. — Kelly, 
This hymn was written in 181 5, and is in the edition of 1820, 
in three stanzas. The appended text of Scripture is, ' ' Speak, for 
thy servant heareth. — 1 Sam. 3 : 10." 

Is there ambition in my heart. — Watts. 
This is Ps. 131, C. M,, according to Dr. Watts' s version. Its 
title is, " Humility and Submission," and it has three stanzas. 

It came upon the midnight clear. — Sears. 

If " My faith looks up to thee" can claim to be the most spirit- 
ual, and " Stand up, stand up for Jesus," the most stirring of the 
greater American hymns, this may surely be classed as the most 
lovely. Wedded to its appropriate tune — W. B. Bradbury's 
" Ball " or R. S. Willis's " Carol," both of them American com- 
positions — it almost sings itself. Bradbury's tune is older and al- 
most obsolete, but a little comparison will convince the inquirer 
that the later work of Mr. Willis has, either consciously or uncon- 
.sciously, been affected by that of the " sweet singer" of Bloom- 
field. The hymn itself is worthy, as poetry, to outrank almost 
anything else of its kind and day. 

Edmund Hamilton Sears was born in Sandisfield, Berkshire 
County, Mass., April 6th, 1810; educated at Union College, 
1834 ; and at the Cambridge Divinity School, 1837. He was first 
settled over the First (Unitarian)church of Wayland, Mass., 1838 ; 
then in Lancaster, Mass., 1840; and again, 1847, was in charge 
of a church at Wayland. His health was at this time quite im- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 265 

paired. In 1865 he removed to Weston, near Concord, to be the 
minister of the Unitarian church at that place. From 1859 to 
1 87 1 he was associated with Rev. Rufus ElHs in the editorial care 
of the Monthly Religious Magazine. In this publication the majority 
of his hymns and poems have been printed. His death occurred 
in 1876. 

Of the present piece, Rev. Dr. Morrison, of ]Milton, wrote to 
Dr. Putnam that : 

" Sears's second Christmas hymn was sent to me as editor of the 
Christian Register ; I think in December, 1849. I was very much de- 
lighted with it, and before it came out in the Register read it at a Christ- 
mas celebration of Dr. Lunt's Sunday-school in Quincy." 

The hymn, adapted to the tune " Ball," is frequently sung in 
Welliisley College chapel. 

It is not death to die. — Bethune, tr. 

This hymn is from the French of the distinguished Swiss 
preacher. Dr. Caesar Malan, the friend of Charlotte Elliot and the 
author of a collection of three hundred hymns called " Chants de 
Sion,'' from which this is taken. Its French original commences, 
*' Non, ce n est pas motirir." 

It was this hymn also which was sung at Dr. Bethune's funeral 
in 1862. 

With a superabundance of animal spirits, a great inclination for 
angling and hunting, and a full enjoyment of the rich and delight- 
ful side of this present life, Dr. Bethune was never forgetful of his 
duties and relations to his fellow-men. His eloquence and ear- 
nestness are still recalled with profound pleasure by those who 
were privileged to be of the number of his congregation. 

Nothing proves this better than the hymn below, which was 
composed the day before his death. It was with such feelings that 
he preached for the last time ; and then, stricken with mortal dis- 
ease, sank away into his final sleep, April 28th, 1862. The fol- 
lowing lines were found in his portfolio : 

" When time seems short, and death is near. 
And I am pressed by doubt and fear, 
And sins, an overflowing tide, 
Assail my peace on every side, 
This thought my refuge still shall be, 
I know my Saviour died for me. 



i66 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" His name is Jesus, and he died. 
For guilty sinners crucified ; 
Content to die, that he might win 
Their ransom from the death of sin. 
No sinner worse than I can be, 
Therefore I know he died for me. 

" If grace were bought, I could not buy ; 
If grace were coined, no wealth have I ; 
By grace alone I draw my breath, 
Held up from everlasting death ; 
Yet. since I know his grace is free, 
I know the Saviour died for me. 

" I read God's holy Word, and find 

Great truths which far transcend my mind ; 

And little do I know beside. 

Of thought so high, and deep, and wide. 

This is my best theology, 

I know the Saviour died for me. 

" My faith is weak, but 'tis thy gift ; 
Thou canst my helpless soul uplift. 
And say : ' Thy bonds of death are riven. 
Thy sins by me are all forgiven, 
And thou shalt live, from guilt set free ; 
For I, thy Saviour, died for thee.' " 

Of the author of the original of the present piece it may be said 
that his full name was Cesar Henri Abraham Malan. He was 
born at Geneva, Switzerland, July yth, 1787 ; studied theology 
there, and was ordained 18 10, but does not seem to have been 
truly converted, owing to the prevalence of the French infidelity 
of Voltaire, until 181 7. This vital godliness which now inspired 
him brought him in collision with dead orthodoxy, and he was 
prohibited from preaching. He gathered his adherents, however, 
and without leaving the Established Church, held service with 
them in his own house and afterward in a small chapel. They 
•were sty\ed Zes Mom icrs. From 1830 he made missionary jour- 
neys also to other parts of Switzerland, and to Germany, Holland, 
France and Scotland. He died May 14th, 1864, and his life has 
been written (1868) by one of his sons. 

It is no untried way. — Offord. 
This was contributed to the New York Observer, February ist, 
1883, as noted under, " Jesus, heed me, lost and dying." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 267 

Jehovah God ! thy gracious power. — J. Thomson. 

Rev. John Thomson, who composed this hymn, studied at 
Manchester, in England, was a Unitarian minister, and then a 
physician. He was born in 1782, and died in 1818. The hymn 
appeared in AsplancV s Collection in 18 10. Probably we may iden- 
tify this author with a treatise entitled, Facts in Favor of the Cow- 
pox. This was issued in 1809, and would show him to have been 
a man of breadth of opinion and positiveness of speech in the early 
day of a great medical reform. The discovery made by Jenner 
dates from 1798. 

The hymn itself is full of the gentle devotion which many re- 
ligious people of the liberal school seem to possess. Their eyes 
see, and their hearts feel, the love of God as a Father, and they 
often lead God's people up into higher experiences of communion 
with him through their appreciation of nature. Surely there is 
enough for us all to notice in these later years. 

" Everything," says Hugh Miller, " is writing nature's history, from 
pebble to planet. The sketches of the rolling rock, the channels of the 
rivers, the falling rain, the buried fern, the footprint in the snow, and 
every act of man, inscribes the map of her march. The air is full of 
sounds, the sky is full of memoranda and signatures which are more or 
less legible to the intelligent." 

Jerusalem, my happy home. — ' ' F. B. P. " 
This hymn is found in a thin quarto, numbered 15,225, in the 
British Museum, and marked on the back " Queen Elizabeth." 
The contents are miscellaneous, but there are several other pieces 
of poetry, evidently by Roman Catholics (one being by Thewlis, 
killed at Manchester, 16 17), then comes this one, entitled "A 
song by F. B. P. to the Tune of ' Diana.' " It is by some person 
holding to Romanism, and probably. by " Francis Baker, Priest." 
It is unquestionably the free translation of " Beata urbs Hinisa- 
lem," for notes on which the reader may consult " The Latin 
Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." Our hymn appeared in a 
" broadside" form as a ballad, between 1650 and 1670. 

The entire hymn is found appended to Rev. Albert Barnes's 
Notes on Revelations {sic) edited by Rev. E. Henderson, and pub- 
lished by Knight & Son, London, 4to. See Littell's Livitig Age, 
Vol. 28, pp. 3ZZ-3'i^- Also W. C. Prime's monograph, /^r«- 
salem, my Happy Home ; also the Gentlemaiis Magazine iox 1850, 



268 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

p. 582. We may dismiss the conjecture of D. Sedgwick that 
the author was " Francis Baker Porter. " 

A fine study of the subject made by J. A. Picton in 1875, to- 
gether with a laborious compilation on our own account, gives 
the following particulars : 

The date is about 1616. Wodrow, the biographer of Rev. David Dick- 
son (1583-1662) attributes this hymn to his pen. This conflicts with the 
authorship of " F. B. P." There is a notable resemblance in style to 
" Chevy Chace " and similar ballad poems. In 1852 Dr. H. Bonar 
published it in Dickson's form, and in 1863 Sir Roundell Palmer (Lord Sel- 
borne) included fourteen of the twenty-six stanzas in his Boo/: of Praise. 

As to the original Latin of which this is a free reproduction there is a 
hymn, found in Mone : Hymtti Latini Aledii ALvi, etc., which com- 
mences, "Jerusak?7i lutninosa,''^ and which bears close resemblance to 
the English. Dr. Neale has reprinted this Latin in \\\s Joys and Glories of 
Paradise, 1865. The tune of "Diana" is not earlier than 1566. Dr. 
Neale's ritualistic sympathy with " F. B. P." must not, however, be al- 
lowed to obscure the just rights of David Dickson, nor to induce us to be- 
lieve that the latter has " impudently appropriated to himself and mixed 
up with a quantity of his own rubbish " what belonged to another man. 

All this is the meagrest and most unsatisfactory record of one of our 
finest hymns. Its original form must be seen in order that it may speak 
to the eye in its own quaintness. The latest information on the subject 
comes from Rev. James King's Ang/icait Hyninology. The date assigned 
by him is circa 1617. That David Dickson expurgated the hymn of " F. 
B. P." and offered his own version in " O Mother dear, Jerusalem," is 
also established, with the date, 1649. Thirty years later, Rev. W. Burkitt, 
vicar of Dedham, reprinted " F. B. P.'s " piece, with changes of his own. 

Dr. Belcher relates that a young Scotchman, on his deathbed in 
New Orleans, was visited by a Presbyterian clergyman. For some 
time he was obdurate and repelled the advances of his kind friend. 
At last the good man turned away, and hardly realizing what he 
did, began to sing, " Jerusalem, my happy home." The hard 
heart was touched. " My dear mother used to sing that hymn," 
exclaimed the lad. And once more the song of the prisoner had 
brought deliverance to the captive. 

A SONG BY F. B. P. TO THE TUNE OF DIANA. 
{Published by Dr. Bonar from MSS. in the British Museum.) 

Hierusalem, my happy home ! O happie harbour of the saints ! 

When shall I come to thee ! O sweete and pleasant soyle ! 

When shall my sorrowes have an end, In thee noe sorrow may be found, 

Thy joyes when shall I see ? Noe greefe, noe care, noe toyle. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 



269 



In thee noe sickness may be seene, 

Noe hurt, noe ache, noe sore ; 
There is noe death, nor ugHe Devill, 

There is life forevermore. 

Noe dampish mist is seene in thee, 
Noe colde nor darksome night ; 

There everie soule shines as the sunne, 
There God himselfe gives light. 

There lust and lukar cannot dwell. 

There envy bears no sway ; 
There is no hunger, heate, nor colde, 

But pleasure everie way. 

Hierusalem ! Hierusalem ! 

God grant I soon may see 
Thy endless joyes ; and of the same 

Partaker aye to bee. 

Thy walls are made of pretious stones, 
Thy bulwarkes diamondes square ; 

Thy gates are of right orient pearle, 
Exceedinge riche and rare. 

Thy turrettes and thy pinnacles 

With carbuncles doe shine ; 
Thy verrie streets are paved with gould, 

Surpassinge cleare and fine. 

Thy houses are of yvorie, 

Thy windows cr>'stal cleare. 
Thy tyles are made of beaten gould, 

O God ! that I were there. 

Within thy gates nothinge doth come 

That is not passinge cleane, 
Noe spider's web, noe durt, noe dust, 

Noe filthe may there be seene. 

Ah ! my sweete home Hierusalem, 

Would God I were in thee ! 
Would God my woes were at an end. 

Thy ioyes that I might see. 

Thy saints are crowned with glorie great, 

They see God face to face ; 
They triumph still, they still reioice. 

Most happie is their case. 

Wee that are heere in banishment, 

Continuallie doe moane ; 
We sigh and sobbe, we weepe and weale, 

Perpetuallie we groane. 

Our sweete is mixt with bitter gaule, 

Our pleasure is but paine ; 
Our ioyes scarce last the lookeing on. 

Our sorrowes stille remaine. 



But there they live in such delight. 

Such pleasure and such play. 
As that to them a thousand yeares 

Doth seeme as yesterday. 

Thy vineyardes and thy orchardes are 

Most beautiful! and faire ; 
Full furnished with trees and fruits, 

Most wonderful and rare. 

Thy gardens and thy gallant walkes 

Continually are greene ; 
There grow such sweete and pleasant 
flowers 

As no where else are seene. 

There is nectar and ambrosia made, 
There is muske and civette sweete ; 

There manie a faire and daintie drugge 
Are trodden under feete. 

There cinomon, there sugar grow. 
There narde and balme abound ; 

What toungue can tell, or harte containe. 
The ioyes that there are found. 

Quyt through the streetes with silver 
sound. 

The flood of life doe flowe ; 
Upon whose bankes on everie syde. 

The wood of life doth growe. 

There trees for evermore beare fruite. 

And evermore doe springe ; 
There evermore the angels sit. 

And evermore doe singe. 

There David stands with harpe in hand, 

As INIaster of the Queere ; 
Tenne thousand times that man were blest 

That might this musicke heare. 

Our Ladie singes Magnificat, 
With tunes surpassinge sweete ; 

And all the virginns beare their parte 
Siting above her feete. 

Te Deum doth Saint Ambrose singe, 
Saint Augustine doth the like ; 

Ould Simeon and Zacharie 

Have not their songes to seeke. 

There Magdalene hath left her mone. 

And cheerfullie doth singe 
With blessed saints, whose harmonic 

In everie street doth ringe. 

Hierusalem ! my happie home ! 

Would God I were in thee ! 
Would God my woes were at an end, 

Thy joyes that I might see ! 



27© ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Jerusalem, my happy home, 

- Name ever dear to me. — Boden (?). 

In 1801 this appeared in the Collection of Williams and Boden. 
The assignment of the piece is to the Eckington CoUectmi^ and as 
Rev. James Boden, one of the compilers, who also wrote hymns 
himself, lived and died near Eckington, Yorkshire, it is not im- 
possible that this is his adaptation of " F. B. P. 's " hymn. 

Rev. James Boden was born at Chester, April 13th, 1757, in the 
house formerly occupied by Matthew Henry the commentator. 
Chester had fallen under Arian influence, and the commentator's 
church was at this time quite deserted. But there lingered tradi- 
tions of him in the town, and the boy James Boden often played 
in the summer-house, where much of the commentary was 
written. At sixteen years of age young Boden united with the 
small and feeble Congregational church of Rev. IMr. Armitage, 
the mere remnant of Matthew Henry's former Presbyterian flock, 
driven by stress of poverty and misfortune into cramped quarters 
in an upper room on Common Hall Street. Here the vigorous 
new life in the lad made itself felt. He was soon a leader among 
his companions, and presently went to study at Homerton by the 
suggestion of the church. Four years later he was put in charge 
of a congregation at Hanley, among the Staffordshire potteries, 
■where he founded a prosperous Sunday-school. 

He next succeeded the hymn-writer, Rev. Jehoiada Brewer, in 
1796, at Sheffield. Here he met an energetic opposition from a 
party in the church who " made up for their insignificancy by 
their boldness, and gave him considerable trouble." They told 
him, at a church-meeting : " Eitheryou must remove, orwemust. " 
Boden quietly answered : " Well ; we must wait, and see which it 
will be. ' ' It was not Boden ; and it does not appear that the 
minority felt obliged to fulfil their threat. 

Mr. Boden was a warm friend of the INIissionary Society. He 
continued this interest during his long pastorate, which he resigned 
after fort3'-three years of active labor, in 1839. In his dying mo- 
ments — W'hich soon followed, in 1841 — he was greatly consoled 
by Dr. Watts's hymn, " How sweet and awful is the place," and 
bore his final sufferings with Christian patience. A beautiful in- 
cident is recorded in connection with his illness. The sun was 
shining brightly on the last Sunday morning of his stay on earth, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 271 

and some one remarked the fact. Mr. Boden instantly re- 
plied : 

" He is my Sun, though he forbear to shine, 

I dwell for ever on his heart, for ever he on mine." 

Thus, on the 4th day of June, 1841, in his eighty-fifth year, he 
went up the path of the shining light. He passed, even as the 
old Egyptians fabled that their pious dead were wont to pass, 
" into the disk of Amun-Ra, the Sun-god," the Osiris of eternal 
life, and was " swallowed up in light." And so he " shined more 
and more unto the perfect day." 

Jerusalem on high. — Crossmax. 
Samuel Grossman, Prebendary of Bristol cathedral (1624-1683), 
wrote this as a part of a hymn of fourteen stanzas, commencing, 

" Sweet place, sweet place alone I 
The court of God most High." 

It was published in " a little book of nine poems " entitled, The 
Young Ma7i s Meditations ; or, Some Feiv Poems on Select Subjects. 
Lord Selborne. speaking at the York Church Conference, 1866, 
called attention to it, and the choir of the cathedral sang it to a 
tune by Dr. Croft. 

D. Sedgwick reprinted the "book of nine poems " in 1863. 
Anthony a' Wood, in his Athence Oxonienses {\'] 2\ , II., 730) gives 
these particulars as to the writer : 

" Samuel Grossman, Bachelor of Divinity of Cambridge, and Preben- 
dary of Bristol, son of Samuel Grossman of Bradfield Monachorum, in 
Suffolk. He hath written and published several things, as The Young 
Man's Monitor, etc. (London, 1664, 8vo), and several sermons. . . . 
He died, February 4th, 1683, aged 59 years, and was buried in the south 
aisle of the Gathedral church in Bristol." 

Jerusalem the golden. — Neale, tr. 
This is a portion of the paraphrase made by Dr. Neale in 1851 
from the hymn of Bernard of Cluny, c. 11 30. It begins at the 
line, " Urhs Syon aurea,'' etc. The cento from Bernard's three 
thousand lines furnished an English poem of four hundred and 
forty-two, which, when it was published in 1859, immediately be- 
came popular. It has had a wonderful success, and from it are taken 
the familiar hymns : 

" Brief life is here our portion " [" j/ic breve vivittir "], " For thee, O 
dear, dear country" [" C bona patria"'\, "Jerusalem the glorious" 
[" Urbs Syon inclyta"^ 



272 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

For the history of the Latin hymn and its author, see " The 
Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." In 1861, Dr. Neale's 
preface to the third edition records that in fourteen new hymnals 
more or less of the verses had found a place. In 1865 he could 
add to this ever-increasing number the Scotch book, the Sweden- 
borgian collection, and that for the American Lutheran Church. 
In 1885 it was the seventh in rank of all the favorite English 
hymns. But that which seems to have gratified its author most of 
all was to learn that a little child, a great sufferer, became so fond 
of the hymn that he would lie " without a murmur, or motion, 
while the whole four hundred lines were read to him," 

The biographical sketch of Dr. Neale, in the Schaff-Herzog 
Cyclopedia, furnishes us the condensed story of his life. John 
Mason Neale was born in London, January 24th, 181 8, and grad- 
uated at Cambridge, 1840. He then entered the ministry of the 
Church of England. We may mention in this connection the 
striking fact that on eleven occasions he gained the Seatonian prize 
poem. 

Dr. Neale soon became an advanced Ritualist. By this and by 
his ecclesiastical studies and histories he was known— and fre- 
quently with disfavor — throughout England. His literary labors 
were excessive, and his piety was not less exhausting. He devoted 
himself to founding, in 1856, the Sisterhood of St. Margaret, 
which was really a training-scliool for the best class of nurses and 
attendants upon the sick. He was struggling also with poverty, 
and his stories for children were written to furnish him with the 
means of livelihood. He was indeed " inhibited " for fourteen 
years, and forbidden to exercise any ecclesiastical function. The 
Farm of Aptonga, The Egyptian Wanderers, The Folhivers of the 
Lord, Lent Legends, Tales of Christian Heroism and Endurance, 
and The Quay of the Dioscuri 2iXQ wonderful examples of his power 
to popularize history. The only objectionable feature is their Ro- 
manizing views. 

In his hymn-writing Dr. Neale has headed a new movement. 
He has attracted the Church to her oldest stores of praise as they 
are treasured in the Greek and Latin tongues. He wrote also a 
good deal that was original. One hundred and six of these pro- 
ductions were composed for the sick and for children. But his 
Mediceval Hymns, Hynms of the Eastern Church, and his book of 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 273 

Sequences have settled and fixed in Christian hearts the love of 
these old lyrics as he translated them. 

He died as Warden of Sackville College, East Grinstead, August 
6th, 1866. 

Jesus, and didst thou condescend. — Wakeford. 
This is a hymn which is stated to be by Mrs. (.'') Amelia Wake- 
ford. It first appears in Ash and Evans s Collection, 1769. The 
hymn now lies before us in the fifth edition of Evans s Collection, 
1786. It is No. 224, in five stanzas, and is signed " Am — a ;" 
in which it does not require much ingenuity to perceive also the 
word " ^7«erica, " as well as " Amelia." 

Jesus, and shall it ever be. — Grigg. 

This hymn is found in a small pamphlet published by a young 
man named Joseph Grigg, whom Dr. Belcher calls a " laboring 
mechanic." Two of the nineteen hymns were this one and that 
other, equally well known and loved, ' ' Behold a stranger at the 
door." Mr. Grigg wrote this, which is one of his best hymns, at 
the early age of ten. Later, he entered the ministry, and from 
1743 to 1747 was co-pastor of the Presbyterian church in Silver 
Street, London. In 1747, at the death of Mr.. Bures, his associate, 
Mr. Grigg resigned his pastorate, married a widowed lady of 
some means and went to St. Albans to reside. He continued to 
issue works in prose and verse, principally religious, and including 
a number of hymns. The present hymn, written about the year 
1730 and in five stanzas, appeared in the Gospel Magazine for 
April, 1774. Its title there was, " Shame of Jesus Conquered by 
Love ; by a Youth of Ten Years." 

It was anonymous, and was authenticated by the Rev. Benjamin 
Francis. Mr. Grigg died at Walthamstow, near London, in 1768. 

The " History and Antiquities of Dissenting Churches and 
Meeting-Houses in London, Westminster and Southwark, " etc., 
1 8 10, has been quoted by Dr. Hatfield to the following effect : 

"After the removal of Mr. Gibbons, Mr, Joseph Greig was, for a short 
time, assistant to Mr. Bures, at Silver Street ; but, upon the death of the 
latter, he retired from this service. Mr. Greig married a lady with con- 
siderable property, the widow of Colonel Drew. After this, he retired to 
St. Albans, and lived upon bis estate, without any ministerial charge ; 
but he assisted his brethren occasionally, and preached most frequently 
fcr Dr. Fordyce. Mr. Greig died, we believe, at Walthamstov/, on the 



274 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

29th of October, 1768. He was a man of considerable talents, possessed 
of a lively genius, and had a turn for poetry. The late Mr. Joseph Faw- 
cett, the pulpit orator, was his nephew." 

Mr, Grigg's productions are found between 1744 and 1766. 
His book bears date, 1756. The conjectural date for his birth is 
1720. The present hymn is regarded as the " altered " form in 
which Francis sent the verses to the press. D. Sedgwick's reprint 
contains forty hymns, and seventeen " Serious Poems." 

Jesus, and didst thou leave. — Steele. 

This is the fourth stanza of a hymn of nine stanzas. It com- 
mences, "Jesus, in thy transporting name," etc., and appears 
as a " Hymn to Jesus " in Miss Steele's Poems, 1760. 

Jesus, at thy command. — De Courcy. (?) 
Another of the galaxy of hymn-writers surrounding Lady Hunt- 
ingdon was Richard De Courcy, whose hymn, given above, has 
been attributed to Toplady. He was born in Ireland in 1743 or 
1744, and we are indebted to good, gossipping Gadsby for much 
that we know about him. 

De Courcy was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, but was 
too Calvinistic for the bishops to ordain him. He therefore left 
Ireland for England, and on his arrival sought out Whitefield. 
When he told who he was and whence he came, Whitefield took 
off his cap and showed De Courcy a scar on his head, saying : " I 
got this wound in your country for preaching Christ. ' ' He al- 
luded to the time when he had been nearly stoned to death by the 
Roman Catholics. 

Lady Huntingdon interested herself for De Courcy, and had him 
ordained by the Bishop of Lichfield. He then joined the " Con- 
nexion " and preached in many of her ladyship's chapels. He 
was a good exegetical preacher, making much of the Scriptures 
in all his discourses. Finally he associated himself with Lady 
Glenorchy in Edinburgh, and in 1770 was appointed to the curacy 
of Shawbury, near Hawkstone, in Shropshire. After some four 
years he was made vicar of Aldwinkle, Shrewsbury, by the Lord 
Chancellor. It is reported that a controversy on baptism was con- 
ducted in 1776 between De Courcy and Rev. Benjamin Francis, 
and that another controversial performance from his pen was Christ 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 275 

Crucified, a discourse directed against the Unitarian views of Dr. 
Priestley. 

On the fast-day, 1803, De Courcy contracted a heavy cold. 
When the physician came to him he said : *' I am almost spent. 
It is a hard struggle, but it will soon be over. I shall not recover, 
but Christ is mine. He is my foundation. He is the Rock I 
build upon." When the doctor had examined into his condition 
he left the room to procure certain medicines. De Courcy there- 
upon exclaimed : " Thanks be to God for my salvation !" and in- 
stantly expired. This was on the 4th of November, 1803. 

The present hymn is thought to have been written to com- 
memorate the departure of Mr. Whitefield for America. Gadsby 
says of its authenticity : 

" It did not appear in De Courcy's first edition, 1775, but in a third 
edition, in which two hundred and three hymns were added, most of them 
by other authors ; and as Toplady published it in his selection in 1776, 
before De Courcy issued his third edition, I incline to the opinion that it 
was not De Courcy's but Toplady 's." 

Tio\i€i\.2&'&\<s;<n&\\.\.o Huntingdon s Collectio7i [where it is No. 179], 
and gives it entire in seven stanzas. Rippon, 1787, gives six 
stanzas, but no authorship. Whitefield's visits to America were 
paid in 1738, and on six subsequent occasions. On his latest visit 
he died in Newburyport, September 30th, 1770. The bearing of 
these dates on the question before us can easily be seen. 

Jesus, at whose supreme command. — C. Wesley, 
From Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1742. It also appeared in the 
Hymns on the Lord' s Supper, 1745, and is entitled, " Before the 
Sacrament." 

Jesus calls us, o'er the tumult. — C. F. Alexander. 
Mrs. Alexander, wife of the Bishop of Derry, wrote this hymn in 
1853. It has five stanzas in the Irish Church Hymnal. As a hymn 
"for St. Andrew's Day" it was first used in the S. P. C. K. 's 
Psahns and Hymns for Public Worship, 1853. 

Jesus came, the heavens adoring. — Thring. 
Rev. Godfrey Thring wrote this hymn in 1862. The form 
preferred by the author is that in Hymns Congregational and Others, 
1866, Mr. Chope altered those — of which the present is one — 
which he admitted into his collection. 



276 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Jesus comes, his conflict over. — Kelly. 
This hymn commences, " Hark, ten thousand voices cry," and 
is based on i Cor. 15 : 54. It has five stanzas, of which the in- 
troductory one is usually omitted. It was first published in 1806, 
and is sometimes entered — as in the Irish Church Hymnal, 1881 — 
under the line, " Hark ! ten thousand voices sounding." 

Jesus, guide our way. — A. T. Russell, tr. 

Like the hymn of Adam Drese, this piece, by Count Zinzen- 
dorf, commences, " Seelen hrciutigam," etc. The stanzas here 
translated begin, '' Jesu geh vorati." The difference between 
Zinzendorf's and Drese's hymns is that the former has '' du Got- 
teslamm," and the latter " Jcsu, Gotteshvnm,'" as the second line. 
The present version is by Arthur Tozer Russell. There is an- 
other, " Jesus, still lead on," in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 
quoted in the Book of Praise and in Christ in Song. Still another 
rendering is, " Jesus, day by day." For the original see Schaff's 
Deutsches Gesangbuch. 

Nicholas Lewis, Count and Lord of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf, 
was born May 26th, 1700, at Dresden. His father, a pious man, 
had been prime minister at the Saxon Court, and died not long 
after his son's birth. The child's godfather was the devout 
Spener, a man eminent as the head of the " Pietists" in Halle, 
and as a composer and inspirer of hymns. The young Zinzendorf 
consequently grew up surrounded by religious influences, and 
when his mother remarried he was placed under his grandmother's 
care — an excellent and godly woman, who gave attention to his 
education in the principles of the Gospel. 

He was always remarked for his piety. As a mere child he 
was in the habit of writing little notes to the Saviour, which he 
confidingly threw out of the window so that the Lord might find 
them as he passed by. When he was only six years old a band of 
soldiers, who entered the house demanding money, found him 
preaching to a congregation of chairs, and were so amazed that 
they stayed to listen to his discourse. He gave away his money to 
the poor, and he delighted above all things in collecting other 
children together and praying with them. 

From the age of eleven to that of sixteen he studied under the 
direction of Augustus Hermann Franke (another hymn-writer) in 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 277 

the Royal School, at Halle. Franke frequently said of him : 
*' This youth will one day become a great light of the Church." 
The difficulties which Zinzendorf encountered there — from harsh 
tutors and gibing scholars — only confirmed him in his wish to 
serve the Lord. 

His guardian also was rather against this " pietism," and sent 
him off, in 1716, to Wittenberg to study law. This he performed 
faithfully, but devoted his odd hours to theology and hymn-writ- 
ing. In 1 719 he departed for a tour through Holland, France and 
Switzerland, accompanied by a private tutor. It was on this jour- 
ney that he saw the Ecce Homo at Dusseldorf with its inscription, 
" This have I done for thee ; what doest thou for me ?" which so 
powerfully affected his mind and character. 

At Utrecht he prosecuted the study of the law, and was also in- 
structed in the English language. Next he went to Paris. But 
he now turned sharply aside from everything like pleasure, and even 
in the gay capital he sought out the humble followers of Jesus 
Christ. Travel had enlarged his ideas. He rejoiced in true 
Christianity wherever he found it, and in 1721 he announced his 
desire to be a missionary to the heathen. 

Being a Lutheran, this seemed out of accord with his social sta- 
tion and hereditary belief. Therefore his relations secured him 
the office of Judicial Councillor at Dresden. He accepted the 
position, but contrived to obtain the consent of the clergy to the 
religious meetings which he conducted in his house, and to the 
weekly paper, The Gervian Socrates, which he published at his own 
cost. 

The story of his marriage, September 7th, 1723, illustrates his 
character. He had been attached to the Countess Theodora of 
Castell, but finding that the mother of his intimate friend. Count 
Reuss, wished her son to marry this lady, he relinquished his suit. 
He then devoted himself to the Countess Erdmuth Dorothea, the 
sister of Count Reuss, and finally married her — to their lasting 
happiness. Doubtless the calm German temperament of all these 
excellent young people was of a sort to submit to authority, to 
suffer disappointment with fortitude, and to be content with the 
dispensations of Providence. 

Not long afterward Zinzendorf encountered some of the " scat- 
tered and peeled " remnants of the old Hussite faith. Elsewhere 



278 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

we have treated of their opinions at some length. The few sur- 
vivors of this persecuted Church excited the deepest sympathy in 
the breast of tlie good count. They had been driven from 
Moravia, and for their sake he bought an estate named Berthels- 
dorf, in Upper Lusatia, Saxony, on which he suffered them to 
settle. As this village was at the foot of a hill call Hutberg — 
"Shelter Mountain" — they designated it as "Herrnhut," 
the Lord's Shelter. It soon passed under the actual superintend- 
ence of Zinzendorf, May 12th, 1724, witnessed the laying of the 
corner-stone for a meeting-house. And in 1727, Zinzendorf, re- 
signing his Dresden appointment, removed to Bethelsdorf to devote 
himself to the interests of what was now called the " Brethren's 
Church." 

The missionary zeal of this revived organization has proved to 
be one of the remarkable features of a most self-denying and ear- 
nest body of Christians. The Moravians have diligently sought 
out the poor and neglected of the earth, and wherever a Green- 
land, a Labrador, a Patagonia, or a down-trodden West Indian 
island offered a place for Christian effort there they have planted 
their missions. An examination of the history of evangelization 
will reveal this wonderful story — so wonderful that it entitles them 
to outrank any other sect of Christendom in their fervent sympathy 
with the oppressed and the benighted. And, as might be expected, 
it has drawn upon them the same reproach that fell upon the 
simple-hearted, self-sacrificing believers in the days of the early 
Church. 

Count Zinzendorf was exposed to the contempt and scorn of 
the rationalists and infidels to such an extent that he was forced to 
leave Herrnhut and purge his orthodoxy (of all places !) at Tu- 
bingen. Here he took regular orders in 1734, being examined in 
theology and found to be sound in the faith. Returning to Berlin 
he secured the king's good-will, and labored among the nobility 
with so much success that forty-two carriages were once counted 
waiting at his door during a religious service. 

In January, 1737, he made his memorable visit to London ; 
and, as a result, John and Charles Wesley with their adherents 
were for a time among the INIoravians. Doctrinal differences, how- 
ever, separated them, and on the 20th of May, 1737, the count, 
being again in Berlin, was consecrated as bishop. The ceremony 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 279 

was performed by Jablonsky, the oldest of the Moravian bishops, 
but Zinzendorf did not hold the office beyond 1740, owing to the 
false accusations of his enemies, " which he wished," says Kiibler, 
"to bear alone without involving the Moravian Church." In 
October, 1738, he visited the West Indies. In 1741 he was in 
the United States (or what was to be the United States), and 
preached in Philadelphia and also among the American Indians. 
Whether he held those people (as Weems does in his very peculiar 
Life of William Peiiti) to have been the remainder of the Lost Ten 
Tribes, does not appear. The services were blessed of God, and 
in April, 1743, the preacher was again at home in Herrnhut — 
but not to remain, since it was not before 1747 that he secured the 
formal permission which enabled him to reside among his flock. 
In 1749, the Moravians, who had regularly adopted the Augsburg 
Confession of 1530 as their standard of faith, were, and have ever 
since been, publicly recognized as an evangelical body. The 
United Brethren's Church in England was also " confirmed as a 
Protestant Episcopal Church" by Act of Parliament dated May 
1 2th, 1749. In 1748, and again in 1751, Zinzendorf was in Lon- 
don. On the latter visit he remained for four years. 

His son. Christian Renatus — a bright and promising young man, 
and the author of two hymns in the Bre/Iireti s Hymn-Book — died 
May 28th, 1752. The countess — herself a person of culture and 
piety, and author of a hymn — died June 19th, 1756. A year later 
Count Zinzendorf married Anne Nitschmann, one of the Herrn- 
hut sisters, and spent the greater part of his closing years in that 
peaceful retreat. On the 5th of May, 1760, he fell ill of fever, 
which rapidly exhausted his strength. He only lingered four days, 
dying on the 9th of May. 

To his son-in-law he said : '* Now, my dear son, I am going to 
the Saviour. I am ready ; I am quite resigned to the will of my 
Lord. If he is no longer willing to make use of me here I am 
quite ready to go to him, for there is nothing more in my way." 
Nearly a hundred of the members of the community had assem- 
bled in and near his bed-chamber. He looked on them with cheer- 
fulness ; spoke words of consolation and encouragement, and died 
as his son-in-law closed his prayer with ' ' Lord, now lettest thou 
thy servant depart in peace." As the word " peace " was uttered 
he ceased to breathe. On his tombstone are the words, ' ' He was 



2 8o ENGLISH HYMNS. 

ordained that he should go and bring forth fruit, and that his fruit 
should remain." 

Of his hymns much can be said. " Jesus, thy blood and right- 
eousness," is John Wesley's tribute of admiration, and the trans- 
lation is fit to stand beside the original, " Christi Blut tmd Gerech- 
iigkeit. 

Ktibler gives the list-numbers of Zinzendorf's hymns in the 
Moravian collection in current use in 1865. He considers the 
best period of the count's hymn-writing to have been between 
1720 and 1740 — to which date belongs the hymn, " Heart and 
heart together bound " (" Herz und Herz vere'mt zusanwien"). 

He evidently depends on the life of Zinzendorf, by Spangen- 
berg, translated by Jackson, for his dates. And he also very 
properly reprobates the tendency of the Moravians between 1744 
and 1750 to religious sentimentalism. 

We must ourselves call attention to that wonderful list of German 
hymn-writers with whom the name and work of Zinzendorf are con- 
nected. Here are Spener and Augustus Hermann Franke, whom 
we have mentioned. Here are also Friedrich von Hardenberg 
(' ' Novalis " — for whom see Curwen's Sorrow and Song) ; Augustus 
Gottlieb Spangenberg, Zinzendorf's biographer ; Henrietta Louisa 
von Hayn, a sister of Herrnhut and author of " I am Jesus' little 
lamb " ; Christian Gregor, who remodelled the Moravian burial- 
hymn, " Christ will gather in his own " ; Christian Lewis Edel- 
ing, a former tutor of the young count while at his grandmother's ; 
Gottfried (not Caspar) Neumann, a dear personal friend ; and 
Johann Andreas Rothe, a valued associate, and one to whom 
several of Zinzendorf's hymns have been incorrectly assigned. 
This German hymn-ganglion is therefore worthy of more notice 
than our space affords, 

Jesus, heed me, lost and dying. — Offord, 

This hymn, and another, " It is no untried way," were contrib- 
uted to the New York Observer, by Rev. R. M. Offord, then and 
now an editor of that paper. They appeared, respectively, January 
25th and February ist, 1883, and at the request of Dr. Robinson 
were abbreviated and somewhat altered for use in Laiides Dojumi, 
1884. Mr. Offord has recently written occasional hymns for The 
Observer, of which these seem to us the most successful, though 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 281 

Others have been also commended. Of himself he says, modestly : 
" I am not a poet — and hardly a hymn-writer" — but if he had 
the experience given by a large comparison of the hymns of the 
Church he would know that to compose a good and catholic and 
permanent hymn is indeed to be a poet of no mean standing. 

We are indebted to Mr. Offord's personal kindness for the facts 
of his life. He was born at St. Austell, Cornwall, September 17th, 
1846. His father, Rev. John Offord, was an open-communion 
Baptist. After his death, in 1869, ]\Ir. Offord, in 1870, came to 
this country. Not accepting the views of the Baptist brethren 
whom he met, he was led to study the subject of immersion, with 
the result that he joined the Protestant Methodists and preached in 
their pulpits. But here, again, he had a question of belief ; and, 
being a Calvinist rather than an Arminian, he entered the Re- 
formed (Dutch) Church, and was received by the Classis of Para- 
mus, September 17th, 1878. He then spent some six j'ears as 
pastor at Lodi, N. J. , but his editorial work gradually engrossed 
more and more of his time. He had been connected with The 
Witness, and afterward with The Observer, and ultimately resigned 
his charge owing to the increased demands upon him. It is to him 
that the religious public owes its reports of the Fulton Street Prayer 
Meeting — the first daily noonday meeting in the United States, 
and one which is still sustained. 

It is almost pathetic for Mr. Offord to describe himself as " a 
literary 'hack.' " When one remembers the vast army of re- 
porters and anonymous journalists whom the busy world grinds 
down, wears out and forgets, he can realize the meaning of a hymn 
that arises from such a life. Except in some moral particulars the 
requirements of a religious and of a secular journal are not very 
divergent. Sometimes the men and women of the staff are recog- 
nized, but more often they are coral-insects — builders without a 
name. Yet some of the best-known literary people of modern 
times have been proud to be " hacks" in journalism, and their 
" songs in the night" have been wrung from them by the need for 
a Saviour's help in the midst of an exhausting occupation. 

Jesus, hail, enthroned in glory. — Bakewell. 

This is a part of the well-known hymn, " Hail, thou once de- 
spised Jesus. " Bakewell's family always asserted his authorship of 



282 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

this hymn, which appeared in Madan s Collection, 1760, and was 
altered by Toplady in 1776. This stanza formerly began, " Soon 
shall we, with those in glory." 

Jesus, I love thy charming name. — Doddridge. 
An old minister, quite feeble in mind from long illness, was 
quickly aroused when some assertions were made regarding the 
divinity of Christ and his inferiority to God. " Stuff ! poison !" 
he exclaimed. " Oh, let it not come unto your minds !" and 
quoted with vigor and emphasis this hymn of Dr. Doddridge. He 
dwelt especially upon the words : 

" Yes, thou art precious to my soul, 
My transport and my trust ;" 

and then relapsed into that state of quiescent indifference from 

which nothing but the name and fame of Christ had power to 

awaken him. 

Jesus, I my cross have taken. — Lyte. 

In Mr. Lyte's own language, he was " jostled from one curacy 
to another." His education had been obtained at the cost of a 
severe struggle, and his Brixham congregation were in many points 
very uncongenial to him. Yet he bore every cross nobly, and such 
a hymn as the present may well be taken as the deep and true 
utterance of the singer's own soul. 

We are indebted to Dr. Belcher for the identification of this 
hymn with its author's name. Previous to 1859 it was credited to 
Montgomery, to the Hon. Miss Grant, or to her brother. Lord 
Glenelg, or her other brother. Sir Robert Grant. Dr. Belcher 
pointed out the fact that it appeared in Lyte's Poems, Chiefly Re- 
ligious, 1833. 

Henry Francis Lyte was born June ist, 1793, at Kelso, a place 
made memorable to the Christian world by the residence there, 
from 1837 to 1866, of Dr. Horatius Bonar. His first school was 
at Protoro, and thence he went to Trinity College, Dublin. During 
his collegiate course he three times obtained the prize for English 
poetry, and the money thus gained was an important addition to 
his finances, which were meagre enough. He then entered the 
ministry of the Church of England, having given up his original 
intention of studying medicine. His ordination dates from 181 5, 
and he was given a curacy near Wexford, whence he removed to 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 283 

Marazion in 181 7. Up to this period he was apparently a total 
stranger to vital godliness, but in 1818 he was suddenly called to 
the death-bed of a neighboring clergyman, who knew that he was 
dying but felt utterly unfit for the great change. In the darkness 
of that Valley of the Shadow the dying man and his equally dis- 
tressed comrade turned to the writings of St. Paul. Together they 
found light and peace ; and the poor fellow, whose summons had 
been so like a call from the unseen world, "died, "says Lyte, 
" happy under the belief that, though he had deeply erred, there 
was One whose death and sufferings would atone for his delin- 
quencies, and be accepted for all that he had incurred. " He adds : 
" I was greatly affected by the whole matter, and brought to look 
at life and its issue with a different eye than before ; and I began 
to study my Bible and preach in another manner than I had pre- 
viously done." 

He went in this affair much further than ordinar}' sympathy, for 
he took charge of the family of his departed friend ; and so in- 
creased his own responsibilities and anxieties that his ill health can 
be largely attributed to this cause. In 181 9 he was settled at 
Lymington, Hampshire, and composed at that place some Tales 
on the Lord's Prayer, which, however, were not published until 
1826. In 1823 he became the "perpetual curate " of Lower 
Brixham, Devonshire. He had now married, and his wife was the 
daughter of the Rev. W. Maxwell, D.D., of Bath. It was here at 
Brixham that Lyte fully entered into the spirit of his own hymn. 
He relinquished society, culture and everything, to follow Jesus. 
He took up the cross of this hard labor, and carried it— success- 
fully, too — until his death, which occurred at Nice, November 
20th, 1847. 

The date assigned to this hymn is generally given as 1833. But 
we have found it copied from The Home Missionary Magazine into 
the Religious Magazine for March, 1829. 

Jesus, in thy dying woes. — Pollock. 

Rev. Thomas Benson Pollock is a graduate of Trinity College, 
Dublin, where he became B.A. in 1859, ^^^ IM.A. in 1863. He 
took the vice-chancellor's prize for English verse in 1855. After 
becoming deacon in 1861 and priest in 1862, and ser\'ing awhile 
as curate, he received the rectory of Pluckley, Kent, in 1869. In 



284 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

1873 he was given the position of archdeacon in Chester cathedral, 
and has been one of the Old Testament company of revisers. In 
1883 he was in charge of the church of St. Alban Martyr, Birming- 
ham. He has been connected as curate with the churches of St. 
Luke, Leek, Staffordshire and St. Thomas, Stamford Hill, Mid- 
dlesex, 

Archdeacon Pollock was born in 1836, and has published trans- 
lations of ^schylus, Sophocles, etc. 

This hymn on the " Seven Words of Christ upon the Cross," 
1874, has for its six other divisions : 

" Jesus, pitying the sighs." 

" Jesus, loving to the end." 

" Jesus, whelmed in fears unknown." 

" Jesus, in thy thirst and pain." 

" Jesus, all our ransom paid." 

" Jesus, all thy labor vast." 

Jesus invites his saints. — Watts. 
This is Hymn No. 2 of Book HL, of Dr. Watts' s hymns, with 
the title, " i Cor. 10 : 16, 17., Communion with Christ and with 
Saints. ' ' There are six stanzas. 

Jesus is God ! The glorious bands. — Faber. 
This is from the hymn, " Jesus is God," in seven double stanzas. 

Jesus is gone above the skies. — Watts. 
In Dr. Watts' s hymns this is No. 6, of Book III., with the title, 
"John 16 : 16, Luke 22 : 19, John 14 : 3. The Memorial of 
our absent Lord." It has six stanzas. 

Jesus, Jesus I visit me. ^ — Dunn, ir. 

This is a translation by Rev. Professor Robinson Potter Dunn, 
D.D., from the German of " Angelus Silesius" (Johann Schef- 
fier), 1660. The hymn has six stanzas. 

Professor Dunn was born in Newport, R. I., May 31st, 1825, and 
entered Brown University in his fifteenth year. He was graduated 
with the first honors in 1843, and continued in the University for 
two years as an instructor in French and as librarian. He then 
took a theological course at Princeton, N. J. , and was ordained 
November ist, 1848, as pastor of the First Presbyterian church of 
Camden, N. J. In 1851 he was called to the chair of Rhetoric 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 285 

and English Literature at Brown University, from which he re- 
ceived also the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1864. During a 
vacation which he was spending at Newport with his parents he 
was attacked with erysipelas, and after five days' illness he died 
there, August 28th, 1867. He left behind him not merely a fine 
reputation as a scholar and instructor, but also — which is more to 
our present purpose — several very beautiful hymns. The piece be- 
fore us is one of them ; and there vi^ere other versions from Ger- 
man and Latin sources. The hymn, " No, no, it is not dying," 
■was taken by him from the German of Albert Knapp, " Nein, nein, 
es isi kein sierben. ' ' 

This has been also rendered into P>ench by Dr. Caesar Malan, 
from whom it was translated into English by Dr. Bethune. 

Jesus, Lamb of God, for me. — Palmer. 
This hjTTin was written by Dr. Ray Palmer, in Albany, N. Y., 
in 1863, and is based on Matt. 26 : 28. 

Jesus lives, no longer now. — F. E. Cox, /r. 

In Miss Cox's Sacred Hymns X\\\s isa " Hymn for Easter Day," 
with a reference to Rom. 8 : 11. The German is by Christian 
Ftirchtegott Gellert, and commences, '^ Jesus leht, mit ihm auch 
ich. ' ' It has six stanzas. 

Gellert was born in Haynichen in Erzgebirge, Saxony, July 4th, 
1715. He was the son of the pastor, and studied theology under 
many difficulties at Leipzig. He was never strong and well enough 
to preach, but lectured at Leipzig on eloquence and natural phi- 
losophy, and won the reputation of being a man of pure taste and 
excellent scholarship. Goethe was one of his pupils. His writ- 
ings were admired and highly esteemed — but it is as a poet, and 
especially as a Christian poet, that the German people love him. 
Many of his pieces have a truly classic merit. In his final illness 
his friends told him, in answer to his question, that the struggle 
might continue for an hour longer. He lifted his hands, and with 
a cheerful countenance exclaimed : " Now, God be praised, only 
an hour !" And then turning on his side, his eyes bright with 
joy, he gently breathed his last, December, 1769. It had been 
his wish to die " like Addison." 

