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^«* For remarkable Passages in the Criticisms, Extracts, Notices, and 
Intelligence, see the Index at the end of the Volume. 

Aehilli — Dealing* with the Inquisition! or, 
Papal Rome, her Priests and her Jesuits; 
with Important Disclosures, By the Rev. 
Giacinto Aehilli, D.D., late Prior and 
Visitor of the Dominican Order, 322. 

Adult Evening Schools — J Letter to the 
Bishop of fforwich. By a Country 
Curate, 221. 

Albertus Magnus— The Treatise of,— -"Of 
Adhering to God" A translation ttova. 
the Latin, 214. 

Amari — History of the War of the Sicilian 
Vespers. By Michele Amari. Bdited, 
with Introduction and Notes, by the 
Earl of Ellesmere, 25. 

Ancient Coins and Medals — An Historical 
Sketchofthe Origin and Progress of Coin' 
ing Money in Greece and the Colonies, 
By Henry Noel Humphreys, 192. 

Anderson — " The Present Crisis ;" Four 
Sermons. By the Rev. J. S. M. An- 
derson, 220. 

Angels — Lectures on the Scripture Revela- 
tions respecting Good and Evil Angels, 
By a Country Pastor, 212. 

" Assertions not Proofs "> — An Examina- 
tion of the Rev, D. Wilson's Appeal, 221. 

Auricular Confession — A Sermon. With 
Notes and an Appendix. By W. F. 
Hook, D.D., Vicar of Leeds, 249. 

Bainhridge Smith— The Church in the 
World; or, the Living among the Dead, 
By the Rev. J. Bainbridge Smith, M.A., 
Vice-President of King's College, Nova 
Scotia, 195. 

Baines — " Danger to the Faith ;" a Ser- 
mon at Haverstock'hiU. By the Rev. J. 
Baines, 220. 

Baker — A Plea for " Romanizers,** so- 
called. A Letter to the Bishop of 
London. By the Rev. Arthur Baker, 


Beaven — Elements of Natural Theology. 

By James Beaven, D.D., Professor of 

Divinity in King's College, Toronto, 

Bennett, Rev. W. J, E. — A Farewell 

Letter to his Parishioners, 111. 

Berens — Twenty-three Short Lectures on 
the Church Catechism. By Archdeteon 
Berens, 207* 

Bishop of London, Charge of the, in 1842, 


Bishop of London, Charge of the, in No- 
vember, 1850, 111. 

Borrow — Lavengro : the Scholar, the 
Gipsy, the Priest. By George Borrow. 
Author of <* The Bible in Spain," 862. 

Bosanquet — " Substance of a Speech ai a 
Public Meeting at Monmouth." By 
Samuel Bosanquet, Esq., 220. 

Butler^The Annals of Ireland by Friar 
John Clyn, of the Convent of Friare 
Minors, Kilkenny ; and Thady Dowling, 
Chancellor of Leightin. With Intro- 
ductory Remarks. By the Very Rev. 
Richard Butler, Dean^of Clonmacnois, 

Byam — Wild Life in the Interior of Cen- 
tral America. By George Byam, late 
Forty-third Light Infantry, 443. 

Calendar of St, Augustine's College, the, 223. 

Calendar of the Anglican Church lUus- 
trated, the ; with brief <iecounts of the 
Saints who have Churches dedicated in 
their names, or whose Images are most 
frequently met with in England; the 
Early Christian and Mediaval Symbolsg 
and an Index of Emblems, 185. 

Canary Islands — Notes of a Residence in 
the J — in the South of Spain, and in 
Algiers ; Illustrative of the State of /2e- 
ligion in those Countries. By the Rev. 
Thomas Debary, M.A., 411. 

Carter— A Letter to the Rev. J. F, Wil- 
kinson, Priest of the Roman Catholic 
Chapel at Clewer, in answer to Remarks 
addressed by him to the Parishioners, 
By the Rev. T. T. Carter, Rector of 
Clewer, 436. 

Carter — The Pattern showed on the Mount; 
or, Thoughts of Quietness and Hope for 
the Church of England in her Latter 
Days, By the Rev. T. T. Carter, M.A., 
Rector of Clewer, Berks, 442. 

^ Cautions for the Timet," 2SA. 



Central America — Wild Life in the In" 
terior of. By George Byam, late Forty- 
third Light Infantry, 443. 

Chronological New Testament, the, — In 
which the Text of the Authorized Fer- 
sum is only divided into paragraphs and 
sections, with the dates and places of 
transactions marked, ^c, 211. 

Church — A Scripture Catechism upon the ; 
wherein the Answers are in the Words 
qf the Bible, 184. 

Church in the World, the ; or, the Living 
among the Dead, By the Rev. J. Bain- 
bridge Smith, M.A., Vice-President of 
King's College, Nova Scotia, 195. 

Classical Antiquities, the Museum of — A 
Quarterly Journal of Architecture and 
the Sister Branches of Classic Art, No. I. 

ColUngwood — The Church Apostolic, Pri- 
mitive, and Anglican : a Series of Ser- 
mons, By the Rev. John ColUngwood, 
M.A., Minister of Duke-street Epis- 
copal Chapel, Westminster, 339. 

Cox-^Bihlical Commentary on St, PauVs 
First and Second Epistles to the Corin- 
thians, By Herman Olshausen, D.D. 
Translated by the Rev. John Edmund 
Cox, M.A., 202. 

Cox — Poems, Legendary and Historical, 
By Edward H. Freeman, M.A., and 
the Rev. George W. Cox., S.C.L., 207. 

Coxe — Thoughts on Important Church 
Subjects: Seven Lectures. By R. C. 
Coxe, M.A., Vicar of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, 216. 

Cramp — A Text-Book of Popery : compris- 
ing a Brief History of the Council of 
Trent, and a Complete View of Roman 
Catholic Theology, By J. M. Cramp, 
D.D., 449. 

Cultus AnimcB ; or, the Arraying rf the 
Soul: being Prayers and Meditations 
which may be used in Church before and 
after Service, adapted to the Days <fthe 
Week, 184. 

Cffmry — Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the; 
or, the Ancient British Church ; its 
History, Doctrine, and Rites. By the 
Rev. John Williams, M.A., Perpetual 
Curate of Nerquis, 1. 

D, C. L, — Letters of,' Reprinted from the 
*' Morning Chronicle," 111. 

Dehary — Notes of a Residence in the 
Canary Islands, the States of Spain and 
Algiers ; illustrative of the State of Re- 
ligion in those Countries, By the Rev. 
Thomas Debary, M.A., 411. 

De Havilland—** Rome's Outworks,** By 
the RcT. De Havilland, 220. 

Dodsworth — A few Comments on Dr, 
Pusey*s Letter to the Bishop of London. 
By William Dodsworth, M.A., 249. 

Dodsworth — Further Comments on Dr. 
Pusey*s Renewed Explanations. By 
William Dodsworth, M.A., 249. 

Drummond — Speech of Henry Drummond, 
Esq,, M.P.f in the House of Commons y 
on the Second Reading of the Ecclesias- 
tical Titles BiU, 451. 

Edwards — A Letter to the London Union 
on Church Matters. By the Rev. Ed- 
ward Edwards, Rector of Penegoes, 

Emancipator — " The Glorious Liberty of 
the Children of God," By Emancipator, 

Epistle to the Romans — A Commentary 
on the; with a New Translation and 
Explanatory Notes. By William Wi- 
thers Ewbank, M.A., 195. 

Ewbank — A Commentary on the Epistle of 
Paul the Apostle to the Romans; with 
a New Translation, and Explanatory 
Notes, By. W. W. Ewbank, M. A., 195. 

Faber — Papal Infallibility; a Letter to 
the Dignitary of the Church of Rome, in 
Reply to a Communication received from 
him. By G. S. Faber, B.D., Master of 
Sherborne Hospital, 217* 

Faith and Practice ! being Sunday Thoughts 
in Verse, By a Country Curate, 194. 

Family Almanac for 1851, 223. 

Fisher — Two Sermons on Papal Aggression, 
By the Rev. Osmond Fisher, 223. 

Flower — " The Prayers to be Said or 
Sung," By the Rev. W. B. Flower, 221. 

Forbes — A Commentary on the Te Deum ; 
chiefly from Ancient Sources. By A. P. 
Forbes, D.C.L., Bishop of Brechin, 21 5. 

Freeman — An Essay on the Origin and 
Development of Window Tracery in 
England: with nearly Four Hundred 
Illustrations. By Edward A. Freeman, 
M.A., 193. 

Freeman — Poems, Legendary and His- 
torical. By Edward H. Freeman, M.A., 
and the Rev. George W. Cox., S.C.L., 

Gaussen — ^* It is Written;" or, Every 
Word and Expression contained in the 
Scriptures proved to be from God. 
From the French of Professor Gaussen, 

Girdlestone — Scripture Politics; a Sermon. 
By the Rev. C. Girdlestone, 223. 

GleadaUSt, PauFs Prediction qf the 
FalUng-away, and the Man qf Sin: 


Four Lechtres, By the Kev. W. Glea« 
dall, M.A., 219. 

Green — Lives of the Princesses of Eng- 
land from the Norman Conquest. By 
Mary Ann Everett Green, Editor of 
the ** Letters of Royal and Illustrious 
Ladies/' 378. 

Gutck — "Sound an Alarm;** a Sermtnu 
By the Rev. C. Gutch, 219. 

Haddon — The Church Patient in her Mode 
of Dealing with Controversies : a Ser- 
mon Preached before the University, at 
St. Mary*Sf Oxford, on St. Stephen's 
Day, 1850. By Arthur W. Haddon, 
B.D.,223. 449. 

Harcourt — Lectures on the Four Gospels 
Harmonised. By the Rev. L. Vernon 
Harcourt, M.A., 209. 

Harrison — Privileges, Duties, and Perils 
in the English Branch of the Church of 
Christ at the Present Time ; Six Ser- 
mons preached in Canterbury Cathedral. 
By Benjamin Harrison, M.A., Arch- 
deacon of Maidstone, 213. 

Hazlitt — The Dramatic Works of William 
Shakspeare,from the Text of Johnson, 
Steevens, and Reed; with Glossarial 
Notes, Life, 8(c. By William Hazlitt, 
Esq., 105. 

Hints for Happy Hours ; or, Amusements 
for all Ages, 211. 

Hodgson — A. Plea for United Responding 
in the Public Worship. By Rev. J. F. 
Hodgson, 221. 

Hoffman — Tales for my Cousin, translated 
and adapted from the German of Franz 
Hoffman. By Francis M. Wilbraham, 

Hook — An Ecclesiastical Biography, con- 
taining the Lives of the Ancient Fathers 
and Modern Divines, interspersed with 
Notices of Heretics and Schismatics. By 
Walter Farquhar Hook, D.D., 210. 

Hook — Auricular Confession; a Sermon, 
with Notes, and an Appendix. By 
W. F. Hook, D.D., Vicar of Leeds, 

Hoskyns — A Sermon preached in the 
Parish Church of Cuddesden, at the 
Ordination held by the Lord Bishop of 
Oxford, on Sunday, March 16, 1851. 
By the Rev. H. Hoskyns, M.A., Rector 
of Aston Tyrrold, Berks, 449. 

Humphreys — Ancient Coins and Medals; 
an Historical Sketch of the Origin and 
Progress of Coining Money in Greece 
and her Colonies, 192. 

Humphrey — The Early Progress of the 
Gospel ; in Eight Sermons, preached be- 
fore the Univerntff qf Cambridge, in 

1850. By WilUanhGilson Homphrey^ 
B.D., 250. 

Hussey—The Rise of the Papal Power 
Traced, in Three Lectures. By Robert 
Hussey, B.D., Regius Professor of Ec- 
clesiastical History, 199. 

Hymnarium Sarisburiense, cum Rubricis et 
Notis Musicis, 20?. 

Ireland — Eleventh Report of the Church 
Education Society, for; being for the Year 
1850, 282. 

Irish Church Missions — Early Fruits qf; a 
Letter from on Eye-witness after a Mis^ 
sionary Tour during June and July, 
1810, 282. 

Irish Church Mission Society — Rise and 
Progress qf: the Reformation in Comte- 
mara, Dublin, 8[c,, and the Journal qf o 
Tour in company with the Rev. R. C. 
Dallas, M.A., in June, 1850, 282. 

Ingle — " Puseyites " (so-called), no 
Friends to Popery. By Rev. J. Ingle, 

Jackson — A First Series of Practical Ser^ 
mons. By the Rev. Frederick Jackson, 
Incumbent of Parson Drove, Isle of 
Ely, 2G2. 

Jackson — Repentance : its Necessity, Na- 
ture, and Aids: A Course of Sermons 
preached in Lent. By John Jackson, 
M.A., Rector of St. James's, West- 
minster, 451. 

Jarvis — The Church of the Redeemed; or, 
the History of the Mediatorial Kingdom. 
Vol, I. By the Rev. Samuel Farmer 
Jarvis, D.D., 206. 

Joyce — Hymns, with Notes, By James 
Joyce, A.M., Vicar of Dorking, 214. 

Kenneth ; or, the Rear- Guard of the Grand 
Army. By the Author of " Scenes and 
Characters," 189. 

King — Poems. By Mary Ada King, 204 

Lavengro: the Scholar, the Gipsy, the 
Priest, By George Borrow, Author of 
" The Bible in Spain," 362. 

Lays of Palestine, 207. 

Lectures on the Characters of our Lord's 
Apostles, and especially their Conduct 
at the time of his Apprehension and 
Trial By a Country Pastor, 199. 

Lelio — A Vision of Reality ; Hervor, and 
other Poems, By Patrick Scott, 178. 

Letter to Lord Ashley, a. By a Lay 
Member of the Church of England, 

Lewis — Family Prayers, composed from 
the Book qf Ptalmt, by a La<)maiv. 



Edited by O. W. Lewls^ M.A., Vicar 

of Crick, 208. 
Lights on the JUar, By a Layman, 221. 
LMtay-^Drfenee rf the Orthodox Party 

in the Church qf England. By Hon. 

Colin Lindsay, 22L 
Lord John Russell — Speech on Papal 

Aggression, delivered in the House of 

Commons, Feb, 7, 1851, 163. 
Lower — The Chronicle of Battel Abbey 

from 1066 to 1076; now first translated, 

with Notes, and an Abstract of the sub^ 

sequent History of the Establishment. 

By Mark Anthony Lower, M.A., 210. 
Lomas — The Unfruitful Vineyard, A 

Sermon, By the Rev. H. Lomas, 221. 

Maberly — On the Mode of Improving Pre- 
sent Opportunities, By the Rev. T. A. 
Maberly, 220. 

M*Corry— Was St, Peter ever at Rome f 
By the Rev. J. S. M'Corry, 220. 

MaUland — Passages in the Life qf Mrs, 
Margaret Maitland, 187. 

Markland ; a Story of Scottish Life. By 
the Author of '* Passages in the Life of 
Mrs. Margaret Maitland/' 187. 

Marriott — The True Cause of Dishonour to 
the Church of England, By the Rev. 
C. Marriott, 221. 

Martineau — No Need of a Living Infalli- 
ble Guide in Matters of Faith ; a series 
qf Sermons recently preached in Whit' 
kirk Church, By the Rev. Arthur 
Martineau, M.A., 216. 

MUmtut^The Way through the Desert; 
or, the Caravan. By the Rev. R. Mil- 
man, M.A., 214. 

Monro— Parochial Work, By the Rev. 
E. Monro, M.A., Incumbent of Harrow 
Weald, Middlesex, 149. 

Morgan — A Vindication of the Church qf 
England: in Reply to Viscount Field- 
ing, on his recent Secession to the Church 
of Rome. By the Rev. R. W.Morgan, 

Moultrie — St. Mary the Virgin and the 
Wife, a Poem. By the Rev. J. Moul- 
trie, 219. 

Moultrie— The Black Fever, a Poem. By 
the Rev. J. Moultrie, 219. 

Naturalist, the, a Monthly Magasdne. 
Edited by Dr. Morris, 23a 

Neale — List of all the Sees of the Eastern 
Church. By the Rev. E. M. Neale, 223. 

Newland — Memorial of the Churchwardens 
of Westboume. By the Rev. H. New- 
land, 221. 

Newland— Whom has the Pope aggrieved f 
By the Rev. H. NtwUmdi no. 

Old Country House, an, 185, 

Olshausen — Biblical Commentary on St. 
PauVs First and Second Epistles to the 
Corinthians. By Herman Olshausen, 
D.D. Translated by the Rev. John 
Edmund Cox, M.A., 202. 

Palmer — Letters on some of the Errors of 
Romanism, in Controversy with the Rev. 
Nicholas Wiseman, D.D, By William 
Palmer, M.A., Prebendary of Salisbury, 
and Vicar of Whitchurch Canonico- 
ruro, 437. 

Papal Aggression, Historical and PrcKti- 
cat Remarks on the, 220. 

Papal Aggression — Speech of the Right 
Hon, Lord John Russell, delivered in the 
House of Commons, Feb.T, 1851, 163. 

Papal Aggression, the Peril of. By An- 
glican us, 220. 

Papal Aggression^ Two Sermons on. By 
the Rev. Osmond Fisher, 223. 

Papal Aggressions ; how they should he 
met. By a Member of the United 
Church of England and Ireland, 220. 

Papal Power, the Rise of the, traced, in 
Three Lectures, By Robert Hussey, 
B.D., Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History, 199. 

Parochial Papers on Missions, 223. 

Parochial Work. By the Rev. E. Monro, 
M.A., Incumbent of Harrow Weald, 149. 

Paul — Hand- Book of Mediaval Geography 
and History. By Wilhelm Piitz, Prin- 
cipal Tutor at the Gymnasium of Diiren. 
Translated by the Rev. R. B. Paul, 
M.A., 194. 

Pedder — The Position of our Church as to 
Rome. By the Rev. Wilson Pedder, 220. 

Peile — ** The Church of England, not 
High not Low, but Broad as the Com- 
mandmentof God:** aLetierto the Prime 
Minister. By T. W. Peile, D.D., 220. 

Perceval — Earl Greifs Circular. By Dud- 
ley M. Perceval, Esq., 220. 

Pew Question, the, 223. 

Plain Christian* s Manual, a; or, Six Plain 
Sermons on Early Piety, the Sacra- 
ments, and Man's Latter End : Uncon- 
troversial, but suited to the Present Time. 
By John Wood Warter, B.D., 48. 

Plain Protestant* s Manual, a ; or, Certain 
Plain Sermons on the Scriptures, the 
Church, the Sacraments, Sfc. By John 
Wood Warter, B.D., 434. 

Popery, a Text Book of; comprising a 
Brief History of the Council of Trent, 
and a Complete View of Roman Catholic 
Theology. By J. M. Cramp, D.D., 449. 

Prineeues qf England from the Norman 
Cem f m tif Lkee qfihe. By Mary Anne 



Ererett Green, Editor of '* The Letters 
of Aojral and Illiutrioiu Ladies," 97a 
Pusey—J Letter to the BUhop of L<mdon, 
M Expkmatim of tome Statements eon- 
tamed in a Letter by the Rev. W, Dode- 
worii. By the Rev. E. B. Pusey, D.D., 
Ptuey, Rev. E. B. — Entire Jbtolution of 
the Penitent ; a Sermon^ preached he- 
fore the University of Oxford. By the 
Rey. E. B. Pusey, D.D., 249. 
Pusey, Rev. E. B. — The Church rf Eng- 
land leaves her Children free to whcm to 
open their Grirfs : a Letter to the Rev. 
W. A. Richards. By the Rev. E. B. 
Posey, D.D., 249. 
Pusey, Rev. E. B. — A Letter to the Bishop 

qf London, 249. 
Pusey, Rev. E. B.^-Renewed Explana- 
tions in consequence of Mr. Dodsworth*s 
Cowtments. By Dr. Pusey, 249. 
PUlz — Hand- Book of Mediaeval Geography 
and History. By Wilhelm Pitz, Prin- 
cipal Tutor at the Gymnasium of Dii- 
ren. Translated by the Rev. R. B. 
Paul, 194. 

Rawnsley—Sermonst chiefly Catechetical, 
By the Rev. R. Drummond Rawnsley^ 
M. A., Vicar of Shiplake, 208. 

Readings for every Day in Lent/ compiled 
from the Writings of Bishop Jeremy 
Taylor. By the Author of ^* Amy Her- 
bert," 196. 

Robins — An Argument for the Royal Su- 
premacy. By the Rev. Sanderson 
Robins, M.A., 206. 

Rogers — Jesus Christ the sole Mediator 
virtually denied by Roman Catholics ; a 
Sermon. By J. Rogers, M.A., Canon 
Residentiary of Exeter Cathedral, 450. 

Rogers — Roman Catholics hostile to the 
Free Use of the Bible; a Sermon, 
preached in Exeter Cathedral. By J. 
Rogers, M. A., Canon Residentiary, 460. 

Roman Catholic Claims, as involved in the 
Recent Aggression, impartially consi- 
dered, 8fc. By Amicus Veritatis, 451. 

Roman Catholics hostile to the Free Use of 
the Bible; a Sermon, preached in Exeter 
Cathedral. By J. Rogers, M.A., Canon 
Residentiary, 450. 

Romanism, Progress of Beguilement to ; a 
Personal Narrative. By Eliza Smith, 
Authoress of ** Five Years a Catholic," 

Romanizers, a Plea for, so called; a Let- 
ter to the Bishop rf London, By the 
Rev. Arthur Baker, 111. 

Royal Supremacy, an Argument for the. By 
the Rev. Sandersoa Robins, M,A,, 306, 

RMsHn-Sotes em the ConsHtutiem iff 
Sheepfolds. By J. Raskin, 221. 

Ruskin — Seven Lamps rf Arehiteetmre. 
By John Raskin, 66. 

Sandby-^A Practical Address on Recent 
and Coming Events unthin the ChurdL 
By the Rev. George Sandby, 321. 

Scoresby — Memorials of the Sea: my 
Father : being Records of the Adventm^ 
rous Life qf the late Willian Scoresby, 
Esq., rf Whitby, By his Son, the Rev. 
W. Scoresby, D.D., 462. 

Scott—Lelio, a Vision rf Reality ; Herva; 
and other Poems. By Patrick Scott, 

Scott — Twelve Sermons. By Robert Scott, 
M.A. Prebendary of Exeter, 208. 

Seven Days, the ; or, the Old and New 
Creation. By the Author of ^ The 
Cathedral/' 189. 

Seymour — TJie Talbot Case; an AuthorU' 
tative and Suecinet Account from 1899 to 
the Chancellor's Judgment : with Notes 
and Observations, and a Prrfaee. By 
the Rev. W. Hobart Seymour, 451. 

Shirley — Original Letters and Papers in 
Illustration of the History rf the Church 
in Ireland during the Reigns of Edward 
ri„ Mary, and Elizabeth. Edited, 
with Notes from Autographs in the 
State Paper Office, by Evelyn Philip 
Shiriey, Esq., 282. 

Shirley-'Sermons. By the late Walter 
Augustus Shirley, D.D., Lord Bishop 
of Sodor and Man, 206. 

Sicilian Vespers, History of the War of the. 
By Michele Amari. Edited, with In- 
troduction and Notes, by the Earl of 
EUesmere, 25. 

Simmons— The Working Classes; their 
Moral, Social, and Intellectual Condi-' 
tion; with practical Suggestions for 
their Improvement, By G. Simmons, 
Civil Engineer, 149. 

Sinclair — A Series rf Texts, arranged for 
Prayer and Praise, in the Hope of 
affording Guidance and Consolation in 
Seasons of Difficulty, Trial, and AffHc" 
tion. By a Lady. Edited by the Rev. 
W. Sinclair, 215. 

Smith — Progress of Beguilement to Roman- 
ism; a Personal Narrative. By Eliza 
Smith, Authoress of ** Five Years a 
Catholic," 486. 

Smith — Remarks on the Influence of Tract- 
arianism, or Church Principles, so 
called, in promoting Secessions to the 
Church of Rome. By the Rev. Theyre 
T. Smith, M.A., 219. 

5S9f/atn—Hikif brand (,Pi>p« Gregory KU.^ 

• •• 



and the Excommunicated Emperor. A 
Tale. By Joseph Sortain, A.B., 203. 

Southey — The Life and Correspondence of 
the late Robert Southey, In Six Vo- 
lumes. Edited by his Son, the Rev. 
Charles Cuthbert Southey, 77* 

Speculation, 189. 

Statement of the Clergy nf St. Saviour* s, 
Leeds, 221. 

Stanhope — A Paraphrase and Comment 
upon the Epistles and Gospels appointed 
to be used in the Church of England on 
all Sundays and Holidays throughout 
the Year. By George Stanhope, D.D., 
sometime Dean of Canterbury. A New 
Edition, 449. 

Stephen — A popular Exposition of the 
Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of 
England, By Thomas Stephen, Medi- 
cal Librarian of King's College, London, 

Stuart — What is the Church? a Sermon. 
By the Rev. Edward Stuart, 219. 

Substance of Speeches at Bridgend and 
Newport, 223. 

Talbot Case, the; an Authoritative and 
Succinct Account from 1839 to the Chan- 
cellor's Judgment: with Notes, and 
Observations, and a Preface. By the 
Rev. M. Hobart Seymour, 451. 

Thirty-nine Articles — A popular ExpO" 
sition of the Thirty-nine Articles of the 
Church of England, By Thomas Ste- 
phen, 2*11. 

Thorpe — A Review of the Rev. W. J. C, 
Bennett's Letter. By W. Thorpe, D.D., 

Thucydides, an Analysis and Summary of. 
By the Author of " An Analysis and 
Summary of Herodotus," 192. 

Tractarian Tendencies. By the Rev. Dr. 
Worthington, 221. 

Trevor — Parly Spirit. By the Rev. 
Canon Trevor, 221. 

Turner — The Hunting and Finding Out 
qf the Romish Fox, By Dr. Turner, in 
1543, 220. 

Vincent — The Jurisdiction of the Crown in 
Matters Spiritual. A Letter to the Rev. 
H. E. Manning, By the Rev. F. Vin- 
cent, 219. 

Findicia Anglicana: England^ s Right 
against Papal Wrong; being an Attempt 
to suggest the Legislation by which it 
ought to be asserted. By One who has 
sworn ''faithfully and truly to advise 
the Queen," 163. 

Warter^^A Pkdn Christianas Manual ; or, 

Six Plain Sermons on Early Piety, the 
Sacraments, and Man's Latter End; 
Uncontroversial, but suited to the Present 
Time. By John Wood Warter, B.D.,48. 

Warier — A Plain Protestant's Manual; 
or, certain Plain Sermons on the Scrip- 
tures, the Church, and the Sacraments, 
8fc. By John Wood Warter, B.D., 
Vicar of West Tarring, 434. 

Wagner — God is Love: a Sermon. By 
the Rev. H. M. Wagner, 223. 

Whewell — De Obligatione Conscientia 
Pralectiones Decern Oxonii in Schola 
Theologica habitas, A.D. 1647. A Ro- 
berto Sandersono. With English Notes, 
including an Abridged Translation, by 
William Whewell, D.D., 202. 

Whitley — The Life Everlasting; or, the 
Holy Life, the Intermediate Life, the 
Eternal or Consummate Life. By John 
Whitley, D.D., Chancellor of Killaloe, 

Williams, Rev. Isaac — The Seven Days; 
or, the Old and New Creation, 189. 

Williams — Science Simplified, and Philo- 
sophy, Natural and Experimental, made 
Easy. By the Rev. David Williams, 
M.A., 215. 

Williams — The Ecclesiastical Antiquities 
of the Cymry ; or, the Ancient British 
Church; its History, Doctrines, and 
Rites. By the Rev. John Williams, 
M.A., Perpetual Curate of Nerquis, 1. 

Wilson — A Short and Plain Instruction 

for the better Understanding of the 

Lord's Supper. By Bishop Wilson. 

With Notes, by a Priest of the Church 

of England, 201. 

Wilson — Narrative of a Singular Escape 
from a Portuguese Convent; with an In- 
troductory Address. Bv the Rev. W. 
Carus Wilson, M.A., 19*6. 

Window Tracery — An Essay on the Origin 
and Development of, in England ; with 
nearly Four Hundred Illustrations, By 
Edward A. Freeman, 193. 

Wiseman — Letters on some of the Errors 
of Romanism, in Controversy with the 
Rev. Nicholas Wiseman, D.D, By 
William Palmer, Prebendary of Salis- 
bury, and Vicar of Whitchurch Cano- 
nicorum, 437* 

Woodward — Sermon at the Consecration of 
the Bishop of Meath, By the Rev. T. 
Woodward, 223. 

Working Classes, the ; their Moral, Social, 
and Intellectual Condition ; with Prac- 
tical Suggestions for their Improvement, 
By G. Simmons, Civil Engineer. 

Wynne — Dr. Arnold and Rev. W. J, E, 
Bennett, By John Wynue, 221. 



No. XXIX. 


I. — The Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the Cymry : or, the 
Ancient British Church ; its History, Doctrines, and Rites. 
By the Rev. John Williams, M.A., Perpetual Curate of 

Nerquis, Diocese x)f St. Asaph 1 

J I. — History of thenar of the Sicilian Vespers. By Michele 
Amari. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by the Earl 
of EUesmere. 3 Vols 2.5 

III. — ^A Plain Christian's Manual; or. Six Plain Sermons on 
Early Piety, the Sacraments, and Man's Latter End ; Un- 
controversial, but suited to the Present Time. By John 
Wood Warter, B.D., Christ Church, Oxford, Vicar of 
West Tarring, Sussex, &c • 48 

IV. — The Seven Lamps of Architecture. By John Ruskin .... 55 
V. — The Life and Correspondence of the late Robert Southey. 
In Six Vols. Edited by his Son, the Rev. Charles Cuth- 
bert Southey « 77 

VI. — 1. Charge of the Bishop of London in November, 1850. 

2. Charge of the Bishop of London in 1842. 

3. A Farewell Letter to his Parishioners. By the Rev, W. 
J. E. Bennett, M. A. 


4. Letters of D. C. L., Reprinted from the " Morning 

5. A Plea for " Romanizers/* so called. A Letter to the 
Bishop of London. By the Rev. Arthur Baker Ill 

VII. — 1. Parochial Work. By the Rev. E. Monro, M.A., In- 
cumhent of Harrow Weald, Middlesex. 
2. The Working Classes ; their Moral, Social, and Intellectual 
Condition ; with practical Suggestions for their Improve- 
ment. By G. Simmons, Civil Engineer • • • • • 149 

YIII. — 1. Papal Aggression. Speech of the Right Hon. Lord 
John Russell, delivered in the House of Commons, Fe- 
hruary 7, 1851. 
2. Vindiciae Anglicanae: England's Right against Papal 
Wrong ; being an ^Attempt to Suggest the Legislation 
by which it ought to be asserted. By One who has sworn 
** faithfully and truly to advise the Queen." 163 

Notices, &c « 178 

Foreign and Colonial Intelligence •• 224 



No. XXX. 


I.—l. Entire Absolution of the Penitent. A Sermon preached 
before the University of Oxford. By the Rev. E. B. 
Pusey, D.D. 

2. The Church of England leaves her Children free to whom 
to open their (rriefs. A Letter to the Rev. W. U. 
Richards. By the Rev. E. B. Pusey, D.D. 

3. A Letter to the Bishop of London. By Dr. Pusey. 

4. A few Comments on Dr. Pusey's Letter to the Bishop of 
London. By William Dods worth, M.A. 

5. Renewed Explanations, in consequence of Mr. Dodsworth's 
Comments. By Dr. Pusey. 

6. Further Comments on Dr. Pusey*s Renewed Explanation. 
By William Dodsworth, M.A. 

7. Auricular Confession. A Sermon, with Notes, and an Ap- 
pendix. By W. F. Hook, D.D., Vicar of Leeds 249 

II.— 1. The Annals of Ireland hy Friar John Clyn, of the Con- 
vent of Friars Minors, Kilkenny; and Thady Dowling, 
Chancellor of Leighlin. Together with the Annals of 
Ross, edited from MSS. in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin, with Introductory Remarks. By the Very Rev. 
Richard Butler, A.B., M.R.S.A., Dean of Clonmacnois. 
2. Original Letters and Papers in illustration of the History 
of the Church in Ireland, during the Reigns of Edward VI., 
Mary, and Elizabeth. Edited, with Notes from Auto- 



graphs in the Scate Paper Office. By Evelyn Philip 
Shirley, Plsq., M.A. 

3. Rise and Progress of the Irish Church Mission Society : 
the Reformation in Connemara, Duhlin, &c,, and the 
Journal of a Tour in the County of Gal way, in company 
with the Rev. Alexander R. C. Dallas, M.A., in June, 1850. 

4. Early Fruits of Irish Missions. A Letter from an Eye- 
witness after a Missionary Tour during June and July, 1850. 

5. Eleventh Report of the Church Education Society for Ire- 
land, being for the Year 1850 282 

III. — Dealings with the Inquisition, or Papal Rome, her Priests 
and her Jesuits: with Important Disclosures. By the Rev. 
Giacinto Achilli, D.D., late Prior and Visitor of the Domi- 
nican Order, Head Professor of Theology, and Vicar of the 

Master of the Sacred Apostolic Palace, &c 322 

IV. — The Church Apostolic, Primitive, and Anglican. A 
Series of Sermons. By the Rev. John Collingwood, 
M.A., Minister of Duke-street Episcopal Chapel, West- 
minster ; one of the Masters of Christ's Hospital, &c 339 

v.— Lavengro: The Scholai^—The Gypsy— The Priest. By 
George Borrow, Author of " The Bible in Spain," and 

" The Gypsies in Spain " 362 

VI. — ^Lives of the Princesses of England from the Norman Con- 
quest. By Mary Anne Everett Green, Editor of the 
" Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies" 378 

VII. — Notes of a Residence in the Canary Islands, the South of 
Spain, and Algiers ; illustrative of the State of Religion in 
those Countries. By the Rev. Thomas Debary, M.A. • • 411 

Notices, &c 434 

Foreign and Colonial Intelligence . • • • • • 453 



MARCH, 1851. 

Abt. I. — Tke EeeleriasHcal Antiquities of the Cymry : or^ fhe 
Andeni British Church ; its Bistary^ Doctrines^ and Rites. By 
thBec.Souyi Williams, M.A.^ Perpetual Curate o/Nerguis, 
Diocese of St. Asaph. London: Cleaver. 

The History of Christianity in the West for the first three 

centuries presents very few certain facts for the mind to dwell 

upon. In the first place, it is altogether uncertain at what time 

or by what means the Christian faith first reached Italy, Africa, 

Gaul, Spain, Germany, and other western countries of the Roman 

empire. Without doubt there have been writers in later ages 

who have given us abundant details of the conversion of these 

countries to Christianity by the Apostles, or by missionaries 

appointed by them. We have had numbers of such accounts ; 

and many Churches in the West claim to have been founded by 

apostolic teachers. But it is now universally admitted by learned 

men, that such claims, and the legends on which they are founded, 

are undeserving of credit ; the oSy Church in the West which 

is undoubtedly of apostolical antiquity being that of the city of 

Borne, to which St. Paul addressed an epistle. The earliest facts 

respectmg Christianity in France, on which any dependence can 

be placed, are the martyrdoms at Lyons, a.d. 177; after which, 

ana the historical events connected with the time of Irenseus, we 

hear nothing further till the middle of the next century, and have 

then only a few meagre facts. As to Spain, we only know that 

Christianity existed there in the time of Ircnaus and Tertullian : 

the Spanish martyrdoms were later than those of Gaul. Of Africa 

we know nothmg till the time of Tertullian. The same may be 

said of Germany. If, therefore, we are unacquainted with the 

history of the first introduction of Christianity into Britain, we 

are nearly in the same position which every other western Church, 

except that of Rome, occupies ; and it would be indeed a singular 

circumstance that Britain alone, of all the western Churches, 

should be able to produce the particulars of her first conversion to 

Christianity. So entirely were the western Churches without 

records of any kind, that the succession of the bishops has not 

been preserved in any Church ; the catalogue of bishops of Rome, 

even, being only known, and that rather uncertainly, by the 

writings of Irenseus and Eusebius. There is evidence that the 

whole Church was, from the beginning, governed by bishops ; but 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXIX. — ^MABCH, 185J. B 


2 Antiquities of the Early British Church. 

there are no trustworthy records of the succession in any western 
Church, except that of the city of Borne, for the first three 

The earliest writer who, possibly^ refers to the existence of 
Christianity amongst the Celtic inhabitants of Britain, is Irenseus, 
who speaks of " Churches ^' then existing amongst " the Germans, 
OeltSy and Iberians * ;" and as Tertullian, who wrote shortly after- 
wards, says that Christianity had extended even into those parts 
of Britain which the Romans did not possess, i. e. into Caledonia ^ 
it is clear that Christianity must have been of no recent intro- 
duction into Britain. There was, in fact, nothing to prevent 
Christianity from spreading there as it did elsewhere ; for when 
Irenseus and Tertullian wrote, the whole of Britain, with the 
exception of Caledonia, had been reduced to the condition of a 
Boman province for more than a hundred years ; the last symp- 
toms of insurrectionary movement having been crushed, and 
South Britain finally subdued by Agricola in a,d. 78. Previously 
to that time Britain was almost continually the seat of war for 
thirty years'— the conquest of the island having engaged the 
B*oman legions for that time ; and if Christianity was introduced 
during that disturbed period, it was not likely to make much 

But meagre as are the allusions to Christianity in Britain 
amongst the foreign Christian writers of the first two centuries 
after Christ, when we turn to our native vmters and historians, 
a number of details on the early ecclesiastical history of England 
are placed before us. Venerable Bede ascribes the introduction 
of Christianity to Lucius, King of Britain^ and to Eleutherius, 
Bishop of Rome, about a.d. 177, and subsequent writers have 
produced the names of the missionaries whom Eleutherius sent, 
at the desire of the king-*the epistle which they conveyed to him, 
and the names of the archbishoprics and bishoprics which he 
founded and endowed in every city throughout Britain, in place of 
the flamens and archfiamens of the Druids. 

On the other hand, Gildas, the earliest British historian, 
appears never to have heard of this history ; for he supposed 
Christianity to have been introduced here in the time of the 
Aposttes. And the traditions of the Cymry, as carefully collected 
by Mr. Williams in the elaborate and interesting volume before us, 
coincide with this view to some extent, representing the origin of 
British Christianity as coeval with the Aposties. 
. It is our purpose, in the following pages, to offer some r^narks 
on the historical evidence for these aliej^ conversions df Britain. 

X Irennns AdV. Hwresesy lib. L e* 10. ^ TertaL eontra Judteos, c. 7. 

AntiqultUi of the Early Britiih Ohurck. 8 

And, in the first instance, we shall examine the British traditions 
as detailed by Mr. Williams, because they not merely ascribe the 
greatest antiquity to Christianity in England, but because they 
have, at first sight, more pretensions to antiquity themselves, than 
the story of King Lucius, in Venerable Bede, in whose pages it 
appeared, for the first time, in the eighth century. 

The introduction of Mr. Williams^s work is occupied with 
details on the '' Bardism^^ of the Gymry ; a very curious and im- 
portant subject, inasmuch as the traoitions of ancient British 
history, whether correct or otherwise, appear to have been 
handed down orally by the Bards till a comparatively late period. 
The s]r8tem of Bardism was in full operation in Britain at the 
period of its conquest by the Bomans ; and while the Druidical 
branch of the order, that is, the class which was immediately 
devoted to the religious ministrations of their superstition, became 
extinct under the Boman dominion, the Bards, who were the his- 
torians and poets of that rude people, continued, as amongst the 
Celtic populations of Ireland and of Scotland, to be a recognised 
and an important class in the community. It seems, however, 
that, in the age of Geesar, the Druids in Gaul were acquainted 
with the use of letters, and did not scruple to employ them in all 
matters except those which referred to " their discipline,^^ which 
they transmitted by oral tradition only (Williams, p. 31). Mr. 
WUliams infers from this fact, that the British Bards and Druids, 
from whom those of the Gontinent are said to have derived their 
institute, must also have employed writing in aid of their tradi- 
tion ; but this argument does not appear very conclusive, because 
the GhtuUsh practice may have been a corruption or innovation ; 
and we are told elsewhere by Mr. Williams that the Druidic 
system was only preserved pure in Britain. With reference to 
the Gaulish Druiaimn in particular, he says (p. 39), 

** It is evident from these words [of Caesar] not only that the parent 
institution was more perfect in matters of detail, but that the Gallic 
system was even destitute of fundamental and fixed principles." 

The purity of Druidism, indeed, was only preserved in Britain, 
according to the British records produced by Mr. Williams (Hid.) ; 
and thus the use of writing in Gaul does not necessarily prove 
that there were written historical records in Britain, amongst the 
Druids, as Mr. Williams argues (p. 31). He quotes certain 
" Law Triads of Dyvnwal Moelmud*^ to prove that it was the duty 
of Bards to keep a written record of " pedigrees of nobility by 
marriages^ inheritances, and heroic actions" (p. 31) ; but a ques^ 
tion w^ at onoe arise as to the antiquity and genuineness of the 


4 Antiquities o/th Early British Churchy 

works from which this quotation is made. These Laws of Dy vn- 
wal Moelmud are said to be about four hundred years older than 
the Ohristian era (p. 12).- But there seems to be no evidence of 
their eomtence (as far as we discover from Mr, Williams's pages) 
until the time of Garadoc of Llancarvan, in the twelfth century 
after Christ. Mr. Williams observes (p. 37), that *' it is said" 
that Dyvnwal's Laws were translated by Gildas (in the sixth 
century) into Latin, and that Asserius showed this translation to 
King Alfred ; but no sufficient authority is cited for these state- 
ments. Mr. Williams admits that there is a reference to Chris- 
tian practices in these Laws, but believes it to be an interpolation ; 
and he considers the genuineness of the code to be established 
by internal evidence, because it refers to the incorporation of the 
Bardic College, and the influence and privileges of its members, 
and to Druidism as the established religion. But to us it seems 
that there is no demonstrative evidence of antiquity in these cir- 
cumstances ; for why should we not suppose that some persons, 
who lived in the age of Geofiry of Monmouth, and Caradoc of 
Llancarvan, may not \i2L\Q forged these Laws, and endeavoured to 
avoid the mention of Christianity (which would have exposed their 
fictions), and to adapt their inventions to the actual and known 
facts of history, so as to avoid immediate detection! Another 
difficulty here occurs to us with reference to documents of such 
vast anti(|uiiy, supposing them to be genuine. We have not 
obsierved m Mr. Williams''s pages that any difference of dialect 
is perceptible in the various traditional documents referred to in 
his book. " It is remarkable,'^ he says, " that all those which 
relate to the doctrine and institutes of the primitive system are 
invariably written in the Silurian dialect" (p. 45), i. e. in the 
Welsh of South Wales. Now if the Laws of Dy vnwal (supposed 
to have been written four centuries before Christ) had been con- 
signed to writing, or handed down in their original form, it is 
hardly conceivable that there should not be some material differ- 
ences in dialect between them and other productions of a much 
later date. It seems very strange and suspicious that the dialect 
of all these ancient documents should be that of South Wales ; 
— that South Wales alone should have preserved the exact dialect 
once used in the whole of Britain before the Roman Conquest, 
and preserved it unchanged in all ages. We confess this fact 
uppears to us to throw considei*able suspicion on the genuineness 
of all these ^'ancient" documents, and inclines us to apprehend that 
they were forged in South Wales, in or after those ages when 
Oeoffi:y of Monmouth invented such marvellous tales of British 
lustory. The British language, four hundred years before Christ, 
Miild not havq been identical in all respects with the British Ian- 

Antiquities of the Early British Church. S 

guBge of six, or eight hundred, or a thousand, or fifteen hundred 

yesta after Christ. 

The support and authentication of the traditions of the British 
Bards, by any toritten records, appears to us, therefore, very 
ionbtfal. It seems to us that both the arguments employed by 
Mr. Williams (p. 31), to establish the contrary, are inconclusive ; 
jet in the absence of any evidence for the existence of written 
records, how very uncertain becomes the whole mass of traditional 
history and other facts conveved in the " Triads." These Triads, 
or records of the Bards of Wales, profess, amongst other things, 
to give an account of the original peopling of Bntain. They ^11 
us what Britain was called hrfore it was inhabited. They appear 
to carry the British history beyond the Deluge. And Mr. Wil- 
b'ams himself, with their aid, professes to give accounts of the 
British history from about the time of the general dispersion at 
BabeL When we get down to Dyvnwal, four centunes before 
Christ, we feel quite at home — in modem times. We are not in 
a position to demonstrate that these traditions are absolutely 
felse, inasmuch as history tells us nothing of Britain till shortly 
before the time of our Lord ; but certaimy all experience proves 
that traditions conveyed merely orally are liable, in time, to great 
corruptions and additions ; and if we suspect that the W elsh 
Bards in later ages endeavoured to enhance the dignity of their 
nation by inventing an early history for Britain, and carrying it 
back to the remotest antiquity, their course was merely that which 
we find pursued by the bards and historians in many other nations, 
such as the Egyptians and Assyrians in ancient times, and the 
Scotch and Irish in more modem times. Forgeries of this kind, 
tending to enhance national' honour and dignity, seem to have 
been practised at all times without scruple. 

Mr. Williams in his notes, to which he refers in the Preface 
for the evidence as to the genuineness and antiquity of the Triads 
and other remains cited in his work, gives us the following infor- 
mation as to the " Historical Triads'' — a series of records cast in 
the form which gives to them the name they bear, and which 
classes the events in groups of threes^ which present some simi- 
larity or analogy. He quotes, in the first place, an extract from a 
work of Mr. Sharon Turner, which states that " the Historical 
Triads have been obviously put together at very difierent times. 
Some allude to circumstances about the first population and early 
history of the island, of which every other memorial has perished. 
The Triads are noticed by Camden with respect. Mr. Yaughan, 
the antiquary of Hengwrt, refers them to the seventh century. 
Some may be the records of more recent date. I think them the 
most curious, on the whole, of all the Welsh remains'' — (p. 5). 

6 Aniiqmties of the Early British Church. 

Now, supposing Mr. Vaughan to be correct in his view, it is 
surely rather unlikely that records of the seventh century after 
Christ could be depended on for the events of nearly three thou- 
sand previous years, which they profess to give. But it appears 
that some of them may be records of " more recent date' than 
the seventh century; and it does not appear how much more 
recent. Mr. Owen, another writer referred to (p. 6), states that 
the Triads relate to persons and events from the earliest times to 
the beginning of the seventh century — a proof that the whole 
cannot be assigned to an earlier period, though it seems diflBcult 
to say why it should not be referred to a considerably later period. 
In fine, we come to the actual direct evidence for the antiquity of 
the historical Triads, which is merely this. 

** The Triads which we insert above, are from a series in the second 
volume of the Welsh, or Myvyrian Arcbaiology. To the copy from 
which a transcript was made for that work, the following note is annexed 
•*— * These Triads were taken from the Book of Caradoc of Nantgarvan, 
and from the Book of Jevan Brechva, by me, Thomas Jones, of Trega- 
ron— and these are all I could get of the three hundred — 1601.* 
Caradoc of Nantgarvan lived about the middle of the twelfth century. 
Jevan Brechva wrote a Compendium of the Welsh Annals, down to 
1150."— pp. 5, 6. 

Now this is, it must be confessed, a very unsatisfactory proof 
of the antiquity of the Triads in question. All that appears to 
be certain is, that Thomas Jones, of Tregaron, in 160 J, affirined 
that the Triads he transcribed were taken from the books of 
Caradoc and Brechva; but there is no evidence that he was 
correct in this statement. It depends wholly on his assertion. 
And even admitting that he dAd state the truth, still all it amounts 
to is, that these Triads were extant in the twelfth century ; but 
there is no proof whatever that they existed ^mow5^ to the twelfth 
oentury. As far as we can see, there is nothing to prevent us from 
supposing that Thomas Jones, of Tregaron, a.d. 1601, may have 
been the fabricator of the Historical Triads ; or that they may 
have been fabricated in the twelfth century. Of course, there 
could not have been any difficulty in composing in the twelfth or the 
sixteenth century, records which contained an alleged history of 
Britain from the general dispersion to a.d. 700. This deficiency 
in external evidence of authenticity, appears to us to render the 
value of the Welsh historical records most questionable. 
. Besides the " Historical Triads'' of whicn we have been just 
speaking, there is frequent reference to what are called the ^' Insti- 
tutional Triads." Of these Mr. Williams gives the following ac- 
count. He quotes them from " Poems, Lyric and Pastoral," by 
Edward Williams, Bard. 

Aniiquitm of the Earfy BritUik Church. 7 

" Theie Triads (our author sayi) are from a manuscript colleotion 

bylljMrelya Sion. a bard of Glamorgaui about the year 1560. He 

inu one of those appointed to collect the system of Bardism as tradi- 

tioDally preserved in the Gorsedd Morganwg, or Congress of Glamor- 

pxif when the maxims of the institution were in danger of being lost, In 

consequence of persecution." — p. 13. 

The external evidence for the antiquity of these Triads here 
given, is very slender. It goes back no further than the year 
1560. There is no evidence that Llywelyn Sion (supposing such 
a person to have existed) did not adulterate, or fabricate the 
whole body of the Triads in question. He may have been the 
author of them, for any thing that we can see to the contrary ; for 
Mr. Williams'^s argument for their antiquity, from their agree- 
ment with the Laws of Dyvnwal, appears to us mther to throw 
suspicion on them ; and if they suppose Bardism to be incor- 
porated with the State, and Druidism to be flourishing, as Mr. 
Williams observes, in. further evidence of their antiquity, it is 
surely quite possible that Sion, in 1560, may have possessed 
sufficient skill to introduce particulars of this kind into pieces 
which he vnshed to pass off as records of great antiquity. Wo 
find, however, at page 19, that Mr. Edward Williams, the author 
of ihe volumes whence these Institutional Triads are quoted, 
speaks of a manuscript Synopsis of Druidism, or Bardism, written 
by Llj'welyn Sion, about 1560, and be adds, that the ''truth and 
accuracy^'* of this Synopsis '^ are corroborated by innumerable 
notices, and allusions in our Bardic manuscripts of every age up 
to Taliesin^ in the sixth century.^^ It is very singular, that under 
these circumstances, the Triads should only be producible from 
the manuscript of Sion in the sixteenth century. Where are 
the more ancient manuscripts and notices of which this writer 
speaks ! We lack evidence most sadly here. 

But, in fact, a great mass of the Triads appear to rest on the 
same authority of a '* Synopsis,^^ or manuscript collection, of 
Llywelyn Sion. The author above-mentioned states, in reference 
to the " Theological Triads,"' that they are taken from the same 
manuscript. He adds, that this collection '^ was made from 
various manuscripts of considei-able, and some say of very great 
antiquity — these and their authors are mentioned, and most or all 
of tnem are still extant"' (p. 23). Here the writer deals in 
generals to snch an extent, that his statements are of little value. 
He does not state the age of the MSS. He does not state 
whether he knows of their existence from personal observation 
or by information of others. In ^ort, nothmg can be more vague 
and unsatisfiEMstory. 

Reference is made in many parts of Mr. Williams's book to the 
"Geqealcgy of the Saiat^ ofBritsitC Yvom die VrvtonaaSCvQ^i 

& AfUiquities of tie Early British Church 

given us (p. 64), on the antiquity of these catalogues of Saints, it 
appears that the orthography of the boolc from whence one of 
them is taken, is " ancient ;" and that the second was collected 
by Lewis Morris " from various old MSS. in North Wales, some 
of which are still in existence.''^ Here again we have no parti- 
culars stated. We do not know whether the MSS. are of the 
sixteenth, or of the fourteenth, or the tenth century. *' Old " 
MSS., and " ancient " orthography, conveys no particular notion 
as to date, authority, &c. 

We cannot conceive that the MSS^ thus vaguely referred ta 
in this and in other preceding instances, are of any great antiquity. 
Had they been so, the Welsh antiquarians would assuredly have 
endeavoured to establish their age, by sufficient evidence. They 
could not have failed to make use of so important a means of es- 
tablishing the genuineness of these Triads and other records. 

We have thus briefly examined the evidence which has been 
adduced in support of the authenticity of the Welsh Triads and 
other records, and it appears on the whole, that the external 
evidence is too imperfect to enable us to employ them in the esta- 
blishment of historical facts. Still we would not be understood to 
deny that the Druidical system has been handed down in the 
Triads. There is much in them which appears above the faculties 
and learning of Bards in the later ages, and which strikes us as 
really ancient ; but we should think that the whole has been to a 
considerable degree mingled with later additions ; and we have no 
trust in the historical records, which appear to have been fabricated 
with a view to national pride and dignity. 

But there is a far more serious difficulty than any we have yet 
adverted to, in reference to the historical records of theCymry. The 
earliest British historian, Gildas — himself a Briton, and desirous of 
writing a narrative of the state of things in Britain during the do* 
minion of the Romans, and subsequently — was unable to discover any 
British records to aid him in his work. He observes in his history, 
that his purpose is to narrate the evils which Britain, in the time 
of the Roman emperors, suffered and inflicted on people dwelling 
afar ofi^, as far as he may, *' not from national records, or remains 
of native writers, since none such appear to exist, or if there were 
any, they were either burnt by the enemy, or carried abroad.^' 
He concludes by informing us, that his history is based on 
*' foreign authorities'." Now it certainly does seem that this 

^ '^Illa tAmen proferre conabor in medium^ quse temporibus imperatorum Roma- 
nonim et passa est et aliis intulit civibus longe positis mala ; quantum tamen potuero, 
non tarn ex Scripturis patrise Sciiptorumve monumentis, — quippe quse, vel si qua 
foerint aut ignibus hostium exusta, aut civium exsilii clsusse longius deportata, non 
compareanty — quam transmarina relatione, quse, crebris imipta intereapidinibus^ 
non satis cliiret." — Gildcu de exoidio Britannice. Ed. Stephenson, pp. 13^ 14. 

AnHqmtHfS of the Earfy British Okureh^ 9 


passage in Gfldas goes to subvert the authenticity of all the early 
historical records of the Cymry comprised in the Triads, &c. 
He evidently knew of no such national records or remains of native 
writers. If there ever were any such, he considered that they 
must have been burnt or lost. If he had heard of any oral 
traditions^ he evidently did not consider them worthy of attention, 
or possessing any authority. We infer from this, that the Britons 
in the time of Gildas were unacquainted with the ancient history 
of their race, except in a very general way — that they knew no 
more of it than the broad facts which appear on the face of 
history — ^and that the historical Triads and other pieces bearing 
on the early history of Britain, which, as Mr. Williams himself 
seems to admit, bear signs of having been in part compiled as late 
as the seventh century, or even later, were in iact composed in that 
age, or some of the following ages after the time of Gildas ; and, 
consequently, that they are of no authority whatever as regards 
the early British history. In point of fact, as we have seen, no 
evidence is before us to show that there is any documentary proof 
of the existence of these Triads, &c., much before the sixteenth 
century. No manuscript is actually produced, which can be 
ascribed to the twelfth or thirteenth, or even to the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century. No proof is given that Caradoc of Llan- 
earvan, or Brechva, in the twelfth century, wrote books contain- 
ing Triads, and that the present Triads are faithful transcripts. 
In short, the whole thing wears a most suspicious aspect, and we 
know not to what age, between the seventh and the sixteenth, 
to ascribe the composition of the Historical Triads^ and other 
Welsh records bearing on history. 

Still we may approximate somewhat more closely to the age of 
these records ; for not only is the Welsh traditional history more 
recent than the time of Gildas, but it appears to be later even 
than the time of Nennius — that is, later than the ninth century. 
For Nennius, who certainly was a British writer, and probably of 
that date, gives us a number of historical details on the early 
history of Britain, which are entirely diflferent from those of the 
Welsh Triads, &c., and prove that this British writer of the 
ninth century had never heard of the stories comprised in them. 
Nennius states that there are different accounts of the first 
peopling of the island after the Deluge. According to the annals 
of the Romans, he says, Brutus, a descendant of iSneas, being 
expelled from Italy, settled in Britain with his people, as its first 
king, and Britain was thus peopled (Nennius, § 10, Ed. Ste- 
phenson). But, according to the British records, he says, 
britto, or Brutus, was of the family of Japheth, and descended 
from him in the seventeenth generation, and this Britto was the 

10 AniiqtUties of the Early British Church, . 

son of Hissitio, son of Alanus, who wiih his family first came into 
Europe (Nennius, § 17). Now this proves very clearly, that in 
the time of Nennius, the Welsh Triad history had not yet been 
invented. It is perfectly incredible that Nennius, a Briton, should 
not have been acquainted with the traditions of his own nation : 
he actually records what the British traditions were in his time : 
and those traditions, as stated by him, are altogether different 
from those of the Triads. We therefore infer that the latter are 
more recent than the ninth century : indeed, as Geoflry of Mon- 
mouth, appears to reproduce in an augmented form the saTne 
fables as those of Nennius, we should be disposed to conclude, 
that the Triad history is much later than the twelfth century. 

But besides this, there is another most serious objection to the 
credibility of these British or Welsh remains ; they represent fi 
state of things in ancient Britain which is totally inconsistent 
with the facts of history. They suppose Britain, Siluria at least, 
to have been continually ruled by its own sovereigns ; while we 
know that the whole of South Britain, including Siluria, was for 
centuries divided into provinces, forming a part of the Roman 
empire, the inhabitsmts of which were kept in order by a mere 
handful of troops. From the time of Agricola (a.d. 80), till the 
invasion of the Saxons, the Britons appear to have submitted 
very quietly to the Roman dominion ; and we read of no British 
kings (with one exception) under the Romans. Above all, it is 
perfectly clear that in Siluria, more particularly, there was no 
such thing as an independent British sovereign, or any British 
sovereign at all. We fully admit that it was not unfi'equently 
the policy of the Romans to permit sovereigns to retain their 
titles and a portion of their authority as tributaries, or allies, 
much in the same way in which England now permits several 
native principalities in India under her sway, and does not deem 
it necessary to reduce every part of the country under the direct 
jurisdiction of her own officials. The Romans frequently acted 
on this policy where they were not opposed by force of arms, but 
where sovereigns or states submitted without any opposition to 
their dominion. In Britain they did so in one instance. Gogi- 
dunus, king of the Regni, became a favourite with Glaudius, in 
consequence of his early and willing submission to the Roman 
arms, and was permitted . to retain the govemtnent of certain 
towns of his tribe. But Britain, as a whole, constituted one or 
more Roman provinces from the moment of its final conquest by 
Agricola, a«d. 80. A/ier that period there is no mention of any 
British kings whatever. 

With renr^ice to Siluria in particnlar, there is historical proof 
that the Silures w^^ finally conquered by Julius Froirtiiuis, after 

Antiquitiei of the Early British Ohureh. 1 1 

a long tod ofastinate resistance, about a.d, 76. The contempo^ 
rary testimony of Tacitus on this point is indisputable. It was 
probably in consequence of the warlike and turbulent character of 
this people that one of the three legions, which constituted the 
Roman force in Britain, was permanently stationed in the country 
of the Silures, at Gaerleon, or Isca oilurum. The other two 
legions were employed in guarding the northern barrier against 
the Caledonians. It is therefore clear that the country of the 
Silures was, of all parts of Britain, precisely that in which no 
native sovereiffn couid have been permitted. It would have been 
contrary to all sound policy, and especially to the practice of the 
Romans, to permit a nation, which it was found desirable to keep 
in order by a ^rrison, to have the power of organizing itself under 
a sovereign of its own. 

But the Welsh Triads, on the other hand, suppose that 
Siluria was always the seat of the British monarchy, and g^ve us 
the names of a series of Chrigti<m princes of Britain ! beginning 
with Bran, the father of Garactacus, and acting quite indepen- 
dently as sovereigns in their dominions. It supposes that liraii 
and Garadoc or Garactacus, were, successively, kings of Britain ; 
that St. GyUin succeeded to the throne (p. 63) ; that Owain was 
Oyllin's successor in his " dominions ;^ that Owain erected a royal 
palace^ and endowed a choir ; that Lleirwg then " ascended the 
throne,^' and established the "Archbishopric of Llandaf,'^ &c. 
Mr. Williams maintains that the alleged letter of Eleutherius to 
King Lucius, which supposes him to be sovereign over the whole of 
Britain, and does not even allude to any other government what- 
ever as having dominion in the land, is perfectly in accordance with 
the views which the Welsh records give of the state of things in 
the first and second centuries (p. 68). And yet it is perfectly 
clear, from undoubted histor}'', that the whole of Britain was, during 
that period, in complete subjection to the dominion of the Roman 
emperors. The country, from one end to the other, was inter- 
sected with Roman roads, covered with Roman to\vns, cities, 
and colonies, garrisoned by Roman troops, and was furnishing its 
regular levies of recruits to the Roman armies, in the shape 
of the " British Gohorts," who were attached to so many of the 
legions in foreign parts. The whole machinery of Roman go- 
vernment was in full operation : taxes were rigidly enforced ; and 
the natives were deprived of the use of arms *. 

One special point of discrepancy between these Welsh docu- 
ments and the facts of ancient history cannot be passed over. 
The Triads represent Garactacus^ not merely a9 King of Siluria, 

* Ample details on these points wiU tje fo^nd in Henry's Hi9tOii»Y of Brftwn^ vol, u 

12 AwHquitm of the Early British Church. 

but as a natim of that country. Mr. Williams, stating the 
history as given in the Welsh records, says : 

'* Caradog, though elective sovereiga of the whole island, and ' ruling 
many nations,* was emphatically and peculiarly Prince of Siluria, and, 
therefore, his patrimonial residence must have heen situated in that 
region. A Triad justifies this natural conclusion, 

* The three tribe herdsmen of the isle of Britain ; " 

Bennren, herdsman in Corwennydd (a place in Glamorganshire), who 
kept the herd of Caradog^ the son of Bran, and his tribe ; and in that 
herd were twenty-one thousand milch cows, &c." — ^p. 56. 

Thus we see that Oaractacus was, according to these Welsh 
records, the Prince of the Silures by hereditary descent* And 
moreover his father^s name was Bran, according to the same 
records. They state that Bran, the father of Oaractacus, was 
carried a prisoner to Borne, along with his son Oaractacus, and 
was imprisoned there for seven years, and having become a con- 
vert to Ohristianity there, returned to his kingdom of Britain. 

Now all this is perfectly inconsistent with the facts of the 
case, as stated in the Boman historians. According to Tacitus 
and Dio Oassius, Oaractacus, with his brother Togodumnus, were 
sons of Cunohelinus, who was king by descent, not of the Silures, 
but of the Oattivelauni — a nation inhabiting a tract to the north 
of London, and by conquest, sovereign of the greater part of 
England from Yorkshire southwards. Oaractacus and his bro- 
ther, who had each inherited a share of the dominions of Ouno- 
belinus, contended with great courage against the Boman invasion 
in the time of the Emperor Olaudius ; but after a long contest, 
Oaractacus, being deprived of his paternal dominions, was re- 
ceived by the Silures, a warlike people of South Wales, as their 
leader ; and at their head he engaged in a fresh contest with the 
Bomans, which issued in his defeat, and his subsequent betrayal 
to the Bomans by his stepmother, Oartismandua, Queen of the 
Brigantes. His father Ounobelinus, therefore, had been dead 
many years before Oaractacus was captured by the Bomans; 
and this is wholly inconsistent with the Welsh Triads, which make 
Bran, instead of Ounobelinus, the father of Oaractacus ; and 
suppose him to have been alive when the latter was taken. In 
fSEict, if Dio Oassius, an historian of good credit, who lived in the 
third century, is to be believed, there never was such a person as 
Bran. Tacitus also^ who mentions (Anna!. 1. xii. c. 35, 36) the 
capture of the wife and daug'hter of Oaractacus, the surrender of 
his brothers, and his subsequent betrayal, is perfectly silent as 
to the capture or betrayal ot his father. 

AntiguUUs of the Early Britisk Chwrpk. ] 8 

On the whole, then, we think there is sufficient ground for 
rejecting the testimony of the Welsh records on all historical 
points relating to events prior to the time of Gildas, who declares 
that there were no hisioncal records extant amongst the Britons 
m his time, i. e, about the end of the sixth century. 

The Welsh account of the introduction of Christianity into 
Britain has been adverted to above. Mr. Williams produces 
the following Triads in reference to the subject : — 

" The three holy families of the isle of Britain : — 

" The first, the family of Bran, the blessed, son of Llyr Llediaith : 
tliat Bran brought the faith in Christ first into this island from Rome, 
where he had been in prison through the treachery of Aregwedd Voed- 
dawg, daughter of Avarwy, the son of Llud." — p. 53* 

And shortly after, the following :— 

'* The three sovereigns of the isle of Britain who conferred bless- 
ings :— 

" Bran the blessed, son of Llyr Llediaith, who first brought the faith 
in Christ to the nation of the Cymry, from Rome, where he had been 
seven years a hostage for his son Caradog, whom the Romans had taken 
captive, after he was betrayed by treachery, and an ambush laid for him 
by Aregwedd Voeddawg." — p. 54, 

^' The Genealogy of the Saints ^^ is quoted to the same effect. 

Now, as we have seen, the father of Caractacus was not alive 
when he was captured by the Romans ; and his father^s name 
was Cunobelinus, not Bran ; so that this stoiy is altogether 
incredible. And there is absolutely no evidence to prove that 
the records on which it appears are as much as five hundred years 
old ; while there is distinct evidence that they are all later than 
the time of Nennius— the end of the ninth century. So that the 
tradition as to Bran, and the introduction of Christianity by him, 
must be absolutely rejected as a i&ere fabrication* In fact, the broad 
features of the case are quite sufficient to demonstrate the utter 
incredibility of the whole notion. According to the Triads and 
other connected records, Christianity was the established religion 
in Britain during the lifetime of St. Paul! A succession of 
Christian monarcbs from that period governed the whole of 
Britain ! Instead of Constantino being the first Christian sove- 
reign, the kings of Britain had been for centuries Christians 
before his time; and in ages when Christians elsewhere were 
suffering persecution, they were in Britain subject to sovereigns 
of their own faith, and, of course, free from persecution ! Cer- 
tainly were all this true, it would be by far the most extraordi- 
nary concatenation of events in history ; but its plain and palpable 

li AnHquitiis of the Barly British Church. 

improbability in itself, and its contradiction to ail authentic 
history, is quite sufficient to overthrow the credit of the whole. 

It may here be observed, that the Welsh history of the intro- 
duction of Christianity into Britain is absolutely inconsistent with 
the account given by Venerable Bede, though the latter is, we 
•think, quite as apocryphal as the former. The Welsh traditions 
represent King Bran as the first Christian sovereign, and the 
introducer of Uhristianity into Britain. They give us a succession 
of Christian princes after King Bran until King Lleirwg, who is 
supposed by Mr. Williams and other writers to be the same as 
*' King Lucius,^' who, according to Bede's story, wrote to Pope 
Eleutherius, requesting to receive baptism, and was, according to 
him, the founder of the Christian Church in Britain. If the 
"Lleirwg,'' or Llever Mawr, of the Triads is meant to be the same 
as the " Lucius'' of Bede, he holds very different positions in the 
two accounts. In the one he is born in a Christian land, his 
ancestors having for several generations been Christian kings. 
In the latter, he seeks baptism from Pope Eleutherius, and 
becomes the originator of British Christianity. The two stories 

description of " Lucius." The introduction of Christianity 
into Britain is directly and plainly ascribed to " Lucius" by Bede : 
this is right in the teeth Of the W elsh records, according to which 
** Lleirwg" (if that means " Lucius") had nothing whatever to 
do with the introduction of Christianity, which had taken place a 
hundred and twenty years before his time. Accordingly, the 
Welsh records are wholly silent as to any application from 
** lieirwg" to Eleutherius, or as to his having received baptism 
from foreign missionaries. He is supposed to have been born in 
a Christian land, and to have founded the Archbishopric o( 

We must here cite a few passages from Mr. Williams's work 
as illustrative of the state of Britain, as described in the Welsh 
records, before the time of " Lleirwg," and in his time. 

'* It is affirmed in the genealogy of Jestyn ab Gwrgant, that Caradogt 
* after he had been carried prisoner to Rome, ceturned to Wales.* 
Alfred likewise says, * that Claudius sent him home again, and that, 
after many years, he died in peace, being a friend to the Romans.* His 
son Cyllin succeeded to his throne, and is described as a wise and 
gracious sovereign, deeply imbued, moreover, with the desire of extend- 
ing the influence of the Church within his kingdom : hence he h^s been 
emphatically styled Cyllin Sant, or Cyllin the Saint. In his days, 
maay of the Cymry were converted to the Christian faith» through the 

Anfi^^iiiU08 of the JSarfy BriH$k Church. 15 

teaching of the native clergy, and were alio viiited by several mission- 
aries from Greece and Rome. 

" A cQstom had hitherto prevailed among the Cymry, of deferring to 
impose names upon individuals until they arrived at years of maturity, 
when their faculties were duly developed, so as to suggest a suitable and 
appropriate appellation. This custom was authoritatively changed by 
Cyllin, who enacted that, in future, a person^s name shall be given him 
in his infancy. The alteration, we naturally presume, referred to 
baptism ; and the royal enactment is so far interesting, as it implies the 
exercise of state authority in matters ecclesiastical, and the wide and 
visible progress which Christianity had already made in the king's im- 
mediate dominions. .... Cyllin 's life must have been extended to the 
second century. He left behind him two sons, Owain and Coel, the 
former of whom appears to have inherited his father's dominions. It 
would appear that he enjoyed a tranquil reign, and was on good terms 
with the Romans, whose magnifieence and splendour he copied in the 
erection of a royal palace. He rendered many and great benefits to 
his Christian subjects in general, and particularly to the establishment 
founded by Eurgain [a college or monastery], which he is said to have 
endowed with wealth for the maintenance of twelve members 

"When Lleirwg (Lucius) ascended the throne, he became deeply im- 
pressed with . the necessity of providing more amply for the Church, 
regulating its external affairs as bearing upon the state in a more 
defined and permanent manner, and more clearly distinguishing it from 
ancient Druidism. With this view, he applied to Eleutherius, Bishop 
of Rome, A.n. 173 — 180, by means ofMedwy and Elvan, native Chris- 
tians, requesting to be furnished with the Roman and imperial laws, in 
which he doubtlessly expected to find certain ordinances respecting the 
Church. Eleutherius in reply sent him the following letter.* .... 

•* The conveyance of this letter was entrusted to Dyvan and Fagan, 
both of British extraction, and both, most probably, descendants of 
some of the royal captives taken to Rome with Caradog. Dyvan, 
indeedt is ascertained to be the great grandson of Manawydaw, Bran's 
brother, and, therefore, a kinsman of Lleirwg. The selecrion of such 
persons was judicious, and well calculated to promote the desigpi of the 

" What Lleirwg by their md accomplished, is briefly, though not 
very intelligibly, specified in the Triads. One says, that he * made the 
first Church at Llandaf, which was the first in the isle of Britain, and 
bestowed the privilege of country and native judicial power and validity 
of oath, upon those who might be of the faith of Christ.' Another 
Triad, speaking of the three archbishoprics of the isle of Britain, states : 
•The first was Llandaf, of the gift of Lleirwg, the son of Coel, the son 
of Cyllin, who first gave lands and civil privileges to such as first emr- 
bmced the faith in Christ.' "—pp. 63—69. 

Here we have a history of a succession of Christian monardis 
of BritaiD previous to the time of Lleirwg, and the latter is by 

1 6 Antiquities of the Early British Church. 

the Triads represented merely as the author of certain endow- 
ments of Churches and regulations in ecclesiastical matters. But 
the majority of the Britons are represented to have been Chris- 
tians, even in the time of his grandfather Gyllin. The book of 
Llandaf, from which Mr. Williams derives much of his statement 
about ^^ Lucius,'*^ is of uncertain authority. Its date is not stated; 
nor is its account corroborated by any other ancient documents. 
As far as Mr. Williams details its contents, they are inconsistent 
with the account given by Venerable Bede, in his account of the 
object of the mission to Eleutherius, which Bede states to have 
been for the purpose of obtaining baptism; while the book of 
Llandaf represents it to have been with a view to obtain copies of 
the Boman laws. 

• And now to come to Bede'*s account of " King Lucius.'^ In 
the prefatory epistle to King Ceolwulph, Bede states the sources 
from which his history is drawn ; and with reference to the earlier 
portion, extending from the beginning to the period when the 
English received Christianity, he professes to have derived his in- 
formation chiefly from former writers — A principio itaque voluml- 
nis hujus usque ad iempus quo gens Anglorumjidem Christi percepit^ 
expriorum maxime scriptis hinc inde cotteciis ea quce promeremus 
diaicimus. Thus it appears that Bede, like Gildas, refers to 
former writers as his authorities ; and it is not to be supposed that 
Jie derived any of his historical knowledge of those ages from the 
traditions of the Britons, inasmuch as Gildas (whose work is 
quoted by Bede) himself derived nothing from British traditions 
or records* If Gildas, though a Briton, knew nothing of British 
traditions, still less could Bede. The Anglo-Saxons, of course, 
could have known nothing of the history of Britain previously 
to their own arrival, except from information derived from the 
Britons ; and if there was any account whatever among them of 
the introduction of Christianity into Britain, it must have come 
from the Britons. But it is quite evident that there was no 
knowledge amongst the Britons of the period of the introduction 
of Christianity. Gildas supposes, indeed, that Christianity was 
introduced here in the Apostolic age ; and such a supposition is 
very reasonable. But the fact of his making this statement 
proves that the Britons had, at that time, no tradition of the in- 
troduction of Christianity by the imaginary " King Lucius,*" 
in the latter part of the second century. 

And as the tradition about " King Lucius ''^ was plainly not 
derived from British or domestic tradition, so it is pretty evident 
that it could not have been derived from foreign history or tradi- 
tion. In the first place, no historian or writer, before the time of 
Bede, ever mentioned the fact. Gildas, Sulpicius Severus, Gregory 

Antiquities of the Early British Church. 17 

of Tours, Prosper, Orosius, Eusebius, RuflRnus, are all silent as to 
the alleged fact. The Christian apologists, who refer to the extent 
of Christianity as amongst its evidences, never mention so re- 
markable a fact as this mission — the first mission ever sent from 
a sovereign to a Christian bishop, TertuUian, who wrote shortly 
after the alleged event, and who spoke of British Christianity, never 
aDuded to so miprecedented a circumstance. None of the Fathers 
referred to it. None of the bishops of Rome ever alluded to it, in 
all their manifold assertions of Papal power and jurisdiction. Inno- 
cent, Zosimus, and Leo, and Gregory the Great never spoke of 
it. In all the many epistles of Gregory the Great referring to the 
introduction of Christianity into Britain — in the correspondence 
with Augustine on the affairs of Britain — in the subsequent letters 
and decretals of the Popes — in the discussions between the Anglo- 
Saxon and the' British Clergy with reference to Easter — there is 
throughoiic a total silence as to the fact of Britain having received 
its Christianity through Pope Eleutherius, or of any application 
having been made to Eleutherius by " King Lucius."" So that 
in fine, no less than five hundred and fifty years elapsed from the 
date of the alleged conversion of Britain under *' King Lucius,"" 
before any mention was made of it ; for Bede wrote about a.d. 730; 
and this profound silence is altogether inexplicable on the suppo- 
sition of the truth of the story ; for there were many parties in- 
terested in making it public, and referring to it, if it had been 
true. And to say the least, the unsupported statement of one 
writer, five hundred years after an event, does not, in i .ielf, afford 
any historical evidence. If it happened to be based on specified 
records or traditions, the case might be different ; but here there 
is nothing of the kind. 

We have seen that the story could not have been derived from 
British traditions or records, and that it was not derived from 
foreign writei'S or remains. Nor could it have been drawn from 
the records of the Church of the City of Eome ; for there is not 
the slightest trace of any such records having been preserved. 
None of the epistles or acts of the early bishops of Rome have been 
preserved. The series of decretals begins in the latter part of the 
fourth century : all previous records have perished, if there ever were 
any ; and the actions of the early bishops of Rome, and proceedings 
of their Church are only preserved in history — in the writings of 
Fathers, and in the councils. If there were any ancient records 
they probably perished in the persecution under Diocletian. 

But, besides these difficulties, there are others specially affect- 
ing the state of Britain at that period. 

It is extremely improbable that Christianity should not have made 
its way to Britain lefore a.d. 180 — the time of Eleutheriua \ ^^Vv^w^ 
VOL. XV. — yio. XXIX. — jf^BCH, 185 !• c 

18 Antiqmtiee ofths Early British Church, 

in twenty or thirty years afterwards, Tertullian testifies that 
Christianity had extended into parts of Britain where the Romans 
had not penetrated. This implies that Christianity had been for 
some time in Britain^ and we can scarcely suppose that it had not 
been introduced before a.d. 180. IrenEeus, perhaps, refers to it. 
And there was nothing in the state of Britain to prevent the 
spread of Christianity there : it was a peaceful and well-regulated 
[Roman protince from the time of Agricola. If Christianity had 
not, under such circumstances, made its way into Britain in thd 
early part of the second century at latest, it would be a terjr 
strange fact. And to suppose that any British king would, in the 
year 180, be obliged to send as far as Rome in order to obtain 
Baptism, is inconsistent at once with all probability, and with the ' 
position held by the Church of Eome in that age ; for it is in- 
credible that there should not have been Christian Clergy much 
nearer than Rome : indeed, it is certain there were, as Irenseua 
speaks of the "Churches'" amongst the Germans, Celts, and 
Iberians; and in that age, though the Church of the City of 
Rome possessed a pre-eminence, founded on its being the imperial 
city, yet it had scarcely assumed such a position in the Church as 
the alleged mission of " Lucius "" to Eleutherius would seem to 
indicate, and which would much better suit the notions of the 
eighth century than those of the second. 

In addition to these objections there is this : that " Lucius^ 
is represented by Bede as King of the Britons, at a period when 
there certainly could have been no such person, the whole country 
being subject to the Roman emperors ; and there is not a trace 
in history of any subordinate or tributary sovereigns in Britain 
at that time, or at any time after the final conquest of Britain by 
Agricola. There is no sort of evidence that the Romans {>ermitted 
any one to succeed Cogidunus in the dominions they allotted him. 
It is true that Archbishop Ussher saw a gold and a silver coin 
bearing the name of Lucius; but the gold coin, which is still 
extant in the British Museum, is a forgery*; and the silver 
coin, which has disappeared, was probably no better. The only 
genuine British coins which appear to exist are those of Cunobe- 
linus, the father of Caractacus, which have been found ill great 
numbers, and of one other petty prince named Segonax. 

It is very strange that writers, like Archbishop Ussher and 
Bishop Stillingfleet, should not have felt themselves at liberty 
wholly to reject the story of " King Lucius'' as apocryphal. The 
authority of Venerable Bede is, doubtless, very respectable ; and 

« See Rev. T. Pantin's Preface to Bishop Stillingfleet*8 OriginuB BritannicflB^ 
p. XV, Ed, Oxford, 1842, 

Antiquities of the Early British Church. 19 

as far as regards events in the history of the Anglo-Saxon Church, 
it is of the highest value ; and yet even in this part of his history, 
there are legends which it is impossible to accept as matters of 
&ct. His informants seem to have practised on his credulity 
occasionally; and it is clear that a pious fraud was commit- 
ted, when he was told by some one (for we will not suppose 
that he was himself the author of the tale) that the British Church 
owed its Christianity to Pope Eleutherius, as the Anglo-Saxon 
did to Pope Gregory. We presume that the object of inventing 
this tale was to show the Britons that they ought to follow the 
Roman customs in preference to their own, because they had ori- 
ginally derived their Christianity from Rome. It is of course 
very easy forUssher and Stillingfleet, and other writers who have 
followed them, tcf endeavour to reduce Bede's story of " King 
Lucius" to credible dimensions, by getting rid of the notions 
which he connects with it, that Lucius was JCing of the Britons, 
and that Christianity was then first introduced. It is easy to say 
that Lucius was not King of the Britons, but that he might have 
been some tributary prince of some one of the native tribes ; and 
that he may have communicated in some way with Eleutherius, 
though not for the purpose of introducing Christianity into Britain. 
To make suppositions and conjectures Eke this is very easy ; but 
to do so is to subvert the facts which Bede connects with the 
storj' ; and if this be done, the whole story may be just as well 
rejected at once. 

If there were any other evidence with reference to " King Lu- 
cius'" besides the statement of Venerable Bede, and if that evi- 
dence were in some respects inconsistent with that of Bede, we 
might make the accounts tally by rejecting the more improbable 
circumstances on conjecture; but we have no such reasons to 
correct Bede's account, because it stands perfectly alone. No 
former writer, or document of any kind, corroborates it. There 
is no collateral evidence whatever. Ajfier the time of Bede, 
" King Lucius" was, indeed, frequently referred to, but by writers 
who appear to have derived the notion from Bede. 

Our own conviction is, that " Lucius" was a purely imaginary 
personage; that the fiction was invented in the eighth cen- 
tury, at about the same time, and on the same principles as the 
spurious decretal epistles of the early Bishops of Rome. We 
tnink it is a plain and evident imposture, intended for the express 
purpose of advancing the influence of the See of Rome, just as 
" the Historical Tnads" were designed for the purpose of en- 
hancing the dignity of the Welsh people. 

And now, having examined the records of early British eccle- 
siastical history, comprised in the Welsh Triads aui m ^ ^- 


20 Antiquities of the Early British Church. 

counts of King Lucius, we must notice the claims put forward by 
many of our writers to the presence or preaching of one or more 
of the Apostles in our island. Stillingfleet, Collier, and others 
have sufficiently shown the baselessness of those various tradi- 
tions which refer us to St. Peter, or St. James the Less, or 
St. Simon Zelotes, or Joseph of Arimathea, or Aristobulus, as 
preachers of the Gospel here in the apostolic age. All these 
traditions are easily proved to be valueless. But the accounts of 
St. PauFs mission are much more deserving of attention, and have 
been vigorously defended by Stillingfleet and Collier, who reject 
so many other traditions. It may, therefore, be desirable to ofler 
a few remarks on this subject. 

The argument of Stillingfleet and Collter is briefly this : Euse- 
bins, in his Evangelical Demonstration, states that the Apostles 
preached amongst the remotest nations, such as the Romans, 
Persians, Armenians, Parthians, Medians, Scvthians, and that 
some passed over the ocean to the " British isknds ;" and Stil- 
lingfleet adds, that Eusebius had an opportunity of gaining- accu- 
rate information as to the history of the Britiish Gburdies from 
the Emperor Constantine, who had been in Britain. ' We do not 
attach much weight to this ; for Constantino wad not likdy to have 
felt much interest in the antiquities of the British Church, or to 
have had time to examine them. But besides Eusebius, Theodoret 
(in the fifth century) after mentionipg Spain, remarlcBthaCt St. Paul 
brought salvation to the " islands'*'' in the ocean, and lilg^where 
expressly speaks of the *^ Britons'' as amongst those tfrho' wfere fcon- 
verted^ by the Apostles. Jerome speaks of S t , Paurs having been 
in Spain, and going "from one ocean to another,'^ and his' J)reaching 
"as far as the earth itself." In JBne, Clemens Somahii^ says 
that St. Paul preached even " to the utmost bounds of tlife' W^t," 
an expression which, according to the usage of aricierit'Witers, 
may fairly include Britain, In addition t6 this, it is atetr^dthiit St. 
Paul had time and opportunity to come to. Britain, foi^. it? 'is gene- 
rally admitted th^t he suffered at Ronle, Ain. 69' iAhid that the 
Eeriod during which he dwelt two years in Romfe, 6ii hia first 
eing sent there, ended in A.n. 61. So that the eight latter' "yfears 
of his life may have been spent in preaching in the Wesfi and 
there is suflicient reason to allege that they were sb Spent, from 
the statement of the Fathei'^ above teferii5d to. ' 

Such is a summary of the argument in behalf of StJ Paul's preach- 
ing in Britain, and we would observe on it, in the first place, that the 
testimony of Jerome is very indefinite, and does not' necessarily 
refer to Britain at all — ^that Theodoret may have probably derived 
his opinion from Eusebius ; and Eusebius may have been led to 
make the statements referred to by the testiioaony of Clemens 

Antiquities of the Early British Church. 21 

Eomanus. The latter testimony is of the higliest authority, and, 
as far as the words go, may certainly refer to ]3ritain ; but they 
may equally refer to Spain ; and, considering tliat the latest date 
at which the epistle of Clemens Bomanus could have been written 
iFas about a.d. 96, it certainly appears a strong argument that, 
during some part of the latter years of his life, he did preach in 
the remotest parts of the AVest. That he spent all the latter 
years of his life in the West is improbable, when we remem- 
ber the declaration of St. Paul to the Philinpians, ii. 24, that 
he would "shortly come" to thent. See also the Epistle to 
Philemon (22). In the Second Epistle to Timothy, St. Paul says 
that the time of his departure is " at hand" (iv. 6) ; and yet it 
appears that he had only lately returned to Rome, from a circuit 
through the East and Greece (i. 18 ; iv. 13, 20). It is evident 
from this, that the latter years of St. Paul's life could not have 
been exclusively devoted to the West, as Bishop Stillingfleet 
argues. It would also be an unaccountable fact, if St. Paul had 
preached for any length of time in the West, tliere should not 
be extant any epjstles to Western Churches. Nor is there in any 
of the epistles, any allusions even, to any Western journeys, with 
the single exception of bis intention to visit Spain. If he actually 
visited Spain, it seemai strange that the fact should not be alluded 
to in any way in his last epistles. It may be further added, that 
the time between St PauFs release from his first imprisonment 
at Borne, till his death^ is held by the ablest modem critics not to 
hav0 exceeded /Jwr years, instead of eight. 

But, however this may be, one thing appears very clear — that 
it ia not probable that St. Paul should have gone to Britain 
between a.jd. 61 and .69 ; for in 61 and 62 occurred the expedi- 
tion of Sue^pius against Mona, and the subsequent bloody 
struggle , between the Romans and Britons, in wnich seventy 
thousand ^m^ns and their confederates were put to death at 
Gamulodunum, London^ Yerulamium, and other places; while 
eighty thousand of Boadicea'^s army fell in battle. And though, 
after this, the war was not carried on with any vigour by the 
Romans till the time of Vespasian, about a.d. 70, still Britain 
was, unlike any of the other Roman provinces of the West, the 
seat of war. . And it is not probable that St. Paul should have 
visited this island, when this was the case ; more especially since, 
if we suppose him to have preached through tlio peaceable 
countries of Spain, and perhaps Graul, and to have revisited the 
East, there would have been abundant employment for his latter 
years, without supposing that he visited a country which was in 
so unsettled a state as Britain. He would not have come to 
Britain until he had first evangelized Spain and Gaul, and those 

22 Antiquities of the Early British Church. 

two countries were of such vast extent, that, judging from his 
preaching elsewhere, he would have been engaged for several 
years in preaching there ; so that, remembering his visit to the 
East, which certeinly took place before his death, and which 
must have taken a long time, it seems very improbable that he 
should have come to Britain. 

Setting aside therefore, as very improbable, any notion of a 
mission by St. Paul, or any other Apostle, in Britain, and reject- 
ing also the story of the conversion under the pretended " Lucius," 
Kmg of Britain, and also the fabrications of the Welsh Bards, in 
reference to the introduction of Christianity by Bran, the father 
of Caractacus ; we only know, as matter of historical fact, that 
from the time of Agricola, a.d. 80, the province of Britain was 
reduced to subjection to the Roman arms and laws; and that 
there is the same probabiUty that Christianity penetrated there at 
an early period, as there is in the case of Spain, Gaul, Africa, and 
Germany. But from the time of Agricoja, A,p. 80, till that of 
TertuUian, a.d. 200, wo hear absolutely nothing certain about 
Christianity in Britain — ^not even whether it existed. All W9 do 
know is, that by TertuUian^s time Christianity in Britain had 
extended into those parts not subject to the Roman dominion ;t- 
that is, into Caledonia ; — from which we may infer that it had 
existed for a considerable time previously in this country ; and ^he 
allusion in the writings of Irenseus to Christian Churchesi among 
the *^ Celts,'' may very possibly refer to Britain as w^U as Gau^ 
both countries including a Celtic population at that time. 

The mention of Christianity as existing in Britain in the pages 
of Origen, is the only circumstance in our ecclesiastical history of 
the third century ; but, early in the fourth, we have the martyrdom 
of Alban, Julius, and others — the first mention of which occurs in 
Gildas, about a.d. 570, and which he may have learnt from the 
Martyrology in use in iJie British Church. Venantius Fortunatus, 
who, in the seventh century, mentioned the martyrdom of St. Alban 
in his poems, probably learnt the circumstance from the writings of 
Gildas, as Venerable Bede may also have done ; and in the interval 
between the time of Gildas and Bede, the legend, as was to be 
expected, received many additional extraord-inary circumstancies. 
The facts relating to the Synod at Aries, a.d. 314, the orthodoxy 
of the British bishops during the Arian controversy, their presence 
at Ariminum, and the poverty of three of their number (the. 
majority being in better circumstances), the events of the Pelagian, 
controversy, and the mission of Germanus and Lupus, in the fifth 
century, are all within the province of history ; though there are 
various disputed points. The amount of historical fa(?t, however, 
is very small. 

Aniiquitiei o/the Early British Church. 23 

Geriain ebndusions, however, occur to us with reference to the 
whole history, up to the period of the Saxon invasion. 

I. It is apparent that m their religious belief, and generally in 
their practice, the British Church agreed with the prevalent feel- 
ing and principles of the Church generally. They were not 
heretical, or in any respect peculiar, but were recognised as a part 
of the one gi^at Christian body extended througliout the world. 
The laith, as described by Irenseus, TertuUian, and the other 
ante-Nicene Fathers, was theirs. In the Arian controversy they 
took the orthodox side. The same result followed in the Pelagian 
controversies. There are indications in Gildas that they also 
shared the prevalent feeling as regarded martyrs and their i*e- 
mains ; and their adoption of the early discipline in regard to 
widows, testified by Fastidius, and their acceptance of the monas- 
tic institute, introduced into the West by Martin, Bishop of 
Tours, are indications of their general tone of mind. Their 
hierarchy was exactly like that of the rest of Chiistendom, con- 
sisting of three orders. 

As regards the Papal Supremacy, we find nothing of the kind 
here, or in other western countries beyond Italy. The extensive 
jurisdiction of the Bishop of Home (over the suburbicarian pro- 
vinces) is indeed alluded to by the Synod of Aries, at which 
British Bishops were present. The Bishop of Borne was given 
certain powers of causing causes to be reheard by the Synod of 
Sardica in 347 ; and the Bishops of Britain seem to have been 
there also ; but there was no recognition of a Papal Supremacy 
in this — it was merely conferring on the bishop of the imperial 
city certain privileges which he did not before possess; nor 
was this Canon acted on. In 378 the temporal sovereign 
enacted a law by which all bishops were made liable to be 
tried by the Bishop of Bome, and Britain, of course, was in- 
cluded amongst the rest; but this law was not acted upon, as 
is evident from the history of the African Church in the next 
century. The first interference in the affairs of the British 
(%urcn by the Bishops of Borne was in the time of the Pelagian 
coutroversy, when Oelestino is said to have commissioned Ger- 
manus and Lupus, Gallican bishops, to visit Britain. The autho- 
rities are rather various on this point, some ascribing the mission 
to the Synod of Gallican bishops ; but it does not seem improbable 
that Celestine may have interfered, because he and his predecessor 
Zosimus had induced the Bishops of Aries to accept the delega- 
tion of authority from the See of Rome, and had thus made the 
first step towards universal jurisdiction. There is nothing what- 
ever inconsistent with the spirit of the fifth century in the suppo- 
sition that Germanus was sent with the authority of the See of 

24 Antiquities o/the Early British Chwreh. 

Borne into Britain. It was at this period that Zosimus endea- 
voured to extend his jurisdiction to Africa, alleging in its support 
the Canon of Sardica, which he represented as a Canon of the 
Synod of Nice. On the detection of his deceit, the African 
Bishops, headed by St. Augustine, passed Canons prohibiting any 
such jurisdiction as that claimed by Zosimus under penalty of ex- 
communication. In Gaul, however, the Bishops of Aries accepted 
in this century the delegation of powers from the See of Borne ; 
and it is very possible therefore, that a GalHcan bishop going to 
Britain to meet a rising heresy, might have been authorized by 
the See of Rome as well as by the Gallican synod of bishops. 
Probably, if the Roman dominion had continued iu Britain, or if 
Christianity had remained settled there, the Popes would have 
endeavoured to appoint a Vicar here as they did in Gaul, and' 
Spain, and Illyricum ; and very possibly they might hjive succeeded 
in the attempt, and a commencement might thus have been made 
of ordinary jurisdiction. 

We apprehend that it would be difficult to prove that the 
British Church was in any material point different from the rest 
of the Western Church in the time of Gregory the Great. Its 
customs were certainly different in various points from those of 
Borne ; and there are many reasons for thinking that they .were 
derived from those of the old Gallican Church, with which the 
Britons were connected by immediate vicinity, by a common 
language, and by a common derivation, the Celtic race prevailing 
in each of the two countries previously to the invasion of the 
Saxons and the Franks. 

The people of Wales and the Bretons form the remains of that 
people who onqe pversjjread the greater part of Britain and Gaul 
— relics of the aboriginal population of the West. There is a 
de6p interest attaching to all that concerns the history of that 
most ^ricient race ; but its national dignity stands in no need of 
fable arid exaggeration to enhance it. A race whose forefathers 
stood in heroic opposition to the Roman legions — to.the eagles. of 
th6' Caesars — may be permitted to indulge in those feelings of 
natioiial prijde in which Welshmen, to do them justice, are rarely 
deficient"; but the fables of GeofiFry of Monmouth, or the in- 
ventions p^ the IJards, only tend to invite criticism, and by their 
extrava^ane^ to diminish the respect due to the far-descended 
race orf the Cymby. 

AmarTi War of ih$ Sicilian Vetpen. 25 

Anr. II. — History of the War of the Sicilian Vespers. By 
MiCHteLE Amahi. Edited^ toith Introduction and Notes^ by 
(he Eakl of Ellesmere. 3 vols. London : Bentley. 1850. 

Latk events have given a peculiar and painful interest to Sicily 
and her peoi)le : and yet, perhaps, we are wrong, in attributing 
any especial importance to the Sicilian question. For, without 
entering into the merits of the late struggle between tlie insur- 
gents and their conquerors, we may safely assert that there is no 
spot on the face of the earth whet-e a Bourbon has trodden, from 
the day of Hugh Oapefs successful treason to the present time, 
without leaving his foot-prints of blood ; and that there is no 
people or potentate under heaven that has not sufficient reason 
and just cause to dread the very name of the Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs ; alw^s, of course, excepting the Emperor of Eussia and 
the Pope of Kome. These worthies, the one from his pohtical, 
the other from his religious antagonism, to the best and truest 
interests of our country, have found a constant and useful auxi- 
liary in the foreign minister of the Queen of England, 

Leaving, however, this august trio to that consideration which 
they deserve and receive at the hands of every true-hearted 
Englishman, let us proceed to the examination of the very ex- 
citing volumes before us. We had, at first, used the epithet 
^ interegtinff :^'* but, on second thoughts, have felt compelled to 
substitute the phrase which we have adopted. For though there 
is much of stirring event and striking incident in this work, and 
though it contains a masterly narrative of an important war, 
abounding with many caustic remarks and eloquent passages, 
there! is a decided want of interest^ properly so called. And this 
arises not from any fault in the writer, though in the warmth of 
his Sicilian provincialism and southern enthusiasm he is some- 
times rather carried away by his feelings, but from an essential 
defect in his subject. Almost all the persons who play a conspi- 
cuous part in the drama are so atrociously wicked, or so ineffably 
childish, that we can feel no sympathy either with their success 
or their defeat. Thus all the sovereigns, with scarcely an ex- 
ception, are avaricious and cruel, monsters of tyranny and per- 
fidy, whilst the patriots for the most part are worthy disciples of 
their royal instructors. 

26 jifnarTs War of the Sicilian Veipin^ 

The insurrection and massacre, properly known as that of the 
Sicilian Vespers, awakens in our mind little else but horror and 
disgust, which is in no way removed by the atrocious tyi'anny 
that preceded and provoked it. 

The character of Peter of Arragon : his duplicity, his barba- 
rity, his ingratitude, is not in our opinion rendered worthy of 
admiiation by his courage, his perseverance, and his policy. 

His son James is an embodiment of perfidy. And his brother 
Frederick far too wanting in constancy of purpose, or consistency 
of principle, to win our respect. 

The Angevin monarch, Charles the First of Naples, combines 
that selfishness ^nd superstition, which so frequently characterise 
his family — a family, the animus of which finds its truest expo- 
nents in the massacre of St. Bartholomew, and the pollution of 
the Palatinate. 

^ But in darkest colours, : a darkness that may be felt, though 
lurid with flame and crimson with blood, stand out the Bioman 
PontiQs and their emissaries. 

The work, however, has its many powerful lessons, lessons 
which the present age may profit from, if it is so inclined ; aoone 
of which we 8ha.U slightly indicate in the cursory notice which we 
are able to b^tow upon it : — 

" After its occupation by Charlemagne," says Mr. Amari, •* and the 
Othos, the greater part of Italy had remained subject to the feudal su- 
premacy of the Emperors of the West ; but these mighty men gave 
place to feeble successors ; the turbulence of the great feudatories dis- 
tracted the empire ; and the German dominion soon became, at best, 
merely nominal on this side of the Alps. Meanwliile, the Church in- 
creased in power, and with the scriptural doctrines of liberty and 
equality, encouraged the Italians to throw off the yoke. Industry, 
commerce, science, and literature sprang up anew in Italy, to change 
the destinies of the world. Fostered by them, from the confused mul- 
titude of serfs, vassals, and lesser nobles, arose a new order — the 
people, sole basis of equal rights and civil freedom. Hence, when the 
feudal system changed into feudal anarchy, the latter, encountering this 
new order, gave rise, in the eleventh century, to the mercantile re- 
publics." — ^Vol. i. p. 17. 

*' Sicily, and the peninsula south of the Garigliano, though differing 
little from the rest of Italy in race, language, traditions, and manners, 
were subjected to a different form of government. While in the rest 
of Europe, the Northern races, k)sing the virtues of barbarism retained 
only its vices, Sicily, like Spain, was under the dominion of the Sara- 
cens, who, if not civilised, were enlightened, and full of the activity and 
energy of a recently regenerated people. The mainland province 
now Invaded by the barbarians^ po)f reconquered by the Qreek £m- 

Amarts War of the Sicilian Vap^ra. 27 

perors, split itself into a multitude of states, uuder various polities. 
Some of them were adopting the forms of the rising Italian republics, 
when a handful of Norman adventurers, summoned as defenders, 
made themselves masters of the soil, and established the feudal system* 
Crossing into Sicily, toward the close of the eleventh century, they 
drove out the Saracens, who were odious to the natives as foreign rulers 
differing from them in race and religion, and founded there a new prin- 
cipality. They were the first to introduce feudality, which, as it was 
already beginning to decline in the rest of Europe, here arose in a more 
quitable and milder form, being further modified by the virtues 
and ability of Roger, the leader of the conquerors, by the influence of 
the great cities, by the powers grasped by the Church on the head of 
Chriitian virtues, by the amount of allodial lands, by the wealth and 
number of the Saracens, subdued rather than exterminated, and even by 
that of the Christian inhabitants of Sicily. Thus Count Roger, as 
mler of a free people, rather than chief of a turbulent baronage, and 
ioFested with the authority of pontifical legate (which is, even to the 
present day, an inherent privilege of the Sicilian crown), governed his 
new state firmly and orderly. It was raised to the rank of a kingdom 
by the second Roger, son of the count, who, by combined force and 
policy, wrested Apulia and Calabria from the other Norman princes, 
and then gallantly defended them with Sicilian arms against the barons, 
who there enjoyed greater powers, the Emperor and the Pope. Upon 
this he was hailed by the parliament, King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia 
and Calabria, and Prince of Capua ; and at lenf;;th, cither of favour or 
necessity, recognised by the Pope. He centred the power of the 
magistracy in the crown, restrained the barons, established wise internal 
regolations, revived industry, and employed his arms with success 
beyond the limits of his kingdom. 

" The newly-founded Sicilian monarchy had two opposing powers to 
contend with; these were the baronage (which, although not suffi- 
ciently powerful to set at nought the regal authority, was yet daring 
enough to provoke it), and the court of Rome. The latter involved 
our princes in the contests of Italy, now calling them to her aid, and 
now laying claim to their provinces, and openly combating them. 
Nevertheless the monarchy, based on a firm foundation, resisted these 
assaults from within and from without, strengthened itself by improved 
laws under the reign of the second William, and might, perhaps, after a 
long period of neutrality^ have raised a true national standard in Italy, 
subdued th.e Emperor and the Pope, and occupied and protected the 
whole country to the foot of the Alps, had it not passed, by marriage, 
from the Norman line to the House of Suabia, which at that time 
wielded the sceptre of the empire.*' — Vol. i. pp. 21 — 24. 

Then followed the long and deadly contest between the Pope- 
dom and the House of ouabia, which ended in the entire annilii- 
lation of tlie. latter. At th^ death of the great Emperor, Frede- 
rick II», the reigning Pope, Innocent lY., redoubled hia effects 

28 Amarfs War of the Sicilian Vespers. 

for their destruction : and succeeded in preventing his son Conrad 
from being elected Emperor, and in order to deprive him of 
his southern dominions he proclaimed, as he had in the time of 
Frederick, Kberty to the people : he stirred up the barons, ex- 
horted the bishops and clergy, preached remission of sins to all 
who would rise in rebellion against their sovereign, and in his 
briefs, and by his legates, endeavoured to arouse a spirit of 
disaffection, promising to all orders and conditions of men, peace, 
prosperity, and every other result of mild and just government 
under the protection of the Church. There were not wanting 
causes of complaint against the reigning house: the Suabian 
dynasty is indeed charged with rigour and avarice : we are, how- 
ever, inclined to think that such rigour may have been necessary 
for the maintenance of order, and the protection of person and 
property, in an age and country where insubordination was 
general, and lawlessness universal : and no doubt, can exist 
but that, even supposing the imperial avarice not to have been 
produced by the necessity of obtaining funds for carrying on the 
contest against Eome, it was vastly increased by that cause. 
Subjects of discontent there always will be, but we doubt 
extremely whether the Sicilians and Neapolitans were justified 
in their feelings of disaffection, much less in their practices 
of treason. The result would seem to condemn them. 

For the present, the intrigues; of the Pope and the insubordi- 
nation of toe people were overpowered by th6 zeal of the Ghibel- 
lines, and the talents of Manfred, an illegitimate sou. of the late 
Emperor. After a reign, however, of little more than two years, 
Conrad died, leaving an only child, ^n infant, named Conrad, but 
known in history by the childish diminutive of Conradin. His 
father confided him, as an infant and an orphan, to the paternal 
care of the Pontiff, who, in the ruthless and unchristian spirit which 
has so often characterized the See of Borne, a spirit naturally 
breathing itself into the constant energy of life from the errors of 
her church and the claims of her Bishop, reriewed his assaults 
more furiously than ever, both by fot»ce and fraud, upon the 
heritage of the helpless and fatherless child. 

At this juncture the conduct of the Sicilians is utterly inex- 
cusable. They had a noble opportunity of .^ving their country, 
their honour, and their king. Had they ratUed round the de- 
fenceless innocent whom the Providence of God had appointed 
for their future ruler, they might have secured all their existing 
franchises, and obtained all those that were wanting ; they might 
have consolidated the Sicilian constitution, obtained the entire 
freedom of their country from foreign domination, ensured the 
love and gratitude of their prince, and established a mutual 

AmarTs War of the ^BiciUan Vespers. 29 

good'Will and devotion alike beneficial to the ruler and the 


Instead of doing this thev quarrelled miserably among them- 
selves, and at length established what has been aptly termed the 
Republic of Vanity. This bubble polity was, after a brief exist- 
ence, destroyed by Manfred, whom we have already mentioned as 
the illegitimate son of Frederick the Second, and who was thus ^ 
uncle to the infant Conradin. For a time, the Papal arms had 
been universally victorious on the continent. Manfred, how- 
ever, and some few piartisans of the Suabian dynasty still held 
out. That able prince fought his ground most bravely, and, 
yratching his opportunity, succeeded in reconquering the king- 
dom of Staples. 

*' Thus," says our author, " Manfred anbdued all the inhabitants of 
tLe mainland and of Sicily, and governed, for a time, in the name of 
Conradin ; but, unwilling to resign to a mere child the sceptre he had 
reconquered by his own valour, he promulgated the report of the death 
of his nephew in Germany ; and whether his word were believed or no, 
he assumed the crown in Palermo, as sole heir of Frederick, on the 11 th 
of August, 12^8. '.; 

** ^anfred held tb^ reins of government with a strong hand, and, 
finding conciliation impossible, combated the court of Rome with des- 
perate energy. He placed himself at the head of the Ghibeline party, 
wi^iph he revived in Lombardy, and fomented in Tuscany. He found 
partisan^ even in Rome, which was not yet subdued by the Popes ; 
and, beiiig governed by a senator, had recently elected to that office one 
Branca1ebne» a man of loi\y spirit, who, from commnhity of hatred, had 
dlied* himscif ia the Ghlbelline king. The court of Rome, finding 
itself, tindelf' these circumstanees, tineqnal to maintain the conflict, now 
haist^nkd td put into execution a long>-oonceived design: So early as 
on thb decease of Prdderick Il.^.Pope Innocent, ccmscious of the want 
of vigour in the pontifical arm to wield the sceptre of Sicily and Apulia, 
had turned: his eyesilx) the weal in search of some potentate who would 
conquer. them with his pwa fbrces, and hold them with the title of king 
in fiiefXrom. the Church, upon condition of paying her tribute both in 
money and in military service ;; by which means he would raise in Italy 
2^. , powc;*/^! champion of the Church and head of .the Guelph party. 
Thus, wijul^ proclaiming .libprty to the people of southern Italy and 
Sicily, he bargained. .for thepi as for a flock of sheep : first, with. Richard, 
Earl of Corn wafl^ brother qf Henry III. of England ; then with Charles, 
Count of A^jou and Provence, brother of Louis IX. of France; and, 
finally, with the youthful Edmund,- son of the aforesaid Henry. The 
still existiugepistles of the inonarchs, and bulls of Innocent and of his 
successors, reveal and confirm all these practices, carried on for sixteen 
years by the court of Rome with the utmost caution, unless when 
driven to precipitancy by fear or indignation. With unwearied zeal 

30 AmarCs War of the Sicilian Vespers. 

the Pope dispatched briefs and legates to urge on the dovereigne 
used every effort to win over their courtiers, and lavished the tithes of 
all Christendom to aid the conquest of Sicily and Apulia. To this end 
he published a crusade, and commuted for it the vows of princes and 
nations to take part in the holy war in Palestine. Often, during these 
negotiations, the court of Rome, either from want of means, from the 
necessity of self-defence, or from impatience to occupy, some of the 
provinces of Apulia, borrowed money upon the security of the property 
of the Transalpine churches, and compelled their prelates to satisfy the 
claims of the creditors, threatening those who showed reluctance with 
the weight of its censures. Sometimes the Pope granted bulls of inves- 
titure in exchange for vast sums of money ; sometimes his eagerness 
for the destruction of Manfred made him suspend these lucrative prac- 
tices ; and mean while the enterprise was postponed, as beyond the 
powers of those who meditated it, and rendered almost desperate by 
the strength and talents of Manfred." — Vol. i. pp. 40—43. 

That excellent monarch, St. Louis, whose sublime and eminent 
virtues, virtues which would have shone bright even in a constel- 
lation of good and great men, but which appearing as they do in 
one of his family, stand forth like gems in the darkness, and 
render him the Abdiel of his race, held out for a long tim6 
against the pleadings of papal craft. He was ready to protect 
the Church, to fight for the Church, to die for the Church ; but 
his simple piety could not perceive the righteousness 6f the unjust 
and outrageous aggression proposed by the supreme pontiff. At 
length, however, h6 was won over by the wiles and prayers of the 
Pope, who represented Manfred as a monster of cruelty and 
licentiousness, half Saracen and half heretic, ruling with avaricious 
and lawless tyranny over a suffering and Christian people. 

So St. Louis gave his sanction to the enterprize of his brother, 
Charles of Anjou ; and in the Angevin prince the Pope found a 
suitable instrument wherewith to effect his purposes. 

" And now all haste was made to prepare arms and forces for the 

war against Manfred Having thus gathered from all quarters the 

means of defraying the cost of the preparations, the warriors, whose 
object was gain, and the crusade their pretext, assembled under the 
adventurous banner of Anjou, some as mercenaries, some leading bjan(^s 
of followers at their own expense, like a stake in a speculation or a 
lottery, with the hope of a return in territorial possessions in the con- 
quered kingdom. They amounted to thirty thousand, between hor^e 
and foot ; and yet they are designated in history as an army, not, as 
they were in truth, a band of freebooters, congregated beyond the Alps, 
to pour down upon Italy, to slay for the sake of plunder, and to assume 
the semblance of authority, and stigmatize resistance as rebellion. 

" After a perilous sea-voyage, to avoid the formidable army of Man- 
fred, Charles landed in Italy with a handfbl of followers ; and, in June, 

AmarTe War of the SidUan Vegm$. 81 

1265, he assumed for a time the office of senator of Rome, bj the 
consent of the Pope. In the autumn his forces crossed the Alps, 
meeting with no opposition from the Italian Ghibellines, some of wlioni 
were intimidated, and others bought over. Thus fortune, which over- 
throws all human counsels at a breath, at this juncture forsook Man- 
fred. The divisions of Italy were injurious to him, as the prospect of 
innovation produced a revival of the Guelph party. The power of the 
Church was likewise against him ; but it was the fickleness of his 
barons which wrought his ruin, together with the disaffection of the 
people, caused by the frequency and weight of the imposts, the often- 
repeated excommunications, and all the evils engendered by the strug- 
gle with Rome." — Vol. i. pp. 52, 53. 

