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Books on the English Language generally assume some con- 
siderable linguistic knowledge in those for whom they are 
intended. This little book assumes no such knowledge. It is 
intended for the use of boys and girls in the higher classes of 
Elementary Schools; and it has been written so as to be 
understood without a knowledge of any language but English 
being required. This, however, does not make the book the 
less suitable for more advanced scholars, or for higher class 

It is important that literary culture, no matter how limited 
in range, should have a basis in language ; and for this purpose 
there can be no more convenient or more interesting ground to 
start from than the Mother Tongue. There are many pecu- 
liarities in the grammar of that tongue which cannot be ex- 
plained without a reference to its eventful history. 

The history of the English Language is so closely interwoven 
with the history of the Country, that the study of the one 
cannot fail to be helpful to the study of the other. 

The book is designed to meet the requirements of the 
Education Codes in regard to the History and Structure of the 
English Language, to Paraphrasing and to Composition of 



Introduction 7 

Historical Sketch : — 

I. The Teutonic Stock 13 

II. The Aryan Family 14 

III. The English Conquest of 

Britain 16 

IV. The Periods of English .... 18 
V. The Changes in English. ... 19 

VI. The Keltic Element 21 

VII. The Latin Element of the 

First Period 22 

VIII. The Latin Element of the 

Second Period 24 

IX. The Dialects of Old English 25 

X. The Danish Influence 26 

XI. The Norman Conquest 28 

Ml. Old English Writers 29 

Mil. The Transition Time- De- 
cline and Revival 31 

XIV. The Norman-French Influ- 
ence — The Latin Ele- 
ment of the Third Period 34 
X V. The Transition Time— Con- 
solidation 3f> 

\\ I. Hm Mixed Vocabulary— 
French and English Ele- 
ments 37 

Ml I. Tin- Discarded Dialects. 
.Win. i be i n <>f Printing, and 
tii^ Bei ci Leaning — 
Ths Latin Clement <>f the 
Fourth Period 42 

\ I V Model ii I ■'.lu'lish. 46 

\ v Recent [nflnenoes 

I \ i lileoallaneoni Elements , . , f><> 

XXII. BelMnterpretlnf Words... no 

Win. [mil ni\. Word 54 

XXIV. Words derived from the 

Names of Persons 55 

XXV. "Words derived from the 

Names of Places 56 

XXVI. The Lord's Prayer in dif- 
ferent Stages of the 
Language 58 

Tables of English Literature: — 

1. Old English Period 61 

2. Transition Period (1100-1362).. 81 

3. Transition Period (1485) 62 

4. Modern English : — 

(1.) Early Tudor Period (1 
(2.)TheAgeof Elizabeth (1616) 68 
(3.) Shakespeare to the Age 

of Anne (1702) 64 

(4.) TheAge of Anne (1730). . . 65 
(5.) The Age of Anne to the 

French Revolntion(lT 
(6.) The French Revolution to 

the Present Time (1870) c>7 

Dkuivation :— 

Prefixes 71 

Affixes 72 

( >ld English Roots 73 

Latin Boots N 

I Boots 79 

WORD BPTJ ion.. 

l oglish Boots 80 

Latin Boots s* 

P \i;aihi; i-ish 88 

mmimi Kara 

i'i won a noa 06 




1. The history of the English Language has been more re- 
markable than that of any other language of the civilized 
world, — more eventful than those of Greece and Rome, more 
varied than those of Germany and France, more romantic than 
those of Italy and Spain. Interwoven with the history of the 
English People and of the English Constitution, it has under- 
gone with them the same vicissitudes of fortune. It has had 
its trials and its triumphs, its revolutions and its restorations, 
its times of brilliancy and its periods of decay. Time was 
when it was the uncouth speech of a few hundred barbarian 
adventurers; now it is the cherished inheritance of millions 
scattered all over the globe, and embodies the richest and most 
varied treasures of thought which any human speech contains. 

2. The course of the English language may not inaptly be 
represented by a river. (See the accompanying Chart.) It has 
a definite source, though that lies in the remote regions of tra- 
ditionary history. Lying at first outside of the domain of 
historical fact, there is considerable uncertainty as to its rela- 
tions with other languages, and also as to the elements of which 
it is composed. By-and-by, however, it assumes a distinct 
course, and comes within regions that have been explored, and 
about which something is known. It becomes a book speech ; 
and thereby its character in different stages is recorded, and 
its progress is clearly marked. It receives additions on the 


right hand and on the left, which swell its volume and add to 
its riche.s. 

3. The Teutonic source of the main stream is indicated at 
the top of the chart. The language in this stage, it should 
be remembered, belongs to a time much earlier than the be- 
ginning of its history in the British Isles. The same source 
has given rise to other modern languages, — German, Danish, 
Dutch, and Swedish. 

4. After the English had settled in Britain, the earliest con- 
tribution to their language was made by the Cymrian Kelts 
whom the English had conquered. Through the Kelts they 
also received a small addition of Latin words left in the country 
by the Romans, who had occupied it for upwards of three 
centuries as a military power, and had introduced into it their 
customs and their laws. 

5. Next, the Church of Rome was introduced, which led to a 
considerable addition of Church. Latin, along with some Greek 
words. Intercourse with Rome increased, and more new words 
were introduced, along with new articles of commerce. 

6. Two well-marked dialects had now become apparent in 
English speech, — the Northern or Anglian, and the Southern 
or Saxon. The Northern or Anglian dialect was the first to 
become a book speech ; and hence the literary language of the 
whole country came to be called English, and the country 
itself England. 

7. The Danish Invasion was the next important event in 
the history of the language, as in that of the people. It wu.s 
fatal to the Northern dialect as a book speech ; but Danish did 
not take its place as a distinct language: it was hy-and-by 
absorbed in English. The effect of this was twofold, — to weaken 
the inflections of English, and to introduce a few Danish words. 
From this time till the Normal] Conquest the Southern dialect 

(West-Saxon) was the leading English. 

8. The Norman Conquest caused a complete revolution in 
the language, as it did also in the government of England. Old 
English sank out of sight for a century and a half. The river 
became a morass. Pora time Norman-French took its place as 

a distinct current ; but in the end it tOO was lost in the shal- 

lowa, and became absorbed in the native ipeeoh. This was the 


period of decline ; but during its course English "was still the 
speech of the mass of the people. At this time, and indeed at all 
times, the English language has showed remarkable tenacity of 
existence. The Danish invasion in the eighth century shook the 
governments of the North to their foundations, and the Danish 
conquest of the eleventh century overthrew the governments of 
the South ; but neither event displaced the speech of the people. 
The Norman Conquest extinguished the Old English line of kings, 
transferred the government in State and in Church to a new race, 
and drove many of the Old English aristocracy into exile ; but it 
was powerless to banish or to destroy the English tongue. That 
continued to be a great part of the life of the English people. 
It survived the Conquest; and it absorbed the Frankish speech, 
as it had previously absorbed the Danish speech. The Norse 
tongue presents, in this respect, a striking contrast to English. 
The Norsemen who settled in England were absorbed into the 
English, and gave up their own speech ; the Norsemen who 
settled in France dropped their own speech and spoke French: 
when their descendants, as Frenchmen, settled in England, 
they dropped French and learned to speak Erjglish. 

9. "When at last English emerged from the state of dispersion 
and neglect into which it had been thrown by the Norman Con- 
quest, it did so in the form of several dialects, which ere long 
were combined in three main currents — a Northern, a Midland, 
and a Southern. Of these the Midland proved the strongest, 
and in the hands of Wyclif and Chaucer became standard 

10. In Chaucer's time a large Romance element was intro- 
duced into English. It consisted of numerous French and some 
Italian words. This addition was the result, not of the Norman 
invasion, but of the study of French and Italian literature by 
Chaucer and his contemporaries. Thus the silent influence of 
books accomplished what conquest had failed to effect. From 
this point English sweeps onward in a broad and majestic cur- 
rent, bearing with it the richest treasures of thought. 

11. At the time of the Renaissance, or the Revival of 
Learning, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, a very large 
classical element was added to the language. 

12. After the Restoration the influence of French literature 


— especially poetry and the drama — had a great effect on the 
literature of England, and some effect also on the language, in- 
asmuch as it led such poets as Dryden and Pope to cultivate a 
pointed and polished style of diction. 

13. A new classical era, due to the caprice of fashion rather 
than to any direct historical cause, began in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. Its chief representative was Dr. Samuel Johnson. Its 
effects continued to be felt till the beginning of the present cen- 
tury, when there was a return from the artificial school of John- 
son in prose and of Pope in poetry to the simplicity of nature, 
in sentiment as well as in forms of speech. 

14. This revival was coincident with the French Revolution, 
and was probably due to similar causes — namely, a feeling of 
profound discontent with the tyrannies of fashion, of formalism, 
and of authority, and a desire for freedom and fur nature. 
Since that time the most powerful influence affecting English 
literature, and through it the English language, has been that 
of German thought, especially in the departments of philosophy 
and philology. Wordsworth and Shelley may be taken to illus- 
trate, though in different ways, the revolutionary influence ; 
Coleridge and Carlyle are the best representatives of the in- 
fluence of Germany. 

15. The English language is now more widely diffused than 
that of any other people. English colonies have been Bottled l*» 
every quarter of the globe, and in every one of them there is a 
growing English population. English is spoken not only by the 
population of the British Isles, but also by the millions of the 
United States, and by hundreds of thousands in Canada, India, 
Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the South Sea Islands. 
It has been said that the sun B6VW sets on the possessions of 
England's niieeii, which is but another way of saying that 

tlniv is never ;i moment in which the sun doesnoj shine on 
men speaking the English tongue. The population of the 

world is estimated at L,483 million; the population ruled by 

the English language ii 318 million, or nearly one-fourth, in 

the postal serviee of the world, l,l.".(i million letters are carried 
and delivered annually; of these . r >N7 million are written and 

read by the English-speaking populations. More than half of 

the worlds correspondence is carried 00 in English. 


16. The following spirited verses indicate in a picturesque 
way the wide diffusion of the English tongue : — 



1. Now gather all our English bards, let harps and hearts be strung, 
To celebrate the triumphs of our own good English tongue ; 

For stronger far than hosts that inarch with battle-flags unfurled, 
It goes with Freedom, Thought, and Truth, to rouse and rule 
the world. 

2. Stout Albion learns its household lays on every surf -worn shore, 
And Scotland hears its echoing far as Orkney's breakers roar : 
From Jura's crags and Mona's hills it floats on every gale, 
And warms with eloquence and song the homes of Innisfail. 

3. On many a wide and swarming deck it scales the rough wave's 

Seeking its peerless heritage — the fresh and fruitful West : 
It climbs New England's rocky steeps, as victor mounts a throne ; 
Niagara knows and greets the voice, still mightier than its own : 

4. It spreads where winter piles deep snows on bleak Canadian plains, 
And where on Essequibo's banks eternal summer reigns : 

It glads Acadia's misty coasts, Jamaica's glowing isle, 

And bides where gay with early flowers green Texan prairies 

smile : 
It tracks the loud, swift Oregon, through sunset valleys rolled, 
And soars where Calif ornian brooks wash down their sands of gold: 

5. It sounds in Borneo's camphor groves, on seas of fierce Malay, 

In fields that curb old Ganges' flood, and towers of proud Bombay : 
It wakes up Aden's flashing eyes, dusk brows, and swarthy limbs ; 
The dark Liberian soothes her child with English cradle hymns. 

6. Tasmania's maids are wooed and won in gentle English speech ; 
Australian boys read Crusoe's life by Sydney's sheltered beach : 

It dwells where Afric's southmost cape meets oceans broad and 

And Nieuwveld's rugged mountains gird the wide and waste 

Karroo : 


7. It kindles realms so far apart, that, while its praise you sing, 
These may be clad with Autumn's fruits, and those with flowers of 

Spring : 
It quickens lands whose meteor lights flame in an Arctic sky, 
And lands for which the Southern Cross hangs orbed fires on high : 

8. It goes with all that prophets told, and righteous kings desired ; 
With all that great apostles taught, and glorious Greeks admired ; 
With Shakespeare's deep and wondrous verse, and Milton's loftier 

With Alfred's laws, and Newton's lore, — to cheer and bless man- 

9. Mark, as it spreads, how deserts bloom, and error flies away 
As vanishes the mist of night before the star of day ! 

But grand as are the victories whose monuments we see, 
These are but as the dawn, which speaks of noontide yet to be. 

10. Take heed, then, heirs of Alfred's fame, take heed, nor once disgrace 
With deadly pen or spoiling sword our noble tongue and race. 

Go forth, prepared in every clime to love and help each other; 
And judge that they who counsel strife would bid you smite — a 

11. Go forth, and jointly speed the time, by good men prayed for long, 
When Christian states, grown just and wise, will scorn revenge and 

wrong ; 
When Earth's oppressed and savage tribes shall cease to pine or 

All taught to prize these English words — Faith, Freedom, 

Heaven, and Home. 




OUTLINE. — 1. Languages winch are alike in their roots and in 

their structure have had the same origin. 2. English is like 

Dutch, German, and Danish in both respects. 3. English is a 

Teutonic tongue. 

1. There are two ways in which languages may resemble one 
another : they may contain the same roots ; and they may have 
the same inflections, and the same laws of syntax. If they con- 
tain the same roots, — not merely a few words that are similar, 
but a mass of the most common, every-day words, evidently the 
same, — that is one proof of common origin : if they have the 
same grammatical forms and laws, that is another and still 
stronger proof that they have come from the same source. 
Just as we conclude that two animals which have the same 
skeleton, and eat the same food, belong to the same kind ; so 
we conclude that two languages which have the same roots, 
and the same grammar, belong to the same family. 

2. English resembles Dutch, German, Danish, and some 
other languages, in both these ways; and we therefore con- 
clude that it has had the same origin as they have had. This 
conclusion becomes the more warrantable when the words 
which English has in common with these languages are 
examined. They are not rare words, or words used only occa- 
sionally. They are words that belong to every-day conversa- 
tion, and that enter into the fibre of speech. They belong to 
such classes as these : the numerals, the pronouns, the auxil- 
iary verbs, the names of relatives, prepositions, and conjunc- 
tions. Here are a few examples of corresponding words in 
English, Dutch, and German : — 

English three me mother brother have 

Dutch drie mij moeder broeder hebben 

German drei mich mutter bruder haben 


Among the grammatical inflections in which these languages 
correspond are the -s or 's of the genitive or possessive case ; 
the -st or -t of the second person of verbs; the -en of passive 
participles ; and the -end, -ende, or -ing of active participles. 

The close resemblance of these languages in what are called 
irregularities is shown in the following : — 

English good better best 

Dutch goed beter beste 

German gut besser beste 

3. There are no such close resemblances between English and 
French, or Spanish, or Gaelic: English is, therefore, classed in 
the same group with Dutch and German. The name given to 
the group is the Teutonic stock. English is therefore called a 
Teutonic tongue. 


OUTLINE.— 1. The Teutonic stock belongs to the Aryan family. 

2. That family embraces most of the languages of Europe. 

3. The differences in languages are due to the separation 

of peoples. 4. Languages change little after having been 

fixed in books. 

1. The Teutonic stock is one of seven or eight groups of 
languages that constitute the Aryan family. All the lan- 
guageeof the civilized world are arranged in two great families 
— the Aryan and the Semitic. The Semitic family includes 
Hebrew, Arabic, and other Eastern languages. The home of 

this family was in Asia, and its history has been Confined to 

tin- west. tii part of that continent. The original boms of the 

Aryan family also was in Asia; but its chief representatives 
are now in Europe. As its members extend t'roin India to 
Europe, it is sometimes called the I ndo- Knropean family of 


■ The word Aryan oobim from :i Banskrtt word "<■;/<;, "noble." it meant 
originally • "tiller of the toll;" and was applied to tribes thai were settled anil 
agrlonltoral, atop] <i to trlbet that were pastoral and nomadic, >>v wandering. 


2. The Aryan family embraces most of the languages of 
Europe. It comprises in Europe, besides the Teutonic stock, 
the Keltic (Welsh and Gaelic), the Italic (Latin, Italian, French, 
&c), the Hellenic (Greek), the Sclavonic (Russian, Servian, &c), 
and the Lettic (Old Prussian). It also includes two stocks in 
Asia — the Indie (Sanskrit, the oldest language of the family) 
and Iranic (Persian). The chief European tongues that are not 
Aryan are Turkish, and the Magyar of Hungary. 

3. The differences between one language and another are due 
to the separation of peoples. At one time, many centuries ago, 
there was only one Aryan language, spoken by one Aryan people. 
As this people multiplied, a band of adventurers would leave 
the old home in search of new lands. Some generations later, 
another migration would take place from the parent stock, 
probably in a different direction from that of the first. This 
would be repeated again and again at wide intervals. Each of 
these bands of settlers would carry away from the common home 
the stock of words, and the manners and customs, in use there 
at the time of its leaving. 

Between the time of the first migration and that of each 
subsequent one, the parent language would undergo great 
changes. Each settlement, therefore, would begin its separate 
career with a language in many respects different from that 
with which the others had begun theirs. After the separation, 
too, each language would change still further, owing to the 
people meeting with new objects and new circumstances. 

In the course of time each of these settlements would grow 
into a nation. The larger it grew, the more likely would the 
people at the one end of the country be to speak differently from 
the people at the other end. Thus different dialects arise. We 
may see proofs of this in our own day, and in our own country. 
The people of Devonshire have many words that the people of 
Yorkshire have not ; and the people of Lancashire use words 
which the people of Kent cannot understand. 

Now, when the Teutons spread over the great plain of Cen- 
tral Europe, and overflowed into the peninsulas farther north, 
it was natural that distance and lack of intercourse should give 
rise to differences of speech. In point of fact, three distinct 


branches of the Teutonic stock came to be recognized : one in 
the high lands of South Germany — hence called High German; 
a second in the low lands and along the coasts of North Germany 
— hence called Low German ; and a third in the peninsulas now 
called Denmark and Scandinavia — hence called Scandinavian. 

4. It should be remembered that these changes would not 
have been so great if, before the peoples separated, the language 
had been fixed by being printed in books. It is upwards of 
two hundred and fifty years since the Pilgrim Fathers sailed 
to America and founded the United States ; yet the two nations 
on the opposite sides of the Atlantic use to-day the same 
language. The reason is, that they read the same books, — each 
the other's books as well as its own. Special circumstances 
have led the Americans to add a good many new words ; but 
tlit- language is still one and the same. 


OUTLINE.— 1. English is a Low German tongue. 2. The English 

came to Britain from the shores of North Germany. 3. They 

came in the fifth and sixth centuries A.D. 4. The Britons, 

whom they dispossessed, were Kelts. 

1. When English is compared with Dutch and Flemish on 
the one hand, and with German and Danish on the other, it is 
found to be much more like the former than it is like the latter. 
Hence it is concluded that English belongs to the same branch oi 
the Teutonic stuck as 1 fetch and Flemish. English is therefore 
called a Low German tongue. Modern German is the repre- 
sentative of old High German, and Danish is Scandinavian. 
( >f all modern dialects, that which most resembles English i^ - 
Friesian, Bpoken in Priesland in the north of Holland; and 
Prieflian is a Low (Jennan dialect. 

2. That Knglish is a Lowderman tongue is also proved by 
history. It is known that the Rngliwh settlers in Britain 
Came from the COastl <>f North Germany from what are now 


Hanover, Holstein, and Schleswig. Friesland, whose dialect is 
so like English, is a continuation of the same coast ; in fact the 
Friesians are believed to be the descendants of the Englishmen 
who remained on the Continent when their brethren came to 
Britain. Now the dialects spoken all along that coast are Low 
German dialects. The literary language, the language of edu- 
cated people, is Modern German, which is descended from High 
German ; but the language of the common people is Low 

The English settlers belonged to three tribes : the Jutes, 
who came from Jutland ; the Saxons, who came from the 
coasts of Westphalia and Hanover; the Angles, who came 
from Schleswig and Holstein. The Jutes settled in Kent ; the 
Saxons in the south, from Essex to Dorset ; the Angles landed 
on the shores of the H umber and spread over the midland and 
northern districts, occupying most of the land. All these 
settlers used the same tongue — English ; and when they had 
made the land fairly their own, they called it, after themselves, 
Engla-land — "the land of the English." 

3. Most of the details of the English settlement rest on tra- 
dition, but the main facts may be relied on. The date assigned 
to the first settlement is 449 a.d. In that year the Jutes, 
under Hengist and Horsa, landed in Kent, and founded a 
kingdom there. The date assigned to the sixth and last settle- 
ment is 547 a.d. In that year the Angles, under Ida, landed 
north of the Humber, and formed the kingdom of Bernicia, 
which was afterwards combined with Deira, the two together 
constituting Northumbria. It thus appears that bands of 
colonists continued to arrive at intervals during about one 
hundred years. 

4. The Britons whom the English dispossessed were Kelts 
called Cymri ; but the English called them the Welsh — that is, 
foreigners or barbarians. The Welsh fought bravely for their 
country ; but in the end they were conquered, and were either 
made slaves or driven to remote corners of the land. 



OUTLINE.— 1. The English of to-day is essentially the same as the 

English of the Angles and the Saxons. 2. From 670 to 1066, that 

is, down to the Norman Conquest, the language is called Old 

English. 3. From 1066 to 1485 it is called Transition English. 

4. From 1485 to the present time it is called Modern English. 

1. For a century or more after their settlement in Britain, 
the English were so busy with fighting, first with the 'Welsh 
and then with one another, that they had no time to write 
books. The first English book known to have been written in 
England belongs to the latter half of the seventh century. 
It is Caedmon's poem.* There are older poems in English ; but 
they were made before the English came to Britain. 

Now the English of to-day is essentially the same as the 
English of Caedmon. In the twelve intervening centuries 
the language has undergone great changes, so great that the 
English of the seventh century seems a foreign tongue to an 
Englishman of the nineteenth ; yet in what may be called its 
back-bone the speech of the two periods is one. It is one 
in grammatical structure, and one in the stock of the com- 
monest words and roots. The words in Modern English that 
form the mechanism of speech — the auxiliary verbs, the pro- 
nouns, the articles — have their roots in Old English. 

The same is true of the names of family relations, of the 
names of the seasons of the year, of the divisions of time, of 
the appearances of nature, of the most common feelings and 
thoughts. It is easy to write a sentence in which all the 
woids are derived from Old English. It is impossible to write 
a sentence of any length from which such words shall be 
wholly excluded. 