]\Iany incidents are related as to the response which his writings 
awoke. Once, when Gellert was exceedingly poor, and even in 



286 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

want of the necessaries of life, a peasant brought a load of fire- 
wood to him as a tribute of gratitude for the pleasure derived from 
his fables. His hymns — first published in 1757, and fifty-four in 
number — bridged the gulf between the old and the new hymnology 
of his native land. They were marvellously blessed. High and 
low, rich and poor, sang them — and even kings and princes paid 
him visits of respect. On a certain occasion, having gone to 
church in a gloomy mood, he heard one of his own hymns sung. 
It made him weep bitterly, for he said : " Is it you who composed 
this hymn, and yet you feel so little of its power in your own 
heart V ' 

When a rumor spread that he had hanged himself he sent word 
to the people of Coburg, quoting part of a stanza from Gerhardt : 

" I hang and shall be hanging 
Forever on my Lord." 

Miss Frances Elizabeth Cox, the translator, was born in Oxford, 
England, the daughter of G. V. Cox, M.A. Her Sacred Hymns 
from the Germaji (London, 1841, and second edition, revised and 
enlarged, 1864) was one of the earliest attempts to place the Ger- 
man lyrics in an English dress. Her " Earth has nothing sweet 
or fair," from " Angelus Silesius" (Johann Scheffler) has enjoyed 
great approval. She was largely indebted to Baron Bunsen's per- 
sonal suggestions in her selection of pieces to be translated. 

Jesus, Lord of life and glory. — Cummins. 
The present hymn is taken from Hymns, Medilalions, aiid Other 
Poems, by James J(ohn) Cummins, London, 1849. Two of Mr. 
Cummins' s other hymns are, " Shall hymns of grateful love," 
1849, and " Jesus, Lord, we kneel before thee," 1849. -^^ wrote 
Seals of the Covenant Opened in the Sacraments of the Church, 1839. 
He died in 1867. 

Jesus, lover of my soul. — C. Wesley. 

There is scarcely any hymn which, for wide usefulness and ac- 
ceptance can dispute the supremacy with this. Of itself it would 
have immortalized its author, but, being itself, it was a pledge that 
many more verses would accompany it from the same pen. 
Charles Wesley wrote it in 1740, and it is found in Hymns and 
Sacred Poems, 1742, in five double stanzas. 

We have attempted — but only superficially — to do for this hymn 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 287 

what could well be performed in another shape and as a volume 
by itself. This is to group the incidents relating to it, so far as 
they bear any evidence of authenticity. 

It is related of Thomas Hartwell Home, the author of the ' ' In- 
troduction to the Critical Study of the Holy Scriptures," that he 
was convinced of sin under the preaching qi Rev. Joseph Benson, 
and united himself with the IMethodists. He came under the re- 
ligious care of Dr. Adam Clarke, and was finally ordained in the 
Church of England. His services as a scholar and theologian were 
eminent, but in his honored old age nothing comforted him like 

the lines : 

" Other refuge have I none, 

Hangs my helpless soul on thee." 

He died January 27th, 1862, aged eighty- two. 

Few hymns have been more extensively blessed in the dying 
hours of believers. It would be possible to compile a volume of 
incidents " of considerable dimensions" (to quote G. J. Steven- 
son's words) from Methodist sources alone, under this heading. 

Henry Ward Beecher once said, after a reference to his father, 
Dr. Lyman Beecher's, death, and his love for this hymn : 

" I would rather have written that hymn of Wesley's : 

' Jesu, lover of my soul, 
Let me to thy bosom fly,' 

than to have the fame of all the kings that ever sat on the earth. It is 
more glorious. It has more power in it. I would rather be the author 
of that hymn than to hold the wealth of the richest man in New York. 
He will die. He is dead, and does not know it. He will pass, after a 
little while, out of men's thoughts. What will there be to speak of him ? 
What will he have done that will stop trouble, or encourage hope? His 
money will go to his heirs, and they will divide it. It is like a stream 
divided and growing narrower by division. And they will die, and it will 
go to their heirs. In three or four generations everything comes to the 
ground again for redistribution. But that hymn will go on singing until 
the last trump brings forth the angel band ; and then, I think it will 
mount up on some lip to the very presence of God." 

The late President Finney, of Oberlin, O., was walking about 
his grounds not long before his death. In the church where he 
had preached for forty years the evening service had just begun. 
Presently he heard this hymn floating to him from the distance. 
He caught it up, sang with the invisible congregation, and joined 



288 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

in their praises to the end. Before the next morning he had joined 
the choir about the throne. 

The following incident has been frequently told, and we are glad 
to have it in an apparently authentic shape : 

" Several years ago a ship was burned near the English Channel. 
Among the passengers were a father, mother, and their little child, a 
daughter, not many months old. When the discovery was made that the 
ship was on fire, and the alarm was given, there was great confusion, and 
this family became separated. The father was rescued and taken to Liver- 
pool ; but the mother and infant were carried overboard by the crowd, 
and, unnoticed by those who were doing all in their power to save the 
sufferers still on the ship, they drifted out of the Channel with the tide, the 
mother clinging to a fragment of the wreck, with her little one clasped to 
her breast. Late in the afternoon of that day, a vessel bound from New- 
port, Wales, to America, was moving slowly along in her course. There 
was only a slight breeze, and the captain was impatiently walking the 
deck when his attention was called to an object some distance off, which 
looked like a person in the water. The officers and crew watched it for 
a time, and as no vessel was near from which any one could have fallen 
overboard, they thought it impossible to be a human being. The captain 
sent a boat, which was watched with deepest interest from the ship. As 
the boat approached the object floating, suddenly the sound of a gentle 
voice was heard so softly singing, and the sailors listened to the words of 
the first verse : ' Jesu, lover of my soul.' Soon the rescued mother and 
child were safe on board the ship, and ultimately reached America. The 
father joined them four months afterward." 

It is said that an excursion of Sunday-school teachers and 
scholars on Lake Winipiseogee was saved from panic and disaster 
during a storm by the singing of this hymn. It almost seemed as 
though the clouds broke and the wind allayed while the verses 
were being sung. 

" Mr. Gould," says Dr. Belcher, " mentions the influence of singing on 
the mind of a minister in Vermont. He was a stranger, called to officiate 
for a Sabbath in a cold and dreary church. When he entered it, the wind 
howled, and loose clapboards and windows clattered. The pulpit stood 
high above the first floor. There was no stove ; but a few persons in the 
church, and those few beating their hands and feet to keep them from 
freezing. He asked himself : ' Can I preach ? Of what use can it be ? 
What shall I do ? Can these two or three singers in the gallery sing the 
words if I read a hymn ?' 'I concluded to make a trial, and read : 

" Jesus, lover of my soul, 

Let me to thy bosom fly." 

" ' They commenced, and the sound of a single female voice has fol- 
lowed me with an indescribable, pleasing sensation ever since, and prob- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 289 

ably will while I live. The voice, intonation, articulation and expression 
seemed to me perfect. I was warmed inside and out, and for the time 
was lost in rapture. I had heard of the individual and voice before ; but 
hearing it in this dreary situation made it doubly grateful. Never did I 
preach with more satisfaction to myself. And from this incident I 
learned a lesson : Never to be discouraged by unfavorable appearances, 
but, where'duty calls, go to work cheerfully, without wavering ! ' " 

Mr, Spurgeon declares that the selection of psalms and hymns 
for divine worship is no trifle. "An ungodly stranger," he re- 
marks, "stepping into one of our services at Exeter Hall, was 
brought to the Cross by the words of Wesley's verse, ' Jesu, lover 
of my soul. ' ' Does Jesus love me 1 ' said he : ' then why should 
I live in enmity to him .? ' " 

Dr. Alexander McKenzie, of Cambridge, Mass., calls this a 
" sailor's hymn." It may well be, for sailors have always loved 
it. A coasting vessel once went on the rocks in the English Chan- 
nel. Her captain and crew abandoned her and were lost in the 
boats. But the vessel stood out the storm, and those who boarded 
her found on the captain's table a hymn-book with the pencil in 
its leaves, and this stanza marked — as if it was among his latest 
thoughts. The traditional origin of the hymn is that Wesley was 
seated at his desk when a bird pursued by a hawk flew into the 
open window. The baffled hawk did not dare to follow, and the 
poet took his pen and wrote this immortal song. 

In The Story Lizzie Told [by Mrs. Prentiss] Westminster Abbey 
appears as a " big church " " just as full as it could hold. " 

" Then, all of a sudden, they burst out a-singing. Father showed me 
the card with large letters on it, and, says he, ' Sing, Lizzie, sing ! ' 
" And so I did. It was the first time in my life. The hymn said : 

' Jesu, lover of my soul, 

Let me to thy bosom fly,' 

and I whispered to father, ' Is Jesus God ?' ' Yes, yes,' said he. ' Sing, 
Lizzie, sing ! ' " 

A Mrs. Lewis, of Norwich, England, many years ago went to 
hear Mr. Hook preach at the Tabernacle, being under great dis- 
tress of mind. She had determined to attend divine service once 
more, and if she obtained no peace she intended then to drown 
herself. The first hymn which the preacher announced was, 
"Jesu, lover of my soul," which so startled her and suited her 
condition that she supposed that he ' ' had made this hymn for her 



290 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

sake," for she had no doubt that some one had informed him of 
her state of mind. As a result of this experience she was hope- 
fully converted. 

Of Rev. Benjamin Parsons, the English social reformer, born 
at Nibley, October i6th, 1797, it is related that " he knew he was 
dying, but he enjoyed a Greek criticism. He could discuss the 
doctrine of Whewell's book ' On Plurality of Worlds.' He was 
interested in the war." He, too, was one of those who sang 
" Jesu, lover of my soul " in the dying moment. 

Mr. James Maitland Hog, a man of distinction and influence in 
Christian work, was born in 1799, and was the friend and associate 
of men like Dr. Chalmers and Dr. Duff. At the Disruption he 
shared, as an elder, the fortunes of the Free Church, and was 
eminent for piety and usefulness until the year 1858, when he 
yielded at last to the inroads of a painful disease. His speech was 
affected so that he could not converse with any ease. His right 
arm was also powerless, and needed to be lifted upon the table 
and a pen placed between the fingers. But with the help of the 
left hand he could still write, and often composed a couple of dozen 
folio pages. As his strength decreased he was unable to avail him- 
self of even this slight advantage, and could neither speak nor 
write. But by the help of a small tube or reed held in the 
mouth he pointed to the letters of a printed alphabet, and slowly 
spelled out these words : "I am looking to the Saviour ; my only 
hope is in Jesus." Then, at his request, the hymns, "Jesu, 
lover of my soul," and " Just as I am, without one plea," were 
read to him, and at dawn of day, on Sunday, August ist, 1858, 
he entered peacefully into rest. 

In the winter of 1872 Mr. Charles Trumbull White, being en- 
gaged in hospital work of a religious character, visited Bellevue 
Hospital, New York City. He was specially urged by the attend- 
ants to see an English sailor in one of the wards who was near 
death. The man was found to be fast going, and unable to articu- 
late. Mr. White, therefore, leaned down and repeated, so that he 
might hear them, the words of this hymn. To all appearance 
they were uttered to the "dull, cold ear of death," and he de- 
parted, feeling as though he had failed to secure the least 
response. 

About midnight, however, of that same night, this unknown 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 291 

sailor seemed to arouse. He sat up in his cot, and with a clearly 
audible voice he spoke the words : 

" Jesu, lover of my soul, 

Let me to thy bosom fly," 

and continued until he had repeated the entire hymn. He then 
added other verses of hymns for several minutes, but ceased sud- 
denly, fell back, and was dead. Who can tell how great a bridge 
had been thrown by those familiar words across the gulf of memory, 
and how great a comfort they may have brought to his dying hour. 
The circumstances were precisely as we have given them, and no 
explanation was ever obtained. 

Dr. George Duffield (the author of " Stand up, stand up for 
Jesus ") writes : 

" One of the most blessed days of my life was when I found, after my 
harp had long hung on the willows, that I could sing again ; that a new 
song was put into my mouth ; and when, ere ever I was aware, I was 
singing ' Jesu, lover of my soul.' If there is anything in Christian ex- 
perience of joy and sorrow, of affliction and prosperity, of life and death 
— that hymn is the hymn of the ages !" 

Jesus, Master, hear me now. — Anon, 1842. 
The earliest publication of this hymn seems to have been in the 
Presbyterian (O. ?>.) Dcvotio?ial Hymns, Philadelphia, 1842. Com- 
pare with this Frances Ridley Havergal's " Jesus, Master, whose I 
am." 

Jesus, Master, whose I am. — F. R. Havergal. 

This hymn is from Miss Havergal's Poems (p. 429) : " Whose 
I am and whom I serve. — Acts 27 : 23." It has six stanzas ; 
three to each part of the text. It does not appear in Songs 0/ 
Grace and Glory. 

Jesus, my all, to heaven is gone. — Cennick. 
John Wesley has recorded that, 

" On Friday, March, 1739, I came to Reading, where I found a young 
man who had in some measure known the powers of the world to come. 
I spent the evening with him and a few of his serious friends, and it 
pleased God- much to strengthen and comfort them." 

This was John Cennick, whose career was afterward somewhat 
checkered by disagreements and doctrinal differences with his old 
associates. He had been a wild and reckless lad, of warm feelings 
and somewhat headstrong character. Grace did not wholly drive 



292 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

out this crab-stock nature, though the graft always kept uppermost. 
And Cennick's history — written, as it happens, mostly by those 
who are partisans of Wesley — does not incline us to think that 
anything worse than impulsiveness can be charged against him. 
It is another instance of the amenities of hymnology that he after- 
ward declared it was like being " in the midst of the plague " to 
be with the Wesleys. And Charles Wesley, who once delightedly 
corrected and encouraged the early efforts of the young hymnist, 
spoke twenty years later of " that weak man, John Cennick" and 
his " strange doctrines. " Probably no one stops to ask, however, 
how much refuse stuff has gone into the root of the rose when the 
flower is in full bloom — and inasmuch as John Cennick is charge- 
able with no immorality or heterodoxy, it may be as well not to 
be uncharitable. He had come of Quaker lineage, his grandparents 
having been persecuted and imprisoned. He had strong tastes in 
the direction of asceticism, and once subsisted for a time on a 
mongrel diet of " acorns, leaves of trees, crabs [the small sour 
natural apples] and grass," and would have brought himself 
down still further if he could, being ambitious in the direction of 
roots and herbs. This was a character to be very susceptible to an 
enthusiasm which might readily run into fanatical extremes. 

The hymn before us belongs to the neighborhood of the year 
1743 ; is the outcome of a subjective experience, and originally 
contained nine stanzas. 

To be more particular as to the man's personal history, we may 
say that John Cennick was born December 12 th, 171 8, at Reading, 
Berkshire, of a family who, on the father's side, were followers of 
George Fox. Until his thirteenth year he was strictly brought up, 
but his visits to London to seek an opportunity to learn some trade 
had the bad effect on his morals which has been mentioned. 

The full history of the " Rise and Progress " of poor Cennick's 
doctrinal difficulties extends from the time when, in 1738-9, he 
went to Oxford to meet Mr. Kinchin, of the " Holy Club," until 
he broke off from everybody and affiliated with the United Brethren 
in 1745. His ecclesiastical histor}' shows him to have been a 
Wesleyan in 1739 ! ^^^^ ^o have seceded from that body, because 
of their " Free Grace " doctrines, and to have founded a society 
of his own with twenty-four members in 1741. When Whitefield 
returned from America he gathered in Cennick, and had his help 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 293 

in London ; and, also, as an evangelist, in the west of England. 
His labors were abundant — six sermons a day being sometimes re- 
corded — and much persecution also attended his progress, along 
with equally marked success. Cennick's Bohemian ancestr}-, 
however, turned him away from Whitefield, and he carried many 
of his friends with him when he went over to the United Brethren. 
Much of the remainder of his life was spent in the north of Ireland. 
He returned, however, to London, June 28th, 1755, in a feeble 
condition of health, and died there, July 4th, 1755, at the early age 
of thirty- seven. 

In personal appearance Cennick was " rather below the middle 
stature " and " of a fair countenance. " His sincere and spiritual 
piety have always been acknowledged by every one who has com- 
mented on his life. His sermons show real ' unction.' 

Cennick's earlier hymns were contributed to the use of the Wes- 
leys — who amended them, as Charles Wesley admits — and after- 
ward these and others were collected by himself into separate vol- 
umes. At Bristol (which has a great name for literary intolerance 
and proficiency in hymn-books) he printed his Sacred Hymns, 
Part I., in 1743. In Part II. Mr. Joseph Humphreys had six 
pieces, one of which is, " Blessed are the sons of God." This was 
followed by Part III., London, 1744, and he also published two 
more volumes, leaving at his death a good deal of manuscript 
material of the same sort. In 1742 he said : 

" I would not have any, who read these hymns, look to find either good 
poetry or fine language, for indeed there is none." " It was the truth," 
says Dr. Hatfield, dryly. " The few hymns from his pen that are now 
used have been considerably modified to fit them for the ' service of 
song,' and are known, at present, almost wholly, in these altered forms. 
They cannot well be restored." 

All who are aware of Dr. Hatfield's strong sentiments on the sub- 
ject of " the author's text " will feel that poor Cennick fares rather 
badly under this scathing review. But such was his fire, and such 
was his spiritual fervor, that his ram's-horn music has become a 
well-beloved strain in our modern oratorio. 

Jesus, my great high-priest. — Watts. 
This is from Dr. Watts' s Hymns, Book I., No. 150, "On the 
offices of Christ," and is the same as the version of the 148th 
Psalm. 



294 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Jesus, my Lord, my God, my all. — Collins. 
This " Rev. Henry Collins " must not be confused with a per- 
son of the same name, curate of High Laver, Ongar, in i860. 
The author of this hymn, written 1852, is Henry Collins, a gradu- 
ate of Oxford University (M.A. 1854). After being ordained as 
deacon and priest he left the Church of England for that of Rome 
in 1857. He published a tract to defend his course — the usual 
proceeding — and was taken into the Cistercian Order in i860. In 
1866 he printed a history of the order, and is supposed to be still 
in connection with it. Beside this piece and " Jesu, meek and 
lowly," Mr. Collins has written no other hymns. These were 
published in an Oxford collection about 1854. 

Jesus ! name all names above. — Neale, tr. 
This is a translation from Theoctistus of the Studium in Dr. 
Neale' s Hymns of the Eastern Church, 1862. It is the Irjffov 
yXvKvrars of this friend of St. Joseph of the Studium, who died 
circa 890, a. d. The version is made from a cento taken from 
his " Suppliant Canon to Jesus." 

" Jesus only !" in the shadow, — F. R. Havergal. 
This is taken from Miss Havergal's Poems (p. 44) : " Jesus 
Only. — Matt. 17:8." It is in two stanzas. The author's date is 
1870. 

Jesus, our Lord, how rich thy grace. — Doddridge. 

In Dr. Doddridge's Hymns this is No. 188, " Relieving Christ 
in his poor Saints. — Matt. 2 5 : 40. ' ' It has four stanzas. 

Jesus only, when the morning. — Nason. 

Rev. Elias Nason was born at Wrentham, Mass., April 21st, 
,1811. His education was received at Brown University, whence 
he was graduated in 1835. He then became a teacher, and from 
1840 to 1849 was in Newburyport, Mass., having previously spent 
some years in Georgia. He next entered the ministry of the Con- 
gregational denomination, but has been largely engaged in literary 
work, which has generally taken the shape of biographies. The 
Gazetteer 0/ Massachusetts, 1874, is his compilation. 

Among hymnologists he is known by his Co7igregational Hymn 
Book, 1857, and by the Songs /or Social and Public Worship, 
1863, in which he was associated with Dr. Edward Kirk. In this 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 295 

latter volume the present piece appeared. It was written at Natick, 
Mass., in the neighborhood of the year 1856, and was published 
first in the " Wellspring," a juvenile paper of Boston, with the 
author's own music attached. 

Dr. Nason still resides at North Billerica, Mass. 

Jesus, Saviour, pilot me. — Hopper. 

Rev. Edward Hopper, D. D. , has for many years been pastor of 
the Church of Sea and Land, New York City. He has kindly 
communicated the incidents connected with his hymn. 

It was first published in the Sailoi's' Magazine, New York, in 1871. 
In 1880 Rev. Samuel N. Hall, D.D., of Newark, the Secretary 
of the Seamen's Friend Society, asked Dr. Hopper for an anniver- 
sary hymn. The latter selected this piece and gave him the first 
two and last two stanzas. They were printed and sung by the con- 
gregation in the Broadway Tabernacle (Rev. W. M. Taylor, D.D., 
pastor) May loth, 1880. To the author's knowledge this was 
their earliest use as a hymn, but a few days later he was informed 
by Rev. C. S. Robinson, D. D., that he had already included them 
in his Spiritual Songs, 1878, and was glad to know the authorship. 
The piece had been transferred from a forgotten hymn-book, and 
it stood as " Anonymous." At a large gathering of ministers and 
teachers in the Memorial Church, held not long afterward, Dr. 
Robinson noticed Dr. Hopper in the audience, gave out this hymn 
and announced its author's name. It has six stanzas. These are 
the first, fifth and sixth. The hymn has proved unusually popular 
— surpassing (how often this happens !) other cherished efforts of 
its composer. Dr. Hopper was born in New York City in 18 18. 
His mother was of Huguenot descent, and his father, Mansfield 
Hopper, was a prosperous merchant of the old school. The lad 
was educated and had his being in the metropolis. He was first 
instructed at Nash and Mann's school in the then up-town region 
of Bleecker Street. He next was graduated from the University of 
the City of New York, and in due course from Union Theological 
Seminary (also in New York City) in 1842. The Third Presbyter)' 
of New York licensed him to preach in 1843. ^^ was able after 
this to go as far away as Sag Harbor, Long Island, where he was 
pastor for eleven years. But manifest destiny drew him back to 
this city, where, for more than sixteen years he has been pastor of 



296 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

the Church of the Sea and Land. His degree of D.D. v.-as re- 
ceived from Lafayette College in 1871. 

Jesus shall reign where'er the sun, — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts's version of Ps. 72, Second Part, L. M., 
"Christ's Kingdom among the Gentiles. " It has eight stanzas. 
This hymn was used in 1862, when five thousand natives of 
Tonga, Fiji and Samoa exchanged heathenism for Christianity. 

Jesus, Shepherd of the sheep. — H. Cooke. 

This hymn, found in the Canadian Presbyterian Hymnal, 1881, 
is the composition of a man far more notable as a scholar and a 
polemic than as a hymn-writer. Indeed, the Rev. Dr. John Hall, 
of New York, his pupil and personal friend, did not know he had 
ever composed a hymn. 

The author, Rev. Henry Cooke, D. D., LL, D., was born in 
County Londonderry, Ireland, May nth, 1788. The exact place 
was Grillagh, near Maghera, and he came of the veritable Puritan 
stock, being the descendant of an English family who had emigrated 
from Devonshire to County Down. 

Dr. Cooke was educated at the University of Glasgow, and was 
ordained, 1808, as pastor of Duneane (Presbyterian) church. 
County Antrim, where he remained two years. From 1S11-15 
he was pastor at Donegore, nearTempIepatrick, in County Antrim ; 
then at Killyleagh, County Down, from 1818-29. The interval 
from 18 1 5-18 he spent in study in Glasgow University and Trinity 
College, where he was finding and forging the weapons for his 
battle with Arianism. From 1829 he became — and has since been 
usually called — " Cooke of Belfast." With this congregation in 
May Street he remained until his death, resisting a flattering offer 
to place him as professor, in 1847, ^'^ the Assembly's College at 
Belfast, where he would have held the chair of Sacred Rhetoric. 

Dr. Cooke's illustrious work was that of destroying the Arian 
heresy which paralyzed the vital powers of the Irish Presbyterian 
Church. For half a century his life was coeval and co-extensive 
with the most important energies of the religious and political his- 
tory of his native land. He had immense memory, great tact, 
genuine eloquence, a bright wit, ready powers of retort, and un- 
daunted courage. It is traditional of him that he once held the 
floor in a debate for several hours while forces, duly expected but 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 297 

Still delayed, were making their way to the arena ; and it is said 
that he did this on the spur of the moment, and mostly by scriptural 
quotations. 

The conflict thus waged was essential to the future of the Church 
of his choice, and he had given three earnest years to the prepara- 
tion for it. Not merely were men's opinions lax, but they were 
wholly infidel and irreligious. The campaign was a real thirty 
years' war, during which Dr. Cooke never met a single defeat, and 
at the end of which he was able to see the fruits of permanent vic- 
tory. "The fight he waged," says one account, " reads like a 
romance." " In every battle," says another chronicler, " he was 
victorious. He freed the Church of his fathers from Arianism, 
and gave a new impulse to religious life and work in Ire- 
land." 

The actual results took the form of eradication. The General 
Assembly, the colleges and the congregations of the Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland were purged from the leaven of heresy — and 
this by the exercise of full as much worldly prudence and skill as 
of dogmatic authority. Three times did Dr. Cooke receive the 
remarkable honor of being Moderator of the General Assembly ; 
and if one may judge by the devotion of those who have come from 
the May Street church into the American Presbyterian churches, 
he was worthy to be loved as well as followed. He was simple, un- 
ostentatious, gentle and agreeable in manner. His life was truly 
spiritual, and his temper — polemic as he was — was that of his Mas- 
ter. To such a man properly belongs such a hymn as this which 
we are considering. On Sunday, December 13th, 1868, Dr. 
Cooke died in Belfast. His biography has been admirably written 
by Dr. Porter. 

Jesus spreads his banner o'er us. — R. Park. 

The Rev. Roswell Park, D. D., was born October ist, 1807, at 
Lebanon, Conn., and received a military educational West Point ; 
being finally graduated in 1831, however, from Union College, 
N. Y. He was at first a lieutenant in the Military Engineer Corps, 
1831-36, and afterward, on his resignation from the army, he was 
appointed Professor of Natural Philosophy and Geometry in the 
University of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia. Dr. Park was one of 
those ambitious scholars who have essayed a Survey of Human 



298 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Knowledge, which he published in 1841. He also wrote a volume 
of poems, 1836, and a history of West Point, 1840. 

In 1843 (his mind having been turned in that direction) he was 
ordained to the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and 
received the rectorship of Christ Church, Pomfret, Conn. Three 
years later he was additionally in charge of Christ Church Hall, a 
school connected with his parish. In 1852 he went to Europe, 
and on his return was made President of Racine College, Wis- 
consin, to which dignity the additional title of Chancellor was 
added in 1859. The versatility of his mind appears from his 
Handbook /or American Travellers ift Europe, issued in 1853. From 
Racine College he removed to Chicago ; established Immanuel 
Hall, a literary and scientific school, and continued in charge of 
this, being both rector and proprietor, until his death, July i6th, 
1869. Dr. Park was " a vigorous writer and a good scholar;" 
though he is seldom included in collections of American literature. 
This hymn is dated in 1836. 

Jesus, still lead on. — Miss Jane Borthwick, ir. 

The original is the 

" Jesu, geh voran 
Auf der Lebensbahn " 
of Count Zinzendorf. 

Nicholaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, the distinguished leader of 
the Moravians, wrote this in September, 1721. It has become 
familiar to the greater part of Evangelical Germany, and Miss 
Borthwick' s version was published in her Hymns from the Land of 
Luther. The true commencement is, 

" Seelen Brautigam, 
O du Gotteslamm," 

which John Wesley presumably rendered into 

" O Thou to whose all-searching sight 
The darkness shineth as the light." 

As to this latter hymn, there has been some doubt. Its original 
has been ascribed to Gerard Tersteegen, and another very similar 

hymn, 

" Seelen Brautigam, 
Jesu, Gotteslamm !" 

is attributed to Adam Drese, about 1690. John Wesley's fine lyric 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 299 

has undoubtedly a Moravian origin, for on his voyage to Georgia 
he spent much time in versifying their songs of praise. 

Jesus, the sinner's friend, to thee. — C. Wesley. 
This hymn, based on Gal. 3:22, has thirteen stanzas, and is 
ixom. Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1739. It displays in its original 
form much boldness of expression. The twelfth stanza, for in- 
stance, closes with this couplet : 

" I give up every plea beside, 

Lord, I am damned — but thou hast died." 

Whitefield, once, was so scandalized by the horrid ribaldry of a 
clown who mocked him during an open-air service, that he appealed 
to the crowd whether he had wronged human nature by saying 
with Bishop Hall that ' ' man, when left to himself, is half a fiend 
and half a brute," and in agreeing with William Law that humanity 
was a " motley mixture of beast and devil." 

Jesus ! — the very thought is sweet. — Neale, ir. 
A version by Dr. Neale, 1851, of the ''Jesu, dulcis memoria" of 
St. Bernard. 

Jesus, these eyes have never seen. — R. Palmer. 
This hymn was written in 1858, in Albany, N. Y., and is 
based on i Pet. 1:8. It is Dr. Palmer's favorite piece, if we 
except " My faith looks up to thee." Rev. Dr. Buckingham, 
Rev. Dr. Eddy and other clergymen have almost made it classic 
as a Sunday-evening hymn. It has also a particularly interesting 
history, as related by the venerable author, October 14th, 1884, to 
the present writer : 

Dr. Palmer was seated at his study desk preparing a sermon which had 
Christ for its special theme. Needing a volume from his closed book- 
case he rose and opened the door, when the book appeared just at his 
hand. At once it occurred to him that in some such way the face of Christ 
would be unveiled to us, and the thought so filled his heart that he turned 
to his desk and composed the hymn. 

Jesus, the very thought of thee. — Caswall, /r. 

This is from Rev. Edward Caswall' s almost unapproachably fine 

translation of St. Bernard of Clairvaulx's hymn, '' Jesu, dulcis 

memoria,'' of which the full account can be found in " The Latin 

Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." Caswall's rendering is in fifty 



300 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

stanzas, and first appeared in his Lyra Catholica, 1849. It is in 
this hymn that the great theologian and scholar, and preacher of 
crusades, has set the key for modern hymnody. No one can fail 
to recognize how its spirit has gone into the German and English 
lyrics. Mr. Caswall's hymn has comforted at least one soul in the 
dying hour : 

Rev. Thomas (Canon) Sing, a Roman Catholic pries:, and a man of great 
spirituality, was well known as the ecclesiastic in charge of St. Mary's 
church, Derby, England. At the age of seventy he was only able to con- 
tinue his duties at Grantham by the help of an assistant. He said mass 
on Sunday, October 22d, 1882, and returned to his house seriously ill. 
On Tuesday he was dying. His assistant, Mr. Sabela, repeated to him 
the words of this, his favorite hymn. He followed each line eagerly, and 
at the end exclaimed : " Amen !" In a very few moments he was dead. 

Jesus, thou art the sinner's friend. — Buknham. 

Rev. Richard Burnham, born in Guildford, Surrey, England, 
in 1749, appears to have spent his life in London, where he was 
pastor of a Baptist church, and afterward of another congregation 
of the same faith and order in Grafton Street, Soho. In these two 
churches he passed thirty years of ministerial labor, varying between 
extreme popularity and great discomfort, owing to matters in his 
private conduct which invited criticism. 

This hymn first appears in his New Hymns on Divers Sui/ec/s, 
1783, which he dedicated to his people. In his preface he says : 
" Your pastor is willing to own that he is the unworthiest of the 
unworthy ; yet, unworthy as he is, he humbly trusts, through 
rich grace, he has in some measure found that the dear bosom of 
the atoning Lamb is the abiding-place of his immortal soul. ' ' He 
was buried in Tottenham Court chapel, London, having passed 
away in peace, October 30th, 18 10. 

This hymn has a twin-lyric, in the same measure, and with the 

same chorus. It is by Rev. T. Haweis, and was printed in the 

Evangelical Magazi7ie, 1802. It commences : 

" O thou from whom all goodness flows, 
I lift my soul to thee." 

Jesus, thou joy of loving hearts. — R. Palmer, ir. 
Dr. Palmer wrote this hymn in 1858 in Albany, N. Y. , and it 
is taken from the great hymn of St. Bernard of Clairvaulx, for 
whom see " The Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." This 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 301 

present piece is a translation of selected verses, and has been ex- 
ceedingly popular in the Church of England. 

Jesus, thou everlasting King. — Watts. 
This is the second stanza of Dr. Watts' s hymn, " Daughters of 
Sion, come, behold," It is No. 72 of Book I., and is entitled, 
" The Coronation of Christ, and the Espousals of the Church. 
— Sol. Song 3 : 11." It has, in all, six stanzas. 

Jesus, thou source of calm repose. — C. Wesley. 

The hymn before us is disguised from ordinary recognition. 

In the original form it begins : 

" Thou hidden Source of calm repose. 
Thou all-sufBcient Love Divine." 

It has been greatly changed. The couplet at the close of the first 

stanza reads, for example : 

" And lo ! from sin, and grief, and shame, 
I hide me, Jesus, in thy name." 

Instead of " Our life in death, our all in all," we have " My life 
in death ; my heaven in hell. ' ' Nearly every line has been altered. 
The date is 1741. 

Jesus, thy blood and righteousness. — J. Wesley, tr. 

This is John Wesley's paraphrase from the German of that pro- 
lific hymn-writer. Count Zinzendorf. It is positively assigned to 
John Wesley on the authority of Count Zinzendorf's own book, 
privately printed at Chelsea, in which the names of translators ap- 
pear. 

The original hymn is the ' ' Christi Blut und Gerechtigkeit, 
which was composed somewhere between February and April of 
1739, during a voyage from the West Indies to England. In the 
course of this voyage the count's attention was specially drawn to- 
ward Church history. He was physically weak, but with charac- 
teristic generosity he had given up his stateroom to a Portuguese 
Jew named Da Costa, who was travelling with his wife to Amsterdam 
and besought the count to take him on the vessel. This protege, 
it must be added, waited on him faithfully, and, indeed, " displayed 
nothing Jewish but his zeal for his religion." Reading of the 
honors awarded to holy men in the past, Zinzendorf records at this 
time : "If I am faithful I hope to tread, by God's grace, in the 



302 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Steps of these brethren, whose example is so beneficially set before 
me by the Holy Spirit." One can readily trace feelings such as 
these in the hymn, particularly in one stanza which is usually 
omitted, but which Whitefield placed in his Collection : 

" Thus Abraham, the Friend of God, 
Thus all the Armies bought with Blood, 
Saviour of sinners thee proclaim : 
Sinners, of whom the Chief I am." 

John Wesley must have met with the verses very soon after the 
count's arrival in England, but his rendering, in ten stanzas, fine 
as it is, is only a free and abridged version of the original, which 
has thirty stanzas in all. It is not generally known that the first 
two lines of these thirty stanzas are conveyed literally from a hymn 
by P. Eber (d. 1569), which is very popular in Germany, and 
begins, " In Christi Wunden schlaf ich ei?i.'" 

The largeness of the faith which composed this hymn speaks in 

the lines : 

" Ich glaube, dass Sein theures Blut 
Genug fiir alle Siinden thut, 
Und dass es Gottes Schdtze fiillt 
Und ewig in dem Hinmiel giUy 

" Lord, I believe, were sinners more 
Than sands upon the ocean shore, 
Thou hast for all a ransom paid. 
For all a full atonement made." 

This was the sacred song to whose solemn strains the body of 
Rowland Hill was laid in the tomb. Luther's hymn had been 
sung, and then Rev. Thomas Russell gave out this, which was a 
favorite hymn with Mr. Hill. 

The father of Rev. James Smetham, one of Wesley's associates, 
was converted (as, indeed, Smetham himself was) through the 
prayers of a son, who saw father and mother and brothers all brought 
into the kingdom. At his death, this son, whose name was John, 
was wonderfully helped and encouraged by this hymn. And when 
his father was near his own end he spoke of the fact, adding : " I 
have had such a sight of my own defects and unfaithfulness, and 
such a view of the purity and holiness of God, as almost made me 
despair of finding mercy at the last." Remembering, however, 
that his son John had been greatly comforted by a hymn, he asked 
for the book, and, on taking it, it opened to this very stanza : ' ' All 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 303 

my fear, doubt and distress vanished,' said he, " when, at the read- 
ing of that verse, I cast my soul on the Atonement ; and since 
that time I have enjoyed perfect peace." 

Queen Christiana of Prussia having seen a beautiful little child, 
a daughter of one of her gardeners, playing in the grounds, had 
her brought to the palace and placed in a chair next to herself at 
the dinner. She pleased herself with thinking how delighted the 
little one would be, but they were no sooner seated than the child, 
observing the ceremonious pause, quietly repeated, by way of a 
grace, the words : 

" Christ's dear blood and righteousness 
Be to me as jewels given, 
Crowning me when I shall press 

Onward through the gates of heaven." 

No one spoke; The innocent child had supposed that they 
were waiting for her to ask her blessing on the food as she did at 
home. And this was the Queen's best thanks, in its solemn and 
refreshing simplicity, for an act of impulsive kindness. She had, 
as it were, given the cup of cold water, and she had not lost her 
reward. 

This " grace before meat" was really from the hymn of the poor 
hunchback, Eber. That is worth translating, and here is our lit- 
eral version of it : 

I rest in Christ, who died for me, 
Whose blood from sin hath set me free ; 
Yes, Christ's dear blood and holiness 
Is my attire and glorious dress. 

In this, to God I dare draw near. 
When in his heaven I shall appear ; 
With joy and freedom there to be 
A child of God eternally. 

Be thanked, O death ! my help thou art ! 
Thus, to immortal life, my heart 
With Christ's dear blood shall pardoned be — 
Lord Jesus ! lift my faith to thee ! 

Jesus, thy boundless love to me. — J. Wesley, tr. > 
This translation, from Paul Gerhardt's " Jesu Christ, viein 
schonsies Lichi," is like the most of John Wesley's work of this 
character, a sort of inspired paraphrase, which almost reaches the 



304 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

dignity of an original production. Gcrhardt's hymn, 1653, in its 
turn, is based on a meditation and prayer by Arndt in his Paradies- 
gdrtleifi. Wesley's rendering has sixteen stanzas, and appears in 
the Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1 739. 

Jesus, thy Church with longing eyes. — Bathurst. 
Mr. Bathurst' s title for this hymn is " The Second Coming of 
Christ," with a reference to Rev. 22 : 20. It appeared in his 
Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Use, 183 1. 

Jesus 1 thy love shall we forget. — Mitchell. 

Rev. William Mitchell, the author of the hymn before us, was 
born at Chester, Conn., December 9th, 1793. He entered Yale 
College and was graduated in the class of 18 18, subsequently tak- 
ing a theological course at Andover, and being ordained October 
20th, 1824. He w^as pastor at Newton, Conn., 1825-31 ; pastor 
at Rutland, Vt., 1833-47 ; stated supply, WaUingford, Vt., 1847- 
51. He then became the agent, successively, of the Vermont. 
New York and New Jersey Colonization Societies — that scheme of 
deporting our negroes to Africa from which Liberia sprang, and in 
which President Lincoln was so greatly interested — and he con- 
tinued in this work from 1853 to 1858. He then went to Texas, 
where he became a resident of Corpus Christi. He was afterward 
acting pastor of the Presbyterian church of Casa Blanca from 1858 
to 1862. He returned to Corpus Christi in 1866, and died in that 
place, August ist, 1867. 

This hymn was written for the Christian Lyre, 1830, of which 
Dr. Joshua Leavitt was editor. It is entitled " Can we forget.?" 
has six stanzas and a chorus, and is signed ' ' W. M. ' ' The tune 
to which it is adapted is called " Grateful Memory." 

Jesus, to thy table led. — Baynes. 
In Lyra Britannica the entire hymn is printed in seven three-line 
stanzas. The date is 1S63. The author. Rev. Robert Hall 
Baynes, was born at Wellington, Somersetshire, England, INIarch 
loth, 1 83 1. After a preliminary education at Bath he studied at 
St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford, whence he was graduated. He took 
the degree of M.A. in 1859. He then entered the Episcopalian 
ministry, and became curate of Christ church, Blackfriars, Lon- 
don. In 1858 he was appointed to the living of St. Paul's, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 305 

Whitechapel. In 1862 he became the incumbent of Holy Trin- 
ity, Maidstone. In 1868 he was vicar of St. Michael's and All 
Angels, Coventry, and was subsequently offered the bishopric of 
Madagascar, but declined. He is known by his Lyra Anglicana, 
and has edited a fine collection of English Lyrics. He is also 
the editor of the Canterbury Hymnal, 1863. 

Jesus, we look to thee. — C. Wesley. 
The title given to this hymn is, " At INIeeting of Friends." It 
is taken from the LLyiiins and Sacred Poems, 1749. 

Jesus, we thus obey. — C. (?) Wesley. 
From ILymns on the Lord's Supper, 1745, by John and Charles 
Wesley. It is for use " Before the Sacrament." 

Jesus, where'er thy people meet. — Cowper. 
This is Book II., No. 44, of the Olney LLymns, in six stanzas. 
The occasion of this and of the previous hymn by Newton, " O 
Lord, our languid souls inspire " (better known by its second 
stanza, " Dear Shepherd of thy people, hear"), was the removal 
of the prayer-meeting at Olney. It was taken to the " Great 
House" in 1769, and Cowper sometimes assisted in its services 
by offering prayer in public. 

Jesus, who knows full well. — Newton. 
This commences, " Our Lord, who knows full well," and is the 
1 06th hymn of the Olmy Hymns, Book II. It is based on Luke 
18 : 1-7, and has a reference to Cowper's piece, " What various 
hindrances we meet." It is an excellent illustration of the views 
of John Newton, who always ascribed his conversion to his mother's 
importunate prayers. He would frequently employ David's lan- 
guage, and exclaim : " O Lord, truly I am thy servant ; lam thy 
servant and the son of thine handmaid ; thou hast loosed my 
bonds," 

Newton's own personal influence was remarkable enough, and is worth 
tracing in this connection. He was instrumental in the conversion of 
Claudius Buchanan, who went to India as a missionary, and there wrote 
The Star in the East^ which drew Adoniram Judsonon the same errand to 
the same place. Thomas Scott, the commentator, was another of New- 
ton's pupils, for he testifies that he was an unconverted man when 
ordained to the ministry, and that Newton gave him his first ideas of 



3o6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

vital godliness. In connection with Doddridge, Newton could also lay 
claim to the arousing of William Wilberforce, the philanthropist. Thus 
the ex-slave-captain had remotely a share in the great emancipation 
movements of our own day. Of his influence on Cowper, especially in 
the matter of hymns, we need not speak. 

The good which Newton began has not ceased even to the present time. 
Two currents seem to have met in Wilberforce. For Bunny's Resohitions 
had awakened Richard Baxter and Sibbs's Bruised Reed brought him to 
Christ. Baxter's Call to the Unconverted was given in by a beggar at 
Philip Doddridge's door, and God blessed it to the salvation of the man 
who was destined to write the Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul. 
This was the treatise which arrested the attention of Wilberforce. Wil- 
berforce in his turn wrote The Practical View of Christianity, and this was 
the work which was blessed to Legh Richmond and to Thomas Chalmers. 
The pupil of Chalmers who has most carried forward his teacher's instruc- 
tions is Dr. Horatius Bonar — and here, again, we come into the region of 
hymns and songs of praise. Legh Richmond wrote The Dairyman s 
Daughter, and this inspired Rev. George Duffield, who wrote The Pastor 
and Inquirer, one of the most profitable and valuable of American tracts, 
in Bloomfield, N. J., about the year 1851. We shall never know, this side 
of eternity, where a good book ceases to have its effect on the heart and 
conscience, or where and how its spiritual offspring are produced. This 
has received many examples. Luther was inspired by perusing the life 
of Huss. So was Rev. Joseph Wolff, the missionary, by reading of 
Xavier's wonderful career. William Carey found in Captain Cook's 
Voyages the impulse to his own energy of missionary travel. Benjamin 
Franklin avowed that Cotton Mather's Essays to do Good had greatly 
affected him, and Samuel Drew confessed his indebtedness to Franklin's 
Poor Richard's Almanac. Xavier himself was aroused by Loyola, and 
Loyola had been awakened to zeal by the Lives of the Saints, which he 
perused when wounded at Pampeluna. The stimulus received from a 
noble biography, or the story of a great undertaking is like that which 
Correggio felt when he beheld the work of Michael Angelo, and ex- 
claimed : "I, too, am a painter !" 

Jesus, who on Calvary's mountain. — Anon., 1855. 
This was probably an original hymn, first pubhshed in H. W. 
Beecher's Plymouth Collection, 1855, where it appears in four 
stanzas. 

Jesus, who on his glorious throne. — Newton. 
This hymn appears in the Olney Hymns as Book I., No. 69. It 
is based on Lamentations 3 : 24, and the present hymn begins 
with the second stanza. The first is, ' ' From pole to pole let others 
roam," etc. There are six stanzas in all. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 307 

Joy to the world ; the Lord is come ! — Watts. 
This is Ps. 98 of Dr. Watts's version, Second Part, C. M., 
'* The Messiah's Coming and Kingdom." It has four stanzas. 

Such a song of praise it is that the whole creation uplifts unto God. 
But it is man alone who can truly praise. The Esthonians realized this 
when they formed their legend of the origin of song. The god of song, 
they said, descended on the Domberg, where was a sacred wood, and 
there he played and sang. Around him stood the creatures, and each 
learned its own portion of the celestial strain. The tree discovered how 
to rustle its leaves, and the brook how to murmur along its bed, and the 
wind and the bird and the beast alike caught the parts assigned to them. 
Man only, of them all, was able to combine everything, and therefore 
man alone can rightly praise. 

Just as I am, without one plea. — C. Elliott. 

When Dr. Caesar Malan visited Miss Elliott's father at Brighton, 
May 9th, 1822, he found her trying to work out her own salva- 
tion, and unwilling to trust entirely in Christ. " Dear Charlotte " 
(he is reported to have said), " cut the cable ; it will take too long 
to unloose it ; cut it, it is a small loss ; the wind blows, and the 
ocean is before you — the Spirit of God and Eternity." So it 
proved ; and for forty years Dr. Malan's correspondence continued 
to be of the greatest value to her and to her sister, until his death, 
May 8th, 1864. 

There is a French version of this hymn which can be found in 
Schaff and Oilman's Library of Religious Poetry. The translator 
is unknown, but the following incident is connected with it : 

A foreign lady, in mourning, passed through Geneva, Switzerland, in 
September, 1S57. She knew no one in the city, and, wishing to find a 
certain person with whose name she was acquainted she was additionally 
unfortunate in failing of an interview with him. She left, however, eighty 
francs at his house, partly to print and distribute this translation, and 
partly for a work of charity ; as she did not wish, she said, to visit Geneva 
without some such tribute of esteem. Dr. Malan was still alive, and a 
resident of Geneva, for he died there, as we have stated, in 1864. It is 
quite probable that this visit was paid to his house, for the author of three 
hundred of the best French hymns could not be indifferent to the verses 
of his English friend when rendered into his own tongue. And Dr. 
Malan's name was also better known than that of any other Christian of 
Geneva in the days of the great awakening of 1857. 

This hymn of Miss Elliott's bears the date 1836. It has seven 
stanzas, and has been frequently translated into Latin verse. 



3o8 ' ENGLISH HYMNS. 

A little street waif once came to a New York City missionary and 
held up a torn and dirty piece of paper, on which this hymn was 
printed : " Please, sir," said he, " father sent me to get a clean 
paper like that. " The missionary learned that the child's sister 
had loved to sing it, and that this copy had been found in her 
pocket after her death. The father wanted now to obtain a clean 
set of the verses that they might be framed. 

The son-in-law of the poet Wordsworth once wrote to Miss 
Elliott, thanking her for the hymn, and saying that it had afforded 
comfort to his wife on her dying-bed. 

