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Full text of "English idioms"

PE 





VICTORIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
TORONTO, ONTARIO 




SOURCE: 



ENCYCLO- 
PEDIC 
LIBRARY 




NELSON'S ENCYCLOPAEDIC LIBRARY 



ENGLISH IDIOMS 



ENGLISH IDIOMS 



BY 

JAMES MAIN DIXON, M.A., F.R.S.E. 

PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE IMPERIAL 
UNIVERSITY OF JAPAN 




THOMAS NELSON AND SONS 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, DUBLIN, LEEDS, PARIS 
LEIPZIG, MELBOURNE, AND NEW YORK 



PE 



PREFACE. 



IN the present volume, instead of attempting to divide 
the work into chapters treating of " colloquial phrases," 
"cant phrases," "slang phrases," and so forth, I have 
thrown the whole into alphabetical form, and have 
marked by letters the category to which, in my opinion, 
the phrases ought to belong. This classification may 
be studied or may be neglected as suits the convenience 
or the taste of the consulter. 

The division chosen is fourfold, and in a descending 
scale of dignity Prose, Conversational, Familiar, Slang. 
By Prose (P) phrases is understood such phrases as 
Macaulay or Matthew Arnold might use in their serious 
writings. Conversational (C) phrases, again, are suit- 
able for use in social intercourse, at gatherings where 
strangers are present, and where we weigh our words 
before uttering them. Familiar (F) phrases are less 
dignified, and are only in place where we are speaking 
unreservedly among intimates. The lowest category of 
all is that of Slang (S) phrases, which are generally of 
a local or technical nature that is, they are fully under- 
stood only by those of a certain locality, coterie, or pro- 
fession. 

This volume does not pretend to exhaust the list 
of slang phrases, but only to give those which have crept 
into ordinary use, and are understood, although they 



vi PREFACE. 

may not be used, by all educated people. At least 
eighty per cent, of the phrases are freshly gathered. I 
must, however, gratefully acknowledge indebtedness to 
Cassell's Encyclopedic Dictionary, to the Supplementary 
English Glossary of Rev. T. L. O. Davies, to Wright's 
Provincial Dictionary, to the fourth edition of Dr. 
Samuel Johnson's English Dictionary, and to the Slang 
Dictionary published by Messrs. Chatto and Windus. 

J. M. D. 



EXPLANATION OF SIGNS. 



P. Good Prose. The phrase is used in serious composition. 

C. Conversational. The phrase is used in polite conversation. 

F. Familiar. The phrase is used in familiar conversation. 

S. Slang. 



ENGLISH IDIOMS. 



A. A 1 first-class ; very good. 
F. " A 1 " at Lloyd's is the 
term applied to a vessel of the 
best construction and in the 
best condition for sailing. 
Lloyd's Coffee-house in London 
was the resort of sea-captains, 
and the name " Lloyd's " is 
still retained for the head- 
quarters of the shipping in- 
terest in London. Here people 
get the latest shipping intel- 
ligence and transact marine 
insurances. 

They say the snow's all packed 
down already, and the going is A 1. 
W. D. HOWELLS. 

" One of them takes his five pints 
of ale a day, and never leaves off 
smoking, even at his meals." 

"He must be a first-rater," said 
Sam. 

"A 1," replied Mr. Roker. DICK- 

I ENS. 

Explanation. Mr. Roker replied 
that ne was a first-rate fellow. 

Aback. To TAKE ABACK to 
surprise or astonish. P. Ori- 
ginally a sea phrase ; used 
when the sails were suddenly 
shifted in order to stop the 
vessel or give it a backward 
motion. 

The boy, in sea phrase, was taken 
all aback.-Hooo. 

Madame Mantilini still said no, 
and said it, too, with such deter- 
mined and resolute ill-temper that 
Mr. Mantilini was clearly taken 
aback. DICKENS. 



A B C. THE A B C OF ANT 

SUBJECT its rudiments ; its 
elementary principles. P. 

Many farmers seem not at all in- 
clined to observe the very A B C of 
morality as regards the payment of 
just debts. Spectator, 1887. 

Father and mother lived in King 
Street, Soho. He was a fiddle-maker, 
and taught me the A B C of that 
science at odd times. READE. 

Abide. To ABIDE BY to ful- 
fil ; to refuse to depart from ; 
to carry out. P. 
Who is the happy warrior? . . . 
It is the generous spirit . . . 
Who, with a natural instinct to dis- 
cern 
What knowledge can perform, is 

diligent to learn ; 
Abides by this resolve, and stops 

not there, 

But makes his moral being his first 
care. WORDSWORTH. 
The rules were fixed, and I must 
abide by them. TYNDALL. 

Counsellor Molyneux steadily 
abided by his word. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

A b o v e. A BOVE-BOAK D 
openly ; without trickery. C. 
The man who cheats at cards 
keeps his hands under the 
table or board. 

"I've no patience with you," he 
said angrily. "Why can't you be 
f airand above-board ?" WM. BLACK. 

Now all is open and above-board 
with you. A. TROLLOPS. 

Abraham. To SHAM ABRA- 
HAM (o) to feign sickness or 






Abroad 

distress. S. An Abraham- 
man in England was a licensed 
beggar, who, on account of 
mental weakness, had been 
placed in the Abraham Ward 
of Bethlehem Hospital, and 
was allowed on certain days 
to go a-begging. Numerous 
impostors took advantage of 
this privilege. 

I have heard people say 
That sham Abraham you may, 
But you mustn't sham Abraham 

Newland. From an Old Song. 
Exp.I have heard people say that 
you may impose on people by a tale 
of distress, but you must not impose 
on Abraham Newland (who was 
cashier to the Bank of England and 
signed its notes. This, of course, 
would be a penal offence). 

(6) to dissimulate ; to pre- 
tend ignorance. S. 

"Ay, drat it; that you know as 
well as I do, Gammon," replied Mr. 
Quirk, with not a little eagerness 
and trepidation. " Come, come, it's 
rather late in the day to sham Abra- 
ham." S. WARREN. 

Abroad. ALL ABROAD (a) in 
a state of mental perplexity. 
F. 

The female boarder in black attire 
looked so puzzled, and, in fact, all 
abroad (perplexed), after the delivery 
of this "counter" of mine, that I left 
her to recover her wits, and went on 
with the conversation. HOLMES. 

He is such a poor, cracked, crazy 
creature, with his mind all abroad. 
A. TROLLOPS. 

(6) having the senses con- 
fused ; without complete con- 
trol of one's organism. F. 

At the twelfth round the latter 
champion was all abroad, as the say- 
ing is, and had lost all presence of 
mind and power of attack or de- 
fence. THACKERAY. 

THE SCHOOLMASTER IS ABROAD 

good education is spreading 
everywhere. P. 

Let the soldier be abroad if he 
will, he can do nothing in this age. 
There is another personage a per- 
sonage less imposing ; in the eyes of 
some, perhaps, insignificant. The 
schoolmaster is abroad, and I trust 
to him, armed with his primer, 
against the soldier in full military 
array. LORD BROUGHAM. 



8 Act 

Account. ON ACCOUNT in 
part payment. A business 
phrase, used when two persons 
have dealings with each other, 
and the account between them 
is only partly settled by any 
payment. 

driver this half sov- 
I Captain Able- 
him It is on account, 
a good fare." B. L. 

TO GIVE A GOOD ACCOUNT OF 

to be successful with. F. 

The terrier gave a good account of I 
the rats (was successful in killing I 
many of them). 

To LAY ONE'S ACCOUNT WITH j 
to expect ; to look forward 
to. P. 

The jurors must have laid their 




account with appearing (expected to 
appear) before the Star Ch 



HALLAM. 



iamber. 



TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT to 

make allowance for. C. 

As to its adventurous beginning, 
and all those little circumstances 
which gave it a distinctive character 
and relish, he took them into ac- 
count. DICKENS. 

Acknowledge. To ACKNOW- 
LEDGE THE CORN to admit 
the truth of a statement. S. 

" What did the man say when you 
arrested him?" "He said he was 
drunk." "I want his precise words, 
just as he uttered them. He did not 
use the pronoun he, did he?" "Oh 
ves, he did : he said he was drunk- 
he acknowledged the corn." The 
Court (getting impatient at witness's 
stupidity), "You don't understand 
me ; I want the words as he uttered 
them. Did he say, '/was drunk'?" 
Witness (zealously), "Oh no, your 
honour ; he didn't say you was drunk. 
I would not allow any man to charge 
that upon you in my presence! 
Law Magazine, 1887. 

Act. To ACT A PART to be- 
have hypocritically; to con- 
ceal one's real feelings. P. 

Miss Wilmot's reception was mixed 
wi th seeming neglect, and yet I could 
perceive she acted a studied part (de- 
signedly concealed her real feelings). 
GOLDSMITH. 

Was the young man acting a part, 
or was he reaUy ignorant of the 
rumour? WM. BLACK. 



Ad 

ACT OF GOD an event which 
cannot be prevented by any 
human foresight, but is the 
result of uncontrollable natural 
forces : for example, when a 
ship is struck by lightning 
and destroyed. P. 

The act of God, fire, and all the 
dangers and accidents of the sea, are 
not accepted as ordinary risks. 

To HAVE ACT OB PART another 

form Of TO HAVE ART OR PART. 

See ART. 

But I declare I had neither act nor 
,rt in applying the thumbscrew to 

Ipanisn captain. G. A. SALA. 
TO ACT UP TO A PROMISE or 

PROFESSION to behave in a 
suitable way, considering what 
promises or profession one has 
made ; to fulfil what one 
promises or professes to regard 
as a duty. P. 

It isn't among sailors and fisher- 
men that one finds genuine black- 
guardism. They have their code, 
such as it is, and upon the whole I 
think they act up to it.-W. E. NOB- 
BIS, in Good Words, 1887. 
Ad. AD AVIZANDUM, or TO 
AVIZANDUM into further con- 
sultation and consideration. 
C. A Scottish legal phrase. 
Latin. 

Meanwhile I shall take your pro- 
posal ad avizandum (consider your 
proposal more carefully). 
AD INTERIM for the meantime ; 
serving for the present interval. 
P. Latin. 

The work is hard, but not hopeless ; 
and the road to success does not lie 
through an ad interim teaching of 
false creeds. Spectator, 1887. 

The divorce (of Josephine) may in- 
N deed be said to have actually taken 
place ; yet the cruel obligation was 
laid on her of being, in fact, ad in- 
terim, the deputy of her successor. 
Temple Bar, 1887. 

AD LIBITUM as much as you 
please ; to any extent. P. 
Latin. 

Very well, gentlemen, torture your 
prisoners adlibitum; I shall interfere 
no more. READE. 

And, with true Macaulayan art, 
they are so arranged as to suggest 
their being but specimens from a 
store which might be drawn on ad 
libitum. National Review, 1887. 



9 Addresses 

AD NAUSEAM until people are 

tired and sick of the subject. 

P. 
And so on, and so on ad nauseam, 

proceeds that anonymous retailer or 

petty scandal. Edinburgh Review, 

1887. 
AD VALOREM according to the 

value. P. Latin. 
An ad valorem duty of five per 

cent, is imposed on all goods coming 

into Japan. 

Adam. THE OLD ADAM the 
evil nature within a man. G. 
Originally a religious phrase. 

But Dan was not to be restrained, 
and breaking into the homespun 
(colloquial) a sure indication that 
the old Adam was having the upper 
hand he forthwith plunged into 
some chaff, etc. HALL CAINE. 
ADAM'S ALE or ADAM'S WINE 
pure water. C. 
We'll drink Adam's ale. HOOD. 
Some take a glass of porter to their 
dinner, but I slake my thirst with 
Adam's wine. 
SON OF ADAM a man. C. 

But as all sons of Adam must have 
i say to the rest, 

daughters, this 

. . lage carried on some com- 
merce withthe outer world. BLACK- 

MORB. 

Exp. But as all men need to have 
friendly intercourse with other men, 
and especially with women, this little 
village, though very retired, carried 
on some dealings with the outer 
world. 

ADAM'S APPLE the projection 
in the neck under the chin. P. 

Having the noose adjusted and 



secured by tightening above his 
apple. Daily Telegraph, 



Adam's 



NOT TO KNOW A MAN FROM ADAM 

to be quite unacquainted 
with him ; to be unable to 
recognize him. F. 



from Adam if he stood before me 
now. B. L. FABJEON. 

Eoyston then asked him if the 
drunken man was his friend; but 
this the other denied, saying that he 
had just picked him up from the 
foot-path, and did not know him 
from Adam. FERGUS W. HUME. 
Addresses. To PAT ONE'S 

ADDRESSES TO to COUrt ; to 



Advantage 

approach a lady as 



suitor 

for her hand in marriage. P. 
He was said to be paving his ad- 
dresses to Lady Jane Sheepshanks, 
Lord Southdown's third daughter. 
THACKERAY. 

Advantag-e. To ADVANTAGE 
favourably ; in a good light. 
P. 

To see the lower portion of this 
glacier to advantage. TYNDALL. 

TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF to U86 

for the furtherance of one's 
own purposes. P. 

Here was material enough for the 
craft of William to take advantage 
of. FREEMAN. 

Affaire. AFFAIRE DE CCEUR 
affair of the heart , a love 
affair. C. A French phrase. 

He had travelled abroad in the in- 
terval, and passed through a very 
serious affaire de coeur. Quarterly 
Review, 1887. 

After. AFTER ALL neverthe- 
less ; when all things are con- 
sidered. P. Generally used to 
introduce some circumstance 
of a more favourable or pleas- 
ing nature. 

Yet after all he was a mere mortal. 
WASHINGTON IRVING. 

"After all, Balfour," said Mr. Jews- 
bury with philosophic resignation, 
"there are compensations in life." 
WM. BLACK. 

AFTER A MAN'S OWN SOUL or 
HEART exactly what he likes 
or admires. 

"Give me a kiss, my dear boy," 
said Fagan, with tears in his eyes. 
" You're after my own soul." 
THACKERAY. 

It was, indeed, a representative 
gathering, after the Talberts' own 
hearts. HUGH CONWAY. 

Afternoon. AN AFTERNOON 
FARMER one who loses the 
best time for work ; a lazy, 
dilatory man. F. 

John was too much of an afternoon 
farmer to carry on the business suc- 
cessfully. 

Exp. John's habits were too dila- 
tory for him to succeed in the busi- 



Ag-6. TO COME OF AGE to 

reach the age of twenty -one, 



10 Airs 

when the law permits a man 
to manage his own affairs. P. 
She was now nearly twenty-three. 
Having, when she came of age, suc- 
ceeded^ to her late mother's third of 
old Talbert's possessions, she was 
independent both by age and by in- 
come. HUGH CONWAY. 

Agog. ALL AGOG in a state 
of activity or restless expecta- 
tion. F. 
So three doors off the chaise was 

stayed. 

Where they did all get in: 
Six precious souls, and all agog 
To dash through thick and thin. 
COWPER. 

Exp. Six precious souls, and very 
eager to dash through every obstacle. 
He found the village all agog with 
expectation. RE ADE. 

Agreeable. To MAKE THE 

AGREEABLE TO to Strive to 

entertain ; to be a pleasant 
companion to. C. 

With which laudable and manly 
resolution our dashing major pro- 
ceeded to make the agreeable to his 
guests. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 



AiPS. TO GIVE ONESELF AIRS 

to be conceited or arrogant 
in behaviour. C. 

" And these girls used to hold their 
heads above mine, and their mother 
used to give herself such airs," said 
Mrs. Baynes. THACKERAY. 
IN THE AEB (a) prevalent ; 
found everywhere. C. 

These expressions and points of 
view were not peculiar to Pliilo. 
They were, so to speak, in the air. 
F. W. FARRAR. 

He is alive to the fact that "social- 
istic risings" are in the air all over 
Europe. Spectator, February 18, 1888. 

(&) (in military usage) with- 
out support or proper protec- 
tion. 

The extreme left of the Allied front 
was, in military dialect, "in the air" 
that is, protruded into the open 
country, without natural or artificial 
protection to its outer flank. GARD- 
NER. 

(c) unsubstantial ; visionary ; 

having no real existence. P. 
Generally after the word 

CASTLES. 

And if our dwellings are castles in 
the air, we find them excessively 
splendid and commodious. THACK- 
ERAY. 



Aladdin 

Aladdin. ALADDIN'S LAMP 
a lamp which gave its owner, 
or rather the person who 
rubbed it, every thing he wished. 
P. See Arabian Nights' Enter- 
tainments. 

Goodwill is almost as expeditious 
and effectual as Aladdin's lamp. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

In all its (the career of Henry IV.) 
vicissitudes there is nothing more 
romantic than that sudden change, 
as by a rub of Aladdin's lamp, from 
the attorney's office in a county town 
of Illinois to the helm of a great 
nation in times like these. J. E,. 
LOWELL on Abraham Lincoln. 

Alert. ON THE ALERT watch- 
ful ; ready to observe what- 
ever is passing. P. 

But those who were stationed at 
the look-out were equally on the 
alert. CAPT. MABBYAT. 

The Paris student . . . whose fierce 
republicanism keeps gendarmes for 
ever on the alert. THACKERAY. 

All. ALL ALONG. See ALONG. 

TO BE ALL THINGS TO ANOTHER 

to accommodate oneself in 
every way to his wants, moods, 
or caprices. C. 

She had sworn that more than ever 
she would be all things to her hus- 
band. MARION CRAWFORD. 

ON ALL FOURS. See FOUR. 

ALL IN ALL (a) supreme ; all- 
powerful ; of the first import- 
ance. P. 

The then Prime Minister was all 
in all at Oxford. A. TROLLOPS. 

Fashion, you know, ladies, is all in 
all in these things, as in everything 
else. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

(6) the dearest object of 
affection. P. 

Desdemona, a happy young wife, 
till a wicked enchanter's breath sud- 
denly wraps her in a dark cloud, is 
all in all to (intensely loved and ad- 
mired by) her husband. Blackwood's 
Magazine, 1887. 

Mamma and I are all in all together, 
and we shall remain together. A. 
TROLLOPS. 

I was all in all to him then. 
THACKERAY. 

(c) (adverbially) completely ; 
entirely. P. 
Take him for all in all, 
I shall not look upon his like again. 
SHAKESPEARE. 



11 All 

Trust me not at all or all in all. 

When he (Lord Carteret) dies, the 
best head in England dies too, take 
it for all in all (if we consider the 
matter in every aspect). CHESTER- 
FIELD. 

To BE ALL ONE to make no 
difference. F. 

Mr. Carker presently tried a canter 
Eob was still in attendance then 
a short gallop. It was all one to the 
boy. DICKENS. 

ALL OP A HEAP. See HEAP. 

ALL (IN) MY EYE AND BETTY 
MARTIN nonsense ; not to 
be believed. Found also in 
the contracted form, ALL (IN) 
MY EYE. S. This phrase is 
at least three hundred years 
old. 

Says he, "It fairly draws tears 
from me," and his weak eye took to 
lettin' off its water. So as soon as 
the chap went, he winks to me with 
t'other one, quite knowin', as much 
as to say, You see it's all in my eye, 
Slick; but don't let on to any one 
about it that I said so. HALI- 

BURTON. 

Exp. He said, "It really draws 
tears from me," and his weak eye 
began to let off its water. So as soon 
as the man went, he winked to 
me with the other one, quite slyly, 
as if to say, You see it's all humbug. 
Slick ; but do not tell any one that! 
said so. 

Why, she told him you were rather 
nervous about horses, and that you 
were rather alarmed at what I said 
about the old mare. That was all 
my eye, you know. She (the mare) 
is as quiet as an old cow. RHODA 
BROUGHTON. 

ALL THE SAME nevertheless ; 
notwithstanding. F. 

The captain made us trim the boat, 
and we got her to lie a little more 
evenly. All the same, we were afraid 
to breathe. R. L. STEVENSON. 

A talk on ethics does not carry 
young people at a hand-gallop into 
the depths of emotion. It has its 
tendency, all the same. MRS. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

ALL SERENE very good ; all 
right. S. At one time a 
popular street cry in London. 

"You will meet me to-night at the 
railway station, and bring me the 
money." "All serene" (Yes, I shall 
meet you and bring the money). 

Tom peeped under the bonnet, 



Alma 

and found it, as he expressed him- 
self, all serene. G. J. WHYTE-MEL- 
VILLE. 

ALL THERE clever ; able ; pos- 
sessing quick faculties. C. 

Our friend the judge is all there, 
I can tell you, and knows what he 
is about. 

Exp. Our friend the judge is a 
clever man, I assure you, and fully 
understands how best to act. 

ALL AND SUNDRY every one 
without distinction. P. 

Finally, he invited all and sundry 
to partake freely of the oaten cake 
and ale that he had himself brought 
from Ballymena. HALL CAINE. 

Alma. ALMA MATER nourish- 
ing mother. A name often 
applied to a university by 
its graduates. P. Latin. 

The good men they who have 
any character, they who have that 
within them which can reflect credit 
on their alma, mater they come 
through (their course of study at the 
university) scathless. A. TROLLOPE. 

Along. ALONG OF owing to ; 

because of. P. 
"I never had such luck, really," 

exclaimed coquettish Miss Price, 

after another hand or two. " It's all 

along of you, Mr. Nickleby, I think." 

DICKENS. 
ALL ALONG during its whole 

existence ; the whole time. P. 
This impost was all along felt to 

be a great burden. FREEMAN. 

Alpha. ALPHA AND OMEGA 
the beginning and the end. 
P. These are the first and last 
letters of the Greek alphabet. 

I am Alpha and Ome^a, the begin- 
ning and the ending, saith the Lord. 
Rev. i. 8. 

The alpha and omega of science. 
HERSCHEL. 

Here we have the beginning and 
the end, alpha and omega. DICKENS. 

Alt. To BE IN ALT to be in 
an exalted frame of mind. 
C. An expression taken from 
the vocabulary of music. 

"Come, prithee be a little less in 
alt," cried Lionel, "and answer a man 
when he speaks to you." MADAME 
D'ARBLAY. 

Altar. To LEAD TO THE ALTAR 
to marry. P. 

He to lips that fondly falter 
Presses hers without reproof ; 



12 Angel 

Leads her to the village altar, 
And they leave her father's roof. 

TENNYSON. 

On the 15th of May, in the year 
1773, 1 had the honour and happiness 
to lead to the altar Honoria. Coun- 
tess of Lyndon, widow of the late 
Eight Hon. Sir Charles Lyndon, 
K.B. THACKERAY. 

Alter. ALTER EGO other self ; 
one who is very near and dear 
to a person ; an inseparable 
friend. P. Latin. 

I am his alter egona.y, he only 
sees what I choose to show him, and 
through the spectacles, as it were, 
that I place on the bridge of his 
nose. J. PAYN. 

Amende. AMENDE HONOR- 
ABLE a sufficient apology 
and compensation for wrong 
done. P. French. 

The result of this determined con- 
duct was an amende honorable and 
peace. Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

Amiss. To TAKE (A THING) 
AMISS to be offended by it ; 
to resent it. C. 

You will n9t take it amiss if I take 
a cousin's privilege. A. TROLLOPE. 

Amoup. AMOUR PROPRE self- 
esteem. P. A French phrase. 
But, at all events, you should save 
her amour -jpropre from the shock of 
any rebuff. The Mistletoe Bough, 
1887. 

Angel. To ENTERTAIN AN 

ANGEL UNAWARES to be hOS- 

pitable to a guest whose good 
qualities are unknown. P. 
See the Bible (Gen. xviii.) 
for the origin of the phrase. 

He had always esteemed his sister ; 
but as he now confessed to himself, 
for these many years he had been 
entertaining an angel unawares (had 
not known how very good a woman 
she was). J. PAYN. 

In the course of the evening some 
one informed her that she was enter- 
taining an angel unawares, in the 
shape of a composer of the greatest 
promise. W. E. NORRIS, in Good 
Words, 1887. 

ANGELS' VISITS pleasant visits, 
occurring very rarely. P. 
How fading are the joys we dote 

upon, 
Like apparitions seen and gone ; 

But thoselwhich soonest take their 
flight 



13 



Apple 



Are the most exquisite and strong : 
Like angels' visits, short and 

Mortality's too weak to bear them 
long. JOHN MORRIS. 

... In visits 
Like those of angels, short and far 

between. BLAIR. 

THE ANGEL OF THE SCHOOLS or 
THE ANGELIC DOCTOR a name 
given to Thomas Aquinas, the 
great scholastic philosopher. 
P. 

TO WRITE LIKE AN ANGEL to 

write beautifully (originally 
of calligraphy, and not of 
composition). 

This fanciful phrase has a very 
human origin. Among those learn ed 
Greeks who emigrated to Italy, and 
came afterwards into France in the 
reign of Francis I., was one Angelo 
Verjecto, whose beautiful calli- 
graphy excited the admiration of 
the learned. The French monarch 
had a Greek fount cast, modelled 
by his writing. His name became 
synonymous for beautiful writing, 
and gave birth to that familiar 
phrase, "to write like an angel." 
ISAAC D'ISRAELI. 

Here lies poet Goldsmith, for short- 
ness called Noll, 

Who wrote like an angel, but talked 
like poor Poll. GARRICK. 

Animal. ANIMAL SPIRITS 
the liveliness that comes from 
health and physical exhilara- 
tion. P. 

She had high animal spirits. 
JANE AUSTEN. 

Ape. To LEAD APES to be 
an old maid. F. This phrase 
comes from an old superstition 
that unmarried women suffered 
this punishment after death. 

Poor girl, she must certainly lead 
apes. MRS. CENTLIVRE. 

There was also another young 
lady, strong and staying as to wind 
and limb, who offered to run races 
with her suitors on the same terms 
of death or victory. But Love's 
Nemesis came upon her too, for no 
one ever proposed to run with her 
on these terms, and she presently 
grew middle-aged and fat, and said 
that running races was unlady-like, 
and ought to have been discouraged 
long since, and it was wrong of her 
parents to encourage her. But it was 
too late : and now she leadeth apes 
by a chain. BESANT. 



Appeal. To APPEAL TO THE 
COUNTRY to advise the sov- 
ereign to dissolve Parliament 
and ask the electors to send 
up new representatives. P. 

As soon as the necessary business 
could be got through, Parliament 
would be dissolved, and an appeal 
made to the country (a new election 
of representatives made). J USTIN 

M'CAJRTHY. 

Appearance. To KEEP UP 
APPEARANCES to behave in a 
seemly way before others. C. 
He was terribly afraid, likewise, of 
being left alone with either uncle or 
nephew; appearing to consider that 
the only chance of safety as to keep- 
ing up appearances was in their 
being always all three together. 
DICKENS. 

Apple. APPLE OF SODOM 
a specious thing which dis- 
appoints. P. The so-called 
" apples of Sodom," as de- 
scribed by Josephus, had a 
fair appearance externally, but 
when bitten dissolved in smoke 
and dust. 

It will prove, when attained, a 
very apple of Sodom, dying between 
the hand and the mouth. 
Like to the apples on the Dead Sea 

shore, 
All ashes to the taste. BYRON. 

APPLE OF ONE'S EYE a much- 
prized treasure. P. The 
" apple of the eye " is the 
eye -ball, so called from its 
round shape : something very 
delicate and tender. 

He kept him as the apple of his 
eye.Deut. xxxii. 10. 

He would have protected Grace's 
good repute as the apple of his eye. 
THOMAS HARDY. 

Poor Richard was to me as an 
eldest son, the apple of my eye. 
SCOTT. 

TO MAKE APPLE-PIE BEDS to 

fold one of the sheets of a 
bed (removing the other) 
so as to make it impossible 
for the intending occupant 
to stretch his legs ; a common 
practical joke. P. 

No boy in any school could have 
more liberty, even where all the 
noblemen's sons are allowed to 
make apple-pie beds for their 



April 

masters (disarrange the beds of 
their teachers). BLACKMORE. 

APPLE OP DISCORD something 
which causes strife. P. Eris, 
the goddess of hate, threw 
a golden apple among the 
goddesses, with this inscrip- 
tion attached, " To the most 
beautiful." Three goddesses 
claimed the prize, and quar- 
relled over its possession 
Hera, Pallas, and Aphrodite 
(Venus). Par's, son of Priam, 
was appointed arbiter, and 
decided in favour of the last. 
Not Cytherea (Venus) from a fairer 

Received her apple on the Trojan 

plai n. FALCONE R. 

It (the letter) was her long con- 
templated apple of discord, and 
much her hand trembled as she 
handed the document up to him. 
THOMAS HARDY. 

This great and wealthy church 
constantly formed an apple of 
discord (a subject of quarrel). 
FREEMAN. 

APPLE-PIE ORDEK extreme neat- 
ness. C. 

The children's garden is in apple- 
pie order. LOCKHART. 

Susan replied that her aunt wanted 
to put the house in apple-pie order. 
READE. 

April. APRIL FOOL one sent 
on a bootless errand or other- 
wise deceived on the first of 
April a day reserved for such 
practical joking. P. 

We retired to the parlour, where 
she repeated to me the strongest 
assurances of her love. I thought I 
was a made man. Alas ! I was only 
an April fool ! THACKERAY. 

Appon-stping 1 . TIED or 

PINNED TO A WOMAN'S APRON- 
STRINGS continually in a 
woman's company, unwilling 
to quit her side. F. 

If I was a fine, young, strapping 
chap like you, I should be ashamed 
of being milksop enough to pin my- 
self to a woman's apron-strings. 
DICKENS. 

And as for her, with her little 
husband dangling at her apron- 
strings, as a call-whistle to be blown 
into when she pleases that she 
should teach me my duty! A. 
TROLJLOPE. 



14 



Arm 



Apropos. APROPOS to the 
purpose ; appropriately. C. 
A French phrase. 

APROPOS DE BOTTES rhaving 
no connection with the pre- 
vious conversation. 

The secretary, however, was not 
the man to own himself vanquished, 
even in anecdote, but at once began 
to descant very much apropos de 
bottes (without any connection or 
apparent cause) as it seemed upon 
a curious Anglo-French marriage 
case that had that day appeared In 
the newspapers. J. PAYN. 

" This is a strange remark," said 
he, "and apropos de bottes" R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

APROPOS DE RIEN apropos of 
nothing ; irrelevantly. 

The story was introduced apropos 
derien, 

Arab. A STREET ARAB or 
ARAB OF THE GUTTER one 
of the uncared-for children of 
our large cities. P. 

This enterprise led him (Lord 
Shaftesbury) into the heart of the 
vilest rookeries, to find places where 
such schools might be opened, and 
to hunt up the young Arabs of the 
gutter to fill them. Quarterly Re- 
view, 1887. 

The hero and heroine began life as 
street Arabs of Glasgow. fall Mall 
Gazette, 1883. 

Arcades. ARCADES AMBO 
both of them simpletons. C. 
Latin. 

He distrusted the people asfmuch 
as the aristocracy, and ridiculed the 
f ossilization of Toryism equally with 
the fluidity of Radicalism. "Arcades 
ambo," he used to say, with his serene 
smile. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

Arm. ARM IN ARM walking 
in friendly fashion with the 
arms linked. P. 

It was an agreeable surprise to her, 
therefore, to perceive them walking 
up to the house together arm in arm. 
MRS. OLIPHANT. 

IN ARMS carried about. P. 
Generally used with the word 

CHILD Or INFANT. 

That well-informed young gentle- 
man was not insensible to the glory 
of acting as pioneer and exponent of 
the Parisian mysteries to a person 
who, however distinguished in his 
own line, was confessedly in such 
matters a mere infant in arms as 



Arriere 

compared with himself. Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

One of these passengers being a 
child, still young enough to be 
passed off as a child in arms. HUGH 
CONWAY. 

AT ABM'S LENGTH at a certain 
distance; avoiding too great 
nearness or familiarity. P. 

If she would confide in me, if she 
would even speak to me of it, I might 
do something to convince her of her 
folly. . . . But no, she never alludes 



to it ; she 
Mu 



furray's Magazine, 1887. 
To LIE UPON ONE'S ARMS. See 

LIE. 

WITH OPEN ARMS warmly ; 
affectionately. P. 

The Stanhopes were all known by 
name in Barchester, and Barchester 
was prepared to receive them with 
open arms. A. TROLLOPE. 

IN OPEN ARMS fighting openly. 
P. 

Here I sat for some time ponder- 
ing upon the strange infatuation of 
wretches who, finding all mankind 
in open arms against them, were 
labouring to make themselves a 
future and tremendous enemy. 
GOLDSMITH. 

A RIGHT ARM. See RIGHT. 

UNDER ARMS bearing arms ; 
in martial array. P. 

In a moment the troops were 
under arms (in battle array). 
ROBERTSON. 

UP IN ARMS roused to anger; 
ready to fight. P. 

" No," said Kate, now fairly up in 
arms (really angry and rebellious) ; 
"it is not just, papa." MRS. On- 

PHANT. 

If a tramping beggar were set to 
work in England, and compelled to 
do it by military discipline, all the 
philanthropists in the country would 
be up in arms. -Spectator, 1887. 

"Ill knock, I swear, till I have 
your neighbours up in arms," said 
Ralph. DICKENS. 



j ARRIERE PENSE"E 
(a) hidden motive ; under- 
lying design. P. A French 
phrase. 

Our reason for so doing (placing 
Mr. Lear above Lewis Carroll as 
a writer of nonsense) is that no 
nonsense is so absolutely devoid o 



15 Ass 

"I thought it was a childish be- 
sottishness you had for that man- 
a sort of calf-love, that it would be 
a real kindness to help you out of." 
-"Without an arrtire penste for 
your own advantage, of course. 
RHODA BROUOHTON. 
(&) afterthought ; something 
which occurs to one's mind af- 
ter a thing has been done. P. 
For their sakes and mine, you will 
not mind very much that you are 
spared all these arrieres penstes. 
SARAH TYTLER. 

APPOW. THE BROAD ARROW 
the arrow - shaped brand 
with which the British Govern- 
ment marks its stores. P. 

This jacket, moreover, was 
stamped in vanous places with the 
Government broad arrow. HUGH 
CONWAY. 

Apt. TO BE Or HAVE ART AND 

PART IN to be concerned 
either in the contrivance or 
execution of. P. 

"My dear," said she, "it's the 
foolery of being governor. If you 
choose to sacrifice all your comfort 
to being the first rung in the ladder, 
don't blame me for it. I didn't 
nominate you : I had no art or part 
in it" (was wholly unconcerned in 
contriving or carrying out your 
nomination). HALIBURTON. 

Sundry proceedings took 
which would not very wel 
squared with the public ic 
what is due to the fair sex 

treated of, but I declare that I 

neither art nor part in them. G. A. 
SALA. 

You are art and part with us 

In purging heresy. TENNYSON. 

ASS. TO MAKE AN ASS OF ONE- 
SELF to behave foolishly. F. 
The ass is taken as the type 
of folly. 

Do not make such an ass of your- 
self as to suppose that. A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

The father makes an ass of him- 
self, or fate cuts him off prematurely. 



THE ASSES' BRIDGE a name 
given to the fifth proposition 
of the First Book of Euclid 
because of the difficulties 
it presented to beginners. 
See PONS ASINORUM. 

He never crossed the asses' bridge. 
-All the Year Round, 1880. 



Assurance 16 

He could disport himself with 



Auld 



trigonometry, feeling confident that 
Dr. Tempest had forgotten his way 
over the asses' bridge. A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

Assurance. To MAKE AS- 
SURANCE DOUBLY SURE to 
take every possible precau 
tion. P. 

I'll take a bond of fate and make 

Assurance double sure. 

^ SHAKESPEARE. 

Now that I had a moment to my- 
self, I lost no time in changing the 
priming of my pistol; and then, 
having one ready for service, and to 
make assurance doubly sure, I pro- 
ceeded to draw the load of the other 
and recharge it afresh from the be- 
ginning. R. L. STEVENSON. 

This horn haft, though so massive, 
was as flexible as cane, and practi- 
cally unbreakable ; but to make as- 
surance doubly sure, it was whipped 
round at intervals of a few inches 
with copper wire. H. E. HAGGARD. 

At. AT ALL. See ALL. 

AT THAT moreover ; in addi- 
tion. C. A favourite Ameri- 
can phrasa 

.It comes nearest (the Irish car) to 
riding on horseback, and on a side- 
saddle at that, of any vehicle travel- 
ling I ever saw. J. BURROUGHS. 

Attic. ATTIO SALT wit or 
refined pleasantry. P. 

Triumph swam in my father's 
eyes ,at the repartee the Attic 
salt brought water into them. 
STERNE. 

f Exp. My father showed tiiumph 
.rnhis eyes at the repartee; it was 
so charmingly witty that it brought 
tears of pleasure to them. 

To what might it not have given 
rise what delightful intimacies, 
what public phrase, to what 
Athenian banquets and flavour of 
Attic salt? A. TROLLOPS. 
ATTIO BEE a name given to 
Sophocles, the Greek drama- 
tist ; a sweet^poet. 

A true Attic bee, he (Milton) made 
boot on every lip where there was a 
trace of truly classic " 



LOWELL. 



honey. J. E. 



Au. Au OONTRAIRE on the 
contrary. C. French. 

So we have not won the Goodwood 
cup; au contraire, we were a "bad 
fifth," if not worse than that.-O. W. 
HOLMES. 



Au FAIT familiar with ; accus- 
tomed to. P. French. 

She appears to be as au fait to 
(with) the ways of the world as you 
or I. FLORENCE MARRYAT/ 

Au GRAND SE"RIEUX itf sober 
earnest. P. French./ 

I mean young women of no ex- 
perience, who take everything au 
grand serieux. vfM. BLACK. 

Au PIED DE LA LETTRE exactly ; 
without deviating from the 
exact words. P. French. 

Au REVOIR good-bye for the 
present; literally, "until we 
meet again." C. French. 

Arthur took off his hat. "Then 
we will consider that settled. Good- 
morning or perhaps I should sav 
au revoir," and bowing again, he left 
the office. H. E. HAGGARD. 

Augean. To CLEANSE THE 
AUGEAN STABLES to perform 
a great work of purification. 
P. Augeas was a fabulous 
king of Elis, who imposed 
on Hercules the task of cleans- 
ing his stables, where three 
thousand oxen had lived for 
thirty years without any 
purification. Hercules per- 
formed his task in one day by 
letting two rivers flow through 
them. 

If the Augean stable (sink of 
dramatic impurity) was not suffi- 
ciently cleansed, the stream of 
public opinion was fairly directed 
against its conglomerated impuri- 
ties. SCOTT. 

In short, Malta was an Augean 
stable, and Ball had all the inclina- 
tion to be a Hercules. S. T. COLE- 
RIDGE. 

Augustan. THE AUGUSTAN 
AGE the period of highest 
purity and refinement in any 
national literature. P. So 
called from the Emperor 
Augustus, under whose rule 
Virgil and Horace wrote their 
mmortal works. 
The reign of Queen Anne is often 
called the Augustan age of England. 

Auld. AULD REEKIE a name 
given to Edinburgh because 
of the smoke from its chim- 



Ant 

aeys ; literally, " Old Smoky." 
I 

His (Shelley's) eye was not fasci- 
nated by the fantastic outlines of 
aerial piles seen amid the wreath- 
ing snoke of Auld Keekie. MAT- 
THEYS ARNOLD. 

Aut. A.UT C3ESAR AUT NULLUS 

either Ceesar or nobody. P. 
Latin. 

I meaa to be aut Ceesar aut nullus 
(either first or nothing at all) in the 
concern. 

Axe. AlT AXE TO GRIND 

a personal pecuniary interest 
in a matter. C. The story 
is told by Franklin that when 
he was a boy in his father's 
yard, a pleasant-spoken man 
came up to him and made 
himself very agreeable. Among 
other things, the visitor praised 
the grindstone, and asked 
young Franklin to let him see 
how it worked. He then 
got the boy to turn the stone, 
while he sharpened an axe 
he had with him. The boy 
was flattered with his compli- 
ments and honeyed words, 



17 



Back 

and worked till his hands 
were blistered. When the 
man was satisfied he sent 
the boy off with an oath. 
That man had an axe to grind 
he had a concealed reason 
for his conduct. All his 
politeness was prompted by 
selfish motives. 

In the first place, let me assure 
you, gentlemen, that I have not an 
axe to grind. ... I can in no way be 
pecuniarily benefited by your 
ing the system of bridges 



proposed 



adopt- 
herein 



__ American politician is 

always ready to grind an axe for his 
fellow, the Neapolitan is no less 
convinced of the value of mutual 
accommodation. E. S. MORGAN, in 
Fortnightly Review, 1887. 
Azpael. THE WINGS OP 
AZRAEL the approach of 
death. P. Azrael, in the 
Mohammedan Koran, is the 
messenger of death. 

Always, in an hospital, there is 
life returning and life departing 
always may be heard the long and 
peaceful breathing of those who 
sleep while health returns, and the 
sighs of those who listen, in the 
hushed watches of the night, for 
the wings of Azrael. BESANT. 



B. AND S. a brandy and 
soda ; a wine-glass of brandy 
in a tumbler of soda-water. 
S. See PEG. 

" They give you weak tea and thin 
bread and butter, whereas" 

" You would rather have a B. and 
S. and some devilled kidneys," 
finished Brian. FERGUS W. HUME. 

Babe. THE BABES IN THE 
WOOD simple, trustful chil- 
dren. C. An old ballad 
describes the sad fate of two 
orphan children, cruelly treated 
by a bad uncle. 

Yet those babes in the wood. 
Uncle Sam and Aunt Fanny, trusted 
six months of our existence to his 
judgment. .Harper's Monthly, Sep- 
tember 1887. 

Back. To GET ONE'S BACK up 
to become roused, angry, 



and obstinate. F. A cat 

when irritated and ready to 

spit and scratch arches its 

back, the hair becoming erect. 

To SET ANOTHER'S BACK UP 

to irritate or rouse him. F. 

I've been to see my mother, and 

you've set her back up. BESANT. 

TO BREAK THE BACK Or NECK OF 

to finish the hardest part 
of a task. C. See NECK. 

I always try to break the back of 
(finish the hardest part of) my day's 
work before breakfast. 

TO GIVE Or MAKE A BACK to 

stoop down, as in the game of 
leap-frog, that another may 
jump over you. F. It is said 
that Napoleon, who was in the 
habit of stooping as he walked, 
was on one occasion used as 



Backbone 



18 



Bad 



a back by a volatile student, 
who mistook the general for 
one of his companions. 
The 
?rgy. 



major was giving a back to 
jr. THACKERAY. 
. The major was stooping so 
that Georgy might leap over his 

TO GO BACK ON A PERSON to 

betray one. American. See 
Go. 

I'll not go back on you, in any 
case. 

To BACK THE FIELD (in the 
language of betting) to bet in 
favour of the other horses 
in the field against a single 
one in particular. C. 

To BACK UP to support. C. 

He prolonged Caesar's command, 
and backed him up (supported him) 
in everything. FROUDE. 

To BACK OUT to retreat cau- 
tiously from a difficult posi- 
tion ; to refuse after consent- 
ing. C. 

(He was) determined that Morris 
should not back out of the scrape so 
easily. SCOTT. 

She turned to Winterbourne, 
blushing a little, a very little, "You 
won't back out? "she said. HENRY 
JAMES, JUN. 

ON ONE'S BACK prostrate ; 
helpless. C. 

But here he was, on his back 
WM. BLACK. 

The doctor staked his wig that, 
camped where they were in the 
marsh, and unprovided with reme- 
dies, the half of them would be on 
their backs before a week. E. L. 
STEVENSON. 

To GIVE THE BACK to leave or 
quit. C. 

Had even Obstinate himself but 
felt what I have felt of the powers 
and terrors of what is yet unseen, he 
would not thus lightly have given us 
the back. BUNYAN. 

To TURN ONE'S BACK UPON to 
desert ; forsake. P. 

"Uncle," said Mrs. Kenwigs, "to 
think that you should have turned 
your back upon me and my dear 
children." DICKENS. 

Backbone. To THE BACK- 
BONE thoroughly ; staunchly ; 
essentially. C. 




They told him solemnly tb*y 
hoped and believed, they. 
English to the 
CON WAY. 

Ballads and Poems of 
(Macmillan) is Mr. G 
to the backbone.. 
manack, 1888. 

Backstairs. BACKSTAIRS IN- 
FLUENCE private influence of 
an unworthy nature ; under- 
hand intrigue at court. P. 
A backstairs minister is one 
who is not trusted by the 
country, but is supported 
by domestic influence in the 
king's household. For in- 
stance, the Earl of Bute was 
despised as a backstairs min- 
ister, because he owed his 
position to the favour of 
George the Third's mother. 

Which accusation it was easier to 
get "quashed" by backstairs influ- 
ence than answered. CARL YLE. 

Bacon. To SELL ONE'S BACON 
to sell one's body. C. 
To the Kaiser, therefore, I sold 

And by him good charge of the/ 
whole is taken. SCHILLER 

(translated by CARLYLE). 
Exp.I therefore sold my body to 

the Emperor, who takes good care 

of it and me. 

To SAVE ONE'S BACON to 
escape from personal injury, 
generally in an undignified 
way. F. 

But as he ran to save his bacon, 

By hat and wig he was forsaken. 
COMBE. 

Exp. But as he ran to escape 
bodily hurt, he lost his hat and wig. 

Jem drew a long breath, and said 
brutally, yet with something of 
satisfaction, "You have saved your 
bacon this time." READE. 

Bad. To GO TO THE BAD to 
become debauched ; to sink 
into poverty and disgrace. C. 

(He) went, as the common saying 
expressively phrases it, to the bad. 
Pall Mall Gazette. 

Those who do not prefer to return 
to the fatherland richer in expe- 
rience, or who do not succumb to 
despair and go to the bad altogether, 
have recourse to charitable societies. 
L. KATSCHER, in Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, 1887. 



Bag 



To THE BAD in debt ; having 

a deficit or loss. C. 
He was between 70 and 80 to the 

bad -Pall Mall Gazette, 1884. 
BAD BLOOD angry and vin- 

dictive feelings. P. 
At the battle of Poonah he regained 

his authority, and whatever bad 

blood had flowed between them was 

checked by the prospect of approach- 

ing danger. DE MAULEY, m Nine- 

teenth Century, 1886. 
BAD DEBTS debts of which there 

is no hope that they will ever 

be paid. P. 
Among his assets he had included 

a number of bad debts (debts that 

were hopeless). 
To GO BAD (of meat or food) to 

spoil. C. 
It goes bad more readily than 

cooked butcher's meat. Daily News, 

1884. 

Bag. BAG AND BAGGAGE 
completely ; leaving no pro- 
perty behind. P. The phrase 
was originally used of the com- 
plete evacuation by an army 
of an enemy's territory, and 
is now employed generally to 
signify the wished-for depar- 
ture of an unwelcome guest. 

The Turks . . . their zaptiehs and 
mudirs . . . their kaimakams and 
their pashas, one and all, bag and 
baggage, shall. I hope, clear out from 
the province they have desolated and 
profaned. GLADSTONE. 
Exp. The Turks and every Turkish 
fficial, 
belongi 
provinc 
lated and p 

This expression of Mr. 
Gladstone's has given rise to 
what is known as the " bag and 
baggage policy " in relation 
to the Turks to drive them 
completely out of Europe. 

Baked. HALF-BAKED silly ; 
weak in mind. S. 

Hampered withal by a daughter of 
seventeen not quite right in her 
head half-baked, to use the popular 
and feeling expression. BESANT. 

Baker. A BAKER'S DOZEN 
thirteen. P. See DOZEN. 
Formerly called a devil's 



. 

official, with all their property and 
ngings, shall, I hope, quit the 
ince (Bulgaria) they have deso- 
and profaned. 



19 Ball 

dozen, and associated with 
ill-luck. 

It is all very well for you, who have 
got some baker's dozen of little ones, 
and lost only one by the measles. 
BLACKMORE. 

Ball. TO OPEN THE BALL 

to begin. P. 

Waltz and the battle of Austerlitz 
are said to have opened the ball to- 
gether (commenced the operations 
of the year together). BYRON. 

" This will do," thought the Scot, 
misled, like Continental nations, by 
that little trait of ours. He opened 
the ball (spoke first). READE. 
TO LEAD UP THE BALL to 

open a dance. P. Said of the 
most distinguished couple who 
occupy the leading place. 

She did not object to her own 
Jenny's leading up the ball at Mr. 
O'Neill's. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Mr. Thornhill and my eldest 
daughter led up the ball. GOLD- 
SMITH. 

BALLS or THE THREE GOLDEN 
BALLS a name given to a 
pawnbroker's place of busi- 
ness, of which three balls are 
the sign. F. 

A pawnbroker from Alcester had 
opened a branch establishment. . . . 
It was managed by a Mr. Figg. Mr. 
Figg's three balls stood out in the 
middle of the cut. MRS. HENRY 
WOOD. 

Take my ticker (watch), and such 
of your things as you can spare, and 
send them to Balls. THACKERAY. 

It is not generally known that the 
three balls at the pawnbrokers' shops 
are the ancient arms of Lombardy. 
The Lombards were the first money- 
brokers in Europe. C. LAMB. 

TO HAVE THE BALL AT ONE'S FOOT 

or BEFORE ONE to be in a po- 
sition to command success ; to 
have things in one's power. C. 

A pretty picture is so much 
prettier in a gilt frame, and she will 
probably begin life with the ball at 
her foot. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

The crisis in George Dallas's life 
had arrived the ball was at his.feet. 
-E. YATES. 
TO KEEP THE BALL UP Or BOLL- 

ING to keep a conversation 
going ; to prevent an under- 
taking from nagging. C. 

He smiled when my lady smiled ; 
returned well-rounded replies to her 



Banbury 



20 



Barmecide 



queries ; kept up the ball of conver- 
sation with the dignity of an am- 
bassador. MKS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

Exp. He spoke occasionally, in 
order to maintain the conversation. 

If the Spaniards had not lost two 
armies lately, we should keep up the 
ball for another year (continue the 
enterprise for another year). WEL- 
LINGTON. 
TO TAKE UP THE BALL to take 

one's turn in speaking or in 
any social matter. C. 

Rosencrantz took up the ball. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

Exp. Rosencrantz took his turn 
In the conversation. 

Banbupy. To TAKE A CHILD 
TO BANBURY CROSS to swing 
it up and down on one's foot. 
F. Grown-up people often 
amuse children in this way, 
sitting on a chair or a sofa, 
and repeating the nursery 
rhyme : 

Ride a cock-horse 
To Banbury Cross, 
T9 see an old woman 
Ride on a white horse. 
With rings on her fingers 
And bells on her toes, 
She shall have music 
Wherever she goes. 
She caught up little Miss Toodle, 
who was running past, and took her 
to Banbury Cross immediately. 
DICKENS. 

Bang. To BANG THE BUSH 
to surpass anything that has 
gone before. 

" My," said he, " if that don't bang 
thebush ; you are another-guess chap 
from what I took you to be, any- 

how. "HA LI BU RTON. 

Exp. "Really," said he, "if that 
does not exceed anything I have yet 
heard; you are quite a different 
fellow from what I supposed you to 
be, at any rate." 

Banyan. BANYAN - DAY a 
day on which no meat is 
served out for rations. A 
sea term. 

Bap. THE BAB SINISTER the 
sign of illegitimate birth. P. 
In the days of chivalry, knights 
of illegitimate birth carried the 
arms of their family marked 
with a black diagonal bar 
across from the right upper 
corner. 



Why, Philip, mv ancestors were 
princes of royal blood when yours 
still herded the swine in these 
woods. I can show more than thirty 
quarterings upon my shield, each the 
mark of a noble house, and I will not 
be the first to put a bar sinister across 
them. H. R. HAGGARD. 

That was Paston Carew, a Clinton 
with the bar sinister across the 
shield. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
To BAR OUT to refuse to admit 
the masters of a school. P. 
Scholars in England frequently 
revolted in this way. 
Revolts, republics, revolutions, most 
No graver than a schoolboys' bar- 

ring out. TENNYSON. 
TO EAT FOR THE BAR. See 

EAT. 

Bapg-ain. A WET BARGAIN 
an agreement concluded by 
the parties drinking liquor 
together. F. 

The recruit took the condition of 
a soldier, with a guinea to make it a 
wet bargain. WINDHAM. 

Exp. The recruit enlisted, and re- 
ceived a guinea that he might drink, 
on the conclusion of the agreement. 

INTO THE BARGAIN beyond what 
has been stipulated ; extra ; 
besides. C. 

If he studies the writings, say, of 
Mr. Herbert Spencer into the bar- 
gain, he will be perfect. M. ARNOLD. 

TO MAKE THE BEST OP A BAD 

BARGAIN to bear adverse cir- 
cumstances in the best possible 
way. P. 

Men had made up their minds to 
submit to what they could not help, 
and to make the best of a bad bargain. 
FREEMAN. 

Exp. Men had resolved to submit 
to the inevitable, and to bear their 
bad luck with the best possible grace. 

Bark. His BARK is WORSE 
THAN HIS BITE he uses strong 
language, but acts with mild- 
ness. C. 

However, I dare say you have 
learned by this time that my father's 
bark is worse than his bite. SARAH 
TYTLER. 

Barmecide. A BARMECIDE 
FEAST a banquet where there 
is nothing to eat. P. The 
name comes from the Arabian 
Nights, where the story is 



21 



Beard 



told of a rich man, Barmecide, 
who invited a friend to dino 
with him. Dishes were 
brought to the table in due 
order, but there were no 
victuals in them. The host, 
however, pretended to eat, and 
his guest had the politeness 
to imitate him. Afterwards 
a real feast was served to 
reward the man for his good 
humour. 

Tommy, outraged by the last glass 
of claret, thought the permission, 
being of a hollow and Barmecide 
character, was a natural ending to a 
banquet from which he rose more 
hungry than when he sat down. 
BESANT. 

A Barmecide room, that had always 
a great dining-table in it, and never 
had a dinner. DICKENS. 

Basket. To BE LEFT IN THE 
BASKET to be neglected or 
thrown over. F. 
Whatever he wants, he has only to 

ask it, 
And all other suitors are left in the 

basket. BARHAM. 

Bat. ON HIS OWN BAT on 

his own account. S. Taken 
from the game of cricket. 

Titmouse has left Spanker and 
Co., and is now on his own bat (in 
business for himself). 

Bath. Go TO BATH be a 
beggar. F. 

" Go to Bath ! " said the baron. 
BARHAM. 

Beans. To KNOW BEANS ; TO 

KNOW HOW MANY BEANS MAKE 

FIVE to be sagacious ; to be 
worldly-wise. F. 

I was a fool, I was, and didn't know 
how many beans made five. I was 
born yesterday, I was. B. L. FAR- 
JEON. 

Bear. To BEAR ONE HARD 
to be unfriendly to. P. 
Caesar doth bear me hard. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

To BEAR OUT A MAN to lend 
him support ; to back him. P. 
Every one will bear me out in say- 
ing that the mark by which you know 
them is their genial and hearty fresh- 
ness and youthfulness of character. 
HUGHES. 



TO BEAR A BOB Or A HAND 

to assist ; to join others in 
work. C. 

We were so short of men that every 
one on board had to bear a hand. 
K. L. STEVENSON. 

TO BEAR DOWN UPON to ap- 

proach deliberately. C. 

As soon as they got on the Quarter- 
deck Arthur perceived a tall, well- 
preserved man with an eye-glass, 
whom he seemed to know, bearing 
down upon them. H. E. HAGGARD. 
To BEAR IN MIND to remember ; 
recollect. P. 

It will be borne in mind that Mr. 
Aubrey had given bail to a very large 
amount. S. WARREN. 
A BEAR LEADER one who acts 
as companion to a person of 
distinction. P. 

Once more on foot, but freed from 
the irksome duties of a bear leader, 
and with some of his pay as tutor 
in pocket, Goldsmith continued hia 
half -vagrant peregrinations through 
part of France and Piedmont and 
some of the Italian states. WASH- 
INGTON IRVING. 

It was somewhat beneath the 
dignity of a gentleman cavalier to act 
as bear leader to the joskins and 
simpering city madams that came to 
see the curiosities. G. A. SALA. 

TO PLAT THE BEAR WITH 

to injure ; to damage. F. 

The last storm has played the bear 
with my crops. 

A BEAR GARDEN a disorderly 
gathering. C. 

Mr. Trollope visited the Chamber 
whilst at Paris, and heard Soult and 
Dupin. He thought it a bear 
garden. Temple Bar, 1887. 

Beard. To BEARD THE LION 
IN HIS DEN to attack a 
dangerous or much-feared per- 
son boldly in his own quar- 
ters. C. 

Miss Masterman returned to the 
inn for lunch, and then prepared for 
her momentous visit to the rectory ; 
for she had resolved to beard the 
lion in his den (attack her enemy in 
his own house), and to denounce 
him in the presence of his family as 
a hypocrite. Ctiambers's Journal, 

Fierce he broke forth "And dar'st 

thou then 

To beard the lion in his den, 
The Douglas in his hall?" SCOTT. 



Beat 



22 



Beat. To BEAT ABOUT THE 
BUSH. See BUSH. 

To BEAT THE BUSH to search 
as sportsmen do when in 
pursuit of game. P. 

Mr. Maurice, again, that pure and 
devout spirit of whom, however, 
the truth must at last be told, that 
in theology he passed his life beating 
the bush with deep emotion and 
never starting the hare Mr. Maurice 
declared that by reading between the 
lines he saw in the Thirty-nine 
Articles and the Athanasian Creed 
the altogether perfect expression of 
the Christian faith. MATTHEW 
ARNOLD. 

To BEAT DOWN to cause a 
seller to reduce the price. C. 

Perhaps his patient would try to 
beat him down (lower his profes- 
sional charge or fee), and Dr. Ben- 
jamin made up his mind to have the 
whole or nothing. 0. W. HOLMES. 

To BEAT A RETREAT to retire. 
C. Originally a military phrase, 
having reference to the beat- 
ing of the drums as a sign 
for making a retreat. 

She introduced Percy to him. The 
colonel was curt but grumpy, and 
Percy soon beat a retreat. READE. 

TO BEAT THE AIR to Struggle 

in vain. P. 

So fight I, not as one that beateth 
the air. ST. PAUL (1 Cor. ix. 26). 

These men labour harder than 
other men result, nil. This is 
literally beating the air. READE. 

TO BEAT UP THE QUARTERS OF 

to visit without ceremony ; 
to " look up." F. 

Sunday coming round, he set off 
therefore after breakfast, once more 
to beat up:Captain Cuttle's quarters. 
DICKENS. 

To BEAT GOOSE to thump the 
arms against the chest in 
order to get warm. F. 

The common labourers at out- 
door work were beating goose to 
drive the blood into their fingers. 
Times, 1883. 

THAT BEATS THE DUTCH that 

is astonishing. S. 
It beats the Dutch (it is wonderful) 

how the thief can have got through 

so small a hole. 
To BEAT HOLLOW to vanquish 

completely. C. 



Bed 

The Galatea was beaten hollow 
(completely defeated) by the May- 
flower in the last international yacht 
race. 

TO BEAT THE DEVIL'S TATTOO. 

See TATTOO. 

Beau. BEAU IDEAL highest 
conceivable type ; finest speci- 
men. P. French. 

My ambition is to give them a 
beau ideal of a welcome. CHAR- 
LOTTE BRONTE. 

Beauty. THE BEAUTY SLEEP 
the sleep taken before mid- 
night. C. 

A medical man, who may be called 
up at any moment, must make sure 
of his beauty sleep. H. KINGSLEY. 

BEAUTY AND THE BEAST a 
lovely woman with an ugly 
male companion. C. The 
expression is borrowed from 
an old nursery tale. 

Beauty and the beast was what 
they called us when we went out 
walking together, as we used to do 
every day. H. R. HAGGARD. 

BEAUTY is BUT SKIN-DEEP 
beauty is a thing which can 
be easily destroyed, and should 
not, therefore, be valued too 
highly. P. 

Marry a woman for her good quali- 
ties ; beauty is but skin-deep. 

Bed. As YOU MAKE YOUR BED, 
YOU MUST LIE ON IT you must 
bear the consequences of 
your deliberate actions. C. 

I write not for those whose 
matrimonial lot is the average one 
neither very happy nor very miser- 
able, who, having made their bed, 
must lie on it but for those whose 
lot has turned out "all worse and 
no better." MRS. CRAIK (Miss 
MULOCK). 

"Henry has gone to Allington to 
propose to Miss Crawley," said Mrs. 
Grantly. "Gonej without speaking 
to me!" "He said that it was use- 
less his remaining, as he knew he 
should only offend you." "He has 
made his bed, and he must lie on it," 
said the archdeacon. A. TROLLOPE. 

A BED OF ROSES an altogether 
agreeable position or situa- 
tion. C. 

A parochial life is not a bed of 
roses, Mrs. Mann. DICKENS. 



Bedfordshire 

Bedfordshire. To BE FOR 

BEDFORDSHIRE to be anxious 

to retire to bed. F. 
'Faith, I'm for Bedfordshire. 

SWIFT. 
Bee. IN A BEE LINE following 

a straight course, as a bee is 

supposed to do. P. 
I'm going to get home as soon as 

I can-strike a bee line.-W. D. 

HOWELLS. 
TO HAVE A BEE IN ONE'S BONNET 

to be crazy in a certain 
direction. C. 

What new bee will you put under 
your bonnet next, sir? G. A. SALA. 

That Crawley has got a bee m his 
bonnet. A. TROLLOPE. 

Been. YOU'VE BEEN (AND 
GONE) AND DONE IT -you have 
committed an action that 
may have very serious conse- 
quences. S. A remark gener- 
ally made half in wonder, 
half as a warning. 

I say, young fellow, you've been 
and done it, you have. DICKENS. 

Beep. To THINK NO SMALL 
BEER OF ANYTHING to esteem 
it very highly. F. 

Miss Arrowpoint coloured, and 
Mr. Bult observed, with his usual 
phlegmatic solidity, "Your pianist 
does not think small beer of him- 
self." GEORGE ELIOT. 

Beg 1 . To GO BEGGING or A- 
BEGGING (of things) to find 
no one to claim'; to be so 
plentiful as to be thought 
not worth accepting. P. 
Generally said of things that 
have been highly prized at 
other times. 

] 
be 

JLllIIUJ ^/WAiAViO MM _ 

guineas a year made fifty-six pound 
five shillings English money, .al 
which was in manner going a-begging 
GOLDSMITH. 
To BEG THE QUESTION to assume 
that which requires to be 
proved ; to take for granted 
the very point at issue. P. 

"Facsimiles!" exclaimed the old 
man angrily ; " why not frankly say 
that they are by the same hand a 
once?" 



Bell 

"But that is begging the whole 
question" (assuming all that requires 
to be proved), argued honest Dennis, 
his good and implastic nature lead- 
ing him into the self-same error into 
which he had fallen at Charlecote 
Park. JAMES PAYN. 

Beggars. BEGGARS SHOULD 
NOT BE CHOOSERS those who 
ask for favours should sub- 
mit to the terms imposed 
upon them. P. 

Bell. EIGHT BELLS sounded 
on board ship at noon, four, 
and eight o'clock. 

The unwelcome cry of " All star- 
bowlines ahoy! eight bells, there 
below ! do you hear the news? (the 
usual formula of calling the watch) 
roused us. K. H. DANA, JUN. 

TO BEAR THE BELL Or CARRY 
AWAY THE BELL to be victor 

in a race or other contest. P. 

The Italians have carried away the 
bell from (have surpassed) all other 
nations, as may appear both by their 
books and works. HAKEWILL. 

There are certain cases, it is true, 
where the vulgar Saxon word is re- 
fined, and the refined Latin vulgar, 
in poetry as in sweat and perspira- 
tion ; but there are vastly more in 
which the Latin bears the bell. 
J. K. LOWELL. 

To BELL THE CAT at great 
personal risk, to render a 
common foe harmless for 
evil. C. A phrase borrowed 
from a well-known fable told 
upon one historical occasion 
with great success. 

When James III. was king of Scot- 
land, he irritated the old nobility by 
the favour he showed to painters 
and architects. One of the latter, 
named Cochran, who had succeeded 
to the estates of the Earl of Mar, was 
especially hated by the nobles. At a 
meeting in the church of Lauder 
they discussed how best to get rid of 
him. Lord Gray, afraid that the 
discussion would lead to no practical 
result, told the story of the mice and 
the cat. " A colony of mice *** 



cat. 
suff ered'greatly f rom 



attacks 



a cat, who pounced upon them before 
they had time to escape. They were 
much concerned over the matter, 
and resolved to do something to 
defend themselves. A young mouse 
rose up and proposed that they 
should fix a bell round pussy's 
neck, which would warn them of 



Belt 



24 



Best 



her approach. This proposal was 
warmly received, until an old mouse 
put the pertinent question, 'But 
which of us will bell the cat?' The 



orator had not thought of this, and 
was speechless." When 
had finished, Archi 



Angus, a man noted for 
prowess and daring, rose up 
swore that he would bell the cat. 
He kept his word, captured Cochran, 
and had him hanged over the bridge 
of Lauder. Afterwards he was 
always known as Bell-the-Cat. 
And from a loophole while I peep 
Old Bell-the-Cat came from the 

keep. SCOTT. 

"I'll tell you how we'll do it," ex- 
claimed Mrs. Army 



her hands : " we'll ask 



. clapping 
m (the sus- 



pected clergyman) to say grace at 
dinner to-night. Then we 11 see how 
he takes that." 

" That's a capital idea ! " cried Mrs. 
Percival Lott. 

"What fun it will be-*t least I 
mean, what an interesting moment 
when you put the question to him." 

"Oh, but, I shan't put It," said 
Mrs. Armytage hastily. . . . 

"Mrs. and Miss Jennynge must 
bell the cat " 

"What have I to do with cats?" 
inquired Mrs. Jennynge wildly. 
"I hate cats." 

"My dear madam, it is a well- 
known proverb," explained Mrs. 
Armytage. "What I mean is, that 
it is you who should ask Mr. Josce- 
line to say grace this evening." 
JAMES PAYN. 

Belt. TO HIT BELOW THE 

BELT to strike another un- 
fairly. P. A pugilist is not 
allowed by the rules of boxing 
to hit his opponent under the 
waist-belt. This belt is a 
significant part of a boxer's 
attire. The champion pugilist 
of England wears a prize - 
belt, which he must deliver 
to any one who vanquishes 
him. 

To refer to his private distresses in 
a public discussion was hitting be- 
low the belt. 

Exp. It was unfair, in a public 
discussion, to refer to his., private 
distresses. 

Ben. BEN TROVATO well 
found ; an ingenious inven- 
tion. P. Italian. 

If the tale is not true, at least it is 
bentrovatodugeniouely constructed). 



Benefit. WITHOUT BENEFIT 
OF CLERGY During the 
Middle Ages criminals who 
could prove that they be- 
longed to the Church, even 
to the extent of being able 
to recite a verse of Scripture, 
were allowed to escape punish- 
ment. This privilege was 
known as benefit of clergy. 
Notorious offenders often es- 
caped on this plea, like Will of 
Harribee, who knew his neck- 
verse (see The Lay of the Last 
Minstrel). The phrase is 
now used loosely, as in the 
following : 

She would order Goody Hicks to 
take a James's powder, without ap- 
peal, resistance, or benefit of clergy. 
THACKERAY. 

Benjamin. BENJAMIN'S MESS 
a specially large portion. 
P. For the origin see Gen. 
xliii. 34 : " But Benjamin's 
mess was five times so much 
as any of theirs." 

Berth. To GIVE A WIDE 
BERTH to give a ship room 
to swing at anchor ; to avoid a 
person. C. 

I have had letters warning me that 
I had better give Ballinascroon a 
wide berth if I happen to be in that 
part of Ireland. WM. BLACK. 

Bess. BESS o' BEDLAM a 
female lunatic vagrant. C. 
BESS is a contraction of Eliza- 
beth. 

Will you have the goodness to tell 
me, miss, why you are dressed up 
after that mad Bess of Bedlam 
fashion ? A. TROLLOPE. 

Best. BEST MAN groomsman; 
the attendant on a bride- 
groom. P. 

It was like asking a young gentle- 
man to be best man when he wants 
to be the bridegroom himself. 
JAMES PAYN. 

AT THE BEST taking the most 
favourable view possible. P. 

I advise you not to accept the 
situation. At the best (even in the 
most favourable state of affairs) you 
will be a mere favourite, removable 
on the slightest whim of a capricious 
woman. 



Bet 

TO HAVE THE BEST OF AN ARGU- 
MENT to gain the advantage 
in an argument. P. 

"In your argument yesterday, 
Charles, the strange gentleman had 
the best of it" (was victor), said his 
wife. 

TO MAKE THE BEST OF ONE'S 

WAY to go as well as can be 
done in the circumstances. P. 
With these awful remarks, Mr. 
Kenwigs sat down in a chair, and 
defied the nurse, who made the best 
of her way into the adjoining room. 
DICKENS. 

TO MAKE THE BEST OF BOTH 

WORLDS to manage so as 
to get the good things of 
earth and be sure of a good 
place in heaven. P. 

There have been great captains, 
great statesmen, ay, and great so- 
called Christians, seeking to make 
the best of both worlds (being at 
once worldly and heavenly in their 
aspirations). SARAH TYTLER. 

Bet. You BET I assure you. 
S. American. 

My father's rich, you bet. HENRY 
JAMES, JUN. 

Bete. BE"TE NOIRE pet aver- 
sion ; object of particular 
dislike. P. French. 

The ladies of the party simply 
detest him -if we except Miss 
Thorneydyke, who cannot anord to 
detest anything in trousers. Lady 
Pat, who is a bit of a wit, calls him 
her Ute. noire. FLORENCE MAR 
RYAT. 

Better*. FOR BETTER OR FOR 
WORSE indissolubly, in mar- 
riage. C. 

Each believed, and indeed pretty 
plainly asserted, that they could 
live more handsomely asunder; but, 
alas ! they were united for better or 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 



for worse. 

TO GET THE BETTER OF- 

overcome ; to vanquish ; 
be stronger than. P. 

I got the better of (overcame) my 
disease, however, but I was BO weak 
that I spat blood whenever I at 
tempted to write.-H. MACKENZIE. 
BETTER HALF a man's wife ; i 
complimentary term for i 
married woman. C. 

"Polly heard it," said Toodle 
jerking his hat over his shoulder in 



25 Between 

the direction of the door, with an 
air of perfect confidence in his bet- 
ter half.-DiCKENS. 

Between. BETWEEN YOU AND 

ME AND THE POST Or THE 

DOOR-POST a phrase used 
when anything is spoken con- 
fidentially. F. 

"Well, between you and me and 
the door-post, squire," answered his 
learned visitor, "I am not so sure 
that Sir Anthony is quite the rose 
and crown of his profession.' 
BLACKMORE. 

But understand that the name of 
Dangerous is to remain a secret 
between you and me and the post. 
G. A. SALA. 

The phrase is also found 
in the more familiar form 
BETWEEN YOU AND ME AND THE 
BED-POST don't reveal a word 
of what I say. F. 
BETWEEN OURSELVES speaking 
confidentially. C. 

Steyne has a touch of the gout, 
and so, between ourselves, has your 
brother. THACKERAY. 

Exp. Steyne is somewhat troubled 
with the gout, and so is your bro- 
ther; but I do not wish my words 
repeated. 

BETWEEN SCYLLA AND CHARYB- 
DIS. between two menacing 
dangers. Avoiding one, you 
fall into the other. P. Scylla 
was a rock and Charybdis 
a whirlpool on the coast of 
Sicily, and the narrow passage 
between was very much feared 
by mariners because of its 
double danger. Now they are 
looked on as harmless. 

You have your Scylla and your 
Charybdis, as pastor of the con- 
gregation. If you preach the old 
theology, you will lose the young 
men ; and if you preach the new, you 
will alienate the old men. 
BETWEEN TWO FIRES subject 
to a double attack ; a position 
of peculiar danger in warfare. 
p. 

Poor Dawson is between two fires . 
if he whips the child, its mother 
scolds him ; and if he lets it off, its 
grandmother comes down on him. 

TO FALL BETWEEN TWO STOOLS. 

See STOOL. 



Bid 



BETWEEN WIND AND WATER. 
See WIND. 

Bid. To BID FAIR to seem 
likely ; to promise well. P. 

In the eastern counties the old 
race of email farmers and yeomen 
have well - nigh disappeared, or 
rather they bid fair to disappear. 
Chambers's Journal, 1887. 

"Big. A BIG -WIG a person in 
authority ; a high or powerful 
person. C. 

"Then I will leave you, uncle," 
said Clare, " to the task of telling 
the big-wigs that there is nothing 
more to be done or known down 
here." EDMUND YATES. 

Sooner 9r later one of the big-wigs 
will take it up, and the point will be 
settled one way or other. Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

Bird. A BIRD IN THE HAND is 

WORTH TWO IN THE BUSH a 

sure advantage is better than 
a problematical advantage, 
even though the latter pro- 
mises to be twice as good. C. 

A BIRD'S-EYE or BIRD -EYE 
VIEW a general view, such 
as would be enjoyed by a 
bird flying over a country. P. 
Viewing from the Pisgah of his 
pulpit the free, moral, happy, flour- 
ishing, and glorious state of France, 
as in a bird-eye landscape of a pro- 
mised land. BURKE. 

Note. Pisgah was the mountain 
east of the Jordan from the summit 
of which Moses was permitted to 
see the promised land of Canaan. 

TO KILL TWO BIRDS WITH ONE 

STONE to effect two results 
with one expenditure of 
trouble. C. 

Sir Barnet killed two birds with 
one stone. DICKENS. 
BIRDS OP A FEATHER persons 
of like tastes. C. 

Birds of a feather flock together. 

Exp. Persons of like tastes seek 
one another's society. 

JAIL-BEBD a rogue who is 
oftener in prison than out of 
it ; a hardened offender. C. 

The jail-birds who piped this tune 
were, without a single exception, 
the desperate cases of this moral 
hospital. READE. 

BIRD OF PASSAGE one who 
shifts from place to place. C. 



26 Bit 

No one (here in Shanghai) seems 
to be living his own life, but some- 
thing else something temporary; 
as if we were all expecting to go 
home again in the course of the 
afternoon or the next day, and there- 
fore it does not much matter what 
we dp just for the few hours that 
remain; or as if we were convicts 
doing our time; or as if we were 
political exiles, who might be re- 
called at any moment ; or as if we 
were in some way birds of passage. 
BESANT. 

A LITTLE BIRD WHISPERED IT TO 

ME. A phrase playfully used 
of something which has been 
reported and is repeated. C. 
The reference is from the 
Bible, Eccles. x. 20 : " Curse 
not the king, no not in thy 
thought ; and curse not the 
rich in thy bedchamber : for 
a bird of the air shall carry 
the voice, and that which 
hath wings shall tell the 
matter." 

"What a wicked man you are!" 
smiled Mrs. Jennynge, admiringly. 
"A little bird told me you could 
be very severe when you pleased, 
though I refused to believe it." 

It was evident from the colour 
that came into Anastasia's face that 
she was the bird in question (she 
had carried this report). JAMES 
PAYN. 

Bishop. THE BISHOP HAS SET 
HIS FOOT IN IT the contents 
of the dish are burned. F. 
A jocular reference to the 
zeal of bishops for burning 
heretics. 

"Why sure, Betty, thou art be- 
lt this cream is burnt too." 
y. madam, the bishop has set 



witched : this cream is burnt too. 

" Why. madam, the b 
his foot in it." SWIFT. 



Bit. A BIT OF ONE'S MIND 
a good scolding ; a serious 
reproof. F. 

"I shall have to tell her a bit of 
my mind" (remonstrate sharply 
with her), he said, as he stepped 
across the close. A. TROLLOPE. 

NOT A BIT OF IT by no means ; 
not at all. F. 

" That's rather a sudden pull-up, 
ain't it, Sammy?" .inquired Mr. 
Weller. 

"Not a bit of it," said Sam. 
DICKENS. 



Bite 



27 



Bless 



Bite. TO BITE THE THUMB AT. 

This was formerly a sign of 
contempt, often made use of 
by those who wished to pick 
a quarrel. C. 
I will bite my thumb at them: 

which is a disgrace to them, if 

they bear it. SHAKESPEARE : 

Romeo and Juliet. 

Wear I a sword 

To see men bite their thumbs? 
RANDOLPH. 

Tis no less disrespectful to bite 
the nail of your thumb, by way of 
scorn and disdain. Rules of Civility, 
1678. 

To BITE ONE'S LIPS to show 
signs of disgust and mortifi- 
cation. P. 

The advocates on both sides are 
alternately biting their lips (show- 
ing chagrin) to hear their C9nflicting 
misstatements and sophisms ex- 
posed. MACAULAY. 

To BITE THE DUST to fall in 
battle. P. 

That day three thousand Saracens 
bit the dust (were slain in battle). 

Black. A BLACK SHEEP an 
ill -conducted person ; a mem- 
ber of society who is not 
considered respectable. C. 

I'm forbidden the house. I'm 
looked upon as a black sheep a 
pest, a contamination. EDMUND 
YATES. 

BLACK MONDAY the Monday on 
which school reopens. C. 

She now hated my sight, and made 
home so disagreeable to me that 
what is called by schoolboys Black 
Monday was to me the whitest in 
the whole year. FIELDING. 

BLACKMAIL money extorted by 
threats. P. 

Blackmail, I suppose, is an honest 
man paving through his nose for the 
sins of his youth. 

BLACK DRAUGHT a dose for- 
merly given by physicians to 
relieve stomach ailments. P. 
Go, enjoy your black draughts of 
metaphysics. THACKERAY. 

TO BEAT Or PINCH ANOTHER BLACK 

AND BLUE to beat or pinch 
him until his flesh is dis- 
coloured. C. 
" We'll go down arm in arm." 
" But you pinch me black and 
blue," urged Gride. DICKENS. 



BLACK AND WHITE written defi- 
nitely on paper in ink. C. 

" I have found it all out ! Here is 
his name in black and white;" and 
she touched the volume she had just 
placed on the table with impressive 
reverence. JAMES PAYN. 

Blanket. A WET BLANKET 
one who discourages, who 
causes others to become dis- 
heartened ; also, discourage- 
ment. C. 

I don't want (said Sir Brian) to be 
a wet blanket. W. E. NORRIS. 

At home, in the family circle, 
ambition is too often treated with 
the wet blanket (discouraged). 
BESANT. 

Blarney. To HAVE KISSED 

THE BLARNEY STONE to be 

full of flattery and persuasive 
language. F. There is a 
stone in the village of Blarney, 
near Cork, in Ireland, which 
was supposed to confer this 
gift of persuasive speech on 
those who touched it. 

You are so full of compliments 
to-day that you must have kissed 
the blarney stone. 

BleSS. TO BLESS ONESELF to 

be astonished. C. 

Could Sir Thomas look in upon us 

just now, he would bless himself, 

for we are rehearsing all over the 

house. JANE AUSTEN. 

TO BLESS ONESELF WITH in 

one's possession. F. Gener- 
ally used of coin, especially 
of silver coin, which people 
crossed their palms with for 
good luck. 

What ! you trumpery, to come and 
take up an honest house without 
cross or coin to bless yourself with. 
GOLDSMITH. 

The lady hasn't got a sixpence 
wherewithal to bless herself. 
DICKENS. 

BLESS YOU an exclamation of 
varying significance. F. Com- 
monly used after sneezing, 
to avert evil consequences a 
superstition common in Ire- 
land. 

"Bless you!" murmurs Miss Sey- 
mour under her breath the bene- 
diction being called forth by the 
sneeze, not the demand for mustard. 
RHODA BROUGHTON. 



Blind 2 

Blind. To GO IT BLIND to 
act without due delibera- 
tion. S. 

Blindman. BLINDMAN'S BUFF 
an ancient game, still very 
popular with children. One of 
the company is blindfolded, 
and the fun of the game con- 
sists in his efforts to capture 
some one. 

Mr. Burchell, who was of the 
party, was always fond of seeing 
some innocent amusement going 
forward, and set the boys and girls 
to blindman's buff. GOLDSMITH. 

Blithe. BLITHE BREAD food 
distributed among guests on 
the birth of a child in the 
family. An old custom. 

Throughout three long jovial 
weeks the visitors came and went, 
and every day the blithe bread was 
piled in the peck for the poor of the 
earth. HALL CAINB. 

Blood. BLOOD AND IRON 
military compulsion ; the force 
of armies. A phrase usually 
associated with Prince Bis- 
marck Blut und Eisen. 

Mr. Carlyle has been heard to say 
that Rhadamanthus would certainly 
give Macaulay four dozen lashes 
when he went to the shades for his 
treatment of Marlborough. This is 
quite in character for the Scotch 
apostle of blood and iron. J. 
(JOTTER MORISON. 

BAD BLOOD. See BAD. 
His BLOOD WAS UP he was 
excited or in a passion. C. 

That is the way of doing business 
a cut and thrust style, without 
any flourish: Scott's style when 
his blood was up. CHRISTOPHER 
NORTH. 

A PRINCE OF THE BLOOD a 
nobleman who is a near 
relative of the royal family. P. 

He had a calm, exhausted smile 
which as though he had been a 
prince of the blood (noble of the 
highest rank) who had passed his 
life in acknowledging the plaudits 
of the populace suggested the 
ravages of affability. JAMES PAYN. 

BLOOD IS THICKER THAN WATER 

kinship will cause a man to 
befriend his relatives ; it is 



Blown 

better to trust for kind treat- 
ment to one's kinsmen than 
to strangers. P. 

"I am aware there is a family tie, 
or I should not have ventured to 
trouble you." 

" Blood is thicker than water, 
isn't it?" A. TROLLOPE. 

IN COLD BLOOD without passion ; 
deliberately. P. 

The suggestion of such a contin- 
gency which, of course, meant total 
failure in cold blood (without any 
passion) filled up the cup of the 
antiquary's indignation. JAMES 
PAYN. 

BLUE BLOOD aristocratic de- 
scent. P. 

And the girl what of her? to 
which side of the house did she 
belong? To the blue blood of the 
Clintons, or the muddy stream of the 
Carews? MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

The blood of the Bunkers has, in 
yourself, assumed the most azure 
hue (become most aristocratic). 
BESANT. 

TO MAKE YOUR BLOOD CREEP 

to fill you with awe or terror. 
P. 

Jinny Gates, the cobbler's daugh- 
ter, being more imaginative, stated 
not only that she had seen the ear- 
rings too, but that they had made 
her blood creep (inspired her with 
terror). GEORGE ELIOT. 

BlOW. TO BLOW OVER to 

pass off ; to be heard of no 
more. P. 

"Gracious me! an execution!" 
said Lady Clonbrony ; " but I heard 
you talk of an execution months 
ago, my lord, before my son went to 
Ireland, and it blew over; I heard 
no more of it." MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

To BLOW UP to scold ; to 
reprimand. F. 

If I hadn't been proud of the 
house, I shouldn't be blowing you 
up. HUGHES. 

The captain was too "wide-awake" 
' i upon him at 
. blow up. K. 



for him, and beginning ui 
once, gave him a grand bl< 
H. DANA. 



Blown. BLOWN UPON having 
a bad reputation ; unsound ; 
damaged. C. 

My credit was so blown upon that 
I could not hope to raise a shilling. 
THACKERAY. 



Blue 



29 



Blue 



Blue. THK BLUE RIBBON 
(a) the Order of the Garter. P. 

I therefore make no vain boast of 
a blue ribbon being seen there, thus 
denoting the presence of a knight of 
the most noble Order of the Garter. 
G. A. SALA. 

Though he distributed peerages 
with a lavish and culpable pro- 
fusion, he (Pitt) never desired one 
for himself, and he declined the 
blue ribbon when it was offered 
him. Spectator, 1887. 

(&) the phrase is also used 

to signify " a distinction of the 
highest kind." P. 

In 1840 he was elected to a fellow- 
ship at Oriel, then the blue ribbon 
of the university. Athenceum, 1887. 

(c) a badge worn in England 

and America by those who do 
not drink intoxicating liquors. 
C. 

Of course, Mr. Smith didn't 
smoke, and sported a blue ribbon 
as proudly as if it had been the 
Order of the Garter. BESANT. 

A BLUE FUNK a state of terrified 
expectation ; a condition of 
frightened suspense. S. 

Altogether. I was in the pitiable 
state known by school-boys as a 
blue funk. H. R. HAGGARD. 

A BLUE MOON a phenomenon 
which happens very rarely. 
S. ONCE IN A BLUE MOON = 
very seldom indeed. The real 
origin of this phrase is un- 
known. 

BLUE MOONSHINE fantastic non- 
sense. F. The subject of a 
short poem of three stanzas 
in Haweis's Comic Poets of 
the Nineteenth Century. 

BLUE BOOKS official publica- 
tions of the British Govern- 
ment. P. So called because 
their covers are blue in colour. 
At home he gave himself up to 
the perusal of Blue Books. 
THACKERAY. 

The latter portion of Lord 
Beaconsfield's speech (is) upon page 
208 of the English Blue Book. 
Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

IN THE BLUES melancholy ; low- 
spirited. F. 

If we had been allowed to sit idle, 
we should all have fallen in the 



blues (had an attack of melancholy). 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

THE BLUE AND YELLOW the 
Edinburgh Review, so called 
from the colour of its cover. C. 
Shortly afterwards, and very little 
before the appearance of the Blue 
and Yellow, Jeffrey made another 
innovation. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, 
in Macmillan's Magazine, 1887. 

THE MAN IN BLUE the police- 
man. C. 

Those kinds of sin which bring 
upon us the man in blue are such 
as we think we shall never commit. 
BESANT. 

To LOOK BLUE to seem dis- 
concerted. F. 

Squire Brown looks rather blue 
at having to pay two pounds ten 
shillings for the posting expenses 
from Oxford. HUGHES. 

BLUE-NOSE a name given to 
the inhabitants of Nova Scotia 
in North America. F. 

How is it that an American can 
sell his wares, at whatever price he 
pleases, where a Blue-nose (Nova 
Scotian) would fail to make a sale 
at all? HALIBURTON. 

BLUE-DEVILS dreadful appari- 
tions which appear to a patient 
suffering from delirium tre- 
mens. F. 

The drunken old landlord had a 
fit of the blue-devils last night, and 
was making a dreadful noise. 

BLUE-STOCKING a woman who 
prides herself on her learn- 



ing. P. 
Lucj 



_.._y (Hutchinson) was evidently 
very superior young lady, and 
looked upon as the bluest of blue- 
stockings. Gentleman's Magazine, 
1886. 

Sometimes found in the 
simple form BLUE. 
Bulwer came up to me and said, 
"There is one blue who insists 
upon an introduction." Edinburgh 
Review, 1886. 
TO FLY THE BLUE -PETER to 

be ready to sail (of a vessel). 
P. The blue-peter is a small 
flag run up on the fore -mast 
of a ship, to announce its 
departure within twenty-four 
hours. P. 

The ensign was at her peak, and 
at the fore floated the blue-peter. 
W. CLARK RUSSELL. 



Blush 



BLUE HEN a nickname for the 
state of Delaware in the 
United States. F. A Blue- 
hen is a native of the state. 

" Your mother was a Blue-hen, no 
doubt," is a reproof to a person who 
brags, especially of his ancestry. 

BlUSh. TO PUT TO THE BLUSH 

to cause one to redden with 
shame. P. 

Ridicule, instead of putting guilt 
and error to the blush (making guilt 
and error ashamed), turned her 
formidable shafts against innocence 
and truth. MAC AUL AY. 

AT THE FIRST BLUSH Or AT 

FIRST BLUSH when one looks 
hastily for the first time ; at 
the first sudden appearance. 
P. 

At the first blush the landlord 
would appear to suffer most, but on 
nearer examination the tenants are 
found in the lowest state of poverty. 
National Review, 1887. 

All purely identical propositions, 
obviously and at first blush (when 
first viewed), appear to contain no 
certain instruction in them. 

Bo. To SAY "BO" TO A 

GOOSE. See Boo. 
Boards. ON THE BOARDS 

following the profession of 

an actor. C. 
Lily was on the boards, but Katie 

could get nothing to do. BESANT. 

Bob. TO BEAR A BOB to JOLQ 

in chorus. F. 

To GIVE THE BOB to cheat ; 
to overreach. C. Obsolete. 
C. I guess the business. 
S. It can be no other than to give 
me the bob (nothing else than a plot 
to outwit me). MASSENGER. 
A BOB a shilling. S. 

The trip cost me a bob and a 
bender (a shilling and sixpence.) 

Bodkin. To SIT BODKIN. See 
SIT. 

Body. TO KEEP BODY AND 

SOUL TOGETHER to sustain 
life. P. 

My earnings are so miserable that 
they scarcely suffice to keep body 
and soul together (to keep me from 
starving). 

Bohemia. A FLAVOUR OF 
BOHEMIA a tone of uncon- 



30 Bond, 

ventionality ; of neglect of 
social rules. P. Bohemia is 
the name applied in London 
to the quarter where artists 
and literary men live as best 
suits them, wholly neglecting 
fashion and the elegant world. 
In France and some other 
countries Bohemian is the 
name applied to the gipsy 
race, who, wherever they go, 
live a rough kind of life, apart 
from other people. 

Meantime there is a flavour of 
Bohemia about the place which 

E.ses newcomers. To be sure, 
eniia never had any clubs. 
ANT. 

Bold. TO MAKE BOLD to 

venture. P. 

"I make bold, young woman," he 
said as they went away, "to give 
you a warning about my nephew." 
BESANT. 

To MAKE BOLD WITH to tackle J 

to deal with. P. 



By the time I was twelve years 
old I had risen into the upper 
school, and could make bold with 



Eutropius and Csesar. 

As BOLD AS BRASS impudent ; 

without modesty or shame. C. 

Fred Bullock told old Osborne of 

his son's appearance and conduct. 

" He came in as bold as brass," said 

Frederick. THACKERAY. 



Bon. BON GR, MAL 

whether one likes it or not. 
C. French. 

Bon gr6, mat gr, we had to wait 
our turn. R. H. DANA. 

A BON MOT a clever saying. 

P. French. 
The bon mots of the mother 

were everywhere repeated. MARIA 

EDGEWORTH. 
A BON VIVANT an epicure; 

one fond of good living. C. 

French. 
Sir Charles Lyndon was cele- 

brated as a wit and 6cm vivant. 

THACKERAY. 

Bona. BON! FIDE in good 
faith ; trustworthy. P. Latin. 

The offer we make is a bond fide 
one (made in good faith). 

But this was a bond fide trans- 
action. W. D. HOWELLS. 



31 



Botany 



. 
e does not hesitate to swear 



Bone. A BONE OP CONTEN- 
TION something which causes 
a quarrel (as a bone does when 
thrown among dogs). P. 

The possession of Milan was a 
bone of contention (cause of quarrel) 
between the two monarchs. 

TO HAVE A BONE TO PICK WITH 

ANT ONE to have some cause 
of quarrel or complaint against 
him. C. 

I consider that I have got a bone 
to pick with Providence about that 
nose. H. R. HAGGARD. 

TO MAKE NO BONES - not to 

hesitate ; to publish openly. C. 

He makes no bones of swearing 
and lying. 

Exp. H 
or lie. 

He makes no bones of (publishes 
openly) his dislike of the natives. 

Bonne. A BONNE BOUCHE 
a sweet morsel; something 
which pleases. C. French. 

If I could ever believe that Mande- 
ville meant anything more by his 
fable of the Bees than a bonne bouche 
of solemn raillery. S. T. COLE- 
RIDGE. 

The solemn and heavy tragedy 
came first, and sent most of the 
audience to sleep, at least in a figu- 
rative sense ; but they were revived 
by the witty dialogue of the comedy, 
wnich was reserved till the end of 
the performance as a bonne bouche. 

BOO. TO SAT BOO Or BO TO A 

GOOSE a test of courage. 
C. A man who cannot say 
boo to a goose has no spirit, 
and is to be despised for his 
timidity. 

He looks as fierce as a tiger, as 
much as to say, " Say boo to a goose, 
if you dare" (it will take a bold man 
to address me). HALIBURTON. 

Now you are always writing, and 
can't say " bo " to a goose. C. READE. 

Book. IN THE BOOKS OF ; 

IN THE GOOD BOOKS OF - in 

favour with ; a favourite 
of. P. 

I was so much in his books (in his 
favour) that at his decease he left me 
his lamp. ADDISON. 

Then I'll tell you what, Mr. Noggs : 
if you want to keep in the good books 
in that quarter, you had better not 
call her the old lady "any more. 
DICKENS. 



IN THE BAD Or BLACK BOOKS OF 

in disfavour with. P. 

He neglected to call on his aunt, 
and got into her bad books. 

For some reason or other I am in 
his black books.-W. E. NORRIS. 
TO BRING TO BOOK - to Call to 

account ; to accuse of a 
fault or crime. P. 

" By the Lord, sir," cried the major, 
bursting into speech at sight of the 
waiter, who was come to announce 
breakfast, "it's an extraordinary 
thing to me that no one can have 
the honour and happiness of shoot- 
ing such beggars without being 
brought to book for it." DICKENS. 

Born. ALL ONE'S BORN DATS 

during one's whole ex- 
perience of life. F. 

At last Nicholas pledged himself 
to betray no further curiosity, and 
they walked on, both ladies giggling 
very much, and declaring that they 
had never seen such a wicked creature 
in all their born days. DICKENS. 

NOT BORN TESTERDAT worldly- 
wise ; not easily gulled. F. 

She was considerable of a long- 
headed woman (quite a prudent 
woman), was mother ; she could see 
as far ahead as most folks. She 
warn't born yesterday, I guess (was 
not easily outwitted, I venture to 
say). HALIBURTON. 

BORN WITH A SILVER SPOON IN 

ONE'S MOUTH. See SPOON. 
Borne. BORNE IN UPON. See 

BEAR. 

BORNE IN UPON ONE impressed 
upon one's mind. C. Gener- 
ally used of some icreboding 
or warning. 

It was borne in upon her (im- 
pressed upon her mind), as she 
afterwards expressed it. to beseech 
the divine compassion in favour of 
the houseless wretches constrained. 
haps, as much by want as evil 
abit, to break through and steal. 
AMES PAYN. 

Bosom. A BOSOM FRIEND a 
very intimate friend. P. 

"What a strange history that was 
of his marriage." 

"So : I have heard; but he is not 
quite bosom friend enough with me 
to have told me all the particulars." 
A. TROLLOPE. 

Botany. BOTANY BAT the 
port in Australia to which 



perh 
habi 
JAM 



Bottom 

convicts were formerly 

shipped. P. 
Who careth that the respectable 

family solicitor had a grandfather by 

the maternal side sent to Botany 

Bay? BBS ANT. 
Bottom. ONE'S BOTTOM DOL- 

LAR one's last coin. S. An 

Americanism. 
I would have parted with my bot- 

tom dollar to relieve her. BESANT. 
TO BE AT THE BOTTOM OF ANT- 

THING to be the chief in- 
stigator in any affair. C. 

I am sure Russell is at the bottom 
of (the chief instigator in) this move- 
ment to get rid of our present musi- 
cal conductor. 

AT BOTTOM really ; essentially. 
C. 

He was a kind-hearted man at bot- 
tom (under the surface, however 
roughly he might speak). JAMES 
PAYN. 

BOW. TO DRAW THE LONG 

BOW to exaggerate. C. 

Then he went into a lot of particu- 
lars, and I begun (began) to think he 
was drawing the long bow. W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

King of Corpus (College), who was 
an incorrigible wag, was on the point 
of pulling some dreadful long bow 
(telling some dreadfully exaggerated 
story). THACKERAY. 
TO HAVE A SECOND STRING TO 

ONE'S BOW to be provided 
with something in reserve in 
case of an accident happening. 
P. 

Moreover, in his impatient ambi- 
tion zuid indefatigable energy, he 
had sought a second string to his 
bow : the public and the publishers 
showed their sense of his abilities as 
a pamphleteer and a novelist. Edin- 
burgh, Review. 

Exp. Moreover, in his impatient 
ambition and indefatigable energy, 
to have 



32 Box 



he (Disraeli) had sought to 
another career open, on whic e 
might fall back if he failed in poli- 
tics: he was gaining popularity as a 
pamphleteer and a novelist. 
TO DRAW A BOW AT A VENTURE 

to make an attack blindly ; 
to say or do something with- 
out knowing exactly what the 
result will be. C. See 1 Kings 
xxii. 

"And your mother was an In- 
dian," said Lady Jane, drawing her 



bow at a venture. MRS. E. LYNN 
LINTON. 

Bowels. His BOWELS 
YEARNED he felt full of 
sympathy or affection. P. 

That evening Alexis did come home 
to dinner. He arrived about ten 
o'clock, with his eyes red and swol- 
len, would take nothing but a glass 
of tea. and so to bed. 

At the sight of his inoffensive sor 
row, the mother's bowels began to 
yearn over (the mother felt her heart 
drawn to) her son. C. HEADE. 
BOWELS OF MERCY or COM- 
PASSION compassionate feel- 
ings ; pity. P. 

And at least it would be a face 
worth seeing the face of a man 
who was without bowels of mercy, 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

We men of business, you see, 
Carew, must have bowels of com- 
passion like any other. MRS. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

Bowl. To BOWL OUT to stop 
in a successful career. F. 
A cricketing phrase. 

" Bowled out, eh ?" said Routh. 

"Stumped, sir," replied Dallas. 
E. YATES. 

To BOWL OVER to knock down 
to overturn. C. 

It was within a day of Thursday's 
visit that Bennet's last defence was 

us placidly bowled over. SARAE 

YTLER. 

BOX. IN THE SAME BOX 

equally embarrassed. C. 

"How is it that you are noi 
dancing?" 

He murmured something inaud 
ible about "partner." 

"Well, we are in the same box."- 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

TO BOX THE COMPASS to Shift 

round to all quarters. C 
A nautical phrase. 

After a week or so the wind woulc 
regularly box the compass, as th 
sailors call it. BLACKMORE. 

So my lady reasoned in her rapic 
way, and boxed the compass al 
round (tried every method of argu 
ment). MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

To BOX HARRY to avoid the 
regular hotel table, and tak< 
something substantial at tea 
time to avoid expense. S 
A phrase used by commercia 
travellers. 



TY 



Boy 

Boy. A EOT IN BUTTONS a 
lad who acts as door-servant 
and waiter in an establish- 
ment. C. 

The very boy in buttons thought 
more of his promotion than of the 
kind mistress who had housed, 
clothed, and fed him when a parish 
orphan. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Boycott. To BOYCOTT A 
PERSON to refuse to deal 
with a person, in the way of 
buying or selling, or of social 
intercourse : from Captain 
Boycott, a landowner in Ire- 
land, who was so treated 
during the agrarian war about 
1885. 

Brass. A BRASS FARTHING 
a symbol of what is worth- 
less. C. 

He could perceive his wife did not 
care one brass farthing about him. 
H. K. HAGGARD. 

Brazen. To BRAZEN OUT AN 
ACT to refuse to confess to a 
guilty action, or to boast of 
it ; to be without shame 
regarding it. C. 

As to Bullying Bob, he brazened 
the matter out, declaring he had 
been affronted by the Franklands, 
and that he was glad he had taken 
his revenge of them. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

Bread. To [TAKE BREAD AND 
SALT to bind oneself by oath. 
An old-fashioned phrase. 
To BREAK BREAD to eat ; to 
be a guest. C. Old-fashioned 
in ordinary prose. 

As often as Mr. Staunton was in- 
vited, or invited himself, to break 
bread at the Villa des Chataigniers, 
so often did Violet express her inten- 
tion of eating her own luncheon or 

i dinner in company with Hopkins, a 
faithful old servant.-W. E. NORRIS. 

I BREAD AND BUTTER material 

welfare; what sustains life. C. 

Former pride was too strong for 

present prudence, and the question 

of bread and butter was thrown to 

! the winds in revolt at the shape of 

. the platter in which it was offered. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

j BREAD-BASKET a vulgar name 
for the stomach. 



3 Break 

BREAD AND CHEESE the bare 
necessaries of life. 

A " BREAD -AND -CHEESE " MAR- 
RIAGE a marriage to a man 
who cannot afford to give his 
wife luxuries. C. 

You describe in well-chosen lan- 
guage the miseries of a bread-and- 
cheese marriage to your eldest 
daughter. G. JTWHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Break. To BREAK DOWN 
(a) to lose control over one's 
feelings. P. 

" They had better not try," replies 
Lady Swansdown, and then she sud- 
denly breaks down and cries. FLOR- 
ENCE MARRYAT. 

(6) to fail in health. P. 

I have worked hard since I came 
here ; but since Abner left me at the 
pinch it hasn't been man's work, 
Jacky : it has been a wrestling match 
from dawn to dark. No man could 
go on so and not break down. C. 
EEADE. 

To BREAK IN to interrupt 
another with a remark. P. 

"Oh, don't talk to me about 
Eogers J" his wife broke in. W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

TO BREAK GROUND. See 

GROUND. 

TO BREAK OFF WITH to CBaSO 

to have communications with ; 
to renounce the acquaintance 
of. P. 

Well, then, I consent to break off 
with Sir Charles, and only see him 
once more as a friend. READE. 

To BREAK UP to be near 
death ; to show signs of 
approaching dissolution. C. 

"Poor Venables is breaking up," 
observed Sir Brian as they strolled 
away. Good Words, 1887. 

To BREAK WITH (a) to break 
the matter to ; to announce 
news to. Obsolete. 
Let us not break with him. 

SHAKESPEARE : Julius Caesar. 

(&) to quarrel with ; to 
cease to be friendly with. P. 
" But what cause have I given him 
to break with me?" says the countess, 
trembling. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

TO BREAK THE ICE to COm- 

mence a conversation where 
there has been an awkward 
2 



Breakers 

silence ; to speak first on 
a delicate matter. C. 

"I will not," said Lqchiel. "break 
the ice. That is a point of honour 
with me." MAC A UL AY. 

Exp. Lochiel said that he would 
not be the first to speak (of submis- 
sion), for that was a point of honour 

To BREAK THE NEWS to impart 
startling information in a 
gentle manner ; preparing 
the recipient gradually for 
the shock. P. 

It suggested to me that I had 
better break the news to them (of 
their father's death by the explo- 
sion of a boiler), and mechanically 
I accepted the suggestion and rode 
away sadly to the Italian villa. The 
Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

Breakers. BREAKERS AHEAD 
a cry of danger. C. The 
phrase is taken from sea-life, 
where the cry, " Breakers 
ahead ! " announces imme- 
diate peril to a vessel. Break- 
ers are waves which go into 
foam over rocks, or in shallow 
water. 

It made her forget the carking 
anxieties, the vision of social break- 
ers ahead, that had begun to take 
the gilding off her position. BLACK- 
MORE. 

Breast. To MAKE A CLEAN 
BREAST OF to make a full 
and free confession of some- 
thing that has been kept a 
secret. C. 

She resolved to make a clean breast 
of it (confess the whole affair) before 
she died. SCOTT. 

Breath. THE BREATH OF 
ONE'S NOSTRILS something 
as valuable as life itself. P. 

The novels were discussed in the 
society whose flatteries were as the 
breath of his nostrils. Edinburgh 
Review, 1886. 

Exp. The novels were discussed 
in aristocratic circles, whose flat- 
teries were as dear to Disraeli as his 
own life. 

TO TAKE AWAY ONE'S BREATH 

to cause surprise or con- 
sternation. C. 

He was so polite, he flattered with 
a skill so surprising, he was so fluent, 
so completely took away her breath 
(astonished her), that when he finally 



84 Bring 

begged permission to deliver a vale- 
dictory oration to all the young la- 
dies, Miss Billingsworth, without 
thinking what she was doing, 
granted that permission. BESANT. 

UNDER ONE'S BREATH very 
quietly ; in fear. P. 

"A good thing they did not be- 
think themselves of cutting off my 
hair." she said under her breath (in 
a whisper, so that no one could 
hear). 

Breathe. To BREATHE ONE'S 
LAST to die. P. 

It had breathed its last in doing its 
master service. THACKERAY. 
Brick. A REGULAR BRICK 
a good fellow ; a pleasant 
man. F. 
In brief I don't stick to declare 

Father Dick, 
So they called him for short, was a 

regular brick. BAR HAM. 
LIKE BRICKS, or LIKE A THOU- 
SAND OF BRICKS with a great 
impetus or force ; violently. 
S. 

Out flies the fare like bricks. 
DICKENS. 

If the master discovers what we 
are doing, he will come down on us 
like a thousand of bricks (give us a 
great scolding). 

WITH A BRICK IN ONE'S HAT 
drunk. American slang. 

I think our friend over there has a 
brick in his hat (is intoxicated). 
Brief. To ACCEPT A BRIEF 

ON BEHALF OF to espouse 

the cause of. C. A phrase 
of legal origin. 

Not a little to Gilbert's surprise, 
Mr. Buswell flatly declined to make 
this concession, alleging that he 
had not sufficient knowledge of the 
circumstances to justify him in ac- 
cepting a brief on behalf of (in de- 
fending) the accused. W. E. NOR- 

RIS. 
TO HOLD A BRIEF FOR ANOTHER 

to devote oneself to his 
defence ; to urge all that can 
be said in his justification. C. 
Professor Dowden holds a brief for 
Shelley. MATTHEW ARNOLD. 

Bring-. To BRING INTO PLAT 
to cause to act ; to set in 
motion ; to give scope to. 
P. 

The very incongruity of their rela- 
tive positions brought into play aL 



Broom 

his genius. Macmillaris Magazine, 

1887. 

TO BRING ABOUT to CEU86 to 

happen ; to assist in accom- 
plishing. P. 

There are many who declare that 
they would be willing to bring about 
an Anglo-Russian alliance upon the 
terms of gjving Russia her head in 
the .direction of Constantinople. 
Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

To BRING ROUND to restore ; 
to cause to recover. P. 

"How is'poor old No. 50 to-day?" 

"Much the same." 

"Do you think you will bring him 
round, sir?" C. READE. 

To BRING UP (of a sailing 
vessel) to stop ; to cease 
moving. P. 

He was still plunged in meditation 
when the cutter brought up in the 
bay. Good Words, 1887. 

TO BRING TO BEAR to Cause to 

happen ; to bring to a suc- 
cessful issue. C. 

There was therefore no other 
method to bring things to bear but 
by persuading you that she was 
dead. GOLDSMITH. 

TO BRING DOWN THE HOUSE 

to call forth enthusiastic 
applause. C. 

Toole on his last appearance in 
Edinburgh brought down the house 
(had an enthusiastic reception). 

Every sentence brought down the 
house as I never saw one brought 
down before. J. R. LOWELL. 

To BRING TO THE HAMMER. See 

HAMMER. 

To BRING TO BOOK. See BOOK. 
To BRING TO to resuscitate ; to 

cause to recover. C. 
I once brought a fellow to (made a 

fellow revive) that was drowned. 

HALIBURTON. 

Bpoom. NEW BROOMS SWEEP 
CLEAN those newly appointed 
to office are apt to make great 
changes. C. 

If new brooms do not sweep clean, 
at any rate they sweep away. 
Blackwood's Magazine, 1887. 

TO JUMP THE BROOMSTICK to 

be irregularly married. F. 

Three or four score of undergradu- 
ates, reckless of parental wifl, had 
offered her matrimony, and three or 



35 Buckle 

four newly-elected fellows were ask- 
ing whether they would vacate if 
they happened to jump the broom- 
stick. BLACKMORE. 

This woman in Gerrard Street here 
had been married very young over 
the broomstick, as we say to a 
tramping man. DICKENS. 

Brown. BROWN, JONES, AND 
ROBINSON representatives of 
Englishmen of the middle 
class. P. Their adventures 
were published in Punch. 

After the splendidjtrevelry of the 
mess-table, Captains Brown, Jones, 
and Robinson would turn out in all 
the glory of red cloth and gold braid. 

TO ASTONISH THE BROWNS to 

do something, notwithstand- 
ing the shock it will give to 
the prejudices of one's neigh- 
bours. F. 

If we go on to the top of the 'bus, 
our conduct will astonish the Browns 
(shock our prejudiced neighbours). 
To DO BROWN to hoodwink 
completely ; to gain com- 
plete mastery over. S. See 
Do. 

His was an imaginative poetical 
composition, easily scorched enough, 
but almost incapable of being thor- 
oughly done brown. G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 
BROWN BESS a musket. F. 

The British soldier-with his cloth- 
ing and accoutrements, his pouches, 
haversack,biscuits,andammunition, 
not to mention Brown Bess, his main- 

ishes him so much as wet. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Bputum. BRUTUM FULMEN 
a harmless thunderbolt. P. 
Latin. 

Bubble. BUBBLE AND SQUEAK 
fried beef and cabbage. F. 
Also used contemptuously of 
what is little prized. 

Rank and title ! bubble and squeak ! 
No, not half so good as bubble and 
squeak Englishbeef and good cab- 
bage. LYTTON. 

Buckle. To BUCKLE TO to 
set to work at in earnest ; 
to apply oneself diligently to 
work. F. 

We all buckled to with a will, doing 
four hours a day. H. E. HAGGARD. 



Buckler 



36 



Buckler. To GIVE THE BUCK- 
LERS to yield ; to lay aside 
all thoughts of defence. F. 
Age is nobody when youth is in place ; 
It gives the other the bucklers. 

Old Play. 

TO TAKE UP THE BUCKLERS to 

struggle ; to contend. Old- 
fashioned. 
Charge one of them to take up the 

bucklers 
Against that hair-monger Horace. 

DECKER. 

Bud. To CHECK or NIP IN 
THE BUD to destroy at an 
early age ; to lose no time in 
suppressing. C. 

Guessing his intentions, she had 
resolved to check them in the bud. 
DICKENS. 

Bull. A BULL'S EYE the 
inner disk of a target, sur- 
rounded by rings of increasing 
magnitude. F. "To make 
a bull's eye " = to fire a 
highly successful shot ; to 
score a great success ; to gain 
a striking advantage. 
The Republicans had made a bull's 

Ee, and were jubilant. New York 
zrald, August 1, 1888. 
A BULL IN A CHINA SHOP some- 
thing in a place where it will 
do an excessive amount of 
damage. C. 

Poor John ! he was perfectly con- 
scious of his own ponderosity more 
so perhaps than his sprightly mother- 
in-law gave him credit for, He felt 
like a Dull in a china shop. Mur- 
ray's Magazine, 1887. 
TO TAKE THE BULL BY THE 

HORNS to attack something 
formidable in a bold and 
direct fashion. C. 

Happening, therefore, to meet 
Monckton one windy morning when 
he was walking into Kingscliff to 
keep an appointment, he resolved to 
take the bull by the horns. W. E. 
NORRIS, in Good Words, 1887. 

Bullet. EVERY BULLET HAS 
ITS BILLET it is appointed 
beforehand by fate what sol- 
diers will fall in battle ; it 
is no use contending against 
fate. C. 



"Well," he remarked consolingly, 
" every bullet has its billet." H. E. 
HAGGARD. 

No one talks now of "every bullet 
having its billet," or thinks of life as 
an"appointed span." Contemporary 
Review, 1887. 

Bundle. To BUNDLE IN to 
enter in an unceremonious 
fashion. F. 

I say, Frank, I must have a dip ; I 
shall bundle an. G. J. WHYTE-MEL- 



Bupidan. BURIDAN'S ASS 
a man of indecision. P. 
Buridan, the Greek sophist, 
maintained that if an ass 
could be placed between two 
haystacks, so that its choice 
was evenly balanced between 
them, it would starve to 
death. 

He was a Buridan's ass of a man, 
and seldom came to a decision till it 
was too late. 

Burn. To BURN ONE'S 
FINGERS to suffer loss or 
hurt by meddling with some- 
thing out of one's own sphere, 
as by investing in some 
plausible financial speculation, 
or taking part in another's 
quarrel. C. 

He has been bolstering up these 
rotten iron-works too long. I told 
him he would burn his fingers. MRS. 
E. LYNN LINTON. 

TO BURN THE CANDLE AT BOTH 

ENDS to expend one's re- 
sources in two directions ; 
to consume one's energies in 
a double way. C. 

Washington Irving talks of Gold- 
smith burning the candle at both 
ends in the heading to chapter xxiii. 
of his Life. 

To BURN ONE'S BOATS to leave 
no means of retreat ; to act 
irrevocably. P. 

Then he took the perforated card- 
board and tore that likewise into 
small pieces. "Now I have burned 
my boats with a vengeance" (cer- 
tainly left myself no way of retreat), 
he added grimly. JAMES PAYN. 
A BURNED CHILD DREADS THE 

FIRE those who have suffered 
are wary. C. 



Bury 

. TO BURY THE HATCHET 

to cease fighting. F. The 
phrase comes from a Red 
Indian custom in warfare. 

But the Harcourts and the Ella- 
combes, the Gaysworthys and Fitz- 
George Standish, were among the 
more familiar of the guests invited 
to this dinner, which was essentially 
a well-dressed pow-wow (council) to 
witness the burying of the hatchet 
and the smoking of the calumet. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

Bush. TO BEAT ABOUT THE 

BUSH to avoid a direct state- 
ment of what must be said ; 
to convey one's meaning in a 
roundabout fashion. P. 

No ; give me a chap that hits out 
straight from the shoulder. Can't 
you see this is worth a hundred 
Joneses beating about the bush and 
droning us all to sleep ? C. READE. 
GOOD WINE NEEDS NO BUSH a 

good thing requires no adver- 
tisement ; it commends it- 
self. P. Formerly the branch 
of a tree was hung out in 
front of a tavern to indicate 
that liquor was for sale. 

If it be true that good wine needs 
no bush (is its own recommendation), 
'tis true that a good play needs no 
epilogue. SHAKESPEARE. 

Bushel. UNDER A BUSHEL 
secretly ; without others know- 
ing it. C. 

Ah, you can't give a dinner under 
a bushel.-W. D. HOWELLS. 

Business. To GO ABOUT ONE'S 
BUSINESS to go off. F. The 
phrase is generally used in 
dismissing an intruder. 

Bidding the soldiers go about their 
business and the coach to drive off, 
Hill let go of his prey sulkily, and 
waited for other opportunities of 
revenge. THACKERAY. 

MAN OF BUSINESS (a) a man 
gifted with powers of manage- 
ment ; one who can prudently 
direct the details of an enter- 
prise or undertaking. P. 

He was one of the most skilful de- 
baters and men of business in the 
kingdom. MACAULAY. 
(6) a legal adviser. 

The tenant resolved to consult his 
man of business. 



37 



Butter 



TO DO THE BUSINESS FOR A MAN 

to kill a man. F. 

His last imprudent exposure of 
himself to the night air did the 
business for him (put an end to his 
life). 

TO HAVE NO BUSINESS IN A 
PLACE, Or NO BUSINESS TO 

DO ANYTHING (a) to have no 
occupation calling one thither, 
or no right to do the thing. C. 
You had no business to meet Mr. 
Campion without my knowledge ; it 
was disgraceful of you. F. ANSTEY. 

(&) figuratively of things. 

A frown upon the atmosphere 
That hath no business (ought not) 

to appear- 
Where skies are blue and earth is 

gay. BYRON. 

To MEAN BUSINESS to have 
serious intentions; to be bent 
on executing a project. C. 

He really felt very much hurt and 
seriously alarmed, because it never 
had occurred to him that the other 
two should also mean business (have 
serious intentions of marrying 
Clair). BESANT. 

Buttep. BUTTERED FINGERS 
fingers through which a ball 
slips. Used contemptuously 
of a cricket player who fails 
to hold a ball. F. 

TO LOOK AS IF BUTTER WOULD 
NOT MELT IN ONE'S MOUTH to 

look unconcerned ; harmless 
and innocent. F. 

These good young ladies, who look 
as if butter wouldn't melt in their 
mouths, are not a whit better than 
the rest of us. BLACKMORE. 

Exp. These good young ladies, 
who look so very prim and inno- 
cent, are in no way better than the 
rest of us. 

TO KNOW ON WHICH SIDE ONE'S 
BREAD IS BUTTERED to be 

well aware of one's own inter- 
ests ; to be full of worldly 
wisdom as far as regards one- 
self. C. 

" Pshaw !" answered his mercurial 
companion, " he knows on which side 
his bread is buttered." DICKENS. 

Exp. His mercurial companion, 
with an exclamation of impatience, 
answered. "He knows where his 
interests lie." 



Buy J 

TO BUTTER BOTH SIDES OF ONE'S 

BREAD to gain advantages 
from two parties at one time. 
Well, as soon as he (the devoted 
young parson) can work it, he marries 
the richest gal (girl) in all his flock 
(congregation), and then his bread is 
buttered on both sides (he obtains a 
yearly income from two sources). 
HALIBURTON. 

BUTTER TO BUTTER is NO RELISH 
something substantial is 
required as a basis for what is 
merely a relish. 

Buy. To BUT IN to purchase 
goods at an auction on behalf 
of the person selling. P. 

The articles were mainly those 
that had belonged to the previous 
owner of the house, and had been 
bought in by the late Mr. Charmond 
at the auction. THOMAS HARDY. 

TO BUY .THE REFUSAL OF ANY- 
THING to give money for the 
right, at a future time, of 
purchasing it for a fixed 
price. C. 

I have bought the refusal of the 
neighbouring piece of land for fifty 
dollars. Its price is five hundred. 

To BUY OFF A PERSON to cause 
one to cease from opposition 
by giving him a sum of money, 
or other benefit. C. 

It was the potential destroyer of 
their house whom they had to pro- 
pitiatethe probable possessor of 
their lands whom they had to buy 



I Cwteris 

off as best they could. MBS. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

To BUY UP a stronger form of 
BUY, signifying the complete 
purchase of a quantity of 
goods. C. 

I was so delighted with his last 
box of curios that I bought them up 
(purchased the whole lot). 

By. BY THIS when this took 
place. F. 

By this, John had his hand on the 
shutters. K. L. STEVENSON. 
BY-AND-BY after a time. C. 

He hoped, could he overtake them, 
to have company by -and -by. 

BUNYAN. 

BY-THE-BYE this phrase is used 
to introduce a new subject for 
which the hearers are not 
prepared. P. 

By-the-bye, gentlemen, since I saw 
you here before, we have had to 
weep over a very melancholy occur- 
rence. DICKENS. 

Note. The speaker, before going 
on to the ordinary business of the 
meeting, makes a reference to an 
outside subject, and apologizes, as 
it were, for taking this liberty. 

Bygones. To LET BYGONES 
BE BYGONES to ignore the 
past. F. 

Can't we let bygones be bygones 
and start afresh? W. E. NOBRIS. 

Moreover, bygones being bygones, 
he had made an excursion into the 
"Eockies." WM. BLACK. 



Cacoethes. CACOETHES SCRI- 
BENDI a diseased love of 
writing. P. 

Our friend is afflicted with cacoe- 
thes scribendi (an itch for writing). 

Caesar. CESAR'S WIFE SHOULD 
BE ABOVE SUSPICION. When 
Csesar, whose own reputation 
was not above reproach, was 
remonstrated with for putting 
away his wife on a mere sus- 
picion, he replied that it did 
not matter for Caesar, but 
CESAR'S WIFE should be above 
suspicion in matters of mo- 
rality. P. The phrase is now 



used in a general way to 
express the need there is that 
those immediately connected 
with great men should have 
a flawless reputation. 

" Caesar's wife," you remember the 
Roman dictator said " Caesar's wife 
must be above suspicion." Surely, 
if even a heathen thought that, we, 
Charlotte, with all our privileges 
(the speaker was a bishop), ought to 
be very careful on what sort of man 
we bestow Iris. Cornhill Magazine, 
1887. 

Csetepis. OETERIS PARIBUS 
other things being equal. 
P. Latin. 

A very rich man, from low begin- 
nings, may buy his election in a 



Cain 

borough, but, cceteris paribus, a man 
of family will be preferred. BOS- 
WELL. 

Cain. THE CURSE OF CAIN. 
See CURSE. 

Cake. You CAN'T BOTH HAVE 

Or KEEP YOUR CAKE AND EAT 

IT a common proverb, signi- 
fying the impossibility of 
reaping the advantages of two 
wholly opposite courses of con- 
duct. A person must choose 
which course he will follow, 
and which set of advantages 
he prefers, and be prepared 
to resign any claim to the 
other set of advantages. P. 

Mr. Howorth seems to us to be 
counting as, indeed, men do often 
count on the ability both to keep 
your cake and eat it ; but, as a mat- 
ter of fact, that always turns out to 
be impracticable. Spectator, 1887. 

Slave-holders in rebellion had 
alone among mortals the privilege 
of having their cake and eating it. 
J. K. LOWELL. 

MY CAKE is DOUGH I am quite 
disappointed. F. 

Notwithstanding all these trav- 
erses, we are confident here that the 
match will take, otherwise my cake 
is dough. H owell's Letters. 

TO TAKE THE CAKE to be first 

in a contest ; to secure the 
first place in a competition. 
An Americanism. 

The Wesleyans, however, take the 
cake* having by far the finest church 



, 

building in the city a Gothic struc- 
ture of graceful design. Boston Com- 
mercial Bulletin, May 26, 1888. 

Calf. TO EAT THE CALF IN 
THE COW'S BELLY - to be too 

ready to anticipate ; to be 
over-sanguine of obtaining 
something. F. 

I ever made shift to avoid anticipa- 
tions; I never would eat the calf in 
the cow's belly. S. KIOHARDSON. 

JALF LOVE the juvenile passion 
of a young man. C. 

'Twas no fiery-furnace kind of calf 
love on my part, but a matured and 
sensible admixture of gratitude and 



39 Call 

real kindness to help you out of. 
RHODA BROUGHTON. 

Call. TO CALL AT A PLACE 

to visit it. P. Said both of 
persons and of vessels. 

" I shall have the honour of calling 
at the Bedford, sir, if you'll permit 
me," said the major. DICKENS. 

To CALL TO ACCOUNT to cen- 
sure ; to demand an ex- 
planation from. P. 

She can't call Ensign Bloomingtou 
to account; can she, hey? MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

CALLED TO ONE'S ACCOUNT 
removed by death. 

AT CALL. This phrase is used 
with regard to money which 
is deposited and can be drawn 
at any time without previous 
notice given. P. 

To CALL DOWN to invoke ; to 
pray to Heaven for. 

To CALL FOR (a) to need or 
demand. P. 

I do not think this letter calls for 
an answer. 

(&) The phrase is used where 

a visit is paid with a special 
purpose. C. For instance, a 
parcel is often labelled, " To 
be left till called for." 

To CALL FORTH to bring out ; 
to cause to appear ; to elicit. 
P. 

The article called forth a host of 
rejoinders. 

She was conscious that few women 
can be certain of calling forth this 
admiration. BESANT. 

To CALL NAMES to speak dis- 
respectfully to or of a person. 
C. 

When he called his mother names 
because she wouldn't give up the 
young lady's property, and she re- 
lenting caused him to relent like- 
wise and fall down on one knee and 
ask her blessing, how the ladies in 



sincere affection. G. A. SALA. 

I thought that it was a childish 
besotment you had for the man a 
calf lov 



man 
sort of calf love, that it would be 



the audience sobbed. DICKENS. 
To CALL ON or UPON (a) to 
invoke the aid of. P. 

What signifies calling every mo- 
ment upon the devil, and courting 
his friendship? GOLDSMITH. 

(6) to pay a visit to. P. 



Camel 



To CALL our to challenge to 
fight a duel. P. 

My friend, Jack Willes, sent me 
down a cook from the Mansion 
House for the English cookery the 
turtle and venison department: I 
had a chief cook, who called out 
the Englishman, by the way. 
THACKERAY. 

My master was a man very apt to 
give a short answer himself, and 
likely to call a man out for it after- 
wards. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

TO CALL A PERSON TO ORDER 

(of the chairman of a meeting) 
to declare that the person has 
broken the rules of debate, or 
is behaving in an unseemly 
manner. P. 

He had lost his temper in the 
House that evening; he had been 
called to order by Mr. Speaker. 
WM. BLACK. 

To CALL OVER to recite a list 
of names. P. 

We were now prevented from fur- 
ther conversation by the arrival of 
the jailer's servants, who came to 
call over the prisoners' names. 
GOLDSMITH. 

TO CALL OVER THE COALS to 

find fault with. F. 

He affronted me once at the last 
election by calling a freeholder of 
mine over the coals. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

TO CALL IN QUESTION to throw 

doubt upon ; to challenge the 
truth of. P. 

If the moral quality of his hero 
could not in safety be called in ques- 
tion (doubted), any suggestion of 
weakness in him as a writer was 
still more unendurable. JAMES 
PAYN. 

To CALL UP to revive the 
memory of ; to bring to re- 
membrance. P. 

Camel. To BREAK THE 
CAMEL'S BACK to be the 
last thing which causes a 
catastrophe. P. The proverb 
runs : " It is the last straw 
that breaks the camel's back. 

I do not know exactly what it was 
that Biver did at last ; it was some- 
thing which not only broke the 
camel's back (was sufficient to cause 
a catastrophe his dismissal), but 
made the cup run over. BESANT. 
"You find poor Jenny full of 



40 Cannot 

cares," he says, alluding to his wife. 
"She had about as much as she 
could manage before, poor girl, but 
this last feather has almost broken 
the camel's back." FLORENCE MAR- 
RYAT. 

Camp. To CAMP our to live 
in a tent in the open country. 
P. 

Candle. To HOLD or SHOW 

A CANDLE TO ANY ONE to 

be in any way comparable 
with him. C. 

As for other fellows fellows of 
my own standing there isn't one to 
show a candle to me. BESANT. 

" And to think," he went on, with- 
out heeding my remark, "that she 
has spent the whole of her life in a 
country parsonage! So much for 
rural simplicity. Why, there isn't 
one of these Belgravian women who 
could hold a candle to her for cool- 
ness." W. E. NORRIS. 

I say she's the best, the kindest, 
the gentlest, the sweetest girl in 
England, and that, bankrupt or no, 
my sisters are not fit to hold candles 
to her. THACKERAY. 

In such literature servants could 
mix with grand ladies, to whom 
Miss Prior, with her crony the gover- 
ness, could not hold the candle 
(were quite inferior). SARAH 
TYTLER. 

-to act 



TO HOLD THE CAND 

as assistant ; to aid and abet. 
C. 

I'll be candle-holder, and look on. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

TO BURN THE CANDLE AT BOTH 

ENDS. See BURN. 

TO HOLD A CANDLE TO THE 

DEVIL to diverge from what 
is strictly right or moral; to 
do knowingly what is wrong. 
C. 

Here I have been holding a candle 
to the devil, to show him the way to 
mischief. SCOTT. 

Lady Bassett's wrist went around 
his neck in a moment. " Oh, Charles 
dear, for my sake hold a little, little 
candle to the devil." READE. 

Cannot. I CANNOT AWAY 
WITH THIS I detest it ; I 
abominate it. C. 

Couriers and ladies' maids, im- 
perials and travelling carriages, are 
an abomination to me; I cannot 
away withithem. HUGHES. 



Canvas 



41 



Card 



Canvas. To GET or RECEIVE 
THE CANVAS. An obsolete 
phrase signifying the same as 
the modern TO GET THE SACK. 

I lose my honour if the Don re- 
ceives the canvas. SHIRLEY. 

Cap. THE CAP AND BELLS. 
These were carried by fools in 
the middle ages, as tokens of 
their office. The " fools " 
were licensed jesters. (See 
King Lear.) 

And, look you, one is bound to 
speak the truth as far as one knows 
it, whether one mounts a cap and 
bells or a shovel-hat (is a fool or a 
bishop). THACKERAY. 

TO CAP THE GLOBE to Surpass 

everything. F. 

"Well," I exclaimed, using an ex- 
pression of the district, "that caps 
the globe, however." C. BRONTE. 

IF THE CAP FITS, WEAR IT if 

the remark applies to you, 
consider it well. C. 

The truth is, when a searching 
sermon is preached, each sinner 
takes it to himself. I am glad Mr. 
Hawes fitted the cap on. READE. 
GAP IN HAND in the submissive 
attitude of one who has a 
favour to ask. C. 

And Tulliver, with his rough 
tongue filled by a sense of obliga- 
tion, would make a better servant 
than any chance fellow who was cap 
in hand for a situation. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

To SET ONE'S CAP AT (of a 
woman) to try to captivate ; 
to try to obtain as a husband. 
P. 

"You won't like everything from 
India now, Miss Sharp." said the old 
gentleman ; but when the ladies had 
retired after dinner, the wily old 
fellow said to his son, " Have a care, 
Joe ; that girl is setting her cap at 
you." THACKERAY. 

The girls set their caps at him, but 
he did not marry. READE. 
Fo CAP VERSES to compose or 
recite a verse beginning with 
the final letter of a verse 
given by the previous speaker. 
P. A favourite pastime. 

They had amused themselves dur- 
ing their daily constitutionals by 
capping Greek and Latin verses. 
Macmillan's Magazine, 1886. 



TO CAP THE CLIMAX to gO 

beyond already large limits ; 
to say or do something extra- 
ordinary. G. 

Lively George, as his neighbours 
call him (and very appropriately too, 
in spite of his threescore and ten 
years), who comes once in a while 
to do odd jobs about the garden, 
is fond of talking in a grandilo- 
quent manner. He speaks of clear- 
ing away the "debray."and of peo- 
ple who haven't much "sentimen- 
tology" about them, etc. But he 
capped the climax the other morn- 
ing when he greeted the gentleman 
of the house, who had just made 
his appearance on the porch after 
several days' confinement to his 
room by illness, with, "Ah, sir, 
good-mornin', sir. Glad to see you 
are non compos mentis once more, 
sir." St. Andrews Citizen, 1888. 

Capital. To MAKE CAPITAL 

OUT OF ANYTHING to US6 

anything for one's own profit. 
C. 

I suppose Russia was rot bound 
to wait till they were in a position 
to make capital out of her again (use 
her for tneir own advancement 
again). -M. ARNOLD. 

Captain. To COME CAPTAIN 
STIFF OVER A PERSON to be 
arrogant in behaviour towards 
him. S. 



Caput. CAPUT MORTUUM a 
worthless residue. P. Latin. 