2. Prom the tune of Caedmon to the Norman Conquest the 
language is called Old English i *. T * » t < » L066. That conquest 
led to greal changes in England. English was lost tight of an 

• See Lesson XII. 


a book speech for several generations. It was like a stream 
which for a space ran under ground, and was much changed 
when it reappeared. 

3. From 1066 to 1485, the language is called Transition 
English. During this period it passed through several stages, 
Jirst, a time of Decline (1066 to 1205) ; second, a time of Revival 

in separate dialects (1205-1362) ; third, a time of Consolidation 
(1362-1485). The year 1205 is that in which English reap- 
peared as a book speech. The year 1362 is that in which 
English was re-introduced in the law courts. The year 1485 
is that of the accession of the House of Tudor. It is also nearly 
coincident with the introduction of printing into England, — 
the event which has most tended to fix the language and to 
arrest change. 

4. From 1485 to the present time the language is called 
Modern English. Modern English thus corresponds broadly 
with printed English, and includes very little that is of earlier 
date than the Reformation and the Elizabethan poets. 


OUTLINE.— 1. Many Old English words have been lost. 2. Many 

Old English inflections have been lost. 3. New words have 

been added to English from various sources. 4. A few new 

word-endings have been adopted. 5. The history of English 

is an account of these changes — loss and gain. 

1. When objects fall out of use, their names also are likely to 
disappear. When customs and institutions change, the words 
connected with them change also. For example, the Old 
English mances, a certain coin or weight, has disappeared because 
that coin or weight is no longer in use. The title Bret-icalda 
has passed away (except as a historical term), because the office 
no longer exists. Some words have been pushed out by the use 
of words of the same meaning from other sources. Thus the 
Latin word nation has taken the place of the O. E. theod; the 


French happen, that of the O. E. ge-limpan ; the Greek parable, 
that of the O. E. bi- spell. 

2. Many inflections also have been lost. Nouns, for ex- 
ample, had in Old English four cases, generally distinguished 
by different case-endings; and there were some twenty vari- 
eties of declension. Now there is only one case-ending — 's. 
Adjectives were fully declined, differently for masculine, 
feminine, and neuter, as in Latin and Greek. There were a 
definite and an indefinite declension, as in German. The de- 
monstratives " the " (se) and " this " (thes) were fully declined. 
The verb had a separate ending for the plural in each tense, a 
separate ending for the imperative, and another for the infini- 
tive. Old English was, in fact, a highly inflected language, and 
such it continued in the main to be till the Norman Conquest. 

3. While English has been losing some words, it has also been 
gaining others. At different times and in different ways the 
English nation has been brought into contact with other 
peoples ; — with the Britons, whom they conquered ; with the 
Danes, with whom they struggled so long ; with the Normans, 
who conquered them. English has derived additions from 
these and from many other sources, till it has become the most 
mixed and many-coloured of languages. To this it owes in a 
great degree the richness and the variety of its vocabulary, as 
well as the simplicity of its grammar. 

4. The new word-endings which English has adopted are 
very few. The feminine suffix -ess is the only one that is 
undoubtedly Norman-French. The -m of tin- plural might also 

be ascribed to the Norman-French, but it is plainly taken from 

the old English -at. This ending was probably preferred to 

others because it was familiar to both the nationalities repre- 
sented in the composite tongue. 

5. The history of the English language is simply a detailed 

account of these changes of the gains and losses which the 

language has met with during its long career A comparison 

ot the language as it existed at different periods brim's this fact 


out very clearly ; and the wider apart the periods compared, 
the more manifest is the change. Here, for instance, are, line 
for line, and word for word, the Lord's Prayer as translated 
by King Alfred, and the same in the language of to-day : — 

Faeder ure, J»u ]>e eart on heofenum, 
Father our, thou that art in heaven, 

Si )>in nama ge-halgod; 
Be thy name hallowed; 

To-becume J)in rice ; 
Come thy kingdom; 

Ge-weor)>e pin willa on eorj^an, swa-swa on heofenum ; 
Be-done thy will on earth, so-as in heaven; 

time daeghwamlican hlaf syle us to daeg, 
Our daily loaf give us to day, 

And forgyf us ure gyltas, swa-swa we f orgifa)> urum gyltenduni ; 
And forgive us our debts, so-as we forgive our debtors; 

And ne gelaede )>u us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfle : 
And not lead thou, us into temptation, but loose us of evil: 


Soothly (or, Amen). 

We want to know by what means the language has passed 
from the first of these forms to the last. 


OUTLINE— 1. The English adopted some Keltic words from the 
Britons. 2. Some of these words are still retained in En- 
glish. 3. Others have been lost, or are now provincial. 

4. Some Keltic words are of recent introduction. 

1. It was quite natural for the English to adopt some of the 
words which they heard the Britons use. They would not 
think, for example, of changing the geographical names which 
they found in use, though they might be forced to change their 
pronunciation. Names of rivers, as Dee and Don, Thames and 
Severn, and Trent, were first applied by the Welsh, and were 
learned from the Welsh by the English. Names of hills were also 


retained, as Chiltern, Mendip, Cheviot; and names of islands, as 
Marij Wight, Bute. Very few towns hear Keltic names, as 
most of the towns have arisen in more recent times. The 
names Carlisle, Cardiff, Liverpool, and Penzance are, however, 
undoubtedly Keltic. A few geographical common names have 
also been adopted, as brake (thicket), crag (rock). 

2. All the words now mentioned are retained in Modern 
English; and there are many others of the same kind. A 
considerable number of the Keltic words in English relate to 
menial work and common implements. The probability is that 
the English masters learned these words from their Welsh 
slaves. When they heard their servants speak of their crooks 
and their mattocks, their tackle and their icickets, they would 
naturally call these things by the same names, especially if the 
things themselves were new to them. Other words of the same 
class are basket (basged), bran, kiln {cylyn), darn, rvg. 

3. A good many Keltic words which at one time existed in 
English have now been lost. Such are kern, a foot soldier 
(used by Shakespeare) ; crowd, a fiddle ; cats, lots. Others still 
exist as provincial words, as bcrr, energy; brat, an apron; j»-' f c, 
a cafltle (Scottish, peel-tower*). 

4. Several words have been borrowed from the Welsh or the 
Gaels in recent times, along with the things which they name, 
imjlunnel, plaid, tartan, kilt. 


OUTLINE.— 1. Britain was a Roman province from 80 to 410 A.D. 

2. The Romans made military roads and other works in the 
island. 3. The Latin names of these works were adopted hy 
the Britons. 4. From the Britons they were adopted by the 

1. The Romans first visited Britain in 05 n.c, bat they did 


not gain any permanent footing in the island till 43 a.d. The 
greater part of it was conquered, and made a province, by 
Julius Agricola, between 78 and 84. Several of the Roman 
emperors visited Britain, and many Romans lived there in 
houses which they had built for themselves after the Roman 
model. The Roman government of Britain lasted upwards of 
three hundred years. Then the Empire became so weak that 
its distant provinces had to be abandoned, and in 410 a.d. the 
Roman legions were withdrawn from Britain. 

2. Rome held Britain as a military power. That they might 
hold it securely, the Romans formed firm roads (strata), passing 
through the middle of the island from the extremities. They 
placed permanent camps or castles (castra) at numerous points, 
and garrisoned them with their soldiers. These castles were pro- 
tected by ramparts (valla), and by trenches (fossa;). On the coasts 
they made harbours (portils), and at certain points they planted 
settlements (colonice) in the midst of the conquered people. 

3. That these words were adopted or imitated by the Keltic 
natives is proved by their existence in English. The English 
did not begin to come into Britain till many years after the 
Romans had left ; and there was no other way in which they 
could get these words than through, the Britons. "We know, 
moreover, that one road was known to the Britons as Watling 
Street ; another as Rikenild Street ; a third as Irmin Street ; 
and a fourth as the Foss. 

4. When the English adopted the Latin words mentioned above 
(§ 2), they frequently combined them with words of their 
own tongue, as will appear from the following list. From — 

Strata.... Street, Strat-ford, Streat-ham, Strad-broke. 

Castra. ...Chester, Lan-caster, Wor-cester, Bed-cister, Glo'ster, Ex-eter. 

Vallum... Wall-bury, Bailiff, Old Bailey. 

Fossa Foss-way, Fos-bridge. 

Portus....Port, Ports-mouth, Ports-ea. 
Colonia...Lm-coln, Colne. 

The English roots combined with Latin here are ford, ham. 
bury, way, bridge, mouth, and ea ( = igge, island). 



OUTLINE.— 1. The authority of the Church of Rome was introduced 

into England in 597 A.D. 2. Thereafter many church words 

(Latin and Greek) were added to English. 3. Intercourse with 

Rome increased. 4. New classical words of general meaning 

were introduced. 

1. Eoman Christianity was introduced into England by 
Augustine and other missionaries sent by Pope Gregory in 597 
a.d. It was at once embraced by the king and the people of Kent, 
and it spread by-and-by to the neighbouring states. North um- 
bria became Christian in 627, when Paulinus became the 
northern bishop. Before their conversion, the English, like the 
Scandinavians, had been heathen barbarians. Their gods were 
in some cases heavenly bodies, as the sun and the moon; in 
others, deified heroes, as Woden and Thor. 

Of this fact we have still a proof and an instance in the names 
given by the English before their conversion to the days of the 
week, and retained ever since. Sunday and Monday were 
named after the sun and the moon ; Tuesday, after Tieu, the 
god of the Teutons ; Wednesday, after Woden, the god of war ; 
Thursday, after Thor, the god of thunder ; Friday, after Freva, 
the northern Venus; and Saturday, after Saetes, a water god. 

2. Christianity, with its new services, new officials, new- 
objects, and new ideas, could not but lead to the addition of 
many words to the language. To translate into English the 
Latin and Greek words used by the priests would have been 
impossible. The things that required to be spoken about were 

unknown to the English, and they had no words for them in their 

language. They therefore adopted, or imitated, the words the 

churchmen used; and thus, at a very early period, a number of 
words from Latin and Greek were introduced into English. 
The following .ire examples of these words: — 

From Latin altar, cloister, creed, cross, disciple, feast, mass, porch, 

preach, saint, sacrament. 
From Greek angel, apostle, bishop, ohuroh, hymn, minster, monk, 

pi leet, ptftlm 


3. The ecclesiastical connection thus formed led to a great 
deal of intercourse between England and Rome. The 
Roman priests brought with them Roman customs and modes 
of living ; and many articles of commerce, relating especially to 
food and to dress, began to be imported. 

4. At the same time that the English thus extended their 
knowledge of things, they also increased their stock of words. 
MaDy words of a miscellaneous character were added to the 
language at that time, and have been retained in it till this day, 
though they have undergone considerable changes. 

The following are examples of miscellaneous words introduced 
at this early period : — 

From Latin — anchor, beet, belt, candle, chalk, cherry, city, cook, 
comer, empire, fig, fork, Hon, marble, mule, nurse, 
palace, pearl, purple, spade, table, tiger. 

From Greek — agate, camel, cymbal, epistle, giant, myrrh, rheum, 
school, sponge, theatre. 

Classical words have been introduced at various periods subse- 
quently. They will be referred to in their proper place. 


OUTLINE.— 1. The two chief dialects of Old English were the Nor- 
thumbrian and the West Saxon. 2. The Northumbrian dia- 
lect 'was destroyed as a book-speech by the Danes. 3. The 

West Saxon then became the classical English. 

1. The facte that the Teutonic settlers belonged to different 
(though allied) tribes, that they came at different times, and 
that they occupied different parte of the country, all tended to 
the production of different dialects. At least four dialects have 
been noted, — the Northumbrian, the Mercian, the West Saxon, 
and the Kentish. Of these the most prominent and the most 
distinctly marked were the Northumbrian, or Anglian, in the 
north of England, and the West Saxon in the south. The 
former was the speech of the Angles ; the latter preserved 


whatever peculiarities belonged to the speech of the Saxons. 
The Anglians of Northunibria were the first to use the language 
as ;i book speech ; and that is, probably, why the language was 
called after them " Englisc " — English — even by the Saxons. 

2. The Norsemen, or Danes, who had begun their descents 
on England in 787 a.d., obtained a secure footing in the north 
in 878. They ravaged Northunibria and East Anglia, drove 
out the Anglian kings, and put Norsemen in their place. In 
their ravages, they destroyed the manuscripts found in the 
monasteries and elsewhere ; and thus the Anglian tongue as a 
book speech was completely crushed out. Indeed the versions 
of the Northumbrian poems that we now possess are taken from 
"West Saxon copies ; and there is little doubt that in the copy- 
ing many of the northern peculiarities disappeared. 

3. The English supremacy then passed to the Kingdom of 
Wessex ; and with it also the leadership in letters. "VVessex 
also had its struggle with the Danes ; but Alfred succeeded in 
repelling them in the end. On their agreeing to become Chris- 
tians, Alfred allowed them to settle in a district of East Anglia 
and Mercia, which, after them, was called the Danelagh. Prom 
Alfred's time the speech of Wessex was the standard or classical 


OUTLINE. — 1. The Danes were absorbed in the English people. 

2. There is a considerable Danish element in English speech. 
3. In the Danish struggle, English lost some case-endings. 

l. The Danes who settled in the north and east of England 
were, as we have already seen, people of the same stock and 
family as the English. Danes and English, therefore, speedily 
mingled, and ere Long both spoke the Same English tongue. 
Freeh invasions of Danee took place in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries, and from luiT till L04fl Danish kingri held the 
throne of England, 


2. As a result of this mixture of peoples, there is a consider- 
able Danish element in English, especially in that of the north. 
A line drawn from the "Wash to the Mersey may be taken 
roughly as the southern boundary of Danish England. Over 
the whole country north of that line as far as to the Forth, 
there are places which bear names evidently of Danish origin. 
For example : — 

By, a town appears in Grims-by, Thores-by, Kel-by. 

Fell, a hill „ Scaw-fell, Cross-fell, Bow-fell. 

Dal, a valley n Scars-dale, Danes-dale, Grims-dale. 

Kirk, a church .. . n Orms-kirk, Kirk-haugh. 

Beck, a brook ... . m Cald-beck. 

Tarn, a lake n Tarn-syke. 

Gate, a way n Sand-gate. 

Ness, a headland. n Skip-ness. 

Many words found in the old Border ballads are Xorse : — 

Boun, ready. i Lithe, listen. 

Busk, prepare. Lowe, flame. 

Some of these words are still preserved in provincial dialects 
along with others ; such as, — 
Neif, fist. 

Wandreth, sorrow. 
Cleg, a smart fellow. 

Flit, to change house. 
Gar, to make. 
Greet, to weep. 

A good many words still used in the current language are 
Danish : — 
















3. Another effect of the mingling of the two peoples was, that 
English was stripped of some of its word-endings or inflec- 
tions. This result naturally follows when two peoples speaking 
different languages coalesce. "When the Danes attempted to 
use English words, they would try to dispense with gram- 
matical forms ; and the English, when speaking to the Danes, 
would be forced to do the same. In the conflict of tongues 
English was the victor, but it came out of the straggle shorn cf 
some of its appendages. 



OUTLINE.— 1. The Normans conquered England in 106G.- — 2. The 

Old English Period then came to an end. 3. English ceased 

for the time to be a book-speech. 

1. The Normans conquered England in 1066. The Norman 
Duke "William became King of England, and he divided the 
land among his followers. Not the crown only, but also the 
whole country, changed hands. The members of the English 
royal family, and many of the English nobles, took refuge in 
Scotland. The mass of the English people became the vassals 
and the servants of their Norman conquerors. 

2. This was the end of the Old English Period. The En- 
glish-speaking people were put in subjection. The owners and 
the rulers of the country spoke French. The work of schools, 
law courts, and churches, was carried on in French. Never- 
theless the common people, who formed the bulk of the popu- 
lation, continued to use their Old English speech. 

3. But English ceased for the time to he a hook speech. 
With the exception of the Old English Chronicle, which was 
continued in secrecy and fear till 1154, no English bocks were 
produced for nearly a century and a half after the Conquest. 
The books written at that time were chiefly monkish chron- 
icled and histories; and these were written in Latin or in 
French, never in English. English, therefore, became once 
more liable to the change and decay from which languages that 
are merely Bpoken and not written always Buffer. Word-endings 
dropped off, or became changed ; and different forms and usages 
were gradually adopted in different parte of the country, 



670-1154 A.D. 

OUTLINE.— 1. Caedmon was the first English poet. 2. Baeda "was 

the first English prose writer. 3. King Alfred made English 

a classical tongue. 4. The "Old English Chronicle" was the 

last work in Old English. 

1. The first piece of literature produced by the English in 
England was the Paraphrase of the Scriptures written by 
Caedmon about 670. According to Baeda, Caedmon was a 
poor and unlettered servant to the monks of Whitby, and he 
received from God the power of song in a dream. This pretty 
tradition was no doubt intended to account for so fine a poem 
appearing in so rude an age. Other men, says the story, tried 
to make holy poems like his ; but they could not, because he 
was taught of God. In some parts the poem reminds us of 
Milton's Paradise Lost, not only by its story, but also by its 
lofty thought. 

The Old English poetry after Caedmon was both religious 
and warlike. The most famous of the war-songs are the Battle 
Song of Brunanburh (937) and the Song of the Fight at Maldon 
(991). Old English poetry was abrupt and terse, and instead of 
tail-rhyme it used head-rhyme, or alliteration. For example : — 


Streamas st6don Streams stood : 

Storm up-gewat Storm up-went : 

"Weollon wael-benna Rolled corpses [of] men : 

"Wite-r6d gefeol The torment-rod fell : 

He ah of Heofonum High from Heaven : 

Hand-weorc Godes. Handiwork of God. 

2. The oldest English prose work we know of was lost long 
ago. It was Baeda's Translation of St. Johrfs Gospel, written 
in his last days, and finished on his death-bed in 735. Baeda 
was a monk of Jarrow in Northumbria, and was one of the 
most famous men of his age as a writer of Latin books. His 
Ecclesiastical History of England, written in Latin, is still our 
chief authority for the events, general as well as ecclesiastical, 
of Old English times. 


3. Both Caedmon and Baeda were Northumbrians ; and we 
have seen that when literature was destroyed by the Danes in 
Northumbria, it was sheltered by the West Saxons. The man 
who did most to encourage it was Alfred, King of Wessex 
(871-901). Alfred really made English a classical tongue. He 
not only wrote books in English himself (chiefly translations 
from Latin), but he set up schools, where he ordered all the 
youth to learn their mother tongue ; and he gathered around 
him, both from England and from abroad, a great company of 
learned men, to aid him in his work. His most famous works 
are his translations of Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy and 
of Baeda's History, already referred to. 

4. The Old English Chronicle originated in the registers or 
records of public events which it was customary for the monks 
to keep at the religious houses. At first these records contained 
little besides notes of the births and deaths of public men, — 
kings, bishops, nobles. 

In Alfred's time the dry bones were clothed with flesh and 
blood. Under his own direction, or that of Plegmund the 
primate, the bare lists were expanded into a full narrative. 
The work then became a national history, often graphic in its 
descriptions, and sometimes enlivened by war-songs and odes. 
The Chronicle, as we have seen, survived the Norman Conquest 
Though the old language was neglected and Languishing, the 
Chronicle was persistently carried on in several monasteries, 
and bears witness to the feeling of bitter jealousy with which 
the oppressed people regarded their conquerors. 

It gives proof, also, of the decay which was affecting the 
language itself, — how its crust was crumbling, as a rock is 
worn away by the biting air. Most of tin* inflections which 

had survived the Danish shock now disappeared, and French 

Words occasionally forced themselves into use. The last siir- 

vi\> rot' these monkish Chronicles the Peterborough chronicle 
— expired abruptly with the death of Stephen in 1164; and 

with it also old English prose came to an end. 




1066-1362 A.D. 

OUTLINE.— 1. For more than a century after the Conquest, English 

was in a state of decline (1066-1205). 2. This was followed 

toy a time of dialectic revival (1205-1362). 3. The chief 

writers of that time were Layamon (1205) and Ormin (1215). 

4. During that time the Norman -French were absorbed 

in the English people. 5. The characteristics of Transition 

English are the simplification of grammar, and the addition 
of few Norman-French words. 

1. For more than a century after the Conquest, English was 
in a state of decline ; that is to say, as has already been shown, 
it ceased to be a book speech, and became a spoken or " illiter- 
ate " tongue. In this state it continued till about the year 1205. 
The changes which it underwent during that time were not so 
much due to the direct influence of Norman- French, as to 
English having been driven into obscurity and deprived of 
literary practice and a literary standard. 

2. When English reappeared as a book speech, its form was 
greatly changed ; rathei", it appeared in several forms, differing 
materially from one another. This was the natural consequence 
of the want of a literary standard. In different parts of the 
country change had taken different directions, and had resulted 
in different forms. 

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries there were three 
distinct dialects in which books were written, — the Northern, 
the Midland, and the Southern. These dialects are most 
readily distinguished by the plural ending of the present tense, 
which was in the Northern -e*, in the Midland -en, and in the 
Southern -eth. The Northern dialect was spoken in the Low- 
lands of Scotland as well as in the north of England, and 
passed into modern Lowland Scotch. The Southern dialect was 
a continuation of the classical tongue of Wessex ; but it gradu- 
ally died out. The Midland dialect was a revival or a develop- 
ment of the English of the Peterborough Chronicle (1154), 
and afterwards passed into standard English. 



3. These three dialects of Transition English are repre- 
sented by the following works respectively : — 







Richard Rolle, of 

Cursor Mundi : a metrical 
version of Scripture .... 

Pricke of Conscience, and 
prose treatises 




Robert of Brunne . . . 

Ormulum: a metrical 
Church Service 


Handlyng Sinne: transla- 
tion of a French poem . . 



Robert of Gloucester. 

Brut: translation of AVace's 

Brut (Welsh legends) 

Riming Chronicle 


4. During this period of transition, the Norman-French were 
absorbed in the English people, as the Danes had been rive 
centuries before, and the two races became one nation. One 
thing which made this easy was that the Normans were kin- 
dred of the English. " Norman " is really " Northman.' 1 The 
Normans were descendants of Norsemen who had settled in 
France in the ninth century, and who called their country Nor- 
mandy after themselves. They had given up their Norse tongue 
for the French; and now they gave up their French tongue 
for the English. 