" When I first read it," he states, " I had no sooner finished than she 
said, very earnestly : ' That is the very thing for me.' At least ten times 
that day she asked me to repeat it, and every morning from that day until 
her decease, nearly two months later, the first thing she asked for was 
her hymn. ' Now, my hymn,' she would say, and she would often repeat 
it after me, line for line, in the day and night." 

Of Torquay, in Devon, from which the hymn comes, Mr. Chris- 
tophers presents this lovely picture : 

" If anybody wishes to enjoy, within the limits of a few days' ramble, 
one of the richest interminglings of balmy air, and bright blue, of hill and 
dale, copsy knoll and ferny hollow, villa-crowned heights and cottages in 
dells, noble cliffs and terraced gardens, mountain-paths, and quiet, spark- 
ling beaches, weedy rocks and whispering caverns, ever-varying, ever- 
harmonizing scenes, amid which, above, beneath, around and every- 
where, grandeur is melting into beauty — he must be a quiet sojourner for 
a little while in the neighborhood of Torquay." 

It is, indeed, delightful for us to get this hymn from the same re- 
gion which nourished those " Worthies of Devon " whose splendid 
galaxy is led by the courtly figure of Sir Richard Gran vile, Raleigh's 
cousin, discoverer of Virginia, captain of the " Revenge," and the 
bravest of English sailors. It was on the north shore that Charles 
Kingsley got the inspiration for his Amyas Leigh. Here, on the 
south coast, across Tor Bay, is Brixham, where that gentle and 
scholarly poet, Lyte, wrote his exquisite hymn, "Abide with me, 
fast falls the eventide. " As there arise before the thought two such 
promontories as Torquay and Brixham, on which stand such ever- 
burning lights as these two hymns, one cannot wonder that Keble 
could write in his own superb lyric : 

" Old friends, old scenes, will lovelier be 
As more of heaven in each we see." 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 



309 



Miss Elliott's physician once brought to her a leaflet on which 
the hymn was printed, but without her name. "I know," he 
said, " that this will please you." He had very accurately judged 
her state of mind, if the authorship was, indeed, unknown to him. 

The Rev. Henry Venn Elliott always considered this hymn of 
his sister to have outweighed in Christian value all his own efforts 
as a pastor. 

Keep us, Lord, oh, keep us ever. — Kelly. 
This hymn is in Thomas Kelly's fifth edition, 1820, but not in 
the third, 1809. It has four stanzas, and is based on Ps. 1 19 : 35. 

" I was once on my way to the Antipodes," said a voyager, who had 
gone around the world several times. " The vessel was a transport, and 
we had a large number of troops on board. So multitudinous a compan- 
ionship was not exactly to my taste on the high seas ; but one must make 
the best of circumstances ; and, on the whole, my cabin life was as 
pleasant as could be in such a case. All went on very safely till one night, 
the horrors of which will live to play discords on my nerves as long as 
nerves are a part of my inheritance. I had got into my berth and was 
fast asleep, when about the middle of the night I was startled by a shock, 
and then alarmed by a strange hubbub of creaking timbers, shuffling feet, 
and hoarse voices striving with the whistling, roaring wind, and then 
my senses were scarcely clear from sleep when there came a thundering 
crash, down went the vessel on her beam-ends, and down came the rush- 
ing sea, all but filling the cabins, and at once putting out the lights. There 
was an awful hush for a moment, and then the first voice that broke it 
came from an officer, who leaped out of an adjoining berth with impreca- 
tions that made my blood run chill, and cried : ' This is like hell when the 
fire is put out ! ' 

" One felt for an instant as if he were engulfed in hell itself, but just 
then some gentle spirit seemed to touch my tremulous heart ; there came 
a sweet calm over my soul. I quietly lay in my berth and felt as if 
voices from the better land were singing to me that beautiful hymn : 



" ' Why those fears? Behold, 'tis Jesus 
Holds the helm and guides the ship ; 

Spread the sails and catch the breezes, 
Sent to waft us through the deep. 

To the regions 
Where the mourners cease to weep. 

" ' Led by Him, we brave the ocean ; 

Led by Him, the storm defy ; 
Calm amidst tumultuous motion. 

Knowing that our Lord is nigh. 
Waves obey Him, 

And the storms before Him fly. 



" ' Safe in His most sure protection, 
We shall pass the watery waste ; 

Trusting to His wise direction, 
We shall gain the port at last, 

And, with wonder. 
Think on toils and dangers past. 

" ' Oh, what pleasures there await us ! 

There the tempests cease to roar ; 
There it is, that they who hate us 

Shall molest our peace no more : 
Trouble ceases 

On that tranquil, happy shore 1 ' 



3IO ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" We lived to outride the storm, but as long as I live I shall feel that the 
experience of that night forever hallowed to me the memory of Thomas 
Kelly. His long life (from 1769 to 1855, begun and ended in Dublin) was 
not spent in vain if that hymn alone had been all its fruit." 

Keep silence, all created things ! — Watts. 
This occurs m HorcB Lyn'ccB, Book I., under the title of " God's 
Dominion and Decrees," and is in twelve stanzas. 

Lead, kindly light I amid the encircling gloom. — Newman. 

John Henry Newman, D. D., was born in London, England, 
February 21st, 1801. His father, John Newman, was a banker, 
and a man apparently of deep religious convictions. " I was 
brought up from a child," says Dr. Newman, " to take great de- 
light in reading the Bible." After a good preliminary education 
the lad was sent to Oxford, where he was graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege in 1820. He was afterward a Fellow of Oriel College in 
1822, and in 1825 was given the vice-principalship of St. Alban's 
Hall, by Dr. Whateley. In this position he continued about a 
year, and was then selected as a tutor in Oriel College, where he 
remained until 1828. 

At this period began his intimacy with Richard Hurrell Froude, 
of which the outcome was a most remarkable religious movement 
in the English Church. In 1828, Dr. Newman was the incumbent 
of St. Mary's, Oxford, and was also chaplain at Littlemore. His 
friends were such men as John Keble and Edward Bouverie Pusey, 
and his ministrations at St. Mary's had a powerful influence on 
the students of the university. 

A visit to the Continent intervened in this time of literary and 
religious activity. During that absence from home the tendencies 
toward Romanism which he had already manifested seem to have 
firmly fixed themselves, as permanent principles, in his mind. He 
had begun, in the city of Rome, to write the Lyra Apostolica, a 
volume of verses intended to express the low state of the English 
Church, and in which he was assisted by several of his friends. 

It was on his return from Zante and Corfu that the verses begin- 
ning " Time was I shrank from what was right " were written : 

" Time was I shrank from what was right, 
From fear of what was wrong ; 
I would not brave the sacred fight, 
Because the foe was strong. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 311 

" But now I cast that finer sense 
And sorer shame aside ; 
Such dread of sin was indolence, 
Such aim at heaven was pride. 

" So, when my Saviour calls, I rise. 
And calmly do my best ; 
Leaving to Him, with silent eyes 
Of hope and fear, the rest. 

" I step, I mount, where He has led ; 
Men count my haltings o'er ; — 
I know them ; yet, though self I dread, 
I love His precept more." 

These lines really originated the "Oxford movement" in the 
Anglican Church — an agitation which continued for ten years, and 
has not, even now, entirely abated. 

After leaving Cardinal Wiseman the author first went to Sicily. 
There, at Leonforte, he was very ill with malarial fever. " My 
servant," he says, " thought I was dying, and begged for my last 
directions. I gave them as he wished ; but I said : ' I shall not 
die, for I have not sinned against light, I have not sinned against 
light ! ' I never have been able to make out at all what I meant." 
Later on, in the course of the disease he became much depressed 
and sobbed bitterly. His servant, asking what ailed him, could 
only obtain the reply : "I have a work to do in England." At 
last he was able to " get off in an orange boat," but was becalmed 
a full week in the Straits of Bonifacio, between Corsica and Sar- 
dinia. Here it was that this hymn — the most famous of all his 
productions — was written. Its sincerity of feeling and purity of 
expression have made it universally acceptable. Its original title 
was "The Pillar of the Cloud." It was first published in the 
British Magazine, and then in Lyra Apostolica, 1836, in three 
stanzas, with the motto, " Unto the godly there ariseth up light 
in the darkness." 

The statement of Dr. Newman himself fixes the date of composi- 
tion as June i6th, 1833, and the voyage, begun at Palermo, termi- 
nated at Marseilles. The circumstances can be read-by any inquirer 
in the Apologia pro Vita Sua, 1864, pp. 35-119 (London edition 
of 1875). " I was writing verses," he there says, " the whole 
time of my passage. ' ' There is a further reference to the same 
facts in the Parochial Sermons, Vol. IL, Sermon 2. 



312 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

In July, 1833, he was again at home. With his Oriel College 
friends he now commenced the issue of the Tracts for the Times. 
Keble's sermon on National Apostasy was preached in Newman's 
pulpit, July 14th, 1833. Thus the "movement" sprang into 
existence, and an " association" was formed in September. New- 
man then followed up the publication of the tracts by travelling 
through the country and personally urging clergymen to join him- 
self and his friends in their " high church" agitation. 

Of the Oxford Tracts, Nos. i, 2, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11, were written by New- 
man. Of the smaller tracts he wrote Nos. 19, 20, 21, 34, 38, 41, 45 and 
47. After the accession of Dr. Pusey to the ranks in 1834-5, Newman 
wrote tracts 71, 73, 75. 79, 82, 83, 85 and 88. His Tract No. 90 was one 
which excited great controversy. Its aim was to remove the lines of 
difference between the Church of Rome and the Church of England. 

In 1836 the Lyra Apostolica appeared. Its writers were known at first 
only by their signatures, each having chosen a Greek letter. They were 
as follows : 

(a) Mr. J. W. Bowden, Trinity College, Oxon., Commissioner of Stamps 
and Taxes. 

(/3) Rev. Richard Hurrell Froude, Fellow of Oriel College, Oxon. 

(7) Rev. John Keble, Fellow of Oriel College, Oxon. 

(d) Rev. John Henry Newman, Fellow of Oriel College, Oxon. 

(e) Rev. Isaac Williams, Fellow of Trinity College, Oxon. 

(Q Rev. Henry William Wilberforce, Fellow of Oriel College, Oxon. 

The drift of Dr. Newman's mind was, by this date, very ap- 
parent. In 1842 he presided over the monastic community which 
he had organized at Littlemore, and as the coadjutor and compeer 
of Dr. Pusey he became increasingly prominent. In October, 
1845, hs \-0<:^ the logical and final step of entering the Roman 
Catholic Church, where he was immediately recognized and 
honored. He received, as his first duty, the charge of the Oratory 
of St. Philip Neri, at Birmingham. In 1854 he became rector of 
the new Roman Catholic University in Dublin, holding this posi- 
tion until 1858. At this latter date he removed to Edgbaston, near 
Birmingham, and started a school for the sons of Roman Catholic 
gentlemen. His cardinal's hat was received in 1879. It would 
be tedious to -enumerate the publications of Dr. Newman. Of 
them all there are none which have attracted so much attention as 
\i\% Apologia, 1864, and his Collection of Poems, 1868 — in the last 
of which appears that remarkable composition, "The Dream of 
Gerontius." As a collector and translator of the Latin hymns 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 313 

Dr. Newman deserves the highest praise. The Hymini Ecclesice, 
1838, are invaluable to the student. In this volume are to be 
found those texts from the Paris, Sarum, Roman and other 
breviaries which will be sought in vain in the pages of Daniel or 
Mone. 

An exhaustive and brilliant sketch of Dr. Newman' s life appeared 
in the Century Magazine for June, 1882. 

Let me but hear my Saviour say. — Watts. 
We find this hymn after a sermon on 11 Cor. 12 .-7, 9, 10, in 
five stanzas. Its title is, " Our own Weakness, and Christ our 
Strength," and it is No. 15 of Book I. of Dr. Watts' s Hymns. 

Lead us, O Father, in the paths of peace. — Burleigh. 

The author of this hymn. Rev. William Henry Burleigh, was 
born in Woodstock, Conn., February 2d, 18 12 — the fourth son 
of Rinaldo Burleigh, a graduate of Yale College and successful 
classical teacher. He married a lady who was a lineal descendant 
of Governor William Bradford of the " Mayflower," and their chil- 
dren grew up on the farm at Plainfield, being used to hard work 
and plenty of open air. 

William early showed a taste for poetry, and as soon as he was 
able he evinced the spirit of a reformer. In the anti-slavery and 
temperance movements he was prominent, and in 1837 he pub- 
lished the Christian Witness and afterward the Temperance Banner. 
He also edited the Abolition journal at Hartford, Conn., called the 
Christian Freeman, the name being subsequently changed to the 
Charter Oak. At Syracuse, N. Y., from 1849, he served for five 
years as agent of the New York State Temperance Society — being 
editor, lecturer and secretary, according to the demand. A part 
of this time he lived in Albany, where he edited the Prohibitionist. 
Governor Clark, of New York, who was his friend, appointed him 
Harbor Master of New York City. He accepted the position, re- 
moved to Brooklyn, and died in that city, March i8th, 1871. 

In personal appearance and power of public address he was a 
man of mark. His wife, Mrs. Celia Burleigh — " pastor of the 
Unitarian Church at Brooklyn, Conn." — wrote his life and added 
to it a number of his poems. Mr. Burleigh's verses possess both 
vigor and melody. The present piece is found, in four stanzas, 
in Lyra Sacra Americajia, 1868, accompanied by ten other hymns, 



314 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

and with the statement by Professor Cleveland that ' ' most of these 
beautiful hymns of ]Mr. Burleigh's were given me in manuscript, 
by the author, for this work. 

Let party names no more. — Beddome. 
This good old unsectarian hymn is worthy of being reprinted in 
a volume like the present. It was written by Benjamin Beddome 
in 1769 — and Benjamin Beddome was a Baptist minister. 

" Let party names no more 

The Christian world o'erspread : 
Gentile and Jew, and bond and free, 
Are one, in Christ, their head. 
"Among the saints on earth, 
Let mutual love abound ; — 
Heirs of the same inheritance, 
With mutual blessings crowned. 
" Thus will the Church below 
Resemble that above ; 
Where streams of endless pleasure flow. 
And every heart is love." 

As a comment, here is Rowland Hill's Epitaph on BigoUy, pub- 
lished in 1796 : 

" Here lies old Bigotry, abhorred 

By all that love our common Lord ; 

No more his influence shall prove 

The torment of the sons of love. 
" We celebrate with holy mirth 

This monster's death, of hellish birth ; 

Ne'er may his hateful influence rise 

Again, to blast our sacred joys. 
" Glory to God, we now are one, 

United to one Head alone ; 

With undivided hearts we praise 

Our God for his uniting grace. 
" Let Ttames and sects a.n(i pa rtits fall. 

Let Jesus Christ be all in all ; 

Thus, like thy saints above, shall we 

Be one with each as one with Thee." 

And here is a story, which, if it be not true, is certainly well 
told: 

John Wesley was once troubled in regard to the disposition of the vari- 
ous sects, and the chances of each in reference to future happiness or 



EX GUSH HYMNS. 315 

punishment. A dream, one night, transported him, in its uncertain wan- 
derings, to the gates of hell. " Are there any Roman Catholics here?" 
asked the thoughtful Wesley. " Yes," was the reply. " Any Episco- 
palians ?" "Yes." " Any Presbyterians ?" "Yes." "Any Congre- 
gationalists ?" "Yes," again was the answer. "Any Baptists?" 
"Yes." "Any Methodists?" asked the pious Wesley, by way of a 
clincher. " Yes," to his great indignation, was answered. In the mystic 
way of dreams, a sudden transition — and he stood before the gates of 
heaven. Improving his opportunity, he again inquired : " Are there any 
Roman Catholics here ?" " No," was replied. "Any Episcopalians?" 
"No." "Any Presbyterians?" "No." "Any Congregationalists ?" 
"No." "Any Baptists?" "No." "Any Methodists?" "No." 
"Well, then," he asked, lost in wonder, "who are they inside?" 
" Christians !" was the jubilant answer. 

It would be almost worth our while to add a ' ' Gospel sonnet ' * 
from Erskine to the same purport. One finds it — along with 
"While shepherds watch their flocks by night" — at the end of 
old Dobell. But it must yield its place and space to this devout 
and exquisite petition, which appropriately closes our annotation 
on the theme which Beddome has put before us : 

" O God, who hast knit together all who have been baptized in the 
name of thy Son Jesus Christ into one mystical body, bless, we beseech 
thee, the one body of the one Lord. Carry each member of it safely 
through his appointed trial and discipline. Replenish it with all heavenly 
gifts and graces. Heal its dissensions and divisions. Let the power of 
Thy Spirit be manifest in all its holy offices and ministries ; that so taught 
and guided and governed by Thee, we may all come, in the unity of the 
faith and of the knovvledge of the Son of God. unto a perfect man, unto 
the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ. So shall we evermore 
ofifer unto Thy Holy Name the incense of true praise, through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. Amen." 

Let saints below in concert sing. — C. Wesley. 
This is a cento from Charles Wesley's long poem on the " An- 
ticipations of Eternity," and is found among the larger Funeral 
Hymns, 1759. The present piece begins with the second half of 
the first stanza, " Let all the saints terrestrial sing," etc. 

Let the Church new anthems raise. — Neale, tr. 
Dr. Neale made this translation from St. Joseph of the Studium, 
and it appears in Hymns of the Eastern Church, 1862. This is the 
t^v ispc^v a^Xocpopcov, " a Cento from the Canon for SS, 
Timothy and Maura ; May 3d." It has four stanzas. 



3i6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Let us awake our joys. — Kingsbury. 

The Rev. William Kingsbury is the author of this hymn and of 
that other which begins, " Great God, of all thy churches hear." 
These were contributed to Dobell s Collection, 1806, and we do not 
know that Mr. Kingsbury wrote more than these two pieces. 

He was born July 12th, 1744, in Bishopsgate Street, London. 
His early education was obtained at the Merchant Tailors' School, 
and at Christ's Hospital School. According to Dr. Belcher, he 
was a student at the college at Homerton also. Up to this time 
he had felt no special interest in religious things, but now the 
sublime allegory of grand old John Bunyan attracted him with 
mighty power, taught him his sin, and led him to the foot of the 
cross. It is recorded that on the 7th of October, 1760, he was 
*' filled with joy and peace in believing." 

He then pursued his studies for the ministry, and was ordained 
at the age of twenty-one. His forty-five years of pastoral life were 
spent in one pulpit, at Southampton, a place memorable for its as- 
sociation with the name of Isaac Watts. He also deserves to be 
remembered for his efficient benevolences, as well as for his long 
and prosperous pastorate. For he introduced Sunday-school in- 
struction at Southampton, and was present at the origin of the 
London Missionary Society. 

Dr. Morrison, who wrote the biography of the founders of that 
society, has given an account of the life of Mr. Kingsbury, its first 
chairman. 

From 1 800-1 809 he had the assistance in his pastorate of the 
Rev. George Clayton and the Rev. Henry Lacy. A paralytic stroke 
compelled his resignation, July 29th, 1809, and he retired to 
Caversham, near Reading, where he died, February i8th, 18 18. 
His biographer, Mr. Buller, tells us that he was confined to bed 
for only one day before his death. He suffered but little pain. 

" On the Sunday before he died, when his son said : ' How do you do, 
sir?' he replied, ' Well ; for I have peace with God.' He expressed an 
earnest wish to obtain his dismission, and frequently was heard to say : 
' When will he come ? Oh ! when will he come ? ' One of his attendants, 
supposing him to inquire after his son, Mr. Thomas Kingsbury, who was 
hourly expected from London, said : ' We look for him every minute.' 
He shook his head, saying : ' No, no ; when will my Beloved come? ' 
His senses were retained to the last moment of life. He kissed the hand 
of his affectionate and only remaining daughter ; he made a sign that his 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 317 

son Walter should offer prayer. During the prayer he raised his hands 
and eyes, drew a long breath, and gently expired." 

Let us love, and sing, and wonder. — Newton. 

This hymn is in the Ohiey Hymns, Book III., No. 82, and is 
entitled, " Praise for Redeeming Love." It has six stanzas, and 
there is a reference in the third to Rev. 2:10, and in the fourth 
to Rev. 5 : 9. 

When Isabella Graham was dying she quoted to her pastor. Dr. 
Mason, this hymn. It was one of her greatest favorites, and was 
sung at her funeral. Indeed, Dr. Mason made it the conclusion 
of his sermon. 

The law of God was compared by Rabbi Eleazar — so the 
Talmud relates — to an ox-goad. " The goad," he said, " causes 
the ox to draw a straight furrow, and a straight furrow brings forth 
plenty of food. So the law of God keeps man's heart straight, 
that it may bring forth fruit to life eternal." 

Let worldly minds the world pursue. — Newton. 
We find this in the OIney Hymns, Book III., No. 59, with the 
title, " Old Things are Passed Away." It has six stanzas. 

Let Zion and her sons rejoice. — Watts. 
, This is Dr. Watts' s version of Ps. 102, Second Part, C. M. , 
vv. 13-21 : " Prayer heard and Zion restored." It is in six 
stanzas. 

Life of the world ! I hail thee. — R, Palmer. 
We have here a translation from the Latin of St. Bernard of 
Clairvaulx, for whom see " The Latin Hymn-Writers and their 
Hymns. " It is the portion addressed to the feet of Christ — the 
entire hymn having reference to his crucified body. Dr. Palmer 
published this rendering in the Christian U?tion (N. Y. ), April 
13th, 1 88 1, in eight double stanzas. 

Lift up to God the voice of praise. — Wardlaw, 
The date assigned to this hymn, by Dr. Ralph Wardlaw, is 1803. 
This beautiful legend, which seems apposite to the present piece, 
comes from the Talmud : 

" When God was about to create man the angels gathered about Him. 
Some of them said : ' Create, O God, a being who shall praise Thee from 
earth, even as we sing Thy glory in the heavens.' But others said : ' O 



3i8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Almighty King, create no more ! Man will but destroy the glorious har- 
mony of the heavens.' 

"Then spoke the Angel of Mercy: 'O Father, create Thou man in 
Thine own image. Then will I fill his heart with heavenly pity and with 
sympathy for every living thing. Thus shall they praise Thee through 
him.' 

" Then spoke the Angel of Peace : ' O God, create him not. He shall 
disturb the peace of Thy earth. Bloodshed shall attend upon his steps. 
Thy justice shall be mocked in the midst of mankind.' 

" Then spoke the Angel of Justice : ' But Thou shalt judge him, O God, 
and he shall be subject unto my rule.' 

" And then appeared the Angel of Truth, saying ; ' Create him not ! 
For with him Thou sendest falsehood upon earth.' 

" Then all the angels were silent, and out of the depth of the majestic 
stillness came the Bath Kol — the marvellous Voice — and it said : ' Man 
shall be created, but thou, O Truth, must go with him to the earth. Be- 
tween earth and heaven thou shalt be the messenger. Thou shalt link 
man to us and us to him.' " 

Light of life, seraphic Fire. — C. Wesley. 
The title of this hymn is, " For those that wait for full Redemp- 
tion." It is from the Hymns and Sacred Poems, 1749. 

Light of the lonely pilgrim's heart. — Denny. 
Sir Edward Denny's hymns are mostly of a plaintive character. 
The present is one of the Millennial Hvmns, 1S39, and is in six" 
stanzas. Its title is, " The Heart Watching for the Morning," and 
it is headed by a quotation from Cowper's " Task " : 

" Thy saints proclaim thee King: and in their hearts 
Thy title is engraven with a pen 
Dipp'd in the fountain of eternal love." 

Light of those whose dreary dwelling. — C. Wesley. 

This piece is from the NafivHy Hymns, 1744, and is in three 
eight-line stanzas. 

Like sheep we went astray. — Watts. 
This is Hymn 142, Book L, "The Humiliation and Exalta- 
tion of Christ," and is first found, in six stanzas, after a sermon 
on Isa. 53 : 6-12. 

Lo ! God is here ! Let us adore ! — J. Wesley, Ir. 
Rev. John Wesley made this translation from the German of 
Gerhard Tersteegen, during the time of his Georgia voyage. He 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 319 

has recorded that the hymn expressed the peculiar circumstances of 
his Hfe at that period, and that he chose it for translation on this 
account. The original is based, no doubt, on the words of Jacob, 
Gen. 28 : 16, 17. It is the well-known " Gott ist gegenwdriig.'^ 
The change in the form of stanzas in the English rendering is 
due to the omission of the refrain with which Mr. Wesley originally 
closed each of them. 

It is related of two missionaries to India, Dr. Cope and Rev. Benjamin 
Clough, that the former once said to his companion : " My dear brother, 
I am dead to all but India." It was a thought which at once cheered the 
spirit of the young recruit, and he began to sing a stanza of this hymn, 
which, although now omitted from almost all the modern collections, is 
quite worthy of the rest : 

" Gladly the toys of earth we leave, 

Wealth, pleasure, fame, for thee alone : 
To thee our will, soul, flesh, we give, 

Oh, take, oh, seal them for thine own I 
Thou art the God, thou art the Lord ; 
Be thou by all thy works adored." 

So Mr: Clough sang on, and his aged friend joined heartily with him ; 
and with this prayer and song and covenant these devoted workers con- 
secrated themselves anew to the arduous task before them. 

Lo ! he comes, with clouds descending. — Cennick. 
The original hymn began, " Lo ! he cometh, countless trum- 
pets," and was published in a Dublin Collection of Sacred Hymns 
(fifth edition, 1752). In 1760 Madan combined two of Cennick's 
stanzas with three others from two hymns of Charles Wesley's 
Hymns of Intercession, 1758, and this mosaic now constitutes the 
usual form of the present piece. 

Lo ! what a glorious sight appears. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts has this as Hymn 21 of Book I., with the title, 
" Rev. 21 : 1-4. A Vision of the Kingdom of Christ among 
Men. " It is in six stanzas. 

Look to Jesus, till, reviving. — Mrs. Charles, ir. 
This is the hymn of Bishop Franzen, of Sweden, as taken from 
Mrs. Charles's Three Wakings, 1859, beginning with the second 
stanza. It had appeared in her Christian Life in Song, 1858. 
The first line in the original is, ' ' fesum haf i stdfidigt mimie, ' * 
' ' Jesus in thy memory keep. ' ' Franzen was bishop of Hernosand, 
but Mrs. Charles is incorrect when she states that he " died in 



320 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

i8i8, at the age of thirty-six. " The poet, Franz Michael Franzen, 
was born at UleSborg, in Finland, in 1772 ; educated at the Uni- 
versity of Abo, and there appointed to be Librarian and Pro- 
fessor of Literary History. He was subsequently given the living 
of Kumla, in the district of Orebro, in Sweden. In 1835 he was 
the incumbent of Santa Clara, in Stockholm. In 1841 he was 
made Bishop of Hernosand, where he died in 1847. 

His poetry appears in William and Mary YiowxX'C % LUeraiure and 
Romance of the North, with a critical review of the author's works. 

There is an excellent sketch of Swedish literature (and of his 
place therein) in Longfellow' sPotJA and Poetry of Europe ; and in 
the Supplement to that useful volume is a good biographical notice. 

Franzen had many of the peculiarities of Wordsworth and his 
associates of the Lake School. He is best known by his incom- 
plete epic, ' ' Gustavus Adolphus in Germany,' ' and by his lyric 
poems. 

Look, from thy sphere of endless day. — Bryant. 
This hymn was written by William Cullen Bryant in 1840, for 
the anniversary of a missionary society. It appears in his volume 
of hymns issued in 1864. 

Look, ye saints, the sight is glorious. — Kelly. 
Mr. Kelly's text of Scripture for this hymn is Rev. 11:15. It 
has four stanzas, and was first published in 1806. 

Lord, and Father, great and holy ! — F. W. Farrar. 

This, which is the single hymn of its author, so far as we are 
aware, has come into notice through that author's prominence 
rather than through any especial merit. It is accessible in the 
Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and has been revived by the visit of 
Archdeacon Farrar to America in September, 1885. 

Frederic William Farrar is the son of Rev. C. R. Farrar, rector 
of Sidcup, Kent, and was born, not as might be supposed, in Eng- 
land, but in the Fort, Bombay, August 7th, 1831. His education 
was received at King William's College in the Isle of Man, and 
afterward in King's College, London, where he was graduated 
from the University of London in 1850. His scholastic tendencies 
have been his chief characteristic, and it is an almost unique fact 
of his, or any career, that after his London education he proceeded 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 32 1 

additionally to Cambridge, where he became a Scholar and Fellow 
of Trinity College, and received the degree of B.A. in 1854. His 
poem, "The Arctic Regions," obtained the Chancellor's prize 
there, and he took other distinguished honors during his stay. 

His ecclesiastical history commenced with his diaconate in 
1854, and his ordination in 1857 by the Bishop of Ely. Under 
Dr. Vaughan he was a master at Harrow School, and was from 
1871 to 1876 the head-master of Marlborough College. His repu- 
tation as a preacher was caused by his sermons before the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge in 1868 — to which duty he was again chosen in 
1874. From 1869 to 1873 he was an honorary chaplain to the 
Queen. Since that date he has been one of the chaplains-in- 
ordinary. His canonry in Westminster Abbey was given him in 
April, 1876, and in addition he received the rectorship of St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster. On the 24th of April, 1883, he was promoted 
to be archdeacon of Westminster. 

Dr. Farrar has held a prominent place in public esteem owing 
to his brilliant rhetoric and unmistakable earnestness. His scholar- 
ship is voluminous, and though it has been sometimes attacked on 
the score of inaccuracy, it has maintained itself above reproach. 
Especially has controversy been excited by those original and re- 
markable volumes : The Life of Christ, 1874 ; Eternal Hope, 
1878 ; and the Life of St. Paul, 1879. The views of Dr. Farrar 
are very liberal. He inclines to the recognition of certain unusual 
doctrines, and these are always defended by him with vigor, and 
with great felicity and facility of quotation. He is also a strong 
advocate of the temperance cause. His Seekers after God, 1869, 
and Witness of History to Christ, 1871, did much to bring him 
into notice, and he is beloved in America for his sympathy with 
us in our Civil War and his funeral eulogy of General Grant. 

Archdeacon Farrar's hymn is sufficiently removed from ordinary 
reach to justify its reprint here : 

" Lord and Father, great and holy ! 
Fearing naught, we come to thee ; 
Fearing naught, though weak and lowly. 

For thy love has made us free. 
By the blue sky bending o'er us. 

By the green earth's flowery zone, 
Teach us, Lord, the angel chorus, 
' Thou art Love, and Love alone.' 



322 ENGLISH HYMiVS. 

" Though the worlds in flame should perish, 
Suns and stars in ruin fall, 
Trust in thee our hearts should cherish, 

Thou to us be all in all. 
And though heavens thy name are praising. 

Seraphs hymn no sweeter tone 
Than the strain our hearts are raising, 
' Thou art Love, and Love alone.' " 

Lord, as to thy dear cross we flee. — Gurney. 

This hymn, by Rev. John Hampden Gurney, appeared in his 
collection of Hymns /or Public Worship, 1838. The author was 
born August 15th, 1802, in Sergeant's Inn, Fleet Street, London, 
the son of Sir John Gurney, one of the Barons of the Court of 
Exchequer, He was graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge 
(B.A. 1824, M.A. 1828), and was made deacon in 1827, and 
priest in 1828. His first studies were in the law, but he soon pre- 
ferred the Gospel — and this from the heart. A man of high posi- 
tion, and large wealth, he devoted himself faithfully to the work of 
the ministry, until his death, March 8lh, 1862. 

His first curacy was Lutterworth, Leicestershire, where his rector 
was Rev. Robert Henry Johnson. This place was " the cradle of 
the Reformation where John Wickliffe (1324-1387) preached the 
Gospel, died, and was buried." Here Mr. Gurney remained, in 
spite of flattering offers, for fully seventeen years. He became 
rector of St. Mary's, Marylebone, in 1847 >* ^'^d was promoted 
by the Crown to the prebendary of St. Pancras, in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, in 1857. 

The Tract, Bible and Missionary causes found him a most 
efficient helper. His evangelical piety and large personal means 
made him a tower of strength to these societies. Among other 
benevolent actions, he edited and paid the cost of stereotyping 
Baxter s Family Book for the Religious Tract Society. Among his 
works, the Marylebone Hymns, 1851, contain his best memorial in 
the shape of thirteen excellent Christian lyrics of his own — so ad- 
mirable, indeed, as to suggest a deep regret that we have not more 
like them from the same pen. He evidently possessed that hymn- 
spirit without which no poet can make a spiritual song for the 
Church, and with which even coopers and seamstresses can take 
their place in the earthly choir of the Lord. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 323 

Mr. Gurnej's death caused widespread sorrow, and Dean Goul- 
burn paid him a notable tribute of honor and esteem in the funeral 
discourse. 

Lord, at this closing hour. — Fitch. 

Rev. Eleazar Thompson Fitch was born January ist, 1791, at 
New Haven, Conn., and entered Yale College in his sixteenth 
year, being graduated in 18 10. He then taught at East Windsor, 
Conn., and in the Hopkins Grammar School at New Haven. 
His course in theology was taken at Andover, 1812-1815 ; and in 
181 7, after pursuing advanced studies, he was selected to occupy 
the chair of Sacred Theology in Yale College, made vacant by the 
death of Dr. Timothy Dwight. This made him the college pastor 
in effect, and after the organization of the theological department 
he assumed the charge of Homiletics, and became pastor in fact, 
being ordained November 5th, 1817. He was a leading advocate 
of the so-called " New Haven theology," and defended his views 
on sin against the severer opinions of Dr. Ashbel Green, in 1827. 

Six of Dr. Fitch's hymns appeared in 1845, in the book prepared 
by a committee of the General Association (Congregational) of 
Connecticut, for use in their churches, he being one of the com- 
mittee. In 1852 he resigned his professorship, but lectured occa- 
sionally. This lectureship he also relinquished in 1861. He was 
then Professor Emeritus until his death, January 31st, 1871. 

Dr. Fitch was a man of singularly retiring and modest disposition, and 
has usually escaped the attention of the hymnologists. The present writer 
distinctly recalls the connection of thought in his own mind between this 
hymn as it stood in the Yale College collection and the aged man who sat 
in the south gallery of the old chapel, who frequently heard it announced 
and joined in his own petition for a blessing on the " word preached." 
He had a most benevolent face, gentle, and indicative of no controversial 
tendency whatever. He would occasionally preach, even at this late 
period of his life, and the sermons had features of interest which a stu- 
dent-audience (of all audiences the most impatient) did not altogether dis- 
dain. 

Lord, dismiss us with thy blessing, 

Bid us now depart in peace, — Hawker. 

The " long and short dismission hymns," as they are called, 
both begin with the same first line, a fact which has resulted in 
great confusion. The authorship of both was also unsettled, and 
it is only of late years that we are able to state that the present 



324 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

hymn should be ascribed to Hawker. We are now assured that its 
first appearance was in 1774, and that it is the composition of Rev. 
Robert Hawker, M.D., of Plymouth, England. He issued, in 
1794, a small volume of Psalms and Hymns, as sung by the chil- 
dren in the church of Charles the Martyr, at Plymouth. 

The author was born at Exeter, in 1753. He was an only child, 
and was educated to be a surgeon. At nineteen he married, and 
being induced by his love of God's work to enter the ministry, he 
was ordained at Oxford in 1778. In May, 1784, he became the 
curate of Charles the Martyr's church, and there continued to 
ofiSciate until his death, which occurred in his seventy-fourth year, 
April 6th, 1827, His funeral was attended by thousands of per- 
sons, for in his lifetime he was renowned as a controversial writer 
of the high Calvinistic order, and as a distinguished commentator 
on the Scriptures. 

Dr. Hawker was the grandfather of Robert Stephen Hawker, the 
eccentric " vicar of Morwenstow," whose oddities are so graphi- 
cally described by Rev. S. Baring-Gould. In that entertaining and 
unique volume we have a story which, although it has been seri- 
ously questioned on the score of accuracy, is still too attractive to 
be allowed to escape notice : 

■ " In Charles church the evening service always closed with the singing 
of the hymn. 'Lord, dismiss us with thy blessing.' composed by Dr. 
Hawker himself. His grandson did not know the authorship of the 
hymn ; he came to the doctor one day with a paper in his hand, and said : 
' Grandfather, I don't altogether like that hymn, " Lord, dismiss us with 
thy blessing ;" I think it might be improved in metre and language, and 
would be better if made somewhat longer.' 

" ' Oh, indeed !' said Dr. Hawker, getting red ; 'and pray, Robert, 
what emendations commend themselves to your precocious wisdom?' 
* This is my improved version,' said the boy, and read as follows : 

' " Lord, dismiss us with thy blessing, ' " May thy Spirit dwell within us ; 

High and low and rich and poor ; May its love our refuge be ; 

May we all, thy fear possessing, So shall no temptation win us 

Go in peace and sin no more ! From the path that leads to thee. 

' " Lord, requite not as we merit ; ' " So when these our lips shall wither. 

Thy displeasure all must fear ; So when fails each earthly tone. 

As of old, so let thy Spirit May we sing once more together 

Still the dove's resemblance bear. Hymns of glory round the throne ! " ' 

" Then Mr. Baring-Gould tells us that the audacious youngster actually 
read to his grandfather the original hymn, and added to his offences by 
the remark: 'This one is crude and flat; don't you think so, grand- 
father ? ' 



ENGLISH HYMIiS. 325 

" ' Crude and flat, sir ! Young puppy, it is viine ! /wrote that hymn.' 
" ' Oh ! I beg your pardon, grandfather, I did not know that ; it is a 

very nice hymn indeed ; but — but — ' and as he went out of the door — 

' mine is better.' " 

Lord, dismiss us with thy blessing, 

Fill our hearts with joy and peace. — Fawcett. 
G. J. Stevenson has the following notes on this hymn : 

" The first appearance of this hymn in print is traced to A Collection of 
Hymns for Public Worship, issued by the Rev. John Harris, of Hull, in 
1774. There the name of John Fawcett is printed at the end of it. A 
short time previously, some of Fawcett's hymns had appeared separately, 
and had met with public favor, some of them being added to collections. 
In 1782, Mr. Fawcett collected his compositions, and issued from Leeds 
the first edition of Hymns Adapted to the Circumstances of Public Worship 
and Private Devotion. This book was soon out of print, and remained so 
more than thirty years ; the second edition was issued in 1817. This dis- 
mission hymn is inserted in Dr. Conyers's collection, date 1774, but with- 
out the author's name ; and in Taylor's Unitarian Hymn Book ijTTl) the 
first and second verses are printed with the name of Fawcett in the index. 
For half a century his hymns were popular among the Dissenters. . . . 

" It should be recorded that Dr. Fawcett did not include this dismission 
hymn in either of the editions of his own collected hymns, and he also ex- 
cluded other hymns which he had printed with his name and address 
(several in the Gospel Magazine) when he wrote them. There is a hymn- 
book in the college library at Richmond, published in 1785, in which this 
hymn appears with the name of J. Fawcett to it. This is the earliest 
known date of its publication. The last two lines of the second verse are 
altered from the original. Two verses of this hymn, with diiiferent ending, 
appear on the same page of A Collectioji of Hymns, Anthems, <^c., used in 
St. Clement's Church, Manchester, by Rev. Edward Smyth, 1793. ' Lord, 
dismiss us,' is also in Toplady's Psalms and Hymns, 1776, ending thus : 

' We shall surely 
Reign with Christ in endless day.' 
This hymn appears in A Collection of Psalms and Hymns, etc., by the Rev. 
David Simpson, M.A., the second edition, Macclesfield, 1780. 'A New 
Edition ' of Select Psalms and Hyimis, Macclesfield, 1795, contains both 
these hymns." 

The hymn is in Lady Huntingdon's CoIIeclmi, and Dobell also 
includes it under the line, " Lord, vouchsafe to us thy blessing," 
crediting it to Taylor's Collection. 

Lord God of Hosts, by all adored. — Anon. 
It would be a singular exercise of the critical faculty in hym- 
nology, if we were to dissect this hymn into its original elements. 



326 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

A portion of it is the work of Josiah Conder ; another part is the 
composition of Bishop John Gambold ; and there is abundant 
evidence that the piece as it now stands is made up from several 
renderings of the ancient Te Dcwn, and has taken its present 
shape in consequence of the adaptation of the words to the music 
to which it is set, and the gradual poHshing produced by the de- 
mands of an accurate taste. 

For example, the line, " Thou Father of eternity," as well as 
the whole of the fifth stanza, can be found in the Moraviati Hymn- 
Book, edition of 1789, where they are well authenticated as the 
production of Bishop Gambold. One of the earliest and quaintest 
of English translations of the Te Deum is printed, in connection 
with their rendering of the Psalms, by Sternhold and Hopkins. It 
has many strong and excellent phrases, and the familiar piece, " O 
God, we praise thee, and confess," is undoubtedly much indebted 
to it. That hymn is generally recognized as really the best English 
form of the Latin anthem, and is commonly ascribed to the neb- 
ulous " Bishop Patrick," though there seem to be some reasons 
why it should be credited to Nahum Tate. 

Lord God, the Holy Ghost. — Montgomery. 
In the Original Hymns this is No. 136, in three stanzas, " The 
Descent of the Spirit. — Acts 2 : 1-4." 

Lord, how mysterious are thy ways. — Steele. 
In the P 067715 by Theodosia, 1760, this hymn, in five stanzas, is 
styled " The Mysteries of Providence." 

Lord, how secure and blest are they. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts' s Hymn 57, of Book II., " The Pleasures of 
a Good Conscience." It has six stanzas. 

Lord, I am come ! thy promise is my plea. — Newton. 
The opening line of this hymn in the Ohiey Hym7ts (Book III., 
No. II, six stanzas) is, " Cheer up, my soul, there is a mercy-seat. " 
It is entitled " The Effort," and is the companion of the more cele- 
brated hymn, " Approach, my soul, the mercy-seat." 

Lord, I am thine, entirely thine. — Davies. 
The date of this piece (now before us in the original publication) 
is about 1 769. Its author was Rev. Samuel Davies, at one time 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 327 

president of Princeton College, where he succeeded Jonathan Ed- 
wards. He was born in Newcastle, Delaware, November 3d, 1724 ; 
licensed to preach by his native Presbytery of Newcasde, 1745, and 
ordained to the ministry in Virginia 1747. His education had 
been due to the discrimination of Rev. William Robinson, of the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick, in which Princeton is situated, and 
he was naturally selected by the trustees of the college in 1753 to 
visit England with Rev. Gilbert Tennent and solicit funds. His 
appointment to the presidency was in 1759, but his death occurred 
February 4th, 1 761. It is mentioned as a singular fact that he had 
commenced the year by preaching from the text, " This year thou 
shalt die." Dr. Davies was a man of distinguished ability and 
largely influential. His poetry, as well as his prose, is highly cred- 
itable. There are few hymns of consecration which are finer than 
the one before us. In a sermon preached August 17th, 1755, 
Dr. Davies called attention to the distinguished merits of ' ' that 
heroic youth, ' ' the young Colonel George Washington, and spoke 
of him as divinely preser\'ed " for some important service to his 
country " — a prediction which was signally fulfilled. 

There is now in possession of the present writer a fine copy of 
Gibbons s Hymns, 1769, bearing the autograph of " D. Turner" — a 
duplicate from the library of Princeton Theological Seminary — 
which he owes to the kindness of Rev. W. H. Roberts, D. D., the 
librarian. It contains the hymns of President Davies, printed by 
Thomas Gibbons, D.D., in connection with his own, and a few 
other verses. Those assigned to our author are : 

" O was my heart but form'd for Woe." 
" Lord, I am thine, entirely thine." 
" Eternal Spirit, Source of Light." 
" Welcome to Earth, Great Son of God !" 
"Jesus, how precious is thy Name." 
"Yes, I must bow my Head and die." 
" How great, how terrible that God !" 
" While in a thousand open'd veins." 
" While o'er our guilty Land, O Lord." 
" While various rumors spread abroad." 

[These two just previous are on Braddock's defeat, and were printed in connection 
with two discourses from Amos 3 : 1-6 in the year 1756.] 

" Great God of wonders ; all thy Ways." 
" Weak in myself, and burden'd too." 

In his preface Dr. Gibbons says : 



328 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" The pieces in the following miscellany ascribed to the Rev. Mr. Davies 
were found in his Manuscripts intrusted with the Editor, from which, if he 
may be allowed the Digression, he has already printed Three Volumes of 
Discourses, and has proposed to the Public to publish Two more Volumes 
for the Benefit of Mr. Davies's Family." 

The hymn before us is in seven stanzas, and has been very 
slightly changed in process of years. It is entitled " Self-dedica- 
tion at the Table of the Lord." 

Lord, I cannot let thee go. — Newton. 
In the Olney Nymns, Book I., No. lo, this begins, " Nay, I 
cannot let thee go, " and has seven stanzas, based on Gen. 32 : 27. 

Lord, I hear of showers of blessing. — Codner, 
This hymn was written by Mrs. Elizabeth Codner, a clergy- 
man's wife, of Islington, London, and published as a leaflet in 
1 86 1. Mrs. Codner is identified with the Mildmay Park Con- 
ference Hall and its work. She says of her hymn that it was com- 
posed after hearing of the revival work in Ireland, and that frequent 
tidings of its use have come to her. It was pasted on the fly-leaf 
of his Bible, by an English officer in India, and was received at 
home after his death. Its history in revival services has been that 
the " Even me" of its chorus has expressed our Saviour's promise 
to ' ' save to the uttermost ' ' those who accept his love. 

Lord ! in the morning thou shalt hear. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts gives this as his rendering of Ps. 5, C. M., " For the 
Lord's Day Morning." It has eight stanzas. 

Lord ! in love and mercy save us. — Symington. 
This hymn is obtained from Songs of Grace and Glory, where it 
is credited to Andrew J. Symington, 1869, one of the minor Eng- 
lish poets. He is the nephew of Andrew Symington, D.D,, and 
the son of Robert Brown Symington, of Paisley, Scotland, where 
he was born, July 27th, 1825, His education was received at the 
Grammar School of Paisley, from which he entered at once into 
business life with his father and brother. He has published Hare- 
bell Chimes, 1848, Genevieve, and Other Poems, 1855, and a more 
elaborate treatise, The Beautiful in Nature, Art and Life, 1857, to- 
gether with later works of moderate value. This information 
comes from a work on distinguished Scotchmen of the present day, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 329 

written and published in Paisley, and is therefore likely to be cor- 
rect. It is the only publication which materially aids us in our 
knowledge of the author's history. 

Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well. — Pollock, 
This hymn is found in Ly7-a Hibeniica Sacra, second edition, 
1879. It fell under the eye of the present writer, who brought it 
to the notice of Dr. Robinson, and it was inserted in Laudes 
Domini (with the omission of the fourth stanza, which is inapt and 
prosaic) precisely as it stood. The lines are, for convenience, 
printed two in one. After much examination of music and the 
rejection of different tunes, original and adapted, the choice fell 
on " Dirge," composed to these words by Colonel H. H. Beadle, 
organist of the South Congregational church, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Rev. William Pollock, D.D., was born April 2 2d, 1812 ; 
was vicar of Bowden, Cheshire, 1856, archdeacon of Chester, 
1867, and died October nth, 1873. 

Lord, in this thy mercy's day. — I. Williams. 

The Rev. Isaac Williams was born in 1802, the son of Isaac 
Lloyd Williams, Esq., barrister of Lincoln's Inn. He received 
the prize for Latin verse at Trinity College, Oxford, in 1823, and 
was graduated there (B.A., 1826, M.A., 1831, and B.D., 1839). 
He was ordained deacon in 1829, and priest in 183 1, and the 
clerical lists give his appointments as Windrush, 1829, St. Mary 
Virgin, Oxford, 1832, and Bisley, Gloucestershire, 1842-45. 
Mr. Miller says he was in poor health for many years, living in 
his own house at Stinchcombe, near Dursley, Gloucestershire, and 
occasionally assisting his brother-in-law, the Rev, Sir George 
Prevost, Bart. 