Card. ON THE CARDS prob- 
able ; expected to happen ; 
sp oken ab out or announced. C. 

What if Mr. Slope should become 
dean of Barchester? To be sure, 
there was no adequate ground in- 
deed, no ground at all for presum- 
ing that such a desecration could 
even be contemplated; but never- 
theless it was on the cards (prob- 
able). A. TROLLOPS. 

Of course the success of the mine 
is always on the cards. MRS. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

A GREAT CARD a popular or 

prominent man ; a man much 

talked about and admired. F. 

Captain D'Orville, the great card of 

the regiment, came clanking into 



Care 

the porter's lodge to get a glass of 
water for the dame. G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

TO SPEAK BY THE CARD to be 

careful with one's words. C. 
Probably a sea phrase, CARD 
here being the mariner's com- 
pass, which gives the ship's 
direction exactly. 
How absolute the knave is! We 
must speak by the card, or equi- 
vocation will undo us. SHAKE- 

Exp How peremptory the fellow 
is ! We must be careful with our 
words, lest they be used to ruin us. 

Speaking only by the card, and of 
that which I saw with my own eyes, 
I don't think that Maum Buckey 
was any crueller than other slave- 
owners of her class. G. A. SALA. 
To THROW UP ONE'S CARDS 
to cease to struggle ; to de- 
spair of success in any enter- 
prise ; to confess oneself van- 
quished. F. 

He perceived at once that his for- 
mer employer was right, and that it 
only remained for him to throw up 
his cards. W. E. NORRIS. 
Cape. CARE KILLED A CAT. 
This proverb refers to the de- 
pressing effects of care upon 
the bodily health ; it even 
killed a cat, which has nine 
lives. See CAT. 

"Come, come," said Silver, "stop 
this talk. . . . Care killed a cat. 
Fetch ahead for the doubloons." 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

Carpet. ON THE CARPET 
under discussion. P. ON THE 
TAPIS is an equivalent phrase. 

The talk was all of him : of his 
magnificence, his meanness, his 



manners, his principles, his daughter 
and her future marriage already on 
the carpet of discussion and surmise. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
TO COME Or BE BROUGHT ON THE 

CARPET to be introduced. C. 
CARPET was formerly used for 
table-cloth. 

There were few better specs (specu- 
lations) among us than inns and 
churches, until the railroads came 
on the carpet (were introduced). 
HALIBURTON. 

He shifted the discourse in his 
turn and (with a more placid air) 
contrived to bring another subject 
upon the carpet. GRAVES. 



42 Carry 

A CARPET-BAGGER a Yankee 
speculator who, after the great 
United States Civil War, went 
to the South to make money 
out of the impoverished coun- 
try. C. 

At electipn times he was the terror 
of Republican stump - orators and 
carpet-baggers. Blackwood's Maga- 
zine, 1887. 

A CARPET-KNIGHT a gentleman 
who receives the honour of 
knighthood from his sovereign, 
not for services on the battle- 
field, but for services at court 
or as a peaceful citizen. P. 
By heaven, I change 
My thought, and hold thy valour 

As that of some vain carpet-knight, 
Who ill deserved my cpurteous care, 
And whose best boast is but to wear 
A braid of his fair lady's hair. 

SCOTT. 

Carriage. A CARRIAGE-AND- 
FOUR a carriage drawn by 
four horses. P. 

"A carriage-and-four, papa; pray 
come and look." 

"Four horses!" exclaimed Mrs. 
Armytage, in the excitement of the 
moment forgetting her own canons 
of etiquette, and rising from her 
chair to obtain a better view of the 
approaching vehicle. JAMES PAYN. 

CARRIAGE COMPANY people who 
are wealthy enough to keep 
private carriages. C. 

There is no phrase more elegant 
and to my taste than that in which 
people are described as "seeing a 
great deal of carriage company." 
THACKERAY. 

Gappy. To CARRY ALL BEFORE 
ONE to be completely suc- 
cessful or popular. C. 

Adelina Patti carries all before her 
(is popular with every one) wherever 
she goes. 

TO CARRY THE DAY to win a 

victory ; to prove superior. 
P. 

When such discussions arise, 
money generally carries the day 
and should do so. A. TROLLOPS. 

TO CARRY ANYTHING TOO FAR 

to exceed the proper bounds 
in anything. C. 

Of course you may carry the thing 
too far, as (in the well-known story) 



Carry 4 

when Mr. A. was twitted by Mr. B. 
with having sent a man to sleep in 
his (Mr. B.'s) church. Cornhill 
Magazine, 1888. 

To CARRY OFF (a) to help 
to pass ; to aid ; to supple- 
ment or supply what is lacking. 
P. 

She was one who required none of 
the circumstances of studied dress 
to carry off aught (supply anything 
deficient) in her own appearance. 
A. TROLLOPE. 

(&) to cause the death of. P. 

The change of air carried him off. 
TEMPLE. 

To CARRY IT OFF to refuse to 
succumb ; to pretend indif- 
ference. C. The phrase is used 
when a person is placed in an 
awkward or humiliating posi- 
tion, and tries to hide his 
feelings of shame or confusion. 
Frightened too I could see that 
but carrying it off, sir, really like 
Satan. R. L. STEVENSON. 

He is here, good sir, waiting y9ur 
pleasure here in London walking 
the streets at noonday, carrying it off 
jauntily. DICKENS. 

To CARRY ON (a) to conduct ; 
to manage. P. 

The internal government of Eng- 
land could be carried on only by the 
advice and agency of English min- 
isters. MACAULAY. 

(6) to behave in a particular 
fashion, so as to call attention 
to one's conduct ; to misbe- 
have. F. 

It was Mrs. Emptage ; and how she 
carried on, with tears and congratu- 
lations. BESANT. 

He is further said to have carried 
on with Satanic wildness in Lime- 
house and the West India Dock 
Road of an evening. BESANT. 

When he's got no money he is 
tempted to do wicked things, and 
carries on shameful (conducts him- 
self in a shameful manner). BESANT. 
To CARRY OUT to bring to 
completion ; to give practical 
effect to. P. 

To carry out the aims he had in 
view, he tolerated and made use of 
persons whose characters he de- 
spised. Westminster Review, 1888. 

Here he lived too. in skipper-like 
state, all alone with his nephew 
Walter, a boy of fourteen, who 
looked quite enough like a midship- 



Cast 

man to carry out the prevailing idea. 
DICKENS. 

To CARRY ONE'S POINT to suc- 
ceed in one's aim. P. 

They were bent upon placing their 
friend Littleton in the Speaker's 
chair; and they had carried their 
point triumphantly. MAC A uij AY. 

TO CARRY THROUGH to bring 

to completion. P. 

The whole country is filled with 
such failures swaggering begin- 
nings that could not be carried 
through. THACKERAY. 
CARRIED AWAY BY ONE'S FEEL- 
INGS under the guidance of 
emotion and not of reason ; 
overcome by emotion. P. 

Having an honest and sincere 
mind, he was not carried away by a 
popular prejudice. TILLOTSON. 
Cart. To PUT THE CART BEFORE 
THE HORSE to put the wrong 
thing first. F. 

To begin physics at this stage is to 
put the cart before the horse (begin 
with a subject that should come 
afterwards). Study geometry first. 

Carte. CARTE BLANCHE full 
freedom ; perfect liberty to act 
in anything as one pleases. 
P. French. 

There is carte blanche to the school- 
house fags to go where they like. 
HUGHES. 

So he sent off Amelia once more in 
a carriage to her mamma with strict 
orders and carte blanche to purchase 
everything requisite for a lady of 
Mrs. George Osborne's fashion who 
was going on a foreign tour. 
THACKERAY. 

Cast. To CAST ABOUT (a) to 
devise or plan. C. 

He cast about all that day, and 
kept his brain working on the one 
anxious subject through all the 
round of schemes and business that 
came with it. DICKENS. 

(&) to look around one ; to 

search mentally or actually. P. 

Here he cast about for a comfort- 
able seat. R. L. STEVENSON. 

And now in his banishment he 
began casting about for similar 
means of ingratiating himself with 
the upper ten. Edinburgh Review, 
1887. 

CAST DOWN dejected ; in low 
spirits. P. 

For my part I was horribly cast 
down. R. L. STEVENSON. 



baste 



44 



To CAST OUT to quarrel. F. 
The goddesses cast out (quarrelled) 

over the possession of the golden 

apple. 
To CAST UP (a) to reproach or 

upbraid. F. Scotch. 

For what between you twa has ever 

Nane 'to the other will cast up, I 

ween. Ross. 

Exp. For no one, I think, will re- 
proach the other for past transac- 
tions. 

(&) to add arithmetically ; 

to compute. P. 

William gave him a slate and a 
slate-pencil, and taught him how to 
make figures and to cast up sums. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

(c) to turn up ; to appear 

unexpectedly. P. 

Nor, though last not least, must 
we omit to mention the elite of 
Bubbleton, who have one and all 



salu 
nominated. 



, 

ous town is sometimes de- 
G. J. WHYTE-MEL- 



cast up from "the Spout," as that 

ibnc 

nin; 
VILLE. 

A CASTING VOTE a vote which 
decides when the voting is 
otherwise equal. P. The 
chairman of a meeting often 
exercises this power. 

Caste. To LOSE CASTE to 
cease to enjoy the considera- 
tion of one's associates ; to 
be thrown out of the society 
of one's equals. C. 

You may do anything you please 
without losing caste. DICKENS. 

Castles. CASTLES IN THE AIR 
visionary schemes. P. 

These were but like castles in the 
air, and in men's fancies vainly 
imagined. SIR W. RALEGH. 

The two families lived in neigh- 
bouring squares in London, and 
spent several weeks of every year 
together at Thoresly, the Neales' old, 
rambling manor-house in Yorkshire, 
about wnich Elsie had heard and 
built castles in the air (woven 
fancies) in her; childhood. ANNIE 
HEARY. 

He returned to his lodgings with 
his head full of castles in the air. 
W. E. NORRIS. 

CASTLES IN SPAIN possessions 
that have no real existence ; 
also generally of what is 
visionary and unsubstantial. 



Cat 

P. From the French chMeaux 
en Espagne. 

Dick is going to Cork to-day to 
join his regiment (happy, happy 
Cork !) ; but ne is going to write to 
me, and I am to write to him. Is 
not this brick and mortar enough to 
build quite a big Spanish castle 
with? RHODA BROUGHTON. 

Casus. CASUS BELLI ground 
of quarrel. P. Latin. 

Cat. A CAT HAS NINE LIVES 

a proverb expressing the pre- 
vailing belief that it is very 
difficult to kUl a cat. See 
CARE. 

He struggled hard, and had, as 
they say, as many lives as a cat. 

BUNYAN. 
TO LET THE CAT OUT OF THE BAG 

to disclose a secret. F. 

Letting the cat of selfishness out 
of the bag of secrecy. THACKERAY. 

Sunning, to be sure, very nearly 
let the cat out of the bag one af ter- 
noon. W. E, NORRIS. 
THE CAT is our OF THE BAG 
the secret is known ; the 
mystery is explained. F. 

The cat's out of the bag now ; it's 
no wonder they don't go ahead, for 
they know nothin'. HALIBURTON. 

Exp. The secret is now discovered ; 
it is no wonder they do not go ahead, 
for they know nothing. 

I perceived that the cat was out 
of the bag. W. E. NORRIS. 

A CAT-AND-DOG LIFE a life of 

petty quarrels and bickerings. 
C. 

They smiled and were gracious, 
called each other Butterwell and 
Crosbie, and abstained from all cat- 
and-dog absurdities (absurd petty 
quarrels). A. TROLLOPE. 

I am sure we (England and Ireland) 
have lived a cat-and-dog life of it. 
S. T. COLERIDGE. 

To RAIN CATS AND DOGS to rain 
heavily. C. 

"But it'll perhaps rain cats and 
dogs (it will perhaps rain very 
heavily) to-morrow, as it did yester- 
day, and you can go," said Godfrey. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

To MAKE A CAT'S PAW OF to use 
as a mere tool. P. The 
phrase is taken from the fable 
of the cat and the monkey. 
The latter wished to reach 
some chestnuts that were 



Cat 4 

roasting on the fire, and used 
the paw of his friend the cat 
to get at them. 

She's made a cat's paw of you; 
that's plain enough. FLORENCE 
MARBYAT. 

TO SEE HOW THE CAT JUMPS 

to see exactly how and why a 
thing happens. F. 

I see how the cat jumps (the real 
state of affairs) : minister knows so 

Ey languages he hain't (has not) 
particular enough to keep 'em 
n) in separate parcels. HALI- 

BUBTON. 
TO GRIN LIKE A CHESHIRE CAT 

to be always smiling, display- 
ing the gums and teeth. F. 

He lay back in his chair, tapped 
bis boot with his cane, and with a 
grin on his face such as a Cheshire 
cat might wear who feels a mouse 
under her claw. JAMES PAYN. 

I made a pun the other day, and 
palmed it upon Holcroft, who 
grinned like a Cheshire cat. (Why 
do cats grin in Cheshire? Because 
it was once a county palatine: the 
cats cannot help laughing whenever 
they think of it though I see no 
great joke in it.) LAMB. 

TO FIGHT LIKE KILKENNY CATS 

to fight with deadly despera- 
tion. C. The Kilkenny cats 
are said to have fought until 
only their tails remained. 

They fight among each other like 
the famous Kilkenny cats, with the 
happy result that the population 
never outgrows the. power of the 
country to support it. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

TO SHOOT THE CAT to VOmit. 

S. 

TO TURN A CAT-IN-PAN to 

execute a somersault ; to veer 

round suddenly. F. 

When George in pudding time came 

o'er, 

And moderate men looked big, sir, 
I turned a cat-in-pan once more, 
And so became a Whig, sir. 

The Vicar of Bray. 

A CAT-O'-NINE-TAILS an instru- 
ment of punishment, so called 
from the nine pieces of leather 
or cord which compose it. P. 
Gangs tramping along, with bay- 
onets behind them, and corporals 
with canes and cats-o'-nine-tails to 
flog them to barracks. THACKERAY. 



I Catch 

Catch. To CATCH AT ANY- 
THING to try eagerly to seize ; 
to welcome. P. 

Drowning men will catch at straws. 
W. E. NORRIS. 

To CATCH IT to be punished ; 
to suffer unpleasant conse- 
quences ; to be treated rough- 
ly. F. 

"Ecod, my lady!" said Jonas, 
looking after her. and biting a piece 
of straw almost to powder; "you'll 
catch it for this when you are 
married." DICKENS. 

" Poor Sir Bate ! catching it again," 
he says, smiling. FLORENCE MAB- 

BYAT. 

To CATCH ANOTHER'S EYE to 
attract his attention. P. 
The intending speaker who 
first catches the chairman's 
eye at a meeting receives per- 
mission to speak. 

A florid-faced gentleman, with a 
nice head of hair, from the south of 
Ireland, had succeeded in catching 
the Speaker's eye by the time that 
Mr. Warding had got into the gallery. 
A. TROLLOPE. 

Note. The Speaker is the chairman 
of the House of Commons. 
To CATCH NAPPING to gain an 
advantage through the tem- 
porary carelessness of another. 
C. 

Oldfield looked confused: but 
Somerset, full of mother-wit, was 
not to be caught napping (taken at 
a disadvantage). C. READE. 

To CATCH UP (a) to overtake. 
C. 

On he went, hour after hour, over 
the great deserted plain ; but he did 
not succeed in catching,up the bishop. 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

It is not that the Mohammedan 
boy is duller than the Hindu boy: 
but he does not begin (his studies) 
so soon, and he has not caught up 
(overtaken) his rival by the time 
earlier educational honours are dis- 
tributed. Calcutta Englishman,l88S. 

(&) to interrupt a speaker 

with a critical remark ; to 
disagree with one who is 
speaking. C. 

As for thoughtfulness, and good 
temper, and singing like a bird, and 
never being cross and catching a 
person up, or getting into rages, as 
Melenda did, there was nobody in 
the world like Polly. BESANT. 



Cause 



To CATCH A CRAB. See GRAB. 

To CATCH A TARTAR. See TAR- 
TAR. 

Cause. CAUSE C^LEBRE a 
famous law case. P. A French 
phrase. 

We greatly fear matters will re- 
main in their present disgraceful 
condition, and that the Campbell 
cause cdlebre will have no result 
except to vitiate still more the 
already vitiated atmosphere of 
society. Spectator, 1886. 

TO MAKE COMMON CAUSE WITH 

to side with and support. P. 
Thus the most respectable Pro- 

testants, with Elizabeth at their 
head, were forced to make common 
cause (associate themselves) with 
the Papists. MACAULAY. 

Caution. A CAUTION some- 
thing to be avoided or dreaded. 

S. 

Sometimes it doesn't rain here for 
eight months at a stretch, and the 
dust out of town is a caution (is 
dreadful). 

Cave. To CAVE IN to suc- 
cumb ; to give way. S. 

A puppy joins the chase with heart 
and soul (very eagerly), but caves in 
(desists) at about fifty yards. H. 
KINGSLEY. 

Caveat. CAVEAT EMPTOR let 
the purchaser beware of what 
he is buying. P. Latin. 
Caviare. CAVIARE TO THE 
GENERAL not pleasing to or- 
dinary people. P. Caviare 
is a substance prized by 
epicures, and made from the 
roes of sturgeons and other 
flsh caught in the rivers of 
Russia. 
For the play, I remember, pleased 

not the million ; 'twas caviare to 

the general. SHAKESPEARE. 

Chaff. TO CATCH WITH CHAFF 

to deceive easily. C. 
With which chaff our noble bird 

was by no means to be caught. 
THACKERAY. 

Joseph was insensible to our 
bribes : Frederick the Great was too 
old a bird to be caught with chaff. 
Athenceum, 1887. 

Chair. To TAKE THE CHAIR 
to assume the position of 
president at a meeting. P. 



The 

appoii 



46 Chapter 

committee of the Commons 
nted Mr. Pym to take the 
chair (to be president of the meet- 
ing). CLARENDON. 

Chalk. BY A LONG CHALK, 
or BY LONG CHALKS clearly ; 
indisputably ; by a great 
interval. F. 

Here, Polly! Polly! Polly! take 
this man down to the kitchen, and 



teach him manners if you can ; he is 
not fit for my drawing-room, by 
long chalk. READE. 



. . 

They whipped and they spurred and 

they after her pressed, 
But Sir Alured's steed was by long 

chalks the best. BARHAM. 

Challenge. To CHALLENGE 
THE ARRAY to protest against 
the whole body of jurymen 
selected. P. A legal phrase. 

Chancery. To GET INTO 
CHANCERY to be completely 
at the mercy of another in a 
boxing match. When a com- 
batant's head is tucked under 
the arm of his opponent, 
and receives a succession of 
blows, the poor fellow is said 
to be in chancery. S. 

The Chicken himself attributed 
this punishment to his having had 
the misfortune to get into chancery 
early in the proceedings. DICKENS. 

Change. To RING THE 
CHANGES. See RING. 

TO PUT THE CHANGE UPON A 

PERSON to deceive him. C. 

You cannot put the change < 
so easy as you think, for I have In 
among the quick-stirring spirits of 
the age too longlto swallow chaff for 
grain. SCOTT. 

Chapter. To THE END OF 
THE CHAPTER to the very 
end ; uninterruptedly. P. 

Money does all things, for it gives 
and it takes away. It makes honest 
men and knaves, fools and philos- 
ophers, and so on, mutatis mutandis 
(the necessary changes being allowed 
for) to the end of the chapter 
(to the very end). L'ESTRANOE. 

THE CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS 

chance ; what happens without 
the possibility of being fore- 
seen and prepared for. P. 

Away runs Jack, shouting and 
trusting to the chapter of accidents. 
HUGHES. 



Character 

Nevertheless she knew that the 
one necessary lesson of evil which 
wishes to succeed is, Go on boldly to 
the end, and trust to the chapter of 
accidents not to be discovered mid- 
way. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

TO GIVE CHAPTER AND VERSE 
FOR ANYTHING to give exact 

particulars of its source. F. 

To clench the matter by chapter 
and verse, I should like to recall 
what I have said of these theories 
and principles in their most perfect 
and most important literary version. 
JOHN MORLEY, in Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, 1888. 

Character. IN CHARACTER 
appropriate ; suitable. P. 

Read it ; is it not quite in char- 
acter (appropriate)? DISRAELI. 

Our OF CHARACTER unsuitable ; 
inappropriate. P. 

Charge. To GIVE IN CHARGE 
to hand over to the police. 
P. 

The burglar was caught and given 
in charge (handed over to a police- 
man). 

Chateaux. CHATEAUX EN 
ESPAGNE something having 
no real existence. P. French. 
See CASTLES IN SPAIN. 

Mere chateaux en Espagne, the 
creation of architectural fancy run 
mad. Church Quarterly Review, 1888. 

Chaw. A CHAW-BACON a 
countryman ; a boor. F. 

The general, seizing the bucket 
from the astonished chaw-bacon, 
who stood aghast as if he thought 
his master was mad, managed to 
spill the greater part of the contents 
over his own person and gaiters. 
G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Cheap. To BE CHEAP OF 
ANYTHING to have received 
no more than one's deserts 
in the way of affronts or 
punishment. F. 

The thief got ten days' imprison- 
ment, and the rogue was cheap of it 
(deserved all he got). 

To FEEL CHEAP to be affronted 
or ashamed. F. 

When I found that I really was 
not invited, you may be sure I felt 
cheap (was ashamed of my position). 

Cheek. CHEEK BY JOWL 
in close proximity. F. 



47 > Chew 

Here they lay, cheek by jowl with 
^ life. DICKENS. 

Here was a doctor who never had 
a patient, cheek by jowl with an 
attorney who never had a client. 
THACKERAY. 

Cheese. To GET THE CHEESE 
to receive a check or a dis- 
appointment. F. The phrase 
is said to have its origin in the 
history of Beau Brummel, 
the friend of George IV. Pre- 
suming on his acquaintance 
with the Prince Regent, Brum- 
mel used to take the liberty 
of arriving late at formal 
dinners, and always expected 
that the party would await 
his arrival. On one occasion 
he arrived in this fashion at the 
Marquis of Lansdowne's, but 
found that the company were 
already far advanced with 
dinner. The host, turning to 
Brummel, asked him if he 
would have some cheese (a 
late course). The crestfallen 
look of the Beau is said to 
have given rise to the expres- 
sion, " He got the cheese." 
THE CHEESE what is excellent 
or first-rate. S. 
Ain't I the cheese, oh ! ain't I the 

cheese, 
As I walk in the park with my 

pretty Louise? London Song. 

Exp.Am I not a fine fellow, etc.? 

Chef. CHEF-D'CEUVRE a mas- 
terpiece ; the best work of the 
kind. P. French. 

The dishes were uncovered. There 
were vegetables cooked most deli- 
ciously ; the meat was a chef-d'oeuvre 
a sort of rich ragout done to a turn, 
and so fragrant that the very odour 
made the mouth water. C. EEADE. 

Cherry. To MAKE TWO BITES 
OF A CHERRY to divide what 
is so small as scarcely to be 
worth dividing. C. 

Let us toss up for the seat ; there 
is no use making two bites of a 
cherry (the seat is too small to 
accommodate both comfortably). 

Chew. To CHEW THE RAG 
to be sullen and abusive. S. 
A phrase common in the army. 



Chicken 

See Notes and Queries, 7th 
series, v. 469, vi. 38. 

He was chewing the rag at me the 
whole afternoon. 

To CHEW THE CUD to ruminate 
on some memory. C. 

I went dinnerless, unless the cud 
of sour and bitter thoughts which I 
chewed might pass for the festive 
meal that forms the nucleus of day's 
dearest interests in most people's 
lives. RHODA BROUGHTON. 

It is possible she was only pretend- 
ing to sleep, in order to chew the 
cud (enjoy the memory) of some 
sweet thought at greater leisure. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Chicken. No CHICKEN not 
youthful. C. 

But John Niel was no chicken, nor 
very likely to fall in love with the 
first pretty face he met. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

COUNT NOT YOUR CHICKENS TILL 
THEY ABE HATCHED be SUFO 

that a thing is actually in 
your possession before you 
speak of it as yours, or act as 
if it were yours. C. 

But aren'twe counting our chickens, 
Tag, before they're hatched? If Tit- 
mouse is all of a sudden become 
such a catch, he'll be snapped up in 
a minute. S. WARREN. 

Child. FROM A CHILD from 
infancy. P. 

From a child (since his infancy) he 
has been delicate. 

CHILD'S PLAY something very 
easy ; work demanding no 
effort. P. 

It's child's play to find the stuff 
now. R. L. STEVENSON. 

Chiltepn. To APPLY FOR 
THE CHILTERN HUNDREDS 
to resign a seat in Parliament. 
The hundreds (or districts) 
of Bodenham, Desborough, 
and Stoke, in Buckingham- 
shire, known as the Chiltern 
Hundreds, have attached to 
them a stewardship, with the 
duty of keeping down the 
robbers who infested the woods 
of the Chiltern Hills. This 
office is now a merely nominal 
one, but it is put to a strange 
use. When a Member of 



48 Choke 

Parliament wishes to resign 
his seat an impossible thing 
by law, unless he can dis- 
qualify himself he applies 
for this stewardship, an office 
under the Crown, the assump- 
tion of which requires resigna- 
tion of a seat in the House of 
^Commons. This practice dates 
from the year 1750. 

This letter was despatched on the 
19th of January; on the 21st he 
applied for the Chiltern Hundreds. 
TREVELTAN, in Li f e of Lord Mac- 
aulay. 

Two days before he (Lord Shaftes- 
bury) applied for the Chiltern Hun- 
dreds, he reintroduced the Ten 
Hours Bill into Parliament. Quar- 
terly Review, 1887. 

Chime. To CHIME IN WITH 
to harmonize with. C. 

As this chimed in with Mr. Dom- 
bey's own hope and belief, it gave 
that gentleman a still higher opinion 
of Mrs. Pipchin's understanding. 
DICKENS. 

Perhaps the severest strain upon 
Mr. Lincoln was in resisting a ten- 
dency of his own supporters which 
chimed in with his own private 
desires. J. R. LOWELL. 

Chip. A CHIP OF THE OLD 

BLOCK a child possessing the 
characteristics of its father. 
C. 

"He will prove a chip of the old 
block (a model of his father), I'll 
warrant," he added, with a sidelong 
look at Margaret. JAMES PAYN. 

Chisel. FULL CHISEL in haste. 
American slang. 

They think they know everything, 
and all they have got to do, to up 
Hudson like a shot, into the lakes 
full split (in a hurry), off to Missis- 



Hudson like a_shot 

sippi, and down to New Orleans full 



chisel (in haste). HALIBURTON. 
To CHISEL to cheat or defraud. 
S. 

Why is a carpenter like a swindler? 
Because he chisels a deal (cheats 
much). 

Note. A pun is here made on the 
word c/iiseiand on the word deal 
(wood). 

Choke. To CHOKE OFF to get 
rid of in a summary way. C. 

Indeed, the business of a war-nurse 
especially is so repulsive that most 
volunteers were choked off at once. 
Cornhill Magazine, 1688. 



Chop 



49 



Chop. FIRST CHOP in the first 
rank; first-class. F. 

You must be first chop (in the front 
rank) in heaven. GEORGE ELIOT. 

He looks like a first-chop article. 
HALIBURTON. 

To CHOP LOGIC to argue in a 
pedantic fashion. P. 

A man must not presume to use 
his reason, unless he has studied the 
categories, and can chop logic (argue 
like a schoolman) by mode and figure. 
SMOLLETT. 

He was angry at finding himself 
chopping logic about this young 
lady. H. JAMES. 

To CHOP UPON to meet sud- 
denly. C. 

I know not what my condition 
would have been if I had chopped 
upon (chanced to meet) them. 
DEFOE. 

To CHOP TARNS to tell stories. 
S. 

Described as a carpenter, but a 
poor workman, Clara Martha, and 
fond of chopping yarns, in which he 



poor 

>f chopping yarns, it 
was equalled by none. BESANT. 



Chronicle. To CHRONICLE 
SMALL BEER to register or 
notify insignificant events. C. 
She was a wight, if ever such wight 

To suckle fools and chronicle small 

beer. SHAKESPEARE. 

All the ne.ws of sport, assize, and 
quarter-sessions was detailed by this 
worthy chronicler of small beer. 
THACKERAY. 

Chuck. To CHUCK UP (a) to 
abandon ; to discontinue ; to 

surrender. S. 

Ain't you keeping company with 
poor old Mrs. Lammas's daughter? 
unless perhaps you mean to chuck 
the girl up now because you have 
been asked for once to meet women 
of rank. JUSTIN M'CARTHY. 

I (b) to give in or surrender. 

Sometimes corrupted into 
JACK UP. S. Probably the 
word SPONGE is understood. 
See SPONGE. 

At the third round Joe the 
Nailor chucked up (declared him- 
self beaten). 

Chum. To CHUM UP WITH to 

make friendly advances to. S. 

Kenny tried to chum up with (get 

on friendly terms) the newcomer, 

but was only partially successful. 



Clean 

Circumstance. CIRCUM- 
STANCES ALTER CASES it is 

necessary to modify one's 
conduct by the particular cir- 
cumstances or conditions of 
each case. P. 

London between August and 
April is looked upon as a night- 
mare. But circumstances alter 
cases ; and I see that it will be the 
best and most convenient place for 
you. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

" Suppose you had been sentenced 
to five hundred blows of a stick, 
sirrah" 'twas thus he put the case 
to me logically enough" would you 
have expected me to pay for thee in 
carcass, as now I am paying for thee 
in purse?" 

'Circumstances alter cases," inter- 
poses Mr. Hodge in my behalf. 
''Here is luckily no question of 
stripes at all." G. A. SALA. 

Claret. ONE'S CLARET JUG 
a slang term for the nose. To 
tap one's claret (jug) = to cause 
a man's nose to bleed. 

He told Verdant that his claret 
had been repeatedly tapped. Ver- 
dant Green, ch. xi. 

Clay. THE FEET OF CLAY the 
baser portion ; the lower and 
degrading part. P. See Dan. 
ii. 33 : " This image's head 
was of fine gold, his breast 
and his arms of silver, his 
belly and his thighs of brass, 
his legs of iron, his feet part 
of iron and part of clay." 
Chapter xxxii. of James Payn's 
novel The Talks of the Town is 
headed " The Feet of Clay," 
a heading explained by the 
second sentence : 

Her Willie had become as dead to 
her ; all .that was left of him was the 
shameful record that lay on the table 
before her. 

Note. This means that the man 
whom she so admired had proved 
that he possessed base qualities. 

Clean. To MAKE A CLEAN 

BREAST OF ANYTHING to make 

a complete confession. C. 

For several days he had made up 
his mind (resolved) that when he 
should be questioned upon the 
subject, he would earn the credit of 
candour and grace of womanly 
gratitude by making a clean 



Clear 



breast of it (confessing everything). 
BLACKMORE. 

TO SHOW A CLEAN PAIR OF HEELS 
to run off. F. 

These maroons were runaway 
slaves who had bid a sudden good- 
bye to bolts and shackles, whips and 
rods, and shown their tyrants a clean 
pair of heels. G. A. SALA. 

To CLEAN our to ruin or render 
bankrupt ; to take away all 
available money from. F. 

"A hundred and forty pounds?" 
repeated Mrs. Carruthers, in a terri- 
fied tone. 

" Yes, precisely that sum ; and I 
have not a pound in the world to 
exist on in the meantime. I am 
cleaned out, and that's the fact." 
E. YATES. 

Cleap. To CLEAR our to go 
off entirely ; to go away. C. 

But mercy on me! everybody 
is clearing out. I shall let these 
women get ten minutes' start of 
me. FLORENCE MABBYAT. 

"It would be a pity, sir, if we had 
to clear out and run, said Maurice. 
Mas. E. LYNN LINTOX. 

Climacteric. THE GRAND 
CLIMACTERIC the most critical 
period in a man's life (sixty- 
three years of age). P. Multi- 
ples of 7 or 9 were considered 
dangerous years in a man's life, 
7, 9, 14, 18, 21, 27, 35, 36, 
49, etc. : 7 x 9 was therefore 
eminently bad. Recognized 
by Hippocrates. 

Our old friend was even now 
balancing on the brink of an event- 
ful plunge (a proposal of marriage), 
which, if not made before "the 
grand climacteric," it is generally 
thought advisable to postpone sine 
die.G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Close. To CLOSE WITH to 
agree to. P. 

George thought he would close 
with an offer that had been made 
(exchange) one 
ty sheep for cows 
ks. C. READE. 

s offer was at once closed with 
the delighted rustic. W. E. 
ORRIS. 

Cloth. THE CLOTH clergy- 
men ; the position of a clergy- 
man. P. 

Denying himself this feat as un- 
worthy of his cloth (position as a 




50 Coach 

clergyman), he met a drunken sea- 
man, one of the ship's crew from the 
Spanish Main. HAWTHORNE. 

And for the sake of the poor man 
himself too, and for his wife, and 
for his children, and for the sake of 
the cloth. A. TROLLOPS. 

Clothes. IN LONG CLOTHES 
still a young infant. P. 

Cloud. TO BE IN THE CLOUDS 

to dream of what is imprac- 
ticable ; to build castles in 
the air. C. 

Since his return from Oxford, 
Arthur has been in the clouds (in- 
dulged in visionary fancies). 
UNDER A CLOUD in disgrace. 
P. 

Though Caesar was not, for various 
reasons, to be pronounced a tyrant, 
Cicero advised that he should be 
buried privately, as if his name was 
under a cloud. FROUDE. 

The greatest city of the world 
exercises a strong power of attraction 
over all manner of men under a 
cloud. Nineteenth Century, 1887. 
EVERT CLOUD HAS A SILVER 
LINING the darkest prospect 
has some redeeming brightness; 
nothing is wholly dark. P. 

" Oh, even the Lapham cloud has 
a silver lining," said Corey. W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

Cloven. THE CLOVEN FOOT 
the mark of an evil or devilish 
nature. C. See FOOT. 



Yet although the cloven foot 
would constantly peep out, and no 
one could believe either in his 



principles or his morals, in his way 
the baron was as much in favour 
with the fair sex as the honourable 
and hospitable Lord Skye. Edin- 
burgh Review, July 1882. 

Clover. To LIVE or BE IN 
CLOVER to be happily situa- 
ted ; to be surrounded with 
every luxury. C. 

Now he has got a handle to his 
name, and he'll live in clover all his 
life. A. TROLLOPE. 

TO GO FROM CLOVER TO RTE- 

GRASS to exchange a good 
position for a bad. F. Said 
of second marriages. 

Coach. To DRIVE A COACH - 

AND-FOUR Or A COACH -AND -SIX 

THROUGH to break the pro- 



Coals 



51 



safe 



visions of; to find a 
means of evading. P. 

You always told me that it is easy 
to drive a coach-and-four through 
wills and settlements and legal 
things. H. R. HAGGARD. 

You may talk vaguely about driv- 
ing a coach-and-six through a bad 
young Act of Parliament. DICKENS. 

A COACH - AND - six a coach 
drawn by six horses, sttch as 
only very wealthy people 
formerly used. P. 

"This," said he, "is a young lady 
who was born to ride in her coach- 
and-six" (enjoy great wealth). H. 
MACKENZIE. 

Coals. TO CALL, HAUL, OP 
BRING OVER THE COALS to 

administer rebuke ; to find 
fault with. F. 

"Fine talking! fine airs, truly, 
Miss Patty! This is by way of 
calling me over the coals for being 
idle, 1 suppose ! " said Sally. MARIA 
EDGE WORTH. 

TO CARRY COALS TO NEWCASTLE 

to take a thing where it is 
already plentiful. C. 

"Sure, sir," answered the barber, 
"you are too wise a man to carry a 
broken head thither (to the wars), 
for that would be carrying coals to 
Newcastle" (taking a broken head 
to where there are plenty broken 
heads). FIELDING. 

TO HEAP COALS OP FIRE ON 

ONE'S HEAD to return benefits 
where ill-treatment has been 
received, and thus to make an 
enemy ashamed of his conduct. 
P. 

If thine enemy be hungry give 
him bread to eat; and if he be 
thirsty, give him water to drink : for 
thou shalt heap coals of fire upon 
his head (make mm ashamed of his 
enmity), and the Lord shall reward 
thee. Prov. xxv. 21, 22. 

ow their aged faces were covered 

ith shame, and every kind word 
from their master was a coal of fire 
burning on their heads. A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

Coast. THE COAST is CLEAR 
there is no danger of inter- 
ference. C. 

Wait till the coast is clear, then 
strike tent and away. READE. 

He was to wait there, without 
moving hand or foot, until it was 



N 
with 



satisfactorily ascertained that the 
coast was clear.-DiCKENS. 

Coat. To cur ONE'S COAT 

ACCORDING TO ONE'S CLOTH 

to regulate one's expenses by 
one's income. C. 

Uncle Sutton was displeased. 
" Debt is dishonest," said he. " We 
can all cut our coat according to our 
cloth" (limit our expenses to the 
size of our incomes). READE. 

To TURN ONE'S COAT to change 
to the opposite party. C. 

This is not the first time he has 
turned his coat (changed sides). 

To DUST A MAN'S COAT FOR HIM 
to give him a castigation. F. 
Father Parson's coat well dusted : 
or, short and pithy animadversions 
on that famous fardel of abuse and 
falsities, entitled Leicester's Common- 
wealth. Advertisement qvated by I. 
Disraeli. 

Cock. ALL COCK-A-HOOP FOR 

ANYTHING very much excited 

and eager for it. F. 
"All cock-a-hoop for it," struck in 

Cattledon, "as the housemaids are." 

MRS. HENRY WOOD. 
THAT COCK WON'T FIGHT that 

expedient will not do. S. 
I tried to see the arms on the 

carriage, but that cock wouldn't 

fight (this was of no avail). C. 

itlNGSLEY. 

THE GALLIC COCK the cock is 
the national bird of France, 
as the bull is the national 
animal of England. 

COCK OF THE WALK chief in a 
small circle. S. 

Who shall be cock of the walk?- 
Heading to ch." xvii. of Trollope's 
"Barchester Towers." 

A COCK-AND-BULL STORY an 

absurd tale. P. 

Mrs. Hookham plainly declared 
that Esther's tale was neither more 
nor less than a trumpery cock-and- 
bull (worthless and foolish) story. 
BLACKMORE. 

I did hear some cock-and-bull 
story the other day about the horses 
not having run away at all. RHODA 
BROUGHTON. 

TO LIVE LIKE A FIGHTING COCK 

to live in luxury. S. 

A COCK IS ALWAYS BOLD ON ITS 

OWN DUNGHILL every one 



Cocker 



52 



Colt 



fights well when surrounded 
by friends and admirers. 

TO BEAT COCK-FIGHTING to SUT- 

pass anything conceivable. S. 

The squire faltered out. "Well, 
this beats cock-fighting" (is some- 
thing extraordinary). LYTTON. 

He can only relieve his feelings by 
the execution of an infinity of winks 



fighting!" G.J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 
"I'm blest if you don't beat cock- 
fighting," said Cradell, lost in ad- 
miration at his friend's adroitness. 
A. TROLLOPE. 

TO KNOCK INTO A COCK or A 

COCKED HAT to bruise out 
of shape ; to defeat completely. 

S. 

I never knew a Welsh girl yet who 
couldn't dance an Englishman into 
a cocked hat (who was not vastly 
superior to an Englishman Jin dan- 



cing). READE. 

Hold a meeting in c 
and promise the British lion that he 



fold a meeting in Canaan City, 



shall be whipped into a cocked hat 
unless you get yourfrights. BESANT. 

To COCK or TURN UP ONE'S 
TOES to die. S. 

Cocker. ACCORDING TO 
COCKER in accordance with 
the present system of figures. 
F. Cocker's Arithmetic, first 
published in 1677-8, was for 
long the standard work on the 
subject, and passed through 
sixty editions. 

It's all right, according to Cocker 
(by established rules). 

Half hours, when counted after 
this fashion, contain a vastly greater 
number of minutes than the thirty 
of which they consist according to 
the reckoning of Crocker (Cocker?). 
W. E. NORRIS. 

Cockle. To WARM THE 
COCKLES OF ONE'S HEART to 

give a pleasant inward feeling. 
F. 

To see you all so happy and 
friendly warms the cockles of my 
heart (gives me great inward satis- 
faction)! 

The sight, after near two months' 
absence, rejoiced the very cockles of 
Jerry's heart. GRAVES. 

HOT COCKLES a game in which 
one covers one's eyes and 
guesses who strikes him. Prob- 



ably from the French Jvauies 
coQuiUes (high shells). 
Cockpit. THE COCKPIT OF 
EUROPE a name applied to 
Belgium because of the number 
of great battles that have been 
fought on its soil. C. The 
cockpit is an enclosed area 
where game-cocks fight, and 
in ships of war the room in 
which wounds are dressed. 

Coin. TO PAT A MAN BACK IN 

HIS OWN COIN to serve him 
as he has served you. F. 

If you leave him to be captured, it 

is only paying him back in his own 

coin (treating him as he treated you). 

To COIN MONET to make money 

very rapidly. F. 

With the new contracts he has 
secured, Johnson is coining money 
(making money very quickly). 

Cold. COLD WITHOUT spirits 
in cold water without sugar. 
F. 

I laugh" at fame. Fame, sir ! not 
worth a glass of cold without. 
LYTTON. 

Colin. COLIN TAMPON the 
nickname given to a Swiss. F. 

Collar. AGAINST THE COLLAR 
difficult ; causing fatigue. 
C. A phrase taken from a 
horse's harness : when a horse 
goes uphill the collar pulls 
on his neck. 

The last mile up to the head of the 
pass was a good deal against the 
collar (somewhat fatiguing). 

IN COLLAR employed. F. 

The workman you spoke of is not 
in collar (out of employment) at 
present. 

Colour. WITH THE COLOURS 
under the flag ; serving 
as a regular soldier. P. 

With this view the period of en- 
gagement was raised from seven to 
nine years, five years being passed 
with the colours (in regular service) 
and four in the reserve. Edinburgh 
Review, 1886. 

To CHANGE COLOUR. See CHANGE. 

Colt. To HAVE A COLT'S TOOTH 
(of an elderly person) to have 
juvenile tastes. F. 



Comb 



Comb. To CUT A MAN'S COMB 
to humble him. S. 

He'll be a-bringing (he is sure to 
bring) other folks to preach from 
Treddleston, if his comb isn't cut a 
bit (if he is not taught his proper 
place). GEORGE ELIOT. 

To COMB A MAN'S HEAD to give 
him a thrashing. F. 

I'll carry you with me to my 
country-box, and keep you out of 
harm's way, till I find you a wife 
who will comb your head for you. 
LYTTON. 

Come. To COME ABOUT to 
result; to happen. P. 

How comes it about (happens it) 
that, for about sixty years, affairs 
have been placed in the hands of 
new men? SWIFT. 

To COME AT to get ; to obtain. 
C. 

By the time Abraham returned, 
we had both agreed that money was 
never so hard to be come at as now. 
GOLDSMITH. 

To COME BY to obtain. P. 

How came she by that light? 

SHAKESPEARE : Macbeth. 
That Christianity might have been 
W9rse employed than in paying the 
milkman's score is true enough ; for 
then the milkman would have come 
by his own (obtained what was his 
due). WM. BLACK. 

To COME DOWN to subscribe; to 
give money to an object. C. 

Selcover would be certain to come 
down handsomely (give a handsome 
subscription), of course. Macmil- 
lans Magazine, 1886. 

To my shame I confess it, my only 
design was to keep the license, and 
let the squire know that I could 
prove it upon him whenever I 
thought proper, and so make him 
come down when I wanted money. 
GOLDSMITH. 

A COME-DOWN a fall ; a lower- 
ing of a person's dignity. C. 

"Now I'm your worship's washer- 
woman." The dignitary coloured, 
and said that this was rather a come- 
down. READE. 

To COME IN to prove ; to show 
itself. C. Used with adjec- 
tives like HANDY or SERVICE- 
ABLE. 

A knowledge of Latin quotations 
comes in handy sometimes. 

To COME OFF (a) to happen ; 
to take place. P. 



53 Gome 

A day or two afterwards he in 
formed Allen that the thing he had 
in his mind was really coming off 
(going to take place). BE 



JESANT. 

(6) to end by being ; to 

close a struggle as. P. 

It is time that fit honour should 
be paid also to him who shapes his 
life to a certain classic proportion, 
and comes off conqueror on those 
inward fields where something more 
than mere talent is demanded for 
victory. J. R. LOWELL. 

To COME OVER to obtain great 
influence with; to fascinate. 
F. 

Miss Gray has "come over him," 
as Lamb says, where that vulner- 
able region is concerned. SARAH 
TYTLER. 

TO COME.. .OVER ONE to act 

like...to one. C. 

Also his ideas of discipline were 
of the sternest, and, in short, he 
came the royal naval officer over us 
(acted towards us as if he were an 
officer of the royal navy set in 
authority over us) pretty consider- 
ably, and paid us out amply for all 
the chaff we were wont to treat 
him to on land. H. K. HAGGARD. 
To COME OUT (a) (of a young 
lady) to enter into society. 
P. 

You have lost your fairy god- 
mother, look! Is it coming out 
(entrance into society) that has done 
it, or what? A. KEARY. 

(&) to be discovered ; to 

become public. P. 

Nobody can prove that I knew the 
girl to be an heiress ; thank good- 
ness, that can't come out. BESANT. 

TO COME ROUND (A PERSON) 

to cajole ; to deceive. C. 

His second wife came round 
(cajoled) the old man and got him to 
change his will. 

To COME ROUND (intrans.) to 
recover from an attack of 
sickness. C. 

She was on her bed; she turned 
her head and saw blood on the pillow, 
and turned again and saw the face 
of Nelly. " You're come round at 
last, are you?" said the woman. S. 
BARING-GOULD. 

TO COME TO ONESELF to TCCOVer 

consciousness. P. 

She began to hear the voices and 
to feel the things that were being 
done to her before she was capable 



Come 



54 



Common 



of opening her eyes, or indeed had 
come to herself (recovered conscious- 
ness). MRS. OLIPHANT. 
To COME TO to recover (almost 
the same as to come to one- 
self). P. 

Then you, dear papa, would have 
to put your daughter on the sofa 
for of course she would be in a dead 
faint remove the pillow, and burn 
feathers under her nose till she 
comes to (recovers). JAMES PAYN. 

To COME TO GRIEF to be un- 
successful; to utterly fail. 
P. 

The Panama Canal scheme is likely 

" dlu 



to come to grief (prove a fai 
owing to want of funds. 



ire) 



It (the inn) has no departed glories 
to bewail; for though a king, as 
legend tells, did really take his royal 
rest there nigh a century ago, it was 
because his carriage came to grief 
(broke down) in that lonely spot, and 
not from choice, nor was the inci- 
dent ever made a precedent by future 
monarchs. JAMES PAYN. 

To COME AND GO UPON to rely 
upon. C. 

You have an excellent character to 
come and go upon (depend upon in 
making your way in the world). 

To COME TO HAND to be re- 
ceived. P. A phrase much 
used in letter-writing. 

" Your letter came to hand yester- 
day morning, Dr. Tempest," said Mr. 
Crawiey. A. TROLLOPE. 

To COME TO LIGHT to be dis- 
closed ; to become public. 
P. Generally used of some 
secret. 

The reader need not fear, however ; 
he shall not be troubled with any 
long account of Mr. Eraser's mis- 
fortu 



. 

for it never came to light 
or obtnided itself upon the world. 
H. K. HAGGARD. 

TO COME UPON THE PAKISH to 

become a pauper. P. 
To COME TO PASS to happen. 
P. 

What thou hast spoken is come to 
pass (has happened) ; and, behold, 
thou seest it. Jer. xxxii. 24. 

More unlikely things had come to 
pass. DICKENS. 

Thus it came to pass that at an 
early hour next morning he had 
found out all that he had anticipated 
hearing, and a little more into the 
bargain.-W. E. NORRIS. 



TO COME TO THE POINT to 

speak plainly on the real ques- 
tion, without circumlocution. 
The opposite of beating about 
the bush. P. 

After a good many apologies and 
explanations, he came to the point 
(stated exactly what he had come 
for), and asked me for the loan of 
my horse. 

To COME IT STRONG to exagger- 
ate ; to ask a person to credit 
something impossible. S. 

What ! little Boston ask that girl 
to marry him! Well, now, that's 
comin'of it a little too strong. O. W. 
HOLMES. 

Cornme. COMME IL FAUT as 
it should be ; proper ; well- 
dressed and good-mannered. 
P. French. 

To have been told that she was 
not comme ilfaut is worse evidently 
a hundred times than if she had 
been told she was a thief. Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

Commission. To PUT A SHIP 
IN COMMISSION to send a 
ship on active service. P. 

Commit. To COMMIT FOR CON- 
TEMPT to send a person to 
prison because he is disobedient 
or disrespectful in a court of 
justice. P. 

And even over the august person 
of the judge himself there hangs the 
fear of the only thing that he can- 
not commit for contempt, public 
opinion. H. fi. HAGGARD. 

To COMMIT TO MEMORY to learn 
by heart. P. 

When young, he committed to 
memory (learned by heart) the whole 
of the Psalms and part of Proverbs. 

Common. IN COMMON held 
equally with others ; shared 
indiscriminately. P. 

Poor people, who have their goods 
in common, must necessarily become 
quarrelsome. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 
Curates and district visitors are 
probably very decent sort of people 
in their way, but it doesn't necessarily 
follow thai you would have anything 
in common with them. Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

OUT OF THE COMMON unusual ; 
strange. P. 

She was a simple-hearted woman, 
on whom whatever chanced to her 



Company 

ears out of the common (that was 
unusual) made a great impression. 
JAMES PAYN. 

ON SHORT COMMONS scantily 
provided with food. C. 

Our men not being yet on short 
commons, none of 'em cad stomach 
enough to try the experiment. 
G. A. SALA. 

Company. To KEEP COMPANY. 
See KEEP. 

Compare. To COMPARE NOTES 
to exchange opinions or views 
on a subject of interest. P. 

It is the hour between daylight 
and the dinner-bell, when the men 
have not yet returned from shooting 
and the women have not retired to 
dress the best hour of all in a good 
old-fashioned country-house, when 
the guests have tired themselves 
with out-door amusements, and are 
ready to compare notes and exchange 
confidences in the mysterious gloam- 
ing. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Compliment. To RETURN THE 
COMPLIMENT to say or do 
something pleasant in return 
for a previous favour. P. 

Mr. Frank Churchill was one of 
the boasts of Highbury, and a lively 
curiosity to see him prevailed; 
though the compliment was so little 
returned (he had so little desire to 
see Highbury) that he had never been 
there in his life. Miss AUSTEN. 

Con. CON AMORE with good 
will; heartily. P. Italian. 

What is distasteful rarely sticks 
in the memory. What is done con 
amore (willingly) is twice and trebly 
blest. Journal of Education, 1886. 

Conceit. Our OF CONCEIT 
dissatisfied. P. 

Hartfield will only put her out of 
conceit (make her dissatisfied) with 
all the other places she belongs to. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

Confusion. CONFUSION WORSE 
CONFOUNDED a still worse 
state of disorder. P. 
With ruin upon ruin, rout on rout, 
Confusion worse confounded. 

MILTON. 

This mishap has at the very outset 
in the dealings of theologians 
with that starting-point in our reli- 
gion, the experience of Israel as set 
forth in the Old Testament been 
the cause, we have seen, of 
confusion. Naturally, as we 



55 Copy 

hereafter see, the confusion becomes 
worse confounded. M. ARNOLD. 

Conscience. CONSCIENCE - 
MONEY money paid anony- 
mously by ratepayers who have 
cheated the revenue at some 
previous time. P. 

A child still young enough to be 
passed off as a child in arms by all, 
save, perhaps, those tender-minded 
persons who send conscience-money 
to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
HUGH CON WAY. 

IN ALL. CONSCIENCE assuredly. 
C. 

Plain and precise enough it is, in 
all conscience. M. ARNOLD. 

Contact. To COME IN CON- 
TACT WITH to meet ; to 
have dealings with. P. 

Now it must be remembered that 
this was a man who had lived in a 
city that calls itself the metropolis, 
one who had been a member of the 
State and National Legislatures, 
who had come in contact with men 
of letters and men of business, with 
politicians and members of all the 
professions, during a long and dis- 
tinguished public career. O. W. 
HOLMES. 

Cook. To COOK ONE'S GOOSE. 
See GOOSE. 

Cool. To COOL ONE'S HEELS 
to be made to wait while 
paying a visit to some impor- 
tant personage. C. 

We cooled our heels (were kept 
waiting) during the ordinary and in- 
tolerable half -hour. G. A. SALA. 

A COOL HUNDRED (or any sum) 
the large sum of a hundred 
pounds (or any sum). F. 

The knowing ones were cursedly 
taken in (very much deceived) there. 
I lost a cool hundred (the large sum 
of 100) myself, faith (I assure you). 
MACKENZIE. 

COOL AS A CUCUMBER not agi- 
tated ; perfectly cool and 
composed. C. 

"Never fear, Miss Nugent dear," 
said Sir Terence; "I'm as cool as a 
cucumber." MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Copy. TO MAKE COPY OF 

to turn into manuscript for 
the printer. 

He would have made copy of his 
mother's grave (have written an 



Corn 



56 



Countenance 



article about it, for which he would 
be paid). 

COPn. TO TREAD ON ANOTHER'S 

CORNS to annoy him where 
he is most easily annoyed. 
C. 

Hence the reputation he enjoyed 
of being something more than blunt- 



supercilious, and a trifle too anxious 
to tread on people's corns. WM. 
BLACK. 

CORN-STALK a name given to 
the children of Australian 
settlers, specially in New 
South Wales. F. 

CORN IN EGYPT a plentiful 
supply of provisions. A fami- 
liar phrase borrowed from the 
Bible. F. 

"Uncle's box' has arrived," said 
the minister; "there is corn in 
Egypt (plenty of food) to-day." 

Copnep. To DRIVE INTO A 
CORNER to embarrass ; to 
place in a position where escape 
is impossible. P. 

"I don't want to act the con- 
stable," said the farrier, driven into 
a corner (embarrassed) by this mer- 
ciless reasoning, "and there's no 
man can say it of me if he'd tell the 
truth." GEORGE ELIOT. 

THE CHIEF CORNER-STONE the 

most important support of 
anything. P. 

Jesus Christ himself being the 
chief corner-stone (principal sup- 
port). Ephes. ii. 20. 

Coppus. CORPUS VILE the 
subject of an experiment. P. 
Latin. 

It is a tedious process for the in- 
quirer, still more so for the corpus 
vile of the investigation (poor fellow 
who is subjected to these inquiries), 
whose weak brain soon tires. 

Cotton. To COTTON TO A 
PERSON to fawn upon him ; 
to make advances to him. 

S. 

Lady Mansfield's maid says there's 
a grand title or something in the 
family. That's why she cottons to 
(fawns upon) her so, I suppose. 

A COTTON LORD a wealthy 
Manchester manufacturer. C. 



CouleUP. COULEUR DE ROSE 

rose colour ; highly flatter- 



ing. C. French. 
When \ 



/'hen we begin to tint our final 
pages with couleur de rose, as in ac- 
cordance with fixed rule we must do, 
we altogether extinguish our own 
powers of pleasing. A. TBOLLOPE. 

Counsel. To KEEP ONE'S OWN 
COUNSEL to preserve a dis- 
creet silence. C. 

Old Sedley had kept his own coun- 
sel. THACKERAY. 

Count. To COUNT UPON to 
trust to ; to look for with 
confidence. P. 

"Count upon me," he added, with 
bewildered .fervour. R. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

To COUNT OUT to declare the 
House of Commons adjourned 
because there are not forty 
members present. When the 
Speaker has his attention 
drawn to this fact, he must 
count the number present, and 
finding it under forty, must 
declare the sitting over. P. 

Adelina Patti made her dtbut, 
May 14, 1861, when Mr. Punch counts 
out the House and adjourns to Mr. 
Gye's theatre. Fortnightly Review, 
1887. 

Countenance. To KEEP ONE 

COUNTENANCE Or IN COUN- 
TENANCE to lend moral sup- 
port to. P. 

Flora will be there to keep you 
countenance. R. L. STEVENSON. 

He might as well be a West India 
planter, and we negroes, for anything 
he knows to the contrary has no 
more care nor thought about us than 
if we were in Jamaica or the other 
world. Shame for him ! But there's 
too many to keep him in counte- 
nance. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

To KEEP ONE'S COUNTENANCE 
to preserve one's gravity ; to 
refrain from laughing. P. 

The two maxims of any great man 
at court are, always to keep his 
countenance, and never to keep his 
word. SWIFT. 

HIS COUNTENANCE FELL he 

looked disappointed. P. 

" To-morrow you said to-morrow, 
I think we will devote to recita- 
tion." 



Counter 

William Henry's countenance fell 
(William Henry showed signs of dis- 
appointment). He had heard Mr. 
Reginald Talbot's recitations before. 
JAMES PAYN. 

TO PUT OUT OF COUNTENANCE. 

See PUT. 

Counter. A COUNTER-JUMPER 
a shopkeeper's assistant ; a 
retail dealer's shopman. F. 

"It's a dreadful business of course," 
he said, "but let us keep it to our- 
selves. Confound that impudent 
young counter-jumper (shopkeeper's 
lad) ; but I suppose there's nothing 
we can do, uncle? They're married 
by this time." Longman's Maga- 
zine, 1887. 

>untry. To APPEAL TO THE 
COUNTRY to advise the Sove- 
reign to dissolve Parliament 
in order to ascertain by a new 
election whether a certain 
policy is approved by the con- 
stituencies. P. 

As soon as the necessary business 
could be got through, Parliament 
would be dissolved, and an appeal 
made to the country (a new election 
of representatives made). JUSTIN 
H'CARTHY. 

PUT ONESELF ON ONE'S COUN- 
TRY to stand one's trial before 
a jury. P. 

An outlaw who yielded himsel 



MAOAULAY. 

>UP. COUP DE THEATRE a 

dramatic effect. C. French. 
Perhaps he was not sorry to be 
able to show his clever coadjutor 



that she was not the only person 
who could achieve a coup de thddtre 
upon occasion. W. E. NORRIS. 

D'ETAT a sudden stroke 
of policy. French. 

The coup d'etat of 1862 laid the 
foundation of the second French 
Empire. 

COUP DE MAIN a sudden bold 
attack, without previous ap- 
proaches. P. French. 

He expected a little more delay 
and coquetry ; and, though he meant 
to make his approaches very rapidly, 
it had not entered his mind to carry 
the widow's heart by a coup de main 
(sudden proposal of marriage). 
JAMES PAYN. 



57 Courtesy 

COUP DE GRACE a finishing 
stroke. P. French. 

Two others were told off to give 
me the coup de grdce, in the event of 
my not being killed by the firing- 
party. A II the Year Round, 1887. 

Courage. To HAVE THE COUR- 
AGE OF ONE'S OPINIONS to 
be fearless in the expression 
of one's beliefs. P. 

He (Quincy) had not merely, as 
the French say, the courage of his 
opinions. J. R. LOWELL. 

Whatever virtues Mr. Hyndman 
lacks, he has at least the courage of 
his opinions (is at least bold to utter 
what he thinks). Spectator, 1886. 

Course. OF COURSE (a) con- 
nected with ordinary matters ; 
unimportant. P. 

After a few words of course, they 
sallied into the street. DICKENS. 
(&) naturally. P. 

"A fair challenge," cried the mar- 
quis joyously. And I back the 
gentleman." "Oh, of course " (natur- 
ally), said his daughter. C. READE. 
IN COURSE in regular order. P. 

You will receive the other numbers 
of the journal in course (when the 
due time for their publication ar- 
rives). 

IN DUE COURSE at the proper 
time. P. 

When the boys got promotion, 
which came in due course (at the 
proper time), Allen began to buy 
books. BESANT. 

COUrt. TO BRING INTO COURT 

to adduce as an authority. P. 
But in the case of the Ainos, the 
beards alone were brought into 
court (brought forward as evidence). 
B. H. CHAMBERLAIN. 

Courtesy. COURTESY-TITLES 
titles assumed by the family 
of a noble, and granted to 
them by social custom, but 
not of any legal value. Thus, 
the eldest son of the Duke of 
Devonshire is Marquis of 
Hartington in ordinary speech, 
but merely William Spencer 
Cavendish, a commoner, ac- 
cording to strict law. As a 
commoner, he sits in the House 
of Commons. The eldest son 
of a marquis is allowed the 
courtesy - title of earl ; the 



Cousin 



58 



eldest son of an earl, that of 
viscount. Younger sons of 
peers are allowed the courtesy- 
title of lord or honourable, 
and the daughters that of 
lady or honourable. 
Cousin. COUSIN BETSY a 
half-witted person. C. 

I do not think there's a man living 
or dead for that matter that can 
say Poster's wronged him of a penny, 
or gave short measure to a child or a 
Cousin Betsy. MRS. GASKELL. 

To CALL COUSINS to claim re- 
lationship. C. 

My new house is to have nothing 
Gothic about it, nor pretend to call 
cousins with tne mansion-house. 
H. WALPOLE. 

COUSIN MICHEL or MICHAEL 
the nickname given to a 
German, as " John Bull " to 
an Englishman and " Brother 
Jonathan "to an American. F. 
These _were truly the days for 



Cousin Michael, corresponding in 
a measure to the " good old colonial 
times" of New England. Anon. 

Coute. COUTE QUE COUTE 

at any cost. P. French. 

Mr. Child has fallen into the same 
mistakes as the proprietress of the 
Nouvelle Revue, though with less 
evident desire to abuse and vilify 
co&te que coute (at all hazards). 
National Review. 

Coventry. To SEND TO COV- 
ENTRY to exclude from com- 
panionship ; to have no dealings 
with. F. SENT TO COVENTRY 
signifies " in disgrace or dis- 
favour with one's associates." 
Mostly used by schoolboys, 
who inflict the punishment 
frequently on their fellows. 
See BOYCOTT. 

In fact that solemn assembly a 
levy of the scho9l, had been held, at 
which the captain of the school had 
got up and given out that any boy, 
in whatever Form, who should thence- 
forth appeal to a master, without 
having first gone to some prepositor 
and laid the case before him, should 
be thrashed publicly, and sent to 
Coventry. HUGHES. 



Cover. COVERS WERE LAID 
FOR so MANY dinner was pre- 
pared for so many guests. C. 



Creature 

Covers were laid for four. THACK- 



Crab. To CATCH A CRAB to 
be struck with the handle of 
the oar in rowing and to fall 
backwards. C. This accident 
occurs if the oar be left too 
long in the water before re- 
peating the stroke. 

I thought you were afraid of catch- 
ing the wrong one, which would 
be catching a crab, wouldn't it? 
BESANT. 

Cpack. To CRACK A CRIB 
to break into a house with the 
intention of robbing it. S. A 
burglar's phrase. 

The captain had been their pal 
(companion), and while they were all 
three cracking a crib, had, with un- 
exampled treachery, betrayed them. 
C. EEADE. 

Any man calls himself a burglar 
when he's once learned to crack a 
crib. BESANT. 

To CRACK A BOTTLE to drink 
in a friendly way. F. 

He was always ready to crack a 
bottle.(drink) with a friend. 

TO CRACK UP ANYTHING to 

praise it highly. F. 
Then don't object to my cracking 

up the old schoolhouse, Kugby. 

HUGHES. 
A CRACK HAND one who is 

expert ; an adept. F. 
He is a crack hand (very clever) at 

entertaining children. 
To CRACK A CRUST to get along 

fairly well in the world ; to 

make a small but sufficient 

income. F. 

TO CRACK A TIDY CRUST to be 

successful in life ; to make a 
comfortable income. F. 
IN A CRACK instantaneously. 
F. 

Poor Jack Tackle's grimy ghost 
was vanished in a crack (at once). 
LEWIS. 

Cpeature. CREATURE COM- 
FORTS what makes the body 
comfortable ; good food and 
clothing, and other necessaries 
and luxuries. C. 

For the first time her own sacrifice 
of work and time could do nothing 
for her friend compared with the 



Credat I 

soft words, the grapes, and the crea- 
ture comforts so freely bestowed by 
the new-comer. BESANT. 

An empty glass stood on a table 
before him, which, with his somno- 
lent condition and a very strong smell 
of brandy and water, forewarned the 
visitor that Mr. Squeers had been 
seeking, in creature comforts, a tem- 
porary forgetfulness of his unpleas- 
ant situation. DICKENS. 

Credat. CREDAT JUD.SUS 
a phrase implying disbelief. 
C. Latin. The quotation is 
from Horace Credat Judceus 
ApeUa, " Apella the Jew may 
believe it 1 " (but no one else 
will). 

Would they for a moment dare to 
hold up to public ridicule and con- 
tempt the very persons to whom 
they owe admittance within the 
charmed circle? Credat Judceus. 
Such incomparable baseness is 
simply incredible. Edinburgh Re- 
view, 1887. 

Creeps. To GIVE ONE THE 
CREEPS to cause one to shud- 
der. F. 

They give me the creeps, the whole 
lot of them, and that's a fact.-H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

Crispin. A SON or KNIGHT 
OF ST. CRISPIN a shoemaker. 
C. 

Here the loyal shoemaker sat mer- 
rily hammering at his last, regard- 
less of the gathering shadows on the 
wall, and of the eerie associations of 
his little box, which at one time in 
its career served the office of a dead- 
house in connection with the hospi- 
tal. The officer had nothing for the 
knight of St. Crispin, and after 
interchanging salutations with him 
the company proceeded on their way, 
leaving him still singing on his stool. 
Scotsman. 

Crocodile. CROCODILE TEARS 
hypocritical tears shed by an 
unfeeling person. P. 
And George did chief mourner. I 

ie he blubbered freely; he 

iways could blubber freely when a 
1. I remember how he used to 
le folks in as a lad, and then laugh 
at them ; that's why they called him 
" Crocodile" at school. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 



He (Lord Lovat) laid all the blame 

3' rising 
saying, with crocodile tears, that he 



of the Erasers' rising upon his son, 



was not the first who had an unduti- 
ful son. G. A. SALA. 



I Cross 

Crooked. A CROOKED SIX- 
PENCE a lucky thing ; a 
talisman. P. It used to be 
considered lucky for one to 
carry about a crooked sixpence 
on his person. 

You've got the beauty, and I've got 
the luck; so you must keep me oy 
you for your crooked sixpence (to 
bring you good luck). GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

Crop. To CROP OUT to appear 
above the surface. In geology, 
inclined strata which appear 
above the surface are said 
to crop out. P. 

The prejudice of the editor of the 
newspaper against America crops 
out (displays itself) in everything he 
writes. Hwgo News, 1887. 

To CROP UP (a) to rise in differ- 
ent places unexpectedly. C. 

He did not, he said, want to have 
mushroom watering-places cropping 
up under his nose. Good Words, 1887. 

(&) to happen or appear un- 
expectedly. C. 

So bitter is this feeling that it 
crops up in all public meetings. 
Spectator, March 31, 1888. 

But curious complications were to 
crop up yet. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

Cropper. To COME A CROPPER 
to get a fall ; to tumble at 
full length ; to meet with a 
sudden collapse. F. 

He came a cropper yesterday while 
out riding. 

When the rejection of the measure 
had practically decided the fate of 
the ministry, Punch, completed its 
allegory by another cartoon, in 
which the horse and its rider lay 
thrown and prone on the other side 
of the hedge, with the legend, 
" Come a cropper." JUSTIN 

M'CARTHY. 

Cross. To CROSS SWORDS 
to have a duel. C. 

Captain Richard would soon have 
crossed swords with the spark had 
any villainy been afloat. G. A. SALA. 

TO CROSS THE HAND WITH SILVER. 

Fortune tellers, who in England 
and other countries are most 
frequently of gypsy race, begin 
their operations by having 
their hands crossed with a 
silver coin. They pretend 



Crow 



60 



Crow 



that this is an indispensable 
preliminary to divination. 

He went on his way with the 
grenadier, a sweep, and a gypsy wo- 
man, who was importunate that he 
should cross her hand with silver, in 
order that he might know all about 
the great fortune that he was to wed. 
G. A. SALA. 

The tawny sibyl no sooner ap- 
peared, than my girls came running 
to me for a shilling a-piece to cross 
her hand with silver. GOLDSMITH. 

ON THE CROSS unfair ; dis- 
honest. S. Opposed to on 
the square. 

CPOW. CROW'S FEET the 
wrinkles which age or trouble 
causes to form about the eyes. 
C. 

Years had told upon George more 
than they had upon Philip, and, 
though there were no touches or 
gray in the flaming red of his hair, 
the bloodshot eyes and the puckered 
crow's feet beneath them, to say 
nothing of the slight but constant 
trembling of the hand, all showed 
that he was a man well on in middle 
life. H. R. HAGGARD. 
To EAT CROW to do what is 
excessively unpleasant. S. 
American. The crow has long 
been the emblem of conten- 
tion ; as Hudibras says : 
"If not, resolve before we go 
That you and I must pulla crow. 1 ' 

The same idea is suggested 
in Comedy of Errors, act iii. : 

"We'll pluck a crow together." 
In common parlance, eating 
crow, as an expression of 
humiliation, is much the same 
as eating humble pie, but 
evidently is more expressive. 
Its origin is too obscure to 
be definitely reached, but it 
came into use during the late 
rebellion, and evidently was 
born in the camp. Many years 
ago I heard the late G. P. 
Disosway, who was a confirmed 
humorist, tell the following 
story, which he had received 
from a soldier ; and I also 
heard it from Captain Ballou 
of the 115th Regiment : 
A private in one of the Penn- 



sylvania regiments got leave 
to go hunting, and unfor- 
tunately shot a tame crow 
belonging to a planter, who 
happened to come up just as 
the bird was killed. The 
unlucky hunter had rested 
his musket against a tree, 
and the planter seized it, 
and pointing it at the hunter, 
exclaimed, " You can eat that 
crow, or die." There being 
no escape, the hunter got 
through with part of his dis- 
tasteful meal, when the planter, 
relenting, said, " You've done 
pretty well ; here, take your 
gun and get off right smart." 
The soldier, as soon as he got 
the piece in his hands, imme- 
diately turned the tables by 
levelling it at the planter, 
exclaiming, " Now, you eat 
the rest of that crow, or I'll 
shoot you on the spot." There 
being no escape, the thing was 
done. In a few days the plant- 
er had occasion to visit the 
camp, and as the soldier re- 
cognized him, one of the 
officers inquired, " Do you 
know that man ? " " Oh, 
yes," replied the planter ; 
' we dined together last week." 
New York Correspondent 
" Troy Times." 

TO HAVE A CROW TO PLUCK WITH 

ANT ONE to have some fault 
to find with one ; to have a 
matter requiring explanation. 
C. 

I have a crow to pluck with (a 
matter which I want explained by) 
the butler. I want to know why he 
sent the messenger off with an un- 
civil word yesterday. 

There was not a Prior there least 
of all John Prior who could help 
feeling astonished by the ease and 
fluency with which Susie ignored 
the crow to pluck between the two 
houses. SARAH TYTLER. 

Ah, Master George, I have a crow 
to pluck with you. FLORENCE MAR- 

RYAT. 

As THE CROW FLIES directly; 
without any deviation from 



Cry 

the straight line to one's 
destination. P. 

He went, as the crow flies (in a 
straight line), over the stubble and 
by the hedge-sides, never pausing to 
draw breath. MRS. OLIPHANT. 
To CROW OVER to triumph 
over ; to be exultant towards. 
C. 

The colonel, instantly divining the 
matter, and secretly flattering nim- 
self, and determining to crow over 
Polly (prove that he was more know- 
ing than Polly), said, to help him 
out, "Aha, you rogue, I knew it." 
Harper's Magazine, 1886. 

Cry. To CRT OFF to retreat 
from a bargain ; to refuse to 
carry out an engagement. C. 

Osborne will cry off now, I sup- 
pose, since the family is smashed. 
THACKERAY. 

Miss Huntly and Miss Joy having 
consented to take part in the expedi- 
tion, Admiral and Mrs. Greenwood 
promptly cried off from it. Good 
Words, 1887. 

To CRY CUPBOARD to be hun- 
gry. F. 

" Madam, dinner's upon the table." 

" Faith I'm glad of it ; my belly 
began to cry cupboard." SWIFT. 

To CRY QUITS. See QUITS. 

TO CRY OVER SPILT MILK to 

spend time in useless regrets. 
C. 

What's done, Sam. can't be helped ; 
there is no use in crying over 
spilt milk (indulging in unavailing 
regrets). HALIBURTON. 

To CRY UP to praise highly ; 
to puff. C. 

I was pi one to take disgust to- 
wards a girl so idolized and so cried 
up (praised), as she always was. 
JANE AUSTEX. 

To CRY " WOLF " to raise a 
false alarm. P. A phrase 
taken from one of ^Esop's 
Fables. A shepherd boy, 
who watched a flock of sheep 
near a village, called out, 
" Wolf ! wolf ! " When his 
neighbours came to help him, 
he laughed at them for their 
pains. The wolf, however, 
did truly come at last. Then 
the shepherd boy called out 
in earnest for help, but no one 



61 Cup 

paid any attention to his cry. 
They had got accustomed to 
it, and despised it. He lost 
nearly all his flock. 

Cudgel. TO TAKE UP THE 

CUDGELS ON BEHALF OF AN- 
OTHER to defend him warmly. 
P. 

On my showing him the corre- 
spondence, Delane immediately took 
up the cudgels for the widow (es- 
poused the widow's cause). Black- 
wood's Magazine, 1886. 

To CUDGEL ONE'S BRAINS to 
make a painful effort to remem- 
ber. C. 

Cudgel thy brains no more about it. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

In vain we cudgel our brains to 
ask of what faith, what principle 
these monsters may be the symbol. 
G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

He did not have to cudgel his 
brains long, for by-and-by Miss 
Huntly said hesitatingly, "I have 
heard a rumour that everything has 
been left to your brother. Is it 
true?"-W. E. NORRIS. 

Cue. TO GIVE THE CUE to 

give a hint ; to furnish an 
opportunity. P. The cue, in 
the parlance of the stage, is 
the catch -word, from which an 
actor knows where his part 
comes in. 

This admission gave the cue to 
Todhunter (gave Todhunter an 
opportunity) to take up his parable 
and launch out into one of his 
effusive laudations of Parr and all 
his works. Macmillan's Magazine. 

Cul. GUI BONO ? to whom 
f will it do any good ? F. Latin. 
For the last generation or two a 
feeling of Cui bono ? had led to the 
discontinuance of the- custom. 
THOMAS HARDY. 

Cum. J-CUM GRANO SALIS with 
a grain of salt ; making some 
allowance. P. Latin. 

All his statements must be taken 
cum grano salis (with some reserva- 
tion). 

Cup. His CUP RUNS OVER he 
has more than enough. P. 
A phrase borrowed from the 
Bible (Ps. xxiii.). 

I do not know exactly what it was 
that Biver did at last ; it was some- 



Cupboard 

thing which not only broke the 
camel's back, but made the cup run 
over (was more than enough to 
cause his dismissal). BESANT. 

IN ONE'S CUPS intoxicated. P. 
He had often signified, in his cups 
(when drinking hard), the pleasure 
he proposed in seeing her married 
to one of the richest men in the 
county. FIELDING. 

Cupboard. CUPBOARD LOVE 
affection springing from an 
interested motive. C. 

A cupboard love is seldom true, 
A love sincere is found in few. 
NARES. 

Curled. CURLED DARLINGS 
petted and pampered young 
men. P. 
He would show them of what a 

En in his own right is capable, and 
would go far past the "curled 
lings" who owed everything to 
fortune and nothing to themselves. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

CUPPy. TO OURRT FAVOUR 

to use mean arts to obtain 
patronage. P. 

Many changed their religion to 
curry favour with (gain in a mean 
way the patronage of) King James. 

Cupse. THE CURSE OF CAIN. 
Cain, for the murder of his 
brother Abel, was condemned 
to be a wanderer and vagabond 
on the earth. 

Those in the provinces, as if with 
the curse of Cain upon their heads, 
came, one by one, to miserable ends. 
FBOUDE. 

THE CURSE OF SCOTLAND a 
name given to the playing- 
card called the nine of dia- 
monds the winning card in 
a gambling game which ruined 
many Scottish families ; or, ac- 
cording to another explana- 
tion, the card on the back of 
which was written the message 
authorizing the massacre of 
Glencoe. C. 

Cuptain. [ CURTAIN LECTURES 
private admonitions given 
by a wife to her husband. C. 
The phrase, though of earlier 
origin, is immortalized in the 
celebrated Mrs. Caudle's Cur- 
tain Lectures, by Douglas 



62 



Cut 



Jerrold, published in the col- 
umns of Punch, 1845. Cur- 
tains = bed -curtains, the lec- 
tures being delivered at night. 
Beside what endless brawls by wives 

are bred. 

The curtain lecture makes a mourn- 
ful bed. DHYDEN. 

THE CURTAIN FALLS the per- 
formance closes ; the scene 
comes to an end. C. 

Here the conversation ought to 
have ended; the curtain ought to 
fall at this point. What followed 
was weak very weak. BESANT. 

Cut. To cur IN to make a 
remark before another speaker 
has finished ; to throw in a 
remark suddenly. F. 

"Worked in the fields summers, 
and went to school winters : regula- 
tion thing?" Bartley cut in. W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

TO CUT ONE'S LUCKY Or ONE'S 

STICK to run away ; to go off 
in a hurry. S. 

Jeremiah grinned, his eyes glit- 
tered. " I'm in luck's way," he said ; 
"and now, mother, give me a glass 
of brandy and water, and I'll cut 
my lucky." B. L. FARJEON. 
TO CUT OFF WITH A SHILLING to 

leave a small sum as a legacy. P. 

Spiteful testators used to leave 
the disinherited one a shilling, that 
he might not be able to say he had 
been inadvertently omitted, and 
it was all a mistake. CHARLES 
EEADE. 

Because I'm such a good-natured 
brother, you know I might get you 
turned out of house and home, and 
cut off with a shilling (disinherited) 
any day. GEORGE ELIOT. 

To cur ONE SHORT to interrupt 
another while speaking. P. 

Tom pulled himself together, and 
began an explanation; but the 
colonel cut him short (interrupted 
him). Harper's Magazine, 1886. 

TO CUT or TO CUT DEAD to 

refuse to recognize an ac- 
quaintance in public. P. 

She would cut her dearest friend 
(pass her dearest friend without 
recognition) if misfortune befell 
her, or the world turned its back 
(society frowned) upon her. 
THACKERAY. 

To CUT A FIGURE, A DASH, Or 

A DIDO to make oneself 



Cut I 

prominent ; to do something 
to attract notice. The last 
is a slang phrase, the two first 
are conversational. 

It seems my entertainer was all 
this while only the butler, who, in 
his master's absence, had a mind 



to cut a figure. GOLDSMITH. 

this sum they 
use their own expression, they 



With 



. . 

sum they thought, to 



entitled to live in as great style a: 
cut as grand a dash as any of the 
first families in Monmouthshire. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Thus the humble artisan and his 
elephant cut a greater dash than 
lions and tigers, and mountebanks 
and quacks, and drew more money. 
READE. 

To cur UP ROUGH to resent 
any treatment ; to show a 
disposition to quarrel. F. 

He'll cut up so roughj Nickleby, 
at our talking together without him. 
DICKENS. 

To BE cur UP to be distressed. C. 

Poor master ! he was awfully cut 
up (sorry) at having to leave you. 

Well then, of course, I was 
awfully cut up Jin great affliction). 
I was wild. C. READE. 
To CUT ONE'S EYE-TEETH to 
become knowing ; to learn 
how to cheat another man. S. 

Them 'ere fellers (those fellows 
there Scotsmen) cut their eye-teeth 
(learned crafty ways) afore they ever 
sot foot in this country (America), I 
expect. HALIBURTON. 
THE cur OF ONE'S JIB one's rig, 
or personal appearance ; the 
peculiarities of one's dress and 
walk. S. A sailor's phrase. 

I knew him for a parson by the 
cut of his jib (his appearance). 

CUT AND COME AGAIN a hOS- 

pitable phrase, signifying that 
there is plenty for all guests. 
C. Jane Carlyle uses the ex- 
pression in one of her letters. 



that evening). 
TO CUT THE (GORDIAN) KNOT to 

solve a difficulty in a speedy 
fashion. P. There was a 
knot tied by a Phrygian 
peasant, about which the 
report spread that he who un- 
loosed it should be king of 



5 Cut 

Asia. It was shown to Alexan- 
der the Great, who cut it in two 
with his sword, saying, " 'Tis 
thus we loose our knots." 

Decision by a majority is a mode 
of cutting a knot (promptly solving 
a difficulty) which cannot be untied. 
SIR G. C. LEWIS. 

TO CUT THE GROUND FROM UNDER 

ONE to leave one in an 

illogical position, with no 

reasonable argument in his 
favour. P. 



he relied contained an important 
erasure. 

To cur our to supplant ; to 
secure another's place or privi- 
leges. C. 

In a few weeks some fellow from 
the West End will come in with a 
title and a rotten rent-roll _and 
cut all us city men out, as 
Fitzrufus did last year with 
Grogram, who was actual" 
to Fodder, of Fodder an 
THACKERAY. 

To cur ONE'S THROAT to act 
so as to ruin oneself. C. 

He saw it all now : he had let the 
old man die after he had executed 
the fresh will disinheriting him. 
He had let him die ; he had effectu- 
ally and beyond redemption cut his 
own throat (ruined himself by his 
own action). H. K. HAGGARD. 

Cur AND THRUST keen; forci- 
ble. P. 

That is the way of doing business 
a cut -and -thrust style, without 
any flourish : Scott's style when hia 
blood was up. PROFESSOR WILSON. 

TO CUT AND RUN to gO Off 

quickly ; to run off imme- 
diately. S. 
Thus spake Bavaria's scholar king, 

Prepared to cut and run : 
" I'ye lost my throne, lost everything, 
Olola, I TO. undone." 

Epigram quoted in 

" Quarterly Review" 1887. 

I must cut and run, whatever 

happens. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

To DRAW CUTS to decide a 

matter by drawing papers of 

unequal length, presented so as 

to have the same appearance : 

equivalent to tossing up. P. 

They drew cuts who should go out 
of the room. 



Dab 



64 



Darby 



Dab. A REGULAR DAB AT ANT- 
THING very skilful in any- 
thing. S. 

" I'm a regular dab at figures, you 
know," said Jeremiah to his mother. 
B. L. FABJEON. 

Daggers. To LOOK or SPEAK 
DAGGERS to glare at; to 
gaze upon with animosity. P. 

There he sits, abaft (behind) the 
mainmast, looking daggers at us 
(glaring angrily upon us). C. 
KEADE. 
I will speak daggers to her; but 

will use none. 

SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet. 
AT DAGGERS DRAWN bitterly 
hostile. P. 

Lord Shelburne had always de- 
sired to keep the Bedfords at a 
distance, and had been at daggers 
drawn with (bitterly hostile to) 
them, ever since their introduction 
into the Government. TBEVELYAN. 

Damn. To DAMN WITH FAINT 
PRAISE to condemn anything 
by praising it very slightly. 
P. 
Should such a man, too fond to rule 

Bear, like the Turk,|no brother near 

the throne. . . . 
Damn with faint praise, assent with 

civil leer, 
And, without sneering, teach the rest 

to sneer. POPE. 

For the first hour all had been 
compliment, success, and smiles; 
presently came the buts, and the 
hesitated objections, and the damn- 
ing with faint praise. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

Damocles. THE SWORD OF 
DAMOCLES a sword suspended 
by a single thread, and ready 
to descend and kill the person 
sitting below it. P. See 
SWORD. 

So they laugh and love, and are 
to all appearance blissfully content 
through the morning hours, and 
descend to breakfast (but for that 
sword of Damocles suspended over 
their heads) as happy in their 
mutual affection as ever were Eve 
and Adam when first presented to 
each other. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Damon. DAMON AND PYTHIAS 
sworn friends. P. The 



classical name of Pythian 
is Phintias. He offered tc 
die for his friend Damon. 

"Such unscientific balderdash,' 
added the doctor, flushing suddenlj 
purple, " would have estrangec 
Damon and Pythias." R. L. STE 
VENSON. 

Dance. To DANCE ATTEND 
ANCE ON to pay assiduouf 
court to. P. A phrase usec 
in contempt. 
Welcome, my lord ; I dance atten 

dance (wait obsequiously) here. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

But he lives in 'town as a rul< 
when he is not dancing attendance 
on Lady Swansdown. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

TO DANCE, AND PAT THE PIPEI 

to labour to amuse, and havt 
the expense of the entertain- 
ment besides. F. 

I'll either teach in the school onc< 
a week, or give you a subscription 
but I am not going both to danc< 
and pay the piper (give my services 
for nothing, and pay other per 
formers). 

TO DANCE UPON NOTHING tc 

get hanged. S. 

If you do not take care, you wil 
soon dance upon nothing (be ex 
ecuted). 

TO LEAD A PERSON A DANCE Ol 
A PRETTY DANCE to CaUS( 

him unnecessary trouble. F. 
You gave me the wrong address 
and have led me a pretty danc< 
(caused me much needless search). 

Dander. To GET ONE'S 
DANDER UP to grow angry: 
to lose one's temper. S, 
Dander = dandriff, scurf or 
the head. 

"I don't understand such Ian 
guage," said Alden, for he was fairlj 
riled (irritated) and got his dandei 
up (lost his temper). HALIBURTON.I 

Darby. DARBY AND JOAN 
a happy old couple devoted 
to each other. P. They are 
characters in a popular ballad. 
You may be a Darby, but I'll bd 
no Joan (devoted wife), I promise. 
GOLDSMITH. 



Dark 

Dark. A DARK HORSE a 
competitor about whose chance 
of winning the world knows 
nothing. C. A sporting 
phrase. 

You see I was dipped pretty deep 
and duns after me, and the Derby 
my only chance, so I put the pot 
on (betted heavily on the favourite 
horse); but a dark horse won. C 
EEADE. 

TO KEEP ANOTHER IN THE DARK 
to keep him in ignorance 
of an event. 

She was now resolved to keep 
Harriet no longer in the dark (in 
ignorance). 

O KEEP DARK ABOUT ANYTHING 

to preserve secrecy about 
it. C. 

If you will (fight me), I'll keep 
dark about it (never speak about 
our fight). HALIBURTON. 

Darken. To DARKEN AN- 
OTHER'S DOOR to cross the 
threshold of his house. C. 

He is a dishonourable scoundrel 
and if, after this assurance, you 
receive him, I shall never darken 
your door again. C. READE. 

David. DAVID AND JONATHAN 
inseparable friends. P. A 
Biblical parallel to the clas- 
sical friendship of Damon and 
Pythias. 

I was everybody knows that I 
was his confidential factotum and 
his familiar friend, as David was to 
Jonathan. BESA NT. 

lavy. DAVY JONES a sailor's 
term for death. S. 

Keep my bones from Davy 
Jones (death). Popular Song. 

>AVY JONES'S LOCKER the place 
where dead men go. A com- 
mon expression with sailors. 
It is also used for the sea, the 
common receptacle of every- 
thing thrown overboard. 

I tell thee, Jack, thou'rt free; 
leastways, if we get to Jamaica 
without going to Davy Jones's 
locker. G. A. SALA. 

The buccaneer has made his exit, 
and so has his fierce brother the 
pirate. That dreadful flag has long 
been hauled down and stowed away 
by Davy Jones in his locker. 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1887. 



65 Daylight 

Day. To HAVE HAD ONE'S 
DAY to be past one's prime ; 
to be no longer " in the swim;" 
to be old-fashioned ; to be dis- 
carded for something newer. C. 
"Old Joe, sir," said the major, 
"was a bit of a favourite in that 
quarter once ; but Joe has had his 
day. DICKENS. 

EVERY DOG HAS ms DAY. See 
DOG. 

THIS DAY WEEK (or YEAR, Or SIX 

MONTHS) a week counting 
from this day ; the correspond- 
ing day of last or next week. 
P. 

Let us go this day week to-day is 
Thursday that is, let, us go next 
Thursday. 

Almost on that day year (the 
corresponding day of the last year) 
it (the House of Commons) had been 
cheering Pitt while he declaimed 
against the folly of a Hanoverian 
war. MAC A UL AY. 
HIS DAYS ARE NUMBERED he 

has only a short time to live. 
P. 

Maroeco alone yet bars the way, 
and Marocco's days are practically 
numbered. GRANT ALLEN, in 
Contemporary Review, 1888. 
TO CARRY THE DAY to be vic- 

torious ; to win a victory. 
P. 

It was the cry of " free education " 
that carried the day (won the vic- 
tory). 

DAY OF GRACE a day allowed 
by the law before money is 
called in, or the law is put 
in execution. Three DAYS OF 
GRACE are generally allowed 
for the payment of a bill 
beyond the date actually men- 
tioned in the paper. Thus a 
bill in which payment is 
promised on the 1st Novem- 
ber is duly paid on the 4th. 

A DAY AFTER THE FAIR too late 

to see anything. C. 

You have arrived a day after the 
fair (too late to see what you 
wished). Your friends have gone. 
Daylig-ht. To THROW DAY- 
LIGHT UPON to reveal ; to 
display to view. P. 

But for that accident, the mystery 
and the wrong being played out at 
3 



DC ( 

Caromel's farm might never have 
had daylight thrown upon it. MRS. 
HENRY WOOD. 

De (French). DE HALT EN BAS 
in a lofty, condescending 
fashion. C. French. 

She used to treat him a little de 
haut en bas.C. READE. 

DE TBOP in the way ; not 
wanted ; superfluous. C. 
French. 

To turn a young lady out of her 
own drawing-room without assign- 
ing any reason for it, except that 
she is de trap (her presence is not 
wished for), is a very difficult opera- 
tion. JAMES PAYN. 

DE RIGUEUR strictly required. 
P. French. 

His face was rather soft than 
stern, charming than grand, pale 
than flushed ; his nose, if a sketch 
of his features be de rigueur for 
a person of his pretensions, was 
artistically beautiful enough to 
have been worth doing in marble 
by a sculptor not over-busy. 
THOMAS HARDY. 

De (Latin). DE JUBE legal ; 
having the sanction of law. 
P. Latin. 

DE FACTO real ; having actual 
possession. P. Latin. 

It was, we believe, impossible to 
find, from the Himalayas to Mysore, 
a single Government which was at 
once a Government de facto and a 
Government de jure. MACAULAY. 

DE MORTUIS NIL NISI BONUM 

say only what is good of the 
dead. P. Latin. 

The proverb of de mortuis is foun- 
ded on humbug. A. TROLLOPE. 
DE NOVO from a new point ; 
afresh. Latin. 

Let us clear the stage, and begin 
de novo (afresh). 

Dead. DEAD DRUXK stupe- 
fled with liquor. C. 

Pythagoras has finely observed 
that a man IR not to be considered 
dead drunk till he lies on the floor 
and stretches out his arms and legs 
to prevent his going lower. S. 
WARREN. 

THE DEAD -LETTER OFFICE the 

department in the post-office 
where unclaimed letters are 
kept. P. 

I took it for granted that it found 
its way to the dead-letter office, or 



Dead 

was sticking up across a pane in the 
postmaster's window at Huntingdon 
for the whole town to see, and 
it a love-letter! MARIA EDQE- 
WORTH. 

May not these wanderers of whom 
I speak have been sent into the 
vorld without any proper address 
at all? Where is our dead -letter 
office for such? J. R. LOWELL. 

TO PULL THE DEAD HORSE to 

work for wages already paid. 
I' 1 , 

DEAD AS A HERRING or AS A 
DOOR-NAIL stone dead ; with- 
out any life. F. The herring 
is a fish which dies immediately 
after it leaves the water. 

" They caught him at work, and 
gave him a rap over the head with 
a spade. The more fool he for being 
caught. Here is to his memory." 
' ' Ugh ! What ! is he-is he-" 
" Dead as a herring." C. READE. 
" What ! is the old king dead ? " 
"As nail in door. SHAKE- 
SPEARE : 2 Henry IV. 

DEAD SEA FRUIT fruit fair to 
the eye, but crumbling to 
dust when the skin is broken. 
P. See APPLE OF SODOM. 

He had come across the fruit of 
the Dead Sea, so sweet and delicious 
to the eye, so bitter and nauseous 
to the taste. A. TROLLOPE. 

DEAD HAND the mysterious in- 
fluence of a dead person 
whom one has injured. P 
An old superstition of this 
kind still lingers. 
' She must have been led, he 
thought, to his office by the dead 
hand of Tom himself. James Rolfe 
was not a superstitious person, but 
he had read novels, and he knew 
very well that dead people do con- 
stantly visit evil-doers with curses 
and bring trouble upon them, es- 
pecially when they have dealt 
wickedly with wards. BESANT. 

IN A DEAD HAND said of land 
or property held by a cor- 
poration (for example, the 
Church) and not by a person- 
ality. Latin, in manu mortuo. 

A DEAD LETTER something no 
longer in force ; a rule never 
attended to. P. 

The rule about ready money was 
soon a dead letter (soon fell into 
disuse). TRTSVELYAN. 



Dear 

A DEAD-HEAD a person who 
obtains entrance into an enter- 
tainment without paying ; a 
sponger. C. 

Poor, hopelessly abandoned 
loafers, wearing plainly the stamp 
of dead-head on their shameless 
features. A. C. GRANT. 

A DEAD -HE AT a contest where 
it is impossible to decide who 
is victor. C. 

He was up in a moment ; but he 
was already overlapped, and al- 
though he made up the difference, 
it was a dead-heat, and they were in 
neck-and-neck. BESANT. 

DEAD BEAT thoroughly ex- 
hausted. C. 

I could not move from the spot. 
I was what I believe seldom really 
happens to any man dead beat, 
body and soul. C. READE. 

DEAD MAN'S PART in law, the 
portion of an intestate per- 
son's movables beyond the 
share which goes by right to 
his wife and children. A 
technical phrase. 

DEAD MEN empty bottles. F. 

Lord Smart. Come, John, bring 
me a fresh bottle. 

Colonel. Ay, my lord ; and pray, 
let him carry off the dead men, as 
we say in the army (meaning the 
empty bottles). SWIFT. 

Deap. DEAR ME ! OH DEAR ! 
or simply, DEAR ! an ex- 
clamation of surprise, com- 
t miseration, or weariness, ac- 
'i cording to the tone in which 
it is uttered. C. 

"Did you ever have your likeness 
taken, Harriet?" said she. 

"Oh dear! no never." (An ex- 
clamation of surprise.) 

"You haven't got an egg upon 
you, Mrs. Bormalack, have you? 
Dear me! (how surprising!) one in 
your lap. Actually in a lady's lap ! " 
BESANT. 

Death. To DO TO DEATH to 

kill. P. 
This morning a boy of fifteen was 

done to death by Mr. Hawes. C. 

READE. 
WEARY TO DEATH excessively 

fatigued. C. This phrase 

really contains no reference 

to actual dying. 



67 Delirium 

The houses themselves were 
mostly gable-roofed, with latticed 
windows, which served excellently 
to exclude the light, and which 
gave .a blank and lack-lustre look 
to the edifices, as though they were 
weary to death of the view over the 
way. W. CLAKS RUSSELL. 

To THE DEATH fatally. 

He was wounded to the death 
(fatally). 

AT DEATH'S DOOR very near 
dying ; on the point of 
expiring. P. 

Greaves had taken her marriage to 
heart,' and had been at death's door 
(very dangerously ill) in London. 
C. READE. 

IN AT THE DEATH present at 
the final act of any exciting 
series of events. C. The 
phrase is borrowed from fox- 
hunting. 

DEATH ON ANYTHING having a 
great inclination for anything ; 
skilful or sure in performance, 
F. 

He wandered about all day, step- 
ping now and then, as he had prom- 
ised his mother, into the business 
places to inquire for employment ; 
but no one wanted an honest lad who 
could read, write, and was " death on 
figgers" (clever at counting). Life oj 
President Garjield. 

HE WILL BE THE DEATH OF ME 

he will cause me to die. F. 
Generally used in a joking way. 
Mrs. Squallop stared at him for a 
second or two in silence, then, 
stepping back out of the room, sud- 
denly drew to the door, and stood 
outside, laughing vehemently. . . . 
"Mr. Mr. Titmouse, you'll be the 
death of me (kill me with laughter), 
you will you will!" gasped Mrs. 
Squallop, almost black in the face. 
S. WARREN. 

Debt. TO PAY THE DEBT OF 

NATURE to die. P. See PAY. 

Delirium. DELIRIUM TRE- 
MENS a dreadful disease re- 
sulting from hard drinking. 
P. Also known as D.T. and 
Hue devils, 

I am an Englishman, and proud of 
it, and attached to all the national 
habits, except delirium trcmens.L. 
READE. 



Demand C 

Demand. IN DEMAND much 
sought after. P. 

Pet rabbits are greatly in demand 
(sought after) just now. 
ON DEMAND when asked for. 
p. 

He sent me a bill payable on de- 
mand (when presented at the proper 
time). 

Depend. DEPEND UPON IT 
you may be certain; I 
assure you. C. 

"If so," returned he, "depend 
upon it you shall feel the effects of 
this insolence." GOLDSMITH. 

Deuce. PLAY THE DEUCE WITH 
disorganize ; ruin. S. Deuce 
was a daemon among the Bri- 
gantes, a tribe of the early 
Britons. 

" Yonder is the inn," he exclaimed, 
"a handsome house enough, one 
must allow, and standing in quite a 
little park of its own ; but for all 
that I nave a presentiment that the 
cooking will play the deuce with 
(completely spoil) my digestion, and 
that we shall be poisoned with bad 
wine." JAMES PAYN. 

Deus. DEUS EX MACHINA an 
unexpected deliverer or helper, 
who comes just at the very 
time of danger or difficulty. 
P. Latin. The phrase is a 
classical one, and alludes to 
the supernatural deliverance 
of heroes on the Roman stage 
by the descent of a god, by 
mechanical contrivance, who 
bears them off in safety. 

Where, in this case, were we to 
look for the deus ex machind who 
should fulfil the father's vow and 
sever the daughter's chains by one 
happy stroke? W. E. NORRIS. 

Devil. THE DEVIL'S ADVO- 
CATE the person in an eccle 
siastical assembly who had 
the ungracious office of op- 
posing the canonization of 
some saint. P. The Latin 
form of the word is advocatus 
diaboli. The advocatus diaboli 
tried to throw doubt on the 
sanctity and miraculous power 
of the proposed saint. In the 
following extract devil's ad- 



Devil 

vacate signifies " one who tries 
to prove the existence of un- 
pleasant qualities " : 

Mill was one of the sternest and 
most rigid representatives of that 
northern race which, notwithstand- 
ing the very different qualities which 
make it illustrious, has so continued 
to retain its conventional reputation 
for harshness and coldness that we 
are almost forced to believe there 
must be some truth in the imputa- 
tion. There would be so if the 
devil's advocate could produce many 
such men as James Mill to counter- 
balance Scott and Mackintosh as 
specimens of the character of their 
countrymen. MRS. OLIPHANT. 

DEVIL TAKE THE HINDMOST 

the one who is last must 
suffer. C. 

Mr. Eames was very averse to the 
whole theory of competition. The 
"devil take the hindmost" scheme 
he called it, and. would then goon to 
explain that hindmost candidates 
were often the best gentlemen, and 
that, in this way, the devil got the 
hindmost. A. TROLLOPE. 

Away we went, "Pug" ahead, 
"Growler" and Gaylad" scarce 
twenty yards from his brush, and 
the devil take the hindmost. Well, 
of course we made sure of catching 
him in about a hundred yards. C. 
READE. 

THE DEVIL TO PAY a heavy 
sum to pay back ; very 
serious consequences. F. 

And now Tom is come back, and 
there will be the devil to pay. 
BESANT. 

" There will be the devil to pay at 
the hall," said Paston. "You don't 
pump out a mine for a trifle, and 
with all that building on hand." 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

DEVIL'S LUCK great good for- 
tune ; astonishing luck. F. 

Mark my words, Gride : you won't 
have to pay bis annuity very long. 
You have the devil's luck in bargains 
always. DICKENS. 

THE DEVIL. A phrase used to 
contradict a statement that 
has just been made, or to 
express dissent from it. S. 

"I'm Paddy Luck, and it's meself 
(myself) will sell the baste (beast) for 
twelve pounds, and divil a ha'penny 
less " (not one halfpenny under that 
sum). C. READE. 

The devil was sick, the devil a monk 
would be ; 



Diamond 

The devil got well, the devil a monk 
was he. Old Rhyme. 

Exp. The devil, being sick, re 

solved to become a monk, but when 

he recovered he was anything but 

monk. 

A DEVIL OF A TEMPER a very 
bad temper. F. 

Mrs. Churchill had no more heart 
than a stone to people in general 
and a devil of a temper (very bac 
temper). Miss AUSTEN. 

BETWEEN THE DEVIL AND THE 
DEEP SEA between two mena 
cing dangers. P. 

Kupert's position was desperate 
his friends had forsaken him ; he 
was caught between the devil and 
thedeepsea. Gentleman's Magazine, 

To WHIP THE DEVIL ROUND THE 

POST to evade rules or pro- 
visions. C. 

It is asserted, indeed, in some 
quarters that the devil might be 
whipped round the Tientsin Con- 
vention (provisions of the Tientsin 
Convention might be evaded) by 
persuading Korea to cede the Nan- 
how group to China. Japan Mail, 

1887, 

DEVIL - MAT - CARE reckless ; 
heedless. C. 

I once had the honour of being on 
intimate terms with a mute, who, in 
private life and off duty, was as 
comical and jocose a little fellow as 
ever chirped out a devil-may-care 
(reckless) song. DICKENS. 

GIVE THE DEVIL HIS DUE allow 

even the worst man credit for 
what he does well. P. 

Arthur Brooke was a straight- 
forward and just young fellow ; no 
respecter of persons, and always 
' ?us to give the devil his due. 
NORRIS. 

TO BEAT THE DEVIL'S TATTOO 

to drum with the fingers 
on a window or a table. 
P. See TATTOO. 

Diamond. A ROUGH DIA- 
MOND a person with an un- 
attractive exterior who pos- 
sesses good qualities of mind 
and heart. C. 

As for "Warrington, that rough 
diamond had not had the polish of a 
dancing master, and he did not 
know how to waltz. THACKERAY. 



Dine 

DIAMOND cur DIAMOND a phrase 
used when one sharp person 
outwits another. P. 

The Irish leaders are extremely 
clever men, and hitherto English 
administrators have only coped 
with them in a blundering, dull- 
witted way. Sir Redvers Buflergets 
the credit of this diamond-cut- 
diamond move. St. Andrews Citizen, 

1887. 

Notwithstanding their difference 
of years, our pair are playing a game 
very common in society, called 
diamond cut diamond. G. J. 

WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Dickens. WHAT THE DICKENS 
what the devil. S. A strong 
form of WHAT. 

I cannot tell what the dickens his 
name is. SHAKESPEARE. 
Why the dickens don't these people 
go to bed ? W. E. NORRIS. 

Dickey. ALL DICKEY WITH 
ANY ONE a hopeless case for 
any one ; no chance of saving 
him. S. 
Here a monk . . . 
Sobs out as he points to the corpse 

on the floor, 

'"Tis all dickey with poor Father 
Dick he's no more." BARHAM. 

Die. THE DIE is THROWN or 
CAST the decision is made ; 
the decisive step is taken. 
P. 

At all events, what use was there 
in delaying? The die was thrown, 
and now or to-morrow the issue must 
be the same. THACKERAY. 
To DIE BY INCHES to die slowly; 
to waste away slowly but 
steadily. P. 

At the time, a sudden death always 
seems something strange and hor- 
rible, like a murder ; although prob- 
ably most of us, if we could choose, 
would rather be killed at a blow than 
die by inches. W. E. NORRIS. 

Dine. To DINE OFF to make 
to serve for dinner. P. 

Sir Pitt, though he dined off boiled 
mutton, had always three footmen 
to serve it. THACKERAY. 

A DINER-OUT a man who gener- 
ally dines with friends. P. 

To DINE WITH DEMOCRITUS 
to be cheated out of one's 
dinner. P. 



Dip 



70 



To DINE WITH SIR THOMAS 
GRESHAM to go without a 
dinner. F. The London Ex- 
change was founded by Sir 
Thomas Gresham, a merchant 
in Queen Elizabeth's time, 
who gave his name to " Gres- 
ham's Law " in political 
economy. The Exchange was 
a favourite lounging-place for 
penniless men. 

To DINE WITH DUKE HUMPHREY 
to get no dinner at all. C. 
Some gentlemen were visiting 
the tomb of Duke Humphrey 
of Gloucester, and one of the 
party was by accident shut 
in the abbey. His where- 
abouts remained undiscovered 
until the party had risen 
from dinner. The poor fellow 
had been with Duke Hum- 
phrey, and had got no dinner 
at all hence the phrase. 

As for the duke in the family, I 
hope it will not be Duke Humphrey, 
and that Trip will not be invited to 
dine with him. S. BARING-GOULD. 

To DINE WITH MOHAMMED to 
die. P. 

To DINE WITH THE CROSS-LEGGED 

KNIGHTS to have no dinner 
to go to. P. A London 
phrase. 

Dip. To DIP IN GALL to make 
very bitter. P. 

The famous Shakespearian critic 
Malonewas the object of his specia. 
aversion, which was most cordially 
reciprocated, and often had they 
transfixed one another with pens 
dipped in gall (full of rancour). 
JAMES PAYN. 

Dirt. DIRT CHEAP at an ex- 
cessively low price. F. 

Thirty pounds a week. It's toe 
cheap, Johnson; it's dirt cheap. 
DICKENS. 

To EAT DIRT to submit tc 
insult. C. 

Though they bow before a calf, i 
it not a golden one? though they ea 
dirt, is it not dressed by a Frenc" 
cook? G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Discount. AT A DISCOUNT 
(a) not in demand ; no 



Divine 

highly ; 



valued highly ; unpopular, 
p. 

There can be no doubt .that the 
old-fashioned ideasof English policy 
in the East are at a discount. 
Fortnightly Review, 1887. 
(&) sold at less than the 
market value. P. 

Watch-guards and toasting-forks 
were alike at a discount. 

Dispose. To DISPOSE OF 
(a) to get rid of ; to free one- 
self from. P. 

But Wilkes had still to be disposed 
of. PERCY FITZGERALD. 

The many things he had had to 
think of lately passed before him in 
the music, not as claiming his atten- 
tion over again, or as likely evermore 
to occupy it, but as peacefully dis- 
posed of and gone. DICKENS. 
(&) to sell. C. 

Madam is ready to dispose of her 
horse and carriage if a good price is 
offered. 

Ditch. TO DIE IN THE LAST 

DITCH to resist to the ut- 
termost ; to make a desperate 
resistance. P. 

Ditto. TO SAT DITTO TO 

to acquiesce in ; to accept 
the conclusions or arrange- 
ments of others. C. 

Dr. Lavergne was a convinced Re- 
publican ; his wife's conyictions 
resembled those of the wise and 
unassuming politician who was 
content to say ditto to Mr. Burke. 
W. E. NORRIS. 

Divine. DIVINE RIGHT OF 
KINGS a theory, first ex- 
plicitly held by James I. of 
England, that the king is 
above the law, and answer- 
able for his actions to no one. 
P. See Macaulay's History of 
England, Introduction. 
May you, my Cam and Isis, preach 

it long, 
" The right divine of kings to govern 

wrong." POPE. 

While preachers who held the 
divine right of kings made the 
churches of Paris ring with decla- 
mations in favour of democracy 
rather than submit to the heretic 
dog of a Be"arnois, . . . Henry bore 
both parties in hand till he was con- 
vinced that only one course of action 
could possibly combine his own 



Dixie 

and those of France. 

jOWELL. 

Dixie. DIXIE'S LAND a land 
of plenty and happiness, cele 
brated in negro songs. Dixi 
was a planter in Manhattan 
Island, who removed hi 
slaves to one of the Southern 
States, where they had les, 
to eat and more to do, and 
therefore sighed for their olc 
home. 



Popular Song. 

Do. To DO up (a) to make 
tidy. F. 

"But who is to do up your room 
every day?" asked Violet. BESANT. 
I could almost fancy it was thirty 
years back, and I was a little girl at 
nome, looking at Judith as sne sat 
at her work, after she'd done the 
house up (set the house in order). 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

(6) to ruin ; to make bank- 
rupt. C. 

He observed that there ,,c. D ^ 
pleasure in doing up a debtor which 
none but a creditor could know. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

(c) to weary. F. 

(fatigued) after her long walk. 
To DO AWAY WITH to remove ; 
to get rid of. P. 

Delightful Mrs. Jordan, whose 
voice did away with (banished) the 
cares of the whole house before they 
saw her come in. JAMES PAYN. 
To DO FOR A MAN to ruin him. 
F. 

No, you're done for (you are 
ruined) ; you are up a tree, you may 
end (be certain) ; pride must fall, 
wn is like a ball-room after 
HALIBURTON. 



d< 

Your tow 
a dance 

Do TELL you astonish me. 
familiar American phrase. 

"A dressmaker!" cried her lady- 
ship. "Do tell (that's strange). I 
was in that line myself before I 
married. "BESANT. 

TO HAVE TO DO WITH to be 

interested in ; to have busi- 
ness with. P. 

We have, l^wever, to do with (our 
business is with) only one pair who 
were sitting together on the banks 
opposite Trinity. BESANT. 



71 Doctor 

To DO (WELL) BY to behave 
(well) towards. C. 
One does as one is done by. WM. 

. After administering such a scold- 
ing as naturally flowed from her 
anxiety to do well by (behave well to) 
her husband's niece who had no 
mother of her own to scold her. 
Pu r t n S ! she would often confess 
to her husband, when they were safe 
put of hearing, that she firmly be- 
lieved "the naughtier the little hussy 
behaved, the prettier she looked " 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

WELL-TO-DO in comfortable cir- 
cumstances. P. 

He's growing up fast now, and I am 
pretty well-to-do (in fairly good cir- 
cumstances). HALIBURTON. 

TO DO A PERSON BROWN to 

deceive him completely ; to 

hoodwink him. S. 

Not knowing what to do, I thought 

I'd hasten back to town, 
And beg our own Lord Mayor to 

catch the boy who'd "done me 

brown." BARHAM. 

TO DO A PERSON IN THE EYE 

to cheat him. S. 

The jockey did your friend in the 
eye over that horse. 

Exp.The jockey cheated your 
friend with that horse. 

DOGtOP. To PUT THE DOCTOR 

ON A MAN to cheat him. F. 
Perhaps ways and means may be 
found to put the doctor upon the old 
prig. TOM BROWN. 

DOCTORS' COMMONS the Gov- 
ernment office in London 
where wills are kept and mar- 
riages registered. So called 
because the Doctors of Civil 
Law were required to dine 
together (hold their common 
meal) four days in each term, 
called " eating their terms." 
P. 

She had a superstitious kind of 
notion that she would do better in a 
future state if she had been recog- 
nized by the social law in this, and 
that the power of Doctors' Commons 
extended beyond the office of the 



registrar -general. MRS. 

LlNTON. 



L : LYNN 



DOCTORS DIFFER or DISAGREE 
there exists a grave difference 
of opinion. C. A phrase in 



Doe 



72 



Dog 



common use, employed some- 
what playfully. 

But the doctors differed in their 
metaphysics (there was a difference 
of opinion regarding the meta- 
physics of the question). M. 
ARNOLD. 
Who shall decide, when doctors 

disagree? POPE. 

Doe. DOE. See JOHN DOE. 

Dog 1 . THE DOG OF MONTARGIS 
a dog whose master was 
slain, and which showed won- 
derful intelligence and ferocity 
in its behaviour to the 
murderer. Its name was 
Dragon ; its master's name 
was Captain Aubri de Mont- 
didier. The murderer's name 
was Richard Macaire. 

No doubt Diogenes is there, and no 
dpubt Mr. Toots has reason to observe 
him ; for he comes straightway at 
Mr. To9ts's legs, and tumbles over 
himself in thedesperationwith which 
he makes at him, like a very dog of 
Montargis. DICKENS. 

A DOG-IN-THE-MANGER a Selfish 

man, who refuses to allow 
his neighbour to enjoy even 
what he himself has no use 
for. P. Used as an adjec- 
tive "a dog-in-the-manger 
course of conduct." 

A dog lay in a manger, and by his 
growling and snapping prevented 
the oxen from eating the hay which 
had been placed for them. " What a 
selfish dog!" said one of them to his 
companions. "He cannot eat the 
hay himself, and yet refuses to allow 
those to eat who can." ^sop's 

"I suppose it is wrong and selfish," 
he said. " I suppose I am a dog in a 
manger." A. TROLLOPE. 

TO DOG -EAR A BOOK to turn 

down the corners of its pages 
so that they resemble a dog's 
ears. P. 

w T Mt ar v Quite young girls, who 
blot their books, dog-ear their dic- 
tionaries, make gjimy their gram- 
mars, and vie with each other in 
committing just as many faults as 
can possibly be made in a given 
number of words. BESANT. 

A DOG-IN-A-BLANKET a kind 
of pudding made of dough and 



suet, and enclosing jam. C. 
Also called roly-poly. 

We had roast beef to dinner, fol- 
lowed by an indigestible marmalade 
dog-in-a-blanket (roly-poly filled with 
orange jam). 

DOG CHEAP very cheap. F. A 
corruption of god-chepe, 
good bargain. 

You got the fowls dog cheap at a 
dollar forty the dozen (remarkably 
cheap at one dollar forty cents for 
the dozen). 

DOG'S NOSE a drink composed 

oi gin and beer. S. 
THE DOGS OP WAR famine, 

sword, and fire. P. 

And Caesar's spirit, ranging for 

With Ate'by his side, come hot from 

hell, 
Shall in these confines, with a 

monarch's voice. 
Cry. "Havoc," and let slip the dogs 

of war. SHAKESPEARE. 

Note. Ate is the goddess of re- 
venge. To cry "Havoc" signifies 

to order slaughter without mercy.'" 

TO GO TO THE DOGS to go to 

ruin. C. 

One candidate chap says, " Fellow- 
citizens, this country is going to 
the dogs (to destruction) hand over 
hand " (at a rapid rate). 

TO LEAD THE LIFE OF A DOG Or 
A DOG'S LIFE to pass 

miserable existence. C. 

I am afraid I led that boy a dog's 
life (made that boy's existence miser- 
able). 11. L. STEVENSON. 

"He is properly henpecked" 
(harshly used by his wife), said he. 
"He is afraid to call his soul his 
own, and he leads the life of a dog" 
(his existence is a wretched one). 
HALIBURTON. 

EVERY DOG HAS HIS DAY the 
period of enjoyment allowed 
to any creature is a short one. 
C. 
"Let Hercules himself do what he 

may, 
The cat will mew, and dog will have 

his day." 

SHAKESPEARE : Hamlet. 

And, Mr. Greaves, I am sorry for 
you you are out of luck but every 
dog has hisday(the period of success 
and prosperity granted to each of us 
soon passes away). C. READE. 

Fortune was ever accounted in- 
constant, and each dog has but his 
day. CARLYLE. 



Dolce 

DOG LATIN a debased medieval 
form of Latin, used by phy- 
sicians, lawyers, and others, 
to whom the language was 
only partially familiar. P. 

It was much as if the secretary to 
whom was intrusted the direction of 
negotiations with foreign powers had 
a sufficient smattering of dog Latin 
to make himself under 
MACAULAT. 

GIVE A DOG AN ILL NAME AND 

HANG HIM when a person's 
reputation is bad, all his 
actions, even though well- 
intentioned, are viewed with 
suspicion. It is better to get 
rid altogether of a man who 
has lost his good name, exist- 
ence being thenceforth a bur- 
den to him. C. 

You may say what you like in your 
kindness and generosity it is a case 
of "give a dog an ill name and hang 
him. The only question is whether 
you are to be condemned with the 
dog that has been justly regarded 
as a ne'er-do-well till he has been 
branded with an accusation of theft. 
SARAH TYTLER. 

>lce. DOLCE FAB NIENTE 
sweet do nothing, or idleness. 
C. Italian. 

The charms of the Italian climate, 
the attractions of the too facile 
Italian beauties, purposely thrown 
in his way, and the seductive dolce 
far niente sort of life Francis so 
readily fell into, were fatal to his 
military ardour. LADY JACKSON. 

Don't. DON'T YOU KNOW ? 
a phrase frequently inserted 
in conversation, sometimes 
apologetically, sometimes to 
secure the better attention of 
the listener. 

" Oh, you don't know what Brighton 
isatthistimeof year," saidMr. Tom. 
"All the resident people like our- 
selves keep open house, don't you 
know? and very glad to." WM. 
BLACK. 

Door. To LAT AT ONE'S DOOR 
to charge one with. P. 

A great many faults may be laid at 
their door, but they are not fairly to 
be charged with fickleness. J. R. 
LOWELL. 

I made the best of a bad case, and 
laid it all at my lady's door t(attrib- 



73 Double 

uted it all to my mistress), for I did 

not like her. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

NEXT DOOR TO ANYTHING 

approaching closely to it. P. 

A seditious word leads to a broil, 

and a riot undiminished is but next 

door to (closely resembles) a tumult. 

L'ESTRANGE. 

Dopcas. A DORCAS SOCIETY 
a woman's association for 
providing poor people with 
clothing. P. It receives the 
name from Dorcas, or Tabitha, 
who made clothes for the poor 
(Acts ix. 39). 

About a year ago the ladies of the 
Dorcas society at our church made 
up a large quantity of shirts, trousers, 
and socks. MAX ADELER. 

Dot. DOT AND CARRY ONE 

irregularly ; spasmodically. 
F. 

I was not new to violent death. I 
have served His Royal Highness the 
Duke of Cumberland, and got a 
wound at Fontenoy ; but I know my 
pulse went dot and carry one. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

Double. TO TAKE A DOUBLE- 
FIRST to pass for a degree at 
Oxford with the highest hon- 
ours in two schools or depart- 
ments. P. 

For instance, though I firmly be- 
lieve that you could at the present 
moment take a double-first at the 
university, your knowledge of Eng- 
lish literature is almost nil. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

A DOUBLE ENTENDRE a remark 
covering a concealed meaning, 
which has generally a question- 
able reference. C. French. 

An agreeable old gentleman, who 
did not believe in anything particu- 
lar, and had a certain proclivity 
toward double entendres. RHODA 
BROUGHTON. 
THE DOUBLE LINES the name 
given in Lloyd's publications 
to the record of losses and 
accidents. C. 

One morning the subscribers were 
reading the 7< double lines, and 
among the losses was the total 
wreck of this identical ship. Old 
and New London. 

DOUBLE OR QUITS. When two 
persons have been playing for 



Down 



74 



Draw 



a stake, the loser or the winner 
may give a second challenge 
for the same amount. The 
result of the second venture 
either leaves the loser twice 
as badly off as before, or makes 
both parties even. In making 
this second challenge the phrase 
" double or quits " is used. 
DOUBLE - DEALING duplicity ; 
trickery. P. 

This young lady was quite above 
all double-dealing; she had no 
mental reservation. MARIA EDGE- 
WOKTH. 

Down. To BE DOWN UPON A 
PERSON to reprove or find 
fault with him. F. 

Poor Buswell ! his appearance isn't 
aristocratic, I admit, and Mrs. Green- 
wood was rather down upon me for 
asking him here. Good Words, 1887. 

DOWN ON THEIR LUCK (a) in 
an evil plight ; very un- 
fortunate. F. 

I wouldn't turn you away, Alan, 
if you were down on your luck. 
E. L. STEVENSON. 

(5) in low spirits. F. 

.The order for their execution ar- 
rived, and they were down upon 
their luck terribly. C. READE. 

DOWN IN THE MOUTH dis- 
pirited ; sad. F. 

.Well, I felt proper (very) sorry for 
him, for he was a very clever man, 
and looked cut up dreadfully, and 
amazin (exceedingly) down in the 
mouth (melancholy). HALIBUBTON. 

Downy. To DO THE DOWNY 
to lie in bed ; to sleep. S. 
_ And then, being well up, you see, 
it was no use doing the downy again, 
so it was just as well to make one's 
twilight (toilet) and go to chapel. 
Verdant Green, ch. vii. 

Dozen. A BAKER'S DOZEN 
thirteen. Formerly bakers 
gave an extra loaf or bun 
with every dozen sold to 
customers. P. Giving a man 
a baker's dozen is a slang 
expression for " giving him 
an extra sound beating." 

Drag-. To DRAG IN BY THE 

HEAD AND SHOULDERS to in- 

troduce abruptly and without 
sufficient cause. C. 



We have enough to do to think 
of ourselves in these days, without 
dragging in the absent by the head 
and shoulders. FLORENCE MAR- 
RYAT. 

Drag-on. DRAGONS' TEETH 
things which bring future 
destruction. P. Cadmus, the 
founder of Thebes, succeeded 
in killing a redoubtable 
dragon, by Athene's aid, and 
sowed its teeth in the plain. 
From these teeth sprang up 
armed men, who killed each 
other, all except five, the an- 
cestors of the Thebans. 
_ French Clinton plunged headlong 
into the abyss, and: orders went forth 



like so many dragons' teeth sown by 
a financial Cadmus. MRS. E. LYNN 
LINTON. 

Draw. To DRAW ON to ap- 
proach (of time). P. 

And so the time of departure drew 
on rapidly. DICKENS. 

TO DRAW REIN to stop J to 

check one's course. P. A 
phrase used in riding and 
driving. 

Lanfrey drew rein at the door. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

To DRAW UP to stop ; to come 
to a halt. P. Almost the 
same as TO DRAW REIN. There 
is the notion of gradual 
slackening of motion, as in a 
railway train approaching a 
station. 

The soldier, who conducted the 
baggage-cart in which she was, drew 
up to (stopped at) the first amongst 
a row of miserable cabins that were 
by the roadside. 

TO DRAW THE LINE SOMEWHERE 

to refuse to move outside 
of a certain limit of conduct ; 
to impose an arbitrary re- 
striction on one's behaviour 
from fear of going too far. C. 
On the principle of " doing at Tur- 
key as the Turkeys do" we should 
even have ridden donkeys on the sand 
f I had not put a firm veto on it, say- 
ing, We must draw the line some- 
where." The Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

To DRAW A PERSON OUT to lead 
i person to express his real 



Dree 

opinions or show 
character. P. 



There are many subjects on which 
I should like to draw him out (induce 
him to speak his mind freely). 
HALIBURTON. 

He recollected that Miss Nugent 
had told him that this young lady 
had no common character ; and ne- 
glecting his move at chess, he looked 
up at Miss Nugent, as much as to 
say, "Draw her out, pray." MARIA 
' EDGEWORTH. 

TO DRAW THE WOOL OVER to 

hoodwink ; to deceive. C. 

Sir Henry was the fortunate pos- 
sessor of what Pat was pleased to 
call " a nasty, glittering eye," and 
over that eye Pat doubted his ability 
to draw the wool as he had done over 
Celtic orbs. C. READE. 

Exp. Pat doubted his ability to 
deceive Sir Henry as he had deceived 
his Irish friends. 

A DRAWN GAME a game in 

which neither party wins. P. 

If we make a drawn game of it, 

every British heart must tremble. 

ADDISON. 

To DRAW IT MILD (a) to refrain 
from exaggeration. F. 

But what I mean, 

Fortification haw ! in Indian ink, 
That sort of thing; and though I 

draw it mild, 

Yet that haw 1 haw ! that may be 
called my forte. G. J. CAYLEY. 

- (&) to refrain from excess ; 
to be moderate. F. 

"I say," interposed John Browdie, 
nettled by these accumulated attacks 
on his wife, "dra' it mild, dra' it 
mild." DICKENS. 

Dree. To DREE ONE'S WEIRD 
to submit to one's fate. 
Scotch. 

Nevertheless, French must dree 
his weird as a brave man should; 
and having drawn his lot from the 
hands of fate, he must obey the 
mandate written on the card. MRS. 
E. LYNN LINTON. 

Dress. THE DRESS CIRCLE 
that part of a place of enter- 
tainment which is set apart 
for the upper classes who 
come in evening dress. P. 

Drive. To DRIVE AT ANY- 
THING to speak with a cer- 
tain end in view. F. 



75 Drug 

his real " What are you driving at?" (what 

is your intention in speaking as you 
do) he went on. "I show you a bit 
of my hand (a part of my scheme), 
and you begin talking round and 
round" (ambiguously). BESANT. 

Drop. To DROP IN to pay 
an informal visit. C. 

If he could drop in (visit us in a 
friendly way) on Sunday week, he 
might go home the wiser. BLACK- 
MORE. 

To DROP OFF (a) to fall asleep. 
F. 

Every time I dropped off (fell 
asleep) for, a moment, a new noise 
awoke me. MARK TWAIN. 

(&) to leave (in a quiet way) ; 

to disappear. C. 

The matrons dropped off one by 
one, with the exception of six or 
eight particular friends, who had 
determined to stop all night. DICK- 
ENS. 

A DROP IN THE BUCKET a con- 
tribution scarcely worth men- 
tioning. P. 
The lack of good water was severely 



felt, but this was only a mere drop 
in the bucket (very small part) of 
their misfortunes. 
TO TAKE A DROP TOO MUCH to 

get intoxicated. F. 

He used often to take a drop too 
much (be the worse for liquor). 

Dpown. To DROWN THE 
MILLER to mix water and 
spirits in so unequal pro- 
portions as to make the 
concoction unpalatable (from 
too much water). F. 

Drowning 1 . DROWNING MEN 
CATCH AT STRAWS. When a 
man is in a desperate situation 
he seeks to save himself by 
every possible means, even 
when those which offer are 
ridiculously inadequate. P. 

Either because drowning men will 
catch at straws, or because he had 
really misplaced confidence in my 
abilities, this assurance seemed to 
comfort him a great deal. W. E. 
NORRIS. 

Drug 1 . A DRUG IN THE MARKET 

an unsaleable commodity. 
p. 

Watch-guards and toasting-forks 
were alike at a discount, and sponges 



Dry 



7G 



were a drug in the market (found no 
one to buy them).-DicKENS. 
Dry. A STIRRING OF THE DRY 

BONES a revival of life where 
all seems dead. P. Biblical. 
See Ezek. xxxvii. 1-10. 

Every nation, when first it feels 
the stir and touch of a new life, will 
commit follies and excesses: when 
that new life is felt in the body of 
literature and art, the follies and 
excesses will be greater not, of 
course, of such national greatness, 
but greater comparatively than 
when the dry bones of politics are 
stirred. Temple Bar, 1887. 

Duck. TO MAKE DUCKS AND 
DRAKES OF A PROPERTY to 

spend it foolishly. C. Mak- 
ing ducks and drakes is a 
game played with a flat piece 
of stone or metal, which, 
when flung with its broad, 
surface almost parallel to 
smooth water, skips up and 
down like a bird. It would 
be foolish to use coins for such 
a purpose. 

A fine thing for her, that was a 
poor girl without a farthing to her 
fortune. It's well if she doesn't 
make ducks and drakes of it (fool- 
ishly spend it) somehow. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

A LAME DUCK a man who 
cannot pay his debts on the 
Stock Exchange. F. 

A DUCK'S EGG nothing. S. A 
phrase used at schools and 
colleges when a batsman in 
cricket-match scores 0. 

He got a duck's egg (no marks) at 
the last examination. 

Dull. DULL AS DITCH-WATER 
wholly uninteresting. F. 

What passed through his mind 
was something like the following: 
"Heigho! O Lord! Dull as ditch- 
water ! This is my only holiday, yet 
I don't seem to enjoy it." S. WAR- 
KEN. 

Dumb. A DUMB DOG a person 
who remains silent when ho 
ought to speak out and pro- 
test. P. 

He will be afraid to tell them un 
palatable truths. The minister will 
be a dumb dog (silent, when he 
should reprove them). HALIBUR- 



Dutch 

THE DUMB Ox OF COLOGNE 
Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274), 
so called ^from his dreamy and 
taciturn disposition ; known 
afterwards as the " Angelic 
Doctor " and the " Angel oi 
the Schools." 

Dumps. IN THE DUMPS 
sulky ; in a bad temper. F. 

Johnnie is in the dumps (sulky), 
and won't play with the other boys. 

Durance. DURANCE VILE 
irksome imprisonment. C. A 
phrase generally used playfully. 
Found in a play of W. Ken- 
rick's (1766). Burke uses the 
form vile durance in Thoughts 
on the Present Discontents 
(Bartlett's Familiar Quota- 
tions}. 
In durance vile here must I wake 

and weep, 
And all my frowzy couch in sorrow 

steep. BURNS. 

If he gave them into custody with 
the railway people he could prove 
nothing. They were two to one. 
They would not hesitate to swear 
blacK was white, and they might 
easily turn the tables upon him, 
and perhaps succeed in transferring 
him to durance vile instead of them- 
selves. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Dust. TO THROW DUST IN A 

MAN'S EYES to try to lead 
him astray. P. 

All of these knew whether Mr. 
John was launching thunderbolts 
(uttering threats) or throwing dust 
(trying to deceive), and were well 
aware that he had quite taken up 
with the latter process in the Beckley 
case. BLACKMORE. 

He cared to say no more ; he had 
thrown quite dust enough into honest 
Adam's eyes (deceived honest Adam 
quite enough). GEORGE ELIOT. 

To RAISE A DUST to make a 
commotion. C. 

There was small reason to raise 
such a dust (cause such a disturb- 
ance) out of a few indiscreet words. 
HACKET. 

Dutch. A DUTCH AUCTION 
an auction where goods are 
started at an extravagantly 
high price, and then gradually 
lowered in price until the 
people show a willingness to 



Dutch 77 

buy them. C. A common 
method of business among 
travelling peddlers. 

They (the politicians) are always 
bidding against each other in the 
Dutch auction by which we are 
being brought down surely, though 
by a protracted process, to the aboli- 
tion of every sort of qualification. 
GOLDWIN SMITH, in Contemporary 
Review, 1887. 