This result was aided by political events. Even in the 
reign of William II., Englishmen served in the royal army. 
His successor, Henry I., married an English princess of the 
family of the Old English kings. Winn Henry (II.) of Anjou 
and his wife Eleanor of Poitou came to England, manv French- 
men followed in their train. From jealousy of these new- 
comers, the Norman-French barons, who were already half 
Englishmen, were led to ally themselves more closely with the 
oative English. Tin- Loss of his French possessions by John 
(1204), which isolated the Normans in England, occurred just 
one year before English reappeared as a book speech in the Brut 
of Layamon. 

In the quarrel which extorted Magna Ckarta from John 

(1215), the barons made OOmmon CaUSS Willi the people against 


the king. The court of Henry III., John's son, was twice 
flooded by Frenchmen : first, when he appointed a Poitevin as 
his minister; and again, when he chose a Provencal for his 
queen. This disgusted the English barons, and, with other 
causes, led to the Barons' War in 1258. 

In that very year there was issued the well-known English 
Proclamation of Henry III., — the first State paper written in 
English since the Conquest. One result of the Barons' War 
was to give a new constitution to Parliament. In 1265, the 
Parliament summoned by Leicester contained representatives 
of cities and boroughs, side by side with barons, prelates, and 
knights of the shire. This welded all classes and races firmly 
together. The next king bore the English name of Edward, 
and called himself an Englishman. 

5. The characteristics of Transition English are the simplifi- 
cation of the grammar, and the addition of Norman-French 

The simplification of the grammar was a natural conse- 
quence of the efforts made by two peoples in the same land to 
speak to and understand each other. In such circumstances words 
are used in their simplest form, and grammatical niceties are 
dispensed with. The same thing had occurred when the Danes 
and the English agreed to live together, in the ninth century. 

In the Transition Period the most remarkable change con- 
sisted in the reduction or " levelling " of word-endings. For 
example, the old vowel endings, -a, -o, and -u, gave place to 
a uniform -e. The form -en took the place of -on and -an, and 
-es of -as, both in nouns and in verbs. The dative ending of 
nouns was dropped, and its force was expressed by a prepo- 
sition. Where the force of the genitive was expressed by a 
preposition, the case-ending was dropped. The declensions of 
nouns were reduced to two ; terminations for gender were dis- 

These examples indicate the nature of the changes made in 
the structure of the language in this period. The changes in 
the vocabulary were much slighter. The number of French 
words adopted at this time was comparatively small. But this 
subject belongs to next lesson. 





OUTLINE.— 1. The Norman - French words introduced in Transition 

English are of Latin origin. 2. They relate to Feudalism 

and War, to the Church, to the Law, and to the Chase. 

1. Norman-French was the dialect spoken in the north of 
France, as Provencal was that spoken in the south. Both were 
derived from Latin, which was introduced into Gaul by the 
Romans. The group of languages derived from Latin bears 
the name of the Romance (that is, Roman) tongues ; and tales 
or stories called " romances" are so called because they were 
first written in these languages — namely, Italian, French, 
Spanish, and Portuguese. In Norman-French there are traces 
of other elements — Keltic, Germanic, and Norse ; but the 
language is essentially Latin. The words borrowed from 
the Normans are therefore called the Latin of the Third. 

2. The subjects to which these words relate are naturally 
those in which the Normans were specially interested, or over 
which they had chief control. Such were Feudalism and 
War, the Church, the Law, wad the Chase. 

Though a form of feudalism had existed among the English 
before the Conquest, the system in force all over England after 
that event was peculiarly Norman, from the unusual powers 
which it gave to the King. There was also a Christian Church 
in England before the Normans came; but the Normans tilled 
the cathedrals, churches, and monasteries with French priests 
and monks, who used their own language in all their services. 

In the law courts, likewise, the lawyers were Normans, and 
[Trench was the official language. The chase, again, was the 

favourite amusement of the Norman kings and their followers. 

LargS districts of England were turned into forests for their 
use; and the forest laws passed for the protection of these 

grievously oppressed the Bnglish people. 

The following are examples of new words acquired from the 

Normans in each of these four classes: — 


Feudalism and War captain, chivalry, duke, fealty, homage, 


The Church friar, prayer, relic, scandal. 

The Law assize, chancellor, damages, estate, judge, 

parliament, plaintiff. 
The Chase brace, chase, couple, copse, forest, mews, 

quarry, venison. 

A few examples will serve to show the changes words 
underwent in passing from Latin to English through French : — 

Latin. French. English. 

caballus (ahorse) cheval. 

che valerie chivalry. 

captare (to catch) chasser chase. 

fidelitas (faithfulness) f ^alte 7 fealty. 

frater (brother) frere friar. 

parabolare (to speak) parler parlour. 

parlement parliament*. 

precari (to pray) prier pray. 

venatio (hunting) venaison venison. 


1362-1485 A.D. 

OUTLINE. —1. The use of English was revived in the law courts in 
1362, and in schools in 1385. 2. In this period the East Mid- 
land dialect became the standard English. 3. Being the 

language of the Court and the Court poets, it is called King's 

English. 4. The characteristics of the King's English are the 

further loss of grammatical forms, and a large infusion of 
French words. 

1. The authoritative restoration of English as the language 
of public business in the law courts and in schools marks an 
important stage in its history. These two steps were a public 
admission that English had made out its claim to be regarded 
as the national speech. Hitherto it had been degraded and 
disinherited ; now it was restored to its rightful place. It was 
no doubt seen to be absurd that the law courts and the schools 
were conducted in such a way as to exclude from them the 
mass of the people. 


2. There were two causes which led to the adoption of the 
East Midland dialect as the standard book-speech : the one 
was the fact of its being the speech of London — the capital, 
and the seat of the court ; the other was the circumstance that 
several great writers arose who made that speech classical. It 
was, in short, the language used in the best society and by the 
best writers. 

One of these writers was Sir John Mandeville, whose 
Travels in the East has been called "our very oldest book 
in Modern English prose." Mandeville wrote about 1356 — a 
few years before the commencement of the period ; but his 
work distinctly belongs to the time of consolidation. A second 
was William Langland, author of the Vision of Piers the Plow- 
man. A third was John Wyclif, the first translator of the 
whole Bible into English. A fourth was John Gower, a moral 
story-teller in verse. A fifth was Geoffrey Chaucer, author of 
The Canterbury Tales, — the first great English poet, and one of 
the greatest. 

3. As this new book speech was the language of the Court 
and the Court poets, it has been called the King's English. 
Gower and Chaucer were friends, and they both were friends 
of persons about the Royal Court. Chaucer was connected 
with the Court in one way or another during the greater part 
of his life. At sixteen he was page to the Duchess of Clarence. 
He was often sent by the King on special missions to Italy. 
He held the offices of Comptroller of Customs, and of Clerk of 
the Works at Westminster and at Windsor; and he was for a 
time a member of Parliament. There was good reason, then, 
for calling the Language in which he wrote King's English. 

4. The characteristics of the King's English are the further 

loss of grammatical forms, and a large infusion of French 
words. Many of the word-endings which had been abbreviated 

or "levelled" in tin- former period, were lost altogether in this 

one. They had ceased to mark distinctions of declension or 
case, of gender or Dumber, of person or mood; and therefore 

they were east Off aS useless lumber. 

Thus the -en of the infinitive (formerly -an) first became -r, 


and then was dropped altogether; for example, brec-an (to 
break) passed into brec-en, in Chaucer it is brek-e, and soon after 
his time it became brek and break. In like manner, the attempt 
to distinguish gender by terminations was abandoned, and the 
rule was adopted of treating the names of all things without 
life as neuter. Several peculiarities were continued. The 
plurals of verbs ended in -en or -e. The suffix -e was a mark 
of the plural of adjectives, and was also used as a mark of 
adverbs. The plural imperative ended in -eth. 

The second characteristic of the period was the large infusion 
of French words. This was due, not to the influence of French 
residents in England, but to that of Englishmen who read 
French books. When a young man, Chaucer read a great deal 
of French poetry. Some of his earliest writings were transla- 
tions from the French. He was thus led freely to introduce 
French words into his own poetry. Gower did the same ; and 
the example of these great writers was followed by others. 



OUTLINE.— 1. Most of the words of French origin in English were 
introduced in the hook speech of the fourteenth century, and 

later. 2. The words of French origin relate to abstract ideas 

and artificial society. 3. The English words relate to homely 

matters, to natural objects, and to simple and rural life. 

1. It has been shown that there were two occasions on which 
French words were introduced into England ; — first, at the time 
of the Norman Conquest ; secondly, in the time of Chaucer 
and Gower. Most of the words of French origin which the 
language contains began to be introduced in the latter period. 
They were introduced, that is to say, through the literature of 
the time, and not as words of ordinary conversation. The un- 
obtrusive influence of a few poets thus effected greater changes 
on the language, and made greater additions to it, than either 
the laws of French rulers or the overbearing mastery of Norman 
knights. The language was greatly enriched by the elements 


thus introduced into it : it was made more elegant, more flexible, 
more musical, and its power as an instrument of literature was 
much increased. The result, however, was very different from 
what it would have been had the Normans succeeded after the 
Conquest in eradicating the Old English speech, and in imposing 
the French language on the conquered people. 

2. In the following passage,* descriptive of the effects of the 
Norman occupation of the country, the words of French origin 
are printed in italics. It should be remembered that many of 
these words were adopted, not immediately after the Conquest, 
but in the later of the two periods mentioned above : — 

For a time, the two tongues lived side by side, though in very 
different conditions: the one, the language of the master, at court 
and in the castles of the soldiers who had become noble lords and 
powerful barons ; the other, the language of the conquered, 
spoken only in the lowly huts of the subjugated people. 

The Norman altered and increased the latter, but he could not 
extirpate it. To defend his conquest, he took possession of the 
country ; and, master of the soil, he erected fortresses and castles, 
and attempted to introduce new terms. The universe and the 
firmament, the planets, comets, and meteors, the atmosphere and 
the seasons, all were impressed with the seal of the oonq 
Hills became mountains, and dales valleys ; streams were called 
rivers, and brooks rivulets; waterfalls, cascades, and \\oo ( \&, forests. 

The deer, the ox, the calf, the swine, and the sheep appeared 
on his sumptuous table as venison, beef veal, pork, and mutton. 
Salmon, sturgeon, lamprey, and trout became known as delicacies : 
serpents and luardt, squirrels, falcons and herons, cocks and 
pigeons, stall n,ns and mules, wen- added to the animal kingdom. 

Marls and lords \v -ere placed in rani below his cftlfttl and )nar- 
quises. New titles and dignities, of viscount, boron, and baronet, 

squire and matter, were treated; the manor presided over the 
English aldermen and sheriff; and the ehemeellor and the peer, 
the embateador and the chamberlain, &* g ener al and theocfaarai 

headed tin: fist of officers of the government. 

The king alone retain,,/ his noma, l>nl tli.' ftatfl and the OOttftf 

became French i tin- <idn>ini*tratinn was enrried on ac-ording to 

• Prom Dt \ ere. 


the constitution ; treaties were concluded by the ministers in their 
cabinet, and submitted for approval to the sovereign; the privy 
council was consulted on the affairs of the empire, and foya^ sm&- 
j^'ecfe sent representatives to parliament. Here the members 
debated on matters of grave importance, on peace and GMWj ordered 
the arraj/ and the navy, disposed of the national treasury, con- 
tracted debts, and had their sessions and their parties. 

At brilliant feasts and splendid tournaments collected the flower 
of chivalry; magnificent balls, where beauty and delicious music 
enchanted the assembled nobles, gave new splendour to society, 
polished the manners and excited the admiration of the ancient 
inhabitants; who, charmed by such elegance, recognized in their 
conquerors persons of superior intelligence, admired them, and 
endeavoured to imitate their fashions. 

3. In the following passage,* descriptive of the manners and 
customs preserved by the English, the words printed in italics 
are of native, that is of Teutonic, origin : — 

But the dominion of the Norman did not extend to the Aome 
of the Englishman; it stopped at the threshold of his house: 
there, around the fireside in his kitchen and the hearth in his 
room, he me£ his beloved kindred; the 6n'cfe, the wi/e, and the 
husband, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, tied to each 
o^Aer by £ove, friendship, and X7W feelings, knew nothing dearer 
than their own swee? Aome. 

The Englishman's flocks, still grazing in his fields and 
meadoios, gave him mi7£ and butter, meat and woo?; the herdsman 
watched them in spring and summer; the ploughman drew his 
furrows, and used his harrows, and, in harvest, the car? and the 
flail; the reaper plied his scythe, piled up sheaves and hauled his 
wheat, oats, and rye to the 6am. The waggoner drove his warn, 
with its wheels, felloes, spokes, and nave; and his team bent 
heavily under their yoX-e. 

In his ^raafe by Za?!^ and sea, he still so?o? and bought; in the 
store or the s/?o/>, the market or the s^ree?, he cheapened his goods 
and had all his dealings, as pedler or iceaver, baker or cooper, 
saddler, miller, or tanner. He ?eni or borroioed, trusted his 
neighbour, and with sM£ and care throve and ^rew wealthy. 

* From De Vere, 


Later, when he longed once more for freedom, his warriors took 
their weapons, their axes, swords, and spears, or their dreaded 
bow and arrow. They leaped without stirrup into the saddle, 
and killed with dart and gavelock. At other ftmes they launched, 
their 6oa£s and s/njos, which were still pure English from keel to 
deck and from the helm or the rudder to the £o/> of the mast, 
afloat and ashore, with scw7 or with oar. 

As his fathers had cftme before him in the land of his birth, the 
Englishman would not merely eat, drink, and sleep, or spend his 
fo'wie in playing the Aarjt? and the fiddle, but by walking, riding, 
fishing, and hunting, he kept young and healthy ; while his /<"/// 
with her children were 6wsy teaching or learning how to ra*c/ 
and to wiite, to s% and to draw. Even needle- work was not 
forgotten, as their writers say that " by this they sAo?ie most in 
the world? The wisdom of £ate>* ages was not known then, but 
they had their home-spun sayings, which are yet looked upon as 
tfrwe wisdom, as : GW Ae^os them that help themselves : Zos£ 
ftV/ie is never found again: When sorrow is asleep, wake it not! 


OUTLINE.— 1. The Northern (Northumbrian) dialect was continued 
as a book speech by Scottish writers. 2. The Southern dia- 
lect fell out of use about the end of the fourteenth century. 

1. Though the North tin dialect was no Longer used by English 
writers, it was continued as a book speech in Scotland. The 
south-east of Scotland, between the Tweed and the Forth, was 
for several centuries part of the English kingdom of Northuin- 
hria (G17-9C6). The language of the Lothians was then the 
same (in spite of a few dialectic peculiarities) as the language 

of Yorkshire. In 966 Lothian was ceded to the Keltic kimrof 
Scots. About 1016 the Tweed became the southern boundary of 
Scotland. The language of the diet tict thus annexed by-and by 
became the language of the Scottish Court and People. 
After the Norman conquest of England, and especially after 

the' marriage of Malcolm Ca re with the English princess 

Ddargaret, Scotland became more decidedly English, not in 
speech only, but also in customs ;«ul institutions. The English 


language gradually spread northward along the east coast as 
far as to the Moray Firth. 

In the fourteenth century, it began to be used as a book 
speech by John Barbour, archdeacon of Aberdeen, in his long 
heroic poem, The Bruce, written about 1377. About the same 
time, Andrew Wyntoun, prior of St. Serf's, in Lochleven 
(Fife), wrote his Orygynale Crony kU of Scotland in the same 

This language was the beginning of the Scots dialect, in 
which Allan Eamsay, Eobert Burns, and Walter Scott after- 
wards wrote. Though Barbour was a contemporary of Chaucer, 
his language is purer English than Chaucer's, inasmuch as it 
does not contain the French element which is so conspicuous in 
the Canterbury Tales. 

Chaucer's influence was, however, introduced into Scotland 
by James I., who had studied his poems during a long cap- 
tivity in England (1405-24), and who wrote a beautiful poem 
called The King's Quhair, (quire, book). This influence was 
continued by Robert Henry son (1500), William Dunbar 
(1520), and Sir David Lyndsay (1555); but Scottish speech 
has always retained much of its original Northumbrian 

2. The Southern dialect fell out of use about the end of the 
fourteenth century. Almost the last to use it as a book speech 
was John of Trevisa, a Gloucestershire canon, who wrote in 
it a translation from the Latin of Ealph Higden's History of 
the "World called Polychronicon. To him we are indebted for 
an interesting fact about the English tongue. He says : " The 
yer of oure Lord, a thousond thre honored foure score and fyve 
of the secunde Kyng Eichard, after the conquest nyne, in al 
the gramer scoles of Engeland children leveth Freynsch and 
construeth and lurneth an Englysch." The plural ending -eth 
marks this as Southern English. 

Though Southern English thus ceased to be a book speech, 
it never quite died out as a spoken dialect. It has lingered 
till our own day in Dorsetshire ; and Mr. Barnes has shown 
its capacity for literary uses by publishing a volume of Poems 
Written in the Dorsetshire Dialect. 




OUTLINE.— 1. The introduction of printing into England (1471) tended 

to fix the form of the language. 2. The revival of learning 

(after 1453) introduced a new classical element into English. 

3. Modern English contains many duplicate words. 4. Many 

of the classical words introduced in the sixteenth century have 
fallen out of use. 

1. Printing was introduced into England by William Caxton 
in 1471. The art had been invented in Germany thirty years 
previously, and Caxton had learned it while residing at Bruges 
in Flanders. He not only printed books, he also wrote them. 
The first book printed in England was his Game and Playe of 
the Chesse, translated oat of the French. He produced in all 
sixty-eight different works; and when he died, in 1492, his 
business was continued by two of his foreign assistants, — 
Wynkyn de Worde and Richard Pynson. Printing soon ex- 
tended, and books were multiplied by the thousand. 

The effect of this on the language was very great When 
the only way of publishing books was by multiplying manu- 
scripts, it was impossible to obtain uniformity. The copyists 
often took great liberties with the works they copied. Kadi 
version contained some peculiarities due to the fancy of the 
copyist or to the dialect of the district in which it was produced. 
The spelling of words was changed ; the grammatical forms 
were altered ; sometimes new words were put for less familiar 
ones, lint printing put a stop to these caprices, as all the 
copies printed from the same types were necessarily the same. 

Nut, only was uniformity thus secured, but a standard of 

speech was set up to which all would be forced to conform. 
In England i effect \<r\ soon followed. The printing 
press, more than anything else, consolidated English speech; 
and its Introduction, therefore, forms the true beginning of the 

modern era. 

2. About the same time that printing was adopted, there 


was a great revival of learning going on in Europe. This 
was due to the scattering of scholars and their manuscripts 
when Constantinople was taken by the Turks (1453). The 
refugees first went to Italy, and revived there the study of Greek 
and Roman literature, history and art. A passion for antiquity 
possessed the minds of scholars, poets, and artists. 

By-and-by the new learning spread to France and Germany ; 
and in the beginning of the sixteenth century it took root 
firmly in England. Classical studies were prosecuted with an 
ardour previously unknown ; and Erasmus, a learned Dutch- 
man, who was Professor of Greek at Oxford from 1509 till 
1514, says that England then ranked next to Italy for exact- 
ness and extent of learning. 

One effect of this soon showed itself in the introduction into 
the language of a host of words derived from Latin and Greek, 
Most of the words of Latin origin which form so large an 
element in our modern speech were adopted at or after this 
time, and constitute the Latin of the Fourth Period. 

3. In many cases a word was taken direct from Latin 
which had previously been taken indirectly through Xorman- 
French. Here are a few examples : — 

Latin. French. English. 

exemplum example. 

ti . ...ensample. ...sample 

factum fact. 

ii ....fait feat. 

f actionis : faction. 

ii ....facon fashion. 

f ragilis fragile. 

ii ....frele frail. 

hospitalis hospital. 

ii ....hotel hotel. 

lectionis lection. 

n . ...lecon lesson. 

Latin. Trench. English.. 

fidelitas fidelity. 

n f^alte" fealty. 

legalis legal. 

ii loyal loyal. 

major major. 

ii maire mayor. 

pauper pauper. 

n pauvre poor. 

regalis regal. 

ii royal royal. 

securus secure. 

ii sur sure. 

The effect of this has been to enrich the language with a 
number of duplicate words, and to fit it for expressing nice 
shades of meaning; for it seldom happens that both words 
derived from the same source have exactly the same meaning, 


or are applied to the same thing. Compare, for example, fact 
and feat; faction and fashion ; hospital and hotel; legal and 
loyal; secure and sure. 

It should be remembered, too, that the new words did not 
always displace old ones, but that native words still held their 
place side by side with Latin ones. In the Book of Common 
Prayer, which was first printed in 1548, and was issued in its 
present form in 1662, there are many instances in which a 
native and a classical word are used side by side, as if it had 
been intended that the one word should appeal to the com- 
mon people and the other to the learned. For example, in the 
Exhortation and Confession, these pairs occur : — 

acknowledge and confess, 
tlissemble nor cloke. 
humble, lowly, 
goodness and nurcy. 
assemble and meet togethir. 
pray and beseech, 
erred and strayed. 

4. Many of the words of Latin origin introduced in the 
sixteenth century have fallen out of use. The language has 
gained greatly by the loss; for the pedantic English called 
Euphuism,* which was fashionable for a time at the Court of 
Elizabeth, WW affected and unnatural, and showed very bad 
taste. Its chief advocate was John Lyly the dramatist, who 
published two books as models of the new speech. 

This freak was very successfully ridiculed by Shakespeare in 
one of the earliest of his comedies Love's Labour** Lost — in 
which he put into the mouths of his characters such words as 
festinateli/f indubitatej superscript) peregr in ate aMosunoMtj the 
poeteriors of thit day (the afternoon), e x cremen t (beard). Ex- 
amples of the words of learned length that have been dis- 
carded are: oonsociate (unite), txpuleed (expelled), immanity 
(barbarity), mansuetude (mildness), and stultiloquy (foolish 


cillid from the titles uf t\N.i of I->1>'> books — nniiitlv, 

" liipiiins, tin- Anatomy "f Wit," rod " Bnphw land." 



SINCE 1485 A.D. 