Other items of interest regarding Mr. Williams are that he was 
a candidate for the professorship of poetry at Oxford on the retire- 
ment of Keble, but failed ; and that he wrote Nos. 80, 86, and ^'j 
of the famous "Tracts for the Times." His poems and hymns 
are scattered through several volumes. He is best known by The 
Cathedral, or the Catholic and Apostolic Church iji England, 1838 ; 
and by Thoughts in Past Years, 1831 (sixth edition, 1852), and 
The Baptistery, 1844 — which contain many of his hymns. In the 
second of these volumes he gives versions of the twelve hymns as- 
signed (not always correctly) by the Benedictines, to Ambrose. 



33° ENGLISH HYMNS. 

In the third appears the present piece, which is part of a poem of 
one hundred and five stanzas. He also, in 1839, issued Hymns 
from the Parisian Breviary. Mr. Williams contributed to Lyra 
Apostolica, 1836, and was at one time a Fellow of Trinity College. 
He died at Stinchcombe, May ist, 1865. 

Lord, it belongs not to my care. — Baxter. 

This is part of a longer composition, given in Richard Baxter's 
Poetical Fragments, 1681. It is included in the volume of his 
poems edited by his friend, Matthew Sylvester, in 1692. A copy 
of this rare and interesting work is in the library of the Union 
Theological Seminary, New York City. 

There are eight double stanzas to the present piece. It is en- 
tided "The Covenant and Confidence of Faith," and has this 
note appended to it : " This Covenant my dear Wife in her former 
Sickness subscribed with a chearful will. Job 12.26." The 
first line of the hymn commences, " My whole though broken 
heart, O Lord," and this portion of it has " Now it belongs not to 
my care' ' instead of the usual first line. 

The life of Richard Baxter is so much a part of our accessible 
religious history that it needs but little extended notice from us. 
Born November 12th, 161 5, at Rowton, in Shropshire, he took 
orders in the Church of England and was appointed in 1640 to the 
parish of Ividderminster. His attachment was always to the Puritan 
party, and his name is illustrious among Nonconformists. On 
the passage of the Act of Uniformity he surrendered his charge at 
Kidderminster and lived in retirement from 1663 to 1672. In 
this latter year the promulgation of the Act of Indulgence enabled 
him to vicit London, where he spent his time partly in preaching 
and partly in authorship. In 1685 the infamous Judge Jeffreys 
condemned him to prison or a fine of five hundred marks, on a 
charge of sedition based upon \\\s Paraphrase 0/ the New Testament. 
This confinement he sustained with exemplary patience, and after 
eighteen months he was pardoned and released. He died Decem- 
ber 8th, 1 69 1, in his seventy-fifth year. 

To take in one's hand the little book whence these verses come, 
and then to go and gaze upon the stately files of volumes which 
owed their existence to this good man's untiring industry, is like 
walking with the saints in white. Few sweeter or lovelier charac- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. ' 331 

ters can be discovered. It is to his honor that he was an early ad- 
vocate of missionary labor among the North American Indians, 
and that men like Matthew Henry and Matthew Sylvester were 
proud of his friendship. Dr. Samuel Johnson said of his works : 
' ' Read them all ; they are all good. ' ' And George MacDonald 
properly proclaims him as "no mean poet." 

Richard Baxter was indeed one of the most industrious men in 
literature. He produced twenty-three octavo volumes of practical 
writings, such as, Barrow says, were never surpassed ; forty more 
of controversy and personal history ; his Ca/l to the Uiicoiiverted 
circulated twenty thousand copies in its first year ; his works em- 
brace one hundred and sixty-eight titles ; and when he died, in 
Charter House Yard, 1691, he reckoned among his friends many 
of the greatest men of his time. 

At Kidderminster, in 1640, his labors were interrupted for six- 
teen years by the Civil War, in which he sided with Parliament. 
But he distrusted Cromwell, and was grieved at the narrow views 
of some of the other leaders. It was in those days," when the coun- 
try was distracted, when the Church was rent and torn, and when 
his own health was so feeble that two men were accustomed to sup- 
port him both into and in the pulpit, that he wrote the Saints' 
Everlasting Rest. Across all the noises of the time he hears the 
sound of the praises of the eternal city, and his words are like those 
of one nearly disembodied and longing to depart. 

" Weakness and pain," he said to Anthony a' Wood, " helped 
me to study how to die ; that set me on studying how to live, and 
that on studying the doctrine from which I must fetch my motives 
and comforts ; beginning with necessities, I proceeded by 
degrees, and am now going to see that for which I have lived and 
studied." "When his sleep was intermitted or removed in the 
night," says Matthew Sylvester, in his preface, "he then sang 
much, and relished this course and practice greatly well." 

" Baxter's visage," writes Christophers, " would, of course, be true to 
its mission. A remarkable visage was that of his ; never to be forgotten 
if once seen. Long it was, but decided. Hard, some would say, but 
telling with fearful eloquence how bravely his righteous soul maintained 
a life struggle against the acrid humors of a diseased body ; how super- 
human labors for the world's health had been continued amidst losses of 
blood and daily sweats, brought upon him, he tells us, by the 'acrimonious 
medicaments ' of stupid doctors who thought to save him from the effects 



332 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

of a youthful taste for sour apples, by overdoses of ' scurvy grass,' worm- 
wood-beer, horse-radish, and mustard ! He looked, indeed, like one who, 
as a last remedy for a depressing affliction, had literally swallowed ' a gold 
bullet of thirty shillings' weight,' and, having taken it, ' knew not how to 
be delivered of it again ! ' With all this, the marks of a confessor were 
traceable on the good man's countenance. He had been driven from 
place to place. Now in prison for preaching at Acton ; now kept out of 
his pulpit by a military guard ; now seized again, and his goods and 
books sold to pay the fine for preaching five sermons — he being so ill that 
he could not be imprisoned without danger of death ; and now, again, in 
the King's Bench under a warrant from the villainous Jeftreys, for writing 
a paraphrase on the New Testament. His later life was often ' in peril ' 
for Christ's sake ; and there must have been something deeply touching 
in that impress of dignified sorrow which brought tears into the eyes of 
Judge Hale when he saw the persecuted man standing before the Bench. 
His presence must have been felt wherever he appeared. Everybody who 
knew him acknowledged his mental and moral grandeur." 

Let US add to these testimonies and to this description Baxter's 
own words as to his poetical desires and the exercise of this one of 
his spiritual gifts : 

" I have made a psalm of praise in the holy assembly the chief delight- 
ful exercise of my religion and my life, and have helped to bear down all 
the objections which I have heard against church music, and against the 
149th and 150th Psalms." 

Take also this prayer from The Saints Everlasting Rest : 

" O Thou, the merciful Father of Spirits, the attractive of love and ocean 
of delight ! draw up these drossy hearts unto Thyself, and keep them 
there till they are spiritualised and refined ! Second Thy servant's weak 
endeavors and persuade those that read these lines to the practice of this 
delightful, heavenly work ! Oh ! suffer not the soul of Thy most un- 
worthy servant to be a stranger to those joys which he describes to 
others ; but keep me while I remain on earth in daily breathing after Thee, 
and in a believing, affectionate walking with Thee. And when Thou 
comest let me be found so doing ; not serving my flesh, nor asleep with 
my lamp unfurnished, but waiting and longing for my Lord's return. Let 
those who shall read these pages, not merely read the fruit of my studies, 
but the breathing of my active hope and love ; that if my heart were 
open to their view, they might there read Thy love most deeply engraven 
with a beam from the face of the Son of God ; and not find vanity or 
lust or pride within where the words of life appear without ; so that these 
lines may not witness against me ; but, proceeding from the heart of the 
writer, may be effectual, through its grace, upon the heart of the reader, 
and so be the savor of life to both." 

" Baxter was a singularly happy man," wrote Rev. William 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 333 

Orme, his biographer, iw 1830. " He tells us that he knew noth- 
ing of low spirits or nervous depression, notwithstanding all his 
bodily sufferings. His hopes of heaven and its blessedness were 
rarely clouded from the beginning to the end of his Christian 
course. " 

Nor are incidents lacking to prove the value of this particular 
hymn. Professor Clark Maxwell, of Cambridge, frequently quoted 
it in his last illness. A man of great scientific learning, he came 
back to the perfect trust which could say : 

" But 'tis enough that Christ knows all 
And I shall be with him." 

Lord, it is thy holy day. — Anon., 1S63. 
This is No. 1133 in the Hytnnologia Christiana o{ Rev. Benjamin 
Hall Kennedy, D. D., London, 1863. The volume, with its dis- 
appointing blankness as to authors, can be consulted in the Astor 
Library. 

Lord, lead the way the Saviour went, — Crosswell. 

This hymn is by the Rev. William Crosswell, D. D., who was 
born at Hudson, N. Y., in 1804 ; graduated at Yale College in 
1823, and was successively rector of Christ church, Boston, St. 
Peter's, Auburn, N. Y., and the Church of the Advent, Boston, 
where he died in 1851. His Poevis : Sacred and Secular, were 
published in 1861. The circumstances of his death were very 
affecting. While engaged in the afternoon service, instead of ris- 
ing from his knees at the close of the last collect, he was observed 
to sink to the floor. Being removed to his own house, he shortly 
expired. 

The hymn in question was written for an anniversary of the 
Howard Benevolent Association of Boston, 1831. It appears in 
Lyra Sacra Americana, in two double stanzas, with the title, " For 
Visitors of the Sick." Dr. Crosswell was a friend of the first 
Bishop Doane, who dedicated to him an edition of Keble's Chris- 
tian Year. 

Lord, my weak thought in vain would climb. — Palmer. 
Dr. Ray Palmer wrote this hymn in 1858, and based it upon 
Rom. II : -^i. At that time the author was in the midst of an 
experience of great personal suffering — an attack of sciatica — which 



334 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

rendered him almost helpless. The verses express sentiments of 
the highest grandeur and of deepest trust. In the history of this 
venerable man there have been repeated periods of quick coming, 
and swift passing, of severe discipline. We who receive these 
treasures of spiritual song can well afford to pity the pain, and at 
the same time rejoice in the fruits of the grace that grew out of it. 

Lord of all being, throned afar. — Holmes. 

Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes with this hymn closed The Professor 
at the Breakfast Table, in the Aihmtic Monthly for December, 1859, 
He called it a " Sun -day Hymn," and it was very soon employed, 
with the author's permission, in a collection prepared for the 
Methodist Protestant denomination. 

Dr. Holmes writes : 

" And so my year's record is finished. The Professor has talked less 
than his predecessor \^The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table^ but he has 
heard and seen more. Thanks to all those friends who from time to time 
have sent their messages of kindly recognition and fellow-feeling. Peace 
to all such as may have been vexed in spirit by any utterance the pages 
have repeated. They will doubtless forget for the moment the difference 
in the lines of truth we look at through our human prisons, and join in 
singing (inwardly) this hymn to the Source of the light we all need to 
lead us, and the warmth which alone can make us all brothers." 

Then follows this beautiful lyric. 

Lord of all worlds, incline thy bounteous ear. — Dwight, 
This is Ps. 53, " as the new 50th," in Dwight' s Collection, 
1800, -where it has six stanzas of six lines each. It is called there 
a " Prayer for the Latter-day Glory," and the note prefixed reads : 
' ' The last verse paraphrased, together with several passages from 
Isaiah, Malachi, and St. Paul." 

The origin of D-wight's Collection is of historic interest in view of the 
relations existing between the Presbyterian and Congregational churches 
at that date. The General Association of Connecticut requested Dr. 
Timothy Dwight, in the year 1797, to " revise Dr. Watts's imitation of 
the Psalms of David, so as to accommodate them to the state of the 
American churches, and to supply the deficiency of those Psalms which 
Dr. Watts has omitted." There was a resolution passed in 1799 by the 
Association, desiring " the advice and concurrence of the General Assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States in this important 
business." In consequence, a joint committee was appointed, consisting 
of John Rodgers, John Smalley, Cyprian Strong and Isaac Lewis for the 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 335 

Presbyterians, and Joseph Strong, Asa Hillyer, Jr., and Jonathan Free- 
man for theCongregationalists. This committee met at Stamford, Conn., 
June loth, 1800, and approved Dr. D wight's revision of Watts' s psalms. 
They also recommended him to select such hymns " from Dr. Watts, Dr. 
Doddridge and others, and annex them to his edition of the Psalms as 
shall furnish the churches with a more extensive system of psalmody." 
Owing to this action the use of many of these lyrics was localized in the 
American churches of the Presbyterian and Congregational order. But 
the Presbyterians were not less generous than their brethren, for, in 1798, 
they already had the same subject before them, and postponed all action 
pending the revision undertaken in Connecticut. 

Lord of earth, thy forming hand. — Grant. 
This hymn is from the volume of Sir Robert Grant's poems, 
posthumously published by his elder brother, Lord Glenelg. 
There are but twelve of these hymns, and this appears in three 
twelve-line stanzas, reprinted in Lyra Britaniiica from the original 
edition. The current form of the hymn is produced by the omis- 
sion, from the first and second stanzas, of the middle quatrain, 
and of the whole of the third stanza. 

Lord of glory, thou hast bought us. — Mrs. Alderson, 
This hymn was composed by Mrs. Eliza Sibbald (Dykes) Alder- 
son, who contributed it to the Appendix to Hymns, Ana'eni and 
Modern, 1868. She is doubtless a member of the Church of Eng- 
land, but further information is lacking. 

Lord of mercy and of might. — Heber. 

Bishop Reginald Heber has a sure renown in several ways. He 
was truly a poet, as his Palestine denotes. He was a dignitary of 
the Church of England, who employed his high office for the 
worthiest ends. He was a traveller, ^NhosQ Journey Through India, 
published in 1828, showed what fine powers of observation and 
reflection he possessed. He was filled with genuine missionary 
zeal, as his religious work and his immortal lyric, " From Green- 
land's icy mountains," alike testify. And, to crown all, he is one 
of the most graceful, spiritual and effective of English hymn- 
writers. 

Born at Malpas, Cheshire, April 21st, 1783, he was the second 
son of Rev. Reginald Heber, a man of wealth and learning, and 
the co-rector of Malpas with Dr. Townson. His elder brother, 
Richard Heber, was a great book-collector, who accumulated a 



336 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

hundred and fifty thousand volumes. Thus the young Reginald 
had every opportunity that education could afford. He early dis- 
played his literary skill, and versified Phaedrus at seven years of 
age. Entering Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1800, he gained 
the Chancellor's prize, for the best Latin poem, in his first year ; 
and in 1803 he obtained the prize for English poetry, with his 
Palestine. At his graduation he took a third prize for the best 
prose essay, with his Sefise of Honor. Naturally he became a 
Fellow of All Souls' College as the result of this brilliant career. 

In 1807, his brother Richard presented him with the living of 
Hodnet, of which place Julius Charles Hare has somewhat to say 
in his Memorials of a Quiet Life, since he was the cousin of INIrs. 
Heber, and often a guest at the rectory. April, 1822, brought 
to him the preachership of Lincoln's Inn, London, which added 
six hundred pounds to his income. In January, 1823, he was 
appointed Bishop of Calcutta. Thither he sailed, there he 
labored, and there, April 3d, 1826, he died. He had returned to 
his home one day, somewhat heated, having attended an early con- 
firmation ceremony. There he was attacked by apoplexy when he 
was in a cold bath. His servant, alarmed at his delay, opened 
the door and found him dead. 

The present hymn first appeared in the Christian Observer for 
November, 181 1. It is assigned, in the collection of 1827. to 
Quinquagesima Sunday, where the Gospel for the day gives an ac- 
count of the healing of the blind Bartimeus. 

Lord of our life and God of our salvation. 

— Herbert and Pusey, /r. 

The date assigned to this hymn is commonly given as 1856. It 
appeared in the Salisbury Hynm-Book. It is there said to be a 
translation from a Latin hymn of the eighth century, made in 
1859, by Algernon Herbert, aided by Pliilip Pusey and " others." 
There is no clew to the original. Philip Pusey was born January 
25th, 1799, and died July 9th, 1855. Oneof Algernon Herbert's 
pieces [1839] is No. 'i>^'^ in the Book of Praise. 

Lord of the harvest, hear. — C. Wesley. 
There is a hymn by Professor Joseph Anstice, often attributed to 
Keble, which commences, " Lord of the har\'est, once again," 
and with which this must not be confused. The present piece is 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 337 

founded on Matt. 9:38, and is from the Hynms aiid Sacred Poems, 
1742. It is entitled " A Prayer for Laborers." 

Lord of the worlds above. — Watts. 

In Dr. Watts's version of the Psalms this is Ps. 84, P. M. , 
" Longing for the House of God." It has four stanzas, and first 
appeared in 171 9. 

Dear old George Herbert when he comes to speak of " The 
Parson on Sundays," aptly says : 

"His thoughts are full of making the best of the day and contriving it 
to his best gains. To this end, besides his ordinary prayers, he makes a 
peculiar one for a blessing on the exercise of the day. . . . Then he 
turns to request for his people that the Lord would be pleased to sanctify 
them all, that they may come with holy hearts and awful minds [minds 
full of awe] into the congregation, and that the good God would pardon 
all those who came with less prepared hearts than they ought. 

" As he opened the day with prayer, so he closeth it, humbly beseech- 
ing the Almighty to pardon and accept our poor services, and to improve 
them that we may grow therein, and that our feet may be like hinds' feet 
ever climbing up higher and higher unto Him." 

Lord of the hearts of men. — Woodford, tr. 
The Rev. James Russell Woodford, D. D., was the late Bishop 
of Ely. He was born at Henley-on-Thames, April 30th, 1820, 
and after a preparatory training at the Merchant Tailors' School 
he was sent to Cambridge and entered Pembroke College, being 
graduated there in 1842. 

He was an excellent scholar, and obtained several honors during 
his course. In 1843 he was ordained as deacon, and two years 
later as priest. Dr. Woodford has been rector of St. Mark's, 
Easton, 1847-55, of Kempsford, Gloucestershire, 1855-68, and 
of Leeds from that date until his elevation to the episcopate. He 
was consecrated as Bishop of Ely, December 14th, 1873. The 
revenue of this diocese is $27,500. On the 24th of October, 
1885, after a short illness, he laid down his earthly work. 

Dr. Woodford has written a number of hymns which Miller 
characterizes as "solid and good." Of these, some, like the 
present piece, are renderings from the Latin. This, for example, 
is the " Supreme motor corJitim," a hymn from the Paris Breviary. 
It is found in Newman's Hymtti EcclesicB, and there is information 
about the breviary and its writers in " The Latin Hymn- Writers 



SS^ ENGLISH HYMNS. 

and their Hymns." This translation was contributed to The 
Parish Hymn- Book, 1863. 

" Dr. Woodford was the close friend of Bishop Wilberforce ; and when 
the latter was once asked who was the best preacher in England he re- 
sponded instantly, ' Woodford ; that is — he is the second best ! ' Dr. 
Woodford was appointed to the living at Leeds through the advice of 
Wilberforce. Mr. Disraeli offered the place to Canon Lloyd, a co-chap- 
lain with Woodford of Bishop Wilberforce — the ' tandem Lloyd ' as he 
was called in Buckinghamshire. Canon Lloyd went down to the great 
Yorkshire borough, and on his way to Downing Street to decline the liv- 
ing, met the Bishop of Oxford, who said : ' What is your decision ? ' ' I am 
too old by ten years for such a work,' was the reply, ' and I am on my 
way to Mr. Disraeli to decline the living.' ' Recommend Woodford,' said 
the bishop. The advice was taken." 

Lord, remove the veil away. — Findlater, tr. 

This is taken from Hymns from the Land of Luther, page 219, 
fourth series, 1862. The original is the ' ' Zeige dich tins ohtte Hillle' ' 
of Klopstock. The Scripture text annexed to it is Rev. i : 10. 
It is a " Sabbath Hymn," and appears in four eight-Hne stanzas. 
The translation is considered to be by Mrs. Eric Findlater, the 
sister of Miss Borthwick. 

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock was born at Quedlinberg, July 
2d, 1724. At thirteen years of age he attended the gymnasium — 
or high-school — in Mansfield; and in 1739 he went to Schul- 
pforte, where he pursued classical studies and became acquainted 
with the works of Tasso and Milton. This influence determined 
him to essay an epic poem himself. In fact, his Messiah, 1746, 
bears the same relation to the grander Faust of Goethe that Pol- 
lock's Course of Time bears to Milton's Paradise Lost, or Tasso's 
Jerusalem Delivered bears to Dante's Inferno. Miller very keenly 
and justly remarks that the Messiah " has been more praised than 
read ;" which remark is also true of the Course of Time. How- 
ever, Klopstock' s poem was at first quite popular. A young friend 
named Schmidt had carried it off, and it appeared anonymously in 
the volume entitled Contributions, 1748. Thus the author grew 
famous, and in 1751 Count Bernstoff, the prime minister of Den- 
mark, invited him to reside at Copenhagen, finish his great poem, 
and enjoy a pension of four hundred thalers while he was thus em- 
ployed. At Hamburg, when he was upon this journey northward, 
Klopstock encountered a bright and intelligent girl, Meta Moller, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 339 

a merchant's daughter, and one who was a correspondent of 
Richardson, the novehst, and Young, the poet. This acquaint- 
ance brought about a marriage, June loth, 1754- But after four 
years of happiness the bride died, and for the next nine years poor 
Klopstock seems like a man dazed, and with his song struck from 
his hps. What he wrote was ahnost entirely religious, and to 
this grief of his life we are indebted for the hymns which he has 
left to the Christian Church. He was between thirty and forty 
years of age, and resided mainly in Count Bernstoff's house dur- 
ing this gloomy period of his career. 

About the year 1770 he took up his abode in Hamburg, at that 
time a noted literary centre. Here he became, as Miss Winkworth 
puts it, "a kind of Dr. Johnson" — revered and esteemed by all, 
and not so gruff to anybody as was the Englishman to some. At 
length, in this congenial atmosphere he completed the Messiah in 
1773. Ten cantos only had been achieved when his wife, Meta, 
was taken away ; but now the entire history of redemption was 
written. At Hamburg he was living in the house of one Von 
Winthem, who had married Meta's niece. In 1792 he himself 
married this lady, who had for some time been a widow. He died 
as a Christian should, in the peace of the Gospel, March 14th, 
1803. He wrote much, but the finest of his productions are his 
odes. 

Lord, that I may learn of thee. — J. Berridge. 

A more eccentric or earnest man than John Berridge it would 
not be easy for us to discover. He was the son of a rich farmer, 
born at Kingston, Nottinghamshire, March ist, 171 6, and became 
vicar of Everton in 1755. He published his Zioii s Songs in 
1785, and died on the 22d of January, 1793. These are the brief 
outlines of an energetic and eventful life. 

Young John had his education at Clare Hall, Cambridge, be- 
cause his father found it of no use to tie him to the plough, and so 
sent him forth to be, as he declared, a " light to the Gentiles," 
His conversion was due to one of his boy friends and to the pious 
exhortations of a tailor who was often employed about the house. 
But although he was graduated and entered regularly on his 
theological duties he lacked something vital in his preaching. At 
length he discovered what it was, and when he had known the way 
of salvation by faith his sermons at once became a power of 



34° ENGLISH HYMNS. 

righteousness. His neiglibor, Rev. Mr. Hicks, was one of his 
new adherents, and in the month of November, 1758, John Wes- 
ley happened along and was swept into the current of this marvel- 
lous work of grace. He and the vicar of Everton became warm 
friends, and the account in Wesley's journals of what he saw and 
heard reads almost like romance. Fully four thousand persons 
were brought to a knowledge of the saving power of the Gospel in 
about twelve months. 

And now Berridge was in his element. He had a mighty voice 
and a robust constitution, and he rode down and rode out all 
manner of persecution. For nearly thirty years his enemies called 
him "the old devil." But in the midst of amazing success he 
was always humble and sincere. " Do you know Berridge ?" he 
was asked by a stranger, who did not recognize him. " He is a 
troublesome, good-for-nothing fellow, they tell me." " Yes, I 
know him," Berridge said, " and I assure you half his wickedness 
has not been told. " When this wicked wretch eventually ascended 
the pulpit and preached, his inquiring friend was stupefied. " Is 
it possible !" he cried. " Can you forgive me } Will you admit 
me to your house ?" " Yes, and to my heart," said the bluff old 
evangelist. 

Berridge was full of mirth and good humor, and had a peculiar 
quaint wit of his own. In one of his controversial papers he de- 
clares the doctrine of "sincere obedience" to be a "nose of 
wax," which every one can tweak to suit himself. To his oppo- 
nent he exclaims : " Doctor, my patience is worn to the stump — • 
and the stump is going !" 

It is by his hymns, however, that we are here called on to re- 
member him especially. He wrote " Dear Jesus, cast a look on 
me," and " O Father, let thy kingdom come." His preface to 
the hymns which he published is as characteristic as himself : 
" My Saviour and my God, accept this mite of love which is cast 
into thy treasury. Give it a blessing, and it shall be blessed. 
What is water in the hymns turn into wine." 

He even jested with the Countess of Huntingdon upon the 
solemn subject of matrimony — being then and always a bachelor 
— and tells her : " Eight or nine years ago, having been grievously 
tormented with housekeepers, I truly had thought of looking out 
for a Jezebel for myself." Then he adds — quite seriously now — 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 34 1 

that he fell on his knees and desired a sign of the Lord, probably 
by opening the Bible in the old fashion of the Sories Virgiliance, 
and taking a place at random. The first time was inconclusive. 
At the second trial he read : " Thou shalt not take thee a wife." 
This was enough, and upon it he pivoted his condition all the rest 
of his days. 

Once he took a guest at Everton and showed him the pictures 
on his wall. "That," he said, "is Calvin. That is Luther. 
And that " — pointing to a glass over the fireplace—" is the Devil. " 
The guest hurriedly stepped forward to see this frightful face — and 
beheld his own ! " Is it not a striking likeness of his Satanic 
Majesty.?" exclaimed the grim preacher. 

He appreciated, however, the dangers of this vein of mirth, and 
bade himself, in one of his hymns, " March off and quit this 
giggling road ;" and he never allowed his sense of humor to dull 
his spiritual force. Yet, to a young preacher who was to occupy his 
pulpit he could not resist the temptation of offering the advice : 
" Lift up your voice like a man, and scare the daws out of the 
steeple !" There was much in him which resembled the famous 
Father Taylor, of Boston, the sailor-missionary. " Oh, Lord," 
cried that eccentric person once, " deliver us from bad rum and 
bigotry ! Thou knowest which is worst. I don t. Amen !" 

Berridge kept up this cheerful courage to the very end. As he 
drew close to death one said to him : " The Lord has enabled you 
to fight a good fight." " Blessed be his name for it, " was the an- 
swer. " He will soon call you up higher. " " Ay, ay," exclaimed 
the dying man, "higher! higher! higher! Yes, and my chil- 
dren, too, will shout and sing : ' Here comes our father !' " These 
were his final words. He fulfilled his own hymn : 

*' In this posture let me live. 
And hosannas daily give ; 
In this temper let me die, 
And hosannas ever cry." 

The present hymn sometimes commences, ' ' Jesus, cast a look 
on me," and dates from 1785. 

Lord, thou hast searched and seen me through. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts's Ps. 139, First Part, L. M., "The All-seeing 
God." It has thirteen stanzas, with tv/o " pauses." A compari- 



342 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

son of this with Tate and Brady's version of the same Psalm shows 
that it has been borrowed from them almost verbatim. It is proper 
to add, however, that the " conveyance" has been acknowledged 
by Dr. Watts in a foot-note. 

Lord, thou on earth didst love thine own. — R. Palmer. 
This hymn was written in Albany, N. Y., 1864, and is based 
on John 13:1 and 17 : 21. 

Lord, thou wilt bring the joyful day. — R. Palmer. 
Dr. Palmer wrote this hymn in New York City, 1865, and based 
it on Rev. 22:5. 

Lord, thy glory fills the heavens. — Manx. 
This is from Bishop Mant's Ancient Hymns, 1837. The present 
hymn is made from that, which is entitled " Hymn Commemora- 
tive of the ' Thrice Holy,' " by the omission of the first double- 
stanza, " Bright the vision that delighted," etc. 

Lord, we come before thee now. — Hammond. 
The author. Rev. William Hammond, was born in 171 9, and 
was one of the early Calvinistic Methodists who subsequently, with 
his friend, the hymn-writer Cennick, joined the Moravian brethren. 
In this connection he remained until his decease in 1783. A 
graduate of St. John's College in Cambridge, England*, he was an 
ecclesiastical writer and preacher ; his poetry is scriptural and 
spiritual. He was buried at Chelsea, in London, and left behind 
him in manuscript an autobiography written in Greek. This 
hymn is found in his Psa/ms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs, 1745, 
where it consists of eight double stanzas. Both Whitefield and 
Evans included it in their collections, as did also Rippon and 
Dobell. 

Lord ! when I all things would possess. — Gill. 
This hymn is taken from T. H. Gill's Golden Chain 0/ Praise, 
p. 160. Its title is, " Lowly Ambition," and it has eight stanzas. 

Lord, when my raptured thought surveys. — Steele. 

In the Poems by Theodosia, 1760, this is entitled " INIeditating 
on Creation and Providence." It has fourteen stanzas. 

" I enjoy a calm evening on the terrace walk," said that gentle voice 
(.\nne Steele's), tremulous with holy feeling, " and I wish, though in vain. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 343 

for numbers sweet as the lovely prospect, and gentle as the vernal breeze 
to describe the beauties of charming spring ; but the reflection, how soon 
these blooming pleasures will vanish, spread a melancholy gloom, till the 
mind rises by a delightful transition to the celestial Eden — the scenes of 
undecaying pleasure and immutable perfection." 

Lord ! when we bend before thy throne. — Carlyle. 

Joseph Dacre Carlyle, the son of George Carlyle, was born at 
Carlisle, England, in 1759. -^^ became a very learned and ac- 
complished man, and accompanied Lord Elgin in 1799 on an em- 
bassy to the Sublime Porte. The purpose of this expedition was 
to ascertain what literary treasures survived in the public library of 
Constantinople. Our author had been for five years the Professor 
of Arabic at Cambridge, and was afterward the vicar of Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. His journey on the trip taken with Lord Elgin was 
extended to Asia Minor and the Greek islands. 

The poems of this author were posthumously published in 1805, 
under the editorship of his sister, Susanna Maria Carlyle. His 
Specimens 0/ Arabian Poetry were issued in 1 796. He had acquired 
a knowledge of the Arabic language as the result of his intimacy 
with David Zamio, a native of Bagdad ; and when his college 
Fellowship was lost by his marriage in 1793, he devoted himself to 
the study of that tongue and became professor two years later. 
His reputation, therefore, is not that of the hymn-writer, but of 
the Orientalist ; and his editorship of the Arabic text of the Old 
and New Testaments would have been his greatest achievement, 
but it was cut short by his death, and the work, when it appeared 
in 181 1, showed the loss which it had sustained. 

In 1804, on the 12th of April, Mr. Carlyle died at the vicarage 
in Newcastle. He was in the full maturity of his powers, and was 
deeply regretted by all who knew him. Sir Egerton Brydges 
speaks of him in the highest terms ; he describes the Orientalist 
as being " a tall, dark, thin man, of reserved manners and recluse 
habits." He was, however, a person of genial and cheerful dis- 
position, reputed to be the descendant of a long line of Scotch 
ancestry, modest, benevolent, and sincerely pious. His learning 
was great, and of a kind likely to be much in demand. When 
v/e take all these qualities into consideration it is clear that his 
death was truly a " public calamity." 

The hymn to which his name is attached in Laudes Domini \s 



344 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

one of three religious pieces, at the end of his Poems Suggested by 
Scenes in Asia Minor, Syria and Greece, 1805. Only by this, 
which has been much altered, is he known in the American collec- 
tions. It is entitled, " A Hymn before Public Worship," 

Lord, when with dying lips. — Maclagan. 

The Rev. William Dalrymple Maclagan, D.D., the present 
Bishop of Lichfield, was born in 1826, in Edinburgh. He is the 
son of David Maclagan, M. D., and in early life sei-ved with the 
army in India, retiring with the rank of lieutenant. He then en- 
tered St. Peter's College, Cambridge, whence he was graduated in 
1856, taking his degree of M.A. in i860. His D.D. is an honor 
Jure dignilalis, and came to him with his episcopate in 1878. He 
was ordained as deacon in 1856, and as priest in 1857, becoming 
then the curate of St. Saviour's, Paddington, and next of St. 
Stephen's, Marylebone. 

His career took the direction of ecclesiastical employment about 
this period, and he was the secretary of the Diocesan Church Build- 
ing Association, London, for some length of time. Bishop Cotton, 
who had known him in India, brought his name, in 1856, to the 
notice of Archbishop Tait. This resulted in his becoming curate 
in charge of Enfield, 1869, and then being placed as vicar of St. 
Mary's, Newington. The Bishop of London was his warm friend, 
and when Newington was transferred to the diocese of Rochester 
he promoted Mr. Maclagan to the vicarage of St. Mary Abbots, 
Kensington, that he might have him at hand. Here he remained 
until 1878, when he was nominated by the Crown, at Lord 
Beaconsfield's recommendation, to the Bishopric of Lichfield, 
made vacant by the death of Dr. Selwyn. He was consecrated in 
St, Paul's, June 24th, 1878, He has pubhshed sermons and 
hymns — and little else than these. 

Lord ! where shall guilty souls retire. — Watts, 
This is Ps. 139, First Part, C. M., in the version of Dr. Watts, 
with the title, " God is Everywhere." It has nine stanzas. 

Lord, while for all mankind we pray. — Wreford, 
This hymn was composed as a national hymn for England about 
the time of Queen Victoria's coronation, 1837. The author pub- 
lished it "with other loyal and patriotic pieces," and afterward 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 345 

included it among the fifty-five hymns which he contributed to 
Dr. J. R. Beard's Collection, 1837. It came into American use 
through the collections of Sewall (1845), and of Dr. Hastings 
(1858), but was incorrectly assigned to " Welford. " 

Rev. John Reynell Wreford, born at Barnstable, Devonshire, 
England, December nth, 1800, was educated at Manchester Col- 
lege, York ; left that institution 1825, and became co-pastor with 
Rev. John Kentish, of the New Meeting House, Birmingham. 
But his voice failed him, and he was compelled to retire from the 
ministry in 1831, since which date he has been a teacher, and was 
living, in 1869, near Bristol. It cannot have escaped the reader 
that Bristol is a name that claims all hymn-writers for its own, 
and that it may be fairly set down as the omphalos oi English hym- 
nology. Here, at all events. Dr. Wreford resided, having given 
up his teaching, but using his pen as constantly as ever. 

As to his opinions. Dr. Wreford regards himself as one of 
those " English Presbyterians who always carefully repudiated all 
sectarian names and doctrinal distinctions." It is apparent that 
he is not a Unitarian in the modern sense, though Beard's book 
professed to take only the writings of Unitarians. Dr. Wreford's 
published works include several volumes of poetry. He died in 
London, July 2d, 1881. 

Lord, with glowing heart I'd praise thee. — Key. 

Francis Scott Key was born in Frederick County, Md. , August 
ist, 1779 ; was graduated at St. John's College, Annapolis, Md., 
and studied law with his uncle, Philip Barton Key. He studied 
at the bar, Fredericktown, Md., from 1801, and then removed to 
Washington, D. C, where he became District Attorney for the 
District of Columbia, and died January nth, 1843. He was an 
Episcopalian, and a devout and exemplary man. 

A full notice of this author is in nearly every literary manual. 
The memory of the " Star-Spangled Banner" will be always asso- 
ciated with his name, and the circumstances of its composition 
are thus related : 

" Key and his friend. Skinner, had been sent with a flag of truce, 
August 14th, 1814, from Baltimore to the British fleet, at the mouth of 
the Potomac, to obtain the release of prisoners captured in the expedition 
against Washington. As the enemy were just about to make an attack 
on Baltimore the truce-boat was detained with the fleet under guard. The 



346 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

bombardment of Fort McHenry, begun in the evening, continued 
through the night. Key and his friends awaited the result with the 
deepest anxiety. Just before day the cannonading ceased, and they paced 
the deck until dawn, eager for the first streak of day to disclose the result. 
With ' the dawn's early light ' they caught sight of ' the broad stripes and 
bright stars ' of the dear old flag still floating over the fort. As they now 
made their way back to the city, Key, all aglow with the fervor of the 
moment, composed and wrote on the back of a letter this grand national 
lyric. The same day it was put in print and circulated all over the city. 
It was written and sung then, as now, to the tune of ' Anacreon in 
Heaven.' To this tune the ode of Thomas Paine, entitled ' Adams and 
Liberty,' had been previously adapted." The manuscript was set in type 
by Samuel Jennings, who died November 22d, 1885, in Baltimore, at the 
age of eighty-eight. 

Mr. Key's brother-in-law, Chief-Justice Taney, has furnished some fur- 
ther particulars of the origin of this national hymn. It was not completed 
on the boat, but was jotted in rough notes, and written out in Baltimore 
immediately upon Key's arrival. He had gone, by authority of President 
Madison, to secure the release of a personal friend. Dr. Beanes, and had 
obtained it after an interview with General Ross and Admirals Cockburn 
and Cochrane. Mr. Key's poems were published in 1857. A costly 
monument has been erected to his memory in San Francisco, California. 

It is as a hymn-writer, however, that we are chiefly concerned 
with his name. He wrote, in addition to the present piece, an- 
other, " Before the Lord we bow," for a Fourth of July celebra- 
tion in 1832. 

He is also credited with " If life's pleasures cheer thee," and 
with several other hymns. All of these are in Cleveland's Lyra 
Sacra Americana. 

Love divine, all love excelling. — C. Wesley. 

The earliest home of the Wesley family was Charmouth, a vil- 
lage at the base of the hill as one went, in the old times, from 
Exeter by coach through Dorset and down from the heights above 
Lyme Regis. Here, almost from a veritable " hole of the pit," 
was dug that remarkable genius by whom God has been pleased to 
bless both England and America. Charles Stuart, the Second, 
once landed here under the convoy of Lord Wilmot. While he 
was waiting for the boat to arrive in the creek to take them off to 
the vessel beyond, and so to the French coast, he allayed suspicion 
by visiting a little chapel where Bartholomew Wesley held forth in 
" long- breathed devotions and bloody prayers. " This progenitor 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 347 

of our poet is described as tiie " puny parson of the place ;" true 
to his duties and his people, however, and as ready to supply himself 
with his own handiwork in doublet and homespun hose, as Paul 
was to fall to his tent-making when times were hard. Charles 
narrowly escaped capture here, and the account of Mr. Christo- 
phers* visit, long years afterward, is very picturesque in its descrip- 
tion of the circumstances, the scenery, and all the ifs and buts in 
the case. 

Bartholomew Wesley was made rector of Charmouth in 1640; 
and John Wesley, the grandfather of John and Charles, spent his 
youth there. This John went to Oxford and took his degree, 
passed his examination in theology, and proceeded to labor in the 
fishing- villages near Weymouth. Next he had charge of the parish 
of Winterborn-Whitchurch, and was a fellow- sufferer with his 
father and Richard Baxter under the Act of Uniformity, which 
took effect on Bartholomew's Day, 1662. Worn out by privation, 
persecution and sorrow, he died even earlier than the rector of 
Charmouth, who, although silenced in the pulpit, preached the 
Gospel as he could, and practised medicine to support himself and 
his family. Not long after his son's death, Bartholomew also 
died, having suffered a great deal for his Nonconformist opinions. 

The stock, however, was too good to perish from the earth, and 
in 1683 Samuel Wesley (1662-1735), son of John and grandson 
of Bartholomew, marched on foot into Oxford from London. 
The university \vas in a way to recover from the effects of the civil 
war. And here Samuel Wesley arrived, without a friend and with 
only forty-five shillings in his pocket, but with a strong purpose to 
secure an education after the same sort as his ancestors. He en- 
tered Exeter College, being admitted as ''''pauper scholaris," and 
acting as serving- man to his richer companions. 

With the lack of money came — as it often does — the presence of 
that wit which seems to be the compensation of honorable poverty. 
Samuel was a poet as well as a student, and shortly issued a little 
book called Maggots j or, Poems on several Subjects never before 
Handled ; by a Scholar. It even had the author's picture in front ; 
not with a laurel, however, but with a maggot on his forehead. 
And it must be confessed that the poem was somewhat coarse in 
its satire, and suited the fashion of an age that was given to gross- 
ness. Dunton, the eccentric bookseller, issued this unexpectedly 



348 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

successful venture. His yonng protege and himself were eventually 
brothers-in-law, having married sisters. Pope, even, did not dis- 
dain to allude to the poem in his " Dunciad, " and we, who only 
know Samuel Wesley by his hymn, " Behold the Saviour of man- 
kind " (1709), may well smile at the severity with which the sage 
of Twickenham attacks the frivolous verses which Dunton pub- 
lished. 

In his odd and genial manner Mr. Christophers joins Samuel 
Wesley's Maggot on A Tobacco Pipe, with his son John's letter 
to a friend in Ireland. Samuel's taste was strongly nicotian ; but 
John was an early Traskite. 

" Use all diligence to be clean," he says to the Irish unknown, 
" ' Let thy mind's sweetness have its operation 
Upon thy person, clothes and habitation.' 

" Use no tobacco — it is an uncleanly and unwholesome self-indulgence. 
Use no snuff. I suppose no other nation in Europe is in such vile bond- 
age to this silly, nasty, dirty custom as the Irish are. But let Christians 
be in this bondage no longer." 

It is the correct phrase when we call Samuel Wesley's wife the 
" well-trained Susannah." She was the daughter of the Noncon- 
formist divine, Dr. Samuel Annesley, and it was a part of her home 
discipline to train her children pretty thoroughly. If the little 
Samuel, John, or Charles cried, he must cry under his breath. 
If he was to be punished he got no light nor trivial thrashing. It 
was not for him to eat or drink between meals. He M'as washed 
and put to bed at eight o'clock, and no servant was allowed to sit 
by him. He must say " brother " or " sister " before the proper 
name of the other children when he spoke to them. The Lord's 
Prayer was taught him as soon as he could speak, and he repeated 
it morning and night, ever afterward. At five years it was 
equally im.perative that he should be instructed to read ; and six 
hours a day were school-time, and his parents were the teachers. 
It adds a grim touch of humor to read, in Tyerman's record, of 
this well-arranged family system that, when the boy (or girl, for 
the method was impartial) reached this fifth year, he had one day, 
and only one, in which to learn his letters ! He must master the 
twenty-six within the twenty-four hours or — alas for him ! Religion 
was an exact science in that home, and Bible-reading and prayer 
were punctually attended to. Certainly the results are not dis- 
couraging to any who reflect upon the process. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 349 

II must be sufficient to add to these preliminaries of the Hfe of 
Charles that his father deserves our esteem for his real ability. His 
poem on " The Life of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ," was 
terribly tinkered and " improved " (for the worse) by Dr. Coke, 
but its original form speaks well for its author. He had graduated 
at Oxford, 1688, and in return for the dedication of this poem 
(1693) to Queen Mary, she gave him the living of Epworth, in 
Lincolnshire, in 1696 — for he was no longer a Dissenter. In 
learning, benevolence and piety, he stood high. He wrote much 
for current literature, and so eked out a salary which needed size 
to meet the wants of his nineteen children — nine of whom, it is 
proper to state, died in infancy. John and Charles gave some of 
his verses place in their first volume of Hymns and Sacred Poems, 
1739. His single hymn, " Behold the Saviour of mankind," is in 
six stanzas, and shows plainly the influence at work upon his sons. 

When the Epworth parsonage was burned, the piece of music 
on which this hymn had been written was rescued from the 
flames, somewhat scorched. At the same time little John, then 
about six years of age, was saved almost by a miracle. Not much 
else escaped. 

The love of music and poetry was born in the boys. John 
Wesley says of his mother's death : " We stood around her bed and 
fulfilled her last request, uttered a little before she lost her speech : 
* Children, as soon as I am released, sing a Psalm of praise to 
God r " This hymn which they sang is said to have been " Bless- 
ing, honor, thanks and praise" — one which Charles wrote in 1742 
for this very use. 

This was the ancestry and this was the home of Charles Wesley. 
Is it wonderful that he came to be what he was ? or that, after his 
parents' death, he could compose such a eulogy upon them as 
that which is contained in his hymn, " Who are these arrayed in 
white V (1745). 

Charles Wesley, the youngest of the nineteen children, was born 
at Epworth, Lincolnshire, December i8th, 1708, " old style" {i. e., 
December 29th of our present reckoning, the difference in calendar 
being eleven days). In childhood it was proposed by a wealthy 
namesake in Ireland to adopt him — but he himself declined. The 
person who was taken in his stead became an earl, and was grand- 
father to the Duke of Wellington, while the poor lad in the debt- 



35© ENGLISH HYMNS. 

oppressed parsonage was spared for a more spiritual life and for 
wider usefulness. His brother Samuel (Junior) cared for his 
education at Westminster School (1716), and he was at Christ 
Church College, Oxford, in 1726, with his brother John. Here 
began the name of " Methodist," from the systematic ideas of the 
"Holy Club." 

Charles was ordained in 1735, and went with John to Georgia 
in 1735-6. In 1738 (May 21st) he expressly declares that he re- 
ceived the witness of the Holy Spirit. It came through the 
agency of a poor mechanic named Bray who " knew nothing ex- 
cept Christ." — He married Sarah Gwynne, April 8th, 1749, and 
had by her eight children, two of whom became eminent as 
musicians. 

It is not surprising that we look in vain for some of these " cen- 
tos" which have been selected from his poetry. The Wesleyan 
Conference, 1868-72, issued the poetical works of the brothers in a 
complete edition, making thirteen volumes, and containing nearly 
six thousand pages ! Charles's work was mainly original ; while 
John rendered some forty of the German hymns, and wrote very 
little otherwise. It was Charles who sang the doctrines of the 
Methodists into the hearts of believers — and his evangelical fervor 
is such that he has made all Christendom his parish in a grander 
sense even than his administrative brother, John. Nothing that 
John has written reaches the height of " Jesus, lover of my soul," 
or the beauty of " Love divine, all love excelling," or the dignity 
of " I know that my Redeemer lives." And yet these are only 
portions of that great choral in which his many-voiced genius bore 
a part. Samuel Wesley, Jr., the High Churchman, was chilled too 
soon ever to compare verses with his brothers. His hymns are 
few — and lack power and popularity. 

After eighty years of a well- spent and fruitful life, Charles Wes- 
ley died, March 29th, 1788, leaving his brother to lament him for 
three years longer and then to join him beyond the " narrow 
stream of death." 

John Wesley, who was born June 17th, 1703, was the fourth 
son of this remarkable family. As the founder of Methodism, 
and the organizer and manager of a vast denomination, he stands 
among the great ones of the earth, and his story is everywhere at 
hand. He left Oxford in 1727, and was his father's chaplain at 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 35 1 

Epworth until 1729, having been ordained September 28th, 1728. 
On the death of their father, in 1735, John and Charles cast in 
their lot with Oglethorpe's colonists, and went to Georgia. There 
John had a troublesome love-affair with which we have no con- 
cern. 

In 1738 we find him in London, and a Moravian, through the 
influence of Peter Bohler. In the following year, after a visit to 
Herrnhut, he commenced open-air preaching in Whitefield's man- 
ner. The " foundry " — famous in Methodist annals— was fitted 
up in November, 1739, and thenceforward John Wesley was the 
head and front of the operations of this new body of Christians. 
He did not marry until 1751, when he espoused a widow of means 
and with four children, who made twenty years of his life wretched, 
and then left him entirely. 