DUTCH COUKAGE courage that 
results from indulgence in 
strong drink. P. Probably 
the phrase arose from the 
extensive use of Dutch gin, 
known as Hollands. 

We cannot easily believe that re- 
fractory patients are plied with 
spirits to give them Dutch courage 
and induce them to undergo opera- 
tions. Spectator, December 17, 1887. 

You shall have some fizz to give 
you Dutch courage. BESANT. 

A. DUTCH CONCERT a concert 
or musical gathering at which 
each person sings his own 
song, without reference to 
that of his neighbour. F. 



Ease 



A DUTCH UNCLE a clumsy, 
uncouth man. 

You look like a Dutch uncle since 
you shaved. 

As will be seen from the 
above instances, the word 
Dutch is used somewhat con- 
temptuously to signify what 
is clumsy, foolish, or absurd. 
See Lowell's remarks in his 
essay On a Certain Conde- 
scension in Foreigners (" My 
Study Windows," Camelot 
Classics, pp. 57, 58). 
Dutchman. THEN I'M A 
DUTCHMAN. A phrase used 
after a supposition has been 
made, in order to show its 
absurdity. 

"Tom," said the other doggedly, 
"if there is as much gold on the 
ground of New South Wales as will 
make me a wedding-ring, I am a 
Dutchman." C. READE. 

There's mettle in that lad, and if 
I can't lick him into shape, I'm a 
Dutchman. G. J. WHYTE-MEL- 
VILLE. 



E. E. AND O. E. errors and 
omissions excepted. Often 
added to an account when 
presented. 

Ear. To GIVE EAR to listen. P. 
"Mr. Utterson, sir, asking to see 
you," he called: and even as he did 
so, once more violently signed to the 
lawyer to give ear. R. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

ABOUT ONE'S EARS in a con- 
fused heap ; in a falling mass 
of ruin. C. 

You'll have those universities of 
yours about your ears soon if you 
don't consent to take a lesson from 
Germany. A. TROLLOPE. 

TO SET BY THE EARS to Cause 

a quarrel. C. 

I little thought when I ran in with 
Miss Berry's good news that it would 
have the effect of setting us all by 
the ears (causing us all to quarrel). 
A. KEARY. 
BY THE EARS quarrelling. C. 

Take any two men that are by the 
ears (quarrelling) : they opinionate 



all they hear of each other, impute 
all sorts of unworthy motives, and 
misconstrue every act. HALIBUR- 
TON. 

LITTLE PITCHERS HAVE LONG 
EARS. See PITCHER. 



i. AT EASE IN ONE'S INN 

thoroughly at home and com- 
fortable. P. An old-fashioned 
phrase. 
Shall I not take mine ease in mine 

inn? 
SHAKESPEARE : 1 Henry IV. 

On ordinary occasions he was 
diffident and even awkward in his 
manners, but here he was "at ease 
in his inn," and felt called upon to 
show his manhood and enact the ex- 
perienced traveller. WASHINGTON 
IRVING. 

STANDING AT EASE a military 
posture, which gives rest to 
the legs. P. 

So the ladies sat in a circle, and 
the gentlemen stood at ease, tired 
out before the close of the evening. 
Harper's Magazine, March 1888. 



Easy 

ILL AT EASE in 
state ; 



78 



an unquiet 

._.. . restless. P. 
But the general is ill at ease; he 
cannot get that infernal anonymous 
letter out of his head. G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

EASE HER the command given 
when the engines of a steamer 
are to be reduced in speed ; 
generally followed by the 
order, " Stop her." P. 

TO EASE AWAY A HOPE to 

slacken it gradually. P. 



. EASY COME, EASY GO 
what is gained without 
difficulty is resigned or spent 
without much thought. C. 

Eat. TO EAT ONE'S WORDS 

to take back what one has 
said ; to retract assertions 
too boldly made. C. 

" I will swear by it (my sword) that 
you love me ; and I will make him 
eat it that says I love not you." 

"Will you not eat your word?" 
(repent of what you have said). 
SHAKESPEARE. 

"That's a first-rate notion, I must 
say ! " exclaimed Mr. Hobday. " I'm 
to begin by eating my words and 
marrying my daughter to a man 
whom I said she shouldn't marry." 
W. E. NORKIH. 

To EAT FOR THE BAR to pre- 
pare oneself to be a barrister. 
C. Those studying for en- 
trance to the bar are required 
to be present at a certain 
number of dinners in the Tem- 
ple or in Gray's Inn. 

If you bind him with leading- 
strings at college, he will break 
loose while eating for the bar in 
London. A. TROLLOPE. 

TO EAT OUT OXE'S HEART to 

suffer intensely from dis- 
appointment and forced in- 
activity. C. 

She withdrew, covered with morti- 
fication, to hide her head and eat 
out her heart in the privacy of her 
own uncomfortable home. Gentle- 
man's Magazine, 1888. 

To EAT THE AIR to be deluded 
with hopes. P. 

I eat the air (am deluded with false 
hopes) promise-crammed. SHAKE- 
SPEARE. 



Echo. TO THE ECHO T6h- 

mently ; enthusiastically. p. 
When our philosophical Liberal 
friends say that by universal suffrage, 
public meetings, Church disestab- 
lishment, marrying one's deceased 
wife's sister, secular schools, indbs- 
trial development, man can very 
well live ; and that if he studies the 
writings, say, of Mr. Herbert Spencer 
into the bargain, he will be perfect 
. . . the masses, far from checking 
them, are disposed to applaud them 
to the echo. M. ARNOLD. 

Edge. TO PLAY WITH EDGE- 
TOOLS to sport with what is 
dangerous. P. 

You jest; ill jesting with edge- 
tools (on dangerous subjects). 
TENNYSON. 

TO SET THE TEETH ON EDGE 

to cause unpleasant sensa- 
tions. P. 
I had rather hear a brazen canstick 

turned, 

Or a dry wheel grate on the axle- 
tree; 
And that would set my teeth nothing 

on edge, 

Nothing so much as mincing poetry. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

Eel. TO GET USED TO ANY- 
THING, LIKE AN EEL TO SKIN- 
NING. A sarcastic phrase, 
used of any painful experience 
which is repeated. C. 

It ain't always pleasant to turn out 
for morning chapel, is it. Gig-lamps? 
But it's just like the eels with their 
skinning it goes against the grain 
at first, out you soon get used to it. 
Verdant Green, ch. vn. 

Effect. IN EFFECT really ; 
actually. P. 

To say of a celebrated piece that 
there are faults in it is, in effect 
(really), to say that the author of it 
is a man. ADDISON. 

To TAKE EFFECT to operate ; 
to act as intended. P. 

The medicine took effect, and the 
patient fell into a sound sleep. 

Eg-g 1 . To EGG ON to urge; 
to incite. P. 

She would then be in a better posi- 
tion to judge how far it was the girl's 
own doing, and how far she had been 
egged on to it by others. Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

AS SURE AS EGGS IS EGGS 

certainly ; assuredly. S. Per- 



El Dorado 



haps a corruption of "As sure 
as a; is a; " a dictum in 
logic. 

And the bishop said, " Sure as eggs 
is eggs, this here is the bold Turpin." 
DICKENS. 

lO HAVE ALL ONE'S EGGS IN 
ONE BASKET to risk all one's 
goods in the same venture ; 
to have everything dependent 
on the security of one particular 
thing or one particular under- 
taking. C. 

I know your happiness depends on 
her. All your eggs are in that one 
basket. C. READE. 

A BAD EGG a worthless fellow. 
S. 

The parson's eldest son is a bad 
egg (worthless fellow). 

El Dorado. AN EL DORADO 
a golden land ; a country 
full of gold and gems. P. 
The expression is a Spanish 
one, and is generally associated 
with the discoveries Spanish 
adventurers made in the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries. 

The whole comedy is a sort of El 
Dorado of wit. T. MOORE. 

These public readings have proved 
an El Dorado (a mine of wealth) to 
the novelist, and form a new feature 
in the modern literary life. Cham- 
bers's Cyclopaedia of English Litera- 
ture. 

"Why, the dollars come in by 
handfuls, and silk's as cheap as 
calico." 

How could woman resist such an 
El Dorado? G. J. WHYTE-MEL- 

VILLE. 

Elbow. ELBOW-GREASE hard 
scrubbing ; hard work. F. 

"Not at all, Mrs. Broughton ; suc- 
cess depends on elbow-grease." 

" On what, Conway? 

" On elbow-greasehard work, that 
is; and I must work hard now if I 
mean to take advantage of to-day's 
sitting." A. TKOLLOPE. 
ELBOW-BOOM room in which 
to move easily ; sufficient 
space. F. 

"You will have elbow-room out 
here, eh?" said he. "You will not 
crowd your neighbours off the pave- 
ment." WM. BLACK. 

Whatever the result of the convul- 
sion whose first shocks were begin- 
ning to be felt, there would still be 



79 En 

enough square miles of earth for 
elbow-room. J. R. LOWELL. 
OUT AT ELBOWS shabbily 
dressed ; wearing ragged 
clothes. C. 

When a man's getting out at elbows 
(dress becomes shabby) nobody will 
believe in him. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Elephant. To HAVE SEEN 
THE ELEPHANT to be ac- 
quainted with all the latest 
movements ; to be knowing. 

S. 

He is quite well able to take care 
of himself ; he has seen the elephant 
(is a crafty fellow). 

Elevation. THE ELEVATION 
OF THE HOST the' part of the 
Mass in which the celebrant 
raises the consecrated wafer 
above his head to be adored 
by the people (Roman Catholic 
Church). 

Eleventh. AT THE ELEVENTH 
HOUR just in time and no 
more. P. See the parable of 
the Labourers in the Vine- 
yard, Matt. xx. 1. 

Sir, have you no shame to come 
here at the eleventh hour among 
those who have borne the heat and 
burden of the day? R. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

Embarras. EMBARRAS DE 
RICHESSE excess of material; 
the perplexity which arises 
from the difficulty of choice 
among very many things. P. 
French. 

"I wonder if anybody ever had 
half so much to say before in a letter 
as I have to write to Jack," specu- 
lated Miss Gray, leaning forward on 
her crossed arms, and not knowing 
where to begin from sheer embarras 
de richesse. SARAH TYTLER. 

En. EN RAPPORT in sympa- 
thetic connection. C. French. 
Your primary object is, by organiz- 
ing your brotherhood and putting it 
e?i rapport with the leaders of educa- 
tion in this country, to secure for it 
increased respect. Journal of Edu- 
cation, 1888. 

EN GARgoN as a bachelor ; 
in bachelor's style. C. French. 
George came to dinner a repast 
en gar<;on with Captain Crawley. 
THACKERAY. 



End 



EN MASSE in a body. P 
French. 

They therefore turned to th 
bourgeoisie en masse (in a body). 
National Review. 

EN ROUTE in the course of the 
journey. C. French. 

The Deepdale, en route from Japan 
for Australia and New Zealand ports 
was chartered to load part cargo o 
coals for Hongkong at 1 dollar 5( 
cents per ton. Japan Mail, 1887. 

Moreover, he had no intention o 
paying en route (until the close). 
MBS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

End. ON END in succession 

without a break. C. 
Peasants who have begun to sav. 

constantly continue the way of living 

we have described for years on end 

Spectator, 1887. 
TO MAKE BOTH ENDS MEET to 

make one's income cover one's 
expenditure ; to keep out of 
debt. P. 

Even Mr. Whichelo, the head clerk, 
whose children were often ailing, and 
who had a good deal of trouble to 
make both ends meet (keep out oi 
debt with his small income), smiled 
benignly upon Kate. MRS. OLI 

PHANT. 

No END OF A FELLOW a very 
fine fellow. S. 

Keats was no end of a fellow (a 
grand man). BESANT. 

Enoug-h. ENOUGH AND 
ENOUGH more than enough. 

The play has wit enough and 
enough. MADAME D'ABBLAY. 

ENOUGH is AS GOOD AS A FEAST 
what is sufficient serves the 
purpose as well as if there 
were an excess. C. 

The Koh-i-noor had got enough, 
which in most cases is more than as 
good as a feast-0. W. HOLMES 

Entpe. ENTRE NOUS " be- 
tween ourselves." Used when 
a confidential statement is 
made. P. French. 
T Entrenous, I protest I like my 
Lady Blarney vastly; so very oblig- 
ing. However, Miss Carolina Wfl- 
helmina Amelia Skeggs has my warm 
Lheart. GOLDSMITH. 

Equal. EQUAL TO THE OCCA- 
SION not perplexed ; able to 
act. P. 



80 Evil 

The "Raven," however, is 
than equal to the occasion. j 
burgh Review, 1887. 



Esprit. ESPRIT DE coi 
the desire to defend 
institution or company 
which one belongs. P. Frenc 

But when her attention wks 
arrested, as in the present case, 
her esprit de corps and her friend- 
ship were alike up in arms. SABA.H 
TYTLEB. 

Bt. ET HOC GENUS OMNE 

and everything of the sort ; 
and all similar beings or 
things. C. Latin. 

And with these forlorn creatures 
must be taken into account others- 
older, but in this respect equally for 
of sh 



lorn the whole race 
errand-boys, young m, 
genus omne. Edinburgh Review, 



op-girls, 
errand-boys, young maidens, et hoc 



Event. AT ALL EVENTS 
whatever happens ; in any 
case. P. 

At all events (in any case), Con- 
stance, you will go on to prove it by 
your original papers when you pub- 
lish your researches. BESANT. 

Ever. EVER AND ANON fre- 
quently ; from time to time. 
P. 

Ever and anon a pamphlet issued 
from the pen of Burke. HENBY 
MOBLEY. 

Every. EVERT BIT quite 5 
altogether. C. 

The copy is every bit (quite) as good 
as the original. 

VERT NOW AND THEN fre- 
quently ; after the lapse of 
short intervals. C. 

Every now and then a countryman 
would burst into tears. THACK- 
EBAY. 

Evidence. IN EVIDENCE 
actually present ; before the 
proper authorities. P. 

He persuaded himself that to get 
a lucrative appointment from his 
friends he (Moore) must keep him- 
self in evidence. Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, Ninth Edition. 

The sister whose presence she had 
relied on was not in evidence. 
Blackwood's Magazine. 

Evil. THE EVIL ETE malign 
influence (supposed to exist 



Ewe 

in the glance of certain per 
sons). P. 

Evelyn himself informs us how Si 
Stephen contrived to escape the evi 
eye (bad influence) which ordinaril 1 
pursues a self-made man. TRE" 

VELYAN. 

Ewe. A EWE LAMB a single 
possession very much prized by 
its possessor. See the parable 
of the Ewe Lamb told by 
Nathan to King David (2 
Sam. xii. 1-14). 

To be sure, there had been black 
sheep here and there a Covenanter 
to shame his royal kinsmen ; a ruffian 
in the dislocated times of the Second 

fied God and the devil alike, devoured 
of his flock such ewe lambs as pleased 
nis fancy MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

Ex. Ex CATHEDRA made with 
authority; dogmatic. P. Latin. 
~ a it has happened, not rarely, that 
icism has flagrantly blundered 
and made itself ridiculous in its ex 
cathedra decisions on the merits of 
poetry and poets. RAY PALMER 
Ex OFFICIO by virtue of one's 
office. P. Latin. 

All over the Continent the minis- 
ters of the crown or of the republic 
sit ex officio in either house from the 
day they are appointed. Spectator, 

1887. 

Ex PARTE biassed ; one-sided ; 
partial. P. Latin. 
Or perhaps I ought to have sup- 
ressed the note altogether on the 
ound that it was a mere ex varte 



press 

ground 

statement. 



ex parte 

UXLEY. 



Ex PEDE HERCULEM we recog- 
nize Hercules from the size of 
his foot ; that is, we judge of 
the whole by a typical part. 
P. Latin. 

Ex pede Herculem may often prove 
safe enough, but ex verruca Tullium 
(to recognize Cicero from the wart on 
his nose) is liable to mislead a hasty 
judge of his fellow-men. O. W. 
HOLMES. 

Ex POST FACTO after the deed 
is done. P. Latin. An 
ex post facto law is a law made 
to punish deeds already com- 
mitted. 

There were libels, no doubt, and 
prophecies, and rumours, and sus- 
picions, strange grounds for a law 



81 Experto 

inflicting capital penalties ex post 
facto (of a retrospective nature), on a 
large body of men. MACAULAY. 

Exception. To TAKE EXCEP- 
TION to be offended. P. 

Her manner was so perfectly re- 
spectful that I could not take excep- 
tion to (find fault with) this retort.- 
FARJEON. 

Execution. To DO EXECU- 
TION to be effective; to 
secure victims ; to win con- 
quests. C. Generally used 
of a lady's eyes, which are 
supposed to capture a man's 
heart. I 

Sophia's features were not so strik- 
ing at first, but often did more cer- 
tain execution. GOLDSMITH. 

She is a stout, sturdy girl of two- 
and- twenty, with a face beaming 
with good nature and marked dread- 
fully by small -pox, and a pair of 
black eyes which might have done 
some execution had they been placed 
in a smoother face. THACKERAY. 

Exetep. EXETER HALL the 
place in London where religious 
gatherings take place ; the 
religious community. 

Thither (to Africa) Manchester 
turns her longing eye, thither the 
heart of Exeter Hall is yearning. 
GRANT ALLEN, in Contemporary Ke- 
view, 1888. 

Exeunt. EXEUNT OMNES all 
go out (at the end of a scene). 
P. Latin. 

Expense. AT ANOTHER'S EX- 
PENSE with a view to depre- 
ciate the person. P. 

These satirical observations were 
made simply at Prince Albert's ex- 
pense (solely with the view of de- 
preciating Prince Albert), and were 
not intended to reflect upon the 
Queen or the Royal Family. Fort- 
nightly Review, 1887. 

Expepimentum. EXPERI- 
MENTUM CRUCIS the critical 
test. P. Latin. 

"Boiled just three hours longer 
than the other." he said ; " six 
hours in all. This is the experi- 
mentum crucis."O. W. HOLMES. 

Expepto. EXPERTO CREDE 
believe one who has gone 



Eye 

through the experience. C. 
Latin. 

"Well, if he wags his tail, you 
know it is all right ; but say he puts 
his tail between his legs, what will 
he do if you pat him ?" 

" Bite me, experto crede." C. 
READE. 

Eye. TO MAKE EYES AT to 

gaze upon amorously ; to look 
at in a loving way. C. 

On the other hand, he had a word 
or two of serious warning to say 
about Miss Sparks. "It is all very 
well," he wrote, "to laugh at the 
young lady who makes eyes at you, 
but jokes of that kind sometimes 
turn out to be no laughing matter." 
-Good Words, 1887. 
THE EYE OF THE BALTIC 

Gothland, or Gottland, an 
island in the Baltic. P. 

THE EYE OF GREECE Athens. 
P. A name applied to it by 
Milton Paradise Regained, bk. 
iv., 1. 240 : 

Athens, the eye of Greece, mother 
of arts. 

TO HAVE A GOOD EYE TO 

ANYTHING to look well after 
it ; to be quick in recog- 
nizing. C. 

I remember her, however, as a 
sensible woman, and, having a good 
eye to the main chance (being care- 
ful of money), she had been a capital 
wife to William. HUGH CONWAY. 
TO SEE WITH HALF AN EYE 

to see with great ease. F. 



Face 

To CAST SHEEP'S EYES AT-f 
to gaze at in a modest and 
diffident but longing way, 
like a bashful lover. C. 

There came a wealthy stockbroker 
who cast sheep's eyes at Helen*. 
The Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

The knight acknowledged that he 
had long been casting a sheep's pye 
at a little snug place. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

UP TO THE EYES completely ; 
fully. C. 

A neighbour's estate, mortgaged up 
to the eyes, was sold under the ham- 
mer (mortgaged to its full value, was 
sold by auction). C. READE. 
IN THE WIND'S EYE directly 
opposed to the wind. C. 

Proper scared they were to see a 
vessel, without sails or oars, going 
right straight ahead, nine knots an 
hour, in the very wind's eye (right 
against the wind). HALIBURTON. 

MY EYE ! an exclamation of 

astonishment. S. 

Down comes Mr. Yates, and there 
was the elephant standing across 
Maiden Lane all traffic interrupted 
except what could pass under her 
belly. And such a crowd my eye ! 
C. READE. 

To SEE EYE TO EYE to have the 
same opinions on any subject. 
C. A phrase mostly used in 
religious circles. 

Until we can see eye to eye (have 
the same views) on this question of 
Church government, it ia better that 
we should worship apart. 



F 



Face. A LONG FACE a sad or 
mournful countenance. C. 

Everybody was punctual, every- 
body in their best looks ; not a tear, 
and hardly a long face (melancholy 
countenance) to be seen. 

To SET ONE'S FACE AGAINST to 

oppose with determination. P. 

The old man set his face against 

(sternly opposed) the marriage from 

the very b eginning. 

To MAKE FACES to contort 
the countenance. P. 

One of the pupils, a mischievous 
little fellow, was making faces (con- 
torting his countenance) at the mas- 
ter from a back seat. 



To PUT A GOOD FACE to bear up 
courageously ; to show no 
signs of flinching. C. 

In a word, Mrs. Bute put a good 
face against fortune, and kept up 
appearances in the most virtuous 
manner. THACKERAY. 
FACE TO FACE in immediate 
presence of each other. 

She sent for Blanche to accuse her 
face to face (in her presence.) TEN- 
NYSON. 

To FACE A THING OUT to refuse 
to retire through shame or 
for fear of obloquy. P. 
She thinks with oaths to face the 
matter out. SHAKESPEARE. 



Jfcep.-She thinks that she will be 
able to maintain her innocence in 
the matter by taking grave oaths. 

TO PUT A BOLD FACE UPON - to 

act boldly, as If there was 
nothing to be ashamed of. P. 
Dundas had little or rather nothing 
to say in defence of his own consis- 
tency ; but he put a bold face on the 
matter, and opposed the motion. 
MACAULAY. 

Facile. FACILE PRINCEPS an 
easy victor ; admittedly first. 
P. Latin. 

The special line that Sir W. Har- 
court has undertaken is political 
tergiversation, and in that he is 
facile princeps, and has left all com- 
petitors behind. LORD SALISBURY, 
1887. 

Facing-s. To PUT ONE 

THROUGH ONE'S FACINGS to 

examine ; to inspect. C. 

The Greek books were again had 
out, and Grace, not at all unwillingly, 
was put through her facings. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

Fag. THE FAG END the clos- 
ing piece of any work, where 
the interest flags. P. 

The subject (of sympathy shown to 
convicted criminals) is full of in- 
terest as a problem m national psy- 
chology; but involving, as it does, 
the whole sphere of criminal pro- 
cedure in Italy, is too large to be 
dealt with at the fag end of an 
article. Times, 1887. 

Fair. FAIR GAME open to 
attack ; deserving of banter 
or criticism. C. 

Bourrienne is fair game, but the 
whole of his statements are not 
worthless. Spectator, February 18, 
1888. 

FAIR AND SQUARE honest ; just. 
C. 

His conduct all through the trans- 
action has been fair and square 
(honourable). 

TO BE ON THE FAIR WAT Ot FAIR 
ROAD TO ANYTHING - to have 

every chance of attaining 
anything. C. 

The merchant gained largely over 
the late demand for silk, and is now 



on the fair way (almost certain) to 
make a fortune. 



3 rail 

To BID FAIR to promise well. P. 

The lad bids fair to rival (gives 
promise of rivalling) his elder 
brother in scholarship. 

FAIR PLAT courteous and just 
treatment of competitors or 
enemies. P. 

I did that to get clear of the crowd, 
so that I might have fair play at him 
(struggle with him on equal terms). 
HALIBURTON. 

A wide career of unequalled se- 
curity, with emoluments undoubt- 
edly liberal for the average of good 
service, and with the moral certainty 
of fair play in promotion, has been 
opened up to character and talent 
throughout the land without dis- 
tinction of class. W. E. GLADSTONE. 
FAIR AND SOFTLY GOES FAR IN 

A DAT courtesy and modera- 
tion enable a man to effect a 
great deal. C. An Irish 
proverb. 

"Slow and sure," said his friends, 
" fair and softly goes far in a day. 
What he has, he'll hold fast: that's 
more than Marvel ever did." MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

Faith. IN GOOD FAITH with- 
out treachery ; honourably. 

There was no doubt in any one's 
mind that Allen's father had acted 
in good faith (honestly).-BESANT. 

Fall, To FALL AWAY to de- 
generate. P. 

The temptations of the lower- 
fourth soon proved too strong for 
him, and he rapidly fell away. 
HUGHES. 

To FALL AWAY FROM to aban- 
don ; to desert. P. 

"We shall beat him yet," said 
Hawes, assuming a firmness he did 
not feel, lest this man should fall 
away from him, and perhaps bear 
witness against him. C. READE. 

To FALL FLAT to cause no 
amusement or interest. C. 

It (the paper read by Warren Hast- 
ings) fell flat, as the best written de- 
fence must have fallen flat on an 
assembly accustomed to the ani- 
mated and strenuous conflicts of 
Pitt and Fox. MACAULAY. 

Her remark fell flat every one 
knows the effect of the reproduction 
of a worn-out jest and had a sober- 
ing effect upon the little company. 
JAMES PAYN. 

To FALL FOUL OF to collide 
with ; to dash against ; to 



Fall 



84 



Fall 



unwittingly attack ; to quarrel 
with. P. 

In their sallies their men might 
fall foul of (attack) each other. 

He had not been seated at table 
five minutes before he had managed 
to fall foul of everybody within 
Teacb.-Good Words, 1887. 
To FALL IN (a) to take one's 
place in the ranks. P. A 
military phrase. 

Ere Charlie had finished his ration, 
dark though it was, the men had 
fallen in. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 
(6) to become the property 
of a person after the lapse of 
a certain time. P. 

And then the inheritance fell in. 
BESANT. 

At his lordship's death in the 
Spanish campaign, in the year 1811, 
his estate fell in to the family of the 
Tiptoffs. THACKERAY. 
To FALL IN WITH to meet with ; 
to come across. P. 

"Did you ever fall in with any 
Yankees ? " 

" One or two, sir." C. R.EADE. 
To FALL OFF (a) to diminish ; 
to lose ground ; to deterio- 
rate. P. 

One regrets to note that after her 
engagement to Tom there came a sad 
falling off in her thirst for know- 
ledge. BESANT. 

"You have improved so upon the 
old days," said the archdeacon. 

"I hope we have not fallen off," 
said the bishop with a smile. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

(6) to become less attractive ; 
to be less pretty. C. 

She did not know how much her 
beauty had grown since Valentine 
found out and provided for her an 
infallible remedy against the dread- 
ful disease known to girls as " falling 
off." BESANT. 

To FALL our (a) to quarrel. P. 
I did upbraid her and fall out with 

her. SHAKESPEARE. 

She understood that he was a man 
of rank who had fallen out with his 
relatives, who held no communica- 
tion with him ; but how the estrange- 
ment had taken place she did not 
underetand.-JAMES PAYN. 

(&) to happen. P. 

If all things fall out (happen) right. 
1 shall as famous be by this exploit 
As Scythian Thomyris by Cyrus' 

death. SHAKESPEARE. 



And it fell out with me, as it fall* 
out with so vast a majority of my 
fellows, that I chose the better part. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

To FALL THROUGH to be aban- 
doned (of a scheme). P. 

These arrangements would fall 
through, and it was easy to know 
what would follow. FROUDE. 

To FALL TO to commence with 
energy (generally said of eat- 



ing). C. 
"Th 



e Bells do, father," laughed 
Meg, as she set the basin and a knife 
ana fork before him. " Well?" 

"Seem to, my pet," said Trotty, 
falling to with great vigour. 
DICKENS. 
TO FALL TO THE GROUND - (a) to 

fail from lack of support ; to 
be abandoned (of some pro- 
position). P. 

You had better let them know that 
Sir Abraham is of opinion that there 
is no case at any rate against Mr. 
Harding, and that as the action is 
worded at present it must fall to the 
ground. A. TROLLOPE. 
(&) to have no practical 
effect. 

These were your words, sir: they 
did not fall to the ground. C. 
READE. 

If we were trying to hold Egypt 
against France, the whole of these 
calculations fall to the ground. 
Fortnightly Review, 1887. 
To FALL SHORT to be defi- 
cient. P. 

Her place had been supplied by an 

excellent woman, who had fallen 

little short of (nearly equalled) a 

mother in affection. JANE AUSTEN. 

TO FALL IN LOVE WITH - to 

become enamoured of. P. 

On our first acquaintance I clearly 
saw that he was not disposed to pay 
court to my fortune, and I had also 
then coolness of judgment sufficient 
to perceive that it was n9t probable 
he should fall in love with my per- 
son. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

To TRY A FALL to engage in a 
wrestling match. P. 

You shall try but one fall (engage 
only once in a wrestle with each 
other). SHAKESPEARE. 

TO FALL UPON ONE'S FEET - to 

escape injury ; to be fortunate. 
C. The metaphor is borrowed 
from the natural fact that 
a cat, when thrown from a 



Family 85 

height, alights on its feet, 
and thus escapes any serious 
hurt. 

As usual, I observe that you have 
fallen upon your feet. Macmillan's 
Magazine, 1887. 

Family. A PERSON OF FAMILY 
a well-born person. P. 

And Mr. Irwine's sisters, as any 
person of family (lady or gentleman) 
within ten miles of Broxon could 
have testified, were such stupid, un- 
interesting women. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Fancy. FANCY FREE with 
the affections not engaged. P. 
In maiden meditation, fancy free. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

Had she dared to say so, she might 
have hinted very prettily that with 
him the sunshine would return to 
Norfolk Street; but she was no 
longer fancy free (she was now de- 
voted to a lover). JAMES PAYN. 

THE FANCY sporting charac- 
ters ; prize-fighters ; dog- 
fanciers. S. 

The patrons of the fancy (prize- 
fighting) are proud of their cham- 
pion's condition. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Fap. FAR GONE deeply affec- 
ted by some strong influence, 
such as disease, drink, or 
love. C. 

He felt a void in his heart that 
quite startled him. He had no idea 
he was so far gone (in love). G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVI LLE. 

It was a fortunate circumstance 
for Miss Fanny Squeers that when 
her worthy papa returned home on 
the night of the small tea-party, he 
was what the initiated term too far 
gone (too drunk) to observe the nu- 
merous tokens of extreme vexation 
of spirit which were clearly visible in 
her countenance. DICKENS. 
A FAR CRY a long distance. P. 
A phrase borrowed from the 
well-known saying, " It is 
a far cry to Lochawe." 

It is a far cry from Paris to Kair- 
wan. Fortnightly Revieiv, 1887. 

It is a far cry from Portugal to 
Bohemia. Contemporary Review, 
1887. 

FAR AND AWAY completely ; 
beyond comparison. P. 

Public opinion is not altogether 
wrong in crediting the Jews with an 
amount of wealth larger by a good 
deal than is their due, and, what is 



Fat 

perhaps more to the point, a propor- 
tion of rich families far and away 
beyond anything that is found among 

Gentiles. Spectator, 1887. 

FAR NIENTE do nothing ; idle- 
ness. An Italian phrase. 
See DOLCE FAR NIENTE. 

The far nimte of her Italian life 
had entered into her very soul. 
A. TKOLLOPE. 

FAR FROM IT not at all ; by no 
means. P. 

"Mr. Dickson, you say, is not, 
strictly speaking, handsome?" 

"Handsome! Oh no; far from it 
(any thing but that) certainly plain." 
JANE AUSTEN. 

Farthest. AT FARTHEST ; AT 
THE FARTHEST making the 
largest possible allowance of 
time. P. 

Parliament will certainly rise the 
first week in April at farthest (not 
later than the first week in April). 
CHESTERFIELD. 

Fashion. AFTER A FASHION 
to a certain degree ; in a cer- 
tain nominal way (generally 
said disparagingly). P. 

He knows French after a fashion 
(has a certain knowledge of French ; 
not a thorough knowledge). 

Fast. TO PLAY FAST AND LOOSE 

Or AT FAST AND LOOSE to act 

in a way inconsistent with 
one's promises or engage- 
ments ; to behave with incon- 
stancy ; to show no con- 
sideration for. P. 
And shall these hands, so lately 

purged of blood, 
Play fast and loose with (disregard) 

faith ? SHAKESPEARE. 

I hoped you had more pride than 
to let him play fast and loose with 
you in this manner. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

"It's a shame, by heavens! said 
George, "to play at fast and loose 
with a young girl's affections." 
THACKERAY. 

Fat. TO LIVE ON THE FAT OF 

THE LAND to have every 
luxury. P. 

It is well known that the family of 
the Slopes never starve : they always 
fall on their feet like cats ; and let 
them fall where they will, they live 
on the fat of the land.-A. TROL- 



Father 

THE FAT is IN THE FIRE there 
is a great splutter and con- 
fusion. F. 

He's a credit to your nation, that 
man. He's actually the first pot- 
hook on the crane ; the whole weight 
is on him : if it weren't f9r him the 
fat would be in the fire in no time 
(things would very quickly be in 
confusion). HALIBUBTON. 

TO KILL THE FATTED CALF to 

prepare the best food in the 
house for an expected guest. 
P. The phrase is used in the 
parable of the Prodigal Son 
(Luke xv.). 

To be sure, he does not live on 
husks (penunously), nor has he yet 
returned to ask for the fatted calf 
(a warm reception), and from all 
they can hear he lives in a good 
house. BESANT. 

Father. THE FATHER OF 
WATEKS the river Nile. P. 

Itasselas was the fourth son of the 
mighty emperor in whose dominions 
the Father of Waters begins his 
course. SAMUEL JOHNSON. 

TO FATHER ANYTHING ON A 

PERSON to ascribe its origin 

to him. P. 

Of the poor pagan poets, it must be 

confessed 
That time, and transcribing, and 

critical note. 
Have fathered much on them which 

they never wrote. BYRON. 

Fault. To A FAULT even 
more than is required ; to 
excess. P. 

The golden youth is generous to a 
fault. WM. BLACK. 

He was kind to a fault. THOMAS 
HARDY. 

AT FAULT puzzled ; in a diffi- 
culty how to proceed. P. Said 
of a dog when it has missed 
the scent. 

_ And then the two set about forag- 
ing for tea, in which operation the 
master was much at fault (puzzled 
how to proceed). HUGHES. 

IN FAULT to blame ; erring. P. 
Is Antony or we in fault (to blame) 
for this? SHAKESPEARE. 

To FIND FAULT WITH to blame ; 
to be displeased with. P. 

We'd find no fault with (not blame) 
the tithe-woman, if I were the 

parson.-SHAKESPEARE. 



i Feather 

Faux. A FAUX PAS a false 
step ; a breach of moral con- 
duct. C. French. 
Then it was he committed a faux 
pas.C. READE. 

Feast. FEAST OF REASON AND 
FLOW OF SOUL intellectual 
intercourse where the con- 
versation reaches a high point 
of excellence. P. 
There St. John (pronounce Siwjun) 

mingles with my friendly bowl, 
The feast of reason and the flow of 

soul. POPE. 

The guest now escaped the pomp 
of grand entertainments, was al- 
l9wed to enjoy ease and conversa- 
tion, and to taste some of that feast 
of reason and that flow of soul so 
often talked of and so seldom 
enjoyed. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Feather. To FEATHER ONE'S 
NEST to provide for one's 
own personal comfort and 
interests ; to lay by money 
for oneself. C. 

You have forgot this, have you, 
now you have feathered your nest? 
(since you have made a sufficient 
provision for yourself). CONGREVE. 

Mr. Felspar, too, seems, by all 
accounts, to have feathered his own 
nest, which, from what I have heard 
of him from Mrs. Jennynge he be- 
haved most graspingly about a 
picture I am not the least sur- 
prised at. JAMES PAYN. 

A FEATHER IN ONE'S CAP an 

honour. P. 

The fellow's very carelessness 
about these charges (accusations) 
was, in Margaret's eyes, a feather in 
his cap (something to be proud of), 
and proved, for one thing, their 
absolute want of foundation. 
JAMES PAYN. 

IN FULL FEATHER in elaborate 
costume. C. 
Annabella was at the ball in full 



IN HIGH FEATHER in high spirits; 
exultant. C. 

Martin leads the way in high 
feather; it is quite a new sensa- 
tion to him getting companions. 
HUGHES. 

TO SHOW Or FLY THE WHITE 

FEATHER to betray signs of 
fear ; to be a coward. C. 
^ My blood ran a little cold at that 
but I finished my liquor. It was 



Fee 



no use flying a white feather (show- 
ing signs of fear) ; so say I (I said), 
"Here's to the Corsair's bride." C. 
READE. 

Fee. FEE-FAW-FUM. See FIE- 
FOH-FUM. 

This is very good and original. 
The "boiling" is in the first fee-faw- 
fum style, and the old allusion to 
the " old champion in the black cap " 
has the real Ogresque humour. 
THACKERAY. 

Fell. DR. FELL a character 
mentioned in a verse of Tom 
Brown's (1663 - 1704), and 
often referred to in literature. 
When a person is disliked, 
but no specific reason can 
be assigned for this dislike, 
it is usual to quote the lines 
I do not love thee, Dr. Fell, 
The reason why I cannot tell ; 
But this alone I know full well, 
I do not love thee, Dr. Fell. 
Can it be the story of old Dr. Fell 
(an instinctive dislike, impossible 
to explain) ; or is it the mere radiance 
of a foul soul that thus transpires 
through and transfigures its clay 
continent ? R. L. STEVENSON. 

Fiddle. To PLAT FIRST 
FIDDLE to take the lead in 
anything. F. 

Tom had no idea of playing first 
fiddle (taking the lead) in any 
social orchestra (friendly gathering). 
DICKENS. 

TO PLAT SECOND FIDDLE to 

take a subordinate position. 
F. 

She had inherited from her mother 
an extreme objection to playing, in 
any orchestra whatsoever, the second 
fiddle (occupying, under any circum 
stances, a secondary place). JAMES 
PAYN. 

SCOTCH FIDDLE the itch (so 
called from the motion of the 
hand in scratching). S. 

FIDDLE-DE-DEE an exclama- 
tion of impatience and con- 
tempt. C. 

I told him I was discouraged 
and unhappy ; his daughter's heart 
seemed above my reach. 

" Fiddle-de-dee ! " (away with such 
talk), said he. " It all comes of this 
new system courting young ladies 
before marriage spoils them." 
EEADE. 



87 Field 

Fiddler. FIDDLER'S GREEN 
a fabled place of happiness 
and jollity ; the Happy Land 
of sailors. F. 
Says the parson one day as I cursed 

a Jew: 
" Now, do you not know that is a 

sin? 
Of you sailors I fear there are but 

a few 
That St. Peter to heaven would 

ever let in." 
Fays I, "Mr. Parson, to tell you my 

mind, 
Few sailors to knock were ever yet 

seen: 
Those who travel by land may steer 

against wind, 

But we shape a course for Fiddler's 
Green." 

Song quoted in 
H. R. Haggard's " Dawn." 

FIDDLER'S NEWS news that 
comes very late. F. 

" Have you heard that the Pope is 
ill?" "Oh, that's fiddler's news" 
(known to every one). 

Fiddlestick. FIDDLESTICK or 
FIDDLESTICKS an exclamation 
of impatience ; nonsense. F. 
"A question of fiddlestick !" (mere 
nonsense), cried the doctor angrily, 
walking about the room. MBS. OLI- 
PHANT. 

Fie. FIE-FOH-FUM words such 
as would be uttered by a 
bloodthirsty monster ; blus- 
tering talk. F. 



I smell the 



Fie, foh, and fum, 

blood of an Englishman. 



SHAKESPEARE. 



Field. TO BE IN THE FIELD 

to be a competitor for any 
prize. C. 

From the very first, Mitchell per- 
ceived that there could be little hope 
for him so long as Gilbert Segrave 
remained in the field (continued to 
be a competitor). Good Words, 
1887. 
TO KEEP Or HOLD THE FIELD - 

to maintain one's ground 
against all opponents. P. 

There all day long Sir Pelleas kept 

the field (proved himself victorious 

against all competitors). TENNY- 

SON. 

TO TAKE THE FIELD - to COm- 

mence warlike operations. P. 

Napoleon took the field (began the 

campaign) with 100,000 picked troops. 



Fig 



88 



Fish 



Pig-. A FIG FOB ANY ONE 

an expression of contempt = 
"What do I care for him!" F. 
Let it come, i' faith, and I'll pledge 
you all; and a fig for Peter! 
SHAKESPEARE. 
Yet, .whoop, Jack ! kiss Gillian the 

Till she bloom like the rose, and a 
fig for the vicar ! SCOTT. 

Fight. TO FIGHT SHY OF to 

avoid. C. 

If you fight shy of him, miss, you 
may remember this, that you will 
fight shy of me at the same time. 
A. TROLLOPS. 

TO FIGHT FOR ONE'S OWN HAND 

to truggle for one's personal 
interests. P. 

In opposition you will recover 
vigour and freedom ; you will fight 
for your own hand. The Mistletoe 
Bough, 1885. 

Each should fight for his own 
.-WM. B 



hand. 



JLACK. 



Figure. To MAKE A FIGURE 
to distinguish oneself. P. 

Besides, he would have been 
greatly hurt not to be thought well 
of in the world ; he always meant to 
make a figure (distinguish himself), 
and be thought worthy of the best 
seats and the best morsels. GEORG K 
ELIOT. 

To FIGURE OUT to ascertain an 
amount by careful computa- 
tion. F. 

I have figured out the expenses of 
the trip, and find it will cost us at 
least twenty pounds. 

To FIGURE UP to add items into 
a total. F. 

To cur A FIGURE to make a 
grand appearance. C. 

He ruined his mother that he 
might cut a figure (appear splendid) 
at the university THACKERAY. 

Fin. TO TIP ANOTHER YOUR 

FIN to shake hands with 
him. S. 

Come, old fellow, tip us your fin 
(shake hands with me). 

Find. To FIND ONESELF to 
provide for oneself ; to buy 
provisions for oneself. F. 
Said of a servant or employe. 
Otherwise he " found " himself in 
childish fashion out of the six 
or seven weekly shillings. F 
MARZIALS, in Life of Dickens 



TO FIND IT IN ONE'S HEART to 

persuade oneself. P. 

I could not find it in my heart 
(persuade myself) to dismiss the old 
man, who had been about the house 
so long. 

Fine. IN FINE in conclusion; 
to sum up. P. 

In fine, Rob was despatched for a 
coach, the visitors keeping shop 
meanwhile. DICKENS. 

Fing-ep. To HAVE A FINGER 
IN THE PIE to be mixed up 
in any affair. C. 

But then they dearly loved having 
a finger in the pie parochial. HUGH 
CONWAY. 

Instead of every man airing his 
self-consequence, thinking it bliss to 
talk at random about things, and to 
put his finger in every pie (interfere 
in every affair), you should seriously 
understand that there is a right way 
of doing things. M. ARNOLD. 
To HAVE AT ONE'S FINGERS' ENDS 
to be able to repeat or use 
without any trouble (gener- 
ally of something committed 
to memory). C. 

He was the boy to talk (very clever 
at talking) to the public : soft sawder 
dignified reproach friendly inter- 
course, he had them all at his 
fingers' ends. C. READE. 

He had Greek at his fingers' ends. 
A. TROLLOPS. 

TO ARRIVE AT ONE'S FINGERS* 

ENDS to be reduced to pov- 
erty ; to be in great straits. 
C. 

Before he was three months out of 
his Governnient post, Brown had 
arrived at his fingers' ends (come to 
great poverty). 

Fire. To FIRE UP to become 
angry ; to show indignation. 
C. 

Now a high-minded, honest man 
would have fired up at this. B. L. 
FARJEON. 

First. FIRST CHOP first-rate ; 
of the highest excellence. F. 
An Anglo -Chinese expression. 
"As for poetry, I hate poetry." 
Pen's is not first chop," says War- 
nngton. THACKERAY. 

Fish. NEITHER FISH, FLESH, 

NOR GOOD RED HERRING 

difficult to classify ; having 
no pronounced character. C. 



Fish i 

A phrase used by Tom Brown 
and Dryden. 

Was he a Tory or a Liberal? or was 
he neither fish, flesh, nor the other 
thing? 

NEITHER FISH NOR FOWL odd ; 
difficult to classify. C. 

She would be a betwixt-and-be- 
tween kind of thing, as the cook said, 
with her nose in the air neither fish 
nor fowl and very likely a spy and 
a plague. MBS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
A FISH OUT OF WATER. Said of 
a person who is placed in a 
position which is strange and 
distasteful to him. F. 

Mr. Dance stood there, as he said, 
"like a fish out of water." K. L. 
STEVENSON. 

A LOOSE FISH a man of dissi- 
pated habits. F. 

Mr. Henry Fielding, a writer of 
plays and novels then much in 
vogue, but a sad, loose fish. G. A. 
SALA. 

A QUEER FISH an eccentric 
person. F. 

" And what sort of fellow did you 
find Crawley, Uncle Tom?" 

" Such a queer fish so unlike any- 
body else in the world ! "A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

ALL'S FISH THAT COMES TO HIS 

NET he is not very particu- 
lar or scrupulous. C. 

Everything is fish that comes to 
Mr. Prey's net. Spectator, February 
18, 1888. 
TO MAKE FISH OF ONE AND FLESH 

OF ANOTHER to treat two 
persons in different fashions ; 
to show partiality. F. 

I mean to show no favouritism; 

all the class will receive the same 

treatment. I do not mean to make 

fish of one and flesh of another. 

TO FISH FOR COMPLIMENTS to 

converse in a way that in- 
duces people to pay compli- 
ments to you ; to lead people 
to praise you, because they 
see you wish to be praised. C. 
" But you did, perhaps," she added 
innocently, fishing for a compliment. 
THOMAS HARDY. 

OTHER FISH TO FRY other busi- 
ness to attend to. F. 

"I never asked you about your 
spill the other night," says she in her 
loud voice ; "I had other fish to fry." 
KHODA BROUGHTON. 



> Flag 

"My dear girl," he said, "I have 
no wish to tempt your feet from the 
paths of domestic virtue no wish to 
harm you. I have finer fish to fry." 
H. CONWAY. 

GIVE YOUR OWN FISH-GUTS TO 
YOUR OWN SEA -MAWS give 

what you have to spare to 
those who belong to you, 
and not to strangers. S. 

The contracts should be given to 
English companies ; let us keep our 
own fish-guts for our own sea- 
maws (our good things for our own 
citizens). 

Fit. To FIT IN WITH to agree 
exactly with. P. 

Under such temptations careless 
or ill-educated people, even if they 
would not invent circumstances or 
dates, are extremely apt to twist 
them so as to fit in with what they 
have undertaken to prove. Spec- 
tator, April 14, 1888. 

To BE FIT to be in good health. 
S. 

" How are you ? " " Very fit, thank 
you ; never felt better." 

FltS. BY FITS AND STARTS 

spasmodically ; without steady 
application. P. 

He works by fits andJ starts (with 
intervals of idleness), and will not 
apply himself. 

Flag 1 . THE FLAG AT HALF- 
MAST. This is a sign of 
mourning, observed especially 
by vessels in harbour, when 
any personage dies. P. 

"I noticed that the flag on the 
castle was half-mast high." 

"Indeed!" sighed Ella; "then I 
fear I have some fellow-sufferer" 
(some one else has lost a near rela- 
tive). JAMES PAYN. 

TO HANG OUT THE WHITE FLAG 

to show willingness to come 
to terms, generally in token 
of surrender. P. 

Bazaine at length resolved to hang 
out the white flag (intimate to the 
enemy that he was willing to sur- 
render). 
TO HANG OUT THE RED FLAG 

(a) to intimate danger. P. 
The red flag warns of danger. 
White is all right, 
Red is all wrong, 
Green goes gently bowling along. 
Mnemonic Rhyme Jor 

Railway Signalmen. 



Flame 

(&) to give signal for battle. 

P. 

The Chesapeake then hung out her 
red flag (gave the signal for fighting), 
and was answered by a broadside 
from the Shannon. 

Flame. A FLAME a sweet- 
heart. F. 

A few miles off in the valley, where 
she never by any chance went, the 
excursion trains used to vomit forth, 
at Easter and in Whitsun week, 
throngs of the mill hands of the 
period, cads and their flames. 
OUIDA. 

AN OLD FLAME a former sweet- 
heart. C. 

I suppose she was an old flame of 
the colonel's. THACKERAY. 

Flare. To FLARE UP to go 
into a passion. C. 

At this reference to her husband 
she flared up (showed her indigna- 
tion), and asked the man what he 
meant. 

Flash. A FLASH IN THE PAN 

an abortive attempt ; a 
failure of some ambitious 
undertaking. P. The phrase 
is taken from a flint-lock gun 
which, though loaded, fails 
sometimes to go off when the 
flint is struck. 

The rising at Kilrush was a 
mere flash in the pan (an abortive 
attempt). 

THE FLASH GENTRY thieves ; 
professional rogues. F. 

"Nice boys, both," said their 
father. "They won't turn up their 
noses as if they were gentlemen. A 
pretty kind of flash gentlemen you 
are!' BESANT. 

To FLASH FIRE to throw angry 
or passionate glances; to 
make the eyes glisten with 
strong emotion. P. 
The eyes of the Indian monarch 
flashed fire, and his dark brow grew 
darker as he replied, " I will be no 
man's {ributary. ! '-pR E scoTT; 

Flat. To FALL FLAT to fail 
to cause interest or amuse- 
ment. P. 

.She had a dry, queer humour, and 
loved a joke ; but Phil's fell very flat 
his jokes were very far from interest- 
ing her) this mght.-BLACKMOKE 

A FLAT a dull-witted person. S. 



nacular. " you try it yo 
see if he don't put you dc 
quick, or send you flying 
in your ear "(with a sharp 



90 Fling 

He hasn't got these qualities yet, 
or he wouldn't have been such a flat 
to-night as to let Jack Raggles go in 
out of his turn. HUGHES. 

Flea. A FLEA-BITE something 
trifling; a thing of no impor- 
tance. F. 

Doubtless to a man of Mr. Aird's 
fortune such things are but flea- 
bites. JAMES PAYN. 
A FLEA IN ONE'S EAR an annoy- 
ing suggestion ; an unwel- 
come repulse. S. 

"I wouldn't do it, if it was ever 
so !" exclaimed Mrs. Jennynge, who 
in this extremity had utterly dis- 
carded her French for the ver- 
nacular. "You try it yourself, and 
down pretty 
ig with a flea 
th a sharp rebuke). 

JAMESJPAYN. 

Flesh. FLESH-POTS, or THE 

FLESH - POTS OF EGYPT 

material welfare ; sordid con- 
siderations. P. The refer- 
ence is to the conduct of the 
children of Israel in the 
desert, many of whom grew 
weary of the plain food. See 
Ex. xvi. 3. 

And he was grateful to her father 
(on account or the dowry) for her, 
not for himself, with whom the 
flesh-pots did not count. MRS. E. 

AjYNN LlNTON. 

I had forgiven her ; I had not felt 
that it was anything but an escape 
not to have marriea a girl who had 
it in her to take back her given word 
and break a fellow's heart for mere 
flesh-pots. HENRY JAMES, JUN. 

FLESH AND BLOOD human 
nature. P. 

Not as I wish to speak disrespect- 
ful o' them as have got the power 
i' their hands, but it's more than 
flesh and blood (human nature) 'ul 
bear sometimes. GEORGE ELIOT. 

TO MAKE THE FLESH CREEP to 

cause a sensation of dread and 
horror. P. 

" My dear Mr. Aird, you make our 
flesh creep ! " (you horrify us), re- 
monstrated Mrs. Wallace; where- 
upon he desisted. JAMES PAYN. 

Fling. To FLING FROM to 
leave hastily in ill temper; 
to quit in disgust. C. 

He flung from her and went out of 
the room. S. RICHARDSON. 



Flint 



91 



To FLING OVER to desert ; to 

cease to assist or patronize. C. 

"Of course, the old girl will fling 

him over, said the physician. - 

THAOKEBAY. 

TO HAVE A FLING AT ; TO IN- 

DULGE IN A FLING AT to 

attack sarcastically. C. 

I even went so far as to indulge 
in a fling at (attack sarcastically) 
the State House, which, as we all 
know, is in truth a very imposing 
structure. HOLMES. 
To HAVE ONE'S FLING to indulge 
in fun or in dissipation. S. 

The time which Tom allowed him- 
self away from his charge was from 
locking-up till supper-time. During 
this hour or hour-and-half he used 
to take his fling (give way to unre- 
strained fun). HUGHES. 
l 



As for me, all I look forward to is 
o have my little fling 
little dissipation), and then to 



to have my little fling (indulge in 
little dissipation), and then to give 
up the gaieties of London and take 



a quiet villa and have a garden. 
BESANT. 



FIX ANOTHER'S 
HIM to punish 



Flint. To 

FLINT FOR 

him. S. 

"That is worse still," said I, "be- 
cause you can't resent it yourself. 
Leave him to me, and I'll fix his 
flint for him " (castigate him). HALI- 

BUBTON. 

To SKIN A FLINT to be excess- 
ively mean in one's dealings. 
F. 

Flipper. A TIP OF THE FLIP- 
PER a shake of the hand. 
Sailors' slang. 

I say. old fellow, give me a tip of 
your flipper (shake hands with me). 

FlOOP. TO TAKE THE FLOOR 

to rise to address a public 
meeting. P. 

Mr. Hardcastle then took the floor 
(rose to speak), and, in a long and 
able speech, advocated the cause of 
bi-metallism. 

To HAVE THE FLOOR to have 
the right of addressing a 
meeting by rising before other 
intending speakers. P. 

The chairman ruled that Judge 
Ellis had the floor (possessed the 
right to speak). 

Flotsam. FLOTSAM AND JET- 
SAM goods lost at sea, and 



Ply 

either floating in the water 
or cast on shore. P. 

But even Germans, like Herr von 
Hartmann, who set such store by 
a thorough knowledge of modern 



languages which 



ow muc ey a os n rowng 
overboard, as so much flotsam and 
jetsam, the only intelligent clue to 
the understanding of the long and 
difficult words or English and of 
French and her sister tongues of 
Latin descent. Journal of Educa- 
tion, February 1888. 

Fly. FLY - AWAY absurd ; 
fantastic. F. 

It was not easy to put her into a 
fly-away bonnet now, or to keep the 
bonnet in its place on the back of 
her poor nodding head when it was 
got on. DICKENS. 

TO FLY OUT AGAINST Or AT tO 

speak in a rash, impulsive 
manner against. C. 

It 'ud ill become a man In a public 
office to fly out (speak rashly) again' 
King George. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Poor choleric Sir Brian would fly 
out at his coachman, his butler, or 
his gamekeeper ; would use language 
to them which, proceeding from any 
other master, would have brought 
about a prompt resignation on the 
part of the aggrieved servant. Good 

TO FLY IN THE FACE OF to 

oppose directly and in a 
reckless fashion. C. 

Every evening before we left Paris 
I saw her, and implored her to trust 
herself to me and leave Paris as my 
wife ____ But, with all this, she was 
firm, and would not fly in her 
parents' face. C. READE. 

TO FLY IN THE FACE OF PROVI- 

DENCE to do a deliberately 
imprudent thing ; to court 
danger or death. C. 

Dr. Cooper had told her that to 
sleep with the child would be to fly 
in the face of Providence ; for if any 
mischief was really brewing, she 
would in that case be certain to 
suffer from it. JAMES PAYN. 
WITH FLYING COLOURS hon- 
ourably ; triumphantly. P. 

But for my part I have always 
thought that their both getting their 
degree at last with flying colours (in 
a distinguished way) after three 
weeks of a famous coach (private 



Fold 

tutor) for fast men, four nights with- 
out going to bed, and an incredible 
consumption of wet towels, strong 
cigars, and brandy-and-water, was 
one of the most astonishing feats 
of mental gymnastics I ever heard 
of. M. ARNOLD. 

THE FLYING DUTCHMAN the 
name applied to the express 
train running from London 
to Exeter on the broad-gauge 
railway ; so called on account 
of its speed. The term 
originally belonged to a phan- 
tom ship, which was sup- 
posed to fly over the waves 
till the day of judgment. 

Then he went on to other supersti- 
tions, the Flying Dutchman, etc. 
K. H. DANA, JUN. 

TO FLY OFF AT THE HANDLE 

to become excited ; to act 
impulsively. F. 

lie was full of crotchets that way, 
and the sight of the sea, or even a 
mere flower, would make him fly 
right off at the handle. HALI- 
BURTON. 

Fold. To FOLD ONE'S HANDS 
to be idle ; to do nothing 
but rest oneself. C. 

To no New Yorker, to no American, 
would that (the possession of a 
fortune) seem a reason for folding 
his hands. Nineteenth Century, 1887. 

Follow. TO FOLLOW SUIT 

to behave in the same manner ; 
to do as the person before you 
has done. C. A phrase bor- 
rowed from card-playing. 

But when the fortunes of Kings- 
cliff began to rise, the fortunes of 
the gallant adniiral followed suit. 

Food. TO BECOME FOOD FOR 

FISHES to be drowned. F. 
. , 15ut he was dead enough, for all 
that, being both shot and drowned, 
and was food for fish in the very 
Place where he had designed my 
sla.ughter.-R. L. STEVENSON. 

If you d been of the same kidney 
as Sawney M'Gillicuddy," he said 
^Peaking of the poor Scotch lad who 
had died, Id have made you food 
for fishes long ago."-G. A. SALA. 

TO BE FOOD FOR WORMS to be 

in one's grave ; to be dead 
and buried. F. 



Foot 

The certificates are all genuine: 
Snawley had another son, he has 
been married twice, his first wife 
is dead : none but her ghost could 
tell she didn't write that letter ; none 
but Snawley himself can tell that 
this is not his son, and that his son 
is food for worms. DICKENS. 
FOOD FOR POWDER a con- 
temptuous name applied to 
soldiers. F. 

There go the poor conscripts food 
for powder (soon to be shot down on 
the battlefield). 

Fool. TO BE A FOOL FOR ONE'S 

PAINS to take unnecessary 
and thankless trouble. F. 

If you propose to take him in and 
board him for that small sum, you 
will be a fool for your pains (trouble 
yourself needlessly, and receive no 
thanks). 

A FOOL'S PARADISE a state of 
happiness where everything 
is unreal and certain to be 
shattered. 
Into a limbo large and broad, since 

called 

The Paradise of Fools. MILTON, 
Paradise Lost, bk. iii., 1. 495. 

I feel a little humiliated, Claire: 
but I think I am the better for all 
these lessons. See in what a fool's 
paradise (deceptive state of happi- 
ness) I used to live. BESANT. 

To MAKE A FOOL OF to deceive ; 
to make ridiculous. P. 

It was all very well 'to have Mr. 
Slope at her feet, and to show her 
power by makingan utter fool of 
a clergyman. A. TROLLOPE. 

To FOOL AWAY to spend on 
objects of little value. C. 

Instead of learning your lessons 
for to-morrow, you have been fooling 
away (frittering) your time with the 
animals. 

Foot. TO PUT THE BEST FOOT 
FOREMOST Or FORWARD (a) to 

walk as rapidly as possible; to 
exert oneself to the utmost. C. 

The girl made up her mind to put 
the best foot foremost (put forth all 
her powers of walking), and run 
through her terrors at such a pace 
that none of them could lay hold 
of her. R. BLACKMOKE. 
(&) to make the best display 
possible. C. 

Linlithgow put her best foot for- 
ward (made her best appearance) last 
Saturday, when the freedom of that 



Foot 



93 



Force 



ancient and royal city was presented 
to the Earl of Rosebery. St. An- 
drews Citizen, 1886. 

To PUT ONE'S FOOT IN IT to 
make an awkward mjstake ; to 
say something embarrassing. C. 
Women have such confounded 
queer ways. You're sure to put 
your foot in it if you intermeddle. 
WM. BLACK. 

WITH ONE FOOT IN THE GRAVE 

very feeble ; having but a 
short time to live. P. 

It is sometimes the fate of a poet 
to succeed, only when he has one 
foot in the grave (has but a short 
time longer to live). BESANT. 

To PUT DOWN ONE'S FOOT to 
refuse to go further ; to be 
firm in refusing. C. 

I remember when the late Sir 
George Cornwall Lewis wanted to 
get some statistics about the reli- 
gious denominations, your friend 
Bottles, who is now a millionaire 
and a Churchman, was then a Par- 
ticular Baptist. " No," says Bottles, 
"here I put down my foot (refuse 
firmly). No Government on earth 
shall ask me whether I am a Par- 
ticular Baptist or a Muggletonian. 
M. ARNOLD. 

AT ONE'S FEET submissive ; in 
a suppliant attitude. C. 

It was all very well to have Mr. 
Slope at her feet, to show her power 
by making an utter fool of a clergy- 
man. A. TROLLOPE. 

THE CLOVEN FOOT one of the 
marks of the devil. To dis- 
play the cloven foot is to 
betray an evil purpose. C. 

At a subsequent meeting he (Dr. 
Ritchie) had to answer the charge 
that his party were showing the 
cloven foot (displaying sinister 
designs). The doctor was attired, 
as was his wont, punctiliously 
knee-breeches, silk stockings, and 
dress shoes. So, extending his 
shapely limb, he asked with an 
air of triumph, "Do you call that 
a cloven foot?" Whereupon a 
mechanic in the gallery shouted out 
in a gruff voice, "Tak 1 aff (take off) 
the shoe, sir, and we'll see!" DR. 
GUTHRIE. 

But they had not long been man 
and wife ere Tom began to show 
the cloven foot. G. J. WHYTE 
MELVILLE. 

To FOOT IT to dance. C. 

Of course they found the master's 
house locked up and all the servants 



away in the close, about this time 
no doubt footing it away on the 
grass. HUG HES. 

To PUT ONE'S FOOT ON ANOTHER'S 
NECK to crush or trample 
upon him. P. 

She should tramp the roads as a 
mendicant. He would put his foot 
on her neck. HALL CAINE. 

TO FALL ON ONE'S FEET to 

meet with unexpected good- 
luck. C. 

I had certainly fallen on my feet. 
Temple Bar, 1888. 

To FOOT A BILL to pay the 
expenses incurred. C. 
Goa, in the case of final French 



and foot the bills. Harper'sMonthly, 
September 1887. 

THE FIRST-FOOT the person who 
is the first to cross the 
threshold of a house on New- 
Year's morning. P. 

It matters not upon which side of 
the Border it may be and north- 
ward the feeling extends far beyond 
the Border there is a mysterious, 
an ominous importance attached to 
the individual who first crosses the 
threshold after the clock has struck 
twelve at midnight on the 31st of 
December, or who is the first-foot in 
a house after the new year has begun. 
WILSON'S Tales of the Border. 

To PAY ONE'S FOOTING- to pay 
the necessary fees or perqui- 
sites on being admitted to any 
club or society. P. 

When he had paid his footing, the 
members all wished him good-luck, 
and drank his health. 

Force. To FORCE A MAN'S 
HAND to compel him to act 
prematurely, or to adopt a 
policy he dislikes. P. 

The best guarantee against such 
a course is the repugnance of the 
German emperor to engage in a new 
struggle ; but if it were determined 
on by all but himself, the emperor s 
hand might be forced (the emperor 
might be compelled unwillingly to 
declare war). Spectator, 1886. 

To COME INTO FORCE (of a law 
or regulation) to begin to be 
enforced. P. 

The law making paper money no 
longer legal tender comes into force 



Fore 94 

(is put in actual operation) next 
July. 

Fore. To THE FORE present; 
on the scene. C. 

It never did really occur to him 
that any one would have the wild 
audacity to run away with one 
of his sisters, while he, Mr. Tom 
Beresford, was to the fore. WM. 
BLACK. 

Forelock. To TAKE TIME or 

OCCASION BY THE FORELOCK 

to avoid delay; to be on 
the alert for every available 
opportunity. C. Time is 
represented as an old man 
with a single lock of hair on 
the forehead, and an hour- 
glass and a scythe in his 
hands. 

Time flies here with such a fright- 
ful rapidity that I am compelled to 
seize occasion by the forelock. 
THACKERAY. 

Forget. To FORGET ONESELF 
to be guilty of an un- 
worthy act or word ; to lose 
command of one's tongue or 
temper. P. 

The little gentleman shocked the 
propriety of the breakfast-table by 
a loud utterance of three words, of 
which the two last were "Webster's 
"Unabridged," and the first was an 
emphatic monosyllable ("damn"). 
"Beg pardon," he added " forgot 
myself" (I have said hastily what 
I should not). HOLMES. 

Fork. To FORK OUT to hand 
out money ; to take from 
one's pocket. S. 

I'll fork out and stump. DICKENS. 

If I am willing to fork out a sum 
of money, he may be willing to give 
up his chance or Diplow. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

Forlorn. A FORLORN HOPE 
a desperate venture. P. 

He had not merely, as the French 
say, the courage of his opinions ; but 
his opjnions became principles, and 
gave him that gallantry of fanaticism 
which made him always ready to 
head a forlorn hope. J. R. LOWELL, 
on Josiah Quincy. 

Form. IN FORM in good con- 
dition; able to do oneself 
credit. C. 



Free 

"Were you in form, Babs?" asked 
Mrs. Gaysworthy. MRS. E. LYNN 
LINTON. 

Forty. FORTY WINKS a short 
sleep during the day. F. 
Then came forty winks ; and after- 



wards he would play whist for high 
stakes. Saturday Review, 1888. 

Fours. - TO GO ON ALL FOURS 

(a) to crawl on the hands 
and feet or on the hands and 
knees. P. 

He looked up, and beheld what he 
judged, by the voice, to be Mrs. 
Armytage : her face was averted 
from him, and kept close to the 
cliff, down which she had been pro- 
ceeding backward, and on all fours 
(using hands as well as feet), until 
fear and giddiness had checked her 
progress. JAMES PAYN. 
- (&) to be exactly apposite. 
P. 

No simile can go on all fours. 
MACAULAY. 

What was it Brabantio said to 
Othello after the council scene? 
"She has deceived her father, and 
may thee." The quotation isn't 
quite on all fours, but it's near 
enough. F. ANSTEY. 

Fourth. THE FOURTH ESTATE 

the press ; newspapers. P. 
All these I have had to pass by, 

and to confine myself to a broad and 



general description of the origin of 
those higher representatives of 
journalism which we all have in our 



minds when we speak of the activity 
and power of the fourth estate. 
CHARLES PEABODY, in English Jour- 
nalism. 

THE FOURTH OF JULY the 
United States' national holi- 
day. P. 

We may prove that we are this, and 
that, and the other our Fourth of 
July orators have proved it time 



and again the census has proved 
J. R. LOWELL. 



it. 



Free. A FREE FIGHT a fight 
joined in by a whole crowd ; 
a promiscuous combat. C. 

So many free fights, brave robber- 
ies, gallant murders, dauntless kick- 
ings. BESANT. 

To MAKE FREE to venture ; to 
be bold enough. C. 

My landlord made free to send up 
a jug of claret without my asking. ~ 
THACKERAY. 






Freedom 

Freedom. THE FREEDOM OF A 
CITY immunity from county 
jurisdiction, and the privilege 
of corporate taxation and 
self-government held under a 
charter from the crown. The 
right to share in these privi- 
leges is conferred, with the 
parliamentary franchise or 
right of voting, on distin- 
guished persons whom the 
city desires to honour. P. 

Linlithgow put her best foot for- 
ward last Saturday, when the free- 
dom of that ancient and royal city 
was presented to the Earl of Rose 
bery. St. Andrews Citizen, 1886. 
French. To TAKE FRENCH 
LEAVE (a) to go off secretly, 
without notice or warning 
to elope. C. 

The truth is, she had quitted the 
premises for many hours, and upon 
that permission which is called 
French leave among us. THACK- 
ERAY. 

But as I was certain I should not 
be allowed to leave the enclosure, 
my only plan was to take French 
leave, and slip out when nobody was 
watching. R. L. STEVENSON. 

You must take French leave and 
run away from Newly and your 
charming wife for six months. 
AUSTEN PEMBER. 

-(&) to enter without invita- 
tion ; to do anything without 
obtaining permission. C. 

The solicitor, taking French leave, 
led us across the spacious vestibule 
to the library, much to the amaze- 
ment of the servants. B. L. FAR- 
JEON. 

To FRIGHTEN THE FRENCH to 

inspire great terror. F. 

The look of you and your armed 
companions is enough to frighten 
the French. 

Friday. A MAN FRIDAY a 
constant and submissive at- 
tendant. P. See Defoe's 
Robinson Crusoe. 

He flung himself down at little 
Osborne's feet, and loved him. Even 
before they were acquainted, he 
had admired Osborne in secret. Now 
he was his valet, his dog, his man 
Friday. THACKERAY. 

Friend. A FRIEND AT COURT 
a person with influence in 
a powerful quarter. P. 



Full 



Not m that place, p'raps." re 
turned the grinder, with a wink. " ' 
shouldn't wonder friends at court 



re- 

------- friends aif court, 

you know but never you mind, 
mother, just now; I'm all right, 
that's all."-DicKENs. 
To BE FRIENDS WITH to be on 
good terms with. C. 

"Why were you so glad to be 
friends with M. Paul?*' asks the 
reader. CURRER BELL. 

To MAKE FRIENDS to become 
friendly ; to he reconciled 
after a quarrel. C. 

This was a stinger (sharp retort): 
and so sudden, his hearers looked 
rather sheepish at him. It was the 
policeman who answered: 

"If you will come to the station, 
I will undertake to find you that." 

Patrick assented, and on the way 
they made friends (became friendly) 
C. READE. 

To BE FRIENDS to be on friendly 
terms. F. 

Look here. Gilbert, I want to be 
friends with you again. "W. E. 
NORRIS. 

Front. To COME TO THE 
FRONT to take a prominent 
position ; to rise to a chief 
place. P. 

About this time Bismarck "began 
to come to the front (take a promi- 
nent position) in European politics. 



Fpy. SMALL FRY 
cant people. C. 



insignifi- 



hi 

fry (insignificant). JAM-IS PAYN. 

OUT OF THE FRYING-^AN INTO 

THE FIRE from a bad position 
into a worse. C. 

If it were not for Claire I would 
jump out of this frying-pan, which 
scorches and broils yes, still, after 
twenty years and more into the fire 
which burns. BESANT. 

"I'm out of the frying-pan into 
the fire" (in a still worse predica- 
ment), she said, laughing. "Instead 
of one, I have now two to contend 
with." 

Full. FULL DRESS the dress 
worn on occasions of ceremony. 
For men, a black suit with 
swallow-tail coat, and open 
vest, and a white necktie 
constitute full dross. Ladles' 



Full 96 

full dress leaves the shoulders 
bare. 

One round white arm rested on 
the window-ledge, and her long 
black hair fell in loose masses over 
the snowy garments which, consti- 
tuting a lady's deshabille, reveal her 
beauties far less liberally than the 
costume she more inaptly terms 
"full dress."-G. J. WHYTE-MEL- 

VILLE. 

To THE FULL quite as much, 
certainly not less. C. 

This place was a prison for debtors 
as well as criminals, and was to the 
full as foul as the Tophet-pit at 
Aylesbury yonder. G. A. SALA. 

IN FULL CRT hurrying fast ; in 
hot pursuit. P. Cry here 
means a pack of hounds. 

Seven mutineers Job Anderson, 
the boatswain, at their head ap- 
peared in full cry at the south-west 
corner. R. L. STEVENSON. 

IN FULL without diminution, 
deduction, or abatement. P. 
I have received this day from John 
Wallace the sum of eight pounds 
six shillings, being payment in full 
of his obligations to the Geographi- 
cal Society. 

FULL FIG elegantly ; making a 
great display. S. 



Gallon 



So all of us cabin party went and 
dressed ourselves up full fig, and 
were introduced in due formto the 
young queen. HALIBURTON. 
IN FULL SWING at its busiest ; 
busy and thronged. C. 

The street market was in full 
swing. BESANT. 

Fun. TO MAKE FUN OF to 

ridicule. C. 

"Is the girl making fun of me?" 
he thought. THACKERAY. 

Punk. To PUT IN A FUNK 
to frighten ; to cause to 
tremble. S. 
Matcham said "he'd only been 

drunk "that his spirits had sunk 
At the thunder the storm put him 

into a funk. BARHAM. 
IN A FUNK frightened ; put 
about. S. 

If I were Foxy, I should be in a 
funk myself. BESANT. 

Funny. THE FUNNY BONE 
that part of the elbow which 
is exposed to nervous shocks. 
C. 

They smack and they thwack, 
Till your funny bones crack, 
As if you were stretched on the rack. 
BARHAM. 



Gab. THE GIFT OF THE GAB 
readiness of speech ; fluency. 
F. 

I always knew you had the gift of 
the gab (were ready in speech), of 
course.-DicKENS. 

Gad. UPON THE GAD restless ; 
always moving hither and 
thither. F. 

I have no good opinion of Mrs. 
Charles s nursery - maid. I hear 
strange stories of her ; she is always 
upon the gad. Miss AUSTEN. 

To GAD ABOUT to spend one's 
time in frivolous visiting of 
friends or places. C. Usu- 
ally said of women. 
By this time our friends 

gaddlng 



Gaff. TO BLOW THE GAFF ON 

to inform against. S. 



If I do not induce you and your 
brother scoundrel to surrender your 
present devices, I will take it upon 
myself to blow the gaff on the whole 
rascally three of you. D. CHRISTIE 
MURRAY. 

Gain. To GAIN GROUND to 
advance ; to make progress. 
P. 

The Jews are not only extraordi- 
narily powerful and numerous there 
(in Galicia), but are gaining ground 
day \>y fay. Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

Gall. GALL AND WORMWOOD 
said of what is excessively 
bitter and distasteful. P. 

The talk eddied even to the aris- 
tocratic back-waters of Clinton Hall, 
where it was so much gall and worm- 
wood to the family. MRS. E. LYNN 
LINTON. 

Gallows. GALLOWS-BIRD a 
person who looks like a con- 



Game 



97 



Gauntlet 



demned criminal ; a person of 
abandoned appearance. F. 

"It is ill to check sleep or sweat 
in a sick man," said he; "I know 
that far, though I ne'er minced ape 
nor gallows-bird." C. HEADE. 

Game. GAME FOB ANYTHING 
ready to venture upon any- 
thing ; full of life. F. 

If you don't stop your jaw about 
him you'll have to fight me; and 
that's a little more than you're game 
for, I'm thinking." H. KINGSLEY. 

THE GAME IS WORTH THE CANDLE 

the results are worth striv- 
ing for ; one will be repaid 
for one's trouble. C. 

George can never take what I 
mean to offer; if he should, the 
Egyptian will be spoiled indeed, and 
the_game will be worth the candle. 
H. E. HAGGARD. 

To DIE GAME to die in a 
courageous manner. C. 

I say that coachman did not run 
away, but that he died game. 
DICKENS. 

A GAME AT WHICH TWO CAN PLAY 

a course of action equally 
open to another person. C. 

" I'll have you both licked when 
I get out, that I will," rejoined the 
boy, beginning to snivel. 

' T Two can play at that game, mind 
you," said Tom. HUGHES. 
To MAKE GAME OF to ridicule ; 
to turn into sport. P. 

Now, in the Fleet Prison, where I 
write this, there is a small man who 
is always jeering and making game 
of me. THACKERAY. 

Gang. To GANG A-GLEY to 
go wrong. Scottish dialect. 
The best laid schemes o' mice and 

men 
Gang aft a-gley. BURNS. 

As many things gang a-gley with 
us in our plans and desires while 
alive, it is not surprising thatmatters 
turn out contrary to our expectations 
after death. JAMES PAYN. 

Gapes. THE GAPES a fit of 
yawning. F. 

Another hour of music was to give 
delight or the gapes, as real or 
affected taste for it prevailed. 
JANE AUSTEN. 

Gate. To BREAK GATES to 
remain outside the college 
gates after the hour for 



closing. An Oxford and Cam- 
bridge University phrase. 

If you break gates again, we shall 
have you rusticated (temporarily 
expelled). 

THE GATE OF HORN a mytho- 
logical term, signifying the 
gate by which true dreams 
came forth. P. From the 
gate of ivory deceptive dreams 
proceeded. 

Then he (Laud) dreamed that he 
had turned Papist, of all his dreams 
the only one, we suspect, which came 
through the gate of horn (was likely 
to prove true). MACAULAY. 

Oath. TELL IT NOT IN GATH 
do not let your enemies 
hear of it. C. The phrase 
is used when something sad 
or shameful has occurred, 
which might be used as a 
taunt by one's enemies if 
they heard of it. The words 
were first used in David's song 
of lamentation over Jonathan, 
slain in battle : 

Tell it not in Gath, publish it not 
in the streets of Askelon; lest the 
daughters of the Philistines rejoice, 
lest the daughters of the uncircum- 
cised triumph. 2 Sam. i. 20. 

Gather. GATHERED TO ONE'S 
FATHERS dead and buried. P. 
When his glitter is gone, and he is 
gathered to his fathers, no eve will be 
dim with a tear, no heart will mourn 
for its lost friend. A. TROLLOPE. 

Gaudy. A GAUDY-DAY a holi- 
day or festival. Old-fashioned, 
but still in use at some of the 
universities. 

Just at onetime, about 1641, we 
hear from our best authority, 
Phillips, of his keeping a gaudy- 
day. MARK PATTISON. 

Gauntlet. To THROW DOWN 

THE GAUNTLET Or GLOVE to 

challenge. P. 

The company threw down the 
gauntlet to (defied) all the maritime 
powers in the world. MACAULAY. 
TO TAKE UP THE GAUNTLET Or 

GLOVE to accept a challenge. 
P. 

TO RUN THE GAUNTLET to pass 

through a severe course of 
treatment in the way of 
4 



Gear 

criticism or obloquy. P. 
The phrase used in this figura- 
tive sense comes from the 
custom of inflicting a punish- 
ment bearing this name. A 
prisoner, stripped to his 
waist, had to run between 
two lines of soldiers armed 
with gloves, and with sticks 
and other weapons, with 
which they struck him as he 
passed. 

We went to the jetty to see the 
'usband's boat come in, and formed 
part of the long row of spectators, 
three deep, who had assembled to 
watch the unfortunate passengers 
land and run the gauntlet of un- 
scrupulous comment and personal 
remarks all down the line. The Mis- 
tletoe Bough, 1886. 

Gear. To THROW OUT OF 
GEAR to disturb the working 
of. P. 

Such delusions have happened to 
many of us, and most commonly 
when the mind has been disturbed 
and thrown out of gear (put out of 
good working order) by unwonted 
circumstances. JAMES PAYN. 

Gentle. GENTLE AND SIMPLE 
high-born and low-born ; 
noble and peasant. P. 

So, too, I am afraid it is a true bill 
that torture was, in the bad old 
days, indiscriminately used towards 
both gentle and simple in some 
gloomy underground places in this 
said Tower. G. A. SALA. 

Every one runs to get a word with 
them, gentle or simple. C. READE. 

Get. Go ALONG ! or GET 
ALONG WITH YOU ! an ex- 
clamation of impatience , 
often used in a bantering 
way. F. 

"Go, go, get along with you, do," 
she said at last, as her eyes .caught 
his. Murray's Magazine, 1887. 

Oh, get along with you, Mr. [Se- 
grave," returned Buswell, much de- 
lighted by this delicate piece of 

E - NoRRI8 ' ' n Go ' d 



To GET ALONG to fare ; to be 
in ( a good condition. C. 

''Well, doctor, how has the poor 
Fngj late? 6 ?" getting along (P r gress- 
" y fairly; she is 8ti11 v r y 



5 Get 

To GET AT to obtain ; to find. 
C. 

When a doctor could be got at, he 
said that, but for Mrs. Lapham's 
timely care, the lady would hardly 
have lived. W. D. HOWELLS. 

To GET ON (a) to succeed ; to 
rise in life. C. 

Throughput the Continent, in Eng- 
land, and in America, the enormous 
majority of the population are striv- 
ing for success in their several profes- 
sions and callings ; every man, with 
the doubtful exception of a few 
Trappist monks, is trying to get on. 
Spectator, 1887. 

To GET ON (&) to make prog- 
ress ; to improve. 

He soon got on so well that he dis- 
carded the other (crutch). Murray's 

Magazine, 1887. 

TO GET ON WITH ANY ONE to 

find oneself in congenial com- 
pany. C. 

She could not get on with Mr. 
Adair (Mr. Adair and she were not 
congenial to each other). JAMES 
PAYN. 

To GET UNDER to obtain the 
mastery over ; to suppress. 
P. 

Towards three o'clock the fire was 
got under, and darkness and silence 
succeeded. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

To GET UP (a) to prepare with 
a special practical object in 
view as, to get up Shake- 
speare's Hamlet for a college 
examination. C. 

His readers are candidly informed 
in the preface what books he has 
consulted; and it appears that he 
has got up the reign of Henry VIII. 
from Brewer, Hook, Canon Dixon, 
Ranke, Froude, and Friedmann. 
Athenccum, 1887. 

(&) to organize ; to arrange. 

C. 

A few days afterwards a committee, 
consisting of Lady Mona, "Beauty" 
Strutt and Mrs. Walter Pullen, is 
assembled in Lady Swansdown's 
boudoir to discuss the best means of 
getting up the proposed theatricals. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

To GET ONESELF UP to appear 
in a striking or elaborate 
costume. C. 

Like most men who are not in the 
habit of "getting themselves up" 
every day, he was always irritable 



Ghost 

when thus clothed in his 
G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

GET-UP style of 'dress ; fashion- 
able way of dressing. C. 

There is none of the colour and 
tastiness of get-up which lends such 
a life to the present game at Eugby. 
HUGHES. 

To GET OVER to recover from. 
C. 

She had been out of health for 
some time. Her mother called it 
" general debility ;" but I firmly be- 
lieved that it was that love affair 
with Frank Hayles which she had 
never got over (recovered from). 
The Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

She never thoroughly got over this 
fall, and it doubtless hastened her 
end. S. BARING- GOULD, in The 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1888. 

To GET OVER A PERSON to in- 
gratiate oneself with him. F. 

How you've managed to get over 
your mother-in-law is a mystery to 
me. DICKENS. 

To GET OFF to escape. P. 

He will get off. I'm the only wit- 
ness. A jury won't believe a black 
man in this country. H. E. HAG- 
GARD. 

TO GET ONE'S BACK UP to be 

irritated ; to be angry. F. 

"Are you?" I said, beginning to 
get my back up. H. E. HAGGARD. 

TO GET BY HEART to Commit 

to memory. P. 

" It is a very long play." 

" The longer the better," murmured 
the antiquary. 

" But not when one has to get it 
by heart" (commit it to memory), 
observed William Henry dryly. 
JAMES PAYN. 

To GET RELIGION to become 
pious ; to be religious. A 
colloquial American phrase. 

Irene Pascoe once met a knight on 
a missionary platform, and found 
he'd got religion (he was a pious 
man). BESANT. 

Ghost. To GIVE UP or YIELD 

UP THE GHOST to die. P. 

So, underneath the belly of their 

steeds, 
That stained their fetlocks in his 

smoking blood. 
The noble gentleman gave up the 

ghost (died). SHAKESPEARE. 

About four in the afternoon the 
mountebank rendered up his ghost. 
He had never been conscious since 
his seizure. E. L. STEVENSON. 



J Give 

TO HAVE NOT A GHOST OF A 

CHANCE to have no reason- 
able prospect. C. 

You do not tell me that Carswell is 
applying for the Hebrew chair. He 
has not a ghost of a chance (his 
candidature is hopeless). 

Gift. BETTER NOT LOOK A 

GIFT-HORSE IN THE MOUTH - 

do not examine too critically 
what is given to you as a gift. 
C. 

The poet gives as well as makes ; 
the rest of us only receive : we criti- 
cise these gifts ; we venture to look 
into the mouth of the fairest gift- 
horse (criticise the finest poems that 
are given us). BESANT. 

Gig 1 . GIG - LAMPS a j ocular 
name for spectacles, or for 
one who wears them. S. 
A gig is a tall two-wheeled 
conveyance. 

When Paul's father appeared he 
was saluted with the irreverent name 
of "old gig-lamps." 

Gild. TO GILD THE PILL to 

make an unpleasant thing 
appear attractive. C. 

I just lay myself out to get to the 
blind side of them, and I sugar and 

fid the pill so as to make it pretty 
look at and easy to swallow (say 
ings in so flattering a way that I 
can coax them into doing anything). 

HALIBURTON. 

Gills. ROSY or RED ABOUT 
THE GILLS flushed with drink. 
F. By the " gills " understand 
the flesh about the jaws. 

WHITE IN THE GILLS showing 

signs of terror or sickness. F. 

"What's the matter, young 'un?" 

asked Joe, surprised. " What makes 

you so white in the gills ? "BESANT. 

GlPd. TO GIRD UP THE LOINS 

to prepare oneself for hard 
work. P. A Biblical expres- 
sion. 

The house awakes, and shakes it- 
self, girds up the loins for the day s 
work. EHODA BROUGHTON. 



. TO GIVE AWAY to act 
the part of father to the bride 
at a marriage. P. 

Waxy came down to ratify the 
deeds ; Lord Southdown gave away 



Give 

his sister. She was married by a 
bishop, and not by the Rev. Bartho- 
lomew Irons, to the disappointment 
of the irregular prelate. THACK- 
ERAY. 

To GIVE ONESELF AWAY to make 
oneself absurd by a heedless 
remark ; to say unwittingly 
what damages one's own cause. 
C. In the following extract 
the absurdity lies in the 
" swell " unwittingly confess- 
ing that he had dealings with 
a pawnbroker : 

Swell. I am going to resign from 
my club. 

Friend. I thought you liked it so 
much. 

Swell. Used to be all right, but 
society is getting too mixed. Why, 
I met my pawnbroker there the other 
night. Harper's Monthly, May 1888. 

TO GIVE IT TO A PERSON to SCOld 

or punish him ; to attack him 
with angry words or with 
blows. F. 

M'Gregor pitched into him so 
when he said it gave it him right 
and left (reproved him in the sever- 
est manner). RHODA BROUGHTON. 

To GIVE ON TO or UPON to lead 
into ; to open upon. P. 

Then we passed on up this till at 
last we reached the top, where we 
found a large standing space to which 
there were three entrances, all of 
small size. Two of these gave on 
to (led into) rather narrow galleries 
or roadways cut in the face of the 
l>recj p i C e._H. R. HAGGARD. 






To GIVE ONESELF OUT AS Or FOR _ 

to proclaim oneself to be. P 

He gives himself out, sir, for what 
"o^adays they call a patriot-a man 
from East Prussia.-^. L. STEVEN- 

n Last winter he called himself Lord 
Charles Templeton, and took in the 
whole society of Florence. This 
year, as you are aware, he has se- 
lected Cannes as his fiefa for opera- 
tions, and has given himself out as a 
cousin of Lord Bellingham's, with 
whom, I need hardly tell you neisin 
no way connected.-W. / NORMS. 
To GIVE UP (a) (transitive) to 
discontinue the use of- to 
abandon. P. 



100 Give 

The middle-aged it (the fog) de- 
prived of their gastric powers, so 
that they have had, ever since, to 
give up all their beer, porter, port 
and sherry, Burgundy and cham- 
pagne, claret and Rhine wine. 
BESANT. 

(&) (intr.) to surrender ; to 
confess oneself beaten. P. 

Then, for fear of her place, and be 
cause he threatened that my lady 
should give her no discharge without 
the sausages, she gave up (yielded), 
and from that day forward always 
sausages, or bacon, or pig-meat in 
some shape or other, went up to the 
table. MARIA EDGE WORTH. 

A GIVE-AND-TAKE POLICY a 

policy of mutual accommoda- 
tion and forbearance. C. 

Nothing can be more annoying to 
an ordinary man than to find the 
wife of his bosom, who has jogged 
along with him very comfortably in 
a give-and-take (mutual forbearance) 
style for many years, suddenly turn 
round and lecture him upon his 
amiable little weaknesses (faults). 
HUGH CONWAY. 

TO GIVE FORTH Or GIVE OUT to 

announce or publish. P. 

Soon after it was given forth (an- 
nounced), and believed by many, 
that the king was dead. HAYWARD. 

Mrs. Penrose was not at church ; 
no doubt she had her reasons for 
staying away, though I heard from 
Miss Jones that it was given out 
(published) that it was a bad head- 
ache that kept her at home. Cham- 
bers's Journal, 1887. 
She gives it out (states publicly) 

that you shall marry her. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

To GIVE OUT to come to an 
end. P. 

But before they had covered half a 
mile poor Mrs. Mordaunt's strength 
gave out (failed). English Illustrated 
Magazine, 1887. 

To GIVE IN to cease exertions ; to 
confess oneself vanquished. P. 
They did not yet give in (confess 
themselves beaten) ; they had hither- 
to gone only about the streets; they 
would go to places where people 
meet together. BESANT. 

To GIVE OVER (a) (of a sick 
person) to cease hoping for 
his recovery. P. 

.Valence told me that he had been 
given over that he could not live 
more than six months or so. FLOR- 
ENCE MARRYAT. 



Gizzard 



(6) to yield ; to commit. P. 

They (the Protestant clergy) might 
have attained to the influence which 
is now Riven over entirely to the 
priest. THACKERAY. 

TO GIVE ONESELF UP (a) to 

surrender to the police. P. 

News came that the Brighton mur- 
derer had given himself up (surren- 
dered himself to the police). 

(6) to lose hope of saving 

one's life. P. 

When I saw that the floods had 
carried away the bridge, I gave my- 
self up for lost (abandoned nope). 

TO GIVE A PERSON UP (a) to 

despair of seeing him. C. 

It was at that unheard-of hour (11 
P.M.) that Miss Huntly, whose ex- 
perience of provincial habits was 
limited, thought fit to put in an ap- 
pearance, and her hostess's ejacula- 
tion of " At last 1 Why, we gave you 
up more than an hour ago!" drew 
forth no apology from her. Good 
Words, 1887. 

(&) to renounce ; to repu- 
diate ; to refuse to acknow- 
ledge. P. 

He had been living what was a 
wild, college life even in these wild 
days ; ana his family had almost 
given him up. E. YATES. 
To GIVE WAT to yield ; to 
break down. P. 

I wished I had not given way (yield- 
ed) to her in the matter of a private 
sitting-room (which she would not 
consent to have). The Mistletoe 
Bough, 1886. 

On one occasion, as she was being 
brought down from her look-out 
chamber in a new carrying-chair, it 
gave way. S. BARING-GOULD. 

Gizzard. To FRET ONE'S 
GIZZARD to be anxious ; to 
worry oneself. S. Gizzard 
(primarily a fowl's stomach) is 
used of the temper or dis- 
position. 

He'll fret his gizzard green if he 
don't soon hear from that maid of 
his. THOMAS HARDY. 

Glasgow. A GLASGOW MAGIS- 
; TRATE a salt herring. F. 

It is said that when George 
IV. visited Glasgow, some salt 
herrings were placed, in joke, 
on the iron guard of the car- 
riage belonging to a well- 



101 Glove 

known Glasgow magistrate, 
who formed one of a deputa- 
tion to receive the king. 

Glass. HE HAS TAKEN A GLASS 
TOO MUCH he is intoxicated. 
F. 

THOSE WHO LIVE IN GLASS HOUSES 
SHOULD NOT THROW STONES 
people who are themselves 
open to criticism ought not 
to criticize. C. Compare 
the opening verses of Matthew 
vii. 

And there is an old proverb about 
the inexpediency of those who live 
in glass houses throwing stones. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Glazier. Is TOUR FATHER 
A GLAZIER ? a vulgar ex- 
pression, signifying, " Do you 
suppose that I can see through 
you ? " It is used when a 
person in front of you obstructs 
your view. 

Glout. IN THE GLOUT sulky. 
F. 

My mamma was in the glout with 
her poor daughter all the day. S. 
RICHARDSON. 

Glove. To THROW THE GLOVE 
or GAUNTLET TO to challenge ; 
to show readiness to fight with. 
P. 

I will throw my glove to Death 
i tself (challenge Death itself to prove), 
that there's no maculation in thy 
heart. SHAKESPEARE. 

She was now, at the age of twenty- 
two, very different from the girl who 
so hastily threw down the glove to 
her stepmother. HUGH CONWAY. 

TO TAKE UP THE GLOVE Or GAUNT- 
LET to accept a challenge 
to fight. P. 

Ontheother hand, Austriahad only 
to conclude an offensive and defen- 
sive alliance with King Milan, and 
the Czar must take up the glove thus, 
as it were, thrown in his way. Spec- 
tator, December 12, 1888. 

TO BE HAND AND GLOVE WITH. 

See HAND. 

TO PUT ON Or WEAR GLOVES 

to attack an adversary in 
a mild or generous way. P. 

He (Macaulay) put on no gloves, 
took in hand no buttoned foil, when 



Glut 



on well-chosen occasions, he came 
down to the House to make a speech. 
J. COTTER MORISON. 

Glut. TO GLUT THE MARKET 

to furnish an excess of goods 
for the market, so that a sale 
cannot be found for them. P. 
Two years ago an excessive produc- 
tion of woollen goods had glutted 
the market (furnished too great a 
supply, BO that no sale could be found 
for them). 

Go. A GO a curious or em- 
barrassing state of affairs. S. 
Well, I am blessed (to be sure), 
here's a go (the position is embar- 
rassing). C. READE. 

No GO a failure. Said of what 
is unworkable or impossible. 

" What's a caveat ? " inquired Sam. 
"A legal instrument, which is as 
much as to say it's no go," replied the 
cobbler. DICK ENS. 

Exp A legal instrument, or, in 
other words, something which does 
nothing, and with which nothing 
can be done. 

Of course, under the circum- 
stances, no go for (I cannot give you) 
the fifteen thousand. Truly yours, 
Arthur. The Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

Go ALONG an exclamation of 
(feigned) anger or impatience. 
F. See GET ALONG. 

"May its poppet come in and 
talk?" "Certainly not," replied ma- 
dam ; '"you know I never allow you 
here. Go along." DICKENS. 

TO GO BAIL FOR ANOTHER to 

become legal security for an 
accused person's appearance 
at his trial. P. 

The world has not gone bail for us, 
and our falling short involves not 
the rum of others. C. LEVER. 
TO GO HARD WITH ONE to 

prove a troublesome matter 
to one. P. 

He jumped up with a great excla- 
mation, which the particular record- 
ing angel who heard it pretended 
not to understand, or it might have 
gone hard with (proved a serious 
matter for) the Latin tutor seme 
time or other.-HLMEs. 
T GO HOME TO to appeal di- 
rectly to. P. 

Mrs. Wallace spoke very slowly, 
because it was not an easy matter 
with her to express her ideas, and 
with a certain gentle earnestness 



102 GO 

that went home (appealed directly) 
to the young girl's heart, at least as 
much as the logic of her argument. 
JAMES PAYN. 

GO-TO-MEETING AIR or CLOTHES 
such as people have on when 
they go to church ; respect- 
able. F. 

Catch him with his go-to-meetin* 
est) clothes on a-rubbin' agin 
;ainst) their nasty, greasy axles, 
e a tarry nigger. HALIBURTON. 
Tom (was) equipped in his go-to- 
meeting roof (respectable hat), as his 
friend called it. HUGHES. 

TO GO WITH THE STREAM to do 

as people around one do. P. 
And then it is so much easier in 
everything to go with the stream, 
and to do what you are expected to 
do. MRS. OLIPHANT. 

TO GO WITHOUT SATING to be 

an understood thing ; to be 
an evident fact, or natural 
conclusion. P. Translated 
from the French, Cela va sans 
dire. 

Imagine all this, and you will have 
some idea of the shackles with which 
the literary class in Japan have 
shackled their countrymen. It goes 
without saying (the conclusion is in- 
evitable) that, under such circum- 
stances, a lively, natural style is im- 
possible. Japan Mail, 1887. 

That such accusations were not 
only utterly false, but were beneath 
contempt, goes without saying (is, of 



course, understood). 
Round, 1887. 



Year 



TO GO BT THE BOARD to be lost. 

C. A nautical phrase, now in 
ordinary use. 

During that long sickness my 
wardrobe, and jewellery, and every- 
thing went by the board (I had to 
give up my wardrobe, and jewellery, 
and everything). 
Her rattlingj shrouds, all sheathed 

in ice, 

With the masts, went by the board. 
LONGFELLOW. 

To GO OUT OF ONE'S WAT to 
trouble oneself ; to discom- 
pose oneself. C. 

" My dear, I am sorry you did not 
smell it; but we can't help that 
now," returned my master without 
putting himself in a passion or going 
out of his way (showing signs of dis- 
composure), but just fair and easy 
helped himself to another glass. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 



Go 



103 



Golden 



To GO ALL LENGTHS to hesitate 
at no act. P. 

He is ready to go all lengths (risk 
everything) m his advocacy of the 
temperance question. 

To GO TO THE BAD to become a 
wreck. C. 

Think of my case, Miss Rawdon 
linked for life to a woman whom I 
married to give myself a home, be- 
cause all ties that bound me to 
domestic life seemed broken when I 
lost my darling, and because other- 
wise I should eventually have gone 
to the bad. The Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

To GO TO THE WALL to be dis- 

comflted ; to have to retire. P. 

Everybody must go to the wall who 

cannot serve that interest. North 

American Review, 1887. 

TO GO FURTHER AND FARE WORSE 

to take extra trouble and 
find oneself in a worse position 
than before. C. 

Well, upon my word, I don't blame 
you ; you might have gone further 
and fared worse. H. R. HAGGAKD. 

ALL THE GO popular ; fashion- 
able. S. 

Folks ain't thought nothin' of (are 
held of no account), unless they live 
at Treemont; it's all the gojthat 
place is very fashionable). HAM- 
BURTON. 

ON THE GO active ; running 
about continually ; indulging 
in liquor. F. 

"Ma'ame Richard was on the go," 
as one of them said when he helped 
to pick her out of the gutter and 
carry her dead drunk into the back 
kitchen, where she and others made 
their filthy lair. MRS. E. LYNN 

LlNTON. 

To GO BACK ON to be unfaithful 
to ; to fail to keep, especially 
of promises. C. See BACK. 

Why, don't you know, boss (mas- 
ter)? They said they'd take me in- 
stead of you, and they won't go back 
on their word (break their promise). 
Temple Bar, 1886. 

To GO DOWN to be accepted ; 
to be received with favour. C. 

Fletcher, Ben Jonson, and all the 
plays of Shakespeare, are the only 
things that go down. GOLDSMITH. 
To GO FOR A MAN to attack 
him. S. 

When he began to rail against 
American institutions, I went for 
(attacked) him. 



To GO IN FOR to give one's 
attention to ; to apply oneself 
to. C. 

Skating was an accomplishment he 
had never gone in for (attempted to 
acquire). Elackwood's Magazine, 

1887. 

To GO IT to be extravagant or 
headstrong in behaviour. F. 

I heard Master George was going 
it, from the Saunders. F. MAR- 
RYAT. 

To GO OFF to happen ; to take 
place. P. 

The wedding went off (happened) 
much as such affairs do. MRS. GAS- 

KELL. 

To GO OUT (a) to be discon- 
tinued ; to cease. P. 

I think I must tell you, as shortly 
as I can, how the noble old game of 
backsword is played ; for it is sadly 
gone out of late. HUGHES. 

(&) to go out to service ; to 
become a domestic servant. 
F. 

"I think you have mistaken my 
aunt," put in that young person. 
" She would be the last to hinder me 
or any of us going out, if it were for 
our good. "MRS. J. H. RIDDLE. 

TO GIVE ONE THE GO-BY- to 

neglect him ; to refuse to 
acknowledge him. F. 

Would you give Joey B. the go-by, 
ma'am? DICKENS. 

But being made an honest woman 



of, so to speak, Becky would not 
consort any longer with these dubi- 
ous ones, and cut Lady Crackenbury 



, 

consort any longer wit 
us ones, and cut Lad 
hen the latter nodded to her from 



her opera-box, and gave Mrs. Wash- 
ington White the go-by in the ring. 
THACKERAY. 

God. GOD'S ACRE the church- 
yard. P. 

As her eye roamed from sea to 
land it fell upon the little church 
immediately beneath her, into whose 
God's acre the footpath descended. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Golden. THE GOLDEN STATE 
California. P. 

THE GOLDEN RULE " Do unto 
others as you would have 
others do unto you." P. 

My dear boy, have you not learned 
the golden rule? In all human 
actions look for the basest motive 
and attribute that. (This s said 
in satire; the real golden rule is as 
above.)-BESANT. 



Gone 

THE GOLDEN BOWL IS BROKEN 

a euphemistic expression for 
death. P. Taken from the 
Book of EcclesiasteB (xii. 
6) : " Or ever the silver cord 
be loosed, or the golden bowl 
be broken, or the pitcher 
be broken at the fountain, 
or the wheel broken at the 
cistern. Then shall the dust 
return to the earth as it was ; 
and the spirit shall return unto 
God who gave it." 

And thus they go on from year to 
year, until the golden bowl is broken 
(they die).-H. R. HAGGARD. 

TO WORSHIP THE GOLDEN CALF 

to bow down before something 
unworthy. P. The reference 
is to the action of the children 
of Israel at Mount Sinai. 
See Exodus xxxii. 

The bourgeois mind is instantly 
prostrated before the gplden calf 
of commercial prosperity. WM. 
BLACK. 

Gone. A GONE 'COON one 
who is lost or ruined. S. 
'Coon i; short for racoon. 

Mr. Winchester did not stop 
there he forced a hundred pounds 
upon George. "If you start in any 
business with an empty pocket, you 
are a gone 'coon." C. READE. 

Knowing the colonel's prowess, 
the old racoon cried out, in the 
voice of a man, "Hallo, there! air 
you Colonel Crockett! For if you 
air, I'll jist come down, or I know 
I'm a gone 'coon." 

A GONE CASE something hope- 
less ; a person who is despaired 
of. F. 

When officers are once determined 
to ride a man down, it is a gone case 
with him (there is no hope for him). 

Too FAR GONE in a hopeless 
or desperate condition. C. 

To use a phrase not often applied 
to a young lady, she was too far 
(hopelessly in love). JAMES 



GOOd. AS GOOD AS A PLAT 

very interesting ; exceedingly 
amusing. C. 

He swore it was as good as a play 
to see her in the character of a fine 
dame.-THACKEBAV. 



104 Good 

And I have no space to tell of the 
scene at Mrs. Tinkle's, which was as 
good as a play. MRS. H. WOOD. 
As GOOD AS GOLD thoroughly 
good and trustworthy. C. 
Generally used of persons. 

Having said this, Grace walked 
slowly out of the room, and neither 
Mrs. Dale nor Lily attempted to 
follow her. 

"She's as good as gold," said Lily, 
when the door was closed. A. 
TROLLOPS. 

A GOOD THING a clever saying. 
C. 

When we say a good thing, in the 
course of the night, we are wondrous 
lucky and pleased. Flicflac will 
trill you off fifty in ten minutes. 
THACKERAY. 

GOOD LADY wife ; madam. 

His good lady, indeed, was the 
only person present who retained 
presence of mind enough to observe 
that if he were allowed to lie down 
on Mr. Squeers's bed for an hour or 
so, and left entirely to himself, he 
would be sure to recover again al- 
most as quickly as he had been 
taken ill. DICKENS. 

As GOOD AS virtually ; essen- 
tially ; in every essential 
respect. C. 

She said that he was as good as 
engaged to a girl out there, and that 
he nad never dreamt of her. W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

FOR GOOD altogether ; com- 
pletely. C. 

"You are going away for good 
(never to return), Mrs. Fortress?" 
I said. 

"Yes, sir," she answered, "for 
good." English Illustrated Maga- 
zine, 1886. 

FOR GOOD AND ALL finally ; 
never to be reversed. C. 

When they were made sensible 
(understood) that Sir Condy was 
going to leave Castle Rackrent for 
good and all (never to return), they 
set up a whillalu (shout) that could 
be heard to the farthest end of the 
street. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 
GOOD FOR ANY SUM able or 
willing to pay the sum. F. 

One day a gentleman and lady 
came in to lunch. A nice, quiet, 
tidy little lunch they had, just the 
same as in a good house of their 
own. By-and-by I bring in the bill, 
and wonder what they are good for 
(how much money they will give 
me). All the Year Rownd. 



Goody 



To THE GOOD on the profit 
side. O. 

'Well,", say si, "are you 
m 

'O nun- 

pounds left to the good." 

;TON. 

dead and gone the land 
e good, Thady, my lad. 
EWORTH. 

GOOD GRACIOUS ! an exclama- 
tion of astonishment. F. 

"Twenty years! Good gracious, 
papa, I shall be six-and-thirty, so 
frightfully old to talk about any- 



stock and fluke a total w 
"No," says he; "I have fr 
dred pounds left to the 
HALIBURTOH 
When I'm < 
will be to th 
MARIA ED 



ig 
thing!" 



Papa looked a little grave. "Ob- 
lige me, my dear, by not saying good 
gracious; it is very unladylike." 
The Argosy, 1886. 

A GOOD SAMARITAN. See SAMAR- 
ITAN. 

GOOD -MORNING TO ANYTHING 

farewell to it. F. 

When anything's upon my heart, 
good-morning to my head ; it's not 
worth a lemon. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

Exp. The speaker means to say 
that his head or judgment takes its 
departure when his heart or feelings 
are interested. 

As GOOD AS ONE'S WORD per- 
forming one's promises. P. 

It was evident to her that Frank 
Muller would be as good as his 
word. H. E. HAGGARD. 

Goody. GOODY - GOODY 
weakly virtuous ; good, but 
feeble. F. 

If I find out the people I am quite 
clever enough to play a goody-goody 
part, if that suits them. JUSTIN 

M'CARTHY. 
GoOSe. HIS GEESE ARE SWANS 

he places too high a value on 
his own possessions ; he over- 
estimates what is his own. C. 

He (Dr. Whately) was particularly 
loyal to his friends, and, to use the 
common phrase, all his geese were 
swans. CARDINAL NEWMAN. 

All the Lancastrian geese are 
swans. RHODA BROUGHTON. 

THE GOOSE THAT LAYS THE 
GOLDEN EGGS the SOUTC6 of 

one's wealth or most cherished 
possessions. P. 

This affectionate anxiety was 
partly due to a certain apprehension 
the old gentleman experienced when 



105 Gooseberry 

the goose that laid the golden eggs 
for him was out of sight. JAMES 
PAYN. 

TO KILL THE GOOSE THAT LAID 

THE GOLDEN EGGS to destroy 
the source of one's income 
or profit. P. A phrase taken 
from one of M 'sop's Fables. 

If Brian had only known how 
immensely he had risen in her re- 
spect by the not very extraordinary 
display of talent and ability which 
he had just made, he would doubt- 
less have hastened to kill the goose 
that laid the golden eggs by playing 
classical compositions until he 
wearied her. Wood Words, 1887. 
To COOK A PERSON'S GOOSE FOR 
HIM to cause his death. S. 

"You see," said Tom, "that if you 
should happen to be wrong, our 
goose is cooked without the least 
doubt. "BBS ANT. 

IT'S A GONE GOOSE WITH ANY ONE 

there is no more hope for 
him. S. 

Well, he took the contract for 
beef with the troops; and he fell 
astern (failed to make it profitable), 
so I guess it's a gone goose with him. 
; HALIBURTON. 

Gooseberry . To PLAY UP OLD 

GOOSEBERRY WITH PEOPLE to 

defeat them or silence them 
sharply. S. 

He began to put on airs, but I 
soon played up old gooseberry with 
him (snubbed him). 

She can squander the income as 
she pleases, and play old goose- 
berry up to a certain point. Miss 
BRADDON. 

TO PLAY GOOSEBERRY to act 

as a third person for the sake 
of propriety ; to appear with 
two lovers in public. C. 

There was Helena out of her chair 
standing by a gentleman . . . while 
I was reauced to that position which 
is vulgarly but expressively known 
as playing gooseberry. The Mistletoe 
Bough, 1885. 
A GOOSEBERRY-PICKER One who 

plays gooseberry. C. 

What do I care for old Thresher? 
I brought Thresher to-day as a goose- 
berry-picker. S. BARING-GOULD. 

LIKE OLD GOOSEBERRY With 

great energy. S. 

Take them by the tail . . . and lay 
on like old gooseberry. H. KINGS- 
LEY. 



Gordian 



106 



Gray 



AS GBBEN AS A GOOSEBERRY 

very ignorant of life ; raw 
and uneducated. S. 

His name was Green, and he was 
as green as a gooseberry. CAPTAIN 
MAERYAT. 

Gordian. To cur THE GOR- 
DIAN KNOT to solve a diffi- 
culty in a bold or unusual 
fashion. P. 

Frank Muller must die. and die 
before the morning light. By no 
other possible means could the Gor- 
dian knot be cut. H. R. HAGGARD. 

Grace. To SAY GRACE to 
ask the Divine blessing before 
commencing a meal. P. 

Mr. Pickwick, having said grace, 
pauses for an instant and looks 
round him. DICKENS. 

TO GET INTO A PERSON'S GOOD 

GRACES to gain his favour 
or friendship. P. 

Major D'Orville is rapidly gaining 
ground in the good graces of all 
the Newton Hollows party. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

WITH A GOOD GRACE gracefully ; 
graciously. P. 

WITH A BAD GRACE ungracious- 
ly, so as to leave an unpleasant 
impression. P. 

What might have been done with 
a good grace would at last be done 
with a bad grace. MACAULAY. 

THE THRONE OF GRACE a figur- 
ative expression, meaning 
God's seat, heaven. P. To 
come to the throne of grace 
IB to pray. 

THE MEANS OF GRACE oppor- 
tunities of hearing the gospel. 
P. A religious expression. 

The shop is next door but one to a 
chapel, too. Oh, how hand 



means of grace 1 BESANT. 



ly for the 



Grain. AGAINST THE GRAIN 
unpleasant ; contrary to one's 
Was or inclination. P. 

I am deficient in the auri sacrc 
fames the passion for dying a mil 
honaire that possesses BO many 
excellent people. I had rather have 
a little, and do what I like, than 
acquire a great deal by working 
against the grain (doing work which 
is unpleasant). JAMES PAYN. 



WITH A GRAIN OF SALT with 

some reservation. P. Trans- 
lation of the Latin phrase, 
Cum grano sails. 

They fear lest suspicious men 
might take the story with a grain of 
salt. H. R. HAGGARD. 

Some of the adventures narrated 
may require to be taken with a grain 
of salt. Spectator, September 3, 1887. 

Grape. SOUR GRAPES some- 
thing which is despised because 
it is unattainable. C. See SOUR. 

"So it has got its big wax doll 
after all. has it?" asks she with a 
sneer: ''curly wig and long legs, 
and all!" 

I am roused to retort. I turn and 
rend her. 

"Spur grapes!" cry I, with red 
cheeks, and in an elevated key. 
RHODA BROUGHTON. 

Grass. To LET THE GRASS 

GROW UNDER ONE'S FEET to 

be inactive ; to be idle and 
lazy. C. 

Viola is not the sort of girl to let 
the grass grow under her feet. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Captain Cuttle held on at a great 
pace, and allowed no grass to grow 
under his feet. DICKENS. 
GRASS WIDOW a lady whose 
husband is temporarily absent. 
P. An Eastern term, especially 
used in India. 

A grass widow finds herself in 
need of consolation for the cruel 
absence of her liege lord. The 
Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

Gray. THE GRAY OF THE 
MORNING the dawn. P. See 
MORNING. 

THE GRAY (OR GREY) MARE 
a man's wife. C. This term 
is generally used with the 
implication that the man in 
the particular case is inferior 
to his wife. 

The vulgar proverb, that the gray 
mare is the better horse, originates, 
I suspect, in the preference gener- 
ally given to the gray mares of 
Flanders over the finest coach-horses 
of England. MAOAULAY. 

It was also quite clear to those 
who thought about things, and 
watched this little lady, that there 
may be meaning in certain pro- 
verbial expressions touching gray 
mares. BESANT. 



Grease 



107 



Grease. To GREASE THE PALM 
OP to bribe ; to use money 
for the purpose of corrupting. 

F. 

Grecian. THE GRECIAN BEND 
an elegant stoop or curving 
of the backbone, much affected 
by ladies at one time. C. 

Greek. THE GREEK KALENDS 
a future time which will 
never arrive. P. The Kalends 
occurred at the beginning 
of the month with the Latin 
system of reckoning time ; 
hence the term Calendar 
a table announcing when the 
first day of each month fell. 
The Greeks had no Kalends. 

The London School Board have 
since executed a strategical move- 
ment to the rear, suspending the 
obnoxious notice for a month, which 
is the English equivalent for the 
Greek Kalends. Journal of Educa- 
tion, 1887. 

WHEN GREEK MEETS GREEK, 

THEN COMES THE TUG OP WAR 

when one strong champion 
meets another of equal prowess 
the fight is a keen one. C. 

"When Greeks joined Greeks, then 
was the tug of war. NATHANIEL 
LEE. 

GREEK TO ANT ONE unintelli- 
gible to him. C. See Shake- 
speare's Julius Ccesar t act i. 
scene 2. 

Cassius. Did Cicero say anything? 

Casca. Ay, he spoke t > reek. 

Cassius. To what effect? 

Casca. Nay, an I tell you that I'll 
ne'er look you in the face again ; 
but those that understood him 
smiled at one another and shook 
their heads ; but, for mine own part, 
it was Greek to me. 

Green. THE GREEN-EYED MON- 
STER jealousy. P. 

Cherry was green with jealousy, 
but tried to hide it under protesta- 
tions of admiration. The Mistletoe 
Bough, 1885. 

TO SEE GREEN IN ANOTHER'S 

EYE to consider him a simple, 
gullible fellow. S. 

"Now, soldier-boy," said I, 
"Do you see green in my eye? 
Oh, pray excuse the slang ! " 
T. DAVIDSON. 



I su 



Grind 

you intend to marry 



Miss M., as I see you are paying her 
such devoted attention." 

"Do you see any green in my 
eyes?" was the very vulgar reply. 
"Why, as for marrying Miss M., I'd 
rather be excused. She is too great 
a flirt. Si. Andrews Citizen, 1887. 

THE WEARING OF THE GREEN. 

Green is the Irish national 
colour. To wear it shows 
patriotic or rebel sympathies. 
They are hanging men and women 
for the wearing of the green. 

Popular Song. 

A GREEN HAND a raw fellow 
unaccustomed to the work 
he undertakes. F. 

"I thought everybody knew Job 
Terry," said a green hand who came 
in the boat to me, when I asked him 
about his captain. R. H. DANA. 

THE REEN ROOM the private 
chamber where actors dress 
and undress. P. This room 
is a notorious place for gos- 
sip. 

There was only one topic on which 
Sir Henry C9uld converse, and he 
was uncertain how it would be 
received if he was to start it 
namely, actors' gossip and green- 
room whispers. BESANT. 

Grief. To COME TO GRIEF 
to be ruined ; to fail com- 
pletely. P. 

France and Bonaparte, driven by 

the French fat (fool), as you are 

British 



driven by the 



Philistine, 



and the French fat has proved a yet 
more fatal driver than yours, being 
debauched and immoral, as well as 
ignorant, came to grief (were 
ruined). M. ARNOLD. 

Grin. To GRIN AND BEAR IT 

to suffer anything painful 
in a manly way, without com- 
plaint. F. 

"You scoundrel," he said between 
his teeth, "you have made a fool of 
me for twenty years, and I have 
been obliged to grin and bear it." 
H. K. HAGGARD. 

Grind. To GRIND THE FACE 
OF o oppress ; to tyrannize 
over. P. 

The agent was one of your middle- 
men who grind the face of the poor. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 



Grips 108 

HARD GRINDER a hard-working 
student or professional man. 

Besides, there is a pension loom- 
ing ever so far ahead which I must 
go back and grind for. Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

To GRIND ONE'S TEETH to have 
feelings of disgust, disappoint- 
ment, or rage. C. 

Everything annoyed and angered 
me that day. ... I ground my teeth 
(was intensely irritated) at the 
luncheon-table, which would have 
feasted half-a-dozen families. -The 
Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

Grips. AT GRIPS WITH strug- 
gling hard against. C. 

Tom was daily growing in manful- 
ness and thoughtfulness, as every 
high-couraged and well-principled 
boy must, when he finds himself for 
the first time consciously at grips 
with self and the devil. HUGHES. 

OPist. TO BRING GRIST TO 

THE MILL to procure needful 
supplies ; to be a source of 
profit. C. 

A sly old Pope created twenty 
new saints to bring grist to the mill 
of (constitute a source of income 
for) the London clergy. BISHOP 

HORSLEY. 

The lawyer may be half-a-dozen 
things at the same time a trader, a 
politician, a practical agriculturist, 
a land-agent, a coroner, a steeple- 
chase rider, a general jack-pudding. 
Everything brings grist to his mill, 
and the more irons he has in the 
fire the larger will be the number 
and the more varied the character 
of his clients. A. JESSOPP, in Nine- 
teenth, Century, 1887. 

Qpog. GROG - BLOSSOMS the 
red pimples on a drunkard's 
nose. F. 

A few grog-blossoms marked the 
neighbourhood of his nose. THOMAS 
HARDY. 

Ground. To BREAK GROUND 
to commence operations ; 
to take the first step in any 
undertaking. P. 

TO GAIN Or GET GROUND to 

advance ; to make progress. 

It was very tiring and slow work, 

STEVENSON g ground -- R - L: 



Grub 



At four in the afternoon we sighted 
a sail under our lee-bow, gave chase, 
and got ground of her apace till 
night came on. G. A. SALA. 

To LOSE GROUND to retreat; 
to give way ; to become less 
powerful. P. 

But, on the whole, I am unable to 
deny that the state and the nation 
have lost ground with respect to the 
great business of controlling the 
public charge. GLADSTONE. 

TO HAVE THE GROUND CUT FROM 
UNDER ONE'S FEET to SCO 

what one relies on for support 
suddenly withdrawn. C. 

His was not a practical mind, and 
it was sure to take him some time to 
realize what it means to have the 
ground cut from under your feet. 
Good Words, 1887. 

To HOLD ONE'S GROUND to 
maintain one's authority or 
influence. P. 

Having shipped for an officer when 
he was not half a seaman, he found 
little pity with the crew, and was 
not man enough to hold his ground 
among them. B,. H. DANA, JUN. 

To STAND ONE'S GROUND to 
be firm ; to be unyielding. C. 
Marvel, though with much diffi- 
culty, stood his ground, and refused 
to sell Cloverhill till he should be 
perfectly sure that Mi ss Barton would 
marry him, and till his relation 
should arrive in town and give his 
consent. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

But she made a supreme effort 
over herself, and did her best to 
stand her ground. MRS. E. LYNX 
LINTON. 

DOWN TO THE GROUND com- 
pletely. S. 

"America is the place," he said to 
himself. "Some sea-coast city in 
South America would suit me down 
to the ground." Miss BRADDON. 

Grow. To GROW UPON to 
obtain great influence over ; 
to become prized. P. 

It was a face rather lovable than 
beautiful, rather sensitive than in- 
tellectuala face which grew upon 
you as you looked at it, and which 
was always pleasant to look upon. 

Grub. GRUB STREET the 
name of a low quarter in 
London inhabited formerly 
by poor authors. As a noun. 



Gruel 



109 



Gutter 



Grub Street signifies poor, 
mean authors ; as an adjective, 
mean, poor, low. P. The 
street is now called Milton 
Street. 

Johnson came among them the 
solitary specimen of a past age, the 
last survivor of the genuine race of 
Grub Street hacks. MACAULAY. 
GRUB AND BUB victuals and 
drink. S. 

Gruel. TO GIVE A PERSON HIS 

GRUEL to punish a person 

severely ; to kill him. S. 

He refused, and harsh language en- 



Which ended at length in a duel, 
When he that was mildest in mood 
Gave the turbulent rascal his 
gruel. BABHAM. 

Grundy. MRS. GRUNDY 
jealous neighbours ; the scan- 
dal-loving portion of the com- 
munity. C. The name comes 
from Morton's novel Speed 
the Plough (1798), where one 
of the characters, Mrs. Ash- 
field, is always exclaiming, 
" What will Mrs. Grundy 
say ? " Mrs. Grundy was her 
neighbour. 



These awful rules of propriety, 
nd that dreadful Mrs. Grundy (the 
thought of what one's neighbours 



will say), appear on the scene, and 
of course spoil everything. Black- 
wood's Magazine, 1887. 

Guard. To BE ON ONE'S GUARD 
to be watchful and prepared 
for an attack. P. 



With a tiresome complaint, which, 

in some seasons, 
People are apt to be seized 
With, who're not on their guard 

against plum-seasons, 
Their medical man shook his head, 
As he could not get well to the root 
of it. BABHAM. 

TO PUT A MAN ON HIS GUARD 

to warn him ; to make him 
careful. P. 

It was in such an outburst of rage 
that he had assaulted John in the 
inn -yard of Wakkerstrom, and 
thereby put him on his guard 
against him. H. R. HAGGARD. 



OFF ONE'S GUARD heedless ; 
forgetful ; in a careless state. 
P. 

Isaac caught both faces off their 
guard, and read the men as by a 
lightning flash to the bottom line of 
their hearts. C. READE. 

Gulf. A GREAT GULF FIXED 

a complete and permanent 
cause of separation ; a radical 
difference and divergence. P. 
The phrase comes from the 
parable of Dives and Lazarus. 
See Luke xvi. 26. 

Between him and Mr. Carruthera 
there was a great gulf fixed. E. 
YATES. 

For forty years and more I lived 
among savages and studied them 
and their ways ; and now for several 
years I have lived here in England, 
and have in my own stupid manner 
done my best to learn the ways of 
the children of light, and what have 
I found? A great gulf fixed? No, 
only a very little one.-H. R. HAG- 
GABD. 

Gun. A GREAT GUN a noted 
personage. C. 

Time flew on, and the great guns 
one by one returned Peel, Graham, 
Goulbourn, Hardinge, Herries. 
BEACONSFIELD. 

TO BLOW GREAT GUNS to be 

very stormy ; to blow a heavy 
gale. P. 

At last it blew great guns; and 
one night, as the sun went down 
crimson in the Gulf of Florida, the 
sea running mountains high, I saw 
Captain Sebor himself was fidgety. 
C. READE. 

GutS. TO HAVE GUTS IN THE 

BRAIN to have sense ; to 
be full of intelligence. Old- 
fashioned. 

The fellow's well enough, if he had 
any guts in his brain. SWIFT. 

Gutter. Our OF THE GUT- 
TER of low origin. P. 

"We could never have supposed 
one of our blood would commit the 
crime of marrying a plebeian and 
for love ! " 

"Then why do you marry your 
sons to girls out of the gutter?" 
(low-born girls), was sometimes the 
rejoinder. National, Review, 1887. 



Hack 



110 



Halloo 



Hack. AT HACK (or HECK) 
AND MANGER profusely ; ex- 
travagantly. F. Heck, or 
hack, is Scotch for a manger. 
The word is of Scandinavian 
origin. 

The servants at Lochmarlie must 
be living at hack and manger. Miss 



Hail. HAIL - FELLOW WELL- 
MET familiar ; on terms of 
easy intimacy. C. Also used 
as a noun. 

It was not, I will frankly admit, a 
very righteous beginning to a young 
life to be hail-fellow well-met with a 
gang of deer-stealers. G. A. SALA. 

His role was that of a hail-fellow 
well-met with everybody. SARAH 
TYTLEB. 

Hair. To A HAIR to an ex- 
treme nicety. P. 

Oh ! that's her nose to a hair, 
that's her eye exactly. HALIBUR- 
TON. 

To SPLIT HAIRS to dispute over 
petty points. P. A hair- 
splitter is a caviller. 

Pray, don't let us be splitting hairs. 
A. TROLLOPS. 

BOTH OF A HAIR both alike. F. 

For the peddler and tinker, they 

are two notable knaves, both of a 

hair, and both cousin-germans to 

the devil. GREENE. 

HAIR STANDING ON END. This 
is a sign of terror. P. See 
STAND. 

TO TAKE A HAIR OF THE DOG THAT 
BIT YOU. This was at one time 
supposed to be a cure for 
hydrophobia. The expression 
is commonly used now when 
a man, after heavy drinking, 
is advised to take a little more 
brandy or other liquor. 

Decidedly, too, the homeopathic 
system must be founded on great 
natural facts, and there is philos- 
ophy, born of the observation of 
human nature, in the somewhat 
vulgar proverb that recommends a 
hair of the dog that bit you. H E 
HAGGARD. 

To TURN A HAIR to show signs 
of fatigue. C. A phrase 



taken from horsemanship, and 
properly only applicable to a 
horse, but now used generally. 

Flushington would toil manfully 
through the most realistic descrip- 
tions (in French novels) without 
turning a hair. F. ANSTEY. 

Then the fiddlers began the cele- 
brated Mellstock fiddlers, who, given 
free stripping, could play from sunset 
to dawn without turning a hair. 
R. D. BLACKMORE, in Murray's 
Magazine, 1888. 

Half. HALF-SEAS OVER in a 
semi-drunken state ; confused 
with drink. F. 

But Jason put it back as he was 
going to fill again, saying, "No, Sir 
Condy, it shan t be said or me I got 
your signature to this deed when 
you were half-seas over." MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

A BAD HALFPENNY something 
which is supposed to return 
to the owner, however often 
he tries to get quit of it. C. 
It was not the first time, nor the 



HAWTHORNE. 
HALF THE BATTLE no small 
part of the difficulty over- 
come. C. 

To provide the patient with a good 
bed, fresh air, and suitable warmth 
is half the battle (will do as much as 
all things else for his recovery). 

BETTER HALF a wife. See 
BETTER. 

Halloo. DON'T HALLOO TILL 
YOU'RE OUT OF THE WOOD 
be careful about showing pre- 
mature signs of exultation. C. 
A favourite saying of the Duke 
of Wellington. 

When Wellington had driven the 
French out of Portugal, the Portu- 
guese issued a print of the Duke, 
bearing the legend underneath" In- 
vincible Wellington, from grateful 
Portugal." A friend having sent the 
Duke a copy of the print, ne struck 
out the word "Invincible" with a 
dash of his pen, and wrote below, 
"Don't halloo till you're out of the 
wood." 



Halting 



111 



Hand 



Halting:. THE HALTING FOOT 
^ OF JUSTICE an expression 
borrowed from Latin litera- 
ture, signifying the slow but 
Sure punishment which follows 
\trong-doers. P. 

Justice, though with halting foot, 
had been on his track, and his old 
crime of Egyptian days found him 



Hammer. To GO IT HAMMER 
AND TONGS to act violently 
and recklessly ; to throw all 
one's energies into anything. 
C. 

The ancient rules of a fair fight 
were utterly disregarded ; both par- 
ties went at it hammer and tongs, 
and hit one another anywhere with 
anything. JAMES PAYN. 

TO BRING TO THE HAMMER 

to sell by auction. P. 

All Diggs's penates (household 
effects), for the time being, were 
brought to the hammer. HUGHES. 
TO SELL UNDER THE HAMMER 

to sell by auction. P. 

He threatened to foreclose, and 
sell the house under the hammer. 
C. READE. 

Hand. IN HAND (a) under 
control. P. 

The other was laughed at behind 
his back, and outwitted by the young 
man he thought he had so well in 
hand (completely under control). 
JANE AUSTEN. 

(&) in present possession ; 

ready for use. P. 

" You are in the fortunate position 
of having a competence of your own, 
I conclude." 

"Well, yes: that is, I come into it 
on my majority something in land 
and also in hand." BESANT. 
(c) under discussion. P. 

Mrs. Nickleby glided, by an easy 
change of the conversation, occasion- 
ally into various other anecdotes, no 
less remarkable for their strict ap- 

Blcation to the subject in hand. 
ICKENS. 

To KEEP IN HAND to direct 
or manage. P. 

As keeping in hand the home-farm 
at Domwell, he had to tell what 
every field was to bear next year. 
JANE AUSTEN. 

To TAKE IN HAND to take charge 
of ; to pay attention to. P. 



I have asked Herr Hoffman to 

take me in hand. Leisure Hour, 1887. 

AT HAND near ; close to one. 

P. Used both of time and of 

place. 

. Mr. Woodhouse was to be talked 
into an acquiescence of his daughter's 
going out to dinner on a day now 
near at hand (soon to arrive). JANE 
AUSTEN. 

TO COME TO HAND - to be T6- 

ceived. P. 

"Your letter came to hand yester- 
day morning, Dr. Tempest," said Mr. 
Crawley. A. TROLLOPS. 

AT FIRST-HAND directly ; with- 
out any intermediate process. 
P. 

Could we not have a school for 
great men, just as they used to have 
a school of prophets ? . . . They would 
be taught to speak ; they would be 
taught to study mankind at first- 
hand and not by reports ; they 
would be taught to write, to reason, 
to investigate ; above all, they would 



, , 

come here at first-hand if you will 
have me. JANE AUSTEN. 

AT SECOND-HAND not directly ; 
through an intermediary. P. 

He kept up just so much com- 
munication with them as to inform 
them, at second-hand or at third- 
hand, which measures to impede 
and if possible to defeat. TREYEL- 

YAN. 

Our OF HAND. (a) directly; at 
once. P. 
Gather we our forces out of hand, 

and set upon our boasting enemy. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

Sir Terence, in a tone of jocose, 
wheedling expostulation, entreated 
him to have the carriage finished 
out of hand (forthwith). MARIA 
EDQEWORTH. 

- (&) ended ; finished. P. 
Were these inward wars once out of 

hand (over), 
We would, dear lords, unto the Holy 

Land. SHAKESPEARE. 

HAND OVER HAND at a rapid 
rate. C. 

He made money hand over hand. 
HALIBURTON. 

HAND OVER HEAD leisurely ; 
easily. P. 