)UTLINE.— 1. Modern English prose begins with Sir Thomas More 

(1509-13). 2. The standard was fixed by William Tyndale's 

New Testament, first printed in 1525. 3. Some antiquated 

forms survived till the age of Elizabeth. 

1. Henry Hallam, the historian of the literature of Europe, 
nentions Sir Thomas More as the first writer of good English 
jrose. He says that in More's History of Edward the Fifth 
' there is not only a diminution of obsolete phraseology, but a 

certain modern turn and structure, which denote the com- 

nencement of a new era, and the establishment of new rules of 
aste in polite literature." It is worth noting that the year in 
vhich More wrote his History (1509) is that of the accession 
>f Henry VIII. to the English throne, and is the date assigned 
yy general consent as the starting-point of the era of modern 
listory. Modern English and Modern History may therefore 
)e said to have begun their career together. 

2. One of the earliest and most momentous events of modern 
listory was the Reformation ; which, in England, dates from 
he reign of Henry VIII. The Reformation was greatly aided 
>y two events mentioned in last chapter — the invention of 
)rinting and the revival of learning — and it combined with 
hem in producing an important effect on the English language, 
rhe revival of learning led to more careful study of the Scrip- 
ures in the original tongues, and to the making of more accu- 
rate translations : the Reformation led to these translations 
)eing read freely by the people ; and the invention of printing 
ed to their multiplication and wide distribution. 

A standard of English was thus brought within reach of all ; 
or those who did not own Bibles, or could not read them, heard 
he Scriptures read in the mother tongue Sunday after Sunday, 
rhe earliest of the translators of this time (and the first since 
vVyclif) was William Tyndale, whose New Testament was 
printed at Antwerp in 1525-34. He afterwards printed parts 
)f the Old Testament. The first complete English Bible printed 


in England was that of Miles Coverdale, issued in 1535, and 
dedicated to Henry VIII. 

Now all the translations made after Tyndale's time were 
more or less based on his version. This is expressly true of 
Cranmer's Bible (1540) and of the Geneva New Testament 
(1557). The Authorized Version (1611), now in use, was not 
made without constant reference to those of Tyndale, Coverdale, 
and Cranmer, though avowedly based on the Bishops' Bible of 
1568 (Parker's). The diction of the Authorized Version is in 
many points older than that of the time in which it was made ; 
and this is owing to the fact of the older versions having been 
freely used by the translators. 

The English Bible has had a great effect on English, not only 
as spoken, but also as a book speech. Bible English is remark- 
able for its simplicity and its force. In regard to the proportion 
of foreign elements in it, it is by far the purest English to be 
found in our modern literature, ninety-six per cent, of its word- 
list being of native origin. 

3. What has been said of the old-fashioned diction of the 
Bible holds also to some extent of other works. The poet 
Spenser, whose Faerie Queene was printed in 1590-96, was an 
admirer of Chaucer, whom he calls "well of English undefiled ;" 
and he imitates some of Chaucer's peculiarities in his own 
poetry. He uses words that had fallen out of use in his day, 
as well as old spellings, forms, and idioms. He uses tfa t (kn< m \ 
belgardes (fair looks : Fr. belle, regarder), forlore (left), serine 
(casket), fet (fetch), stent (blamed), arced (interpret), bedight 
(jtdorned). Garland he spells girlond. He uses the idiom him 
lift, for it pleases him. He uses the prefix //- for the passive 

participle (» 0. E. ge\ y-drad for dreaded. There is the' same 
antique flavour in the writinga of Spenser's friends Sir Philip 
Sidney and Sir Walter Ralegh. 

In Shakespeare i\w\e are many words and osages that are 
n. .u obsolete. Be uses his tor its, bb is also done in the English 
Bible ("If (he salt have Lost hit savour"). He uses cfapt for 
called, which may be traced through Spenser's cfooped, and 
Chaucer's y-dspt, to the 0. K. gs-clypods, He nsea an tor if; 
benisan for blessing; bodemmts for forebodings; hardiment for 


courage ; think sH thee for does it seem to thee ; these - - as for 
such - - as ; ye for you (objective) ; thrid for thread ; suspire 
for breathe; allegiant for loyal; and many other words and 
phrases which are no longer used. In spite of these exceptions, 
however, the English of Shakespeare is English in its full 
maturity. It has never been used with greater power, ease, 
grace, or purity than by him. 

John Milton, who was just eight years old when Shakespeare 
died, used many old-fashioned words, and invented some new 

Being a great admirer of the Early English poets, he used 
many of their pithy words and quaint forms ; as, belike (likely), 
eyn (eyes), frore (frosty), nathless (nevertheless), rathe (early), 
swinked (hard-worked), tilth (tilled land), to-ruffled (ruffled), 
whilere (a while before), xoon (dwell), y-cleped, y-clept, y-clopd 
(clept, called). 

Being a great classical scholar, he used classical words in then- 
literal sense, and he coined new words when he could not find 
an old word that pleased him ; as, ammiral (admiral ; a ship), 
atheous (ungodly), concent (singing together; harmony), dividual 
(divided), emprise (enterprise), illaudable (not praiseworthy), 
plenipotent (all-powerful), profluent (flowing forward), villatic 
(belonging to a farm), transpicuous (able to be seen through). 


OUTLINE. — 1. In the eighteenth century the fashion of preferring 

words of classical origin prevailed. 2. In the beginning of 

the nineteenth century the study of German philosophy and of 
French politics had a certain effect both on English literature 

and on the English language. 3. During the present century 

the study of Old English has been greatly extended. 

1. The leader in the classical revival of the eighteenth cen- 
tury was Dr. Samuel Johnson, whose writings, and whose 
position as the literary dictator of his time, gave him great 
influence. A marked preference was shown for big words and 
for a pompous style. Some new words were invented, and 


some that had grown obsolete were revived ; but the practice 
consisted mainly in the systematic use of the classical element 
in the existing language, and the avoidance of the familiar and 
pithy native words. 

Johnson was followed in this custom, and even surpassed, by 
the historians Gibbon and Hume, to whose style it gives a 
stately air and a majestic roll. It has been calculated that one- 
fourth of Johnson's vocabulary is foreign ; but in Hume the 
proportion is one-third, and in Gibbon it is much more than 

Quite as striking as the changes in the vocabulary were the 
peculiarities of idiom, or form of expression, adopted by John- 
son and his school. These showed themselves in a tendency to 
fall into modes of arrangement which are unusual in English, 
but are common in the Eomance tongues, which are derived 
from Latin. 

This peculiarity is clearly set forth in the fact, that while 
many of Addison's phrases could not possibly be translated 
literally into French or Italian, there is hardly one phrase of 
Johnson's which could not be so rendered. One of Johnson's 
chief characteristics is his laborious building up of sentences ex in- 
sisting of antithetical or contrasted members : for example : — 

"As this practice is a commodious subject of raillery to the 
gay and of declamation to the serious, it has been ridiculed with 
all the pleasantry of wit and exaggerated with all the amplifica- 
tions of rhetoric." Here there are five pairs of contrasted 
thoughts, all carefully balanced ; namely, — 

raillery dechunatii >n. 

gay serious. 

ridiculed exaggerated. 

pleasantry amplifications. 

wit rhetoric. 

This sentence is a type of many, and it is therefore I good 

example of the artificial and ponderous nature of the style. 

2. At the very close of lasi century and the beginning of the 
present one, the study <>f German literature especially of 
philosophy and criticism- was eagerly undertaken by Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge and liis followers. At the same time there 


occurred a remarkable revival in English poetry, which is 
represented in the works of Coleridge and Wordsworth, Shelley 
and Byron. If this revival was not directly due to the influ- 
ence of the French Revolution, it was certainly due to that 
general revolt in men's minds against the artificial and the 
false of which the Revolution was the chief political result. 

Both events have had a greater effect on literature than on 
language, on thought than on expression. Still, their effect on 
language has been very considerable. 

One effect of the German influence has been to revive the 
power of forming compound words which is inherent in the 
language, and was freely used in its earliest stage. 

Another effect has been to create a necessity for extending 
our vocabulary of philosophical terms. To this we are 
indebted for the free use of such words as subjective, objective, 
aesthetic, analytic, synthetic. 

The poetical revival consisted mainly in a return to the truth 
and simplicity of nature. Wordsworth not only showed how the 
highest thoughts might be suggested by the humblest things, but 
how these thoughts might be expressed in the simplest language. 

3. Of late the study of the Old English language, and of 
Old English literature, has been greatly extended. Within the 
past few years a very considerable body of literature bearing on 
this subject has been produced. The movement received its 
first impulse from the essays which Richard Garnett read to 
the Philological Society of London between 1835 and 1848. 
The publication of Dr. Joseph Bosworth's "Anglo-Saxon Dic- 
tionary" in 1838 greatly aided the study, which has been sys- 
tematically developed in various directions in the works of 
Edwin Guest, W. W. Skeat, Henry Sweet, A. J. Ellis, E. 
Morris, E. A. Abbot, and others both in England and in 

Alongside of the Philological Society, there is now an Early 
English Text Society, for the printing of works and transla- 
tions of works belonging to the Old English and Early English 
Periods. The practical effect of this new zeal for the study of 
the language has been a reaction in favour of the use of Teu- 
tonic; or native words. 




OUTLINE. — 1. English contains words drawn from most of the 

languages of the world. 2. These borrowings are the result 

partly of commercial intercourse, and partly of the spread of 
the arts and sciences. 

1. The following are examples of common words drawn from 
a variety of languages : — 

American maize, potato, tobacco. 

Arabic admiral, algebra, almanac, coffee, cotton, lake, lemon, 

lime, sofa. 

Chinese nankeen, satin, tea (congou, bohea, &c). 

French beau, belle, bouquet, depot, soiree. 

Hebrew amen, cherub, jubilee, sabbath. 

Hindustani... calico, jungle, muslin, punch, rupee, sugar. 

Italian bust, canto, folio, grotto, motto, opera, umbrella, volcano. 

Malay bamboo, bantam, chintz, curry, sago. 

Persian balcony, bazaar, chess, orange, shawl, turban. 

Polynesian ... kangaroo, tattoo. 
Portuguese.... cash, cocoa. 

Spanish cargo, chocolate, cigar, negro, sherry. 

Turkish sash, tulip. 

2. It is obvious, from the words in the above list, that these 
borrowings are the result, partly of commercial intercourse, 
and partly of the spread of the arts and sciences. When an 
article of commerce, or a new kind of art, or a new branch of 
science, was introduced into England for the first time, it natu- 
rally brought with it the name by which it had previously been 
known in the country from which it had been borrowed. This 
foreign name would undergo changes in the process of Its adoption 
into English, and in the end would heroine an English word. 

The words in the following list are examples of what may 

In- called self c\ ideiit derivation. The derivatives arc printed 

in clarendon, the rooi vrords in itcUies. It' the derivative is 
not taken directly from the root-word in each case, both are 


derived from a common source. A few of the English roots are 
of French origin : — 

Abase to bring to the base (Fr.), or make low. 

Abate to beat (Fr.) down. 

Abreast with the breasts in line. 

Adrift in the drift, or thing driven. 

Aloft on-loft, in the lift (air). 

Anon in-one (instant). 

Atonement at-one-ment, reconciliation. 

Babble to speak like a babe. 

Balloon a big ball (Fr.). 

BaUot a little ball (Fr. ). 

Band, bond that which bmd$. 

Bank a bench on which money was laid out. 

Batcb bread baked in one lot. 

Bird one of a brood. 

Brand something burned. 

Breakfast a breaking of a fast. 

Brick a piece broken off. 

Brood something bred. 

Brown the burned colour. 

Bursar keeper of the burse or purse. 

Butler keeper of the butts (large casks), or of the bottles. 

Claw something cleft or split. 

Cloud vapour drawn into clods, or masses that cleave together. 

Club a society cleaving together. 

Coop a hollow place, like a cup. 

Cope a covering, or cap. 

Daisy day's-eye. The flower closes its petals at night, and 

opens them in the morning. 

Disease want of ease (Fr. ) ; pain. 

Diver the bird that dives. 

Doff. do-off. 

Don do-on. {Sodup, do-up; and dout, do-out: now disused.) 

Drawing-room ...originally with-draioing room; i.e., a room for re- 
tiring to. 

Earth eared {i.e., ploughed) land. 

Erst ere-est, i.e., earliest or first. 

Fare the price of faring, or travelling. The verb fare 

means to get on, to succeed, — as in 

" 111 fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, 
"Where wealth accumulates and men decay." 

Farthing .fourth-ing, the fourth part of a penny. 


F . > places for faring (i. e. , going) across a utreaiu . 

Gad-fly the fly with a gad or goad. 

Gaffer good father. 

Gammer good mother. 

Gentleman a man of gentle (i.e., noble) birth. {Gentle is from 

the Lat. gens, gentis, a family.) 
Gospel God 'spell (news of God) or good-spell (good news). 

The latter corresponds most closely with the 

word "evangel," which is from the Greek en, 

well, and angelia, a message. 

Groove something graven, or hollowed out. 

Haft that by which we have or hold an instrument. 

Handicraft craft, or skill, of hand. 

Handle to touch with the hand; n. the part held in the 


Handsel money given in hand (hand, and scllan, to give). 

Handsome ready to the hand. 

Handy skilful with the hand. 

Hanker to let the mind hang on a thing. 

Harbinger one who goes forward to provide a harbour, i.e., a 

place of safety for an army (O. E. here, an army ; 

beorgan, to protect; whence borough). 

Hardware ware made of hard material, as iron. 

Hatch to produce by hacking, i.e., by chipping the egg. 

(Hack is literally to cut with an axe (O. E. haebe); 

whence hash.) 

Hawthorn the thorn that grows in hairs, i.e., hedges. 

Heaven that which is heaved, or lifted up. 

Hinder t< > put beh ind. 

Homestead the stead (place) of a home; a farm enclosure. 

(Stead occurs in instead ami stead//.) 

Hunt to pursue with hounds. 

Husband house-bond, the owner of a house. 

Instead in the stead or place of. 

Island water-land [0. ES. <<i, water, wad land). 

Jaw that which clu we. 

Kindness .. the feeling that becomes those of the same kin. 

Lammas loaf-mass, feast of the offering of first fruits at har- 
vest (Au-. 1). 

Lapwing a bird which flaps its winffss* if one wen broken. 

Larder a place where /">■</ and meat an kept. 

Ledge where things ma; be laid. 

Likewise in a like way or manner, 

Line to cover with linen in the inside, 


Linen cloth made from lint or flax. 

Lofty lifted up, aloft. 

Meadow mowed grass. 

Mildew a deposit or dew like meal. 

Molars teeth that grind like a mill. 

Naught no-whit, nothing. 

Ness a nose of land. 

Net something knitted. 

Nostril a nose-thyrl, or nose-hole. 

Notwithstanding... not-withstanding, i.e., not standing against. 

Nurse a, nowrisher (Fr., nourrice). 

Oar that which ears (ploughs) the water. 

Offal off-fall, waste, refuse. 

Offing the sea off the land. 

Onset a setting on. 

Orchard ort-geard, root-yard. 

Outgrow to grow beyond. 

Outlaw one out, or beyond the protection, of the laic. 

Outpost a, post out-side a camp. 

Pastime something to pass the time. 

Pitch to strike with a pike. {Pick, and poke, to thrust, 

are from the same root.) 

Plump like a lump (whence also clump). 

Poach to poke into another's ground. 

Pocket a little poke, or pouch. 

Quicklime lime in a quick, or active, state. 

Quicksand sand which seems quick, or alive, because it moves 

so readily. 

Quicksilver a fluid metal like quick, or living, silver. 

Rack to reach or stretch out. 

Rankle to grow rank, or coarse, from over-growth. 

Reaver a robber. 

Rift an opening riven, or split, in anything. 

Ringdove a dove with a white ring on its neck. 

Roadstead a stead (place) for riding ; a place where ships ride 

at anchor. 

Rubbish that which is rubbed off ; waste. 

Sheaf a bundle of things shoved together. 

Sheriff a shire-reeve, the chief officer in a shire. 

Ship something scooped, or hollow. 

Shire a district sheered, or cut, off. 

Shore where the sea-line sheers, or cuts, the land. 

Shuttle the thing the weaver shoots from side to side. 

Smith he who smites the anvil. 

Sorry sore in mind. 



Soup that which one sups. 

Splice to join what has been split. 

Starboard the stewing side of a ship. 

Steadfast .fast in stead (place). 

Steady firm in stead (place). 

Stew to cook in a stove. 

Stirrup stige-rap, a mounting-rope. 

Straight stretched out. 

Tackle things to be taken hold of. 

Tale something to tell. 

Thorough passing through and through. 

Thread that which is thrown, or twisted. 

Toll money told, or counted. 

Twist to twine two threads. 

Woodpecker a bird that pecks wood with its bill. 

Wrong something wrung, or wrested, from the right. 


Many words have been formed by imitating the sounds sug- 
gested by the objects or actions which they name ; for example, 
crash, cough, sneeze. Some writers hold that all language origi- 
nated in the imitation of natural sounds ; that is to say, that the 
primitive root-words were formed in this way, and that other 
words were derived from these. Other writers ridicule this idea, 
calling it the Bow-wow theory of language. Whether or not lan- 
guage originated in this way, it is certain that there are in every 
language many words which obviously were formed by imita- 
tion. The following is a list of wordfl formed in this way : — 


























































1 nam 

S( »1 > 

whee/.o b r 



i ereeofa 


w hirr 















The following is a list of words derived from the names of 

persons : — 

Burke, to murder or destroy, from... Burke, a notorious murderer (1829). 

Cicerone, a guide who describes \ r .. ., -r, 

, ' ' , b > Cicero, the Roman orator, 

what he shows ) 

Daguerreotype, a sun-picture onl-p. ,. . 

f i \ -Daguerre, the inventor. 

Davy lamp, a safety lamp, used in ) a . rT . -^ ., . 

-. ■ r ' j n \ g ir Humphry Davy, the inventor. 

Friday, the sixth day of the week ...Freya, the wife of Odin. 
Galvanism, chemical electricity Galvani of Bologna, the discoverer 

(died 1798). 
Guillotine, an instrument for be- ) Guillotin, a physician, the in- 
heading i ventor. 

Hansom, a light two-wheeled cab Hansom, the inventor. 

Jeremiad, a doleful story Jeremiah the prophet, author of 


Jovial, merry, cheerful Jovis (of Jupiter). 

Lazar, a diseased person Lazarus, the diseased beggar (Luke 

Macadamize, to pave a road with i Macadam, the inventor (died 

small stones 1 1836). 

Mackintosh, a water-proof over-coat... Mackintosh, the inventor. 

Martial, warlike Mars, the Roman god of war. 

Martinet, a strict disciplinarian Martinet, an officer in the French 

army, under Louis XIV. 
Ma usoleum, a splendid tomb Mausolus, a king of Caria, to whom 

his widow erected a magnificent 

Mercury, quick-silver Mercury, the active messenger of 

the gods. 
Nicotian, belonging to tobacco i.Nicot, who introduced tobacco into 

France (1560). 
Panic, sudden fright Pan, the god of the woods, who 

often startled shepherds in the 


-».-.. ,. e -n r ■ ( Philip of Macedon, against whom 

Philippic, a discourse full of m- J -r, ,. . u ■, ■> ■> • 

. ' \ Demosthenes thundered his 

vective ™ r 

v Philippics. 

Platonic, pure, free from baseness. ...Plato, the Greek philosopher. 


Saturday, the seventh clay of the ) Saetes, a Northern god ; said to be 
week ) connected with water. 

Saturnine, grave, gloomy Saturn, the planet, whose influence 

was so described by the astrolo- 

Spencer, a short over- jacket Lord Spencer, by whom it was 

made fashionable. 

Stentor ian, very loud Stentor, a Homeric herald, who 

had a powerful voice. 

_ . ,. , , ~ r Tantalus, in Greek mythology, 

Tantalize, to torment by offer- , , j ,. t- 

' ... * . , who was made to stand up to his 

ing pleasures which cannot be< , . • . . v j j 

, yi chin in water, which receded 

*- when he tried to drink, &c. 

Thursday, the fifth day of the week... Thor, the god of thunder. 

Tuesday, the third day of the week...Tieu, the god of the Teutons. 

Voltaism, galvanism Volta, an Italian, the discoverer. 

Wednesday, the fourth day of the ) , 17 . , ~ , . , , , , 

, - > Woden, or Odin, the god of war. 


The following is a list of words derived from the names of 
places : — 

Bayonet, a dagger fixed on the end ) ,-. . -r, 

. : a , , -. ( Bayonne, in 1 ranee, 

of a rifle or musket .from > 

Bedlam, a lunatic asylum Bethlehem, a monastery in Lon- 
don, afterwards used as a mad- 

Calico, cotton cloth Calicut, in India. 

Cambric, fine linen Cambray, in Flanders. 

Canter, an easy gallop Canterbury: from the easy pace 

of the pilgrims who rode bo 
Becket's shrine. 

Cashmere, \ . , , . , , , , 

y , la rah kind <>t wool- ) ~ , . , ,. 

< ammere, > , ■ .. < aanmere. in India. 

M I Leu doth j 

Ken ymere,*) 

Champagne, a light, sparkling wine...( Ihampagne, in France. 

Cherry, a bright red Btone-fruU Ceraaua, on the Black Sea. 

Copper, a reddiih-ooloured metal.. .Oyprus, an island In the Levant. 

* Kcnni/»ur, is also <i. ri\ sd from Si rt$y (Suffolk) and its adjaoant uwre. 


Currant, a small fruit of the grape ) ri . ., . ~ 
, . ' } Corinth, m Greece, 

kind J 

Cypress, an evergreen, used as an ) n . , , . ., T 

■,,,,,, > Cyprus, an island in the Levant, 

emblem of death ) J ' 

Damask, figured linen Damascus, in Syria. 

Fustian, coarse, twilled cotton cloth... Fostat (Cairo), in Egypt. 

Gin, an alcoholic liquor flavoured ) ^ . ^ ., , , 

' . , . > Geneva, m Switzerland, 

with juniper berries ) 

Guinea, an old gold coin — 21s Guinea, a country in Africa, which 

yielded the gold of which it was 
first made. 

Guinea-fovsl, a dark -gray fowl, with ) r , . .... 
white spots ) ' 

^ypsy, one °f a wandering race Egypt, in Africa, whence they 

were supposed to have come. 