By virtue of sound health and earnest faith this wonderful man 
lived until past fourscore in active usefulness. It has been esti- 
mated that he held not less than forty thousand preaching services, 
and travelled nearly a quarter of a million of miles. At his death 
the Methodists numbered fully one hundred and twenty thousand 
communicants. In 1791, after preaching in the parlor of a magis- 
trate at Leatherhead, near London, he returned home fatigued 
and ill. His text was, " Seek ye the Lord while he may be 
found" — and on March 2d, 1791, he proceeded to seek him 
" beyond the stars," where was his rest indeed. 

Majestic sweetness sits enthroned. — S. Stennett. 
This hymn was contributed to Rippoii s Selectmi, 1787, where 
it has nine stanzas, commencing, "To Christ the Lord let every 
tongue," The Scripture prefixed is Sol. Song 5 : 10-16, and the 
title is, "Chief among Ten Thousand; or, the Excellencies of 
Christ. ' ' 

Master, speak 1 thy servant heareth. — F. R. Havergal, 
From her Poems, p. 214 : "Master, say on." It has nine 
stanzas. The date is 1867. 

May the grace of Christ, our Saviour. — Newton. 
This is from the Olney Hymns, Book III., No. loi. The text 
is II Cor. 13 : 14. It has one double stanza, and is a favorite 
form of doxology. The large meeting of Presbyterian ministers 



352 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

held in New York City each Monday noon, invariably closes with 
its use. 

'Mid scenes of confusion and creature complaints. — Denham. 

The author of this hymn was Rev. David Denham, an English 
Baptist, 1 791-1848. He was connected with Rev. Dr. R. S. 
Hawker's congregation, became a Baptist, entered the ministry and 
was settled at Margate, London, and Chelsea. He was the editor 
of a collection of hymns which bears his name, but wrote his 
poetry mostly for the religious magazines. His title for this piece 
was, " The Saint's Sweet Home," to which he appended the words 
of Scripture, Ps. ']i : 24. It was in use in America in the Chris- 
tian Lyre in 1830, and the author contributed seventy hymns to 
his own book, The Saint's Melody, 1837, which contains over 
eleven hundred pieces. 

Mighty God, while angels bless thee. — R. Robinson. 

The name of Robert Robinson merits an attention which it has 
not yet received. Few persons are aware that this man not only 
wrote the famous hymn, " Come, thou Fount of every blessing," 
but that he also was the inspirer of no less a pulpit orator than 
the great Robert Hall, as Hall himself, in turn, was the inspirer 
of Spurgeon. And if we add to these facts that the hymn, 
" Mighty God, while angels bless thee," was composed by him, 
and that his ecclesiastical career is almost unique, we have at least 
begun the story with some elements of unusual interest. 

Born in Norfolk, at Swaffham, September 27th, 1735, he re- 
moved, at eight years of age, with his parents, to Seaming in the 
same county. In a short time his father died, and he was left to 
be the sole support of his widowed mother. We therefore find 
him, at fourteen, apprenticed to one Joseph Anderson, a barber 
in London, and very often under reprimand for giving too much 
time to his books and too little to his business. He was not the 
steadiest of young fellows in his habits either, for a singular inci- 
dent is on record to show that he and some other lads plied a gypsy 
fortune-teller with liquor, and secured from her a prediction as to 
their future lives. To Robinson the poor drunken wretch made 
a statement which, however it arose, had the strangest of effects. 
She said he " would see his children and grandchildren." And 
he believed this so thoroughly that he set about preparing to be 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 353 

useful to his prospective family, and even began his laudable refor- 
mation by a visit to the preaching of the Rev. George Whitefield 
that very night. 

Six years later he confessed to Whitefield that he had gone there 
that evening disposed to pity " the poor deluded Methodists," but 
had come away envious of their happiness. He was at this time 
seventeen years of age ; and the sermon, which was from Matt. 
3 : 7, so moved him that it could not be forgotten. With a sin- 
gular accuracy of observation he has himself stated that, after two 
years and seven months, in 1755, the full force of the truth was at 
length felt in his heart. At this date he considered himself to have 
been truly converted, and entered the fact in Latin of his own de- 
vising upon the pages of his journal. The language is worthy of 
quotation : 

" Robertus, Michaelis Mariaeque Robinson filius, Natus Swaffhami, 
comitatu Norfolciae, Saturni die, Sept. 27th, 1735. Renatus Sabbati die. 
Mail 24, 1752, per predicationem Georgii Whitefield. Etgustatis doloribus 
renovationis duos annos mensesque septem, absolutionem plenam gratu- 
itamque, per sanguinem pretiosum Jesu Christ!, inveni (Tuesday, Decem- 
ber ID, 1755), cui sit honor et gloria in secula seculorum. Amen." 

This Latin is scarcely classical ; but it is very expressive. It re- 
veals a depth of feeling which was soon to find its proper scope in 
the work of the ministry. As early, then, as 1758, he commenced, 
in a crude way, to exhort and even preach, being associated with 
those Methodists whom he once despised. 

Mr. Robinson now became a Baptist, married, and removed to 
Cambridge, where he supplied the pulpit of a small congregation. 
It was a college town, and such towns are proverbially hard toward 
preachers, requiring brains, courage and good judgment in those 
who occupy their pulpits. Undoubtedly the ci-devant barber felt 
this ; for he declined at first to be settled as pastor. Another point 
— that of the terms of communion — was also under debate ; and 
not until it was decided that there should be open communion did 
he consent. In 1 76 1 this was conceded, and Mr. Robinson was 
installed. He was poor, and his church was poor, but in a few 
years he had a good chapel and a large congregation. From this 
time he maintained himself successfully against the ofttimes hostile 
influence of the university, and managed to command the respect 
of the students, for Robert Robinson was a scholar, by nature 



354 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

and by practice, and his biography is a remarkable example of a 
self-taught man ranking as the peer of those who have received the 
best advantages. It was under the stress of his financial necessities 
that he also became a farmer, in addition to his other pursuits ; 
and any one who will read his delightful " Morning Exercise" on 
" Industry," will see how well he improved his acquaintance with 
the former companions of his youth. He knew the soil, and he 
knew its tillers, and he spoke to the outlying rustic audiences on 
divers occasions with a certain pithy simplicity which is wonderfully 
attractive. At Little Shelford we hear him saying : " We contend, 
that in regard to you in this parish, neither the rose, nor the water- 
lily, nor any other flower in the world is the subject of your chief 
attention ; it is saffron, and saffron alone, that you are called by 
Providence to study." And then he declares that, as with the 
saffron among flowers, so it is with the Bible among books. This 
one book is the only one they really need to know. He is gifted 
with a Spurgeon-like wit ; and, indeed, if Robert Hall was his son 
in the ministry, Charles Spurgeon must be his grandson. 

From 1782 to 1785 he had a good deal of land under his con- 
trol. He had also a good deal of a family, and his "numerous 
children" compelled him to be active in supplying their wants. 
Yet he was by no means a farmer solely, or even specially. He 
contrived to obtain the time for a knowledge of French, and his 
various discourses easily prove him to have been well versed in the 
ancient literatures. 

Here before us are several of Robinson's works. The sermons 
have received the commendation of Paxton Hood, and this particu- 
lar volume has, for years, been dear to the present writer. Its title 
is, " Sixteen Discourses ... to which are added Six Morning 
Exercises, London, printed for Charles Dilly, in the Poultry, 
MDCCLXXXVI." These are quaint and excellent, full of bright 
and original ideas, uttered in many an epigrammatic sentence. 
The style is, indeed, so modem that it might easily be the produc- 
tion of the last five years. Out of abundant illustrations take 
this : "A common good book, like a good man, is not without 
its defects, but good upon the whole ; but this good Gospel resem- 
bles a good angel, perfect without a mixture of imperfection." 
His topics, too, are such as we would to-day be likely to choose. 
Here are some : "Almighty God is the lovely Father of all man- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 355 

kind;" "The merit of Jesus Christ distinguishes him from all 
other persons ; " " The death of Jesus Christ obtained the remis- 
sion of sins ;" " Incorrigible sinners will be without excuse at the 
last day ;" " Any person who understands Christianity may teach 
it." 

We cannot pass this volume without especially commending it 
to any lover of racy and original expression. It is thus that he 
begins his sermon on Ps. 16 : 6, entitled, " We ought to be 
content with Providence. " " ' True, ' says one of my hearers, ' you 
had a goodly heritage, David ; and I would say of my lot as you 
did of yours, had I a Jesse for my father, a Solomon for my son, 
a palace for my habitation, gold and silver in abundance, ability 
to write Scripture and hope in a joyful resurrection. ' But recollect, 
if David had a Jesse for his own father, he had a Saul for a father- 
in-law ; if he had one son a Solomon, he had others who were dis- 
obedient, rebellious and wicked ; if he had a palace, he could not 
sometimes get an hour's rest in it ; he was weary with groaning, 
made his bed every night to swim, and watered his couch with his 
tears ; if he had riches, and abilities, and religion, he had also a 
lady for his wife who ridiculed religion, and despised him for em- 
ploying his wealth and abilities in the service of it. In a word, 
happiness is distributed among mankind much more equally than 
most men imagine." 

Robinson loved liberty with an intense and almost morbid de- 
votion. He was passed along from the Established Church into 
Methodism, Independency and the Baptist connection. About 
1780, he is usually (though somewhat unfairly) considered to have 
become a Unitarian ; and his biographer, the Rev. William Robin- 
son, placidly admits the fact and apparently glories in it. This is 
strange enough, supposing it to be true ; for this edition of his 
sermons, open on this desk this instant, testifies directly to the 
contrary. The preface indicates that the author is " at a distance 
from the press," and distinctly asserts that " the Christian religion 
ought to be distinguished from the philosophy ofit. " He then 
adds, as to himself : " He hath his own opinions of the nature 
of God, and Christ, and man, and the decrees, and so on. But 
he doth not think that the opinions of Athanasius, or Alius, or 
Sabellius, or Socinus, or Augustine, or Pelagius, or Whitby, or 
Gill, on the subjects in dispute between them ought to be consid- 



35*5 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

ered of such importance as to divide Christians by being made 
standards to judge of any man's Christianity, He thinks virtue 
and not faith the bond of union, though he supposes the subject 
ought to be properly explained. ' ' It certainly should be explained, 
so as not to convey the opinion that this Bible Christian meant by 
" faith" anything except what he did mean — namely, the creed 
statements of a denomination ; for by " virtue" he doubtless in- 
tended the only virtue which he recognized, a new life through 
Jesus Christ. 

Admitting, shortly afterward, that " his ideas of this subject do 
not meet the views of some of his brethren," he still avers that they 
may enjoy their sentiments without his opposition, but, for his 
part, he cannot feel compelled to think as they do. In a word, 
Mr. Robinson was a man of broad and charitable views — far 
broader and more charitable than the times in which he lived and 
wrote. One only needs to read with care the sermon, "The death 
of Jesus Christ obtained the remission of sins" to see how close it 
is to modern belief, and how thoroughly scriptural are its proposi- 
tions. These sermons, as has been already said, are wonderfully 
outspoken, fresh and vitally suggestive. They would do no dis- 
credit to a reissue, nor would their value be at an end. Nay, we 
even think they would attract many readers, and do good. 

Space permits no further vindication of the orthodoxy of this 
talented man. Nor do we require any special pleading to rescue 
the hymn, "Come, thou Fount of every blessing, " from the 
Serbonian bog of Mr, D. Sedgwick's assertion that it was the pro- 
duction of Lady Huntingdon, It is here as the work of " R — n" 
in Evans's Collection, where it embellishes the Supplemenl oi 1786. 
In addition there appears the other hymn, " Mighty God, while 
angels bless thee " (of which " Brightness of the Father's glory" 
is a part) ; and this also has the same initials. It is extremely 
doubtful whether Mr. Robinson ever composed any hymns except 
these. In a list of his writings, made by himself, there is a record 
of all that he wrote in prose and verse up to the year 1781, The 
date of these hymns is earlier than that, and " Come, thou Fount 
of every blessing" has been confidently assigned to 1757. There 
seems to have been a confusion as to the number of hymns which 
he wrote while he " was among the Methodists," and which were 
published by Whitefield, Some say " eleven ;" but as these were 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 357 

" composed for a fast-day" it is probable that the mistake has oc- 
curred of taking " II hymns" as if this meant " eleven hymns." 
If he composed others than these, they are certainly lost beyond 
recovery. 

Benjamin Williams, " senior deacon of the First Baptist church 
at Reading, England," told Dr. Belcher that he sat, as a little 
child, on Robinson's knee, while he composed the hymn, 
" Mighty God, while angels bless thee," and that the author put 
it into his hand when it was finished. Many years afterward, at 
his own fireside, the veteran repeated this story to Dr. Belcher ; 
and thus we have a beautiful incident to join with this piece when- 
ever we may read it. 

In the latter part of his life Dr. Robinson was a friend of the 
celebrated Priestley, whose Unitarian opinions probably affected the 
judgment of those who were disposed to think uncharitably of tfie 
preacher of Cambridge. But the memorial tablet erected to him 
by his congregation at Cambridge would hardly have committed 
the error of assigning to him " the Virtues which adorn the Man 
and the Christian," unless his successor, Robert Hall, had been 
willing to believe that the stone told the truth. 

It was Robinson's expressed wish to die " softly, suddenly and 
alone." This was accomplished ; for he died, during the night, 
at the residence of Dr. Priesdey, in Birmingham. He was found 
lifeless in his bed on the morning of June 9th, 1790. Always 
earnest and active in the work of the ministry, he was still the 
pastor of the "Congregation of Stone Yard," in Cambridge, at 
the time of his death. 

Not long before he died he wrote from Hauxton in the follow- 
ing strain respecting certain neighboring clergymen: "Alas, 
where is that ancient simplicity and power ? They are modern- 
ized. " Of another person he says: " Does he court popularity 
and applause .? or is he aiming at winning souls for Christ ? . . . 
We have some Jonahs, though in the belly of hell ; I mean, 
though at Cambridge." 

Mine eyes and my desire — Watts. 

This is Dr. Watts' s Psalm 25, Third Part, S. M., vv. 15-22. 
It has eight stanzas. The title is, " Distress of Soul ; or, Back- 
sliding and Desertion." 



358 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

More love to thee, O Christ, — Mrs. Prentiss. 

Mrs. Elizabeth (Payson) Prentiss was the daughter of the pious 
Edward Payson, and was born, Portland, Me., October 26th, 
1 8 1 8, From an early age she wrote verse and prose with facility, 
and contributed at sixteen years to the YonOi s Companion, published 
in Boston. Her sketches and stories were very highly commended, 
and her mind, under judicious education, was properly trained and 
disciplined for literary pursuits. Her piety was always deep, and 
her sympathies fine and large. As a teacher in Portland and at 
Ipswich, Mass., she won the devoted love of her pupils. She also 
held a similar position, and with much the same results, at Rich- 
mond, Va. 

It is, however, as the wife of Rev. Professor George L. Prentiss, 
D. D. , that she is best known to the religious and literary world. 
She was inarried in 1845, and mainly resided in New York City, 
where Dr. Prentiss has been pastor of the Mercer Street Presbyterian 
church and of the Church of the Covenant, being transferred from 
this last charge to the professorship of Homiletics and Church 
Government in Union Theological Seminary. Mrs. Prentiss was 
never in robust health, and died at length, after a short illness, 
at her summer home, Dorset, Vt., August 13th, 1878. 

Of her writings, The Floivcr of the Familv was among the first of 
the stories to secure a notable popularity ; while Only a Dandelion, 
Fred ajid Maria and Me, and the child's book, Litlle Susy's 5ix 
Birthdays, were decidedly successful. Stepping Heavenward, 1869, 
has had an almost unique reputation. Over seventy thousand 
copies have been sold in this country alone. Mrs. Prentiss's 
hymn, also, is no inapt companion piece to Dr. Ray Palmer's 
" My faith looks up to thee. " 

Morn's roseate hues have decked the sky. — W. Cooke. 
Rev. William Cooke [died i884(.')] was the joint editor of 
Barnby's (Novello's) Hymnary, 1872, and his residence is given 
as 6 Clifton Place, Sussex Square, London, W. He is a graduate 
of Trinity Hall, Cambridge (B.A., 1843, and M.A., 1847)- He 
became deacon in 1844, and priest, 1845 ; was perpetual curate of 
St. John, Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square, London, 1848-1850 ; 
then held the same position at St. Stephen, Hammersmith, 1850- 
1856 ; then vicar of Gazeley, Suffolk, 1856-1866, and was hon- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 359 

orary canon of Chester, 1854. His writings show him to have 
been concerned in the RituaHstic controversy. This is a copyright 
hymn in the Hynmary. 

Mourn for the thousands slain. — Brace. 

This well-known and widely-used temperance hymn was written 
by the Rev. Seth Collins Brace in 1843. Mr. Brace was born at 
Newington, Conn., August 3d, 181 1, where his father, Rev. Joab 
Brace, was pastor for fifty-six years. He was graduated from Yale 
College in the class of 1832. From 1835 to 1838 he was a tutor 
in the college. He then entered the ministry of the Presbyterian 
Church, and was licensed to preach, in 1842, by the Wilmington 
Presbytery. 

In 1843 he was engaged in compiling Parish Hymns for Perkins 
and Purves of Philadelphia, and in looking for some hymns upon 
the subject of temperance was disappointed not to find any. He 
therefore wrote this, under the spur of the occasion, and has had 
the happiness of finding it useful in other collections. 

Some debate was occasioned as to this hymn in 1882 by the 
question of a correspondent directed to the Christian Advocate. It 
drew out a reply from Mr. Brace, who briefly stated the foregoing 
facts — which have been confirmed to us, personally, by himself. 

He is now a Congregational clergyman, residing in Philadelphia, 
and a frequent visitor at the Mercantile Library. His last settle- 
ment was in Bethany, Conn. 

This notice is not complete until we add the list of his other 
hymns. The present was No. 514, and was signed, like the rest, 
" C." The others were : 

*' Assembled in thy name." 

" And shall I still." 

" We gather at the mercy-seat." 

Mr. Brace considers, however, that he has done quite as effec- 
tive temperance work by opposing the " two-wine heresy," as in 
any other way. He was one of the earliest and most unremitting 
antagonists of it, and has left a record in the columns of the In- 
dependent and the Congregationalisl upon the subject. The contro- 
versy was as to the production of a "non-fermented" wine in 
Palestine — a belief which has been a favorite tenet of temperance 
workers in this country, but which has met much opposition. 



360 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

My country ! 'tis of thee. — S. F. Smith. 
The Rev. Samuel Francis Smith, D.D., was born in Boston, 
October 21st, 1808 ; graduated at Harvard in 1829 [Dr. O. W. 
Holmes's class] ; and at Andover Seminary in 1832. He is a 
Baptist, and has been pastor, professor and editor during a long 
and actively useful life. His golden wedding was celebrated 
September i6th, 1884, at Newton Centre, Mass. Dr. Holmes 
once described him in a class poem thus : 

" And there's a fine youngster of excellent pith, 
Fate tried to conceal him by naming him Smith." 

This hymn of his has been very popular, and was written in 
1832, and first sung at a children's Fourth of July celebration in 
Park Street church, Boston. It is truly the American national 
hymn. As admirable a tribute to its use as we know are these 
anonymous verses from the Boston Courier, September, 1885 : 

PASSING THE PRIMARY SCHOOL. 

Again each morning as we pass 

The city's streets along, 
We hear the voices of the class 

Ring out the nation's song. 

The small boys' treble piping clear, 

The bigger boys' low growl, 
And from the boy who has no ear 

A weird, discordant howl. 

With swelling hearts we hear them sing 

" My country, 'tis of thee — " 
From childish throats the anthem ring, 

" Sweet land of liberty !" 

Their little hearts aglow with pride, 

Each with exultant tongue ' 

Proclaims : " From every mountain side 

Let treedom's song be sung." 

Let him who'd criticise the time, 

Or scout the harmony, 
Betake him to some other clime — 

No patriot is he ! 

From scenes like these our grandeur springs, 

And we shall e'er be strong, 
While o'er the land the schoolhouse rings 

Each day with Freedom's song. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 361 

The author has kindly helped our knowledge of his hymn by a 
personal letter. 

He says that it " was written in 1832. I found the tune " [" America"], 
he adds, '* in a German music-book brought to this country by the late 
Mr. William C. Woodbridge, and put into my hands by Lowell Mason, 
Esq., ' because,' he said, ' I could read German books and he could not.' 
It is not, however, a translation, but the expression of my thought at the 
moment of glancing at the tune." Of this tune we have already treated 
more fully under " Come, thou Almighty King." 

Says a recent description : 

" Dr. Smith still resides at Newton Centre, Mass., which place he has 
made his home for several years. The author is seventy-seven years of 
age, though in appearance he resembles a much younger man. He has 
a large, full head of hair, with puffs around the ears ; a pair of keen gray 
eyes and a ring beard that is almost entirely white. He has given up all 
literary work, with the exception of conducting the large correspondence 
which comes to him." 

My dear Redeemer and my Lord. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts's Hymn 138, Book II., and has the title, 
" The Power of the Gospel." There are six stanzas. 

My faith looks up to thee. — Palmer. 
In an article upon " Hymns of the Middle Ages," in The In- 
depcndetit, the Rev. J. E. Rankin, D. D., gives some new facts 
relative to this which is the most widely-circulated of American 
hymns, if we allow the exception of Dr. S. F. Smith's " The 
morning light is breaking," and Dr. Duflield's " Stand up, stand 
up for Jesus." Combining this account with the best accounts 
given by others, and with Dr. Ray Palmer's own account in his 
collected Poems, 1875, we have these authentic facts : 

The hymn was written in 1830, but not published (as a hymn) until 
1833. The author was in New York City, " between his college and 
theological studies," and was in poor health and a teacher in a ladies' 
school. Dr. Palmer says : " I gave form to what I felt, by writing, with 
little effort, the stanzas. I recollect I wrote them with very tender emotion 
and ended the last line with tears." The manuscript was then placed in 
a pocket-Book, where it remained for some time. Its true discoverer was 
Lowell Mason, the musician, who asked young Palmer if he had not some 
hymn or hymns to contribute to his new book. The pocket-book was 
produced, and the little hymn (then between two and three years old and 
never previously utilized, though it had been in print as a poem) was 
brought to light. Dr. Mason was attracted by it, and desired a copy. 



362 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

They stepped together into a store (it was in Boston), and the copy was 
made and taken away without any further comment. On carefully re- 
reading the hymn at home, Dr. Mason was so much interested that he 
wrote for it the tune of " Olivet," to which it is usually sung. 

Two or three days later he again met the author on the street, and, 
scarcely waiting to salute him, he said in substance : " Mr. Palmer, you 
may live many years and do many good things, but I think you will be 
best known to posterity as the author of ' My faith looks up to thee.' " 

The first publication of this hymn really occurred in 1832, but it received 
no particular notice in America. It had, however, obtained a reprint in 
some religious newspapers, from one of which the Rev. Andrew Reed, 
D. D., of Scotland, secured it while he was in this country. Dr. Reed 
took it, a waif, for his prospective hymn-book, and published it anony- 
mously. " It had," says Dr. J. E. Rankin, "several years of transat- 
lantic life before it was much known in America ; and possibly was in- 
debted to its foreign and uncertain origin for its first recognition here, as 
many another native production has been." 

"As originally written" (says Mr. Frederick Saunders, in Evenings 
with the Sacred Poets) " the hymn consisted of six stanzas ; the first two 
are omitted, four only being given in the Church collections. It has been 
translated into Arabic, and much used at missionary stations in Turkey. 
It has not only been translated into Tamil, but into Tahitian, the 
Mahratta, and will doubtless find its way wherever the Bible has pene- 
trated." We have ourselves seen it in Chinese, and in fact it is to be 
found wherever American missionaries have rendered into native tongues 
the hymns familiar to themselves or their home churches. Its first ap- 
pearance in America was in Spiritual Songs for Social Worship (by Dr. 
Thomas Hastings and Dr. Lowell Mason) in 1833. In this book the tune 
is entitled, " My faith looks up to thee," but is the same as " Olivet." 

The Rev. Ray Palmer, D.D., is the son of Honorable 
Thomas Palmer, and was born at Little Compton, Vt., November 
1 2th, 1808. His early education was received at home, but he 
was soon out in the world, at thirteen, as clerk in a dry-goods store 
in Boston. The lives of the English hymn-writers, as a rule, 
show the presence of wealth and culture ; those of Americans — 
equally as a rule — show the presence and pressure of poverty and 
hard surroundings. In Dr. Palmer's case this rule was unaltered. 
He was a boy earning his daily bread in a large city — and it was 
providential that his steps were soon directed to the Park Street 
Congregational church, where Rev. Sereno Edwards Dwight, 
D.D., was then pastor. With this church young Palmer united, 
and his gifts and calling in the direction of the ministry were soon 
apparent. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. T)^;^ 

He now took a three years' course at Phillips Academy, An- 
dover — which holds to the American colleges the same relation 
which Eton or Rugby does to those of England, From Andover 
he entered Yale College, where he was graduated with the class of 
1 830. He then pursued a theological course for one year in New 
York, and for three years at New Haven — both of these institu- 
tions representing a moderate Calvinistic theology. 

For a time Dr. Palmer was associated at New Haven with 
E. A. Andrews, LL. D. (author of a well- known Z«/i« Cnrwwar and 
joint author of a standard Laiin-English Lexicon) in the conduct 
of a ladies' seminary. He was then licensed to preach, and was 
ordained, 1835, on reception of a call from the Central Congrega- 
tional church of Bath, Me., where (as his personal kindness has 
verified for the present volume) some of his best hymns were com- 
posed. In 1850 he was called to the First Congregational church 
of Albany, N. Y. Here also some hymns were written. From 
this position he removed, in 1865, to New York City to become 
Corresponding Secretary of the American Congregational Union. 
After performing these duties until 1878, he resigned, and has 
since remained in Newark, N. J., which was, for the most part, 
his residence during his labors in New York City. As he was 
connected with the Belleville Avenue Congregational church, 
he became its " pastor " ; the Rev. George H. Hepworth, D. D., 
being its " preacher," and the Rev. William Hayes Ward, D. D. 
(the editor of The Independent) being its " superintendent of mis- 
sion work," This unique arrangement was satisfactory, and was 
continued for some years, although since the beginning of 1885 
Dr. Palmer's duties have been assumed by another, owing to his 
increasing feebleness. The writer would gratefully acknowledge 
the personal care with which Dr. Palmer has lent his aid to these 
annotations of the hymns in his friend Dr. Robinson's Laudes 
Domini. The list of Dr. Palmer's writings has been given at 
length by another friend. Dr. Hatfield, in Poeis of the Church. 
We may safely venture the assertion that he has written more and 
better hymns than any other American. " My faith looks up to 
thee" would, of itself, have immortalized his name in sacred song. 

Mrs. Layyah Barakat, a native Syrian woman, was educated in the 
schools at Beirut, and afterward married and went as a teacher to Egypt. 
Driven out in 18S2 by the insurrection of Arabi Pasha, she, with her bus- 



364 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

band and child, came to this country by way of Malta and Marseilles. 
Her history is a strange illustration of God's providential care, as they 
were without any direction or friends in Philadelphia when they landed. 
But the Lord took them into his own keeping, and brought them to those 
who had known of her in Syria. While in this country she frequently 
addressed large audiences, to whom her deep earnestness and broken but 
piquant English proved unusually attractive. Among other incidents she 
related that she had been permitted to see the conversion of her whole 
family, who were Maronites of Mount Lebanon. Her mother, sixty-two 
years of age (1884), had been taught this hymn by her in Arabic. They 
would sit on the house roof and repeat it together ; and when the news 
came back to Syria that the daughter was safe in America the mother 
could send her no better proof of her faith and love than in these words, 
assuring her that her faith still looked up to the Lamb of Calvary. 

My Father, God ! how sweet the sound. — Doddridge. 

Rev. Philip Doddridge was the son of an oil merchant in Lon- 
don, where he was born June 26th, 1702. He became pastor of 
the Congregational Church at Northampton, and principal of the 
Theological Academy there. He died in Lisbon, October 26th, 
1 75 1. His Rise a7id Progress of Religion in the Soul has been 
equally famous and blessed with his hymns. Of the hymns them- 
selves, many, like the present, have undergone material alterations 
before they could be generally adopted. They frequently drop 
from great heights of pure devotion into prosaic or commonplace 
expressions. Yet they are so thoroughly excellent in spirit, and 
oftentimes so admirable in phraseology, that they are indispensable 
to any collection of sacred verse. They belong with the deepest 
experiences of the Christian life, and can never be omitted or neg- 
lected. 

Dr. Doddridge's hymns were circulated in manuscript during 
his life, but were not printed until 1755. This may, perhaps, ac- 
count for many changes which we find. 

His famous epigram, " Live while you live, the epicure would say," is 
a remarkable instance of this variation of texts. Upon examining it as a 
matter of curiosity in several different volumes, including Doddridge's 
Collected Works, there were no two that exactly agreed in language or 
punctuation or in the capitalizing of words. Yet there was nothing es- 
sential by way of difference among the five or six which were compared. 
Any one desiring an excellent illustration of Tischendorf's statement 
about the texts of the New Testament can find it in this fact. 

The epigram was made upon his family motto, " Dum vivimus 
vivamus," and stands thus in his Works : 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 365 

" Live while you live, the Epicure will say, 
And take the pleasure of the passing day. 
Live while you live, the sacred Preacher cries, 
And give to God each moment as it fliei. 
Lord, in my views let both united be ; 
I live in pleasure when I live to Thee." 

My God, how endless is thy love. — Watts. 
In the hymns of Dr. Watts, this is No. 81, of the first book, and 
is entitled " A Song for Morning or Evening. — Lam. 3 : 23, and 
Isa. 45 : 7 ;" and, indeed, it belongs at the close of a sermon on 
these portions of Scripture. 

It may not be amiss to group some incidents respecting Dr. Watts under 
this most lovely hymn. He was admitted to the select society of the 
English poets through Dr. Johnson, who included him in the collection 
commonly known as ']o\\nsons Lives of the Poets. During his father's im- 
prisonment for Nonconformity, the poet, then a babe at the breast, was 
often taken by his mother to the jail-door. There she would sit on a stone 
near the entrance with him in her arms. He was the oldest of nine chil- 
dren, and one of the earliest — if not the very earliest — of his attempts at 
verse was the couplet prepared for the prize of a farthing : 

" I write not for a farthing, but to try 
How I your farthing authors can outvie." 

Watts's memoranda of his life and learning may also be noted : 

" Began to learn Latin of my father 1678. 

To Latin school and writing 1680. 

Began to learn Greek 1683, or before. 

I had y® smallpox 1683. 

Learnt French 1684, 1685. 

Learnt Hebrew 1687, or 1688." 

" That is a good sermon," says Watts, " which brings my heart nearer 
to God, which makes the grace of Christ sweet to my soul, and the com- 
mands of Christ easy and delightful. That is an excellent discourse, in- 
deed, which enables me to mortify some unruly sin, to vanquish a strong 
temptation, and weans me from all the enticements of this lower world ; 
that which bears me above all the disquietude of life ; which fits me for 
the hour of death, and makes me ready and desirous to appear before 
Christ Jesus, my Lord." " Divine love," he thought, " did not send 
dreaming preachers to call dead sinners to life." 

Burder's version of the anecdote about Watts's size is that, on hearing 
some one in a coffee-house ask, " What ! is that the great Dr. Watts ?" he 
replied immediately in a stanza from the Lyrical Poems : 

" Were I so tall to reach the pole. 

Or grasp the ocean with my span, 
I must be measur'd by my soul : 
The mind's the standard of a man." 



566 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

This is frequently misquoted. It occurs in the ode on " False Great- 
ness." 

Dr. Watts was also something of an artist, and could use his pencil 
with facility. His opinions were larger than the views of those about 
him, and in spite of the dark and gloomy utterances of some of his less- 
known hymns, he was a man of generous and liberal theology. His ver- 
sion of the Psalms achieved what Merrick in vain attempted — even with 
Tattersall's help. Four thousand copies were sold in the first year of 
their publication. 

My God, and is thy table spread. — Doddridge. 

The " New Version" of the Psalms was introduced by the gen- 
eral order of William III., December 3d, 1696. At the end of 
this New Version occur several hymns, of which this is one and 
" Hark, the herald angels sing," by Charles Wesley, is another. 
The history of this addition — evidently much later than the " New 
Version" — has been traced to the neighborhood of the year 18 18. 
At that time an anonymous " Dissenting University printer" 
filled up certain blank pages of his " form" with six hymns, which 
were not objected to, and have not been cancelled. 

Nor is it merely true that this piece was thus added ; but it, 
above all the others, has been made welcome. Its doctrine has 
certainly offended some Church of England critics ; but, on the 
other hand, it is called by Rev. L. C. Biggs, " our most popular 
and very beautiful " sacramental hymn. The date is convention- 
ally given as 1755. 

Nothing so well expresses the calmness of the poet's own trust 
as his letter to a friend who, about the year 1720, condoled with 
him on being " buried alive" at Kibworth. This was in Leices- 
tershire where he was studying for the ministry under the patronage 
of Dr. Clarke of St. Albans. Doddridge says : 

" Here I stick close to those delightful studies which a favoring Provi- 
dence has made the business of my life. One day passeth away after an. 
other, and I only know that it passeth pleasantly with me. 

" As for the world about me, I have very little concern with it. I live 
almost like a tortoise shut up in its shell, almost always in the same town, 
the same house, the same chamber ; yet I live like a prince — not, indeed, 
in the pomp of greatness, but the pride of liberty ; master of my books, 
master of my time, and, I hope I may add, master of myself. I can will- 
ingly give up the charms of London, the luxury, the company, the popu- 
larity of it, for the secret pleasures of rational employment and self-ap- 
probation ; retired from applause and reproach, from envy and contempt. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 367 

and the destructive baits of avarice and ambition. So that, instead of 
lamenting it as my misfortune, you should congratulate me upon it as my 
happiness, that I am confined in an obscure village, seeing it gives me so 
many valuable advantages to the most important purposes of devotion 
and philosophy, and, I hope I may add, usefulness, too." 

Frances Ridley Havergal has written in the autobiography, 
which she left in an incomplete shape, that she was always deepl)' 
affected by the idea of the Communion. Her father, Rev. W. H. 
Havergal, denied her permission, as a child, to remain at the ser- 
vice before she was confirmed. She would therefore creep around 
into the vestry and listen to all that she could hear, and would sit 
there during the entire service in profound emotion. Once this 
hymn was given out in church before the sermon, and when she 
caught the lines, " My God, and is thy table spread," she was 
greatly moved by them and wept bitterly. So earnest was her de- 
sire to sit among those who remembered the death of Christ ! 

My God, how wonderful thou art. — Faber. 

This is from the hymn, " Our Heavenly Father" — which has 
nine stanzas. 

Frederick William Faber had a marvellous insight into the char- 
acter and attributes of God. No uninspired poet has ever written 
more grandly than in such stanzas as these : 

" Thus doth thy hospitable greatness lie 
Outside us like a boundless sea ; 
We cannot lose ourselves where all is home. 
Nor drift away from thee. 
****** 

" Thus doth thy grandeur make us grand ourselves ; 
'Tis goodness [only] bids us fear ; 
Thy greatness makes us brave as children are, 
When those they love are near. 

" Great God ! our lowliness takes heart to play 
Beneath the shadow of thy state ; 
The only comfort of our littleness 
Is that thou art so great." 

But this is by no means a rare instance of his remarkable power 
of expression. Here is something from one of his least-observed 
poems which is very profound and true. It is indelibly associated, 
in the mind of the present writer, with a certain quiet Sunday 



368 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

afternoon and with the charm of the interpreter's voice. The sun 
was slanting through the trees, and two listened as one read : 

" Is it hard to serve God, timid soul ? Hast thou found 

Gloomy forests, dark glens, mountain-tops on thy way? 
All the hard would be easy, all the tangles unwound 
Wouldst thou only desire, as well as obey. 
" For the lack of desire is the ill of all ills ; 

Many thousands through it the dark pathway have trod. 
The balsa})t, the wine of predestinate wills 
Is a jubilant pining and longing for God." 

My God, my Father ! — bUssful name ! — Steele. 
The title to this piece in the Poems by Theodosia, 1760, is 
" Humble Reliance." It has eight stanzas. 

My God, is any hour so sweet. — C. Elliott. 
The fact that " grace runs in the blood " was never better illus- 
trated than in this instance. Miss Charlotte Elliott had for a 
maternal grandfather the devout and gifted Henry Venn, minister 
of Huddersfield, and author of " The Complete Duty of Man." 
His daughter Eling (a curious affectation in orthography) married 
Mr. Charles Elliott of Clapham and Brighton, and Charlotte was 
the third daughter of six children. Two of her brothers were 
clergymen, and Rev. John Venn was her uncle. From her child- 
hood she was surrounded by culture and piety, and, like many 
another brilliant woman under a high musical and artistic educa- 
tion, relapsed into a state of chronic ill-health. Yet this very per- 
sonal sympathy with suffering and sorrow has much to do with the 
inward reach and grasp of her poetry. In such a case, and in the 
similar instances of Anne Steele, Frances Ridley Havergal, and 
Phoebe Ann Brown, one naturally recalls Mrs. Browning's poem, 
'* A Musical Instrument." That gifted woman, to whom in ill- 
ness this same inspiration had come, could write : 

" The true gods sigh for the cost and the pain — 
For the reed that grows nevermore again 
As a reed with the reeds of the river." 

But in Christian experience it is this cost which is compensated by 
the crown — a cost which is paid by the one who 

" Strikes the strings 
With fingers that ache and bleed," 

and a crown which is beheld by those who listen to the strain. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 369 

An appreciation of the fact that bruise and wrench and pain are 
below the noblest of our hymns will do much to make us devout 
in our use of them, and reverent in their handling. Many of 
Miss Elliott's verses, for instance, were written during illness, and 
out in an arbor overlooking the beautiful bay of Torquay. 

Charlotte Elliott was born March i8th, 1789, at Westfield 
Lodge, Brighton, England. In 1821 she became, and after that 
continued to be, a confirmed invalid. In 1822, this affliction was 
blessed to her spiritual uplifting through the instrumentality of 
that man of God, Dr. Caesar Ma Ian, of Geneva, who was then on 
a visit to her father's house. From this date, although at some 
times better in health than at others, she was never really anything 
but a helpless sufferer, sinking in 1829 into a condition of feeble- 
ness from which no physical relief was to be found. Her father 
died in 1833, and about this period she was able to derive a great 
deal of consolation from the employment of her pen in prose and 
verse. She assumed the editorial care of The Christicvi Remem- 
brancer Pocket-Book, an annual which she conducted for twenty- five 
years after the previous editor, her personal friend. Miss Harriet 
Kiernan, relinquished it. 

To the Invalid's Hymn-Book, published in 1836, Miss Elliott 
contributed one hundred and fifteen pieces, including the one now 
so famous and dear, "Just as I am. " She w-rote also for other 
publications. In 1835 she visited Scotland ; in 1837, Switzer- 
land ; and she had already been in Normandy in 1823. 

On the death of her mother and two sisters in 1843, their home 
was broken up ; and in 1845, herself and her sole surviving sister 
went to the Continent. They finally fixed upon Torquay as a 
place of residence, and for fourteen years it was their abode. After 
this, they returned to Brighton, from which town, in 1867, Miss 
Elliott once ventured for a short sojourn in a neighboring village. 
With this exception, she was always confined to her limited horizon 
at Brighton ; and here, September 2 2d, 1871, she gently passed 
away, aged eighty-two years. Considering her physical infirmities, 
this was a great age ; and it can be truly said of her that length of 
days taught wisdom to all who beheld her. She was abundantly 
charitable, patient and devout, and she was continually adding to 
her hymns and other verses until the close of her life. At four- 
score, she wrote as smoothly and sweetly as ever. 



370 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

My God, my Father ! while I stray. — C. Elliott. 

This hymn is reprinted in the Free Church Hymn-Bookixova Miss 
Elliott's Hours of Sorrow Cheered and Comforted (fifth edition, 
1856). The second ''my" is incorrect, for she wrote it " My 
God and Father." The stanza, " If thou shouldst call me to re- 
sign," was originally put in the past tense, as a personal state- 
ment of her own history : " Though thou hast called me to re- 
sign." There are eight stanzas altogether. 

Miss Elliott's description of her religious experience is worth 
quoting. She says of God's knowledge of her illness and conse- 
quent sufferings : 

" He knows, and He alone, what it is, day after day, hour after hour, 
to fight against bodily feelings of almost overpowering weakness, languor 
and exhaustion, to resolve not to yield to slothfulness, depression and in- 
stability, such as the body causes me to long to indulge, but to rise every 
morning determined to take for niy motto : ' If any man will come after 
Me, let him deny himself, take up his cross daily, and follow Me.' " 

My God, my King, thy various praise. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts has this as his version of Ps. 145, L. M. : "The 
Greatness of God." It is in six stanzas. 

My God, my Life, my Love. — Watts. 
In Dr. Watts' s hymns this is Book II., No. 93, in eight stanzas. 
The title is, " God all in all," with a reference to Ps. 73 : 25. 

My God ! permit my tongue. — Watts. 
This is a version of Ps. 63, S. M., with the title, "Seeking 
God," and is in eight stanzas. 

My God, the covenant of thy love. — Doddridge. 
This is No. 21 in Dr. Doddridge's Hymns. Its title is, " Sup- 
port in God's Covenant under Domestic Troubles. — 11 Sam. 
23 : 5." It has five stanzas. 

My God, the spring of all my joys. — Watts. 
We have this as Book II., No, 54, Dr. Watts's Hvmns. Its 
title is, " God's Presence in Light and Darkness. " 

" And as the ancient Hebrews rejoiced at the shining forth of the glori- 
ous shekinah, so may our spirits feel, while contemplating this heavenly 
light, that our treasure and our heart are there ; and, armed by divine 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 371 

love, and lit up by the coruscations of glory which radiate from that 
throne of grace, we may even here exultingly exclaim : 

' The opening heavens around me shine 
With beams of sacred bhss, 
If Jesus shows his mercy mine 
And whispers I am his.' " 

So writes George Smith at the close of a splendid discourse in his Har- 
mony of the Divine Dispensatiotis. 

My gracious Redeemer I love. — Francis. 

The fervid genius of the Welsh people has its place in English 
hymnology not merely through the verses of William Williams, 
but also by reason of Benjamin Francis, whose hymn is now be- 
fore us. Not until his twentieth year did he learn the English 
tongue. He was born in 1734, and joined the Baptist Church at 
fifteen years of age. After a preliminary education at Bristol 
{toujours Bristol !) beginning in 1753, ^^ '^^^ regularly prepared, 
by theological studies, for the ministry. In 1757 he had preached 
to acceptance and was ordained at Horsley in 1758. 

His preaching was in English, but he often fell back into Welsh 
on his visits to his home. With the years, his congregation largely 
increased, and he remained with them, declining calls to London 
and elsewhere, until his death, December 14th, 1799. 

The present hymn is in Rippori s Selection, 1787, and has six 
double stanzas. Like all the writers of that time, Francis has a 
fondness for " Meshech" as a synonym for the abode and home 
of the impenitent. 

My Jesus, as thou wilt. — Borthwick, tr. 

The original of this hymn is the German lyric of Benjamin 
Schmolke, '^ Meinjesu, wie duwillst.'" 

He was born on the 21st of December, in a village near Liegnitz, 
in Silesia. He was the son of a poor minister, and would have ex- 
perienced much difficulty in securing an education if some benevo- 
lent friends had not supplied the means. It is related of him that 
once, while his studies were in progress, he preached in his father's 
pulpit, taking the text, " I am poor and needy, yet the Lord 
thinketh on me, ' ' a sermon which so touched the heart of a wealthy 
relative that he made a large contribution toward his expenses. 

In the year 1694 the young man became his father's curate, and 
was much beloved by the congregation owing to his excellent 



372 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

pulpit abilities. Having married in 1702, he received the church 
at Schvveidnitz, where he was able to overcome the devices of the 
Jesuits through his gentle and peaceable character. In memory of 
a conflagration which destroyed half the town, Schmolke wrote, in 
1718, a hymn which is still used on the anniversary of that sad 
event. 

In the year i ']'^o, the good man was stricken by paralysis and 
partially lost his sight ; but though he remained at his post for five 
years longer, this courage of the wounded soldier could not always 
sustain him. He died on the 12th of February, 1737. His pat- 
tern was Gerhardt, and he followed close after his master. 

" As the olive did not yield its oil before it was bruised, so," 
said the rabbis, " Israel never produced the fruits of righteousness 
before the afflictions of God came upon them, ' ' Perhaps it was 
from some such sense of the nature of the divine discipline that 
this hymn was so great a favorite with the late Dr. T, H, Skinner, 
of Union Theological Seminary, 

My heart lies dead, and no increase. — Herbert, 

The biography of " holy George Herbert" was written by the 
author of The Complete Angler, the excellent Izaak Walton. It 
w^ould be a source of unmitigated delight to the present writer if 
he could use the space required to set forth, properly and fully, 
the merits of the composer of this hymn. But that may not be. 

George Herbert was born, April 3d, 1593, in the ancestral 
castle of the Herberts at Colebrook, County of Monmouth, Eng- 
land. He had a mother whose judicious care and training did 
much for him from his earliest years, both for his health and his 
morals, " He seemed," says quaint Izaak, " to be marked out 
for piety, and to become the care of heaven, and of a particular 
angel to guard and guide him. ' ' His education was rounded off 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he entered as a " King's 
Scholar" in 1608. He was afterward "orator" of his university, 
and turned the compliments required at the advent of royal and 
distinguished personages. 

In 1630, Herbert married a fit helpmate in Jane Danvers, whom 
he met, courted and espoused in three days. This haste is con- 
doned by the fact that the parties had been diligently brought to- 
gether by mutual friends, and that they were well aware of each 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 373 

Other's antecedents and qualities. Herbert was first settled at 
Layton Ecclesia in 1626, where he rebuilt the church and revived 
the congregation. After his marriage he was made rector of Bemer- 
ton, where, also, he reconstructed both place and people. From 
April 26th, 1630, for about three years, the holy man lived here, 
in full illustration of his own beautiful treatise, The Priest to the 
Teviple. He occupied any moments of leisure by the cultivation 
of sacred music ; and the anecdotes of his patience, generosity and 
gentleness are numerous and touching. 

The story of his last hours shows that his piety produced a pro- 
found impression on all who were permitted to enter his chamber, 
and converse with him ere he went home to God. Among his 
dying words were such as these : * ' I shall now suddenly (with Job) 
make my bed also in the dark ; and I praise God, I am prepared 
for it." . . . " My hope is, that I shall shortly leave this valley 
of tears, and be free from all fevers and pain." . . . "Every 
day that I have lived hath taken part of my appointed time from 
me. I shall not live the less time, for having lived this, and the 
day past." . . . And on the Sunday before his death he rose 
suddenly from his couch, called for one of his instruments, took it 

in hand and said : 

" My God, my God, 
My music shall find thee, 

And every string 
Shall have his attribute to sing." 

Then, having tuned it, he sang : 

" The Sundays of man's life, 
Threaded together on Time's string, 
Make bracelets to adorn the wife 
Of the eternal, glorious King : 
On Sundays, heaven's door stands ope ; 
Blessings are plentiful and rife, 
More plentiful than hope." 

Thus, in February, 1632, he passed away with songs of deliver- 
ance. " He pleased God," says good Izaak, " and was beloved 
of him ; so that, whereas he lived among sinners, he translated 
him." 

My opening eyes with rapture see. — Hutton. 