He set his magnificent main-sail 
and fore-sail and main-jib, and came 
up with the ship hand over head, 



Hand 



112 



Hands 



the moderate breeze giving him an 

advantage. C. KEADE. 
AN OLD HAND an experienced 

person. P. 
Thomas was too old a hand (pru 

dent a personage) to make light of 

anything.-BLACKMORE. 
I am an old Parliamentary hand. 

W. E. GLADSTONE. 
A GREAT HAND AT ANYTHING 

very well skilled in it; very 
prone to it. C. 

He is a great hand at a flam (an 
inveterate liar). HALIBURTON. 

Good is a great hand at talking. 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

WITH A HIGH HAND arrogantly ; 
imperiously. P. 

We have no time now for such 
trumpery; we must carry things 
now with a much higher hand (more 
imperiously). BLACKMORE. 

TO GET OF GAIN THE UPPER HAND 

to obtain the mastery. P. 

It seems to me that the old Tory 
influence has gained the upper hand.. 
J. CHAMBERLAIN, M.P. 
FROM HAND TO MOT7TH with- 

out making any provision 
for the morrow ; consuming 
every day what is earned. P. 

No winter passes without reports 
of bitter distress in Korea. The 
general mass of the inhabitants live 
from hand to mouth, and can barely 
support themselves at the best of 
times. Japan Mail, 1886. 
TO FIGHT FOR ONE'S OWN HAND 

to look after one's own 
interests. P. 

He had won the respect of his 
official superiors by showing that, 
in case of need, he could fight for 
his own hand (struggle on behalf of 
nis own interests). TREVELYAN. 
HAND AND GLOVE or HAND IN 
GLOVE on very intimate terms. 
P. 
And prate and preach about what 

others prove, 
As if the world and they were hand 

and glove.-Cowi>ER. 

Ap.-On the most familiar terms. 

We thought him just the same 
man as ever-hand and glove (inti- 



If we go hand and glove with oil 
tobacco, corn, sugar, etc., we must' 
at least, get confounded with these 
es. H. CONWAY. 



half-nal 



TO LEND A HAND to help. C 

Here comes a huntsman out of ihe 
woods dragging a bear which he has 
shot, and shouting to the neighbours 
to lend him a hand. - N. EAW- 

THORNE. 
TO BEAR A HAND to be quiet. F. 

Stop, stop, daddy," said a little 
naked imp of a boy, "stop till 
I get my cock-shy." " Well, bear a 
hand then, said he, or he 11 be off ; 
I won't wait a minute." HALI- 
BURTON. 

HAND IN HAND (a) wioh the 
hands joined ; close together ; 
linked in friendly fashion. P. 
Now we are tottering down, John ; 

But hand in hand we'll go, 
And sleep together at the foot, 

John Anderson, my jo. BURNS. 

(&) in conjunction ; in uni- 
son. P. 

They were unable to see how paro- 
chial affairs could go on unless they 
worked hand in hand with the curate. 
H. CONWAY. 

TO MAKE A POOR HAND AT to 

make little impression upon ; 
to make little progress with. C. 
Notwithstanding the captain's ex- 
cessive joviality, he made but a poor 
hand at the smoky tongue. DICK- 
ENS. 

TO MAKE NO HAND OF to be 

unable to explain. C. 

No, sir, I can make no hand of it ; 
I can't describe him. R. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

To GIVE ONE'S HAND UPON ANT- 
THING to pledge one's honour 
to fulfil a promise. P. 

The moment I choose, I can be rid 
of Mr. Hyde ; I give you my hand 
upon that (promise you that sol- 
emnly). R. L. STEVENSON. 

ON HAND in one's possession. P. 
Last year I believe it was some- 
thing awful; you could see at the 
end of the season how the mothers 
were beginning to pull long faces 
when they thought of having to 
start off for Baden-Baden with a 
whole lot of unsaleable articles on 
hand. WM. BLACK. 

Hands. To HOLD ONE'S HANDS 
to do nothing ; to refrain 
from interfering. P. 

So, with something of an ill grace, 
Lord Salisbury bade those of his 
inclining to hold their hands, and 
the Land Bill of 1881 became law. 
JUSTIN M'CARTHY. 



Handle 

TO LAY HANDS ON to Seize 

\to lay hold of. P. 

\ Lay hands on the villain. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

TO SHAKE HANDS WITH to Bl 

Itite by grasping the hand. P 
The monarch is forced to shake 
hands with the very politicians who 
hare just brought before the House 
the abolition of the royal preroga 
tive, OUIDA. 

To HAVE UPON ONE'S HANDS 
to be responsible for ; to 
have charge of. C. 

The son made various unsucces 
ful provisions for himself, and sti _ 
continued on his father's hands. 



IOWELLS. 

Patty had all the business^ of the 
house upon her hanc 
EDGEWORTH. 
TO TAKE OFF ONE'S HANDS 

to free from a burden. C. 

No one will take Ugly Mug off my 
hands, even as a gift. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

ON ALL HANDS everywhere. C. 

I believe it's admitted on all hands 

that they (the young men at Oxford) 

know what's good, and don't coddle 

themselves. DICKENS. 

MY HANDS ARE PULL I am 

very busy; I have plenty of 
work to do. C. 

Robinson's hands were now full : 
he made brushes, and every day put 
some of them to the test upon the 
floor and walls of the building.-C. 
READE. 

TO CHANGE HANDS to gO into 

the possession of another. P. 
And so they haggled on for a little 
longer, but at the end of the inter- 
view Dandy had changed hands, and 
was permanently engaged as a mem- 
ber of Mr. Punch's travelling com- 
pany. F. ANSTEY. 

Handle. To GIVE A HANDLE 
TO to supply with an occa- 
sion. P. 

The defence of Vatinius gave a 
plausible handle (furnished a fair 
opportunity) for some censure upon 
Cicero. MALMOTH. 

As soon as it is known that we 

have kept the child here so strangely, 

we give a handle to suspicion and 

scandal. HUGH CONWAY. 

TO HANDLE WITHOUT MITTENS, 

or GLOVES to treat without 
any superfluous politeness or 



113 Handwriting 

gentleness; to attack vigor- 
ously. P. 

He declares that it is time for the 
good and true men to handle the 
impostors without gloves. North 
American Revieiu, 1887. 
A HANDLE TO ONE'S NAME a 

title. C. 

Now he has got a handle to his 
name, and he'll live in clover all his 
life. A. TROLLOPE. 

Foster went forward into the fore- 
castle as a common sailor and lost 
tne handle to his name (was no more 
addressed as Mr. Foster). R H 
DANA, JUN. 

TO GO OFF THE HANDLE to 

die. S. 

My old gentleman means to be 
mayor, or governor, or president, or 
something or other before he goes 
off the handle.-O. W. HOLMES. 

Handsome. To DO THE HAND- 
SOME THING BY ANOTHER 
PERSON to behave liberally 
towards him. P. 

She hoped it would be a match, 
and that his lordship would do the 
handsome thing by his nephew. 
FIELDING. 

Handwriting. THE HAND- 
WRITING ON THE WALL the 
announcement of an approach- 
ing catastrophe. P. See 
the Bible, Dan. v. 5-31. 
At the feast of Eelshazzar, 
the king of Babylon, the're 
" came forth fingers of a 
man's hand, and wrote over 
against the candlestick upon 
the plaster of the wall of the 
king's palace : and the king 
saw the part of the hand that 
wrote. . . . And this is the writ- 
ing that was written, Mene, 
Mene, Tekel, Upharsin. This 
is the interpretation of the 
thing: Mene; God hath num- 
bered thy kingdom, and fin- 
ished it. Tekel ; Thou art 
weighed in the balances, and 
found wanting. Peres; Thy 
kingdom is divided, and given 
to the Medes and Persians. 
...In that night was Belshazzar 
the king of the Chaldeans 
slain. And Darius the Median 
took the kingdom." 



114 



Hang*. To HANG FIRE to de- 
lay the accomplishment ; to 
come to no decisive result. P. 
The plot, too, which had been sup- 
ported for four months by the sole 
evidence of Gates, began to hang 
fire. GREEN. 

To HANG OUT to lodge ; to 
live. S. 

I say. old boy, where do you hang 
out? DICKENS. 

To HANG IN CHAINS to suspend 
a criminal's body in an iron 
frame, as a public spectacle. 
P. 

They hanged him in chains for a 
show. TENNYSON. 

TO GET THE HANG OP A THING to 

understand the general mean- 
ing, drift, or principle of any- 
thing. F. 

TO HANG BY A THREAD to be 

in a very precar'ous position 
or condition. P. 

A sailor knows too well that his 
life hangs by a thread to wish to be 
often reminded of it. R.\H. DANA, 
JUN. 

A HANG-DOG LOOK a guilty, 
depressed appearance. F. 
"He, he!" tittered his friend, 
you are so so very funny ! " 
"I need be," remarked Ralph 
dryly, "for this is rather dull and 
chilling. Look a little brisker, 
man, and not so hang-dog like." 
DICKENS. 

Hank. HANK FOR HANK on 
equal terms. C. 

If w ? become partners, it must be 
a hank- for -hank arrangement (an 
arrangement where we shall have 
equal profits). 

Happy. HAPPY-GO-LUCKY 
improvident; heedless. C 

clasV-C. a8 - 1UCky Way f his 



THE HAPPY DESPATCH suicide ; 
a name commonly given to 
the Japanese method. C. 

It was to .provide Lord Harry 
Brentwopd with a seat (in Parlia- 
ment) that I was to commit this 
ac ' -2 f i h SSP?, despatch (political 
suicide). Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

Hard. HARD AS THE NETHER 
MILLSTONE very hard; un- 



Hare 

feeling and obdurate. ?. 
Generally applied to human 
character. 

We in the wilderness are exposed 
to temptations which go some way 
to make us silly and soft-hearted. 
Somehow, few of us are certain to 
keep our hearts as hard as the aether 
.-Ninet eentfi Century, 1887. 



A HARD CASE an irreclaimably 
bad person. C. 

He was a fellow-clerk of mine, and 
a hard case. . L. STEVENSON. 

HARD AND FAST securely. P. 
"You can't mean Smike?" cried 



DICKENS. 

TO GO HARD WITH ONE. Said 

where any one fares ill or has 
bad luck. P. 

It will go hard with poor Antonius. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

IT SHALL GO HARD BUT I WILL Or 

IF I DO NOT I shall most 

surely. P. 

It shall go hard if Cambio go with- 

out her. SHAKESPEARE. 

Exp Cambio shall certainly go 
with her. 

HARD BY in the immediate 
vicinity ; close to. P. 

The news next obtained of the 
elephant was that he had killed 
several persons hard by.Chambers's 
Journal, 1887. 

HARD LINES harsh treatment; 
unfortunate conditions. C. 

That was hard lines for me, after 
I had given up everything for the 
sake or getting you an education 
which was to be a fortune to you. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

HARD UP having little money to 
pay one's debts ; in monetary 
difficulties. C. 



Every man in England who was 
had a hard-up friend, 



hard u 

wrote to him for money in loan, with 

or without security. BESA NT. 



Hare. As MAD AS A MARCH 
HARE crazy ; insane. P. 
. "Oh," said the admiral, "then he 
is mad?" 

"As a March hare, sir. And I'm 
afraid putting him in irons will 
make him worse. It is a case for 
a lunatic asylum." C. READE. 



l\ 



Bark 



115 



Haul 



THE HARE'S FOOT the brush 
used by ladies for applying 
rouge. C. 

The heart of poor dear Babs gave 
a bound which brought a colour into 
her face brighter than that which 
the hare's foot had left.-MRS. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

Hark. To HARK BACK to 
return to a subject which has 
been dropped ; to begin again 
where one has left off. P. 

Had they gone and told Silver, all 
might have turned out differently ; 
but they had their orders, I suppose, 
and decided to sit quietly where 
they were and hark back again to 
"Lilliburlero" (commence singing 
" Lilliburlero" again). R.L.STEVEN- 
SON. 

Harness. To DIE IN HAR- 
NESS to continue at one's 
occupation until one's death ; 
to refuse to retire from active 
life. C. 

Nevertheless it was his (Lord 
Shaftesbury's) constant prayer that 
he might die in harness, and his 
last years were full of unceasing 
activity. Leisure Hour, 1887. 

Harp. To HARP ON THE SAME 
STRING to continue speaking 
on the same subject. C. 

His mind, she thought, was cer- 
tainly wandering, and, as often hap- 
pens, it continued to harp on the 
same string. JAMES PAYN. 

Harum. HARUM - SCARUM 
wild; reckless. C. 

They had a quarrel with Sir 
Thomas Newcome's own son, a 
harum-scarum lad, who ran away, 
and then was>ent to India. THACK- 
ERAY. - 

Hash. TO SETTLE A MAN'S 

HASH FOR HIM to overthrow 
his schemes ; to ruin him. S. 
At Liverpool she (the elephant) 
laid hold of Bernard, and would 
have settled his hash for (killed) 
him, but Elliot came between them. 
C. READE. 

Haste. THE MORE HASTE THE 
LESS SPEED excessive haste 
is often the cause of delay. C. 
Women are "fickle cattle," I re- 
memberI am sure my dear wife 
will excuse my saying so in her 
presence and "most haste" is often 
K worst speed 'with them. -FLOR- 
ENCE MARRYAT. 



Hat. To HANG UP ONE'S HAT 
IN A HOUSE to make oneself 
at home ; to enter into occu- 
pation. F. Visitors usually 
carry their hats in their handa 
when making a short visit ; 
to hang up the hat implies 
special intimacy or a regular 
invitation. 

"Eight hundred a year, and as 
nice a house as any gentleman could 
wish to hangup his nat in, "said Mr. 
Cumming. A. TROLLOPE. 

TO PASS ROUND THE HAT to 

solicit subscriptions. C. 

A BAD HAT a good-for-nothing 
fellow. F. 

There was a fellow in my Katie's 
family who was formerly in the army, 
and turned out a very bad hat in- 
deed. BESANT. 

Hatches. To BE UNDER 
HATCHES to be in a state of 
depression or poverty ; to be 
dead. C. 

Well, he's dead now and under 
hatches. R. L. STEVENSON. 

Hatehet. To BURY THE 
HATCHET to cease fighting ; 
to become friendly. C. A 
phrase borrowed from a Red 
Indian custom. 

Dr. Andrew Marshall made it up 
with his adversary, and they lived 
on friendly terms ever afterwards. 
Why don't some of our living medici 
bury the hatchet with a like effective 
ceremony? JEAFFRESON. 

TO DIG UP THE HATCHET to 

renew hostilities. C. 

TO TAKE UP THE HATCHET to 

make war. C. 

TO THROW THE HATCHET to tell 

fabulous stories. F, 

Haul. TO HAUL OVER THE 

COALS. See COAL. 

To HAUL IN WITH to sail close 
to the wind, in order to ap- 
proach more closely an object. 
A nautical phrase. 

To HAUL OFF to sail close to 
the wind, in order to avoid 
an object. A nautical phrase. 

To HAUL ROUND (of the wind) 
to shift to any point on the 
compass. A nautical phrase. 



Have 116 

To HAUL THE WIND to turn the 
head of the ship nearer to that 
point from which the wind 
blows. A nautical phrase. 

Have. To HAVE AT A PERSON 
to try to strike or hit him. C. 
A have-at-him is a stroke or 
thrust. 

And therefore. Peter, have at thee 
(I'll hit thee) with a downright blow. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

Well, come here and 111 have at 
you in the vulgar tongue. C. 
EEADE. 

To HAVE AT A THING to begin 
it or attempt it. C. 

Have at (I'll begin) it with you. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

TO HAVE IT OUT (WITH A PERSON) 

(a) to settle a disputed 
point ; to challenge another 
because of some offence of 
which he has been guilty. C. 

I marched back to our rooms feel- 
ing savagely inclined to have it out 
with Forbes for (demand from Forbes 
an explanation of) his selfishness and 
lack of consideration. Macmillan's 
Magazine, 1887. 

(&) to finish it ; to enjoy the 

, rest of it. C. 

During the remainder of the day 
Mr. Browdie was in a very odd and 
excitable state; bursting occasion- 
ally into an explosion of laughter, 
and then taking up his hat and run- 
ing into the coachyard to have it out 
by himself. DICKENS. 

To HAVE A CARE to be cautious. 
C. 

Have a care, Joe ; that girl is set- 
ting her cap at you. THACKERAY. 

TO HAVE NOTHING FOR IT to 

have no alternative. P. 

He had nothing for it but to dis- 
perse his army. BURTON. 
HE HAD LIKE TO HAVE he came 
near having. P. 

Wherever the Giant came, all fell 
before him ; but the Dwarf had like 
to have been (was nearly) killed more 
than once. GOLDSMITH. 

Hawk. To KNOW A HAWK 

FROM A HERNSHAW to be 

clover; to be wideawake. C. 
A hcrnshaw is a kind of heron 
When the wind is southerly I kno\v 
a hawk from a hernshaw (or haiUl- 
EaW). bHAKESPEAKE. 



Head 



Hawse. To COME IN AT THE 
HAWSE-HOLES to enter the 
navy at the lowest grade. F. 

Hay. To MAKE HAT WHILE THE 
SUN SHINES to take every 
advantage of a favourable 
opportunity. P. 

If Patty had not been wise in her 
generation if she had not made her 
hay while the sun shone, and lined 
her nest while feathers were flying 
abroad on the death of her master 
she would have come to cruel ends. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINXON. 

BETWEEN HAT AND GRASS in an 
unformed state ; hobble-de- 
hoy. F. An Americanism, 
said of youths between boy- 
hood and manhood. 

To MAKE HAT OF to throw into 
confusion ; to disturb. F. 

Oh. father, you are making hay of 
my things. MARIA EDGE WORTH. 

Head. To HAVE A HEAD ON 
ONE'S SHOULDERS to be pos- 
sessed of judgment and dis- 
cretion. P. 

To be sure, her father had a head 
on his shoulders, and had sent her 
to school, contrary to the custom of 
the country. C. KEADE. 

TO EAT HIS HEAD OFF (of a 

horse) to do little or no work ; 
costing more in food than he 
is worth. C. 

It was my duty to ride, sir, a very 
considerable distance on a mare who 
had been eating her head off (resting 
lazily in her stable. BLACKMORE. 

TO TAKE IT INTO ONE'S HEAD 

to conceive a sudden notion. 
F. See TAKE. 

Francis had taken it into his head 
to stroll over to Whitestone's that 
evening. 

To TURN ONE'S HEAD to make 
vain or unreasonable. C. 

Well, he fairly turned Sail's head ; 
the more we wanted her to give him 
up.nhe more she wouldn't. HALI- 

/ BURTON. 

To PUT OUT OF ONE'S HEAD to 

forget ; to drive away the 
thought of. C. 

Emma at last, in order to put the 
Martins out of her head, was obliged 
to hurry on the news, which she had 
meant to give with so much caution. 
JANE AUSTEN. 



Head 



117 



Heart 



HEADS OB TAILS ? A cry used 
in tossing up a British coin. 
The face side and the reverse 
side of the coin are known re- 
spectively as heads (with refer- 
ence tOjthe King's head stamped 
on that side), and as tails, a 
term which has no particular 
significance. 

If you come out heads (says Cripps, 
addressing an old sixpence which he 
is about to toss), little Ethy shall go : 
if you come out tails, I shall take it 
for a sign that we ought to turn tail 
in (retreat from) this here job. 
BLACKMOBE. 

TO MAKE NEITHER HEAD NOR TAIL 

OF ANYTHING to be unable 
to understand or find meaning 
in any statement or event. C. 
You did say some queer things, 
ma'am, and I couldn't make head 
nor tail of what you said. MBS. 
OLIPHANT. 

OVER HEAD AND EARS com- 
pletely. C. 

Kit is over head and ears (in love), 
and she will be the same with him 
after that fine rescue. BLACKMORE. 

He's over head and ears in debt. 
THACKEBAY. 

HEAD - OVER - HEELS hurriedly ; 
before one has time to consider 
the matter. C. 

This trust which he had taken on 
him without thinking about it, head- 
over-heels in fact, was the centre 
and turning-point of his school life. 
HxraHES. 

To GIVE THE HEAD TO A HORSE 

to allow it freedom. C. 
He gave his able horse the head. 
SHAKESPEABE. 

TO LET A MAN HAVE HIS HEAD 

to allow him freedom. F. 
A phrase borrowed from the 
last, and originally only appli- 
cable to a horse. 

She let him have his head for a bit, 
and then, when he'd got quite accus- 
tomed to the best of everything and 
couldn't live without it, she turned 
him into the street, where there is no 
claret and no champagne. BESANT. 

HEAD AND SHOULDERS by the 
height of the head and shoul- 
ders. C. 

My son is head and shoulders 
taller than his mother. 



To COME TO A HEAD to ripen ; 
to approach completion. P. 

The plot was discovered before it 
came to a head. 

HEAD AND FRONT the out- 
standing and important part. 
P. 

" Your good conversation in Christ " 
"As he who called you is holy, be 
ye holy in all your conversation." 
This is the head and front of the 
matter with the writer. M. ABNOLD. 
OFF ONE'S HEAD crazy ; ex- 
cited, and not under the 
guidance of one's reason ; 
delirious. C. 

His three companions exchanged a 
second look of meaning, and one of 
the men whispered to his mate, "He's 
clean off his head" (he is no longer 
sane). All the Year Mound, 1887. 
TO BUT Or SELL A PROPERTY OVER 

ONE'S HEAD to buy or sell 
without consulting the occu- 
pants. C. 

Now his return to Beaton Brows, 
his crafty purchase of Mock Beggar 
over their heads, and his reputed 
wealth, bid fair to poison the whole 
stream of social life for them. MBS. 
E. LYNN LINTON. 

"What will become of Eed Win- 

" It will be sold over my head." 
Chambers' s Journal, 1888. 
To KEEP ONE'S HEAD ABOVE 
WATER to avoid bankrupt- 
cy. C. 

He is not, like our friend Sir Hya- 
cinth O'Brien, forced to sell tongue 
and brains and conscience to keep 
his head above water. MABIA EDGE- 

WOBTH. 

Heap. STRUCK ALL OF A HEAP 
completely astonished. F. 

I thought he'd fainted too: he 
was so struck all of a heap. HALI- 

BUBTON. 

Heap. To HEAR TELL OF 
to hear by report ; to be in- 
formed of. F. 

I never heard tell of a man becom- 
ing a dressmaker. HALIBUBTON. 

Heart. To TAKE HEART to 
become hopeful ; to feel en- 
couraged. P. 

It is difficult for the farmer, par- 
ticularly in some districts of Fife, to 
take heart after the experience of the 
last few days with their ceaseless 
torrents.-Sii. Andrews Citizen, 1886. 



Heart 



TO TAKE ANYTHING TO HEART 

to feel deeply pained about 
anything. P. 

I would not shame you by seeming 
to take them to heart or treat them 
earnestly for an instant. -DICKENS. 

To BREAK ONE'S HEART to die 
of disappointment ; to be mor- 
tally disappointed ; to cause 
bitter grief or sorrow to one. 

He (Lord Aberdeen) entered into 
the Crimean War, and it broke his 
heart (caused his death from grief). 
M. ARNOLD. 

But his friend talked, and told the 
other officers how Greaves had been 
jilted, and was breaking his heart 
(dying of grief). C. READE. 

IN ONE'S HEART OF HEARTS 
in the inmost recesses of the 
heart ; privately ; secretly. P. 
In his heart of hearts he feared 
lest there might be some flaw in the 
young man's story. JAMES PAYN. 

TO CARRY Or WEAR ONE'S HEART 

UPON ONE'S SLEEVE to ex- 
pose one's inmost thoughts to 
one's neighbours. P. 

In his youth, and in his unre- 
served intercourse with his sisters, 
lie (Beaconsfield) would have ap- 
peared to carry a warm heart upon 
nis sleeve (displayed unreservedly 
inner feelings of kindness). Edin- 
burgh Review, 1886. 

Tis not long after 
But I will wear my heart upon my 

sleeve 
For daws to peck at. SHAKESPEARE. 

Ncte. By "daws" are meant cap- 
tious, ill-natured people. 

HEART AND SOUL enthusiastic- 
ally. P. 

Re went into the scheme heart 
and soul (with enthusiasm). 

HIS HEART IS IN THE RIGHT PLACE 

he is of a kindly and sympa- 
thetic disposition. C. Sec 
EIGHT. 

To HAVE AT HEART to be deeply 
interested in. P. 

What a touching attachment that 
is which these poor fellows show to 
anyone who has their cause at heart 
even to any one who says he has. 
THACKERAY. 

TO GET Or LEARN BY HEART to 

^commit to memory. P. 

She fell to laughing like one out of 
her right mind, and made nae say 



118 Heart 

the name of the bog over, for her to 
get it by heart, a dozen times. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

To HAVE ONE'S HEART IN ONE'S 
MOUTH to be frightened or 
startled. C. 

" Old Thady," said my master just 
as he used to do. "how do you do?" 

" Very well, I thank your honour's 
honour," said I ; but I saw he was 
not well pleased, and my heart was 
in my mouth as I walked along with 
him. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

HEART WHOLE not in love. C. 

No young woman could reject such 
an offer without consideration, if 
she were heart whole. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

TO TAKE HEART OF GRACE 
to feel one's courage revive. C. 
At length Mr. Turner, taking heart 
of grace, ventured to doubt whether 
the doings described would have 
been tolerated by any head-master 
worthy of his high and responsible 
post. W. E. NORRIS. 

I told him I was come to the 
Queensferry on business, and, tak- 
ing heart of grace, asked him to 
direct me to the house of Mr. Ran- 
keillor. R. L. STEVENSON. 

HIS HEART BANK INTO HIS BOOTS 

he lost hope or courage ; 
he became deeply disheart- 
ened. C. 

Perhaps it was this perhaps it was 
the look of the island, with its gray 
melancholy woods, and wild stone 
spires, and the surf that we could 
both see and hear foaming and 
thundering on the steep beach at 
least, although the sun shone bright 
and hot, and the shore birds were 
fishing and crying all around us, and 
you would have thought any one 
would have been glad to land after 



the very thought of Treasure Island. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

AFTER ONE'S OWN HEART just 
such as one likes ; dear to 
one. P. 

It was, indeed, a representative 
gathering after the Talberts' own 
heart. HUGH CONWAY. 

OUT OF HEART heavy ; sodden. 
C. 

The tillage-ground had been so ill 

Eaged by his predecessor that the 
was what is called quite out of 
t. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 



Heaven 



119 



Hen 



Heaven. IN THE SEVENTH 
HEAVEN in a state of intense 
delight or exaltation. P. 
. William Henry, for his part, was 
in the seventh heaven. . . . Those 
days at Stratford were the happiest 
days of bis life. JAMES PAYN. 

GOOD HEAVENS ! an exclama- 
tion of surprise. C. 

Sir Henry Steele broke in loudly, 
"Good heavens I well, he is an extra- 
ordinary man. C. READE. 

Heavy. HEAVY IN HAND 
deficient in verve ; requiring 
to be urged on. C. A phrase 
originally used in driving. 

He was a kind, honest fellow, 
though rather old-fashioned, and 
just a trifle heavy in hand. JAMES 



j 
P 



AYN. 

Heels. LAID BY THE HEELS 
(a) prostrated. F. 

When a very active man is sud- 
denly laid by the heels, sad as the 
dispensation is, there are sure to be 
Borne who rejoice In it. BL ACKMORE. 

- (&) put under arrest. F. 

TO TAKE TO ONE'S HEELS to 

run off. F. 

Timothy's Bess'a Ben first kicked 
out vigorously, then took to his 
heels (scampered away), and sought 
refuge behind his father's legs. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

DOWN AT HEELS, Or OUT AT 

HEELS having bad or un- 
tidy shoes ; in poor circum- 
stances. C. 

I am almost out at heels (in 
very low circumstances). SHAKE- 
SPEARE. 

Sneak into a -corner . . . down at 
heels and out at elbows. DARRELL. 

To COOL or KICK ONE'S HEELS 
to be made to wait when 
calling upon some great per- 
sonage. C. 

We cooled our heels during the 
ordinary and inevitable half-hour. 

I have been waiting, kicking my 
heels since the train came in. 
SARAH TYTLER. 

TO TREAD UPON THE HEELS to 

follow closely. P. 

One woe doth tread upon another's 
heels (follows another closely). 
SHAKESPEARE. 



ACHILLES' HEEL the only vul- 
nerable part. P. When Thetis 
dipped her son in the river 
Styx to make him invulner- 
able, she held him by the heel, 
and the part covered by her 
hand was the only part not 
washed by the water. 

Hanover is the Achilles' heel (only 
assailable point) to invulnerable 
England. CARLYLE. 

TO KICK UP THE HEELS to 

die. F. 

His heels he'll kick up, 
Slain by an onslaught fierce of hick- 
up. ROBERT BROWNING. 

TO COME Or FOLLOW UPON THE 

HEELS OP to follow closely ; 
immediately succeeding. P. 

Bread, I believe, has always been 
considered first, but the circus comes 
close upon its heels. Contemporary 
Review, 1887. 

Exp. The multitude cries first for 
food, but soon it demands amuse- 
ments. 

The news of the sudden decease of 
old Mr. Caresfoot, of the discovery 
of Philip's secret marriage and the 
death of his wife . . . and of many 
other things, that were some of them 
true and some of them false, follow- 
ing as they did upon the heels of 
the great dinnerparty, and the an- 
nouncement made thereat, threw the 
country-side into an indescribable 
ferment. H. R. HAGGARD. 

TO GET THE HEELS OF ANOTHER 

to outstrip him. F. 

O rare Strap, thou hast got the 
heels of me at last. SMOLLETT. 

TO SHOW THE HEELS TO to 

outstrip. P. 

My impatience has shown its heels 
to my politeness. R. L. STEVENSON. 

TO SHOW A LIGHT PAIR OF HEELS 

to abscond. F. 

The day after the discovery of the 
fraud, Stanton thought it prudent to 
show a light pair of neels. 

Heltep. HELTER-SKELTER in 
haste and confusion. C. 

Colley held up a white handker- 
chief in his hand, and Breytenback 
fired, and down went the general all 
of a heap, and then they all ran 
helter-skelter down the hill. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

Hen. LIKE A HEN ON A HOT 
GIRDLE very restless. F. 



Hercules 



To SELL ONE'S HENS ON A RAINY 
DAY to sell at a disadvantage, 
or foolishly. F. 

"Never mind our son," cried my 
wife. " Depend upon it, he knows 
what he is about. 1 11 warrant, we 11 
never seehimsell his henson a rainy 
day. I have seen him buy such bar- 
gains as would amaze one. GOLD- 
SMITH. 

Hercules. HERCULES' LA- 
BOURS. Hercules, the myth- 
ical strong man of Greece, per- 
formed twelve labours or tasks, 
requiring enormous strength, 
for his brother Eurystheus. 
P. See AUGEAN. 

That, too, is on the lisu of Her- 
cules'labours, Peter mine. C H ARLES 

KlNGSLEY. 

Here. NEITHER HERE NOR 
THERE of no importance. C. 

"Touching what neighbour Batts 
has said," he began in his usual 
slow and steadfast voice, " it may 
be neither here nor there." BLACK- 
MORE. 

HERE AND 'A HERE scattered 
about thinly; occurring at 
rare intervals. P. 
I wind about, and in and put, 
With here a blossom sailing, 
And here and there a lusty trout, 
And here and there a grayling. 
TENNYSON. 

The Unitarians are, perhaps, the 
great people for taking what here 
and there on the surface seems to 
conflict most with common sense, 
arguing that it cannot be in the 
Bible, and getting rid of it.-M. 
ARNOLD. 

HERE'S TO YOU I drink to your 
good health. C. A somewhat 
old-fashioned phrase, used be- 
fore drinking a glass of wine 
or cordial with a friend. 
Here's to budgets, bags, and wallets ! 
Here s to all the wandering train ! 
BUKNS. 

Exp. The poet calls upon his 
hearers to fill their glasses and drink 
to the health of all jolly beggars. 

Herod. To OUT-HEROD HER- 
OD to be more outrageous 
than the most outrageous ; to 
pass all bounds ; to rant. 
P. Herod was the blustering 
tyrant of the Old English 
mystery plays. See Shake- 
speare's Hamlet, act iii. sc. 2. 



120 High 

But Lord Randolph out-Herods 
Herod in the opposite direction. 

ng a romp 
To kee 



Fortnightly Review, 
There is nothing li 



1887. 



, . 

othing like givi 
little boldness. 



credit for a little boldness. To keep 
up her character she will out-Herod 
Herod. BE ACONSFIEXD. 

Hie. Hie JACET two Latin 
words, signifying Here lies, 
which frequently begin the 
inscription on a tombstone. 
P. Inscriptions were formerly 
very commonly couched in 
Latin. 

On each brutal brow was plainly 
written the hie jacet of a soul dead 
within. . BELLAMY. 

Hide-and-seek. To PLAT 

HIDE - AND - SEEK WITH ANY 

ONE to seem to elude his 
pursuit. F. Hide-and-seek 
is a children's game, in which 
one hides and the others 
try to find him, or vice versa. 

Indeed, the time passed so lightly 
in this good company that I began 
to be almost reconciled to my resi- 
dence at Shaws; and nothing but 
the sight of my uncle and his eyes 
playing hide-and-seek with mine 
revived the force of my distrust. 
K. L. STEVENSON. 

High. ON HIGH aloft ; in 
or to heaven. P. 
The lark mounts up on high (to 

heaven). SHAKESPEARE. 
Thy seat is up on high (aloft). 

SHAKESPEARE. 

HIGH JINKS uproarious fun ; 
great sport. F. 

There he found the eleven at high 
jinks after supper, Jack Raggles 
shouting comic songs and perform- 
ing feats of strength. HUGHES. 

HIGH AND DRY out of the water ; 
in a dry place ; safe. P. 

Just where the eastern curve be- 
gins stands Kingscliff, a cluster of 
white cottages, fronted by a white 
beach, whereon some half-dozen of 
stout fishing-smacks are hauled up 
high and dry. Good Words, 1887. 

HIGH TIME fully time. P. 
Used where a limit of time has 
been reached, and it is neces- 
sary to delay no more. 

It was now high time (very neces- 
sary) to retire and take refreshment 
against the fatigues of the following 
day. GOLDSMITH. 



Hinges 121 

HIGH WORDS an angry discus 
sion. P. 

Their talk that day had not been 
very pleasant ; words, very like higl 
words, had passed between them. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

TO BE ON THE HIGH HORSE OF 
THE HIGH ROPES ; TO RIDE 
THE HIGH HORSE to have 

a haughty demeanour ; to 
be overbearing. F. 

Yes, I went there the night before 
last, but she was quite on the high 
ropes about something, and was so 
grand and mysterious that I couldn't 
make anything of her. DICKENS. 

He's an amusing fellow, and I've 
no objection to his making one at 
the Oyster Club : but he's a bit too 
fond of riding the high horse (of 
being arrogant). GEORGE ELIOT. 

HIGH-FALUTIN' in a pretentious 
style ; pompous. S. 

His enemies have done their best 
to enlighten her as to the hollowness 
of his high - falu tin' professions. 
Edinburgh Review, 1882. 

WITH A HIGH HAND imperiously; 
arrogantly. P. 

Mr. Tolair would have carried his 
mission with a very high hand if he 
had not been disconcerted by the 
very unexpected demonstrations 
with which it had been received. 
DICKENS. 

A HIGH TEA " tea " the even- 
ing meal with meats and 
solid food. F. 

Miss Gray need not trouble about 
dress; she always looked nice. That 
serge she was wearing would do cap- 
itafly, if she did not grudge it, for 
sauntering about the fields and gar- 
den, being pulled about by the chil- 
dren, and sharing their dinner and 
high tea. SARAH TYTLER. 

Hinges. OFF THE HINGES 
in disorder ; in a disturbed 
state. C. 

At other times they are quite off 
the hinges, yielding themselves up to 



tiie nmges, yielding themselves up to 
the way of their lusts and passions. 
SHARPE. 

Hip. HIP AND THIGH in no 
half-hearted way ; showing 
no mercy. P. 

"Protestants, I mean," says he 
(the priest), "are by the ears a- 
drivm' away at each other the whole 
blessed time, tooth and nail, hip 
and thigh, hammer and tongs.' 
HALIBURXON. 



Hit 

TO SMITE HIP AND THIGH to 

overthrow with great slaughter. 
C. 

"We shall smite them hip and 
thigh " (defeat them utterly ), he cried. 
H. CONWAY. 

It was that seventeen pounds to 
Grobury the baker, for flour, which 
made the butcher so fixedly deter- 
mined to smite the poor clergyman 
hip and thigh. A. TROLLOPS. 

To HAVE ON THE nip to gain 
the advantage over in a strug- 
gle. C. A wrestling phrase. 
If I can catch him once upon the hip, 
I will feed fat the ancient grudge I 

bear him. SHAKESPEARE. 

How would Crawley look at him 
Crawley, who had already once had 
him on the hip? A. TROLLOPE. 



Hit. To HIT OFF to describe 
in a terse and clever manner. 
C. 

Goldsmith concocted a series of 
epigrammatic sketches, under the 
title of Retaliation, in which the 
characters of his distinguished in- 
timates were admirably hit off with 
a mixture of generous praise and 
good-humoured raillery. W. IR- 
VING. 

TO HIT IT OFF TOGETHER to 

agree ; to suit each other. 
C. 

You should have seen Kembleand 
him together ; it was as good as any 
play. They don't hit it off together 
so well (find each other so congenial) 
as you and I do. JAMES PAYN. 

TO HIT THE NAIL ON THE HEAD 

to speak appositely ; to touch 
the exact point in question. 
P. 

We have already had Quintilian's 
witness, how right conduct brings 
joy. . . .And Bishop Wilson, always 
hitting the right nail on the head in 
matters of this sort, remarks that, 
" If it were not for the practical diffi- 
culties attending it, virtue would 
hardly be distinguishable from a 
kind of sensuality." M. ARNOLD. 

To HIT UPON to light upon ; to 
discover. P. 

I can never hit on 's (recall exactly 
his) name. SHAKESPEARE. 

I have hit upon (discovered) such 
an expedient. GOLDSMITH. 

To HIT OUT to strike with the 
fists straight from the shoulder ; 
to box in a serious fashion. P. 



Hither 122 

Hither. HITHER AND THI- 
THER in various directions ; 
to and fro. P. 

H.M.S. H.M.S. an abbrevia- 
tion for His Majesty's ship, 
or His Majesty's service P. 

Hob. HOB AND NOB, Ot HOB- 
NOB. A phrase used of com- 
panions drinking together in 
a friendly fashion. F. Hence 
the verb to hob-nob, or to hob- 
and-nob. 

"Have another glass?"- With 
you, hob -and -nob,' returned the 
sergeant. DICKENS. 

I have seen him and his poor com- 
panion hob-and-nobbing together. 
THACKERAY. 

Hobby. To RIDE A HOBBY 
to follow a favourite pursuit, 
or introduce a favourite subject 
into conversation with a child- 
ish eagerness. P. 

Nevertheless, some ladies have 
hobbies which they ride with consid- 
erable persistence. Mrs. Jennynge's 
hobby was a sort of hearse-horse, for 
it consisted in a devotion to the 
memory of her late second husband 
JAMES PAYN. 

TO RIDE A HOBBY TO DEATH 
to weary people utterly with 
one's peculiar notions on a 
subject. P. 

Hobson. HOBSON'S CHOICE 
no choice at all. C. Said tc 
be derived from the name o 
a Cambridge livery - stable 
keeper, who insisted on eacl 
customer taking the hors 
that was nearest the door. 

Nouniversitymanwould ridehin 
even upon Hobson's choice (if h 
could get no other to ride). BLACK 
MOKE. 

Hocus-pocus. HOCUS-POCU 
deception ; underhand deai 
ing. F. Said to be a play o 
the words Hoc est corpus, use 
in the Mass. 

Our author is playing hqcus-pocu 
(hoodwinking his readers) in the ver 
similitude he takes from that juggle 
BENTLEY. 

The hostess was too adroit at tl._ 
hocus-pocus of the table which of te 
is practised in cheap boardin 



Hold 

houses. No one could conjure a 
single joint through a greater variety 
of forms. WASHINGTON IRVING. 

>. TO GO THE WHOLE HOG 

to" have everything that can 
be got ; to refuse to be satis- 
fied with merely a portion. 
American slang. 

But since we introduced the rail- 
roads, if we don't go ahead it's a 
pity. We never fairly knew what 
going the whole hog was till then. 
HALIBURTON. 

Hoist. HOIST WITH or BY 
ONE'S OWN PETARD destroyed 
by one's own machinations, 
framed for the destruction of 
others. P. See Shakespeare's 
Hamlet, act iii. sc. 4. 

It's too disastrous a victory. I m 
hoist by my own petard caught m 
my own mouse - trap. W. D. 
Ho WELLS. 

Hoity. HOITY-TOITY. An ex- 
clamation signifying that the 
person addressed has been 
speaking or acting petulantly 
and absurdly. C. 

"Hoity-toity!" cries Honour; 
" madam is in her airs, I protest." 
FIELDING. 

Hold. TO HOLD BY tO SUp- 

port ; to approve of. C. 

Even the paterfamilias who did not 
hold by stage plays made an excep- 
tion in honour of the Bard of Avon. 
JAMES PAYN. 

To HOLD FORTH to speak in 
public, generally in praise of 
something. P. 

A pretty conjurer, telling fortunes, 
held forth in the market-place. 

L'ESTRANGE. 

The small boys, who are great 
speculators on the prowess of their 
elders, used to hold forth to (haran- 
gue) one another about Williams s 
great strength. HUGHES. 

To HOLD OFF to remain at a 
distance ; to refuse to join 
in any undertaking. P. 
If you love me, hold not off. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

To HOLD ON to last ; to con- 
tinue. P. 

The trade held on (continued) for 
many years after the bishops became 
Protestants. SWIFT. 



Hold 

To HOLD OUT to offer resistance 
not to succumb or yield. 

A consumptive person may hoL 
out (not succumb to the disease) f o 
years. ARBUTHNOT. 

To HOLD GOOD to be valid ; t< 
be applicable. P. 

No man will be banished, an< 
banished to the torrid zone, fo 
nothing. The rule holds good wit! 
respect to (is valid for) the lega 
profession. MACAULAY. 

To HOLD IN PLAY to keep fullj 
occupied with secondary mat 
ters while the attention is 
diverted from the main point 
at issue. P. 

Grouchy was to hold the Prussian? 
in play until the emperor had routec 
Wellington. 

To HOLD ONE'S OWN to contend 
successfully ; to maintain what 
one is struggling for. P. 

So far as silent maledictions were 
concerned, no profanity of theirs 
could hold its own against the in- 
tensity and deliberation with which 
he expressed between his teeth his 
views in respect to their eternal 
interests. Democracy. 

Moreover, with all her retiring 
ways, she was always quite capable 
of holding her own. WM. BLACK. 

To HOLD WATER to bear close 
inspection. C. A phrase gen 
erally used negatively. 

Tales had gone about respecting 
her. Nothing very tangible; and 
perhaps they would not have held 
water. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

To HOLD IN CHECK to restrain ; 
to control. P. 

We should find difficulty in sup- 
plying an army of eight thousand 
men at Kandahar, which would be 
sufficient to hold in check the ad- 
vance of one hundredl thousand 
Russians from the Caucasus. 
Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

NEITHER TO HOLD NOR TO BIND 
in a state of ungovernable ex- 
citement. C. 

"I tell you in turn,"saidtheyoung 
man, who was neither to hold nor to 
bind, gimply because something had 
been said about his wife" I tell you 
in turn that I mean tocontest the seat 
all the same ; and what is more, by 
ry I mean to win it." 



123 Home 

Hole. HOLE - AND CORNER 
secret; underhand. C. 
But such is the wretched trickery 
Butfery. 



the Lord Harry : 
WM. BLACK. 



of hole - and - corner 
DICKENS. 

No one could say that it was a 

hole-and-corner business, far less 

that the assembly was packed (filled 

with confederates). JAMES PAYN. 

IN A HOLE in a difficult position. 

How he is going to prove that, I 
want to know. I ve got him in a 
hole, you'll see. JUSTIN M'CARTH Y 
There is little manoeuvring for 
position and putting the other party 
in a hole. The Nation, May 1, 1890. 
IN THE HOLE. A phrase used in 
playing cards to signify that 
the player has made a minus 
score. 

Holy. HOLT WATER water 
blessed by the priests of the 
Eoman Catholic and Greek 
Churches. Catholics keep it 
in their houses, and use it on 
getting up, on retiring to rest, 
and when about to go on a 
journey. It is generally placed 
in stone basins or fonts at the 
entrance of churches, and is 
sprinkled on the worshippers 
at some of the more important 
services of the Church. 
Home. AT HOME familiar ; on 
easy terms. C. 

There was admiration, and more 
even than admiration, in his eyes. 
It was a beautiful expression that I 
cannot define or put into words .... 
that made me feel at home (friendly) 
with him at once. The Argosy, 1886. 
AN " AT HOME " a reception 
or entertainment given in 
the afternoon or even'ng. P. 

Now it so happened that Mr. Yates 
the manager was going to give an 
entertainment hecallednisatnomes, 
and this took but a small orchestra. 
C. READE. 

TO BE " AT HOME '* TO PEOPLE 

to be ready to receive visitors. 
C. 

"Sir Charles Bassett I" trumpeted 
a servant at the door, and then 
waited, prudently, to know whether 
this young lady, whom he had caught 
blushing so red with one gentleman, 
would be at home to another. C. 
READE. 



Honour 



124 



Hook 



rks 



TO BRING A THING HOME TO 

PEOPLE to say something 
which interests people, and the 
meaning o which they fully 

"You're like the wood-pigeon; it 
says do, do, do all day, and never sets 
about any work itself." That's bnps- 
ing it home to people (a sayingwhich 
rouses the attention of people). 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

TO COME HOME TO A PERSON 

to reach one's conscience ; 
to touch one's heart. C. 

I've heard a good deal of the clerk 
out of place, and now it comes home 
to me. BESANT. 
TO MAKE ONESELF AT HOME to 

act as if one were in one's own 
house. F. 

"Do untie your bonnet-strings, 
and make yourself at home, Miss 
Nipper, please," entreated Jemima. 
DICKENS. 

TO BRING ONESELF HOME to 

recover what one has pre- 
viously lost. F. 

He is a little out of cash just now. 
However, he has taken a very good 
road to bring himself home again, 
for we pay him very handsomely. 
MADAME D'ARBLAY. 

ONE'S LONG HOME the grave. 
P. 

Whateveryou can see in cold water 
to run after it so, I can't think. If I 
was to flood myself like you, it would 
soon float me to my long home (cause 
my death). C. EEADE. 

Honour. HONOUR BRIGHT ? 

do you pledge your word for 
it ? F. A phrase used when 
a man wishes to be perfectly 
sure that he is not going to 
be deceived. It is also used 
in affirmations to mean ' I 
do pledge my word solemnly." 

"I do not mean to marry Mr 
Jacomb, if that is what you mean." 
-"No! Honour bright?" WM. 
BLACK. 

''Was it written in joke, pray?" 
"No, that's the best of it,'' returned 
the actor; "right down earnest - 
honour bright." DICKENS. 
AN AFFAIR OF HONOUR a dispute 
involving a duel. P. 

He had to leave London owing t 
a fatal result from an affair of honou 
in which he was concerned. 



A DEBT OF HONOUR a debt in- 
curred at play, which cannot 
be recovered by legal process, 
and is therefore considered 
more binding in the social 
code of laws. P. 

He had all along meant to pay his 
father's debts of honour; but the 
moment the law was taken of him, 
there was an end of honour, to be 
sure. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

A POINT OF HONOUR a scruple 
arising from delicacy of feeling. 
P. 

" I will not," said Lochiel, "break 
the ice. That is a point of honour 
with me." MACAULAY. 

HONOURS OF WAR the privilege 
granted to a defeated army 
to march out of a town or a 
camp with colours flying. P. 

The same day, at one P.M., arrived 
a letter from General Stiels granting 
permission to the officers to retain 
their swords, and to the army the 
honours of war. Edinburgh Review, 
1886. 

THE HONOURS RESTED WITH HIM 
he was the most successful. 
P. 

The honours of the evening would 
have rested with Ratcliff e, had he not 
lowered himself again to his ordinary 
level. Edinburgh Review, 1882. 
TO DO THE HONOURS to act 

as host or hostess at an enter- 
tainment. C. 

Afterwards Miss Amelia did the 
honours of the drawing-room. 
THACKERAY. 
Hoof. TO BEAT Or PAD THE 

HOOF to walk. F. 

Charles Bates expressed his opinion 
that it was time to pad the hoof. 
DICKENS. 

Hook. BY HOOK OR BY CROOK 
by some means or other ; 
through some device. C. 

"I do not think," he replied coldly, 
after an unpleasant pause, "that 
William Henry cares much about 
Shakespeare ; but he has probably 
asked for his holiday thus early in 
hopes that, by hook or by crook, he 
may get another one later on." 

JAMESPAYN. 

OFF THE HOOKS (a) in disorder ; 
flurried. S. 

While Sheridan is off the hooks, 

And friend Delany at his books. 

SWIFT. 



Hop 



125 



- (6) dead ; no longer in 

existence. S. 
The attack was so sharp that 

Matilda, as his reverence expressed 

it, was very nearly off the hooks. 

THACKERAY. 
ON ONE'S OWN HOOK inde 

pendently ; on one's own 

responsibility. F. 
The very eye- 

the cane he carr 



e very eye-glass, which headed 
ane he carried so jauntily in his 
hand, was out of keeping with their 



eye-glasses, and looked like some 
gay young lens who had refused to 
be put into spectacles, and was wink- 
ing at life on its own hook. JAMES 
PAYN. 

To HOOK IT to run away. S. 

Every school-boy knows that the 
lion has a claw at the end of his tail 
with which he lashes himself into 
fury. When the experienced hunter 
sees him doing that, he, so to speak, 
"hooks it." H. KINGSLEY. 
Hop. - TO HOP THE TWIG - to 

die. See KICK THE BUCKET. 

Horn. To DRAW IN ONE'S 
HORNS to be reticent or 
timid. C. 

" This is not his opinion," said the 
doctor dryly, who having been be- 
trayed into frankness by the other's 
seeming acquaintance with the sub- 
ject in question, now once more 
seemed inclined to draw in his horns. 
JAMES PAYN. 

To SHOW ONE'S HORNS to show 
signs of a devilish nature. 
C. " Hornie " is a popular 
name for the devil, whose 
characteristics, according to 
the popular conception, are 
his horns, his tail, and his 
cloven feet. 
"A fine day, Mr. Burchell." 

A very fine day, doctor ; though I 
fancy we shall have some rain by the 
shooting of my corns" (callosities on 
the feet). 

"The shooting of your horns?" 
cried my wife in a loud fit of laughter. 
GOLDSMITH. 

Exp. Mrs. Primrose suggests by 
her remark that Mr. Burchell had a 
devilish nature. 

TO BE ON Or BETWEEN THE HORNS 

OF A DILEMMA to be in a 
position of extreme difficulty, 
from which there seems no 
way of escape. P. 

" We never cared for the money," 
said Mrs. Corey. "You know that." 



Horrors 

"No; and now we can't seem to 
care for the loss of it. That would 



be still worse. Either horn of the 
.ilemma gores us." W. D.HOWELLS. 
Mr. Jeaffreson does not see that his 



argument brings him between the 
hornsof a dilemma. Athenaeum, l'2th 
November 1887. 

The "Tabbies" were on the horns 
of a dilemma. HUGH CONWAY. 
THE HORN OP PLENTY a horn 
wreathed and filled to over- 
flowing with flowers, corn, 
fruit the symbol of prosperity 
and peace. P. Known by 
the Latin name cornucopia. 
The goddess Ceres is frequently 
pictured with it. 

Nature, very oddly, when the horn 
of plenty is quite empty, always fills 
it with babies. BESANT. 

HIS HORN IS EXALTED he is 

proud and happy. P. A 
Scriptural phrase. 

As he paced the walks with Amy 
Shillibeer, and caused that young 
person's horn to be exalted for 
hope that his flirting chaff meant 
serious business, he neard nothing 
to which he could object. MRS. 
E. LYNN LINTON. 

To LOWER ONE'S HORN to hu- 
miliate oneself ; to condescend. 
P. 

"If we could prevail on him to 
abandon this insane affair," said my 
Lady Jane, with the sublime self- 
forgetfulness of pride when it has 
lowered its horn as it skirted by 
ruin, and now raises it again as it 
touches success. MRS. E. LYNN 

LlNTON. 

Hornet. To BRING or RAISE 
A HORNETS' NEST ABOUT ONE'S 
EARS to cause a host of 
critics or enemies to rise up 
against one. C. 

The chief offenders for the time 
were flogged and kept in bounds; 
but the victorious party had brought 
a nice hornets' nest about their ears. 
HUGHES. 

HOPPOPS. THE HORRORS 
the symptoms of delirium 
tremens. C. 

"It's a strange place," said the 
squatter at length, speaking softly, 
as though loath to break the curious 
stillness. "It's enough to give one 
the horrors." All the Year Hound, 
1887. 



Hors 

HOPS. HORS DE COMBAT 

rendered useless for fighting; 
disabled. P. A French phrase. 
If the Board schoolmaster . was 
placed korsde combat by professional 
scruples and professional fatigue, 
the same reservation might have 
applied equally to Bennet Gray. 
SARAH TYTLER. 

Hopse. A HORSE-LAUGH a 
coarse, unmeaning laugh. P. 

One night, Mr. Yates being funnier 
than usual, if possible, a single horse- 
laugh suddenly exploded among the 
fiddles. C. READE. 

TO FLOG A DEAD HORSE to 

agitate for the revival of a 
creed that is extinct. C. 

Arguing against Tom Paine is like 
flogging a dead horse. 
HORSE-PLAT rough amusement. 
C. 

To be sure it was a boy, not a man, 
and child's-play is sometimes pre- 
ferred by the theatre-going world 
even to horse-play. C. READE. 
To TAKE HORSE to journey on 
horseback. P. 

He took horse to the Lake of Con- 
stance, which is formed by the entry 
of the Rhine. ADDISON. 

ONE-HORSE mean ; petty ; in 
a small way. F. An Ameri- 
canism. 

The former (steam circus) was 
literally a one-horse, or rather one- 



1888. 

Oh, well, Rhode Island is a one- 
horse state, where everybody pays 
taxes and goes to church. WM. 
BLACK. 

ON ONE'S HIGH HORSE puffed - 
up ; arrogant. F. 

Well, the colonel does seem to be 
on his high horse, ma'am. W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

Host. To RECKON or COUNT 

WITHOUT ONE'S HOST tO Cal- 

culate without considering fully 
the practicability of any plan. 

His feelings, in fact, were precisely 
the same as those on which Mr 
Harris had counted -without his 
host (rashly). JAMES PAYN. 

Napoleon had reckoned without 
his host as regards the position to 
be assumed by the South German 



126 House 

nationalities. Illustrated London 

News, 1887. 

Hot. HOT-FOOT quickly. C. 

The stream was deep here, but some 
fifty yards below was a shallow, for 
which he made off hot -foot. 
HUGHES. 

IN HOT WATER in a state of 
trouble or worry. C. 

He was far of tener in disgrace than 
Richard, and kept me, I may Bay t in 
continual hot water, wondering 
what extraordinary trick he would 
take it into his head to play next. 
ANNIE K.EARY. 

HOUP. AT THE ELEVENTH HOUR 

just in time and no more to 
obtain an advantage. P. 

At the eleventh hour he is com- 
pelled to take the last chance ap- 
plicant. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP. 

THE SMALL HOURS the morning 
hours after midnight. C. 

He was just playing that last rubbe t r 
which possesses such elastic attri- 
butes, and has kept many a better 
man up to the small hours (out of 
bed until one or two o'clock), who 
otherwise makes it a principle to be 
in bed by ten o'clock. JAMES PAYN. 

To KEEP GOOD HOURS to return 
home at an early hour every 
evening ; not to be abroad at 
night. C. 

The landlady said she would have 
no lodger who did not keep good 
hours. 

IN AN EVIL HOUR under the 
influence of an unhappy in- 
spiration ; acting from an 
unfortunate impulse ; in an 
unlucky moment. P. 

In an evil hour he consented to give 
his son a latch-key. 

House. A HOUSE - TO - HOUSE 
VISITATION a series of visits 
made to neighbouring houses 
in regular succession. P. 

I am struck more and more with 
the amount of disease and death I 
see around me in all classes, which 
no sanitary legislation whatsoever 
could touch, unless you had a house- 
to-house visitation of a Government 
officer. C. KINGSLEY. 

To KEEP HOUSE (a) to maintain 
a separate establishment. P. 

My mother no longer keeps house, 
but lives with her married daughter. 



How 



127 



(&) to manage domestic 
affairs ; to act as housekeeper. 
P. 

When my dear brother was alive 

(Ikepthouseforhim.MissNickleby), 

we had to supper once a week two or 

three young men. DICKENS. 

TO KEEP OPEN HOUSE to be 

hospitable to all comers. P. 



colonel, and everybody knew Drink- 
water Torm, and everybody who had 



Everybody in the country kn^w the 
olonel, 

jrm, and everyl 

been to the colonel's for several years 
past (and that was nearly everybody 
m the county, for the colonel kept 
open house), knew Polly. Harper's 
Monthly, 1886. 
TO CRY FROM THE HOUSE-TOPS 

to announce to the public. 
P. An Eastern phrase. The 
roofs of the houses in Syria 
and the neighbouring coun- 
tries are flat, and are used in 
the evenings as family resorts. 

Gabriel, rousing himself now and 
again to listen, heard nothing that 
might not have been cried from the 
house-tops. D. CHRISTIE MURRAY. 
HOUSE OF CALL a house where 
workmen of a particular trade 
meet, and where those in need 
of workmen can engage their 
services. P. 

The inn served as a house of call 
for farmers returning from Exeter 
market. 

LIKE A HOUSE ON FIRE very 
rapidly and easily ; " swim- 
mingly." F. 

He has, besides, got his favourite 
boots on, and feels equal to almost 
any social emergency, so he is making 
the agreeable to the heiress with 
that degree of originality so pecu- 
liarly his own, and getting on, as he 
thinks, like a house on fire. G. J. 



a 
th 
W 



HYTE-MELVILLE. 

"Yes," said Jeremiah exultantly: 
" I'm getting on like a house on fire. 
B. L. FARJEON. 

How. How MUCH ? a satirical 
expression, implying that the 
person who is addressed has 
used an absurdly learned 
phrase. S. 

" The plant is of the genus Asde- 
viadacce, tribe Stapeliece." "Genus 
how much?" 

HOW IS THAT FOR HIGH ? a 

vulgar phrase used after the 



Bumble 

telling of some wonderful 
story. S. 

Mr. Berry casually remarks, " I've 
hanged one hundred and thirteen 



had to explain how the unfortunate 
accident occurred." How is that for 
high? Truly, it must be a profitable 
business that admits of such state 
and dignity in a hangman. St. 
Andrews Citizen, 1889. 

Hub. THE HUB OF THE SOLAR 

SYSTEM or OF THE UNIVERSE 

the central city of the world. 
A name often applied in jest 
to Boston, Massachusetts. F. 

Boston State-House is the hub of 
the solar system. You couldn't pry 
that put of a Boston man if you had 
the tire of all creation straightened 
out for a crowbar. O. W. HOLMES. 

Calcutta swaggers as if it were the 
hub of the universe. Daily Ncivs, 
1886. 

Hue. HUE AND CRY a clam- 
our in pursuit of an offender. 
P. 

A hue and cry hath followed certain 
men into this house. SHAKESPEARE. 

The Dodger and his accomplished 
friend, Master Bates, joined in the 
hue and cry which was raised at 
Oliver's heels. DICKENS. 

Huff. TO TAKE THE HUFF 

to be offended ; to be sulky. 
F. 

Suppose he takes the huff, and goes 
to some other lawyer. C. READE. 

Hug 1 . TO HUG THE SHORE to 

keep close to the shore. P. 

We were afraid to venture out to 
sea, and decided to hug the shore. 
To HUG ONESELF to chuckle 
with satisfaction. F. 

He hugged himself at the idea of 
their discomfiture. 

Hum. TO HUM AND HAW to 

hesitate in speaking. C. 

There came a pause, which, after 
humming and hawing a little. Philip 
was the first to break. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

Humble. To EAT HUMBLE- 
PIE to apologize abjectly. 
P. Humble, mumble, or 
umble pie was made from the 






Hundred 128 Idol 

"Not one word for me in his 
will. ... A hunks," replied Mr. 
Bunker; "a miserly hunks." 
BESANT. 

Husband. THE HUSBANDS' 
BOAT. A name given to the 
Saturday boat from London 
which brings down to Margate 
during the summer season 
the fathers whose families 
are at the sea-coast. C. 

I never shall forget the evening 
when we went to the jetty to see the 
'usbands' boat come in. The Mistle- 
toe Bough, 1885. 

SHIP-HUSBAND a sailor who dis- 
likes to quit his vessel when in 
port. F. 

He was, as we use the term at sea, 
a regular ship-husband fat is .to 
say, he seldom put his foot onshore. 
CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 

HUSBAND'S TEA very weak tea. 
F. 

Hush. To HUSH UP to keep 
concealed ; to suppress. P. 

The matter is hushed up, and the 
servants are forbid to talk of it. 
POPE. 

"Ah," he said unpleasantly, 
"you're beginning to be ashamed of 
yourself, and wish the thing hushed 
up." F. ANSTEY. 

HUSH-MONET a bribe to secure 
silence regarding some ini- 
quitous transaction. P. 

There was, besides, hush-money 
for the sub-sheriffs (who had been 
bribed to keep quiet). MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

There is much more black-mail 
paid in the world than the world 
has any idea of; but very little turns 
out to be what it pretends to be, 
hush-money. JAMES PAYN. 



umbles or entrails of the 
deer, and fell to the lot of the 
inferiors at a feast. 

With the greatest alacrity the mal- 
contents in France, the old Consti- 
tutional party, take up your parable. 
" France is eating humble-pie ! ' they 
scream out; "the tyrant is making 
France eat humble-pie! France is 
humiliated ! France is suffocating ! 
M. ARNOLD. I 

Hundred. NOT A HUNDRED 
MILES OFF or FROM. A phrase 
often used to avoid a direct 
reference to any place. C. 
The place itself or its imme- 
diate neighbourhood is always 
intended. It therefore is 
equal to " very near " or 
" very close to." 

Scene chemist's shop, not a hun- 
dred miles from Dumfries. Enter 
small girl with a bottle of cod-liver 
oil purchased on the previous day. 
Small girl : " If ye please, sir, will ye 
tak' this back? The man canna tak' 
it, for he dee'd last nicht." St. 
Andrews Citizen, 1887. 

Exp. Small girl: "If you please, 
sir, will you take this back? The 
man cannot take it, for he died last 
night." 

The phrase is also used of 
events not far distant in time. 
From all of which wise reflections 
the reader will gather that our friend 
Arthur was not a hundred miles off 
an awkward situation. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

Hungry. As HUNGRY AS A 
HAWK very hungry. C. 

I made a hearty supper, for I 
was as hungry as a hawk. R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

Hunks. AN OLD HUNKS a 
niggardly, mean fellow. S. 



Ice. TO BREAK THE ICE to 

commence speaking after an 
embarrassing si ence ; to begin 
to speak on a delicate subject. 
C. 

After he'd a while looked wise, 
At last broke silence and the ice. 

S. BUTLER. 

The ice having been broken in this 
unexpected manner, she made no 
further attempt at reserve. THOMAS 
HARDY. 



Idol. IDOLS OF THE TRIBE 
(IDOLA TRIBUS) errors of be- 
lief into which human nature 
in general is apt to fall. P. 
A phrase, with the others which 
fo low, invented by Francis 
Bacon. 

Teachers and students of theology 
get a certain look, certain conven- 
tional tones of voice, a clerical gait, 
a professional neckcloth, and habits 
of mind as professional as their 



If 



129 



externals. They are scholarly men, 
and read Bacon, and know well 
enough what the idols of the tribe 
are.HoLMES. 

Some of these (preconceived 
shadowy notions) are inherent in the 
human mind, as, for example, the 
general prejudice in favour of sym- 
metry and order. . . . Siich preju- 
dices extend to the whole tribe of 
men, and may be called the idols of 
the tribe. ABBOTT. 

IDOLS OF THE CAVE (IDOLA 

SPECUS) errors of be ief into 
which people living apart 
from the world are apt to 
fall. P. 

The frigidities, leading to nothing, 
of the old Sinico-Japanese scholar- 
ship, a scholarship full of the idols 
of the cave, must give way to the 
open-eyed methods of the West. 
Japan Mail, 1886. 

Again, individual men, circum- 
scribed within the narrow and dark 
limits of their individuality, as 
shaped by their [country, their age, 
their own physical and mental 
peculiarities, find themselves as it 
were fettered in a cave . . . they 
only see the shadows of realities: 
such, individual misconceptions or 
idols may be called idols of the cave. 
ABBOTT. 

IDOLS OF THE FORUM Or MARKET- 
PLACE (IDOLA FORI) errors 
of belief arising from language 
and social intercourse. P. 



Language is a third imposture 
tyrannizing over and moul 
thoughts. It is the idol of inter- 



moulding 



course, deriving its influence from 
all meetings of men, and may there- 
fore be called the idol of the market- 
place. ABBOTT. 

IDOLS OF THE THEATRE the 

deceptions that have arisen 
from the dogmas of different 
schools. P. 

In the place of the unobstrusive 
worship of the truth, authority 
substitutes the mere fictions and 
theatrical stage-plays (for they are 
no better) of the ostentatious philos- 
ophers. It may therefore be called 
the idol of the theatre. ABBOTT. 

If. IF YOU PLEASE. This 
phrase has often a peculiar 
use when inserted in a sen- 
tence. It calls attention to a 
statement, of which the oppo- 
site might have been taken for 



In 

granted, and may be trans- 
lated, " Pray do not suppose 
the contrary." 



Rank is respected, if you please, 
East End of London ; 



even at the 



and perhaps more there than in 
fashionable quarters, because it is 
so rare. BESANT. 

Ignis. IGNIS FATUUS decep- 
tive light. P. Latin. See 
WILL o' THE WISP. 

Austria, who, beguiled by the ignis 
fatuus of her great ally, had assisted 
in discrediting the Bund and cover- 
ing it with ridicule, returned to it in 
her extremity. Quarterly Reviev), 
1887. 

Ilk. OF THAT ILK of the place 
with the same name ; as, BE- 
THUNE OF THAT iLK = Bethune 
of Bethune. A Scotch phrase. 
I don't mean Beatrice to marry Mr. 
Staunton, even if he is a Staunton of 
that ilk.-W. E. NORRIS. 

111. IT'S AN ILL, WIND THAT 

BLOWS NOBODY GOOD few 

events are misfortunes to 
every one concerned. C. 
Sickness benefits physicians ; 
death puts money in the pock- 
ets of undertakers ; fires are 
popular with carpenters. 

Tis an ill wind that blows nobody 
(any) good : the same wind that took 
the Jew Lady Rackrent over to 
England brought over the new heir 
to Castle Rackrent. MARIA EDOE- 
WORTH. 

Ill blows the wind that profits no- 
body. SHAKESPEARE. 

Imperium. IMPERIUM IN IM- 
PERIO a government within 
a government. P. Latin. 

Improve. To IMPROVE THE 
OCCASION to draw moral les- 
sons from any event when it 
happens. C. 

Holmes, who was one of the best 
boys in the school, began to improve 
the occasion. " Now, you youngsters, 
said he, as he marched along in the 
middle of them, " mind this you're 
very well out of this scrape. Don't 
you go near Thompson's barn again ; 
do you hear?" HUGHES. 

In. THE INS AND OUTS OF ANY- 
THING its whole working ; 
the details of anything. C. 

Now so many things come cross 
and across (happen in an unexpected 

O 



In 

and contrary fashion) in the count 
less ins and outs (varied experience 
of life), that the laws of the Crippse 
failed sometimes in some jot or 
tittle. BLACKMORB. 

No; if you want to know the in 
and outs of the Yankees (externa 
and internal characteristics of the 
people of New England), I've 
wintered them and summerec 
them; I know all their points 
shape, make, and breed. HALI 

BURTON. 

IN FOR IT -in a critical or dan 
gerous situation. F. 

The Speaker, imagining I was 
going to rise, called my name. J 
was in f9r it (could not escape from 
the critical position), put my hai 
down, advanced to the table, anc 
dashed along. BEACONSFIELD. 

There was indeed a fearful joy 
about his playing at being a man oi 
high family. He was in tor it now 
and he would not draw back. J 
M'CARTHY. 

IN WITH A PERSON on friendly 
terms with him. F. 

That's the worst of being in 
an audacious chap like that old 
Nickleby. DICKENS. 

IN NUBIBUS in the clouds ; 
not having an actual ex stence. 
P. Latin. 

The above scheme is still, we be- 
lieve, in nubibus. 

IN FOR A PENNY, IN FOR A POUND. 

This phrase is used when the 
same loss or danger is incurred 
whether the previous respon- 
sibility has been great or 
small. C. Compare the say- 
ing, " As well be hung for a 
man as for a sheep." 

You never know when he's done 
with you, and if you're in for a 
penny, you're in for a pound 
DICKENS. 

.If there's anything queer about 



most serious measures with him). 
DICKENS. 

IN FLAGRANTE DELICTO in the 

very act of guilt. C. Latin. 
M ?V S ' Routh. while playing hazard 
m Mr. Gruntzs rooms, had been 
caught inflagrante delicto, in the act 
of cheating. -EDMUND YATES. 
IN EXTREMIS at the last gasp ; 
in a hopeless condition P 
Latin. 



130 Infra 

The delimitation of the sphere of 
influence which had been arranged, 
of course, meant an agreement in 
advance, whether Bulgaria or Greece 
should conduct insurrections in par- 
ticular villages whenever Turkey 
was in extremis, and which should 
annex them whenever Turkey was 
extinct. Fortnightly Review, 1887. 
IN LOCO PARENTIS in a parent's 
place. P. Latin. 

This stately personage, probably 
for Miss Burt's sake rather than his 
own, was about to place himself, as 
respected Miss Josceline, in loco 
parents. JAMES PAYN. 

IN MEDIAS RES right into the 
middle of a subject, P. Latin. 
At last I desperately broke the ice, 
rushing in medias res (introducing 
the subject abruptly). The Mistletoe 
Bough, 1885. 

IN MEMORIAM to the memory 

of. P. Latin. Used like 

Hie jacet (q.v.). 
IN SITU in the actual spot 

where anything has occurred. 

P. Latin. 
It is really worth while to get a 

copy of the memoirs to see how 

strange such language looks in situ. 

National Review, 1888. 

IN TOTO taken completely ; al- 
together. P. Latin. 

If you become a nuisance, I shall 
either deny your statements in toto, 
or I shall take the wind out of your 
sails by confessing the truth to her 
on my own account. W. E. NORRIS. 

Indian. INDIAN FILE a pro- 
cession in which each person 
follows after the other in a 
long line. P. 

Well, sir, as the four of us were 
walking in Indian file, what did the 
woman suddenly do but go up to 
Jeremiah and accost him. B. L. 
FARJEON. 

INDIAN SUMMER the finest part 
of the autumn season in North 
America, a time noted for its 
beauty and mildness. P. 

In the one case there was Mr. 
Josceline wooing and winning; 
Mrs. Jennynge in an Indian sum- 
mer (delightful state) of rapture; 
and Miss Anastasia beginning to 
suspect what was going on. JAMES 



nfpa. INFRA DIG. a con- 
traction for infra dignitatem 



Inside 



131 



Irony 



(Latin), " beneath one's dig- 
nity." F. 

Beards continued in favour until 
the seventeenth century, when the 
magistracy, again opposing the 
change of fashion as infra dig., 
declined as long and as resolutely 
to part with their beards as their 
predecessors had done to adopt 
them. LADY JACKSON. 

I was thinking the other day that 
in these days of lecturings and read- 
ings a great deal of money might be 
made (if it were not infra dig.), by 
one's having readings of one's own 
books. DICKENS. 

Inside. To GET THE INSIDE 
TRACK OF ANYTHING to under- 
stand its workings. F. An 
American phrase. 

Intention. To HEAL BY THE 

FIRST INTENTION (of a WOUnd) 

to close up without sup- 
puration ; to come together 
and grow well without in- 
flammation. P. 

He only strapped up my cut, and 
informed me that it would speedily 
get well by the first intention an 
odd phrase enough. 0. W. HOLMES. 

\ Inter. INTER NOS between 
ourselves. C. Latin. Used 
when speaking confidentially. 
Compare the French entre nous, 
which see. 

I don't believe in Tom's sincerity ; 
but that is inter nos. 

\I.O.U. I.O.U., "I owe you." 
A form of acknowledgment 
of debt common between 
friends. The amount bor- 
rowed and the name of the 
borrower are added to these 
letters. 

But pay? of course he must pay; 
to talk of burning I. O.U.'s was mere 
child's play. THACKERAY. 

Here he took out of his desk an 
I.O.U. for 5, ready drawn up, dated. 
S. WARBEN. 

Ipse. IPSE DIXIT. A dogmatic 
statement made by a writer 
Wthout adducing reasons. P. 
Yet Sir George Trevelyan evidently 

Jpects that, on the other hand, 
itionalist associations will be 
tble to be suppressed on the ivse 
dixit of the Lord Lieutenant that 
they are acting illegally. Special or, 
1887. 



Ipso. IPSO FACTO in the fact 
itself. P. Latin. Used where 
something is said to be in- 
herent of necessity in some- 
thing else. 

Whatever the captain does is right, 
ipso facto, and any opposition to it 
is wrong on board ship. R. H. 
DANA, JUN. 

Irish. IRISH STEW a dish 
made with meat, potatoes, 
and onions, mixed confusedly 
together. P 

Mrs. Grudden remained behind to 
take some cold Irish stew and a pint 
of porter in the box-office. DICKENS. 



TO HAVE MANY IRONS 

IN THE FIRE to have many 
projects carrying on at one 
time. F. Irons are here the 
bolts used in the laundry to 
heat the box-iron, and re- 
newed from time to time. 

And then he (Lamb) tells what 
other literary irons are in the fire. 
A. AINGER. 

Thus without risk he got his 
twenty per cent. Not that he ap- 
peared in these transactions ; he had 
too many good irons in the fire to 
let himself be called a usurer. C. 
READE. 
IN IRONS fettered. P. 

"Overboard!" said the captain. 
"Well, gentlemen, that saves the 
trouble of putting him in irons." 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

AN INCH OF COLD IRON a stab 
from a dagger or other weapon. 
p. 

An inch of cold iron brought this 
wonderful career to a close. 

THE IRON HAD ENTERED INTO 

HIS SOUL his spirit was 
broken. P. 

True, he wore no fetters, and was 
treated with a grave and stately con- 
sideration; but his bonds were not 
the less galling, and the iron had not 
the less entered into his soul. G. A. 
SALA. 

TO STRIKE WHILE THE IRON IS 

HOT to act with energy and 
promptitude. C. 

"Strike the iron while it's hot, 
Bob," replied I.-CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 

Irony. THE IRONY OF FATE 
the curious providence which 



Islands 

brings about the most un- 
likely events. P. 
By the irony of fate, the Ten Hours 



Bill was carried in the very session 
" ~ey, having changed 
his views on the Corn Laws, felt it 



when Lord Ashley, having chans 



his duty to resign his seat in Parlia- 
ment. Leisure Hour, 1887. 

Islands. ISLANDS OF THE 
BLEST or BLESSED imagi- 
nary islands in the West, 
thought to be the abode of 
good men after death. P. 
Soon your footsteps I shall follow 
To the Islands of the Blessed. 

LONGFELLOW. 

Issue. AT ISSUE (a) in con- 
troversy ; disputed. P. 

This compromise, which was pro- 
posed with abundance of tears and 
sighs, not exactly meeting the point 
at issue, nobody took any notice of 
it. DICKENS. 

(&) at variance ; disagreeing. 

We talked upon the question of 
taste, on which we were at issue. 
SOUTHEY. 

To JOIN ISSUE WITH to dissent 
from ; to find fault with ; to 
oppose. P. 

I must join issue with you on 
behalf of your correspondent, who 
says that cocky is bush-slang for a 
small selector. Illustrated London 
News, 1887. 

To JOIN ISSUES to leave a 
matter to the decision of a 
law-court. P. 

Plaintiffs joined issues, and the 
trial was set down for the next 
assizes. C. READE. 

Itching-. AN ITCHING PALM 
an avaricious disposition. C. 
Let me tell you, Cassius, you your- 
self 



132 Jack 

Are much condemned to have an 

itching palm ; 
To sell and mart your offices for 

gold 
To undeservers. SHAKESPEARE. 

Ithupiel. ITHURIEL'S SPEAR 
the weapon of the angel 
Ithuriel, which exposed de- 
ceit by the slightest touch. P. 
Him (Satan) thus intent Ithuriel 

with his spear 
Touched lightly; for no falsehood 

can endure 

Touch of celestial temper, but re- 
turns 
Of force to its own likeness. 

MILTON. 

Miracles, the mainstay of popular 
religion, are touched by Ithuriel's 
spear. They are beginning to dis- 
solve. M. ARNOLD. 

Ivories. To SHOW ONE'S ivo- 

KIES to display one's teeth. 

S. 
The negress showed her ivories in 

along, rippling laugh. MARRY AT. 
Jacky came instantly down. 

showed his ivories, and admitted 

his friend's existence on the word of 

a dog. C. READE. 
To WASH ONE'S IVOBIES to 

drink. S. 

Ixion. THE IXIONIC WHEEL. 
Ixion, as a punishment for 
falling in love with Juno, 
was hurled to Tartarus, and 
there bound to a wheel which 
perpetually revolved. In the 
following extract the prison 
tread-mill is jocularly called 
the Ixionic wheel. 

Defendant's brothers tread the 
Ixionic wheel for the same offence. 
THACKERAY. 



Jack. A JACK-AT-A -PINCH 
a person suddenly called upon 
to perform some duty. F. 
Often applied to a clergyman 
without a fixed position, who 
.is frequently summoned to 
act at a wedding or a funeral 
in the absence of the regular 
minister. 



JACK AND JILL common names 
at one time among the Eng- 
lish peasantry : Jack for a 
man, Jill for a woman. Oc- 
curring frequently in rhymes. 
Jack shall have Jill; 
Nought shall go ill ; 
The man shall have his mare again, 
and all shall be well. 

SHAKESPEARE. 



Jack 



Fifty years ago and more, there was 
one great East Anglian fair, whither 
the squires and parsons for miles 
around resorted, along with Jack 
and Jill, and all the rest of them. 
Atherueum, 1887. 

A JACK-IN-OFFICE a person who 
presumes on his official posi- 
tion to be pert or rude. C. 

I hate a Jack-in-office. WOLCOT. 
A JACK TAB a British seaman. 
C. 

The pigeon-toed step, and the rol- 
licking motion, 
Bespoke them two genuine sons of 

the ocean, 
And showed in a moment their real 

characters 

(The accent so placed on this word 
by our Jack Tars). BABHAM. 

A JACK OF ALL TRADES a man 
who devotes himself to many 
different occupations. C. 

He should, as I tell him, confine 
himself entirely to portrait-painting. 
As it is, he does landscapes also. 
" A Jack of all trades," as I ventured 
to remind him, " is master of none." 
JAMES PAYX. 

A JACK WITH A LANTERN or 
JACK o' LANTERN the ignis 
fatuus which flits about bogs, 
and often leads travellers to 
destruction. F. 

He was a complete Jack o' lantern 
here, and there, and everywhere. 
HALTBURTON. 

JACK SPRAT a diminutive boy 
or man. F. Immortalized in 
the rhyme, 
Jack Sprat could eat no fat, 

His wife could eat no lean ; 
And so it was, between them both, 

They licked the platter clean. 
BEFORE YOU COULD SAT JACK 
ROBINSON in an instant ; 
immediately. F. 

"Minerva has too bad a character 
for learning to be a favourite with 
gentlemen," said Lord Clonbrony. 

" Tut ! Don't tell me ! I'd get her 
off (secure a husband for her) before 
you could say Jack Robinson, and 
thank you too, if she had 50,000 
down (in ready money), or 1,000 a 
year in land." MARIA EDGEWORTH. 
Found also under the contracted 
form, " Before you could say 
J. R." 

These men are not the warriors of 
commerce, but its smaller captains, 



133 Jack 

who, watching the fluctuations of 
this or that market, can often turn a 
thousand pounds ere we could say 
J. R.-C. READE. 

A CHEAP- JACK a travelling ven- 
dor of goods. P. 

Cheap-Jacks have their carts be- 
side the pavement. BESANT. 

JACK'S BEAN-STALK a bean- 
stalk which grew up in one 
night. C. The story of Jack 
and the Bean-Stalk is an old 
and very popular nursery 
tale. Compare JONAH'S GOURD. 

For the affection of young ladies is 
of as rapid growth as Jack's bean- 
stalk. THACKERAY. 
JACK KETCH the hangman. F. 

Jos, who would no more have it 
supposed that his father, Jos Sed- 
ley's father, of the Board of Revenue, 
was a wine merchant asking for 
orders, than that he \yas Jack 
Ketch, refused the bills with scorn. 
THACKERAY. 

He will come back without fear, 
and we will nail him with the fifty- 
pound note upon him; and then- 
Jack Ketch (he will be hanged). C. 
READE. 

JACK -IN -A -BOX something 
which disappears and re- 
appears with great sudden- 
ness. C. 

She was somewhat bewildered by 
this Jack -in -a -box sort of appear- 
ance. WM. BLACK. 

Some fools made a run on the bank, 
as you know. I was cleaned out, and 
; had nothing for it but to put up the 
shutters, when in came this old 
sphinx for all the world like a Jack- 
in-the-box with the lid open, or a 
deus ex machind of the Greek stage. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
JACK HORNER the self-indul- 
gent, complacent little boy 
who picked out plums from 
the pie. Immortalized in the 
nursery rhyme, 
Little Jack Homer sat in a corner, 

Eating a Christmas pie ; 
He put in his thumb, and he pulled 

And saM!'' What a good boy 

We shall not do Mr. Edmund 
Quincy the wrong of picking out hi 
advance all the plums in his volume. 
. . . But here and there is a passage 
where we cannot refrain, for there is 
a smack of Jack Horner in all of us, 
and a reviewer were nothing without 
it. J. R. LOWELL. 



Jail 

JACK FROST a playful name 
for frost. C. 

"I hope you don't expect grati- 
tude." 

" I only expect the blankets to keep 
out Jack Frost." Miss BRAD DON. 

Jail. A JAIL-BIRD a hard- 
ened criminal. C. 

The jail-birds who piped this tune 
were, without a single exception, the 
desperate cases of this moral hos- 
pital. C. READE. 

James. COURT OF ST. JAMES 
or ST. JAMES'S the English 
Court. P. 

A third described, with gay ma- 
levolence, the igorgeous appearance 
of Mrs. Hastings at St. James's. 
MACAULAY. 

Jap. ON THE JAR ajar ; 
partly open. F. 

The door was on the jar, and, gently 
opening it, I entered and stood be- 
hind her unperceived. BROOKE. 

" I see Mrs. Bard ell's street door on 
the jar." 

" On the what ? " exclaimed the little 
judge. 

"Partly open, my lord," said Ser- 
geant Snubbin. DICKENS. 

Jaw. STOP YOUR JAW be 
quiet. S. 

If you don't stop your jaw about 
him, you'll have to fight me. H. 

KlNGSLEY. 

Jean. JEAN CRAPAUD a nick- 
name for a Frenchman. F. 
See JOHNNY CRAPEAU. 

As true as the last century Eng- 
lishman's picture of Jean Crapaud. 
J. R. LOWELL. 

Jeddart. JEDDART or JED- 
WOOD JUSTICE hanging the 
criminal first, and trying him 
afterwards. P. 

The case of Lord Byron was harder. 
True Jed wood justice was dealt out 
to him First came the execution, 
then the investigation, and last of 
all, or rather not at all, the accusa- 
tion. MACAULAY. 

Jeplcho. To GO TO JERICHO 
to go away; to go into 
retirement. S. An expres- 
sion used contemptuously. 
The allusion comes from the 
Bible : " Hanun took David's 



134 Jew 

servants, and shaved off the 
one half of their beards. . . . 
When they told it unto David, 
he sent to meet them, because 
the men were greatly ashamed : 
and the king said, Tarry at 
Jericho until your beards 
be grown, and then return " 
(2 Sam. x. 4, 5). 
Mrs. Jones was rather cross, she made 

a little noise ; 
She said she "did not like to wait on 

little vulgar boys." 
She with her apron wiped the plates, 

and as she rubbed the delf, 
Said I might "go to Jericho, and 

fetch the beer myself." 

BARHAM. 

Seeing her. I wished Joe's scruples 
had been at Jericho. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

Jeppy. JERRY -WORK unsub- 
stantial work in building. P. 
JERRY -BUILDER and JERRY- 
BUILT have this significance. 

Two lumps of plaster fall from the 
roof of thej jerry-built palace; then 
the curse begins to work. Pall Mall 
Gazette, 1884. 

A JERRY or TOM-AND-JERRY 
SHOP a public-house where 
only beer is sold. S. So 
called from its inferiority to 
a fully-licensed house. 

We turned into a Tom-and-Jerry 
shop to have some beer, and spin a 
bit of a yarn about old times. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Jessie. To GIVE A MAN JESSIE 
to thrash him soundly. S. 
He at length lost patience, and 
doubling up his sleeves made for 
the man. And I can tell you he 
gave him Jessie. 

Jeunesse. JEUNESSE DOREE 
the " gilded youth " of a 
nation ; its fashionable young 
men. P. French. 

You could never get together a 
jeunesse doree without our assist- 
ance. H. KlNGSLEY. 

Jew. A JEW'S EYE some- 
thing very valuable. S. Prob- 
ably from French joaille. 

It's the nerves, boy, the nerves ; and 
a drop of the real stuff is worth a 
Jew's eye for steadying a man after a 
night of it, as the saying is. HALL 
CAINE. 



Jib 



135 



Joe 



Jib. THE CUT OP ONE'S JIB 
one's personal appearance. 
Sailors' slang. 

She disliked what sailors call " the 
cut of his jib." SIB W. SCOXT. 

Jiffy. IN A JIFFY without 
any delay ; forthwith. C. 

In a jiffy I had slipped over the 
side. K. L. STEVENSON. 

Jingo. BY JINGO a mild 
oath having no definite mean- 
ing. S. 

One of them, I thought, expressed 
her sentiments on this occasion in a 
very coarse manner, when she ob- 
served that, by the living jingo, she 
was all of a muck of sweat. GOLD- 
SMITH. 

THE JINGOES. A war party 
about the year 1877. 

The refrain of the war-song (then 
very popular) contained the spirit- 
stirring words, 

"We don't want to fight; but by 
jingo, if we do. 

We've got the ships, we've got the 
men, we've got the money too." 

Some one whose pulses this lyrical 
outburst of national pride failed to 
stir called the party of the enthusi- 
asts the Jingoes. JUSTIN M'CAR- 
THY. 

Job. A JOB'S COMFORTER one 
who comes avowedly to com- 
fort a friend, but who really 
annoys him. P. See the 
Bible (Book of Job). Job 
had three friends who came 
to him in his trouble as 
comforters, but spent their 
time in reproaching him. 

What a morbid propensity sonie 
people have, when visiting a sick 
chamber, to relate all the melancholy 
news they can remember, instead of 
cheering the patient with light and 
bright conversation ! No better ex- 
ample, we would say, could be found 
than the following : One of our ac- 
tors was taken suddenly ill, and was 
confined to his bed for a fortnight. 
When the turn for the better came 
he rose, and a barber was sent for. 
After some time a quaint little Ger- 
man fussed into the room with. Ah, 
my friend, you vas ill? Well, dis 
weatherispopping'em off by dozens. 
Suddenly he paused with the lather 
brush in his hand, and looking at the 
sick actor said, " Vy, I shave a man 
like you on Tuesday, and on Wednes- 
daywhiff he was dead!" St. An- 
drews Citizen, 1886. 



"I told you so, I told you so!" is 
the croak of a true Job's comforter. 
A. TROLLOPE. 

JOB'S COMFORT consolation 
which irritates instead of 
soothing. C. 

Did ever a young fellow go to the 
dogs, but some old woman of either 
sex found her way to the very ear 
that ought not to be tormented with 
Job's comfort, and whisper, "Aw, 
dear! aw, dear! "and " Lawk-a-day ! " 
and "I'm the last to bring bad newses 
(news), as the saying is ;" and " Och, 
and it's a pity, and him a fine, brave 
young fellow, too ! " and " I wouldn't 
have told it on no account to another 
living soul." HALL CAINE. 

JOB'S NEWS news of calamities. 
C. 

From home there can nothing come 
but Job's news. CARLYLE. 

JOB'S POST a bringer of bad 
news. P. 

This Job's post from Dumouriez 
reached the National Convention. 
CARLYLE. 

THE PATIENCE OF JOB very 
great patience. C. 

Mr. Pratt has certainly the patience 
of Job. MARIA EDGE WORTH. 

Job. TO PAY A PERSON BY 

THE JOB to pay him for each 
separate portion of work 
done. P. A jobbing car- 
penter is one who is ready 
to do odd pieces of work when 
sent for. 

TO DO THE JOB FOR A MAN t-O 

kill him. F. 

That last debauch of his did the job 

for him (caused his death). 

A BAD JOB said of what is 

hopeless or impracticable. F. 

Indeed, the general opinion was 

that, finding, we had reached the 

mission station in safety, they had, 

knowing its strength, given up the 

pursuit of us as a bad job. H. K. 

I will not say that he had given the 
whole thing up as a bad job, because 
it was the law of his life that the 
thing never should be abandoned 
as long as hope was possible. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

Joe. A JOE MILLER or JOE 
a stale jest. F. Joe Miller was 
a witty actor at the beginning 
of the eighteenth century. His 



Jog 



136 



Jolly 



jests, with many others added, 
were published in book form 
in 1737. " I don't see the 
Joe Miller of it" signifies, 
" I don't see the wit in it." 
Take hackneyed jokes from Miller, 

got by rote, 

ith 



With just enough of learning to mis- 
quote. BYRON. 

Not so these officers, however; 
they 
and wickedest old Joe Millers. 



so 
tell 



they tell each other the stalest 



THACKERAY. 

Jog. To JOG ANOTHER'S 
MEMORY or ANOTHER'S ELBOW 

to remind another of a 
duty or a promise apparently 
forgotten. F. 

To JOG ON to proceed lazily 
and heavily. C. 

Thus they jog on, still tricking, 
never thriving. DRYDEN. 

John. JOHN o' NOKES AND 
JOHN o' STYLES ordinary 
peasants. C. 

John o' Nokes and John o' Styles 
were now more considered than I 
was. G. A. SALA. 

JOHN COMPANY a familiar 
name given to the East In- 
dia Company (E.I.C.), which 
ruled in India until the 
mutiny of 1857. 

When he had thoroughly learned 
this lesson he was offered a position 
in India, in the service of John Com- 
pany. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

JOHN DOE AND RICHARD ROE 

dummy names used in law 
cases to represent the plaintiff 
and the defendant in an 
action of ejectment. This 
form of words was abolished 
in 1852. 

Thus in a case lately decided before 
Miller, Doe presented Roe a subscrip- 
tion paper.-O. W. HOLMES. 

Instead, therefore, of Jones and 
Smith fighting out the matter in 
their own proper names, they (the 
lawyers) set up a couple of puppets 
(called John Doe and Richard Roe), 
who fall upon each other in a very 



JOHN BTILL a representative 
Englishman. P. Dr. Ar- 
buthnot's History of John Bull 
made the expression current. 



" Who is he when he is at home?" 
"The Englishman's first question 
about every stranger," remarked Mrs. 
Lindsay, laughing. "What a thor- 
ough John Bull you are, Arthur!" 
W. E. NORRIS. 

JOHN ORDERLY the signal to 
shorten the performance at a 
show. S. The master, who 
remains on the outside plat- 
form of the booth, and takes 
in the money, cries to the 
actors, " Is John Orderly 
there ? " This is a signal 
for them to cut short the 
performance. 

Johnny. JOHNNY CRAPE AU 
a familiar term for a 
Frenchman, especially in use 
among sai ors. See JEAN. 

Those vessels went armed, too, as 
befitted the majesty of the bunting 
under which old Dance had gloriously 
licked Johnny Crapeau. Gentle- 
man's Magazine, 1887. 

Join. TO JOIN HANDS WITH 

to take as a partner ; to asso- 
ciate oneself with. P. 

"I smoke my pipe and think how 
unappreciated Keats was, and flatter 
myself mine is a parallel case. Then, 
like Bruce's spider, I try again." 

"And, like him, vou will at last 
succeed," said Ella confidently. 
"When merit joins hands with 
perseverance, success is certain." 
JAMES PAYN. 

TO JOIN THE MAJORITY to die. 

P. A classical phrase. 



joined the majority. 
Mall Gazette, 188T. 

Joint. OUT OF JOINT in con- 
fusion and disorder. P. 

The times are out of joint. SHAKE- 
SPEARE. 

"Why, minister," says I, "what 
under the sun is the matter with 
you ? You and Captain Jack look as 
if you had had the cholera. What 
makes you so dismal and your horse 
so thin. What's out o' joint now?" 
HALIBURTON. 

Jolly. THE JOLLY ROGER the 
pirate's flag. F. 

"Mr. Kentish, if that be your 
name," said I, "are you ashamed of 
your own colours?" 

" Your ladyship refers to the 'Jolly 
Roger'?" he inquired with perfect 



Jonab 



137 



Keep 



gravity, and immediately went Into 
peals of laughter. R. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

Jonah. JONAH'S GOURD a 
phrase applied to what grows 
in a night and withers with 
equal rapidity. P. 

"I expect I belong to the order of 
Jonah's gourds," said Campion bit- 
terly. F. ANSTEY. 

Jonathan. BROTHER JONA- 
THAN a typical American. C. 
An American republic in stars 
and stripes was also represented 
from Yokohama ; and two brothers 
Jonathan, one from Tokio, another 
from Yokohama, supported their 
countrywoman. Japan, Mail, 1887. 

Jump. TO JUMP A CLAIM to 

seize upon a mining claim by 
force, or in the absence of one 
who has a prior claim. 

To gain possession of this old wood 
and iron, and get a right to the water, 
Rufe proposed, if I had no objec- 
tions, to jump the claim. R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

To JUMP AT to accept with 
eagerness. C. 

To his surprise, Susan did not 
jump at this remuneration. C. 
READE. 



TO JUMP Or JUMP OVER THE 

BROOMSTICK to marry in an 
informal way. S. 

Well, the other gipsy man is no 
other than Joe Smith, who jumped 
the broomstick with the lovely Prin- 
cess Cinnaminta. BLACKMORE. 

A Romish wedding is surely better 
than jumping over a broomstick, 
which, unless \ve had adopted the 
uncouth Moresque custom, would 
have been all the ceremony of matri- 
mony we could have had. G. A. 
SALA. 

Justice. To DO ONE JUSTICE 
to display one's good quali- 
ties or good looks. P. 

In one bracelet was a photograph 
of dear little Charlie, taken from 
a picture done in oils, very like, but 
not doing him justice (making him 
appear as pretty as he actually was). 
The Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

IN JUSTICE TO desiring to treat 
fairly ; doing what justice 
demands to. P. 

In vain poor Lady Clonbrony fol- 
lowed the dowager about the rooms 
to correct this mistake, and to repre- 
sent, in justice to Mr. Soho, though 
he had used her so ill, that he knew 
she was an Englishwoman. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 



Kaow. To KAOW-TAOW to 
behave in a submissive manner. 
F. From the Chinese. 

To have to kaow-taow to Arnold 
too, as I must do of course. ANON. 

Keen. KEEN OF A JOB eager 
for work. S. 

If you offer to take charge of those 
young brats, I must say you are keen 
of a job. 

Keep. To KEEP ABREAST OF 
to advance at an equal pace 
with ; not to fall behind. P. 

He yet found abundance of time to 
keep abreast of all that was passing 
in the world.-Athenccum, 1887. 

To KEEP UP to continue along- 
side of ; not to fall behind. P. 
"Please, sir, we've been out Big- 
side hare and hounds a ad lost our 
way." 



"Hah! you couldn't keep up (fell 
behind), I suppose." HUGHES. 
To KEEP COMPANY to have a 
sweetheart ; to court. F. 

This is Miss Kennedy, and I hope 
I'm sure that you two will get to 
be friendly with one another, not to 
speak of keeping company (becom- 
ing lovers).-BESANT. 

TO KEEP AN EYE TO Or ON to 

watch. C. 

Whilst they were eating it, leaving 
Mouti to keep an eye to them, he 
went some way off and sat down on 
a big ant-heap to think.-H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 
TO KEEP IN WITH A MAN to 

remain on friendly terms with 
him. C. 

I always told your father he thought 
too much of that Watson ; but I would 
keep in with him if I were you, for 
they say he's coining money. The 
Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 



Keep 



To KEEP ONE'S HAND IN to 
employ one's energies ; to con- 
tinue in practice. C. 

You'll find plenty to keep your 
hand in at Oxford, or wherever else 
you go. HUGHES. 

TO KEEP BODY AND SOUL TO- 
GETHER to maintain bare 
existence. P. 

One of the maids having fainted 
three times the last day of Lent, to 
keep body and soul together we put 
a morsel of roast beef into her mouth. 
MARIA EDGE WORTH. 

TO KEEP DARK ABOUT ANYTHING 

to preserve secrecy. C. 

If you have tastes for the theatre 
and things, don't talk about them; 
keep them dark. BESANT. 

TO KEEP TO ONESELF to be 

retiring in one's habits ; of 
a reserved disposition. C. 

We do not see much of our neigh- 
bours; they live very quietly, and 
keep to themselves. 

To KEEP IN VIEW to have one's 
aim or attention fixed in a 
certain direction. P. 

He had always kept in view the 
probability of a dissolution of the 
firm. 

TO KEEP COUNTENANCE or IN 

COUNTENANCE to lend moral 
support to. P. 

Flora will be there to keep you 
countenance. R. L. STEVENSON 

He might as well be a West India 
planter, and we negroes, for anything 
he knows to the contrary has no 
more care nor thought about us than 
if we were in Jamaica or the other 
world. Shame for him ! But there's 
too many to keep him in counte- 
nance. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 
To KEEP ONE'S COUNTENANCE 
to preserve one's gravity ; 
to refrain from laughing. P. 

The two maxims of any great man 
at court are, always to keep his coun- 
tenance, and never to keep his word. 

To KEEP HOUSE. See HOUSE. 

TO KEEP PACE WITH. See PACE. 

To KEEP IN (a) to refuse to 
disclose ; to preserve secret. 
C. 

But, please, don't think old Grizzel 
mean for keein in what had taken 



138 Kick 

(&) to detain schoolboys after 

the regular hours as a punish- 
ment. C. 

He was no more moved than the 
Roman soldiers, or than the school- 
master is moved by the sad face of a 
boy kept in. BESANT. 

TO KEEP UP APPEARANCES to 

behave as if everything was 
right. C. 

Captain Cuttle kept up appear- 
ances, nevertheless, tolerably well. 
DICKENS. 

Keeping-. IN KEEPING suit- 
able ; harmonizing. P. 

It was in keeping (harmonized) 
with the scenery around. MRS. H. 
WOOD. 



OUT OF KEEPING unsuitable ; 
inappropriate. P. 

It was an old room on which 
George Dallas looked an old room 
with panelled walls, surmounted by 
a curious carved frieze and stuccoed 
roof, and hung round with family 
portraits, which gave it a certain 
grim and stern air, and made the gay 
hothouse plants with which it was 
lavishly decorated seem out of keep- 
ing. EDMUND YATES. 

Kettle. A KETTLE OF FISH 

a confused state of affairs ; a 

muddle. F. " Kettle " is here 

for KIDDLE, a net. 

There, you have done a fine piece 

of work truly there is a pretty 

kettle of fish made on't at your 
house. FIELDING. 

Key. THE KEY OF A POSITION 
the point whose possession 
gives control over a position 
or a district. P. A military 
phrase. 

TO HAVE THE KEY OF THE 

STREET to be locked out. F. 
"There," said Lowten, "you have 
the key of the street." DICKENS. 
GOLD KEY the badge of a 
chamberlain. P. 

Hardly will that gold key pro- 
tect you from maltreatment. COLE- 
RIDGE. 

Keystone. THE KEYSTONE 
STATE a popular name for 
Pennsylvania. 
He comes from the Keystone 

State. 

Kick. TO KICK OVER THE 

TRACES to become violent and 



Kick 



139 



Kinchin 



insubordinate. F. A phrase 
taken from horse-driving. 

You must not kick over the traces, 
or I shall be forced to suppress you, 
Lady Anne. . . . You are growing a 
trifle too independent. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

Who on earth would have thought 
that a girl like Janette Lisle, brought 
up in that kind of way, and in such 
a household, would have been so 
carried away by her love as to kick 
right over the traces and run off ? 

J. M'CARTHY. 

To KICK THE BEAM to be de- 
ficient in weight ; to fly into 
the air. P. Said of a scale 
in a balance. 

But in his present survey of the 
age as his field, he seems to find that 
a sadder colour has invested all the 
scene. The evil has eclipsed the 
good, and the scale, which before 
rested solidly on the ground, now 
kicks the beam. GLADSTONE. 
The latter (scale) quick flew up and 
kicked the beam. MILTON. 

To KICK UP DUST to carry on a 
valueless discussion. C. 

Amongst the manuscript riches of 
the Bodleian, there was a copy of a 
certain old chronicler about whose 
very name there has been a consider- 
able amount of learned dust kicked 
up. DE QUINCEY. 

TO KICK THE BUCKET to die. 

S. 

"The cap'n (captain) will inherit 
the property after the old bird hops " 
(his old aunt dies). 

"Hops?" repeated Josephine, not 
understanding him. 

"Ay-kicks? 

" Kicks ? I don't understand." 

"Hops the twig kicks the bucket. 
How dull you are!" Chambers' s 
Journal, 1887. 

TO KICK UP THE HEELS to die. 
F. 

His heels he'll kick up. 
Slain by an onslaught fierce of hick- 

up. ROBERT BROWNING. 

TO KICK UP A ROW or A SHINDY 

to cause a disturbance ; to 
be violent in behaviour. F. 

Master Mash, who prided himself 
upon being a young gentleman of 
great spirit, was of opinion that they 
should kick up a row. and demolish 
all the scenery. - THOMAS DAY: 
Sandford and Merton. 

Hawes shrank with disgust from 
noise in his prison. . . . "Beggars 
get no good by kicking up a row, 
argued he. C. READE. 



TO GET MORE KICKS THAN HALF- 
PENCE to receive more abuse 
than profit ; to be badly or 
roughly treated. F. 

Let the sweet woman go to make 
sunshine and a soft pillow for the 
poor devil whose legs are not models, 
whose efforts are blunders, and who 
in general gets more kicks than half- 
pence. GEORGE ELIOT. 

TO KICK AGAINST THE PRICKS 

to struggle with an over- 
mastering force ; to refuse 
to move in a clearly mapped- 
out path. P. The phrase is 
used in the Bible (Acts ix. 5). 

Like most such men, who are sent 
into seclusion for the good of the 
community, Maurice Hervey was 
able to realize, without such severe 
treatment as was needed to convince 
the apostle, that kicking against the 
pricks is foolishness. HUGH CON- 

My father had quite as little yield- 
ing in his disposition, and kicked 
against the pricks determinedly. 
T. A. TROLLOPE. 

Kidney. OF THE SAME KID- 
NEY of the same nature. P. 

Fellows of your kidney will never 
go through more than the skirts of a 
scrimmage. HUGHES. 
Kilkenny. To FIGHT LIKE 
KILKENNY CATS to fight till 
the combatants are all torn 
to pieces. C. See CATS. 

The tactics of the Kilkenny cats 
by which the Sultan kept hold of 
the wretched island were hideously 
cruel. Spectator, December 1887. 

Kill. TO KILL TWO BIRDS 

WITH ONE STONE to effect two 

results with one expenditure 
of trouble; to Igain two ob- 
jects by one exertion. C. 

We will kill two birds with one 
stone disinter a patient for our 
leathern gallows, and furnish a fresh 
incident of the Inquisition. C. 
READE. 

To KILL ONE'S MAN to fight a 
duel with fatal results to one's 
opponent. C. 

He was a famous shot, had killed 
his man before he came of age, and 
nobody scarce dared look at him 
whilst at Bath. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

Kinchin. ON THE KINCHIN 
LAY. See LAY. 



Kind 

Kind. (TRIBUTE) IN KIND 

tribute paid, not in money, 
but in articles of produce. P. 

The Turk, who was a man of strict 
honour, paid the count by embez- 
zling the tribute in kind of the pro- 
vince he governed.- BEACONSFIELD. 
King 1 . KING'S ENGLISH the 
standard English, such as is 
regarded as good by the 
highest authorities. P. 

She was the most ignorant old 
creature that ever was known, could 
neither read nor write, and made sad 
jumble of the King's English when 
she spoke. G. A. SALA. 

KING'S EVIDENCE the evidence 
of one of a band of criminals 
who, in order to obtain a 
pardon, informs against his 
fellows. P. 

The unhappy man, to save his life, 
had betrayed his master and turned 
King's evidence. G. A. SALA. 

KING LOG one 1 who, having en- 
joyed a short popularity, is 
afterwards treated with con- 
tempt. P. See ^Esop's Fables, 
" The Frogs asking for a 
King." To change King Log 
for King Stork is to change a 
stupid but harmless ruler for 
an oppressor and tyrant. 

It is a singular fact that Mr. 
Emerson is the most steadily attrac- 
tive lecturer in America. Into that 
somewhat cold-waterish region ad- 
venturers of the sensational kind 
come down now and then with a 
splash, to become disregarded King 
Logs before the next session. J. R. 
LOWELL. 

TO BE UNWILLING TO CALL THE 
KING ONE'S COUSIN to be in 

a state of perfect satisfaction 
or elation. F. 

He wouldn't condescend to call 
the king his cousin just at this pres- 
ent time (he is so much elated with 
his prosperity }.-H A LIBURTON. 

THE KING OF TERRORS a name 
for death. P. From the Bible 
(Job xyiii. 14). 

Her rival was face to face with 
that king of terrors before whom all 
earthly love, hate, hope, and ambi- 
Mon must fall down and cease from 
troubling.-!!. R. HAGGARD. 

Kingdom. KINGDOM COME 
the next world. F. 



140 Knee 

If the face of the master is to be 
taken as a barometer, we shall all 
be in kingdom come before long. 
CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 

Kiss. To KISS HANDS to kiss 
the hand of the sovereign on 
accepting or retiring from 
high office. P. 

TO KISS AND BE FRIENDS to 

become reconciled. F. 

"It is not generous of you, Mr 
Heigham, to throw my words into 
my teeth. I had forgotten all about 
them. But I will set your want of 
feeling against my want of gratitude, 
and we'll kiss and be friends." 

"I can assure you, Mrs. Carr, that 
there is nothing I should like better. 
When shall the ceremony come off?" 

"Now you are laughing at me, and 
actually interpreting what I say 
literally, as though the English lan- 
guage were not full of figures of 
speech. By that phrase" and she 
blushed a little, that is, her cheek 
took a deeper shade of coral "I 
meant that we would not cut each 
other after lunch." H. E,. HAGGARD. 
To KISS THE ROD to submit to 
punishment meekly and with- 
out complaint. 

Kite. To FLY A KITE to sus- 
tain one's credit by obtaining 
accommodation bills. A col- 
loquial phrase among com- 
mercial men. 

Here's bills plenty long bills and 
short bills but even the kites, which 
I can fly as well as any man, won't 
raise the money for me now. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Kith. KITH AND KIN rela- 
tives, and connections by 
marriage. C. 

Jason had none of his relations 
near him. No wonder he was no 
kinder to poor Sir Condy than to 
his own kith or kin. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

It was a sair vex (sore trouble) to a' 
(all) her kith and kin. SCOTT. 

Kittle. KITTLE CATTLE TO 
SHOE a difficult person to 
manage. F. 

But I am not so sure that the 
young lady is to be counted on. She 
is kittle cattle to shoe. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

Knee. To BOW THE KNEE TO 
BAAL to conform to the pre- 
vailing or fashionable worship 



Knife 



141 



Knuckle 



of the day. P. See the 
Bible: "Yet I have left 
me seven thousand in Israel, 
all the knees which have not 
bowed to Baal " (2 Kings 
xix. 18). 

Whiggism is always the scorn of 
thorough-going men and rigorous 
logicians is ever stigmatized as a 
bending of the knee to Baal. J. 
COTTER MORISON. 

TO BOW THE KNEE BEFORE 

to submit to. P. 

In the course of the year 1859 
several of those eminent Frenchmen 
who refused to bow the knee before 
the Second Empire had frequent 
and friendly conversations with 
Macaulay on the future of their un- 
happy country. G. O. TREVELYAN. 
Knife. WAR TO THE KNIFE 
deadly strife. P. 

War to the knife now. C. KEADE. 

So the strife settled down into a 
personal affair between Flashman 
and our youngsters; a war to the 
knife, to be fought out in the little 
cockpit at the end of the bottom 
passage. T. HUGHES. 
Knock. A KNOCK-OUT an 
auction where the bidders 
are in collusion. C. 

There are occasional knock-outs 
and other malpractices in every sale- 
room in London. A thenceum, 1887. 

This was a knock-out transaction. 
Twelve buyers had agreed not to bid 
against one another in the auction 
room ; a conspiracy illegal but cus- 
tomary. C. READE. 
To KNOCK UNDER to submit 
completely. F. 

Our government is not going to 

knock under because they have 

suffered a few reverses. H. R. 

HAGGARD. 

To KNOCK UP (a) to fatigue. F. 

This is my only holiday, yet. I 
don't seem to enjoy it the fact is, 
I feel knocked up with my week's 
work. S. WARREN. 

(6) to awake by rapping at 
the door. P. 

Then I knocked up old Macniven 
out of bed. R. L. STEVENSON. 
(c) to call upon ; to visit. F. 

He would go home some of these 
days and knock the old girl up. H. 
KINGSLEY. 
TO KNOCK ON THE HEAD to 

frustrate ; to break up ; to 
destroy. F. 



Mr. Hfnckley told us some very 
interesting facts connected with the 
original survey, and knocked several 
t delusions on the head. 
USSELL. 

To KNOCK OFF (a) to discon- 
tinue. F. 

When the yarlet knocked off work 
for the day it was observed that he 
was possessed of a strange manner. 
BESANT. 

(&) to cease work. F. 

They gradually get the fidgets. 
This is a real disease while it lasts. 
In the workroom it has got to last 
until the time to knock off .BESANT. 

(c) to prepare ; to get 

ready. F. 

Rover, too you might easily get 
up (the part of ) Rover while you are 
about it, and Cassio and Jeremy 
Diddler. You can easily knock 
them off: one part helps the other 
so much. Here they are, cues and 
all. DICKENS. 

To KNOCK ABOUT to wander ; 
to travel without definite aim. 
F. 

I am no chicken, dear, and I have 
knocked about the world a good 
deaL H. R. HAGGARD. 

Know. To KNOW WHAT ONE 
is ABOUT to be far-sighted 
and prudent. C. 

She makes the most of him, be- 
cause she knows what she is about 
and keeps a mean. M. ARNOLD. 

To KNOW WHAT'S WHAT. See 
WHAT. 

Knuckle. To KNUCKLE DOWN 
to acknowledge oneself 
beaten ; to submit. F. 

We knuckled down under an ounce 
of indignation. BLACKMORE. 

I had to knuckle down to this man 
to own myself beaten but for his 
help. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

To KNUCKLE UNDER to yield ; 
to behave submissively. C. 

The captain soon knuckled under, 
put up his weapon, and resumed his 
seat, grumbling like a beaten dog. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

To RAP A MAN'S KNUCKLES to 
administer a sharp reproof. C. 

The author has grossly mistrans- 
lated a passage in the Dcfensio pro 
Populo Anglicano ; and if the bishop 
were not dead, I would here take the 
liberty of rapping his knuckles. DE 
QUINCEY. 



Labour 



142 



Late 



Labour. A LABOUR OF LOVE 
work undertaken spontane- 
ously, and not for pay. P. 

That his own thoughts had some- 
times wandered back to the scenes 
and friends of his youth during this 
labour of love (the composition of 
the Deserted Village), we Know from 
his letters. BLACK'S Goldsmith. 

Lady. LADY BOUNTIFUL a 
charitable matron. P. 

Every one felt that since Mrs. 
Armytage was playing the part of 
Lady Bountiful, it was better that 
she should go through with it. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Laissez. LAISSEZ-FAIRE let 
alone ; allowing things to go 
as they will ; absence of 
intervention or control. P. 
French. 

Laissez-faire declines in favour; 
our legislation grows authoritative. 
Contemporary Review, 1887. 

Lamp. THE LAMP OF PHCEBUS 
a poetical name for the sun. 

Lance. A FREE LANCE one 
attached to no party ; one 
who fights for his own hand. 
P. 

That he (Defoe) wrote simply as a 
free lance, under the jealous suffer- 
ance of the government of the day. 

MlNTO. 

Land. To SEE HOW THE LAND 
LIES to see in what state 
matters are. C. 

Now I see how the land lies, and 
I'm sorry for it. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

Her hostess clearly perceived how 
the land lay, and was exceedingly 
indignant at the supposed neglect of 
her favourite. JAMES I'AYN. 

TO MAKE THE LAND to Come in 

sight of the land as the ship 
approaches it from the sea. P. 
He made the land the sixth day 
after leaving Melbourne. 

THE LAND OF THE LEAL heaven. 
P. Originally a Scottish 
phrase. On one celebrated 
occasion Mr. Gladstone used 
the expression erroneously, as 
applying to Scotland. 



We'll meet and aye be fain (loving) 
In the land of the leal. 

BARONESS NAIBNE. 

Lapsus. LAPSUS LINGUAE a 
slip of the tongue ; something 
said by mistake. C. Latin. 

" I will not answer for anything he 
might do or say. I only know * 

'^Vhat do you know?" 

"More than I choose to say. It 
was a lapsus linguae" (I should not 
have said that I knew anything). 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Large. AT LARGE (a) free ; 
at liberty. P. 

It was thus that the little party in 
the prior's hostel conversed together 
on a footing more confidential and 
familiar than would have been pos- 
sible had they been at large in the 
world without. JAMES PAYN. 

If you are still at large, it is thanks 
to me. R. L STEVENSON. 

(&) in a wide sense ; gener- 
ally. P. 

Their (the English people's) in- 
terests at large are protected by 
their votes. W. E. GLADSTONE. 

A GENTLEMAN AT LARGE a 

person without any serious 
occupation. C. 

He was now a gentleman at large, 
living as best he might, no one but 
himself knew how. Miss BRADDON. 

Lark. To HAVE LARKS to 
indulge in boyish tricks. F. 

What larks we had when we were 
boysj 

WHEN THE SKY FALLS WE SHALL 
CATCH LARKS an absurd state- 
ment, used to throw ridicule 
on any fanciful proposition. 
C. 

The stationary state may turn out 
after all to be the millennium of 
ecpnomic expectation, but for any- 
thing we know the sky may fall and 
we may be catching larks before that 
millennium arrives. Contemporary 
Review, 1880. 

Late. LATE IN THE DAY 
behind time ; too late. C. 
Used with reference to long 
periods. 

"I am not going to stand your 
eternal visits to him." 



\ 
1 

Laugh 143 

'You have stood them for twenty 
years. Rather late in the day to 
object bow, isn't it?" she remarked 
. H. R. HAGGARD. 



Lay 




. TO LAUGH TO SCORN 

to treat with ridicule. P. 

Lochiel would undoubtedly have 
laughed the doctrine of non-resist- 
ance to SCOm. MACAULAY. 
TO LAUGH IN ONE'S SLEEVE to 

smile inwardly while pre- 
serving a serious countenance. 
P. 

His simplicity was very touching. 
. . . "How they must have laughed 
at you in their sleeves, my poor 
Willie!" she answered pityingly. 
JAMES PAYN. 

To LAUGH OFF to dismiss with 
a laugh. P. 

Our baronet endeavoured to laugh 
off with a good grace his apostasy 
from the popular party. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

TO LAUGH OUT OF THE OTHER 
CORNER Or SIDE OF THE 
MOUTH to be made to feel 
vexation ; to have the laugh 
turned against a jeering per- 
son. C. 

" Nonsense ! " said Adam. " Let it 
alone, Ben Cranage. You'll laugh o' 
th' other side o' your mouth then." 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

TO LAUGH ON THE WRONG SIDE 

OF ONE'S FACE to be humili- 
ated. C. 

By-and-by thou wilt laugh on the 
wrong side of thy face. CARLYLE. 

Law. To HAVE or TAKE THE 

LAW OF ANY ONE to prOSC- 

cute any one in a law court. C. 

"There's a hackney -coachman 
downstairs, with a black eve and a 
tied-up head, vowing he'll have the 
law of you." 

"What do you mean, law? Sed- 
ley faintly asked. 

*' For thrashing him last night." 
THACKERAY. 

"She was as bad as he, said 

Tinker. " She took the law of every 

one of her tradesmen. "THACKERAY. 

A LAW OF THE MEDES AND THE 

PERSIANS an unalterable 
law. P. 

We looked upon every trumpery 
little custom and habit which had 
obtained in the school as though it 
had become a law of the Medes and 
Persiana T. HUGHES. 



LAW-ABIDING obedient to the 
laws. P. 

Yet the road is not worthy of this 
reputation. It has of late years be- 
come orderly ; its present condition 
is dull and law-abiding. BESANT. 

Lay. THE LAY or LIE OF THE 
LAND the general features 
of a tract of country. P. 

Fortunately, they both of them 
had a very fair idea of theilay of the 
land ; and, in addition to this, John 
possessed a small compass fastened 
to his watch-chain. H. K. HAGGARD. 

To LAY ABOUT ONE to strike 
on all sides. P. 

He'll lay about him to-day. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

He lustily laid about him: but 
in consequence he was brought to 
the ground and his head cut off. 

BUNYAN. 

To LAY BY to save ; to store 
away. P. 

He had not yet, it is true, paid off 
all the mortgages, still less had it 
been in his power to lay by anything 
out of his income. Good Words, 
1887. 

TO LAY DOWN THE LAW to 

speak with authority. C. 

Though it was pleasant to lay 
down the law to a stupid neighbour 
who had no notion how to make the 
best of his farm, it was also an agree- 
able variety to learn something from 
a clever fellow like Adam Bede. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

TO LAY THE CORNER-STONE 

to make a regular beginning. 
p. 

I verily believe she laid the corner- 
stone of all her future misfortunes 
at that very instant. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 
TO LAY HEADS TOGETHER to 

consult. C. 

Then they laid their heads to- 
gether, and whispered their own 
version of the story. BESANT. 
To LAY TO HEART to ponder 
deeply upon. P. 

To do Alice justice, though she 
listens to such lessons she does not 
lay them to heart as she might. 
Edinbiirgh Review, 1882. 

Lay it to thy heart. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

To LAY LOW to bury. P. 

I saw her laid low in her kindred's 
vault. SHAKESPEARE. 



Lay 



144 



TO LAY VIOLENT HANDS ON 

to murder. P. 

I do believe that violent hands were 

laid 

Upon the life of this thrice-famed 
duke. SHAKESPEARE. 

To LAY BY THE HEELS to ren- 
der powerless; to confine. F. 
Originally used of imprison- 
ment in the stocks, a punish- 
ment inflicted on vagrants and 
others. The ankles were en- 
closed in a board, the culprit 
preserving a sitting posture. 
See HEELS. 

Poor old Benjy! the rheumatiz 
has much to answer for all through 
English country sides, but it never 
played a scurvier trick than in laying 
thee by the heels. T. HUGHES. 

TO LAY ONESELF OUT FOR to 

direct one's energies towards. 

P. 
"And now," said Mr. Colliber, 

"you will tab* chambers in Pall 

Mall ; you will join a club I can get 

you into as good a one as you have a 

right to expect; you will drive in 

your cab to the office 

will lay yourself out 

dinners." BESANT. 
To BE LAID UP to be unwell ; 

to be confined in one's room 

with sickness. C. 
He was made so rabid by the gout, 

with which he happened to be then 

laid up, that he threw a footstool at 

the dark servant in return for his 

intelligence. DICKENS. 
To LAY IN to store for use on 

an approaching occasion. P. 
The aboriginal peasantry of the 

neighb9urhood were laying in pikes 

and knives. MACAULAY. 
To LAY IT ON to exaggerate ; to 

do anything extravagantly. F. 
Now you are laying it on. Surely 

he could not get so high a salary. 
A LAY FIGURE a human model 

used by an artist. P. 
Meantime you are not to be a 
r a mere negative -~ 



every day ; you 
for giving 



To LAY TO (a) to cease from 
advancing; to stop. P. See 
LIE TO. 

'.'Well gentlemen " said the cap 
tain, "the~best that \ can say is not 
much. We must lay to, if you 
Please, and keep a bright look-out " 
R. L. STEVENSON. 



Lay 

-(6) to be sure 



of; 
F. 



to be 



certain regarding. 

"Ask your pardon, sir, you would 
be very wrong, quoth Silver. " You 
would lose your precious life, and 
you may lay to that." R, L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

TO LAY ANYTHING TO ONE'S 

CHARGE to accuse him of 
it ; to hold him responsible 
for it. P. Biblical. (See 
Deut. xxi. 8 ; Rom. viii. 
33.) 

My scoundrelly enemies did not 
fail to confirm and magnify the 
rumour, and would add that I was 
the cause of her insanity; I had 
driven her to distraction, I had 
killed Bullingdon, I had murdered 
my own son : I don't know what else 
they laid to mycharp .THACKERAY. 

To LAY OUT (a) ;o spend (of 
money). P. 

Unluckily all our money had been 
laid out that morning in provisions. 
GOLDSMITH. 

(&) to invest. P. 

To crown all, Mademoiselle Beatrice 
is a funded proprietor, and consulted 
the writer of this biography as to the 
best method of laying out a capital 
of two hundred francs, which is the 
present amount of her fortune. 
THACKERAY. 

(c) to prepare a corpse for 

the coffin. P. 

"What am I to do about laying 
her out?" asked Mrs. Evitt of the 
doctor. Miss BRADDON. 

(d) to be willing to under- 
take the charge of. 

I have never laid myself out for 
families. Children are so mischiev- 
ous. Miss BRADDON. 

THE KID or KINCHIN LAY the 
practice of robbing young 
children a special branch of 
the London thieves' art. S. 
See the career of Noah Clay- 
pole in Oliver Twist. 

" You did well yesterday, my dear," 
said Fagin; "beautiful! Six shil r 
lings and ninepence halfpenny on 
the very first day. The kinchin lay 
will be a fortune to you." DICKENS. 

What in Oliver Twist fifty years 
later is called the kinchin lay, ap- 
pears here (in Captain Grose's dic- 
tionary) as the kid lay ;the last word 
meaning profession. KINQTON OLI- 
PHANT, in The New English. 



Lead 



145 



Leave 



Lead. To LEAD ONE A PRETTY 
DANCE to cause one un- 
necessary trouble. C. 

" Well, my lord," cried Sir Terence, 
out of breath, "you have led me a 
pretty dance all over the town." 
MARIA. EDGEWORTH. 

To LEAD UP TO to conduct to 
gradually and cautiously. P. 

Mr. Fleming does not even accuse 
the incumbent of insidiously leading 
up to Mariolatry. Saturday Review, 
1887. 

After a little rambling talk the 
lawyer led up to the subject which 
so disagreeably preoccupied him. 
K. L. STEVENSON. 

To LEAD OFF to begin. P. 

There were, no doubt, many ardent 
and sincere persons who seemed to 
think this as simple a thing to do 
as to lead off a Virginia reel. J. R. 
LOWELL. 

TO LEAD UP A BALL Said Of 

the most important couple 
who open the ball by com- 
mencing the dance. P. 

Mr. Thornhill and my eldest 
daughter led up the ball, to the great 
delight of the spectators. GOLD- 
SMITH. 

TO LEAD BY THE NOSE. See 

NOSE. 
Leaf. To TAKE A LEAF OUT 

OF ANOTHER PERSON'S BOOK 

to imitate him in certain par- 
ticulars. C. 

Do you know, Arminius, I begin 
to think, and many people in tnis 
country begin to think, that the time 
has almost come for taking a leaf 
out of your Prussian book. M. 
ARNOLD. 

TO TURN OVER A NEW LEAF 

to begin a different mode of 
life. C. 

I suppose he'll turn over a new 
leaf, now there's a lady at the head 
of the establishment. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

Leak. To LEAK our to be- 
come gradually known (of 
something which has been 
kept a secret). P. 

It was plain that the news of his 
engagement had leaked out through 
one of those mysterious channels 
which no amount of care can ever 
effectually close in such cases. 
W. E. N ORRIS. 



To SPRING A LEAK to let in 
water. P. / 

Whether she sprang a leak, I cannot 

find, 
Or whether she was overset with 

wind, 
But down at once with all her crew 

she went. DRYDEN. 

Leap. BY LEAPS AND BOUNDS 
by a series of sudden and 
rapid advances. P. 

The figures showing the advance 
by leaps and bounds of Jewish 
pauperism year after year are no 
less striking. Spectator, 1887. 

LEAP YEAR a year of three 
hundred and sixty-six days, 
occurring every fourth year. 
P. Ladies are allowed to 
-propose marriage to gentle- 
men during leap years. 

But I don't remember any one 
having given me an " engaged ring" 
before; and it's not leap year (the 
year when ladies propose) neither. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Least. THE LEAST SAID THE 
SOONEST MENDED it is pru- 
dent to speak little. C. 

The old lady ventured to approach 
Mr. Benjamin Allen with a few com- 
forting reflections, of which the 
chief were, that after all, perhaps 
it was well it was no worse ; the least 
said the soonest mended. DICKENS. 

Leather. LEATHER AND PRU- 
NELLA (or PRUNELLO) what is 
on the exterior ; non-essential. 
P. Prunella is a cloth used 
by shoemakers in making the 
uppers of boots. 
Worth makes the man, and want of 

it the fellow ; 
The rest is all but leather or pru- 

nello. POPE. 

The question is, How is the book 
likely to sell? All the rest is leather 
and prunella (does not matter). 
JAMES PAYN. 

Leave. To LEAVE OFF (a) 
to cease or desist from ; to 
abandon. P. 

First they left off worshipping the 
gods of Troy. BESANT. 

(&) to discontinue wearing. 

p. 

He goes in his doublet and hose, 
and leaves off his wit. 

SHAKESPEARE. 



Leek 



146 



Leg 



To LEAVE OUT IN THE COLD to 

neglect ; to exclude from par- 
ticipation in anything. P. 



to Cornellis,~so my'son" is left out in 
the cold. Chambers' s Journal, 1888. 
TO LEAVE IN THE LURCH. See 

LURCH. 

Leek. To EAT or SWALLOW 
THE LEEK to submit to what 
is humiliating. C. 

One has heard of eating the leek, 
but that is nothing in comparison 
with that meal of the Sepoys at 
Dusty bad. JAMES PAYN. 

It was certain that he (Mr. Erin) 
would have to swallow a very large 
leek (undergo a very painful morti- 
fication) first. JAMES PAYN. ** 

Left. OVER THE LEFT under- 
stand quite the reverse of 
what is said. P. 

Each gentleman pointed with his 
right thumb over his left shoulder. 
This action, imperfectly described 
by the feeble term "over the left," 
when performed by any number of 
ladies and gentlemen who are accus- 
tomed to act in unison, has a very 
graceful and airy effect : its expres- 
sion is one of light and airy sarcasm. 
DICKENS. 

A LEFT-HANDED COMPLIMENT 

a saying which, though appar- 
ently meant to flatter, really 
depreciates. An unlucky piece 
of flattery. P. 

His quiet manner left his speech 
unpunctuated, and his fishy eyes, 
level voice, and immovable face put 
no dot to an ambiguous "i," and 
crossed no "t" in a left-handed com- 
pliment. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
To GET LEFT to be disappointed. 
Yes; and there will be the same 
inevitable feature about his canvass 
that there was in 1888. He (Cleve- 
land) '11 get Mi. New York Weekly 
Tribune. 

ON THE LEFT HAND in an irregu- 
lar way. C. 

And then this girl, this Yetta, had 
Clinton blood in her. if on the left 
hand, and sadly mixed.-MRs. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

A LEFT-HANDED OATH an Oath 

which is not binding. C. 

"It must be a left-handed oath," 
he said, as he obeyed her. HUGH 

CONWAY. 



Leg 1 . TO GIVE LEG-BAIL to 

run off ; to escape. F. 

It is by no means improbable that 
the marauders, with a good start and 
active horses under them, will have 
given leg-bail to (eluded) their pur- 
suers. Daily Telegraph, 1887. 

Even an attorney may give leg bail 
to (escape from) the power under 
which he lives. BLACKMORE. 

ON ONE'S LEGS erect ; about 
to make a speech. P. 

He (Major Scott) was always on 
his legs ; he was very tedious ; and 
he hadonly one topic, the merits and 
wrongs of Hastings. MAOAULAY. 

ON ITS LAST LEGS about to 
perish ; ready to fall. P. 

I entirely agree with your con- 
demnation of the London coal tax. 
I read with the utmost satisfaction 
the denunciation of it by Lord Ran- 
dolph Churchill. If he holds to his 
position the tax must be on its last 
legs. W. E. GLADSTONE. 

WITHOUT A LEG TO STAND ON 
having no support. C. 

And that fool Kimble says the 
newspaper's talking about peace. 
Why, the country wouldn't have a 
leg to stand on (would be ruined). 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

They compared notes, and agreed 
that no system but the separate one 
had a leg to stand on (had any chance 
of succeeding). C. READE. 

To GIVE A LEG UP to help into 
the saddle. C. 