Deserted by the headstrong baronage and discontented people, 
more capable of discerning the faults than of appreciating the 
merits of their ruler — Manfred was left with but few followers to 
oppose the vast and warlike force of the foreign invader. Gather- 
ing, however, an army of Germans and Italians, of as many Apu- 
lians as were faithful to his cause, and of the Saracens of Sicily, 
who had been removed to the mainland, and wlio, hated by all 
besides, clung to him alone, be did all that indomitable energy 
could do to strengthen his forces, and endeavoured, with tiie 
utmost skill, to gain time from the enemy. His efforts were, 
however, unavailing. The winter had set in with great severity. 
Charles of Anjou iiad been crowned at the Vatican on the Gth 
of January, 1266 : and the failure of means left him but two 
alternatives, — to advance at once upon Manfred, or to disband his 
forces immediately. He adopted the former. His advance was 
rapid, and accompanied with rapid success. 

" Only at Benevento was there fighting ; for Manfred was there, and 
Charles would listen to no conditions of peace. There the Germans and 
the Sicilian Saracens fought bravely ; the rest fled ; and after a fearful 
carnage the impetuosity of the French carried the day. Manfred there*, 
upon rushed upon the ranks of the enemy to seek for death, nor did he 
seek it in vain. His corpse was found amongst the thousands of the 
slain, and over it the hostile soldiers raised a pile of stones ; but even 
this bumble sepulture was denied him by the hatred of the pontifical 
legate ; and, for his last obsequies, the remains of the Suabian hero 
were flung to the dogs on the banks of the Verde. 

** Naples applauded the conqueror ; rebellion, the defeat of the army, 
and the death of the king, caused the submission of the remainder of 
Apulia and Calabria, as well as of Sicily ; the gallant Saracens alone 
held out in Lucera. The treasures of the vanquished were hastily 
divided between Charles, Beatrice, and their knights ; the soldiers of 
fortune obtained lands and dignities ; and the people, who in changing 
their rulers rarely change their destinies for the better, hoped, as usual, 
to reap benefit, deeming that peace would bring with it a diminution of 

32 Aman's War of the Sicilian Vespers. 

the taxes imposed for the maintenance of the obstinate conflict with th^ 
Court of Rome." — ^Vol. i. pp. 55, 56. 

How far this expectation was realized, we learn from the sequel, 
which gives an account of oppression so grinding, cruel, unrelent- 
ing, and destructive, that the particulars are hard to be believed. 
We do, however, fully believe them, not only from Mr. Amari^s 
high character for fidelity, honesty, and accuracy, but from the full 
and unmistakeable evidence of entire and unswerving truthfulness, 
which these volumes display. No one can read them without 
believing every statement of fact which they contain. 

And here w^e must pause to observe, that had the Sicilians 
done their duty by Conradin in the first place, they would 
neither have fallen under the sway of Manfred, nor that of the 
house of Anjou ; and that had they, after acknowledging Manfred 
as their king, stood by him, they would not have undergone the 
miseries to which they were afterwards subjected. Manfred may 
have been arbitrary, and even in some degree rapacious — as 
great princes, and all great men, were tempted to be in those 
good Old times, which our medisevalists hold up to us as the ages 
of faith, and days of universal blessedness, — a sort of foreshadowing, 
it would seem, of the Millennium : but he was, take him all in all, 
an able and a good ruler; and whatever his faults may have been, 
he was as an angel of light compared with the miscreant who 
succeeded him. 

Charles had not long enjoyed his easy conquest, when an 
unexpected adversary rose up against him in the almost forgotten 
Conradin, rightful heir to the throne. The exiled Italians from 
all quarters, expelled by the dominance of their enemies, and 
those who remained at home, oppressed by the hostile faction, by 
the Pope or by the foreigners, turned their eyes to him ; whilst 
foreign princes gave him their assistance. He had now just 
emerged from extreme youth into early manhood ; and in less 
than a year after the conquest of Apulia and Sicily, Charles found 
himself in danger of losing his so easily acquired dominions. And 
so successfully did Conrad and his partisans carry on their plans, 
that in the same year, 1267, the yoifng prince descended upon 
Verona at the head of a German army of four thousand horse 
and several thousand foot. Don Henry of Castile, one of his 
firmest allies, w&s tumultuously elected in Rome to the office of 
senator ; every where the Ghibellines arose in arms ; and Sicily 
broke out into open insurrection against King Charles. 

Had the Sicilians even now fought boldly, and unitedly, and 
loyally^ for their lawful sovereign Conrad, there can be no doubt 
but that be would have achieved their deliverance, and established 

AmarTa War of ike Sicttian Vespen. 33 

the throne upon a firm, lasting, constitutional, and independent 
basis ; but livith that factious selfishness, and restless folly, and 
headstrong vehemence, and childish impatience, which so often 
are to be discerned in their conduct, they spent in -internal 
quarrels the greater part of that energy which should have been 
directed against the common enemy. It was just one of those 
cases in which we see the narrow-mindedness as well as narrow- 
heartedness of selfishness, and the practical \vi8doni as well as 
moral beauty of loyalty and self-devotion. Had the Sicilians 
thought more of their prince, and less of themselves ; more of his 
interests, and less of their own ; and more of their duties, and less of 
their deserts ; they would have triumphed. As it was, the enter- 
prise of Gonradin, after a temporary success, altogether failed ; 
and the Sicilians were subjected, as they deserved to be, to the 
merciless vengeance of the French tyrant. We pity the helpless 
and the innocent victims of his^ cruelty, and that of his myrmidons; 
but we think that no amount of punishment would have been 
excessive or ill-bestowed upon any able-bodied Sicilian man, who^ 
after rising in defence of the noble young Suabian, failed to 
support him to the last drop of his blood. So that, in fact, Pro- 
vidence, in our opinion, ordained jthat Charles of Anjou should, 
however unintentionally, punish the Sicilians for their treason to 
their lawful and gallant young prince. 

We pass over the events of the war, and proceed to the two 
last scenes in Gonradin^s brief career of glory. 

" Charles, unused to the sudden outbreaks of Italy, was terrified on 
beholding half the peninsula rising in favour of Conradin, Sicily lost, 
Apulia infected with the spirit of rebellion, and Conradin, whom the 
want of means had at first arrested at Verona, victorious on the Arno, 
gathering strength at Rome by the assistance of Henry of Castile, and, 
heedless of anathemas, advancing in a menacing attitude against the 
kingdom at the head of 1 0,000 horse, and a still greater array of foot, 
made up of Germans, Spaniards, Italians, and exiles of Apulia. Nor 
could Charles muster an army equally numerous ; but his troops were 
for the most part French, better disciplined, and commanded by more 
experieneed leaders, and he boldly made head against the enemy near 
the frontier. They joined battle at Tagliacozzo, in the plain of San 
Valentina, on the 23rd of August, 1268 ; and fortune had already 
declared for Conradm, when the third division of the French army, led 
by the veteran Alard de Valary, and William prince of the Morea, 
appeared on the field, and with great slaughter broke the ranks of those 
whom the confidence of victory had thrown into disorder. The chiefs 
of Conradin*8 army were taken prisoners, and their followers slain by 
thousands. Charles, finding several Romans amongst them, not content 
to take their lives alone, in revenge for his deposition from the office of 
senator, in the first burst of his indignation, commanded iVval iVi^Vc i&^\» 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXIX, — MARCH, 1851. D 

8i Aimn'i War of the BicUian Vet^s. ' 

should be cut off; but afterwards, fearing that they should drag them- 
selves to Rome to increase the hatred of its inhabitants against him by 
their miserable plight, he revoked the order. They were shut up in a 
house, and burned alive. And this was the champion of the Church ! 
Conradin was recognised as a fugitive at Astura, and taken by treachery. 
His partisans, though still strong in numbers, were dismayed by this 
defeat ; they disbanded themselves, each seeking only his own safety, 
and thus all were lost. Charles of Anjou retained his kingdom, as he 
had gained it, by a single battle ; but the means which he adopted at 
once to secure and revenge himself are painful to record. 

" I will begin by Conradin, although, before his blood was shed, that 
of his subjects had already flowed in torrents. Some attribute the evil 
counsel concerning him to Clement, whom others exonerate ; my own 
belief is, that the pope and the king, urged on by indignation for the 
' fear he had caused them, and anxiety for the future, were agreed in 
desiring the death of the youth. They were not executioners in a 
dungeon, but representatives of the nation, before the eyes of God and 
of the people, who defiled themselves with the guilt of the murder thus 
enjoined. King Charles summoned a parliament of barons, syndics, 
and burgesses of the cities of Apulia ; every judicial form was mockingly 
observed ; so that it seems like a foretaste of later times to read the 
logic by which, as usual in such cases, that singular court condemned 
Conradin and his followers to death. One Guidone da Suzara, a famous 
professor of civil law, who was not a subject of Charles, nor ambitious 
of his favour, alone dared to oppose the sentence ; the consciences of the 
rest smote them, and the well-disposed sorrowed in their hearts ; even 
the French execrated the monarch's cruelty ; but the king's will was 
known, the judges trembled, and opposition was vain. A youth of six- 
teen, last scion of so long a line of emperors and kings, himself rightfbl 
sovereign of Sicily and Apulia, was led forth to execution, in the 
market-place of Naples, on the 29th of October 1268, followed by a 
string of victims, that the vengeance of the tyrant might be more ample 
on those who had rouse^him from his repose. By the tide of Conradin 
walked the young Duke of Austria, the beloved companion of hia ehild« 
hood ; both were fair and comely, and with an intrepid countenance 
and firm step advanced towards the scaffold. It was covered with 
scarlet, in semblance of regal pomp, and sullenly guarded by armed 
soldiers ; the market-place was crowded with people, while, from the 
roof of a tower, Charles, like a crouching tiger, watched the scene. 
Conradin ascended the platform, showed himself to the spectators, and 
having listened to the sentence which pronounced him a sacril^ous 
traitor, nobly protested against it before God and the people* At hit 
words a murmur ran through the multitude ; then all were silent, para- 
lyzed with fear, and, pale and terrified, fixed their ey^s on Conradin. 
He gazed around upon the sea of horror-stricken countenances with a 
smile of bitter scorn, then raised his eyes to heaven, and bado farewell 
to every earthly thought. Roused by the sound of a falling stroke^ 
Conradin beheld the severed head of the Duke of Austria lying on tli» 

Amarfs War i(fik$ Sicilian VHfcrh 86 

scaffold I he hastily raised it from the ground, pressed it to his hosom, 
kissed it repeatedly, embraced the bystanders, even to the executioner, 
then laid his head upon the block, and the axe fell. It has been 
related, that he had previously flung down his glove, in token of the 
transmission of the investiture of the two kingdoms to Peter of Arragon, 
son-in-law of Manfred ; also, that the Count of Flanders, the husband 
of one of Charleses daughters, unable to endure the sight of this unholy 
sacrifice, with his own hand slew Robert of Bari, who framed and pro- 
nounced the sentence." — ^Vol. i. pp. 65 — 69. 

The horrors which followed this atrocious murder seem almost 
incredible to those who perceive the altered state of feeling and 
conduct which has resulted from the blessed influence of that 
Holy Book whose lessons supported, enforced, and brought home 
by our Church, have made us the greatest as well as the happiest 
people of the earth. Yes ! the fierce passions of mankind have 
been bridled, and even Popery itself compelled to adopt a more 
Christian tone, by the open publication of Gh)d^s message to man. 
From our Ghurcn, as from the tabernacle in the desert, the blaze 
of divine glory has shed its living rays, so that they alike who 
hate and who deny the truth have been compelled to bow before 
it. We say not that the change is sincere ; in many cases we 
believe that it is the very reverse, that the pent-up malice of 
men^s hearts only rankles the more deeply because it cannot 
show itself as it was wont to do of old. Yet though it be hypo- 
critical, we should recollect that '' hypocrisy is the homage which 
vice pays to virtue T^ and the existence of that homage proves 
the existence and the influence of that to which it is paid. Were 
Eome to succeed in destroying the English Church, and silencing 
the oracles of God which sound in her shrines, she would soon 
throw off the mask which sits so ill upon her countenance ; and 
fire, and sword, and spoliation, and pollution would be the tokens 
of her presence and her power: Let us spend a few minutes in 
considering the conduct of her worthy son, Charles of Anjou, 
and his pious followers, that we may see the sort of crusade which 
she woiud like to publish, and in what manner the Holy See 
carries on its Holy Wars. 

"They eonfiscated, they plundered, they slew, they blinded, they 
tortured, till Charles himself checked the inhuman zeal which was 
reducing the kingdom to a desert. . • . But for the Sicilians there was 
no mercy. He dispatched some of his French barons to bring them to 
the slaughter, the foremost of whom was William TEstendard, a man of 
war and bloodshed, who held pity in contempt ; more cruel, says Saba 
Malaspina, than cruelty itself, drunk with blood, and thirsting fpr it 
the more fiercely the more he shed. He crossed the strait with a 


36 AmarCs War of the SicUian Vespen. 

company of valiant Proven^eaax, augmented it, to oar shame be it 
spoken, with brave Sicilians, and crashed withoai resistance the 
partisans of Conradin, to whom not a shadow of hope remained. Only 
in Agosta, a thoasand armed citizens, with a band of two hundred 
Tascan horse, defended themselves resolately, aided by their im^eg- 
nable position, so that William, having pitched his camp before it, 
wearied himself a long time in fruitless efiforts, which redoubled his 
natural ferocity. He was at length able to gratify it without a battle, 
six traitors having been found to open a postern by night, and thus the 
intrepid garrison fell defenceless into his hands. He regarded neither 
valour, nor innocence, nor any human consideration. His men at arms 
traversed the city, defiling every quarter with rapine, violation, and 
slaughter, ransacking even the cisterns and granaries for victims. Bat 
the first onslaught, which satiated the fury of the soldiers, did not 
extinguish it in the bosom of the king's representative. He summoned 
to the work of butchery an executioner of giant strength ; the citizens 
of Agosta were brought before him bound : and he dispatched them 
with a ponderous sword. When he was weary, brimming goblets of 
wine were brought to him, which he swallowed, mixed with the blood 
and sweat with which he was streaming, and then with renewed 

strength resumed his horrid task This slaughter was imitated 

and emulated in other places/' 

But a truce to these horrors. If our readers desire further 
particulars, they will find them vividly painted in the volumes 
under review. 

But some will perhaps say, that these enormities were not 
justly chargeable on the Popes, or their system of faith and 
practice. We answer, that they were. The Papal system had 
substituted base counterfeits for almost all the holy things of God ; 
for inward sanctity, outward formalism — for obedience to Grod''s 
law, obedience to the Pope'^s commands — for Christian love to 
mankind in general and the brethren in particular, hatred of 
heathens, heretics, and all those who refused implicit obedience 
to the Boman See — for exalting devotion, degrading superstition 
— for the worship of the Creator, that of the creature — for the 
one Mediator, thousands of impostors — for the one Sacrifice, 
meritorious, atoning, and expiatory, innumerable devices of man's 
invention — in short, the Papal system had rendered the Word 
of God of none effect by its traditions. 

Again, the Popes urged on these wars, and in no measured 
language devoted the unhappy people who fell under their wrath 
to the fury and the pleasure of the conqueror, kindling up the 
contest when it would have otherwise ceased, appropriating the 
revenues of distant churches to the use of its ministers of ven- 
geance, ai^d showing neither mercy nor pity towards even the 

Amari's War o/tAe Sicilian V$ipen. 37 

most helpless and innocent of those who had incurred its dis- 

On many occasions we perceive the direct action of Popery 
through its supreme chief or his subordinates. Thus in a later 
portion of this work we are fold that when the so-called crusaders 
invaded the dominions of Peter of Arragon, 

" At the beginning of May this formidable host entered Rousillon. 
It advanced, divided into six bands, or rather armies, one of which, 
under the banner of the Church, was commanded by the legate, who, 
exasperated because in the occupation of Perpignan, and all the country, 
Elna alone resisted, encouraged the soldiers to put all the inhabitants 
to the sword ; for, when perpetrated against the enemies of the Church, 
such acts either were no sin, or he would absolve them from it. The 
crusaders, therefore, spared neither age, sex, nor religion in this ill-fated 
town ; they violated the nuns in t£e convents, slew the priests and 
the women after subjecting them to their pleasure, and dashed the 
infants against the walls/'-^Yol. ii. p. 192. 

Other traits of a similar nature are recorded of this legate, nor 
was his conduct in any way singular ; and though of course there are 
brilliant exceptions, they are exceptions. And here we would throw 
out a suggestion, which has frequently occurred to us in reading 
the history of the middle ages, — that though there have been 
excellent men in the service, and even in the see of Borne, the 
sanctity, which undoubtedly is to be found in those times, flou- 
rished, so far as it did flourish, with such rare exceptions, not 
in the actual Church of Borne herself, but in those other Churches 
which she had unjustly subjected to her authority. 

But to take up once more the thread of our narrative. From 
1268 to 1282 the Sicilians suffered vXi that a people could suffer 
from the cruelty and rapacity of Charles and his subordinates, 
and the universal lawlessness, inhumanity, and licentiousness of 
the French and their companions. We have not space, for the 
details of the ingenious and systematic oppression practised by 
the government and its officers during this time, nor for the 
many sufferings endured by the natives at the hands of their 
conquerors ; for all of which we must once more refer our readers 
to the work itself. 

Much discussion has of late arisen as to the origin of the 
Vespers, and Mr. Amari has taken much trouble to clear the 
subject from the many fables associated with it by after ages. 
He has done his work carefully and well ; but we do not exactly 
coincide in the result at which he has arrived. 

Our view of the case is as follows. — Peter of Arragon, ever 
since the murder of Gonradin, had cast longing eyes upon the 

38 Amari's War of the SieiUafi VetpeH^. 

45rown of Sicily, which he claimed in right of his wife, OonBtHnoe, 
daughter of Manfred. During the twelve years which intervened 
between that event and the popular outbreak at Pidermo, he was 
preparing in every way for the enterprise which he meditated. 
John of Procida likewise had his share in the result for which he 
laboured, by effecting an alliance between Peter and the Greek 
Emperor, menaced by Charles's preparations, by intriguing with 
the Sicilian barons, and by endeavouring to arouse the Siciliaii 
Commonalty. Charles was about to invade the Greek empire 
with an immense host ; whilst he prepared for this, Peter pre- 
pared likewise his forces, the destination of which he concealed, 
mtending to pounce upon Sicily and Apulia, as soon as Charles 
should have landed with all his disposable forces in the East; 
when, far from the scene of action, entangled in a difficult 
war, and unable to succour his garrisons, he would have been 
unable to resist Peter's invasion, supported as his cause would be 
by the secret wishes of the barons, and the vengeance of the 
people. The outbreak at Palermo was, we concur with Mr. 
Amari in believing, quite unprenieditated ; in fact, we do not see 
how it could have been otherwise. We conceive that the sud- 
denness of the revolution took Peter and the conspirators by 
surprise, and that the resistless fury of a people goaded to 
madness anticipated and outran the as yet undeveloped plot. 

We proceed to transcribe in full the account which Mr. Apiari 
has given of the commencement of that fearful movement known 
to future ages as the Sicilian Vespers. It will not bear abridg- 

'* The Sicilians endured the yoke, though cursing it| until the spring 
of 1282. The King of Arragon's military preparations were not yet 
completed ; nor, even if partially known in Sicily, could they inspire 
any immediate hope. The people were overawed by Charles's immense 
armaments destined against Constantinople ; and forty-two royal 
castles, either in the principal cities, or in situations of great natural 
strength, served to keep the island in check. A still greater number 
were held by French feudatories ; the standing troops were collected 
and in arms ; and the feudal militia, composed in great part of foreign 
sub-feudatories, waited only the signal to assemble. In such a posture 
of affairs, which the foresight of the prudent would never have selected 
for an outbreak, the officers of Charles continued to grind down the 
Sicilian people, satisfied that their patience would endure for ever. 

** New outrages shed a gloom over the festival of Easter at Palermo, 
the ancient capital of the kingdom, detested by the strangers more than 
any other city, as being the strongest and the most deeply injured. 
Messina was the seat of the king's viceroy in Sicily, Herbert of 
Orleans ; Palermo was governed by the justiciary of Yal di Maaaara, 

Amarfs War o/tks Sicilian V^qp&n. S9 

John of St« Remigio, a minister worthy of Charles. His sabaltems, 
worthy both of the justiciary and of the king, had recently launched 
out into fresh acts of rapine and violence. But the people submitted. 
It eren went so far that the citizens of Palermo, seeking comfort from 
God amid their worldly tribulations, and haying entered a church 
to pray, in that very church, on the days sacred to the Saviour's 
passion, and amidst the penitential rites, were exposed to the most 
cruel outrages. The ban-dogs of the exchequer searched out amongst 
them those who had failed in the payment of the taxes, dragged them 
forth from the sacred edifice, manaeled, and bore them to prison, 
crying out insultingly before the multitude attracted to the spot, ' Pay, 
paterim, pay 1 * And the people still submitted. The Tuesday after 
Easter, which fell on the 81st of March, there was a festival at the 
chareh of San Spirito. On that occasion a hideous outrage against 
the liberties of the Sicilians afforded the impulse, and the patience of 
the people gave way. We will now record all that the historians most 
deserving of credence have transmitted to us concerning this memorable 

'* Half a mile from the southern wall of the city, on the brink of the 
nyine of Oreto, stands a church dedicated to the Holy Ghost, con- 
cerning which the Latin Fathers have not failed to record, that on the 
day on which the first stone of it was laid, in the twelfth century, the 
mm was darkened by an eclipse. On one side of it are the precipice 
and the river ; on the other, the plain extending to the city, which in 
the present day is in great part encumbered with walls and gardens ; 
while a square enclosure of moderate sise, shaded by dusky cypresses, 
honey-combed with tombs, and adorned with unis and other sepulchral 
nonumenlt, sun«ound the church. This is a public cemetery, laid out 
towards the end of the eighteenth century, and fearfully filled in three 
weeks by the dire pestilence which devastated Sicily in 1837. On the 
Tuesday, at the hour of vespers, religion and custom crowded this then 
cheerful plain, carpeted with the flowers of spring, with citizens wending 
their way towards the church. Divided into numerous groups, they 
walked, sate in clusters, spread their tables, or danced upon the grass ; 
and whether it were a defect or a merit of the Sicilian character, threw 
off for the moment the recollection of their sufferings, when the followers 
of the justiciary suddenly appeared amongst them, and every bosom 
thrilled with a shudder of disgust. The strangers came, with their 
usual insolent demeanour, as they said, to maintain tranquillity ; and 
for this purpose they mingled in the groups, joined in the dances, and 
familiarly accosted the women, pressing the hand of one, taking un- 
warranted liberties with others ; addressing indecent words and gestures 
to those more distant; until some temperately admonished them to 
depart, in God's name, without insulting the women, and others mur- 
mured angrily; but the hot-blooded youths raised their voices so 
fiercely, that the soldiers said to one another, * These insolent paterini 
must be armed that they dare thus to answer;' and replied to them 
with the moat (tensive insvltSi insisting, with great insolence^ on 

40 Asnarfs War of the Sicilian Vespers. 

searching them for arms, and even here and there striking them with 
sticks or thongs. Every heart already throhhed fiercely on either 
side, when a young woman of singular heauty, and of modest and 
dignified deportment, appeared with her hushand and relations bending 
her steps towards the church. Drouet, a Frenchman, impelled either 
by insolence or licence, approached her as if to examine her for con- 
cealed weapons, seized her, and searched her bosom. She fell fainting 
into her husband's arms, who, in a voice almost choked with rage, 
exclaimed, * Death, death to the French!* At the same momenta 
youth burst from the crowd which had gathered round them, sprang 
upon Drouet, disarmed and slew him ; and probably, at the same 
moment, paid the penalty of his own life, leaving his name unknown, 
and the mystery for ever unsolved, whether it were love for the injured 
woman, the impulse of a generous heart, or the more exalted flame of 
patriotism, that prompted him thus to give the signal of deliverance. 
Noble examples have a power far beyond that of argument or eloquence 
to rouse the people, and the abject slaves awoke at length from their 
long bondage. ' Death, death to the French ! * they cried ; and the 
cry, say the historians of the time, re-echoed like the voice of God 
through the whole country, and found an answer in every heart. 
Above the corpse of Drouet were heaped those of victims slain on either 
side; the crowd expanded itself, closed in, and swayed hither and 
thither in wild confusion ; the Sicilians, with sticks, stones, and knives, 
rushed with desperate ferocity upon their fully-armed opponents ; they 
sought for them, and hunted them down ; fearful tragedies were enacted 
amid the preparations for festivity, and the overUirown tables were 
drenched in blood. The people displayed their strength, and con-< 
quered. The struggle was brief, and great the slaughter of the 
Sicilians ; but of the French there were two hundred, — and two hundred 

** Breathless, covered with blood, brandishing the plundered weapons, 
and proclaiming the insult and its vengeance, the insurgents rushed 
towards the tranquil city. 'Death to the French !' they shouted, and 
as many as they found were put to the sword. The example, the words, 
the contagion of passion, in an instant aroused the whole people. In 
the heat of the tumult Roger Mastrangelo, a nobleman, was chosen, or 
constituted himself, their leader. The multitude continued tofilcrease; 
dividing into troops they scoured the streets, burst open doors, searched 
every nook, every hiding-place, and shouting * Death to the French,* 
smote them and slew them, while those too distant to strike added to 
the tumult by their applause. On the outbreak of this sudden uproar 
the justiciary had taken refuge in his strong palace ; the next moment 
it was surrounded by an enraged multitude, crying aloud for his death ; 
they demolished the defences, and rushed furiously in, but the justiciary 
escaped them : favoured by the confusion and the closing darkness, he 
succeeded, though wounded in the face, in mounting his horse unob- 
served, with only two attendants, and fled with all speed. Meanwhile, 
the slaughter continued with increased ferocity ; even the darkness of 

AfMffi War of the Bwilum Veipen. 41 

nigbt fidled to arrest it, and it was resumed on the morrow more 
furiously than ever ; nor did it cease at length because the thirst for 
vengeance was slaked, but because victims were wanting to appease it. 
Two thousand JFrench perished in this first outbreak. Even Christian 
burial was denied them» but pits were afterwards dug to receive their 
despised remains ; and tradition still points out a column surmounted 
by an iron cross, raised by compassionate- piety on one of those spots, 
probably long after the perpetration of the deed of vengeance. Tradi- 
tion, moreover, relates, that the sound of a word, like the Shibboleth 
of the Hebrews, was the cruel test by which the French were dis- 
tinguished in the massacre ; and that, if there were found a suspicious 
or unknown person, he was compelled, with a sword to his throat, to 
pronounce the word ciciri, and the slightest foreign accent was the signal 
for his death. Forgetful of their own character, and as if stricken by 
fate, the gallant warriors of France neither fled, nor united, nor defended 
themselves ; they unsheathed their swords, and presented them to their 
assailants, imploring, as if in emulation of each other, to be the first to 
die : of one common soldier only is it recorded, that, having concealed 
himself behind a wainscot, and being dislodged at the sword's point, he 
resolved not to die unavenged, and springing with a wild cry upon the 
ranks of his enemies, slew three of them before he himself perished. 
The insurgents broke into the convents of the Minorites and Preaching 
Friars, and slaughtered all the monks whom they recognised as French. 
Even the altars afforded no protection ; tears and prayers were alike 
UDheeded ; neither old men, women, nor infants were spared ; the 
ruthless avengers of the ruthless massacre of Agosta, swore to root out 
the seed of the French oppressors throughout the whole of Sicily ; and 
this vow they cruelly fulfilled, slaughtering infants at their mother's 
hreasts, and after them the mothers themselves, and with a horrible 
refinement of cruelty, ripping up the bodies of Sicilian women who 
were with child by French husbands, and dashing against the stones 
the mingled blood of the oppressors and the oppressed.'* — Vol. ii. pp. 

These devilish atrocities deprive the Bevolutionists, in our eyes, 
of that sympathy which we should otherwise feel, for a cruelly 
oppressed people throwing off the yoke of a foreign tyrant whose 
only claim to the throne rested upon the audacious usurpation and 
relentless malignity of the Boman See. 

On went the rebellion, spreading from town to town, from 
village to village, from valley to valley, till the whole island was 
in open insurrection. The merciless animosity of the Sicilians, 
and the cruelty with which they had been treated, and which 
they now so fiendishly avenged, may be seen from the fact, that 
Amari mentions only one case in which a French family was 
spared ; and that, as being the only one that had shown mercy in 
the time of Angevin ascendancy :— 

4t Amarfs War (ifik$ BMKm Vmpm. 

'' Bot the ftite of William Porcelet merits eternal remeitobranoe. He 
was lord or governor of Calatafimii and, amid the unbridled iniquity of 
his countrymeni was distinguished for justice and humanity. On the 
day of vengeance, in the full flush of its triumphant fury, the Palermitan 
host appeared at Calatafimi, and not only spared the life of William 
and of his family, but treated him with distinguished honour, and sent 
him back to Provence ; a fact which goes to prove, that for the excesses 
eommitted by the people, ample provocation had not been wanting.*'-^ 
Vol. i. pp. 199, 200. 

We had hoped to have given copious extracts from the later 
and more pleasing portion of the work ; but we find ourselves 
already cramped for room, ere we have finished the first volume. 
We can, therefore, only briefly indicate the united and ferocious 
determination with which the Sicilians expelled the foreign 
domination ; the gradual assumption of the lead in public ai&irs 
by the nobles ; the invitation given by the whole nation to Peter 
pf Arragon, then warring in Tunis, to ascend the vacant throne ; 
the raising of the siege of Messina by the new monarch — Messnna 
which had been nobly defended by its citizens, under the com- 
mand of the glorious old noble Alaimo de Lentini, arainst 
Oharles of Anjou, who besieged it with all his fbrces by land and 

From this time Sicily maintained a deadly contest with the 
House of Anjou and the Court of Rome, for the space of twenty 
years, during which the islanders performed prodigies of valour, 
both by land and sea, and ended by securing tne independence of 
their country. The narrative of this long and desperate struggle 
is most brilliantly and graphically written ; but, as we obaerved 
before, there is little to command our respect or arouse our 
sympathy. With a few noble exceptions, such as those of Alaimo 
de Lentini and Blasco Alagona, no sooner do we begin to fed an 
interest in any hero, than we find him conspiring against either 
his king or bis country, as the case may be ; or, if not guilty of 
treason to either prince or people, making up for bis deficiency in 
iliese particulars by acts of the most horrible barbarity towards 
his enemies or his captives. 

Peter, the first Arragonese monarch, is certainly a great man, 
but he is also a great villain. His conduct of the war both in 
Italy and Spain is most masterly ; and the manner in which be 
conciliates the proud, confirms the doubtful, and gains over the 
refraetonr, with a stern unbending dignity, accompanied but not 
tempered by policy, is very striking. On the other hand, his 
fraud, cruelty, beartlessness, and ingratitude, are equally AtA- 

At one time it was proposed to settle the dispute beiween 

Amurts Win* cfik$ SiaiKan Ympen. 48 

Peter and Oharles by Bingle combat. After endeavouring to 
clear up this somewhat obeoure point, our author adds, wiui a 
sarcasm which is quite delicious, 

'' fint, possibly^ the challepge was nothing more than an appeal made 
to public opinion after the fashion of the timesi as a Charles and Peter 
of Uie present day might do by proclamations, putting forward humanity, 
legitimacy, the balance of power, the benefit of commerce or the good of 
the people." — ^Vol. ii. p. 20. 

As Oharles found himself unable to conquer Sicily, and indeed 
had much difficulty in maintaining himself on the main land, many 
towns of which opened their gates to the Sicilians, the Pope pro- 
daimed a crusade against Sicily, and formally deposed Peter rrom 
the thrones of Arragon and Catalonia, which nis successor be- 
stowed upon Charles of Valois, The efforts however of the 
French against these realms were totally unavailing, and in 1285 
Peter died« be^ueathiug his Soanish dominions to his son Alfonso, 
and Sicily, with its depenaencies, to his second son James, 
according to the suQcession appointed by the Sicilian parliament. 

James had ruled Sicily, as viceroy, ever since his father^s 
departure for Catalonia, and he was therefore crowned king 
without oppositicm or delay. He was a man of great ability, but 
no principle ; he commenced his reign by an act of vindictive 
ingratitude, and concluded it by the vilest perfidy. 

Amongst his first acts was the execution of that great and 

?)Qd man Alaimo de Lentini. Tq him had been owing, under 
rovidence, the successful defence of Messina. He was one of 
Peter^s early and zealous partisans. By his courage and temper 
he had crushed a dangerous conspiracv, and suppressed a rismg 
rebellion. Afterwards, however, partly from the insane vanity 
and ambition of his wife Macalda, partly from the jealousv of his 
brother nobles, partly from the fact that the king owed him his 
throne, this loyal patriot incurred the hatred and suspicion of 
both Peter and James. The latter sent him a prisoner to the 
former, and on his father's death demanded him from his brother, 
by Bertram de Canellis, a Catalan, whom he had sent to Alfonso 
for that purpose. The king of Arragon at first resisted, but 
Bertram persisting, and almost accusing him of complicity with the 
treason of which he accused Alaimo and his nephews, atlast 
gained his point. 

" The prisoners having been given up to him, he embarked them 
under a strong escort, and caused them to confess themselves to a 
Minorite friar, before, as he said, encountering the perils of so long a 
voyage, beset with enemies and pirates. They set sail from Catalonia 
on the 16th of May, 1267> and on the 2nd of June, at the distance of 

44 Amarfs War of the SioiKan V6q>$n. 

fifty miles from Maretimo, the crew gladly hailed the shores of Sicily, 
when Bertram summoned the prisoners on deck. 

" Turning to Alaimo, he hade him gaze his fill on the welcome sight 
of his country ; whereupon the nohle old man exclaimed, * O Sicily I 
O my country ! how have I longed for thee ! and yet happy would it 
have heen for me, if from the time of my first infant wailings I had 
never heheld thee more !' The Catalan hesitated a few moments, per- 
haps from pity, and then replied, * Hitherto you have heard only my 
mind, nohle Alaimo; now that of the king must he heard and obeyed;' 
and he unfolded a written scroll, which Adenulf read. It viras a 
mandate of the king, stating, that 'Whereas Alaimo of Lentini, Ade* 
nulf of Mineo, and John of Mezarina, had aforetime planned a vast and 
iniquitous conspiracy against the island and the Royal House of Sicily, 
and were guilty of sundry other misdeeds ; and whereas their living on 
in confinement was judged to be of great peril to the state, the peace of 
which it was incumbent upon him to preserve even by the utmost 
rigours of justice, the king committed to Bertram the charge of seizing 
them in Catalonia, and flinging them overboard on the first sight of the 
shores of Sicily.' 

** Alaimo showed neither surprise nor fear of death ; nor did he utter 
word of complaint, or dwell vainly on the past ; only he resented the 
refinement of cruelty which had selected such a scene for such a 
punishment, and denied him sepulture in the land of his fathers. Yet 
with Christian resignation he prayed for the king, and even for his 
executioners. ' I have lived,' said he, * a life of sorrow and suffering 
even to my old age, and now I close it without honour. I lived not for 
myself, but for others, and for others I must die. My misdeeds, (and 
here, perchance, he thought of the exaltation of Peter, and the death of 
Walter,) my misdeeds have been greater than they are deemed by man, 
and I have deserved a more cruel death than this ; let it, at least, bring 
peace to my country, and put an end to suspicion.' He then himself 
asked for the piece of linen cloth which was to be the instrument of 
death as well as the bier and shroud of the hero of Messina. The 
executioners swathed and fastened it round him, and flung him into 
the sea, the two young men shared his fate. The guilty vessel cast 
anchor at Trapani, and the news of the death of Alaimo spread horror 
throughout Sicily. All remembered his noble birth, his lofty intellect 
and courage in matters of war and policy, the power to which he 
attained, and the insane arrogance of Macalda which caused his ruin ; 
his friends trembled, and the cautions whispered that the king must 
surely have had weighty cause for what he had done. These rumours 
are mentioned in somewhat obscure language by Neocastro, who records 
with sympathising grief the execution and the memorable words of 
Alaimo, perhaps the best, and certainly the greatest man, of whom 
Sicily had to boast in the revolution of the Vespers." — Vol. ii. pp. 

In spite of this atrocious crime, James made a good king, and 

AmarCs War o/ike SieUian Vetpers. 45 

an able commander, and under his rule Sicily prospered both at 
home and abroad. In the course of time, however, Alphonso of 
Arragon died, and James set sail for Spain, leaving his brother 
Frederick viceroy of the island. It had been intended, both by 
Peter and the Sicilians, that in the event of Jameses succeeding 
to the throne of Arragon, Frederick should succeed to that of 
Sicily, a result which finally occurred, though not in the time or 
manner proposed. James, on his accession to his ancestral 
dominions, lost all sympathy with his island kingdom, and deter- 
mined to betray the Sicilians for the purpose of procuring peace 
and safety in Spain. Pope Boni^Eu^e endeavoured also to gain 
over the mfant Don Frederick, and for this purpose proposed an 
interview with him. The Palermitans, who, as well as the rest 
of the Sicilians, were warmly attached to the young prince, 
dissuaded him from accepting the invitation, but in vain. 

" He embarked on board the fleet with Procida • • • • with Loria, 
and with many other of the Sicilians most renowned in council or in 
field • • • • Boniface now assumed the guise of paternal benignity. 
When Frederick knelt before him, he raised him up, taking his head 
between both hands, he kissed him affectionately, and seeing how 
vigorously and gracefully he bore the weight of his armour, he began 
to compliment him, saying : ' It is easy to see, fair youth, that from a 
child you have been inured to this heavy burden/ Then, turning to 
Loria, he asked him, without any appearance of anger, whether he 
were that enemy of the Church, famous for so many bloody battles ? 
To which Loria replied, * Father, such was the will of the Popes.' 

'' After this cordial reception they proceeded to business. As the 
price of the abandonment of Sicily, the Pope promised Frederick to 
wife the young Catherine de Courtenay, daughter of Philip, titular 
Emperor of the East, with her the right to that empire, and, to assist 
him towards its reconquest, a military force, and, within four years' 
time a sum of 130,000 ounces of gold. It really appears that Boniface 
had not miscalculated, and that the youth, tempted by sounding words, 
and by the allurements of beauty, though unseen by him, inclined to 
give up into the hands of the enemy the people to whom he was bound 
hy ties far stronger than those of his viceregal office."— Vol. iii. 
pp. 15 — 17. 

Be this as it may, no practical result followed from this con- 
ference, and if Frederick wavered for a moment, he soon became 
more sincerely attached than ever to the cause of Sicily, and 
never again hesitated in his faith to her children. 

James, on the contrary, despite the earnest entreaties of the 
Sicilians, who sent two embassies to him on the subject, entered 
into a treaty, by which he relinquished his claims to the crown of 
Sicily, Mid pr<»nised, if needfvJ, to assist the see of AouiQ m 

46 Amarfi War ofih$ Sicilian Veip^n. 

subiagating the indomitable isIanderB. Deserted, beb^^yed by 
their king, the Sicilians nobly determined that nothing should 
induce them to yield; they might be exterminated, but they 
would not be subdued. With this view they at once ofifered the 
vacant throne^ with fresh limitations of the royal authority^ to 
Frederick* The prince accepted the crown with the conditions 
affixed, and showed by his future conduct the wisdom of his 
people in making him their king. He had, it is true, many faults, 
or rather, we should say, weaknesses, but they Were feults which 
difficulty, adversity, and danger had a naturar tendency to subdue, 
or at least, decrease* Wanting in judgment, rash, and unable to 
decide for himself without the suggestion of others, he was brave^ 
chivalrous, kind, warm-hearted, and generous ; and we feel there- 
fore disposed to award him the rank of a hero, despite his early 
vacillation, and the occasional errors of his later years. 

James of Arragon fulfilled his perfidious promise, and invaded 
Sicily at the head of a powerful force. Though partially stto 
cessful, however, he was unable to effect his purpose of reducing 
the island, and at length retired from Sicily, leaving Bobett, 
Oount of Artois, in command of the allied forces. 

Amongst the many painful occurrences of this year wad the 
treason of John of Procida, and John Loria, who deserted thd 
Sicilian cause for the service of the perfidious King of Arragon. 

*' And thus the two Neapolitans whose names had been so famous in 
the Revolution of the Vespers together, left Sioily as enemies, closely 
bound to each other by community of fate and of ambition ; companions 
first in exile, then in hopes, and in the support of the new dynasty 
in Sicily, lastly in treason. Loria, brought up from a child at the 
court of Peter of Arragon, was a man of boundless aspirations and 
great military talent, a renowned general, and the first admiral of his 
time; but ruthless and blood-thirsty, avaricious, haughty, and of 
insatiable rapacity. He restored the naval superiority of Sicily ; taught 
the Sicilians the art of victory ; and was the most powerful support of 
the in&nt state." — Vol. iii. p. 85. 

The achievements of Loria whilst in command of the Sicilian 
fleet form some of the most stirring scenes of this strikingly 
dramatic woi^. We had intended transcribing more than one of 
them to these pages, and are only preventing from doing so by the 
want of space. They were as gallant naval actions, and are as 
brilliantly described, as any thing we know of in the circle of 
history. After the flight of Loria, his vassals rose in arms, but 
the outbreak taking place before the arrival of James, and Loria 
not being there to lead the insurrection, it was easily put down. 
SubaequMitly, John lioxia, his nephew^ was made prisoner by ihft 

Amarti Wmt rfik$ SieUkm Vetpen. 47 

Sicilians, and, despite of the offers made by James, executed as a 
traitor. The uncle, however fearfully avenged his death, when, 
in the rout of the Sicilian fleet at Capo d^Orlando, he shouted as 
the watchword of indiscriminate slaughter, " Remember John 

With the brave, but cruel and rapacious admiral, the dominion 
of the sea departed from the Sicilians ; and nothing but the most 
determined and indestructible energy of patriotism coald have 
preserved them against the allied mrces, nrstly, under James of 
Arragon, then, Bobert of Artois, and lastly, Charles of Valois. 

At length it became clear to all reasonable men that the 
conquest of Sicily under present circumstances was utterly im- 
practicable, and a treaty was at length concluded, in which the 
gpdlant Frederick was acknowledged King of Trinacria, and 
received in marriage Eleanor, daughter of Charles the Second, of 

Amongst the many noble passages of this last war is the 
defence of Messina, and the patient endurance as well as un- 
daunted courage shown by the citizens of that place, who thus 
a second time saved their eountry from slavery. 

In taking leave of these volumes and their author, after this 
very cur8(»y review of the work, we beg to thank Mr. Amari for 
having made a valuable addition to the standard literature of the 
historical world, and to assure him that by his deep research and 
patient accuracy, as well as by the power of his eloquence, and 
the graces of his style, he has produced no merely ephemeral 
composition, but one which deserves to obtain, and will we have 
no doubt acquire, the position of a KTHMA £2 A£I. 

48 Warter'i Sermons. 

Art. III. — A Plain ChristiarCs Manual ; or Six Plain Sermons 
on Early Piety ^ the Sacraments^ and Man^s Latter End; Un- 
controversial^ hut suited to the Present Time. By John Wood 
Warter, B,D.y Christ Churchy Oxford^ Vicar of West Tarring^ 
Sussex^ S^c. London : Bivingtons. 

Mr. Warter appears from his title-page to feel that there is a 
kind of apolo^ due for publishing a work at present which is not 
"controversial;" or, at least, that the world may expect from 
every writer on religious topics some direct practical reference to 
existing dissensions. And Mr. Warter has, without doubt, 
judged aright of the tone and feeling now most generally preva- 
lent, in consequence of the prolonged struggles of party. Yet 
we cannot but think that great as is the demand for controversial 
teaching io these times of trouble, the necessity for simple, 
plain, practical, uncontroversial teaching, like that of which Mr. 
Warter has afforded so excellent a specimen in the little volume 
before us, is greater than ever, and we are persuaded that this 
is deeply felt by a large proportion of the community. To our- 
selves it is a positive refreshment to turn aside from marking the 
contests of human passion, and the manifold speculations of 
modern religionism which are daily passing before our eyes — 
to the calm, and simple, and old-fashioned piety, which meets us 
in Mr. Warter^s pages, where Hooker, and Jeremy Taylor, 
Bishop Hall, Dr.. Donne, Sir Thomas Browne, and other old 
English worthies, supply to the reader many a deep thought, and 
many a beautiful image. 

Perhaps few writers in the present day have so carefully 
studied the writings of our elder divines, or so cordially entered 
into their spirit as Mr. Warter. His publications have invariably 
evinced an extraordinary acquaintance with, and almost an 
enthusiastic admiration for them ; for not only are they quoted 
with an aptness and a copiousness which proves the extent of 
the study bestowed on them ; but even the style in which Mr. 
Warter^s works is composed, is modelled on tnat of the seven- 
teenth century. It is not so much the style of the present day, 
as that of the English translation of the Bible, or of the 
vmters of the times of James and Charles the First. And in 
imbibing the principles of the greatest writers of the seventeenth 

WafUf% Sermons. 49 

century, wo need not say that his views are as remote from 
Puritanism as they are from Popery. Men who have trained 
themselves in the school of Bramhall, and Jeremy Taylor, and 
Hammond, have learnt from them to adhere to the Church of 
England, amidst all the clouds and darkness which may over- 
shadow her temporal or spiritual prospects. They remember that 
holier and more learned men than themselves — men who have 
never been surpassed in high qualifications for the service of the 
Church — did remain stedfast m an age when error and schism 
not only abounded within the communion of the Church of 
England, but were actually for many years triumphant, and 
legally established ; and when the pretensions of Bome were just 
as great ; and the arguments and persuasion of her advocates 
just as insinuating ; and the instances of apostasy just as frequent, 
as they have ever been since. Yet, amidst all the adversity of 
their Church, its faithful sons maintained stedfastly their religious 
convictions, and never relinquished the defence of that system 
of Apostolic truth which was enshrined in the Liturgy and 
Formularies of the Church of England. Mr, Warter has 
evidently derived from the same source as those holy men, a 
spirit of confidence in the Church of England, as a faithful and 
an honest guide, and a resolution to abide by her teaching under 
an circumstances. The following passage comprises sentiments 
which must meet a response in the heart of every real Churchman. 

" No controversial teaching is inculcated here, but the teaching of the 

Prayer Book is insisted upon and understood in that plain, honest 

sense, in which the holy men who drew it up intended that it should be. 

Men they were, not easily deceived themselves, but scrupulously 

devout, and guiltless of the thought of deceiving others. Single-minded 

men, their desire was, that the truth as it is in Jesus should be 

known unto the people, that they might live accordingly ; and to the 

best of their ability they set it forth in that book which the generation 

of our fathers held in reverence, and which their sons will revere as long 

as they hold to the faith of the * Holy Church throughout all the 


" * Christ and bis apostles,' said Lord Clarendon, * left their declara- 
tion of what we are to believe, and what we are to do, so clearly stated, 
that we cannot dangerously mistake.* And so, if we were not preju- 
dicedy it would be. And when it is otherwise, and men desert their 
mother Church, and will not receive plain truth, even here, usually, and 
after a term of years, there is a returning ; and when opposition is over, 
and the asperities of preconceived notions are rubbed off, they are apt 
to fall down and worship as their fathers did before them. And, under 
existing turmoil and contentious disputations, I have hope in the end. 
No storm is lulled at once but by a miracle ; neithei "wvW l\i\^ ^X^rca 

vox. XV, — NO, XXIX, — MARCH, 1851, IB 

50 Warki^s ISermam. 

subside till it has wrought the good hitendedi and cleared the atmo- 
sphere of some practical misbelief or other, 

" Therefore, individually, I am no way timorously solicitous about 
the event of the late or present theological contests. Magna est Ferilut 
et prcevalebit ! Christian doctrine is Christian doctrinci and develop- 
ment is but a name. Let the unwise, if they cannot remain where they 
are, fall back on Rome, * as people being ashamed steal away when they 
flee in battle j* but * he that believeth shall not make haste,' but take 
his time, and yet do valiantly for the Church of his fathers. The 
timorous alone *flee seven ways,' with Rome and its consequence* 
before them. Well said Philip Henry, * I am too much of a Catholic to 
be a Roman Catholic I' And I say, — I will take good care, the Lord 
being my helper, that the pure doctrines ef our faith be preached ^ 
within the bouhdaries of this parish, as long as I am the duly appointed L 
minister of it, notwithstanding any deeision, ecclesiastical or civil » to the 
contrary." — JPref. pp. iii — vi. 

The volume before us consists of a series of six sermons on 
subjects of the most simple and practical character, — with one 
exception, where the writer enters on a subject of some difficulty, 
and of high moment in eveiy point of view, — the question of 
repelling persons from the Loras Supper. The first discourse 
applies the history of Job very beautifully to impress the benefit 
and blessings of early piety. We must quote a few words at the 
opening of this sermon, where, having spoken of " early piety,'* 
he describes it as — 

** A possession than which earth hath none greater, inasmuch as it is 
twice blessed, being the blessing both of children and of their parents. 
Moreover, like the possessions of this world, it passeth not away, but 
endureth ever^ if it ripen well, and continue unto the end. In 
other words, if early piety settle down into solid and wellrgrounded 
religious faith and practice, it passeth the grave and the gate of death, 
and is consigned over to everlasting habitations, and to ' the inheritance 
of the saints in light.' Certain it is, — there is nothing more certain, — 
that from a child (as St. Paul said to Timothy) to have * known the 
Holy Scriptures,' is * able to make ' a man ' wise unte salvation, through 
faith which is in Christ Jesus.' And our blessed Lord's own words^ 
applied to Christian Baptism, wherein children are made regenerate, or, 
born anew, assuredly look this way : * Suffer the little children to come 
unto me, and forbid them not ; for of such is the kingdom of God.* 
Bright as are the stars in the heavens, and lovely as are the loveliest 
spots on earth, yet is there nothing brighter, nothing lovelier^ than a 
child brought up * in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.' Wit- 
ness the history of * the child Samuel,' that * ministered unto the Lord 
before Eli !' Of whom it is recorded that he ' grew, and the Lord was 
with him, and did let none of his words fall to the ground.' Witness 
that all-blessed childhood of our only Lord and Saviour ; so beautiful I 

WarUr\ Sermom. 61 

to attractive ! and which should be the model and the pattern for at 
all ; and how of Him it is said, that ' he went down with' hit parents, 
' and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them, and increased in 
wisdom and stature, and in favour with Ood and man.' Surely from 
that time forth the estate of childhood was blessed, and the beauty of 
lAELY piBTT shone forth, never to be forgotten more I" — ^pp. 3 — 5. 

In the course of the same sermoo, we have the following dia- 
tinct and sound teaching on the subject of Bi^tism. 

" Then, Christian brethren, admitting that all children are bom in 
sin, and that the stain of Adam's transgression passeth upon all that are 
bom into this world of sadness, of sickness, and of sorrow ; let us all 
be mindful as parents ; let our children be admitted, as soon as may be, 
within the borders of the Covenant, from whence afterwords they can 
only be cast out by their own transgression ; ' for it is certain, by God's 
Word, that children which are baptized, dying before they commit 
actual sin, are undoubtedly saved.' So that the first step towards 
EAELY PIETY is Christian Baptism, in the which most sacred rite our 
most merciful Father, which is in heaven, doth regenerate infants with 
his Holy Spirit, receive them for his own by adoption, and incorporate 
them into hit Holy Church, purchased by the blood of his only and all- 
beloved Sou. As one [Barrow] said, ' It hath been the doctrine con- 
stantly with general consent delivered in and by the Catholic Churchy 
that to all persons, by the holy mystery of Baptism duly initiated into 
Christianity, and admitted into the communion of Christ's body, the 
grace of the Holy Spirit is commu,nicated, enabling them to perform 
the conditions of piety and virtue which they undertaS[e, and continually 
watching over them for accomplishment of those purposes ; whidi 
Spirit they are admonished not to resist, to abuse, to grieve, to quench ; 
but to use it well, and to use its grace to the working out their sal- 
vation.' Clearly, then, the first duty of a parent is to bring the child 
to the font."— pp. 11, 12. 

The same sermon applies the well-known passage, in which our 
Lord is represented as blessing children, to the foundation of an 
argument on behalf of infant baptism, which appears to be very 
satisfactorily managed, and to be adapted to the comprehension 
of the rural congr^ations to which it was addressed. The argu- 
ment deduced from circumcision is, as Mr. Warter observes, 
"not easily put in a popular discourse;*" but to our mind it is 
placed in an intelligible point of view in this discourse. The 
aigument is appropriately wound up with the following practical 

" And so * the kingdom of grace, the Church, oonsisteth of dbildren 
in age or in manners, of them and such as they are ; and the kingdom 
of glory, or heaven, ahdll be Med with infjonte bleaaed loj CbsnsX^ VQ^ 


5^ Warter'i Sermo7i3. 

with men become as little children.* Such Christ receiveth, as He did 
the infants in the text ; and the sooner the better, Christian brethren, 
we come to the understanding of this matter, that, to receive the king- 
dom of God * as a little child,' is in the obedience of the faith, with all 
humility and lowliness, to submit to the Gospel, to receive the doc- 
trines, to obey the precepts. In this sense practice is knowledge, and 
we all know that knowledge is power. Happy any who is, so to say, 
Jacob no longer, but the Israel of God ! Happy any unto whom the 
Lord hath said, ' As a prince hast thou power with God and with men, 
and hast prevailed I* Sure I am if any dolh follow his Lord in the 
way, his understanding shall be enlightened, * and his flesh' shallcoine 
* again like unto the flesh of a little child, and he shall be * clean.' 
In our Lord's own words, * If any man will do his will, he shall know 
of the doctrine whether it be of God.' " — pp. 35 — 37. 

" Certainly, to reach heaven at the last, we must use all diligence, 
and good thrift is it that our thoughts and conversations be always 
there. But we must not mingle the * dross' of earth with * pure gold.' 
We must be ambitious, not of what is of the earth, earthy, but of what 
is heavenly in temper ; lest there be no entrance found there for such 
as are not like to little children, but are unprepared to perfect praise. 
Be assured our * inward parts' are not hid from Him with whom we 
have to do ; and if, in the stead of the humbleness and the innocency of 
the little child, there be found in us the very reverse of this — that is to 
say, unscrupulous ambition, and pride, and hypocrisy, and anger, and 
wrath, and clamour, and envy, and malice, and revenge, and whatsoever 
else there be contrary to childlike simplicity — in that case, unless we 
be,* converted, and become as little children,' the everlasting doors of 
heaven will be closed against us. Thou Christian man, on whom the 
privilege of Baptism hath passed, or ever thou didst know thy right 
hand from thy left, remember well, ' The Lord seeth not as man seeth ; 
for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on 
the heart.' It is the little one in spirit that shall be blessed the most; 
the youngest, so to say, like David — not Eliab, not Abinadab, not 
Shammah — but the lowly one of heart, the child ! As * the Lord said. 
Arise, anoint him ; for this is he.' Such have, verily, • an unction 
from the Holy One.' His they are, and Him they serve with a perfect 
and unreserved submission, and they are blessed everlastingly. And 
hence said David himself when he had sinned and repented him of his 
sin, and knew that he was accepted, * I refrain my soul, and keep it 
low, like as a child that is weaned from his mother : yea, my soul is 
even as a weaned child.' " — pp. 38 — 40. 

In the third sermon, the doctrine of Baptism and of the Lord's 
Suppier, and the connexion of these Sacraments, are very ably 
traced, and expounded in the language of our elder divines, 
amongst whom Hooker is here, as in other places, the chief 
author referred to. The excuses and objections commonly made 
by tmeducatpd persons^ in reference to the reception of the Lord'a 

Wafier's Sermons. . 53 

Supper, are very truly detailed, and very ably met in the fourth 

sermon. The preacher there points out to his people, that the 

best preparation for the Holy Sacrament is a godly life. May 

we be permitted to express a doubt, whether the necessity of a 

penitential and humble frame of mind is sufficiently insisted on ! 

It appears to us, that in the case of such doubts and difficulties, 

as to the amount of preparation requisite, the simplest and the 

safest course is to refer to the descnption of the preparation com- 

prised in the last answer of the Church Catechism. Every true 

penitent comes within the conditions there laid down, and every 

Uhristian must at all times be a penitent and nothing more. The 

preparation for the Sacrament is simply the same preparation 

which would be requisite for death, and should therefore never 

for a moment be intermitted in life ; so that the Christian should 

at aU times be prepared to partake of the Holy Communion. 

The special preparation for the Sacrament, which appears to 

consist in a due sense of the sacredness of the rite, is thus 

described by Mn Warter : — 

" But, besides this, a special preparation is at all times necessary as 

we would * grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour 

Jesas Christ.' Holy and heavenly things, — spiritual manna, which, so 

to say 9 is angels' food, — and ' the blood of Christ which is verily and 

indeed taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper' under 

the symbol of consecrated wine, — these emblems of death so precious, 

and pledges of life to the godly receiver, must not be taken as common 

food, but as sacred viands. That preparation, which by God's grace 

ends in sanctification, is to be ever in the pious communicant's thoughts. 

And because it was not so in the thoughts of the profane Corinthian 

communicants, it turned to their harm, in some cases was their death. 

As St. Paul told them in his teaching, * Whosoever shall eat this bread 

and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body 

and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him 

eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For he that eateth and 

drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not 

discerning the Lord's body,' that is to say, * eateth and drinketh just 

judgment and condemnation to himself, not considering the greatness of 

thb mystery, and making no difference betwixt this sacred bread, which 

is sacramentally the body of Christ, and the other common and ordinary 

bread.' And the result was as I said, many were * weak and sickly,' 

and • many' slept, — were stricken with death itself ; whereas, had they 

eaten and had they drunk in faith, like Elijah the prophet of the Lord, 

they might have gone on to their lives' end * in the strength of that 

meat' which cherisheth the souls of God's people, and of which it can be 

verily and truly said : * This is the bread which cometh down from 

heaven, that a man may eat thereof and not die.' " — pp. 75 — 77. 

We now come to the discoiurse on " Repelling from the Lord's 

S4 ITartflr^a Bmmam. 

Supper,^ which evinces much oareftd consideration; and after 
pointing out the duty of Christian ministers to invite all who can 
be induced to avail themselves of that privilege, rather than to 
repel any ; and after referring the legal difficulties which interfere 
to prevent the exercise of such a power of repelling — concludes by 
pointing out the possibility of cases occurring, in which persons of 
grossly and notoriously sinful habits, offensive to the congre* 
gation, might present themselves; and the duty of Christian 
ministers in this case, to obey the rules of God^s Law, and the 
directions of their Church, without regarding any legal penalties 
or difficulties in which they might be involved in consequence. 

Such sentiments may be very offensive to those in the present 
day who admit no exercise of conscience to the Christian, except 
as it may accord with the decisions of the temporal power and the 
law of the land — who invest the civil magistrate with an infalli- 
bility which they deny to the Pope. Such persons, as we refer to, 
firofess a very great abhorrence of Popery, wherever it may be 
bund ; but they would erect a Popery more offensive and more 
ridiculous than any other system that bears the name. To these 
sycophants the word of the temporal magistrate is a law which 
is of more practical authority than the word of Grod, because it is 
held to be an infallible exposition of it. Religion, according to 
them^ depends on the changing will of parliament, and may be 
varied at the pleasure of a bodv, consisting of men of all creeds 
and views. Of course, it would be a work of supererogation to 
ask where the belief of such reasoners is to be found. The State 
has great authority, by the Law of God, in all matters concern- 
ing religion ; but it has no authority against God's law — and the 
Conscience is relieved fVom all necessity of obeying it, when its 
decisions are clearly contrary to that higher law. It will enforce 
its determinations by temporal penalties, as far as it deems ad- 
visable ; but it can nave no right to contradict the Laws of Gt)d ; 
and the same liberty of conscience and judgment which is claimed 
as the birthright of every Christian, is a right of which he cannot 
be divested by Popery, whether it appears in the guise of t-emporal 
or of spirituaJ power. 

BwhbCi L€mg9 of ArekUedure. fl& 

Akt. W.-^The Seven Lampe of ArehUeeture. By John Rubkin. 

It is one of the most marked tendencies of the present time, to 
seek anxiously for new forms and combinations or knowledge, new 
deyelopments of intellectual life. The civilized and educated 
world are as eager for a new intellectual pleasure, as the Persian 
monarch is reported to have been for a new gratification of sense. 
One of the last and most fashionable is the study of architecture. 
It is no longer a mere collection of dry rules, a computation of 
the precise number of inches to be occupied by modules and ca- 
vettos, a perpetual repetition of the columns of the Temple of 
Jupiter Stator, varied by scarcely intelligible disquisitions upon 
proportion, or by the tame extravagancies of Vitruvius and his 
followers, who at one time compared their columns to trees, and 
at another to men and women. It has grown up in a few years 
from one of the most meagre and technical of all studies, to be a 
pursuit full of interest and variety. It has taken life, and form, 
and colour. It has spread its roots and its branches every where. 
Besides its obvious connexion with utility and with beauty, it 
has its own hiatoiy and its own system of metaphysics. It has 
been twisted into a connexion with the religious controversies 
of the day. It penetrates every where. Most young clerffjrmen 
have sonje knowledge of the date, and some feeling for the beauty 
of their parish church. Most young ladies, and a great many 
young gentlemen, can tell a decorated from a perpendicular win- 
dow. It breaks out in the most unexpected places. It is said 
that in one of Her Majesty's regiments the dulness of country 
quarters is diversified by ecclesiological researches. Not long ago 
an enthusiastic undergraduate braved the wrath of proctors, and 
incurred those penalties which the university denounces against 
those of its pupils who drive one horse before another, by going 
in a tandem to " rub a brass,'' which he alleged was too dist^-nt 
to be reached bv the more legitimate conveyance, of a one-horse 
gig. The number and variety of late works upon this subject is 
prodigious ; the beauty of their illustrations truly remarkable^ 
Every shop window displays architectural glossaries and introduc- 
tions, and few drawing-room tables are without them. The pro- 
moters of archseological research shripk from no labour. The 
industry of Mr. PaAer is giving us a complete descriptive list of 
a& the ffrehiteetural remains in England; the i^axwi <Av\>x^\i^^ 

56 BmUrCs Latnps of Architecture. 

alone must be several thousands. Nor has the subject wanted a 
graver illustration. Some of the hardest and strongest thinkers 
of England have employed their acute and practised minds on this 
subject. Professors Whevyell and Willis have used their power- 
ful faculties to explain the laws and the history of architectural 
science. Nor has practice been wanting. A very large propor- 
tion of our ecclesiastical edifices have enjoyed the advantages and 
suffered the dangers of restoration. London itself, the most 
dingy and gloomy of capitals, is fast assuming a new character. 
The vast and costly " New Palace of Westminster" shows suffi- 
ciently that we do not shrink from expense or labour in carrying 
out our architectural ideas. 

And, indeed, without going so far as to say of the study of 
architecture what Sir Symons D*Ewes, that most perfect of prigs, 
said of the perusal of old law records, that it is ^^ the most ravifiii- 
ing and satisfying part of human learning," we may safely say 
tlmt few pursuits afford so many and such varied sources of gratis 
fication. It yields something for every taste, and falls in with 
every occupation. To the tourist it affords a new supply of 
interesting objects ; to the artist some of his most valued mate- 
rials ; to the poet an abundant store of the associations dearest 
to verse. The man of detail may measure mouldings ; the meta- 
physician may speculate upon the subtle theories which attempt 
to explain that difficult subject — the manner in which the human 
mind has striven to impress itself upon outward objects ; to cut 
out human thought in stone. For the antiquarian or historian ^ 
architectural knowledge is of course indispensable. The eaiiiest 
histories of all nations are their buildings. Books of stone 
were before those of paper or parchment. The records of the 
monarchs of Egypt and Assyria are still to be read upon the 
ruins of Thebes and Nineveh. Architecture, the oldest of the 
fine arts, has been the mother and the nurse of the rest. Nor is 
it less closely connected with utility. Real architectural know- 
ledge cannot be separated from a study of the principles of sound 
construction — a matter so strangely neglected among ourselves. 
The inhabitants of Manchester are generally accounted a prudent 
and practical race ; yet it has been lately declared by an eminent 
architect, that if he were required to erect a building that should 
burn with the greatest possible speed and certainty, he could 
suggest no better plan than that on which the warehouses of 
Manchester are constructed. It is not too much to say that no 
persons accustomed to the correct methods of construction in 
use among our ancestors, would have committed an architectural 
solecism so great and so disastrous in its consequences* 

It is a natural result of the variety of attractions presented by 

Buikm'B Lamps of ArehiUchirs. SJ 

be study of alrchitoeture, that it should draw to itself a great 
iversity of minds, should be looked at from very different points 
f view, and be pursued with very different aims. We have at 
present three principal schools of architectural amateurs, which, 
hough they of course run into each other, are still in the main 
listinct. There is an ecclesiological, an antiquarian, and an ar- 
tistic school. The first treats of architecture chiefly as subser- 
vient to the ends of religious worship ; the second aims mostly 
at an accurate knowledge of the existing remains of ancient 
buildings, not without a certain tendency to slight modem imita- 
tions; the third takes for its chief object the buildings themselves, 
as expressions of the human mind, as works of beauty and gran- 

The artistic school is by much the least prominent ; the two 
great influences which have of late promoted the study of archi- 
tecture, are the ecclesiological and the antiquarian. It cannot be 
said that they carry on their common studies in a spirit of abso- 
lute harmony. They have distinct societies and a different no- 
menclature. They speak different languages; and while one 
party shrinks from the absurdity of saymg '' plain decorated,^^ 
or ^^ late early,^ the other finds it altogether inconsistent to de- 
scribe a building as an '^ early middle-pointed church,^^ or an 
arch as " round-headed, first pointed.**' 

We owe much to the Ecclesiologists. They first set the 
example of a conscientious imitation, as well as study of the 
ancient examples ; and it is to them we owe chiefly the efforts 
that have been made for the satisfactory restoration of our ancient 
churches, and the erection of modem ones in a more worthy and 
dignified manner. Yet it must be confessed, that with the 
fervour natural to beginners, they pursued their favourite study 
with more zeal than knowledge, and ran headlong into the usual 
mistakes of inexperience — a premature generalization, and a 
narrow exclusiveness. They very early confined all excellence to 
one style in architecture, and they soon began to limit it to one 
modification even of that. Having persuaded themselves that 
Gothic architecture expresses the spirit of Christianity, they not 
merely neglected, but seem to have positively disliked eveiy other. 
All that was not Gothic, including, of course, all the church 
architecture of the first ten centuries, was denounced as " Pagan,"" 
as if false doctrine could be hidden in the fluting of a column, or 
under the curl of an acanthus leaf. It is the natural tendency of 
exclusive feelings to become still more narrow as they are in- 
dulged. Accordingly, as their zeal against architectural heresies 
grew fiercer by indulgence, they began to proscribe all but one 
wourite style of Gothic. It was not, to be sure, cjuite settled 

'68 JRuskin'B Lamps of Arckii^eiure. 

which that was to be. One writer pretty plainly intimated, that 
what is technically called the early English style, was cominani* 
cated by a special inspiration to the Cistercians, whose abbejs 
afford many of our most bedutiful specimens of that style *. Oii 
the whole, however, " middle pointed'^ was the most in repnte. 
One writer in the " Ecclesiologist,^' in the excess of his zeal for 
purity of style, went so far as to hint a wish to demolish the 
venerable Norman nave of St. Albans, that it might be replaced 
by " loveliest middle pointed,^^ an extravagance of exclnsiveness 
for which he was, with great reason, reprehended by the Editor 
of that journaL 

An over-hasty generalization is to be expected in all new 
studies. Having laid down, as a first principle, that modern 
architects are to be guided by the rules observed by the builders 
of the middle ages, the students of ecclesiology deduced from the 
observations of a limited number of examples canons which 
appear to have been, in many cases, altogether capricious, and 
bitterly persecuted in their reviews any architect who ven- 
tured to deviate from them in the minutest particular* If an 
instance was adduced to contradict the canon, an answer was 
always ready. If the example was brought from Ireland, the 
objector was told that the rules of English and Irish ecclesiology 
were different ; if from Kent, then the Kentish churches were 
very anomalous, and by no means to be set up as precedents. It 
was early laid down that it was quite irregular to have two lancet 
windows in the east end of a church, and equally >yrong to insert 
three in the western fa9ade. Now the former practice is common 
in Ireland, and in England most of the large churches, built 
during the early Gothic period, have western triplets, so that 
there certainly can have been no symbolical reason against the 
practice, yet the positive assertions of the ecclesiologists seem to 
have prevailed ; and for the last few years few architects have ven- 
tured on the heresy of a western triplet. 

As was to be expected, the ecdesiological party rushed eagerly 
into the mysteries of symbolism. In a pursuit where a little 
ingenuity will commonly enable the student to make any thing out 
of any thing, they were not likely to be disappointed. Some ct 
these symbolical speculations were sufficiently singular. One was 
that the Romanesque, or round arched style, typified the church 
militant ; the Gothic, or pointed, the church triumphant. This 
appears hardly consistent with the other tJieory, that the self- 

^ Suck a revelation would noi be without precedent in Uie ease of th« CistexfilfUM^ 
whose habit i^ supposed to be copied from ^ drees in which the Virgin JAary »f^ 
peared to Sit. .Stephen Harding, to the consi^ejcg^le discoijifort of th# Order in sinn- 
-iner; as tfcp ^f» in qnesUpn is rery wann. 

SuMkCi Lmn^ of ArehU^ure. 59 

led arch and horizontal linea of the Romanesque express 
and the vertical lines of the Gothic an upward aspiration, 
by some supposed that those mysterious little openings in 
es, commonly called lychnoscopes^ and which, if not in- 
fer ventilation, seem to have been contrived expressly for 
3rcise of archseological acuteness, were designed to repre- 
le wound in the side of our Saviour, and the name of Vulne 
¥8 was, in consequence, imposed upon them. Unfortu- 
for this theory, many churches have two, one on each 

study of architecture, in a purely antiquarian sense, can 

be thought to be generallv very interesting. The accu- 
on of details^ without referring them to some general prin- 
)r theory, can only suit that small class of minds who love 

for its own sake. And yet the study of details is quite as 
3nsable to success as in any other art or science. In no 
1 of human knowledge can we be safely ignorant of the 
ulated experience of those who have preceded us. We 
imes see it complained of that architects do not invent a 
^yle of architecture. It would be almost as easy to invent a 
inguage. Such an invention in the first case, as in the 
I, would most likely be principally distinguished for its 
eness and its poverty. The nearest approaches to new 

of architecture with which we are acquainted, have been 
by Sir John Soane and by Mr. Nash, with what success is 
:nown to every one who has walked up Begent Street, 
irtistic or eesthetical study of architecture, the attempt to 
lend and to express the hidden causes of beauty and 
Bur in the temples of Greece and Egypt, or the cathedrals 
i^nd and France, may well seem replete with attractions, 
i requires for its successful prosecution, more vigour of in- 
. and greater powers of mind than are the common portion 
nkind. Among ourselves it has lately been follow^ with 
vith originality, and with genius : — the names of Ferguson, i 

62 Suikin's Lamps of ArchUediurs. 

of art, and went straight for its inspiration and teaching* to nd 
meaner mistress than to nature herself. The magnificent for* [ 
mality of the early Gothic foliage was discarded ; the artist took' 
his ornaments from the vegetation that made beautiful his native 
fields and forests ; he copied the vine^ the oak, and the ma{Je« 
For the wrinkled and frittered drapery which we find in the 
Parthenon, and which descended through the Romans to the mid- 
dle ages, he substituted the more simple and dignified folds of 
nature. The same movement pervaded Europe. In Italy, Giotto, 
in whose time Gothic architectiure was introduced into Tuscany, 
freed painting from the fetters of his Byzantine predecessors. It 
is not perhaps too much to connect this emancipation of the hu- [ 
man mind in the wide regions of art with the struggles for eccle- | 
gdastical reform and liberty with which they coincide in date. I 
The middle ages, like boaies which are remote from us, often j 
seem to have stood still, when they were in fact in rapid motion; 
and he who studies the subject, however slightly, will be asto- 
nished to find what a quantity and vigour of thought must have 
been bestowed upon architecture in those times. 

If we have rightly considered the course of Gothic architecture 
to be a progress to a definite end, the fusion of the parts in the 
whole, it will seem natural that they, whose tendency is to regard 
architecture as a scientific study, with whom a building is rather 
a subject for reasoning than for impulsive taste, should be favour- 
ably disposed towards the later Gothic^ when the principles of the 
style were carried out to their fullest development. Both Mr. 
Petit and Mr. Freeman, our most ingenious speculators upon the 
laws of mediaeval architecture, appear to regard some modification 
of our own perpendicular as their ideal of Gothic. Their scien- 
tific conceptions of the art are best pleased with those buildings 
in which the tendencies of the style are most fully carried out. 
This has perhaps been done in the purest, most vigorous, and most 
consistent manner by the practical and business-like William of 

But this logical completeness is not without a weighty counter- 
poise of disadvantage, in the frequent sacrifice of sesthetical beauty. 
Mr. Freeman himself tells us that, in the fusion of the parts into 
the whole, the beauties and ornaments which belong to the parts 
must be lost also ; and it can hardly be denied that in piquancy, 
variety, and picturesqueness of efiect, the earlier Gt)thic bmldings 
far surpass the later. As has happened with many schools of 
conventional literature, architects became cold, and lame, and 
lifeless, in their struggle for systematical correctness. 

To this style Mr. Buskin shows no mercy. All the vials of bis 
wrath are emptied upon it. He has upon this subject used some. 

f Lamps 0/ ArchiUctur$. 68 

language to which we ean scarcely thi^k he will adhere upon 
con&ideration. Our English perpendicular is '^ an impotent and 
ugly degradation/^ '^ All that carving upon Henry the Seventh's 
chapel simply deforms the stones of it/^ Even the magnificent 
chapel of King'^s College is characterised ^' as a piece of architec- 
tural juggling/^ The church of St. Ouen, at Bouen, which 
Mr. Freeman selects as the most perfect Gothic type extanty 
fares no better. Its ^^ glorious kuitem'^ is described as *^ one of 
the basest pieces of Gothic in Europe/' *^ its entire plan and 
decoration resemble and deserve little more credit tlian the burnt 
ai^r ornaments of elaborate confectionary." 

In truth, Mr. Buskin seems to take very much a painter's view 
of architecture. Hence the extraordinary value which he sets 
upon the Italian schools of Gothic, an estimate in which few 
northern critics will agree with him. It is impossible to escape 
the conclusion, that he is unduly fascinated by the beauty and 
splendour of colour which the abundance of marbles, and the 
beauty of their climate, has given to the buildings of Venice and 
Tuscany. But the architectural critic is not so to be put off, he 
requires a design abstractedly beautiful ; and, if we are to have 
what Mr. Buskin so emphatically pleads for, any style or rules in 
aichitecture at all, we must learn to think of and to judge them 
as expressed in black lines upon white paper^ without reference 
to material, to colour, or to historical associations. And the 
Italian Gothic is undoubtedly bad Gothic. The style was never 
thoroughly mastered or rightly naturalized south of the Alps ; it 
bears every where the marks of a feeble imitation ; no where those 
of spontaneous life. Its builders caught the forms of northern 
architecture, but they missed its spirit. In an imperfect style, 
by a most prodigal use of their sumptuous materials, they have 
erected some of the &irest buildings of the earth. Had they 
wdl understood the style in which they worked, their buildings 
would have been much more beautiful. We ask no better 
evidence than Mr. Buskin has himself supplied. He has given a 
daguerreotype of the upper story of the Campanile of Flomnce. 
Can any one who has not seen the original, see in the repre- 
sentation any thing Uke a justification, or even an explanation, of 
the praise which Mr. Buskin bestows upon this tower, as the 
most beautiful building on the earth ! Or to him who has seen 
it, does the print recal the faintest idea of the surpassing love- 
liness of the original? Or let it be compared with the great 
tower of Lincoln, and then say which architect had the most 
Tivid sense of the grandeur and beauty of architectural form ! 
The fascination of the Florentine tower lies in its colour. But 
architecture is above aH, and emphaticallyi a science of form. 

64 Busiin's Lamps of ArcMieeture. 

Colour is a grace and a beauty ; it ought never to be the principal 
object of the arcliitect^s attention. 

It is impossible to read Mr. Buskin'^s writings, without regret- f 
^ ting the habit which he indulges of stating his opinions in their 
extreme fonn. He seems to think that he can never say a thing 
strongly enough. And this not only in matters of importance, 
and where a man may feel some certainty of being in the right, 
but, as we have seen, in matters of mere taste ; and where men 
who have thought deeply and written ably upon the subject differ 
from him altogether. And the same excessive earnestness he 
shows about things which cannot but seem trifling. His style, if 
the expression may be used, wants perspective, every thing is 
painted in the strongest colours, and he expresses what assuredly 
he does not feel, the same ardour of conviction about small things 
and great. He is almost as fine upon a ribbon as upon a Baphael. 
With what a " tempest of splendour'^ does he scorch and shrivel 
up an unfortunate ribbon, which has offended- him by its too 
frequent occurrence in architectural decoration. While we agree 
in the general criticism, we cannot help feeling that there is a 
certain incongruity in the expression of it. 

'* Inscriptions appear sometimes to be introduced for the sake of the 
scroll on which they are written ; and in late and modem painted glass, 
as well as in architecture, these scrolls are flourished, and turned hither 
and thither, as if they were ornamental. Ribbons occur frequently in 
arabesqii^s, — in some of a high order, too, — tying up flowers, or flitting 
in and out among the fixed forms. Is there any thing like ribbons in 
nature ? It might be thought that grass and sea- weed afibrded apolo- 
getic types. They do not. There is a wide difference between their 
structure and that of a ribbon. They have a skeleton, an anatomy, a 
central rib, or fibre, or framework of some kind or another, which has a 
beginning and an end, a root and head, and whose make and strength 
affects every direction of their motion, and every line of their form. 
The loosest weed that drifts and waves under the heaving of the sea, or 
hangs heavily on the brown and slippery shore, has a marked strength, 
structure, elasticity, gradation of substance ; its extremities are more 
finely fibred than its centre, its centre than its root ; every fork of its 
ramification is measured and proportioned ; every wave of its languid 
lines is lovely. It has its allotted size, and place, and function ; it is 
a specific creature. What is there like this in a ribbon ? It has no 
structure : it is a succession of cut threads all alike ; it has no skeleton, 
no make, no form, no size, no will of its own. You cut it and crush it 
into what you will. It has no strength, no languor. It cannot fall 
into a single graceful form. It cannot wave, in the true sense, but 
only flutter ; it cannot bend, in the true sense, but only turn and be 
wrinkled. It is a vile thing ; it spoils all that is near its wretched film 
of an existence. Never use it. Let the flowers come loose if they 

MusUn^t Lamps of ArchUedwN. 65 

cannot keep together without being tied; leave the sentence un- 
written if you cannot write it on a tablet or book, or plain roll of paper. 
I know what authority there is against me. I remember the scrolls of 
Perugino's angels, and the ribbons of Raphael's arabesques, and of 
Ghiberti's glorious bronze flowers : no matter ; they are every one of 
them vices and uglinesses/' 

In these. violent expressions upon all possible subjects, there is 
more harm than a mere waste of power. They detract greatly 
from the authority of the writer, and are likely to interfere in no 
small measure with the high and noble aim to which he has set 

Any work on art by Mr. Euskin can hardly fail to be of far 
more than ordinary value. To no man has been given a keener 
or a deeper sense of the beauty and the glory of this visible 
universe, or a more worthy utterance to express them, so far as 
words may do it. The pomp and prodigality of his eloquence are 
well enough known ; to describe them adequately would require 
language not less forcible and beautiful than his own. In the 
difficult and noble task of painting in words the fair features of 
nature he is very hardly to be surpassed. A more exquisite 
description of scenery than the following, it would be indeed hard 
to find. It has been already often quoted, and the reader has 
probably read it before ; he will therefore willingly read it again. 

" Among the hours of his life to which the writer looks back with 
peculiar gratitude, as having been marked by more than ordinary 
fulness of joy, or clearness of teaching, is one passed, now some years 
ago, near time of sunset, among the broken masses of pine forests 
which skirt the" course of the Ain, above the village of Champagnole, in 
the Jura. It is a spot which has all the solemnity, with none of the 
sarageness, of the Alps ; where there is a sense of a great power begin- 
ning to be manifested in the earth, and of a deep and majestic concord 
in the rise of the long low lines of piny hills ; the first utterance of those 
mighty mountain symphonies, soon to be more loudly lifted and wildly 
broken along the battlements of the Alps. But their strength is as yet 
restrained ; and the far-reaching ridges of pastoral mountain succeed 
each other, like the long and sighing swell which moves over quiet 
waters from some far-off stormy sea. And there is a deep tenderness 
pervading that vast monotony. The destructive forces and the stern 
expression of the central ranges are alike withdrawn. No frost- 
ploughed, dust-encumbered paths of ancient glacier fret the soft Jura 
pastures ; no splintered heaps of ruin break the fair ranks of her forests; 
no pale, defiled, or furious rivers rend their rude and changeful ways 
among her rocks. Patiently, eddy by eddy, the clear green streams 
wind along their well-known beds ; and under the dark quietness of the 
undisturbed pines, there spring up, year by year, such coici^^xil oi 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXIX, — MARCH^ 1851. "S 

66 JiuikMs I^a*np$ iff A rokU0ctur0. 

joyful flowers as I know not the like of among all the blesaings of the 
earth. It was spring time, too ; and all were coming forth la clusters 
crowded for very love ; there was room enough for all, but they crushed 
their leaves into all manner of strange shapes only to be nearer each 
other. There was the wood anemone, star after star, closing every now 
and then into nebulae ; and there was the oxalis, troop by troop, the 
dark vertical clefts in the limestone choked up with them as with 
heavy snow, and touched with ivy on the edges — ivy as light and lofely 
as the vine ; and, ever and anon, a blue gush of violets, and cowslip 
bells in sunny places ; and in the more open ground the veteb, and 
comfrey, and mezereon, and the small sapphire buds of the Polygala 
Alpina, and the wild strawberry, just a blossom or two, all showered 
amidst the golden softness of deep, warm, amber- coloured moss* 1 
came out presently on the edge of the ravine; the solemn murmur 
of its waters rose suddenly from beneath, mixed with the singing 
of the thrushes among the pine boughs ; and, on the opposite side of 
the valley, walled all along as it was by grey cliffs of limestone, there 
was a hawk sailing slowly off their brow, touching thera nearly with 
his wings, and with the shadows of the pines flickering upon his 
plumage from above ; but with a fall of a hundred fathoms under his 
breast, and the curling pools of the green river gliding and glittering 
dizzily beneath him, their foam globes moving with him as he flew." 

One knows not whether most to admire in this jpa.ssage the 
minute and accurate fulness of details, or the certainty and 
felicity with which they are used to express general truths, and te 
indicate the hidden sources of beauty and power. The coloun» of 
the flowers and the ripples of the river are set before the eye, but 
we are not suffered to forget that these slight and delicate orna- 
ments are but another manifestation of that power which has 
raised up the cliffs of the mountains, as a man wrinkles the folds 
of a garment. And this is eminently characteristic. Mr. Bufikin'^s 
enthusiasm is far from being wild or unregulated, nor in hia love 
for the accidents of art does he ever lose sight of its higher and 
more essential qualities as an expression of the highest truths. 
It may, perhaps, be questioned, whether his systematic view of 
art, as a representation of nature, may not, in some degree, have 
affected the accuracy of his architectural theories. 

It would be altogether to misconceive the purpose and the 
object of Mr. Buskin^s work to suppose that it was written, either 
as a display of literary ability, or as the mere pastime of an 
artistical dilettanteism. He has very different and much higher 
purposes. To a man who reflects at all, and who considers out 
of what materials and by what process the minds and characters 
of individuals, and of nations are built up, it may well siSard 
matter for speculation to consider in what manner we deal^ wiUi 
the outward beauty and appearance of those objects of daily um^ 

which we touch and Bee continually, among which we faaUtually 
move and live. It is hardly too much to say that the woria» 
of man are, in this age and country (with a few exceptions, 
mostly borrowed from the examples of an age which we call 
barbarous), absolutely ugly. The stamp of that '^ formalised de- 
formity, that shriyeiled precision, that starved accuracy, that 
miniite misanthropy,*' which Mr. Buskin finds in our domestic 
architecture, is painfully impressed upon almost every thing 
timt we make, from a suburban villa to a fire-shovel. It is not 
necessarily so. Nations whom we despise as dull and unintelligent 
are able to make their common appliances and utensils of life good 
imd pleasant to look upon. Toss a bundle of Asiatic garments 
and utensils into a heap, and you have a picture ; but what artist 
who could help it would copy our steel tenders or papier m&ch^ 
trays f Our best ornaments are importations, or copies. What 
we lose in this way cannot be estimated. In the moral world, as 
in the physical, no impression is utterly lost. Every sight that a 
man sees has some effect upon the general turn of his thoughts 
and feelings. It may be such as to make him familiar with the 
forms of beauty, and thereby to soften and to exalt him; or 
such as to blunt and degrade his taste by a perpetual acquaint- 
ftoce witii ugliness and £formity. Let it be recollected, that the 
bulk of the people of England are dwellers in cities, where they 
can hardly see the sun or the sky itself, and that if they want the 
opportonity of catching some ideas of grace and beauty from the 
works of man, must be without the feeling altogether. What- 
ever tends to humanize, to educate, and to refine our vast city 
population, cannot rightly be thought of mean importance. And 
good architecture does this, and more than this ; it tends power- 
Mly to create those local attachments, which, ^on a larger scale, 
we call patriotism, and the want of which is not the leaat u^y 
sjinptoa of the deep-seated malady of our time. The inhabitants 
of Bolton or Manchester can never regard their interminable 
lines of dingy warehouses with the pride and aflSsction with which 
the citizen ^ Florence or Bruges looked up to the towers of his 
native town* 

Nor is this all. Our practice of making bad ornaments tends, 
and that jiot a little, to degrade the workmen who make them. 
The improving effects of a good work of art are at least as great 
upon the workman as upon the beholder. It may be said, with- 
out extravagance, that it is twice blessed. '^ It blesses him that 
gives and hun who takes.^ It is no slight matter for the health 
and contentment of mind of the vast numbers of artisans who 
are employed in these arts, which are more or^ less decorative^ 
that they should have that to do which may give ^ms^ oi^'^^t* 


68 EusHn^s Lamps of Architecture. 

tunity for mental action in the doing, some sense ©f a satisfied 
taste for beauty in the completion, and thus niake the workman 
happy in his work. The great and master evil of our own time, 
the dissatisfaction of every man with his own condition, would 
be much mitigated, if all who could afford it, dwelt, as men 
did of old, in houses of solid and enduring beauty, wrought as 
those were by workmen who knew and felt the vsJue and excel- 
lence of their work. 

This unfortunate state of the national taste is very generally 
recognised, and some desultory efforts are made to improve it. 
We hear on all sides of art manufactures and exhibitions. But 
in all these things we have begun at the wrong end. It is archi- 
tecture that has in all times been the nurse of all the other fine 
arts, and it must be so now. If people are inured to meanness 
and tawdriness, to deception and falsity in their greatest works, 
they are little likely to avoid them in their smallest. " We shall 
not manufacture art," as Mr. Buskin most truly tells us, " out of 
pottery and printed stuffe." What we want most of all in this 
matter is truth and honesty, and earnest endeavour to do what is 
really good of its kind. So long as we count the bricks and stones 
that we bestow upon our palaces and places of worship, and strain 
eagerly to get the greatest possible show out of the least amount 
of materials and of labour, we shall have no true, or honest, or 
healthy art. 

In the work before us Mr. Ruskin has endeavoured to separate 
and to explain those principles which ought to guide the architect — 
his leading stars in the midst of that chaos of styles with which 
he now finds himself surrounded ; and this he has done with an 
especial reference to the necessities of our own time. These 
principles he calls^with a quaintness — not without its use in arrest- 
ing the attention of the reader — Lamps ; and of these lamps he 
reckons seven : — of Sacrifice, of Truth, of Power, of Beauty, of 
Life, of Memory, and of Obedience. Three of these, the Lamps 
of Sacrifice, Truth, and Memory, seem to be for the most part 
rather different aspects of the same light, than altogether distinct 
luminaries ; they all enforce the great principle, that we are to do 
our best in design, in material, in workmanship; that all archi- 
chitecture, where this is not done, is bad architecture. But in 
this matter let us hear Mr. Buskin. 

•* Let us have done with this kind of work at once ; cast off every 
temptation to it; do not let us degrade ourselves voluntarily, and 
then mutter and mourn over our short comings ; let us confess our 
poverty or our parsimony, but not belie our human intellect. It is not 
even a question of how much we are to do, but of how it is to be done ; 
it is not a question of doing more, but of doing better. Do not let us 

BmkkkB Lamps of ArcMtedurs. 69 

boss our roofs with wretched, half-worked, bluDt*edged rosettes ; do 
not let us flank our gates with rigid imitations of mediaeval statuary. 
Such things are mere insults to common sense, and only unfit us for 
feeling the nobility of their prototypes. We have so much, suppose, 
to be spent in decoration ; let us go to the Flaxman of his time, who- 
ever he may be, and bid him carve for us a single statue, frieze or 
capital, or as many as we can afford, compelling upon him the one con- 
dition, that they shall be the best he can do ; place them where they 
will be of most value, and be content. Our other capitals may be mere 
blocks, and our other niches empty. No matter : better our work un- 
finished than all bad. It may be, that we do not desire ornament of 
so high an order : choose, then, a less developed style, as also, if you 
will, rougher material ; the law which we are enforcing requires only 
tLat what we pretend to do and to give shall both be the best of their 
kind ; choose, therefore, the Norman hatchet work, instead of the Flax* 
man frieze and statue ; but let it be the best hatchet work ; and, if 
you cannot afford marble, use Caen stone, but from the best bed ; and 
if not stone, brick, but the best brick ; preferring always what is good 
of a lower order of work or material, to what is bad of a higher ; for 
this is not only the way to improve every kind of work, and to put 
every kind of material to better use, but it is more honest and unpre- 
tending, and is in harmony with other just, upright, and manly prin- 
ciples, whose range we shall have presently to take into consideration." 

It will be easily seen that this principle, as the Lamp of Truth, 
condemns all that base use of sham materials and sham decora- 
tions, that luxury of plaster cornices and composition marbles, in 
which modern architects so much please themselves. It will 
likewise enforce a solid and enduring construction, so that our 
memory may be transmitted with our buildings to after ages, and 
their times linked to ours, by the benefits which we have be- 
stowed on them. And this is the Lamp of Memory. To aU 
those who consider at all upon what foundations are built the 
strength and the happiness of nations, we would earnestly commend 
the following eloquent passage. 

** I cannot but think it is an evil sign of a people when their houses 
are built to last for one generation only. There is a sanctity in a good 
man's house which cannot be renewed in every tenement that rises on 
its ruins : and I believe that good men would generally feel this ; and 
that having- spent their lives happily and honourably, they would be 
grieved at the close of them to think that the place of their earthly 
abode, which had seen, and seemed almost to sympathize in, all their • 
honour, their gladness, or their suffering, — that this, with all the record 
it bare of them, and all of material things that they had loved and ruled 
over, and set the stamp of themselves upon — was to be swept away, as 
soon as there was room made for them in the grave ; that no respect 
was to be shown to it, no affection felt for it, no good to be dxax^iv {torn 

to BushMs Lamps of ArcMteeiure. 

it by their children ; that though there was a monument in the church, 
there was no warm monument in the hearth and house to them ; that all 
that they e?er treasured was despised, and the places that had sheltered 
and comforted them were dragged down to the dust. I say, that a 
good man would fear this ; and that, far more, a good son, a noble 
descendant, would fear doing it to his father's house. I say that if 
men lived like men indeed, their houses would be temples — temples 
which we should hardly dare to injure, and in which it would make us 
holy to be permitted to live ; and there must be a strange dissolution 
of natural affection, a strange un thankfulness for all that homes have 
given and parents taught, a strange consciousness that we have been 
unfaithful to our fathers* honour, or that our own lives are not such as 
would make our dwellings sacred to our children, when each man 
would fain build to himself, and build for the little revolution of his 
own life only. And I look upon those pitiful concretions of lime and 
clay which spring up in mildewed forwardness out of the kneaded 
fields about our capital — upon those thin, tottering, foundationless 
shells of splintered wood and imitated stone — upon those gloomy rows 
of formalised minuteness, alike without difference and without fellow^ 
ship, as solitary as similar — not merely with the careless disgust of an 
offended eye, not merely with sorrow for a desecrated landscape, but 
with a painful foreboding that the roots of our national greatness mast 
be deeply cankered when they are thus loosely struck in their native 
ground ; that those comfortless and unhonoured dwellings are the signs 
of a great and spreading spirit of popular discontent ; that they mark 
the time when every man's aim is to be in some more elevated sphere 
than his natural one, and every man's past life is his habitual scorn ; 
when men build in the hope of leaving the places they have built^ and 
live in the hope of forgetting the years that they have lived ; when the 
comfort, the peace, the religion of home have ceased to be felt, and the 
crowded tenements of a struggling and restless population differ only 
Irom the tents of the Arab and the gipsy by their less healthy openness 
to the air of heaven, and less happy choice of their spot of earth, by 
their sacrifice of liberty without the gain of rest, and of stability, with- 
out the luxury of change." 

The same principle pervades what Mr. Buskin calls the Lamp 
of Power, the necessity of weight and mass, of strong shadow and 
deep recess, in short, of abundant material, of size, and solidity. 
This is the very heart and root of the matter ; if we are to have 
any architecture worth the name, we must abandon our favourite 
practice of stretching our materials to the utmost, and of erecting 
buildings just strong enough to hold together. We must work 
patiently and for posterity. 

We now come to the Lamp of Beauty, and on this head we 
must confess we differ altogether from Mr. Buskm. He holds, 
if we rightly understand him, that there can be no beautjr except 
that wmoh aris^ firom the hnitatioD, mote &rl^m okN^^ of tialtt«» 


8 Ldmpi of ArchUidun*. 71 

nl objects, or at least of lines which are to be found in nature. 
We can hardly suppose that the author himself wouldy upon 
reflection, be quite satisfied with a theory which has involved 
him in disquisitions upon the more or less frequent occurrence in 
nature of the ciystals of salt or bismuth. In this matter d priori 
speculations can go for very little; nearly every thing must 
O^nd upon the t^itimony of our sensations. We cannot prove 
a thing to be beautiful. Let us try Mr. Buskin by a test which 
he has himself furnished. He affirms that the Campanile of 
Florence is the most beautiful of building, and he gives us a 
daguerreotype view of it. With the tnfling exception of the 
flowered capitals, what is there in the view which at all reminds 
08 of any object in nature i Or let any man look at the east end 
of Lincoln cathedral, or any other fine specimen of the geometri- 
cal Grothic, and then say if that does not present one of the 
h^est types of architectural beauty, or if it be like any thing in 
nature. Nor will it avail to say tliat many of our most beautiful 
geometrical arrangements are but combinations or fragments of 
circles, and that ti^t form is always before us in the sweep of the 
liorizon, in the orbs of the great lights of heaven. For it is not 
by the possibility of finding something in nature in some degree 
like what is beautiiul in architecture that we ought to judge, but 
by the effect and disposition of the whole. And in a pure style of 
architecture we shall find a general tendency to those geometrical 
forms which are so sparingly exhibited in nature. In truth, if 
architecture depended exclusively for its beauty on the re- 
production of natural forms, it would follow that the more 
closely the members of a building copied those forms, so much 
the greater would be their beauty. We ought to build columns 
like trees, and vaulting ribs Uke their branches. Yet this practice, 
which to a certain extent is sufficiently common in the latest Ger- 
man Gothic, is a sure mark of degradation, and there is perhaps no 
baser piece of architecture in the world than that arch in the 
beautiful triforium of Westminster, of which the shafts have been 
tormented into the form of palm-trees. 

This theory of Mr. Buskin is, we think, another instance of 
what we have before had occasion to remark, that he often looks 
upon his subjects rather with the eye of a painter than of an 
architect. The truth seems to be, that the proper and peculiar 
beauty of architectural objects consists in the expression of ex- 
cellence of form, not as it is presented to us in the visible objects 
of the outward universe, but as it is conceived by the human 
mind. As there are sciences, which are conversant only with the 
abstractions of the mind, as the Unes and circles of the theoretical 
mathematiciftn have no existence but in bis understandings no 

72 BusHfCs Lamps of Architecture* 

types in the world of matter, so in architecture the eye may be 
pleased and the taste satisfied by ordered arrangements of geo- 
metrical figures altogether unlike any thing in nature, and deducing 
the rules of their arrangement from the laws of the mind itself. 
Architecture might perhaps be described to be the expression of 
human thought in stone. And the manner in which beauty m 
conceived by man is far remote from that in which it is expressed 
in nature. Man works with far less plastic materials and is 
bound by far more rigid laws. His conceptions take naturally the 
shape of those geometrical figures, and are bounded by the rigidity 
of those mathematical lines which in natural objects scarcely occur 
at all. For more subtle and delicate beauties he must go to 
nature, one of the many ways in which we are taught how absolute 
is our dependence upon a power great beyond the utmost reach 
of our weak conceptions. 

Of the " Lamp of Life,^' the title sufficiently expresses the 
scope and purpose. And this also is to be referred to that great 
principle, which we have before mentioned as the main source of 
all that is worth having in art ; the earnest endeavour of the 
artist to do his best, the struggle to realize to the utmost that the 
means in his power permit the ideas that his mind forms of beauty 
and grandeur. Where this is, the work has life, and however 
rude or imperfect, it is sure to have some merit ; it is a real ex- 
pression of human thought ; it has given some honest pleasure to 
the maker, and so long as it stands it will continue to give the 
same to those who behold it. Where this is not, the work may 
be vast, elaborate, expensive, but it will be cold, tame, and dead ; 
that which has excited no enthusiasm in the maker will never do 
so in the spectator. In how few of our own buildings do we feel 
that the architect has really done the best that he could^ that he has 
set himself seriously to work to gather and select all the materials 
of beauty which lay within his reach, that he has never been 
satisfied of doing well enough, where he might have done better! 
Our architects seldom or never work up to their full strength* 
But in this matter they are unfavourably circumstanced. It is an 
indispensable condition for a living architecture that it should be 
in some degree original and progressive, that it should not be too 
rigidly bound by precedent. In no work of imagination can any 
result worth having be got by copying those who have gone before. 
To rise at all, we must aim at the highest things, and make our 
ultimate object no less than the utmost conceivable grandeur and 
beauty. We should copy Gothic, not because it is Gothic, but 
because it is beautiful ; and we ought to try earnestly to do better. 
Beautiful as our own Gothic bufldings are, one may surely con-< 
ceive others still more beautiful. They are not wanting in faults 

fiusiin*8 Lamp$ of Architecture. 78 

I we should avoid, any more than in excellencies which ^^ve 
} to copy. Now, a modern architect, even if he choose the 
ic style, will find himself grievously hampered by precedents, 
uilds, in what is to a certain extent even now a foreign and 
z style, and what is worse, he is perpetually subject to the 
ires of critics, for the smallest departure from existing 
pies — censures which may most seriously affect his interests ; 
i he works timidly, and with more reference to what is, than 
lat ought to be, and thinking at least as much of precedent as 
inciple. Of what is called Classical Architecture it seems 
ess to speak ; that has been long ago by its too careful nurses 
died into a mummy. 

lis principle of originality is not in reality, though it may at 
sight so appear, at all opposed to the next and the last of 
Buskin'*s architectural prmciples, the Lamp of Obedience* 
3r this head he explains and enforces the necessity, if wo 
1 have any architecture, or indeed any art at all that is really 
1 having, of selecting and adhering to some one style of 
tecture. It is impossible that the architect, who is liable to 
. any time called upon to compose in almost every style that 
3ver been known, from Chinese to Egyptian, should ever 
' the full resources of any. He is distracted by the multi- 
y of objects which are before him. He is always learning 
udiments of his art, and has neither leisure nor knowledge to 
ally original in any thing. A man who should pique himself 
habitually writing half a dozen languages, would hardly have 
y genial style in any. And the same observation will hold 
as to every workman employed in building. Unless his eye 
bis taste are trained in some one style, they will never be 
mtly trained at all. Good decorative work is not so easy 
it can be done by a divided attention ; it needs the full 
ion of the undiminished energies of most men. If the sc- 
\VL of a single style be necessary for the healthy life of architec- 
among us, it is no less so for that of painting and sculpture* 
these arts have always depended, if not for their existence, 
ist for their vigour and animation, upon the first. And this 
isarily, for paintings and statues are but the ornaments of 
louses and temples ; nor will they ever fit in comfortably or 
free space to develop themselves where the architect has not 
ded it. The modern method of painting pictures for pieces 
miture, whose greatest praise is to fetch high prices in an 
on-room, will never give rise to a worthy or dignified style of 
Such a school is certain to be seduced by that great Circe 
inters — colour. The results of such a practice are well seen 
e Dutch school of painting, and without going so far as Mr« 

74 Butkin's Lampi ofAreMUetut^ 

Buskin, who some where delivers an opinion ihht the greatesl 
service which could be rendered to art with respect to the 
paintings of the Dutch masters, would be to collect the whole of 
them into one grand gallery and then burn it to the ground, we 
think that few would be disposed to regard it as an elevated or 
adequate utterance of the truths which it is given to artists to 

With respect to the choice of style, Mr. Buskin appears, m 
the whole, to prefer that which it is likely would unite in its 
favour the great majority of suffrages, — the early English deco- 
rated. It seems, indeed, only natural to select a style which is 
adapted to our climate and to our materials, and the models of 
which are always before our eyes. The style in question pos- 
sesses also the very important advantage, that it admits of being 
ornamented, either with conventional or natural foliage ; nor is 
there, probably, any other style which can so easily both do with- 
out ornament or use it in the most lavish manner. It is another 
instance of the sti'ong, and, indeed, unreasoning love which our 
author bears to the buildings of Italy, that he actually enume- 
rates three of the Italian mediseval styles, as competitors with 
our own best age of Gothic. And yet it is difficult to see upon 
what principles of criticism the Pisan Bomanesque can be con- 
sidered as any thing but an imperfect and undeveloped style ; or 
the Tuscan or Venetian Gothic as otherwise than very imperfect 
imitations (that they are imitations cannot be denied) of the 
Teutonic architecture. And this, we must repeat, is not a ques- 
tion of the beauty or grandeur of particular buildings, which 
depends so much upon their position, their material, or such other 
considerations; but of what is a very different mattet-^-the 
abstract excellence of style. It is very characteristic of Mr. 
Buskin's excessive love for the Italian styles that we find him 
actually citing with admiration a want of exact correspondence 
in measurement, which, it appears, occurs in the cathedral of Pisa 
between parts answering to each other, and to the eye doing so 
exactly. It is difficult to understand how any beauty can arise 
from a difference which is not perceptible, nor does there seem 
ttrbe any reasonable doubt that the builders intended to make 
the corresponding parts really equal. They failed, most likely, 
for want of sufficiently accurate working drawings, yet they came 
near enough for all purposes of importance : the fault is a trifling 
one, and takes little or nothing from the merit of the structure, 
but it is not a merit. 

Under the head of the Lamp of Memory, Mr. Buskin has given 
a very ingeoiotts, and, we think:, a correct explanation of that so 
much oftm^T UB^ than tindersl^ppd term^ ** The PiotureBqae,"^ Ao* 

EuMn*$ Ifompe of Architecture. 75 

ng to him, the picturesque consists in ^^ parasitical sublimity f* 
s to say, in that sublimity which arises out of the surface of 
bject represented, and not out of its more essential charac- 
ics. In proportion, then, as the eye and the attention 
rawn to the surface of any object rather than to its inter- 
od inherent qualities, as the outside hides the inward struc- 
it is picturesque. The picturesque character depends upon 

is excrescential as distinguished from what is essential, 
he more the excrescences are developed, the more strongly 
marked. Thus the mane of the lion, which makes him so 
resque a subject, is no necessary part of the animal, his 
s or mode of life would be in no respect altered should ho 
it ; his essential qualities lie in his farm^ which the mane 
much di£^^ses. Hence this quality is properly called pio- 
queness^ n>r it is evidently much more easy to represent the 
ard surface of any thing than its inward qualities, to describe 

its accidents, than in its essence. And for the same rea- 

as this is the easiest and most obvious style, it is also the 
noble and dignified. 

I the same chapter Mr. Buskin has treated a subject 
1, from its great practical importance, deserves some no- 

that of restomtion, a process which, in more or less 
ure, all our ancient ecclesiastical edifices seemed destined to 
rgo. Our author, as we have seen, is not much in the 

of Umiting his propositions, and he lays it down that all 
ration is impossible. ^^ Tt means the most total destruc- 
that a building can suffer; a destruction out of which no 
ants can be gathered : a destruction accompanied with a 
description of the thing destroyed."^ And he tells us that a 
sity for restoration is a necessity for pulling the building 
. So far as these observations apply to sculptures, wo 
dve them to be altogether just. So long as a fragment of an 
tatue will remain in its niche, it ought to be sacred from the 
t of modem hands. But to the restoration of buildings in 

main and essential parts, that is, in their masonry and 
dings, these observations do not seem properly to apply, 
[dings being formed by combinations of geometrical lines 
certainly be exactly copied, if sufficient care be taken, and 

is weathered, in one place may usually be restored from 

other part which remains perfect. Even if it were not so, 
uld often become necessary to restore the outside of a build- 
in order to preserve the interior. We cannot suffer our 
dies to fall down, they must be repaired in some manner ; 
tan there be any doubt that that should be done as like to the 
oal as is possible i It continually occurs, that tVve \4VCk^<^^ 

76 BusHn's Lmwp^ of Arehikctwre, 

tracery of churches falls out, while the rest of the structure stands 
good ; it must be replaced in some fashion. Moreover, an accu- 
rate restoration is the very best school, both for the architect 
and the workman. It is no doubt true, that infinite damage has 
been done, and is now being done, by hasty, unnecessary, ill- 
considered, and imperfect restorations ; but restorations are very 
often not matters of choice, but of sheer necessity. 

It has been already said that Mr. Euskin has aims higher than 
those of the mere dilettante artist, or the self-asserting nmn of 
letters. We believe that to him that will be the most grateful 
criticism which most tends to help and further his objects. And 
nothing, we think, would so much tend to increase his authority, 
and thereby promote his views, as that he should modify what 
we have so often had unwilling occasion to remark, his habit of 
stating his opinions with needless vehemence. His earnestness 
of thought, his vigour of conception, his energy of expression, 
hke all excellent quaUties, have their temptations and their dan- 
gers. To correct this habit would hardly be very difficult ; and 
we are persuaded that its existence interferes seriously with the 
promotion of those ends to which he has addressed himself. 

Nor are those ends light or trifling. When it is considered 
what large classes of men, and those, too, often highly educated 
men, pass their lives in the practice of what are called the deco^ 
rative arts, in the making of what is, or at least is supposed to be, 
ornamental — when we think of the thousand of pictures which 
are at this moment being exhibited in London only — it cannot ap- 
pear a small matter that so great an amount of work should be 
done, and so many lives spent, honestly, conscientiously, and hap- 
pily ; that so vast a quantity of thought and mind should tend, 
like the verse of him who has just gone down to the grave full 
of years and honours, 

" To soothe and cleanse, not madden and pollute." 

Nay, more, that the outward shows of visible things may be made 
the instruments to lift us above themselves, and that from the 
sight of the fleeting objects of this transitory world, we may rise 
to the contemplation of those things which are everlasting. 


Art. V. — The Life and Corre^ndence of tlie late Bobebt 
SouTHEY. In Six Volumes, Edited by his 8on^ the Rev. 
Gharl£s Guthbert Southey. London : Longmap, Brow, 
Green, and Longman. 1849, 1850. 

Bobebt Southey was one of that chosen band whose appointed 
lot it is to exhibit the power of the human mind and will in a 
fife-long struggle against adverse circumstances ; to create in the 
midst of a hostile world an exceptional position for themselves ; 
and, in the absence of the adventitious advantages of wealth or 
worldly station, to exercise a powerful influence upon the desti- 
nies of mankind, — a member of that apostolate of genius, whos6 
mission it is, " being poor,'' to " make many rich/' Men of 
this class are to universal humanity what the prophets of old 
were to the nation of Israel ; their office is not only to instruct 
the generation in which their lot is cast, but to predict the 
destinies of future ages ; to cast their bread upon the waters of 
time's tide, to be found after many days ; to sp^ak words often 
unheeded by the world's ear, which yet are not suffered to fall to 
the ground. The school in which such men are fitted for their 
office is not the common school in which the ordinary craftsmen 
and labourers are trained, by whose routine performances the 
mechanism of society is kept in motion ; theirs is a discipline as 
extraordinary as their vocation. To the unreflecting observer, it 
appears as if the lot of such men were unusually severe ; and 
involuntarily the thought suggests itself what this or that man of 
the class alluded to might not have achieved, had he not been 
hampered and crippled by the intricacies of his course, and the 
perplexities of his position- Such a view of the irregular and 
often painful career of men of great eminence and public useful- 
ness, however, arising from an incorrect appreciation of man's 
nature, and scarcely excusable in a pagan philosopher, is wholly 
unworthy of the Christian thinker. The seeds of evil inherent 
in all the children of Adam, spring up with gi*eater vigour in 
powerful than in weak or ordinary natures, and require, if the 
luxuriant growth of sin is to be arrested, a more powerful check 
to be imposed on them, — a check of which, according to the 
appointed order of God's Providence, the force of external circum- 
stances forms not the least important part. The conflict be- 
tween the internal, unre^Jated power of the mmd axid \n\11^ 

'78 Tie JA/e and Cormponience 

and the pressure brought to bear upon it by the outer world, pro- 
duces those anomalies of position and eccentricities of action 
which characterize the early history of almost every man of 
genius ; while in the after periods of life it is made apparent 
whether that discipline has been set at nought in a spnrit of 
proud rebellion, or submitted to with meekness and humility. 
The result is, in the former case, the display of gigantic powers, 
but powers misused to the injury of their possessor and of man- 
kind at large, — the gloomy defiance of the misanthrope and the 
atheist against every law human or divine ; in the latter case, it is 
the application of powei's not less gigantic, though less striking 
in the form and manner of their action, to the furtherance of tb^ 
happiness and improvement of mankind, and to the advancement, 
more or less directly, of the purpose and kingdom of God,— 
accompanied in the individual himself by a sense of inward 
contentment, the natural fruit of life'^s vocation conscientiously 

To the latter, the beneficent and the blessed class of master- 
minds, did he belong whose ^' Life and Correspondence^^ is now 
lying before us, in a series of six volumes, edited by his son. In 
saying the " Life and Correspondence,^' we simply follow the title- 
page of the work ; and we must at once enter our protest against 
the supposition, that we admit this as a correct description of its 
contents. Strictly speaking, the publication of the Bev. Charles 
Cuthbert Southey has no claim to be considered as any thing 
more than fragments from the correspondence of Bobert Southey, 
constituting materials for a history of a life which remains yet to 
be written. In making this reservation, we do not, however, 
wish to be understood as intending to cast atiy censure upon the 
Editor, or to depreciate the value of the biographical stores which 
he has communicated to the world. The son, who was undoubt- 
edly the most proper person to collect the correspondence, and 
to decide what portions of it should be given to the public, with a 
due regard to tnose sanctities of private life, which ought never 
to be violated for the sake of gratifying public curiosity^ was by 
the very fact of his relationship to the mighty departed, the most 
unfit person to work up those materials into a history of bis 
father'^s life. The ^etas of the son and the oflBce of the critic 
and the judge, are m their nature incompatible ; while an enco- 
miastic narrative, such as filial affection might have indited^ would 
have carried with it no greater weight than the laudatory inscrip- 
tions on tombstones, which do more credit to the feelings of the 
survivors, thanjustiee to the character of the departed. 