Holland, a kind of linen I tt n i 

Hollands, a kind of gin ) 

Indigo, a blue dye India. 

Jersey, a woollen jacket Jersey, one of the Channel Islands. 

Madeira, a rich wine Madeira, an island on the north- 
west of Africa. 

Magnesia, a medicinal powder ),, . . T ,. 

, , 7, , j _, ( Magnesia, in Ly dia. 

Magnet, the load-stone ) 

Malmsey, a strong sweet wine Malvasia, in Greece. 

Meander, a winding course Meander, a winding river in Asia 


Milliner, a maker of bonnets and ),,-., . Tj _ , 
. , ' > Milan, m Italy, 

head-dresses ) 

Morocco, a fine kind of leather Morocco, in Africa. 

Muslin, a fine kind of cotton cloth... Moussul, in Mesopotamia. 

Nankeen, a buff -coloured cotton)^ ,. . n ,. 
, , >JNankm, in China. 

Pistol, a small hand-gun Pistoja (Pistola), in Italy. 

Port, a dark purple wine Oporto, in Portugal. 

Sherry, a light amber-coloured wine... Xeres, in Spain. 

Spaniel, a kind of dog Spain. 

Tariff, a table of duties or prices Tarifa, in Spain. 

Toledo, a finely-tempered sword- ) m , , . „ 
blade } Toledo, m Spam. 

Turkey, a large domestic fowl Turkey, whence it was erroneously 

supposed to have come. 

Worsted, twisted thread or yarn ) Worsted, near Norwich in En- 
made of wool ) gland. 



OUTLINE.— 1. The Maeso- Gothic Version of the Scriptures was 

made about 376 A.D. 2. A Low German Version was made 

about 700. 3. The oldest Old English Version was made by 

a bishop of Lindisfarne about 715. 4. King Alfred's trans- 
lation into Old English was made about 890. 5. Wyclifs 

Version was made in 1380 (Transition English). 6. Tyndale's 

Version was made in 1534 (Modern English). 7. The Rheims 

Version was made from the Latin Vulgate in 1582. 8. The 

Authorized Version was made in 1611. 

The following eight versions of the Lord's Prayer show very 
clearly the changes which the language has undergone. The 
first version is not properly English ; but the language in which 
it is written is one of the forefathers of English. It is interest- 
ing and instructive, as a specimen of the oldest book that exists 
in any Teutonic tongue. It is from a translation of the Gospels 
made by Ulphilas, in the fourth century, for the use of the 
Gothic Christians in Moesia (now Servia and Bulgaria). The 
excessive amount of word-endings in this version should be 
noted. By the time of Alfred these had been very much re- 
duced ; by the time of Wyclif they had almost entirely disap- 
peared. The second version, like the first, is not properly 
English; it is Low German, of the same date nearly as the 
oldest Old English Version. The last four versions show few 
changes except in the spelling of certain words, and in the 
interchange of the letters u and v. It may be noted that in 
Tyndale's version (1534) many words have final 9 which drop 
that letter in the later versions; for example, ourc, itrtc, dayc y 




376 Atta unsar the iii hiininain, 

700 Tim ore Fader, the earl on heofenum, 

715 Fader invn, |>u in I leofnas, 

890 Faeder ore, \w |>e eart on heofenum, 

1380 Oure fadir that, art In heuenee, 

1534 o nine father which arte in heven, 

1582 Ovr Father which art In heaoen, 

1611 Our father which ait in heanen. 



376 reihnai namo thein; 

700 Si thin noman gehalgod ; 

715 Sie gehalgud Xama ])in ; 

890 si J>in nama ge-halgod ; 

1380 halowid be thi name ; 

1534 halowed be thy name ; 

1582 sanctified be thy name ; 

1611 hallowed be thy name ; 



376 Kvimai thiudinassus theins ; 

700 Cume thin rike ; 

715 To-cymeth ric t>in ; 

890 To-becume }>in rice ; 

1380 Thi kingdom come-to ; 

1534 Let thy kyngdome come ; 

1582 Let thy kingdom come ; 

1611 Thy kingdom come ; 


376 Tairthai vilja theins, sve in himina yah ana airthai; 

700 Si thin "Willa on eorthan, twa on heof enum ; 

715 Sie fillo Jrin suae is in Heofne and in Eorba ; 

890 Ge-weor}>e Jrin willa on eor]>an, swa-swa on heofenum; 

1380 Be thi wille don in erthe, as in heuene ; 

1534 Thy wyll be fulfilled as well in erth as it ys in heven ; 

1582 Thy wil be done, as in heauen, in earth also ; 

1611 Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heauen; 


A.D. (continuous) 

376 Hlaif unsarana thana sinteinan gif uns himma daga, 

700 Syle us to-dag orne daegwamlican hlaf, 

715 Hlaf uferne oferwistlic sel us to daeg, 

890 Urne daeghwamlican hlaf syle us to daeg, 

1380 Geue to us this day oure breed [ouir other substaunce], 

1534 Geve vs this daye oure dayly breede, 

1582 Giue vs to day our supersubstantial bread, 

1611 Giue vs this day our dayly bread, 



A.D. (off-let) (what) (owing) (we be), 

376 Yah af-let ana thatei skulaus siyuhna, 

700 And forgif us lire gylter, 

715 And forgef us Sc3'lba urna, 

890 And forgyf us ure gyltas, 

1380 & forgeue to vs oure dettis, 

1534 And forgeve vs oure treaspases, 

1582 And forgiue vs our dettes, 

1611 And forgiue vs our debts, 


A.D. (we) (off-let) (debtors) (of ours). 

376 svasve yah veis af-letam thaine skulam unsaraini ; 

700 Swa we forgifath tham the with us agylthat ; 

715 Suae we forgefon scylgumurum ; 

890 swa-swa we forgifab urum gyltendum ; 

1380 as we forgeuen to oure dettouris ; 

1534 even as we forgeve oure trespacers ; 

1582 as we also forgiue our detters ; 

1611 as we forgiue our debters; 


376 Yah ni briggais uns in fraistubn yai. 

700 And ne laed thu na us on koatnunge, 

715 And ne inlead usith in Costnunge, 

890 And ne gelaede bu us on costnunge, 

1380 & lede us not in to temptacioun, 

1534 And leade vs not into temptacion, 

1582 And leade vs not into tentation. 

1611 And leade vs not into temptation, 


A.D. (loose) (the) (eviO. 

376 Ak lausei uns af thainina til<ilin : Aui'n. 

700 Ac alys us from! vfclr: Si l>it swa. 

715 Ah gefrigusich from evil : Sn|>lice. 

890 Ac alvs us of ytle : Soulier. 

1380 but delyuer ui from yuel ; iinen. 

1534 But delyver n from evell : Amen. 

1582 But dtliuer vi from euil : Amen. 

1611 lint dt'liuer vs from euill : Amen. 








Died about 680. 

A monk of Whit- 

Religious poems on 
Tlie Creation. 

Edwin (Nor- 


" The Venerable 
Bede." A monk 
of Jarrow. 

Ecclesiastical His- 
tory (in Latin), 
Gos-pel of St. John 


"The Great." King 
of England. 

Translations of 
Baeda 's History, 
dSsop's Fables, 


Various Monks. 

In different mon- 

The English Chroiir 

Alfred to 

2.-TRANSITI0N PERIOD (1100-1362). 






A Worcestershire 

The Brut, a rhym- 
ing chronicle of John. 
Britain (1205). 


An East Anglian 

The Ormulum, 
metrical relig- '■ T , 
ious services 



Chronicle of Eng- 
A monk of Glouce- ( land, in rhyme 
ster. (1297) ; Legends 
of Saints. 

Edward I. 

Robert Man- 


A monk of Brunne. 

Chronicle of Eng- 
land, in rhyme ; 
Handlyng Sinne 

Edward I. 

William Lang- 1 

land. A Western poet. 

Vision oj Piers the 
Plowman (1362). 

Edward III. ! 


3— TRANSITION PERIOD (1362-1485). 





Sir John Mande- 


"First writer in 
formed English." 

ZYovete in the East 
(Latin, French, 
and English, 

Edward III. 

John Barhour. 

Archd. of Aber- 
deen. Wrote in 
Northern Eng- 
lish (Scottish). 

The Bruce, narra- 
tive poem (1377). 

Richard II. 

(Robert II. of 


John Wyclif. 


Church reformer ; 
head of college 
at Oxford; priest 
of Lutterworth. 

Translation of the 
Bible from Latin 
Vulgate (1380), 
Traits and Ser- 

Richard II. 

John Gower. 


An eminent law- 
yer, Chief -Jus- The Lo> • >■'.< Gonfee- 
tice of the Com- sion (1393). 
mon Pleas. 

Richard II. 

Geoffrey Chau- 

Soldier, courtier, 
Comptroller of 


The Canterbury 

Talis (1384-90). 

Richard II. 
Henry IV. 

James I. of 

A prisoner in Eng- 
land from 1405- 
l 124. 

The KinafsQuhair, 
or Book, a poem 
in Chaucer's style 

Henry VI. 
(James I. 8c) 

William Caxton 

Introduced print- 
ing into Eng- 
land (1471). 

'Tin Cam,- and 
Playt <>/ the 

Edward iv. 

PERIOD (1485 1575). 


\i I i, BIB i ii, 

i ■ i .Mi: 



in now. 

Gawin Douglas. 

1474 1522. 

Biahop <>f Imim 
Iteld. Wmti' in 
Stnttish dialeot, 
or Northern 
i ogliah. 

Palace o/ Honour 
(1601X transla- 
tion if 

(IB l'irst 
translation frOBO 

Latin Into 
Han verse. 

H.ury Nil. 
II. nry VIII. 







Sir Thomas 


Lord High Chan- 
cellor. Executed 
by Henry VIII. 

History of Richard 
III. (1513), His- 
tory of Edward 
V., Utopia. 

Henry VIII. 

William Tyn- 

ab. 1477-1536. 

Lived and wrote at 
Antwerp, where 
he was burned 
as a heretic. 

Translation of New 
Testament (1525, 
1534), and Five 
Books of Moses 

Henry VIII. 

Sir David 


Of the Mount, 
"Lord Lion- 

Satire of the Three 
Estates (1535), 

Henry VIII. 

John Fox. 


An English clergy- 
man. Lived and 
wrote at Basel. 

Book of Martyrs 


ELIZABETH (1575-1616). 





Edmund Spen- 


Secretary to Vice- 
roy of Ireland. 
Lived at Kilcol- 
man, Co. Cork. 

Shephearde's Kal- 
endar (1579), 
Faerie Queene 


Sir Philip 


Mortally wounded 
near Zutphen. 

Arcadia (1580), Be- j 
fence of Poesy ■ Elizabeth. 

Francis, Lord 


Viscount St. Al- 
bans and Veru- 
1am, Lord High 
Chancellor: de- 
graded for receiv- 
ing bribes (1621). 

Essays (1597), Ad- 
vancement of 
Learning (1605), 
Novum Organ-y- 
um (1620). 

James I. 

William Shake- 


Born and died at 
Stratf ord-on- 
Avon. Prince of 
dramatic poets. 
Wrote 37 plays 
in all. Was an 
actor and theatre 

Love's Labour's Lost 
(1588), Midsum. 
Night's Bream 
(1598), Julius 
Cozsar (1601), 
Hamlet (1602), 
Sonnets (1609), 
The Tempest. 

James I. 







Ben Jonson. 


"Rare Ben Jon- 
son." Comic 
dramatist, brick- 
layer, soldier, 

Every Man in Hit 

Humour (1596), 
The Alchemist 

James I. 

Sir Walter 


Courtier, naviga- 
tor, historian. 
Executed on a 
charge of treason 

History of the 
World (1614) ; 
written in the 
Tower of London 

James I. 

William Drum- 


Of Hawthornden. Love Sonnets and 
Friend of Ben Religious Poems 
Jonson. (1616). 

James I. 

THE AGE OF ANNE (1616 1702). 





John Milton. 


Foreign Secretary 
to the Common- 
wealth (1649). 
Became blind 

Hymn to the Na- 
tivity (1629); De- 
fence of the Eng- 
lish People(1650), 
prose; Paradise 
Lost (1667). 

Charles I. 
Charles II. 

Jeremy Taylor. 


Bishop of Down. 
A master of elo- 
quent and ornate 

Holy Living and 
H oly Dying 

Charles I. 

Samuel Butler. 


Humorous and sar- 
castic poet. 

Hudfbra$QJB68y, ■ 
mock heroic 
poem, ridiculing 

tin- Puritans. 

Charles II 

John Dryden. 
1681 lTi'i. 

"\V rote keenly pol- Annus Mirahilis 
ished satirical (1667), Abtalom 
verse, and plays and AcMtOfhA 

on the French (16S1), Hind and 

model. Pa/nthmr (1887). 

Charles II. 
.lames II. 

John Bunyan. 

At fust a trawl 
ling tinker; for 
twelve years in 
Bedford Jail. 

Tht I'ilgrim's Pn 

pre* (1878). 

Charles II. 







Sir Isaac New- 

Discoverer of the 
law of gravita- 

Principia Mathe- 
matica (1687), a 
treatise on Nat- 
ural Philosophy, 
establishing the 
theory of gravi- 
tation ; — written 
in Latin. 

James II. 

John Locke. 


Philosopher and 
political writer. 

Letters on Tolera- 
tion(1689), Essay 
concerning the 
Human Under- 
standing (1690). 

William III. 






Sir Richard 



Introduced the 
periodical Essay 
in England. Was 
expelled from 
the House of 
Commons for 
writing political 

The Tatler (1709), 
The Spectator 
(1711), The Guar- 
dian (1713). 


Jonathan Swift. 


Dean of St. Pat- 
rick's. Wrote 
strong and terse 
English. Died 

Battle of the Books, 
Tale of a Tub 
(1704), Gulliver's 
Travels (1726). 

George I. 

Wrote pure and 
Joseph Addison. graceful English. 
1672-1719. Secretary of 
State (1717). 

Essays in Tatler, 
Spectator, and 
Guardian. Cato: 
A Tragedy (1713) 

George I. 

Daniel Defoe. 

Was pilloried for 
sedition (1703). 
Was Secretary to 
the Commission- 
ers on the Scot- 
tish Union (1707) 

Robinson Crusoe 

George I. 






Alexander Pope 


Made Dryden his 
model. Chief 
poet of the Arti- 
ficial School. 
Wrote bitter sa- 
tires in keenly 
polished verse. 

Essay on Criticism 
(1711), Rape of 
the Lock (1712- 
14), Translation 
of The Iliad 
(1715-20), The 
Dunciad (1728- 
29), Essay on 
Man (1733). 

George I. 
George II. 






James Thomson 

Educated for the 
Scottish Church. 
Became a man of 
letters in London 

The Seasons (1730); 
The Castle of In- 
dolence (1748), 
in Spenserian 

George II. 

Henry Fielding. 


Greatest of the 
Early English 

Tom Jones (1749), 
Amelia (1751). 

George II. 

David Hume. 

For a time keeper 
of the Advocates' 
Library, Edin- 
burgh; for a time 
of State. 

Inquiry concern- 
ing the rri)>ri i>Ji. •< 
of Morula (1751), 
History of En- 
gland (11 :U <:•_'). 

George II. 

Dr. Samuel 

Chief master of the 
formal and Lai 
inized style. The 
literary dictator 
of bis time. 

London (1738), a 

DOain ; English 
I> i r ( i o n it r ;/ 

i)j Bosseku 
(1759), a novel ; 
Lives of On Posts 


George II. 

Goorgo 111. 

! Edmund Burke. 

A "great maiter 

(if cl(ic|Url)<V," 

ami a profound 
thinker on politi- 
cal questions. 

Essay on ths 8ub- 
• lime niid limn 
tifni (iv ;.<;>, /;■ 
flections on tin- 
French /.'< polu* 
f i»n (1700). 

Goorgo IF. 

George in. 






Dr. William 



Principal of the 
University of 

History of Scot- 
land (1759), His- 
tory of Charles 
V. (1769), His- 
tory of America 

George II. 
George III. 

Adam Smith. 


A Professor in 

Glasgow. Found- 
er of the science 
of Political 

Moral Sentiments 
(1759), Wealth of 
Nations (1776). 

George II. 
George III. 

Oliver Gold- 

Began to study 
divinity, law, 
and medicine, 
and failed in all. 
Travelled on foot 
over Europe, 
playing a flute 
for his living. 


field (1766), a 
novel; The De- 
serted Village 
(1770), a poem; 
She Stoops to 
Conquer. (1773), 
a comedy. 

George III. 

Edward Gibbon. ' Shows bias against 
1737-1794. Christianity. 

Decline and Fall 
of the Roman 

Empire (1776-S7) 

George III. 

Robert Burns. 

The national poet 
of Scotland. 
Originally a 

Poems and Songs 
(Tarn o' Shant>:r, 
The Cottar's Sat- 
urday Night, 
d-c), 1786-96. 

George III. 

William Cowper 

The victim of mel- 
ancholy. Lived 
at Olney, Bucks. 

The Task (1785), a 
poem; John Gil- 
pin; The Iliad 

G«orge III. 

TO PRESENT TIME (1790-1870). 





Samuel Taylor 


One of the Lake 
poets ; great as a 
critic and con- 

The Ancient Mari- 
ner in Lyrical 
Ballads (179S), 
and Christabel 

George III. 







William Words- 

Chief of the Lake 
poets — poets of 
nature and feel- 
ing. Poet-laure- 
ate (1843-50). 

Lyrical Ballads 
(1798), Th A - 
cursion (1814). 

George III. 

Robert Southey. 

One of the Lake 
poets. Poet-lau- 
reate (1813-43). 
Author of more 
than 100 volumes 

Wat Tyler (1794), 
Thalaba the De- 
stroyer, The 
Life of Nelson, 
The Doctor. 

George III. 

Lord Byron 

(George Gordon). 


A romantic poet. 
Excelled in de- 
scriptions of na- 
ture. Led a wild 
and useless life. 
Died at Misso- 
longhi, when aid- 
ing the cause of 
Greek indepen- 

Hours of Idleness 
(1S07); Childe 
Harold's Pil- 
grimage (1812); 
Don iA«itt (1819); 
The Corsair 
(1814), and other 
Turkish tales in 
verse; Manfred, 
a dramatic poem, 
(1817); Cairn, a 
mystery (1821). 

George III. 
George IV. 

Sir Walter Scott 

The greatest of 
romance writers. 
Kept the author- 
ship of the Wa- 
verley Novels a 
secret till 1827. 
A Scottish law- 
yer. Lived at 
Abbotsford, on 
the Tweed. 

Border Minstrelsy 
(1802), Lay oft fa- 
Last Minstrel 
(1S05), Marmion 
(1808), The Lady 
Waverley (1^14), 
first of the Wa- 
verley Novels, of 
which there were 

George III. 
George IV. 
William IV. 

Thomas Camp- 


Lived as a literary 
man in London. 
Most famous for 
his short poems, 
imperially Ml na- 

V ll ft 

Pleasures <f Hops 
(1799), Eohenlin- 
d' it, Battle of the 
l'n in,, y 
inert if 1 
gland, Gertrude 
of Wyoming 

George 111. 

Thomas Moore. 
177U 1862. 


Chief [rlsfa lyric 

pOdt. Fond of 
fashionable life. 

Latin RooJb*(1817X 
/ . ./. if Byron 
(1880), Irish Met- 

1 :<<'rge III. 
QtOfft iv. 







Percy Bysshe 


Professed himself 
an atheist. Lived 
in Italy. Was 
drowned in the 

Queen Mab (1813), 
Prometlicus Un- 
bound (1819), 
Odes, To the Sky- 
lark, &c. 

George III. 

Henry Hallam. 


Was helpful in ob- 
taining the abo- 
lition of the slave 
trade (1833). As 
a historian, ac- 
curate and im- 

Europe during the 
Middle Ages 
(1818), Constitu- 
tional History of 
England (1827), 
Literature of Eu- 
rope (1837). 

George III. 
George IV. 
William IV. 


Thomas de 


Was an opium- 
eater for several 
years. A master 
of prose-poetry, 
or impassioned 
prose. Helped 
to introduce Ger- 
man influence. 

Confessions of an 
English Opium- 
Eater (1821), Sus- 
jnria de Profun- 
di^, numerous 
Essays on Phil- 
osophy, History, 

George IV. 

William IV. 


Thomas Carlyle 

The most original 
thinker of his 
age, on which he 
has exercised a 
powerful influ- 
ence. Intro- 
duced German 
literature to En- 
glish readers. 

Sartor Resartus 
(1833), T/ie French 
Oliver Cromwell's 
Letters and 
Speeches (1845), 
History of Fried- 
rich II. of Prus- 
sia (1858-65). 


George IV. 
William IV. I 

Lord Lytton 

Brilliant novelist, 
poet, and essay- 
ist. Was Colonial 
Secretary in 1858. 
Best known as 
Sir Edward Lyt- 
ton Bulwer. 

Pelham (1828); The 
Lady of Lyons 
(1840), a drama ; 
King Arthur 
(1848), a poem ; 
The Caxtons 


George IV. 

William IV. 


Lord Macaulay. 

The most popular 
of modern his- 
torians. Made 
historical writ- 
ing a Fine Art. 
Possessed mar- 
vellous power of 

Essay on Milton in 
Edinburgh Re- 
view (1825), Lays \ 
of Ancient Rome 
(1842), Essays 
from the Edin- 
burgh Review 
(1843), History of 
England (1848- 

George IV. 

William IV. 










Alfred Tenny- 


Poet- laureate since 

Early Poems(l$3Q), j 

In Memoriam 1 „ T ,, 
, 10 . M r , „ .1- George IV. 
18o0) JdyHsqr wiuj^xv. 
the King (1859- 1 ~sj~ t . 
73), Queen Mary , 
(1875), a drama. 1 

Robert Brown- 

Married Elizabeth 
Barrett, the 
greatest poetess 
of modern times. 

Pauline (1833); 
(1836), a drama ; 
Men and Women 
(1855); Dramatic 

William IV. 

Charles Dickens 

The most popular 
of modern nov- 
elists. He creat- 
ed the novel of 
low life as well 
as that of society. 
A successful dra- 
matic reader. 

Pickwick Papers 
<1837), Martin 
David Copper- 
bey and Son, 
Bleak House, &c. 