His friend Tim giving him a leg 
up, he canters sober John past the 
stand. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

TO STAND ON ONE'S OWN LEGS 

to be dependent on no one. C. 
Persons of their fortune and qual- 
ity could well have stood upon their 
own legs. COLLIER. 

To MAKE A LEG to bow in the 
old-fashioned way, drawing 
one leg backward. P. 

So in they come ; each makes his leg, 
And flings his head before. 

COWPER. 

Each made a leg in the approved 
rural fashion. A. TROLLOPE. 

To PUT ONE'S BEST LEG FORE- 
MOST to walk or run at the 
top of one's speed; to hurry. 
C. See FOOT. 

"Now, you must put your best 
leg foremost, old lady," whispered 
Sowerberry in the old woman's ear; 
" we are rather late." DICKENS. 



Legion 

GOOD SEA -LEGS capacity of 
standing the motion of a ship 
at sea without suffering from 
sea-sickness. F. 

It was one of those doubtful days 
when people who are conscious of 
not possessing good sea-legs, and 
who yet enjoy a sail in m 



weather, are prone to hesitate. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Legion. THEIK NAME is LE- 
GION they are countless ; their 
number is infinite. C. A 
phrase taken from the Bible 
(Mark v. 9). 

Lend. To LEND A HAND to 
help. C. 

You see the manufacturers. Here 
they are, with their wives and 
daughters. They all lend a hand, 
and between them the thing is done. 
BESANT. 

Length. AT LENGTH (a) at 
last ; after a long time. P. 

And as she watched, gradually her 
feet and legs grew cold and numb, 
till at length she could feel nothing 
below her bosom. H. E. HAGGARD. 

(6) to the full extent ; omit- 
ting nothing. P. 

"I propose to go into the subject 
at length after breakfast," returned 
Alexander. E. L. STEVENSON. 

AT FULL LENGTH stretched 
out to the full extent. P. 
Here stretch thy body at full length. 
WORDSWORTH. 

Let. To LET OFF to excuse ; 
to set free. P. 

We can't let you off, Lady Mona. 
It is imperative that you should 
wash your face in sight of us all, and 
dry it too. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 
To LET ON to reveal; to let 
people know. F. 

" I vow," said Mr. Slick, " I wish I 
hadn't let on (allowed people to 
know) that I had it at all." HALI- 
BURTON. 

" But you won't let on, Ewan, will 
you?" he said. HALL CAINE. 

It is also used of dissimu- 
lation. 

He lets on that he is wealthy. 
TO LET FLY Or LET DRIVE (a) 

to discharge a missile with 
force. C. 

I looked up, and there, as I 
thought, was tne calf. So I got my i 



14? Letter 

rifle on and let drive, first with one 
barrel, then with the other. H. E. 
HAGGARD. 

(&) to aim a blow ; to strike 

at with violence. C. 

He let fly with such stoutness at 
the giant's head and sides that he 
made him let his weapon fall out of 
his hand. BUNYAN. 

To LET OUT to disclose; to 
make known what would 
otherwise be a secret. P. 

Nave let out one day that he had 
remonstrated with his daughter in 
vain. MRS. H. WOOD. 

To LET ALONE to leave un- 
molested ; not to approach. P. 
It really was not poor Aleck's fault. 
He is gentle as a lamb when he is let 
alone. H. E. HAGGARD. 

TO LET WELL ALONE to refuse 

to interfere where matters are 
already satisfactory. C. 

LET ALONE a phrase signify- 



ing " much less." F. 
I havi 



lave not had, this livelong day, 
one drop to cheer my heart, 
Nor brown (a copper) to buy a bit of 
bread with let alone a tart. 

BARHAM. 

To LET ONE IN to make one 
responsible without his know- 
ledge. F. 

He was let in for a good hundred 
pounds by his son's bankruptcy. 

To LET SLIDE to allow any- 
thing to pass unnoticed. S. 

I call this friendly. I asked my- 
self last night, "Will these boys 
come to see me, or will they let the 
ragged Yankee slide?" And here 
you are. BESANT AND RICE. 

TO LET GO OF ANYTHING to 

relax one's hold of it. C. 

He let go of Bessie in his per- 
plexity and fear. H. E. HAGGARD. 

LET BE ! no matter ! C. 
Leon. Do not draw the curtain. 
Paul. No longer shall you gaze on't, 

lest your fancy 
May think anon it moves. 
Leon. Let be, let be! SHAKESPEARE. 

To LET BE to leave alone. C. 

Would it not be well to let her be, 
her 
RD. 



to give him his way and leave 
to go hers, in peace? E. HAGGA 



Letter. THE LETTER OF THE 
LAW the exact literal inter- 



Level 



148 



Life 



pretation of a law or written 
document. P. 

Farmer Gray had always the pre- 
ference, and the hatred of Mr. Hop- 
kins knew no bounds that is, no 
bounds but the letter of the law, of 
which he was ever mindful, because 
lawsuits are expensive. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

To THE LETTER exactly; follow- 
ing instructions minutely. P. 
He was overbearingj harsh, exact- 
ing, and insisted on his orders being 
carried out to the letter. BESANT. 

RED LETTER. See RED. 

Level. To DO ONE'S LEVEL 
BEST to exert oneself to the 
utmost of one's power. F. 
His Level Best is the name of 
a work by a Mr. Hale, pub- 
lished in Boston in 1877. 

He did his level best to get me the 
post. 

To HAVE ONE'S HEAD LEVEL 
to be discreet ; to have a well- 
balanced mind. F. American. 

" The jury must be mad ! " 

"I guess not, Pat. They've the 
reputation of being a level-headed 
lot." Macmillan's Magazine, 1887. 
To LEVEL UP to bring what is 
lower to an equality with 
what is higher. P. First 
used by Lord Mayo in 1869. 

The older officials with smaller 
salaries applied to have them levelled 
up to the salaries of the newcomers. 
To LEVEL DOWN to bring what 
is higher to an equality with 
things that are lower. P. 

The Government, however, did the 
reyerse-they levelled down the 
salaries. 

Lick. TO LICK INTO SHAPE 

to give form or method to 
a person or thing. F. The 
phrase owes its origin to the 
fable that the cubs of a bear 
are born shapeless, and are 
licked into shape by their 
mother. 

"But," said the doctor, as he re- 
sumed his chair, "tell me, Bonny- 
castle, how you could possibly 
manage to lick such a cub into shape 
when you do not resort to flog^in<'?" 
-CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 
To LICK THE DUST to fall in 
battle. P. 



His enemies shall lick the dust. 
Psalm Ixxii. 9. 
TO LICK THE SPITTLE OP to 

crouch before ; to be meanly 

servile towards. F. 

His heart too great, though fortune 

little, 

To lick a rascal statesman's spittle. 
SWIFT. 
Lie. AS FAR AS IN ONE LIES 

as far as one is able ; to the 
limit of one's powers. P. 

As far as in me lies, I mean to live 
up to her standard for the future. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

TO GIVE THE LIE TO to COn- 

tradict flatly. P. 

When another traducer went the 
length of including Margaret in the 
indictment by the assertion that a 
female relative of Mr. Erin's per- 
formed the more delicate work of 
the autographs, he gave him the lie 
direct. JAMES PAYN. 
To LIE TO to be stopped in her 
course (of a ship). P. 

We now ran plump into a fog, and 
lay to (took in the sails and checked 
the speed of the vessel). LORD 

DUFFERIN. 

To LIE TO ONE'S WORK to work 

vigorously. F. 
They lay to the work and finished 

it by midday. 
To LIE ON HAND to remain 

unsold. P. 
To LIE ON ONE'S HANDS to 

hang heavily. P. 
Time lay on her hands during hex 

son's absence. 

To LIE WITH ANT ONE to be- 
long to any one ; to be the 

duty of any one. P. 
The charge of souls lies upon 

them. BACON. 
It lay, she said, with Henry, to 

make overtures of conciliation. 
Life. To THE LIFE exactly; 

so as to reproduce the original 

person or scene. P. 
Victor Hugo, who delighted in 

that kind of figure, would have 

painted him to the life. Spectator, 

1887. 
As LARGE AS LIFE of the same 

size as the living being repre- 
sented. P. 
He marched up and down before 

the street door like a peacock, as 

large as life and twice as natural. 

HALIBURTON. 



Lift 



149 



Light 



TO BEAR A CHAKMED LIFE 

to escape death in almost a 
miraculous manner. P. 

Up and down the ladders, upon the 
roofs of buildings, over floors that 
quaked and trembled with his 



quaked ana ,tre 
stones, in 



weight, under the lee of falling bricks 

d stones, in every pa 
great fire was he; but he bore a 



part of that 



charmed life, and had neither scratch 
nor bruise. DICKENS. 
FOB MY LIFE ; FOR THE LIFE OF 

ME although I should lose my 
life as a penalty. C. A phrase 
used in strong assertions. 

Nor could I, for my life, see how 
the creation of the world had any- 
thing to do with the business I was 
talking of. GOLDSMITH. 

Half an hour ago Walter, for his 
life, would have hardly called her 
by name. But he could do so now 
when she entreated him. DICKENS. 

Lucy, for the life of her, could not 
help fancying there was something 
in it. A. TROLLOPE. 

Lift. TO LIFT UP THE EYES Or 

FACE to look with confidence. 
A Biblical phrase. 

I will lift up mine eyes unto the 
hills. Psalm cxxi. 2. 

Thou shalt lift up thy face unto 
God. Job xxii. 26. 
TO LIFT UP THE HEAD- to T6- 

joice ; to triumph. Biblical. 

And now shall my. head be lifted 
up above mine enemies round about 
me. Psalm xxvii. 6. 
To LIFT UP THE HEEL AGAINST to 

treat violently (and ungrate- 
fully). Biblical. 

He thateateth bread with me hath 
lifted up his heel against me. J onn 

Talfourd, in the bitterness of his 
soul, exclaimed that Literature's own 
familiar friend, in whom she trusted, 
and who had eaten of her bread, had 
lifted up his heel against her. G. O. 
TREVELYAN. 

To LIFT UP THE VOICE to cry 
aloud in joy or in sorrow. 
Biblical. 

And Saul lifted up his voice, and 
wept. 1 Samuel xxiv. 16. 

They shall lift up their voice, they 
shall sing. Isaiah xxiv. 14. 
TO LIFT UP THE HORN to be 

arrogant in behaviour. Bibli- 
cal. See HORN. 

Lift not up your horn on high : 
speak not with a stiff neck (proudly). 
Psalm Ixxv. 6. 



Light. TO SEE THE LIGHT 

to be born ; to come into actual 
existence. P. 

The good brother! But for him 
my poems would never have seen 
the light. BESANT. 

To MAKE LIGHT OF to treat as 
of no importance ; to disre- 
gard. P. 

But my father made light of all 
plebeian notions. C. READE. 

"Don't you be so aggravating, old 
man," said the good-natured George ; 
"and you, Mr. Meadows, should 
know now to make light of an old 
man's tongue." C. READE. 

TO STAND IN ONE'S OWN LIGHT. 

See STAND. 

To SET LIGHT BY to under- 
value ; to despise. P. 

He sets light by his wife's notions. 
To BRING TO LIGHT to disclose ; 
to make known. P. 

The duke yet would have dark 
deeds darkly answered; he would 
never bring them to light. SHAKE- 
SPEARE. 

To COME TO LIGHT to become 
known. P. 
Come, let us go ; these things, come 

thus to light, 
Smother her spirits up. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

LIGHT-FINGERED GENTRY pick- 
pockets. 

To LIGHT OUT to make off ; 
to disappear. S. An Ameri- 
canism. 

Cheboygan Tribune. Oh yes, the 
Soo is booming, and the following 
proves it: Harry Leavitt, manager 
of the theatre, skipped last week. 
The Eckert Robinson Co. did not 
take in enough to pay expenses, and 
left between two days. Billy Mac- 
Robie drugged and robbed a printer, 
named Tom Nelson, on Monday 
night, and lit out. Curious how they 
like to leave a live town. Sault isle. 
Marie News, August 1888. 

To LIGHT UPON to find ; to 
discover by accident. P. 

M. de Bernard's characters are 
men and women of genteel society- 
rascals enough, but living in no 
state of convulsive crimes ; and we 
follow him in his lively, malicious 
account of their manners, without 
risk of lighting upon any such horrors 
as Balzac and Dumas have provided 
for us. THACKERAY. 



Like 



150 



Live 



LIGHT OF CARRIAGE loose in 
conduct. F. 

She was said to be rather light of 
carriage. CAPTAIN MABBYAT. 

Like. HAD LIKE came near. 
P. See HAVE. 

Limb. LIMB OF THE LAW 
a member of the legal pro- 
fession ; a lawyer. F. 

Then, when this base-minded limb 
of the law grew to be sole creditor 
over all, he takes him out a cus- 
todian on all the denominations and 
sub - denominations. MABI A EDGE- 
WOBTH. 

Line. HARD LINES harsh 
treatment ; undeserved mis- 
fortune. F. 

His wife would be the best person, 
only it would be hard lines on her. 
A. TBOLLOPE. 

THE LINE OF BEAUTY the ideal 
line formed by a graceful 
curve of any kind. P. 

But you know what I mean by the 
artistic temperament . . . that way 
of taking the line of beauty to get at 
what you wish to do or say. W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

ALL ALONG THE LINE in every 

particular. P. 
The accuracy of the supposed 

statements of facts is contested all 

along the line by persons on the 

spot. W. E. GLADSTONE. 
TO READ BETWEEN THE LINES. 

See READ. 

THE LINES ARE FALLEN TO ME 
IN PLEASANT PLACES 1 am 

fortunate in my worldly sur- 
roundings (Ps. xvi. 6). 

A lonely wayfarer, happy in the 
knowledge that his daughter's fate 
was no longer allied with his, that 
whatever evil might befall him, her 
lines were set in pleasant places. 
Miss BRADDON. 

Linked. LINKED SWEETNESS 
LONG DRAWN OUT something 
which pleases the senses for 
a considerable time. P. A 
line of Milton's L' Allegro often 
quoted. 

Lap me in soft Lydian airs, 
Married to immortal verse ; 
Such as the melting soul may pierce, 
In notes with many a winding bout 
Of linked sweetness long drawn out. 
MILTON. 



Lion. A LION, or A GREAT 
LION a very popular person. 
C. 

We (Bulwer and Disraeli) are great 
lions here (at Bath), as you may 
imagine. DISBAELI. 

THE LION'S SHARE a dispro- 
portionately large share. P. 
See ^Esop's fable of the lion 
who went out hunting with a 
wild ass. " I will take the 
first share," he said, " be- 
cause I am king ; and the 
second share, as a partner 
with you in the chase." 

Mr. and Mrs. Armytage had their 
bottle of champagne, or which the 
latter, it was rather ill-naturedly 
said, got the lion's share. JAMES 
PAYN. 

Lip. TO MAKE A LIP to 

have a sullen or mocking ex- 
pression of face. P. 
I will make a lip at the physician. 
SHAKESPEABE. 

TO KEEP Or CARRY A STIFF UPPER 

LIP to be stubborn or ill- 
tempered. S. 

It's a proper pity such a clever 
woman should carry such a stiff 
upper lip (possess such a bad tem- 
per). HALIBUBTON. 
To SMACK ONE'S LIPS to express 
satisfaction. F. 

She enjoyed the supremacy of 
these names exceedingly, and, to use 
a very inappropriate (because com- 
mon) expression, smacked her lips 
over it. JAMES PAYN. 

Little. THE LITTLE Go 
an examination which candi- 
dates for the B.A. degree at 
the English universities have to 
pass early in their course. C. 

Then came the sentimental walks 
with that tall college man, who was 
reading with the Rev. Mr. Tuck's 
curate much reading he did. No 
wonder he cot plucked in the Little 
Go. MBS. H. WOOD. 

Live. To LIVE DOWN to prove 
an accusation false by a con- 
sistent life. P. 

He was beginning to live down the 
hostility of certain of his neighbours. 
W. E. NOBBIS, in Good Words, 1887. 

TO LIVE UP TO ANYTHING to 

prove oneself by one's life 
worthy of something excel- 



Liver 



151 



Long 



lent. P. Punch satirizes 
an aesthetic man and his wife 
who, having obtained a fine 
piece of old blue china, 
resolved "to live up to it." 

And try to believe that, so far as 
in me lies, I mean to live up to her 
standard for the future. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

Liver. WHITE-LIVERED, LILY- 
LIVERED, PIGEON - LIVERED, 
MILK - LIVERED cowardly ; 
meek-tempered. C. The liver 
was considered formerly to be 
the seat of passion and bravery. 
Curse him, the white-livered Eng- 
lishman ! H. K. HAGGARD. 
Go, prick thy face, and over-red thy 

fear, 
Thou lily-livered boy. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

I am pigeon-livered (too mild in 
disposition), and lack gall. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

Loaf. THE LOAVES AND FISHES 
the actual profits ; the 
material benefits. P. A 
phrase taken from the New 
Testament. Christ fed a mul- 
titude with some loaves and 
a few small fishes. Those 
who followed him not for his 
teaching, but for the mere 
gratification of their appe- 
tites were said to desire the 
loaves and fishes. 

Thenceforward he was rich and 
independent, and spared the tempta- 
tion of playing the political game 
with any pressing regard tot" 



and fishes of 

view, 1887. 



_ ives 

ice. Edinburgh Ee- 



LOCk. TO LOCK THE STABLE- 
DOOR AFTER THE STEED IS 

STOLEN to take precautions 
too late. P. 

When the sailors gave me my 
money again, they kept back not 
only about a third of the whole sum, 
but my father's leather purse; so 
that from that day out (thencefor- 
ward), I carried my gold loose in a 
pocket with a button. I now saw 
there must be a hole, and clapped 
my hand to the place in a great 
hurry. But this was to lock the 
stable-door after the steed was stolen. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

Locum. LOCUM TENENS one 
who holds a situation tem- 



porarily; a substitute. P. 
Latin. 

And behold, he and his parishion- 
ers are given over to a locum tenens. 
Nineteenth Century, 1887. 
Log:. LOG-ROLLING laudatory 
criticisms in literary reviews 
bestowed on one another by 
private friends. P. 

There is certainly no excuse for lit- 
erary log-rolling. It is a detestableof- 
f ence. North American Review, 1887. 

Logrgrepheads. To BE AT 

LOGGERHEADS ; TO COME, FALL, 
Or GO TO LOGGERHEADS to 

quarrel ; to disagree. C. 

A couple of travellers that took 
up an ass fell to loggerheads which 
should be his master. L'ESTRANGE. 

Tim Linkinwater is out of the 
' question ; for Tim, sir, is such a 
tremendous fellow that he could 
never contain himself, but would go 
to loggerheads with the father before 
he had been in the place five minutes. 
DICKENS. 

Loins. To GIRD UP THE LOINS 
to brace oneself for vigorous 
action. P. 

But her father's will was law to her, 
and she girded up her spiritual loins 
and prepared for the encounter. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
Lombard Street. LOMBARD 
STREET TO A CHINA ORANGE 
something very valuable staked 
against a thing of little value ; 
very long odds. C. Lombard 
Street, in London, near the 
Bank of England, is a centre of 
great banking and mercantile 
transactions. 

"It is Lombard Street to a China 
orange," quoth Uncle Jack. 

" Are the odds in favour of fame 
against failure really so great?" an- 
swered my father. BULWEB LYT- 

TON. 

Long:. AT or IN THE LONG- 
RUN eventually ; before all 
is over. P. 

At the long-run these fellows never 
thrive. MARIA EDGE WORTH. 

A statesman in the long-run must 
yield to royal solicitation. G. 0. 
TREVELYAN. 

THE LONG AND THE SHORT OF 

A MATTER a matter viewed 
briefly in its most important 
aspects ; the important prin- 



Look 



152 



Look 



clple, or fact, contained in any 
statement. C. 

But my mother wouldn't part with 
him if he was a Btill worse encum- 
brance. It isn't that we don't know 
the long and short of matters, but 
it's our principle. GEORGE ELIOT. 

The long and short of the matter 
is, that on getting off the lake, after 
seven hours' rowing, I felt as much 
relieved as if I had been dining for 
the same length of time with Her 
Majesty the Queen. THACKERAY. 

TO DRAW Or PULL THE LONG 

BOW to exaggerate. C. 

King of Corpus (who was an incor- 
rigible wag) was on the point of pull- 
ing some dreadful long bow, and 
pointing out a half-dozen of people 
in the room as R. and II. and L., etc., 
the most celebrated wits of that day. 
THACKERAY. 

BY A LONG CHALK very con- 
siderably. F. 

Soon after Bordeaux she had words 
(quarrelled) with the lions. They, in 
their infernal conceit, thought them- 
selves more attractive than Djek. 
" It is vice versa, and by a long chalk " 
(very much so), said Djek and Co. 
C. READE. 

Look. TO LOOK AFTER to 

attend to ; to pay careful 
attention to. P. 

Politeness of manner and know- 
ledge of the world should principally 
be looked after by a tutor. LOCKE. 

I assured you that when the trust 
was paid I would look after her. 
BESANT. 

LOOK YOU ! please observe what 
I am saying. C. 

It was a place where professional 
singers women, too, look you, nearly 
as bad as dancers, not to say actresses 
came and sat on a platform and 
sang for money. JUSTIN M'CARTHY. 

TO LOOK ALIVE, or LOOK SHARP 

to hurry ; to be quick ; to act 
promptly. F. 

"Tell young gent to look alive," 
says guard, opening the hind-boot. 
T. HUGHES. 

Their life, bitter as it was, would 
be bitterer if they did not look sharp 
and learn a good many texts. 0. 
READE. 

TO LOOK SHARP AFTER to Watch 

carefully. P. 

The moment I became her sole 
guardian, I had sworn on my knees 
she should never kill another man : 
judge whether I had to look sharp 
after her. C. READE. 



To LOOK BLUE to show signs of 
disgust or disappointment. F. 
Squire Brown looks rather blue at 
having to pay two pounds ten shil- 
lings for the posting expenses from 
Oxford. T. HUGHES. 

TO LOOK DAGGERS to gaze 

upon with anger. P. 

There he sits abaft the mainmast 
looking daggers at us. C. READE. 
To LOOK UP to improve ; to 
grow brighter ; to be in 
demand. C. 

" Things are looking up, Jeremiah," 
he said in a tone of exultation. B. 
L. FARJEON. 

In commercial phrase, coffins were 
looking up. DICKENS. 
TO LOOK A PERSON UP to Visit 

him. F. 

But Lucy would have me come and 
look you up ; and I assure you I had 
rather face a battery of my own can- 
non. The Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 
To LOOK IN UPON to visit 
informally. C. 

"1 had no idea you had a visitor 
here, Mrs. Jennynge," he said. 

" Yes : Miss Jocelme was so good 
as to look in upon us." JAMES PAYN. 

TO LOOK IN THE FACE. to 

examine boldly ; to refuse to 
shrink from examining. P. 

Sir Condy (was) not willing to take 
his affairs into his own hands, or to 
look them even in the face. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

It was many a day, however, before 
she could look her own misfortune 
in the face. JAMES PAYN. 
To LOOK TO to take care of. P. 

She hated to water her flowers now ; 

she bade one of her servants look to 

the garden. C. READE. 

THAT is YOUR LOOK our you 

must provide against that. F. 

If he chooses to vote for the 
devil, that is his look-out. O. W. 
HOLMES. 

To LOOK OUT to guard against 
dangers ; to take precautions ; 
to be careful. F. 

Time sometimes brings its re- 
venges, and, if it does, you may look 
out, Mrs. Bellamy. -H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 
To LOOK OVER (a) to read over. 

P. 

n Meet presently at the palace ; every 
man look o'er his part ; for, the short 
and the long is, our play is preferred. 
SHAKESPEARE. 



Loose 



153 



Lucus 






(&) to overlook ; to allow 

to pass. P. 
He forgave her, and looked over 

her conduct. Murray's Magazine, 

1887. 
TO LOOK FOR A NEEDLE IN A 

HAYSTACK to search after 
anything with very little chance 
of finding it. P. 

There is little use searching for 
him in this 1 crowd ; it is like looking 
for a needle in a haystack. 

TO LOOK THROUGH COLOURED 

SPECTACLES to see things not 
as they really are, but dis- 
torted by one's own preju- 
dices. P. 

People who live much by them- 
selves are apt to look at things 
through coloured spectacles. 
TO LOOK FORWARD TO to 6X- 

pect with feelings of pleas- 
ure. P. 

The children are all looking for- 
ward to your visit. 

TO LOOK ABOUT ONE to be 

cautious and wary. C. 

John began to think it high time 
to look about him (take precautions 
for the future). ABBUTHNOT. 

Loose. To LOOSE ONE'S PURSE- 
STRINGS to give money to- 
wards some good object. C. 

ON THE LOOSE dissipated. F. 

Her husband is, I fear, on the loose 
just now. 

A LOOSE FISH a dissipated 
man. F. 

In short, Mr. Miles was a loose fish. 
C. R.EADE. 

HAVING A TILE LOOSE. See 
TILE. 

Lord. A LORD OF CREATION 
a man (as distinguished from 
a woman). C. The term is 
generally used jocularly. 

No ; I had rather be a woman, with 
all her imperfections, than one of 
those lords of creation, such as we 
[generally find them. G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

Lose. To LOSE CASTE to be no 
longer welcomed in the houses 
of respectable people. P. 

You may break every command in 
the decalogue with perfect g9ocl 
breeding, nay, if you are adroit, with- 
out losing caste. J. E. LOWELL. 



To LOSE HEART to become dis- 
pirited. P. 

Deprived of solid support in the 
rear, the men in front will prob- 
ably lose heart, and be easily driven 
away or arrested. Fortnightly Re- 
view, 1887. 

To LOSE THE DAT to be de- 
feated. P. 

You will be shot, and your houses 
will be burnt, and if you lose the day 
those who escape will be driven out 
[.of the country. H. R. HAGGARD. 

LiOSS. TO BE AT A LOSS 

to be unable to decide. P. 

Jane herself was quite at a loss 
(quite bewildered) to think who could 
possibly have ordered the piano. 
JANE AUSTEN. 

Love. LOVE IN A COTTAGE 
marriage without a sufficient 
income to live in the fashion- 
able world. P. 

Lady Clonbrony had not, for her 
own part, the slightest notion how 
anybody out of Bedlam could prefer, 
to a good house, a decent equipage,* 
and a proper establishment, what is 
called love in a cottage. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

THERE is NO LOVE LOST BETWEEN 
THEM they dislike each other. 
P. 

There is no great love lost between 
the English Conservative Cabinet 
and the Bulgarian Government. 
Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

TO MAKE LOVE TO to WOO ; to 

court. P. 

" And you're making love to her, 
are you?" said Cute to the young 

" Yes," returned Richard quickly, 
for he was nettled by the question ; 
"and we are going to be married on 
New Year's day." DICKENS. 

Luck. DOWN ON ONE'S LUCK. 
See DOWN. 

Lucky. To CUT or MAKE ONE'S 
LUCKY to run off ; to de- 
camp. S. 

He (Fagin) might have got into 
trouble if we hadn't made our lucky. 
DICKENS. 

LUCUS. LUCUS A NON LU- 

CENDO. An etymological pun. 
Lucus, which means a dark 
grove, seems to be connected 
with luceo t to shine, but ia 



Lug 



154 



not. This derivation rests on 
a principle of contradiction. 

Thus Verdant's score was always 
on the lucus a non lucendo principle 
of derivation, for not even to a quar- 
ter of a score did it ever reach. 
Verdant Green. 

Lug*. IN LUG pawned. S. 
My fiddle is in lug just now. 

To LUG IN to introduce vio- 
lently ; to drag in without 
sufficient cause. F. 

It doesn't matter what the subject 
is, always provided that he can lug 
in the bloated aristocrat and the 
hated Tory. BESANT. 

Lump. A LUMP BUM a sum 
which includes many small 
items ; a sum given at one 
time to cover several smaller 
payments. P. 

The amounts asked for should be 
granted in a lump sum to the im- 
perial Government. Daily Tele- 
graph, 1885. 

HAVING A LUMP IN ONE'S THROAT 
ready to weep. C. 



Maid 

more grave, and quiet, ana 



He grew more grave, and quiet, ana 
slow. The lump in my throat grew 
larger every moment (I felt every 
moment readier to weep). Belgravia, 

1886. 

To LUMP IT to dislike anything. 
S. Generally used in the 
phrase, 

"She won't like that at all," said 
Musselbow. 

"Then she must lump it." A. 
TROLLOPE. 

Lurch. To LEAVE IN THE 
LURCH to abandon ; to leave 
in a helpless condition. P. 

For myself, I think you are giving 
him an immense deal of unnecessary 
trouble, and that if he left you in the 
lurch it would serve you right. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

" My only excuse," said he, "is that 
it never occurred to me to think that 
Tracy would leave me4n the lurch." 
Good Words, 1887. 

AT LURCH hidden or secreted 
(generally for a bad pur- 
pose). F. 

To GIVE A LURCH to tell a lie; 
to deceive. S. 



M 



M. TO HAVE AN M UNDER THE 

GIRDLE to have the courtesy 
to address people by the 
title Mr., Mrs., or Madam. C. 

Mad. AS MAD AS A HATTER 

crazy ; dangerously insane. 
F. 



1 I - ver y 

good fellow but as mad as a hatter. 
He s called Madman, you know. T. 

As MAD AS A MARCH HARE 
dangerously mad ; crack- 
brained. F. 

"Oh," said the admiral, "then : he 
is mad ? " 

" As a March hare, sir. And I'm 
afraid putting him in irons will make 
him worse It's a case for a lunatic 
asylum." C. HEADE. 
LIKE MAD in an excited fashion 
hurriedly. F. 

None would have known the staid 
respectable Meadows in this figure 
"?. a t came flying over hedge, and 
ditch, and brook, his hat dangling 
and leaping like mad behind him 



TO GO Or RUN MAD AFTER ANY- 
THING to conceive a violent 
passion for it. C. 

The world is running mad after 
farce. DRYDEN. 

Magnum. MAGNUM OPUS 
great work ; masterpiece. P. 
Latin. 

I shall never achieve any great 
work in London," he told himself. 
' For my magnum opus I must have 
the tranquillity of wood and moor." 
Miss BRADDON. 

Mahomet. MAHOMET COMING 

TO THE MOUNTAIN the less 

coming to the greater. P. 

"As the mountain would.not come 
to Mahomet, Miss Rayne, you see 
that Mahomet has come to the moun- 
tain," she says, to hide her annoy- 
ance. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Maid. A M AID -OF-ALL- WORK 
a general servant, who acts as 
cook, waiter, bedroom attend- 
ant, etc. P. 

If the bishop is going to Paris, and 
wants an honest niaid-of -all-work, he 



Maiden 



155 



Make 



can have her, I have no doubt. 
THACKERAY. 

Maiden. MAIDEN SPEECH 
first speech. P. 

He (Lord Byron) was greatly, in 
deed childishly, elated by the com 

Eliments paid to his maiden speech 
a the House of Lords. MACAULAY. 
Main. IN THE MAIN; FOR 
THE MAIN for the most part. 
P. 

These new notions concerning coin- 
age have, for the main, been put 
into writing above twelve months. 
LOCKE. 

THE MAIN CHANCE money ; 
wealth ; material welfare. C. 

I have always, as you know, been 
a common-sense person, with a proper 
appreciation of the main chance. 
W. E. JST ORRIS, in Good Words, 1887. 

Make. To MAKE AT to run 
or move towards. P. 

Tom rushed at Jacob, and began 
draggmghim back by his smock ; and 
the master made at them, 



forms and boys in 
HUGHES. 



. scattering 
his career. T. 



To MAKE AS IF to make an ap- 
pearance of ; to feign. P. 

Now, Mr. Feeblemind, when they 
were going out of the door, made as 
if he intended to linger. BUNYAN. 

To MAKE AGAINST to be un- 
favourable to. P. 

There was a keenness about his 
eye, and an acuteness of expression, 
much in favour of the law ; but the 
dress and general bearing of the man 
made against the supposition. HALI- 

BURTON. 
TO MAKE AWAY WITH to put 

out of the way ; to remove. 
P. 

The gentlemen had somehow made 
away with their obstructiveness. 
Harper's Magazine, 1887. 

" Ordinary case enough," you'll say 
with your experience ordinary 
case enough : drunken man decoyed 
into some water-side den, robbed, 
and made away with." E. YATES. 

TO MAKE AWAY WITH ONESELF 

to commit suicide. P. 

The women of Greece were seized 
with an unaccountable melancholy, 
which disposed several of them to 
make away with themselves. ADDI- 

SON. 

The idea of making away with him- 
self had flitted through his mind a 
dozeujtimes. A. TROLLOPE. 



To MAKE BELIEVE to pretend. C. 
Her view of the case was that his 
nignness s secretary, having no belief 
in the genuineness of his master's 
pretensions, found it necessary to 
make believe very much. JAMES 
PAYN. 

To MAKE BOLD to summon up 
courage ; to venture. P. 

"I make bold, young woman," he 
said as they went away, "to give 
you a warning about my nephew." 
BESANT. 

To MAKE BOLD WITH to venture 
to deal with. P. 

By the time I was twelve years old 
I had risen into the upper school, 
and could make bold with Eutropius 
and Ceesar. BLACKMORE. 

To MAKE ONE'S BREAD to earn 
a living. C. 

But for you I should be making my 
bread by this time, or rather attempt- 
ing to do so. JAMES PAYN. 

TO MAKE BRICKS WITHOUT STRAW 

to work without having the 
necessary materials supplied. 
P. A phrase taken from the 
Bible (Exod. v. 7). 

People do not look pressed, or 
' in a hurry, or task-mastered, or told 
to make bricks without straw. 
BESANX. 

TO MAKE EYES AT to flirt Ot 

coquet with ; to gaze at 
amorously. F. 

Many professors, in her long ex- 
perience, had come and rane some 
of them dismissed for kissing the 
governesses, and even the maids ; 
others for making eyes at the pretty 
E girls. BESANT. 

To MAKE A FIGURE to dis- 
tinguish oneself. P. 

He never went the circuit but 
twice, and then made no figure for 
want of a fee and being unable to 
speak in public. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

To MAKE FOR to rush towards. 
P. 

On seeing the man, the animal 
dropped the woman, and made 
forj him ; but he escaped into the 
village. Chambers's Journal, 1887. 

TO MAKE FREE WITH to US6 

without permission or cere- 
mony. C. 

These are the same who have 
made free with the greatest names. 
POPE. 



Make 



156 



To MAKE FRIENDS to become 
reconciled. P. 

He is a generous fellow, and will 
soon make friends with you again. 

To MAKE GOOD to make com- 
pensation for ; to pay in full. 
P. 

On looking into his affairs he found 
enough to fill him with dismay- 
debts, mortgages, mismanaged es- 
tates, neglected cottages, the man- 
sion going to ruin, besides all his old 
arrears to be made good (paid up). 
Quarterly Review, 1887. 

TO MAKE HEAD OF HEADWAY 

AGAINST to progress ; to 
strive successfully against some 
obstacle. P. 

Everybody was in terror of his life, 
and no one was powerful enough to 
make head against (resist) the free- 
booters. Argosy, 1887. 

I think, Mr. Goslett, that if she'd 
only hold her tongue and go to sleep, 
I might make headway with that 
case in the morning. BESANT. 
To MAKE LIGHT OF to treat as 
unimportant. P. 

Up to the present time he had 
made rather light of the case, and 
as for danger, he bad pooh-poohed it 
with good-humoured contempt. C. 
HEADE. 

To MAKE MUCH OF to treat 
with great favour. C. 

As his wife had remarked, he al- 
ways made much of Gwendolen, and 
her importance had risen of late. 
GEORGE ELIOT. L 

To MAKE OF to give a reason 
for ; to account for. P. 

I began to feel a pain I knew not 
what to make of (which I could not 
satisfactorily account for) in the 
same joint of my other foot. SIR 
W. TEMPLE. 
To MAKE OFF to run away. P. 

Lord Wharton crept out of his saw- 
pit and made off to his own party. 
Gentlemen's Magazine, 1886. 

The holder of a horse at Tellson's 
door, who made off with it, was put 
to death. DICKENS. 
To MAKE our (a) to discover ; 
to find out exactly ; to under- 
stand. P. 

Antiquaries make out the most 
ancient medals from a letter with 
great difficulty to be discerned. 
FELTON. 

It is not everybody who can make 
her out (understand her character) 
Oood Words, 1887. 



C. 



Make 

(&) to establish ; to prove. 



There is no truth which a man 
may more evidently make out (prove) 
to himself than the existence of a 
i God. L9CKE. 

Sometimes it's why we haven't 
made out our case yet. BESANT. 

(c) to contrive. C. 

What with foreboding looks and 
dreary death-bed stories, it was a 
wonder the child made out to live 
through it. O. W. HOLMES. 

To MAKE OVER to transfer in a 
legal manner. P. 

Shelley made over to her a part 
of his income, and she retained all 
that she received from her own 
family. Edinburgh Review, 1882. 

TO MAKE UP FOR ANYTHING 

to compensate for it ; to 
supply a deficiency caused by 
it. P. 

She was very hard at work no 
doubt endeavouring to make up for 
her husband's repeated absences. 
HUGH CONWAY. 

TO MAKE UP A QUARREL to 

become friendly. P. 

He remembered, in his careless 
way, that there had been a quarrel, 
and that he wanted to make it up, 
as he had done many a time before. 
Good Words, 1887. 

TO MAKE IT UP Or MAKE UP 

MATTERS to become friendly 
again ; to be reconciled. C. 

Oh, how she longed to make it up 
with him ! THOMAS HARDY. 

I'll go straight to the city the in- 
stant you leave me, make up matters 
with Mrs. Nickleby, and take her 
away to the theatre. DICKENS. 

To MAKE UP TO to seek the 
acquaintance of ; to pay 
court to. P. 

Young men of spirit are sadly 
afraid of being thought to make up 
to a girl for her money. JUSTIN 
M'CARTHY. 

Nay, gentlemen, Dr. Goldsmith is 
in the right. A nobleman ought to 
have made up to such a man as 
Goldsmith. SAMUEL JOHNSON. 

To MAKE UP WITH to become 
reconciled to ; to regain the 
good will of. C. 

Many a rascally captain has made 
up with his crew, for hard usage, by 
allowing them duff twice a week on 
the passage home. R. H. DANA. 



Malt 157 

Malt. TO HAVE THE MALT 
ABOVE THE WHEAT OF MEA 

to be drunk. F. 

When the malt begins to get above 
the meal (company begins to get 
drunk), they'll begin to speak about 
government in Kirk and State 
SCOTT. 

Mammon. THE MAMMON OF 
UNRIGHTEOUSNESS wealthy 
and worldly people. P. A 
Biblical expression. 

Make to yourselves friends of the 
mammon of unrighteousness. Luke 
xvi. 9. 

So Rebecca, during her stay at 
Queen's Crawley, made as many 
friends of the mammon of unright- 
eousness as she could possibly bring 
under control. THACKERAY. 

Man. MAN ALIVE ! an ex- 
clamation of astonishment. 
S. Used where one hears or 
imparts startling information. 



"Haul quick, Ede ! " shouted 
Robinson, ' f or you will drown them, 
man alive." C. READE. 

You are wasting my time with 
your silly prattle," said Meadows 
sternly. Man alive ! you never 
made fifty pounds cash since you 
were calved.* C. READE. 
To A MAN every one without 
exception. P. 

They had, to a man, been willing 
enough to give their verdict for the 
old man's execution. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

A MAN OF BELIAL a wicked, 
depraved person. A Scrip- 
tural phrase in common use. 

"Susan," replied Isaac, "you are 
good and innocent. You cannot 
fathom the hearts of the wicked. 
This Meadows is a man of Belial." 
C. READE. 

A MAN OF HIS WORD a truth- 
ful or trustworthy person. 
P. See WORD. 

A MAN OF STRAW an unreal 
person ; a product of the 
imagination. P. 

This plotter, this deceiver of the 
innocent, on whom you vent your 
indignation, is a mere man of straw. 
The reality is a very peaceable, in- 
offensive character. 

A MAN OF LETTERS a literary 
man ; an author. P. 

He had mentioned in the last five 
minutes that he was a man of letters. 
JAMBS PAYN. 



Manner 

As a man of letters Lord Byron 
' could not but be interested in the 

event of this contest. MACAULAY. 
A MAN OF THE WORLD a man 
who is well acquainted with 
society and the world at large ; 
a man whose interests lie in 
worldly things. P. 

What Mr. Wordsworth had said 
like a recluse, Lord Byron said like 
a man of the world. MACAULAY. 

As a man of the world, he was well 
aware that, when a new arrival comes 
under discussion in any community, 
the general tendency is to criticise 
rather than to commend. JAMES 
PAYN. 

THE MAN IN THE MOON an 
imaginary person who inhabits 
the moon, and is supposed to 
be ignorant of worldly affairs. 
C. 

She don't know where it will take 
her to, no more than the man in the 
moon. HALIBURTON. 

What to say or how to say it, poor 
little Blanche, who was totally un- 
used to this sort of thing, and tor- 
mented, moreover, with an invinci ble 
desire to laugh, knew no more than 
the man in the moon. G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

A MAN FRIDAY a faithful and 
subservient follower. C. See 
Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. 

Count Von Rechberg, according 
to Lord Clarendon, was Prince Bis- 
marck's man Friday. Athenaeum, 
1887. 

EVERY MAN-JACK every man, 
high or low ; all without 
exception. F. 

There happened, too, to be a man- 
of-war in harbour, every man-jack, 
or rather, every officer-jack of which, 
with the exception of those on watch, 
was there. H. R. HAGGARD. 

YOU'LL BE A MAN BEFORE YOUR 

MOTHER a jocular expression 
of encouragement to a lad. 
F. Used on a historical 
occasion by Burns in address- 
ing Sir Walter Scott, then a 
boy. 

You mind your business half as 

well as I mind mine, and you'll be 

a man before your mother yet. H. 

KINGSLEY. 

Manner. BY NO MANNER OF 

MEANS ; NOT BY ANY MANNER 

OF MEANS quite the con- 



Many 

trary ; in no way ; on no 
account. C. 

Not that he was, by any manner of 
means, possessed with the greatness 
of his own ideas, but that Mrs. 
Fermitage, from a low velvet chair, 
looked up at him with such emphatic 
inquiry and implicit faith that he 
was quite in a difficulty how to speak 
or what to say. E. D. BLACKMORE. 

Many. Too MANY or ONE TOO 
MANY too powerful or crafty ; 
more than a match. F. 

"Ay! ay!" thought he; "the Irish- 
man is cunning enough. But we 
shall be too many for him." MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

Mape. To MAKE THE MARE TO 
GO to make a display of pros- 
perity ; to carry out under- 
takings. F. Generally found 
in the expression, " Money 
makes the mare to go." 

I'm making the mare to go here in 
Whitford-without the money, too, 
sometimes. C. KINGSLEY. 

To FIND A MARE'S NEST to 
make an absurd discovery ; 
to make a discovery which 
turns out to be a hoax. P. 

He retired with a profusion of 
bowsandexeuses.whileMr. Reginald 
Talbot followed in silence at his heels 
like a whipped. dog, who, professing 
to find a hare in her form, has only 
found a mare's nest. JAMES PAYN. 

SHANKS 's MARE the legs. F. 

I am riding shanks's mare (walk- 
ing) to-day. 

THE GRAY MARE a name given 
to a woman who is cleverer 
than her husband. C. 

There is no equalizer of sexes like 
poverty or misery, and then it very 
often proves that the gray mare is 
the better horse. BURROUGHS. 

Marines. TELL THAT TO THE 
MARINES an expression im- 
plying incredulity. F. 
_ Unless you can put your informa- 
tion together better than that, you 
may tell your story to the marines on 
board the Pelorus. H. KINGSLEY. 
Mark. To MAKE ONE'S MARK 
to distinguish oneself. P. 

The atmosphere of society is scien- 
tific and {esthetic, and its leaders, 
although bound to be moderately 
well off, have, for the most part, 
ade the r mark by their brains.- 
lieview, 1882. 



158 Marry 

(GOD) BLESS THE MARK ! a 

superstitious utterance, orig- 
inally used to avert evil. F. 
Afterwards it came to have 
very little meaning = "I 
l>eg your pardon." 

To be ruled by my conscience, I 
should stay with the Jew my 
master, who (God bless the mark!) 
is a kind of devil. SHAKESPEARE. 

Crystal Palace bless the mark ! 
is fast getting ready. MACAULAY. 

GOD SAVE THE MARK an invo- 
cation to God for mercy. 

I saw the wound, I saw it with my 
eyes God save the mark I here on 
his manly breast. SHAKESPEARE. 

BESIDE THE MARK inappro- 
priate ; out of place. P. 

There is a circle of elect spirits, to 
whom the whole strain of this paper 
will, it is most likely, seem to be 
beside the mark. W. E. GLADSTONE. 

To MARK TIME (of soldiers) to 
raise the feet alternately as 
if on the march. P. 

With the swinging easy step of 
those accustomed to long and toil- 
some marches, the detachment 
moved rapidly forward, now lessee 
ing its front as it arrived at some 
narrow defile, now marking time to 
allow of its rear coming up without 
effort into the proper place. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

UP TO THE MARK in good con- 
dition or form. F. 

Bob, although he had been a very 
short time before brutally knocked 
upon the top of the kitchen fire, was 
up to the mark, and appeared ready 
for action. H. KINGSLEY. 

Marriage. MARRIAGE LINES 
a marriage certificate. C. 

All she saved from the fire was a 
box containing her marriage lines 
and other important papers. 

Mappow. To GO DOWN ON 

ONE'S MARROW - BONES to 

kneel. S. 

He shall taste it instead of me, till 
he goes down on his marrow-bones 
to me. C. KEADE. 

Mappy. MARRY -COME-UP a 
derisive or sarcastic exclama- 
tion, now obsolete. 

Upon which Miss Patty replied, 
with some little asperity, And was 
that your secret?" If she had lived 
in the Elizabethan era she would 
have adjured him with a marry 
come-up I Verdant Green. 



Mash 



Mash. To MAKE ONE'S MASH 
to gain a devoted admirer 
to have some one falling in 
love with you. S. 

You need not be so particular 
about your dress. You have made 
your mash (have already an admirer) 

He feels contempt for you, anc 
when he gets among his kind he 
boasts of the mash ne has made, 
and calls you a jolly little thing. 
St. Andrews Citizen, 1887. . 

Mashed. To BE MASHED 
UPON to be in love with ; 
to be a devoted admirer of. 
S. A masher is a dandy 
who dresses so as to " kill." 

I'm not one bit mashed upon her, 
and I don't want her to be mashed 
upon me; and she wouldn't be in 
any case: but she interests me, and 
she's a dear little Vinnie. JUSTIN 
M'CARTHY. 

Massacre. THE MASSACRE OF 
THE INNOCENTS the announce- 
ment by the leader of the House 
of Commons at the end of 
a session of the measures 
that are abandoned for want 
of time. P. The historical 
massacre of the innocents 
took place at Bethlehem, 
after the birth of Christ 
(Matt. ii.). 

Mast. To SAIL or SERVE BE- 
FORE THE MAST to be a 
common sailor. F. The 
sailors' quarters, or forecastle, 
are in the bow of the vessel. 
Richard Henry Dana, jun., 
has written a well - known 
book, Two Years before the 
Mast that is, two years as a 
common sailor. Compare " In 
the ranks," said of a private 
soldier. See RANK. 

There was once an earl who went 
away and became a sailor before the 
mast. BESANT. 

And, indeed, bad as his clothes 
were, and coarsely as he spoke, he 
had none of the appearance of a man 
who sailed before the mast. R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

Our own idea is, that neither birth, 
nor riches, nor education, nor man- 
ner suffice to cpnstitute a gentleman ; 
and that specimens are to be found 
at the plough, the loom, and the 
forge, in the ranks, and before the 



159 Mean 

mast, as well as in the officers' 
mess-room, the learned professions, 
and the Upper House itself. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 
Mattep. A MATTER OF COURSE 
something which naturally 
follows ; a thing which ex- 
cites no surprise or attention. 
P. 

As for the certificate which Sir 
Henry Maine awarded us, we took 
it, I fear, very much as a matter of 
course. Nineteenth Century, 1887. 

Great was the good man's horror 
at finding himself shut out of his 
own house. Had he been alone he 
would have treated it as a matter of 
course. T. HUGHES. 

MATTER-OF-FACT unimagina- 
tive ; prosaic. P. 

Extricating her, as he seemed al- 
ways to do, from her unpleasant 
dilemma and her matter-of-fact 
swain. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Mauvaise. MAUVAISE HONTE 
awkwardness ; clumsy shy- 
ness. C. French. 

He had, he said, been always 
subject to mauvaise honte and an 
annoying degree of bashfulness, 
which often unfitted him for any 
work of a novel description. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

May. MAT MEETINGS relig- 
ious meetings held yearly in 
Exeter Hall, London. P. 

"Do you know, I have never been 
in London but once, and then to 
attend the May meetings." D. 
CHRISTIE MURRAY. 

Mealy. MEALY - MOUTHED 
soft-spoken ; using mild lan- 
guage ; afraid to speak out. 
O. 

She was a fool to be mealy- 
mouthed where nature speaks so 
plain. L'ESTRANOE. 

You're too mealy-mouthed, Mrs. 
Bounce; that's where it is. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Mean. To MEAN WELL or 
KINDLY BY to have friendly 
intentions towards ; to in- 
tend to aid or benefit. P. 

He had meant well by the cause 
and the public. MACAULAY. 

I do not think, that your cousin 
means kindly by you. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

A MEAN WHITE a name used 
in the Southern States of 



Measure 



160 



Midsummer 



America and elsewhere, as in 
South Africa, where the white 
race is in a minority, to signify 
" a white man without landed 
property." 

By ALL MEANS certainly ; as- 
suredly. P. 

Mr. Elton, just as he ought, en- 
treated for the permission of attend- 
ing and reading to them again. 

" By all means. We shall be most 
happy to consider you one of the 
party." JANE AUSTEN. 

BY NO MEANS certainly not. 
p. 

The wine on this side of the lake 
is by no means so good as that on 
the other. ADDISON. 

Measure. To MEASURE 

SWORDS WITH ANOTHER to 

fight with him, using the 
sword as a weapon. P. 
So we measured swords and parted. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

TO MEASURE ONE'S LENGTH ON 

THE GROUND to fall flat. P. 

If you will measure your lubber's 
length again (wish to be thrown down 
flat again), tarry. SHAKESPEARE. 

To MEASURE STRENGTH to en- 
gage in a struggle. P. 

The factions which divided the 
prince's camp had an opportunity of 
measuring their strength. MAC- 
AU LAY. 

TO TAKE THE MEASURE OF A MAN'S 

FOOT to see what is his char- 
acter ; to decide mentally 
how much a man is fit for or 
will venture to do. F. 

The natives about Mooifontein 
had pretty well taken the measure 
of John's foot by this time. His 
threats were awful, but his per- 
formances were not great. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

This was Farmer Greenacre's eldest 
son, who, to tell the truth, had from 
his earliest years taken the exact 
measure of Miss Thome's foot. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

Meet. To MEET ANOTHER 
HALF-WAT to come to terms 
with him on the basis of 
mutual concessions ; to treat 
an antagonist in a concilia- 
tory spirit. P. 

Margaret was indignant with her 
cousin that he did not respond to 
his father's kindness with more en- 



thusiasm. "If he had behaved so 
tome, Willie, I should have met 
him half-way, she afterwards said 
reprovingly. JAMES PAYN. 

Memento. A MEMENTO MORI 
something which recalls 
death. P. Strictly speaking, 
the phrase MEMENTO MORI 
means, " remember to die." 

I make as good use of it (thy face) 
as many a man doth of a death's head 
or a memento mori. I never see thy 
face but I think on hell fire. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

MePPy. TO MAKE MERRY 

to indulge in laughter and 
joking ; to enjoy oneself. P. 

They made merry at the poor 
farmer's plight. 

The king went to Latham to make 
merry with his mother and the earl. 
BACON. 

A MERRY ANDREW a clown ; a 
mountebank. P. Also used 
familiarly without the article, 
like Tommy Atkins, Jack Tar. 

His business is jibes and jests, 
and this is the first time that I 
ever saw Merry Andrew arrested. 
BEACONSFIELD. 

Meum. MEUM AND TUUM my 
property and thy property. C. 

He reappeared with the Nouvelle 
Heloise, a philosophic history, by I 
forget whom, a discourse 9n super- 
stition (vulgarly called religion), by 
D'Alembert, and one or two works 
tending to remove the false dis- 
tinction civilization had invented 
between meum and tuum and the 
classes of society. C. EEADE. 

Miehing. MICHING MALLECHO 
underhand mischief. A 
Shakespearian phrase (Hamlet, 
act iii. scene 2). MICHING 
means hiding or skulking ; 
MALECHO is Spanish, meaning 
an evil action. 

His very step was thievish micli- 
ing mallecho and his eyes shot from 
side to side, as though he mistrusted 
the darkness, as, perhaps, he did. 
D. CHRISTIE MURRAY. 

Midsummer. MIDSUMMER 
MADNESS utter lunacy. C. 

He had shown great imprudence 
in paying attentions to Hester, even 
in her former position, but to renew 
them under her changed circum- 
stances would be midsummer mad- 
ness. JAMES PAYN. 



Might 



do. 

be 



Might. WITH MIGHT AND 
MAIN with all one's energy 
and resources. P. 

With might and main they chased 
the murderous fox. DRYDEN. 

Crowl had been listening at New- 
man's door with all his might and 
main. DICKENS. 

The servants tugged with might 
and main, but could not lift this 
enormous receptacle, and were fin- 
ally robliged to drag it across the 
floor. NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE. 

Mild. DRAW IT MILD do not 
exaggerate. S. 
Draw it a little milder, Coombe, 
o. Make it four or five, and it will 
much nearer the mark. FLOR- 
ENCE MARRYAT. 

Milk. - TO CRY OVER SPILT 

MILK to indulge in useless 
regrets. C. 

But it's no use crying over spilt 
milk. BLACKMORE. 

THAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE MILK 
IN THE COCOA-NUT that ex- 
plains matters. F. 

He has some land in the settlement 
belonging to him. That accounts for 
the milk in the cocoa-nut that ex- 
plains his anxiety to have us move 
out there. 

MILK - AND - WATER tasteless ; 
having an insipid character ; 
feeble. C. Also, as a noun, 
what is insipid. 

A milk-and-water bourgeois (timid, 
feeble-minded citizen). C. READE. 

Hitherto the conversation had 
had so much of milk-and-water in 
its composition, that Dalrymple 
found himself able to keep it up 
and go on with his background at 
the same time. A. TROLLOPE. 

THE MILK OF HUMAN KINDNESS 

natural feelings of pity, 
sympathy, and generosity. P. 

I fear thy nature ; 
It is too full of the milk of human 

kindness 
To catch the nearest way. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

The younger was fat, fresh, and 
fair, and seemed to be always run- 
ning over with the milk of human 
kindness. A. TROLLOPE. 

The milk of human kindness was 
not curdled in her bosom. A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

Miller. To DROWN THE MIL- 
LER to put too much water 
in anything. F. 



161 Mischief 

This punch is not worth drinking 
you've drowned the miller. 
Milling-. MILLING IN THE 
DARKMANS murder at night. 

S. 

Men were men then, and fought in 
the open field, and there was nae 
milling in the darkmans (no mid- 
night murder). SCOTT. 

Mince. To MINCE MATTERS or 

THE MATTER - to glOZ6 OV6r ; 

to represent in too favourable 
a light ; to be mealy-mouthed. 
P. 

But not being a woman much given 
to mincing matters, she puts her 
meaning beyond a doubt by remark- 
ing that she had heard tell people 
sent to Paris for their gowns, just as 



though America wasn't good enough 
to make one's clothes. Edinburgh 
Review, 1887. 

Indeed, not to mince the matter, 
six or seven of that sacred band were 
nullity in person. C. READE. 

Mincemeat. To MAKE MINCE- 
MEAT OF to shatter ; to com- 
pletely destroy ; to demolish. 
F. 

Later he (Jeffrey) got into his head 
the oddest crotchet of all his life, 
which was that a Conservative Gov- 
ernment, with a sort of approval of 
the people generally, and especially 
of the English peasantry, would 
scheme for a coup d'etat, and (his 
own words again) "niake mincemeat 
of their opponents in a single year." 
Macmillan's Magazine, 1887. 

We should have made mincemeat 
of them all, and perhaps hanged up 
one or two of them outside the inn 
as an extra sign-post. G. A. SALA. 

Mind. MIND YOUR EYE be 
careful. S. 

"Perhaps it may be so," says I; 
"but mind your eye, and take care 
you don't put your foot in it." HA LI- 
BURTON. 

We must mind our eye, George. 
A good many tents are robbed every 
week. C. READE. 

Mint. A MINT OF MONEY a 
large fortune. C. 

She went on as if she had a mint 
of money at ' her elbow. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

Mischief. To PLAY THE MIS- 
CHIEF WITH to ruin ; to over- 
turn. F. 

Don't you know that you will play 
the very mischief with our vagus 
nerves? WM. BLACK. 

6 



162 



Month 



MISS. A MISS IS AS GOOD AS A 

MILE a failure is a failure 
whether one comes very near 
succeeding or not. A man 
will lose the train equally by 
being a minute as by being 
half an hour too late. C. 

Had the tie parted one instant 
sooner, or had I stood an instSht 
longer on the yard, I should in- 
evitably have been thrown violently, 
from the height of ninety or a hun- 
dred feet, overboard; or, what is 
worse, upon the deck. However, a 
miss is as good as a mile a saying 
which sailors very often have occa- 
sion to use. R. H. DANA. 

To MISS STATS to fail in at- 
tempting to tack. P. Used 
metaphorically of other kinds 
of failure. 

Ah, Jim, Jim, I reckon I've missed 
stays. R. L. STEVENSON. 

Missing 1 . THE MISSING LINK 
a creature between a man 
and a monkey, the discovery 
of which is necessary to the 
establishment of the theory of 
the descent of men from mon- 
keys. P. The name is often 
applied to men who resemble 
monkeys. 

We had a tutor at college who re- 
joiced in the name of the "missing 
link." 

Mistletoe. KISSING UNDER 

THE MISTLETOE. It is USUal 

in England and other countries 
at the festive Christmas season 
to hang up a sprig of mistletoe 
from the ceiling. When a girl 
passes under the mistletoe she 
may be kissed. The practice 
is a source of much merri- 
ment. 

Mitten. To GET THE MITTEN 
to make an offer of mar- 
riage and be rejected. C. 

There is a young lady I have set 
my heart on, though whether she is 
going to give me hers, or give me 
the mitten, I ain't quite satisfied. 
HALIBURTON. 

TO HANDLE WITHOUT THE GLOVES 

or WITHOUT MITTENS to treat 
unceremoniously ; to deal 
roughly with. P. See 
HANDLE. 



Modus. A MODUS VIVENDI a 
mutual agreement under which 
people can live in harmony. 
P. Latin. 

Unofficial conversations take place 
from time to time, but no modus 
vivendi has been established, the 
home companies wanting those from 
China to retire to their own field 
exclusively, which they decline to 
do. Japan Mail, 1887. 

Surely it was possible for them 
to construct a sufficiently pleasant 
modus vlvendi, even if they held 
somewhat different views on politi- 
cal matters. WM. BLACK. 

Molly. A MOLLY CODDLE a 
pampered or effeminate per- 
son. F. 

" I don't think I should care much 
about going into the Guards if I were 
a man. 

"Why not?" 

"I don't know; I've seen some of 
them, and I think they are rather 
Molly Coddles." Murray's Maga- 
zine, 1887. 

Monkey. MONKEY'S ALLOW- 
ANCE hard blows instead of 
food. S. A sailors' phrase. 

You fellows worked like bricks, 
spent money, and got midshipmen's 
half-pay (nothing a day and find 
yourself) and monkeys' allowance 
(more kicks than half -pence). C. 
KINGSLEY. 

TO GET OF HAVE ONE'S MONKEY 

UP to be enraged or irri- 
tated. S. 

You'll have his monkey up 
directly. H. KINGSLEY. 

TO SUCK THE MONKEY (a) to 

drink rum out of cocoa-nuts. 
S. It is a common practice 
for sailors to buy cocoa-nuts, 
extract the milk, and fill them 
again with rum. 
(&) to suck liquor with a 
straw from casks. S. 

Ididn't peach (become an informer) 
at Barbadoes when the men sucked 
the monkey. CAPTAIN MABKYAT. 

Month. A MONTH OP SUN- 
DAYS an indefinitely long 
period. S. 

He could easily have revenged him- 
self by giving me a kick with his 
heavy shoes on the header the loins, 
that would have spoiled my running 
for a month of Sundays. C. EEADE. 



Moon 163 

Moon. A MOONLIGHT FLITTIN 

a secret removal by nigh 
of tenants who are unable t 
pay the rent of their house. F 



They took a moonlight flittingsoo 
re never heard of mor 



after, and were never 
in the old country. 
SHOOTING OF MOONS. The 
as the above. S. 

I bought his houses, I let hi 
houses; I told him who were re 
sponsible tenants, I warned hin 
when shooting of moons seeme< 
likely. BESANT. 

Mope. To BE NO MORE to be 
dead. P. 
Cassius is no more. 
, r ,. SHAKESPEARE. 

. You'll have heard that my fathe 
is no more. Miss MULOCK. 
MORE AND MORE with a con 
tinual increase. P. 

As the blood passeth through 
narrower channels, the redness dis 
appears more and more. ARBUTH 
NOT. 

Mopning. THE GRAY OF THE 
MORNING the early morning. 

And the first gray of morning filled 

the east, 
And the fog rose out of the Oxus 

stream. M. ARNOLD. 

But above all thi ngs, have good care 
to exercise this art before the master 
strides up to his desk in the gray of 
the morning. BLACKMORE. 

Mother. DOES YOUR MOTHER 
KNOW YOU'RE OUT ? a quiz- 
zical expression used to a per- 
son who seems too simple and 
childish to take care of him- 
self. S. 
I went and told the constable ' my 

property to track : 
He asked me if I didn't wish that I 

might get it back. 
I answered, "To be sure I do! it's 

what I'm come about." 
He smiled and said, "Sir, does your 
mother know that you are out?" 
BARHAM. 

MOTHER-WIT natural sagacity ; 
good sense. P. 
It is extempore, from my mother- 
wit. SHAKESPEARE. 
MOTHER'S APRON STRINGS a 
phrase used to signify " watch- 
ful maternal care " of a child 
too young and thoughtless to 
take care of itself. C. 



Move 

Little Smith, fresh from his 
mother's apron-strings, is savagely 
beaten by the cock of the school, 
Jones.-H. R. HAGGARD. 



MOTHER CAREY'S CHICKENS a 
sailor's name for the stormy 
petrel. 

Danny would mock Mother Carey's 
chicken and catch the doleful cry of 
the cormorant. HALL CAINE. 

Mount. To MOUNT GUARD 
to act as sentinel. P. 

.Their destination reached, they 
picnicked as they had arranged, and 
then separated, the bride and bride- 
~rpom strolling off in one direction. 

ildred and Arthur in another. 

iilst Miss Terry mounted guard 

er the plates and dishes. H R 



[ildred an 

iilst IT 

OVi 

HAGGARD. 



Mountain. To MAKE A MOUN- 
TAIN OF A MOLE-HILL to 

magnify a small matter, 
making it unnecessarily im- 
portant. P. 

Stuff and nonsense, Segrave ! you're 
making mountains out of mole-hills, 
as you always do. Good Words, 1887. 
MOUNTAIN-DEW Scotch whisky. 

When in the Highlands, he became 
too fond of the mountain-dew. 

Mouth. DOWN IN THE MOUTH 

disappointed. C. 

But upon bringing the next ashore, 
it proved to be only one great stone 
and a few little fishes; upon this 
disappointment they were down in 
the mouth. L'ESTRANGE. 
BY WORD OF MOUTH verbally. 
P. 

The message was given by word of 
mouth ; it was not written. 

'O HAVE THE MOUTH WATER to 

have feelings of anticipated 
enjoyment ; to look at with in- 
tense longing. P. 

For 'tis said he lives bravely where 
he is; yea, many of them that are 
resolved never to run his hazards, 
yet have their mouths water at his 
gains. BUNYAN. 

Move. To MOVE HEAVEN AND 
EARTH to make every pos- 
sible effort. C. 

But of course all the fPlumstead 
arid Framley set will move heaven 
and earth to get him out, so that he 
may not be there to be a disgrace to 
the diocese. A. TROLLOPE. 



Much 



164 



Nail 



Much. MUCH OP A MUCH- 
NESS very similar ; differ- 
ing: but sightly. C. 

The miller's daughter could not 
believe that high gentry behaved 
badly to their wives, but her mother 
instructed her. " O child, men's men 
(men are men) ; gentle or simple (gen- 
try or common people) they're much 
of a muchness. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Mud. TO THROW MUD AT to 

abuse ; to speak evil of. C. 

A woman in my position must 
expect to have more mud thrown at 
her than a less important person. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Muff. A MUFF an effeminate, 
timid person. F. 

The other boys called him a muff 
for refusing to go, but he remained 
firm. 

Mug. To MUG-UP to prepare 
for an examination. S. A col- 
lege phrase. 

I must go home and mug-up for 
next Saturday. 

Mull. TO MAKE A MULL OF IT 

to be awkward and unsuc- 
cessful. F. 

" I always make a mull of it," he 
said to himself when the girls went 
up to get their hats. A. TROLLOPE. 

Mummy. To BEAT TO A MUM- 
MY to thrash soundly ; to 
give a severe drubbing to. C. 

The two highwaymen caught the 
informer .and oeat him to a mummy. 

Mump. MUMPING-DAY the 
21st of December, a day on 
which the poor were accus- 



tomed to go about the coun- 
try begging. F. To mump is 
to " beg " or " cheat." 

Murder. MURDER WILL OUT 
a saying which refers to the 
great difficulty of keeping a 
crime secret. C. The phrase 
is now current about secret 
deeds which are not crimes. 

" Oh.thank God ! the battle's ours ! " 
replied Mr. Cunnington, with de- 
lighted excitement. Yl The murder's 
out (secret is discovered). I'll pledge 
my existence that within six months' 
time we have them all back at Yat- 
ton." S. WARREN. 

Murder, the proverb tells us, will 
out ; and although, of course, we do 
not know how many murders have 
remained undiscovered, appearances 
seem to lend support to the theory. 
W. E. NORRIS. 

THE MURDER'S OUT everything 
is disclosed. F. 

The murder was out now. H. 
KINGSLEY. 

Mute. MUTE AS A FISH 
wholly silent. C. 

Miss Kiljoy might have screamed ; 
but, I presume, her shrieks were 
stopped oy the sight of an enormous 
horse-pistol which one of her cham- 
pions produced, who said, "No harm 
is intended you, ma'am ; but if y_ou 
cry out we must gag you," on which 
she suddenly became as mute as a 
fish. 

Mutton. To EAT ONE'S MUT- 
TON to dine. F. 

"Will you eat your mutton with 
me to-day, Palmer?" said Mr. 
Williams at the gate of the jail.-C. 
READE. 



N 



Naboth.~NABOTH's VINEYARD 
a neighbour's possession 
coveted by a rich man. P. 
The reference is to King 
Ahab (1 Kings xxi. 1-10), who 
coveted the vineyard of Na- 
both the Jezreelite, and finally 
obtained it by foul means. 

He was well aware that the little 
Manor House property had always 
been a Naboth's vineyard to his 
f ather.-Good Words, 1887. 



Nail. To NAIL ONE'S COLOURS 

TO THE MAST to refuse Ob- 

stinately to surrender. P. 

"There," he said, "I've nailed my 
colours to the mast. That will show 
these gentry that an Englishman 
lives here." H. B. HAGGARD. 

ON THE NAIL (a) immediately ; 
without delay. F. 

I'll give you twenty pounds down 
. . . twenty pounds on the nail. 
BESANT. 



Name 



(&) ready money. A plate of 

copper on which bargains are 
settled in Liverpool Exchange 
is called " The Nail." 

Kemember every share you bring 
in brings you five per cent, down on 
the nail. THACKERAY. 

TO HIT THE NAIL ON THE HEAD 

to say what is exactly appli- 
cable to the case ; to discover 
the real remedy for anything. 
C. 

How he hits the nail on the head ! 
. . . What noble cpmmon sense ap- 
pears in such criticism as this! 
Macmillan's Magazine, 1887. 
A NAIL IN ONE'S COFFIN a face- 

tious name for a glass of 
strong liquor gin, whisky, or 
brandy. S. 

Name. To NAME THE DAY 
to fix the day for marriage. C. 
So, soon after, she named the day. 
C. READE. 

TO CALL A PERSON NAMES to 

speak disrespectfully to a per- 
son ; to use nicknames to 
him. P. 

When he called his mother names 
because she wouldn't give up the 
young lady's property . . . how the 
ladies in the audience sobbed ! 
DICKENS. 

TO TAKE A NAME IN VAIN to 

use the name thoughtlessly or 
irreverently ; to swear pro- 
fanely by the name. P. 

Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain. Exod. xx. 7. 

I always call Chancery "it." I 
would not take its name in vain for 
worlds. H. R,. HAGGARD. 

Nap. To GO NAP to stake all 
the winnings. S. A phrase 
taken from the game of nap, or 
napoleon. 

He heard what they said. "They've 
squared it ; it's a moral. Now's the 
time; I'm going nap on Morning 
Light" (a racehorse). B.L. FARJEON. 
Napping 1 . To TAKE or CATCH 
ONE NAPPING to find him 
unprepared ; to surprise him 
when off his guard or asleep. C. 

They took him napping in his bed. 
S. BUTLER. 

No, George, Tom Weasel won't be 
caught napping twice the same year. 
G.REA-DE. 



165 Neck 

General Boulanger is an active and 
energetic minister, and when this 
war about which everybody is talk- 
ing does break out, he does not mean 
France to be kept napping. Con- 
temporary Review, 1887. 

Narrow. THE NARROW HOUSE 
or HOME the grave. P. 
Sad images 
Of the stern agony, and shroud, and 

pall, 
And breathless darkness, and the 

narrow house. BRYANT. 

I feel like those would-be saints of 
old who bespoke their coffins years 
before they had occasion for them, 
and all day long used to contemplate 
their narrow home. JAMES PAYN. 

Natupe. IN A STATE OF 
NATURE naked. P. 

The man was found in the cave in 
a state of nature, and raving mad. 



Naught. TO SET AT NAUGHT 

to disregard. P. 

Be you contented 

To have a son set your decrees at 
naught. SHAKESPEARE. 

Ne. NE PLUS ULTRA nothing 
further ; the extreme limit. 
P. Latin. 

There stood on the Spanish coast a 
pillar with the words ne plus ultra 
inscribed upon it. After the dis- 
covery of America the ne was taken 
out. 

Of all the pleasures of the exercise 
of charity, the very greatest (to some 
minds) is the satisfaction afforded 
by the fact of the recipient of our 
bounty having once occupied a 
social position equal or superior to 
our own. This is the Tie plus ultra of 
the delights of patronage. JAMES 
PAYN. 

Neap. THE NEAR SIDE OF A 
HORSE the side on the rider's 
or the driver's left. F. 

To BE NEAR to be stingy or 
parsimonious. C. 

With all her magnificent conduct 
as to wasting alcoholic treasure, she 
was rather near. CONWAY. 

Neat. NEAT AS A PIN very 
neat and tidy. F. 

Everything was as neat as a pin in 
the house. H. H. DANA. 

Neck. NECK AND NECK keen 
and close ; close together (of 



Neck 



in a con- 



two competitors 
test). P. 

If newcomers were to bring in the 
system of neck-and-neck trading. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

They reach the last fence neck-and- 
neck, Haphazard landing slightly in 
advance. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

TO BREAK THE NECK OF ANT- 
THING to accomplish the 
stiffest part of it. C. 

The day has been very hot even for 
the Transvaal, where even in the 
autumn the days still know how to 
be hot, although the neck of the 
summer is broken (worst part of the 
summer is over). H. R. HAGGARD. 
Blow-hard was a capital spinner of 
a yarn when he had broken the neck 
of his day's work. HUGHES. 

ON THE NECK OF immediately 
after. P. 

Instantly on the neck of this came 
news that Fernando and Isabella had 
concluded a peace. BACON. 

NECK AND CROP completely. 
F. 

Finish him off, neck and crop; he 
deserves it for sticking up to a man 
like you. BLACKMORE. 

A STIFF NECK obstinacy in sin. 
A Scriptural phrase. 
Speak not with a stiff neck. Ps. 

NECK AND HEELS in a hasty and 
summary fashion. 

There is no doubt that when the 
poor fellow tried to get into the pul- 
pit, they took him and carried him 
neck and heels out of the church. 
A. TROLLOPE. 

He rushed to the scene of un- 
hallowed festivity, inflicted corporal 
punishment on the "father of the 
feast," and turned his astonished 
guests neck and heels cut of doors. 
W. IRVING. 

NECK VERSE a sentence of 
Scripture which, when re- 
peated by a criminal, saved 
him from capital punishment. 
C. See BENEFIT OF CLERGY. 

Poor'rogue ! he was soon afterwards 
laid by the heels and swung ; for there 
is no neck verse in France to save a 
gentleman from the gallows. G. A. 
SALA. 

NECK OR NOTHING a braving 
of all clangers ; the risking 
of everything. F. 

It was neck or nothing with me 
whether I should go down to the gulf 



166 Nest 

of utter neglect or not. THOMAS 
CAMPBELL. 

"If it is neck or nothing on my 
side, sir, it must be neck or nothing 



on yours also!' 

ck or nothii _ 
id Noel Vanstone. WILKI'E 



feck or nothing by all means," 



COLLINS. 

Ned. To MAKE ONE'S NED OUT 
OF to make money from. S. 
Ned is a slang word for a 
guinea. 

There are a good many people there 
from other parts, and always have 
been, who come to make money and 
nothing else . . . and who intend to up 
killock and off (depart with all their 
property) as soon as they have made 
their ned out of the Blue-noses. 
HALIBURTON. 

Needle. To GET THE NEEDLE 
to get irritated. S. 

Take care lest he get the needle 
and send you off. 

Needs. NEEDS MUST WHEN 
THE DEVIL DRIVES one must 
submit, however ungracefully, 
to hard necessity. F. 

"What, you are in your tantrums 
again ! " said she. " Come along, sir. 
Needs must when the devil drives." 
C. KEADE. 

Nem. NEM. CON. a contrac- 
tion for nemine contradicente 
(Latin) = no one dissenting. C. 

This resolution was agreed tonem. 
con. 

The general, too, understood these 
details thoroughly, and therefore it 
was disrespectful youth voted nem. 
con. that Newton-Hollows was "a 
rare shop at feeding-time." G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Neptune. A SON OF NEP- 
TUNE a sailor. P. Neptune 
was the god of the sea in 
Roman mythology. 

After once crossing the line, you 
can never be subjected to the process, 
but are considered as a son of Nep- 
tune. JR. H. DANA. 

This son of Neptune, dying sud- 
denly, left all his little property to a 
degenerate nephew, who hated salt 
water. R. BUCHANAN. 

Nest. TO FEATHER ONE'S NEST 

to provide for one's future ; 
to lay by money. C. 

Itmaydo him some harm, perhaps, 
but Dempster must have feathered 
hisnest pretty well (saved a consider- 



Never 

able sum of money) ; he can afford to 
losealittle business. GEORGEELIOT. 

A MARE'S NEST. See MARE. 

A NEST-EGG something laid by 
as a start or commencement. 
C. In a nest where hens are 
expected to lay, it is custom- 
ary to place a real or imitation 
egg to tempt the hens to lay 
others beside it. This egg is 
called the nest-egg. 
Books or money laid for show, 
Like nest-eggs, to make clients lay. 

S. BUTLER. 

At present, however, as Margaret 
reminded her cousin, there was not 
enough of them though so far as 
they went they had a material value 
to become nest-eggs ; they could 
not be considered^ as savings? or 
capital to any appreciable extent. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Never. NEVER SAT DIE 
don't despair. S. 

Willyougivehimmycompliments, 
sir No. 24 s compliments and tell 
him I bid him never say die? C. 
READE. 

I NEVER DID an exclamation 
of astonishment. F. 

"I never did!" exclaimed Eliza 
Sampson, when her brother had read 
the brief letter aloud. 

Eliza was always protesting that 
she never did. This somewhat un- 
meaning phrase was her favourite 
expression of astonishment. Miss 
BRADDON. 

Newcastle. NEWCASTLE 
HOSPITALITY roasting a friend 
to death. F. 

Newgate. To BE IN NEW- 
GATE to be a criminal. C. 
Newgate is the great prison of 
London. 

"No doubt he ought to be in New- 
gate," said the other emphatically. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Next. NEXT TO NOTHING 
almost nothing. C. 

Her table the same way, kept for 
next to nothing. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

NEXT DOOR TO very close to ; 
almost. C. 

She observed to that trusty servant 
that Colonel Arden was next door to 
a brute. THEODORE HOOK. 

NEXT ONE'S HEART very dear 
to one. P. 



167 Nine 

They could talk unreservedly 
among themselves of the subject 
that lay next their hearts. JAMES 
PAYN. 

Nicety. To A NICETY exact- 
ly ; with extreme accuracy. P. 
The room was all arranged to a 

nicety. 

Nick. IN THE NICK OF TIME 

exactly at the right moment. P. 

Things are takinga most convenient 
turn, and in the very nick of time. 
JAMES PAYN. 

IN TEE NICK at the right 
moment. F. 

He gave us notice in the nick, and 
I got ready for their reception. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

OLD NICK the devil. S. 

And the old man began to step out 
as if he was leading them on their way 
against old Nick. HALIBURTON. 

Night. A NIGHT-CAP a warm 
drink taken before going to 
bed. C. 

Nightmare. THE NIGHTMARE 

AND HER NINE -FOLD fright- 
ful apparitions which appear 
at night. Probably nine-fold 
stands for " nine foals." See 
Shakespeare's King Lear, act 
iii. scene 4. 

St. Withold footed thrice the old, 
He met the nightmare and her nine- 
fold. 

Stars shoot and meteors, glare 
of tener across the valley than in any 
other part of the country, and the 
nightmare with her whole nine- 
fold seems to make it the favourite 
scene of hergambols. WASHINGTON 
IRVING. 

Nil. NIL ADMIRARI admiring 
nothing. Latin. 

To the last, I believe, his London 
nil admirari mind hardly appreci- 
ated the fact of its being real cold 

SnOW. H. KlNGSLEY. 

Nine. A NINE DAYS' WONDER 
something which causes great 
excitement for a short time 
and then is heard of no more. 
P. 
Klnn Edward. You'd think it strange 

if I should marry her. 
Gloucester. That would be ten days' 

wonder at the least. 
Clarence. That's a day longer than a 

wonder lasts. SHAKESPEARE. 



Nip 



168 



Nonce 



To THE NINES to perfection ; 
splendidly. F. 

Praising a man's farm to the nines 
(as if it were perfection). HALIBUR- 

^This gallant, good-natured soldier 
flattered her to the nines. C.ICEADE. 
Bran-new, polished to the nines. 
C. READE. 

NINE TAILORS MAKE A MAN a 

popular saying in contempt 
of tailors. F. A tailor is often 
called the ninth part of a 
man. 

Nip. To NIP A BUNG to steal 
a purse. S. 
Meanwhile the cut-purse in the 

throng 

Hath a fair means to nip a bung. 
-Popular Ballad, 1740. 

To NIP IN THE BUD to destroy 
at an early stage, before any 
mischief is done. P. 

From the above it is q ui te clear that 
the king had ample warning of the 



rising, and possessed the_ means of 
nipping it ii 

Review, 1887. 



lipping it in the bud. Fortnightly 



No. No GO of no use. S. 

" These 'lection buns are 
said the young man John. 0. 
HOLMES. 

No END a very great sum ; a 
great deal. F. 

Times are so hard. Box at the 
opera no end (costs a great sum). 
C. K.EADE. 

Nob. A NOB OF THE FIRST 

WATER a very high -class per- 
sonage. S. Nob is a contrac- 
tion for nobleman. 

One comfort, folk are beginning to 
take an interest in us; I see nobs 
of the first water looking with a 
fatherly eye into our affairs. C. 
READE. 

Noblesse. NOBLESSE OBLIGE. 
This phrase implies that a per- 
son in a high position is con- 
strained to perform his duties 
well by a sense of his position : 
high rank has its obligations. 
P. A French phrase. 

Naturally-^noWesse oblige, as Fel- 
spar hinted Ella spoke most of the 
poems. JAMES PAYN. 
That fine-grained pride of place 
which is best expressed in those two 
majestic words noblesse oblige 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 



Nod. A NOD IS AS GOOD AS A 

WINK TO A BLIND HORSE 

there is no use repeating a 
sign to those who cannot or 
do not choose to see. F. 

Thinks I to myself, a nod is as good 
as a wink to a blind horse. HALI- 
BURTON. 

THE LAND OF NOD sleep. F. 
But every night I go abroad 
Afar into the land of nod. 

R. L. STEVENSON. 

Noggin. TO GO TO NOGGIN- 
STAVES to go to pieces ; to 
fall into confusion. F. A 
noggin is a wooden cup, made 
with staves, like a cask. 

Silence ! or my allegory will go to 
noggin-staves. KINGSLEY. 

Nom. NOM DE GUERRE a 
name assumed for a time. P. 
A war-name. French. 

Hobart, being then a post-captain 
ashore with nothing to do, took a 
prominent part, under the nom de 
guerre of Captain Ptoberts. Specta- 
tor, 1887. 

NOM DE PLUME a fictitious 
name assumed by an author. 
P. A pen-name. French. 
For example 



Marian 

Evans : 
Madame 

Dudevant: 
Charles 

Dickens : 

William 
Makepeace 
Thack- 
eray : 



Nom de plume. 
George Eliot. 
George Sand. 

Boz (in his ear- 
lier writings). 



Michael Angelo 
Titmarsh. 

Several of the pieces published in 
1801 under the nom de plume of 
Thomas Little were written before 
he (Moore) was eighteen. Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica, 9th ed. 
Nonce. FOR THE NONCE tem- 
porary ; not habitual. P. Also 
used as an adverb temporarily. 
From " then once." 

Vivian was not under the necessity 
of paying any immediate courtesy 
to nis opposite neighbour, whose 
silence, he perceived, was for the 
nonce, and consequently for him. 
BEACONSFIELD. 



Nose 1 

Nose. WITH ONE'S NOSE AT 
THE GRINDSTONE hard at 
work. C. Generally used of 
mechanical or uninteresting 
work. 

The clerks, with their noses at the 
grindstone, and her father sombre 
in the dingy room, working hard too 
in his way. MRS. OLIPHANT. 

To SNAP ONE'S NOSE OFF to 
speak in a cross tone to any one ; 
to address a person sharply. C. 
" I observe that Mr. John's things 
have not been laid out for him 
properly, as they ought to have 
been," she said suddenly, snapping 
his nose off, as Jervis said. MRS. 
OLIPHANT. 

To MEASURE NOSES to meet. F. 
We measured noses at the cross 
roads. 

To MAKE A PERSON'S NOSE SWELL 
to make him jealous. F. 

To TURN UP ONE'S NOSE AT 
to look with contempt upon. 
C. 

He has the harsh, arrogant, Prus- 
sian way of turning up his nose at 
things. M. ARNOLD. 

To PUT A MAN'S NOSE OUT or 
OUT OF JOINT to supplant 
him ; to mortify him. F. 
This phrase is also found in 
the form HIS NOSE HAS LOST 
A JOINT. 

No substance has yet superseded 
gunpowder for artillery purposes 
for one reason, gunpowder is com- 
paratively so safe; but, of course, 
its nose may be put out of joint even 
by the skilful application of the all- 
pervading air to the base of a pro- 
jectile.-Spfciflr.ior, October 1, 1887. 

He was jealous of her (the ele- 
phant) afraid that she would get as 
fond of some others as of him, and 
so another man might be able to 
work her, and his own nose lose a 
joint, as the saying is. C. KEADE. 

Perhaps Maurice may be able to 
drive Lanfrey out of the field put 
his nose out of joint, and marry the 
girlhimself.-MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

To CUT OFF ONE'S NOSE TO SPITE 
ONE'S FACE to act from anger 
in such a way as to injure one- 
self. F. 

If you refuse to go because you 
are angry with me, you will just be 
cutting off your nose to spite your 
face. 
One of it's (jealousy's) commonest 



Nose 

and least startling effects is that 
species of moral suicide which is 
best described by the vulgar adage 
of "cutting off one's nose to spite 
one's face, and which produces 
that most incomprehensible of all 
vagaries termed marrying out of 
piquo." G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

TO LEAD BY THE NOSE to in- 

fluence a person so that he 
follows you blindly. C. 

Though authority be a stubborn 
bear, yet he is often led by the nose 
with gold. SHAKESPEARE. 



What would you think of a cabinet 
minister being led by the nose^-what 
would you think of his resigning the 
whole of his author! ty into the hands 



of the permanent secretary under 
him simply because that secretary 
undertakes the duty of getting the 
minister's wife, who is not very pre- 
sentable, included in invitations, 
and passed into houses where she 
would never otherwise be seen? 
WM. BLACK. 

He showed a certain dogged kind 
of wisdom in refusing to DC led by 
the nose by the idle and ignorant 
chatterboxes against whom he was 
thrown in the parlour of the public- 
house. H. KlNGSLEY. 
TO TAKE PEPPER IN THE NOSE to 

take offence. F. 

TO PUT or THRUST ONE'S NOSE 

INTO ANOTHER'S AFFAIRS 
to interfere with another per- 



and put his nose into my business. 

C. E.EADE. 

To WIPE A PERSON'S NOSE to 

cheat him. S. 
I've wiped the old men's noses 

(got a pretty good sum of money out 

of them). 
UNDER ONE'S NOSE in one's 

immediate proximity ; close 

to one. C. 
Poetry takes me up so entirely 

that I scarce see what passes under 

rny nose. POPE. 

TO PAY THROUGH THE NOSE 

to pay an extravagant price. S. 
I hoped they would never adopt 
our democratic patent method of 
seeming to settle one's honest debts, 
for they would find it paying through 
the nose in the long run.-J. R. 

Sooner than have a fuss, I paid 
him through the nose everything 
that he clahned.-A. TKOLLOPE. 



Not 170 

Not. NOT A BIT OP IT not 
at all ; in no way. F. 

" Well, for one thing, we ought all 
to be here."-" Not a bit of it." re- 
sponded Dick. Blackwoods Maga- 
zine, 1887. 

Note. A 



NOTE OF 

a promissory note ; 



HAND 

a paper 

containing a promise to pay 
a certain sum of money. P. 

"Why, my dear lad," he cried, 
"this note of hand of Shakespeare's, 
priceless as it is, may be yet outdone 
by what remains to be discovered." 
JAMES PAYN. 

Now. Now AND THEN at in- 
tervals ; occasionally. P. Used 
both of place and time. 

He who resolves to walk by the 
rule of forbearing all revenge will 
have opportunities every now and 
then to exercise his forgiving 
temper. ATTERBURY. 

A mead here, there a heath, and 
now and then a wood. DRAYTON. 

He (Lord Byron) now and then 
praised Mr. Coleridge, but un- 
graciously and without cordiality. 
MACAULAY. 

Nowhere. To BE NOWHERE 
to fail to secure a leading 
place. C. 

In fiction, if we accept one or two 
historical novels, which avowedly 
owe their existence to a laudable 
admiration of Scott, Italy is literally 
nowhere. A thenccum, 1887. 

Null. NULL AND VOID of no 
effect ; useless. P. A legal 
phrase. 

The document began by stating 
that the testator's former will was 
null and void. H. K. HAGGARD. 

Number. NUMBER ONE 
person's self. C. 

Some conjurers say number three 
is the magic number, and some say 
number seven. It's neither, my 
friend, neither-, it's number one. 
DICKENS. 

But let me hear about yourself 
Angela; I am tired of No. 1, I can 
assure you. H. R. HAGGARD. 

Nunky. NUNKT PAYS the 
Government pays for every- 
thing. S. Nunky here stands 
for " Uncle," short for " Uncle 
Sam." The letters U.S., 
stamped on United States 



Nutshell 

government property, were 
jocularly read " Uncle Sam." 
" Uncle Sam " thus came to 
mean the Government, and 
gave rise to the phrase TO 
STAND SAM, which see. 

Walk through a manufactory, and 
you see that the stern alternatives, 
carefulness or ruin, dictate the sav- 
ing of every penny ; visit one of the 
national dockyards, and the com- 
ments you make on any glaring 
wastefulness are carelessly met by 
the slang phrase, "Nunky pays." 
HERBERT SPENCER. 

Nut. TO BE NUTS TO to 

please greatly. F. 

These were nuts alike (equally 
agreeable) to the civilian and the 
planter. G. 0. TREVELYAN. 

To edge his way along the crowded 
paths of life, warning all human 
sympathy to Keep its distance, was 
what the knowing ones called nuts 
(excessive pleasure) to Scrooge. 
DICKENS. 
TO BE NUTS ON ANYTHING 

to be extremely fond of it. F. 
My aunt is awful nuts on Marcus 
Aurelius. WM. BLACK. 

OFF ONE'S NUT crazy ; mad. 
S. Nut is a slang term for 
the head. 

He was getting every day more off 
his nut, as they put it gracefully. 

J. M'CARTHY. 

A HARD NUT TO CRACK a diffi- 
cult problem to solve. C. 

On the contrary, he unflinchingly 
faced a third question, that, namely, 
of the true wishes of the testator, 
whose will had been made known 
some hours before; and really this 
was rather a hard nut to crack. 
Good Words, 1887. 

Nutshell. To LIE IN A NUT- 
SHELL to be capable of easy 
comprehension or solution. P. 

There was no need to refer to 
Heimann or any one else. The 
whole thing lay in a nutshell. 
Murray's Magazine, 1887. 

To assimilate the written to the 
spoken style the whole thing lies 
in that nutshell (is capable of solu- 
tion by that method). 

IN A NUTSHELL simply and 
tersely. P. 

That one admission of yours, " he 
is almost entirely dependent on his 
pen," states the whole case for me in 
a nutshell. JAMES PAYN. 



Oak 



171 



Odds 



Oak. SPORT ONE'S OAK. See 
SPORT. 

Gap. To PUT IN ONE'S OAR to 
interfere officiously in others 
affairs ; to break into a con* 
versation uninvited. F. 

She is not the first hand that has 
caught a lobster by putting in her 
oar before her turn, I guess. HALI- 
JBURTON. 

I put my oar in no man's boat. 
THACKERAY. 

TO LIE Or REST ON ONE'S OARS 

to cease from hard work ; to 
take an interval of rest. C. 

I had finished my education. . . . 
So I left Paris, and went home to 
rest on my oars. C. READE. 

To SHIP OARS to place the oars 
in the rowlocks. A nautical 
phrase. 

To TOSS THE OARS to raise the 
oars vertically, for the purpose 
of saluting. A nautical phrase. 

To UNSHIP THE OARS to remove 
the oars from the rowlocks. 
A nautical phrase. 

Oats. To sow ONE'S WILD 
OATS to indulge in youthful 
dissipation and excesses. P. 

Dunsey's taste for swopping (ex- 
changing) and betting might turn 
out to be something more than 
sowing wild oats. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Obs. DBS AND SOLS OBJEC- 

TIONES ET SOLUTIONES. P. 

Old-fashioned. These objec- 
tions and proofs were placed 
in the margin of theological 
works. 

Bale, Erasmus, etc., explode, as a 
vast ocean of obs and sols, school 
divinity; a labyrinth of intricate 
questions. BURTON (Anatomy oj 
Melancholy). 

Observe. THE OBSERVED OF 
ALL OBSERVERS the centre 
of attraction. P. A quota- 
tion from Shakespeare's Ham- 
let, act iii. scene 1. 
The glass of fashion and the mould 

The observed of all observers ! 



We children admired him : partly 
for his beautiful face and silver hair: 
partly for the solemn light in which 
we beheld him once a week, the ob- 
served of all observers, in the pulpit. 
R. L. STEVENSON, in Scribner's 
Magazine, 1887. 

Occasion. ON OCCASION 
when necessary ; at certain 
times. P. 

Then they went on to give him 
instructions. He was to start at 
once that very week, if possible ; 
he was to follow certain lines laid 
down for his guidance ; on occasion 
he was to act for himself. BICSA NT. 

I am glad to find you can stand 
your own trumpeter on occasion, 
though I wish you would change 
the tune. SMOLLETT. 

TO TAKE OCCASION to Seize 

an opportunity. P. 

In rummaging over a desk to find 
a corkscrew, young Ludgate took 
occasion to open and shake a pocket- 
book, from which fell a shower of 
bank-notes. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Odds. AT ODDS (a) opposed 
to ; differing from. P. 

Mr. Pilgrim had come nooning 
out of the house, at odds with all 
the festivity and tired of the crowd. 
J. M'CARTHY. 

(&) at a disadvantage. P. 

What warrior was there, however 
famous and skilful, that could 
fight at odds with him?-THACK- 

ERAY. 

ODDS AND ENDS stray articles ; 
casual pieces of information ; 
things picked up in different 
places. P. 

A few more odds and ends (stray 
remarks) before the conclusion of 
this article. Spectator, 188C. 

Then there was poor Jacob Dod- 
son, the half-witted boy, who ambled 
about cheerfully, undertaking mes- 
sages and little helpful odds and 
ends for every one. T. HUGHES. 
BY LONG ODDS by a great 
difference ; most decidedly. P. 

He is by long odds the ablest of 
the candidates. 

No ODDS it's of no conse- 
quence. F. 

"I have lost my hat." "No odds. 
Come without one." 



Odour 



172 



Oh 



Odour. IN BAD ODOUR ill 
spoken of ; having a bad repu- 
tation. P. 

Mat Orabtree would not be hin- 
dered from wrapping up the girls 
and handing them to their seats by 
the trifling objection that he was in 
bad odour with both of the women. 
SARAH TYTLER. 

ODOUR OF SANCTITY. It was 
at one time believed that the 
corpse of a holy person emitted 
a sweet perfume. The ex- 
pression " odour of sanctity " 
is now used figuratively : " He 
died in the odour of sanctity " 
= " He died having a saintly 
reputation." 

The whitewashed shrine where 
some holy marabout lies buried 
in the odour of sanctity. GRANT 
ALLEN, in Contemporary Review, 
1888. 

It was the spring of the year when 
the examining chaplain gave the 
verdict which, for good or ill. put 
Dan out of the odour of sanctity. 
HALL CAINK. 

You are the middle-aged father of 
grown-up sons and daughters, a 
magistrate, a church member, who 
keeps regular hours, and calls up 
his servants to prayers and so forth 
all that belongs to the essence of 
respectability and the odour of 
sanctity. SAKAH TYTLER. 

Off. To BE OFF to refuse to 
come to an agreement. F. 

At last when his hand was on the 
door they offered him twelve 
thousand five hundred. He begged 
to consider of it. No, they were 
peremptory. If he was off, they 
were off. C. READE. 

WELL OFF in comfortable cir- 
cumstances. P. 

He seemed to be very well off as 
he was. Miss AUSTEN. 

BE OFF WITH YOU 1 go away ! 
C. A peremptory order. 

" Be off with you ! Get away, vou 
minx!" he shouted. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

OFF AND ON at intervals; 
sometimes working, sometimes 
doing nothing. C. 

They (Garibaldi and Mazzini) off 
and on fell out like the heroes of 
some old epic. Contemporary Re- 
view, 1888. 

"Dear me! Now that's very in- 
teresting," said Mr. Josceline ; "you 



could have got two shillings a line, 
if you pleased, for writing a poem 
that took you how long ? " 

"Well, perhaps two months, off 
and on." JAMES PAYN. 
OFF-HAND. (adj.) free and easy ; 
without stiffness. P. . 

Having a bluff, off-hand manner, 
which passed for heartiness, and 
considerable powers of pleasing 
when he liked, he went down with 
the school in general for a good 
fellow enough T. HUGHES. 

(adv.) without preparation 

or calculation ; immediately. 
P. 

The strong-minded Lady South- 
down quite agreed in both proposals 
of her son-in-law, and was for con- 
verting Miss Crawley off-hand. 
THACKERAY. 

He can give you off-hand any in- 
formation about the capital you may 
want. 

OFF BY HEART committed to 
memory. P. 

A day or two afterwards, Mr. 
Quirk, in poring over that page in 
the fourth volume of Blacksione's 
Commentaries where are to be found 
the passages which have been 
already quoted (and which both 
Quirk and Gammon had got off by 
heart), fancied he had at last hit 
upon a notable crotchet. S. 
WARREN. 

OFF ONE'S HEAD crazed ; dis- 
tracted. C. 

The fact was, the excellent 9ld 
lady was rather off her head with 
excitement. JAMES PAYN. 

OFF COLOUR shady ; disreput- 
able. F. 

His reputation and habits being 
a trifle off colour, as the phrase is, 
he had fallen back on a number of 
parasitical persons, who, doubtless, 
earned a liberal commission on the 
foolish purchases they induced him 
to make. WM. BLACK. 

Office. TO GIVE THE OFFICE 

to forewarn ; to tell before- 
hand. S. 

Then back after me ; I'll give you 
the office. I'll mark you out a good 
claim. C. READE. 

Oh. OH YES a corruption of 
oyez (listen), the cry of heralds 
making a proclamation. S. 

Well, then, said the crier, "Oh 
yes ! oh yes ! His Majesty's I mean 
her Majesty's court is now opened." 
HALIBURTON. 



Oil 

Oil. To OIL ONE'S OLD WIG to 
make the person drunk. North 
of England slang. 

TO POUR OIL ON TROUBLED 

WATERS to pacify matters ; 
to act as peacemaker. P. 

In my telegrams and letters to The 
Times I did all in my power to 
throw oil on the troubled waters, by 
explaining mutual misunderstand- 
ings, and combating the false accu- 
sations made on ooth sides. H. 
MACKENZIE WALLACE. 

Used of the actual process. 

Not a barrel of water fell upon the 
Arno's deck. I believe this may 
with safety be claimed as one of the 
earliest recorded instances of the 
practical application of oil to the 
troubled waters. Scribner's Maga- 
zine, 1887. 

OIL OF PALMS money. S. See 
PALM. 



To STRIKE OIL (a) to come 
upon a bed of petroleum. P. 

I knew it (the oil) was there, be- 
cause I'd been in Pennsylvania and 
learned the signs: it was only the 
question whether I should strike it. 
BESANT AND RICE. 

(6) to make a valuable dis- 
covery of any kind. S. 

Ointment. A FLY IN THE 
OINTMENT that which spoils 
the freshness or excellence 
of anything. C. See Bible 
(Eccles. x. 1). 

The homely vein running through 
her own four daughters, of whom 
not one was really pretty, and some 
were really plain, was a very blue- 
bottle in my lady's ointment. MBS. 
E. LYNN LINTON. 

O.K. O.K. facetious contrac- 
tion for " all correct " = " all 
right." 

Old. OLD AS THE HILLS very 
ancient. C. 

My dear child, this is nothing new 
to m&-to any one. What you have 

fsperienced is as old as the hills. 
LORENCE MARRYAT. 
AN OLD MAID an unmarried 
woman who has passed the 
usual age for marriage, and is 
likely to die single. P. 

During her papa's life, then, she 
(resigned herself to the manner of 
existence here described, and was 



173 Once 

content to be an old maid. 
THACKERAY. 

Olive. TO HOLD OUT THE OLIVE 

BRANCH to make overtures of 
reconciliation. P. 

The sudden appearance in these 
circumstances of Chamberlain with 
the olive branch in his mouth adds 
piquancy to the scene. The Times. 
1886. 

AN OLIVE BRANCH a child. 
P. See Ps. cxxviii. 3. The 
Bible expression is olive plant. 
" Thy wife shall boas a fruitful 
vine by the sides of thy house ; 
thy children like olive plants 
round thy table." 

This young olive branch, noto- 
rious under the name of Timothy's 
Bess's Ben, had advanced beyond 
the group of women and children. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

The lodgers to whom Growl had 
made allusion, under the designa- 
tion of "the Kenwigses," were the 
wife and olive branches of one Mr. 
Kemvigs.a turner in ivory.-DicKENS. 

On. ON FOR ANYTHING ready 
to engage in it. S. 
Are you on for a row on the river ? 

Once. ONCE AND FOR ALL 
finally ; irrevocably. P. Also 
once for all. 



I must tell you once and for all that 
you will get nothing by kneeling to 
me. H. K. HAGGARD. 



ONCE UPON A TIME a somewhat 
old-fashioned and pedantic 
phrase used to introduce an 
incident or story which took 
place at some indefinite time 
in the past. P. 

Once upon a time of all the good 
days in the year, on Christmas eve- 
old Scrooge sat busy in his counting- 
house. DICKENS. 

ONCE IN A WAY sometimes ; 
at long intervals ; on rare 
occasions. C. Also found 
in the form once and away. 

She knew he was of no drunken 
kind, yet once in a way a man might 
take too much. BLACKMORE. 

"I is but for once and away. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 
ONCE AND AGAIN repeatedly ; 
often. C. 

I have told you once and again 
that you must not smoke in this 
room. 



One 

One. ONE OF THESE DAYS 
soon ; shortly. C. 

He repeatedly reasoned and re- 
monstrated with Mr. Titmouse on 
the impropriety of many parts of his 
conduct Titmouse >oi 



generally ac- 



knowledging, with much appearance 
of compunction and sincerity, that 
the earl had too much ground for 
complaint, and protesting that he 
meant to change altogether one of 
these days. S. WARREN. 

ONE TOO MANY FOB A PERSON 

more powerful or cunning 
than he. F. 

I rather fancy we shall be one too 
many for him.- W. E. NORRIS. 
AT ONE agreed ; in harmony ; 
of the same mind. P. 

We have read treatises by the 
dozen on style and rhetoric from 
Blair to Bain, and there is none that 
we should be inclined ourselves to 
adopt as a class-book. So far, we are 
at one with Mr. Morley. Journal 
of Education, 1887. 

ONE -HORSE third-rate ; poor ; 
insignificant. S. 

One of them destroyed Manitoulin, 
my island of the blest, with a few 
contemptuous criticisms. It was, he 
declared, a very one-horse sort of 
place. W. H. RUSSELL. 

O.P. O.P. publishers' contrac- 
tion for " out of print." Also 
for " old prices," in connection 
with the O.P. Riot at new 
Covent Garden Theatre in 1809, 
when the prices were raised. 

Open. WITH OPEN ARMS 
gladly ; with a warm welcome. 
P. 

They were both received with open 
arms by the mayor and old Dewar. 
C. READE. 

AN OPEN SECRET a piece of 
information not formally de- 
clared, yet known to every 
one. P. 

It was an open secret that almost 
every one (of Lord Palmerston's ec- 
clesiastical appointments) was vir- 
tually made by Lord Shaftesbury. 
Leisure Hour, 1887. 

OPEN AS THE DAY utterly with- 
out deception or hypocrisy. C. 

Open as the day, he made no secret 
of the fact that he was alone in the 
world. JAMES PAYN. 

Arthur, on the other hand, learned 
quite everything about her, for her 



174 Orange 

ife was open as the day. H. E. 
[AGGARD. 

OPEN SESAME a phrase which 
causes doors to open. See, 
in the Arabian Nights' Enter- 
tainments, the story of Ali 
Baba and the Forty Thieves. 
When Ali Baba uttered the 
words " Open sesame," the 
door of the robbers' cave 
opened. 

The French do not believe in love. 
This is a sweeping statement, it may 
be said, but if not accepted as a 
fundamental truth, the surest of all 
open sesames to the arcana of French 
society fails the observer. National 
Review, 1887. 

The spell loses its power ; and he 
who should then hope to conjure 
with it would find himself as much 
mistaken as Cassim in the Arabian 
tale, when he stood crying, " Open 
wheat," "Open barley," to the door 
which obeyed no sound but "Open 
sesame." MACAULAY. 

TO OPEN THE BALL, See BALL. 

AN OPEN QUESTION a fact or 
doctrine about which dif- 
ferent opinions are permitted. 
P. 

Whether the army is sufficiently 
organized, or sufficiently provided, 
, or sufficiently well led, may be an 
open question. Spectator, 1887. 

TO OPEN THE EYES OF A PERSON 

to make him aware of the real 
state of affairs. C. 

This last flagrant case of injustice 
opened the commissioner's eyes. 

Opinion. To BE OF OPINION 
to judge ; to consider. P. 

Mr. Gladstone was of opinion that 
the tax was inexpedient. 

Mrs. Sedley was of opinion that no 
power on earth would induce Mr. 
Sedley to consent to the match be- 
tween his daughter and the son of a 
man who had so shamefully, wick- 
edly, and monstrously treated him. 
THACKERAY. 

Orange. ORANGE BLOSSOMS 
brides wear orange blossoms. 
C. 

" How is the amiable and talented 
Mr. Staunton?" inquired this person 
jocosely ; " and what has he come to 
this lovely retreat for? To gather 
orange blossoms ?" (get a bride). W. 
E. NORRIS. 



Order 



175 



Out 



A SUCKED ORANGE a man whose 
powers are exhausted. S. 

By this time Dibdin was a sucked 
orange ; his brain was dry. 

Order. To TAKE ORDER to 
take steps or measures ; to 
make provision. P. 

Is any rule more plain than this, 
that whoever voluntarily gives to an- 
other irresistible power over human 
beings is bound to take order that 
such power shall not be barbarously 
abused ? M AC AUL AY. 
To TAKE ORDERS to become a 
clergyman. P. 

Though he never could be per- 
suaded to take orders, theology was 
his favourite study. MACAULAY. 
IN ORDERS belonging to the 
clerical profession. P. 

"What!" interrupted I, "and 
were you indeed married by a priest, 
and in orders?" (a regular clergy- 
man). GOLDSMITH. 
THE ORDER OP THE DAY what 
every one is striving after. C. 

"Think no more of love, but as 
much as you please of admiration ; 
dress yourself as fast as you can," 
said Miss Broadhurst ; " dress, dress 
is the order of the day." MARIA 
EDGE-WORTH. 

Economy in the public service is 
the order of the day. Westminster 
Review, December 1887. 
THE ORDERS OF THE DAY the 

list of agenda in a legislative 
body for example, the House 
of Commons. 

Other. THE OTHER DAY 
lately ; some time ago. C. 

Did you see what the brigands did 
to a fellow they caught in Greece the 
other day? H. R. HAGGARD. 

Out. To BE our to be mis- 
taken. F. 

"Oh, there you are out, indeed, 
Cousin Wright ; she's more of what 

- you call a prude than a coquette." 
MARIA EDGE WORTH. 

TO BE OUT WITH AMY ONE 

to have a disagreement with 
the person. F. 

If you are out with him, then I 
shall not visit him. 

Our - AND - OUT thoroughly ; 
completely. C. 

Now, I'm as proud of the house as 
any one. I believe it's the best 
house in the school, out-and-out. 
HUGHES. 



TO HAVE IT OUT WITH ANY ONE 

to have an altercation with 
some one on a certain sub- 
ject. C. 

One day when the two old officers 
return from their stroll, Mrs. Bunch 
informs the colonel that she has had 
it out with Eliza.THACKERAY. 
OUT OF THE WAY odd ; quaint ; 
unusual. P. 

Besides, he had always something 
amusing to say that lessened our 
toil, and was at once so out of the 
way, and yet so sensible, that I 
loved, laughed at, and pitied him. 
GOLDSMITH. 

OUT OF SORTS (a) indisposed ; 
not in good bodily condition. 
C. 

I am out of sorts, however, at pres- 
ent; cannot write. Why? I can- 
not tell. MACAULAY. 
(&) in bad humour ; ill- 
pleased. C. 

Was this the pale, sad soul who 
had come away from England with 
us, out of sorts with the world, and 
almost aweary of her life? WM. 
BLACK. 

To OUT-HEROD HEROD to be 
extravagant in one's language ; 
to storm as an actor. P. 
Herod was a typical tyrant. 

"I fancy," said he, "your praise 
must be ironical, because in the very 
two situations you mention I think 
I have seen that player out-iHerod 
Herod, or, in other words, exceed all 
his extravagance." SMOLLETT. 
OUT OF PLACE unsuitable ; im- 
proper. P. 

All this delicate consideration for 
the feelings of an impecunious young_ 
person was deplorable and out of 
place. JAMES PAYN. 
OUT OF POCKET (a) actually 
paid. C. As in the phrase 
" out of pocket expenses." 

(&) put to expense. C. 

Mephistopheles, either because he 
was a more philosophic spirit or was 
not the one out of pocket, took the 
blow more coolly. C. READE. 

He was both out of pocket and out 
of spirits by that catastrophe. 
THACKERAY. 

OUT OF PRINT. See PRINT. 
OUT OF COLLAR without a place. 
Servant's slang. 

The old butler hag been out of 
collar since last autumn. 



Outrun 



176 



Pack 



OUT AT ELBOWS. See ELBOW. 

OUT OF THE QUESTION. See 

QUESTION. 

OUT OF THE WOOD escaped 
from a difficulty or danger. C. 

You are not out o^, the wood (safe 
from danger) yet. 

The excess of women over men 
makes it impossible for all to be 
married Mormonism not being our 
way out of the wood (of escape from 
this difficulty). 

AN OUT - AND - OUTER a 

thorough-going fellow ; one 
pre-eminent in any capacity. 
S. 

Master Clive was pronounced an 
out-and-outer. THACKERAY. 

Outrun. To OUTRUN THE 
CONSTABLE to become bank- 
rupt. C. 



A minute of the financial board, 
published in the Cambridge Reporter, 
shows that the university is in danger 



of outrunning the constable. Jcmr- 



Ovep. OVER AND ABOVE in 
addition ; besides ; extra. P., 

Well, she didn't think somehov 
that Zee-Zeet was over and abovb 
(excessively) well-of. English Illut- 
trated Magazine, 1886. 
OVER AND OVER frequently ; 
repeatedly. P. 

She had (heard) though over and 
over again. For it was Toby's con- 
stant topic. DICKENS. 
OVER THE LEFT understand the 
contrary of what is said. S. 

The cook will suit you very well- 
over the left. 

Exp. He will not suit you at all. 

Overland. AN OVERLAND 
FARM a farm without any* 
house upon it. Devonshire 
dialect. 

Owl. To TAKE OWL to be 
offended. S. 

Own. To OWN UP to con- 
fess. C. 

What do you want I should own 
p about a " " 
feel wrong. 



up about a "thing for, when I don't 
?. W. D. How ELLS. 



P. To MIND ONE'S p's AND Q'a 
to be careful in one's be- 
haviour. C. 

I think that this world is a very 
good sort of world, and that a man 
can get along in it very well if he 
minds his p's and q's.A. TBOLLOPE. 

And to nave to mind my p's and 
q's is what I don't like. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

To BE p AND Q to be of the first 

Suality. F. 
ring in a quart of maligo, right 
true, 

And look, you rogue, that it be p 
and (/.-.ROWLANDS (1613). 

Pace. To TRY AN ANIMAL'S 

PACES ; TO PUT AN ANIMAL 
THROUGH ITS PACES to find 

out how it goes. P. A horse 
walks, ambles, trots, canters, 
gallops these are its different 
paces, which an intending 
purchaser will examine be- 
fore he strikes a bargain. 

I had, in the usual forms, when I 
came to the fair, put my horse 
through all its paces. GOLDSMITH. 



To TRY A MAN'S PACES to see 
what are his qualities. F. 

We take him (the preacher) at first 
on trial, for a Sabbath or two, to 
try his paces. HALIBURTON. 

To KEEP PACE WITH to keep 
alongside of ; to go at the 
same speed as ; to progress 
equally with. P. 

Agriculture (in the States) has kept 
pace with manufacturing industry, 
while it has far outstripped com- 
merce. Edinburgh Review, 1882. 

Old as I am, I feel a pleasure in 
making any person whom I meet on 
the way put his horse to the full 
gallop to keep pace with my trotter. 
HALIBURTON. 

Pack. TO TALK PACK-THREAD 

to use improper language 
skilfully disguised. S. 

TO BE PACKING to gO Off ; to 

leave a place. S. 

Now, be packing ; I do not wish to 
see you again. 

To PACK CARDS to cheat ; to 
act unfairly. C. 

She has packed cards with Caesar 
(entered into a deceitful compact 
with Caesar). SHAKESPEARE. 



Fad 



177 



Palm 



TO SEND A MAN PACKING to dis- 

miss him summarily ; to send 
him off. F. 

Is none of my lads so clever as 
to send this judge packing? 
MACAULAY. 

Pad. - A PAD IN THE STBAW - 

something wrong. F. 

To PAD THE HOOF to walk. F. 

" What do you mean ? " asked Lam- 
bert, staring in amazement. "You 
would not have Susie pad the hoof 
because the bank has failed?" 
SARAH TYTLER. 

At length Charley Bates expressed 
his opinion that it was time to pad 
the hoof. DICKENS. 

Paddle. To PADDLE YOUR 
OWN CANOE to manage your 
own affairs without help. S. 
My wants are small, I care not at all 

If my debts are paid when due ; 
I drive away strife in the ocean of 

life, 
While I paddle my own canoe. 

H. CLIFTON. 

Paddock. To TURN PADDOCK 
TO HADDOCK to dissipate 
property. A provincial Nor- 
folk phrase. 

Paddy. A PADDY. See PAT. 

Pagoda. To SHAKE THE PA- 
GODA TREE to gain a fortune 
in an easy way. An Anglo- 
Indian phrase. 

When he had thoroughly learned 
this lesson he was offered a position 
in India, in the service of John Com- 
pany, under whose flag, as we know, 
the pagoda tree was worth shaking 
(it was easy to amass a large fortune). 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

Pains. To BE AT PAINS to 
take trouble; to be careful. 
P. 

She delivered it for the behoof of 
Mr. Chick, who was a stout, bald 
gentleman, with a very large face, 
and his hands continually in his 
ppckets, and who had a tendency in 
his nature to whistle and hum tunes, 
which, sensible of the indecorum or 
such sounds in a house of grief, he 
was at some pains to repress at pres- 
ent. DICKENS. 

Paint. PAINT RED. See RED. 
Paip. A PAIR OF STAIRS a 

flight of stairs ; a staircase. 

P. 



Indeed, the hostess of that evening 
o 
J. 



, 

has since been economizing up two 
G. 



pair of stairs at Antwerp. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

To PAIR or PAIR OFF (a) (of a 
member of Parliament) to ab- 
stain from voting, having 
made an arrangement with a 
member of the opposite side 
that he shall also abstain. P. 
A customary Parliamentary 
practice. 

Mr. W. B. Barbourhas paired with 
Mr. T. Lynn Bristowe from the 14th 
for the remainder of the session. 
The Scotsman. 

- (&) to take as a partner. P 
He paired off with Miss Sedley, 
and Jos squeezed through the gate 
into the gardens with Rebecca on his 
arm. THACKERAY. 

Pale. - TO LEAP THE PALE - to 

get into debt ; to spend more 
than one's income. S. 

Palm. TO PALM OFF ANY- 

THING to pass anything 
under false pretences ; to get 
another to accept ignorantly 
a false article. P. 

Once upon a time a Scotchman 
made a great impression on the 
simple native mind in Natal by palm- 
ing off some thousands of florins 
among them at the nominal value of 
half-a-crown. II. R. HAGGARD. 

To BEAR THE PALM to be pre- 
eminent. P. The leaves of 
the palm tree were used as 
symbols of victory. A palm 
leal or branch was carried 
before a conqueror. 

It was certain that with Mr. Free- 
man for editor, the essential element 
of illustrative maps would not be 
neglected; but his own, which are 
admirably selected, bear the palm. 
Athenaeum, 1887. 

Of man's miraculous mistakes, this 
bears the palm. YOUNG. 

TO GIVE THE PALM TO to ac- 

knowledge as superior. P. 

Having discussed the subject of 
nationality and love, Mr. Finch gives 
the palm without hesitation to 
American love. Literary World, 
August 25, 1887. 

PALM OIL money. P. So called 
because it "greases the palm." 

The enterprising sight -seer who 
proceeds ,on this plan, and who un- 



Pan 



178 



Parti 



derstands the virtue of "palm oil' 
and a calm demeanour, is sure to see 
everything he cares to see. C. DICK 
ENS, JUN., in Dictionary of London. 

Pan. To PAN our to result ; 
to appear in the consequences. 
S. American slang. 

She didn't pan out well. WM 
BLACK. 

To SAVOUR OF THE PAN. See 
SAVOUR. 

Pandora. PANDORA'S BOX 
a collection of evils. P. In 
the legend of Prometheus, 
Pandora (the all-gifted goddess) 
is said to have brought from 
heaven a box containing all 
human ills, which, the lid 
having been opened, escaped 
and spread over the world. 

Pandora's box was opened for him, 
and all the pains and griefs his im- 
agination had ever figured were 



abroad. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
Pap. PAP WITH A HATCHET 

kindness done in a very rough 
way. F. 

He means well, but his kindness is 
pap with a hatchet. 

Pa,pep. A PAPER LORD a lord 
of justiciary ; a judge bearing 
the title of lord. C. A Scot- 
tish phrase. 

A PAPER WAR a dispute carried 
on in writing. C. 

Pap. AT PAR neither above 
nor below the nominal value. 
P. 

He (George II.) gave Englishmen 
no conquests, but he gave them peace 
and ease and freedom, the three per 
cents, nearly at par, and wheat at 
five and six and twenty shillings the 
quarter. THACKERAY. 

Papi. PARI PASSU simultan- 
eously ; in a like degree. A 
Latin phrase. 

Again, assuming that English re- 
petition was taught in the lowest 
f o rm s, and some way up the school, 
should it be carried on pari passii 
with Latin up to the sixth ?- Journal 
oj Education, 1887. 

Parish. To COME UPON THE 

PARISH. See COME. 
Parsnip. FINE WORDS BUTTER 

NO PARSNIPS fair promises 



do not clothe or feed the per- 
sons to whom they are made. C, 
Who was the blundering idiot who 
said that fine words butter no pars- 
nips? Half the parsnips of society 
are served and rendered palatable 
with no other sauce. THACKERAY. 

Part. PART AND PARCEL an 
essential part ; what is in- 
separably bound up witk 
something else. P. 

"Well, Mr. Squeers," he said, wel- 
coming that worthy with his accus- 
tomed smile, of which a sharp look 
and a thoughtful frown were part 
and parcel, "how do you do?" 
DICKENS. 

The wretched Malone could not do 
worse, when he bribed the sexton of 
Stratford church to let him white- 
wash the painted effigy of old Shake- 
speare, which stood there, in rude 
but lively fashion depicted to the 
very colour of the cheek, the eye, the 
eyebrow, hair, the very dress he used 
to wear the only authentic testi- 
mony we had, however imperfect, of 
these curious parts and parcels of 
him. C. LAMB. 

OF PARTS able. P. 

The occasion was one which re- 
quired a man of experience and parts 
to hold the office. Edinburgh Re- 
view, 1886. 

The original Bingo had never been 
a dog of parts. F. ANSTEY. 

Papthian. A PARTHIAN SHAFT 
a last shot ; a parting mis- 
sile. P. The Parthians, it is 
said, were accustomed to shoot 
while retiring on horseback at 
full speed. 

Aunt Esther was right there, and 
that Parthian shaft she had let fly at 
a venture" I see that it is the poet 
who is the favourite "had also food 
for thought in it. JAMES PAYN. 

Her pupil rushed after her, giving 
upon her own account a Parthian 
glance of wrath and indignation 
around the circle as she did so. 
Murray's Magazine, 1887. 

Becky watched her marching off, 
with a smile upon her lip. She had 
the keenest sense of humour, and 
the Parthian look which the retreat- 
ing Mrs. O'Dowd flung over her 
shoulder almost upset Mrs. Craw- 
ley s gravity. THACKERAY. 

Papti. PARTI PRIS prejudice ; 

fondness for a cause already 

espoused. P. A French phrase. 

Still, after making allowance for 

parti pris, and for some lack of ex- 



Pass 



tended inquiry, the book is valuable. 
Athenaeum, 1887. 

Pass. To PASS BY to over- 
look ; to refrain from punish- 
ing ; to excuse. P. 

It conduces much to our content 
if we pass by those things which 
happen to our trouble. JEREMY 
TAYLOR. 

God may pass by single sinners in 
this world. TILLOTSON. 

To PASS MUSTER to bear ex- 
amination ; to be sufficiently 
good not to be rejected. C. 

There can be no serious objec- 
tion to such glove encounters as 
are common at public " assaults-al- 
arms," and even the exhibition given 
by J. L. Sullivan, the American 
champion, in the City Hall, Glasgow. 
on Monday evening, in presence of 
three thousand spectators, may pass 
muster. Si. Andreu-s Citizen, 1888. 

An intruder in the throng, a com- 
parative stranger and a secret spy, 

tion, if not absolutely, at least to a 
great extent. SARAH TYTLER. 
To PASS OFF (AS) (a) to secure 
acknowledgment or recogni- 
tion (as). P. 

They pass themselves off as an old 
married couple. JAMES PAYN. 

One of these passengers being a 
child still young enough to be passed 
off as a child in arms. H. CON WAY. 

(6) to cease ; to be discon- 
tinued. P. 

For a few nights there was a sneer 
or a laugh when he knelt down, but 
this passed off soon. T. HUGHES. 

(c) to dismiss from notice ; 

to let pass. P. 

Work-girls are horribly afraid of 
gentlemen, though they pass it off 
with cheek and chaff. BESANT. 

To PASS OVER to take no notice 
of ; to condone. P. 

One could see she was vain, and 
forgive it she had a right to be 
vain: that she was a coquette, and 
pass it over her coquettishness gave 
piquancy to her beauty. S. BARING- 
GOULD. 

TO COME TO A PRETTY PASS to 

be in a bad state. C. 

Things are coming to a pretty pass 
when you take me to task for not 
being in earnest. 

. A PASSAGE OF ARMS 

dispute ; ' a quarrel real or 
playful. P. 



179 Patrimony 

As for Mrs. A. and Mrs. B., it 
seemed as if they were unable to en- 
counter one another without a pas- 
sage of arms. Good Words, 1887. 

Passing 1 . PASSING RICH very 
wealthy. P. Passing is fre- 
quently used as an intensive 
by Shakespeare. 
A man he was to all the country 

dear, 

And passing rich on forty pounds a 
year. GOLDSMITH. 

A PAST-MASTER a thoroughly 
experienced person ; an " old 
hand." P. 

If you are ambitious of excelling in 
that line, you had better take a few 
lessons from your friend Monckton, 
who is past-master in the art of 
humbugging his audiences. W . E. 
NORRIS. 

Pat. A PAT, PADDY, or PADDY 
WHACK an Irishman. F. 
Abridged from Patrick, patron 
saint of Ireland. Patrick is 
very commonly used as a 
Christian name in Ireland. In 
the United States Mick (a 
contraction of Michael) is 
used for Irishmen, and Biddy 
(from Bridget) for Irish- 
women. 

Here's fun ! let the Pats have it 
about their ears. T. HUGHES. 
I'm Paddy Whack, from Ballyhack, 

Not long ago turned soldier. 

Popular Song. 

Patch. NOT TO BE A PATCH 

ON ANOTHER PERSON to be 

in no way comparable to him. 
F. 

He is not a patch on you for looks 
(much inferior to you in personal 
appearance). -C. READE. 

TO PATCH UP A RECONCILIATION 

to return, but only in ap- 
pearance, to a formerly friendly 
footing ; to make a tempo- 
rary truce. P. 

" It was perturbing, assuredly, and 
it might have served, if Linda hadn't 
written ; that patched it up," I said, 
laughing. H. JAMES, JUN., in Har- 
per's Monthly, February 1888. 

Patrimony. THE PATRIMONY 
OF ST. PETER the states of 
the Church ; the land for- 
merly subject to the Pope. P. 



Patter 



Patter. To PATTER FLASH 
to talk thieves' language. S. 

Paul. PAUL PRY an inquisi- 
tive person. C. 

He (Boswell) was a slave proud of 
his servility ; a Paul Pry convinced 
that his own curiosity and garrulity 
were virtues. MACAULAY. 

Pave. To PAVE THE WAY to 
make ready ; to prepare the 
way ; to facilitate the intro- 
duction of. P. 

Her triumph, though, was short- 
lived, and but paved the way i to 
Lord Lytton's final expedient. West- 
minster Review, December 1887. 

Pay. To PAY OUT to have 
satisfaction or revenge from. 
F. 

"Did you see what the brigands did 
to a fellow they caught in Greece 
the other day for whom they wanted 
ransom? First they sent his ear to 
his friends, then his nose, then his 
foot, and last of all his head. Well, 
dear Anne, that is just how I am 
going to pay you out." H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

To PAY COURT to show flatter- 
ing attentions. P. 
* The very circumstance of his hav- 
ing paid no court to her at first 
operated in his favour. MARIA 
EDGE WORTH. 

TO PAY THE DEBT OF NATURE 

to die. P. 

Coleridge is just dead, having lived 
just long enough to close the eyes of 
Wordsworth, who paid the debt of 
nature but a week or two before. 
C. LAMB. 

To PAY ONE'S WAY to pay one's 
daily expenses without going 
into debt ; to meet one's obli- 
gations ; to live free of debt. P. 
But it may be said, as a rule, that 
every Englishman in the Duke of 
Wellington's army paid his way. 
THACKERAY. 

British merchant will have to 
a great many pounds of sugar 
yards of calico before he can 
ive earned enough to pay his way. 
-Spectator, 1887. 

To PAY THE PIPER. See PIPER. 
THE DEVIL TO PAY a severe 
penalty ; very serious con- 
sequences. F. 

"I must go home, else I shall be 
locked out.' 
"There would be the devil to pay 



180 Pearls 

then," says Dick, standing up too 
and stretching like a big Newfound- 
land. RHODA BROUGHTON. 
TO PAY THROUGH THE NOSE to 

pay an absurdly high price. C. 
Although that crafty and rapa- 
cious slave-dealer would have made 
him pay through the nose for his 
treasure, knowing the physician to 
be a man of great wealth, he forbore 
in very shame from his extortion. 
G. A. SALA. 

Peace. To KEEP THE PEACE 
a legal phrase, signifying " to 
refrain from causing a dis- 
turbance." A man who has 
been guilty of an offence for 
instance, a man who has 
threatened another with viol- 
ence is " bound over to keep 
the peace " for a certain 
period under heavy penalties. 

BOUND OVER TO THE PEACE 
obliged to be well - behaved ; 
under severe penalties in case 
of misbehaviour. P. 

Mr. Layard, once a daring and 
somewhat reckless opponent of 
government and governments, had 
been bound over to the peace, 
quietly enmeshed in the discipline 
of subordinate office. --J. M'CARTHY. 

To HOLD ONE'S PEACE to keep 
quiet ; to be silent. P. 
She said, and held her peace : _35neas 

went 
Sad from the cave. DRYDEN. 

PEACE AT ANY PRICE the name 
given to a party of politicians 
in the English Parliament 
who object to war under all 
conditions. P. 

The well-educated, thoughtful 
middle-class, who knew how much 
of worldly happiness depends on a 
regular income, moderate taxation, 
and a comfortable home, supplied 
most of the advocates of peace, as it 
was scornfully said, at any price. J. 
M'CARTHY. 

Pearls. To CAST PEARLS BE- 
FORE SWINE to give what is 
precious to those who are un- 
able to understand its value. 
P. A Biblical phrase. 

Through him the captain offered 
them fifteen dollars a month, and 
one month's pay in advance, but it 
was like throwing pearls before 
swine. R. H. DANA. 



Pecker 



181 



Pepper 



Pecker. ONE'S PECKER one's 

nose. S. 
To KEEP UP ONE'S PECKER to 

be cheerful ; to keep in good 

spirits. S. 
Keep up your pecker.man; you will 

be all right to-morrow. C. READE. 
To PUT UP ANOTHER'S PECKER 

to irritate or displease him. S. 
He thinks he can do what he likes 

with me. I am not quite sure of 

that, if he puts up my pecker. 

Peep. PEEP OF DAY the first 
appearance of day. P. 
He came at peep of day. 

Peepers. To CLOSE ONE'S 
PEEPERS to shut one's eyes. 
S. 

The next question was how long 
they should wait to let the inmates 
close their peepers. C. READE. 

Peg. A PEG a drink of 
brandy and water. S. An 
Eastern phrase. The full ex- 
pression is " a peg in one's 
coffin," from the deadly effects 
of drink on Europeans in East- 
ern countries. 

Allow me to mix you a peg; it will 
enable you to take a more generous 
view of the matter. 

To PEG AWAY to persevere. S. 
" Peg away, Bob," said Mr. Allen 
to his companion, encouragingly. 
DICKENS. 

TO TAKE ONE DOWN A PEG to 

lower a person's pretensions ; 
to humiliate him. F. 

The brilliant young athlete wanted 
taking down a peg. Literary World, 
1S82. 

TO COME DOWN A PEG to be 

lowered or humiliated. F. 

Well, he has come down a peg or 
two, that's all, and he don't like it. 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

Pell. PELL MELL in confu- 
sion ; heaped in disorder one 
upon the other. P. 

The great force crumples up like 
an empty glove, then turns and 
gallops pell mell for safety to its 
own lines. H. R. HAGGARD. 

Penny. A PRETTY PENNY a 
large sum ; much money. F. 

The owner had spent what he was 
wont to term playfully a pretty 
penny on his books. GEORGE ELIOT. 



A PENNY-DREADFUL the name 
given to newspapers devoted 
to the publication of accounts 
of murders, outrages, and such 
sensational news. F. 

" You fiend in human form, what 
is it, I wonder, that has kept me so 
long from destroying you and my- 
self too? Oh, you need not laugh! 
I have the means to do it if I choose. 
I have had them for twenty years." 