To do Mr. Charles Cuthbert Southey justice, he does not in 
his preface profess to do more than we have here indicated, and 

6/ the laU Bobmi Sautk^. 79 

if his title-page might lead us to expect more, that one leaf, 
rather than the design and execution or the work iUelf, must bear 
tiie blame. With great modesty, he disclaims the possession of 
^^any peculiar qualifications^ for such an undertaking as the 
history of his &ther''s life ; he exactly circumscribes the limits of 
what he proposes to do, as a contributor of materials : — 

<* My object has been, not to compose a regular biography, but rather 
to lay Defore the reader such a selection from my father's letters, as will 
give, in his own words, the history of his life ; and I have only added 
BDch remarks as I judged necessary for connexion or explanation ; in- 
deed the even tenor of his life, during its greater portion, afiTords but 
little matter for pure biography, and the course of his literary pursuits, 
bis opinions on passing events, and the few incidents of his own career, 
will all be found narrated by himself in a much more natural manner, 
than if his letters had been worked up into a regular narrative." — 
Preface f vol. i, p. vi. 

Still further to enable the reader to appreciate the value of the 
materials placed in his hands, Mr. Charles Guthbert Southey has 
a(^nded to the last volume a few retrospective observations 
touching the principles on which, and the manner in which, he 
has executed his task ; observations which we think it but fair to 
give in his own words : — 

*' In selecting from the masses of correspondence which have passed 
throqgh my hands, there has necessarily been considerable labour and 
difficulty, the amount and nature of which can only be understood by 
those who have been similarly employed. One of my chief difficulties 
has been to avoid repetition, for the same circumstance is commonly 
to be found related, and the same opinions expressed, to most of his 
frequent and familiar correspondents ; so that what a Reviewer calls 
" significant blanks and injudicious erasures," are very often nothing 
more than what is caused by the cutting out of passages, the substance 
of which has already appeared in some other letter, and, according to 
my judgment, more fully and better expressed. It may probably be 
observed, that my selections from the correspondence of the later years 
of his life are fewer in proportion than of the former ones ; but, for this, 
several reasons may be given. A correspondence is often carried on 
briskly for a time, and then dropped almost entirely — as was the case 
between Sir Walter Scott and my father, although the friendly feelings 
of the parties were undiminished ; in other cases the interchange of 
letters continued, though they contained nothing sufficiently interesting 
for publication. With others, again, as with Mr. Rickman, Mr. H. 
Taylor, and Mr. Bedford, the correspondence increased in frequency, 
and necessarily the interest of single letters diminished, as it was carried 
on by a multitude of brief notes ; and this, which in these two cases 
resulted from facilities in franking, it seems likely will be so general a 
result of the new postage system, that in another generation diere mUk 

80 The Life and Corregmidmce 

be no correspondences to publish. With respect to the correspondence 
with Mr. Wynn, much to my regret, I was unable to procure any 
letters of later date than 1820, owing to their having been mislaid; 
since his decease they have been found and kindly transmitted to me 
by his son ; but, unfortunately, it was too late for me to make ao^ . 
present use of them. 

*' In addition to these causes, it may also be mentioned, that his 
correspondence with comparative strangers and mere acquaintances 
occupied a continually increasing portion of his time. The number of 
letters he received from such persons was very great, and almost all had 
to be answered, so that but little time was left for those letters he had 
real pleasure in writing. Every new work he engaged in entailed more 
or less correspondence, and some a vast accession for a time, and these 
letters generally would not be of interest to the public. The Life of 
Cowper involved him in a correspondence of considerable extent with 
many different persons : many of these letters I could have procured, and 
some were sent to me ; but they were not available, from the limits of 
this work, neither would their contents be of general interest. I may, 
however, take this opportunity of expressing my thanks to those gentle- 
men who have sent me letters of which I have not made any use, but 
for whose kindness I am not the less obliged. 

" While, however, I have necessarily been obliged to leave out many 
interesting letters, I feel satisfied that I have published a selection 
abundantly sufficient to indicate all the points in my father's character 
— to give all the chief incidents in his life, and to show his opinions in 
all their stages. I am not conscious of having kept back any thing 
which ought to have been brought forward — any thing, excepting some 
free and unguarded expressions which, whether relating to things or 
persons, having been penned in the confidence of friendship and at the 
impulse of the moment, it would he as unreasonable in a reader to 
require, as it would be injudicious and improper in an editor to publish. 
And if in any case I may have let some such expression pass by un- 
cancelled, which may have given a moment's pain to any individual, I 
sincerely regret the inadvertency." — Vol. vi. pp. 394 — 396. 

It only remains to be stated, that although Robert Southey 
does not appear to have kept copies of his letters to his numerous 
correspondents — ^for the present publication is made from the 
originals transmitted by the parties to whom they were addressed, 
or by their representatives — he seems himself to have contem- 
plated the plan of an epistolary autobiography. Indeed, as £w as 
the first fifteen years of his life are concerned, he himself, in his 
forty-seventh year, embodied his reminiscences of them, together 
with a full account of his birth and parentage, m a series of letters 
addressed to his friend Mr. John May^ with the avowed object 
of composing, in this manner, an autobiographic memoir of him- 
self. But wlule he disported himself, with all that innocent hilarity 

ofiU taie Robert Sauthey. 81 

of spirit which he possessed in so remarkable a degree, and which 
is one of the surest indications of a well-spent life and a happy 
old age, in the recollection of the small troubles and the childish 
adventures of his boyhood, his courage failed him when he ap- 
proached that period of his life, in reviewing which the sense of 
personal responsibility could not but have greatly interfered with 
liis narrative, and placed him in the inconvenient position of being 
at once judge and prisoner at the bar, his own prosecutor and his 
own advocate. To this cause, no less than to the unwillingness 
to open afL*esh wounds of affliction which tim6 had healed over, 
we are disposed to attribute the abandonment of the projected 
autobiography by Southey himself; and we think, that in re- 
linquishing the undertaking he was guided by a correct instinct. 
For a man who has attained a position of moral eminence, in 
which he is a spectacle to all and an example to many, to trace 
out before the world the erratic course of his years of indiscretion 
and inexperience, in a tone, we will not say of approbation, but 
ofpaUiation, or of leniency of judgment, would be to render an 
ill service to the cause of religion and morality — by furnishing a 
plausible excuse to the servum pecus to imitate the faults, while 
uninfluenced by the impulses, and unprotected by the compen- 
sating excellencies, of the man of genius. On the contrary, to retail 
the follies and delinquencies of youth in their naked deformity, 
after the manner of the " confessions'''' of J. J. Rousseau, although 
without their turpitude, would be an act unbecoming the wisdom 
and the rectitude of maturer and graver years, Robert Southey 
did wisely, therefore, for more reasons than those apologetically 
set forth by his son, in not proceeding any further with his auto- 
biographical letters to Mr. John May, but leaving the tenor of 
his Ufe, the tendency of his sentiments, and the tone of his mind 
and heart, to be collected from his chance correspondence after 
he sheuld have been gathered to his fathers. That he anticipated, 
and even intended, that such a use should be made of his cor- 
respondence, is evident from some of the very letters now pub- 
lished, in which he adverts to this plan as a substitute for the 
continuation of the memoirs of his own life, the completion of 
which he appears to have contemplated, at intervals, for several 
years after they had been broken oflF. 

In July, 1826, five years after the discontinuance of the auto- 
biographical correspondence with Mr. John May, he thus writes 
to his friend Grosvenor 0. Bedford : — 

" I wish to show you some things, and to talk with you about others ; 
one business in particular, which is the disposal of my papers whenever 
I shall be gathered to my fathers and to my children. That good office 
would naturally he yours, should you be the survivor, if l\ie \i\xs\\i^^^ 

VOL, XV. — no. XXIX, JlfAACH, 1851. G 

8^ Th^ l4\fe gn^ Cqrr^i^imelm^ 

of the Exchequer did not press upon ypu, lik^ the world upon poor 
Atlas's shoulders. I know not now upon whom to turn my eyes for it, 
unless it be Henry Taylor. Two long journeys with me have made him 
well acquainted with my temper and eyery-day state of mind. He has 
shown himself very much attached to me, and would neither want will 
nor ability for what will not be a difficult task, inasmuch as that which 
is of most importance, and would require most care, will (if my life be 
spared but for a year or two) be executed by my own hand. You do 
not know, I believe, that I have made some progress in writing my own 
life and recollections upon a large scale. This will be of suoh certain 
value as a post obit, that I sh^U make it a part of my regular basioesi 
(being, indeed, a main duty) to complete it. What is written is one of 
the things which I am desirous of showing you. If you ever lool( ovor 
my letters, I wish you would niark such passages i^s might not be im- 
proper for publication at the (irne which I am looking forwai^d to* 
You, and you alone, have a regular series which ba3 never becA iater- 
mitted. From occasional correspondents plenty of others, which, being 
less confidential, are less careless, will turn up. I will leave Sk list oi 
those persons from whom such letters may be obtained, as may pro- 
bably be of avail."— Vol. v. pp. 254, 255. 

And shortly after he writes to Henry Taylor himself: — 

" The growth and progress of my own opinions I pan distinctly traoOi 
for I have been watchfully a self-observer. What was hastily ta^en up 
in youth was gr^^dually and slowly mpdified, and I have a clear remeitt- 
brance of the how, and why, and when of any material change. X¥* 
you will find (I trust) in the Autobiography which I shall leave, and 
in which some considerable progress is made, though it ha$ not reached 
this point. It will be left, whether complete or not (for there is the 
chance of mortality for this) in a state for the press, so that you will 
have no trouble with it. There will be some in collectin'g my stray 
letters, and selecting such, in whole or in part, as may not unfitly b^ 
published, less for the sake of gratifying public curiosity, than of bring- 
ing money to my family." — Vol. v. p. 266. 

^ It is both curious ?^nd characteristic that the pecuniary value of 
his projected autobiography, as the means of increasing tJie scanty 
provision which he had been enabled to make for his fonaiHy, 
shouW have been the uppermost thought connected with thisf 
subject in the mind of a man who felt, and ha4 reason to feel, 
" the conviction that, die when he nuight, his memory vis^ on^ of 
those which would smeU sweet, and blossom in the dust/' Such 
being the nature of the collection from which we are left to gl^thei^ 
our materials, we shall now endeavour to transfer to our pages a 
slight sketch of the picture presented to us in these volumes of 
Robert Southey, the n\an, the author, the politician, the champion 
of the Church of England. As a m^n,^ there can bQ bvit one opi- 

o/the hte Bobert Sinttief. 88 

n{on, that Robert Southey will, in the eyes of all parties, be a 
greAt gainer by the publication of these letters, and by the light 
which they throw upon his personal and domestic history. The 
impression prevalent in the public mind, of the earlier period 
of his life, has hardly been as favourable as that which the present 
anUientic data cannot fail to produce. Large allowances must 
be made for the unpropitious nature of his early education, which 
was in no sense calculated to regulate his mind or to form his 
diaraoter. Under the auspices of a maiden aunt, whose idol was 
her drawing-room furniture, her world the playhouse, and stage- 

Syers almost her only society, — with no regular tuition, and no 
iter vehicles than playbills, fairy tales, and dramatic pieces, for 
that desultory information which, like all children of active mind, 
he failed not to pick up for himself, — it is not wonderful that the 
boy should have grown up without any clear ideas of reUgious 
troth, and without any deep or solemn religious feelings, even 
though his aunt did nui^e a practice of occupying her pew at the 
parish church. His early reading was all in the world of fiction, 
not in the realities either of the visible or of the invisible world ; 
all his associations of a light and frivolous kind, — barring 
always the stem severitv of his aunt on such points of domestic 
discipline as she held it essential to enforce in the indulgence 
of her own peculiarities ; the sentiments which he imbibed, the 
language in which he learned to clothe his thoughts, all over- 
wrought, extravagant, fantastic. His scholastic beginning were, 
if possible, of a more unfavourable kind ; the first schoolmaster 
on whom devolved the task of educing the infant mind of the fu- 
ture author of the Book of the Church, was a dissenting minister 
of the General Baptist Denomination, with a Socinian creed, whose 
chief recommendation was that he kept religion carefully out of 
sight in his school. The master of the next '^ seminary"^ to which 
he was consigned, a genius in astronomy, with a drunken wife, 
who had formerly been his maid-servant, devoted his time to the 
construction of a huge orrery, and left his school-room to the 
charge of an ill-conditioned, half-grown son of his, between whom 
and the father a fight ensued, on the school being broken up by 
the appearance of tiie itch among the pupils. The chief acquire- 
ment which young Southey brought away was the difficult art 
of steering Ins course among a number of boys of coarse and 
tyrannical haUts, accustomed to no other restraint among one 
another or from their superiors, than that of brute force. Such 
was the foundation on which the education of his later boyhood 
was built ; and if the schools to which he was subsequently sent, 
as a day-boarder, were not of an equally objectionable character, 
th^ were eertainly not calculated to correct the injury which 


^4 The Life and Correspondence 

must have been inflicted on his mind by the training of his infant 
years. The rest may easily be imagined, and is soon told. After 
passing from hand to hand in a course of inefficient tuition, young 
Southey was sent to Westminster, where his extra-scholastic 
acquirements, his knowledge of plays, and of other branches of 
poetic literature, and his aptitude for composition, both in prose 
and verse, assigned him among the boys a higher standing thaii 
his classical attainments warranted, the result of which was his 
speedy expulsion from the school for the prominent part he had 
taken in the editorship of a periodical lampoon upon the autho- 
rities, under the ominous title " Tlie Flagellant,''' The bank- 
ruptcy of his father, which happened at this time, as the denous" 
ment of years of embarrassment, did not prevent his removal to 
Oxford, a maternal uncle interposing his good offices; but his 
stay there was not of long duration. Rejected at Christ Church, 
where his name had been put down, in consequence of his West- 
minster antecedents, he was entered at Balliol. To give an idea 
of the nature and success of his academic labours, it will be suflS- 
cient to transcribe the note addressed to him by his tutor, himself 
half a democrat, and an admirer of American independence : — 

** Mr, Southey, you won't learn any thing by my lectures, Sir ; so if 
you have any studies of your own, you had better pursue thera," — 
Vol. i. p. 215. 

His tutor^s suggestion that he might have studies of his own, 
was correct enough. A vast variety of literary projects occupied 
his mind, tragedies and epics of divers kinds were on the stocks, 
and the theories and events of the French revolution furnished 
matter for plentiful political and metaphysical speculation. While 
thus engaged, the undergraduate of Balliol made the not very 
astonishing discovery that his opinions would offer an insuperable 
bar to his subscription of the Articles, and consequently to his 
entrance into Holy Orders, the very object for which his uncle 
had undertaken to defray the expenses of his education at the 
University. To avoid the total disappointment of his kind rela- 
tive's expectations, he contemplated for a short time the study of 
physic, and mingled chemistry with his poetry; but from the 
horrors of the dissecting-room his muse shrank with invincible 
nausea, and convinced him that, however Apollo himself might 
succeed in both lines, he must renounce the healing art, and con- 
fine himself to the art of song. An attempt to obtain, through 
the intervention of his friend Bedford, a situation in a Grovern- 
ment Office, was nipped in the bud by the unenviable notoriety 
which he had gained as a philosopher of the revolutionary school. 

While he was in this uncomfortable state of mind, Robert 

of the late Hobert SimiAey. 85 

Southey fell into an acquaintance, which soon after ripened 
into an intimacy, with an alumnm of the sister university, of 
equally unsettled opinions, and still more unstable character, 
whom his friends had just ransomed from the hands of the re- 
cruiting sergeant, the mystic poet and misty metaphysician Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge. This completed the discomfiture of the plans 
for future settlement in an honourable career, which had led his 
kind uncle, the Bev. Herbert Hill, to send him to Oxford, and 
the long vacation, which riveted their inauspicious friendship, 
gave birth to the wild and sufficiently notorious scheme of a 
Pantisocratic repubhc, to be constituted, on principles of the 
purest Aspheteism^ in the transatlantic world. The discovery of 
this notable project, and of the success which he had had in 
securing for his partner in the new Utopia one of four fair and 
penniless sisters, willing to embark in the prospect of love in a 
bower on the banks of the sweetly-sounding Susquehanna, de- 
prived Bobert Southey of his temporary home in the house of his 
maiden aunt. Miss Tyler, who marked her disapprobation, not 
unnaturally, though somewhat unseasonably, by turning her 
nephew into the street on a dark and rainy night. 

Thus thrown on his. own resources, fiobert Southey found a 
friend and patron in Joseph Cottle, a young bookseller, himself a 
dabbler in poetry, at Bristol. The bibliopole Maecenas became 
the purchaser of Joan of Arc, and otherwise forwarded the 
endeavours made at this critical juncture by Robert Southey to 
turn an honest penny, by bringing his talents into the market. 
Among other schemes set on foot with this view, was the announce- 
ment of a series of lectures by the two brother Panttsocrats^ 
Southey and Coleridge, the latter selecting moral and philoso- 
phical subjects, and the former taking the historical line, as may 
be seen from the following prospectus : 

"Robert Southey, of Balliol College, Oxford, proposes to read a 
course of Historical Lectures, in the following order : — 
" 1st. Introductory: On the Origin and Progress of Society. 
" 2nd. Legislation of Solon and Lycurgus. 

" 3rd, State of Greece from the Persian AVar to the Dissolution of 
the Achaian League. 
" 4 th. Rise, Progress, and Decline of the Roman Empire. 
** 5th. Progress of Christianity. 

" 6th. Manners and Irruptions of the Northern Nations. Growth of 
the European States. Feudal System. 

" 7th. State of the Eastern Empire, to the Capture of Constanti- 
nople by the Turks ; including the Rise and Progress of the Moham- 
medan Religion, and the Crusades. 

" 8th. History of Europe, to the Abdication of the Empire by 

Charles the Fifth. 

86 I^ Life and Carr§»pondenee 

<< 9th. History of Europe, to the Establishment of the Independence 
of Holland. 

" 10th. State of Europe, and more particularly of England, from ths 
Accession of Charles the First to the Revolution in 1688. 

** 11th. Progress of the Northern States. History of Europe to the 
American War. 

" 12th, The American War. 

" Tickets for the whole course, 10*. 6rf., to be had of Mr. Cottle^ 
Bookseller, High Street."— Vol. i. pp. 234, 255. 

Southey's lectures were not only well attended, but faithfully 
delivered, at the times appointed, which was more than could be 

Predicated of the brother apostle of Asplieteism^ S. T. Coleridge, 
'he view which he took of life at this period — he was in hfe 
twenty-first year — and the extent of his hopes and aspirations, is 
somewhat amusingly pourtrayed in the following extract from a 
letter to his brother Thomas : 

" I am giving a course of Historical Lectures, at Bristol, teaching 
what is right by showing what is wrong ; my company, of course, is 
sought by all who love good republicans and odd characters. Coleridge 

and I are daily engaged John Scott has got me a place of 

a guinea and a half per week, for writing in some new work called ' The 
Citizen,' of what kind I know not, save that it accords with my prin* 
ciples : of this I daily expect to hear more. 

*' If Coleridge and I can get 150/. a-year between us we purpose 
marrying, and retiring into the country, as our literary business can be 
carried on there, and practising agriculture till we can raise money for 
America — still the grand object in view. 

" So I have cut my cable, and am drifting on the ocean of life — ^tbe 
wind is fair, and the port of happiness I hope in view. It is possible 
that I may be called upon to publish my Historical Lectures ; this 
I shall be unwilling to do, as they are only splendid declamation." — 
Vol. i. pp. 235, 236. 

The unpromising career which Southey had thus opened for 
himself in his native city, was presently cut short by the inter- 
ference of his uncle, who held a Chaplaincy at Lisbon, and who 
prevailed on his nephew to accompany him thither on a sit 
months' visit, in the hope of rescuing him from his Asphetistic 
associates, including his lady love, the romantic Edith Fricker. 
In this hope, however, he was disappointed. The only benefit 
which fiobert Southey derived from this expedition, was a know- 
ledge of the Spanish and Portuguese languages, which exercised 
a great influence subsequently upon the choice of his literary under- 
takings. When the six months were expired, he returned to 
England, where, for a time, he attempted the profi9«siQB of tho 

of the lalte Boberi Sowthey. 87 

kw, With what success he himself sfeJl tell. In December 1799, 
Jtftet a two years'* trial to reconcile himself to a study against 
which the whole bent of 'his mind rebelled, he writes to his 
fiiend Grosvcfiior : 

" In my present state, to attempt to undergo the confinement of legal 
application were actual suicide. I am anxious to be vreW, and to 
attempt the profession: much in it I shall never do: sometimes my 
prilicipies stand in my way, sometimes the want of readiness which 1 
felt from the fltst — a want which I always kiiow in company, and never 
m solitude arid silence, tlowheit I will Inake the attempt ; hut mark 
yoti, if by stage writing, or any other writing, 1 can acquire indepen- 
deaee^ 1 will not make the sacrifice of happiness it will inevitably cost 
tfe. I love the country, I love study — devotedly I love it; but in 
legal sCadie» it is only the subtlety of the mind that is exercised. 
However, I need not philippicise, and it is too late to veer about. In 
'96 I might have chosen physic, and succeeded in it. I caught at the 
first plank, and missed the great mast in my reach ; perhaps I may 
enable myself to swim by and by. Grosvenor, I have nothing of what 
tbe world calls ambition. I never thought it possible that 1 could be a 
great lawyer ; I should as soon expect to be the man in the moon. My 
news are bounded — my hopes to an income of 500/. a year, of which I 
could lay by half to effect my escape with. Possibly the stage may 

exceed this I am not indolent; I loathe indolence; hiit, indeed, 

reading law is laborious indolence — it is thrashing straw. I have read, 
and read* and read ; but the devil a bit can I remember. I have given 
sll possible attention, and attempted to command volition. No ! The 
eye read, the lips pronounced, I understood and re-read it ; it was very 
clear ; I remembered the page, the sentence, — but close the book, and 
all was gori^ ! Yfeih 1 an independent man, even on less than I now 
{K)sse8s, 1 should long since have made the blessed bonfire, and rejoiced 
that I was free and contented.*'— Vol. ii. pp. 33, 34. 

In thte following spring, his medical advisers enjoined change of 
climate, and he gladly accepted an invitation from his uncle to 
pay another visit to rortugal, during which he finally abandoned 
the idea of following the legal profession, and gave himself up to 
the pursuit for which natm^e appeared to have intended, and to 
which circumstances had moulded him, the pursuit of literature, 
for its own sake, and as his only profession. 

Before we proceed to follow him in that career which, as being 
suited to his taste, he pursued with a steadiness of application 
rarely to be met tvith in th^ history of literary genius, it is proper 
that we should advert to certaiit redeenfimg features in the cha- 
racter of the yotr^ man, Whose sttMigety erratic course we Hafve 
thus f^ trttced, ftt the mWst of ther inst^ilit^ of |)urpose with 

88 The Life and Correspondence 

which he applied himself, or rather failed to apply himself, to 
those studies which, according to the intention of his relatives, 
were to have opened the door to his advancement in life, he con- 
tinued to toil in the employment which was congenial to his mind 
with the most persevering energy,and that in spite of the barrenness 
of the pursuit in a pecuniary point of view. His refusal to enter 
into holy orders proceeded from the most conscientious feelings, 
and not, as the sequel proves, from any captious objection against 
the Church or her doctrines. He felt himself, most unaffectedly, 
disqualified for an office which he regarded with becoming 
reverence. From his participation in the schemes of Pantiso- 
cracy he withdrew as soon as his eyes were opened to their im- 
practicable nature, and even during the time that the plans were in 
agitation, he never ceased to employ himself usefully, as far as he 
had the opportunity. When his fortunes were at the lowest ebb— 
at one time he was so far reduced that he actually went without 
a dinner for want of a sixpence to pay for the scantiest meal — ^he 
sustained his privations with honourable fortitude, and exerted 
himself manfully to retrieve his fallen fortunes. A deep sense of 
rectitude, and an anxious desire to settle down to some occupa- 
tion which should be at once suitable to his talents and conducive 
to his support, pervaded his conduct ; and while we may justly 
censure many of the opinions he entertained, and be unable to 
suppress a smile at vain aspirations of mingled enthusiasm and 
inexperience, or to withhold our pity from the fruitless efforts which 
he made to accommodate himself to uncongenial employments, 
we never lose our respect for him, because he never, for a moment, 
lost his self-respect. The disapprobation which some parts of his 
course are calculated to excite, is ever qualified, on the one hand, 
by the consideration that the fruit was far less evil than such an 
education as he had received might have led us to expect ; and, 
on the other hand, by the evidence which his subsequent career 
affords of his having been unconsciously guided all through by a 
correct instinct to that which, after all, was his true vocation. It 
is in this light that he himself viewed, in after life, a period of his 
existence on which it was impossible for him to look back with 
satisfaction. Writing to Chaunsey H. Townsend, he observes: 

" The stages of your life have passed regularly and happily, so 
that you have had leisure to mark them with precision, and to feel them, 
and reflect upon them. With me these transitions were of a very 
different character ; they came abruptly, and, when I left the Univer- 
sity, it was to cast myself upon the world, with a heart full of romance, 
and a head full of enthusiasm. No young man could have gone more 
widely astray, according to all human judgment ; and yet the soundest 
judgment could not have led me into any other way of life in which 

of the late Robert J^mthey. 89 

I should have had sach full cause to be contented and thankful.'* — 
Vol. V. p. 78. 

The view which we have taken of this portion of Southey's 
eareer, is confirmed by the honourable testimony borne to the 
blameless excellency of his character, by his uncle, the Rev. 
Herbert Hill, on his return to England from his first visit to 
Lisbon ; a testimony which can hardly bo suspected of partiality, 
seeing how completely his nephew had at that very time dis- 
appointed his almost parental solicitude : — 

" ' He is a very good scholar/ he writes to a friend, * of great read- 
ing, of an astonishing memory : when he speaks he does it with fluency, 
with a great choice of words. He is perfectly correct in his behaviour, 
of the most exemplary morals, and the best of hearts. Were his charac- 
ter different, or his abilities not so extraordinary, I should be the less 
concerned about him ; but to see a young man of such talents as he 
possesses, by the misapplication of them, lost to himself and to his 
family, is what hurts me very sensibly. In short, he has every thing 
you would wish a young man to have, excepting common sense or 
pradence.' "—Vol. i. pp. 273, 274. 

One part of his conduct at the period of his life to which this 
testuBony more particularly applies, has called forth a greater 
diversity of judgment than almost any other passage of his life, 
certainly than any other part of his private history, — his clandes- 
tine marriage with Edith Fricker, on the eve of his departure for 
Lisbon on the urgent invitation of his uncle. As a question of 
ethics, the case was one of conflicting duties, and as such it must 
be viewed, in order to form a fair judgment upon it. The con- 
cealment from his uncle, whom he had already so grievously 
disappointed by the unprofitable issue of his college career, 
and who was at this very time taking pains to extricate him from 
a position full of emba,rrassments, was no doubt blamable, and 
must to Southey himself have been not a little painful. At the 
same time, the difficulty in which he was placed was not small. 
To have shaken off* his engagement with Edith Fricker, would 
have been highly dishonourable, and wholly unjustifiable, as there 
was nothing, beyond her poverty, tliat rendered an alliance with 
her improper or undesirable. Southey himself was the son of 
a linendraper, who had become bankrupt; marriage with the 
daughter of a large sugar-pan manufacturer, whom the war had 
ruined, and whose orphan family had been left in a state of 
poverty, in which they did the best they could for their own 
maintenance by honourable industry, could hardly be called a mes- 
alliance. He became acquainted with Edith through his college 
friend Lovell, who had married one of the sisters, and the ac* 

90 The Ufi and (hrmptmdence 

qua]nbinc6 appears to have ripened into mutual affection, al^ h 
positive engagement, some time before the Susquehanna scheme 
was brought on the tapis ; he neither offered himself, nor was he 
accepted in the off-hand manner in which Samuel Taylor Gcde- 
ridge convinced a third sister, Sarah, that she ought to bestdw 
kev heart and hand upon him ; and the whole of Southey^a sub- 
flequent conduct, the readiness with which he saddled himself with 
the widow of his friend Lovell, and with the worse than widow 
and orphan, of the magnificent Coleridge, as well as the long life 
of uninterrupted domestic happiness, clouded only by such affi(>- 
tions as the Great Disposer of all things saw fit to lay upoii them 
— may well be accepted as evidence that the clandestine marriage 
resolved upon at a most critical moment, was not an ill-advised 
step taken under the influence of rash and ungovernable passions^ 
but the performance of a duty which could not honourably have 
been omitted or postponed. At least, it must be admitted that 
there were many considerations which might justly lead Southey 
to regard the matter in this light. The day fixed by hitn for tlm 
romantic wedding was the day on Which it waa appointed that he 
should sail for Lisbon with his uncle. Immediately after the 
ceremony had been performed, they parted, and Edith Fricker 
wore her wedding-ring suspended round her neck, and preserved 
her maiden name, until rumour gave publicity to the unioti. Of 
his feelinffs on the occasion, Southey thus writes in confidence to 
Us friend Bedford :- ^ 

" * Here I am, in a huge and handsome mansion, not a finer room in 
the county of Cornwall than the one in which I write ; and yet have 
I been silent, and retired into the secret cell of my own heart. This 
day week, Bedford ! There is a something in Uie bare name that is now 
mine, that wakens sentiments I know not how to describe : neyei^ did 
man stand at the altar with such strange feelings as I did. Can you, 
Grosvenor, by any effort of imagination, shadow out my emotion ? . . . 
She returned the pressure of my hand, and we parted in silence. — 
Zounds I what have f to do with supper ! * " — Vol. i. p. 255. 

The considerations by which he was indiTced to act as he 
did, he thu» explained to his friend Cottle, on hearing that the 
secret had oozed out : — 

** * My marriage is become public. You know my only motive for 
wishing it otherwise, and must know that its publicity can give me no 
concern. I have done my duty. Perhaps you may hardly think my 
motives for marrying at that time sufficiently strong. One, and that to 
me orf great Weight, I believe was never mentioned to you. There miglit 
have arisen feelings of an unpleasant nature, at the idea of receiving 
support from one not legally a husband ; and (do ^o^ show this to 

ofihe hie Boberi 8(mS^. 91 

KVth) sbould I perish by shipwreck, or any other CMiiahy, I have 
Njttioiis whose prejudices would then yield to the angaish of affection, 
tlid who woald loye^ cherish, and yield all possible consolation to my 
widow. Of such an evil there is but a possibility : but against pos* 
ability it was my doty to guard.' "— ^Yol. i. p. 258. 

We have been thus particular in regard to this transaction, 
^ because we think that tne commencement bf a wedded life, which 
DO other shadows ever darkened, except those which the hand of a 
loving Father, chastening in mercy, cast over it, at intervals by 
bereavements, and at the close by a still sadder affliction, deserves 
to be rescued from an obloquy which has been thoughtlessly 
thrown upon it, upon an insufficient view of the bearing of the 
transaction. There can be no doubt in the mind of any impartial 
person, that on this, as on every important occasion in the course of 
his lifb, Southey acted upon the most conscientious motives, and 
that, if he committed any error, it was one of judgment and not of 
the heart. What the world calls imprudent, was never so con* 
Hdered, at least never eschewed as such, by him, if it was demanded 
by any deep and generous feeling of the heart. Let him be con- 
TOced that a thing was in itself right and proper to be done, and 
he would at once proceed to do it without a moment's hesitation, 
— snch was his reliance on the correctness of his moral sense, 
such the independence of his character, and, in justice to him 
we must add, his firm faith in the good providence of God, 
which, he never for a moment doubted, was sure to prosper the 
right and the generous course. Of this, many proofs are scattered 
up and down through his life. It was the greatness of the man, 
as much as his peculiarity, that he felt his way to what was right, 
with a nice and exceedingly sensitive moral instinct, and acted 
upon his convictions, regardless of all inferior and selfish consider- 
ations, with the boldness of a lion, and with a trust in Grod which 
nothing could shake. 

At no time would he, to serve any selfish or mercenary pur- 
pose of his own, swerve from that which in his opinion was 
the right path. If the sentiments which he advocated were not at 
all periods of his life the same, it was because his convictions had 
undergone a change. There never was a more unfounded charge 
than that which party spirit has brought against Southey, that 
he was bought over to the opinions of which in his later years he 
was the champion. The letters now published, written from 
time to time in the intimacy of friendship, not only account for all 
the alterations in his views in the most natural manner, but 
contain, moreover, many proofs of the extent to which he kept 
himself independent even of the party with whose general views 
he coincidlBd, and ki whose service seemingly he wrote. 

92 The Life and Correspondence 

The accusation is the more ridiculous, as he never obtained an 
substantial reward at all adequate to the eminent services which 
he rendered to that party with whose sentiments his own happened 
to coincide. Neither the small pension of 1 60?., which he ob- 
tained at an early period, and by which he was hardly a gainer, 
as he resigned for it the allowance generously made him by hisfc 
friend Wynn, nor the paltry 100?. or 120?., which formed theF 
remuneration of the Laureateship^ can by the most malignant be 
tortured into a bribe sufficient to purchase a man of Southey'*s 
calibre, supposing him to have been as crouching and venal as he 
was upright and incorruptible. As to the increase to his pension 
bestowed on him in his 61st year, at the recommendation of Sir 
Robert Peel, the grant of it was preceded and accompanied by 
circumstJmces which, more than any thing else, prove how com- 
pletely superior Southey was to all those lures by which men 
are captivated and enslaved in the political world. But this 
part of his story had better be told by Mr. Charles Cuthbert 
nimself : — 

** One morning, shortly after the letters had arrived, he called me 
into his study. ' You will be surprised/ he said, ' to hear that Sir 
Robert Peel has recommended me to the King for the distinction of a 
baronetcy, and you will probably feel some disappointment when I tell 
you that I shall not accept it, and this more on your account than on 
my own. I think, however, that you will be satisfied I do so for good 
and wise reasons;' and he then read to me the following letters, and 
his reply to them." 

Sir Robert Peel to R, Southey, Esq, 

" Whitehall Gardens, Feb. 1, 1835. 
** My dear Sir, — I have offered a recommendation to the King (the 
first of the kind which I have offered), which, although it concerns you 
personally, concerns also high public interests, so important as to dis- 
pense with the necessity on my part of that previous reference to indi- 
vidual feelings and wishes, which, in an ordinary case, I should have 
been bound to make. I have advised the King to adorn the distinction 
of baronetage with a name the most eminent in literature, and which has 
claims to respect and honour which literature alone can never confer. 

** The King has most cordially approved of my proposal to his Ma- 
jesty ; and I do hope that, however indifferent you may be personally 
to a compliment of this kind, however trifling it is when compared with 
the real titles to fame which you have established, — I do hope that 
you will permit a mark of royal favour to be conferred in your person 
upon the illustrious community of which you are the head, 
** Believe me, my dear Sir, with the sincerest esteem, 

" Most faithfully yours, 

" Robert Peel." 

'* This was accompanied with another letter marked private. 

ofth late Bohert SautJiey. 93' 

Sir Robert Peel to R, Soulhey Esq, 

" Whitehall, Feb. 1, 1835* 

^"^"" My dear Sir, — I am sure, when there can be no doubt as to the 

ity of the motive and intention, there can be no reason for seeking 

lirect channels of communication in preference to direct ones. Will 

tell me, -without reserve, whether the possession of power puts 

iin my reach the means of doing any thing which can be serviceable 

acceptable to you ; and whether you will allow me to find some 

ipensation for the many heavy sacrifices which office imposes upon 

in the opportunity of marking my gratitude as a public man, for the 

kinent services you have rendered, not only to literature, but to the 

1 H^her interests of virtue and religion ? 

" I write hastily, and perhaps abruptly, but I write to one to whom 
feel it would be almost unbecoming to address elaborate and ceremo- 
LOQS expressions, and who will prefer to receive the declaration of 
lendly intentions in the simplest language. 

" Believe me, my dear Sir, with true respect, 
" Most faithfully yours, 
1 J " Robert Peel. 

P.S. — I believe your daughter is married to a clergyman of great 
ofl "Worth, and, perhaps^ I cannot more effectually promote the object of 
[ J this letter than by attempting to improve his professional situation. 
ji« You cannot gratify me more than by writing to me with the same un- 
v^ reserve with which I have written to you." 

^ Robert Southey, Esq. to Sir Robert Peel. 

" Keswick, Feb. 3, 1835. 
" Dear Sir, — No communications have ever surprised me so much as 
those which I have this day the honour of receiving from you. I may 
truly say, also, that none have ever gratified me more, though they 
rcl make me feel how difiicult it is to serve any one who is out of the way 
^1 of fortune. An unreserved statement of my condition will be the fittest 
^^1 and most respectful reply. 

ff I "I have a pension of 200/. conferred upon me through the good 
offices of my old friend and benefactor, Charles W. Wynn, when Lord 
Grenville went out of office ; and I have the Laureateship. The salary 
of the latter was immediately appropriated, as far as it went, to a life 
insurance for 3000/. This, with an earlier insurance for 1000/., is the 
whole provision that I have made for my family ; and whdt remains of 
the pension after the annual payments are made, is the whole of my 
certain income. All beyond must be derived from ray own industry. 
Writing for a livelihood, a livelihood is all that I have gained ; for 
having also something better in view, and therefore never having courted 
popularity, nor written for the mere sake of gain, it has not been pos- 
sible for me to lay by any thing. Last year, for the first time in my 
life, I was provided with a year's expenditure beforehand. This expo- 
sition might sufiSce to show how utterly unbecoming and unwise it 
would be to accept the rank, which, so greatly to my \io\io\xT^ -^qvxV^n^ 



94 The^ Life and Correspondence 

solicited for me, and which his Majesty would so graciously have con,- 
ferred. But the tone of your letter encourages me to say more. 

*< My life insurances have increased in value. With these, the pro- 
duce of my library, my papers, and a posthumous edition of my woikv 
there will probably be 12,000/. for my family at my decease. Qook 
fortune, with great exertions on the part of my surviving friends, mi|^ 
possibly extend this to 15,000/., beyond which I do not dream of say 
fbrther possibility. I had bequeathed the whole to my wife, to be ^ 
vidcd ultimately between our four children ; and having thus provided 
for them, no man could have been more contented with his lot, noi 
more thankful to that Providence on whose especial blessing he knew 
that he was constantly, and as it were immediately, dependent for hii 
daily bread. 

" But the confidence which I used to feel in myself is now foiling. 
I was young, in health and heart, on my last birth-day, when I com- 
pleted my sixtieth year. Since then I have been shaken at the root 
It has pleased God to visit me with the severest of all domestic afiiio- 
tions, those alone excepted into which guilt enters. My wife, a true 
helpmate as ever man was blessed with, lost her senses a few months 
ago. She is now in a lunatic asylum ; and broken sleep, and anxious 
thoughts, from which there is no escape in the night season, have made 
me feel how more than possible it is that a sudden stroke may deprivt 
me of those faculties, by the exercise of which this poor family has 
hitherto been supported. Even in the event of my death, their con* 
dition would, by our recent calamity, be materially altered for the worse 5 
but if 1 were rendered helpless, all our available means would procure 
only a respite from actual distress. 

" Under these circumstances, your letter. Sir, would in other times 
have encouraged me to ask for such an increase of pension as might 
relieve me from anxiety on this score. Now that lay sinecures are in 
fact abolished, there is no other way by which a man can be served, 
who has no profession wherein to be promoted, and whom any official 
situation would take fro^i the only employment for which the studies 
and the habits of forty years have qualified him. This way, I an 
aware, is not now to be thought of, unless it were practicable as par! 
of a plan for the encouragement of literature ; but to such a p^an per- 
haps these times might not be unfavourable. 

" The length of this communication would require an apology, if iti 
substance could have been compressed; but on such an occasion it 
seemed a duty to say what I have said ; nor, indeed, should I deservi 
the kindness which you have expressed, if I did not explicitly declare 
how thankful I should be to profit by it. 

" I have the honour to remain, 
" With the sincerest respect, 

" Your most faithful and obliged servant, 

" Robert Southet.' 

<* YottBg as I then was, I could not, without tears^ hear him les^ 
with hi» deep and faltering voice, his wise refusal and touching exprea 

iff the late lUhn BmA^. 9S 

fJOB of tboia fiedkigB and fears he liad never before given utterance to, 
> anj of bif own femilj* Aqd if any leelingt of f egret ooeatiooally 
<P)e orer my mind tbat be did not accept tbe proffered bonour, wbicb, 
Iffaoqnired and so conferred, any man migbt justly be proud to bave 
Ueritedy tbe remembrance at wbat a time and under what circum- 
4li|o^ it was offerad, and the feeling what a mockery honours of tbat 
l(ipd would bare been to a family so afflicted, and« I may add, bow 
iQsnitable tb^y would be to my own position and very straitened 
Vesni^ make m^ quickly feel bow justly he judged, and bow prudently 
lie acted.*"— Vol, vi. pp. 253 — ^259. 

The statement of his circumstances, which Southey had thus 
unreservedly made, remained not long unregarded. Two months 
after Sir Bobert Peel thus writes : — 

Sir Robert Pe€l to R. Soulkey^ ^sq. 

*< Whitehall, April 4, 1835. 

** My dear Sir, — I have resolved to apply the miserable pittance at 
the disposal of the Crown, on the Civil List Pension Fund, altogether. 
to the reward and encouragement of literary exertions. I do this on 
pnblic grounds : and much more with the view of establishing a prin- 
ciple, than in the hope, with such limited means, of being enabled to 
confer any benefit upon those whom I shall name to the Crown — worthy 
of tbe Crown, or commensurate with their claims. 

" I have just had the satisfaction of attaching my name to a warrant 
which wiU add 300/. annually to the amount of your existing pension. 
You will see in the position of public affairs a sufficient reason for my 
liaving done this without delay, and without previous communication 
with you. 

" I trust you can have no difficulty in sanctioning what I have done 
with your consent, as I have acted on your own suggestion, and granted 
the pensions on a public principle — the recognition of literary and sci- 
eDtific eminence as a public claim. The other persons to whom I have 
addressed myself on this subject are — Professor Airey of Cambridge* 
the first of living mathematicians and astronomers — the first of this 
country at least, — Mrs. Somerville, Sharon Turner, and James Mont- 
gomery of Sheffield. 

^ Believe me, my dear Sir^ 

" Most &ithfiilly yours, 

" Robert P«bl."— Vol. vi. p. 263. 

With the same unambitious simplicity Southey had, nine 
years before, refused the offer to bring him into Parliament, and 
provide him with a qualification, made to him under eircumstanees 
the most honourable to both parties. He was travelling in Hol- 
land, when ojp his way home through Brussels a report reached him 
of lus having been returned to Parliament ; and on his arrival in 
town he iTound the following document waiting for him ; — 


96 The Life and Correspondence 

" July 10, 1826. 

** A zealous admirer of the British Constitution in Church and State, 
being generally pleased with Mr. Southey's • Book of the Church,' and 
professing himself quite delighted with the summary * on the last page 
of that work, and entertaining no doubt that the writer of that page 
really felt what he wrote, and, consequently, would be ready, if he bad 
an opportunity, to support the sentiments there set forth, has therefore 
been anxious that Mr. Southcy should have a seat in the ensuing Par- 
liament ; and having a little interest, has so managed that he is at this |^ 
moment in possession of that seat under this single injunction : — 

" Ut sustineat firmiter, strenue et continuo, quae ipse bene docait 
esse sustinenda.**— Vol. v. p. 261. 

The offer came, as was afterwards discovered, from Lord Rad- 
nor, to whom Southey was an entire stranger. The light in 
which he regarded it, is recorded by himself, in a letter to a 
mutual friend, Mr. Richard White : — 

" Our first impulses in matters which involve any question of moral 
importance, are, I believe, usually right. Three days allowed for ma- 
ture consideration, have confirmed roe in mine. A seat in Parlia- 
ment is neither consistent with my circumstances, inclinations, habits, 
or pursuits in life. The return is null, because I hold a pension of 
200/. a-year during pleasure. And if there were not this obstacle, 
there would be the want of a qualification. That pension is my only 
certain income ; and the words of the oath (which I have looked at) 
are too unequivocal for me to take them upon such grounds as are 
sometimes supplied for such occasions. 

" For these reasons, which are and must be conclusive, the course is 
plain. When Parliament meets a new writ must be moved for, the 
election as relating to myself being null. I must otherwise have ap* 
plied for the Chiltem Hundreds. 

" It is, however, no inconsiderable honour to have been so distin- 
guished. This I shall always feel ; and if 1 do not express imme- 
diately to your friend my sense of the obligation he has conferred upon 
me, it is not from any want of thankfulness, but from a doubt how far 

* The foUoTring is the concluding passage in the Book of the Church here re- 
ferred to : — ** From the time of the Revolution the Churdi of England has partaken 
of the stability and secority of the State. Here, therefore, I terminate this cum- 
pcndious, but faithful, view of its rise, progress, and political struggles. It has 
rescued us, first, from heathenism, then from papal idolatry and superstition ; it 
has saved ns from temporal as well as 'spiritual despotism. We owe to it our 
moral and intellectual character as a nation ; much of onr private happiness, mn^ 
of our public strength. Whatever should weaken it, would, in the same degree, 
injure the common weal ; whatever should overthrow it, woukl, in sure and imme- 
diate consequence, bring down the goodly fabric of tliat constitution, whereof it is 
a constituent and necessary pari. If the friends <^ the constitution nnderstand this 
as deariy as its enemi«s» and act upon it as consistentiy and as actively, then will 
the Church and State be safe, and with them the liberty and pxo^mty of our 

ofihe late Soiert Scnahiy. 97 

it might be proper to reply to an unsigned commnnication. May I 
therefore request that you will express this thankfulness for me, and 
say at the same time, that I trust, in my own station, and in the quiet 
pursuance of my own scheme of life, hy God's blessing, to render better 
service to those institutions, the welfare of which I have at my heart, 
than it would be possible for me to do in a public assembly.*' — Vol. v. 
pp. 262, 263. 

So determined was he in refusing an honour which he had not 
sought and to which he considered that he had no claim, that all the 
entreaties of his family could not prevail on him to write even one 
single frank, as an autograph memorial of his membership, though 
he continued nominally the member for Downton from July to 
November, In the latter month he thus writes on the subject to 
Sharon Turner : — 

" On Wednesday next I shall write to the Speaker, and lay down 

my M. P. -ship. No temptation that could have been offered would 

have induced me to sacrifide the leisure and tranquillity of a studious 

and private life* Free from ambition I cannot pretend to be, but what 

ambition I have is not of an ordinary kind :* rank, and power, and office 

I would decline without a moment's hesitation, were they proffered for 

my acceptance ; and for riches, if I ever perceive the shadow of a wish 

for them, it is not for their own sake, but as they would facilitate my 

pursuits, and render locomotion less inconvenient. The world, thank 

God, has little hold on me. I would fain persuade myself that even 

the desire of posthumous fame is now only the hope of instilling sound 

opinions into others^ and scattering the seeds of good. All else I have 

outlived."— Vol. v. pp. 271, 272. 

It was not a very unnatural effect of Southey^s conscientious 
reluctance to accept the offer thus made him, that those who had 
taken an interest in his election should be all the more intent 
upon bringing such a man into the House. Accordingly we find 
that the proposal was renewed in a yet more tempting form. 
Southey at the beginning of December thus writes to Bedford : — 

" On Wednesday, I received a note from Harry, saying, that a plan 
liad been formed for purchasing a qualification for me ; that Sir Robert 
Inglis had just communicated this to ' him, and was then gone to 
Lord R. to ask him to keep the borough open : that he (Harry) doubted 
whether a sufficient subscription could be raised, but supposed that 
under these circumstances I should not refuse the seat; and desired my 
answer by return of post, that he might be authorized to say I would sit 
in Parliament if they gave me an estate of SOOL a-year. 

" I rubbed my eyes to ascertain that I was awake, and that this was 
no dream* I heard Cuthbert his Greek lesson, and read his Dutch one 

VOL. XV. ^NO. XXIX. — MARCH, 1851. H 

98 The Lifo cmd Correspimdmice 

vfiih him. I corrected a proof sheet. And then, the matter having 
had time to digest, I wrote in reply, as follows : — 

«* My dear H., 

" An estate of 300/. a-year wonld be a very agreeable thing for me, 
Robert Lackland, and I would willingly change that name for it: the oqa« 
venience, however, of having an estate is not the question which I am called 
upon to determine. It is (supposing the arrangement possible, — ^whidi 
I greatly doubt), whether I will enter into public life at an age when a 
wise man would begin to think of retiring from it ; whether I will place 
myself in a situation for which neither my habits, nor talents, nor dispo- 
sition are suited ; and in which I feel and know it to be impossible tluit 
I should fulfil the expectations of those who would raise the subscrip* 
tion. Others ought to believe me, and you will, when I declare that m 
any public assembly I should have no confidence in myself, no prompti- 
tude, none of that presence of mind, without which no man can produce 
any effect there. This ought to be believed, because I have them all when 
acting in my proper station, and in my own way, and therefore cannot 
be supposed to speak from timidity, nor with any affectation of humility. 
Sir Robert Inglis and his friends have the Protestant cause at heart, 
and imagine that I could serve it in Parliament. I have it at heart 
also ; deeply at heart ; and will serve it to the utmost of my power, 
*so help me God!' But it is not by speaking in public that I caa 
serve it. It is by bringing forth the knowledge which so lai^e a part 
of my life has been passed in acquiring : by exposing the real character 
and history of the Romish Church, systematically and irrefragablj 
(which I can and will do) in books which will be read now and hereafter; 
which must make a part, hereafter, of every historical library; and 
which will live and act when I am gone. If I felt that I could make 
an impression in Parliament, even then I would not give up future 
utility for present effect. I have too little ambition of one kind, and 
too much of another to make the sacrifice. But I could make no im- 
pression there. I should only disappoint those who had contributed to 
place me there : and in this point of view it is a matter of prudence, as 
well as in all others-, of duty, to hold my first resolution, and remain 
contentedly in that station of life to which it has pleased God to eall me. 
If a seat in Parliament were made compatible with my circumatanoet, 
it would not be so with my inclinations, habits, and pursuits; and 
therefore I must remain Robert Lackland. 

•* You will not suppose that I despise 300/. a-year, or should lightiy 
refuse it. But I think you will feel, upon reflection, that I have 
decided properly, in refusing to sit in Parliament under any eireum- 
stances. R. S.** — Vol. v. pp. 273 — 275. 

In a letter of thanks to Sir R. H. Inglis, for the share which 
he had taken in the business, Southey enters more fully into hia 

Erivate feelings, his habits of quietness and retirement, which, 
e conceived, unfitted him for a parliamentary career, and his 

of the late Boberi Sauthey. 99 

attachment to his family, which made him unwiUing to tear him- 
self away from that peaceful circle, and to adventmne himself on 
the stormy sea of public life. How entirely he had learnt, by 
this time, to submit to the guidance of Providence, in humble 
MNitentmeiit with the lot assigned him, is simply but touchingly 
told in the following passage of this letter : 

** That my way of life has been directed by a merciful Providence, I 
fed and verily believe. I have been saved from all ill consequences of 
error and temerity, and by a perilous course have been led into paths of 
pleasantness and peace ; a sufficient indication that I ought to remain 
is them. Throughout this whole business I have never felt any temp- 
tation to depart from this conviction. I may be wrong In many things, 
kt not in the quiet confidence with which I know that I am in my 
pnq^ place. Invent portum ; spes et fortunaf valeUl " — Vol. v. p. 278. 

The same conscientious feelings which prevented Southey^ at 
ihe age of fifty-three, from accepting an estate and a seat in 
Parliament, decided him, at an earlier period of his life, when he 
was struggling for existence, and anxious to procure remunerative 
fiterary employment, to decline a most advantageous offer. He was 
at the time an ill-paid contributor to the '^ Annual Review'" — the 
^ Quarterly '^ was not then in existence*— and was invited, through 
Sir Walter Scott, to write for the " Edinburgh Review,"" in which 
Us poetical works had been somewhat roughly handled by the 
unmerciful and unappreciating Jeffirey. To this invitation he 

" I am very much obliged to you for the offer which you make con- 
eermng the 'Edinburgh Review,' and fully sensible of your friendliness, 
and the advantages which it holds out. I bear as little ill will to 
Jeffifey as he does to me, and attribute whatever civil things he has said 
of me to especial civility, whatever pert ones (a truer epithet than 
levere would be) to the habit which he has acquired of taking it for 
granted that the critic is, by virtue of his office, superior to every 
writer whom he chooses to summon before him. The reviewals of 
' Thalaba' and ' Madoo' do in no degree influence me. Setting all personal 
feelings aside, the objections which weigh with me against bearing any 
part in this journal are these : — I have scarcely one opinion in common 
with it upon any subject. Jeffrey is for peace, and is endeavouring to 
frighten the people into it : I am for war as long as Bonaparte lives. 
He is for Catholic emancipation : I believe that its immediate con- 
sequence would be to introduce an Irish priest into every ship in the 
navy. My feelings are still less in unison with him than my opinions. 
On subjects of moral or political importance no man is more apt to speak 
in the very gall of bitterness than 1 am, and this habit is likely to go 
with me to Uie grave : but that sort of bitterness in which he indulges^ 
which tends directly to wound a man in his feelings, and injure him in 


100 The Life and Coirei^pandence 

his fame and fortune (Montgomery is a case in point), appears to m^ 
utterly inexcusable. Now, though there would be no necessity that I 
should follow this example, yet every separate article in the * Review' 
derives authority from the merit of all the others ; and, in this way, 
whatever of any merit I might insert there would i^d and abet opinions 
hostile to my own, and thus identify me with a system which I 
thoroughly disapprove. This is not said hastily. The emolument to 
be derived from writing at ten guineas a sheet, Scotch measure, instead 
of seven pounds, Annual, would be considerable ; the pecuniary advan- 
tages resulting from the different manner in which my future works 
would be handled, probably still more so. But my moral feelings 
must not be compromised. To Jeffrey as an individual I shall ever be 
ready to show every kind of individual courtesy ; but of Judge Jeffrey 
of the ' Edinburgh Review' 1 must ever think and speak as of a bad poli- 
tician, a worse moralist, and a critic, in matters of taste, equally incom- 
petent and unjust." — Vol. iii. pp. 124, 125, 

But not only v^as he unvs^illing to be associated, however re- 
motely or indirectly, v^ith v^hat, in his heart, he disapproved; 
even where he approved, he was what some, no doubt, would call 
needlessly fastidious about his independence, being of opinion , 
that a public writer ought to be, like Csesar'^s wife, free from the 
slightest suspicion of interested motives. In answer to an over- 
ture made him in 1816, he thus writes : 

" Upon mature deliberation, I am clearly of opinion that it would be 
very imprudent and impolitic for me to receive any thing in the nature 
of emolument from Government at this time, in any shape whatsoever. 
Such a circumstance would lessen the worth of my services (I mean it \ 
would render them less serviceable), for whatever might come from me 
would be received with suspicion, which no means would be spared to 
excite. As it concerns myself personally, this ought to be of some 
weight ; but it is entitled to infinity greater consideration if you reflect 
how greatly my influence (whatevS it may be) over a go6d part of the 
public would be diminished, if I were looked upon as a salaried writer. 
I must, therefore, in the most explicit and determined manner, decline 
all offers of this kind ; but at the same time I repeat my 6ffer to exert 
myself in any way that may be thought best. The whole fabric of 
social order* in this country is in great danger; the Revolution, should 
it be effected, will not be less bloody nor, less ferocious than it was in 
France. It will be effected unlesa vigorous measures be taken Jo arrest 
its progress ; and I havie the strongest motives, both of duty and pru- 
dence, say even self-preservation, for standing forward to oppose it. 
Let me write upon the State of Affairs (the freer 1 am the better 1 shall 
write), and let there be a weekly journal established, where the villanies 

2 " What think you of a club of Atheists meeting twice a week at an ale-house in 
Keswick, and the mndlady of their way of thinking !" — To C, W, W, Wvnn Esa . 
<Sfep«. 11, 1816. . ^ '^^'' 

o/tke kOe Boberi Bauth^. 101 

and misrepresentations of the Anarchists and Malignants may be de- 
tected and exposed.**^VoL iv. pp. 209, 210. 

It is not difficult to recognise in these various indications of an 
independent character at a more advanced period of life, the same 
deep sense of personal responsibility, the same anxiety to keep his 
coarse of action in the world in harmony with his internal con- 
victions, which prevented him in his earlier years from entering the 
mmistry of the Church, or engaging in any career unsuited to the 
character of his mmd, or inconsistent, with the principles he 
cherished. The wild enthusiast who was ready to sacrifice all for 
the Utopian visions which loomed across the Atlantic from the 
hanks of the Susquehanna, had mellowed down into the Christian 
philosopher, the contemplative Statesman, who having learned to 
understand and to appreciate the means devised by an All-wise 
Providence for curbing and correcting the sinful nature of man, 
and adapting it by a salutary discipline to higher and eternal pur- 
poses, was not only satisfied with his own lot in this state of pro- 
nation, but anxious to exert the powers with which he was 
endowed, and to employ the influence which they gave him, for 
the maintenance of principles, and the furtherance of measures, 
calculated to help forward what m'ay be called the Divine educa- 
tion of the human race. It is in this point of view that Southey^s 
Stings possess the highest interest. His merits as a poet, as a 
historian, as a literator and literary critic, place him undoubtedly 
in the first rank in the world of literature ; but a higher value 
belongs to him than that which is attainable by the mere artistic 
or scientific display of the powers of the human mind, however 
exalted ; and it is to this aspect of his literary character that we 
are particularly desirous of inviting attention. Rich as the 
volumes before us are in materials for the personal and literary 
history of Ifcobert Southey, an interest of a far superior kind 
attaches to the opinions which he publicly advocated with so 
much spirit, and which we find here expressed with all the un- 
reserved freedom of private correspondence, on the great political 
and religious questions of the age. It is impossible to turn over 
the leaves of this posthumous collection without feeling that 
Robert Southey realized, in the fullest sense, the twofold character 
of the vates of old, being at once poet and prophet. Some of his 
more striking vaticinations we shall now transcribe, as peculiarly 
apposite to the state of public affairs at a moment when the 
nation appears destined to reap the bitter fruit of yeara of in- 

We begin with the question of manufacturing prosperity or 
Free Trade, the perils of which the philosopher of i^eavitek saw 

102 The Life and Correepondenee 

afar off. More than twenty years ago, in the year 1830, ha 

writes : — 

" 1 suspect that in many things our forefathers were wiser than we 
are. Their guilds prevented trades from being overstocked, and would 
have by that means prevented over-production, if there had been any 
danger of it. The greedy, grasping spirit of commercial and manu- 
facturing ambition or avarice is the root of our evils. You are very 
right in saying that in all handicraft trades wages are enough to allow 
of a very mischievous application of what, if laid by, would form a fund 
for old age ; and I quite agree with you that tea^and sugar must be at 
least as nutritious as beer, and in other respects greatly preferable to it 
But there is a real and wide- spreading distress, and the mischief lies in the 
manufactories : they must sell at the lowest possible price ; the neees- 
sity of a great sale at a rate of small profit makes low wages a con- 
sequence ; when they have overstocked the market (which, during their 
season of prosperity, they use all efforts for doing), hands must be 
turned off; and every return of this cold fit is more violent than the 

*' There is no distress among those handicrafts who produce what 
there is a constant home demand for. But if we will work up more 
wool and cotton than foreigners will or can purchase from us, the evils 
of the country must go on at a rate like compound interest. Other 
nations will manufacture for themselves (a certain quantity of manu- 
fecturing industry being necessary for the prosperity of a nation), and 
this, with the aid of tariffs, may bring us to our senses in time."— 
Vol. vi. pp. 86, 87. 

Another similar prophecy is a quarter of a century old ; it is 
dated April 26, 1826, and addressed like the former to Mr. John 
Hickman :— 

" With regard to the general question of Free Trade, I incline to 
think that the old pnnciple, upon which companies of the various trades 
were formed for the purpose of not allowing more craftsmen or traders 
of one calhng m one place than the business would support, was 
founded m good common sensp An/i .. . n . »"PF"ri, nan 

effectual ston is ZT^^*,^^l • *^ * corollary, that if acme mote 

ettectuai stop is not put to the erection of new cotton mills &c thin 
individual ptudence is ever likelv tn nff«^ * «-"i.i«u miiis, ace, tnsn 
steam-engine will blow up this wh^leS V°"- *"°* °' °^'" *' 
ago I waS assured that at^^e raT^of in^L^'th'r''^-- '^'"f* ^T" 
Chester, that place would, in ten years dS ,-^ ^°*i'^ **" '" ^""' 
lation. When we hear of the prosper'^y t^fhose diT"f ^•*""°S P°P"" 
they are manufacturing more goods than he wo,M ""'^'J* ""'*°^ *»' 
for, and the ebb is th^ as certain as the flow^ «n/- ° ^^'"^ " """^'O* 
Radicalism, Rebellion, and Ruin will msh in fl ""."^ «ome neap tide, 
hunger has made."— Vol. v. p. 260. ' "»rough the breach which 

Nay, still further back, in 1812, Southey himself rekrs to the 

of the late Eobert Sauthey. )03 

opinions which he had expressed five years before, reiterating the 
gloomy anticipations which he was even then led to form : — 

** Look to the remarks upon the tendency of manu&ctures to this 
state in ' Espriella/ written ^ve years ago. Things are in that state at 
this time that nothing but the army preserves us : it is the single plank 
between us and the Red Sea of an English Jacquerie-*a Bellum Servile ; 
not provoked, as both those convulsions were, by grievous oppression, 
but prepared by the inevitable tendency of the manufacturing system, 
and hastened on by the folly of a besotted faction, and the wickedness 
ef a few individuals. The end of these things is full of evil, even upou 
the happiest termination ; for the lots of liberty is the penalty which 
haa always been paid for the abuse of it." — Vol. iii. p. 336. 

At the period when the Beform Bill was in agitation, his letters 
are full of allusions to passing events, and of exclamations of 
wonder at the blindness and rashness of the statesmen who then 
laid the foundation of our and their own present embarrassments. 
In May 1831, he writes to Grosvenor Bedford : — 

" Those who gave Earl Grey credit for sagacity, believed, upon his 
own representations, that time had moderated his opinions, and that he 
would always support the interests of his order. Provoked at the 
exposure of his whole Cabinet's incapacity, which their budget brought 
forth, he has thrown himself upon the Radicals for support, bargained 
with O'Connell, and stirred up all the elements of revolution in this 
kingdom, which has never been in so perilous a state since the 

" The poor people here say they shall all be * made quality* when 
this 'grand reform' is brought about. *0 it is a grand thing!' 
The word deceives them ; for you know, Grosvenor, it * stands to 
feasible' that reform must be a good thing, and they are not deceived 
in supposing that its tendency is to pull down the rich, whatever may 
be its consequences to themselves." — Vol. vi. pp. 146, 147. 

And in June 1832 : — 

" The King, 1 am told, will make as many peers as his ministers 
choose ; and nothing then remains for us but to await the course of 
revolution. 1 shall not live to see what sort of edifice will be con- 
structed out of the ruins ; but 1 shall go to rest in the sure confidence 
that God will provide as is best for his Church and his people." — 
Vol. vh pp. 175, 176. 

And in the following year 1 833, he sketches out the result of 
tlie couTBe then entered upon with a degree of accuracy which, at 
this moment, cannot fail to tell with striking effect : — 

" It seems as if in our own country the experiment was about to he 
repeated of hnprovitig the vineyardi by breaking down the fenoea^ and 

104 The Life and Ccrreg^mdence 

letting the cattle and the wild beasts in. The crisis is probably very 
near at hand : I see my way much more distinctly into it than out of 
it. For the last two years it has been evident that O'Connell has 
formed an alliance offensive and defensive with the political unions. 
He relies upon them either to frighten the ministers out of their coerdve 
measures by a demonstration of physical force, embodied, mustered, and 
ready to take the field ; or, if they fail in this, he expects them to hoist 
the tricolour flag, and march upon London whenever he gives the signal 
for rebellion in Ireland. Brandreth's insurrection in 1817» the pro- 
jected expedition of the Blanketeers a little later, and the Bristol riots, 
were all parts of a widely -concerted scheme, which has only been from 
time to time postponed till a more convenient season, and is no«r 
thoroughly matured, and likely to be attempted upon a great scale 
whenever the leaders of the movement think proper. T am not without 
strong apprehensions that before this year passes away, London may 
have its Three Days. 

'* But earnestly as such a crisis is to be deprecated, I do not fear 
the result. It may even come in time to save us from the otherwise 
inevitable overthrow of all our institutions by the treachery and cowardice 
of those who ought to uphold them. The Whigs will never give over 
the work of destruction which they have so prosperously begun, till the 
honester Destructives are armed against them, and threaten them with 
their due reward. The sooner therefore that it comes to this, the 
better."— Vol. vi. pp. 203, 204. 

The following passage from a letter written when the death of 
George IV. was hourly expected, will form a suitable transition 
froiA this to another subject which no less painfully occupied his 
thoughts: — 

" The poor King, it is to be hoped, will be released from his suffer- 
ings before this reaches you, if. Indeed, he be not already at rest ; it 
was thought on Monday that he could not live four-and-twenty itoiiTS. 
God be merciful to him and to us ! He failed most woefully in his 
solemn and sworn duty on one great occasion, and we are feeling the 
effects of that moral cowardice on his part. The Duke expected to 
remove all parliamentary difficulties by that base measure, instead of 
which he disgusted by it all those adherents on whom ho might have 
relied as long as he had continued to act upon the principles which they 
sincerely held ; rendered all those despicable who veered to the left- 
about with hitn, and foUnd himself as a minister weaker than either the 
"Whigs whom he sought to propitiate, or the Brunswickers (as they are 
called) whom he has mortally offended. 

" William IV., it is believed, will continue the present ministers, 
but act towards them in such a way that they will soon find it neces- 
sary to resign. Then in come Lord Holland and the Whigs, in alliance 
with the flying squadron of political economists under Huskisson. 
Beyond this nothing can be foreseen, except change after change ; every 

of tie laie Bobert SatUhey. 105 

iDccessive change weakening the government, and, consequently, 
itreogthening that power of public opinion which will lay all our 
fflstitutions in the dust." — Vol. vi. pp. 102, 103. 

The view of the effects of the Boman Catholic Emancipation 
ffiU, which is touched upon in the foregoing extract, was not, even 
at that time, an opinion of recent growth. As far back as the 
year 1807, when, on many points connected with religion, his 
Tiews were as yet in a transition state, his mind apprehended with 
great clearness the character of the Romish Church, and the 
mtimate consequences of the efforts which it was even then 
making for the reconquest of "the Isle of Saints.*" He thus 
writes to his friend Wynn : — 

''You. do not -shake my opinion concerning the Catholics. Their 
religion regards no national distinctions — ^it teaches them to look at 
Christendom and at the Pope as the head thereof — and the interests of 
that religion will always be preferred to any thing else. Bonaparte is 
aware of this, and is aiming to be the head of the Catholic party 
in Germany. 

"These people have been increasing in England of late years, owing 
to the Qumber of seminaries established during the French Revolution. 
It is worth your while to get their Almanac— the *Lay Directory* it is 
called, and published by Brown and Keating, Duke Street, Grosvenor 
Square. They are at their old tricks of miracles here and every where 
else. St. Winifred has lately worked a great one, and is in as high 
odour as ever she was. 

" I am for abolishing the test with regard to every other sect — Jews 

and all — but not to the Catholics. They will not tolerate ; the proof is 

in their whole history — ^in their whole system — and in their present 

practice all over Catholic Europe : and it is the nature of their principles 

ffoiv to spread is this country; Methodism, and the still wilder sects 

preparingithe way lor it« You have no conception of the zeal with 

which tb^y seek for proselytes, nor the power they have over weak 

minds ; for their system is as well tiie greatest work of human wisdom 

as it is of human wickedness* It is curious that the Jesuits exist in 

£ng]and as a body, and have possessions here : a Catholic told me this, 

and pointed out one in the streets of Norwich, but he could tell me 

nothing more, and expressed his surprise at it, and his curiosity to learn 

more. Having been libolished by the Pope, they keep up their order 

secretly, and expect their restoration, which, if he be wise, Bonaparte 

Mill effect. Weire I a Catholic, that should be the object to which my 

life should be devoted — I would be the second Loyola. 

*' Concessions and conciliations will not satisfy the Catholics ; ven- 
geance and the throne are what they want. If Ireland were far enough 
iiom our shores to be lost without danger to our own security, I would 
say establish the Catholic religion there, as the easiest way of civilizing 
it ; but Catholic Irelamd would always be at the command of the Pope, 

106 Th^ Life and Garrmpondence 

and the Pope is now at the command of France. It it dismal to think 
of the state of Ireland. Nothing can redeem that country but such 
measures as none of our statesmen, except perhaps Marquis Wellesley, 
would be hardy enough to adopt; nothing but a system of Roman 
conquest and colonization, and shipping off the refractory to the 

** England condescends too much to the Catholic religion, and does 
not hold up her own to sufficient respect in her foreign possessions; and 
the Catholics, instead of feeling this as an act of indulgence to their 
opinions, interpret it as an acknowledgment of their superior claims, 
and insult us in consequence.'* — Vol. iii. pp. 75 — 77. 

It may easily be imagined what his feelings were, when, with 
these convictions, in which he never wavered for a moment, he saw 
during the space of twenty- two years the insidious march of Popery, 
gainirig, under favour of a blindness ahnost judicial on the part of 
the great majority of British Statesmen, one step after another, 
till at last in 1829, the leader of the Popish faction proved strong 
enough to induce the hero of a hundred fights to an ignominious 
surrender. Southey'*s reflections at that miserable crisis in our 
history are thus recorded by himself: — 

" We have been betrayed by imbecility, pusillanimity, and irreligion. 
Our citadel would have been impregnable if it had been bravely de- 
fended ; and these are times when it becomes a duty to perish rather 
than submit ; for 

** * When the wicked have their day assigned. 
Then they who suffer bravely save mankind.* 

If we have not learnt this from history, I know n»t what it can teach. 
** And now, you will ask, where do I look for comfort ? Entirely 
to Providence. I should look to nothing but evil from the natural 
course of events, were they left to themselves ; but Almighty Pro- 
vidence directs them, and my heart is at rest in that faith* The base 
policy which has been pursued may possibly delay the religious war in 
Ireland ? possibly the ulcer may be skinned over, and we may be called 
on to rejoice for the cure while the bones are becoming carious. But 
there are great struggles which must be brought to an issue before we shall 
be truly at peace ; between Infidelity and Religion, and between Popery 
and Protestantism, The latter battle must be fought in Ireland, and I 
would have it fought now : two or three years ago I would have pre- 
vented it» Fought it must be at last, and with great advantage to the 
enemy from the delay ; but the right cause will triumph at last."— 
Vol. vi. pp. 24, 2^. 

Twenty-two years more have since elapsed, and one part of the 
prophecy with which the foregoing extract concludes, is at this 
moment in course of startling fulfilment. Well might Southey 
say, that the battle betwe^p Infidelity and Religion, and between 

o/tkelate IM^ Southey. 107 

Popery and Protestantism, ^^must be fought at last, and with 
great advantage to the enemy from the deby.^^ God grant that 
the latter part of his prediction, that '' the right cause will triunlph 
at last/^ may prove equally true^ and that its accomplishment may 
be at hand. 

One more extract on this important subject, in the course of 
which Southey glances at two kindred questions, we must make 
roomibr, on account of the singular clearness with which Southey 
discerned beforehand, both the connexion which they had with 
each other, and the evil consequences that would arise from their 
so-called '^ settlement ^^ in conformity with the tide of popular 
opinion. In February 1823 he writes : — 

'* The arguments lie in a nutshell. The restraints which exclude the 
Catholics from political power are not the cause of the perpetual 
disorder in Ireland ; their removal, therefore, cannot be the cure. Sup- 
pose the question carried, two others grow from it, like two heads from 
the hydra's ^neck, when one is amputated: — a Catholic establishment 
for Ireland, at which Irish Catholics mtist aim, and which those who 
desire rebellion and separation will promote, — a rebellion must be the 
sure consequence of agitating this. The people of Ireland care nothing 
for emancipation, — why should they ; but make it a question for 
restoring the Catholic Church, and they will enter into it as zealously 
as ever our ancestors did into a crusade. 

" The other question arises at home, and brings with it worse con- 
sequences than any thing which can happen among the potatoes. The 
repeal of the Test Act will be demanded, and must be granted. Imme- 
diately the Dissenters will get into the corporations every where. Their 
members will be returned ; men as* hostile to the Church and to the 
monarchy as ever were the Puritans of Charles's age. The church 
propisrty will be attacked in Parliament, as it is now at mob-meetings, 
and in radteal newspapers ; reform in Parliament will be carried ; and 
then farewell, a long farewell, to all our greatness. 

** Our constilutf on consists of Church and State, and it is an absurdity 
in politics to give those persons power in the State, whose duty it is to 
iubvert th6 ^A^rcA."— Vol. v. p. 137. 

Diiring the ten years which followed, the course of events ran 
parallel mik the anticipations here expressed, and a remarkable 
letter addressed in Nov^nber, 1833, to the Bev. J. Miller in re- 
ference to a paper of '^ Suggestions for the promotion of an 
Association of the Friends of i£e Church,'^ out of which eventually 
the ** Oxford Tract ^' movement grew, contains the following 
striking passage : — 

*' Among the many ominous parallelisms between the present timet 
and those of Charles the First, none has strnck me more forcibly than 
those which are to be fouiid in th0'$Me Of t\\^ C\^xiTcVv\ titv^ ol ^<^^^^ 

108 The Life and Correymdmce 

this circumstance especially — that the Church of England at that time 

-was hetter provided with able and faithful ministers than it had ever 

been before, and is in like manner better provided now than it has ever 

been since. I have been strongly impressed by this consideration; 

it has made me more apprehensive that no human means are likely to 

avert the threatened overthrow of the Establishment ; but it affords also 

more hope (looking to human causes) of its restoration. 

*' The Church will be assailed by popular clamour and seditious 

combinations ; it will be attacked in Parliament by unbelievers, half<* 

believers, and misbelievers, and feebly defended by such of the ministen 

as are not secretly or openly hostile to it. On our side we have God 

and the right. Oltrriov Kai iXiriGTiov must be our motto, as it wai 

Lauderdale*s in his prison. We, however, are not condemned to in- 

action; and our hope rests upon a surer foundation than his."—' 

Vol. vi. p. 222. I 


The shallow pretext under which all the havock made in the I 

Church is justified, that the Church is " pubUe property,'^ has ; 
perhaps never received a more forcible answer, than in a letter 
written about the same time to the Rev. Neville White : — 

" Public property the Church indeed is ; most truly and most sacredly 
so ; and in a manner the very reverse of that in which the despoilers 
consider it to be so. It is the only property which is public ; which is 
set apart and consecrated as a public inheritance, in which any one may 
claim his share, who is properly qualified. You have your share of itt 
I might have had mine. There is no respectable family in England, 
some of whose members have not, in the course of two or three gene- 
rations, enjoyed their part in it. And many thousands are at this time 
qualifying themselves to claim their portion. Upon what principle can 
any government be justified in robbing them of their rights? 

" Church property neither is, nor ever has been, public property in 
any other sense than this. The whole was originally private property, 
so disposed of by individuals in the way which they deemed roost 
beneficial to others, and most for the good of their own souls. How 
much of superstition may have been mingled with this matters not. 
Much of this property was wickedly shared among themselves by those 
persons who forwarded the Reformation as a scheme of spoliation ; and 
in other ways materially impeded its progress. Yet they did nothing 
so bad as the Whig ministry are preparing to do ; for they, no doubt, 
mean to give to the Romish clergy what they take from the Irish Pro- 
testant Church." — Vol. vi. pp. 205, 206. 

Let it not be supposed, however, that the external dangers of 
the Church alone excited Southey'^s alarm for her safety. He 
was by no means blind to the perils which threatened her from 
within : — 

'^ When Church reformation begins, if revolution does not render it 

o/thfUUeBoUrtSouth^. 109 

unnecessary, I fear we Bhall find many Juduea in the Ettablithment. 
It was more by her own treacheroDS children that the «ai overthrown 
in the Great Rebellion than by the Puritans. But this mnat ever b« 
the case."— Vol. vi. p. 154. 

Who these Judases were, in his opinion, he tells u^ pretty 
plainly in another passage, written in 1830 : — 

" I am inclined to think that the Church is in more danger from tbe 
le-called Evangelical party among its own clergy than it would be from 
1ty> assistance. These clergy are now aboat to Torm a sort of union, — 
in otber words, a convocation or their own, that they may act as a body. 
ITiey have had a Clerical breakfast in London. The two Noels, 
Stewart, who ii brother- in-law to Owen of Lanark, and was here with 
him some years ago, and Daniel Wilson were the chief movers. There 
have been two reports of the speeches in the ' Recoid' newspaper, and 
a Mr. M'Neil {hot I quantum nmlalut/), who very sensibly objected to 
the whole scheme, had the whole meeting agjunst him." — Vol. vi. 
pp. 93, 94. 

Nor was he blind to the dangers impending from other and 
opposite quarters. To one of these be thus alludes in 1838 : — 

" The publication of Froude'a Remains is likely to do more harm 

thin is capable of doing. 'The Oxford School ' has acted most 

unwisely in giving its sanction to such a deplorable example of mis- 
taken zeal. Of the. two extremes — the too little and tbe too mueh— 
llietoo little is that which is likely to produce the worst consequence 
tolhe individual, but the too much is more hurtful to the community ; 
Ibiit spreads, andrageB too, like a contagion." — Vol. vi. p. 271. 

We hai'dly tbink the suppression of the name in the second 
line of thia extract fair. Is it oi^e o^ those, nam^, to which we 
^K, at this time, indebted for the spread of the contagion, .pre- 
dicted with sucii ^voiidcrfut accuracy ^ ,^ this as, it may, the 
prophetic sagacity of the Seer.. , of , Keswick is attested yet in 
another direction : — 

" iamef'lf.'i cbndtct'ln obtruding a Romish president upon Mag- 
dalen, wB^'not worse thaii Ihat of the present ministry in appointing 
Dr. Hampden to the professorship o'f divinity. If they had given him 
>ny other pl'eferment, even a biijhopric, it would have been only one 
proof among many tbat it is part of tlieir policy to promote men of loose 
opinions ; but to place him in the office which be now holds, was an 
mtentional insult to the university. In no way could the Whigs expect 
■0 materially to injure tbe Church, as by planting Germanised pro- 
fessors in our schools of divinity." — Vol. vi. p. 291. 

We have purposely so selected our extracts, that they shall 
convey a lesson and a warning to each one of the many adversaries 

110 The lAfe and G(>rre9p(mdenee of the laU B^jheH 

by whom the cause of God'^s Church and of His truth is at 
time menaced. And let none of those to whom one or other of i 
remarks we have quoted may apply, think that he may turn 
edge of the reproof by objecting that Southey was a political wri< 
who could not be expected to take a more than superficial view I 
the deep questions which he handled with such incisive force 
language. We may again appeal to his letters for proof that ' 
thoughts on these subjects were the fruit of long observation 
profound reflection, and that he meditated on them under a d< 
sense of their eternal importance : — 

" Our occupations withdraw us all too much from nearer and mc 
lasting concerns. Time and nature, especially when aided by 
sorrows J prepare us for better influences ; and when we feel what 
wanting, we seek and find it. The clouds then disperse, and 
evening is calm and clear, even till night closes. 

*' Long and intimate conversance with Romish and sectarian history^ 
with all the varieties of hypocritical villany and religious madness, ' 
given me the fullest conviction of the certainty and importance of th( 
truths, from the perversion and distortion of which these evils vA\ 
abuses have grown. There is not a spark of fanaticism left in my eom« 
position : whatever there was of it in youth, spent itself harmlessly in 
political romance. I am more in danger, therefore, of having too little 
of theopathy than too much, — of having my religious faith more in tin 
understanding than in the heart. In the understanding I am snre il 
is ; T hope it it in both. This good in myself my ecclesiastical puTsdfi 
have certainly effected. And if I live to finish the whole of my planif 
I shall do better service to the Church of England than I could evef 
have done as one of its ministers, had I kept to the course which it was 
intended that I should pursue. There is some satisfaction in thinking 
thus." — ^Vol. V. pp. 250, 251. 

It would be easy to multiply proofe of the closeness of the bond 
by which Southey^s public labours and his souFs inmost life were 
happily linked together in one harmonious effort to discover, and 
after he had discovered it, to believe, to obey, and to maintain tfie 
truth. But our task is done. We have traced the discipline by 
which Southey'^s mind was led into that line of thought, at once 
independent of all external bias, and accordant with the truths 
which gave, ^id continues to give, him a claim, such as few men 
ever have had, to be reverentially listened to as a watchman and 
prophet in Israel. Of him it may ^vith exceeding truth be said, 
that ^' being dead he yet speaketh."^ 

Tks Biskop <^ Laudam and Mr. Bfumti. Ill 

IT. VI. — !• Charge of the Buhop of Lwdon in Nov. 1850. 

Charge of the Bishop of London in 1842. 

A FareioeU Letter to his Parishioners. By the Rev. W. J. E. 
Bennett, M.A. 

Letters of D. C. 2/., Beprinted from the " Morning Chronicled 

A Pleafwr *'' BomanizerSy'' m called. A Letter to tlte Bishop of 
London. By the Bev. Arthur Baker. 

N ordinary timea, and under ordinary oircuniatanoes, we sliould 
7 Boarcely have thought that it fell within our legitimate provinee to 
ooDsider, at any length, the causes or the consequences connected 
irith the retirement of any individual clergyman of the English 
Church from a position be formerly occupied. But there are 
drcamstanees of such a special nature connected with the resig- 
BBtion of the Bev. W. J. E. Bennett, that we feel we should be 
wanting in our duty to the Church of England if we were not to 
take, some notice of them. Since the delivery of his Charge, 
in November last, and especially since his acceptance of Mr. 
Bennett'^s resignation^ the Bishop of London has been the object 
of the most unsparing attack and misrepresentation from a 
particular section of the Church. In all quarters connected 
with that section, with one honourable exception, that of the 
** English Churchman,^^ the changes have been rung, Msque ad 
nauseam^ upon the " weakness,'^ the " vacillation,^ the " inconsis- 
tency," the " intolerance/" and the " despotic tyranny,"' of the 
Bishop of London. The " Theologian and Ecclesiastic,"" in its 
Pebruafy number, told its readers, in an article called "The 
Panic and its results,"" that the Bishop of London had gone 
'^beyond his power, at the mere bidding of a hired mob,"" to 
silence an obnoxious clergyman; — that he "wanted a victim, 
irherewith to appease Exeter Hall,"" and had therefore sacrificed 
Mr. Bennett. The " Guardian,"" fearful, doubtless, of compro- 
mising its position by an open attack, has omitted no opportunity of 
sneering at the bishop's conduct. A writer of very great ability has 
been advocating Mr. Bennett"s cause, and vituperating the Bishop 
of London, in a series of very remarkable letters in the " Mom- 

112 The Bishop of London and Mr. Bennett. 

ing Chronicle,'^ under the signature of D. 0. L.; — and, ast i 
climax, Mr. Bennett himself has thought it consistent with his 
duty to the Church, and with his vow of canonical' obedience t^ 
hi^ bishop, to publish a " Farewell Letter to his' Parishioners," 
of some 250 pages, in which, from the beginning to the end, ab m 
Tisque ad mala^ ho has done all in 1^ power to hold up hii 
diocesan to public oontempt--*in which be com[Mures hkoself to St 
Ghrysostom, banished from Constantinople by the^^ intrigues of the )r 
Empress Eudoxia, aided by the tmn^A^^c^^^^sAqpTheophilus ■— a 
which he represents the Church of England as ^^ fying on the watoi 
a helpless water-logged wreck,^' out of which he. is caet " by tie 
force of the waves," while "the stormy winds do rend her deep 
and wide" (p. 228) ;— in wliich he tells his parishioners thafe.diej ; 
'^ must not expect that human nature, with its many infirmitieB and 
constant nee^ will long bear up against the ever.i^aorrin^ 
wants of spiritual love and longing for the things of God, icti<VA<^ 
h in vain searching for in the Church ofEngland'^l mean in tke 
Church of England, as now interpreted^ in the diocese of Londoi'* 
(p. 227). That Mr. Bennett will himself regret the pubUcation 
in a very short time, quite as much as we can do^ we have noithe 
least doubt, but litera scripta manet. It is very much eaaier 
to make unjust charges, than it is to destroy the effect of tfaemt 
when once they have been made; and therefore we consider it 
our bounden duty, for the sake of the truth, for the sake of tiie 
Bishop of London, who has done heretofore such good service to 
the Church of England; for the sake of the Church of England,^ 
which now, more than ever, requires a continuation of those 
services ; for the sake of Mr. Bennett^s successor, placed, as ho 
will be, in a most trying situation ; and, especially, for the siUce 
of Mr. Bennett^s late parishioners; we think it, we say, onr 
bounden duty, to show by a reference to facts which are beyond 
controversy, and to dates which cannot be faki&ed, that thfe 
Bishop of London simply accepted, much against his own will, tiie 
reiterated resignation of Mr. Bennett; that Mr. Bennett, and 
Mr. Bennett alone, is responsible for His separation irom the 
churches and the parishioners of St. PauPs, Knightsbridge, and 
St. Barnabas, Pimlico; and moreover, that, inasmuch as JAx. 
Bennett refused to yield to the oft-repeated wishes of his dioQesaA, 
the bishop was bound to take the course he has taken, not simply 
by his love for the Church of England, but by his duty to that 
special portion of it, of which the ^^ Holy Ghost hath made him 
an overseer." There are three principal questions to be considered 

^ The itaUcs are ours. 

Tke BuJicp oflmiM tmd Mr. BmnM. 113 

k tins matter. First, the resignation itself; who is responsible 
btitl Secondly, was the Bishop of London justified, or not, in 
iit^ering at all with Mr. Bennett! And, thirdly, we shall 
aamine into the truth of the personal accusations which Mr. 
Bennett has brought against the bishop, and especially as those 
accusations are connected with the celebrated Charge of 1842. 
Perhaps it is unnecessary to state that this paper is written with- 
out the slightest communication, direct or indirect, with the 
Bishop of London. -It is the result, simply and solely, of a 
feeling that his lordship has been most grievously misrepresented ; 
that he has, in no way whatever, deserved to lose the confidence 
of any sound English Churchman ; that the personal accusations 
brought against his lordship by Mr. Bennett are unfounded ; that 
he has, throughout this unhappy business, been most ungratc- 
fiilly treated by that particular section of the Church to which 
we before referred — that section which has recently furnished, 
which, unhappily, is still furnishing, and, we much fear, will 
continue to furnish, recruits to Dr. Wiseman and the Church of 

Let us then proceed to inquire, in the first place, who is 
responsible for the resignation of Mr. Bennett, and his consequent 
8e[ttration from his parishioners. The Bishop of London is 
charged with taking advantage of a conditional promise of resig- 
nation on the part of Mr. Bennett, as if it had been unconditional, 
and also with driving Mr. Bennett from his living, in consequence 
of the persecution of the mob ; in fact, of meanly truckling to 
"popular clamour." A reference to the correspondence will 
show the injustice of these accusations ; and we pray the reader^s 
particular attention to the dates of the letters from which we shall 
quote, for they are of the very greatest importance in this ques- 
tion. On the 16th of July, 1850, Mr. Bennett thus replies to 
the Bishop of London, in answer to a letter of remonstrance 
respecting the practices at St. Barnabas : 

" If yiou thitik, upon reading what I have said, that the picture of my 
mind is not that which could justify my remaining in the cure of souls 
in your lordship's diocese, I am ready and willing to depart. On the 
one'httd^'f ' hope it will be clearly understood that, conscientiously, I 
caanotibtregb any of the principles which, in this letter, I set forth and 
advocate; and, ii I remain in the cure of souls, by those principles I 
mast be permitted to abide. On the other hand, as I consider myself 
morally and spiritually hound not to oppose your lordship in those matters 
nhichf as a diocesan^ yoti have a right and a duty to regulate ^, I am 
willing and ready to withdraw from a position, in which the possibility 
of such an event might arise." — ^p. 84. 

' The italics are our own. 
VOL. XV. — NO. XXJX. — MARCH, 1851. 1 

114 The Bishop of Lmdm and Mr, Bewndt, 

Here, at all events, is a plain avowal that there drv eeiiain 
matters of ritual observcmee, respecting which the bishop toi 
Mr. Bennett differed in opinion, which it is at onde ^^the right ml 
the duty" of the bishop to regulate; and yet the bishop is not 
charged, by Mr. Bennett and D. 0. L., witii despotism arid intd^ 
lerance, for presuming to enforce his opinion on these very qtHHK 
tions. After this letter was received the bishop went abroad, «K 
account of the state of his health. On his return, on the Idfh ot 
October, he thus replies to Mr. Bennett : ' 

** You tell me that you cannot conscientiously forego any of Jiht 
principles set forth in your letter. My remonstrance to you VM 
directed against certain practices — practices in behalf df which yoii oflfet 
no valid defence, and which you Surely cannot consider of vital IttH 
portance. If I restrain you from these practices, which I feel bouiid 15 
do as far as I can, I cannot think that ydut conscience will hb serionily 
aggrieved, or that a sufBcient casus will have arisen for your leaving tbe 
ministry, to which you have hitherto been so zealously devotefl.'W 
p. 89. - 

Now we ask any unprejudiced person to say what is the meAqr 
ing of this answer. The bishop plainly writes in the kindeijti 
possible spirit. He thinks that the practices to which he objecU, 
such as the " Invocation of the Trinity before the sermon,'*' and 
others of a similar nature, involve no principle whatever, and 
therefore, of course, that the giving them up cannot involve any 
sacrifice of principle. Will it be credited that Mr, Bennett, 
commenting on these words some four months afterwards, fastens 
on the Bishop of London a charge of ^^ hypocrisy !^^ It is well 
nigh incredible, yet so it is. 

" If I could be brought," he says, " externally to accord with the 
bishop in not doing certain things, then he does not mind my internally 
holding principles in opposition to them. What kind of hypocrites 
should we all be, if this were cai^ried to its legitimate concluflion f^— 
p. 89. 

We mention this as a fair specimen of the way in which, 
throughout this " Farewell Letter,^' the bishop has been tnaated. 
We wonder if it occurred to Mr. Bennett to charge his dioeeaao 
with " hypocrisy,^' when he first read the passage in questioB. 
We venture to say it is a construction which no really fair-nlinded 
person would dream of putting upon it. In reply to this letter 
on the 30th of October, Mr. Bennett, having stated that he " caft* 
not, after conscientiously considering all the bearings of the 
matter, withdraw or alter any thing that he has said or done,** 
thus continues : 

Ti^ JBishop o/Lgndan and Mr. Bmineit. 115 

- " Therefore my conekuian is in due drficulty^ as it woe in my previous 

ktler afJidy lfi» that I ought, {/* calied upon, to resign my living. I 

VDuld t^en put it to your lordihip in this way — I would tay, ' If your 

lordship fJ]pul4 be- of eontinue^ opinion, seeing and knowing me aa 

now you do, that I am guilty of unfaithfuluf^ss to the Church of Eng- 

landi, ap4. if y.Q.ur lordship will after that signify your judgment as 

bishop, that it would be for the peace and better ordering of tliat portion 

of the Church which is under your episcopal charge, that I should no 

longer serve in the living of St. Paul's, I would then, the very next day^ 

send you a formal resignation.' " 

Now we confidently ask, can any thing be plainer than this ? 
m^ thUs remember, written when every thing was quiet — be/ore 
I^rd John Bussell's letter — before the slightest disturbance at 
St. Bamabaa ^^ This all occurred,^ as D. C. L. ' truly says, 
"before the bishop^s charge, and before, therefore, the worship 
1^ St. Barnabas bad been in the slightest degree molested bv 
popular violence*^ The admission is very important from such 
a quarter. We only wonder it had not occurred to D. C. L.'s 
mjnd in writing subsequent letters. We ask again, can any 
thing be plainer than Mr. Bennett's language ? He leaves every 
tiling to the discretion of the bishop. He says nothing about the 
"Canons and laws of the Church,^ uivtil after the bishop had acted 
W this permiesion, and then he thinks it consistent to use this 

" Of course, if the bishop's view were the right one, his duty was not 
ooly to be desirous of bringing me to it, but of enforcing it. How 
enforcing it ? Not by his ipse dixit, but by the Canons and laws of 
the Church. But the bishop only depends on his own private judg- 
ment on the matter. The law to him is what he thinks is the law. He 
devires to make the Church what he thinks is the Church, and then he 
fialls upon me to obey it." — p. 183. 

It may be well to say one word on '^ unfaithfulness^ to the 
Church of England. D. 0. L., in a letter written, wc think, on 
the 20th of January in this year, makes it a grievous offence on 
the bishop'^s part, that he refused to state to the parishioners of 
St. Barnabas, in answer to an insolently- worded memorial, the 
masons why he judged Mr. Bennett " unfaithful" to the Church 
of England. Why should he ? Mr. Bennett had left the matter 
entirely in the bishop^'s hands. He had twice tendered his un- 
conditional resignation, contingent only upon the bishop^s thinking 
proper to accept it ; and we say, therefore, that to quibble about 
the term '^ nnfiaithfiilness to the Church of England" is simply a 

* Letten of D. C. L. p. 81> 

116 The Bishop o/L&ndon and Mr. Bennetts 

specimen of very dishonest Bpecial pleading *- We must say, 
moreover, with pain, that, if any body had doubted Mr. Bennett's 
" unfaithfulness,'' they have nothing to do but to read his- ": Fare- ? 
well Letter/' and if they have any pmI low for 'theiOhnroh of i 
England, they will at once be fully convincecj of it. . . . ^ 

fiut even yet the bishop is most unwilling taaxscept H^^ feHg- 
nation. He thus writes on the IGth of November ; 

'^ I am under the necessity of stating my decided omtii'oi^, tIAit.t '^ 
continuance of the practices, against which I have mvamrenibn'strat^ 
is inconsistent with your duty as a minister of the Eiiglisfti CAurclii'iand - 
I now again call upon you to reliii^uish theifr. As it is "MM '^l)hi6ut the 
most mature deliberation that I makie this reqaisitioti,'to-Hti»-irot^irith- 
out the most lively concern that I find myself drwen to have 'recourse, io 
it. I pray God to direct you in this matter."-—^. 107» . •^■ 

Now, surel}^, every one will see that Mr, Bennett stopyiple^ge^ , 
upon the receipt of this letter, to send the bishop, " ttip.>(ery,'^2rt 
day," his formal resignation. Tins letter was a delicat^^\^ay ,of 
leaving Mr. Bennett Tiimself to resign^ if he coulcl Ao/b.^^Ue^r liis 
conduct. The bishop in effect says: — "I can see i^o pqs^we 
reason for your resignation; but my duty is plain>^ynd I.'iflflfi 
leave, you to take which course you; think best.^i ,, TherefQ^e^^we 
say again, that Mr. Bennett Nvas bound to submit tp.the^bm^j), 
or to resign. He did neither the one nor the other. \yThj^j^, 
" having had the advantage of mature reflection, and t):)^* f^^UDSj^l 
of othei^" he repented of his former promise, we kiio>v Qof^) 
certain it is, he did not send his " formal resign^tiiop4 j , .^en 
came the riots at St. Barnabas. The bisljop very naturfiJuj, ji^^ 
we venture to say, very properly — Mr. Bennett, h^ym^^^'^t^- it 
ever rememberedv steadily, refused to obey bis ^ippnitipuj^ 
presses for a speedy reply to his letter. Still M^. ]J?iw?.ft-^ 
not resign, ti^ niakes, instead, a series of. prp£i€i^a£.:io,,|h0 
bishop, to which it was most unreasonable to expect hiin jtil.^^, 
cede. Upon the 37th of November the bishop^. decUninaj^io 
accept these proposals, thus concludes Jus letter ; . . rV i . . 

« Upon the whole, if you are not prepared to corpply^ sipiVliAfff', 
and ex an'mo, with the requisition contained in tny Uiiet of th6'l6th* 

,:/ Since the above was written, Megsrs. Adajns andf Igadely have, full y^^niliriied" 
this View of^he question-. In anfltv'er'io a caso laidbfefc^" ihetf by Ui^^piiSihioiiert 
of St. Pttttl'^ they flay :—« Upon -A© spooHdqtestianyWi'ape iof topimo»L-iftit -the 

Tlie Bishop o/Lmdan and Mr. Bennett. J 1 7 

instant, I must call upon you -to fulfil your oflTer of retiring from a 
charge which 1 deliberate! j think ' you. could not je that case continue 
to hold, withoutT'great injuiy to IhciChurcb. I am willing to allow a 
reasonable time for^iyouclcompliance/'rfril 1 14» ' 

Upon the receipt 6f [ihhmtii^^'Mr. B^itnleit 'does' at last send 
his«form^**^pkl»4»^;^ '7'' -' ''•■■^ '-•■■' • 

And now we^^'kliy i^^y[)im!:ll^' iitittf,'^1i6thei^ T^e have not 
P^iply .9§**M:.t^^^^^ .v^Vst. tbjt the, offer .of resigna- 

tio!j,^c;^jW#^VWixW flistxipi^^tepc^ Jcpm. >^^^ ^d, se- 

copdjy, xtkat,^l«HW ^fi^eipt^ ly? the psftpp >Tit|i the girea^test po9- 
sible f«jMtm^^ »d^pnly^jbe!P,Mr, Beon^tt M.Mm^ifJ^t him 
m^ctherticA^tnaiifMd.i^' Aid yeit Mr* .BenDett tett^Jiia. parishioners 
that'he^faes^bdeci .^Ssada^dy torn ^way.from i^em, and the inter- 
course of pastd^ affection afaranddy terminated V He ventures 
to arraign his diocesan for '^ taking, the changing gale of the 
p6pitnWlt';T(tf 'fi^?^ the B<)ck of'A^s, 

pomnanwin tor niB.guiaance, ratner tnan tne itocK ot Ages, 
Wfiteli'aroaB/is tHa^my^6nbe.;(Jbrir(ib,'whbse cMldr^ntre are'' 
(V>iK'l'40;'1^41X;'attHt^iM^ pterfectlf well fh^t his resig- 

ffl j6n%a(l*W^^4;wi6^,ls B/0. L. W admitted; offered to the 

mSK ^ V^JIhre thi^e md heefi ' the * slighted indication of popular 
i^tikt^! ''lii^ifefyre' d6 \te 6ay, lA dDsibg this branch of the 
rtibieclt;- 'mi Mr.. Bbirliett hte' himself, and himself alone, to 
Waima ;fdf'Hii ^Afetidn «toih his parishioners.. If he was not 
pWi&ifW hazaM of the die,"" he should have 

tKW^ tWic!e:ttbfyre hd determined *' to fetake his all upon a cast." 
if ih^ bisHttp Vas rfght, he should have obeyed hini; if wrong, 
lie' ffiould' have' "Opposed' hitii ; supposing, that is, respect for cpis- 
c!d^^ atftiKoWty lind fo^l^^t kindness, had not restrained him from 
& dbinjg ; ' but he |iad ho rfffht, ks a Christian 6lergyinari, to forcfe 
K're^i^ilflofi lipbij the bishop,* and' then to acctse'liis lordship 
Sf''tr^l!eiT, Intolerance," 3esp6(ic tj^ranh^, and, truckling to 
^liopnlar.diHnbhi^,'" bfeciuse that resignation w^, at liast, ac- 

4i^i.\r ■*-'i'- ...■;•.: .■..■.■■■■ 

" Bbii'Hve have to consider,' in the next place, the question, 
whether the Bishop of London was justified iii ihterferii^ at all 
H[iJtb..^^.rA ^Benn^tt — in other words, whether Mr. Bennett ought 
iq'l^yj^ beei allowed to catry out the principles by which he pro- 
fesses to have been guided without any intervention of episcopal 
w^j^prity. We say Mr. Bennett's "^rmcipfos," because it is the 
Uffsd wiich he himself usually employs, although we agree with 
^e \ffiBhop of London in thinking that there was in reality no 
'•'J)ritoci(>te^ involved in the original question at issue between 
Eifi^ lordship. ;Wi4vMr. Bennett, except that of obedience to the 
Ohniffdh cf England, and respect for episcopal auUiority. But be 

118 The Bishop of London and Mr. Bemdt. 

this as it may, wc will proceed to consider the question,-^ Was & 
the duty of trie Bishop of London to interfere with Mr. Btitini^ 
or to allow him to carry out his principles and his prabtic^;'t6 
any extent he pleased? But we niust pause first, to notice Bic 
curious development which the " Farewell Letter '*'* unfolda to us. 
By his own immediate followers Mr, Bennett is regfiu*ded ii^ (be 
veteran champion of what it pleases hira to call ^^ Cathofi^i^." 
He is a Churchman who has spent all his energies in the tntifie 
of, so called, ^^ Catholic principles.^^ D. G. L. thus desci^ 
him : — 

" Among these clergymen, one of the most conspicuoiiB was Mr, B^a- 
nett. Strongly impressed with the ceremonial character of the BngW 
ritual, and having a strong conviction of the binding force of the UUir^ 
injunctions of the Rubric^ he steadily carried his own principles inlo 
practice in the church of St. Paul's, Knightsbridge." — p. 29. 

But now how will our readers be surprised (we think D. 0» L 
must have been a little surprised also,) to find that, up to i84Q, 
Mr. Bennett had really no "church"*' — we beg pardon — no "Ofc 
tholic" principles whatever ? He was, credat Judaeus^ by his owt 
showing simply a "good Protestant/' Let us hear his. own 
account of himself : — 

" In reviewing my opinions of Church matters at that pariod»:' 
[1840| when he first came to St. PauFs district,] " I do not think thoi? 
was in me the slightest bias towards any ritual observanceSf saving thqtli 
which are well known, as carrying out the common ordinary decorum 
of what is usually called the * Protestant' Church of England. On the 
contrary, towards the Church of Rome, I perfectly well remember, that 
I showed to the full extent all the prejudices and abhorrence Which 
good * Protestants' " — [the sneer is Mr. 6ennett*s, not ours,} ** whiA 
good ' Protestants,' as such, so faithfully cherish. As an instance 
of which, I full well remember preaching a sermon, on the 5tb of NoVi, 
in which sermon / indulged to such a degree in all the vilttperatiws <^ 
the doctrines of Rome^ that the sermon was printed by desire of |j|e 
congregation." — p. 2. 

In another place he describes himself as " a parish pric^ 
young in the administration of the Church's work (for St. Paidi^ 
remember, was the first and only living to which I had bden 
presented)." — p. 6. He does not state whether it was also his 
first parochial charge. And how do our readers think Mr. Ben- 
nett became a sound "Catholic!" Not as some, by education; 
not by the sheer force of conscientious conviction ; not by study- 
ing the principles of the Prayer Book, and comparing thoae 
principles with the theology of the primitive Fathers, and- of 
Holy Scripture; but simpTy, strange to say, by mrtue of the 


I%s BiOop of London and Mr. BmmU. 119 

iSoffi of tie Bishop of London, in 1842. He had been slightly 
faoealated b^ the ^^ OjLford School/^ duriog the two preening 
jmra, but the Bishop of London^s Charge was plainly, as he says, 
the real cause of his ^^ Catholic"^ zeal. 

. Let us again quote his own words (p. 139) : ^' There was a 
principle of pastoral guidance, firmly built up in me by the veiy 
teaching, which both as a duty and a pleasure^ it was my part to 
eipbrace^— I mean that of tlie bishop of our diocese.'^ Again, lie 
aaysy that the bishop *^ had set him upon the road to begin, 
under bis auspices,^^ the inculcation of tne principles he taught 
at St. Barnabas. Whether this be correctly stated, we shall 
inquire hereafter ; we simply wish to present our readers with 
Mr. Bennett^s mental portraiture in 1840-42, as he has himself 
dnwn it in 1851, for no purpose, that we can perceive, except that 
of casting all the odium he possibly can upon the Bishop of London. 
Now let us take D. G. L.^s description of the bishop. He 
says, ^* I have a deep and sincere respect for that pi'elate.^ 
(Strange, by the way, tliat he who proceeds to vituperate another, 

Enerally begins by expressing his ^^ deep and sincere respect^ 
r the object of his vituperation !) — 

" He has, ybr more than twenty years, presided over a diocese with a 
population as large as that of a kingdom ; and during this time his 
industry in multiplying churches and schools has been indefatigable ; 
bb munificence in promoting these, and all other good works, un- 
bomded ; and very lately, he has made a noble stand for an article of 
the Chtistian faith!"—- p. 28. 

And yet, in spite of all this, D. G. L. thinks it becoming to 
Attack the Bishop of London, quite as fiercelv as the Bishop of 
Manchester, by way of evincing a ^^ GhurcnmanV gratitude ! 
Sorely, theoi if the bishop and Mr. Bennett came into collision 

ym matters of ritual observance^ taking Mr. Bennett^s own view 
hiffaself, and D. C. L.'s description of the bishop, one would 
naturally think, reasoning a priori^ that the bishop was quite as 
likely to be in the right, as his professed disciple, and, by his own 
showing, most obedient follower, the incumbent of St. Paul's, 
Knigbtsbridge. Now let us see how the case really stands. Mr. 
Bennett thus describes the "principle" on which he has act^ 
since, as he says, the bishop's tlharge of 1842 : — 

•* The principle mentioned in the earlier part of the correspondence, 
was the propriety of adhering to the old Catliolic rites and usages of 

tliiDgfi ancient to the Church in England, is equivalent to a desire of 

120 The Bishop of London and Mr. Bennett. 

becoming reunited to the rest of Christendom,"— (p. 151.) In another 
place he sftys-^" I cannot bring myself to think that the Church of 
England is the only Church in the world that ivould deny these cus- 
toms.*' By adopting them, as one means with otherfj " a gradusl 
assimilation wiili the rest of the Catholic Church would be made; the 
prejudices of all the different sects and schisms would be conquered; 
and Catholic unity would be restored."— p. 82# 

Mr. Bennett^s theory, therefore, may briefly be stated ibus. 
He considers every priest at liberty] to introduoe any practices, 
which have been used, at any time, in the Church, wbicaam oot 
distinctly forbidden by the English Prayer Book; ibe object of 
such restoration being the revival of Catholic unity* . 

The bishop's objection to this theory is twofold. Firsts tjiat 
the theory itself is not in accordance with the spirit of the Gh»rch 
of England ; secondly, that it is a most dangerous theory tOiput 
in practice at the present time, because all such usages are, as a 
matter of fact, derived noio^ however CathoKc they might :Once 
have been, from the peculiar ritual of the Church of Borne; jn 
other words, tliat they have (and the suspicion that they have it, 
is the bishop^s most deadly offence) a '^ Eomanizing ^^ tendency. 
Let us examine this question. A little reflection will, we think, 
show, that 'the Bishop of London is perfectly right in both ptf- 
ticulars. The statute law of the English Church, to use an ex- 
pression of Mr. SewelPs, is the English Prayer Book. Thi^i m 
far as circumstances do not limit the possibility, every English 
clergyman is bound to obey. But then, surely, he can have np 
more right to go beyond this, unless custom sanctions his 
.doing 80, tlian ha can have, intentionally, to fall short of it. 
But the theory referred to above goes far beyond iiiis, bOd 
there are two reasons why it is objectionable. Firsts its 
carrying out involves a palpable absurdity; secondly^ it is 
cpntraiy to the spirit of our Prayer Book. Just suppose; fqr 
a. moment, that every clergyman actB up to this principle, Oficiwd- 
ingtohis own individual taste^ where shall we stop! OBetuiBy 
vrish: to revive the primitive Agapee, with, as a necessai*y^iCooi^ 
q^ience, all their attendant irregularities. Another may ha/Ye^« 
fancy for infant communion. Another for reviving the prinuitnfe 
ceremonies connected with adult female baptism, of which J^ng- 
ham gives us so graphic an accpunt. One gentleman, the -fieiv. 
Arthur ]Baker, of whom, though we differ from him tottf tfa^,.we 
wisl;! to speak in terms of the highest respect, because, hia letter 
\o the Bishop of London is written in an honest, manly, str^ht- 
ibrward spirit, lias openly expressed his wish to restore > the 
practice of ^'extreme unction;'" the practical difficulty being, 
to . get any '^ holy oil '' which has been tdessed by a bishop of our 

IHe Buihop ofLondmik and Mr. Bennett. 121 

communion i We ask again, therefore, where slidl we stop ! 
Ofloe fJloW {^ermissicqa to introduce novelties at j)leasiire, and you 
can put no' Kmit to individual fancy or caprice. We say confi- 
dentiy, *' Est modus in rebus, sunt ccrti deniquo fines." Act 
up to the Prayer Book as much as you please, but if you wish to 
go b^ondit, to introduce practices not sanctioned by custom, 
then consult the bishop of the diocese, and let his decision, in all 
cases, b0 -final. 