William Make- 


A novelist of char- Vanity Fair (1846), 
acter, a keen ! Esmond (1852), 
satirist, a sue- ' The Neuronics 
cessful lecturer. (1855). 


John Ruskin. 


Created the litera- 
ture of art criti- 
cism. Professor 
of the Fine Arts 
at Oxford. 

Modern Painters 

(1S42), The Seven 
Lamps of Arclii- 
tccturc (1849), 
'Die Stones ,</ 
Venice (1851-53). 








A, on; as, aboard. 

Be, about; as, beware, bespatter. 

Ell or In (em or im, before b and p\ 

make; as, enable, embark, income, 

For, against; as, forbid, forswear. 
Fore, before; as, foresee, foremost. 
Mis, not, ivrong; as, misconduct. 
Out, beyond; as, outlive. 
Over, above, beyond; as, overdo, over- 
To, this; to-day, to-morrow, [charge. 
Un, not; as, unable, unbind. 
Under, below; as, undersell, underhand. 
Up, up wards; as, upheave, uphold. 
With, from, against ; as, withhold, 


2. LATIN. 

A, ab, abs, from; as, avert, to turn 
from ; absolve, to loose from ; abs- 
tract, to draw from. 

Ad (for euphony ad assumes the forms 
of a, ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, 
according to the initial letter of the 
root with which it is joined), to; as, 
adverb, affix, attract. 

Amb, ambi, round about; as, ambient, 
ambition (going round, canvassing 
for office), ambiguous. 

Ante, before; as, antecedent. 

Circum (circu), about; as, circum- 
ference, circuit. 

Con (co, cog, col, com, cor), together; 
as, concur, collect, correct. 

Contra, against; as, contradict, con- 

De, down or concerning; as, deject, de- 

Di or dis (dif), asunder; as, divide, 
dispel, diffuse. 

E or ex (ec. ef ), out of; as, emit, effect. 

Extra, beyond; as, extraordinary. 

In (ig, il, im, ir), in, before a verb ; 
not, before an adjective and adverb ; 
as, include ; infinite, irregular, in- 

Inter, between; as, intercede. 

Intro, within; as, introduce. 

Juxta, nigh to; as, juxtaposition. 

Ob (oc, of, op, os), in the way of; as, 
object, occur, offer. 

Per (pel), through; as, pervade, pel- 
lucid (thoroughly clear). 

Post, after; as, postpone, postscript. 

Pre, before; as, prefix, precede. 

Preter, beyond; as, preternatural. 

Pro (pol, pox), forth, for; proceed, pro- 
nounce, pollute (t6 wash forth, or 
overflow), portend (to stretch forth, 
or betoken). 

Re, back; as, replace, recall. 

Retro, backward; as, retrospect. 

Se, aside or apart; as, select, seclude 
(to shut apart). 

Semi, half; semi-circle. 

Sine, viithout; sinecure. 

Sub (sue, suf, sug, sup, sus), under; 
as, subscribe, succeed, suggest, sup- 

Subter, beneath (implying secrecy); as, 
subterfuge (secret flight). 

Super (sua - ) above , as, superfluous, 

Trans (tra), across, or beyond; as, 
transport, traverse. 

Ultra, beyond; as, ultramarine (a colour 
brought from beyond the sea). 

3. GREEK. 

A or an, without, not; as, atheist 
(without God), apathy (without feel- 
ing), anarchy (without government). 

Amphi, both; as, amphibious (with 
both lives — land and water), amphi- 
theatre (a circular theatre). 

Ana, through, up; as, analysis (a loosen- 
ing up), anatomy (a cutting up). 

Anti (ant), against; as, antidote (given 
against poison), antagonist (a striver 

Apo (ap), from; as, apostate (an off- 
stander), aphelion (farthest from the 



Cata (cat), down, against; as, cataract 

(a rushing down), catastrophe (an 

Dia, through; as, diameter (a measure 

En (em), in or on; as, endemic (in, or 

peculiar to, a people), emphasis (a 

showing on, making clear). 
Endon, within; endogenous (growing 

from within). 
Epi, upon; as, epidemic (on, or common 

to, a people), epitaph (on a tomb). 
Exo (ex), without, exogenous (growing 

outside), exodus (a way out). 
Hyper, over, above; as, hypercritical 

(over critical). 

Hypo, under; as, hypothesis (something 
placed under). 

Meta (met), change ; as, metaphor 
(a change of object, a name belonging 
to one thing applied to another). 

Para (par), against, side by side; as, 
paradox (against common opinion \ 
paraphrase (something beside or like 
something else). 

Peri, round about ; as, perimeter 
(measurement around). 

Syn (sy, syl, sym), together; as, syn- 
thesis (a placing together), system 
(parts placed together), syllable 
(letters taken together), sympathy 
(feeling together). 


1. Denoting the agent, or the 
doer of a thing. 

an grammarian, librarian. 

ant descendant, occupant. 

ar beggar, liar. 

ard drunkard, sluggard. 

ary lapidary, plenipotentiary. 

eer auctioneer, mutineer. 

ent respondent, agent. 

er reader, baker. 

ist botanist, duellist. 

or confessor, inspector. 

s ter maltster, spinster. 

2. Denoting the object, or the 
receiver of a thing. 

ate advocate, confederate. 

ee trustee, committee. 

ite favourite. 

3. Denoting state of being, 
or quality. 

acy accuracy, oelibMJ, 

age average, foliage. 

•JM6 f Vl0y..fregranee, occupancy. 

doin kingdom, freedom 

euce, ency i\ci lii-ui c, tendency 

hood manhood, neighbourhood 

ion creation, tendon. 

ism heroism, egotism. 

ment banishment, engagement, 

mony parsimony, testimony, 

ness hardness, darkness. 

ry slavery, bravery. 

ship courtship, partnership. 

t weight, height. 

tude multitude, gratitude. 

th warmth, health. 

ty royalty, poverty. 

ure pleasure, rapture. 

y jealousy, victory. 

4. Denoting littleness (dinriim 
the. ) 

cle, CUle particle, animalcule 

kin, en lambkin, kitten. 

let rivulet, eaglet. 

ling darling, seedling. 

ock hillock, paddock. 

y baby, Tommy. 

5. Denoting rank or office. 

acy curacy, pap acy 

ate protectorate, pontificate 

don? dukedom, kingdom. 

ric bishopric. 

ship mastership, clerkship 

6. 1 denoting place. 

ary, Ory. . . .library, depository. 

erie menagerie, 

ery, ry brewery, heronry, 

y rectory. 



7. Denoting full of. 

fill plentiful, beautiful. 

ical methodical, poetical. 

ive instructive, operative. 

ose verbose, jocose. 

OUS populous, glorious. 

some fulsome, wearisome. 

y wealthy, healthy. 

8. Denoting of, or belonging to. 

ac demoniac, elegiac. 

al paternal, filial. 

an, ane human, humane. 

ar circular, ocular. 

ary military, adversary. 

en woollen. 

ic public, domestic. 

id florid, morbid. 

ile juvenile, hostile. 

ine feminine, sanguine. 

ish British, selfish. 

9. Other Adjective terminations. 

ant,ent..denoting being., j jjjjjjjj 

, ( arable, 
' " «"*»*"■{ aud i b ie. 


em denoting direction \ . 

( western. 

•i ' , ( docile, 

de " Viaybe - {tractile. 

less.... M without. . < , , ' 
( homeless. 

like.. .. ii likeness.. < .. ' 

[ manake. 

l * " likenesS -{br™hX. 

10. Denoting to make. 

ate abdicate, complicate. 

en deepen, lengthen. 

fy beautify, sanctify. 

ish publish, admonish. 

ise despise. 

ize authorize. 

11. Adverbial terminations. 

l * denoting^ { j£™^ 

,. .. | homeward, 
i direction < , 

{ outward. 

( likewise, 
i manner . < ,, . ' 
I otherwise. 


wise. . , 


JEr [air), before ; early, ere, erst (first), or. 
Agan, to own ; owe, ought. 
Bana, death; bane, henbane. 
Beorgan, to protect; borough, burgh, 

borrow, burrow, harbour, harbinger. 
Biddan, to pray; bid, bead, beadsman, 

Blast, flame; blast, bluster, blaze. 
Blawan, to blow, breathe ; bladder, 

Blian, to till; boor, neighbour. 
Biigan, to bend ; bough, bow, buxom, 

Byrnan, to burn; brand, brandy, brim- 
stone, brown, brunt. 
Cedpian [k'ydpian), to exchange, to 

buy ; cheap, Cheapside, chapman, 

chaffer, chop (Scot. coup). 
Cennan [kennan), to beget; kin, kind, 

kindness, king, akin. 
Cleafan 'k'lyafan), to split; cleave, cliff, 

cleft, clover (from its cleft leaves). 

Cunnan, to know, to be able; can, con, 
cunning, ken, keen. ' 

Cwellan, to slay ; kill, quell. 

Dsel [dale), a part; deal, dole, ordeal. 

D&m [doom), judgment; doom, dooms- 

Drygan, to dry; drought, drug. 

Elian, to plough ; ear (to plough), earth. 

Faran, to go; farewell, ferry, ford. 

Fedan, to feed ; food, fodder, father. 

Fengan, to seize ; fang, finger. 

Feond [f'yoand), an enemy; fiend. 

Fill [fool), unclean; filth, foul, fulsome. 

Galan, to sing, nightingale. 

Geard, an enclosure; garden, orchard 
[ortgeard, garden for worts or vege- 
tables), yard. 

Gerefa, a governor ; sheriff (Scot. 

G6d, good; gospel [spell, discourse). 

Graf an, to dig ; grave, graft, groove, 
grove, engrave. 



Hal, sound ; hail, hale, health, holy, 

whole, wholesome. 
Healdail, to hold ; halt, halter, hilt, 

hehold, upholsterer. 
Hefan, to lift; heap, heave, heaven, 

heavy, upheaval. 
Hlaf, bread; loaf, Lammas = loaf -mas 

(the feast of harvest). 
HllS (hoos), a house ; housewife, hus- 
band, hxistings. 
Lsefan, to leave ; leave (quit), eleven 

(one left, after ten), twelve (two left). 
Lyft, the air, the heavens; loft, lofty. 
Mugan, to be able; may, might, main, 

Nsess, a headland; nose, naze, ness. 
Neah [n'ya), nigh; near (nigher), next, 

Reafian, to seize ; bereave, rive, rob, 

Sceotan, to dart ; shoot, shot, shut, 


Sceran, to cut ; score, share, plough- 
share, shire, sheriff. 
Scippan, to form; shape, landscape. 
Smitan, to strike; smite, smith. 
Spell, a message, a discourse ; spell, 

Steoran, to guide; steer, stern. 
Steorfail, to die; starve. 
Stigail, to rise ; stair, stile, stirrup, 

sty (a tumour on the eyelid). 
Swerian, to engage for; ansiver, eweer. 
Tsecan, to show, to point out; teach. 
Tellan, to count; tell, tale, talk./ 
Wegan, to carry ; wag, wave, way, 

Weordh, being, substance; worth, wor' 

Witan, to know; wise, wit, uri 

Writhan, to twist ; wraili, writha, 

wreath, wroth, wry. 
Wunian, to dwell; wont. 


Acidus, sour; acid, acidity, acidulate, 

Aedes, a house; edify, edifice, edifica- 

Aequus, equal ; equator, equity, ade- 

Acstimo, I value ; estimate, inesti- 
mable, esteem. 

Aevum, an age ; jmmeval (primus\ 

Ager, a field; agriculture, agrarian. 

Agger, a heap ; exaggerate, exaggi r- 
at ion. 

Ago (actus), I do; agent, agitate, nari 
gate (navis), action, enact. 

Alter, another ; alternate, (titer, tub- 
nit< ru, aid nation. 

Altus, high; altar, altitude, taali 

Amo, I Love; enamour, amicable, 

Anima, the si ml, Hfe; animal, animals, 
aitinttisity, magna n Imow 

Annus, a pear; annale, annual, anni- 
versary (wto), annuity, biennial. 

Aptus, fit; apt, adapt, adepi 

Aqua, water; aquatic, aquarium, ague- 
duct (duco), agueoue. 

Arbiter, a judge; arbitrai-y, arbitra- 
tion, arbitrator. 

Arbor, a tree; arbour, arboriculture. 

Arma, arms; army, armour, armorial, 

Ars (art-is),* art; artifice, artisan. 

Asper, rough; asperity, exasperate, 

Auctus, increased; auction, author, 

Alldax, bold; audacious, audacity. 

Audio, I hew; audience, audible, antdit. 
Barba, a beard; barb, barber. 
Bellum, war; belligerent (gero), rebel. 
Bene, well; benediction (dico), bene- 
factor (facio). 
Bis, twice; biennial, biscuit. 
Bonus, good; boon, bounty. 
Brevis, short; brief, abbreviate 
Cado (casus, • l fall; ooecade, accident. 

Caedo (OMRM), I cut, kill; excise, dc- 

eide, fratricide. 

Campus, u plain; camp, campaign. 

Cfcndoo, l glow, aiii white; oandU, 
eandid, candidate [wearing a white 

robe), inense, inct ndiary. 

* The Criiitives of Nouns and the Passive PartlotfiM Of Verbs are giveu la 
parentheses when they show the Btcm of the u i ill. 



Capio (captus), I take; accept, deceive, 

Caput, the head; cap, cape, capital, 

Caro (carn-is), flesh; carnage, carnal. 

Castus, pure; chaste, chasten, chastise. 

Causa, a cause; accuse. 

Caveo, (cautus), I take care ; caveat, 

Cavus, hollow; cave, cavern, excavate. 

Cedo (cessus\ I yield; accede, proceed, 
cease, access. 

Centrum, the centre ; concentrate, ec- 

Ceutuui, a hundred; cent., century. 

Cerno (cretus), I perceive; discern, dis- 

Civis, a citizen; civic, civilize. 

Ciamo, I cry out ; claim, exclaim, 

Claras, clear; clarify, declare. 

Claudo (clausus), I shut; clause, in- 

Colo (cultus!, I till; cultivate, agricul- 
ture (ager). 

Copia, plenty; copious. 

Coquo (coctus), I boil; concoct, cook, 

Cor (cord-is), the heart; core, cordial, 

Corpus (corpor-is), the body; corps, 
corpse, corporeal. 

Credo, I trust, believe; creed, credit, 

Cresco, I grow; crescent, decrease. 

Crux, a cross; crucify, crusade. 

Cura, care ; cure, curious, accurate, 
curate, secure [se, apart), sinecure 

■ {sine, without). 

Curro (cursus), I run; current, course, 
concur, occur. 

Dens ^dent-is), a tooth; dentist, indent. 

Deus, a god; deity, deify. 

Dexter, right (not left); dexterous, dex- 

Dico (dictus), I say; benediction, dic- 
tate, predict. 

Dignus, worthy; dignify, indignant, 

Do (datus), I give ; donor, date, addition. 

Doceo, (doctus), I teach; docile, doctor, 

Dominus, a master ; dominion, pre- 
dominate, domain (what one is 
master of). 

Domus, a house; dome, domestic. 

Duco (ductus), I lead; produce, due- 
tile, duke, educate, aqueduct. 

Duo, two; duel, duet, double. 

Durus, hard; endure, obdurate. 

Emo (emptus), I buy; redeem, exempt 

Ens (ent-is), being; entity, abseyit. 

Eo (itus , I go; exit, transit, circuit. 

Equus, a horse; eques, a horseman; 
equerry, equestrian. 

Esse, to be; est, is; essence, interest. 

Facilis, easy; facility, difficult. 

Facio (factus), I make ; fact, fashion, 
feat, affect, office, benefactor. 

Fallo (falsus), I deceive ; fail, faUe, 
fallacy, infallible. 

Fama, a report ; fame, defame. 

Felix (felic-is), happy; felicity. 

Fendo, I strike; defend, fence. 

Fero (latus), I bear ; differ, fertile, 

Fido, I trust; confide, infidel, defy. 

Filius, a son; filial, affiliate. 

Finis, an end, or limit ; fine, finish, 
finite, confine. 

FirniUS, strong; firm, affirm. 

Flecto (flexus), I bend; reflect, flexible. 

FlOS (flor-is), a flower; floral, florid, 

Fluo (fluxus), I flow; fluent, fluid, in- 
fluence, influx, superfluous. 

Foedus, a treaty ; federal, confederate. 

Folium, a leaf; foliage, folio. 

For (fatus\ I speak; infant, nefarious, 
fate, preface, fable. 

Forma, shape; form, reform. 

Fortis, strong; fort, fortify, fortitude. 

FrangO (fractus), I break ; fragment, 

Frater, a brother ; fraternal, fratri- 
cide (caedo). 

Frigeo, I am cold; frigid. 

Fruor (fructus, fruitus\ I enjoy; fruit. 

Fumus, smoke ; perfume. 

Fundo (fusus), I pour ; found (pour 
metal), confound, confuse, refute. 

Fundus, the bottom; found (establish), 

Gelu, frost; congeal, gelatine. 

Gens (gent-is), a nation; gentile, genteel, 
gentle, general, gentry. 

Genus (gener-is), a kind ; general, de- 
generate, gender. 

Gero (gestus), I bear, or carry ; belli- 
gerent (bellum), gesture, swigged. 



Gradior (gressus\ I walk ; grade, 
gradual, degrade, progress, degree. 

GratllS, thankful ; grace, grateful, 

Gravis, heavy; grave, aggravate. 

Grex (greg-is), a flock; congregate, gre- 

Habeo, I have; habito, I dwell in; 
habit, inhabit, exhibit, able, ability. 

Homo, man; homage, homicide (caedo). 

Hospes (hospit-is), a guest ; hospital, 

Hostis, an enemy; host, hostile. 

Humus, the ground ; posthumous, ex- 

Ignis, fire; ignite, igneous. 

Impero, I command; empire, impera- 

Initium, beginning; initial, initiate. 

Insula, an island ; insular, peninsula 
(pene, almost). 

Jacio (jactus), I throw; object, adjec- 

Janua, a gate; janitor. 

Junctus, joined; junction, subjunctive. 

Jus (jur-is), right, law; jurisdiction, 

Juvenis, a youth; juvenile. 

Labor (lapsus), I glide; lapse, relapse. 

Lapis (lapid-is), a stone; lapidary, di- 

Laus (laud-is), praise; laud, laudable. 

Lego (lectus), I gather ; college, legend, 
lecture, neglect. 

Lego (legatus), I send; legacy, delegate. 

Levo, I raise; lever, elevate. 

Lex (leg-is), law; legal, legislate, privi- 

Liber, free; liberal, liberty. 

Ligo, I bind; ligament, obligation, r* 

Liquet), I melt; Uquid, jig—I*. 

Litera, a letter; literal, literary. 

Locus, a place; local, dislocate, loco- 

Loquor (locutus), I speak ; eJoftmU, 

Ludo (lusus), I play ; illusimi, etude, 

Lumen (lomln-ls), light; illumine, 

Luna, the moon ; lunar, tublunary, 

Luo, I waib; ablution, pollute, deluge. 
Lux (luc-u , liK'hi; lucid, elucidate 

Magnus, great ; magnificent, magni- 

Malus, bad ; malady, malefactor 
(facio), malevolent (volo), maltreat. 

Maneo (mansus 1 , I stay; manse, man- 
sion, permanent, remnant. 

Manus, the hand; manage, manual, 
manufacture (facio). 

Mare, the sea; mariner, maritime. 

Mater, a mother ; maternal, matron, 
matricide (caedo). 

Medius, the middle; immediate with 
nothing in the middle, or intervening). 

Memor, mindful; memory, rememhtr. 

Mens (ment-is), the mind ; mental, 
comment, vehement [ve, not\ 

Merx (merc-is), merchandise ; com- 
merce, merchant, mercantile, mer- 

Miles (milit-is), a soldier; military. 

Minor, less; minute, dimemieh. 

Miror, I wonder; miracle, mirror, ad- 

Miser, wretched; miter, misery. 

Mitto (missus 1 , I send; admit, submis- 
sion, message, promise. 

Mollis, soft; mollify. 

Moneo, I advise, remind ; admonish, 
monument, hhmm 

Mons (mont-is , a mountain ; mound, 
mount, surmount. 

Mors (mortis 1 , death; mortal, mortif'i 

Moveo (motns), I move; miioi', MO- 
don, r< mote, moment. 

Multus, many; multijily, multitude 

Munus (nmner-is\ a gift; mm 
(facio , n numerate 

MlltO, I change; miital'le, transmute 

Nascor v natus\ I am born; natal, 
nation, OOgUOte 

Navis, a ship; naval, navigate. 

NeCtO (nexus , 1 tit'; annu; connect. 
Noceo, I hurt; unmet /if, noisome, 

an nia/. 
Nomen, a naine; nominal, inain. 

Norma, a rule; normal, tnormoue, 

Nota, a mark; note, notice, notify. 
NovllS, new; IMHMi, rJHOMfl 

Nox (noet-ti), night; nocturnal. 


Nullus, none; nullify, annul 

NuUHTUS, a mimlirr; nitin.val. MM 

til' ride 
Nlincio, I tell; announce. 

Omen, a ilgn; omlnoue 



Jinis, all ; omnipotent (potens), om- 
niscient (scio). 

ius, (oner-is), a burden; onerous, ex- 

pus (oper-is), work; operate. 
"bis, a circle; orb, orbit, exorbitant. 
rdo (ordin-is), order; ordain. 
.'no, I deck; adorn, ornament. 
5 (or-is), the mouth ; oral, adore, 
orator, oracle. 
fum, an egg; oval. 

ando (passus), I spread out ; pass, pace, 
compass, expand. 

ango (pactus), I fix, agree upon; im- 
pinge, compact. 
anis, bread; pantry, pannier. 
ar, equal; pair, peer, disparity. 
areo, I appear ; apparent, appari- 

aro, I prepare; apparel, compare, re- 

ars (part-is), a part ; partake, partial, 
party, particle. 

ater,a father; paternal, patron, pat- 

atior (passus), I suffer ; passion, 

auper, poor; pauperism. 
ax (pac-is), peace ; pacify, appease. 
ello (pulsus), I drive; compel, pulse, 

endeo, I hang; pendant, depend, per- 

endo (pensus), I weigh, I pay; expend, 
expense, pensive, comjyensate. 
es (ped-is), the foot ; pedal, pedes- 
trian, expedition, quadruped. 
eto (petitus), I ask, seek ; petition, 
impetuous, compete, repeat. 
laceo, I please ; complacent. 
laco, I appease; implacable. 
lanus, level; plane, plain, explain. 
lecto (plexus), I weave ; complex, 
simple, double. 

leo (pletus), I fill ; complete, accom- 

lico, I fold ; reply, complicate, ex- 

'lus (plur-is), more.; plural, surplus. 
'oena, punishment ; penalty, penance, 
penitent, repent. 