George laughed again hoarsely. 
"Quite penny-dreadful, I declare" 
(you speak, I assure you, in the style 
of a cheap sensational newspaper). 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

Of all these there is more than 
an abundant supply always ready, 
in what may, for want of a better 
title, be called the penny-dreadfuls. 
Edinburgh Review, 1887. 
A PENNY FOR YOUR THOUGHTS - 

a playful remark made to 
one who seems immersed in 
thought. C. The full ex- 
pression would be, " I'll give 
you a penny if you'll tell me 
your thoughts." 

Judy looked a little bit puzzled at 
this. " A penny for your thoughts, 
Judy, "says my sister. MARIAEDGE- 
WORTH. 

PENNY WISE AND POUND FOOL- 
ISH careful about small pro- 
fits or savings, and foolishly 
blind to larger and more im- 
portant gains. F. 

He (the king) engaged her (the 
elephant) to perform gratis in the 
Champs Elysees during the three 
days' fete. Fifteen hundred francs 



for this. 
H 



uguet was penny wise and 
oolish to agree, for it took 
s off showed her gratis to 



But 

pound f 
her gloss 

half the city. C. READE. 
To TURN A PENNY. See TURN. 

TO THINK ONE'S PENNY SILVER - 

to have a good opinion of one- 
self. F. 

PENNY GAFFS cheap places of 
entertainment. C. 

Penny gaffs have a dozen audiences 
every night. Contemporary Review, 
1887. 

Pepper. PEPPER-AND-SALT 
a term applied to a kind of 
cloth of mingled black and 
white. C. 

One was a low-spirited gentleman 
of middle age, of a meagre habit, 



Per 



and a disconsolate face, who kept 
his hands continually in the pockets 
of his scanty pepper - and - salt 
trousers. DICKENS. 
TO TAKE PEPPER IN THE NOSE 

to become irritated. F. Old- 
fashioned. 

Because I entertained this gentle- 
man for my ancient (standard- 
bearer), he takes pepper in the nose. 
CHAPMAN. 

A PEPPERCORN RENT an in- 
significant or nominal rent. 

An admirable plan! but we will 
take the houses first at a pepper- 
corn rent. BEACONSFIELD. 

Pep. Per annum yearly. 

PER SALTUM at a bound. P. 
Latin. 

They imagined that, with the at- 
tainment of her political freedom, 
Italy ought per saltum to have re- 
gained her place among the nations. 
Spectator, January 14, 1888. 

PER SE in itself ; apart from 
other considerations. P. Latin. 
He is always per se the duke. 
HUGH CONWAY. 

Pepch. To TIP OVER THE 
PERCH to die. F. 

Either through negligence, or want 
of ordinary sustenance, they both 
tipped over the perch. URQUHART. 

Person. IN PERSON not 
through a deputy ; with 
bodily presence. P. 
It is his highness' pleasure that the 

queen 
Appear in person here in court. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

The curt reply brought the earl 
in person to Becky's apartment. 
THACKERAY. 

Pet. TO TAKE THE PET to be 

needlessly offended ; to sulk. 
F. 

You got into trouble, and when 
your father, honest man, was dis- 
appointed, you took the pet or got 
afraid, and ran away from punish- 
ment. R. L. STEVENSON. 

Petapd. HOIST WITH ONE'S 
PETARD. See HOIST. 

Petep. ROBBING PETER TO 
PAY PAUL. See ROB. 

PETER FUNK an auction where 
the bidders have a secret 
understanding. See KNOCK - 



182 Philip 

our. S. " Peter Funk " is 
the American term. 
To PETER OUT to cease to pro- 
duce ; to fail ; to come to an 

end by degrees. S. 

It is said his Pennsylvania monop- 
oly has petered out, and he is now 
obliged to get his supply from 
Canada. The Nation, 1890. 

Petticoat. PETTICOAT GOV- 
ERNMENT the rule of women. 
F. 

This afforded fresh subject of deri- 
sion to those who scorned petticoat 
government. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

IN PETTICOATS (a) still a child ; 
still in the nursery. P. 

An infant freethinker, a baby 
philosopher, a scholar in petticoats 
a man, when he grew up, who knew 
almost everything except himself (J. 
S. Mill). MRS. OLIPHANT. 

(&) of the female sex ; in 

the form of a woman. C. 
Opposed to " in trousers." 

"But she is false, covetous, mali- 
cious, cruel, and dishonest "what a 
friend in petticoats ! A. TROLLOPE. 

He never knew when Jane might 
not make some extravagant display 
of the student or professor in petti- 
coats. SARAH TYTLER. 

Petto. IN PETTO in secrecy; 
in reserve. P. 

Whatever else they might hold 
undeclared in petto. NORTH. 

Philadelphia. A PHILADEL- 
PHIA LAWYER the sharpest 
man living. C. " Enough to 
puzzle a Philadelphia lawyer " 
is a phrase used with refer- 
ence to some very perplexing 
matter. 

Philip. TO APPEAL FROM 

PHILIP DRUNK TO PHILIP SOBER 
to ask for a reconsidera- 
tion of any case because the 
first decision was given with- 
out due gravity, the arbiter be- 
ing under some engrossing in- 
fluence. C. 

If they had any fault to find, let 
them go to her, which was not even 

[>peanng from Philip drunk to 
'"ip sober, but from the lioness in 



BffiL. 

the jungle to the lioness in the cave. 
MRS. E. 



LYNN LINTON. 



Philosopher 



183 



Piece 



Philosopher. THE PHILOSO- 
PHER'S STONE an imaginary 
stone, sought after by alche- 
mists, which had the prop- 
erty of transmuting every- 
thing it touched into gold. P. 

That stone 
Philosophers in vain so long have 

sought. MILTON. 

There are a great many places of 
worship about Whitechapel, and 
many forms of creed, from the Bap- 
tist to the man with the biretta, and 
it would be difficult to select one 
which is more confident than an- 
other of possessing the real philos- 
opher's stone, the thing for which 
we are always searching, the whole 
truth. BESANT. 

Pick. TO PICK A QUARREL to 

search for an occasion to quar- 
rel. P. 

At last Dennis could stand it no 
longer; he picked a quarrel with 
Fritz, and they had a battle-royal to 
prove which was master. M. 
ARNOLD. 

To PICK HOLES to find fault ; 
to criticize. C. 

"Hang the fellow," murmured Mr. 
Erin to nimself, "he's beginning to 
pick holes already." JAMES PAYN. 
" That means that you have been 
trying to pick holes in him, and that 
you can't," returned Mrs. Lindsay, a 
little defiantly. W. E. NORRIS. 

TO PICK A BONE WITH ONE to 

find fault with him ; to blame 
him. C. 

Just look at my nose, and you will 
soon change your mind. It's broader, 
and flatter, and snubbier than ever. 
I consider that I have got a bone to 
pick with (reason to find fault with) 
Providence about that nose. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

To PICK UP (a) to obtain in a 
chance way. C. 

He asked his friends about him, 
where they had picked up such a 
blockhead. ADDISON. 

The young man, at least, thought 
his manner of looking an offence to 
Miss Miller : it conveyed an imputa- 
tion that she "picked up" acquaint- 
ances. H. JAMES, JUN. 
(&) to grow stronger ; to re- 
cover health. C. 

After he had eaten a little and had 
a swallow or two more of the brandy, 
he began to pick up visibly, sat 
straighter up, spoke louder and 
clearer, and looked in every way 
another man. R. L. STEVENSON. 



A PICK-ME-UP anything taken 
to restore the strength ; a 
tonic. F. 

I find the syrup you gave me a 
capital pick-me-up. 

To PICK OFF to kill separately ; 
to shoot one by one. P. 

He (the war correspondent) now 
marches with the van, goes out with 
the forlorn hope, sits down in the 
thick of the fight with his notebook, 
and takes ten men's share of the 
bullets. Consequently he sometimes 
gets picked off. BESANT. 

To PICK TO PIECES to criticize 
harshly ; to find fault with in 
a jealous fashion. F. 

The ladies were drinking tea, and 
picking their neighbours to pieces. 

TO PICK A HOLE IN A MAN'S COAT 

to find fault with him ; to 
find a weak place in his char- 
acter. F. 

It is difficult to pick a hole in our 
minister's coat; he performs his 
duties too faithfully. 

THE PICK OF THE BASKET the 
very best of anything. C. 

It cannot be pretended that we 
have thus far succeeded in obtain- 
ing the pick of the basket. Dail y 
Telegraph, 1885. 

Piekle. To HAVE A ROD IN 

PICKLE FOR ANY ONE to have 

a punishment in store for any 
one. F. 

I have a rod in pickle for Tom 
when he returns home. 

Pickwickian. IN A PICK- 
WICKIAN SENSE in a merely 
technical sense, not applicable 
elsewhere. P. A phrase taken 
from Dickens's Pickwick Pa- 
pers : " He had used the 
word in its Pickwickian sense." 

Pie. To GO TO PIE to fall in- 
to confusion. P. 

Your military ranked arrange- 
ments going all (as the typographers 
say of set types in a similar case) 
rapidly to pie. CARL YLE. 

Piece. To GIVE ANOTHER A 
PIECE OF ONE'S MIND to 
speak bluntly and uncere- 
moniously to him ; to tell him 
unpleasant truths. C. 

On the doorstep of the house where 
Hilda lodged stood her landlady, 



Piece 

giving a piece of her mind to a 
butcher-boy, both as regarded his 



master's meat and his personal 
qualities. H. R. HAGGARD. 
OF A PIECE WITH similar to ; 

Scarcely any other part of his life 
was of a piece with that splendid 
commencement. MACAULAY. 

To PIECE OUT (a) to increase 
in length. P. 

Whether the piecing out of an old 
man's life is worth the pains, I can- 
not tell.-SiR W. TEMPLE. 

(&) to arrange from scattered 

materials; to put together so 
as to form a whole. P. 

Piece out my history in connec- 
tion with young Walter Gay, and 
what he has made me feel; and 
think of me more leniently, James, 
if you can. DICKENS. 

PIECEWORK work done and paid 
for by each separate article 
made or job finished, and not 
by the day or the hour. P. 

Nothing could be a more noble 
spectacle than that of myself work- 
ing at a lathe for nothing in the 
old days : would it be quite as noble 
at the brewery doing piecework? 
BESANT. 

Piece. PIECE DE RESISTANCE 
the principal dish at a ban- 
quet ; the chief article. C. 
French. 

The rough fare "of the ship's crew, 
of which the piece de resistance was 
the hardest of Dutch cheese. It. 
BUCHANAN. 

Pied. "A PIED A TERRE a 
place where one can alight ; 
a convenient house of one's 
own. P. French. 

Mr. Harding, however, did not 
allow himself to be talked over into 
giving up his own and only pied a 
terre in the High Street. A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

Pig. A PIG IN A POKE some- 
thing bought without inspec- 
tion ; goods accepted and 
paid for blindly. F. 
He would have greatly preferred 



184 Pill 

A PIG'S WHISPER (a) a very 
loud whisper. S. 
(6) a very short space of 
time. S. 

TO DRIVE ONE'S PIGS TO MARKET 

to snore. F. 

To BRING ONE'S PIGS TO A PRETTY 
MARKET to sell at a loss ; to 
manage one's affairs badly. F. 



was better than being asked to give 
hard cash for a pig.in.a poke. JAMES 

i AYN. 



He never could have brought his 
pigs to a worse market," observed 
Sawbridge. CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 

TO GO TO PIGS AND WHISTLES 

to be dissipated ; to go to 
utter ruin. F. 

" Do you know what has happened 
in your absence?" 

Lambert nodded. " That the con- 
cern has gone to pigs and whistles," 
he said defiantly. SARAH TYTLER. 

Pigeon. PIGEON or PIDGIN 
ENGLISH the corrupt lan- 
guage, half English and half 
Chinese, used in commercial 
transactions throughout the 
Far East. P. 

The grammar of pidgin English is 
not English but Chinese. SAYCE. 

To PLUCK A PIGEON to cheat a 
simpleton ; to fleece a green- 
horn. P. 

" Here comes a nice pigeon to 
pluck," said one of the thieves. 
C. EEADE. 

PIGEON'S MILK an imaginary 
substance, which simple boys 
are sent to purchase on All 
Fools' Day (April 1). 

Pile. TO MAKE A PILE to 

realize a fortune ; to get 
wealthy. F. 

On the other hand, if the old man 
should only go on for another year 
or two he would make that little 
pile, and a very comfortable little 
pile it would be. BESANT. 

Pill. To GILD THE PILL. See 
GILD. 

TO SUGAR THE PILL. See SUGAR. 

A BITTER Or HARD PILL TO SWAL- 
LOW a disagreeable experi- 
ence to undergo ; something 
wounding to the pride. C. 

Sir Hamilton could" not help re- 
cognizing the truth of this observa- 
tion, but Metternich made him 



Pillar 

swallow another bitter pill (listen to 
another disagreeable truth). Public 
Opinion, 1886. 

Pillar. FROM PILLAR TO POST 
from one refuge to another ; 
hither and thither. P. 

I'm afraid we shall be pretty well 
knocked about from pillar to post 
during the next month. FLORENCE 
MARKYAT. 

Pin. PINS AND NEEDLES the 
tingling sensation in a limb 
which has been benumbed. C. 
A man may tremble, stammer, and 
show other signs of recovered sensi- 
bility no more in the range of his 
acquired talents than pins and 
needles after numbness. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

ON THE PIN watchful. F. 

He was on the pin to see who 
should be chosen. 

To PIN ONE'S FAITH to fix one's 
trust. C. 

Those who pinned their faith for 
better or for worse to the pack. 
Field, 1885. 

PIN MONEY money granted to a 
wife for her small personal ex- 
penses. P. Pins formerly were 
costly, and formed a consider- 
able share of such expenditure. 
The day that Miss Rayne becomes 
Lady Coombe I will settle a thousand 
a year on her for her private use, 
and she'll be independent, and have 
as much pin money as she'll know 
how to do with. FLORENCE MAR- 
RYAT. 

Pinch. AT or ON A PINCH in 
a difficulty. P. 

They at a pinch can bribe a vote. 
SWIFT. 

Instead of writing, as on a pinch 
he loved to write, straight on from 
his somewhat late and lazy break- 
fast until the moment of dinner 
found him hungry and complacent, 
with a heavy task successfully per- 
formed, he was condemned, for the 
first time in his life, to the detested 
necessity of breaking the labours of 
the day by luncheon. TREVELYAN, 
in Life of Macaulay. 

TO PEEL WHERE THE SHOE 

PINCHES. See SHOE. 
Pink. A PINK COAT the dress 
worn by huntsmen in Eng- 
land. C. 

But he absented himself from 
home on the occasion of every meet 
at Ullathorne, left the covers to their 



185 Pitch 

fate, and could not be persuaded to 
take his pink coat out of the press, 
or his hunters out of the stable. - 
A. TROLLOPE. 

He (the actual French dandy) has 
a wondrous respect for English 
"gentlemen sportsmen;" he imi- 
tates their clubs sports his pink 
out hunting. THACKERAY. 

Pipe. To PIPE ONE'S EYE to 
weep. S. 

He then began to eye his pipe, 
And then to pipe his eye. HOOD. 

To PUT A PERSON'S PIPE OUT to 
disappoint his plans. 

James Crawley's pipe is put out. 
THACKERAY. 

He couldn't think of putting the 
squire's pipe out after that fasnion. 
HALIBURTON. 

PUT THAT IN YOUR PIPE AND 

SMOKE IT listen to that remark 
and think over it. F. This 
saying generally accompanies 
a rebuke. 

"And always put this in your 
pipe, Nolly," said the Dodger, as the 
Jew was heard unlocking the door 
above, "if you don't take fogies and 
tickers." DICKENS. 

PipCP. TO PAY THE PIPER 

to defray the cost of an enter- 
tainment. F. 

"Ay, races and balls, fine clothes 
and line eating, them's the ways of 
the gentlefolks, and we pay the 
piper, growled a humble cynic. 
SARAH TYTLER. 

PIPERS' NEWS stale news. F. 

Pis. A PIS ALLER a desperate 
resource ; a last shift. P. 
French. 

I have no idea of becoming a pis 
alter if this hare-brained peer should 
change his mind. G. J. WEYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

Pitch. TO PITCH AND PAY 

to pay ready money. Old- 
fashioned. 

To PITCH A YARN to tell a won- 
derful story. S. 
The skipper is in great glee to-night ; 
he pitches his yarns with gusto. 
Chambers's Journal, 18S5. 

To PITCH IN or INTO to attack 
vigorously. F. Used either 
of actual blows or abusive lan- 
guage. 

That curious fancy for pitching in 
at people they only half disapprove 



Pitchers 



186 



Play 



which marks a certain kind of 
English audience-or, indeed, every 
kind, if the pitching is only improved 
into "invective," and becomes an 



ornament of debate "-is deeply 
gratified by Mr. 
tator, 1887. 

"I 
sir?' 



r. Labouchere. Spec- 



Bui if 'he should pitch into you, 



Then he will pitch into a man 
twice as strong as himself." 



C. READE 
"Dear 



to pitch 
mr pite- 



Tom, I ain't 
into (scold) you," 
ously. T. HUGHES. 

To PITCH IT STRONG to act or 
speak very warmly. F. 

I wonder he did not overdo it then, 
he pitched it so strong. Daily Tele- 
graph, 1886. 

Pitchers. PITCHERS HAVE 
EARS there are listeners who 
may hear. C. A proverbial 
expression. Also, " Little 
pitchers have long ears "- 
young persons are quick of 
hearing. 

Pitchers have ears, and I have many 
servants. SHAK ESPEARE. 
The child might be somehow mis- 
taken, or the old woman might have 
misread the address. But that was 
unlikely ; and if it had been so, surely 
Miss Gray, knowing that little 
pitchers have ears, would have cor- 
rected the mistake. SARAH TYTLER. 

Place. OUT OF PLACE un- 
suitable. P. 

The words were colourless in them- 
selves, but there was a hard, un- 
friendly, and superior tone in them 
rather out of place in a house where 
she was a guest. C. READE. 
GIVE PLACE yield ; retire. P. 
Victorious York did first, with famed 

success, 
To his known valour, make the Dutch 

give place. DRYDEN. 
The rustic honours of the scythe and 

share 
Give place to swords and plumes, the 

pride of war. DRYDEN. 
To GIVE PLACE TO to make 
room for. 

Dr. Swift is turned out of his stall 
and deanery-house at St. Patrick's 
to give place to Father Dominic 
from Salamanca. THACKERAY. 
To TAKE PLACE (a) to happen. 

It is stupidly foolish to venture 
our salvation upon an experiment, 
which we have all the reason imagin- 
able to think God will not suffer to 
take place. ATTERBURY. 



(&) to take precedence. P. 

As a British freeholder, I should 
not scruple taking place of a French 
marquis. ADDISON. 
IN PLACE (a) present. Old- 
fashioned. 

Then was she fair alone, when none 
was fair in place. 

EDMUND SPENSER. 

(&) suitable ; appropriate. P. 

He did not think the remark in 
place. 

Plaguy. A PLAGUY SIGHT 
very much ; exceedingly. S. 

The lawyers looked like so many 
ministers, all dressed in black gowns 
and white bands on, only they acted 
more like players than preachers, a 
plaguy sight (very much more). 
HALIBURTON. 

Plain. PLAIN AS A PIKE-STAFF 
very plain or evident. C. 

" Prune it of a few useless rights 
and literal interpretations 9f that 
sort, and our religion is the simplest 
of all religions, and makes no barrier, 
but a union, between us and the rest 
of the world." 

" Plain as a pike-staff" (that is very 
evident), said Pack, with an ironical 
laugh. GEORGE ELIOT. 
PLAIN WORK sewing that is not 
ornamental. P. 

They understand their needle, 
broadstitch, and all manner of plain 
work. GOLDSMITH. 

She does beefsteaks and plain 
work. TH ACK ERA Y. 
Plank. To WALK THE PLANK. 

See WALK. 

Platonic. PLATONIC LOVE 
love with no mixture of sexual 
passion. P. 

There are not many men who could 
have observed Mrs. Lecount entirely 
from the Platonic point of view. 
WILKIE COLLINS. 

Play. TO PLAY THE DEVIL, 
DEUCE, Or MISCHIEF WITH to 

injure ; to hurt seriously. P. 

In short, in your own memor- 
able words, to play the very devil 
with everything and everybody. 
DICKENS. 

The master-gunner and his mates, 
loading with a rapidity the mixed 
races could not rival, hulled the 
schooner well between wind and 
water, and then fired chain shot at 
her masts, as ordered, and began to 
play the mischief with her shrouds 
and rigging. C. READE. 



Play 

To BRING INTO PLAT to give an 
opportunity for the exercise 
of. P. 

The very incongruity of their rela- 
tive relations brought into play all 
his genius. A. AINGER. 

To PLAT ONE FALSE to deceive 
one. P. 

"Now, look you here, Anne," said 
George in a sort of hiss, and standing 
over ner in a threatening attitude, 
"I have suspected for some time 
that you were playing me false in 

;his business, and now I am sure of 

t." H. JR. HAGGARD. 

TO PLAT FAST AND LOOSE. See 

FAST. 

To PLAT ONE'S CARDS to carry 
out a scheme. C. 

We have seen how Mrs. Bute, 
having the game in her hands, had 
really played her cards too well. 
THACKERAY. 



th 
it. 



TO PLAT INTO A PERSON'S HANDS 

to act for the benefit of an- 
other person ; to manage mat- 
ters so that, unknowingly, an- 
other person, often an enemy, 
is benefited. P. 

This is simply playing into the 
hands of lazy ne'er-do-weels (good- 
for-nothings). Observer, 1885. 

To PLAT TRUANT to stay from 
school without leave ; to ab- 
sent oneself without leave. P. 
Properly a school phrase ; else- 
where used playfully. 

"What!" said George, who was. 
when in an amiable mood, that worst 
of all cads, a jocose cad, "are you 
going to play truant (go off without 
permission) too, my pretty cousin?" 

H. R. HAGGARD. 

TO PLAT ONE PERSON OFF AGAINST 
ANOTHER - tO US6 two people 

for one's own purposes ; to 
make two people act upon each 
other so as to bring about a 
desired result. P. 

On the occasion referred to the 
quick-witted old crone saw her chance 
in a moment, and commenced to play 
off one of her visitors against the 
other with consummate skill. A. 
JESSOPP. 

To MAKE PLAT to take the lead ; 
to lead off. F. A phrase taken 
from the race-course. 



187 Please 

Gray Parrot made play with Duke 
of Richmond and Florio next. Daily 
Telegraph, 1885. 

PLAYED OUT of no further ser- 
vice ; exhausted ; bereft of 
force. P. 

There is a popular impression, 
amongst the vulgar of this country 
and of America, that the part of 
sovereign has been long since played 
out. Westminster Review, 1887. 

From some reason or another ex- 
aminations were rather played out 
(rejected as of little value). Daily 
Telegraph, 1885. 
TO PLAT THE R6LE OF to act 

the part of ; to behave as. 
P. A theatrical phrase. 

The fire in the cave wais an unusu- 
ally big one that night, and in a large 
circle round it were gathered about 
thirty -five men and two women, 
TJstane and the woman to avoid 
whom Job had played the role of an- 
other scriptural character. H. II. 
HAGGARD. 

To PLAT ONE TRICKS to cheat 
or deceive ; to be untrust- 
worthy. F. Used playfully. 

He was now an old man, but active 
still and talkative. His memory 
played him tricks (was untrust- 
worthy). BESANT. 

To PLAT A PART to be deceitful ; 
to be double-faced ; to dis- 
simulate. P. 

"I really am much obliged to you, 
my aunt/ said John, utterly astoif- 
ished to find that she possessed a 
heart at all, and had been more or 



less playing a part all the evening. 
H. E. HA 



To 



LAGGARD. 
PLAT UP TO 



ANOTHER tO 

accommodate oneself to an- 
other's peculiarities so as to 
gain some advantage. F. 

There is your playing up toady, 
who, unconscious to its feeder, is 
always playing up to its feeder's 
weaknesses. BEACONSFIELD. 
CHILD'S PLAT easy work. P. 

The work of reformation is child s 
play to that of making your friends 
believe you have reformed. HUGH 
CONWAY. 

Please. PLEASE THE PIGS 
if all be well. F. 

"Please the pigs." then said Mr. 
Avenel to himself, "I shall pop the 
question. "-BULWER LYTTON. 

"And," he observed to himself, 
as he watched his friend retreating 
to his bedroom, and took his own 



Plough 188 

candle, "once back to London, I'll 
speak to the doctor, and, please the 
pigs, you shall marry Kate before 
you're six months older.' 'Mistletoe 
'Bough, 1886. 

IF YOU PLEASE. See IF. 

PLEASED AS PUNCH highly 
pleased. F. 

Old Staines is as pleased as Punch. 
\V. E. NORRIS. 

You could skip over to Europe 
whenever you wished. Mamma 
would be as pleased as Punch. 
R. GRANT. 

Plough. To PUT ONE'S HAND 
TO THE PLOUGH to commence 
serious work ; to undertake 
important duties. P. A 
Biblical phrase. " And Jesus 
said unto him. No man, hav- 
ing put his hand to the plough, 
and looking back, is fit for 
the kingdom of God " (Luke 
ix. 62). 

To have been the first publicly to 
proclaim this principle is no mean 
boast : and now that they have put 
their hand to the plough, the pre 



L11C11 llCtllll l/\J bllC MJ.WU.fi."* uii^y i/A<^- 

ceptors will certainly not look back. 
Journal of Education, 1887. 

TO LOOK BACK FROM THE PLOUGH 

to abandon work that has 
been seriously undertaken. P. 

TO BE PLOUGHED to fail to 

pass an examination. College 
slang. Plucked is also used. 

I am sure to be ploughed at the 
final examination. 

Pluck. TO PLUCK UP COURAGE 

or ONE'S HEART or ONE'S 
SPIRITS to regain confidence ; 
to throw fear aside. C. 

He willed them to pluck up their 
hearts. KNOLLYS. 

Pluck up thy spirits. SHAKE- 
SPEARE. 

Carlo sat and whimpered, and then 
wagged his tail, and plucked up more 
and more spirit. C. RKADE. 
To PLUCK OFF to descend in rank 
or title ; to lower oneself. C. 
Plume. To PLUME ONESELF 
UPON to be proud of ; to 
boast regarding. P. 

The idea of a man pluming himself 
on his virtue. 

Nay. very like 
thought her act 
ous, and plumed herself upon her 



Pocket 

resolute manner of performing it. 
THACKERAY. 

BORROWED PLUMES ornaments 
which do not belong to the 
wearer. P. 



1 1 know some people do not care 
to appear in borrowed plumes,' the 
elder woman went on. SARAH 
TYTLER. 

Pocket. To PUT ONE'S HAND 
IN ONE'S POCKET to be chari- 
table ; to give money in char- 
ity. C. 

I daresay Dr. Goodenough, amongst 
other philanthropists, put his hand 
in his pocket. GEORGE ELIOT. 

To PUT ONE'S PRIDE IN ONE'S 
POCKET to lay aside one's 
pride for the time being ; to 
be humble for the moment. C. 
If Miss Blanche should ask you 
how we are getting on, Rachel, put 
your pride in your pocket, mind 



that. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 
To BE IN POCKET to be a 
gainer. F. 

Yet I'm none the better for it in 
pocket. DICKENS. 



TO BE OUT OF POCKET - to lose ; 

to be a loser. F. 
Mephistopheles, either because he 



was a more philosophic spirit, or was 

ne out of p 

ey), 
coolly. C. READE. 



not the one out o 
lost money), took 



poc 
the 



e blow more 



. . . 

All idea of a peerage was out of the 
question, the baronet s two seats in 
Parliament being lost. He was both 
out of pocket and out of spirits by 
that catastrophe. THACKERAY. 
A POCKET BOROUGH a borough 
where the electors are so few 
in number that a single power- 
ful personage could control 
elections and send his own 
nominee to Parliament. P. 

In the autumn of 1834 he (Disraeli) 
is full of his possible return for 
Wycombe, which was practically a 
pocket borough. Edinburgh Review, 
1880. 

To POCKET AN INSULT to submit 

to an insult without retaliat- 

ing or showing displeasure. P. 

The remark was a rude one, but the 

man chose to pocket the insult. 

Shakespeare uses pocket up in 
this sense, 

Well, ruffian, I must pocket up these 
wrongs. 



Point 



189 



Poor 



To POCKET DIBS to receive 
salary or profits. S. 

"What gives a man position," said 
Tommy, is to make other ^<*""*" 



do the work and to pocket the dibs 
yourself." BESANT. 

Note. Beggars is here merely a 
slang term for " people," "men." 

A POCKET-PISTOL a jocular name 
for a flask to carry liquor. F. 
Coming from Newman Noggs, and 
obscured still further by the smoke 
of his pocket-pistol (his tipsy con- 
dition), it became wholly unin- 
telligible, and involved in utter dark- 
ness. DICKENS. 

Point. TO MAKE A POINT OF 

to be very careful about ; 
to take care not to omit. P. 

When his sisterwentout to market 
he made a point of waiting for 
Sophy's comingdown to the drawing- 
room. JAMES PAYN. 
To STRETCH A POINT to make 
an exception ; to observe a 
rule less strictly. P. 

Oh, I suppose I shall have to stretch 
a point when I invite people to my 
house. JAMES PAYN. 
POINT BLANK directly ; plainly ; 
explicitly. P. 

Praise everybody, I say to such. 
Never be squeamish, but speak out 
your compliment both point blank 
in a man's face and behind his back, 
when you know there is a reason- 
able chance of his hearing it again. 
THACKERAY. 

So she refused you, Uppy refused 
you point blank, did she? G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 
To CARRY ONE'S POINT to ob- 
tain an object sought for ; 
to persuade others to act as 
you -wish. P. 

Lady Clonbrony was particularly 
glad that she had carried her point 
about thisparty at Lady St. James's. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

TO POINT A MORAL to give 

force to a moral precept ; 
to add to the moral force of 
a remark. P. 
He left the name at which the world 

grew pale, 
To point a moral or adorn a tale. 

JOHNSON. 

Here at least was a judgment ready 
made, to point themoral of the pious 
and stimulate the fears of the timid. 
Edinburgh Review, 1887. 
To THE POINT apposite ; applic- 
able. P. 



My spoken answer, like my written 
answer, was not very much to the 
point. Belgravia, 1886. 
TO COME TO POINTS to fight 

with swords. P. 

They would have come to points 
immediately. SMOLLETT. 
A CASE IN POINT a case which 
illustrates the subject under 
discussion. P. 

He guotes instances in point from 
the history of Rio Grande. Contem- 
porary Review, 1888. 

Poke. To POKE FUN AT 
to ridicule ; to chaff. F. 

One was so pleased with his tutor 
that he gave me a pot of beer besides 
my fee. I thought he was poking 
fun at me. C. READE. 

A PIG IN A POKE. See PIG. 

Pokep. OLD POKER the 
devil. F. 

As if Old Poker was coming to take 
them away. H. WALPOLE. 

Poles. UNDER BARE POLES 
with no sails spread. P. 

We were scudding before a heavy 
gale, under bare poles. MARRYAT. 

Polish. To POLISH OFF to 
finish ; to settle. S. 

Well, sir, I couldn't finish him, but 
Bob had his coat off at once he 
stood up to the Banbury man for 
three minutes, and polished him off 
in four rounds easy. THACKERAY. 

Pons. PONS ASINORUM the 
name given to the fifth problem 
of the First Book of Euclid. 
P. See ASSES' BRIDGE. 

Go and bob for triangles, from the 
Pons Asinorum. THACKERAY. 

What was it that so fascinated the 
student? Not the Pons Asinorum. 
THACKERAY. 

Pooh. To POOH - POOH to 
ridicule ; to treat with con- 
tempt. C. 

He seems to pooh-pooh the ques- 
tion, that it was absolutely impos- 
sible for Henry of Navarre to bring 
peace to the kingdom as long as he 
adhered to the Church of the minor- 
ity. Athenaeum, 1887. 

POOP. POOR AS A CHURCH 

MOUSE very poor ; having 

barely enough to live upon. P. 

"One of our young men is just 

married," Dobbin said, now coming 



Pop 190 

to the point. "It was a very old 
attachment, and the young couple 
are as poor as church mice. 
THACKERAY. 

Pop. To POP CORN to parch 
or roast maize or Indian 
corn until the grains explode 
with a " pop." C. An Ameri- 
can phrase. 

To POP THE QUESTION to make 
a proposal of marriage. C. 

I suppose you popped the question 
more than once. DICKENS. 

Position. To BE IN A POSI- 
TION TO to have the time, 
opportunities, or information 
requisite for. C. 

The official referred to is in a posi- 
tion to know (has means of know- 
ing). Daily Telegraph, 1885. 

You will get a good salary ; I am 
not in a position to say (prevented by 
circumstances from saying) exactly 
how much. 

PoSSe. POSSE COMITATUS 

military strength of a country ; 
available fighting force. Latin. 
"Only Goths, my fdonkey-riding 
friends!" quoth Smid, and at that 
ominous name the whole posse comi- 
tatus tried to look unconcerned. 

C. KlNGSLEY. 

Possess. To POSSESS ONESELF 
OF to obtain ; to secure. P. 
We possessed ourselves of the king- 
dom of Naples, the duchy of Milan, 
and the avenue of France in Italy. 
ADDISON. 

To POSSESS ONE'S SOUL IN PA- 
TIENCE to refrain from worry- 
ing ; to be patient. P. 

"Possess your soul in patience, and 
in due time you shall see what you 
shall see," answered Arthur oracu- 
larly.-W. E. NORRIS. 

Possession. POSSESSION is 

NINE-TENTHS OF THE LAW, Or 
POSSESSION IS ELEVEN POINTS 
IN THE LAW, AND THEY SAY 
THERE ARE BUT TWELVE 

a dictum used to assert the 
great importance which the 
law attaches, in disputed 
cases, to actual possession of 
the disputed property. P. 

Ain't this my husband's place of 
abode? Ain't possession nine points 
of the law ?-JUSTIN M'CARTHY. 



Pot 



TO TAKE POSSESSION to OCCUpy ', 

to seize. P. 

At length, having killed the defend- 
ant, he actually took possession. 
GOLDSMITH. 

'Possum. To ACT 'POSSUM or 
PLAY 'POSSUM to dissemble. 
S. The opossum has a habit, 
when pursued, of rolling itself 
up and pretending to be dead. 
It's almost time for Babe to quit 
playing 'possum. Scribner's Maga- 
zine, 1886. 

Post. TO POST ONESELF UP 

IN to obtain full information 
about ; to learn thoroughly. 
P. 

Tell me all about it ; what books 
you had to post yourself up in for 
your examinations, and how you 
came out of them. SARAH TYTLER.J 
POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC 

because one thing follows an- 
other, therefore it is caused 
by what precedes. P. Latin. 

Post hoc ergo propter hoc may not 
be always safe logic. J. E. LOWELL. 
POST-AND -RAILS TEA tea hav- 
ing a number of stalks float- 
ing in it. F. 

The tea is more frequently bad 
than good. The bad, from the stalks 
occasionally found in the decoction, 
is popularly known as post-and-rails 
tea. Daily Telegraph, 1886. 
Pot. A POT SHOT a shot taken 
calmly at a sitting object. C. 

This fanatic, having observed the 
envoy seated in his tent with a light, 
and the door of the tent open, fetched 
his long gun, squatted down at about 
fifty yards, and took a pot shot at 
the "Nazarene infidel." Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

LET NOT THE POT CALL THE KET- 
TLE BLACK do not criticize 
your neighbours unless you are 
free from blame yourself. 
" Satan reproving sin." F. 

You think it's a case of the pot 
calling the kettle black, perhaps. 
I'm black enough, goodness knows! 
but you yourself said just now that 
you didn t believe I had sunk to her 
depth of infamy. W. E. NORRIS. 

TO KEEP THE POT BOILING (a) 

to continue the fun. F 

"Keep the pot a-bilin', sir!" said 
Sam. (The party were sliding on the 
ice.) DICKENS. 



Potato 



191 



Prick 



(6) to get sufficient funds 

to maintain one's household 
in comfort. C. The phrase 
is used contemptuously by 
artists and literary me , of 
work done merely for the sake 
of the money to be paid for it. 

By these and a score more little 
petty arts I just keep the pot boiling. 
G. READE. 

Something made him unwilling to 
exhibit himself before her in the 
degrading occupation of pot-boiling 
(painting pictures solely for money). 
JAMES PAYN. 

To GO TO POT to be ruined or 
wasted. S. 

All's one, they go to pot. DRYDEN. 

My farm, stock, and utensils, these 
young blood horses, and the brand- 
new vessels I was building, are all 
gone tojpot. HALIBURTON. 

POT LUCK ordinary fare ; the 
meal which an unexpected 
guest receives. C. 

But he never contradicted Mrs. 
Hackit, a woman whose pot luck 
(ordinary fare for guests) was always 
to be relied on. GEORGE ELIOT. 

He should be very welcome to take 
pot luck with him. GRAVES. 

Potato. THE POTATO-TRAP 
a slang term for the mouth. 

On this Alfred hazarded a conjec- 
ture. Might it not have gone down 
his throat? "Took his potato-trap 
for the pantry-door. Ha! ha!" C. 
READE. 

Pound. To CLAIM ONE'S 
POUND OF FLESH to demand 
payment of debts due to one, 
even where their payment 
involves much suffering. P. 
The phrase comes from Shake- 
speare's Merchant of Venice, 
where Shylock the Jew insists 
upon Antonio giving him a 
pound of his flesh, according to 
an agreement previously made. 
The Sultan's view of Germany is 
that he ought to seek for the help of 
German officers and of German fi- 
nancial guides, on the ground that all 
the other great powers want their 
pound of flesh from Turkey. Fort- 
nightly Revieiv, 1887. 

To POUND AWAY to work hard. 
P. 

However. Goldsmith pounded 
away at this newly-found work. 
BLACK. 



POW. - TO HOLD A POW-WOW 

to have a riotous meeting. S. 
Powder. NOT WORTH POW- 
DER AND SHOT not worth the 
trouble or cost. F. 

The place is not worth powder and 
shot. 

Pray. I PRAT, PRAY, or PRI- 
THEE an exclamation which 
often accompanies a question. 
C. 

But, pray, in this mechanical for- 
mation, when the ferment was ex- 
panded to the extremities of the 
arteries, why did it not break 
through the receptacle ? BENTLEY. 

Premium. AT A PREMIUM 
much sought after; increased 
in value. P. 

Suicide is at a premium here (the 
men here are fond of committing 
suicide). C. READE. 

Servants are at a great premium, 
masters at a discount, in the colony. 

G. READE. 

Presence. PRESENCE OF MIND 

power of self-control and 
intelligent action in a crisis. 
P. 

It is by presence of mind in un- 
tried emergencies that the native 
metal of a man is tested. J. R. 
LOWELL. 

Both men changed colour but re- 
tained their presence of mind and 
their cunning. C. READE. 

Pretty. A PRETTY TIME OF 
IT a difficult or unpleasant 
condition of affairs. F. 

Mr. Samuel Erin had for the pres- 
ent a pretty time of it. He was like 
a man caught in a downpour of hau- 
stones.withoutan umbrella. JAMES 
PAYN. 

A PRETTY GO an awkward 
position ; a critical situa- 
tion. S. 

Supposing now that some of them 
were to slip into the boat at night 
and cut the cable, and make off wnn 
her It would be a pretty go, that 
would. H. R. HAGGARD. 



. - TO PRICK UP THE EARS 

to show signs of interest ; 

to appear attentive. C. 

The fiery courser, when he hears from 

The sprightly trumpet and the 

shouts of war, 
Pricks up his ears. DRYDEN. 



Prlma 

To PRICK OUT to plant for the 

first time. P. 
To PRICK UP ONESELF to make 

a display ; to show off. F. 

Prima. PRIMA FACIE at first 
sight; apparently. P. Latin. 
At this stage, the learned counsel 
having already made his opening 
speech, a I statement now would 
nrimd facie be irregular, and the 
judge said so ; whereupon Mr. Fin- 
lay turned to his learned friends, the 
Attorney-General and Sir Charles 
Russell, and showed them a letter, 
and conversed with them earnestly 
and in low tones. St. Andreivs Citi- 
zen, 1887. 

Primrose. THE PRIMROSE 
PATH the pleasant and allur- 
ing road which leads to de- 
struction. P. 

But, good my brother, 
Do not, as some ungracious pastors 

do, 
Show me that steep and thorny way 

to heaven ; 
Whiles, like a puffed and reckless 

libertine, 

Himself the primrose path of dalli- 
ance treads, 
And recks not his own rede. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

So in those idle days of the Shot- 
over curacy he trod the primrose 
path of dalliance with a careless and 
unguarded heart, and did not waken 
to a sense of danger until he found 
himself and another precipitated 
downward into the very gulf of hell. 
MAXWELL GRAY. 

Prizes. To PLAY PRIZES to 
he in earnest. Old-fashioned. 

They did not play prizes, and only 
pretended to quarrel. STILLING- 

FLEET. 

Pro. PRO BONO PUBLICO for 
the public welfare ; for the 
benefit of the whole company. 
P. Latin. 

In some of the bank offices it is the 
custom (to save so much individual 
time) for one of the clerks who is 
the best scholar to commence upon 
the Times or Chronicle, and recite its 
entire contents aloud pro bono pub- 
Jtco. LAMB. 

PRO AND CON for and against ; 
favourable and unfavourable. 
P. 

Mr. Tupman and Mr. Snodgrass 
arrived, most opportunely, in this 



192 Promise 

stage of the pleadings, and as it was 
necessary to explain to them all that 
had occurred, together with the 
various reasons pro and con, the 
whole of the arguments were gone 
over again. DICKENS. 
PROS AND CONS arguments for 
and against ; minute discus- 
sion. C. 

Very many thanks to "W. M. for his 
kind contribution to the pros and 
cons of King William the Third's 
pronunciation of English. Illus- 
trated London News, 1887. 

After a fewj>ros and cons, they bade 
her observe that her old lover, 
Ephraim Slade, was a rich man, and 
if she was wise she would look that 
[.way. C. READE. 

PRO TANTO so far ; in itself. 
P. Latin. 

That (right) does tend to attract, or 
rather to drive, all ambitious or 
powerful men into the deliberative 
arena, and that pro tanto is bene- 
ficial. Spectator, 1887. 

PRO TEMPORE for a short 
time ; not permanent or per- 
manently. P. Latin. 

The body was then deposited, pro 
tempore, in St. Anne's Church, Soho. 
C. READE. 

PRO FORM! for form's sake ; 
merely to satisfy rules. P. 
Latin. 

It was merely a pro forma meeting; 
the real business had already been 
discussed. 

Procrustean. PROCRUSTEAN 
BED an uncomfortable couch, 
where violent measures are 
necessary to insure that the 
person fills it. P. Procrustes 
was a famous robber who lived 
near Athens. He compelled 
his prisoners to lie down on a 
certain couch. If they were 
too long for it, their limbs were 
chopped off ; if too short, they 
were stretched to the required 
length. 

They have some particular theory 
to maintain, and whatever does not 
fit their Procrustean bed is at once 
condemned. E. WHIPPLE. 

Promise. I PROMISE YOU 
an expression generally at- 
tached to statements about 
the future, and signifying 



" I declare to you 
may be certain." C. 
"Will not the ladies be afraid of the 

lion?" 
"I fear it, I promise you." 

SHAKESPEARE. 

PPOOf. TO PUT TO THE PROOF 

to test ; to try in practice. P. 
My paper gives a timorous writer 
portunity of putti ng his abilities 



anopp 

to the proof. - 
But he (the 



1-4 



DDISON. 

ritish soldier) hates 



The coach pulls m 
little roadside inn witl 



Proof 193 Purgation 

" YOU TO PULL A PERSON THROUGH 

to extricate him from a diffi- 
culty or danger. C. 

His extra speed pulled him 
through. Field, 1886. 

To PULL THE STRINGS to set in 
action secretly ; to be the 
real though hidden promoter 
of anything. C. 

The men who pull the strings are 
down in the Cape. They want to 
drive every Englishman out of South 
Africa. H. R. HAGGARD. 

TO PULL TOGETHER to WOrk 

harmoniously. C. 

The new director and the pro- 
fessors are said not to pull together. 

TO PULL ONESELF TOGETHER 

to rally ; to prepare for a fresh 
struggle, r. 

The Middlesex men now pulled 
themselves together. Field, 1886. 

Joe retired to the bar, where he 
had a glass of brandy neat, and tried 
to pull himself together, but with 
small success. BESANT. 

The cool water applied to his head, 
and the glass of brandy, vile as it 
was, that he drank, pulled Balfour 
together. WM. BLACK. 

To PULL FACES to make gri- 
maces. C. 

TO PULL A LONG FACE to look 

melancholy. C. 

Sarah returning at this moment, 
shaking her head, and pulling a long 
face at the ill-success of her search, 
devoted herself to administering sal 
volatile. Murray's Magazine, 1887. 

Pulse. To FEEL ONE'S PULSE 
(a) to discover the beat 
of the heart by pressing an 
artery. P. 

(&) to sound a person ; to 
try to discover a person's 
secret opinions. C. 

So much matter has been ferreted 
out that this Government wishes to 
tell its own story, and my pulse was 
felt (I was sounded in the matter). 
SOUTHEY. 

Purchase. His LIFE is NOT 
WORTH A YEAR'S PURCHASE 
he is not likely to survive more 
than a year. 



water ; drench him thoroughly and 
you put him to the proof. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

THE PROOF OF THE PUDDING 

the tasting of it ; the actual 
experience of anything. C. 

"I mention no names; but it's 
rather odd that when I am speaking 
of hollow-hearted friends you should 
at once name Mr. Tagrag. 

" The proof of the pudding hand- 
some is that handsome does; and 
I've got 6 of his money at any rate." 

The upshot' of all discussion on 
this question is that, to use a vulgar 
phrase, the proof of the pudding will 
be in the eating. Spectator, Septem- 
ber 17, 1887. 

Proud. PROUD FLESH in- 
flamed flesh arising in wounds 
or ulcers. P. 

The sores had generated proud 
flesh. Daily Telegraph, 1885. 

Pull. To PULL UP to cause 
to stop ; to come to a stop. P. 
Originally used of pulling the 
reins in driving, and of thus 
stopping a horse. 
They thanked heaven they had 



been pulled up short (suddenl 

in 
R.EADE. 



arrested) in an evil career 



It is such a relief to be able to say 
awful without being pulled up (in- 
terrupted and reproved) by Aunt 
Chambers. H. R. HAGGARD. 



(stops) at a 
huge stables 



behind. T. HUGHES. 
To PULL UP STAKES to remove 
one's residence. American 
slang. 

TO PULL THROUGH not to SUC- 

cumb ; to succeed with diffi- 
culty. C. 

You pulled through it (the punish- 
ment), and so will he. C. READE. 



Purgation. To PUT ONE TO 

HIS PURGATION to call upon 



Purple 



him to clear himself from an 
accusation. P. 

If any man doubt, let him put me 

to my purgation. SHAKESPEARE. 

All right, old fellow ; I didn't mean 

to put you on your purgation. A. 

TROLJ.OPE. 

P u p p 1 e. BORN IN THE 
PURPLE born a prince. P. 
Purple is the imperial colour. 

To think of that dear young man 
(Prince Louis Napoleon), the apple 
of his mother's eye, born and nur- 
tured in the purple, dying thus, is 
too fearful, too awful. QUEEN 
VICTORIA. 

TO MARRY INTO THE PURPLE 

to marry a prince or a noble- 
man. P. 

Now I had not the slightest wish 
for my dear Helena to marry into 
the purple. Mistletoe Bough, 1886. 
Purpose. ON PURPOSE de- 
signedly ; with full intention. 
P. 

Where men err against this me- 
thod, it is usually on purpose, and to 
show their learning. SWIFT. 
ON PURPOSE TO with the in- 
tention of (followed by the 
infinitive). P. 

I do this, on purpose to give you 
a more sensible impression of the 
imperfection of your knowledge. 
WATTS. 

He travelled the world, on purpose 
to converse with the most learned 
men. GOLDSMITH. 

WITH THE PURPOSE OF with 
the intention of (followed by 
the participle or gerund). P. 

He left with the purpose of follow- 
ing her. 

To THE PURPOSE appositely ; 
pointedly ; sensibly ; (also 
as an adjective) sensible ; 
practical. P. 

He was wont to speak plain and to 
the purpose. SHAKESPEARE. 

To SMALL PURPOSE for very 
little good ; without much 
practical benefit. P. 

To small purpose had the council 
of Jerusalem been assembled, if once 
their determination being set down 
men might afterwards have defended 
their former opinions. HOOKER. 

Purse. PURSE-PROUD arro- 
gant because of wealth ; puffed 
up through being wealthy. P. 



194 Put 

What is so hateful to a poor man 
as the purse-proud arrogance of a 
rich one? Observer. 

I wish we had never seen those 
odious, purse-proud Osbornes. 
THACKERAY. 

TO MAKE UP A PURSE to Collect 

subscriptions on behalf of 
some individual ; to get to- 
gether a sum of money. P. 

Meanwhile a purse, I think of 
seventy dollars, was made up on 
board, and when they were on the 
point of returning ashore was handed 
to them. London and China Ex- 
press, 1887. 

Some friends who took an interest 
in me made up a purse for me, by 
which I was enabled to pay my 
passage-money in advance. G. A. 
BALA. 

PUSh. TO BE PUT TO THE 

PUSH to be tested by diffi- 
cult circumstances. P. 

Once he is put to the push, his 
native energy will appear. 

TO COME TO THE PUSH to be 

seriously tested. P. 

'Tis common to talk of dying for a 
friend ; but when it comes to the push 
(people are actually tested) 'tis no 
more than talk. L'ESTRANGE. 

Put. Pur ABOUT anxious ; 
annoyed ; in a flurry. C. 

Tom was rather put about by this 
speech. T. HUGHES. 

TO PUT ONESELF ABOUT to 

take trouble. C. 
Mr. Treverton was a person for 



whom people must be expected to 
put themselves about. Miss BRAD- 
DON. 

TO PUT ABOUT A SHIP tO turn 

it round. P. 

The Stella was put about, and the 
other broadside given without a 
return from her opponent. CAPTAIN 
MARRYAT. 

To PUT BY (a) to thrust aside ; 
to neglect. P. 

A presence which is not to be put 
by. WORDSWORTH. 

(6) to save ; to lay aside. P. 

Eight thousand servants, fed and 
half-clothed at their masters' ex- 
pense, have put by for forty years, 
and yet not even by aid of interest 
and compound interest have reached 
the Rubicon of four figures (goal of 
i,ooo). C. READE. 



Put 



HARD PUT TO (IT) in great 
trouble ; sore beset. C. 

"You are desperate hard put to 
woman," said the Deemster. HALI 
CAINE. 

For if he, though a man, was so 
hard put to it, what canst thou, being 
but a poor woman, do? BUNYAN. 
Pur TO IT tested; tried; 
placed in a difficulty. P. 

Well, I was never so put to it in 
my life. MARIA EDGE WORTH. 

But Gingham worked for the whole 
family as a woman will when put to 
it.-G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

The small gentry were sore put to 
it to know how to order themselves 
between these two opposing forces- 
respect for virtue in the abstract and 
their inherited allegiance to their 
local lord. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
Pur ON feigned ; hypocritical. 
C. 

Sir Charles obeyed this missive, 
and the lady received him with a 
gracious and smiling manner, all put 
on and cat-like. C. READE. 

Nave made a show of resistance 

which was all put on, for he was as 

fond of shillings as of pounds and 

then gave in. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

TO PUT OUT Or PUT OUT OF 

COUNTENANCE to discom- 
pose ; to make uncomfortable ; 
to confuse ; to disconcert. P. 

She interested him intensely, to 
say the least of it, and, man-like, he 
felt exceedingly put out (annoyed), 
and even sulky, at the idea of her 
departure. H. R. HAGGARD. 

' When Colambre has been a sea- 
son or two more in London, he'll not 
be so easily put out of countenance," 
said i^ady Clonbrony. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

To PUT our to dislocate. P. 

She put her shoulder out. Field, 
1887. 
TO PUT TWO AND TWO TOGETHER. 

See Two. 

TO PUT THAT AND THAT TOGETHER 

to reason ; to draw an in- 
ference. F. 

Young as I was, I also could put 
that and that together. CAPTAIN 
MARRYAT. 

To PUT IN A WORD to recom- 
mend ; to use one's influence. 
O. 

Well, sir, if he thinks so well of 
Mr. Poyser for a tenant, I wish you 
would put in a word for him to allow 
us some new gates (recommend that 



195 Put 

he should allow us some new gates) 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

TO PUT IN AN APPEARANCE 

to be present ; to attend a 
meeting. C. 

Not only did all the lady guests 
put in an appearance, but all the 
gentlemen. JAMES PAYN. 

Half an hour afterward they sat 
down as usual to supper. Bessie did 
not put in an appearance till it was 
a quarter over, and then was very 
silent through it. H. R. HAGGARD. 
TO PUT HEADS TOGETHER 

to consult ; to plot ; to ar- 
range a plan. P. 

Those two ladies now put their 
heads together. C. READE. 
To PUT OFF (a) to postpone. P. 

Let not the work of to-day be put 
off till to-morrow, for the future is 
uncertain. L'ESTRANGE. 

All parties and entertainments 
were, of course, to be put off. 
THACKERAY. 

(&) to baffle; to get rid 

of by temporizing. P. 

He put them off with promises. 

Hastings, who wanted money and 
not excuses, was not to be put off by 
the ordinary artifices of Eastern ne- 
gotiation. MACAULAY. 

Mrs. Wallace was not to be put off 
by jest. JAMES PAYN. 

(c) to set out from the shore. 

P. 

Three of them put off in a boat to 
visit the brig. 

To PUT DOWN to suppress ; 
to quell ; to crush. P. 

He does me the favour to inquire 
whether it will be agreeable to me to 
have Will Fern put down. DICKENS. 

To PUT ON to dress oneself 
with. P. 

The little ones are taught to be 
proud of their clothes before they 
can put them on. LOCKE. 

TO PUT UP A PERSON () to 

give him accommodation ; to 
lodge him. P. 

His old college friend Jones lived 
there, and offered to put him up for 
a week. 

(&) to proclaim his marriage 
banns. P. 

We are to be put up in Church next 
Sunday, and it takes three Sundays. 
CAPTAIN MARKYAT. 
To PUT UP A HORSE to tie it 
up or put it in a stable. P. 



Put 



196 



The American word is hitch 
" he hitched his horse." 

He rode into Newborough, and 
putting up his horse, strolled about 
the streets.-C. READE. 

To PUT UP to stop ; to rest. P. 
I wondered at what house the Bath 
coach put up. DICKENS. 

To PUT UP TO to incite ; to 
instigate; to teach a dodge 
or trick. C. 

" We will practise it in the morn- 
ing, my boy." said he, "and I'll put 
you up to a thing or two worth know- 
ing." THACKERAY. 

A PUT-UP AFFAIR a COn- 

cocted plot ; an affair which 
is not what it pretends to 
be. F. 

A suspicion of the whole affair 
being what the police call a put-up 
one, was passing through his mind. 
JAMES PAYN. 

To PUT UP WITH to suffer ; 
to pass over without resent- 
ment. P. 

Whatever may be the case with 
Hungary, it must be admitted that 
Austria will put up with a good deal 
from Russia rather than fight. Fort- 
nightly Review, 1887. 

To PUT UPON to deceive ; to 
treat unfairly or deceitfully ; 



Queen 

to make one do more than a 
fair share of work. C. 



You look and talk like a lady born 
and bred, and I fear you will be put 
upon (cheated). BESANT. 

This is followed by a determination 
on the part of the forewoman to find 
fault, and by a determination on the 
part of the work-girls not to be put 
upon (have too much work given 
them). BESANT. 
TO PUT TO THE BLUSH to 

shame ; to vanquish. P. 
Flattering himself, that by. this 



pocket. THACKERAY. 

You could be put to the blush in 
many things by a school-girl of fif- 
teen. H. R. HAGGARD. 
To PUT TO DEATH to execute. 

Teuta put to death one of the 
Roman ambassadors. ARBUTHNOT. 

To PUT our OF COURT to make 
one's evidence of no value; 
to disqualify one from speak- 
ing with authority. P. 

The fact that they were believed 
to be opposed on principle to all 
wars put them out of court in public 
estimation, as Mr. Kinglake justly 
observes, when they went about to 
argue against this particular war. 
JUSTIN M'CARTH Y. 



Quality. THE QUALITY the 
upper class ; the gentry. Old- 
fashioned, and now vulgar. 

By degrees the quality gave up 
going, and the fair, of course, became 
disreputable. Athenaeum, 1887. 

Quarter. To GIVE or SHOW 
QUARTER to act with clem- 
ency ; to be merciful ; to be 
lenient. P. 



COLLIER. 

Queen. QUEEN'S ENGLISH 
the standard English. P. 
The same as King's English. 
See KING. A Plea for the 
Queen's English is the title of 
a book by Dean Alford. 



QUEEN ANNE is DEAD that is 
stale news. C. A phrase 
used sarcastically. The Ameri- 
cans say " Rats," or " That's 
an awful chestnut," when 
a stale story is told. 

Lord Brougham, it appears, isn't 
dead, though Queen Anne is. BAR- 
HAM. 

"He was my grandfather's man, 
and served him in the wars of Queen 
Anne." interposed Mr. Warrington. 
On which my lady cried petulantly, 
"0 Lord, Queen Anne's dead. I sup- 
pose, and we aren't (are not) going 
into mourning for her." THACK- 
ERAY. 

QUEEN OF THE MAT the village 
girl who was chosen, as the 
fairest in the village or dis- 
trict, to be queen of the revels 



Queer 



197 



on the first of May, known as 
May-day. P. 

"I thought that you were 
spirit of the place, or," he added 
gracefully, pointing to a branch o 
half-opened hawthorn bloom she 
held in her hand, "the origina 
Queen of the. May." H. E. HAG 
GABD. 

To TURN QUEEN'S EVIDENCE 
to turn informer for the sake 
of a pardon. P. See KING. 

I hate a convict who turns Queen's 
evidence. H. KINGSLEY. 

QUEEN'S HEADS postage stamps. 
F. 

"I must buy some stamps; I am 
run out of Queen's heads." 

"That is precisely what I want 
money for," said Trip testily. "I 
have neither paper nor envelopes 
nor stamps." S. BARING-GOULD. 

Queer. To BE IN QUEER 
STREET to be in unfortunate 
circumstances. F. 

No, sir, I make it a rule of mine 
the more it looks like Queer Street, 
the less I ask. E. L. STEVENSON. 

Question. IN QUESTION re- 
ferred to ; under discussion. P. 

But at this moment Hawes came 
into the cell with the bed in ques- 
tion in his arms. C. EEADE. 
TO CALL IN QUESTION to express 

doubts regarding ; to find 
fault with. P. 

^When religion is called in ques- 
tion because of the extravagances 
of theology being passed off as reli- 
gion, one disengages and helps reli- 
gion by showing their utter delu- 
siveness. M. ARNOLD. 
Our OF THE QUESTION impracti- 
cable ; unworthy of discus- 
sion. P. 

Intimacy between Miss Fairfax 
and me is out of the question. JANE 
AUSTEN. 

A BURNING QUESTION a subject 
causing widespread interest ; 



Quod 

demanding 



solu- 



a question 
tion. P. 

The people like to be roused by 
red-hot, scorching speeches: they 
want burning questions, intolerable 
grievances. BESANT. 



To BEG 
BEG. 



THE QUESTION. See 



Qui. ON THE QUI VIVE eager, 
watchful; alert. C. Qui vive 
is the summons addressed by 
French sentinels to those who 
approach them. 

Every one was on the qui vive, as 
Mrs. Jennynge expressed it, to see 
the new-comers. JAMES PAYN. 

Quid. A QUID PRO QUO 
something given in return ; a 
recompense. P. Latin. 

Unfortunately, in this prosaic 
world, one cannot receive cheques 
for one thousand pounds without, 
in some shape or form, giving a qiiid 
pro quo. II. K. HAGGARD. 

Quits. TO BE QUITS WITH A 

PERSON to have paid another 
all you owe him ; to have a 
clear account with him. C. 
Used both of money dealings 
and of injuries to be revenged. 
My spade shall never go into the 
earth again till I'm quits with him 
(I have had my revenge). C. READE. 

To CRT QUITS to acknowledge 
that one's account with another 
is clear ; to cease struggling. C. 
But will he get her to marry him, 
I wonder. If he does, I shall cry 
quits with him indeed. H. K. 
HAGGARD. 

Quod. To PUT IN QUOD to 

imprison. S. 

Do you really mean to maintain 
that a man can't put old Diggs in 
quod for snaring a hare without all 
this elaborate apparatus of Roman 
law? M. ARNOLD. 



198 



Rain 



R. THE THREE R's reading, 
(w)riting, and (a)rithmetic. C. 
These subjects were formerly 
considered the necessary parts 
of an ordinary education. 

Fortunate indeed were the young- 
sters who for a brief season tasted 
even of the rich delights of the three 
K's, as an alderman of that epoch 
(1850) is said to have designated the 
mysteries of reading, writing, and 
arithmetic. Edinburgh Review, 1887. 

Rabbit. RABBIT - IT or OD- 
RABBIT-IT- a common expres- 
sion, having little meaning. 
Formerly an oath with the 
name of God in it. S. 

Rack. ON THE RACK (a) in 
a state of torture, of pain, 
or of bodily or mental dis- 
comfort. P. 

A cool behaviour sets him on the 
rack (makes him miserable), and is 
interpreted as an instance of aver- 
sion or indifference. ADDISON. 

(6) in a state of restless 

activity. P. 

Martin's ingenuity was therefore 
for ever on the rack to supply him- 
self with a light T. HUGHES. 

TO GO TO RACK AND RUIN to 

fall into utter disrepair ; to 
go to destruction. P. 

Mrs. Barry, indeed, though her 
temper was violent and her ways 
singular, was an invaluable person 
to me in my house, which would 
have gone to rack and ruin long 
before, but for her spirit of order 
and management, and for her excel- 
lent economy in the government of 
my numerous family. THACKERAY. 

So we must go to rack and ruin, 
Kate, my dear. DICKENS. 
TO WORK BY RACK OF EYE to 

be guided by the eye alone in 
working ; to work without the 
assistance of line or rule. F. 

TO BE or LIVE AT RACK (or HECK) 

AND MANGER to live extrava- 
gantly ; to spend money 
heedlessly. C. 

John Lackland .... tearing out the 
bowels of St. Edmundsbury Con- 
vent (its larders, namely, and cellars) 
m the most ruinous way by living at 
rack and manger there. CARLYLE 



Racket. To BE ON THE 
RACKET to spend one's time 
in frolic or dissipation. F. 

He had been off on the racket, per- 
haps for a week at a time. Daily 
Telegraph, 1886. 

TO STAND THE RACKET to take 

the consequences ; to be re- 
sponsible. F. 

He is as ready as myself to stand 
the racket of subsequent proceed- 
ings. Daily Telegraph, 1882. 

Ragr GENTLEMEN OF THE 
ORDER OF THE RAG military 
officers. F. The rag refers to 
their red uniform. 

It is the opinion which, I believe, 
most of you young gentlemen of the 
order of the rag deserve. FIELDING. 

RAG - TAG AND BOB - TAIL the 

dregs of the people ; those 
loungers about a city who are 
always ready to flock together 
and make a mob. C. Found 
also in the more correct 
form, tag-rag and bob -tail. 
See TAG. 

Mr. Gladstone, in fact, is tired of 
being out in the cold. The pleasure 
of leading the rag-tag and bob-tail 
proves but so-so, compared with the 
pleasure of commanding the House 
of Commons. St. Andrews Citizen, 
1381. 

Rage. -~ ALT, THE RAGE ex- 
tremely popular. C. 

Uncle Tom, to the surprise of many 
that twaddle traditional phrases 
in reviews and magazines about the 
art of fiction, and to the surprise of 
no man who knows anything about 
the art of fiction, was all the rage. 
C. READE, 

NOTE. Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Mrs. 
H. Beecher Stowe. 

Rain. IT NEVER RAINS BUT 
rr POURS a phrase often used 
when a rapid succession of 
events occurs. It signifies 
somewhat the same as " mis- 
fortunes never come singly," 
but has a wider application 
by its reference to all kinds 
of events. 

Nevertheless for, in spite of the 
proverb, "It never rains but it 



Raise 



199 



Kara 



pours," good fortune seldom befalls 
us mortals without alloy there were 
drops of bitterness in his full cup. 
JAMES PAYN. 

A RAINY DAY a time of trouble 
ana difficulty. C. 

Thou'lt give away all thy earnings, 
and never be uneasy because thou 
hast nothing against a rainy day. 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

Mr. Punch, in a cartoon, is repre- 
sented as advising the British work- 
man to avoid the gin-palace, and 
put by for a rainy day. Fortnightly 
Review, 1887. 

Raise. -To RAISE ONE'S BACK 
to grow obstinate ; to rebel. 
C. 

He had raised his back more than 
once against orders emanating from 
the palace in a manner that had made 
the hairs on the head of the bishop's 
wife to stand almost on end. 
A. TROLLOBE. 

To RAISE THE WIND. See 
WIND. 

Raison. R.AISON D'ETRE 
claim to exist ; right to have 
an existence. P. A French 
phrase. 

In the conviction that no real 
amalgamation could ever exist be- 
tween the two will be found the 
rqison d'etre of the high character 
with which some of the men of the 
. N 



tiers Mat were credited. 
Review, 1886. 



ational 



Rake;-- To RAKE UP THE FIRE 
to prepare the fire to last all 
night, by covering it with a 
large piece of coal and throw- 
ing cinders or coal-slack on the 
top. P. 

When she had raked up the fire 
for the night, she lit a candle and 
sat down for half-an-hour to read 
before retiring to rest. 

Ramp. ON THE RAMP wild; 
in a state of excitement. F. 
See RAN-TAN. 

It is apropos of a re-issue of Messrs. 
Cassell's serial, British Battles by 
Land and Sea, that Lord Wolselev 
goes anew on the ramp. Scottish 
Leader, August 5, 1890. 

Rampage. ON THE RAMPAGE 

drunk. S. 



Ran. ON THE RAN-TAN ex- 
cited ; roaming about furi- 
ously. S. 

John had been (as he was pleased 
to call it) visibly " on the ran-tan " 
the night before. R. L. STEVENSON. 

Rank. THE RANK AND FILE 
the undistinguished mass ; 
the private soldiers of an 
army. P. 

While the rank and file of his 
parliamentary opponents sought to 
shout or laugh him down, he tells 
his sister that he was receiving the 
most flattering testimonies of ap- 
proval from discriminating judges. 
Edinburgh Review, 1886. 

IN THE RANKS serving as a 
private soldier. P. 

Specimens (of gentlemen) are to be 
found at the plough, the loom, and 
the forge, in the ranks, and before 
the mast, as well as in the officers' 
mess-room, the learned professions, 
and the Upper House itself. G. J. 
WHYTE-MEI.VILLE. 

TO RISE FROM THE RANKS to 

be promoted to the position 
of a commissioned officer after 
having served as a private 
soldier. P. 

Rap. To RAP OUT to speak 
violently ; to utter loudly. C. 
Generally used with the word 
" oath " as object. 

He was provoked in the spirit of 
magistracy upon discovering a jud^e 
who rapped out a great oath at his 
footman. ADDISON. 

Frank rapped the words out 
sharply. Mordle looked the picture 
of surprise. HUGH CONWAY. 

TO RAP OVER THE KNUCKLES to 

administer a sharp reproof ; 
to censure sharply. C. 

The author has grossly mistrans- 
lated a passage in the Defensippro 
populo Anylicano; and if the bishop 
were not dead, I would here take 
the liberty of rapping his knuckles. 
DE QUINCEY. 

Rara. RARA AVIS something 
seldom seen. P. Latin. Liter- 
ally, a " rare bird." 

He had brought from India a 
favourite native servant, his khit- 
mutgar, Supashad ; a man who was 
indeed a rara avis among English- 
speaking khitmutgars, being very 
intelligent, and only a moderate 
thief. Mistletoe Bough, 1886. 



Rate 



200 



Red 



Rate. AT ANY RATE in any 
case ; whatever be the cir 
cumstances. P. 

If he could once reach the cave h 
would at any rate get shelter and i 
dry place to lie on. H. K. HAGGARD 

Raw. A RAW RECRUIT an 
awkward or simple fellow 
one who has not yet learned 
his trade or profession ; one 
who is " green." F. 

For example, if Sir Barnet had th. 
good fortune to get hold of a raw 
recruit, or a country gentleman, am 

fnsnared him to his hospitable villa 
ir Barnet would say to him on the 
morning after his arrival, "Now, my 
dear sir, is there anybody you woulc 
like to know?" DICKENS. 

Reach. REACH-ME-DOWNS 
second-hand clothes. S. So 
called in London because an 
intending purchaser of such 
clothes asks the shopman to 
" reach-him-down " them in 
order to try them on. 

Read. To READ A LESSON 
to scold or reprimand. C. 

, Oh, you can speak to my Aunt 
Molmeux and she will read, 



fine lesson. C. EEADE. 



you a 



TO READ BETWEEN THE LINES 

to see a writer's concealed 
meaning. P. 

He has not enough experience of 
the way in which men have thought 
and spoken to feel what the Bible 
writers are about to read between 
the lines, to discern where he ought 
to rest his whole weight, and where he 
ought to pass lightly. MATTHEW 
ARNOLD. 

Ready. READY MONEY 
money which can be immedi- 
ately made use of ; money in 
one's hands. P. 

No ready money was required by 
the new heir. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Reap. To BRING UP THE REAR 
to come last. P. 

At half -past ten. Tom Moody, Sir 
Huddlestone Fuddlestone's hunts- 
man, was seen trotting up the 
avenue, followed by the noble pack 
of hounds in a compact body the 
rear being brought up by the two 
whips clad in stained scarlet 
THACKERAY. 



Reckon. To RECKON WITH- 
OUT ONE'S HOST to calculate 
blindly ; to enter rashly upon 
any undertaking. P. 
We thought that now our troubles 



were over and our enemy's begin- 
ning ; but we reckoned without our 
host (were mistaken). Macmillaris 



Magazine. 1887. 

In coming down so unexpectedly 
to Prettywell, Sir Bate had not 
reckoned entirely without his host. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

TO RECKON ON Or UPON - to 

expect. P. 

You reckon upon losing (expect to 
lose) your friends' kindness. SIR W. 
TEMPLE. 

TO RECKON WITH - to Call to 

punishment ; to settle ac- 
counts with. P. | 

His justice will have another op- 
portunity to meet and reckon with 
them. TILLOTSON. 

Antony and Lepidus, too, had to 
be reckoned with. J. A. FROUDE. 

Record. To BEAT, BREAK, 
or cur THE RECORD to do a 
distance in less time than it 
has ever been done before. C. 

The White Star steamer Teutonic 
made the passage across the Atlantic 
in 6 days, 19 hours. 5 minutes thus 
breaking the record. The Scotsman, 
August, 1890. 

Speechly proceeded to cut the three 
miles record nearly by twelve 
seconds. Eeferee, 1886. 

Red. RED -HANDED in the 
very act of committing a 
crime. P. No doubt referring 
to stains of blood. 

"By taking the place of your serv- 
ant, and so selling you into the 
power of my friend Count Perete- 
koff," and here he laughed a low, 
cruel laugh," I was enabled to take 
these wretches red-handed, and so 
insure the fate they have so long 
richly deserved." Murray's Maga- 
zine, 1887. 

RED TAPE officialdom ; useless 
official formalities. P. 

Unlike a minister in England who 
steps into an office with the red tape 
cut and dried for him, Lord Welles- 
ley had no one to advise him. 
Asiatic Quarterly Review, 1887. 

THE RED BOOK the peerage 
list. P. 

And let us, my brethren, who have 
not our names in the Red Book, con- 
sole ourselves by thinking how 



Reductio 



201 



Resurrection 



miserable our betters may be, and 
that Damocles, who sits on satin 
d 



cushions, and is served on 
plate, has an awful sword ha 
over his head. THACKERAY. 



sati 
gol 
igmg 



A RED-LETTER DAY an auspi- 

cious or happy day. P. 

All being holidays, I feel as if I had 
none, as they do in heaven, where 
'tis all red-letter days." CHARLES 
LAMB. 

PAINTED RED (of a village or 
town) given over to merri- 
ment and high jinks. S. 
An American phrase. 

Singapore has been in trouble. 
During the greater part of three days 
22nd, 23rd, and 24th of February 
the town was "painted red" by 
Chinese rowdies, and the air was full 
of bludgeons and buckshot. Japan 
Mail, 1887. 

A RED CENT used, like " a 
brass farthing," to signify 
the least piece of money. F. 
American. 

Now the colonel, in short and 
sharp sentences, interrupted by a 
good deal of writhing and hard 
swearing, said he would not leave 
a brass farthing a red cent was what 
he actually mentioned to any of 
his relatives who had known him in 



and. WM. BLACK. 
A RED RAG TO A BULL what 

especially provokes and irri- 
tates. P. 

He (George II.) hated books, and 
the sight of one in a drawing-room 
was as a red rag to a bull. Temple 
Bar, 1887. 

Reductio. A REDUCTIO AD 
ABSURDUM a particular case 
which proves the absurdity 
of a general statement. P. 
Latin. 

Certainly that appears to us the 
reductio ad absurdum of the theory 
of fortuitous variation. Spectator, 
February'^, 1888. 

Reed. A BROKEN REED a 
support which will fail you. P. 

Though Mr. Crawley was now but 
a broken reed, and was beneath his 
feet, yet Mr. Tnumble acknowledged 
to himself that he could not hold nis 
own with this broken reed. A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

In both cases have white men 
found that the negro ally was a 
broken reed. Nineteenth Century, 
November 1887. 



Reel. OFF THE REEL in un- 
interrupted succession. F. 

Refusal. To HAVE THE RE- 
FUSAL OF' ANYTHING to be 

allowed to buy it before any 
one else; to have the first 
offer of it. P. 

What was her mortification when 
the dowager assured her that the 
identical Alhambra hangings had 
not only been shown by Mr. Soho 
to the Duchess of Torcaster, but 
that her grace had had the refusal 
of them. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Mrs. Flint will never let Mrs. Steel 
have the refusal. HALIBURTON. 

Reins. To GIVE THE REINS 
to allow unrestrained freedom ; 
to release from control. P. 

But how could he thus give reins 
to his temper? JAMES PAYN. 

Removed. ONCE OR TWICE 
REMOVED separated by one 
or two steps of family relation- 
ship. P. A person is cousin 
once removed to the full 
cousin of one of his parents, 
or to the child of one of his full 
cousins. 

The old gentleman of our own time, 
whose grandsire (once or twice re- 
moved) gathered the arrows upon 
Flodden Field. JAMES PAYN. 

Our cousins, too, even to the for- 
tieth remove, all remembered their 
affinity. GOLDSMITH. 

Res. RES ANGUST^E DOMI 
limited means ; want of suffi- 
cient funds for household com- 
fort. P. Latin. 

If it hadn't been for the res an- 
gustcc domi you know what I mean, 
captain I should have let you get 
along with your old dug-out, as the 
gentleman in the water said to Noah. 
-W. D. HOWELLS. 

Respects. To PAY ONE'S RE- 
SPECTS TO ANY ONE to make 
one a polite visit ; to meet one 
with courtesy. P. 

Her last pleasing duty, before she 
left the house, was to pay her re- 
spects to them as they sat together 
after dinner. JANE AUSTEN. 

Every day Miss Swartz comes you 
will be here to pay your respects to 
her. THACKERAY. 

Resurrection. RESURREC- 
TION PIE a pie composed of 



Retching 202 

the odd bits of meat that have 
been cooked already. S. 



Retching 1 . RETCHING AND 
KEAMING stretching out th 
arms and gaping, as when one 
is aroused from sleep. F. 

Return. To RETURN TO OUR 
MUTTONS to return to the 
main subject of our narrative 
C. The translation of a pro- 
verb taken from the old French 
farce of Pierre Patelin. 
To return to our muttons this mode 

of progression 
At length upon Spanking Bill made 

some impression. BABHAM. 

Rhyme. NEITHER RHYME NOR 
REASON wanting in sense and 
every other valuable quality. 
P. Sir Thomas More advised 
an author, who had sent him 
his manuscript to read, " to 
put it into rhyme," which, 
when he had done, Sir Thomas 
said, " Yes, marry, now it 
is somewhat, for now it is 
rhyme; before it was neither 
rhyme nor reason." 

WITHOUT RHYME OR REASON 
inexplicably ; from no cause to 
be easily understood. C. 

When a person on whom one is 
accustomed to depend for most 
of that social intercourse and those 
pleasant little amenities that mem- 
bers of one sex value from another, 
suddenly cuts off the supply without 
any apparent rhyme or reason, it is 
enough to induce a feeling of wonder, 
not to say of vexation, in the breast. 

Ribbon. A RED RIBBON or 
RIBAND the order of the 
Bath. P. The knights of the 
Bath wear a crimson ribbon 
with a medallion bearing the 
motto, Tria juncta in uno 
(three joined in one). 

He (Hastings) had then looked for- 
war . d K, a coronet, a red riband, a 
seat at the Council Board, an office 
at Whitehall. MACAULAY. 

A BLUE RIBBON the order of 
the Garter, the most distin- 
guished of the English orders 
P. The phrase is used to 



Big 

signify a "distinction of the 
highest kind." 

In 1840 he was elected to a fellow- 
ship at Oriel, then the blue ribbon of 
the university. Athenceum, 1887. 
TO HANDLE THE RIBBONS to 

hold the reins ; to drive. F. 

Otherwise, I have no doubt, I 
should have been able to take a 
place in any hippodrome in the 
world, and to handle the ribbons (as 
the high, well-born lord used to say) 
to perfection. THACKERAY. 
Rich. RICH 
rich. F. 



AB A JEW very 



Poverty prevails among the London 
Jews to a much greater extent than 
was imagined sufficient, certainly, 
to shake considerably popular faith 
in the truth of the old saying, "Rich 
as a Jew." Spectator, 1887. 

Richmond. ANOTHER RICH- 
MOND IN THE FIELD another 
unexpected adversary. P. The 
phrase is taken from Shakes- 
peare's Richard III., act v., 
scene 4. At the battle of 
Bosworth, King Richard re- 
plies to his attendant Catesby, 
who urges him to fly, "I think 
there be six Richmonds in 
the field. Five I have slain 
to-day instead of him." 

This time it was a rival suitor who 
made his appearance, and Brian's 



hot Irish temper rose when he Saw 
another Richmond in 
FERGUS "W. HUME. 



Rift. THE RIFT IN THE LUTE 
the small defect or breach which 
will gradually spoil the whole. 
P. 

A Some little rift had taken place in 

the lute of her diplomacy. JAMES 

PAYN. 

Unfaith in aught is want of faith in 

It is Ihe little rift within the lute 
That by-and-by will make the music 

mute, 
And ever widening, slowly silence all. 

TENNYSON. 
Rig 1 . TO RIG THE MARKET 

to buy shares of a stock in 
which one is interested, in 
order to force up the price ; 
a common practice* A stock - 
broking phrase. 

So you make your mine by begging 
(modern miners never dig), 



Right 

And you float a gorgeous company. 

The shares go spinning up ; 
But you never rig the market. 

(What an awkward word is rig.) 
And you drain success in bumpers 
from an overflowing cup. 

Punch. 

Right. 'To PUT or SET TO 
BIGHTS to arrange ; to rectify ; 
to set in order ; to cure. C. 

She put her curls to rights, and 
looked as pleased as fun. HALI- 

BtjRtON. 

When I had put myself somewhat 
to rights at the hotel, I hired a fly 
and drove to Herr Kiicher. Leisure 
Hour, 188T. 

Was It not well, then, that he 
should see a letter which put that 
mystery to rights ? R. L. STEVENSON. 

Old Cooper has set him to rights 
(caused him to recover from sickness) 
by this time, you may depend on it. 
JAMES PAYN. 

BY RIGHTS properly; accord- 
ing to strict justice. P. 

Had it not been for the pre-occu- 
pied and uncomfortable state of his 
mind, Arthur should by rights have 
enjoyed himself very much at 
Madeira. H. R. HAGGARD. 

A RIGHT ARM one's staunchest 
friend ; the principal supporter 
of any one. P. 

Sir Launcelot, my right arm, the 
mightiest of my knights. 

TENNYSON. 
TO SEND TO THE RIGHT-ABOUT 

to dismiss without ceremony. 
F. 

The next offer Eliza would not 
accept ; it was from a widower with 
children, and she sent him to the 
right-about. MRS. H. WOOD. 

Had he had the power of doing so, 
that brilliant young gentleman would 
have been sent to the right-about 
with the shortest possible delay. 
Murray's Magazine, 188?. 

A RIGHT - HAND MAN a very 
serviceable person ; a friend on 
whom one chiefly depends. P. 
The general liked it just as well- 
wanted a pipe (of the wine) for the 
C9mmander-m-chief. He's his royal 
highness's right-hand man. THACK- 
ERAY. 

HIS HEART IS IN THE RIGHT 

PLACE he is faithful and true- 
hearted. C. 

My daughters are plain, disin- 
terested girls, but their hearts are in 
the right place. THACKERAY. 



203 King 

RIGHT AS A TRIVET safe and 
sound ; in a thoroughly satis- 
factory condition. F. 

Don't you hear me tell you that we 
have found out all about the cheque, 
and that you're as right as a trivet ? 
A. TROLLOPE. 

Rirnmon. To BOW DOWN IN 

THE HOUSE OF RlMMON to 

conform to ceremonies of 
which one disapproves; to sub- 
ordinate one's religious con- 
victions to political or social 
expediency. Rimmon Was a 
Syrian god. Naaman, when 
he became a Jewish proselyte, 
asked Elisha the prophet's 
pardon for continuing to wor- 
ship with his royal master 
in the temple of Rimmon 
(2 Kings v. 18). 

Rimmon, whose delightful seat 
Was fair Damascus, on the fertile 

banks 
Of Abana and Pharpar, lucid 

streams. 

MILTON, Paradise Lost, i. 467. 

Others of the tell-tale letters show 
us in detail how Defoe acquitted 
himself of his engagements to the 
government bowing, as he said, in 
the house of Rimmon. MINTO. 



. - TO RING THE CHANGES 

ON ANYTHING to make use of 
an expression in a variety of 
ways ; to repeat something in 
various different forms. P. 

Some of our English authors of 
to-day have a trick of ringing the 
changes on a phrase until the ear 
gets rather weary of it. 

RINGING THE CHANGES a 
method of cheating whereby a 
customer gets back his own 
coin and keeps the change. S. 
He buys sixpence worth of 
currants, tenders half a crown, 
and gets back two shillings as 
change. Then he says, "Oh, 
here is a sixpence ; give me 
back the half-crown, " which the 
shopkeeper, taken unawares, 
probably does, and the cheat 
makes off with two shillings. 



To 



FORM A RING to make a 
union of manufacturers of a 



Riot 

certain article, so as to kee 
up the price. F. 

Experience has shown that th 
operation of these trusts, or rings, o 
syndicates, is completely bane: 
The Scotsman, 1890. 

Riot. To RUN RIOT to roam 
wildly and without restraint 
to be lawless in conduct. P. 

The day was bright and lovely, an 
I found my eyes running riot the 
same as they had done during my 
first ride on British soil.-BuR 

ROUGHS. 

And as he was whirled along on the 
London and North- Western, how the 
y ung soldier's thoughts ran riot ir 
the future.-G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE 



y ung soldier's thoughts ran riot in 

he future. ~G.J.WHYTE-_ 

When we lean back with folded 



arms in our corner of the family pew 
are we thinking of heaven's high 
King, and our position relatively to 
him? or is not rather our fancy 
running riot among our pleasanl 
sins? RHODA BROUGHTON. 

Rise. To TAKE or GET 

RISE OUT OF A PERSON to 

amuse oneself by making 
another angry or excited ; 
to play a trick on another. 
F. Originally, no doubt, 
taken from angling, where 
one casts a fly to get a fish 
to " rise." 

On one occasion I took what we 
used tocall a " rise" out of Calverley. 
Temple Bar, 1887. 

Road. A ROYAL ROAD a road 
without difficulties. P. 

There is no royal road to learning 
no short cut to the acquirement of 
any valuable art. TROLLOPE. 
IN THE ROAD forming an ob- 
struction. C. The same as 
" In the way." 
Although as strong as a horse, he 



K. L. STEVENSON. 
Roast. TO CRY ROAST MEAT - 

to be unable to keep one's good 
fortune to oneself; to pro- 
claim one's good luck C 

fn T th e ^ may imagine that to trumpet 
forth the praises of such a person 
would be crying roast meat, and call- 
Ing in partakers of what they intend 

t0 thelr U8e ' 



faS 16 f P/> 1 i 8 .\ beast not being able to 
fare well but he must cry roast meat, 



204 Rod 

would needs proclaim his good for- 
tune to the world below. C. LAMB. 

TO RULE THE ROAST Or ROOST 

to be supreme. See RULE. 
Rob. To ROB PETER TO PAY 
PAUL to take what right- 
fully belongs to one person 
to pay another. P. The origin 
of this expression is as follows : 
In 1540 the abbey church of 
St. Peter's, Westminster, was 
advanced to the dignity of a 
cathedral by letters patent; 
but ten years later it was 
joined to the diocese of London 
again, and many of its estates 
appropriated to the repairs of 
St. Paul's Cathedral. 

How was he to pay for it? The 
horse was not his. To leave it would 
be to rob Peter to pay Paul. Leisure 
Hour, 1887. 

Robe. GENTLEMEN OF THE 
LONG ROBE judges and bar- 
risters. P. 

. The genteel world had been thrown 
into a considerable state of excite- 
ment by two events, which, as the 
papers say, might give employment 
to the gentlemen of the long robe. 
THACKERAY. 

Rock. ROCKS AHEAD a phrase 
signifying that some danger 
menaces. P. The title of 
one of Mr. Greg's books is 
Cassandra, or Rocks Ahead 
that is, " the Prophetess 
of Evil, or Danger looming 
near." 

" Take him away again, sir. Don't 
let him stay. Rocks ahead, sir!" 
Mr. Bunker put up his hands in 
warning. BESANT. 

ON THE ROCKS hard up ; hav- 
ing no money left. S. 

ROCK - BOTTOM PRICES the 
lowest possible price. F. 

The largest stock of United States 
stamps of any dealer, at rock-bottom 
prices. 

Rod. TO PUT OR HAVE A ROD 

IN PICKLE to have a punish- 
ment in store. F. 

The house grows silent; theguests 
return to their homes, and to the rods 
their expectant wives have got in 
pickle for them. RHODA BROUGH- 
TON. 



Roger 21 

Rog-ep. THE JOLLY ROGER 
the black pirate's flag. P. 

The Hispaniola still lay where she 
had anchored; but, sure enough, 
there was the Jolly Roger the black 
flag of piracy flying from her peak. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

Roi. Roi FAINEANT a do- 
nothing king ; a sovereign 
only in name. P. The later 
Merovingian kings of France 
allowed all power to pass 
into the hands of the mayors 
of the palace, and themselves 
became rois faineants, or slug- 
gard kings. 

It was the old story the young 
Sultan who leaves everything to his 
grand vizier, and finds himself a roi 
faineant dethroned and imprisoned. 
Mistletoe Bough, 1887. 

Roland. To GIVE A RO- 
LAND FOR AN OLIVER to give 
tit for tat ; to retaliate in a 
forcible manner. P. 

He withdrew moodily to a bench, 
comforted, however, not a little by 
the thought that he had given Mrs. 
Carr a Roland for an Oliver. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

He then took a sheet of paper, and 
said he would soon give her a Roland 
for an Oliver. C. READE. 

Rolling:. A ROLLING STONE 

GATHERS NO MOSS a person 
who is always shifting about 
makes no money ; a restless 
wanderer remains poor. P. 
A proverb of Thomas Tusser's 
(1523-80). Mr. Laurence Oli- 
phant described his experi- 
ences, as a traveller, in a series 
of articles in Blackwood's Maga- 
zine, entitled " Moss from a 
Rolling Stone." 

He had been a rolling stone, which, 
if it had gathered no moss, had rolled 
on it (made no money, had used 
plenty of it). JAMES PAYN. 

Rome. ROME WAS NOT BUILT 
IN A DAT great results can- 
not be obtained in a short 
period ; patience is required 
in the production of any- 
thing valuable. P. 
"Yes," said Ella, amused by this 
very moderate compliment to her 
artistic skill ; "it is the one with the 



Rope 

coastguard station on it; but I have 
not had time to put that in yet." 

' I see ; Rome was not built in a 
day, was it?" JAMES PAYN. 

WHEN AT ROME DO AS THE RO- 
MANS DO or AS THE POPE DOES 

an ancient proverb recom- 
mending prudence in beha- 
viour. We must adapt our- 
selves to the prejudices and 
customs of others. St. Augus- 
tine found on arrival at Rome 
that they fasted on Saturday ; 
he complied with this custom, 
though it was strange to him. 

Room. ROOM AND TO SPARE 
plenty of accommodation ; 
ample room. C. 

To PREFER ANOTHER'S ROOM TO 
HIS COMPANY to wish an- 
other to leave you ; to dis- 
like his society. F. 

When one is not en rapport with 
one's friends about any particular 
subiect in which for the time they 
are interested, it is better to leave 
them, for it is certain they would 
rather have our room than our 
company. JAMES PAYN. 

Root. THE ROOT OF ALL EVIL 
the love of money. P. 
So called in the New Testa- 
ment (1 Tim. vi. 10). 

THE ROOT OF THE MATTER SOUnd 

religious principle ; deep-seated 
religious faith. P. A phrase 
much used by the Puritans, 
and borrowed from the Old 
Testament : " Seeing the root 
of the matter is found in me " 
(Job xix. 28). 

Thou dost not believe but what the 
Dissenters and the Methodists have 
got the root of the matter as well as 
the Church folks. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Rope. GIVE A ROGUE ROPE 

ENOUGH AND HE WILL HANG 

HIMSELF a wicked man is 
sure to bring about his own 
destruction. C. 

He is a bad man, and a dangerous 
man, but let him be. He is taking 
plenty of rope, and he will hang him- 
self one of these days. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 



Rose 



200 Round 



WITH A ROPE ROUND ONE'S NECK 
in imminent danger of a 
violent death. P. 

This (hanging) was the usual fate 
whichf ollowed failure in this country 
(Central America); and those who 
fought in it knew they were doing so 
witn a rope round theirnecks which 
doubtless improved their fighting 
qualities. Blackwood's Magazine, 
1886. 

A ROPE OF SAND something 
which has an appearance of 
strength, but is in reality 
useless. P. 

Where he (Love) sets his foot, the 
rocks bloom with flowers, or the 
garden becomes a wilderness accord- 
ing to his good-will and pleasure, and 
at his whisper all other allegiances 
melt away like ropes of sand. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

Rose. UNDER THE ROSE 
privately ; secretly ; in confi- 
dence. P. 

The Alsatians and we have some 
common enemies, and we have, under 
the rose, some common friends. 



leadows went to the Black Horse, 
the village public-house, to see what 
farmers wanted to borrow a little 
money, under the rose. C. REA.DE. 

John, saying nothing, continued 
to disobey the order, under the rose. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

A BED OF ROSES a luxurious 

place ; a very comfortable situ- 
ation. P. 

That James Ailsa, sensitive and 
shrinking, did not repose just then 
upon a bed of roses, may be easily 
understood. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

Life could not not have been a bed 
of roses for any of them. MRS. 
HENRY WOOD. 

Rot. ROT or ALL ROT hum- 
bug; nonsense. S. A favour- 
ite schoolboy phrase in Eng- 
land. 

By this time Mouti had got the 
horses up, and asked if he was to 
mspan. 

"No; wait a bit," said John. 
"Very likely it is all rot" (my fears 
are unfounded), he added to himself. 
-H. R. HAGGARD. 

Let's stick to him, and no more rot 
(nonsense), and drink his health as 
the head of the house. T. HUGHES. 

Rouge. ROUGE ET NOIR 
a well-known game of cards. 



French. Literally, " red and 
black." 

Those who are interested in the 
mysteries of rouge et noir BEACONS< 
FIELD. 

Roug-h. To ROUGH IT to en- 
dure hardships ; to do with- 
out comforts or luxuries. P. 

Take care of Fanny, mother; she is 
tender: and not used to rough it like 
the rest of us. JANE AUSTEN. 

The luxurious style which men 
who have served so long in the army, 
and of ten been obliged^ to rough it, 
know so well how to enjoy. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 
ROUGH ON hard lines for ; a 
hardship to ; unfortunate for. 
C. 

There was a [universal feeling, he 
assured his ward, of sympathy for 
him. Everybody felt that it was 
rough on such a man as himself to 
find that he was not of illustrious 
descent. BESANT. 

A ROUGH CUSTOMER an un- 
pleasant individual ; one whose 
manners are coa,rse. F. 

A ROUGH DIAMOND a person 
with an unattractive exterior, 
who possesses good qualities 
of mind and heart. C. 

As for Warrington, that rough 
diamond had not had the polish of a 
dancing-master, and he did not know 
how to waltz. THACKERAY. 

THE ROUGH SIDE OF THE TONGUE 

rebuke ; abuse. P. 

Johnson, after the manner of criti- 
cal bears, often licked with the rough 
side of his tongue. 

Round. A ROUND O nothing. 
F. 

Alfred told her the round 0, which 
had yielded to "the duck's egg," and 
was becoming obsolete, meant the 
cipher set by the scorer against a 
player's name who is out without 
making a run (at cricket). C. RE ADE. 

To GO THE ROUND to circulate ; 
to be carried to the different 
members of a society. P. 

In spite of the stories which have 
lately gone the round of the European 
press as to Russian mobilization 
on the frontier of Roumania, it ia 
probable that Russia will no longer 
pursue the policy of tearing off bits 
of Turkey. Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

IN ROUND NUMBERS mention- 
ing an approximate sum which 



Row 



has no small figures or frac- 
tions. P. 

The cost, in round numbers, will 
be 3,200. 

A ROUND ROBIN a document, 
signed by a number of indi- 
viduals, which has the names 
radiating from the centre, so 
that no name heads the list. P. 

Their names were reduced to 
writing, to be respectfully submitted 
to Johnson. But such was the awe 
entertained of his frown, that every 
one shrank from putting his name 
first to the instrument; whereupon 
their names were written about in a 
circle, making what mutinous sailors 
call a round robin." WASHING- 
TON IRVING. 

TO ROUND ON A PERSON to 

prove unfaithful to him; to 
behave treacherously to h m. 
F. 

"Jeremiah, if that venomous 
wretch Phoebe Farebrother had 
married you, would you be in dan- 
ger now?" 

"No; there would be nothing to 
trouble me,if she hadn't rounded on 
me. B. L. FARJEON. 

Row. A ROW OF PINS used 
to signify what is of small 
value or importance. F. 

"True," would be my mournful 
reply; "but he doesn't amount to a 
row of pins" (is a very insignificant 
person). ROBERT GRANT, quoted in 
Edinburgh Review, 1882. 

Row. A ROW ROYAL a grand 
fight ; a quarrel in which 
much noise is made. F. This 
" row " rhymes with " now," 
and is probably an abridge- 
ment of " rout." 

And the end is general exaspera- 
tion, with fines, notices of leave, 
warnings, cheekiness, retorts, and 
every element of a row royal. 
BESANT. 

Rub. To RUB DOWN to groom 
a horse. P. 
When his fellow beasts are weary 

He'll play the groom, give oats, and 
rub em down. DRYDEN. 
"I could milk a cow and groom a 
horse with anybody." 

"Ah !" said Nicholas gravely; "I'm 
afraid they don't keep many animals 
of either kind on board ship, Smike ; 
and even when they have horses, 
that they are not very particular 



207 Rule 

about rubbing them down." 
DICKENS. 

To RUB UP to renew; to re- 
fresh ; to brighten. C. 

You will find me not to have 
rubbed up the memory of what some 
in the city heretofore did. SWIFT. 

I shall be glad of the opportunity 
of rubbing up my, classics a bit ; I 
have been neglecting them lately. 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

THERE'S THE RUB that is the 
point which causes me trouble. 
P. A quotation from Shake- 
speare Hamlet's soliloquy. 
"How does your account with him 

stand?" 

"My account! ah, there's the rub." , 
EDMUND YATES. 

Rubicon. To CROSS or PASS 
THE RUBICON to take a 
decisive step ; to venture on 
a great and dangerous under- 
taking. P. The Rubicon is 
a small river which separated 
republican Italy from Cisalpine 
Gaul. Csesar, whose military 
command was limited to the 
latter province, arrived at this 
river, and after some hesita- 
tion crossed it. By doing so 
he broke the law, and became 
an invader of his country. 

Compelled to choose between two 
alternatives, he laid the matter 
before his wife, and awaited the 



before ins wife, ana awaited tne 
verdict from her lips. It came with- 
out hesitation. "It is your duty; 
the conseq uences we must leave. Go 



forward, and to victory." 

The die was thus cast, the Rubicon 
crossed. Quarterly Review, 1887. 

Ruddock. RED RUDDOCKS 

gold coin. S. 

Rule. To RULE THE ROOST or 
ROAST to manage ; to govern ; 
to have the chief say in every- 
thing. C. Probably the roost 
(meaning an assembly of fowls) 
is the original phrase. 

The new-made duke that rules the 
roast. SHAKESPEARE. 
Alma, slap-dash, is all again, 
In every smew, nerve, and vein ; 
Runs here and there, like Hamlet's 

While everywhere she rules the roast. 

PRIOR. 

Mrs. Nash was ruling the roast at 
Caromel's farm, being unquestion_ 



Rum 



208 



Run 



y both mistress and master. 

RS. HENRY WOOD. 

He was biding his time, and 
patiently looking forward to the days 
when he himself would sit authori- 
tative at some board, and talk and 
direct, and rule the roast, while 
lesser stars sat round and obeyed, as 
he had so well accustomed himself to 
do. A. TROLLOPS. 

Hecruised around in the rivers and 
inlets and sounds of North Carolina 
for a while, ruling the roost. Har- 
per's Monthly, 1887. 

Rum. A RUM START a strange 
condition of affairs. S. 

"Come," said Silver, struggling 
with his ashen lips to get the word 
out, "this won't do. Stand by to go 
about. This is a rum start." R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

A RUM CUSTOMER a person 
difficult to deal with. S. 
If they (the Dutchmen) could 



only keep their hands out of their 
breeches pockets, they would be 
rummer customers than they are 
now. CAPTAIN MARRVAT. 

Run. To RUN TO SEED. See 

SEED. 
To RUN RIOT to roam wildly. 

See RIOT. 

TO BE RUN OUT OF ANYTHING! 

to have no more in stock or in 
one's possession. F. 

I must buy some stamps ; I am run 
out of Queen's heads. S. BARING- 
GOULD. 

To RUN SHORT to be insuffi- 
cient. P. 

However, the house was finished 
at length and furnished furnished 
quietly and scantily, because the 
money ran short. Chambers's Jour- 
nal, 1887. 

SEVERAL DATS RUNNING sev- 
eral days in succession. C. 

Fine ladies would never consent to 
be asked for three Sundays running 
in the parish church. TREVELYAN. 

IN THE LONG-RUN. See LONG. 

TO RUN AMUCK Or AMOK to rush 

ahead violently ; to go at a 
headlong pace. P. A Malay 
phrase. Generally associated 
with violent and angry col- 
lisions. 

Ready to run amuck with any one 
who crossed him. DISRAELI. 

In their alarm they were ready to 
run amuck of everything. Man- 
chester Guardian, 1880. 



Satire's my weapon, but I'm too 

discreet 

To run amuck, and tilt at all I meet. 
POPE. 

But what do you mean by being 
rich? Is it to run amuck and then 
fail? BES ANT. 

TO RUN TO EARTH to SeCUTO 

the capture of ; to hunt down. 
C. 

It looks extremely ugly, to say the 
least of it, that all tne men who 
helped to run to earth the various 
members of the Ruthven family 
were richly rewarded. Spec tator, 
January 7, 1888. 

THE RUN OF ONE'S TEETH as 

much as one can eat. F. 

It was an understood thing that he 
was to have the run of his teeth at 
Hazelhurst, and that his muse was 
to supply all other wants. Miss 
BRADDON. 

THE RUN OF PEOPLE ; THE COM- 
MON RUN ordinary folks ; the 
average of people. C. 
Perhaps I am scarcely j 
of what is popularly caL___ 
common run of visitors at the " 
tramarine." JAMES PAYN. 

THE ORDINARY or COMMON RUN 
what is customary or usual. P. 

I saw at 9nce that these repasts are 
very superior to the common run of 
entertainments. THACKERAY. 

They had pretensions above the 
ordinary run. W. IRVING. 

To BE RUN AFTER to be popular 
and admired. C. 

" She gives herself wonderful airs, 
it seems," said Bassett, rather bit- 
terly. 

Marsh fired up. "So would any 
woman that was as beautiful, and as 
witty, and as much run after as she 
is." C. READE. 

She had been rather fond of society, 
and much admired and run after 
before her marriage. T. HUGHES. 

To RUN DOWN (a) (of a vessel or 
any body in motion) to sink 
or overturn it by collision. P. 

As he trotted on, he would call out 
to fast postmen ahead of him to get 
out of the way, devoutly believing 
that in the natural course of things 
he must inevitably overtake and run 
them down. DICKENS. 

(&) to speak against ; to 
criticise unfavourably. C. 

" How could you, could you deceive 
me so?" cried Ella pitifully. "Sup- 
pose I hadn't liked the poems?" 



Run 



209 



"Well, then, I should never have 
told you about them. But didn't you 
guess the truth when Felspar used to 
run them down, and protest that they 
were not half good enough for the 
illustrations?" JAMES PAYN. 

(c) to discover ; to hunt after 

and find. F. 

" Now, look here," said the captain : 
"you've run me down ; here I am. 
Well, then, speak up: what is it?" 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

(d) to stop through want of 

winding (of a watch). P. 

The mechanism of the miller's life 
stopped, but that of the watch went 
on, for Joe wound it up that same 
evening, and it had not since been 
allowed to, run down. S. BARING- 
GOULD. 

RUN DOWN in a low state of 
health. C. 

This evening, especially, he was 
much run down, and the unexpected 
chop brought a sense of physical 
comfort which he had not known for 
a great while. BESANT. 
To RUN IN to lock up. C. 

Fifty inebriates were run in for the 
night. 

RUN ON a phrase used in 
printing, to signify that a 
paragraph is to be continued 
without a break. 

A RUN UPON A BANK a sudden 
rush of depositors and holders 
of notes anxious to obtain 
their money. P. 

Jessop's bank has such a number 
of small depositors, and issues so 
many small notes. He cannot cash 
above half of them without notice. 
If there comes a run, he must have 
to stop payment this very day. 
Miss MULOCK. 

To RUN FOR IT to make off ; 
to hurry away. F. For it 
does not refer to any object, 
but is a mere extra phrase. 

But just then crack! crack! 
crack! three musket-shots flashed 
out of the thicket. Merry tumbled 
head-foremost into the excavation ; 
the man with the bandage spun 
round like a teetotum, and fell all 
his length upon his side, where he 



lay dead, but still twitching; and 
the other three turned and ran for it 
with all their might. K. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

To RUN UP A SCORE to buy 

articles on credit. F. 
Run up a score with that Jellico ! 

No: she'd not be such an Idiot as 

that. MRS. H. WOOD. 
TO RUN ON ANYTHING (of the 

mind) to be occupied with 
thoughts of it. P. 

In England everybody's head runs 
on dukes. JAMES PAYN. 

TO RUN A RIO J TO RUN ONE'S 

RIGS to play a trick ; to be 
riotous. F. 

While I live you shall be kept 
straight and like a lady ; and when 
I'm gone I shan't be none (any) the 
wiser if you go wrong and run your 
rigs as you have done. MRS. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

To RUN OVER (a) to overflow. 
P. 
He fills his famished maw, his 

mouth runs o'er 

With unchewed morsels, while he 
churns the gore. DRYDEN. 

(b) to read or consider in a 

hasty manner. P. 

If we run over the other nations 
of Europe, we shall only pass 
through so many different scenes of 
poverty. ADDISON. 
To RUN OUT (a) to come to an 
end. P. 

When a lease had run out, he 
stipulated with his tenant to resign 
up twenty acres without lessening 
his rent. SWIFT. 

(&) to digress ; to extend ; 

to expand. P. 

Nor is it sufficient to run out into 
beautiful digressions. ADDISON. 
To RUN UP (of a building) to 
erect speedily ; to build in 
a short time. C. 

This whole street was run up in 
three months' time. 
Rush. NOT WORTH A RUSH 
of no value. P. 

John Bull's friendship is not 
worth a rush. ARBUTHNOT. 



Sack 



210 



Salt 



Sack. TO GET THE SACK to 

be dismissed from employ- 
ment. F. A phrase common 
in French, where sac (sack) 
means knapsack. It has, 
therefore, reference to the 
" marching off " of a soldier. 

I say. I wonder what old Fogg 'ud 
(would) say. if he knew it. I should 
get the sack, I s'pose (suppose), eh? 
HUGH CONWAY. 

"And what is it to him?" retorted 
Evans with rude triumph; "he is 
no longer an officer of this jail; he 
has got the sack and orders to quit 
the prison." C. READE. 

Sackcloth. IN SACKCLOTH 
AND ASHES in grief and re- 
pentance. P. This is a 
Scriptural expression, and 
comes from the habit of 
Eastern nations on occasions 
of sorrow and remorse. 

A deplorable error and misfor- 
tune, for which humanity should 
mourn in sackcloth and ashes. J. 
S. MILL. 

She felt that she might yet recover 
her lost ground, that she might yet 
hurl Mr. Slope down to the dust 
from which she had picked him, and 
force her sinning lord to sue for 
pardon in sackcloth and ashes. A. 
TROLLOPE. 



1. A SAD DOG a merry 
fellow ; a gay man ; a man 
given to joking. F. 

I am afraid, ma'am, your son is 
a sad dog. 

Safe. SAFE BIND, SAFE FIND 
what is packed up securely 
will be easily got again. C. 

Safe bind, safe find you know the 
proverb. WILKIE COLLINS. 

Sail. TO SAIL CLOSE TO THE 

WIND to go very near to 
impropriety or danger. C. 
Said of a ship when nearly 
running into the wind. 

He had always been so especially 
hard on a certain kind of young 
English gentleman, who has sailed 
too close to the wind at home and 
who comes to the colony to be 
wlntewashed.-H. KINGSLEY. 
To MAKE SAIL (a) to start (of 
a sailing vessel). ( P. 



The captain gave orders for un- 
mooring ship, and we made sail, 
dropping down slowly with the 
d and tide. R. H. DA 



wind and tide. 
(&) to start ; 



ANA, JUN. 
to go oft. F. 



The signal to make sail for the 
drawing-room was given, and they all 
arose and departed. THACKERAY. 
TO STRIKE SAIL - (a) to lOWCP 

the sails. P. 

- (&) to be more humble ; to 
lessen one's pretensions. P. 

Must strike her sail, and learn 

awhile to serve 
While kings command. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

SAIL OF THE LINE warships. P. 

Before he left Egypt he (Nelson) 

burnt three of the prizes. They 

could not have been fitted for a 

passage to Gibraltar in less than a 

month, and that at a great expense, 

and with the loss of the service of at 

least two sail of the line. SOUTHEY. 

To SET SAIL. See SET. 

Sake. FOB SAKE'S SAKE for 

old times ; because of previous 

acquaintance. F. Equal to 

the Scotch " for auld lang- 

syne." 

I've a-been (I have been) long 
minded to do't for sake's sake. T. 
HUGHES. 
Yet for old sake's sake she is still, 

dears, 
The prettiest doll in the world. 

C. KlNGSLEY. 

Salt. "ABOVE THE SALT in 
a position of honour. P. The 
sa.t-cellar in the dining-hall 
of former times was placed 
half-way down the table, 
and marked the division be- 
tween the equals of the master 
in rank and his inferiors. 

BELOW THE SALT in an inferior 
position. P. 

His lordship's business, however, 
lies chiefly with those, so to speak, 
below the salt. G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

To EAT A MAN'S SALT to partake 
of his hospitality ; to be his 
guest. C. This, among the 
Arabs especially, constituted 



Salt 



a sacred bond between host 
and guest. It is considered 
unseemly for a person to eat 
a man's salt and then to speak 
ill of him. 

One does not eat a man's salt, as 
it were, at these dinners. There is 
nothing sacred in this kind of Lon- 
don hospitality. THACKERAY. 

To SALT A MINE to sprinkle 
some precious ore about it, 
so that it may appear rich 
and productive. C. A com- 
mon trick. 

If it hadn't been for the Dutch- 
man's story, they would never have 
known the mine was salted at all. 
St. Louis Democrat, April 17, 1888. 

TO THROW SALT ON THE TAIL 

a ludicrous phrase, applied to 
the attempted capture of 
something difficult to catch. 
Children are told they may 
catch birds if they succeed in 
throwing salt upon their tails, 
as in the nursery rhyme, 
Simple Simon went a-hunting 

For to catch a quail ; 
He got a pennyworth of salt 
To throw upon its tail. 

His intelligence is so good, that 
were you coming near nim with 
soldiers or constables or the like, I 
shall answer for it you will never lay 
salt on his tail. SCOTT. 

Plenty of subjects going about for 
them that know how to throw salt 
upon their tails. That's what's 
wanted. DICKENS. 

THE SALT OF THE EARTH the 

wholesome portion of a com- 
munity ; that portion of a 
community which has a good 
influence upon the rest. P. 
The expression is taken from 
Matthew v. 13 : "Ye are the 
salt of the earth." 

We require to call up before us 
the dissenting community of the 
period, with its strong underlying 
sense, not only that it was the salt 
of the earth, but that its bounden 
duty was to prove itself so. MBS. 
OLIPHANT. 

RATHER TOO SALT said of an 
excessive hotel bill or over- 
charge of any kind. S. 

To SPILL SALT. This is consi dered 
unlucky. It is also considered 
unlucky to help another to 



211 Same 

salt at table : " Help to salt, 
help to sorrow." 

Some of these eggs were for break- 
fast, and I ate them with a good 
appetite; but in helping myself to 
salt I spilled it, on which she 
started up with a scream. THACK- 
ERAY. 

WORTH ONE'S SALT of value ; 
serviceable. C. 

He loved to earn his money. He 
delighted to believe Toby was very 
poor, and couldn't well afford to 
part with a delight that he was 
worth his salt. DICKENS. 

Every man who is worth his salt 
has his enemies. T. HUGHES. 

TRUE TO ONE'S SALT faithful 
to one's employer. P. 

Faithful as they were to their salt. 
they had never so much as dreamed 
that the master whom they had 
served so loyally could betray them. 
J. A. FROUDE. 

WITH A GRAIN OF SALT. See 
GRAIN. 

Sam. To STAND SAM to enter- 
tain friends ; to pay for 
refreshments. S. Sam is a 
contraction for " Uncle Sam," 
a jocular name for the U.S. 
Government. The phrase, 
therefore, originally means to 
pay all expenses, as the govern- 
ment does. 



Samaritan. A GOOD SAMA- 
RITAN one who behaves in a 
kind and compassionate man- 
ner to those who have no claim 
upon him. P. See the parable 
of the Good Samaritan (Luke 
x. 29). 

I took leave of the good Saniaritan, 
who appointed two of my niggers to 
see me out of the wood. C. READE. 

It is seldom that debtors or good 
Samaritans waylay people under 
gas-lamps in order to force money 
upon them, so far as I have seen or 
heard. J. B. LOWELL. 

Same. ALL THE SAME (a) no 
difference. P. 

"It must be late in the afternoon, 
then," said the lawyer rather crossly. 
"All the same to me," acquiesced 
the Pater. MRS. H. WOOD. 
- (&) nevertheless. C. 

He may be a reformed character. 
All the same, I cannot employ him. 



Sanctum 



212 



Scarlet 



Sanctum. SANCTUM SANCTO- 
RUM a private retreat ; the 
room in a house set apart for 
one's private use. C. Latin. 

"If I might be allowed to pro- 
pose," said Lazarus, "I would sug- 
gest your following me into my 
sanctum sanctorum." S. BARING- 
GOULD. 

Sand. THE SAND HAS BUN 
OUT the appointed term has 
come to an end. P. Sand is 
here the sand in the hour-glass, 
by which time was formerly 
measured. 

"Hush, my child never talk of 
dying. Please God, you may have 
many years of life before you." 

len head a little 



She shook her golde 
sadly. "No. doctor, my sand has 
run out ; and perhaps it is as well." 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

A ROPE OF SAND. See ROPE. 

Sang 1 . SANG FROID cold 
blood ; calmness in the pres- 
ence of excitement or of 
danger. P. French. 

Then Robinson, who had never 
lost his presence of mind, and had 
now recovered his sang froid, made 
all four captives sit round together 
on the ground in one little lot. C. 
READB. 

Sans. SANS FA CON without 
observing strict etiquette. P. 
French. 
"Will you both come and dine 



Mr. Heighum?" 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

Satan. SATAN REPROVING SIN. 
This phrase is used when the 
person who finds fault with 
another is equally guilty of the 
bad habit. F. 

Satin. A YARD OF SATIN 

a glass of gin. London slang. 

Sauce. WHAT is SAUCE FOR 

THE GOOSE IS SAUCE FOR THE 

GANDER like things demand 
like treatment. C. 

Now, what's sauce for the goose is 
sauce for the gander: if you put a 
pressure on one class to make it 
tram itself properly, you must put a 
Pressure on others to the same end 
M. ARNOLD. 



Sauye. SAUVE QUI PEUT. 
This phrase is used when, in 
a time of danger, every one 
looks out for his own safety. 
P. French. 

If Swift had not been committed 
to the statesmen of the losing side, 
what a fine satirical picture we 
might have had of that general 
sauve qui pent (scramble out of 
danger) amongst the Tory party. 
THACKERAY. 

Savoip. SAVOIR VIVRE 
knowledge of polite life. P. 
French. 

Miss Nugent had always seen him 
in large companies, where he was 
admired for his savoir vivre and 
entertaining anecdotes. MARIA 
EDGE WORTH. 

Savour.- To SAVOUR OF THE 
PAN to betray its origin. F. 

TO SAVOUR OF THE FRYING-PAN 

to show signs of heresy. P. 
Bishop Nix of Norwich used to 
call the persons whom he suspected 
of heretical opinions "men savour- 
ing of the frying-pan." SOUTHEY. 

Say. To SAY ONE'S SAY to 
say all one has to say ; to tell 
one's own story in one's own 
way. C. 

Ladies and gentlemen, the work- 
man has said his say, and I hope the 
company have been amused. C. 
READE. 

Scapce. To MAKE ONESELF 
SCARCE to retire ; to with- 
draw ; to go off. F. 

As soon as ever they understood 
the object of their feared and re- 
spected commandant, a general de- 
sire manifested itself to make them- 
selves respectively and collectively 
scarce. H. R. HAGGARD. 

When a lady tells you decidedly 
she can't stop to talk to you, and 
when she appears up to her eyes in 
cleaning house or something of that 
sort, the next thing to do is to make 
yourself scarce. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Scarlet. THE SCARLET WOMAN 
the Church of Rome. P. A 
term borrowed from the Bible 
(Rev. xvii. 4). 

The latter old lady (Rome) may be 
the Scarlet Woman, or the beast 
with ten horns, if you will. J. R. 
LOWELL. 

Opinion ! it's what the believers in 
the Scarlet AVoman call inveterate 



Schoolmaster 



213 



Scratch 



contumacy; they used to burn people 
lor it. JAMES PAYN. 

SCARLET FEVER feminine pref- 
erence for military men. F. 
The British military colour is 
red. 

Schoolmaster. THE SCHOOL- 
MASTER IS ABROAD gOOd 

education is spreading every- 
where. P. Often, but wrongly, 
used hi the opposite sense to 
imply that the schoolmaster is 
absent, and is much needed. 

Let the soldier be abroad if he 
will, he can do nothing in this age. 
There is another personage a per- 
sonage less imposing in the eyes of 
some, perhaps insignificant. The 
schoolmaster is abroad, and I trust 
to him, armed with his primer, 
against the soldier in full military 
array. LORD BROUGHAM. , 

Scissors. SCISSORS AND PASTE 
the implements of a news- 
paper sub -editor, who cuts out 
extracts from other journals 
for his own. C. 

They saw in the applicant for the 
editorship merely an inferior, whose 
duty had probably lain in the 
scissors and paste department. 
BESANT. 

ScOPe. TO GO OFF AT SCORE 

(a) to lose control of oneself ; 
to speak in a rambling way. 
F. 

The conversation soon becoming 
general, lest the black-eyed should 
go off at score and turn sarcastic, 
that young lady related to Jemima 
a summary of everything she knew 
concerning Mr. Dombey his pros- 
pects, family, pursuits, and char- 
acter. DICKENS. 

Reuben would answer, going off at 
score in his old way. H. KINGSLEY. 

(&) to proceed without any 

hesitancy or break. C. 

In every year of a boy's school-life 
he learned to read two or three 
little books, and he usually had 
these so well by heart that he could 
go off at score if you started him on 
any given page. Nineteenth Century, 
Julyl&8S. 

Scot. SCOT FREE quite un- 
injured. P. 

I could not name a single woman 
of my acquaintance of whom I have 
not heard some story or other 
Even dear, good, old Hester doesn t 



come off scot free. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

SCOT AND LOT payment exacted 
by the parish. P. 

The right of voting at West- 
minster was in the householders 
paying scot and lot. MACAULAY. 

Scotch. SCOTCH FIDDLE the 
itch. S. 

A SCOTCH MARRIAGE an irreg- 
ular marriage. P. The 
Scotch marriage law required 
very few formalities. The 
village of Gretna Green, on 
the Border, was famous for 
such marriages. 

A good many years ago, when I 
was very young, and a most con- 
summate fool, I got myself en- 
trapped into a Scotch marriage. 
Miss BRADDON. 

A SCOTCH MIST a drizzling rain. 
C. 

"Drip, drip, drip!" cried Celia, 
pettishly: "one of those odious 
Scotch mists, that is as likely to last 
for a week as for an hour. Miss 
BRADDON. 

OUT OF ALL SCOTCH excessively. 
F. 

I DID NOT SCOTCH MY MIND I 

spoke plainly. F. 

Scotland. SCOTLAND YARD 
the London police head- 
quarters. C. 

He'll bleed you to your last six- 
pence, and, as likely as not, when 
you're cleaned out he'll write to Scot- 
land Yard. D. CHRISTIE MURRAY. 
Who set Scotland Yard on my 
heels? Who put you up to the fact 
that I am the man who called him- 
self Chicot? Miss BRADDON. 

Scrape. To SCRAPE ACQUAINT- 
ANCE WITH ANY ONE to in- 
sinuate oneself into terms of 
familiarity ; to make friends in 
a chance way. C. 

Scratch. To BRING ONE TO 
THE SCRATCH to cause one 
to come to a decision. C. 
The scratch is the line in a 
prize-ring up to which the 
boxers are led. 

I'm the fellow to bring old Bryce 
up to the scratch.-GEORGE ELIOT 

TO COME TO THE SCRATCH tO 

declare oneself ; to come to a 



Screw 

decision ; to act decisively. 
C. 

Indeed, had it not been for a little 
incident about to be detailed, it is 
doubtful if Mr. Bellamy would have 
ever come to the scratch at all. H. 
R. HAGGARD. 

Finally, to my patron's great con- 
tent, I consented to come up to the 
scratch, and Monday night I had 
the hardihood to present myself in 
the music-room of the Adelphi. C. 
READE. 

A SCBATCH RUNNER one who, 
in a handicap race, starts from 
the line, or starting-post, and 
gets no advantage. 

OLD SCRATCH the devil. F. 

"Sam," says she, "what on earth 
ails you, to make you act so like Old 
Scratch in your Sleep?" HALT BUR- 
TON. 

I'd as soon trust my affairs to Old 
Scratch as to him. MBS. H. WOOD. 

A SCRATCH TEAM Or PACK a 

number of individuals brought 
together accidentally or hastily. 
P. 

It seems now to be generally 
understood that Constantinople it- 
self is not to be defended by this 
country, unless Hungarian feeling 
should make Austria fight, and un- 
less a scratch pack of other allies 
can also be obtained. Fortnightly 
Review, 1887. 

Screw. A SCREW LOOSE 
something wrong ; a dis- 
turbing element. C. Said 
when two friends have a 
difference, or when something 
wrong or unpleasant happens 
in one's affairs. 

"Jefferson forgot to insert one 
little word," said I; "he should 
have said 'all white men.'" 

"Well," said he, "I must admit 
there is a screw loose somewhere. " 
HALIBURTON. 

Our landlady 'turned pale; no 
doubt she thought there was a 
screw loose in my intellect. O. W. 
HOLMES. 

AN OLD SCREW a miserly fellow. 
F. 

This gentleman and the guard 
knew bir Pitt very well, and laughed 
at him, a great deal. They both 
agreed in calling him an old screw, 
which means a very stingy, avari- 
cious person.-THACKERAY 
To DRAW ONE'S SCREW to draw 
one's salary. S. 



214 Sea 

He's a reporter on the Newi, and 
draws a handsome screw. BESANT. 

To SCREW ONE'S COURAGE TO THE 

STICKING-PLACE to resolve to 

act decisively ; to summon lip 
boldness to strike. P. A 
quotation from Shakespeare 
(Macbeth, act i. scene vii. 
line 60) : " But screw your 
courage to the sticking-place, 
and we'll not fail." 

He either did not fear him, or had 
screwed his courage to the sticking- 
place. JAMES PAYN. 
To PUT ON THE SCREW to limit 
one's credit; to be less bold 
and venturesome in business 
undertakings. C. 

TO PUT UNDER THE SCREW to 

coerce or compel. C. 
To PUT THE SCREW ON to bring 
pressure to bear on ; to apply 
force to. C. 

He knew where he could put the 
screw on George. THACKERAY. 
REGULARLY SCREWED drunk. 
S. 

Sea. AT SEA in a state of 
perplexity ; unable to give 
any explanation or solution. 
P. 

It was disgusting that these two 
young people for nis niece looked 
as much at sea (perplexed) as his 
son should be so wrapped up in 
one another and their commonplace 
affairs, as to have forgotten " Vorti- 
gern and Rowena" already. JAMES 
PAYN. 

I could not have been more at sea 
had I seen a Chinese lady from 
Pekin.-MRs. H. WOOD. 

HALF SEAS OVER the worse for 
liquor. S. 

To GET ONE'S SEA-LEGS ON 
to be able to Walk steadily on 
shipboard. F. 

Give him a little time to get the 
use of his wits in emergencies, and 
to know the little arts that do so 
much for a patient's comfort just 
as you give a young sailor time to 
get his sea-legs on and teach his 
stomach to behave itself and he will 
do well enough. 0. W. HOLMES. 

BEYOND SEAS on the other side 
of the ocean. P. 

The husband or lover may have 
been out of the way beyond seas, 



Sear 



215 



Sell 



perhaps a sailor, very likely. Miss 
BRADDON. 

BE A -HORSES the white breakers 
on the sea-coast. 

Alice's eyes are fixed on the 
white sea-horses. AUSTEN PEMBER. 

THE SON OF A SEA-COOK a con- 
temptuous term in use among 
seamen. S. 

If he got any more cheek from 
him, or any other post and rail son 
of a sea-cook. H. KINGSLEY. 

Sear. THE SEAR AND YELLOW 
LEAF old age. P. 

My way of life 

Is fallen into the sear, the yellow 
leaf. SHAKESPEARE. 
The baby in whose honour they 
had all met is a matron in the sear 
and yellow leaf. THOMAS HARDY. 

Season. IN SEASON AND OUT 
OF SEASON at suitable times 
and at unsuitable times. P. 

He made many enemies by these 
things, uttered in season and put 
of season. Macmillan's Magazine, 
1887. 

Second. To COME OFF SECOND 
BEST to be defeated. C. 

The Koh-i-noor, as we named the 
gentleman with the diamond, left 
us, however, soon after that "little 
mill," as the young fellow John 
called it, where he came off second 
best. 0. W. HOLMES. 

See. To SEE DOUBLE to be 
drunk. C* 

TO HAVE SEEN BETTER DATS 

to have been in a higher social 
position ; to have been in a 
better condition. P. Used 
both of persons and things. 

He's an Englishman, and, I guess, 
has seen better days. HALIBURTON. 

To SEE TO ANYTHING to attend 
to it ; to take care of it. P. 

He's above thinking of farming 
tools ; he sees to the bran-new gig. 
HALIBURTON, 

She (Lady Palmerston) saw to 
everything. Public Opinion, 1886. 
To BEE OFF to accompany to 
the place of departure ; to 
witness the departure of. P. 

Before he could say any more, 
in came Bessie herself, saying that 
the driver was waiting, and they 
went out to see her Bister off. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 



TO SEE WELL AND GOOD to 

think fit; to be willing; to 
consent. O. 

An' if your reverence sees well 
and good, I'll send my boy to tell 
em as soon as I get home. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

TO SEE A PERSON AT YORK FIRST 

an expression of extreme 
unwillingness, used where one 
is unwilling to do a service 
or grant a favour. F. 

If a girl like Miss Jennynge had 
done it though, as a matter of fact, 
she would have seen him at York 
first (was most unwilling to do such 
a thing) it would have been civil, 
and that's all. JAMES PAYN. 

Seed. To RUN TO SEED (a) to 
grow rank; to become weak 
by excess of growth. P. 

I am inclined to think that there 
is such a thing as architecture run to 
seed. Nineteenth Century, 1886. 

There is no use denying the fact 
that in the popular imagination the 
Byzantine Empire appears as a po- 
litical monstrosity ... a world, in 
short, which consisted in civilization 
run to seed. Scottish Review, 1886. 

Painters have been in the Bank 
House, which has been running to 
seed and calling in the most cry- 
ing manner to be done up. SARAH 
TYTLER. 

Mr. Monks is aware that I am not 
a young man. my dear, and also that 
I am a little run to seed. DICKENS. 

(&) to become seedy, or worn 

out. 

Seek. To SEEK lacking; de- 
ficient. P. 

The Germans in Greek 
Are sadly to seek. PORSON. 

He did very well understand that 
the adhesion of two such pretty and 
well-dressed girls to the cause, which 
is at present sadly to seek in the 
matter of young ladies, would greatly 
stimulate waverers and bring en- 
thusiasm into the ranks. BESANT. 

Sell. TO SELL ANOTHER MAN 

to deceive him. S. 

Did I ever tell you how the voung 
vagabond sold me last half?-T. 
HUGHES. 
TO SELL A MAN UP to force 

him to become a bankrupt ; 
to compel him to have his prop- 
erty brought to auction. P. 

Then he would send in his bills, 
sue her, sell her up, and drive her 



Send 



216 



Set 



to the last 



out of the _ 

farthing. BESANT. 
To SELL OUT (a) to leave the 

army. P. This phrase was 

used when commissions in the 

army were bought and sold, 

a system abolished by Mr. 

Gladstone's government in 

1869. 
It was in this period that he 

quitted the Guards, and sold out of 

the army. THACKERAY. 
(&) to get rid of investments ; 

to take ready money in place 

of investments. P. 
Still a great loss would be incurred 

by selling out of them at a period of 

depression. C. KEADE. 

To SELL OFF to part with the 
whole of anything. P. 

George heard of a farmer who was 
selling off his sheep about fifty miles 
off near the coast. C. READE. 

Send. To SEND TO COVENTRY 
to exclude from companion- 
ship. F. " Sent to Coventry " 
signifies in disgrace or dis- 
favour with one's associates. 
Most used by schoolboys, who 
inflict the punishment fre- 
quently on their fellows. See 
BOYCOTT. 

In fact that solemn assembly, a 
levy of the school, had been held, at 
which the captain of the school had 
got up. and given out that any boy, 
in whatever form, whoshould thence- 
forth appeal to a master, without 
having first gone to some prepositor 
and laid the case before him, should 
be thrashed publicly and sent to 
Coventry. T. HUGHES. 

TO SEND ONE ABOUT ONE'S 

BUSINESS to dismiss peremp- 
torily. P. 

Upon this I was, naturally, molli- 
fied^and sent himabout his business, 
hoping to have seen the last of him 
at Highmore. C. READE. 

Seniopes. SENIORES PRIORES 
elders first ; let the older 
people take precedence. C. 
Latin. 

We say at school, Seniores priores 
(let favour go by seniority). C. 

Sere. See SEAR. 
Serve. To SERVE A PERSON 
our to retaliate upon him 



for feal or fancied wrongs ; 
to wreak revenge on him. C. 
"Little brute," cried Hawes vi- 
ciously ; " I'll work him ; I'll serve 
him out." C. READE. 

TO SERVE A MAN RIGHT to be 

a right treatment for him ; 
to punish him deservedly. C. 

He knocked him clean off his legs 
on to the deck, where he lay stunned 
and bleeding. " Serve him right," 
cried Charlie from the hatchway. 
G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 
To SERVE ONE'S TURN to be 
useful on occasion ; to assist 
or prove serviceable when 
needed. P. 

His connection with the press 
serves our turn, Harry, doesn't it? 
EDMUND YATES. 

TO SERVE ONE A BAD TURN to 

do him an injury. C. 

You mean well, I have no doubt ; 
but you never in your life served 
me a worse turn than when you pre- 
vented me from hitting that man. 
W. E. NORRIS. 

Set. A SET DOWN a chance 
ride in a passing vehicle. F. 

Part of the journey I performed on 
foot ; but whenever I could I got a 
set down, because I was impatient to 
get near the Land's End. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

To SET ABOUT to commence ; 
to made preparations for. P. 
They gave him hints that he might 
set about doing something to provide 
himself with a living. WILLIAM 
BLACK. 