Bat we JSay, moreover, that Mr, Bennetf's " restorative theoir,'' 
wliich 13 -not, as D.O#L. speciously obsen^es, a question respecting 
the ^'inteipretation of the rubrics of the Church of Enp^land 
(p. 39), but a question, rather, respecting matters on which the 
nArics ■■ aire wholly silent, contradicts the spirit of the English 
Pmyer Book. 

■■■ Howler much Mr. Bennett may dislike the term '^ Protestant,^" 
we presimie even be will not venture to deny, that the Church of 
Eoglddd is a '^Beformed Church.^^ Now, from what was she 
iiefontied-r Let ns consult the preface to our Prayer Book. It 
sftyBTc ^' And although the keepmg or omitting of a ceremony, in 
itraf eobsideredj is but a small thing, yet the wilful and con- 
temptuous transgression, and breaking of a common order and 
dkcipline, is no small offence before God — ^the appointment of the 
which order pertainath not to private men ;'" — (would not priests, as 
lucb, come under this appellation!)-—'^ therefore, no man ought 
to takA in hand, nor presume to appoint or alter any public or common 
«rder in Gkrisfs Churchy except ne be latcfully called^ and authonzed 
ikremvioJ^^ Take one more passage. '^ This our excessive multitude 
(f ceremonies was so great^ and many of them so dark, that they 
did more confound and darken, than declare and set forth Christ^s 
benefits unto us.'' We submit that these two quotations demolish 
*t Once Mr. Bennett^s theory. No one, surely, can say that any 
pHesi^ as such, can be ^^ lawfully called and authorized to alter 
nrf public or connnon order in Christ's Church.*' It is quite 
^ear also that, if every priest had this pother, and acted upon it^ we 
fihoald have no possible security against being burthenedwith the 
same Mnd and number of ceremonies, from which, as her own 
Prarjidf Book teaches, the Church of England was cleansed at the 
Befonmftion. It is useless to bring, against this view, the oft- 
quoted mbric about the '^ ornaments of the Church in the second 
yearof the reign of King Edward VI.'' As far as the Bishop of 
London^ and Mr. Bennett are concerned, that rubric is simply 
wiiilud rm^. The question between them was not about ^'orna- 
mente^^' but abottt ceremonies and ritual observances. Whether 
he liked it o^notv the bishop did consecrate the Church of St. 
Barnabas^ and h0 has never once reqmred Mr. Bennett to alter any 

122 TAs Biihap of London and Mr. BmnM. 

thing connected with the '^ ornaments ^^ of that Chtird. He has 
simply required him to discontiuuc certain ^^ practices,^' notautfao* 
rized by the Rubrics ; practices, as we have shown, ba^ed u(md 
a tlieory utterly untenable in itself, and contradictory to tbe 
gpirii of the Prayer Book of tiie Reformed Church of England. 
Mr. Bennett may wish for an alteration of the statute law of 
his Church — ^lio may wish tliat he liad liberty to introduce ai^ 
usages he pleased, whether from the Romish, or the Primitive 
Church ; but, so long as our Prayer Book remains unaltered, so 
long as ours is a '' Reformed "' branch of the Catholic Church, -^ 
long will the preface to that Prayer Book, and the qtirit of that 
Reformation, alike condemn the introduction, into our service, 
of any practices, which cannot plead either rubrical injunfition, 
prescriptive usage, or episcopal sanction. 

^^ Oh, but,^' it is replied, ^^ these usages are the marks of our 
CathoHcity ; they are the signs of our liolding the Catholic faith; 
they are the links by which the English communion is united to 
the Holy Church throughout all the world. Restrain mie, or any 
other priest, from introducing those usages, and you remove at 
once the ties by which we are associated with the rest ei 
Christendom ."" We answer, first, that, unless D. C. L. has made 
an erroneous statement, before the Farewdl Letter was published 
Mr. Bennett had offered to relinquish every individual practice to 
which the bishop had objected, except that of standing before the 
altai* during the consecration of the elements ; that is to say, 
Mr. Bennett first steadily refuses to make any alteration wbat- 
ev^ ; he forces his resignation upon the bishop ; he exposes the 
bishop to a running-fire of misrepresentation, of abuse, and of 
insult, from D. C. L., and various other quartei*s. He thea ofiere 
to relinquish all the practices in dispute, except one ; and then^ 
because the bishop does not think proper to be forced into 
altering his determination, Mr. Bennett is to be held up to his 
parishioners as a niartyr to Catholic principles; his theory af 
^^ restoration"" is to be the mark of the Catholicity of the Enj^ish 
Church ; and the Bishop of London is to be exposed to public 
eontc^ipt, as an intolerant despot, as destroying, at once and for 
ever, the claims of the English Church to be a true and living 
iH'anch of the Church Catholic, because, forsooth, the Bishop of 
London wislied to restrain one of his clergy from certain prodstieefi^ 
allofwhich^ save one, and that, on the fiace (rf it, a very doubtfql 
}K)int, that very chrgyman lias^ lohen it was too late, quired to 
reUnq^iish i 

We say, moreover, on this point, that there are two kinds of 
^^ Cathc^icity^"" primitive and mediieval, one frem whidi, another 
4e which^ if ff^ ma^ so speak, we wer^ reformed, in the sixteenth 

Tke Bishop of Loidm omd Mr. Bmmdi. 1 23 


J tmimj. 9/6 long, therefore, as the Prayer Book of the English 

"^ &ktek remaitiB unaltered' — so long as we retain all the grand 

/unritunental verities of the Christian faith embodied therein — so 

hAft shall we continue to be a true and living branch of the 

Ckmelie Ofaureh ; so long can there exist no possible reason for 

intrt>dU(^(ng into our ritual any mediaeval observances, other than 

those* whieh ate sanctioned by the hiws of the Church of England, 

er by pfescrJptive custom. 

''^cUt,^* it is said, 'Hhese usages and observances will restore 
Catholic Unity. They will take away from us the reproach, 
miAer which 'we now justly labour, of being isolated from the 
rest of Christendom. They will tend to restore the * unity of 
the Spirit in" the bond of peace f ^^ and loud is the outcry raised 
against the Bishop of London, because his lordship lias ventured 
to imagine that the revival may, possibly, have a somewhat 
diflferent effect ; tiiat, instead of restoring ^^ Catholic,^^ they may 
possibly, and probably, tend rather to restore ^' Bomish'^ unity ; 
that their ultimate development will bring us back^ not to 
prinitfre, but to ^^ Romish^ Catholicism. <^ Even the bishops 
themadves,*' says Mr. Bennett, ^' make the idea of Catholicity 
equivalent to Popery. Our own bishop perseveres in fastening 
upon me the charge of ^ copying Rome.^ He has told me that I 
adopt this and that rite because ^ it is Soman ;' that we are lead- 
ii^ men to ^ proe^pices^^ and the like^^ (p. 172). The imputation 
of ^ Bonuuiizing ^ is, in fact, regarded, by certain parties, as tlie 
y^ acme of '' bigotry f' the restraining from such practices is 
Ae very quintessence of '' persecution ;" is said to be ^^ driving 
men ovef into l^e ranks of the enemy .^^ But we say, first, can 
it be foivott?en, ought it to be forgotten, that of iliose English 
priests vmo Imve put the ^^restorative theory^' into practical ope- 
nition, the greater number have already gone, not simply '^step hy 
9lep to tie fsery verge of the precipice^ but actually headlong over in^ 
tttf gn^ beneath it f From Mr. Newman down to Mr. Dods worth, 
fiunUiB descensus Avemd, and, still later, down to the mover of 
khereBohition of sympathy with Mr. Bennett, passed by the London 
Church Union on the 10th of December, these men have goneof)er 
to the Church of Rome. Are we then gravely to be told, that 
our bii^hops are ^^ bigoted and intolerant,^" because, seeing others 
of their «lergy pursuing a similar course, they are apprehensive of 
ii similar result, and endeavour, by a timely warning, to guard 
against it ? We know full well that post hoc^ ergo propter hoc^ 
is very frequently unsound reasoning, but surely there is here an 
h priori argument on the side of those who do so reason. S*w^ly 
if one, standing by the side of a river, saw twenty persons bathmg 
—if he «aw tefi, after venturing to a certain spot, sink to rise no 

124 The Bishop ofjjmdm and Mr. B&nnett. 

more, he would not be deemed impertineot if he ventured to wan 
the rest of their danger; and, moreover, would >iiot be amenable, 
on any just grounds, to. the charge of ^^(peraeoutiob^^^ 'if^>supp08iiig 
him to possess authority, be exiereisedlitrby way of prevention. 
The caad of th0 Be<^efi$] B6me is auvely^Tery^pairillel to this. 
At alleivents^. we;put this altemative-^t^ithea? >iheg^i:wbo< ha^e 
seceded did so delibecately, with their eyes'iipen,''Or^theys>nneveled 
on ^^step by ertep.'^: In thd one caae^ tiiiejri'Werdi ^f^jdauiofevdifl- 
tilled^^ traitor^i to rtjie Ohurch of Englandb.i'^ln tthfi' othes^'*the 
Bishop ofi^Iifondon aets mlDst faithfi^y to'lus/cleK^^inidH^ 
his Ghm:telH . if ; b<i does all he can- do ^to' pcevent • ifle^OTthsrenoe 
of a similar oatastroplie» And as; to the- chjnrgBiidfi'fdu^lrebf 
^' driviDgimen over to the ranks of the enemyi^'f^^itoa^sn^es*' 
pireesion which no tru&rhearted English. Churchman wbuld^ dxkstnt 
of QOAploying ; it ia one, we firmly believe, that has: dond Vdij^ 
gteat mischief at the present crisis; What does: the >-exp0eniDft 
mean! Simply this, that, whenever an English priest^ff^ws^diEh 
contented with bis position, he naturally, as a matter of ctimat^ 
begins to think about secession to the Church of iRome ; in othflr 
words, that there is, really, no esseutial difiference betwwnisthp 
principles of the two communions. For our owti part, 'm'>«i» 
OoiiYiuced that no possible combination of circumstaiQeeB'eanjas^' 
tify " secession"' from our mo% (?A«rcAi much less ^^ apostasy ^^>1fa 
the: (Church of Home. Wq believe that the priaciple^ of tfab t\v» 
Churches, 30 far as they differ, are necessarily antagonastio •to' 
each other, and that no sound Anglican priest, whatever diffi' 
culties he may find in the one, would ever dream, for an instapt, 
that he would better his condition by going over to the Qpfierir. 
Jiishop Ken once bore an honoured name among English Chu]rc|^- 
men — Bishop Ken was a " Nonjuror,*" but he never becam^'i. 
Bomianist. Let us once cleanse ourselves from this, uot,8uurej|y: 
undeserved, suspicion; let us once persuade our people, tl|a4^; 
nothing shall ever drive us to JRome^ and sure we are that one 
j^nd cause of our present difficulties will speedily be removed^ 
^'heaviness may endure for a night, but joy will come an- the 
morning.'' :> ; . •■ 

But we say, secondly, that, whether the " restorative theprt^ 
be or be not sound in itself, this, of all others, is ijot the- 
time for putting it in practice. What is our presenft posl-' 
tion? The Qiurch of England is fighting a battle, no*, '8^ 
recently, for the maintenance of the Christian faith, but fof' 
h|Qr very existence. Enemies, strong and mighty, beset her. on 
every side. We ask Mr. Bennett, and D. C. L., Is this a time, 
when our bishops are callied ^^ possessors by act of Parliament 
of their episcopal revenues,'^ their spiritual character and funtt* 

J%t BUkop of London wid Mr. Btntutt. Its 

ibeii^isnaredaU<^getli«rl->-Is'1Iits'«F timewbsnhe, who is 
Cardinal WdseouDf irii»^'**<witH>il»led'.lwdtth'ftnd whisper^ 
omlileties«^'i6ndaiTaureA tao^le'the 'Enriiah nation in his 
t'^ApiKa){7.'tlnib luiaraMvd'*' tkb ^thfiU^ in-hi*')' Lenteo 
irBT^lUns'fiiiviaatyflKrti-^'ftiA&ywoiwfrdearl^itefethA agita- 
odlimaKllieflBidiflmi'aiBdDd^JnMzaVd to«i(i^Wt»6laihe0 0/ 
tn^/iiirtiie amatry-tohiti'lMtdmdiii ^luM^tiU^aiwf'ia 
■rioniber itweliMltiff naorfriuid/UioK froqi tfactil- IfAbdfe, in 
rtibDaslib<glbaw'Wii^iM'litthe'cloter^«nd«laiitfiCo.'it Mtfre 
artie]j)>i''iAi«lhffe'^'lm)Ulttda tofa* S(eliiU|i£n M, liM^ 
<gtio<whaStr>d nmliVfito htae-nf'dktA ttm^ to esb^Mj thdt 
ia^iptDeeineali'is thbOwmMOvlc tbey-had'onae 'tboM^A'BO 
} dild<howfnrithii^ImlabandoMd;i>eota3paft'bn)in«i^'&iMi-rirlH 
ivrwrenatlisiieeliDg'and itiltuig,' 'tha'Vorii''8 ^icvt('tlmBr<h 
uf/TesA^ miia ndate Bboiefl 'Jmeitt^AnantifiiMMi^ 

ki fiiWIV^^tlus m time^i when^ Oat awuie^f'Botdiw 
tfae^^iXaUet't^aaj'ii'aB^H.daid on the' Sgod-^'lafll Kor^v 
ic^4)f<thaiiuifai^jriT0iiBgii»ii, i<bed: Fieldingu^th JfdH>(HO# 

)f jtawacds ;Buisidiiw& Hre'-ilDfc qintiities tehich o- «$«^«m iff 
Mnl«iwht]-ti>(nJ}ia ta'act'towardAMtseIf'1^<^Iil'lhisft^t}nae^' 
oa»«wing hmudf ">aB Sli^nliclergyiaaVidares'toipvint' 
angna^'-as this^— ■ ■■■■ '■ iii- , ■ 1' ii:> 

or myself, then, I trust I may say, tliat I fully recogniso tli^, 
1, of Home as the mother and queiin of Churches ; tliat I do i|ol^] 
figly, reject any part whalover of her authoritative teaching, or 
i^n anypractice expresaly sanotioncd by her; tlmt, as tar as i aiii, 
evented by positive restriction, I make her system my' giiide' 
I -pDhllc and private ; and that I ardently and unceasingly desir^' 
inited to her; not only, as I believe myself to be now Qnited/ 
iyv but openly and visibly, and to be able (q pay in positive rctS-' 
m;^ which 'I now offer in will and intention. I use Ronriah 
of devotion in preference to others. I recite the BreviaiyoScff 
id tnstilatioa <h- sUeiation. ' 1 nreixitce tlja Baints af thcKoiJikii 
lafi X delight, in^wsiUin^. at tbeiMleb ratio h «£ tbei Divkie ntys- 
i^r.^lKtRnpnanUsa, ,i/«ally .R|n-.»ol|coiiscwu» pfflifUjnglolecfiler' 
4,jiasU|i:}»s,relfgTeLW8«Bpiralio», t,b|U^(4es',aot t«^4LK<»vwr^ Rqa}a,< 
^nJfl,;^i9iB0>itBdl»«ioii,*.'',. .,,.,., ;,,,;i,. .,1. -„'^ ^ ;.,-i-,., 

iftaS-'Jy-uM'. ir.Miii.i^ ;.iiir .y,livj<y\ Pf..j.n^:.;.i i^^TtTT ■ 

126 Tk$ BMop of London and Mr. Bmin$it. 

whining lament, about restoring *^ Oatholie unity V^ to hold up to 
the scorn of our bitter enemies the '^ isolation^ of the Oiurch of 
England ! Doubtless, she is ^^ isolated,^^ but whose is the goiH 
of that isolation ! Not ours, but theirs, who would impoe^ upon 
us UQsorlptural terms of communion, who ignore our existence a 
a Church, who call us *' heretics and schismatics !^ Is ibis ^ 
time, then, to subject one, who has so nobly served the iChuFeh 
of England as the Bishop of London, to a charge of " perseiofh 
tion,^^ because he endeavours to restrain his clergy from intror 
diicing ritual observances, which, no where ordered by Qur Prayer . 
Book, may, possibly, once have been Catholic^ but are now, 
beyond all doubt, exclusively Romish f Catholic unity is V 
good thing; but Scriptural truth and Anglican independence 
are far better, if they cannot all be had together. We' cal| 
that man a patriot, who defends his own cotmtry in the bcmr 
of danger ; and so, we say, has the Church of England, in this 
her hour of difficulty and trial, an exclusive claim upon the lon^ 
and gratitude, and allegiance, of all her faithful children. We 
say, that any priest or layman of the English Church, who, in 
his yearning after " Catholic unity,^^ forgets the special cliMmff of. 
his own spiritual mother, acts as rashly and as wickedly as he, ifhH^ 
for the sake of a common humanity, should lavish his substanoe 
upon strangers, and leave those, whom God has committed to his ' 
charge, to starve and perish in the streets. It is idle and weaK 
to cry, '^ Peace, peace ! when there is no peace.^' It is madnetB 
to call upon us to lay down our arms, with the sound of the 
enemy's trumpet ringing in our ears. It is treachery for us to 
'^ labour for peace,'' while all around shows that they are *^ lns^aag 
ready for battle." Let us hear one on this point, from whom ws 
differ much, but whose words once had some weight with Mr. 

" About the future history of our Church/' says Dr. Fusey, '' I have 
felt the less anxious, because I felt, as your lordship too feels, and has 
expressed, that God's good hand was with her. I have never planned 
any thing, as some have at times planned, nor worked (as some would 
wi«h) directly for her reunion with the rest of Cliristendom, because I 
always felt that a healthful restoration of unity must be God's doingr 
in His time and way ; to be prayed for, not planned. / have said to t» 
others^ who seemed to he impatient for this, and to aim at fshai was 
impossible. I have ever hoped that the Church of England, whom Qoi. 
has, by His providence and in its history, so marvellously distinguished 
from the Protestant bodies on the Continent, or among Uie Dissenters, 
had a special destiny and office in store for her, in His All-merciful 
designs. And in this great restoration of our Church, when younger 
men have seemed to me to turn their eyes too narrowly to one portion 

m^khop ifflmdim and Mr. Mi»nM. 187 

Ta worku I ht^v^ bolh publidy and privately pointed out what has 
9 impressed upon myself, how ihat work embr^es ^rtxy part and 
of the Church*." 

there is oiie other argument, advanced by. Mr. Bennett, 
ose who bold similar views with him, in favour of th^ *' I'P* 
ve theory,*" which it is necessary briefly to notice. It is 
'Beware how you oppose the introduction of any ante- 
ation usages ; for, in so doiiig, you are running counter to 
V^ice of some of the most esteemed and saintlv divinqs of 
iimunion*^* Bishop Andrewcs, they say, did this in his prir 
^apel — Archbishop Laud introduced that practice — Uisnop 
another,— rand so on. with a host of otiier names, whgm it is 
\,T indeed from our wish to disparage in the smallest ppsaible 
. We have a twofold answer to this position. First, that 
as we venerate the private characters of these divines-— 
is we feel the obligation to them, under which every EJng- 
hurchman must lie, still we cannot consent to allow that, 
lual practice is to be permitted to weigh, for a moment, 
t the language and spirit of the English Prayer Book. We 
therefore, that the Bishop of London was perfectly justified 
ii)g to Mr. Bennett, when objecting to that geutleman^s 
)t publicly to introduce into his pari3i the system of pray- 
' the dead : — " The authorities which you have adduced m 
i of the lawfulness of prayers for the dead, have no weight 
ie, in opposition to the plain and acinowledged judgment of 
urch of England^ ^'^ Of course the bisliop did not mean to 
\ Mr. Bennett insinuates, that he has no respect for the 
as of the divines Mr. Bennett had quoted, considered in 
stract ; but simply that, Inasmuch as the practice of '' pray- 
* the dead^^ was deliberately, for a good and sufficient rea* 
^pudiated at the Beformation, and at every subsequent re- 
of our Prayer Book, therefore it is not a practice sanctioned 

English Church. Surely this is perfectly souud reasoning, 
me thing to bring a ^' catena'^ of Anglican divines in sup- 
r a disputed point of rubrical interpretation^ in confirmation 
jsputed doctrine ; another^ and quite a different thing, to 
lividual opinions up ''in opposition to the plain and aoknow-* 
judgment of the Church of En^nd/^ But we say, more- 
nat we have no objection to allow an appeal to the great 
\ of the seventeenth century, provided that appeal be a fair 
provided Mr. Bennett will carry out their teaching fairly 

B Letter to Bishop of LondoBi p. 954. 
' Farewell Letter^ p, 61. 

128 Ti4 BUkop of London and Mr. Smneit. 

and honeatly. We Bubmib that it is most tm/air to bring fn- 
ward one pai>t of their teaching so triumphantly, and to ignore }- 
another part of it altogether ; to talk, as Mr. Baker talm, rf ^ 
" aheltenng themselves under the revered names of Bishops An- iv 
drewes, Laud and Butler, who have sufiered persecution, one qtgd b 
death, in the same good cause '."" We beg to remind Mr. Beonett ;l 
and Mr. Baker, that the great diviniw, to whom they refer, wbr j^ 
one and all, the stauachest de/mders of t/ie ChurtA of JSofflani s 
against the aggressions and t/ie usurpatiojis 0/ the Chareh ofBaan. t 
Ihey were, one and all, the great upholders of Catholicism; but ii 
then it was primitire, not mediceval. They clung to Catholic t 
truth, hut they sternly denounced Eoraish error. They never : 
di-eamed, for a moment, in their yearnings after (^tholic unity, '■- 
of giving up, for the sake of it, the " Protestant" chanicter of the ■- 
Church of England. We beg to ask, \\liat course would An- f- 
drewes, and Laud, and Hooker, and Buauihall, and good Bi^iop \ 
Hall, and saintly Jeremy Taylor, and a host of others like then, |_ 
what course would they have adopted, had they hQOH aliift now! ; 
Would tkey have forsaken the Oliurch of Knglgnd in. this hep hour ■. 
of difficulty and danger! VVould Mp'/liave lauded to the skies X 
the practice of the Church of Borne, while exposing, with groa 1 
exaggeration, the weaJiness aitd the deticieneifis of their own spi- 's 
ritual Mother ! Would tJuy have desmbed the Cliuich of Eng- 
land as " a bouse where there is no food supplied, but tchat is sca»f)' 
and scarce ; and, indeed, what little there may he, tasteless am 
innutritiihis^ f^ Would they have foreshadowed secession, by 
telling English Churchmen that " men cannot abide long where 
atl is doled oat gmdgim^ly and tparinifly, and they withal hbQgeT- 
ing and thirsting after the heavenly manna and the \ietl of We!" 
No, they would have buckled on their armour anew. ■ They; would 
have been among tlie foremost to "protest," against WMohh 
arrogance and Papal agression. They would have been tWfitst 
to contend, for the rights, the liberties, and the independenoe, 
of the Church of England. We say that, whan Mf. Bennett ftbd 
bis followers will imitate their practice in this respect, then' will 
they have a right, and not till then, to appeal to them oa other 
points. Let him defend the Church of England against Car- 
dinal Wiseman, as Bishop Andrewea defended it, in the Top- 
tura Torti, against Cardinal BeUarmine. Let hjm challenge the 
Jesuits of the present day, and refute thcm> as succeasffilly as 
Arohbisbop Laud refuted the Jesuit Fisher. Let him crii^ the 
Bomanists of our time, as Bishop Jeremy Taylor crushed theoi 

The Bishop of London and Mr. Bennett. 1 29 

in his ^' Dissuasive from Popery.^ Let him, like Bishop Hall, 
nise the cry, ^ iNo peace with fiome^^ so -long as Home persists 
in attackinsr tis. ^Theo \fviU he be consistent in a])pcalii)g to the 
writers we ^ave mentioned 7 then will he be doing his duty to the 
Cihurch of "ffSngland. But, in the name of eommon justice, let 
not Mr. B^nnet^ and others like him, gloss over the difference 
between the two comraimions; let him not cndeavchir to revive 
^iBgmisV-' praeiiees and ^^ Bomish"^ ohservancea, and thon ])rc- 
tend to support his innovations by appealing, forsooth, to '^ the 
great divines: of the seventeenth ccntnryM''^ Let him rather 
ponder over ihe language of a thorough English Ghurchmanb 

"1 f 

iv't.I^^not coj^peal from myself or others, that fur from believing 

.^W tQibe a. lawful refuge for those who are disquieted as to the con- 

/Bidtution and prospects of our own Church, it is that one communion of 

aQi tlvit professes to have'a primitive origin aud regular descent, to which, 

^f the Church of England were to fail, or I be cast out of it, I could 

; never go m^selC^ God helping me; nor can I conceive how any Chfis- 

fiail man, brought up in our own or any other orthodox reformed com- 

nulhibli, having his eyes open, and being guided by the word and Spirit 

^bf'God,- cotild ever pass. But if men will allow themselves to be 

'^^drawnr, step by step, into the belief that it is a home for them when 

tbeir own tilay become unfit for them to abide in, this Litter condition 

mU soon appear to them as if it were really so^ and the step nill he surely 

And here we would make a brief remark upon a very singular 
observation of Mr. Baker, respecting Archbishop Laud. He has 
adopted, as the motto of his letter, an answer of the archbishop 
on his trial to this effect: — " His Grace answered, that if they 
})Ad proTed he had laid any plot for reconciling the Church of 
JElogland with the Church of Borne, loith the maintenance of 
mMry-, it were a damnaUe plot indeed; but if Christian truth 
aad peacei might be established all over Christendom, he should 
•Ijb'nk himaelf happy if he was able to establish such a reconcilia- 
iition) vAatever he suffered.^^ Mr. Baker has the following re- 
nuurks upon this quotation : 

" With reference to the passage which, for its appositeness, I have 
chosen tox a motto, I should wish particularly to guard against seeming 
to acquiesce in the popular opinion of formal idolatry in the Roman 
system. I do not suppose such to have been the intention of Arch- 
bishop Laud ; but simply, that if, in reconciling the two communions, 

^ ** I went on— but kept my way, still stedfast, as I thought ; basing my teachmg 
on the divines of the seventeenth century." — ^p. 141. 
» Letter in the *« Guardian," Nov. 13, 1850, signed, Arthur Acland. 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXIX, — MAnCH, 1851. ^ 

1 30 The Bishop of London and Mr. Bennett. 

idolatry were necessarily involved, any attempt to effect it would, of 
course, be a matter of deadly sin/'-w-p. 139* 

Now the best interpreter of the real meaning of the archbighop 7 
on this point will be, we presume, the archbishop himself. In m 
" Conference with Fisher the Jesuit,'' Laud thus alludes to the 
" image worship " of the Church of Eome : 

«« I have, I think, too much reason to give that the modern Church 
of Rome is grorvn too like to Paganism in this point. For jt wrought 
so far upon Lamas himself, who bemoaned the former passage, a» 
that he delivers this doctrine: 'That the images of Christ, the blessed 
Virgin, and the saints, are not to be worshipped as if there were any 
divinity in the images, as they are material things made by art, but only 
as they represent Christ and the saints ; for else it were idolatry *.* " 

How does Laud reply to this most glaring aophiBtry ! 

" So then, belike, according to the divinity of this casuist, a man may 
worship images, and ask of them, and put his trust in them, * as they 
represent Christ and the saints; * for so there is divinity in them, though 
not as things, yet as representers. j4nd what, I pray, did or could any 
Pagan priest say more than this? For the proposition resolved is this: 
* The images of Christ and the saints, as they represent their exemplai;s» 
have deity or divinity in them.' And now, I pray, A. C, do you be jud^i 
whether this proposition do not teach idolatry ? and whether the modem 
Church of Rome be not grown too like to Paganism in this point? For 
my own part,'* — he says, in a noble passage, which we recommend to the 
especial notice of those who quote Archbishop Laud as a supporter of 
what they call * Catholic unity ;* — ** for my own part, I heartily wish it 
were not so, and that men of learning would not strain their wits 
to spoil the truth, and rend the Church of Christ by such dangerous^ 
such superstitious vanities, for better they are not, but they may be wors^. 
Nay, these and their like, have given so great a scandal among u$t tp 
some ignorant, though, I presume, well-meaning men, that they are 
afraid to testify their duty to God, even in his own house, by any out- 
ward gesture at all ; insomuch that those very ceremonies which, by the 
judgment of godly and learned men, have now long continued in the 
practice of this Church, suffer hard measure for the Romish superstition's 
sake. But I will conclude this point with the saying of B. Rhenanus : 
« Who could endure the people,' says he, « rushing into the church like 
swine into a sty? Doubtless, ceremonies do not hurt the people, but 
profit them, so there he a mean kept, and the bye be not put for the main ; 
ihat is, so we place not the principal part of our piety in them.*" 

We hope, after this, that, at any rate, Archbishop Laud will 
not be quoted, as an authority, by any who are willing, if not 

3 Works, li. 811. Library of Anglo-Catbolio Theology. 

The Bishop of London and fifr. Bmm$tt. 131 

desiroiis, to r€«tore what they call " Catholic unity,'' at the cost 
even of merging the fundamental doctrines of the Church of 
England in the " paganism'' and " superstition " of the Church 
of Kome. Bather would we earnestly implore such persons to 
consider attentively the well-nigh dying words of the martyr 

" This I will say with S. Gregory Nazianzen, * / never laboured for 
peace to the wrong and detriment of Christian verity, nor I hope never 
ihalU And let the Church of England look to it ; for in great humi- 
lity I crave to write this (though there was no time to speak *it) : that 
the Church of England mwt' leave the way it is now going, and come 
back to that fVay of defence which I have followed in my book, or she 
shall never he able to justify her separation from the Church of 

Thus wrote Laud against the Puritans. May we not say of 
Mr. Bennett, and of every one who holds his views, 

** Mutato nomine, de te 
Fabula narratur V 

But we come now to the most painful part of our subject, the 
consideration of the personal accusations, which Mr. Bennett has 
thought it becoming to bring against his diocesan. And this, in 
tmih, so far as the Bishop of London is concerned, is the most im- 
portant part, and for this reason. Comparatively few persons can, 
we believe, be found, who do not admit that Mr. Bennett ought to 
have yielded to the injunctions of his diocesan. ]}ut when he 
turns on the bishop, and accuses his lordship of having lured him 
on, and encouraged him in. his course by his Charge of 1842, and 
then of having treacherously deserted his obedient disciple, the 
accusation is more likely to bo believed, because few persons will 
take the trouble to prove its injustice, by a reference to the 
Charge itself. We remember, for instance, soon after Mr. Ben- 
nett's letter appeared, that a well-known radical daily journal 
wound up a rabid article by saying, — we quote from memory, 
" What can we expect from our clergy, if their bishops encourage 
them» as the Bishop of London has encouraged Mr. Bennett in 
all his practices r' — the journal in question having, of course, 
only Mr. Bennett'^s own statement as proof of its assertion. The 
^sarne thing has, doubtless, happened in other quarters, and it is, 
therefore, very important that the matter i^ould be placed in a 
proper light. We shall endeavour to place it in that light, by 
taking not simply Mr. Bennett's own statement, but by examining 
closely the celebrated Charge of 1842. 

* Trouble and Trial, Ac, quoted m Preface to ** Conference,*' p. 26. 


132 TAi BuAop of London and Mr. Bmnett. 

There are three principal aceuaationa of a persoDal nature, 
advanced by Mr. Bennett against the fibhop of London. First, 
that of having led him on by the Charge of 1842, and then of 
having meanly refnsed to support him in carrying out his own 
principles and injunctions. Secondly, of double dealing, in tbe 
case of his former curate, Mr. Spencer; and, .thirdly, of breach o[ 
confidence in the publication of the correspondence. We will 
deal with each of tliese charges separately. Let us on the 6rst 
point, see what is the sgbstajitive accusation :— 

" I did i;6nten<l," says, Mr. Bennett, " becaus^' I simply thoiigbt it 
my duty ; because I wished' to' obey the Bishop's Charge of 1842'." 
Again: " Onee havilig rteeived this 'teaching ahd schemed oat my 
course of pastoral tluty tliercupon,"tlitit hs should turn bia back upon 
himself in tifter years, and either modify, comprattiise, or deny thai 
vhich he Imd set me upon tbe road under bis auspices to begin, was 
not to be laid to lay charge-aaa faulo, who remained atedfaat unto the 
end ; but, one would have thought, rather,, to his charge, who took the 
changing gale of the populwi will fori hia gtidani^, rather than tbe Rock 
of Ages, which ittlanc fs the tjpe.of tie.Churcb whose children we are" 
(p. 25). Again; "^nkeefing.tliat bar (of Catholieity) at 
St. Barnabas, as long 0^;^ well ^ ^e cou^j, we ha,\e stood then 
faithful and fearless, Ki^d-we.^^ i at ending to^.so for jo^y long years, 
Gon giving iis^raee. gut np^^, j^iju^the ^ish(^pj have, pulled the bar 
down, driven the guards awaV, apd yoii have widclj ^catter^d ail, to the 
four winds byyourVdlfl andliearllesst'ro^slautisra^'Sow men,'inSeed, 
wiHfall ovei";' 'Thej'>riffVeW'sbott'fall dVe^'yyhuf^dfeasind''fty thou- 
sands. Btrt' WHdsfe 'i'iftxi' m'L'lt i'i 1 '"rSJej^dp. Irf?:) Atid, once 
more, " Putnie'bitck l«-f(ie'yeif184«,'iuVdnHbia^'aia(ioii.- Pictureto 
yourselves i'tjHi^ylliatiJuistenitrin^^pori'bliifirsldnri of ioufe — fully 
ogreeing'fll Ike' vi^ttiC oPhh bibhw^ the* aulhttrttalittlySt* forth-:— fully 
determined toi tarry 'tio«JtiSiVjp>'i(it(|i«iperationi'indJ'toi-Work .In his 
DivineiMasler's^itlejiKrK^fvfiths'Bdrfancan^Rt bfiHu-ilhilrch, knowing 
that allha>did andistnid. fctire tbt'cIfa^Atlu^^ oiltruth in itself, a priori, 
and i^DWk i^ (uldjUt«« preEented>,aQ inuJi^iat«.fLMLhfii>ityi4n *he bisht^'s 
ovrnwordp. .,?(Vbat.W»,4oa"rTrp.';(3.Ax .,.,„i ,u' i-,v'i i 

tJiafSfi Tf^nfett'W Wib^tiymisrbh-i^ydWtM' thepHtliiferes of the 
bishop'^ Chkit^^'W l843Vfef\H%;'(lidtf>s' a ifia^tl^ -of fact, 
wfeteWtj'Ui6se'^rtfcMea'Mrd,''Mr.'Bthfiytt 'did ^ot carry them 
cfetl''' 'AM Ut W'dfttiri%WriJirirti6rt^^tllat tt'? a^ 
ing (Jf'tli'ri't''01ia('gi!'5rmpTy as tJcfcL'cii't'he Eishop otlLondbn-anJ 
M'r.' lleiiiictt. Any thirlj; which niaj' hnvo. ocbnrfed in Other 
tjuarters has nothing ivliate\Tf to do with the pMs^nt question. 

• Thei«)ic|flri»^-)aM»»"'fl. 

Th« Bishop o/Xandon and Mr. Btmutt. 

'M H'e will prove to demonBtmtion that, bo far as Mr. Bennett was 
W eraeernea, he might have carried ont, if it had so pleased him, 
r the real principles of that Charge, unchecked by the slightest 
opposition on the part of its author — that the bishop only inter- 
tend, as he was bound to do, when Mr. Bennett endeavoured to 
n), or rather, as a matter of fact, did go, beyond what he found 
uiere laid down. Mr. Bennett says, in effect, to the bishop, " I 
carried out your iiijunctions to the letter, and, in return, you hare 
sacrificed me to popular clamour," All we have to do then, is, to 
prove that the accusation, on the face of it, is simply untrue. 
We will prove this by an examination of the Charge itself— by a 
reference to -Mr. Bemi^'is actual practice, and also to his own 
it in his " Fa^w^i Letter-. ■* i think I c 

statement ii 

I prove t 

you," says MrcBennetty-"ifiyou wDl'Only follow me with care, 
that in eveiy essMdial feature, of the Charge^ I have been a faith- 
fid and consistent Ibliawcrtaf'jwhatuwasiset before us as our rule 
of action.^li 'Wp''naU>AeiideaVoin' 'bo be as carefbl m possible, 
and, if we ns!&taks:'notti«JMi)l:;bci'aUie^tiO prove iuBt'tbeCiwtrary. 

Mr. Bennett then Inys down as the 'fcading feiature 'of the 
Cbarge, an endeavour to restoiv " CathcJiftJiv'" — that ia, of course, 
■what he himself considei-S to be " Catl^flcity." "" I thought I 
Tmderstood," ha says, " that the Spirit brfeitbMg through 'tRe whole 
of it, tbe"ji;eiKral tone iind dninla.^ of it, Wa^a live ofOatholicity, 
a desire for a return' to a purer and more Gai^blic forpi of wor- 
ship 'than,wa.s then prevalent in the churches of IfOndon" (p-6). 
He subsGC[uenlJy endeavom-s to, pstahlisl^ a 4iffipt, contradiction 
bDtwe.ejj|.tho Cliargi^ of ISi^, aniihat of jHoveijifeer, JSpQ- The 
one is, a?.hc says, a " Catliolic," the flther,a " frotesUnt " Charge. 
The ona, according to him, refers to thS authority^ ■ not m^^Jyof 
onr d«aF!I^toth£^!?,1^p,.. 6).--^^t''Vl6cal Church of which we.iara> 
Uembifife jfndidltilditin'^-H-lMit ^'fabdedpertbao thisf'" to ithe au- 
ttKaii*yi-o(Ijthe.r"iBatiy. OhirPcii,"_thB '^Prik»itive^canin*,f.th4 
"6\xkV4ibii4totiiii^!^l»prmM 6y her prmait Baln^f fmd Gamiis;- 
but the Church be/ore the' SefoTiaatwn,*.'" The' other iS' bM^ 
aitpgethetji^^j^cyrdfflg, ,^ the^me showing, upon ai mere cold, 
nj^ke^ g.^ti);^ " Ei-otestantisni,'" It would escee.d our present^ 
lik\i[tp-jto ,^|^W|"Mr.|.B^PBett' through all the passage^ h^ has.; 
-■-'-' in|S'upi'pr|l^,p^^ia,yicw. Wo will, therefore, simply Btatjc 

the,.tpfpr^iO^ cfjpvejj^^to.pur luiud, after a very careful penisa| 
of tliei'jCft^ge yf lgff§,!^ te the principle the bishop wisjieii thor^i*/ . 
to iiiculcat^ i^*^ W.p'^Sl'' That principle may be briefly 
dracnb*^ ^(^Iff^^HS^' li"^' '^9\ "'^ ", ^%: Chnreli," as bucI) ; .Mfflf 
to the ''' Primitive Church,''' as euch ; not to the " Church before 

ISi, The Bishop ofLandon and Mr, BmneH^ 

the Eeformation ^^ as such, but obedience to the doctrine cmd discipline 
of the Church of England, us they are embodied in our Liturgfj 
Canons^ and Articles. The Bishop, in effect, says : — " Do every 
thing which the Church of England orders you to do; obey her 
rubrics implicitly ; carry out her injunctioos fuUy ; restore hr 
system ; but there you must stop : introduce nothing which is not 
sanctioned by the Bubric, by prescriptive custom of the JEngUd 
Church, or by episcopal authority." 

We had marked some dozen passages in proof of this view, a 
view, let it be observed, essentially different from Mr. Bennett^s 
own principle, and the bishop^s, as he has described it. We must 
be content, however, with quoting a few of the most strildi^ 
character. The bishop's Charge was delivered when certain 
members of the " Oxford School" were " verging, step by step," 
towards that " precipice" over which they have since unhappily 
fallen. What says his lordship on this point ! — 

" I acknowledge that I was not unwilling to pau&e^ and be silent for 
a time, in the hope that those, who have been engaged in that contro- 
versy, would see the evils which mast ensue to the Church from its 
continuance, and be led to modify ^ or at least to keep Vfitlun their otin 
bosoms, what I considered to be extreme opinions. That hope has 
unhappily passed away, and it now remains for me to perform the dutjr 
of pronouncing that deliberate judgment which the clergy of uxy own 
diocese are entitled to look for^" 

The bishop then states his desire " to act a^ an interpreter of 
the ChurcKs sense as to doctrine, and of her will as to rites am 
ceremonies ;" plainly meaning the " intention" and " will " of tiie 
Church of England. Again: — 

" In our ministerial acts both of kindness and authority, especially 
the latter, we are to have respect to the Churches laws and ordinances; 
and beyond what they require (sic), we may npt claim t)b6difence. 1?ti6 
limitation of our ministerial authority, by the laws of the Chutch'ifo 
rvhich we belong, extends also to every part of our ministerial \diiUy. 
We are to teach, as our onm Church teaches, in her ' Articles of iReli- 
gion,' and to minister discipline according to the laws by nhick e/id has 
prescribed and defined it.**-^^. 9. . i : 


** With respect to those ornaments of the Church, about whicfh tberlB 
is a difference of opinion, where the Rubric and Canons are tM cle^i^f 
the judgment of the bishop should be sought for "--^p, 30. 

' CSfaarge of 1842^ p. 6. 

Tke Biihop of London and Mr, BinneH. 180 

And to with respect to ordinanees and ceremonieBy the lan- 
gOBge IB equally precise : — 

" In this Respect every clergyman is bound by the laws of his own 

Church. What ihey enjoin he is to practise; whal they forbid he is to 

abstain from ; nfhat they purposely omit he is not to introduce. Prayers 

FOR Tins i>tAt>, trine immersion in baptism, the kiss of peace in the 

fiocbatisty the mixing of water with wine ; nil these were undoubtedly 

ancient customs, if not all of primitive antiquity ; but they are not 

recognised by our own Churcht ctnd they arct therefore^ not to he practised 

by its misustere, * Let no minister of a parish/ says Bishop Jeremy 

Taylor, * introduoe any ceremonies, rites^ or gestures, though with 

seeming piety or devotioni which are not commanded by the Church, and 

established by law,* " — p. 32, 

Once more :-«* 

** You are not to take as your rule and model in this respect the early 
Church, nor the primitive Church, but the Church of England, as 
she speaks in plain and obvious cases by her Rubrics and Canons ; in 
doubtful and undecided ones by her bishops" — p. 32. 

And now we ask any candid and honest man, we care not 
whether he agrees with the bishop or not, carefully to consider 
Mr. Bennett^s own principles, and the bishop^s, as Mr. B&nncit 
Im describe them. We ask him to reflect on the passages wo 
have now quoted, and then let him say, first, whether there is the 
slightest similarity between the acJcnowUdged principles of Mr. 
Bennett and the principles of the Charge of 1 842 ? Secondly, 
whether Mr. Bennett has fairly described the principles set forth 
in the Charge! Would that we could imagine that he had 
quoted from memory. He tells lis himself that he has not done 
so*. What, then, is the unavoidable inference? 

There is, however, one passage from Bishop Fleetwood, which 
Mr. Bennett quotes with an air of great triumph, as fully justifying 
him in carrying out any practices which were in use before the 
Reformation. It will be necessary, therefore, briefly to consider 
this passage. 

*' The ceremonies^" says Biihop Fleetwood, " allowed in practice in 
the Churchy though not enjoined by the Rubric, are such as were used 
in the Church before and when the Rubrics were made ; and being 
reasonable and easy, and becoming, were not enforced by any new law, 
but were left in possession of what force they had obtained by custom. 
He that complies not with these ceremonies, offends against no law, but 
only against custom, which yet a prudent man will not lightly do, 
when once it has obtained in generaL" — p, 29. 

■ ** I think I Btill understand the animus of the Charge, now that I read it again 
(A Hm diiUxMe oftmej^ p. 6. 

1S6 Tie Bishop ofL&adm and Mr. Bemutt, 

We submit with regard to this passage, first, that it must not« 
in fairness, be taken by itself, but in connexion with the other 
parts of the Bishop of Londou's Char^re ; and, secondly, that it 
docs not, in any way wliatever, justify Mr, Bennett, or any other 
individual priest, in introducing Into the service of the Church o[ , 
England aiiy ritual observances which Are not authorized, dthef 
by the Biubric, by episcopal sanction, or by prescriptive custoni. 
Bishop Fleetwood refers to ceremonies " allowed in practice la j 
the Church, though not enjoined by the Rubric.'" He evidentlj j 
alludes to such practices as turning to the cast durini; the recitu 
of the Creed, repeating " Glory be to Thee, Lord," before the 
reading of the gospel, and other observances of a similar nature, 
but his words give no s^iction whatever to the notion, that any 
individual priest is at liberty to introduce any ceremonies at bU 
own will and pleasure, which are not " allowed in practice in the 

But let us considsr, va the next place, the charge of " inconaa- 
tency " which Mr. B^ett, by a comparison between the Charge 
of 1842 and that of 1850, brings against the bishop. 

" It is a remarkable fact," he says, " that, in the Bishop's Charge of 
1842, the 'Church of England' is never once called the 'Protestant 
Church,' — not onoe; We find a great variety of titles, such as ' oor 
Church,' ' onr own Ch'urch,' ' the Anglican Churnh,' ' tlie ' National 
Church," our Dear Mother," and the like, biit not once fhe 'Protestant 
Church,' Yet bow how different the strain. In the Cliarge of 1830 
we are told of the 'Protestant Church,''and of the 'distinctive doctrines 
of Protestantism;'" and in (h'e same address, although in 184"? it WM 
our privilege'to adhere and be attaclie^ to tie ' Catholic Chiircb ; '|'bo#, 
in 1850, we are told,' thit ih'm'&king anattempt to approaiih the; 
' Catholic standard,' we mean" the Church of Rome, just'preciwly 
abandonfnff 'the notion that any thing qan be Catholic buL.Jtoine."— 

p.163.^''^ ;■;■,;;; ■-' '_^- ' ■■;""':„- , ,.,,.;,,,;, ^j!'^;' , 

iW'e confes« tJutwe are somewhat' at s losa 'ta:fanow'<JwIi>(t'" 
Mr.'Bwmett really means hersi If he means tO'chot^Ili'Ma' a' 
fault upMitbe Bishop of London that,: in 1842, he-en^ 
bring! oat and develop; the "Oatholic" element of ehe^EAgBah 
Chwcb; whopeaa, 'in 1860, he fendeawured tb '^hg^ flttt'''thS". 
" Pi-otwtaftb" element, ■We ism oflly say, that we thmfcntf^eHttrij'; 
who really iovfes the Church '6f'Englana, win MW'him'ftr'ffly'. 
doi(i^,'cotimderiifij![ ht)*'niany jiriests of oi(r boB^iiftio*i;"5ii"tK^r'' 
attemfJt to^^pfoaCH what* they called tlie' " C^thb^ it&Skfi^^ 
have aittlill/ g'one bvbr to tW.Ohuroh,of llb^eO^^^ 
Bennett means to insinuate that there is any retu dtffermei 
between the principles of the two Charges ; if he mea^s to accuse 
the bishoj) of ,,npt " prj?testipg",83 .^troBgly, iii/X8i^' l|gw*^^^'t^^ 


1^ Bishop of London and Mr, Bmnttt. 137 

and corruptions of the Church of Rome, as lie has done in 
}^, tre simply say that the accusation is utterly groundless. 
IKe will qnote one of two passages in proof of this assertion. 

" With respect," says the bishop, " to kll attempts to give to the 
articles of religion a greater latitude of Bensa than the ivords, upon ttiu 
t»ee oS them, will tjeajr, and especially, all endeavours to make tliem 
look towards the errors of the Church of Rome, when they arc unques- 
tionably, ns to the points of difference between the two Churches, 
neither more nor lets than a lolemn and emphallc prolettation af^ainit 
those erroi-s, I will' express my own opinion in the words of llisliop 
Jeremy Taylor." Ami again, " What real good is to be effected by any 
attempts to make our Heformed Church appear to symbolize with that 
from which she' "btit been Beparated, in some of the very points which 
form the gronnd of that •eparation, f ant at a hi* to imagine, Deiira- 
ble as is the unity of the Catholie Church, lamentable as- have been in 
tome directions the consequences of the interruption, earnestly as 
nt ought, to labout and pray for its restoration, we can never content 
le re-initate it, hy embremag any one ff the errort which aw have re- 
nomced'," ,. . ...... 

Once more:-— 'J 

"Against such a Chjirch we are bound continually to lift np tbo 
voice of solemn remonstrance; and, far froni being ashamed of the 
name of Protestant', we ought to show, that a sincere and inimorable 
attachment to tUe Catholic Church, in its constitution, discipline, autho- 
rily, privileges, and u!ligBs, is perfectly compatible vrith, or rather is 
'An\t a practical act of protestation against the errors and corruptions of 
ilie Papal Chiircli. And surely the duty of so protesting is not to ho 
lost sight of, aX a time when that Church is boldly reasserting its pre- 
leniions amo^ig^t us, aiid a&ecting' to look for the speedy return of our 
own Rerprmed Church into its maternal bosom. Its errors are not less 
opposed to Gospel truth, and holiness now, than they were at the time 
ohhe Reformation. The doctrines and practices which rendered neces- 
ury. wir'SsparttioB-fiiom that Churd, are still retained by her nn- 
cliiiigad(.uqiiiiliigiated<aBqQalif)ed ; nor are the differences between us, 
is qtsenuaLasatters, fess at the present moment than they were in tb« 
linen «J|,<rranRieT orof Jewel, of Taylor or of RuU. We are far from 
pTMUmm£ to ^Sfqrt t^e labsplute perfectness of our own Cbunch, but itia 
Bot.ii^ r£l/apingfii}u of the steps, by rvhieh the has receded from the 
Ckfireh ,f>f j^o^f.f'tV* 'Ae be made more perfect; nor by altemilt- 
ing to. reniodel, her ppon the doctrine and discipline, not of the prinu- 
livG Church, but of .the Church of the fourth or fifth century, infected 
u it was'^ilTi ^iie remaios of Gnostic saperstition, and the inventions of 
enthusiaslittoV ambitious men." — p. 37. ; 

• bat^B of 1843, p. 11. 
■ Hr, Bennett e^ (his 

(his, oring aii Word Prutostant " In an apolojetk rirain ! ' 

138^ The Bishop ofLmdan and Mr* Bewnkdf. 

We have thus then shown the real principles of the Bishop of 
London's celebrated Charge of 1842; and, also, how erroneously 
Mr. ]3ennett Las represented those principles in his " Farewell 
Letter.'' Let us now see bow in practice^ according to his own 
showing, Mr. Bennett carried out the principles of the bishop's 
Charge. His very first act at St. Paul's was a practical disregard 
of his lordship's toishes, in introducing the cnoral service', he 
knowing, perfectly well, that the bisliop greatly preferred the 
reading of the prayers to the practice of intoning them. Let it 
be understood that we are giving no opinion here, as to the 
abstract question, whether the prayers should be read or intoned! 
We are simply desirous of showing that Mr. Bennett was not so 
anxious, as he liimself profeases to have been, to comply with the 
bishop's wishes. 

Again, there is nothing, as we have seen, to which the bishqi 
more strongly objects in his Charge, than the practice of " pny« 
ing for the dead." In 1849, Mr. Bennett issued '^ Suggestione < 
for a Form of Prayer," in which he introduces a distinct prayef ! 
for the dead. The bishop remonstrates. In answer to this re- i 
monstrance, Mr. Bennett attempts to justify the practice in a \ 
very long letter. He afterwards abandoned it ; but the mere i 
fact of its introduction shows that he did not endeavour to cany ; 
out, as he says, to the letter, the principles of the bishop^s Charge, j 
Then came the erection of the churcn of St. Barnabas, wheran 
Mr. Bennett seemed determined to show how far he could cany 
out Ms opposition to the bishop's principles. The candles ott the 
altar were lighted, which the bishop, in his Charge, had easpresdl 
forbidden^ except in the time of evening service. The invocation 
of the Blessed Trinity was introduced before the sermon ; di9 
sign of the Cross was publicly made in various parts of the8e^ i 
vice ; and divers other practices were introduced, altogether ■ 
unsanctioned by the Church of England. 

But we need not pursue this unhappy subject furtheir ; we viB j 
quote only one passage from the " Farewdl Letter," and then -^i 
leave our readere to judge for themselves, whether Mr. Bennett 
did, or did not, keep steadily in view, in his pastoral teaching, tha ; 
principles laid down for his guidance in the bishop's Charge :-»-., * ; 

" You will see," says Mr. Bennett, " that I constantly looked to ^ 
end : that 1 was aware some such end must sooner or later come, fici 
how I considered and weighed it, in my letters to the bishop ; Awf f ' 
always foresaw that my holding the Catholic faiths and keeping CaMk 
practice, must inevitably lead me either to retire from my present ohMfjf^ 
or to disobey my bishop. It seemed even then almost necessary fikr't 

* See Charge of 184^ p. 34. 

Tks Biihop of London and Mr. Bennett • 1 39 

priest, such as myself, nho held a doctrine on to important a subject as 
prayer for the dead m opposition to his bishop^ to ceaso from minister- 
ing in the same diocese." — p. 141. 

Strange indeed it is, that the writer of the aljove can think it 
compatible with his own consistency, afid'with truth, to use in 
another part of his letter such language as this : — " lUit I did 
contend, because 1 simply thought it thy duty — because 1 wished 
to obey ike bishop'^s Gharffe a/* 1842 V* (gic) — p. 25. 

But we come now to the second 'of the personal accusations 
which Mr. Hennett has brought against the bishop, that of 
double dealing, in extorting information with respect to the prac- 
tices at St. Barnabas from one of his curates. Let us see how 
the case stands. On the 1st of July the bishop writes to Mr. 
Bennett, that information had reached him respecting certain 
specified observances at St. Barnabas, requesting to know whether 
tnat information was, or was not, correct. One of these prac- 
tices was the administration of the holy elements not into the 
hands of the communicants. Mr. Bennett suspects that the 
information on this point must have come from one of his curates, 
and it appeared, subsequently, that it did come from the Rev. 0. 
C. Spencer, who had been for several years assisting Mr. Ben- 
nett at St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, and was then his senior 
curate. Mr. Bennett complains bitterly of the bishop for forcing 
information against him from Mr. Spencer, and also of " the 
concealment of the name of the informer, of the underhand way 
in which the information is elicited, forced, pressed, and then, 
being so pressed, the use of language by which the source of the 
information is made to appear merely general .**" — p. 77. Let us C(m- 
Bider the case for a moment. We readily allow that, if the Bishop 
of London had, without any thing having previously occurred, sent 
for Mr. Spencer, or any other of Mr. ]knnett''s curates, and ex- 
torted from them information against Mr. Bennett, such a method 
of proceeding would have been quite unjustifiable. Such, how- 
ever was not the method of proceeding here. Mr. Spencer ims 
desirotM of resiminff his curacy at St, Paiirs^ and signified that 
desire to the Bishop of London. Now, let it be remembered, 
that, for several years, Mr. Spencer had been Mr. Bennett's con- 
fidential assistant. Mr. Bennett himself thus speaks of him : — 
^' I believe him to have been a most conscientious and diligent 
curate. I never, on any one occasion, had the slightest difference 
of opinion with him on any rubrical or ritual observance."— p. 74. 
Surety, then, it was not unnatural, that the Bisliop of London, 
finding that Mr. Spencer, from conscientious motives, could not 
continue his ministration at St. Paul's, should be desirous of as- 
certaining the reasons of his retirement. Considering what had 

140 1%0 Bishop o/Lmdan tmd Mr. Bennettm 

occurred with respect to the prayers for the dead, and other 
matters, it was perfectly reasonable that the bishop^s suspiciong 
should be excited, and that he should insist upon Mr. Spencer 
stating his reasons for retirement in externa. Mr. Bennett thus 
speaks of Mr. Spencer in this respect : — " I believe he was merdy, 
as a conscientious Protestant, frightened at the so-called ^ inno- 
vations^ of, as he thought, ' Popery," and so had been desirooB 
to be released from duties which had become to him irksome and 

Eainful." — p. 75. It is strange that Mr. Bennett did not perceive 
ow completely these very remarkable words carry with them the 
condemnation of the writer. Surely, if he were introducing prac- 
tices by which the conscience of his curate was so aggrieved that 
ho could not continue his ministration at St. PaulX it was hi^ 
time, not simply that the bishop should know what those practices 
really were, but should at once call upon Mr. Bennett to explain 
or relinquish them^ Surely if one, who for years had acted with 
Mr. Bennett without a word of complaint, coukt continue to aefe 
with him no longer, there was ample justification, 'not simply for 
the bishop''s suspicions, but for his interference-' also. We think, 
therefore, that Mr. Spencer haa been very hardly derft "with in 
this matter, in being held 'up to the- world as " an informferf 
and, secondly, 'that the: bishop iwas'bou'nd,! by his duty tb the 
Church of England, to insist upon Mr. Spen^et^istating'his reasons 
why he could not any longer eon tinoe^toiact as Mr. BennettTs 
curate. ■- • ■ . -^ ' •■■■ ■ *: ■■ :■■ .■'" . • 

And now our' painful task 19 nearly ended; - 1 We havcJ olidy to 
notice the accusation- which Mr^- Bennett' bHri^' against the 
bishop of a breach of confidence in thbipwAlifcartidtt 'Of* thcfcbrre- 
sporidence, : : Wc mttst, howovier, ijak^ 'the libWfcy 'of ^saiying; that 
this laccusationv whether weltiDriill-<bT«iided,'M^dtftes'with% very ill 
grace from Mr.Bennetfci WJioever hasT^'dhis c^lblMted letter 
to Lord i John Jlusdeli, most recc^feet c&rtsSfn p^iUKsaj^e!^ ' therein 
which iai^scaircely compatible with tbd chat^ vhick'Mrl'B^iittetV 
now briiigs:.cigainst his diocesan. • We dd nOt< btasm^ 'Miff Bettblett 
for i.the introduction of those ipassttgei' undfef 'tSie vety ^IjMiilia^ 
circuinstances of the case.; but surety he ought M UaV^'bbni^d^;^'' 
that -there < might, possibly be an = eiqual necessity ft>t* tb&' 'jiti^lidktion' 
of ithe: correspondence between himself and th6:B{sb^:of IL^iidcfft. 
But <wfi sayv moreover, that there re^ly was no bt^h'df'coti- 
fidencd whatever committed. What are the ftlctsl. .'On the 
11th of December the bishop thus writes :4^" I/t)ren^i^e thai 
yon have no objection to the publication of your lettef 6t D^. 4, 
together with mine of Itec^ 9.= I think it n(b6e^s6ity for my own 
juatifloaifioa that:9f»i9M!8honId bepublii^ed, and but- fair that yours 
should appear with it." — p. 119. How does Mr. Bennett reply 

Tlis Bishcp of London and Mr. Bennett. 141 

to this letter! From the way in which he has spoken of the 
matter, one would expect to find him saying, ^^ I do object alto- 
gether to the publication of the correspondence. My letters were 
never intended for publication, but were simply of a private 
nature, and therefore I object altogether to their being pub- 
lished.^ He says nothing of the kind. He makes no sort of 
objection. He replies : ''^ I do not think that the publication of 
one or tioo letters will hy any means be sufficient. It is my inten- 
tion^ for my own jmtyication^ to publish the whole of the corre- 
spondence.'*'' We submit, therefore, first, that the Bishop of Lon- 
don teas bound, for his own justification, to publish the corre- 
spondence in question ; teas bound to show, as the correspondence 
did show most clearly, to all whose mental vision was not, like 
D. G. L.^s, dimmed by prejudice, that he did not sacrifice Mr. 
Bennett to popular clamour, — ^to show, as dates do show plainly 
and unmistakeably, that Mr. Bennett'^s resignation had been 
actually offered, and virtually accepted by the bishop^ long before 
any thmg whatever had been heard of the " Busscll riots.'' Se- 
condly, that, by his reply. to the bishop's note, Mr. Bennett has 
precluded himself from bringing, with any fairness, the charge of 
" breach of confidence ;? and, lastly, that, even if the bisliop had 
been content to be silent,, the Hyhole of the con'espondence would, 
in fact, Jiave speedily found its way to the columns of Mr. Ben- 
nett's and D. 0. L.'s peculiar organ, the " Morning Chronicle." 

And now then let us see what are the positions we have esta- 
blished in tbis paper. We have proved, first, that Mr. Bennett 
forced. his resignation -upon the Bishop of London. Secondly, 
that Mr. Bennett's primciples, as he has himself described them, 
are not in accordanpe with. -the i8f)irit:.of the Ohurch of Eng- 
laadas a ^' refiwn^ed .branch of the* Cburchi Gatbolio ;'' and, 
thirdh', that the aqcusations of. a personal nature. brought- by 
Ur. Bennett :against.:tha bishop are altogether igroundless ^and 
unfounded. If.^ny think that.iwe have< borne hardty. upon Mr. 
Dennett, we cai^^mply, in. all sincerity, deny, the rchargevsaiikeia 
fact and in, intention* It was open .to Mn Bennett to have 
adopted one of three . courses, i H«< might, forthesakeMif his 
own principle^, have refused to yield. to th^ ibishop'siadmonitions. 
He might, from ^ a pnnoiple of ieanonical: obodienoev have- 'quietly 
withdrawn from .|i^is^{)asto]?^I cliai'ge ; ,;Qr l)e might have said to 
the bishop, '^^]/h&v9(epdea^o^redrConscie□tiou8ly todirwhat I con- 
sidered to h&jny duty. , < J jhinkitfaait.I Imve: been j^tified in the 
course I havai^ken ;. ;b«fc J.Qannet. copsient to separate myself from 
all that I hold ^^»st4ea^. !i!E>'^r;tbe sake, therefore, of thcfiock among 
whom I have laboure^foi; thcf salce.of the spiritual .welfareix)f my 

^ ■.■■ 

142 The Bishop of London and Mr» Bennett. 

1)ari8hioncrs, I am content to bow to your lordship^s deciBioii^ t ^ 
cave you to alter any thing in my practice which is not sanction^ 
by the letter, as well as by the spirit, of the rubrics of the Anfl^a# 
Church.''" If Mr. Bennett had adopted the first course, we mdl ^ 
have respected him, while we differed from him. If he had adoptfli 
the second, we should have thought foul scorn of the man ihi r-' 
could have said one word to embitter the pain he must have fdt it < 
parting with his church and people. If he had taken the tUii re- 
course, we should have honoured him as one '^ above all Greek, k. 
above all Roman fame^' — as one who had gained the greatest of > 
all victories, the victory over himself-^-as one, content to make - 
any sacrifice, short of the sacrifice of truth, for the sake of thik ^ 
^' beautiful flock,"^ which God had committed to his cham 
Mr. Bennett has done none of these things. He has forced mi ■; 
resignation upon the Bishop of London, and then vilified him {or ^^x 
accepting it He has professed to carry out the bishop^s prin* $ 
ciples, while, in effect, he has acted in diametrical opposition to ^ 
them. He offers to resign his living because the bishop will not i^ 
allow him to carry out certain practices. He subsequently, when ; 
too late, ofiers to abandon all those practices save one ; and then, ^ 
that offer not being accepted, he holds up those very practices IB : 
essential marks of the '' catholicity'^" of the English communion. : 
He professes to feel indignant at the imputation of ^^ unfaithful- :: 
neas"" to the Church of England ; and then, by way of showing ^ 
his fidelity to his spiritual Mother, he holds her up to the soorn \ 
and derision of her enemies, ^^ as a wreck — as a stranded, helpleali \ 
waterlogged wreck.'" Therefore do we say, that this is jusi oni : 
of the cases in which justice and mercy are incompatible wid > 
each other — that if, for the sake of any personal considerations, 
we had avoided the examination of this most unhappy ^^ Farewell 
Letter,''" we should have been guilty of treason to the Church of 
England, as well as of gross ingratitude towards that eaunent 
Prelate, who has heretofore done the Church such good ser^ce, 
and against whom Mr. Bennett has thought fit to bring a series 
of most unfounded accusations. 

And let no one suppose, because we have thought it our duty 
to vindicate the Church of England and the Bishop of London, 
against Mr. Bennett and the party who have supported him, tiiat 
therefore it is our wish to yield, in the slightest possible d^;ree, 
to the ^' clamours of the mob ; "" to give the smallest possible 
encouragement to any unfowaded charge of '' Romanizing ;^^ to 
use that cry for party purposes ; or to promote the growth of 
the ^' Puritan"" element within the Church of England. If we 
had thought that the real principles of our Church were, in the 

Tke Biaiop of London and Mr. Bennett. 143 

degree, endangered by the eircuniBtancea connected 
Iff. Bainett^B resignation, we should have been among tiie 
to say so. But we do not believe any thing of the kind. 
it is very easy for D. G. L. to talk about the evils of undue 
^ ^ concession ^^ to episcopal authority; to assert that ''the 
^- -Atioklen for extra constitutional powers on the part of our 
-Usbops ^'' have ^^ themselves created the precedent by which they 
inll be scourged^' — (p. 4t). This is a very good ad captandum 
iu*gument, but it is not based upon truth. We are no '* sticklers"'* 
fbr f ^ extra constitutional powers^" in the episcopate, but wo do 
wish to see a little decent respect shown to the episcopal office ; 
we do desire to see a little gi^titude for past services shown by 
thofie who call themselves English Churchmen. We do say, 
that the clamour which has been raised against the liishop of 
London, in reference to Mr. Bennett^ is disgracefid to those who 
have FEiiaed it, not simply as they are men who profess to venerate 
epiflobpaoy, but as they are men possessing one spark of gratitude 
for a aeriea of long and eminent services to the Church of Eng- 
land; And the Bishop of London's is not, we are sorry to say, an 
isolated case. If there is one bishop of the English Church who 
might have expected forbearance and kindly fecHng from all 
quai^ters, it is the Bishop of Bipon, — and yet see how that Pre- 
late has been treated. Because he has done his duty to the 
Church of England, by endeavouring to prevent a more glaring 
violation, both of the letter and spirit, of the English Prayer 
Book^ than even Mr. Bennett's, all his past services arc at once 
forgotten, and he is looked upon as a destroyer of the '' Catho^ 
lidty" of the English Church equally with the Bishop of London. 

" Of course," says Mr. Bennett, " it must bo plain to you, that 
notbing now is left. I would fearlessly propliesy that Protestantism, as 
it it in the Anglican Church, never will embrace either the young, the 
enthuBiastic, or the ignorant ; and now that it has won its s-poHn opima 
at the gates of St. Barnabas, in the province of Canterbury, and at the 
gateaof St. Saviour's, in the province of York, it must be content to see 
the advance of the Church of Rome in reality." — p. 185. 

We venture to " prophesy," with equal *' fearlessness,"' that no 
Boch resuk need be apprehended. We rely, for the prevention 
of Buoh a result, under God, mainly upon two grand principles, 
deeply-seated, we firmly believe, in the hearts of the i)eople of 
England. The one is an earnest determination never to submit 
to the arrogant and unfounded claims of the Bishop of Rome. 
The other is an equally earnest love for the Prayer Book of the 
English Church. While these two principles arc dominant, we 
have no fears for the safety of our Church ; and we submit, that 
recent events prove, to a demonstration, that they are dommant 

Hi The Bishop of London and Mr. Bennett, 

now. It may suit D. 0. L. to talk about those *' wretched 
secessions to Ilome/' — it may suit Mr. Bennett, and others like |- 
hira, to talk about the *' cold, naked, Protestantism'' of England, • 
— to insinuate that all the English people care for is *'No - 
Popery.'' In truth it is not so; but there is one thing te'-- 
which they do care, and that is, common honesty of purpose— -^ 
common straightforwardness. It is not the " wretched secea- j- 
sions" to Rome which have influenced the people, half so mudk j^ 
as the miserably dishonest way in which those secessions have |^ 
occurred. Their disgust has very far exceeded their alarm. If t 
priests of the English Church had taken that course, which thejr f ' 
themselves would consider the only honourable course in secular "j- 
matters, — if they had gone to their respective bishops, and sigoi- j^ 
fied that, their minds being unsettled^ they must cease^ for tk r 
present, at least, to officiate as English clergymen — if any number of f = 
priests had taken this course, we should have respected them as f- 
honest men, while we deplored their falling away. But when we j^ 
see such gross violations df good faith as we have seen lately, we j- 
cannot wonder at the indignation so loudly expressed. When we I- 
see men presiding at public meetings of Churchmen, met together U 
for the express purpose of defending the Church of Enghnd, P 
going over — for Lord Fielding, we presume, was not " driven,''' to ^ 
the ranks of the enemy ; — when we see clergymen writing to the | 
Bishop of London, in terms of unusual familiarity ; then, knowii^ ■;; 
their diocesan's peculiar position, deliberately publishing the cor- 
respondence ; and, within three weeks, joining the Church of Rome ; 
— when, again, we see others, as members of a society formed for 
the defence of the English Church, moving resolutions of fsm- 
pathy with Mr. Bennett, as English Churchmen, and, shortly •after, 
joining the ranks of that body which looks upon English Church- 
men as heretics and schismatics ; — when, lastly, we see addresses 
from, so-called, English Churchmen, complaining, forsooth; of 
the manner in which the Papal Aggression has been met, ivi 
saying not one word in condemnation of the barefaced hypocrisj 
and treachery of many of those tolio have recently forsaicen ih 
Anglican Church ; — can we possibly wonder, after all this, at the 
disgust and the indignation of every man of common honesty — of 
every man who has about him a single grain of genuine English 
principle? Can we wonder that suspicions should be raised 
against innocent men ; against men who have not the smallest 
approximation to a '^ Romanizing '" tendency ; agaiust men who 

' In applying the term '^ Romanizing," we desire to be understood as using the 
word, by vay of censure, with a limited application. We firmly believe that tlie 
prindpies, say of Mr. Baker, and the author of the << Appeal to Rome,** have aJike, 
though not equally, a '^ Romanizing " tendency in their results fully wgffk«d.oat— * 

3^ Bishop of London and Mr. Btmutt. 145 

vould Bcom to " palterin a double aeose \" would scorn to prorcss 
to be membere of one communion, while in heart and affections 
they belonged to that the most opposed to it \ We say, confi- 
dently, that these " wretched secessions" to Rome, are the real 
impedimentB to the full development of the Catholic principles of 
thtf Church of England; and not the "naked Protestantism" 
which Mr. Bennett so feelingly deplores. Once satis^ tho 
people of England that, so long as Rome remains unchanged, tlicy 
-need bare no fear of our going over to B.omc — once take tho 
groand, in opposition to Rome, which the " divines of the seven' 
teenth century" took — not for the purposes of party — not in a ran- 
corous and unchristian spirit — hut as a matter of truth and duty — 
in defence of the doctrine and discipline of that Church of 
which we are sworn servants — and sure we arc that the plain 
sound sense, the honest English feeling of the people will cause 
them to respect us, to sympatluze with our enileavours to obey 
the law of the Church of England. They will feel then that ice 
can he trusted ; that we really mean what we say ; that we love 
the Church of England :for her own sake ; that while, on the ono 
hand, we will never consent to abandon one jot or one tittle of 
Oathohc truth, we never will, by God's grace, connive at one 
particle of Romish error, ti may be, nay we much fear it 
will be, that wq deplore further losses, and perhaps 
a more widely-spread s^ession. There is a spirit abroad, at 
the present, day, in a .section of the. English. Church, a spirit 
of restleasfie^ and disaffection, which, we much fear, will lead 
yet mor« to ,l;he Church of Bome. But we believe, moreover, 
ud hiereipiiea our greatest hop^, we believe {hat there are thou- 
sands of, gF>o4. men and tru^, on whom the Church of England 
may ooBPt as '| faithfijil unto deatb"' — who, " come what come 
may^? .wiy neyer "• Wave her nor forsak? '* her-:-whp will fight her 
hsttlp^.n<* sJDJpljf. ,t)ecause their lot is cast withi.p her fold by 
Providence; notsmlply because she is. "the Church of their bap- 
tism^", bqt because they believe her to be, with all her short- 
conueigs, and all her deficiencies, the purest, the most Scripting, 
the most Catholic branch, of tjie lUysticnl hotly of Chbist, now in 
existehc^T— ijiecause they conscientionaly believe that, if the Divine 
Head of xhs Christian CiiuEcn,.we say it with all reverence, 
were now upon ea^r-in the Church of England, in preference to 
any oth^r,. wQuJd Ha take delight, as, more than any other, em- 

hit then th^ {b this tUffcrciicc — Che ooe isau honest man, dDBiririg to bring ftbbnt 
Catholic Unit; hy an MaimilaUoii of the tno Com muni an 9, and is, aa wc think, 
■ending meti to Some onnlttinglf. Thu other ia a diehoDMt 111*11, at heart a 
Ronut^st, b* none and profeMion an Engllrti Charahman. The one is entitled to 
Mspect, wLila wo differ fmin him ; the other is autiacd to nolhiiig but (ccfth and 

VOL. XV. NO, XXIX, WABCil, 1851. i. 

146 The Bishop of London and Mr. BmnM. 

bodying in her Bystem those great fundamental truths which Hi 
descended from Heaven to reveal to mankind. And it is beoaiue 
of this firm conviction ; — because we venerate our Spiritual Moiher 
for her purity of doctrine, for her Apostolic descent, for her 
respect for Catholic truth ; — because we believe the great body of 
the *^ large party ^^ are true to her real principles, disliking the 
pseudo-church principles of D. 0. L. and Mr. Bennett, equa% 
with those of Latitudinarians and Puritans — because, more^ 
over, we believe that the great mass of the English people 
are true to her also — therefore do we speak so confidently with 
respect to the future. We repeat that we have no fears for the 
ultimate safety of the Church of England. Of her may we nee 
the beautiful language of the poet : — 


non hy ernes illam, non flabra, neque imbres 

Convellunt : immota manet, tnultosque per annos 
Malta virum volvens darando ssecula vincit. 
Turn fortes late ramos et brachia tendens 
Hue illuc, media ipsa ingentem sustinet umbram." 

VirgUj Georgia^ ii. 29l« 

We know, indeed, full well the difficulties by which she is beset ; we 
know full well that mighty engines are at work azainst her. On the 
one hand, Bomish insolence and Papal usurpation ; on the other, 
State aggression and sectarian bigotry ; are directing against hec 
their strongest efforts : while, within her own pale, on this side 
D. C. L., and they who think with him, are endeavouring to rend 
asunder the links by which she is connected with the State ; on that, 
the Puritan faction are moving heaven and earth to blot out of her 
Prayer Book the enunciation of all those grand Catholic verities 
by which she is identified with the Primitive Church in its beet 
and purest ages. Still have we no fear for the result, because ife 
are convinced that the great bulk, alike of her clergy and her 
people, fraternise with neither of the extremes to which we 
have alluded. They are not prepared to surrender up the libertiee 
of the English Church to the tender mercies of Lord John Busedl 
and Dr. Cumming. They are equally unprepared to adopt the 
ultramontane theories, so to speak, of D. C. L. and Mr. Bennelt. 
They will not recognise the supremacy of a Prime Minister, who, 
by his own conduct, sets at defiance the constitution and laws 
of the Church ; they are content, and thankful to reco^ise the 
supremacy of the Sovereign, so far as that supremacy is defined 
in our Canons, Articles, and Formularies. They are not pre- 

Eared to rest satisfied with the existing condition of the relations 
etween the Church and the State. They have no wish to dis- 
solve those relations altogether, but simply to put them on a 

The Siihcp of London and Mr. BrnimU. 147 

froper footing. We say that recent events amply justify the 
Vfaw we have taken. There can be no mistake as to one point, 
that the people of England have no sympathy either with 
Bomanists or with Bomanizers. There is as little doubt either 
tiiat th^ will not allow a finger to be laid upon that which, next 
to the Word of God, they value more highly than ought besides, 
the Anglican Prayer Book. Every one remembers the rumours 
that were current on this point just before the meeting of Parlia- 
ment. But it has been discovered that, much as the people 
of England abhor Romish error, they equally love Catholic truth 
—that they will not allow any tampering with our time-hallowed 
Liturgy. Therefore do we say, that our prospects for the future 
are hopeful and cheering. 

And let no one suppose, lastly, that in any thing we have said 
with respect to Mr. Bennett, we have any wish to discourage 
the widely-spread desire of giving increased solemnity to our 
Church ritual by the adoption of all the aids and appliances of 
"architecture and music and painting, and all other such 
handmaids of Christian worship *. In truth, we have no such 
wish. On the contrary, we would employ every means which, as 
English Churchmen, we may consistently employ, to raise and 
cdiiv^te a spirit of devotion amongst our people. Wc would 
have our churches built after the most beautiral models. We 
would have the ceremonial of our churches regulated with all that 
attention to decent splendour and sober pomp which charac- 
terized primitive worship ; but then wc must keep in view two 
principles, in subordination to which every thing should be done. 
The one is, that we regard these aids and appliances as means, 
ud not as ends — that we beware of cultivating sestheticism to 
snch a height that it degenerates into what we venture to call 
^lesiaatical foppishness ; — the other, that we do all things in obe- 
dtedce to the letter, so fiir as circumstances will allow, and, in all 
cases, to the spirit, of the English Prayer Book. We must not 
Qidolge our individual fancies by the introduction of observances 
which our own Church has not sanctioned ; which, harmless, it 
may be, and even beautiful, in themselves, are yet forbidden to us, 
partly because they are not authorized, partly because of the 
peculiar position in which we are placed, not from our own act or 
our own wash, but through the conduct of that rival Church by 
which they are employed habitually. We rrnist have regard to 
the circumstances of our times, to the position in which we are 
placed. We rmist^ if we do our duty as English Churchmen, 
beware of introducing any practices which are not sanctioned by 

* Farewell Letter, p. 224. 


148 !%$ Bishop of London and Mr. Bennett. 

our Prayer Book, by episcopal authority, or by prescriptive 
custom. We must take care that we give our people no red 
occasion to ask us, " Art thou for us or for our adversaries f' 
And let us not fear that, by adopting such a course as this, we 
" rend asunder the body of Christ,'* by refusing to conform to 
Catholic usage. In carrying out the principles of the Church of 
England, in inculcating her doctrines, and in obeying her disci- 
pline, we do, in fact, conform to a Catholicity of the best and the 
purest kind. If the mediaeval and modern Church of Rome has 
chosen to overlay that Catholicity by a series of doctrinal and 
ritual innovations, they, and not we, are responsible for the viola- 
tion of Christian fellowship and brotherly concord. Let us not, 
above all, repine, in a spirit of querulous lamentation, at the sup- 
posed deficiencies of our Church, while we forget the real blessings 
which she affords to all her faithful children. Let us rather do 
all we can in ^' quietness and confidence,'' in faith and patience, 
to " lengthen her cords and to strengthen her stakes." 

" If," to use, in conclusion, the language of one who has en- 
gaged much of our attention in this paper, language, we regret 
to say, as necessaiy in 1851 as in 1842, — 

'* If, instead of such lamentations, alarming our people, and unsettling 
the minds of our younger brethren in the ministry, we would admonish, 
comfort, and encourage one another, to be faithful to our dear Mother; 
and use, in the spirit of diligence and love, all the means and appliances 
of good which she places in our hands ; setting onrselve^i as a united 
band of Christian soldiers, with composed and stedfast resolution, to 
resist the inroads of Popery on the one hand, and of irregular enthn* 
siasm on the other ; if we had .but grace to realize, in our own lives 
and persons, the plain precepts and directions which she ;has given for 
our guidance, recommending them, by our example,,- to the consciences 
and affections of all men, we should discover that there is much less 
need of alteration than, is supposed^ and at all events, we should knowi 
lor a certainty, in what direction that alt^atio^i should be attempted'/' 

• COiarge of 1842, p. 3a. 


■ f 

I , 


BeUgion and the Wwhing Cla9ses. 149 

Aet. VII. — 1. Parochial Work, By the Bev. E. Moneo, Jlf.-4., 
Incumbent of Harrow Weald^ Middlesex. Oxford and London: 
Parker, 1850. 

2. The Working Classes; their Morale Social^ and Intellectual 
Condition ; tcith practical suagestions for their Improvement. 
By G. Simmons, Civil Engineer. London: Partridge and 
Oakey, 1849. 

When, engaged in the controversy with Borne or with other 
alien powers, we contemplate our Churches theory and ideal, the 
purity of her faith, the certainty and the Catholicity of those 
doctrines she insists upon, the beauty of her liturgy, the high tone 
of moral truthfulness which is her especial characteristic; and 
when we contrast all these with the false glare and vulgar splen- 
dour, the unhappily gross superstition, the sad practical idolatry, 
ijie painful rec^eoanei^ with regard to truth and fact, of the 
lac|[est of fowgnr communions, — we certainly feel justified in 
dauniog a high station for our Spiritual Mother amongst the 
exasting Gburdies of Christendom. Her special excellencies are 
many and undeniaUe: her charitable and Catholic spirit, her 
wise temperance and moderation, her gentleness and truthfulness, 
her high sense of honour, all endear her to our hearts ; we cannot 
but feel "that she has succeeded, on the whole, in impregnating 
tbe educated classes subjected to her influence with at least the 
fitt8t'|>rinciples of Christianity, and further, in breathing a high 
tone of morality, and, we may add, a general spirit of orthodoxy, 
intb our national literature. Mighty champions has she sent 
forth to combat infidelity — ^nay, to subdue it : thanks to her 
exertions the mind of the country is orthodox in the main to this 
day, — that is, it acknowledges the general truth of Revelation, 
in contradistinction to the public opinion of the educated in other 
countries, as represented by their press, and in all the principal 
branches of literature. 

Now, all this, of course, constitutes a very strong claim on our 
reverence and regard ; and that reverence and regard it is accord- 
ingly our delight to tender : but there is another side to this flat- 
tering picture, and it is to that side, as we opine, that we ought 
specially to direct our attention. When employed in rebutting 
the sarcasms of a Newman, or repelling the calumnies of a Ward, 

150 IteUffion and the Working Olane$. 

a recapitulation of our Church'*s excellencies may surely be per- 
mitted to her sons ; but when this duty of self-defence is fairly 
discharged, and that mainly for the sake of weak or wavering 
brethren whose faith might need to be confirmed, it becomes 
Churchmen to look their own deficiencies fairly in the face : first, 
if they can, to ascertain them accurately ; and then also to 
suggest, if possible, some practical remedy or remedies. 

rfow, we do think, that a little honest observation and candid 
reflection must lay bare to Ohurchmen^s eyes certain leading de- 
fects in our present system of operations, which too sadly coun- 
terbalance our peculiar excellencies, and which seem to prove that 
we have almost or quite as much to learn from others as they may 
gain from us ; that there is a very great work to be wrought; 
and that, if it be not set about quickly, it may probably never be 
discharged at all. For the time has surely gone by, if it ever 
existed, for mere paper-theories or ecclesiastical conventionalism: 
as a Church and a nation, this seems, in our judgment at least, 
the very crisis of our destiny. To state the actual difficulty in 
few words, — we have yet very much to do — to gain the hearts 
and to awaken the consciences of the poor. 

The practical unreality which too often prevails amongst 
us, the coldness and formality and yet the absence of system, 
the want of due sympathy betwixt clergy and laity, the state of 
spiritual lethargy into which our working classes to a great 
extent have fallen, the sad hoUowness and worldlmess; — ^but we 
seem to be waxing harsh and bitter, and this we assuredly wish 
not to be ; feeling and mourning over our own infirmities, it is 
our duty surely to be charitable even to those brethren whom we 
blame, whom we still lovo and for whom we pray : so let ua simply 
record that it seems to be confessed on all hands, that our prac*. 
tioal deficiencies are veiT great; that our hold is too weak, 
either on the intellectual perceptions, or on the hearts and con- 
sciences of our people ; and that^ instead of indulging in mutual 
reproaches for the past, our best course will now be to develop, 
if possible, such practices and such a discipline, for the future,— « 
as may yet restore the spirit of devotion to the hearts of the coh^ 

The sad state of great masses of our population has now 
engaged the attention of earnest thinkers for some time past. A 
passing word of reference may be permitted us here to the most 
valuable labours of that noble-hearted man, Mr. Mayhew, in this 
direction, which can scarcely be acknowledged m\h sufficient 
warmth of eulogy. Both of the remarkable works now lying 
before us, the titles of which we have placed at the head of this 
article, supply us with very alarming statistics in connexion with 

Beliffian and 0$ WorOnff Ola$$$8. 151 

ff the condition of the poor ; especially the second of them, by Mr. 
' Snnmons. We do not purpose, however, to devote very much 
of oar time or space to '^ a twice-told tale**^ on this occasion. 
\^e are entitled, unfortunately, to assume this awful fact, that 
masses of heathen darkness and corruption do exist in all direc- 
tions around us, which must be broken up and pervaded with 
Christian light, if this country is to be saved from imminent 
danger of destruction. But more tbaq this ; it is also too true, 
that those of our poor who are brought, in a measure, under the 
influence of our parish clergy, are often deficient (we fear this 
most be confessed) both in moral conscientiousness, and in the 
spirit of devotion; and thus, it is only too evident, that some 
iar-^earching remedy needs to be applied. 

Mr. Monro, whom we are happy to congratulate on the success 
of many of his labours, and whose recent volume of sermons on 
'^ the Ministry/^ has at once arrested our attention by its far- 
searching boldness, and has thrilled our conscience with alarm ; 
in the very admirable work before us (admirable for its earnest 
Christian spirit and practical wisdom, though we cannot concur 
; with it on all points)^ draws, upon the whole, a very melancholy 
picture of the state of the English poor; mainly, we may observe, 
with reference to the agricultural districts, with which he should 
appear to be best acquainted. He represents them as generally 
lethargic, slow of comprehension, and even dull of heart, almost 
totally destitute of doctrinal knowledge, and devoid of all self- 
consciousness, ft. e, knowledge, whether of their own faults, or of 
their virtues; but, on the other hand, endowed, in many in- 
duces, with a strong moral sense, partly by nature, partly 
bv baptismal grace, and also possessed of a good deal of honour- 
able purity of will, and sometimes of no little self-devotion. 

Mr. Simmons, in his very curious work, gives a still more 
Unfavourable account of the poor in our towns and cities,^ of 
their habits of life, and their moral and religious, or rather im- 
moral and irreligious practices ; and despite his own strange, and. 
We must add, often mischievous notions (an odd compound or 
medley of Penny-Cydopsedia-wisdom, Bright and Gobden radical- 
ism, and Bible-Protestantism), his work well deserves to be 
studied for its general accuracy and honesty of purpose, as well 
as for sundry by no means despicable suggestions, respecting the 
best means of interesting and exciting the sympathies of the 
working classes, by promoting lawful amusements, founding a 
steady, popular and Christian literature, &c. &c. Such, how- 
ever, is scarcely our present theme : suffice it here to verify the 
feet, that Mr. Simmons pronounces, if possible, a severer judg- 
ment, from his point of view, than even that of Mr. Monro, 

152 BeUgion and the Working Cla8968. 

Our own limited experience has led us to the conclumon, ihai> 
the hearts and minds of the male adult population pertaining to 
the working classes, in our towns and cities, are, to a great extent, 
/hostile both to our Church and to our clergy, and indififerent 
to religion altogether. Of course there are many exceptions, 
God be praised for it ! but we do believe the following to be only 
too accurate a description of this class in the main* 

" Next come the general labourers. These are a very large body of 
men, and are they who have no trade, very few having been apprenticed 
to any, or, if so, they have left, ere it was half completed. Their 
families frequently consist of several children, who ramble in the courts 
and streets in dry weather, the eldest girl taking charge of the little one, 
while others, perchance, go to school : the boy waits upon the father 
with his dinner, and, at the age of eleven or twelve, has to get his 
living as a shop-boy, or in some such menial office. The large majorUi/ 
of this class scarcely ever acknowledge a Superior Being (save when some 
missionary or friend to religion visits them), rising up in the morMf^, 
and lying down at night, in forgetfulness of the God who made them**-^ 
Simmons*s Working Classes, p. 6. 

The mere record of such a fact as this, and assuredly a fact it 
is, should make us tremble. Mr. Simmons goes on to describe 
the general habits of improvidence of the poor, their carelessness 
and wastefulness, their total lack of moral discipline, their indul- 
gence of angry tempers and frightful passions in the quarrels 
between husbands and wives, and also between neighbours, 
arising, we may observe, in many instances, from the alte^ 
cations of children, in the first place ; — their habitual use of the 
most violent, and, indeed, horrible expressions, a seeming^ grow- 
ing evil, quite independent of their practice of cursing and swear- 
ing on all occasions; their usual liability to the sin of druriketm^; 
their debased condition, in fine, in almost every respie^!?. Bately, 
alas ! we can bear witness, do the men of the workirtjg classes ir 
our towns and cities find their way to oUr churches i nor do thej 
frequent dissenting chapels, ordinarily speaking; they lotmffi 
away the Lord"*s Day, spending part of it in their bedsr, pairt 
perhaps, at the public-house, or, yet more often, at the corners o: 
the streets; and sometimes, as Mr. Simmons remarks, at the tea- 
totallers' meeting, which in its way Usually dpes them mud 
harm, cultivatinjg their pride, and other evil instincts, and teach 
ing tbein to de4)ise those amongst the clergy who will not fall ii 
with their peculiar views. Mr. Monro's view of the existing stat< 
of things is thui^ forcibly expressed ; he says, 

'*To do more than sketch the evil which exists to be remediec 
would exceed our present space. It is the alar(ning and astoundini 

Bdigian and ihe Warhing Classes. 153 

&ef^ of millions of baptized Christians living in cities and villages 
tromid us, either in utter ignorance of the religion they profess, or the 
Wctims of a deep-rooted and withering infidelity. By the side of the 
splendid palaces of luxury and ease in the metropolis and other large 
ddea, and within a stone's throw of their doors, are alleys and d2\fkened 
streets, where, in garrets and cellars, whole families are grouped in 
sqaalid poverty, filth, and disease ; and, what is far worse, in a state of 
ignorance of their awful responsibilities and future destinies, which 
would appal a Hindoo." — ^pp. 5, 6. 

Further on, be speaks of gin-palaces and gambling-houses out- 
numbering churches ; and of the former pouring forth floods of 
light, whilst the latter stand dark and silent against the starry 
sky* He tells us also, that Socialist schools are opening in all 
directions, and that the work of evil is rapidly progressing ; and 
then also he maintains (p. 18), '' We feel with too much truth, 
that comparatively few, even of our respectable poor, really pray, 
—the weightiest matter this, we think, of all. He adds, that 
ihe evening devotion of most poor men, if any, consists of the 
Lord's Prayer, the Creed used ignorantly as a prayer, the well- 
known invocation, — 

** Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, 
Bless the bed which I lie on," 

' ■ - ' ■ 

and intercessions, learnt in childhood, and repeated still me- 
chanically for fathers and mothers, and others now departed. 
Thus Mr. Monro affirms, strangely enough, that ^* half of the 
devotions of .our English poor consist of prayers to the saints, or 
intercessions for the dead ;'^ which are all, he maintains, matters 
of mere form, to which no meaning whatever is attached. He 
then proceed? to dwell upon the sad misapprehension prevalent as 
to tbei nature of the Eucharist, which treats it rather a& a seal of 
holiness than as a means of grace ; an undeniable fact this, which 
no English clergyman, we presume, would offer to contest. And 
then he goes on to assert (with too much truth, we fear,) the 
absence of definite notions as to the effects of Holy Baptism. 
As. far as our own experience is concerned, however, we are not 
disposed to admit that the poor generally consider Baptism to be 
little more thaii registration; we should rather say, that they 
retain an undefined notion that it secured the salvation of their 
children ; and certain it is, that in case of sickness they are 
always most anxious to have them baptized, — that is, the mothers 
are. It may be contended, that this . merely arises from their 
anxiety to secure Christian burial for their children ; but we con- 
fess we do not think so. Mr. Monro, who appears to lay great 
stress on the efficacy of sponsorship, (greater, we own, th«nn we 

154 Bdipum and the Wwrhlmg Olam$. 

are inclined to lay, at least amongst the working clasfies, ^tAmttT, 
we believe this institution to be praotically but of little value, aod; , 
in fact, one of our greatest existing unreahties,) — Mr. Monro, ne. '1 
say, apparently suspect^ the poor of evil motives in desiring tbs 
private baptisms of their children ; but we see not what evil 
motives they can be supposed to entertain in this matter. They 
are naturally glad to escape from the task of finding sponsorSa 
who expect to be treated with tea and cake on the occasion, and 
consider they have conferred a great obligation, though they 
afterwards have nothing to do with their godchildren, and would, 
indeed, be thought impertinent if they ever presumed to interfere. 
Now, private baptism is confessedly as efficacious as public ; the 
use of water and the ordained blessing secure ^e validity 
and grace of the Sacrament. For our ovm part, knowing as 
we do how often baptism is neglected altogether^ at least in 
large towns, by parents and children, we should not be over* 
backward in complying with the request of mothers to baptize 
their children privately, where there was any appearance of danger; 
always enjoining them, of course, to bring Uiem subsequently to 
the Church ; and we cannot but think that Mr. Monro would 
act both wisely and charitably in adopting the same course 
of action, at least if h^ resided in a large town or city. In the 
country, it is obvious that the clergyman has generally more 
thorough cognizance of his parishioners, and more direct influ- 
ence over them, so as to be almost certain to secure the child's 
public baptism if he wills it, in some way or other. But, we 
repeat, even where religion was at a low ebb, we have still wit- 
nessed some apparently lingering reverence for Holy Baptism; 
we have heard mothers express great distress of mind when thef 
thought their children in danger of dying unbaptized through 
their neglect, and declare that they had passed nights without 
sleeping m consequence : this is, therefore, we should say, one of 
the few lingering remnants of sacramental faith still left among 
our people. 

But to resume, Mr. Monro further affirms, that there is a 
dread ignorance of the true nature of sin, even amongst the more 
i*espectable of the labouring classes ; and that more especially 
with reference to the sin of fornication. And to the truth of this 
assertibn our own experience, as far as it goes, compels us to bear 
witness. As undoubted, we should say, is that general disregard 
of truth which constrains us to receive the statements of the 
poor, too often at least, with distrust and incredulity. Their 
irreverence, we fear, is too patent to need insisting on. Their 
ignorance of religions doctrine, too, is assuredly most lamentable. 
We are scarcely prepared to affirm, with Mr. Monro (pp. 24, 25), 

(md the WorKng Clasm. 155 

4ti e?en ^' among adults,^ who ^^have the appearance of being 
rffJmouB and devotional,^^ many will be found who '^ will be utterly 
■i^le to mention on what their hope of pardon is founded; 
because, we believe, that they have a very positive notion, at 
' Jtast thus far, that Christ hais died for sinners, and that therc- 
Ibre sinners will be saved if they believe in Him, however Ute 
Ihey turn to Him, even on their death-beds. Mr. Monro, 
indeed, admits, in effect, as much as this, though he seems to 
question it. But what, we may ask, is this, when separated from 
any work of the Holy Spirit, from any attempt to love and serve 
the Saviour i 

But, after all, we are doing what we said we would not do : 
we are dwelling on the disease, which is admitted on all sides, 
ioBtead of endeavouring to suggest a remedy, or rather some 
lemedies for this disorder ; for surely there must be many, and 
of various kinds. Mr. Monro'^s great practical recipe is Personal 
DireeiionSy properiy guarded and understood : he says,— 

" Public ministrations and general preaching alone can never do the 
work. They are as little calculated to meet the case of the individuals 
they attempt to afiect in the mass, as the thousands of a passing day 
(ire cognizable by the historian. The historian is not a biographer, and 
the minister in his general ministration cannot he the adviser of par- 
tienlar souls. The moment these thinking and yearning spirits become 
avare of a sympathy which recognises and feels for them, they will be 
attracted to it as needles to a magnet ; and, once led to open their 
minds, clouds of darkness would pass away, and the character become 
relieved of a burden, which had dwarfed, stunted and withered it. Men 
do not wish to be as they are. They have no natural hostility to the 
Church or her clergy : they simply do not adhere to them, because 
other bodies and other men have offered them that sympathy which 
their patures rightly yearn for. These remarks belong as much to the 
I population of the agricultural district as to that of the crowded city- 
parish," — p. 51. 

Now we agree with Mr. Monro that one of our chief wants is 
spiritual intercourse betwixt pastors and people; and we also 
agree with him that this should be carried on by the means of 
personal interviews, for the express purpose of seeking and 
aflbrding spiritual guidance and consolation; but we desire it 
to be understood, that we are by no means advocating the use 
of the Confessional, as advisable. Indeed, we do not conceive 
Mr. Monro to do this either : we believe, judging from the plain 
facts before us, that such an use is fraught with dangers ; that 
it would be iiqurious to the best points in our national cha- 
racter^ and would operate upon the wliole largely for evil. It 
seems probable, we say, that Mr, Monro's views coincide upon 

156 Religion and the Worhmg Classes. 


this subject with our own, though he has not definitely expiessed 
his whole idea : he wishes the clergy, however, to set apart cer- 
tain evenings, from six to nine o'^clock, for the purpose of direct 
personal intercourse with their people, whom they could receive, 
according to his view, apparently, either in their studies or thar 
vestries ; not, as we understand, for a technical confession, bat 
rather for the resolution of doubts and scruples, the confirmatioa 
in good, and the yielding of practical advice, and also the use 
of united prayer from priest and penitent against that special 
form of temptation to which the latter feels himself peculiarly 

But now let us proceed to inquire whether this is practically 
possible. Can or toill tlie poor be induced to come to such t»- 
terviews ? Not generally, as we believe, without the adoption of 
some preparatory discipline, tending to awaken a religious feeling 
in the first instance, and to alarm the conscience. We cannot 
believe that the poor can be expected to come formally to the 
house of the clergyman, for the avowed purpose of seeking spiri- 
tual counsel at certain hours, and nothmg else — ^at least not in 
the great majority of instances : but we do believe that the way 
might possibly be paved for the eventual adoption of such spiritual 
intercourse ; and that, as it seems to us, after this fashion, . Of 
course what follows must be, .meirely suggestive; thrown out 
mainly for consideration ; we, who write even, cannot consider 
ourselves positively bound to what we may suggest on thi&.meirt 
di£Scult subject, and still less could we attempt to< lay down any 
definite system on the authority of this periodical. Such, ho«! 
ever^ happen to be the notions which have occurtred to vs-m; = 

First, then, we imagine, that to attain the wislfted^for end, otr 
churches might not only be opened twice a-day^ or thrice, vor 
even four times ; but that rather, tliey might he kept openthrimgh' 
out the da^i and, what is of equal moment, that, worshippers 
might be positively induced to attend for their private devotions. 

Now^ we do not conceive this practice to be at all impossible of 
execution, at leaat in towns, if it were set about in the right wa)^. 
Perhaps some readers may be inclined to doubt the prM>riety of 
such a custom alt^ether, remembering the injunction, ^' Bui Uiou, 
when thou prayest, enter into thy closet P" But, surely, in the 
first place, this was not intended for an absolute command^ but 
rather as a warning against ostentation; and, then,, let- it 
be remembered that our Lord Himself prayed daily in ibe 
temple— *and also that His Apostles did so after His ascension: 
and then, let it be considered, if this consideration be needful, 
(which it scarcely can be,) that the poor man, in the vast noiajority 
of instances^ has no ^' closet,^^ no place whereunto to retire, there 

Bdigum and the Working Classes. 1 57 

to collect his thoughts, examine his conscience, and humble him- 
sdt before his QoS^ unless the church be opened to him. 

But assuming the lawfulness and advisability of this practice, 
liow might it be carried into execution! First, churches 
might be kept open throughout the day, from that hour in the 
morning when the poor go forth, or, rather, from half an hour 
previous, to somewhere about nine o^clock at night ; and further, 
sach expedients might be adopted as would be calculated to bring 
home to the minds of people the conviction, that they were 
mspeeted to come there, and pray : for otherwise, constitutional 
backwardness and bashfulness, not to speak of lower hindrances, 
would keep away all but a very small number. This end might 
be prosecuted, partly by speaking on the subject, partly by 
eirculating special forms of prayer in parishes, short and devotionfu, 
to be put to such uses ; but, perhaps, still more effectively by 
affixing such ^^ forms ^^ to various kneeling-boards in the church ; 
(all which kneeling-boards should be rendered comfortable, and, 
as it were, inviting :) especially desirable would be forms of self- 
examination, which should leave much for the penitent to do 
himself; (all of us ought to be '^ penitents f^) also skeleton-forms 
of prayer, so to speak, in which the filling up should be left to 
him or her who prays. 

We confess that the mere saying of the Ghurch'^s Common 
Prayer, morning and evening, though in the highest degree 
desirable, does seem to us, upon the whole, of less practical im- 
portance than the organization of an effective practice of private 
prayer, both for ourselves and others, and also of private self- 
examination. This is, we must think, the one point in which 
the aspect of our religious life is most lamentably defective ; and 
until we can manage to surmount this difficulty, we fear that we 
shall not be* able to succeed in Christianizing our heathen masses, 
or in bringing those who are already orthodox in intention, under 
a sound system of discipline. 

To our appreihension, we might almost venture to say, that 
there is sometlung rather formal in the mere opening our churches 
r^ularly twice a day for half an hour each time, in order to say 
80 many set prayers together, and then at onee departing, as if# 
Gh)d were no longer present there. Undoubtedly there is a great 
blessing i» Common Prayer, and it is the special prerogative of 
our dear Church to possess this, almost or quite in its perfection : 
never may she forfeit that divine heritage! But, we must ask, 
does not a faithful Christian enjoy the communion of saints in his 
own chamber also \ Does he pray there alone I Most assuredly 
he does not. He prays with the whole Church Catholic, in 
heaven and on earth. And this communion, we maintain, should 

J 58 JReKffion and the WprHnff Okuses. 

be and would be especially realized in priyate prayer, and sacrod 
meditations, and self-examination, within our churches; many, 
whose thoughts would be distracted elsewhere, would be com- 
paratively serious and collected there ; there, *^ where the Lord* i 
honour dwelleth,''^ it surely must become us more especially to open 
our hearts to Gk)d, and to breathe out all those tndiviaua^ conl^ 
plaints and entreaties for which we can find less scope at least 
m the public service of the Church. 

The yoke of our present system seems to us, as a &ct, to weigh 
most heavily upon our poor. To them our Common Prayer- 
being, for the most part, unconnected with those due private 
devotions which should prepare them for it — becomes, too fre- 
quently at least, a form of words, — as it were^ a certain amount 
of work to be gone through, and little more. Of course there 
are many exceptions in this case also, God be thanked for it ! 
Where there is little intellectual appreciation, there is sometimes 
much honest intention and devotional feeling, and there, we doubt 
not, a blessing is always reaped ; but we do fear that masses of 
our population do not rightly appreciate our services. 

The Roman Church, we may remark, has almost forfeited the 
privilege of common worship ; she teaches her clergy to mutter 
at least five-sixths of her services in a foreign tongue, and an 
almost inaudible tone of voice, whilst her worshippers are left, 
for the more part, to follow their own devices, and ask for what- 
ever may seem good in their own eyes, uniting only at moments 
in certain acts of faith and adoration. Her ideal of common 
worship seems to be variety in unity ; each for himself, not to 
speak It irreverently, and the priest for all. Now this end is, of 
course^ far easier of attainment than that very high ideal at whieb 
our own Spiritual Mother aims, of making the whole congregation, 
priest and people, " one heart and one voice.'' We fully admit, 
and strongly assert, our theoretical and abstract superiority in 
this respect, and are most anxious to maintain it undisturbed ; 
but we do not believe that it can become a living reality, as for 
as the masses are concerned, until these latter have been first 
taught to pray privately, and from their hearts, for themselves ; 
and this habit would be promoted by prayer within our churches. 
For the mere entering a church, with a religious purpose, when 
no service is going on, must have the effect of bringing home to 
all minds the reality of prayer. There, more immediately in Hfa 
presence, who would dare to trifle i who would not feel that he 
must not mock God by a sham ? Such an one would know that 
if he does not pray then, there would be no one to pray for him ; 
that this is no mere prescriptive form, in which he may join out- 
wardly for decency's sake, without thinking mueh about tiie 

Bdigion and the Working ClasmB. 1 69 

iMtter. If he comes there to pray at all, he will surely pray indeed. 
We do not believe that we can teach people, ordinarily speaking, 
(he true spirit of prayer for the first tune, by making them kneel 
down, &nd join in words together. Surely such collective prayer 
ii the highest form of Christian worship. And yet — such is the 
stittDgeneBS of our practice — we seem to begin with it, in our 
churches and in our schools also, where little or no inquiry is 
made as to private prayer ; but children are made formally to 
join in gabbling, we can scarcely call it saying, the public con- 
fession, as fast as they can speak*. It does seem desirable to us 
tiiat the poor man should understand ihis^ — that ho is not ahcays 
necessitated to join in the highest act of Christian worship, and 
that for half an hour together (an act for which he may not be 
tkm intellectually or spintually prepared), every time he ventures 
to enter the house of God. To insist on this seems to us almost 
to necessitate formalism ; yet such is our present, almost invari- 
able, practice. We should suggest, then, to the clergy, Open your 
churches. First, of course, tell your people plainly for what 
purpose you do so : venture also to tell them that they are not 
actually obliged, not morally necessitated, to come to morning 
aod evening prayers every day ; though, of course, such attend- 
ance, where possible, is most expedient ; and that even without 
this, they would be justified in entering God'*s house for a little 

!|iiiet reflection or secret prayer at any time. But be able to in- 
orai them also, if you wish them to act on your suggestion, that 
^j will find simple forms of prayer placed about the church to 
assist them in such devotions ; and, further, encourage them to 
come by the examples of your own family and those over whom 
jou may possess immediate influence. 

It would then remain, that at fixed hours, and more especially, 
as Mr. Monro suggests, on certain evenings, the clergyman 
should be known to be in his vestry, and ready to receive all who 
there came to him for advice and consolation. 

And now, once there, how should they be dealt with! This is, 

of course, a most solemn, a most difficult question. Once more, 

then, we remind our readers, that w^e desire to speak humbly in 

this matter, and suggest rather than affirm ; yet we must record 

our opinion, that such applicants should rather be received as 

fiiends than penitents ; rather as seekers of spiritual advice and 

consolation than as candidates for the confessional. For what we 

would wish to see developed, is a general habit of free spiritual 

intercourse betwixt clergy and people ; and we cannot but think, 

that any attempt to introduce the forms and practices or the 

spirit of the confessional, would indefinitely retard this wished- 

for end, and otherwise work much mischief. The English people 

160 Bdiffian and the Working CUmei, 

have a just horror, in our opinion, of the ordinary and technicil 
use of confession. We admit its lawfuhiess, and even expediency 
in extraordinary cases, but we are not dealing with these. We 
wish to awaken the consciences of the English poor ; to teadi 
them to think and feel for themselves : we see not how this end 
is to be attained by compelling them at once to repeat the whole 
catalogue of their past sins to a fellow-mortal, with the view of 
obtaining that pardon at his hands which it is admitted can be 
obtained elsewhere, — ^which, as we believe, in common with «D 
our Church's greatest lights, is just as truly conveyed to the 
faithful recipient by the Church's public absolution ; the main 
difference between the public and private act being, that the 
latter enables the penitent more easily to apply it to himself, 
assists, and in a measure inspires, his faith. But without ques- 
tioning the efficacy of either private confession or private abso- 
lution as a spiritual discipline in case of need, long before m^ 
come to think of this, they must be taught to know what sin is, 
and to pray against it. Our English poor, as we have alreadj 
observed, are peculiarly deficient in self-consciousness ; it is this, 
then, that we are so anxious to see instilled into them; they 
have many admirable instincts : we agree with Mr. Monro, that 
their moral constitution by nature is far superior to that of most 
of their continental brethren : they have generally an innate sense 
of right and of fairness ; they are averse to any thing unmanly or 
inhuman ; the sight of blood generally pacifies instead of exciting 
them ; they have a great undefined respect for law, and all lawful 
authority; sometimes they have even much devotional feeling, 
only it is ill-directed, and unaccompanied by clear doctrinal views; 
much reverence for God's Word, much affecting simplicity of 
thought and action ; but for all this they are sadly ignorant, 
and for the most part sadly lethargic in spiritual matters ; they 
need every way to be individually aroused and awakened. 

Well, then, now let us fancy a poor man to have found hifi 
way into the clergyman's vestry, under the circumstances above 
suggested. What would be his state of mind ? would he not 
probably suffer from a general undefined sense of sin ? would he 
not be likely to be, as it were, paralysed by a conviction of moral 
helplessness ; a feeling, which if it were not assisted and relieved, 
would render his repentance, at the best, only a kind of blind 
" feeling after God !" Now here it seems to us, that he wouM 
need most to be spoken to encouragingly and lovingly, to b< 
exhorted to definite daily self-examination, and provided with f 
few plain rules for that purpose; to be recommended also t< 
express meditation upon such truths as the wonderful love o 
Christ, — His boundless condescension, — His death upon th< 

Bdigion and the Warhing Classes. 1 61 

eroes, — and finally to be prayed with briefly but earnestly, with 
pecuHar reference to his chief temptations, in his stammering 
aUnsions to which' he should be more than met half way, and 
treated, as we have said, usually speaking, more as a friend than 
IB a penitent. 

We have dealt with this most important subject very cursorily 
and imperfectly, and we are fully aware of the difficulties which 
sorround it ; but still we trust that we have succeeded in show- 
ing that there need be nothing formal or Bomish in the spiritual 
intercourse we have suggested. 