Our hymn is from the appendix to the " Memoirs of James 
Hutton, Comprising the Annals of his Life and Connection with 



374 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

the United Brethren: by Daniel Benham," 1856. Hutton was 
the cousin of Sir Isaac Newton, and was born in London, Septem- 
ber 3d, 1 71 5. His father was a clergyman, and gave this son a 
good education. Afterward he apprenticed him to a bookseller. 
But, having met with the Wesleys, our author was religiously im- 
pressed, and commenced holding meetings in his bookstore at 
about the same time as their Georgia voyage was undertaken. He 
seems also to have been greatly inclined toward the Moravians 
meanwhile ; and in 1739 he visited Herrnhut, as Miller states, 
whose account, mainly, we are following. There he met Count 
von Zinzendorf, and was by him in 1740 married to Louise Brandt. 

Hutton was the printer of the second Moravia?i Hymn-Book, in 
1 74 1, and of their Manual 0/ Docirme, in 1742. He continued 
his business until 1745. In 1754 a fuller collection of hymns was 
issued by the Brethren, followed by another in 1769. Then in 
1789, both of the previous books being out of print, another col- 
lection was prepared. That of 1754 was " too voluminous," as 
the earlier one appears to have been considered too small. The 
one issued in 1789 was largely based upon the German Moravian 
book, printed at Barby, 1788. Many new translations were made 
from the German tongue at this time. The list we have mentioned 
is not to be understood as including all the hymn-books used by 
the United Brethren, but merely those which are ordinarily noted. 

Hutton' s hymns are not in these later books — at least not in 
such a form as to be easily recognized. The collection of 1754 
contained several of his pieces, and perhaps this was the source 
from which succeeding compilers have drawn. " J. Hutton " is 
not to be confounded with his contemporary, " J. Hupton." This 
Job Hupton was one of Lady Huntingdon's associates, who died 
in 1849, aged eighty-eight. 

In style, the hymns of Hutton follow that of Zinzendorf. He 
was a thoroughly devout man, and partook of the missionary zeal 
of his friends to such an extent as to relinquish his secular busi- 
ness, and to engage entirely in the cause. For some years he re- 
sided on the Continent, in order to advance their church-work, and 
in 1749 he was made a deacon among them. He also served for 
awhile as president of the "Society for the Furtherance of the 
Gospel among the Heathen" — one of the noblest missionary 
agencies of modern times. Among his other labors he wrote an 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 375 

account of the life and character of Count von Zinzendorf, 1755. 
His Memoirs show that he was intimate with the Wesleys, with 
Cennick and others, who are well known to us by their Christian 
fervor as well as by their immortal songs. Hence he is by no 
means to be overlooked in any study of those men and their times. 
He died May 3d, 1795, and was buried at Chelsea, in England. 

My Saviour, I would own. — Mrs. Taylor. 
Mrs. R. H. Taylor is an English lady, the wife of Herbert W. 
Taylor, a member of the religious body known as Plymouth 
Brethren. This hymn is not in the usual collections. We are 
only able to locate it in Scobell's Plymouth Brethren Collection, at- 
tributed to " R. H. Taylor." 

My Saviour ! my almighty Friend. — Watts. 

Dr. Watts has afforded us this version of " Ps. 71, Second 
Part, C. M., w. 15, 14, 16, 23, 22, 24," with the title, *' Christ our 
Strength and Righteousness." It has seven stanzas. 

My Saviour, whom absent I love. — Cowper. 

This hymn is more frequently and properly arranged under the 
line " To Jesus the Crown of my hope." Its date is stated to be 
1783, or 1800, and it is often called " Cowper's last hymn." 
The statement is made that it was composed after the contributions 
to the Olney Collection, and ' ' was probably the last hymn Cowper 
wrote." In 1796 Cowper writes to Lady Hesketh : 

" All my themes of misery may be summed in one word. He who 
made me regrets that ever He did. Many years have passed since I 
learned this terrible truth from Himself, and the interval has been spent 
accordingly." The next year, and to the same person, he says : " It is 
unnecessary to add that this comes from the most miserable of beings, 
whom a terrible minute made such." In 1798 he speaks of everything 
being a " universal blank." 

In 1799 he wrote to Newton thanking him for a book and adding : " If 
the book afforded me any amusement, or suggested to me any reflections, 
they were only such as served to embitter, if possible, still more the 
present moment by a sad retrospect of those days when I thought myself 
secure of an eternity to be spent with the spirits of such men as he whose 
life afforded the subject of it. But I was little aware of what I had to ex- 
pect, and that a storm was at hand which in one terrible moment would 
darken, and in another still more terrible blot out that prospect forever. 
Adieu, dear sir, whom in those days I called dear friend with feelings that 
justified the appellation." 



376 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Thus in the midst of an ever-gathering gloom, Cowper's soul 
went " shuddering through the darkened spheres." He was re- 
vising his translation of Homer ; Mrs. Unwin was dead ; Newton 
was away in London — and the light had gone out in the temple of 
the Lord ! The last original poem of which we have cognizance 
is '* The Castaway," founded on an incident in Anson's voyage, 
not then read for the first time, but recalled after many years. 

Wh}' this present fiymn should be so confidently assigned to 
Cowper's pen is not easily explained. Mrs. Oliphant, Cowper's 
latest (though not his best) biographer, does not include it among 
the autobiographic pieces, nor mention it in any way. The free, 
glad utterance of this song of aspiration is what we would have 
wished from the poet's dying muse. But it is much against our 
wishes that his final words to his physician were, " I feel unutter- 
able despair." There are few finer passages than that in which 
(in his Theology in the English Poets) Stopford Brooke depicts 
Cowper's state of mind : 

" The weight of this dreadful belief did not always oppress him. It 
came and went like dark clouds upon an April day of sunshine, and, till 
the last three years, his life had many intervals of happiness. Many 
lovely landscapes lay between these three valleys of the Shadow of Death, 
where he rested and was at peace ; sweet idleness and fruitful contempla- 
tion — tender friendship and simple pleasures — hours where charming hu- 
mor and simple pathos ran through one another, and interchanged their 
essence like the colors of a sunset sea— days of sweet fidelity to Nature in 
her quietest and most restoring moods — times when the peace that passeth 
all understanding made him as a child with God ; but in the end the dark- 
ness settled down, deep and impenetrable : and the Poet, who of all Eng- 
lish artists, has written, to my mind, the noblest hymns for depth of 
religious feeling and for loveliness of quiet style ; whose life was blame- 
less as the water-lilies which he loved, and the way of life of which on 
silent streams he made his own ; whose heart breathed the sweetest air 
of natural piety, and yet could sympathize with the supersensuous world 
in which Guyon lived — died in ghastly hopelessness, refusing comfort to 
the last." 

So he might have written it, as all the indexes affirm. 

" Brethren," saith the apostle, " if our heart condemn us, God 
is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things /" 

But it may seem that this piece deserves rather more of our critical 
notice than such a brief dismissal. It has been greatly varied in different 
collections. 

In Southey's edition of Cowper' s Works we have only eight lines. This 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 377 

stanza is called " Fragment of a Hymn," and is printed among the OIney 
contributions as No. 67. The best texts — those, that is to say, which are 
critical and scholarly — adopt this arrangement and leave the hymn incom- 
plete. The standard editions on both sides of the water go no further, 
in other words, than the printing of these eight lines. Rossetti's and 
the Littell and Brown editions are notable examples. 

But in 1835 Rev. T. S. Grimshawe, a devout admirerof the poet, re- 
published his works in eight octavo volumes. Among the Olney hymns 
he places this one, but he enlarges it to eight stanzas, and marks it with 
his critical approval. His language merits quotation, as it helps us to 
dissect his capacity to form a judgment upon doubtful points. 

" The total number [of the Olney hymns] contributed by Cowper has 
been variously stated. Hayley estimates at 68. Other biographers have 
considerably reduced the number. Some editions assign 63 ; others, 65. 
We trust that we have the means of deciding this controverted subject. 
So far as the original edition, now lying before us, published under the 
superintendence of Newton himself and bearing the date of 1779, may be 
considered as the most authentic guide and criterion, we are enabled to 
state that the original number distinguished by the initial letter C. (Cow- 
per's signature) is 67. If to the above we add a hymn not inserted in 
Newton's original edition, because subsequently composed, but which %ve 
have been enabled to authenticate as the production of Cowper, the total 
number entitled to be ascribed to his pen is 68. The hymn that we allude 
to begins : 

' To Jesus the Crown of my hope.' " 

Following Grimshawe, other editions of Cowper's poems include this 
hymn in its lengthened condition. Bell, in his London reprint of 1854, 
frankly says that all the stanzas after the second " are adopted from Mr. 
Grimshawe's edition. The first two stanzas only are given by Mr. 
Southey with the title, ' Fragment of a Hymn.' " 

Remembering that Grimshawe's text only dates from 1835, we confess 
to some little scepticism about all except the first two stanzas. We may 
ask such pertinent questions as, " Why did not Mr. Southey find all the 
other stanzas when he found the first two?" and, "What is the proof 
which enables Mr. Grimshawe to 'authenticate' the last six?" But we 
have a belter method to pursue. 

There is before us at this moment an excellent edition of the Olney 
Hymns, containing Newton's original preface of Feb. 15th, 1779, and some 
later poems of Newton's at the back. Its date of publication is 1824, and 
it was printed for AUman, London, and Allardice, Edinburgh. In this 
edition the letter " C." is prefixed to exactly 64 hymns. The number o£ 
those credited to him has therefore grown with the desire of his admirers. 
Miller (not always accurate) assigns him 68. The more careful notes 
which accompany the Canada Hymnal aWovi him but 62. Gadsby states 
that " Breathe from the gentle south, O Lord,'' is restored to Cowper by 
Southey on the authority of " Mrs. Johnson, the widow of his excellent 



378 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

kinsman." He adds : " I believe there is no doubt that it is Cowpcr's, 
though at one time I doubted it. The omission of the C. must have been 
an error of the printers." 

We perceive, then, that the original authority for the hymns which 
Cowper wrote was Newton himself. Then we find Southey adding others, 
on various testimony which he held to be satisfactory. Finally com.es 
Grimshawe and lengthens the hymn before us. In his preface Newton 
makes himself personally accountable for all hymns 7ioi marked with a C. 
There were but two hands at work upon these compositions, and we may 
properly inquire whether Newton would not know his own hymns. The 
puzzling fact is that there are 67 in Grimshawe's 1779 edition, and there 
are but 64 in this edition of 1824. On this small pivot may turn 
Mr. Grimshawe's accuracy. For the hymns are distinguished by 
Roman numerals and not by Arabic, and there are exactly three hymns 
to which C. is prefixed to indicate that the number is 100. If any of 
these had been Cowper's it would have had a second C. This may 
not be the explanation of Mr. Grimshawe's reckoning, but it sounds 
plausible. 

Setting such a petty criticism aside, however, it is plain that Southey, 
by the exercise of that minute investigation for which he was famous, 
ran up the number of Cowper's contributions to the usually accepted 
figure. How safe this enlargement has been any person can judge for 
himself. The additions have been pieces which the Church never adopted, 
and which have not, consequently, excited any special attention. 

To return to Grimshawe, we find that he was not the first to publish 
the hymn in its entirety. It appears in a small book of Sacred Poetry, 
which passed to at least a tenth edition, and whose second edition was 
dated in 1824. This was issued by W. Oliphant, Edinburgh, and the 
eight stanzas are printed in it in full. In 1832, J. H. Hickok credited 
them to Cowper, and included them in the Sacred Harp, published at 
Lewistown, Pa. He seems to have taken them verbatitn from the Scottish 
book. Both of these instances are manifestly anterior to Grimshawe's 
acceptance. 

Until further evidence is offered vsre are therefore unwilling to admit 
that the last six stanzas were written by Cowper. Miss Maria de Fleury, 
Newton himself, and especially Benjamin Francis, wrote frequently and 
easily in this metre. No one can examine " My gracious Redeemer I 
love" and not feel that Francis could have completed the " Fragment" if 
be desired. So could Newton, when we recall " How tedious and taste- 
less the hours." 

The piece itself was so great a favorite with Rev. Charles J. Warren, 
of Harlem, N. Y. City, that he set it to music on his eighty-second birth- 
day, August 3d, 1877. The tune was printed in the Christian at Work of 
August 9th, 1S77. 

We commend to any one who cares to pursue this inquiry a comparison 
of this with similar hymns of Cowper's contemporaries, and we also 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 379 

desire him not to forget Mrs. Browning's pathetic and beautiful, poem, 
" Cowper's Grave." 

My Shepherd will supply my need. — Watts. 

This is Ps. 23, C. M., in six stanzas. 

My soul, be on ihy guard. — Heath, 

George Heath, the author of this hymn, was long untraced and 
unknown. He is now recorded as a Unitarian clergyman, educated 
at Exeter, England, and at first the pastor of a Presbyterian church 
at Honiton, Devonshire. This position he assumed in 1770, but 
proving unworthy of his office, he was deprived of his pastorate. 
It is a striking commentary on his hymn that its author should 
have failed in the very mode against which his stirring trumpet- 
blast ought effectually to have warned him. But perhaps we are 
uncharitable, and this was one of the fruits of true penitence ; for 
it was published in 1781 in his Hymns and Poetic Essays Sacred to 
the Worship of the Deity, which contains two hundred and forty- 
four hymns. 'H.Q ?Lho wvoiQ 2i History 0/ Bristol, 1797. 

Robert Simpson, doctor of divinity and theological tutor of the Hoxton 
Academy, died in an unusual manner. As though he were in actual 
conflict with the King of Terrors he cried out, much as Paul might have 
done, " Now have at thee. Death ! Have at thee. Death ! What art 
thou ? I am not afraid of thee ! Thou art a vanquished enemy by the 
blood of the cross. Thou art only a siceleton, a mere phantom !" And 
twice or thrice he repeated, " Have at thee, Death !" as though in deadly 
combat, giving and talcing sword-thrusts. Triumphantly he thus passed 
away in his seventy-second year, on the 21st of December, 1817. 

My soul complete in Jesus stands. — Hinsdale. 

Mrs. Grace Webster Hinsdale, the widow of the late Honorable 
Theodore Hinsdale, was born at Hanover, N. H., May 17th, 
1833. Her father was Professor Charles B. Haddock, D.D., 
whose mother was the sister of Daniel Webster, thus making that 
distinguished statesman the grand-uncle of our author. She was 
married to Mr. Hinsdale in 1850. He died in 1880, leaving be- 
hind him an honorable and Christian reputation. 

Mrs. Hinsdale has latterly written very little. She had previously 
obtained no slight recognition as a contributor to religious period- 
icals, and has published two books for children. Coming to the King 
and Thinking Aloud. Both were republished in London by Strahan. 
Four of her pieces are included in Christ in Song. Mrs. Hins- 



380 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

dale is exceptional among lady writers in the fact that she never 
composed poetry until she was beyond thirty years of age. Per- 
haps this may account for the value of what has been written, and 
for the notice which it has obtained. At present she resides quietly 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., with her children, and is a member of Dr. 
R. S. Storrs's congregation. 

My soul, how lovely is the place. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts's Ps. 84, C. M., vv. i, 4, 2, 3, 10, " Para- 
phrased." Its title is " Delight in Ordinances of Worship; or, 
God Present in His Churches," and it has nine stanzas. 

My soul, repeat his praise. — Watts. 
The present hymn is Ps. 103 of Dr. Watts's version. Second 
Part, S. M. , " vv. 8-18. Abounding Compassion of God; or, 
Mercy in the Midst of Judgment." There are eight stanzas. 

My spirit, on thy care. — Lyte. 
This is Mr. Lyte's version of Ps. 31. It is a lovely commen- 
tary on his own physical condition and upon that spirit of trustful 
obedience which governed his life. The closing stanza is pecul- 
iarly fine : 

" Let good or ill befall, 

It must be good for me ; 

Secure of having Thee in all,^ 

Of having all in Thee." 

It points the moral of his little poem, ' ' Declining Days ' ' : 

" Might verse of mine inspire 

One virtuous aim, one high resolve impart — 
Light in one drooping soul a hallowed fire, 
Or bind one broken heart ; 

" Death would be sweeter then. 

More calm my slumber 'neath the silent sod, 
Might I thus live to bless my fellow-men, 
Or glorify my God. 
****** 
" O Thou ! whose touch can lend 

Life to the dead, Thy quickening grace supply ; 
And grant me, swan-like, my last breath to spend 
In song that may not die !" 

We can trace the influence of Vaughan in these very stanzas, which 
resemble those of the " Swan of Usk " in his own song. Indeed, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 38 1 

Lj'te reprints Vaughan's own preface, in which that fervent poet 
says : 

'* He that desires to excel in this kinde of Hagiography, or holy writ- 
ing, must strive by all means for perfection and true holyness, ' that a 
door may be opened to him in heaven,' Rev. iv. i ; and then he will be 
able to write, with Hierotheus and holy Herbert ' a tiue hymn.' " And, 
truly, one should remember with Vaughan that " he that writes idle books 
makes for himself another body, in which he always lives, and sins after 
death as fast and as foul as ever he did in his life." 

Perhaps, too, the stricture of Lyte on Vaughan's times might 
not misapply to his own surroundings, for he speaks of the " taste- 
less and godless generation " for whom the Silurist was writing. 
It is difficult to believe that the perpetual curate of Lower Brixham 
had elements of sympathy about him such as he needed for his 
best personal development — but he gave us hymns that will never 
cease to thrill the heart. 

My soul, weigh not thy life. — L. Swain. 
This hymn is by Rev. Leonard Swain, D. D. , and appeared in 
the Sabbath Hy?nn-Book, 1858. The author was born in Concord, 
N. H., February 26th, 1821, and graduated at Dartmouth College 
in 1 84 1. He then entered Andover Theological Seminary and 
completed his course there in 1846. Next he became pastor of a 
Congregational church at Nashua, N. H., in 1847, and was also 
the pastor of the Central church, Providence, R. L (1852). His 
death occurred July 14th, 1869. It is probable that his two 
hymns, " My soul, it is thy God," and " My soul, weigh not thy 
life," may have been parts of a single longer piece, utilized by 
Lowell Mason and Professors Park and Phelps, the compilers of 
the New Sabbath Hymn and Tune Book. Both of these hymns are, 
however, anonymous in that collection, and the authority for assign- 
ing them to Dr. Swain comes from his friend, the late Professor 
Robinson P. Dunn, of Brown University. 

My times of sorrow and of joy. — Beddome. 
The date of this hymn is fixed by a most pathetic incident. It 
was prepared to be sung at the close of a sermon from the text, Ps. 
31 : 15, on Sunday, January 4th, 1778. Rev. Benjamin Beddome, 
the author, learned, after the service, that his son, a physician, 
bearing the same name, had that day died of fever in Edinburgh. 



382 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Near the cross was Mary, weeping. — J. W. Alexander, ir. 
This is the Stabat Mater oi Jacoponus [Giacopone da Todi], for 
whose strange character and briUiant genius see " The Latin 
Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." The translator is Rev. James 
Waddell Alexander, D.D., who must be distinguished from his 
brother, Professor Joseph Addison Alexander, D. D. (1809-1859), 
whose hymn, " There is a line by us unseen," is the most powerful 
presentation of the doctrine of probation anywhere in our collec- 
tions. 

There is a time, we know not when, 

A point, we know not where, 
That marks the destiny of men, 
To glory or despair. 

There is a line, by us unseen, 

That crosses every path. 
The hidden boundary between 

God's patience and His wrath. 

To pass that limit is to die, 

To die as if by stealth ; 
It does not quench the beaming eye. 

Nor pale the glow of health. 

The conscience may be still at ease. 

The spirit light and gay ; 
That which is pleasing still may please. 

And care be thrust away. 

O, where is this mysterious bourne 

By which our path is crossed ; 
Beyond which God himself hath sworn 

That he who goes is lost ? 

How far may we go on in sin ? 

How long will God forbear ? 
Where does hope end, and where begin 

The confines of despair ? 

An answer from the skies is sent, — 

' ■ Ye that from God depart, 
While it is called to-day, repent. 

And harden not your heart." 

y. A. Alexander, 1847. 

Nearer, my God, to thee. — Adams. 
Few hymns have received such general approval as this. Yet it 
has been severely criticised as the production of a Unitarian, and 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 383 

one othenvise candid writer says : " It contains nothing of Christ, 
but to those who have Christ in their hearts it has many times been 
made a blessing. " As if the actual use of the name of the Saviour 
was to be regarded as a proof of the infallible Christian spirit of a 
hymn ! On such a basis we should exclude the Book of Esther 
from Holy Writ and eminently honor those who say, " Lord, 
Lord," whether they do what the Lord commands or not. Noth- 
ing better illustrates the fallacy of this position than the universal 
approval given, by all branches of the Church, to the hymn before 
us. The compilers of the Baptist Hymn-Book were so ill pleased 
with this omission of the name of Christ, however, that they 
secured the services of Rev, Arthur Tozer Russell to make the 
lyric perfect by verses of his own, as follows, to wit : 

" Christ alone beareth me, 

Where thou dost shine ; 
Joint heir he maketh me 

Of the divine. 
In Christ my soul shall be 
Nearest, my God, to thee, 

Nearest to thee !" 

Others have with the same intent changed ' ' a cross " to " the cross. ' ' 
Sarah Fuller Flower was the second daughter of Benjamin 
Flower, editor and proprietor of the Cambridge (England) Intelli- 
gencer. While she is reckoned as a poetess of no mean repute, in 
consequence of her Vivia Perpetua, it is as the author of this hymn 
that she will be best remembered. She was born February 22d, 
1805, and at an early age showed a taste for literature and some 
considerable facility in prose and verse. This continued during 
her whole life, and her name was quite familiar to the conductors 
of most of the periodicals of the day. Her father being left a 
widower, managed the education of his daughters, Eliza and Sarah, 
himself. Eliza, indeed, displayed so much talent as to be con- 
fused in many instances with her sister. But her abilities ran in 
the direction of music rather than poetry, and her connection with 
hymnology is through the tunes which she composed for her sister's 
verses. Mr. Flower being a politician and a Liberal, it naturally 
followed that his children partook of his opinions, and so are al- 
ways reckoned among Unitarians. Both were of feeble constitu- 
tion, and the eldest died of consumption in 1846. 



384 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Sarah had met at Clapton, in 1834, a Mr. Wilham Bridges 
Adams, to whom she was married the same year. He was a per- 
son of scientific and Hterary attainments, quite extensively known 
as a civil engineer, and with some repute as a writer. It would 
appear that Mrs. Adams was entirely happy in her home and in 
her sister's love, but the long illness of Eliza wore upon her natur- 
ally delicate constitution, and she survived but two years, dying on 
the 14th of August, 1848. 

The fact that her uncle, Richard Flower, emigrated to America 
in 1822, and founded the town of Albion, 111., doubtless misled 
Sir Roundell Palmer, and caused the belief that ]\Irs. Adams was 
in some sense an American. To the best of our knowledge, she 
was always a resident of England, and her home was in St. John's 
Wood, London. We have followed the dates given b}' that very 
accurate scholar. Dr. Charles Rogers, in the second edition of his 
Lyra Britannica. Mrs. Adams was buried in Foster Street burial- 
ground, Harlow, Essex, and one of her own hymns — said to be 
" He giveth sun, he giveth shower" — was sung at her funeral. 
The parish record settles the dates. 

The pastor of Mrs. Adams and her sister, in London, was Rev. 
William Johnston Fox. He was born in 1787, and died in 1864, 
and was a man who, " though classed among Unitarians, was 
neither a rationalist nor a sympathizer with Channing or Mar- 
tineau." He is known as the founder of the Weshninsier Review^ 
and it was to his volume of Hymns and Ati^hems (in two parts, 
1 840-1 841) that Mrs. Adams Contributed thirteen hymns and her 
sister sixty-two tunes. The present hymn is one of those in the 
second part. 

It is testified by one of Mrs. Adams's friends that she always 
found great happiness in sacred music, and that with almost her 
latest breath she " burst into unconscious song." It is a sadness 
in this sort of inquiry for us to be compelled to question many of 
these hymn-legends, but there is so little authenticity about a large 
number of them that we must give them for what they are worth — 
and this one would have perished with some others were it not that 
it is certified by Dr. Rogers, to whom it was related by this friend, 
who was present at the moment of her death. Mrs. Adams thus 
literally fulfilled her own aspiration, and with her " waking 
thoughts bright with God's praise," she entered the better world. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. « 385 

Bishop Marvin, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was travelling, dur- 
ing the late war, in the wilds of Arkansas. He was feeling much de- 
pressed, for the Union troops had driven him from his home. But as he 
drew near a dilapidated old log-cabin he heard some one singing, 
" Nearer, my God, to thee." Alighting, he entered the house. There 
he found a poor woman, widowed and old, who was singing in the midst 
of such poverty as he had never before seen. His fears and despondency 
vanished, and he went on his way happy and trustful because of the faith 
which he had beheld and the hymn which he had heard. 

We have the account, also, of a Christian minister in the north 
of England to whom a lady applied for spiritual help. She desired 
to be saved, but she had been instructed to take the Old Testament 
for her guide, and she only knew one hymn in all the number 
which she had heard in the Unitarian service which seemed to her 
to be of any value. It was this very hymn. " I think," she said, 
' ' and try to pray, and then 1 repeat from my heart a hymn I 
learned : 

* Nearer, my God, to thee, 
Nearer to thee ! 
E'en though it be a cross 

That raiseth me ! 
Still all my song shall be. 
Nearer, my God, to thee, 
Nearer to thee ! ' " 

She was advised to read the Gospel according to St. John, and 
to pray that God would make her way clear. At the minister's 
next visit she had been led by John to Jesus, and was rejoicing 
in God her Father, reconciled to her through Jesus Christ. 

Few more touching incidents than this which follows are con- 
nected with any hymn. A little drummer-boy was found after the 
battle of Fort Donelson by one who visited the field. The poor 
lad had lost an arm, which had been carried away by a cannon- 
ball, but even as he died he was singing : 

" Nearer, my God, to thee, 
Nearer to thee. ' 

But there is no incident which has more appropriateness than 
that given to us in the pages of Rev. James King's Anglican Hym- 
nology. He writes : 

•' A few years ago, while journeying through the Holy Land, we visited 
the scene of the patriarch's halting-place for the night. Two hours over 
the bleak heights of Benjamin brought us to the venerable ruins of 



386 , ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Bethel. Standing by the ruined mounds, we remembered that somewhere 
near this spot Abraham pitched his tent, and built an altar on ' the moun- 
tain east of Bethel, having Bethel on the west and Ai on the east.' A 
few wretched hovels, the remains of an enormous cistern, and the ruins 
of a Greek church, are all that remain to indicate the position of ancient 
Bethel. After singing the hymn, ' Nearer, my God, to thee,' we pursued 
our journey toward Central Palestine." 

" Shiloh and Bethel," says Stanley, " . . . . almost escape the notice 
of the zealous antiquarian, in the maze of undistinguished hills which en- 
compass them." Elsewhere he adds : " The western slopes of the 
ridge . . . are crossed by the track which the thoroughfare of centuries 
has worn in the central route of Palestine. This track winds through an 
uneven valley, covered, as with grave-stones, by large sheets of bare rock ; 
some few, here and there, standing up like the cromlechs of Druidical 
monuments. . . . Bare, wild rocks, a beaten thoroughfare ; these are the 
only features of the primeval sanctuary of that God of whom nature itself 
there teaches us that if He could in such a scene so emphatically reveal 
Himself to the houseless ex'le, He ' is with him ' and with all His true 
servants everywhere, and will ' keep them in all places whither they go.' " 

New every morning is the love. — Keble. 
This is the "Morning Hymn" of Rev. John Keble, and is 
taken from a long poem of sixteen stanzas, in The Christian Year, 
1827. Mrs. Elizabeth Prentiss says in one of her letters, dated 
August 25th, 1840 : 

" I am beginning to feel that I have enough to do without looking out 
for a great wide place in which to work, and to appreciate the simple 
lines : 

' The trivial round, the common task, 
Would furnish all we ought to ask ; 
Room to deny ourselves ; a road 
To bring us daily nearer God.' " 

Her life abundantly illustrated her doctrine, and Stepping Heaven- 
ward came out of this spirit of self-devotion. 

Night's shadows falling, men to rest are calling. — Russell. 

Rev. Arthur Tozer Russell was born at Northampton, England, 
March 20th, 1806. He is the author of this and of several more 
hymns which are in current use, especially in the Episcopalian 
collections. His father, Rev. Thomas Russell, of Murden, in the 
county of Kent, was a Dissenting minister who preached in Lon- 
don and at Enfield. The son was educated at the Merchant 
Tailors' School in London, ahd^t St. John's College, Cambridge. 
In 1830 he became the vicar of Caxton, Cambridge ; of Whaddon, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 387 

1852 ; of St. Thomas's, Toxteth Park, near Liverpool, 1863 ; then 
of Holy Trinity, Wrockwardine Wood, Wellington, Shropshire, 
1867, He finally removed to the rectorship of Southwick, Sussex, 
where he died, November i8th, 1874. 

Mr. Russell prepared a volume of Psalms and Hynnns, Partly 
Original, Partly Selected in 185 1. He had previously issued, in 
1848, his Hymns for Public Worship aiid Private Devotion, and was 
a contributor to the Choral Hy?tin- Book in 1861. The greater part 
of his pieces are original, though he has made a few translations. 
The date of the present hymn is 1851. 

No gospel like this feast. — Mrs. Charles. 
The personality of Mrs. Charles has been but little known. 
Her maiden name was Elizabeth Rundle, and her father, John 
Rundle, was a member of Parliament for Tavistock, Devonshire, 
where she was born. Her marriage to Andrew Paton Charles, 
March 20th, 185 1, gives her the name by which she is best recog- 
nized. Her writings have taken the form of story-biographies 
(such as the Schiinberg-Cotta Family) or historical novels. She was 
born January 2d, 1828, at Tavistock, and is now living — a widow 
since 1868 — at Hampstead, London. 

No more, my God ! I boast no more. — Watts. 
After a sermon on Phil. 3 : 7-9 we find this hymn. It is the 
109th hymn of the first book, and is in four stanzas. 

Not all the outward forms of earth. — Watts. 
This is Hymn 95 of Dr. Watts' s Book L It is entitled " Re- 
generation," and was written to accompany a sermon on John 
1:13, and 3:3. It has four stanzas. 

Not all the blood of beasts. — Watts, 
This is Hymn 142, Book II., " Faith in Christ our Sacrifice." 
It has five stanzas. 

" There are several instances on record of the value of this particular 
hymn. One of the Bible Society's colporteurs was one day offering Bibles 
for sale in the Jews' quarter, at the east end of London, when a Jewess 
informed him, if any of their people bought a Bible, read it, and became 
converts to Christianity, they would certainly return to their form.er be- 
lief, and die in the faith of Abraham. The Bible-man replied that when 
he was a city missionary he had been induced to call upon a dying Jewess. 
' She had been brought from affluence to abject poverty for the faith of 



388 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Christ ; at one time she had kept her own carriage. One day her eye 
rested on the leaf of a hymn-book, which had come into the house cover- 
ing some butter, and she read upon it these words ; 

' " Not all the blood of beasts, 
On Jewish altars slain. 
Could give the guilty conscience peace, 
Or wash away the stain." 

The verse haunted her ; she could not dismiss it or forget it. After a 
time she went to a box where she remembered she had a copy of the 
Bible, and induced by that verse, she began to read it, and she read on 
till she found Jesus Christ, " the Lamb slain from before the foundation 
of the world. " She became openly a convert to Christianity. This caused 
her Jewish husband to divorce her. He went to India, where he married 
again, and died. She lived in much poverty with two of her nation, 
Jewish sisters, who had also become Christians. All this,' said the 
Bible-man, ' I knew ; and as I stood by her bedside, she did not re- 
nounce her faith in her crucified Lord, but died triumphing in Him as her 
rock, her shield, and her exceeding great reward.' " 

Not to the terrors of the Lord. — Watts. 
We find this as Hymn 152, of Book II., " Sinai and Sion. — • 
Heb. 12 : 18, etc." It is in six stanzas. 

Not what I am, O Lord, but what thou art ! — Bonar. 
The title .Q:iven to this hymn by the author is, " The Love that 
Passeth Knowledge." It is in Hynms of Faith arid Hope, second 
series, 1861, and has eight stanzas. 

Not with our mortal eyes. — Watts. 
This hymn is placed after a sermon on i Pet. i : 8. It has 
three stanzas. It also appears in the Psalms and Hynms, Book I., 
No. 108, with the title, " Christ Unseen and Beloved." 

Not worthy, Lord, to gather up the crumbs. — E. H. Bickersteth. 
Rev. Edward Henry Bickersteth was born in London, January 
25th, 1825. His father was the eminent Rev. Edward Bickersteth, 
rector of Wotton, author of The Christian Student (1829), and 
many similar works ; and a hymn-writer of some repute. His 
sonh as been the incumbent of Christ church, Hampstead, since 
1855, and dates his recent volume, Fi'orti Year to I'ear, from that 
vicarage, October 16th, 1883. To say nothing of his poem Yes- 
terday, Jo-day, and Forever, his services to sacred poetry and to 
hymnology have been of real worth and lasting importance. In 
Doing and Suffering, we have the inner life of the family, in the 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 389 

biography of his two sisters. The present hymn, in six stanzas, 
is designated for the day of " St. Simon and St. Jude, Apostles." 
The lessons are : Isa. 28 : 9-17 ; Jer. 3 : 12-19 J Jude 1 : 1-9 ; 
John 15 : 17. We also give the collect, as upon these short 
prayers Mr. Bickersteth has based his hymns. His book, From 
Year to Year, contains his collected hymns and sacred poetry, as- 
signed to the various portions of the Christian year. In 1885, 
Dr. Bickersteth became Bishop of Exeter. 

O Almighty God, who hast built thy church upon the foundation of 
the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the head corner- 
stone ; grant us so to be joined together in unity of spirit by their doc- 
trine, that we may be made an holy temple acceptable unto thee, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. A men. 

Nothing but leaves, the Spirit grieves.- — Mrs. Akerman. 
The facts as to this widely known hymn are as follows. It was 
published in the Christian Inquirer, New York City, in the month 
of September, between the years 1858 and 1865. The author — 
who was once supposed to be one " Vergil C. Taylor" — is Mrs. 
Lucy Evelina (Metcalf) Akerman, born February 21st, 181 6. She 
was the wife of Charles Akerman, a bookseller in Providence, R. I., 
and died in that city, February 21st, 1874. In religious opinion 
she is believed to have been a Universalist. The Scripture text as- 
sociated with the hymn is evidently Mark 11 : 13. The sugges- 
tion is said to have come from a sermon by Moncure D. Conway. 

Now be the Gospel banner. — Hastings. 
Dr. Hastings wrote this hymn for a Sunday-school celebration 
in Utica, N. Y., about the year 1828, and published it in Spiritual 
Songs, 1833, in two double stanzas. 

Now from labor and from care. — Hastings. 

We find this hymn of Dr. Hastings in the Spiritual Songs, 1833. 
It is the second part of a hymn of six six-line stanzas, with a 
doxology in the same metre. The first three of these are intended 
for morning, and commence : " In this calm, impressive hour." 
The second three form our present hymn. 

There is something singularly beautiful about evening — especially 
the Sabbath evening. Many such scenes remain with him who 
pens these lines — evenings of glory across the ocean or the inland 
sea ; evenings marvellous, above the prairie ; evenings seen ajar 



39° ENGLISH HYMNS. 

on the horizon from a church-tower where the great bell was begin- 
ning to move in its cradle like a giant babe, and the subdued 
noises of the gathering congregation below stole up to the ear. 
But all these are as nothing to the memory of one unequalled 
vision of island, and cape, and bay — the harbor-door of a new world 
high above the distant city-spires in the west. With a hymn like 
this one can go up the golden way of the sunset to the presence of 
the Lord ! Was there ever a better rhapsody on such a moment 
than that of the Ettrick Shepherd in the Nodes AmbrosiancB ? — 

" Let nae man daur to word it. It's daurin* aneuch even to look at it. 
For oh ! ma freens ! arena thae the gates o' glory — ^wide open for de- 
parted speerits — that they may sail in on wings intil the heart o' eternal 
life ? Let that sicht no be lost on us !" 

Now, God be with us, for the night is closing. — Winkworth, ir. 

This hymn is from the collection of the Bohemian Brethren, 
1 53 1, the original being, ^' Die Nacht ist komvien," etc. This is 
an evening hymn, in six stanzas, and in No. 210 of Laudcs Domini 
we have the concluding portion. 

The present piece is in the familiar Latin measure called " Sap- 
phics and Adonics," which is known by the famous student song, 
the ^''Integer vitcc,'^ of Horace. It is characteristic of the Bo- 
hemian hymnology that it is based on the Latin to a great ex- 
tent. Huss wrote at least one Latin hymn himself, and this period 
gives us the transition between the dead language and the vernacu- 
lar. 

The Brethren were the remains of an old Sclavonic Christianity, 
which owed its rise to the teaching of two Greek monks in the 
ninth century. As it antedated the Roman ritual, the hostility of 
the Greek and Latin churches was perpetuated in Bohemia with 
sad consequences of persecution and war. John Huss (for whom 
see Gillett's admirable Zj/^ and Times 0/ John Huss) was their prin- 
cipal martyr. Jerome of Prague was another. 

In the library of the college at Prague a Hussite hymn-book, 
written and illustrated with great care and splendor, is still pre- 
served. 

" This book," says Dr. Gillett, " which must have cost many thousand 
florins, was the joint production of a large proportion of the citizens. 
Each guild and corporation had a few hymns written and pictures painted 
to accompany them, and in this work they were joined by several noble 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 391 

families, each family or guild placing its own pictured arms or crest be- 
fore its own portion of the book." 

This intense national and religious feeling had its natural results 
in course of time, and there were no readier adherents of Luther 
than the Bohemians. In later days the Moravians appear as their 
direct and legitimate successors. It was from the remnant of the 
Bohemians scattered in Saxony in 1725 that the first materials for 
this new society, the Moravians, were taken by Count Zinzendorf. 

Now I have found a friend. — Hope. 
Henry Joy McCracken Hope, son of James Hope, a bookbinder 
in Dublin, Ireland, wrote this hynm, which was privately printed 
in 1852. Singularly enough, his name is not found in Lyra 
Hibemica Sacra (second edition, Belfast, 1879), and the informa- 
tion as to his personal history is meagre. We only know that he 
was born in the neighborhood of Belfast, in 1809, and that, in 
1846, he entered the service of the Messrs. Chambers, at Dublin, 
where he was employed as a bookbinder and in other capacities 
until his death. This occurred at Shanemagowston, Dunadry, 
County Antrim, Ireland, January 19th, 1872. 

Now, let our cheerful eyes survey. — Doddridge. 
Among Dr. Doddridge's hymns this is No. 8, " Christ's Inter- 
cession Typified by Aaron's Breastplate." It is based on Ex. 
28 : 29, and has five stanzas. 

Now, let our souls on wings sublime. — Gibbons. 
At the close of the fourth of his fifteen Sermons on Various Sub- 
j'ecls, etc., 1762, appears this hymn, in five stanzas, by Dr. Thomas 
Gibbons. 

Now, let our voices join. — Doddridge. 

In Dr. Doddridge's works this appears as Hymn Nc. 69, and is 
entitled, " Singing in the Ways of God." It has six stanzas, and 
is based on Ps. 138 : 5. 

An English gentleman was once examining a house in Newcastle, with 
a view of leasing it for a residence. The owner took him to the upper win- 
dow, expatiating meanwhile upon the extensive prospect. " For one 
thing," he said, " you can see Durham Cathedral from this spot on Sun- 
day." And in some surprise, the other asked : " Why on Sunday above 
any other day ?" Then the quiet answer came : " Because on that day 
there is no smoke from those tall chimneys yonder." 



392 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Now is the accepted time. — Dobell. 

The celebrated collection of hymns which bears the name of 
Dobell was published in 1806, and was very largely amended and 
revised by him. The first edition contained seven hundred hymns, 
of which many were original. Among them were several by Dobell 
himself. Others he changed to suit his own ideas, and his model 
was the expression of a young Cornish lady, who said to him that 
she ' ' hoped to see before she died a hymn-book full of Christ and 
his Gospel, and without any mixture of free-will or merit." 

John Dobell, who has left to us this collection, which in the 
second edition ran up to eight hundred hymns, was a native of 
Poole, in Dorsetshire. His birth is reputed to have occurred in 
1757, and he held a position as port-gauger under the Board of 
Excise. Personally he was tall and spare, and was a well-known 
attendant at the Dissenting chapel in Skinner Street. He died at 
Poole, in his eighty-fourth year, and was buried there on the ist 
of June, 1840. He will be longest remembered as a hymn-writer 
by the present piece. It is a favorite in revival services. 

Dobell's Collection was very useful from the fact that it is among the first 
to give the names of authors with their hymns. American editions ap- 
peared in Morristown, N. J., in 1815 and 1822, and another (also now be- 
fore us) in Philadelphia, in 1825. In his preface he says that the work 
has been " the labor of years and the choice of many thousand hymns." 
In another place he adds a sentence which is like the streaking of the first 
light of a new dawn for hymnology : " I deem it unnecessary to make any 
apology for taking some of the following hymns from authors who differ 
in doctrinal sentiments from myself, and the churches with which I am 
connected. The hymns themselves, superior in their kind, and on subjects 
in which all real Christians agree, must and will be their own apology." 

Now, let my soul, eternal King. — Heginbotham. 
Rev. Ottiwell Heginbotham was the author of this hymn ; it 
appeared in A CoUeclion of Hvmns /rom Various Authors, pub- 
lished in 1799. It is perhaps the father of this author, bearing the 
same name, who was the person mentioned by Tycrman in his 
Life 0/ foJm Wesley. He lived at Marple, near Stockport, in 
1754. The younger man died in 1768, aged twenty-four years. 

Now, may he, who from the dead. — ^Newton. 
We have these verses in the Olney Hymns, Book III., No. 100. 
The text is Heb. 13 : 20, 24. There are three stanzas. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. ' 393 

Now thank we all our God. — Winkworth, ir. 

This is a translation of the celebrated hymn, " Nun danket alle 
Goii," of Martin Rinkart. It is the German Te Deum, and was 
composed, both as to music and words, somewhere about the close 
of the Thirty Years' War, 1648. At least this is the date given by 
Dr. A. J. 'R.?LVCihzc\i ?, Hamburgisches Gesatigbuch, 1842, which is 
doubtless accurate ; though Miss Winkworth makes it 1644, giv- 
ing a full translation in her Christian Singers of Germany, p. 181. 

Rinkart was the son of a poor coppersmith (Kiibler says 
"cooper"), who got his education at the University of Leipzig, 
after a hard struggle, in which he was successful by reason of his 
musical gifts and decided industry. He was precentor at Eisleben, 
and at the age of thirty-one was offered the position of archdeacon 
at Eilenburg in Saxony, his native place. Thither he went as the 
war broke out, and there he remained through all the thirty-one 
years of its continuance. He shared with his people the hardships 
of the period ; the quartering of troops in the houses ; the distress of 
poverty, and the uncertainties of the conflict. In 1637 the plague 
ravaged Eilenburg, and in one year eight thousand persons died. 
But Martin Rinkart stood to his duty, doing the work of three 
men, in ministering to the sick, waiting on them, and even bury- 
ing them when they died. It is said that he actually interred with 
his own hands four thousand four hundred and eighty bodies. 
The famine following the plague was as terrible as the disease. 
Starving wretches fought in the open streets for a dead cat or a 
crow. And then, to crown all, back came the Swedish army and 
the town was ordered to pay thirty thousand thalers. The general 
refused to hear Rinkart when he ventured to the camp to plead for 
his impoverished fellow-citizens, and the good man, turning to 
the others who were with him, said : " Come, my children, we can 
find no mercy with men, let us take refuge with God." He fell 
on his knees, and uttered such a fervent and touching petition that 
the general relented and lowered the demand, first to eight thou- 
sand thalers, and then, at last, to two thousand. This they were 
forced to undertake, and their unfitness to do so may be judged 
from the condition of Rinkart, himself, who was in dire need, and 
was compelled to mortgage his income for several years ahead to 
obtain bread for his family. It was when times at last grew brighter 
that he sang this song of praise. 



394 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Rinkart was born in 1586, and died in 1649. ^"^^ ^^ 'he 
twelfth century was the culmination of Latin hymn-writing in 
France, so this period of the Thirty Years' War can be looked 
upon as the most prolific era of German hymnology. There were 
over a hundred poets, and their verses have expressed the deepest 
of Christian praises. It is a period to be compared with the times 
of Watts and Doddridge, and their successors, in England. 

The hymn is based on the apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus, 
written by Jesus, the Son of Sirach, and to be found in any copy 
of the Apocrypha. The first two stanzas translate Ecclus. 50 : 
22-24, which was the text of the Swedish chaplain on New Year's 
Day, 1649, when thanksgiving services were held upon the re- 
establishment of peace. 

The history of the hymn has been like that of our own ' ' Praise 
God, from whom all blessings flow," or like Luther's " Ein' /este 
Burg. " It has been sung at all great national events in Germany. 
It was used on the occasion, May 31st, 1850, of the unveiling of 
the statue of Frederick the Great, at Berlin. Again it was em- 
ployed after a great famine in 18 17, when the first cartful of 
sheaves of the new wheat entered Stuttgart, It was translated by 
Chevalier Bunsen, in 1845, ^^^ sung in England at the opening 
of the German hospital. Still later, in America and elsewhere, in 
1884, it has had a place in various celebrations of the three hun- 
dredth anniversary of the birth of Luther. 

Now that the sun is gleaming bright. — Newman, /r. 
Cardinal Newman has here furnished us with a good translation, 
from the Paris Breviary, of the ''''Jam lucis orto sidere." It was 
obtained from the author by Sir Francis Palgrave, and was written 
at Littlemore in February, 1842. The original is by Gregory the 
Great, for whom see "The Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." 

Now the day is over. — Baring-Gould. 
This is "An Evening Hymn for Missions" (revival services) 
and came into use at St. John's, Horbury Bridge, Yorkshire, Eng- 
land. It appeared first in the Hjnnns, Ancient and Modern, 1861. 

Now to the Lord a noble song ! — Watts. 
This is from Dr. Watts's Hymns, Book II., No. 47, " Glory 
and Grace in the Person of Christ." It has six stanzas. Such 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 395 

desire to praise the Lord may well receive its commentary from the 
words in which St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland, has recorded an 
experience of his own : 

" Again on another night, I know not, God knoweth, whether it was 
within me or near me, I heard distinctly words which I could not under- 
stand, except that at the end of what was said there was uttered, ' He who 
gave his life for thee, it is he who speaketh in thee.' And so I awoke re- 
joicing. And again I saw in myself one praying, and I was as it were 
within my body, and I heard him, that is to say upon my inner man, and 
he prayed mightily with groanings. And meanwhile I was in a trance, 
and marvelled, and thought who it could be who thus prayed within 
me. . . . And so I awoke and recollected the apostle's words, ' The 
Spirit helpeth the infirmity of our prayer.' . . . And again, ' The Lord, 
our Advocate, intercedeth for us.' " 

Now to the Lord, who makes us know. — Watts. 
This is Hymn 61, of Book L, and is also found after a sermon 
on Rev. i : 5-7, " Christ, our High Priest and King," and 
" Christ Coming to Judgment." It has five stanzas. 

Now to the power of God supreme. — Watts. 
In Dr. Watts' s Hymns this is Hymn 137, of Book I., " Salvation 
by Grace in Christ. — ii Tim. 1:9," It is comprised in five stanzas. 

Now when the dusky shades of night retreating. — Anon. 
The Westminster Abbey Hyvin-Book regards this piece as the 
translation of a Latin hymn of Gregory the Great. It is first found 
in America in Hymns /or the Church of Christ, 1853, compiled by 
Dr. Hedge and Dr. Huntington. From this Unitarian collection 
it was copied into the Plymouth Collection, 1855, and appears in 
the English Hymnary in 1872, with an added stanza. A fancied 
resemblance to the hymn of Gregory, commencing, " Ecce jam 
noctis tenuatur umbra," has probably caused the Westminster editor 
to go astray. The piece is similar also to the hymn of Prudentius, 
commencing, " Nox et tenebrce et nubila." In fact, it is precisely 
such a paraphrase as any one might write when he was familiar 
with the Latin morning hymns in the same measure. 