To SET ONE'S CAP AT (of a 
woman) to try to captivate ; 
to try to obtain as a husband. 
P. 

" You won't like everything from 
India now, Miss Sharp," said the old 
"eshad 
ly old 

ici-iuw rani \>\j .uio DUU, j-^ave a care, 
Joe : that girl is setting her cap at 
you. THACKERAY. 

To SET ONE'S FACE AGAINST to 
oppose resolutely. P. 

Nor was it in the least on aesthetic 
grounds that he had set his face 
against the whole scheme. Good 
Words, 1887. 

TO SET THE TEETH ON EDGE to 

irritate ; to grate upon the 
feelings. P. 

His nails also were flat and shape- 
less, and he used to be continually 



iuu wuu t line cvciytu 

India now, Miss Sharp." sai 
gentleman ; but when the Is 
retired after dinner, the 
fellow said to his son, " Ha' 



Set 



217 



Set 



gnawing them till he had succeeded 
m getting them down to the quick, 
and they were a sight to set a Chris' 
tian's teeth on edge. S. WARREN. 
To SET ONE'S FACE LIKE A FLINT 
to be resolute and deter- 
mined. P. 

They were a couple of lion-like 
men ; they had set their faces like a 
flint.-BuNYAN. 

TO SET AGAINST Or OVER AGAINST 

to place on the opposite side 
from, so as to counterbalance 
or make even. P. 

There were cows to be paid for, 
with the smith and farrier's bill, to 
l)e set against the rent of the 
demesne. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

In fact, one vice is to be set over 
against another, and thus something 
like a balance is obtained. R. H. 
DANA. 

To SET ON FOOT to start; to 
begin. P. 

He did not stop to set on foot an 
inquiry into his train of thought or 
state of feeling. DICKENS. 

To SET THE THAMES (or A RIVER) 
ON FIRE to be conspicuously 
able ; to be a man of light 
and leading. P. 

From nearer home we have the 
well-known expression, " He will 
never set the Thames on fire." It is 
thus explained. Our ancestors used 
a wooden mill, or quern, which 
sometimes took fire when worked 



of its becoming ignited were con- 
siderably minimized. A II the Year 
Round, 1887. 

I hardly expect him to set the 
Thames on fire; but I hope his 
mother will never have reason to be 
ashamed of him. W. E. NORRIS. 

These lead lives colourless, so far 
as the nation's advancement is con- 
cerned. They set no stream on fire, 
and count their duty to the state 
satisfied when they have paid their 



WELL SET UP well built ; hav- 
ing a powerful frame. C. 

He was well set up ; a big, hand- 
some fellow, with brown hair 
straight and short, a smooth cheek, 
and a full moustache. BESANT. 

To SET OFF (a) to start. P. 

He set off for Bedford early that 
morning. C. READE. 

Vivian set off the next day for Sir 
Badmore Scrope's. BEACONSPIELD. 



(&) to embellish ; to show to 

advantage. P. 

That is a becoming glass, Gwen- 
dolen ; or is it the black and gold 
colour that sets you off? GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

Miss Crawley had a good taste, 
she liked natural manners a 
little timidity only set them off. 
THACKERAY. 

A SET-OFF what counter-bal- 
ances. P. 

As a little set-off against the pig- 
master's bills, I make heavy entries 
against the good squire. BLACK- 
MORE. 

Others talked of the shop as infra, 
dig. ; the set-off against which was 
the education and beauty of the 
bride. CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 

To SET IN to become settled in 
a particular state. P. 

The afternoon set in dull, and 
toward evening the sea freshened 
sufficiently to send most of the 
passengers below. H. R. HAGGARD. 
To SET SAIL to start on a voyage. 
P. 

Henry had taken the child Bhe 
brought him in his arms, and set sail 
in a vessel bound for Africa. MRS. 
INCHBALD. 

My friend the captain never in- 
quired after me, but set sail with as 
much indifference as if I had been on 
board. GOLDSMITH. 

To SET UP to restore ; to re- 
establish. P. 

So he tried everything he could 
think of to get set up (strong again). 
T. HUGHES. 

" It says, by the way, that the Duke 
of Dunderhead is certainly making 
up to Mrs. Thumps, the rich Night- 
man's widow; a precious good hit 
that, isn't it ? You know the duke's 
as poor as a rat ! " 

'Oh, that's no news. It will quite 
set him up (restore him to wealth), 
and no mistake." S. WARREN. 
To SET UP FOR to pretend to 
be. P. 

Henry White swore he would take 
rooms at the Tremont House and set 
up for a gentleman. R. H. DANA, 

JUN. 

The youth, before setting up for a 
gentleman, had been an attorney's 
apprentice. W. IRVING. 
To SET STORE BY. See STORE. 

TO SET LITTLE BY to Value 

slightly ; to despise. P. 

His prince, the lord of that country, 
will shortly come into these parts 



Settle 



218 



Shake 



and will know the reason, if they 

have any, why his neighbours set so 

little by him. BUNYAN. 
A SET-TO a fight. F. 
AT A DEAD SET in a state of 

stagnation ; at a standstill. 

P. 

TO MAKE A DEAD SET AT to 

single out as the object of 
one's attentions. C. 

The old lady made a dead set at 
the parson. 

Settle. To SETTLE A MAN'S 
HASH to kill him. S. 

He received some terrible kicks on 
the back and legs. "Give it him 
on the head ! ""Kick his life out ! " 
" Settle his hash !" C. READE. 

I take no blame for settling his 
hash. R. L. STEVENSON. 
TO SETTLE DOWN to adopt 

a regular mode of life ; to 
engage in one's life-work ; 
to cease to wander about. 
P. 

"Surely," thought Angela, "he 
is settling down ; he will soon find 
work." BESANT. 

Seven. THE SEVEN DEADLY 
SINS pride, envy, wrath, sloth, 
covetousness, gluttony, and 
lust. P. 

Sure, it is no sin ; 

Or of the deadly sins it is the least. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

Vulgarity is an eighth deadly sin, 
added to the list in these later days. 
J. R. LOWELL. 

SEVEN - LEAGUE BOOTS boots 
which carried their wearer at 
an extraordinarily rapid rate. 
P. An expression borrowed 
from a well-known fairy tale. 

Mr. Carlyle would be much better 
if he did.n't take health by. the 
throat (as it were), bathing as if he 
were a little boy in the Serpentine, 
walking as if he had seven-league 
boots. JANE CARLYLE. 

THE SEVEN SLEEPERS seven 
Christian youths who fled 
from persecution in the third 
century, and fell asleep in a 
cave. They did not awake 
until their discovery more than 
two hundred years later. The 
story occurs in various forms. 

A roasted ox and a lethargy like 
that of the seven sleepers would 



scarce restore you to the use of 
your refreshed and waking senses. 
SCOTT. 

A SEVEN PATS' WONDER some- 
thing which absorbs public 
interest for a short time and 
then is forgotten. C, See 
NINE. 

The seven days' wonder about the 
boy had almost died away. HUGH 
CON WAY. 

Sewn. SEWN UP intoxicated. 
S. 

He took care to tell you that some 
of the party were pretty considerably 
" sewn up a too. 1 THACKERAY. 

Shade. To PALL INTO THE 
SHADE to cease to attract 
attention. P. 

But, finally, the original Semite 
fell more and more into the shade. 
The Aryan came to the front. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

Shake. To SHAKE A LEO- 
(a) to dance. F. 

I explain that the stage is ready for 
them, if they like to act; or the 
concert-room, if they will sing; or 
the dancing- room, should they wish 
to shake a leg. BESANT. 

(&) to move about. F. 

He was so bad that father never 
let him come into the house, w 
he said, honesty alone should s 
a leg. BBS ANT. 

To SHAKE ONE'S HEAD to in- 
dicate disapproval, doubt, or 
dissent. P. 

When he read the note from the 
two ladies, he shook his head, and 
observed that an affair of this sort 
demanded the utmost circumspec- 
tion. GOLDSMITH. 

NO GREAT SHAKES Qf little 

value or account. S. 

Oatmeal is no great shakes at 
best. It ain't even so good for a 
horse as real yellow Indian corn. 
HALIBURTON. 

TO SHAKE BY THE HAND OF SHAKE 

HANDS to salute by grasping 
the hand. P. 

But she smiles as she shakes her by 
the hand. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

He said, " I wish you to abstain 
from writing to Sir Charles, and him 
to visit you only once more before 
his marriage, just to shake hands 
and part, with mutual friendship 
and good wishes. C. READE. 



Sharp 



219 



Shilling 



To SHAKE THE ELBOW to gam- 
ble with dice. 

TO SHAKE THE DUST OFF ONE'S 

FEET <ct) an act showing one's 
displeasure with any place, 
and a determination never to 
return thither. P. 

He (Beaust) had been regarded by 
the Austrians as the author of their 
misfortunes, and wrote from their 
capital to a friend in Saxony: "To- 
morrow I leave Vienna. I will 
shake the dust off my feet. I will 
not return there in a hurry." 
Quarterly Review, 1887. 

Soon after the interview just re- 
corded, he left Barchester, shaking 
the dust off his feet as he entered the 
railway-carriage. A. TROLLOPE. 

(6) to cease travelling. C. 

At length the pilgrim shook the 
dust off his feet at Heidelberg. 
BEACONSFIELD. 

To SHAKE IN ONE'S SHOES to 
be in a state of apprehension 
or fright. C. 

The children's copybooks, etc., 
were laid out for inspection, while 
the embyro scholars manifestly 
shook in their shoes before the ver- 
dict to be pronounced on their halt- 
ing performance. SARAH TYTLER. 

Sharp. SHARP PRACTICE 
grasping behaviour ; conduct 
which is defensible on legal 
grounds, but is yet considered 
ungenerous. P. 

''I call this," said Tommy, in a 
great rage, "confounded sharp 
practice." BESANT. 

Sheep. To CAST or MAKE 
SHEEP'S EYES to look at 
with amorous eyes. C. 

The horrid old colonel, with a head 
as bald as a cannon ball, was making 
sheep's eyes at a half-caste girl 
there. THACKERAY. 

BLACK SHKEP bad characters. 
C. 

" We are aa liable to have black 
sheep here as elsewhere," the arch- 
deacon replied. A. TROLLOPE. 

Sheet. THREE SHEETS IN THE 
WIND half-intoxicated. F. 

Captain Cuttle, looking, candle in 
hand, at Bunsby more attentively, 
believed that he was three sheets in 
the wind, or, in plain words, drunk. 
DICKENS. 



Shelf. LAID or PUT ON THE 
SHELF no longer engaged in 
active work ; set aside to 
make room for more active 
workers. P. 

What is a man to do when he's 
put on the shelf and has no home? 
Good Words, 1887. 

Shell. To SHELL OUT to pay 

out money. S. 

We can always make the old villain 
shell out, as he ought. MRS. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

Shield. THE OTHER SIDE OF 
THE SHIELD the other side 
of any question. P. The story 
is told of two knights who, 
meeting at a post from which 
a shield was suspended, fell 
to quarrelling about the mate- 
rial of which the shield was 
composed. The one held it 
to be gold, the other silver. 
From words they came to 
blows. After a bitter struggle 
they discovered that both were 
right, since the one side was 
gold, and the other side silver. 

Shift. TO MAKE SHIFT to 

contrive with difficulty. P. 

He had erected a mill in miniature 
for the diversion of Edward's infant 
grandson, and made shift in its con- 
struction to introduce a pliant bit of 
wood that answered with its fairy 
clack to the murmuring of the rill 
that turned it. H. MACKENZIE. 

By my other labours I make shift 
to eat and drink and have good 
clothes. GOLDSMITH. 

Shilling. To TAKE THE 
QUEEN'S SHILLING or GET THE 
SHILLING to become a soldier. 
P. Soldiers on enlisting re- 
ceived a shilling from the 
recruiting sergeant as a sign 
of the bargain having been 
concluded. 

It was then that, not caring what 
became of me, I took the Queen's 
shilling, and became a soldier. B. L. 
FARJEON. 

"I am ready enough to become a 
recruit," said Allen. 

"But you can't find the man with 
the ribbons and the shilling (the 
recruiting-sergeant). Patience '.The 
recruiting-sergeant is always about. 
You will get that shillmg."-BESANT. 



Shine 



220 



Shoot 



Shine. To TAKE THE SHINE 
OUT OF to surpass ; to out 
shine ; to outvie. F. Also 
but less correctly, OFF OF. 

You will become a rival potentat 
to my governor. You will take the 
shine out of him directly. C. READE 

He is the first man of the age ; anc 
it's generally allowed our doctors 
take the shine off of all the world. 
HALI BURTON. 

Ship. WHEN ONE'S SHIP COMES 
IN or HOME when one's for- 
tune is made. F. 

Yesterday afternoon I brought my 
long business to a head : the snip has 
come home ; one more dead lift, and 
I shall cease to fetch and carry for 
the Princess Ratafia. R. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

The wealthy relative, of whom he 
borrowed for Douglas's sake, pro- 
posed to supply him with an income 
of a hundred pounds per annum 
until the major's next expected 
ship should come in. D. CHRISTIE 
MURRAY. 

SHIP-SHAPE neatly arranged. F. 
THE SHIP OF THE DESERT the 
camel. P. 

Shoe. To SHOE A GOOSE or A 
GOSLING to engage in a fool- 
ish or fruitless undertaking. F. 
" The smith that will meddle with 
all things may go shoe the goslings," 
is an old proverb. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

To DIE IN ONE'S SHOES to die 
on the scaffold. F. 



tenant Treegooze, 
And there is Sir Carnaby Jenks of 

+Vo T)!IIA 



And there is Mr. Fuse, and Lieu- 

-..v* V 6r6 
the Blues, 
All come to see a man die in his 
shoes. BARHAM. 

TO STAND IN ANOTHER'S SHOES 

to occupy the position held by 
another. C. 

Don't think, if you value your 

peace of mind, to stand in my shoes 

wnen they are vacant. THACKERAY. 

TO TREAD THE SHOES STRAIGHT 

to be upright in one's con- 
duct. F. 

TO THROW AN OLD SHOE AFTER 

ONE. This is done at wed- 
dings to wish good luck to the 
person. An old shoe means 
" long life." 



To SHAKE IN ONE'S SHOES to be 
in a state of nervous terror. C. 

5 When Mrs. Proudie began to talk 
the souls of the people he always 
shook in his shoes. A. TROLLOPE. 
TO BE IN ANOTHER PERSON'S 

SHOES to be in the same posi- 
tion as another. C. 

" Oh, would I be in Arthur's shoes 
after fourth lesson?" said the little 
boys to one another. T. HUGHES. 

TO STEP INTO ANOTHER PERSON'S 

SHOES to take the position 
previously occupied by an- 
other. C. 

" That will do, sir," he thundered ; 
"that will do. It is very evident 
now what would happen if you 
stepped into my shoes after my 
death." Good Words, 1887. 

To WAIT FOR ANOTHER'S SHOES 
to look forward with expec- 
tation to his death. C. 

The old cock means to crow yet 
over some that are waiting for his 
shoes. SCOTT. 

Cornelis, the eldest, who had made 
calculations of his own, and stuck to 
the hearth, waiting for dead men's 
shoes. C. READE. 

QUITE A DIFFERENT PAIR OF 

SHOES an altogether differ- 
ent case. F. Probably a cor- 
ruption of the French tout 
autre chose, " an altogether 
different thing." 

Promise and performance are a 
very different pair of shoes. BLACK- 
MORE. 

WHERE THE SHOE PINCHES 
where the difficulty or cause 
of discomfort lies. C. 

"He discharged me from visiting 
the premises." 

" That was not very polite." 

"And threatened to horsewhip me 
the next time I came there." 

"Oh, that is where the shoe 
pinches" (what irritates you). C. 
READE. ? 

" I do not believe it : and, anyhow, 
I will not have you flirting with her 
in my presence. 

"Ah, that is where the shoe 
pinches." FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Shoot. TO SHOOT THE PIT to 

cheat a landlord by leaving 
without paying the rent. S. 
Compare " moonlight flitting" 
and. " shooting of moons," 
which see. 



Shop 

SHOOTING OF MOONS. 



221 
See MOON. 

Shop. TO TALK SHOP to 

speak exclusively of one's own 
business or professional affairs. 
F. 

"When he had a few clergymen 
round him, how he loved to make 
them happy ! " 

"Never talked shop to them, did 
he?" said the archdeacon. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

Short. SHORT COMMONS want 
of sufficient supplies ; scanty 
rations. C. 

He deserves to be soundly rated 
and kept upon short commons for 
backing bills. Good Words, 1887. 

In the midst of short commons, 
anxiety, and hard work. H. KINGS- 
LEV. 

A SHORT CUT a quick path; a 
path which saves distance ; a 
method which saves time. P. 



by 



are 

poin _ .._. 

and Anastasia, accompa 
Vernon and Felspar, could 
approaching them by a short cut. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Catechisms of history, manuals of 
arithmetic, short cuts to a smattering 
of science, and guides to universal 
knowledge. Edinburgh Review, 1887. 

SHORT SHRIFT little time to re- 
pent ; btit a small interval 
before the infliction of pun- 
ishment. P. Shrift was the 
priest's absolution. 

The neighbours would form a posse 
in a twinkling, and chase the thief 
night and day till they secured him ; 
and then short shrift for the poor 
wretch. Macmillan's Magazine, 1887. 

THE SHORT AND THE LONG OF IT 

the whole matter stated 
briefly; the sum and sub- 
stance of the matter. P. 

The short and the long of it was, I 
couldn't tell what to make of her. 
MAKIA EDGEWORTH. 

And the short and the long of the 
matter was, that while we could get 
several who were willing enough to 
ride to Dr. Livesey's, which lay in 
another direction, not one would 
help us to defend the inn. K. L. 
STEVENSON. 
Shot. SHOT IN THE LOCKER 
funds in hand. F. 

"As long as there's shot in the 
locker, she shall want for nothing, 



Show 

said the generous fellow. THACK- 
ERAY. 

Shoulder. To TURN, SHOW, 

Or GIVE THE COLD SHOULDER 

to treat coolly ; to repulse. P. 

Since I discarded him for Nave, he 
has turned the cold shoulder upon 
me. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

I'm afraid people are rather in- 
clined to show them the cold shoul- 
der. Good Words, 1887. 

Some time ago you had a friend 
whose companionship I thought was 
doing you no good, and I gave him 
the cold shoulder. JAMES PAYN. 

TO HAVE AN OLD HEAD ON YOUNG 

SHOULDERS to be wise be- 
yond one's years. C. 

You appear to have an old head 
upon very young shoulders. CAP- 
TAIN MARRYAT. 

To RUB SHOULDERS to come in- 
to close contact. C. 

Here was a dreary outlook for per- 
sons who knew democracy, not by 
rubbing shoulders with it lifelong, 
but merely from books. J. K. 
LOWELL. 

WITH ONE'S SHOULDER TO THE 
COLLAR hard at work. C. 

Have I not always had my shoulder 
to the collar? A. TROLLOPE. 
To PUT ONE'S SHOULDER TO THE 
WHEEL to commence work- 
ing in earnest. C. 

" Still, you have only to put your 
shoulder to the wheel, insisted the 
secretary. "Time and patience con- 
quer everything." JAMES PAYN. 

It was only because he had never 
yet put his shoulder to the wheel. 
Miss BRADDON. 

ShOW. - TO SHOW THE DOOR to 

dismiss without ceremony. P. 

The upshot of the matter for that 
while was, that she showed both of 
them the door. R. L. STEVENSON. 
To SHOW OFF to make a vain 
display; to display for the 
purpose of exciting admira- 
tion. P. 

For this year the Wellesburn re- 
turn match and the Marylebone 
match are played at Eugby, to .the 
great delight of the town and neigh- 
bourhood: and the sorrow of those 
aspiring young cricketers who have 
been reckoning for the last three 
months on showing off at Lords 
ground T. HUGHES. 
v 
Osborne cried, 



. 

You should have seen her dress 
t, Emmy," 



for court, 



Shrub 

laughing. " She came to my sisters 
to show it off." THACKERAY. 

To SHOW IN to conduct into a 
house. P. 

"Without suffering me to wait long, 
my old friend embraced me with the 
most cordial welcome, showed me in, 
and assured me that he considered 
himself peculiarly fortunate in hav- 
ing under his roof the man he most 
loved on earth. GOLDSMITH. 

To SHOW TO A BOOM to conduct 
thither. P. 

She was so fatigued with the 
journey, she wished to be shown 
to her room at once. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

To SHOW ONE'S TEETH to dis- 
play signs of anger. C. 

To SHOW ONE'S HAND to reveal 
one's plan of action. P. 

Mr. Heyton shows his hand. 
JAMES PA YN. (Chapter heading.) 

From time to time a man must 
show his hand, but save for one 
supreme exigency a woman need 
never show hers. W. D. HOWELLS. 

To SHOW A PERSON UP to reveal 
to the world a person's real 
character ; to disclose a per- 
son's villainy or hypocrisy. P. 
"You are a liar, Uncle Coetzee," 
was the cool answer. " English with 
the English, Boer Avith the Boer. 
You blow neither hot nor cold. Be 
careful lest we show you up." H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

A SHOW OP HANDS a display of 
right hands in voting. P. A 
chairman, wishing for the deci- 
sion of a question by a meet- 
ing, often calls for a show of 
hands. 

Shrub. To SHRUB ABOUT to 
get along tolerably well ; to 
be in a fairly good state. F. 

Shut. To SHUT UP to be 
silent. F. 

"True for you. old man," said 
Trevor, good-naturedly laughing. 
"Pitch that fellow Dick over the 
arm of the chair and make him shut 
up. Blackwood's Magazine, 1886. 

You shut up, Johnny. If I pay 
Reed out of my own pocket, it's noth- 
ing to anybody." MRS. H. WOOD. 

To SHUT A PERSON UP to silence 
him. F. 

. Though we agree with Mr. Skelton 
m wishing that we had also Maillard's 
account of it, we cannot doubt that 



222 Sight 

the reformer (to use the colloquial ex- 
pression) shut him up. Athenaeum, 
1887. 

TO SHUT THE STABLE DOOR WHEN 
THE STEED IS STOLEN to take 

precautions when too late. P. 

And then it all came out the old 
story of shutting the stable-door on 
the stolen steed, and separation, 
when the mischief of constant com- 
panionshiphadbeendone. Mistletoe 
Bough, 1887. 

To SHUT UP SHOP to close busi- 
ness ; to cease working. F. 

About this time, in the beginning 
of 1824, the Jamaica Ginger Beer 
Company shut up shop exploded, 
as Gus said, with a bang ! THACK- 
ERAY. 

Sick. THE SICK MAN Tur- 
key. P. A name given con- 
temptuously, in view of its 
expected partition. 

It was with Sir Hamilton Seymour, 
the English ambassador, that the 
Czar held the famous conversation 
on the subject of the Sick Man, 
and the partition of Turkey, when 
Egypt was to have been England's 
share. Public Opinion, 1886. 

Side. To PUT ON SIDE to be 
arrogant and assuming in 
manner. F. 

You will put on all the side you 
please when you are outside the 
office. BESANT. 

Sight. OUT OF BIGHT in- 
comparably ; beyond com- 
parison. C. 

She was walking back through the 
quiet streets of the old-fashioned 
market-town to the Bank House, 
with its peculiar importance and 
dignity, out of sight the best house 
in Newton. SARAH TYTLER. 
A BILL AT SIGHT a bill which 
will be cashed when presented, 
and not after three or six 
months. P. 

I'll pay you off that kiss with in- 
terest; I'll answer a bill at sight 
for it (pay at once), I will, you may 
depend. HALIBURTON. 

To have stored moral capital 
enough to meet the drafts of death 
at sight must be an unmatched 
tonic. J. R. LOWELL. 
A SIGHT OF THINGS a great 
number of things. F. 

Bought a sight of furniture 
couldn't hardly get some of it up- 
stairs. O. W. HOLMES. 



Silent 



223 



Sine 



A SIGHT FOR SORE EYES a pleas- 
ant object ; something pleas- 
ant to see. F. 

"I hope," said she, "my lady will 
come and see me when my lamb is 
with me; a sight of her would be 
good for sore eyes." C. KEADE. 

Silent. SILENT AS THE GRAVE 
wholly silent ; saying noth- 
ing ; making no noise. P. 

"Livesey," said the squire, "I'll 
be as silent as the grave." E. L. 
STEVENSON. 

Silk. - TO MAKE A SILK PURSE 

OUT OF A sow's EAR to make 
a handsome article out of 
coarse and inferior materials. 
C. 

He flung the Phdnomenologie to 
the other end of the room, exclaim- 
ing, "That smart young fellow is 
quite right! it is impossible to 
make a silk purse out of a sow's 
." M. 
" 



ARNOLD. 



. 

" Ay," said the warder, in passing ; 
"you may lecture the bloke (fellow), 
but you will not make a silk purse 
out of a sow's ear." C. READE. 
THE SILKEN TIE the soft and in- 
visible bonds of love and affec- 
tion. P. 
True love's the gift which God has 

given 

To man alone beneath the heaven. . . 
It is the secret sympathy, 
The silver link, the silken tie, 
Which heart to heart, and mind to 

In body and in soul can bind. 

SCOTT. 

To TAKE SILK to be made a 
King's Counsel (K.C.) at the 
English bar, and be entitled 
to wear a silk robe. 

Weston became a distinguished 
barrister and In due course took 
silk. 

Silver. EVERY CLOUD HAS A 
SILVER LINING- there is al 
ways some ray of hope in the 
darkest condition of affairs. 
P. 

"I have a bad headache to-day," 
said Helen, by way of excuse for her 
tears. " It has been gloomy weather 



Gloomy within and without," he 
assented, giving a meaning to her 
words that she had not meant to 
imply. "But in every cloud, you 
know, however dark it may be, there 
is a silver lining." MRS. H. WOOD. 



A SILVER WEDDING the cele- 
bration of the twenty-fifth an- 
niversary of a wedding. P. 

The jubilee of her Majesty will be 
immediately followed by the year 
marking the heir apparent's silver 
wedding. Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

BORN WITH A SILVER SPOON IN 

ONE'S MOUTH. See SPOON. 

THE SILVER-FORK SCHOOL a 
name used by Thackeray for 
the school of novelists who 
describe only elegant life and 
fashionable society. 

Up to the heights of fashion with 
the charming enchanters of the sil- 
ver-fork school. THACKERAY. 

Simon. THE REAL SIMON PURE 
the real person ; not a per- 
sonator. P. Simon Pure is 
a character in Mrs. Centlivre's 
play, A Bold Stroke for a For- 
tune. He is personated by a 
Captain Feignwell, who is 
nearly successful in obtaining 
a wife and a fortune by his dis- 
simulation ; but the real Si- 
mon Pure, a Pennsylvanian 
Quaker, turns up in time and 
proves his identity. 

And then Mr. Toogood had only 
written one short scrap of a letter in 
triumph: "Crawleyis all right, and 
I think I've got the real Simon Pure 
by the heels/' A. TROLLOPE. 

Simples. CUTTING FOR THE 
SIMPLES an operation to be 
performed for the benefit of 
fools. C. 

In the Lords and Commons (what 
evils might be averted) by clearing 
away bile, evacuating ill humours, 
and occasionally by cutting for the 
simples. SOUTHEY. 

Sine. SINE DIE without fix- 
ing any future date ; Indefi- 
nitely. P. Latin. 

Our old friend was even now bal- 
ancing on the brink of that eventful 
plunge (a proposal of marriage), 
which, if not made before the grand 
climacteric, it is generally thought 
advisable to postpone sine die 
G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

A SINE QUA NON an essential ; 
what is absolutely requisite. 
P. Latin. 

"Besides, sir," he added, turning 
to the warder with an assumed air 



Sinews 



224 



Six 



of deference, "I believe it is a sine 
quA nonI mean it is indispensable 
that for some time I must report 
myself to the police once a month." 
HUGH CONWAY. 

Sinews. THE SINEWS OF WAR 
money; funds. P. 

Widow Maxey had only become 
reconciled to her abdication, be- 
cause, as was well known, she 
had remained in possession of the 
sinews of war that is, the actual 
proprietorship of the horse and cart, 
in addition to her savings. SARAH 



TYTLER. 



Sink. LEAVE HIM TO SINK OR 
SWIM do not aid him, but let 
Mm fail or succeed by his own 
efforts. P. 

With or without reason, Miss 
Huntley is of opinion that I de- 
frauded you of your rights by taking 
what my father's will gave me, and 
that I afterwards turned you out 
into the world to sink or swim, as 
the case may be. W. E. NORRIS. 

Her husband told her that she 
must sink or swim with him. ED- 
MUND YATES. 

Sister. SISTER ANNE the 
sister of Bluebeard's wife (in 
the nursery tale). She kept 
watch from a tower to see if 
the expected aid would arrive. 

"Sister Anne is on the watch- 
tower," said he to Amelia; "but 
there's nobody coming." THACK- 
ERAY. 

He was prospecting down the 
road, like another Sister Anne. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Sit. TO SIT DOWN WITH to 

have to be contented with ; to 
accept something whether we 
like it or not. P. 

Mr. Simpkins got the ten thousand 
pound prize in the lottery, and we 
sat down with (had to rest content 
with) a blank. GOLDSMITH. 

To SIT BODKIN to be squeezed 
between two people. C. 

There is barely room between Jos 
and Miss Sharp, who are on the front 
seat, Mr. Osborne sitting bodkin op- 
posite, between Captain Dobbin and 
Amelia. THACKERAY. 

To SIT UP FOR ANT ONE to await 
a person's return after the 
usual bedtime. P. 

Her own maid should sit up for 
her. GEORGE ELIOT. 



To SIT UPON A PERSON to snuh 
him. F. 

He asked, outside, with shame, 
how it was that he allowed himsell 
thus to be sat upon and ordered 
out of the house by a mere girl. 
BESANT. 

My lady felt rebuked, and, as she 
afterwards expressed it, sat upon. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

To SIT ON THORNS to be in 
state of discomfort or agony. 
P. 

He was sitting on thorns, all the 
time, afraid lest she should refer to 
the late event. 

To SIT OUT ANYTHING to refrain 
from taking part in it. C. 

Frank danced beautifully, bul 
somehow we had given up dancing 
together lately, and used to sit out 
our dances together. The Mistletoe 
Bough, 1885. 

To SIT OUT to stay longer in 
one's seat than another can. 
P. Often used in accounts of 
drinking parties. 

On coming into the estate he gave 
the finest entertainment ever was 
heard of in the country ; not a man 
could stand after supper but Sir 
Patrick himself, who could sit out 
the best man in Ireland. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

TO SIT ON THE RAIL OF FENCE 

to refuse to support any 
party ; to reserve one's decision 
as a voter. C. An American 
phrase. 

In the American political slang, 
he (Henry IV.) was always sitting 
on the rail between Catholics and 
Huguenots. The Times. 

To SIT EGGS to remain too long 
as a guest. F. 

To SIT UNDER to attend the 
services of. C. 

On a Sunday the household 
marched away in separate couples 
or roups to at least half a dozen 
of religious edifices, each to sit 
under his or her favourite minister. 
THACKERAY. 

TO SIT UNDER A CLERGYMAN 

to attend his church. 

She, after a time, sat under him, 
as the phrase is, regularly thrice a 
week. THACKERAY. 

Six. Six OF or TO ONE, AND 

HALF A DOZEN OF Or TO THE 



Sixty 



OTHER essentially the same ; 
differing in nothing. C. 

There's been a good deal of fun 
made of rabbinical fables; but, in 
point of fables, my opinion is, that 
all over the world it's six of one and 
half a dozen of the other. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

And so it's six to one and half a 
dozen to the other G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

Also in the shorter form six 

AND HALF A DOZEN. C. 

"What do they say about his 
chance ? " 

"Six and half a dozen, sir." H. 

KlNGSLEY. 
SIX AND EIGHTPENCE the USUal 

fee charged by a lawyer for a 
consultation. 

Always remember, Mr. Robarts, 
that when you go into an attorneys 
office door you will have to pay for it 
first or last. In here, you see, the 
dingy old mahogany, bare as it is, 
makes you safe. Or else it's the salt- 
cellar, which will not allow itself to 
be polluted by six-and-eightpenny 
considerations. A. TROLLOPS. 

Exp. By "mahogany" is meant 
the attorney's dining-table. Mr. 
Robarts was to be looked on as a 
guest. The salt-cellar is another 
mark of hospitality. As long as 
Mr. Robarts was in the lawyer's 
private residence no fee would be 
charged. 

I have the right given me by a 
genuine interest in his affairs the 
interest of a friend rather than a 
lawyer. You don't suppose it's for 
the sake of the six-and-eightpence. 
Miss BRADDON. 

AT SIXES AND SEVENS in dis- 
order ; ill-arranged. C. 

All goes to sixes and sevens a 
universal saturnalia seems to be 
proclaimed in my peaceful and 
orderly family. SCOTT. 

Its vicinity (the presence of soldiers 
in a town), in our own experience, 
has invariably over-roasted our mut- 
ton, multiplied our cobwebs, and 
placed our female establishment 
generally at sixes and sevens. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Sixty. LIKE SIXTY. See STAT- 

ICE. 

Skeleton. THE SKELETON IN 

THE HOUSE Or CUPBOARD the 

secret cause of grief or shame 
in a household. P. 

After that first and last visit, his 
father's name was never mentioned 



225 Sky 

in Pitt'spolite and genteel establish- 
ment. It was the skeleton in the 



house, and all the family walked by it 
in terror and silence. THACKERAY. 
I find that the skeleton in my 
domestic closet is becoming a pretty 
big one. DICKENS (Letters). 
Skin. TO SKIN A FLEA FOR ITS 

HIDE to be excessively mean 

and avaricious. F. 
"Generous!" I exclaimed: "why, 

he's the meanest little hunks that 

ever skinned a flea for the hide and 

fat." G. A. SALA. 
To SKIN A FLINT to be exces- 

sively grasping. C. Hence 

the term SKINFLINT for a miser. 
Just as the toper squeezes the 

empty bottle and the miser skins 

the flint. BESANT. 
TO ESCAPE BY THE SKIN OF ONE'S 

TEETH to escape very nar- 
rowly ; to come within an ace 
of falling a victim. P. 

It is true that ten years before this 
he had, after an almost heroic resist- 
ance, yielded to accept office in the 
Palmerston Ministry, and escaped 
only by the skin of his teeth. 
Leisure Hour, 1887. 

The pit-brow women, to the num- 
ber of something like five thousand, 
were last summer only saved by the 
skin of their teeth from having their 
daily bread taken from them by a 
Liberal government. Contemporary 
Review, 1886. 

To SAVE ONE'S SKIN to get off 
without bodily hurt. C. 

We meet with many of these dan- 
gerous civilities, wherein it is hard 
for a man to save both his skin and 
his credit. L'ESTRANGE. 

Skip. To SKIP OVER to pass 

unnoticed. P. 
A gentleman made it a rule in 

reading to skip over all sentences 

where lie spied a note of admiration 

at the end. SWIFT. 
Skirts. To SIT UPON A MAN'S 

SKIRTS to meditate revenge 

against him. F. 
Sky. To SKY A PICTURE to 

place it in an exhibition high 

up on the wall. P. 
This flight of Eastern imagery was 

due to his picture having been skied 

in the academy. JAMES PAYN. 

TO LAUD Or PRAISE TO THE SKIES 

to be loud in praise of. P. 

Indeed he was lauded by many 
persons to the skies. JAMES PAYN. 
8 



Slap 



226 



Slip 



Slap. A SLAP-BANG SHOP a 
low eating-house. S. A Lon- 
don term. 

They lived in the same street, 
walked into town every morning at 
the same hour, dined at the same 
slap-bang every day. DICKENS. 

SLAP-UP very fine ; elegant. S. 
More slap-up still, have the two 
shields painted on the panels with 
the coronet over. THACKERAY. 

Sleeping 1 . A SLEEPING PART- 
NER a member of a firm who 
takes no share in its manage- 
ment, but receives part of the 
profits. P. 

In most businesses there are sleep- 
ins partners. CAPTAIN MARBYAT. 

His sole motive in consenting to 

in the shameful plot, of wrnch his 
daughter was the object, was to obtain 
possession of his lost inheritance. 
H. K. HAGGARD. 

LET SLEEPING DOGS LIE do not 
refer to unpleasant events of 
the past. C. 

Peter Scott was a jealous man to 
begin with, and it was best to let 
sleeping dogs lie. Si. Andrews Citi- 
zen, 1887. 

TO SLEEP UPON ANYTHING to 

defer action until next morn- 
ing. C. Cautious people often 
prefer to wait at least twelve 
hours before they commit 
themselves to a course of ac- 
tion. 

Still he went in to breakfast with 
some slight hope that, now Mrs. 
Glegg had " slept upon it," her anger 
might be subdued enough to give 
way to her usually strong sense of 
family decorum. GEORGE ELIOT. 
Sleeve. To LAUGH IN ONE'S 
SLEEVE. See LAUGH. 

TO CARRY A THING ON ONE'S 

SLEEVE to reveal it to the 
public gaze. P. See HEART 
and WEAR. 

He (the poet) should talk well, but 
not with an obvious striving after 
epigram; he should be sensitive 
but not carry his Vanity openly on 

S Peck * fc 



IN ONE'S SLEEVE secretly. C. 

Mostly used of secret laughter. 

No, not that woman," said Mr. 

Harding enjoying his joke in his 

sleeve. A. TROLLOPE. 



Sleig-ht. SLEiGHT'OF-HANiD 
mantial dexterity ; clever use 
of the fingers. P. 

Vivian, you are a juggler : and the 
deceptions of your sleight-of-hand 
tricks depend upon instantaneous 
motions. BEACONSFIELD. 

Slide. TO LET THINGS SLIDE 

to refuse or neglect to in- 
terfere ; to leave matters to 
develop themselves. F. 

She was not one of those diploma- 
tists who advocate a masterly inac- 
tion, and let things slide. JAMES 
PAYN. 

Sling-. To SLING ONE'S HOOK 
or ONE'S DANIEL to move oh. 

S. 

Slip. TO SLIP OFF THE HOOKS 

to die. S. 

Pray to God in heaven, Unless you 
wish to see me run away. And if I 
do, he slips off the hooks. BLACK- 
MORE. 

He was not far from eighty when 

he slipped off the hooks without an 

ache or pain. MRS.E.LYNNLINON. 

To SLIP ONE'S CABLE to die. S. 

He was dreadfully frightened at 
the prospect of slipping his cable in 
a foreign land. G. A. SALA. 
To SLIP ONE'S WIND to lose one's 
breath ; to die. C. 

"You give him the right stuff, 
doctor," said Hawes jocosely, "and 
he won't slip his wind this time." 
C. READE. 

To GIVE THE SLIP to escape 
secretly. F. 

"I 

lowed me down here," Itawdon 
continued, still desponding. 

"When they do. we'll find means 
to give them the slip," said dauntless 
little Becky. THACKERAY. 
TO SLIP THROUGH ONE'S FINGERS 

(a) to die unexpectedly and 
without a struggle. P. Said 
of a sick person. 

(6) to escape from a person's 
grasp. C. 

He would not let the thing slip 
through his fingers ... a debtor 
never yet escaped him, and never 
should. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

When Chaldicotes slipped through 
the duke's fingers and went into the 
hands of Dr. Thorne, or of Dr. 
Thome's wife, the duke had been 
very angry with Mr. Fothergill. A. 
TROLLOPE. 



I wonder the writs haven't fol- 
Ita 



Slough 



227 



Smoke 



To SLIP INTO A MAN tq give him 

a sound beating. S. 
THERE'S MANY A SLIP 'TWIXT 

THE CUP AND THE LIP men 

cannot count on anything until 
it is actually in their grasp, P. 
" The original," says Charles 
Reade, "is Greek, and comes 
down to us with an example. 
To the best of my recollection, 
the ancient legend runs, that 
a Greek philosopher was dis- 
coursing to his pupil on the 
inability of man to foresee the 
future ay, even the event of 
the next minute. The pupil 
may have, perhaps, granted 
the uncertainty of the dis- 
tant future, but he scouted the 
notion that men could not 
make sure of immediate and 
consecutive events. By way 
of illustration he proceeded to 
fill a goblet. ' I predict,' said 
he sneeringly, * that after fill- 
ing this goblet, the next event 
will be that I shaU drink the 
wine.' Accordingly he filled 
the goblet. At that moment 
his servant ran in ' Master ! 
master ! a wild boar is in 
our vineyard ! ' The master 
caught up his javelin directly, 
and ran out to find the boar 
and kill him. He had the luck 
to find the boar, and attacked 
him with such spirit that Sir 
Boar killed him, and the gob- 
let remained filled. From 
that incident arose in Greece 
the saying, ' Polla metaxu pe- 
lei kulikos kai cheileos akra.' ' 

Mrs. Quiverful went off to her 
kitchen and back settlements with 
anxious beating heart, almost dread- 
ing that there might be some slip 
between the cup of her happiness 
and the lip of her fruition, but yet 
comforting herself with the re- 
flection that after what had taken 
place any such slip could hardly be 
possible. A, TROLLOPE. 

SlOUgll. A SLOUGH OF DE- 
SPOND a state of utter despond- 
ency. P. SeeBunyan'sPt&rira's 
Progress, " The First Stage." 



She seemed to be stuck in a slough 
of despond, and could not move in 
any direction to get out of it.-U. 
READE. 

Slow. A SLOW COACH a lazy 
or inactive person. F. 
. He's not very quick in temper, or 
in anything else; he's what we call 
a slow coach. CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 

Sly. ON THE SLY secretly. C. 

"I thought you were down here 
about it ?' p 

" Only on the sly, Mrs. Walker. "- 
A. TROLLOPE. 

He was beginning to doubt this 
clerk who attended that meeting on 
the sly. C. READE. 

Sir all. A SMALL-BEER CHRON- 
ICLE a record of insignificant 
domestic events. C. The 
phrase comes from Shake- 
speare, Othello, act ii., scene 1 
line 161 : " To suckle fools, 
and chronicle small-beer." 

This small-beer chronicle is 
scarcely justified by the fact that 
many of Agnes's acquaintances and 
correspondents were persons of dis- 
tinction. Athenceum, 1887. 

Small hours the hours after 
twelve ; midnight. P. 

Although a fog rolled over the city 
in the small hours, the early part of 
the night was cloudless. R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

SMALL TALK conversation about 
unimportant things, like the 
weather or the every-day 
events of life. P. 

She was absorbed in digesting 
Rolfe's every word, and fixing his 
map in her mind, and filling in 
details to his outline ; so small talk 
stung her.-C. READE. 

His voice was soft and low, and he 
had a way of placing his white, 
plump, glistening hand on the region 
of his heart as he spoke, that gave a 
sort of dramatic earnestness to what 
would otherwise have been small 
talk. JAMES PAYN. 

Smell. To SMELL A RAT to 
detect something wrong. P. 

Of his attachment to the doctrine 
of the Trinity the Bishop of Exeter 
may make what protestations he 
will, Archdeacon Denison will smell 
a rat in them. M. ARNOLD. 

Smoke. To END IN SMOKE 
to come to no practical result. 
P. 



Snail 



TO SMOKE THE CALUMET, Or THE 

PIPE OF PEACE to be formally 
reconciled. C. The phrase 
comes from a Red Indian cus- 
tom. 

This dinner was essentially a well- 
dressed pow-wow to witness the 
burying of the hatchet and the 
smoking of the calumet. MRS. E. 
LYNN LINTON. 

Snail. AT A SNAIL'S GALLOP 
very slowly. C. 
And if he happened not to feel 
An angry hint from thong or steel, 
He by degrees would seldom fail 
T' adopt the gallop of a snail. 

COMBE. 

Snap. To SNAP ONE'S FINGERS 
AT to defy ; to show one's 
contempt for. C. 

You live with me, and snap your 
fingers at Hawes and all his crew. 

C. IlEADE. 

To SNAP A MAN'S NOSE OFF to 
speak sharply to him. C. 

Well, well, you needn't snap a 
man's nose off! Come, what has 
the young man been doing? Good 
Words, 1887. 

Sneeze. To SNEEZE AT A 
THING to despise it ; to think 
little of it. F. 
A buxom, tall, and comely dame 
Who wished, 'twas said, to change 

her name, 

And if I could her thoughts divine, 
Would not perhaps have sneezed at 

mine. COMBE. 

Snuff. - TO TAKE IT IN SNUFF 

to take offence. F. 

You'll mar the light by taking it in 

snuff; 
Therefore I'll darkly end my argu- 

ment. SHAKESPEARE. 
IN SNUFF Or IN THE SNUFF - 

offended. F. 

He dares not come there for the 
candle, for, you see, it is already in 
snuff. SHAKESPEARE. 

And whereas in snuff and distaste 
you may fling away from such res 
mfccta, a little patience and words 



228 So 

that might snuff Tpepper else. Old 
Play. 
UP TO SNUFF crafty ; know- 

S. 



nezer, "dmna Jdon'tl fly up in the 
snuff at me." E. L. STEVENSON. 
To SNUFF PEPPER to take of- 
fence. F. 

I brought them in, because here 
are some of other cities in the room 



ing. 

"Ah, I daresay," returned her 
uncle. "You American ladies are 
so up to snuff, as you say." W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

A rough and tough, and possibly 
an up-to-snuff old vagabond. 



DICKENS. 
To SNUFF OUT to die. 



S. 



So. ONLY so-so very ^indiffer- 
ently ; not well. C. 

"How do you find yourself, my 
dear fellow?'' 

"Only so-so," said Mr. John 
Spanker. DICKENS. 

"What cheer, Sol Gills?" cried the 
captain heartily. 

" But so-so," returned the instru- 
ment-maker. DICKENS. 
AND so ON and the like ; and 
other similar words, acts, or 
events. P. 

He heard of a house here or a 
house there, and went to see it, but 
it was too large ; and of another, but 
it was too small ; and of a third, but 
it was not convenient for her pur- 
pose ; and so on. BESANT. 
SO-AND-SO. A phrase used when 
exact particulars are referred 
to but not actually given. C. 

It would also have been con- 
siderate, at least, had Mr. Brown- 
ing given the dates of dispatches 
referred to by Lord Hawkesbury 
as No. So-and-so, when answering 
them or acknowledging their receipt. 
Spectator, December 17, 1887. 

But my name is So-and-So is a safe 
answer, and I gave it. J. R. LOWELL. 

So TO SPEAK (a) An apologetic 
phrase generally used with 
statements which are not lit- 
erally true. P. 

Sometimes the home is visited by 
the committee, who go round and 
taste the soup, so to speak, confer as 
to the accounts, and consider the 
case of those ill-advised young people 
who have requested permission to 
stay out for an hour later than is 
allowed by the rules. BESANT. 

(6) if the phrase may be 
used. P. Attached to state- 
ments that must not be taken 
literally. 

If an old man has to go hungry, he 
grows melancholy, because the situa- 
tion is permanent, so to speak. 



Soap 



229 



Soap. HOW ABE YOU OFF FOB 

SOAP ? A meaningless, bant- 
ering phrase, at one time 
common in England. S. 

Or put their heads into his shop, 
and asked how he was off for soap. 
S. BARING-GOULD. 

Soft. SOFT SAWDER flattery. 
S. 

It is done by a knowledge of soft 
sawder and human nature. HALI- 
BUBTON. 

SOFT SOAP complimentary 
speeches. F. A person of in- 
sinuating manners is said to 
be soapy. 

Sol. SOI-DISANT self -named ; 
self-appointed. P. French. 

Charges of seduction trumped up 
by young women like Annette 
Harchoux and their soi-disant 
patrons must be subjected to a very 
searching investigation. Saturday 
Review, 1887. 

Some. SOME OF THESE DAYS 
soon ; before very long. C. 

Son. SON OF A SEA -COOK a 
term of contempt used by 
sailors to their companions. S. 
Of course, in the use of sea-terms 

you'll not wonder 
If I now and then should fall into 

some blunder. 
For which Captain Chamier or Mr. 

T. P. Cooke 
Would call me a lubber and son of 

a sea-cook. BARHAM. 

Song*. TO SELL FOB A SONG 

or AN OLD SONG to sell very 
cheap. C. 

O Kit ! Kit ! the firm ends with me. 
I must sell the goodwill for the very 
worst old song, if it once leaks out 
what a fool you are. BLACKMORE. 

A skeleton clock and a couple of 
bronze figures, picked up in one of 
the slums of Covent Garden for a 
song. Miss BRADDON. 

Sop. TO THROW A SOP TO CER- 
BERUS to try to pacify a 
greedy enemy by granting 
him favours. P. Cerberus, in 
Roman mythology, was the 
three-headed dog that watched 
Pluto's palace in the infernal 
regions. 

To Cerberus they give a sop 
His triple barking mouth to stop. 
SWIFT. 



Sow 

For instance, the Transvaal Con- 
vention that Mrs. Carr mentioned is 
an admirable example of how such 
pandering is done. No man of 
experience can have believed that 
such an agreement would be wise, or 
that it can result in anything but 
trouble and humiliation ; but the 
trouble and humiliation will not 
come just yet, and in the meanwhile 
a sop is thrown to Cerberus. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 



Sope. A SIGHT FOR 
EYES a welcome sight. F. 

Well, the very sight of the Yankee 
girls is good for sore eyes, the dear 
little critters (creatures).-HALi- 

BURTON. 

SOPPOW. SORROW a word 
used in Ireland to give a nega- 
tive meaning to a sentence. F. 
The birds were singing, and I 
stopped whistling that they might 
hear them: but sorrow bit could 
they hear (they heard nothing) when 
they got to the park gate, for there 
was such a crowd and such a shout. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Sotto. SOTTO VOCE in a sub- 
dued voice ; in a whisper. P. 
Italian. 

"She's worn out and upset, poor 
little thing!" he said sotto voce 
Murray's Magazine, 1887. 

SOUP. SOUR GRAPES a thing 
despised because -t is unat- 
tainable. P. 

A famished fox once saw some 
clusters of ripe black grapes hanging 
from a trellised vine. She resorted 
to all her arts in vain, for she could 
not reach them. At last she turned 
away, beguiling herself of her disap- 
pointment, and saying, " The grapes 
are sour, and not ripe as I thought." 
JEsop's Fables. 

SOW. TO SOW WILD OATS to 

be wild and extravagant when 
young. P. 

" Upon my honour," exclaimed Sir 
Brian, "your excuse seems to me to 
be your condemnation. If you were 
a spendthrift, as young fellows often 
are, there would be a chance of your 
sowing your wild oats." Good 
Words, 1887. 
TO SOW THE WIND AND REAP THE 

WHIRLWIND to behave reck- 
lessly and wickedly, and suffer 
a dreadful punishment. P. 
From the Bible (Hosea viii. 7). 



Sow 



230 



Spin 



In Stevenson's The Mis- 
adventures of John Nicholson, 
the heading to chapter i. is 
" In which John sows the 
wind " and to chapter ii., 
" In which John reaps the 
whirlwind." 

His portrait of the poor crazy- 
brained creature, Lord George 
Gordon, who sowed the wind which 
the country was to reap in whirl- 
wind, is excellent. F. MARZIALS, in 
Life of Dickens, "Great Writers" 
Series. 
SOW. TO HAVE THE WRONG SOW 

BY THE EAR to have captured 
the wrong individual. Also 
" the right sow." F. 

However, this time he'd got the 
wrong sow by the ear T. HUGHES. 

" It ? s all right, old fellow," he said, 
clapping his hand on Crawley's 
shoulder; "we've got the right sow 
by the ear at last." A. TROLLOPS. 

Spade. To CALL A SPADE A 
SPADE to use plain language ; 
to be straightforward in the 
terms one uses. P. 

Viola, when will you leave off 
using such terrible words ? Our poor 
father always said he never knew 
such a girl for calling a spade a 
spade. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

She was not an epitome of all the 
virtues, but a woman of a decided 
temper, not used to mince matters, 
and calling a spade a spade. MRS. 
OLIPHANT. 

Spanish. A SPANISH CASTLE 
something visionary and un- 
real. P. See CHATEAUX EN 

ESPAGNE. 

Nellie le Strange, with her light 
heart, her tumble-down Spanish 
castles (dreams never to be realized), 
and her silly little tender jokes, has 
gone away. RHODA BROUGHTON. 

Speak. To SPEAK VOLUMES 
to furnish ample testimony. P. 
Does it not, then, speak volumes 
as to what the instinctive revolt of 
the attitude is, to find her taking it 
quite as a matter of course that a 
high-bred, well-behaved young lady 
of eighteen should be roused to 
an outbreak like the following? 
Spectator, 1887. 

To SPEAK OF worth mention- 
ing. P. 

They have no institutions of their 
own to speak of, no public buildings 
of any importance. BESANT. 



TO SPEAK WELL FOR ONE to 

speak in his favour ; to be to 
his credit. P. 

To SPEAK UP to retort ; to 
address a superior saucily. C. 

This is followed by a disposition 
on the part of the forewoman to find 
fault, and by a determination on the 
part of the work-girls not to be put 
upon, with an intention of speak- 
ing up should the occasion arise. 
BESANT. 

Speap. ACHILLES' SPEAR. It 
was said that this spear could 
both wound and cure. P. 
Whose smile and frown, like to 

Achilles' spear, 
Is able with the change to kill or 

cure. SHAKESPEARE. 

Spelling 1 . A SPELLING BEE 
a gathering where prizes are 
given to the persons who are 
best at spelling. These com- 
petitions were very popular in 
Great Britain about the year 
1876. 

It was also spelled in a manner 
disapproved by the great Butter, 
and disallowed by spelling bees. 
BESANT. t 

Sphinx. THE SPHINX'S RID- 
DLE. The Sphinx was a she- 
monster who is said to have 
proposed a riddle to the The- 
bans, and to have murdered all 
who failed to guess it. CEdi- 
pus was finally successful in 
guessing it, whereupon she 
killed herself. P. 

What solution, if any, have you 
found for the labour question? It 
was the Sphinx's riddle of the 
nineteenth century. E. BELLAMY. 
Spick. SPICK AND SPAN very 
neat and trim. F. 

A spick and span new gig at the 
door. HALI BURTON. 

"Because," said Belle " because, 
Mr. Ludgate, the furniture of this 
house is as old as Methusalem ; and 
my friend, Mrs. Pimlico, said yes- 
terday it was a shame to be seen : 
and so, to be sure, it is, compared 
with her own, which is spick and 
span new." MARIA EDGEWORTH. 
Spin. To SPIN A TARN to tell 
a story. C. A sailor's phrase. 

Blow-hard (as the boys called him) 
was a dry old file, with much kind- 
ness and humour, and a capital 
spinner of a yarn. T. HUGHES. 



231 
SPIRITS 



SPLICED 
A sailor's 



Spirits 

Spirits. O UT OF 

melancholy; gloomy; sad. P. 
He was out of spirits; he had 
grown very silent ; he did not read : 
it seemed as if he had something on 
his mind. R. L. STEVENSON. 

Spliced. To GET 
to be married. S. 
phrase. 

Split. TO SPLIT ON A FRIEND 

to inform against him ; to 
reveal a scheme in which he 
was concerned ; to betray 
him. S. 

Robinson sighed. ' What is the 
matter?" said his master, trying to 
twist his head round. 

" Nothing ; only I am afraid they 
they won t split. Fellows of that 
sort don't split on a comrade where 
they can get no good by it." C. 
READE. 
To SPLIT WITH to quarrel with ; 

to separate from. F. 
SPLIT UP having long legs. S. 

The favourite came from Lincoln- 
shire, a tall, well-split-up fellow. 
To SPLIT HAIRS to indulge in 
over-refined arguments. P. 

No splitter of hairs was he. C. 
READE. 

Spoil. To SPOIL THE EGYP- 
TIANS to get supplies from 
one's enemies. P. A Scrip- 
tural phrase (Exod. xii. 36). 

More, he might even be able to 
spoil that Egyptian George, giving 
him less than his due. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

"It would be a spoiling of the 
Egyptians perfectly justifiable," said 
Maurice. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

TO SPOIL FOR A FIGHT to be 

very anxious for a fight. F. 

"You seem to be spoiling for a 
fight," remarked Bracknell. "I 
don't know that I have any 
grievance against you, but I'll try 
my best to indulge you by discover- 
ing one." W. E. NORRIS. 
Spoke. To PUT A SPOKE IN 
ANOTHER'S WHEEL to arrest 
his progress; to hinder his 
schemes. C. 

You have put a most formidable 
spoke in my wheel by preventing 
the extension of the borough. W.-hj. 
NoRri|$, in Good Words, 1887. 



Sponge. To 

ANOTHER to 



SPONGE UPON 
get money or 



Spoon 

food in a mean way ; to take 
advantage of another's good 
nature to obtain money from 
him, or a place at his table. P. 

The ant lives upon her own 
honesty; whereas the fly is an in- 
truder and a common smell-feast, 
that sponges upon other people's 
trenchers. L'EsTRANG E. 

He could not allow people to say of 
him that it was an easy matter to 
abandon his own income, as he was 
able to sponge on that of another 
person. A. TROLLOPE, 

TO THROW UP THE SPONGE 

to confess oneself vanquished ; 
to yield. F. In pugilistic 
encounters the two principals 
are accompanied by seconds. 
After each round these seconds 
wipe the faces of the principals 
and prepare them for the next 
round. When a principal 
refuses to enter for another 
round, his second throws up 
the sponge. 

Had it not been for her, French 
would have collapsed, and perhaps 
would have thrown up the sponge. 
MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

Brooke cannot find it in his heart 
to stop them just yet, BO the round 
goes on, the Slogger waiting for 
Tom, and reserving all his strength 
to hit him out should he come in for 
the wrestling dodge again: for he 
feels that must be stopped, or his 
sponge will soon go up in the air. 
T. HUGHES. 

Spoon. IT TAKES A LONG 

SPOON TO SUP WITH HIM lie 

is a devil or an evil spirit. 
C. The proverb runs, " It 
takes a long spoon to sup with 
the devil " that is, the devil 
is so crafty that if one forms 
a league with him, most of the 
profits are sure to go to him. 

"Bespeak a long spoon." 

"Why, Dromio?" 

" Marry, he must have a long spoon 
that must eat with the devil.' 
SHAKESPEARE. 

He had voluntarily supped with 
the devil, and his spoon had been 
too short. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

BORN WITH A SILVER SPOON IN 

ONE'S MOUTH born in wealth 
and luxury. P. 

"What! the settlement I have 
made is more than enough five 



Spooney 



thousand pounds more than enough. 
One can see, young fellow, that you 
were born with a silver spoon in 
your mouth." Longmans? Maga- 
zine, 1886. 
BORN WITH A GOLDEN SPOON IN 

ONE'S MOUTH born to great 
splendour ; heir to great 
wealth. C. 

The result of his training has been 
to make him thoroughly discon- 
tented with his present lot, and dis- 
posed to consider himself aggrieved 
much above the majority of his 
fellow-creatures, because he was not 
born with a golden spoon in his 
mouth. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

TO MAKE A SPOON OR SPOIL A 

HORN to succeed in an enter- 
prise or fail deplorably. F. 
The phrase is used when an 
opportunity is furnished to 
an untried but energetic per- 
son of showing his skill. There 
is always the fear of his ruining 
the materials. 

He may be a good enough sort at 
cricket or billiards, in a smoking- 
room or a drawing-room, but that s 
about it. He will neither make a 
spoon nor spoil a horn. SARAH 
TYTLER. 

He, on the other hand, with an 
exceptionally acute and vigorous 
mind of his own, and determined 
to make a spoon or spoil a horn, had 
little idea of restricting himself to 
the ordinary passive part allotted to 
the "bookseller. "MRS. OLIPHANT. 

Spooney. SPOONEY ON A GIRL 
foolishly fond of her. F. 

"The reason." said she. "why I 
had never either formed or pro- 
voked any attachment was because 
I was always so spooney on girls." 
Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 

George is getting spooney on that 
girl, or she is getting spooney on 
him. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Sport. To SPORT ONE'S OAK 
to shut one's door to chance 
visitors. F. A college phrase, 
common at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. 

Rumours of high play at cards, of 
perpetually sported oak (continual 
seclusion in his room), non-at- 
tendance at chapel, and frequent 
shirking of classes, lessened the 
esteem m which Routh was held by 
the authorities. EDMUND YATES. 

He remembered that he had been 
concerned in the blocking up of that 



232 Spring 

chapel door and in the sticking of 
a striking caricature on that su- 
perciliously sported oak. SARAH 
TYTLER. 

Spot. ON THE SPOT just 
there ; instantly ; without 
^change of place. P. 

Though they had caused the death 
of many men during the last two 
years, they had not yet, as it hap- 
pened, murdered a single one on the 
spot. C. READE. 

It was determined upon the spot, 
according as the oratory on either 
side prevailed. SWIFT. 

Spout. UP THE SPOUT at the 
pawnbroker's. S. 

There's that dressing-case cost me 
two hundred that is, I owe two for 
it; and the gold tops and bottles 
must be worth thirty or forty. 
Please to put that up the spout, 
ma'am, with my pins, and rings, 
and watch, and chain, and things. 
THACKERAY. 

I haven't a suit of clothes fit to go 
in, even my (barrister's) wig and 
gown are up the spout together. D. 
CHRISTIE MURRAY. 

Sprat. To THROW A SPRAT 

TO CATCH A WHALE to V6n- 

ture something small in order 
to obtain a large return. C. 

" What are you at? Are you mad, 
Tom ? Why^ there goes five pounds. 

you never hear of the man 



What a sin ! J 
"Did 



that flung away a sprat to catch a 
whale?" C. KEAI>E. 

Spread. SPREAD-EAGLEISM 
(a) boastful American patriot- 
ism. P. Compare it with 
English Jingoism and French 
Chauvinism. 

When we talk of spread-eagleism 
we are generally thinking of the 
United States : but the real spread- 
eagleism is that, not of the American 
Republic, but of the Russian Em- 
pire. Fortniqhtly Review, 1887. 

Hush, mv lord ! You forget that 
you are a British peer. No spread- 
eagle for you. BESANT. 

(6) any kind of blatant 

patriotism. P. 

Among educated people his (Vis- 
count Wolseley's) spread-eagleism 
may be left to work its own ridicule. 
Scottish Leader, 1890. ^ 

Spring*. To SPRING A MINE 
UPON ONE to surprise one ; 



Spur 

to lay a plot and announce 
suddenly its completion. P. 

"But, my dear Samuel, this is so 
altogether unexpected." 

"So is the discovery of the manu- 
script," put in the young fellow with 
pitiless logic. 

"It is like springing a mine on 
me, my lad." JAMES PAYN. 

TO SPRING TO ONE'S FEET to 

rise suddenly up. P. 

He sprang to his feet, and pushed 
the woman, a buxom party of about 
thirty, from him. H. R. HAGGARD. 

SpUP. ON THE SPUR OF THE 

MOMENT acting under the 
first impulse, without reflec- 
tion. P. 

The criticism offered on the spur 
of the moment had been, in reality, 
advanced by way o f protest against 
the whole document. JAMES PAYN. 
To WIN ONE'S SPURS to gain a 
reputation. P. Originally used 
of feudal warriors who, by 
doing some deed of valour, won 
the spurs of knighthood. 

The eicounter in which Charles 
Townshend won his spurs was only 
a preliminary skirmish. TREVEL- 

YAN. 

Square. ALL SQUARE all 
right ; quite satisfactory. F. 

"Sit still ; it will be all square." 

But in his heart he knew that it 
was not all square, and that they 
were in imminent danger of death 
from drowning. H. R. HAGGARD. 
ON or UPON THE SQUARE hon- 
ourable ; fair ; even ; honour- 
ably ; fairly. C. 

If you think it fair 
Amongst known cheats to play 

upon the square, 
You'll be undone. ROCHESTER. 

Ain't it all on the square? What 
have you got to say to that? T. 
HUGHES. 

For now I'm upon the square with 
you (I am treating you openly and 
fairly), I must be straight as an 
arrow. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 
To SQUARE to settle ; to adjust. 
P. 

Lady Parker will square accounts 
by sending you a card for a garden 
party next July. Miss BRADDON. 
To SQUARE UP to take the 
attitude of a boxer ; to clench 
the fists and prepare to fight. 
C. 



3 Stab 

The speaker proceeded to square 
up to George in a most determined 
way. H. R. HAGGARD. 

To SQUARE OFF the same as 

TO SQUARE UP. C. 

He felt as a peaceful citizen might 
feel who had squared off at a stranger 
for some supposed wrong, and sud- 
denly discovered that he was under- 
taking to chastise Mr. Dick Curtis, 
the ir pet of the Fancy," or Mr. 
Joshua Hudson, the John Bull 
fighter." 0. W. HOLMES. 
TO SQUARE ANYTHING TO Of 

WITH to make it agree with. 

P. 

Eye me, blest Providence, and 

square my trial 
To my proportioned strength. 

MILTON. 

Fortune, accident call it rather 
providence has placed you in a cer- 
tain station, and it is fit for you to 
fulfil the duties of that station with- 
out repining or restlessness because, 
forsooth, it does not happen to 
square exactly with some vague 
notions of your own. G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

To BREAK SQUARES to depart 
from an accustomed order. C. 

TO BREAK NO SQUARES to give 

no offence ; to make no 
difference. C. 

A SQUARE MEAL a full meal 
which satisfies. F. 

Talleyrand, even at the age of 
eighty, ate but one square meal a 
day. Saturday Review, 1888. 

SQUARE -TOES a contemptuous 
name for a person of strict 
morals. F. The Puritans 
wore shoes of this shape. 

I never shall forget the solemn 
remonstrances of our old square- 
toes of a rector at Hackham. 
THACKERAY. 

To CALL IT SQUARE to consider 
matters settled ; to make no 
further claim. F. 

I don't think I ever did Rogers any 
wrong, and I never did think so; 
but if I did do ii-if I did-I'm 
willing to call it square, if I never 
see a cent of money back again. W. 
D. HOWELLS. 

Stab. ON THE 'STAB paid 
regular wages ; on the staff 
of a firm. S. 'Stab is here 
a contraction for " establish- 
ment." 



Stable 



234 



Stand 



Stable. - To LOOK or SHUT 

THE STABLE-DOOR WHEN THE 

STEED is STOLEN to take 
precautions when too late. P. 
The emperor of Austria, who has 
given a great deal of time and pa- 
tient labour to the reorganization of 
the Austria-Hungary army, is, it is 
understood, pleased with the recent 
development of the powers of mobi- 
lization of the Austrian cavalry. 
But this is rather a case of shutting 
the stable-door when the steed is 
stolen. The Russians had a very 
long start, and it is probable they 
still maintain it. Fortnightly Re- 
view, 1887. 

Staff. TO HAVE THE BETTER 

END OF THE STAFF to have 

the superiority. C. 

Miss Byron, I have had the better 
end of the staff, I believe? RICH- 
ARDSON. 

Stage. A STAGE WHISPER 
a whisper that can be heard 
by many. P. 

Stake. AT STAKE in peril ; 
about to be contended for. 
P. 

He wrote to tell the king that the 
honour of himself and his brother 
sovereigns, whose consciences they 
directed, was at stake. National 
Review, 1887. 

" Do not speak of him, Johnny." 
"I must speak of him. A man 
isn't to hold nis tongue when every- 
thing he has in the. world is at 
I stake. A. TROLLOFE. 
STAKE AND RICE a wattled 

fence. Provincial English. 
Stale. To LIE IN STALE to 
lie in ambush. Provincial 
English. 

Stall. TO STALL A DEBT 

to refrain from pressing its 
payment. Provincial English. 
STALL TOUR MUG be off j go 
away. S. 

Stand. To STAND BY (a) to 
be faithful ; to assist in a diffi- 
culty. P. 

The man that stands by me in 
trouble I won't bid him go when the 
sun shines again.-C. READE. 
(&) to be ready; to hold 
oneself in readiness. A nau- 
tical use. 



Standing-by is sailors' English for 
being ready. J. HOLDSWORTH. 

" What did you say, Captain Cut- 
tle?" inquired Walter. 

"Stand by !" returned the captain 
thoughtfully. DICKKNS. 

To STAND AT EASE to take the 

restful position allowed to sol- 

diers in the intervals of drill. P. 

By their rattles and slaps they're 

not standing at ease. BABHAM. 

To STAND ON END to stand 
erect. P. Generally said of 
the hair of a person who has 
got a fright. 

When I think of the souls of the 
people in that poor village, my hair 
literally stands on end. A. TBOL- 
LOPE. 

My hair stood on my head like 
quills. R. L. STEVENSON. 

TO STAND TO REASON tO be 

logically certain ; to be an 
undoubted fact. P. 

If you were heirtoadukedomand a 
thousand pounds a day, do you mean 
to say you would not wish for pos- 
session ? iPooh ! And it stands to 
reason that every great man, having 
experienced this feeling towards his 
father, must be aware that his son 
entertains it towards himself. 
THACKEBAY. 

It stands to reason that I must 
either be driven along with the 
crowd or else be left behind. A. 
TBOLLOPE. 

To STAND ON CEREMONY to act 

with reserve ; to be stiff and 
ceremonious in behaviour ; to 
be backward. P. 

Mordecai absolutely refused (this 
bond), declaring that now he had 
the power he would use it to obtain 
the utmost penny of his debt ; ____ 
that a man lying on his death-bed 
was no excuse to a creditor ; that he 
was not going to stand on ceremony 
about disturbing a gentleman in his 
last moments. MARIA EDO E WORTH. 

TO STAND IN ONE'S LIGHT - to 

hinder his Advancement. P. 



Don't stand in the poor girl's light ; 

ity's sake, George, le 
peace. C. READE. 



for pity's sake, George, leave us in 



. 

At seventy, as at twenty-seven, he 
is found standing in his own light 
on many occasions through nervous 
fear. Leisure Hour, 1886. 

To STAND IN NEED OF to re- 
quire ; to be in want of. P. 

I stood in need of a comfortable 
dinner. GOLDSMITH. 



Stand 

She afterwards took him down- 
stairs and gave him some supper, of 
which he stood in great neecL- 
JAMES PAYN. 

So I proposed that we should try 
to go out and get a bath, of which 
we stood sadly in need.-H. K. HAG- 
GARD. 

To STAND TO (a) to uphold; 
to be faithful to. C. 

"My lady, whatever I say you'll 
stand to?" 

"Whatever you say I'll stand to." 
C. KEADE. 

(&) to oppose in a duel ; 

to be a match for. C. 

"A regular Turk," answered 
Fagan; adding, "I never yet knew 
the man who stood to Captain 
Quin." THACKERAY. 

To STAND TO ONE'S GUN to 
offer resistance ; to defend 
oneself. C. 

Titmouse, though greatly alarmed, 
stood to his gun pretty steadily. 
S. WARREN. 

To STAND TREAT to pay the 
expenses of any feasting or 
merriment. C. 

He ordered in a glass of negus from 
the adjoining public - house, after 
some discussion, which ended in an 
agreement that he should stand treat 
that night, and Titmouse on the 
ensuing one. S. WARREN. 
To STAND OUT to object ; to 
refuse to agree ; to separate 
oneself from others. P. 

If the ladies will stand out, let 
them remember that the jury is not 
all agreed. SWIFT. 

He always stands out and higgles, 
and actually tires them till he gets a 
bargain. GOLDSMITH. 

Miss Monica Thorne stood out, 
but Mrs. Grantly gave way. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

TO STAND IN GOOD STEAD to 

be useful ; to prove of good 
service. P. 

"I pique myself on my wisdom 
there, Arthur, and as an old fellow 
to whom wisdom has become cheap, 
I can bestow it upon you." 

"Thank you. It may stand me in 
good stead some day." GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

To STAND OVER to be delayed ; 
to be set aside for a time. P. 
He had a habit of giving and lend- 
ing whenever he was asked, also of 
buying whatever chanced to take 
his fancy, and paying for it or let- 



235 Star 

ting payment stand over according 
as he happened to have money in 
his pocket or not at] the time. Good 
Words, 1887. 

To STAND UP FOR to champion ; 
to speak in defence of. P. 

You are always standing up for 
the black people, whom the Boers 
hate.-H. it. HAGGARD. 

To STAND ONE'S FRIEND to 
prove faithful and friendly 
in a difficulty or a crisis. C. 
Mrs. Dolly regularly expected that 
Ellen should, as she called it, stand 
her friend in these altercations. 
MARIA EDOEWORTH. 

TO STAND ON ONE'S OWN BOTTOM 

to be independent. C. Still 
found in its original form, 
" Let every vat (or tub) stand 
on its own bottom." 

Suppose an Irishman in England 
were [to speak in praise or abuse of 
the country, would one be par- 
ticularly pleased or annoyed? One 
would be glad that the man liked 
his trip ; but as for his good or bad 
opinion of the country, the country 
stands on its own bottom, superior 
to any man or men. THACKERAY. 

But I think it's better to let every 
tub stand on its own bottom. 
HUGH CONWAY. 

A STANDING DISH a dish or 
article of diet which regularly 
appears at table. C. 

STANDING ORDERS general rules 
or instructions constantly in 
force. 

Star. His STAR is IN THE 
ASCENDANT he is lucky ; for- 
tune favours him. P. 

His feelings of resentment became 
more lively, and not the less so be- 
cause the expression of them had 
been stifled, while he had con- 
sidered the star of Titmouse to be 
in the ascendant. S. WARREN. 

A MAN'S GOOD STAR a lucky 
influence affecting his life. P. 
"Yes," said Ella patiently; "she 
was, of course, the Pre" (her good 
star just saved her from saying the 
Pretender)" Prince Charlie in dis- 
guise." JAMES PAYN. 

THE STARS AND STRIPES, or THE 
STAR-SPANGLED BANNER the 
flag of the United States. P. 

If I were a West Indian, I should 
feel that under the Stars and Stripes 



Stare 



I should be safer than I was at pres- 
ent from political experimenting. 
J. A. FROUDE. 

I don't want to see my husband 
walking into his proper place in 
Westminster with Stars and Stripes 
flying over his head. BESANT. 

Being a sharp fellow, he has ac 
quainted himself thoroughly with 
the geography of that country, and 
the amount of capital requisite to 
enable a man to set up for himself 
under the Star-spangled banner. G. 
J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Stare. To STAKE IN THE 
FACE to be very evident ; to 
threaten ; to be ready to 
overwhelm. P. 

Is it possible for people without 
scruple to offend against the law, 
which they carry about them in 
indelible characters, and that stares 
them in the face whilst they are 
breaking it? LOCKE. 

Statice. LIKE STATICE or 
STACIA or SIXTY. A phrase 
used in comparing or estimat- 
ing things. S. Statice is a 
plant that grows among rocks 
by the sea-shore. 

It is the most costly government 
in the world, considering our means. 
We are actually eaten up by it ; it is 
a most plaguy sore, and has spread 
like statice till it has got its root 
into the very core. HALIBURTON.! 

Status. THE STATUS QUO 
the position in which affairs 
actually are ; the present 
situation of affairs. P. Latin. 
It was hardly too much to assume 
that a little further thought, a little 
more consideration of future prob- 
abilities, would have led to the 
maintenance of the status quo. 
Good Words, 1887. 

Stave. To STAVE OFF to pre- 
vent ; to keep back for a time 
and with difficulty. P. 

I have more influence in the land 
than you know of. Perhaps, even, 
I could stave off the war. H. K. 
HAGGARD. 

Stays. IN STAYS. A sea 
phrase, applied to a vessel 
which is tacking, and whose 
sails are shivering and have not 
yet filled in the new tack. P. 

"My pretty Patty," laughed her 
cousin, "if you knew anything of 



236 Stick 

nautical matters, you would see that 
it was not a cutter yacht, for she 
has more than one mast; though, 
certainly, as you saw her, she seemed 
to have but one, for she was just 
coming about, and was in stays. 
Verdant Green. 

Steal. To STEAL A MARCH 
UPON to gain an advantag6 
over an enemy or a competitor 
without his knowing it ; to 
act before another is aware. P. 
I long to see you happy long to 
behold the choice of sucn a heart as 
yours. Pray do not steal a march 
upon me; let me know in time. 
MARIA EDGE WORTH. 

At last, one morning, happening to 
awake earlier than usual, he stole a 
march on his nurses, and, taking his 
stick, walked out and tottered into 
the jail. C. KEADE. 

Stick. A STICK-IN-THE-MUD 

a slow person who is wholly 
without the spirit of enterprise 
or adventure. F. 

This rusty-coloured one is that 
respectable old stick-in-the-mud, 
Nicias. T. HUGHES. 

To STICK BY to be faithful to ; 
not to desert. P. 

He thought what a savage, de- 
termined man Osborne was, and 
how he stuck by his word. THACK- 
ERAY. 

To STICK AT to be scrupulous 
about. P. 

" I came here to-night to rob your 
house," he said. " I have been lying 
beneath your bed for hours, rehears- 
ing as to how it should be done, and 
resolved, if I met any resistance, to 
do worse than rob, for I am one that 
sticks at nothing. JAMES PAYN. 

Such women as Hester Beverley, 

/l,~ xl~ i -A'-I_ -i A~TIJ_.~ _ r~i_/l 



who do not stick at telling a false- 
hood, will not hesitate to listen 
door. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 



at a 



To STICK OUT to be stubborn ; 
to refuse to accede. P. 

He would have clearly liked to 
stick out ; but there was something 
about the lot of us that meant mis- 
chief, and at last he struck. JR. L. 
STEVENSON. 

To STICK TO ONE'S COLOURS 
to be faithful to a cause ; to 
refuse to yield. P. 

The lady had made a great mis- 
take in putting her supremacy to a 
test so crucial, out, having made it, 
she stuck to her colours. JAMES 



Stiff 



237 



Stolen 



To STICK UP FOR to champion ; 
to speak in defence of. C'. 

I'll stick up for the pretty woman 
preaching. GEORGE ELIOT. 

A POOR STICK a person without 
character or energy. C. 

He was a poor stick to make a 
preacher on (of). HALIBUBTON. 

To CUT ONE'S STICK to go off. 
S. 

It was plaguy lucky for the doctor, 
I can tefl you, that he cut his stick 
as he did, and made himself scarce, 
for Alden was an ugly customer. 
HALIBURTON. 

To STICK IN to persevere. F. 
To STICK ON to overcharge ; 

to defraud. F. 
To STICK ONE'S SPOON IN THE 

WALL to die. S. 

Stiff. - TO DO A BIT OF STIFF 

to give money for a bill ; 
to cash a bill. S. 

I wish you'd do me a bit of stiff, 
and just tell your father if I may 
overdraw my account I'll vote with 
him. THACKERAY. 

A STIFF 'UN a corpse. S. 

Stile. - TO HELP (A LAME DOG) 

OVER A STILE to assist a poor 
fellow in a difficulty. F. 

I can help a lame dog over a stile 
(which was Mark's phrase for doing 
a generous thing). C. KINQSLEY. 

Still. STILL WATERS RUN DEEP 

silent and undemonstrative 
people have generally great 
powers of thought and action. 
C. 

" What, kissing her hand, and he a 
clergyman!" said Miss Dunstab 



lergym 

I did not think they ever did suc 
things, Mr. Robarts. 

"Still waters run deepest," said 
Mrs. Harold Smith. A. TROLLOPS. 

Stir. STIR-UP SUNDAY the 
Sunday just before Advent. 
S. The Collect or Church 
prayer for this day begins 
with the words, " Stir up, 
O Lord, we beseech thee." 
Schoolboys who are looking 
forward at this time to the 
Christmas vacation irrever- 
ently " stir up " or poke each 
other's sides on this day. 



StOCk. TO MAKE STOCK OF 

to draw profit from ; to make 
use of for one's own benefit. 
C. 

They could not have made stock 
of it } as Susie would have done in 
the circumstances. SARAH TYTLER. 
A STOCK PHRASE an expression 
in constant use by a person, so 
that it has become a man- 
nerism. P. 

And the poor boy seemed to see 
under the humble stock phrases in 
which they talked of their labours 
of love, and the future reward of 
their present humilation, a deep 
and hardly hidden pride. C. KINGS- 
LEY. 

STOCK-IN-TRADE marketable ar- 
ticles ; the goods which a mer- 
chant wishes to dispose of. P. 
Also used of the accomplish- 
ments or possessions which 
a man can turn into money. 

All his show was on his back, as 
he said. His carriage, with the fine 
gelding, was a part of his stock-in- 
trade. THACKERAY. 

She has ideals, convictions, aspira- 
tionsa whole stock-in-trade of 
things that a good many girls seem 
to get on very well without. WM. 
BLACK. 

To TAKE STOCK OF to observe 
and estimate ; to watch min- 
utely. P. 

" You seem to have pbserved him 
very closely, considering your op- 
portunities.'' 

"I have. It is my trade to take 
stock of my fellow - creatures." 
JAMES PAYN. 

Though the countess is certainly 
taking stock of Miss Rayne, when 
she considers herself unnoticed, it 
is with anything but a gratified 
expression on her countenance. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 
To TAKE STOCK IN to value ; 
to regard with trust or con- 
fidence. P. 

Marse Dab himself, however, never 
appeared to take much stock in the 
genealogical advantages he enjoyed. 
-Blackwood's Magazine, 1887. 

Stolen. STOLEN FRUIT said 
of something which is very 
sweet. C. 

It was so sweet to hear Edward 
praised by one who did not know 
us; it was like stolen fruit. C. 
READE. 



Stone 



Stone. STONE - THROWING 
finding fault with one's neigh- 
bours. P. No doubt taken 
from Christ's saying, " He 
that is without sin among 
you, let him first cast a stone 
at her " (John yiii. 7). 

The stone-throwing spirit, the self- 
depreciation of the capital, and the 
occasional outbursts of Nihilism, 
are only the natural results of the 
autocratic .system. Fortnightly Re- 
view, 1887. 

STONE-BLIND completely blind. 
P. 

He is considered a rich man, and, 
being stone-blind, he sent for this 
girl. CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 

A STONE'S-THBOW a short dis- 
tance ; a hundred yards or 
more. P. 

.Rebecca and her husband were 
but a few stone's-throws from the 
lodgings which the invalid Miss 
Crawley occupied. THACKERAY. 

TO LEAVE NO STONE UNTURNED 

to adopt every possible method 
of search or inquiry ; to take 
every possible means towards 
gaining an object. P. A 
phrase borrowed from the 
Greek dramatist Euripides. 
Polycrates asked the Delphic 
oracle how best to find the 
treasure buried by Mardonius, 
the general of Xerxes, on the 
field of Platea. The oracle 
replied, " Turn every stone " 
(Panta kinesai petron). 

But Mr. Irwine '11 leave no stone 
unturned with the judge you may 
rely upon that, Adam. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

" We shan't leave a stone unturned 
on either side," said Mr. Quirk. 
S. WARREN. 

StOOl. TO FALL BETWEEN TWO 

STOOLS to adopt two plans 
of action, and to fail ; to lose 
oneself by trusting to two sup- 
ports instead of boldly choos- 
ing a single one. P. 

What on earth should she do? 
Fall to the ground between two 
stools? No ; that was a man's trick, 
and she was a woman, every inch. 
C. READE. 

And they were very merry so that 
no one would have thought that 



238 Strait 

Johnny was a despondent lover, 
now bent on throwing the dice for 
his last stake; or that Lily was 
aware that she was in the presence 
of one lover, and that she was like 
to fall between two stools (having 
two lovers, neither of whom coula 
serve her turn). A. TROLLOPE. 

Store. To SET STORE BY or 
ON to value ; to think highly 
of. P. 

An artist sketched a likeness of 
the young declaimer, on which, in 
after days, those who were fondest 

g? him set not a little store. 
EORGE ELIOT. 

IN STORE ready ; waiting ; soon 
to disclose itself. P. 

If he portrays persons generally as 
well as he does places (as I do not 
doubt), there must be another treat 
in store for us. JAMES PAYN. 



Little anticipating the checkered 
ills in store for him. W. IRVING. 

Story. WEAK IN THE UPPER 
STORY crazy ; feeble-minded. 
F. 

Stove. THE STOVE-PIPE HAT 
the tall silk hat. C. 

About the only monstrosity I saw 
in the British man's dress was the 
stove-pipe hat. BURROUGHS. 

Straight. A STRAIGHT TIP 
private and correct informa- 
tion. S. 

All he had to do was to give him 
the straight tip, and let him go and 
buy. BESANT. 

We got the straight tip; that's all 
you need know. Miss BR ADDON. 

Strain. To STRAIN AT A ONAT 
to make difficulties about 
something insignificant. P. 
A Scriptural phrase (Matt, 
xxiii. 24). 

You are just the chap to strain at 
a gnat and swallow a camel. HALI- 
BURTON. 

StPait. A STRAIT JACKET OF 

WAISTCOAT an article of dress 
put on a madman when he is 
unruly. P. 

George Gaunt is accredited to a 
keeper, who has invested him with 
the order of the Strait Waistcoat. 
THACKERAY. 

Exp. George Gaunt, instead of 
going as a secretary of legation to a 
foreign court, has been intrusted to 
a keeper, and is watched as a mad- 
man. 



Straw 

MY EYES DRAW 

STRAWS I am very sleepy. C. 

Lady Ans. I'm very sure 'tis time 
for all honest folks to go to bed. 

Miss. Indeed my eyes draw straws 
(I am almost asleep). SWIFT. 

THE LAST STRAW that which 
finally causes a catastrophe ; 
an event simple in itself, but 
able, in conjunction with other 
things, to cause a calamity. 
P, The proverb runs : " It 
is the last straw which breaks 
the camel's back." 

If there are any real tragedies being 
acted out in Oldbury just now, you 
may depend upon it they are unsus- 
pected ones, or that all the good 
' sy heaping last straws 
t earners back. ANNIE 



people are busy heading last straws 

on the fainting ct 

KEARY. 

Identification would mean loss of 
credit, the last straw in many cases. 
Spectator, }887. 
NOT TO CARE A STRAW Or TWO 

STRAWS to be perfectly in- 
different. P. A straw is the 
symbol of what is worthless. 

I don't think she could have cared 
two straws about the woman. 
Murray's Magazine, 1887. 
A STRAW BID a worthless bid 
(at an auction). P. The 
bidder in such a case is unable 
to pay if the article is knocked 
down to him. 

A MAN OF STRAW a creature 
evolved from the fancy, and 
wholly unlike the real person ; 
an unreal person ; a dummy. 
P. 

The man of straw who offers bail 
is furnished the money by those who 
stimulated the outrage. C. READE. 

Major, there's a man of straw in 
that house. G. J. WHYTE-MEL- 

You'bring me a party that will give 
me enough for those mills to clear 
me of you, and I'll talk to you. But 
don't come you here with any man of 
straw. W. D. HOWELLS. 



239 Strike 

lovers, generally taken as 
typical of a sentimental young 
man and his sweetheart. P. 

He brought his lovely wife to a 
romantic -looking cottage, covered 
with roses and myrtle, and there 
their Strephon and Phyllis-like ex- 
istence had commenced. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

Stpikel To STRIKE WORK 
to refuse to work until better 
terms are promised. P. 

A number of functions, in fact, 
struck work. H. DRUMMOND, 
To STRIKE ONE'S COLOURS or 
FLAG to surrender. P. 

Anastasie was aware of defeat ; she 
struck her colours instantly. R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

The flush of victory, the intoxica- 
tion of success, had passed over to 
another: and it was he who had to 
strike his flag and own himself de- 
feated. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

STRIKE ME LUCK or LUCKY. An 
old phrase, used when a bar- 
gain was made, and money 
exchanged in token thereof. 
"Come, strike me luck with^ ear- 
nest, and draw the writii 



The conduct of the whole dialogue 
is masterly. Both Milton and Cow- 
ley sustain their parts with admi- 
rable propriety. It is no sham fight 



i an 

ley sustain their parts with admi 
rable propriety. It is no sham fighl 
in which one of the interlocutors is 
a man of straw, set up only to be 
knocked down. J.COTTER MORISON. 

Strephon. STREPHON AND 
PHYLLIS a pair of rustic 



''There's a God's penny for 

BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER. 

TO STRIKE A BARGAIN to COn- 

clude a bargain. P. The 
striking of hands was a sign 
of a bargain being concluded. 

Mr. Miles answered by offering to 
bet he should make the best servant 
in the street ; and. strange to say. the 
bargain was struck, and he aid turn 
out a model servant. C. READE. 
TO STRIKE ALL OF A HEAP to 

astonish ; to dumfounder, F. 
I ran to Paley and told him what 
had befallen upon the house. He 
was not struck all of a heap, as I 
thought he would be. C. READE. 

STRIKE WHILE THE DION is HOT 
do not miss a favourable 
opportunity ; act when the 
conditions are favourable. P. 
"Let George cut in and win her, 
was his advice. "Strike while the 
iron's hot, you know while shes 
fresh to the town." THACKERAY. 

To STRIKE UP to begin ; to set 
on foot. C. Generally said 
of music. 

An introduction took place' be- 
tween the squire and the clergyman s 



Struck 



240 



Supper 



volatile pupil, which struck up an 
immediate alliance of obliger and 
obliged. G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

I fancy it requires more than or- 
dinary spirit now for a good old 
gentleman, at the head of his family 
table, to strike up a good old family 
song. THACKERAY. 
To STRIKE IN to make an abrupt 
entry into a conversation. P. 
See CUT IN. 

But at this moment the lieutenant 
struck in. " Oh, that is quite fool- 
ish!" he cried. WM. BLACK. 
To STRIKE ONE'S TENT to depart. 
C. 

However, he had amassed a good 
deal of money in this gambling hell 
of his ; and so he was able to per- 
suade a few of his meaner depend- 
ants to strike their tents along with 
him, and go out into the wilderness. 
WM. BLACK. 

Struck. STRUCK UPON at- 
tracted by. F. An Ameri- 
canism. 

" But that young man had perfect 
ways." 

"Seem struck upon Irene?" asked 
the colonel. W. D. HOWELLS. 

Stuck. STUCK UP proud ; 
conceited. F. 

"They didn't 'seem stuck up," 
urged his wife. W. D. HOWELLS. 

Study. A BROWN STUDY a 
state of mental absorption ; a 
dreamy condition of mind. P. 
He'll poison his patients some day 
when he's in a brown study. FLOR- 
ENCE MARRYAT. 

Stump. To STUMP UP to pay 
out money. S. 

Why don't you ask your old gover- 
nor to stump up ? DICKENS. 

ON THE STUMP lecturing ; on 
a lecturing tour. F. 

Suaviter. SUAVITER IN MODO 
possessing tact; having a 
pleasant mode of dealing. P. 
Latin. The full phrase is 
SUAVITER IN MODO, PORTITER 
IN RE, " Pleasant in' the 
manner of carrying out an en- 
terprise, firm in the business 
itself." 

Let Mr Slope be the fortiter in re, 
he himself would pour in the sua- 
mter in modo.A. TROLLOPE. 



Sub. SUB ROSA in confidence ; 
secretly. P. The Latin form 
of " Under the rose." See 
ROSE. 

By-the-bye, I wonder some of you 
lawyers (sub rosa, of course) have not 
quoted the pithy line of Mandeville. 
S. T. COLERIDGE. 

Such. SUCH AND SUCH cer- 
tain. An adjective phrase, 
which saves the need of using 
a definite numeral or other 
adjective. P. 

She had written to him to say that 
she would be at her father's on such 
land such a morning, and he had gone 
to her there. A. TROLLOPE. 

She had always been accustomed 
to such and such things ; there was 
no possibility of living without them. 
MABIA EDGEWORTH. 

Sugar. A SUGAR-PLUM some- 
thing very nice. C. 
For this pretty toy Mr. Conway 
e nad 



Dalrymple nad picked up a gilt 
sugar-plum to the tune of six hun- 
dred pounds. A. TROLLOPE. 

Sui. Sui GENERIS peculiar; 
belonging to a class apart ; not 
like anything else. P. Latin. 
Not a Clinton, nor yet a Carew, she 
was sid generis, and supreme. MRS. 
E. LYNN LINTON. 

Summer. THE LITTLE SUM- 
MER OF ST. LUKE a mild spell 
of weather which usually 
comes about the middle of 
October. St. Luke's Day, 
the 18th of October, gives it 
the name. 

INDIAN SUMMER. See INDIAN. 

Sunshine. To HAVE BEEN 
IN THE SUNSHINE to be drunk. 
F. 

He was in that condition which his 
groom indicated with poetic ambigu- 
ity by saying, that " master had been 
in the sunshine." GEORGE ELIOT. 

Sup. To SUP WITH PLUTO to 
die. P. Pluto was the Latin 
god of the infernal regions, 
where the spirits of the dead 
existed. 

Supper. To SET ONE HIS 
SUPPER to perform a feat that 
cannot be imitated or sur- 
passed. F. 



Sure 



241 



Sweet 



Sure. As SURE AS A GUN 

certainly ; without fail. F. 
"As sure as a gun," said she, "that 

must be the knock of the post." 

MACAULAY. 
To BE SURE certainly ; no 

doubt. C. An exclamation 

having no decided force or 

meaning. 
Lord! what a life mine is, to be sure. 

-S. WARREN. 

Surprise. A SURPRISE PARTY 
a party of friends who ap- 
pear unexpectedly at the house 
of some one of their acquaint- 
ance, bringing food with them. 
This is usually done in the 
evening. P. An American 
custom. 

Swallow. ONE SWALLOW 

DOES NOT MAKE A SUMMER 

we must not frame a general 
law from one single phenome- 
non. P. 

"When the Family Galas were 



about to be executed unjustly, witl 

the consent of all " 

statesmen in France, one man in the 



,11 the lawyers and 



nation saw the error, and fought for 
the innocent, and saved them ; and 
that one wise man in a nation of 
fools was a writer of fiction." 

"One swallow does not make a 
summer, for all that." C. READE. 

Swear. To SWEAR BY AN- 
OTHER to be an imitator or 
admiring follower ; to admire 
all his actions ; to have full 
confidence in. C. 

" I suppose I oughtn't to say it be- 
fore you, observes Miss Smiles pres- 
ently, "because, of course,you swear 
by everything British." FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

Gilbert smiled. "The performance 
was not quite such a risky one as it 
looked, I think: but, of course, that 
is the sort of thing that makes these 
pie swear by Monckton." Good 



To SWEAR IN (of a magistrate) 
to engage formally the services 
of men for the government. P. 
Governor Lanyon is sending Raaf 
down with power to swear in special 
constables, and enforce the law at 
Potchefstroom. H. R. HAGGARD. 

TO SWEAR LIKE A TROOPER to 

use profane language freely. 
P. 



She was perfectly tipsy, screaming 
and fighting like a Billingsgate fish- 
woman, and swearing like a trooper. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

To SWEAR OFF to renounce ; 
to give up. C. Often used 
intransitively. 

"Will you have a drink with us, 
Jack?" 

"No, mate, I've sworn off "(given 
up drinking). 

To SWEAR OUT to renounce ; to 
give up. Old-fashioned. 
Your grace hath sworn out house- 
keeping. SHAKESPEARE. 

Sweat. THE SWEAT OF ONE'S 
BROW or FACE hard labour. 
P. 

In the sweat of thy face shalt thou 
eat bread, till thou return unto the 
ground. Gen. iii. 19. 

" 'Tis the sweat of our brow, Tum- 
mus. none of 'em (them) think on 
(of). BLACKMORE. 

In this practice, indeed, he imi- 
tated some of the most renowned 
geniuses of the age, who have la- 
boured in secret with the sweat of 
their brows for many a repartee. 
SMOLLETT. 

Sweet. SWEET ON or UPON 
attached to ; having a fancy 
for. F. 

"Mark my words, Rawdon," she 
said. "You will have Miss Sharp 
one day for your relation." 

" What relation, my cousin, hey, 
Mrs. Bute? James sweet on her, 
hey?" inquired the waggish officer. 
THACKERAY. 

A SWEET TOOTH a liking for 
sweetmeats and dainties. P. 

All people with healthy physical 
appetites have a sweet tooth some- 
where in their heads. Macmillan's 
Magazine, 1887. 

I know she has a sweet tooth still 
in her head. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 
ONE'S SWEET WILL uncon- 
trolled wishes ; the unre- 
strained desires of one's heart. 
C. A phrase generally used 
somewhat sarcastically. 

If only the idealists can have their 
way, and work out the yearnings of 
their own sweet will, we shall soon 
be a teetotal, vegetarian, and non- 
tobacco -smoking people. Family 
Herald (quoted in Edinburgh Re- 
view, 1887). 



Swell 



242 



Sydney 



the limits of her own parole. BLACK- 
MORE. 

Swell. THE SWELL MOB 
people of bad character ; men 
who prey on the vices or follies 
of others. F. 

The fact was that he had been one 
of the swell mob. CAPTAIN MAR- 
KYAT. 

t When he had worn something of 
the air of a dandy, or, at the worst, 
of a successful swell-mobsman. D. 
CHRISTIE MURRAY. 

Swim. IN THE SWIM in the 
current of events ; acquainted 
with all that is going on. C. 

Swing 1 . IN FULL SWING very 
busy ; working busily. C. 

The street market was in full 
swing. BESANT. 

TO GIVE FULI^ SWING TO to 

indulge freely ; to let loose ; 
to free from control. P. 

But let us return to Nature: do 
you mean that we are to give full 
swing to our inclination, to throw 
the reins on the neck of our senses ? 
M. ARNOLD. 

TO HAVE FULL SWING to be 

allowed free and uncontrolled 
exercise. P. 

Every one has his full swing, or 
goes to the devil his own way. 
HAZLITT. 

SWOOP. AT ONE FELL SWOOP 

with one unlucky blow ; by a 
single catastrophe. P. 

At one fell swoop it had cleared 
the sideboard of glasses, decanters, 
silver waiters. WILSON. 

SWOP. TO SWOP HORSES CROSS- 
ING THE STREAM to make an 
exchange at a critical time when 
all one's energies should be 
devoted to the business in 
hand. F. 



Swopd. AT SWORDS' POINTS 
bitterly hostile. P. 

This the captain took in dudgeon, 
and they were at swords' points at 
once. R. H. DANA. 

THE SWORD OF DAMOCLES. 
Damocles was a courtier in 
the palace of Dionysius the 
Elder, ruler of Syracuse. Hav- 
ing extolled the felicity of 
princes, he was answered in 
the following fashion by his 
master. He was invited 
to a sumptuous banquet, 
and arrayed in royal robes, 
was given the principal seat ; 
but over his head hung a 
sword suspended by a single 
horse-hair. By this Dionysius 
meant to intimate the pre- 
carious nature of the power 
and felicity of princes. 

When it is said to be the Czar's 
wish that the aged Emperor of Ger- 
many's end should be peaceful, and 
that it is only because he would not 
that his last moments should be dis- 
turbed by the clash of arms that he 
desists from action, it will be seen 
how thin is the thread by which the 
sword of Damocles is suspended. 
St. Andrews Citizen, 1887. 

TO PUT TO THE SWORD to Mil. P. 

AT SWORDS DRAWN bitterly 
hostile. P. See DAGGER. 

Giovanni belonged to a family 
who, from the earliest times, had 
been at swords drawn with the gov- 
ernment. MARION CRAWFORD. 

Sydney. SYDNEY SIDER a 
convict. S. 

There is no euphemism invented 
yet for the word ft convict," which is 
available among the labouring class 
of Australia when a convict is pres- 
ent. Those who think they know 
something of them might fancy that 
"Old hand," " Vandemoman, or 
even Sydney aider, were not particu- 
larly offensive. H. KINGSLEY. 



243 



Take 



T. To A T. exactly. C. Per- 
haps from a T-Square. 

" Well," said I, "there is a pretty 
show of girls, that's certain; but 
they wouldn't condescend to the like 
of me. I was thinking there were 
some of them that would just suit 
you to a T." HALIBURTON. 

The fool forgets there is an Act of 
Parliament, and that we have com- 
plied with the provisions to a T. C. 
READE. 

Table. To TURN THE TABLES 
to reverse the position of 
two rival parties. P. 

It was no light act of courage in 
those days, my dear boys, for a little 



fellow to say his prayers publicly, 

Rugby. 
when Arnold's 



even at 



anly piety had be- 
school, the tables 
he died, in the 



ly. A' few years later, 
manlv 

j leaven the scl , ._ 

turned. Before he died, in _ 
school-house at least, and I believe 
in the other houses, the rule was the 
other way. T. HUGHES. 

If Mr. Dillon had said that such an 
outrage as this was nothing but the 
turning of the tables on the atroci- 
ties or the penal code, we should 
not have blamed him. Spectator, 
1887. 

TABLE D'HOTE the public din- 
ing table at a hotel. P. A 
French phrase. Literally, the 
" host's table," from the custom 
of the landlord presiding at 
the public dinner. 

I was very fond of dining at table 
d'hote anywhere. The Mistletoe 
Bough, 1885. 

UPON THE TABLE known to 
every one a matter of public 
discussion. P. 

I will not, however, take up the 
time of this I mean your time by 
recapitulating all that I told you on 
that occasion; the facts are, so to 
speak, all upon the table, and I will 
merely touch upon the main heads 
of the case. H. R. HAGGARD. 

Tableaux* TABLEAUX viv- 
ANTS " living pictures ; " dumb 
representations, generally of 
historical scenes, in which the 
figures are real people. French. 
A favourite amusement in social 
gatherings. 

On the 2Gth of January 1500, having 
accomplished the first half of his 



task, he (Csesar Borgia) entered 
Rome as a conqueror, on which 
occasion a representation was given 
of the triumph of Csesar, with the 
various episodes of the life of the 
Roman Csesar, shown in tableaux 
vivants, suggested by the painter 
Mantegna. Blackwood's Magazine, 
1888. 

Tag-. TAG-RAG AND BOB-TAIL 
the ill-dressed rabble. P. 
See RAG-TAG. 

He invited tag-rag and bob-tail to 
the wedding. L'EsTRANGE. 

Tall. TO KEEP THE TAIL IN 

THE WATER to thrive ; to 
prosper. F. 

To TURN TAIL to retreat in an 
undignified way. 

"Never thought I should live to 
turn tail in this way," growled one 
soldier to another as they passed 
out. English Illustrated Magazine, 



Tailor. NINE TAILORS MAKE 
A MAN. An old saying. See 

NINE. 

I believe Pinchin's father to have 
been a tailor. There is no harm in 
the craft, honestly exercised; but 
since the world began nine tailors 
have made a man, and you cannot 
well see a knight of the shears with- 
out asking in your own mind where 
he has left his eight brethren. G. A. 
SALA. 

Take. To TAKE ABACK to 
bewilder ; to astonish ; to sur- 
prise. P. 

"A what?" asked Hardy rather 
taken aback. DICKENS. 

For to hand in a dead woman 
might take him aback, as it had 
taken me. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 
To TAKE BACK. to recall words 
that have been spoken ; to 
retract. C. 

"I've disgusted you, I see that; 
but I didn't mean to. I I take it 

" Oh, there's nothing to take back," 
said Corey. W. D. HOWELLS. 
TO TAKE HOME TO ONESELF to 

understand completely. C. 

Jael did not at all take home to 
herself the peculiar meaning of her 
friend's words. A. TROLLOPS. 



Take 



244 



To TAKE AFTER to resemble ; ' 
to imitate. P. 

We cannot but think that he has 
taken after a good pattern. ATTER- 

Thank God, you take after your 
mother's family, Arthur. GEORGE 
ELIOT. 

To TAKE THE CUE to under- 
stand a hint. P. 

The ladies took the cue and retired. 
C. READE. 

TO TAKE TO THE ROAD to be- 

come a highwayman. P. 

The pewterer was unfortunate in 
his business, and took to the road. 
G. A. SALA. 

To TAKE DOWN (a) to humiliate 
to lower the pretensions of. C. 
Our reverend's been taken down a 
bit since that gent at the hall lit his 
pipe in the church porch. A. JES- 
SOPP, in Nineteenth Century, 1887. 

"The fact is," went on the other, 
"that I thought you wanted taking 
down a peg." Good Words, 1887. 

(6) to take the place of a 

scholar higher up in the form. 
A school phrase. 

(c) to commit to writing 

spoken words as they are 
uttered. P. 

He wrote letters and took down 
instructions in shorthand. BESANT. 

TO TAKE FLIGHT to gO Off. C. 

My good Matilda, I am sick of this. 
I have been bored to-night, and what 
is much worse, I have been snubbed. 
Suppose we take flight for Cannes? 
Good Words, 1887. 

To TAKE IN GOOD PART to hear 
or receive willingly. P. 

I will just add one little word, 
Utterson, that I'm sure you'll take 
in good part. This is a private mat- 
ter, and! beg of you to let it sleep. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

TO TAKE ANYTHING TO HEART 

to bear it seriously ; to be 
much affected by it. P. 

The next day he called at Gras 
mere, Susan "met him all smiles 
and was more cheerful than usual 
The watchful man was delighted 
"Come; she does not take it tc 
heart." He did not guess that Susan 
had cried for hours and hours ove 
the letter. C. READE. 
To TAKE IN HAND to under 
take ; to commence working 
with. P. 



Take 

But that acquaintances-mere ac- 
quaintances-should have taken it 
in hand to give her pecuniary assist- 
ance, was a humiliation indeed. 
JAMES PAYN. 

'o TAKE HOLD OF to seize ; 
to occupy. P. 

But there was something in the 
delicate handwriting and perfume 
of the letter that took hold of my 
imagination. Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 
'o TAKE IN (a) to deceive ; to 
delude. P. 

" At all events, everybody was very 
hard upon him. just because they 
were taken in/' argued Margaret. 
" If he had acknowledged what they 
admired so much to have been his 
own, they would have seen nothing 
in it to admire." JAMES PAYN. 

Here were two battered London 
rakes, taking themselves in for .a 
moment, and fancying they were in 
love with each other like Phyllis and 
Corydon. THACKERAY. 

(6) to escort to a room. P. 

As for Miss Huntly, she rather 
prided herself upon her immunity 
from "airs," and would have been 
quite content to accept Mr. Bus- 
well's arm, had that person been re- 
quested to take her in to dinner. 
Good Words, 1887. 

(c) to comprehend; to absorb 

mentally. P. 

It is not to be supposed that he 
took in everything at one glance. 
DICKENS. 

To TAKE OFF (a) to mock at ; 
to make sport of ; to mimic. P. 
Taking off (making fun of) the 
factory ladies. HALIBURTON. 

I know the man I would have : a 
quick-witted, outspoken, incisive 
fellow delights in taking off big- 
wigs and professional gowns, and m 
the disembalming and unbandagmg 
of all literary mummies. O. W. 
HOLMES. 

(&) to murder. Old fashioned. 

The deep damnation of his taking off. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

TO TAKE ONESELF OFF (a) to go 

away. C. 

Sincerely thankful was he when 
the meal came to an end, and when 
( Brian, with a murmured excuse, 
took himself off. -Good Words, 1887. 
The stranger suddenly took him- 
self off, ana was no more seen by 
the young lady. A. TROLLOPE. 
6) to commit suicide. C. 

bu argue," said Mrs. Wallace, 
" that in the case of wicked people, 
the very best thing they can do is to 



Take 

take themselves off, as you call it 
since in so doing they do the work 
a service.' JAMES PAYN. 

To TAKE ON to be affected ; t( 
be overcome by one's feelings 
C. 

"Dear heart! rdear heart!" crie. 
the squire, who was deeply attachec 
to his sister; "don't take on so, mv 
dear good J9an." BLACKMORE. 

.It is a pity you take on so, Mis,, 
Bnggs. the young lady said, with a 
cool, slightly sarcastic air. 

"My dearest friend is so ill, anc 
wo-o-o-ont see me," gurgled oui 
Briggs in an agony of renewed grief 
THACKERAY. 

IN A PRETTY TAKE ON much 

affected. F. 

.She was in a pretty take on, too 
sir, because, as she said to use her 
very words-she was chiselled out o 
a dance. S. BAKING-GOULD. 
To TAKE IT our (a) to take ex- 
ercise ; to relieve one's physical 
energies. C. 

Her limbs were elastic, so that she 
seem ed. when she walked as if she 
would like to run, jump, and dance, 
which, indeed, she would have 
greatly preferred, only at Newnham 
they take it out at lawn tennis. 
BESANT. 

(6) to obtain an equivalent 

for a loss sustained. C. 

"Can't you keep awake till you 
have stated your case?" asked 
Harry. "Come, old boy; you can 
take it out in slumber afterwards." 
BESANT. 

TO TAKE IT OUT OF A PERSON 

to exhaust his energies. P. 

So they tried back slowly and 
sorrowfully, and found the lane, 
and went limping down it, plashing 
in the cold puddly ruts, and begin- 
ning to feel how the run had taken 
it out of them. T. HUGHES. 

To TAKE PART to share : to act 
along with others. P. 

Take part in rejoicing for the vic- 
tory over the Turks. POPE. 

To TAKE PLACE to happen. P. 
Whether anything of the nature 
of a family collision nad taken place 
onl the occasion of her doing so, 
John Lawrence did not know. 
Murray's Magazine, 1887. 

To TAKE STOCK IN. See STOCK. 

To TAKE BT STORM to secure 
by one great effort ; to over- 
come by one single blow. P. 



245 Take 

In face and manner and speech 
she was of those sweetly innocent 
girls who take men's hearts by 
storm. MRS. H. WOOD. 

Of course, at my age, I was soon 
all right again, and going to take 
tne world by storm to-morrow morn- 
ing. C. E.EADE. 

To TAKE TO to apply oneself to ; 
to conceive a liking for. P. 
Miss Betsy won't take to her book. 

Men of learning who take to busi- 
ness discharge it generally with 
greater honesty than men of the 
world. ADDLSON. 

The squire took to her very kindly 
(was very well pleased with her). 
A. TROLLOPS. 

To TAKE TO ONE'S BED to be 
prostrated by illness. P. 

It is quite true that at times he 
took to his bed.-Letter quoted in 
Nineteenth Century, 1887. 

To TAKE TO ONE'S HEELS to 

commence running ; to start 
off at a rapid pace. P. 

I gave a view halloa, took to my 
heels, collared my gentleman, and 
brought him back. R. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

To TAKE TO TASK to reprove ; 
to lecture ; to find fault 
with. P. 

"I am only saying what Dr. 
Cooper&has just told me that Mr. 
Josceline's life must be counted by 
hours. There is no hope." 

" Still," urged Mrs. Armytage, irri- 
tated at being taken to task and, as 
was evident, with the approval of the 
company by a lady so inferior to 
her in the social scale "the truth 
must be told, we are taught, even of 
the dead." JAMES PAYN. 

TO TAKE TOO MUCH to get 

drunk. C. 

She knew he was of no drunken 
kind, yet once in a way a man might 
take too much. BLACKMORE. 
To TAKE IN TOW to conduct ; 
to take charge of. P. Origi- 
nally a sea phrase. 

Sir Brian stood in the middle of 
Pall Mall shaking his stick at the 
cabman, whose number he took, 
and causing some interruption to 
the traffic, until he was courteously 
but firmly taken in tow by a police- 
man, who remarked that the road- 
way was intended for wheeled 
vehicles and the pavement for foot 
passengers. Gooa Words, 1887. 



Take 

To TAKE TURNS to engage in 
anything alternately, each one 
in succession being allowed to 
take part. P. 

I think a good way will be for each 
of them, even the youngest, to take 
turns in ordering the dinner and 
seeing it prepared. BESANT. 

To TAKE UP (a) to put in 
jail. P. 

For many a time, when they take 
a man up, they spread it about that 
he's turned informer like the rest. 
CHARLES LEVER. 

(6) to help ; to aid ; to 
patronize. P. 

He told his story from the begin- 
ning: how he had experienced no- 
thing but failure and disappoint- 
ment ; how he had been taken up by 
the queer old fellow at the chop- 
house, etc. BESANT. 

(c) to engross ; to comprise. 

P. 

I prefer in our countryman the 
noble poem of Palamon and Arcite, 
which is perhaps not much inferior 
to the Ilias, only it takes up seven 
years. DRYDEN. 

(d) to reply to ; to interrupt 
with a criticism. P. 

One of his relations took him up 
roundly for stooping so much below 
the dignity of his profession. 

L'ESTRANOE. 

Meantime a shrewd woman was 
there listening with all her ears a 
woman, too, who had vague suspi- 
cions about him, and had taken him 
up rather sharper than natural, he 
thought, when, being off his guard 
for a moment, he anticipated the 
narrator, and assumed there were 
two burglars. C. READE. 

TAKEN UP wholly occupied ; 
engrossed. P. 

Mr. Fraser did not answer him 
immediately, so taken up was he in 
noticing the wonderful changes a 
week had wrought in his appear- 
ance. H. R. HAGGARD. 

To TAKE UP ARMS FOR to de- 
fend ; to champion. C. 

Miss Smiles takes up arms at once 
for Mrs. Beverley. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

To TAKE UPON ONESELF to ven- 
ture (in a moral sense) ; to 
undertake a responsibility. P. 
The Parliament took upon them 
to call an assembly of divines to 
settle some Church questions 
SOUTH. 



246 Talk 

" Well, well, well ! " he murmured. 
"But it doesn't do to say so, you 
know, Mr. Segrave. At times, I con- 
fess, he appears to me to take too 
much upon him." Good Words, 1887. 
TO TAKE A MAN AT HIS WORD 

to believe what he says. P. 

If I should decline all merit, it 
was too probable the hasty reader 
might have taken me at my word. 
GOLDSMITH. 

" It seems a pity," Harry chimed 
in, "that so much protesting was in 
vain. Perhaps Mr. Messenger took 
him at his word. "BESANT. 
To TAKE A TELLING to receive 
advice or a rebuke patiently. 
C. 

TO TAKE IT INTO ONE'S HEAD 

to conceive a sudden intention ; 
to resolve upon without any 
apparent reason. C. Gener- 
ally used of a capricious whim. 

Mrs. Crumpe took it into her head 
that she could eat no butter but of 
Patty's churning. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

To TAKE UP WITH to be friendly 
with ; to seek the society of ; 
to keep company with. O. 

Do you suppose that Penelope 
Lapham is a girl to take up with a 
fellow that her sister is in love with, 
and that she always thought was in 
love with her sister, and go off 
and be happy with him? W. D. 
HOWELLS. 

Taking. IN A TERRIBLE TAK- 
ING greatly agitated. C. 

" Zounds, Blanche ! what did you 
say?" burst out the general in a 
terrible taking, as he thought how 
everything must come out. G. J. 
WHYTE-MELVILLE. 

Talk. To TALK A PERSON'S 
HEAD OFF to be excessively 
talkative ; to weary another 
with talking. C. 

I only hope, Heigham, that old 
Pigott won't talk your head off : she 
has got a dreadful tongue. H. R. 
HAQQARD. 

TO TALK A PERSON UP to Cajole 

a person with flattering words ; 
to persuade a person to do 
some action. P. 

I sent for Mr. Flamborough, and 
they talked him up as finely as they 
did me. GOLDSMITH. 
To TALK OVER (a) to persuade 
a person by talking ; to induce 



Tandem 



247 



a person to change his opinio 
by talking with him. P 

emba 



Tar 



over Trevittick, wh 
esced.-H. 



ough 

But he taile 

He talke , 

sulkily acqulesced.-H. KINGSLEY 
- (&) to discuss a subject. P. 
Tandem. To DRIVE TANDEM 
to drive a coach to which tw 
horses are harnessed one i 
front of the other, and no 
side by side. P. 

He had already given up drivin 
tandem. A thenceum, 1887. 
Tangent. OFF AT A TANGENT 
This phrase is used of quick an 
sudden movements, where 
person breaks away unex 
pectedly. C. Especially use 
of conversations ; but also 
as in the second example, o 
one's thoughts. 

She could scarcely say ten words 
except about herself ; so when Bas 
sett questioned her about Sir Charle 
and Lady Bassett, she said " Yes," o 
o, or " I don't know," and was oft 



doings. -C. READE. 

John Treverton, smoking his cigar 
and letting his thoughts wande 
away at a tangent every now and 
then.-Miss BRADDON. 
Tansy. LIKE A TANSY per 
feet ; complete. C. Tansy 
was a drink composed o: 
many ingredients, and re 
quiring great care in its com 
position. 

swerall, is i 



Tantalus. A TANTALUS cup 
a cup in which the water 
vanishes as soon as the thirsty 
person attempts to drink. 
P. Tantalus was a tyrant 
who, for his many crimes, was 
tortured in the infernal 
regions by having water ever 
at his lips. As soon as he tried 
to drink, however, the water 
slowly receded, and left him 
more thirsty than ever. 
.Nothing occurred to interfere with 
the plan of action decided on by 



Tantrums. IN ONE'S TAN- 
TRUMS in a bad humour. F. 
* M *i? * he sa ^ Dobbs Broughton he 
told that gentleman that Mrs. Van 
Siever hacf been in her tantrums - 
A. TROLLOPS. 

"What, you are in your tantrums 
again!" said she. C. READE. 

Tape. TAPE or RED TAPE 
official routine ; official delay 
and obstruction. P. 

T 7 he j ? st and reserve of office 
melted like snow in summer before 
the sun of religion and humanity 
How unreal and idle appeared now 
the twenty years gone in tape and 
circumlocution.-a READE. 

Tapis. ON THE TAPIS under 
discussion. P. Topis is French 
for " carpet." 

_Well, as .my engagement to Ladv 
Catherine is still on the tapis, it will 
be as well to assume that I did not 
(give her a chance of marrying me) 
Mistletoe Bough, 18&5 

The Schleswig-Holstein question 
comes on the tapis, and no one 
seems to know much of anything 
about the place geographically. 
fortnightly Review, 1887. 



'. TO HAVE A LICK OF THE 

TAR-BRUSH to be partly of 
negro blood. F. 

TARRING AND FEATHERING a 
punishment inflicted upon an 
unpopular person. Joseph 
Smith, the founder of Mor- 
monism, was so treated. 
King Richard Coeur de Lion, 
before sailing for the Holy 
Land, had a law enacted in 
the fleet that " a robber, who 
shall be convicted of theft, 
shall have his head cropped 
after the manner of a champion, 
and boiling pitch shall be 
poured thereon, and then the 
feathers of a cushion shall 
be shaken out upon him, so 
that he may be known, and 
at the first land at which the 
ships shall touch he shall be 
set on shore." 



Tartar 



248 



Tell 



TARRED WITH THE SAME BRUSH or 
STICK possessing the same 
peculiarities ; marked by the 
same qualities. C. 

As a sample of the self -trained 
and self-educated amateur, he was, 
however, tarred with the same brush 
as John Lawrence. M urray's Maga- 
zine, 1887. 

We are all tarred with the same 
stick, we women. C. READE. 

Tartar. To CATCH A TARTAR 
to capture what proves to 
be a troublesome prisoner ; 
to seize hold of what one would 
afterwards willingly let go. P. 

Keckless Reginald soon found he 
had caught a Tartar in his new 
master. C. READE. 

She let him have his head for a 
bit, and then, when he'd got quite 
accustomed to the best of every- 
thing and couldn't live without it, 
she turned him into the street, 
where there is no claret and no 
champagne. So that poor man 
caught a Tartar, didn't he? BESANT. 

Task. TO TAKE TO TASK to 

reprove; to find fault with. P. 
Mrs. Baynes took poor madame 
severely to task for admitting such 
a man to her assemblies. THACK- 
ERAY. 

Tattoo. THE DEVIL'S TATTOO 
beating, usually with the 
fingers, on a table or other 
flat surface. P. Generally 
a sign of impatience or of 
ill -humour. 

" Ah, what shall I do, Lord Steyne, 
for I am very, very unhappy?" 

Lord Steyne made no reply except 
by beating the devil's tattoo and 
biting his nails. THACKERAY. 

There lay half-a-dozen ruffians 
writhing on the ground, and beating 
the devil's tattoo with their heels. 
C. READE. 

Tea. A STORM IN A TEA -CUP 
a petty squabble ; a disturb- 
ance marked by much noise, 
but of no importance. C. 

For all that, his sympathies had 
been entirely with her in the recent 
squabble. "What a ridiculous little 
storm in a tea-cup it was!" he 
thought with a laugh. Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

A TEA FIGHT a social gathering 
where tea is the beverage 
drank. S. 



Teens. IN ONE'S TEENS be- 
tween the ages of twelve and 
twenty. C. 

He (the great Conde") was a ripe 
scholar even in his teens, as the 
Latinity of his letters proves. 
Edinburgh Review, 1887. 

Teeth. To CAST or THROW 

ANYTHING IN ONE'S TEETH 

to reproach one with any- 
thing. P. 

You've got the girl, and we must 
keep her; and keep her well to9 ; 
that she may not be able to throw it 
in your teeth that she has made such 
sacrifices for you. BLACKMORE. 

"She was ill, and she gave you a 
letter for me. Where is it ? " 

"I confess that the first part of 
your information is true, Mr. Ruth- 
ven, though I don't know why an 
act of benevolence should be thrown 
in my teeth as if it were a crime. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 
FROM THE TEETH OUTWARDS 
without real significance ; 
merely on the surface. C. 

Much of the Tory talk about 
General Gordon lately was only 
from the teeth outwards. Daily 
News, 1886. 

To HAVE CUT ONE'S TEETH or 
EYE-TEETH to be crafty. S. 

He and I were born the same year, 
but he cut his teeth long before me. 
C. READE. 

Tell. To TELL ON or UPON 
to affect ; to influence. P. 

His previous exertions had told on 
his constitution. Quarterly Review, 
1807. 

"Pull yourself together, Brad- 
shaw," said the lawyer. "This sus- 
pense, I know, is telling upon all of 
you." R. L. STEVENSON. 

To TELL OFF to count separ- 
ately ; to number in order. P. 
But one day after chapel, as the 
men were being told off to their 
several tasks, Robinson recognized 
the boy by his figure. C. READE. 

TO TELL TALES OUT OF SCHOOL 

to repeat in public what has 
passed in the company of 
intimates ; to reveal private 
matters. P. 

"Look here, Duff ham,", he went 
on ; " we want you to go with us and 
see somebody : and to undertake 
not to tell tales out of school." 
MRS. HENRY WOOD. 



Tempers 



249 



Thick 



Tempers. GOD TEMPERS THE 

WIND TO THE SHORN LAMB 

God makes misfortunes bear 
lightly on the feeble. P. A 
French saying, of which Sterne 
has made use. 

"You are very kind," said Mrs. 
Crawley. "We must only bear it 
with such fortitude as God will give 
us. We are told that he tempers 
the wind to the shorn lamb." A. 
TBOLLOPE. 

Ten. TEN TO ONE ten chances 
to one ; almost certainly. C. 

Whenever the reader lights upon 
the title which Fox had waded 
through so much to earn, it is ten to 
one that within the next half-dozen 
lines there will be found an allusion 
to the gallows. TBEVELYAN. 

ONE OP TEN THOUSAND an 
exceptionally excellent per- 
son. P. 

She did not know that she herself 
was a woman of ten thousand. She 
spoke believing herself to be a com- 
mon type of humanity. JAMES 
PAYN. 

THE UPPER TEN or TEN THOUSAND 
those moving in the highest 
London society. P. 

Lord Swansdown has had some 
dealings with him in an agricultural 
way, and wishing to show him 
civility on his accession to the upper 
ten, desired his wife to send him an 
invitation for the shooting season. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

But to tens of thousands includ- 
ing. I'll be bound, the upper ten-it 
will be utterly unknown. JAMES 
PAYN. 

Tenterhooks. ON TENTER- 
HOOKS in a state of discom- 
fort or agony. P. Tenter- 
hooks are the hooks on which 
a web of cloth is stretched by 
the selvages on a frame. 

I must say I should like to have it 
settled as soon as possible, because 
it keeps a man on tenterhooks, you 
know, and feeling like a fool. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Terms. ON TERMS friendly. 
P. 

He wasn't on terms with Flash- 
man's set. T. HUGHES. 

ON GOOD Or EXCELLENT TERMS 

friendly; intimate. P. 

I am not on good terms with Sir 
Charles. C. EEADE. 



To COME TO TERMS to make 
bargain. P. 

When George returned to the 
farmer, the latter, who had begun to 
fear the loss of a customer, came at 
once to terms with him. C. READE. 

"The Manor House does not be- 
long to me." 

"So I understand; but I should 
think you could come to terms with 
your brother." Good Words, 1887. 

Teppa. TERRA FIRMA dry 
land. P. Latin. 

Another foaming breaker, supple- 
mented by a vigorous shove from 
their stalwart arms, sends their un- 
wieldy craft up high and dry, and 
the spray-splashed passengers can 
step out on terra jirma.Scribner's 
Magazine, 1887. 

Tete. A TETE-A-T^TE a con- 
fidential conversation. C. 
French. 

"You will forgive me, Philip, for 
interrupting your Ute-a~t6te } but 
may I ask what is the meaning of 
this?" 

Philip returned no answer. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

Tether. To THE END OF 
ONE'S TETHER as far as one 
is able to proceed. C. 

I tell you plainly I have gone 
pretty well to the end of my tether 
with you. C. READE. 

Thames. To SET THE THAMES 
ON FIRE. See SET. 

Thanks. THANKS TO THIS or 
THAT this is the cause ; the 
result is due to this. P. 

If we are to believe the book, 
thanks to the American social sys- 
tem, she had a series of wonderful 
escapes from ill-considered matches. 
Edinburgh Review, 18S2. 

That. AT THAT A phrase 
in common use in America, 
signifying that certain con- 
ditions are conceded. 

John, looking at him, guessed that 
he could not weigh less than seven- 
teen stone, and he was well within 
the mark at that (if he allowed him 
such a weight). H. R. HAGGARD. 

There. ALL THERE. See ALL. 
Thick. THROUGH THICK AND 

THIN through every obstacle ; 

daunted by nothing. P. 
These fellows who attacked the 

inn to-night bold, desperate blades 



Thin 



250 



Thorn 



for sure and the rest who stayed 
aboard that lugger, and more, I dare 
say, not far off, are, one and all, 
through thick and thin, bound that 
they'll get that money. R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

The first dawn of comfort came to 
him in swearing to himself that he 
would stand by that boy through 
thick and thin, and cheer him and 
help him and bear his burdens. T. 
HUGHES. 

THICK - SKINNED not sensitive ; 
not easily rebuked, P. 

" Ah ! you wouldn't be if you saw 
Annerley Hall," returns the baronet, 
too thick-skinned to recognize a re- 
buff. FLORENCE MARRY AT. 

There was something in his com- 
panion's astounding thickness of 
skin that tickled his humour. 
JAMES PAYN. 

Thin. To RUN THIN to seek 
release from a bad bargain. F. 

THE THIN END or EDGE OP THE 
WEDGE. See WEDGE. 

Thing 1 . THE THING exactly 
right ; just what ought to be. 
F. 

"You are not at all the thing (by 
any means as well as you ought to 
be), my darling boy, said Mrs. 
Sharp to Christopher. BLACKMORE. 
Although they all knew the gongs 
by heart, it was the thing (con- 
sidered right and necessary) to have 
an old manuscript book descended 
from some departed hero, in which 
they were all carefully written out. 
T. HUGHES. 

Where energy was the thing, he 
was energetic enough. A II the Year 
Round, 1887. 

TO KNOW A THING OB TWO to be 

wise or cunning. F. 

"Mr. Levi," said he, "I see you 
know a thing or two ; will you be so 
good as to answer me a question?" 

C. JR.EADE. 

Thingumbob. THINGUMBOB, 

THING UMEBOB, THINGUMMY, Or 

THINGAMY a word used to 
replace a name that is forgotten. 
F. " What d'ye call him ? " 
is sometimes used in this way. 

"Make your mind easy," replied 
Mr. Mi es calmly ; " he won't escape ; 
we shall have him before the day is 
out." 

"Will you, sir? that is right-but 
how?" 

"The honourable Thingumbob, 
Tom Yates's friend, put us up to 
it."-C. READE. 



" My gracious. Mildred," suddenly 
exclaimed Agatha, " do you see who 
that is there leaning over the bul- 
warks? Oh, he's gone ; but so sure 
as I am a living woman, it was Lord 
Minster and Lady Florence Thing- 
umebob, his sister, you know, the 
pretty one." H. R. HAGGARP. 

The merchant who discharged his 
clerk last week because he never 
could remember the word mucilage, 
and persisted in saying thingummy, 
has got another who is unsound on 
the word chronometer, and calls it a 
watch-you-call-it. St. Andrews Citi- 
zen, 1887. 

There was Mr. So-and-So and Mrs. 
Thingamy. WILSON, 

Think. To THINK BETTER OF 
IT to change one's mind ; 
to abandon a resolve, P. 

You will think better of your de- 
termination. DICKENS. 

"I said plainly that I (will not 
marry him. 

"I know you did, my dear; but 
Mrs. Gamier and I fancied you might 
have thought better of it." FLOR- 
ENCE MARRYAT. 

TO THINK NO END OF A PERSON 

to have a very high opinion of 
his character. F. 

Thipty. THIRTY-NINE ARTI- 
CLES the statement of the 
toctrines of the Church of 
England which every clergy- 
man must sign. P, Theodore 
Hook, when asked if he was 
ready to sign the Thirty-nine 
Articles, replied flippantly, 
" Yes ; and forty if you wish." 
Mr. Punch, like Theodore Hook, 
had not any great reverence for the 
Thirty - nine Articles. Fortnightly 
Review, 1887. 

Thomas. A VERY THOMAS 
an unbelieving, incredulous 
person. P. The disciple of 
our Lord who bore that name 
refused for a time to believe 
in Christ's resurrection, See 
John xx. 24, 25. 

Moreover, when he sees the lock 
of hair and the love-letter and per- 
haps there may be other discoveries 
by the time he returns he must be 
a very Thomas not to believe such 
proof. JAMES PAYN. 

Thorn. To BIT ON THORNS 
to be in a position of excessive 



Thousand 26! ., 

r o prt ; tOet^M, &&&?& 

-hinehsh rparior r^i^S. " V, 




A THORN IN THE SIDE Or THE 

FLESH a perpetual source of 
annoyance. P. 

me a thom in 



Sir Charles demurred. " Oh, I 
don't want to quarrel with the fellow 
but he is a regular thorn in my side' 



TO THROW THE HANDKERCHIEF 

to propose marriage ; to choose 
a wife. C. The Sultan is said 
to select women for his harem 
in this fashion. 