'ondus, weight ; pound, ponder, pon- 

•ono (positus), I place; depone, oppose, 
post, deposit, compound. 

Populus, the people; popular, popula- 

Porto, I carry ; porter, export, im- 

Posse, to be able ; potens, able ; pos- 
sible, potent, omnipotent. 

Precor, I pray; deprecate, precarious. 

Prehendo, I take; apprehend, appren- 

Premo(pressus), I press; impress, print. 

Pretium, a price ; prize, praise, pre- 
cious, appreciate. 

Primus, first ; prime, primary, prim- 

Probo, I prove; probable, approbation. 

Proprius, one's own ; proper, proprietor, 

Proximus, nearest; approximate, prox- 

Puer, a boy; puerile. 

PungO (punctus), I prick ; pungent, 

Puto, I prune, I think ; compute, dis- 
pute, count, amputate. 

Quaero (quaesitus), I seek; query, in- 
quire, conquer, request. 

Qualis, of what kind; quality, qualify. 

Quatuor, four ; quadrille, quadruped, 

Queror, I complain; quarrel, querulous. 

Radius, a spoke of a wheel ; ray, 
radiate, radiant. 

Radix (radic-is), a root; radish, radical, 
race (generation), eradicate. 

Rapio (raptus), I snatch ; rapacious, 
rapid, rapture. 

RegO (rectus), I rule ; regent, region, 
regiment, insurrection. 

Res, a thing; real, reality. 

Rete, a net; reticule, retina. 

Rideo (risus), I laugh ; ridicule, deride. 

Rigidus, stiff ; rigid, rigour, rigorous. 

Rivus, a river; river, rival. 

Robur (robor-is), oak ; strength, robust, 

RogO, I ask; interrogate, prerogative. 

Rota, a wheel ; rote, rotary, rotate, 

Rumpo (ruptus), I break; abrupt, rup- 

Rus (rur-is), the country; rural, rustic. 

Sacer, sacred ; sacrifice, sacrament, 
sacrilege (lego), desecrate. 

Salio (saltus), I leap ; sally, assail, 



Salus (salut-is), health ; salute, salu- 
brious, salutary. 

Salvus, safe; salvation. 

SanctUS, holy; sanctify, saint. 

Sanguis (sanguin-is), blood; sanguine, 

SaxiUS, sound, healthy ; sane, insane, 

Satis, enough ; satisfy, satiate, satis- 
factory (facio). 

Scando, I climb; ascend, scan. 

Scio, I know; science, conscience, omni- 
science (omnis), conscious. 

Scribo (scriptus), I write; scribe, scrii>- 

Seco (sectus), I cut; section, insect. 

Sedeo, I sit; sessio, a sitting; preside, 
sediment, session, assess. 

Senex, old; senile, senate. 

Sentio (sensus), I perceive; sense, sen- 
tence, consent, sentiment. 

Sequor (secutus), I follow; consequence, 

Servio, I serve; serf, service. 

Servo, I keep; conserve, observe. 

Signum, a mark; sign, signal, signify. 

Similis, like ; similar, assimilate, 

Sisto, I stop; assist, existence. 

Sol, the sun; solar, solstice (sto). 

Solus, alone ; sole, solitary, solitude, 
soliloquy (loquor). 

Solvo (solutus), I loose; solve, absolute, 

Specio spoctus), I sec; spectacle, aspect, 
d\ <iase, suspicion. 

Spero, 1 hope; despair. 

Spiro, I breathe; spirit, expire 

Spondeo (sponsus), I promise; respond, 

Statuo, I set up; statue, statute, desti- 
tute, constitution. 

Stilla, a drop; distil, instil. 

StO (status), 1 stand; state, st< it >le, estab- 
lish, distant. 

Stringofstrictus), I bind; strain, atrait, 
strict, stringent. 

StrilO, I pile up; structure, tlutlOfj. 

SlUnma, (hi kOpj stun, summit, sum- 
ma ri/ 

Sumo (fumptoj), I take; omimm 

suiii/it inn 
TacitUS, silent ; tacit, titriturn 

Tango ductus), I touch ; tangti 


TegO (tectus), I cover ; tegument, pro- 

Tempero, I mix ; temper. 

Tempus (tempor-is\ time ; temporal, 
tempest, contemporary. 

Tendo (tentus, tensus), I stretch ; tend, 
attend, extent, intense, tent. 

Teneo (tentus>, I hold ; tenure, attain, 

Terminus, a boundary ; term, deter- 

Terra, the earth ; terrace, terrestrial, 
territory, terrier, Mediterranean, 

Terreo, I frighten ; terror, deter. 

Testis, a witness; testify, testament, 
testimony, Protestant. 

Texo (textus\ I weave ; text, textile 

Timeo, I fear; timid, intimidate. 

Tingo (tinctus), I dip; tinge, taint, 
stain, tincture. 

Tono, I thunder; astonish, detomde. 

Torqueo (tortus), I twist ; torture, ex- 

Traho (tractus), I draw ; trace, track, 

Tribus, a class ; tribe, tribune. 

Trudo (trusus), I thrust ; iyitrude, 

Turba, a crowd; turbid, turbulent, 

Umbra, a shadow; umbrage, umbrella. 

Ullda, a wave; undulate, inundate, 
abound, redurulant. 

Ungo functus), I anoint ; u .-._■ 

UllUS, one ; unite, union, uniform. 

Urbs, a city ; urbane, sulnirb. 

Utor (usus), 1 use; utensil, utility 

ValeO, I am strong; xudiant, valid, 
ai-ii il. 

VanilS, empty ; rain, vaunt. 

VarinS, ditrerent ; Miry, raritt-i, varie- 
gate (ago). 

Velio (vectus), I carry ; vehicle, convey, 

op mum 
Venio (Tentro), i oome; event, venture. 
Veibum, a word; terb, ureal, proverb. 
Verto (verms), 1 torn; a dve rt, w n iver ee, 
Verus, true; amer, peraoUf, t 

verify, verity. 

Vcstis, :i garment; r,st, faetef, m .' 

meut, vestry. 
VetUS (votor-is), old; r,t<ran, inntcr 



Via, a way ; viaduct (duco), voyage, 

deviate, previous. 
Video (visus), I see; evident, visible. 
Vinco (victus), I conquer ; convince, 

Viridis, green; verdant, verdure. 
Vita, life; vital, vitality. 
Vitium,vice; vitiate. 
Vivo (victus), I live ; revive, victuals. 

VOCO (vocatus), I call; convoke, vocation. 

Volo, I will; voluntary, benevolent. 

Volvo (volutus), I roll; involve, revolu- 
tion, volume. 

Voveo (votus), I vow ; avow, vote. 

Vox, the voice; vowel. 

Valgus, the common people; vulgar. 

Vulnus (vulner-is), a wound; invulner- 


Anthropos, man ; misanthrope, philan- 

Arche, beginning ; monarch, anarchy, 

ArctOS, a bear ; Arctic, Antarctic. 

Arithmos, number ; arithmetic. 

Astron, a star ; astronomy, astrology, 
asterisk, disaster. 

Atmos, vapour ; atmosphere. 

Bapto, I dip; baptize. 

Biblos, a book ; Bible, bibliography. 

Botane, pasture ; botany. 

Chorde, a string ; chord, cord. 

Chole, bile; choler, cholera, melancholy 
{melan, black). 

Chronos, time; chronicle, chronometer. 

Demos, the people; demagogue {agogos, 
leading), democracy {kratos, rule). 

Dosis, a giving ; anecdote {an, not ; ek, 
out), antidote {anti, against), dose. 

Doxa, an opinion ; heterodox, orthodox. 

Ergon, work; energy, liturgy. 

Ge, the earth ; geography, geology, 

Gennao, I bring forth ; Genesis, gene- 
alogy, oxygen {oxys, sharp, acid). 

Gramma, a letter; diagram. 

Grapho, I write ; biography, geography. 

Hippos, a horse ; hippodrome, hippo- 
potamus [potamos, a river). 

Hodos, a way; exodus, period, method. 

Hydor, water; hydraulic, hydrogen. 

Idios, peculiar; idiom, idiot. 

Kalos, beautiful ; caligraphy, calis- 
thenics [sthenos, strength), kaleido- 
scope [eidos, form ; skopeo, I see). 

Kleros, lot ; clergy, clerk. 

Kratos, power; aristocrat, democrat. 

Krites, a judge; critic, criterion. 

Kyklos, a circle ; cycle, encyclopaedia 
(paideia, learning). 

LllO, I loosen; analysis, 2'>a'>'alysis. 

Lithos, a stone ; lithography, aerolite. 

Logos, a word, a discourse; geology. 

Monos, alone; monosyllable. 

Naus, a ship ; nausea, nautical, aero- 

Nomos, law; astronomy, Deuteronomy, 

Oikos, a bouse; economy, parochial. 

Orthos, right ; orthodox, orthoepy, or- 

Pais (paid-os), a child, boy; pedagogue, 

Pathos, feeling; pathetic, sympathy. 

Phemi, I speak; blaspheme, prophecy. 

Philos, a friend, a lover ; philosophy, 

Phos (phot-os), light ; photograph, 

Physis, nature; physics, physiology. 

Planetes, a wanderer ; planet. 

Polis, a city; police, metropolis. 

Polys, many; polysyllable, polytechnic 

Pous (pod-os i, the foot; antipodes, tri 

Pyr, fire ; empyrean, pyramid. 

Skopeo, I see; microscope, telescope. 

SopMa, wisdom ; philosophy, sophistry 

Sphaira, a globe; hemisphere. 

Stell5, 1 send; apostle, epistle. 

Strophe, a turning; apostrophe, catas- 

Teclme, art; technical, pyrotechnic. 

Tele, far-off ; telegraph, telescope. 

Temno, I cut; anatomy, atom, epitome. 

Theos, God; theology, atheism. 

Tithemi, I place; antithesis. 

TrepO, I turn; trope, trophy, tropic. 

Typos, a mark ; stereotype, typog- 
raphy. • 

Zdon, an animal; zodiac, zoology. 




In the following Exercises, the stem is in each case a Modem 
English word. The simplest form in which the Old English or 
the Latin root appears in English is taken as the base or start- 
ing-point, and from it the derivatives are formed. The exer- 
cise of word-building here suggested may be freely practised 
with words that occur in the daily reading lessons, as it does not 
require a knowledge of any language but English. The object 
is to show how each derivative springs from the root-meaning 
of the English stem. It is also interesting to show how the 
addition of prefixes and suffixes modifies or adapts the root- 
meaning. For example, from the English stems heed and heart 
we have the following : — 


in a careful manner. 

the state of being careful, 

in a careless manner, 

the state of being careless. 

t heart-y heart-i-ness. 

Heart < heart-less heart-less-ness. 

\ heart-en dis-heart-en. 



f heed-ful, 
full of care. 

without care. 



BngUab stem. DertYattvM, 

back a-back, on the back, by surprise; back-ward, toward the 

back, slow; back-bite, to bite at the back, to slander 

one En hie sbaenos. 
bear bar ar, one who bean; for-bear, t<> bear forth or off, t<> 

abstain ; over-bear, t<> boar over or down, to overpower, 
bid for-bld, to bid <>tl' <>r away, to prohibit; un-bid-den, not 

bold bold-ly, bold-like, In a bold manner; bold-ness, the 

quality "f being bold; em-bold-en, t<> make bold. 
bright bright-ly; bright-ness ; bright-en. 


English Stem. Derivatives. 

cheap (lit. a bargain, a market) cheap-en; cheap-ness; chap- 
man, a dealer; Cheap-side and East-cheap, parts of 

come be-come, to come to, to suit ; come-ly, becoming ; in-come, 

what comes in ; over-come, to come above, to conquer. 

dark dark-ly; dark-en; dark-ness. 

drink drink-er, one who drinks; drunk-ard, one who gets 

drunk; drunk-en, made drunk. 

end end-less ; end- wise, endways, on end. 

even (lit. level, just) even-ly; even-ness; un-even, not even. 

fair (lit. bright) fair-ness ; fair-ly; un-fair. 

fear fear-ful, full of fear, afraid; fear-less. 

friend friend-ly; friend-ship; friend-less; un-friend-ly ; be- 
friend, to act as a friend to. 

get for-get, to get or put forth from the memory ; for-get-ful ; 


ghost (lit. breath) ghost-ly; ghast-ly, pale; a-ghast, terrified, 

as if by looking on a ghost. 

give gift, something given; for-give, to give away, to remit; 

for-give-ness ; mis-give, to give wrong, or amiss, to fill 
with doubt. 

ground ground-less, without ground or reason; under-ground. 

hard hard-y, full of hardness, strong, brave; hard-i-hood, 

bravery, confidence; hard-en; hard-ness; hard-ship, 
a state or thing hard to bear. 

have (lit. to hold) be-have, to hold oneself properly; be-hav- 

iour ; mis-be-have, to behave amiss. 

heal (lit. to make whole) heal-er; heal-th, state of being 

whole; heal-th-y; heal-th-ful: whole; wholesome. 

heart heart-y, full of heart; heart-i-ness ; heart-less; heart- 

less-ness ; heart-en, to put heart into, to encourage ; 
dis-heart-en, to discourage. 

heed heed-ful; heed-ful-ness ; heed-less; heed-less-ness. 

hold be-hold, to hold or bind with the eye; be-hold-en, bound, 

indebted ; up-hold ; with-hold, to hold from or back. 

home (lit. a dwelling) home-ly, home-like, plain; home-li-ness ; 

home-less ; home-spun, made at home ; ham-let, a little 
home, a small village. 

law (lit. something laid down) law-ful, in accordance with 

law ; law-ful-ness ; law-less, contrary to law ; lawless- 
ness ; law-giver, one who gives or makes laws ; law- 
suit, a suit or process at law ; out-law, one outside the 
law's protection ; law-yer, one skilled in law. 

lead lead-er; lead-er-ship ; mis-lead, to lead wrong or amiss. 



English Stem. Derivatives. 

learn (lit. to teach oneself) learn-er; learn-ing; learn-ed; un- 


light (shining) light-en, to make light or clear; en-light-en; 

light-ning, that which lightens; light-house, a house 
for showing a light. 

light (not heavy) light-ly; light-ness; light-some, gay, lively; 

light-er, a boat used in light-ening or unloading ships ; 
a-light, to settle on lightly. 

like like-ly; like-li-hood ; like-ness; like-wise, in a like or 

similar way ; un-like ; un-like-ly. 

live a-live, in life ; live-ly, life-like, active ; live-li-ness ; live- 

li-hood, means of living ; out-live, to live beyond. 

long (lit. stretched out) long, to stretch out the mind toward, 

to desire; long-ish, rather long: leng-th, quality of 
being long ; leng-th-y ; leng-th-en. 

love lov-er; love-ly; love-li-ness ; be-lov-ed; un-love-ly. 

make mak-er; un-make: match, something made, or of the 

same make as another thing; match-less, unequalled. 

mind mind-ful; mind-ful-ness ; mind-less; re-mind. 

name name-less ; mis-name. 

need need-y; need-less; need-less-ly. 

own (lit. to have) own-er; own-er-ship; dis-own: owe, to have 

what is another's, to be bound to pay : ought, am bound. 

reck (lit. to heed) reck-less; reck-less-ness. 

rob (lit. to seize) rob-ber; rob-ber-y: rove; rov-er: be-reave; 


see see-r, one who sees the future, a prophet; fore-see; over- 
seer; sight; fore-sight; over-sight; un-sight-ly. 

set be-set, to set about; on-set, a setting on; over-set, to 

turn over; up-set; set-ter, a dog that sets, or stops, 
when it is near game; set-tie, to set, or fix; set-tl-er; 

slow slow-ness; slo-th, slowness; slo-th-ful ; slo-th-ful-ness ; 


soft soft-en ; sof t-ly ; sof t-ness. 

stand stand-ard, something which itande, or is fixed; under- 
stand, to stand under, to support, to oomprehend; 
under-stand-ing ; with-stand, to stand against, to op- 

teach (lit. to show) teach-er; teach-a-ble. 

true tru-th ; tru-th-ful; tru-th-ful-ly ; tru-ism, something 

evidently true: trust, belief in the troth of ;• p er so n or 
thing; in-trust; trust-ee, one t<« whom ■ thing ts ln« 
trusted : trust-y. 


English Stem. Derivatives. 

turn turn-er ; re-turn, to turn back, or again ; over-turn ; up- 

wake wak-en, to make to wake ; wake-ful, not inclined to sleep ; 

a-wake, not asleep; a-wak-en, to wake or rouse from 
sleep : "watch, to wake or wait, to look with attention ; 
watch-ful ; watch-ful-ness. 

wit ( lit. to know) wlt-ness, knowledge given in proof, one who 

gives knowledge in proof ; wit-less ; wit-ty : wise, hav- 
ing wit, or knowledge; wis-dom; un-wise; wiz-ard, 
one who is very wise. 

worth worth-y, full of worth ; worth-i-ness ; un-worth-y ; 

worth-less: wor-ship, worth-ship, state of being worthy; 
wor-ship-per ; wor-ship-ful. 


English Stem. Derivatives. 

act {actus, done; from ago, I do) act-ion, doing, thing done; 

act-ive, engaged in doing ; en-act, to put in act, to per- 
form; en-act-ment; trans-act; act-or; re-act; act-u-aL 

apt {aptus, fit) apt-ly, fit-ly; apt-ness; apt-i-tude; ad-apt, 

to make apt or fit ; ad-apt-a-tion. 

art {ars, art-is, art) art-iul; art-less; art-less-ness. 

boon (bonus, good) boun-ty, goodness, a gift; boun-te-ous; 


camp (campus, a plain) en-camp, to make a camp; en-camp- 

ment ; de-camp, to break up a carnp, to go away. 

cede (cedo, I go; cessus, given up) ac-cede, to go to, to agree to; 

ac-cess; ac-cess-ion; ac-cess-i-ble ; con-cede; con-cess- 
ion; inter-cede; inter-cess-ion; pre-cede; re-cede; ex- 
ceed; pro-ceed; suc-ceed; suc-cess; suc-cess-or. 

civ-ic (civis, a citizen) civ-il, belonging to a city; civ-il-ize, to 

make civil; civ-il-i-za-tion, the act of making civil; 
civ-il-i-ty, city manners. 

close (claudo, I shut; clausus, closed) close-ness ; en-close; en- 

clos-ure ; dis-close, to unclose. 

core (cor, cord-is, the heart) cord-i-al, hearty; cord-i-al-i-ty ; 

ac-cord, to make cordial, to agree; con-cord, hearts 
together; dis-cord, hearts opposed; re-cord, to call 
back to the heart : cour-age, heartiness, valour ; en- 
cour-age; dis-cour-age. 

cure (cura, care) cur-a-ble; cur-ate, one who has the cure or 

care of souls; cur-a-tive, able to cure; cur-a-tor, one 


English Stem. Derivatives. 

who takes care of a thing ; pro-cure, to take care of, to 
obtain; se-cure, without care, free from danger; 
se-cur-i-ty ; in-se-cure ; ac-cur-ate, done with care. 

course (cui-ro, I run ; cursus, run) cours-er ; cours-ing ; con-course, 

a running together, a meeting ; dis-course, a running to 
and fro; inter-course, a running between, communica- 
tion ; re-course ; cur-rent ; con-cur, to agree ; in-cur ; 
oc-cur; oc-cur-rence ; re-cur; ex-curs-ion; ex-curs-ion- 
ist; in-curs-ion; suc-cour, to run up to, to assist. 

date (do, I give; datus, given) ante-date, to date beforehand, 

or too soon; mis-date, to date wrong; post-date, to 
date afterwards, or too late : add, to put to ■ ad-dit-ion, 
act of adding ; con-dit-ion, state of things put together ; 
6-dit, to give out, to publish ; e-dit-ion ; e-dit-or. 

duct (duco, I lead; ductus, lead; dux, a leader) duct-ile, able to 

draw out; duct-il-i-ty ; con-duct; con-duct-or; pro-duct; 
pro-duct-ive ; pro-duct-ion; intro-duce; pro-duce; re- 
duce ; e-duc-ate, to draw out the faculties : duke, a 
leader ; duke-dom, rule of a duke ; duch-y ; duc-aL 

dure (durus, hard) dur-a-ble, lasting; dur-a-ble-ness ; dur-a- 

tion, continuance in time ; en-dure, to bear ; en-dur- 
ance ; ob-dur-ate, stubborn ; ob-dur-acy. 

err (erro, I wander) err-or ; err-ant ; err-at-ic, wandering ; 

un-err-ing; err-o-ne-ous. 

fact (facio, I make; /actus, made) fact-or, one who makes; 

fact-or-y, place where things are made ; fact-ion ; af-fect, 
to act on, to move the feelings ; af- feet-ion ; af-fect-ion- 
ate; de-fect, something not done, a shortcoming; de- 
fect-ive; ef-fect, a deed drawn out of something else; 
ef-fect-ive; per-fect, something done through and 
through, or thoroughly; im-per-fect. 

-fer (fero, I bear) con-fer, to bring together; con-fer-ence, a 

meeting; de-fer, to put off; de-fer-ence; dif-fer, to 
beer or put apart, to disagree; dif-f er-ence ; of-fer, to 
put forward; pre-fer; re-fer; suf-fer; trans-fer. 

firm (jinn us, strong) flrm-ness; in-firm, not strong ; in-flrm-i-ty ; 

ln-flrm-a-ry, a plane lor the Infirm, a hospital; flrm-a- 
ment, the sky, supposed by the enoients to be solid; 
af-flrm, to make strong, (■■ assert a.s true; con-firm, to 
make firm together, to make more firm. 

form [format shape) form-al, aooording to form; form-al-i-ty ; 

in-form-al; con-form, to be or make of the same form 
with; con-form-i-ty; con-form-ist ; non-con-form-ist; 
de-form, to spoil the form of; in-form, to put into 



English Stem. Derivatives. 

form ; mis-in-form ; per-form, to form or do through 
and through ; per-form-ance ; re-form, to form again ; 
re-form-a-tion ; trans-form, to change the form of. 

grace... {gratus, thankful) grace-fail; grace-less; grac-i-ous, with 

much grace ; dis-grace, being out of grace ; dis-grace- 
ful : grat-is, by grace, for nothing ; grate-ful ; grat-i- 
tude; grat-i-fy; grat-i-fi-ca-tion. 

habit {habeo, I have; habitus, had) habit-u-ate, to acquire a 

habit ; habit-a-ble ; in-habit, to make a habit of living 
in ; in-habit-ant ; habit-u-al : ex-hibit, to hold out to 
view; pro-hlbit, to hold forward, to hinder. 