Now to thy sacred house. — Dwight. 
Dr. Timothy Dwight was a man of majestic presence, and his 
stately progress to the house of God might well serve as a com- 
mentary upon his own hymn. " His features," says Dr. William 



39^ ENGLISH HYMNS. 

B. Sprague, who was one of his pupils, " were regular, his eye 
black and piercing, but benignant, and his countenance altogether 
indicative of a high order of mind. His voice was rich and melo- 
dious, adapted alike to music and oratory." Honorable S. G. 
Goodrich ("Peter Parley") also speaks of the "imposing 
grandeur of his personal appearance in the pulpit." And he 
adds, " his smile was irresistible : even the pupils of the college 
almost adored him." This word " even " strikes us as high com- 
mendation. In Dwight's Colkdion, 1 800, this is part of the ver- 
sion of Ps. 43, commencing, " IMy God, defend my cause." 
Our first line begins the third stanza. 

O BLESS the Lord, my soul. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts's version of Ps. 103, first part, S. M., vv. 
1-7, " Praise for Spiritual and Temporal Mercies," It is in six 
stanzas. 

O BLESSED Saviour ! is thy love. — J. Stennett. 

The present hymn, sometimes written " My blessed Saviour," 
etc., is from Hymns in Commemo ration 0/ /he Sufferings of our 
Blessed Saviour, Jesus Christ, 1697 (third edition, 1709). 

O blest memorial of our dying Lord. — Woodford, ir. 
This is the hymn, " Thee we adore, O hidden Saviour — thee," 
commencing with the second stanza. It is a translation of the 
famous sacramental hymn of Thomas Aquinas, ''Adoro te devote, 
latens Deitas,'' and was first published in the Parish Hymn-Book, 
1863, compiled by Rev. Hyde W. Beadon and the late Bishop 
J. Russell Woodford, 

O bread, to pilgrims given. — R. Palmer, //-. 
We have here a version made from the Latin hymn, " O esca 
viatorum," which Moll calls a "Jesuit hymn." This rendering 
by Dr. Ray Palmer was prepared in 1858. 

O cease, my wandering soul. — Muhlenberg. 
The hymn, " I would not live alway, " has made the name of 
Rev. William Augustus Muhlenberg, D. D, , known to all lovers 
of sacred song. Yet it is far from being his best piece either in 
sentiment or expression. Its precise text appears in Prof. Cleve- 
land's Lyra Sacra Americana, and its history deserves a word in 
this connection. It was written in 1824, and first appeared in the 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 397 

Episcopal Recorder, Philadelphia, June 3cl, 1826, in six stanzas of 
eight lines each. 

In 1826 a committee was appointed to enlarge the Episcopalian Hyminal. 
One of the number, Dr. (afterward Bishop) H. U. Onderdonk, himself a 
poet of no mean capacity, had been pleased with the hymn, and having 
abridged it, submitted it — in all ignorance — to Dr. Muhlenberg himself, 
who was also upon the committee. At a general meeting of the com- 
mittee in 1829 the report of the sub-cornmittee came up, and the hymns 
were separately considered. One of the members said that " I would not 
live alway" was very good, but somewhat sentimental. It was rejected 
forthwith, and Dr. Muhlenberg himself voted against it. Dr. Onderdonk 
was not present, and the action seemed final. The next morning brought 
the absentee to Dr. Muhlenberg's house to hear what had been done. 
Learning that the hymn had met with disapproval he instantly remarked, 
" This will not do," and personally interceded with the rest of the com- 
mittee until they restored it. To him, therefore, the credit belongs. 

Dr. Muhlenberg was born in Philadelphia, September i6th, 
1796 ; graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, 18 14 ; entered 
the ministry, 1817, and was ordained as priest in 1820 ; became 
associate rector of St. James' church, Lancaster, Pa., in 1823 ; 
and then principal of St. Paul's College, which he established at 
Flushing, L. I., and which prospered under his management. He 
next became (1843) rector of the Church of the Holy Communion, 
New York City, and having founded St. Luke's Hospital, in 
1855, took both the temporal and spiritual care of it from that date 
until his death, in New York City, April 6th, 1877. The Church 
of the Holy Communion was a memorial edifice built by his 
sister. The fund for St. Luke's Hospital grew from $30 in 1846 
to over $200,000 in 1857, and has largely increased since that 
period. Dr. Muhlenberg was the great-grandson of Rev. Henry 
Melchior Muhlenberg, the founder of the German Lutheran 
Church in America. 

The last hours of Dr. Muhlenberg were full of thanksgiving. 
He used to say of the care taken of him in the hospital which he 
founded : " No royal person could be better provided. Such 
rooms, such comforts, such doctors and nurses. ' ' Then he would 
clap his hands and repeat : 

" Ten thousand, thousand precious gifts 
My daily thanks employ ; 
Nor is the least a thankful heart 
That takes those gifts with joy." 



398 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

And once he said : " If I have many sorrows I have innumerable 
mercies." He enjoyed also the hymn, " Jesus, my Lord, I know 
his name." He wished to have placed on his tombstone, " I 
know whom I have believed." And this has been done as he de- 
sired. 

Among the anecdotes of this excellent man there are two which 
we are unwilling to omit. Here is the first : Being once disturbed 
by the self-righteousness of one of his pupils, he handed him a slip 
of paper bearing these words : 

" i8th hymn corrected — 3d verse — 

'/did seek thee when a stranger 

Looking for the fold of God ; 
/, to save my soul from danger. 

Earned redemption in Thy blood.' " 

And the second is like unto it. For it was with this same keen 
and quiet irony that he answered another rather censorious person : 

" Ah, my dear , the Lord has a good many different sorls 

of sinners." 

O Christ ! our hope, our hearts' desire. — Chandler, ir. 
We have here Rev. John Chandler's translation of the ^^ Jesu 
nostra redemph'o," an Ascension hymn of the ninth or tenth cen- 
tury ; sometimes, though incorrectly, called Ambrosian. This 
hymn sometimes appears as "Jesti, our Hope, our hearts' desire." 
The present version dates from 1837. 

O Christ, our King, Creator, Lord, — R. Palmer, Ir. 
This is a translation of the "Rex Chr isle, factor omnium'* of 
Gregory the Great, for whom see " The Latin Hymn-Writers and 
their H)'mns." The rendering was made in 1858. 

O Christ, the eternal King. — S. W. Duffield, tr. 
This is a rendering — made in 1883 for Laudes Domini — of the 
*''Chrisie, lumen perpetuum" of Magnus Felix Ennodius, bishop of 
Pavia. The famous hymn by Charles Wesley, " Christ, whose 
glory fills the skies," is — probably without deliberate intention — a 
free version of this same Latin piece, Ennodius has never before 
been translated for Christian use, Rambach knew of nothing from 
him in German, and (with the exception of Nos. 940 and 785 in 
Laudes Domini) we do not, in English. He was a strange charac- 
ter, the originator of the title " Pope" as applied to the Roman 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 



399 



bishop. His history is given in " The Latin Hymn-Writers and 
their Hymns." 

O Christ, the Lord of heaven ! to thee. — Palmer. 
This hymn was written in New York City, 1867, and is based 
on Rev. 19 : 16. It is not — as sometimes considered — a trans- 
lation. Dr. Palmer says of this piece that it "satisfies" him 
better than almost any hymn which he has written. 

O Christ, thou hast ascended. — E. H. Bickersteth. 
Dr. Bickersteth intended this for the Sunday after Ascension 
Day, and has so placed it in From Year to Year. The " Lessons " 
are Deut. 30 and 34 ; Josh, i ; i Pet. 4 : 7-12 ; John 15 : 26, 
and 16 : 1-5. The hymn is based on John 15 : 26, and has four 
double stanzas. This is the collect : 

O God, the King of glory, who hast exalted thine only Son Jesus Christ 
with great triumph unto thy kingdom in heaven ; we beseech thee leave 
us not comfortless ; but send to us thine Holy Ghost to comfort us, and 
exalt us unto the same place whither our Saviour Christ is gone before ; 
who liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, one God, world 
without end. Amen. 

O Christ, who has prepared a place. — Chandler, ir. 
This is the "'Nobis Olympo reddilus" of Santolius Victorinus 
(Jean Baptiste de Santeul, born May 12th, 1630; died August 
5th, 1697) from the Paris [Harlay] Breviary, for which " The Latin 
Hymn-Writeis and their Hymns " can be consulted under " Paris 
Breviary." The rendering is from Rev. John Chandler's Hymns 
of the Priviiiive Church, 1837. There are five stanzas, including 
the doxology. 

O Christ, with each returning morn. — Chandler, tr. 
This author has given us some of the best versions of the Latin 
hymns which we possess. His volume of translations, entitled 
Hymns of the Primitive Church, appeared in 1837, and from this all 
the hymns bearing his name in the popular collections have been 
taken. The one introduced here is a rendering of the " Splendor 
paterna: gloricc,'^ by Ambrose, bishop of Milan, for whose poetry 
see "The Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns." It consists 
of seven stanzas, which different compilers have arranged according 
to their needs and tastes. Sometimes the hymn is made to begin 



400 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

with the line, " All-hallowed be our walk this day," and some- 
times, " O Jesus, Lord of heavenly grace." 

Rev, John Chandler was born in Witley, Surrey, England 
(where his father, Rev. John F. Chandler, was patron and incum- 
bent of the vicarage), June i6th, 1806. After receiving his educa- 
tion at Corpus Christi College, Oxford (B.A. , 1827, and M.A., 
1830), he was ordained deacon in 1831, and presbyter in 1832. 
In 1839 ^^ succeeded his father in the vicarage of Witley, and 
was also appointed rural dean. He died at Putney, July ist, 
1876. A singular fact in connection with the vicarage of Witley 
is, that its incumbent is likewise the patron of the living, and ap- 
points his successor. Hence, on the death of Mr, Chandler, he 
was succeeded by Rev. John Brownlow Chandler, a graduate of 
Corpus Christi College, in 1873, '^ho is the present vicar. 

Oh, come, and let us all, with one accord. — Anon. 
This is one of those traditional versions of the 95th Psalm which 
are found in the ancient psalters, and are preserved in the Church 
collections for the sake of association, and because of a certain 
flavor of age and quaintness that renders them attractive. Evi- 
dently it has figured as a Long Metre before it received its present 
elongation of lines by two syllables of expletive. It was taken by 
the editor of Laudes Domini ixova. the Temple Choral Service Book, 
edited and prepared by Edward J. Hopkins, organist of the Inner 
and Middle Temple in London. Although it bears no date, and 
is not easily to be assigned to any certain period, the internal evi- 
dence shows two curious facts. To one accustomed to " the 
higher criticism" in hymnology, there can be no doubt that it is 
a production of the seventeenth century or thereabouts. And 
then the lines have been artificially lengthened, like a steamship 
cut in two and pieced out, so that traces of a second hand are visi- 
ble in the structure, thus : 

** Let universal nature [ever] raise 

A cheerful voice to give him [thanks and] praise : 

Let [us and] all his saints his glory sing, 

Who is our blessed [Saviour,] Lord and King." 

Oh, come, all ye faithful, — Oakeley, Mercer and others, Irs. 
This hymn, Adeste Jidelcs, is attributed to the seventeenth or 
eighteenth century, and is said to have been taken from a Graduale 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 401 

of the Cistercians. There is but little doubt that in this, as in his 
other hymn included in Laudes Domini, Mercer amended a version 
by another author to suit himself. Hutchins and Prescott bolh 
assign this piece to Rev. Frederick Oakeley. Its modified form 
is, however, due to the compilers of .^>7//«5, Ancient and Modern, 
as well as to Mercer. It was translated in 1841, and published in 
1848, in the Lyra Catholica. Mercer's book appeared in 1854, 
and this version was included among its hymns. The original 
form, " Ye faithful, approach ye," can be found, anonymously, in 
the Roman Catholic hymn-book (ed. of 1884, N. Y. ). The Latin 
original is sometimes ascribed to Bonaventura. 

The principal author. Rev. Frederick Oakeley, was a high 
Ritualist, the youngest son of Sir Charles Oakeley, born at Shrews- 
bury, September 5th, 1802. He was graduated at Oxford, in 
1824, and was a Fellow of Balliol College, 1827. He then took 
orders in the English Church, and was a prebendary of Lichfield 
Cathedral, 1832. In 1839 he was minister of Margaret Chapel, 
Margaret Street, London, but in 1845 he joined the Church of 
Rome. He became a priest, and was finally a canon of the Roman 
Catholic district of Westminster in 1852. His death took place in 
1880. His Lyra LMurgica is a Roman Catholic imitation of 
Keble's Christian Year. 

The " Portuguese Hynin," to which the " Adeste fidetes " has usually 
been sung, was the composition of Marcas Portugal. He was the chapel- 
master of the king of Portugal, and died at Rio Janeiro over fifty years 
ago. The tune was originally employed as an offertory piece, and Dom 
Joao VI., in whose service the composer had a position, came to Brazil 
in 1808. Marcas Portugal accompanied him thither, and remained when 
his royal master returned to Europe. When Dom Pedro II., who is the 
grandson of Dom Joao, was a little boy, the old composer still led the 
chapel services, and Dr. Fletcher, in his Brazil and the Brazilians, fixes 
the date of his death in 1834. In the preface to the ninth edition of Dr. 
Fletcher's work this fact is authoritatively stated, and it is added that 
Marcas (or Marcos) Portugal wrote several operas as well as much sacred 
music. These were popular in the early part of the present century, 
bolh in Portugal and Italy. The claim, therefore, that Reading (other- 
wise Redding) was the composer of this celebrated tune, falls to the 
ground. It is worthy of passing note that the earliest musical composer 
on the Western continent was Antonio Carlos Gomez, who came from 
the very land where the body of Marcas Portugal rests. 

Further information on this subject can be found in Notes and 
Queries, sixth series. III., May 21st, 1881, p. 410. 



402 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Oh, could I find, from day to day. — Cleveland. 
This hymn is commonly assigned to Benjamin Cleveland, pre- 
sumably an American Baptist, who published his pieces in 1790. 
The fourth edition appeared at Norwich, Conn., 1792. The dis- 
covery of the authorship is due, apparently, to Rev. Sylvanus 
Phelps, D. D., of Hartford, Conn., who published in the Watch- 
man and Reflector an account of this small book of hymns, which 
had somehow come into his possession. Dr. Phelps says : " There 
was not another piece in the collection fit for use as a hymn, nor 
was this as the author left it." Precisely how he could know the 
latter fact it is not easy to say. The critical history of the text is 
that there were originally six stanzas, which were altered in the 
Hartford Selection, 1 799. The present text is substantially that 
of Nettleton's Village Hy tuns, 1826. 

Oh, could I speak the matchless worth. — Medley. 
This hymn is fully reprinted in Lyra Britannica, and com- 
mences, " Not of terrestrial mortal themes." It has eight six-line 
stanzas, was written in 1789, and, like some other sacred lyrics 
of English birth, is more popular in America than in England. It 
was probably brought here in DobcW s Collection (Morristown, N. J., 
1815). It was subsequently in Hickok's Sacred Harp, Lewis- 
town, Pa., 1832, and Dr. Hastings's Spiritual Songs, 1831. In 
Hickok's book the tune is " Ganges," C. P. M. ; in Hastings's 
book it is " Courtville." Neither of these tunes suited the piece, 
but when, in 1836, Dr. Hastings wrote 'Mrzi?/," he permanently 
wedded words and music, and ever since that time this hymn, 
" Christ our King," has been a part of the treasures of the Ameri- 
can Church. Like " Aaron's rod that budded," the splendid old 
song took new life, and is now laid up in the ark of our Christian 
hymnody. 

O DAY of rest and gladness. — C. Wordsworth. 

Rev. Christopher Wordsworth, D. D., the nephew of William 
Wordsworth, the poet, was born in the year of grace 1807 ; 
educated at Winchester School, and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
England ; and in 1836 became head-master of Harrow. In 1844 
he was promoted to be a canon in Westminster Abbey. As a 
scholar, he has made himself conspicuous by his Cofnmentary upon 
the Old Testament in the Authorized Version, and upon the New 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 403 

Testament in the Greek ; as a traveller, his volumes upon Greece, 
Italy and France are well known ; and as a hymn-writer he has 
given us some of our sweetest and best lyrics. He became, in 
1869, the Bishop of Lincoln, in the Church of England, and died 
in 1885. His name must not be confounded with that of Charles 
Wordsworth, the bishop of St. Andrews, born in 1806 ; nor with 
that of Christopher Wordsworth, D. D. , born in 1774. 

The present hymn is found in a collection of one hundred and 
twenty-seven, by the same author, entitled, The Holy Year ; or. 
Hymns for Sundays, Holy Days and Other Occasions Throughout 
the Year, 1862. 

Oh, do not let the word depart. — Mrs. Reed. 
This hymn is by Mrs. Elizabeth Reed, the wife of Rev. Andrew 
Reed. The date is 1825. Dr. Reed was married to Miss Eliza- 
beth Holmes, the author of this hymn, in 18 16. She was the 
daughter of a London merchant, and their family consisted of 
seven children, five of whom survived their mother, who died July 
4th, 1867. 

O EYES that are weaiy. — Darby. (?) 

John Nelson Darby, the founder of the sect called " Plymouth 
Brethren," contributed five hymns (says Miller) to a collection 
published by Messrs. Groombridge & Sons. The inference is that 
Mr. Darby authenticated these for Mr. Miller, but the hymn now 
before us is not given in Miller's index. 

The views of these Darbyites, or Plymouth Brethren, have been propa- 
gated in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Switzerland, Italy and else- 
where on the Continent. They are represented in India, and a few con- 
gregations can be discovered in Canada and the United States. They 
publish no statistics ; emphasize the doctrines of depravity, atonement 
and regeneration ; baptize only adults ; partake of the communion every 
Sunday, and cultivate a fervent spiritual life. The great difference be- 
tween them and other Christians is seen in their denial of ecclesiastical 
forms, and, especially, in their resistance to the idea that clergymen have 
any exclusive right to administer the sacraments and to preach. Some 
prominent American evangelists have been considered to hold these 
opinions also, and have therefore been frequently counted with the Plym- 
outh Brethren. 

The Schaff-Herzog Cyclopcedia (Supplement) has an article on 
Darby which is probably the most authoritative of any that we can 
touch. It is by Edward E. Whitefield, a member of the Brethren, 



404 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

at Oxford, England. What follows is condensed from that ac- 
count. 

Mr. Darby was born in London, November i8th, 1800, gradu- 
ated at Trinity College, Dublin, 18 1 9, took orders and became a 
curate in Wicklow until 1827. At that time he doubted as to 
Church establishments, left the Church altogether, and gathered a 
band of like-minded persons in Dublin. In 1830 he carried on 
this movement at Plymouth. The Christian Witness (their paper) 
was started in 1834 by James L. Harris, who had resigned the 
perpetual curacy of Plymstock, To this periodical Mr. Darby 
was a frequent contributor. 

From 1838 to 1840 Mr. Darby worked in Switzerland, and in 
1845 (the Methodists and other Dissenters having joined them) the 
Darbyites suffered there some persecution. This was charged to 
the account of the Jesuits of Canton Vaud. But there was also 
trouble at home the same year, and a disruption occurred at Plym- 
outh, which is fully detailed in the Schaff-Herzog Cydopcedia 
(art. Plymouth Brethren) and need not here be repeated. In 1866, 
and again in 1878-81, there were further disintegrations, so that 
the Brethren are now, like the French Assembly, very much 
differentiated into : i. Exclusives (/. e., Darbyites, with three 
subdivisions or splits, beneath this general head) ; 2. Bethesda, 
or open, Brethren (affiliated with George Miiller, of the Faith Work 
and Orphanages at Bristol) ; and 3. Newtonians (followers of 
B. W. Newton, who had been the first to invite Darby to Plymouth 
in 1830). All this concerns us but little, except, indeed, as it 
shows the minute and controversial distinctions which have pre- 
vailed in a body of people who were revolutionists against too 
many forms. On some of the most sacred subjects — for instance, 
the sufferings of Christ — Mr, Darby unhesitatingly propounded his 
views and defended them with determination. He was an indus- 
trious scholar, a profound Bible student — and, it is needless to 
add, an earnest man. He turned some of his batteries against 
Romanism between the years 1870 and 1880. He had visited the 
United States and Canada in 1859-60, again in 1864-5, ^ third 
time in 1866, a fourth in 1870, and finally made a " vigorous 
campaign in the United States," in 1872-3. In the midst of these 
labors he took occasion to render the New Testament into French, 
to visit Italy, and to make an expedition to New Zealand. Even 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 4^5 

in advanced age he was incessantly active, translating the Old 
Testament into French, discussing the Greek aorist, elucidating 
the Greek article, reviewing Robertson Smith and John Stuart 
Mill, and preparing abstruse philosophical treatises. He com- 
posed his Meditations on the Acts (i 871) in the Italian language. 

But it is recorded of him that he delighted to turn from this 
doctrinal and controversial labor to anything devotional and prac- 
tical. He rejoiced to write hymns. The Brethren s Hymnal was 
edited by him. His various works have been collected by W. 
Kelly. He died in Bournemouth, April 29th, 1882. 

The hvmn, therefore, upon which we are commenting may not 
positively be his work, but it is certainly in his spirit. 

Oh, fair the gleams of glory. — C. I. Cameron. 
This hymn appears in the Canadian (Presbyterian) Hymnal, 
1 88 1, and is the composition of Rev. Charies Innes Cameron. He 
was born at Kilmallie, near Fort William, Scotland, in 1837, 
came to Canada in 1858, entered Queen's College, Kingston, 
where he was graduated, and afterward spent two years in the 
Theological Hall, and took his third year in Glasgow. In 1865 he 
was ordained, and became a missionary in India under the auspices 
of the Church of Scotland. His health being much impaired, he 
was compelled to leave India. Thence he went to Australia, but 
returned to Canada in 1875, and assumed the care of a congrega- 
tion at New Edinburgh, in the Presbytery of Ottawa. Here again 
his health broke down and he resigned— the Presbytery with great 
reluctance yielding to the necessity in the case. Not long after- 
ward he died in faith and hope. 

A small volume of his poems was issued posthumously, and 
from this is taken the present piece, which bears the title, " The 
Glory that Excelleth." We are indebted lor this hitherto-unpub- 
lished information to the personal kindness of Rev. W. Greig, 
D.D., of Toronto, one of the compilers of the Hymnal 
Oh, for a closer walk with God. — Cowper. 
After his first season of real and ecstatic joy in the Lord, the 
mind of Cowper was darkened by his old constitutional melancholy. 
This is one of the hymns which, before that gloomy time had set 
in, he contributed to the Olney Collection. Newton himself con- 
veyed to his friend Cecil the idea— which Cecil records— that 



4o6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Cowper was free from this melancholy mood until he again took 
up literary labor. In his life of Newton, Cecil spends both care 
and space upon the matter. ' ' There has gone forth, ' ' he says, 
" an unfounded report that the deplorable melancholy of Cowper 
was, in part, derived from his residence and connections in that 
place." [Olney. ] This he labors to neutralize. And we would 
be slow to ascribe to Mr. Newton any share in causing the poet's 
malady. But one cannot read Newton's own table-talk or his ser- 
mons without a conviction that what Cowper needed was a hand 
not less true but more gentle. Here, for example, is Newton's 
philosophy of life : ' ' When a Christian goes into the world, be- 
cause he sees it is his call, yet, while he feels it also his cross, it 
will not hurt him." 

Under the pressure of such feelings Cowper once more took up 
his pen. He felt as if it was a sin against conscience for him to 
write anything secular. The fret of this produced its natural effect. 
He grew morbid and moody. Fie was frittering away his poetical 
talent upon merely worldly matters, as he thought, while religion 
v/as neglected. Mrs. Oliphant has expressed this admirably when 
she writes : " The faith, not even of Calvin, but of John Newton, 
represented Christianity to Cowper's eyes. He knew no kind of 
piety but that which was dictated by this form of doctrine, and he 
tutored himself to belts interpreter to the world, which loved verse 
better than sermons." 

Is it any wonder, then, that this is the hymn which comes from 
such a struggle, and that it represents much more than the elements 
which gave it birth } It is the echo of old David's " Restore unto 
me the joy of thy salvation" — but Cowper has exaggerated his 
own morbidness until he is positively the antitype of the royal 
criminal. Nevertheless, this intensity is a part of the power of the 
hymn — and a great part, too. Cowper has uttered what others — 
far darker in spirit — could not phrase. It is just like reputable, 
home- loving Tom Hood putting into words a murderer's dream, 
or — to take a higher illustration — Shakespeare revealing the horrors 
of conscience in Lady Macbeth. 

This is what we call genius. This, consecrated by God's grace, 
constitutes a Christian poet and produces the tone into which all 
struggling spirits strike — makes a spiritual path through a wilder- 
ness — teaches words to the inarticulate and agonized soul. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 407 

" How well Cowper knew the heart," writes Josiah Conder (July 4th, 
1810), " when he closes one of his beautiful poems thus : 

' But ah ! my inmost spirit cries, 
" Still bend me to thy sway ; 
Else the next cloud that veils the skies 
Drives all these thoughts away." ' " 

This is from the hymn, " O Lord, my best desires fulfil," whose tone is 
very similar to the one before us, but which is inferior to it as an expres- 
sion of profound longing after God. But Conder's further words are very 
helpful, " Oh this chilling, distracting, harassing world ! When in league 
with such traitorous hearts no effort of ours, unassisted by divine influ- 
ences, can withstand its power." 

Oh, Father, who didst all things make. — Heathcote. 
After passing for a long time as " Anonymous," this hymn is 
now positively accredited, in Hymns Ancient and Modern, to Rev. 
H. B. Heathcote, a clergyman of the Church of England. It was 
first published in an English hymnal of the date 1852. 

Oh, for a faith that will not shrink. — Bathurst. 
There are some alterations in this hymn, but it is not seriously 
changed. Its title is, " The Power of Faith," with a reference to 
Luke 17 : 5, and it is from Psalms and Hymns for Public and 
Private Use, 1831, and has six stanzas. 

Oh, for a heart to praise my God. — C. Wesley. 

This is from the Hymns and Sacred Poems (1742), and founded 
on Ps. 51 : 10. There are eight stanzas. 

The " holy Fletcher of Madeley " says of this hymn : " Here 
is undoubtedly an evangelical prayer for the love which restores 
the soul to a state of sinless rest and scriptural perfection." 

Mr. Christophers tells of an old Congregational minister and his 
wife who had debated the question of "Christian perfection," 
and who finally made up their minds that, if it consisted in the 
ability to sing this hymn with the whole heart, they and the Meth- 
odists were not far asunder ! 

Oh, for a strong, a lasting faith. — Watts. 
This is Hymn 60, L. M., of Dr. Watts' s Book II. It has 
eight stanzas, and our present hymn commences with the sixth. 
The first line, as given by Dr. Watts, is, " Praise, everlasting 
praise, be paid." The title is, *' The Truth of God the Promiser : 
or, the Promises are our Security. ' ' 



4o8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Oh, for a shout of joy. — ^J. Young. 
This hymn and another by the same author appeared in the 
Baptist Church Psalmist (American) in 1843. Nothing further is 
known. 

Oh, for a shout of sacred joy. — Watts. 

This is Dr, Watts's version of Ps. 47, CM., " Christ, Ascend- 
ing and Reigning. " It has six stanzas. 

Oh, for a thousand tongues to sing. — C. Wesley. 

The history of this hymn is memorable indeed. It is the first 
in the Methodist hymnal, and it well deserves its prominence. 
Charles Wesley wrote it to commemorate his own conversion, and 
it has been traced to its origin, and all the surrounding circum- 
stances have been verified. 

On Whit-Sunday, May 21st, 1738, Wesley was confined to his 
room in the house of Thomas Bray, a brazier of Little Britain, by 
an attack of pleurisy. In 1881 the exact location of Mr. Bray's 
house was ascertained. The account in Mr. Wesley's journal is 
as follows : 

" The Day of Pentecost. — Sunday, 2rst of May, 1738. I waked in 
hope and expectation of His coming. At nine my brother and some 
friends came and sang a hymn to the Holy Ghost [probably written by 
his brother SamuelJ. My hope and comfort were thereby increased. In 
about half an hour they went. I betook myself to prayer ; the substance 
as follows : ' O Jesus, Thou hast said, " 1 will come unto you ;" Thou 
hast said, " I will send the Comforter unto you ;" Thou hast said, " My 
Father and I will come unto you, and make our abode with you." Thou 
art God who canst not lie ; I wholly rely upon Thy most true promise : 
accomplish it in Thy time and manner.' Having said this, I was 
composing myself to sleep in quietness and peace, when I heard one come 
in and say : ' In the name of Jesus of Nazareth, arise, and believe, and 
thou shalt be healed of all thine infirmities.' The words struck me to the 
heart. I lay musing and trembling. With a strange palpitation of heart, 
I said, yet feared to say, ' I believe, I believe !' " 

Mr. Bray told Mr. Wesley that his sister, Mrs. Turner, had been 
ordered by Christ to say those words to him. Other accounts re- 
late that the reading of the Life of Haliburton had been the first 
incentive to this great change. The original hymn contained 
eighteen stanzas, and was composed on the anniversary of Wesley's 
conversion, namely, May 21st, 1739. ^"^ the same year it was 
published in Hymns and Sacred Poems. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 409 

Possibly the idea expressed in the first line came to the poet 
from his conversation with Peter Buhler, the pious Moravian. 
Speaking of praising Christ, the good man said : " Had I a thou- 
sand tongues, I would praise Him with them all !" Nor is this 
the only instance where this thought has been employed. It 
occurs in some of the German hymns, and in one by the Rev. H. F, 
Lyte. 

The eccentric " Billy Dawson" — the Barnbow lay preacher— occasion- 
ally used hymns with startling effect. Once, when preaching upon 
" Death on the White Horse," he gave out these verses. When the 
eighth stanza was reached he cried out : " ' See ' — what ? — ' come and see • 
— what ? I do not ask you to come and see the preacher, or to hear the 
voice of thunder, but to come and see yourselves — your sins — and your 
Saviour : ' See all your sins on Jesus laid.' " The effect was instantane- 
ous. 

Oh, for that tenderness of heart. — C. Wesley. 

This is taken from the Short Scripture Hymns, 1762, and is 
based on 11 Kings 22 : 19-30. There are but two double 
stanzas. 

Oh, for the happy hour. — Bethune. 

This hymn was composed by Dr. Bethune upon a scrap of 
loose paper, and while he was waiting for the audience to assemble 
for a devotional meeting. The date is in the neighborhood of 
1843. The stanzas express the devout longing of the author's 
heart for a revival of religion. 

George Washington Bethune was born in New York City, March 
1 8th, 1805. His grandmother was the sainted Isabella Graham, 
and his father was Divie Bethune, a pious merchant of New 
York, who was born at Dingwall, Scotland. It is possible for me 
in these pages to print certain family documents for the first time ; 
and thus to show — what might be reasonably inferred — that so 
eminent a clergyman as Dr. Bethune never came to his high posi- 
tion without much antecedent prayer and consecration. In times 
like the present, when so much is made of heredity and environ- 
ment, it may not be amiss to give some facts from the Christian 
side, which will go far to establish that " a good man leaveth an 
inheritance to children and to children's children." 

In the diary of Divie Bethune, under the date, ' ' Mount Ebenezer, 
March i8th, 1805," he has written : 

" This day at noon my beloved wife "' [Joanna Graham] " was safely 



41 o ENGLISH HYMNS. 

delivered of a son. The midwife had not come out in time. Her cove- 
nant God was with her ; her Deliverer and Saviour in the hour of trouble. 

Dear mother Graham was witii Joanna O Lord, my God, how 

shall I praise thee for the mercies of this day. . . . Thou hast heard my 
Joanna and me, and hast been her Saviour in the hour of trouble. In 
tender mercy thou didst take to thyself the office of delivering her in 
safety. Thou art our trust. Blessed be the Lord for a living mother and 
a living child. O remember my request this morning ! Receive my dedi- 
cation of my son. Thou knowest what I have all along asked of God, 
that if he gave us a son that he might be sanctified from the womb and be 
made a faithful, honored and zealous minister of the everlasting Gospel. 

let this son be chosen of thee to declare the unsearchable riches of 
Christ. Give to his dear mother and myself great wisdom for bringing 
him up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. I Sam. i : 27, 28 
(this I took 14th of March) ; i Sam. i : 23 ; Isa. 65 : 23, 24 ; Jer. 

1 : 5" • . • 

These and the following entries were copied by my father, Rev. 
George Duffield (Jr.), D.D., from the original manuscript now in 
Detroit, Mich. He adds : " Then, as usual, follow a number of 
verses, cnrrenie calamo, among which I find these lines : 

' O may thy grace this blessing crown. 
And we, great God, this infant see 
A gospel-herald, blessed of thee. . . . 

* The Holy Ghost his heart inflame 
To preach with power in Jesus' name.' " 

On the 24th of March, 1805, Mr. Bethune writes again : 

" O let this son be thy chosen vessel to preach the Gospel of salva- 
tion. . . . May he be pious, zealous, humble, meek, powerful and blest." 

Again : " Greenwich, 13th April, 1805 : Bless our dear infant son. I 
trust thou hast sanctified him from the womb. To-morrow we intend to 
devote him to thee in baptism. As truly as the water is sprinkled on him, 
so truly may the blood of Jesus cleanse him from sin. As truly as he is 
baptized in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, one God, so 
truly may he receive the spirit of adoption and become at once an heir of 
eternal life. Prepare him for the office of the holy ministry. Hear me, 
and answer me, and glory be to thy holy name. Amen and amen. ..." 

" 14th April. This p.m. my dear George was baptized by Mr. For- 
rest. I hope I can say that, with full heart, he v?as devoted to the Lord, 
by both his dear mother and myself. 

" After sermon Mr. F. came home with us, and before he left us sang 
Ps. 45 : 3. 4, 5 and 16 ; read the first chapter of Jeremiah, and prayed 
fervently for our infant son and other children." 

Then we reach a petition which is well worthy of preservation in 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 41 1 

this volume, if only for an encouragement to the somewhat demor- 
alized opinions of Christian parents at the present day : 

" O my God, thou hast seen my exercises this day, the strong simple 
faith ... in thy promises which thou hast made me to fasten upon for 
my dear infant George, this day devoted to thee. Lord, honor this faith 
of thine own operation. . . . Instruct his mother and myself to instruct 
him. Direct to proper teachers. Teach the teachers to teach him, and 
bless their labors to him. Fortify his young heart against the tempta- 
tions, the false pleasures, the alluring vanities, the contaminating examples, 
of an evil world. Endue him richly with spiritual gifts. Give him the 
learning of this world, and the divine wisdom to use his learning and his 
abilities for the noblest purposes ; the illustration of thy love, thy will, thy 
grace to sinners of mankind. . . . Make him a faithful minister of Jesus 
Christ. Give him a contented mind, a thankful heart. May he declare 
the whole counsel of God. And while he is faithful and sound in his 
doctrine, do thou grant him to be eloquent, animated, impressive, and 
acceptable. I ask all this, for thou art able to grant all I can ask. I ask 
it now, young as he is, knowing that thou art God. Life is thy gift. 
Life, spiritual and divine, is thy work in the soul of man. All the gifts 
and graces of the Holy Spirit are thine to bestow. Power to make the 
preacher's word successful is of God. Thou canst guide through life, 
conduct through death, and minister an abundant entrance into glory. 
To whom then should I go ? To whom then would I go ? My God, unto 
thee, and to thee alone. Hear my supplications this day ; behold the 
promises I have taken : 

" Isa. 44 : 3, 4, 5 ; 45 : II ; 65 : 23, 24 ; 59 : 21 ; Jer. i : 4. 5. 6, 7. 8. 9 
and 12 ; I Sam. i : 27, 28 ; 3 : 4 ; Luke 5 : 10, ir ; John 14 : 12, 13, 14, 
16, 17 and 23 ; Ezek. 36 : 27 ; and i Sam. i : 23. Only the Lord estab- 
lish his word ! Amen. 

Him as thy herald. Lord, prepare 

To teach redeeming love ; 
That full of faith and 2eal and prayer 

He may thy servant prove." 

Any one who reads this pathetic utterance is led to ask on 
what line of religious teaching Mr. Bethune had himself come up. 
It was that of Erskine and the "Marrow doctrine," that "God 
gave his son, Jesus, to 7nankind- sinners as such, that whosoever be- 
lieveth on him should not perish but have everlasting life." The 
thought of this divine gift and calling runs through the entire 
prayer. A portion of this prayer is in Dr. Van Nest's life of Dr. 
Bethune, but neither that book nor any other except the manu- 
script pages will be found to contain the record of the strong cry- 
ing and tears with which, when the boy became wayward and dis- 
obedient, his father entreated for him and with him. 



412 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" What a holy man Divie Bethune was," comments Dr. Duffield, 
"called, like Abraham, from Tobago, the 'worst island in the West 
Indies,' where he was destined for a planter; going out, not knowing 
whither he went ; flying for his life as it were to New York ; never forget- 
ting the hole of the pit whence he was digged ; and afterward sitting 
down between Lord Teignmouth (President of the British Bible Society) 
and William Wilberforce, in London, at the great anniversary of the par- 
ent society. He accounted it the happiest day of his life. At one 
time he offered his business for sale and determined to become a minister 
of the Gospel himself. But, instead of that, God made him one of the 
noblest Christian laymen on the continent, to write Isabella Graham's life, 
establish Orphan Asylums, Tract Societies, Bible Societies, Bethels, 
Sunday-schools. In his last illness I remember the children bringing a 
banner for him to see." 

There is much from the diary of the same sort, but we dare not 
take space for it. On the 22dof December, 1822, he makes men- 
tion of the fact — and one can imagine how thankfully he does it — 
that on the last Wednesday, George had arrived from Carlisle and 
had shown such a genuine religious character as to have " delighted 
the hearts of his mother and myself." 

We need not pursue the story more particularly. The revival 
had occurred in his son-in-law. Dr. Dufheld's church at Carlisle. 
It had been long desired in Mr. Bethune's diary, and was a special 
object of prayer with him. One of the most touching incidents 
connected with it was the fact that, when he gave his heart to 
Christ, George Bethune did so unreservedly, and at once opened 
his lips in prayer for himself. Years afterward, in Florence, was 
found a prayer entered in the Greek Testament, which had been 
his life-long companion, and which is substantially the same as 
that which we find in the opening pages of each diary of his father. 
It runs thus : " Lord, pardon what I have been, sanctify what I 
am, and order what I shall be, that thine may be the glory, and 
mine the eternal salvation, through Jesus Christ our Lord." 

Dr. Bethune, as w^e said, spent his early years in Carlisle, Pa., 
and was graduated at Dickinson College in 1823. He then 
studied at the Princeton Theological Seminary ; was married in 
1825, and was licensed to preach by the Second Presbytery of New 
York, July nth, 1826. For a year he was a missionary to the 
colored people and sailors in Savannah, Ga., and then entered the 
ministry of the Reformed Dutch Church. He was settled at 
Rhinebeck, N. Y., 1827-30; Utica, 1830-34; First Church, 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 413 

Philadelphia, 1834-37 ; then in the Third Church, which he 
organized, and which is now extinct, 1837-49 ; Central Church, 
Brooklyn, 1849-50 ; Church on the Heights, which was organized 
for him, 1850-59 ; associate minister of Twenty-first Street Church, 
New York City, 1859-62. He then went abroad, and died in 
Florence, Italy, Sunday, April 27th, 1862. 

Dr. Eethune's family name became extinct with himself ; but 
his two sisters, Isabella and Jessie, married respectively. Rev. 
George Duffield, D. D., of Carlisle and Detroit, and Rev. Robert 
McCartee, D. D. , of New York City. The dying charge of Mr. 
Bethune to his son and sons-in-law was : " My sons, preach the 
Gospel. Tell dying sinners of a Saviour. All the rest is but 
folly." 

Oh, for the peace which floweth as a river. — Crewdson. 
]\Irs. Jane (Fox) Crewdson (born at Perran, Cornwall, October, 
1809) was the wife of Thomas D. Crewdson, Esq., Manchester, 
England. Long an invalid, she died at Summerlands, near Man- 
chester, September 14th, 1863, leaving behind her the memory of 
a beautiful life and many admirable verses. The present hymn 
gives the title to a book of her poems published posthumously 
(1864) in London and Manchester. On the title-page she is iden- 
tified as the author of Autif Jatie s Verses /"or Children, The Singer 
of Eisenach, Lays of the Reformation, etc. Her little volume has 
passed through at least four editions. 

" A little while " to wear the weeds of sadness, 

To pace, with weary step, through miry ways ; 
Then — to pour forth the fragrant oil of gladness, 
And clasp the girdle round the robe of praise. 

"A little while," midst shadow and illusion, 

To strive, by faith, love's mysteries to spell ; 
Then — read each dark enigma's bright solution ; 

Then — hail sight's verdict, " He doth all things well." 

" A little while," the earthen pitcher taking 

To wayside brooks, from far-off fountains fed ; 
Then the cool lip its thirst forever slaking 
Beside the fulness of the Fountain-head. 

The preface to the little book appears to be the composition of 
her husband or of some intimate friend. It says : 

" The author's mind was singularly varied ; she was thus qualified to 



414 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

meet the needs of others, and to lead them to the Source and Centre 
whence she derived her brightness in shadowy places, her cheerfulness 
in pain, and her unfailing 'joy and peace in believing.' It was her 
delight to minister to their spirit-wants out of her rich sympathies, when 
here. Perhaps she may still be admitted, through the medium of these 
pages, into fellowship with many a troubled heart ; and may such, like 
her, find 

' Rest in Jesus.' " 

The hymn is based on John i6 : 8, and is familiar to many per- 
sons in consequence of Mr. Sankey's appropriate tune. 

O GIFT of gifts, O grace of faith. — Faber. 

Mrs. Prentiss writes in 1870 : 

" I was greatly struck with these words yesterday : ' As for God, His 
way is perfect ; ' think of reading the Bible through four times in one year, 
and nobody knows how many times since, and never resting on those 
words ! Somehow they charmed me. And these words have been ring- 
ing in my ears, ' Earth looks so little and so low.' " " Perhaps," she 
adds in another place, "I have already said to you, for I am fond of 

saying it, 

' The love of Jesus, what it is 
Only his sufferers know.' " 

Faber' s hymn commences, " O faith, thou workest miracles," 

and has eleven stanzas. He entitled it" Conversion." The date 

is 1840. 

O God, beneath thy guiding hand. — Bacon. 

The Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D., was born in Detroit, Mich. — 
then a mere fort and trading- post — February 19th, 1802. From 
the time of his graduation at Yale College in 1820, and atAndover 
Theological Seminary, he was identified with New Haven and 
the interests of the college and of the Congregational churches. 
His pastorate of the First Church, New Haven, began in 1825. 
In 1866 he became />(3s/or emeritus, and from that date was more 
or less actively engaged in duties connected with the Theological 
Department of Yale College, instructing in Revealed Religion and 
lecturing on Church Polity and American Church History up to 
the date ot his death, December 24th, 1881. 

As one of the founders of 77;^? Indepeiidcnl and of the Neiv Eng- 
lander; as a great warrior in the days of the slavery discussion ; as 
ah industrious, aggressive and energetic champion of liberty of 
every sort included under the doctrines of grace, he has been a 
unique figure in the United States. He is remembered as a con- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 415 

troversialist, essayist and historian. As a public speaker \v\%forle 
lay in the line of debate rather than of homiletics. And so un- 
ceasing were his vigorous challenges to public attention that he is 
in danger of oblivion with respect to less prominent themes, like 
his hymn-writing and his culture of hymnology and of the quieter 
duties of the pastorate. Two articles on his hymns appeared in 
The Independent, Ma}', 1881, and an admirable biographical 
sketch by his son, Rev. Leonard Woolsey Bacon, D. D., in the 
Century Magazine, renders further notice superfluous. 

The present piece was originally written for the Second Centen- 
nial of New Haven, April 25th, 1838, and was sung on that occa- 
sion " with little thought of its being used again before 1938. " It 
is a great favorite in New England. 

O God of Bethel, by whose hand. — Doddridge. 
This hymn was written to follow a sermon on " Jacob's Vow," 
Gen. 28 : 20-22, preached January i6th, 1737. It is found in 
an altered form among Logan's Poems, 1781, and was also num- 
bered among the Scotch Paraphrases. Perhaps, therefore, it was 
altered by Michael Bruce, who died in 1767. There are five 
stanzas, and the first begins : 

" O God of Bethel, by whose hand 
Thine Israel still is fed." 

The ascription of this piece to Darracott, one of Dr. Doddridge's 
pupils, lacks evidence. As for Logan's claim, the least said the 
better. A more utterly extirpated liar has never perished under 
the ban of judicious criticism. 

A pathetic interest attaches to these verses from their association with 
the story of the heroic missionary, Dr. David Livingstone. His familiar- 
ity with the Scotch Paraphrases fixed this one in his memory, and it 
became the favorite hymn of his wanderings. To the words and music of 
it he was at length buried in Westminster Abbey, April iSth, 1874. 

O God, the Rock of Ages. — E. H. Bickersteth. 

This hymn was composed in 1862. It appears in From Year 
to Year, for the First Sunday after Christmas. Lessons : Isa. 35, 
38 and 40; Gal. 4 : 1-8 ; Matt, i : 18. Based on Isa. 40 : 8. 
It has four double stanzas. 

This is the Collect for the day : 

Almighty God, who hast given us thy only begotten Son to take our 
nature upon him, and as at this time to be born of a pure virgin ; grant 



41 6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

that we, being regenerate and made thy children by adoption and grace, 
may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit, through the same our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the same Spirit, ever 
one God, world without end. Amen. 

O God, thy power is wonderful. — Faber. 
The present hymn is taken from the longer poem, entitled, " My 
Father," which is in twelve stanzas. 

O God, we praise thee and confess. — N. Tate, ir. {J) 
This hymn is a partial version of the Te Deum, for whose fuller 
history see the " Latin Hymn Writers and their Hymns." It is 
found in Tate and Brady's Supplement, 1703, and has been fre- 
quently assigned to Bishop John Patrick, author, in 1679, of the 
Century of Select Psalms. The difficulty with this designation is 
that the present does not closely enough resemble his version. It 
is now conjectured to be the work of Nahum Tate. 

O HAPPY band of pilgrims. — Neale, tr. 
Dr. Neale has translated this hymn from the Greek of St. Joseph 
of the Studium in the Hymns of the Eastern Church. The Greek 
original is not given, and the version is probably from a cento. 

O Holy Ghost, the Comforter. — Browne. 
Mrs. Jane Euphemia (Browne) Saxby is the wife of Rev. 
Stephen Henry Saxby, vicar of East Clevedon, Somerset. He has 
written upon two as diverse subjects as the Pew System of England 
and the Birds of Shetland, and was a graduate of Caius College, 
Cambridge, in 1855. The lady who became his wife was the 
daughter of William Browne, of Tallantire Hall, Cumberland, and 
sister of Lady Teignmouth. She has printed her hymns in The 
Dove on the Cross, 1819 (sixth edition, 1857), and in Hymns aiid 
Thoughts for the Sick and Lonely, 18 18 (second edition, 1850). 
The present hymn dates from 1819. 

O Holy Ghost, thou Fount of light. — Caswall, tr. 
This is a portion of Mr. Caswall' s translation of the " Qui 
procedis ab utroque" of Adam of St. Victor, for whom see " The 
Latin Hymn- Writers and their Hymns." The hymn is formed by 
taking the third, eighth, tenth and thirteenth si:anzas of the " Praises 
of the Paraclete," in Caswall's Hymns atid Poems, 1873. The 
first line in the original is, " O inexhaustive Fount of light. " 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 417 

O HOLY, holy, holy Lord I — Eastburn. 