And now to advance to another very important consideration. 
It is obvious that much of the time of the clergy must be occu- 
jned by the adoption of such a discipline as this ; yet not so much 
perhaps as might at first sight be anticipated : it is astonishing 
what can be achieved by order and regularity. We are of opinion, 
then, that it might become expedient to set apart four weeks in the 
year for the more especial practice of this discipline previous to 
the chief communions ; and we venture to suggest that, possibly, 
in addition, the Saturday evening of the clergyman might be thus 
onployed. This, we opine, in villages at least, would prove, ordi- 
larily speaking, sufficient. In large churches in towns, likely to 
be more especially frequented, clergy might relieve one atiother. 

The first necessity of all seems to us to be,^^ j^o teach people 
really to pray, and also to practice self-examination ;' in comparison 
^th this pressing absolute need, spiritual intercourse, however 
important, seems only secondary, or, if primary, primary only thus 
far, because its great object is to promote the more essential end. 

On the conduct of our daily services we might say much ; but 
this, perhaps, is scarcely the place. We may observe, however, 
that the use of hymns appears to us to be exceedingly desirable. 
Our present version of the singing Psalms, though poetically by no 
means despicable, as it is often represented to be, but rather on 
the whole highly meritorious, and in some instances exceedingly 
beautiful, is nevertheless deficient in a spiritual apprehension of 
the Psalmist^s deeper meaning: those Gospel prophecies and 
utterances in the Psalms themselves, which are, most strictly 
speaking. Christian, have been unhappily slurred over for the 
most part, instead of being brought out, as far as possible, dis- 
tinctly. It cannot be denied that their use, as it exists, is on the 
whole cold and undevotional. Therefore do we wish to see a 
revision of the singing Psalms, not an entirely new version ; but 
supposing even that we could attain to perfection in this respect 
we should still consider hymns almost indispensable. They are 
not only the natural utterances of devotional feeling, but they are 
also useful in the highest degree, as assisting those who sing them 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXIX, — JUAKCH, 1851. ^i 

16fi BeUgim and 0$ Warimg dla^m. 

to realize the peculiar truth or doctriue, or the especidl mmuarj 
celebrated. We may return to this subject on another oceasicp: 
meanwhile we would only say, that we oo not think the exdusive 
use of ancient hymns desirable ; they are too generally wanti^f 
in distinctness, and too diifuse ; not^ we think, adapted to tii^ i 
actual needs of our people. One such faymn<>-^aB 

" Jesus Christ is risen to day** — 

to our English apprehension, is worth a volume of more mysU^ 
and foreign strains. Of course, there are some yery be4Uti&i 
hymns from ancient and mediaeval sources, which we would gbdiy 
see retained, but even then for the most part they jieed to be 
adapted to our use ; and certain it is, thai we riuUl never see tm 
English congregations singing with all their hearts aa^ soid% 
unless we provide them wiui short, simple, popubu* hynmSi irt^ 
irreverent, like those of Watts and Wesley, despite their msif 
beauties, — not cold and formal, like those to be found isk too waijf 
modern Ghurch-of-England collections, — ^not too individual, asi 
beyond the grasp of the masses fcnr whom they are desigyied, lihe 
many of the mediaeval compositions — but devotional, affeMstionsJk 
especially breathing much love and reveience for our Blessui 
LoBD, and, finally, truly lyricaL 

I%e Papal Aggrmwn and iU C(m$$qwnee$. 168 

^iT. VIII. — 1. Paj^al Aggression. Speech of the Bight Hon. Lord 
John Russell, deliver^ in the House of Commom February 7, 
1851. Longmans. 

t. VindidcB AngUcaauB : England's Bight against Papal Wrong ; 
leing an Attempt to suggest the Legislation by which it ought to 
be asserted. By One who has sworn ^^faithfuMy and truly to 
advise the QueenJ*"* London : Seeleys. 

Ehe absence of fixed prjiiciple, and the ^parent or real incon- 
isftency which has for so many years been amoi^t the most 
Dfrked characteristics of British l^slation and &iti£di states- 
Diiiship^ are some amongst the res^Us which naturally flow from 
ihe progress of the democratic power. In proportion as demo- 
aicy gains the ascendancy in States, the policy of their Govem- 
Dents reflects most faithfully the uncertainties, sudden changes, 
weakness, ai^d passions of the popular mind ; stedfast and con- 
sistent course of policy becomes difficult, and the interest^ 
of the whole community are sacrificed to appease democratic 

The events of the last few months h^ve forcibly exem[^e4 
the uncertainties of political professions and parties in the present 
4y. The scenery of the political drama has been shifted with 
such rapidity, the niutations of character and principle have bee^ 
^0 sudden aind so marvellous, that it is enough to bewilder the 
tuind. It almost exceeds belief; and yet the world has seen ^d 
leard it all. 

When Lord John jBussell indited his celebrated " Durham" 
etter, he had not perhaps calculated the amount of impetus 
vhich it was to supply to the popular feeling in England. He 
lad not probably anticipated the extraordinary pojpularity which 
hat production was destined to bring him, in placing him before 
he English people as the vindicator of the religion of England, 
kt once, against the open aggression of the Papacy, and against 
he subtler agency of Tractarianism. He did not expect — ^for no 
)ne could have expected — ^the mighty outpouring of national 
'eeling and principles which then followed ; the mingling of aQ 
jlements, even of those which had hitherto been most oraosed, in 
hat vast hurricane of national wrath which swept over England ; 
md which, in its fury, was almost ready to tear down good as 
well as evil, and to destroy the Church of England, in me hope 
^f crushing the aggressions of the Church of Borne. In short, 


164 The Papal Aggression and its Consequences. 

England was for the moment on the verge of frenzy, in its rage 
at the Papal aggression, and its concomitants. 

In the excitement, the whole "Liberal^ party were hurried 
along the tide of national feeling, and, for the first time within 
the memory of man, were found in opposition to the Bomiah 
cause. This was the first strange mutation of principle. Whigs 
and Radicals might then be heard denouncing the Fapal power 
and the Papal religion with the energ}' of an Eldon or a Win^ 

The next consequence was one which, we own, was wholly un- 
expected by us. A Bill was actually introduced into Parliament 
by Lord John Russell, embodying and carrying out the wishes of 
the people of England to a certain extent. Nay, it even went so 
far as to extend the prohibition of the assumption of Episcopal 
titles to Ireland, as well as England, in opposition to the recom- 
mendations of a considerable portion of the " Liberal*" party. 

And if Lord John RusselPs Bill was, to a wonderful extent, 
framed in accordance with the wishes of the English people, his 
speech in introducing it was still more evidently so. We could 
hardly credit the evidence of our senses in perusing various parts 
of his speech. It was admirable ! It was exactly such a speech 
as a great statesman would have made forty or fifty years ago. 
It was tolerant, but firm, high-principled, and statesmanlike. 
Lord John Russell evinced a thorough perception of the danger- 
ous and aggressive policy of the Church of Kome. He spoke of 
the necessity of placing adequate checks on that insidious and 
desperate foe. He felt that it was not to be dealt with like other 
forms of religion, — that it was to be kept down, on a principle of 
self-protection, but only so far as self-protection required. He 
traced with a masterly hand the political interferences of Rome 
in other countries and our own, even at the present day ; and he. 
showed that he was well aware of the only mode of dealing with 
Romanism, — he warned the prime Agent of Rome in its aggres- 
sion to retire from this country, with the intimation, that if the 
hint were not attended to, measures of a more stringent charact^ 
might be introduced, and a deadly struggle for the subversion of 
Romanism would ensue. It was perfectly refreahing to peruse 
such passages as the following, — we except, of course, the some- 
what uncalled-for allusion to the efibrts made to -maintain the 
religious liberties of the Church of England against ministeriat 
aggressions : — 

"In the course of last year, the nomination of an archbishop ia 
Ireland by the Roman see was made in an unusual manner. It was 
generally understood, and has never been contradicted, that those who 
usually elect to the office of archbishop on the part of the Roman 

TAe Papal Aggression and its Consequences. 165 

'Catholics in Ireland bad sent three names to Rome, but that instead of 
any one of those learned ecclesiastics being chosen \vho had been proposed 
for that office, a clergyman who had been long resident at Rome, who 
was more conversant with the habits and opinions of Rome than with 
die state and circumstances of Ireland, was named by the Pope to 
assume the office of archbishop in Ireland." — pp. 6, ?• 

^* No sooner did that ecclesiastic arrive than he showed very clearly 
that it was not his intention to follow the usual practice that had been 
observed by Archbishop Murray and others, of putting themselves into 
communication, in relation to any matters necessary to be transacted 
between them, with the Irish Government. Presently we found that a 
Synod had been called at Thurles, which soon after assembled. It was 
stated that at that Synod a question was raised whether or not an 
address should be issued to the people of Ireland, and that that motion 
was carried by a majority of 13 to 12, being a majority consisting of 
that very person who had been sent over from Rome, whose views were 
foreign to the state of Ireland, and who prompted that determination. 
An address was accordingly issued. 

** Well, if that address had been confined to matters of the internal 
discipline of the Roman Catholic religion ; if it had been shown that, 
with respect to matters of internal discipline, there was a variety of 
practice in different parts of Ireland, and that the Synod- had met for the 
purpose of regulating those matters, however unusual, and entirely 
inthout precedent the assembling of a Synod might be — for no such 
meeting had taken place since the time of the Revolution — I could have 
understood its object. But a great portion of that address was taken 
up with two subjects. The one was the danger of the system of edu- 
cation in the colleges established by the Queen in conformity with an 
Act pf Parliament. It stated that^ however good the intentions of the 
I^egislature might be, those colleges were established in ignorance of the 
inflexible nature of the Roman Catholic Church ; and it pointed out 
that they could not but be attended with danger to the faith and morals 
of those who were of that Church. Another part of that address was 
taken up with descriptions of the state of that part of the poorer portion 
of the Irish peasantry who had been evicted. And I must say that no 
language was omitted which could excite the feelings of that peasant 
chss against those who were owners of land, and who had enforced the 
process of the law against their tenants. 

" I am not going, at the present time, to enter into any defence of 
the Queen's Colleges in Ireland ; nor am I about to discuss the 
qoestion whether the Irish landlords have acted with discretion and 
humanity in the* use of their legal rights; but I point this out to the 
Blouse as a most important circumstance, that on the question of edu- 
cation, that on questions of the occupancy of land, the Synod, which 
consisted entirely of Roman Catholic ecclesiastics, from which all lay- 
men were excluded, thought it proper on this, their first meeting, to 
hold forth to the Irish people and tell them what should be their duty 
and conduct on those two subjects. I must ask the hon. member for 

166 l%e Papal Aggreimm ami U$ dmiejumcee. 

Sheffield whether this is a matter of entirely spiritual concern ? Whe- 
ther this House and the Government of the country can be entirely 
indifferent, when they see that an archbishop has been thus named, 
purposely of course instructed, and aware of the intentions at Rome, 
and that the first proceeding he carries into effect is to hold forth to 
odium an Act of Parliament passed by this country for the purpose of 
educating the people of Ireland, of giving better instmetion to the 
higher and middle classes ; while likewise exciting to hatred of the 
owners of land a great portion of the population of that kingdom. This, 
I think, is an instance, at all events, that we have not to deal with 
purely spiritual concerns; that that interference, which is so well known 
in all modern history of clerical bodies, with the temporal and civil 
concerns of the state, has been attempted — ^not as a system, but as a 
beginning, — as a beginning, no doubt, to be matured into other mea- 
sures, and to be exerted on some fiiture occasion with more potent 
results/' — pp. 7 — 9. 

It will be observed in the preceding passage, that the Synod of 
Thurles had, as we suspected, a great share in awakening the 
apprehensions of the Government on the subject of Popery. The 
alarm once given, there were plenty of indications of the spirit of 
Romanism in the present day. 

** Until very lately a law had been in force in Piedmont, which had 
not been for many years the usual law of most of the States of Europe. 
It was, that ecclesiastics should only be amenable to the ecclesiastical 
tribunals, and that certain places should possess what was called the 
right of asylum. It appears, that the Sardinian government and the 
Sardinian parliament assembled at Turin, changed the law in these 
respects, and made it similar to that which prevailed in other parts of 
Europe. They declared that, with regard to all temporal matters, 
clergymen should be tried before the temporal and civil tribunals of the 
land, and that the right of asylum should be taken away. One of 
the ministers, who was a party to making that law, was soon after- 
wards taken dangerously ill, and when he required the sacrament, and 
made his confession, he was asked whether he would repent of the con- 
sent which he had given to the new law which had been passed ? In- 
stead of doing so, he made a declaration, which was not satisfactory to 
the Archbishop of Turin ; and the consequence was, that he died with- 
out receiving the Sacrament of the Church, as a person who was with- 
out the pale of the Church. That was an instance of the interference 
of spiritual power and spiritual censure, for the purpose of controlling) 
of directing, and of terrifying a minister of the crown and a member 
of parliament, oh account of his conduct as a minister and a member of 
the parliament to which he belonged. 

" Now, I beg the House to observe these things, because they are iiidt 
altogether foreign to us. They may not be intended here this year or 
next year ; but we are told in the writing to which I have alluded, that 
the doctrines of the Court of Rome are inflexible — that their maJdms 

•7^ Papal Affffr0B8i<m tmd iu OanmqueiMB. 167 

\ttt uticliaiigeable. They may not think it expedient to introdaee such 
I ptactice into this country now ; bnt they retain in their hands the 
ftnnr of applying to secular purposes those maxims, those censures, 
diose most formidiable and awful spiritual powers which they possess." 
—pp. 10 — 12. 

' **1 had lately occasion to read that most able treatise upon the 
f ' labject of what is called the liberties of the Gallican Church, or more 
L. properly, as the author most justly states, the liberties of the Gallican 
fkate in respect of the Church, written by M. Dupin, the President of 
tkt Legislatire Assembly of France. Long before he held that post, 
or iny public post whaterer, he was distinguished for his great logical 
power and his great legal learning, and was regarded as an authority in 
lU matters to which his attention had been given or his studies directed. 
At the beginning of his work upon the liberties of the Gallican Church 
be makes an obserration to the eflOsct, that though Rome has for the 
present relaxed many of her pretensions, she never entirely loses sight 
of them ; that she is a power which has forgotten nothing, and learned 
iideh — that she is a power which has neither infancy nor widowhood ; 
bsnce she can struggle with temporal states at all times with means of 
which those temporal states often are not possessed ; that therefore 
it requires the utmost vigilance and the utmost attention to watch 
against the aggressions of the Church of Rome, and to preserve the 
tmporal liberties of any country with which she is connected.'' — 
pp. 16, 17. 

The spirit of the foUowing remarks was admirable. 

'* I go, next, to what wai, I am sorry to say, wtis the law of Austria, 
— Aat great Roman Catholic Power. The laws which were made by 
the Emperor Joseph were of the most stringent description with respect 
(o the introduction of Papal Bulls and Papal appointments and cen- 
tres. He declared that the civil power was supreme and sovereign, 
that nothing ecclesiastical could be attempted without the placet of the 
Emperor, and that no appointment could be made that had not his con- 
ihmation ; that no intercourse could take place between the bishops of 
Anstria and the Pope without the knowledge and sanction of the 
mling powers, and that every document which proposed to inflict 
ipiritnal censures and excommunication should be submitted to a mixed 
Iwdy of clergy and laity, and should not be valid without their concur- 
rence. This shows, then, with regard to another great Roman Catholic 
Power, what has been the jealousy, what have been the results of 
experience, with regard to the encroachments of the Church of Rome." 
•*f>p. 20) 21. 

The following conclusion was drawn from the practice of foreign 

•* From what I have said, the inference may be drawn that there is 
no country in Europe, however great or however small, no country. 
which values its own independence, upon which the Pope would have 
attempted to pass this insult which he has offered to l\\e Vvr^^qtsv c^\ 

168 7%e Papal Aggremm and its Ckmsegumo0$. 

England. In some instances, the matter is regalated by treaty between 
the two Powers ; in other instances, it has been proposed to introdnee 
bishops into Protestant countries, and, when it has been refased, the 
Court of Rome has at once desisted from its intention." — ^p. 22. 

The language in the following passage, in reference to the 
Papal aggression, was exactly such as a minister of the Croim 
ought to have employed, 

** The document issued with reference to his appointment by Df. 
Wiseman declares at once — * We govern, and shall continue to govenii 
the counties of Middlesex, Hertford, and Essex.' And in the case of 
five other counties the same pretensions were set forth. 

" Now, Sir, I cannot see in these words any thing but an assumption 
of territorial sovereignty. It is not a direction that certain persons 
should govern those who belong to the Roman Catholic communion 
situated within a certain district, and that over them alone they were to 
exercise their spiritual functions. Those English counties are terri- 
tories subject to the Queen's dominion ; and the only excuse that is 
offered for the assumption of Rome is, that there are certain forms 
belonging to all documents, and that it is according to the forms of the 
Church of Rome that the assumption of dominion over Middlesex, 
Hertford, and Essex belongs to the agent who has been sent there. 
That may be. I do not deny their knowledge of their own forms ; but 
their is another form with which I have been acquainted. It ii> 
• Victoria, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Gwst 
Britain and Ireland, Queen.' That form appears to me totally incon- 
sistent with the other. Take which of them you like." — ^pp. 23, 24. 

" I must now refer for a few minutes to that which has been done in 
former times in this very country, — ^and that in Roman Catholic times, 
— with respect to the power of the Pope of Rome. I find that, in 
those times, our Roman Catholic ancestors were as jealous as we can 
be in these days of the encroaching power of the Pope. I find, even in 
the days of William the Conqueror, that the Sovereign would not allow 
any sentence of excommunication to be proceeded with in this country 
without his authority. I find that in the time of Edward 1. a person 
who had procured an excommunication against another person was pro- 
ceeded against in the King's courts, that the judges declared that his 
procuring that excommunication without the assent of the King was no 
less than high treason ; and that it was only on the supplication of his 
councillors that the King refrained from having that sentence exe* 
cuted." — p^ 25. 

" It is believed, and I think not without foundation, that one reason 
for the change from vicars-apostolic, under which titles the Roman 
Catholics have enjoyed the free exercise of their religion, and with 
which for 200 years they have been satisfied ; and, to make them 
bishops with a new division of the country, is not merely to place them 
in the same degree with the Protestant bishops, but it is also for the 
purpose of enabling them to exercise, by the authority of those names 
a greater control over all the endowments which are in the hands 

lis Papal Aggremm and iU Conseqwnea. 169 

oC certain Roman Catholics as trustees in this country. I don't think 
it would be £tting that we should allow that control to he exercised hy 
wtue of any of those titles which we propose to prohibit, 

** If, therefore, the House should give me leave to bring in a Bill 

upon this subject, I propose to introduce a clause which shall enact that 

ail gifts to persons under those titles shall be null and void ; that any 

act done by them with those titles shall be null and void ; and that 

property bequeathed or given for such purposes shall pass at once to the 

Crown, with power to the Crown either to create a trust for purposes 

fixoilar to those for which the original trust had been created, or for 

other purposes, as shall seem best to the Crown. 1 do not think a 

power less extensive l^an that would enable us to reach the justice of 

tlie case."— pp. 35, 36. 

■ The concluding portion of this speech was precisely in the tone 
; "vrhich, if it had been adhered to, would have made Lord John 
\ Sussell triumphant over all (^position. 

[ " Much will depend upon the temper in which the present measure 
i oay be regarded by Home, and much upon the direction which may be 
I given to him who has taken upon himself the responsibility of repre- 
aentiDg at Rome the opinions of the Roman Catholic clergy, and of 
I iBdndng the Pope to assent to the issuing of this document. That 
individual has it in his own power to remove a great part of the objec- 
tions which have been felt in this country. If he has been given by 
the Pope a title which it belongs to the Government of Rome to confer, 
and has been honoured by an election which has placed him in the band 
of the Sacred College, I should think that if he has any regard for the 
welfare of this country — if he has any regard for the peace and stability 
of the Roman Catholic community — the best course he can take will be 
to renounce the title which he has assumed in this country, and rather 
do that which I believe it was his original intention to do, and which he 
sstored me it was his original intention to do — namely, reside at Rome. 
" But if other counsels should prevail, and if he should be able to 
iastil notions of ambition, or of revenge, into the Court of Rome, we 
msy then, probably (though we can well know the end), look for a long 
sod arduous struggle. With respect to that struggle, the part which I 
tbaU take will be guided by that principle which has hitherto always 
guided my conduct on this subject. I am for the fullest enjoyment of 
religious liberty \ but I am entirely opposed to any interference on the 
part of ecclesiastics with the temporal supremacy of the realm. 

" Whenever I have seen in other bodies, — whenever I have seen in 
my own Church, — a disposition to assume powers which I thought 
were inconsistent with the temporal supremacy that belonged to the 
State, I have not been slow in urging myself, and inducing others to 
urge, strong and prevailing objections to any such measure. For 
instance, I may say, that in the course of the very last year, when the 
proposal was made— which was plausible in itself — to give to the 
bishops of the English Church a power which I thought would give 
them a control over the temporal well-being, and property of the clergy 

170 'T%0 Papat Aggresrion cmd Ui Ctms^juetMs. 

of the Church, that proposal, because we saw in it a datigeroas prin* 
dple, was resisted, and successfully resisted, by my eolleagaes, in the 
place where it was proposed. But, if that is the case with T^&td 
to Protestants, who have expressed the utmost attachment to freedom, 
if that is the case with regard to a Church which, like the Chtmh 
of England, is, I believe, of all established Churches the most toletiat 
of difference of opinion, the most consonant with the freedom of the 
institutions of a country like this, — if that is the case shall I not hi 
more strongly object to any attempt on the part of the Chniteh of 
Rome to introduce her temporal supremacy into this country ? I can' 
not, Sir, forgot that not alone in ancient times, but in the most recent 
times, opinions have been put forth on the part of that Church totally 
abhorrent to our notions of freedom, civil or reli^ous. 

*' It was a very recent Pope who said, ' that from the foul spring of 
indifference had sprung that absurd, and bold, and mad opinion, that 
freedom df conscience should be permitted and guaranteed to all persons 
in the State.' It is quite as recently that there has been kept up in the 
Court of Rome a prohibition to study such works as those of Ouicciar- 
dini, De Thou, Amaud, Robertson, and even (such was the "pre vailing 
jealousy) of the Greek Lexicon of Scapula. When I see in these times 
so great an aversion to religious liberty ; when I see so determined a 
watch over books which contain, not merely questions of doctrine, but 
which contain narratives that may be injurious to the reputations of 
popes, I own I feel a still greater dislike to the introduction of Ultra- 
montane Romanist opinions into this country." — pp. 38 — 41. 

** I believe our powers of resistance to Rome, at the present moment) 
are augmented, because loyal Roman Catholics, attached to the Crown, 
attached to the Constitution of this country, can hold office, and can be 
admitted to seats in the Legislature. I feel we are much more powerful 
in entering upon this contest, because we have it to say that we have 
made no exclusion on the ground of religion; and that if we nlake any 
exclusion, it is in defence of the laws and of the authority of the consti- 
tution. Sir, I think, therefore, With those feelings, we may say, tfs the 
Parliament in old times, as the Parliametit in Roman Catholic times 
said, if we admit those Assumptions, 

" ' So that the Crown of England, which hath been so free at all times 
that it hath been in no earthly subjection, but immediately subject to 
God, in all things touching the regality of the same Crown, and to none 
other, should be submitted to the Pope, and the laws and statutes of the 
realm by him defeated and annulled at his will, in perpetual destruction 
of the sovereignty of the King our lord, his crown and his regality, and 
of all his realm) which God forbid !* 

" Sir, the Parliament, the Roman Catholic Parliament of that day, 
declared — 

" * That they will stand with the same CroWn and regality, in those 
cases specially, and in all other cases which shall be attempted against 
the said Ctt)Wn and regality, in all points, with all their power.' 

** So say I ; let us, too, stand against those attempts in all pointSi and 
with all our poTirer."— pp. 43, 4?r 

Tk$ Palpal Aggremm and Hi Con8equmM$i 171 

The views which Lord John BusBell put forth in this speech 
ite exactly those which an English Statesman oven in the 
present day might, we think, hate not merely put forth, but 
teted upon with security. Etery one could have foreseen that 
the Bomish priesthood would be most bitterly galled by the 
Ap'i^eflridh of such sentiments, and that the Bomish members 
rfthe House of Commons would be compelled by their Church 
to dp{)ose the most desperate resistance to any measure embody- 

otir last Niinlber that Lord John Bussell would not introduce 
my tneasure in reference to the Papal Aggression, but would 
pursue the policy indicated in his Durham letter, and immolate 
the Tractarian party as a sacrifice to the popular indignation ; 
tearing the Church of Bome untouched. We had not conceived 
it possible that any itiinister in these days could look beyond the 
itiBte possibility of the temporary overthrow of his ministry ; and 
seek to found his future power on the abiding gratitude of the 
people of England. But, when Lord John Bussell had introduced 
Hs Bin — a Sill fratned by a cautious, a moderate, and yet a very 
efiective policy, — a J)Olicy which evinced principle at least, and 
principle of the most important and beneficial nature ; it must» 
we think, have occurred to every thinking mind, that the 
Ministei* had counted the cost of his undertaking, — that he was 
prepared to follow it up in the face of the desperate opposition of 
the Bomish party in Parliament ; and even if the issue should be 
the overthrow of his Ministry. He must surely have foreseen that 
probability. He was fully aware of the character of Bomanism, 
ibr his speech alone evinces a perfect appreciation of its spirit 
and influence. Therefore it could only be inferred that he was 
prepared to carry out his plan stedfastly and without flinching ; 
and that he was prepared to make it effective practically, and to 
introduce ftirther measures of repression when requisite. It 
might have been concluded, in short, that Lord John Bussell 
Was about to trtist ita the protestant feeling of England which ho 
had evoked ; that in the event of any embarrassment being 
caused to his administration by the popish representatives, he 
was prepared to make an immediate appeal to the English people 
by a dissolution of Parliament ; and to put to them the question 
whether a score of Bomanists in the House of Commons are to 
dictate to the people of England, and to force upon them the accept- 
ance of the insult which had been offered to their religion ftnd 
tkeir laws. We imagined that we should see Lord John Bussell, 
as the leader of popular feeling in England, at the head of the 

172 TAe Papal Aggreman and its CoMequenc&i. 

most powerful party that had ever held the reins of government, 
at once " liberal" in his general tone of politics, " free-trade " in [ 
his fiscal views, and ^^ Protestant '''* in his policy and legislation in i. 
religion. We think he might have occupied this position. Hia \' 
" free-trade '' would have been excused in consideration of his 1 
Protestantism, and his " Protestantism **' excused in consideration 
of his "free-trade.'' Protectionists, Peelites, Radicals, would j' 
have been compelled to give way to his ascendancy. He could ; 
have crushed Bomish insolence in Ireland now, as easily as he ; 
subdued Bomish rebellion there three years ago. Had he pre- : 
sented a stern and threatening aspect towards Bome — England ; 
and Scotland would have been delighted, and Ireland intimidated, ^ 
How diiferent has been the result, it is needless to state. Lord ' 
John Bussell has endeavoured t6 gratify at once two parties apd 

I)rincipled, which are irreconcilably opposed, and one of which, at 
east, IS animated by the most deadly hatred of the other. He ' 
has failed, as all men of weak and wavering policy must fail in 
times of struggle between great principles. A bubble, carried 
back and forward by the flux and reflux of the contending tide, 
until it bursts, is an emblem of those Statesmen who attempt, in 
times like the present, to please both parties at once. The vacil- 
lation of the Minister has rendered his policy equally unsatis- 
factory to all parties. 

It is not our purpose to express either regret or satisfaction at 
the course which events have taken, but simply to state the im- 
pression as to their probable results, which they have left on us. 
Of the leader of the Whig party we have briefly spoken ; it seems 
to us that he has lost such an opportunity as may never return to 
him again. 

Of the Protectionist party we shall only say, that, sound as the 
principles of that body may be in reference to questions of social 
and fiscal policy, and accordant as their general tone of views on 
higher subjects may be with the national feeling in England, we 
apprehend that the exposition of the species of measures contem- 
plated by the leader of that party in reference to the Papal 
Aggression, was by no means calculated to inspire confidence into 
the Church or people of England. To enter into parliamentary 
resolutions without any practical results, and to refer all further 
practical measures to the consideration of a committee which 
might not report progress, was understood by every one to be 
equivalent to " shelving'' the whole question. This proposal 
would have been, in fact, less effective than the Bill of Lord J ohn 
Bussell, even after its alteration. Most certainly it can never 
be attributed to Lord Stanley, that he was " outbidding**' Lord 
John Bussell for the confidence of the Protestant people of Eng- 

I%e Papal Aggresmn and its Consequences. 173 

nd. Our concern, however, is rather with the bearing of the 
hole question on the Church of England and the Crown of Eng- 
Lud, than with its effects on political parties or combinations. 

It seems to us, that amidst the pressure of local and temporal 
ifficulties or expediences, the fact is being lost sight of, that the 
upreraacy of the' Crown is now completely at stake. That the 
ioyal Supremacy — ^the supreme authority and jurisdiction of the 
jrown in religious matters over the people of this reahn — has 
)een infringed on by the Papal Aggression, is evident to all the 
¥orld. The Bomisn priesthood and the Bomish people have 
)penly set the Royal Supremacy at nought, and denied its au- 
ihority over themselves. They are, according to their reiterated 
leclarations, subject to the Papal Supremacy only, and not sub* 
iect to the Boyal Supremacy. On this ground they maintain 
:hat the Papal Aggression is no invasion of the rights of the 
[)rown, because the Crown has no rights over Romanists. Dr. 
Grillis, a Bomish bishop in Scotland, has maintained that the 
Sovereign has no supremacy in Scotland^ and therefore that a 
Romish territorial episcopate may be lawfully established there. 
The '^ Times,^ and a certain political section, are anxious to 
exempt Ireland from any legislation a^nst Bomish episcopal 
titles, because the majority of the population there are Bomanists. 
So that, according to this class of politicians, the Boyal Supre- 
tnacy may be reUnqtmhed in Ireland, or left without any pro- 
tection against aggressions ! In Ireland, the aggression of the 
Papacy is more direct than in England : the Pope appoints to 
the very same sees that the Crown nominates to. This is, ac- 
cording to the views of some politicians, perfectly right and 
proper. The Queen may appoint bishops, but the Pope may 
appoint bishops for the majority of the people, and the law of the 
land should recognise, in the fullest way, the position and juris- 
diction of these Popish bishops. 

Suppose these views carried out — and they have been, unfor- 
tunately, the leading principles of our statesmen for a series of 
years — What will be the result ? The Supremacy of the Crown will 
be relinquished^ as far as relates to one great portion of the popu- 
lation of the empire. The Crown will be prohibited from intertering 
in any spiritual or ecclesiastical affairs touching the Church of 
Rome. Of course there are otJier bodies which make a similar 
claim of exemption from the Boyal Supremacy ; so that the Su- 
premacy of the Crown oomes in the end to be, not a power co- 
extensive with the nation, but a power which is limited to those 
persons, whether more or less numerous, who prefer to adhere to 
the communion of the Church of England. In this case any one 
may cease in a moment to be subject to the Boyal Supremacy, 



174 J%s Pajpal 4ffffre89i(m and Us Consegptmemf 


mi may thenceforth set it at defiance, by merely eep^rating tern f 
the EngUah Church. And yet there was a tiin^ wh^ ib^ 
Sovereigns of England actually held a supremacy over the wfao||9 
nation, and regarded it as the brightest jewel in their Oroym. All 
the nation was once subject to the Supremacy of the drown. ]P«iv '^ 
liftpient and the Crown exempt one-half the nation firom tiai '- 
supremacy. What principle remains to prey^it theo^ bom 'j 
exempting the remaining half! *=- 

We deeply regret to see the Crown thus gradually dioim of Hi \ 
ancient rights and prerogatives, with their accompanying dutiq^; ^' 
but the Crown and its advisers, for a series of years, in yieldiiu| ^■ 
up the Boyal Supremacy piecemeal to the Papal usurpation sm ? 
liomish agitation, have, we fear, been gradually digging thegnre ^ 
of the Boyal Supremacy, if not of the Crown itself. ^ 

We earnestly pray that these anticipations may never jbe -^ 
realized ; but we must confess our apprehensions that the resntt ^ 
of the whole contest which we have lately witnessed, will leare 
Borne in substantial possession of the position she has usurped ; i 
that through the vacillation of our statesmen, and the instability ^ 
of political parties, the Papacy will, for the present, at least, • 
triumph over tbe strong and healthy national feeling of En^and. < 
And in proportion as that Protestant feeling is overborne, V9 * 
feel assured that the dignity and rights of the Crown will be lost. ' 
The Boyal Supremacy has always depended on the ^irit of resist- 
ance to Bome. It is chiefly as the type and embleni of natiooal 
Protestantism that it has gathered around it the fidelity of 
Englishmen. Dissevered from its ancient associations, allied with 
Eome and Romanism, it would present nothing to attract oatioiud 

With reference to the Church, it seems to us that there could 
be only one just course to pursue towards her. Place her in the 
same position, as far as possible, in reference to her religious 
rights, liberties, and privileges, as other bodies are placed in. 
If she is to remain subject to the legislation of Henry VlII., in 
respect to the appointments to her bishoprics, and to the regula- 
tion of her synods, then she may claim, as a matter of conunon 
justice, that the Church of Bome shall be placed under the same 
regulations. Let the Prime Minister of the day have control over 
the appointment to Bomish bishoprics \ and let no Bomish firjmods 
be summoned except by the Crown, and we can no longer have any 
ground of complaint that the English Church is tmjustly treated. 
If the power of the Crown in spiritual matters over the Church of 

^ We mnst refer to the able and masterly pamphlet, entitled Vindioia AmgU" 
oawBy for important auggoetions on this point. 

Ths Papal Aggremon and iU Coimqiiincet. Vfti 

ElMclaTid be no Tiolation of religious liberty, it eould be no violation 
i)f Uie rightB of eonjscience if extended to Uie Church of Bome. 

If it be right that Ministers, who may be of a difierent faith 
firom tbfi Church of England, or who may be influenced by persons 
of 9^ different &itb» should appoint the chief pastors of the 
Kpgliah Church, and prevent her members from meeting in synod 
for tke regidation of ner spiriUial concerns, it would be impossible 
to pnetend that there would be any injustice in dealing in the 
V9U^ wajv with the Bomiah Church in England and Ireland. The 
Synod of Thuilos also has proved that Bomish Synods may be quite 
as inconvenient as Engli^ Convocations. A Komish hierarchy, 
thougb unendowed, may be just as much an imperium in imperio^ 
and a hindrance in the way of Government, as an English Church 
po^Kflsed of its ancient liberties. If then, notwithstanding this, 
the Somish Synods are to be free and unfettered, and the Bomish 
hierarchy unrestrained by any authority of the State, we ask, on 
ithat principle of justice can it be possible to refuse to the Church 
of England the same amount of liberty ! To talk of the *' rights of 
the Crown,^ in this case, would be perfectly absurd : those rights 
would have been relinquished in principle. There could be no 
breach of principle in conceding to one class of subjects what had 
already been conceded to another. Therefore, we conceive that 
ultimately the public will perceive, either that the very same power 
which the Grown exerdses over the Church of England must be 
extended to that of Bome, or else that the same liberties con- 
ceded to the Church of Bome must to a considerable extent be 
eonceded to the Church of England. 

The mere circumstance that the Church of Bome is not en- 
dowed by the State, while the Chm*ch of England retains the 
ancient ecclesiastical endowments, does not seem to make any 
material difference ; for, in the first place, if the Church of Bome 
is not endowed, it is because it has again and again refused en- 
dowment. Whenever it has been apprehended that the State 
was about to. grant endowments, the Bomish priesthood and laity 
have, in the most vehement way, disclaimed and rejected the 
notion or proposal, and condemned it in the strongest language. 
The Church of Bome has a perfect right to reject endowm^, 
but it has no ri^ht to refuse to the State all right of control 
over its proceedmgs, in consequence. And, in the next place, 
there is no conceivable reason why the right of the State to 
interfere in religious concerns should depend on the question of 
endowment at all. The State possesses powers which it can 
make felt whether there be endowments or not. It has duties to 
itself and to religion which are not affected by the question of 
endowment. Therefore, to affirm that its power is absolute over 




1 76 The Papal Aggremon and Us Consequences. 

an endowed Church, and that it has absolutely no rights or powm 
over an unendowed one, is to maintain what will not stmi ite 
test of reason. 

In concluding these remarks, we would say that OhuTchmoi f^ 
may, we think, leave the solution of these questions with sooii ^; 
hope to the progress of opinion. For ourselves, we must coniB^ 
our gratitude for the preservation of the Ohurch of England filNl 
the imminent peril of alterations in her services, which, in tim 
excited and irritated state of public feeling some little time rintt 
would, we think, have been possible, had the heads of the CSniral 
given way to the popular feeling. Our trust and hope was, tint 
whatever might be the complexion of the views held by the headi 
of our Church, they would concur in abstaining from changes of b 
a dangerous character ; and that hope has, we gratefully aelmow- - 
ledge, been fulfilled. Had the Evangelical party been so in- in- 
clined, we apprehend that they might have succeeded in preparing 
the way for most fearful alterations by obtaining a Royal Oon^ 
mission. We cannot in any degree concur with those who in* l 
gine that any little eflforts, made at the crisis by the " Tractarian' 
party, had any influence in averting this result. Such efibHs 
would, we apprehend, rather have strengthened the hands of 
those who had sought for innovations with the view of expdiing 
Tractarianism from the Church. We do not concur in some 
important points with the pious and learned Prelate who is at the 
head of our Episcopacy ; but we are sensible of the deep obliga- 
tion which the Church feels to his Grace for his well-timed d»- 
suasive from alterations in the Prayer Book. We need not add, 
that, to the many other excellent and truly orthodox prelates who 
adorn the Episcopal bench, the Church may look with the fulleat 
confidence that they will protect us from any interference with 
the formularies of the English Church. Amidst the great and 
increasing difficulties of the times, we feel that it is the duty of 
all true members of the Church of England to rally more doself 
around their bishops, and to endeavour to strengthen their hands, 
and to refrain from adding to the embarrassments by which thej 
are surrounded. On various occasions, within the last few years, 
some of the bishops have been obliged to exercise their authority 
for the repression of innovations or practices more or less assi- 
milated to those of the Church of Borne ; and to many persons it 
may have appeared that their conduct was in those instances 
harsh, or uncalled for : yet we are bound to say that time has 
generally proved that they were right ; and we confess our per- 
suasion that, as a general rule, when a bishop resorts to extreme 
measures of repression against any clergyman of his diocese, the 
latter is, more or less, in fault. It is not to be supposed that, in 



The Papal AggresiUm and Us Consequences. 177 

sse days, a bishop mil, without necessity, resort to strong 
^asures of repression; more especially considering the great 
aount of toleration which is practically extended to diversities 
! taste and view. And we would further express our opinion, 
lat whenever a clergyman becomes the subject of strong and 
jev&^ral public animadversion for his mode of performing Divine 
orvice, it indicates in most cases a want of discretion or 
i charity on his own part. Either he has been hasty and pe- 
■mptoiy in his proceeding, or he has transgressed the regulations 
dtbe Church, and endeavoured to assimilate her services to those 
dCBome. This generally turns out to be the case on examina- 
Imd, and we find that our sympathies have been expended when 
&qr were really not deserved. 

We. cannot refrain from adding one more opinion founded 
on experience, — ^that if any clergyman be distrusted by his 
own parishioners as inclined to Somanism, or if his name be 
piblidy circulated as about to join the Ohurch of Borne, he pos- 
968868 the power of putting an end to any such surmises, either 
k his pulpit or by his pen ; and that if he does not avail himself 
if this power effectually and conclusively, he has no one but him- 
idf to blame. Let him only follow the directions of the Church 
Qher first Canon, and preach four times a year against the Papal 
Supremacy and its concomitants, and he may afford to laugh to 
iGom any attempt to represent him in his own parish as a 
ftomanizer. The difficulties of the times are so great, and sus- 
udons are so inflamed by the continual secessions to Eome, and 
bj the open tendencies to Romanism in a small .section of the 
CSinrch, that preaching occasionally against Bomish error appears 
now to be as requisite as a confession of sound SEuth on the part 
nS the clergy, as it is to inform the laity, and to protect them 
igainst the wiles of proselytism. 

We cannot dose these remarks without expressing an earnest 
hope that the Ministerial Bill may be successful. We are sensi- 
ble of its inadequacy to grapple with the evil before us. We feel 
that it is utterly deficient, in not placing the clergy of the Church 
of Borne tmder precisely the same restrictions as regards Synodical 
aOion as the statute 25 Henry VIII. c. 19, imposes on the clergy 
of the Church of England. Still, it would be suicidal in the 
English people to reject the Bill. The bitter opposition of 
Etomanists alone proves that it comprises a salutary principle. 
Fhe opposition of such politicians as Sir James Graham, and 
)ther sycophants of Borne, proves that it is sound in principle. 
Sind therefore we say, with aJl our hearts, — May it prosper ! 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXIX. — MARCH, 1851. N 




Lelio and other Poems. By P. Scott. 2. A Scripture Catechism ut 
Church. 3. Cultus Animse, 4. An Old Country Houie. 5. The Call 
the Anglican Church illustrated. 6. Passages in the Life of Mrs. 
Maitland. 7. Kenneth. 8. Speculation. 9. The Seven Days ; or, the 
New Creation. 10. " It is Written." From the French of Professor " 
11. An Analysis and Summary of Thucydides. 12. Dr. Beaven's £li 
Natural Theology. 13. Ancient Coins and Medals. By H. N. Ham] 
14. An Essay on the Origin and Development of Window Tracery in 
By Rev. A. Freeman. 16. Faith and Practice. By a Country Curate. 
Putz's Handbook of Medieeval Geography and History. 17* Rev. W, 
Ewbank's Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. 18. H ' 
Edition of Sliakspearc. 19. The Church in the World. By Rev. J. B. 
20. Readings for every Day in Lent. 21. Narrative of Escape from a 
guese Convent. By Rev. W. Cams Wilson. 22. The Rise of the Papal^ 
traced, in Three Lectures. By Rev. R. Hussey. 23. Lectures on the " 
ters of our Lord's Apostles. By a Country Pastor. 24. The Early " 
of the Gospel. By Rev. W. G. Humphry. 26. Wilson's Short and 
Instruction for the better Understanding of the Lord's Supper. 26. De< 
gationo Cunscientise, Prsclectiones. A. Roberto Sandersono. 27. A 
Series of Practical Sermons. 28. Dr. Olshausen's Commentary on the 
to the Corinthians. 20. Rev. J. Sortain's HUdebrand. 30. Dr. Posey's 
to the Bisho{> of London. 31. Poems. By M. A. King. 32. Sennoni. 
the late Dr. Shirley. 33. An Argument fur the Royal Supremacy. By 
S. Robins. 34. Dr. Jarvis's Church of the Redeemed. 35. Poems.' By 
E. H. Freeman and Rev. G. W. Cox. 36. Hymnarium Sarisburiense. 37. 
of Palestine. 38. Archdeacon Bereu's Leotiires on the Church Catechinn. 
Twelve Sermons. By Rev. R. Scott. 40. Rev. G. W. Lewis's Family 
41. Sermons. By Rev. R. D. Rawnsley. 42. The Life Everlasting. By! 
Whitley. 43. Harcourt's Lectures. 44. The Chronicle of Battle Abbey. Hf 
M. A. Lower. 45. Dr. Hook's Ecclesiastical Biography. 46. The Quroooir 
gical New Testament. 47. Stephen's Exposition of the XXXIX Artiflkii 
48. Hints for Happy Homes. 49. Wilbraham's " Tales for my Cousm." A 
Rev. R. W. Morgan's Vindication of the Church of England. 51. Leeconii 
52. Albertus Magnus de Adhasrendo Deo. 63. Joyce's Hynms. 64. TbtWi^ 
through the Desert. By Rev. R. Milman. 55. Science simplified. By Ref. 
D. Williams. 66. A Series of Texts. By Rev. W. Smclair. 57. The Museidi 
of Classical Antiquities. 58. Commentary on the Te Deum. By the Bishop 4f 
Brecliin. 59. Thoughts on important Church Subjects. 60. No Need of A 
Living Infallible Guide in Matters sf Faith. By Rev. A. Martineau, SI 
Papal Infallibility. By Rev. G. S. Faber.— Miscellaneous. 

I. — LeUo^ a Vision of Reality; Hervor; and other Paetm. Sf 
Patrick Scott. London : Chapman and HaU. 

It was only half a century ago that the power of poetical careaiioB 
and original genius seemed to have passed away from us for evtf. 
Like a fire which has burned down to a few half-glowing afihefl) 
from the exhaustion of the materials that fed it, so it wasnere» or 
seemed to be. All the subjects which had inspired from age to 
age mighty bards, and found in numbers musical married to words 

NoHifei, itc 179 

F fire, the apt exponehtfi of the human soul in all jts h^j^er 
bods, seemed to be used up. 

Sut in none of its varied spheres has the grasp of the human 
~~ect, and the amplitude of its resources, more completely ba- 
the vaticinations of critics and pedants, than m poetry, 
ly had the waters reached their lowest ebb, than there was 
out on the desert one of those sudden and intermittent 
, or rather floods, of inspiration, which spring every now 
then, one knows not how, out of the ocean depths of huma- 
i There commenced a grander and a richer era of true poetry 
, from the age of Elizabeth, has ever adorned the literature of 

n, fruitful from the first in mighty masters of song. 
et, though these sudden recessions and returns of the poetical 
Ity are not reducible to strict laws, and no calculus can esti- 
e its actions, or define its periodicity, yet we are not without 
means of assigning some of its most important elements. We 
ot, for instance, positively assert that mighty events and 
Vwide revolutions, albeit accompanied by that excitement of 
passions which stirs the imaginative faculties, will engender, 
any known law, or in any defineaUe amount, the epic or lyric 
iui, to stamp on immortal verse the image of ea^h stri^ng 
as it comes and flies. We are in profound ignorance, in 
. , of the principles on which the Author of all the gifts of 
ihiiuis measures them out, and gives and withdraws them as 
QjB wills. 

: But this we do know, that, without something in the character 
Xf the age to feed and sustain it, to surround it with an appro- 
Bmte and living atmosphere, and, in endless action and reaction, 
to flu^Ud and to be moulded by its creations, great poetic genius 
cannot subsist or flourish. The times, for instance, moGPb rich in 
beroieal achievements and masculine energies, and they alom^ can 
^tttain and engender (so true a parentage there is b^ween each 
«ra and its intellectual progeny) the lofty epic or soul-stirring 
^c ! In a period oi deadness and dryness the poetic fervour 
expires — is dead and buried. And it wanes and wanes, and is 
subject to a thousand modifications through all the divisions of the 
sMe which unite ^q extremes of lofty energy and intellectual 
stirring on one hand, and a low-souled prostration of thought and 
feeling on the other. 

Moreover, experience would seem to show that, in fact, pro- 
vided the tendencies of any ^ven period be such as to set the 
thoughts and passions of men m vehement action and commotion, 
^tever those tendencies may specifically be, and however seem-r 
ip^y in contradiction to each other, out of the clashing and col- 
lieion of soul and intellect mighty poetry will be evolved. Now 


180 Notices^ ^e. 

our present age is one utterly opposed in any theory ancient^ 
received, to genial inspiration. It is an age of exact science, m 
supposed antithesis to fancy, when not imagination, but tk 
analytic calculus, spans and weighs the universe. It is an agetf 
machinery, of manufactures — an age when the sublimities of M^ 
religion, and ancient reverence, and all that ennobles statesnutf 
ship, and clothes the image of the commonwealth, as embodied ill 
its public forms, with awfulness, are supplanted by the low arith- 
metic of majorities, and the summation of pecuniary loss and gain ! 

But still the public mind is profoundly stirred, and the very dis- 
coveries of abstract science are at once so stupendous, and so 
directly appeal to the sense of the marvellous within us as to 
transcend, in their truth, the highest flights of poetical fiction: 
whilst the tendency of the critical philosophy of the age has pro- 
duced an intense subjectivity, which explores and projects into 
tangible and Uterary forms all the mysteries of our inner being in 
their connexion with the Infinite, in whose mid-abyss we find our- 
selves, amongst all the exciting doubts and struggles of the specula- 
tive intellect which wrestles with the insoluble problem of our being. 

There is much of this observable in the little volume of Mr. 
Scott. He is a self-contemplator ! He is haunted by the strange 
inscrutable connexion between mind and matter ! The spirit of 
the universe in its beauty, and its power, and its mystery, has de- 
scended into the depths of his soul ! He is for ever darting 
forth into the infinite space of the metaphysics of the soul with 
no ordinary vigour and stretch of pinion. He speculates and 
Platonizes, and wings his way up towards the great mystery with 
an ease and power which unmistakeably define his true sphere. 
He is a philosophical poet ! His province is the transcendental, 
which escapes sense, and mind just discerns. 

He is not so much at home in the Aumanities of the Muse. 
When he touches the ground he does not derive strength, like the 
giant of old, but weakness from the contact ! He is defective in 
breadth of experience and ethical discrimination. He is possessed, 
soul-filled with one thought, the opposition between sense and in- 
tellect, matter and mind, the mesothesis of whose poles he is 
always investigating ? But his investigation is that of an imagi- 
nation full of fire, impulsive, restless, and ungovernable. He is 
impelled, not by a calm philosophic love of truth, but an inward 
demon, by whom he is energized. He is a real energumenos 
under the fierce afflatus, and driven into the depths ! One con- 
sequence of this is a true Dithyrambic furor, rolling along often- 
times in measures of the most living movement and long resound* 
ing harmonies. He is a great master, equal to any in modern 
times we have ever read, of the musical and rhythmical capacities 

aguage. They are moulded at the will of the restless and 

Dg thought, and respond like the strings of a harp to the 

er^s touch ! 

it^ we must give some Specimens of what wa mean. Take the 

wing description, and attempt to body forth the sense of power ^ 

as the projection of a planet might dilate a capacious soul 


Ingel. What seest thou, Leiio ? 

elio. Let me look again. 

For my sense swims upon a boundless ocean, 

Struggling i^inst its own magnificence— 

I see the flashings of bright points that pierce 

The solid night, whence floats a spinning sound 

Of a low melody ; while round me ripples 

Impalpable ether, whose conflicting waves, 

Breaking in flame the evanescent bloom 

Of blackest darkness, show nought near but thee 

Standing beside me in untenanted space ! 

Behold ! immeasurable shadow creeping 

0*er the clear void, and from a form that might be 

The form of man, could the weak eye take in 

Its limitless outline, stretches forth a hand, 

Within whose hollow rests a new-bom world ; 

The other arm extends a mantle o'er 

Its naked limbs, and showers all forms of matter 

And fire of mind upon its mighty surface. 

Heaving the pulse of a stupendous life ! 

A little while those awful Angers poise 

The trembling globe, then hurl it flashing from them* 

Away it rushes through the lash'd air, waking 

Time into life, and night to light — away — 

Lifting its voice of giant joy, and shouting 

To the unbounded universe, to welcome 

A radiant brother of God's ancient stars ! 

Fearfully wonderful ! "—p. 30. 

ike a noble image in the following lines : 

zlio. I see Time rising on the horizon 

Of a fresh world : his wet-clogg'd wings flap slowly 
Over unpeopled plains ; but on he speeds, 
Seeing new life spring round him as he flies, 
And empires dawning in the early east." — p. 33. 

lere is a lofty Platonic beauty, and a genuine intellectual 
ieur in the following opening to the ode to beauty. 

<' Mother of many children, bom in Heav'n, 
And denizen'd with man, divinest end 

US Nuim,^ 

Of labouring reason ! unto thee 'tis giv'n, 

Beauty, thou sun of inner worlds, to lend 
A radiant shadow of thyself, and shed 

A glory upon earth from thy jGfod-crown^d head ! 
Man works by modes, and these may not attain 
A part in thee, and oft the fainting force 
And the dimm'd vision mark his upward course 
To thy far temple ; he but moves between 
The darkness of his toil, and the fair scene 
Which thou dost open on him, as the crowb' 
Of his endurance : sorrow, too, and sin, 
Are moulds to shape his spirit, the first froWn 
Heralding nature's smile ; his infant soul 
Is perfected through media, and within 
Its chambers dwells the educating lights 
Till earth's fore-spent necessities shall roll 

Their curtaining clouds away, and Bieauty flo6d the sight !" — p 

The two greatest efforts in the volume are the' odes en 
" The Soul and its Dwelling," and " Life and Death."" The; 
noble poems, equal in some respects to Wordsworth's magnii 
ode, wherein he speculates on the mysteries of the infant 8 
and the immbttality which it enshroudd under its titne vesi 
and they are superior in a peculiar freshtiess and joyousne 
soul, which riots in a vivid imagery, tod a current of vc 
numbers that keeps time with the bounding of the living pi 

" Wine, wine, who thirsts for wine ? — p, 114. 

" Gold, gold, imperial gold," &c. — p. 115, 

There is a store of sAelf-contained grandeiil* in tiie conclusi 
this ode, which culminates, as it proceeds, into a Qiristiao 
Scriptural greatness, and truth Of holy sentiment. 

" Seek him, he seeks not dthers,"&c. — p. lid. 

There is much tenderness and pathos in the opening of " 
and Death." Take, again, the passage, 

** The finer spirit was sublimed, and cast 
The dusty sense beneath it, such a change 
As if the covering of earth were cleft. 
And to the pent divinity had left 
A freer germination, and a more 
Unlocal being, which appear'd to range 
Effortless and unstirring throughout spacer 
Existing in, yet all unbound by place. 
On things he look'd not from without, for they 
In their own ultimate essence found a way 
Into his nature, and he understood 
By what he Mt, and felt that all "ma gdod. 

The deeper trath which inly we embrace 

In mystic union, doth not show its face 

To the world's learned gaser, who would pry 

Into its features with unseeing eye ; 

For to be thus revealed, it must disown 

All sensual interrention, whence alone 

— E'en by the aid it flies — it could convey 

Its voiceless meanings into ears of clay."— p. 127* 

The whole is finely tbou^t, and clothed in a pure, masculine, 
transparent diction. 

'he following passage from the same ode is of great power, 
1 some touches of description of the highest order of imagina- 
, and a genuine depth of conceptive power : e. g» 

** Space seem'd engulphed in shadow as it past." 

** He then upon the wing 
Of loftier vision rising, stood upon 
The chilly confines of the world, where shone 
A languid stream from the far solar spring. 

A floating halo swam around 
Stirr'd by the pulse of ether, with a sound, 
Low, deep, like whisper'd thunder, while the air 
Surged in small waves, to herald as it were 
The coming of some mighty thing, and bright 
With the cold splendour of a wintry light, 
A sphere roU'd by majestic, calm and vast — 
Space seemM engulphed in shadow as it past. 
Around it lesser globes revolving play'd. 
Duskily sparkling, and its motion made 
Music not heard, but £elty most like unto 
The singing of the heart when life and love are new !" — ^p. 129. 

n some of the notes there are one or two exquisite translations 
1 the Persian. A volume of such translations from Hafiz 
^adi, executed in a sinular style, would be an acoeptaUe 
ition to our lit.erature. Meantime, we would not advise Mr. 
bt to waste his poetical abilities on such extravaganzas as 
vor. Not but that a lively and excitable temperament, like 
may very fairiy take its pastime in that light sea when it so 
ses him to amuse a familiar ^rcle, but the reputation of a 
t must be built upon more solid foundations, 
le has likewise much to study inhuman life, in the movements 
he passions, the innumerable combinations of the intellectual 
1 the passionate and the sensuous, which lie between the two 
remes of pure unfledied intellect, and mind ensepuk^red and 
^ted in flesh, which' are the simple forms in which he 
iceastomed to contemplate humam nature. We believe that 

184 Notices^ ^c. 

its typical of perfection is to be found in the crasis of both 
elements ; wherein the sensuous is elevated and harmonized bj 
those sweet and heavenly affections, and that mediating influ- 
ence of the imagination, in which, sublimed by religious principle, K 
and purified by the Spirit from above, the elements of our k 


manifold nature find their tdtimate unity. P 

II. — A Scripture Catechism upon the Churchy wherein the Amtom k 
are in the Words of the Bible. Oxford and London : J. H. ^ 
Parker. 1851. ': 

Useful alike to those who would teach or learn, to those who ; 
hold, and those who doubt the truth. The work was much , 
needed, and it is admirably done. 

III. — Cultus AnimcBy or the Arraying of the Soul; heing Praym j 

and Meditations which may he used in Church hefore and aft» \ 

Service^ adapted to the Days of the Week. Oxford and London: N 

J. H. Parker. 1851. , 

It is a painful state of things which makes us look with suspicion j 
at every new work of a devotional character, and hesitate to give 
our approval till we have weighed almost every expression. 
Alas, that the unwary, the unwise, and the untrue should haye 
brought us into such a position. But so it is : on every side there 
is peril; and what might pass unobserved in less dangerous and 
less traitorous times, must now be pointed out and exposed. 

The little volume before us is, we are happy to say, devoid of 
all those evil tendencies to which we have alluded, whether 
Bomanistic, Rationalistic, Pantheistic, or Puritanic: and it is 
well suited for devotional purposes. It might, however, be im- 
proved. The introduction, fcnr instance, should bo altogether left 
out, or re-written. The Scriptural associations of the days of 
the week are good, but others might be added with advanta^* 
We should prefer the less frequent appearance of such familiar 
addresses as " Blessed Jesus," " Holy Jesus." Neither do we 
admire the following passages. 

In one place, addressing our Lord, we find, — "till I, together 
with all who wprahip in the Communion of thy Church on earth, 
shall, in conformity with Thy beauties and perfections, be clothe 
with the state of glory, &c." However high the authority for 
such expressions, we do not like them. 

In another place we read, — '* by my doings, even the best of 
them, I have deserved His wrath and eternal damnation," which 
appears to us inconsistent with the dogmatic assertion of Scrip- 
ture, ^^ He that doeth righteousness is righteous^ even m Hk is 

NoitieeB^ <$r. 185 

riffMeous^'*'' and scarcely reconcilable with the teaching of the 
Twelfth Article ; since it is diflScult to comprehend how any thing 
can be ^^ pleasing and acceptable to God in Christ'''' by which wo 
^^ have deserved His wrath and eternal damnation.'*^ 

In another place we have, — " Let me meet Thee now with re- 
pentance in my heart, and the fruits thereof brought forth in the 
actions of my life, and with such spiritual wings^ cemented with 
the blood of my Bedeemer^ I may hope to flee from the wrath to 

IV. — An Old Country ffoiMe, London: Newby. 1850. 

This is one of the most finely designed and exquisitely executed 
novels which we have ever read. In fact, its merits are of a 
higher order than those which are generally expected or intended 
in such compositions. It is a book which none but a woman 
could have written, and yet which has all the power of the highest 
order of masculine intellect. The deep intense religion which 
breathes throughout every page and every line — the awful reality 
of the doom hanging over the godless house — remind us at once 
of the experimentsd divide, and the mighty dramatist. The ex- 
quisite elegance and grace must charm even the unbeliever. The 
juiaraoter of the low-born^ but truly noble Julia ; her trials and 
her trkunph, are music to our soul — ^music of the highest and 
holiest order. 

V. — The Calendar of the Anglican Church Illustrated. With brief 
accounts of the Saints who have Churches dedicated in their 
names^ or whose Im^es are most frequently mest with in England: 
the Early Christian and Mediceval Symhols ; and an Index of 
Emblems. Oxford and London : J. H. Parker. 1851. 

This is a most interesting and valuable contributipn to our eccle- 
siastical antiquities: and what is particularly desirable and, alas! 
seldom to be met with in such works, it is altogether free from 
any thing idolatrous or imbecile, such as cheers the truant on his 
way to Bome. 

" It is perhaps/' says the Preface, " hardly necessary to observe that 
this work is of an archaeological, not of a theological character ; the 
^itor has not considered it his business to examine into the truth or 
falsehood of the legends of which he narrates the substance ; he gives 
them merely as legends, and in general so much of them only as is ne- 
cessary to explain why particular emblems were used with a particular 
Saint, or why churches, in a given locality, are named after this or that 

186 NidUm, 4*0. 

The work begins with a short and very interesting dissertaticm 
on the Galendar of the Anglican Ghnrch : — 

*' Our reformers," says the editor, *• truly and reverently proceeded 
upon the principles of honouring antiquity. They found ' a number of 
dead men's names,' not over eminent in their lives either for sense or 
morals, crowding the Calendar, and Jotting out the festivals of the 
saints and martyrs." 

The Mediaeval Church, as the Romanists still do, distinguished 
between the days of obligation and days of devotion. Now, 
under the Reformation, only some of the former dass, the Feasts 
of Obligation were and are retained, being such as were dedicated 
to the memory of our Lord, or to those whose names are pre- 
eminent in the Gospels Surely no method could ban 

been better devised than such a course for making time, as it passes^ 
a perpetual memorial of the Head of the Churdi. 

The principle upon which certain festivals of devotion still re- 
tained in the Galendar prefixed to the Common Prayer, and 
usually printed in italics, were selected from among the rest, ii 
more obscure. 

A third class are, saints who are simply conunemorated ; aid 
it is a very curious fact, and, as we believe, hitherto quiti 
unnoticed, that these saints^ days, now considered as the dis- 
tinctive ba%e8 of Romanism, continued to retain their stations is 
our popular Protestant English almanacks until the. alt^ntion of 
style in 1752, when they were discontinued. By what authority 
this change took place we know not ; but perhaps the books of 
the Stationers^ Company might solve this mystery : — 

*' Poor Robin's Almanadi affords much matter for consideration. 
He shows t^at the tradition respecting tiie appropriation of the days to 
particular saints, was considered by the common people as eminetitly 
Protestant^ — that is to say, as part and parcel of the Church of 

England We have neither space nor leisure to pursue this 

inquiry ; but we do earnestly wish that some one wdl versed in eocle- 
sfasticai history, for instance Mr. Palmer, would investigate the * Calen- 
dar ;' not with the view of ministering to antiquarian curiosity, or idle 
amusement ; but as involving principles of the highest impor^oe." 

After this well-written essay follow the months as they are 
printed in the Calendar of the Prayer Book, with two cuts di 
day-ahnanacks at the beginning, and the various symbdhs placed 
O|^osite the days to which they belong. Now comes tiie main 
body of the work. The months are taken in their order. The 
days are described fend illustrated. The wood-cuts are foeatrtifid 
in the extreme ; the letter-press interestmg and unexceptionable. 
This lasts from p. 30 to p. HS» Then follow the moveable 

Ntfiiem^ 4r^ 187 

iMttabt equidly well done, which concludes the first part at 

^. 174* 

P&H; II. Contains brief accounts of the saihts who hare 

ffthilrbhes named in their honour, or whose images are most fire- 
miently met with in England. The only defect in this portion of 
WB wbrk is, the omission of the days on which the parish f(^wts 
ate held in the localities where these churches occur. It would, 
ite fhinkj hav^ been interesting, and might have led to further 
rMihs. Thie labour, however, which this portion of the work 
ittfel have tiansed the compilers can hardly be estimated : it has 
been well and accurately executed. 

We now arrive at the Third Part, " On Emblems.'' These 
ar^ divided into three sections: — 1. Early Christian Symbols. 

1. The Evangelistic Symbols. 3. Medieeval Symbols^ The 
Ohmtratiotis ef 1 and 2 are rich and striking, and Part III. is 
toost iible. 

" In addition to these early Christian symbols,*' says the editor on 
oofaamencing this portioti of his work, "there are certain symbolical 
id%Anings attached to the emblems which accompany the later saints, a 
teteffil eonslderotion of which may frequently unravel the lessons they 
wttHe demgtoed to teach, before the Vast accumulation of myth And 
nirVei completely veiled them from view ; indeed, it is almost certain, 
thJEit many of the acts attributed to these holy persons are merely 
fietitieiiB, aiid coitaparatiyely modem creations, the emblems with which 
diey were al!egoriciUly reptesented giving rise to the legends which 
obtdned «o extensively during the middle ages; so that we must 
interpret the legend as intended to suit the emblem, not the emblem as 
verifying the legend." 

The remarks which follow are just and valuable ; and tRis sec- 
tion is equally well executed with the others. The indexes, too, 
are carefully compiled. In fine, the '* Illustrated Calendar of the 
Anglican Cfhurdi^ is suited alike for amusement, for instruction 
—for a lady^s drawing-room or a scholar'*s study. 

VI. — 1. Passages in th6 Life of Mrs. Margaret Maitland. In 
3 vols. London: Colburn. 1850. 

2. Merkland ; a Story of Scottish Life. By the Author of " Pa^- 
sages in the Life of Mrs. Margaret Maitland.'*'' 3 vols. Lon- 
don: Colburn. 1851. 

The success of the first of these tales led, we presume, to the 

ry appe{u*ance of the second, which bids fair to eclipse its 
iMrouier in the good graces of the public. They are very 
peculiar works, which our readers will comprehend, when we 
c^ilfeas that we cannot make Up our minds whether the author is 
a man or a woman. 

188 Notices, ^c. 

The great merits of both novels are the perfect oonBistency d 
the characters, the graphic description of manners, the deli^ 
of touch, and the clearness of outhne, and the intense and unmis- 
takcable earnestness and enthusiasm of the author. He or she 
is a most unflinching bigot ; bigoted to the dogmas of Calvin- 
bigoted to the platform of Geneva — bigoted to all the provincial* 
isms of race, customs, manners, prejudices, castes, classes, and 
other associations with which she or he is identified or interested. 
She venerates the covenanting zealots, those traitors of old time, 
pretty nearly as much as the Oratorians do St. Philip of Neci, 
and his wiles and guiles. She looks upon a mortal feud, or s 
class distinction, or any other of the tokens of the pride of fnanV 
heart, which adorn that singular hybrid system, sprung from the 
commingling of Christianity and heathenism, and bound together 
and cemented, as it were, by a species of pseudo-Judaism, with 
exactly the same reverence as is shown by a devout Bomanist for 
the images and reliques of saints, real or imagined. 

We do not, however, like him a bit the less for this — we 
honour a bigot, when he is a bigot in reality, and not in pretence. 

The works before us have, nowever, other charms, of a yet 
higher order. They are warmed by vital Christianity, mingled, 
it is true, with Celtic paganism, and Swiss error, but still real, 
genuine, living. And this need not surprise vs. Christianity is 
so holy, so life-giving, and our God is so merciful, and our saeri- 
fice so availing, and the work of the Spirit so manifold and ao 
mighty, that any portion of the truth, toily and fully realized, is 
capable of producing fruits so marvellous, as to make the mere 
child of this world exclaim — 

" On modes of faith let wrangling zealots fight, 
His can't be wrong, whose life is in the right." 

A most unphilosophic blunder. Our consideration on the sight 
of the piety or righteousness of those who are in error, should not 
be that their errors are unimportant or non-existent, but firm in 
the consciousness of our own unassailable position and incontro- 
vertible faith, founded on the Bock of Ages, and received by the 
Bevelation of God. We should admire His boundless love, and 
joyfully acknowledge the work of His hands, and fearfully reflect 
with reference to ourselves, our brethren, and our Church, that 
*^ unto whom much is given, of him much shall be required.^ 

We earnestly pray that the writer of these tales may be brought 
to the knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus — mav receive the 
whole counsel of God — may submit to the true Church. The 
blood of universal redemption can alone wash out the segregative 
prejudices which at present afflict her mind; and even ^'de- 

Notices, ^e. 189 

ressed needlewomen ^^ will appear worthy of her sisterly sym- 
lathy, when she regards them as sprinkled with the dews of 
Saptismal Regeneration. 

VII. — Kenneth ; or the Bear^Guard of the Grand Army. By the 
Author of " Scenes cmd Characters,'" " Kings of England, 4'c. 
Oxford and London : John Henry Parker. 1850. 

This is a charming tale, full of character and incident, and one 
which could only nave been written by a dutiful child of our 
Church. The unobtrusive manner in which her absolute supe- 
riority is shown, whilst every credit is given to men of other 
tongues and other lands, forms its rarest and most intrinsic ex- 
cellence. It is just the work to give to a young person of either 
sex, from ten to twenty ; and yet, when we had taken it up to 
fpve it a critical survey, we found the greatest difficulty in laying 
it down again. 

VIII. — Speculation, Oxford and London : John Henry Parker. 

Very diiferent is this tale from the last. The story interesting, 
the principles sound, the teaching excellent. It would perhaps 
be more useful if the tone were not quite so didactic, especially 
at the opening of the volume. The more that instruction is 
needed, the less grateful is it — the '^ orli del vaso^^ require greater 
preparation when the patient is not only aching, but obstinate. 
We regret, too, the faults of style in the opening chapters : there 
is much that is ungraceful, and some that is scarcely English. 

IX.— 7%^ Seven Days ; or the Old and New Creation. By the 
Author of " The UathedraV* Oxford and London : John Henry 
Parker. 1850. 

The last new work of a celebrated author is always a subject of 
interest with the literary world ; and it was with great curiosity, 
as well as pleasure, that we commenced the perusal of the volume 
I before us. We opened it with a tremulous sensation of fear as 
well as hope ; but as we proceeded the fear altogether departed, 
and the hope became full fruition. This is undoubtedly Mr. 
Williams's most entirely successful performance. His other 
poetical compositions, whatever their merits, have been veiy un- 
equal : in fact, they have struck us as resembling an elaborate 
and intricate mosaic, some portions of which were made of gems, 
and others of less costly materials, put in to fill up the requisite 
spaces. Then again they have, with all their excellencies, various 
individual faults. "The CathedraP' is, with all its power, too cum- 

190 mim, «Y, 

bnm- The ^'Ttioqgbts in Past Years'^ have, with idlt|i0 exQuufijift 
swe(atii408 appfl^ent in many parts, a certain appearnnpe of uni- 
form design without the fuU reality, whiqh somewbiit baidkef itfi 
And the '^ Baptistery,'^ though a work which will live to the end of 
tin^e, and decidedly oiir favouritOy is, to iE^»eak the t^rutb* ^% timei 
decidedly proitf. 

In ^' The Oreation^^ Mr. Williams has grasped a mighty idea, 
formed an artistic plan, and nobly fulfilled that idea and executed 
that plan. There is, too, in the detail much less of that obscuritv 
which at times defaces his writings, than in any thing else whicn 
he has ever submitted to the public. We are conscious, how- 
ever, that no mere " Notice*' can do justice either to the merit 
pr the importance of this work, and we shall, therefore, at once 
conclude with two or three extracts^ reserving a n^ore carefu) 
examination for a future occasion. 

Of the exquisite passage upon Sunday, we cite the following 
beautiftd stanzas : — 

'^ Why gre the poor so bright in their arr^y ? 
Because they are the children of the King. 
This is His court and His great holiday ; 
Therefore their best they to His service bring. 
Ye trees put on your bright apparelling ; 
. Ye lilies of the valley lift your heads, 

Your sun spreads o'er you his own healing wing ! 
Ye ladies and rich men in costly weeds 
The glaring world each day alike your lustre reads." 

And again,— T 

^* The Sundays of our life, like stars aloof, 
Ye seeiii to disappear, and then when fled 
Ye stay; a^d gather on Heaven's vaulted roof, 
And in the dead of night with noiseless tread 
Ye come, and stand around my treinblipg head, 
Like guests from other worlds, and drawing near, 
Ye would speak with voices of the dead, — 
' Your lives are gather'd with us ; year by year 
"Why were we sent ? and why did we to you appear ? ' 

** Ye Sundays of our life, ye passers by, 
Yet in remembrance live, and put on light, 
Like witnesses which after death come nigh ; 
And, haply oft forgotten, to our sight 
Come forth again in weakness, or as night 
Of age draws on or death, neglected throng 
Of youth and childhood speaking now aright, 
And pleading how we thoughtless did you wrong ; 
Ifow m^oy thrilling nights and scenes to you belong J " 

^pOm, ^c, 181 

From the many fine passages before us we select the following, 
ipreesing as it does so powerfully our own seutiments towards 
ome : — 

*' But who shall speak thy wondrous goings forth, 
Liike some sepulchral spectre of the night, 
Thou nam'd Aurora of the ill-omen'd north, 
With lustrous train sweeping the aerial height, 
Bloody gold and flame ; in men's bewilder*d sight 
Riding on the meteorous canopy 
To counterfeit the morning's blooming light, 
Like that false Church which Time's dark night shall see, 
Upon whose burning brow is written ' mystery/ " 

X.—" It is written :^' or^ Every Word and Expression contained in 
the Scriptures proved to be from God. Prom the French of 
Professor Gaussen. London : Bagster. 

We confess to taking up this volume with some degree of pre- 
judice against it, in consequence of its rather singular title ; but 
before we had read a page, our attention was arrested by the 
lature of the subject, the force of the argument, the brilliancy of 
the language, and the richness of the illustration. Professor 
Graussen upholds manfully the full inspiration of the Word of 
God, and in his good wort he will have the hearty good wishes of 
all true Christians. He addresses himself to his task, not with a 
view to convince unbelievers, but with a view to confirm the faith 
of Christians in the divine and infiwlible authority of God's Word, 
and from all we have seen of his work we deem it a highly valu- 
able and seasonable addition to the available provision made for 
Christian readers on this important subject. He discusses with 
ability the many difficulties raised in reference to the inspira- 
tion — such as the non-infallibility of translations, the varjatijons 
in the text, and especially, with much ability and originality, the 
aDeged contradictions and difficulties of the Scriptures. Nor 
does he spare his indignant reproofs of those divines, whether 
orthodox or heterodox, who have in any degree compromised the 
authority of the Holy Scriptures. In addition, we are happy to 
bear testimony to the strain of fervent piety which pervades the 
^hole, and which often finds expression in words of earnest elo- 
quence and impassioned zeal. We have perused a considejrable 
portion of this work with the highest satis&ctioa and edificatioii. 

xui.-^Andmt Coins and Medals: an Historical Sketch of 
Origin and Progress of Coining Money in Greece and her Colo- 
nies ; its Progress toith t/ie Extension of the Boman Empire ; and 
its Decline with the Fall of that Power. By Henby Noel 
HuMPHEEYs, Author of " The Coins of England,'''* lUustraid 
by numerous Examples in Actual Belief hy Barclay'^s Process, 
in the Metals of the respective Coins. Second Edition, London: 
Grant and Griffith. 

We are happy to see that the work before us has reached a 
second edition, because it evinces, on the part of the public, a due 
appreciation of the learning, labour, and ingenuity which have 
combined to create this extraordinary volume. In point of fact, 
" volume " is an inadequate expression in this case, for between 
the two boards is included, not merely a very elaborate book, but 
a well-selected cabinet of coins and medals ! The imitations in 
metal by Barclay^s process are perfectly marvellous ; and of the 

192 Notices^ S^c. 

XI. — An Analysis and Summary of Thu^dides. By iJte Author of 
*^ An Analysis and Summary of Herodotm^ Jkc. Oxford: 
Wheeler. London : Bell. 

An Analysis and Summary like that before us camiot fail to be 
of considerable utility to the student of Thucydides, in enabliif 
him to retain in memory the various points of the history of the 
Peloponnesian war. The analysis appears to be very carefully 
executed ; and it is preceded by an outline of the Geography it 
Greece, and a Chronological Table of the principal events ; the 
Greek weights, money, and measures also being reduced through- 
out to the corresponcUng English terms. 

XII. — Elements of Natural Theology. By James Beaven, D,jD.^ 
Professor of Divinity in King^s College^ Toronto. London : 

Du. Beaven, in this work, furnishes his readers with a clear 
and well-arranged digest of all the principal proofs of the ex- 
istence, the moral attributes, and the Providence of God. The 
especial interest in the volume is, the frequent reference to the 
arguments and inferences of heathen philosophy, approximating 
so closely as they sometimes did to tne truth. The argumeiS 
from design which Paley has so ablv drawn out, is here very well 
exhibited and illustrated ; and on the whole we may remark, that 
Dr. Beaven'^s reasoning is throughout cautious and accurate. 

Noiicesj S;c. IflS 

letter-press which accompanies them we can speak in the highest 
terms, as not only evincing a thorough and deep knowledge of the 
subject, but as divested as much as possible of tedious antiquarian- 
ism, and enlivened by anecdote and interesting detail. The vast 
field traversed by the author affords, indeed, ample opportunity 
for the exercise of discrimination in the choice of materials, and 
he has employed his opportunities so judiciously, that we have no 
doubt his work will find a place on many a drawing-room table, as 
well as occupy an honourable position in every well provided 

XIV. — An JEssay on the Origin and Development of Window 
Tracery in England; with nearly Four Hundred Illustrations. 
By Edward A. Freeman, M.A,^ late Fellow of Trinity College^ 
Oxford^ Author of^^ The History of Architecture^'' " Architecture 
of Lland<iff Cathedraly"" (be, Oxford and London: John Henry 

Architecture is gradually assuming amongst us an importance 
and a scientific character which would astonish our foremthers if 
they could return amongst us. The progressive character of the 
age is marked very strongly in this branch of the fine arts at 
msi; and professors, peers, clergy, the ablest of our mathema- 
ticians, and the wealthiest of our aristocracy, are all alike inter- 
ested in the minutest details respecting our ecclesiastical buildings. 
The press groans beneath pubHcations on the subject. Volumes, 
pamphlets, essays, periodicals, meetings, societies, all attest the uni- 
versal rage for architectural study. Amongst the leading men in 
the study, is the author of the volume before us ; and we protest 
that, in opening his table of contents, we are perfectly over- 
whelmed with the weight of his erudition, and the multiplicity of 
his distinctions. We are alarmed at "geometrical skeletons," 
our amazement is increased at " arch-skeletons,^^ and we expe- 
rience a sensation of uneasiness in such connexion, at " corruptions 
of arch-tracery .'' We are compelled to scratch our heads at 
" subarcuated foils,'^ " divergent vesicae," " spiked foUation ;"' 
and we look as wise as we can at "reversed convergent tracery, 
" flowing skeletons," " quasi subarcuated windows," &c. &c. 
But, to speak seriously, Mr. Freeman has evinced a profound 
knowledge of his subject, which is one of high practical moment 
in architecture ; and, by his classification, has contributed greatly 
to make it rational and intelligible. We are delighted to see 
that 80 profound an architectural student does not hesitate to 
reject th^ reveries of symbolism. We could excuse several faults 
in consideration of such a wholesome and, we must add, coura^ 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXIX. — MARCH, 1851. O 


194 Noticed, ^c. 

geous, avowal. But the truth is, thAt Mh Fbieferfito's wbrk id ^ 
which, as it goes in a gk*eat degt-ee 6n certain data, dhd bceii{tiii 
itself chiefly in classifying facts, is bnie in which Sreat eitors ift 
not to be expected. It is copiously illustrdtecl by ^obd-cnti^ 
illustrative of window traceiy, \\rhich constitdtl^, by iio m&ull 
the leilst part of its vdue. 





xv. — Faith <md Practice : heinp Sunday Thoughts tii Vir^. M 
a Country Cueate, Author of " Thoughts in Verse for m 
Afflicted,'*'' London : Bell. 

Tins little volumie of poems is characterized by a simplicity airf j 
piety which will render it a profitable and agffeeable conipAiildri to ^ 
those whose taates have not been formed on the reflHed and 
mystic poetry of the present ddy. The Kiithoi' selects siitiplfe and 
devotional subjects, such as good Churchmen dnd good Christiins 
would wish to dwell on ; and he treats them just as a clergyman 
ought to do, and certainly in a way which is open to general com- 
prehension. As we read the earlier part of his bopfc, indwl,,ii 
occurred to us, that these are the sort of poems which would, be 
very acceptable and intieliigible even to the poorest classes, and in 
National Schools ; but the style rises afterwards. We teke Uie 
following from Meditations in Lent : — 

" Lord, now befote the heavenly gate 
I stand a penitent ; 
Here on the threshold shall I wait, 
To sanctify ray Lent. 

" Teach me to grieve, to fast, to pray. 
Deploring all my sin ; 
To rend ray heart, to strive each day 
Against the pride within ;— 

*-* My soul to search, my guilt confess, 
My appetites deny, 
My goods impart thy poor to bless, — 
My members ihortify." 

We cannot speAk very highly of the poetical powefr manifested 
in this volume, but it is the production of a pious and very thought- 
ful mind, imbued with much poietic taste and feeling; 


xv J. —Handbook of Mediceval Geography and History. By Wil- 
HELM PuTz, Principal Tutor at the Gymnasium of Durm. 

Mik^, 4rc. 196 

^rdnslaUd hy the lUb. B. B. Paul, M.A.j inc. London: 

Ehis Handbook of Mediaeval History and (Geography is the 
leoond part of ihe series published by Professor PUtz ; and it 
ippears to be a Taliiable and useful dompendium of information 
m the subjects to which it relates. It is very convenient to have 
it hand a manual like this in reading the history of the Middle 
Ages. The Appendix contains a series of questions on the various 
chapters for the use of students. 

XVII. — A Gommmtatjf on th$ JEpistle of Paul the Apostle to the 
Somcms : tpith a mw TramlatUm^ am Eaplanatory iTotes. By 
William Withers EwBANK,ikf.-4., Incumbent ojf St. George^s 
Churchy Everion. London : J, W. Parker. 

Mr. Ewbank appears to have executed his work with very great 
care, and from all we have seen of it, tiiis commentary mdy be 
regarded as a very valuable accession to our Biblical literature. 
It 18 not overloaded with annotations, nor does it present a great 
variety of interpretations and criticisms, but goes straightforward 
to itd point, and certainly it contributes to elucidate many of the 
difficulties in this difficult epistle. It is composed with good 
sense, and in a very pleasing tone. Tholuck's Commentary has 
been much employed, in addition to those of Calvin, Stuart, and 
Olshausen, and the homilies of Chrysostom. 

XVIII. — The Dramatic Worh of William 8hdkspeare, from the 
Text of Johmon^ Stevens, and Beeit ; with Glossarial Notes, 
Life, <&c. A New Edition. . By William HazliItt, Esq. 
In 4 vols. London : Boutledge and Co. 

Shakspe are's works for four shillings ! What times we live iii ! 
Here is a critical edition of Shakspeare, well pniited, arid quite 
readable, for less than half what w(B lised to pay for a siiigle volume 
of an eight or ten volumed edition. 

XIX. — The Church in the World; or, the Living among the Dead. 
By the Bev. J. Bain bridge Smith, M. A., formerly of St. 
John^s College^ Cambridge; Professor of Mathematics, and Vice- 
President of King'^s College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. London : 

In this pleasing and pious little volume, the services of the Church 
are connected with the spiritual presence of the beings who 

436 Notices^ S;e. 

are invisibly about us, and with personifications of the feeli 
and states of mind which should arise from the exercise of reKgi^ ^ 
duties. It is one of that large class of books which afforc 
struction and interest to young persons in the present day, 
many of which aim at elevating the feeling with which the 
vices of the Church are attended. In seeking to create 
reverential and thoughtful appreciation, there is the risk, wl 
is not always avoided, of dwelling on the means of grace, 
omitting to dwell on the Author of grace. 

XX. — Readings for Every Day in Lent, Compiled from 
Writings of Bishop Jeremy Taylor. By the Author of '* A\ 
Herbert;' " The Child's First History of Bome,'' &c. 
don: Longmans. 

From the examination we have been enabled to bestow on tl 
volume we cannot hesitate in recognising it as a very valual 
addition to the devotional hterature of our Church, comprising, 
it does, many of the choicest passages in the writings of a pioi 
divine^ whose name is a "household word" amongst us. Wj 
have been unpressed by the judgment evinced in the selectic 
and arrangement of the materials of this work. The meditatioaj 
for each day is succeeded by a prayer. 

xxi. — Narrative of a Singular Escape from a Portuguese Convent ; 
with an Introductory Address. By the Bev,. W. Carus 
Wilson, M.A.^ Bector of Whittington. Second Edition. 
London: Seeleys. 

This little volume is calculated to be of very great utility at the 
present time, and cordially do we concur in the necessity of some ] 
such course as that which Mr. Wilson has suggested in the 
introduction, and which we are happy to perceive has been em- 
bodied in a bill recently laid before Parliament for the purpose of 
preventing the forcible detention of persons in nunneries. The 
details of the story, which present every evidence of authenticity, 
are enough to excite indignation in the mind of every English 
reader. How the members of a communion, which exercises the 
cruel coercion here stated, can appeal to the principles of religious 
liberty, would be difiBcult of comprehension to any but to those 
who have marked the unblushing effrontery with which the advo- 
cate^ of Bomanism are endued. 

The author describes the artifices by which an unfortunate 
young female was induced, at a very early age, to resign herself to 
the seclusion of a nunnery, near Lisbon, for wluch she was 


Notices^ ^e. 19Y 

ly unfitted. She was the daughter of an Irish merchant who 

a connexion with Lisbon, and when about seventeen, having 

m previously at a convent in Ireland, she was placed in one at 

ibon. After passing through the novitiate she was to take the 

I, and was previously to be introduced to " the world,"^ 

^ This was done in a manner not very likely to impress the poor 
with a favourable notion of what she was about to renounce for 
^er. She was mounted on a donkey, led by two priests, and conveyed 
irough the main streets of Lisbon. The rabble surrounded, the 
>ys hooted at her, and she was gazed at as a sight, till, terrified with the 
dse and notice she attracted, she declared, on her return to the con- 
it, that she would cheerfully assume the veil, and never leave her 
iceful abode again." 

Sister Jane,'' as she now became, was visited by her friends 
r some time. The abbess was present, and all seemed very 
ppy and pleasant. 

*' Whilst the lady abbess was conversing with me. Sister Jane was 
nighing and talking very freely with the rest of the company ; and 

feome observations she made attracted the ears of the abbess, who said, 
rith an arch look, * Jane, take care, child ; I am by you.' To which 

^ane replied, with seeming simplicity, and without any appearance of 

fear, * Oh, mother, I forgot you were here !* " 

The poor nun's gaiety, however, was all affected ; for she had 
reason to be deeply anxious and unhappy at the time, as we may 
infer from the following circumstances : — 

" Amongst the nuns in the Irish convent there was one young lady 
whose mind was superior to most of the others ; and she took a great 
fancy to Jane, though she was some years older than my young friend. 
She would give Jane excellent advice as to her conduct, urge her to 
improve herself; and to none of her companions, did Jane draw so 
closely as to * Sister Mary.* 

" About half a year before my introduction to Jane, she had been 
aware of an increasing dejection of mind in her friend, and had often 
urged her to disclose the cause ; hut Mary kept silence, and never could 
Jane prevail upon her to impart the subject of her grief. In the course 
of a few weeks, Jane heard that her friend was taken ill. She requested 
to see her ; but was refused. She begged to be allowed to nurse her ; but 
was told that * Sister Mary's ' fever was highly infectious, and that the nuns 
must not go near her. Not many days after this, the bell, which spoke 
the death of a member of the community, was heard to toll, and it was 
soon understood that Sister Mary's spirit had fled. Next followed her 
funeral ; and the nuns attended the ceremony." 

Several weeks passed away, during which Jane mourned the 
loss of Sister Mary ; but strange to say, an impression grew upon 

198 NoticeSi ^e. 

her mind, that, at times when she passed through the cloisteisBi 
she heard her name softly pronounced by the voice of bff 
departed friend ; and on one occasion, as she was returning from 
midnight service, this impression became so strong, that sb 
paused a moment, and, remaining amongst the graves in tlii 

" She then said, ' Did Mary call me ? You loved me whilst livingi 
and I am sure your spirit would not injure me now.' The name 4 
Jane was again repeated distinctly ; and she endeavoured to make 
her way to the spot from whence the sound seemed to proceed, putting 
the same question as before. The voice replied, ' I am dead indeed tli 
the world, but not to you : look near such a grave, and you can see me.' 
Jane scarcely knew where she was. Her feelings were wrought up to 
the highest pilch of terror, curiosity, and tenderness to her departed 
friend. But she followed the sound ; and, making towards the grave 
to which she was directed, she observed a very small square grate iu 
the ground, through which appeared a faint light. She knelt down, 
and looked through it ; when she discovered her long-lost friend in a sort 
of dungeon, with a lamp before her, and her bed, chair, and table. 

" * Is it my Mary I see, ray own dear Mary V exclaimed Jane. 
* Yes,' replied her friend. * Let my case be a warning to you : my ill- 
ness, my death, and my burial were all deceptive.' You observed my 
low spirits : I loved you too dearly to unsettle your mind by giving 
the cause of them ; but I was so wretched in the convent, that I w^ote 
a letter to my friends, entreating them to devise some method for my 
escape. This letter I unhappily entrusted to the old woman who some- 
times brought us oranges, and she gave it to the abbess, who, with 
many bitter reproaches and threats, hurried me down here, where I have 
been ever since. I dared not call you by name, unless I could dis- 
tinguish your voice amongst the sisters ; for I am sure if I made known 
my tale of woe, death by starvation would be the consequence, not only 
to me, but to those who heard me. I also felt that even if I did call, 
no one would dare answer my voice from those graves but yourself* 
You are the first person who has spoken to me for many weeks. My 
food is brought me in a tournoir, and the empty plates, &c., are re- 
moved in the same way. I am dead to all but you ; still, if your affec- 
tion can give you courage to pass an hour with me sometimes on your 
return from the chapel, it will be the only soothing drop in my cup of 

The sequel of this tragedy is dreadful. The unhappy prisoner 
commits suicide in her despair. Sister Jane discovers the truth, 
and is in her turn visited with the most tremendous threats to 
induce her silence. She then resolves to escape ; and at length 
effects her purpose by means of her brother-in-law, who is hmi- 
self obh'ged to leave Lisbon before the escape takes place^ for fear 

Notices, ^c. 1Q9 

^ tjei^g asQ9^in$>ted, if his share in the attempt should be dis- 

Unless we are under a very mistaken impression, we remember 
an account of a rescue of a nun from a monastery at Lisbon by 
officers of the British Navy, which appeared in the papers some 
{ime since. This narrative appears to comprise the particulars 
of that escape. It is very deeply interesting ; and we should say 
tliat its extensive circulation, especially ^n parochial lending 
i\^r8^rie§, would be o^ great benefit to the caijse of truth. 

XXII. — The JRise of the Papal Power traced^ in Three Lectures, By 
BoBERT HussEY, jB.-D., Begius Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History. <)xford : J. H. Parker. 

Jn this very learned and accurate work, Professor Hussey traces 
briefly the rise and growth of tb© Papal Supremacy from the 
period of its origin at the Synod of Sardica, to the time of Inno- 
cent III. The Preface contains some valuable remarks on the 
distinctively aggressive character of the Church of Rome, which 
renders it so formidable to the rights of states, and to the ex- 
istence of other Churches, that it caqnqt safely be entrusted Tyith 
the same liberties and privileges as other religious communities. 

xwi.—Lectv/res on the Characters qf our Lord's Apostles, and 
especially their Conduct at the Time of his Apprehension and 
Trial, By, a Count^^T Pastob, Author of " Lectures on the 
Scrvpl^re JRevelations respecting, a Futwe State.'''* London: 

^His volume is marked \iy th^ yigorousi logic ^nd acute dis- 
or^^ins^iion which are so characteristic of tl^ei autl^or's pub,li9a- 
tiojps, aii^d which ^re at tin^^s coQilpiilQe^ witk a freedom of specu- 
lation, or boldness Qf thought, by up means visual at the period 
when thi^ able and distinguished writer commenced his career. 
It would be needless for us to mention more specifically the author 
of the work on " The Scripture Revelations," &c. That work 
advocated the notion of the sleep of the soul in the intermediate 
state, and did not contribute to ^ai^e the writer's character for 
o;j^odoky ; but we lu^ve sincp then hj^d so maiyf worse notiojos, 
af a ^orei ^n^^r9us speculatioi\s advai^ced. by a p^etende^ ortho- 
4p?y, ttii^J eyen the '' Oouutr][ pastpr"' ^pears q\iite jiarmless 
ii\ cpmpArisqi;! 5 and the writer in hi^ true n^tna^, style, and title, 
quite so. In these days it is ireatly a coipfort to meet a man 
who is neither a Rationalist nor a Romanist, and the author of 
the volume be£oj*e us is neither one nor the other. His essays 

200 Notices^ S^e, 

on the Apostles, though full of new and occasionally startfingf 
positions, will be read with instruction and improvement. We 
extract one or two passages. 

'' As for this Apostle receiviDg the surname of Peter (Rock), and 
being promised that ' on this rock Christ would build his Church/ thii 
prediction was clearly fulfilled in two events. First, on the day of 
Pentecost Peter took the lead in addressing the Jews\ and gathering 
them into the fold of the infant Christian Church. And again, he im 
chosen out of all the Apostles to go to Cornelius and his household, 
and there begin the opening of the Christian Church to the Gentiles, 

•* And here it may be worth while to remark, by the way, that the 
claim of a series of men, in long succession, to be each a successor of 
Peter, as the foundaiion'Stone on which the Church is buijt, is not only | 
groundless, but absurd and unmeaning. Even if Peter had possessed 
all the rights that have ever been claimed for him, and if certain men ' 
really were his successors in every thing else, still they could not c(hi- 
ceivably be each of them a foundation. One can understand, for in- 
stance, that Romulus was the founder of the city of Rome, and that the 
kings who came after him were his successors as kings of Rome ; but 
they could not possibly be each a founder of Rome," — pp. 13, 14. 

And again, on the nature of faith, we have these excellent 
remarks : — 

** For we should remember, by the way, that the virtue of their faith 
was greatly enhanced by their ignorance of all that was arising. Eminent 
faith does not consist in superior knowledge. On the contrary, there 
is no room for the exercise of faith in respect of any thing which we 
perfectly know and fully understand. A right faith consists in a well- 
grounded trust in some safe guide, when we do not know the reasons of 
the directions he gives, and have to take his word for the truth of what 
he says. If you believe that you are sailing towards the land, when 
you see the land before you in broad daylight, this would not indicate 
faith in your Pilot. But you would show your faith in him, if you 
believed this on his word, in a dark night,** — pp. 23, 24. 

The volume abounds in this sort of plain forcible illustration 
and argument. 

XXIV. — The Early Progress of the Gospel: in Eight SermcnSy 
preached before the University of Cambridge^ in the year 
MDcccL. At the Lecture founded hy the Bev. John ffuhey M.A. 
By William Gilson Humphry, S.D.^ Fellow of Trinity 
College^ and Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of London* 
London : J. W. Parker. 

These discourses are on the following topics — the progrees of 

NoiieeSy S^e. SOI 

the Gospel an Evidence of its Truth — the effect produced upon 
Jews and Oentiles by the Evidence of the Miracles — the effect 
produced upon Jews and Gentiles by the Evidence of Prophecy — 
the Christian doctrine and the Christian life — causes contributing 
to the Progress of the Gospel — hindrances occasioned by the 
calumnies of the heathen, and by the ill lives of nominal Chris- 
tians — the effects of persecution — the efforts made by the heathen 
philosophy to resist and corrupt the Gospel — the resistance 
made to the Gospel by the Pagan superstitions — the relics of 

The above vdll afford some notion of the class of subjects 
treated of in these Lectures. We have been most favourably 
impressed by all we have seen of the volume. The views deve- 
loped in it appear to be the result of much reflection, grounded 
on a competent knowledge of the subject, and we meet no ex- 
travagant assertions, violent expressions, or extreme opinions. 
There is much of that sober-mindedness and good sense which 
we have so frequently to desiderate in writings of the present 
day, and more especially in works bearing on such subjects as 
Mr. Humphry has here treated. His two concluding Lectures, 
in particular, we deem eminently valuable, tracing as they do 
with great ability, the gradual relaxation of Christian morality, 
and the corruption of Christian worship, under the influence of 

theories derived from Paganism. 


XXV. — A Short and Plain Instruction for the better understanding 
of the Lord's SiJtpper^ Sfc, By Bishop Wilson. With Notes^ 
hy a Priest of the Church of England, London : Cleaver. 

This edition of Bishop Wibon's Introduction to the Lord'^s 
Supper includes the Bubrics, now for the first time added ; and 
is accompanied by an. immense mass of rubrical information, 
detailing the mode in which service is celebrated in such churches 
as St. Barnabas, Pimlico, Margaret Chapel, &c., and also in the 
Church of Rome. We have no doubt the editor has bestowed 
great pains and attention on the study of Liurgical works ; bu t 
we should have thought that some better vehicle might have been 
found for his lucubrations than the pious and simple pages of 
Bishop Wilson on the Sacraments. Is it advisable to put into 
the hands of communicants a volume crammed with discussions 
about " cruets,'^ " credences,"' " purificatories,'' and " the Synod of 
St. AndrewX Dunkeld, and Dumblane'" — or even about " prick- 
song ?" We protest we cannot look on such subjects introduced 
into such a book, as any thing but trifling with the most solemn 
parts of religion, and reducing the Sacrament to a mere matter 

2Q3 Ni^im, ^e. 

of form and ceremony. Are ritual matterg t^e prppen subjedf 
for meditation at the Lord's Supper \ 

X3^vi. — De OhUgatiane Consdentiw Frcelectiones Decern Oxonii m 
Sckola Theohgica habUcD, A.p. mdcxlvii. A. |Iobeeto Sak- 
DEBSONO. S. Theohgice ibidem Professore Begio postea Epih 
copo Lincohhiemi* With English ifotes^ includinhg an abridged 
Translation by William Whewell, AD., MaMer of Trii^ 
CoUege^ S^c. Edited for the Syndics of the University Pre^ 
Cambridge : 1 85] . J. W. Parker, London. 

The learned and ingenious work of Bishop Sanderson, " De ObG- 
gatione Oonscieqtise,'' is in the present edition placed before tiw 
reader in a shape, for which students in Ethics have reason to 
reel indebted to Dr. Whewell. The addition of indices to the 
work IS a great improvement ; and the summary at the foot of 
each page, fay Dr. Whewell, not only facilitates the compre- 
hqnsion of this difficult book, but supplies a convenient abndg- 
ment of it. 

XXVII. — A First, Series of Practical Sermons. By the Bev, 
Frederick Jackson, ^ncumb^nt of Parson Drone^Isle of Elf* 
Lqi^don : Hatchards. 

This volume contains twenty Sermons^ and we have pleasure in 
expressing our opinion, that they furnish an excellent specimen 
of what goQ^ parochial discourses should be. They are plain, and 
tr^ith-telfing, but apimated, earnest, and diversified ; and while 
unaffected in style, they appear to us calcula^d to arrest c^nd 
retain attention. We have not read the whole of the work, but 
we have seen much to admire, and nothing to disapprove. 

xxviii. — Biblical Commentary on St, PauVs First and Second 
iJpistUs to the Corinthians, By IIerman Olshausen, D,D. 
Translated by the Beo. John Edmund Cox, M,A, F,S.A,y &c, 
Edinburgh: Clark. 

This Commentary presents undoubtedly a favourable specjpdeii of 
German criticism ; but \ye confess our uneasiness at seeing 
Clergy of the Church of England, and publishers of a decide4ly 
^^ evangelicaF^ character, engaged in the circulation of publics^- 
tions, which if they are npt directly heterodox in themselves, a^ 
still dangerous, from their myltiplied references to authors of the 
most unsound and grpsaly rationalistic views. We trust that in 
their anxiety to oppose ^^ Puseyism,"' a large party in the Church 
will not become a prey to the craifty devices of fals^ philqsoptij. 

waA be thus gradually deprived of that faith in the Scripture 
which they are now the foremost to maintain. 

XXIX. — Hildebrcmd (Fope Gregory VII.) and the Excommuni- 
caiedJEfiweror. 4 Tale, jy Joseph Sortain, 4.^., Trinity 
CoUege^ Dublin. London : Longmans. 

This Tale conveys a very different impression of Hildebrand from 
that which has been fashionable of late, and we believe much 
more in accordance with the truth. The terrible effects produced 
hy the iron will and the ambition of this great founder of the 
temporal supremacy of Rome, are pourtrayed with considerable 
power ; but we apprehend that the author conveys too favpurable 
an impression of the party opposed to the Pope, which was almost 
equally bad in its principles and conduct. 

XXX. — A Letter to the Right Hon. and Bight Rev, the Lord Bishop 
of London^ in Explanation of some Statements contained in a 
Letter hy the Rev, W, DodswortL By the Rev, E. B. Pusey, 
D.D,^ Regius Professor of Hebrew ; Canon of Christ Church ; 
hte Feltoio of Oriel College, Oxford : J. H. Parker. 

To speak of this Letter in the manner which its importance de- 
serves, would deman4 more space than is now at our disposal. 
We must therefore content ourselves with a very few general 

The object of the Letter is to afford an explanation of the 
author's position and principles, at a moment when statements of 
the religious system inculcated by him, originating with his inti- 
mate fnend Mr. Dods worth, had Ibeen in uncontradicted circula- 
tion for many months, and had produced the most powerful 
effects upon the public mind. According to these uncontradicted 
statements, Dr. Pusey had been engaged in promoting the spread 
of Roman Catholic tenets and practices within the communion of 
the EngGsh Church. Now, considering the position which Dr. 
Pusey holds as the leader of the Tractarian party, and that the 
impatation thus thrown on him thus affected more or less all who 
were in any way connected with him, it does seem strange that 
no notice was taken of so serious a charge for nearly a year after 
it was made. However, it might have been at least expected, 
that when referred to, an exposition of principles would have 
been made, which would have put an end absolutely and for ever 
to any doubts or imputations connected withi Mr. Dodsworth's 
charge. When a true son of the English Church is specifically 
accused of Romanism, there can be no doubt of the nature of his 
reply. He will speak in such language that there can be no 

tOi Notices^ ^c. 

further mistake '. he will declare that he condemns the Bomish 
errors imputed to him. 

But this, we regret to say, is what Dr. Pusey appears to be 
incapable of doing. He publicly exerted his influence to prevent 
any declaration against Bomish error in the course of last autumn, 
at the meeting of the Bristol Unions and subsequently at a large 
meeting of the London Union on Church Matters ; and in the 
work before us, his whole effort throughout is to justify the doc- 
trines and practices which he has inculcated, by quotations from 
various writers, who are alleged to have taught in the same way 
as Dr. Pusey ; and to justify them without attempting to prove 
that they are not substantially identical with Bomanism ; — and 
that Bomanism teaches erroneous doctrines on those points, 
which ought to be condemned and rejected. In short, the state 
of the case is this : — Dr. Pusey is charged with having taught 
Bomish doctrines. His defence is, that others in the English 
Church have taught the same doctrines that he has done ! We 
cannot conceive a weaker and a more dangerous line of argu- 
ment, inasmuch as it tends merely to transfer the objection 
against his tenets to those of the Church of England generally. 
The only effectual way of meeting the statement of Mr. Dods- 
worth was to show that Dr. Pusey could, consistently with his 
teaching and practice, condemn the errors of Bomanism, and 
refute them. That he has not done so is, we fear, because he 
cannot do so with consistency ; and because he is resolved to 
maintain consistency at all hazards. 

XXXI. — Poems. ByMAnr Ada King. London: Hatxshards. 

These poems are the productions of a very young lady, and are 
published, it appears, ^^ in the faint hope of advancing the inte- 
rests of her family, who have just suffered an irreparable affliction 
in the death of their beloved father.'^ 

We do not know that we can more effectively aid in this 
object than by transcribing the following lines : — 


" It was not very long ago 
I saw a noble tree, 
Which in a beauteous garden grew, 
And seemed its deity. 

** Its stem was strong, its leaves were green, 
It stood a comely sight; 
Its foliage shelter'd summer birds. 
And gave them rest at night. 

Notices^ Sre. 205 

" But soon the storm-clouds gathered fast, . 
The viiad rose fierce and high, 
The heavens looked dark and desolate — 
A tempest sure was nigh, 

" The rain came down a drenching shower. 
And lightning fired the sky ; 
The thunder roared, and shrieking winds 
Went madly raging hy, 

'* That tree had weathered storms before, 
Whilst youthful currents run, 
And hoped to live through future years 
Beneath a genial sun. 

" But Heaven yet called for better proofs 
Of strength in battle's might ; 
Right well it met the furious storm. 
And nobly dared the fight. 

" Now all the little feathered tribe 
That sought in it repose, 
To quit their leafy nests were driven 
Before the evenincr's close. 

Full many fear'd the threatened loss 

That dreadful day might bring. 
And pray'd to God the storm might pass. 

Yet spare the garden's king. 

** My Father, this was like to thee, 
When thou wert in adversity. 

" The clouds withdrew, the rain o'erpast. 
The winds forgot to sigh. 
The golden sun was clear and bright, 
Thestorm had travelled by." . « • • 

We regret that space prevents us from continuing this pleasing 
strain of poetry. The authoress has produced several pretty 
pieces, but her style is occasionally very unfinished. 

xxxiT. — Sermons. By the late Walter Augustus Shirley, 
2).Z>., Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man, London : Hatchards. 

Bishop Shirley was a man of no ordinary ability and piety, and 
his Sermons, like every thing else that we have seen of his, are 
deserving of a perusal, and will amply repay it. There is some- 
thing very peculiar in his style, which is not easily to be de- 
scribed — a flow of thought — an ease and eloquence of expression 
"*-a felicity of illustration — and frequently an originaUty of view, 

26iJ Nbtiw, Sre. 

which gives a cohsidei^blb chkrtn to his writibgd. ^ ibiii the Se^ 
mons before us have higher cULims than thbse, iii the deep and 
practical views ot personal religion which tHey incidcate; and 
whatever opinion may exist as to the strict correctness of the 
author's doctrinal tenets in some points, Ho One ciin, we think, 
refrain from recognising the fervent pietjr and earnestness which 
pervade the whole. 


xxxiii. — An Araument far the Boyal Supremacy. By the Bn, 
Sanderson Kobins, M.A. London: Pickering. 

Mk. Bobins applies himself, in the volume before us, to establish 
what all our greatest diviiles have invariably inaintained^the 
right and power of Christiati princes to iritetfere in the affairs of 
the Churcn. But Mr. Robins omits to point out, that if Chris- 
tian people have a duty to obey Christian princes acting for the 
welfare of religion, Ohristiati princes and rulers have an equal 
duty to guard and protect religion ; and he may rest assured, 
that if the one duty is neglected, the other will be, in the long 
run, at an end. It is very truie that Christian princes have 
authority over the Church ; but if they should use their autho- 
rity in opposition to God's law, and for the |)romotion of error 
instead of truth, they would not long retain their authority. 
James II. is an instance in point, and some will add Charles I. 
Let the State be honest in maintaining Christianity ; and it may 
do nearly what it pleases. Such has, at all times, been the 
feeling of the Church. 

XXXIV. — The Church of the Bedeemed^ or the History of the Media- 
tonal Eingdonft. Vol. L By the Eev, Samuel Fabmar 
Jarvis, i>.i>., " Historiographer of the Church^'''' dkc. Boston : 
Simpson. London: Cleaver. 

This very learned and elaborate work is the first volume of 
Dr. Jarvis's History of the Church ; and, commencing with the 
" Creation/' carries down the history of the Church in five periods 
to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. We observe that Dr. 
Jarvis has dwelt at great length on the last period of the Jewi^ 
nationality ; and, to say the truth, we think that, interesting as 
the details supjplied by Josephus are, it is rather out of place tcf enter 
at p-eat length on them m a Church history. We know that the 
universal practiise, beginning with Eusebms, is opposed io us; 
but still we do think that matters Hke this, which are pierfectly 
subsidiary to Christianity, should not occupy the prominent plac& 

tli)ey tob ofteti do. For ihdtance, we find that in the baH of Dr. 
Jarvis^ Work referrilig to the history of this Churcn froril thfe 
Ascension to the fall of Jerusalem, a period of forty years, thet'b 
are only 13 pages out of 114 which refer actually to the history 
of the Church.; the remaindet being occupied with the history of 
the Jewd or of the Boihans. , We dU not know what Dr. Jarvis's 
plan of writing may be, but he seems to us to have taken a ylBry 
cursory survey of the history of the Church during this period ; 
^d we shoiifa have thoiisht that a pareful analysis of the Acts 
ana of the hiistory of the Apostles sub^eqiiejitly to the resbrrec- 
tion, with some references to the legiehds of later times connected 
^th this tithie, hiight with advahta^i^e have taken up a portion of 
the space occupied by the Jewish history. It appears to us that 
the principal object is superseded by collateral and subsidiary 

XXXV. — Poems^ Legendary and Historical, By EbtvAab H. 
F&EEMAN, M.A.^ and the Rev* George W; Cox, 8,G,L.^ Ac. 
London : Longmans. 

This volume comprises a great number of poems in the ballad 
style on historical subjects ; and reminds us a .good deal of 
Aytoiin and Macaulay. There is considerable poetical power in 
all we have read. 

■ * 

xsLxyu—rSymnarium Sarishuriense^ cum BuhHcis et Noiis Mmicis^ 
S^c. Londini : liarling. 

A COLLECTION of all the old Latin hymns used in the Salisbury 
Breviary, with the old musical notation annexed. A considerable 
number of MSS, have been collated for this work. Its utility 
seems rather problematical. 

XXXVII. — Lays of Palestine. London: Eivingtons. 

A COLLECTION of pocms oh the principal events of the history 
of the Old Testament ; evincing niuch piety, considerably imagi- 
nation, arid no particular felicity in composition, the style being 
in many cases rather involved and obscure. 

XXXVIII. — Ttventy-three Short Lectures on the Church Catechism* 
By Archdeacon Berens. London : Eivingtons. 

We should think this work will be found very usefiil by all per- 
sons who are engaged in teaching the Churfch Catechism. It fur- 

808 Notices^ Sc. 

nishes a complete popular commentary on it, and should be in the 
hands of all the clergy, and all Sunday-school teachers and schootv 

XXXIX. — Ttoelve Sermons. By Bobert Scott, M.A.y Prf 
lendary of Exeter^ and Rector of LuffenMm^ Jkc. London: 

A SERIES of very able and well- written discourses. We havQ 
been particularly struck by the earnest and faithful tone of the 
concluding sermon, on occLion of the author's retirement from^ 
former parish. It is a very solemn and touching appeal to Um 
consciences of his hearers. 

xl. — Family Prayers^ Composed from the Book of Psalms ly « 
Layman. Edited by G. W. Lewis, M.A.^ Vicar of Cricl, 
Derbyshire. London : Hatchards. 

The notion of composing prayers in reference to the Psalms is 
not a new one ; for Mr. Slade has produced some very excellent 
compositions of that nature. There is a large fund of prayers ia 
this volume ; but from the parts we have read, we are inclined to 
think that many of them would not be very well adapted for 
family worship. 