Presently he looked up, probably 
for the return of Davey, and ner- 
ceived her waving her handkerchief 
toward him -a signal which the 
emaie oracle of the "Ultramarine" 
W0 u i ave reprobated exceedingly 
to her it would seem only one step 
the handkerchief. 



with his littfe trumpery estate, all 
m broken patches. He shoots my 
pheasants in the unfairest way."- 

C. JLxEADE. 

Thousand. A THOUSAND AND 
ONE a very large number ; 
an innumerable collection. P. 

a 35 TOfftSfTiftM!! I --*"**** .*. 

TAn-laX^ SLr.^SS T T , W E HANDLE XJTEK 



IiT^ * **Y ' viic ui tlluoc 

thousand and one persons who were 
now always coming to ask permission 
tosee the manuscript. JAMES PAYN. 
Thread. To TAKE UP THE 
THREAD OF to commence again 
where a stoppage has taken 
place ; to resume the treat- 
ment or discussion of. P. 
Harry possessed a ready symp 
he fell easily and at once int~ ^ 
direction suggested by another's 
words. Thus, when Angela talked 
took 



"V*v*. O.****w, Tinv^ii .**** 

about the palace, he also ^ ^ 
thread of invention, and made be- 



ook up the 



w*M*Mi vj. invciitiuii, aim niclUc Uc- 

lieve with her as if it were a thing 
possible-a thing of brick and mor 
tar. BESANT. 
To HANG BY A THREAD to be 

in imminent danger ; to be 
ready to fall. P. 



THE BLADE to lose even the 
little which remains to one C 
The question is, Will you at all 
better yourselves by having now 
one of your hot fits, speaking with 
promptitude and energy and, in 
fact, going to war with Russia for 
what she has done? Alas! my dear 
friend, this would be throwing the 
handle after the blade with a ven- 
geance. M. ARNOLD. 

To THROW DIRT Or MUD AT 

to abuse ; to speak evil of. C 
Then throw dirt at the plaintiff. 
He is malicious, and can be proved 
to have forsworn himself in Bassett 
v. Bassett.-C. READE. 

A woman in my position must ex- 
pect to have more mud thrown at 
her than a less important person 
TJ-T^T,,,^ MARRYAT. 



one living, and hangs by a thread 
over others. Spectator, 1887. 

Thpough. THROUGH HANDS 
finished ; executed. C. 

"And now," continued the butler, 
addressing the knife-boy, "reach me 
a candle, and we'll get this through 
hands at once." R. L. STEVENSON. 

Throw. To THROW THE GREAT 
CAST to venture everything ; 
to take a step of vital impor- 
tance. P. 

In a word, George had thrown the 
great cast. THACKERAY. 

TO THROW DUST IN THE EYES OF 

to confuse ; to mislead. P. 



HEAD OF (of a woman) to 
, show a man that she is eager 
to receive a proposal of 
marriage. C. 

As for the girls, Claire, they just 
throw themselves at a man. BESANT. 

They say that unless a girl fairly 
throws herself at the young men's 
heads she isn't noticed. -W. D. 

HOWELLS. 

To THROW OVER to abandon ; 
to cease to aid or acknow- 
ledge. P. 

"Look here, Musselboro ; if you're 
going to throw me over, just tell me 
so, and let us begin fair. 



Thumb 

" I'm not going to throw you over ; 
I've always been on the square with 
you." A. TROLLOPE. 

Do you suppose Captain Mitchell 
can help being so comically miser- 
able, or that Kitty Greenwood can 
help being made ridiculously happy, 
by the attentions of a man who, in the 
nature of things, will end by throwing 
her over? Good Words, 1887. 

They say that he is engaged to a 
girl in England, and has thrown her 
over for the widow. H. K. HAGGARD. 

To THROW STONES to find fault 
with other people. P. 

There is an old proverb about the 
inexpediency of those who live in 
glass houses throwing stones, which 
I always think that we (who are in 
society) would do well not to forget. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

To THROW UP to reject ; to 
cast off. P. 

" What do you mean, Lady Bellamy, 
when you talk about my duty?" 

"I mean the plain duty that lies 
before you of marrying your Cousin 
George, and of throwing up this 
young Heigham." H. R. HAGGARD. 

TO THROW UP THE SPONGE. See 

SPONGE. 

To THROW OFF (of hounds) to 
start in pursuit of game. P. 

Some of the carriages turned out 
of the field to follow slowly along the 
road, in hopes of seeing the hounds 
throw off. MARION CRAWFORD. 

To THROW UPON ONE'S HANDS 
to give one the responsibility 
of. P. 

In spite of his warning the mother 
had been left behind, and he was in 
the unenviable position of having a 
child thrown upon his hands until 
the next stoppage. HUGH CONWAY. 

Thumb. RULE -OF -THUMB 
measurement or calculation 
without the aid of precise 
instruments ; rough and ready 
calculation. P. 
We never learnt anything in the 



,yy when I was a youngster, except 
a little rule-of-thumb mathematics 
T. HUGHES. 

The real truth is, Winterborne, 
that medical practice in places like 
this is a very rule-of-thumb matter. 
THOMAS HARDY. 

UNDER THE THUMB OF com- 
pletely subservient to ; quite 
under the control and direction 
of. C. 



252 Ticket 

Your Cousin George is very fond 
of a pretty woman, and, to be plain, 
what I want you to do is to make 
use of your advantages to get him 
under your thumb and persuade him 
into selling the property. H. R 

From the death of Louis XI. female 
influence was constantly on the in- 
crease, and we may designate the 
century from 1483 to 1689 with the 
exception of Louis the Twelfth's 
reign as the era of the ascendency 
of women and favourites. The kings 
were either nobodies, or were under 
the thumb of their wives or mis- 
tresses. National Review. 1887. 

"If you think I'm going to be afraid 
of Mother Van, you're mistaken. 
Let come what may, I'm not 
to live under her thumb/ _. 
lighted his cigar. A. TROLLOPE. 

TO TURN THE THUMBS UP to 

decide against. P. A classical 
phrase. The Romans in the 
amphitheatre turned their 
thumbs up when a combatant 
was not to be spared. 

They had unanimously turned their 
thumbs up. " Sartor," the publisher 
acquainted him. "excites universal 
disapprobation.' R. GARNETT. 

TO BITE ONE'S THUMBS AT 

to show contempt for. F. 

Tick. ON TICK on credit ; 
not paid for. F. Abbreviated 
from " On ticket," on credit. 

"Won't you be tempted now?" he 
added to Susan Potter. 

She laughed. "Not with these 
things. I should never hear the last 
of it if Potter found out I went on 
tick for finery." MRS. H. WOOD. 

There are few, I guess, who go upon 
tick as much as we do. HALIBURTON. 

To TICK OFF to mark separately 
after examination. P. 

He would drop suddenly upon his 
cousin Josephus, and observe him 
faithfully entering names, ticking off 
and comparing, just as he had done 
for forty years, still a junior clerk. 



Ticket. To GO ANT TICKET 
to vote for any cause. F. An 
American political phrase. 

Yes; I love the Quakers. I hope 
they'll go the Webster ticket. 
HALIBURTON. 

TICKET - OF - LEAVE a warrant 
given to convicts who are 



Tickle 

allowed their liberty on cond 
tion of good behaviour. P. 

I suppose he's out now on a ticke 
oi-ieave. HUGH CONWAY 

ti 3? f y f f i und them selves outlaw 
ticket-of-leave men, or what you w 



253 Time 

Emma>as now in a humour 



WHAT'S THE TICKET ? what 
to be done ? S. 
. ''Well," said Bob Cross, "what 
the ticket, youngster? are you t 

Wlth me? " 



THAT'S THE TICKET you hav 
done the right thing; that' 
well done. 3. From the win 
mng ticket in a lottery. 

Tickle. To TICKLE TO DEATH 
to amuse exceedingly. F. 

Tide. To TIDE OVER to over 
come a difficulty temporarily 

Such questions as these are some 
times very anxious ones in a remote 
country village, where every pound 
spent among the inhabitants serves 
to build lip that margin outside the 
ordinary income of the wage-earners 
which helps the small occupants to 
tide over many a temporary embar 
rassment when money is scarce 
Nineteenth Century, 1887. 

Tile. A TILE or A SLATE LOOSE 
something wrong with the 
brain ; a disordered brain. S. 
-Do you think I am as mad as he is ? 
Attack a man who has just break- 
fasted with me, merely because he 
has a tile loose !-C. READE. 

Time. AT TIMES occasion- 
ally. P. 

She knew that at times she must 
be missed. Miss AUSTEN. 

IN NO TIME very quickly ; 
with great speed. F. 

They listened a moment: there was 
no fresh sound. Then Brutus slipped 
down the front stairs in no time : he 
found the front door not bolted 
C. READE. 

FROM TIME TO TIME at inter- 
vals. P. 

.She lived with them entirely, only 
visiting her grandmother from time 
to time. Miss AUSTEN. 

IN TIME (a) after a season ; 
when some years have passed. 



(b) punctual or punctually 
not behindhand. P 

Impey posted back to Calcutta, to 

MACA AY r openin g of term.- 

TO HAVE A GOOD TIME or A REAL 

GOOD TIME to enjoy oneself. 
O. An American phrase. 

It was also largely due to the vigi- 
lant politeness of young Havering, 



had a good time. A/TROLLOPE" 
How you will enjoy it! I guess 
you'll have a real good time, as ou? 
cousins say.-FLORENCE MARRYAT. 
FOR THE TIME BEING tempo- 
rarily ; for the particular sea- 
son or occasion only. P. 

It is the leading boys for the time 
being who give the tone to all the 
rest, and make the school either a 
noble institution for the training of 
cnristian Englishmen, or a place 
where a young boy will get more evil 
than if he were turned out to make 
his way in London streets, or any- 
thing between these two extremes 
T. HUGHES. 

TIME our OF MIND from a re- 
mote date ; longer than any 
one can remember. P. 

Having, out of friendship for the 
family, upon whose estate, praised 
be Heaven ! I and mine have lived 
rent free, time out of mind, volun- 
tarily undertaken to publish the 
memoirs of the Rack-rent Family. I 
think it my duty to say a few worcis, 
in the first place, concerning myself 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

^O TAKE TIME BY THE FORELOCK 
to act promptly ; to make 
no unnecessary delay. P. 

Now, sir. it's got to come to blows 
sooner or later ; and what I propose 
is, to take time by the forelock, as 
the saying is, and come to blows some 
fine day when they least expect it. 
R. L. STEVENSON. 

.T THIS TIME OF DAY at SO late 

a date ; in our present stage 
of civilization. F. The phrase 
refers to a period, not to a day 
of twenty -four hours. 

But although there was no evil 
and little real selfishness in Mrs. 
>iickleby's heart, she had a weak 



Timeo 



head and a vain one ; and there was 
something so flattering in being 
sought (and sought in vain) in mar- 
riage at this time of day (so late in 
life), that she could not dismiss the 
passion of the unknown gentleman 
quite so summarily or lightly as 
Nicholas appeared to deem becom- 
ing. DICKENS. 

More than anything else, at this 
time of day (now that she was an 
elderly woman), I was sorry for her. 
HENRY JAMES, JUK. 
TIME AND AGAIN very frequent- 
ly. C, 

Time and again I've had my doubts 
whether he cared for Irene any. 
W. D. HOWELLS. 

Timeo. TIMED DANAOS ET 
DONA FEBENTES I fear the 
Greeks even when they bring 
gifts. A line from the Latin 
poet Virgil, signifying that an 
enemy is to be feared even 
when he professes friendship. 

"Come in here there's a good fel- 
low I want to speak to you. 

"Why is he so infernally genial?" 
reflected Philip. " Timeo Danaos ct 
donaferentes."H. R. HAGGARD. 

Tin. TIN money. S. 

"Monstrous nice girl, 'pon 
honour, though, Osborne," he was 
good enough to add. "Lots of tin, 
I suppose, eh? "THACKERAY. 

Tip. TO TIP THE WINK - to give 

the signal. S. 

For without putting on his fighting 
face, he calmly replied that he had 
seen Mr. Metaphor tip the wink, and 
whisper to one of his confederates 
and thence judged that there wa 
something mysterious on the carpet 
SMOLLETT. 

ON THE TIP OF ONE'S TONGUE 
ready to be uttered ; on the 
point of utterance. C. 

It had been on the tip of my tongue 
to say where I had just seen Jellico 
and the trade he was doing. MRS 
HENRY WOOD. 

Mary Wells ran in, with an angn 
her tongue. 



254 Token 

quite'out of cash until my father tips 
up." THACKERAY, 

To TIP ONE'S FTN to hold out 
one's hand to shake. S, 

Tiptoe. ON TIPTOE in eager 
expectation ; in a state of 
excited suspense. C. 
Religion stands on tiptoe in our land, 
Ready to pass to the American strand. 

HERBERT. 

The news that Smike had been 
caught and brought back in triumph 
ranlike wildfire through the hungry 
community, and expectation was on 
tiptoe all the morning. DICKENS. 

Tip-top. TIP-TOP first-class. 
F. 

One of those tip-top firms in the city 
would have gone straight off to take 
counsel's opinion. Miss BRADDON. 

Tit. TIT FOR TAT something 
given 



THE STRAIGHT TIP early and 
accurate Information. S. 
STRAIGHT. 

To TIP UP to pay money ; tc 
open one's purse. S. 

" I should have liked to make he 
a little present," Osborne said to hi 
friend in confidence, "only I am 



in return ; just retalia- 
tion. C. 

"Tit for tat! tit for tat!" they 
cried. "Squire, you began it, and 
you have your due." BLACKMORE. 

To. To AND FRO backwards 
and forwards. P. 

Speckled spiders, indolent and fat 
with long security, swing idly to and 
fro in the vibration of the bells. 
DICKENS. 

A TO-DO a commotion ; a noise 
and confusion. P. 

His mother, inside the vehicle, with 
her maid and her furs, her wrappers, 
and her scent-bottles, made such a 
to-do that you would have thought 
she never had been in a stage-coach 
before. THACKERAY. 

Toe. THE LIGHT FANTASTIC 
TOE. A phrase used with ref- 
erence to dancing. F. 

Come, and trip it as you go 
On the light fantastic toe. 

MILTON. 

Mr. St. Leger evidently prided him- 
self, as Mr. Fitzloom observed, on his 
light fantastic toe. BEACONSFIELD. 
To TOE THE MARK to be careful 
in one's conduct. F. 

Now you know what I am! I'll 
make you toe the mark, every soul of 
you, or I'll flog you all, fore and att, 
from the boy up. R. H. DANA, JUN. 

Token. BY THE SAME TOKEN 
moreover ; likewise ; nay 
more. C. 

Why, I caught two of their inflam- 
matory treatises in this very house. 



Tom 



255 



Tooth 



By the same token, I sent them to 
the executioner at Marseilles, with a 
request that he would burn them 
publicly. C. READE. 

For we have that memorandum in 
writing with a pencil, given under 
his own hand, on the back of the 
lease, to me, by the same token when 
my good lord had his foot on the 
step of the coach.goingaway. MARIA 
EDGEWORTH. 

MORE BY TOKEN moreover; in 
truth. C. 

Whether it were St. George, I can- 
not say, but surely a dragon was 
killed there; for you may see the 
marks yet where his blood ran down, 
and more by token the place where 
it ran down is the easiest way up the 
hillside.-T. HUGHES. 

Tom. TOM, DICK, AND HARRY 
; -ordinary, insignificant peo- 
ple ; the multitude. C. 

"But all are not preachers and 
captains in the Salvation Army?" 

No; there is my cousin Dick. 
We dre, very properly, Tom, Dick, 
and Harry." BESANT. 

If that girl isn't in love with you. 
she is something very like it. A girl 
does not pop over like that for Dick, 
Tom, or Harry. H. R. HAGGARD. 

TOM - AND - JERRY SHOP. See 
JERRY. 

TOM TIDDLER'S GROUND said 
to be a contraction for TOM 
teE IDLER'S GROUND. F. An 
imaginary garden of ease and 
wealth, where children pick 
up gold and silver. 

I'm here, my soul's delight, upon 
Tom Tiddler's ground, picking up 

gie demnition gold and_ silver. 
ICKENS. 

Now the spacious drawing-room, 
with the company seated round the 
glittering table, busy with their glit- 
tering spoons and knives, and forks 
and plates, might have been taken 
for a grown-up exposition of Tom 
Tiddler's ground, where children 
pick up gold and silver. DICKENS. 

Tommy. TOMMY ATKINS the 
typical British private soldier. 
F. 

The commanding officer at Wool- 
wich garrison has issued an order 
forbidding soldiers to be seen carry- 
ing children in the street. In the 
privacy of bis house Tommy Atkins 
may still, I suppose, hold his baby 
in his arms, but beyond the domestic 
circle he must sink the parent in the 
soldier.-^. Andrews Citizen, 1887. 



tongue in their cheek or with a fine 
impulsiveness, tell people that their 
natural taste for the bathos is a relish 



To - moppow. To - MORROW 
COME NEVER a future date 
that will never arrive. F. 
"illy. You married to my sister! 
en will that be? 

r arc. Very soon, my dear. To-day 
or to-morrow perhaps. 

Sally. To-morrow come never, I be- 
lieve. COLM AN. 

Tongue. WITH THE TONGUE 
IN THE CHEEK mockingly ; 
insincerely. C. 

And if statesmen, either with their 



for the sublime, there is more need 
to tell them the contrary. MATTHEW 
ARNOLD. 

TO HOLD THE TONGUE to be 

silent. P. 

'Tis seldom seen that senators so 

young 
Know when to speak and when to 

hold their tongue. DRYDEN. 

To GIVE TONGUE to speak out 
C. 

Only when Mary fired a broadside 
into her character, calling her a bold, 
bad, brazen-faced slut only then did 
Mrs. Richard give tongue on her be- 
half. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

Tooth. TOOTH AND NAIL 
with great energy ; violently ; 
fiercely. P. As if attacking 
both with the teeth and with 
the nails. 

She would then ignore the verbiage, 
as that intellectual oddity, the public 
singer, calls it, and fall tooth and 
nail upon the musical composition, 
correcting it a little peevishly. 
C. READE. 

Lady Barbara Pollington had fallen 
upon the brewer, tooth and nail, and 
was proving conclusively to him that 
in anything but a corrupt and rotten 
state of society he would at that 
moment be working off a well -de- 
served sentence of imprisonment 
with hard labour.-(?ood Words, 1887. 

There are men that roll through 
life, like a fire-new red ball going 
across Mr. Lord's cricket -ground on 
a sunshiny day ; there is another sort 
that have to rough it in general, and, 
above all, to fight tooth and nail for 
the quartern loaf, and not always 
win the battle. C. READE. 

A SWEET TOOTH a liking for 
sweet things. C. See SWEET. 



Top 



256 



IN THE TEETH OP (a) in direct 
opposition to ; in spite of. P. 

But when we fly antagonistically in 
the teeth of circumstances, bent on 
following our own resolute path, we 
take ourselves out of Gods hands, 
and must reap the consequences. 
MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

Grace Crawley's fortune was made 
in the teeth, as it were, of the pre- 
vailing ill -fortune of the family. 
A. TROLLOPE. 

Notwithstanding his brave threats 
made behind Angela's back, about 
forcing her to marry him in the teeth 
of any opposition that she could 
offer. George reached home that 
night very much disheartened about 
the whole business. H. R. HAGGARD. 

(&) in presence of ; with 

something right before one. P. 

The carrier scarcely knew what to 
do in the teeth of so urgent a message. 
BLACKMORE. 

He was not, in most people's 
opinion, a very estimable man, but 
he had the talent by no means a 
despicable one of maintaining his 

rsonal dignity in the teetn of 
e most adverse circumstances. 
urray's Magazine, 1887. 

Top. THE TOP OF THE MORN- 
ING TO you ! a morning salu- 
tation. C. Now old - fash- 
ioned. 

"You, doctor? Top of the morn- 
ing to you, sir!" cried Silver, broad 
awake and beaming with good nature 
in a moment. R. L. STEVENSON. 

TO THE TOP OF ONE'S BENT 

fully; wholly; to the farthest 
limit. C. 

They fool me to the top of my bent. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

Accordingly Goldsmith was fooled 
to the top of his bent. W. IRVING. 

" If his master were a mere dreamer, 
in fact, which is not the case, yovi 
would say that he encouraged him in 
his hallucinations." 

"I see: he humours him, like the 
prince in the play, to the top of his 
bent." JAMES PAYN. 

To TOP ONE'S BOOM to hurry 
off. F. A sea phrase. 

"Ah, well!" he sighed; "I suppose 
that I had better top my boom again ? " 

"Do what?" 

"I mean I had better leave 
Madeira." H. R. HAGGARD. 

A TOP-SAWYER a first-rate fel- 
low. S. Of the two men 
who work a frame-saw in a 



Touch 

saw-pit, the one who stands 
above is called the top- 



Well, he may be a top-sawyer, but 
I don't like him.-C. READE. 

AT THE TOP OF THE TREE in the 

foremost place ; at the head 
of one's profession. C. 

" Indeed, Mrs. Armytage, we have 
all set our hearts upon being on the 
very top of the hill.* 

"I don't know as to that," was the 
grim reply, "but I know who has 
set her heart upon being at the top 
of the tree." JAMES PAYN. 

He's had wit enough to get to the 
top of the tree, and to keep himself 
there. A. TROLLOPE. 
THE TOP NOTCH the highest 
point. F. 

It is two weeks since they (the 
locusts) first appeared in that county, 
and the effect of their blighting 
touch has not yet reached the top 
notch.-ATew; York Herald, 1888. 

To TOP UP WITH to finish with. 

Q 

What'll you drink, Mr. Gargery, 
at my expense, to top up with? 
DICKENS. 

Torch. To HAND ON THE 
TORCH to continue the work 
of enlightenment. P. A clas- 
sical phrase. 

Though Italy now (in the sixteenth 
century) ceases to be the guiding 
light of Europe, her work has been 
done among the nations, and in their 
turn France, England, and Germany 
hand on the torch, and the warmth 
and radiance survive still, and are 
reflected in the Italy of our own 
day. Quarterly Review, 1887. 

Toss. To TOSS UP to decide 
in a chance way, as by throw- 
ing up a coin. C. 

It is a queer picture-that of the 
old prince dying in his little wood- 
built capital, and his seven sons 
tossing up who should inherit and 
transmit the crown of Brentford 
(petty crown). THACKERAY. 

Touch. TOUCH AND GO said 
of a critical situation, where a 
very small influence will turn 
the scale. C, 

" It was touch and go (my escape 
was a narrow one), doctor, was it? 
inquired the other with a seriousness 
as strangely foreign to the phrase as 
the phrase itself was to the speaker's 



Tour 



257 



Tread 



usual manner of expressing himself. 
JAMES PAYN. 

IN TOUCH WITH having a deli- 
cate appreciation and intimate 
knowledge of ; in sympathy 
with. P. 

It would be impossible to discover 
a more ideally perfect ambassador 
than is Lord Lyons ; but the republic 
is not popular in Paris smart society, 
and while Lyons himself does not 
go out, the embassy is, like all em- 
bassies, in touch with smart society. 
Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

Certainly this is inherent in the 
office and function of the country 
parson, that he is not quite in touch 
with any one in his parish if he be 
a really earnest ana conscientious 
parson. Nineteenth Century, 1887. 

TO TOUCH PERSONS OFF to be 

too clever for them ; to be 
more than a match for them. 
F. 

"Well done, my good boy," re- 
turned she; ''I knew you would 
touch them off." GOLDSMITH. 
TO TOUCH IT OFF TO THE NINES 

to act with great cleverness ; 
to do anything perfectly. S. 

If I didn't touch it off to the 
nines, it's a pity. "I never heard 
you preach so well," says one, " since 
you were located here." HALI- 

BUBTON. 

Four*. A TOUR DE FORCE a 
feat of strength or of skill. P. 
French. 

"That is not worthy of a mathe- 
matician," said Mr. Fraser with some 



irritation : " it is nothing but a trick, 
e force." H. R. HAGGARD. 



[ a tour de^ 



Tout. THE TOUT ENSEMBLE 
the whole taken together. P. 
French. 

" What a lovely woman this is ! " 
said Mrs. Bellamy, with enthusiasm 
to Miss Lee, so soon as Philip was 
out of ear-shot. "Her tout ensemble 
positively kills one."-H. E. HAG- 

GABD. 
TOW. TO TAKE IN TOW to 

take charge of. F. 

Dr. Blimber accompanied them ; 
and Paul had the honour of being 
[ taken in tow by the doctor himself 
a distinguished state of things, in 
which he looked very little and 
feeble. DICKENS. 

Town. A MAN ABOUT TOWN 

a fashionable gentleman ; a 



man who spends his life ; in city 
clubs and in pleasure. P. 

" Why should I give her pure heart 
to a man about town ?" 

"Because you will break it else," 
said Miss Somerset. C. READE. 

Tracks. To MAKE TRACKS 
to go off ; to depart quickly. 

S. 

" I'd have made him make tracks, 
I guess, as quick as a dog does a 
hog from a potato - field. HALI- 

BURTON. 

"I am glad that the old gentleman 
has made tracks," said John. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

Trade. Two OF A TRADE 
two people in the same busi- 
ness or profession. C. 

It is proverbial that two of a trade 
seldom agree. Edinburgh Review, 
1886. 

Trail. To TRAIL OFF to move 
heavily ; to lose impetus. C. 
The example given refers to a 
novel that had been begun 
with some spirit. 

How was it that, after this, A Heart 
of Gold began to trail off?-B. L. 
FARJEON. 

Trap. To UNDERSTAND TRAP 
to be knowing or wide-awake. 
F. 

My good lady understood trap as 
well as any woman in the Mearns. 
SCOTT. 

Traveller. To TIP THE TRAV- 
ELLER to deceive ; to fill 
with false information. S. 

Aha! dost thou tip me the traveller, 
my boy? SMOLLETT. 

Tread. To TREAD THE BOARDS 
to be an actor ; to follow 
the stage as a profession. P. 

The theatres occupied a much 
higher position in society. Kemble 
andhismajesticsister, Mrs. Siddons, 
trod the boards.-JAMES PAYN. 

TO TREAD ON A MAN'S CORNS 

to annoy or hurt him. C. 

" Only," he added, " I'm glad I trod 

on Master Pew's corns," for by this 

time he had heard my story. R. L. 

STEVENSON. 

TO TREAD ON ANOTHER'S TOES 

to annoy or exasperate hun. 
p. 

The old West Indian families are 
very proud and sensitive, but there 



Treasure 



is not much possibility of their 
' g their toes trodden upon in 
ing like the way that made 



having their toes trodden upon in 
anything like the way that made 
Mr. Froude's last book the subject 



of such an outcry by some of our 
antipodean friends and relations. 
Spectator, 1887. 
TO TREAD ON EGGS to Walk 

with the utmost care ; to be 
very circumspect. C. 

"It's real mean of him, isn't it?" 
says Miss Smiles. " Why, it might 
come to her husband's ears any day, 
and poor Emily will feel as if she 
was treading on eggs all her life." 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Treasure. TREASURE -TROVE 
treasure hid away and ac- 
cidentally discovered. P. 

And so Farmer Caresfoot became 
the lawful owner of Cratham Abbey 
with itB two advowsons, its royal 
franchises of treasure trove and deo- 
dand, and more than a thousand 
acres of the best land in Marlshire. 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

Treat. To STAND TREAT to 
entertain at a public place ; 
to pay the holiday expenses of 
a party. C. 

They went out to Versailles with 
their families ; loyally stood treat to 
the ladies at the restaurateurs. 
THACKERAY. 

Tree. UP A TREE in a fix ; 
cornered ; unable to do any- 
thing. S. 

I'm completely up a tree this time. 
HALIBURTON. 

AT THE TOP OF THE TREE. See 

TOP. 

Trice. IN A TRICE without 
delay ; very quickly. C. 

If she gives him proper encourage- 
ment, he 11 pay the money in a trice. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Tpiek. To TRICK OUT to dec- 
orate ; to dress brilliantly. P. 
It finds itseL tricked out in gay 
garments, and it has money put in 
its pocket, and it is bidden to dance 
and be merry. WM. BLACK. 

Trip. To TRIP UP to cause 
to fall. P. 

Paddy was tripped up. BEACONS- 
FIELD, 

TO CATCH A MAN TRIPPING to 

discover a man making some 
error or committing some of- 
fence. P. 



258 Trump 

FThough the police know him, and 
would give their eyes to catch him 
tripping, he never tumbles into 
their trap. Miss BR ADDON. 

Triton. A TRITON OF or AMONG 
THE MINNOWS a man who 
appears big because his com- 
panions are so small. P. 
Triton was a sea-god, the 
trumpeter of Neptune. 
Hear you this Triton of the min- 
nows ? SHAKESPEARE. 

Trojan. LIKE A TROJAN 
gallantly ; bravely. C. 

He had lain like a Trojan behind 
his mattress in the gallery ; he had 
followed every order silently, dog- 
gedly, and welL~R. L. STEVENSON. 

TPOt. TO TROT OUT to show 

for inspection ; to exhibit to 
a company. F. 

" Come, come," said James, putting 
his hand to his nose and winking at 
his cousin with a pair of vinous eyes, 
"no jokes, old boy; no trying it on 
me. You want to trot me out, but 
it's no go." THACKERAY. 

Truant. To PLAT TRUANT 
to be absent without leave. 
P. 

"He'll be back on the 15th," said 
the knight, "unless he means to 
play truant." A. TROLLOPE. 

True. TRUE BLUE thoroughly 
faithful and trustworthy ; 
staunch. P. 

Squire Brown, be it said, was a 
true blue Tory to the backbone. 
T. HUGHES. 

He had, I suspect, been watching 
his master, like a true blue British 
cur. H. K.INGSLEY. 

TRUE AS STEEL faithful ; stead- 
fast ; wholly to be trusted. 
P. 

Thank Farmer Meadows, for he 
'twas that sent Tom to the prison, 
where he was converted, and became 
as honest a fellow as any in the 
world, and a friend to your George, 
as true as steel. C. READE. 

Trump. To HOLD TRUMPS 
to be lucky ; to be sure of 
victory. F. Trumps are the 
winning cards at whist. The 
word is a form of " triumph." 
You never hold trumps, you know : 
I always do. GEORGE ELIOT. 



Trumpet 



259 



Turf 



To PLAT ONE'S TRUMP CARD to 

use one's best chance of suc- 

cess. C. 
He was a man with power in 

reserve ; he had still his trump card 

to play. BESANT. 
TO TURN UP TRUMPS (a) to 

prove successful ; to be for- 
tunate. F. 

There are plenty of instances, in 
the experience of every one, of short 
courtships and speedy marriages 
which have turned up trumps I beg 
your pardon which have turned out 
well after all. WILKIE COLLINS. 
- (6) to prove of signal service; 
to prove very useful. F. 

When he turned up trumps I let 
things be. H. KINGSLEY. 
To TRUMP UP to fabricate ; to 
make up with an evil motive 
P. 

" The girl has gone mad." 

" Goou heavens ! you don't say so ! 

"Yes, I do, though; and I'll tell 
you what it is, Bellamy, they say 
that you and your wife went to 
Madeira and trumped up a story 
about her lover's death in order to 
take the girl in." H. R. HAGGARD. 
Trumpet. To BLOW ONE'S 
OWN TRUMPET to speak boast- 
fully. C. 

After such a victory our old friend 

the archdeacon would have blown 

his own trumpet loudly among his 

friends. A. TROLLOPE. 

Tpumpetep. To BE ONE'S 

OWN TRUMPETER - to SOUnd 

one's own praises ; to speak 
favourably of one's own per- 
formances. C. 

He hoped I was a good boy, which, 
being compelled to be my own 
trumpeter, I very modestly declared 
I was. CAPTAIN MARRYAT. 
Try. To TRY IT ON to see 
how far one may venture with 
impunity ; to test one's 
power. C. 

several other rooms the poor 
llowstriediton.-T. HUGHES. 
, then, he is trying it on with 
Miss Rayne. There is no doubt of 
that. I watched them through the 
tableau. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 
To TRY ON to see if clothes fit. 
P. 

In the conduct of the show-room 
and the trying-on room she has all 
her own way. BESANT. 



In se 

littlefe 

Well, 



To TRY ONE'S HAND AT to ven- 
ture upon for the first time ; 
to make a beginning with. C. 
He had on several occasions been 
induced to try his hand at ecarte. 
S. WARREN. 

To TRY CONCLUSIONS to have 
a decisive struggle. P. A 
Shakespearean phrase. 
After that he would have to try 
lusions with his own people. 
LI 



MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 
Tuck. To TUCK INTO to eat 
heartily of. S. 

" I won't myself." returned Squeers ; 
" but if you'll just let little Wackf ord 
tuck into something fat, I'll be 
obliged to you." DICKENS. 
To TUCK UP to draw tight 
round one ; to roll up so as 
not to drag or hang. F. 

"Why," said Lord Jocelyn, with a 
shudder, " you will rise at six ; you 
will go out in working-clothes, carry- 
ing your tools, and with your apron 
tied round and tucked up. BESANT. 
A TUCK-OUT a feast ; an eat- 
ing of dainties. S. A " tuck- 
shop '* is a confectioner's. 

Old Dobbin, his father, who now 
respected him for the first time, gave 
him two guineas publicly, most of 
which he spent in a general tuck-out 
for the school. THACKERAY. 

. THE TUG OF WAR the 
hardest part of any under- 
taking ; the real struggle. 
P. The name is also given 
to a favourite athletic pas- 
time, where two sides pull at 
the opposite ends of a rope. 

When Greeks joined Greeks then 
was the tug of war. N. LEE. 

It was when the ladies were alone 
that Becky knew the tug of war 
would come. THACKERAY. 
Tune. To THE TUNE OF to 
the amount of. F. A sur- 
prisingly large sum of money 
is generally mentioned after 
the phrase. 

Then Mr. Titmouse ventured to 
apply to Mr. O'Gibbet, that gentle- 
man being Mr. Titmouse's debtor 
to the tune of some five hundred 
pounds. S. WARREN. 
Turf. ON THE TURF engaged 
in horse-racing. P. 

"My dear Digbv, you talk like a 
racing-man," said Mrs. Brabazon. 



Turk 



260 



Turn 



" You should remember that we are 
not all of us on the turf." JAMES 
PAYN. 

Turk. To TURN TURK to 
grow ill-tempered and arro- 
gant. F. 

Emma's having turned turk, 
startled my father. H. KINGSLEY. 

Turn. To TURN IN to retire 



for the night. F. 
'Well, I'll turn 



I'm 



"wen, ill turn in; I'm 
tired," said Larry, rising and 
his hand on the old man's sh 
All the Year Round, 1887. 



. . 
der. 



To TURN OFF to dismiss. P. 

"Then why don't you turn her 
off?" 

" Who'd take such a useless old 
hag if I turned her offi? " C. READE. 

To TURN OUT (a) to prove in 
the sequel ; to result. P. 

37,000 was private capital sunk in 
the land without any prospect of 
seeing the capital again, and, as 
things have turned out, without even 
getting the interest. Spectator, 1887. 

The tidings turned out to be 
correct. DICKENS. 
(&) to eject ; to evict. P. 

TO TURN OUT IN THE COLD to 

repulse; to reject; to remove 
from a pleasant situation. C. 
It was a warm evening, as his 
father had observed; but in one 
sense he had been turned out in the 
cold, and he felt it bitterly. JAMES 
PAYN. 

To TURN UP to show oneself ; 
to appear ; to happen unex- 
pectedly. C. 

" Perhaps my sister will turn up." 
How can she, if the roads are 
impassable?" Blackwood's Maga- 
zine, 1886. 

He had come over to England to be 
an apothecary, or anything else that 
might turn up. DICKENS. 

He s turned up. by Jove, a trump 
(nice fellow) all of a sudden.- 
S. WARREN. 

And nobody ever turned up that 
was able, in any way, to understand 
her. BLACKMORE. 

But something might turn up ; and 
it was devoutly to be hoped that 
Dr. Tempest would take a long time 
over the inquiry. A. TROLLOPE. 
To TURN UP ONE'S NOSE AT to 
show contempt for. C. 

When first Chaldicotes, a very old 
country-seat, had by the chances 
of war fallen into their hands, and 



been newly furnished, and newly 
decorated, and newly gardened, and 
newly green-housed, and hot-watered 
by them, many of the county people 
had turned up their noses at them. 
A. TROLLOPE. 

TO TAKE TURNS. See TAKE. 

BY TURNS alternately ; one 
after another. P. 
They feel by turns the bitter change 
Of fierce extremes ; extremes by 
change more fierce. MILTON. 

To TURN ONE'S COAT to be a ren- 
egade ; to join the party one 
has opposed. C. 

I never turned my coat, as some 
fine gentlemen who have never been 
to Constantinople have done. I 
never changed my principles. G. A. 
SALA. 

The celebrated Sir John "One, a 
soldier of fortune like Dalgetty. who 
had already changed sides twice 
already during the Civil War, and 
was destined to turn his coat a third 
time before it was ended. SCOTT. 

To TURN ONE'S BACK ON to 
refuse to acknowledge ; to 
repulse. C. 

He could not consent to turn his 
back upon helpless travellers. 
W. IRVING. 

TO TURN A DEAF EAR to refuse 

to listen. P. 

The Russian government, in the 
last few years, made repeated appli- 
cations to the governments of France 
and England for protection against 
Nihilist conspirators who made 
Paris or London their residence; but 
the English government has turned 
a deaf ear to the requests made for 
legislation. FortnightlyReview, 1887. 
To TURN ONE'S HAND TO to be 
ready to work at. C. 

I can turn my hand to anything. 
W. IRVING. 

To TURN THE HEAD OF to 

intoxicate ; to destroy the 
moral balance of. P. 

The youth's head is turned with 
reading romances. SCOTT. 

He was but a stripling of sixteen, 
and being thus suddenly mounted 
on horseback, with money in his 
pocket, it is no wonder that his head 
was turned. W. IRVING. 

"If you only know how much we 
I mean I made last week." 

"Please do not tell me that. You 
might turn my head." BESANT. 
To TURN IN ONE'S GRAVE. A 
phrase used with reference to 



Turn 



261 



Twcedlc 



dead people, when something 
happens which would have 
annoyed them exceedingly 
when alive. P. 

O William Slagg, you must have 
turned in your grave. HUGH CON- 
WAY. 

TO TURN THE CORNER to pass a 

critical point ; to change for 
the better. C. 

For the present this young man 
(although he certainly had turned 
the corner) lay still in a very pre- 
carious state. BLACKMORE. 

To TURN OVER to transfer. P. 
Tis well the debt no payment does 

demand. 

You turn me over to another hand. 
DRYDEN. 

To TURN ON ONE'S HEEL to go 
off with a gesture of con- 
tempt. P. 

A very dry recognition on Miss 
Anna Marias part replied to the 
effort I made to salute her, and, as 
she turned on her heel, she said to 
her brother, "Breakfast's ready," 
and left the room. C. LEVER. 

TO TURN OVER A NEW LEAF to 

commence a new course of life ; 
to improve in conduct. P. 

Then, in a private postscript, he 
condescended to tell us that all 
would be speedily settled to his 
satisfaction, and we should turn 
over a new leaf. MARIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

TO TURN ONE ROUXD ONE'S 

LITTLE FINGER to manage 
with ease. C. 

"But he turns you and me round 
his little finger, old boy there's no 
mistake about that." And East 
nodded at Tom sagaciously. T. 
HUGHES. 

To TURN A PENNY to earn 
money. C. 

I attend sales, and never lose a 
chance of turning a penny. C. 

READE. 
TO TURN THE TABLES. See 

TABLE. 

TO TURN TAIL to go off J to 

turn back. F. 

That night two supers turned tail. 
An actress also, whose name I have 
forgotten, refused to go on with her. 
C7 READE. 

To TURN TO ACCOUNT to make 
good use of ; to profit from. P. 



It is possible that he would turn 
them to good account. THACKERAY. 

The Americans are a time and 
money saving people, but have not 
yet, as a nation, learned that music 
may be turned to account. R. H. 
DANA, JUN. 

TO DO A GOOD TURN to be of 

service. P. 

Indeed, I tried, at Angela's sugges- 
tion, to do you a good turn with 
Philip Caresfoot. H. R. HAGGARD. 
TO DO A BAD Or AN ILL TURN 

to injure. P. 

Go to Crawley. Use my name. 
He won't refuse my friend, for I 
could do him an ill turn if I chose. 
C. READE. 

He is a wicked fellow, Bessie, and 
a dangerous fellow ; but he has more 
brains and more power about him 
than any man in the Transvaal, and 
you will have to be careful, or he 
will do us all a bad turn. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

TO TURN THE STOMACH to CaUSO 

sickness or loathing. P. 

The stomach turns against them. 
HAZLITT. 

To TURN UPOX to prove un- 
faithful to ; to desert. P. 

But he (George IV.) turned upon 
twenty friends. He was fond and 
familiar with them one day, and he 
passed them on the next without 
recognition. THACKERAY. 

Turned. TURNED our OF 
educated at. C. 

Indeed, he knew that the argu- 
ments of those who hold the doctrine 
of predestination, and its correlative 
reprobation, are logically unanswer- 
able by the best theologian ever 
turned out of Oxford. HUGH CON- 
WAY. 

Turtle. To TURN THE TURTLE 
to capsize. S. 

Yes, Mr. Keene ; but turning the 
turtle is not making a quick passage 
except to the other world. CAP- 
TAIN MARRYAT. 

Tweedle. TWEEDLEDUM AND 

TWEEDLEDEE tWO things 

which differ very slightly, and 
are very insignificant at best. 

Some say, compared to Bononcini, 
That Mynheer Handel's but a ninny ; 
Others aver that he to Handel 
Is scarcely fit to hold a candle. 
Strange all this difference should be 
'TwixlTweedledumandTweedledee. 
JOHN BYROM. 



Twenty 

Although Swift could not see the 
difference between tweediedee and 
tweedledum, posterity has notshared 
the dean's contempt for Handel; the 
world has discovered a difference be- 
tween tweediedee and tweedledum, 
and given a hearty applause and 
admiration to Hogarth, too, but not 
exactly as a painter of Scriptural 
subjects, or as a rival of Correggio. 



THACKERAY. 

I'm afraid there won't be 
Instruct my ignorance of the differ- 



ence between tweedledum and 
tweediedee before the end of No- 
vember. W. E. NORRIS, in Good 
Words, 1887. 

Twenty. TWENTY AND TWEN- 
TY many; innumerable. C. 
Twenty and twenty times = 
once and again. 

I have hinted it to you twenty and 
twenty times by word of mouth. 
S. RICHARDSON. 

Twig. TO TWIG A PERSON to 

comprehend him ; to under- 
stand his meaning ; to know 
what his intention is. S. 

" Stay," cried he ; "if he is an old 
hand he will twig the officer." C. 
READE. 

I twig you now, my boy, Sam Slick, 
the clockmaker. HALIBURTON. 

Two. IN TWO TWOS imme- 
diately ; without any delay. 
F. 

"Do they, indeed?" says I; "send 
them to me, then, and I'll fit the 
handle on to them in two twos." 
HALIBURTON. 

TO PUT OF LAY TWO AND TWO 
TOGETHER to reason logically ; 
to draw a logical conclusion. 
C. 

The young fellows in Dublin, too, 
by laying two and two together, be- 
gan to perceive that there was a 
certain dragon in watch for the 
wealthy heiress. THACKERAY. 

With one thing and another now I 
am so knocked about that I cannot 
put two and two together. BLACK- 
MORE. 

Gwendolen was a woman who 
could put two and two together 
GEORGE ELIOT. 

TO HAVE TWO STRINGS TO ONE'S 

BOW to have two things to 
rely upon ; to have a second 
resource to fall back upon. C 
Now I must go and write a line or 
two for the public, and then inspect 
the asylum with Suaby. Before post- 



262 L Twopenny 

time I will write a letter to a friend 
of mine who is a Commissioner of 
Lunacy, one of those strong-minded 
ones, we may as well have two 
strings to our bow. G. READE. 

You have now, as you see, what it 
is always well to have two strings to 
your bow. JAMES PAYN. 

The American heiress is both 
powerful and wealthy, and Hester 
Beverley knows well the advantage 
in this world of having two strings 
to your bow. FLO RENCK MARRY AT. 
To MAKE TWO BITES OF A CHEERY 

to divide something so 
small as not to be worth a di- 
vision. P. 

If I was In your place, I wouldn't 
make two bites of a cherry. C. 
READE. 

TWO CAN PLAY AT THAT GAME 

another person can retaliate 
in the same way. C. 

"Woman, what do you mean?" 
cries the visitor, rising to her feet. 



Now, don't you call me any 
names, or you will find that two can 
play at that game." FLORENCE 

Mr. Baesett had invoked brute 
force in the shape of Burdock. 
"Well, sir," said he, "it seems they 
have shown you two can play at that 
game." C. READE. 

Two UPON TEN two eyes on ten 
fingers that is, " keep a 
watch on his movements or 
he may steal." S. This 
watchword is often passed 
round a shop when a suspi- 
cious character has entered it. 

Twopence. To WANT TWO- 
PENCE IN THE SHILLING to 
be weak in the brain ; to be 
crazy. F. The head ia called 
sarcastically a man's " two- 
penny ; " as in the game of 
leap-frog, where the boy stoop- 
ing down is told to " tuck in 
his twopenny." 

Twopenny. TWOPENNY - 
HALFPENNY of small va ue ; 
insignificant. F. 

The next day we took a prize called 
the Golden Sun, belonging to a creek 
on the main, a twopenny-halfpenny 
little thing, thirty-five tons. G. A. 
SALA. 

Those twopenny-halfpenny lights 
which make so good an effect in the 
garden. MRS. E. LYNN LINTON. 



Ugly 



263 



Up 



U 



Ugly. AN UGLY DUCKLING 

something which is despised 
for its want of beauty, but 
which afterwards wins admir- 
ation. C. In the fable from 
which the phrase is taken the 
ugly duckling proved to be a 
swan. 

" Well," said Campion, " you see I 
wag one of the ducklings myself." 

"Oh, ah, so you were," said Bab- 
cock, perfectly unabashed," but we'll 
hope you'll turn out more in the 
ugly duckling line." F. ANSTEY. 

And then we all get into our car- 
riages, with the <r ugly duckling," 
transformed within the last quarter 
of an hour into a swan, leading the 
way. RHODA BROUQHTON. 
AN UGLY CUSTOMER an un- 
pleasant individual to deal 
with ; a person to be afraid 
of. F. 

Some of these good-looking young 
gentlemen are ugly customers enough 



when their 



is up, and Cousin 



Charlie, like the reat, had quite as 
much "devil" in his composition as 
was good for him. G. J. WHYTE- 
MELVILLE. 

As UGLY AS SIN repulsive in 
appearance. F. 

Why, she is aa ugly as sin ! Though 
she ia my friend. I must acknowledge 
that. MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

Uncle. MY UNCLE'S the 
pawnbroker's. S. 
"If you won't lend me, I must 

"Go" to my uncle's," Titmouse 
groaned aloud. S. WARREN. 
UNCLE SAM< the people or gov- 
ernment of the United States. 
F. 

"We call," said the clockmaker, 
"the American public Uncle Sam, 
as you call the British John Bull. 
HALIBURTON. 

She was called the Catalina, and, 
like the vessels in that trade, except 
the Ayacucho, her papers and colours 
were from Uncle Sam. R. H. DANA, 

JUN. 

Unction. To LAY A FLATTER- 
ING UNCTION TO THE SOUL to 

soothe oneself with a pleasant 
fancy. P. A Shakespearean 
phrase (Hamlet, act iii. scene 4). 



And he had answered her, that she 
sent him straight to the devil ; that 
when she heard in after times that 
vqurien, George Ruthven, had shot 
himself, or gone to the dogs, she 
might lay the flattering unction to 
her soul that she had sent him there. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Union. THE UNION JACK 
the flag of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. P. 

The weighted corpse, wrapped 
round with a Union Jack, was borne 
along by the sailors to the stern of 
the ship. WM. BLACK. 

Up. ALL UP certain destruc- 
tion ; a hopeless condition of 
affairs. C. 

John realized that it was all up. 
and that to stop in the cart would 
only mean certain death. H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

Pippin was as white aa death, and 
I thought it was all up myself. C. 

'Tia all up with the vlllaina.-S. 
WARREN. 

UP AND ABOUT no longer in 

bed ; dressed and moving 
about. C. 

It was then a little after five, and 
there was already a stir, an occa- 
sional footfall along the principal 
streets. By the time he got to 
the Whitechapel Road there were a 
good many up and about. BESANT. 
UP IN ARMS enraged ; ready to 
quarrel. C. 

The squire would have been up in 
arms, no doubt, if he had known it. 
MRS. HENRY WOOD. 
UP A TREE in a dilemma ; 
thoroughly perplexed. S. 

"Worse than that," replied 
Jacques, looking very grave ; ' I m 
in a regular fix up a tree, by Jove. 
-G. J. WHYTE-MELVILLE. 
UPS AND DOWNS prosperity and 
adversity ; successive rises 
and falls. F. 

The ups and downs of the rival 
parties furnished subjects for two 
excellent cartoons. Fortnightly Re- 
view, 1887. 

UP TO A THING OR TWO know- 
ing ; skilful. F. 

Aa King Solomon says.-and that 
man was up to a thing or two, you 



Upper 



may depend, though our professor 
"id say he wasn t so knowing as 
Jncle Sam, it's all vanity and 



did say he wasn t so knowing as 
Uncle Sam, it's all vanity ai ' 
vexation of spirit. HALIBUKTON. 



UP TO SOMETHING about to 

carry out a scheme. C. 

Old Jacobson was as curious as 
anything over it, and asked the 
squire, aside, what he was up to. 
that he must employ Crow instead of 
his own man. MBS. HENRY WOOD. 

UP TO THE EYES completely ; 
to its full extent. C. 

Splatchett's farm is mortgaged up 
to the eyes. C. READE. 

UP TO THE MARK in excellent 
condition or health ; not be- 
low the average. C. Gener- 
ally used negatively. 

" Come, Balfour," said Mr. Bolitho 
brightly, " have a glass of sherry and 
a cigar. You don't look quite up 
to the mark this morning." WM. 
BLACK. 

Uppep. THE UPPER HAND 
the control ; power* of gov- 
erning. P. 

Finally, the reports were that the 
governess had come round every- 
body, wrote Sir Pitt's letters, did his 
business, managed his accounts had 



264 Veil 

the upper hand of the whole house. 
THACKERAY. 

THE UPPER TEN or UPPER TEN 
THOUSAND the highest circle 
of society. P. 

Next comes "The History of a 
Crime" (pace, Victor Hugo), of the 
high falutin' order, intended, we 
suppose, to give one a glimpse of the 
iniquities or the upper ten. Edin- 
burgh Review, 188T. 

THE UPPER STORY the head or 
brain. F. 

You see, the point we should 
gain would be this, if we tried to 
get him through as being a little 
touched in the upper story, what- 
ever we could do for him, we could 
do against his own will. A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

Upset. AN UPSET PRICE the 
price at which an article at an 
auction is started by the auc- 
tioneer. P. 

The upset price was one pound an 
acre, payable at once. H. KINGSLEY. 

Upsides. UPSIDES WITH (A 
PERSON) on an equal footing 
with. F. 

I am upsides with my neighbour 
now, since my new trap nas arrived. 



Vade. A VADE MECUM a 
useful book of reference that 
can be carried about ; a con- 
stant companion. C. Latin : 
" Go with me." 
The fact is, I can't say I am versed 

in the school 
So ably conducted by Marryat and 

Poole ; 
(See the last-mentioned gentleman's 

"Admiral's Daughter ' ? 
The grand vade mecum for all who to 

sea come). BARHAM. 
All these things will be specified in 
time, 

With strict regard to Aristotle's 

rules. 

The vade mecum of the true sub- 
lime, 

Which makes so many poets and 

Dsome fools. BYRON. 
Vss. VJE VICTIS ! woe to the 
vanquished ! P. Latin. 

Vce victis being of old the only 
regret expressed towards those 
against whom the fortune of war 
had turned. Chambers's Journal, 



Valet. VALET DE CHAMBRE 
bedroom servant ; personal 
attendant. P. French. 

We are not the historic Muse, but 
her ladyship's attendant, tale-bearer 
valet de chambrefor whom no man 
is a hero. THACKERAY. 

Veil. TO TAKE THE VEIL 

to become a nun. P. 

He had, as he said, taken orders as 
a nun takes the veil, to get rid of the 
wicked world. R. GARNETT, in Life 
o/Carlyle. 

BEYOND THE VEIL in the other 
world ; in the regions of the 
dead. P. 

The tale was finished in London on 
the 3rd of November 1844, and early 
in December read by him from the 
proofs ready for publication at 
Forster's rooms to a little party of 
friends, including Maclise and Stan- 
field, Dyce, Laman Blanchard, 
Douglas Jerrold, and Thomas Car- 
lyle. Reader and hearers are beyond 
the veil -, there is not one left to us 
now. HENRY MORLEY. 



Vengeance 



265 



Volte 



TO DRAW A VEIL OVER to 

conceal. P. 

There may be whole pages, close- 
written and full of stirring matter, 
which I have chosen to conceal ; 
there may be occurrences which it 
is best, at this time, to draw a veil 
over. G. A. SALA. 

Vengeance. WITH A VEN- 
GEANCE extremely ; forcibly ; 
unmistakably. C. 

He could be logical with a venge- 
anceso logical as to cause infinite 
trouble to his wife, who, with all her 
good sense, was not logical. A. 
TROLLOPE. 

The Hispaniola reached Bristol 
just as Mr. Blandly was beginning 
to think of fitting out her consort. 
Five men only of those who had 
sailed returned with her. Drink and 
the devil had done for the rest, with a 
vengeance, K. L. STEVENSON. 

Ventpe. VENTRE A TERRE at 
the greatest speed. C. French. 
Literally "with the belly on 
the earth." 

We ride at speed, we drive at 
speed .... are married, divorced. 
robbed, ruined, and enriched, all 
venire d terrelG. J. WHYTE-MEL- 

VILLE. 

Vepbum. VERBUM SAP a 
word is enough. A contrac- 
tion of the Latin phrase 
verbum sat sapienti, " a word 
is enough for a wise man." 

I say no more. Verbum sap. 
WILKIE COLLINS. 

Via. VIA MEDIA a middle 
path ; a course between two 
opposite extremes. P. Latin. 
It must be unconditional sur- 
render, or the last attempt at con- 
ciliation. There was no via media. 
MBS. E. LYNN LINTON. 

Vial. To POUR OUT THE VIALS 
OF ONE'S WRATH to give vent 
to one's anger ; to express 
one's indignation. P. 

She pours out the vials of her 
mental wrath on the head of Mrs. 
West for encouraging Staunton to 
come to Norman House. FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

Vice. VICE VERSA making an 
interchange of positions ; 
placing two things each in the 
place of the other. P. Latin. 
Literally, " the terms being 
exchanged." 



They never laugh when they ought 
to weep, or vice versd( weep when they 
ought.to laugh). JAMES PA YN. 

Victory. A CADMEAN VIC- 
TORY a victory in which the 
victors suffer as much as their 
enemies. P. 

Vin. VIN ORDINAIRE ordin- 
ary red wine, such as is supplied 
free of charge at meals in a 
French hotel. P. French. 

I suppose those toadies of his have 
supplied him with a vin ordinaire at 
a hundred and twenty shillings a 
dozen. WM. BLACK. 

Virgin. VIRGIN SOIL what is 
fresh and unused. P. 

I am convinced that comic opera, 
or rather operatic comedy, has an 
immense future before it in this 
country. One may almost call it 
virgin soil. Good Words, 1887. 

Virtue. To MAKE A VIRTUE OP 
NECESSITY to do willingly 
what cannot be avoided to 
submit with a good grace to 
what is inevitable. P. 

Making a virtue of necessity, there 
are many in England who begin no 
longer to regard Constantinople as a 
British interest of the first magni- 
tude. Fortnightly Review, 1887. 

Viva. VIVA VOCE using the 
voice and not the pen as the 
medium of communication. 
P. Latin. The literal signifi- 
cation is " with the living 
voice." 

Dr. Johnson seems to have been 
really more powerful in discoursing 
vivdvocein conversation than with his 
pen in his hand. S. T. COLERIDGE. 

The sole examination is viva voce 
and public, but, I was assured, of 
not the least importance. Journal 
oj Education, 1887. 

Voice. AT THE TOP OF ONE'S 
VOICE loudly ; in a high 
voice. P. 

Volte. VOLTE FACE a com- 
plete change of position ; 
a reversal of conduct or 
policy. P. French. 

Nothing in the last two years had 
happened to justify the conference in 
executing a volte face.-Journal of 
Education, 1887. 



Volumes 



266 



Volumes. To SPEAK VOLUMES 
to be important testimony; 
to be very significant. P. 

Bella, you know it is the same 
woman. You recognized her in a 



War 

moment. That speaks volumes. C. 
READE. 

The epithet so often heard, and 
in such kindly tones, of "Poor 
Goldsmith," speaks volumes. \Y. 
IRVINE. 



w 



Walt. To WAIT UPON (a) to 
pay a formal visit to. P. 

The countess had actually come to 
wait upon Mrs. (Jrawley on the failure 
of her second envoy. THACKERAY. 

(6) to attend to the wants of 

a person. P. 

She had been so long used to be 
humoured and waited upon, by 
relations and servants, that she con- 
sidered herself a sort of golden idol. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

TO WAIT FOR ANOTHER'S SHOES. 

See SHOE. 

Walk. TO WALK THE PLANK 

a punishment frequently im- 
posed by pirates on their cap- 
tives. P. The unfortunate 
victims were made to walk 
along a plank partly overhang- 
ing the water. After a few steps 
the plank tilted, and they 
were shot Into the sea. 

It is also to be deplored that pirates 
should be able to exact ransom by 
threatening to make their captives 
walk the piank.-MACAULAy. 

I had to take it, or walk the plank 
C. READE. 

To WALK ONE'S CHALKS to go 
off. S. 

The prisoner has cut his stick, and 
walked his chalks, and is off to 
London. C. KINGSLEY. 

A WALK OVER THE COURSE, 

or A WALK OVER an easy 
victory; a victory gained 
without any real competition. 
C. 

TO WALK THE CHALK LINE 

to be particular in one's con- 
duct. S. 

Make him walk the chalk line. 
TO WALK THE HOSPITAL to 

prosecute medical studies with 
the view of becoming a phy- 
sician. C. Before medical 
colleges were introduced into 



England, students attached 
themselves to one or other of 
the London hospitals. 

Lor', no; it's quite a stranger: a 

young man that's just been walking 

the 'orspital ; but they say he's very 

clever. Miss BRADDOX. 

TO WALK INTO A PERSON to 

scold him ; to rate him soundly. 

S. 

TO WALK INTO FOOD to eat 

heartily of it. fi. 

Wall. To GO TO THE WALL 

to fail ; to be unsuccessful. 
P. 

Quacks prosper as often as they go 
to the wall. THACKERAY. 

He grows rich as the village grows 
poor; and so the Moslem goes to the 
wall. Si. James's Gazette, 1887 

Charles's hopes had to go to the 
wall. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

THE FINGER or HANDWRITING 
ON THE WALL the announce- 
ment of a coming disaster. P. 
See HANDWRITING. 

This inexplicable incident, this 
reversal of my previous experience, 
seemed, like the Babylonian finger 
on the wall, to be spelling out the 
letters of my judgment. R. L. 
STEVENSON. 

Wall-flower. A WALL - 
FLOWER a lady who at a 
dance finds no partners. C. 

" I never dance." 

"What ! are you never tired play- 
ing the wall-flower ? Do not German 
waltzes inspire you?" Miss BRAD- 
DON. 

Wallaby. To GO ON THE 
WALLABY TRACK to go up 
country in search of work. S. 
An Australian term. 

War. WAR TO THE KNIFE 

a bitter and deadly struggle. P. 

Which war old Lady Lufton, good 

and pious and charitable as she was, 

considered that she was bound to 



Warming 

keep up, even to the knife, till Dr. 
Proudie and all his satellites should 
have been banished into outer dark- 
ness. A. TROLLOPE. 

TO PUT ON THE WAR-PAINT - 

to dress oneself up in a con- 
spicuous fashion ; to wear 
one's finest clothes. F. 

"Have you seen the hero of the 
evening? 

"Who? Do you mean the Portu- 
guese governor in his war-paint?" 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

Warming". A WARMING-PAN 
a person who holds a post 
until a minor is ready to 
occupy it. P. 

We used to call him in my parlia- 
mentary davs W. P. Adams, in con- 
sequence of his being warming-pan 
for a young fellow who was in his 
minority. DICKENS. 
Warrant. A WARRANT OFFI- 
CER a petty officer in the 
navy, as distinguished from 
a " commissioned officer." P. 

What is surprising is to find my- 
self a warrant ofhcer. CAPTAIN 
MARRYAT. 

Wash. To WASH ONE'S HANDS 
OF to refuse to have anything 
more to do with. P. 

To look at me, you would hardly 
think "Poor Thady" was the father 
of Attorney Quirk. He .is a high 
gentleman, and never minds what 
poor Thady says, and having better 
than fifteen hundred a year, landed 
estate, looks down upon honest 
y han 



Thady; but I wash my 
ve li 



, , .ids of his 

doings, and as I have lived so will I 
die, true and loyal to this family.- 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

" And I think he said itwas a cruel 
business nay, I'm sure he did ; and 
that, as for him, he washed hisliands 
onV' (of it). Mr. Aubrey seemed 
confounded. S. WARREN. 
To WASH ONE'S DIRTY LINEN IN 
PUBLIC to speak in public of 
unpleasant private affairs ; 
to discuss unpleasant private 
matters before strangers. P. 

"I have been so pressed since my 
marriage " he said, "that it has been 
impossible for me to keep things 
straight." 

" But Lady Alexandria-" 

" Yes, of course, I know. I do not 
like to trouble you with my affairs- 
there is nothing, I think, so bad as 
washing one's dirty linen in public ; 
but the truth is, that I am only now 



267 Water 

free from the rapacity of the De 
Courcys." A. TROLLOPE. 
WASHED OUT pale and bloodless 
in appearance. C. 

She noticed that the young man 
who sat beside him looked rather 
pale and washed out. HUGH CON- 
WAY. 

Wasp. A WASPS' NEST a place 
where there are plenty of 
enemies ; a place where one is 
unwelcome. P. 

It was into a wasps' nest that the 
imprudent Louise thrust herself. 
Illustrated London JNews, 188T. , 

Watch. WATCH AND WATCH 
taking alternate watches. C. 
We will fight the schooner watch 
and watch till daylight. CAPTAIN 
MARRYAT. 

Water. To THROW COLD 

WATER ON AN ENTERPRISE 

to discourage its promotion : 
to speak slightingly of it. P. 

It was to be hoped Mr. Godfrey 
would not go to Tarley and throw 
cold water on what Mr. Snell said 
there. GEORGE ELIOT. 

Colman threw cold water on the 
undertaking from the very beginning. 
W. BLACK. 

Among them was Aurelia Tucker, 
the scoffer and thrower of cold water. 
BESANT. 

IN DEEP WATER in difficulties ; 
puzzled how to act. C. 

Once he had been very nearly in 
deep water because Mrs. Proudie had 
taken it in dudgeon that a certain 
voung rector, who had been left a 
widower, had a very pretty governess 
for his children.-A. TROLLOPE. 
OF THE FIRST WATER Of the 

highest type ; very excellent. 
C. A term originally applied 
to precious stones. 

One comfort, folk are beginning to 
take an interest in us. I see nobs of 
the first water looking with a fatherly 
eye into our affairs. C. READE. 
To HOLD WATER to be tenable ; 
to be supported by facts. P. 

That won't hold water. It does not 
commend itself to reason. R. U 

had gone about respecting 
her Nothing very tangibfe, and 
perhaps they would not have held 
water.-MRs HENRY WOOD 

He was secretly conscious that the 
theory of the evergreen tree would 
not hold water.-JAMES PAYN. 



Wax 

TO MAKE THE MOUTH WATER 

to be excessively alluring ; 
to cause desire and longing. P. 
I could tell you things that would 
make your mouth water about the 
profits that are earned in the musical 
branch of our own trade. Good 
Words, 1887. 

To BE IN HOT WATER to be in 
trouble or difficulties ; to 
have people angry with one. C. 
Tom was in everlasting hot water 
as the most incorrigible scapegrace 
[for ten miles round. T. HUGHES. 

To WATER STOCK to give away a 
proportion of the shares in 
a company at a large discount 
or gratis. C. 

But there's no use crying over spilt 
milk, or watered stock either. 

To BACK WATER to reverse 
the forward motion of a boat 
in rowing ; to row back- 
wards. P. 

The captain gave orders to back 
water, and none too soon, for we just 
avoided a collision. R. H. DANA. 

THE WATER- WORKS Or THE WATER 

PUMPS the shedding of tears. 
F. 

" Oh, Miss B , I never thought 

to have seen this day;" and the 
waterworks began to play. THACK- 
ERAY. 

"Thank you, Dobbin," he said, 
rubbing his eyes with his knuckles, 
"I was just just telling her I would. 
And, O sir, she's so kind to me." 
The water-pumps were at work again 
(he again commenced to shed tears). 
THACKERAY. 

Wax. TO WAX FAT AND KICK 

to become unruly and hard to 
manage through too great 
prosperity. P. A Biblical 
phrase (Deut. xxxii. 15). 

During the prosperous period when 
our revenue was advancing by leaps 
and bounds, it is to be apprehended 
that waiters as well as sailors waxed 
fat and kicked. Blackwood's Maga- 
zine, 1886. 

IN A WAX angry. S. 

When she's in a wax there's no- 
where a finer stringer of big ones 
(lies). BESANT. 

"You needn't get into a wax over 
it, old chap," said my father. --H. 
KINGSLEY. 

Way. IN A WAY (a) some- 
what ; in a certain sense. C. 



>8 Way 

The people of the boarding-house 
continued to amuse him, partly be- 
cause they were in a way afraid of 
him. BESANT. 

(6) agitated ; much con- 
cerned. F. 

The poor father is in a way about 
his son's misbehaviour. 
ONCE IN A WAT rarely ; occa- 
sionally. C. 

Once in a way a man might take 
too much. BLACKMORE. 
IN A FAIR WAY OF likely to; 
with every likelihood of. C. 

Kothsay had come back to England 
in a fair way, for the first time in his 
life, of making money. WILKIE 
COLLINS. 

IN A GOOD WAY prosperous; 
prosperously. C. 

He quitted the militia and engaged 
in trade, having brothers already 
established in agocwwayin London. 
MARIA EDGEWORTH. 

To MAKE ONE'S WAY to be 
prosperous ; to rise. P. 

He (Disraeli) is determined to make 
his way. Edinburgh Review, 1886. 

To MAKE WAY to step aside 
so as to leave a passage ; to 
give place. P. 

Make way there for the princess. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

Every one shifting, and shuffling, 
and staring, and assisting in that 
curious and confusing ceremony 
called making way. --BEACONSFIELD. 

TO GO THE WAY OF ALL FLESH 

to die. P. 

His former retainer, Phil Judd, had 
gone the way of all flesh. Murray's 
magazine, 1887. 

They nodded to each other by way 
of breaking the ice of unacquaint- 
ance, and the first stranger* handed 
his neighbour the family mug a 
huge vessel of brown ware, having 
its upper edge worn away like a 
threshold by the rut of whole genera- 
tions of thirsty lips that had gone the 
way of all flesh. THOMAS HARDY. 
IN THE WAY proving an ob- 
stacle ; causing an obstruction ; - 
not wanted ; not welcome. P. 
Compare " in the road." 

You may be (you are) a charming 
person, but just now you are a little 
in the way. They resent your 
presence. JAMES PAYS. 

It may seem strange that I felt 
in the way in their company. 
Mistletoe Bough, 1885. 



Way 269 

WAT strange ; 



Weather 



OUT OF THE 

eccentric. P. 

In her drama, which was so effec- 
tive on the stage, Djek did nothing 
out of the way. 0. READE. 
UNDER WAY in motion. P. 

Arthur was perfectly charmed with 
erything he saw.and so was Agatha 
until they got under way, 
n she discovered that a mail 



every 
Terry 
when 



steamer was a joke compared with 
the yacht in the matter of motion. 
H. R. HAGGARD. 
TO BE BY WAY OF BEING to be 

able to be classed as ; to come 
into the category of. C. 

Phipps was by way of being some- 
thing of a musician. Good Words, 
1887. 

BY THE WAY. A phrase used 
with remarks'made incidentally, 
and not belonging to the main 
subject. P. 

With this, and showing the tricks 
of that dog, whom I stole from the 
sergeant of a marching regiment 
, -4 ,._ ^ ------- u_ - steal too 



(and, by the way, u.* v,.* =<"...* ?"," 
ion), I make shift to pick 



_. he can s 

upon occasion), In 
up a livelihood. H. MACKENZIE. 

To GIVE AWAY (a) to yield ; to 
submit. P. 

I have never seen the bridegroom's 
male friends give way to tears. 
THACKERAY. 

(&) to break down ; to lose 

control of oneself. C. 

"I see how it is" said poor Noggs, 
drawing from .his pocket what 
seemea to be an old duster and 
wiping Kate's eyes with it as gently 
as if she were an infant; "you're 
giving way now." DICKENS. 

TO GO A VERY LITTLE WAY WITH 

to have small influence upon. 

f*\ 

Her well-meant apology for her 
father went, indeed, but a very little 
way with her companion.-jAMEs 
PAYN. 

WAYS AND MEANS necessary 
funds and the manner of pro- 
curing them. P. 

This passionless character is illus 
trated by Lewis's position m the 
Cabinet as Chancellor .of the Ex- 
chequer during the height of the 
Crimean War and to its close, ant 1 
he was therefore responsible for find 
ing the ways and means for carrying 
it on. Westminster Review, I&R. 

When money has to be raised, the 
House of Commons resolves itself 
into Committee of Ways and Means 



Weak. WEAK AS A CAT 
very feeble. F. Always of 
physical weakness. 

John looked round, and for the 
first time a sense of hope began to 
creep into his heart. Perhaps they 
would survive after all. 

" Let's go up and see. It is no good 
stopping here : we must get food 
somewhere. I feel as weak as a 
cat." H. R. HAGGARD. 

As WEAK AS WATER very feeble. 
P. Used both of moral and 
of physical weakness. 

Sir, I am only just getting well of 
a fever, and I am as weak as water. 
C. READE. 

Away from you I am as weak as 
water, excepting where she is con- 
cerned. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

Wear. WEAR AND TEAR 
damage resulting from con- 
stant use and from occasional 
accidents. P. 

The increasing wear and tear of 
life, reducing leisure and making 
brevity in letter-writing a primary 
consideration, supplies a third 
reason. Ma&mllansMagazine,lS8l. 

The castle walls have stood the 
wear and tear of centuries. Edin- 
burgh Review, 1887. 

To WEAR ON to pass slowly 
(of time). P. 

After the Bellamys' departure, the 
time wore on at; Madeira without 
bringing about any appreciable 
change in the situation.-H. R. 
HAGGARD. 

TO WEAR ONE'S HEART UPON ONE'S 
SLEEVE FOR DAWS TO PECK AT 

to expose one's private feel- 
ings to unfeeling criticism, 
p. A Shakespearian phrase. 
See HEART and SLEEVE 



She is, in fact, a fair specimen of 
lish 

oles. 
may be in her, her intimate frien 



an En 
andw 



maiden upright.fearless, 
Wnatmore 
nds 

alone know, for she is not a woman 
to wear her heart upon her sleeve 
for daws to peck at. -FLORENCE 
MARRYAT. 

Weather. THE WEATHER EYE 
the eye of a keen observer. 
F. A sea phrase. 

Job returned in a peat state of 
nervousness, and kept his weather 
eye fixed upon every, woman who 

~ 



u 
open -R.L. STEVENSON. 



Wedge 



270 



What 



Wedg-e. THE THIN END or 

EDGE OF THE WEDGE the 

first small beginning, which 
may lead to what is serious 
and important. P. 

How or when he (Thackeray) made 
his very first attempt in London, I 
have not learned ; but he had not 
probably spent his money without 
forming " press " acquaintances, and 
had thus formed an aperture for the 
thin edge of the wedge. A. TROL- 
LOPS. 

It was the thin edge of the wedge, 
in good truth, and the driving home 
had tocpme. MRS.E. LYNN LINTON. 

In thia way the thin edge of the 
wedge had been inserted for French 
influence at the back of Marocco. 
GRANT ALLEN, In Contemporary 
Review, 1888. 

Weeping. To RETURN BY 
WEEPING CROSS to regret 
deeply some undertaking ; to 
be in a state of lamentation. F. 
The lawyers' harvest-term is o'er, 
Which to their purses brought good 

store ; 

But many clients, to their loss. 
Do return home by Weeping Cross 
Poor Robin, 1765. 

Weigh. UNDER WEIGH in 
motion. P. 

We were soon under weigh again. 
C. LEVER. 

Well. WELL, I NEVER ! an ex- 
clamation of surprise. F. 

This almost caused Jemima to faint 
with terror. "Well, I never!" said 
she. "What an audacious" 
Emotion prevented her from com- 
pleting either sentence. THACK- 
ERAY. 

"Well, I never!" said the old man. 
'My stay-at-home Jesa wanting to 
go away, and without Bessie, too ! 
What is the matter with you?" 
H. R. HAGGARD. 

WELL - TO - DO In comfortable 
circumstances. P. 

Moreover, she had a distillery of 
rum and arrack in Kingston itself, 
and everybody agreed that she must 
be very well-to-do in the world. 
G, A. SAL A. 

WELL AND GOOD, A common 
consequent in a conditional 
sentence, signifying that the 
result is satisfactory. C. 

If it come up a prize, well and 
good ; and if it come up a blank, 
why, well and good too.-MARiA 
EDOEWORTH. 



TRUTH LIES AT THE BOTTOM OP 
A WELL. A saying which re- 
fers to the difficulty of finding 
out the truth. C. 

In his simple opinion the depth of 
the well, at the bottom of which 
truth is hid, was nothing to the un- 
fathomableness of his designs. J. 
MACLAREN COBBAN. 

Wet. To WET ONE'S WHISTLE 
to take a drink of liquor. F. 

"Musselboro, reach me down the 
decanter and some glasses. Perhaps 
Mr. Crosbie will wei his whistle." 

"He don't want any wine nor you 
either, said Musselboro. A. TROL- 
LOPE. 

" But if you'll believe me, sir. they 
don't so much as wet their whistles. 
A. TROLLOPE. 

Whaek. To TAKE ONE'S 
WHACK to drink liquor. S. 

Dinner parties, where the guests 
drank grossly, and even the school- 
boy took his whack, like licorice- 
water. R. L. STEVENSON. 

What. I TELL YOU WHAT. 

This phrase calls the attention 
of the listener to some impor- 
tant statement. C. 

I know something about that place 
(the House of Commons). I think : 
and I tell you what besides, that if 
there had not been this interruption, 
Mr Disraeli might have made a 
failure. SB EIL. 

WHAT NOT various things diffi- 
cult to mention severally. C. 

In these rooms in Wine Office 
Court, and at the suggestion or en- 
treaty of Newbery, Goldsmith pro- 
duced a good deal of miscellaneous 
\yriting pamphlets, tracts, compila- 
tions, and what not, of a more or less 
marketable kind. WM. BLACK. 

To KNOW WHAT'S WHAT to be 
intelligent and well-informed. 
C. 

If, perhaps, such men as Louis 
Philippe and Monsieur A. Thiers, 
minister and deputy, and Monsieur 
Francois Guizot, deputy and ex- 
cellency, had, from interest or con- 
viction, opinions at all differing from 
the majority, why, they knew what 
was what, and kept their opinions 
to themselves. THACKERAY. 

WHAT - DO - YOU - CALL - 'EM. A 
phrase used like Thingamy, 
because one forgets the exact 



Wheel 

name, or does not wish to 

utter it. F. 

'I might feel it was a great blow," 
d Miss Snevellicci, "to break up 



old associations and \vhat-do-you- 
call-'ems of that kind, but I would 
submit, my dear, I would indeed. 
DICKENS. 

"Well," I fiaid, "three guineas, 
which I shall have over, will buy 
me a pair of what-d'ye-call-'ems. 
THACKEBAY. 

WHAT'S - sis - NAME. Used like 
the previous phrase. F. 

My dearest Edith, there is such an 
Obvious destiny in it, that really one 
might almost be induced to cross 
one's arms upon one's frock and say, 
like those wicked Turks, there is no 
What's-his-name but Thingummy, 
and What-you-may-call-it is his 
prophet. DICKENS. 

Wheel. To GO ON WHEELS 
to advance smoothly and 
rapidly ; to make rapid pro- 
gress. C. 

The thing went on wheels. Eichard 
Bassett was engaged to Jane Wright 
almost before he was aware. C. 
HEADS. 

TO PUT A SPOKE IN A MAN'S 

WHEEL to interrupt his 
career of success ; to embar- 
rass him. C. 

You have put a most formidable 
Bpoke in my wheel by preventing 
the extension of the borough. Good 
Words, 1887. 

While. To WHILE AWAY 
to pass in amusement ; to 
spend for purposes of amuse- 
ment. P. 

And so he went on riding with her, 
and copying music and verses in her 
album, and playing chess with her 
very submissively; for it is with 
these simple amusements that some 
officers in India are accustomed to 
while away their leisure moments. 
THACKERAY. 

Whip. THE WHIP-HAND the 
control ; the power of ruling. 
C. 

Why, Anne, do be reasonable. If 
I gave you those letters, I should 
never be able to sleep in peace. For 
the sake of my own safety, I dare 
not abandon the whip-hand I have 
of you. H. R. HAGGARD. 

The secret of all success is to know 
how to deny yourself. If you once 
learn to get the whip-hand of your- 



271 White 

eelf, that is the best educator. Prove 
to me that you can control yourself, 
and I'll say you're an educated man ; 
and without this all other education 
is good for next to nothing. Mas. 
OLIPHANT. 

WhIStle. TO PAT DEAR FOB 

ONE'S WHISTLE to pay too 
much for some coveted pos- 
session or pleasure. P. 

We went off in very great state, 
but still having to pay with needless 
heaviness for our whistle. G. A. 
SALA. 

To WET ONE'S WHISTLE. See 
WET. 

TO WHISTLE FOR ANYTHING. 
This phrase is used when there 
seems to be no reasonable 
chance of obtaining the thing 
desired. C. 

If we only got what we deserved- 
Heaven save us ! many of us might 
whistle for a dinner (go dinnerless). 
THACKERAY. 

White. AT A WHITE HEAT 
in an intense passion ; very 
angry or excited. P. 

They let their thinking be done 
for them, in all critical moments, by 
Parisian journalists at a white heat. 
Contemporary Review, 1887. 

A WHITE LIE or FIB a statement 
which is verbally true, but 
really and essentially false. 

Between them both, Helen was in 
a corner. She might have been cap- 
able of telling a white fib and saying 
she had not the letter, rather than 
let her father see it.-MRs. HENRY 
WOOD. 

WHITE AS A SHEET intensely 
pale. P. 

Next second a terrible crash re- 
sounded from the other end of the 
room. George turned white as a 
sheet, and sank Into a chair. H. R. 

When they took him out of the 
black hole after six hours' confine- 
ment, he was observed to be white 
as a sheet and to tremble violently 
all over. C. READE. 
WHITE SOUP the substance 
which is obtained by putting 
silver plate, etc., into the 
melting pot. S. A term used 
by London thieves. 

Gold watches, silks and shawls and 
trinkets, yards of brocade, ells of 
lace, *nd last, not least, a caldron 



Whole 



272 



Willow 



always on the boil for the manufac- 
ture of that all-absorbing fluid which 
is called "white soup, and is sold 
by the ounce, surrounded the once 
virtuous Gingham in her respectable 
home. G. J. \VHYTE-MELVILLE. 

WHITE CAPS waves having 
their tops white through the 
wind breaking them into 
foam. C. Also known as 
" white horses." 

It was no gale, but only a fair wind ; 
the water foamed along the ship's 
sides, and as her bows descended, 
shot forward in hissing jets of spray ; 
away on every side flocked the white 
caps. W. D. HOWELLS. 

A WHITED SEPULCHRE some- 
thing outwardly fair but in- 
wardly corrupt. P. A Scrip- 
tural phrase (Matt, xxiii. 27). 

So that (bad as I may be, Lady 
Swansdown) I consider myself a 
better woman than you (and such 
as you) are. Oh yes! I know you 
don't stand alone. I know there are 
plenty like you in the best society 
iwhited sepulchres, fair without, and 
rottenness and dead men's bones 
within. FLORENCE MABRYAT. 

THE WHITE FEATHER. See 
FEATHER. 

Whole. UPON THE WHOLE 
taking everything into con- 
sideration. P. 

Upon the whole, Emma left her 
with softened and charitable feel- 
ings. JANE AUSTEN. 

Wide. THERE is A WIDE GULF 
FIXED there is a great and 
permanent cause of separation. 
P. The phrase is taken from 
the New Testament. See the 
parable of Dives and Lazarus 
(Luke xvi.). 

Lady "Pat," as she is called by her 
familiar friends, would seem to be a 
ntter companion, both in station and 
age, for Lady Swansdown than Mrs. 
Beverley ; but between the countess 
and Lady Pat there is a great gulf 
fixed. FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

WIDE AWAKE smart : clever. 
C. 

Sir Bate Coombe likes to be ad- 
mired, even by an old maid ; but he 
is too wide awake to let her see it. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

TO GIVE A WIDE BERTH to avoid 

C. 



Always give the redcoats a wide 
berth, my dear. G. A. SALA. 

"Wigging. TO GET A WIGGING 

to be scolded. F. 

However, it did not take him long 
to pardon John Monckton. while, as 
for the tremendous wigging which 
eceive fr 



he would doubtless receive from his 
father, he had no difficulty at all 
about pardoning that in advance. 
Good Words, 1887. 

Wild. - A WILD-GOOSE CHASE 

a foolish and fruitless search. 
P. 

"Wouldn't to-morrow do for this 
wild-goose chase?" inquired Wheeler. 

C. KEADE. 

Will. WILL HE, NILL HE 
whether he wishes or not. C. 
An imprudent marriage is a differ- 
ent thing, for then the consequences 
are inevitable when once the step 
has been taken, and have to be 
borne, will he, niU he.-MRS. OLI- 

PHANT. 

WILL - o* - THE - WISP the 
ignis fatuus, or phosphorescent 
light which hovers over 
marshes ; anything which de- 
ludes or deceives. C. 

"I am very, very miserable; give 
me hope, the light of hope." 

"It would be a will-of-the-wisp, 
Willie." JAMES PAYN. 

Willow. TO WEAR THE WIL- 

LOW (a) to occupy the lowest 
place or seat. C. 

- (6) to be in mourning ; to 
be in grief. C. 

This went on until the summer of 
the year 1C57, when her father gently 
put it to her that she had worn the 
willow (grieved for her lover) long 
enough, and would have to ally her- 
self with some gentleman of worth 
and parts in that part of the country. 

G. A. SALA. 

But as high an estimate of Hazlitt 
is quite compatible with the strongest 
political dissent from his opinions, 
and with a total freedom from the 
charge of wearing the willow for 
(deploring the death of) painting. 
Macmillaris Magazine, 1887. 

- (c) to be forsaken. C. 
"You have heard the news (of 

Miss Grantley's' approaching mar- 
riage), Ludovic?" she asked. 

"Oh yes; it's at all the clubs. I 
have been overwhelmed with pres- 
ents of willow branches." A. TROL- 
LOPE. 



Win 



273 



Wind 



Win. To WIN THE DAY to be 
successful. P. 

Yetif, on the one side, there stood 
cold science, and on the other a 
suffering girl, it is ridiculous to 
acknovfedge that the girl always 
won the day. BESANT. 

To WIN AT A CANTER to gain an 
easy victory. C. 

Petty finery without, a pinched 
and stinted stomach within : a case 
of Back versus Belly (as the lawyers 
would say), the plaintiff winning in 
a canter. S. WARREN. 

Wind. IN THE WIND about 
to happen ; talked of as prob- 
able. C, 

All of a sudden the coach stopped. 
"Hallo," said my uncle, " whats in 
the wind now?" DICKENS. 

He never has a kind word to say of 
me even when we're al9ne : I believe 
there's some one else in the wind. 
FLORENCE MARRYAT. 

"Such things never happen to 
such a poor devil as me," exclaimed 
Huckaback with a sigh. 

" What is in the wind, I wonder?' 
muttered Titmouse. S. WARREN. 
To GET WIND to be talked 
about; to circulate as news 
P. 

His return had got wind, and evep 
farmer under fifty had resolved to 
ride with him into Huntercombe. 
C. READE. 

"And now, since we are to go, 
said Lady Clonbrony, "pray let u 
go immediately, before the thinf 
gets wind, else I shall have Mrs 
Dareville, and Lady Langdale, am 
Lady St. James, and all the.worlr 
coming to condole with me, just t 
satisfy their own curiosity." MARI. 
EDGEWORTH. 

To GET WIND OP to obtai: 
news regarding ; to learn about 

C. 

I could get wind of the amoun 
given, now, if I wanted. Macrrn 
Tan's Magazine, 1887. 

Luckily Mr. Hodge speedily g< 
wind of our misfortune. G. A 
SALA. 

To GO TO THE WINDS to be dis 
sipated; to be utterly lost. 

Few men can bear to see a e\ 
and pretty woman in tears, and th 
little incident was too much f 
John, whose caution and doubts a 
went to the winds together, an 
have not since been heard of . H. 
HAGGARD. , 

At this all young Fielding's sel 



restraint went 
READE. 



to the winds. -C. 



f THE WIND'S EYE right in 
the face of the wind ; pointing 
directly to the quarter from 
which the wind comes. P. 

At last, however, she fell right into 
the wind's eye, was taken dead aback, 
and stood there awhile helpless, with 
her sails shivering. R. L. STEVEN- 
SON. 

'o RAISE THE WIND to obtain 
necessary funds. F. 

To raise the wind some lawyer 
tries. J. AND H. SMITH. 
JETWIXT WIND AND WATER. 
The part of a ship betwixt 
wind and water is that por- 
tion which is below the water- 
line, except when the ship 
heela over under the pressure 
of the wind. There is of course 
great danger when a shot 
strikes here. The phrase is 
used figuratively. 

That shot was a settler; it struck 
poor Sail right atwixt wind and 
water (in the most susceptible 
place). HALIBURTON. 

TO TAKE THE WIND OUT OF 

ANOTHER'S SAILS to antici- 
pate another ; to gain a clever? 
advantage over a competition 
f*\ 

*Ex-Bailie Laverock announced the 
important fact that one gentleman 
had offered him two-thirds of the 
12,500 loan at 3i per cent., and an- 
other gentleman had offered him 
500 at the same rate. This quite 
took the wind out of the sails of the 
party in power. They looked aghast 
at each other, and it was evident 
from their countenances that the 



. 
IT'S AN ILL WIND THAT BLOWS 

NOBODY GOOD few calamities 



m Thi 8 " C ve?y A 8 D ensible view of the 
matterreassuredBrian whothouKht 
to himself, "It's an ill wind that 



Wind 



274 



Wit 



Sows nobody good ; perhaps when 
ie IB Mrs. Dubbin she won't want to 
sing in the choir any more." Good 
Words, 1887. 

To TAKE WIND to become 
known. P. 

I could easily have brought her 
ladyship to her senses, however; 
but my scheme had taken wind, 
and it was now in vain to attempt it. 
THACKERAY. 

TO THE FOUR WINDS (OF HEAVEN) 
completely irrecoverable. P. 
"Heaven knows," answered John, 
carelessly; "given to Tom, Dick, 
and Harry scattered to the four 
winds. I have not kept one of 
them." Miss BRADDON. 

Wind. To WIND UP to settle ; 
to bring to a conclusion. P. 
Generally used of the formal 
settlement of the affairs of a 
business firm that is broken up. 

If you like to retire and leave me 
to wind up the concern, a cheque for 
10,000 is at your service. Mistletoe 
Bough, 1885. 

With this beautiful metaphor I 
shall wind up (bring my remarks to 
a close). 

Wing. To CLIP ANOTHER'S 
WINGS to hamper his move- 
ments ; to lessen his power of 
action. C. 

TO TAKE UNDER ONE'S WING 

to protect ; to patronize. C. 

We heard you were under Lady 
Patrick's wing, and felt that you 
were safe.FtoRENcE MARRYAT. 

As for you, Miss Ella, with your 
papa's permission, I shall henceforth 
take you under my wing.*-JAMEs 
PAYN. 

To LEND WINGS TO to increase 
the speed of ; to hasten. P. 

I could hear hails coming and 
going between the old buccaneer 
and his comrades, and this sound 
of danger lent me wings. JR. L. 
STEVENSON. 

THE WINGS OF AZRAEL. See 
AZRAEL. 

To TAKE WING to fly off sud- 
denly ; to depart without 
warning. C. 

So Beauchamp took wing; and 
whether Lady Bracknell was an- 
noyed or relieved by his flight I 
cannot venture to say. W. E. NOR- 
RI.S. 



Wink. To WINE AT (a) to 
signal to with the eye in token 
of a mutual understandiag. P. 
"But now your mother's not by, 
you know," said Mrs. Dolly, winking 
at the landlady ; "now your mother's 
not by" 

"Yefl; nobody will tell of you," 
added the landlady. MAKIA EDGE- 
WORTH. 

(&) to pretend not to see ; 

to take no notice of. P. 

Later on the emperors vere fain to 
wink at what they would not sanc- 
tion and could not extirpate. Fort* 
nightly Review, 1887. 

To WINK ON the same as TO 
WINK AT (a). P. 

"Very well, air." cried the squire, 
wh9 immediately smoked him 
(quizzed him), and winked on the 
rest of the company to prepare us 
for the Bport ; " If you are for a cool 
argument upon the subject, I am 
ready to accept the challenge." 
GOLDSMITH. 

Winking. LIKE WINKING 
quickly ; eagerly. S. 

Nod away at him, if you please, 
like winking. DICKENS. 

Wish. TO WISH TO GOODNESS 
to be very desirous. F. 

" And to be lying all the time hor- 
ribly sick in your berth, and wishing 
to goodness you were back again in 
the schoolroom learning about the 
feudal system," Lady Mordaunt sug- 
gested. Murray's Magazine, 1887. 

To WISH ONE JOY OF ANYTHING. 
A phrase generally used sar- 
castically to intimate that the 
person who has the object 
will find it a troublesome 
possession. C. 

The apothecary's apprenticewished 
Mrs. Corney joy of her job, and took 
himself off on tiptoe. DICKENS. 

Wit. AT ONE'S WIT'S END 

in a state of utter perplexity ; 

wholly puzzled how to act. P. 

Mr. Felspar was almost at his wit's 

end how to act. JAMES PAYN. 

To HAVE ONE'S WITS ABOUT ONE 
to be observant ; to be 
quick at seeing and acting. C. 
Crlpps, if his wits had been about 
him, must have yielded apace and 
bowed. BLAOKMORE. 

Whatever might be urged about 
William Henry, it could not be said 
that he had not his wits about him. 
JAMES PAYN. 



Witch 



275 



Wool 



Witch. TO BE NO WITCH 

to be quite sharp. 0. 

The editor is clearly no witch at a 
riddle. CARLYLE. 

THE WITCH is IN IT there is 
some mysterious, supernatural 
influence at work. F. 

She had never heard of the fate 
that was once supposed to appoint 
the sorrows of men irrespective of 
their blamelessness or blame, before 
the time when it came to be believed 
that Borrows were penalties ; but in 
her simple way she recognized some- 
thing like that mythic power when 
she rose from her struggle with the 
problem, and said aloud to herself, 
n Well, the witch is in it."-W. D. 

HOWELLS. 

Withers. OUR WITHERS ARE 
UNWRUNG we are not hurt 
or irritated. P. The meta- 
phor is taken from a galled 
horse, the withers being the 
ridge between the shoulder- 
bones. 

Let the galled jade wince ; our 
withers are unwrung. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

"I know you are," said Robarts, 
who knew the man well, and cared 
nothing for his friend's peculiarities 
when he felt his own withers were 
unwrung. A. TROLLOPE. 

Wolf. TO CRT " WOLF "to 
call out for help when none is 
needed, until one's friends 
get disgusted, and do not come 
at a real crisis. P. 

" O Beavia !" exclaimed the duke ; 
"this is Beavis's cry of wolf, is it?" 

" Papa," said Lady Grace, in urgent 
tones, "when the wolf did come the 
cry was disregarded." S. BARING- 
GOULD. 

TO KEEP THE WOLF FROM THE 
DOOR to obtain sufficient to 
sustain life ; to avoid dying of 
hunger. C. 

Giving the people that employment 
to which they had always been ac 
customed, and without which they 
would, in many cases, have found 
no little difficulty in keeping the 
wolf from their humble doors. 
Murray's Magazine, 1887. 
A WOLF IN SHEEP'S CLOTHING 
a dangerous person who pre- 
tends to be quite harmless. P. 

"There are three thousand men 
in the British army," announced the 



old vrouw oracularly, and casting a 
severe glance at the wolf in sheep's 
clothing, the man of blood who pre- 
tended to farm. H. R. HAGGARD. 

Wondep. FOR A WONDER 
strangely enough ; contrary to 
expectations. P. 
For a wonder he was not sea-sick. 

C. READE. 

Wood. Our OF THE WOOD 
free from danger ; escaped 
from a difficulty. C. 

Mr. Josceline had merely observed 
indifferently, " I think we may be 
quite comfortable as to our young 
friend's getting out of the wood 
(recovering from his dangerous ill- 
ness). JAMES PAYN. 

Not being a man of invention, he 
could not see his way out of the 
wood at all. C. READE. 

Wooden. THE WOODEN SPOON 

the prize supposed to be 
conferred on the lowest grad- 
uate in a college list. F. 

Here is something about a wooden 
spoon that he says he quite ex- 



ANNIE KEARY. 
WOODEN NUTMEGS citizens of 
Connecticut State in America. 
F. The name arose from a 
swindling transaction success- 
fully carried out by a merchant 
of Hartford, the capital of 
Connecticut. The people of 
this state are noted for their 
sharpness in commercial trans- 
actions. 

He called me a Yankee peddler, a 
cheating vagabond, a wooden nut- 
meg. HA LI BU RTON. 

WOOl. TO DRAW Or PULL THE 

WOOL OVER ONE'S EYES to 
cheat or hoodwink him. F. 

" Ahab," said I, " I have but a few 
minutes to stay with you. and if you 
think to draw the wool over my 
eyes, it might perhaps take a longer 
time than you are thinking on, or 
than I can spare. "-HApBURTON 

I don't propose he shall pull the 
wool over my eyes, or anybody else. 
-W. D. HOWELLS. 
TO GO A-WOOL-GATHERING to go 

astray ; to be bewildered. C. 
"What misconception?" asked 
the Pater, whose wits, once gone a- 



Word 



276 



Worst 



wool-gathering, rarely came back in 
a hurry. MRS. HENRY WOOD. 

The unhappy little man, whose 
head was never of the strongest, anc 
his wits always going a-wool-gather 
ing, went stark, staring mad. G. A 
SALA. 

TO BE WOOL-GATHERING to be 

in an absent-minded state. C 
Mr. Eobarts had come round to 
the generally accepted idea that Mr. 
Crawley had obtained possession of 
the cheque illegally, acquitting his 
friend in his own mind of theft, 
simply by supposing that he was 
wool-gathering when the cheque 
came in his way. A. TROLLOPE. 

Word. To HAVE WORDS or A 
WORD to have an angry 
discussion; to quarrel. C. 

He is a poor, sneaking creature, 
and my brother George he caught 
Crawley selling up some poor fellow 
or other, and they had words. C. 
READE. 



DICKENS. 

A MAN OF HIS WORD a man to 
be depended on ; a trustworthy 
man. P. 

As for himself, Mr. Osborne, he 
was a man of his word. THACKERAY. 

TO TAKE THE WORD - to COm- 

mence speaking. P. A French 
phrase.- 

The colonel, left alone with his 
wife for the first time since he had 
come to town, made haste to take 
the word.-W. D. HOWELLS. 
UPON MY WORD certainly ; sure- 
ly ; I assure yoii. C. 

Upon my word, you answer as 
discreetly as she could do herself. 
JANE AUSTEN. 

BY WORD OF MOUTH orally ; 
with the tongue. P. 

That noble instrument (the organ) 
was saying to her something which 
id 



by 



the player did not venture to 
word of mouth-Good Words, 

The chance of entrapping Mag- 
dalen by word of mouth. WILKIE 

Work. To WORK THE ROPES 
to control ; to manage a 
scheme without being observed. 
C. 

How our mutual friend worked 



-HiH 



To WORK UP to investigate 
thoroughly and with a special 
purpose. P. 

Having some private means of his 
own, he had gone out to India for 
the purpose of working up certain 
still obscure problems. Murray's 
Magazine, 1887. 

TO MAKE SHORT WORK OF to 

finish quickly; to gain an 
easy victory over. S. 

We all thought he would make 
short work of the soldier-officer. 
G. A. SALA. 

World. ALL THE WORLD AND 
HIS WIFE every one without 
exception. C. 
Miss. Pray, madam, who were the 



company? 

Lady S Why, there 
world and his wife. Sw 



was all the 
WIFT. 

A MAN OF THE WORLD a man 
well acquainted with public 
and social life. P. 

"I am not at all a man of the 
world," he said ; " and of the law I 
know nothing." BLACKMORE. 

THE WORLD, THE FLESH, AND THE 

DEVIL- love of pleasure, sen- 
sual indulgence, and vicious 
propensities. P. 

He renounces the world, the flesh, 
and the devil, preaches and prays 
day and night. HALIBURTON. 

Worm. To WORM our INFOR- 
MATION to obtain informa- 
tion by subtle devices. P. 

By the aid of liquor he wormed 
out their story. C. KEADE. 

By these means he wormed out of 
Mr. G. the whole story of his ad- 
venture. G. P. R. JAMES. 

Worse. THE WORSE HALF 
a playful name for a husband. 
F. " Better hah* " is a common 
name for a wife. 

It would be a nice amusement for 
some of these long evenings, and the 
preparations would serve to occupy 
our time, whilst our worse halves 
are out shooting. FLORENCE MAR- 

RYAT. 

Worst. IF THE WORST COMES 
TO THE WORST in the event 
of things turning out very 
badly. C. 

" If the worst comes to the worst," 
Becky thought, "my retreat is 
secure." THACKERAY. 



Worth 



277 



Year 



Worth. WORTH ONE'S WHILE 
advantageous ; profitable. 
P. 

Upon the face of the thing, it looks 
as if it might be worth your while. 
Good Words. 1887. 

WORTH ONE'S SALT efficient ; 
a good workman. F. 

It was plain from every line of his 
body that our new hand was worth 
his salt. R. L. STEVENSON. 

Would. WOULD-BE in in- 
tention ; anxious to be con- 
sidered this or that. P. 

The would-be wags among the 
boys racked their brains to find the 
means of tormenting her through 
her name. S. BARING-GOULD. 
Wrapped. WRAPPED UP IN 
wholly devoted to. C. 

Lork, Mrs. Richards, no ; her pa's 
a deal too wrapped up in somebody 
else. DICKENS. 

Wreck. WRECK AND RUIN 
complete ruin. P. See RACK 
AND RUIN. 

The whole estate is going to wreck 
and ruin .because my uncle wont 
have the rabbits killed down.-AVat. 
BLACK. 

Wrinkle. A WRINKLE ON 
ONE'S HORN a valuable hint. 

Q 

"Now," says the major. "I'll give 
you, Slick, a new wrinkle on your 
horn." HALIBURTON. 



WPlte. TO WRITE ANYTHING 

up to praise in a systematic 
manner through the press. C. 

" Pray, Mr. Grey, is it true that all 
the houses in Russell Square are 
tenantless?" 

"Quite true. A perfect shame, 
is it not! Let us write it up." 
BEACONSFIELD. 

Wrong. THE WRONG SIDE 
OF SIXTY OR SEVENTY more 
than sixty or seventy years 
of age. F. 

The old woman answered, " That 
though her master was a deal on the 
wrong side of seventy, yet he was as 
alert, and thought no more of going 
about than if he was as young as the 
gentleman who was now speaking to 
her." MARIA EDQEWORTH. 

TO HAVE GOT UP ON THE WRONG 
SIDE OF THE BED to have got 

out of bed the wrong way. F. 
This is said of a person who 
is in a cross humour during 
the day. 

There is a pleasing nursery fiction 
that accounts for many disagreeable 
things by a theory on the right and 
the wrong way of getting out of bed 
Valentine remembered this, and felt 
quite certain that Sam, Melenaa, 
and Lizzie had all three got out of 
bed the wrong way that morning. 
There was going to be a row, and 
one of uncertain dimensions. 
BESANT. 



X. DOUBLE X a superior qual- 
ity of beer. C. 



And I said, "A pint of double X, 
and please to draw it mud! 
BARHAM. 



Yarn. To SPIN A YARN. See 
SPIN. 

Year. YEARS OF DISCRETION 
an age when one is able to 
judge between what is right 
and what is wrong. P. 

A mere boy: a very lad Not 
come to years of discretion yet ; and 
never will, if he goes on raging in 
this manner. G. A. SALA. 



I'm afraid the cat got out of the 
bag when Mrs Pasnier came to 
the years of discretion.-W. D. 

HOWELLS. 

YEAR OF GRACE year dating 
from the birth of Jesus Christ. 
P. Equivalent to Anno Dom- 
ini, or year of our Lord. 

My story begins in the year of 
grace seventeen hundred and sixty- 
four. 



Yellow 



278 



Yorkshire 



the 



Yellow. YELLOW JACK 
yellow fever. F. 

I have been in places hot as pitch, 
and mates dropping round with 
Yellow Jack. K. L. STEVENSON. 

Yeoman. YEOMAN'S DUTY or 
SERVICE excellent work. P. 

The shattering of the false image 
had done him yeoman's service. A. 
TKOLLOPE. 

In the gratitude of his heart, 
George would willingly have given 
a thousand pounds towards the 
erection of a statue to Hilda Cares- 
foot, whose outraged pride and 
womanly jealousy nad done him 
such yeoman service. H. R. HAG- 
GARD. 

Indeed, it is quite certain that he 
(Benvenuto Cellini) performed more 
than yeoman's duty as a gunner al" 
through the period of the 
Rome. J. A. SYMONDS. 



Yorkshire. To COME YORK- 
SHIRE OVER A MAN to cheat 
or swindle him. F. Yorkshire 
jockeys were known for their 
tricky dealings in the sale of 
horses. See Macaulay's War- 
ren Hastings : " And the 
crime for which Ntmcomar was 
about to die was regarded by 
them in much the same light 
in which the selling of an un- 
sound horse for a sound price 
is regarded by a Yorkshire 
jockey." 

"Surely," said John, "what I say 
I stick by." 

" And that's a fine thing to do, and 
manly, too," said Nicholas, "though 
it's not exactly what we understand 
by coming Yorkshire over us in 
London." DICKENS. 



AUTHORS, ANONYMOUS WORKS, 
AND JOURNALS QUOTED. 



An asterisk signifies that the work is frequently quoted. 



ADDISON, JOSEPH (1672-1719), essayist and poet; one of the 

greatest literary names of the Queen Anne period. 
ADELER, MAX (1841), American humorist. His real name is 

Charles Heber Clark. 
AINGER, ALFRED (1837-1904), essayist and critic. Edited 

Charles Lamb's works. 
ALLEN, CHARLES GRANT (1848-99), scientific and popular 

writer and novelist. Author of For Maimie's Sake, etc. 
ANSTEY, F. (Thomas Anstey Guthrie), novelist. Author of Vice 

Versa,* The Giant's Robe,* A Fallen Idol,* etc. 
ARBUTHNOT, JOHN, M.D. (1675-1735), one of the prominent 

writers of the Queen Anne period. Author of Law is a Bottom- 
less Pit ; or, The History of John Bull (1713). 
ARNOLD, MATTHEW (1822-88), poet, essayist, and critic. Author 

of Literature and Dogma,* etc. 
ATHENAEUM, THE, a weekly review of literature and art; 

started 1829. 
ATTERBURY, FRANCIS, Bishop of Rochester (1662-1732), an 

able and prolific writer of the Queen Anne period. 
AUSTEN, JANE (1775-1817), one of the most delightful of English 

novelists. Author of Sense and Sensibility,* etc. 

BACON, FRANCIS, Viscount St. Albans (1561-1626). Author of 

The Advancement of Learning, Essays, etc. 
BARHAM, RICHARD HARRIS (1788-1845), novelist, versifier, 

and miscellaneous writer. Best known for his amusing In- 

goldsby Legends.* 
BARING-GOULD, SABINE (1834), essayist and novelist. Author 

of The Path of the Just (1854), etc. 

BAYLY, THOMAS HAYNES (1797-1839), best known as a song- 
writer. Author of Isle of Beauty, etc. 
BEACONSFIELD, EARL OF. See DISRAELI. 
BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER (Francis Beaumont and John 

Fletcher), dramatists who wrote in conjunction. 
BEDE, CUTHBERT, nom de plume of the author of Verdant 

Green * (q.v.). 



280 AUTHORS, ANONYMOUS WORKS, 

BEECHER, HENRY WARD (1812-87), the greatest of American 
pulpit orators. Author of various theological and popular 
works Life TJioughts, Life of Jesus the Christ, Sermons,* etc. 

BELLAMY, EDWARD (1850-98), American writer. Author of 
Looking Backward.* 

BENTHAM, JEREMY (1748-1832), political writer. Author of 
A Fragment on Government, etc. 

BENTLEY, RICHARD (1662-1742), eminent scholar and con- 
troversialist. Wrote A Dissertation \on the Epistles of 
Phalaris, etc. 

BERKELEY, GEORGE (1684-1753), philosopher. Wrote The 
Principles of Human Knowledge, etc. 

BESANT, SIR WALTER (1836-1901), novelist. Wrote his earlier 
works in conjunction with James Rice Ready-Money Mor- 
tiboy, The Golden Butterfly,* They Were Married, etc. 

BLACK, WILLIAM (1841-98), novelist. Author of A Princess 
of Thule, The Beautiful Wretch,* A Daughter of Heth, etc. 

BLACKMORE, RICHARD D. (1825-1900), novelist. Author of 
Lorna Doone,* Cripps the Carrier,* Mary Anerley, etc. 

BLACK WOOD'S MAGAZINE, familiarly known as " Maga," a 
monthly periodical, started hi 1817 in Edinburgh. 

BLAIR, ROBERT (1699-1746), author of The Grave. 

BRONTE, CHARLOTTE (1816-55), author of Jane Eyre, Vil- 
lette, Shirley, The Professor, etc. 

BROUGHAM AND VAUX, LORD, Henry Brougham (1779-1868), 
a voluminous writer on various topics; Lord Chancellor of 
England. 

BROUGHTON, RHODA (1840), novelist. Author of Cometh up 
as a Flower ;* Not Wisely, but Too Well, etc. 

BROWN, TOM (died 1704), poet. 

BRYANT, WILLIAM CULLEN (1794-1878), American poet. 

BUNYAN, JOHN (1628-88), author of The Pilgrim's Progress,* 
The Holy War, and other religious works. 

BURKE, EDMUND (1730-97), author of Thoughts on the Pres- 
ent Discontents, etc. 

BURNS, ROBERT (1759-96), the great lyric poet of Scotland. 
Author of Tam o' SJiantcr, etc. 

BURROUGHS, JOHN (1837), New England writer. Author of 
Birds and Poets, I^ocusts and Wild Honey, Winter Sunshine, * etc. 

BURTON, JOHN HILL (1809-81), historian. Author of A 
History of Scotland, The Scot Abroad, etc. 

BURTON, ROBERT (1576-1639), wrote the Anatomy of Melan- 
choly. 

BUTLER, SAMUEL (1600-80), author of Hudibras, a mock- 
heroic poem. 

BYROM, JOHN (1691-1763), poet and essayist. 

BYRON, GEORGE GORDON NOEL, LORD (1788-1824), poet 
and dramatist. Author of Hours of Idleness, etc. 



AND JOURNALS QUOTED. 281 

CAINE, HALL (1853), novelist. Author of The Shadow of a Crime, 

A Son of Hagar, The Deemster,* etc. 
CARLYLE, THOMAS (1795-1881), historian and essayist. Author 

of History of Frederic the Great, The French Revolution, etc. 
CARLYLE, JANE WELSH, wife of Thomas Carlyle (died 1866). 

Wrote a volume of Letters, which were published after her 

death. 

CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH (1836), statesman. 
CH AMBERS'S JOURNAL, a weekly miscellany which has appeared 

since 1832. Published by W. and R, Chambers, Edinburgh. 
CHAPMAN, GEORGE (1557-1634), poet and dramatist. 
CHESTERFIELD, EARL OF, Philip Dormer Stanhope (1694- 

1773), well known for his Letters to his Son, Philip Stanhope. 
CLARENDON, EARL OF, Edward Hyde (1608-74), historian. 
COLERIDGE, SAMUEL TAYLOR (1772-1834), poet and essayist. 

Author of Christabel, Table Talk, Aids to Reflection, etc. 
COLLIER, JEREMY (1650-1742), theologian and pamphleteer. 
COLLINS, WILLIAM WILKIE (1824-90), novelist. Wrote The 

Woman in White, Armadale, The Moonstone, etc. 
COLMAN, GEORGE, SEN. (1733-94), well-known dramatist. 

Author of The Jealous Wife, The Clandestine Marriage, etc. 
COMBE or COOMBE, WILLIAM (1741-1823), humourist. Wrote 

the well-known Tour of Dr. Syntax in Search of the Picturesque. 
CONGREVE, WILLIAM (1670-1729), poet and dramatist. Wrote 

The Old Bachelor, The Way of the World. 
CONTEMPORARY REVIEW, THE, a monthly periodical of 

general literature, started in 1866. 
CONWAY, HUGH (1847-85), author of Called Back, Dark Days, 

A Family Affair, * The Story of a Sculptor. See FARGUS, F. J. 
CORNHILL MAGAZINE, THE, a popular monthly, started in 

1860 under the editorship of William Makepeace Thackeray. 
COWPER, WILLIAM (1731-1800), poet and letter-writer. Wrote 

the poems Table Talk, The Task, etc. 
CRAIK, MRS. See MULOCK, DINAH. 
CRAWFORD, F. MARION (1854-1909), novelist ; son of Crawford, 

the American sculptor. Author of Saracinesca, * etc. 

DANA, RICHARD HENRY (1815-82) ; born in America. Author 
of Two Years Before the Mast,* etc. 

D'ARBLAY, FRANCESCA (FANNY) BURNEY, MADAME (1752- 
1840), novelist. Author of Evelina, etc. 

DEFOE, DANIEL (1663-1731), author of Robinson Crusoe, Journal 
of the Plague, etc. 

DE QUINCE Y. See QDINCEY. 

DICKENS, CHARLES (1812-70), novelist. Author of Sketches by 
Boz,* The Pickwick Papers,* Oliver Twist,* etc. 

DISRAELI, BENJAMIN (1805-81), Earl of Beaconsfield, states- 
man and novelist. Author of Vivian Grey,* etc. 



282 AUTHORS, ANONYMOUS WORKS, 

DISRAELI, ISAAC (1766-1848), father of the foregoing. Author 

of The Curiosities of Literature,* and other works. 
DRAYTON, MICHAEL (1563-1631), poet. Author of Polyolbion, 

The Barons' Wars, The Shepherd's Garland, etc. 
DRUMMOND, PROFESSOR HENRY (1851-97). Author of 

Natural Law in the Spiritual World.* 
DRYDEN, JOHN (1631-1701), poet and dramatist. Author of 

Absalom and Achitophel, The Hind and the Panther, etc. 
DUFFERIN, MARQUIS OF, Frederick Temple Blackwood (1826- 

1902). Author of Letters from High Latitudes, etc. 

EDGEWORTH, MARIA (1767-1849), novelist. Author of Castle 

Rackrent,* Popular Tales,* The Dun, etc. 
EDINBURGH REVIEW, THE, a famous quarterly, started In 

1802. 
ELIOT, GEORGE (1820-80), novelist. Her real name was Marian 

Evans. Author of Scenes of Clerical Life,* Adam Bede t * etc. 
EMERSON, RALPH WALDO (1803-80), American essayist and 

poet. Author of Essays, The Conduct of Life, etc. 

FARGUS, F. J. See CONWAT, HUGH, which was his nom de plume. 

FARJEON, B. L. (1833-1903), novelist. Author of At the Sign 
of the Silver Flagon, Jessie Trim, Miser Farebrother,* etc. 

FARRAR, FREDERIC WILLIAM (1831-1903), Dean of Canter- 
bury ; voluminous writer on language and theology. Author 
of The Life of Christ, The Life and Works of St. Paul, etc. 

FENN, G. MANVILLE (1831-1909), novelist. Author of Pretty 
Polly, Black Blood,* Thereby Hangs a Tale, etc. 

FERRIER, SUSAN EDMONSTON (1782-1854), novelist. Wrote 
Marriage, The Inheritance, Destiny ; or, the Chief's Daughter. 

FIELDING, HENRY (1707-54), novelist. Author of Tom Jones,* 
Amelia, etc. 

FITZGERALD, PERCY (1834). Author of Life and Times of 
George IV., The Real Lord Byron, etc. 

FREEMAN, EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1823-92), historian. Author 
of The History of the Norman Conquest, etc. 

FROUDE, JAMES ANTHONY (1818-94), historian and essayist. 
Author of The History of England, etc. 

GASKELL, MRS. (1811-65), novelist. Author of Mary Barton, The 
Moorland Cottage, Wives and Daughters,* North and South.* 

GLADSTONE, WILLIAM EWART (1809-98), statesman, orator, 
and essayist. Author of Juventus Mundi, etc. 

GLEIG, GEORGE ROBERT (1796-1888), miscellaneous writer. 
Author of The Subaltern, The Life of Lord Clive. etc. 

GOLDSMITH, OLIVER (1728-74), novelist, poet, and miscel- 
laneous writer. Author of The Vicar of Wakefleld,* etc. 

GRANT, ANNE, poetess and miscellaneous writer. Wrote Memoirs 
of an American Lady. 



AND JOURNALS QUOTED. 283 

GRANT, A. C. Author of Descriptions of the Red Spider, etc. 

GRANT, R., American novelist. 

GRAVES, RICHARD (1715-1804), miscellaneous writer. Best 

known for his Spiritual Quixote. 
GREEN, JOHN RICHARD (1837-83), historian. Author of 

A History of the English People, The Making of England. 
GREG, WILLIAM RATHBONE (1809-81), miscellaneous writer. 

Author of The Creed of Christendom ; The Great Duel, etc. 
GUTHRIE, DR. THOMAS (1803-73), religious and miscellaneous 

writer. First editor of The Sunday Magazine. 

HACKET, JOHN (1592-1670), Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

Wrote Christian Consolation, A Life of Archbishop Williams, 

etc. 
HAGGARD, SIR H. RIDER (1856), novelist. Author of She,* 

King Solomon's Mines, Jess,* Dawn,* Alan Quatermain,* etc. 
BAKEWILL, GEORGE (1579-1649), theologian. 
HALIBURTON, THOMAS CHANDLER (1796-1865). Author of 

Sam Slick the Clo?kmaker,* a satire on Nova Scotian ways. 
HALLAM, HENRY (1777-1859), historian. Author of View of tiie 

State of Europe in the Middle Ages, etc. 
HARDY, THOMAS (1840), novelist. Author of The Woodlanders,* 

Far from the Madding Crowd, Two on a Tower, etc. 
HARPER'S MONTHLY, a New York monthly periodical ; founded 

1850. 
HARTE, FRANCIS BRET (1839-1902), American poet and 

humorist. Author of The Luck of Roaring Camp, etc. 
HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL (1804-64), American novelist. 

Author of The Scarlet Letter,* House of the Seven Gables, etc. 
HAYWARD, SIR JOHN (died 1527), historian. Author of Lives 

of Three Norman Kings of England, etc. 
HAZLITT, WILLIAM (1778-1830), essayist and critic. 
HERBERT, GEORGE (1593-1633), poet and theological writer. 

Wrote The Temple t The Country Parson, etc. 

HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL (1809-94). Author of The Auto- 
crat of the Breakfast Table,* ete. 
HOOD, THOMAS (1799-1845), poet and humorist. Author of 

The Dream of Eugene Aram, The Song of the Shirt, etc. 
HOOK, THEODORE EDWARD (1788-1841), novelist, humorist, 

and miscellaneous writer. 
HOOKER, RICHARD (1553-1600), theologian. Author of The 

Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity. 

HORSLEY, SAMUEL (1733-1806), Bishop of St. David's, Roches- 
ter, and St. Asaph, theologian. 
HOWELL, JAMES (1594-1665), miscellaneous writer. Wrote 

Poems on Divers Emergent Occasions, etc. 
HOWELLS, W. D. (1837), American novelist. Author of A 

Modern Instance, A Woman's Reason, April Hopes, etc. 



284 AUTHORS, ANONYMOUS WORKS, 

HUGHES, THOMAS (1822-96), a county court judge. Author 
of Tom Brawn's Schooldays,* Tom Brown at Oxford, etc. 

HUME, FERGUS W. (1862), novelist. Author of The Mystery 
of a Hansom Cab.* 

INCHBALD, ELIZABETH (1783-1821), novelist and dramatist. 

Author of A Simple Story, Nature and Art,* etc. 
IRVING, WASHINGTON (1783-1859), American author. Wrote 

The Sketch-Book, Tales of a Traveller, etc. 

JACKSON, CATHERINE CHARLOTTE, LADY. Author of The 

Court of the Tuileries, etc. 
JAMES, G. P. R. (1801-60), voluminous author. Best known for 

his novels Richelieu, The False Heir, Arabella Stuart, etc. 
JMAES, HENRY (1843), American novelist. Author of The 

Americans, The Europeans, Daisy Miller, Roderick Hudson, etc. 
JESSOPP, AUGUSTUS (1824), essayist and reviewer in The Nine- 
teenth Century. 
JOHNSON, SAMUEL (1709-84), lexicographer, novelist, poet, 

and essayist. Wrote London, A Visit to the Hebrides, etc. 
JONSON, BEN (1574-1637), dramatist. Author of Every Man in 

His Humour, The Alchemist, etc. 
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, THE, a London monthly magazine, 

devoted to educational topics. 

KEARY, ANNIE, novelist. Author of Janet's Home, Oldbury,* etc. 
KINGSLEY, CHARLES (1819-75), voluminous writer. Author of 

Alton Locke, The Water Babies, The Hermits, Hypatia,* etc. 
KINGSLEY, HENRY (1830-76), novelist. Author of Geoffrey 

Hamlyn, Ravenshoe, etc. 

LAMB, CHARLES (1774-1834), poet and essayist. Author of 

Essays of Ella, * Tales from Shakespeare, etc. 
LECKY, WILLIAM EDWARD HARTPOLE (1838-1903), historian. 

Author of The History of Rationalism in Europe, etc. 
LEE, NATHANIEL (1655-92), dramatist. Wrote Nero, The Rival 

Queens, etc. 
L'ESTRANGE, SIR ROGER (1616-1704), voluminous writer. 

Author of A Brief History of the Times, etc. 
LEVER, CHARLES JAMES (1809-72), Irish novelist. Author 

of The Adventures of Harry Lorrequer, Tom Burke of Ours, * etc. 
LEWIS, SIR GEORGE CORNEWALL (1806-63), political and 

miscellaneous writer. Author of An Essay on the Influence of 

Authority in Matters of Opinion, etc. 
LEWIS, MATTHEW GREGORY (1775-1818), novelist, poet, and 

dramatist. 
LOCKE, JOHN (1632-1704), philosopher. Author of An Essay 

Concerning Human Understanding, etc. 



AND JOURNALS QUOTED. 285 

LOCKHART, JOHN GIBSON (1794-1854), novelist, biographer, 
and critic. Best known as the author of the Life of Sir Walter 
Scott. For some time editor of The Quarterly Review. 

LONGFELLOW^ HENRY WADSWORTH (1807-84), poet and 
prose writer. Author of Evangeline, Hiawatha, etc. 

LONGMAN'S MAGAZINE, a popular monthly journal, started in 
1883. 

LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL (1819-91), American poet and essay- 
ist. Author of The Biglow Papers, My Study Windows, * etc. 

LYNN LINTON, MRS. E., novelist and essayist. Author of The 
Rebel of the Family, * Paston Carew, * etc. 

LYTTON, LORD, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer-Lytton 
(1805-73), novelist and poet. Author of The Caxtons, etc. 

MACAULAY, LORD, Thomas Babington (1800-59), historian, 

essayist, and poet. Author of History of England, etc. 
M'CARTHY, JUSTIN (1830), novelist and journalist. Author of A 

History of Our Own Times,* My Enemy's Daughter, etc. 
MACKENZIE, HENRY (1745-1831), novelist and litterateur. Best 

known as author of The Man of Feeling.* 
MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE, a London monthly periodical, first 

edited by David Masson. 
MARRY AT, CAPTAIN (1792-1848), novelist. Wrote principally 

sea-stories. Author of Peter Simple, Jacob Faithful, etc. 
MARRYAT, FLORENCE, novelist, daughter of the above. 

Author of Open Sesame ! * etc. 
MARZIALS, SIR FRANK T. (1840-1912), civil servant and critic. 

Wrote lives of Dickens, Victor Hugo, Browning, etc. 
MASSINGER, PHILIP (1584-1640), English dramatist. 
MAXWELL GRAY, the nom de plume of the lady who wrote The 

Silence of Dean Maitland.* 
MILL, JOHN STUART (1806-73), philosopher and political 

writer. Author of A System of Logic, Essay on Liberty, etc. 
MILTON, JOHN (1608-74), poet and prose writer. Author of 

Comus, Lycidas, Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained. 
MOORE, THOMAS (1779-1852), Irish lyric poet ; biographer of 

Lord Byron. 
MORISON, J. COTTER (1832-88), historian and essayist. His 

masterpiece is The Life and Times of St. Bernard. 
MORLEY, HENRY (1822-94), Professor of English Literature in 

University College, London. Author of Sunrise in Italy, and other 

Poems (1848), How to Make Home Unhealthy (1850), etc. 
MORRIS, CHARLES (1740-1832), author of The Contrast, The 

Toper's Apology, and other well-known lyrics. 
MULOCK DINAH MARIA (1826-87), became Mrs. Craik. Author 

of John Halifax, Gentleman,* A Noble Life, etc. 
MURRAY, D. CHRISTIE (1847-1907), novelist. Author of 

Joseph's Coat, A Life's Atonement, Val Strange, etc. 



286 AUTHORS, ANONYMOUS WORKS, 

NAIRNE, BARONESS, Caroline Oliphant (1766-1845), poetess. 

Author of The Land of the Leal. 
NARES, EDWARD (1762-1847), miscellaneous writer. Author 

of Sermons on the Evidences of Christianity, etc. 
NATIONAL REVIEW, THE, a Conservative monthly magazine, 

started in 1886. 
NINETEENTH CENTURY, THE, a monthly literary review, 

started in 1877. 
NORRIS, W. E. (1847), novelist. Author of Mademoiselle de 

Mersac,* Matrimony, No New Thing,* Major and Minor,* etc. 
NORTH, ROGER (1650-1733), miscellaneous writer. Author of 

Lives of the North Family, A Discourse on the Study of Laws, etc. 
NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, THE, an American monthly 

magazine; founded in 1815. 

OLIPHANT, MRS. MARGARET (1828-97), novelist, historian, and 
essayist. Author of the novels Mrs. Margaret Maitland (1849), 
Merkland, etc. 

OUIDA, nom de plume of Louise de la Ramee (1840-1908), novelist. 
-Author of Wanda, Under Two Flags, Princess Napraxine, etc. 

PAYN, JAMES (1830-98), novelist. Author of Lost Sir Massingberd, 

Fallen Fortunes, What He Cost Her, By Proxy, etc. 
PETER PINDAR, the nom de plume of John Wolcot (1738-1819), 

satirist. Wrote The Apple Dumplings and a King, etc. 
POPE, ALEXANDER (1688-1744), poet. Wrote Pastorals, An 

Essay on Criticism, The Rape of the Lock, The Messiah, etc. 
PRESCOTT, WILLIAM HICKLING (1796-1859), American 

historian. Wrote The History of the Conquest of Mexico, etc. 
PRIOR, MATTHEW (1664-1721), poet. Wrote The City and 

Country Mouse, Carmen Seculare, and Poems. 

QUARTERLY REVIEW, THE, a Tory journal, started in London 
in 1809 as an opponent of The Edinburgh Review. 

RALEIGH, SIR WALTER (1552-1618), voyager and historian. 

Wrote A History of the World, etc. 
RANDOLPH, THOMAS (1605-34), poet and dramatist. Wrote 

Aristippus ; or, The Jovial Lovers, The Jealous Lovers, etc. 
READE, CHARLES (1814-83), novelist. Author of Peg Woffing- 

ton, Christie Johnstone, It is Never too Late to Mend,* etc. 
RICE, JAMES (died in 1884), wrote, in conjunction with Walter 

Besant, Ready Money Mortiboy, The Golden Butterfly,* etc. 
RICHARDSON, SAMUEL (1689-1761), novelist. Wrote Pamela, 

Clarissa Harlowe, Sir Charles Grandison. 
ROBERTSON, DR. WILLIAM (1721-93), historian; Principal 

of Edinburgh University. Author of The History of Scotland, 

etc. 
ROCHESTER, EARL OF (1647-80), John Wilmot. Wrote a 

tragedy called Valentinian, and Poems. 




AN 

ROSS, ALEXANDE 
of Helenore ; or 

RUSSELL, SIR W 
distinguished as 
paper during 
Crimea, Diary i 

RUSSELL, W. CL 
Holdsworth, a 

SALA, GEORGE A 

long on the sta 

Sons of Mam 
SCOTT, SIR WAL 

of The Lay of 
SHAKESPEARE, 

Love's Labour's 

Night's Dream, 
SHIRLEY, JAMES 

(1652), and n 
SMITH, JAMES a 

Addresses, a se 
SMOLLETT, TOB 

Author of The 
SOUTH, ROBER 

gian. Wrote 
SOUTHEY, ROB 

historian. W; 
SPENCER, HERB 

of The Proper 
SPENSER, EDM 

herd's Cal\ 
STERNE, LAUR 

and Opinions 
STEVENSON, RO 

Author of 
STILLINGFLEET 

theologian. 
SWIFT, JONATH 

satirist. W 
SYMONDS, J. A. 

Renaissance in 



TAYLOR, JERE1 

and of Drome 

Holy Living cd 
THACKERAY, 

and essayist. 

Esmond, The 

TILLOTSON, JOHN 

published The Rule of Faith, and Sermons. 



288 AUTHORS AND JOURNALS QUOTED. 

TREVELYAN, SIR GEORGE OTTO (1838), statesman and author. 

Wrote Letters of a Competition Wallah, Cawnpore, etc. 
TROLLOPE, ANTHONY (1810-83), novelist and miscellaneous 

writer. Author of The Warden,* Barchester Towers,* etc. 
TWAIN, MARK, the nom de plume of Samuel Langhorne Clemens 

(1835-1910), American humorist. Author of The Innocents 

Abroad, The Innocents at Home, The New Pilgrim's Progress, etc. 
TYNDALL, JOHN (1820-93), scientific investigator and writer. 

Author of The Glaciers of the Alps, etc. 
TYTLER, SARAH, the nom de plume of Miss Keddie, novelist. 

Author of Days of Yore, The Diamond Rose, etc. 

URQUHART, SIR THOMAS (1613-61), author of The Jewel, 
Logopandecteision. 

VERDANT GREEN, by Rev. Edward Bradley (1827-89), whose 
nom de plume was " Cuthbert Bede." Also author of Glen' 
creggan, The Curate of Cranston, Mattins and Mutton's, etc. 

WALLACE, SIR DONALD MACKENZIE (1841), journalist and 
miscellaneous writer. Author of Russia, and other works. 

WALPOLE, HORACE (1717-97), a voluminous writer. Best 
known for his novel The Castle of Otranto, and for his Letters. 

WARREN, SAMUEL (1807-77), novelist and miscellaneous 
writer. Author of Ten Thousand a Year,* etc. 

WATTS, ISAAC (1674-1748), devotional writer and religious poet. 
Wrote Hymns, Philosophical Essays, Evangelical Discourses. 

WHIPPLE, EDWIN PERCY, American essayist and critic. Has 
published The Genius and Writings of Macaulay, etc. 

WHYTE -MELVILLE, G. J. (1821-78), a voluminous writer of 
novels, treating mostly of sporting and country-house society 
Digby Grand, General Bounce,* Holmby House, etc. 

WILSON, JOHN (1785-1854), wrote under the nom de plume " Chris- 
topher North." Author of Lights and Shadows of Scottish Life, 
Essays Critical and Imaginative, etc. 

WINDHAM, WILLIAM (1750-1810), statesman and orator. 

WOOD, MRS. HENRY (1814-87), wrote under the nom de plume 
of " Johnny Ludlow." Author of East Lynne, The Channings, 
etc. 

WORDSWORTH, WILLIAM (1770-1850), poet. Author of The 
Excursion, Yarrow Revisited, and other Poems, etc. 

YATES, EDMUND HODGSON (1831-94), novelist and journalist. 

Established The World in 1874. Author of Black Sheep,* etc. 
YONGE, CHARLOTTE MARY (1823-1901), writer of stories for 

girls. Author of The Heir of Redclyffe, Heartsease, etc. 
YOUNG, EDWARD (1684-1765), poet, dramatist, and prose 

writer. Best known for his Night Thoughts. 

R. H. 3. 

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