-ject (jacio, I throw; jactus, thrown) e-ject, to throw out; 

e-ject-ment; inter-ject, to throw between; intersect- 
ion; ob-ject, to throw against; ob-ject-ion, the act of 
throwing against ; pro-ject; re-ject; sub-ject, to throw 
or put under; ad-ject-ive, a word thrown or added to 
a noun; de-ject-ed, cast down. 

Join (jungo, I join.; functus, joined) join-er; joint; joint-ly; 

junct-ion, the act of joining; ad-join; con-join; con- 
junct-ion; dis-join; re-join. 

-lect {lego, I gather; lectus, gathered) col-lect, to gather to- 
gether; col-lect-or; col-lect-ion ; re-col-lect; e-lect, to 
gather or choose out ; ne-g-lect, not to gather ; se-lect, 
to choose apart, to pick out. 

magni- {magnus, great) magni-fy, to make great; magni-fi-cent ; 

magni-tude, greatness. 

-mit {mitto, I send; missus, sent) com-mit, to send with a 

thing, to intrust ; com-mit-tee, persons to whom a thing 
is committed ; e-mit, to send out ; o-mit, to send away, 
to leave out ; re-mit ; sub-mit ; trans-mit. 

note {nota, a mark) not-a-ble, worthy of note ; not-a-tion, act 

of noting ; not-ice, taking note ; not-ice-a-ble ; not-i-fy, 
to make known ; de-note, to note or mark, to mean. 

ord-er (ordo, ordin-is, order) ord-er-ly, with good order; dis- 

ord-er, want of order ; ordin-a-ry, according to the com- 
mon order ; extra-ordin-a-ry, out of the common order. 

part (pars, part-is, a part) part-ner, one who has a part with 

others ; part-ner-ship ; part-i-al, relating to a part only ; 
im-part-i-al ; a-part, parted from ; de-part, to part 
asunder ; de-part-ure ; im-part, to give a part of. 

-pel (pello, I drive; pulms, driven) corn-pel, to drive together; 

dis-pel, to drive asunder ; ex-pel, to drive out ; im-pel, 
to drive on ; pro-pel, to drive forward ; re-pel, to drive 
back : pulse, a beating ; im-pulse ; re-pulse. 


English Stem. Derivatives. 

-pend {pendo, I hang; pensus, hung) ap-pend, to hang to; de- 
pend, to hang from ; de-pend-ant, one who depends on 
another ; in-de-pend-ent ; in-de-pend-ence ; pend-ant, 
something hanging ; sus-pend, to hang under. 

-pend {pendo, I weigh) ex-pend,to weigh out, to pay; ex-pend-i- 

ture, what is paid out ; pen-sion, a weighing, a payment ; 
dis-pense, to weigh out in portions ; ex-pense. 

-pone (pono, I place) de-pone, to lay down, as a pledge, to give 

evidence ; com-pon-ent, placed together ; post-pone, to 
place after, to put off ; re-pone, to replace in an office. 

-pose {pono, I place; positus, placed) posit-ion, state of being 

placed, place ; posit-ive, placed or fixed ; post, a place ; 
post-ure, position of body; com-pose, to place toge- 
ther ; de-com-pose, to place apart ; de-pose, to put 
down; dis-pose; ex-pose; im-pose ; op-pose; pro- 
pose ; re-pose ; sup-pose. 

-port {porto, I carry) ex-port, to carry or send out of a country ; 

im-port, to carry into a country; re-port, to carry 
back, to repeat; sup-port, to carry or bear from under; 
trans-port ; port-a-ble ; port-er, a carrier. 

press {premo, I press; prcssus, pressed) corn-press, to press 

together ; de-press, to press down ; ex-press, t< > press out, 
to utter; im-press, to press upon; op-press; re-press; 

-rect {rego, I rule; rectus, straight) rect-or, a ruler, in the 

church; rect-or-y, place where a rector lives; rect-i-fy, 
to make right; rect-i-tude, uprightness; cor-rect, to 
put right; di-rect, to guide; e-rect, to set up. 

-rupt {rumpo, I break; ruptus, broken) ab-rupt, broken off; 

cor-rupt, broken to pieces, f ull of errors ; cor-rupt-i-ble; 
dis-rupt-ion, breaking asunder; e-rupt-ion, breaking 
out; inter-rupt; ir-rupt-ion, a breaking in; rupt-ure. 

scribe {scribo, I write) a-scribe, to write an addition to; de- 
scribe, to write about; in-scribe, to write upon J sub- 
scribe, to write (the name) under; sub-scrip-tlon. 

-script (scrij'tiis, written) script, written ohsjaoter; script-ure, a 

saeied writing; 8Cript-U-raL 

-side {.v(Uo, I sit) pre-side, to sit. before or over others ; re-side, 

to sit down, to dwell] sub-side, to sit under, to settle; 
as-sid-U-OUS, sitting close at work ; in-sid-i-ous, sitting 
in wait, treaoherous; as-Biz-es, sittings » .f a oourt. 

session.. ( s a ss io, a sitting) as-sess, to set or ti\ a tax ; as-se8s-ment; 

pos-sess, to sit as mester.of] pos-sess-ive; pos-sebs-ion, 
act, of possessing, or thing possessed. 


English Stem. Derivatives. 

-serve (servo, I keep) con-serve, to keep together or entire; 

con-serv-a-to-ry, place for conserving (flowers) ; ob-serve, 
to keep in view ; ob-serv-a-to-ry, place for observing (the 
stars) ; un-ob-serv-ed ; pre-serve, to keep, before or in 
presence of an enemy ; re-serve, to keep back. 

sign (signum, a mark) sig-nal, remarkable ; sig-nal-ize, to make 

remarkable; sig-ni-fy, to make a sign for, to mean; 
sig-ni-fi-cant ; as-sign, to mark to a person ; de-sign, to 
mark out, to plan ; en-sign ; re-sign, to sign away. 

-sist (sisto, I stop, stand) as-sist, to stand to or by; con-sist, 

to stand along with ; de-sist, to stand away, to forbear ; 
ex-ist, to stand out, to live ; co-ex-ist, to live together ; 
pre-ex-ist, to live at an earlier time ; in-sist, to stand on, 
to be firm ; per-sist, to stand through, to persevere ; re- 
sist, to stand against ; sub-sist, to stand under, to have 
the means of living ; ir-re-sist-i-ble. 

state (sto, I stand; status, stood; stans, standing) state-ly, 

showing state or dignity; state-ment, a thing stated; 
stat-ion, a standing-place ; stat-ion-a-ry, standing still ; 
stat-ion-er, keeper of a book station or stand ; stat-ion- 
er-y; e-state, standing, property. 

tend (tendo, I stretch, I strive) at-tend, to stretch the mind to; 

at-tent-ion; con-tend, to strive with; dis-tend, to 
stretch apart; ex-tend, to stretch out; ex-ten-sive; 
in-tend, to stretch or fix the mind on; pre-tend, to 
stretch something out before one, so as to hide. 

tract (traho, I draw; tractus, drawn) tract-a-ble, able to be 

drawn; abs-tract, to draw out; at-tract, to draw to; 
con-tract, to draw together; de-tract, to draw away 
from; dis-tract; ex-tract; re-tract; sub-tract: trace, 
a track made by drawing ; re-trace. 

verse (i-erto, I turn; versus, turned) verse, a line of poetry, at 

the end of which the reader turns to the next line; 
vers-i-fy, to make verses; vers-ion, a passage turned, 
an exercise; con- verse, to turn together, to talk; ad- 
verse, turned to, or against ; di-verse, in different direc- 
tions; di-vers-i-fy ; per-verse, turned thoroughly. 

vis-it {video, I see; visus, seen) vls-it-or; vis-ion, thing seen; 

vis-i-ble, able to be seen ; in-vis-i-ble ; re-vise, to look 
over again; re-vis-ion; pro-vide, to see to beforehand; 
pro-vis-ion; e-vid-ent, easily seen. 



1. A Paraphrase expresses the meaning of a passage of prose 
or of poetry in different language from that of the original. 
The change made is one of form only, not of substance. A 
paraphrase resembles a free translation ; a translation, that is, 
which, without following the original word by word, gives its 
pith or spirit in a new and original form. 

2. Paraphrasing of this kind is one of the most useful and prac- 
tical exercises in Composition. It obviates the chief difficulty 
which young people encounter in attempting to write — the diffi- 
culty, namely, of finding material. The task of casting ideas in ilie 
mould of sentences is of itself sufficiently trying for the powers of 
the pupil ; but his difficulty is made much greater by asking him 
to invent the ideas as well. In paraphrase, the ideas are supplied. 
The pupil is required only to give them original expression. 

3. To this end, however, it is necessary that the pupil should 
make himself master of the passage to be paraphrased. When 
he shall have firmly grasped its meaning, he will have little 
difficulty in expressing it in language of his own. 

4. There is no better way of bringing out the salient points 
of a passage than to prepare an exhaustive series of questions 
on it. The answers to these questions, given, not in the words 
of the original, but in the scholar's own words, will form a com- 
plete abstract of the passage. To make a paraphrase in this 
way, each answer must be in the form of a complete sentence; 
and care must be taken to connect the several sentences, so as 
to make the narrative continuous. 

5. The following are the principal changes that maybe made 
in the course of paraphrasing: — 

(1.) Change of words; as, — 

" The power of Fortune is oonfeeaed only by (he miserable; for 
the happy Impute all their rooooee t.<> prudence and merit." 

Changed: — 

The injiinm; ( ,f Fortune is <i<{n>ittt<i only by the Ka/orftmate; 
for the protjN row tuetibt ;iii their luooen to forcthouoht and merit. 


(2.) Change of order; as, — 

" In all speculations on men and on human affairs, it it of no 
small moment to distinguish things of accident from permanent 

Changed: — 
To distinguish things of accident from permanent causes, is of 
no small moment in all speculations on men and on human affairs. 

(3.) Change of construction ; as,— 

" What passion cannot music raise and quell?" 

Changed: — 
There is no passion which music cannot raise and quell. 

Every passion can be raised and quelled by music. 

(4.) Change of figurative into plain language ; as, — 

(a) " And now the rising morn with rosy light 

Adorns the skies, and puts the stars to flight. " 

Changed : — 
And now day breaks ; 

And now morning begins to dawn. 

(b) " Now came still evening on, and twilight gray 

Had in her sober livery all things clad." 

Changed : — 
Evening stole over the landscape, and all nature was covered 
with the gray shades of twilight. 

(5.) Putting a general word for particulars; as, — 

" Helm, axe, and falchion glittered bright." 

Changed : — 
Arms and armour gleamed brightly. 

(6.) Change of figure ; as, — 

" The evil that men do lives after them; 
The good is often interred with their bones. " 

Changed : — 
Men's evil deeds are recorded on brass; their good ones are 
often written in water. 


(7.) Omission of unnecessary remarks and ornaments of 
style ; as, — 

" Wide o'er the sky the splendour glows, 
As that portentous meteor rose ; 
Helm, axe, and falchion glittered bright, 
And in the red and dusky light 
His comrade's face each warrior saw, 
Nor marvelled it was pale with awe. 
Then high in air the beams were lost, 
And darkness sank upon the coast." 

Paraphrased : — 
As the meteor rose higher and higher, and its brightness in- 
creased, the faces of the warriors turned pale from fear. At 
last, when high up in the heavens, it disappeared, and all was 


Self- Devotion. — When the Saracens were besieging a Lom- 
bard city in 874 a.d., the Lombards, after 'a vain appeal to 
the French King, resolved to 'implore the aid of the Greek 
Emperor. During the siege, a fearless citizen dropped from 
the wall by night, 'passed the intrenchments of the enemy, and 
'accomplished his mission to the Emperor. As he was return- 
ing with the welcome news, he fell into the hands of the 
barbarians. They commanded him to 'assist their enterprise, 
and betray his countrymen, assuring him that wealth and 
honours should be the reward of sincerity, but that falsehood 
would be punished with immediate death. lit- "a fleeted to 
yield; but as soon as he was 'conducted within hearing of the 
Christians on tdie ramparts, he cried out with a loud voire, 
" Friends and brethren, be b«>M and patient : 'maintain the 
city; deliverance is at hand. I know niv doom, and commit 
my wife and children to your gratitude." The rage of the 

Arabs confirmed his evidence, and the devoted hero fell trans- 
fixed with ;i score of spears. 

\ \ III I. II is or IMIKASE. 

A vain appeal. A usrirss application; an onsuoosssral request; :i 

barren request. 
Implore the aid. -Beg tin- assistance; throw tntmsaWn on the 

clemency; ask for ths liolp. 



Passed the intrenchments. — Made his way through the lines; got 
beyond the siege-works. 

Accomplished his mission. — Succeeded in his object; effected his pur- 
pose ; secured the favour of the Emperor ; obtained a promise of 

Assist their enterprise. — Give them help; further their designs; 
espouse their cause. 

Affected to yield. — Pretended to submit; made them believe that he 

Conducted within hearing". — Led near; brought within ear-shot; 
could make himself heard by. 

Maintain the city. — Don't surrender; holdout. 


1. Who were besieging a Lom- 
bard city in 874? 

2. To whom did the Lombards 
apply for help? With what suc- 
cess? * 

3. What did they determine to 

4. How were their wishes con- 
veyed to him? 

5. What answer did the Em- 
peror return? and what did the 
Lombard do? 

Complete Answers. 

1. The Saracens were besieging 
one of the cities of the Lombards 
in 874. 

2. The Lombards prayed for 
succour from the French King; 
but in vain. 

3. They then determined to 
throw themselves on the clemency 
of the Greek Emperor. 

4. Their wishes were conveyed 
to him by a brave Lombard, who 
made his way by night through 
the enemy's lines. 

5. The Emperor promised to 
send immediate succour to the be- 
sieged city ; and the Lombard 
hastened back with the tdad tid- 

6. What befell him on his way? 

7. What did the Saracens re- 
quire of him? 

6. Before he could reach the 
city again, he was captured by the 

7. They required of him as the 
price of his life, that he should 
espouse their cause, and act faith- 
fully with them against his fellow- 

* It is often advisable, and sometimes necessary, to join the answers to two 
or more questions in one sentence. The questions are numbered according to 
the sentences ; and when two questions appear under one number, it is intended 
that the answers should be conjoined. 


8. How did he act at first? How 8. At first he pretended to sub- 
when he neared the walls? mit, and advanced with the enemy 

toward the city; but no sooner 
could he make himself be heard by 
his friends on the ramparts, than 
he shouted to them that deliver- 
ance was at hand, and that they 
were on no account to surrender. 

9. What did he add about him- 9. He added, " I know my fate; 
self? but I intrust my wife and children 

to my fellow-citizens.'' 

10. What did the Arabs then 10. Thereupon the furious Arabs 
do? rushed on him, and despatched 

him with many wounds. 


Self- Devotion. — The Saracens were besieging one of the cities 
of the Lombards in 874. The Lombards prayed for help from 
the French King ; but in vain. They then determined to throw 
themselves on the clemency of the Greek Emperor. Their 
wishes were conveyed to him by a brave Lombard, who made 
his way by night through the enemy's lines. The Emperor 
promised to send immediate succour to the besieged city ; and 
the Lombard hastened back with the glad tidings. Before he 
could reach the city again, he was captured by the Saracens ; 
who required, as the price of his life, that he should espouse 
their cause, and act faithfully with them against his fellow- 
citizens. At first he pretended to submit, and advanced with 
the enemy toward the city ; but no sooner could he make him- 
self be heard by his friends on the ramparts, than he .shouted 
to them that deliverance was at hand, and that the) were on 
no account to surrender. He added, " I know my fate ; but I 
intrust my wife and children to my fellow-citizens." There* 
u pon the furious Arabs rushed on him, and despatched him 
with many wounds. 

y.B. — For practice, the scholars should be required to answer 
in writing questions on their reading lessons. 



1. Use simple words. 

It is a common fault of young writers to use fine-sounding 
words, of which they often do not know the meaning. This 
habit should be as much as possible discouraged. As a rule, 
the scholar should not go to the dictionary in search of words. 
He should use his own stock of words, and should refer to a 
dictionary only when he is in doubt about the exact meaning 
and use of a word which he has occasion to employ. 

It is worth remembering that the most powerful orators — in 
the pulpit and on the platform, at the bar and in Parliament — 
have been men who preferred short and telling words of English 
origin, to high-flown terms borrowed from classical sources. 
The reason is plain : the former belong to our native speech ; 
the latter are of foreign origin. " He proceeded to his resi- 
dence, and there perused the volume," is weak and affected. 
"He went home and read the book," is plain and forcible, and 
goes straight to the mark. 

2. Use few words. 

Never use two words when your meaning can be expressed 
by one. Instead of " Through the whole period of his existence, 
say " Through his whole life." Instead of " He writes very 
like the man whose pupil he was," say " He writes very like his 
master." Avoid also the heaping up of words of similar mean- 
ing in such phrases as, " clear and obvious," " mild and gentle," 
" cruel and barbarous." 

3. Use the right words. 

That is to say, use the words that most exactly express your 
meaning. Here the dictionaries are often misleading. " Con- 
stant" and " perpetual" are words of similar meaning, and they 
are given for each other in most dictionaries ; yet the one may 
be used in many places where it would be improper to use the 
other. For example, we may say correctly that a boy and his 


dog were " constant playmates ; " but to call them " perpetual 
playmates" would be absurd. "Carry" and "convey" are 
synonyms; but they cannot always be used for each other. 
"The dog fetched and carried" is good English; "The dog 
fetched and conveyed" is nonsense. 

4. Put the right words in the right places. 

This is necessary, to secure clearness. The misplacing of a 
word or a phrase may alter the meaning of an entire sentence. 
Even where the meaning of the individual words is not mistak- 
able, it is important that the construction should leave no room 
for doubt. For example : " The prisoner heard the neighing 
of his horse, as he lay at night by the side of one of the tents." 
Here it is not clear whether the prisoner or his horse " lay at 
night by the side of one of the tents." To make this point 
clear, say : " The prisoner, as he lay at night by the side of one 
of the tents, heard the neighing of his horse." Again : " She 
hit a man with a stone on his back" is ambiguous. "She hit a 
man on his back with a stone" is clear. " Edward fled without 
drawing bridle to Dunbar" may suggest an absurd idea. 
" Edward fled to Dunbar without drawing bridle" is unmis- 

5. Write short sentences. 

In a long sentence a great many ideas are put before the 
mind together. The mind is thereby subjected to a needless 
strain, which often causes confusion. In short sentences, "ii 
the other hand, each point is presented Separately. The ideas 
are taken in by the reader in detail; and he places them in 
their true connection all the more easily because lie seizes each 
of them by itself. 

If the plan of using short words in short sentences were 
closely followed, it would overcome most of the difficulties 

which young people have in writing correctly and effectively. 
Grammatical errors would be less frequent, Kecause involved 
constructions would be avoided. There would be no occasion, 
besides, for attending to niceties of punctuation. Indeed it 
should rarely be accessary tor young writers to use any other 
points than the period and the comma. 



1. Punctuation is the use of points in composition. The 
points most used are, — 

The Period ( . ) and the Comma ( , ) 

In some cases it is necessary also to use 

The Semicolon ( ; ) and the Colon ( : ) 

2. The chief use of Punctuation is to make the meaning of 
what we write as plain as possible. Points help to do this in 
two ways : — First, by separating words that are to be kept apart 
in meaning ; secondly, by grouping words that are to be taken 


" Ever and anon he pressed the hand to his lips, then hugged it 
to his breast again, murmuring that it was warmer now." 

Here a comma is used to separate the two statements, " he 
pressed the hand" and he "hugged it"; and the comma after 
" again" serves to connect that word with " hugged it to his 
breast," and, at the same time, to separate it from " murmur- 
ing." The period marks the close of the sentence ; that is to 
say, it separates the whole sentence from that which follows. 

3. The period and the comma are the points most frequently 
used, and some writers rarely use any other. 

4. The period marks the close of a sentence. If a sen- 
tence be Simple, and contain no explanatory phrases, no other 
point is needed. 

5. The comma separates two simple statements, or two 
explanatory phrases, or an interjected word from the 
rest of the sentence. 


Hubert rode on, his brother's horse being lame. 
Hubert rode on his brother's horse, being lame. 
Shakespeare, the great dramatist, was born at Stratford-on- 

Avon, where he also died. 
History, moreover, is a very profitable study. 
Henry was kind, liberal, and forgiving. 
He was kind and liberal, gentle and forgiving. 

G. The semicolon is used to separate the members of a 
sentence when one or more of these are complex. When 
a sentence consists of several great divisions, within which 
commas are used, the great divisions are separated from one 
another by semicolons : — 

" Sloth makes all things difficult, but Industry all easy; and he 
that riseth late must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake 
his business at night; while Laziness travels so slowly, that 
Poverty soon overtakes him." 

7. The colon is used to separate members of a sen- 
tence in which semicolons are used :— 

" If this life is unhappy, it is a burden to us which it is difficult 
to bear; if it is in every respect happy, it is dreadful to he 
deprived of it: so that, in either case, the result is the same; 
for we must exist in anxiety and apprehension." 

8. The dash (— ) is used to indicate a sudden break in 
a sentence. 

At every place winch we visited London, Taris, Lmssels, 
I'.i rliu we found letters awaiting us. 

'.). The interrogation (?) is used after questions, and 
the exclamation ( ! ) after expressions of surprise or sor- 


(> shame ! where is thy Mush? 

^ U -1 


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RENEWALS: CA.L (A^^ot ^ AN ° , " YEAR -