XLi. — Sermons^ chiefly Catechetical, By the Bev. R. Drummond 
Rawnsley, Jl/.^., Vicar of ShiplaJce.> London: Hatchards. 

The greater part of this volume consists of a series of sermons 
on the Catechism, which extends as far as the end of the Greed. 
The discourses seem to be clearly and well written, and in a very 
practical and Christian tone. Their views appear to be very 
moderate and cautious. 

xLii. — The Life Everlasting ; or^ the Holy Life^ the Intermedials 
Life^ the Eternal or Consummate Life, By John Whitley, 
D.D., Chancellor of Killaloe, Second Edition, revised and en- 
larged. London : Hamilton, Adams, and Co. Dublin : Hodges 
and Smith. 

We are glad to see a second edition of this work, because its 
perusal cannot fail to promote piety and devotion, and also 
because the large dimensions of the volume, and its consequent 
price, render its circulation some test of the value placed on 
works of a meditative and thoughtful character like that before 
14s. The style is peculiar, eminently sententious, and uniform 

NaUees^ S^c. 209 

throughout. Each sentence appears to be cast nearly in the same 
mould as its predecessor, and, m reading it aloud, it would be 
difficult to avoid getting into a chant or sing-song. Of the 
sWle which the book is composed in throughout, the opening 
Of the first chapter will furnish a correct idea. From the Preface 
to the end of the book it is precisely the same. 

" The death of Christ is the life of the world : it is the great truth 
and fact of revealed religion ; at once the delight and wonder of angels 
it heaven, the fright and terror of devils in hell, and the peace and 
lardon of sinners upon earth. The passion is the centre of all our 
Itesings, the spring of all our joys, the unfailing and overflowing 
source of life and bliss throughout earth and skies. For, * the Lamb 
that was slain hath redeemed us by his blood, and made us kings and 
priests unto God and the Father,' is the Hallelujah of Heaven. The 
cross is the prop and pillar of this world, of all worlds, for evermore. 
On the cross are based all our present peace and future hopes. It is 
onr refuge and consolation here on earth, — it will be our boast and 
triumph in heaven above. The cross is the tree of knowledge and the 
tree of life united ; It opens our eyes to know the truth, and it gives us 
life and power to love and enjoy it. The cross is the life of holiness, 
and the death of sin, — the death of death itself, and of him that hath the 
power of death, the devil. By the bitter death and costly sacrifice of 
his Son, God has inflicted the curse, and found the ransom of our sins ; 
the debt has been paid, the forfeit exacted, and man redeemed. Christ 
CD the cross is the true serpent raised by Moses to heal all the bites and 
stings of the old serpent. The surety and mediator of the new cove- 
oant has made a full, perfect and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satis- 
faction for the sins of the whole world. By raising our Surety, 
Representative, and Head, from the dead, God has shown that the price 
is paid, justice satisfied, the work accomplished, guilt atoned, and 
sinners saved." 

This passage will afford a fair specimen of Dr. Whitley's style. 
Of his matter wer can speak very favourably. His work evinces 
thought, research, and piety, of no ordinary stamp — abounding in 
illustrations derived from ancient philosophy — from history — from 
natural objects, and from science. Dr. w hitley is an orthodox 
Churchman of the old school, and pious old-fashioned Christians 
will hail the appearance of bis book with joy, and give it a niche 
next to the " Whole Duty of Man,'' and Jeremy Taylor's " Holy 
Living and Dying." 

XLiii. — Lectures on the Four Gospels Harmonised. By the Bev. 
L. Vernon Hakcouet, M.A» Author of the " Doctrine of 
the Beltige,'*'' In 3 vols. London : Bivingtons. 

These volumes are amongst the most valuable accessions to our 

VOL. XV.— NO, XXIX. — MARCH, 1851. F 

store of homiletic theology tfi^t bftye conae under our notipe for | 
considerable length of tiu^e, They cpnsist of a, series pf leetupif 
on the Gospels harmonised, and arranged in short sectionjs. Jm 
their general character they ar^ not oijly praptjcaj and ^pirij^n^ 
but they abound with intpljigent observation, ^n4 Wfill-^igfistp4 J* 
formation ; and to the piore educated classeis they will supply A$ 
kind of reading which is perhaps the best possibly adapted to "^ 
their wants, combining, as it does, practical piety with the de- 
mands of a cultivated mtellect and an intelligent mind. 

xi.iv.— The Chronicle of Battel Abbey, from 1066 to 1176. Nmi - 

/irst translated, with Nates, and an Abstract of the subseqfmi j 

History of the Establishment, By Mark Antony Lower, _i 
M,A,, <tc, London: J.R.Smith. 1851. 

To those who have visited, or may visit, the splendid remans oi 
Battel Abbey, rich as they are in historical recollections, and JA 
architectural beauty, the volume before us will possess an inteiaest 
which rarely attaches to antiquarian publications. But an original 
monkish history of Battel Abbey, comprising an almost conteia- 
porary account of the Battle of Hastings, of the history of Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, of the foundation of the Abbey, and of all 
the p^^rticulars connected with its endowment and establishment, 
will possess, even for a larger class of readers, a very considerable 
value. The editor, whose family appears to have been connected, 
in the fifteenth century, with tbie abbey, by some transfer of pro- 
perty, has executed his work of translation apparently with great 
care and dijigei^ce ; and he has sqjbjoined a continuation of tb^ 
history to the latest period. Some well-executed foe similes of 
the abbey records, add to the value of the work. 

XLV. — An Ecclesiastieal Biography, containing the Lives of 
Ancient Fathers and Modem Divines, interspersed with Notices 
of Heretics and Schismatics, forming a brief History of the 
Church in every Age. By Walter FAKauHAE Hook, D.D.j 
Vicar of Leeds. Vol. VIL London: Rivingtons. 

The labours of the author of this volume, whether i^ the duties 
of his important parish, or with his pen, are enough to put most 
men to shame. Assuredly Dr. Hook is a living proof, that the 
production of works of research and of merit, does not depend in 
all cases on the enjoyment of what is called *' literary leisure:** 
The amount of reading requisite to produce such a vcdume as 
that before us— the thought and labour involved in the task of 
selection luid abridgment aione — ^mus^ have Imm very great; 

Imt, however Dr. Hogk has been enabled to find time to get 
through all his work, he has certainly produced an excellent 
ifdume of biography in this instance. We like all that we have 
read of it, particularly the lives of Luther and Melancthon, 
vfaioh Qcci^ jp this po?rtion pf the work. We observe that 
Dr. Hook expects to conclude his undertaking in one more 

xLvi. — The Ohronoloffical New Testament, in which the Text of the 
authorized Version is newly divided into paragraphs and sec- 
tionSy with the dates and places of transactions marked, the 
marginal references of the TranskUors, &c. London : Black- 

This edition of the New Testament, which is in the words of the 
anthorized Version, is divided into new sections throughout by 
the editor, with a view to facilitate its study and comprehension. 
Ohronological dates are frequently inserted, and the references 
are added ; but we confess that we are unable to see that the 
editor has materially facilitated the study of the New Testament, 
nnless, indeed, the printing of the marginal references at length 
be considered a marked improvement. We think it is very de- 
sirable ; but we believe it has been already done by Mr. Moody. 

uyii.: — 4 popular Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles of the 
Ohurch of j^gland. By Thomas Stephen, Medical Librae 
rum of King's College, London, Second Edition. London : 
J. H. Batty. 

From aU we have seen of this little bojok, it seems well adapted 
for circulation amonjs;st the intje)ligei^ nuddliQg closes and young 
persons. It comprises niuch sound information ; and it certainly 
speaks out very gi^fiilly against Homish errors. 

XL VIII. — Hints for ffappy Homss; or AmvMmewts for all Ages. 
London : J. and C. Mozley. 

This tale is intended for young persons, and combines a great 
deal of amusing detail and stories, with accounts of games ajod 
amusements oi all kinds. 


212 Nj^ticesy 4rc. 

xLix. — Tales for my Cotuin. Translated and adapted frm 
German of Feanz Hoffman. By Feancis M. Wilbi> 
HAM. London: Masters. 

A vEEV pretty series of tales. The young '' Robinson Crusoe 
in particular is extremely amusing. 

L. — A Vindication of the Church of England: in Beply to ib 
Bight Hon. Viscount Feilding^ on his recent Secession to tks 
Church of Borne. By the Bev. R. W. Moegan, Perpetwi 
Curate of Tregynon^ Montgomeryshire. London : Rivingtons. 

This very able and well-argued defence of the Church of England 
deserves a far more lengthened notice than we can afford to be^ 
stow upon it at this moment. The Church is deeply indebted to 
Mr. Morgan for the amount of energy, earnestness, and learmqg 
which he has brought to bear on her defence in this work, andm 
his excellent book on the " Verities of the Church ;'' and we hope 
that we may be enabled, in our next number, to express more 
fully our sense of the value of these publications, and also of Mr. 
Collingwood^s most sound and able volume of Sermons on the 

LI. — Lectures on the Scripture Bevelations respecting Good and Ewl 
Angels. By a Countey Pastoe, Author of ^* Lectures on the 
Scripture Bevelations respecting a Future State?'* London: 
J. W. Parker. 

This volume treats of the following subjects : — Angels — Reasons 
for Revealing to Man the Ministrations of Holy Angels — Cessa- 
tions of Sensible Angelic Visits — Evil Angels — ^Keasons for 
Revealing to Man the Existence of Evil Spirits — Demoniacs- 
Temptations of our Saviour and his followers — Prevailing Errors 
relative to Satanic Agency. This will furnish some notion of the 
extent of the subject traversed by the author ; and we are bound 
to say, that he has treated it with all his well-known acuteness 
and ability, and in such a spirit and tone as the subject calls for. 
His arguments and warnings against Rationalistic and Socinian 
theories, and against popular errors and superstitions, appear to 
be excellent, as far as we can judge. The whole work, as it seems 
to us, is calculated to maintain those doctrines which arise from 
the simple and common-sense view of the meaning of Scripture. 

Notices^ ^0. 218 

^^g^Ur-PrimUges, Duties^ cmd Perth in tJie EngliA Branch ofihs 
•i Chreh of Christy cut the present time : Six Sermons^ preached in 
Canterbury Cathedral^ %n September and October^ 1850. By 
r^ Benjamin Harrison, M.A.y Archdeacon of Maidstone^ Canon 
o/Canteriury. London : Bivingtons. 

We select from these pious and excellent discourses the following 
passage, as illustrative of the tone and the principles which per- 
lade them throughout : — 

" Infidelity is even now ready to put itself daringly forth in various 
ktrms of error, adapted to different ranks and orders of men, to the 
learned and ignorant alike, ' high and low, rich and poor, one with 
another.' And the emissaries of Rome meanwhile are ready on their 
part, indulging at once the spirit of progress and the love of novelty, 
with the semblance withal of antiquity ; and that which is to satisfy the 
craving for absolute universal certainty in matters of religion. They 
will be endeavouring craftily to persuade men that the middle way of 
the Church of England, the old way which our fathers in the faith have 
trodden in purity and in peace, is a delusion and a dream ; that there 
18 no possible intermediate course between the unbridled licence of in- 
£ridual opinion, a proud self-sufficient rationalism on the one hand, or 
<m the other entire unquestioning submission to the authority of an 
I in&llible Church, and of a supreme judge of controversies, a Vicar of 
Christ upon earth. They will be found stamping with that usurped 
authority, falsely claiming to be Divine, not only the twelve new articles 
which Papal supremacy in the sixteenth century dared to add to those 
of the ancient Creed, but also whatever so-called * developments' the 
spirit of a presumptuous or a profane theology may think fit to engraft 
on * the faith which was once for all delivered to the Saints,* and pre- 
served and handed down in the Creeds and Confessions of the Church 
Apostolic, not Roman, but Catholic. Against the specious sophistries, 
the false sentimentalism, and the alluring enticements of modern Ro- 
manism, the unwary have great need to be put upon their guard ; and 
those persons assuredly incur a heavy responsibility and fearful peril, 
who expose themselves to temptation by reading Romish writings, 
using Romish devotions, attending Romish lectures, allowing them- 
selves to be drawn within the web of Romish influence, and ensnared by 
the subtlety of the well- practised controversialists, the proselyting 
agents and converts of the Church of Rome." — pp. 108, 109. 

The discourses appear to be marked by the learning and the 
sobriety of judgment which are eminently the characteristics of 
their respected author^s works. 

S14 ^ Nbiiemy 4*^. 

lAu.—The Treatise of AUmius Magms [1193—1280] Be aihm 
rendo Deo: Of adhering to God. A Translation frm ike 
Latin, London : G. Gilpin. 

The merits of this little Treatise of Albetttis M^ghos art t^ 
detailed in the Translator's Preface : — 

** The treatise in question was the highest teaching of his w^ 
instructed soul. Flowing from the centre of a miud, which fixed mt 
the immovahle ground of faith, had surveyed the glorious realities « 
the world in which spirit only lives, it shows that de antepast of that 
rest which remains for the people of God, could and shonld now be 
enjoyed hy the new-horn, in the harmonizing influence upon e?erj 
faculty of the mind which the contemplation of it induces. As othenj 
who have tasted of the powers of the world to come, he felt and saw 
that the great antagonizing power was the world present, in all its 
material relations and occurrences, distracting and dissipating the capa- 
cities of the intellect, and absorhing the affections of the soul ; and bj 
personal actual process was fitted to give the precious counsel afibrded 
in this treatise * bf adhering to God.' There is nothing that partakes 
of private bias, or Colour of aught that is misanthropic, or peculiar to a 
particular notion' or profession ; nothing needing palliation or excep* 
tjon. The indwelling love speaking in the outflowing charity of ac^ 
the truth of God, here as ever, shows itself the only universal." 

It ajipears to us that these encomiums are fully merited by 
the Treatise, which is certainly an ititferefeting production^ ai 
having beeii written in the thirteenth century — a pferiod bdt 
remarkable for purity of doctrine. 

Liv. — Hymns with Notes, By James Joyce, A.M.^ Vicar of 
Dorking. London: J. J. Guillaume. 

A COLLECTION of short Hymns on scriptural subjects, intended 
for the use of the poor. Each hymn is preceded by a passage 
of iScripture, and followed by a note containing appropriate re- 
marks of a devotional character. It seems well calculated for 
circulation amongst the poor. 

Lv. — The Way through the Desert; or, the Caravan. By the 
Rev. R. MiLMAN, M.A., Author of " The Voices of Barvest^ 
&c. London: Masters. 

In this very well- written parable, the author proposes to himself 
to point out the evil of mistaking outward diecency and re- 
spectability of life, and a righteousness according to this world, 
for that complete renovation and transformation which the Scrip- 
tures set before us as the mark of God's true children. 

Notie09, 4*^. Slfi 

Wii — iSdeneB Simplified, and Philosophy^ Natural and Eameri^ 
nkmtal^ made Easy. By the Bev. David Williams, M.A. 
London: Piper. 

This Simplification of Science, in the shape of a Two-shilling 
hook,^ Contains a series of questions and answers on Animal 
P^rsiology, Vegetable Physiology, Mechanics, Optics, Astro- 
W9mji and G^logy. Of course, it gives merely an outline. We 
•faierve it is intended for use id Scnools, but the style appears 
ntfaer too difficult to render it available for such a purpose. 

tvii. — A Series of Texts : arranged for the Use of Christians in 
the way of Prayer and Promise^ in the Sope of affording Guidance 
and Consolation if^ Seasons of Difficulty^ Trials and Affliction, 
By a Lady. Edited hy the Bev. W. Sinclair, Perpetual 
Curate of St. George's^ Leeds. London : Hatchards. 

This collection of Texts is arranged under the various subjects 
which are likely to give comfort and to impart instruction in time 
of sickness. The texts, comprising prayers or precepts, and the 
pttmiises, are arranged on opposite pages, so that the reader can 
Mss from the duty pointed out to the promise attached to it. 
The [dan seems a good one, and ilovel. 

Lviii. — TheMusewn of Classical Antiquities : a Quarterly Journal 
of Architecture and the Sister Branches of Classic Art. No. I. 
January^ 1851 . London : J. W. Parker. 

This is a heW Quarterly JoUmal, intended to afford a medium 
for cotiamuhicatiohs from antiquarians, architects, travellers, and 
others who may feel interest in the subject of classical antiquities, 
with a more especial reference to architecture and the connected 
bhmches of art. The number before us contains able and inter- 
esting papers by Fra Gioando, M. Hiltorf, Professor Donaldson, 
Professor Schoenborn, W. W. Lloyd, Esq., Edward Fallconer, 
£sq., and others, relating chiefly to architecture and classical 

Lix. — A Commentary on the Te. Deum ; chiefly from ancient 
Sources. By A. P. Forbes, D.C.L., Bishop of Brechin. 
London: Masters. 

The little volume before us will be acceptable to a considerable 
dass of readers : to otheta it will not b^ so. The very illustration 
at the commencement will give offence to some. In it God the 

216 Notices^ i^e. 

Son is represented surrounded by angels, one of which bears the 
Cross, while, on either hand, are seated a long array of kings, 
bishops and monh. Some of the authorities quoted in the body 
of the work will be regarded with jealousy at present. " St. 
Thomas Aquinas''" — "Horst, Paradisus Animse'' — " L. de 
Granada''—" Cornelius k Lapide''— " The Synod of Bethlehem" 
— " Maldonatus" — " Rodriguez" — ^' Lorenzo Scupoli,'' &c,-Hire 
authorities more generally referred to by Roman Catholics than 
by orthodox Churchmen. We deeply regret the sanction thus 
given to those who look to Rome as their model ; and we regret 
it the more, considering all that has been reported in reference to 
the author. We say this with the fullest sense of the piety which 
distinguishes the writings of Bishop Forbes, and with the highest 
respect for his office and himself personally ; but under a feeling of 
no little anxiety and alarm. 

Lx. — Thoughts on impoHant Church Subjects. Seven Lectures^ 
By R. C. CoxE, M,A.^ Vicar of NewcastU-uponrTyne^ and Hon, 
Canon of Durham. 

Thes£ Lectures are, as appears from the title, printed at New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, " for the Churchwardens of St. Nicholas," and 
may be had at " the Vestry," and at various booksellers. Thk 
is really most gratifying. We obseiTC the volume is dedicated 
to " Matthew Lee, William Young, Henry Ingledew, and William 
Nesham, at whose particular request and cost this volume has 
been published." We congratulate the excellent author on so 
complete a proof of the value placed on his Lectures by his own 
parishioners. We do not remember such an instance of appre- 
ciation. We are also glad to be enabled to add, that the accept- 
ableness of these Lectures proves, that where a clergyman honestly 
and faithfully warns and guards his flock against Romish error, 
he need not fear to put forth the rights of the Church of England 
as a true and firm branch of the Catholic Church. 

Lxi. — No Need of a Living Infallible Guide in Matters of Faith: 
a Series of Sermons^ recently preached in Whitkirk Church* By 
the Bev. Arthur Martineau, M.A.^ Vicar of WhUKrk 
Yorkshire^ and Sural Dean. London ; Rivingtons. 

Amongst the many publications which have recently issued from 
the press on this and kindred topics, Mr. Martineau^s discourses 
on a Living Infallible Guide will hold an honourable place. His 
Sermons evince much thought, and a perfect acquaintance with 
his subject ; and we shall be happy to see thetn obtain an extended 

Notices^ <$•<?. 217 

XXII. — Papod InfaTliMlity : a Letter to a Dignitary of the Church 
of Bame^ in Beph) to a Commtmication received from him. By 
Gr. S. Fabee, 5,2>., Master of Sherborne Hospital^ and Pre* 
lendary of Salisbury, London : Bivingtons. 

We have perused this publication of Mr. Faber'^s with the 
highest satisfaction, and we commend it to the especial attention 
of our readers. In a short compass it comprises one of the best 
arguments against Rome that we remember to have seen. We 
most give our readers the benefit of one or two extracts on im- 
portant points. 

The Cfouncil of Trent itself, as Mr. Faber shows, appeals to 
the testimony of antiquity as proof of Romish tenets. The 
Church, according to this synod, and to the general run of Bo- 
mish writers, always taught the doctrines she now does. 

** The Council of Trent professes to deliver nothing mero motu. The 
key-note, which runs through it from beginning to end, is : that the 
Entire Scheme of Doctrine, which it propounds, has nothing of vicious 
Novelty in it, but was always received in the Church Catholic. 
Semper hi^c fides in Ecclesia Dei fuit. The always of this precise 
Scheme, exactly as drawn out and defined by the Council, constitutes 
the repeatedly declared ground of its obligatory acceptance. You are 
bound, say they, to receive it, not because we declare it by our own in- 
sulated private judgment, but because from the beginning it has ever 
been the clearly-defined System of the Universal Church, 

" Here, then, on the very principle of Tertullian's Canon as also on 
the principle of Vincent's Canon, is a palpable Appeal to fact. And 
the FACT in question, like any other asserted Fact, can only be esta- 
blished by HISTORICAL TESTIMONY. The Infallibility of the Council 
itself is virtually disclaimed. It delivers nothing by its own naked 
authority: it reposes the whole system of its well-defined Doctrine 
upon the asserted truth of an alleged fact. Such being the case, we 
are invited, throwing all Conciliar Infallibility aside, to test the Asser- 
tion by Documentary Evidence from the very age of the Apostles, 
For, unless the test be carried up to the First Preaching of the Gospel, 
We plainly have no proof in the always. 

** This test, on the strength of the Tridentine CounciPs own authori- 
tative recommendation, I proposed, between twenty and thirty years 
ago, to my then opponents Bishop Trevern and Mr. Husenbeth. But 
(honor sit auribus) the former, though at the request of Mr. Massing- 
berd, who desired me to answer his so-called Discussion Amicale^ I was 
even ultraistically polite to ^em, was so disgusted with me^ that he de« 
clared he would never read another line of what I wrote : while the 
latter, who, uninvited by myself, somewhat literally took up the cudgels 
for him, pronounced me a bom natural for putting forth so absurd and 
unreasonable a test as an Appeal to Historical Testimony, albeit pro- 
pounded by the Council of Trent itself. 

£18 Nvtiees^ 4*9* 

" Still, it was necessary to say sotheihing : tLtiii accordingly, a rejitj 
Iras attempted by each of th6 two gentlemen ; and, sirice tlieii^ yet t 
third reply to the difficulty, though not professing to be sucb, has bbm 
put forth by our friend Mr. Newman in his Work on Development, 

" 1. Dr. Trevern, in his answer, censured the unreasonableness of 
tequiring, from the Documents of the three first centuries, anjr wrUten 
proofs of the repeated statements of the Coiindl of Trent^ that the Fsitk 
defined by that Council had always been in the Church of God ! be- 
cause, said he, the Disciplina Arcani fbrbad all committing of tfae 
Doctrines of the Church to wriiing ; and delivered them, oraUy dkni, 
to the initiated." — pp. 16 — 18. 

"2; Mr. Husenbeth, when he stepped forward as ithe proky of tlie 
bishop,. took up quite a difietent ground : but^ unluckily, it was altd" 
gether inconsistent with that of his principal ) insomuch that, of very 
necessity, the one made the other untenable. 

** From this gentleman, we hear nothing of Dr. Trevern's solution of 
the difficulty through the medium of the DiseipHna AreaHi. On the 
contrary, his solution isj hot that the proofs Were never cbttiihitted to 
ttritingt but that they had been coriimitted to writing though uiihAppilj 
through the envy of Time they had all perished, 

'* As for my luckless self, he aters, that I inust be an absdlutd sim- 
pleton to think of derii^nding nfTttten proofs of the Tridentine Assertion 
fh>ni the documents of the three first centuries. When so maby of them 
had been lost, that the scanty reillnant formed oiily so many broken 

** I stop not to calculate the number and to measure the bulk of 
Mr. Husenbeth's stepping-stones, though soiiie majr think that he con- 
siderably Uhderrated both theit tale and their dimensions. Be that, 
however, as it may, he confessed his inability to produce the required 
Written Documentary Proofs. 

** According, then, to Dr. Trevem, no Written Prod/s eter existed: 
according to Mr. ttusenbeth. Written Proofs certainly had existed in 
despite of the Disciplifid Arcani i but Unluckily they had all perished. 

" Thus, in their theorieSy the two gentlethen differed toto ccelo : but, 
fn the fact, that, from the Written Docurhetits of the three first centu- 
ries, they could produce no jyroofoi the large Tridentine always, they 
fully agreed. And, accordingly, from that day to this, neither of them 
has given the required proofs. 

** 3. So the case stood, when I was engaged with these two Divines^ 

" At that time, neither they nor myself hAd ever heard of the prin- 
ciple of Devjslopmei^t ; though it must be confessed, that Mr. Husen^ 
beth, whatever he might mean, declared his ability to prove the 
ALwAts in the three first cetlturies, albeit hot in the precise manner so 
nnreasonably requited by myself. But, subsequently i this same prin- 
ciple (unless Dr; Moehlor be a rival for the honour of its invention) has 
been propounded, in mood and form, by bur ingenious friend, Jfr. 
Newman ; and has been adopted ; I observe, as satisfactory, by yourself. 

" With bipi; you state : that j:hp Qerm (such is yotir owrt very appto^ 

{triftte wovi) ^ til tlie doctrines which the Tridentines assert to have 
fliwAvi Miitlfcl in the Church Catholic, i«ally did thus exist ; though 
4be Oerm itself was only gradually developed and expanded, through a 
long succession of fructifying ages, into the maturity, if indeed the Jnii 
ttltority, of the Tridentine Definitions. 

** This new theory may, peradventurei be a making the best bf ati 
ijlTjeterate^y bad case : but like the two former theories of Dr. Trevem 
afld Mr. Husenbethi it really^ so far as respects the three first centuries 
(eren to say nothing of many still later ages), gives up the matter."-— 
f^. 16 — ^30. 

We canndt specify any more of the excellent points made by 
Mr. Fab^r in this pamphlet, but we should like to see it printed 
ill a cheafi form and- largely circulated. It is the best of his pro- 
ductions we remember to have seen. 


Ahdi768t paibphlets atid publicatiotis bearing on the i*ecent dis- 
tittSsioiis caused by thd Papal aggression, and the Ritual contest, 
ftte the foUoiring : — ^' Remarks on the Itifluence of Tractdrianism, 
dr Church Principled, so called, in promoting Secessions to the 
OhuriBh of RbtniB,^' by the Rev. Tbeyre T. Stnith, M.A., Vicar of 
Wymondhami &c. (London : Felldwes) — a very sierious, thought- 
fill, and well-reasoned publication, deserving of the fullest atten- 
tioti ; " The glorious Liberty of the Children of God," by 
^^ Emancipator, a nominal attack on Romanism, but recdly on 
the EilgHsh Church ; ^' A Letter to the London Union oh 
(burch Matters,'' by the Rev. Edward Edwards, Rector of 
Penegoes (Hatchards), a distinct and manly avowal of sound prin- 
ciples, including a repudiation of the Romanizing tendencies of 
some 8oi-d%$atS Churchmen ; " St. Mary the Virgin and the 
Wife,'' by the Rev. J. Moultrie (Whittaker), a poem for cih5u- 
btidn amongst the poor, conveying much sound instructioti in 
^position to the wiles of Romish proselytism ; " The Black 
Fever," anotheir poem, in reference to Romanism, by the same 
author ; " St. Paul's Prediction of the Falling Away, and the 
Man of Sin," four Lectures, by the Rev. J. W. Gleadall, A.M. 
(Cuming), applying those prophecies to the Church of Rome, 
in a popular way ; " The Jurisdiction of the Crown in Matters 
^iritual : A Letter to the Rev. M. E. Manning," by the Rev. 
F. Vincent, advocating the Royal Supremacy, but temperately, 
ahd in a right spirit, and alluding, in a respectful tone, to the 
doubts entertained of the faith of the clergyman addressed; 
" Sound an Alarm," a Sermon, by the Rev. C. Gutch (Mdsters), 
in opposition to the proposed suggestions for altering the Pl^yet 
Book ; " What is the Church," a Sermoh, by the ReV. EdWard 

S20 NotieeBf Sfc. 

Stuart (Masters), alleging that we have the same means of grace 
as are found in the Church of Rome ; " Rome's Outworks," by 
the Rev. C. R. De Havilland (Hatehards), an able and wdf' 
reasoned refutation of Romanism, and containing suggestions fi» 
its repression ; " The Hunting and Finding Out of the Romsh 
Fox*" (J. W. Parker), a reprint of a curious tract against Roman- 
ism, written by Dr. Turner in 1543 ; " Substance of a Speech at 
a Public Meeting at Monmouth,'' ' by Samuel Bosanquet, Esq. 
(Hatehards), a well-meant, but rather wild production, appearing 
to throw the blame of divisions quite as much on the Uhurch w 
England as on Dissenters; " Was St. Peter ever at Rome? by 
the Rev. J. S. M'Oorry" (Dolman), a laboured attempt to prove 
that St. Peter was at Rome, and that Rome was the Babylon of 
the New Testament, — rather an incautious line of argument for a 
Romanist ! " Historical and Practical Remarks on the Papal 
Aggression" (Rivingtons), a very unsatisfactory tract, calculated 
to unsettle, rather than confirm, faith in the English Church; 
" The Present Crisis," four Sermons, by the Rev. J. S. M. Ande^ 
son (Rivingtons), very sound, learned, and able in its references 
to Romanism ; *' Earl Grey's Circular," by Dudley M. Perceval, 
Esq. (Rivingtons), pointing out the encouragement given to 
Romish Aggression by the conduct of the Colonial Minister; 
" The Position of our Church as to Rome," a Sermon, by the Rev. 
Wilson Pedder (Masters), arguing the Catholicity of our Church 
against Rome ; '' On the Mode of Improving Present Oppo^ 
tunities," by the Rev. T. A. Maberly (Masters), suggesting an 
application for Convocation, and the freedom of the Church; 
" The Peril of Papal Aggression," by Anglicanus (Bosworth), a 
vigorous attack on Romish error and intolerance, and a recom* 
mendation of repressive measures; " Where has the Pope 
aggrieved ?" by the Rev. H. Newland (Masters), dissuading from 
all opposition to the Papal Aggression ; " The Church of Eng- 
land not High, not Low, but Broad as the Commandment of 
God," a Letter to the Prime Minister, by T. W. Peile, D.D. 
(J. W. Parker), suggesting an improved organization of the 
Church of England, with its Synods and augmented Episcopacy, 
as the true mode of meeting Romish Aggression : — a very valu- 
able pamphlet ; " Papal Aggressions ; how they should be met," 
by " a Member of the United Church of England and Ireland " 
(J. W. Parker), recommending the expulsion of Tractarians from 
the Church ; " Danger to the Faith," a Sermon at Haverstock 
Hill, by the Rev. J. Baines (Kingcombe), published by request of 
the congregation, and speaking even more freely against State 
Aggression than against Papal Aggression ; ^* Cautions for the 
Times" (J. W, Parker), ably written tracts on matters connected 

NaticeSj S^e. 221 

mth the present state of the Church, and on Papal Aggres- 
sion ; ^' Notes on the Constitution of Sheepfolds,^ by J. Buskin 
(Smith, Elder, and Co.), a curious medley of opinions on Church 
matters, violent against the priesthood, urgent for an increased 
Episcopate, for Church discipline, and for the union of Protes- 
timts ; " The Unfruitful Vineyard,'^ a Sermon, by the Eev. H. 
Lomas (Masters), veiy indignant at Lord John Bussell^s Durham 
Letter ; ^' The True Cause of Dishonour to the Church of Eng- 
land,'^ by the Bev. C. Marriott (J. H. Parker), pointing out 
State Agression as the cause of fear now ; ^' A Practical Ad- 
dress on Becent and Coming Events within the Church,^** by the 
Eev. Greorge Sandby (Painter), strongly adverse to the Tractarian 
party, and yet not opposed to some alterations in our present 
system in the direction of Synods or Church assemblies of some 

We have also, amongst other pamphlets bearing on these and 
similar questions. ^' Lights on the Altar,^^ by a Layman (Biving- 
tons), disapproving the practice; "Tractarian Tendencies,'' by Bev. 
Dr. Worthington (Hatchards), a strong attack on Mr. Bennett ; 
" Dr. Arnold and Bev. W. J. E. Bennett," by John Wynne, an 
equally strong attack; "Party Spirit,'' by Bev. Canon Trevor 
(nell), an expostulation with the Vicar of Sheffield, who had pre- 
vented him from preaching in the parish church ; " A Plea for 
United Besponding in the Public Worship," by Bev. J. F. 
Hodgson (Masters), a useful tract ; " Assertions not Proofs : an 
Examination of the Bev. D. Wilson's Appeal" (Masters), an 
argument against Mr. Wilson's proposals ; " Puseyites (so-called) 
no Friends to Popery," by Bev. J. Ingle: a well-meant pamphlet, 
but defending a cause which is no longer defensible ; ^^ The 
Prayers to be said or sung," by the Bev. W. B. Flower (Masters), 
in vindication of ritualism ; " A Beview of Bev. W. J. E. Ben- 
nett's Letter," by W. Thorpe, D.D. (Seeleys), in strong opposi* 
tion to ritualism; "Defence of the Orthodox Party in the 
Church of England," by Hon. Colin Lindsay (Masters), com- 
prising a defence of the alterations in divine worship recently 
effected, and general defence of what the author calls the " High 
Church Party ;" " A Letter to Lord Ashley," by a Lay Member 
of the Churcn of England (Seeleys), suggesting alterations in the 
direction of dissent ; " Statement of the Clergy of St. Saviour's " 
(Masters), an attack on the Bishop of Bipon for attempting to 
suppress Bomanizing practices ; " Memorial of the Church- 
wardens of Westbourne," by Bev. H. Newland (Masters), a tract 
in which the extreme indulgence and kindness of the Bishop of 
Chichester stands in strong contrast to the tone of defiance 
adopted by Mr. Newland. Amongst other publications we may 

322 NatioeBj ^c. 

Qpticp ^'A4ult Evening Scbpob)'^ a Letter to tbe^ Bishop of 
Np^wififa \yy a Oountry Curate (LoDgmans), from wM<^b the fi^- 
tpwiog pas3age ^ extracted : 

^' The author of these pages entered upon the curacy of two parisliei 
in this diocese in Octoher. Though for the education of the rinig 
generation of the poor of both parishes ample provision has been msdi 
for some years past, the older inhabitantSi as in most parts of fStim 
diocese, are lamentably ignorant. To remedy this, Adiilt Eveniag 
Schools, meeting three times a week, were established in both parishflSf. 
the m^agement of which was confided to the authon They met te 
the Qrst time on the 3rd and 4th of December. At Parish A» fthi 
number on the first night w^ 11 ; at Parish B, 10. After the thiii 
w,ee|s, the members greatly increased ; and the average attendance ftv 
some time has been nearly 27 at Parish A, and nearly 40 at Parish B« 
The extent of knowledge at these schools is of a most elementiur^ 
nature. At Parish A, not mpre than 3 or 4 can read with fluency. At 
B, the first class, containing 14 or 15, read fairly ; the second class, mr 
perfectly ; and some in the third class cannot read at all. Writing and 
arithmetic are in the same elementary state. 

" But a gratifying feature presents itself, in the high promise whidi 
these schools afford. The payments, for which no credit is allowed, aie 
willingly made ; the desire to improve is most eager ; and the advance- 
ment is most rapid. Men who could not read a word, can now read 
and spell ; some who had never formed a letter, can now write neally 
qn paper. In the first class at Parish B, men who could read on aftir 
a fashion, but not spell, nor bear to be questioned, can now spell veUt 
and answer questions arising fi'om the subject, readily and with gQ9to» 
They are, indeed, most eager tQ obtain knowledge, and in most cf^m 
they endeavour pn off nights to improve themselves at home. 'po$ 
interest too, comparatively unfelt before, which they take in the pro- 
gress of their children or relations at jthe National Schopls, is most 
pleasing and valuable. 

*' I might here state ray firm conviction, that had the study of vpoil 
music been introduced (which a local circumstance forbade) the numben 
would have been far greater. As it is, I have good reason for expect- 
ing that the following winter will witness a more numerous attendance, 
even without such a popular inducement. 

*' At Parish B, almost all of those who are not necessarily engaged, 
meet between services on the Sunday : though no one is ^en present but 
themselves, they are most orderly and assiduous under the conduct of 
the monitors. They afterwards proceed to church. Attendance on the 
Sunday is quite optional. 

I< The following is an analysis of the ages of the Adults at Parish B :— 
1 above 40 4 above 25 

8 ,, 30 11 „ 20 

15 above 16." 

pp. 18» 14. 

Notices, ^c. 223 

" These schools, now in the second year of their institution, are more 
prosperous than ever. They were re-opened in the early part of October : 
vocal music is introduced, and, even after paying a singing master, the 
whole system is entirely self-supporting, 

'* An important and most satisfactory feature in the plan is, the 
fhorough approval it meets with from all classes. At Parish A, the 
school is most efficiently conducted by a private gentleman, to whom the 
author will ever feel most gratefully indebted ; and his own occasional 
]Besence is not a matter of necessity, but a source of pleasure and 

"At Parish B, in which the author is resident, another friend to the 
qiuse h^ come forward as a regular iostractor, apd the author's labours 
btfe been much lightened by the assistance of volunteers. Of these — 
ti^ employers of the pppils— more would be happy to aid were their 
Miistance really needed." — pp. 15, 16. 

W ehave to notice the "Family Almanac^' for 1861 (J. H. 
Parker), as containipg a great deal of information abou^} Foun- 
dation aqd Grammar Schools ; " The Calendar of St. Augustine''s 
College'' (BivipgtoDs), an interesting vo}ume; a "Sermon/' by 
Bev. T. Woodward, at the Consecration gf the Bishop of Meath, 
very a]ble and sound ; a " List of all the Sees of the Eastern 
Ghureb," hj Bev. J. M. Neale ; " Scripture Politics,'' a Sermon 
U Bev. 0. Girdiestopis (BiviQgtoas), advocating .Christian prin- 

a)le as the only tri^je guide in politics ; " The Naturalist," a cheap 
(Mitfaly Magazine, on subjects referring to natural history, edited 
bf Dr. Jd orris (6i*oombrid^), and apparently very well executed ; 
"Parochial Papers on Missions " (J. H. Parker), containing sug- 
gations for establishing parochial associations for missionary 
porposos; "The Church patient in her mode of dealing with 
Controversies," a Sermon, by Rev. A. W. Haddan (J. H. Parker) ^ 
"The Pew Question" (Masters), relating the successful issue of 
an attempt to make a cliurch free ; " Goa is Love," a Sermon, by 
Sev. H. M. Wagner, relating to the refusal to makie a Church- 
rate at Brighton; "Substapce of Speeches at Bridgend an4 
Newport " (J. W. Parker), containinff most interesting accounts 
of jbhe static of religion in South Wales, and the exertions npw 
being made to meet the destitution so prevalent there ; " Two 
Sermons," by Eev. Osmond Fisher (Eivingtons), very sound and 
excdlent discourses in reference to the Papal Aggression, and 
pointing out the necessity for the revival of synodal action. 

ffottion anil Colonial inttUistmt^ 

Africa. — Diocese of Cape Town. — Visit of the Bishop to a K§§0 
Chief. — The Bishop of Cape Town paid a visit, in August last, to t 
Kaffir chief, named Umhala, of the T'Zalambie tribe, at his kraal, M 
the Groubic, near Fort Waterloo. Having encamped at a short dii- 
tance from the kraal, the Bishop, accompanied by the Rev. F. Fleming; 
who carried a blanket, and some beads and knives, as presents, and bf 
Mr. G. Shepstone, the interpreter to the T'Zalambie Commissioner, pro- 
ceeded on foot to the Kaffir camp. He was received by Umhala in his 
hut, in the presence of his counsellors, sons, and wives, amounting in 
all to forty or fifty souls. The hut was large and spacious, built on a 
circle of poles, about seven or eight feet high. In the centre was a 
wood-fire, the smoke from which, with the fumes of tobacco, filled the 
atmosphere. The Bishop sat near the door of the hut on the ground, 
on a skin, with Mr. Shepstone and Mr. Fleming on either side of him. 
Umhala sat opposite, in the middle. The Bishop opened the interview 
by asking Umhala, through the interpreter, if he knew him, and where 
he had seen him. He replied, *' Yes, I know you, you are the * inkosi 
enkulu ' (great chief) of the Christians, and I saw you with Smith at 
the great meeting at King William's Town." The Bishop then informed 
him that he was come to see him, and converse with him about sending 
him a missionary, or teacher, to instruct him and his people in the ways 
of God. Umhala expressed at some length, and with warmth, his ob- 
ligations for the visit, and thanked the Bishop for his offer of a teacher, 
saying, he would treat him very kindly when he came, and listen to 
him. The Bishop then informed him, that he brought him a present of 
a blanket, at which he seemed much pleased, received it from Mr. 
Fleming, and then rose, and shaking hands with the Bishop, thanked 
him very warmly. The Bishop next asked Umhala, if the Archdeacon 
had not lately paid him a visit ? He replied, " Yes, and he liked him 
very much," adding, " if you send me teachers for my people he moit 
be one of them." The Bishop explained that he could not spare the 
Archdeacon, as he was a chief among the Christians. " Of that I so 
aware," replied Umhala, " but I am a chief among my people the 
T'Zalambies, and a chief ought to be taught by a chief. You, the 
great chief, 1 know cannot come to me, as you have to travel far, I 
hear, but he must come." The Bishop again tried- to explain that he 
could not spare the Archdeacon for missionary work ; but the old chi^ 
though assenting to all the Bishop said, invariably returned to his point, 
" that he must have the Archdeacon as his teacher." The Bishop asked 

Fi^reign and Colonial IntdUgenee. 225 

bim, '* why he was so anxioas for him in particular?" To which he 
replied, " that he liked him — he was a fine fellow — a chief — ^and ought 
to teach a chief." The Bishop told him " that a young man, the son of 
one of our greatest chiefs over the seas, had offered to come and be his 
teacher." Umhala replied, ** he was very much obliged to him ; he 
might come, and he would be glad to have him, but the Archdeacon 
must come too." 

The Bishop then in a few words explained to them what their mis- 
sionaries, when they arrived, would teach them. They all listened, 
some most attentively. Having ended his discourse, the Bishop pro- 
ceeded to distribute, through Mr. Fleming, presents to the chief's chil- 
dren and counsellors, &c., consisting of beads and knives ; after which 
he partook of some curded milk offered him by way of refreshment. The 
Bishop took particular notice of the children, as one by one they were 
presented to receive their string of beads — Umhala all the while enume*> 
rating his family, consisting in all of eight wives and twenty-six 
diildren. After a lengthened interview, the Bishop took his leave, and 
Ktumed to his own encampment. The next morning at breakfast- time 
the chief appeared, attended by his eight wives, and reminded the 
Bishop that he had forgotten to give presents to them the night before* 
His Lordship promised each of them a handkerchief, which seemed to 
please them much, and after giving them some breakfast, took leave of 
the old chief, who, at parting, presented the Bishop with his assagai, as 
a token that there was peace between them. 

Liberia. — The American Minion. — The Mission of the American 

Church to Liberia is in a most promising condition. The Rev. John 

Payne, D.D., the long-tried and. faithful Missionary at Cape Palmas, 

who, at the last meeting of the triennial Convention, at Cincinnati, was 

sleeted Bishop for the Mission in West Africa, is about to return from 

Liberia to the United States, for the purpose of being consecrated. The 

Rev. C. C. Hoffman sailed from Baltimore for Cape Palmas, on the 21st 

of Dec. At this station multitudes of the natives, with their children, 

regularly attend divine service, and the various schools established by 

the Missionaries. A long line of coast, however, about 700 miles, 

between them and Sierra Leone, yet remains unoccupied by Episcopal 

Missions. There is a large tribe of natives anxious for instruction, at 

Bassa Cove, about midway between Cape Palmas and Sierra Leone ; 

and a plan has long been in contemplation for erecting there a Mis- 

lionary church, schools, and, eventually, a theological seminary, for the 

colonists and native tribes. The territory of Liberia, within which no 

slavery is tolerated, now extends for 500 miles along the coast, from the 

Sherbro to the San Pedro. The form of government resembles that of 

the United States. The immigrant population amounts to about 7000 : 

the natives to about 250,000 souls. The former are mostly liberated 

slaves, dependent on Christian nations for the means of erecting churches, 

chapels, and schools. Bishop Smith, of Kentucky, has established a 

theological seminary for training up blacks as Missionaries. In the 

island of Barbados, also, considerable interest is taken in the cause of 

VOL. XV. NO. XXIX. MARCH, 1851. Q 

226 Foreign and CoUmal InUlUffmce, 

African Missions, and a general meeting of the Barbados Cht^^g: 
Society was specially convened at Bridgetown, in November, with *\^ 
view of originating a Church Mission from the West Indies to West^^^ 

Australia. — Meeting of the Bishops at Sydney. — A conference 0^ 
Australasian Bishops met on the 1st of Oct. last, at the Cathedral, M$ 
Sydney. Six Bishops, the Metropolitan of Sydney, the Bishops q( 
Newcastle, Melbourne, Adelaide, Tasmania, and New Zealand, a&A 
sixteen clergymen, with others, received the Holy Communion together 
on the occasion. Touching the subjects discussed in the conferenes 
nothing has transpired. There was a public meeting held on the 29th 
of Oct., for the purpose of supporting the Bishop of New Zealand*! 
mission to several islands within his diocese. An immediate sub- 
scription was proposed for providing the Bishop with a snitaUe 
vessel for visiting those islands, as his present vessel of twienty tons is 
considered unsafe. The Episcopal Conference, which broke up on the 
31st of Oct., caused a great sensation at Sydney, and there is reason to 
hope that it will produce a beneficial and lasting effect both upon the 
population of Sydney, and upon the whole of our Colonial possessioni 
in that part of the world. 

Diocese of Newcastle. — Statistics, ^-The following account is given, 
by the Bishop of Newcastle, of the subdivision of his diocese into dis- 
tricts, under date of Aug. a, 1850, and of the state of the Church at 
the different stations: — " 1. Newcastle. Now laying out 500^. on the 
church, and building an excellent school. Forming plans also for a 
superior church grammar-school. — 2. Hexham, New school, and mas- 
ter's house. — 3. Raymond Terrace, New schooL Enlarging church. — 
4. HextoHf or Hunter. Nice pretty church just finished.— < 5. Dai^tn/. 
Admirable school. Very nice church building ; and parsonage agreed 
for. — 6. Morpeth. Church beautifying. Master's house building. Ad- 
mirable model-school built in stone.-— ?• East Maitland, The church 
to be new roofed and pewed. — 8. West Maiiland. The church enlarged 
and new pewed, or rather seated. Two excellent schools building.— 
9. Singleton. Adqtiirable stone church just finishing ; to be conse- 
crated in about two months. Good school building. — 10. /wjf'i 
plains. A beautiful stone church just finished in this district; to 
be consecrated in about three months. Two others building, one 
pf stone and one of brick.— 11. WoUamh'u Stone church, finished 
and consecrated. Parsonage building. — 12. Muswell Brook. Very 
handsome chancel added to the church. New church at Merton, 
just finished. Small new church, wooden, at Meriwa. New school at 
Cassilis; to be used temporarily as a church.— 13. Scone. Tower 
building to church ; school building at Wurrurmdi (also temporarily as 
a church).—14. Tamworth. Parsonage just built. School building. 
Plans making for a church.— 15. Atmidale. Very pretty church just 
finished and consecrated. Parsonage and schoolmaster's house build- 
ing.— 16. Clarence River. Parsonage building. — 17, Darling Doma* 

Foreign and Colonial InteUiffenee. £27 

Parsonage building. School building. To be used temporarily as a 
ehurcb. — 18. Ipswich, Parsonage building ; admirable school building. 
— 19. Brisbane, Moreton Bay. A beautiful parsonage building; and 
church. — 20. Strand. Parsonage, church, school. — 21. Port Mao 
quarie. Parsonage, church, school ; parsonage now building. — 22. Pa» 
terson. Parsonage and church. — 23. Brisbane Water. Parsonage and 
temporary church. — These, at present, are my districts, or parishes, as 
they would be called in England ; or rather counties (for some are 
12 miles in length, by 80 or 100 in breadth). Two of these I have 
formed afresh, pushing out after the enterprising squatters, and being 
the first to supply their spiritual wants." 

* Melbourne Diocese. — Mission to the Bush.-^The Rev. S. L. Chase, 
accompanied by Mr. Palmer, as a lay-assistant, left Melbourne, at the 
end of May, upon a missionary journey into the interior. He proceeded 
along the Sydney road to Wangaratta, turning off and stopping at vari- 
ous places on his route. From the last-named place he writes : — ** All 
along the route we have experienced great kindness ; and, whilst Mr. 
Palmer has been much occupied in selling books, I have found great 
opportunities of preaching the Word. I have slept at fourteen different 
places, and been absent from home seventeen days. Every thing has 
prospered with us, and I am greatly pleased with the manner in which 
my Christian companion has fulfilled his duty. By writing to all the 
settlers, whom I purpose visiting on my return (and each day is already 
arranged for), my hope is to meet as large congregations as can be col- 
lected, and that the good Lord may vouchsafe His gracious blessing is 
my earnest prayer.*' Immediately upon Mr. Chase's return, the Rev. 
J. H. Gh^gory purposes to set off upon a journey along the western 
port road, as far as Cape Shark. 

jfdelaide. '■^Institution for the ATaiioM.— Archdeacon Hale, of Ade- 
laide, is exerting himself to form an Institution, in which natives who 
have been brought up at the Adelaide school, and others, who may seem 
fit subjects for admission, may be gathered together in a separate com- 
munity, apart from the vicious portion of the white population as well 
as the wild portion of the blacks, and kept under regular Christian 
instruction, and the enjoyment of the means of grace, with a view to 
their becoming gradually accustomed to habits of industry, and to a 
more settled mode of life. Port Lincoln has been selected as the 
locality for the intended institution. The Archdeacon has published an 
appeal, in which he states that the whole of the means at present em- 
ployed for the instruction of the aborigines, in the neighbourhood of 
Adelaide, consist of schools for the children of either sex, who, however, 
on leaving the school, go forth again upon the world under circumstances 
the most unfavourable to their civil or religious culture. Their habits 
prevent the employment of any agency to keep them in mind of that 
Supreme Being whose name they have been taught to call upon. They 
are without pastoral superintendence of any kind, without the means of 
grace, without refuge or protection from the contaminations of vice which 


$28 Foreign and Colonial InielUgenee, 

fiurround them on every side. The funds for the support of the insti« 
tution are to be supplied conjointly by the colonial government and by 
voluntary contributions, administered through the Church of England. 
The latter undertakes to Jindt pay, and support the missionary super-* 
intendent, and all other Europeans employed in conducting the affairs 
of the institution. The government aid amounts at present to the 
sum of 200^. for the erection of the necessary huts, and the promise to 
maintain a limited number of married couples for a period of twelve 

British North AMEB.icA.^-Diocese of Nova Scotia, — Memoir of the 
late Bishop,— The Halifax ** Church Times " gives the following bib- 
graphical sketch of the late Bishop Inglis : — " Our late respected and 
beloved Bishop was born at New York, on the 9th of Dec, 1777» during 
the height of the struggle which terminated in the independence of the 
United States, in 1783. His father, who had been many years rector of 
Trinity Church, in New York, then removed to England, and carried 
with him his only son John. In 1787« the Rev. Dr. Charles Inglis, 
the late rector of New York, was consecrated Bishop of Nova Scotia, 
and came to this province at the close of that year. It was mainly 
owing to the exertions of that venerable prelate, who was the first Pro* , 
testant Bishop appointed to any British colony, that an Act of Assem- 
bly was passed in the year 1799, under which King's College, at 
Windsor, was established, and his son, the subject of this memoir, 
received his education at that institution. In the year 1800, Mr. Inglis 
ivent to England, to advance the interests of his Alma Mater, and 
owing to his indefatigable exertions, a valuable library, and some large 
pecuniary contributions, were' obtained from the friends of the Church 
for the infant college — to which he continued a most zealous friend 
throughout his life. Upon his return to this country, in 1801, he 
entered into Holy Orders, and was appointed to the mission of Ayles- 
ford, where he was ever beloved and esteemed. In 1802, he married 
Eliza, daughter of the late Hon. Thomas Cochran, by whom he had a 
large family. In 1805, he again went to England, where he continued 
bis exertions in behalf of the college. On his return he was appointed 
ecclesiastical commissary in this diocese, and as the infirmities of age 
increased upon his venerable parent, his zeal and assiduity to those 
duties, which as commissary he could perform, were highly conducive 
to the interests of the Church. Upon the death of his pious father, in 
1816, the Rev. Dr. Stanser, then rector of St. Paul's, was consecrated 
3i<3hop of Nova Scotia, and Dr. Inglis succeeded to the charge of this 
parish — and some are still living who look back with admiration upon 
the zeal and talents that he then exhibited in his Master's cause. In 
1825, Dr. Stanser*s health and advanced age compelled him to retire 
finally from this country, and Dr. Inglis was appointed his successor. 
The diocese at that time included New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and 
Bermuda ; but extensive as ic was, no part of it was neglected by this 

Foreign and CManial InteUigenee. 229 

indefiitigable prelate. The clergy, in particular, will long cherish his 
memory — and think with gratitude and pleasure on the exertions he 
ever made to increase their usefulness and their comfort. 

" In Nov., 1849, this pious prelate was engaged in the performance 
of his episcopal duties, at a distance from his home, in the county of 
Lunenburg, where he was suddenly attacked by serious illness. Mrs. 
Inglis and his medical attendant, Dr. Almon, immediately went to his 
assistance, and under their watchful care, he reached his home with 
difficulty ; but from that attack he never recovered — after suffering 
months of pain, he was advised to try a change of climate, and left this 
in the steamer Canada^ on the 3rd of Oct. last. He reached England, 
but his strength was gone, and the melancholy intelligence has now 
reached us that he expired in London on the 27th of Oct. last.** 

Arrangements with regard to the See, — Since the death of Dr. Inglis, 
a letter has been addressed to the Clergy of Nova Scotia, by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury — being the first time that the head of the English 
Church has addressed the Clergy of any province of the empire, — ^in 
which His Grace urges the necessity of contributions being raised within 
the diocese towards the endowment of the vacant bishopric. The 
Government allowance of 2000/. a-year terminated with the life of the 
late Bishop. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel holds in 
trust a certain capital to be applied to the maintenance of " Bishops in 
North America,'* from which the Society will probably contribute libe- 
rally to the continuance of the See of Nova Scotia, '* provided," as the 
Archbishop observes in his letter, " that the Clergy and laity of that 
diocese show themselves ready to meet such annual grant by a liberal 
contribution on their part.*' In consequence of this communication 
from the Archbishop, a meeting of Clergy and Lay Delegates of the 
didbese of Nova Scotia, which assumed the name of a '* Convention," 
and conducted its proceedings after the forms of business adopted by 
the American Church, was called by the Archdeacon, to make arrange- 
ments with a view to the endowment of their Bishopric. Among the 
resolutions pas9ed at the meeting is the following : — '* That it be an 
instruction to the Committee of Correspondence, to mention to His 
Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury a feeling among Churchmen in this 
diocese, that some measures be adopted for securing to them some voice 
in the nomination of their chief pastors, after the present vacancy shall 
have been filled up ; and to solicit his counsel with regard to the best 
means of regulating generally the ecclesiastical and temporal affairs of 
the Church.'* 

Since the arrival of this intelligence in England, the Rev. H. Binney, 
of Worcester College, Oxford, has been nominated to the Bishopric of 
Nova Scotia. 

Canada. — Proposed Total /Abandonment of the Clergy Reserves, — It 
appears, from a letter addressed by Earl Grey to the Governor-General 
of Canada, that the Government have it in contemplation to obtain the 
sanction of the Imperial Legislature to the Act of the Provincial Legis- 
lature, for the appropriation of the Clergy Reserves in the provinces tg 

280 Farmgn and Cohnial Ini0lliff$nee. 

general purposes. Petitions against this measure of spoliation have 
been transmitted, or are in course of transmission, from every part of 
the province. That from Toronto alone has no less than 10,000 sig- 
natures. The petition to her Majesty from Quebec enters fully into 
tlie history of the Clergy Reserves, and we borrow from it the following 
statement offsets, which it is^important should be generally understood, 
as the subject will have to undergo discussion in Parliament : — 

" That in the year 1 791 an Act was passed by the Imperial Parlia* 
ment,*31 Geo. III. c. 31, comprehending the appropriation of the lands 
called the Clergy Reserves^ in the Provinces of Upper and Lower 
Canada, for the support and maintenance of a Protestant Clergy , and 
indicating in all its following clauses the Clergy of the Church of 
England, and no other, as the body who were to be so supported and 
maintained : 

" That in the year 1793, your Majesty's royal grandfather, of blessed 
memory, King George III., following up the intention of the afore- 
mentioned Act, erected the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada into 
a diocese of the Church of England, in connexion with the Archiepis- 
copal See of Canterbury, of which the city of Quebec was made the See; 
and that in the Letters Patent appointing the Bishop to the same, 
express and formal reference is made to the aforesaid Act of appropria- 
tion of the Clergy Reserves, — the two measures being manifestly 
designed to form parts of one and the same plan, and the decision being 
practically made, in accordance with what was contemplated in all the 
clauses of the Act, as to rehat Protestant clergy were, under the Act, to 
be endowed : 

" That in the year 1816, the Bishop and Clergy of the Church 
of England were constituted Corporations by Royal Letters Patent, one 
corporation for Lower, and one for Upper Canada, for the management 
respectively of the Clergy Reserves, for the benefit of their own Church, 
within the then existing two Provinces, and that these corporations 
were beginning to put in train the efficient and advantageous adminis- 
tration of the said Reserves, when their proceedings were interfered 
with, and finally stopped, by the transfer to the hands of the Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands of the direction of the Clergy Reserves, and the 
introduction of the system of sales, conducted by that functionary, — in 
the manner of effecting which the most grievous and most extensive 
detriment, in all perpetuity, was done to the interests of the Church : 

" That the exclusive claim of the Church of England to the benefit of 
the Clergy Reserves, implied, as has been made to appear, in different 
measures of the Crown and Parliament of Great Britain, continued un- 
challenged and unquestioned till after the year 1820; and that when 
the efforts which were made to assert a rival claim produced a great 
amount of painful ferment and agitation in the country, the Clergy and 
members of the Church of England, in maintaining what, according to 
their clear and settled convictions, was their right to the whole profits 
of the Reserves, as the patrimony of the said Church, forbore from con- 
tributing to the excitement of the public mind upon the subjeet by any 

Foreign and Colonial InUUigones. 231 

inflammatory appeals or any coloured representations to suit the interest 
of their owD party : 

" That in the year 1840, a vast concession was made to the parties 
adverse to the claims originally recognized as existing in the Church of 
Sngland, by the enactment of an Imperial Statute for the division of 
the profits arising from the Clergy Reserves, under the provisions of 
^which statute two-thirds of the proceeds of the lands then sold, and 
two-thirds of one half of the lands still unsold, were allotted to the 
Church of England in this Province : 

** That notwithstanding the facts herein already set forth, and the 
great inaccuracies of many of those representations proceeding from 
other quarters, upon which this legislative measure appears to have 
been based, the Clergy and lay members of the Church of England in 
the province peaceably submitted to this arrangement of the long- 
agitated questions respecting the Clergy Reserves, and accepted it, 
according to what they had all reason to do, as the final settlement of 
those questions, and the extinction, once for all, of all discussions and 
differences upon the subject; and that to this settlement they considered, 
and so your Majesty's petitioners do now consider, the faith of the . 
Government to be pledged : 

*' That from the date of passing the aforesaid Act of 1840, up to the 
close of the year 1849, no discontent was manifested in any quarter on . 
account of the provisions of the said Act, and that up to the present 
moment there has been no agitation of feeling in the province upon the . 
subject : 

" That the Church of England population of Lower Canada is 
believed to approach,* in numbers, to the entire aggregate of all other 
Protestant denominations within that portion of the province ; and that 
it consists, at the same time, to a very great extent, of the occupiers of 
poor and backward settlements, who mainly depend for the ministrations 
of religion upon the charity of the Society in London^br the Propagation 
of the Gospel^ the revenue up to this date derived from the Clergy 
Reserves supplying but a very small portion of the expenditure made 
upon the most frugal and parsimonious scale for this object/' 

Under these circumstances the petitioners express their astonishment 
and alarm at the Act of the Provincial Legislature during its last ses- 
sioD, in addressing Her Majesty for the total alienation of the Clergy 
Reserves from their original purpose, and their appropriation to educa- 
tion and other secular objects, a measure which they consider as an in- 
dication of a spirit of aggression towards the Church, and which they 
earnestly and solemnly deprecate as '* an act of spoliation which would 
be disastrous to the most sacred interests of human society, and openly 
hostile to the propagation of the truth of God." 

Proposed Convocation of the Province, — The Hon. P. B. de Blaquiere 
has addressed the Bishop of Toronto, since his return, in reference to 
the project entertained by the honourable member, to bring the establish- 
ment of a Convocation for the province before the Colonial Legislature. 
In reply, the Bishop says : — 
" You are aware, no doubt, that the Colonial ChuieYi \% ^tV. ^w^ 

232 Foreign and Colonial IwUlligence. 

parcel of the Church of England — as much so as the Diocese of London 
and Winchester, and that in the present state of the law it is not in the 
power of the Bishop to assemble his Clergy in Convocation without 
special permission from the Crown — and if it were assembled it would 
not perhaps prove satisfactory, as the Convocations in our Church have 
been always confined to the Clergy. 

'* At the same tiipe, I am sensible that the present state of the 
Colonial Church is in some respects deficient, arising chiefiy from its 
rapid extension and increasing wants — nor am I indisposed to consider 
what steps may be safely taken to remedy such deficiencies. 

" But I am not prepared to suggest any without much further 
inquiry from my Clergy — the annals and laws of the Church, and also 
reference to my brother Prelates of Canada East. 

" In the meantime I regret the movement which has been so irregu- 
larly made during my absence in England, and more especially as the 
subject of Convocation was fully noticed in my first Charge, which was 
delivered on the 9th September, 1841. 

'* In labouring to obtain what may be wise and good, we mus( pro- 
ceed in harmony and good faith among ourselves, and on the principles 
which have directed the Synods and Convocations of former ages. 

" Above all, we must respect the law as it now stands, and the 
acknowledged prerogative of the Crown — and if they interfere with the 
natural and divine action of the Church, we must seek for their modifi- 
cation on that behalf, by humble and respectful representations to the 
powers which can award relief." 

Diocese of Toronto — Church University, — After his return to his 
Diocese, the Lord Bishop of Toronto convened a Meeting of the Church 
University Board, for the 21st of December, 1850, when his Lordship 
made a full report of his proceedings in Europe, relative to the proposed 
University, and to the present state of the undertaking. From this 
report it appears that the following contributions have hitherto been 
obtained : — 
Subscriptions in Upper Canada in land, estimated at • £7,562 15 

In money, amounting to * . . 16,708 2 6 

3,391 Acres not valued, at the usual estimation of one 

pound per acre 3,391 

Two Town Lots, not valued, but assumed to be worth 50 

£27,711 17 6 
Donations in England to the amount of 10,000^. 
sterling, including the grants of the Society for Pro- 
pagating the Gospel in Foreign Farts, the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, currency about 12,444 

Grant of land by the Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel, and within the city of Toronto, estimated at 3,000 

£43,155 17 6 
The Report next considers the most ^lo^ei modft oC luvesting this 

Foreign and Colonial InUlUgenee. 233i 

roperty until the new institution shall obtain a corporate character, 
ther by an Act of ^he Legislature or by Royal Charter. For this 
arpose the Bishop proposes the appointment of a Council, composed 
r a limited number of gentlemen, to advise him in all matters respecting 
le College and its property, until a more formal constitution shall be 
btained. In the meantime he proposes the property to be vested in a 
mited number of Trustees, v?ho are to act under the instructions of 
iie Council. 

The Bishop further states that, while in England, he had made appli- 
ation to the Colonial Secretary for a Charter for the proposed College, 
nd having been requested to furnish the heads of such a Charter as he 
bought desirable, had framed a draft, a copy of which accompanied the 
eport, on the model of the original Charter of King's College, and of 
he system adopted in Bishop's College, Lennoxville, and his lordship 
dds that since the Government has granted to the Roman Catholics, 
he Presbyterians and Methodists, Charters of Incorporation for Col- 
^es of their own, he will not suppose it possible that they will with- 
hold the same advantage from the Church. 

The Report further states, that a site has been procured for the Uni- 
rersity, twenty acres of land, very eligibly situated, having been pur- 
chased for the purpose. The Bishop also, while in England, procured 
he plan of a new College, intended to be erected in Liverpool, which 
ippeared to him, with some modifications, suited to the purpose, and 
be expects that a sufficient portion will have been completed before 
next winter, to commence the course of instruction. 

Foundation of the new Cathedral, — The foundation stone of the new 
Cathedral of Toronto was laid by the Bishop on Wednesday, the 20th 
of November last. The edifice will be in the English decorative style 
of early architecture. The body of the church will consist of a centre 
and side aisles, marked by two lines of cut stone, clustered columns 
and lancet arches, with a clerestory pierced by triple-light columniated 
stone windows. The total external length will be 204 feet, and the 
width 117 feet; the internal dimensions of the main body being 112 
feet, by 75 feet. The height of the centre aisle will be 80 feet, and that 
of the side aisles 42 feet, clear of the ceilings. The roofs will be open 
to the Church, the framing being of a rich Gothic character throughout, 
except in the chancel, which will have a groined ceiling, with moulded riles 
and foliated bosses. The chancel will be 38 feet, 9 inches in depth by 
42 feet in width, the back being semi-octagonal in form, and the five 
sides pierced by windows of rich and varied design, all executed in 

Diocese of Montreal. — Church Society, — A Church Society has been 
established for the diocese of Montreal, under the auspices of the 

China. — Edict against Christianity, — The following curious edict 
against Christianity has been issued in China : — 
" Wan, Prefect of the lower district of Ying-Chan, removed to hia 

234 Fareiffn and Cdonial Iwklligenee. 

present post from another of the same rank, and ten times honourably 
mentioned, issues this solemn appeal, in order that the hearts of men may 
be guided in the right way, and more respect be paid to the laws. Be 
it known unto you, that diere is in the western world a doctrine of tlie 
Lord of heaven, the author of which is Jesus. So long as the bar- 
barians practise or propagate this among themselves, expounding their 
books, and worshipping according to the precepts of that doctrine, theie 
is no occasion for us to take notice of it ; but it is not permitted to 
them to enter the Inner Land, and there to propagate this doctrine ; and 
natives of the Inner Land who invite men from far places to come hither, 
with a view to their abetting them in inflaming and unsettling tbe 
minds of the people, and inveigling females to join their sect, or other- 
wise to violate the law, are punishable under the statute still in force. 
The provisions of the code are explicit ; who shall venture to act con- 
trary to them ? Nevertheless it has come to my knowledge that the 
simple and unenlightened population of the village of Chid-kang and 
its vicinity have latterly invited such persons from a distance, and have 
seduced some to enter into communion with them, and that even 
females have joined their society — a serious breach of the law! It will 
be my duty to search out the guilty, and to punish them severely. 
Moreover I publish this appeal for the comprehensive instruction of 
the military, of the common people and others. 

" You should know that Jesus, born in the time of Ngai Ti, 
of the Han dynasty, ranks no higher than Hwa T6h, Chuh-yu, and 
others of the same class, having merely possessed ability to heal the 
sick. His power of breaking seven cakes into food for three thousand 
men, is nothing more than the witchcraft of the rationalists, by which 
things are shifted from one place to another : in other ways he had no 
peculiar power. As to his extravagant title of the lord who made 
heaven, remember that tbe Three Sovereigns (B.C. 3369-2632), the 
Five Emperors (2169), Yau, Shun, Yu. T'ang (1743), Wan, Wu (1105), 
the Prince of Chan, and Kung the Philosopher (Confucius — 500), spread 
abroad civilization, as the messenger of heaven, hundreds and thousands 
of years before Jesus. The different countries beyond the sea had from 
an early date rulers, and peoples, forms of government, and laws to 
punish crime : did none of these exist until Jesus appeared to create 
them in the time of the Han ? 

'* The tale of the crucifixion of Jesus and of his ascension into heaven 
resembles the legend invented concerning Sun-nyam, who, having been 
drowned after the defeat of his army, became a Water Spirit, as bis 
adherents say. It also bears some likeness to what the rebels of the 
white lily allege, who assert that the spirits of their brethren, executed 
with long and ignominious torments, rose into heaven from their bodies, 
and are there called to a new life among the heavenly existences. 

" This doctrine, moreover, boasts that it encourages to virtue and 
represses vice ; but this our learned men have constantly maintained. 
The dogma that those who believe in the Lord will be happy, and that 
after death their spirits will ascend to heaven, while the anbelievers will 

Formgn and Colonial InUUiffenos. 235 

be miserable, and after death their sools will be doomed to eternal im- 
prisonment in hell, says precisely the same as the word of Wu 
San-sz-— ' Those who are good to me, are good ; those who are evil to 
me, are evil.' Supposing, then, that the believers in the Lord were 
robbers, or else vicious persons, they must nevertheless all be made 
happy ; those on the contrary, who are not believers in the Lord, but 
otherwise just and deserving men, should after death be all doomed to 
misery. Never before was the true order of reward for virtue, and 
punishment for vice, so perverted and confused. Is not such a religion 
fiital to the notions of good and right as taught us by heaven ? 
. ** Again, the terms 'palace of heaven' and 'prison of hell' are 
simply pirated from the lowest class of Budhistic writings ; nevertheless 
the believers in Jesus vilify the Budhists as people doomed for ever to 
the prison of hell. Of all the nations beyond the sea, none believes so 
much in this Lord of heaven as the Germans, and yet the inhabitants of 
Germany are scattered, their power is broken to pieces, and their ter- 
ritory has been more than once divided. Why then, since they believe 
in the Lord of heaven, is no happiness bestowed upon them ? On the 
contrary, of all those who do not believe in the Lord of heaven, no 
nation can compare with the Japanese ; on a quay in their port a 
crucifix is engraven, and every merchant who lands there, and does not 
tread on the crucifix, is forthwith beheaded as a warning to others* 
Besides, there is before the gate, an image of Jesus sunk into the 
ground, so that it may daily be i^n^ominiously trampled on. And yet 
Uiis kingdom has endured for 2000 years : why has not the Lord of 
heayen smitten it with calamity ? It follows, then, that the statement 
regarding the power of the Lord of heaven to confer happiness or 
misery, is wholly without foundation ; it will merely make the simple 
people, in this life, deprive their ancestors of the enjoyment of the 
oblations of sweet-smelling incense, and of the ofierings which should 
be set before them in sacrificial vessels ; whil^ after death, they will 
become blind spirits, undergoing, moreover, the torments of burning till 
their bones are reduced to ashes. What happiness results from such a 
doctrine ? 

" Again, as to the adoration of the crucifix, it is derived from the 
stone tablet of the * luminous doctrine,' signed with a cross, to deter- 
mine the four quarters of the heavens, whence the professors of this 
creed, it is not known at what period, devised the tale of the cruci- 
fixion ; but even if this tale were true, it would still be quite inex- 
plicable why the worshippers of Jesus should adore the instrument of 
his punishment, and consider it so to represent him as not to venture 
to tread upon it. Would it be common sense, if the father or ancestor 
of a house had been killed by a shot from a fowling-piece, or by a 
wound from a sword, that his sons or grandsons should adore a fowling- 
piece, or a sword, as their father o> ancestor ? 

** Although an edict of recent date has permitted the barbarians to 
expound their religious books to one another, it has not given them 
leave to proceed into the Inner Land, there to mix with the ^eo^le^ and 

236 Foreign and Colonial IwtdUgenee^ 

to propagate their doctrine ; and if there are Chinese who invite th^^ 
from distant places, and join with them in exciting and confounditf^ 
men*s minds, beguiling women, or otherwise offending against the lai^if 
they will be punished, as of old, according to the law of the land, either 
summarily, or after imprisonment, with death by strangulation, or ymM 
transportation to a greater or less distance, or with blows from the 
heavy bamboo ; the law admits of no indulgence. But if subjects pie* 
sent themselves before the authorities, and declare that they repent, and 
therefore tread upon the crucifix, their punishment shall be mitigated bj 
me in degree. The laws of the state are of strict severity, but they hava 
always made account of men*s repentance for their faults. If, thereforei 
there are men among you, simple people, who have suffered themselvM 
to be instigated or misled in manner aforesaid, awake without lost cf 
time, and make haste to save yourselves from the meshes of the lam 
But you who view this decree with an unfriendly eye, and continue ta 
indulge your humour, be it known to you, that it will be my duty to 
curse you, and to bring you to justice and punishment, as a warning to 
the foolish and the perverse. Take heed to this, tremble and obey ! " 

France. — The Lying Wonder $ of the Romish Church, — ^The Romiah 
Church in France has latterly exhibited the ridiculous spectacle of pn>« 
claiming two astounding miracles, and subsequently revoking thenu 
The first is the miraculous appearance of the Virgin at La Salette» 
which we have formerly noticed ; and in connexion with it the wonder- 
working fountain said to have sprung up on the spot on which tho 
Virgin stood. With regard to the. latter, a letter appeared quite 
recently in the Tablet, from the Brothers Perrin, the "Levites*'ia 
attendance upon the idol of '* our Lady," who, in acknowledging a 
donation of 2/. from England, state, as they themselves affirm, ** with 
truth," " that our Lady of Reconciliation has admirably continued these 
two years to work many bodily and spiritual conversions in favour of 
those who invoke her, and who make use of the water of the privileged 
fountain. We reckon up," they say, ** above a hundred which all 
exhibit a supernatural character. The most striking have lately beeo 
published in a second volume by the Abbe Rousselot, Vicar- Greneral ot 
our diocese. And his Lordship has given his approbation to this 
volume, as to the first. We entreat you. Sir, if you have already beea 
able to procure it, to have this work translated into the English 
language. It would assuredly give pleasure to the Catholics of yoot 
country, and ev^n the heretics would <read it with advantage. When* 
ever you have occasion for the water of the fountain of La Salette, or 
of books, medals, and images, all of them having the representation of 
the glorious apparition, you have only to address the order to us, and 
we shall hasten to satisfy your pious desire. We have inscribed all the 
names sent in the register of the Confraternity of our Lady of Recon* 
ciliation of La Salette. It now reckons more than 20,000 asso- 
ciates. It is sufficient to recite each day the Our Father and the Hail 

Fareiffn and CoUmial Intelligence. 237 

In direct and somewhat awkward contrast with this statement, the 
de la Religion contains a circular addressed by the Bishop of 

fiip, in whose diocese La Salette is situate, to his Clergy, in which 
\' ditt Prelate complains in indignant terms of the republication, in spite 
I if a former remonstrance on his part, of a private letter which he wrote 
r nmewhat unguardedly in reply to the first report made to him of the 
1 deged miraculous event, and to which " interested parties have endea* 
' mred to give an official character.'' " We are in duty and conscience 
^nd," the Bishop says, " to warn the Clergy and the faithful that we 
pn strangers to this manoeuvre, and that they will be the dupes of a 
gsilty intrigue, and a base speculation, if they suffer themselves to be 
fersuaded that we patronize a fact with which we neither can, nor 
^igfat, nor are willing, to have any concern whatever. Several 
limtenlous cures are spoken of as having happened in our diocese ; we 
declare that we have not been able to verify a single one ; even the one 
vfaich is announced in our letter before referred to, has not been satis- 
&ctorily proved, and cannot therefore be cited as an evidence of the 
siraculous appearance of the Blessed Virgin at La Salette. Yon are 
to advise religious persons to be on their guard against tales of mira- 
eolous cures, when such cures have not been verified by scrupulous and 
pradent inquiries on the part of the ecclesiastical authority. There 
k in circulation also, in the diocese of Gap, an office called the ' Office 
)>f La Salette.' The lessons of the second nocturn of Matins are the 
tile of the apparition as told by the two shepherd boys. Never has 
diere been a book of this kind more opposed to the holy liturgical rules, 
vfaich, with so much reason, forbid the composition of fresh legends, 
iq)ecially upon the ground of facts not recognised by the Church. 
Accordingly, we strictly forbid, throughout our diocese, the recital of 
the Office of Za Salette^ until it shall have been approved by our Holy 
Father the Pope." 

The other ** lying wonder ** is of more recent date. A short time 

^p the French Papers contained a long and circumstantial account, 

endorsed by the testimony of medical men, of magistrates, and officers 

of gens d'armes, of a miraculous picture representing the descent from 

the cross, in the Church of St. Saturnin, at Apt, in the department of 

Tancluse. According to the account given, blood had been repeatedly 

oosing out from the wounds in the side, the hands, and feet of the 

Saviour ; and while the most careful examination of the painting 

Culed to discover any contrivance for producing this effect, the blood 

had been ascertained by a chemical analysis to be real human blood. 

On this miracle a Commission has since been appointed by the Arch* 

bishop of Arigua, whose report is unfavourable to the miraculous 

nature of the transaction, on the ground chiefly of the unsatisfactory 

character of the ** ecstatica " who announced the flowing of the blood 

beforehand, and whose proceedings have, in more than one respect, 

given rise to suspicion. 

The Temple of all Religions at Paris. — Our readers will no doubt 

238 Foreign and Cohnial InMiffence. 

remember' an extraordinary order given during the days of tlie ^ff§ 
▼incial Government by M. Ledru RoUin, for a series of pictures U» ^ 
executed in the Pantheon by an artist of the name of Chena? and, j\ 
whom a period of eight years was granted for the execution of tM^ 
design, with an allowance of 4000 francs per annum, — the total expen^^ 
of the decoration being estimated at upwards of 300,000 or 400,000 
francs. At the recent Congress of the Academies of France, the subjeet 
was brought under notice ; but from the monstrous character of the dei^lif 
as contained in the programme published at the time, the Congress !•• 
fused to believe that it was more than a transient whim which had beta 
long abandoned. On inquiry, however, it was found that the order of 
M. Ledru Rollin was still uncancelled, and that the artist was actoalhf i 
proceeding with the cartoons, which were to be fixed up to try the efliMMi ^ - 
before the execution of the frescoes. A report was drawn up in eon* 
sequence, from which we transcribe the following passage :— *• The 
plan of the mural paintings in the Pantheon, as it has been designed 
and is in progress of execution, is an unprecedented pSle^mele of die 
most contradictory ideas, the most different creeds, and the most 
opposite symbols. All the gods of Greece and India, as well as those 
of Rome and Scandinavia, occupy in it a place equal with that assigned 
to the true God ; Olympus and Walhalla rank in it as high as Calvary. 
This is not all. There are apotheoses for the famous philosophers of all 
ages, and even for the Utopian visionaries of the nineteenth century. 
Pythagoras and Andre Fourrier — shall we venture to say it ? — an 
represented by the side of the Son of God ! Next to the paintings 
intended to exhibit what is called 'the Christian system and the 
exaggeration of the glorification of the spirit,* there are others on which 
* the rehabilitation of the flesh ' is displayed in scenes which our pen -; 

cannot describe ; as if this was the great progress of our age; as if j 

the religion of Jesus Christ, which animates and pervades our society, \ 
our families, and our very hearts, were no longer any thing but an 4 
antiquarian curiosity, fit at the most to be mentioned, by the way, in 
this species of museum of eclecticism and modem pantheism.** The 
report concludes with a resolution, unanimously adopted by the 
Congress of Academies, which, "in the name of Christian civiliia- 
tion, of morality and good taste," denounces as " a scandal and a pro- j 
fanation " the execution of a "project founded on the pantheistic idea of 
pagan Rome, and placing, side by side with the true God, the false gods 
of the past, and the false prophets of future times." 

Gekmavy.— Activity of the Romish Church. — The •* Catholic Union 
of Germany," at its last meeting, appointed a committee which is to pnt 
itself in communication with poets, artists and others, as well as with 
the heads of the Church, with a view to the revival of " Catholic 
art," as a means to the propagation of Romanism in Germany. The 
resolution of the " Union ** also recommends the active distribution of 
tracts and other publications. The local branches of the " Union " are 

• See English Review, toI. x. p. 242. 

Foreign and Colonial InteUigmee. 2S9 

tojoioed to use their endeavours for the establishment of St. Paul de 

Vincent associations among the working classes ; and their attention is 

^ jwlicoiarlj directed to the manufacturing population. Copies of the 

.: wolutions adopted were ordered to be transmitted to all the sovereigns 

L ti Germany^ In Bavaria the Bishops have addressed a memorial to the 

I libg, protesting against such provisions of the new Constitution, and 

^ I||un8t all such previous edicts as are at variance with the terms of the 

Cboeordat, as well as against any interference whatever, on the part of 

Ifce civil power, with matters of worship, and calling upon the latter to 

nforce the law against the profanation of Sundays and holidays, either 

Ij work or by public amusements and exercises. In Baden, on the 

notion of Carl von Hirscher, the first Chamber has voted an address 

to the Government, praying for the appointment, with the concurrence 

«f the Episcopate, of a Commission, which is to prepare such laws and 

ocdinances as shall secure greater independence and efficacy to the 

Roman Catholic Church, and to place sufficient funds at the disposal of 

the Bishops for extending the education of young men for the Romish 

j^sthood. In Rhenish Prussia the Romanists are contemplating the 

establishment of *' a purely Catholic University " in connexion with the 

Cathedral at Cologne. 

Growth of Popish Superstition, — ^While every effort is being made by 
0ie Ultramontane party in Germany, to push the cause of their Church 
in the higher ranks of life, by the appliances of art, literature, and learn- 
ing, and through political influence, the masses are operated upon by 
the revival of the ancient superstitions. In Bavaria and the Tyrol 
the old mysteries are being revived, and the passion of our Lord 
is made the subject of scenic exhibition. A couple of Capuchin friars 
are travelling about in the characters of thaumaturgs, attended by 
crowds, pretending to perform miraculous cures by the laying on of 
their hands, and anointing with oil. The extent to which these 
dungs are not only connived at but countenanced by the authorities, 
may be collected from the fact that Dr. Kreuzer, Professor at the Ye- 
termary College at Munich, has been peremptorily removed from his 
office, in consequence of his having in his lectures adverted to the 
iuperstitious practice, of which some recent instances had occurred, of 
die people calling in the Franciscans, to read masses for their cattle 
daring an epidemic. 

The Free Congregations,'^^ An application for the " Fre6 Congrega- 
tions " to be enrolled among the religious communities of the kingdom, 
and as such admitted to the privileges of other religious bodies, has 
been refused by the Government of Saxony, on the express ground, 
that, although they call themselves " Christian " associations, they 
have not in reality any religious character whatever. " Their leaders," 
so says the official document, "declare the belief in God to be a 
matter of indifference. They recognize, it is true, an all-creating and 
sustaining power, but leave every man free to form what notion he 
pleases of that power, to consider it either as the supreme and most per- 
fect Spirit, or as a mere force which operates without will or conscience. 

240 Foreign and Colonial InteUigenee. 

They denounce the Christian faith, even to the last remnants of it, as 
error and superstition, and endeavour to supplant it by philosophic 
speculations, based on this world only. They make war apon all re- 
ligious bodies which take into account the relation of man to God, on 
the plea that a rational religion has to do only with the relations be- 
tween man and man. They reject all religious belief, and give tbe 
mere outlines of a system of ethics, summed up in the notions of 
** liberty, truth, and fraternity." They pretend to follow the Apostolie 
injunction, " prove all things, hold fast that which is good ;'' but they 
overlook the fact that this principle is to be carried out to the end of 
life. After a short trial they reject every thing that may not be handled 
with hands, and in the void which they have thus created they find 
nothing worthy to be held fast. They aim at making human society, 
according to the precept of the Gospel, one flock ; not, however, a 
flock under a pastor, but a flock which, without shepherd, runs astray. 
Yet, without any faith, without a definite idea of God, there is no re- 
ligion, no worship, no religious communion." In proof of the correct- 
ness of this picture, the rescript quotes the very words of the petition 
itself: — •• The Free Congregation rejects the fundamental doctrines of 
theological Protestantism ; it has no dogmas, and can admit none ; for 
the ideas of ' God and immortality ' no faith is required, since they 
result from the wisdom and eternal consistency of the creation ; harmony 
between the life and the moral law, is the main object kept in view by 
the Free Congregations ; forms of worship they want only for mutual 
edification, and in order to cherish the idea of the divine majesty of 
man." In consequence of the ill odour into which the Free Congrega- 
tions have fallen by their open avowal of the most advanced principles of 
infidelity, many of the *' German Catholic" congregations, in which 
an element of primitive faith is still lingering, have officially disavowed 
all connexion with them ; a measure the more necessary as their own 
recognition by the State was made dependent on their declaration on 
this point. Among the Free Congregations themselves, too, dissensions 
have arisen, and some of the leading bodies among them, that at Xicipzig 
for example, are fast approaching their dissolution. 

Singular Defence against a Charge of Blasphemy* — A cause is 
pending before the Prussian tribunals, in which a party is charged 
with blasphemy, on account of irreverent language uttered against the 
person of Christ. The first Court convicted him; the Court of Appeal 
reversed the sentence, on the ground that Christ and God were not 
identical, and the offence, therefore, not against God, but only against 
the society of Christians. This decision has also been appealed against, 
on the ground that Christ is one with God. The tribunals before which 
the question is pending, are the usual tribunals of civil and criminal 


India. — Diocese of Calcutta and Borneo Missions, — The Bishop of 
Calcutta has been engaged on a visitation tour to the Malayan Peninsula 
and Borneo, His Lordship left Calcutta, on the Hth of Nov., accom- 

Foreign and Colonial Intelligence. 241 

panied by Archckacon Pratt, and by Mr. C. J. Fox, a student of 

Bishop's College, who was to remain in Borneo as Catechist. To 

qualify himself for this post, he would, as appears by a letter from the 

Kev. F. T. M'Bougall, the laborious Missionary of Sarawak, have to 

bestow two years in the study of the Malay language, to acquire it 

sufBciently for his Missionary work among the Dyaks ; after which, he 

would have to learn the dialects of the tribes he may be placed with, as 

head men only speak Malay, and the rest know nothing but the Dyak 

of their district. Another qualification for Missionary labour in those 

parts is a knowledge of Arabic, which is both useful in learning the 

Malay language, and a great recommendation among the Malays, who 

look up to any one who understands the language of the Koran. From 

the John Dull we learn, that this interesting Mission is about to be 

reinforced by a Clergyman from England, the Rev. W. Chambers, curate 

of Bentley, Derbyshire, who has been appointed by the committee of 

the Borneo Mission as one of their Missionaries, with the especial 

object of extending the mission to the Dyak tribes in the interior ; the 

letters lately received from Mr. M'Dougall and Sir James Brooke, 

expressing a decided opinion that the attempt may now be made with 

every prospect of success. 

Diocese of Madras, — Declaration on the Gorham case,-^The follow- 
ing document has been transmitted to the Archbishop of Canterbury : — 

" To the Most Reverend Father in God, John Bird, by Divine Pro- 
vidence, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England, and 

"May it please your Grace, — We, the undersigned, the Bishop, 
Archdeacon, and Clergy of the diocese of Madras, desire to approach 
your Grace with the expression of our humble and affectionate sympathy 
and regard, under the trying circumstances in which you have been 
placed, connected with the late judgment of her Majesty in Council, in 
the case of * Gorham v. the Bishop of Exeter.* 

'• We respectfully thank your Grace for your temperate, and at the same 
time, firm conduct, in resisting efforts to introduce into our Reformed 
Church a system of exclusiveness inconsistent with the character, and 
tending to rend asunder the greatest and purest establishment that has 
existed under this present dispensation. We cannot refrain fiom ex- 
pressing our sorrow that so wi«e a judgment, concurred in by two Arch- 
bishops, should not have given more general satisfaction. 

** Deeply lamenting the unseemly attacks which have been made upon 
your Grace, and praying that your valuable life may be long spared for 
the glory of God and the strengthening of our Zion, 
** We are, may it please your Grace, 

" Your Grace's affectionate and dutiful servants, 
(Signed) ** Thos. Madras, 

" Vincent Shortland, Archdeacon, 
and seventy-three out of the eighty-five Clergymen labouring in this 
diocese, including all the Missionaries of the Society for the Propa- 
gating the Gospel in Foreign Parts." 

VOL. XV. KO. XXIX.—MABCIT, 1851. 'ft. 

242 Foreign and Cohnial Intelligence. 

New Church Organ* — A new Church organ has lately been started 
at Madras, under the title of *' The Churchman." From the numben 
before us, it appears to be conducted on moderate but definite and dis- 
tinctive Church principles. 

Visit of the Bishop of Colombo to the Mauritius. — The Bishop of 
Colombo has been paying a visit to the Mauritius, which has led to 
the formation, in August last, of a Church Association for the island, 
under the name of ** The Mauritius Church Association." The prin- 
cipal objects contemplated by the Association are : — 1. To promote the 
diffusion of Christian Knowledge, in accordance with the principles of 
the Church, by means of education, the dissemination of religious pub- 
lications, and catechetical instruction. — 2. To assist in the erection of 
Churches, the fitting up of Places of Worship, and the support of Mi- 
nisters of Religion in those parts of the island which are unprovided 
with Clergy. — 3. To establish a Mission for the conversion and in- 
struction of the Indian immigrants, who now form so large a portion 
of the resident population, through the agency of Catechists and Teachers 
acquainted with their native languages. — 4. And, generally, to direct 
the attention, and to concentrate the energies, of the members of the 
Church in the Mauritius, towards the prosecution of measures conducive 
to its welfare. 

The funds of the Association are to be applied in aid of the erection 
of Churches, the fitting up of places of worship, the support of Minis- 
ters, Catechists, and Scripture Readers, and the establishment and 
maintenance of Schools in the Colony and its Dependencies. A sub- 
scription of 2L per annum, or 45. per mensem, or a Life Subscription 
of 10/. in one payment, constitutes membership, with the right of voting 
at all meetings. Subscriptions and donations may be given specifically 
for particular objects. The Bishop of the Diocese is to be the Presi- 
dent of the Association, and is to be assisted in the management of 
its affairs by a Committee composed of the Clergy of the island and its 
dependencies as ex^officio members, and of nine laymen chosen annu- 
ally) by ballot, from among the members, and re- eligible. 

Italy. — Statistics of the Romish Church, — The following account is 
given by the Ami de la Religion of the Romish Episcopate throughout 
the world at the beginning of the year 1851. — Europe : 6 Suburbi- 
carian Bishoprics ; 78 Bishoprics under the immediate jurisdiction of 
the Pope; 104 Archbishoprics; 419 Suffragan Bishoprics; 25 Dele- 
gations and Apostolic Prefectures. — Asia : 6 Patriarchates ; 6 Arch- 
bishoprics ; 46 Bishoprics ; 43 Apostolic Prefectures. — Africa : 6 
Bishoprics; 14 Vicariates and Prefectures. — America: 16 Arch- 
bishoprics; 85 Bishoprics; 10 Vicariates. — In Partibus : 5 Patri- 
archates; 65 Archbishoprics; 211 Bishoprics. Of the foregoing, 45 
Bishoprics and Apostolic Vicariates are established within the domi- 
nions of the British Crown. 

The Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, — A correspondent of the 
Tablet t writing from Rome, says, — ** It will be cheering to you to hear 

fbreiffn and Colonial InteUiff&nee: 243 

that his Holiness is anxious to press on as fast as possible the exami- 
nation of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, with the view to 
publish his solemn definition. A commission has been appointed to 
occupy itself with this important question : some learned theologians 
are to examine the ancient liturgies, others the Fathers, others the peti- 
tions of the Bishops of every part of the Church. It is expected that 
in a very short time his Holiness will be able to publish his final de- 
cision, and to console the Faithful who are anxious to increase the 
honours due to the Holy Virgin." Among the replies sent to the Pope 
from diflferent parts of the world, one of the most important is that of 
Cardinal Romo, Archbishop of Seville, which fills an entire volume, 
and concludes with the most ardent wishes for the immediate declara- 
tion of the doctrine as an article of the faith. As regards the historical 
view of the question, the Cardinal adopts a most convenient line of 
argument. He admits that '* if the matter depended on the opinion of 
the ancient scholastic writers, it would present no more probability 
than the Copemican system, when referred to a similar tribunal ;** and 
he therefore proposes to " take for his guide tradition alone, and for his 
sole torch the true light which the Lord vouchsafes to us through the 
Holy Church." Following out this principle, he alleges various indi- 
cations of the honour paid to the Virgin, and, concluding from the 
silence observed by the writers of the first ages on the subject of origi- 
nal sin in her, that her immaculate conception was taken for granted, he 
accumulates proofs of the growth of the doctrine in successive ages, down 
to the year 1843, when the petition of the General of the Dominicans, 
for leave to his order to celebrate the Immaculate Conception in the 
same terms as the Franciscans, removed the last opposition to the doc- 
trine, and caused the worship of the Virgin to become the universal 
practice of the Romish Church. 

Tuscany, — Popish Intolerance. — A diplomatic difficulty has occurred 
at Florence, where a Protestant chapel has existed for twenty years past, 
for the use of the Swiss Protestants. Among these are several hun- 
dred Grisons, whose habitual idiom is Italian, and for whose benefit, 
therefore, one of the services is conducted* in that language. Of this 
sernce the Government of Tuscany has complained to the Prussian 
Ambassador at Rome, who, being himself a papist, advised the Protes- 
tant Consistory at Florence to hold their Italian service with closed 
doors, to abstain from all measures whatever for the propagation of Pro- 
testantism, and especially from the distribution of the Bible, and to 
turn away any Florentines who might present themselves at the doors 
to take part in the service. The Consistory having refused to comply 
with this advice, the Florentine Government has employed gens d'armes 
to attend the service, and note down the names of any subjects of the 
Tuscan government who were present. The parties whose names are 
taken down are afterwards summoned before the police authorities, and 
required to give a pledge that they will not repeat their attendance ; 
failing which, they are served with a notice prohibiting their attend- 
ance, under a penalty varying from five days to two moivtW im\|nsoa- 
* r2 

244 Foreign and Colonial IfiUilligmc$i 

meat. The Consistory has since been induced, by a repealed remon^ 
strance from the Ambassador, M, Reumont, to substitute a French for 
an Italian service ; but intends to lay the case before the king of 
Prussia, \vlth a view to the restoration of the Italian service. 

Switzerland. — Collision niih the Papacy, — The Great Council of 
the canton of Freiburg having, on the 11th of October last, issued a 
decree against the publication of ecclesiastical rescripts and documents 
without the consent of the civil power, the Papal chargS d'affaires iu 
Switzerland, Mr. Rovieri, has addressed two formal protests, one to the 
Council of State of the Canton, the other to the Federal Council, 
against this " gross violation of the divine constitution of the Church, the 
authority of the Episcopate, the rights of the holy Apostolic See, and 
the supreme authority of the Church/' and demanding, by way of repara- 
tion, ** entire liberty for the Church in the canton, for its Bishop (M. 
Marilley), and its ministers.*' In the protest addressed to the Federal 
Council, Mr. Bovieri further complains, that three of his notes addressed 
to the Federal Council in 1848, in reference to the dispute touching M. 
Marilley, have remained unanswered, and presses for a reply. On the 
other hand the Council of the Canton of Freiburg has addressed to the 
Federal Council a memorial requesting that hody to take steps for ob- 
taining from the Pope the appointment of a successor to M. Marilley ; 
but with this request the Federal Council, anticipating no doubt the 
result of such an application, has refused to comply. Meanwhile the 
Pope has conferred upon M. Marilley, as a token of his favour, the 
dignity of Assistant Prelate to the Pontifical Throne. 

United States. — Trial for Heresy, — Considerable attention has 
been excited by a trial for heresy before an Ecclesiastical Court, com- 
posed of Presbyters, in the Diocese of Massachusetts. The Rev. O. S. 
Prescott, late Assistant-Minister at the Church of the Advent, at Boston, 
was charged, on the prosecution of the Standing Committee of the dio- 
cese, with ** entertaining and believing certain doctrines not held, 
nor allowed to be held, by the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
United States, but condemned by the Standards of the said Church as 
wrong, unsound, and heretical ; and with having promulgated, taught, 
and defended the said doctrines, to the detriment of religion, the scandal 
of the Church, and the great injury of the cause of Christ; moreover, 
-with having adopted, and encouraged others to adopt, certain forms and 
ceremonies not allowed by the Church, but contrary to her teachings 
and Standards, and opposed to the general usage and immemorial cus- 
toms of the Church, and in violation of her common law, to the pre- 
judice of the gospel and of the salvation of souls." 

The unsound doctrines charged were : — 1 . The doctrine of the immacu- 
late nature and character of the Virgin Mary ; that she was without 
sin ; that prayers may be, or should be, addressed to her ; that ^he may 
be, or should be, regarded as an intercessor ; that it is right, or proper, 
or allowable, for Christians to use the " Hail Mary'* in their devotions: 

Foreign and Colonial Inielligence. 245 

• This doctrine of Transubstantiation : 3. The doctrine that Auricular 
Confession to a priest, on the part of the members of the Church, is 
troper, allowable, and profitable ; adding, that he has allowed members 
»f the Church to come to him, and make confession of their sins, in 
Banner and form not allowed or sanctioned by the Church : 4. The 
loctrine that Priestly Absolution, in connexion with Auricular Con- 
fession, is allowable, desirable, and profitable ; and that he has heard 
private confession of sins from sundry persons, and has pronounced ab- 
solution in behalf of such persons, on occasions and under circum- 
stances not contemplated by the Church, and in violation of the prin- 
ciples of the Church, as set forth in her Standards, and contrary to her 
established customs and usages : 5. Under the head of customs and 
practices repugnant to the teaching of the Church, contrary to the 
spirit and meaning of her Standards, and against the common order and 
established usages of the Church, and in violation of her common law, 
it was charged, in addition to the practice of both making and hearing 
auricular confession, that he has been in the habit, in performing divine 
service, of turning his back to' the people, while reading the Psalter, — 
offering up prayers, — and reciting the creed, — contrary to the practice 
and custom of the Church in the diocese, since its first organization, — 
that he has practised these violations of the common law of the Church 
against the well-known and ofBcially-declared admonitions and counsels 
of the Bishop of the diocese, — that in making the usual ascription to 
the Holy Trinity, at the close of the sermon, he has turned his back to 
the people, and his face to the Lord's Table as to the most holy place,— 
that he has paid, by divers turnings, or bowings, or genuflections, that 
reverence to the Lord's Table, which is indicative of a belief in the doc- 
trine that the real body and blood of Christ are really and truly offered 
up thereupon, in accordance with the doctrine of Transubstantiation,— 
that he has allowed or approved, or permitted, in celebrating public 
service, at morning and evening prayer, portions of the Psalter to be 
song, in place of the psalms and hymns in metre, which the Church has 
set forth for that purpose. 

To this presentment the Rev. O. S. Prescott took exceptions on 
a variety of technical grounds, the principal of which were the follow- 
ing: — Because the presentment did not recite that information of the 
offence had been first given in writ-ing to the Standing Committee, by a 
member of the Church. Because it did not set forth that upon the said 
information having been given to said Committee, they proceeded to a 
preliminary consideration of the case before making said presentment, 
and then saw fit in their discretion to make said presentment. Because 
the said presentment and preliminary consideration thereto (if any such 
consideration was had) ought to have been made by the clerical mem- 
bers of the Standings Committee ; whereas the same purported to have 
been made (if said consideration was had at all) by the whole Standing 
Committee, a majority of whose quorum might be laymen. Because it 
did not in any of the charges and specifications thereunder, specify the 
offences of which the ac.used was charged, with reasonable certainty as to 

246 Foreign and Colonial Intelligence. 

time, or place, or circumstances. Because the nature of some of the chaigA' 
were of a kind over which the Court had no jnrisdictioti. After a coa^ 
siderahle discussion the Court decided in favour of the exceptions, sat 
the presentment thus fell to the ground. Mr. Prescott then applieAt 
through his counsel, for leave to read a short responsive statement oi 
the merits of the question ; hut this the Court refused. The statemelil 
intended to he read by Mr. Prescott, and since transmitted to the 
Bishop, is to the following effect : — 

" In the name of God, Amen ! I, Oliver S. Prescott, Presbyter of 
the Diocese of Massachusetts, now under presentment by the Standing 
Committee of said Diocese, for trial, for violation by word and deed of 
my ordination vows, do solemnly declare, that I ' willingly subscribe to 
the Word of God, attested in the everlasting Scriptures — to all the 
Primitive Creeds — to the four General Councils — and to the common 
judgment of the Fathers for six hundred years after Christ ; ' I own my- 
self bound by the following declaration : * I do believe the Holy Scrip- 
tures of the Old and New Testament to be the Word of God, and to 
contain all things necessary to salvation ; and I do solemnly engage to 
conform to the doctrine and worship of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in the United States.* I acknowledge my duty of obedience to 
the Right Reverend Fathers, the Bishops of said Church, as the 
supreme authority therein, and the sole representative to me of the 
Catholic Church of God. To her have I devoted myself, body, soul^ 
and spirit, and am still devoted. In her I am willing to live, in her I 
desire to die, with no other preparation than worthily receiving the Body 
and Blood of Christ which she dispenses. Haply I may err in trifles, 
but an heretic or an apostate, by the grace of God, I can and will never 
be. If one year of quietness and peace in believing, and four of prepa- 
ration for the Sacred Priesthood, to which I believe myself * inwardly 
moved by the Holy Ghost,* and * truly called, according to the will oi 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Canons of this Church;* and if three 
years of active service in this office, be not a sufficient refutation of the 
charge that my life during that time has been a deception and a lie, 
studiously followed before the face of God and man without an object 
or effect, unless it be the service of the father of lies, I know not how 
one can be furnished by a mere declaration, or even a solemn oath. 
Yet I would give my asseveration, and invoke the sacred name of God, 
and call my life for the eight years last past to witness to the truth of 
this declaration." 

Bisiiop Onderdonk. — An arrangement has been made for the publi- 
cation of a selection from the works of Dr. Onderdonk, with a view to 
his benefit, in two octavo volumes. The communications which hav6 
passed on the subject, show the strong feeling which is entertained in 
favour of the Bishop by his friends in the diocese. The originators of 
the design, in their application on the subject to the Bishop, say : — 

" Your friends in this Diocese cannot forget the valuable instruction 
and the high gratification which they received from your Sermons, yoat 
Episcopal Charges, and other compositions, while you had the care at 

Fi^reign and Colonial Intelligence. 247 

%ke Church in this State. Their recollection of this benefit heightens 
4ie regret ^hich they feel at the present moment, that you have not 
liearestorid to the exercise of your functions, in compliance with the 
Ipeorded whh of the Diocesan Convention, and at their being thus de- 
jrired for some further time of the profit of hearing you in the public 
lenrices of the Church. 

" In reflecting upon this subject, it has occurred to the undersigned, 

tbt tbey may alleviate this loss to themselves, to their families, and to 

Ike public, if they can prevail upon you to publish an edition of such of 

nor sermons and works as you shall think best calculated to supply to 

9iem the want of your personal ministrations. Wc are of opinion that 

Mich a publication will have the further effect of raising your already 

ffiinent reputation as a preacher and theologian ; and it will give us 

great pleasure, if you accede to our wish, to see that the work shall not 

involve you in pecuniary loss, and to endeavour to make it also the 

lource of some indemnity to you, for a part of the inconvenience you 

kive sustained for several years from not receiving any professional 


The Bishop, in his reply, assures them of his deep gratitude for the 
kind manner in which they have adverted to his position and affairs. 

Perversion to Popery. — The New York Churchman introduces the 
bet of a perversion which has recently taken place, and is likely to be 
followed by others, with the following indignant comments : — " We 
learn from the Freeman* t Journal that the Rev. F. £. White, of this 
diocese, has violated his ordination vows by uniting himself with the 
Koman schism in this country. Mr. White had no pastoral charge at 
the time of his perversion, but officiated in St. Luke's church for some 
time after the secession of its late rector. The same paper states that 
tkere are some other clergymen of the Church who are prepared to fol< 
low this sad example. We suppose they will do so when they fnl 
^ convenient. Probably these were among the dutiful Protestants who 
congratulated Archbishop Hughes on his accession to his new dignity, 
as he himself states. Why are not the names forthcoming ? It might 
Benre to accelerate their steps, either forwards or backwards. It would 
at least be more manly and honourable than the present course of dis- 
affection and treachery sketched by the Papist organ." 

The Standing Committee of the Diocese of New York, in which Mr. 
White last officiated, have made application to the Bishop of New 
Hampshire for a regular sentence of Deposition to be pronounced on 
him, on the ground of his having renounced the ministry of the Church, 
and given information that he had made his submission to the authority 
of the Roman See. 

Election of Bishops, — The Rev. F. H. Rutledge has been elected to 
the See of Florida. Bishop Southgate has declined to accept the 
Bishopric of California, to which he had been elected. 

Church Statistics.— The following data, illustrative of the increase of 
the Episcopal Church in the United States, are given by the Banner of 
ike Cross. In 1800, that Church had 7 Bishops, with 220 Clergymen; 

248 Foreign and Colonial Intelliffenee, 

in 1819, 18 Bishops, with 281 Clergymen; now the numbers are 32 
Bishops, with 1589 Clergymen. 

The Romish Church, — The Prefect of the Propaganda has informed 
the Archbishop of Baltimore of the approbation given by the Pope and 
the Sacred College to the decrees of the Council recently held at Balti- 
more, and especially to the measures following : — The erection of new 
provinces, together with the designation of the suffragans, as yrcll 
for the new Archiepiscopal Sees as for the Archiepiscopal See of St. 
Louis, previously existing ; the erection of new Sees in the cities of 
Savannah, Wheeling, and St. Paul's, Minesota ; and the appointment to 
the See of Monterey, in California, of Father Joseph Alemany, who has 
already been consecrated at Rome. In pursuance of this increased 
organization, the Romish hierarchy in the United States is composed 
as follows: — 1. Archbishopric of Baltimore, with the suffragan Sees of 
Philadelphia, Richmond, Charleston, Pittsburgh, Wheeling, and Savan- 
nah. 2. Archbishopric of New Orleans, with the suffragan Sees of 
Mobile, Natchez, Little Rock, and Galveston. 3. Archl^shopric of 
New York, with the suffragan Sees of Boston, Buffalo, Hartford, and 
Albany. 4. Archbishopric of St. Louis, with the suffragan Sees of 
Nashville, Dubuque, Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul's. 5. Arch- 
bishopric of Cincinnati, with the suffragan Sees of Louisville, Detroit, 
Cleveland, and Vincennes. 6. Archbishopric of Oregon city, with the 
suffragan Sees of Walla WalJa, Nesqualy, Fort Hall, and Colville. 
There are, besides, the See of Monterey in Upper California, and two 
Apostolic Vicariates of New Mexico and of the territory east of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

The South Carolinian states that the newly-elected Romish Bishop 
of California is charged, in addition to his spiritual duties, with the 
duty of examining and exhibiting the titles of the old Jesuit property 
in California, with a view to lay claim to one hundred and fifty millions 
of dollars* worth of land, as the property of the early Jesuit missionaries 
in that country. 

West Indies. — Diocese of Barbados, — Establishment of an EccU' 
siastical Board, — The Bishop of Barbados has established in his Dio- 
cese an Ecclesiastical Board, for the purpose of conference and consul- 
tation on matters affecting the external well-being and efiiciency of the 
Church. The Board consists of the Bishop and the eleven Rectors, 
includinor the Archdeacon, with a Lay Deputy from each Parish, chosen 
by the Vestry, the Chancellor of the Diocese, and a Magistrate, , nomi- 
nated by the Governor as the representative of the Queen ; every mem- 
ber of the Board being necessarily a communicant of the Church. 
Although the resolutions of the Board are not in law binding upon the 
Rectors or Vestries, still much good is expected to arise from the dis- 
cussion of the various questions affecting the efficiency of the Church. 
Two meetings have already been held by the Board : one in February, 
the other in September of last year, the principal subject for considera- 
tion being, at the former meeting, education ; at the latter, Church 
extension , The future meetings vrVW laVe "^\«i^^ m "ivxw^ ^\i^ \^^<s.^mber, 
as being the seasons of the year most <roTi\^metv\. Iot \\i^^\«\jci^^. 



JUNE, 1851. 

Art. I. — 1. Entire Alaoluiion of the Penitent. A Sermon 
preached be/ore the University of Oxford. By the Rev, E. B. 


2. The Church of England leaves her Children free to whom to 
open their Griefs. A Letter to the Bev. W. U. Richards. By 
the Rev. E. B. Pdsey, D.D. 