Rev. James Wallis Eastburn, the author of this hymn, was a 
young Episcopalian, who was born in New York City about the 
year 1797. He gave great promise of literary ability, and it was 
with his assistance that Robert G. Sands began the composition 
of Yamoyden. This was a " Tale of the Wars of King Philip," 
and Mr. Sands states that the earlier cantos were the joint produc- 
tion of himself and Mr. Eastburn. On his associate's death, he 
finished it, and it was issued in 1820. 

Mr. Eastburn was ordained to the ministry in October, 1818, 
and removed to Onancock, Accomack County, Va., where tradition 
asserts that he wrote verses and discharged the duties of a mis- 
sionary. In 18 1 9 he began a version of the Psalms, but his 
health being feeble, he determined upon a voyage to Vera Cruz. 
Packing up the manuscript of this and other literary work, he 
sailed. But on the fourth day out he died, December 2d, 18 19, 
leaving behind him his "unfulfilled renown." His body was 
buried in the sea. In the notes to Yamoyden Mr. Sands pays a 
handsome tribute to his talents ; and, on the strength of this evi- 
dence of his poetical powers, Griswold has included him among 
the American poets. This hymn is first found in the collection 
prepared for the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1825. 

O Holy Spirit ! now descend on me. — Forsyth. 
Miss Christina Forsyth, sixth daughter of Thomas and Jane 
Hamilton Forsyth, was born at Liverpool, 1825. From child- 
hood she was of delicate constitution, and for years was confined 
to her room. Her piety was deep and fervent, and she bore 
acute suffering not only without complaint but " with unvarying 
cheerfulness." "She seemed to think always of others, and 
never of herself, and by the singular sweetness of her disposition 
she won the love of all who knew her." Her Hymns by C. F., 
London, 1861, furnish the pieces which have been used. Miss 
Forsyth died at Hastings, IMarch i8th, 1859. Her brothers, Rev. 
John Hamilton Forsyth, William Forsyth, Esq., Q. C, and 
Douglas Forsyth, Esq., C. B., have occupied posts of honor. 

O HOW I love thy holy law ! — Watts. 
This is Dr. Watts' s rendering of Ps. 119, Fifth Part, C. M., 
" Delight in Scripture ; or, the Word of God Dwelling in us." 



4l8 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Hillel Hinnasi, the greatest of the Jewish rabbis, was a proverb for 
his diligence in pursuit of knowledge. As he lacked the necessary funds 
to pay the fees of the college he once climbed up on the outer ledge of 
the window and there heard the lecture. It was snowing, but he did not 
heed the cold, and the students were made aware of his presence only 
when he had become insensible from chilliness and had fallen against the 
window in a way to darken it. 

O HOW shall I receive thee.^ — Russell, ir. 
This is a paraphrase by Rev. A. T. Russell, from the " Wie 
soil ich dich empfangen," of Paul Gerhard t, 1653. The German 
is in ten eight-line stanzas. The translation, though free as to lan- 
guage, is close to the spirit of the original, which has also been 
rendered by several other hands, notably by Dr. James W. 
Alexander, " Lord, how shall I be meeting," 1850. 

O IF my soul were formed for woe. — Watts. 
Dr. Watts has this as Hymn 106, Book 11. , " Repentance at 
the Cross." It is in five stanzas. This must be carefully distin- 
guished from the hymn by President Davies, included in Gibbons s 
Collection, 1769, and commencing : " O was my heart but formed 
for woe." That has eight stanzas, and its first stanza is 

" O was my heart but formed for woe. 

What streams of pitying tears should flow, 
To see the thoughtless sons of men 
Labor and toil and live in vain !" 

O Jesus Christ, if sin there be. — Caswall. 
This is one of Mr. Caswall' s original hymns, with the title, 
"Ingratitude." It is found in Original Hymns and Meditative 
Pieces, 2imor\^i\\Q Hymns afid Poems, 1873. It begins, "If there 
be any special thing, ' ' etc. There are six stanzas of four lines 
each. 

O Jesus Christ, the righteous. — Stone, altered. 

Rev. Samuel John Stone, born at Whitmore rectory, Stafford- 
shire, April 25th, 1839, graduated from Pembroke College, Ox- 
ford, in 1862, was licensed as deacon in 1862, and ordained as 
priest in 1863, and took his M.A, degree in 1872. He has been 
curate of Windsor, 1862-70, and curate of St. Paul, Haggerston, 
1870-74. In the latter year he became vicar of St. Paul, Hag- 
gerston (diocese of London). He is the author of the Lyra 
Fidelium, of The Knight of Intercession^ atid Other Poems (fifth 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 419 

edition, 1881), and of the Thanksgiving Hymn, 1872 ; and Son- 
nets of Ihe Sacred Fear, 1875. This " Thanksgiving Hymn" was 
sung at St. Paul's, on the occasion of the recovery of the present 
Prince of Wales from a dangerous illness. The present piece is 
altered from the original form. 

O Jesus ! King most wonderful. — Caswall, ir. 

This is a part of the same hymn as " Jesus, the very thought of 
thee," 1849. 

O Jesus, our salvation. — Hamilton. 

Rev. James Hamilton, M.A. {not the distinguished Presbyte- 
rian clergyman) was born at Ellendollar, Scotland, April i8th, 
18 1 9 ; educated at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and 
entered the ministry of the Church of England, 1845. He was 
vicar of Doulting, Somersetshire, 1867. He wrote ** O Jesu ! 
Lord most merciful," 1862 (the present piece), to Hanler's 
Chorale — printed in the People' s Hymnal, 1867. 

O Jesus, sweet the tears. — R. Palmer. 

This hymn is based on Gal. 2 : 20, and was written in New York 
City, 1867. It was the expression of Dr. Palmer's feeling at the 
time. He states that he has never been in the habit of writing 
such verses " to order," or in any routine or conventional way. 
O Jesus, thou art standing. — How, 

This hymn may be profitably compared with Joseph Grigg's 
" Behold a Stranger at the door." Rev. James King predicts that 
this hymn, by Bishop W. W. How, will become classic. 

There is a wonderful picture by Holman Hunt, called " The Light of 
the World," which represents the Saviour knocking at the door, in illustra- 
tion of the passage in the Song of Solomon (Chap. 5 : 2). He stands with 
bowed head, listening. Across the door vines have grown : it has been 
long since it was unclosed. He holds in his hand a lantern from which 
the rays fall on some fruit which has dropped ungathered. His back is 
toward the light of the rising moon. 

O Jesus, we adore thee. — Russell. 
In Hymns and Songs 0/ Praise this piece is ascribed to Rev. 
Arthur Tozer Russell, 1851. 

O King of mercy, from thy throne on high. — T. R. Birks. 
Rev. Thomas Rawson Birks was born September, 1810, and was 
graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he became 



420 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

a Fellow in 1834, taking his M.A. degree in 1837. He secured 
the Seatonian Prize in 1843 and 1844 ; and was rector of Kel- 
shall, Hertfordshire, 1844-66. In the latter year he was promoted 
to be vicar of Holy Trinity, Cambridge, where he continued until 
1877. He is also recorded as an honorary canon of Ely cathedral 
(1871), and as Knightsbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy (1872). 
He has been a voluminous author, especially on prophecy. On 
Friday, July 20th, 1883, he died at his home in Cambridge. 

O Lamb of God, that tak'st away. — Faussett. 
Mrs. H. (" Alessie Bond ") Faussett is the wife of Rev. Henry 
Faussett, perpetual curate of Edenderry, Omagh, Ireland, in the 
diocese of Derry, 1872, and rural dean of Newtownstewart. She 
contributed several pieces to Lyra Hiberjiica (second edition, 
1879), and to the Church ^;^/««/ (Dublin, 1881). 

O Land relieved from sorrow. — S. W. Duffield. 

This is an original hymn, composed in 1875 under circum- 
stances peculiarly calculated to draw the thought to things above. 
It has existed in manuscript, unpublished, until the preparation of 
Laudes Domini called it out. The first draft of the hymn is on 
two crumpled pieces of paper which have been several times cast 
aside and nearly destroyed ; but they have mysteriously reap- 
peared, even from the depths of waste-paper baskets and the wild con- 
fusion of disintegrated material ! The refrain really produced the 
hymn. Perhaps it grew up, primarily, from the rhythm of Bernard 
of Cluny, which Mr, Duffield has always loved, and the canto from 
which he rendered, in its original metre, in 1868. The " Heim- 
weh" — the heavenly longing — has many hymns beside this, which 
express it. 

Samuel [Augustus] Willoughby Duffield — he usually omits the 
second name — was born in Brooklyn, Long Island, N. Y., Sep- 
tember 24th, 1843. His education was received in Philadelphia, 
and at Yale College, whence he was graduated in the class of 
1863. In 1866 he entered the ministry, and is at present the pas- 
tor of the Westminster Presbyterian church, Bloomfield, N. J. 

O Lord, how full of sweet content. — Cowper, ir. 
This is Cowper' s translation of a hymn by Madame Jeanne 
Marie Bouvieres (de la Mothe), Guyon. The original was com- 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 421 

posed — as Upham, her biographer, thinks — in 16S1, when she 
was about thirty-four years of age. She was born at Montargis, 
April 13th, 1648, and educated in a convent. At sixteen she mar- 
ried Monsieur Guyon, who was more than twenty years her senior. 
Her married hfe was a constant series of trials. She was annoyed 
by her mother-in-law ; one of her children died at four years of 
age ; she lost her own beauty by an attack of smallpox when she 
was but twenty- two, and her husband died when they had been 
twelve years married. From these calamities came a deep spiritual 
experience worthy to cause her to be ranked with the greatest mys- 
tics of whom we have any record. Dr. Vaughan and Upham have 
done her character and abilities — as well as her piety — full justice. 
Her friendship with Fenelon was a tragic portion of her sad history. 
At the date when this hymn is supposed to have been written 
she had quitted Paris for Gex, near Geneva. Her sons were left 
behind her to be educated. Her daughter and a servant accom- 
panied her. The concluding stanza of the hymn — though it may 
be regarded as rather an anti-climax and unworthy to be placed 
with the others — is a good illustration of her feelings : 

" My country, Lord, art thou alone, — 
No other can I claim or own ! 
The point where all my wishes meet, 
My law, my love, — life's only sweet 1" 

At Gex her works of benevolence and her pure piety prepared the 
way for that strangely spiritual career which finally conducted her 
to the Bastile, owing to the persecutions of the Roman Catholic 
Church. She was a Quietist, and her verses show it. 

The story of the translation is quite as pathetic as that of the 
hymn itself. Rev. William Bull, of Newport Pagnel, not far from 
Olney, had desired for some time to engage Cowper's mind in 
some congenial occupation. It seemed to him — most fortunately ! 
— that the verses of Madame Guyon would furnish employment 
to this phosphorescent and flickering brain. The proof of his cor- 
rectness is to be found in this hymn and in others which Cowper 
selected and rendered into his elegant stanzas. 

The volume (a copy of which is in the library of Union 
Theological Seminary) is but a small one, and its dedication tells 
how it came to be. This reads : " To the Rev. William Bull, 
these translations of a few of the Spiritual Songs of the excellent 



42 2 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Madame Guyon, made at his express desire, are dedicated by his 
affectionate friend and servant, William Cowper. —July, 1782." 

The present hymn commences, " O thou by long experience 
tried." It has nine stanzas, and is Vol. II., Cantique 108, of 
Madame Guyon' s Works. The original is expressed in the singu 
lar number : " To me remains," etc. 

The accomplished and pious lady died at last in peace at Diziers, 
June 9th, 1 71 7. 

William Cowper — nof " Rev.," for he had no right to the title as 
a mere lay-preacher — was born at Great Berkhampstead, Novem- 
ber 15th, 1 73 1. His father. Rev. John Cowper, D.D. , was the 
rector of that parish, and chaplain to George II. The poet came 
of good lineage, being descended on his mother's side, by four 
different lines, from Henry III. This lady's name was Anne 
Donne, and she died in 1737, when her son was but six years old. 
The particulars of Cowper' s life are so essentially a part of English 
literature that we do not attempt more than the meagerest outline 
of them, grouping such incidents as seem appropriate under their 
separate hymns. 

Lady Hesketh was Cowper's own cousin, being the daughter of 
Ashley Cowper, the poet's uncle. His aunt Judith married 
Colonel Martin Madan, whose son. Rev. Martin Madan, was thus 
another cousin. 

We need not follow him through his irregular studies at the law 
and his "giggling and making giggle," during this unpleasant 
confinement. He was admitted to the bar June 14th, 1754, and 
his father died two years later. He then began to drift, being 
Commissioner of Bankrupts, 1759, and reading clerk to the House 
of Lords in 1763. About this period his melancholy asserted 
itself, and he made some attempts at suicide. December 7th. 
1763, he was placed in an asylum at St. Albans, where he stayed 
for nearly two years. 

Thence he came to Huntingdon to be near his brother John, 
and there met his life-long friend, Rev. Morley Unwin. Mr. 
Unwin died suddenly in 1767, and at Rev. John Newton's advice 
the widow, with her son and daughter, removed to Olney. Cow- 
per went with them. Their house was next door to Mr. Newton's, 
and the eventful poetic years, from 1767 to 1786, were passed in 
this quiet retreat. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 423 

Rev. John Cowper died in 1770, and Cowper wrote an account 
of his last illness, which Newton transcribed from his original 
manuscript, and a copy of which now lies before us. It is pathetic 
enough ; showing the love the poet bore his brother, and the 
simple and earnest efforts he put forth for his conversion. John 
was plainly renewed in heart, and said, in reference to his old con- 
ventional ideas and his new sense of spiritual religion : " I wish 
myself at Olney ; you have a good river there, better than all the 
rivers of Damascus," 

The dying man, in his turn, faithfully dealt with Cowper's de- 
spondent nature, and lamented that when he had seen him in his 
morbid state of gloom he had not been able to help him. " When 
Mr. Madan came," he added, ''he succeeded in a moment." 
And then he spoke, and with the fervor of the dying, about the 
futility of moralizing over people as he had done in his own parish. 
It was the Gospel which they wanted, and not warning or re- 
proof alone. In his last hours he told Cowper he was " as happy 
as a king " — a contrast, indeed, to the darkness which later fell on 
the very man who had led him to Christ. 

The marked events of the poet's life henceforward are Newton's 
removal to London in 1779 ; Rev. William Bull's suggestion, in 
1782, that he should translate some of Madame Guyon's hymns 
from the French ; the presence of Lady Austen at Olney in 1781, 
and her suggestion of The Task in 1783, and the death of Mrs. 
Unwin in 1 796. During these years he was in great darkness, 
from 1772 to 1779, ^^ which year the Olney Hymns, with his pre- 
vious contributions to their pages, were at last sent to the printer 
by Mr. Newton. It was, perhaps, at or about this date that the 
affecting ' ' Fragment of a Hymn, " "To Jesus the Crown of my 
hope," was written. 

In 1792 the old indications of insanity had begun to reappear. 
By 1794 they were sadly and strongly re-established. When Mrs. 
Unwin removed, in 1795, to Norfolkshire, he again went with her 
at the urgency of friends. She seems to have combined sister and 
mother in her relations to him, and had utterly declined the 
thought of marriage. 

The latest known composition from his pen is " The Castaway " 
(March, 1799), which was founded on an incident in Lord Anson's 
Voyages. Dropsy supervened upon the diseased condition of his 



424 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

system, and he died, April 25th, 1800. To all comforting expres- 
sions uttered to him in his last sickness he invariably replied : 
" You know it is false. Spare me, spare me !" He finally fell 
into a stupor, and passed peacefully away. 

There is much of resemblance between Cowper and Charles 
Lamb. Under different conditions Cowper's humor would have 
been of that same " pawky," suddenly- original kind. Witness 
" John Gilpin " and these words (in " Ella's " very vein) about 
Mr. Bull, whom he describes as : 

" A dissenter, but a liberal one ; a man of letters aw^of genius ; master 
of a fine imagination, or rather not master of it ; an imagination which, 
when he finds himself in the company he loves and can confide in, runs 
away with him into such fields of speculation as amuse and enliven every 
other imagination that has the happiness to be of the party. . . . Such 
a man is Mr. Bull ; but — he smokes tobacco — nothing is perfect." 

O Lord, thy work revive. — P. H. Brown, altered. 
The text of this hymn is said to have been altered with Mrs, 
Brown's consent and approval. She desired that the altered form, 
as found in Dr. Nason's Congregational Hymn- Book, 1857, should 
be retained henceforward. 

O Lord most high, eternal King. — Neale, tr. 
This is the Sterne Rex altissime of Ambrose of INIilan. The 
rendering is really by the compilers of Hymns, Ancient afid Modern, 
1 86 1, but is based on Dr. Neale' s version. 

O Lord of heaven, and earth, and sea. — C. Wordsworth. 
Bishop Wordsworth's hymns are all dated from his Holy Year 
(first edition, 1862 ; second edition, 1863 ; and another, 1865). 
This is an offertory hymn, and there is an incident in the Talmud 
which very happily acts as a commentary to it : 

The Rabbi Tarphon was rich, but he was also very penurious. One 
day the Rabbi Akiba asked him : " Shall I invest some money for thee in 
a most profitable manner ?" Now the Rabbi Akiba was reputed to be an 
extremely sagacious person, and it was an honor to have him make 
such an offer. Therefore the Rabbi Tarphon placed in his hands the sum 
of four thousand gold dinars. This money Rabbi Akiba quietly gave 
awaj' to the poor, soon after he received it. Presently Rabbi Tarphon 
bethought him to inquire where the property was situated in which his 
gold dinars were invested. So he asked Rabbi Akiba. The wise man took 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 425 

him to the school, and there called up one of the pupils, who recited for 
them the 112th Psalm. When the lad reached the verse which reads : 
" He hath dispersed, he hath given to the poor, his righteousness endureth 
forever" — " There !" said Akiba, " thy treasure is with David, the King of 
Israel, who hath spoken this truth." And when Rabbi Tarphon, in 
anger, cried out :" Why did you not tell me this ? I could have dis- 
tributed my property quite as well as you ;" then Rabbi Akiba made 
reply : " Because it is a greater virtue to induce others to give than to 
give one's self." 

O Lord, turn not thy face away. — Marckant. (.'') 
This is possibly by John Marckant, author of Verses to Divers 
Good Purposes, 1580. The reputed authorship of John Mardley 
is measurably given up. The hymn was appended to the first 
edition of Sternhold and Hopkins's Psalms, 1562, and a copy in 
the British Museum, dated 1565, has " Markant " instead of the 
usual " M. " The alterations are by Bishop Heber. Their char- 
acter and extent can only be estimated by a comparison with the 
original. Marckant is probably the " M. " who translated Ps. 131 
and 132 for the Old Version. It is t\o\. ahsolu/ely certain, of course, 
that the authorship is given correctly, for Sir Egerton Brydges and 
Mr. E. Farr have favored John Mardley, and as specialists they 
hold a high rank. 

O Lord, we now the path retrace. — Deck. 

This is James George Deck's hymn, " O Lord, when we the path 
retrace." It has six stanzas. 

The author was the eldest son of John Deck, Esq., of Bury St. 
Edmunds, and was born in 1802. In 1829 he was in the army 
and stationed at Bangalore, India. By 1835 his health had failed, 
and he returned to England. He then became regularly identified 
with the Plymouth Brethren (founded by J. N. Darby), and minis- 
tered to their congregation at Wellington, Somersetshire. Next 
he resided at Weymouth, and about 1852 he emigrated to New 
Zealand. It was Mr. Deck who, in 1845, called public attention 
to the Agapemenon of Prince — a unique heresy which is fully dis- 
played in Hepworth Dixon's Spirilual Wives. 

O Lord, who by thy presence hast made light. — Massie, tr. 
Mr. Richard Massie is the son of jNIr. Richard Massie, and 
comes of an old family in Cheshire, England. Our author's 



42 6 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

mother was a Miss Townsend, and he is the eldest of a family of 
twenty-two children. He was born June i8th, 1800, and spent 
his childhood at Chester, where his father was settled from 1803 to 
1832 over St. Brides' parish. 

Mr. Massie is a gentleman of wealth and leisure, having a resi- 
dence at Pulford Hall, Coddington, Cheshire, and another at 
Wrexham, Denbighshire, Wales. He has given considerable atten- 
tion to literature, and published in 1854 a translation of Martin 
Luther s Spiritual SoJigs, and in i860 the Lyra Domestica : 
Translated frojn the Psaltery and Harp of C. J. P. Spitta. This 
last collection contains several hymns, beside the present piece^ 
which have come into general use. 

O Love Divine, that stooped to share. — Holmes. 

It is a real surprise to find the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table 
in the list of hymn-writers. But the two hymns which he has 
given us are among our most acceptable and admirable Christian 
lyrics. What they may lack in fervor they make up in poetry — a 
feature in hymns which cannot safely be despised, however much 
some of the earlier hymnists did despise it. The date of the 
present piece, by the wa)', is 1848, and it was published in the 
Professor at the Breakfast Table [Atlantic Monthly, November, 
1859]. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, M.D. , was born in Cambridge, Mass., 
August 29th, 1809 — his father. Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D. , LL.D. , 
being at that time pastor of the First Congregational church. He 
was graduated from Harvard College in 1829, and having studied 
medicine at home and abroad, took his medical degree at Harvard 
in 1836. In 1838 he was Professor of Anatomy and Physiology 
at Dartmouth, and in 1847 was invited to the same chair at Harvard 
— a position which he held (and filled) until 1882, when he be- 
came emeritus and took a new and remarkable lease of literary 
life, which has not yet expired. 

O Love, how deep ! how broad, how high. — Neale, tr. 
This is a translation of the hymn, " Amor qui exstaticiis " — 
whose Latin text is dated between the fifteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, and is found in L. C. Biggs's Annotations to Hymns, 
Ancient and Modern, No. 143. It was first contributed to the 
Hymnal Noted, 1856. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 427 

O Master, let me walk with thee. — W, Gladden. 
The Rev. Washington Gladden is better known as a pastor and 
journalist than as a poet or hymn-writer. He was born February 
nth, 1836, at Pittsgrove, Pa., and received his education at 
Williams College, whence he was graduated in 1859. He then 
took a theological course, and entered the ministry of the Congre- 
gational Church. 

He has been a pastor in Springfield, Mass. , an editor of the 
New York Independent ; the editor of Sunday Afternoon, a maga- 
zine which was merged into another publication after his departure 
from it ; and is now (1886) the pastor of a Congregational church 
in Columbus, O. 

The present piece was written for " The Still Hour " in Sun- 
day A/ternoo7t — a corner which was filled with devotional reading. 
It appeared in March, 1879, i" three eight-line stanzas. The 
first and last of these constitute the hymn. The omitted stanza is 
too fine to be forgotten. We give it from the author's manu- 
script : 

" O Master, let me walk with Thee 
Before the taunting Pharisee ; 
Help me to bear the sting of spite. 
The hate of men who hide thy light. 
The sore distrust of souls sincere 
"Who cannot read thy judgments clear, 
The dulness of the multitude, 
Who dimly guess that thou art good." 

Mr. Gladden himself says: "These lines were, of course, not 
adapted to the purposes of worship. I had no thought of making 
a hymn when I wrote the verses." The Rev. C. H. Richards is 
entitled to the credit of having first seen their fitness for the pages 
of a hymnal. 

O MOTHER dear, Jerusalem. 

According to the latest and best researches this hymn is the more 

modern form of 

" Jerusalem, my happy home. 
When shall I come to thee." 

Oh, not my own these verdant hills. — S. F. Smith. 
The date given by Dr. Smith is i860. There is no particular 
incident attached to its composition. 



428 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Oh, not to fill the mouth of fame. — Gill. 

This is taken from The Golden Chain of Praise, with the motto, 
" O Lord, truly I am thy servant, " and the title is, " The True 
Servant." There are six stanzas. It was contributed to Daw- 
sons Collection, 1853 — which is the 7iidiis of Mr. Gill's hymns. 

When it is said in the Scriptures that the Hebrew slave who loves his 
bondage shall have his ear bored through and fastened to the door-post, 
the Rabbis expounded this to mean that he had heard from Sinai that he 
was to be God's servant and not the servant of man. If, therefore, he pre- 
ferred to serve man rather than God, he should take the consequences 
and be liable to sale as a bondsman, who would not allow himself to be 
made free. 

O Paradise ! O Paradise. — Faber. 

This exquisite lyric is from a poem of seven stanzas, entitled 
" Paradise." It is one of the very loveliest things that Faber 
wrote, and is inseparably connected with Barnby's equally beauti- 
ful tune. The date is about 1854. 

There is in this and in almost all the hymns of heaven, what the 
Germans know as Heimweh — longing for home. One catches this in the 
strain of Bernard of Morlaix, and in the verses of Peter Damiani. It fills 
the sad song of the captive " F. B. P." as he composes his " Mother 
dear, Jerusalem." It is felt in the hymns of Kosegarten, and of Richard 
RoUe, the " hermit of Hampole." Whoever sings this song, whether he 
be Hildebert or Neale, is uttering in his soul the cry, " O God, if I 
were there !" One of the finest of these strains we catch from James 
Craig (1682-1744) : 

*' O'er to the new Jerusalem, " Where in his presence I shall find. 

Where I with Christ may dwell, The beauty I desire, 

A nd ever hear his own dear lips And the sweet glories of his face 

His own dear story tell. Eternally admire." 

Oh, render thanks to God above. — Tate and Brady. 

This is Tate and Brady's version of Psalm 106. The forty- 
eight verses of the Psalm are brought into four parts — the first hav- 
ing forty-four lines, the second, thirty-six, the third, thirty-six, 
and the fourth, thirty-six. The hymn is usually formed from the 
earlier portion of the first part, though another stanza is sometimes 
taken from the close of the Psalm. 

For some reason, which it is hard to imagine, Charles Wesley, in his 
Poetical Version of the Psalms (1743 ?), has included this as the rendering 
of Ps. 136. It is certainly not of his own composition, for it is in Tate 
and Brady's New Version, i6g6, as we have just said. But its presence 
amid other paraphrases, which are presumably by Wesley, casts a curious 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 429 

doubt on Mr. Fish's " discovery," and on one or two hymns assigned to 
Wesley in consequence of it. 

The history of Wesley's version of the Psalms is thus made uncertain 
and peculiar. The work was discovered in the well-known handwriting 
of Charles Wesley among the archives of a certain English college, and 
published in 1S54 by Henry Fish, its finder. He may tell his own story 
from the page now open before us. 

" To those who ask, as some have done, ' Where has this manuscript been sleeping so 
long, and what was its pillow ? ' we answer. The shelves of a college ; but what college shall 
be nameless, although the binding of the manuscript clearly indicates from whence it came. 
From the archives of that college, along with duplicates of books, this manuscript found its 
way into the London market ; and it is believed that neither the vendors nor the buyer 
knew what it was. It was under these circumstances that the editor met with it, and he at 
once recognized the handwriting, and was happy to gain possession of so valuable a trea- 
sure. He has always viewed this event as providential, as it might have fallen into other 
hands ignorant of the fact that it was the work of Charles Wesley ; and thus it might have 
been lost to the Church and to the world and to all generations." 

The volume contains Wesley's translations, lacking about twenty-four, 
of the entire number of Psalms. The manuscript from which it is printed 
bears the book-plate of " Selina, Countess Dowager of Huntingdon" — 
which, of course, makes the date of her ownership later than 1746, and 
between that and 1790. 

The date 1743 has been assigned to other pieces which are included in 
this manuscript. One is the version of Ps. 150, 

" Praise the Lord who reigns above. 
And keeps his court below." 

Another is Ps. 131, 

" Lord, if thou thy grace impart. 

Poor in spirit, meek in heart," etc. 

O Rock of Ages, one foundation. — Martin, 
Rev, Henry Arthur Martin appears as the author of four hymns 
in Sir Arthur SuUivan's Church Hymns (S. P. C. K. — 188 1). 

They are : 

" Sound aloud Jehovah's praises," 
" The Heavenly King must come," 
" O Rock of ages, one foundation," 
" Lord of the frost-bound Winter." 

Our present hymn is based on Matt. 16 : 18, and is dedicated 
to St. Peter. It has five stanzas. 

The author is vicar of Laxton, and resides at Ne\vark-on -Trent. 
He was graduated at Christ Church College, Oxford, in 1855, and 
received his M.A. degree in 1857, being made deacon in 1856 
and priest in 1857. His parish is " Laxton with Moorhouse," in 
the diocese of Lincoln, to which he came in 1858, having previ- 
ously been curate of Hallow, Worcestershire, from 1856 to 1858. 



43° ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Among the odd and singular things which are unearthed in these 
hymnological inquiries of ours is the fact that this minister's 
stipend is about $1300 (/'261), and that he has " four acres of 
glebe and a house." This is spread broadcast to the world in an 
official publication. 

O SACRED head, now wounded. — J. W. Alexander. 

Paul Gerhardt, 1656, took this hymn from the Latin of St. 
Bernard of Clairvaulx, and made it immensely popular by his trans- 
lation : " O Haiipt voll Bhit und Wunden." Dr. Alexander's ver- 
sion is therefore the translation of a translation. The present por- 
tion commences, in the Latin, ''^ Salve caput cruentatimi." Like 
some other renderings from the German, this piece was con- 
tributed by its author to the Deutsche KircJienfreund of Dr. Philip 
Schaff, 1849. PVom this it passed into general use. The Latin 
hymn is fully treated in the " Latin Hymn- Writers and their 
Hymns." 

James Waddell Alexander was the eldest son of Rev. Dr. Archi- 
bald Alexander, D. D., born at Hopewell, Louisa County, Va., 
March 13th, 1804 ; graduated at Princeton College, 1820, and 
settled first in Charlotte County, Va. , over a Presbyterian church. 
Thence he went to Trenton, and to the Professorship of Rhetoric 
and Belles-Lettres at Princeton. In 1844 he became pastor of the 
Duane Street Presbyterian church. New York City, returning to 
Princeton Seminary in 1849 as Professor of Ecclesiastical History 
and Church Government. In 185 1 he was called to the Fifth 
Avenue Presbyterian church, and died at Sweet Springs, Va., 
July 31st, 1859. 

He wrote and published several books, of which his Thoughts 
on Preaching has had the greatest success. His Forty Years^ 
Familiar Letters were published in i860, New York, in two vol- 
umes. 

O Saviour, precious Saviour. — F. R. Havergal. 

This is in Miss Havergal' s Poems, p. 49, with the title, " Our 
King. — Ps. 45 : 11." It has four stanzas. Miss Havergal's 
poetical compositions were singularly dependent upon her moods. 
In 1868 she writes : " I have not had a single poem come to me 
for some time, till last night, when one shot into my mind. All 
my best have come in that way. " The date is 1870. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 431 

O Saviour, where shall guilty man. — C. E. May. 

There is no record of this writer on which we are able to rely. 
It is probable that the name is that of a lady, as it does not appear 
in the university catalogues nor in the clerical lists. The hymn 
itself was contributed to the Choral Hymn- Book of Dr. P. Maurice, 
London, 1861. 

The author, however, is not Miss Caroline May, whose Hymns 
on the Collects (New York, 1872) does not contain it, and who has 
personally assured us that it is not her composition, nor does she 
know who " C. E. May" is. Miss May was born at Croyden, 
England, about 1820. She has been an esteemed teacher at 
Pelham Manor, Westchester County, N.Y., for many years, and 
still resides there. Her hymns, contributed to the Observer and 
other periodicals, are meditative rather than lyrical. Miss May 
published her Poems in 1865, and has compiled a volume of 
Treasured Thoughts from Favorite Authors and one upon the 
American Female Poets. Her verses are characterized by correct- 
ness and piety, and it is somewhat remarkable that they have not 
been utilized in collections. But they are not really " hymns." 

O Saviour, who didst come. — Osler. 

Edward Osier, M. D., was bom at Falmouth, January, 1798, 
and died at Truro, March 7th, 1863. 

Dr. Osier contributed fifty hymns to the collection prepared by 
Rev. William John Hall (1836), and on his return to his native 
country he edited the Truro Royal Cornivall Gazette up to the date 
of his death. 

Of the man himself we are told that he was " educated under 
the roof of a Dissenting minister," and studied medicine with Dr. 
Carvosso, of Falmouth, completing his course at Guy's Hospital, 
London. In 181 9 he became house surgeon of Swansea Infir- 
mary, and practised medicine in the town for six years. He wrote 
a treatise also for the Linnaean Society on Burrowing and Bor- 
ing Marine Animals. At the age of twenty-seven he left Swansea 
for London, took a voyage to the West Indies (1830), and pub- 
lished, a little later, several other works. He returned to Corn- 
wall in 1 84 1. Some of his hymns accompany his writings on 
Dissent, and The Church and King ; and others are in the Mitre 
Hymn- Book (Mr. Hall's collection). 



432 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

Oh, see how Jesus trusts himself. — Faber, 
This hymn is taken from ' ' True Love, ' ' a poem in twenty- 
three stanzas, commencing, " Think well how Jesus trusts him- 
self." The remainder of the poem runs into sentimentality and 
mawkishness, and is very far below these noble verses. 

Oh, still in accents sweet and strong. — S. Longfellow. 
This appears in the Hy?n?is of the Spirit, 1864, where it has four 

stanzas. 

Oh, sweetly breathe the lyres above. — R. Palmer. 

Dr. Palmer, by a strange mischance, did not include this piece 
among his collected poems. It was written in the winter of 
1842-3, at a time of revival. At the previous communion several 
had been received under circumstances that made Doddridge's 
hymn, " O happy day that fixed my choice," a most appropriate 
selection. Not caring to repeat it, and needing something similar, 
Dr. Palmer composed the present hymn. It was first published 
in Parish Hymns (Rev. S. C. Brace's collection), 1843. 

Oh, that the Lord's salvation. — Lyte. 
This is Mr. Lyte's version of Ps. 14, in four stanzas. It ap- 
peared in the Spirit of the Psalms, 1834. 

Oh, that the Lord would guide my ways. — Watts. 
This is Dr. Isaac Watts' s version of the 119th Psalm, the 
Eleventh Part, C. M. It consists of six stanzas, and is entitled, 
" Breathing after Holiness." 

Oh, the sweet wonders of that cross. — Watts. 
This is from the Hymns, Book III., No. 10 [" Nature with 
open volume stands," etc.] " Christ Crucified, the Wisdom and 
Power of God." There are six stanzas. The final stanza in 
Laudes Dofnijii is a doxology which is taken from \he Baptist Hymn 
aTid Tune Book, Philadelphia. 

O THOU essential Word. — Winkworth, tr. 
This hymn is found in Lyra Germanica, first series, 1855, in six 
stanzas, from the German of Laurentius Laurenti, 1 700. It is a 
hymn for Christmas Day, and begins, ' ' Du ivesentliches Wort, 
being based on John i : 1-14. It is really intended for the day 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 



433 



of St. John the Evangelist, and Miss Winkworth in her translation 
omits verses 3 and 5, the original having eight stanzas in all. 

Laurenti was precentor of the cathedral at Bremen. He was 
born June 8th, 1660, at Husum, in the duchy of Holstein, where 
his father was a citizen of repute. As he showed musical talent, 
his father, also a lover of music, planned for him a musical educa- 
tion. He therefore studied at Kiel, and in 1684 became precentor 
and choirmaster at Bremen. His hymns are generally adapted to 
the festivals of the Church. One of the best is, " Rejoice, rejoice, 
believers." 

Laurenti died at Bremen, May 29th, 1722, and had published 
in 1 700 one hundred and forty-eight hymns under the title, Evan- 
gelica Melodica. 

O THOU from whom all goodness flows. — T. Haweis. 

This hymn first appeared in Mr. Haweis' s Carmina Chrislo, 
1792, in six stanzas, with the text Neh. 13 : 31. 

Henry Martyn twice refers to this sacred song in connection 
with some of his deepest experiences in the missionary work. 
August 23d, 181 1, he speaks of the Moollah Aga Mohammed 
Hassan, a "very sensible, candid man," who "has nothing to 
find fault with in Christianity except the Divinity of Christ." 

"It is this doctrine," adds Martyn, " whicii exposes me to the con- 
tempt of the learned Mohammedans, in whom it is difficult to say whether 
pride or ignorance predominates. Their sneers are more difficult to bear 
than the brickbats which the boys sometimes throw at me ; however, 
both are an honor of which I am not worthy. How many times in the 
day have I occasion to repeat the words, 

' If on my face, for thy dear name, 
Shame and reproaches be ; 
All hail, reproach, and welcome, shame, 
If thou remember me.' " 

On the i2th of June, 1812, the scene is repeated. One of the Viziers (it 
is in Persia) says to him : " You had better say, ' God is God, and Mo- 
hammed is the prophet of God ! ' " Martyn replied : " God is God, and 
Jesus is the Son of God." They were fiercely enraged, and cried out in 
wrath and contempt, and one said : " What will you say when your 
tongue is burnt out for this blasphemy?" "Thus," continues Martyn, 
" I walked away alone to my tent, to pass the rest of the day in heat and 
dirt. ' What have I done,' thought I, ' to merit all this scorn ? Nothing, 
I trust, but bearing testimony to Jesus.' I thought over these things in 
prayer, and found that peace which Christ hath promised to his disciples : 
' If on my face, for thy dear name,' etc. 



434 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

" To complete the trials of the day, a message came from the Vizier in 
the evening, to say that it was the custom of the king not to see any 
Englishman, unless presented by the ambassador, or accredited by a 
letter from him ; and that I must therefore wait till the king reached 
Sultania, where the ambassador would be." 

October i6th of the same year (1812), Mr. Martyn died at Tocat of a 
malignant fever. His final entry in his diary is of October 6th. " No 
horses being to be had I had an unexpected repose. I sat in the orchard 
and thought, with sweet comfort and peace, of my God ; in solitude, my 
company, my friend and comforter. Oh, when shall time give place to 
eternity !" 

The story of the ' ' Maiden Martyr of Scotland, ' ' drowned in 
the Solway, and singing this hymn to the last, is a gross anachro- 
nism. 

Mr. John B. Gough writes as follows about his father : 

" During a retreat of the English army, when closely pursued by 
Marshal Soult, about the year 1809, my father, then about thirty years of 
age, was a soldier in the Fifty-second Light Infantry, He had been 
slightly wounded in the chest, and though his wound was not considered 
fatal, it was painfu'l and irritating. The army had suffered fearfully from 
exposure, famine, and the heavy fatigues of an active campaign. I well 
remember my father saying to me : ' John, you will never know what 
hunger is till you feel the two sides of your stomach grinding together.' 
In that campaign men, mad with hunger, fought like wolves over the 
half-decayed hoof of a bullock ; and often, when one of these poor 
animals, overcome with weakness and starvation, was staggering as if 
about to fall, the ready knife was applied to the throat, and the fainting 
soldiers, eagerly catching the blood in their hands, and hardly wailing 
for it to congeal, made it take the place of food. In this retreat the 
Fifty-second Regiment became — to use the American term — demoralized ; 
and, while they staggered on, my father threw himself out of the ranks, 
under the shadow of a large rock, to die ; he could go no farther. Lying 
there he took from his inner pocket a hymn-book (which I have to-day 
with all the marks of its seventy years upon it), and began to read the 
hymn in which is the verse, 

' When in the solemn hour of death 
I own thy just decree, 
Be this the prayer of my last breath : 
O Lord, remember me.' 

"He must die— it seemed inevitable — though far from home, in a 
strange land. He was a Christian, and endeavored to prepare himself 
for the change. Suddenly a large bird of prey, with a red neck growing 
out of a ruffle of feathers, came swooping along, almost brushing my 
father's body with its wings ; and then circling up, it alighted on the point 
of rock, and turned its blood-red eye on its intended victim. 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 435 

" As my father saw that horrible thing watching and waiting to tear 
him in pieces even before life was extinct, it so filled him with horror and 
disgust that he cried : ' I cannot endure this ; it is too terrible. When I 
am unable to drive that fearful thing away it will be tearing my flesh. I 
cannot endure it ! ' He rose to his feet and fell, then crawled and strug- 
gled away, till at length he crept into a poor hut, found safety, and soon 
after joined his regiment. Though he was very, very ill after that fright- 
ful episode, he recovered, and died in 1S71, at the remarkable age of 
ninety-four years." 

It is very plain that God did remember him, and sent this sharp 
horror to arouse and hasten his effort to escape from death. 

O THOU God, who hearest prayer. — Conder. 
This hymn was caused by a serious accident which befell Mr. 
Conder, owing to a fall from his horse in 1836. Left to lie on his 
bed in pain and anxiety over his affairs, he wrote these verses. 
And yet Conder once said concerning certain subjective hymns : 
" On reading a hymn nobody inquires why it was written or 
attributes the feelings it depicts to the poet's actual, or, at any rate, 
present,' experience." Times have surely changed since then ! 

O THOU great Friend to all the sons of men. — Parker. 

There is no more noticeable name, either for ability or for in- 
dependence, among American Unitarians than that of Theodore 
Parker. He was born in Lexington, Mass., August 24th, 18 10, 
the youngest child of eleven. His ancestors fought in the Revolu- 
tionary War, where his grandfather commanded a company at the 
battle of Lexington, April 19th, 1775. The young Theodore 
was brought up in the workshop and in the field, and what educa- 
tion he obtained was at the district school. At seventeen he had 
advanced to the position of a teacher, and having entered Har\'ard 
College, in 1830, he remained at home, carrying on his studies in 
regular course ; adding other branches that were not taught ; sup- 
porting himself by giving private lessons, and going to Cambridge 
now and then to pass his examinations. This prevented him from 
taking his degree of B.A. with the class, but he received his M. A. 
in 1840. He was graduated from the Divinity School after two 
years of study, and then preached in various parts of Massachusetts- 
His ordination to the pastorate of the Unitarian church in West 
Roxbury occurred June 21st, 1837. 

Here he experienced a great change in his theological views, and 



436 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

his published discourses, 1841-43, mark the trend of his thought. 
In 1843 he went to Germany, and on his return in 1844 he was 
urged to become the minister of a New Society formed in Boston. 
To this he consented, and was installed as pastor, January 4 th, 
1859. His congregation had no house of worship, but met first 
in the Melodeon and then in the Music Hall. The audiences 
were always large, and Mr. Parker not merely held them together, 
but lectured before lyceums in various parts of the country, and 
took an active share in the Abolition movement, and whatever 
partook of the nature of reform. An attack of hemorrhage from 
the lungs finally compelled him to seek Vera Cruz, in January, 
1859, and thence to visit Europe, where he spent some time in 
Switzerland. He then stayed the winter of i860 in Rome, and 
repairing to Florence, in April, found himself much enfeebled and 
died there, May loth, i860. He was buried in the cemetery out- 
side the walls. 

Biographies of Theodore Parker have been written by Rev. 
John Weiss and Rev. O. B. Frothingham. His vigorous and in- 
cisive style left a deep impression upon the generation which grew 
up under his ministry — an impression which it is not easy to efface. 
It is related of him that while he denied anything like Godhead 
to our Lord Jesus Christ, he was fond of keeping a bust of the 
Saviour upon his desk. And certainly the language of this hymn 
has a pathetic power when we remember who wrote it and how 
much he ' ' hoped ever for the perfect day. ' ' 

The hymn is really a sonnet. No date can be assigned to it 
with certainty. It is taken from Dr, Frothingham's Life of Theo- 
dore Parker. 

O THOU, my soul, forget no more. — Marshman, //■. 

The first Hindoo convert to Christianity was Krishna Pal. Dr. 
John Thomas had labored from 1783 to 1800 with no success, 
when at last this man's heart was gained. Dr. Thomas had been 
reinforced by the more famous Baptist missionaries, William Carey 
and Joshua Marshman, and it is this Dr. Marshman who trans- 
lated Krishna Pal's hymn from its original Bengalee. This first 
convert became a successful evangelist among his countrymen, 
and wrote several hymns which were very popular. He was a car- 
penter, of about thirty-five years of age, and while at his work he 



ENGLISH HYMNS. 437 

broke his arm. Dr. Thomas was called upon to set it, which he 
did, and then took occasion to preach the Gospel to the crowd. 
Krishna's gratitude led him to listen to an invitation to return and 
visit the Mission. He not only did this, but brought his wife and 
daughter, and on the 2 2d of December, 1800, he and his brother, 
Goluk, renounced their caste and sat down at table with the mis- 
sionaries. This created a wild storm of rage, under which Goluk 
and the two women became intimidated, but Krishna persisted, 
and was baptized in the Ganges by Dr. Carey, in the presence of 
the Governor of India and many Hindoos and Mohammedans. 
Carey then addressed the multitude, pointing out that this was 
only a ceremony, and that none but Christ could save from sin. 
That evening, December 28th, the Lord's Supper was celebrated 
for the first time in Bengalee. 

This hymn is peculiarly adapted to the communion, and for 
more than twenty years its author continued steadfast in the faith. 
He died of cholera in 1822. Mr. Butterworth, in his Stoiy of 
the Hymns, has taken pains to secure these particulars from Bap- 
tist papers and magazines, and merits the honor due to his 
work. 

Dr. Marshman was one of the translators of the Bible, and he 
prepared dictionaries of the iNIahratta and Bengalee languages, and 
afterward rendered the New Testament into Chinese. He was 
bom in Wiltshire, England, April 20th, 1768, and landed at 
Serampore in 1799, where he died December 5th, 1837. During 
the last years of his life — indeed, from 1826 — he was at variance 
with the Baptist jMissionary Society upon matters of polity. The 
Serampore Mission had been secured \)y the personal devotion and 
gifts of the missionaries, and they naturally objected to transferring 
the title of it to the society. When it is remembered that they had 
given fifty thousand pounds to the work, as well as sacrificed their 
own lives in it, there is at least room for question whether they 
were not justified in some of their views. But when Carey died, 
in 1834, and Marshman was left alone, the shock was ultimately 
fatal. The survivor of this deep friendship was a broken man from 
that moment, and died three years later. At the last his mind 
perceptibly failed. In his final hours he forgot his English, and 
used the language of his adopted land, talking and praying in Ben- 
galee. One of his daughters married General Havelock. 



438 ENGLISH HYMNS. 

O THOU that hearest prayer. — John Burton, Jr. 

We must distinguish this John Burton (known as " John Burton, 
Jr.") from " John Burton of Nottingham," who wrote " Holy 
Bible, book divine," and " Time is winging us away." 

The present hymn is the production of John Burton, of Strat- 
ford, Essex, where he was born July 23d, 1803. The particulars 
of his life have been collected by Dr. Rogers in Lyra Britannica, 
to which he contributed " Jesus, our Lord ! to thee we raise," 
etc. The father was a cooper and basket-maker, and the son fol- 
lowed his father's calling. When his father died in 1840 he be- 
came successor to his business. 

Mr. Burton was brought up in a Christian home, his parents 
being members of the Congregational Church. From his child- 
hood he himself appears to have displayed a devout piety which 
was greatly deepened by a painful illness. From his fifteenth to 
his twenty-fifth year he was in constant suffering, and nearly al- 
ways in a helpless condition. His education was what he gained 
before he was thirteen, and such as he had increased by subsequent 
study. His facility in verse-writing enabled him to publish many 
pieces in the magazines. 

The first of these appeared in 1822. The present hymn dates 
from 1824, when it saw the light in iho. Baptist Magazine, London. 
One of his works {Christian Devotedness) was written in the course 
of three winters, " mostly before day," and is a curious proof of 
its own title. 

We have no record of his death. His days have been spent in 
quietness. English hymnody has songs which come from the tuft 
of grass as well as from the tall forest. 

O THOU whom we adore. — C. Wesley. 

In the year 1782 Mr. Wesley published a tract of forty-seven 
pages, in two parts, entitled Hymns for the Xat