3. A Letter to the Bishop of London. By Dr. Pdsey' 

4. A few Comments on Dr. Ptisey'^s Letter to the Bishop ofLonchn. 
By William Dodswobth, M.A. 

5. Renewed Easplanations^ in consequence of Mr. Dodsworth'*s 
Comments. By Dr. Pusey. 

6. Further Comments on Dr. Pusey'*s Renewed Explanation. By 
William Dodsworth, M.A. 

7. Auricular Confession. A Sermon^ toith Notes^ and an Ap- 
pendix. By W. F. Hook, J9.Z>., Vicar of Leeds. 

In the Pastoral Letter, recently issued to the Clergy of his 
Diocese, the Bishop of Exeter thus introduces a statement re- 
specting the doctrine of the Church of England, as to Confession 
and Absolution : — 

" Why have I deemed it necessary to trespass on your patience 
with this detail of matters, which are, I doubt not, already known to 
you ? Because among the particulars which were the subject of the 
loudest clamour during the late exhibition of rampant Puritanism, this 
power of Absolution, most solemnly given to the Church by our Lord, 
after his resurrection, was assailed with every invective which lawless 
and triumphant ignorance could heap upon all who adhere to the faith 
* once delivered to the saints.' '* 

From a somewhat similar reason, we have determined to 
devote this paper to an examination of the theory of Confession 
and Absolution, as inculcated by Dr. Pusey, in the series of 
writings we have placed at its head. Not, indeed, that any 
mere " exhibition of rampant Puritanism,'' would have led us to 
consider the question at any length, did we not firmly believe also 
that there is a deep-seated feeling of anxiety and alarm prevalent 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXX. — JUNE, 1851. ^ 

250 Spiritual Direction. 

among the soundest members of our own Church on this subject; 
were we not convinced that the time has come, when the in- 
terests of the Church of England imperatively demand that the 
subject, in all its bearings, should be calmly, quietly, and dis- 
passionately discussed ; that it should be distinctly ascertained 
to what the theory and practice of Dr. Pusey and his foUowere 
really extend ; whether there is, in fact, any real and essential 
difference between their teaching and the teaching of the Church 
of Bome, on this most important subject ; whether that teach- 
ing is, or is not, in accordance with the doctrine of the Church 
of England, as that doctrine is embodied in her own authorized 
formularies. The many lamentable examples of perversion to 
the Romish communion, which have lately occurred on the part 
of those who have been notoriously and avowedly putting in 

Eractice the system which Dr. Pusey has, for many years, been 
ibouring to recommend in the English Church, and, especially, 
the wholesale instances of perversion, on the part of those clergy- 
men, who, under Dr. Pusey's own immediate auspices, were 
lately ministering at St. Saviour^s, Leeds, do, as it seems to us, 
render it absolutely necessary that the system itself should be 
carefully and minutely examined ; that we should ascertain whe- 
ther, so far as Confession and Absolution are concerned, per- 
version to Rome is, or is not, the natural, we had almost said the 
inevitable termination, of the principles which, on that subject. Dr. 
Pusey has been inculcating amongst us. There are, indeed, two 
reasons why we enter upon the examination of this subject ^ith 
very great reluctance. The one is, lest we should be supposed, for 
a moment, to do so with any feeling of hostility towards Dr. Pusey 
personally : the other, lest we should be deented to undervalue 
that deep feeling of contrite penitence, and childlike humility, 
which, we sincerely believe. Dr. Pusey labours to build up in the 
souls of all those persons who are, m any way, exposed to his 
influence. With regard to the first point, we will only say, and 
we trust our readers will give us credit for expressing our honest 
and conscientious conviction, that, without the slightest personal 
acquaintance with him, we entertain for Dr. Pusey personally 
the very highest respect. We sincerely believe that ne has in 
his teaching " desired \'' to use his own words, "honestly to carry 
out the principles and mind of the Church of England." We 
believe that he has been actuated by a single desire to win soub 
to Chkist ; that his aim has been "simply to exercise, in obe- 
dience to the Church, ' the office and work of a priest, com- 
mitted unto him by the imposition of the bishop^s h^ds,^ for the 

> Letter to Bishop of London, p. 2. 

Spiritual Direction, 251 

relief of those souls who came to him for that end *.'*' We believe 
that he has never had the slightest wish to desert himself, or to 
induce others to desert, the communion of the Church of Eng- 
land. But we believe also, or this paper would never have 
been written, that Dr. Pusey has not seen, in its entirety, the 
practical bearing of his own system. We think, moreover, that 
that system, as he has himself developed it, is practically iden- 
tical with that of the Romish Church, and altogether contrary to 
the mind and intention of the Church of England ; therefore is 
it, and therefore only, that we purpose to examine minutely into 
its details. With regard to the second point, we will only say 
this ! If we thought that Confession, as inculcated by Dr. Pusey, 
were essential to the growth and the well-being of the inward 
q^iritual life, — if we thought that the practice of Confession, as 
a rule of life, were recommended by the authorized formularies of 
the English Church, no consideration whatever should induce us 
to say one word on this subject in opposition to Dr. Pusey. 
But we do not think so. We believe, rather, that Dr. Pusey's 
system, legitimately carried out, does, undoubtedly, tend to make 
Auricular Confession the rule, and not the exception, believing 
also that the Church of England makes it the exception, and not 
the rule. We believe, moreover, that the Church of England, 
while making Auricular Confession the exception, and not the 
rule, does yet afford the fullest opportunity, does yet supply the 
fullest materials, for the most unfeigned humility, the deepest 
contrition, the most abiding penitence. It is because of this con- 
viction, that we have determined to examine at length, to enter 
minutely into, the question of Spiritual Direction; to 
consider whether it is the mind and intention of the Church of 
England that every one of her baptized children should, habi- 
tually, use Confession to a priest, as a means of grace, for the 
sake of obtaining the benefit of Absolution. This,, in fact, is 
the real question at issue. It is not, whether our spiritual 
Mother " allows ^^ the use of Confession ; not, whether she 
'* recommends ^' it to those who cannot " quiet their con- 
sciences "*"* without it; but whether she regards it as a means 
of grace to be used, habitually^ by all earnest-minded Christians. 
This, we undertake to prov^, is the system of Dr. Pusey, carried 
to its fair and legitimate conclusion ; and this, we undertake to 
prove also, is not the system of the Church of England. 

We do not purpose to enter at any length, further than is ne- 
cessary to the due elucidation of our subject, into the questions 
between Messrs. Allies, Maskell, and Dodsworth, on the one 

* Letter to Bishop of London, p. 2. 

■ s 2 

252 Spiritual Direction. 

hand, and Dr. Pusey on the other, which gave rise to the publi- 
cations which head this paper ; suffice it to say, briefly, with regard 
to the two former gentlemen, that, shortly before their perversion 
to Rome, they addressed to Dr. Pusey the following question: 
" Has the Church of England left the power of the keys unre- 
strained in the hands of her presbyters, so that they may use it 
freely for all who come to unburthen their griefs to them V* 

In this is involved the further question, ^' Has the Church of 
England the right to leave the power of absolving, freely in the 
hands of her presbyters, without restricting them V 

In answer to these questions Dr. Pusey has proved to de- 
monstration, in his letter to Mr. Richards, that the Church of 
England does leave, and has a right to leave, '^ her children free 
to whom to open their griefs ;**' in other words, that she fully 
allows the practice of confession to any of her children, who €<Mr 
not quiet their consciences without iY, and moreover that any priest 
of our communion is at liberty to confess and to absolve all those 
who have recourse to his ministiy. Such is briefly the history of 
Dr. Pusey''s letter to Mr. Upton Richards. With regard to Mr. 
Dodsworth, the case stands thus : After the delivery of the Gor- 
ham judgment, Mr. Dodsworth was very earnest in his endeavours 
to obtain some emphatic declaration, on the part of the Church of 
England, with respect to the doctrine of Regeneration in Holy 
Baptism ; such a declaration, in fact, as should drive out of the 
Church all those who difiered from him. Finding that Dr. Pusey, 
with that charity and kindly feeling to which we gladly bear t^ 
timony, was not disposed to have recourse to this extreme measure, 
Mr. Dodsworth addresses to him a letter, in which he charges 
Dr. Pusey with acting on this question in direct opposition to all 
his former teaching on the subject of Sacramental Grace; in 
which he asserts that Dr. Pusey had " encouraged every where, 
if not enjoined Auricular Confession ;^' had taught " the pro- 
pitiatory sacrifice of the Holy Eucharist as applicatory of the one 
Sacrifice of the Cross f ' had recommended the use of crucifixes, 
and divers other practices, which were not a little startling to the 
minds of all sober members of the Church of England. This 
statement of Mr. Dodsworth was noticed by the Bishop of Lon- 
don in his Charge of 1850, whereupon Dr. Pusey, having, if we 
mistake not, been previously urged by the Bishop of Oxford to do 
so, published a " Defence of his own principles '' in a letter to the 
first-named bishop. Mr. Dodsworth replies to this letter ; where- 
upon Dr. Pusey puts forth his " Renewed Explanation in con- 
sequence of Mr. Dodsworth'^s Comments.'^ 

With regard to Mr. Dodsworth's share in this matter, we 
think it right to make one or two brief remarks, A very 

Spiritual Direction. 253 

strong feeling of indignation was excited against that gentle- 
man on the appearance of his letter to Dr. Pusey. That 
letter was considered, whether rightly or wrongly we do not 
presume to say, but at all events it was considered, in nearly all 
Larte,^, as l piece of petty spite against his former leiier. 
because Dr. Pusey did not choose to follow Mr. Dodsworth 
in his crusade against the Evangelical party. Mr. Dodsworth 
thinks this very unreasonable. He labours very hard to prove 
that, so far from wishing to attach any stigma to Dr. Pusey in 
the eyes of all sound English Churchmen, he was really only 
anxious to do him a very great service ; that he simply wished to 
hold him ^^ to a consistent course of conduct ' f ^ that he ^' made 
the statement originally, and still adheres to it, not as in its lead* 
iog features disparaging to Dr. Pusey, but, as to his honour.^^ 
The " Dublin Review " of last April, in an article from which we 
diall have occasion to quote hereafter, thus speaks on this point : — 

" Mr. Dodsworth is, we are satisfied, too kind and amiable a man to 
have any thought of what is commonly called * showing up' his friend 
in the eyes of the Protestant public. He meant to state facts, and 
tiiese facts Dr. Pusey has acknowledged. He meant no more, as we 
are bound to understand him, than to contrast Dr. Pusey's apparent 
wavering about the Gorham case, with the known character of his 
teaching and practice.*' 

Now, we have really no wish to judge Mr. Dodsworth unfairly, 
but we must say that it is a little too much to apply the terms 
"kindness^' and "amiability" to his conduct to Dr. Pusey. 
What would the Dublin Reviewer say, if the Bishop of Exeter 
should hereafter state, with regard to his pastoral letter (of which, 
by the way, we deeply regret to be obliged to say that we wish 
it had never been published), that he simply intended to do an 
act of especial kindness to the Archbishop of Canterbury ! All 
we will say is this, that if Mr. Dodsworth did not design to " show 
up'^ his friend, as the Dublin Reviewer says, he might have used 
a less public method of admonition towards him — that if, on the 
other hand, he did intend to do so, he could not, if he had tried 
his hardest, have used means better calculated to attain the end 
he desired. 

But we must say a few words with respect to another ex- 
pression of Mr. Dodsworth, which certainly does seem, upon 
the face of it, of a very singular nature. He insinuates, in a note 
attached to his " Comment on Dr. Pusey's letter,'' that Dr. Pusey 
did actually countenance a more stringent declaration with respect 
to Holy Baptism, in consequence of Mr. Dodsworth's first 

9 Comments, &c. p. 1. 

254 /Spiritual Directian. 

** friendly"^ letter to him. Dr. Pusey clearly enough shows th» 
not to have been the case, but with that we have obviously nothing 
to do. We merely allude to the matter for the purpose of draw- 
ing attention to the following strange assertion of Mr, Dodsworth, 
He says, 

" Had Dr. Pusey used this strong language from the first, a dif- 
ferent result might (sic) have followed from the united efforts of High 
Churchmen. As it was, happily, as 1 must now think it. Dr. Pusey's 
retractation or change of opinion came too late to be of any effect." 

Now, if these words mean any thing, they must mean this ; that, 
if Dr. Pusey had been content, in conjunction with Mr. Dods- 
worth, to anathematize all who differed from him, Mr. Dodsworth 
mighty quod cHctu foddma est, have still been a member of the 
Church of England. Now, let it be remembered that, bef&re 
publishing these " Comments,^' Mr. Dodsworth had subscribed 
the creed of Pope Pius IV., had been received into the bosom of 
the so-called Catholic Church, and, Hke all the recent converts of 
any note, with one bright exception, had done his best to vilify 
the Church of England, by the publication of a pamphlet called 
" Anglicanism in its Results,'^ to which we may possibly allude 
somewhat more at length, in our next number. What fmist we 
think of the common honesty, or the common discernment, of a 
man who, situated as Mr. Dodsworth then was, could make such 
an assertion as that on which we comment? Mr. Dodsworth, if 
Dr. Pusey had been, on one subject, a little more decided, " mighf^ 
still have been a member of the Church of England! — of that 
Church which has, according to his own showing, no priesthood, no 
sacraments, no spiritual character, no any thing which, as Mr. Dodsr 
worth imagines, is a mark or note of the true Church of Christ ! 
Surely the alternative is obvious. If Mr. Dodsworth can assert, 
after the publication of " Anglicanism in its Results,^' that he 
" mighf have been still a member of the Church of England, we are 
driven, in consequence of that publication, to one of two conclusions 
— either Mr, Dodsworth would have remained in our communion, 
as a dishonest man, or else he can now be very insufficiently 
qualified to give any opinion on the merits of the controversy 
between the two Churches. We leave Mr. Dodsworth to exphin 
this statement as he best can. Until he does explain it, any 
candid mind can, we imagine, think very little of his value, as a 
pervert to Romanism ; can attach very little importance to any 
attack it may please him to make upon the Church of England. 

But it is time, that, leaving the consideration of Mr. Dods- 
worth'^s conduct, we return to the subject we propose to investi- 
gate in this paper. We shall endeavour to show first, to what 

Spiritual Direction. 255 

extent the writings of Dr. Pusey show that he inculcates the 
practice of Auricular Confession. Sec(HidIy, we shall inquire 
whether Dr. Pusey^s teaching is in accordance with the doctrine 
of the Church of England ; and then, thirdly, how far the use of 
Confession to a Priest, as a means of grace, is encouraged by the 
teaching of Holy Scripture, and by the teaching and practice of 
the Primitive Church. 

We need hardly remind our readers, what is the doctrine of 
the Church of Borne with respect to Auricular Confession. The 
Council of Lateran, in 1215, laid down the following rule, '^ That 
all the faithful of both sexes should, as soon as they come to 
years of discretion, faithfully confess all their sins in private, at 
least once a year, to their own priest:" while it was deqreed by 
the Council of Trent, that, " to confess to a priest, all and every 
mortal sin, which after diligent inquiry we remember, and every 
evil thought or desire, and the circumstances which change the 
nature of the sin, is necessary for the remission of sins, and of 
divine institution ; and he that denies this is to be anathema." 
Here, at least, the doctrine is laid down in terms unmistakably 
clear. Let us now proceed to examine whether there is any dif- 
ference in fact between the theories of Dr. Pusey and the Church 
of Rome with respect to Confession. It may be well, however, 
first to state, to avoid any mistake on so important a point, how 
far we go along with Dr. Pusey with respect to the doctrine of 
Sacerdotal Absolution. Our difference with him is not as to the 
doctrine itself, but simply as to its practical appUcation. 

" We," to use his own words, ** believe in common, that the power 
to absolve from sin in Christ's name, is given to all priests through 
their ordination. We believe that this power is committed to them by 
Christ himself, through the imposition of the bishop's hands with the 
words, * Receive the Holy Ghost for the office and work of a priest in 
the Church of God, now committed unto thee, by the imposition of our 
hands. Whose sins thou dost forgive they are forgiven, and whose sins 
thou dost letain they are retained.' We believe also that the power of 
excommunicating, or absolving from excommunication, is reserved for 
the highest order only. We believe, that on full confession of all the 
sins that burthen the conscience, with true repentance, the priest may, 
by Christ's authority committed unto him, absolve the penitent from all 
his sins in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost ; and that what he looses on earth is loosed in heaven^." 

Thus far there can be no difference of opinion between those 
who are content to take the formularies of our Church in their 
natural sense. But here we must stop in our agreement with 

* Letter to Mr. Richards, p. 7« 

256 Spiritual Direction. 

Dr. Pusey, Unless we have grievously mistaken the tenor of Mb? 
writings on this subject, there is no one class of persons to whom 
he would not recommend the habitual use of Confession as, nexl 
to the reception of the Holy Eucharist, one of the very highest 
means of grace. We believe, most fully, that to no one does he 
" enjoin'' Confession ; we believe, equally, that there is no one to 
whom he would not strenuously recommend its habitual use. Let 
us see how far Dr. Pusey's own writings bear out this view of the 
case. He says: — 

" I could not enjoin what the English Church leaves free. I recom- 
mended it in my University Sermons to those who felt that their caie 
needed it'," 

The question, then, obviously is, who are they, who, in Dr. 
Pusey's judgment, ought " to feel that their case needed itT 

Let us examine this question. In his sermon, " Entire Abso- 
lution of the Penitent,'' the following words occur : 

" The object of this sermon is the reli/«»&n)f individual penitents. 
Consciences are burtbened. There is a provision on the part of God 
in his Church to relieve them." 

Again : 

" They cannot estimate their own repentance and faith. God has 
provided physicians of the soul, to relieve and judge for those who 
• open their griefs* to them"." " Yet such," he says, ** are not the only 
cases to which the provisions of our Church directly apply. She ex- 
plicitly contemplates another class, tender consciences, who need com- 
fort and peace, and reassurance of the favour of their heavenly Father. 
For (blessed be God) there are those who feel the weight of any slight 
sin, more than others do * whole cartloads:* and who do derive comfort 
and strength from the special application of the power of the keys to 
their own consciences.** 

He then refers to the well-known words of our Communion 
Service, and thus continues : 

" What minister of Christ then should take upon himself to drive 
away * his lambs,* as if persons were to have less of the ministry of 
comfort, the less they had offended God? As if any thing ought, in 
the estimation of the Christian minister, to be of slight account, which 
disturbs the peaceful mirror of the soul wherein it reflects God," 

Now, in order to estimate the full force of these very solemn 
words, and we trust our readers will give us credit for approaching 
the consideration of this subject with a deep feeling of respect for the 
earnest love of souls which dictated them, we must place in juxta- 
position to them a passage from Dr. Pusey's letter to Mr. Richwds. 

•* All ^" he says, " who have any experience in Confession, know 
« Letter to Mr. Richards, p. 6. « Ibid. p. ^, f p. 70. 

Spiritual Direction. 257 

lat tbe minds of many are as much disquieted by those slighter sins, 
rhich are called ' veniaJ,' as others are by those called ' deadly ' sins. 
?hey will frequently be a suhject of Confession, and are a legitimate 
abject of Confession among us also, for the Church, in her exhorta- 
ion, invites all who cannot quiet their conscience. They will often be. 
If the soul grows in grdce, the only sins to he confessed* Yet the soul 
jrows in grace through their Confession, The power of the keys is 
fxercised as to these also ; and God does give grace on its use '.'* 

Now the first thing which strikes us in these two passages is 
the meaning which Dr. Pusey would attach to the word " Peni- 
tent." Doubtless, in one sense, all Christian men must be peni- 
tents, and, doubtless, also, the more the spiritual life is built up, 
sind confirmed, and strengthened within them, the deeper will be, 
day by day, their penitential sorrow for past sin. But surely 
these are not the class of persons to whom, in its strictest sense, 
the word penitent ought to be applied. Surely, at least, it was 
not so in the Primitive Church. We know perfectly well who 
were there meant by the " Penitents." They were not persons 
whose consciences were disquieted by those sins of infirmity to 
which all men, as long as they are '* burthened by the infirmity 
of the flesh,'' must ever be subject, but rather persons who, in 
consequence of some sin of a grave character, were debarred 
from communion with the faithful, until they were restored, after 
a long course of penitence, by public Confession and by public 
Absolution. But now, obviously, the penitent, to whom Dr. 
Pusey alludes, will be very frequently such, in a very different 
sense indeed to the penitent of the early Church, and, as we 
firmly believe, taking the word in its strictest sense, of Holy 
Scripture. The penitent, according to Dr. Pusey, will be every 
one^ who feels himself burthened with a consciousness of sin. To 
every one^ who does so feel. Dr. Pusey holds up Confession to a 
priest, and Absolution at his hands, as one of the greatest means 
of comfort and consolation. But now surely the grand doctrine 
of Holy Scripture and of the Church of Christ is, that all men, 
however high may be their attainments in holiness, are daily 
sinning, and " coming short of the glory of God ;'' that all men, 
even the greatest saints, do daily commit " sins of thought, word, 
and deed against the Divine Majesty,'' and therefore surely it is 
evident, that, according to Dr. Pusey, the use of Confession to a 
priest, as a means of grace, must be, in its practical application, 
absolutely unlimited. If the power of the keys, in Confession 
and Absolution, ought to be applied to all individually who feel 
their consciences burthened by sin, of whatever character, and if 
this mtist be the case with all true Christians, and the more so 

' The italics are ours. 

258 Spiritual Direction. 

the hiflrher they advance in spiritual attainments, then surely \i 
will follow, as the only legitimate conclusion, that all true Chris- 
tians are bound, as they value their souFs health, to have recourse 
to Auricular Confession, in order that they may receive the bene- 
fit of individual Priestly Absolution, 

But, moreover, Dr. Pusey tells us, that the Church of England, 
in her exhortation, when notice is given of the Holy Communion, 
" explicitly contemplates another class, tender consciences, who 
need comfort, and peace, and reassurance of the favour of their 
heavenly Father." To these is Confession especially salutary, as 
a means of grace. Now we beg to ask, who are they who, being 
Christians indeed, do not come under this category ? Can there 
be one man living, having any knowledge of his own condition as 
a guilty sinner in God"'s sight, having any desire and yearning for 
God"'s love and favour, who does not, daily and hourly, need 
" comfort, and peace, and reassurance of the favour of his 
heavenly Father C who does not long for a daili/ assurance that 
God is to him, personally and individually, a " reconciled Father 
in Christ Jesus V Well then, if this be so, surely it will follow 
again, that all such persons, in other words, all sincere Christians, 
act most rashly and unadvisedly, who do not, according to Dr. 
Pusey, have habitual recourse to Auricular Confession, as one of 
the most direct means of obtaining comfort and peace of mind. 
Therefore do we say, that, even from the passages we have now 
quoted, and, did time allow, they might be multiplied tenfold, 
the theory of Dr. Pusey with respect to spiritual direction is 
briefly as follows : A " Physician of souls '' is provided for the 
relief of " penitents,**' and " tender consciences.'*'* Inasmuch then 
as all true Christians are penitents ; inasmuch as the consciences 
of all such will necessarily be tender ; therefore, for all true Chris- 
tians does the Church provide a Physician of souls, and the re- 
medy he administers is Auricular Confession, and special, per- 
sonal, Absolution. 

And now that we have clearly shown the universality of Dr. 
Pusey ""s theory with regard to Confession, let us see, in the next 
place, whether his practice, so far as that practice can be gathered 
from the writings before us, is coextensive with it. That Dr. 
Pusey does not in terms "enjoin'*' Confession we are quite sure, 
but that he does so represent its value, 2^ practically to enjoin it, 
we have no doubt whatever. In other words, to state our mean- 
ing as broadly as possible, we are quite convinced that, were Dr. 
Pusey a parish priest, there would not be a single person in his 
parish, provided he steadily acted up to, and practically carried 
out. Dr. Pusey '*s teaching and ministerial guidance, who would 
not, habitually, and systematically, use Confession, either to Dr. 


Spiritual Directum. 259 

Pusey himself or to '^ some other '^ priest of the Anglican Church. 

liBt vs then endeavour to substantiate this position, premising 

that we are not now, in any wise, considering whether Dr. Pusey'^s 

teaching and practice on this subject be right or wrong, be, or be 

not, in accordance with the mind and intention of the English 

Church, but simply, what is the real nature, the actual extent, of 

that teaching, as it is carried out in practical operation. We 

will quote, in the first place, a passage from the letter to Mr. 

Bichards : — 

'* In their plain and natural sense •/* says the writer, " the words, 
* Let him come to me, or unto some other discreet and learned minis- 
ter of God's Word,' do (as all must have felt, and as we have all shown by 
our actions, whether in confessing or in receiving confessions \) leave it 
quite open to any of us to choose whom we think best fitted for our 

own case." 

Now be it remembered that Dr, Pusey is writing to a priest of 
the English Church, at the request of certain other prieste, and 
in so doing he states that they have. a// practically carried out 
their view of the exhortation in our Communion Service, by 
having recourse to special Confession to a priest. Who can 
doubt, for a moment, that every one brought within the sphere of 
their influence, would, by their distinct and explicit recommenda- 
tion, have recourse to the same method of obtaining comfort and 
consolation i 

Again, in discussing the question whether " bishops and clergv 
were allowed by the positive law to choose their own confessor, ** 
Dr. Pusey proves, clearly enough, according to the practice of the 
Bomish Church, the afiirmative of the position, and then he adds : — 

" Much more may we, priests or laymen, submit ourselves, for the 
time, to those to whom, as ministers of God, we lay open the wounds 
of our souls ^" 

Again he says : — 

" But bishops are not limited to their own priests, nor is this even 
suggested by the decretal. If the bishop were to confess to another 
bishop (and surely it would be" — not, observe, would have been, but 
Would be — ** nothing strange, that a bishop should use Confession to 
another), he would be submitting himself to one to whom he could in 
no way give jurisdiction ; and who, of himself, had none over him." 

We quote this passage as proving, when taken in connexion 
with those already quoted, that, according to Dr. Pusey, no one, no 
class, no individual, from the humblest " penitent,'' using the word 

• Letter to Mr. Richards, pp. 17> 18' 

* It may be well to state that the italics are our own, unless where otherwise 

' Letter to Mt. Richards, p. 38. 

260 Spiritual Direction. 

in its strictest sense, to the greatest saint, from the lowest minister 
about holy things, to those who sit in the highest places as ^^ over- 
seers of the flock of God,"*^ ought so far to undervalue his spiritual 
privileges, as to neglect the habitual use of special Confession to a 
priest, as one of the greatest means of grace. 

But there is one case to which, on this point, we must refer 
more at length, because it illustrates, still more precisely, Dr. 
Pusey^s teaching and practice. Perhaps we had better give the 
statement of the matter as it appears in Mr. Dodsworth'^s ^^ Com- 
ments on Dr. Pusey'^s Letter to the Bishop of London.^ Mr. 
Dodsworth is endeavouring to do that which, — we are sorry to be 
obliged to say so in connexion with Mr. Dodsworth — we are also 
doing, viz. to prove the universality of Dr. Pusey^s teaching and 
practice with respect to Confession. He says : — 

'' Dr. Pusey and I had been associated together in the establishment 
of a Sisterhood of Mercy ; and it was certainly an understood thing, 
though not absolutely enforced, that the Sisters should use Confession ; 
as they all^ in fact, do*,*' 

Now, what is Dr. Pusey'^s answer to this statement ! He says, 

" I am quite sure that the accurate statement would have been, 
' we certainly anticipated that the Sisters would use Confession ' (sic). 
This, certainly, I did anticipate. From my experience as to the class 
of minds likely to be drawn by the grace of God, to devote themselves 
to the service of Christ in his poor, / could not doubt thai the same 
minds would most probably be drawn to Confession, I should expect 
this of any institution formed by any one in the English Church, 
which (on whatever principle it was established) should propose as its 
end and aim, to serve Christ himself in his poor and sick. / should 
expect that it would either melt away, or that its members would sooner 
or later, one by one, come to use Confession, But I should think it 
wrong to aid in forming a society in which it should be * an implied and 
understood thing,' that the members * should use Confession^.'" 

And then Dr. Pusey goes on to protest against any further 
allusion to the practice of these Sisters of Mercy, He says, 

" Confession being, amongst us, a voluntary act, ought to be held 
sacred; and no one has, I think, a right to publish to the world, 
whether ladies, who have retired from the world to serve Christ in his 
poor, do or do not use Confession. It, as well as every other circum- 
stance of their devotional life, is sacred between God and their own 

It may be well, before commenting on this passage, to give 
Mr. Dodsworth's further reply to it. He says . 

" I feel bound, reluctantly, to state the grounds upon which I made 
' Comments, &c. p. 6. * Renewed Explanations, p. 21. 

Spiritual Direction, 261 

de original assertion, ' by encouraging every where, if not ei^oining, 
Auricular Confession.' I had then the following circumstance in my 
xnind. Soon after the establishment of the Sisterhood of Mercy in my 
late parish, a young woman came to the house with the view of being 
admitted as a ' lay* or ' serving* sister. On my calling to see her soon 
after her arrival, she told me at once she could not stay, because from a 
conversation which she had had with Dr. Pusey, she found that she would 
be required to use Confession ; and under this impression, she actually 
left the institution. Dr. Pusey tells me that he does not remember this 
case ; but it made too vivid an impression on my mind to be easily 
efiaced. I can only place my recollection, which is as clear and distinct 
as if the circumstance had occurred yesterday, against his. Again, in 
the original rules drawn up for the Sisterhood, under which they lived 
for some time, and which were read over every week in the community, 
there was a rule, a copy of which is now before me, * on Confession.' 
It begins as follows, * Whenever you use Confession, make your pre- 
paration as follows, &c.**** 

Now, there are two observations suggest themselves with refer- 
enee to this question. It does, in the first place, seem to us 
absolutely inconceivable, how Dr. Pusey, with a knowledge of 
these facts before him, could possibly object to Mr. Dodsworth's 
statement, that he had " encouraged everywhere, if not enjoined, 
Auricular Confession.^' Leaving the " serving sister'' out of the 
question, let us take the case as Dr. Pusey himself puts it. A 
Sisterhood of Mercy is founded, consisting of ladies who desired 
" to serve Christ in his poor," by devoting themselves to wbrks of 
charity and mercy. Of this Sisterhood Dr. Pusey says empha- 
tically, " we certainly anticipated that the Sisterhood would use 
Confession." He says, moreover, " I should expect that any 
such institution would either melt away, or that Its members 
would sooner or later, one by one, come to use Confession." 
Then, further, distinct rules for Confession are drawn up, which 
rules are read over every week in the community. And yet, with 
marvellous inconsistency. Dr. Pusey adds, " But I should think 
it wrong to aid in forming a society in which it should be ^ an 
implied and understood thing' that the members should use Con- 
fession." Now we do not wish for a single moment to charge 
Dr. Pusey with wilful misrepresentation, but we must say, that, 
if ever there was a case in which any thing was *' implied and 
understood," using these words in their ordinary sense, then was 
it " an understood and implied thing," that these Sisters of Mercy 
should use Confession. 

Dr. Pusey states, again, that he did not " enjoin " Confession. 
We fully believe it, as he says so ; but, surely, there is such a 

^ Further Comments^ &c. p. 4. 

262 Spiritual Direction. 

thing as moral force, and moral compulsion. As Mr. Dodsworft 
very truly observes, " I might be of opiuion that a course of advice 
amounts in effect to the enjoining of the practice, which he 
thinks no more than an encouragement to it.^^ 

But then comes the further question. Ought not Dr. Pusey, ac- 
cording to his own showing, to have enjoined Confession upon these 
Sisters of Mercy? He wishes to establish a certain institution; 
he thinks that every one who joins it, will, in time, use Confession; 
he thinks that if Confession be not used, the institution must fall 
to the ground : and, moreover, one of the rules of the institution 
itself is, how Confession should be used. Surely, then, the more 
straightforward course would have been to have said in terms, 
that which really was the case practically, that the use of Con- 
fession to a priest should be one of the fundamental conditions of 
joining the institution. 

But we must notice, secondly. Dr. Pusey's very singular 
sensitiveness as to the practice of these Sisters of Mercy, with 
respect to Confession. Mr. Dodsworth has put this point very 
forcibly. He says ", — 

" Before I leave this subject of Confession, I must say that I 
cannot understand how Dr. Pusey can esteem it a betrayal of con- 
fidence, simply to state the fact that the Sisters do use Confes- 
sion. Is it not, according to his own showing, an excellent and 
edifying practice ; nay, and essential, in his view, to the very existence 
of such an institution ? Can it, then, be wrong to have stated that 
this practice, essential to its permanence, is to be found in the 
institution ? " 

We are sorry to be obliged to say, that we fully agree with 
Mr. Dodsworth on this point. We beg to ask, would Dr. Pusey 
esteem it a breach of confidence if any one were to state that, in 
an institution founded by him, the Sisters must have been ad- 
mitted into the English Church by the Sacrament of Holy 
Baptism? Would it be a breach of confidence to state that 
they habitually, and at stated intervals, partook of the Holy 
Eucharist? We apprehend that Dr. Pusey would not assert 
this. Inasmuch, then, as we have clearly shown that Dr. Pusey 
regards the habitual use of Confession to a priest as a means of 
grace, second only in value to Baptism, and the Holy Eucharist, 
it surely would redound, according to his own principles, to the 
honour, rather than to the discredit, of the Sisters to state that 
they habitually had recourse to that means of grace which their 
founder so strenuously recommends. The mere fact of Dr. 

• Further Comments, &.c. p. 6. 

Spiritual Direction. 263 

'usey objecting, not, as he might fairly enough have done, to 
Ifie manner, but to the matter, of Mr. Dodsworth's statement, 
especting the Sisterhood, shows, in our judgment, most clearly, 
.hat he has, unwittingly, placed himself in an utterly ialse posi- 
don, with respect to his recommendation of the use of Auricular 

But now we ask our readers, have we, or have we not, proved 
to demonstration the position we set out to establish, that, accord- 
ing to Dr. Pusey, it is sit once the bounden duty and the highest 
interest of every sincere Christian, as he values his spiritual wel- 
fare, to carry out in detail a system of Spiritual Direction, 
differing in no one essential particular, in no practical respect 
whatever, from that of the Roman Church i In other words, to 
use, habitually and systematically. Confession to a priest^ for the 
purpose of obtaining the benefit of Absolution. The details of 
^nfession are, as Mr. Dodsworth asserts, and as Dr. Pusey 
perforce admits, completely identical in the Bomish usage, and 
the usage of Dr. Pusey and his followers. In fact, in his answer 
to Mr. Dodsworth's Comments, Dr. Pusey makes the following 
startling acknowledgment, — an acknowledgment over which Mr. 
Dodsworth does not forget to sing an lo Psean : — 

"/ certainly do believe that the great change which the English 
Church made as to Confession mas, that it ceased to be compulsory. 
Confession, when made, must be made in one and tjjje same way ; only, in 
^ English Church, it is, from beginning to end, voluntary.** 

And this, then, according to Dr. Pusey, was, so far as Auri- 
cular Confession was concerned, the whole and sole result of the 
Reformation ! This it was which alone Bishop Jeremy Taylor, 
and Bramhall, and Usher, and a host of others, laboured to 
establish ! When these great pillars of the English Church 
denounced, as Dr. Pusey knows full well they did deAounce, the 
Romish Confessional, they objected, not to the system of the 
Romish Church, not to the details of that system, but simply to 
its compulsory nature ! They wished to make no alteration 
whatever in the practice, but simply wished to leave it an open 
question, simply a matter of voluntary choice, whether members 
of the English Church should or should not adopt it ! We can 
Only say that we " would not hear the enemy ^' of the Church of 
England make such an assertion, for sure we are that no heavier 
charge could be brought against our Reformers than Dr. Pusey has 
by implication brought against them. All that, forsooth, they and 
the great divines of the seventeenth century did in this point, was 
deliberately to leave it an open question, a matter of free choice, 
whether Christian men should of should not use one of the most 
valued means of grace to which they could possibly have re- 

264 Spiritual Directum. 

course ! As if that Church would not show the greatest loie 
for the souls of her children, which, taking Dr. Pusey'^s view witk 
regard to Confession as the correct view, should not leave i 
a voluntary question, whether so beneficial a practice should or 
should not be universally adopted, but should insist rather upoi k 
aU her children adopting it. In opposition to Dr. Pusey'*s tea<eh- ■- 
ing on this point, we will simply quote the following passage from 
Usher'^s " Answer to a Jesuit,"*^ and then leave our readers i» 
judge whether, in the opinion of Usher, " the great change whiek 
the English Church made as to Confession was, that it ceased 
to be compulsory/' 

'* Be^ it therefore known unto him (the Jesuit) that no kind of Con- 
fession, either public or private, is disallowed by us, that is any way 
requisite for the due execution of that ancient power of the keys which 
Christ bestowed upon his Church. The thing which we now reject, is 
that new picklock of sacramental Confession, obtruded upon men's con- 
sciences, as a matter necessary to salvation, by the canons of the late 
conventicle of Trent, where those good Fathers put their curse upon 
every one that either shall deny that sacramental Confession was o^ 
dained by Divine right, and is by the same right necessary to salvation. 
This doctrine, I say, we cannot but reject, as being repugnant to that 
which we have learned, both from the Scriptures, and from the Fathers. 

*' For in the Scriptures we find, that the confession which the penitent 
sinner maketh to God alone, hath the. promise of forgiveness annexed 
unto it, which no pritst upon earth hath power to make void, upon pre- 
tence that himself or some of his fellows were not first particularly 
acquainted with the business, * I acknowledge my sin unto thee, and | 
mine iniquity have I not hid : I said, I will confess my transgressions • 
unto the Lord ; and thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin.' And the 
poor publican, putting up his supplication in the temple accordingly, 
' God be merci^l to me a sinner,' went back to his house justified, 
without making confession to any other ghostly father, but only the 
Father of Spirits ; of whom St. John giveth us this assurance, that ' if 
we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and 
to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.' Which promise, that it apper- 
tained to such as did confess their sins to God, the ancient Fathers were 
80 well assured of, that they cast in a manner all upon this eonfessmt 
and left Utile or nothing to that which was made unto man. Nay, they 
do not only leave it free for men to confess, or not confess their sins 
unto others, which is the most that we could have ; but some of them 
also seem, in words at least, to advise men not to do it at all, which is 
more than we seek for," 

And now then, let us see how far the view, which Dr. Pusey 
has taken of Auricular Confession, is justified by an appeal to the 

' Quoted by Dr. Hook in Appendix to Auricular Confession, note F. p. 58. 

Spiritual Direction, 265 

athorized formularies of the Church of England. It may be well, 
lerhaps, to state here once for all, that we use the term ^' Auricu- 
ar'*^ in no invidious sense, but simply as the only term which will 
properly express Confession to a priest, in contradistinction to 
Confession to the Almighty. 

Let us then suppose a case. Let us imagine an enlightened 
Soman Catholic, having no knowledge whatever of the Church of 
England system, with no prejudices either for or against it, to sit 
down to the perusal of the writings of Dr. Pusey on the sub- 
ject of Auricular Confession and Absolution. If he reads these 
'writings attentively, the conclusion at which he must arrive will be, 
that Dr. Pusey, professing to act in accordance with the mind 
and intention of the English Church, sets the highest conceivable 
value upon Auricular Confession, as a means of grace ; that he 
asserts in plain terms that there is no difference whatever between 
the doctrine of the two Churches on this point, except that, in 
the one, Confession is voluntary, in the other, compulsory. 

Then let us suppose further that our Romanist, having fully 
ascertained Dr. Pusey ^s mind and intention on this matter, applies 
himself to a careful study of the formularies of the English Church. 
Now what will he expect to find in them, reasoning from the prac- 
tice of his own Church! He finds there Auricular Confession 
inculcated, and practised, as a system. He finds the ^' Confes- 
sional^^ set up m every Church. He finds the priesthood re- 
gularly trained up in all the details of this system. He finds a 
body of divinity, carefully compiled by some of the most eminent 
theologians, for the express guidance of " Confessors,'^ He finds 
" manuals of Confession '^ meeting him at every turn, drawn up with 
the express object that nothing may be omitted, which is essential 
to the use of so important a means of grace. Now, then, what 
will he find corresponding to all this in the system of the Church 
of England i He will find four authorized exponents of that 
system, the Book of Common Prayer, the two Books of Homilies, 
the Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical, and the Thirty-nine 
Articles. He turns then to the Book of Common Prayer as the 
most important of these, and what does he find there ? He finds 
that Confession to a priest is never once mentioned from one end 
of the Prayer Book to the other, except in the Ofiice for the 
Visitation of the Sick, and there only as a hypothetical case, 
where it is said : " Here shall the sick person be moved to make 
a special confession of his sins, if he feel his conscience troubled 
mil any weighty matter^ He finds in the Communion OflBce 
the following sentence : — " And because it is requisite that no 
plan should come to the Holy Communion, but with a full trust 
in God's mercy, and with a quiet conscience ; therefore if there 

VOL. XV. — KO, XXX. — JUNE, 1851. T 

266 Spiritual Direction. 

be any of you who, by this means, cannot quiet his own conscienee 
herein, but requireth further comfort or counsel, let him come to 
me, or to some other discreet and learned minister of Ood's 
Word, and open his grief; that by the ministry of Gt)d*s Holy 
Word he may receive the benefit of Absolution, together with 
ghostly counsel and advice, to the quieting of his conscience, and 
avoiding of all scruple and doubtfulness.''^ 

But now, from the Prayer Book, our inquirer turns to the Homi- 
lies. In the second part of the Sermon on Repentance, he finds 
it specified, that " there be four parts of Eepentance.*" Ist, A 
diligent perusal of the Scriptures ; 2nd, '^ An unfeigned Confession 
and acknowledging of our sins^' — not to the priest, but — " unto 
God.'^ 3rd. Faith in Christ ; and, lastly, A new life. But this 
is not all that he finds in this sermon. He finds an especial 
reference to the practice of the Church of Bome, with respect 
to Confession, which is thus noted in the margin. " Anstoer 
to the adversaries which maintain Auricular Confession^ the re- 
ference itself being as follows : — 

" And whereas the adversaries go about to wrest this place," — allud- 
ing to the well-known passage in St. James — ** for to maintain their 
Auricular Confession withal, they are greatly deceived themselves and do 
shamefully deceive others: for if this text ought to be understood of 
Auricular Confession, then these priests are as much bound to confess 
themselves unto the lay people, as the lay people are bound to confess 
themselves unto them. And if to pray is to absolve, then the laity by 
this place hath as great authority to absolve the priests, as the priests 
have to absolve the laity," — " I do not say," it is added, ** but that, 
if any do find themselves troubled in conscience^ they may repair to their 
learned Curates or Pastors, or to some other learned godly man, and 
show the trouble and doubt of their conscience to them, that they ma^ 
receive at their hand the comfortable salve of God's Word ; but it u 
against the true Christian liberty, that any man should be bound to the 
numbering of his sins, as it hath been used heretofore in the tims ^ 
blindness and ignorance,** 

— in the time, i. e. according to Dr. Pusey, when *' the adversarj/"^ 
did, precisely that which the Church of England does now, 
except only, that she made Confession compulsory ! 

And now let us turn to the '^ Constitutions and Canons Eccle- 
siastical.'*^ What does our inquirer Bnd there with respect to 
Auricular Confession! Not one single word from beginning to 
end. The subject is not even alluded to, and more than tnis, 
there is, if we may so speak, a studied silence respecting it. Id 
these Canons, we find full directions about " things appertaining 
to Churches f ^ for instance, it is directed that there shall be, in 
every Church, the great Bible, and Book of Common Prayer; 

/^ritual Directum. 267 

% font of stone for Baptism ; a decent communion table ; a pulpit; 
Ik chest for alms ; and so on ; but there is not one word with 
regard to the ^^ Confessional^ or place for hearing Confessions, 
which used, in mediaeval times, to be set up in every Church. 
rTherefore, we say, that the '^ Canons,^'' practically ignore the use 
of Confession, as part of the system of the Church of England. 
And now, lastly^ our inquirer turns to the Thirty-nine Articles. 
Does he find Auricular Confession either enjoined, or recom- 
mended, here! On the contrary, he finds much, both directly 
juid by implication, against it. For, first, it is asserted, that that 
.which Romanists call the sacrament of penance, with which, in 
tiieir Church, Confession is closely connected, is spoken of as ^' not 
-to be counted for a sacrament of the Gospel,'*^ but as having 
.'** grown partly of the corrupt following of the Apostles ; partly ^ 
as being in common with other rites, a ^^ state of life allowed in 
the Scriptures,^^ but yet having not like nature with Baptism and 
the JLiord^s Supper, for that it has not " any visible sign or cere- 
mony ordained of God/' And, secondly, the Homilies — and, 
therefore, all that they say with respect to Auricular Confession, 
are spoken of as ** containing a godly and wholesome doctrine.'^ 
But, besides this, having gone through our formularies, our 
Boman Catholic querist must take into consideration, the feeling 
of the popular mind in the two Churches, with respect to Con- 
fession. In his own Church the practice is regarded not only as a 
legitimate but as an essential part of the system. In the Church 
of England, on the contrary, ne will find that any direct approxi- 
mation to the Bomish system on this point is looked upon (and 
may it ever continue to be so !) with the greatest possible sus- 
picion. And now, then, we would ask, what mttst be the conclu- 
won of any enlightened Roman Catholic who, with no prejudices, 
but simply seeking for the truth, should thus place the system 
of Dr. Pusey in juxtaposition with the system of the Church of 
England, as he himself has deduced that system from her own 
authorized formularies ! Would he not, tmtst he not, say, either 
that Dr. Pusey has most grievously not misrepresented, for that 
we are sure he would not do, but most grievously mistaken the 
mind and intention of the Church of England, with respect to 
Auricular Confession ; or else, that the system of the Church of 
England is a mockery, a delusion, and a snare ? — a system which 
pulls down with one hand that which, according to Dr. Pusey, it 
builds up with the other — a system which,* according to the same 
authority, differs in no way practically, with respect to Auricular 
Confession, from that of the Church of Rome ; and yet, not only 
does not say one single word in recommendation of Confession to 
a Priest, but does, both dircictly A»d by implication, condemn the 


268 Spiritual Direction. 

system of the Bomish communion ! Surely, judging as an honest 
man ,he would say, in the language of the " Dublin Review,'' and 
sorry, most sorry, are we to be obliged to agree with any thing, 
in reference to Dr. Pusey's teaching on this subject, which ema- 
nates from such a quarter, that the words of our Communion 
service are — 

" Words which certainly justify an Anglican clei^man in receiving 
a Confession, on some special point of conscientious difficulty, with a 'A 
view to holy communion. It is, however, quite a diflferent question, 
and one which, we should have thought, required a distinct reference to J 
ecclesiastical authority, whether these words, quite unsupported by the ^ 
general practice of the Church of England at any period of its history, \ 
can be considered to form a warrant for that extensive administration of 
the Confessional powers which Dr. Pusey founds upon them. For such 
a construction of these words will be seen to transfer the judgment of 
the necessity for Confession from the penitent to the clergy, and 
to change the rare occasion of an individual and partial scruple into an ' 
habitual and conscientious requirement ; in short, it supposes the '^ 
clergyman to say to his flock : ' If you have no such scruples about i 
going to holy communion, you ought to have them.' " ^ 

We have inserted these remarks of " the adversary,*' because 
we honestly believe that they put the only interpretation upon the 
oft-quoted passage of our Communion service, of which that pas- 
sage will fairly admit. It will be our object, in the next place, to 
justify that passage; in other words, to show that, when the 
Church of England allows Auricular Confession, not as a general 
rule of life, but simply as a special remedy for some special dis- 
quietude of conscience, she is perfectly right in so doing. We 
purpose to inquire whether Auricular Confession is sanctioned, as 
a rule of life, by the practice of the elder dispensation ; by the 
teaching of Holy Scripture ; and by the teaching and practice of 
the Primitive Church. 

First, then. How stood the case among the Jews ? The best 
authorities justify us in saying that Confession to a priest was a 
practice utterly unknown to the Jewish Church. Galmet tells 


" In the ceremony of the solemn expiation, under the Mosaic law, 
the high priest confessed tn general his own sins, the sins of other 
ministers of the temple, and those of all the people." 

He says, also, that the Jews, at the present day, make private 
Confession of their sins in the day of solemn expiation. Thjs they 
call Cippur; but this Confession is made not to a priest, but 

• yoLi.S88. 

S^ritual Direction. 269 

Qutually to one another^ and it is attended with mutual scourg- 
ng. And Broughton also tells us' : — 

** But besides this general Confession, the Jews were obliged, during 
the ten days preceding the feast of expiation, to make a particular Con- 
fession of their sins, either to God alone, or in the presence of a few 
persons. If their sins were a breach of the first table, or offences 
against God only, they were not obliged to confess them before men ; 
and Maimonides says, it would have been a piece of impudence to do so. 
But violations of the second table, or offences against their neighbour, 
were to be acknowledged in presence of their brethren." 

Thus much, then, for the practice of that elder Church, in 
whose footsteps, be it ever remembered, Christianity was originally 
modelled. Such was the working of that system which was a 
figurative introduction to Christianity. 

And what, in the next place, does Holy Scripture assert 
with respect to Confession to a priest ? We reply, in the words 
of one who has proved himself a staunch and consistent English 
Churchman^: — 

" Search the Scriptures from one end to the other ; from Moses to 
Malachi, and from Matthew to the Apocalypse, and not one word in all 
the Bible will you find about Confession to a priest. If Confession to 
a priest were necessary, if, that is to say, it were a means of grace, surely 
we should find some express, some unequivocal injunction for the ob- 
servance of it. But not only is it not enjoined; it is not even 

There are, indeed, some who will " wrest'' a certain passage of 
Scripture in defence of the practice of Auricular Confession. Like 
the Pontiff, who, because Scripture tells us that there were " two 
great lights, the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light 
to rule the night,'' therefore, at once, drew the conclusion that 
the temporal sword was subordinate to the spiritual ; so, because 
our Saviour said, on healing the leper, " Go thy way, show thyself 
to the priest," therefore our Lord " recommended," if He did not 
"enjoin," Auricular Confession. Let us hear the Homily on 
this point : — 

** Do they not see that the leper was cleansed from his leprosy, afore 
he was by Christ sent unto the priest for to show himself unto him ? 
By the same reason we must be cleansed from our spiritual leprosy ; I 
mean, our sins must be forgiven us, afore that we come to Confession. 
What need we, then, to tell forth our sins into the ear of the priest, sith 
that they be already taken away ?" 

And now let us see what was the practice and the teaching of 
the Primitive Church with respect to Auricular Confession. 

^ History of Religion, folio, 1—271. ^ Auricular Confession, p. 18. 

270 Spiritual Directum. 

There is no doubt upon one point, that Confesfiion was not onlj 
"recommended/'* but "enjoined**" by the early Ohurch, in the 
case of those persons who had fallen into grievous sin. There is 
no doubt also, that this Confession differed very materially indeed 
from Auricular Confession as it is "enjoined"*' by the Church of 
Rome, and as it is " recommended"*' by Dr. Pusey. The* Con- 
fession of the early Church was public Confession of the " peni- 
tents," delivered, after a long and laborious penance, before the 
whole congregation ; but it had no reference whatever to private 
and Auricular Confession. And in like manner the office of the 
penitentiary priest, to whom Romanists refer with such triumph, 
and whose office was aboh'shed by Nectarius, Bishop of Constan- 
tinople, in the time of Theodosius, was a very different person 
indeed from the "confessor"*' of the Bomish Church. Great 
scandal was sometimes caused by the public confessions of grosser 
sins ; and therefore the penitentiary priest was appointed, not 
" *to receive private confessions in prejudice to the public disci- 
pline, much less to grant absolution privately upon bare con- 
fession before any penance was performed, which was a practice 
altogether unknown to the ancient Church ;" but simply to decide 
whether the particular sin confessed was of a character to be 
expiated by public or private penance. To use the striking 
language of Hooker : — 

"They," the Romanists, "are men that would seem to honour 
antiquity, and none more to depend upon the reverend judgment 
thereof. I dare boldly affirm, that for many hundred years after Christ 
the Fathers held no such opinion ; they did not gather by our Saviours 
words any such necessity of seeking the priest's absolution from sin by 
secret, and, as they now term it. Sacramental Confession. Public Con- 
fession they thought necessary by way of discipline, not private Con- 
fession, as in the nature of a sacrament, necessary." — Eccl, Pol, 6. 4. 

Let us see, in the next place, what was the teaching of the 
early Church on this subject : — 

** St. Chrysostom*," says Archbishop Usher, " of all others is most 
copious in this argument. ' It is not necessary/ saith he, * that thou 
shouldest confess in the presence of witnesses ; let the inquiry of thy 
offences be made in thy heart; let this judgment be without a witness; 
let God only see thee confessing.' Again, ' Therefore I entreat and 
beseech and pray you, that you would continually make your confession 
to God. For I do not bring thee into the theatre of thy fellow-servants, 
neither do I constrain thee to discover thy sins unto men : unclasp thy 
conscience before God, and show thv wounds unto Him, and of Him 
ask a medicine. Show them to Him, that will not reproach, but heal 

* See Bingham, 18, 3. » Ibid. 18, 11. 

* Answer to a Jesuit Quoted by Dr. Hook, pp. 00^-62. 

Spiritual Direction. 271 

thee. For although thou hold thy peace. He knoweth all. Let us not 
call ourselves sinners only, but let us recount our sins, and repeat every 
one of them in special. I do not say unto thee, Bring thyself upon the 
stage, nor, Accuse thyself unto others ; but I counsel thee to obey the 
prophet, saying, Reveal thy way unto the Lord. Confess them before 
God, confess thy sins before the Judge, praying, if not with thy tongue, 
yet at least with thy memory, and so look to obtain mercy.' " To use 
the words of the same great divine, " St. Augustine, Cassiodore, and 
Gregory make a further observation upon that place of the thirty-second 
Psalm, ' I said, I will confess my transgressions unto the Lord, and 
thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin,' that God, upon the only promise 
and purpose of making this confession, did forgive the sin. * Mark,' 
laith Gregory, ' how great the swiftness is of this vital indulgence, how 
great the commendation is of God's mercy, that pardon should accom- 
pany the very desire of him who is about to confess, before that 
repentance do come to afflict him ; and remission should come to the 
heart, before that confession did break forth by the voice.' " 

Usher then proceeds to quote St. Basil, St. Ambrose, Ma&imus 
Taurinensis, and Prosper, and thus concludes: — 

" By this it appeareth, that the ancient Fathers did not think that 
the remission of sins was so tied unto external confession, that a man 
might not look for salvation from God, if he concealed his faults from 
man ; but that inward contrition, and confession made to God alone, 
were sufficient in this case." 

There is no doubt, indeed, that the early Church did not 
only allow, but recommend, private Confession ; but this was 
only in some special cases'. Thus, in the case of lesser sins, 
men were advised to confess mutually to one another; and in 
the case of private injuries, to confess and ask pardon of the 
injured party. And so, if men could not quiet their consciences 
without it, they were advised to have recourse to a priest, not for 
the purpose of sacramental Confession, but that he might give 
them spiritual counsel, and also advise them whether it was pro- 
per for them to expiate their sin by public penance. In the words 
of Hooker : — 

** Men being loathe to present rashly themselves and their faults unto 
the view of the whole Church, thought it best to unfold first their minds 
to some qne special man of the clergy, which might either help them 
himself, or refer them to a higher court, if need were." — EccL PoU 6. 4. 

In fact, their practice was exactly identical with that of our 
own Church. They neither " enjoined^ Auricular Confession, as 
does the Church of Rome, neither did they " recommend'' it as a 

* Bingham, 18, 3. 

272 Spiritual Direction. 

rule of life, as does Dr. Pusey ; but they simply " allowed'' it as 
a means of special comfort and consolation to those who could not 
without it " quiet their own consciences."" 

" Neither they nor we," as Usher well says, " do debar men from 
opening their grievances unto the physicians of their souls, either for 
their better information in the true state of their disease, or for the 
quieting of their troubled consciences, or for receiving further direction 
from them out of God's Word, both for the recovery of their present 
sickness, and for the prevention of the like danger in time to come." 

And now we trust we have clearly shown that Dr. Pusey can 
find no warrant in the authorized formularies of the English 
Church for making Auricular Confession the rule of life. We 
trust we have shown also, that the view taken of Confession by 
the Church of England is justified, not only by the perfect silence 
of Scripture, but by the teaching and practice of the Primitive 
Church. But then, perchance, it may be objected, that the view 
we have taken of Auricular Confession must also tend to the dis- 
paragement of the benefit and comfort of Sacerdotal Absolution, \ 
to which, beyond all manner of doubt, the Church of England i 
attaches a very high value. We answer, that we do nothing of j 
the kind — that the two cases are perfectly distinct. Dr. Pusey, 1 
indeed, more than any man living, has by his writings, unwit- | 
tingly we fully believe, disparaged the forms of Absolution which, ; 
in her daily service, and in her Eucharistic oflSce, the Church of 
England has supplied for the comfort and consolation of her chil- ' 
dren. This, in fact, is our heaviest complaint against Dr. Pusey, 
that he has, by his recommendation of private Confession, with a 
view to private Absolution, tended to make the public forms of Con- 
fession and Absolution, which our Church enjoins, comparatively 
worthless. Let it be assumed, that the earnest-minded Christian 
does require a daily assurance of God's love and favour, — does 
dailt/ need to be told that God has, upon his sincere repentance, 
pardoned his sins, and blotted them out from his remembrance. 
We say, that the Church of England does, in her daily ser- 
vice, supply such an assurance, — an assurance sufficiently pre- 
cise, sufficiently comprehensive, for all ordinary occasions. Let 
us hear one of our most eminent ritualists on the Confession and 
Absolution of our daily service, quoted, strange to say, by Dr. 
Pusey himself, in the appendix to his Sermon at Oxford* : — 

" This Confession," says Dr. Bisse, •* is in its form most solemn, in its 
extent most comprehensive ; for it takes in all kinds of sin, both of 
omission and of commission. And whilst every single person makes 
this general Confession with his lips, he may make a particular Confes- 

* Entire Absolution of the Penitent, p. 69. 

Spiritual Direction. 273 

ion "witb bis heart ; / meanf of his own personal sins, knonm only to 

wod and himself , which, if particularly, though secretly, confessed and 

'epented of, will assuredly be forgiven. This is the privilege of our 

Confession, that, under the general form, every man may mentally 

unfold *' the plague of his own heart,' his particular sins, whatever they 

be, as effectually to God, who ' alone knoweth his heart,' as if he prO" 

nounced them in express words. And this Confession of sins being duly 

made by the whole congregation, then the priest standing up, doth, in 

the name and by the commission of God, pronounce the Absolution ; 

which, if rightly understood, believed, and embraced by the confessing 

penitent, ought to be of like comfort to him as that declaration of 

Christ was to the man sick of the palsy, * Be of good cheer ; thy sins be 

foigiven thee.' " 

And yet Dr. Pusey prefaces this view of the public Absolution, 
80 " solemn and comprehensiver as it is, with a remark which goes 
very far indeed to deprive it of all its force and all its efficacy in 
the opinion of those who carry out bis teacbing : — 

" This view," he says, " is the rather added, because, until individual 
Confession is more common, it may often he a very great comfort thus to 
include each person's own burden of sin in the general Confession ; it will 
be more real, and the Absolution more availing ! " 

In otber words, this " solemn and comprehensive '' form of Con- 
fession and Absolution, complete and perfect in itself, according to 
Dr. Bisse, will, according to Dr. Pusey, do very well for a makeshift, 
but will be, comparatively, of no value whatever when the " peni- 
tent ^ has had recourse habitually to private Confession and private 
Absolution ! We do not, of course, intend to charge Dr. Pusey 
with any intentional disrespect to the forms of Confession and 
Absolution in our daily service ; but he has, assuredly, used lan- 
guage which will fully justify the inference we have drawn from it. 

But we have further testimony as to the completeness of these 
forms. Our own Hooker thus speaks of them^ : — 

" Seeing day by day we in our Church begin our public prayers to 
Almighty God with public acknowledgment of our sins, in which Con- 
fession every man, prostrate as it were before his Glorious Majesty, crieth 
against himself,and the minister with one sentence pronounceth universally 
all clear whose acknowledgment so made hath proceeded from a true 
penitent mind ; what reason is there every man should not, under the 
general terms of Confession, represent to himself his own particulars 
whatsoever, and adjoining thereunto that affection which a contrite spirit 
worketh, embrace to as full effect the words of divine grace, as if the 
iame were severally and particularly uttered with addition of prayers, 
imposition of hands, or all the ceremonies and solemnities that might be 
used for the strengthening of men's affiance in God's peculiar mercy 

» 6, 4. 

274 Spiriiual Diredum. 

tmrards them ! Such complements are helps to support our weaknc 
and not causes that serve to procure or. produce his gifts, as Dai 
speaketh. The difference of general and particular forms in Confessi 
and Absolution is not so material that any man's safety or ghostly gt 
should depend upon it." 

But we have not yet done with the public service of oar^j 
Church. There is another form of Confession and Absolution, tf 
possible, even more solemn, more comprehensive, than that m 
our Order for Morning and Evening Prayer, — a form, be ii 
specially remembered, which it is the earnest wish of Dr. Pusej 
and his followers to brin? into daily use. We allude to 
the form in our Eucharistic oflBce. We would ask any on%: 
carefully to read over the Confession and Absolution provided 
for us in that office, and then to say whether it is possible to 
provide forms better calculated to afford comfort and peace of 
mind to the true penitent, — to say whether it can be in any wise 
desirable, practically, to supersede their use by the adoption of 
private Confession and private Absolution, — whether it can be 
desirable to teach, if not in terms, yet virtu^ly to teach that, to 
use again the words of Hooker^ ^^ it standeth with the righteous- 
ness of God to take away no man''s sins until, by Auricular Con- 
fession, they be opened unto the priest.'*^ 

And now, then, we are in a position to argue this question upon 
the lower ground of expediency. If, as we have proved. Auricu- 
lar Confession was wholly unknown to the Elder Church ; if it is 
wholly unsanctioned by Scripture ; if its use, as a rule of life, is 
entirely unsupported by the practice and teaching of the early 
Christians; if it is neither enjoined nor even recommended, 
except in certain special cases, by the Church of England ; we are 
entitled to ask now. Is it expedient to make Auricular Confes^on 
the rule of life ; to hold it up as a means of grace, second only in 
value to Baptism and the Holy Eucharist ; to represent it as a 
privilege, which ought to be eagerly and thankfully embraced by 
all true Christians ? We will briefly state the reasons why we think 
it is not expedient. We object, then, in the first place, to the 
revival of Auricular Confession in the English Church, b^ause it 
is a practice which never can by any possibility be regarded in 
any other light, than with the greatest suspicion, by the vast 
majority of English Churchmen. We are fully convinced that it 
is a system to which it is impossible that popular opinion can 
ever be reconciled. Men cannot forget, if they would, the fearful 
evils which have been committed, the horrible abominations which 
have been mixed up with this practice in the Church of Rome. 
We would pass very lightly over this painful part of the subject, 
but we cannot but feel that there is no security against the same 

Spiritual Dir^eHon. 275 

*^ and the same abomiDatioDS, being mixed up with the system 
^ this country, if the teaching of Dr. Pusey and his followers, 
Jwe ever carried out to its full extent, especially when it is con- 
SJered that the same school, by which the system of Auricular 
3oofession is adopted, strongly recommends, if it does not enjoin, 
^bacy among the clergy. 

But we object to the revival of Auricular Confession, secondly, 
■leause it is a system which of all others has the strongest 
4ndency to render those, especially the younger clergy, by 
■liom it is adopted, dissatisfied with the teaching of our 
MFD Church, and therefore to lead them on, insensibly, to 
be Church of Rome. Experience and reason alike demon- 
itnite the truth of this assertion. There is no denying the 
■et, that they who have left us, were the very men who carried 
«it this system in its fullest details. Witness the clergy at St. 
(aviour'^s, Leeds. Witness Mr. Maskell, Mr. Dodsworth, and 
oany others who might be named. Reason proves this also. 
L young priest enters upon the duties of the parochial ministry, 
leeply imbued with Dr. Pusey'*s teaching upon this subject. He 
legins by introducing Auricular Confession, as one of the most 
mportant features of his parochial system. He finds himself, in 
. very short time, regarded with grave suspicion. He finds him- 
df, whether rightly or wrongly we say not, but the fact is so, 
iranded as a ^^ Bomanizer.^^ He is charged with introducing the 
lomish system into the Cliurch of England. What is the natu- 
al consequence \ He begins to compare the merits of the Angli- 
an and Roman Communions. He argues, not, under the circum- 
itances, v^y unreasonably, that, if Confession to a priest be so 
^reat a means of grace as he considers it, that Church must 
itand on the higher ground, which enforces it upon her members, 
vbich does not leave its observance an open question, and thus is 
le led, insensibly, to take refuge in that communion, where alone 
le can be at liberty to carry out the system to its fullest possible 

But we object, lastly, to the revival of Auricular Confession 
in the Church of England, because, instead of fostering that 
manly independence of character which, as we contend, the 
Church of England does foster among her members — an independ- 
ence perfectly compatible with the deepest personal humility, with 
the deepest individual penitence — it tends rather to foster a sickly 
ientimentalism, a morbid state of feeling and temperament, alto- 
gether alien to the natural character of the English people. We 
bave no wish to press this point invidiously, but still we would 
ask any one to compare the Italian peasant, taught, as he is, 
to put God's minister between the Almighty and himself ; taught, 

276 Spiritual Direction. 

as he is, to regard the priest as one who, by his ovmipse dixil^ 
open or shut to him the kingdom of heaven ; with the EngUshi 
of a similar station, carefully trained in the true system of 
English Church; taught to look up to his parish priest, 
affectionate reverence, as the dispenser of God"'s Word 
sacraments ; as his guide, his friend, and his adviser ; but 
taught to look upon himself as a responsible being, accountable 
God alone, and to no human authority, for the use he makes, 
of the talents entrusted to his care, as well as of those means 
grace which the Church affords him ; — we ask any man to 
this comparison, and then to say, on which side lies the 
truthfulness of character, the higher rectitude of principle, 
stronger stedfastness of moral purpose. Sure we are he will findt 
that the comparison is immeasurably in favour of the system of the 
Church of England, provided that system be carried out in to 
own legitimate method. Let any one, again, compare the genoil 
state of society in Italy and in England, and then say, whether i( 
is desirable to establish a system of ^^ Spiritual Direction,^^ in our 
happy English homes, akin, in any respect, to that system of 
Auricular Confession, which is, avowedly, the keystone of the 
Bomish communion. Let us not be misunderstood. We are fiff 
from supposing that Dr. Pusey wishes to introduce, or to carry 
out any such system, as that to which we allude ; but we say 
confidently, that it is impossible for any man to draw the line 
where he pleases ; that it is utterly impossible for Dr. Pusey, or 
any one else, to say with certainty that he can prevent a recur- 
rence of " those inconveniences which the world hath by experience 
observed' ^' in Auricular Confession as practised by the Bomish 
Church " heretofore.'' We do contend that the whole system of 
Spiritual Direction is, from its very nature^ Uable to be so 
fearfully misapplied, that it is very far better, unless a ne- 
cessity of adopting it is laid upon us, to avoid its introduc- 
tion under any shape, and in any way whatever. 

But perhaps it will be said, that this necessity does now exist 
amongst us ; that the practice of Auricular Confession is essen- 
tial to the full development of that deep humility, that earnest 
penitence, which are inherent characteristics of the true Chris- 
tian. We think not. Dr. Pusey has drawn a very striking 
picture, in his Letter to Mr. Bichards, of the benefits which have 
already resulted from the employment of Auricular Confession ; 
but the question is. Are these results necessarily tied to, and 
altogether dependent upon, the employment of such a system ? 
For our own parts, we are perfectly satisfied that, so far as these 

• Hooke 

Spiritual JDirectian. 277 

Its arise from a healthy, and not a morbid, state of feeh'ng, 
y are not so tied, they are not so dependent. We are fulty 

vinced»that they will rather be the natural fruits of an earnest 
e, on the part of every individual parish priest, for the souls of 

people ; the natural consequence of a careful training in the 

em of the Church of England, as that system is embodied 
her Book of Common Prayer. We are not now speaking of ex- 
tional cases. We are not considering the instances of persons 
laimed from a long continued course of licentious profligacy, or 
m a state of debasing ignorance bordering on heathenism, 
e are speaking of those who have been carefully trained, at the 

£rent'*s knee, in the system of the Church of England ; who 
ve been, from their childhood, taught their responsibility before 
God, taught to cherish their Christian privileges : and we say 
(hat, for such persons, the system of the English Church, legi- 
timately interpreted, is all-sufficient. And so with respect to Holy 
Communion. Dr. Pusey thus speaks on this point : — 

" This is most certain, that to encourage indiscriminately the ap- 
proach to the Holy Communion, without a corresponding inward 
•ystem, whereby they, who are entitled to do so, should know inti- 
mately the hearts of those whom they so encourage, has brought with 
it an amount of carelessness and profanation, which, if known, would 
make many a heart of those who have so done, sink and quake '." 

We say, first, that there are none so " entitled ;'' that there 
are none, who, in Dr. Pusey^s sense, have a right " to know 
intimately ^"^ the hearts of their people ; none, who have a right 
to demand that " every man S'^ to use again the words of Hooker, 
'^ should pour into their ears T^hatsoever hath been done amiss."*^ 
We say, secondly, that if this grievous profanation, and most 
grievous would it be, has occurred, it has arisen, not from a 
neglect of Auricular Confession, but from gross neglect of his 
hounden duty on the part of the parochial minister. We assert 
confidently that, if persons come to the Holy Communion unpre- 
pared ; if they approach God's altar "lightly, unadvisedly, and 
wantonly ;'** the guilt of that profanation lies at the door of those 
who should have taught them better ; that th^ are responsible 
who have not, habitually, taught their flocks to consider " the 
dignity of that holy mystery, and the great peril of the unworthy 
receiving thereof ;'' who have not urged upon them diligently 
and carefully to " examine themselves, before they presume to 
eat of that bread and drink of that cup.'' It is most unreason- 
able to charge such profanation upon the neglect of Auricular 

' Entire Absolution, &c. p. 49. ^ 6, 4. 

280 Spiritual Directum. 

recently to adopt. They have wantonly thrown aside a { 
opportunity of doing their duty to the English Church, a 
the same time, hy doing their duty^ of acquiring the confide 
the English people. And what have they gained by their p] 
position \ Simply this ; they have alienated the support of 
sands, who would have sided with them heart and soul, ( 
questions affecting the Ghurch. If, instead of allowing disgi 
the Durham letter to turn them from the paramount du 
defending the Ghurch of England, they had quietly, in theii 
several spheres, collectively and individually, done their duty, 
might have won the esteem and respect of well-nigh all by ' 
they were heretofore suspected. The English people are a 
and generous people. They will respect those, however 
may differ from them, who are sincere and straighlforwan 
they turn with indignation from men who, calling them; 
English Churchmen, allow the insults of a latitudinarian 1 
Minister to divert them from the path they ought to fo 
who, by not assisting, betray the Church of England ii 
hour of her greatest need. And let Dr. Pusey be we 
sured that this feeling is not confined to the '* rampant 
tanism" lately exhibited. It is spreading very widely am 
the clergy also. Surely recent events prove this. No pen 
common capacity for judging, and of unprejudiced mind 
doubt this, who looks at the recent meeting of the Na 
Society in its true light. Why did the largest meeting of c 
which has assembled together since the Gorham meeting r 
by so large a majority, Mr. Denison^s motion ? Not because 
differed from Mr. Denison substantially ; not simply, as D. 
complacently imagines, because of the advice of the Bish< 
the diocese; but because they could not trust the part 
whom Mr. Denison was principally supported ; because 
had no security but that they who, at that meeting, clara( 
the loudest in support of the " Catholic faith,'^ would, 
of them, as others have done, by whom he was supportec 
year, go over to the greatest enemy of that faith, and 
more refuse to defend the Church of England against 
enemy**s invasion. We do not speak idly on this point. 
know that this feeling had great influence upon the mee 
and we confidently assert, that it ought to have operate 
it, in fact, did. Men have got tired of co-operating with 
who are always talking about the " Church,**' but who, 
the " Church of England"' is wantonly and insolently atta 
not only will do nothing themselves to defend her, but impug 
motives, and throw every obstacle in the way, of those who 
to do so. We warn Dr. Pusey and his followers, that the ti 

SpirUfMl Direction. 281 

reaction is rapidly setting in ; that, unless it be arrested, incal- 
ediable mischief will be the result ; and for that result they, and 
ihey alone, will be responsible. We are quite satisfied that that 
result may be prevented even yet. We are quite persuaded that 
the vast majority of the English people are as yet true to the real 

rinciples of our Church ; but we will not answer for them long, 
they see much more of such gross violations of good faith as we 
kave lately witnessed at St. Saviour^s, Leeds, — if they see the 
•o-called ^^ friends of the Church^'* standing aloof from her in the 
j^Dor of her greatest necessity, and leaving her defence to those 
riio are only too glad to assume the foremost position. Depend on 
k, the people of England will never sympathize with '^ Bomanism^ 
within the Church in any shape, or under any circumstances ; 
aeitber will they tolerate the teaching, which, whether premedi- 
tatedly or unwittingly, has a tendency to lead to it. If in their 
dislike of^ne extreme, they are led to incline to its opposite, they 
will be responsible who might have restrained them within, 2y 
teeping there themselves^ the middle path of safety. If the *' whirl- 
wind and the storm ^^ do ever overwhelm the Catholic faith of the 
English Church, it will only be from the open treachery, or the 
lukewarm supineness, of those who might nave ^' ridden^^ upon 
the one, who might, by the commonest prudence, have guided 
and ^^ directed^ t£e other. 

VOL. XV. NO. XXX,— JUNE, 1851. 

282 The Church in Ireland. 

Art. II. — 1. The Annah of Ireland hy Friar John Clyn, (jf 
the Convent of Friars Minors, Kilkenny ; and Thady DowHuf^ 
Chancellor of Leighlin. Together with the Annals of Rm 
Edited from MSS. in the Library of Trinity College, Duiiki 
with Introductory Remarks. By the Very Bev. EicHAWi 
Butler, A,B., M.B.8.A., Dean of Clonmacnois. DuWmi 
Printed for the Irish Archaeological Society. 

2. Original Letters and Papers in illustration of the History of ^, 
Church in Ireland, during the reigns of Edward VI., J^^^flj 
and Elizabeth. Edited, with Notes from Autogramhs in m 
State Paper Office, by Evelyn Philip Shirley, Esq., MA, 
London: Bivingtons. 

3. Bise and Progress of the Irish Chmch Mission Society : ik§ 
Beformation in Connemara, DvhUn, ibcj and the Journal of 4 
Tour in the Coimty of Galway, in company with the Bev. Ak9: 
ander B. C. Dallas, M.A., in June, 1850. Second Edition, 
Dublin : W. Curry and Co. London : Hatchafd ; Nisbet wA 
Co. ; Wertheim and Macintosh. 

4. Early Fruits of Irish Missions. A Letter from an Eye-toitness 
after a Missionary Tour during June and July, 1850. Second 
Edition. London : Published by the Society for Irish Church 
Missions, 14, Exeter Hall, Strand. 

5. Eleventh Beport of the Church Education Society for Ireland, 
being for the Year 1850. 

When we look back for a few years, and recall to mind 
the opinions which then seemed to have gained almost general 
acceptance with regard to the Church question in Ireland, and 
when we compare those views with the more enlightened senti- 
ments which nave been gradually superseding them of late, we 
cannot but recognize the working of a Higher Power, in bringing 
about a change which, as far as it has proceeded, is replete with 
consolations to every faithful adherent of the Reformed Church in 
England and in Ireland. This alteration in the public mind has 
not been the result of any efforts or exertions made by the advo- 
cates of sound principle ; for they had ineffectually protested, 
almost despairingly, against the successive steps by which 
Romanism was being gradually invested with power, and per- 
mitted to crush and to subveH the Established Church. It was 

The Church in Ireland. 283 

in vain that the adherents of England and of her faith pointed out 

the danger and the manifold evils of giving to Romanism the 

4iractical ascendancy in Ireland. It was in vain that they 

lamented and protested against the endowment of Romish 

•eminaries, and the recognition of Romish bishops. They saw 

4tomanism advancing witn rapid steps to absolute ascendancy and 

^ ^Mninion, and were continually expecting the spoliation of their 

MH Church. Each concession made, had only inflamed the pride 

md increased the enmity of Romanism ; yet each Ministry, as 

ji succeeded to the reins of power, seemed to vie with its pre- 

ieoessors in anxiety to gratify the wishes of that priesthood. It 

UBS difficult to say whether Tories, or Whigs, or Radicals were 

prepared to go to the greatest lengths, or to depend more 

implicitly on the Church of Rome for the means of governing 

beland. It seemed to be generally held, that a great mistake 

having been committed in attempting to rule Ireland on the 

ininciples of Protestant ascendancy, the only safe course was to 

invoke the aid, or rather to conciliate the friendship, of those 

iriiose influence over the majority of the population was evident 

and undeniable. It was supposed that means might be found to 

•obtain effective influence over those clerical leaders, by holding 

out to them the prospect of endowment by the State ; and it was 

not disguised that hopes were entertained that they might thus be 

made useful instruments in promoting the order and peace of the 


With such views, the statesmen of England supported, session 
after session, the demands of the Roman Catholic party. They 
were refused nothing except the absolute destruction of the 
Church of Ireland, for which the country was not yet prepared. 
They were permitted to pass measure after measure favourable to 
their own system — were gratified by concessions of all kinds — and 
urere enabled to remove many of the bulwarks which the old 
testation of England and Ireland had raised against Papal 
tisurpation and error. Nor was this all. The Parliament of 
England was seen to court tlie friendship of the Papacy, by 
passing a Bill for the purpose of establishing diplomatic inter- 
I course; doubtless with the hope of gaining influence over the 
[ Irish Roman Catholic priesthood ; while the Sovereign was 
advised to express her sympathy with the Pope in his expulsion 
by the Roman people ; and the Ministry of England appeared 
tefore the public as correspondents of the Papal Nuncio at Paris, 
and as well-wishers to the restoration of the Papal dominion over 
an oppressed and reluctant nation. 

In short, Romanism was making rapid strides towards the 
accompUshment of its various objects under the patronage of suc^ 


284 The Ckurek in Irdamd. 

cessive Ministries, who were deceived as to its real charadei^ 
We have no doubt that the Ministries of Lord Liverpool, and thtj 
Duke of Wellington, and Sir Robert Peel, and Lord John BuBsel^; 
all of whom, in their turn, did whatever was in their power t|; 
gratify the Boraish Church, were actuated by the wish to promote; 
the general interests of the country ; but they were deceived ii: 
to the real tendencies or character of Bomanism, in ihe9e countM 
at least ; and have been grasping after a shadow in their attemptl 
to rule Ireland through the Bomish priesthood. 

And of this many of our politicians seem to be partially eottr 
vinced. Lord John Bussell has apparently altered his view of 
Bomanism. He has acknowledged — and we honour him for tk 
candour and manliness of the avowal — that when, some yeaiy 
since, he was of opinion that territorial titles ought to be 
conceded to the Bomish Episcopate, he was under very difi^rent 
impressions of the character of Bomanism from those which he 
now entertains. It is obvious also, that a vast change has been 
wrought in the minds of Liberal politicians generally, with the 
exception of the remains of Sir Bobert Peel'^s party ; and on the 
whole, indeed, it seems somewhat doubtful which section of the 
political world in England has receded furthest firom the doctrines 
which were prevalent till within the last year or two. 

Borne boasts, with some reason, of her success in effectii^ 
conversions: but in the present case, she has worked almost 
a miracle. She has converted a thoroughly Liberal l^islatore, 
intent only on gratifying her in all ways, into a hostile, irritated, 
and jealous body of men. She has convinced the most liberal 
that it is impossible to reconcile freedom with the P^ttl 
ascendancy. She has succeeded in awakening the public mind in 
England to an hostility to her claims, which has not been equalled 
on any occasipn since the Bevolution, and perhaps scarcely since 
the Beformation itself. She has had, however, the satisfaction of 
holding a Synod in defiance of the Grown and Grovemment of 
England, and of exercising the power of ecclesiastical censures 
for the purpose of extinguishing the liberal institutions for educa- 
tion which hid been established with a view to gratify her. She 
has had the satisfaction of ignoring the English and the Irish 
Church, and of setting aside the Boyal Supremacy, by establish- 
ing a new hierarchy in England, and issumg Bulk for erecting 
new bishoprics in Ireland. She has had the satisfaction of 
trampling on the ancient aild modem laws of England, in ap- 
pointing and sending cardinals, and legates, and bishops by her 
own authority. She has exulted in the successive insults which 
she has been enabled to offer to the Crown, Parliament, and 
people of England. Did the Government and the whole Liberal 


The Church in Ireland. 28$ 

|arty remonstrate against the proceedings of the Thurles Synod, 
Imd^ evince the utmost soreness and annoyance at so great 
in insult ! the reply of Borne was, to issue the Bull appointing 
the pseudo-hierarchy in England, and to create Dr. Wiseman a 
^Jarainal. Were the English nation and the Crovemment 
^censed to the most extreme degree at so outrageous a violation 
M the national rights, liberties, and laws ? the reply of the 
papacy was, in the midst of the turmoil, to issue a Bull erecting 
the See of Boss in Ireland, in direct defiance of the law ! Did the 
Parliament and the people, with wonderful unanimity, but won- 
;^rful moderation, proceed to take steps for the purpose of 
iSBerting the laws of England^ and at least claiming the old 
Bghts of the Crown? the answer of the Papacy has been — ^a 
confirmation of the decrees of the Svnod of Thurles, and an 
anathema against the Government Colleges! In short, the 
course pursued by Bome has been pretty much that of a man 
who begins by calling you by some opprobrious epithet ; and, 
when remonstrated with, endeavours to mend matters by kicking 
ou; and, when you get very angry, concludes the matter 
y tweaking your nose, spitting in your face, and breaking his 
stick on your back ! Such is, positively, the sort of treatment 
which the British nation has been undergoing of late ; and while 
it is never the practice of England to threaten, or to express in 
strong or exaggerated terms the national feeling. We trust that 
Bome will yet have reason to know that she has succeeded 
in putting an end to all friendly feelings on the part of England ; 
and that not only her partisans in these countries, but the Papal 
Government itself, will have reason hereafter to regret their pre- 
sent insolence and defiance of the English laws. 

The tone of the Press exhibits, in the most striking way, the 
change which has been effected in public opinion. , When we 
remember that for a series of years the " Times'' had been 
amongst the warmest advocates of all measures tending to pro- 
mote the interests of the Church of Bome ; when we bring 
to mind its unwearied exertions to obtain the endowment of the 
Romish priesthood in Ireland, as a measure dictated by the wisest 
policy, and as holding out the only prospect of keeping that 
country in peace and good order ; — it is curious to mark the 
alteration in its tone, which recent events have effected. Who 
could recognize, in the following remarks, the identity of this 
journal with the " Times'' of 1848, which supported the interests 
of the Papacy, assailed the cause of Italian liberty, and urged the 
endowment of the Bomish priesthood ? 

"There appears too much reason to fear that the same spirit of 
intolerant and narrow-minded bigotry iKrhich has induced the Pope to 

286 The Church in Ireland. 

sacrifice the substantial interests of the Roman Catholics of England is 
about to achieve a second triumph, not so much over the Protestant 
Government as over the moral and material advancement of the Iriili 
people. Under the evil guidance of those whom Lord Shrewsburi 
appropriately calls* in his letter to Lord John Russell, the anti-Englisa 
party, Pius the Ninth is reported, and we fear with truth, to have 
resolved on proscribing the Queen's Colleges in Ireland, forbidding 
positively the priests from having any connexion with them, and 
threatening the disobedient laity with all the vengeance of ecclesiastictl 
censure. The boon which Parliament, in its wisdom and liberality, 
bestowed on the Irish people is snatched away from them by their i 
spiritual head, and the doctrine is broadly avowed that the free antf ^ 
impartial instruction of the laity in secular knowledge is found in thk ^ 
nineteenth century to be utterly inconsistent with the advancement oi 
even the existence of the Catholic faith. The same power whose 
adherents so earnestly insist upon the compatibility of allegiance to hti 
commands with loyalty to the sovereign and obedience to the law, now 
puts aside these flimsy professions, and tells us, through the voices of 
her best accredited organs, that she will endure no rival in the mind oc 
in the kingdom in which she has once obtained a footing. In her view, 
no department of secular knowledge is innocent or admissible which is 
not taught under the immediate superintendence of ecclesiastics, whose 
ignorance and shallow presumption may represent the truth of science 
as a profane fiction, and the magnificent march of nature as a splendid 
phantasmagoria. To give just enough knowledge of these things to 
counteract the influence and dispel the charm of their norelty and their 
grandeur — to inspire just so much taste for the arts as may train the 
senses to take delight in pompous processions and empty decorations, 
without permitting the mind to go deep enough into their study to feel 
the worthlessness of tawdry and flaunting ceremonies — to mutilate and 
interpolate the page of history till its darker or more startling warnings 
lose their significance — to emasculate philosophy and poetry, — these are 
duties which the Church wisely trusts to no profane hand, but reserves 
to herself as most able to fulfil them. No wonder that the spectacle of 
a PontiflP — ^who but a few years ago astonished Europe by the proofs 
which he gave of the sincerity of his belief that the cause of the Church 
of Rome was not inconsistent with intellectual progress — now formally 
recanting his error, and striving to obtain the most despicable of ends 
by the most odious of means, by employing ecclesiastical tyranny as the 
means of intellectual degradation — should fill with transport the popish 
press, the only portion of our periodical literature for which an English- 
man is ever called on to blush. It is not alone the triumph of ignorance, 
nor the palmy prospect which intellectual impotence opens to bigotry, 
nor yet the arbitrary and un-English manner in which these rtandatel 
of intolerance are to be enjoined upon the clergy and forced upon the 
laity, that charms them. These things undoubtedly are sweet to the 
Roman Catholic clergy of Ireland ; but, to use tlie words of their own 
national poet, there is in the conduct of the Propaganda something more 

Tie Church in Ireland. 287 

exquisite still. It is the gross and studied insult to the Queen of these 
xealms, who has condescended to accept the patronage of the institutions 
il which the meddling and mischie?ous priesthood of Italy are hurling 
tlieir anathemas ; it is the insult to our national honour and independ- 
ence, the injury done to those patriotic feelings which Englishmen of 
every creed and shade of opinion once combined to cherish and en- 
tourage, which is to the organs of the Roman Catholic priesthood the 
daintiest dish in the banquet of intolerance o?er which they riot and 
level. It is much to have stricken down knowledge, to have blighted 
diat humanizing and conciliating influence which the early association 
of men of the most different creeds and opinions never fails to produce ; 
kit it is the shock given to our characteristic and almost superstitious 
teneration for our ancient laws and institutions, to all which makes us 
irhat priest-ridden countries are not and never can be, which fills the 
Popish press with jubilant exultation. We shall not follow the bad 
example set us of affecting to despise and undervalue the mischief which, 
IB this their hour, it is granted to these men to do. They cannot, as 
^y pretend, control our Parliament or make void our legislation ; but 
they can undoubtedly, by the systematic abuse of their spiritual influ- 
ences and the prostitution of the ordinances of the Church for the pur- 
poses of a base conspiracy against the progress and happiness of their 
flocks, effect much evil. Still, we question whether, misled by previous 
successes of the same kind, the Church of Rome has not fallen into the 
enor of overrating her powers of mischief, and mistaken the intenseness 
of her evil will for the extent of her power. No doubt the leaders of 
tbe counter-revolutionary party throughout Europe, in their abject dread 
of another political crisis, and their desire to cling to and to employ in 
their defence every reactionary tendency which society contains, have 
ilang themselves into the armis of the Pope, and have hartered their 
fature destiny and their progress for the support of the spiritual power. 
Spain has submitted and Austria tamely bowed her head to the yoke. 
No doubt, also, in the extreme ultramontane party in Ireland Rome has 
instruments as ardent and unscrupulous as ever employed the resources 
of civilization to reproduce barbarism, and the cultivation of the intellect 
to insure its degradation." 

At a time, then, when public opinion seems to have righted 
itself to a certain degree — ^at a time when statesmen and politicians 
bave learnt by bitter experience that in dealing with the Church 
>f Rome, they must not expect to control that Church for the pro- 
notion of English political objects, but must expect to be con- 
trolled by it to the unhesitating promotion of exclusively Roman 
[latholic objects; and instead of exercising authority over it, 
nust submit to its dictation — to the dictation, too, of the " Irish 
Brigade'' — at such a moment, perhaps, there may be some chance 
3f a fair hearing for the Church in Ireland — for that Bkanch 
OF OUR National Church, which has been, to a great extent, 
given up to the demands of Bomish faction — which has for years 

288 The Church in Ireland. 

felt itself perpetually on the eve of being oflTered up as a holocau^^^ 
to appease the rage of Bomish intolerance. 

We trust that, in pleading for that branch of the Uni 
Church, in endeavouring to show that, on every ground of hoiw 
and justice, and even of sound policy, it should be maintaiiK 
and not merely maintained, but encouraged, and strengthen 
and befriended in all fair and lawful ways ; in endeavouring 
prove that whatever faults, and defects, and failures may be caff 
nected with it in the public opinion, are not inherent in li 
system, but are easily separable from it, and are not justly to 1»»*^-* 
imputed to it, — we shall be doing some service at the preseil 
time both to Church and State, and may be listened to wiik 
more impartiality of judgment than we could have hitherto 

We believe that we may fairly reckon the Protestant populatioft 
of Ireland at about two millions, of whom the great majority are 
resident in the province of Ulster, being descended from Engliah 
and Scottish ancestors, who settled there in the reign of Elizar' 
beth and James the First. The descendants of the Scottish 
settlers, probably to the number of about 700,000, continue for 
the most part Presbyterians; but they have, on the whole, 
remained on amicable terms with the Established Church, and 
attached to the English connexion, feeling, probably, the necessity 
of mutual support in the presence of an intolerant and violent 
Popish majority. 

The number of Bomanists in Ireland was about six millions, 
previous to the late famines and pestilences ; but this number 
must have been largely diminished within the last few years. 
The causes which have led to diminution of population have 
operated chiefly in those parts of Ireland where Romanism is the 
religion of the population ; and we think there can be little doubt 
that while Romanism has lost a million of population. Protestantism 
has lost nothing. Thus, then, we have two millions of Protes- 
tants on the one side, and j'Jw millions of Bomanists on the other. 

Now it must be admitted, with great regret, that the Protes- 
tants are in a considerable minority in Irdand. We shall here- 
after touch on the reasons why they are so. But, notwithstanding 
this, they are a numerous, a courageous, and a Ugh-spirited body 
of men ; and they constitute the only part of the population 
which is really attached to England. Had England to hold 
possession of Ireland merely by military force, without the presence 
of a body of Protestant inhabitants, the tenure would be far more 
costly than it is, and perhaps it would be impossible eventually to 
retain that country ; for instances are but rare in which an army 
has been able permanently to occupy an extensive territory^ where 

fhe Church in Ireland. 289 

he whole population were combined in a resolution to resist it. 
The Bomish population of Ireland has, at all times, from various 
sauses, been turbulent, and willing to throw off the English 
lominion. The Protestant population, on the contrary, has 
been, from various causes, as a general rule, orderly, obedient to 
bhe laws, loyal, and attached to the interests of England. Thus 
Oie existence of Protestantism in Ireland is a positive benefit to 
the empire ; it is a means of maintaining its integrity, and of 
preventing a large and important island from being separated 
from England, and falling under the influence of some foreign 
power, such as France. 

And, in addition to this, it may be observed (in reference to 
the question of the day), that the Qvbe&rCs supremacy is only recog- 
nized in Ireland by the Protestants. That doctrine, grounded so 
deeply in the English law, has always been openly rejected by the 
Bomish priesthood and population in Ireland. Its recognition 
or rejection has been the great question for ages between 
Romanists and Protestants. The latter all acknowledge, as the 
former universally deny, that the Queen has a supremacy in 
ecclesiastical causes. The latter admit the right of the crown to 
appoint bishops; the former reject it. If, therefore, the royal 
supremacy is to be maintained at all, it can onlv be so by sus- 
taining, more or less, the cause of the Church m Ireland. To 
relinquish that course would be merely to give the See of Rome 
the undivided supremacy over the whole of Ireland, — to restrict 
the Queen^s supremacy to England. 

But the events of the last few years have shown that the supre- 
macy in England itself is not perfectly secure against all attacks. 
It has been seen that, amidst the stir and excitement of these 
times, the royal supremacy itself has been called in question; 
that the extent of its power has been narrowly scanned and 
scrutinized; that the tribunals of law have been, on several 
occasions, appealed to against alleged abuses of the supremacy ; 
that men have learnt to argue figainst the absolute and uncon- 
ditional power of the crown, or rather of its ministers, in eccle- 
siastical matters. It has been thus seen that the supremacy in 
England itself is not so impregnably seated that no argument can 
touch it or weaken it ; and uiis gives a weight and significance 
to the assertion or denial of that principle in Ireland which it 
would not otherwise possess. If the supremacy be relinquished 
in Ireland, — if, in one part of the empire, the crown permits its 
ecclesiastical supremacy to be rejected or set aside, — a dangerous 
precedent is established for England itself. The Queen holds 
the same royal dignity in Ireland as in England ; if her eccle- 
. siastical supremacy is relinquished in one country, there can be 

290 The Church in Ireland. 

no principle to retain it in the other: it can be no longer ail 
essential prerogative of the crown : it may be abolished, for good 
reasons, in England also. 

It is clear that the maintenance of the Boyal Supremacy in 
England is materially connected with its maintenance in Ireland; 
and if it be maintained in Ireland, it must be by upholding the 
only body of men who really acknowledge it, i. e. the members of 
the Established Church. That body is indeed a minority ; but 
still it holds its ground very firmly : it has courage and perseye^ 
ance ; and it ensures a certain recognition of the Boyal power in 
Church and State, which renders it eminently serviceable to the 
English Crown. It may be an English garrison or advanced 
guard in a hostile country, as it has sometimes been called ; but 
wherever it exists, the Supremacy of the Crown exists along with 
it ; , and where it does not exist, the Supremacy of the Crown is 
rejected with insult. 

To many of our readers — and to the majority of the English 
people, the Church in Ireland will commend itself on still higher 
grounds than those we have adverted to. They will feel that it 
upholds the same religious truth which is enshrined in the affec- 
tions of the people of this country — that it is upholding that truth 
in the midst of foes — that it is a mission carrying the word of the 
Gospel amidst the dark and almost heathen superstitions which 
enshroud the minds of our fellow-countrymen. And to those who 
wish for the progress of Gospel truth, it miist ever be a matter of 
the deepest interest and of the most earnest anxiety, that the Church 
in Ireland may not only be maintained in the possession of her 
miserably scanty endowments, but may be rendered in the highest 
degree efficient ; and that every possible care may be taken to 
appoint none but men of piety, ability, and zeal to her various 
offices. The Church in Ireland is holding her ground, and even 
gaining ground, in the midst of enemies who are thirsting for her 
destruction ; and she has been preserved, as it were by miracle, 
amidst the revolutions of these times. Those who look beyond 
mere human and secondary causes, will connect this almost mira- 
culous preservation of the Church with her undoubted maintenance 
of truth ; and will feel that God has Himself protected this wit- 
ness, when all men seemed leagued together against her ; and will 
thence gather hope that some great work is yet in store for her. 

To the Church in England, the preservation and the advance- 
ment of HER OWN CAUSE in Ireland is a matter of the deepest 
moment to her own well-being and security. The attacks of her 
enemies have been directed against the Irish branch of the United 
Church, as weaker numerically and politically ; but the same fell 
spirit of enmity which thirsts for the overthrow of the one, looks 

The Church in Ireland. 291 

to it chiefly in the hope and expectation of gaining a vantage 
ground for the overthrow of the other ; and if the Church of 
England was ever tempted to withdraw herself from the contest 
and permit her sister or dautrhter Church to perish unaided in 
Ireland, she has learnt at length that the common enemy is bent 
equally on her own destruction. She has seen her existence 
ignored, and her hierarchy confronted by a Bomish hierarchy 
daiming the allegiance of the people of England in tones in which 
undisguised hatred and contempt for herself, are mingled with the 
loftiest assertions of spiritual authority, and the most unbending 
resolution. The thorough sympathy between her own immediate 
rivals and the Bomish hierarchy in Ireland has appeared in the most 
striking way of late. The enemies of the Church in Ireland are 
combined with those of the Church in England, and there can be 
no doubt now, that in maintaining her sister Church in Ireland, 
the English Church will be merely protecting her own most vital 

But from such considerations we would turn to others of a dif- 
ferent description. We would appeal to those sentiments of 
honour and generosity, the claims of which the people of England 
never fail to recognize — nay, we would appeal to their sense of 
justice itself — whether the invariable, stedfast, and much endear- 
ing loyalty and fidelity of the Protestants of Ireland, does not de- 
serve the protection and favour of this country -r-whether those 
who are allied to us in blood, in religion, in political faith, and 
who have ever stedfastly upheld the union of the empire and the 
rights of the Crown, have not a just claim on the Government 
and the nation for encouragement and for support. They have 
been maintaining England^s cause, because they were English in 
religion, and in principle and feeling ; and it would be little con- 
sistent with the generosity of England, to consent that they should 
be exposed to any discouragement. It is rather the part of the 
Government now to extend its favour aa f«)r as may be, to the 
friends of English connexion, and the consistent and faithful ad- 
herents of the Crown. 

It is not our intention to pass any censure on the conduct of 
former governments in their dealings with the Protestants of 
Ireland ; but we think that every candid observer must admit that 
their loyalty has not been untried — that they have not been with- 
out discouragements. It was the policy of England, from the 
time of King William III., to place the Government of Ireland 
in the hands of the Protestant party, just as it has latterly been 
the object to entrust it to the Bomish priesthood. The Protes- 
tants were deprived of this old ascendancy within our own recol- 

292 The Church in Irekmd. 

lection, with all the influence, power, emolument, and advantages 
of all kinds connected with it. But scarcely had this cha^ 
taken place, when they found the Government, under an influence 
hostile to them, withdrawing its aid fi*om all charitable and educa- . 
tional institutions which h^ been instituted for the purpose of a 
maintaining the established religion, or which even poss^sed a 1 
Protestant character. They beheld their clergy reduced to the ■". 
verge of starvation by a general combination amongst the Bomaa 
Oatholics to withhold their tithes, and obliged to exist on puUie 
subscriptions and alms. They witnessed the extinction of neaily 
half their episcopate for the gratification of their truculent' and 
exulting enemies. They saw year after year the resolution of 
politicflj parties in Parliament, almost carried into effect, to ex- 
tinguish the provision for the established worship, wherever the 
Bomanists had gained an ascendancy in point of numbers. They 
saw the old loyal processions, which had been customary from the 
days of King William, suppressed by force, and treated as riots: 
they saw the pecuniary assistance of Parliament withdrawn from 
an education society formed on the most liberal principles, simply 
because it prescribed the reading of the Scriptures ; and they 
saw those funds transferred to another society formed for the 
purpose of gratifying the Roman Catholics, and which has fallen 
under their management. They saw their old political franchises 
and corporations changed, with a view to give to Bomanism a 
general ascendancy. They saw the most eminent lawyers sys- 
tematically passed over, because they were Protestants, and third- 
rate barristers placed over their heads, because they were Ro- 
manists. Their associations in defence of the laws and consti- 
tution were denounced as illegal. Their leaders were attacked in 
Parliament, and frowned on by the State. And yet, they have 
passed through this long and severe trial with untainted loyalty, 
and in unswerving obedience to the law. They never yielded to 
the temptations held out to them by the Bomish or the Bicpeal 
party. They have remained firm in their attachment to the 
Crown of England ; and they have been ready at any moment 
to come forward with fearless and ardent loyalty in defence of 
the rights of that mother country which has so ill requited their 

Assuredly England is bound in honour, and in justice, and with 
a view to her own security, and the maintenance of her hold on 
Ireland, to extend some degree of encouragement to the Protes* 
tants of Ireland ; to evince some sense of gratitude for their 
most deserving conduct ; and to assist, in all fair ways, in strength- 
ening their cause. We have no Wish to see them resume their 

The Church in Ireland. 293 

Ibnner ascendancy, even if it were possible : all they could now 
look to, is fiill protection for their lives, properties, and institu- 
tions, and fair treatment in every way. 

We will take the chief grievance under which they are now 
labouring. The exclusion of the Irish Church Education Society 
from all aid by Government, is a harsh and unfriendly proceeding. 
The Government may be of opinion that the opposition made to 
^ Board of Education is unreasonable ; but still it evidently 
|foceeds from conscientious motives, and has been sustained at 
Aeavy sacrifices of all kinds, and it certainly does seem that when, 
in England, the Government is obliged to compromise education 
matters in the best way circumstances will admit of, and when it is 
even ready to approve a system so completely founded on a system of 
eompronuse with different sects and denominations as the Manches- 
ter and Salford Education scheme, — it does seem, we say, harsh 
and inconsistent, to press for the establishment of a uniform 
system throughout Ireland. We think there ought not to be any 
real difficulty in settling the difference between the Government 
and the Church of Ireland in relation to the education question ; 
and that there would not be, if there were a disposition on both 
sides to act in a conciliatory spirit. All the Church asks is sup- 
port for schools conducted on principles she approves of. She 
DDght not, in our opinion, to interfere with the National system as 
carried out in existing schools, or with any future proceedings of 
(Government in supporting schools of the Bomish, or Presbyterian, 
or Dissenting bodies, if such steps should necessarily follow from 
any arrangement with regard to Church schools. We trust that 
the National or Government system is doing good in Ireland: 
nay, we feel assured that it is so ; because any education which 
communicates the power of reading, is calculated to shake the 
dominion of Romanism sooner or later. We believe, therefore, 
that the National schools are preparing the way for something 
better ; but, if the Protestants of Ireland feel themselves pre- 
cluded by religious principle (however mistaken that principle may 
be supposed to be) from cordially taking part in the National 
plan of education, assuredly they ought not to be pressed further, 
nor should they be left without aid or support in their effort to 
promote the education of the poor. Without the slightest assist- 
ance from the State, they educate upwards of 100,000 children \ 
about one-fifth of the number educated in the National schools 

* The Report of the Church Education Society for Ireland for 1850, states the 
number of schools at 1882, and of scholars at 108,450. For the support of these 
schools the large sum of 3iB,258^. was raised in Ireland in 1850. We trust that 
this most deserving society may be enabled to continue its exertions on their pre- 
sent scale ; but the finances evidently need continual care, and require to be 
recruited by aids from England. 


294 The Church in Ireland. 

managed by the Romish priests, the Presbyteriali ministers, ml 
the friends of the Government policy, which must, of course, be !^' 
attended by considerable numbers of Protestant children aiao. 

We are aware that the subject is one in which the interesli 
and the feelings of Irish Protestants are deeply bound up ; anl 
it may perhaps appear somewhat presumptuous in us to offer aoj ^^ 
suggestions on the subject, to those who have borne themsdvn f^> 
so nobly in the contest for great principles, as the clergy of thi 
Irish Church have done ; yet still, as spectators standing some- 
what aloof from the contest, we may possibly be enabled to take 
a calmer survey of the general character and tendencies of that 
conflict than those who are directly engaged in it, and may be l?i 
enabled to express an opinion dictated by a regard to the wider fit 
interests connected with the subject, apart from all personal con- 
siderations and party associations. 

On a survey of the present state of the question, it seems to in 
us that it would be highly desirable, were the Church ere long to 
initiate some negotiations with Government, with the view of en- 
tering into an agreement, without further appeal to Pai'liament, 
by which the Church might obtain aid from Parliamentary grants 
without compromising her own principles. 

It must be needless here to refer in detail to the reasons which 
may be adduced to show the desirableness of removing the ob- 
stacles to agreement on this important subject. That some 
settlement of the question, which would enable the Church in 
Ireland to receive aid from Government, is desirable ; that the 
funds for Church education are inadequate, and are raised with 
very considerable difficulty, may be inferred from the applications 
made to Parliament for participation in the Parliamentary grants 
for educational purposes, and from the numerous and largely- 
signed petitions presented from the clergy * and laity of Ireland, 
in support of these applications. 

But, omitting various inconveniences of a practical nature aris- 
ing out of the present state of things, we would refer only to the 
serious evil of a permanent state of difference between the Govern- 
ment and the great body of the Established Church in Ireland. 
To the members of a Church which has ever been distinguished 
for its loyalty, and which recognizes the Royal Supremacy in 
ecclesiastical matters, it must assuredly be a matter of deep 

* It is a fact most honourable to the clergy of Ireland, that notwithstanduig the 
avowed resolution of the Government to restrict its patrona|;e to those who sup- 
port the Government plan of education, there are less than 200 of the Irish clergy 
out of a body of 2000, who are favourable to that plan. See the " Speeches of the 
Bishops of Ossory and Cashel" at the Dublin Meeting, 1850, published by the 
Church Education Society, p. 30. 

I%9 Church in Ireland. 296 

Tegret, to find themselves compelled to adopt any course which is 
not in harmony with the policy of Government in matters of a 
religious nature; and nothing less than the conviction that a 
great and vital principle was compromised in the National 
veheme of education for Ireland, could have weighed with the 
Primate and the majority of the Irish prelates, and almost the 
^ole of the inferior clergy, to take steps for carrying on inde- 

Sidently the work of education in Ireland. The Reports of the 
urch Education Society, and the declarations of its leading 
mpporters, warrant us in saying, that such is a correct statement 
t>f their views, and that political and party views of any kind are 
yien from their purposes and object. Whether the Church, in 
fiust, judged aright in this point — whether a vital and essential 
principle was involved in the question — will, doubtless, furnish 
matter of question and doubt to many persons : we must confess, 
that it has always appeared to us one of those mixed and compli- 
cated cases, in which men of equal piety and sincerity, and 
attachment to the Church, might be found on different sides of 
the question. But, the position assumed by the majority of the 
Irish Church, is, at all events, clearly and unequivocally based on 
principle ; and from that principle it is impossible that they can 
now recede. They are pledged to maintain in their schools the 
•effective use of the Bible. They have upheld that principle in the 
face of the world ; and their character, as a body, is involved in 
the maintenance of the ground they have selected. 

Having thus briefly adverted to the present position of the 
Church in relation to the education question, we would offer some 
few remarks on the position of Government. Independently of 
the general interest of the State in the adjustment of differences 
and the removal of disquietude from all classes of Her Majesty's 
subjects, there is, in this case, a special inconvenience arising 
from the high character and station of many of those by whom 
the Government plan of education has been disapproved, and by 
"the consequent disapprobation of that class of the community 
which it ought to be the wish of the State to conciliate in every 
way. There is also the inconvenience arising from the apparent 
harshness and injustice evinced in refusing to the Established 
Church in Ireland any aid for schools conducted on the same 

?rinciple as those to which aid is freely extended in England, 
n addition to this, the principle of scriptural education is one 
which, at all times, appeals effectively to the national feeling in 
England. Recent events have largely strengthened that feeling ; 
and, amidst the struggles of party, it would be difficult to predict, 
with any certainty, the issue of renewed attempts in Parliament 
-to obtain for the Irish Church Education Society a share of the 

296 The Church in Ireland. 

educational grants. If that point were gained, the State wooUi 
be then supporting, in fact, two rival Societies, without exercisiog 
any control over one of them. And, be it remembered, that tbe 
minorities in favour of the Church Education Society have beoi 
increasing, and that on the last occasion no less than 144 Mein- 
bers supported by their votes Mr. Hamilton's motion. 

Under these circumstances, it would certainly seem to be 
worthy of consideration, whether some means might not be found 
for avoiding any further trials of strength, and for adjusting the 
question in an amicable spirit. We might suggest, that at 
a time when the Government have evinced their desire, to % 
certain extent, to maintain the rights of the Episcopate of 
Ireland against foreign and domestic usuipation, it might neither 
be an unpropitious season, nor an ungraceful action, were the Irish 
Ohurch to seek for the amicable ao^'ustment of her existing di& 
ferences with the Government, and thus present herself in favoiu^ 
able contrast to Bomish sedition and intolerance. 

We now proceed to offer a few suggestions which may, 
perhaps, contribute to those more practically conversant with the 
question some little aid towards the removal of the difficulties 
connected with it. 

The object of the Church, as far as we can gather it, is simply 
to maintain schools formed on such principles as she approves. 
She does not attempt to interfere with Government m the 
disposal of the educational funds. If the Gk)vemment choose to 
apply those funds to the support of schools in which the Church 
does not recognize a desirable system of teaching, the Church is 
not responsible for it, and is not on that account bound to refuse 
Government aid. 

An arrangement, then, which seems to meet some at least of 
the difficulties of the case, might be, to place the schools of the 
Church Education Society for Ireland in connexion with the 
National Board, by giving to the Jatter the right of inspection by 
inspectors approved by the archbishops — ^those schools to be eoiy- 
ducted hereafter on their present principles. 

The existing schools in connexion with the Board of Education 
would continue to he conducted on their present system ; and thus a 
very large amount of mixed education would be given on the 
Government principle. 

In the case of schools to be founded hereafter, the founders might 
be allowed the option of establishing them on the Government 
system, or on that of the Church Education Society ; or even to 
make them Boman Catholic or Presbvterian schools. We should 
not suppose that the two latter classes of schools would be 
founded to any great or inconvenient extent ; because the 

The Church in Ireland. 297 

Government system has been already adopted by the Romish priest- 
liood and by the Presbyterians. Should they be sought for, it 
irould be for the Education Board to make arrangement for their 
]iiq)ection in whatever mode they might deem advisable. 

The Government having in England adopted a system analogous 
in many respects to the above, and a favourable opinion having 
been expressed by Members of Government of the proposed Man- 
diester and Salford education scheme, which extends aid to all 
the existing schools of different denominations, it would seem, 
that in point of principle there is nothing to prevent them from 
recognizing a system of a similar character in Ireland, and thus at 
once removing the chief obstacle to the settlement of the educa- 
tion question. 

Such a plan as that suggested, would leave each party in the 
full possession of their present position. It would secure to the 
Ohurch its actual schools with the power of increasing them. It 
would secure to the Government the continuance of their own 
system in the great majority of the schools throughout Ireland^ with 
the power of increasing them. It would leave to Roman Catholics 
and Presbyterians no grounds of complaint on the score of 
injustice ; while it would hold out little prospect of such an 
increase of sectarian schools as might, on the whole, frustrate the 
objects of Government in establishing^ a united education. We 
should suppose that the Board of Education might very fairly 
hereafter refuse ite aid to new schools in any locality which might 
be established on a different principle from its own ; unless it 
could be proved on certain data, that there was ample room for 
both. It could not be, we think, expected to contribute to the 
erection of schools in local opposition to ite own, and which might 
have the eflfect of emptying the latter. Having thus stated our 
views of the possibility of some arrangement between the Church 
and the Government on the question of education, which we trust 
will be taken in good part, we would turn to a very cheering and 
gratifying subject — the prospects of Church Missions in Ireland. 

The patient and Christian conduct of many of the Irish clergy 
during the privations to which they have been frequently reduced 
— the large benevolence which they exhibited during the years of 
pestilence and famine which have lately afflicted Ireland — and 
their assiduity in the discharge of their sacred oflBces — opened te 
them the hearts of a suffering and afflicted people, and prepared 
the way for the work of Christian missions. The possibility of 
triumphing over the prejudices so deeply implanted in the minds 
of the native Irish, had been already demonstrated by the success 
of the missions established and maintained for a series of years in 
the island of Achill, by the Rev. Edward Nangle ; and at Dingle, 

VOL. XV.— NO. XXX, — JUNE, 1851. X 

298 The Church in Ireland. 

in the south-west of Ireland, a siniilar work had been crowned 
with success, not>vith8tandinff the most violent persecutions. 

From time to time the labours of some assiduous preacher, 
such as the Bev. Mr. Murray, at Askeaton, in Limerick, or ths 
clergyman at Castle-island in Kerry, had been met by the conTe^ 
sion of hundreds of his parishioners. Such oases proved, beyond 
question, the impressibility of the Irish mind, and held out en- 
couragement to systematic exertion at a favourable season. Such 
a season, as we have observed, did at length arrive ; and the work 
of missions amongst the Romanists in Connaught was commeneed 
with singular judgment, zeal, and success. The work has gn* 
dually proceeded, enlisting in its aid the services of Irish teachers, 
and converted Romish priests, until, in the diocese of Tuam alone, 
the bishop has recently been obliged to make an appeal for aid 
towards the building of no less than ten new churches for as many 
congregations of converted Romanists. 

At the commencement of this article will be found the title of 
a little publication, which comprises a series of deeply interesting 
and delightful details on the origin and progress of this greal 
work. We have before us several other publications connected 
with this movement, which bear testimony to the piety, and tbe 
excellent judgment of those who have taken its direction, and to 
the admirable organization which they have brought to bear on 
the object to which their energies are directed ; but we do not 
deem it necessary to enter into details on this point, and shall 
content ourselves with observing that the arrangements are cal- 
culated to enlist at once the most intelligent of the population in 
furtherance of the work — to approach them in the way least cal- 
culated to awaken prejudice — and to make their peculiar tastes 
and feelings subservient to the promotion of the work of conver- 
sion ; while, at the same time, the most unremitting labour and 
assiduity are ensured. 

On the general mode of action we have to ofier one or two re- 
marks. It is conducted to a very great. extent by lay agents: 
that is, all the subordinate and preparatory work is carried on by 
schoolmasters, readers, &c. Now we are aware that in the mindi 
of many persons there is a kind of apprehension that the adoption 
of lay agency in a case like this is a species of irregularity — an 
infringement on the office of the ministry — and that missions 
ought to be conducted only by ordained ministers. But we think 
that, if they will take the trouble to peruse the publications of the 
^' Irish Church Mission Society,^^ they will find that such appre- 
hensions are not borne out in this instance. They will find there, 
that lay missionaries are employed where it would be impossible 
for the clergy to obtain a hearing — where all the prejudices of the 

The Church in Ireland. 299 

people would be up in anna against them — and where it is neces- 
sary to prepare the way, by exciting attention and communicating 
knowledge^ before the clergy can be called in. When that point 
has been attained the ordained missionary is eagerly sought for, 
and the Church is constituted, and placed in connexion with the 
lawful authorities. Every experienced clergyman will feel that 
there are times and circumstances in which the co-operation of 
some agency, not wearing a formal and authoritative character, is 
eminently desirable ; ana this is supplied, as it seems to us, ex- 
actly in the right way, in the Irish Ohurch Missions. The lay 
agency is introductory and ancillary to that of the clergy. 

The latter work to which we have referred commences its in- 
teresting narrative with the year 1846, at which time the impulse 
was first given — and remarkable to say — from England. This is 
9Qt the first instance in which the work of missions has been 
attempted more successfully by comparative strangers than by 
the inhabitants. The missions of Augustine and of the Irish suc- 
ceeded in England in the sixth and seventh centuries, while the 
native Britons were unable to undertake the work. The enmity 
and prejudices which often exist amongst neighbours inter[>ose 
difficulties, while some third party may mterfere with much more 
eflCecti Thus it was in this case : many of the Irish Protestants 
looked on the attempt to convert Romanists as perfectly hopeless, 
in consequence of the overwhelming power of the Irish priesthood ; 
but the work was commenced with success by earnest-minded 
men from this country, and it has been successful. 

The following account of the steps taken in this work will be 
perused with interest ' : — 

**It appears that, since the fiamine in 1846, the minds of the people 
have been gradually prepared for the reception of the faithful and affec- 
tionate preaching of the Gospel. Some simultaneous movement was 
made in England at this time, on behalf of the Romanist population in 
Ireland, to supply some thousands of them with tracts (it is computed 
not less than 20 or 30,000, at the least), through the medium of 
the Post-office : leading them to suspect that their priests had an object 
hi keeping them from reading the Word of God ; some important texts 
of which were also enclosed, together with an account of the reformation 
then going on in Germany under Ronge and Czerski, with copies of the 
Articles of Faith, which * The German Catholic Church * drew up. 
These tracts — one in Irish and the other in English — the titles of which 
were, * A Voice from Heaven,* and * A look out of Ireland into Ger- 
many,' produced a most extraordinary effect upon the people — the 
tradesmen and farmers to whom they were addressed ; Romanists only 

' Rise and Progress of Irish Church Mission Society, pp. 


SOO The Church in Ireland. 

received them, but no one knew whence they came, or by whom tbey 
were sent. 

" This well-devised and extensive scheme was not the only one of the 
kind, for, in August and September following, a similar mode of iropartF' 
ing knowledge and diffusing light amongst the benighted Irish was 
adopted with still greater success. Upon the second occasion the 
people generally seemed to profit by the experience of the past ; and 
great numbers of persons, who were suspected of having received a 
letter took every possible care to conceal the fact, lest the priest should 
denounce them from the altar, and demand that the tracts be burned. 
Most of the letters on this occasion came from Edinburgh, though some 
passed through the office in London. The title of the tract referred to 
is, ' Irishmen's Rights.* It is written in a homely, cheerful style, in 
the form of a dialogue, proving that every Irishman has a right to read 
the Bible for himself. 

" A third letter, enclosing a copy of the * Food of Man,' was also 
forwarded soon afterwards, followed by three important addresses to 
the priests, all which are published at length in a work entitled — ' The 
Point of Hope in Ireland's present Crisis.' " 

The way was also prepared by the rigour with which the 
Bomish priesthood exacted their fees and dues from the people, 
and the failure of the miracles which they pretended to work for 
the cure of the potato-disease by sprinkling holy water on the 
potato-stalks ! 

At this crisis the Eev. A. B. C. Dallas, an English clergyman, 
whose extensive and practical acquaintance with the Bomish 
system during his residence in foreign countries, and his frequent 
controversies with intelligent Bomanists, combined with an early 
familiarity with the habits of military organization and discipline, 
eminently fitting him for the arduous undertaking of establish- 
ing missions in Ireland, undertook an extensive tour through- 
out that country, and addressed, in 1846, to the editor of the 
" Morning Herald '' a letter comprising the following passages :— 

** ' The present crisis is one which, amongst other symptoms, leaves 
the door wide open for an extension of those efforts which have been 
hitherto so blessed. The progress already made has prepared the minds 
of the people ; and I cannot but consider the machinery of the Society, 
already referred to, as a peculiar adaptation, by the providence of 
God, for the crisis that has now arisen. There is no time to form any 
other plan, or to organize any other machine ; and none could be more 
suitable for the occasion, to the requirements of which, however, it must 
rise in power, in order to fulfil the great purpose in view. 

** * The present concurrence of facilities invites to a decided and 
prompt effort for the enlightening and spiritual emancipation of the 
Irish people ; but the moment must not be lost. The current of feel- 
ing now agitating the Irish heart flows fast, and it must be taken at the 

The Church in Ireland. 301 

lop of the tide. The emergency is pressing, and it calls for an imme- 
diate addition of power to the engine, by which adequate help is to be 
afforded. At least a hundred Irish readers should be immediately en- 
gaged and located in districts all over the west of Ireland. Thirty 
pounds is all that would be required to pay each of these for a year ; 
aad within that time the crisis would have been directed for good, by 
their instrumentality. But the effort would not be complete without a 
simultaneous offer of the Holy Scriptures in Irish and in English. Fifty 
or sixty colporteurs, carrying, amongst other things, very cheap Testa- 
ments, in both languages, and travelling in every direction, would sup- 
ply this want. I would venture to suggest that some properly qualified 
parsons should undertake to propose to the people of England the 

gathering of a special fund to be thus employed And why 

should not those among us, who know the value of religious truth, and 
have the means at their command, employ those means in seizing this 
favourable opportunity V " 

The result of Mr. Dallas^s exertions was the collection of a 
large fund in England — which was applied in aid of existing 
Church Societies, and especially in furtherance of Church Mis- 
sions. The plans of those who were engaged in this truly blessed 
work gradually expanded, and it was resolved to establish regularly 
organized missions in various parts of Ireland. We shall only 
produce one instance of the course which was adopted ; and it is 
in truth one which is enough to make '^ our hearts bum within 

" The first place chosen for operations of a permanent nature', under 
the more immediate superintendence of Mr. Dallas (whilst seeking re- 
creation and health in a ramble through the mountains of Galway), was 
a poor and miserable locality on the beautiful shores of Lough Corrib, 
called Castelkerke, where the school-house, originally built by the Rev. 
Edwin Moore and Captain and Mrs. Blake, was soon considerably en- 
larged. The nearest place of Protestant worship was fully fourteen 
English miles off, at Cong, which belongs to the same parochial division 
—the parish being eighteen miles in length, and nearly half as much 
in breadth. 

" In the space of about five English miles, in which Castelkerke 
stands centrally, there is a population of full 2000 souls ; of these, in 
consequence of early marriages, there are at least 500 children within 
the reach of the school-house. Upon opening the school, thirty-nine 
children were enrolled upon the list, thirty of whom were Roman 
Catholics ; and, as it is placed in connexion with the Church Education 
Society of Ireland, two important objects have been secured — first, that 
the children attending shall receive a good sound secular education in 
coi^nexion with the unrestricted use of the Scriptures, which alone can 
• make them wise unto salvation;' and secondly, that, during the school 
hours at least, they shall be kept from the baneful infiuence of the 

302 The Church in, Ireland. 

priests of Rome, who are not allowed to exercise any authority whatever 
in the schools of the Church Edacation Society fbr Ireland. 

*' The Ladies' Auxiliary of that most excellent institution, the Irish 
Society, assisted by the * Special Fund for the Spiritual Exigencies of 
Ireland/ lent their assistance in procuring the means of supporting an 
Irish reader among the people; and soon the school-house was filled to 
excess on Sundays, and on other occasions, to hear the glad tidings of 
salvation declared to them. Mr. Dallas afterwards procured for them the 
blessing of an ordained resident missionary, whose labours in another 
sphere we shall have occasion to refer to. The kindness of several 
Christian friends, who interested themselves in procuring food and cloth- 
ing for the famishing bodies of the poor in this locality, can never be 
forgotten ; and the care the people of Wonston took to supply their 
souls with the still more necessary food, even ' the bread of life,* in 
undertaking to collect the salary of the Scripture- reader who n^as then 
settled there, will prove, in the great day of the Lord, that * their labour 
was not in vain,* and will be remembered to them (Heb. vi. 10) through- 
out eternity, when time shall be no more. 

'* The increased number of children attending the Castelkerke schools 
from the opposite side of the lough, now made it necessary to provide a 
larger and safer ferry-boat to convey them to and fro, called ' the school 
boat,* the materials having been liberally supplied by Captain Blake, 
the excellent resident landlord, whose exertions, combiiied with those 
of Mrs. Blake (which have since proved more than her slender frame 
and tender sympathies could bear), have greatly tended to advance the 
cause of the missions throughout the whole district from the first. 

•* An evening school was also opened, which has proved of great 
value; and the effect of the whole has been, that on the 12th of 
March, 1847) as many as fifty-four persons expressed their determina- 
tion to leave the Church of Rome. On the 8th of April, the number 
on the day-roll was one hundred and sixteen, and on the night one, 
forty-three, exclusive of stragglers not entered ; and on the 22nd day 
of the same month a letter was written to Mr. Dallas, by Captain and 
Mrs. Blake, from which I quote the following : — 

'* * The school is still increasing. I must enlarge the school-room. 
What was intended as accommodation for the master was built as a 
continuation of the school- room, and only requires to have the end wall 
taken away to make the necessary addition : it is now ready for roofingi 
and will soon be completed. One hundred and fifty-three liast Sunday 
at morning school, upwards of forty at lecture, and thirty at afternoon 
class ; about twelve at the Irish class. 

" * April 26. — ^You would have been much delighted had you been 
with us yesterday. The school-house was quite crammed at Sunday 
school ; and there were, at least, eighty at lecture ; they paid great 

** * May 4. — Thank God the schools are not affected by any thing, 
but continue daily to do well. 

** ' May 22. — On Sunday two classes had to be taught in the open 

The Church in Ireland, 303 

ftir. It was a pleasant sight to see the poor ignorant people sitting 
round the teachers on the ground, listening to the Word of Life in their 
own tongue, and apparently with deeply-interested attention : few re- 
Ctise to hear the Word now ; of course the object of many is very 
^aestionable, but who can tell where an arrow may strike.' 

*• These pleasing reports which Mr. Dallas received, during the sum- 
mer of 1847» of the progress of the spiritual work at the little missionary 
station at Castelkerke induced him to visit Lough Corrib again in De- 
cember, and encourage the labourers in their work. * Mass ' was to be 
said on the following day by the priest, in the mass-house (which was 
oaaal on every third Sunday) ; moreover, a faction-fight had been ap- 
pointed tx> take place 'after mass,' very near the spot where mass was said, 
which was sure to draw a number of idlers together ; yet upwards of 160 
adults, and 147 children, all Romanists, attended Mr. Dallas's lecture 
in the school-room, when he tested the feelings of his auditors by asking 
for a show of hands, from ** as many as were willing to form themselves 
into a regular congregation, if he should be able to obtain for them a 
regular ministry in their own Irish tongue, separating themselves from 
the bondage of that yoke of falsehood which had so long enslaved them, 
and seeking to be admitted, through the knowledge of Christ, into the 
glorious liberty of the children of God.' He bid all who felt thus to 
* hold up their hands ; ' on which, when the Irish Scripture Reader had 
interpreted to them, m Irish, what was not so well understood by them 
in English, every arm was raised/ 

" The Rev. Edwin Moore, Rector of Cong, had not been unmindful 
of the state of things in this extreme end of his parish. He had fre- 
quently, although at great labour, given a large share of his attention 
to the people residing in and about Castelkerke ; from the earliest 
formation of the school he superintended the teaching, and devoted one 
week-day in every alternate week to spiritual instruction in the school- 
room, which, under all the circumstances of his extensive charge, in a 
time of extraordinary destitution and distress, was more than could have 
been expected ; nor was the bishop of the diocese kept in ignorance of 
diis great movemi^nt ; on being made acquainted with the facts, he 
manifested every disposition to do whatever could be done with pro- 
priety in the matter, and having made every inquiry, his lordship, on 
the personal representation of Mr. Dallas and the Rector of Cong, con- 
sented to ordain Mr. O'Callaghan, an intelligent Irish-speaking mis- 
sionary, well suited for the work, whom Mr. Dallas had previously in 
training at Wonston, and engaged on the missions in Connemara from 
the first; -the foundation-stone of whose parsonage was laid by Mr. 
Dallas and Captain Blake, on the 17th day of February, 1848." 

We would not give much for the principles or feelings of any 
Churchman who would not from his inmost heart rejoice to read 
of such things, and who would not cordially aid,- as far as he 
could, in the support of a work like this. It is true that the 
leaders of the Society are, we believe, of the class usually called 

S04 The Church in Ireland. 

Evangelical, but a work like this evidently requires perfect har- 
mony of view and action amongst its managers ; and, be the views 
of those managers what they may, they are engaged in a work 
second in importance to no missionary work of our times. We 
would gladly transfer to our pages much of what is comprised in 
the interesting tract which appears last on our list, '^ Early Fruits 
of Irish Missions C but here is some little account of the state 
of things after only four years^ exertion in this promising field of 
missionary labour : — 

" But, turning from the entreaties for help which the Secretary has 
received from the clergy in various parts of the country — calls which 
the funds of the Society make it impossible to respond to — the ques- 
tion of a subscriber will naturally be, What has the Society done among 
the people ? and to this inquiry my visit to Dublin in the first place 
would supply ample materials for a satisfactory answer. Mr. McCarthy, 
the valuable clerical agent of the Society here, bears testimony to the 
continually progressive work of reformation, which is evident amongst 
the Romanists of this city, and the blessing which is attending the va- 
rious means the Society is employing for their conversion. A sermon 
on some point of the Romish controversy is preached at St. Michan's 
every Thursday. I heard one by Mr. Nangle, on the doctrine of Tran- 
substantiation ; and another on the Invocation of Saints, by Mr. Dallas; 
in both cases the church was crowded, and the attention riveted, and 
the readers assured me that there were several hundred Romanists. 
The effect is so felt, that Roman Catholic missionaries have come for- 
ward to endeavour to controvert the subjects of the sermons on the 
Thursdays, and to stem the torrent of heresy which they feel breaking 
in among their people ; for it is a fact, that many who constantly attend 
both churches have their eyes thus opened to judge of truth and error 
by the standard of the Word of God. 

** Another great means of blessing is a class of inquirers which Mr. 
McCarthy holds every Friday evening ; and a more interesting scene it 
is impossible to describe than the one at which I was present. There 
were sixty-two sitting around him with their Bibles in their hands — all) 
except six, either just come out of Popery, or, if still within its pale, 
having taken that first great step which, as it were, unlocks the heaviest 
bolt of the dungeon — all brought to inquire of Scripture as the rule of 
faith — to bring their long-embraced errors * to the law and to the testi- 
mony.* The fifth of Romans was the subject of one evening, and 
the doctrine of justification, from ver. 1 — 5, was powerfully urged upon 
them by Mr. McCarthy, who showed them the fallacy of the Romish 
doctrines in all its coils of error, questioning them so that by their own 
mouths they were condemned, and wresting from them every refuge of 
lies. I noticed one among them gradually remove from the class, and 
at last leave the room, saying, * The Priest has satisfied my mind on this 
point, and I do not want to hear any more.' Others, and among them 
some very respectable tradesmen, appeared to feel the power of truth, 

Ths Church in Ireland. S05 

and to receive it in love — their countenances quite beamed with the light 
that shone on their hearts. This school of inquiry was begun and 
ended with prayer for the light of the Holy Spirit. I believe similar 
classes have been commenced by other clergymen, in other parts of the 
city; and their tendency is uniformly, to lead many minds, like the 
Bereans, to search the Scriptures daily. 

" There are now readers in various parts of Dublin under this Society, 
whose work is to visit exclusively the Roman Catholics. These are 
superintended by M. McGuigan, who has been twelve years employed 
in missionary work, and who unites with ardent love to the souls of his 
fellow-creatures, singular simplicity of purpose and discrimination of 
judgment ; and all these men are under Mr. McCarthy, who is parti- 
cularly fitted for his work, adding to all the qualifications of a Christian 
minister much sound scholarship and critical accuracy of mind in the 
handling of controversial subjects. He receives the journals of the 
readers, and instructs them in their work once a week. Mr. Dallas met 
them to inquire into the conduct of each ; and he rejoiced to receive 
such a testimony as proved that they were, as a body, self-denying, 
active, and obedient agents in the work." — pp. 8 — 10. 

From the missions in Dublin, the writer next takes us to those 
in the west of Ireland, and thus describes the present state of 
things there : — 

" Mr. Dallas has been endeavouring to put the whole of this neg- 
lected country under missionary agency, and in nothing has the hand of 
God been more manifest than in the supply of those agents, and in 
their peculiar adaptation to the work. Within the last two years, five 
have been ordained by the Bishop of Tuam ; all having been first proved 
as lay assistants ; and two are now sent into the southern parts, men 
Well approved and preparing for ordination. Mr. Conelly will there 
be missionary clergyman over the district which extends from Galway to 
Lettermore, and Mr. Jagoewill be the pastoral superintendent of Erris- 
anna. Mr. R. Ryder, a reformed priest, has the district of Ballyconree ; 
Mr. Conerney, the wild region of Sellema ; Mr. Kilbride, that of 
Brrismore ; Mr. Kennedy has Salruck ; and Mr. Moinah is stationed 
at Olan and Oughterard. These have all readers and schoolmas- 
ters under them, and in some cases Irish teachers. The Bishop of 
Tuam bears the strongest testimony to the value of these missionary 
clergymen. To the praise of that grace which has fitted them for their 
work, their simplicity of spirit, their diligent self-denial, and their faith- 
ful constancy in the midst of persecution and insult, are manifest to all. 
Perhaps the strongest testimonies to them are afforded by the array of 
opposition, and the weapons with which the enemy seeks to crush them 
and their work. 

**The agents, working under them, are also efficient and faithful. 
They were all inspected upon the occasion of this journey. At Ough- 
terard Mr. Dallas met twenty-two — ^heard the testimony of their super- 
intendents — altered or changed their labours — and gave them a solemn 

306 The Church in Ireland. 

address, urging them in meekness to instruct those that oppose them- 
selves ; and arming them against the fiery trial they have to encounter. 
At Ciifden Castle (where they have hitherto been sheltered and encou- 
raged by those whose Christian love, and holy zeal, and wise judgment 
have been a rich blessing to ^U around) thirty-six of the Society's 
agents assembled to meet Mr. Dallas. It was a day of arduous work 
to listen to each separately — give to each their work afresh (having first 
conferred with all the clergy, and arranged every district) — and tlien to 
address them all on the spirit in which they should go forth, and the 
encouragements which were before them. He urged them to be faithful 
and courageous, taking as the groundwork of his address. Judges vii. 
1 — 8, and Matt. x. ; and closing with fervent prayer for grace, and for 
blessing on them and their work. It was striking in every meeting of 
this kind how little there was to reprove, and how much had been done 
by these poor men, who were evidently growing in their work — watered 
themselves, as they watered others, from the living spring. 

'* The residences of the missionaries are but a few degrees bett^ than 
the cabins around them ; and the simplicity of their mode of living in 
these barren wilds would somewhat astonish the most unaspiring of the 
English clergy. 

** But one more testimony must yet be referred to, — the fruits of the 
mission among the people generally. Had it been permitted to the 
labourers of the last two years only to sow in hope and to exercise 
long patience, it would have afforded no cause for wonder ; but it is 
given them to gather already a harvest of souls — to see, as well as to 
hope, that their labour is not in vain in the Ijord. The Society has 
been the means of forming thirteen congregations of converts, who 
unite in the school-room or cabin to join in the Irish service, or to hear 
the word preached in their own tongue. Their attention is very marked. 
To select one instance alone. We attended the service one Sunday at 
Sellerna, seven Irish miles from Ciifden, a wild district along the bay 
of the Atlantic. When Mr. Dallas first visited this people two years 
ago, they were without school, Bible, or any means of grace. He as- 
sembled the people by the road-side to hear the word of God. He 
then offered to obtain for them a school, provided they would promise 
to attend themselves, and send their children. The question was re- 
peated in Irish, adding, ' let those who are thus disposed hold up their 
hands.' The hands of all assembled were held up at once. The school 
was promptly built through individual liberality. The mission was 
begun — their present devoted minister, Mr. Conerney, was ordained by 
the Bishop of Tuam, and is now resident amongst them ; and the early 
fruit of his missionary ministry is evident in harvest sheaves of blessing. 

** The neat white school-room was crammed with people. At least 
between four and five hundred were waiting for the service when we ar- 
rived ; and this in spire of threats from the Romanists, in the previous 
week, that they would pull down the house if he preached there. The 
service was read in Irish by Mr. Conerney ; and though a mob assem- 
bled near the house, and their appearance was most disturbing, the 

The Church in Ireland* 307 

people showed no alftrm, and were distracted in attention only for a 
Kbort tinve. The sermon, hy Mr. Dallas, was evidently felt ; and the 
leoinniunion was afterwards administered hy him and the other clergy 
present, to seventy-one persons ; ahout sixty of whom were converts, 
^faose reverent demeanour was most striking. Mr. Conerney said 
&itt there were hetween sixty and seventy catechumens, who had ear- 
nestly desired to join the communion that day; but he had not admitted 
them, that he might have more time to judge of their consistency, and 
Tight apprehension of the Sacrament. He also added that, in this district 
«f 2000, he thooj^ht that at least half were ready to become Protestants 
in profession. But the barrier of most fearful opposition has as yet 
kept many from coming out publicly in the midst of persecution, 
ivhich leaves the converts without work, starved and naked ; the land 
wound them having been lately bought by Papists, the converts are 
eicposed to suffering beyond many of the stations. The details of the 
opposition which we witnessed you have read in the clergyman's let- 
ters I have referred to ; and you will rejoice to hear, that in all this 
most persecuted district only one convert has relapsed. The inhabitants 
of all the district earn their scanty subsistence by fishing. The priests 
not only influenced the masters to exclude every convert from the fish- 
ing trade, but also, hy cursing them and their boats, made the people 
around believe that no success could possibly attend them if they had 
'jumpers,' as they call them, in their crews. Numbers of these poor 
people Would have died of starvation, had not some Christian friends 
exerted themselves on their behalf. With subscriptions, chiefly from 
Scotland, they bought two boats for convert fishermen, and bad them 
taught how to cure their fish in an improved way, which secured to them 
increased custom, beyond their old companions. When we were at 
Sellema, there had been no fishing weather for some days ; and on that 
Sunday morning Mr. Dallas had an opportunity of seeing the evidence 
of their consistency in the observance of the Sabbath. The sea to the 
ftx distant horizon was dotted with fishing boats, of which twenty-three 
were counted ; two boats were, however, in the bay by the quay un- 
manned. On asking why those boats were not out with the others, the 
reply from a Romanist was, ' Those are the jumpers* boats, and they do 
not go out on a Sunday.' 

" There was indeed, at every station, precious evidence that the Lord 
is working with his ministers, and ' confirming the word with signs 
following.* At Ballyconree, Mr. Ryder mentioned that, with the ex- 
ception of two families, he might consider the whole village as being 
favourable to the truth. Here also Mr. Dallas administered the Lord's 
Supper, for the first time, to sixty-five converts, who had been under 
preparatory instruction from their minister since their Confirmation. 
He afterwards baptized two children at this station. At the same time 
the first stone of a. new school-room was laid; the cabin where the 
school was kept, and in which also they met for service, being too small 
for one-third of the congregation who attended. . I must pass over two 
other most interesting scenes of a similar kind, one at Derrigimla, and 

SOS The Church in Ireland. 

another at Glan ; in each of which a new school-room, to serve also as 
a church, has been commenced : and the sites were densely filled with 
congregations of several hundreds, who with joyous hearts listened to 
Mr. Dallas's address, and joined in his prayer for a blessing upon the 
work, with the life of feeling, the expression of which is so peculiar to 
Ireland. In all these placcR, the increase of converts, and of scholars, 
had made the present hovel school-houses quite incapable of containing 
the children qr the congregations. 

'* I cannot close without one word on the instruction supplied to the 
children. The Society has twenty-eight schools in this county. To 
each of those we visited there has been fearful opposition by the priests; 
who, by bribes and by punishments of no gentle measure, endeavour to 
bring the children back to their schools. Can it be expected that these 
blind leaders of the blind should witness 2500 children rescued from 
their grasp without vexation and dismay ? Can we wonder that every 
effort should be used by the powers of Satan to regain possession of the 
future generation of Ireland, and to destroy that seed of Scriptural 
truth, which shall ultimately be their ruin ? Yet in these schools do 
we witness the strength of God perfected in weakness, — his praise out 
of the mouth of babes and sucklings. Some few have been drawn 
away for a time ; but in no school, mnch as the children suffer from 
hunger, is there long or material diminution of numbers. Every new 
school that is established is quickly filled ; in many the power of the 
truths they learn is manifest, out of school, in their answers to the 
Romanists ; and the beating and ill treatment these little ones have 
received has only made them more firm and bold in confessing the fjEiith 
of Christ, having an answer from the Bible always ready for the 

After perusing these remarkable and striking accounts of the 
Irish missions, we may fairly appeal to our readers, whether 
any instances can be pointed out in the history of modern mis- 
sions in which a greater measure of success has attended the 
exertions of Christian missionaries. There is no comparison 
between the effects produced here, and those produced in heathen 
countries. And yet the general opinion — and we own ourselves 
to have shared in that opinion — was, that the persecution of 
converts was so violent in Ireland, and the prejudices of the 

f)eople so strong, that a mission to the heathen would be more 
ikely to be successful than one to the Romanists of Ireland. Its 
diiBculties are undoubtedly great ; and we must say that, humanly 
speaking, nothing else except the remarkable combination of 
Christian wisdom with charity which was shown in the commence- 
ment of the Irish missions could have rendered them successful. 
To the Rev. A. Dallas the cause appears to be chiefly indebted, 
and yve must say, that his labours and his zeal appear to be truly 

I%e Church in Ireland. S09 

And now, having endeavoured to present a brief outline of the 
issions of the Church in Ireland, which bid fair to be as success- 
il as the most earnest of her well-wishers could desire, we would 
pneal to every one who really prefers Protestantism to Bomanism, 
rh^er a Church, which is ^>able of carrying od such missions; 
3 not doing its work in Ireland, and whether the imputation of 
ipathy, or indolence, or inefficiency, can any longer be with justice 

We are far from meaning to deny that until recently the 
Church of Ireland has remained, to a great degree, stationary — 
that in some districts it may even have lost ground within the 
last century — that the Reformation was never carried out success- 
fully in Ireland — and that the objects which the State hoped to 
have seen carried out through the Church Establishment have 
been but partially realized. But, admitting all this, we are pre- 
pared to show that the Church is not fairly chargeable with these 
evils ; that they are attributable to the state of society in Ireland, 
and to the neglect of former Governments ; and that, as the cir- 
cumstances in which the Church now stands are different from 
those in which she formerly stood, it may be reasonably expected 
that a success will now attend her efforts which did not attend 
them formerly. 

The Reformation was successful in England in carrying with it 
the great mass of the people. In Ireland the case was not so. 
The Reformation was planted in a soil unGtted to retain it; 
it was not supported by adequate power : it was violently 
assailed before it had time to take root ; and it was made 
unpopular by its connexion with the English Government. The 
Episcopate, the clergy, and most of the laity conformed for a 
time ; but rebellion, stirred up by foreign powers, and continued 
for a whole generation, detached the greater part of the popula- 
tion from their bishops and from the Reformed Church, and re- 
established the power of the Papacy. The condition of Ireland 
was extremely unfavourable to the Reformation. In the six- 
teenth century there was neither civilization, education, or settled 
law — Ireland was in a state of barbarism. There were no schools 
or universities ; unlike England, which could boast of the Uni- 
versities of Oxford and Cambridge, and the Colleges at Eton, and 
Winchester, and elsewhere ; and the whole population were sunk 
in dense ignorance. The invention of printing, which in other 
countries promoted inquiry, was unknown for a long time in Ire- 
land — in fact, till hng after the introduction of the Reformation : 
the Irish language, then nearly universal, opposed an impediment 
in the way of English preachers. The country had been in 
a state of barbarous anarchy for three centuries, during which 

310 Tie Church in Ireland. 

England had not thought it worth her while to do more than 
retain a certain territory in Ireland called the English ^' pate,"" 
with the nominal suzerainty over the remainder. The greater 
part of Ireland was under the dominion of petty kings, priDoea, 
and chieftains of various kinds, and presented a strange scene of 
never-ending tumult, outrage, murder, and piUage, — only varied by 
occasional rebellion against the English power. 

The historical work, the title of which we have first mentioned 
at the commencement of this Article, is one which throws much 
light on the state of society generally in Ireland during the ages 
which preceded the Reformation. It consists of the Latin annals 
of Ireland, compiled by John Glyn, a friar of the Franciscan Con- 
vent at Kilkenny, in the fourteenth century, with continuations 
by other bands ; together with a chronicle of about the same 
date, written at the Abbey of New Boss, in Wexford; and a 
later chronicle compiled by Thady Dowling, Chancellor of the 
Cathedral of Leighhn, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. These 
curious chronicles, which form a part of the valuable series of 
publications on Irish history and antiquities undertaken by the 
Irish Archseological Society, have been most ably and carefully 
edited by the Very Bev. B. Butler, Dean of Clonmacnois, whose 
reputation as a scholar and an antiquarian is fully sustained by 
the work before us. The preface which Dean Butler has prefixed 
to his edition of Clyn^s Annals exhibits a thorough acquaintance 
with the state of Ireland during the period preceding the Be- 
formation ; and v/e feel that, in quoting the words of so careful a 
student of history, we are in no danger of over-stating the case. 

Dean Butler observes that, during the reigns of King John 
and Henry III., the English authority appeared about to con- 
solidate itself in Ireland. The country was divided into shires; 
the king'*s justices made their circuits ; the bishoprics were filled 
with the royal licence ; the Irish chieftains paid their tribute, 
and obeyed the royal summons, and seem to have considered 
themselves as English lords : the country was peaceful and 
prosperous, and the English treasury was enriched by money 
transmitted from Ireland. Feuds there were between different 
families, but not to the extent to which they afterwards arose. 
But in the reign of Edward I. the English Government appears 
to have withdrawn attention from Ireland to Scotland, and 
advantage was taken of this remissness by Edward Bruce, who, 
with a Scottish army, invaded and laid waste a great part of 
Ireland, — an event from which the decline of the English power, 
and the commencement of Irish anarchy, may be dated. To cite 
Dean Butler'*s words: — 

"Many gener^jn^iaased before the devastating effects of the 

The Church in Ireland. 311 

^^^littish kivaskm, passing thus like a stream of lava, through the 

itiy, were done. away. The aoimosity between the English and 

Irish was embittered, the sense of the greatness of the English 

1^4 {ftlrer was diminished, the authority of law and order was impaired, the 

/^ fltot/e and the farm-house were alike ruined. The oastle was more 

^inlj rebuilt than the more important farm-house. The noble may 

'Qftve had other resources ; in later times we know that his castle was 

X^pured at the expense of the district ; he was bound by stronger ties 

to the country;, and when his castle was rebuilt, it was at least com- 

JMratively secure : but when the homestead was wrecked and burned, 

nod the haggard robbed of its stacks, and the bawn left without horse 

or eow, and * all his gear were gone,' the farmer, as he looked about 

lum m despair, might well be excused if he fied away to some safer 

•Duntry ; or if, listejiing to hunger, that evil counsellor, he became an 

jdilnian or a kerne, ready to plunder as he had been plundered, and 

eating up the produce of other men's labours. 

" If be endeavoured to remain, what was before him, but, poor and 
dispirited, deprived of bis accustomed comforts, and of his comparative 
respectability, to sink hopelessly into a lower stage of society, and to 
yield to its customs ; or rather to turn in sullen or in passionate anger 
from the civilization in which he no longer had a share, and to 
resent, as an injury, the existence of comforts which were his 
once, but were to be his no more, and to hate and to scorn their 
possessors ? 

" Such, doubtless, was the history of the degradation of many 
English freeholders consequent upon the Scottish invasion ; nor could 
the degradation be limited to the retainer alone. In a country in which 
there is no foreign interference, no rank of society can stand apart from 
others, and in proportion to its height it needs the more numerous 
supporters. The castle-walls can no more keep out the influence of the 
social maxims and principles of the lower ranks of the people than they 
can keep out the contagion of their diseases, and the lord necessarily 
partook of the degradation of the vassal. 

" To the Scottish invasion, then, may, at least partly, be ascribed the 
barbarism and the consequent weakness of the English in Ireland 
during the greater part of the fourteenth and the whole of the fifteenth 
century. In the thirty years that elapsed between that, event and the 
close of Clyn's Annals, that barbarism had made great progress. The 
power of the central government grew weaker ; the lords, whether of 
Irish or of English blood, became more independent and irresponsible, 
and, consequently, more arbitrary and tyrannical ; and private feuds, 
resulting in open violence, became of more frequent occurrence. The 
control of law nearly ceased, and little remained, as a rule of conduct, 
except the will of the stronger. It then became a question whether 
this anarchy should continue, or whether it should result in the preva* 
lence of either the English or the Irish system, or, as seemed more 
probable and more reasonable, whether some third system should not 

SIS Tie Ciurck im Irdcmi. 

be derelopecL Jbrmed from tiie imalganuition of these two, and tkl 
juannl irrowtb of tbe drcamitaiioes of this country. " — pp. 15, 16. 

IVeftn Butler tmces. with much distinctness, the progress of 
deCTft^tSoD bv wUch mil Imws. whether English or Irish, became 
gndinlhr obsvJete. mod the oountiy presented a scene of savage 
disstension sod amrrhT. He prooiBeds to some further detail, 
nUch we mnsi pUce before the reader : — 

** Daring the times cootiined in these mnnsls the English Goven- 
nent hsd diM power to oontiol the excesses of its subjects, or to reprea 
the ST ticks of its oppooents. The great Anglo-Irish families had become 
septs. In Clyn's Latin, the St. Anbjns, now cormpted into Tobini, 
and the Archdeacons* now tnnslbnned into the patronymic Mac Odos, 
or Cod3rs, are * naciovies et ec^rnomina ;' and he speaks of the Hoddi- 
Beis and Cantetons, *cnm mollis de sanguine eorum.' If the Irah 
chiefs acknovledged no common authority, and felt no common interest, 
the same diTision prerailed amongst the lords of English descent 
Enirlishman was nov opposed to Englishman, and sought to revenge 
himself hy xhe help of the Irish ; nor did the English refuse their aid 
to the Irish when plundering their own countrymen. When Brien 
O'Brien raraged O^tt, and slew the loyal English of Aghaboe and 
Agharoacart, he had the help of the English of Ely. 

** The country was fast veiging towards anarchy, and it was not 
easy to suy its descent. The svord of the Lord Justice, if pat into 
the hands of any of the native Lords, of the Ormondes or of the Kil- 
daies« was used as an instrument to avenge their own wrongs, or to 
promote their own interests, rather than to execute impartial jastice, 
and to promote the welfare of the whole country. Such also was the 
ease during the lieutenancy of any of the great English lords, who had 
estates or claims in Ireland, such as the great Mortimers ; and, perhaps, 
nothing brought the royal authority into greater disrepute than the use 
of it by these men as a cover for private revenge or for private gain. 
Nor were the evils fewer, if the administration of the government was 
intrusted to Englishmen unconnected with this country. Men of 
eminence, so situated, would scarcely accept the office ; we know that 
Pemhridge altogether refused it ; and men of inferior rank and repu- 
tation, when invested with deputed and transient authority, were 
scorned by the haughty Irish lords, and were freely charged by them, 
and perhaps justly charged, with the grossest peculation and malver- 
sation. The castles of Athlone, Roscommon, Rinduin, and Bunratty, — 
say the Irish lords to Edward in 1343, — were lost, because his 
treasurers did not pay the constables the wages charged in theif 
accounts; and they continued to charge for castles and constableSf 
after the castles had been destroyed. Officials liable to such impU"* 
tations could have no moral influence ; and when some sturdy and 
honest man, like Sir Thomas Rokeby, who sold his plate to pay his 
soldiers, saying that he would eat off wooden platters and pay in gold 
and silver, — or when some bold and vigorous soldiers, like Sir Robert 

Tie Church in Ireland. 313 

Jfford, or Sir Anthony Lucy, held the King's commission, — they 
nrere hampered hy the narrowness of their allowances, and were 
;hwarted hy the old peers and ancient officials. The very success of 
^eir exertions brought with it no lasting national advantage. If they 
lut down disturbance for a time, and reduced the English dominions 
:o order and submission, yet, at the termination of their authority, 
;here was a renewal of lawlessness; and the only lasting effect of 
:heir vigour was the weakening of the national props and buttresses 
3f internal government, and the consequent increase of anarchy and 
^sturbance. " — pp. 1 9 — 2 1 . 

A melancholy and dark picture indeed ! And this was the 
state of things which continued almost to the period of the 
Beformation, and formed the minds and habits of the people who 
were to be reformed ! There could not well be a more unfavour- 
able soil for reformation of any kind to take root in. These 
people were, without doubt, superstitious, but religion had no 
nold in them ; they were utterly demoralized and degraded. 

" The social evils of Ireland," says Dean Butler, " in the time now 
under our review, seem to have been but little mitigated by the influence 
of religion. When the Anglo-Irish nobles were gradually falling into 
Irish customs, and were confederating, whenever it served their purpose, 
as readily with Irish against English as with English against Irish, we 
find national differences and dissensions, where we should least wish 
to find them, in the monastery and the convent. Although the autho- 
rities, as well ecclesiastical as civil, favoured the English party, the 
strife seems not to have been altogether unequal. * In 1325,* writes 
Clyn, ' there was discord, as it were universally, amongst all the poor 
^Hgious of Ireland, some of them upholding, promoting, and cherishing 
tbe part of their own nation, and blood, and tongue ; others of them 
J^anvassing for the offices of prelates and superiors.' And he adds, that 
iQ the same year, at the general chapter of the Order, held at 
tyons, the convents of Cork, Buttevant, Limerick, and Ardfert, were 
^ken from the Irish friars, and assigned as a fifth custody to the 

" In those evil days neither the persons nor the places dedicated 
^ religion were safe from violence. We read in Clyn : 

" * In the year 1323, on the Friday within the octaves of Easter, 
Philip Talon, with his son and about twenty-six of the Codhlitanys, 
»as slain by Edmund Butler, Rector of TuUow, who, aided by the 
vantitons, dragged them out of the church, and burned the church of 
Phamolyn, with their women and children, and the reliques of Saint 

" • In 1336, on Thursday, the 3rd Ides of April, Master Howell de 
Sathe, Archdeacon of Ossory, a man of literature and munificence, 
with Andrew Avenel and Adam de Bathe, was killed by the O'Brynys 
}f Duffyr, in defence of the goods of his church and parish.' 

VOL. XV. — NO. XXX. — JUNE, 1851. Y 

314 The Church in Ireland. 

** But, perhaps, the most striking entry on this subject is the fol< 
lowing : 

** * In 1346, on Friday, the drd Nones of May, Dennicius MacGilpa- 
trick (surnamed Monoculns, in Irish Caeock), who ever gave himself 
up to plots and treacheries, little regarding perjury, burned the town 
of Achabo, having taken and brought O'CarroU with him, and raging 
against the cemetery, the church, and the shrine of St. Canice, that 
most holy abbot, the patron of the county and the founder of the abbey, 
like a degenerate son against a father, he burned them and consumed 
them in unsparing fire.' " 

In the pages of Dowling, the later annalist in Dean Butler's 
collection, the state of Ireland is described in the same tone. 
One fact is sufficient to show the condition of the Church at that 
time. In 1522, Mauritius Deoran, Bishop of Leighlin, was 
murdered by the Archdeacon of the diocese, because he had 
reproved him for sin, and intended to proceed by ecclesiastical 
censures. To this we may add the testimony of one of the 
records preserved in the State Paper Office, and describing the 
state of Ireland in 1515. 

" Some sayeth, that the prelates of the churche and clergye is mucbe 
cause of all the mysse order of the land ; for ther is no archebysshop, 
ne bysshop, abbot, ne pryor, parson, ne vycar, ne any other person d 
the Churche, highe or lowe, greate or smalle, Englyshe or Iryshe, that 
useyth to preache the worde of Godde, saveing the poor fryers beggers; 
and there wodde [where word] of Godde to cesse, ther canne be no 
grace, and wythoute the specyall (grace) of Godde, this lande may 

never be reformyd Also the Churche of thys lande use not to 

leme any other scyence, but the Lawe of Canon, for covetyse of lucre 
transytory ; all other scyence whereof grows none suche lucre, the 
parsons of the Churche dothe despyce." — State Papers, Part III. Vol. 
ii. pp. 15, 16. 

We think that the evidence we have produced as to the utterly 
demoralized, lawless, and ignorant state of the Irish clergy and 
laity in^ the sixteenth century, goes far to explain the want of 
success in the attempt to introduce the Reformation th^re. It is 
very true that Christianity has often been introduced amongst 
barbarous and savage nations, and has civilized them ; but it has 
generally been a slow and gradual process, and has been preceded 
or accompanied by some instruction and training of the faculties. 
In England, the Reformation had not only to deal with an orderly 
and civilized people, but was enabled to make use of the press for 
the advancement of its cause. Its adherents were amongst the 
best scholars and divines of the day. Yet, even so, it was nearly 
twenty years after the abolition of the Papal supremacy in Eng- 
land, before any effectual reformation took place. 

Tie Church in Ireland. 81 5 

Agiun, in Scotland, the Reformation was preached for a great 
length of time before it was finally adopted by the nation. A 
iifttong, and even violent party, was gradually formed in its behalf. 
Bat in Ireland the case was quite different. There were no 
■materials for constructing a religious party in Ireland at that 
time. The clei^ were ignorant and depraved; the laity were 
profoundly ignorant and irreligious. There were no universities, 
mMkd no scholars to prosecute inquiry. The art of printing had 
not been introduced. Educated Englishmen could not preach in 
Irish. Archbishop Brown, the chief promoter of the Refor- 
mation during the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI., was 
an Englisiiman ; and so were the only other prelates of note, or 
mbiKty, or activity, of whom we hear in these times. Thus the 
Irish part of the population were not, in fact, prepared in any 
wiay by instruction to receive the truths of the Reformation ; and 
it can surely be no matter of surprise that they were but little 
inclined towards them. Without doubt the government acted 
in the only way in its power for the promotion of the Refor- 
mation in Ireland; that is to say, it enacted laws, issued pro- 
clamations, saw that they were attended to, and appointed the 
best men that it could find to vacant bishoprics ; but the circum- 
stances of the times were most unpropitious. Had Ireland been 
ruJly subject to the English dominion, the authority of the State 
would probably have been sufficient to cause the Irish to adopt 
[ tke Reformation permanently, as they did, in fact, for a time. 
[ Had education and effective preaching prepared the way, the 
[ imtive population would have probably accepted the Reformation. 
But, in tne absence of such conditions of success, it is not a 
matter of the least surprise that the issue was the virtual 
triumph of Romanism, and the secession of the greater part of 
the population from their Bishops and clergy. 

The materials for the history of the Reformation in Ireland are 

by no means abundant : such as they are, they will be found in 

Bishop Mant'^s History of the Irish Church. But an important 

addition has recently been made to Irish Church history by the 

publication of all the documents in the State Paper Office 

relating to the Irish Church during the reigns of Edward VI., 

Mary, and Elizabeth. This highly valuable work, the title of 

which will be found at the commencement of these pages, is the 

result of the well-directed researches of Mr. Evelyn P. Shirley, 

who has added many notes and illustrations evincing much 

careful investigation, and very full knowledge of his subject. 

Mr. Shirley has very judiciously preserved all the characteristics 

of the original autograph documents from which he has made 

transcripts ; and although to the more common reader the 

Y 2 

316 ne Church in Ireland. 

extremely antiquated spelling, and the nameroas faults of the 
originals will operate as a bar to the perusal of the work, these 
very circumstances will only enhance its value, as a faithM 
and accurate transcript, to the careful investigator of history. 

The series of documents commences a.d. 1547, the first year 
of Edward VI. ; and almost at the commencement we have a 
scheme of George Browne, Archbishop of Dublin, for the erection 
of a University in Dublin (p. 5). This plan, which reflects the 
highest credit on its author, contemplated the restoration of the 
Cathedral Church of St. Patrick (lately suppressed), and its be- 
coming at once a College and a Chapter, like Cardinal Wolsey^s 
foundation at Oxford, with its lecturers, fellows, students, &c. 
The plan did not take effect : in fact, there was no University in 
Ireland till 1591, upwards of forty years after the introduction of 
the Reformation, and apparently no schools; the monasteries 
having been the only places in which any knowledge of letters 
was preserved or imparted. We must extract a few passa^ 
from Archbishop Browne'^s Device, or Petition, to the English 
Government, which refer to other matters of interest : — 

^^ Itm, That comission under the kings great seall here maye 
be directed to suche as to his hieghms shalbe thoght good, ad 
audiendas et terminandas causas ecciiasticas, to th'*intent that 
thereby the people may be occasioned to leave and omitt the 
popishe trede, whiche many of them now imbraseth, and also to 
swere all bysshoppes and preistes to the obedience of the Kings 
maiestie and his successou''* as their immediate bed and gouno' 
under god and for th'^executio" of other his Ma** pcedings accord- 
ing th*order used in Inglande. 

"Itm, That twoo Archedeacons of Dublin may be againe 
restored to ayde and assist th*'archebysshop there for the tyme 
being whiche was taken awaie at the supp^ssion of Saint Patricks, 
and this the rather that there is no bysshop in Christendome 
w^owte an archdeacon, but onely Dublin, and so the saide Arche- 
bysshop the wors hable to suppUe his chardg who had befor the 
saide supp'sion ij Archedecons. 
[they to nnde ij lectours.] 

"Itm, That now immediately may be sent thither Hi to be 
Bysshoppes and to preche, eiiy one of theym to have a sufficient 
lyving to th'intent that neither they throughe default or lyving 
be bordenous to any pson, and yet may withoute that care moste 
diligently and ernestly travaill in setting forthe to the people by 
an uniforme doctryne the words of god and the Chry***° pceding* 
of the Kinges Ma*^« as it is here in Inglande. 

"ffyrste for th'erecton of an unyversitie to be established 

The Church in Ireland. 317 

w%iii the Realme of Irlande by Dublin to be ther remanent for 
ever as well for th'^encreace of gods divine 8''vice as the Kings 
Ma^^'' immortall fame, & the unspeakeable reformacoh of that 
realme and for educacion of students &; youth, whiche may from 
tyme to tyme growe, aswell in the knowlege of god th*'auto' of all 
goodnes, w%ut whom, the knowledge of the kinge, the obe- 
dience of his Lawes, shall neu be hade ther, the laeke wherof 
hathe been only the ruyne & decaye of that realme, and so by 
pees of tyme the same students beynge repay red to ther natyve 
shyres shall by ther learnynge and goode educacion be bothe 
example of goode ly vinge &; also a lyvely trompe to call that bar- 
barous nacion from evill to goode, &; consequently from goode to 
bett", & so to be pfight & Civill/' — pp. 9 — 11. 

These extracts touch on some of the difficulties in the way of 
ihie Reformation at that time. The first — the reluctance of some 
of the bishops and clergy to permit any alterations or reform — 
was to be expected ; but although, during the reign of Edward VI., 
this acted as a serious impediment, that difiiculty ceased in the 
reign of Elizabeth, when the whole hierarchy adopted the Re- 
formation. But the petition next but one, requesting that three 
men should be sent over from England to be bishops and to 
** preach,*" indicates a more serious diflSculty — a tvant of proper 
agents in Ireland, To obtain preachers of the right sort it was 
necessary to send to England ! But then these preachers, when 
they came, could be of almost no use in three out of four pro- 
vinces of Ireland, where the Irish language and habits almost 
exclusively prevailed. Here was the grand difiiculty. Where 
were the means for reforming the native Irish ? \Vhat means 
were there for " calUng that barbarous nation from evil to good ?*" 
Archbishop Browne rightly looked to the University for this ; 
but "the University was not yet founded. 

The bishops and clergy were, in many cases, miserably poor. 
As to the latter, we should suppose their tithes must have been 
about as valuable as the tithes of the American " backwoods," 
the products being little more than timber and peat. The tithe 
of Agistment indeed gave them meat to eat, but cattle could 
have been scarcely saleable in such a wild state of society. The 
bishoprics were but poorly endowed in many cases ; so that, 
altogether, the clergy were in a very destitute state in the six- 
teenth century, and the churches fell to ruin in the time of war, 
which was almost perpetual. In the paper before us, we find 
Archbishop Browne requiring especially that the bishops to be 
sent over should have competent maintenance ; and, further on in 

31 8 Th^ Church in Ireland, 

the volume, we find various instances in which bishopries m 
sought for particular persons, on account of their small value, « 
are recommended to be held, in commendam^ with other bishopna 
or benefices, for the same reason. 

The next letters in this collection are valuable^ as showing; the 
succession of the Episcopate in Ireland. We have, first, a letter 
from Edmund Butler, Archbishop of Cashel, who had been eoa- 
secrated archbishop in 1527, long before the abolition of the Papal 
jurisdiction. This prelate was now a willing advocate of tbe 
Reformation introduced by King Edward VI. We extract the 
letter itself, addressed to Seymour, Duke of Somerset, Lord Pio- 
tector : — 

" Pleasid yo' noble grace to be adutisid how hitherto accord- 
ing the charge comittid to me I haue done the best I coude for 
the quiete of thies pties sithnes th deptu' of the countess doager 
of Chtiiionde, & althogh sundrie roberres and offences have bene 
committid sithens, as I hau certefied therther, yet be reas<Mi of 
yo' graces lettres at sundrie times sent hither, & other prudent 
devices addressed from them, many inconueniences haue the lees 
taken effect, & do stande in such case of reformacon as god will- 
ing things shalbe w^^out dificultie redressid, and for asm^ as I 
doubt not yo' good grace w*** that moste noW® oounseili will pvyde 
redresse in sundrie things worthi reformacon, I putt in sue- 
pence toto truble the same w^ any further partiouiariter* being 
the hering & discussing of the circumstance (illegible) 
tak bett' place here then elswhere, as for c^cumstances & pol- 
lecies in reformacon of the people here, I neu" sawe the waye for 
to prosper therin as M' Belli nghame attempt"^ & achevid in so 
short a time, who hath oppenid the veri gate of the right refor- 
macon, whos nature as I judge will not triffiU w^ any unfruitfull 
c^custance. There repairith thather Walt' Cowley at this time, 
whos truth & his fathers doth nowe apere in many things, & out 
of doubt in myne opinion, is a great discoraging uniusally here 
to the people, seinge theire distruccon, for their earnest truth in 
declaracon of abuses, and forasm*^*^ as the one deyed there, in 
p'sute thereof, & the other repairing thother, who hath aft" longe 
durans sustainM m^*^ domadge, I beseech yo' grace to be his good 
Loi*de & to geve him wherebi occason may grow to encorradge 
the comen people to be ernest in awanusing thing" tending to the 
King' Ma"*" bono' & the surti* of this his highnes^ pore realme ; 
so as be meanes therof truth shalbe the less extinct, assurring yo' 
Grace that I knowe him to be of honeste disposicon, & one that 
hath great experience, who can dp right good Syvice. thus 

The Church in Ireland. 3 1 9 

%fa)igfati god send unto yo' noble grace yo' valiant hartes diaure, 
4kMD kilkenny the xxv^ day of febniari 

" Yo' Oracs bounden orato' 
'' Edmud of Gasshell. 
^* To the Duck of Somsettfi right noble grace Lord Qou^no' of 
the king" Ma"*« mooste Boyall psone ptecto' of his highnes" 
Bealms & Doraynions & highe Thesaurer of England/^ 

Walter Cowley, who is so highly commended in the abovQ 
letter, which was written in 1548, was, as Mr. Shirley remarks, 
general surveyor of the abbey lands in Ireland, and a decided 
partisan of the reformed faith. Archbishop Butler died about 
two years after in possession of his see. The case of Christopher 
Bodekin, Archbishop of Tuam, a letter from whom is printed, is 
still more remarkable. He was appointed Bishop of Kilmacduagh 
in 1533 or 1534, and held this see with that of Tuam, to which 
he was translated in 1536. This prelate retained his see, from the 
period of his appointment by King Henry V III., up to the year 
1572, fourteen years after Queen Elizabeth had come to the throne. 

It seems that, for a considerable time, Archbishop Browne 
laboured in the cause of the Reformation in Ireland without aid 
from any of the bishops, except Staples, Bishop of Meath, who, 
like himself, was an I^nglishman. In the latter part of the reign 
of Edward VI., however, he was further aided by Bale and Good- 
acre, who were consecrated to Ossory and Armagh ; the former 
of which sees was vacant by death, and the latter by the retirement 
of Dowdal to the continent, after his opposition to the introduc- 
tion of the Book of Common Prayer. Just previously to the 
account of this, we have a letter from Sir James Croft, Lord 
Deputy of Ireland, to Sir William Cecil, complaining of the igno- 
rance and negligence of the Irish bishops, and requesting learned 
men to be sent over from England, in the following terms : — 

^^ Beyng a man not learned, nether sene in any other thing 
worthie of the chardge corny tted to me, I am besyde myne other 
cares, burdened with the setting forth of religion, wiche to 
my skyll I cause to be amended in euery place where I travail : 
taid nevertheless through the neglicence of the Bysshopes and 
other spyrituall mynistres, it is so barely looked unto, as the olde 
seremomes yet remayne in meny places / The Busshops as I 
find, be negligent and fewe lerned, and none of any good zeale as 
it semeth, wherfor yf it wolde please yo^ to move the Counsaill 
that for suche busshoppricks as be here voyde, some lerned men 
mought be sent ouer to tak chardg, and so to preche and sett forth 
the kings pcedinge, I wolde trust so to mayntayne them, as they 
mought do good to meny, and sett forth this as it ought to be / 

320 The Church in Ireland. 

And yf this cannot be brought to passe, I pray yo^ sende me 
some lerned man to remayne with me, by whose counsaill I may 
the better direct the biynd and obstinate busshops, and what 
stypend soeuer yo^ pmys I will gyve it / praying yo^ to heipe me 
with spede, for I have gret want of suche a one, so I betak yo^ to 
god, ffrom Kylmanam the xv**^ of Marche 1551 . 

u Yo" to comaund 

" James Croft. 
" To the right honorable Willin Ceyeill 

knight one of the two pryneipall Se- ! 

creteries to the Kings Majestie/' \ 

One especial value of Mr. Shirley'*s publication will be, to 
furnish additional and conclusive evidence of the erroneousness of 
the statements often put forward in Parliament and elsewhere 
by the opponents of the Church. Nothing is more common than 
the argument, that the Roman Catholic Church, having been 
deprived of its property by the State, and the Established Church 
having been endowed therewith^ the Roman Catholics have been 
most cruelly and unjustly treated, and the Established Church 
may, and ought to be deprived of property to which it has 
no right except what arises from a mere Act of Parliament. It 
is represented as a sect which arose at -the Reformation, and 
which, in fact, plundered the rightful owners of their property, 
with the aid of the civil power. Now the real state of the case, 
as Mr. Shirley'^s work very plainly shows, is, that the archbishops, 
and bishops, and clergy of Ireland generally consented to the 
Reformation in the time of Elizabeth. The Roman Catholic 

Erelacy and clergy of Queen Mary*'s reign became the reformed 
ishops and clergy of Elizabeth's ; the people, to a great extent, 
conformed to the worship of the Reformed Church ; and, the 
Church of Ireland being thus freed from the Papal dominion and 
errors, the Pope sent missionary after missionary into Ireland to 
regain his dominion, ordained bishops to sees that were already 
occupied — schismatical bishops ; and stirred up the King of 
Spain, in conjunction with the native Irish chieftains, to make 
war on England. Hence a series of bloody rebellions, during 
which the Jesuits and other Romish emissaries were enabled to 

Eoison the minds of a large proportion of the people against their 
ishops and clergy as adherents of the English. The English 
religion became unpopular, because the English name was hated : 
to this day " Sassenach^' implies " Protestant**^ as well as English- 
man, and conveys the notion of an enemy. Romanism was really 
established by the sword in Ireland ; for, had not rebellion broken 
out, Ireland would probably, in the course of Elizabeth'^s reigo, 
have been brought into obedience to the Reformation. 

The Church in Ireland. 321 

The undeniable fact, that Ireland was not really subject to the 
British Crown till the end of the reign of Elizabeth — that the 
English laws were not received in the greater part of Ireland at 
the period of the Beforraation — ^and that the people were wholly 
unprepared by education for any alteration in religion, being, in 
fact, ignorant of the first elements of religious truth — and the 
total want of fit agents for conducting a movement in favour of 
"the Reformation — will, to any reasonable mind, sufficiently account 
£or the comparative failure of the attempt, in the time of Eliza- 
"fceth, to remove the evil of Popery. Then followed the concilia- 
iiion and encouragement held out to Bomanism in the reigns of 
James I. and Charles I. by the Government — a system of policy 
xemarkably parallel to that recently adopted by the State, and 
liaving the same efiect — the continual increase of Bomish 
«f;gres8ion, insolence, and intolerance. Then followed the massacre 
of 150,000 Irish Protestants by the Romanists, and a general 
lebellion. Cromwell extinguished this rebellion in blood, and 
leBtored the dominion of England. Scarcely had the Church 
time to take root again in Ireland after the Restoration, when the 
Popish party, under James II., rose in arras ; and, when Pro- 
testant ascendancy was established by force of arms under King 
William, the Government henceforth seem to have looked merely 
to Protestantism in Ireland as a useful political faction — ^a con- 
v^ent instrument of Government, and to have absolutely put 
aside all notion of rendering the Church efficient by a careful em- 
ployment of patronage, or of encouraging any efforts for the 
oonversion of the Romish population. A period of apathy on the 
part of the Church herself supervened : it was deemed a hopeless 
or an unnecessary task to attempt the conversion of Romanists ; 
and it has only been within the last twenty years, when the 
dangers of the times, and the religious movements of the age, 
bave shaken men out of many of their antiquated notions, and 
pointed out to them the path of duty, that the work has been 
begun in earnest, and with so much success as to afford the 
Highest encouragement to those who are engaged in it, and 
grounds of thankfulness to all who wish for the prevalence 
of truth over error. The clergy of Ireland at the present day are 
a widely different class from those wealthy sinecurists of the last 
century, whose woridliness and self-indulgence are quoted by the 
enemies of religion, and assumed to characterize the Church in 
Ireland. They are now a conscientious, a zealous, and an im- 
poverished body ; and the principles which have carried them 
Btedfastly and uncomplainingly through trials and sufferings, hold 
out reasonable security for their perseverance in accomplishing 
the arduous mission intrusted to them. 

822 AchillPi Dealings tcith tie InfwitUkn. 

Art. III. — Dealings mth the Inquisition ; or, Papal Rm 
Priests and her Jesuits: with Important Disclosures. 
Bev. Gtacinto Achilli, />./>., tate Prior and Visitor 
Doivinican Order ^ Head Professor of Theology^ and V 
the Master of the Sacred Apostolic Palace^ <kc, L" 
Arthur Hall, Virtue, and Co. 1861. 

" How can you trust the word of a renegade ?'* exclai 
Romanist, and echoes the Romanizer. If again we ap 
the well-authenticated accounts of Anglican travellers, 
immediately told that they were all narrow-minded ^^ 
tant**' bigots, who saw every thing " Catholic'''* with thatt 
intolerance of vision which characterizes the genuine Engli 
a perverse and pragmatical species of barbarian, who wil 
upon calling black black, and white white, in spite of 
overwhelming evidence which proves to demonstration I 
. tenableness of such an old-fashioned notion. If again wc 
to the disclosures made by those still living in the 
Church, we discover immediately that the very fact o 
making such statements is enough to destroy their cre« 
And laMly., when we cite history — acknowledged history- 
witness-box, we are told that, deeply as such things art 
deplored, they are now no longer in existence, in short tl 
is, " wms avons changS tout cela !^ 

Now uncandid, and illiberal, and unpious though it 
cannot conceal it from ourselves, and we will not conceal 
our readers, that all these objections are, in our opinio 
temptible and dishonest subterfuges ; and that all these 
of evidence are to be admitted into court when we arrai 
Church of Borne of ^^ having a golden cup in her han( 

As to the first kind of evidence, it is certainly not inft 
that of an accomplice or accessory who turns king'*s ev 
and yet our civil courts admit this. It is not less 
trusted than that of a military deserter ; and yet our gre« 
manders listen to the tales of such men ; ay, and not 
quently act upon the information thus gained. Of course 
must be used and discretion exercised m both instances : 1; 
is all. Let us take another case. Do we disbelieve the a 
of heathen abominations which are extant in the works < 

AehiUfs DeaUngi with the Inquisition. 323 

Christians, or even early heretics^ because those Christians or here- 
tics had once themselves been heathens, or had perhaps officiated 
as priests in the temples of those idols whose rites they divulge ! 

We are inclined, too, to admit the testimony of Anglican 

travellers as to matters of fact. However insular prejudice may 

warp the judgment, or at times, we regret to say, and that not 

onfrequently, close the heart of the Englishman ; it does not 

take from him the use of his eyes, nor prevent his being able to 

inscribe in his journal information derived from authentic 

lources. For instance, he sees^ as we have seen^ two images of 

the same saint (we do not like to mix up with the pollutions of 

Ilomish idolatry the name of her who is blessed among women) 

brought from distant places to meet each other ; he hears greater 

miraculous virtue attributed to one image than to another image 

of the same person* Are we to disbelieve our own eyes and ears, 

then, because we are English Churchmen i 

With regard to the third class of evidence, we shall perhaps 
be better understood if we cite two or three of the many facts of 
the kind which have come under our own observation. 

A French lady expressed to an English woman, on whose 
veracity we can rely, the exceeding uneasiness which she felt at 
the thought of sending her little girl for the first time to confes- 
gion ; her uneasiness arising from the obscene questions which 
dte knew would be addressed by the priest to the child. 

Thus does Rome feed the lambs of Christ^s flock with the 
apples of Sodom and the grapes of Gomorrah ! 

A Roman Catholic friend told us the following anecdote : — A 
kdy went to a priest to confess ; who, the same day, seeing a 
young friend of his, said, " Do you know, this morning there 
came to me to confession a lady who has an amour with her man- 

So much for the inviolability of the seal of confession ! 

Now we know these and similar facts to be true, and we see 
no reason for disbelieving them because they were related by 

To render the last head of evidence available, we must com- 
pare facts and statements, documents and depositions ; and the 
result of such an investigation is, that however the eagles of 
Pagan Rome may have belied the motto, the crimes of Papal 
Bome have fully realized the 

** Vestigia nulla retrorsum" 
of her ancient poets. 

We have been led into a longer discussion on this preliminary 
subject than we had intended, and shall therefore do little more 
than select some of the most striking passages from the work 

324 AehillVs Dealings toith the Inqtdsitum. 

before us. We know nothing of the writer, except from common 
report, beyond what these pages convey. We regret to see that, 
in throwing off the errors of Rome, he has adopted others of a 
most pernicious nature ; that he denies the office and powers of 
the apostolical ministry, and necessarily holds inadequate and, in 
some cases, erroneous views on the Sacraments of the Gospel 
and the ordinances of the Church. We should, however, 
rather pity and pray for, than harshly condemn, the victim of 
that fearful •system from which but few escape without bearing 
marks of the fire. Dr. Achilli, indeed, appears to us to be a 
sincere believer in the Bible, and a devout worshipper of Christ ; 
though he has a zeal for God which is not according to know- 
ledge. We should conceive him to be a man of earnest mind 
and kind heart, but somewhat deficient in taste and judgment. 
The work, however, bears upon it, even in its egotism and ver- 
biage, the stamp of truthfulness of heart and simplicity of pur- 

The first extract which we shall give is from t)r. Achilli'^s first 
letter to the late Pope, Gregory XVI., as giving a fair state- 
ment of facts: — 

" Who are generally the most wicked persons in every locality ? (I 
am speaking only of Italy, indeed of Southern Italy — a country em- 
phatically Roman Catholic.) Forgive roe, holy father; but it is s 
matter of fact, — priests and monks; whatever iniquity, wickedness, and 
ahomination has ever existed upon the earth, you will find among 
them. Haughtiness, luxury, ambition, pride, — where do they most 
abound ? In your temples. There the excessive love of money, false- 
hood, fraud, duplicity, cover themselves with a sacred veil, and are 
almost in security from profane censures. And oh ! how great are the 
horrors of the cloisters {sepulchra dealbata\ where ignorance and 
superstition, laziness, indolence, calumny, quarrels, immorality of 
every description, not only live, but reign ! The most abominable 
vices, long banished from all society, have there taken refuge, and 
there they v^rill continue miserably to dwell, until God, outraged by 
them, shall rain down upon them the curse of Sodom and Gomorrah." 
— ^p. 62. 

Let us remind our readers that sanctity is one of the charac- 
teristics of the true Church, and that the holy celibacy of the 
Romish clergy is one of those points which excites the reverential 
awe and fervent admiration of those who halt between England 
and Rome. 

The following passage, occurring in a second letter to the 
same Pontiff, puts the matter oi practical idolatry in its true 
light. The italics are our own. 

" Who is there among you that does not adore the saints, does not 

AehiUPs Dealings with the Inquisition. 325 

lore and kiss their relics ? It is useless to urge the distinction about 
>rts of worship which you make in the schools. The people know it 
ol, because they have never been taught it. It is shut up in your books^ 
rom whence it never comes out, except to be learnt by those who have 
lo support and defend it against attack. In short it is the ooc- 

lEINE OF controversy, NOT OF PRACTICE. 

*• If you regulated the practice by the doctrine, you would prohibit 
kneeling before images and relics ; but you are the first to kneel. You 
would not permit the use of incense to relics and images, practised from 
antiquity in honour of God alone, but it is you who offer incense to 
them."— p. 70. 

He afterwards adds, — 

" You come upon us with the distinction of the school, between the 
worship and adoration of images. 

" Who are you that dare to distinguish where the law precludes all 
distinction ? It is God who says, in the second commandment, ' thou 
sbalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them.' ** 

In our opinion the Catholic deserts his rightful vantage-ground, 
when he condescends to argue with the Bomanist as to the theo- 
retical nature of an overt act of sin. Idolatry is as clearly 
forbidden as adultery ; and though we are well aware that the 
absence of the outward act does not necessarily imply the ab- 
sence of inward guilt in either case, yet it is equally certain that 
the commission of the outward act does equally in both cases 
involve the transgression of the divine command. 

We have heard of the name, though we have never perused 
the pages of a work, entitled, The Innocent Adulteress; surely 
such a title would well suit an apology for the Church of 
Borne: — 

" But let us inquire what is the Inquisition of the present day in 
Rome ? It is the very same that was instituted at the Council of 
Verona, to burn Arnold of Brescia ; the same that was established at 
the third Council of the Lateran, to sanction the slaughter of the 
Albigenses, and the Waldenses, the massacre of the people, the de- 
struction of the city ; the same that was confirmed at the Council of 
Constance, to bum alive two holy men, John Huss and Jerome of 
Prague ; that which at Florence subjected Savonarola to the torture ; 
^d at Rome condemned Aonio Paleario, and Pietro Carnesecchi. 
h is the self-same Inquisition, with that of Pope Carafia, and of Fr. 
Michele Ghislieri, who built the Palace, called the Holy Office^ where 
*o many victims fell a sacrifice to their barbarity, and where, at the 
present moment, the Roman Inquisition still exists. Its laws are 
always the same. The Black Book, or Praxis Sacrce Romance Inqui- 
fitionis, is always the model for that which is to succeed it. This book 
^8 a large manuscript volume, in folio, and is carefully preserved by the 
head of the Inquisition. It is called Libra Nero^ the Black Book, 

326 AchiU%*8 Dealings with ike Inquintum. 

because it has a cover of that colour ; or, as an Inquisitor explaioed t#^ 
me, Libio NecrOf which, in the Chreek language, signifies ' the 
of the dead.* 

"In this book is the criminal code, with all the punishments 
every supposed crime ; also the mode of conducting the trial, so as ti^ 
elicit the guilt of the accused, and the manner of receiving the accaii* 
tions. I had this book in my hand on one occasion, as I have related 
above, and read therein the proceedings relative to my own case ; toil 
I also saw in this same volume some very astounding particuiant 
for example, in the list of punishments I read concerning t'le bit, of,- 
as it is called by us, the mordacchia^ which is a very simple coin 
trivance to confine the tongue, and compress it between two cylindera, 
composed of iron and wood, and furnished with spikes. This honible 
instrument not only wounds the tongue, and occasions excessive pain, 
but also, from the swelling it produces, frequently places the sufferer 
in danger of suffocation. This torture is generally had recourse to io 
cases considered as blasphemy against God, the Virgin, the Saints, or 
the Pope ; so that, according to the Inquisition, it is as great a crime 
to speak in disparagement of a Pope, who may be a very detestable 
character, as to blaspheme the holy name of God. Be that as it mvf^ 
this torture has been in use till the present period ; and, to say nothing 
of the exhibitions of this nature which were displayed in Romagna, 
in the time of Gregory XVI., by the Inquisitor Ancarani, in Umbria, 
by Stefanelli, Salva, and others, we may admire the inquisitorial zeal 
of Cardinal Feretti, the cousin of his present Holiness, who con- 
descended more than once to employ these means, when he was Bishop 
of Rieti and Fermo." — p. 110. 

Such is the maternal tenderness which "the mother of 
Churches *" evinces towards her children, if she entertains the 
slightest suspicion of their undutifulness, and which we can 
only compare to the parental fondness of those who passed their 
sons and their daughters through the fire to Moloch : — 

•* Concerning the method of conducting a process," says Dr. Achilli, 
*' I read in the Libra Necro as follows : — With respect to the examina- 
tion, and the duty of the examiners, either the prisoner confesses, and 
he is proved guilty from his own confession, or, he does not confess, 
and is equally guilty on the evidence of witnesses. If a prisoner 
confesses the whole of what he is accused, he is unquestionably guilty 
of the whole ; but if he confesses only a part, he ought still to be 
regarded as guilty of the whole, since what he has confessed, proves 
him to be capable of guilt as to the other points of accusation. And 
here the precept is to be kept in view, * no one is obliged to condemn 
himself,* nemo tenetur prodere seipsum. Nevertheless, the judge should 
do all in his power to induce the culprit to confess, since confession 
tends to the glory of God. And as the respect due to the glory of 
God reqidres that no one particular should be omitted, not even a 

AehiUfi DeaUng$ mih the InquUitwn. 327 

attempty so the judge is bound to put in force, not only the 
means which the Inquisition possesses, but whatever may 
Iter into his thoughts, as fitting to lead to a confession. Bodily tor- 
has ever been found the most salutary and efficient means of leading 
its spiritual repentance. Therefore, the choice of the most befitting 
:BKKie of torture is left to the judge of the Inquisition, who determines 
according to the age, the sex, and the constitution of the party. He 
will be prudent in its use, always being mindful, at the same time, to 
Mocure what. is required from it, — the confession of the delinquent. 
If, notwithstanding all the means employed, the unfortunate wretch 
idll denies his guilt, he is to be considered as a victim of the devil, 
and, as such, deserves no compassion from the servants of God, nor 
the pity or indulgence of holy mother Church ; he is a son of perdition. 
Let him perish, then, among the damned, and let his place be no 
ioDger found among the living 1 " — p. 111. 

We own an obligation, which we hasten to acknowledge, to the 
compilers of the Xiiro Nero, We never, until reading the para- 
ffraph which we have just transcribed, fully comprehended the 
force of the Psalmist'^s words, when he says, The tender mercies of 
A$ wicked are cruel. 

Such is the Libro Nero, It would seem, however, that the 
authors and perpetrators of these atrocities forget that there is a 
book of a still darker hue, of a more fearful import, — that there is 
a dungeon far gloomier than that of the Inquisition. 

We speak strongly, for we feel strongly ; neither have we the 
wish or the intention of doing otherwise. We desire not either 
that bastard charity, or that iron self-control, which can speak or 
Write without expressing loathing and abhorrence for the Koinish 

Dr. Achilli gives us an interesting account of the mode in which 
this terrible tribunal proceeds to obtain a conviction : — 

" Titius is accused of having eaten meat on Friday or Saturday. 
The Inquisition does not permit the name of the accuser to appear, 
neither those of the witnesses. The accusation is laid that Titius has 
eaten meat in the house of Caius. Sempronius is the accuser, and he 
summons the family of Caius to give evidence ; but as these have been 
accomplices in the same affair, they cannot be induced to depose against 
Titius. Perhaps other witnesses may be brought who may be equally 
incompetent ; in which case, the wary judge endeavours to draw from 
the prisoner himself sufficient to inculpate him. He will inquire 
respecting several other families the points which he wishes to know 
with regard to that of Caius. He will try to learn at what other 
houaea Titius has been accustomed to eat, in order to know concerning 
the house of Caius where the meat was eaten. The accusation sets 

328 AehilKs Dealings with the Inquisition. 

forth, that on such a day, at sach an hoar, Titius went to the h(wu>i^. 
Caius, where the whole family were present; and that all sat dowtf*"^ '^ 
table, &c. &c. If Titius admits all the circumstantial matters bra 
forward by the accuser, with respect to time, place, and persons, but i 
silent, or denies entirely the only crime imputed to him, he stands ooi^ 
victed ; the accuser has no necessity to bring forward witnesses ; judg* 
ment is pronounced. 

" This practice is still employed by the Inquisition. In the yesr 
1842 I was accused of having spoken in a certain house against tbft 
worship of saints. If the judge had made my accusation known (as it 
the case in all other tribunals throughout the world), saying tome, *Tob 
are accused of having, in such a house, spoken of such and such matters, 
in the presence of so and so,* — I should have known nay accuser by the 
part he would take in the question. But instead of interrogating me ia 
a straightforward manner, I was made to give a description of the 
house in question, together with that of several other houses; to 
describe the persons belonging to it, and many other persons at the 
same time ; to discuss the real subject of the accusation, mixed up with 
other irrelevant matters, in order to mislead me as much as possible, 
and prevent me from getting any insight whatever of the points of which 
I was accused, or of the persons who had accused me. Whether I con- 
fessed or not, I was to be declared guilty, or, as they term it, reo con- 
vinto" — p. 113. 

This trickery and falsehood, so widely practised, so systemati- 
cally maintained, so deteiminately defended by the Roman 
Church, is, in our opinion, one of the clearest proofs that she is 
not ^' led by the Spirit'*'' — we do not say that she is devoid of 
the Spirit. The Church Catholic, as a whole, and the body of 
each of the baptized in particular, is the temple of the Holy 
Ghost ; but, as an individual member of Christ'^s body, who 
is systematically guilty of lying, is most undoubtedly not " led hy 
THE Spirit,'''' and though a child of Abraham according to the 
flesh, is inwardly a child of him who is a liar and the father of it: 
so in like manner a branch of Christ'^s Church which is guilty of 
the same sin, adopts the same parent. 

There is no point which is represented in Scripture as more 
essentially distinguishing the Powers of Good and Evil — ^the 
Heavenly King and the Prince of Darkness,— than Truth, or the 
absence of it. And there is no point, we unhesitatingly assert, 
which more strikingly and essentially distinguishes the principles 
and the practice of England and Rome, than this — that the 
Church of England is free from falsehood, whilst the Church of 
Rome abounds with it. 

We will not press the argument at present to its full extent; 
but we cannot help observing, en passant, that the dishonesty, 

AeAiUi's Dealings with the Inqmsitum. 329 

duplicity, and double dealing exhibited by nearly all those who 
kye left our Church, both before and after their secession, and 
by many of those who still halt between two opinions, tells 
plainly enough by what spirit they are led. 

But we must return to Dr. Achilli, and extract two painfully- 
interesting passages, which show how the Roman Church inflicts 
upon her children that most fearful of the curses which God 
denounced against his people — The tender and delicate woman 
among yoUy which would not adventure to set the sole of her foot upon 
the ground for delicateness and tenderness^ her eye shall he evil 
toward the husband of her hosom^ and toward her son, and toward 
her daughter, and toward the young one that cometh out from between 
her feet, and toward her children that she shall bear, — and, illus- 
trating the manner in which they who "lord it over God'^s 
heritage'*'* instruct "the wife**' to "reverence her husband.**' 

We are indeed in this, as in other cases, strongly reminded of 
the judicial blindness which God inflicts as a punishment for 
idolatry : " God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those 
things which are not convenient, .... whisperers, backbiters, 
.... covenant-breakers, without natural affection, implacable, 
wymercifuV In truth, however, there are other points in which 
the Papal Rome of our day resembles the Pagan Rome of 
St. PauFs celebrated description. But we tarry. 

" During nay residence," says Achilli, " at Viterbo, my native town, 
where I was public professor and teacher in the Church d% Gradi, I was 
one day applied to by a lady of prepossessing appearance, whom I then 
saw for the first time. She requested with much eagerness to see me 
in the sacristy ; and, as I entered the apartment where she was waiting 
for me, she begged the sacristan to leave us alone, and, suddenly closing 
the door, presented a moving spectacle to my eyes. Throwing off her 
bonnet, and letting loose in a moment her long and beautiful hair, the 
lady fell upon her knees before me, and gave vent to her grief in 
abundance of sighs and tears. On my endeavouring to encourage her, 
and to persuade her to rise and unfold her mind to me, she at length, 
in a voice broken by sobs, thus addressed me ; — 

" * No, father, I will never rise from this posture, unless you first 
promise to pardon me my heavy transgression.' . . . 

" * Signora,* replied I, * it belongs to God to pardon our transgres- 
sions. If you have in any way injured me, so far I can forgive you ; 
but I confess I have no cause of complaint against you, with whom, 
indeed, I have not even the pleasure of being acquainted.' 

" * I have been guilty of a great sin, for which no priest will grant 
me absolution, unless you will beforehand remit it to me.* 

" * You must explain yourself more fully ; as yet I have no idea 
of what you allude to.* 

" * It is now about a year since I last received absolution from my 

VOL. XV. NO. XXX. JUNE, 1851. ^ 

330 AchiUts Dealings toith the Inquisition. 

confessor ; and the last few days he has entirely forbid me his pre- 
sence, telling me that I am damned. I have tried others, and all tell 
me the same thing. One, however, has lately informed me, that if I 
wished to be saved and pardoned, I must apply to you, who, after the 
Pope, are the only one that can grant me absolution.' 

'* ' Signora, there is some mistake here ; explain yourself: of what 
description is your sin ? * 

" * It is a sin against the Holy Office." 

" • Well, but I have nothing to do with the Holy Office.' 

"*How? Are not you Father Achilli, the Vicar of the Holy 

*'*You have been misinformed, Signora ; I am Achilli, the deputy 
master of the Holy Palace, not Office : you may see my name, with 
this title, prefixed to all works that are printed here, in lieu of that of 
the master himself. I assure you that neither my principal nor myself 
have any authority in cases that regard the Inquisition.' 

** The good lady hereupon rose from her knees, arranged her hair, 
wiped the tears from her eyes, and asked leave to relate her case to me; 
and, having sat down, began as follows: — 

" ' It is not quite a year since that I was going, about the time of 
Easter, according to my usual custom, to confess my sins to my parish 
priest. He being well acquainted with myself, and all my family, 
began to interrogate me respecting my son, the only one I have, a 
young man, twenty-four years of age, full of patriotic ardour, but with 
little respect for the priests. It happened that I observed to the 
curate, that, notwithstanding my remonstrances, my son was in the 
habit of saying, that the business of a priest was a complete deception, 
and that the head of all the impostors was the Pope himself. Would 
I had never told him ! The curate would hear no further. * It is 
your duty,' said he, * to denounce your son to the Inquisition.' Ima- 
gine what I felt at this intimation ! To be the accuser of my own 
son ! ' Such is the case,' observed he ; * there is no help for it. I 
cannot absolve you, neither can any one else, until the thing is done/ 
And indeed from every one else I have had the same refusal. It is 
now twelve months since I have received absolution ; and in this pre- 
sent year many misfortunes have befallen roe. Ten days ago I tried 
again, and promised, in order that I might receive absolution, that I 
would denounce my son ; but it was all in vain, until I had actually 
done so. I inquired, then, to whom I ought to go to prefer the accusa- 
tion ; and I was told, to the Bishop or the Vicar of the Holy Office ; 
and they named yourself to me. Twice already have I been here 
with the intention of doing what was required of me, and as often 
have I recollected that I was a mother, and was overwhelmed with 
horror at the idea ! On Sunday last I came to your church to pray 
to the Virgin Mother of Christ to aid me through this difficulty ; and 
I remember that when I recited the rosary in her honour, I turned to 
pray also to the Son, saying, ' O Lord Jesus, thou wast also accused 
before the chief priests by a traitorous disciple : but thou didst not 

Achillas Dealings wUh the InquisUum. . 331 

•permit that thy Mother should take part in that accusation. Behold, 
then, I also am a mother ; and though my son is a sinner, whilst thou 
wast most just, do not, I implore thee, require that his own mother 
should be his accuser ! ' Whilst I was making this prayer, the preach- 
ing began. I inquired the preacher's name, and they told me yours. 
I feigned to pay attention to the discourse, but I was wholly occupied 
in looking at you, and reflecting, with many sighs, that 1 was under 
the obligation to accuse to you my own child ! In the midst of qny 
agitation, a thought suddenly relieved me, — I did not see the Inquisitor 
in your countenance. Young, animated, and with marks of sensibility, 
it seemed that you would not be too harsh with my son ; I thought 
I would entreat you first to correct him yourself, to reprimand, and to 
threaten him, without inflicting actual punishment upon him.-" — 
p. 119. 

Achilli advised her to change her confessor, and be silent 
about her son ; a course which she gratefully adopted. We regret 
that space precludes us from quoting the eloquent burst of noble 
indignation, which '^ this horrible act of treason '*'* calls forth from 
fche writer : — 

"In what is called the Holy Office," adds he, "every thing is 
allowable that tends to their own purposes (of the inquisitors). To 
gain possession of a secret no means are to be disregarded. . . . And 
this most infamous Inquisition, a hundred times destroyed, and as 
often renewed, still exists in Rome, as in the barbarous ages ; the only 
difference being, that the same iniquities are at present practised there 
with a little more secrecy and caution than formerly : and this for the 
sake of prudence, that the Holy See may not be subjected to the 
animadversions and censure of the world at large." — ^p. 120. 

We proceed, then, to the second narrative of the same 
kind : — 

" One day, when I was busy, a lady was announced, who, without 
sending in her name, earnestly desired to see me. I imagined she only 
came with some request concerning the delegate, and, therefore, sent 
word that I was too much occupied at that moment to be able to see 
her. The lady persisted, and I sent the same excuse. At last, seeing 
that I was firm, the lady handed a letter to the lay-brother, sealed with 
a large seal, and directed to • The Very Reverend Father, Professor 
G. Achilli, Gradi, Viterbo.' The seal was that of the Roman In- 
quisition, signed by the Commissary- General. The letter was as 
follows : — ... 

" * Very Reverend Father, — The Sacred Congregation of the 
most Eminent and Reverend Cardinals, in their sitting of Wednesday, 
the ... . have desired me to hand over to you the enclosed form of 
denunciation, according to which you will have the goodness to exa- 
mine and interrogate the lady, who is the bearer of it, avoiding to ask 


333 AehiUi^B DeaUngs with the Inquisition. 

her her name, the place she comes from, and her connexion with the 
party accused ; all which are already known to the Sacred Congrega- 
tion. For this purpose I am authorized to invest you with all neces- 
sary authority on this particular occasion, and for this time only. 1 
recommend to you all necessary prudence, and to he mindful of the 
inviolahle secrecy due to the Holy Office, the slightest breach of which 
is punished with ecclesiastic censure, and is finally referred to the 

" * You will have the goodness to send back, with all diligence, after 
the performance of this duty, not only the formula of questions, with 
the answers to them, but also the present letter, of which no copy is to 
be taken. 

" • May the Lord prosper you ! 
" * Rome, from the Palace of the Holy Office, 

March, 1832/ 

" When I had finished reading this letter, I felt a curiosity to see 
this mysterious visitor. I therefore descended to the apartment where 
she was waiting for me, and I saw a lady of about thirty years of age, 
well dressed, and in a style that announced her to belong to the 
wealthier class : her accent showed that she came from another part 
of the country. She received me with some degree of consternation in 
her manner, and replied to me, half trembling, and with downcast 
eyes, and evident anxiety 

*' * Signora/ said Acbilli, * I have received a letter through you ; the 
contents must be known to you. Will you inform me in what manner 
you obtained it ? * 

" * From my confessor : I do not know whether directly from Rome, 
or through the Bishop.* 

" * Can you make it convenient to prefer your accusation another 
time ? ' 

*• * I pray you, let me do so at present, since to-morrow I am obliged 
to return home.' 

# * * * * * 

" * Well, then,' said I, * let us to business : I should imagine it 
would not occupy much time — what is your opinion ? ' 

" I then sat down before a table and unfolded the formulary of 
questions, which were comprised in a printed sheet. I looked over the 
paper to ascertain its tenor, and of what it treated. I thought no more 
of the lady ; my mind was entirely occupied in considering how I should 
proceed, when a deep sigh aroused me, and made me turn my eyes 
towards her. She began to weep outright. 

*| * What is the matter, Signora? why do you weep ?' 

"Tears and sobs were her only reply. I endeavoured to speak 
comfort to her. * 

* * * * # # 

" She grew calmer by degrees, and I began my task. The formula 
was m Latm : I had to translate it into Italian: her own answers were 
to be written down exactly. 


Aehill€8 Dealings toith the InquisiHati. ' 333 

*• * Now, Signora, you must remember that it is your duty to declare 
the truth. I suppose it is no trifling affair that has induced you 
to denounce a person to the Inquisition ; above all, I desire to know 
what may have been your motives.' 
" * To save me from a hell.' 

" • Sometimes it happens that in seeking to avoid one hell, we may 
fall into another ; that in endeavouring to silence a scruple, we incur 
remorse ; and that the means we take to save the soul of another, may 
endanger our own. Tell me, from what kind of hell do you seek to be 
delivered by this act ? ' 

" * The hell that I experience in entering a church. It is not every 
one who goes there that finds it a paradise. God is there, Jesus Christ, 
the most holy Madonna,' saints, angels, and holy water. It is there we 
are baptized, confess, and receive the grace of God. I alone participate 
in none of these ordinances in the church ; therefore it has become 
hateful to me^ and the priests are odious in my sight.' 
" * And how does all this happen ?' 

** * Father, it is as I say. You will understand it all. Relieve me 
from this load, and I shall hope afterwards to make peace with God and - 
the saints, and be delivered from this hell.' 
" * Well, what is the deposition — the accusation you have to make ? ' 
" * Allow me, oh father, to relate my story from the beginning — I 
cannot tell you by halves.' 

" So saying, she remained thoughtful a few moments, and then 
exclaimed, — 

" * I hardly know where to begin. I would inform you — ^but* — 
'* ' Courage ! relate the affair simply as it is. I wish not to know 
either more or less than you choose to tell me. For example, I ask 
neither your name, your place of residence, nor what connexion you 
have with the party accused.' 

'* ' Ah ! father, these are the express conditions on which I consented 

to disclose what I have to unfold Oh ! is it possible that at 

this price alone I am to recover my peace ! — at this, and at no other, to 
be admitted anew to the privilege of confession, and the benefit of the 
other sacraments ! That to be a Christian I must consent to betray 
another ! — to betray the person whom in all the world I best love I — 
enjoined to do so both by Divine and human laws I ' 

*' As she concluded, she arose, and I observed that with the fingers of 
her right hand she pressed upon her left, and turned round a ring that 
was there on the annular finger. She then resumed, — 

" * Where, then, shall we in future hope to place confidence ? how 
trust in the sacredness of vows pledged at the altar ? .... Oh ! what 
would he say if he knew what occupies me at this moment ? And can 
I return joyfully to him who little suspects what I am doing, to still 
live with him, and call him by the tenderest names, until the day 
comes, or perhaps the night, when the officers of justice shall secretly 
enter the house, apprehend, and take him away — ^and to what place ? 
To the dungeons of the Holy Office ! And who would have placed him 

334 ' AekiUCs DeaUngs with (he InquisUidn. 

there ? I myself by the very act I am going to commit. But if 1 do 
not do 80, I am in a state of perdition, since thei« wifl be no longer 
pardon or absolution for me. Excommunication^ from which no one 
can deliver me, will be my fate. And he also will be excommnnicated. 
His soul will be for ever lost, unless it be purified m the Inquisition. 
Both of us to lose all hope of salvation and eternal life ! and that 
because we refuse to make fitting sacrifice on earth. These, father, a^e 
the thoughts that agitate me, that divide my soul, that have led 
me here, and that have since sealed my lips. What ought I to do ? what 
reveal ? I am miserable, because I listen at once to the flesh and the 
Spirit, and which ever way I force myself to act, I am always divided 
against myself. Oh ! why are not you who are called fathers, husbands 
as well ; then, as other men, you would hav^ wives to love ; and yoa 
would better comprehend these matters, and would see the value of the 
text, * Do not to others what ye would not that men should do unto 
you ! * 

" * Let us come to an end, Signora. You have promised the Inqnisi- 
tion to make an accusation, and that as a matter of duty, or rather, firom 
scruples of conscience. When you made this promise, you no donht 
imagined you did what was right* 

** * No, father, I do not deceive myself; I never thought I was doing 
right : in every point of view I considered T was doing wrong. Never- 
theless, I judged it necessary, as it is necessary to have an arm or a 
foot cut off that is in a state of gangrene. I looked upon it as a castiga- 
tion from the Almighty, as if my house had been burned, or a heavy 
beam had fallen on my shoulders. I thought that God was angry with 
me on account of my sins, and that to appease Him I must sacrifice to 

Him what was most dear to me Father, I am here to make a 

sacrifice of myself on the altar, I regret to isay it, of the Inquisition/ 

** * And do you desire, Signora, that I should be the priest on the 

occasion ? It is an office I have never performed I thought 

that you were come to make your deposition voluntarily, of your own 
free will ; and even in that dase I should have had some hesitation in 

receiving it In the present case, I will by no means lend my 

hand to an act of violence. . . • . I find throughout the whole of the 
Bible a continual invitation to seek God, and to find Him there is but one 

way, which is Jesus Christ Moreover, He says to us, • Come 

unto me all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you 
rest.' And this is more particularly addressed to sinners, whose duty 
it is to go to Christ ; and it is ours to endeavour to invite, to lead, to 
bring them to Him. Do you understand me, Signora — to Him, and 
not to thfe Inquisition?* '* — pp.128— 131. 

The gratitude expressed by the lady to her deliverer was most 
intense ; and she gladly promised not to betray him. She had 
revealed to her confessor some intemperate language which her 
husband had uttered regarding the Pope, the bishop, and the 
priests. " I told my confessor of this,'' she said, " not to accuse 

AehiUts Dealings with the Inquisition. 335 

my husband, but to learn what course I had better pursue with 
hua;^ adding, that at times he was so excited as scarcely to 
know the meaning of the words he uttered. "But, without 
further inquiry, my -confessor enjoined me to denounce him to the 
Inquisition.'*^ And to prevail on her to commit this atrocious 
crime, the confessor assured her, that unless ^e perpetrated it, 
both her husband and herself " would be undoubtedly damned.^^ 

" * And in confirmation of this/ she added, * I once read in some old 
work a story of a certain woman who had refused before her death to 
make one of these disclosures ; and in consequence, not only was her 
seal condemned to the torments of hell, but her body also found 
no rest in the grave, being continually forced to leave it, until, being 
coDJared with holy water to declare the cause of its disquiet, it replied, 
that it was so punished because it had not obeyed the injunction it had 
received to aceuse certain heretics to the Inquisition ; but as all present 
earnestly prayed to the Madonna, it was granted to this unhappy body 
to return to life for the space of half an hour, that it might prefer its 
accusation to the Inquisition ; after which it died anew.' 
" • And do you believe this story V 

" * I was unwilling to do so ; but the priest showed me that the book 
was printed, con Itcenza de superioru To tell the exact truth, my 
intention was to obey our holy Church in this barbarous law, and then 
to Commit suicide, leaving behind me a letter to my husband, ex- 
plaining the motives that had led me to the act.* " — p. 133. 

After some further conversation Achilli and his visitor de- 
parted. The priest immediately destroyed the papers, and the 
lady sought a new confessor. "She died/' adds our author, 
" like a good Christian, loving Jesus, her Redeemer, and believing 
in his good tidings, and detesting, with all her heart, the errors 
of the Church of Rome." 

This was not a solitary case. " I have given,'' says Achilli, 
"but one instance, but could relate many more of the same 
character. The wife of a bricklayer, whose name I never knew, 
about the same time, came to me at Viterbo, to accuse her 
husband, by order of her confessor. She came from Vitorchiano^ 
a fief of the Roman Senate. I sent her away, however, telling 
her that I had nothing to do with the Inquisition. Several came 
to me from other parts, no fewer than four or five; and all 
these were wives, who had come to denounce their husbands to 
the Inquisition. I took care to give them all the same answer. 
And if so many cases of this sort came to my own knowledge, 
how many more must there not have been, who have applied 
to the vicars themselves, or to the inquisitors of the Holy 

There has been of late an unwise reserve, a culpable reticence 

336 Aehilir$ Dealings with the Inquisition. 

about the crimes of the Bomish clergy. For our own part, 
are of opinion that the more that the real working of the celil 
system is known, the less will any persons of sound mind 
inclined to look on it with favour or toleration. At all tii 
the truth should be spoken ; but at the present crisis he is guil 
of treason who conceals it. A chilli mentions a report, that 
Ancona two inquisitors had seduced wives and daughters, 'i 
order to induce them to accuse their respective husbands 
fathers. From what we have seen and heard, we should thinl 
this more than probable. He also relates, as a matter of fcd^\ 
that, during his stay there, in September, 184f2, an inquisitor 
endeavoured to persuade two virtuous girls to accuse their uncb 
of some alleged profanation, in order to have a pretext for his 
impeachment. The inquisitor was angry with this honest man, 
because he had forbidden him his house, and thought, by throwing 
him into prison, to be able at all hours to visit the nieces, erro- 
neously imagining them to be favourably disposed towards 

We would also observe that the following particulars of the 
asceticism, practised by the Dominicans, do not appear altogether 
agreeable to the Catholic standard. 

" They,'** said A chilli, "profess never to eat meat in the refec- 
tory, or room for their common meals ; and it is true that in the 
refectory itself they do not eat it ; but there is another room near 
it, which they call by another name, where they eat meat con- 
stantly. On Good Friday they are commanded by their rules to 
eat bread and drink water : but, having done so^ for the sake 
of appearance, they go one after the other into another room, 
where a good dinner is prepared for them all."*' 

We have kept our most astounding extract for the last ; an 
extract which shows that even now the Holy OflBce is spreading 
the branches of its upas-tree into realms that own the enlightened 
sway of England : — 

" ' I am a Roman Catholic priest,' says the writer of this singular 
communication, ' and as soon as I was ordained, being very anxious to 
preach the Gospel to the poor Hindoos, I left Rome, on the 2nd of 
March, 1840, being then twenty-three years of age, and was sent 
by Propaganda Fide to India; and there being able to speak the 
English language, I was appointed, by the Roman Catholic Bishop of 
Bombay, as military chaplain, and was sent to a military camp at Bel- 
gaum.' " 

These circumstances induced him to examine the evidences for 
the distinctive doctrines of Romanism, and he became con- 
vinced that they were " in perfect contradiction to the word of 
God," &c. 

AchUKs Dealings mth the Inqtiilsition. 337 

Therefore I opened my mind to the Rev. Mr. Jackson, who was 
military Protestant chaplain at Belganm, and a great friend of 
le. He advised me to write to Dr. Carr, Bishop of Bombay, which 
^^dd, and his lordship was pleased to answer me in a very polite 
mer, begging me to write my sentiments about the real presence of 
Lord Jesus Christ in the sacrament, and a treatise on the spiritual 
jwer of the Pope, which I also did ; and then he wrote to me to go to 
ibay where I embraced the Protestant religion, that is to say, the 
religion of the Gospel." [After ihese occurrences,] 
^ A Spanish Jesuit priest, whom I never saw before, called on me 
a secular dress ; and speaking the Italian language well, he told me 
he was an Italian layman, and having heard that I was an Italian 
>, he called on me : but he did not mention any thing about religion, 
ing he did not care about it ; and he was very kind to me. He 
« "imlled on me four or five times ; till one day, being a very agreeable 
T^ evening, he begged me to take a round with him, which I did. And 
^- we went near the [Roman] Catholic Church, and to my great sur- 
% prise, I was taken by four men, and forced to go to the vicar-general, 
f where they forced me to write a letter to the Protestant minister, Mr. 
!• Valentine, in whose house I lived, stating my intention to return to the 
[Roman] Catholic religion ; which, I am very sorry to say, I did. 
They then closed me in a room till Sunday, when the vicar took me 
by force to the pulpit, and dictated to me what I was to say to the 
congregation ; and he obliged me to declare that I left the [Roman] 
Catholic religion for worldly motives ; which was quite contrary to my 
sentiments. When night came they took me from the room where I 
was closed and delivered me to a captain of a French ship, as a 
prisoner, with the order to take care of me to Marseilles, where he deli- 
vered me to the bishop, who, with a French priest, sent me to Rome. 
From Rome I was sent, as a punishment, to a convent at Perugia, 
where I remained for five years, till I got again my liberty and returned 

to Rome ; this was in November, 1848," &c. 

» » » » 

" Rome, 26th of February, 1850." 

And now we bid adieu to this exceedingly interesting volume, 
and its very agreeable, though decidedly heterodox, author. Yet, 
ere we conclude this essay, we must remind and urge upon our 
readers that it is no system of bygone ages, no narrative of long 
past events, which we have been considering, but the outward 
action and the inward life, the inherent nature, and the essential 
being of that tremendous Power which aims at nothing less than 
the closing our Bibles and enslaving our souls, the destruction of 
our faith, the pollution of our worship, and the annihilation of 
our Church. 

One would have thought that no lover of either " civil or reli- 
gious liberty" could have sympathized with the Church of the 
Inquisition ; that no sincere Christian, who had not the misfor- 


AekiiK$ DealingB toUh the InquidHan. 

tuoe to be bom within her pale, could have viewed her manifold i 
corruptions of the primitive faith and practice without raising his 
voice in clear and indignant condemnation of her errors and her 
crimes ; that no true-hearted Englishman but would be shocked 
and disgusted by the treachery of her principles and the pro- 
fligacy of her priests. 

Yet this is the Church, which has been favoured by Conservi^' 
tive and flattered by Whig, endowed by Peel and patronized bjr 
'Russell ; this is the Church, whose chief pastor has been throsl 
back upon his reluctant people by the bayonet of Republican 
who have once more re-establilBhed the Holy Inquisition ; this is 
the Church, whose aggression upon ourselves we are called upoij 
to bear with passiveness and silence ; this is the Church, whoai 
system, whose doctrine^ whose devotion, and whose practicil, 
working are held up to our eyes as models of all but perfeel 
excellence by men who have been fed from the bosom and tau^ 
at the knees of our English Mother. 

CMmgwooi'B Sermons. 839 

AT. IV. — The Church Apostolic^ Primitive, and Anglican. 
A Series of Sermons. By the Rev. Johh Colling wood, M.A,, 
^Minister of Duke-street Episcopal Chapel, Westminster ; one of 
llbr Masters of Chrisfs Hospital, Ac. Published hy reqttest. 
London : Bivingtons. 

SiiB events which are passing before oui^jeyes are applying a 
0j severe test to the principles of Churchmen in more senses 
Ittn one. Men of learning, of ability, and of piety, have been 
riBng away from our communion, and adopting, in their ex- 
ranest developments, the errors of the Church of Rome ; and, 
lowever we may explain the fact, such persons have all, previously 
o their secession, been advocates of what they have called 
' Church principles,*" or " Catholic principles.'' The world, in 
^eral, connects these circumstances together in its own way, 
nd very naturally concludes that what are called " Church prin- 
siples/' lead to Romanism ; and, in one sense, the world is 
right in its inference. '* Church principles " of a certain sort — 
DT what are called " Church principles " by those who hold them 
—have doubtless paved the way for secession to Rome. But the 
expression has really become so vague, in consequence of the 
very different opinions included under it, that to the generality 
of persons it appears to convey no distinct notions at all. 

For instance, it has become apparent for a considerable time, 
that persons of ability and of education are able to persuade 
themselves that they may hold almost all the tenets of the 
Church of Rome, while still remaining in the external communion 
of the EngHsh Church. Now, when such persons speak of 
" Church principles," as they often do, they mean nothing more 
or less than " Roman Catholic " principles. The supremacy of 
the See of Rome is one of their " Church " principles ; transub- 
stantiation is another ; the adoration of the host, another ; 
general conformity to Rome, another. 

Here, then, is one view of Church principles. It would be 
difficult to suppose that persons who think thus could form a 
party in the Church of England for any length of time ; but the 
evidence of fact establishes it beyond all doubt. Ten years have 
now elapsed since Messrs. Ward and Oakley first publicly 
ivowed and maintained the principle, that it was possible to hold 
the whole cycle of Roman doctrine in the Church of England ; 

340 CoUingtooocTs Sermons. 

and, although the original propounders of the notion have 
since found their position untenable, and have actually u 
themselves to the communion, whose tenets they had embi 
there has been, ever since, a class of men who have acted on 
same principles : and these men have always been warm 
cates of " Church principles.'*'' Messrs. Ward, Oakley, Mi 
Allies, Wilberforce, the clergy of St. Saviour'^s, and others 
have followed their example, have been amongst the most 
asserters of " Church '^ or " Catholic **' principles, previously 
their secession. 

But there is another view of Church principles, and one 
is much more prevalent. We refer to the class of doctrines 
distinguish those who are, in the most correct application 
term, " Tractarians.'' The section of the Church, here refe 
to, and which is also sometimes designated by the name of I 
individual, is virtually under the direction of the chief remain" 
authors of the " Tracts for the Times.'*' The majority of 
more conspicuous and learned advocates of what are 
" Church principles,''*' are either directly associated with thftj 
leaders of this section of the Church, or under their influence;! 
If such men do not always openly co-operate with the " Tracttrl 
rian ''' body, they are, at least, influenced by it, and take ca»-l 
never to oppose it. Numbers of persons, however, chiefly amoif ' 
the younger clergy, and those laity who have been at either 
University, are, to a great extent, disciples of the " Tractarian'* 
school. With all this section of the Church, speaking in general 
terms, *' Church principles '' mean something different from that 
which Bomanizers understand by the expression. They mean 
that class of principles which took their general shape and 
colouring from the " Tracts for the Times," and their leading 
authors. Now the abiding characteristic of this system is, we 
think, a theoretical view of the unity of the Church, which it is 
anxious to realize, in spite of all obstacles which present them- 
selves in the way. It is a system which is impatient of every 
thing that appears to interpose a barrier to the restoration of 
external and visible Christian communion between Apostolically 
descended Churches throughout the world. It is disposed ac- 
cordingly to dwell only on the points of resemblance and union 
between the English and the Roman communions, and to avoid 
every expression and argument which tends to keep up dififer- 
ences of tenet, and to prevent intercommunion. It seeks to 
soothe prejudice and irritation on either side, by taking the most 
favourable views of Roman doctrine ; accepting the explanations 
which its best defenders have offered ; bringing out the merits, 
beauties, and excellencies which it discovers in the Church of 

CollinffwoocTs Sermons. 341 

ie ; and in all respects treating that Church as a sister, or a 

ler Church, reunion with which is in the highest degree 

kble, or even essential. At the same time, the Church of 

rland is recognized as a branch of the one Catholic Church, 

which it is not right to separate ; while all censure, how- 

r, of those who actually join the Church of Rome, is refrained 

and such a step is not regarded as involving any schism, 

heresy, or grievous sin. 

Now, it is evident that " Church,^' or " Catholic" principles, 
toaongst those who entertain this class of views, mean something 
jnt from what other Churchmen understand by the expres- 
They do not, indeed, involve actual submission of indi- 
Is to the See of Rome ; but they mean the suppression of the 
srences between the Church of Rome and the Church of England 
le gradual undoing much of the work of the Reformation, which 
regsuxled with undisguised hostility — the removal of the Pro- 
mt and negative aspect of the English Church, and the re- 
jtoodelling of her doctrine and discipline on what is conceived to 
9fce the Catholic ideal of a Church — a system which varies accord- 
ing to the notions of individuals, but which is generally com- 
pounded of primitive and mediaeval doctrine and practice, with, in 
4Dany cases, a large infusion of modern Romanism. Such are 
'•* Church principles" as understood by the leading minds of the 
Tractarian body, and more or less carried out throughout the 
whole connexion, and by its press. 

And then, in the third place, there is no inconsiderable number 
of persons who have maintained " Church principles" in various 
ways, but in a very different sense indeed from either of the 

Krties above referred to. We allude to such writers as 
r. Hook, Dr. Wordsworth, Messrs. Perceval and Palmer, Chan- 
cellor Harrington, Mr. Morgan, and the author of the volume 
of Sermons before us, who, amidst all their maintenance of the 
rights and spiritual characteristics of the Church of Christ, have 
never hesitated to denounce the errors of the Church of Rome, 
or shrank from defending substantially the cause of the Reforma- 
tion. The difference between the principles of this class of men 
and the others of whom we have spoken above, appears to consist in 
this — that while in the one case the desire for unity is so intense 
that all obstacles are either overlooked or else attempted to be 
removed ; in the other, the desire for unity throughout Christen- 
dom is balanced by the strongest resolution to adhere to known 
truth at all hazards, and even if it should apparently prevent the 
realization of unity. " Church principles," in their view, involves 
no suppression of the errors of Romanism, no withholding of 
witness ; but, on the contrary, the boldest and fullest testimony 

342 CoUingwoocTs SermoM. 

against them, as well as against ev&ry species of error opp( 
the truth of the Gospel as set forth by the Church of 
*'*' Church principles^'* may involve, in their opinion, the si 
of a ministry, with its vaJid ordinations, and its peculiar and 
exclusive right of administering the sacraments, derived 
mately from the commission of our L<»rd, addressed to 
Apostles, — may involve the duty of submitting private ju(" 
to the lawful spiritual authority of our own branch of the ^ 
Church, and still more to the judgment and doctrine of all 
from the beginning, — may involve the continuity of the Chi 
England as a branch, but a reformed branch, of the 
universal, inheriting all the rights, powers, and privileges 
ferred by the Apostles on those Churches which they fom 
may regard the Church as more than a merely voluntary 
human association, — may view its sacraments as not 
emblems, but as means of grace. All this, and more, may 
conceived by such men to be included in Church priiidpkAi| 
They may, to some extent, go along with '^ Tractarians^ in 
assertion of the truths they hold in common ; but the great aaij 
essential difference between their principles is this — that the ooe 
class frames an ideal of Church unity and order, and will nol 
recognize the practical impediments existing in the Churdi of 
Borne to the realization of unity, but seek to throw down our own 
barriei^, and trust to the good feelings of our opponents ; while 
the other would maintain our barriers until Borne shall relinquish 
her errors : their love of unity is not greater than their love of 
truth. The one class excludes the notion of Protestantism from 
its Catholicism, or Church principles ; the other holds Pro- 
testantism (as included in the Formularies of the Church